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Full text of "The pictorial edition of the works of Shakspere. Edited by Charles Knight"

Presented to 

Zbc Xtbrarv 

ottbc 

lanivereitv ot ^Toronto 




iiir J. Ueynuids, i'.U.A.j .MUS. blUDUSS A3 THE "TRAGIC MUSE." 



[Pinxit. 



LONDON AND NEW YORK: VIRTUE & CO. 










LONDON : VIRTUE AND CO., CITY ROAD AND IVY LANE. 



1/ 7 



1 



CONTENTS. 



TRAGEDIES. 

PAQK 

MACBETH i 

TROILUS AND CRES3IDA 69 

CORIOLANUS 145 

JULIUS C^SAR 215 

ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA 275 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE TO THE THREE ROItlAN PLAYS S33 

POEMS. 

VENUS AND ADONIS 365 

THE RAPE OF LUCRECE 389 

SONNETS rn 

A LOVER'S COMPLAINT 4SD 

THE PASSIONATE PILGRI-M, &c 497 

VERSES AMONG THE ADDITIONAL POEMS TO CHESTER'S JOVE'S 

MARTYR, 1601 , . - 504 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE TO THE POEMS 509 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



TO 



TRAGEDIES, VOL. IL, AND POEMS. 



TITLE-PAGE TO VOLUME. 
Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, from the Picture by Sir Josliua Reynolds. 



MACBETH. 



Title-page. Dickes ~ 

• And Duncan's horses, (a thing most strange and 
certain,) 
Beauteous and swift, the minions of their race, 
Turn'd wild in nature, broke their stalls, flung 

out, 
Contending 'gainst obedience. 

INTBODUCTOEr >'OTICE. 

Inverness. T. Creswick 



PAGE 
1 



EBAMATIS PEHSONvE. 

Border. — Banners and Arms 

ACT I. 

View from the site of Macbeth s Castle, Inverness. 

T. Creswick ^ 

Distant View of the Heath. T. Creswick 17 



H-LUSTBATIONS OF ACT I. 



St. Colmes' Inch. T. Creswick . 
Glamis Castle T. Cbeswick .... 
Cawdor Castle. T. Creswick .... 



19 

20 
21 



PAOB 



ACT II. 



Scone. T. Creswick. 
lona. T. Creswick.... 



ILLUSTEATIOXS OF ACT II. 

Coronation Chair 



ACT III. 

Forres. T. Creswick 

Forres ; Eminence at the AVes'.eni Estremity. T. 
Creswick 



ACT IV. 

The Harmuir. T. Creswick., 
ACT r. 



25 
26 



SO 

32 
S9 

42 

52 



Dunkeld. T. Cbeswick 

The Dunsinane Range. T. Creswick 58 



ILLUSTBATIOKS OF ACT V. 

In Birnam Wood 



60 



ILLUSTRATIONS ' 

TROILUS 

p 

Title-page. — PanJarus, Troilus, and Cressida. W. 
Harvey 


ro 

ANL 

AOK 

C9 

71 

77 
77 
78 

79 
80 

31 
91 

92 
93 

94 
101 


VOL 11.— TRAGEDIES. 
) CRESSIDA. 

PAOB 
ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT II. 

Plirvcian Sliields. Quivers and Baltle-axes 102 


niTRODUCTOBY NOTICE. 

Chaucer.— From T. Occlcve 

A Trojan. — From an Antique in Hope's 'Costume 
of the Ancieiita* 


Head of Paris. — From an Antique in Hope's 'Cos 

tume ' 103 


ACT ni. 

Scene I.— Helan unarming Hector. W. Harvey . 104 
Achilles. — From a Statue in Borghese Collection ..112 

ACT IV. 

Scene I.— jEneas meeting Paris. W. Haiivey 114 

iEneas. From a fictile Vase in Hope's ' Costume ' 123 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT IV. 

Plirygian attired in a Coat of Mail. — From an an- 
tique Bronze in Hope's ' Costume' 124 

Hector. — From a Gem engraved in Winkelmann ... 125 

ACT V. 

Scene IX.— Death of Hector. W. Harvey 126 

Diomedes. — From a fictile Vase in Hope's ' Costume' 135 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 

Parting of Hector and Andromache.— From Flax- 
man 13G 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 

PlainsofTroy.— From Sir W. Cell 139 

Hector's Body dragged at the Car of Achilles. — From 


Phrygian Helmets.— From Hope*s 'Costume' 


DBAMVTia PEKSON.E. 

Border. Grecian Htrald and Squire. — From An- 
tinue Vases and Hone's * Costume ' 


PROLOGUE. 
View of Tenedos.-^From d'Ohssoii 


ACT 1. 
Scene III.— Before Agamemnon's Tent. W. Har- 

YEY 


Ulysses. — From a Gem in Wosleyan Museum 

nXUSTBATIONS OF ACT I. 
Phrj-gian Lady with Casket.— From a Greek Vase 


Phrygian Tunic, Bipeiines, Bow, Quiver, Helmets, 
&c. FromHopc's 'Costume' 

ACT II. 

Scene II.— 'Enter Cassandra, raving.' W. Ha'.ivf.y 






COR 
Title-page.— Act II. Scene III. W. Harvey 

INTBODUCTORY NOTICE. 

Roman Eagle.— From a Painting on a Roman Vase 

DKAMATI8 PEESONyE. 

Border. — Roman Weapons and View of Rome. 
W. Hartey 


lOLi 
145 

147 

150 

151 
163 

164 

168 
178 

179 


iNUS. 

ACT III. 
Old "Walls of Rome. Melville 180 


Tarpeian Rock.— From an Italian print 189 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT III. 


ACT IV. 

Roman Highway on the hanks of the Tiber.— From 
Piranesi 191 

Ancient Arcli on Road leading into Rome.— From 

pjnelli 200 


ACT I. 

Bite of Rome : Tiburtine Chain in the distance — 
From B print by Harding 

The Tiber: Mount Aventine in the distance. 

DiCKES 


ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT IV. 
Old Roman Willow Wood Mecheau 201 


ILLUBTKATIONS OF ACT I. 
Isola Tiberiana. — From an Italian print 


ACT V. 

Public Place in Rome. Dickes. — From the Prce- 

nestine Pavement 203 

Roman Tomb and Fragments. Anelay 211 


ACT II. 


Roman VictcTry. — From Montfaueon 


ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 

Scene III. — 'Pebbles on the hungry beach.' Dickes 212 
Kemble as Coriolanus. — After Sir T. Lawrence 21 


ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT 11. 

Augur's Staff. — From an antique Specimen 


vi 



IXLUSTEATIOIsTS TO VOL. II.— TRAGEDIES. 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



Title-page.— Act III., Scene I. W.Harvey 215 

IXTRODTJCTORy NOTICE. 

Roman Standard-Bearers. J. R. Plakch£ 217 

Roman Soldiers. J. R. Planchb 219 

Plebeians. J. R. Planche 223 



DEAMJTIS PEESON.-E. 

Border of Characters 



226 



ACT I. 



A Restoration from the Remains known as the 
Temple of Pallas, supposed to be a portion of 
the Forum of Nerva. A. Potnter 22/ 

Statue of Cffisar 234 



ILLIJSTBATIOXS OF ACT I. 

Roman Augur. J. R. Plakche 

ACT II. 



2.13 



Atrium of a Roman House. — It is of that species 
called by Vitruvius the tetrastjle Atrium. A. 

POYNTER 237 

Brutus' Orchard. — This style of garden, universal 
in Italy, is indisputably of great antiquity. A. 
PoVXTER 244 



ILLUSTHATI0N8 OF ACT II. 
Roman Matron. J. R. Planch^ 243 

ACT ui. 

Street leading to the Capitol. A. Poynter 247 

The Forum. A. Poynter 255 



IlLUSTBATIONS OF ACT III. 
Roman Consul. J. R. PlanchS 



, 256 



ACT IV. 

A Room in Antony's House. — A Restoration from 

Pompeii. A. Poynter 258 

ACT V. 

Plains of Philippi 2G6 

Medal of Brutus 271 

ILLUSTBATIOXS OF ACT V. 

Statue of Pompey. — From an engraving by Fono- 
tana after a pictureby Camucciniof the ' Death 
ofCEBsar.' This is the statue beneath which 
Caesar fell, and which is still preserved at Rome 274 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



Title-page. — Act III., Scene VI. W.Harvey 275 

BRA3IATIS PEESON.i:. 

Border of Characters. Egyptian and Roman Orna- 
ments 278 



Room in Cleopatra's Palace —Scene I Fairholt 279 
Atrium of Caesar's House. — A Restoration from 
Pompeii. A. Poynter 287 

ILLirSTBATIOJrS OF ACT I. 

Antony and Cleopatra. — From a Silver Coin in the 

British Museum 288 

ACT II. 

Room in Pompey's House.— A Restoration from 

Pompeii. A. Poynter 289 

'The barge she satin.'— Scene II. Fairholt 299 

ACT III. 

Promontory of Aetium 302 

Prow of a Roman Gallery.— From a Basso Relievo, 
forming a portion of a frieze found at Pales- 
trina. the ancient Preneste. The turret on the 



forecastle indicates a galley of large size ; and 
two tiers of oars are distinctly visible, with 
leathers fixed on the oars, and nailed over the 
oar-ports, to prevent the entrance of the water. 
A Poynter 314 

ILLUSTBATIOXS OF ACT UI. 

Cleopatra's Needle. AV. Harvey 315 

ACT IV. 

Ancient Egyptian Palace.— From a Sketch made at 
Medinet Abou, part of the ancient Thebes. 
Arundale 318 

Pompey's Pillar W. Harvey 327 



IIXUSTEATIONS OF ACT IV. 
Pyramid and Sphynx. W. Harvey .... 



323 



ACT V. 

Interior of an Egyptian Monument. A. Poynter 330 
Alexandria.— From an original Sketch. W. Har- 
vey 338 

illustbatioif s of act v. 

Augustus. — From a Gold Coin in the British Mu- 
seum 337 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE TO THE THREE ROMAN PLAYS. 
Head Roman Symbols. W. Harvet 



.*. 339 



VU 



ILLUSTILVTIONS TO POEMS. 
POEMS. 

'All toe Illcstratioks from Original Designs by W. Harvet.) 
tliilc-r)age Portrait of Shakspere, from the Portrait prefixed to his Works, page 3C1 

VENUS AND ADONIS. 



PAGE 

Title to Venus and Adonis 365 

Poruait of II. Wriothesley. Earl of Sjutliampton.. 307 

Meeting of Venus and Adonis 3C9 

The Horse of Adonis 373 

Venus in a Swoon 376 



PAGE 

Herd of Deer 380 

Boar and Dogs S8S 

Lamentation of Venus over Adonis dead 386 

The Anemone 387 



THE RAPE OF LUCRECE. 



Title to the Rape of Luerece 389 

Coat of Arms of the Earl of Southampton 391 

View of Ardea 393 

Tarquin approaching the Chamber of I.ucrece 3% 

Lucrece's Bedchamber 399 



Flight of Tarquin <(H 

Night and Morning 408 

lucrece despatching the Messenger 412 

Death of Lucrece 419 



SONNETS. 



Title to the Sonnets 421 

Narcissus 423 

Pompe>-'8 Remains burned by his Freedman 428 

'Broils root out the work of masonry' 433 

' Proud-pied April 441 



'Love' 448 

Nymphs 452 

Nymphs stealing Cupid's Torch 453 

Tail-piece 488 



A LOVER'S COMPL-UNT, THE PASSIONATE PILGRIM, &c. 



Title to Lover's Complaint 489 

Head.— 'And down I laid to list the sad-tun'd 

tale.' _ ^91 

Tailpiece 496 

Cytherea and Adonis 497 



Sitting in a pleasant shade 

Which a grove of myrtles made' 503 

Love's Monuii.ent 504 

Funeral Urn 505 

Head.— Altar 509 






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1 




IKTRODUCTORY NOTICE- 



State or the Text, and CnRONOLOGi', of Macbeth. 

'TflflTragedie of Macbeth' was first published in the folio collection of 1623. Its place in that 
edition is between Julius Ccesar and Hamlet. In the entry on the Stationers' register, imme- 
diately previous to the publication of the edition of 1623, it is also classed amongst the Tragedies. 
And yet, in many modern reprints of the text of Shakspere, Macbeth is placed the first amongst the 
Histories. This is to convey a wrong notion of the character of this great drama. Shakspere's 
Chronicle-histories are essentially conducted upon a different principle. The interest of Macbeth 
is jiot an historical interest. It matters not whether the action is true, or has been related as true '. 
it belongs to the realms of poetry altogether. We might as well call Lear or Hamlet historical 
piaye, because the outlines of the story of each are to be foiuid in old records of the past. Oar text 
ia, with very few exceptions, a restoration of the test of the original folio. 

Malone and Chalmera agree in assigning this tragedy to the year 1606. Their proofs, as we ap- 
prehend, are entirely frivolous and unsatisfactory. The Porter says, " Here 's a farmer that hanged 
himself on the expectation of plenty : " the year 1606 was a year of plenty, and therefore Macbeth 
was written in 1606. Again, the same character says, "Here's an equivocator, that could swear 
in both the scales, against either scale." This passage Malone most solemnly tells us, " without 
doubt, had a direct reference to the doctrine of equivocation avowed and maintained by Heury 
Garnet, superior of the order of the Jesuits in England, on his trial for the Gunpowder Treason, on 

B 2 3 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

the 28th of March, 1600, aud to hia detestable perjury." There is more of this sort of reasoning, iu 
the examination of which it appears to us quite unnecessary to occupy the time of our readers. We 
have two facts as to the chronology of this play which are indisputable : — the first is, that it must 
have been written after the crowns of England and Scotland were united in one monarch, who waB 
a descendant of Bauquo ; — 

" Some I see 
That two-fold balls and treble sceptres carry." 

The second is, that Dr. Forman has most minutely described the representation of this tragedy in 
the year 1610. The following extract from his 'Book of Plays, and Notes thereof, for common 
Policy,' is copied by Mr. Collier from the manuscript in the Bodleian Library : — 

"III Mtcbcth. at the Globe, 1610, the 20th of April, Saturday, there was to be observed, first, how Macbeth and Banquo, 
two noblemen of Scotland, riding through a wood, there stood before them three women, fairies, or nymphs, and saluted 
Macbeth, saying three times unto him, Hail, Macbeth, King of Coudor, for thou shalt be a king, but shalt beget no kings, 
&c. Then, »aid Banquo, What, all to Macbeth and nothing to mef Yes, said tlie nymphs, Hail to thee. Banquo; thou 
shalt beget kings, yet be no king. And so they departed, and came to the court of Scotland, to Duncan King of Scots, 
and it was in the days of Edward the Confessor. And Duncan bade them both kindly welcome, and made Macbeth forth- 
with Prince of Northumberland ; and sent him home to his own castle, and appointed Macbeth to provide for him, for he 
would sup with him the next day at night, and did so. 

" And Macbeth contrived to kill Duncan, and through the persuasion of his wife did that night murder the king in his 
own castle, being his guest. And there were many prodigies seen that night and thf day before. And when Macbeth had 
murdered the king, the blood on his hands could not be washed off by any means, no» from his wife's hands, which handled 
the bloody daggers in hiding them, by which means they became both much amazed and affronted. 

" The murder being known, Duncan's two sons fled, the one to England, the other to Wales, to save themselves ; they, 
being fled, were supposed guilty of the murder of their father, which was nothing so. 

" Then was Macbeth crowned king, and then he, for fear of Banquo, his old companion, that he should beget kings but be 
no king himself, he contrived tlie death of Banquo, and causeS him to be murdered on the way that he rode. The night, 
being at supper with his noblemen, whom he had bid to a feast (to the which also Banquo should have come), he began to 
speak of noble Banquo, and to wish that he were there. And as he thus did, standing up to drink a carouse to him, the 
ghost of Banquo came and sat down in his chair behind him. And he, turning about to sit down again, saw the ghost of 
Banquo, which fronted him, so that he fell in a great passion of fear and fury, uttering many words about his murder, by 
which, when they heard that Banquo was murdered, they suspected Macbeth. 

" Then .Macduff fled to England to the king's son, and so they raised an army, and came into Scotland, and at Dunston 
Anyse overthrew >fecbeth. In the mean time, while Macduff was in England, Macbeth slew Macduff's wife and children, 
and after, in the battle, Macduff slew Macbeth. 

" Observe, also, how Macbeth's queen did rise in the night in her sleep and walk, and talked and confessed all, and the 
doctor noted her words." 

Here, then, the date of this tragedj- must be fixed after the accession of James I. in 1603, and 
before the representation at which Forman was present in 1610. Mr. Collier is inclined to believe 
that the play was a new one when Forman saw it acted. Be that as it may, we can have no doubt 
that it belonged to the last ten years of Sliakspere's life. 



Supposed Souboes op the Plot. 



That Shakspere found sufficient materials for this great drama in Holinshed's 'History of Scot- 
land ' is a fact that renders it quite unnecessary for us to enter into any discussion as to the truth of 
this portion of the history, or to point out the authorities upon which the narrative of Holinshed 
was founded. Better authorities than Holinshed had access to have shown that the contest for the 
crown of Scotland between Duncan and Macbeth was a contest of factions, and that Macbeth was 
raised to the throne by his Norwegian allies after a battle in which Duncan fell : in the same way 
after a long rule was he vanquished and killed by the son of Duncan, supported by his English 
allies.* But, with the difieiences between the real and apocryphal history, it is manifest that we 
can here have no concern. In the Illustrations of the several acts we have reprinted the passages 
in Holinshed with which Shakspere was manifestly familiar. His deviations from the chronicler 
vill be rep.dily traced. There is another storj', however, told also in the same narrative, which 



See Skene's 'Highlanders of Scotland,' vol. !., p. 116. 



MACBETH 

Shakspere with cousummate skill has bleuded with the story of Macbeth, 
of King Duff by Donwald and his wife in Donwald's castle of Forres :— 



It is that of the murder 



"The king got him into his privy chamber, only with two of his chamberlains, who, having brought him to bed, came 
forth again, and then fell to banqueting with Donwald and his wife, who had prepared divers delicate dishes and sundry 
sorts of drinks for their rear-supper or collation, whereat they sat up so long, till they had charged their stomachs with such 
full gorges, that their heads were no sooner got to the pillow but asleep they were so fast that a man might have removed 
the chamber over them sooner than to have awaked them out ol their drunken sleep. 

" Then Donwald, though he abhorred the act greatly in heart, yet through instigation of his wife he called four of bis 
servants unto him (whom he had made privy to his wicked intent before, and framed to his purpose with large gifts), and 
now declaring unto them after what sort they should work the feat, they gladly obeyed his instructions, and, speedily going 
about the murder, they enter the chamber (in which the king lay) a little before cock's crow, where they secretly cut his 
throat as he lay sleeping, without any bustling at all : and immediately by a postern gate they carried forth the dead body 
into the fields. *«*««»»» 
Donwald, abont the time that the murder was in doing, got him amongst them that kept the watch, and so continued in 
company with them all the residue of the night. But in the morning, when the noise was raised in the king's chamber how 
the king was slain, his body conveyed away, and the bed all beraid with blood, he with the watch ran thither, as though 
he had known nothing of the matter, and breaking into the chamber, and finding cakes of blood in the bed and on the floor 
about the sides of it, he forthwith slew the chamberlains as guilty of that heinous murder. * « * • 

For the space of six months together, after this heinous murder thus committed, there appeared no sun by day, nor moon 
by night, in any part of the realm, but still was the sky covered with continual clouds, and sometimes such outrageous winds 
arose, with lightnings and tempests, that the people were in great fear of present destruction." 

It was originally the opinion of Steevens and Malone that a jslay by Thomas Middleton, entitled 
' The Witch,' had preceded Macbeth, and that Shakspere was consequently indebted to Jliddletou 
for the general idea of the witch incantations. Malone subsequently changed his opinion ; for in 
a posthumous edition of his ' Essay on the Chronological Order,' he has maintained that ' The 
Witch ' was a later production than Macbeth. We shall refer to this question in our Supplementary 
Notice. 

For the Local Illustrations affixed to each Act we have the gratification of acknowledging our 
obligation to Miss Martineau, who in 1838 visited jill the locahties to which this tragedy refers. 
^Ir. Creswick's sketches, which also adorn our pages, were made on the several spots in 1839. 



Costume. 

The rudely sculptured monuments and crosses which time has spai-ed upon the hills and heaths ol 
Scotland, however interesting to the antiquary in other respects, afford but very slender and uncer- 
tain information respecting the dress and arms of the Scotch Highlanders in the 11th century; 
and, attempt how we will to decide from written documents, a hundred pens will instantly be 
flourished against us. Our own opinion, however, formed long ago, has within these few years been 
confirmed by that of a most intelligent modern historian,* who says "it would be too much perhaps 
to affirm that the dress, as at present worn, in all its minute details, is ancient ; but it is very certain 
that it is compounded of three varieties in the form of dress which were separately worn by the 
Highlanders in the seventeenth century, and that each of these may be traced back to the remotest 
antiquity." These are :— 1st, The belted plaid; 2nd, The short coat or jacket; 3rd, The truis 
With each of these, or, at any rate, with the two first, was worn, from the earliest periods to the 
seventeenth century, the long-sleeved, saffron-stained shirt, of Irish origin, called the Leni-croich.t 
Pitscottie, in 1573, says, "they (the Scotch Highlanders) be cloathed with ane mantle, with ane 
schirt, saffroned after the Irish manner, going bare-legged to the knee." And Nicolay d'Arfeville, 
cosmographer to the King of France, who published at Paris, in 1583, a volume entitled 'La 
Navigation du Roy d'Escosse Jacques, cinquiesme du nom, autour de son Royaume et Isle8 Hebrides 



♦ ' The Highlanders of Scotland,' by W. J. Skene, F.S.A. Scot. 2 vols. 12mo., London, Murray. lS37.-Mr. Skene in 
this excellent work has also thrown great light upon the real history of Macbeth, from a careful investigation and corapar- 
son of the Irish annals and the Norse Sagas. 

t " From the Irish words leni, shirt, and crotch, saffron."— Uaxtin'a Western Isles of Scotland. 

o 



A 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

Pt Orchadea, soutz In conduito d' Alexandre Lindsay, excellent Pilote Escossois,' says, "they 
wear, like the Irish, a 'ai-ge full shirt, coloured with fiaflron, and over this a garment hanging to 
the knee, of thick wool, after the manner of a cassock (soutane). They go with bare heads, and 
allow their hair to grow very long, and they wear neither stockings nor shoes, except some who 
have buskins (botines) made in a very old fashion, which come as high as the knees." Lesley in 
1 578 says, " all, both nobles and common people, wore mantles of one sort (except that the noKles 
preferred those of different colours) ; these were long and flowing, but capable of being gathered up 

at pleasure into folds They had also shaggy rugs, such as the Irish use at the present 

day The rest of their garments consisted of a short woollen jacket, with the sleeves open 

below, for the convenience of throwing their darts, and a covering for the thighs of the simplest 
kind, more for decency than for show or defence against cold. They made also of linen very large 
shirts, with numerous folds and very large sleeves, which flowed abroad loosely on their knees. 
These the rich coloured with saffron, and others smeared with some grease to preserve them longer 
clean amoDg the toils and exercises of a camp, &c." » Here we have the second variety — that of 
the short woollen jacket with the open sleeves ; and this confirms most curiously the identity of the 
ancient Scottish with the ancient Irish dress, as the Irish chieftains who appeared at court in the 
reign of Elizabeth were clad in these long shii-ts, short open-sleeved jackets, and long shaggy 
mantles, the exact form of which may be seen in the woodcut representing them engraved in the 
' History of British Costume,' p. 369, from a rare print of that period in the collection of the late 
Francis Douce, Esq. The third variety is the truis, or trowse, " the breeches and stockings of one 
piece," of the Irish in the time of Giraldus Cambreusis, and the bracchai of the Belgic Gauls and 
Southern Britons in that of Caesar. The truis has hitherto been traced in Scotland only as far back 
as the year 153S; and there are many who deny its having formed a portion of the more ancient 
Scottish dress : but independently that the document of the date above mentioned recognises it as 
an established " Hi [/hi and" garment at that time, thereby giving one a right to infer its having long 
previously existed, the incontrovertible fact of a similar article of apparel having been worn by all 
the chiefs of the other tribes of the great Celtic or Gaelic family is sufficient, in our minds, to give 
probability to the belief that it was also worn by those of the ancient Scotch Highlanders. Mr. 
Skene, after remarking that it was from the very earliest period the dress of the gentry of Ireland, 
adds that he is therefore inclined to think it was introduced from that country ; but hints at no 
particular period, and leaves us at liberty to presume such introduction to have taken place even 
centuries prior to the birth of Macbeth. With regard to another hotly disputed point of Scottish 
costume, the colours of the chequered cloth, commonly called tartan and plaid (neither of which 
names, however, originally signified its variegated appearance, the former being merely the name 
of the woollen stuff of which it was made, and the latter that of the garment into which it was 
shaped), the most general belief is, that the distinction of the clans by a peculiar pattern is of com- 
paratively a recent date : but those who deny " a coat cf many coloure " to the ancient Scottish 
Highlanders altogether must as tmceremoniously strip the Celtic Britou or Belgic Gaul of his 
tunic, " flowered with various colours in divisions," in which he has been specifically arrayed by 
Diodorus Siculus. The chequered cloth was termed in Celtic, hreacan, and the Highlanders, we 
are informed by Mr. Logan, f give it also the poetical appellation of "cath-dafh" signifying "the 
strife" or "war of colours." In Major's time (1512) the plaids or cloaks of the higher classes 
^one were variegated. The common people appear to have worn them generally of a brown 
colour, "most near," says Moniepennie, "to the colour of the hadder" (heather). Martin, in 
1716, speaking of the female attire in the Western Isles, says the ancient dress, which is yet worn 
by some of the vxiigar, called arisad, is a white plaid, having a few small stripes of black, blue, and 
red. The plain black and white stuff, now generally known in London by the name of " Shepherd's 
plaid," is evidently, from its simplicity, of great antiquity, and could have been most easily manu- 
factured, as it required no process of dyeing, being composed of the two natural colours of the fleece. 
Defoe, in his 'Memoirs of a Cavalier,' describes the plaid worn in 1639 as "striped across, red and 
yellow;" and the portrait of Lacy the actor, painted in Charles II. 's time, represents him dressed 
for Sawney the Scot in a red, yellow, and black truis and belted plaid, or, at any rate, in stuff of 
the natural yellowish tint of the wool, striped across with black and red. 



• Jean dc Beaufnit, who accompanied the French auxiliaries to Scotland in 15<8, in like manner describes " les sauvages,' 
as he calls the Highlanders, naked except theirstained shirts (chrmitei lainlcn) and a certain light covering made of wool of 
various colours, carrjing large bovrt and similar swords and bucklers to the others. « *. the Lowlanders. 

t ' History of the Gael.' 2 vols. 8vo. London. 

6 



MACBETH. 



For the armour and weapons of the Scotch of the 11th century we have rather more «Ji«tinc*. 
authority. The sovereign and his Lowland chiefs appear early to have assumed the shirt of riii^ 
mail of the Saxon ; or, perhaps, the quilted panzar of their Norwegian and Danish invaders : but 
that some of the Highland chieftains disdained such defence must be admitted from the well-known 
boast of the Earl Strathearne, as late as 1138, at the Battle of the Standard :— " I wear no 
armour," exclaimed the heroic Gael, "yet those who do will not advance beyond me this day." 
It was indeed the old Celtic fashion for soldiers to divest themselves of almost every portion of 
covering on the eve of combat, and to rush into battle nearly, if not entirely, naked. 

The ancient Scottish weapons were the bow, the spear, the claymore (cledheamh-more), the 
battle-axe, and the dirk, or bidag, with round targets, covered with buU's-hide, and studded with 
nails and bosses of brass or iron. For the dress and arms of the Anglo-Saxon auxiliaries of 
Malcolm the Bayeux tapestry furnishes perhaps the nearest authority. 

The Scottish female habit seems to have consisted, like that of the Saxon, Norman, and Danish 
women — nay, we may even add the ancient British — of a long robe, girdled round the waist, and a 
full and flowing mantle, fastened on the breast by a large buckle or brooch of brass, silver, or gold, 
and set with common crystals, or precious gems, according to the rank of the wearer. Dio 
describes Boadicea as wearing a variegated robe; and the ancient mantle worn by Scotchwomen, 
denominated the arisad, which we have already mentioned, is described by Martin as chequered. 




Tin'. Ghoit of Banquo, and other Appariliont. 

SCENE,— in the end of the Fourth Act, lies in En ;■ 
LAND ; through the rest of the Play, in Scotlan:) 
and, chi^y, at Macbftii'* Cnillt. 




H'iew frcm the Site of Macbeth's Castle, Inverness.- 



ACT I. 



SCENE I.- 



-Ah open Place. 
Lightning. 



Thunder and 



Enter three Witches. 

1 Witch. When shall we three meet again 
In thunder, lightning, or in rain?* 

2 Witch. When the hm-lyburly 's ^ done, 
When the battle 's lost and won : 

3 Witch. That will be ere the set of suu.''' 



^ Hanmer proposed to read " and In rain," to prevent 
that misconception of the question which might arise from 
the use of or. The Witches invariably meet under a dis- 
turbance of the elements; and this is clear enough without 
any change of the original text. 

b HurUihurly. In Peacham's ' Garden of Eloquence,' 
1577, this word is given as an ex^ample of that ornament of 
language which consists in "a name intimating the sound 
of that it signifietli, as hurlijburly , for an uproar and 
tumultuous stir." Todd finds the word in a collection of 
Scottish proverbs, and therefore decides upon the propriety 
of its use by the Scottish witch. This is unnecessary; for, 
although 'it might belong to. both languages, Spenser had 
used it in our own ; and it had the peculiar recommendation 
of the quality described by Peacham for its introduction in 
a Ivrical composition. 

We have here the commencement of that system of 



1 Witch. Wliere the place ? 

2 Witch. 



Upon the heath ; 



tampering with the metre of Shakspere In this great tragedy, 
which universally prevailed till the reign of the variorum 
critics had ceased to be considered as firmly established and 
beyond the reach of assault. When we saw an edition of 
Shakspere bearing the name of Tlmmas Campbell as editor, 
and found that the text of that edition was a literal reprint 
from the textofSteevens.and that consequently theloppings- 
oflT and patchingson, the transpositions, the substitutions 
of a man without an ear were circulated with the im- 
primatur of one of the most elegant of our poets, we could 
not but see what a fearful weed bad taste is. — how prolific 
in its growth, how difficult to be eradicated. These remarks 
apply not so much to the particular instance before us a': to 
the whole principle upon which the metre of this play has 
been regulated. We admit that it will not do servilely to 
follow the original in every instance where the commence- 
ment and close of a line are so arranged that it becomes 
prosaic; but on the other hand we contend that the desire 
to get rid of hemistichs, without regard to the nature of 
the dialogue, and so to alter the metrical arrangement of a 
series of lines, is to disfigure, instead of to amend, the poet. 
It is a matter of sincere gratification to the present editor, 
that five-and-twenty years have produced a marked altera- 
tion in the principles of criticism applied to the teit of 
Shakspere. The line before us reads, in the original, 

" That will be ere the set of sun." 

Steevens strikes out the as harsh and unnecessary. \n\ one 





Act L] 



MACBETH. 



[Sczv:i II. 



3 Jf'i/cA. There to meet with Macbetli. 

1 Jf'i/cA. I come, Graymalkia ! • 

AH. Paddock calls : — Anon. — 
Fair is foul, and foul is fair : 
Hover through the fog and filthy air. 

[Witches vanish. 

SCENE II. — ./ Camp near Forres. Alarum 
within. 

Enter King Duncan, Malcolm, Dona.lbain, 
Lenox, icith Attendants, meeting a bleeding 
Soldier. 

Dun. Wliat bloody man is that? He can re- 
port. 
As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt 
The newest state. 

Mai. This is the sergeant. 

Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought 
'Gainst my capti\aty : — ^Hail, brave friend! 
Say to the king the knowledge of the broil, 
As thou didst leave it. 

Sold. Doubtful'' it stood ; 

As two spent swimmers, that do cling together, 
And choke their art. Tiie merciless Mac- 

donwald 
(AVorthy to be a rebel ; for, to that. 
The multiplying villainies of natiu-e 
Do swarm upon him,) from the western isles 
Of'= kernes and gallowglasscs is supplied;' 
And fortune, on his damned quarry"* smiling, 
Show'd like a rebel's whore : But all 's too weak • 



who has an ear for the fine lyrical movement of the whole 
scene will see what an exquisite variety of pause theie is in 
the ten lines of which it consists. Take, for example, the 
line 

" There to meet with Macbeth ; " 
and contr-st its solemn movement with what has preceded 
it. But tampering editors must have «t)en syllables ; anil 
so some read 

" There I go to meet Jfacbeth : " 
others, 

" There to meet with great Macbeth : " 
and others, 

" There to meet with — irAom.'— Macbeth." 
Malone has, howe\er, here succeeded in retaining the ori- 
ffinal line, by persuading himself and others that there is a 
dissyllable. 
« Graymnlkin is a cat; Paddock, a toad. 
^ Z)ou4//«/.— So the original. The common reading, dottfc.'- 
fnlly " My addition," says Stcevens, "consists but of .1 
single letter." 
c 0/ is here used in the sense of tvilh. 
•1 Quarry. — So the (jriBinal. The common reading, on the 
emendation of Hanmer, is quarrel. We conceive tliat the 
original word is that used by Shakspere. In Coriolanus we 
have, 

" I 'd make a quarry 

With thousands of these quarter'd slaves, as high 
.'Vs 1 could pick my lance." 
It is ill the same sense, we believe, that the soldier uses 
the word quarry: the " damned quarry" being the doomed 
army of kerne* and gallowglasscs, who, although fortune 
deceitfully smile'! on them, fled before the sword of Macbeth, 
and became his quarry— his prey. 
10 



For brave Macbeth, (well lie deserves that name,) 

Disdaining fortune, wilh liis brandish'd steel, 

Which smok'd with bloody execution. 

Like valour's minion, carv'd out his passage. 

Till he faced the slave ;* 

"Wliich ne'er shook huuds, nor bade farewell to 

him. 
Till he unseam'd him from the nave to the 

chaps. 
And fix'd his head upon our battlements. 
Dnn. 0, vahant cousin ! worthy gentleman ! 
Sold. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection 
Shipwi-acking storms and direful thunders 

break ; •» 
So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to 

come. 
Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland, 

mark: 
No .sooner j ustice had, with valour aim'd, 
CompelTd these skipping kernes to trust their 

heels. 
But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage, 
With fiu-bish'd arms, and new supplies of men. 
Began a fresh assault. 

Dun. Dismay'd not this our captains, Macbeth 

and Banquo?" 
Sold. Yes : As sparrows, eagles ; or the hare, 

the lion. 
If I say sooth, I must report they were 
As cannons overcharg'd with double cracks ; 
So they doubly redoubled strokes upon th-.:; 

foe: 
Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds. 
Or memorize another Golgotha, 
I cannot tell : 

But I am faint, my gashes cry for help. 
Dun. So well thy words become thee as thy 

wounds ; 
They smack of honour both : — Go, get him sur- 
geons. [^Exit Soldier, attended. 

Enter RossE. 

Who comes here ? 

Mai. The worthy thane of Rosse. 

Zen. What a haste looks through his eyes ! 



» We follow the metrical arrangement of the original. 
Stcevens changes the hemistich thus : — 

" Like valour's minion, 
Carv'd out his passage, till he fac'd the slave." 

b The work break is not in the original. The second 
folio adds frrenArini;. Some verb is wanting; and the read- 
ing of the second folio is some sort of authority for the in- 
troduction of break, which word was added by Pope. 

c We print this line according to the original as an 
A'exandrine — a verse constantly introduced by Shakspere 
for the production of variety. 



Act I.J 



MACBETH. 



ISCBSZlIt. 



So should he look that seems to speak things 
strange. 

Rosse. God save the king ! 

Dun. Whence cani'st thou, worthy thane ? 

Rosse. From Fife, great king, 
Wtere the Norweyan banners flout the sky, 
And fan our people cold. 
Norway himself, with terrible numbers. 
Assisted by that most disloyal traitor 
The thane of Ca\vdor, began a dismal conflict : 
Till that Bellona's bridegroom,' lapp'd in proof, 
Confronted him Math self-comparisons, 
Point against point, rebellious arm 'gainst arm,h 
Curbing his lavish spuit : And, to conclude, 
The victory fell on us ; — 

Dun. Great happiness ! 

Basse. That now 
Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition ; 
Nor would we deign him burial of his men, 
Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes' inch. 
Ten thousand dollars to our general use. 

Diot. No more that thane of Cawdor shall 
deceive 
Our bosom interest: — Go, pronounce his pre- 
sent <= death. 
And with his former title greet Macbeth. 

Rosse. I '11 see it done. 

Dun. What he hath lost noble Macbeth liath 
■won. [Exeunt. 

SCENE 111.— A Heath. Thunder. 
Enter the three Witches. 

1 Witch, Where hast thou been, sister ? 

2 IFitch. Killing swine. 

3 Witch. Sister, where thou ? 

1 Witch. A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her 

lap, 
A.nd mounch'd, and mouuch'd, and mouuch'd : 

— ' Give me,' quoth I : 
'Ai-oint theCj-^ witch!' the rump-fed ronyon'' 

cries. 
Her husband 's to Aleppo gone, master o' the 

Tiger : 
But in a sieve I 'U thither sail,^ 
And, like a rat without a tail, 
I '11 do, I '11 do, and I '11 do. 

.1 Bellona's brideoroom is here undoubtedly Macbeth ; but 
Henley and Steevens, fancying that the God of War -n as 
meant, chuckle over Shakspere's ignorance in not knowing 
that Mars was not the husband of Bellona. 

b This is the original punctuation, which we think, with 
Tieck, is better than 

" Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm." 

c Without the slightest ceremony Steevens omits the em- 
phatic word present, as " injurious to metre." 

i Aroint /Aee.- See King Lear; Illustration of Act in., 

e fionyoB.— SeeAsYouLikelt; >fotc on Act ii.. Scene ii. 



2 Witch. I '11 give thee a wind. 
1 Witch. Th' art kmd. 

3 Witch. And I another. 

1 Witch. I myscK have all the other ; 
And the very ports they blow, 

AH the quarters that they know 
r the shipman's card. 
I 'U drain him dry as hay : * 
Sleep shall neither night nor day 
Hang upon his pent-house lid ; 
He shall live a man forbid : 
Weary sev'n-nights, nine times nine. 
Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine : 
Though his bark cannot be lost, 
Yet it shall be tempest-toss'd. 
Look what I have. 

2 Witch. Show me, show me. 

1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thu.nb, 
Wrack' d, as homeward he did come. 

[Drum within. 

3 Witch. A dram, a drum : 
Macbeth doth come. 

J II. The weird'' sisters, hand in hand. 
Posters of the sea and land. 



a Steevens says, " As I cannot help supposing this scene 
to have been uniformly metrical when our author wrote it, 
in its present state I suspect it to be clogged with inierpola- 
tions, or mutilated by omissions." There really appears no 
foundation for the supposition that the scene was uniformly 
metrical. It is a mixture of blank-verse with the seven- 
syllable rhyme, producing, from its variety, a wild and 
solemn effect which no regularity could have achieved. 

" Where hast thou been, sister! 

Killing swine;' 

is a line of blank verse : 

" Sister, where thou?" 
a dramatic hemistich. We have then four lines of blank 
verse, before the lyrical movement. " But in a sieve," &c. 

" I '11 give thee a wind. 

Th* art kind. 

And I another," 

is a ten-syllable line, rhyming with the following octo-syl- 
labic line. So, in the same manner, 

" I' the shipman's card. 

I '11 drain him dry as hay, 

is a ten-syllable line, rhj-ming with the following one of 
seven syllables. Some editors have destroyed this metrical 
arrangement by changing " Th' art kind" into '■ Thou art 
kind;" and "I'll drain him dry as hay" into "/ vill 
drain him dry as hay." CapeU's " thou 'rt " is an improve- 
ment. , , . ■ J • I 
b ll'eird. —There can be no doubt that this tenn is derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon wi/rd, word spoken ; and in the same 
way that the word/o/f is anything spoken, weird and fatal 
are synonymous, and equallv applicable to such mysterious 
beings as Macbeth's witches. We cannot therefore agree 
with Tieck that the word is tC7»/«'arrf— wilful. He says that 
it is written uai/ward in the original; but this is not so: it 
is written iceijwnrd, which Steevens says is a blunder of the 
transcriber or printer. We doubt this; for the word is thus 
written wei/ward, to mark that it consists of two syllables. 
For example, in the second act, Banquo says— 

"I dreamt last night of the three weytcard sisters." 
But it is also written weijard:— 

" As the weyard women promis'd, and I fear." 
Here the word is one syllable, by elision, When the poet 
uses the w<ird wmiward in the sense of wilful, the editors ol 
the original do not confound the words. Thus, in the third 
act, Hecate says — 

" And which is worse, all you have done 
Hath been but for a wayward son." 



ACTl.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCENS III 



Thus do go about, about ; 
Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, 
And thrice again, to make up nine : 
Peace ! — the charm 's wound up. 

Enter Macbeth and Ba>'quo. 

Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen. 

Ban. How far is 't call'd to Forres ?— What 
are these, 
So wither'd and so wild in their attire ; 
That look not like tlie inhabitants o' the earth. 
And yet arc on 't? Live you? or arc yoa aught 
That man may question? You sccin to under- 
stand me, 
By each at once her choppy finger laying 
Upon her skinny lips : — You should be women, 
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret 
That you are so. 

Macb. Speak, if you can ; — "What are you ? 

1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, 

thauc of Glamis ! 

2 Witch. All haU, Macbeth! hail to thee, 

thane of Cawdor ! 

3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be 

king hereafter. 
Ban. Good sir, why do you start; and seem 
to fear 

Things that do sound so fair? — I' the name of 
truth, 

Are ye fantastical,* or that indeed 

■\71iich outwardly ye show ? My noble partner 

You greet with present grace, and great predic- 
tion 

Of noble having, and of royal hope. 

That he seems rapt withal; to me you speak 
not: 

If you can look into the seeds of time. 

And say, which grain will grow, and wluch wLU 
not. 

Speak then to me, who neither beg, nor feai". 

Your favours nor your hate. 

1 Witch. HaU! 

2 intch. Had! 

3 Witch. HaU! 

1 Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. 

2 Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier. 

3 Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though th(ju 

be none : 
So all hail, IMacbeth and Banquo ! 

1 Witch. Banquo, and Macbeth, all hail ! 
Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me 
more : 
By Sinel's death I know I am thane of Glamis ; 

» Faii<<7J/ico/— bclotipinR to fantaiiy -imaginary. 
n 



But how of Cawdor? the thane of Cawdor lives 
A prosperous gentleman ; and, to l)e king, 
Stands not \vithin the prospect of belief. 
No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence 
You owe this strange intelligence ? or why 
Upon this blasted heath you stop our way 
With such prophetic greeting ? — Speak, I charge 
you. [Witches vanish. 

Ban. The earth halh bubbles, as the watci 
has. 
And these are of them : Whither are thcv 
vauish'd ? 
Macb. Lito the air : and what secm'cl cor- 
poral, melted 
As breath into the wind. — 'Would they had 
staid ! 
Ban. Were such things here as we do speak 
about ? 
Or have we eaten on* the insane root,"^" 
That takes the reason prisoner ? 
Macb. Your childi'cn shall be kings. 
Ban. You shall be king. 

Macb. And thane of Cawdor too ; went it not 

so? 
Ban. To the self-same tune and words. Who 's 
here ? 

Enter Kxjsse and Angus. 

Rosse. The king hath happily receiv'd, Mac- 
beth, 
The news of thy success : and when he reads 
Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight, 
His wonders and his praises do contend, 
■WTiich should be thine, or his : Silenc'd with that. 
In viewing o'er the rest o' the self-same day. 
He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks. 
Nothing afeard of what thyself didst make, 
Strange images of death. As thick as hail 
Came post with post ; ' and every one did bear 
Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence, 
And pour'd them down before him. 

Ang. We are sent, 

To give thee, from our royal master, thanks ; 
Only to herald thee into his sight, not pay thee. 



0- On.— The modern editors substitute of; but why should 
ve reject an ancient idiom in our rage for modernising? 

I' Henbane is called in^nna in an old book of medJcinCi 
which Shakspere might have consulted. 
c The passage stands thus in the origin.il : — 

" He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks, 
Nothing afraid of what thyself did make, 
Strange images of death, as thick as Tale 
Can post witlj post." 
We venture to adopt the reading of Howe; principally be- 
cause the expression "as thick as hail" was rendered 
familiar by poelica'i use : Spenser has 

" As thick as hail forth poured from the sky." 
And Drayton, 

" Out of the town come quarries thick as hail." 



Act I.] 



MACBETH. 



[scEVB n. 



Rosse. And, for an earnest of a greater honour, 
He bade me, fiom hini, call thee thane of 

Cawdor : 
In which addition, hail, most worthy thane ! 
For it is thine. 

Ban. What, can the devil speak true ? 

Macb. The thane of Cawdor lives : "Why do 
you dress me 
[n borrow'd robes ? 

Ang. Who was the thane, lives yet ; 

But under heavy judgment bears that life 
Which he deserves to lose. 
Whether he was combin'd with those of Nor- 
way; 
Or did line the rebel with hidden help 
And vantage ; or that with both he labom-'d 
In his country's wrack, I know not;"* 
But treasons capital, confess' d, and proVd, 
Have overthrown him. 

Macb. Glamis, and thane of Cawdor ; 

The greatest is behiad. — Thanks for your 

pains. — 
Do you not hope your children shall be kings, 
"When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to me, 
Promis'd no less to them ? 

Ban. That, trusted home, 

IVIight yet enkindle you unto the crown, 
Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 't is strange : 
And oftentimes, to wiu us to our hai-m. 
The instruments of darkness tell us tiiiths ; 
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us 
In deepest consequence. — 
Cousins, a word, I pray you. 

Macb. Two truths are told, 

As happy prologues to the swelling act 
Of the imperial theme. — ^I thank you, gentle- 
men. — 
This supernatural soliciting 
Cannot be ill ; cannot be good : — If ill. 
Why hath it given me earnest of success. 
Commencing in a truth ? I am thane of Cawdor : 
If good, why do I yield to that suggestion 
Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair. 
And make my seated heart knock at my ribs, 
Against the use of nature ? Present fears 
Are less than horrible imaginmgs : 
My thought, whose murther yet is but fantas- 
tical. 
Shakes so my single state of man, that fimction 
Is smother'd in surmise; and nothing is 
But what is not. 

;Ban. Look, how our partner 's rapt. 



ft We follow the •metrical arrangement of the oricri'':^ ;— 
not a perfect one, certainly. 



Macb. If chance will have me king, why 
chance may crown me. 
Without my stir. 

Ban. New honours come upon him 

Like our strange garments ; cleave not to their 

mould. 
But with the aid of use. 

Macb. Come what come may. 

Time and the hour iiins through the roughest day. 

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your 

leisure. 
Macb. Give me your favour : — 
My didl brain was wrought with things forgotten. 
Kind gentlemen, your pains are register'd 
Where every day I turn the leaf to read them. — 
Let us toward the king. — * 
Think upon what hath chanc'd; and, at more 

time. 
The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak 
Our free hearts each to other. 

Ban. Very gladly. 

Macb. Tin then, enough. — Come, friends. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE IV.— Forres. A Boom in the Palace. 

Floui-isli. Enter Dtjnca^t, Malcolm, Donal- 
BALN, Lenox, and Attendants. 

Bun. Is execution done on Cawdor ? Ai-e not 
Those in commission yet return'd ? 

Mai. My Uege, 

They are not yet come back. But I have spoke 
With one that saw hun die : who did report. 
That very frankly he confess'd his treasons ; 
Implor'd your highness' pardon ; and set forth 
A deep repentance : nothing in his life 
Became him hke the leaving it ; he died 
As one that had been studied in his death. 
To throw away the dearest thing he ow'd. 
As 'twere a careless trifle.'' 

Bun. There 's no art 

To find the mind's construction in the face : 
He was a gentleman on whom I bmlt 
An absolute trust. — worthiest cousin ! 

Enter Macbeth, Ban quo, Rosse, and ksGVS,. 

The sin of my ingratitude even now 
Was heavy on me : Thou art so far before. 
That swiftest wing of recompense is slow 
To ovei-take thee. 'Would thou hadst less 
deserv'd ; 

a To get rid of the two heinistichs these five lines an- 
made four in modern edition;-. 

b The metrical arrangement of this speech is deciaedly 
improved in the modem text: but the improvement I4 
not, as in the cases where we have rejected changes, pro- 
duced by the determination to effect an absurd uniformity. 
The same remark applies to Macbeth's answer to the kinj. 



Act I.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEXB V, 



There if I grow, 



That the proportiou both of thanks aud payment 
Might have been mine ! only I have left to say. 
More is thy due than more than all can pay. 
Macb. The service and the loyalty I owe. 
In doing it, pays itself. Your highness* part 
Is to receive our duties : and our duties 
Are to your tlirone and state, children and ser- 
vants; 
Which do but what they should, by doing every- 
thing 
Safe toward your love and honour.* 

Dun. Welcome hither : 

I have begun to plaut thee, aud will labour 
To make tliec full of growing. — Xoble Bauquo, 
That hast no less deserv'd, nor must be known 
No less to have done so, let me enfold thee. 
And hold thee to my heart. 

Ban. 
The harvest is your own. 

Dun. My plenteous joys. 

Wanton in fulness, seek to hide themselves 
In drops of sorrow. — Sons, kinsmen, thanes. 
And you whose places are the nearest, know. 
We will establish our estate upon 
Our eldest, Malcolm ; whom we name hereafter 
The prince of Cumberland : which honour must 
Not, unaccompanied, invest him only. 
But signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine 
On all deservers. — From hence to Inverness, 
And bind us further to you. 
Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'd 
for you : 
I '11 be myself the harbinger, and make joyful 
The hearing of my wife with your approach ; 
So humbly take ray leave. 
Dun. My worthy Cawdor ! 

Macb. The priuce of Cimiberland ! — That is a 
step 
On which I must fall down, or else o'er-leap, 

\Aiide. 
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires ! 
Let not light see my black and deep desires : 
The eye wink at the hand ! yet let that be. 
Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. 

{Exit. 



» Sir William Blackstone interprets the wordin/easjarira", 
conceiving that the whole »peech is an allusion to feudal 
homage: "The oath of allegiance, or liege homage, to the 
king, was absolute, and without any exception ; but timtile 
homage, when done to a subject for lands holden of him. 
was always with a taring of the allegiance (the lore and 
honour) due to the sovereign. ' Sauf la foy que jej doy a 
nostre seignor le roy,' as it is in Littleton" According to 
this interpretation, then, Macbeth only professes a qualified 
homage to the king's throne and state, as if the kinfr's love 
and honour were something higher than his power and 
dignity. We cannot understand this. Surely it is easier to 
receive the words in their plain acceptation — our duties are 
called upon to do everylhinc which they can do tafely, 
r.t regards the love and bonoui vie b.-ar you. 



Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so 
valiant ; 
And in liis commendations I am fed ; 
It is a banquet to me. Let 's after him, 
Wliose care is gone before to bid us welcome : 
It is a peerless kinsman. {^Flourish. Exeunt. 

SCENE V. — Inverness. A lioom in Macbeth'* 
Ccfsile. 

Enter Lady Macbeth, reading a letter. 

Lady M. ■ They met me in the day of success ; and 1 
have learned by the perfectest report, they have more in 
them than mortal knowledge. When I burned in desire to 
question them f'lrther, they made themselves air, into which 
they vanished. Whiles I stood rapt in the wonder of it, 
came missives from the king, who all-hailedme, "Thane of 
Cawdor;" by which title, before, these weird sisters saluted 
me, and referred me to the coming on of time, with, " Hail, 
king that shalt be ! " This have I thought good to deliver 
thee, my dearest partner of greatness ; that thou mightest 
not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of what 
greatness is promised thee. Lay it to thy heart, and fare- 
well.' 
I 

Glamis thou art, and Cawdor ; and shalt be 
What thou art promis'd : — Yet do I fear thy na- 
ture; 
It is too full o' the milk of human kindness 
I To catch the nearest way: Thou wouldst be 
' great ; 

; Art not without ambition ; but without 
The illness should attend it. AYhat thou wouldst 

highly. 
That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play 

false. 
And yet wouldst wrongly win; thou 'dst have, 

great Glamis, 
That which cries, ' Thus thou must do, if thou 

have it : 
And that which rather thou dost fear to do. 
Than wishest should be undone.' Hie thee 

hither, 
That I may pour my spirits in tliine ear ; 
And chastise with the valour of my tongue 
All that impedes thee from the golden round. 
Which fate and metaphysical* aid doth seem 

To have thee crown'd withal. "Wliat is your 

tidings? 

Enter an Attendant. 

Alten. The king comes here to-night. 

Lady M. Thou 'rt mad to say it : 

Is not thy master with him ? who, wer 't so. 
Would have iuform'd for preparation. 

Atten. So please you, it is true ; our thane is 
coming J 

* .If fta/zAyiicdl— supernatural. 



ACTI. 



MACBETH. 



[SCESE VI 



Oue of iny feiiows liad the speed of him ; 
Who, almost dead for breath, had scarcely more 
Than would make up his message. 

Lady M. Give him tending, 

He brings great news. The raven himself is 
hoarse [Exit Attendant. 

That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements. Come, you spirits 
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here ; 
And fill me, from the erown to the toe, top-fidl 
Of direst cruelty ! make thick my blood. 
Stop up the access and passage to remorse ; 
That no compimctious visitings of natm-e 
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between 
The effect and it! Come to my woman's 

breasts, 
Ajid take my milk for gall, you murthering 

ministers, 
Wlierever in your sightless substances 
.''ou wait on uatui-e's mischief!' Come, thick 

night. 
And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, 
That my keen knife see not the wound it makes ; 
Nor heaven peep through the blanket of tlic 

dark,* 
To cry, 'Hold, hold!'-'' Great Glamis, wor- 
thy Cawdor ! 

Enter Macbeth. 

Greater than both, by the all-had hereafter ! 
Thy letters have transported me beyond 
This ignorant present, and I feel now 
The futiu-e in the instant. 

]\facb. ^y dearest love, 

Duncan comes here to-night. 

Ladi/ M. And when goes hence ? 

Macb. To-morrow,— as he pm-poses. 

Lady M. 0' ^ever 

Shall sun that morrow see ! ^ 
Your face, my thane, is as a book, whore 

men 
May read strange matters :— To beguile the 

time. 
Look like the time; bear welcome in your 

eye, 
Your hand, your tougue : look like the innocent 

flower. 
But be the serpent under it. He tliat 's coming 



a The " blanket of the dark" has become a famil ar 
phrase, and we are now to change it, under the autnorUy 
of Mr. Collier's corrected folio, to " *'«*'f/ f^*''^/^"':;,, 
The phrase in Cymbeline, " If Casar could l'«le/he su„ 
from us with a biuuket," gives the key to Lady Macheth , 
metaphor. The light of "heaven" was to be shut out b> 
the " blanket of the dark." So Drayton :— 

" The sullen night in misty rug is wrapt." 



Must be provided for : and you shall put 
This night's great business into my dispatch ; 
Which shall to all our nights and days to come 
Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. 

Macb. We will speak further. 

Ladi/ M. Only look up clear ; 

To alter favour ever is to fear : 
Leave all the rest to rae. [Exeunt. 

SCENE yi.—T/ie same. Before the Castle. 

Hautboys. Servants of Macbeth attending. 
Enter Duncan, !^Lllcolm, Donalbain, Ban- 
quo, Lenox, ^M^cduef, Bosse, Angus, and 
Attendants. 

Lnn. This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the aii 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
"Unto our gentle senses. 

Ban. This guest of summer. 

The temple-haunt mg martlet, does approve. 
By his lov'd mansionry that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze. 
Buttress, nor coigne of vantage, but this bu'd 
Hath made his pendent bed and procreaut 

cradle : 
Where they most breed and haunt, I have ob- 

serv'd, 
The air is dthcatc' 

Enter Lady Macbeth. 

Bun. See, see ! our honour'd hostess ! 

The love that follows us sometime is our trouble. 
Which still we thank as love. Herein I teach 

yoi' 
How you shall bid God-eyld us for your pams, 

And thank ns for your trouble.'' 

Lady M. All our service 

Li every point twice done, and then done 

double. 



a TVe request our readers to repeat these celebrated lines 
as we have printed them. Our test is a literal copy of the 
original. Is not the harmony perfect? Would tliey venture 
to displace a syllable? And yet it was thus remodelled by 
the master-hand of Steevens, without the sli-htest expUna- 
lion or apology : — 

" This guest of summer, 
The temple haunting martlet, does approve, 
By his lov'd mansionry, that the heaven s breath 
Smells wooingly here: no jutty, frieze, buttress, 
Nor coigne of vantage, but this bird hath made 
His pendent bed, and procreaut cradle: where tuev 
Most breed and haunt. I have observ'd, the air 
Is delicate." 

b We have restored the old familiar expression God-tyM, 
as suiting better with the playfulness of I>"""" ', *I"^;;^ 
than the Gorf yidd im of Johnson's text. Malone ana 
Steevens each ghe a very long paraphr..se °[ '"^^f ^^ 
There is ereat refinement in the sentiment, but the niian 
Jn^Z iolerfbly clear. The love wh.cb fo'lo- "^,'^,^°;"/j 
times troublesome; so we give you "°"^'^' '"' ^^^^^nk 
only at the love we bear to you. and so bless lu ant tiwinK 

us. J5 



Aci I.] 



MACBETH. 



[Scene VI L 



Were poor and single business, to contend 

Against those honours deep and broad, where- 
with 

Your majesty loads our house : For those of old, 

And the late dignities heap'd up to them, 

We rest your hermits." 

Dun. Where 's the thane of Cawdor ? 

We cours'd him at the heels, and had a purpose 

To be his purveyor : but he rides well ; 

And his great love, sharp as his spur, liatli holp 
him 

To his home before us : Fair and noble hostess, 

We are your guest to-night. 

Lady M. Your servants ever 

Have theirs, themselves, and what is theirs, in 
compt. 

To make their audit at your highness' pleasui-e. 

Still to retui-n youi- own. 
Bull. Give me your hand : 

Conduct me to mme host ; we love him highly, 

And shall continue our graces towards liim. 

By your leave, hostess. [Exeunt. 

SCENE ^11.— The same. A Room in the Castle. 

Hautboys and torches. Enter, and pass over the 
stage, a Sewer, and dicers Servants with dishes 
and service. Then enter Macbeth. 

Macb. If it were done, when 't is done, then 
't were well 
It were done quickly : If the assassination 
Could trammel up the consequence, and catch, 
With his surcease, success ; that but this blow 
Might be the be-all and the end-all here. 
But here, upon this bank and shoal *• of time. 
We 'd jump the life to come. — But in these cases, 
We still have judgment here ; that we but teach 
Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return 
To plague the inventor : This even-handed justice 
Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice 
To our own lips.'^ He 's here in double trust : 

» Hermits — beadsmen — bound to pray for a benefactor. 

b Shoal— in the original, *o//oo/p. Theo!)ald corrected the 
word to ihoal. 

e The entire passage, from the beginning of the speech 
to this point, is obscure. Without venturing to alter the 
common punctuation, we would recommend an attentive 
consideration of the reading of the first line, as given by 
Mr. Macready; and then carry on the soliloquy, as suggested 
by that alteration : — 

" If it were done when 't is done, then 't were well. 
It were done quickly, if the assassination 
Could trammel up the consequence, and catch. 
With his surcease, success, that but this blow 
Might be th» be-all and the end-all. Here, — 
But here, upon this bank and shoal of time. 
We'd jump the life to come, but in these cases 
We still have-judgment here, that we but teach 
Bloody instructions, which, l>eing taught, return 
To plague the inventor: This even-handed justice 
Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice 
To our own lips.' 

16 



First, as I am his kinsman and his subject. 
Strong both against the deed ; then, as his host. 
Who shoidd against his mui-therer shut the door, 
Not bear the knife myself. Besides, tliis Duncan 
Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 
So clear in his great ofiBcc, that his virtues 
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against 
The deep damnation of his taking-ofif : 
And pity, like a naked new-bora babe. 
Striding the bkst, or heaven's cherubim, hois'd 
Upon the sightless couriers of the air. 
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye. 
That tears shall drown the wind.— I have no 

spur 
To prick the sides of my intent, but only 
Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself," 
And falls on the other"" — How now, what news ? 

Enter Lady Macbeth. 

Lady M. He has almost supp'd : Why have 
you left the chamber ? 

Macb. Hath he ask'd for me ? 

Lady M. Know you not he has ? 

Macb. We will proceed no further in this 
business : 
He hath honour'd me of late ; and I have bought 
Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, 
Nor cast aside so soon. 

Lady M. Was the hope drank. 

Wherein you dress'd yoiirself? hath it slept 

since? 
And wakes it now, to look so green and pale 
At what it did so freely ? From this time. 
Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard 
To be the same in thine own act and valoui". 
As thou art in desire ? Wouldst thou have thai 
"Wliich thou esteem' st the ornament of life, 
And live a coward in thine own esteem ; 
Letting I dare not wait upon I would. 
Like the poor cat i' the adage ?<" 

» It has been proposed (by Singleton, say the Cambridge 
editors) to read, instead of itself, its sell, its saddle. How- 
ever clever may be the notion, we can scarcely admit the 
necessity for the change of the original. A person (aii6 
vaulting ambition is personified) might be said to overleap 
himself, as well as overbalance himself, or overcharge him- 
self, or overlabour himself, or overmeasure himself, or over- 
reach himself. There is a parallel u>e of the word over in 
Beaumont and Fletcher. " Prove it again, sir; it may be 
your sense was set too high, and so overtcrought itself." The 
word orer in all these cases is used in the sense of too much. 

b After other Hanmer introduced side. The addition is 
held to be unnecessarj-, inasmuch as the plural noun, 
*ides, occurs just before. But surely this notion is to 
produce a jumble of the metaphor. Macbeth compares his 
intent to a courser : I have no spur to urge him on. Unpre- 
pared I am about to vault into my seat, but I overleap my. 
self and fall. It appears to us that the sentence is brokec 
by the entrance of the messenger ; that it is not complete ic 
itself; and would not have been completed with side. 

c We find the adage in Heywood's Proverbs, 1566:—" Tht 
cat would eat fish and would not wet her feet." 



Act 1.1 



MACBETH. 



[SCKSF. VII. 



Macb . Prithee, peace : 

1 dare do all that may become a man ; 
Who dares do more, is none. 

Lady M. What beast was 't tlien. 

That made you break this enterprise to me ? 
When you dui'st do it, then you were a man ; 
And, to be more than what you were, you would 
Be so much more the man. Nor time, nor 

place. 
Did then adhere, and yet you would make both : 
They have made themselves, and that then- fit- 
ness now 
Does uimmke you, I have given suck; and 

know 
How tender 't is to love the babe that milks me : 
I would, while it was smiling in my face, 
Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums, 
And dash'd the brains out, had I so sworn, 
As you have done to tliis. 

diucb. If we should fail, ■ 

Lady 31. We fail.-* 

But screw your courage to the sticking place. 
And we '11 not fail. When Duncan is asleep, 
(Wliereto the rather shall his day's hard journey 
Soundly invite him,) his two chamberlains 

a We fail. This is generally pointed We fail!— The 
quiet self-possession of the punctuation -vv-e have adopted 
appears preferable to the original " We fail?" 



Will I with wme and wassel so convince, 
That memory, the warder of the brain. 
Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason 
A limbeck '' only : When in s\vinish sleei) 
Their drenched natures lie, as in a death. 
What cannot you and I perform upon 
The unguarded Duncan ? what not put upon 
His spongy officers ; who shall bear the guilt 
Of oui" great quell ? '^ 

Macb. Bring forth men-children only. 

For thy undaunted mettle should compose 
Notliing but males. Will it not be receiv'd, 
Wlien we have mark'd with blood those sleepy 

two 
Of his o^vn chamber, and us'd then- veij daggers. 
That they have done 't ? 

Lady 31. Who dares receive it other, 

As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar 
Upon his death ? 

3Iacb. I am settled, and bend up 

Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. 
Away, and mock the time Avith fairest show : 
False face must hide what the false heart doth 
know. \Exeunt. 



a Convince — overpower. 

b iimiecA:— alembic. Shakspere understood the construc- 
tion of a still, in this happy comparison of the brain to tliat 
part of a vessel through whicli a distilled liquor pr.sses 

e Quu'W— murder. 




[Distant View of the Heatli.] 



Tragedies. — Vol. 11. 



C 



n 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT L 



' Scene TI.— " Of iernes and gallowglasscs is 
supplied." 

Is the Second Part of Henry VI. we have this 
passage : — 

" The Duke of York is newly come from Ireland : 
And with a puissant and a mighty power, 
Of gallowglasses and stout kernes, 
Is marching hitherward in proud array." 

Bamaby Rich describes the gallowf/lass as a foot- 
soldier armed with a skull, a shirt of mail, and a 
gallowglass axe. The kernes he denounces as the 
very dross and scum of the country, ready to run 
out with every rebel. 

' Scene III. — " But in a sieve I 'II thither sail." 

In a pamphlet called ' News from Scotland,' 
1591, it is shown how certain Avitches, who pre- 
tended to bewitch and drown his majesty (our 
James I.) in the sea coming from Denmark, 
"together went to sea, each one in a riddle or 
cive, and went in the same very substantially with 
flagons of wine, making merry and drinking by 
the way in the same riddles or cives." 



' Scene V. — " Come, thick night" kc 

This celebrated passage has given rise to much 
discussion, particularly with reference to the word 
blanket. This, Malone says, was certainly the 
poet's word, and "perhaps was suggested to him 
by the coarse icoollen curtain of his own theatre, 
through which, probably, while the house was yet 
but half lighted, he had himself often peeped." But 
Whiter has very ingeniously illustrated the passage 
by another view of the subject. The internal roof 
of the stage was anciently called the heavens. 
This was its known and familiar name, as we have 
previously had occasion to mention. (See Henry 
VI., Part I. Illustration of Act i.) But when 
tragedies were represented, the back of the stage, 
according to Malone, was hung with black. Whiter 
is persuaded that, on these occasions, the deco- 
rations about the roof, which were designed to re- 
present the appearance of the heavens, were also 
covered with black. This, then, was the " blanket 
of the dark " through which " heaven " was not to 
"peep." This is certainly ingenious; but is it 
necessary to the understanding of the passage ? 
Drayton, ■without any stago associations, has this 
line in an eai'ly poem : — 

" The sullen night in misty rug is wrapp'd." 



HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



It is not our intention to conduct our readers 
through the obscure and contradictory traditions 
that belong to the history of Macbeth. Shakspere 
found this history, apocrj'phal as it may be, 
graphically told in Holinshed; and it will be 
BuflBcient for us to select such passages as must 
necessarily have passed under the poet's eye in the 
construction of this great tragedy. 

" It fortuned as Mxicbeth and Banquo journeyed 
towards Forres, where the king then lay, they went 
sporting by the way together, without other com- 
pany save only themselves, passing through the 
woods and fields, when suddenly, in the midst of 
a laund,* there met them three women in strange 
and wild apparel, resembling creatures of elder 
world, whom when they attentively beheld, 
wondering much at the sight, the first of them 



A plain unongit trees. 



spake and said. All hail, Jfacbeth. thane of Glara- 
niis ! (for he had lately entered into that dignity 
and oflSce by the death of his father Sinell). The 
second of them said, Hail, Macbeth, thane of 
Cawder ! But the third said, All hail, Macbeth, 
that liereafter shalt be king of Scotland 1 

" Then Banquo : What manner of women (saith 
he) are you, that seem so little favourable unto 
me, whereas to my fellow here, besides high of- 
fices, ye assign also the kingdom, appointing forth 
nothing for me at all ? Yes (saith the first of them), 
we promise greater benefits unto thee than unto 
him, for he shall reign indeed, but with an un- 
lucky end ; neither shall he leave any issue behind 
him to succeed in his place, where contrarily thou 
indeed shalt not reign at all ; but of thee shall be 
bom which shall govern the Scottish kingdom by 
long order of continual descent. Herewith the 
foresaid women vanished immediately out of their 



18 



MACBETH. 



sight. This was reputed at the first but some vaiu 
fantastical illusion by Macbeth and Banquo, inso- 
much that Banquo would call Macbeth in jest King 
of Scotland ; and Macbeth again would caU. him in 
sport likewise the father of many kings. But 
afterwards the common opinion was, that these 
women were either the weird sisters, that is (as ye 
would say) the goddesses of destiny, or else some 
nymphs or fairies, endued with knowledge of 
prophecy by their necromantical science, because 
everything came to pass as they had spoken. 
For, shortly after, the Thane of Cawder being 
condemned at Forres of treason against the king 
committed, his lands, livings, and offices were 
given of the king's liberality to Macbeth. 

" The same night after, at supper, Banquo jested 
with him, and said, Now, Macbeth, thou hast ob- 
tained those things which the two former sisters 
prophesied, there remaineth only for thee to pur- 
chase that which the third said should come to 
pass. Whereupon Macbeth, revolving the thing 
in his mind, began even then to devise how he 
might attain to the kingdom ; but yet he thought 
with himself that he must tarry a time, which 
should advance him thereto (by the Divine Pro- 
vidence) as it had come to pass in his former 
preferment. But shortly after it chanced that 
King Duncan, having two sons by his wife, which 
was the daughter of Siward Earl of Northumber- 
land, he made the elder of them, called Malcolm, 



Prince of Cumberland, as it were thereby to ap- 
point him his successor in the kingdom imme- 
diately after his decease. Macbeth, sore troubled 
herewith, for that he saw by this means his hope 
sore hindered, (where, by the old laws of the realm, 
the ordinance was, that, if he that should succeed 
were not of able age to take the charge upon him- 
self, he that was nest of blood unto him should be 
admitted.) he began to take counsel how he might 
usurp the kingdom by force, having a just quarrel 
so to do (as he took the matter), for that Duncan 
did what in him lay to defraud him of all manner 
of title and claim which he might in time to come 
pretend unto the crown. 

" The words of the three weird sisters also (of 
whom before ye have heard) greatly encouraged 
him hereunto, but specially his wife lay sore upon 
him to attempt the thing, as she that was very am- 
bitious, burning in unquenchable desire to bear 
the name of a queen. At length, therefore, com- 
municating his purposed intent with his trusty 
friends, amongst whom Banquo was the chiefest 
upon confidence of their promised aid he slew the 
king at Envems, or (as some say) at Botgosvane. 
in the first year of his reign. Then, having a com 
pany about him of such as he bad made privy to 
his enterprise, he caused himself to be proclaimed 
king, and forthwith went unto Scone, where (by 
common content) he received the investure of the 
kingdom according to the accustomed manner." 




[St. Colmes" Inch.] 

LOCAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Scene II. — "A camp near Forres." 
Probably situated in the moors to the south of the 
town, so as to intercept the march of the invaders 
from Fife to the royal residences of the north. 
Wide and almost level tracts of heath extend 
southwards from Forres, amidst which the march 
of an army might be discerned from a great 
distance. It must be mentioned that the stage 

C 2 



direction, " Camp near Forres," does not occur in 

the original ; although it is clear in the third scene 

that Macbeth and Banquo are on their way 

thither : — 

" How far is 't called to Forres ?" 

Scene 11.— " St. Colmes" inch." 
Inch; Island. St. Colmes' ; St. Columba's.—Th^a 
island of St. Columba lies in the Fii-th of Forth, oO" 

IP 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT I. 



*( 



the coast of l ife, a little to the cast of North Queens- 
ferry. Alexander 1. was WTecked on this island, 
and entertained by a hermit. In memory of his 
preservation Alexander founded a monastery, to 
which great sanctity attached for many centuries, 
and the remains of which are still conspicuous. It 
wa« ofli^u plundered by English m:irauders; but it 
WM BO generally believed that the 8;unt iuvaiiably 
avenged himself on the pirates, that the sacredness 
of the place, as the scene of conferences and con 
tracts, remained xmimpaired. The " Norweyan 
king" was probably compelled to disburse his "ten 
thousand dollars " on this spot before burying his 
men on the soil of Fife, in order to make his 
humiliation as solemn and emphatic as possible. 

Scene III.—'- A Hcathr 

Common superstition assigns the Harmuir, on 
the borders of Elgin and Nairn, as the place of the 
interview between Macbeth and the weird sisters. 
A more dreary piece of moorland is not to be found 
in all Scotland. Its eastern limit is about six miles 
from Forres, and its western four from Nairn, and 
the high road from these places intersects it. This 
" blasted heath" is without tree or shrub. A few 
patches of oata are visible here and there, and the 
eye reposes on a fir-plantation at one extremity ; 
but all around is bleak and brown, made up of peat 
and bog-water, white stones and bushes of furze. 
Sand-hills and a line of blue sea, beyond which are 
the distant hills of Ross and Caithness, bound it to 
the north ; a farmstead or two may be seen afar off; 
and the ruins of a castle rise from amidst a few trees 
on the estate of Brodie of Brodie on the north-west. 
There is something startling to a stranger in seeing 
the solitary figure of the peat-digger or rush- 
gatherer moving amidst the waste in the sunshine 
of a calm autumn day; but the desolation of the 
scene in stormy weather, or when the twilight fogs 
are trailing over the pathless heath or settling down 
ui">n the pools, must be indescribable. 



Boece naiTates the intei-view of Macbeth and 
Bauquo with the weird sisters as an actual occur- 
rence ; and he is repeated by Holinshed. Bucha- 
nan, whose mind was averse from admitting more 
superstitions than were necessary to historical 
fidelity, relates the whole scene as a dream of 
Macbeth's. It is now scarcely possible even for 
the imagination of the historical student to make 
its choice between the scene of the generals, mounted 
and attended by their troops, meeting the witches 
in actual presence on the waste of the Harmuir, 
and the encounter of the aspiring spirit of Macbeth 
with the prophets of its fate amid the wilder 
scenei-y of the laud of dreams. As far as the 
superstition is concerned with the real history, 
the poet has boitnd us in his mightier spells. The 
Witches of Shakspere have become realities. 

Scene III. — '' Thane of Glamis." 

Glamis Castle, five miles from Forfar, is one of 
the four or five castles in which the murder of Dun- 
can is erroneously declared to have been perpe- 
trated. Previous to 1372 a small castle, two stories 
high, stood on this spot, commanding a wide extent 
of level country, bounded in one direction by the 
range of Dunsinaue hills, and within view of Birnam 
hill. Tradition assigns this old stronghold as the 
occasional residence of Macbeth ; who, how ever, as 
will be seen elsewhere, could never have dwelt within 
stone walls. The present magnificent edifice is above 
a hundred feet in height, and contains a hundi'ed 
rooms; and the walls of the oldest part of the build- 
ing are fifteen feet thick. An ancient bedstead is pre- 
served in it, on which it is pretended that Duncan 
was murdered. Glamis Castle is made by tradition 
the scene of another murder — that of Malcolm II., 
in 1034. The property passed into the hands of 
the Strathmore family (to whom it still belongs) in 
1372, on occasion of the marriage of John Lyon, 
ancestor of the family, with a daughter of Robert 
II., from whom the estate was received as a gift. 




i 



iUlMUiia CVwtle.] 



MACBETH. 



Scene [II.—" Thane of Cawdor." 

Cawdor Castle is another supposed scene of the 
murder of Duncan. A portion of Duncan's coat- 
of-mail is pretended to be shown there ; and also 
the chamber in which he was murdered, with the 
recess, cut out of the thickness of the walls, in which 
the king's valet hid himself during the perpetration 
of the deed. Cawdor Castle is about six miles from 
Nairn, and stands on a rising ground above the 
windings of the Calder, overlooking a wide tract of 
woodland, bounded on the north by the Moray Fii'th. 
It has a moat and drawbridge ; and a part of it, 
without date, shows marks of very high antiquity. 
The more modern part bears the date of 1510. Tra- 



dition says that the original builder of this cas^tle 
was desired to load an ass with the gold he could 
afford for his edifice, to follow where the ass should 
lead, and build where it should stop. The ass 
stopped at a hawthorn in the wood, and this haw- 
thorn was built into the centre chamber of the 
ground-floor of the castle. There it is still, worn 
and cut away till it is a slender wooden pillar in the 
midst of the antique apartment. Beside it stands 
the chest which contained the gold ; and here, it is 
supposed, did the train of Duncan mingle in revel 
with the servants of Macbeth on the night of the 
murder. The stranger who stands in the low, dim 
vault, regi-ets that history and tradition cannot be 
made to agree. 




[Cawdor Castle.] 



Scene IV. — " Forres. A Room in the Palace." 

Forres is a town of great antiquity. At its west- 
em extremity there is an eminence commanding 
the river, the level country to the coast of Moray 
Firth, and the town. On this spot, advantageous 
for strength and survey, stand the ruins of an an- 
cient castle, the walls of which are very massive, 
and the architecture Saxon. Tradition declares 
that before this castle was built the fort stood there 
in which King Duffus was murdered in 965 or 966. 
It is probable that this fort was the residence of 



Duncan, and afterwards of Macbeth, when the 
court or royal army was at Forres. The imagina- 
tion of the student of the chroniclers or of Shak- 
spere fixes on this green mound as the spot where 
Macbeth bent the knee to his sovereign, while 
internally occupied with the greetmgs which had 
just met him on the Harmuir. 

Scene V. — " Inverness. A Room in Macbeth's 
Castle." 

Boece declares that Macbeth's castle, in which 
Duncan was murdered, was that which stood on an 

21 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT I. 



r^aiti' ' iMAt of the U-'wn of liivor- 

CMM. the huiliiiug, calleil A castle, 

which ■tood therr, wu.i rnzt^i to the ground by Mal- 
colm Ckiii toil of DiuiCAD, who built an- 
other on ■> '- i>iu-t of tho hill. It \vaa this 
Utt, diaiuAnUod in tho war of 1745, which Dr. John- 
•<>M Mid I' .t*rwl in 1773, aiiparently with- 
out an J »\: , . :iat it was not tho identical place 
in which Duncan was rcceired by I^idy Macbeth. 
Ilo«w«ll not only recoguiBea tho " pleasant scat " of 
th« building, but lookj up with ronci-atiou tu the 
battlemonta on which the raven croaked. He de- 
rlarM— "I had a roniMjtic satisfaction in seeing 
Dr. Johnaon actually in it." It appears, however, 
from the ro6«arches of antiquarians, that the castles 
of Macbeth's days wen- not built of stone and mor- 
tar at alL The "vitridcd forts," whose vestiges are 
found scattered over Scotland, and which are con- 
jectured to bo the work of the primitive Celtic in- 
habitants, remain a mystery, both as to theii- con- 
struction and purposes ; but, with the exception of 
theae, there are no traces of erections of stone of 
ao early a date as tho reign of Duncan. T) < 
forta and castles of those days appeitr to have 
I- ■ :>8ed of timber and soils, which crumbled 
»' .ved away ages ago, leaving only a faint 
circle upon the soil, to mark the place where 
t* * 1. It is thus that the site of Luufanan 
1 supposed scene of Macbeth 's death) has 
be«n ascertaiucd. ThL- fact about the mofcUod of 



building in that age settles thequestion of Duncan's 
murder at Cawdor Castle, or Qlamis, or any other 
to which that event has been assigned. It could 
not have taken place in any building now in 
existence. 

It is now believed by some that Duncan was not 
assassinated at all, but slain in battle. Later his- 
torians follow Boece in bis declaration that the king 
was murdered in Macbeth's castle at Inverness ; 
but the register of the Priory of St. Andrew's says, 
'■ Doucath iuterfectus est in Bothgonanan." For- 
dun says that, being wounded, he was conveyed to 
Elgin, and died there. The meaning of Bothgona- 
nan being "the smith's dwelling," it has been con- 
jectured that the king was murdered by ambushed 
assassins, at or near a smith's dwelling, in the 
neighbourhood of Elgin. 

Supposing the murder to have taken place, 
however, at Macbeth's castle at Inverness, the 
abode might well be said to have "a pleasant 
seat." The hill overhangs the river Ness, and 
commands a fine view of the iovnx, the surrounding 
levels, and the mountains which enclose Loch Ness 
to the west. The eminence is at present crowned 
with the new castle, which contains the courts 
and the ofiices connected with them. No vestiges 
remain of Malcolm's castle, visited by Dr. John.son 
and Roswell as the Macbeth's castle of Boece ano' 
Shakupere. 



O.) 




[Scone.] 



ACT II. 



SCENE l.—The same. Court within the Castle. 

'Enter Baijquo and Eleance with a torch. 

Ban. How goes the uight, boy ? 

IHe. Tlie moon is dov/a; I have not heard 

the clock. 
Ban. And she goes down at twelve. 
pig_ I take 't, 't is later, sir. 

Ban. Hold, take my sword.— There 's hus- 
bandry* in heaven, 
Their candles are all out.— Take thee that 

too. 
A heavy summons lies like lead upon me. 
And yet I would not sleep : Merciful powers ! 

a i/Ksfcn;!(i;-(/— frvgality. 



Restrain in me the cursed thoughts that nature 
Gives way to in repose !— Give me my sword;— 

Enter Macbeth, and a Servant with a torch. 

Who 's there ? 

Macb. A friend. . 

Ban. What, sir, not yet at rest ? The king s 
a-bed : 
He hath been in unusual pleasure, and 
Sent forth great largess to your offices :" 
This diamond he greets youi- wife withal. 
By the name of most kind hostess ; and shut :ip 
In measureless content. 

a Offices.-TV.s is the original word. Malone ^^ould^ read 
omcc^; but it is of little ^""sequence jrhe her the lar^e^s 
was sent to the servants or the servants hall. 



I 



Acr M.) 



MACBETH. 



[SCEKK II. 



.ViirA. Btinii; uuprcparM, 

Our will became the scn-aut to defect ; 
^Vhich else should free have wrought. 

BiiH. All 's \\ ell. 

I dreamt last nipht of the three weird sisters : 
To you thev have show'd some truth. 

}facb. I think not of them : 

Yet, when we cm entreat an hour to serve. 
We would spend it in sonic words upon that 

business, 
If Tou would grant the time. 
Ban. At vour kind'st leisure. 

Miicb. If Tou shall cleave to my consent," — 
when 't is, 
It shall make honour for you. 

lian. So I lose none, 

In seeking to augment it, but still keep 
My bosom franchis'd, and allegiance clear; 
I sh.all be counsell'd. 
Macb. Good repose, the while ! 

Ban. Thanks, sir ; the like to you ! 

[EriV Banquo and Fleauce. 
^f(leb. Go, bid thy mistress, when my di-iuk 
is ready, 
She strike upon the bell. Get thee to bed. 

[Exit Servant. 
Is thii a dagger which I see before me, 
The Lindle toward my hand? Come, let me 

clutch thee : 
I have thee not, and yet I sec thee still. 
Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible 
To feeling, as to sight ? or art thou but 
A dagger of the mind, a false creation, 
Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain ? 
I see thee yet, in form as pialpablc 
As this which now I draw. 
Thou marshall'st me the way that I was going, 
And such an instrument I was to use. 
Mine eyes arc made the fools o' the other senses. 
Or else worth all the rest : I see thee still ; 
And on thy blade and dudgeon ^ gouts of blood. 
Which was not so before. — There 's no such 

thing. 
It is the bloody business which informs 
I'h ; * yes. — Now o'er the one half world 

N» l<ad, and wicked dreams abuse 

The curtain'd sleep:* witchcraft celebrates 



* C»mt*mt'—t%nian. 



Ur 
t' ■■ 



Ir. 
»r 

In 



MvhHh 


covrrHy 

/•Tf.il .-.1 


^.-'Vd, 


If 


you 
< to 

■ Uj>C 


wi;i 

read 




• i >TH 




"■ of Uic 


II 


s an 

1 ■-.♦ 



.e Iwr.^ i.4ui« u> *UU tu llic tuieiiiiiity oi llio 



P:Uc Hecate's offerings ; and wither'd murther, 

Alaruin'u by his sentinel, the wolf, 

\Vliosc howl 's his watch, thus with his stealthy 

pace. 
With Tarquin's ravishing strides," towai-ds his 

design 
Moves like a ghost. Thou sure'' and firm-set 

earth, 
Hear not my steps, which way they walk','= for fear 
Thy very stones prate of my where-about, 
And take the present horror from the time, 
TMiich now suits with it. — Wliilcs I threat he 

lives: 
Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives. 

{_A bell rings. 
I go, and it is done ; the bell invites me. 
Hear it not, Duncan ; for it is a knell 
That summons thee to heaven, or to hell. [E-vit. 



SCENE II. — The same. 
Enter Lady Macbeth. 

Lady M. That which hath made them drunk 

hath made me bold : 
What hath qucnch'd them hath given rae fire : — 
Hark ! Peace ! It was the owl that shriek'd, 
The fatal bellman which gives the stern'st good 

night. 
He is about it:^ The doors are open; 

a Strides. Sides is the word of the old copies ; but Pope 
changed it to strides. A doubt then arises whether this word 
is compatible with " stealthy pace." Johnson says that a 
ravishing stridi.- is an action of violence, impetuosity, and 
tumult. This is denied ; and we have examples given of a 
"leisurable stride" and " an easy stride." The word, in its 
usual acceptation, and looking at its etymology, does not 
convey the motion of stealthy and silent movement. We 
receive it as Milton uses it : — 

" Satan was now at hand, and from his seat 
The monster moving onward came as fast 
With horrid strides, hell trembled as he strode." 
Can we reconcile then the word sides with the context ? 
Tieck contends that sides has been received as the seat of 
the passions, and is so here poetically used. We have 
some doubt of this ; although we do not reject the opinion. 
Might we not receive sides as a verb, and read the passage 
thus ?— 

" Wither'd murther, 
Alarum'd by his sentinel, the wolf, 
■\\Tiose howl 's his watch, thus, with his stealthy pace 
(Which Tarquin's ravishing sides) towards his design, 
Moves like a ghost." 
To side is to m.itch, to balance, to be in collateral position 
Thus, in Ben Jonson's ' Scjanus," 

" Whom he, upon our low and suffering necks, 
Hath rais'd from excrement to side the gods?" 
In the passage before us, "murther" "with his stealthy 
pace," which pace sides, matches, " Tarquin's ravishing," 
'raiistiinq a noun.) moves like a ghost towards his design. 
Thi». conjecture has been noticed by the Cambridge editors, 
but they adopt strides, as do most other recent commentators. 
Although a conjectural emendation, strides gives a clear 
meaning, however imperfect. 
Sure. — The original has snwre. 

t The original has "which they may walk." Tii'ck de- 
fends the niiginal reading, as ungrammatical, singular, and 
perfectly dream-like. Is not this to refine somewhat over- 
much f 

•1 Here we follow the metrical arrangement of the original, 
with a slight deviation in the subsequent lines. 



Act II.] 



MACBETH. 



[SuF.sB ir. 



And the suiieited grooms do mock their charge 
vdth. snores : 

I have di'ugg'd their possets. 

That death and nature do contend about them, 

Whether they live, or die. 
Macb. \_7FMtfi.'] Who's there?— what, hoal^ 
Lad^ M. Alack ! I am afraid they have 
awak'd. 

And 'tis not done: — the attempt, and not the 
deed. 

Confounds us:— Hark!— I laid then- daggers 
ready. 

He could not miss them. — Had he not resembled 

My father as he slept I had done 't— My hus- 
band! 

Enter Macbeth. 

Macb. I have done the deed :— Didst thou not 

hear a noise ? 
Ladi/ M. I heai-d the owl scream, and the 
crickets cry. 
Did not you speak ? 
Macb. When? 

Ladj/ M. Now. 

Macb. ^ I descended ? 

Lad)/ II. Ay. 
Macb. Hark!— 
Who lies i' the second chamber ? 
Ladi/ M. Donalbain. 

Macb. This is a soiTy sight. 

\Lookinfj on his hands. 
Lady M. A foolish thought, to say a sorry 

sight. 
Macb. There 's one did laugh in his sleep, 
And one cried, 'mui-ther!' that they did wake 

each other ; 
I stood and heard them : but they did say their 

prayers, 
And address'd them again to sleep.* 
Lady M. There are two lodg'd together. 
Macb. One cried, ' Gk)d bless us!' and 'Ameu,' 
the other ; 
As they had seen me, with these hangiuau's 

hands. 
Listening their fear, I could not say, amen. 
When they did say, God bless us. 
Lady M. Consider it not so deeply. 

Macb. But wherefore could not I pronomice, 
amen? 
I had most need of blessing, and amen 
Stuck in my throat. 

Lady 3L These deeds must not be thought 
After these ways ; so, it will maie us mad. 



liaes. 



Here again ^e follow the original regulation of the 



Macb. Methought, I heard a voice cry, ' Sleep 
no more ! 
Macbeth does murtlier sleep,' — the iunocent 

sleep ; 
Sleep, that knits up the ravell'd sleavc * of care, 
The death of each day's life, sore labour's 

bath. 
Balm of hm-t miads, great natui'e's second 

coui'se. 
Chief nourisher iii life's feast.'' 

Lady M. TYhat do you mean ? 

Macb. Still it cried, 'Sleep no more!' to all 
the house : 
' Glamis hath murther'd sleep : and therefore 

Cawdor 
Shall sleep no more, Macbeth shall sleep no 
more ! ' 
Lady M. Wbo was it that thus cried ? Why, 
worthy thane. 
You do unbend your noble strength, to thuik 
So brainsickly of things :— Go, get some water, 
And wash this filthy witness from your hand.— 
Why did you bring these daggers from the 

place ? 
They must lie there: Go, carry thera; and 

smear 
The sleepy grooms with blood. 

Macb. I 'il go no more ; 

I am afraid to think what I have done ; 
Look on 't again I dare not. 

Lady M. Infii'^ of purpose ! 

Give me the daggers: The sleeping, and the 

dead, 
Ai-e but as pictiu-es : 'tis the eye of childhood 
That fears a painted devil. If he do bleed, 
I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal, 
Por it mxist seem their guilt. 

[Exit. Knocking within. 

Macb. Whence is that knocking ? 

How is 't with me, when every noise appals 

me? 
^\Tiat hands ai-e here ? Ha ! they pluck out 

mine eyes ! 
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean fi-om my hand? No; this my hand wiU 

rather 
The multitudinous seas incamardine 
Making the green, one red.' 

a SJ^ai-e-unwrought snk-thejyr.V«=a of the Italians^ 
b There are differences of op.n.on as \o^^"l'^l V*^^" 
er.ds. Hanmer carried it to the end of ^•"^'^'J' ^Xr of 
Johnson made it stop at 'murther sleep; the remainder 
the speech being Macbeth's comment. 
c Heywood has this passage : 

" The multitudes of seas dyed red with blood." 
This gives us, we think, the meaning of muttUudinou. 

25 



Act II.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEHE III. 



B^^mier Lady Macbetu. 



I^Jy .V. My hands arc of your colour ; but 

I ahame 
To wear a heart so wlutc. [Knock:'\ I hoar a 

knock iu(; 
At the south entry :— retire wc to our chamber: 
A little water clears us of this deed : 
How ea*y i.«* it then! Your constancy 
Hath left you unattended.— [A'worXiwy.] Hark ! 

more \ ' ' : 
Get on your nij;:. _ , lest occasion call us, 
And show us to be watchers :— Be not lost 
So poorly in your thoughts, 

Macb'. To know my deed, 't were best not 

know myself. [Knock. 

Wake Duncan with thy knocking ; I» would thou 

coiddst ! ' lExeunt. 

SCENE \\\.— The same. 

Enter a Porter. [Knocking within. 

Porter. Here 's a knocking, indeed! If a 
man were porter of hell-gate, he should have old 
turning the key. [Knocking.'] Knock, knock, 
knock : "\Mio 's'thcre, i' the name of Belzcbub? 
Here 's a fanner, that hanged himself on the ex- 
jicctation of plenty : Come in time ; have nap- 
kins enough about you ; here you '11 sweat for 't. 
[Knocking.'] Knock, knock: "Who 's there, 
i' the other devil's name ? 'Faith, here's an equi- 
vocator, that could swear in both the scales 
against cither scale; who committed treason 
enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate 
to heaven: 0, come in, cquivocator. [Knocking!] 
Knock, knock, knock: Who's there? 'Faith, 
here 's an T ' ' tailor come hither, for steal- 
ing out of , i ii hose : Come in, tailor •, here 
you may roast your goose, [Knocking.] Knock, 
knock : N«Tcr at quiet ! What arcyou ?— But tliis 
place b too eold for hell. 1 '11 devil-porter it no 
further : I had thought to have let in some of all 
profcssionii, tliat go the primrose way to the cver- 



I ; 



Tt.ii M». • ' 



■ tig line the commcn- 
it ttandi 
1 one, red." 

■1, one red," 
■r;riv'« Inn Jnumril." anil 



■dopt' 
brod. 

nf »n the »lr." 

Ut." He U pro 
( ^n the old cop; 

\ -.1 the y,-:vj-u:\ »;>iiC4r« 1" '.;> in''>c cii.j.;i»lic. 
26 



lasting bonfire. [Knocking.] Anon, anon; I 
pray you, remember the porter. [Opens the gate. 

Enter Macdupf and Lenox. 

Macd. Was it so late, friend, ere you went to 
bed, 
That you do lie so late ? 

Port. 'Faith, sir, we were carousing till the 
second cock : and drink, sir, is a great provoker 
of three things. 

Mdcd. What three things does drink espe- 
cially provoke ? 

Port. Marry, sir, nose-painting, sleep, and 
urine. Lechery, sir, it provokes, and unpro- 
vokes : it provokes the desire, but it takes away 
toe performance : Therefore, much drink may he 
said to be au equivocator with lechery : it makes 
him, and it mars liim ; it sets him on, and it 
takes him off ; it persuades him, and disheartens 
him ; makes him stand to, and not stand to : in 
conclusion, equivocates him in a sleep, and, 
giving him the lie, leaves him. 

Macd. I believe, drink gave thee the lie last 
night. 

Port. That it did, sir, i' the very throat o' me : 
But I requited him for his lie; and, T think, 
being too strong for him, though he took up my 
legs sometunc, yet I made a shift to cast him. 

3facd. Is thy master stirring ? — 
Our knocking has awak'd him ; here he comes. 

Enter Macbetu. 

Len. Good morrow, noble sir ! 
Macb. Good-morrow, both ! 

Macd. Is the king stirring, worthy thane ? 
Macb. Not yet. 

Macd. He did command me to call timely on 
him; 
I have almost slipp'd the hour. 

Macb. I '11 bring you to him. 

Macd. I know this is a joyful trouble to 
you; 
But yet 't is one. 

Macb. The labour we delight in physics pain. 
This is the door. 

Macd. ■ I '11 make so bold to call, 
For 'tis my limited* service. [E.dt Macduff. 
Len. Goes the king hence to-day ? 
Macb. He does : — he did appoint so.'' 



K Limited — appointed. 

b Stccvcns writes the passage thus : — 

"Goes the king 
From hence to-day f 
Afacb. He does :— he did appoint so." 

We rrjecl mch forced attempts to get rid of tl]C hemistich 
&nd the Alexandrine. 



Act II.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCBME III 



Len. The night has been unruly : Where we 

lay. 

Our chimneys were blown down : and, as they 

say, 
Lamentings heard i' the air ; strange screams of 

death : 
And, prophesying with accents terrible, 
Of dire combustion and confus'd events. 
New hatch'd to the woeful time, 
The obscure bird clamour'd the live-long night : 
Some say the earth was feverous and did shake* 
Macb. 'T was a rough night. 
Len. My young remembrance cannot pa- 
rallel 
A feUow to it. 

Re-enter Macduff. 

Macd. O horror ! horror 1 horror ! 
Tong-ue, nor heart, cannot conceive, nor name 
thee! 
Mach. Len. What 's the matter ? 
Macd. Confusion now hath made his master- 
piece ! 
Most sacrilegious murther hath broke ope 
The Lord's anomted temple, and stole thence 
The life o' the building. 

Macb. What is 't you say ? the life ? 

Len. Mean you his majesty ? 
Macd. Approach the chamber, and destroy 
your sight 
With a new Gorgon :— Do not bid me speak ; 
See, and then speak yourselves. — Awake ! 
awake ! — 

\E.Teimt Macbeth and Lenox. 
Eing the alai-um-bell : — Murther ! and trea- 
son! 
Banquo, and Donalbain ! Malcolm ! awake ! 
Shake off this downy sleep, death's counter- 
feit, 
And look on death itself !— up, up, and see 

The great doom's image Malcolm ! Banquo ! 

As from your graves rise up, and walk like 

sprites. 
To countenance this horror ! Ring the bell.'' 

{Bell rings. 

Unter Lady Macbeth. 

Lady M. What 's the business, 

a W^e here follow the regulation of the original. But we 
have adopted a punctuation suggested by a friend, which 
connects "the obscure bird" with "prophesying." _ 

b The words " riny the bell" form part of the original 
text; and the stage direction, "bell rings," immediately 
follows. Theobald and other conimentatois strike out 
" ring the bell," contending that these words also were a 
stage direction. But how natural is it that Macdutl, having 
previously cried "ring the alarum-bell," should repeat the 
order 1 



That such a hideous trumpet calls to parley 
The sleepers of the house ? speak, speak ! 

Macd. 0, gentle lady, 

'T is not for you to hear what I can speak : 
The repetition, in a woman's car, 
Would murther as it fell. 

Enter Banquo. 

Banquo! Banquo! our royal m?.ster's mur- 

ther'd ! 

Lady M. Woe, alas ! what, in our house ? 

Ban. Too cruel, anywhere. 

Dear Duff, I prithee coutradict thyself, 
And say, it is not so. 

Re-enter Macbeth and Lenox. 

Macb. Had I but died an hour before this 
chance, 

1 had liv'd a blessed time ; for, from this in- 

stant. 
There 's nothing serious in mortality : 
AH is but toys : renown, and grace, is dead ; 
The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees 
Is left this vaidt to brag of. 

Enter Malcolm and Donalbain. 

Don. What is amiss ? 

Macb. You are, and do not know 't. 

The spring, the head: the fountain of your 

blood 
Is stopp'd ; the very source of it is stopp'd. 
Macd. Your roval father 's murther'd. 
Mai. -" 0, by whom? 

Len. Those of his chamber, as it seem'd, had 
done't: 
Their hands and faces were all badg'd with 

blood, 
So were their daggers, which, unwip'd, we 

found 
Upon their pillows: they star'd, and were dis- 

tracted ; 
No man's life was to be trusted with them. 
Macb. 0, yet I do repent me of my fury. 
That I did kill them. 

Macd. Wterefore did you so ? 

Macb. Wlio can be wise, amaz'd, temperate, 
and fiu-ious, _ 

Loyal, and neuti-al, in a moment? No man: 
The expedition of my violent love 
Outran the pauser reason.-Here lay Duncan, 
His silver skin lac'd with his golden blood ; 
And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach 

nature 

27 



Act!:.] 



MACBETH. 



[Scene IV. 



tar ruin's wasteful entrance: there, the niur- 

thercrs, 
Slcep'd in the colours of their trade, their 

daggers 
Uunumnerlv brt-cch'd with gore: AMio coidd 

refrain 
That had a heart to love, and in that hC'irt 
Courage, to make his love known ? 

Lady .V. Help me hence, hoa ! 

3faed. Look to the lady. 

Mai Why do wc hi)kl our tongues, 

T!.-.t n.-=' ' um this argument for ours ? 

/ . W ill be spoken here, 

^\^lc^c our fate, hid in an auger-hole, 
May rush, and seize us ? Let 's away ; our 

tears 
Are not vet lm;w'J. 



.V</.' 



Nor our strong sorrow 



Ui>on the loot of motion. 
Ban. Look to the lady : — 

{_Lady !Macbeth is carried out. 
And when wc have our naked frailties hid, 
That suffer in exposure, let us meet. 
And question this most bloody piece of work, 
To know it further. Fears and scruples shake 

us : 
In the great hand of God I stand ; and, lliencc. 
Against the undivulg'd pretence I fight 
Of treasonous malice. 

Macd. And so do L* 

All. So aU. 

Macb. Let 's briefly put on manly readiness, 
And meet i' the hall together. 
■^11. Well contented. 

{Exeunt all but ^Mjul. and Don. 
Mai. What -will you do ? Let 's not consort 
with them : 
To show an unfclt sorrow is an ofBcc 
Which the false man does easy : I '11 to Eng- 
land. 
Thn. To telanil, 1 ; our separated fortune 
Shall keep us both the safer: where we are. 
There 's d,iggcrs in men's smiles : the near in 

blood, 
T' r arer bloody. 

■' '. This murthcrous shaft tliat's shot 

Hath not yet lighted ; and our safest way 
Is to avoid the aim. Tliercfore, to horse ; 
And let us not be dainty of leave-taking. 
But shift away : There 's warrant in that theft 
Which steals itself, when there 's no mercy left. 

[Exeunt. 



• Thi» »p««ch la the crif inal belonir* to itaeduff; but, 
vhhoQt tnr rtptaiMlion, it in (firen by the variorun: 
r<lilor( to MarNth. 

'2S 



SCENE Vf.— Without the Castle. 

Enter BossE and an old Man. 
Old M. Threescore and ten I can remember 



w 



eU: 



Within the volume of which time, I have seen 
Hours dreadful and things strange ; but tlus 

sore niglit 
Hath trifled former knowings. 

Rosse. Ah, good father, 

Thou see'st, the heavens, as troubled with man's 

act, 
Tlu-eaten his bloody stage : by the clock, 't is 

day. 
And yet dark night strangles the travelling 

lamp : 
Is 't night's predominance, or the day's shame. 
That darkness does the face of earth intomb. 
When living light should kiss it ? 

OldM. 'T is unnatural, 

Even like the deed that's done. On Tuesday 

last, 
A falcon, tow'riug in her pride of place, 
Was by a mousing owl hawk'd at and kiU'd. 
Rosse. And Duncan's horses, (a thing most 
strange and certain,) 
Beauteous and swift, the minions of their race, 
Turn'd ^vild in natui-e, broke their stalls, flung 

out. 
Contending 'gainst obedience, as they would 
Make war with mankiad. 

Old M. 'Tis said, they eat each other. 
Rosse. They did so; to the amazement of 
mine eves. 
That look'd upon 't. Here comes the good 
Macduff : 

Enter Macduff. 

How goes the world, sir, now ? 

Macd. Wliy, see you not ? 

Rosse. Is't known who did this more than 
bloody deed ? 

Macd. Those that Macbeth hath slain. 

Rosse. Alas, the day ! 

"Wliat good could they pretend ?• 

Macd. They were subom'd : 

Malcolm, and Donalbaiu, the king's two sons. 
Are stol'n away and fled ; which puts upon thenj 
Suspicion of the deed. 

Rosse. 'Gainst nature stdl : 

Thriftless ambition, that wilt ravin u^) 
Thine owi^ life's means ! — Then't is most like 
The sovereignty will fall upon Macbeth. 

* Pretend — propose. 



ACT II.] 



MACBETH. 



[ScEKE rv. 



Macd. He is already nain'd ; and ^one to 
Scone, 
To be invested. 

Rosse. Where is Duncan's body ? 

Macd. Carried to Cohne-kill ; 
The sacred storehouse of his predecessors. 
And guardian of their bones. 

Eosse. Will you to Scone ? 

3fard. No cousin, I '11 to Fife. 



House. Well, I will thitlier. 

Macd. Well, may you see things well done 
there : — adieu ! 
Lest our old robes sit easier than our new ! 
Rosse. Farewell, father. 
Old M. God's benison go wth you, and with 
those 
That would make good of bad, and friends of 



foes ! 



{Ete'.irJ.. 




[lona.] 



TLLrSTRATIOXS OF ACT IT. 



» Scene II.—" Who's there f—irhat, hoa/" 

ArrKB"Th«t mimnions thco to heaven or to hell," 
Tieck in»«rt«— " *<• asccndi.''—o.nA snys, " we Icaiii 
•A«nrmni.« tb«t ho drs-nids. I hnvo inserted tiiifl 
■Ug« direction that th- rvader may the liuttcr uu- 
deraUnd the constnution of the old theatre." 
Agkln. when Macbeth mIU out "Who's there?" lie 
inwrlA, Wforo the oxcliimation, " he apptars above," 
and aft«r it, " he a^ain vithdraici." Tieck says, 
" I ' '.'1 added the^e directions for the sake of 

I>. : , . The eilitora make him say this with- 

out being seen — 'tfiVA in,'— which is an impossibility. 
T' ■ ' y^hould he m.ake this inquiry within the 
c!. '.vhere all are sleeping ? The king, be- 

eidca, doea not sleep in the first, but in the second 
chamber ; how loud then must be the call to be 
heard from within the &ccond ch.amber in the court- 



yard bolow ' The original at this passage has 'Enter 
Mavhclh.' 1 explain this peculiar direction thus : — 
Macbeth lingers yet a moment within : his unquiet 
mind imagines it heai-s a noise in the court below, 
and thoughtlessly, bewildered, and crazed, he 
rashes back to the balcony, and calls beneath, 
' Who's there ?' in his agony, however, he waits for 
no answer, but rushes back into the chambers to 
execute the murder. Had Fleance, or Banquo, or 
even any of the servants of the house, whom he 
had but just sent away, been beneath, the whole 
secret deed would have been betrayed. I consider 
this return, which appears but a mere trifle, as a 
striking beauty in Shakspere's drama. He delights 
(because he always sets tragedy in activitj' through 
passion as well as through intrigue) in suspending 
success and failure on a needle's point." 




[Coronation Chair.] 
LOC.\L ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ScEXi IV.— "And gone to Scone, 

To he intetltd." 

Tnt MtricDt r>-)yal city of Scouo, supposed to have 
\<Ma tbfl capital of the Pictinh kingdom, Liy two 
mdcj D'lrthwApl from the ]>rcscDt town of Perth. 
It WM the residence of tho .Scottish monarchs as 
••riy M the reign of Kenneth M'Aljin, an<l there 
80 



was a long scries of kings crowned on the cele- 
brated stone enclosed in a chair, now used as the 
scatof our sovereigns at coronations in Westminster 
Abbey. This stone was removed to Scone from 
Dunstaffnage, the yet earlier residence of the Scot- 
tish kin;,'s,by Kenneth IL, soon after the founding 
of the abbey of Scone by tho Culdees in S38, and 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT II. 



was transferred by Edward I. to Westminster 
Abbey in 1296. This remarkable stone is repoi-ted 
to have found its way to DunstafFnage from the 
plain of Luz, where it was the pillow of the 
patriarch Jacob while he dreamed his dream. 

An aisle of the abbey of Scone remains. A few 
poor habitations alone exist on the site of the 
ancient royal city. 

Scene IV. — " W/tere is Duncan's lodi/? 

Carried to Oolme-Jcill." 

Colme-hill (St. Columba's Cell). Icolm-Tcill. 
Hyona. lona. — The island of lona, separated only 
by a narrow channel from the island of Mull, off 
the western coast of Argyle, was the place of sepul- 
ture of many Scottish kings; and, according to tra- 
dition, of several Irish and Norwegian monarchs. 
This little island, only three miles long and one 
and a half broad, was once the most impoi-taut spot 
of the whole cluster of British Islea. It was inha- 
bited by Di-uids previous to the year 563, when 
Colum M'Felim M'Fergns, afterwards called St. 
Columba, lauded with twelve companions, and be- 
gan to preach Christianity. A monastery was soon 
established on the spot, and others afterwards arose 
in the neighbouring isles, and on the mainland. A 
noble cathedral was built, aad a nunnery at a short 
distance from it, the ruins of both of which still 
remain. The reputation of the learning, doctrine, 
and discipline of these establishments extended over 
the whole Christian world for some centuries ; de- 
votees of rank or other eminence strove for admis- 
sion into them ; missionaries of the highest quali- 
fications issued from them; the records of royal 
deeds were preserved there ; and there the bones 
of kings reposed. Historians seem to agi-ee that all 
the monarchs of Scotland, from Kenneth III. to 
Macbeth, inclusive— that is, from 973 to 1040— were 
buried at lona ; and some suppose that the cathe- 
dral was a place of royal sepulture from the time of 
its erection. The island was several times laid waste 
by the Danes and by pirates ; and the records which 
were saved were removed to Ireland in consequence 



of the perpetual peril ; but the monastic est-iblish 
ments survived every such attack, and remained in 
honour till the year 1561, when the Act of the 
Convention of Estates was passed, by which all 
monasteries were doomed to demolition. Such 
books and records as could be found in lona were 
burnt, the tombs were broken open, and the 
gi-eater number of its host of crosses thrown 
down or carried away. 

The cathedral of lona, as seen afar off from the 
outside of Fingal's Cave in StaSa, standing out 
against the western sky, is a singular object in the 
midst of some of the wildest scenery of the ocean, 
— the only token of high civilization — the solitary 
record of an intellectual world which has passed 
away. It presides over a wide extent of stormy 
waters, with their scattered isles ; and the stone 
crosses of its cemetery, and the lofty walls and 
Saxon and Gothic arches of its venerable build- 
ings, form a strange contrast with the hovels of 
the fishermen which stand upon the shore. 

In the cemetery, among the monuments of the 
fouudcrs and of many subsequent abbots, are 
three rows of tombs, said to be those of the 
Scottish, Irish, and Norwegian kings, in number 
reported to be forty-eight. For Etateraents like 
these, however, there is no authority but tradition. 
Tradition itself does not pretend to individualize 
these tombs ; so that the stranger must be satisfied 
with the knowledge that within the enclosure 
where he stands lie Duncan and Macbeth. 

Corpach, two miles from Fort William, retains 
some distinction from being the place whence the 
bodies of the Scottish monai'chs were embai'ked 
for the sacred island. While traversing the stormy 
waters which surround these gloomy western isles, 
the imagination naturally reverts to the ancient 
days when the funeral train of barks was tossing 
amidst the waves, and the chant of the monks 
might be heard from afar welcoming the remains 
of the monarch to their consecrated soil. 

Some of the Irish and Noi-wegian kings buried in 
lona were pilgrims, or had abdicated their thrones 
and retired to the monastery of St. Columba. 



31 









r*ftft**' 



[Forrei.] 



ACT III. 



SCENE I. — Forres. A Room in the Palace. 

Entfr Baxquo. 

Ban. Thou liast it now, king, Cawdor, Glamis, 
all, 
As the weird women promis'd ; and I fear 
T ' ■'' -t foully for 't: yet it was said, 

j rl in thy posterity ; 

Bat that myself should be the root, and father 
Of rnany kinps. If there come truth from them, 
{Ks upon thee, MaclK'th, their speeches shine,) 
Wiy, by tlw verities on thee made good, 
May they not be my oracles as well. 
And set me up in hope ? But, hush ; no more. 

S^Hft Bounded. Entrr MAfiiKTlI, an King; I^dy 
Macbeth, a* Cluten ,- Lenox, Rosse, Lords, 
Ladies, and Attendants. 

Maeb. Here 's our chief guest. 
Jjad^ "St. If lie hwl been forgotten 

82 



It had been as a gap in om* great feast, 
And all-tiling » unbecoming. 

Mach. To-ui^ht we hold a solemn supper, sir. 
And I '11 request your presence. 

Ban. Let your highness 

Command upon me ; to the which, my duties 
Are with a most indissoluble tie 
For ever knit. 

Mach. Ride you tliis afternoon ? 

Ban. Ay, my good lord. 

Mach. We should have else desir'd your good 
advice 
(Wliich still hath been both grave and pros- 
perous,) 
In this day's council; but we'll take*" to-morrow. 
Is 't far you ride ? 



» A lllhinff.— So the original— not all things, as sometimes 
printed. 

b Take. — Tliis is the word of the original, which Stecvens 
liaa very properly retained ; although Malone changes it to 



Act III.] 



MACBETU. 



[SCEHZ L 



Ban. As far, my lord, as will fill up the time 
'Twixt this and supper: go not my horse the 

better, 
I must become a borrower of the night, 
"For a dark hour, or twain. 

Macb. Fail not our feast. 

Ban. My lord, I will not. 
Much, We hear, our bloody cousins are be- 
stow' d 
In England, and in Ireland ; not confessing 
Their cruel parricide, filling their hearers 
With strange invention : But of that to-morrow; 
When, therewithal, we shall have cause of state. 
Craving us jointly. Hie you to horse : Adieu, 
Till you return at night. Goes Pleance with 
you? 
Ban. Ay, my good lord: our time does call 

upon us. 
Mach. I wish your horses swift and sure of 
foot; 
And so I do commend you to their backs. 
Farewell. \_Exit BANqxro. 

Let every man be master of his time 
Till seven at night ; to make society 
The sweeter welcome, we wiU keep ourself 
Till supper-time alone : while then, God be with 
you. 
[Exeunt Lady Macbeth, Lords, Ladies, &c. 
Sirrah, a word with you : Attend those meu our 
pleasure ? 
Attend. They are, my lord, without the palace 

gate. 
Much. Bring them before us. — {Exit Atten.] 
To be thus, is nothing ; 
But to be safely thus : — Our fears in Banquo 
Stick deep ; and in his royalty of nature 
Beigns that which would be fear'd : 't is much 

he dares ; 
And, to that dauntless temper of his mind. 
He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valoui- 
To act in safety. There is none but he 
Whose being I do fear : and under him 
My genius is rebuk'd ; as, it is said, 
Mark^ Antony's was by Csesar. He chid the 

sisters, 
When first they put the name of king upon 
me, 



talk. It is difficult to imagine a more unnecessary cliange. 
Who could doubt our meaning if we were to say, ' Well, 
sir, if you cannot come tliis afternoon, we will take to- 
morrow 1." „ ^ 1 
a Steevens proposed to omit Mark, " tor the sake or 
metre." Johnson would have gone farther, and would have 
omitted the whole allusion to Mark Antony, writing the 
passage thus : — 

He chid the sisters." 



" My genius is rebuk'd. 

Tii.vGEDiiis. — Vol. II. 



D 



And bade them speak to him; then, prophet- 

Uke, 
They hail'd him father to a line of kings : 
Upon my head they plac'd a fruitless crown, 
And put a barren sceptre in my gripe. 
Thence to be wrench'd with an imUneal hand, 
No son of mine succeeding. If it be so. 
For Banquo's issue have I fil'd" my miiid ; 
For them the gracious Duncan have I murther'd : 
Pat rancours in the vessel of my peace, 
Only for them ; and mine eternal jewel 
Given to the common enemy of man, 
To make them kings, the seed of Banquo kings ! 
Bather than so, come, fate, into the Hst, 
And champion me to the utterance ! '' — "Who 's 

there ? — 

Re-enter Attendant, with two Murderers. 

Now go to the door, and stay there till we call. 

\Bxit Attendant. 
Was it not yesterday we spoke together ? 
1 Mur. It was, so please your highness. 
Macb. Well then, now 

Have you consider'd of my speeches ? Know, 
That it was he, in the times past, which held you 
So under fortune ; which, you thought, had been 
Our innocent self : this I made good to you 
In our last conference ; pass'd in probation with 

you. 
How you were borne in hand; how cross'd; the 

instruments ; 
Who wrought with them; and all things else, 

that might. 
To half a soul, and to a notion craz'd. 
Say, Thus did Banquo. 

1 Mur. You made it known to us. 

Macb. I did so; and went further, which is now 
Our point of second meeting. Do you find 
Your patience so predominant in your nature, 
That you can let this go ? Are you so gospell'd. 
To pray for this good man, and for his issue. 
Whose heavy hand hath bo\v'd you to the grave, 
And beggar'd yours for ever ? 

1 Mur. We are men, my liege. 

Macb. Ay, in the catalogue ye go for men ; 
As hounds, and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, 

curs, 
Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are 

cleped 
All by the name of dogs : the valued file 
Distinguishes the swift, the slow, the subtle, 

a T^iVW— defiled. 

b Xrti^.raJtce. — TheViench combat-i-cutrance. SefcCymbo- 
line, Act iii.. Scene i. 
c Borne in hand — encouraged by false hopes. 

33 



ACTilLJ 



MACBETH. 



[SCKKE II. 



The housekeeper, the hunter, every one 
Acoorviing to tlic gift wliich bouulcoiis nature 
llath iu him clos'd ; whereby he doc^ receive 
Farticuhir addition, from the bill 
Tliat writes them all alike : and so of lueu. 
Kow, if you have a station in the lUc, 
Not in the worst rank • of manhood, say it ; 
And I will put that business in your bosoms 
AVhose execution takes your enemy off; 
Grapples you to the heart and love of us, 
Who wear our health but sickly in his life, 
Mliich in his death were perfect. 

2 Mur. I am one, my liege, 

Whom the vile blows and buffets of the world 
Have so inccns'd, that I am reckless what 
I do, to spite the world. 

1 M\ • And I another. 

So weary with disasters, tugg'd with fortune. 
That I would set my life on any chance, 
To mend it, or be rid on 't. 

Macb. Both of you 

Know, Banquo was your enemy. 

2 Mur. True, my lord. 
Macb. So is he mine ; and iu such bloody dis- 
tance. 

That every minute of his being thrusts 
Against my near'st of life : Ajid though I could 
^\ ith bare-fac'd power sweep him from my sight. 
And bid my will avouch it, yet I must not, 
For*" certain friends that ai-e both his and mine, 
Wliose loves I may not drop, but wail Ids fall 
Whom I myself struck down : and thence it is 
That I to your assistance do make love ; 
Masking the business from the common eye, 
Fur sundry weighty reasons. 

2 Mur. We shall, my lord. 

Perform what you command us. 

1 Mur. Though our lives 

Macb. Your spirits shine through you. With- 
in this hour, at most, 
I will advise you where to plant yourselves. 
Acquaint you with the perfect spy o' the time, 
The moment on 't ; for 't must be done to-night," 



• In the prcccalng p.-irt of this speech a distinction is 
rtrawn »w«wr<-Ti thr ralalogue and the valued file. The cata- 
' "nc« of all; the valued aie select names. 

■" '« may l«; a " station in the file" above 

l..al. . l.c w.,r,i rank." The ronA, then, is the row,— 
XhrfiU thoH; »tt aj.art from the row, for superior qualities 
It not Ihl. '.h. .i.r,„ing of the tnUitar>- tenn, rank and file", 
wbich u • 7 

b Pot- \ of — bcctusc of. 

'We onitritinil thU puiage as follows. Macbeth bos 
•aid, 

" I will adrUe you where to jdant yourselves :" 
hethrna-!^. "Acquaint you "—inform yourselves— " witir 
•■'*■ -*t»h amo»t careful inquiry— "o* the time" 

— '!■ liaie of Banquo't return ; — 

'•lUe moiacnl on't ; for 'l must be done to night." 
34 



And somctliing from the palace ; always thouglit 
Tliat I require a clearness : And with him, 
(To leave no rubs, nor botches, in the work,) 
Fleance his son, that keeps him company, 
Whose absence is no less materitd to me 
Than is his father's, must embrace the fate 
Of that dai-k hour. Kesolve yourselves apart ; 
I '11 come to you anon. 

2 Mur. We are resolv'd, my lord. 

Macb. I 'U call upon you straight ; abide 
witliin. 
It is concluded : — Banquo, thy soul's flight, 
If it find heaven, must find it out to-night. 

[Exeuiit, 

SCENE H.—The same. Another Room. 

Enter La(h/ AIacbeth and a Servant. 

Ladi/ 31. Is Banquo gone from court ? 

Serv. Ay, madam, but returns again to-night. 

Ladt/ 31. Say to the king, I would attend his 
leisure 
For a few words. 

iServ. Madam, I will. Exit. 

Lady M. Nought 's had, all 's spent, 

■\\Tiere our desire is got without content : 
'T is safer to be that which we destroy, 
Thau, by destruction, dwell m doubtful joy. 

Enter Macbeth. 

How now, my lord ? why do you keep alone. 
Of sorriest fancies your companions making ? 
Using those thoughts whicb should indeed have 

died 
With them they think on ? Things without all" 

remedy. 
Should be without regard : what's done is done. 
Macb. We have scotcli'd the snake, not kiU'd 

it: 
She '11 close, and be herself; whilst our poor 

malice 
Remains in danger of her former tooth. 
But let the frame of tilings disjoint, both the 

worlds suffer. 
Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep ~ 
In the affliction of these terrible di-eams. 
That shake us nightly : Better be with the dead, 
Whom we, to gam our peace,'' have sent to peace, 



» Sfeevcns omits all. 

b Peace. — For this word of the original the editor of the 
second folio substituted place. The repetition of the word 
peace seems very much in Shakspere's manner ; and as every 
one who commits a crime such as that of Macbeth proposes 
to himself, in the result, ha|)pine3s, which is another word 
for peace, — as the very promptings to the crime disturb his 
peace, — we think there is something much higher in the 



Act III.] 



MACBETH. 



Than ou the torture of the mind to lie 

In restless ecstacy. Duncan is in his grave ; 

After life 's fitful fever he sleeps well ; 

Treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor 

poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing. 
Can touch him further ! 

Lacli/ M. Come on ; 
Gentle my lord, sleek o'er your rugged looks ; 
Be bright and jovial among your guests to- 
night. 
Macb. So shall I, love; and so, I pray, be 
you: 
Let your remembrance apply to Banquo ; 
Present him eminence, both with eye and 

tongue : 
Unsafe the while, that we 
Must lave our honours in these flattering streama; 
And make oui- faces vizards to our heartsj 
Disguismg what they are. 
Ladi/ M. You must leave this. 

Macb. 0, full of scoi-pions is my mhid, dear 
wife! 
Thou know'st that Banquo, and his Fleance, 
lives. 
Lady M. But in them nature's copy's* not 

eterne. 
Macb. There 's comfort yet ; they are assail- 
able; 
Then be thou jocund : Ere the bat hath flown 
His cloister'd flight ; ere, to black Hecate's sum- 
mons. 
The shard-borne beetle, '^ with his drowsy hums. 
Hath rung night's ya^vniug peal. 
There shall be done a deed of dreadful note.": 
Ladi/ M. What 's to be done ? 
Mac. Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest 
chuck. 



sentiment conveyed by the original word than in that ot 
iHace. In the very contemplation of the murder of Banquo, 
Macbeth is vainly seeking for peace. Banquo is the object 
that makes him eat his meal in fear and sleep in terrible 
dreams. His death, therefore, is determined; and then 
comes the fearful lesson, 

" Better be with the dead, 
Whom we, to gain our peace, have sent to peace, 
Than on the torture of the mind to lie 
In restless ecstacy." 

There is no peace with the wicked. 

■I Nature's co/ij/.— Johnson explains this as the copr/, the 
lease, by which they hold their lives from nature ; and Rit- 
son says it is the copy of court roll. Is not this very forced? 
Although the expression may be somewhat obscure, does 
not every one feel that the copy means the individual, — the 
particular cast from nature's mould, — a perishable copy of 
the prototype of man ? 

b Shard-borne beetle — the beetle borne on its shards, or 
scaly wing-cases. See Cymheline; Illustration of Act in,, 
Scene in. 

c We print these lines as in the original. In modern 
editions they are "regulated" thus: — 

" Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done 
A deed of dreadful note." 

D"2 



ISCENE lU. 

TiU thou applaud the deed. Come, seeling" 

night, 
Skarf up the tender eye of pitiful day ; 
And, with thy bloody and mvisible hand, 
Cancel, and tear to pieces, that great bond 
Which keeps me pale !— Light thickens ; and the 

crow 
Makes wing to the rooky wood ; 
Good thmgs of day begin to di-oop and drowse ; 
Whiles night's black agents to their prey do 

rouse. 
Thou marvell'st at my words: but hold thee 

stiU; 
Things bad begun make strong th emselv es by ill : 
So, prithee, go with me. [JExeuiit. 

SCENE IIL—The same. A Park or Laivn, 
with a Gate leading to the Falace. 

Enter three Murderers. 

1 Mur. But who did bid thee join with us ? 

3 Mur. Macbeth. 

2 Mur. He needs not our mistrust; since ho 

delivers 
Our offices, and what we have to do. 
To the dii-ection just. 

1 Mur. Then stand with us. 
The west yet glimmers with some streaks of day : 
Now spurs the lated traveller apace, 

To gam the timely inn; and near approaches 
The subject of our watch. 

3 Mur. Hark ! I hear horses. 
Ban. [Within.] Give us a light there, hoa ! 

2 Mur. Then 't is he ; the rest 
That are withm the note of expectation, 
Already are i' the court. 

1 Mur. His horses go about, 

3 Mur. Almost a mile; but he does usually. 
So all men do, from hence to the palace gate 
Make it their walk. 

Enter Banquo and Flkance with a torch. 

2 Mur. A light, a liglit ! 

3 Mm: 'T is he, 
1 Mtcr. Stand to 't. 

Ban. It will be rain to-niglit. 
1 Mur. Let it come down. 

\_Assaulls Bakquo. 
Ban. 0, treachery ! Ely, good Fleance, flv, 

fly, fly; 

Thou mayst revenge. — O slave ! 

[Dies. EiEANCE escapes. 

^ Seeling^-hYmdiins. The expression is taken from the 
practice of closing the eyelids of hawks. 

35 



Act HI.] 



MACBETH. 



ISCEKB IV 



Wlio did strike out the liRhtP 



3 .V«r. 

1 ,v„r. Was 't uot the wa.T P 
8 }[ur. Then- 's but cue down ; the sou is fled. 

2 Mur. We liave lost best half of our affair. 

1 Mur. Well, let's away, and say how much 
is done. [Rreuni. 

SCENE IV.— J Boom of Slate in the Palace. 
A Banquet prepared. 

Enter Macbetu, Lady Macbetu, Rosse, Lenox, 
Lords, and Attcuduuts. 
Macb. You know your own degrees, sit down : 
at first 
And last, the hearty vrelconic. 

Lord4. Thanks to your majesty. 

Macb. Ourself will mingle with society. 
And play the humble host. 
Our hostess keeps her state ; but, in best time. 
We will require her welcome. 

Lady M. Prouounce it for me, sir, to all our 
friends ; 
For my heart speaks, they are welcome. 

Enter first Murderer, to the door. 

Macb. See, they encounter thee -with their 
hearts' thanks : 
l^oth sides are even : llere I '11 sit i' the midst : 
Be large in mirth ; anon, we '11 drink a measure 
The table round. [Approaching the door.'] There's 
blood upon thy face. 
Mur. 'T is Banquo's then. 
Macb. 'T is better thee without, than he 
within. /- 

Is he dispatch'd? 

Mur. My lord, his throat is cut ; that 1 did 

for him. 
Macb. Thou art the best o' the cut-throats : 
Yet he 's good. 
That did the like for Fleance : if thou didst it. 
Thou art the nonpareil. 

Mur. Most royal sir, 

FlcaiKC is 'scap'd. 
Macb. Then comes my fit again: I had else 
been perfect ; 
Wliolc as the marble, founded as the rock : 
As broad and general as the casing air : 
But now, I am cabin'd, cribb'd, confin'd, bound 

in 
To saucy doubts and fears. Hut Banquo's safe P 
Mur. Ay, my good lord : safe in a ditch he 
bides. 
With twenty trenched gashes on his head ; 
The least a death to nature. 

Macb. Thanks for that : 

M 



There the grown serpent lies ; the worn, that 's 

fled, 
llath natuic that in time will venom breed, 
No teeth for the present.— Get thee gone; to- 
morrow 
We '11 hear, ourselves again. [E.rit Murderer. 

Lady M. My royal lord. 

You do not give the cheer ; the feast is sold 
That is uot often vouch 'd, while 't is a making, 
'T is given with welcome :* To feed, were best at 

home ; 
From thence, the sauce to meat is ceremony. 
Meeting were bare without it. 

Macb. Sweet remembrancer ! — 

Now, good digestion wait on appetite. 
And health on both ! 

Led. May it please your highness sit ? 

Enter the Ghost of Banquo, and sits in Mac- 
beth'* placc.^ 
Macb. Here had we now our country's honour 

roof'd, 
Were the grac'd person of our Banquo present ; 
"VVho may I rather challenge for unkindness 
Thau pity for mischance ! 

Jtosse. His absence, sir. 

Lays blame upon his promise. Please it your 

highness 
To grace us with your royal company ? 
Macb. The table 's fuU. 
Len. Here is a place reserv'd, sir. 
Macb. Where? 
Zen. Here, my good lord. What 

is 't that moves your highness ? 
Macb. Which of you have done this ? 
Lords. Wliat, my good lord P 

Macb. Thou canst not say I did it : never 
shake 
Thy gory locks at me. 

Rosse. Gentlemen, rise; Ws highness is not 

weU. 
Lady3f. Sit, worthy friends :— my lord is 
often thus, 
And hath been from liis youth: 'pray you, 

keep seat ; 
The fit is momentary ; upon a thought 
He will again be weU : If much you note him. 
You shall offend him, and extend his passior.; 
Feed, and regard him not.— Are you a mauP 
Macb. Ay, and a bold one, that dare look on 
that 
Which might appal the devil. 
LadyM. O proper stuff! 

» We understand, thai 'tis given with welcome. 



Act III.] 



MACBETH. 



[Scene IV. 



This is the very painting of your fear : 
This is the air-drawn dagger, which, you said, 
Led you to Duncan. 0, these flaws, and starts, 
(Impostors to true fear,) would well become 
A woman's story, at a winter's fire, 
Authoriz'd by her grandam. Shame itself ! 
Why do you make such faces ? When all 's done. 
You look but on a stool. 

Macb. Prithee, see there ! behold ! look ! lo ! 
how say you ? 
Why, what care I? If thou canst nod, speak 

too. — • 
K charnel-houses, and our graves, must send 
Those that we bury, back, our monuments 
Shall be the maws of kites. [Ghost dlmppears. 

Lady M. What ! quite unmann'd in foUy ? 

Macb. If I stand here, I saw him. 

Lady M. Fie, for shame ! 

Macb. Blood hath been shed ere now, i' the 
olden time. 
Ere human statute pui'g'd the gentle weal ; 
Ay, and since too, murthers have been perform'd 
Too terrible for the ear : the times have been, 
That when the brains were out the man would 

die, 
And there an end : but now, they rise again. 
With twenty mortal mui'thers on their crowns. 
And push us from oui* stools : This is more 

strange 
Than such a murther is. 

Lady M. My worthy lord. 

Your noble friends do lack you. 

Macb. I do forget : — 

Do not muse at me, my most worthy fi-iends ; 
I have a strange iafirmity, which is nothing 
To those that know me. Come, love and health 

to aU; 
Then I '11 sit down : — Give me some wine, fill 
full:- 

Re-enfer Ghost. 
I drink to the general joy of the whole table. 
And to our dear friend Banquo, whom we miss ; 
Would he were here ! to all, and him, we thu'st. 
And all to aU. 

Lords. Our duties, and the pledge, 

Macb. Avaunt ! and quit my sight ! Let the 
earth hide thee ! 
Thy bones are maiTowless, thy blood is cold ; 
Thou hast no speculation in those eyes 
Which thou dost glare with ! 

Lady 31. Think of this, good peers. 

But as a thing of custom : 't is no other ; 
Only it spoils the pleasure of the time. 

Macb. What man dare, I dare : 
Approach thou like the rugged Russian bear. 



The arm'd rhinoceros, or the Hyrcan tiger, 
Take any shape but that, and my firm nerves 
Shall never tremble : Or, be alive again. 
And dare me to the desert with thy sword ; 
If trembling I inhabit then," protest me 
The baby of a girl. Hence, horrible shadow ! 

\_Ghost disappears. 
Unreal mockery, herce! — Why, so; — being 

gone, 
I am a man again. — ^Pray you, sit still. 

Lady M. You have displac'd the mirth, broke 
the good meeting, 
With most admir'd disorder. 

Macb. Can such things be. 

And overcome us like a summer's cloud. 
Without our special wonder ? You make me 

straiige 
Even to the disposition that I owe. 
When now I think you can behold such sights. 
And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks. 
When mine are blanch' d with fear. 

Rosse. What sights, my lord ? 

Lady M. I pray you, speak not ; he grows 
worse and worse ; 
Question em-ages him : at once, good night : — 
Stand not upon the order of your going. 
But go at once. 

Len. Good night, and better health 

Attend his majesty ! 

Lady M. A kind good night to aU ! 

[Exeunt Lords and Attendants. 
Macb. It will have blood; they say, blood 
win have blood : 
Stones have been known to move, and trees to 

speak ; 
Augurs, aud understood relations, have 
By magot-pies, and choughs, and rooks, brought 

forth 
The secret' st man of blood. — What is the night? 
Lady M. Almost at odds with morning, which 

is which, 
Macb. How say'st thou, that Macduff denies 
his person. 
At our great bidding ? 

Lady M. Did you send to him, sir ? 

Macb. I hear it by the way ; but I will send : 
There 's not a one of them, but in his house 
I keep a servant fee'd. I wQl to-moiTOw 
(And betimes I wiU) to the weird sisters : 
More shall they speak ; for now I am bent to 
know, 

a Inhabit <//<?«.— This is the original reading, -vrhich has 
been changed into inhibit thee. Home Tooke was ttie first 
to denounce this alteration ; contending that the true mean- 
ing is, that if he were dared to the desert he would not skulk 
within his house. 

37 



Tz} 



ACT III.) 



MACBETH. 



[Scenes V., VI, 



Hy f)i> wofbt inean5, the worst: for mine o\ni 

gOOil, 

All cau5C5 shall give way ; I am in blood 
Stopp'd in so far, tliat, should I wade no 

moro, 
Rctuniing were as tedious as go o'er : 
Strange tliiniis I have in head, that will (o 

hand ; 
AMiich must \)c acted, ere they may be scann'd. 
Lady }f. You lack the season of all natures, 

sleep. 
Macb. Come, wo '11 to sleep : My strange and 

self-abuse 
Is tlie initiate fear, that wants hard use : — 
V!^c arc yet but young in deed. [Exeunt. 

SCENE \.—Tf,e Heath. Thunder. 

Enter Hecate, meeting the three "Witches, 

1 Witch. Why, how now, Hecate ? you look 
angcrly. 

Hec. Have I not reason, beldams as you are. 
Saucy, and over-bold ? How did you dare 
To trade and traffic with Macbeth, 
In riddles, and affairs of death ; 
And I, the mistress of your cliamis. 
The close contriver of all harms, 
Was never eall'd to bear my part. 
Or show the glory of our art ? 
And, which is worse, all you have done. 
Hath been but for a wayward son. 
Spiteful, and wrathful ; who, as others do. 
Loves for his own ends, not for you. 
But make amends now : Get you gone. 
And at the pit of Acheron 
Meet me i' the morning ; thither he 
Will come to know his destiny. 
Your vesseb, and your spells, provide. 
Your cliarms, and everything beside : 
I am for the air ; this night I '11 spend 
Unto a dismal and a fatal end.* 
Great business must be wrought ere noon : 
Upon the comer of the moon 
There hangs a vaporous drop, profound ; 
I '11 catch it ere it come to ground : 
And that, di-still'd by magic slights. 
Shall ri' \ artificial sprites. 

As, by 1 •^\\ of their illusion. 

Shall draw him on to his confusion : 
He slifill spurn fate, scorn death, and boar 
His hopes 'Ixjvc wisdom, grace, and fear : 



• So (be orijfin*!. ThU noble line, by which the mclri. 
to M beanUfttlfy T.rircl. bu been changc.l to- 

" Unto • (liim&l— fatal end." 

38 



And you all know, security 
Is mortal's cliiefest enemy. 

Song. [Within.'] 'Come away, come away,' &c. 

Hark, I am eall'd ; my little spirit, see. 
Sits in a foggy cloud, and stays for me. [E.rit. 
1 Witch. Come, let 's make haste : she '11 soon 
be back again. [Exeunt. 

SCENE VI.— Eorres. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter Lenox, and another Lord. 

Len. My former speeclies have but hit your 
thoughts, 
Wtich can intepret farther : only, I say. 
Things have been strangely borne : The graciou'' 

Duncan 
Waa pitied of Macbetli : — marry, he was dead : — 
And the right-valiant Banquo walked too late j 
"Whom, you may say, if 't please you, Fleance 

kill'd. 
For Eleance fled. Meu must not walk too late. 
Who cannot want the thought how monstrous 
It was for Malcolm, and for Donalbain, 
To kill their gracious father ? damned fact ! 
How it did grieve Macbeth ! did he not straight, 
lu pious rage, the two delinquents tear, 
That were the slaves of di-ink, and thralls of 

sleep : 
Was not that nobly done ? Ay, and wisely too ; 
For 't would have anger'd any heart alive 
To hear the meu deny it. So that, I say, 
He has borne all things weU : and I do think. 
That, had he Duncan's sons under his key, 
(As, an 't please heaven, he shall not,) they 

should find 
What 'i were to kill a father ; so should Fleance, 
But, peace ! — for from broad words, and 'cause 

he fail'd 
Hjs presence at the tyrant's feast, I hear, 
Macduff lives in disgrace : Sir, can you teU 
Wliere he bestows himself? 

Lord. The son of Duncan, 

From whom this tyrant holds the due of bii-th. 
Lives in the English coui't ; and is received 
Of the most pious Edward with such gi-a<Je, 
That the malevolence of fortune nothing 
Takes from his high respect : Thither Macduff 
Is gone to pray the holy king, upon his aid 
To wake Northumberland, and warlike Siward : 
That, by the help of these, (with Him above 
To ratify the work,) we may again 
Give to our tables meat, sleep to our nights ; 
Free from our feasts and banquets bloody knives ; 
Do faithful homage, and receive free honours ;— 



Act III.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCESS M 



All wliich we pine for now : And this report 
Hatli so exasperate the king, that he 
Preparea for some attempt of vrar. 

ten. Sent he to Macduff? 

Lord. He did : and vrith an absolute, ' Sir, 
not I,' 
The cloudy messenger turns me his back. 
And hums; as who should say, 'You'll rue the time 
That clogs me witli this answer.' 



Len. And that well might 

Advise nim to a caution, to hold what distance 
His wisdom can provide. Some holy angel 
Fly to the court of England, and unfold 
His message ere he come ; that a swift blessbg 
May soon return to this our suffering country 
Under a hand accurs'd ! 

Lord. I 'II send my prayers with him ! 

\Exeunt. 




[Forres— Eminence at the Wes'.ern Extremity.] 



I 



ILLUSTllATIONS OF ACT TIL 



' ScEXB IV. — " Enter the Ghost of Banquo and »its 
in Machtth's place." 

This is the Ftnge direction of the original ; and no- 
thing can bo nioro precise. It presents the strongest 
evidenco that, in the roprcsontation of this tragedy 
within 8ixt<>en years of its original production, and 
only seven years after the death of its author, the 
ghost of Banquo Wiis exhibited to the audience.* 
It has been uiaint-aiued, however, and the opinion 
was acted upon by John Kemble, that the ghost of 
Banquo ought not to be visible to the audience ; 
&nd that, as it was visible only to Macbeth of all the 
company assembled at the solemn supper, it can 
only be regarded as 

" A false creation 
Proceeding (Vom the heat-oppressed brain," 

like the dagger which he saw previous to the murder 
of Duncan. This opinion is, of course, supported 
by the argument that the visible introduction of the 
ghost is to be ascribed to an injudicious stage di- 
rection of the players, and was not intended by the 
poet. Tieek, in his translation of this tragedy, re- 
ceives, though unwillingly, the stage direction; and 
he explains that the banquet takes place on the 
eecondary stage (see Othello, Illustration of Act v.), 
and that the ghost enters from behind the curtain 
of that stage. I'here cannot, we think, be any he- 
sitation about the acceptance of the stage direction 
as evidence how the play was acted by Shakspere's 
"fellows;" and this is the best evidence we can 
have of Shakspere's own conception of the thing. 
But there is another point, to which our attention 
has been drawn by the communication of a gentle- 
man personally unknown to us, which cannot be 
dismissed with such certainty. This gentleman 
states that, having recently attended a meeting of 
a Society for Literary Discussion, one, who called 
himself an actor, " among other dramatic criticLsms 
boldly propounded the following, somewhat to the 
astonishment of the audience, viz. that the first 
apparition which Macbeth beholds in the celebrated 
banquet scone is that of Duncan — the second only 
that of Banquo." Our correspondent favours us 
with some of the ar^raents by which this proposi- 
tion was si: - "'•••rary meeting; and ho 
adds somi' ii appear to us equally 
ingenioua. But wo arc met on the threshold of the 
arguni' • ' •' .'[jal stage direction. Wc 
ahou, 1 i Kemble, and CiipcU LofTt, 
and Tiock, to rojoct any visible ghost adlogethcr, but 

* Forman'a account conflnni thl*. (See Introductory 
Nonce.) 

40 



for this stage direction; and it equally compels us 
to admit in this place the ghost of Banquo. Is there 
anything, then, in the text inconsistent with the 
stage direction ? When Macbeth has hypocritically 
said, in his consciousness of the murder, — 
" Were thegrac'd person of our Banquo present," 

it is a piece of consummate art that he should see 
the table full, and his own chair occupied by the 
vision of him whose presence he has just affected 
to desire. His first exclamation is 

" Thou canst not say / did it." 

The hired murderers had done it, — the common 
evasion of one perpetrating a crime through the 
instrumentality of another. If it be Duncans ghost 
we must read, 

" Thou canst not say I did it." 

But we have afterwards the expression, — 

" If clianiel-houses, and our graves, must send 
Those that we bury, back, our monuments 
Sliall be the maws of kites." 

This must apply, it is said, to Duncan : — " Dun- 
can is iu his grave." Of Banquo, Macbeth has 
just heard, "safe in a ditch he bides." But the 
same species of argument is equally strong against 
the proposed change. If the second ghost is to be 
the ghost of Banquo, how can it be said of him, — 
"Thy bonea are marrmcless" ? There can be no 
doubt that these terms, throughout the scene, must 
be received as general expressions of the condition 
of death as opposed to that of life ; and have no 
more dii-ect reference to Duncan than to Banquo. 
There is a coincidence of passages pointed out by 
our correspondent which strongly makes, as ad- 
mitted by him, against the opinion which he com- 
municates to us. The murderer has said, — 

" Safe in a ditch he bides, 
With twenty trenched gashes on his head; 
The least a death to nature." 

The idea seized upon Macbeth's mind ; and it 
embodied itself iu this echo : — 

" The times have been, 
That when the brains were out the man would die, 
And there an end : but now, they rise again, 
With tweniy mortal murlheri on Iheir crowns, 
And p\ish us from our stools: This is more strange 
Than such a murther is." 

We have no doubt of the correctness of the original 
t-'age direction. 

But there is no direction in the original copy for 
the disappearance of the ghost before Macbeth ex- 
claims " If I stand here I saw him." The diiec- 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT IIL 



tion Wiiich we find is modem ; but tlie ghost is 
unquestionably gone, as far as Macbeth is con- 
scious of its presence. Macbeth recovers his self- 
possession. After " Give me some wine, fill full," 
we have in the original the stage direction, 

Enter Ghost. 
Now, then, arises the question. Is this the ghost of 
Banquo ? To make the ghost of Banquo return a 
second time at the moment when Macbeth wishes 
for the presence of Banquo is not in the highest 
style of art. The stage direction does not prevent 
us arguing that here it maybe the ghost of Duncan. 
The terror of Macbeth is now more intense than on 
the first appearance ; it becomes desperate and de- 
fying. In the presence of the ghost of Banquo, 
when he is asked, " Are you a man," he repUes, — 

" Ay, and a 1)01(1 one, that dare look on that 
%Vhich might appal the devil." 



Upon the second apparition it is, "Avaunf and 
quit my sight,' —" Take any shape but that"— 
" Hence, horrible shadow ! " Are not these words 
■applied to some object of greater terror than 
the former? Have there not been two spectral 
appearances, as implied in the expressions 



" Can such thint/s be I " 



and 



" You make me strange 
Even to the disposition that I owe, 
When now I think you can behold such sights "f 

"We of course placelittle confidence in this opinion, 
though we confess to a strong inclination towards it. 
At aoiy rate we have discharged a duty which we 
owed to our kind con-espondent, in examining the 
question somewhat fully. 



HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



The murder of Banquo is thus told by Holin- 
shed : — 

" These and the like commendable laws Macbeth 
caused to be put as then in use, governing the realm 
for the space of ten years in equal justice. But 
this was but a counterfeit zeal of equity showed by 
him, partly against his natural inclination, to pur- 
chase thereby the favour of the people. Shortly 
after, he began to show what he was, — instead of 
equity, practising cruelty : for the prick of con- 
science (as it chanceth ever in tyrants, and such as 
attain to any estate by unrighteous means) caused 
him ever to fear lest he should be served of the 
same cup as he had ministered to his predeces- 
sor. The words also of the thi-ee wekd sisters would 
not out of his mind, which, as they promised him 
the kingdom, so likewise did they promise it at the 
same time unto the posterity of Banquo. He wUled 
therefore the same Banquo, with his son, named 
Fieance, to come to a supper that he had prepared 



for them, which was indeed, as he had devised, pre- 
sent death at the hands of certain murderers whom 
he hired to execute that deed, appointing them to 
meet with the same Banquo and his son without 
the palace as they returned to their lodgings, and 
there to slay them, so that he would not have his 
house slandered, but that in time to come he might 
clear himself if anything were laid to his charge 
upon any siispicion that might arise. 

" It chanced yet by the benefit of the dark night 
that, though the father were slain, the son, yet by 
the help of Almighty God, reserving him to better 
fortune, escaped that danger; and afterwards having 
some inkling (by the admonition of some friends 
which he had in the court) how his life was sought 
no less than his father's, who was slain not by chance- 
medley (as by the handling of the matter Macbeth 
would have had it to appear), but even upon a 
devise ; whereupon, to avoid further peril, he fled 
into Wales." 



41 



--* 




{Tlie Harmuii.] 



<3 



ACT IV. 



SCENE I. — A dark Cave. In the middle, a 
Caldron boiling. Thunder. 



Enter the three Witches. 



IS 



1 Witch. Thnce the brinded cat hath raew'd. 

2 Witch. Thrice; and once the hedge-pig 

whin'd. 

3 Witch. Hai^jier cries : — 'T is time, 't 

time. 
L Witch. Round about the caldron go ; 

In the poison' d entrails throw. 

Toad, that under cold" stone, 

Days and nights hast thirty-one 

Swelter' d venom sleeping got, 

BoU thou first i' the channed pot ! 
All. Double, double, toil and trouble ; 

Fire bum, and caldron bubble. 
2 Witch. Fillet of a fcimy snake. 

In the caldron boil and bake : 

Eye of newt, and toe of frog. 

Wool of bat, and tongue of dog. 



» This Is the reading of the original — cold. The line is 
certainly defective in rhythm, for a pause hero cannot take 
the place of a syllable, unless we pronounce cold — co-old. 
There is no natural retardation. We do not, however, alter 
the text. The emendation of Stecvens is 

"Toad, that under coldett stone.' 

Rowe has, 

" Toad, that under the cold stone." 
42 



Adder's fork, and blind-wonn's stinr;, 

Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing. 

For a chanu of powerful trouble ; 

Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. 
All. Double, double, toil aud trouble ; 

Fire burn, aud caldron bubble. 
3 Witch. Scale of dragon, tooth of wolf; 

Witches' mummy, maw and gulf 

Of the raviu'd salt-sea shark ; 

Hoot of hemlock digg'd i' the dark ; 

Liver of blaspheming Jew ; 

Gall of goat, and shps of yew, 

Sliver'd in the moon's eclipse ; 

Nose of Turk, and Tartai-'s lips ; 

Finger of birth-strangled babe, 

Diteh-deliver'd by a ch-ab. 

Make the gruel thick and slab ; 

Add thereto a tiger's chaudron,'' 

For the ingredients of our caldron. 
All. Double, double, toil and trouble ; 

Fire burn, and caldron bubble. 
2 Witch. Cool it with a baboon's blood, 

Then the charm is firm and good. 

Enter liECATE. 

Ilee. 0, well done ! I commend your pains ; 
And every one shall share i' the gams, 

« CAai/rfroB^ntrails. 






Act IV.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEHE I 



Ajid now about the caldi-on sing, 
Like elves and fairies in a ring, 
Enchanting all that you put in. 

[Music and a Song, 'Black spirits/ Sfc?-'^ 
2 Witch. By the pricking of my thumbs, 
Something wicked this way comes : — 
Open, locks, whoever knocks. 

Enter !Macbeth. 

Macb. How now, you secret, black, and mid- 
night hags. 
What is 't you do ? 
All. A deed without a name. 

Macb. I conjure you, by that which you pro- 
fess, 
(Howe'er you come to know it,) answer me : 
Though you untie the winds, and let them fight 
Against the chui'ches : though the yesty waves 
Confound and swallow navigation up ; 
Though bladed com be lodg'd, and trees blown 

down; 
Though castles topple on their warders' heads 7" 
Though palaces, and pyramids, do slope 
Their heads to their foundations; though the 

treasure 
Of nature's germins^ tumble aU together. 
Even till destruction sicken, answer me 
To what I ask you. 

1 Witch. Speak, 

2 Witch. Demand. 

3 Witch. We 'U answer. 
1 Witch. Say, if thou 'dst rather hear it from 

our mouths. 
Or from our masters' ? 
Macb. CaU them, let me see them, 

1 Witch. Pour in sow's blood, that hath eaten 
Her nine farrow ; grease, that 's sweaten 
From the murderer's gibbet, throw 
Into the flame. ~ 

All. Come, high, or low ; 

Thyself, and office, deftly show. 

Thunder. An Apparition of an. armed Head 
rises. 

Macb. Tell me, thou unknown power, — 



ft This is the original stage-direction. The variorum editors 
Inserted four lines of a song, which thev found in Middle 
ton's ' Witch,' but without anyauthority for their introduc- 
tion here, beyond the stage-durection. In the Witch scene of 
Act lit. we have mention of a song, " Come away.'' These 
words are also in Middleton. If the song of the fourth act 
should be inserted in the text, why not that of the third act t 
See Illustration. 

b Gerrains— the original is germaine, which Tieck would 
retain. Germins are seeds; germaine, kindred, something 
closely related to another. We cannot see whence he derives 
his opinion that "natures germaine " means the sun and 
moon. 



bewaif 



me: — 



1 Witch. He knows thy thought ; 

Hear his speech, but say thou nought. 
App. Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! 
Macduff; 
Beware the thane of Fife.— Dismiss 

Enough. [Descends. 

Macb. Whate'er thou art, for thy good caution, 
thanks ; 
Thou hast harp'd my fear aright : — But ouc word 
more : — 
1 Witch. He will not be commanded: Here's 
another. 
More potent than the first. 

Thunder. An Apparition of a bloody Child 
rises. 

App. Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth!— 

Macb. Had I three ears, I 'd hear thee. 

App. Be bloody, bold, and resolute ; laugh to 
scorn 
The power of man, for none of woman bom 
Shall harm Macbeth.^ [Descends. 

Macb. Then live, Macduff : What need I fear 
of thee ? 
But yet I 'U make assurance double sure, 
And take a bond of fate : thou shalt not live ; 
That I may tell, pale-hearted fear it Hes, 
And sleep in spite of thunder. — What is this. 

Thunder. An Apparition of a Child crowned., 
with a Tree in his Hand, rises. 

That rises like the issue of a king ; 
And wears upon his baby brow the round 
And top of sovereignty ? 

All. Listen, but speak not to 't. 

App. Be Uon-mettled, proud ; and take no 
care 
Who chafes, who frets, or where conspii-ers are : 
Macbeth shall never vanquish'd be, until 
Great Bimam wood to high Dunsinane hill 
Shall come against him. [Descends. 

Macb. That wiU never be ; 

Who can impress the forest ; bid the tree 
Unfix his earth-bound root ? sweet bodements ! 

good! 
BebeUious head,'' rise never, till the wood 
Of Bimam i-isc, and our high-plac'd Macbeth 
Shall live the lease of nature, pay his breath 

a In the desire to make their own metrical arrangement, 
the variorum editors shut their eyes to the fact that we 
have here a rhyming couplet. They write, 

" Be bloody, bold, 
And resolute; laugh to scorn the power of man, 
For none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." 
b Head. — The old copy has rf^arf. The correction of Artirf, 
which is evidently required, was made by Theobald. Han- 
mer reads Rebellion's head. 

43 



Act IV.] 



MACRKTII. 



[SrBNS II. 



To time, and mortal custom. — Yet my heart 
Throbs to know one tliinp : Tell me, (if your art 
Can tell so much,) sliall IJanquo's issue ever 
llcign in this kingdom? 

AIL Seek to know no more. 

Macb. I will be satisfied : deny me this, 
And an elernal curse full on you! Let iiu; 

know : — 
Wliy sinks that caldron? and what noise" is 
this? [Uauthop. 

I Witch. Show ! 2 IVitch. Show ! 3 Witch. 

Sliow ! 
All. Show his eyes, and grieve his heart; 
Come like shadows, so depart. 

Eight Kings appear, and pass over (he Stage in 
order; the last trith a Gla.ss in his hand; 
^Aiiq,vo/ultoioing. 

Macb. Thou art too like the spirit of Banquo ; 

down ! 
Tliy crown does sear mine eyeballs : — And thy 

hair,'' 
Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first : — 
A third is like the former : — Filthy hags ! 
Why do you show me this? — A fonrlli ? — Start, 

eyes I 
■\Vliat ! will the line stretch out to the crack of 

doom ? 
Another yet ?— A seventh ? — I '11 see no more : — 
And yet the eighth appears, who bears a glass 
Which shows mc many more ; and some I see, 
Tliat two-fold balls and treble sceptres carry : 
Horrible sight ! — Now, I see, 't is true ; 
For the blood-bolter'd'' Banquo smiles \q)on lue, 
And points at them for his. — What, is tliis so ? 

1 Witch. Ay, sir, all this is so : — But why 
Stands Macbeth thus amazedly? 
Come, sisters, eheer wc \ip his sprites. 
And show the best of our delights ; 
I '11 charui the air to give a sound. 
While you perform your antique round : 
That this great king may kindly say, 
Our duties did his welcome pay. 

\_Music. The AVitchcs dance, and vanish. 
Maclj. Where are they? Gone?— Let this 

pernicious hour 
Stand aye accursed in the calendar ! — 
Come in, without there ! 

• Aroi».\— This is tlic mutic of llic hnutboys, tho word 
niiitr bcinu synoiiyiiiouii wllli tlie sound of instrimiciits. It 
Wns io little uii<l<T»l(iO(l, even by John Kemblo, that under 
his mnnngcmcnt tiihrick w.i« liere heard. 

t> //fl/r.— This U the orljiinnl word, which Wnrburtoii 
:hBnf(cd to air. Monck Mason neiilely defemU the old 
reading: "It implies that their hair was ol the ituiuc colour. 
»hieh is nioru likely to mark a rauiily likeness than thu uir, 
which depemls on habit." 

Blooii-bolter'd. Jlotter'd is n word of the midland coun- 
ties, nieaninu bCRrlmed, besmeared. 

44 



Fnter Lenox, 

/>w. Wliat 's your grace's will F 

Macb. Saw you the weird sisters ? 

//<?». No, my lord. 

Macb. Came they noi by you ? 

Jyffn. No, indeed, my lord. 

flfacb. Infected bo the air whereon they ride ; 
And damn'd all those that trust them ! — I did 

hear 
The gallo])ing of horse : Wlio was 't came by P 

Z(V/. 'T is two or three, my lord, that bring 
you word, 
MncdiilT is tied to lOngland. 

Macb. Fled to England ? 

Len. Ay, my good lord. 

Macb. Time, thou aiiti('ij)at'st my dread ex- 
ploits : 
The flighty purpose never is o'ertook. 
Unless the deed go with it : From this moment. 
The very firstlings of my heart shall be 
The firstlings of my hand. And even now, 
To crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought 

and done : 
The castle of Maeduff I will surprise; 
Seize upon Fife ; give to the edge o' the sword 
His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls 
That trace liiin in" his line. No boasting like a 

fool ; 
This deed I '11 do before this purpose cool : 
But no more sights ! — Where arc these gentle- 
men? 
Come, bring mc where they are. [Exeunt. 

SCENE II.— Fife. A Room in Macduff's 
Castle. 

Enter Lady Macduff, her Son, and Rosse, 

Ladi/ Macd. What had he done to make liim 
fly the land ? 

Rosse. You must have patience, madam. 

J J. Macd. He had none: 

His flight was madness : Wiien o>ir actions do 

not. 
Our fears do make us traitors. 

Rosse. You know not 

Wliether it WJis his wisdom, or his fear. 

//. Macd. Wisdom ! to leave his wife, to leave 
his babes, 
Hi.s mansion, and his titles, in a place 
From whence himself does fly ? He loves us not ; 
He wants tlie natural touch : for tiie poor wren, 
The most diminutive of birds, will fight, 
Her young ones in her nest, against tho owl. 

• Stcoveni omits him in. 



Act IV.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEMS III. 



All is the fear, and notliing is the love ; 
As little is the wisdom, where the flight 
So runs against all reason. 

Rosse. My dearest coz, 

I pray you, school yourself: But, for your hus- 
band, 
He is noble, wise, judieious, and best knows 
The fits o' the season. I dare not speak much 

f ui-ther : 
But cruel are the times, when we are traitors, 
And do not know ourselves; wlien we hold 

rumour 
From what we fear ; yet know not what we fear ; 
But float upon a wild and violent set'.. 
Each way, and move. — I take my leave of 

you: 
Shall not be long but I '11 be here again : 
Things at the worst will cease, or else cUmb 

upward 
To what they were before. — My pretty cousin, 
Blessing upon you ! 

L. Macd. Tather'd he is, and yet he 's father- 
less. 
Rosse. I am so much a fool, should I stay 
longer. 
It would be my disgrace, and your discomfort : 
I take my leave at once. \ExU Rosse. 

L. Macd. Sirrah, your father 's dead ; 
And what will you do now ? How will you live ? 
Son. As birds do, motlier. 
L. Macd. What, with worms and flies ? 

Son. With what I get, I mean; and so do 

they. 
Z. Macd. Poor bird ! thou 'dst never fear the 
net, nor lime. 
The pit-fall, nor the gin. 

Son. Why should I, mother ? Poor birrls they 
arc not set for. 
My father is not dead, for all your saying. 
L. Macd. Yes, he is dead ; liow wilt thou do 

for a father? 
Son. Nay, how will you do for a husband ? 
L. Macd. Wliy, I can buy me twenty at any 

market. 
Son. Then you '11 buy 'em to sell again. 
L. Macd. Thou speak'st with all thy wit ; aud 
yet, i' faith. 
With wit enough for thee. 

Son. Was my fatlier a traitor, mother ? 
L. Macd. Ay, that he was. 
Son. What is a traitor? 
I. Macd. Wliy, one that swears and lies. 
Son. And be all traitors that do so ? 
L. Macd. Every one that does so is a traitor, 
and must be hanged. 



Son. And must they all be hanged that swear 
and lie ? 

L. Macd. Every one. 

Son. Who must hang them ? 

Jj. Macd. Why, the honest men. 

Son. Then the liars and swearers are fools: 
for there are liars and swearers enow to beat 
the honest men, and liang up ihcm. 

L. Macd. Now God help thee, poor monkey ' 
But how wilt thou do for a father ? 

Son. If he were dead, you 'd weep for liim : 
if you would not, it were a good sign that I 
should quickly have a new father. 

L. Macd. Poor prattler ! how thou talkest. 
Unter a Messenger. 

Mess. Bless you, fair dame ! I am not to you 
known. 
Though in your state of honour I am perfect. 
I doubt, some danger does approach you nearly : 
If you win take a homely man's advice. 
Be not found here ; hence, with your little ones. 
To fright you thus, metliinks, I am too savage ; 
To do worse to you were fell cruelty. 
Which b too nigh your persoiu Heaven pre- 
serve you ! 
I dare abide no longer. SJlxit Messenger. 

L. Macd. Wliither should I fly ? 

I have done no harm. But x remember now 
I am in this earthly world ; where, to do harm. 
Is often laudable ; to do good, sometime. 
Accounted dangerous folly : Why, then, alas ! . 
Do I put up that womanly defence. 
To say, I have done no harm ? What are these 
faces? 

Unter Murderers. 

Mur. Where is your husband ? 

L. Macd. I hope, in no place so unsanctified, 
"NA^icre such as thou mayst find him. 

j/^;._ He 's a traitor 

Son. Thou liest, thou shag-ear'd' villain. 

Mur. What, you egg ! {Stabbing him. 

Young fry of treachery ! 

Son. He has kill'd me, mother : 

Bun away, I pray you. [Dus.^ 

[Exit Lady Macduff, crying 'Murder,' 
and pursued by the Murderers. 

SCENE III.— England. A Room in the King'* 
Palace. 
Enter Maxcolm and Macduff. 
Mai. Let us seek out some desolate shade, 
and there 
Weep our sad bosoms empty. 

. 5/<a<7-<:«r'<l.-Thi8 should be probably Maj^-Aafr*./, a form 
of abuse found in old plays, and even in Uw rcporU. 

45 



Act IV.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCENB III. 



Macd. Let us ruther, 

Hold fast the mortal sword ; aud, like good men, 
Bestride our do\m-fall'u birtlidom: Each new 

morn. 
New widows howl ; new orphans cry ; new sor- 
rows 
Strike heaven on the face, that it resounds 
As if it felt \\\i\\ Seotlaud, and yell'd out 
Like syllable of dolour. 

Mai. "Wliat I believe I '11 wail ; 

Wliat know, believe ; and, what I ean redress. 
As I shall find the time to friend, I will. 
Wliat you have spoke, it may be so, perchance. 
This tyrant, whose sole name bUstcrs our tongues, 
Was once thought honest; you have lov'd him 

well; 
He liath not touch'd you yet. I am young, but 

something 
You may deserve' of hini through me ; and wisdom 
To offer up a weak, poor, imioccnt lamb, 
To appease an angry God. 
Macd. I am not treacherous. 
Mai. But Macbeth is. 

A good and virtuous nature may recoil, 
Li an imperial charge. But I shall'' crave your 

pardon ; 
That wliich you are my thoughts cannot trans- 
pose: 
Angels arc briglit still, though the brightest fell : 
Though all things foul would wear the brows of 

grace. 
Yet grace must still look so. 

Macd. I have lost my hopes. 

Mai. Perchance, even there, where I did find 
my doubts. 
Why in that rawness left you wife and child, 
(Those precious motives, those strong knots of 

love,) 
Without leave-taking ? — I pray you, 
Let not my jealousies be your dishonours, 
But mine own safeties: — You may be rightly 

just, 
^\^latcver 1 shall think. 

Mard. Bleed, bleed, poor country ! 

Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure, 
For goodness dare not cheek thee ! wear thou 

thy wrongs, 
The title is affeer'd.'' — Fare thee well, lord : 



■ Deterre. — The original reads diMcernc. 

b I ihall. — Stcevcns omits these words, for the old reason. 

t The cripinal reads, Ihe Title is itffvar d. A r"odem 

readiiiK i^ "'!/ TilU is ajfeer'd. We li.ive first to consider 

how Shakspcrcuscs tlic word title. In asubsc(|ucnt passage 

of this play, An(;u3, speaking of Macbeth, says, 

" Now does he feci his title 
Hang loose about liim, like a giant's robe 
Upon a dwarfish thief." 
In each of these passages title it printed with a capitnl T. 



46 



I would not be the villain that thou think'st 
For the whole sj)ace that 's in the tyrant's grasp. 
And the rich East to boot. 

Mul. Be not offended ; 

I speak not as in absolute fear of you. 
I think, our country sinks beneath the joke ; 
It wc(^)s, it bleeds : and each new day a gash 
Is added to her wounds : I thiuk, withal. 
There would be hands uplifted in my right ; 
And here, from gracious England, have I offer 
Of goodly tiiousands : But, for all tliis, 
When I shall tread upon the tyrant's head, 
Or wear it on my sword, yet, my poor country 
Shall have more vices than it had before ; 
More suffer, and more sundry ways than ever, 
By him that shall succeed. 

Macd. What should he be ? 

Mai. It is myself I mean : in whom I know 
iUl the particulars of vice so grafted, 
That, when they shall be opcn'd, black Macbeth 
WiU seem as pure as suow ; and the poor state 
Esteem him as a lamb, being compared 
With my confhielcss harms. 

Macd. Not in the legions 

Of horrid hell, can come a devil more damn'd 
In evils, to top Macbeth. 

Mai. I grant him bloody, 

Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful, 
Sudden, maUcious, smacking of every sin 
That has a name : But there 's no bottom, none. 
In my voluptuousness : your wives, your daugh- 
ters. 
Your matrons, and your maids, could not fill up 
The cistern of my lust ; and my desire 
All continent impediments would o'erbear, 
Tliat did oppose my will : Better Macbeth, 
Than such a one to reign. 

Macd. Bomidless intemperance 

In nature is a tyranny ; it hath been 
The \intimcly emptying of the happy tlu-ouc, 
And fall of many Idugs. But fear not yet 
To take upon you what is yours : you may 
Convey your pleasiu-es in a spacious plenty. 
And yet seem cold, the time you may so hood- 
wink. 
Wo have willing dames enough; there can- 
not be 
That vulture in you, to devour so many 



Does Macduff then mean to say, liurt and indignant at the 
doubts of Malcolm, the title (personifying the regal title) 
hafear'd — frighted ; — and therefore, "poor country," " wear 
thou thy wrongs:" or, continuing to apostrophise " great 
tyranny," " wear thou thy wrongs "— enjoy thy usurpation ; 
UTongs being lierc opposed to rights: the title is affi'cr'd 
— confinned — admitted — as atfeerors decide upon a claim, 
ond terminate a dispute? We hold to the latter inlerpreta- 
tiun. 



A CT IV.] 



MACBETH. 



[Scemj: [II. 



As will to greatness dedicate themselves, 
Finding it so inclin'd. 

Mai. With this there gi-ows, 

In my most iU-compos'd affection, such 
A stanchless avarice, that, were I king, 
I should cut off the nobles for their lands ; 
Desire his jewels, and this other's house : 
And my more-having would be as a sauce 
To make me hunger more ; that I should forge 
Quarrels unjust against the good, and loyal. 
Destroying them for wealth. 

Ilaccl. This avarice 

Sticks deeper ; grows with more pernicious root 
Than summer-seeming lust ; and it hath been 
The sword of our slain kings : Yet do not fear ; 
Scotland hath foysons " to fill up your will 
Of your mere own : All these are portable,'' 
With other graces weigh'd. 

Mai. But I have none : The king-becoming 
graces. 
As justice, verity, temperance, stableness. 
Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness. 
Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude, 
I have no relish of them ; but abound 
In the division of each several crime. 
Acting it many ways. Nay, had I power, I 

should 
Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell. 
Uproar the universal peace, confound 
All unity on earth. 

Macd. Scotland ! Scotland ! 

Mai. If such a one be fit to govern, speak : 
1 am as I have spoken. 

Macd. Fit to govern ! 

No, not to live. — nation miserable. 
With an untitled tyrant bloody-sceptre' d. 
When shalt thou see thy wholesome days again? 
Since that the truest issue of thy throne 
By his own interdiction stands accurs'd. 
And does blaspheme his breed?— Thy royal 

father 
Was a most sainted king : the queen, that bor« 

thee, 
Oft'ner upon her knees than on her feet. 
Died every day she lived. Fare thee well ! 
These evils thou repeat' st upon thyself 
Have banish' a me from Scotland,— 0, my breast. 
Thy hope ends here ! 

Mai. Macduff, this noble passion. 

Child of integrity, hath from my soul 
Wip'd the black "^scruples, reconcil'dmy thoughts 
To thy good truth and honour. Devilish Macbeth 

» Foi/sons— abundant provision. 

b Portable.— The -svord is used in tlie same sense in Lear : 
"How light and portable my pain seems now." 



By many of these trains hath sought to ynn mc 
Into his power ; and modest ^visdom plucks me 
From over-credulous haste : But God above 
Deal between thee and me ! for even now 
I put myself to thy direction, and 
Unspeak mine own detraction; here abjure 
The taints and blames I laid upon myself. 
For strangers to my nature. I am yet 
Unknown to woman ; never was forsworn ; 
Scarcely have coveted what was mine own ; 
At no time broke my faith ; would not betray 
The devil to his fellow ; and delight 
No less iu truth, than life : my first false speaking 
Was this upon myself : What I am truly. 
Is thine, and my poor country's, to command : 
"Whither, indeed, before thy here-approach. 
Old Siward, with ten thousand warlike men, 
Already at a point,* was setting forth : 
Now we '11 together : And the chance, of good- 
ness. 
Be like our warranted quarrel ! AYhy are you 
silent ? 
3Iacd. Such welcome and unwelcome things 
at once, 
'T is hard to reconcile. 

Enter a Doctor. 

Mai. Well; more anon. — Comes the king 

forth, I pray you ? 
Dod. Ay, sir : there are a crew of wretched 
souls 
That stay his cure : their makdy convinces 
The great assay of art ; but, at his touch. 
Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand. 
They presently amend. 

Mai, I thank you, doctor. 

[fo(V Doctor. 
" Macd. What 's the disease he means ? 

Mai. 'T is called the evil ; 

A most miraculous work in this good king : 
Which often, since my here-remain in England, 
I have seen him do. How he soUcits heaven. 
Himself best knows : but strangely-visited people, 
All swoln and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye, 
The mere despair of surgery, he cures ; 
Hanging a golden stamp about their necks,^ 
Put on with holy prayers : and 't is spoken, 
To the succeeding royalty he leaves 
The healing benediction. With this strange 
virtue, 

a So the original. Some read "all ready," and it is held 
that "at a point" means fully equipped, as in Hamlet, 
"armed at point." This we know is point-device; nut we 
have no example of the use of the word with the ar"clf- 
Is it not that the " ten thousand warlike men " were alre-idy 
assembled "at a point?"— at a particular spot where tUey 
had collected— a point of space. 

47 



Act IV.J 



MACBETH. 



[Scene IIL 



lie halli a hcavenlj gift of prophecy; 

And sundry blessmgs hang about Jiis throne, 

That speak him full of grace. 

Enter E.OSSE. 

Mavd. See, who comes here ? 

Mai. My countryman; but yet I know him 

not. 

Macd. My ever-gentle cousin, welcome hither. 

Mai. I know him now: Grood God, betimes 

remove 

The means that make us strangers ! 

Rosse. Sir, Amen. 

Macd. Stands Scotland where it did ? 

Rosse. Alas, poor country ; 

Almost afraid to know itself ! It cannot 

Be caU'd our mother, but our grave: where 

nothing, 

But who knows nothing, is once seen to smile ; 

Where sighs, and groans, and shrieks that rend 

the air, 

Aie made, not mark'd; where violent sorrow 

seems 

A modem ecstasy ; the dead man's kneU 

Is there scarce ask'd, for who ; and good men's 

lives 

Expire before the flowers in their caps. 

Dying, or ere they sicken. 

Macd. 0, relation, 

Too nice, and yet too true ! 

Mai. What 's the newest giief ? 

Bosse. That of an hour's age doth hiss the 

speaker ; 

Each minute teems a new one, 

Macd, How does my wife ? 

Rosse. Why, well. 

Macd. And all my children ? 

Rosse. Well too. 

Macd. The tyrant has not batter'd at their 

peace ? 

Tiosse. No ; they were well at peace, when I 

did leave them. 

Macd. Be not a niggard of your speech : How 

goes it? 

Rosse. When I came hither to transport the 

tidings, 

Wliich I have heavily borne, there ran a rumour 

Of many worthy fellows that were out ; 

"Which was to my belief mtncss'd the rather, 

For that I saw the tyrant's power a-foot : 

Now is the time of help ; your eye in Scotknd 

Would create soldiers, make our women fight 

To doff their dire distresses. 

Mai. Be 't their comfort. 

We are coming thither : gracious England hath 
48 



Lent us good Si ward, and ten thousand men; 
An older, and a better soldier, none 
That Christendom gives out. 

Rosse. 'Would I could answer 

This comfort with the like f But I have words 
That would be howl'd out in the desert air, 
^Yherc hearing should not latch them.' 

Macd. What concern they ? 

The general cause ? or is it a fee-grief. 
Due to some single breast? 

Rosse. No mmd that 's honest 

But in it shares some woe; though the main 

part 
Pertains to vou alone. 

Macd. If it be mine, 

Keep it not from me, quickly let me hare it. 
Rosse. Let not youi- ears despise my tongue 
for ever. 
Which shall possess them with the heaviest 

sound. 
That ever yet they heard. 
Macd. Humph ! I guess at it. 

Rosse. Youi" castle is surpris'd; youi- wife, 
and babes, 
Savagely slaughter'd : to relate the manner, . 
AVere, on the quarry of these murder'd deer. 
To add the death of you. 

Mai. Merciful heaven ! — 

What, man! ne'er puU your hat upon yoixr 

brows, 
Give soiTow words : the grief that does not speak 
Whispers the o'erfraught heart, and bids it 
break. 
Macd. My children too ? 
Rosse. Wife, children, servants, all that could 

be found. 
Macd. And I must be from thence ! My wife 

kill'dtoo? 
Rosse. I have said. 

Mai. Be comforted : 

Let 's make us med'cincs of our great re- 
venge. 
To cure this deadly grief. 

Macd. He has no children.^ — All my pretty 
ones? 
Did you say, all ?— 0, heli-kitc !— All ? 



* Latch them — lay hold of llicm. 

b One would ima^-inc that there could be no doubt of 
whom Macduff was thinking when he says, "lie has no 
children :" but variorum commentators enter into a dis- 
cussion whether Macbeth had any children, or not; and 
upon the whole they consider that Macduff points at Mal- 
colm, reprcachiuR him for sayinj; " Be comforted." Look 
at the whole course of the luart-btricken man's sorrow. He 
is first speechless; he then ejaculates " my children too? " 
then "my wife kill'd too.'" And then, utterly insensible 
to the words addressed to him, 

" He Las no children. — All my pretty ones f " 



Act IV.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEKR III. 



What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam, 
At one fell swoop ? 
Mai. Dispute it like a man. 
Macd. I shall do so ; 

But I must also feel it as a man : 
I cannot but remember such things were, 
That were most precious to me. — Did heaven 

look on. 
And would not take their part ? Sinful Macduff, 
They were all struck for thee 1 naught that I am, 
Not for their own demerits, but for mine. 
Fell slaughter on their souls : Heaven rest them 
now! 
Mai. Be this the whetstone of your sword: 
let grief 
Convert to auger; blunt not the heart, em-age it. 
Macd. 0, I could play the woman with mine 
eyes, 



And braggart with my tongue! — But gentle 

heavens, 
Cut short all intermission ; front to front, 
Bring thou this fiend of Scotland, and myself ; 
Within my sword's length set him ; if he 'scape, 
Heaven forgive him too ! 

Mai. This time* goes manly. 

Come, go we to the king ; our power is ready ; 
Our lack is nothing but our leave : Macbeth 
Is ripe for shaking, and the powers above 
Put on their iustruments. Receive what cheer 

you may ; 
The night is long that never finds the day. 

[Exeimt. 



a Time. — Ilowe changed tins to tunc. Giflbrd has shown, 
in a note on Massinger, that the two words were once 
synonymous in a musical acceptation ; and that iime wa» 
the more ancient and common term. 



TiiAGEDiEs. — Vol. IT. E. 



-fn 



ILLUSTIUTIONS OF ACT lY. 



' Scene I.—" Black spirits," &c. 

In Act III. Scene v. we have the stage-direction, 
" Siiig within, Conic aicaij, come away, tLc." In 
the same manner we have iu this scene "Music and 
a song, Black .•'jiirits,d-c." In Middleton's 'Witch' 
we find two songs, each of which begins according 
to the stage-direction. The first ia, 

" Come away, come away ; \. ,, 
Hecate, Hecate, come away.i'" '" '"'^' 
//ic. I come, I conic, I come, 
With all the speed I may, 
With all the speed I may." 

The second is called 'A Charm Song about a 

Vessel : ' — 

''Black spirits and white, red spirits and gray; 
Mingle, mingle, mingle, you that mingle may. 
Titty, Tiffin, keep it stiff in; 
Firedrake, Puckey, make it lucky; 
Liard, Rohin, you must bob in. 



Round, around, around, about, about ; 
All ill come running in, all good keep out ! " 

- Scene III.—" Hanging a golden stamp about their 
necks." 

Iloliushed thus describes the gift of curing the 
evil which was alleged to exist in the person of 
Edward the Confessor :— " As it has been thought, 
he was inspired with the gift of prophecy, and also 
to have the gift of healing infirmities and diseases. 
He used to help those that were vexed with the 
disease commonly called the king's evil, and left 
that virtue as it were a portion of inheritance unto 
his successors, the kings of this realm." The 
golden stamp is stated to be the coin called an 
angel ; for the origin of which raniC. as given by 
Verstegan, see the Merchant of Venice, Illustra- 
tions of Act ir. 



HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



We continue our extracts from Holinshed : — 
" Neither could he afterwards abide to look 
upon the said Macduff, either for that he thought 
his puissance over great ; either else for that ho 
had learned of certain wizards, in whose words he 
put great confidence, (for that the prophecy had 
happened so right which the three fairies or weird 
sisters had declared unto him,) how that he ought 
to take heed of Macduff, who in time to conie 
should seek to destroy him. 

" And surely hereupon had ho put Macduff to 
death, but that a certain witch, whom he had in 
great trust, had told that he should never be slain 
with man bom of any woman, nor vanquished till 
the wood of Bernaue came to the castle of Dunsi- 
nane. By this prophecy Macbeth put all fear out 
of his heart, supposing he might do what he would 
without any fear to be punished for the same; for 
by the one prophecy he believed it was impossible 
for any man to vanquish him, and by the other im- 
possible to slay him. This vain hope caused him to 
do many outrageous things, to the grievous oppres- 
sion of his subjects. At length Macduff, to avoid 
peril of life, purposed with himself to pass into 
England, to procure Malcolm Cammore to claim 
the crown of Scotland. But this was not so secretly 
devised by Macduff but that Macbeth had know- 
ledge given him thereof; for kings (as is said) have 
sharp sight like nnto Lynx, and long ears like unto 
Midas: for Macbeth had iu every nobleman's house 
one sly /ellow or other in fee with him, to reveal all 
.SO 



that was said or done within the same, by which 
flight he oppressed the most part of the nobles of 
his I'ealm. 

" Immediately then, being advertised whereabout 
Macduff went, he came hastily with a great power 
into Fife, and forthwith besieged the castle where 
Macduff d welled, trusting to have found him therein. 
They that kept the house, without any resistance 
opened the gates, and suffered him to eut«r, mis- 
trusting none evU. But nevertheless Macbeth most 
cruelly caused the wife and children of Macduff, 
with all other whom he found in that castle, to be 
slain. Also he confiscated the goods of Macduff, 
proclaimed him traitor, and confined him out of all 
the parts of his realm ; but Macduff was already 
escaped out of danger, and gotten into England 
unto Malcolm Cammore, to try what purchase he 
might make by means of his support to revenge 
the slaughter so cruelly executed on his wife, his 
children, and other friends. 

" Though Malcolm was very sorrowful for the 
oppression of his countrymen the Scots, in manner 
as Macduff had declared ; yet, doubting whether 
he were come as one that came unfeignedly as he 
spake, or else as sent from Macbeth to betray him, 
lie thought to have some further trial ; and there- 
upon, dissembling his mind at the first, he answered 
as foUoweth : — 

" I am truly very sorry for the misery chanced 
to my country of Scotland, but, though I have never 
so great affection to relieve the same, yet by reason 



MACBETH. 



of certain incurable vices which reign in me, I am 
nothing meet thereto. First, such immoderate lust 
and voluptuous sensuality (the abominable foun- 
tain of all vices) follow eth me, that, if I were made 
king of Scots, I should seek to destroy your maids 
and matrons, in such wise that mine intemperancy 
should be more importable unto you than the bloody 
tyranny of Macbeth now is. Hereunto Macdufi* 
answered. This surely is a very evil fault, for many 
noble princes and kings have lost both lives and 
kingdoms for the same; nevertheless there are 
women enough in Scotland, and therefoi-e follow 
my counsel : make thyself king, and I shall con 
the matter so wisely, that thou shalt be so satisfied 
at thy pleasure in such secret wise that no man 
shall be aware thereof. 

" Then said Malcolm, I am also the most avari- 
cious creature on the earth, so that if I were king I 
should seek so mauy ways to get lands and goods 
that I would slay the most part of all the nobles of 
Scotland by furnished accusations, to the end I 
might enjoy their lands, goods, and possessions; 
and therefore, to show you what mischief may ensue 
on you through my unsatiable covetousness, I will 
rehearse unto you a fable. There was a fox having 
a sore place on him overset with a swarm of flies 
that continually sucked out his blood : and when 
one that came by, and saw this manner, demanded 
whether he would have the flies driven beside him, 
he answered. No ; for if these flies that are already 
full, and by reason thereof suck not very eagerly, 
should be chased away, other that are empty and 
an hungered should light in their places, and suck 
out the residue of my blood, far more to my griev- 
ance than these, which now being satisfied, do not 
much annoy me. Therefore, said Malcolm, suffer 
me to remain where I am, lest, if I attain to the 
regiment of your realm, mine unquenchable ava- 
rice may prove such that ye would think the dis- 
pleasures which now grieve you should seem easy 
in re"spect of the unmeasurable outrage which might 
ensue through my coming amongst you. 

" Macduff to this made answer, how it was a far 
worse fa\ilt than the other ; for avarice is the root 
of all mischief, and for that crime the most part of 
our kings have been slain and brought to their final 
end. Yet, notwithstanding, follow my counsel, and 
take upon thee the crown. There is gold and riches 



enough in Scotland to satisfy thy greedy desire. 
Then said Malcolm again, I am furthermore in- 
clined to dissimulation, telling of leasinga, and all 
other kind of deceit, so that I naturally rejoice in 
nothing so much as to betray and deceive such as 
put any trust and coufidence in my words. Then, 
sith there is nothing that more becometh a prince 
than constancy, verity, tiiith, and justice, with the 
other laudable fellowship of those fair <.nd noble 
virtues which are comprehended only in soothfa-st- 
ness, and that lying utterly overthroweth the same, 
you see how unable I am to govern any province or 
regiment ; and, therefore, sith you have remedies 
to cloak and hide all the rest of my other vices, I 
pray you find shift to cloak this vice amongst the 
residue. 

" Then said Macduff, This yet is the worst of 
all, and there I leave thee, and therefore say, Oh 
ye unhappy and miserable Scotchmen, which are 
thus scourged with so many and sundry calamities, 
each one above other ! Ye have one cursed and 
wicked tyrant that now reigneth over you without 
any right or title, oppressing you with his most 
bloody cruelty. This other, that hath the right to 
the crown, is so replete with the inconstant be- 
haviour and manifest vices of Englishmen, that he 
is nothing worthy to enjoy it; for, by his own con- 
fession, he is not only avaricious and given to un- 
satiable lust, but so false a traitor withal, that no 
trust is to be had imto any word he speaketh. 
Adieu, Scotland ! for now I account myself a ba- 
nished man for ever, without comfort or consola- 
tion. And with those words the brackish tears 
trickled down his cheeks very abundantly. 

" At the last, when he was ready to depart, Mal- 
colm took him by the sleeve, and said, Be of good 
comfort, Macduff, for I have none of these vices 
before remembered, buthave jested with thee in this 
manner only to prove thy mmd : for divei-se times 
heretofore hath Macbeth sought by this manner of 
means to bring me into his hands ; but the more 
slow I have showed myself to condescend to thy 
motion and request, the more diligence shall I use 
in accomplishing the same. Incontinently here- 
upon they embraced each other, and, promising to 
be faithful the one to the other, they fell in con- 
sultation how they might best provide for all their 
business, to bring the same to good effect." 



LOCAL ILLUSTRATION. 



Scene 11.— " Fife. A Room in Macduff's Castle." 
On the Fifeshire coast, about three miles from 
Dysart, stand two quadrangular towers, supposed 
to be the ruins of Macduff's castle. These are not 



the only remains in Scotland, however, which 
claim to have been the abode of Macduff's wife 
and children when they were surprised and 
slaughtered by Macbeth. 



E 2 



5i 




r.:vc« SC.;- 



[Dr.rkcul.l 



ACT V. 



SCENE I. 



Dunsinauc. 
Cdstle. 



A Room m the 



Unlet a Doctor of Phi/sic^ atid a wailing 
Gentlewoman. 

Docl. I have two nights watched ^vith you, 
but cau perceive no truth in your report. When 
was it she last walked ? 

Gent. Since his majesty went into the field," I 
have seen her rise from her bed, tlirow her night- 
gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth 
paper, fold it, write upon 't, read it, afterwards 
seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this 
while in a most fast sleep. 



» Steevens tay*, " this is one of Shakspere's oversights: 
he forRot tliat he had >hul up Macbeih in Dunsinanc, and 
«urrounded him willi btsicRcrs." We may reply, this is one 
of Slctvens's ]>resumptiiou» assertions. In the next scene 
the Scotchmen say " the Engli-.h power is near." When an 
enemy is advancm); from another country it it not likely 
that the commander about to be attacked would first f;o 
*• into the field " before he finallv resolved to trust to his 
" castle's strength ?" 

52 



DocL A great perturbation in natm-e ! to re- 
ceive at once the benefit of sleep, and do the 
effects of watching. — In this slumbery agita- 
tion, besides her walking and other actual per- 
formances, what, at any time, have you heard 
her say ? 

Gent. That, sir, which I will not report after 
her. 

Docl. You may, to me ; and 't is most meet 
you should. 

Genl. Neither to you, nor any one ; having no 
witness to confirm my speech. 

Unlet Lady MACBEin, with a taper. 

Lo you, here she comes ! Tliis is her very guise; 
and, upon my life, fast asleep. Observe her : 
stand close. 

Bod. How came she by that light ? 

Gent. Why, it stood by her : she has light by 
her continually ; 't is her command. 

Docl. Yon 6ec, her eyes are open. 



\ 



Act V.l 



MACBETH. 



[ScEsa II. 



Gent. Ay, but their sense is shut. 
Doct. Wliat is it she does now ? Look how 
she rubs her hands. 

Gent. It is an accustomed action with her, to 
seem thus washing her hands. I have known 
her continue in this a quarter of an hour. 
Ladi/ M. Yet here 's a spot. 
JDoct. Hark, she speaks : I will set down what 
comes from her, to satisfy my remembrance the 
more strongly. 

Lad^ M. Out, damned spot ! out, I say ! — 
One; Two: Why, then 'tis time to do 't:— Hell 
is murky! — Pie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and 
afeard ! What need we fear who knows it, when 
none can call our power to account ? — Yet who 
woidd have thought the old man to have had so 
much blood in him ! 
Doct. Do you mark that ? 
Ladi/ M. The thane of Fife had a wife ; Where 
is she now ? — "What, will these hands ne'er be 
clean ? — No more o' that, my lord, no more 
o' that : you mar all with this starting. 

Doct. Go to, go to; you have known what 
you should not. 

Gent. She has spoke what she should not, I 
am sure of that : Heaven knows what slie has 
known. 

Ladi/ 31. Here 's the smell of the blood still : 
aU the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this 
little hand. Oh! oh! oh! 

Doct. What a sigh is there ! The heart is sorely 
charged. 

Gent. I woidd not have such a heart in my 
bosom, for the dignity of the whole body. 
Doct. Well, well, well,— 
Gent. 'Pray God, it be, sir. 
Doct. This disease is beyond my practice : 
Yet I have known those wliich have walked in 
their sleep who have died holily in their beds. 

Lady M. Wash your hands, put on your 
night-gown ; look not so pale : — I teU you yet 
again, Banquo 's buried ; he cannot come out 
on 's grave. 
Doct. Even so ? 

Lady M. To bed, to bed ; there 's knocking 

at the gate. Come, come, come, come, give me 

your hand. Wliat 's done cannot be undone ; To 

bed, to bed, to bed. [J^xit Lady Macbeth. 

Doct. Will she go now to bed ? 

Gent. Directly. 

Doct. Foul whisperings are abroad : Unnatui'al 
deeds 
Do breed \mnatural troubles : Infected minds 
To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets 
More needs she the divine than the physician. 



God, God, forgive us all ! Look after her ; 
Remove from lier the means of all annoyance. 
And still keep eyes upon her :— So, good night : 
My mind she has mated," and amaz'd my sight : 
I think, but dare not speak. 

Gent. Good night, good doctor. 

\Exeunt. 

SCENE II. — The Country near Dunsinane. 

F/nter, tcith drum and colours, Menteth, Catu- 
NEss, Angus, Lenox, and Soldiers. 

3Ient. The English power is near, led on by 
Malcolm, 
His uncle Siward, and the good Macduff. 
Revenges burn in them : for their dear causes 
Would, to the bleeding and the grim alarm. 
Excite the mortified man.*" 

-^"ff- Near Birnam wood 

Shall we well meet them; that way are they 



Cath. 



Who knows if Doualbaiu be with his 
brother ? 

Len. For certain, sir, he is not : I have a file 
Of all the gentry : there is Siward's son, 
x\nd many unrough youths, that even now 
Protest their first of manhood. 

Ment. Wliat does the tyrant ? 

Caifi. Great Dunsinane he strongly fortifies : 
Some say he 's mad ; others, that lesser hate 

him. 
Do call it valiant fury : but, for certain. 
He cannot buckle his distemper'd cause 
Within the belt of rule. 

J.nff. Now does he feel 

His secret murthers sticking on liis hands ; 
Now minutely revolts upbraid his faith-breach ; 
Those he commands move only in command. 
Nothing in love : now does he feel his title 
Hang loose about him, like a giant 's robe 
Upon a dwarfish thief. 

Ment. Who then shall blame 

His pester'd senses to recoil, and start, 
When all that is within him does condemn 
Itself, for being there ? 

Cath. Well, march we on. 

To give obedience where 't is truly ow'd : 
Meet we the medicine of the sickly weal ; 
And with him pour wc, in our country's purge, 
Each drop of us. 



» Mated — amated— dismayed. 

b Mortified man.— We think, with Warburton, that fhs 
poet here means a hermit or religious ascetic, — one indif- 
ferent to the concerns of the world, but who would be 
excited to fight by such "causes" of revenge as Sfacduff 
comes with. 



C3 



Act v.] 



MACBETH. 



[ScnsBlIl. 



' Len. Or so much as it needs, 

To dew the sovereign flower, and drown the 

weeds. 
Make we oiir march towards Bimam. 

[Ereutit, marching. 



SCENE III.- 



-Dmisiuane. 
Castle. 



A Boom in the 



Enter Macbeth, Doctor, and Attendants. 

Matb. Bring me no more reports ; let them 

fly all: 
Till Biniain wood remove to Dunsinane, 
I cannot taint with feai-. What 's the boy Mal- 

cohn ? 
Was he not bom of woman ? The spirits that 

know 
AH mortal consequences have pronounc'd me 

thus : 
' Fear not, Macbeth ; no man that 's born of 

woman 
Shall e'er have power upon thee.' Then fly, 

false thanes. 
And mingle with the English epicures : 
The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear, 
Shall never sagg" with doubt, nor shake with 

fear. 

Enter a Servant. 

The devil damn thee black, thou cream-fac'd 

loon; 
Where gott'st thou that goose look ? 

Serv. There is ten thousand — 

Macb. Geese, villain ? 

Serv. Soldiers, sir. 

Macb. Go, prick tiiy face, and over-red thy feaj, 
Thou lily-liver'd boy. What soldiers, patch ? 
Death of thy soul ! those linen cheeks of thine 
Are counsellors to fear. What soldiers, whey-face ? 

Serv. The English force, so please you. 

Macb. Take thy face hence. — Seytou ! — I am 
sick at heart, 
When I behold — Seyton, I say ! — This push 
Will cheer "' me ever, or dis-seat me now. 
I have liv'd long enough : my way of life *^ 



* Sagg is to droop or sink down ; probably from ic tlge, 
the firsl person present of the irregular Anglo-Saxon verb, 
tigitn, to Call, or sink down ; to fail. 

b Cheer is the word of tli; original folio, but Percy sug- 
gested chair, vrhich is alto the reading of Mr. Collier's MS. 
Corrector. 

c Dr. Johnson proposed to read ".Ifny of life." If the 
t>oet intended to represent Macbeth a-s a young man, — one 
in the 

"May of youth, and bloom of lustyhood," — 
who had by his crimes and their consequent anxieties 
" Fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf," — 

the emendation would be Just and beautiful. But we doubt 
if the poet had any such intention. The expression "way 



Is fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf : 
And that which should accompany old age. 
As honour, love, obedience, troops of friends, 
I must not look to have ; but, in their stead. 
Curses not loud, but deep, mouth-honour, breath, 
Whioli the poor heart would fain deny, and 

dare not. 
Seyton ! — 

Enter Seyton. 

Sey. What 's your gracious pleasmc ? 

Macb. Wliat news more ? 

Sey. AH is confinn'd, my lord, which was 
reported. 

Macb. I 'II fight, till from my bones my flesh 
be back'd. 
Give me my armour. 

Set/. 'T is not needed yet. 

Macb. I 'U put it on. 
Send out 'more horses, skir'' the country round ; 
Hang those that talk of fear. — Give me mine 

armour : — 
How does your patient, doctor ? 

Boct. Not so sick, my lord, 

As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies. 
That keep her from her rest. 

Macb. Cui-e her of that : 

Canst thou not minister to' a mind diseas'd : 
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow; 
Raze out the written troubles of the brain ; 
And, with some sweet oblivious antidote, 
Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that peiilous stuff, 
Which weighs upon the heart ? 

Loct. Therein the patient 

Must minister to himself. 

Macb. Throw physic to the dogs, I '11 none of 
it.— 
Come, put mine armour on; give me my staff: — 
Seyton, send out. — Doctor, the thanes fly from 

me: — 
Come, sir, dispatch : — If thou couldst, doctor, 

cast 
The water of my land, find her disease. 
And purge it to a sound and pristine health, 
I would applaud thee to the very echo. 
That should applaud again. — Pull 't off, I say — 
What rhubarb, senna,'' or what purgative drug, 

of life " appears to us equivalent with " time of year," in 
the seventy-third Sonnet :— 

" That time of year thou niay'st in me behold 
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang 
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold. 
Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang." 
Giffbrd says, " tcny of life is neither more nor less than a 
simple periphrasis for life." 
"■ Skir—tcuT — scour. 

b Senna. — This Is the reading of the fourth folio. The 
original reads cyme. 



I 



Act v.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEKE8 IV., V. 



Would scour these English hence? — Hearest 
thou of them ? 
Bod. Ay, my good lord ; your royal prepara- 
tion 
Makes us hear something. 

Much. Bring it after me. — 

I will not be afraid of death and bane, 

Till Bimam forest come to Dunsinane. \Jixit. 

Bod. Were I from Dunsinane away and 

clear. 

Profit again should hardly draw me here. \Ilxit. 

SCENE ] ^.—Country near Dunsinane : A 
Wood ill view. 

Enter, with drum and colours, ^Malcolm, old 
SiWA'RD a7id Ms Son, Macdtjff, IVIenteth, 
Catsness, Angus, Lexox, Bosse, and Sol- 
diers, marching. 

JtTal. Cousins, I hope the days are near at 
hand, 
That chambers will be safe. 

2£e)it. "We doubt it nothing. 

Siw. Wliat wood is this before us ? 

jlgiii. The wood of Birnam. 

Ilal. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. 
And bear 't before him ; thereby shall we sha- 
dow 
The numbers of oui- host, and make discovery 
EiT in report of us. 

Sold. It shall be done. 

Sire. We learn no other, but the confident 
tyrant 
Keeps stm in Dunsinane, and will endure 
Our settiug down before 't. 

jjj;^l 'T is his main hope ; 

For where there is advantage to be given, 
Both more and less'' have given him the revolt ; 
And none serve with him but constrained 

things, 
Whose hearts are absent too. 

jjjacd. Let °^^ P^*' censures 

Attend the true event, and put we on 
Industrious soldiership. 

Sl^c, The time approaches. 

That will wath due decision make us know 
. What we shaU say we have, and what we owe. 
Thoughts speculative their unsui-e hopes re- 
late ; 
But certain issue strokes must arbitrate : 
Towards which advance the war. 

[Exeimt, vmrcUng. 

. More and Ze.s.-Shdkspere uses these words, as Chaucer 
5r.e spenser use them, for greater and less. 



SCENE v.— Dunsinane. Wifhin the Castle. 

Enter, with drums and colours, Macseth, 
Seyton, and Soldiers. 

Macb. Hang out our banners on the outward 
walls; 
The cry is still, 'They come:' Our castle's 

strength 
Will laugh a siege to scorn : here let them lie, 
Tni famine, and the ague, eat them up : 
Were they not forc'd with those that should be 

ours. 
We might have met them dareful, beard to beard, 
And beat them backward home. Wliat is that 
noise ? [^A cry within, of women. 

Sey. It is the cry of women, my good lord. 
Macl. I have almost forgot the taste of fears : 
The time has been, my senses would have cool'd 
To hear a night-shriek ; and my fell of hair 
Would at a dismal treatise rouse, and stir 
As life were in 't: I have supp'd full with 

horrors ; 
Direuess, familiar to my slaughf rous thoughts, 
Cannot once start me.— Wherefore was that cry ? 
Sey. The queen, my lord, is dead. 
Mach. She should have died hereafter ; 
There would have been a time for such a word. — 
To-moiTOW, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, 
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, 
To the last syllable of recorded time ; 
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools 
The way to dusty '^ death. Out, out, brief candle ! 
Life 's but a waUdng shadow ; a poor player, 
That struts and frets hi.s hour upon the stage. 
And then is heard no more : it is a tale 
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury. 
Signifying nothing. — 

Enter a Messenger. 

Thou com'st to use thy tongue ; thy story qiuckly. 

Mess. Gracious my lord, 
I should report that which I say I saw. 
But know not how to do it. 

Mach. Well, say, sir. 

Mess. As I did stand my watch upon the hill, 
I look'd toward Bimam, and, anon, raefhought, 
The wood began to move. 

Mach. Liai". ^^ slave ! 

{Striking him. 

a D„s/«.-^Varburton ^rould read dusky. In Troilus and 
Cressida we have "dusty nothing." Douce has the foUow- 
in 'valuaWe illustration of the passage : " Perhaps no qu^ 
afion can be better calculated to show the Propnety oHh^ 
epithet than the following P^»»d lines in -The ^ mon of 
Pierce Plowman,' a work which Shakspeare might have 

'^""''Death came drivynge after, and all to rfurt pashed 
Kynges and kaysers. knightes and popes. 



Act v.] 



MACBETH. 



[SCEKES VI., VII 



Mess. Let me endure jour wrath if 't be not so ; 
Within this three mile may you see it coming ; 
I say, a moving grove. 

Macb. If thou speak'st false, 

Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive. 
Till famine cling thee : if thy speech be sooth, 
I care not if thou dost for me as much. — 
I pull in resolution;* and begin 
To doubt the equivocation of the fiend, 
That lies like truth : * Fear not, till Birnam wood 
Do come to Dunsinane ;' — and now a wood 
Comes toward Dunsinane.— Arm, arm, and 

out !— 
If this wliich he avouches does appear. 
There is nor Hying hence, nor tarrying here. 
T 'gin to be a-weary of the sun, 
A.nd wish the estate o' the world were now 

undone. — 
Ring the alarum-bell : — Blow wind ! come ^v^ack ! 
At least we '11 die with harness on our back. 

[Eaetenl. 

SCENE VI.— .77/<? same. A Plain be/ore the 
Castle. 

Enter, with drums and colours, [Malcolm, old 
SiWARD, Macduff, §-c., and their Amy, with 
boughs. 

Mai. Now, near enough ; your leavy screens 
throw down, 
And show like those you are: — You, worthy 

uncle. 
Shall, \vith my consul, your I'ight-noblc son, 
Lead our fu-st battle : worthy Macduff, and wc, 
Shall take upon us what else remains to do. 
According to our order. 

Siw. Fare you well. — 

Do we but Gnd the tyrant's power to-night. 
Let us be beaten if we cannot fight. 

Macd. Make all our trumpets speak; give 
them all breath. 
Those clamorous liarbingers of blood and death. 
[^Exeunt. Alarums continued. 

SCENE \U.~The same. Another part oj the 
Plain. 

Enter Macbetu. 

Zrar.b. They have tied me to a stake ; I can- 
not fly, 

a Monck M.ison gives an illustration from Fletclier, which 
explains the use of pull in : — 

" All mv spirits 
>*8 if they had (leard my passing bell po for nic, 
Pull in their powers, an'l give nie up to destiny." 
56 



But, bear-like, I must fight the course. — ^Wliat 's 

he 
That was not born of woman P Such a one 
Am I to fear, or none.' 

Enter Young Siward. 

Yo. Siw. What is thy name ?, 
Macb. Thou 'It be afraid to licar it. 

To. Siw. No ; though thou call'st thyself a 
hotter name 
Than any is in hell. 

Macb. My name 's Macbeth. 

To. Siw. The devil himself coidd not pro- 
nounce a title 
More hateful to mine ear. 

Macb. No, nor more fearful. 

Fo. Siw. Thou liest, , abhorred tyrant; with 
my sword 
I '11 prove the lie thou speak'st. 

{They fight, and young SrwARD is slain. 
Macb. Thou wast bom of woman. — 

But swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn, 
Braudish'd by man that 's of a woinuu bom. 

[TLxit. 

Alarums. Enter Macduff. 

Macd. That way the noise is : — Tyrant, show 
thy face : 
If thou be'st slain, and with no stroke of mine. 
My wife and chilch-eu's ghosts wiU haunt me 

still. 
I cannot strike at wretched kernes, whose amis 
Are hir'd to bear their staves ; either thou, Mac- 
beth, 
Or else my sword, with an unbatter'd edge, 
I sheathe again undeeded. There thou shouldst 

be; 
By this great clatter, one of gi-eatcst note 
Seems bmited. Let me find him, fortune ! 
And more I beg not. [Exit. Alarum. 

Enter Malcolm and old Sfward. 

Siw. This way, my lord ; — the castle 's gently 
rcndcr'd : 
The tyrant's people on both sides do fight ; 
The noble thanes do bravely in the war ; 

a We have again the small critics discovering oversights 
in Shakspcre. Mrs. Lenox, the queen of fault-finders, says, 
" Shakspeare seems to have committed a great oversight in 
making Macheth, after he found himself deceived in the 
prophecy relating to Birnam wood, so absolutely rely on the 
other, which he had pood reason to foar might be equally 
fallacious." If Mrs. Lenox had known as much of human 
nature as Shakspcre knew, she would have understood that 
one hope destroyed does not necessarily banish all hope; — 
Ih.at the gambler wlio has lost thousands still believes that 
liis last guinea will redeem them;— and that the last of a 
long series of perishing delusions is as firmly trusted as if 
the great teacher. Time, had taught nothing. 



Act V 



MACBETH. 



The daj almost itself professes yours. 
And little is to do. 

Mai. We have met witli foes 

That strike beside us. 

^^^' Enter, sir, the castle. 

[Exeuiit. Alarum. 

Re-enter ^Macbeth. 
Macb. Why should I play the Roman fool, 
and die 
On mine own sword? whiles I see lives, the 

gashes 
Do better upon them. 

Re-enter Macduff. 

Macd. Turn, hell-hoimd, tui-n. 

Macb. Of aU men else I have avoided thee : 
But get thee back, my soul is too much charg'd 
With blood of tliine already. 

M.acd. I Iiave no words. 

My voice is in my sword; thou bloodier villain 
Than terms can give thee out ! {They fight. 

^acb. Thou loscst laboiu- : 

As easy mayst thou the intrenchant air 
With thy keen sword impress, as make me 

bleed : 
Let faU thy blade on \Tibierable crests ; 
I bear a charmed life, wliich must not yield 
To one of woman born. 

^lacd. Despair- thy charm ; 

And let the angel whom thou still hast serv'd 
TeU thee, Macduff was from his mother's womb 
Untimely ripp'd. 

Macb. Accm-sed be that tongue that tells 
me so. 
For it hath cow'd my better part of man ! 
And be these juggling fiends no more believ'd. 
That palter with us in a double sense ; 
That keep the word of promise to our ear, 
And break it to our hope.— 1 '11 not fight with 
thee. 

Macd. Then yield thee, coward, 
And live to be the show and gaze o' the time. 
We 'IL have thee, as our rarer monsters are, 
Pamted upon a pole ; and underwrit, 
' Here may you see the tyrant.' 

^acj). I will not yield, a 

To kiss the ground before young Malcohn's 

feet. 
And to be baited with the rabble's curse. 
Though Bimam wood be come to Dunsinane, 
And thou oppos'd, being of no woman born. 
Yet I wiU try the last : Before my body 



a I will not »/icW.— This is sometimes nuiiced Into 

not yield." 



J 11 



[SCEKE VII. 

I throw my warlike shield : lay on, Macduff; 
And damn'd be him that first cries, 'Hold, 
enough.' [Exeunt, fighting. 

Retreat. Flourish. Re-enter, with drum and 
colours, M.\LCOi,M, old Siward, Kosse, 
Lenox, Angus, Cathness, MENizxif, and 
Soldiers. 

Mai. I would tlie friends we miss were safe 

arriv'd. 
Siw. Some must go off; and yet, by these 
I see. 
So great a day as this is clieaply bought. 
Mai. Macduff is missing, and your noble 

son. 
Rosse. Your son, mv lord, has paid a soldier's 
debt : 
He only liv'd but till he was a man ; 
The which no sooner had his prowess con- 

firm'd, 
In the unshrinking station where he fought. 
But like a man he died. 
Siw. Then he is dead ? 

Rosse. Ay, and brought off the field: your 
cause of sorrow 
Must not be measur'd by his worth, for then 
It hath no end. 
Siw. Had he his hurts before ? 

Rosse. Ay, on the front. 
Siw. Why, then, God's soldier be he ! 

Had I as many sons as I have hairs, 
I would not wish them to a fairer death : 
And so his knell is knoU'd. 

Mai. He 's worth more sorrow. 

And that I '11 spend for hun. 

Siw. He 's worth no more ; 

They say, he parted well, and paid his score : 
And so, God be with him 1 — Here comes newer 
comfort. 

Re-enter IVLvcduff, with Macbeth'* head. 
Macd. Hail, king! for so thou art: Behold, 
where stands 
The usurper's cursed head : the tune is free : 
I see thee compass'd with thy kingdom's pearl. 
That speak my salutation in their minds ; 
Whose voices I desire aloud with mine, — 
Hail, king of Scotland ! 

^11- Hail, king of Scotland ! 

[Flourish. 
Mai. We shall not spend a large expense of 
time. 
Before we reckon with your several loves. 
And make us even with you. My thanes and 
kinsmen, 

67 



Act v.] 



MACBETH. 



[Scene VII 



Ilenceforth be earls, the first that ever Scotland 
In such an honour nani'd. What 's more to do, 
"\Much would be planted newly with the time; — 
As calling home our cxJl'd friends abroad 
That fled the snares of watchful tyranny ; 
Producing forth the cruel ministers 
Of this dead butclier, and his ficnd-likc queen. 



Who, as 't is thoiight, by self and violent hands 
Took off her life ; — tliis, and what needful else 
That calls upon us, by the grace of Grace, 
We will perform in measure, time, and place : 
So thanks to all at once, and to each one, 
"\yhom we invite to see us crown'd at Scone. 

\_Flourish. Exeunt 



^..t''.<'''a-j- 




[The Dnnsinane Range. 



ILLITSTEATIONS OP ACT Y. 



HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



HoLiNSHED thus naiTates the catastrophe : — 

" He had such confidence in his prophecies, that 
he believed he should never be vanquished till Ber- 
nane wood were brought to Dunsinane ; nor yet to 
be slain with any man that should be or was boi-n 
of any woman. 

" Malcolm, following hastily after Macbeth, came 
the night before the battle unto Bernane wood, and, 
when his army had rested awhile there to refresh 
them, he commanded every man to get a bough of 
some tree or other of that wood in his hand, as big 
as he might bear, and to march forth therewith in 
such wise that on the next morrow they might come 
closely and without sight in this manner within 
view of his enemies. On the morrow, when Mac- 
beth beheld them coming in this sort, he first mar- 
velled what the matter meant, but in the end re- 
membered himself that the prophecy which he had 
heard long before that time, of the coming of Ber- 
nane wood to Dunsinane Castle, was likely to be 
now fulfilled. Nevertheless, he brought his men in 
order of battle, and exhoi-ted them to do valiantly ; 
howbeit, his enemies had scarcely cast from them 
their boughs when Macbeth, perceiving their num- 
bers, betook him straight to flight, whom Macduff 
pursued with gi-eat hatred, even till he came unto 
Lunfannaine, where Macbeth, perceiving that Mac- 



duff was hard at his back, leaped beside his horse, 
saying, Thou traitor, what meaneth it that thou 
shouldst thus in vain follow me, that am not ap- 
pointed to be slain by any creature that is born of 
a woman ? Come on, therefore, and receive thy re- 
ward, which thou hast deserved for thy pains : and 
therewithal he lifted up his sword, thinking to have 
slain him. 

" But Macduff, qu ickly avoiding from his horse ere 
he came at him, answered (with his naked sword in 
his hand), saying, It is true, Macbeth, and now shall 
thine insatiable cruelty have an end, forlamevenhe 
that thy wizards have told thee of; who was never 
born of my mother, but ripped out of her womb : 
therewithal he stepped unto him, and slew him 
in the place. Then cutting his head from his 
shoulders, he set it upon a pole, and brought it unto 
Malcolm. This was the end of jNIacbeth, after he had 
reigned seventeen years over the Scottishmen. In 
the beginning of his reign he accomplished many 
worthy acts, very profitable to the commonwealth 
(as ye have heard) ; but afterwards, by illusion of the 
devil, he defamed the same with most terrible 
cruelty. He was slain in the year of the Incar- 
nation 1057, and in the sixteenth year of King 
Edward's reign over the Englishmen." 



LOCAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Scene IV. — " What wood is this before its ? 

The wood of Bh-nam." 
BiRXAM Hill is distant about a mile from Dunkeld; 
and the two old trees, which are believed to be the 
last remains of Birnam Wood, grow by the river- 
side, half a mile from the foot of the hill. The hills 
of Birnam and Dunsinane must have been excellent 
posts of observation in time of war, both command- 
ing the level country which lies between them, and 
various passes, lochs, roads, and rivers in other di- 
rections. Birnam Hill, no longer clothed with forest, 
but belted with plantations of young larch, rises to 
the height of 1040 feet, and exhibits, amidst the 
heath, ferns, and mosses, which clothe its sides, dis- 



tinct traces of an ancient fort, which is called Dun- 
can's Court. Tradition says that Duncan held his 
court there. The Dunsmane hills are visible, at the 
distance of twelve miles, from every part of its 
northern side. Birnam Hill is precisely the point 
where a general, in full march towards Dunsinane, 
would be likely to pause, to survey the plain which 
he must cross ; and from this spot would the " leavy 
screen" devised by Malcolm become necessary to 
conceal the amount of the hostUe force from the 
watch on the Dunsinane heights :— 

" Thereby ehall we shadow 
The numbers of our host, and make discovery 
Err in report of us." 

59 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 



Scene V.— "At I did stand my watch upon the hill." 

It ia not ascertained on which hill of the Dun- 
Binane range, in Perthshire, Macbeth'3 forces were 
posted. Behind Dunsinane House there ia a green 
hill, on the summit of which are vestiges of a vitri- 
fied fort, whicli tradition has declared to be the 
remains of Macbeth "s castle. 

The coimtry between Bimam and Dunsinane is 
level and fertile, and from several parts of the Dun- 



sinane range the outline of Birnam Hill is visible ; 
but, as the distance is twelve miles in a direct line, 
no sentinel on the Dunsinane hills could see the 
wood at Birnam begin to move, or even that there 
was a wood. We must suppose either that the 
distance was contracted for the poet's purposes, or 
that the wood called Biniam extended from the hill 
for some miles into the plain : — 

" Within this three mile may you see it coming." 



—-'•t''-. 




[In Birnam Wood.] 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 



In Coleridge's early sonnet 'to the Author of tha Robbers,' his imagination is euchainod to the 
most terrible scene of that play ; disregarding, as it were, all the accessaries by which its horrors 
are mitigated and rendered endurable :— 

" Schiller I that hour I would have wish'd to die, 
If through the shuddering midnight I had sent 
From the dark dungeon of the tower time-rent 
That fearful voice, a famish'd father's cry — 
Lest in some after-moment aught more mean 
Might stamp me mortal ! A triumphant shout 
Black Horror scream'd, and all her goblin rout 
Diminish'd shrunk from the more withering scene !" 

It was in a somewhat similar manner that Shakspere's representation of the mrxder of Duncan 
affected the imagination of Mrs. Siddons : — " It was my custom to study my characters at night, 
when all the domestic cares and business of the day were over. On the night preceding that on 
which I was to appear in this part for the first time, I shut myself up, as usual, when all the family 
were retired, and commenced my study of Lady Macbeth. As the character is very short, I thought 
I should soon accomplish it. Being then only twenty years of age, I believed, as many others do 
believe, that little more was necessary than to get the words into my head ; for the necessity of dis- 
crimination, and the development of character, at that time of my life, had scarcely entered into 
my imagination. But, to proceed. I went on with tolerable composure, in the silence of the night, 
(a night I can never forget,) till I came to the assassination scene, when the horrors of the scene 
rose to a degree that made it impossible for me to get farther. I snatched up my candle, and hurried 
out of the room in a paroxysm of terror. My dress was of silk, and the rustling of it, as I ascended 
the stairs to go to bed, seemed to my panic-struck fancy like the movement of a spectre pursuing me. 
At last I reached my chamber, where I found my husband fast asleep. I clapped my candlestick 
.down upon the table, without the power of putting it out; and I threw myself on my bed, without 
daring to stay even to take off my clothes." * This most interesting passage appears to us to involve 
the consideration of the principles upon which the examination of such a work of art as Macbeth can 
alone be attempted. To analyse the conduct of the plot, to exhibit the obvious and the latent 
features of the characters, to point out the proprieties and the splendours of the poetical language, — 
these are duties which, however agreeable they may be to ourselves, are scarcely demanded by the 
nature of the subject ; and they have been so often attempted, that there is manifest danger of being 
trite and wearisome if we should enter into this wide field. We shall, therefore, apply ourselves ae 
strictly as possible to an inquiry into the nature of that poetical Art by which the horrors of this 
groat tragec^y are confined within the limits of ple;isurable emotion. 



• Memoranda by Mrs. Siddons, inserted in her ' Life' by Mr. Campbell. 



61 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 

If the drama of Macbeth wero to produce the same effect upon the mind of an imaginative reader ae 
that described by Mrs. Siddons, it would not be the great work of art which it really is. If our poet 
had resolved, using the words of his own Othello, to 

" ab.indon all remorse, 
On horror's head horrors accumulate," 

the midnight lerrora, such as Mrs. Siddons has described, would have indeed 'been a tribute to 
iwiccr, — but not to the power which has produced Macbeth. The paroxysm of fear, the panic, 
struck fancy, the prostrated senses, so beautifully described by this impassioned actress, were the 
result of the intensity with which she had fixed her mind upon that part of the play which she was 
herself to act. In the endeavour to get the words into her head, her own fine genius was naturally 
kindled to behold a complete vision of the wonderful scene. Again and again were the words 
repeated, on that night which she could never forget, — in the silence of that night when all about 
her were sleeping. And then she heard the owl shriek, amidst the hurried steps in the fatal chamber, 
— and she taw the bloody hands of the assassin,— and, personifying the murderess, she rushed to 
dip her own hands in the gore of Duncan. It is perfectly evident that this intensity of conception 
has carried the horrors far beyond the limits of pleasurable emotion, and has produced all the terrors 
of a real murder. No reader of the play, and no spectator, can regard this play as Mrs. Siddons 
regarded it. On that night she, probably for the first time, had a strong though imperfect vision of 
the character of Lady Macbeth, such as she afterwards delineated it ; and in that case, what to all of 
us must, under any circumstances, be a work of art, however glorious, was to her almost a reality. 
It was the isolation of the scene, demanded by her own attempt to conceive the character of Lady 
Macbeth, which made it so terrible to Mrs. Siddons. We have to regard it as a part of a great whole, 
which combines and harmonizes with all around it; for which we are adequately prepared by what ha.s 
gone before ; and which, — even if we look at it as a picture which represents only that one portion of 
the action, has still its own repose, its own harmony of colouring, its own chiai-o-'scuro, — is to be seen 
under a natural light. There was a preternatural light upon it when Mrs. Siddons saw it as she has 
described. 

The assassination scene of the second act is dimly shadowed out in the first liues of the drama, 
when those mysterious beings, — 

" So withcr'd, and so wild in their attire ; 
That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, 
And yet are on 't," — 



have resolved to go 



" Upon the heath ; 
There to meet with Macbeth." 



We know there is to be evil. One of the critics of the last age has obseiTed, " The Witches here 
seem to be introduced for no other purpose than to tell us they are to meet again." If the Witches 
had not been introduced in the first scene, — if we had not known that they were about "to meet 
with Macbeth," — the narrative of Macbeth's prowess in the second scene, and the resolution of 
Duncan to create him Thane of Cawdor, would have been comparatively pointless. The ten lines 
of the first Witch-scene give the key-note of the tragedy. They take us out of the course of ordi- 
nary life; they tell us there is to be a "supernatural soliciting;" they show us that we are entering 
into the empu-e of the unreal, and that the circle of the magician is to be drawn about us. When 
the Witches "meet again" their agency becomes more clear. There they are, again muttering of 
their uncouth spells, in language which sounds neither of earth nor heaven. Fortunate are those 
who have never seen the stage-witches of Macbeth, hag-like forms, with beards and brooms, singing 
D'Avenant's travestic of Shakspere's lyrics to music, fine aud solemn indeed, but which is utterly 
inadequate to express the Shaksperian idea, as it does not follow the Shaksperian words. Fortunate 
are they ; for, without the stage recollections, they may picture to themselves beings whoso 
" character consists in the imaginative disconnected from the good ; the shadowy obscure and 
fearfully anomalous of physical nature, the lawless of human nature, — elemental avengers without 
62 



MACBETH. 

aex or kiu." * TLe stage-Vfitches of Macbeth are not much elevated above the • Witch of Edmonton, 
of Kowley and Dekker — " the plain traditional old-woman witch of our ancestors ; poor, defonned' 
and ignorant; the terror of villages, herself amenable to a justice." Charlea Lamb (from whom 
we quote these words) has, with his accustomed discrimination, also shown the essential differences 
between the witches of Shakspere and the witches of Middleton : " These (Middleton's) are creatures 
to whom man or woman plotting some dire mischief might resort for occaaional consultation. 
Those originate deeds of blood, and begin bad impulses to men. From the moment that their eyes 
first meet with Macbeth, he is spell-bound. That meeting sways his destiny. He can never break 
the fascination. These witches hurt the body; those have power over the soul."f But the witches 
of the stage Macbeth are Middleton's witches, and not Shakspere's ; and they sing Middleton's lyricp, 
as stolen by D'Avenant, but they are not Shakspere's lyrics. The witches of Shakspere essentially 
belong to the action. From the moment they exclaim 

" A drum, a drum; 
Macbeth doth come, 

all their powers are bent up to the accomplishment of his ruin. Shakspere gives us no choruses of 



and 



" We dance to the echoes of our feet; 

" We fly by night 'mongst troops of spirits." 



He makes the superstition tell upon the action of the tragedy, and not a jot farther; and thus he 
makes the superstition harmonize with the action, and prepare us for its fatal progress and consum- 
mation. It was an effect of his consummate skill to render the superstition essentially poetical. 
When we hear in imagination the drum upon that wild heath, and see the victorious generals in the 
" proper temperament for generating or receiving superstitious impressions,":}: we connect with these 
poetical situations the lofty bearing of the " imperfect speakers," and the loftier words of the 
" prophetic greeting : " — 

" All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Glamis ! 
All hail, Macbeth ! hail to thee, thane of Cawdor ! 
All hail, Macbeth! that slialt be king hereafter." 

It is the romance of this situation which throws its charm over the subsequent horrors of the 
realization of the prophecy, and keeps the whole drama within the limits which separate tragedy 
from the ' Newgate Calendar.' If some Tate had laid his hand upon Macbeth, aa upon Lear (for 
D'Avenant, who did manufacture it into something which up to the time of Quin was played as 
Shakspere's, had yet a smack of the poet in him) — if some matter-of-fact word-monger had thought 
it good service to " the rising generation " to get rid of the Witches, and had given the usurper and 
his wife only their ambition to stimulate their actions, he would have produced a George Barnwell 
instead of a Macbeth. 

It is upon the different reception of the supernatural influence, proceeding out of the different 
constitution of their minds, by which we must appreciate the striking differences in the charactera 
of Macbeth, Banquo, and Lady Macbeth- These are the three who are the sole recipients of 
the prophecy of the Witches ; and this consideration, as it appears to us, must determine all that 
has been said upon the question whether Macbeth was or was not a brave man. There can be no 
doubt of his braveiy when he was acting under the force of his own will. In the contest with " the 
merciless Macdouwald " he was "valour's minion." In that \\-ith "Norway himself" he was 
"Bellona's bridegroom." But when he encountered the Witches, and his will was laid prostrate 
under a belief in destiny, there was a new principle introduced into his mind. His self-possession 
?-nd liis self-reliance were gone : — 

" Good sir, why do you start ; and seem to fear 
Things that do sound so fair?" 



* Coleridge s ' Literary Remains, vol. ii., p. 238. 
t ' Specimens of English Dramatic Poets,' vol. i., p. 187. 



X Coleridge. 



63 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 

But he yet depended upon bia reason AVith marvelloua art Shakspere at this moment throwa on 
the straw which is to break the camel's back : — 

"The thane of Cawdor lives, 
A prosperous gentleman ; and, to be klni?, 
Stands not within the prospect of belief, 
No more than to be Cawdor." 

In a few minutes he knows he 15 Cawdor : — 



" Glamis, and thane of Cawdor : 
The greatest is behind. 

But Banquo receives the partial consummation of the prophecy with an unsubdued mind : — 

" Oftentimes, to win us to our harm. 
The instruments of darkness tell us truths ; 
AVin us with honest trifles, to betray us 
In deepest consequence." 

The will of Banquo refuses to be mixed up with the prophecy. The will of Macbeth becomes the 
accompUce of the " instruments of darkness," and is subdued to their purposes : — 

" Why do I yield to that suggestion 
Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair. 
And make my seated heart knock at my ribs, 
Against the use of nature?" 

And then comes the refuge of every man of vmfirm mind upon whom temptation is laid : — 

" If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, 
Without my stir." 

If he had opposed the chance he would have been safe ; but his will was prostrate before the chance, 
and he perished. It is perfectly clear that the faint battle had been fought between his principle 
and his "black and deep desires" when he saw something to "o'erleap" even beyond the life of 
Duncan, — " the prince of Cumberland." In the conflict of his mind it is evident that he commu- 
nicates to his wife the promises of those v\-ho " havo more in them than mortal knowledge," not only 
that she might not lose the "dues of rejoicing," but that he might have some power to rely upon 
stronger than his own will. He was not deceived there. It is clear that Lady Macbeth had no 
reliance upon the prophecy working out itself. iJlie had no belief that chauce would make Itim king 
without his stir : — 

" Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be 
AVhat thou art promis'd." 

It waa not thou mayst be, or thou wilt be, but thou shcUt be. The only fear she had was of his 
nature. She would " catch the nearest way." She instantly saw that way. The prophecy was to her 
nothing but as it regarded the effect to be produced upon him who would not play false, and yet would 
wrongly win. All that is coming is clear before her through the force of her will ■ — 

" The raven himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements." 

Upon the arrival of Macbeth, the breathless rapidity with which she subjects him to her resolve is 
one of the most appalling thiugH in the whole drama. Her tremendous will is the real destiny which 
subjugates his indecision. Not a word of question or explanation ! She salutes him as Glamis and 
Cawdor, and 

" Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter." 



This is the sole allusion to the weird sidters, 
C4 



" We will speak further," seals his fate. 



MACBETH. 

Here then, up to this point, we have the supernatural influence determining the progress of the 
action with a precipitation which in itself appears almost supernatural ; and yet it is in itself strictly 
consonant to nature. It works in and through human passions and feelings. It woi'ks through 
unbelief as weU as through belief. It pervades the entire action, whether in its repose or in its 
tumult. When " the heavens' breath smells wooingly " in Macbeth's castle, we feel that it is as 
treacherous to the " gentle senses " of Duncan as the blandishments of his hostess ; and that this 
calm is but the prelude to that " unruly " night which is to follow, with its " lamentings " and its 
" strange screams of death." But this is a part of the poetiy of the action, which keeps the horror 
within the boiuids prescribed by a high art. The beautiful adaptation of the characters to the 
action constitutes a higher essential of the poetry. The last scene of the first act, where Macbeth 
marshals before him. the secondary consequences of the meditated crime, and the secondary argu- 
ments against its commission, — all the while forgetting that the real question is that of the one 
step from innocence into guilt, — and where all these prudential considerations are at once over- 
whelmed by a guUty energy which despises as well as renounces them,- — that scene is indeed more 
terrible to us than the assassination scene ; for it shows us how men fall through their own weak- 
ness and the bad strength of others. But in all this we see the deep philosophy of the poet,— hia 
profound knowledge of the springs of human action, derived perhaps from his experience of every- 
day crime and folly, but lifted into the highest poetry by his marvellous imagination. We know 
that after this the scene of the murder must come. All the preparatory incidents are poetical. 
The moon is down; Banquo and Fleance walk by torch-light; the servants are moving to rest; 
Macbeth is alone. He sees " the air-drawn dagger " which leads him to Duncan ; he is still under 
the influence of some power stronger than his will ; he is beset with false creations ; his imagina- 
tion is excited; he moves to bloodshed amidst a crowd of poetical images, with which his mind 
dallies, as it were, in its agony. Half frantic he has done the deed. His passion must now have 
vent. It rushes like a torrent over the calmness which his wife opposes to it. His terrors embody 
themselves in gushing descriptions of those fearful voices that rang in the murderer's eai-s. 
Reproaches and taunts have now no power over him : — ■ 

"I'll go no more: 
1 am afiaid to think what I have done , 
Look on't again, I dare not." 

It is impossible, we think, for the poet to have more clearly indicated the mode in which he meant 
to contrast the characters of Macbeth and his wife than in the scene before us. It is a mistake to 
characterise the intellect of Lady Macbeth as of a higher order than that of her husband. Her 
force of character was stronger, because her intellect was less. She wanted that higher power 
which he possessed — the power of imagination. She hears no noises in that terrible hour but the 
scream of the owl and the cry of the crickets. To her. 



In her view 



' The sleeping, and the dead, 
Are but as pictures." 



" A little water clears us of this deed." 



We believe that, if it had not been for the necessities of a theatrical representation, Shakspere would 
never have allowed it to have been supposed that a visible ghost was presented in the banquet- 
scene. It is to him who saw the dagger, and heard the voices cry "sleep no more," and who 
exclaimed 

" Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean from my hand?" — 

it is to him alone that the spectral appearances of that "solemn supper" are vi^ibla Are they not 
then the forms only of his imagination ? The partner of his guilt, who looked upon the great crime 
only as a business of necessity, — who would have committed it herself but for one touch of foelinp 
confessed only to herself, — 



Thagkcies.— Vol. II. 



Co 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 

' Had he not resembled 
My father as lie slept, 1 had done 't,"— 

who had before disclaimed eveu the teudcrest feelings of a mother if they had Btood betweeu her 
and her purpose, — she sees no spectre, because her obdurate will cannot co-exist with the imagina- 
tion which produces the terror and remorse of her husband. It is scarcely the " towering bravery 
of her mind," * in the right sense of the word : it is something lower than courage ; it is the 
absence of impressibility : the tenacious adherence to one dominant passion constitutes her force of 
character. 

As Macbeth recedes from his original nature under the influence of his fears and his superstition.^^ 
he becomes, of necessity, a lower creatii re. It is the uatui'al course of guilt. The " bravo Macbeth " 
changes to a counterfeiter of passions, a hypocrite, — 

" O, yet T do repent mo of my fury, 
That I did kill them." 

He descends not only to the hire of murderei'S, but to the slander of his friend to stimulato their 
revenge. But his temperament is still that of which poets are made. In his mui'derous purposes he 
is still imaginative : — 

" Ere the bat hath flown 

His cloister'd flight; ere to black Hecate's summons, 

The shard-borne beetle, -with his drowsy hums, 

Hath rung night's yawning peal. 

There shall be done a deed of dreadful note." 

It is this condition of Macbeth's mind which, we must again repeat, limits and mitigates the horror of 
the ti-agedy. After the tumult of the banquet-sicene the imagination of Macbeth again overbears 
(a.s it did after the murder) the force of the will in Lady Macbeth. It appears to v.s that her taunts 
and reproaches are only ventured upon by her when his excitement is beginning. After it has run 
its ten-ific course, and the frighted guests have departed, and the guilty man mutters " it v/ill have 
blood," then is her intellectual energy \itterly helpless before his higher passion. Jlrs. Jameson says 
of this remarkable scene, " A few words of submissive rejily to his questions, and an entreaty to seek 
repose, are all she permits herself to utter. There is a touch of pathos and tenderness in thi.s silence 
which has always affected me beyond expression." Is it submission ? Is it tenderness ? Is it not 
rather the lower energy in subjection to the higher? Her intellect has lost its anchorage; but his 
imagination is about to receive a new stimulant : — 

" I will to-monow 
(And betimes I will) unto the weird sisters : 
More shall they speak ; for now I am bent to know, 
By the worst means, the worst." 

" He has by guilt torn himself live-asunder from nature, and is therefore himself in a preternatm-al 
state : no wonder, then, that he is inclined to superstition, and faith in the unknown of signs and 
tokens, and superhuman agencies." Coleridge thus notices the point of action of which wo are 
speaking. But it must not be forgotten that Macbeth was inclined to superstition before the guilt, 
and that his faith in superhuman agencies went far to produce the guUt. From this moment, how 
ever, his guilt is bolder, and his will more obdurate ; his supernatural knowledge stands in the place 
of reflection and caution. He believes in it, and yet he will do something beyond the belief. He is 
told to " beware Macduff;" but he is also told that "none of woman bom shall harm Macbeth." How 
does he reconcile this contrary belief? — 

" Then live, MacdufT: What need I fear of thee? 
But yet 1 '11 make assurance double sure. 
And take a bond of fate : thou s-'ialt not live 
That I may tell pale-hearted fear it lies, 
And sleep in spite of thunder." 



66 



* Mrs. Jameson. 



MACBETH. 



And then comes the other prophecy of safety : — 



" Macbeth shall never vanquisli'd he, until 
Great BLrnam wood to high Dunsinane hill 
Shall come against him." 

Does it produc3 tranquillity ? All beyond is desperation : — 

" Macb. Saw you the weird sisters ? 

Len. No, my lord. 

Macb. Came they not by you ? 

Len. No, indeed, my lord, 

Macb. Infected be the air whereon they ride ; 
And damn'd all those that trust them !— I did hear 
The galloping of horse : Who was 't came by? 

Len. 'T is two or three, my lord, that bring you word, 
Macduff'is fled to England. 

Macb. Fled to England ? 

Len. Ay, my good lord. 

Macb. Time, thou anticipat 'st my dread exploits : 
The flighty purpose never is o'ettook, 
Unless the deed go with it : From this moment. • 
The very firstlings of my heart shall be 

The firstlings of my hand. And even now, • 

To crown my thought:; with acts, be it thought and done • 
The castle of Macdufl' I will surprise ; 
Seize upon Fife ; give to the edge o' the sword 
His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls 
That trace him in his line." 

The retribution which falls upon Lady Macbeth is precisely that which is fitted to her guilt. The 
powerful will is subjected to the domination of her own imperfect senses. We cannot dwell upon her 
teiTible punishment. There can be nothing beyond the agony of 

" Here's the smell of the blood still : all the 
perfumes of Arabia wiU not sweeten this little 
hand." 

The Tengeance falls more gently on Macbeth ; for he is in activity ; he is stiU confident in prophetic 
securities. The contemplative melancholy which, however, occasionally comes over him in the last 
struggle is still true to the poetry of his character : — 

" Seyton ! — I am sick at heart, 
■WTien I behold— Seyton, I say !— This push 
Will cheer me ever, or dis-seat me now. 
I have liv'd long enough : my way of life 
Is fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf: 
And that which should accompany old age, 
.\s honour, love, obedience, troops of friends, 
I must not look to have ; but, in their stead. 
Curses not loud, but deep, mouth-honour, breath. 
Which the poor heart would fain deny, and dare not." 

This passage, and the subsequent one of 

" To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, 
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, 
To the last syllable of recorded time i 
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools 
The way to dusty death," — 

tell us of something higher and better in his character than the assassin and the usurper He was 
the victim of " the equivocation of the fiend ;" and he has paid a fearful penalty for his belfef. The 
final avenging is a compassionate one, for he dies a warrior's death : — 

F 2 . ^^ 



; 



SUrPLEMENTARV NOTICE. 



' I will not yield, 
To kiss tbe ground before young Malcolm's feet, 
And to be baited with the rabble's curse. 
Though Bimam wood be come to Uunsinanc, 
And thou oppos'd, being of no woman boni. 
Yet I will try the last : Before my body 
I throw my warlike shield." 

The princii'le which we have thus so imperfectly attempted to exhibit, aa the leading characteristic 
of this glorious tragedy, is, without doubt, that which constitutes the essential difference between 
a work of the highest genius and a work of mediocrity. Without jjoiccr— by which we here especially 
mean the ability to produce strong excitement by the display of scenes of horror— no poet of the 
highest order was ever made ; but this alone does not make such a poet. If he is called upon to 
present such scenes, they must, even in their most striking forms, be associated with the beautiful. 
The pre eminence of his art in this particular can jdone prevent them affecting the imagination beyond 
the limits of pleasurable emotion. To keep within these limits, and yet to preserve all the energy 
which results from the power of dealing with the terrible apart from the beautiful, belongs to few 
chat the world has seen : to Shak.?pere it belongs surpassingly. 












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-I' 



1 ;7- A-"^-<^-"-Vf a 









n'l; 






'plf 



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JM 

I 



a 




[Chaucer.j 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



State of the Text, and Chronology, of Teoilus and Cressida. 

The original quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida, printed in 1C09, bears the following title :—' The 
famous Historie of Troylus and Cresseid. Excellently expressing the Beginning of their Loues, with 
the Conceited Wooing of Pandarus Prince of Licia. Written by William Shakespeare. London, 
Imprinted by G. Eld, for R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the Spred Eagle in Paules 
Churchyeard, ouer against the great North Doore, 1609.' In the same year a second edition was put 
forth by the same publishers, in the title-page of which appears, " As it was acted by the King's 
Majesty's Servants at the Globe." There was a preface to the first edition, which is omitted in the 
second, in which are these words : — " You have here a new play, never staled with the stage." AVe 
shall have occasion more fully to notice this preface. No other edition of the play was published 
until it appeared in the folio collection of 1623. Its position in this collection has given rise to a 
singular hypothesis. Steevens says, " Perhaps the drama before us was not entirely of his 
(Shakspere's) construction. It appears to have been unknown to his associates, Hemings and Condell, 
tUl after the first folio was almost printed off." If the play had been uiiknoum to Hemings and 
Condell, the notion that, for this reason, it might not be entirely of Shakspere's construction, would 
be a most illogical inference. But how is it shown that the play was unknown, to Shakspere's 
associates ? Farmer tells us, " It was at first either vmhnmim or forgotten. It does not, however, 
appear in the list of the plays, and is thrust in between the Histories and the Tragedies, without any 
enumeration of the pages ; except, I think on one leaf only." If these critics had carried their 

71 



IXTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

inquiries one step farther, they would have found that Troilus and Cressida was neither unknown nor 
forgotten by the editors of the first folio. It is more probable that they were only doubtful how to 
cliissify it. In the first quarto edition it is called a famous i/w^').-?/, in the title-page; but in the 
preface it is repeatedly mentioned as a Covicdy. In the folio edition it boars the title of ' The 
Tragcdie of Troylus and Cressida.' In that edition the Tragedies begin with Coriolanus ; and the 
paging goes on regularly from 1 to 7C, that last page bringing us within a hundred lines of the close of 
Romeo and Juliet. We then skip pages 77 and 78, Ilomeo and Juliet concluding with 79. Now the 
leaf of Troilus and Cressida on which Farmer observed an enumeration of pages includes the second 
and third pages of the play, and those are marked 79, 80. If the last page of Romeo and Juliet had 
been marked 77, as it ought to have been, and the first page of Troilus and Cressida 78, we should 
have seen at once that this Tragedy was intended by the editors to follow Romeo and Juliet. But 
they found, or they were infoi-med, that this extraordinary drama was neither a Comedy, nor a 
Ilistor}-, nor a Tragedy ; and they therefore placed it between the Histories and the Tragedies, leaving 
to the reader to make his own classification. This is one solution of the matter which we have to 
offer ; and it is a bettor one, we think, than the theorj' that so remarkable a production of Shakspere's 
later years should be unknown or forgotten by his " fellows." But there is another view of the 
matter, to be presently noticed, which involves a curious point in literary history. 
The first quarto edition of 1609 contains the following very extraordinaiy preface : — 



" A never writer to an ever reader. 
" News. 
" Eternal reader, you have hero a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the 
palms of the vulgar, and yet passing full of the palm comical ; for it is a birth of your brain, that never 
imdertook anj-thing comical vainly : and were but the vain names of comedies changed for the titles of 
commodities, or of plays for pleas, you should see all those grand censors, that now style them such 
vanities, flock to them for the main grace of their gravities ; especially this author's comedies, that are so 
framed to the life, that they serve for the most common commentaries of all the actions of our lives, show- 
ing such a dexterity and power of wit, that the most displeased with plays are pleased with his comedies. 
And all such dull and heavy-wittcd worldlings as were never capable of the wit of a comedy, coming by 
report of them to his representations, have found that wit there that they never found in themselves, and 
have parted better witted than they came ; feeling an edge of wit set upon them more than ever they 
dreamed they had brain to grind it on. So much and such favoured salt of wit is in his comedies, that they 
seem (for their height of pleasure) to be bom in that sea that brought forth Venus. Amongst all there is 
none more witty than this : and had I time I would comment upon it, though I know it needs not (for so 
much as will make you think your testern well bestowed), but for so much worth as even poor I know to 
be stuffed in it. It deserves such a labour, as well as the best comedy in Terence or Plautus. And believe 
this, that when he is gone, and his comedies out of sale, you will scramble for them, and set up a new Eng- 
lish Inquisition. Take this for a warning, and at the peril of your pleasures' loss and judgments, refuse not, 
nor like this the less for not being sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude ; but thank Fortune for 
the scape it hath made amongst you, since by the grand possessora' wills I believe you should have prayed 
for them rather than been prayed. And so I leave all such to be prayed for (for the states of their wit's 
healths) that will not praise it. Vale." 

In 1609, then, the reader is told, "You have here a new play, never staled with the stage, never 
clapper-clawed with the palms of the vulgar ;" and he is farther exhorted — " refuse not, nor like this 
the less for not being sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude." The reader is also invited to 
spend a sixpence upon this play : — " Had I time I would comment upon it, though I know it needs 
not, for so much as will make you think your testern well bestowed." Never was one of Shakspere's 
plays set forth during his life with such commendation as here abounds. His Comedies " are so 
framed to the life, that they serve for the most common commentaries of all the actions of our lives." 
The passage towards the conclusion is the most remarkable : — " Thank Fortune for the scape it hath 
made amongst you, since by the grand possessors' wills I believe you should have prayed for them 
rather than been prayed." We have here, then, first, a most distinct assertion that, in 1609, Troilus 
and Cressida was a new play, never staled with the stage. This, one might think, would bo decisive 
SM to the chronology of this play ; but in the Stationers' books is the following entry : — " Feb. 7, 
1602. Mr. Roberts. The booke of Troilus and Crcsseda, as yt is acted by my Lo. Chambcrlen's 
men." Malone assumes that the Troilus and Cressida thus acted by the Lord Chamberlain's men 
72 



TEOILUS AND CHESSID^V. 

(the players at the Globe during the reign of Elizabeth) was the same as that published in 1609. 
Yet there were other authors at work upon the subject besides Shakspere. In Henslowe's manuscripts 
there are several entries of moneys lent, in 1599, to Dekker and Chettle, in earnest of a book 
called Troilus and Cressida. This play, thus bargained for by Henslowe, appears to have been 
subsequently called Agamemnon. The probability is, that the rival company at the Globe had, about 
the same period, brought oxit their own Troilus and Cressida ; and that this is the play referred to 
in the entry by Roberts in 1602 ; for if that entry had applied to the Troilus and Cressida of Shak- 
spere, first published in 1609, how are we to account for the subsequent entry in the same registers 
made previously to the publication of that edition? "Jan. 28, 1608. Richard Bonian and Hen. 
Walley. A booke called the History of Troylus and Cressuda." According to Malone's theory, 
the copyright in 1602 was in Roberts; but in 1608 a new entry claims it for Bonian and Walley. 
In that case there must have been an assignment from Roberts to Bonian and Walley. Roberts 
was a printer. His name appears as printer to the second edition of A Midsummer Night's Dream, 
to the second edition of The Merchant of Venice, and to two editions of Hamlet ; but nowhere as a 
publisher. Altogether the evidence of the date of the play, derived from the entry of 1602, appears 
to us worth very little. Malone most gratuitously assumes that the statement in the preface to the 
edition of 1609, that it was a new play never staled by the stage, was altogether false : " Mr. Pope, 
in his ' Table of Editions of Shakspeare's Plays,' having mentioned one of Troilus and Cressida in 
1609, subjoined a notice of a second copy — 'as acted by the King's Majesty's Servants at the 
Globe ; ' not thinking it necessary to repeat the year. But in fact both these copies are one and 
the same edition. The truth is, that in that edition, where no mention is made of the theatre in 
which the play was represented, we find a preface, in which, to give an additional value to the 
piece, the booksellers assert that it never had been acted. That being found a notorious falsehood, 
they afterwards suppressed the preface, and printed a new title-page, in which it is stated to have 
been acted at the Globe Theatre by his Majesty's Servants. The date of this, as of the other title- 
page, is 1609."* According to this theory, a preface is written which sets out with a lie, known 
to be such by every person who buys the book ; and then, because the lie is found out, a new title- 
page is printed, acknowledging the truth that the play hnd been acted, and the lying preface is 
withdrawn. Is not all this the most forced interpretation of two very simple facts, which are 
perfectly consistent with each other ? Troilus and Cressida was a new play, and it had not been 
publicly acted, when the original edition appeared. The editor does not state this to give an 
" additional value to the piece," for he evidently thinks that the circumstance may be injurious to 
the sale of the book : " Refuse not, nor like this the less for not being sullied with the smoky 
breath of the multitude." After the piece has thus been published, it is publicly acted ; and then 
the preface which states that it has not been acted is naturally suppressed, in a new edition of 
which the title-page bears the additional recommendation of, " As it was acted by the filing's 
Majesty's Servants at the Globe." 

And here arises the question, whether the expressions, "never staled with the stage," — "never 
clapper-clawed with the palms of the vulgar," — " not sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude," 
mean that the play had not been acted at all, or that it had not been acted on the public stage. 
There is a good deal of probability in the conjecture of Tieck upon this subject : — 

"In the palace of some great personage, for whom it was probably expressly written, it was first repre- 
sented, — according to my belief for the King himself, who, weak as he was, contemptible as he sometimes 
showed himself, and pedantic as his wisdom and shortsighted as his politics were, yet must have had a 
certain fine sense of poetry, wit, and talent, beyond what his historians have ascribed to him. But whether 
the King, or some one else of whom we have not received the name, it is sufficient to know that for this 
person, and not for the public, Shakspere wrote this wonderful comedy." 

We have already noticed the remarkable passage in the conclusion of the preface of 1609 in the 
Introductory Notice to Henry V. We there stated that the copy of Troilus and Cressida was 
acknowledged by the editor to have been obtained by some artifice ; that we learn that the copy 
had an escape from some powerful possessors ; and that those possessors were probably the proprietors 
of the Globe Theatre. But another view of this matter may be taken without any glaring inconsistency 



* Note in Malone's edition of Dryden's Prose Works, vol. i., part ii., p. 261. 



73 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



The proprietors of tlie Globe Theatre were clearly hostile to the publication of Shakspere's later plays ; 
and, in fact, with the exception of Lear, and Troilus and Creseida, no play was published between 
1603 and Sliakspere's death. Now, in the title-page of the original Lear, published in 1608, there is 
the following minute particularity : — "As it was played before the King's Majesty at Whitehall upon 
St. Stephen's liight in Christmas holidays, by his Majesty's Sei-vants playing usually at the Globe, on 
the Bank's side." From this statement it appears to us highly probable that in the instances both of 
Lear, and Troilus and Cressida, the pLiys were performed, for the first time, before the King ; that 
the copies so used were out of the control of the players who represented these dramas ; and that 
oome one, authorized or not, printed each play from the copy used on these occasions. Let us look 
again at the passage in the preface to Troilus and Cressida under this impression ; — " Thank Fortune 
for the scape it hath made amongst you, since by the grand possessors' wills I believe you should have 
prayed for them rather than been prayed." There is an obscurity in this passage which we cannot 
attempt to clear up if we receive " the grand possessors " as the proprietors of the Globe Theatre. 
But suppose the grand possessors to be, as Tieck has conjectured, some great personage, probably the 
King himself, for whom the play was expressly written, and a great deal of the obscurity of the 
preface vanishes. By the grand possessors' wills you should have prayed for them (as subjects 
publicly pray for their rulers) rather than been prayed (as you are by players who solicit your 
indulgence in prologues and epilogues). 

We have bestowed more attention upon this inquiry than it may appear at first intrinsically 
to deserve ; but it must be borne in mind that the original quarto edition, upon the credibility of 
which these questions have been raised, is not, like several of the early quartos, a mutilated and 
imperfect copy. From whatever secondary source it proceeded, there can be no doubt that it was 
printed from the genuine copy of the great poet. The slight variations between the text of the 
quarto and of the folio, which we have indicated in our foot-notes, sufficiently show that the 
original was most accurately printed. The alterations of the folio are not corrections of errora in 
the original ; but, for the most part, slight changes of expression. We have no doubt that each text 
was printed from a different but a genuine copy. The consideration of the genuineness of the 
original edition brings us back to the point from which we started. Troilus and Cressida might, as 
we have shown, have been placed between the Histories and Tragedies of the foUo collection, on 
accoimt of the difficulty of classification. But suppose another probable case. The proprietors of 
this first-collected edition of Shakspere's works entered upon the Stationei-s' registers, in 1623, a 
claim to the copyright of sixteen plays, " not formerly entered to other men." The proprietoi-s of 
that edition were four booksellers, in whom, for the most part, the copyright of the original 
quartos had merged by assignment. But it is not difficult to imagine that Bonian and Walley, or 
their representatives, the possessors of the copy of this single play, might have refused to come to 
terms with the proprietors of the folio, and that the printing of this play was necessarily suspended 
till the final settlement of the matter in dispute. In the mean time the printing of the volume had 
gone on to its completion ; and Troilus and Cressida was finally inserted, out of its order, but having 
two pages numbered which show where it was intended to have been placed. 



TROILL'S AOT) CKESSIDA. 



Supposed Source of the Plot. 



■ "The original story," says Dryden, "was ^vTitten by one Lollius, a Lombard, in Latin verse, and 
translated by Chaucer into English; intended, I suppose, a satire on the inconstancy of women. I 
find nothing of it among the ancients, not so much as the name Cressida once mentioned. Shak- 
speare (as I hinted), in the apprenticeship of his writing, modelled it into that play which is now 
called by the name of Troilus and Cressida." "We shall have occasion to revert to Drydcn's opinion 
of this play, and to his transmutation of it into what he considered his own fine gold. Chaucer 
himself speaks of " Myne Auctor Lollius;" and in his address to the Muse, in the beginning of 
the second book, he says, — 

" To every lover I me excuse 
That of no sentiment 1 this endite, 
But out of Latin in my tongue it \\rite." 

Without entering into the question who Lollius was, or believing more than that "Lollius, if a 
writer of that name existed at all, was a somewhat somewhere,"* we at once receive the 'Troilus 
and Creseide ' of Chaucer as the foundation of Shakspere's play. Of his perfect acquaintance with 
that poem there can be no doubt. Chaucer, of all English writers, was the one who would have 
the gi-eatest charm for Shakspere. The Rape of Lucrece is written precisely in the same versifica- 
tion as Chaucer's 'Troilus and Creseide.' When Lorenzo, in The Merchant of Venice, exclaims, — 

" In such anight, 
Troilus, methinks, mounted the Trojan vrall, 
And sigh'd his soul toward the Grecian tents 
Where Cressid lay that night," — 

we may be sure that Shakspere had in his mind the following passages of Chaucer : — 

" Upon the wallas fast eke would he walk, 
. And on the Greekes host he would ysee, 

And to himself right thus he would ytalk : 
' Lo ! yonder is mine owne lady free, 
Or elles yonder there the tentes be, 
And thence cometh this air that is so sote, 
That in my soul I feel it doth me bote.' 
« « * * * 

The day go'th fast, and after that came eve, 
And yet came not to Troilus Creseid : 
He looketh forth by hedge, by tree, by grove. 
And far his head over the wall he laid." 

Mr, Godwin has justly observed that the Shaksperian commentators have done injustice to Chaucer 
in not more distinctly associating his poem with this remarkable play : — 

" It would be extremely unjust to quit the consideration of Chaucer's poem of ' Troilus and Creseide' 
without noticing the Idgh honour it lias received in having been made the foundation of one of tlie plays 
of Shakespear. There seems to have been in this respect a sort of conspiracy in the commentators upon 
Shakespear ag.unst the glory of oiu- old English bard. In what they have written concerning this play, 
they make a very slight mention of Chaucer ; they have not consulted his poem for the purpose of illus- 
trating this admirable drama ; and they have agreed, as far as possible, to transfer to another author 
the honom- of having supplied materials to the tragic artist. Dr. Johnson says, ' Shakespeare has in his 



Coleridge. ' Literary Remains,' vol. ii., p. 130. 



IXXrvODUCTORY NOTICE. 

Btorj' followed, for the greater part, the old book of Caxton, which was then very popular ; but the cha- 
racter of Thcrsite3, of which it makes no mention, is a proof that this i>lay was written after Chapman 
had published his version of Homer.' Mr. Steevcns asserts that 'Shakspe.iro received the greatest part 
of his materials for the structure of this play from the Troyo Boko of Lydgate.' And Mr. Malono 
rcjieatedly treats the 'History of the Destruction of Troy, translated by Caxton,' as ' Shakspearo'a 
authority ' in the composition of this drama. • * » • The fact is, that the play of Shakespear we are 
here considering has for its main foundation the poem of Chaucer, and is indebted for many accessorj' 
heljis to the books mentioned by the commentators. ««••••••* 

" We are not, however, left to probability and conjecture as to the use made by Shakespear of the poem 
of Chaucer. His other sources were Chapman's translation of Homer, the ' Troy Book ' of Lydgate, and 
Caxton's ' History of the Destruction of Troy.' It is well known that there is no trace of the particulai 
story of 'Troilus and Creseidc' among the ancients. It occurs, indeed, in Lydgate and Caxton ; but the 
n.-uno and actions of Pandarus, a very essential personage in the tale as related by Shakespear and Chaucer, 
are entirely wanting, except a single mention of him by Lydgate, and that with an express reference to 
Chaucer as his authority. Shakespear has taken the story of Chaiicer with all its imperfections and deftects, 
and has copied the series of its incidents with his customary fidelitj ; an exactness seldom to be found in 
any other dramatic writer."* 

Although the main incidents in the adventures of the Greek lover and his faithless mistress are 
followed with little deviation, yet, independent of the wonderful difference in the characterization, 
the whole story under the treatment of Shakspere becomes thoroughly original. In no play does 
he appear to us to have a more complete mastery over his materials, or to mould them into more 
plastic shapes by the force of his most surpassing imagination. The gieat Homeric poem, the 
rude romance of the destruction of Troy, the beautiful elaboration of that romance by Chaucer, are 
all subjected to his wondrous alchemy ; and new forms and combinations are called forth so lifelike, 
that all the representations which have preceded them look cold and rigid statues, not warm and 
breathing men and women. Coleridge's theory of the principle upon which this was effected is, we 
have no doubt, essentially true :^ 

*' I am half inclined to believe that Shukspeare's mam object (or shall I rather say his ruling impulse ?) 
was to translate the poetic heroes of Paganism into the not less rude, but more intellectually vigorous, and 
more featurdy, warriors of Christian chivalry, and to substantiate the distinct and graceful profiles or 
outlines of the Homeric epic into the flesh and blood of the romantic drama, — in short, to give a gi-and 
history-piece in the robust style of Albert Durer."t 

Without attempting to exhibit all the materials which Shakspere has thus made his ovra, we shall, 
in the Illustrations to each act, give some passages from Chaucer's poem, Chapman's ' Homer,' 
Caxton's ' Destruction of Troy,' and Lydgate's ' Troy Book,' in which the reader may trace the re- 
semblances which, however obvious or minute, equally manifest the same power in the dramatic 
poet of fashioning a perfect whole out of th.e most incongruous p.arts. 



• I/ife of Chaucer,' vol. i. (4to.). p. SIS 



♦ ' I.iterar>' Remains,' vol. ii., p. 1S3 



TROILUS AND CEESSIDA 



Costume. 



In our notice of the costume for the Midsummer Night's Dream we have given a description 
of the dress and arms of the Greeks during the heroical ages, illustrated by engravings from the 
frieze of the Parthenon. To the information there collected may be added on the present occasion 
that afforded to us by the Iliad of Homer, and the vases and statues possessed or described by the 
late Mr. Hope. According to the latter authorities, the Trojans and other Phrygians appear to have 
worn the tunic with sleeves to the wrist, the tight trousers or pantaloons, and the cap with the 
point bending forwards, in the form of which their helmets were made. In war the tunic of mail 






[A Trojan ] 



[Phrygian Helmets.] 



composed of rings sewn flat upon leather or cloth, like those of the Anglo-Saxons and Normans of 
the 11th century, would seem to have distinguished them in general from the Greeks, who wore 
the cuirass and the greaves. Homer, however, by his descriptions of the armour of the Trojan 
heroes, would induce us to believe that it did not always so essentially differ from that of the Greeks. 
He describes Paris, when arming for the combat with Menelaus, as putting on greaves,* fastened 
with silver buttons, a thorax, or breast-plate, and a helmet with a horse-hair ci-est.+ On an old 
Sicilian vase too, in the Hope collection, Eneas is represented in complete Grecian armour.J Again, 
we gather from the vases that the Phrygian shield, like that of the Amazons, was the Pelta, or 
small semi-lunar shield, and their favourite weapon the bi-pennis, or double axe. Yet Homer 
does not make this distinction, but arms the Trojans with the large orbicular shield of the Greeks, 
the two spears, the sword, &c. He also describes the warriors of both armies as wearing occasionally 
the skins of beasts over their armour. Is it that some of the poets and painters of Greece, like 
all those of the middle ages, represented persons of every nation and period in the costume of 
the country and time in which they themselves wrote or painted ; or was there really little or 
no difference between the Greeks and Trojans when armed for battle ? § In the latter case, are we 
to look upon the interesting figures of Paris and other Phrygians represented on the ancient vases, 
&c., as things of no authority? These are questions the discussion of which would require much 
more time and space than can be afforded to us in the present instance, and we must content our- 
selves with submitting to our readers the engravings from the antique which are scattered through- 
out this play, with the avowal that we lean, as in duty bound, to the pictorial side, and consider 
that there was that remarkable difference between the Grecian armour and that of the Trojans 
which may be observed in the specimens given. The Phrygians are represented in shoes, the 
Greeks in sandals, or with naked feet, when wearing the greaves. 



* Ridiculously rendered by Pope as "pHrp^e catiA^i." 

+ Phrygian helmets, with crests, both of horse-hair and metal, in imitation of the Greek, appear in Hope's collection, 
and so far bear out the poet's description. 

1 Mr. Hope, however, does not give us his authority for so designating the figure, which in the edition of 1S06 is termed 
" a Greek warrior." 

§ Then wherefore " the weli-greaved Greeks? " Does not that designation imply a peculiarity distinguishing them from 
thsir Asiatic or other opponents ? 

77 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

TLe arms of Achilles, worn by Patroclu?, arc said by Homer to have been of brass ornamented 
with gold. Those made for Achilles, by Vulcan, were of various metals, — the greaves of tin, the 
corslet of gold, the sword of brass, the helmet with a fourfold crest of gilded horse-hair, the 
shield of the most elaborate workmanship. The arms of Diomed were all brass; those of Ajax 
steel. Agamemnon's cuirass w.-v? composed of steel, tin, and gold, and ornamented with dragons. 
The hilt of his sword was gold, the sheath silver. His buckler was defended by ten circles and 
twenty bosses of brass, and in the centre had a Gorgon's head. The helmet was surmounted by a 
fuur fold crest of horse-hair. 




[Homer.] 



PERSONS REPRESENTED 



his sons. 



Grecian commanders. 




Priam, King of Troy. 

Hector, 

Troiltjs, 

Paris, 

Deiphobus, 

Helenus, 

' f Trojan commanders. 

Antenor, •' 

Calch AS, a Trojan priest taJiingparl uiih ^/isGreeks 

Pandarus, uncle to Cressida. 

Margarelon, a bastard son of Priam 

Agamemnon, the Grecian general. 

Menelaus, his brother. 

AcaiLLES, 

Ajas, 

Ulysses, 
Nestor, 

DlOMEDES, 

Patrocltjs, 

Thersites, a deformed and scurrilnus Grecicn. 

Alexander, servant to Cressida. 

Servant to Troilus. 

Servant to Paris. 

Servant to Diomedes 

Helen, wife to Menelaus. 
Andhomaciie, wife to Hector. 
Cassandra, daughter to Priam; a prophetess. 
Cressida, daughter to Calchas. 

Trojan and Greek Soldiers, and Attendants 

SCENE,— Troy, and the Grecian Camp 
before it. 








[" To Tenedos they come.^J 



PROLOGUE. 



la Troj there lies the sceue. Fiom isles of 

Greece 
The princes orgulous," their high blood chaf 'd. 
Have to the port of Athens sent their ships, 
Fraught with the ministers and instruments 
Of cmel war : Sixty and nine that wore 
Their crownets regal, from the Athenian bay 
Put forth toward Phrygia : and their vow is made 
To ransack Troy, ^vithin whose strong immures 
The ravish'd Helen, Menelaus' queen, 
AVith wanton Paris sleeps, — and that's the 

quarrel. 
To Tenedos they come ; 
And the deep-drawing barks do there disgoi'ge 
Their warlike fraughtage : Now on Dardan 

plains 
The fresh and yet unbruised Greeks do pitch 
Their brave pavilions : Priam's six-gated city, 
Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan, 
And Antenorides,^ with massy staples. 



* Orgulom — proud — the French orgeuilleux. Lord Bemers, 
in liis translation of Froissart, several times uses the word: 
as, "The Flemings were great, fierce, and orgulout." 

y> The names of the gates thus stand in the folio of 1G23: — 

" Dard;iii and Tinibria, Helias, Chetas, Troicn, 
And Anlcnonidui." 

There can be little doubt that Shakspere had before him 
Caxton's translation of the ' Ilccuyel of the Ilistoryes of 
Troy,' and there the names of the gates are thus pivcn: "In 
this cittie were sixa principall gates : of which the one was 
named Dardane, the second Tymbria, the thyrd llelias, the 
fourth, Chetas, the fifth Troyan, and the sixt Anicnorides." 
But he was also familiar witli the ' Troy Boke ' of Lydpate, 
in which the six gates are described as Dardanydes, Tym- 
bria, Ilelyas, Cetheas, Trojana, Anthonydcs. It is diflicult 

80 



And corresponsive and fulfilling * bolts, 
Sperr up ^ the sons of Troy. 
Now expectation, tickling skittish spirits. 
On one and other side, Trojan and Greek, 
Sets aU on hazard : — And hither am I come 
A prologue arm'd," — but not in confidence 
Of author's pen, or actor's voice ; but suited 
In like conditions as our argument, — 
To teU you, fair beholders, that our play 
Leaps o'er the vaxmt^ and firstlings of those broils, 
Beginning in the middle ; starting thence away 
To what may be digested in a play. 
Like, or find fault ; do as your pleasures are ; 
Now good, or bad, 't is but the chance of war. 

to say whether Shakspere meant to take the Anlenorides of 
Caxton, or the Anthonyiles of Lydgate; or whether, the 
names l)ei!ig pure inventions of the middle age of romance- 
writers, he deviated from both. As it is, we have retained 
the Antenorides of the modern editors. 

a Fulfilling. The \ex\i fulfil is here used in the original 
sense ot fill full. 

*> Sperr up. The original has stirre up, which Tieck con- 
siders preferable to Theobald's substitution of sperr up. 
Desirous as we are to hold to the original, wc cannot a;;rce 
with Tieck. The relative positions of each force are con- 
trasted. The Greeks pitrh their pavilions on Dardan plains; 
the Trojans are shut up in their six-gated city. The com- 
mentators give us examples of the use of .t/xrr, in the sense 
of to fasten, by Spenser and earlier writers. They have 
overlooked a passage in Chaucer's ' Troilus and Crcssida' 
(book v.), which Shakspere must have had before him in 
the composition of his play: — 

" For when he saw her dor6s iperred all. 
Wcl ni(;h for sorrow adoun he gan to fall." 

c Arm'd. Johnson has pointed out that the prologue 
was spoken by one of the characters in armour. "This was 
noticed, because in general the speaker of tlie Prologue 
wore a black cloak. (See Collier's 'Annals of the Stage,' 
(vol. iii , p. 412.) 

d Vaunt — the van. 




t 



8 



S 

oq 









u 




:S 


->) 




8 


^ 




* 


!5 






■< 






*~i 






O 




^ 


K 




•o 


in 




a* • « 


H 




e3 a. c3 

J3 •- » 


a 






n 






2 




3 5.g 


xn 


O 
1) 


111 

.= 2 S 


U 


(-• 


0) C (p 


o 


C 


5 J= .2 






»-5 -3 


H 


o 




OQ 


loS 


b 


CO 


§)til 


O 
i5 


2 


to O . « c3 


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Vu 


S5 s s 




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B a !»< o 


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[SCEKE III. Before Agamemnon's Tent ] 



ACT I. 



SCENE I.— Troy. Before Pnara'5 Palace. 

Enter Tkoilus armed, and Pakdakus. 

Tro. Call here my varlet,*^ I '11 unarm again : 
Why sliould I war without the walls of Troy, 
That find such cruel battle here within ? 
Each Trojan that is master of his heart, 
Let him to field ; Troilus, alas ! hath none. 
Pan. Will this gear ne'er be mended ? 
Tro. The Greeks are strong, and skilful to 
their strength, 
Fierce to their skill, and to their fierceness 

valiant ; 
But I am weaker than a woman's tear, 
Tamer than sleep, fonder than ignorance, 

" Varlet-a. servant. Tooke considers that varlet and 
valet are the same; and ihat, as well as harlr.t, they mean 
hireling. 

Tragedies —Vol, II. G 



Less valiant than the virgin in the night, 
And skni-less as unpractis'd infancy. 

Pan. Well, I have told you enough of this : 
for my part I '11 not meddle nor make no fartlier. 
He that will have a cake out of the wheat must 
needs '^ tarry the grinding. 

Tro. Have I not tarried ? 

Pan. Ay, the grinding : but you must tarry the 
bolting. 

Tro. Have I not tarried ? 

Pan. Ay, the bolting : but you must tarry the 
leavening. 

Tro. Still have I tamed. 

Pan. Ay, to the leavening : but here's yet m 
the word hereafter, the kneading, the making of 

a Needs is not found in the quarto, and is consequently 
omitted in all modern editions. 

81 



ACT I.] 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



[SCEME I. 



the cake, the heating of the oven, and the baking : 
nay, you must stay tlie cooling too, or you may 
chance to burn your lips. 

Tro. Patience herself, what goddess e'er she 

be, 
Doth lesser blench at sufferance than I do. 
At Priam's royal table do I sit ; 
And when f;ur Cressid comes into my thoughts, — 
So, traitor ! when she comes ! — \\'heu is she 

thence ? ' 
Pan. Well, slie looked yesternight fairer than 
ever I saw her look, or any woman else. 

Tro. I was about to tell thee,— When my 

heart. 
As wedged with a sigh, would rive in twain; 
Lest Hector or my father should perceire me, 
I have (as when the sun doth light a storm) 
Buried this sigh in wrinkle of a smile : 
But sorrow that is couch'd in seeming gladness 
Is like that mirth fate turns to sudden sadness. 

Pan. An her hair were not somewhat darker 
than Ilelen's, (well, go to,) there were no more 
comparison between the women. — But, for my 
part, she is my kinswoman ; I would not, as 
they term it, praise her, — But I would some- 
body had heard her talk yesterday, as I did. I 
will not dispraise your sister Cassandra's wit ; 
but— 

Tro. O, Pandarus ! I tell thee, Pandarus, — 
When I do tell thee, there my hopes He drown'd. 
Reply not in how many fathoms deep 
They lie indrench'd. I teU thee, I am mad 
In Cressid's love : Thou answer'st, she is fair ; 
Pour'st in the open ulcer of my heart 
Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait, her 

voice ; 
Handiest in thv discourse, 0, that her hand, 
In whose comparison all whites are ink. 
Writing their own reproach ; ^ to whose soft 

seizure 
The cygnet's down is harsh, and spirit of sense "^ 
Hard as the palm of ploughman; — this thou 

tell'st me. 
As true thou tell'st me, when I say I love her ; 
But, saying thus, instead of oil and balm. 
Thou lay'st in every gash that love hath given me 
The knife that made it. 



• This line a? it stands is an inf;enious and tasteful cor- 
rection by Rowe The line in both the originals appears 
thus:— 

" So (traitor) then she conies when she is thence." 

b We do not receive this passage as an interjection be- 
ginning " O ! that her hand ;" for what does Troilus desire? 
— the wish is incomplete. The meaning we conceive to be 
rather,— in thy discourse thou handiest that hand of hers, 
ill whose comparison, &c. 

c Johnson explains tpirit of tensi as the most exquisite 
sensibility of touch. 
82 



Pan. I speak no more than truth. 

Tro. Thou dost not speak so much. 

Pan. 'Faith, I'll not meddle in't. Let her 
be as she is : if she be fair 't is the better for 
her; an she be not slie has the mends in her 
own hands. 

Tro. Good Pandarus ! How now, Pandarus ? 

Pan. I have had my labour for my travail; 
Hi-thought on of her, and ill-thought ou of you : 
gone between and between, but small thanks for 
my labour. 

Tro. What, art thou angry, Pandarus ? what, 
with me ? 

Pan. Because she is kin to me, therefore she 's 
not so fair as Helen : an she were not kin to me, 
she would be a.s fair on Friday as Helen is on 
Sunday. But what care I ? I care not an she 
were a black-a-moor ; 't is all one to me. 

Tro. Say I she is not fair ? 

Pan. I do not care whether you do or no. 
She 's a fool to stay behind her father ; let her 
to the Greeks ; and so I '11 tell her the next time 
I see her : for my part, I '11 meddle nor make no 
more in the matter. 

Tro. Pandarus, — 

Pan. Not I. 

Tro. Sweet Pandarus, — 

Pan. Pray you, speak no more to me ; I will 
leave all as I found it, and there an end. 

lE.rit Pakdartjs. Jn alarvm. 

Tro. Peaoe, you ungracious clamours ! peace, 
rude sounds ! 
Fools on both sides ! Helen must needs be fair. 
When with your blood you daily paint her thus. 
I cannot fight upon this argument ; 
It is too starv'd a subject for my sword. 
But Pandarus — gods, how do you plague me ! 
I cannot come to Cressid but by Pandar ; 
And he 's as tetchy to be woo'd to woo. 
As she is stubborn-chaste, against all suit. 
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love. 
What Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we ? 
Her bed is India ; there she lies, a pearl : 
Between our Ilium and where she resides. 
Let it be call'd the vrild and wandering flood ; 
Ourself, tlie merchant ; and this sailing Pandar, 
Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our baik. 

Alarum. Enter JEneas. 

J^ne. How now, prince Troilus? wherefore 

not afield ? 
Tro. Because not there : This woman's answer 
sorts. 
For womanish it is to be from thence. 
What news, iEneas, from the field to-day r 



Act I.l 



TROILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene II. 



^ne. That Paris is retiirued home, and hui-t. 
Tro. By M'hom, ^Eneas ? 
/Sne. Troilus, by Meuelaus. 

Tro. Let Paris bleed : 't is but a scar to scorn; 
Paris is gor'd with Menelaus' hoi-n. [Alanrm. 
JH/ie. Hark ! wliat good sport is out of to^vn 

to-day ! 
Tro. Better at home, if 'would I micyht' 
were 'may.' — 
But to the sport abroad: — Ai-e you bound 
thither ? 
jEiie. In all swift haste. 
Tro. Come, go we then together. 

{Exe2int. 

SCENE II.— The same. A Street. 

Enter Cresslda and Alexander. 

Cres. Who were those went by ? 

Ale.T. Queen Hecuba, and Helen. 

Cres. And whither go they ? 

Ale.r. Up to the eastern towei', 

"Wliose height commands as subject all the 

vale. 
To see the battle. Hector, whose patience 
Is, as a virtue, fix'd, to-day was raov'd : 
He chid Andi-omache, and struck his armoiu-er ; 
And, like as there were husbandry in war. 
Before the sun rose he was harness'd light. 
And to the field goes he ; where every flower 
Did, as a prophet, weep what it foresaw 
In Hector's wrath. 



Cres. 



Wliat was his cause of an£cer ? 



1 



Alex. The noise goes, this : There is among 
the Greeks 
A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector ; 
They call him Ajax. 

Cres. Good ; and what of him ? 

Ale.x. They say he is a very man per se. 
And stands alone. 

Cres. So do all men ; unless they are drunk, 
sick, or have no legs. 

Alex. This man, lady, hath robbed many 
beasts of their particular additions; he is as 
vaHant as the Hon, churlish as the bear, slow as 
the elephant : a man into whom nature hath so 
crowded humours, that his valour is crushed 
into foUy, his folly sauced with discretion : there 
is no man hath a virtue that he hath not a 
glimpse of; nor any man an attaint but he 
carries some stain of it : he is mekncholy with- 
out cause, and merry against the hair- : He hath 
the joints of everything; but evei-y thing so out 
of joint, that he is a gouty Briareus, many hands 

G 2 



and no use ; or purbliuded " Argus, all eyes and 
no sight. 

Cres. But how should this man, that makes 
me smile, make Hector angry ? 

Alex. They say he yesterday coped Hector in 
the battle, and struck him down; the disdain 
and shame whereof hafh ever since kept Hector 
fasting and waking. 

Enter Pandartjs. 

Cres. Who comes here ? 

Alex. Madam, your uncle Pandarus. 

Cres. Hector 's a gallant man. 

Alex. As may be in the world, lady. 

Pan. What 's that ? what 's that ? 

Cres. Good morrow, uncle Pandanis. 

Pan. Good morrow, cousin Cressid : What do 
you talk of?— Good morrow, Alexander. — How 
do you, cousin ? When were you at Ilium ? ' 

Cres. This morning, uncle. 

Pan. What were you talking of when I came ? 
Was Hector armed, and gone, ere ye came to 
Ilium ? Helen was not up, was she ? 

Cres. Hector was gone ; but Helen was not 

up- 

Pan. E'en so ; Hector was stirring early. 

Cres. That were we talking of, and of his 
anger. 

Pan. Was he angry ? 

Cres. So he says here. 

Pan. True, he was so ; I know the cause too ; 
he 'U lay about him to-day, I can tell them that : 
and there's Troilus will not come far behind 
him ; let them take heed of Troilus ; I can teU 
them that too. 

Cres. What, is he angry too ? 

Pan. Who, Troilus ? Troilus is the better 
man of the two. 

Ores. 0, Jupiter ! there 's no comparison. 

Pan. What, not between Troilus and Hector ? 
Do you know a man if you see him ? 

Cres. Ay ; if I ever saw him before, and knew 
him. 

Pan. Well, I say Troilus is Troilus. 

Cres. Then you say as I say ; for I am sui'e he 
is not Hector. 

Pan. No, nor Hector is not Troilus, in some 
degrees. 

Cres. "T is just to each of them ; he is liim- 
self. 

Pan. Himself ? Alas, poor Troilus ! I would 
he were. 

Cres. So he is. 



Purblindcd in the folio— the quarto /jurft/ind. 

S3 



ACT I.] 



TKOILUS AND CKESSIDA. 



[scESF. n. 



Fan. 'Condition, I had gone barefoot to 
India. 

Cres. He is not Hector. 

Tan. Himself? no, he 's not himself. — MVould 
'a were himself ! "Well, the gods are above. Time 
must friend, or end : Well, Troilus, well, — I 
would my heart were in her body ! — No, Heetor 
is not a belter man than Troilus. 

Cres. Excuse me. 

Tan. He is elder. 

Cres. Pardon me, pardon me. 

Tan. The other's not come to't; you shall 
tell me another tale when the other's come to't. 
Hector shall not have his wit ' this year. 

Cres. He shall not need it, if he have his 
own. 

Tan. Nor his qualities ; — 

Cres. No matter. 

Nor his beauty. 

'T would not become him, 



his ovni 's 



Tan. 

Cres, 
better. 

Tan. You have no judgment, niece: Helen 
herself swore the other day, that Troilus, for a 
bro\vn favour, (for so 'tis, I must confess,) — 
Not brown neither. 

Cres. No, but brown. 

Tan. Faith, to say truth, brown and not 
brown. 

Cres. To say the truth, true and not true. 

Tan. She prais'd his complexion above Paris. 

Cres. lYhy, Paris hath colour enough. 

Tan. So he has. 

Cres. Then Troilus should have too much : if 
she praised him above, his complexion is higher 
than his; he having colour enough, and the 
other higher, is too llaming a praise for a good 
complexion. I had as lief Helen's golden tongue 
had cemmended Troilus for a copper nose. 

Tan. I swear to you, 1 think Helen loves him 
better than Paris. 

Cres. Th?n she 's a merry Greek, indeed. 

Tan. Nay, I am sure she does. She came to 
him the other day into the compassed window,** 
— and, you know, he has not past three or four 
hairs on his chin. 

Cres. Indeed, a tapster's arithmetic may soon 
bring his particulars therein to a total. 

Tan. Wliy, he is very young : and yet will 
he, within tliree pound, lift as much as his bro- 
ther Hector. 

Cres. Is he so young a man, and so old a 
lifter?" 



» Wil. — This is Rowe's correction : both the old copies 
have will. 
b Cnmpattfd irinrfoir— a bow-'window. 
c Lifler— thief. We still say a thopli/ter. 



Tan. But, to prove to you that Helen loves 
him ; — she came, and puts me her white hand 
to his cloven chin, — 

Cres. Juno have mercy ! — How came it 
cloven ? 

Ta/i. Why, you know, 't is dimpled : I think 
his smiUng becomes him better than any man in 
all Phrygia. 

Cres. O, he smiles valiantly. 

Tan. Does he not ? 

Crc-i. O yes, an 'twere a cloud in autumn. 

Tan. AVhy, go to then. — But to prove to you 
that Helen loves Troilus, — 

Cres. Troilus will stand to the proof, if you 'h 
prove it so. 

Tan. TroUus ? why, he esteems her no more 
than I esteem an addle egg. 

Cres. If you love an addle egg as well as you 
love an idle head, you would eat chickens i' the 
shell. 

Tan. I cannot choose Ijut laugh, to think how 
she tickled his chin ! — Indeed, slie has a mar- 
vellous white hand, I must needs confess. 

Cres. Without the rack. 

Tan. And she takes upon her to spy a white 
hair on his ehiu. 

Cres. Alas, poor chin ! mauy a wart is richer. 

Tan. But there was siicli laughing ; — Queen 
Hecuba lauglied, that her eyesTan o'er. 

Cres. With mill-stones. 

Tan. And Cassandra laughed. 

Cres. But there was more temperate fire under 
the pot of her eyes : — Did her eyes nm o'er 
too? 

Tan. jVnd Hector laughed. 

Cres. At what was all this laughing ? 

Tan. iNIarry, at the white hair that Helen 
spied on Troilus' chin. 

Cres. An "t had been a green hair, I should 
have laughed too. 

Tan. They laughed not so much at the hair, 
as at his pretty answer. 

Cres. What was his answer ? 

Tan. Quoth she, ' Here 's but two and fifty 
hairs on your chin, and one of them is white.' 

C/es. This is her qiiestion. 

Tan. That 's true ; make no question of that. 
' Two and fifty hairs,' » quoth be, ' and one white : 
Tliat white hair is my father, and all the rest are 
his sons.' ' Jupiter ! ' quoth she, ' which of these 



» So the quarto and folio. Some modern copies read 
one and fifty. "How else can the number make out Priam 
anil )ll^ iiliy son> ? " says Tliroh.ild. 'Jliis is an exactness 
which Priam and his chroniclers would equally have 
spumed. The Margnrelon nf the romance-writers, who 
makes his appearance in Act v., is one of the additions to 
the old classical family. We leave the text as we find it. 



Act I.] 



TliOILUS AXD CEESStDxi. 



[SclXK II. 



hairs is Paris my husbaud ? ' * The forJied one,' 
quoth he, ' pluck it out, and give it him.' But, 
there was such laughing ! and Helen so blushed, 
and Paris so chafed, and all the rest so laughed, 
that it passed.* 

Ores. So let it now ; for it has been a great 
wlule going by. 

Pan. Well, cousin, I told you a thiug yester- 
day ; think on 't. 

Cres. So I do. 

Fan. I'll be sworn 'tis true; He will weep 
yoc, an 't were a man born in April. 

Crcs. And I'U spring up in his tears, an 
't were a nettle against May. 

\_A retreat sotinded. 

Pan. Hark, they are coming from the field: 
Shall we stand up here, and see them, as they 
pass toward Ilium ? good niece, do ; sweet niece 
Cressida. 

Ores. At your pleasure. 

Pan. Here, here, here's an excellent place; 
here we may see most bravely : I 'U tell you 
them all by their names, as they pass by ; but 
mark Troilus above the rest. 

jEneas passes over the Stage. 

Cres. Speak not so loud. 

Pan. That 's jEneas : Is not that a brave 
man ? he 's one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell 
you. But mark Troilus ; you shall see anon. 

Cres. Who 's that ? 

Antenor passes over. 

Pan. That's Anteuor ; he has a shrewd wit, I 
can tell you ; and he 's a man good enough : 
he 's one o' the soundest judgment in Troy, 
whosoever, and a proper man of person : — When 
comes Troilus ? — I 'U show you Troilus anon ; if 
he see me, you shall see him nod at me. 

Cres. Wni he give you the nod ? 

Pan. You shall see. 

Cres. If he do, the rich shall have more. 

Hector passes over. 

Pan. That 's Hector,^ that, that, look you, 
that : there 's a feUow ! — Go thy way. Hector ! 
— There 's a brave man, niece. — O brave Hector ! 
— Look, how he looks ! there 's a countenance ! 
Is 't not a brave man ? 

Cres. 0, a brave man ! 

Pan. Is 'a not ? It does a man's heart good — 
Look you what hacks are ou hia helmet ! look 



» Passed— vcas excessive. So in the Merry Wives of 
Windsor,—" AVhy, this passes, master Ford." Cressida 
retorts in the common acceptation of the word. 



you yonder, do you sec ? look you there ! there is 
no jesting: there's laying en; tak't off who 
will, as they say : there be hacks ! 
Cres. Be those with swords ? 

Tavus passes over. 

Pan. Swords ? anything, he cares not : an the 
devil come to him, it 's all one : By god's lid, 
it does one's heart good : — Yonder comes Paris, 
yonder comes Paris : look ye yonder, niece. Is't 
not a gallant man too, is 't not ?— Why, this is 
brave now. — Who said he came hurt home to- 
day ? he 's not hurt : why, this will do Helen's 
heart good now. Ha ! 'would I could see 
Troilus now ! — you shall see Troilus anon. 

Cres. Who 's that ? 

Helenus passes over. 

Pan. That 's Helenus, — I marvel where Troilus 
is : — That 's Helenus ; — I think he went not forth 
to-day : — That 's Helenus. 

Cres. Can Helenus fight, uncle ? 

Pan. Helenus ? no ; — yes, he '11 fight indif- 
ferent well : — I marvel where Troilus is ! — 
Hark ; do you not hear the people cry, Troilus ? 
— Helenus is a priest. 

Cres. What sneaking fellow comes yonder ? 

Troilus passes over. 

Pan. Where? yonder? that's Deiphobus: 
'Tis Troilus! there's a man, niece! — Hen'--- 
Brave Troilus ! the prince of chivahy. 

Cres. Peace, for shame, peace ! 

Pan. Mark him ; note him ; — brave Troilus 
— look well upon him, niece ; look you, how his 
sword is bloodied, and his helm more hacked 
than Hector's : And how he looks, and how he 
goes ! — O admirable youth ! he ne'er saw three- 
and-twenty. Go thy way, Troilus, go thy way ; 
had I a sister were a grace, or a daughter a god- 
dess, he shoiJd take his choice. O admirable 
man 1 Paris ? — Paris is dii't to him ; and, I war- 
rant, Helen, to change, would give money to 
boot. 

Forces pass over the stage. 

Cres. Here come more. 

Pan. Asses, fools, dolts ! chaff and bran, chaff 
and bran! porridge after m.eat! I coidd live 
and die i' the eyes of Troilus. jN'e'cr look, ne'er 
look ; the eagles are gone ; crows and daws, 
crows and daws ! I had rather be such a man as 
Troilus, than Agamemnon and all Greece. 

Cres. There is among the Greeks, Achilles ; 
a better man tlian Troilus. 

85 



Act 1.] 



TROILUS AND CllESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Pan. Acliillcs ? a drayman, a porter, a very 
camel. 

Cres. Well, wcU. 

Pan. "Well, well ? — Why, have yovi any dis- 
cretion? have you any eyes? Do you know 
what a man is ? Is not birth, beauty, good 
shape, discourse, nianliood, learning, gentleness, 
virtue, youth, liberality, and so forth,'' the spice 
and salt that season a man ? 

Crcs. Ay, a minced man : and then to be 
baked with no date in the pie, — for then the 
man's date 's out. 

Pan. You are such another "^ woman! one 
knows not at what ward you lie. 

Cres. Upon my back, to defend my belly ; 
upon my wit, to defend my wiles ; upon my 
secrecy, to defend mine honesty ; my mask, to 
defend my beauty ; and you, to defend all these : 
and at all these wards I lie, at a thousand 
watches. 

Pan. Say one of youi- watches. 

Cres. Nay, I '11 watch you for that ; and that 's 
cue of the chiefcst of them too ; if I cannot ward 
•what I would not have hit, I can watch you for 
telling how I took the blow ; unless it swell past 
hiding, and then it 's past watching. 

Pan. You are such another ! 

Enier Troelus' Boy. 

Boy. Su', my lord would instantly speak with 
you. 

Pan. Where? 

Boy. At vour own house ; [there he unarms 
him.*=J 

Pan. Good boy, tell him I come : [Exit Boy. 
I doubt, he be hurt. — Fare ye well, good niece. 

Cres. Adieu, uncle. 

Pan. I '11 be with you, niece, by and by. 

Cres. To bring, uncle, — 

Pan. Ay, a token from Troilus. 

Cres. By the same token — you are a bawd. 

\_E.vii Pandakus. 
Words, vows, gifts,"* tears, and love's full sacrifice. 
He offers in another's enterprise : 
But more in Troilus thousand-fold I sec 
Than in the glass of Bandar's praise may be ; 
Yet hold I olT. Women are angels, wooing : 
Things won are done, joy's soul lies in the doing : 
That she bclov'd knows nought that knows not 

this, — 
Men prize the thing ungain'd more than it is : 



" Sn forth in the folio— the qiiarto, luch like. 
*> AnulHi-r in the folio — the ijuarlo, a. 
c The \vor(l.'i in brackets arc not in the folio, 
d Ci/lt is the reading of all the old copies. GrU/$ crept 
into tome of the earlier modern editions. 
86 



That she was never yet that ever knew 
Love got so sweet, as when desire did sue : 
Therefore this maxim out of love I teach, — 
Achievement is command ; ungain'd, beseech : 
Then though my heart's content firm love dotii 

bear. 
Nothing of that shall from mine eyes appear. 

[ErU. 



SCENE lU.—ne Grecian Camp. Before 
Agamcmnon'5 2'enL 

Senet. Enter Agamejinox, Nestor, Ulysses, 
!Menelal'S, and others. 

Agam. Princes, 
What grief hath set the jaundice on your 

cheeks ? 
The ample proposition that hope makes 
In all designs begun on earth below. 
Fails in the promis'd largeness : checks and dis- 
asters 
Grow in the veins of actions highest rear'd ; 
AlS knots, by the conflux of meeting sap, 
Infect the sound pine, and divert his grain 
Tortive and errant from his coiu'se of growth. 
Nor, princes, is it matter new to us. 
That we come short of our suppose so far. 
That, after seven years' siege, yet Troy walls 

stand ; 
Sith every action that hath gone before, 
Whereof we have record, trial did draw 
Bias and thwart, not answering the aim. 
And that unbodied figure of the thought 
That gave 't surmised shape. "Wliy then, you 

princes. 
Do you with cheeks abash'd behold our works ; 
And call' them sharnes, which are, indeed, 

nought else 
But the protraelive trials of great Jove, 
To find persistivc constancy in men ? 
The fineness of which metal is not found 
In fortune's love : for then, the bold and coward, 
The wise and fool, the artist and unread. 
The hard and soft, seem all atSn'd and kin : 
But, in the wind and tempest of her frown. 
Distinction, with a broad '■ and powerful fan. 
Puffing at all, winnows the light away ; 
And what hath mass, or matter, by itself 
Lies, rich in virtue, and muningled. 

Isest. With due observance of thy godlike seat, 
Great Agamemnon, Nestor shall apply 
Thy latest words. In the reproof of chance 



> Call is the reading of the quarto— the folio has tkink 
them shame. 
b Broad in the quarto — tho folio, loud. 



Act I.] 



TROILUS AA'D CEESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Lies the true proof of men : tlie sea being 

smooth, 
How many shallow bauble boats dare sail 
Upon her patient breast, making their way 
With those of nobler bulk ! 
But let the ruffian Boreas once em-age 
The gentle Thetis, and, anon, behold 
The strong-ribb'd bark through liquid mountains 

cut, 
Bouudiug between the two moist elements. 
Like Perseus' horse : Where 's then the saucy 

boat. 
Whose weak untimber'd sides but even now 
Co-rivall'd greatness ? either to harbour fled, 
Or made a toast for Neptune. Even so 
Doth valour's show, and valour's worth, divide. 
In storms of fortune : For, in her ray and bright- 
ness. 
The herd hath more annoyance by the brize * 
Than by the tiger ; but when the splitting wind 
Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks. 
And flies fled under shade, why, then, the thing 

of courage. 
As rous'd with rage, with rage doth sympathize. 
And, with an accent tun'd in self-same key, 
Returns to chiding fortune.'' 

Ulyss. Agamemnon, — 

Thou great commander, nerve and bone of 

Greece, 
Heart of our numbers, soul and only spirit. 
In whom the tempers and the minds of all 
Should be shut up, — hear what Ulysses speaks. 
Besides the applause and approbation 
The which, — most mighty for thy place and 

sway, — [_To Agaieeilnox. 

jVnd thou most reverend for thy stretch'd-out 

life,— ITo Nestok. 

I give to both your speeches, — which were such 
As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece 
Should hold up high in brass ; and such again. 
As venerable Nestor, hatch' d in silver, 
Should with a bond of air, strong as the axletree 
On which heaven rides, knit all the Greekish ears.'= 
To his experienced tongue,— yet let it please 

both,— 
Thou great, — and wise,— to hear Ulysses speak. 
Agam. Speak, prince of Ithaca ; and be 't of 

less expect 
That matter needless, of importless burden, 
Divide thy lips, than we are confident, 

tt Brixe— the gad-fly. 

i* The original has an obvious misprint: — 
"iJe/eVci to chiding fortune." 
Pope suggested retvnis. Hanmer and Mr. Collier's folio 
Corrector have replies, which is better, although returns 
gives the meaning. Mr. Dyce suggests retorts, which might 
well be adopted. « This is the reading of the auarto. 



When rank Thersites opes his mastick" jaws, 
We shall bear music, wit, and oracle. 

Uylss, Troy, yet upon his basis, had been 
down. 
And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a 

master. 
But for these instances. 
The specialty of rule hath been neglected : 
And, look, how many Grecian tents do stand 
Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow fac- 
tions. 
When that the general is not like the hive 
To whom the foragers shall all repair. 
What honey is expected ? Degree being vizarded. 
The unworthiest shows as fairly in the mask. 
The heavens themselves, the planets and this 

centre, 
Observe degree, priority, and place, 
Insisture, coui-se, proportion, season, fonu, 
OfiBce, and custom, in all line of order : 
And therefore is the glorious planet, Sol, 
In noble eminence enthron'd and spher'd 
Amidst the other ; whose med'cinable eye 
Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil. 
And posts, like the commandment of a king, 
Sans check, to good and bad : But when the 

planets. 
In evil mixture, to disorder wander. 
What plagues, and what portents ! what mutiny ! 
What raging of the sea ! shaking of earth ! 
Commotion in the winds ! frights, changes, hor- 
rors. 
Divert and crack, rend and deracinate 
The unity and married calm of states 
Quite from their- fixture ! 0, when degree is 

shak'd, 
Which is the ladder to all high designs. 
The enterprise is sick ! How could communities. 
Degrees in schools, and brotherhoods in cities. 
Peaceful commerce from dividable shores, 
The primogenitive and due of birth. 
Prerogative of age, crowns, sceptres, laurels. 
But by degree, stand in authentic place ? 



" Maslkh.—V>'e retain the word of the original. Mas- 
tide is there printed with a capital initial, as marking 
something emphafc. In BasweU's edition the word is 
rendered ma.-,tive. We are ire iiied to think that ">">'"■!' '« 
not a typographical mistake. Every one has heard ol 
Prynne's celebrated book, " Histrio-ilastix: The Piayers 
Scourge:" but it is not so generally known that this title- 
was borrowed by the great controversialist from a plav first 
printed in IGIO. but supposed to be written earlier, which is 
a satire upon actors and dramatic writers from first to last. 
We attach little importance to ihe circumstance that tue 
author of that satire has introduced a dialogue between 
Troilus and Cressida ; for the subject had most probably 
possession of the stage before Shakspere's play. «>." " 
appears to us by no means improbable that an epithe 
should be applied to the "rank Thersites" which shoiUd 
pretty clearly point at one who had done enough to make 
himself obnoxious to the poet's fraternity. 

87 



Act I.] 



TKOILUS A^D CRESS IDA. 



[Scene III. 



thing 



Take but degree awav, untune that string, 
And, hark, uhat discord follows ! each 

meets 
In mere oppugnaucy : The bounded waters 
Should lift their bosoms higher than the shores, 
And make a sop of all this solid globe : 
Strength should be lord of imbecility, 
And the rude son should strike his father dead : 
Force should be right; or, rather, right aud 



(Between whose endless jar justice resides) 
Should lose their names, and so should justice 

too. 
Then everything includes itself in power, 
Power into will, will mto appetite ; 
And appetite, an universal wolf. 
So doubly seconded with will and power, 
Must make, perforce, an universal prey. 
And, last, eat up himself. Great Agamemnon, 
This chaos, when degree is suffocate. 
Follows the choking. 
And this neglection of degree is it, 
That by a pace goes backward, in a purpose 
It hath to climb. The general 's disdain'd 
By him one step below ; he, by the next ; 
That next, by him beneath : so every step, 
Exampled by the first pace that is sick 
Of his superior, grows to an envious fever 
Of pale and bloodless emulation : 
And 't is this fever that keeps Troy on foot, 
Not her own sinews. To end a talc of length, 
Troy in our weakness lives,* not in her strength. 

Nesi. !Most wisely hatli Ulysses here discover'd 
The fever whereof all our power is sick. 

Agam. The nature of the sickness found, 
Ulysses, 
What is the remedy ? 

Vlyss. The great Achilles, whom opinion 
crowns 
The sinew and the forehand of our liost, 
Having his ear full of his airy fame. 
Grows dainty of his worth, and in his tent 
Lies mocking our designs : With him, Patroclus, 
Upon a lazy bed, the livelong day 
Breaks seurril jests ; 
Aud with ridiculous and awkward action 
f Which, slanderer, he imitation calls,) 
Ue pageants us. Sometime, great Agamemnon, 
Thy topless deputation he puts on ; 
And like a strutting player, whose conceit 
Lies in his hamstring, aud doth think it rich 
To hear the wooden dialogue and sound 
'T wi.\t his strctch'd footing aud the scaffold- 
age, 

' Litei in the roUo— in the qmrto, tlantit. 
88 



Such to-be-pitied and o'er-wTcsted seeming 
lie acts thy greatness in : and when he speaks, 
'T is like a chime a mending ; with terms un- 

squar'd, 
Wliich from the tongue of roaring Typlion 

dropp'd 
Would seem hyperboles. At this fusty stuff. 
The large Achilles, on his prcss'd bed lolling. 
From his deep chest laughs out a loud applause ; 
Cries — ' Excellent ! — 'T is Agamemnon just. — 
Now play me Nestor ;— hem, and stroke thy 

beard. 
As he, being 'dress'd to some oration.' — 
That 's done ; — as near as the extremest ends 
Of parallels, — as like as Vulcan and his wife : 
Yet god "^ Achiiles still cries, ' Excellent ; 
'T is Nestor right ! Now play him me, Patroclus, 
Ai-ming to answer in a night alarm.' 
And then, forsooth, the faint defects of age 
Must be the scene of mirth ; to cough, and spit 
And with a palsy, fumbling on his gorget. 
Shake in aud out the rivet ; — aud at this sport. 
Sir Valoui' dies ; cries, ' ! — enough, Patroclus ; 
Or give me ribs of steel ! I shall split all 
In pleasure of my spleen.' And in this fashion, 
All our abilities, gifts, natures, shapes, 
Sevcrals and generals of grace exact. 
Achievements, plots, orders, preventions, 
Excitements to the field, or speech for truce. 
Success, or loss, Avhat is, or is not, serves 
As stuff for these two to make paradoxes. 

Nesi. And in the imitation of these twain 
(AVhom, as Ulysses says, opinion crowns 
With an imperial voice,) many are infect. 
Ajax is grown self-will'd ; and bears his head 
In such a rein, in full as proud a place 
As broad Achilles j keeps his tent like him ; 
!Makes factious feasts ; rails on our state of war, 
Bold as an oracle ; aud sets Thersitcs 
(A slave whose gall coins slanders like a mint) 
To match us in comparisons with dirt ; 
To weaken and discredit our exposure, 
How rank soever rounded iu with danger. 
U/j/ss. They tax our policy, and call it cow- 
ardice ; 
Count •wisdom as no member of the war ; 
Forestall prescience, and esteem no act 
But that of hand : the still and mental parts, — 
That do contrive how many liands shall strike, 
When fituess calls tliem on ; and know, by 

measure 
Of their observant toil, the enemies' weight, — 
Why, this hath not a finger's dignity : 

•I Clod in the old copies. It is flittered down by the 
moderns into good. 



Act 1.] 



TKOILUS Ai!^D CEESSIDA. 



[SC£N£ 111. 



They call this bed-work, mappery, closet-war : 
So that the ram that batters down the wall, 
For the great spring and rudeness of his poise, 
They place before his hand that made the engine ; 
Or those that with the fineness of their souls 
By reason guide his execution. 

Nest. Let this be granted, and AchiUes' horse 
;Makes many Thetis' sons. \_Tucket sounds. 

Agam. "What trumpet? look, Menelaus. 

Enter jExeas. 

Men. From Troy, 

Agam. What would you 'fore our tent ? 

^ne. Is this 

Great Agamemnon's tent, I pray you ? 

Agam. Even this. 

Mie. May one that is a herald, and a prince, 
Do a fair message to his kingly ears ? 

Agam. With surety stronger than AchUles' 
arm 
'Fore all the Greekish heads, which with one 

voice 
CaU. Agamemnon head and general. 

Mne. Fair leave, and large security. How 
may 
A stranger to those most imperial looks 
Know them from eyes of other mortals ? 

Agam. How ? 

Mne. Ay; 
I ask, that I might waken reverence, 
And bid the cheek be ready with a blush 
Modest as morning when she coldly eyes 
The youthful Phoebus : 
IVhich is that god in office, guiding men ? 
AVhich is the high and mighty Agamemnon ? 

Agam. This Trojan scorns us ; or the men of 
Troy 
Are ceremonious courtiers. 

Mie. Courtiers as free, as debonair, unarm' d, 
A.S bending angels ; that 's then- fame in peace : 
But when they would seem soldiers, they have 

galls, 
Good arras, strong joints, true swords ; and, 

Jove's accord, 
Nothing so full of heart. But peace, Jilneas, 
Peace, Trojan ; lay thy finger on thy lips ! 
The worthiness of praise distains his worth, 
If that the prais'd liimself bring the praise forth : 
But what the repming enemy commends. 
That breath fame blows ; that praise, sole pure, 
ti'anscends. 

Agam. Sir, you of Troy, call you yourself 
Jineas ? 

^Ene. Ay, Greek, that is my name. 

Agam. AVliat 's youi" affair, I pray you ? 



/Ene. Sir, pardon; 'tis for Agamemnon's 
ears. 

Agam. He hears nought privately that comes 
from Troy. 

AEne. Nor I from Troy come not to whisper 
him : 
I bring a trumpet to awake his ear ; 
To set his sense on the attentive bent, 
And then to speak. 

Agam. Speak frankly as the wind : 

It is not Agamemnon's sleeping hour : 
That thou shalt know, Trojan, he is awake, 
He tells thee so himself. 

AEne. Trumpet, blow loud. 

Send thy brass voice through all these lazy 

tents ; 
And every Greek of mettle, let him know, 
What Troy means faiiiy shall be spoke aloud. 

[_Trumpet sounds. 
We have, great Agamemnon, here in Troy 
A prince call'd Hector, (Priam is his father,) 
Who in this dull and long- continued truce 
Is rusty gro\vn ; he bade me take a trumpet. 
And to this pm-pose speak. Kings, princes, 

lords ! => 
If there be one, among the fair'st of Greece, 
That holds liis honour higher than his ease ; 
That seeks his praise more than he fears his 

peril ; 
That knows liis valoui", and knows not his fear. 
That loves' his mistress more than in confession, 
(With truant vows to her own lips he loves,) 
And dare avow her beauty and her worth, 
In other arms than hers — to him this challenge. 
Hector, in view of Trojans and of Greeks, 
Shall make it good, or do his best to do it. 
He hath a lady, wiser, fairer, truer, 
Than ever Greek did compass in his arms ; 
And will to-morrow with his trumpet call, 
Mid-way between your tents and walls of Troy, 
To rouse a Grecian that is true in love : 
If any come. Hector shaU honour liim ; 
If none, he '11 say in Troy, when he retires, 
The Grecian dames are sunburnt, and not 

worth 
The splinter of a lance. Even so much. 

Agam. This shall be told oui- lovers, lord 
jEneas ; 
If none of them have soul in such a kind. 
We left them all at home : But we are soldiers ; 
And may that soldier a mere recreant prove. 
That means not, hath not, or is not in love ! 
If then one is, or hath, or means to be, 
That one meets Hector ; if none else, I '11 be he. 

Nest. Tell him of Nestor, one that was a man 

8f» 



( 



Act l.J 



TKOILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



IScENt III 



"W^Leu Hector's grandsirc suck'd . he is old 

now ; 
But, if there be not in our Grecian mould' 
One noble rnan, that hath one spark of fire 
To answer for his love, tell liiin from me, — 
I '11 hide my silver beard in a gold beaver, 
And in my vantbrace put this withcr'd brawn ; 
And meeting him, will tell liim, that my lady 
Was fairer than his graudame, and as chaste 
As may be in the world ; his youth in flood, 
I'll pawn*' this truth with my tlirec drops of 
blood. 

^;te. Now heavens forbid such scarcity of 
youth ! 

Vlyss. Amen. 

J^am. Fair lord ^neas, let me touch your 
hand ; 
To our pavUiou shall I lead you first. 
Achilles ihall have word of this intent ; 
So shall each lord of Greece, from tent to tent : 
Yourself shall feast with us before you go, 
And find the welcome of a noble foe. 

[Exeunt all but Ulysses and Nestok. 

Ut^ss. Nestor ! 

Nest. What says Ulysses ? 

Uli/ss. I have a young conception in my 
brain. 
Be you my time to bring it to some shape. 

Nest. Wiat is 't ? 

Ul^ss. This 't is : 
Blunt wedges rive hard knots : The seeded pride 
That hath to this matmity blown up 
In rank Achilles, must or now be cropp'd, 
Or, shedding, breed a nursery of like evil, 
To overbulk us all. 

Nest. Well, and how ? 

Ulps. This challenge that the gallant Hector 
sends, 
However it is spread in general name. 
Relates in purpose only to Achilles. 

Nest. The purpose is perspicuous even as 
substance, 
Whose grossness little characters sum up : 
And, in the publication, make no strain. 
But that Acliilles, were his brain as barren 
As banks of Libya, — though, Apollo knows, 
'Tis dry enough, — will, with great speed of 

judgment. 
Ay, with celerity, find Hector's purpose 
Pointing on him. 

Utj/ss. And wake him to the answer, think 



Nest. 



you 



Yes, 



■ Mould in the folio —in tlie quarto, hoit. 
*> Paicn 111 the folio— in the quarto prove. 

£0 



It is most meet : Whom may you else oppose. 

That can from Hector bring his honour off. 

If not Achilles ? Thougli 't be a sportful combat. 

Yet in this trial much opinion dwells ; 

For here the Trojans taste our dear'st repute 

With then: fin'st palate: iVnd trust to mc, 

Ulysses, 
Our imputation shall be oddly pois'd 
In this wild action : for the success. 
Although particular, shall give a scantling 
Of good or bad unto the general ; 
And in such indexes, although small pricks 
To their subsequent volumes, there is seeu 
The baby figure of the giant mass 
Of tilings to come at large. It is suppos'd. 
He that meets Hector issues from our choice : 
And choice, being mutual act of all our souls. 
Makes merit her election ; and doth boil. 
As 't were from forth us all, a man distill'd 
Out of our virtues ; who, miscarrying, 
What heart from hence receives the conquering 

part, 
To steel a strong opinion to themselves ? 
Which entertain'd, limbs are his instruments, 
In no less working, than are swords and bows 
Directive by the limbs. 

Uli/ss. Give pardon to my speech ; — 
Therefore 't is meet, Achilles meet not Hector. 
Let us hke merchants show our foulest wares. 
And think, perchance, they '11 sell ; if not, 
The lustre of the better yet to show 
Shall show the better.'' Do not consent 
That ever Hector and Achilles meet ; 
For both our honour and our shame, in this. 
Are dogg'd with two strange followers. 

Nest. I see them not with my old eyes ; what 

are they ? 
Ulyss. What glory our Achilles shares from 

Hector, 
Were he not proud, we all should wear** with 

him : 
But he already is too insolent ; 
And we were better parch iu Afric sun. 
Than in the pride and salt sconi of his eyes, 
Shoidd he 'scape Hector fair : If he were foil'd. 
Why, then we did our main opinion crush 
In taint of our best man. No, make a lottery ; 
And, by device, let blockish Ajax draw 
The sort to fight with Hector : 

selves 
Give him allowance as the worthier man," 



Among our- 



» The quarto reads— 

" The lustre of the hc-ttcr shall exceed, 
By showing the worse first." 

b Wear in the folio — in the quarto, share. 

c So the folio— in the quarto, for the belter man. 



Act I.] 



TKOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[SCEht III. 



For thai; will physic the great Myrmidon, 

Who broils iu loud applause; and make him 

fall 
His crest, that prouder than blue Iris bends. 
If the dull brainless Ajax come safe off, 
We '11 dress him up in voices : If he fail, 
Yet go we under our opinion still 
That we have better men. But, hit or miss, 



Oui- project's life this shape of sense assumes, — 
Ajax, employ' d, plucks down Achilles' plumes. 
Nest. Now, Ulysses, I begin to relish thy 
advice ; 
And I will give a taste of it forthwith 
To Agamemnon : go we to him straight. 
Two curs shall tame each other : Pride alone 
Must tarre the mastiffs on, as 't were their bone. 

\_Exeuiii, 




[Ulysses. 




[Phrygian Lady, with Casket.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OP ACT I. 



^ Scene II,—" H7tere were you at Ilium. V 
Ilium, according to the romance-writers, was the 
palace of Priam. The author of ' The Destruction 
of Troy' thus describes it : — "In the most open place 
of the city, upon a rock, the king Priamus did build 
his rich palace, which was named Ilion : that was 
one of the richest palaces and the strongest that 
ever was in all the world." 

=" ScE^^: II.—" That 'a Hedor," JL-c. 
This scene, in which Pandarus so characteristic- 
ally describes the Trojan leaders, is founded upon 
a similar scene in Chaucer, in which the same per- 
sonage recounts the merits of Priam's two valiant 
sons : — 

" Of Hector needeth nothing for to tell ; 
In all this world there n' is a better knight 
Than he, that is of worthiness the well, 
And he well more of virtue hath than miKht ; 
This knoweth many a wise and worthy knight: 
And the same praise of Troilus I say : 
God help me, so I know not suchc tway. 

" Pardie, quod she, of Hector there is solh. 
And of Troilus the same thing trow I, 
For dredeless • men telleth that he doth 
In arm^s day by day so worthily, 
And bear'th him here at home so gently 
To cv'ry wight, that all6 praise hath he 
Of them that me were levest praised bc.t 

• Doubtless. 
t Whose praiic I should moit desire. 

92 



" Ye say right sotb, I wis, quod Pandarus, 
For yesterday whoso had with him been 
Mighten have wonder'd upon Troilus; 
For never j'et so thick a swarm of been * 
Ne flew, as Greek6s from him 'gonnen fleen. 
And through the field in every wightes ear 
There was no cry but ' Troilus is there I ' 

" Now here, now there, he hunted them so fast, 
There n'as but Greekes blood and Troilus ; 
Now him he hurt, and him all down he cast ; 
Aye where he went it was arrayed thus : 
He was their death, and shield and life for us. 
That as that day there durst him none withstand 
While that he held his bloody sword in hand." 

3 Scene III. — " Eiiifjs, princes, lords," tLc. 
Stecvens says the challenge thus sent "would 
better have suited Palmerin or Amadis than Hector 
or .^neas." Precisely so. And this was not only 
the language of romance, but of real life, almost up 
to the days of Shakspere. In a challenge of the 
reign of Mary, four Spanish and English kuij^'hts 
will maintain a fight on foot at the barriers against 
all comers, that " they may show their great desires 
to serve their ladies by the honourable adventure 
of their person." But would Steevens assert that 
Shakspere did not purposely make the distinction 
between the Homeric and the feudal ages? He 
found the challenge of Hector in Homer; he in- 
vested it with its Gothic attributes in accordance 
with a principle. The commentators sneer at 

• Bees. 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



Sbakspere's violation of chronology, in the men- 
tion of Aristotle : what do they say to Chaucer's 
line in the * Troilus and Creseide ' — 

" He sung, she play'd, he told a tale of Wade"? 
Wade was a hero of the same fabulous school as 
Levis and Launcelot. The challenge of Hector is 
thus rendered by Chapman : — 

"Hear, Trojans, and ye well-ami'd Greeks, what my 

strong mind, diffus'd 
Through all my sinrits, commands me speak; Saturnius 

hath not us'd 
His promis'd favour for our truce, but, studying both our 

ills, 
Will never cease till Mars, by you, his ravenous stomach 

fills 
With ruin'd Troy; or -we consume your mighty sea-bom 

fleet. 
Since then the general peers of Greece in reach of one voice 

meet. 



Amongst you all whose breast includes the most impulsive 

mind 
Let him stand forth as combatant, by all the rest design'd ; 
Before whom thus I call high Jove to witness of our strife, 
If he with home-thrust iron can reach th' exposure of my 

life. 
Spoiling my arms, let him at will convey them to his tent ; 
But let my body be retum'd, that Troy's two-sex'd descent 
May waste it in th€ funeral pile : if I can slaughter hira, 
Apollo honouring me so much, I '11 spoil his conquer'd limb, 
And bear his arms to Ilion, where in Apollo's shrine 
I 'U hang them as my trophies due : his body I "11 resign 
To be disposed by his friends in flamy funerals. 
And honour'd with erected tomb where Hellespontus falh 
Into Egaeura, and doth reach even to your naval road; 
That, when our beings in the earth shall hide their period, 
Survivors sailing the Black Sea may thus his name renew. 
This is his monument whose blood long since did fates 

embrue. 
Whom passing fair in fortitude illustrate Hector slew. 
This shall posterity report, and my fame never die." 

Book vii. 




Phrj-gian Tunic, Bi-peiiiies, Bow, Quiver, Helmets, &c. 







''M,. 



'lOfcir'is'l 




[ScENK II. ' Enter Cassandra, raving.'] 



ACT II. 



SCENE I. — Another part of the Grecian Camp. 

Enter Ajax and Thersites. 

Ajax. Thersites, — 

Ther. Agamemnon — how if he had boils ? 
full, all over, generally ? 

Ajax. Thersites, — 

Ther. And those boils did run? — Say so, — 
did not the general run ? were not that a botchy 
core? 

Ajax. Dog,— 

Ther. Then would come some matter from 
him ; I see none now. 

Ajax. Thou bitch-wolf's son, canst thou not 
hear? Feel then. \_Slrikcs him. 

Ther. ITie plague of Greece upon thee, thou 
mongrel beef-witted lord ! ' 

Ajax. Speak then, thou vinew'dest* leaven, 
speak : I will beat thee into handsomeness. 

» Vinm'dett — vincwcd — vinny — signifles decayed, 
94 



Ther. I shall sooner rail thee into wit and 
holiness : but 1 think thy horse will sooner con 
an oration, than thou learn a prayer without 
book. Thou canst strike, canst thou? a red 
murrain o' thy jade's tricks ! 

Ajaz. Toadstool, learn me the proclamation. 

Ther. Dost thou think I liave no sense, thou 
strik'st me thus ? 

Ajax. 'J'he proclamation, — 

Ther. Thou art proclaimed a fool, 1 think. 

Ajax. Do not, porpentine, do not ; my fiugers 
itch. 

Ther. I would thou didst itch from head to 
foot, and I had the scratching of thee ; I would 
make thee the loathsomest scab in Greece. 
[When thou art forth in the incursions, thou 
strikest as slow as another."] 



mouldy ; the word in the text is the superlative otvinewed. 
In the preface to our translation or the Bible we have 
"fenewed traditions." 
> These vords are not in the folio. 



Act Il.j 



TEOTLUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene I. 



Ajax. I say, the proclamation, — 

Ther. Thou grumblest and railest every hour 
on Achilles ; and thou art as full of envy at his 
greatness, as Cerberus is at Proserpina's beauty, 
ay, that thou bark'st at him. 

Ajax. Mistress Thersites ! 

Ther. Thou shouldst strike him. 

Ajax. Cobloaf! 

Ther. He would pun"* thee into shivers with 
his fist, as a sailor breaks a biscuit. 

Ajax. You whoreson cur ! \^Beat'uig him. 

Ther. Do, do. 

Ajax. Thou stool for a witch ! 

jihp,; s^j^ (Jo^ [lo; thou sodden-witted lord! 
thou hast no more brain than I have in mine 
elbows; an assinego'' may tutor thee: Thou 
scurvy- valiant ass ' thou art here butc to thrash 
Trojans ; and thou art bouqiit and sold amoncr 
those of any wit, like a Barbarian slave. If 
thou use to beat me, 1 will begin at thy heel, 
and tell what thou art by inches, thou thing of 
no bowels, thou ! 

Ajax. You dog ! 

Ther. You scurvy lord ! 

Ajax. You cur ! [^Beating him. 

Ther. Mars his idiot ! do, rudeness ; do, ca- 
mel; do, do. 

Unter Achilles and Patroclus. 

Achil. Why, how now, Ajax? wherefore do 
you this ? 
How now, Thersites ? what 's the matter, man ? 

Ther. You see him there, do you ? 

Achil. Ay ; what 's the matter ? 

Ther. Nay, look upon him. 

Achil. So I do ; what 's the matter ? 

Ther. Nay, but regard him well. 

Achil. Well, why I do so. 

Ther. But yet you look not well upon him : 
for, whosoever you take him to be, he is Ajax. 

Achil. I know that, fool. 

Ther. Ay, but that fool knows not himself. 

Ajax. Therefore I beat thee. 

Ther. Lo, lo, lo, lo, what modicums of wit he 
utters ! his evasions have ears thus long. I have 
bobbed his brain more than he has beat my 
bones : I will buy nine sparrows for a penny, 
and his pia mater is not worth the ninth part of 
a sparrow. This lord, Achilles, Ajax, — who 
wears his wit in his belly, and his guts in liis 
head, — I'll tell you what I say of him. 

Achil. What? 

* Pun — pound. 
b Assinego — an ass. 

<: But.—Boih. the quarto and fol'a so read; but put was 
substituted by Steevens. 



Ther. I say, this Ajax — 
Achil. Nay, good Ajax. 

[Ajax offers to strike him, Achilles 
interposes. 
Ther. Has not so much vAi — 
Achil. Nay, I must hold you. 
Ther. As \vill stop the eye of Helen's needle, 
for whom he comes to fight. 
Achil. Peace, fool ! 

Ther. T would have peace and quietness, but 
the fool will not : he there ; that he ; look you 
there. 

Ajax. thou damned cur ! I shall — 

Achil. Wni you set your wit to a fool's ? 

Ther. No, I warrant you; for a fool's will 
shame it. 

Pair. Good words, Thersites. 

Achil. What 's the quarrel ? 

Ajax. I bade the vile owl go learn me the 
tenor of the proclamation, and he rails upon 
me. 

Ther. I serve thee not. 

Ajax. Well, go to, go to. 

Ther. I serve here voluntary. 

Achil. I'our last service was sufferance, 't was 
not voluntary ; no man is beaten voluntary ; 
Ajax was here the voluntary, and you as under 
an impress. 

Ther. E'en so ; — a great deal of your wit too 
lies in your sinews, or else there be liars. Hector 
shall have a great catch if he knock out either of 
your brains ; 'a were as good crack a fusty nut 
with no kernel. 

Achil. What, with me too, Thersites ? 

Ther. There 's Ulysses and old Nestor, — whose 
wit was mouldy ere your grandsires had nails on 
their toes, — yoke you like draught oxen, and 
make you plough up the war. 

Achil. "What, what ? 

Ther. Yes, good sooth. To, Achilles ! to, 
Ajax ! to ! 

Ajax. I shall cut out your tongue. 

Ther. 'T is no matter ; I shall speak as much 
as thou, afterwards. 

Patr. No more woi'ds, Thersites ; peace. 

Ther. I vrill hold my peace when Achilles' 
brach bids me, shall I ? 

Achil. There 's for you, Patroclus. 

Ther. I will see you hanged, like clotpoles, 
ere I come any more to your tents ; I will keep 
where there is wit stirring, and leave the faction 
of fools. \E.Tit. 

Patr. A good riddance. 

Achil. Marry, this, sir, is proclaim'd through 
all our host : 



95 



Act II.] 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



[SrE3B II. 



That Hector, by the fifth'' hour of the sun, 
Will, with a trumpet, 'twixt our tents and Troy, 
To-morrow morning call some knight to arms, 
That hath a stomacli ; and such a one that dare 
Maintain — I know not what; 'tis trash: Fare- 
well. 
Ajar. Farewell. Who shall answer him ? 
Achil. 1 know not, it is put to lottery ; otlier- 
wise, 
He knew his man. 
Ajax. 0, meaning you :— I '11 go learn more 
of it. ' [I'JTeunt. 

SCEISE II.— Troy. A Room in Priam'* Palace. 

Enter PiUA.M, Hector, Tkoilus, Pakis, and 
Helenus. 

Pri. After so many hours, lives, speeches 
spent. 
Thus once again says Nestor from the Greeks : 
' Deliver Helen, and all damage else — 
As honour, loss of time, travel, expense. 
Wounds, friends, and what else dear that is con- 
sun I'd 
In hot digestion of this cormorant war, — 
Shall be struck off : '—Hector, what say you to 't? 
Hed. Though no man lesser fears the Greeks 
than I, 
As far as toucheth my particular, yet, dread 

Priam, 
There is no lady of more softer bowels. 
More spongy to suck in the sense of fear. 
More ready to cry out — 'Who knows what fol- 
lows ? ' 
ITian Hector is : The wound of peace is surety, 
Surety secure ; but modest doubt is call'd 
The beacon of the wise, the tent that searches 
To the bottom of the worst. Let Helen go : 
Since the first sword was drawn about this ques- 
tion. 
Every tithe soul, 'mongst many thousand dismes,'' 
Hath been as dear as Helen ; I mean of ours : 
If we have lost so many tenths of ours, 
To guard a thing not ours ; nor worth to us, 
Had it our name, the value of one ten ; 
What merit 's in that reason which denies 
The yielding of her up ? 

Tio- Fie, fie, my brother ! 

Weigh you the worth and honour of a kmg 
So great as our dread father, in a scale 

» Fifth.- So the folio; the quarto has yfr»/, which obtained 
In most modern edilinns. The kniphta of chivalry Hid n<it 
encounter at tlic firtt hour of the sun ; by the fifth of a 
summer's morninp the lists would be set, and the ladies in 
their seats. The usages of chivalry are those of this play. 

b Dimet — ^teii.hs. 

96 



Of common ounces ? will you with counters sum 
The past-proportion of liis infinite ? 
And buekle-in a waist most fathomless 
Witli spans and inches so duniimtivc 
As fears and reasons ? fie, for godly shame ! 
Hcl. No marvel, though you bite so sharp at 
reasons. 
You are so empty of them. Should not our 

father 
Bear the great sway of his affairs with reasons. 
Because your speech hath none, tliat tells him 
so? 
Tro. You are for dreams and slumbers, brother 
priest,- 
You fur your gloves with reason. Here are your 

reasons : 
You know an enemy intends you hai-m ; 
You know a sword euiploy'd is perilous. 
And reason flies the object of all harm : 
Who marvels then, when Helenus beholds 
A Grecian and his sword, if he do set 
The very wings of reason to his heels ; 
And fly like chidden ^Mercury from Jove, 
Or like a star dis-orb'd ?— Nay, if we talk of 

reason, 
Let's shut our gates, and sleep: !Manhood and 

honour 
Should have hare* hearts, would they but fat 

their thoughts 
With this cramm'd reason ; reason and respect 
Make livers pale, and lustihood deject. 

lied. Brother, she is not worth what she doth 
cost 
The holding. 

Tro. What 's aught but as 't is valued ? 
IlecL But value dwells not in particular will ; 
It holds his estimate and dignity 
As well wherein 't is precious of itself 
As in the prizer; 'tis mad idolatry 
To make the service greater than the god ; 
And the will dotes that is inclinable'' 
To what infectiously itself effects, 
Without some image of the affected merit. 

Tro. I take to-day a wife, and my election 
Is led on in the conduct of my wall ; 
My ^vill enkindled by mine eyes and ears, 
Two traded pilots 'twixt the dangerous shores 
Of will and judgment : How may I avoid. 
Although my will distaste what it elected, 
The wife I chose ? there can be no evasion 
To blench from this, and to stand firm by honour : 
We tuni not back the silks upon the merchant. 



» Ilnre in the quarto; by a typographical error, hard in 
the f )lio. 
b Inclinable in the folio ; the quarto, atlribttlive. 



Act II] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSLDiL 



[SCF.NE II. 



When we have spoil'd them : nor the remaiudcr 

viands 
We do not tlu-ow in iinrespective sieve," 
Because we now are full. It was thouglit meet, 
Paris should do some vengeance on the Greeks : 
Your breath of fidl consent'' bellied his sails ; 
The seas and winds (old wranglers) took a tnice, 
And did him service : lie touch'd the ports desir'd; 
And, for an old aunt, whom the Greeks held 

captive, 
He brought a Grecian quecD, whose youth and 

freshness 
Wrinkles Apollo's, and makes stale the morning. 
Why keep we her ? the Grecians keep our aunt : 
Is she worth keeping ? why, she is a pearl, 
Whose price hath launch'd above a thousand ships, 
And tum'd crowu'd kings to merchants. 
If you '11 avouch 't was wisdom Paris went, 
(As you must needs, for you all cried — ' Go, go,') 
If you 'U confess he brought home noble prize, 
(As you must needs, for you all clapp'd your 

hands. 
And cried — 'Inestimable !') why do you now 
The issue of your proper wisdoms rate ; 
And do a deed that fortune never did. 
Beggar the estimation which you priz'd 
Richer than sea and land ? theft most base ; 
That we have stolen what we do fear to keep ! 
But thieves, unworthy of a thing so stolen. 
That in their country did them that disgrace. 
We fear to warrant in our native place ! 

Cas. [Within..'] Cry, Trojans, cry! 

Pri. What noise ? what shriek is this ? 

Tro. 'T is our mad sister, I do know her voice. 

Cas. [Within^ Cry, Trojans ! 

Red. It is Cassandi-a. 

Enter Cassandka, raving. 
Cas. Cry, Trojans, cry ! lend me ten thousand 
eyes, 
^bid I will fill them with prophetic tears. 
Hed. Peace, sister, peace. 
Cas. Virgins and boys, mid age, and wrinkled 

eld," 

a Sieve. The quarto has sive, the old mode of spelling 
sieve. The first folio has same; the second folio place. 
Same is held to be a misprint. The commentators explain 
that sieve is a basket, and that the term is well known in 
Covent Garden and other markets for fruit and vegetables. 
The original notion of sieve implies separation, and we 
therefore held, in our first edition, that a sieve of fruit was a 
basket of sorted fruit. But domestic observation might 
have shown us that the " unrespective" sieves into which 
any "remainder" is thrown has subsequently to perform 
the office of separation. This consideration reconciles us 
to the adoption of sieve. 

b How forcible is "your breath of full consent,"— com- 
pared with the reading of the quarto, " your breath, with 
full consent." 

c Old in the folio— the quarto, eldm. Theobald substi- 
tuted eid. 



Soft infancy, that nothing canst but cry, 
Add to my clamours ! let us paj betimes 
A moiety of that mass of moan to come. 
Cry, Trojans, cry ! practise your eyes with tears ! 
Troy must not be, nor goodly Ilion stand ; 
Our firebrand brother, Paris, burns us all. 
Cry, Trojans, cry ! a Helen, and a woe : 
Cry, cry ! Troy bui-ns, or else let Helen go. [Exit. 

Hed. Now, youthful Troilus, do not these 
high strains 
Of divination in our sister work 
Some touches of remorse ? or is your blood 
So madly hot, that no discourse of reason. 
Nor fear of bad success in a bad cause. 
Can qualify the same ? 

Ti-o. Wliy, brother Hector, 

We may not think the justness of each act 
Such and no other than event doth form it ; 
Nor once deject the courage of our minds 
Because Cassandra 's mad ; her brain-sick rap- 
tures 
Cannot distaste the goodness of a quarrel 
Which hath our several honours all engag'd 
To make it gracious. For my private part, 
I am no more touch'd than all Priam's sons : 
And Jove forbid, there should be done amongst 



us 



Tbaoedies. — Vol. II. 



H 



Such things as might oifend the weakest spleen 
To fight for and maintain ! 

Par. Else might the world convince of levity 
As well ray und ertakings as your counsels : 
But I attest the gods, your full consent 
Gave wings to my propensiou, and cut off 
AH fears attending on so dire a project. 
For what, alas, can these my single arms ? 
WTiat propuguation is in one man's valour. 
To stand the push and enmity of those 
This quarrel woidd excite ? Yet, I protest. 
Were I alone to pass the difficulties. 
And had as ample power as I have will, 
Paris should ne'er retract what he hath done. 
Nor faint in the pursuit. 

Pri. Paris, you speak 

Like one besotted on your sweet delights : 
You have the honey still, but these the gall ; 
So to be valiant is no praise at all. 

Par. Sir, I propose not merely to myself 
The pleasures such a beauty brings. with it; 
But I would have the soil of her fair rape 
Wip'd off, in honourable keeping her. 
What treason were it to the ransack'd queen. 
Disgrace to your great worths, and shame to me, 
Now to deliver her possession up. 
On terms of base compulsion ! Can it be 
That so degenerate a strain as this 

97 



ACI 11.] 



TROILUS AND CIIESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Shoul J once set footing in your generous bosoms ? 
There 's. not the lucanest spii-it on our party, 
Without a heart to dare, or sword to draw, 
When Helen is defended ; nor none so noble, 
Whose life were ill bestow'd, or death uufaui'd, 
Where Helen is the subject : then, I say, 
Well may we fight for her, whom, we know well. 
The world's large spaces cannot parallel. 

Hcct. Paris, and Troilus, you have both said 
well; 
And on the cause and question now in hand 
Have gloz'd, — but superficially ; not much 
Uulikc young men, whom Aristotle thought 
Unfit to hear moral philosophy : 
The reasons you allege do more conduce 
To the hot passion of distemper'd blood, 
Than to make up a free determination 
'Twixt right and wrong; for pleasure, and re- 
venge, 
Have ears more deaf than adders to the voice 
Of any true decision. Nature craves 
All dues be rcndcr'd to their owners : Now 
What nearer debt in all humanity 
Than wife is to the husband ? if this law 
Of nature be corrupted through affection. 
And that great minds, of partial indulgence 
To their benumbed wills, resist the same. 
There is a law in each well-order'd nation. 
To curb those raging appetites that are 
Most disobedient and refractory. 
If Helen then be wife to Sparta's king, — 
As it is kuo\vii she is, — these moral laws 
Of nature, and of nations, speak aloud 
To have her back return'd : Thus to persist 
In doing wrong extenuates not wrong. 
But makes it much more heavy. Hector's opinion 
Is this, in way of truth : yet, ne'ertheless. 
My spritely brethren, I propend to you 
In resolution to keep Helen stUl ; 
For 't is a cause that hath no mean dcpcudancc 
Upon our joint and several dignities. 

Tro. Why, there you touch'd the life of our 
design : 
Were it not glory that we more affected 
Than the performance of our heaving spleens, 
I would not wish a drop of Trojan blood 
Spent more in her defence. But, worthy Hector, 
She is a theme of honour and renown ; 
A spur to valiant and magnanimous deeds ; 
Whose present courage may beat down our foes. 
And fame, in time to come, canonize us : 
For, I presume, brave Hector would not lose 
So rich advantage of a promis'd glory. 
As smiles upon the forehead of this action, 
For the wide world's revenue. 



98 



Hcct. 1 am yours. 

You valiant ofFspruig of great Prianms. 
I have a roLsting ehidlengc sent amongst 
The dull and factious nobles of the Greeks, 
Will strike amazement to their drowsy spirits : 
I was advertis'd their great general slept, 
Whilst emidation in the army crept; 
This, I presume, wiU wake him. [Eveu/iL 

SCENE UL — T/ie Grecian Cump. Be/ore 
AchiUes' 'JhiL 

Enter TlIEKSITES. 

T/ici: How now, Thersites ? what, lost in the 
labyrinth of thy fury ? Shall the elephant Ajax 
cai-ry it thus ? he beats me, and I rail at him : 
worthy satisfaction 1 would it were otherwise ; 
that I could beat him, whilst he railed at me : 
'Sfoot, I '11 learn to conjure and raise devils, but 
I'U see some issue of my spiteful execrations. 
Then there's AchiUes, — a rare engineer. If 
Troy be not taken till these two undermine it, 
the walls will stand till they fall of themselves. 
thou great thunder-darter of Olympus, forget 
that thou art Jove the king of gods ; and. Mer- 
cury, lose all the serpentine craft of thy Cadu- 
ccas ; if ye take not that little little less-than- 
little wit from them that they have 1 which short- 
armed ignorance itself knows is so abundant 
scarce, it will not in circumvention deliver a fly 
from a spider, without drawing the massy irons, 
and cutting the web. After this, the vengeance 
on the whole camp ! or, rather, the bone-ache ! 
for that, methiuks, is the curse dependant on 
those that war for a placket. I have said my 
prayers ; and devil envy, say Amen. What 
ho ! my lord Achilles ! 

Enter Patkoclus. 

I'atr. Who 's there ? Thersites ? good Ther- 
sites, come in and rail. 

T/ier. If I could have remembered a gilt 
counterfeit, thou wouldst not have slipped out 
of my contemplation : but it is no matter : Thy- 
self upon thyself 1 The common curse of man- 
kind, folly and ignorance, be thine in great 
revenue! heaven bless thee from a tutor, and 
discipline come not near thee ! Let tliy blood 
be thy direction tiU thy death ! then if she that 
lays thee out says thou art a fair corse, I '11 be 
swoni and sworn upon't, she never shrouded 
any but lazars. Amen. "Where 's Achilles ? 

Pair. What, art thou devout ? wast thou in a 
prayer ? 

T/icr. Ay : the heavens hear me ! 



Act II.] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Enter Achilles. 

Achil Who 's there ? 

Pair. Thersites, my lord. 

Achil. Where, where ? — Art thou come ? Why, 
my cheese, my digestion, why hast thou not 
served thyself in to my table so many meals ? — 
Come; what's Agamemnon? 

Ther. Thy commander, Acliilles : — Then tell 
me, Patroclus, what 's Achilles ? 

Patr. Thy lord, Thersites : Then tell me, I 
pray thee, what 's thyself ? 

Ther. Thy knower, Patroclus : Then tell me, 
Patroclus, what art thou ? 

Patr. Thou mayst tell that knowest. 

Achil. 0, tell, tell. 

Ther. I '11 decline the whole question. Aga- 
memnon commands Achilles; Achilles is my 
lord ; I am Patroclus' knower ; and Patroclus is 
a fool. 

Patr. You rascal ! 

Ther. Peace, fool ; I have not done. 

Achil. He is a privileged man. — Proceed, 
Thersites. 

Ther. Agamemnon is a fool; Achilles is a 
fool ; Thersites is a fool ; and, as aforesaid, Pa- 
troclus is a fool. 

Achil. Derive this ; come. 

Ther. Agamemnon is a fool to offer to com- 
mand Achilles; Achilles is a fool to be com- 
manded of Agamemnon; Thersites is a fool to 
serve such a fool ; and Patroclus is a fool posi- 
tive. 

Patr. Why am I a fool ? 

Ther. Make that demand of the prover.— It 
suiSces me thou art. Look you, who comes 
here ? 

Enter Agamemnon, Ultsses, Nestor, Dio- 
MEDES, and Ajax. 

Achil. Patroclus, I'll speak with nobody.— 
Come in with mc, Thersites. [_Exit. 

Ther. Here is such patchery, such juggling, 
and such knavery ! aU the argument is, a cuck- 
old and a whore: A good quarrel, to draw 
emulous factions, and bleed to death upon. 
Now the di-y serpigo on the subject ! and war, 
and lechery, confound all ! [E.vit. 

Again. Where is Achilles ? 

Patr. Within his tent; but ill-disposed, my 
lord. 

Agam. Let it be known to him that we are 
here. 
He shent* our messengers, and we lay by 

a SAe«;.— The quarto reads salt, the folio s:Mt. Theobald 
made the change to shent, meaning to rebuke. 

H 2 



Our appertainments, visiting of him : 
Let him be told so ; lest, perchance, he think 
We dare not move the question of our place. 
Or know not what we are. 

Patr. I shall so say to him. \Exit. 

XJlyss. We saw him at the opening of liis tent ; 
He is not sick. 

Ajax. Yes, lion-sick, sick of proud heart : you 
may caU it melancholy, if you will favour the 
man ; but, by my head, it is pride : But why, 
why ? let him show us the cause. — A word, my 
lord. {Takes Agamemnon aside. 

Nest. What moves Ajax thus to bay at him ? 

Ulyss. Achilles hath inveigled his fool from 
him. 

Nest. Who? Thersites? 

Uli/ss. He. 

Nest. Then will Ajax lack matter, if he have 
lost his argument. 

Uli/ss. No ; you see, he is his ai-gnment that 
has his argument, — Achilles. 

Nest. All the better ; their fraction is more 
our wish than their faction : But it was a strong 
counsel a fool could disunite, 

Ulyss. The amity that wisdom knits not, folly 
may easily xuitie. Here comes Patroclus. 

Re-enter Patkocltjs. 

Nest. No Achilles with him. 

Uli/ss. The elephant hath joints, but none for 
courtesy : 
His legs are legs for necessity, not for flexui-e.^ 

Pair. Achilles bids me say— he is much sorry 
If anything more than your sport and pleasure 
Did move your greatness, and this noble state. 
To call upon him ; he hopes it is no other. 
But, for your health and your digestion sake, 
An after-diuner's breath. 

Agam. Hear you, Patroclus ; — 

We are too well acquainted with Itese answers : 
But his evasion, wing'd thus with scorn. 
Cannot outfly our apprehensions. 
IMuch attribute he hath ; and much the reason 
Why we ascribe it to him : yet all his virtues, 
Not virtuously of his own part beheld. 
Do, in our eyes, begui to lose then- gloss ; 
Yea, like fair fruit in an unwholesome dish, 
Are like to rot untasted. Go and tell him 
We come to speak with hun : And you shall not 

sin. 
If you do say— wc think him over-proud, 
Ajid under-honest ; in self-assumption greater 
Than in the note of judgment ; and worthier 

than himself 
Here tend the savage strangeness he puts on ; 

99 



iCT II.] 



TROILUS AKD CRESSIDA. 



[Scr.NE III 



Disguise the holy strength of their command, 
And underwrite in an observing kind 
His humorous predominance ; yea, watch 
His pettish lines,' his ebbs, his flows, as if 
The passage and whole carriage of this action 
llodc on his tide. Go, tell him this ; and add. 
That, if he overbold his price so much, 
TVe '11 none of him ; but let him, like an engine 
Not portable, lie under this report — 
Bring action hither, this cannot go to war : 
A stirring dwarf we do allowance give 
Before a sleeping giant : — Tell him so. 

Fafr. I shall : and bring his answer presently. 

[Exif. 

Agam. In second voice we '11 not be satisfied, 

We come to speak with him. — Ulysses, enter 

you. [Exit Ulysses. 

Aja-x. What is he more than another ? 

Agara. No more than what he thinks he is. 

Ajax. Is he so much ? Do you not think he 
thinks himself a better man than I am ? 

Agam. No question. 

Ajax. Will you subscribe his thought, and say 
he is ? 

Agam. No, noble Ajax ; you are as strong, as 
valiant, as wise, no less noble, much more gentle, 
and altogether more tractable. 

Ajax. Why should a man be proud ? How 
doth pride grow ? I know not what pride is. 

Agam. Your mind 's the clearer, Ajax, and 
your virtues the fairer. He that is proud cats 
up himself: pride is his own glass, his o\^ti 
trumpet, his own chronicle ; and whatever 
praises itself but in the deed, devours the deed 
in the praise. 

Ajax. I do hate a proud man, as I hate the 
engendering of toads. 

Nest. Yet he loves himself : Is 't not strange ? 

[Aside. 
Re-enter Ulysses. 

Ulgss. Achilles will not to the field to-morrow. 

Agam. Wliat 's his excuse ? 

Ulyss. He doth rely on none ; 

But carries on the stream of his dispose. 
Without observance or respect of any, 
In will peculiar and in self-admission. 

Agam. Why, will he not, upon our fair request, 
Untent his person, and share the air with us ? 

Uli/ss. Things small as nothing, for request's 
sake only. 
He makes important : Possess'd he is with great- 
ness; 
And speaks not to himself, but with a pride 

» Linrt In the folio. Hamncr changed the word, the 
meaning of trhich is clear enough, into lunct. 

100 



That quarrels at self-breath : iniagiii'd worth 
Holds in his blood such swoln and hot discourse, 
That, 'twixt his mentid and his active parts, 
Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages. 
And batters 'gainst itself." Wliat should I say r 
He is so plaguy '' proud, that the death-tokens of it 
Cry — ' 1^0 recovery. ' 

Agam. Let Ajax go to him. — 

Dear lord, go you and greet him in his tent : 
'T is said, he holds you well ; and will be led. 
At your request, a little from himself. 

Ul^ss. O Agamemnon, let it not be so ! 
We '11 consecrate the steps that Ajax makes 
When they go from Achilles : Shall the proud 

lord. 
That bastes his arrogance with his own seam. 
And never suffers matter of the world 
Enter his thoughts, — save such as do revolve 
And ruminate himself, — shall he be worshipp'd 
Of that we hold an idol more than he ? 
No, this thrice worthy and right valiant lord 
!Must not so stale his palm, nobly acquir'd ; 
Nor, by my will, assubjugate liis merit. 
As amply titled as Achilles is. 
By going to Achilles ; 
That were to enlard his fat-already pride ; 
And add more coals to Cancer, when he bums 
With entertaining great Hyperion. 
This lord go to him ! Jupiter forbid ; 
And say in thunder — 'Achilles go to him.' 

Nest. 0, this is well; he rubs the vem of 
him. [Aside. 

Dio. And how his silence drinks up this ap- 
plause ! [Aside. 

Ajax. If I go to him, Avith my arm'd fist I '11 
pash him 
Over the face. 

Agam. 0, no, you shall not go. 

Ajax. An r' be proud with me, I '11 pheeze his 
pride : 
Let me go to him. 

Ulyss. Not for the worth that hangs upon our 
quarrel. 

Ajax. A paltry, insolent fellow ! 

Nest. How he describes himself ! [Aside. 

Ajax. Can he not be sociable ? 

Ulgss, The raven chides blackness. [Aside. 

Ajax. I '11 let his humours blood. 

Agam. He will be the pliysician, that should 
be the patient. [Aside. 



* 'Gainst iUel/li the reading of the folio ; the quarto, down 
liimself. 

b I'laijuy. — Stcevens, in his horror of a line of more than 
ten syllables, calls plapuy a "vulgar epithet, — the wretched 
interpolation of some foolish player." Malone, with good 
sense, says, " the very word explains what follows, — the 
death-tokens." 



Act II.] 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Ajax. An all men were o' my mind ! 

Uli/ss. Wit would be out of fasliiou. [^Aside. 

Ajax. A.' should not bear it so, a' should eat 
swords first : Shall pride carry it ? 

JVesf. An't would, you'd carry half. \_Aside. 

Ulyss. He would have ten shares. [Aside. 

Ajax. I will knead him, I '11 make him supple. 

Nest. He 's not yet through warm : force him 
with praises : Pour in, pour in ; his ambition is 
dry. [Aside. 

Ulyss. My lord, you feed too much on this 
dislike. [To Agamemnon. 

Nest. Our noble general, do not do so. 

Dio. You must prepare to fight without 
Achilles. 

Uli/ss. Why, 't is this naming of him does him 
harm. 
Here is a man — But 't is before his face ; 
I will be silent. 

Nest. Wherefore should you so ? 

He is not emulous, as Achilles is. 

Uli/ss. Know the whole world, he is as valiant. 

Ajax. A whoreson dog, that shall palter thus 
with lis ! Would he were a Trojan ! 

Nest. What a vice were it in Ajax now — 

Uli/ss. If he were proud — 

Bio. Or covetous of praise — 

Uli/ss. Ay, or surly borne — 

Bio. Or strange, or self-affected ! 

Uli/ss. Thank the heavens, lord, thou art of 
sweet composure; 
Praise him that got thee, she that gave thee 

suck : 
Fam'd be thy tutor, and thy parts of nature 
Thrice-fam'd, beyond all erudition : 



But he that disciplin'd thy arms to fight, " 
Let Mars divide eternity in twain. 
And give him half : and, for thy vigour. 
Bull-bearing ]\Iilo his addition yield 
To sinewy Ajax. I will not praise thy wisdom. 
Which, like a bourn, a pale, a shore, confines 
Thy spacious and dilated parts : Here 's Nes- 
tor, — 
Instructed by the antiquary times, 
lie must, he is, he cannot but be wise ; — 
But pardon, father Nestor, were your days 
As green as Ajax, and your brain so tempcr'd, 
You should not have the eminence of him, 
But be as Ajax. 

Ajax. Shall I call you father ? 

U!i/is. Ay, my good son.'' 

Bio. Be rul'd by him, lord Ajax. 

Uli/ss. There is no tarrying here; the hart 
Achilles 
Keeps thicket. Please it our great general 
To call together aU his state of war ; 
Fresh kings are come to Troy : To-morrow, 
We must with all our main of power stand fast : 
And here 's a lord, — come knights from east to 

west. 
And cull their flower, Ajax shall cope the best. 

Agam. Go we to council. Let Achilles sleep : 

Light boats sail swift, though greater hulks 

draw deep. [E.veunt. 



» The folio gives tliis line to Ulysses; the quarto to 
NestMJr. We believe that the fono, in this instance, is not 
to be hastily superseded, because Nestor was an old man. 
In Shakspere's time it was the highest compliment to call a 
man whose wit or learning was reverenced, father. Ben 
JoDson had thus his sons. The (lattery of Ulysses has won 
the heart of Aja.x; Nestor has said nothing. 




[Cassandra.] 




[Phrygian Shields, Quivers, and Battle Axes.] 



ILLUSTEATIONS OF ACT II. 



' Scene I. — "Tlie plague of Greece upon thee" <Lc. 

TnERsrrE3 has been termed by Coleridge "the 
Caliban of demagogic life;" and he goes on to de- 
scribe him as "the admirable portrait of intellectual 
power deserted by all grace, all moral principle, all 
not momentary impulse ; j ust wise enough to detect 
the weak head, and fool enough to provoke the 
armed fist, of his betters." This is the Thersites 
of Shakspere ; he of Homer is merely a deformed 
jester. The wonderful finished portrait is made 
out of the slightest of sketches : — 

" All sat, and audience gave; 

Thersites only would speak all. A most disorder'd store 

Of words he foolishly pour'd out; of which his mind held 
more 

Than it could manage; anything with which he could pro- 
cure 

Laughter, he never could contain. He should have yet been 
sure 

To touch no kings. T' oppose their states becomes not 
jesters' parts. 

Dut he the filthiest fellow was of all that had deserts 
102 



In Troy's brave siege: he was squint-eyed, and lame o( 

either foot : 
So crook-back'd that he had no breast: sharp-headed, where 

did shoot 
(Here and there sperst) thin mossy hair. He most of all 

envied 
Ulysses and .SlaciJes, whom still his spleen would chide j. 
Nor could the sacred king himself avoid his saucy vein, 
Against whom, since he knew the Greeks did vehement 

hates sustain, 
(Being angry for Achilles' wrong,) he cried out, railing 

thus: — 
' Atrides, why complain'st thou nowf what wouldst 

thou more of us? 
Thy tents are full of brass, and dames ; the choice of all are 

thine : 
With whom we must present thee first, when any towns 

resign 
To our invasion. Wan'st thou then (besides all this) more 

gold 
From Troy's knights, to redeem their sons? whom, to bi 

dearly sold, 
I, or some other Greek, must lake? or wouldst thou yci 

again 
Force from some other lord his prize, to soothe the lustj 

that reign 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT II. 



In thy encroaching appetite? It fits no prince to be 

A prince of ill, and govern us ; or lead our progeny 

By rape to ruin. O base Greeks, deserving infamy, 

And ills eternal ! Greekish girls, not Greeks, ye are : Come, 

fly 
Home with our ships ; leave this man here, to perish with 

his preys. 
And try if we help'd him, or not: he wrong'd a man that 

weighs 
Far more than he himself in worth: he forc'd from Thetis' 

son. 
And keeps his prize still : nor think I that mighty man 

hath won 
The style of wrathful worthily ; he 's soft, he 's too remiss. 
Or else, Atrides, his had been thy last of injuries.' 
Thus he the people's pastor chid ; but straight stood up to 

him 
Divine Ulysses, who, with looks exceeding grave and grim, 
This bitter check gave: 'Cease, vain fool, to vent thy 

railing vein 
On kings thus, though it serve thee well; nor think thou 

canst restrain 
With that thy railing faculty, their wills in least degree, 
For not a worse, of all this host, came with our king than 

thee 
To Troy's great siege : then do not take into that mouth of 

thine 
The names of kings, much less revile tlie dignities that 

shine 
In their supreme states ; wresting thus this motion for our 

home 
To soothe thy cowardice; since ourselves yet know not 

what will come 
Of these designmcnts,— if it be our good to stay or go: 
Nor is it that thou stand'st on ; thou revil'st our general 

so; 
Only because he hath so much, not given by such as thou, 
But by our heroes. Therefore this thy rude vein makes me 

vow 
(Which shall be curiously observ'd), if ever I shall hear 
This madness from thy mouth again, let not Ulysses l)ear 
This head, nor be the father call'd of young Telemachus, 
If to thy nakedness I take and strip thee not, and thus 
Whip thee to fleet from council; send, with sharp stripes, 

weeping hence, 
This glory thou alTect'st to rail.' This said, his insolence 



He settled with his sceptre, strook his back and shoulders so 
That bloody wales rose : he shrunk round, and from hia 

eyes did flow 
Moist tears ; and, looking filthily, he sat, fear'd, smarted ; 

dried 
His blubber'd cheeks ; and all the press (though griev'd to 

be denied 
Their wish'd retreat for home) yet laugh'd delightsomely, 

and spake 
Either to other." (Chapman's ' Homer,' Book ii.) 

^ Scene II. — " You are for dreams and slumbers, 
hrother priest." 

From his ' Homer ' Shakspere turned to the old 
Gothic romancer, and there he found the reproach 
of Troilus to Helenus, in the following very cha- 
racteristic passage : — 

" Then arose up on his feet Troylus, the youngest 
son of King Pryamus, and began to speak in this 
manner : — noblemen and hardy, how be ye 
abashed for the words of this cowardly priest here ? 
* * * If Helenus be afraid, let him go into the 
Temple, and sing the divine service, and let the 
other take revenge of their injurious wrongs by 
strength and force of arms. * * * AH they that 
heard Troylus thus speak allowed him, saying 
that he had very well spoken. And thus they 
finished their parliament, and went to dinner." 

^ Scene III. — " The elepliant hath joints" <i:c. 

Up to the time when Sir Thomas Brown wrote 
his 'Vulgar Errors ' (aboitt 1670), there was a pre- 
vailing opinion that the elephant had no joints, 
and that it could not lie down. Its joints, accord- 
ing to the passage before \\a, were not " for flexure." 
Sir T. Brown refutes the error by appealing to the 
experience of those who had "'not many years 
past" seen an elephant in England, "kneeling, 
and lying down." 




[Head of Park-.] 



Ii 
1 ! 




[ScESE I. ITelen unarming Hector.] 



ACT III. 



SCENE I.— Troy. J Room in Priam'5 Palace. 



Enter Pandartjs and a Servant. 



Do 



Pan. Friend ! you ! pray you, a word 
not you follow the yoimg lord Paris ? 

Sen. Ay, sir, when he goes before lue. 

Pan. You depend upon him, I mean. 

Sere. Sir, I do depend upon the lord. 

Pan. You depend upon a noble gentleman; 
1 must needs praise him. 

Sere. The lord be praised ! 

Pan. You know me, do you not ? 

Serv. 'Faith, sir, superficially. 

Pan. Friend, know mc better ; I am the lord 
Pandarus. 

Serv. I hope I shall know your honour better. 

Pan. I do dcsiic it. 
104 



Sere. You arc in the state of grace 

[^Iimc within. 

Pan. Grace ! not so, friend ; honour and 
lordship are my titles : — What music is this ? 

Sere. I do but partly know, sir ; it is music 
in parts. 

Pan. Know you the musicians ? 

Sere. TTholly, sir. 

Pan. "Who play they to ? 

Sere. To the hearers, sir. 

Pan. At whose pleasure, friend ? 

Sere. At mine, sir, and theirs that love music. 

Pan. Command, I mean, friend. 

Serv. Who shall I command, sir ? 

Pan. Friend, we understand not one another ; 
[ am too courtly, and thou art too cunning : At 
whose request do these men play ? 



Act Ill.l 



TEOILUS AND CRESSIDvV. 



[SCEKE 1. 



Sero. Tliat 's to 't, indeed, sir : Marry, sir, at 
the request of Paris my lord, who's there iu 
person ; with him, the mortal Venus, the heart- 
blood of beauty, love's invisible soul, — 

Pan. Who, my cousin Cressida ? 

Sen. No, sir, Helen ; could you not find out 
that by her attributes ? 

Pan. It should seem, fellow, that thou hast 
not seen the lady Cressida. I come to speak 
with Paris from the prince Troilus : I will make 
a complimeutal assault upon him, for my business 
seeths. 

Serv. Sodden business ! there 's a stewed 
phrase, indeed ! 

Enter Pakis and Helen, attended. 

Pan. Fair be to you, my lord, and to all this 
fair company ! fair desires, in all fair measure, 
faii-ly guide them ! especially to you, fair queen ! 
fair thoughts be your fair pillow ! 

Helen. Dear lord, you are full of fair words. 

Pan. You speak your fail* pleasure, sweet 
queen. Pair prince, here is good bioken music. 

Par. You have broke it, cousin : and, by my 
life, you shall make it whole again ; you shall 
piece it out with a piece of youi" performance : 
— NeU, he is full of harmony. 

Pan. Truly, lady, no. 

Helen. O, sir, — 

Pan. Rude, in sooth; iu good sooth, very 
rude. 

Pan. Well said, my lord ! well, you say so iu 
fits. 

Pan. I have business to my lord, dear queen : — 
My lord, will you vouchsafe me a word ? 

Helen. Nay, this shall not hedge us out : we '11 
hear you sing, certainly. 

Par. Well sweet queen, you are pleasant 
with me. — But, marry, thus, my lord, — My 
dear lord, and most esteemed friend, your brother 
Troilus— 

Helen. My lord Pandarus ; honey-sweet 
lord, — 

Pan. Go to, sweet queen, go to : — commends 
himself most affectionately to you. 

Helen. You shall not bob us out of our 
melody: If you do, our melancholy upon youi- 
head! 

Pan. Sweet queen, sweet queen; that's a 
sweet queen, i' faith. 

Helen. And to make a sweet lady sad is a 
sour offence. 

Pan. Nay, that shall not serve your tui-n; 
that shall it not, iu truth, la. Nay, I care not 
for such words: no, no.— And, my lord, he 



desii'es you, that if the king call for him at sup- 
per you will make his excuse. 

Helen. My lord Pandarus, — 

Pan. What says my sweet queen, — my very 
very sweet queen ? 

Par. What exploit 's iu hand ? where sups he 
to-night ? 

Helen. Nay, but my lord, — 

Pan. What says my sweet queen? — My cousin 
win faU out with you. You must not know 
where he sups. 

Par. [I'll lay my life,"] with my disposer 
Cressida. 

Pan. No, no, no such matter, you are wide ; 
come, your disposer is sick. 

Par. Well, I '11 make excuse. 

Pan. Ay, good my lord. Why should you 
say Cressida ? no, youi- poor disposer 's sick. 

Par. I spy. 

Pan. You spy ! what do you spy ? — Come, 
give me an instrument. — Now, sweet queen. 

Helen. Why, this is kiudly done. 

Pan. My niece is horribly in love with a thuig 
you have, sweet queen. 

Helen. She shall liave it, my lord, if it be not 
my lord Paris. 

Pan. He ! no, she '11 none of him ; they two 
are twain. 

Helen. Palling in, after falling out, may make 
them three. 

Pan. Come, come, I '11 hear no more of this ; 
I 'U sing you a song now. 

Helen. Ay, ay, prithee now. By my troth, 
sweet lord, thou hast a fine forehead. 

Pan. Ay, you may, you may. 

Helen. Let thy song be love: this love will 
undo us all. O, Cupid, Cupid, Cupid ! 

Pan. Love ! ay, that it shall, i' faith. 

Par. Ay, good now, love, love, nothmg but 
love. 

Pan. In good troth, it begins so : 

Love, love, nothing but love, still more I 

For, oh, love's bow 

Shoots buck and doe : 

The shaft confounds, 

Not that it wounds, 
But tickles still the sore. 

These lovers cry— Oh ! oh ! they die ! 

Yet that -which seems the wound to kill. 
Doth turn oh ! oh ! to ha ! ha ! hu I 

So dying love lives still : 
Oh ! oh ! a while, but ha ! ha! ha! 
Oh ! oh ! groans out for ha ! ha ! ha I 

Ilcy ho ! 



The words in brackets are not in the folio. 

105 



Act III.] 



TEOILUS AKD CEESSIDA. 



[SCEIIE II. 



Helen. In love, i' faith, to the very tip of the 
nose. 

Par. He eats nothing but doves, love; and 
that breeds hot blood, and hot blood begets hot 
thoughts, and hot thoughts beget hot deeds, and 
hot deeds is love. 

Tan. Is this the generation of love? hot blood, 
hot thoughts, and hot deeds? — "Wliy, they are 
vipers : Is love a generation of vipers ? Sweet 
lord, who 's atield to-day ? 

Par. Heetor, Deiphobus, Ilelcnus, iVnlcuor, 
and all the gallantry of Troy : I woidd fain have 
armed to-day, but my Nell would not have it so. 
How chance my brother Troilus went not ? 

Helen. He hangs the lip at something ; — you 
know all, lord Pandarns. 

Pan. Not I, honey-sweet queen. — I long to 
hear how they sped to-day. — You'll remember 
your brother's excuse ? 

Par. To a hair. 

Pan. Farewell, sweet queen. 

Helen. Commend me to your niece. 

Pan. I will, sweet queen. [^Exit. 

[A retreat sounded. 

Par. They are come from field : let us to 
Priam's hall. 
To greet the warriors. Sweet Helen, I must 

woo you 
To help unarm our Hector : his stubborn buckles, 
"With these your white enchanting fingers touch'd, 
Shall more obey, than to the edge of steel, 
Or force of Greekish sinews ; you shall do more 
Than all the island kings, disarm great Hector. 

Helen. 'T vrill make us proud to be his servant, 
Paris: 
Yea, what he shall receive of us in duty 
Gives us more palm in beauty than we have ; 
Yea, overshines ourself. 

Par. Sweet, above thought I love thee." 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE II.— Troy. Pandarus' Orchard. 

Enter Paxdarus and a Servant, meeting. 

Pan. How now ? where 's thy master ? at my 
cousin Crcssida's ? 

Serv. No, sir; he stays for you to conduct 
him thither. 

Enter TnoiLUS. 

Pan. O, here he comes. — How now, how now? 



» The readinR of the quarto is " Sweet, above thought I 
lore Aer," and the speech is there correctly given to Paris. 
Thee is the reading of the folio, and the words incorrectly 
conclude the speech of Helen. 

106 



Tfo. Sirrah, walk off. [Exit Servant. 

Pan. Have you seen my cousin ? 

Ti-o. No, Pandarus : I stalk about her door, 
Like a strange soul upon the Stygian banks 
Staying for waftage. O, be thou my Charon, 
And give me swift transportance to those fields 
Where I may wallow in the lily beds 
Propos'd for the deserver ! gentle Pandarus, 
From Cupid's shoulder pluck his painted wings, 
And fly with mc to Cressid ! 

Pan. A\'alk here i' the orchard, I '11 bring her 
straight. [E.vit Paudakus. 

Tro. I am giddy; expectation wliirls me 
round. 
The imaginary relish is so sweet 
That it enchanth my sense. What will it be, 
Wlien that the wat'ry palate tastes indeed 
Love's thrice repured" nectar ? death, 1 fear me ; 
Swooning destruction ; or some joy too fine, 
Too subtle-potent, and too sharp in sweetness, 
For the capacity of my ruder powers : 
I fear it much ; and I do fear besides. 
That I shall lose distinction in my joys ; 
As doth a battle, when they charge on heaps 
The enemy flying. 

Re-enter Paxdauus. 

Pan. She's making her ready, she'll come 
straight : yon must be witty now. She docs so 
blush, and fetches her wind so short, as if she 
were frayed with a sprite : I '11 fetch her. It is 
the prettiest villain : — she fetches her breath so 
short as a new-ta'en sparrow. [E.vit Pa:xdaiius. 

Tro. Even such a passion doth embrace my 
bosom : 
My heart beats thicker than a feverous pulse ; 
And all my powers do their bestowing lose, 
Like vassalage at unawares eneount'ring 
The eye of majesty. 

Enter Paj.dab.vs and Cressida. 

Pan. Come, come, what need you blush ? 
shame 's a baby. — Here she is now : swear the 
oaths now to her that you have sworn to me. — 
AVTiat, are you gone again ? you must be watched 
ere you be made tame, must you? Come your 
ways, come your ways ; an you draw backward, 
we'U put you i' the fills. — Why do you not speak 
to her? — Come, draw this curtain, and let's see 
your picture. Alas the day, how loth you are 
to offend daylight ! an 't were dark you 'd close 
sooner. So, so ; rub on, and kiss the mistress. 
How now, a kiss in fcc-f;u-m ! build there, 



a Thrice rrpurrd in the quarto of 1609 — that is thrice rc- 
puriticd. The folio ha3 thrice reputed. 



Act in.] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[SCEKE II. 



carpenter; the ak is sweet. Nay, you sliall 
fight youi' hearts out ere I part you. The falcou 
as the tercel, for all the ducks i' the river : go 
to, go to. 

Tro. You have bereft me of all words, lady. 

Tan. Words pay no debts, give her deeds : 
but she '11 bereave you of the deeds too, if she 
call your activity in question. What, billing 
again ? Here 's^' In witness whereof the parties 
interchangeably' — Come in, come in; I'll go 
get a fire. \Ilxit Pandakus. 

Cres. Will you walk in, my lord ? 

Tro. Cressida, how often have I wish'd me 
thus? 

Ores. Wish'd, my lord ? — The gods grant ! — 
my lord ! 

Tro. What should they grant? what makes 
this pretty abruption? What too curious di-eg 
espies my sweet lady in the fountain of our 
love ? 

Cres. More di'egs than water, if my fears have 
eyes. 

Tro, Eears make devils of cherubins ; they 
never see truly. 

Cres. Blind fear, that seeing reason leads, 
finds safer footing than blind reason stumbling 
without fear : To fear the worst oft cures the 
worse. 

Tro. 0, let my lady apprehend no fear : in 
all Cupid's pageant there is presented no mon- 
ster. 

Cres. Nor nothing monstrous neither ? 

Tro. Nothing, but our undertakings ; when 
we vow to weep seas, live in fire, eat rocks, tame 
tigers; thinking it harder for our mistress to 
devise imposition enough, than for us to undergo 
any difficulty imposed. This is the moustruosity 
in love, lady, — that the will is infinite, and the 
execution confined ; that the desire is boundless, 
and the act a slave to limit. 

Cres. They say, all lovers swear more per- 
formance than they are able, and yet reserve an 
ability that they never perform ; vowing more 
than the perfection of ten, and discharging less 
than the tenth part of one. They that have the 
voice of Hons, and the act of hares, are they not 
monsters ? 

Tro. Are there such ? such are not we : 
Praise us as we are tasted, allow us as we prove ; 
our head shall go bare till merit crown it: no 
perfection in reversion shall have a praise in 
present: we will not name desert before his 
birth; and, being bora, his addition shall be 
humble. Pew words to fair faith : TroUus shall 
be such to Cressid, as what envy can say worst 



shall be a mock for his truth ; and what trulh 
can speak truest, not truer than Troilus. 
Cres. Will you walk in, my lord ? 

Re-enter Pandauus, 

Tan. What, blushing stdl ? have you not done 
talking yet ? 

Cres. Well, uncle, what folly I commit I 
dedicate to you. 

Tan. I thank you for that ; if my lord get a 
boy of you, you '11 give him me : Be true to mj 
lord : if he flinch, chide me for it. 

Tro. You know now your hostages; your 
uncle's word, and my firm faith. 

Tan. Nay, I '11 give my word for her too ; our 
kindred, though they be long ere they are wooed, 
they are constant, being won: they are burs, 
I can tell you; they'll stick where they are 
thrown. 

Cres. Boldness comes to me now, and brings 
me heart : 
Prince Troilus, I have lov'd you night and day, 
For many weary months. 

Tro. Why was my Cressid then so hard to 
win? 

Cres. Hard to seem won ; but I was won, my 
lord. 
With the first glance that ever — Pardon me ; — 
If I confess much, you wiU play the tyi'ant. 
I love you now ; but not, till now, so much 
But I might master it : — in faith, I lie ; 
My thoughts were like unbridled childi-en, grown 
Too headstrong for their mother : See, we fools ! 
Wby have I blabb'd ? who shall be true to us. 
When we are so unsecret to ourselves ? 
But, though I lov'd you well, I woo'd you not ; 
And yet, good faith, I wish'd myself a man; 
Or that we women had men's privilege 
Of speaking first. Sweet, bid me hold my 

tongue ; 
For, in this rapture, I shall surely speak 
The thing I shall repent. See, see, youi- silence. 
Cunning in dumbness, from my weakness di-aws 
My soul of counsel from me : ^ Stop my mouth. 

Tro. And shall, albeit sweet music issues 
thence. 

Tan. Pretty, i' faith. 

Cres. My lord, I do beseech you, pardon me : 
'T was not my piu'pose thus to beg a kiss : 
I am asham'd;— heavens! what have i 

done ? — 
For this time will I take my leave, my lord. 

Tro. Your leave, sweet Cressid ? 

•T So the folio; the quarto, mij very soul ofcou:isfL 

107 



Act III.] 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



[SCEKE III. 



Pa7i. Leave ! au you lak« leave till to-morrow 
luoniing, — 

Cres. Pray you, content you. 

Tro. What offends you, lady ? 

Cres. Sir, mine owu company. 

Tro. You caimot slum 

Yourself. 

Cres. Let me go and tiy : 
I have a kind of self resides with you : 
But an unkind self, that itself will leave. 
To be another's fool. "Where is my wit ? 
1 would be gone : — I speak I know not what." 

Tro. Well know they what they speak that 
speak so wisely. 

Cres. rcrchancc, my lord, I show more craft 
than love : 
And fell so roiyully to a large confession. 
To angle for your thoughts : But you are wise ; 
Or else you love not : I'or to be wise, and love, 
Exceeds man's might; that dwells with gods 
above. 

Tro. O, tliat I thought it could be in a woman, 
(As, if it can, I will presume in you,) 
To feed for aye licr lamp and flames of love ; 
To keep her constancy in pliglit and youth, 
Outliving beauty's outward, with a mind 
That doth renew swifter than blood decays ! 
Or, that persuasion could but thus convince me. 
That my integrity and truth to you 
Might be affronted with the match and weight 
Of such a winnowed piu'ity in love; 
How were I then uplifted ! but, alas, 
I am as true as truth's simplicity. 
And simpler than the infancy of trath. 

Cres. In that I '11 war with you. 

Tro. virtuous fight. 

When right with right wars who shall be most 

right ! 
True swains in love shall, in the world to come, 
Approve their truths by Troilus: when their 

rhymes. 
Full of protest, of oath, and big compare, 
Want similes, truth tir'd with iteration,— 
As true as steel, as plantage to the moon, 
\s sun to day, as turtle to her mate. 
As iron to adamant, as eartli to the centre,— 
Yet, after all comparisons of truth, 
As truth's authentic author to be cited. 
As true as Troilus shall crown up the verse. 
And sanctify the numbers. 

Cres. Prophet may you be ! 

If I be false, or swerve a hair from truth. 
When time is old and hath forgot itself, 



* Wc follow the reading of the folio, 
transpoied in the quarto. 

103 



The sentences are 



Wlien waterdrops have woru the stones of Troy, 

And blind oblivion swallow'd cities up. 

And mighty states characterless are grated 

To dusty nothing ; yet let memory 

From false to false, among false maids in love. 

Upbraid my falsehood ! when they have said, as 

false 
As air, as water, wind, or sandy earth, 
Ab fox to lamb, or wolf to heifer's calf, 
Pard to the hind, or stepdame to her son; 
Yea, let them say, to stick the heart of falsehood. 
As false as Crcssid, 

Fan. Go to, a bargain made : seal it, seal it ; 
I '11 be the witness. — Here I hold your hand : 
here, my cousin's. If ever you prove false one 
to another, since I have taken such pains to bring 
you together, let all pitiful goers-between be 
called to the world's end after my name, call 
them all— Pandars; let all constant men be 
Troiluses, all false women Cressids, and all 
brokers-between Pandars ! say, amen. 

Tro. Amen. 

Cres. Amen. 

Pan. Amen. Whereupon I will shosv you a 
chamber, which bed, because it shall not speak 
of your pretty encounters, press it to death : 
away. 

And Cupid grant all tongue-tied maidens here. 

Bed, chamber, and I'andar to provide this 
gear ! [E.Teunt. 

SCENE 111.— The Grecian Camp. 

Enter Agamemnox, Ulysses, Diomedes, Nes- 
TOE, Ajax, Menelatjs, and Calcuas. 

Cal. Now, princes, for the service I have done 

you. 
The advantage of the time prompts me aloud 
To call for recompense. Appear it to your 

mind. 
That, through the sight I bear in things to love," 
I have abandou'd Troy, loft my possession, 
Tncurr'd a traitor's name ; expos'd myself. 
From certain and possess'd conveniences. 
To doubtful fortunes ; ^ scqucst'ring from me all 
That time, acquaintance, custom, and condition. 
Made tame and most familiar to my nature ; 
And here, to do you service, am become 
As new into the world, strange, luiacquaintcd : 



« The meaning apjicars to us sufficiently clear— through 
my prescience in knowing wliat things I should love. The 
conjeclui.il reading, unsupported by any authority, is— 

" That, through the sight 1 bear in things, to Jove 
1 have abandon'd Troy." 
This is the favourite reading of Mr. Dyce. 



Act III.] 



TEOILUS AJN^D CRESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



I do beseech you, as iu way of taste. 
To give me uow a little beuefit, 
Out of those many register'd in promise, 
Which you say live to come in my beluilf. 

Agctm. What wouldst thou of us, Trojan ? 

make demand. 
Cal. You have a Trojan prisoner, call'd An- 
tenor, 
Yesterday took ; Troy holds him very dear. 
Oft have you (often have you thanks therefore) 
Desir'd my Cressid iu right great exchange, 
Whom Troy hath still denied : But this Antenor, 
I know, is such a wrest in their aifairs. 
That their negotiations all must slack. 
Wanting his manage ; and they will almost 
Give us a prince of blood, a son of Priam, 
In change of him : let him be sent, great princes. 
And he shall buy my daughter; and her pre- 
sence 
Shall quite strike off all service I have done, 
In most accepted pain. 

Again. Let Diomedes bear him, 

x\nd bring us Cressid hither ; Calchas shall have 
What he requests of us. — Good Diomed, 
Furnish you fairly for this interchange : 
Withal, bring word, if Hector will to-morrow 
Be answer'd in his challenge : Ajax is ready. 

Bio. This shall I undertake; and 'tis a 
burthen 
Wliich I am proud to bear, 

{E.veunt Diomedes and Calchas. 

Elder Achilles and Patkoclus, before their 
Tent. 

JJlyss. Achilles stands i' the entrance of his 
tent : — 
Please it our general to pass strangely by him, 
As if he were forgot ; and, princes all, 
Lay negligent and loose regard upon him : 
I will come last : 'T is like, he '11 question me, 
"Wliy such nnplausive eyes are bent, why turn'd 

on him : 
If so, 1 have derision medicinable, 
To use between your strangeness and his pride. 
Which his own will shall have desire to drink ; 
It may do good : pride hath no other glass 
To show itself, but pride ; for supple knees 
Feed arrogance and are the proud man's fees. 
Again. We'll execute your purpose, and put 

on 
A form of strangeness as we pass along ; — 
So do each lord ; and either greet him not. 
Or else disdainfully, which shall shake him 

more 
Than if not look'd on. I wiU lead the way. 



Achil. What, comes the general to speak with 
me ? 
You know my miud, I '11 fight no more 'gainst 
Troy. 
Agar,!. What says Achilles? would he aught 

with us ? 
Nest. Would you, my lord, aught with the 

general ? 
Acliil. No. 

Nest. Nothing, niy lord. 
Agam. The better. . 

[E.reunf Agamemnon and Nestor. 
Ac/iil. Good day, good day. 
Men. How do you ? h.ow do you ? 

lEvit Menelal's. 
Aciil, Wliat, does the cuckold scoi-n me ? 
AJa.v. How now, Patroclus ? 
Ac/iil. Good morrow, Ajax. 
AJa.T. Ha? — • 
Ac/iil. Good morrow. 
AJa.T. Ay, and good next day too. 

[Edit Ajax. 
Achil. What mean these fellows ? Know they 

not Achilles ? 
Patr. They pass by strangely : they were us'd 
to bend. 
To send their smiles before them to AchUles ; 
To come as humbly as they us'd to creep 
To holy altars. 

Achit. What, am I poor of late ? 

'T is certain, greatness, once fallen out with for- 
tune. 
Must fall out with men too : "VYhat the declin'd is^ 
He shall as soon read in the eyes of others. 
As feel in his o\vn fall : for men, like butterflies. 
Show not their mealy wings but to the summer ; 
And not a man, for being simply man. 
Hath any honour ; but honour for those honom-s 
That are without him, as place, riches, aud 

favom', 
Prizes of accident as oft as merit : 
Which, when they fall, as being slippery standers. 
The love that lean'd on them as slippery too. 
Do one pluck do^vn another, and together 
Die in the fall. But 't is not so with me : 
Fortune and I are friends ; I do enjoy 
At ample point all that I did possess. 
Save these men's looks : who do, mctliinks, find 

out 
Something not worth iu me such rich beholding 
As thev have often given. Here is Ulysses ; 
I '11 interrupt his reading. — 
How noWjUlysses ? 

Vlyss. Now, great Thetis' son ! 

Achil. What are you reading ? 

10? 



Act III.] 



TEOILUS iVND CEESSLDA. 



[Scene 111. 



Uli/ss. A stmngc fellow here 

Writes mc, That mau, how deai-ly ever parted," 
How much ia having, or mthout, or iu, 
Caimot make boast to have that wliich he hath, 
Nor feels not what he owes, but by rcdcctiou ; 
As when his virtues shiniug upon others 
Heat them, and they retort that heat again 
To the first giver. 

Achil. This is not strange, Ulysses. 

The beauty that is borne here in the face 
The bearer knows not, but commends itself 
[To others' eyes : nor doth the eye itself 
(That most pure spirit of sense) behold itself,'"] 
Not going from itself; but eye to eye oppos'd 
Salutes each other with each other's form. 
For speculation turns not to itself, 
TiU it hath travell'd, and is married "^ I here 
ATlicre it may see itself: this is not strange at all. 

Uli/ss. I do not strain at the position, 
It is familiar ; but at the author's drift : 
Who, in his ciicumstancc, expressly proves. 
That no man is the lord of anything, 
(Though in and of him there is much consisting,) 
Till he communicate his parts to others : 
Nor doth he of himself know them for aught 
Till he behold them form'd in the applause 
Where they are extended; who, like an arch, 

reverberates 
The voice again ; or, like a gate of steel 
Fronting the sun, receives and renders back 
Uis figure and his heat. I was much rapt in 

this; 
And apprehended here immediately 
The unknown Ajax. 

Heavens, what a man is there ! a very horse ; 
That has he knows not what. Nature, what 

things there are. 
Most abject in regard, and dear iu use ! 
What things again most dear iu tlic esteem, 
.\jid poor in worth ! Now shall we see to- 
morrow. 
An act that very chance doth tlu-ow upon him, 
Ajax renowu'd. heavens, what some men do. 
While some men leave to do ! 
How some men creep in skittish fortune's hall, 
"\71iile others play the idiots in her eyes ! 
How one man cats into another's pride. 
While pride is feasting in his wantonness ! 
To see these Grecian lords ! — why, even akeady 
They clap the lubber Ajax on the shoulder ; 
As if liis foot were on brave Hector's breast. 
And great Troy shrinking. 

» PaWorf— endowed wiili parts, talenta. 
b The lines in brackets arc not in the folio, 
e Married. So the quarto and folios. Mr. Collier's cor- 
rected folio ha3 mirror'd. 



110 



Achil. I do believe it : for f hey pass'd by me 
As misers do by beggars ; neither gave to mc 
Good word, nor look: What, are my deeds 

forgot ? 
Uli/ss. Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his 

back. 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 
A great sized monster of ingratitudes : 
Those scraps arc good deeds past : which arc 

devour'd 
As fast as they are made, forgot as soon 
As done : Perseverance, dear my lord, 
Keeps honour bright : To have done, is to hang 
Qidte out of fashion, like a iiisty mail 
In monumental mockery. 'J'ake the instant 

w;iy ; 
For honour travels in a strait so narrow, 
Where one but goes abreast : keep then the 

path ; 
For emulation hath a thousand sons. 
That one by one pursue : If you give way. 
Or hedge aside from the direct forthright. 
Like to an enter'd tide, they jdl rush by. 
And leave you hindmost ; — 
Or, like a gallant horse fallen in fii'st rank, 
Lie there for pavement to the abject rear, 
O'errun and trampled on : Then what they do 

in present, 
Though less than yom-s in past, must o'crtop 

yours : 
For time is like a fashionable host. 
That slightly shakes his parting guest by the 

hand; 
And with his arms outstretch' d, as he would fly, 
Grasps-in the comer : Welcome ever smiles, 
i\jid farewell goes out sighing. 0, let not virtue 

seek 
Remuneration for the thing it was ; 
For beauty, wit. 

High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service. 
Love, friendship, charity, ai'c subjects all 
To envious and calumniating time. 
One touch of nature makes the whole world 

kin, — 
That all, with one consent, praise new-born 

gawds, 
Though tlicy are made and moulded of things 

past ; 
And give to dust, tliat is a little gilt. 
More laud than gUt o'cr-dusted. 
The present eye praises the present object : 
Then marvel not, thou great and complete 

man, 
That all the Greeks begm to worship Ajax ; 
Smee tilings iu motion sooner catch the eye. 



A.CT ni.] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene III. 



Than what uot stirs. The cry went once on 

thee. 
And still it might ; and yet it may again, 
If thou wouldst not entomb thyself alive, 
And case thy reputation in thy tent ; 
Whose glorious deeds, but in these fields of late, 
Made em'ilous missions 'mongst the gods them- 
selves, 
And drave great Mars to faction. 

Achil. Of this my privacy 

I have strong reasons. 

Uli/ss. But 'gainst your privacy 

The reasons are more potent and heroical : 
'Tis known, AchiUes, that you are in love 
With oue of Priam's daughters. 

AcJiil. Ila ! known ? 

Uli/ss. Is that a wonder ? 
The providence that 's in a watchful state 
Knows almost every grain of Plutus' gold ; 
Finds bottom in the uncompreheusive deeps ; 
Keeps place with thought, and almost, like the 

gods. 
Does t'houghts unveil in then: dumb cradles. 
There is a mystery (with whom relation 
Durst never meddle) iu the soul of state ; 
Wbich hath au operation more divine 
Than breath, or pen, can give expressui-e to : 
All the commerce that you have had with Troy> 
As perfectly is ours, as yours, my lord ; 
And better would it fit Achilles much. 
To throw down Hector, than Polyxena : 
But it must grieve young Pyrrhus now at home, 
When fame shall in oiu- islands sound her 

tnimp ; 
And all the Greekish girls shall tripping sing,— 
' Great Hector's sister did Achilles win ; 
But our great Ajax bravely beat down him.' 
Farewell, my lord : I as your lover speak ; 
The fool slides o'er the ice that you shoidd 

break. U^-^'it- 

Pair. To this effect, Achilles, have I mov'd 

you : 
A woman impudeut and mannish grown 
Is not more loath'd than an effeminate man 
In time of action. I stand condemu'd for this ; 
They think, my little stomach to the war. 
And yoiu- great love to me, restrains you thus : 
Sweet, rouse yourself; and the weak wanton 

Cupid 
Shall from your neck unloose his amorous fold. 
And, like a dew-drop from the lion's mane, 
Be shook to airy air.'' 

Achil Shall Ajax fight with Hector ? 



a Airy air is the reading of tlie folio; the quarto has 
air. 



Pair. Ay ; and, pei'haps, receive muck honour 
by him. 

Achil. I see, my reputation is at stake ; 
My fame is shrewdly gor'd. 

Pat/-. O, then beware ; 

Those wounds heal ill that men do give them- 
selves : 
Omission to do M'hat is necessary 
Seals a commission to a blank of danger ; 
And danger, like au ague, subtly taints 
Even then when we sit idly iu the smi. 

Achil. Go call Thersitcs hither, sweet Pa- 
troclus : 
I'U send the fool to Ajax, and desire him 
To invite the Troiau lords after the combat, 
To see us here nnarm'd : I have a woman s 

longing, 
An appetite that I am sick withal, 
To see great Hector in his weeds of peace ;" 
To talk with him, and to behold his visage. 
Even to my full of view. A labour saVd ! 

Enter Thersites. 

Ther. A wonder ! 

Achil. What? 

Ther. Ajax goes up and down the field, ask- 
ing for 'himself. 

Achil. How so ? 

Ther. He must fight singly to-moiTOW with 
Hector; and is so prophetically proud of an 
heroical cudgelling, that he raves in saying no- 
thing. 

Achil. Hovv" can that be ? 

Ther. Why, he stalks up and down like a 
peacock— a stride and a stand: ruminates- like" 
an hostess that hath no arithmetic but her brain 
to set down her reckoning : bites his lip with a 
politic regard, as who shoidd say, there were 
wit iu this head, an't would out ; and so there 
is ; but it lies as coldly iu him as fire in a flint, 
which will not show without knocking. The 
man's undone for ever ; for if Hector break not 
his neck i' the combat, he '11 break it himself in 
vainglory. He knows not me : I said, ' Good- 
morrow, Ajax;' and he replies, 'Thanks, Aga- 
memnon.' What think you of this man, that 
takes me for the general? He is grown a very 
land fish, languageless, a monster. A plague 
of opinion ! a man may wear it on both sides, 
like a leather jerkin. • 

Achil. Thou must be my ambassador to him, 
T]i6rsitcs. 

Ther. Who, I? why, he'll answer nobody; 
he professes not answering ; speaking is for beg- 
gars : he wears his tongue in his arms. I will 
^ 111 



Act 1 1 I.J 



TliOILUS AND CKESSIDA. 



[Scene 111. 



put on his presence ; let Patroelus make his 
demands to nic, you shall sec the pageant of 
Ajax. 

Jchil. To him, Patroelus: Tell him, I hum- 
bly desire the valiant Ajax to invite the most 
valorous Hector to come unarmed to my tent ; 
and to procure safe conduct for his person, of 
the magnanimous, and most illustrious, six-or- 
seven-times honoured eaptain-gencral of the 
Grecian army, Agamemnon, &e. Do this. 

Patr. Jove bless great Ajax. 

Ther. Humph! 

Patr. I come from the worthy Achilles, — 

Ther. Ha! 

Patr. Who most humbly desires you to invite 
Hector to his tent, — 

Ther. Humph! 

Patr. And to procure safe conduct from Aga- 
memnon. 

Ther. Agamemnon? 

Patr. Av, my lord. 

Ther. Ha ! 

Patr. "What say you to 't ? 

Ther. God be wi' you, with all my heart. 



Patr. Your answer, sir. 

Ther. If to-morrow be a fair day, by eleven 
o'clock it will go one way or other ; howsoever, 
he shall pay for me ere he has me. 

Patr. Your answer, sir. 

Ther. Tare you well, with all my heart. 

Achil. ^Vhy, but he is not in tliis tune, is he ? 

T/icr. No, but he 's out o' tune thus. What 
music will be in him when Hector has knocked 
out his brains, I know not : But, I am sure, 
none ; unless the fiddler Apollo gets his sinews 
to make catlings on. 

Acliil. Come, thou shalt bear a letter to him 
straight. 

Ther. Let me can-y another to his horse ; for 
tha't's the more capable creature. 

Achil. My mind is troubled, Hke a fountain 
stirr'd ; 
And I myself see not the bottom of it. 

\_E.re/ait AcuiLLES and Patroclus. 

Ther. 'Would the fountain of your mind were 
clear again, that I might water an ass at it ! 1 
had rather be a tick in a sheep, than such a va- 
liant ignorance. [E.vii. 




[Achilles.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OP ACT III. 



' Scene III. — " Expos' d myself. 
From certain and possess'd conveniences, 
To doubtful fortunes" 

The ' Troy Book ' gives a different version of the 
motives of Calchas iu going over to the Greeks. 
Apollo appeared to the priest, — 

" And said Calchas twice by his name; 
Be right well 'ware thou ne turn again 
To Troy tcrni, for that were hut in vain ; 
For finally learn this thing of me, 
In short time it shall destroyed be." 



- Scene III. — " I have a woman's longing. 
An appetite that I am sich withal. 
To see great Hector in his weeds of peace." 

In the ' Destruction of Troy ' we have the same 
conception worthy to be received into the poetry 
of Shakspere : — • 

" The truce during, Hector went on a day unto 
the tents of the Greeks, and Achilles beheld him 
gladly, forasmuch as he had never seen him un- 
armed. And at the request of Achilles, Hector 
went into his tent ; and as they spake together of 
many things, Achilles said to Hector, I have great 
pleasure to see thee unarmed, forasmuch as I have 
never seen thee before." 



TKAaEDIES.--YOL. II. 



113 



-1.* 



■f 




[jEneas meoting Tans.] 



ACT TV 



SCENE I.-Tioj. A SI reel. 

Enter, at one side, JilxEAS, and Servant with a 
torch; at the other, Paris, Deiphobus, An- 
T£NOR, DiOMEDES, and others, with torches. 

Par. See, ho ! who 's that there ? 
Dei. 'Tis the lord ^neas. 

J^ne. Is the prince there in person ? — 
Had I so good occasion to lie long, 
As you, prince Paris, nothing but heavenly busi- 
ness 
Should rob my bed-mate of my company. 

JJio. ITiat 's my mind too. — Good morrow, 

lord iEueas. 
Par. A valiant Greek, jEncas ; take his hand : 
Witness the process of your speech, wherein 
You told how Diorr.jd, in a whole week by days. 
Did haunt you in the field. 
114 



J^ne. Health to you, valiant sir, 

During all question of the gentle truce : " 
But wlicn I meet you arni'd, as black defiance. 
As heart can think or courage execute. 

Bio. Tlie one and other Diomed embraces. 
Our bloods are now in calm ; and, so long, healtli : 
But, when contention and occasion meet. 
By Jove, I '11 play the hunter for thy life. 
With all my force, pursuit, and policy. 

Jl'Jne. And thou shalt hunt a lion, that will fly 
With his face backward. — In humane gentleness, 
AVelcome to 1'roy ! now, by Anchises' life, 
W^eleome, indeed ! By Venus' hand I swear. 
No man alive can love, in such a sort, 
The tiling he means to kill, more excellently. 

• The Eciitence scarcely requires explanation : j^neas 
wishes DIomedes health, whilst tliere is no question, argu- 
ment, between them but what arises out of the truce. 



Act IV.] 



TEOILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



rScENS II. 



Dio. We sympathize : — Jove, let J<lneas live, 
If to my sword his fate be not the glory, 
A thousand complete courses of the sun ! 
But, in mine emulous honour, let him die, 
With every joint a wound ; and that to-morrow ! 

^ne. We know each other weU. 

Bio. We do ; and long to know each other 
worse. 

Par. This is the most despitefull'st '^ gentle 
greeting, 
The noblest hateful love, that e'er I heard of. — 
What business, lord, so early ? 

J;! lie. I was sent for to tiie king; but why, I 
know not. 

Par. His purpose meets you : 'T was to bring 
this Greek 
To Calchas' house ; and there to render liim. 
For the enfreed Antenor, the fair Cressid : 
Let 's have your company ; or, if you please. 
Haste there before us : I constantly do think, 
(Or, rather, call my thought a certain know- 
ledge,) 
My brother Troilus lodges there to-night ; 
Rouse him, and give liim note of our approao'.i. 
With the whole quality whereof ; I fear, 
We shall be nuich unwelcome. 

jEne. That I assure you ; 

Troilus had rather Troy were borne to Greece, 
Than Cressid borne from Troy. 

Par. There is no help ; 

The bitter disposition of the time 
Will have it so. On, lord ; we '11 follow you. 

JEne. Good morrow, all. \_Exit. 

Par. And tell me, noble Diomed ; faith, tell 
me true. 
Even in the soul of sound good-fellowship, — 
Who, in your thoughts, merits fair Helen most,'' 
Myself, or Menelaus ? 

Dio. Both alike : 

He merits well to have her that doth seek her 
(Not making any scruple of her soilure) 
With such a hell of pain, and world of charge ; 
And you as well to keep her, tliat defend her 
(Not palatiug the taste of her dishonour) 
With such a costly loss of wealth and friends : 
He, like a puling cuckold, would drink up 
The lees and dregs of a flat tamed piece ; 
You, like a lecher, out of whorish loins 
Are pleas'd to breed out your inheritors ; 
Both merits pois'd, each weighs no less nor 

more ; 
But he as he ; which heavier for a whore ?° 



* This, the reading of the folio, is a common construction 
of the age of Shakspere : the quarto reading is despiieful. 
b Most is the reading of the folio; tlic quarto, best 
c This is the reading of the folio. 

I 2 



Par. You are too bitter to your cctmtry- 
womac. 

Dio. She 's bitter to her couiitry : Hear me, 
Paris. — 
For every false drop in her bawdy veins 
A Grecian's life hath sunk ; for every scruple 
Of her contaminated carrion weight, 
A Trojan hath been slain; since she cotud 

speak. 
She hath not given so many good words breath, 
As for her Greeks and Trojans suffer'd death. 

Par. Fan- Diomed, you do as chapmen do, 
Dispraise the thing that you desire to buy : 
But we in silence hold this vntue well, — 
We '11 not commend what we intend to sell.^ 
Here lies our way. [jE.veuiit. 

SCENE II.— The same. Conrl be/ore the House 
of Pandarus. 

Enter Tkoilus and Cressida. 

Tro. Dear, trouble not yourself ; the morn is 
cold. 

Cres. Then, sweet my lord, I '11 call mine uncle 
down ; 
He shall unbolt the gates. 

Tro. Trouble liim not ; 

To bed, to bed : Sleep kill those pretty eyes. 
And give as soft attachment to thy senses, 
As infants' empty of all thought ! 

Ores. Good morrov/, then. 

Tro. Prithee now, to bed. 

des. Are you aweary of me ? 

Tro. Cressida ! but that the busy day, 
Wak'd by the lark, hath rous'd the ribald crows. 
And dreaming night will hide our joys ^ no longer, 
I would not from thee. 

Ores. Night hath been too brief. 

Tro. Beshrew the witch ! M"ith venomous 
\viglits she stays. 
As tediously " as hell ; but flies the grasps of love. 
With wintrs more momeutarv-swift thanthouglit. 
You will catch cold, and curse me. 

Cres. Prithee, tarry; — you men will never 
tarry.— 
O foolish Cressid!— I might have still held off. 
And then you would have tarried. Hark ! there 's 
one up. 

Pan. [JFithin.'] What, are all the doors open 
here ? 



* Warhurfon proposed to read not sell, which is evidently 
the meaning,— antithetically oppose. 1 to biiij. Ticck and 
Voss support the change of reading; but our principle is 
not to alter tlie text. In this respect It is the same in both 
editions, the quarto and tlie folio. 

b Joys in tlie quarto ; the folio, ci/es. 

c Tediously in the quarto ; the folio, hideously. 

U5 



Act IV.l 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



[SC£NE II. 



Tro. It is your xincle. 

Enter Pandakus. 

Cres. A pestilence on him! now will he be 
mocking : 
I shall have such a life, — 

Pan. How now, how now ? how go maiden- 
heads ? Here, you maid ! where 's my cousin 
Cressid ? 
Cres. Go hang yourself, you naughty mock- 
ing uncle ! 
You brine: me to do, and then vou flout me 
too. 
Pan. To do what ? to do what ?— let her say 
what : what have I brought you to do ? 

Cres. Come, come ; besluew your heart : 
you '11 ne'er be good. 
Nor suffer others. 

Pan. Ha, ha ! Alas, poor wretch 1 a poor ca- 
pocchia ! '^ hast not slept to-night ? would he not, 
a naughty man, let it sleep ? a bugbear take 
him ! \Knocldng. 

Cres. Did not I tell you ? — 'would he were 
kuock'd o' the head ! 
Who 's that at door ? good uncle, go and see. — 
My lord, come you again into my chamber : 
You smile, and mock me, as if I meant naugh- 
tily. 
Tro. Ha, ha! 

Cres. Come, you are deceiv'd, I think of no 
such thing. — [Knocking. 

How earnestly they knock ! pray you, come in ; 
I would not for half Troy have you seen here. 

[Exeunt Troiltjs and Ckessida. 
Pan. [Going to the door.'] Wlio's there? 
what 's the matter ? will you beat down the 
door ? How now ? what 's the matter ? 

Enter JUneas. 

./E?ie. Good-morrow, lord, good-morrow. 

Pan. "Who 's there ? my lord ^ueas ? By my 
troth, 
I knew you not : what news with you so early ? 

.^ne. Is not prince Troilus here ? 

Pan. Here ! what should he do here ? 

JEne. Come, he is here, my lord, do not deny 
him ; 
It doth import him much to speak with me. 

Pan. Is he here, say you ? "t is more than I 
know, I '11 be sworn : — For my own part, I came 
in late : What should he do here ? 

jEne. Who! — nay, then: — Come, come, you'll 
Ho him wrong ere y^ are 'ware : You '11 be so true 



" CnpoccAia. —Florio, in liis Italian Dictionary, explains 
capocchio as "a shallow skonce, a loggerhead." 

116 



to him, to be false to hiin : Do not you know of 
him, but yet go fetch him hitlicr ; go. 

As PaxDx\.iius is going out, enter Tkoilus. 

Tro. How now ? what 's the matter ? 

.^ne. My lord, I scarce have leisure to ^alutc 
you. 
My matter is so rash There is at hand 
Paris your brotlier, ami Deiphobus, 
The Grecian Diomed, and our Antenor 
Delivcr'd to us ; and for him forthwith. 
Ere the first sacrifice, within this hour, 
We must give up to Diomcdes' hand 
The lady Cressida.' 

Tro. Is it concluded so ? 

.^ne. By Priam, and the general state of 
Troy: 
They are at hand, and ready to effect it. 

Tro. How my achievements mock me ! 
I wUl go meet them : and, my lord iEneas, 
We met by chance ; you did not find me here. 

^ne. Good, good, my lord ; the secrets of 
natui'e 
Have not more gift in taciturnity. 

[Exeunt Troilus and ^xeas. 

Pan. Is "t possible ? no sooner got but lost ? 
The devil take Antenor ! the young prince will 
go mad. A plague upon Antenor ! I would they 
had broke 's neck. 

Enter Cressida. 

Cres. How now ? what 's the matter ? Who 
was here ? 

Pan. Ah, ah ! 

Cres. Why sigh you so profoundly ? where 's 
ray lord gone? Tell me, sweet uncle, what's 
the matter ? 

Pan. 'Would I were as deep under the earth 
as I am above ! 

Cres. O the gods ?— what 's the matter ? 

Pan. Prithee, get thee in. Would thou hadst 
ne'er been born ! I knew thou wouldst be his 
death: — poor gentleman!— A plague upon 
Antenor ! 

Cres. Good uncle, I beseech you on my knees, 
I beseech you, what 's the matter ? 

Pan. Thou must be gone, wench, thou must 
be gone ; thou art changed for Antenor : thou 
must to thy father, and be gone from Troilus ; 
't will be his death ! 't will be his baue ; he can- 
not bear it, 

Cres. O you immortal gods! — I will not 

go- 
Pa;!. Thou must. 

Cres. I will not, uncle : I have forgot my 
father ; 



ACT iV.j 



TROILUS Al^D CRESSIDA. 



[SCES£S III., IV. 



I know no toucli of consariguinity; 

No kiu, no love, no blood, no soul so near 

me, 
As the sweet Troilus. —0 you gods divine 1 
Make Cressid's name the very crown of false- 
hood 
If ever she leave Troilus ! Time, force, and 

death, 
Do to this body what extremity- you can ; 
But the strong base and building of rriy 

love 
Is as the very centre of the earth, 
Drawhig all thmgs to it. — I will go in, and 

weep ; — 
Fan. Do, do. 
Ores. Tear my bright hair, and scratch my 

praised cheeks ; 
Crack my clear voice with sobs, and break my 

heart 
With soimding Troilus. I M'iU not go from 

Troy. [Exeiint. 

SCENE 111.— The same. Before Pandarus' 
House. 

Enter Pahis, Troilus, ^neas, Deiphobtjs, 
Antenok. and Dioiiedes. 

Far. It is great morning ; and the hour pre- 
fix'd 
Of her delivery to this valiant Greek 
Comes fast upon : — Good my brother Troilus, 
TeU you the lady what she is to do. 
And haste her to the purpose. 

Tro. Walk in to her house ; 

I '11 bring her to the Grecian presently : 
And to his hand when I deliver her, 
Think it an altar ; and thy brother Troilus 
A priest, there offermg to it his own heai't. [E.vit. 

Far. I know what 't is to love ; 
And 'would, as I shall pity, I could help !— 
Please you walk in, my lords. [Exeunt. 

SCENE IS.— The same. A Room in Pandarus' 
Hotcse. 

Enter Pandarus and Cressida. 

Fa7i. Be moderate, be moderate. 
Ores. Why tell you me of moderation? 
The grief is fine, full, perfect, that I taste. 
And no less in a sense as strong as that 
Which causeth it : ^ How can I moderate it ? 

* Extremity in the folio ; the quarto, extremes. 
b This is the reading of the folio ; the quarto has, 

" And violenielh in a sense as strong 
As that -which causeth it." 



If I could temporize with my affection. 
Or brew it to a weak and colder palate. 
The Uke allayment could I give my grief : 
My love admits no qualifyiag cross : " 
No more my grief, m such a precious loss. 

Enter Troilus. 

Fan. Here, here, here he comes, a sweet 
duck! 

Ores. Troilus ! Troilus ! 

Fan. Wliat a pair of spectacles ri here ! Let 
me embrace too : heart,— as the goodly say- 
ing is,— 

O heart, heavy heart. 
Why sigh'st thou without breaking? 

where he answers again, 

Because thou canst not ease thy smart, 
By friendship, nor by speaking. 

There w^as never a truer rhyme. Let us cast 
away nothing, for we may live to have need of 
such a verse ; we see it, we see it. — How now, 
lambs ? 

Tro. Cressid, I love thee in so strain'd a 
pui-ity, 
That the blest gods— as angry with my fancy, 
More bright in zeal than the devotion which 
Cold lips^blow to their deities,— take thee from 
me. 
Ores. Have the gods envy ? 
Fan. Ay, ay, ay, ay ; 't is too plain a case. 
Ores. And is it true that I must go from 

Troy? 
Tro. A hateful truth. 

Ores. What, and from Troilus too ? 

Tro. From Troy, and Troilus. 
Ores. Is 't possible ? 

Tro. And suddenly ; where injury of chance 
Puts back leave-taking, justles roughly by 
All time of pause, rudely beguiles our lips 
Of all rejoindui-e, forcibly prevents 
Oiu- lock'd embrasures, strangles our dear vows 
Even in the birth of our own labouring breath : 
We two, that with so many thousand sighs 
Did buy each other, must poorly sell our- 
selves 
With the rude brevity and discharge of one. 
Injurious time now, with a robber's haste. 
Crams Ms rich thievery up, he knows not how : 
As many farewells as be stars in heaven, 
With distinct breath and consigu'd kisses to 

them. 
He fumbles up into a loose adieu j 



a Cross in the folio; dross in the quarto. The folio give^ 
as clear a meaning, without a raised metaphor. 

117 



AjT IV.J 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA 



[SiCKM. IV. 



And scants us with a single faniish'd kiss, 
Distasting" with the salt of broken tears. 
^ne. SJVithin^ My lord ! is the lady ready ? 
Tro. Hark ! you are call'd : Some say, the 
Genius so 
Cries, 'Come!' to him that instantly must 

die. — 
Bid them have paticuee ; she shall come anon. 

Tan. Where are my tears ? rain, to lay this 
wind, or my heart will be blown up by the root. 

[Exit Pakdakvs. 
Crei. I must then to the Grecians ? 
Tro. No remedy. 

Ores. A woeful Cressid 'mongst the merry 
Greeks ! 
When shall we see again? 

Tro. Hear me, mv love : Be thou but true of 

heart, — ' 
Ores. I true ! how now ? what wicked deem 

is this ? 
Tro. Nay, we must use expostulation kindly, 
For it is parting from us : 
[ speak not, ' be thou true,' as fearing thee ; 
For I will throw my glove to Death himself. 
That there's no niaculation in thy heart : 
But ' be thou true,' say I, to fashion in 
My sequent protestation ; be thou true. 
And I will see thee. 

Cres. 0, you shall be expos'd, my lord, to 
dangers 
As infinite as imminent ! but, 1 '11 be true. 
Tro. And I '11 grow friend with danger. Wear 

this sleeve. 
Cres. And you this glove. When shall I see 

you? 
Tro. I will corrupt the Grecian sentinels, 
To give thee nightly visitation. 
But yet, be true. 

Cres. heavens ! — be true, again ? 

Tro. Hear why I speak it, love ; 
The Grecian youths are full ^l quality ; 
Their loving well compos'd with gift of nature, 
Flowing and swelUng o'er with arts and exercise -^ 



» DUlatling in the folio; the quarto, ditlailed. 

"" Thcie are three fine lines, perfectly intelligible: — their 
loving is well composed with the gift of nature, which gift 
(natural quality) is flowing, and swelli! g over, with arts 
and exercise. The second line is not found ia the quarto, 
nrhicb reads, 

" The Grecian youths are full of quality. 
And swelling o'er with arts and exfrcise." 
The poet appears to have strsnsthcned the image in his 
last copy. In the Vdriorum edivions we have — 
" The Grecian youths ars full of quality, 

r/i^reloving, v.eii compos'd, with gifts of nature flowing. 
And swelling o'er with arts and exercise." 
Mr. Staunton reads — 

'•Tbey 're loving, well composed with gifts of nature, 
And Powing o'tr with arts and exercise: " 

118 



How novelties may move, and parts with person, 
Alas, a kind of godly jealousy 
(Which, I beseech you, call a virtuous sm,) 
Makes me afraid. 

Cres. heavens ! you love me not. 

Tro. Die I a villain then ! 
In this I do not call your faith in question. 
So mainly as my merit : I cannot sing, 
Nor heel the high lavolt, nor sweeten talk. 
Nor play at subtle games ; fair virtues all, 
To which the Grecians are most prompt and 

pregnant : 
But 1 can tell, that in each grace of these 
There lurks a still and dumbdiseoursive devil. 
That tempts most cunningly: but be not tempted. 

Cres. Do you think I will ? 

Tro. No. 
But something may be done that we will not : 
i\jid sometimes we are devils to ourselves, 
AVhen we will tempt the frailty of our powers, 
Presuming on their changeful potency. 

Mie. [irUhin.'] Nay, good my lord, — 

Tro. Come, kiss, and let us part. 

Par. \JFilhin.'} Brother Troilus ! 

Tro. Good brother, come you hither ; 

And bring ^neas and the Grecian with you. . 

Cres. My lord, will you be true ? 

Tru. Who, 1 ? alas, it is my vice, my fault ; 
T\'Tiile others fi.sh with craft for great opinion, 
I with great truth catch mere simplicity ; 
Whilst some with cunning gild their copper 

crowns, 
With truth and plainness I do wear mine bare. 
Fear not my truth ; the moral of my wit 
Is — plain, and true, — there 's all the reach 
of it. 

Enter ^neas, Paris, Antenok, Deiphobus, 
and DioiiEDES. 

Welcome, sir Diomed ! here is the lady. 
Which for Antenor we deliver you : 
At the port, lord, I '11 give her to thy hand ; 
And, by the way, possess thee what she is. 
Entreat her fair ; and, by my soul, fair Greek, 
If e'er thou stand at mercy of my sword. 
Name Cressid, and thy life shall be as safe 
As Priam is in Ilion. 

J)io. Fair lady Cressid, 

So please you, save the thanks this prince ex- 
pects : 
The lustre in your eye, heaven in your check. 
Pleads yoar fair usage ; and to Diomed 
You shall be mistress, and command him wholly. 

Tro. Grecian, thoi; dost not use me courte- 
ously, 



Act IV.] 



TEOILUS AND CRESSIDA, 



[Scene V, 



To shame the seal " of my petition to thee, 
lu praising her : I tell thee, lord of Greece, 
She is as far high-soaring o'er thy praises. 
As thou unworthy to be called her servant. 
I charge thee, use her well, even for my cliarge ; 
For, by the dreadful Pluto, if thou dost not. 
Though the great bulk Achilles be thy guard, 
I '11 cut thy throat. 

Dio. 0, be not mov'd, prince Troilus : 

Let me be privileg'd by my place and message. 
To be a speaker free ; when I am hence, 
I 'U answer to my lust : And know you, lord, 
I '11 nothing do on charge : To her own worth 
She shall be priz'd ; but that you say — be 't so, 
I '11 speak it in my spirit and honour, — no. 

Tro. Come, to the port. — I'll tell thee, Diomed, 
This brave shall oft make thee to hide thy head.— 
Lady, give me your hand ; and, as we walk, 
To our own selves bend wc our needful talk. 

\_Exeunt Troilus, CiuiissiDA, and Dioiied. 

\Trumpet heard. 

Par. Hark ! Hector's trumpet. 

Mie. How have we spent this morning ! 

The prince must think me tardy and remiss. 
That swore to ride before him in the field. 

Par. 'T is Troilus' fault : Come, come, to field 
with him. 

Dei. Let us make ready straight. 

Mie. Yea, with a bridegroom's fresh alacrity, 
Let us address to tend on Hector's heels : 
The glory of our Troy doth this day lie 
On his fair worth, and single chivalry. [_Exeuiit. 

SCENE N.—The Grecian Camp. Lists set out. 

Enter Ajax, armed; Agamemnon, Achilles, 
Patroclus, Menelaus, Ulysses, Nestoe, 
and others. 

Agam. Here art thou in appointment fresh 
and fair, 
Anticipating time. With starting courage, 
Give with thy trumpet a loud note to Troy, 
Thou dreadful Ajax ; ^ that the appalled air 
May pierce the head of the great combatant. 
And hale him hither. 



a Seal is the reading of all the old copies. Warburton 
rhanged this to %eal, which is commonly adopted. The 
strong meaning attached to seal in Shakspere's age is ex- 
pressed in the line of the well-known song 

" Seals of love, but scaVd inVain.' 

b Our text is pointed as the first folio (which is also the 
punctuation of the quarto). This is the modern punetua 
tion : — 

" Here art thou in appointment fresh and fair, 
Anticipating time with alarting courage. 
Give with thy trumpet," &o. 

The variation was first introduced by Theobald. 



Ajax. Thou, trumpet, there 's my purse. 

Now crack thy lungs, and sph't thy brazen pipe : 
Blow, villain, till thy sphered bias cheek 
Out-swell the coUc of puft''d Aquilon: 
Come, stretch thy chest, and let thy eyes spout 

blood ; 
Thou blow'st for Hector. {Trumpet sounds. 

Uli/ss. No trumpet answers. 
Achil. 'T is but early days. 

Agam. Is not yon Diomed, with Calchas' 

daughter ? 
JJlyss. 'T is he, I ken the manner of his gait ; 
He rises on the toe : that spirit of his 
In aspiration lifts him from the earth, 

Enkr DiOMED, with Cressida. 

Agam. Is this the lady Cressid ? 

Bio. Even she. 

Agam. Most dearly welcome to the Greeks, 
sweet lady. 

Nest. Our general doth salute you with a kiss. 

TJlyss. Yet is the kindness but particular ; 
'T were better she were kiss'd in general. 

Nest. And very courtly counsel : I 'U begin. — 
So much for Nestor. 

Achil. I'll take that winter from your lips, 
fair lady : 
Achilles bids you welcome. 



Men. 



I had good argument for kissing once. 



Pair. But that's no argument for kissing 
now : 
For thus popp'd Paris in his hardiment ; 
[And parted thus you aud your argument.^] 
TJlgss. deadly gall, and theme of all our 
scorns ! 
For which we lose our heads, to gild his horns. 
Patr. The first was Menelaus' kiss,— this, 
mine: 
Patroclus kisses you. 

Men. O, this is trim ! 

Patr. Paris, and I, kiss ever more for him. 

Men. I'll have my kiss, sir:— Lady, by your 

leave. 
Ores. In kissing, do you render or receive ? 
Patr. Both take and give. 
Ores. I '11 make my match to live. 

The kiss you take is better than you give ; 
Therefore no kiss. 

Men. I'll give you boot, I'll give you three 

for one. 
Ores. You 're an odd man ; give even, or give 

none. 
Men. An odd man, lady ? every man is odd. 

'■- The line in brackets is not in the folio. 

119 



A.CT IV.] 



TEOILUS .VlsD CEESSIDA. 



[SCBSl. V. 



Ores. No, Paris is not; for you know 'tis 
true 
That you are odd, and he is even witli you. 
Men. You fillip mo o' the head. 
Cres. No, I '11 be sworu. 

Ulyss. It T'cre no match, your nail against his 
horn. — 
May I, sweet lady, beg a kiss of you ? 
Cres. You may. 
Ult/ss. I do desire it. 

Cres. ^Vhy, beg then. 

Ul^ss. V^\s then, for Venus' sake, give me a 
kiss, 
"When Helen i.s a maid again, and his. 

Cres. I am your debtor, claim it when 't is 

due. 
Ulyss. Never 's my day, and then a kiss of you. 
Dio. Lady, a word ; — I '11 bring you to your 
father. [Diomed leads out Ckessida. 
Nest. A woman of quick sense. 
Uli/ss. Fie, fie upon her ! 

There's language in her eye, her cheek, her 

lip, 
Nay, her foot speaks ; her wanton spirits look 

out 
At every joint and motive of her body. 
0, these encounterers, so gHb of tongue, 
That give a coasting welcome ere it comes. 
And wide unclasp the tables of their thoughts 
To every tickling * reader ! set them down 
For sluttish spoils of opportunity, 
.\jid daughters of the game. [Tnmpet irithin. 
All. The Trojans' trumpet. 
Afjam. Yonder comes the troop. 

Enter Hector, armed ; ^neas, Tuoilus, and 
other Trojans, with Attendants. 

JFw. Hail, all you state ^ of Greece ! what 
shall be done 
To him that victory commands ? Or do you pur- 
pose, 
A victor shall be known ? will you, the knights 
Shall to the edge of aU extremity 
Pursue each other, or shall be divided 
By any voice or order of the field ? 
Hector bade ask. 

Affum. AVhich way would Hector have it ? 

£ne. He cares not, he '11 obey conditions. 

Achil. 'T is done like Hector ; but securely 
done, 
A little proudly, and great deal disprizing "^ 
The knight oppos'd. 



» Tickling in the folio; the quarto, ticklish. 
b You slate in tlie folio; the quarto, the stale. 
« Diti/Titing in the folio; the quarto, mispriting. 

120 



Ult/ss. 
A gam. 



JEne. If not Achilles, sir, 

AVhat is your name ? 
Achil. If not Achilles, nothing. 

Jine. Therefore Achilles : But, whate'er, 
know this ; — 
In the extremity of great and little. 
Valour and pride excel themselves in Hector ; 
The one almost as infinite as all. 
The other blank as nothing. Weigh him well, 
And that which looks like pride is courtesy. 
This Ajax is half made of Hector's blood : 
In love whereof half Hector stays at home ; 
Half heart, half hand, half Hector comes to seek 
This blended kuigbt, half Trojan, and half Greek. 
Achil. A maiden battle tlicii ?— 0, I perceive 
you. 

Re-enter Diomedes. 
Agam. Here is sir Diomed: — Go, gentle knight, 
taud by oui- Ajax : as you and lord .Sneas 
Consent upon the order of theii' fight, 
So be it ; either to the uttermost. 
Or else a breath : the combatants being kin. 
Half stints their strife before then- strokes begin. 
[Ajax and HtCTOK enter the lists. 
They are oppos'd already. 
\Vliat Trojan is that same that looks 
so heavy ? 
Ult/ss. The youngest son of Priam; a true 
knight ; * 
Not yet matm-e, yet matchless : fii'm of word ; 
Speaking in deeds, and deedless in his tongue ; 
Not soon provok'd, nor, being provok'd, soon 

calm'd : 
His heart and hand both open, and both free ; 
For what he has he gives ; what thinks he shows ; 
Yet gives he not till judgment guides Jiis bounty, 
Nor dignifies an impair- '' thought with breath : 
Manly as Hector, but more dangerous ; 
For Hector, in his blaze of wrath, subscribes 
To tender objects ; but he, in heat of action. 
Is more vindicative than jealous love : 
They call him Troilus ; and on him erect 
A second hope, as fairly built as Hector. 
Thus says jUncas ; one that knows the youth 
Even to his inches, and, with private soul, 
Did m great llion thus translate him to me. 

lAlariim. Hectok and Ajax ^//ht. 



a We fake the reading of ihe quarto. The folic has, 
" The youngest son of Priam; 
A true knight; they call him Troilus." 
These words, they cull him 'J'roiliti, are found below; and 
their introduction here is probably a clerical or typogra- 
phical error. 

b Impair. Johnson conjectured that impure waa the 
proper word. In adopting this, Mr. Dyce contends that 
there is no precedent for the use of this word adjcctively. 
The Cambridge editors retain impnir, considering that 
ctymologically 't may have the sense " unsuitable." 



e-ii IV.] 



TEOILUS AKD CRESSIDA. 



[SlENE V. 



Agani. They are in action. 

Nest. Now, Ajax, hold thine own ! 

Tro. Hector, thou sleep'st ; 

Awake thee ! 

Agam. His blows are well dispos'd : — there, 
Ajax ! 

Bio. You must no more. [Trumpels cease. 

Mie. Princes, enough, so please you. 

Ajax. ' I am not warm yet, let us fight again. 

Bio. As Hector pleases. 

Hect. Why then, wiU I no more : — 

Thou art, great lord, my father's sister's sou,-'' 
A cousin-german to great Priam's seed ; 
The obligation of our blood forbids 
A gory emulation 'twixt us twain : 
Were thy commixtiou Greek and Trojan so 
That thou couldst say — ' This hand is Grecian 

all, 
And this is Trojan ; the sinews of this leg 
All Greek, and this all Troy ; my mother's blood 
Runs on the dexter cheek, and tliis sinister 
Bounds in my father's ;' by Jove multipotent. 
Thou shouldst not bear from me a Greekish 

member 
Wherein my sword had not impressure made 
Of our rank feud : But the just gods gainsay. 
That any drop thou borrow'dst from thy mother, 
My sacred aunt, should by my mortal sword 
Be di-ain'd ! Let me embrace thee, Ajax : 
By him that thunders, thou hast lusty arms ; 
Hector would have them fall upon hiin thus : 
Cousin, all honour to thee ! 

Ajax. I thank thee. Hector : 

Thou art too gentle, and too free a man : 
I came to kill thee, cousin, and bear hence 
A great addition earned in thy death. 

Hect. Not Neoptolemus so mirable 
(On whose bright crest Fame with her loud'st 

yes 
Cries, 'This is he,') could promise to himself 
A thought of added honour torn from Hector. 

Mie. There is expectance here from both the 
sides. 
What further you will do. 

TIect. We '11 answer it ; 

The issue is embracement : — Ajax, farewell. 

Ajax. If I might in entreaties find success, 
(As seld' I have the chance,) I would desire 
My famous cousin to our Grecian tents. 

Bio. 'Tis Agamemnon's wish, and great 
Achilles 
Doth Ions; to see unarm'd the valiant Hector. 

Hect. Jincas, call my brother Troilus to me : 
And signify this loving interview 
To the expecters of oui- Trojan part ; 



Desu-e them home.— Give me thy hand, my 

cousin ; 
I will go eat with thee, and see your knights. 
Ajax. Great Agamemnon comes to meet us 

here. 
Hect. The worthiest of them tell me name by 
name ; 
But for Achilles, mine own searching eyes 
Shall find him by his large and portly size. 

Agam. Worthy of arms ! as welcome as to one 
That would be rid of such an enemy ; 
But that 's no welcome : Understand more clear 
What 's past, and what 's to come, is strew'd with 

husks 
And formless ruin of oblivion ; 
But in this extant moment, faith and troth, 
Strain'd purely from all hollow bias-dl•a^ving, 
Bids thee, with most divine integrity. 
Prom heart of very heart, great Hector, wel- 
come.^ 
Hect. I thank thee, most imperious Aga- 
memnon. 
Agam. My well-fam'd lord of Troy, no less to 
you. \To Troilus. 

Men. Let me confirm my princely brother's 
greeting ; — 
You brace of warlike brothers, welcome hither. 
Hect. Whom must we answer ? 
Mne. The noble Menelaus.** 

Hect. you, my lord ? by Mars his gauntlet, 
thanks ! 
Mock not, that I affect the uutraded *^ oath ; 
Your qnondam wife swears stiU by Venus' glove . 
She's well, but bade me not commend her to 
you. 
Men. Name her not now, sir ; she 's a deadly 

theme. 
Hect. 0, pardon ; I offend. 
Nest. I have, thou gallant Trojan, seen thee 
oft, 
Labom'ing for destiny, make cruel way 
Tlu-ough ranks of Greekish youth : and I have 

seen thee. 
As hot as Perseus, spur thy Phrygian steed. 
And seen thee scorning forfeits and subdue- 
ments,"^ 



" The quarto has only the two first lines, and the last line, 
of this noble address; and yet Steevens and Malone talk 
about the additions and substitutions of "the player- 
editors." 

b In the quarto, and the folio, this answer to the question 
of Hector is given by jEncas ; in the variorum editions it is 
assigned to Mcnclaus ; and tlien, without looking at the 
originals, Reed and M. Mason discuss whether it is proper 
for Rfenelaus to call hinseif " noble." 

c Untraded — unused — uncommon. 

d So the folio ; the quarto, 

" Despising many forfeits and subduements " 

121 



Act IV.] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[SCBKE V. 



When tliou hast hung thy advanced sword i' the 

air, 
Not letting it decline on the decliu'd ; 
That I have said unto my standers-bv, 
'Lo, Jupiter is yonder, dealing life !' 
And I have seen thee pause, and take tliy 

breath, 
\Vhen that a ring of Greeks have hemm'd thee 

iu. 
Like an Olympian wrestling : This have I seen ; 
But this thy countenance, still lock'd in steel, 
I never saw till now. 1 knew thy graudsii-e. 
And once fought with him : he was a soldier 

good; 
But, by great Mars, the captain of us all, 
Never like thee : Let an old man embrace thee ; 
And, worthy warrior, welcome to our tents. 

£ne. 'T is the old Nestor. 

Hed. Let me embrace thee, good old chro- 
nicle. 
That hast so long walk'd hand in hand with 

time : — 
Most reverend Nestor, I am glad to clasp thee. 

Nest. I would my arms could match thee iu 
contention, 
-\s they contend with thee in courtesy. 

Heel. I would they could. 

Nest. Ha! 
By this white beard, I'd fight with thee to- 
morrow. 
Well, welcome, welcome ! I have seen the time. 

Ultjss. I wonder now how yonder city stands, 
When we have here her base and pillar by us. 

Ilect. I know your favour, lord Ulysses, well. 
Ah, sir, there's many a Greek and Trojan dead. 
Since first I saw yourself and Diomcd 
In Ilion, on your Greekish embassy. 

Ulyss. Sir, I foretold you then what would 
ensue : 
My prophecy is but half his journey yet ; 
For yonder walls, that pertly front your town, 
Yon towers, whose wanton tops do buss the 

clouds, 
Must kiss their own feet. 

lied. I must not believe you : 

There they stand yet ; and modestly I think. 
The fall of every Phrygian stone will cost 
A drop of Grecian blood : Tlie end cro\ras all ; 
And that old common txrbitrator, time, 
Will one dfty end it. 

Vlyas. So to him we leave it. 

Most gentle, and most valiant Hector, wel- 
come : 
.Vfter the general, I beseech you next 
To feast with me, and see me at my tent. 

122 



Adiil. I shall forestall thee, lord Ulysses, 
thou !— 
Now, Hector, I have fed mine eyes on thee : 
I have with exact view pcrus'd thee, Hector, 
And quoted joint by joint. 

Uect. Is this Achilles ? 

Jchil. I am Achilles. 

Hed. Stand fair, I pray thee : let me look on 
thee. 

Achil. Behold thy fill. 

Hed. Nay, I have done already. 

Achil. Thou art too brief; I will the second 
time, 
As I would buy thee, view thee limb by limb. 

Hed. 0, like a book of sport thou 'It read nic 
o'er; 
But there 's more in me thau thou understand'st. 
Why dost thou so oppress me with thine eye ? 

Achil. Tell me, you heavens, in which part ol 
his body 
Shall I destroy him ?^ whether there, or there, or 

there ? 
That I may give the local wound a name ; 
And make distinct the very breach whereout 
Hector's great spirit flew : Answer me, heavens ! 

Hed. It would discredit the bless'd gods, 
proud man. 
To answer such a question : Stand again : 
Think'st thou to catch my life so pleasantly, 
As to prenominate in nice conjecture 
Where thou wilt liit me dead ? 

Addl. I tell thee, yea. 

Hed. Wert thou the oracle to tell me so, 
I'd not believe thee. Henceforth guard thee 

well ; 
For I 'U not kill thee there, nor there, nor there ; 
But, by the forge that stithied Mars his helm, 
I '11 kill thee everywhere, yea, o'er and o'er, — 
You wisest Grecians, pardon me this brag, 
His insolence draws folly from my lips ; 
But I'll endeavour deeds to match tlicse words. 
Or may I never — 

Ajax. Do not chafe thee, cousin ; — 

And you, Acliilles, let these threats alone. 
Till accident, or purpose, bring you to 't : 
You may have every day enough of Hector, 
If you have stomach ; tlie general state, I fear. 
Can scarce entreat you lo be odd with him. 

Hed. I pray you, let us see you in the field ; 
We have had pelting" wars, since you rcfus'd 
The Grecians' cause. 

Ach'.l. Dost thou entreat me, Hector ' 

To-morrow do I meet thee, fell as death ; 
Tonight, all friends. 

* Pillinff — petty. 



Act IV.] 



TEOILUS iLND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene V. 



lied. Thy hand upon that match. 

Agam. First, all you peers of Greece, go to my 
tent; 
Tliei-e in the full convive you : '^ afterwards. 
As Hector's leisure and youi- bounties shall 
Concur together, severally entreat him. 
Beat loud the tabourines, let the trumpets blow. 
That this great soldier may his welcome know. 
[Exenni all but Tkoilus and Ulysses. 

Tro. My lord Ulysses, tell me, I beseech you, 
In what place of the field doth Calchas keep ? 

Vltjss. At Menelaus' tent, most princely 
Troilus : 
There Diomed doth feast with him to-nisrht ; 
Who neither looks on heaven, nor on earth,'' 

;» Yuu in the folio ; the quarto, we. 
>> So tlie folio ; tlie quarto, 

" Who neijher looks upon the LeET^n ncT Oirth." 



But gives all gaze and bent of amorous view 
On the fair Crcssid. 

Tro. Shall I, sweet lord, be bound to thee so 
much, 
After we part from Agamemnon's tent, 
To bring me thither ? 



Uli/ss. 



You shall command me, sir. 



As gentle tell me, of what honoui' was 

This Cressida in Troy ? Had she no lover 

there. 
That wails her absence ? 

Tro. 0, sir, to such as boasting show their 

scars, 
A mock is due. Will you walk on, my lord ? 
She was belov'd, she lov'd ; she is, and doth : 
But, still, sweet love is food for fortune's tooth. 

\_Exeunt. 




[/Kncas.] 




[Phrygian attired in Coat of Mail.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OP ACT IV. 



• Scene II. — " We must ffive np to Dlomedes' hand 
The lady Cressida." 

This part of the story is thus told in the ' De- 
struction of Troy : ' — 

" Calcas, that by the commandment of Apollo 
had left the Troyaus, had a passing fair daughter, 
and wise, named Briseyda — Chaucer, in his book 
that he made of Troylus, named her Cresida — for 
which daughter he prayed to King Agamemnon, 
and to the other princes, that they would require 
the King Priamus to send Briseyda unto him. 
They prayed enough to King Priamus at the in- 
stance of Calcas, but the Troyans blamed sore 
Calcas, and called him evil and false traitor, and 
worthy to die, that had left his own land and his 
natural lord, for to go into the company of his 
mortal enemies : yet, at the petition and earnest 
desire of the Greeks, the King Priamus sent 
Briseyda to her father." 

« Scene IV.—" Be thou lut true of heart." 

The parting of Troilus and Cressida is very 
beautifully told by Chaucer ; but as Shakspere's 
conception of the character of Cressida is alto- 
gether different from that of Chaucer, we see 
little in the scene before us to make us believe 
that Cressida will keep her vows. In the elder poet 
she manifests a loftiness of character which ought 
124 



to have preserved her faith, 
her consistent : — 



Shakspcre has made 



" And o'er all this, I pray you, quod she tho,» 
Mine owne heartes sotlifast suffisance ! 
Sith I am thine all whole withouten mo. 
That while that I am absent, no pleasincc 
Of other do me from your remembrance, 
For I am e'er aghast ; for why ? men rede | 
That love is thing aye full of busy drede. 

" For in this world there liveth lady none, 
If that ye were untrue, as God defend I 
That so betrayed were or woe begone 
As I, that alle truth in you intend : 
And doubteless, if that I other ween'd, 
I n'ere but dead, and ere ye cause yfind. 
For Goddfes love, so be me nought unkind. 

" To this answered Troilus, and said, 
Xow God, to whom there is no cause awry. 
Me glad, as wis I never to Cressid', 
Sith thilke day I saw her first with eye, 
Was false, nor ever shall till that 1 die: 
At short wordes, well ye mriy me believe; 
I can no more ; it shall be found at preve. J 

" Grand mercy, good heart mine ! iwis, (quod she,) 
And, blissful Venus ! let me never sterve § 
Ere I may stand of p'.easancc in degree 
To quite him well that bo well can deserve; 
And while that God my wit will me conserve 
I shall so do, so true I have you found. 
That aye bon6ur to me-ward shall rebound : 



• Then. 



t Say. 



I Vroof. 



i Die. 



ILLUSTEATIONS OF ACT IV. 



" For trusteth well that your estate royal, 
Nor vain delight, nor only worthiness 
Of you in warjor tourney martial, 
Nor pomp, array, nobley,* or eke riches?, 
Ne maden me to rue on your distress. 
But moral virtue, grounded upon truth ; — 
That was the cause I first had on you ruth : 

" Eke gentle heart, and manhood that ye had, 
And that ye had (as me thought) in despite 
Every thing that souned into t bad. 
As rudeness, and peoplishj: appetite, 
And that your reason bridled your delight; 
This made aboven ev'ry creature 
That I was yours, and shall while I may dure." — Book iv. 

3 Scene V. — " Thou art, great lord, my father's 
sister's son." 

This incident, which is one of the occasions in 
which Shakspere, following the old romance- 
writers, desires to exhibit the magnanimity of 
Hector, is found in the 'Destruction of Troy :' — 

" As they were fighting, they spake and talked 
together, and thereby Hector knew that he was his 
cousin-german, sou of his aunt : and then Hector, 
for courtesy, embraced him in his arms, and made 
great cheer, and offered to him to do all his plea- 
sure, if he desired anything of him, and prayed him 
that he would come to Troy with him for to see his 
lineage of his mother's side : but the said Thela- 
mon, that intended to nothing but to his best ad- 



Nobilitv. 



t Verged towards. J Vulgar. 



vantage, said that he would not go at this time. 
But he prayed Hector, requesting that, if he loved 
him Bo much as he said, that he would for his sake, 
and at his instance, cease the battle for that day, 
and that the Troyans should leave the Greeks in 
peace. The unhappy Hector accorded unto him 
his request, and blew a horn, and made all hia 
people to withdraw Into the city." 

^ Scene V. — " Tell rue, you heavens, in which part 

of his body 

Shall I destroy hivi V 

It was a fine stroke of art in Shakspere to borrow 
the Homeric incident of Achilles surveying Hector 
before he slew him, not using it in the actual scene 
of the conflict, but more characteristically in the 
place which he has given it. The passage of Homer 
is thus rendered by Chapman : — 

" His bright and sparkling eyes 
Look'd through the body of his foe, and sought through a.\ 

that prize 
The next way to his thirsted life. Of all ways, only one 
Appear'd to him ; and this was, where th' unequal winding 

bone 
That joins the shoulders and the neck had place, and where 

there lay 
The speeding way to death; and there his quick eye could 

display 
The place it sought,— even through those arms his friend 

Patroclus wore 
Wlien Hector slew him." (Book xxiL) 




[TIaetor.l 



*. 




[ScESF. IX. Dsath of ilector 



ACT V. 



SCENE I.— The Grecian Camp. Before 
Achilles' Tent. 

Enter AcHiLLZS and Patroclcs. 

AcMl. I '11 heat his blood with Greekish wine 
to-night, 
WLich with my scimitar I '11 cool to-morrow. — 
Patroclus, let us feast him to the height. 

Patr. Here comes Thersites. 

Enter Thersites. 

Achil. How now, thou core of envy ? 

Thou crusty batch of nature, what 's the news ? 

Tfier. TThy, thou picture of what thou seemest, 
and idol of idiot-worshippers, here 's a letter for 
thee. 

Achil. From whence, fragment ? 

Ther. Why, thou full dish of fool, from Troy. 

Pntr. "Who keeps the tent now ? 

Ther. The surgeon's box, or the patient's 
wound. 

120 



Patr. Well said. Adversity! and what need 
these tricks ? 

Ther. Prithee be silent, boy ; I profit not by 
thy talk : thou art thought to be Achilles' male 
varlet. 

Patr. ilale varlet, you rogue ! what 's that ? 

Ther. Why, his masculine whore. Now the 
rotten diseases of the south, guts-griping, rup- 
tures, catarrhs, loads o' gravel i' the back, lethar- 
gies, cold palsies, raw eyee, dirt-rotten livers, 
wheezing lungs, bladders full of imposthume, 
sciaticas, lime-kilns i' the palm, incurable bone- 
ache, and the rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, 
take and take again such preposterous disco- 
veries ! ' 

Patr. VThj, thou damnable box of envy, thou, 
what meanest thou to curse thus ? 

Ther. Do I curse thee ? 



• This is the reading of the quarto. The folio shortens 
the enumeration of loathsome diseases, with, " and the 
like." 



Act v.] 



TEOILUS AND CEESSIDA. 



[Scene 11. 



Patr. Why, no, you ruinous butt ; you whore- 
son indistinguishable cur, no. 

Ther. No ? why art thou then exasperate, 
thou idle immaterial skein of sleVd silk;, thou 
green sarcenet flap for a sore eye, thou tassel of 
a prodigal's purse, thou? Ah, how the poor 
world is pestered with such water-flies ; diminu- 
tives of nature ! 

Patr. Out, gall ! 

Ther. Finch ^^^ ! 

Achil. My sweet Patroclus, I am thwarted 
quite 
From my great purpose in to morrow's battle. 
Here is a letter from queen Hecuba ; 
A token from her daughter, my fair love ; 
Both taxing me, and gaging me to keep 
An oath that I have sworn. I wiU not break it : 
Fall, Greeks ; fail, fame ; honour, or go, or stay ; 
My major vow lies here, this I '11 obey. 
Come, come, Thersites, help to trim my tent ; 
This night in banqueting must all be spent. 
Away, Patroclus. 

{Exeunt Achilles and Patroclus. 

Ther. With too much blood and too little 
brain, these two may run mad ; but if with too 
much brain and too little blood they do, I '11 be 
a curer of madmen. Here's Agamemnon, — an 
honest fellow enough, and one that loves quails ; 
but he has not so much brain as ear-wax : And 
the goodly transformation of Jupiter there, his 
brother, the bull, — the primitive statue and 
oblique memorial of cuckolds ; a thrifty shoeing- 
liora in a chain, hanging at his brother's lee, — 
to what form, but that he is, should wit larded 
with malice, and malice forced with wit, turn 
him to ? To an ass were nothing ; he is both ass 
and ox : to an ox were nothing ; he is both ox 
and ass. To be a dog, a mule, a cat, a fitchew, 
a toad, a lizard, an owl, a puttock, or a herring 
without a roe, I woidd not care : but to be 
Menelaus, 1 would conspire against destiay. 
Ask me not what I would be if I were not 
Thersites ; for I care not to be the louse of a 
lazar, so I were not Menelaus. — Hey-day ! spii'its 
and fires ! 

Enter Hector, Troilus, Ajax, Agamem:ncn, 
Ulysses, Nestor, JIexelaus, and Dioaled, 
with lights. 

Agam. We go wrong, we go wrong. 
Ajax. No, yonder 't is ; 

There, where we see the lights. 

Hect. I trouble you. 

Ajax. No, not a whit. 

JJlyss. Here comes himself to guide you. 



Unter Achilles. 

Achil. Welcome, brave Hector; welcome, 

princes idl. 
Agam. So now, fair prince of Troy, I bid 
good night. 
Ajax commands the guard to tend on you. 
Hect. Thanks, and good night, to the Greeks' 

general. 
Men. Good night, my lord. 
Hect. Good night, sweet lord Menelaus. 

Ther. Sweet draught : Svceet, quoth'a! sweet 
sink, sweet sewer. 

Achil. Good night, and welcome, both at once, 
to those 
That go, or tarry. 
Agam. Good m'ght. 

\_Kveunt Agamemxcx and Mexelaus. 
Achil. Old Nestor tarries ; and you too, Dio- 
med, 
Keep Hector company an hour or two. 

Dio. I caimot, lord; I have important "busi- 
ness, 
The tide whereof is now. — Good night, great 
Hector. 
Hect. Give me your hand. 
Uli/ss. Follow his torch, he goes 

To Calchas' tent ; I 'U keep you company. 

{Aside to Troilits. 
Tro. Sweet sir, you honour me. 
Hect. And so good night. 

{E.nt DiOHED ; Ulyss. and Tro. following. 
Achil. Come, come, enter my tent. 

\_E.rei(nt Achil., Hector, Aj.\:x, and Nest. 
Ther, That same Diomed's a false-hearted 
rogue, a most unjust knave ; I will no more 
trust him when he leers, than I will a serpent 
when he hisses : he will spend his mouth, and 
promise, like Brablcr the hound; but wheu he 
performs, astronomers foretell it that it is pro- 
digious, there will come some change ; the sun 
borrows of the moon when Diomed keeps his 
word. I will rather leave to see Hector than 
not to dog him : they say he keeps a Trojan 
drab, and uses the traitor Calchas' tent : I '11 
after. — Nothing but lechery ! all incontinent 
varlets ! [E.nt. 

SCENE U.—The same. Before Calchas' Tent. 

Enter Diomedes. 
Dio. What, are you up here, ho ? speak. 

Ceil. [With in ^^ "VVho calls? 
Dio. Diomed.— Calchas, I think.— Where 's 
your dau2;hter ? 

Cal. [Within.'] She comes to you. 

127 



Act v.] 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA 



[SCEiJK II. 



Enter Thoiltjs and Ulysses, at a distance ; after 

them TlIERSITES. 

Ul^ss. Stand \rhere the torch ni:iy not dis- 
cover us. 

Enter Cressida. 

Tro. Crcssid comes fortli to bini. 
Dio. How now, my charge ? 

Ores. Now, my sweet guardian! — Hark! a 
word with you. [IF/dspers. 

Tro. Yea, so faniihar ! 
Ult/ss. She will sing any man at first sight. 
Ther. And any man may sing her, if he can 
take her cliiT ; she's noted. 
Dio. "Will you remember ? 
Cres. Remember? yes. 

Dio. Nay, but do then ; 

And let your niiud be coupled with your words. 
Tro. What should she remember ? 
Uli/ss. List! 
Cres. Sweet honey Greek, tempt me no more 

• to folly. 
Ther. Roguery ! 
Dio. Nay, then, — 

Cres. I '11 tell you what : 

Dio. Pho ! pho ! come, tell a pin : You arc a 

forsworn — 
Cres. In faith, I cannot: What would you 

have me do ? 
Ther. A juggling trick, to be secretly open. 
Dio. What did you swear you would bestow 

on me ? 
Cres. I prithee, do not hold me to mine oath ; 
Bid me do anything but that, sweet Greek. 
Dio. Goodnight. 
Tro. Hold, patience ! 

Uli/ss. How now, Trojan ? 

Cres. Diomed, — 

Dio. No, no, good night : I '11 be yoiu- fool no 

more. 
Tro. Thy better must. 

Cres. Hark ! one word in your car. 

Tro. plague and madness ! 
Uli/ss. You are mov'd, prince ; let us depart, 
I pray you. 
Lest yoiu* displeasure should enlarge itself 
To wrathful terras ; this place is dangerous ; 
The time right deadly ; I beseech you, go. 
Tro. Behold, I pray you ! 
Ulj/ss. Nay, good my lord, go olT : 

You flow to great distraction, come, my lord. 
Tro. I pray thee, stay, 

Ulyss. You have not patience ; come. 

Tro. I pray you, stay; by hell and all hell 
torments, 
I will not speak a word. 
128 



Dio. . And so, good night. 

Cres. Nay, but you part in anger. 

Tro. Doth that grieve tlicc ? 

wither'd truth ! 

Uli/ss. Why, how now, lord ? 

Tro. By Jove, 

1 will be patient. 

Cres. Guardian ! — why, Greek ! 

Dio. Elio, pho ! adieu ; you palter. 

Cres. In faith, I do not; come hither once 
again. 

Uli/ss. You shako, my lord, at something ; will 
you go ? 
You will break out. 

Tro. She strokes his cheek ! 

Ulyss. Come, come. 

Tro. Nay, stay; by Jove, I will not speak a 
word : 
There is between my will and aU offences 
A guard of patience : — stay a little while. 

Ther. IIow the devil luxury, with his fat 
rump, and potato finger, tickles these together 1 
Fry, lechery, fry ! 

Dio. But will you then ? 

Cres. Li faith, I wDl, la : never trust me else. 

Dio. Give me some token for the surety of it. 

Cres. I'll fetch you one. \E.vil. 

Ult/ss. You have sworn patience. 

Tro. Fear me not, sweet lord ; 

I will not be myself, nor have cognition 
Of what I feel ; I am all patience. 

Re-enter Cressida. 

Ther. Now the pledge ; now, now, now ! 

Cres. Here, Diomed, keep this sleeve.* 

Tro. beauty ! where 's thy faith ? 

Uli/ss. My lord, — 

Tro. I will be patient ; outwardly I wdl. 

Cres. You look upon that sleeve: Behold it 
weU.— 
He lov'd mc — false M'cnch ! — Give 't me again. 

Dio. Whose was 't ? 

Cres. It is no matter, now I have 't again. 
I will not meet with you to-morrow night : 
I prithee, Diomed, visit me no more. 

T/ier. Now she sharpens : — Well said, whet- 
stone. 

Dio. I shall have it. 

Cres. What, this ? 

Dio. Ay, that. 

Cres. O all you gods ! — pretty pretty 
pledge ! 
Thy master now lies thinking in his bed 
Of thee, and me ; and sighs, and takes my glove, 
And gives memorial dainty kisses to it, 



Act V. 



TROILUS A^^D CRESSIDA. 



[SCENb I i. 



As I kiss thee. — Nay, do not snatch it from me ; 
He that takes that doth take my heart withal.* 

Dio. I had yoiir heart before, this follows it. 

Tro. I did swear patience. 

Ores. You shall not have it, Diomed; 'faith 
you shall not ; 
I '11 give you something else. 

Dio. I will have this : whose was it ? 



Cres. 



'T is no matter. 



Dio. Come, tell me whose it was. 

Cres. 'T was one's that loved me better than 
you will. 
But, now you have it, take it. 

Dio. "Wliose was it ? 

Cres. By all Diana's waiting-women, youd, 
And by herself, I will not tell you whose. 

Dio. To-morrow will I wear it on my helm ; 
And grieve his spirit that dares not challenge it. 

Tro. Wert thou the devil, and wor'st it on thy 
horn. 
It should be chaUeng'd. 

Cres. Well, well, "t is done, 't is past : — And 
yet it is not ; 
I will not keep my word. 

Dio. ^^ I'y then, farewell ; 

Thou never shalt mock Diomed again. 

Cres. You shall not go:-^One cannot speak 
a word, 
But it straight starts you. 

Dio. I do not like tliis fooling. 

Ther. Nor I, by Pluto : but that that likes 
not you pleases me best. 

Dio. What, shall I come ? the hoiu- ? 

Cres. Ay, come : — Jove ! 

Do come : — I shall be plagued. 

Dio. Farewell till then. 

Cres. Good night. I prithee, come. — 

[Exit DlOMEDES. 

Troilus, farewell ! one eye yet looks on thee ; 
But with my heart the other eye doth see. 
Ah ! poor oar sex ! this fault in n5 I find. 
The error of our eye directs our mind : 
What error leads must err ; then conclude. 
Minds sway'd by eyes are full of turpitude. 

[Exit Cressida. 

Ther. A proof of strength she could not 
publish, more, 
Unless she say, my mind is now turn'd whore. 

Uli/ss. All 's done, my lord. 

Tro. It is. 

UIi/ss. Why stay we then ? 

Tro. To make a recordation to my soul 

a Tliis is the line of the quarto. The folio has 

" He that takes that takes my heart withal." 
Tragedies. — Vol. II. K 



Of every syllable that here was spoke. 
But, if I tell how these two did co-act. 
Shall I not lie in publishing a truth ? 
Sith yet there is a credence in my heart. 
An esperance so obstinately strong, 
That doth invert the attest of eyes and ears. 
As if those organs had deceptious functions. 
Created only to calumniate. 
Was Cressid here ? 

Ulps. I cannot conjure, Trojan. 

Tro. She was not, sure. 

Ulj/ss. Most sure she was. 

Tro. Why, my negation hath no taste of mad- 
ness. 

Uli/ss. Nor mine, my lord : Cressid was here 
but now. 

Tro. Let it not be believ'd for womanhood ! 
Think, we had mothers ; do not give advantage 
To stubborn ci-itics, apt, without a theme. 
For depravation, to square the general sex 
By Cressid's rule : rather think this not Cressid. 

Uli/ss. What hath she done, prince, that can 
soil onr mothers ? 

Tro. Nothing at all, unless that this were she. 

Ther. Will he swagger himself out on 's own 
eyes? 

Tro. This she ? no, this is Diomed's Cressida : 
If beauty have a soul, this is not she ; 
If souls guide vows, if vows be sanctimony. 
If sanctimony be the gods' delight, 
If there be rule in unity itself. 
This is not she. madness of discourse. 
That cause sets up with and against thyself ' 
Bi-fold authority ! where reason can revolt 
"Without perdition, and loss assume aU reason 
Without revolt ; this is, and is not, Cressid ! 
Within my soul there doth conduce" a fight 
Of this strange nature, that a thing inseparate 
Divides more wider than the sky and earth ; 
And yet the spacious breadth of this division 
Admits no orifice for a point, as subtle 
As Ariachne's broken woof, to enter. 
Instance, O instance ! strong as Pluto's gates ; 
Cressid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven • 
Instance, O instance ! strong as heaven itself ; 
The bonds of heaven are slipp'd, dissolv'd, and 

loos'd ; 
And with another knot, five-finger-tied, 
The fractions of her faith, orts of her love. 
The fragments, scraps, the bits, and greasy 

reHques 
Of her o'er-eaten faith, are bound to Diomed. 

Ulyss. May worthy Troilus be half attach'd 
With that wiiich here his passion doth express? 

a Conduce in both copies ; in the Latin sense of le.id to. 

129 



Act V, 



TlfOlLUS AND CliESSIDA. 



[SttM-, II. 



Tro. Ay, Gieek ; nud that shall be diviilgcil 

MCll 

III characters as red as Mars his heart 

lullum'd with Venus : never did young inau 

fancy 
"With so eternal and so fix'd a soid. 
Hark, Greek : As much as I do Crcssid love, 
So much by weight hate I her Diomcd : 
That sleeve is mine that he'll bear in his helm ; 
Were it a casque compos'd by Vulcan's skill, 
My sword should bite it : not the dreadful spout 
"Which shipmen do the hurrieano call, 
Constring'd in mass by the almighty sun, 
Shall dizzy with more clamour Neptune's ear 
In his descent, than shall my piompled sword 
Falling on Diomed. 

Ther. lie '11 tickle it for his coucupy. 

Tro. Crcssid ! false- Cressid ! fahe, false, 
false ! 
Let aQ untruths stand by thy stained name, 
And they '11 seem glorious. 

Ulyss. 0, contain yourself; 

Your passion draws ears hither. 

Enter ^neas. 

J^ne. I have been seeking you this hour, my 
lord : 
Hector, by this, is arming him in Troy ; 
Ajax, your guard, stays to conduct you home. 

Tro. Have with you, prince : — My courteous 
lord, adieu : — 
Farewell, revolted fair ! — and, Diomed, 
Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head ! 

Ulyss. I '11 bring you to the gates. 

Tro. Accept distracted thanks. 

[Exeunt Tkoilus, jEnkas, and Ulysses. 

T/ier. 'Would I could meet that rogue Dio- 
med ! I would croak like a raven ; I would bode, 
I would bode. Patroclus will give me any thing 
for the intelligence of this whore : the parrot will 
not do more for an almond than he for a com- 
modious drab. Lechery, lechery ; still, wars and 
lechery; nothing ebe holds fashion: A burning 
devil take them ! [/^.r/V. 

SCENE III.— Troy. Ue/ure Priam'* Palace. 
Enter Hector and Andromacue. 

Jnd. When was my lord so much ungently 
tcmpcr'd, 
To stop his ears against admonishment ? 
Unarm, unarm, and do not fight to-day. 

Ilert. You train mc to offend you ; get you 
gone : 
By all the everlasting gods, I '1! go. 
130 



A/iJ. My dreams will, sure, prove ominous to 

the day.^ 
llccl. No more, I say. 

Enter Cassandra. 

Ci/,1. AVhcrc is my brother Hector? 

Jud. Hero, sister ; urm'd, and bloody in in- 
tent. 
Consort with mc in loud and dear petition, 
Pursue we him on knees ; for 1 have dream'd 
Of bloody turbulence, and this whole night 
Hath nothing been but shapes and forms of 
slaughter. 
Cas. 0, it is true. 

Ilect. Hu ! bid my trumpet sound ! 

Cas. No notes of sally, for the heavens, sweet 

brother. 
Ilect. Begone, I say : the gods have heard me 

swear. 
Cas. The god.s are deaf to hot and peevish 
vows ; 
They are polluted offering.s, more abhorr'd 
Than spotted livers in the sacrifice. 

Jnd. ! be persuaded : Do not count it holy 
To hurt by being just : it is as lawful. 
For we would give much, to count violent 

thefts, 
And rob in the behalf of charity." 

Cas. It is the purpose that makes strong the 
vow : 
But vows to every purpose must not hold : 
Unarm, sweet Hector. 

Hect. Hold you still, 1 say ; 

Mine honour keeps the weather of my fate : 
Life every man holds dear ; but the dear man 
Holds honour- far more precious dear than life. — 

Enter Troilus. 

How now, young man ? mean'st thou to fight to- 
day ? 
Jnd. Cassandra, call my father to persuade. 

\_E.Tit Cassandr\. 

' This i.s one of the very few obscure pass-nges in this pl.iy. 
The lines are not in the quarto. In t)ie folio we find, 

" Do not count it holy 
To hurt by bein'; Just : it is as lawful : 
l-'or we would count give much to as violent thefts, 
And rob," &c. 
The ordinary reading is, 

" Tor wc would give much, to use violent thefts." 
To use thefts is clearly not Sh.iksperian. I'erh.ips count, or 
giic, might lie omitted, supposing that one word had bt-cn 
.substituted for another m the maniis(ript, without the 
erasure of lliat first written; but this omission will not (.-i'C 
us a meaning. We have ventured to tran.sposc Count, and 
omit as: — 

" For we would give much, to count violent thefts." 
We have now a clear meaning :— it is as lawful, because we 
desire to give much, to count violent thefts as holy. 

" And rol) in the behalf of charity." 



Alt V ] 



TKOILUS iVI^I) CliESSlDA. 



ISCEM III. 



llecl. No, 'faith, young Troilus; doff tliy 
liai-ness, youth, 
I am to-day i' the vein of chivalry : 
Let grow thy sinews till their knots be strong. 
And tempt not yet the brushes of the war. 
Unarm thee, go ; and doubt thou not, brave boy, 
I '11 stand to-day, for thee, and me, and Troy. 

Tro. Brother, you have a vice of mercy in you, 
^Yhich better fits a lion than a man. 

Hect. Wliat vice is that, good Troilus ? chide 
me for it. 

Ti-o. When many times the captive Grecians 
fall, 
Even in the fan and wind of your fair sword, 
You bid them rise and live. 

Jlect. 0, 't is fair play. 

Tro. Fool's play, by heaven, Hector ! 

Hed. How now ? how now ? 

Tro. Eor tht love of all the gods. 

Let 's leave the hermit pity with our mothers ; 
And when we have our armours buckled on. 
The venom'd vengeance ride upon our swords ; 
Spur them to ruthful work, rein them from ruth. 

Red. Pie, savage, fie ! 

Tro. Hector, then 't is wars. 

Hed. Troilus, I would not have you fight to 
day. 

Tro. Who should withhold me ? 
Not fate, obedience, nor the hand of Mars 
Beckoning with fiery truncheon my retii-e ; 
Not Priamus, and Hecuba on knees. 
Their eyes o'ergalled with recourse of tears ; 
Nor you, my brother, with your true sword 

drawn, 
Oppos'd to hinder me, should stop my way. 
But by my ruin. 

Re-enter Cassandra, with Phiaji. 

Cas. Lay hold upon him, Priam, hold him fast : 
He is thy crutch ; now if thou lose thy stay, 
Thou on him leaning, and aU Troy on thee. 
Fall all together. 

Fri. Come, Hector, come, go back : 

Thy wife hath dream'd; thy mother hath had 

visions ; 
Cassandra doth foresee ; and I myself 
Am like a prophet suddenly enrapt. 
To tell thee that this day is ommous : 
Therefore, come back. 

Hect. iEneas is a-field ; 

And I do stand cngag'd to many Greeks, 
Even in the faith of valour, to appear 
Tills morning to them. 

P/-/. Ay, but thou shalt not go. 

lied. I must not break my faith. 
K 2 



You know me dutiful; therefore, dear sir, 
Let me not shame respect ; but give me leave 
To take that course by your consent and voice. 
Which you do here forbid me, royal Priam. 
Cas. Priam, yield not to him . 
And. Do not, dear father. 

lied. Audj'omache, I am offended with vou : 
Upon the love you bear me, get you in. 

{Exit Andromache. 
Tro. This foolish, dreaming, superstitious girl 
Makes all these bodements. 

Cas. farewell, dear Hector. 

Look, how thou diest ! look, how thy eye turns 

pale ! 
Look, how thy wounds do bleed at many vents ! 
Hark, how Troy roars ! how Hecuba cries out ! 
How poor Andromache shrills her dolour forth! 
Behold distraction, frenzy, and amazement. 
Like witless antics, one another meet, 
And all cry — Hector ! Hector 's dead ! Hector ! 
Tro. Away ! — Away ! 

Cas. Farewell. — Yet, soft. — Hector, I take 
my leave : 
Thou dost thyself and all our Troy deceive. [iij-jY. 
Hed. Xqta. are araaz'd, my liege, at her ex- 
claim: 
Go in, and cheer the town ; we '11 forth, and fight ; 
Do deeds worth praise, and tell you them at night. 
Fri. Farewell: the gods with safety stand 
about thee ! 

{Exeunt severally Priam and Hector. 
Alarur.is. 
Tro. They are at it ; hark ! Proud Diom^, 
believe, 
I come t :i lose my arm, or win my sleeve. 

As Troilus is going out, enter, from the other 
side, Pandartjs. 

Pan. Do you hear, my lord ? do you hear ? 

Tro. "Wliat now ? 

Pan. Here 's a letter from you' poor gin. 

Tro. Let me read. 

Pan. A whoreson tisick, a whoreson rascally 
tisick so troubles me, and the foolish fortune 
of this girl ; and what one thing, what another, 
that I shall leave you one o' these days : And I 
have a. rheum in mine eyes too ; and such an 
ache in my bones, that, unless a man were 
cursed, I cannot tell what to think on 't. — What 
says she there ? 

Tro. Words, words, mere words, no jnatter 
from the heart ; [Tearing the letter. 
The effect doth operate another way. — 
Go, wind, to wind, there turn and change toT- 
ther. — 



A<T V.) 



TROILUS AT^ID CRESSIDA. 



[Sci;nes IV.. V. 



My love with words and ciTors still she feeds ; 
But edifies another with her deeds. 
Pan. Why ! but hear you. 
Tro. Hence, broker lackey ! ignoniy and 
shame 
Pursue thy life, and live aye with thy name." 

{Exeunt scteraUt/. 

SCENE IV. — Between Troy and the Grecian 
Camp. 

Alarums : Excursions. Enter TilEKSITES. 

Ther. Now they are clapper-clawing one 
another ; I '11 go look on. That dissembling 
abominable varlet, Diomed, has got that same 
scurvy doting foolish young knave's sleeve of 
Troy there in his helm : I would fain see them 
meet ; that that same young Trojan ass, that 
loves the whore there, might send that Greekish 
whoremasterly villain, \vith the sleeve, back to 
the dissembling luxurious drab, of a sleeveless 
errand. O' the other side, the policy of those 
crafty swearing rascals, — that stale old mouse- 
eaten dry cheese, Nestor, and that same dog- 
fox, Ulysses, — is not proved worth a blackberry : 
— They set me up, in policy, that mongrel cur, 
Ajax, against that dog of as bad a kind, Achilles : 
and now is the cur Ajax prouder than the cur 
Achilles, and will not arm to-day ; whereupon 
the Grecians begin to proclaim barbarism, and 
policy grows into an ill opinion. Soft ! here 
come sleeve, an'^. t' other. 

Enter DiOMEDES, Iv.oiujs following. 

Tro. Fly not ; for, shouldst thou take the 
river Styx, 
I would swira after. 

Dio. Tliou dost miscall retire : 

I do not fly ; but advantageous care 
Withdrew me from the odds of multitude : 
Have at thee ! 

Ther. Hold thy whore, Grecian ! — now for 
thy whore, Trojan ! — now the sleeve, now the 
sleeve ! 

{Exeunt Troilus and Dio^iedes, fttjhting. 

Enter ITectoh. 

Jlect. What art thou, Greek, art thou for 
Hector's match ? 

•■V This couplet, wliich we here find In the folio, is apain 
nseil by Troilus towards the conclusion of the play— the last 
words which Troilus speaks. Followin); the (|iiartu, llie 
lines are usually omitted in the close of the third scene. 
Stcevenj says, "the poet would h.irdly have piven us an 
unnecessary repetition of the same words, nor have dis- 
missed P.ind*rus twice in the same manner." Tlie Cam- 
bridge editors think that the repetition is .in indication that 
the I'lay has been tampered -vith by anoihcr hand than 
Shakspere's. 

132 



Art thou of blood and honour ? 

Ther. No, no : — I am a rascal ; a scurvy 
railing knave ; a very filthy rogue. 

Uect. I do believe thee ; — live. \Exit. 

Ther. God-a-mercy that thou wilt believe me ; 
buf a plague break thy neck for frighting me ! 
"What's become of the wenching rogues? 1 
think they hnve swallowed one another: I 
would laugh at that miracle. Yet, in a sort, 
lechery eats itself. I 'U seek them. \Exit. 

SCENE v.— r/;e same. 

Enter Diomedes and a Servant. 

Dio. Go, go, my servant, take thou Troilus' 
horse ! ^ 
Present the fair steed to my lady Cressid : 
Fellow, commend my service to her beauty ; 
Tell her I have chastis'd the amorous Trojan, 
And am her knight by proof. 

Sere. I go, my lord. 

{Exit Servant. 

Enter Agamemnon. 

Af/am. Renew, renew ! The fierce Polydauius 
Hath beat down Menon : bastard Margarelon 
Hath Doreus prisoner ; 
And stands colossus-wise, waving his beam. 
Upon the pashed corses of the kings 
Epistrophus and Cedius : Polixenes is slain ; 
Amnhimacus, and Thoas, deadly hurt ; 
Patroclus ta'en, or slain ; and Palamedes 
Sore hurt and bruis'd : the dreadful Sagittary 
Appals our numbers ;'' haste we, Diomed, 
To reinforcement, or we perish all. 
Enter Nestok. 

Nest. Gro, bear Patroclus' body to Achilles j 
And bid the snail-pac'd Ajax arm for shame. 
There is a thousand Hectors in the field ; 
Now here he fights on Galathe his horse, * 
And there lacks work ; anon, he 's there afoot, 
And there they fly, or die, like scaled sculls " 
Before the belching whale ; then is he yonder. 
And there the strawy '' Greeks, ripe for his edge. 
Fall down before him like the mower's swath : 
Here, there, and everywhere, he leaves and 

takes ; 
Dexterity so obeying appetite 
That what he will he does ; and does so much 
Thiat proof is call'd impossibility. 

" 5ci//fj— shoals of fish. We have the word in Milton 
(I'aradisc Lost, book vii.): — 

•' Fish, that with their fin.s .nnd shininp scales 
(ilide under the preen wave, in sculls that oft 
I3ank the mid sea." 
b Strawy. This beautiful epithet is found in the quarto; 
the folio has straying. 



xc^ r.-\ 



TROILUS AXD CRESSIDA. 



[SCESIS Vi.—VIIl. 



E/ifer Ulysses. 
Uij/ss. O courage, courage, princes ! gi-eat 

AcliiUes 
Is arming, weepiug, cursing, vowing vengeance ; 
Putroclus' wounds have rous'd his di'owsy blood, 
Together with his mangled Myrmidons, 
That noseless, handless, hack'd and chipp'd, 

come to him. 
Crying on Hector. Ajax hath lost a friend. 
And foams at mouth, and he is arm'd, and at it. 
Roaring for Troilus ; who hath done to-day 
^lad and fantastic execution; 
Engaging and redeeming of himself. 
With such a careless force, and forceless care, 
ks if that luck, in very spite of cunning. 
Bade him win all. 

Ent^ Ajax. 

Jja.r. Troilus, thou coward Troilus ! [Edi. 
Dio. Ay, there, there. 

NesL So, so, we draw together. 

Eaier Achilles. 

JchiL Where is this Hector ? 

Come, come, thca boy-queller, show thy face ; 
Know what it is to meet Achilles angry. 
Hector! where 's Hector? I wdl none but 
Hector. [Exeui/L 



SCENE Yi— Another Part of the Field. 

Enter Ajax. 

Ajax. Troilus, thou coward Troilus, show thy 
head! 

Enter DiOiiEDES. 

Dio. Troilus, I say ! where 's Troilus ? 
Jjax. Wliat woiddst thou ? 

I)io. I would correct him. 
Ajax. Were I the general, thou shouldst have 

my office 
Ere that correction :— Troilus, I say ! what, 

Troilus ! 

Enter Tkoilus. 

Tro. traitor Diomed ! — turn thy false face, 
thou traitor. 
And pay thy life thou ow'st me for my horse ! 

Dio. Ha 1 art thou there ? 

Ajax. I'll fight with him alone: stand, Dio- 
med. 

Bio. He is my prize. I will not look upon. 

Tro. Come both you cogging Greeks; have 
at you both. \Exeuntf(jhtincj. 



Enter Hector. 

Hect. Yea, Troilus? O well fought, div 
youngest brother ! 

Enter Achilles. 

Achil. Now do I see thee : — Ha ! — Have at 
thee. Hector. 

Kect. Pause, if thou wilt. 

Achil. I do disdain tliy courtesy, proud Trojan. 
Be happy that my amis are out of use : 
My rest and neghgence befriend thee now. 
But thou auon shalt hear of me again ; 
Till when, go seek thy fortune. \Exit. 

Hect. Fiu'e thee well : — 

I would have been much more a fresher man 
Had I expected thee. — How now, my brother ? 

Re-enter Teoiltjs. 

Tro. Ajax hath ta'en ^neas : Shall it be ? 
No, by the flame of yonder glorious heaven. 
He shall not carry him ; I '11 be ta'en too. 
Or bring him off : — Eate, hear me what I say ! 
I reck not though I end my life to-day. \^Exit. 

Enter one in sumptnous armour. 

Hect. Stand, stand, thou Greek; thou art a 
goodly mark : — 
No ? wilt thou not ? — I like thy armour well ; 
I '11 frush ** it, and unlock the rivets aU, 
But I 'U be master of it : — Wilt thou not, beast, 

abide ? 
"VYhy then, fly on, I'll hunt thee for thy hide. 

[Exeunl. 

SCENE \ll.—The same. 

Enter Achilles, with Myrmidons. 
Achil. Come here about me, you my iMyrmi- 
dons; 
}*[ark what I say.— Attend me where I wheel : 
Strike not a stroke, but keep yourselves in 

breath ; 
And when I have the bloody Hector found, 
Empale him with your weapons round about ; 
In fellest manner execute your arms.'' 
Follow me, sirs, and my proceedings eye : — 
It is decreed Hector the great must die. 

[Ereuzt- 

SCENE Wll.—The same. 

Enter Menelatjs and Paris, ////<//////; then 
Thebsites. 

Ther. The cuckold and the cuckold-maker 
are at it : Now, bull ! now, dog ! 'Loo, Paris, 
'loo! now my double-henned sparrow! 'loo, 



a fcus/j— break to pieces. 



b Capell suggested aimi. 
133 



AiT V.| 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



rScFvrs IX -Xi 



Paris, 'loo I The bull Las the game: — 'ware 
homs, ho ! [Exeunt Pabis and Mexki-aus. 

Enter Margarelok. 

Mar. Turn, slave, and fight. 

Ther. What art thou ? 

Mar. A bastard son of Priam's. 

Ther. I am a bastard too ; I love bastards : I 
am a bastard begot, bastard instnicted, bastard 
in mind, bastard in valour, in everything illegi- 
timate. One bear will not bite another, and 
wherefore should one bastard? Take heed, the 
quarrel 's most ominous to us : if the son of a 
whore fight for a whore, he tempts judgment. 
Farewell, bastard. 

Mar. The devil take thee, coward ! [E.r^in/t. 

SCENE lX.—Jj>otAer Part of the Field. 

Enter Hector. 

Ueet. Most putrefied core, so fair without, 
Thy goodly armour thus hath cost thy life. 
Now is my day's work done : 1 '11 take good 

breath : 
Rest, sword : ® thou hast thy fill of blood and 
death ! 
[Vids off his helmet, and hangs his shield 
behind him. 

Enter Achilles and Myrmidons. 

Achil. Look, Hector, how the sun begins to 
set; 
How ugly night comes breathing at his heels : 
Even with the vail and darking' of the sun. 
To close the day up. Hector's life is done. 
ITert. I am unarm'd ; forego this vantage, 

Greek. 
Achil. Strike, fellows, strike ; ' this is the man 
I seek. [HECTORy«//«. 

So, riion, fall thou ; now, Troy, sink down ; 
Here lies thy heart, thy sinews, and thy bone. — 
On, Myrmidons ; and cry you all amain, 
•Achilles hath the mighty Hector slain.' 

\_A retreat sounded. 
Hark ! a retreat npon our Grecian part. 
Mi/r. The Trojan trumpets sound the like, mv 

lord. 
Achil. The dragon wing of night o'ersprcads 
the earth, 
And, stickler-like,'' th.c armies sc) arate. 



• Darking — so the folio ; the common reading is dark'ning 
*> Stickler like. — A stickler was an arl.ilrator, or sidesman ; 

sne who l•re^i:!ed over the combats of q'larterstaff and 

•rrettling. 



My half-supp'd sword that frauklv would have 

fed, 
Pleas'd with this dainty bit, thus goes to bed. — 

[Sheaths his sword. 
Come, tie his body to my horse's tail ; 
Along the field I will the Trojan trail. [Exeunt. 

SCENE 'L.—The same. 

Enter Agamemnox, Ajax, Mexelaus, Nestor, 
! DfOMEDES, and others, marching. Shouts 
iritliin. 

Agam. Hark ! hark ! what shout is that ? 
Nest. Peace, drums. 

[Within?^ Achilles! 

Achilles! Hector *s slain ! Achilles! 

Lio. The bruit is Hector's slain, and by 

Achilles. 
Ajax. If it be so, yet bragless let it be ; 
Great Hector was a man as good as he. 

Agam. March patiently along: — Let one be 
sent 
To pray Achilles see us at our tent. — 
If in his de^ith the gods have us befriended, 
Gieat Troy it ours, and our sharp wars arc 
ended. [Exeunt, marching. 

SCENE m.— Another Part of the Field. 

Enter -Sxeas and Trojans. 
ASne. Stand, ho! vet are we masters of the 
field : 
Never go home ; here starve we out the night. 

Enter Tkoilus. 

'fro. Hector is slain. 

All. Hector ? — Tlie gods forbid ! 

Tro. He 's dead ; and at the murtherer's 
horse's tail. 
In beastly sort, drasrg'd through the shameful 

field.— 
Frown on, you heavens, effect your rage with 

speed ! 
Sit, gods, upon your thrones, and smile at Troy ! 
I say, at once let your brief plagues be mercy, 
And linger not our sure destructions on ! 

jEne. My lord, you do discomfort all the host. 

Tro. You understand me not that tell me so : 
I do not speak of flight, of fear, of death ; 
But dare all imminence that gods and men 
Address their dangers in. Hector is goue ! 
Who shall tell Priam so, or Hecuba ? 
Let him that will a screech-owl aye be call'd 
Go in to Troy, and say there — Hector 's dead : 
There is a word will Priam turn to stone; 
Make wells and N lobes of the maids and wives, 



Act v.] 



TROILUS AND CRF.SSIDA. 



[Scene X I. 



Cold statues of the youth ; and, in a word, 

Scare Troy out of itself. But, march, away : 

Hector is dead ; there is no more to say. 

Stay yet : — You viJe abominable tents. 

Thus proudly pight upon our Phrygian plains, 

Let Titan rise as early as he dare, 

I '11 through and through you ! — And thou, 

great-siz'd coward ! 
No space of earth shall sunder our two hates ; 
I '11 haunt thee like a wicked conscience still. 
That mouldeth goblins swift as frenzy's thoughts. 
Strike a free march to Tioy ! — with comfort go: 
Elope of revenge shall hide our inward woe. 

\_ExYii)it JilNEAS and Trojans. 
As Troiltjs is f/oiiig out, enter, from the other 

side, Pandauus. 
Pun. But hear you, hear you ! 
Tro. Hence, broker lackey ! ignomy and 
shame 
Pursue thy life, and live aye with thy name. 

\_Exit Tkoilus. 

Pan. A goodly medicine for mine aching 

bones ! — world 1 world ! world ! thus is the 

poor agent despised ! O traitors and bawds, 



how earnestly are you set a-work, and how ill 
requited ! Why should our endeavour be so 
desired, and ti\e performance so loathed ? what 
verse for it? what instance for it? — Let me 
see : — 

Full merrily the humble-bee dotli sing, 
Till he hath lost his honey and his sting : 
And being once subdued in armed tail. 
Sweet honey and sweet notes togetlier fail. — 
Good traders in the flesh, set this in your painted 
cloths. 

As many as be here of pander's hall. 
Your eyes, half out, weep out at Pandar's fall : 
Or, if you cannot weep, yet give some groans, 
Though not for me, yet for your aching bones. 
Brethren, and sisters, of the hokl-door trade. 
Some two months hence my will shall here be 

made : 
It should be now, but that my fear is this, — 
Some galled goose of Winchester would hiss : 
Till then I '11 sweat, and seek about for eases ; 
And, at that time, bequeath you my diseases. 

[Krlt. 




[Diomedes.] 




^Parting of Hector and Andromache.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 



■ Scene II. — " Here, Diomed, keep this sleeve." 
The story of Cressida's falsehood is prettily told 
V>y Chaucer. Shakspere has literally copied one of 
the incidents : — 

" She made him wear a pencell of her sleeve." 
But we Btill trace the inconsistency of character 
in Chaucer's Cressida. Mr. Godwin laments that 
Shakspere has not interested us in his principal 
female, as Chaucer has done. Such an interest 
would have been bought at the expense of truth. 
The passages which we give will enable the reader 
to compare the two characters : — 

" The morrow came, and ghostly for to speak, 
This Diomed is come unto Crest-id' ; 
And, shortly, lest that ye my tale break, 
So well he for himselfen spake and said 
That all her sighes sore adown he laid ; 
And, Anally, the soth6 for to sain, 
He reft her of the great of all her pain. 

" And after this the story telleth us 
That she unto him gave the fair bay steed 
The which she ones won of Troilus, 
And eke a brooch (and that was little neud) 
That Troilus' was, she pave this Diomed ; 
And eke the bet from sorrow him to relieve. 
She made him wear a pencell of her sleeve. 
136 



" I find eke in the story eU6s where, 
When through the body hurt was Diomed 
Of Troilus, then wept she many a tear 
When that she saw his wide wciundes bleed, 
And that she took to keepen him good heed, 
And for to heal him of his woundes smart : 
Men say, — 1 n'ot, — that she give liim her heart. 

" But truely the siory telleth us 
There maden never women more woe 
Than she when that she falsed Troilus ; 
She said, Alas ! for now is clean ago 
My name in tnitli of love for evermo. 
For I have falsed one of the gentillest 
That ever was, and one of the worthiest." 

(Book T.; 

" Scene III. — "My dreams will, sure, prove 
ominous to ike day." 

Chaucer has mentioned the presaging dreams of 
Andromache in the 'Canterbury Tales.' We find 
the same relation in ' The Destruction of Troj' :' — 

" Andromeda saw that night a marvellous vi- 
sion, and her seemed if Hector went that day to 
the battle he should be slain. And she, that had 
great fear and dread of her husband, weeping, said 
to him, praying that ho would not go to the battle 
that day ; whereof Hector blamed his wife.sayin-,' 



TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



that she should not believe nor give faith to 
dreams, and would not abide nor tarry therefore. 
When it was in the morning, Andromeda went 
to the King Priamus and to the queen, and told to 
them the verity of her vision ; and prayed them with 
all her heart that they would do so much at her 
request as to dissuade Hector, that he should not 
in any wise that day go to the battle, &c. It hap- 
pened that day was fair and clear, aud the Tioyans 
armed them, and Troylus issued first into the bat- 
tle ; after him ^neas. * * Aud the King Priamus 
sent to Hector that he should keep him well that 
day from going to battle. AVherefore Hector was 
angry, and said to his wife many reproachful words, 
as tliat he knew well that this commandment came 
by her request ; yet, notwithstanding the forbid- 
ding, he armed him. ^' * At this instant came the 
Queen Hecuba, aud the Queen Helen, aud the 
sisters of Hector, aud they humbled themselves 
and kneeled down presently before his feet, and 
prayed and desired him with weepiag tears that he 
would do off his harness, and unarm him, and come 
with them into the hall : but never would he do 
it for their prayers, but descended from the palace 
thus armed as he was, and took his horse, aud 
would have gone to battle. But at the request of 
Andromeda the King Priamus came running auou, 
and took him by the bridle, and said to him so 
many things of one and other, that he made him 
to return, but iu no wise he would be made to 
unarm him." 

^ Scene V. — " Go, go, my servant, take thou Tro'dus 
horse." 

This circumstance is also miuutely copied from 
' The Destruction of Ti-oy : * — 

"And of the party of the Troyans came the 
King Ademon that jousted against Menelaus, and 
smote him, and hurt him in the face : and he and 
Troylus took him, aud had led him away, if Dio- 
medes had not come the sooner with a great com- 
pany of knights, aud fought with Troylus at his 
coming, and smote him down, and took his horse, 
and sent it to Briseyda, and did cause to say to her 
bv his servant that it was Troylus's horse, her 
love, and that he had conquered him by his pro- 
mise, and prayed her from thenceforth that she 
would hold him for her love." 



■• Scene V. — '' 



-The dreadful Sagittarij 



Appals our numbers." 
In ' The Destruction of Troy ' we have an ac- 
count of " a marvellous beast that was called Sa- 
gittary." The qualities of this beast are more cir- 
cumstantially related by Lydgate : — 

" And with him Guido saith that he had 
A wonder archer of siglit mervaylous. 
Of form and shape in manner monstrous : 
For like mine auetour as I reliearse cm, 
Fro the navel upward he was man^ 



And lower down like a horse yshaped: 
And thilke part that after man was maked 
Of skin was black and rough as any bear, 
Cover'd with liair fro cold liim for to wear. 
Passing foul and horrible of sight, 
Whose eyes twain were sparkling as bright 
As is a furnace with his red leven, 
Or the lightning that falleth from the heaven ; 
Dreadful of look, and red as fire of cheer, 
And, as I read, he was a good archer ; 
And with his bow both at even and morrow 
Upon Greeks he wrought much sorrow." 

' Scene V. — "Now Jure he fights on Galathe his 
horse." 

" Then when Hector was richly arrayed, aud 
armed with good harness and sure, he mounted 
upon his horse named Galathe, that was one of the 
most great and strongest horses of the world." 
{' Destruction of Troy.') 



" Scene IX.- -" Jiest, sword." 

Shakspere borrowed the circumstance which pre- 
ceded the death of Hector from the Gothic ro- 
mancers : — 

" When Achilles saw that Hector slew thus the 
nobles of Greece, and so many other that it was 
mai-vel to behold, he thought that, if Hector were 
not slain, the Greeks would never have victory. 
And forasmuch as he had slain many kings and 
princes, he ran upon him marvellously, * * but 
Hector cast to him a dart fiercely, and made him 
a wound in his thigh : aud then Achilles issued 
out of the battle, and did biud up his wound, and 
took a gi-eat spear in purpose to slay Hector, if he 
might meet him. Among all these things Hector 
had taken a very noble baron of Greece, that was 
quaintly and richly armed, and, for to lead him 
out of the host at his ease, had cast his shield 
behind him at his back, and had left his breast dis- 
covered : and as he was in this point, and took 
none heed of Achilles, he came privily unto him, 
and thrust his spear within his body, and Hector 
fell down dead to the ground." 

" Scene IX. — " Strike, fellows, strike." 

From the same authorities Shakspere took the 
incident of Achilles employing his Myrmidons for 
the destruction of a Trojan chief ; but they tell the 
story of Troilus, and not of Hector : — 

" After these things the nineteenth battle began 
with great slaughter ; and afore that Achilles 
entered into the battle he assembled his Myr- 
midons, and prayed them that they would intend 
to none other thing but to enclose Troylus, and 
to hold him without flying till he came, and 
that he would not be far from them. And 
they promised him that they so would. And 
he thronged into the battle. And on the other 
side came Troylus, that began to flee and beat 

137 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 



down all them that he caught, and did so mucli, 
that about midday he put the Greeks to fliglit : 
then the Myrmidons (that were two thousand 
fighting men, and had not forgot the command- 
ment of their lord) thi-ust in among the Troynns, 
and recovered the field. And as they held them 
together, and sought no man but Troylus, they 
found him thnt he fought strongly, and was en- 
closeil on all part,"*, but he slew and wounded many. 
And as he was all alone among them, and had no 
man to succour him, they slew his horse, aud hurt 
him in many places, and plucked off bis head helm, 
and his coif of ii-on, and ho defended hivn in the 
best manner he could. Then came ou Achillea, 
when he saw Troylus all nuked, and ran upon him 
in a rage, and smote ofiF his head, aud cast it under 
tl:e feet of his horse, and took the body an 1 bound 



it to the tail of his horse, and so drew It aftei him 
throughout the host." 

But Shakspere again goes to his ' Homer,' when 
Achilles trails Hector "along the field :" — 

" This said, a work not wortliy him he set to ; of both feet 
He bor'd tlie nerves through from the heel to Ih' ankle, and 

then knit 
Both to his chariot with a Ihong of white leather, his head 
Trailing the centre. Up he got to chariot, where he laid 
The arms repurchas'd, and scourg'd on his horse that freely 

flew; 
A whirlwind made of startled dust drave with them as the) 

drew, 
With which were all his black -brown curls knoited in heaps 

and fill'd. 
And there l.ny Troy's late gracious, by Jupiter exil'd, 
To all disgrace in his own land, and by his parents seen." 
(Chapman's Translation, book xxii. 




[Plains of Troy. J 



SUPPLEMENTAUY NOTICE. 



To Dryden's alteration of Tioilus and Cressida was prefixed a prologue, "spoken by Mr. Betterton 

representing the Ghost of Shakspere." The Ghost appears to have entirely forgotten what he was 

on earth ; and to present a marvellous resemblance, in his mind at least, to Mr. John Dryden. lie 

siiys, 

" In this my rough-drawn play you shall behold 
Some master-strokes." 

Dryden, in his elaborate ' Preface to Troihis and Cressida, containing the grounds of Criticism in 
Trage'ly,' thus speaks of Shakspere's pei-formance : — 

" For the play itself, the author seems to have begun it with some fire ; the characters of Pandarus 
and Thersites are promising enough ; but, as if he grew weary of his ta.sk, after an entrance or two he 
lets them fall ; and the latter part of the tragedy is nothing but a confusion of drums and trumpets, ex- 
cursions and alarms. The chief persons who gave name to the tragedy are left alive : Cressida Li false, and 
is not punislied. Yet, after all, because the play was Shakspcare's, and that there appeared in some j)lac(s 
of it the admirable genius of the author, / itndcrtooh to remove that heap of rubbish un'ler which rnatii/ excel- 
lent thouffhts la>i vho'l ij buried.'' 

1 .",0 



SU PPI.EiMENTA IIY NOTICE. 

The liioUe in which Dryden got riil of the rubbish, and built up his own edifice, is very cbaracteriptic 
of the age and of the man : — 

" I now-modelled the plot ; threw out many unneccsaary persons ; improved those characters which were 
htfrnn and l^fl uiifinuh(d,—t\s Hector, Troihis, Pimdarus, and Thcrsitca ; and added that of Andromache. 
After this I made, with no small trouble, lui order and connexion of all the scenes, removing thcui from the 
places where they wore inartificially set." 

The result of all this is, that the Ghost of Shakspere, iu the concluding lines of the Prologue, thua 
eulighteija the audience aa to the dominant idea of the Troilua and Cressida : — 

" My faithful scene from tfue records sliall tell 
How Trojan valour did the Greek excel ; 
Your great forefathers shall their fame rej;ain, 
And Homer's angry ghost repine in vain." 

Coleridge says, " there is no one of Shak.spere's plays harder to characteri.se." He has overlooked 
the circumstance that, when the "rubbish" was removed, it became a true record, a faithful chro- 
nicle, of the heroic actions of the Trojans, — our "great forefathers." With every admiration for 
"glorious John" in his own proper line, we must endeavour to understand what Shakspere's Troilus 
and Cressida is, by comparing it with what it is not in the alteration before us. 

The notion of Dryden was to convert the Troilus and Cressida into a regular tragedy. He com- 
plains, we have seen, that " the chief persons who give name to the tiugedy are left alive : Cressida 
is false, and is not punished." The excitement of pity and terror, we are told, is the only ground 
of tragedy. Tragedy, too, must have "a moral that directs the whole action of the play to one 
centre." To this standard, then, is Shakspere's Troilus and Ci'essida to be reduced. The chief 
persons who give name to the tragedy are not to be left alive. Cressida is not to be false ; but .she 
is to die : and so terror and pity are to be produced. And then comes the moral : — 

" Then, since from home-bred factions ruin springs, 
I.ct subjects Uarn obedience to their kings.'' 

The management by which Dryden has accomplished this metamorphosis is one of the most remark- 
able examples of perverted ingenuity. He had a licentious age to please. He could not spare a 
line, or a word, of what may be considered the objectionable scenes between Pandarus, Troilus, and 
Cressida. They formed no part of the " rubbish " he desired to remove. He has heightened them 
wherever possible ; and what in Shakspere was a sly allusion becomes with him a positive gross- 
ness. Now let us consider for a moment what Shakspere intended by these scenes. Cressida is 
the exception to Shakspere's general idea of the female character. She is beautiful, witty, accom- 
plished, — but she is impure. In her, love is not a sentiment, or a passion, — it is an impulse. Tem- 
perament is stronger than will. Her love has nothing ideal, spiritual, in its composition. It is not 
constant, because it is not discriminate. Setting apart her inconstancy, how altogether different is 
Cressida from Juliet, or Viola, or Helena, or Perdita ! There is nothing in her which could be 
called love ; no depth, no concentration of feeling, — nothing that can bear the name of devotion. 
Shakspere would not permit a mistake to be made on the subject ; and he has therefore given to 
Ulysaes to describe her, as he conceived her. Considering what his intentions were, and what really 
18 the high morality of the characterisation, we cau scarcely say that he has made the representation 
too prominent When he drew Cressida, we think he had the feeling strong on his mind which gave 
birth to the 129th Sonnet. A French writer, in a notice of this play, says, " Les deux amauts se voient, 
B'entendent, et sout heureiix." Shakspere has described such happiness : — 



" A bliss in proof, — and prov'd, a very woe; 
Before, a joy propos'd; behind, a dream: 
All tliis the world well knows ; yet none knows well 
To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell." 

It WM thia morality that Shaksi>ere meant to teach when he painted this one exception to the 
general purity of hU female characterd. He did not, like the dramatists of the age of the Reatora- 
1«0 



TEOILUS AND CRESSIDA. 

tion, make purity the exception : his estimate of women was formed upon a truer standard. But 
when Dryden undertook to remodel Shakspere, female morality, like every other morality, was 
merely conventional : virtue was an afitxir of expediency, and not of principle. With an 'entire 
submission, then, to the genius of his age, does Dryden retain and heighten the scenes between 
Troilus and Cressida until she quits the Trojan camp. But in all this, as we are to see in the 
sequel, Cressida is a perfectly correct and amiable personage. We are told, indeed, of her frank recep- 
tion of the welcome of the Grecian chiefs; but there is no Ulysses to pronounce a judgment upon 
her character. She admits, indeed, the suit of Diomedes, and she gives him pledges of her 
affection; but this is all a make-believe, for, like a dutiful child, she is following the advice 
of her father : — 

" You must dissemble love to Diomede still : 
False Diomede, bred in Ulysses' school, 
Can never be deceiv'd 

But by strong arts and blandishments of love. 
Put 'em in practice all ; seem lost and won, 
And draw him on, and give him line again." 

Upon this very solid foundation, then, are built up the terror and pity of Dryden's tragedy : and so 
Troilus, who has witnessed Cressida's endearments to Diomede, refuses to believe that she is faithful ; 
and then Cressida kills herself; and Troilus kills Diomede; and Achilles kills Troilus; and all 
the Trojans are killed: and the Greeks who remain upon the field are very happy; and Ulysses 
tells us,— 

" Now peaceful Order has resumed the reins, 
Old Time looks young, and nature seems renew'd." 



Here is a tragedy for you, which " is an imitation of one entire, great, and probable action, not told, 
but represented ; which, by moving us to fear and pity, is condvicive to the purging of those two 
passions in our minds." So Dryden quotes Aristotle ; and so, not understanding Aristotle, he takes 
upon himself to mend Shakspere, "incomparable," as he calls him, according to the notions of "my 
friend Mr. Rymer," and of "Bossu, the best of modern critics." 

The feeling which the study of Shakspere's Troilus and Cressida slowly but certainly calls forth, 
is that of almost prostration before the marvellous intellect which has produced it. But this is the 
result of study, as we have said. The play cannot be understood upon a superficial reading : it is 
full of the most subtle art. We may set aside particular passages, and admire their surpassing 
eloquence, — their profound wisdom ; but it is long before the play, as a whole, obtains its proper 
mastery over the imderstanding. It is very difficult to define what is the great charm and wonder 
of its entirety. To us it appears as if the poet, without the slightest particle of presumption, had 
proposed to himself to look down upon the Homeric heroes from an Olympus of his own. He opens 
the 'Iliad,' and there he reads of "Achilles' baneful wrath." A little onward he is told of the "high 
threatening" of "the great cloud-gatherer." The gods of Homer are made up of human passions. 
But he appears throned upon an eminence, from which he can not only command a perfect view 
of the game which men play, but, seeing all, become a partisan of none, — perfectly cognisant of all 
motives, but himself motiveless. And yet the whole representation is true, and it is therefore 
genial. He does not stand above men by lowering men. Social life is not made worse than it is, 
that he who describes it may appear above its ordinary standard. It is not a travcstie of Homer, or 
of Nature, The heroic is not lowered by association with the ridiculous. The heroes of the 'Iliad' 
show us very little of the vulgar side of human life, —not much even of the familiar; but the result 
is, that they cease to be heroic. How this is attained is the wonder. It is something to have got 
rid of the machinery of the gods, — something to have a Thersites eternally despising and despised. 
But this is not all. The whole tendency of the play, — its incidents, its characterisation, — is to lower 
what the Germans call herodom. Ulrici maintains that " The far-sighted Shakspere most certainly 
did not mistake as to the beneficial effect which a nearer intimacy with the high culture of anti- 
quity had produced, and would produce, upon the Christian European mind. But he saw the danger 
of an indiscriminate admiration of this classical antiquity ; for he who thus accepted it must neces- 
sarily fall to the very lowest station In religion and morality ;— as, indeed, if we closely observe the 

141 



SUPPLEMEXTAKY XOTICK. 

character of the ISth ceutury, we see has happened. Out of thia propLetic spiiit, wlii.h pene- 
trated with equal clearness through the darkness of coming centuries and the clouds of a 
far-distant past, Shakspere wrote thia deeply-significant satire upon the Homeric herodom. He 
had no desire to debase the elevated, to deteriorate or make little the great, and still less to 
attack the poetical worth of Homer, or of heroic poetry in general. But he wished to warn tho- 
roughly against the over-valuation and idolatry of them, to which man so willingly abandons him- 
self. He en'leavoured, at the same time, to bring strikingly to view the universal truth that every- 
thing that is merely human, even when it is glorified with the nimbus of a poetic ideality and a 
tnythicid past, yet, seen in the bird's-eye peispective of a pure moral ideality, appears very small." 
All this may seem as super-refinement, in which the critic pretends to see farther than the poet ever 
taw. But to such an objection there is a very plain answer. A certain result is produced : — is the 
result correctly described ? If it be so, is that result an effect of principle or an effect of chance ? 
As a proof that it was the effect of principle, we may say that Dryden did not see the principle ; 
and that, not seeing it, he entirely changed the character of the play as a work of art. For example, 
there is no scene in the drama so entirely in accordance with the principle as that in which Ulysses 
stirs up the slothful and dogged Achilles into a rivalry with Aji\x. It is altogether so Sliaksperiau 
in its profundity, — it presents such a key to the whole Shak^perian conduct of thia wonderful 
dnima, — that we can scarcely be content merely to refer to it, 



" Vlyn. Now, great Thetis' son! 

Jchii. What are yoii reading I 

Ulyit. A strange fellow htie 

Vrites me, That man, how dearly ever parted. 
How much in having, or without, or in. 
Cannot make boast to have that which he hath. 
Nor feels not what he owes, but by reflection ; 
As when his virtues shining upon others 
Heat them, and they retort that heat again 
To the first giver. 

Jchil. This is not strange, Ulysses. 

The beauty that is borne here in the face 
The bearer knows not, but commei.ds itself 
[To others' eyes : nor doth the eye itself 
(That most pure spirit of sense) behold itselfi] 
Not going from itself; but eye to eye oppos'd 
SaJutes each other with each other's form. 
For speculation turns not to itself, 
1 ill It hath travell'd, and is married tliere 
Where it may see itself: this is not stran^'e at all. 

Vlyit. I do not strain at the position, 
It is familiar ; but at the author's drirt : 
Who, In his circumstance, expressly proves. 
That no man Is the lord of anything, 
(Though in and of him there is much consisting,) 
Till he communicate his parts to others : 
Nor doth he of himself know them for aught 
Till he behold them form'd in the applause 
Where they are extended; si\\o, like an arch, icicr- 

berates 
The voice again ; or '.ike a gate of steel 
Fronting the sun, receives and renders back 
His figure and his heat. 1 was much rapt in this; 
And apprchtiided here imincdialcly 
The unknown Ajax. 

Heavens, what a man is there ! a very h.orse ; 
That has he knows not what. Nature, what things there 

are. 
Most abject in regard, and dear in use ! 
What thing! again most dear in the esteem. 
And poor in worth I Now shall we sec to-morrow. 
An act that very cliancc doth throw upon him, • 

Ajax renown'J. O heavens, what some men do, 
While some men leave to do ! 
How some men creep in skittish fortune'b hall. 
While* others play the idiot* In her ey^s ! 
142 



How one man eats into another's pride, 
While pride is feasting in his wantonness ! 
To see these Grecian lords 1 — why, even already 
They clap the lubber Ajax on the shoulder; 
As if his foot were on brave Hector's breast, 
And great Troy shrinking. 

Achil. I do believe it : for they pass'd by me 
As misers do by beggars ; neither gave to tiie 
Good word, nor look; What, are my deeds forgot ? 

Ulyss. Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 
A great-sized monster of ingratitudes : 
Those scraps are good deeds past ; which are devour'd 
As fast as they are made, forgot as soon 
As done : Perseverance, dear my lord. 
Keeps honour bright ; To have done, is to hang 
Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail 
In monumental mockery. Take the instant way ; 
For honour travels in a straight so narrow. 
Where one but goes abreast : keep then the path ; 
For emulation hath a thousand sons. 
That one by one pursue : If you give way, 
Or hedge aside from the direct forthright, 
Like to an enter'd tide, they all rush by, 
And leave you hindmost ; — 
Or, like a gallant horse fallen in first rank. 
Lie there for pavement to the abject rear, 
O'errun and trampled on: Th.-n what they do in )ire 

sent, 
Though less than yours in past, must o'eitop yours: 
For .time is like a fashionable host. 
That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand; 
And with his arms out-stretch 'd, as he would (1y, 
Grasps-in the comer: AVelcome ever smiles, 
And farewell goes out sighing. O, let not virtue seek 
llemuneration for the thing it was ; 
For beauty, wit. 

High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service. 
Love, friendship, charity, are subjects all 
To envious and calumniating time. 
One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, — 
That all, with one consent, praise new-born gawds. 
Though they are made and moulded of things past ; 
And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 
.More laud than gilt o'er-dusted. 
The present eye praises the present objoct : 



TKOILUS AND CRESSIDA. 



rlien marvel not, thou great ant complete man, 
That all the Greeks beijin to worship Ajax ; 
Since things in motion sooner catch the eye, 
Tlian what not stirs. The cry went once on thee, 
And still it might; an>l yet it may again. 



If thou wouldst not entomb tliyself alive, 

And case thy reputation in thy tent; 

Whose glorious deeds, but in these fields of late. 

Made emulous missions 'mongst tlie gods themselves, 

And drave great Mars to faction." 



Now, of this scene Dryden has not a word. This was apart of the "rubbish" which he discarded. 
But in the place of it he gives us an entirely new scene between Hector and Troilus — "almost half 
the act." He says, " the occasion of raising it was hinted to me by Mr. Betterton ; the contrivance 
and working of it was my own." This scene, he admits, was an imitation of the famous scene in 
Julius Caesar between Brutus and Cassius. And so Dryden transposes the principle of one play into 
another; destroys the grave irony of Troilus and Cre.9sida by the iutroJuctiun of the heroic serious- 
ness which was in its place in Julius Caesar ; and gives us, altogether, a set of mongrel characters, 
compounded of the commonplace heroic and Shakspere's reduction of the false heroic to truth and 
reason. And yet, with all his labour, Dryden could not make the thing consistent. He is compelled 
to take Shakspere's representation of Ajax, for e.'cample. One parallel passage wiU be sufficient to 
show how Dryden and Shakspere managed these things : — "* 



Drvdkn. 

" Thank Htav'n, my lord, you're of a gentle nature, 
Praise liim that got you, her that brought you foith ; 
liiit he who taught you first the use of arms, 
Let Mars divide eternity in two. 
And give him half. I will not praise your wisdom, 
Nestor shall do't ; but pardon, father Nestor, 
Were you as green as Ajax, and your brain 
Teraper'd like his, you never should excel him, 
But be as Ajax is." 



Shakspere. 

" Ulyss. Thank the heavens, lord, thou ait of sweet 
composure; 
Praise him that got thee, she that gave thee suck : 
Fiim'd be thy tutor, and thy parts of nature 
Thriee-fam'd, beyond all erudition : 
But he that disciplin'd thy arms to tight, 
let Mars divide eternity in twain, 
And give him half: and, for thy vigour. 
Bull-bearing Milo his addition yield 
To sinewy Ajax. I will not praise thy wisdom, 
Which, like a bourn, a pale, a shore, confines 
Thy spacious and dilated parts: Here's Nestor,— 
Instructed by the antiquary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise ; — 
But pardon, father Nestor, were your days 
As green as Ajax, and your brain so temper'd, 
You should not have the eminence of him, 
But be as Ajax." 

One of the most extraordinary subtleties of Shakspere's Troilus and Cressida arises out of the 
circumstance that the real heroic tragedy is found side by side with the ironical heroic. Cassan- 
dra, short as the character is, may be classed amongst the finest creations of art. Dryden omits 
Cassandra altogether. Was this a want of a real perception of " the grounds " . of tragedy ; or an 
instinct which avoided the higher heroic, when it would come into contrast with his own feebler 
conceptions ? The Cassandra of Shakspere is introduced to heighten the efifect of the petty passions, 
the worldliuess, which are everywhere around her. The solemn and the earnest are in alliance with 
madness. 

Ulrici has a curious theory about this drama. Without yielding our assent to it, we give it as a 

specimen of very ingenious conjecture : — 

" Sh:^k3pere, in working up these materials, has had another design in the background respecting him- 
self and his art. We know that Ben Jonson, his fj-iend as a man, but his decided opponent as a dramatist, 
bad taken, as the object of his critical and poetical activity, the restoration of the dramatic art in his Ufe- 
tlme to the ancient form according to the (certainly misunderstood) rules of Aristotle ; and afterwards, 
upon that principle, to form the English national drama. Shakspere, although frequently attacked, has 
never openly and directly engaged in the advocacy of the contrary principle. He despised the contest ; 
doubtless because nothing was to be decided upon by vag-ue abstract reasoning upon the merits of a theory. 
But the T^oints of his opponent's arrows were broken off as soon as it was proved, m the most striking 
manner, that the spirit and character, customs and forms of life, of antiquity were essentially dLEferent ana 
distinct from those founded upon Christian opinions and represented in a Christian pomt of view^ t 
would appear at once as a most contradictory beginning to wish to transfer foreign ancient prmciples ot art 
into the poetry of Christianity. And how could Shakspere, the poet, produce a proof more strong, strUcmg, 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE. 

and convincing, than to embody his own principles in a poem open to all eyes ? But we must not cxncct 
to find such a by-end mode prominent ; tho poet, indeed, hedges it round, and scarcely leaves anything 
inlpablo. • • • * Only one single dismembered feature ho suffered to remain, perhaps in order to act 
as a direction to tho initiated. 1 mean tho passage where Hector reproaches Troilus and Paris that they 
had discussed very siiperficially the controversy as to the delivering up of Helen : — 

' Not much 
Unlike young men, -whom Aristotle tliouglit 
Unfit to hear moral philosophy.' 

Tho words have certainly their value in themselves for their comic effect. Nevertheless, may not this va-y 
useless and unfitting anachronism contain a satirical horsewhip for Shakspere's pedantic adversaries who 
evjrywhero invoked their Aristotle without sense or understanding ?" 




[Hector's Body dragyec at the Gar oi Achii.us.j 



A, 




Tragedies. — Vol. ]I. 




IKomrtn Eagle.] 



INTEODUCTOHY NOTICE. 



State op the Text, and Chronology, op Coriolanus. 



' The tragedy of Coriolanus ' was first printed in the folio collection of 1623. It is entered in the 
Sbationers' registers of that year by the publishers of the folio, as one of the copies "not formerly 
entered to other men." In this folio edition it stands the first of the tragedies in the order of 
paging ; but this arrangement, as in every other case, was in all likelihood aa arbitrary one. The 
text is divided into acts and scenes, according to the modern editions ; and the stage directions aro 
very full and precise. With the exception of some obvious typographical errors, such as invariably 
occur even under the eye of an author when a book is printed from manuscript, the text may be 
received as accurate. 

It would be a natural and almost imavoidable consequence of printing blank verse from a post- 
humous manuscript, that the beginnings and endings of the lines should be occasionally confused, and 
that therefore the metrical arrangement of the author would not be perfectly represented in the 
printed copy. In the text of Coriolanus the variorum editors have, in several instances, corrected 
obvious defects of the oi-iginal metrical arrangement; but they have as frequently destroyed its 
harmony and force from their invariable dislike to short lines and alexandrines, and so they piece on 
and lop off with their usual vigour. 

L 2 147 



i2;tkoductoiiy notice. 

Malone a-ssigns the tragedy of Coriolinus to the year 1610. He has given Julius Cxsar to 1607, 
aud Antony and Cleopatra to 1608. On tlie 20th of May of that year Edward Blount enters at 
Stationers' Hall "a book called Anthony and Cleopatra;" but in 1623 Blount and Jaggard, the 
publishers of the folio, enter "Mr. William Shakspere's Comedies, Histories, and Tiugedies, so 
nuny of the said copies as are not formerly entered to other men." Amongst these is Antony 
and Cleopatra. All the plays thus entered in 1623 were unpublished ; and not one of them, with 
the exception of Antony and Cleopatra, had been "formerly entered "by name. It is therefore 
more than probable that the 'Anthony and Cleopatra' entered in 1008 was not Shakspere's tra- 
gedy; and we therefore reject this entry as any evidence that Shakspere's Antony and Cleopatra was 
written as c.-irly as 1608. Upon the date of this play depends, according to Malone, the date of 
Julius Ca;sar. We state, imhesitatingly, that there is no internal evidence whatever for the dates 
of any of the three Roman plays. We believe that they belong to the same cycle ; but we would 
place that later in Shakspei-e's life than is ordinarily done. Malone places them together, properly 
enough ; but in assuming that they were written in 1607, 1608, and 1610, his theoi-y makes Shak- 
spere almost absolutely unemployed for the last seven years of his life. We hold that his last yeai-s 
were devoted to these plays. The proof which Chalmers ofifers that Coriolanus was written in 1609 
15 one of the many ingenious absurdities with which he has suiToiinded the question of the chrono- 
logical order of Shakspere's plays. The citizens, he says, are resolved rather to die than to famish ; 
— they require com cheap; there is a dearth. He adds, very gravely, "Now the fixct is, that the 

years 1608 and 1609 were times of great deai-th And therefore the play was probably 

written in I611O while the pressure was yet felt." We say, now the fact is, the ori'jinal slori/ turns 
upon the dearth. In North's 'Plutarch' we have the causes assigned "which ina<le the extreme 
dearth ; " and Plutarch also tells us there was great scarcity of com within the city. If Shakspere 
found the dearth in the original story, what could the dearth of 1608 possibly have to do with 
the mode in which he dramatized it? 



ScprosED Source op the Plot. 



' The Lives of the Xoblc Grecians and Romans, compared together by Plutarch, done into English 
by Thomas North,' is a book on many accounts to be venerated. It is still the best translation of 
Plutarch we have, — full of fine robust English, — a book worthy of Shakspere to read and some- 
times to imitate. Here he found the story of Coriolanus told in the most graphic manner ; and he 
followed it pretty literally. Niebuhr places this story amongst the fabulous legends of Rome. 
Plutarch, and especially Shakspere, have made it almost impossible to believe that such Romans 
did not really live, and think, and talk, and act, as we see them in these wonderful pictures of 
humanity. In the Illustrations to each act we have given the parallel passages from Plutarch. We 
here subjoin a summary of the story of Coriolanus, which we extract from a work whose articles ou 
classical literature are deservedly valued as authorities. 

" Coriolanus was in the Roman camp when the consul Cominius was laying siege to Corioli. The be- 
sieorcd, makinir a vii,'orous sally, succeeded in driving back the Romans to their camp ; but Coriolanus 
Immediately rallied them, rushed through the gates, and took the ]>1a(}e. Meanwhile the Antiates had come 
to relieve the town, and were on the point of engaging with the consul's army, when Coriolanus commenced 
the battle, and soon completely defeated them. From this time he was greatly admired for his warlike abili- 
ties, but his haughty demeanour gave considerable ofifenco to the commonalty. Not long afterwards his 
implacable anger was excited by being refused the consiilship ; and when, on occasion of a severe famine in 
the city, com was at last brought from Sicily (some purchased and some given by a Greek prince), and a 
debate arose whether it should be given gratis or sold to the plebs, Coriolanus strenuously advised that it 
should be sold. The people in their fury would have torn him in pieces had not the tribunes summoned 
Ha 



COR 101 ANUS. 

him to take his trial. He was banished by a majority of the tribes, and retired to Antiura, the chief town 
of the Volsci, where the king, Attius Tullus, received him with great hospitality. Coriolanus promised the 
Volsci his aid in their war against Rome, and they forthwith granted him the highest civil honours, and ap- 
pointed him their general. He attacked and took many towns ; among others, Circeii, Satricum, Longula, 
and Lavinium. At last he directed his march to Rome itself, and pitched his camp only a few miles from 
the city, where he dictated the terms at which the Romans might pui-chase a cessation of hostilities. Among 
other things he demanded that the land taken from the Volsci should be restored, that the colonies settled 
there should be recalled, and that the whole people should bo received as alUes and citizens with equal 
rights ; and that all those who had enlisted themselves under Lis banners should be recalled, as well as him- 
self. Coriolanus allowed them two terms, one of thirty and the other of three days, for making up their 
minds. After thirty days had expired, a deputation of four leading senators came before his tribunal, but 
were repulsed with threats if they should again offer anything but unreserved submission. 

" On the second day the whole body of priests and augurs came in their official garb, and implored him, 
but in vain. On the third and last day which he had allowed them he intended to lead his ai-my against the 
city, but another expedient was tried, and succeeded. The noblest matrons of the city, led by Vcturia, the 
mother of Coriolanus, and his wife Volumnia, who held her little childi-en by the hand, came to his tent. 
Their lamentations at last prevailed on his almost unbending resolution, and addressing his mother he said, 
with a flood of tears, ' Take then thy country instead of me, since this is thy choice.' The embassy departed ; 
and, dismissing his forces, he returned and lived among the Volsci to a great age. According to another 
accoimt, he was murdered by some of the Volsci, who were indignant at his withdrawing from the attack. 

" After his death, however, the Roman women were mourning for him, as they had done for some foi-mer 
heroes. The public gratitude for the patriotic services of Volumnia was acknowledged by a temple, which 
was erected to Female Fortune."* 



SCENEEir AND COSTUME. 



It would be extremely difficult to represent the Rome of Coriolanus, — its streets, its market-place, 
its senate-house,— without a violation of historical propriety. The stage may properly take a 
greater licence in this matter than we can venture to do. We have therefore judged it best to 
illustrate this tragedy by engravings which show the unchanging natural localities of Rome, and 
some of the remains of the ancient city. We do not assume that these remains belong to the Rome 
of Coriolanus : we know the contrary. But they are the nearest associations which we can offer ; 
and they tell a tale of grandeur and of ruin which harmonizes with the leading idea of the drama. 

The general subject of Roman costume will be more appropriately examined in the succeeding 
tragedy of Julius Caesar. 



Kiiplish Cyclopaedia— Art. Coriolanus. 



A, 



PERSONS REPRESENTED. 



I iri 



tribunes of the people. 



Caids Makcius CoRioLASJUs, a noble Roman. 
TiTvs Lartius, I yg„„g,g „g„i„,t f,,c Volsce?. 

COMINIUS, •' 

Mexenius AoRiTr a, friend to Coriolanu». 

SiciNivs Velutcs, 

Junius Brutus, 

Young Marcius, son to Coriolanus. 

A Roman Herald. 

TuLLUs AuFiDivs, general of the Volsces. 

Lieutenant to Aufidius. 

Cor,spirators wUh Aufidius. 

A Citizen o/Antium. 

Two Volscian Guard'. 

VoLDMSiA, mother to Corioianus. 
ViRGiLiA, wife to Coriolanus. 
Valeria, /rifnrf to Virgilia. 
Gentlewoman, attending Virgilia. 



Roman and Volscian Senators, Patricians, /EdiUs, Liclors, 
Soldiers, Citizens, Messengers, Servants lo AuHdius, and 
other Attendants. 

SCRiiE,— partly in Rome; and partly in the territories of 
the Volsciass and Antiateb. 







.■'^' 







g 

■2 

a 



o 
o 



H 

& 
H 
OS 



O 



o 

Q 

O 
iJ 




tSite of Home. Tiburtine Chain in the clistaace j 



ACT I. 



SCENE I.— Ex)nie. A Street. 



Enter a company of mutinous Citizeus, with 
staves, clubs, and other weapons. 

1 at. Before we proceed any further, hear 
me speak. 

at. Speak, speak. iSeceral speaUng at once. 

1 at. You are all resolved rather to die than 
to famish ? 

at. llesolved, resolved. 

1 at. First, you know, Cains IMareius is chief 
enemy to the people. 

at. We know 't, we know 't. 

1 ad. Let us kill him, and we '11 have corn at 
our own price. Is 't a verdict ? 

at. No more talking on't: let it be done: 
away, away ! 

^^ at. One word, good citizens. 

1 at. We are accounted poor citizens ; the 



pati-icians, good-.=' What authority surfeits on 
would reUeve us. If they would yield us but 
the superfluity, while it were wholesome, we 
might guess they relieved us humanely; but 
they thmk we are too dear : the leanness that 
afflicts us, the object of oui- misery, is as an in- 
ventory to particularize their abundance; our 
sufferance is a gain to them.— Let us revenge 
this with our pikes, ere we become rakes :•> for 
the gods know, I speak this in hunger for bread, 
not in thirst for revenge. 



» Goorf— used in the sense in which Shylock, m the Mci- 
chant of Venice, says, " Antonio is a <7ood inan. 

b Uahes. Spenser, in the ' Fairy Queen, has— 
" His body lean and meagre as a rake" 
The allusion, there can be little doubt, is to the tool so 
called. The simile is very old ; we find m Ctiaucer— 

" As lean was his horse as is a rake." 
This is the sense, we apprehend, in which the citizens are 
toJ' become rakes. " 

« 151 



Act i.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[SCEME 1 



2 at. "Would you proceed especially against 
Cains Marcius ? 

Alt. Apalust hiiu first ; lie 's a very dog to the 
coiunionalty. 

2 Cil. Cousidcr you what services he has done 
for his count ry ? 

1 at. Very well ; and could be content to 
give him pood report for't, but that he pays 
himself with being proud. 

All. Kay, but speak not maliciously. 

1 at. I say unto you, what he hath done fa- 
mously he did it to that cud ; though soft-con- 
scieneed men can be content to say it was for his 
country, he did it to please his mother, and to 
be partly proud ; which he is, even to the altitude 
of his virtue. 

2 at. What he cannot help in his nature you 
account a vice in him : You must in no way say 
he is covetous. 

1 at. If I must not, I need not be barren of 
accusations ; he hath faults, with sui-plus, to tu-e 
in repetition. \_Shoids tcit/ti//.] "Wliat shouts arc 
these ? The other side o' the city is risen : "Why 
stay wc prating here ? to the Capitol ! 

All. Come, come. 

1 at. Soft ! who comes here ? 

Enter Menekius Agrippa. 

2 at. "Worthy Menciiius Agrippa ; one that 
hath always loved the people. 

1 at. He 's one honest enough : 'Would all 
the rest were so ! 

Men. "What work 's, my countrymen, in hand ? 
"Where go you 
"With bats and clubs ? The matter ? Speak, I 
pray you. 

2 at.^ Our business is not unknown to the 
senate ; they have had inkling, this foi'tnight, 
what wc intend to do, which now we '11 show 'em 
in deeds. They say poor suitors have strong 
breaths; they shall know we have strong arms 
too. 



» All Iho subsequent dialof;uc with Mcneniiis is given by 
the Tsri'iniTii editors fo the j!r»/ citizen. Malone thus ex- 
plains thechanf^e: — " This and all the subsequent plebeian 
sp-erhes In this scene arc given by the old copy to the 
secund citizen. But the dialogue at the 0|)cniiig of the play 
ihnws that It must have been a mistake, and that they 
ought to be .^tt^lbuted to the Jir'l citizen. The second is 
rather friendly to Coriolanus." We adhere to the original 
copy, for the precise reason which Malone gives for de- 
parting from it. The Jirtl citizen is a hater of public vieii, 
— the second of public meatura; the first would kill Corio- 
lanus, — the second would repeal the laws relating to corn 
and usury. He says not one word against Coriolanus. Wc 
.trc satiihcd that it was not Shakspcre's intention to make 
the low brawler against an individual argue so well with 
Mcncnius in the mailer <>f the " kingly-crowned head," Kv. 
The speaker is of a higher cast than he who says, " LcLus 
kill hini, and we'll have com at our own price." 
152 



Men. A\niy, masters, my good friends, mine 
honest neighbours, 
AVill you undo yourselves ? 

2 at. "We cannot, sir, wc are undone already. 

Men. I tell you, friends, most charitable care 
Have the patricians of you. For your wants. 
Your suiTcring in this dearth, you may as well 
Strike at the heaven with your staves, as lift them 
Against the lloinan state ; whose course will on 
The way it takes, cracking ten thousand curbs. 
Of more strong link asunder than can ever 
Appear in your impediment : For the dearth. 
The gods, not the patricians, make it ; and 
Yom" knees to them, not arms, must help. Alack, 
You are transported by calamity 
Thither where more attends you ; and you slander 
The helms o' the state, who care for you like 

fathers. 
When you cuj-se them as enemies. 

2 at. Care for us ! — True, indeed ! — They 
ne'er cared for us yet. Suffer us to famish, and 
their storehouses crammed with grain ; ' make 
edicts for usury, to support usurers ;- repeal daily 
any wholesome act established against the rich ; 
and pro\ide more piercing statutes daily, to chain 
up and restrain the poor. If the wars cat us 
not up, they will; and there's all the love they 
bear us. 

Men. Either you must 
Confess youi'sclves wondrous nuilicious, 
Or be accus'd of folly. I shall tell you 
A pretty tale ; it may be you have heard it ; 
But, since it serves my purpose, I will venture 
To stale 't "^ a little more. 



• » To stale 'I. The original has to scale 'I. We adopted 
it in previous editions, in the sense of weight. Menenius will 
venture to uifiV' to try the value, of the " pretty tale," a little 
more; though they may have heard it, he will again scale 
it. But Steevens says, "to scale is to disperse; though 
some of you have heard the story, I will spread it still 
wider, and diffuse it among the rest." Hornc Tooke"s ex- 
planation appears to us somewhat fanciful. To scale, he 
says, is derived from the Anglo-Sa.ton sci/lan, to divide. 
The tale of Menenius is scaled by being divided into par- 
ticulars. But Mr. Dyce has referred to a note by GifTuid, 
on a passage in Massinger, 

"I'llnot»/o/e thejest 
By my relation." 

GIfford gives this explanation of stale: "render It flat, de- 
prive it of zest by previous intimation ;" and then notices 
the passage of the text. " This is one of a thousand in- 
stances wliich might be brought to prove that the true reading 
in Coriolanus, Act i., Sc. i., is 

",' To stale 't a little more.' " 

The old copies have scale, for which Theobald judicinuyly 
proposed stale. To this Warburton objects, petulantly 
enough, it must be confessed, because to s. ale signifies lo 
weigh; so, indeed, it does, and many other things; none of 
which, however, bear any relation to the text. Steevens, 
too, prefers scale, which lie proves, from a variety ofauiho- 
rltici, to mean, "'scatter, disperse, spread.'" .Mr. Dyce 
.".dds, "Thcie is, indeed, no cr.d of passages in our early 
dramatists whtre stale occurs in the sense of ' make stale, 
f&miliar,' &c." Upon these authorities we adopt stale 'I. 



Act 1.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



[SCKN£ 1. 



2 at. Well, I '11 hear it, sir : yet you must 
not think to fob off our disgrace with a tale : 
but, au 't please you, deliver. 
Men. There was a time when all the body's 
members 
Rebell'd against the belly ; thus accus'd it : — 
That only Uke a gulf it did remain 
L' the midst o' the body, idle and unaclive, 
Stni cupboardiug the viand, never bearuig 
Like labour with the rest ; where the other in- 
struments 
Did see and hear, devise, instruct, walk, feel. 
And mutually participate; did minister* 
Unto the appetite and affection common 
Of the whole body. The belly answered, — 
2 at. Well, sir, what answer made the 

belly ? 
Men. Sir, I shall tell you.— With a kind of 
smile. 
Which ne'er came from the lungs, but even 

thus, 
(For, look you, I may make the belly smile 
As well as speak,) it tauntingly replied 
To the discontented members, the mutinous 

parts 
That envied his receipt ; even so most fitly 
As you mahgn our senators, for that 
They are not such as you. 

2 at. Your belly's answer : What ! 

The kingly-crowned head, the vigilant eye. 
The counsellor heart, the arm our soldier. 
Our steed the leg, the tongue our trumpeter, 
With other muniments and petty helps 
In this our fabric, if that they — 

Men. What then ?— 

'Fore me, this fellow speaks !— what then ? what 
then? 
2 at. Should by the cormorant belly be re- 
strain'd. 
Who is the sink o' the body, — 
]^£en. Well, what then ? 

2 at. The former agents, if they did com- 
plain, 
What could the belly answer ? 

Men. 1 will tell you ; 

[f you '11 bestow a small (of what you have 

little) 
Patience a while, you '11 hear the belly's answer. 
2 at. You are long about it. 
Men. Note me this, good friend ; 

Your most grave belly was deliberate, 



a This is usually pointed thus : — 

"And, mutually participate, did minister," &c. 

Malone tel's us that participate is participant (the par- 
ticiple). We follow the punctuation of the folio. 



Not rash like his accusers, and thus auswer'd. 
' True is it, my incorporate friends,' quoth he, 
* That I receive the general food at first, 
Which you do live upon : and fit it is ; 
Because I am the storehouse, and the shop 
Of the whole body : But if you do remember, 
I send it through the rivers of your blood. 
Even to the coiu't, the heart, to the seat o' the 

brain, 
And through the cranks and offices of man : 
The strongest nerves, and small inferior veins. 
From me receive that natural competency 
Whereby they live : "■ And though that all at once. 
You, my good friends,' (this says the belly,) 

mark me, — 
2 at. Ay, sir ; well, well. 
Men. ' Though all at once cannot 

See what I do deliver out to each ; 
Yet I can make my audit up, that all 
From me do back receive the flotu* ^ of all. 
And leave me but the bran.' What say you to 't ? 
2 at. It was an answer : How apply you 

this? 
Men. The senators of Rome are this good 

beUy, 
And you the mutinous members : For examine 
Their counsels and their cares ; digest things 

rightly. 
Touching the weal o' the common ; you shaD 

find. 
No public benefit, which you receive. 
But it proceeds, or comes, from them to you. 
And no way from yourselves. — What do you 

think? 
You, the great toe of this assembly ? — 



a A common punctuation of this passage is,— 

" I send it through the rivers of your blood, 
Even to the court, the heart,— to the seat o' tlie brain ; 
And, through the cranks and offices of man, 
The strongest nerves," &c. 
This arrangement of the passage involves a difficulty. The 
" heart" is metaphorically " tlie court," the centre to which 
all tends : but the punctuation also makes it " the seat of 
the brain." This, Malone and Douce tell us, is ri-ht : the 
"brain" is here put for the understanding, and according to 
the old philosophy the " heart" was the seat of the under- 
standing. Now, we do not believe that Shak^pere's judg- 
ment would have permitted him to use " heart" in a phy- 
sical sense, and "brain" in a metaphysical; nor do we see 
why the belly should not claim the merit of supplying the 
head as well as the heart. The obvious meaning of the 
passage without anv of this forced punctuation (the origmal 
uses uo point hut the comma) appears to us to be,— I send 
the general food through the rivers of your blood, to the 
court, the heart ; I send it to the scat of the brain, and 
through the cranks and offices (obscure parts) of the whole 
body. By this means 

" The strongest nerves, and small inferior veins, 
From me receive that natural competency 
Whereby they live." 
b Flour. This is certainly the flour of corn opposed to 
"the bran." The word in the text was usually spelt floicer, 
which, though correct in the original sense of flour, may 
give an erroneous impression to the reader. 

153 



Act I.] 



l^ORTOLANUS. 



LSCENE 1. 



•2 Ci/. I the great toe ? AMiy the great (oc ? 
Mai. For that, behig one o' the lowest, basest, 
poorest. 
Of this most wise rebellion, thou go'st fore- 
most : 
Thou rascal, that art worst in blood to run, 
liCad'st first, to win some vantage. — 
But make jou ready your stiff bats and clubs ; 
Rome and her rats are at the point of battle, 
The one side must have bale." -Hail, noble 
Marcius ! 

E/iier Caius Marcius. 

Miir. Thanks. — "What 's the matter, you dis- 
sent ions rogues. 
That, rubbing the poor itch of your opinion. 
Make yourselves scabs ? 
2 Cii. Vi'e have ever your good word. 

^far. He that will give good words to thee 

will flatter 
Beneath abhorrin£r. — What would vou have, vou 

curs. 
That like nor peace, nor war? the cue affrights 

)ou, 
The other makes you proud. He lliat trusts to 

vou. 
Where he should find you lions finds you hares ; 
Where foxes, geese : You are no surer, no. 
Than is the coal of fire upon the ice. 
Or hailstone in the sun. Your vu-tuc is, 
To make him worthy whose offence subdues 

him. 
And curse that justice did it. Who deserves 

greatness 
Deserves your hate : and your affections are 
A sick man's appetite, who desires most that 
Which would increase his evil. He that depends 
Upon your favour swims with fins of lead. 
And hews down oaks with rushes. Hang yc ! 

trust ye ? 
With everv minute vou do change a mind : 
And call him noble that was now your hate. 
Him vile that was your garland. W^hat's tlic 

matter, 
That in these several places of the city 
You cry against the noble senate, who, 
Under the gods, keep you in awe, which else 
Would feed on one another? — What's tlicir 

seeking ? 



» /Jn;<— Piin. This is the only instance in which Shak- 
«p«Te uses the suhsLintive hale; thnui;li we have frequently 
baUful. Malone tt-lls us the word was ohsolote in Shak- 
ipcre's time : but it is cue of Shakspcre's merits to clinjr to 
our fine eld langiiaKe, not ostentatiously, hut with a full 
knowledge of its powers. 

164 



Men. Tor corn at their own rates ; whereof, 

they say. 
The city is well stor'd. 

3r(/r. Hang 'em ! They say ! 

They '11 sit by the fire, and presume to know 
What 's done i' the Capitol : who 's like to rise. 
Who thrives, and who declines : side factions, 

and give out 
Conjectural marriages ; making parties strong, 
And fcebling such as stand not in their liking 
Below their cobbled shoes. They say there's 

grain enough ! 
Would the nobility lay aside their ruth,'* 
And let me use my sword, I 'd make a quarry 
With thousands of these quartcr'd slaves, as high 
As I could pick '' my lance. 

Men. Nay, these are almost thoroughly per- 
suaded ; 
For though abundantly they lack discretion. 
Yet are they passing cowardly. But, 1 beseech 

you, 
W^hat says the other troop ? 

Mar. They are dissolved : Hang 'em ! 

They said they were an-lunigry; sigh'd forth 

proverljs. 
That hunger broke stone walls, that dogs must 

eat. 
That meat was made for mouths, that the gods 

sent not 
Corn for the rich man only : — With these shreds 
They vented their complainings; which being 

answer' d. 
And a petition granted them, a strange one, 
(To break the heart of generosity. 
And make bold power look pale,) they threw 

their caps 
As they would hang them on the horns o' the 

moon. 
Shouting their emulation. 
Men. What is granted them ? 

Mar. Five tribunes to defend their vulgar 

wisdoms. 
Of their own choice : One 's Junius Brutus, 
Sieinius Vclutus, and I know not — 'Sdeath ! 
The rabble should have first unroof 'd the city. 
Ere so prevail'd witli me ; it will in time 
Win upon power, and tkrow forth greater themes 
For insurrection's arguing. 

Men. This is strange. 

Mar. Go, get you home, you fragments ! 

Jin/er a [Messenger, hasiili/. 
Mess. Where 's Caius Marcius ? 



n 7?m//i- pity— another old word, 
b i'.c*— pitch. 



Act I.J 



COEIOLANUS. 



[Scene II. 



Mar Here : T\liat 's the matter ? 

Mess. The news is, sir, the Volsces are in arms. 
Mar. I am glad on't; then -we shall have 
means to vent 
Our musty superfluity : — See, our best elders. 

Enter CojnNius, Titus Lartius, Uiid other Sena- 
tors ; Junius Bruius, and Sicixius Yelutus. 
1 Sen. Marcius, 't is true that you have lately 
told us ; 
The Volsces are in arms. 

Mar. They have a leader, 

Tullus Auiidius,-4hat vill put you to 't. 
I sin in envying his nobility : 
And were I anything but what I am, 
I would wish me only he. 

Com. You have fought together. 

Mar. "Were half to half the world by the ears, 
and he 
Upon my party, I 'd revolt, to make 
Only my wars with him : he is a lion 
That I am proud to hunt. 

1 Sen. Then, worthy Marcius, 

Attend iipon Cominius to these wars. 
Com. It is your former promise. 
Mar. Sir, it is ; 

And I an: constant. — Titus Lartius, thou 
Shalt see me once more strike at Tullus' face : 
\Yhat, art thou stiff? stand'st out ? 

Tit. No, Cains Marcius ; 

I '11 lean upon one crutch, and fight 'svith t' other, 
Ere stay behind this business. 

Men. 0, true bred ! 

1 Sen. Your company to the Capitol; where, 
I know, 
Our greatest friends attend us. 

Tit. Lead you on : 

Follow, Cominius ; we must foUow you ; 
Right worthy you priority.* 

Com. Noble Marcius ! 

1 Sen. Hence ! To your homes, be gone. 

[To the Citizens. 

Mar. Nay, let them follow : 

The Voices have much corn; take these rats 

thither. 
To gnaw their garners :— "ITorshipful mutineers. 
Your valoiu- puts well forth : pray, follow. 

[E-reuiit Senators, Coir., Mail, Tit., and 
;Menex. Citizens steal atca_'/. 
Sic. Was ever man so proud as is this 

Marcius ? 
Bru. He has no equal. 

Sic. "When we were chosen tribunes for the 
people, — 

' We must here understand, worthy of riiorily. 



Brtc. Mark'd you his lip and eyes ? 

Sic. Nay, but his taunts. 

Bru. Being mov'd, he wiU not spare to gird" 
the gods. 

Sic. Be-mock the modest moon. 

Bru. The present wars devour him : he is 
grown 
Too proud to be so valiant.'' 

Sic. Such a nature. 

Tickled with good success, disdains the shadow 
TVhich he treads on at noon : But I do wonder 
His insolence can brook to be commanded 
Under Cominius. 

Bru. Fame, at the which he aims. 

In whom already he is well grae'd, cannot 
Better be held^ nor more attain'd, than by 
A place below tlie first : for what miscarries 
Shall be the general's fault, though he perform 
To the utmost of a man ; and giddy censure 
Will then cry out of Marcius, ' 0, if he 
Had borne the business ! ' 

Sic. Besides, if things go well, 

Opinion, that so sticks on Marcius, shall 
Of his demerits" rob Cominius. 

Bru. Come : 

Half aU Cominius' honours are to Marcius, 
Though IMarciiis eam'd them not ; and all his 

faults 
To Marcius shall be honours, though, indeed, 
In aught he merit not. 

Sic. Let 's hence, and hear 

How the despatch is made ; and in what fashion, 
]\[ore than in singularity, he goes 
Upon this present action. 

Bru. Let 's along. [Exeunt. 

SCENE II.— Corioli. The Senate-House. 
Enter Tullus Aufidius, and certain Senators. 

1 Sen. So, your opinion is, Aufidius, 
That they of Rome are enter'd in our counsels. 
And know how we proceed. 

jiiij; Is it not \ ours? 

Whatever have"* been thought on in this state. 
That could be brought to bodily act ere Rome 



=» Gird. This is the verb of Falstaffs noun, " Every mau 
has a.nird at me." . 

b There is much dispute about the meani;^? of this sen- 
t»iice "The present vrars devour him" is clear enougli, 
we thiuk; the wars absorb, cat up the wliolo m.-in:^anrt 
then comes the explanation; he is trown too proud o. his 
valour — of beins so valiant. 

c Demerits. The word is used in a similar sense in 
Othello,— that of merits. The meaniiif: of i"-''^*'^'T'"S,'"*^ 
acquired later; for demerit is constantly used tor desert oy 
the old writers. 

<l Whalei-er Aace— elliptically, whatever thinr/s have. 

155 



Act 1.] 



COKIOLAliUS. 



[Scene 111. 



Had circumvention? 'Tis not four days gone 
Since I board thence ; these are the words : I 

think 
I have the letter here ; yes, here it is : [lu-ads. 
' They have prcss'd a power, but it is not known 
"Whether for east or west : The dearth is great ; 
The people mutinous : and it is runiour'd, 
Coniiuius, Marcius your old enemy, 
(Who is of Eome worse hated than of yon,) 
And Titus Lartius, a most valiant Roman, 
These three lead on this preparation 
"Whither 't is bent : most likclv, 't is for vou : 
Consider of it.' 

1 Sen. Our army 's in the field : 
AVe never yet made doubt but Rome was ready 
To answer us. 

An/. Nor did you think it folly 

To keep your great pretences veil'd till when 
They needs must show themselves; which in 

the hatching. 
It seem'd, appear'd to Rome. By the discovery, 
We shall be shortened in our aim ; which was, 
To take in* many towns, ere, almost, Rome 
Should know we were afoot. 

2 Se/i. Noble Aufidius, 
Take your commission ; hie you to your bands : 
Let us alone to guard Corioli : 

If they set down before us, for the remove 
Bring up your army ; but, I think, you '11 find 
They 'vc not prepar'd for us. 

Ji'/. 0, doubt not that ; 

I speak from certainties. Nay, more ; 
Some paicels of their powers are forth already, 
And only hitherward. I leave your honours. 
K we and Caius iNIarcius chance to meet, 
'Tis sworn between us we shall ever*" strike 
Till one can do no more. 

Jll. The gods assist you ! 

Au/. And keep your honours safe ! 

1 Sen. Farewell. 

2 Sen. Farewell. 
All. Farewell. \_Exeunl. 



SCENE III. — Rome. An Apartment tn Mar- 
cius* House. 

Enter Volumxia and "Virgiua: They sit down 
on Itco low stools, and sew. 

Vol. I pray you, daughter, sing;' or express 



• Take in — tiilidue. 

b Brer. In Rced'i edition Ihli was itrangcly cliaiigcd 
to ntrer. By " rrtr strike" wc underitaiid, we sliall con- 
tinue to itrikc; if v«e adopt the reading of nrvrr, we 
muit accept ilrike in tlie sen»e of strikinK a colour— 
yielding. 

156 



yourself in a more comfortable sort : If my son 
were my husband, I should freelier rejoice in 
that absence wherein he won liouour, than 
in the embracements of his bod, where he 
would show most love. "When yet ho was but 
tender-bodied, and the only son of my womb ; 
when youth with comeliness plucked all gaze his 
way; when, for a day of kings' entreaties, a 
mother should not sell him an hour from her be- 
holding ; I, — considering how honour would be • 
eome such a person; that it was no better than 
picture-like to hang by the wall, if renown made 
it not stir,— was pleased to let«him seek danger 
where he was like to find fame. To a cruel war 
I sent him ; from whence he returned, his brows 
bound with oak."* I tell thee, daughter, — I sprang 
not more in joy at first hearing he was a man- 
child, than now in first seeing he had proved 
himself a man. 

Vir. But had he died in the business, madam ? 
how then? 

Vol. Then his good report should have been 
my son; I therein would have found issue. 
Hear me profess sincerely : — Had I a dozen 
sons, each in my love alike, and none less dear 
than tliine and my good Marcius, I had rather 
had eleven die nobly for their country, than one 
voluptuously surfeit out of action. 

Enter a Gentlewoman. 

Gent. Madam, the lady Valeria is come to 

visit you. 
Fir. 'Beseech you, give me leave to retire 

myself. 
Vol. Indeed, you shall not. 
Methiuks, I hear hither your husband's drum ; 
See liim pluck Aufidius down by the hair ; 
As children from a bear, the Volsces shunning 

him : 
Methinks, I see him stamp thus, and call thus, — 
' Come on, you cowards ! you were got in 

fear. 
Though you were bora in Rome : ' His bloody 

brow 
With his maii'd hand then wiping, forth he 

goes; 
Like to a harvest-man, that 's task'd to mow 
Or all, or lose his hire. 

Vir. His bloody brow ! 0, Jupiter, no blood ! 
Vol. Away, you fool ! it more becomes a man 
Than gilt his trophy : The breasts of Hecub<t, 
"When she did suckle Hector, look'd not lovelier 
Than Hector's forehead, when it spit forth blood 
At Grecian swords' contending. — Tell Valeria 
We are fit to bid her welcome. [^Exit Gent. 



Act I.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



[SCEKE IV. 



Fir. Heavens bless my lord from fell Aufl- 

dius ! 
T'ol. He '11 beat Aufidius' head below his 
knee. 
And tread upon his neck. 

Re-enter Gentlewoman, wilh Valeria and her 
Usher. 

J'al. My ladies both, good day to you. 

Vol. Sweet madam. 

Fir. I am glad to see your ladyship. 

Fal. How do you both ? you are manifest 
housekeepers. ^Vhat are you sewing here? A 
fine spot, in good faith. — How does yom- little 
sou? 

Fir. I thank your ladyship ; well, good ma- 
dam. 

Fol. He had rather see the swords, and hear 
a dram, than look upon his schoohnaster. 

Fal. 0' my word, the father's son : I '11 swear 
't is a very pretty boy. O' my troth, I looked 
upon him o' Wednesday half an hour together : 
he has such a confirmed countenance. I saw 
him run after a gilded butterfly; aud when he 
caught it, he let it go again ; and after it again ; 
aud over and over he comes, and up again ; 
catched it again: or whether his fall enraged 
him, or how 't was, he did so set his teeth, and 
tear it ; O. I warrant, how he mammocked it ! 

Fol. One of his father's moods. 

Fal. Indeed la, 't is a noble child. 

Fir. A crack, madam. 

Fal. Come, lay aside your stitchery ; I must 
Lave you play the idle huswife with me this 
afternoon. 

Fir. No, good madam ; I will not out of 
doors. 

Fal. Not out of doors ? 

Fol. She shall, she shall. 

Fir. Indeed, no, by your patience: I will 
not over the threshold tiU my lord return from 
the wars. 

Fal. Fie ! you confine yourself most um-eason- 
ably. Come, you must go visit the good lady 
that lies in. 

Fir. I will wish her speedy strength, and 
visit her with my prayers ; but I cannot go 
thither. 

Fol. Why, I pray you ? 

Fir. 'T is not to save labour, nor that I want 
love. 

Fal. You would be another Penelope: yet, 
they say, aU the yarn she spun in Ulysses' ab- 
sence did but fill'lthaca full of moths. Come ; 
I would yom- cambric were sensible as your 



finger, that you might leave pricking it for pity. 
Come, you shall go with us. 

Fir. No, good madam, pardon me; indeed I 
win not forth. 

Fal. In truth, la, go with me ; and I '11 teU 
you excellent news of your husband. 

Fir. O, good madam, there can be none 
yet. 

Fal. Verily, I do not jest with you ; there 
came news from him last night. 

Fir. Indeed, madam ? 

Fal. In earnest, it's true ; I heard^a senator 
speak it. Thus it is : — The Volsces have an 
army forth, against whom Cominius the general 
is gone, with one part of our Roman power: 
your lord and Titus Lai-tius are set down before 
their city Corioli; they nothing doubt prevail- 
ing, and to make it brief wars. This is true, on 
mine honour ; and so, I pray, go with us. 

Fir. Give me excuse, good madam ; I will 
obey you in everything hereafter. 

Fol. Let her alone, lady ; as she is now, she 
will but disease our better mirth. 

Fal. In troth, I think she would : — Fare you 
well then. — Come, good sweet lady. — Prithee, 
Virgilia, turn thy solemnness out o' door, and go 
along with us. 

J'ir. No : at a word, madam, indeed I must 
not. I wish you much mirth. 

Fal. Well, then farewell. [Exeunt. 



SCENE lY.— Before CorioU.^ 

Enter, with drums and colours, Marcits, TlTl's 
Laktitts, Ofiicers, and Soldiers. To them a 
Messenger. 

3Iar. Yonder comes news: — A wager, they 

have met. 
Lart. My horse to yours, no. 
Mar. 'T is done. 

Lart. Agreed. 

Mar. Say, has our general met the enemy ? 
Mess. They lie in view ; but have not spoke 

as yet. 
Lart. So, the good horse is mine. 
Mar. I '11 buy Mm of you. 

Lart. No, I '11 nor sell nor give him : lend 

you hin\ I will. 
For half a hundred years.— Summon the town. 
Mar. How far off lie these armies ? 
jJess. Within this mile and half. 

Mar. Then shall we hear their 'lamm, and 

they ours. 
Now, Mais, i prithee, make us quick in work ; 

157 



Act I.] 



CORIOr/VNUS. 



[Scene IV. 



That we \ritli smoking swords may march from 

heucc, 
To help our fielded friends !— Come, blow thy 

blast. 

They sound a parley. Enter, on the walls, some 
Senators, and others. 

Tullus Aufidius, is he within your walls ? 

1 Sen. No, nor a man that fears you less than 
he: 
ITiat 's lesser than a little. Hark, our drums 

*. \_Aluntms afar off- 

Are bringing forth our youth : We '11 break our 

walls. 
Rather than they shall pound us up : Oui- gates. 
Which yet seem shut, wc have but piuu'd with 

rushes ; 
They '11 open of themselves. Haik you, far 
off ; [Other alarums. 

There is Aufidius ; list, what work he makes 
Amongst your cloven army. 
Mar. 0, they are at it ! 

Lart. Their noise be our instruction. — Lad- 
ders, ho ! 

The Volsces enter, and pass over the stage. 

Mar. They fear us not, but issue forth their 

city. 
Now put your shields before your hearts, and 

fight 
With hearts more proof than shields. — Advance, 

brave Titus ; 
They do disdain us much beyond our thoughts, 
Which makes me sweat with wrath. — Come on, 

my fellows ; 
He that retires I '11 take him for a Volsce^ 
And he shall feel mine edge. 

.ilarums, and exeunt Romans and Volsces, fight- 
ing. The Romans are beaten back to their 
trenches. Re-enter Makcius. 

Mar. All the contagion of the south light on 

yon. 
You shames of Rome ! — you herd of — Boils and 

plagues 
Plaster you o'er ; that you may be abhorr'd 
Further than seen, and one infect another 
Against the wind a mile ! You souls of geese 
That bear the shapes of men, how have you run 
From slaves that apes would beat ! Pluto and 

hell! 
.Vll hurt behind ; backs red, and faces pale 
With flight and agned fear ! Mend, and charge 

home, 
Or, by the fires of heaven, I '11 leave the foe, 

153 



iVnd make my wars on you ! look to 't : Come 

on ; 
If you '11 stand fast, wc '11 beat them to their 

wives. 
As they us to our trenches followed. 

.inother alarum. The Volsces and Romans re- 
enter, and ike fiqht is renewed. The Volsces 
retire into Corioli, and Makcius follows them 
to the gates. 

So, now the gates are ope : — Now prove good 

seconds : 
'T is for the followers fortune widens them, 
Not for the fliers : mark mc, and do the like. 

[He enters the gates, and is shut in. 

1 Sol. Fool-hardiness ; not I. 

2 Sol. Nor I. 

3 Sol. See, they have shut him in. 

[Alarum continues. 
All. To the pot, I warrant him. 

Enter Tixus Laktius. 

iMrt. What 'is become of IMarcius? 

All. Slain, sii-, doubtless. 

1 Sol. Follo\\Tng the fliers at the very heels, 
With them he enters : who, upon the sudden, 
Clapp'd-to their gates ; he is himself alone, 
To answer all the city. 

Lart. noble fellow I 

Who sensibly outdares his senseless sword. 
And when it bows stands up ! Thou art left, 

Mareius : 
A carbuncle entire, as big as thou art, 
"Were not so rich a jewel. Thou Avast a soldier 
Even to Cato's wish,'' not fierce and terrible 
Only in strokes ; but with thy grim looks and 
The thunder-like percussion of thy sounds. 
Thou mad'st thine enemies shake, as if the 

world 
Were feverous, and did tremble 



» The ori^'inal has " Calues wish." This is evidently a 
typographical error; but, following Rowe and Pope, Mr. 
Monck Mason would have us read Cnhus u-hli. We 
quite asree with Malone that the manuscript was Catoes ; 
easily mistaken and rendered by the printer Calues. But 
we do not agree with him that Shakspere committed the 
anachronism in ignorance. Plutarch, de.<;crlbingtlie valiant 
deeds c f Coriolanus, says (North's translation), " He was 
even such another as Cato would have a soldier and a cap. 
tain to be." Shakspere puts nearly the same words in the 
mouth of Lartius; feeling that Lartius, in thus conveying 
the sentiment of Plutarch, was to the avidience as a sort of 
chorui. He had no vision of a critic before him, book in 
hand, calling out that Cato was not born till two hundred 
and fifty-three years after the death of Coriolanus. Now 
Mr. Malone, with hisexact chronology of the death of Corio- 
lanus, commits in the eyes of modem learning as great a 
blunder as Shakspere commits in his eyes. We hold to the 
reading of " Cato's wish," which Theobald very sensibly 
gave us. 






ACT I.] 



COEIOLAl^rUS. 



[Scenes V., VI. 



Re-enter Marcius, bleedhuj, assaulted by the I Go, sound thy trumpet in the market-place • 



enemy, 

1 Sol. Look, sir. 

Lart. O ! 't is Marcius : 

Let 's fetch him off, or make remain alike. 

[Thei/ fight, and all enter the city. 

SCENE ^.—Within the Town. A Street. 
Enter certain Romans, with spoils. 

1 Rom. This will I carry to Eome. 

2 Rom. And I this. 

3 Rom. A murrain on 't ! I took this for 

silver. 

\^Alariim continues still afar off. 

Enter Makcius and Titus Lartius, xcith a 
trumpet. 

Mar. See here these movers, that do prize 

their hours 
At a crack'd drachm ! Cushions, leaden spoons. 
Irons of a doit, doublets that hangmen would 
Bury with those that wore them, these base 

slaves. 
Ere yet the fight be done, pack up : — Down with 

them ! — 
And hark, what noise the general makes !— To 

him ! — 
There is the man of my soul's hate, Aufidius, 
Piercing our Romans : Then, valiant Titus, take 
Convenient numbers to make good the city ; 
Whilst I, with those that have the spirit, will 

haste 
To help Cominius. 

Lart. Worthy sir, thou bleed'st ; 

Thy exercise hath been too violent 
For a second course of fight. 

Mar. Sir, praise me not : 

My work hath yet not warm'd me : Eare you 

well. 
The blood I drop is rather physical 
Than dangerous to me : To Aufidius thus 
I will appear, and fight. 

Lart. Now the fair goddess. Fortune, 

Fall deep in love with thee; and her great 

charms 
Misguide thy opposers' swords ! Bold gentle- 
man. 
Prosperity be thy page ! 

Mar. Thy friend no less 

Than those she placeth highest ! — So, farewell. 
Lart. Thou wortliiest Marcius ! — 

\Exit Marcius. 



Call thither all the oflicers of the town. 
Where they shall krfow our mind : Away ! 

{Exeunt, 

SCENE ^l.—Near the Camp of Cominius. 

Enter Cominius and Forces, retreating. 

Com. Breathe you, my friends ; well fought : 
we are come off 
Like Romans, neither foolish in our stands. 
Nor cowardly in retire : believe me, sirs. 
We shall be charg'd again. Whiles we have 

struck, 
By interims and conveying gusts we have heard 
The charges of our friends : — The Roman gods 
Lead their successes as we wish our own ; 
That both our powers, with smiling fi-onts en- 
countering. 

Enter a Messenger. 

May give you thankful sacrifice ! — Thy news ? 

Mess. The citizens of Corioli have issued. 
And given to Lartius and to Marcius battle : 
I saw our party to their trenches driven, 
And then I came away. 

Com. Though thou speak'st truth, 

Methinks thou speak'st not well. How long 
is 't since ? 

Mess. Above an hour, my lord. 

Com. 'T is not a mile ; briefly we heard their 
drums : 
How couldst thou in a mile confound an hour, 
And bring thy news so late ? 

3Iess. Spies of the Yolsces 

Held me in chase, that I was forc'd to wheel 
Three or four miles about ; else had I, sir. 
Half an hour since brought my report. 

Enter !Marcius. 
Com. "Wlio 's yonder. 

That does appear as he were flay 'd ? gods ! 
He has the stamp of Marcius ; and I have 
Before-time seen him thus. 

Mar. Come I too late ? 

Com. The shepherd knows not thunder from 
a tabor. 
More than I know the sound of Marcius' tongue 
From every meaner man. 

Mar. Come I too late ? 

Com. Ay, if you come not in the blood of 
others, 
But mantled in your own. 

Mar. ! let me clip you 

159 



ACT I.] 



CORTOLANUS. 



tSiEUfceVII.Vni. 



In arms as sound as when I woo'd ; in heart 
As merry as when our nuptial day was done, 
And tapers burn'd to bedward. 

Com. riower of warriors, 

How is 't with Titus Lartins ? 

Mar. As with a man busied about decrees : 
Condemning some to death, and some to exile ; 
]{ansoming him, or pitying, tlireat'uing the other; 
Holding Corioli in the name of Rome, 
Even like a fawning greyhound in the leash, 
To let liim slip at will. 

Com. Where is that slave 

AVhich told me they had beat you to your trenches ? 
Where is he ? Call him liitlicr. 

Mar. Let him alone, 

He did infonn the truth : But for our gentlemen. 
The common file, (A plague ! — Tribunes for 

them !) 
The mouse ne'er sbunu'd the cat as they did budge 
From rascals worse than they. 

Com. But how prevail'd you ? 

Mar. Will the time serve to tell? I do not 
think : 
Wliere is the enemy ? Are you lords o' the field ? 
If not, why cease you till you are so ? 

Com. Marcius, we have at disadvantage fought, 
.Vnd did retire, to win our purpose. 

Mar. IIow lies their battle ? Know you on 
which side 
They have plac'd their men of trust ? 

Com. As I guess, Marcius, 

Their bands in the vaward arc the Antiates, 
Of their best trust ; o'er them Aufidius, 
Their very heart of hope. 

Mar. 1 do beseech you, 

By all the battles wherein we have fought. 
By the blood we have shed together, by the vows 
We have made to endure friends, that you directly 
Set mc against Aufidius, and his Aniiates : 
And that you not delay the present; but. 
Filling the air with swords advanc'd, and darts, 
We prove this very hour. 

Com. Though I could wish 

You were conducted to a gentle bath, 
,Vnd balms applied to you, yet dare I never 
Deny your asking ; take your choice of those 
That best can aid your action. 

Mar. Those are they 

That most are willing: — If any such be here, 
(As it were sin to doubt,) that love this painting 
"Wherein vou see me smcar'd ; if anv fear 
Lesser his person than an ill rej)ort ; 
If any think brave death outweighs bad life, 
And that his countiT 's dearer than himself; 
Let him alone, or so many so minded, 

ICC 



Wave thus, {iravinj his haint] to express his dis- 
position. 
And follow ^farcins. 

\_T/iei/ all shout, and vave their sicords ; take 
him up in their anus, and cast vp their cap:, 
me, alone ! !Make you a sword of me ? 
If these shows be not outward, which of you 
But is four Voices ? None of vou but is 
Able to bear against the great Aufidius 
A shield as hard as his. A certain number, 
Though thanks to all, must I select from all : the 

rest 
Shall bear the business in some other fight. 
As cause will be obev'd. Please vou to march ; 
And four shall quickly draw out my connnand. 
Which men arc best inclin'd. 

Com. !March on, my fellows ; 

Make good this ostentation, and you shall 
Divide in all with us. [^Exeunt. 

SCENE Yll.— The Gates of Corioli. 

Titus Lartius, having set a guard upon Corioli, 
ffoififf with a drum and trumpet totcardCoMiyuva 
and Caius Makcius, enters with a Lieutenant, 
a party of Soldiers, and a Scout. 

Lart. So, let the ports be guarded ; keep your 
duties, 
As I have set them down. If I do send, despatch 
Those centuries to our aid ; the rest will serve 
For a short holding : If we lose the field. 
We cannot keep the town. 

Lieu. Fear not our care, sir. 

Lart. Ilcnce, and shut your gates upon us. — 

Oui- guider, come ; to the Roman camp conduct 

us. [Exeunt. 

SCENE VIII.— ^ Field of Battle between the 
Roman and the Volscian Camps. 

Alarum. Enter !Marcius and AvriDirs. 

Mar. I '11 fight with none but thee ; for I do 
hate thee 
Worse than a promise-breaker. 

Auf. \^c. hate alike ; 

Not Afric owns a serpent I abhor 
More llian thy tame, and envy : Fix thy foot. 

Mar. Let the first budger die the other's slave. 
And the gods doom him after ! 

Auf. If I fly, Mai'cius, 

Halloo me like a hare. 

Mar. Within these three hours, Tullus, 

Alone I fought in your Corioli walls. 



ACT I.] 



COEIOLAISTUS. 



[Scene IX. 



And made what work I pleas'd; 'Tis not my 

blood 
Wherein thou seest me mask'd : for thy revenge 
Wrench up thy power to the higliest. 

Auf. Wert thou the Hector 

That was the whip of your bragg'd progeny, 
Thou shouldst not scape me here. — ■ 

[^They Jight, and certain Yolsces come to 
the aid o/'Aufidius. 
Officious, and not valiant — you have sham'd me 
In your condemned seconds. 

\Exeunt fighting, driven in by Mabcius. 



SCENE X^.—The Roman Camp. 

Alarum. A retreat is sounded. Flourish. Enter 
at one side, CoMiNius, and Romans; at the 
other side, Marcius, with his arm in a scarf, 
and other Romans. 

Com. If I should tell thee o'er this thy day's 

woyJc, 
Thou'lt not believe thy deeds : but I'll report it 
Where senators shall mingle tears with smiles ; 
Where great patricians shall attend, and shrug, 
r the end, admire ; where ladies shall be frighted. 
And, gladly quak'd, hear more ; where the dull 

tribunes, 
That, with the fustyplebeiaps, hate thine honours, 
Shall say, against their hearts, — ' We thank the 

gods. 
Our Rome hath such a soldier ! ' — 
Yet cam'st thou to a morsel of this feast. 
Having fully din'd before. 

Enter TiTus Lartius, with his power, from the 
pursuit. 

Lurt. O general. 

Here is the steed, we the caparison : 
Hadst thou beheld — 

Mar. Pray now, no more : my mother. 

Who has a charter to extol her blood. 
When she does praise me grieves me. I have 

done. 
As you have done : that 's what I can ; induc'd 
As you have been ; that 's for my country : 
He that has but effected his good will 
Hath overt a'c-n mine act. 

Com. You shall not be 

The grave of your deserving : Rome must know 
The value of her own : 't were a concealment 
Worse than a theft, no less than a traducement, 
To hide your doings ; and to silence that, 
\Vhich, to the spire and top of praises vouch' d. 

Tragedies. — Vol. II. M 



Would seem but modest : Therefore, I beseech 

you, 

(In sign of what you are, not to reward 
What you have done,) before our army hear me. 
Mar. I have some wounds upon me, and they 

smart 
To hear themselves remember'd. 

Com. Should they not, 

Well might they fester 'gainst ingratitude. 
And tent themselves with death. Of all the 

horses, 
(Whereof we have ta'en good, and good store,) 

of all 
The treasure, in this field aehiev'd, and city. 
We render you the tenth ; to be ta'en forth. 
Before the common distribution. 
At your only choice. 

Mar. I thank you, general ; 

But cannot make my heart consent to take 
A bribe to pay my sword : I do refuse it ; 
And stand upon my common part with those 
That have beheld the doing. 

[_A long flourish. They all cry, Marcius ! 

Marcius ! cast up their caps and lances: 

CoMiNius and Lartitjs stand bare. 
Mar. May these same instruments, which you 

profane. 
Never sound mere, when drums and trumpets 

shall 
I' the field prove flatterers ! Let courts and cities 

be 
Made all of false-fac'd soothing, where steel 

grows soft 
As the parasite's siUc ! 
Let them be made an overture for the wars ! * 



a We here venture to make an important change in the 
generally received reading of this passage. 

" May these same instruments, which you profane, 
Never sound more! Wlien drums and trumpets shall 
1' the field prove flatterers, let courts and cities be 
Made all of false-fac'd soothing! When steel grows 
Soft as the parasite's silk, let him be made 
An overture for the wars ! " 
The stage direction of the original which precedes this 
speech is, "A long flouruh." The drums and trumpets 
have sounded in honour of Coriolanus; but, displeased as 
he may be, it is somewhat unreasonable of him to desire 
that these instruments may "never sound more. We 
render his desire, by the slightest change of punctuation, 
somewliat more rational : — 

" May these same instruments, which you profane. 
Never sound more, when drums and trumpets shall 
1' the field prove flatterers! " 
The difficulty increases with the received reading; for, ac- 
cording to this, when drums and trumpets prove flatterers, 
courts and cities are to be made of false-faced sooiliing. 
Courts and cities are precisely what a soldier would describe 
as invariably so made. But Coriolanus contrasts courts and 
cities with the field ; he separates them:— 

" Let courts and cities be 
Made all of false-fac'd soothing:" 

and he adds, as we believe, 

101 



Act I.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[Scene X. 



No more, I sav ! For Uiat I have not wasli'd 
My nose tliat bled, or foil'd some dcbile wreteli, 
Which without note here 's many else have 

done, 
You sliout lue forth 
In acehimations hyperbolical; 
As if I lov'd my little should be dieted 
In praises sauc'd with lies. 

Com. Too modest are you ; 

More cruel to your good report than grateful 
To us that give you truly : by your patience, 
If 'gainst yourself you be incciis'd, we '11 put you 
(Like one that means his proper harm) in mana- 
cles, 
Then reason safely with you. — Therefore, be it 

known. 
As to us, to all the world, that Caius Marcius 
Wears this war's garland : in token of the which 
My noble steed, known to the camp, I give him. 
With all his trim belonging; and, from this 

time. 
For what he did before Corioli, call him. 
With all the applause and clamour of the host, 
Caics Marcius Coriolanus. — 
Bear the addition nobly ever ! 

[^Flourish. Trumpets sound, and drums. 
All. Caius Marcius Coriolanus ! 
Cjr. I will go wash ; 
And when my face is fair, you shall perceive 
Whether I blush, or no : Howbeit, 1 thank 

you : — 
I mean to stride your steed ; and, at all times. 
To undercrest your good addition, 
To the fairness of my power. 

Com. So, to our tent : 

Where, ere we do repose us, we will write 
To Rome of our success. — You, Titus Lartius, 
Must to Corioli back : send us to Rome 
The best, with whom we may articulate. 
For their own good, and ours. 

Lart. I shall, my lord. 



" Where steel grows soft 
.\? the parasite's silk ! " 

The difnculties with the received readinR arc imiticasurablc. 
ff'hen ^tecl Rrows soft as the parasite's silk theconinieiitators 
say that him (the steel), used for il, is to bu made an over- 
ture for the wars ; but what overture means here they do 
not attempt to explain. The slight change we have made 
(irivcs a perfectly clear meaning. The whole speech has now 
a leading idea: — 

" Let them be made an overture for the wars." 

I^t them, the instntnicnti which you profane, be the pre- 
lude to our wars. Opposed ai we are to editorial licence, we 
hold ourselves kc<'ping within due bounds in nubstituting 
where for irhen, and them for Aim ; for there are several in- 
stances of these words having been misprinted in the original 
copies. We bi-licve that the ^ense of these lines ha.s been 
mistaken, in konie measure, through the ilevi.itions from the 
metrical arrangement in the original. Our reading follows 
this arrangement much moreclosely than that of the modern 
editors. 

162 



Cor. The gods begiu to mock me. I that 
now 
llefus'd most princely gifts, am bound to beg 
Of my lord general. 

Com. Take it : 't is yours. — AVhat is 't ? 

Cor. I sometime lay, here in Corioli, 
At a poor man's house ; he us'd me kindly : 
He cried to me ; I saw him prisoner ; 
But then Aufidius was within my view. 
And wrath o'erwhelm'd my pity: I request 

you 
To give my poor host freedom. 

Com. O, well begg'd ! 

Were he the butcher of my son, he should 
Be free as is the wind. Deliver him, Titus. 

Lnri. Marcius, his name ? 

Cor. By Jupiter, forgot ! — 

T am weary ; yea, my memory is tir'd. — 
Have we no wine here ? 

Com. Go we to our tent : 

The blood upon your visage dries : 't is time 
It should be look'd to : come. [Rreitnl. 



SCENE X.~T/ie C^mp of the Volsces. 

A flourish. Cornels, linter Tui.LVS Aufiditts, 
bloody, tcith Two or Three Soldiers. 

Auf. The town is ta'en ! 
1 Sol. 'T will be deliver'd back on good con- 
dition. 
Aiff. Condition? — 
I would I were a Roman ; for I cannot, 
Beiug a Volsce, be that I am. — Condition ! 
What good condition can a treaty find 
r the part that is at mercy ? Five times, Mar- 
cius, 
I have fought with thee ; so often hast thou beat 

me; 
And wouldst do so, I thiidc, should we en- 
counter 
As often as we eat. — By the elements. 
If e'er again I meet him beard to beard. 
He is mine, or I am his: Mine emulation 
llath not that honour in 't it had : for where 
I thought to crush him in an equal force, 
(True sword to sword,) I '11 potch at him some 

way ; 
Or wrath, or craft, may get him. 

ISol. He's the devil 

Auf. Bolder, though not so subtle : My valour's 
poison'd, 
With only sufteruig stain by him ; for him 
Shall fly out of itself: nor sleep, nor sanctuary, 
Bting naked, sick : nor fane, nor Capitol, 



Act I.] 



CORIOLAITUS. 



[SCEKE X. 



The prayers of pi'iests, nor times of sacrifice, 
Embarquements '^ all of fury, shall lift up 
Their rotten privilege and custom 'gainst 
My hate to Marcius : where I find him, were it 
At home, upon my brother's guard, even there, 
Against the hospitable canon, would I 
Wash my fierce hand in his heart. Go you to 
the city ; 

^ F.mbarijuements — embargoes. 



Learn how 'tis held; and wliat they are that 

must 
Be hostages for Rome. 

1 Sol. Will not you go ? 

Ai/f. I am attended at the cypress grove : 
I pray you, ('t is south the city mills,) bring me 

word thither 
How the world goes ; that to the pace of it 
I may spur on my journey. 

1 Sol. I shall, sir. [^Exeunt. 




[The Tiber. Mount Aventine in the distance] 




[Isoia Tiberlim^O 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT I. 



' ScBNE I. — " Suffer us to famish, and their store- 
houses crammed with grain." 

Plutarch describes two iusurrections of the 
Roman plebeians against the patricians. The second 
was on account of the scarcity of corn, and is thus 
related : — 

" Now, when this war was ended, the flatterers 
of the people began to stir up sedition again, without 
any new occasion or just matter offered of com- 
plaint. For they did ground this second insurrec- 
tion against the nobility and patrician.s upon the 
people's misery and misfortune, that could not but 
fall out, by reason of the former discord and sedi- 
tion between them and the nobility. Because the 
most pan of the aralile laud within the territoiy of 
Kome waa become heathy and barren for lack of 
ploughing, for that they had no time nor mean to 
cause corn to be brought them out of other countries 
to sow, by reason of their wars, which made the ex- 
treme dearth thoy had among them. Now those 
busy prattlers, that sought the people's good will 
by such flattering words, perceiving great scarcity 
of Corn to be within the city — and, though there 
had been plenty enough, yet the common people 
had no money to buy it — they spread abroad false 
tales and rumours against the nobility, that they, 
in revenge of the people, had practised and pro- 
cured the extreme dearth among them." 
1G4 



* Scene I. — " Make edicts for uswy, to support 
usurers." 

This was the principal cause of the first insur- 
rection ; and it was upon this occasion that 
Menenius told the "pretty tale " which Shakspere 
has so dramatically treated : — 

" Now, he being grown to great credit and autho- 
rity in Rome for his valiantness, it fortuned there 
grew sedition in the city, because the senate did 
favour the rich against the people, who did com- 
plain of tho sore oppression of usurers, of whom 
they borrowed money. • « • ♦ • Whereupon 
their chief magisti-ates and many of the senate be- 
gan to be of divers opinions among themselves. 
For some thought it was reason they should some- 
what yield to the poor people's request, and that 
they should a little qualify the severity of the law ; 
other held hard against that opinion, and that was 
Martius for one; for he alleged that the creditors 
losing their money they had lent was not the worst 
thing that was herein; but that the lenity that was 
favoured was a beginning of disobedience, and that 
the proud attempt of the commonalty was to abolish 
l;iw, and to bring all to confusion; therefore he 
said, if the senate were wise they should betimes 
prevent and quench this ill-favoured and worse- 
meant beginning. The senate met many days in 
consultation about it ; but in the end they con 



CORIOLAXUS. 



cliulcd nothing. • * ♦ • • Of those, Meneuius 
Agrippa was he who was sent for chief man of 
the message from the senate. He, after many good 
persuasions and gentle requests made to the people 
on the behalf of the senate, knit up his oration in 
the end with a notable tale, in this manner : — That, 
on a time, all the members of man's body did rebel 
against the belly, complaining of it that it only 
remained in the midst of the body, without doing 
anything, neither did bear any labour to the main- 
tenance of the rest ; whereas all other parts and 
members did labour painfully, and were very care- 
ful to satisfy the appetites and desires of the body. 
And so the belly, all this notwithstanding, laughed 
at their folly, and said, It is true I first receive all 
meats that nourish man's body ; but afterwards I 
send it again to the nourishment of other parts of 
the same. Even so (quoth he), you, my masters 
and citizens of Rome, the reason is alike between 
the senate and you ; for, matters being well di- 
gested, and their counsels thoroughly examined, 
touching the benefit of the commonwealth, the se- 
nators are cause of the common commodity that 
cometh unto every one of you. These persuasions 
pacified the people, conditionally that the senate 
would grant there should be yearly chosen five ma- 
gistrates, which they now call Trihuni plebis, whose 
office should be to defend the poor people from 
violence and oppression. So Junius Brutus and 
Sicinius Yelutus were the first tribunes of the 
people that were chosen, who had only been the 
causers and procurers of this sedition." 

Shakspere found the apologue also in Camden's 
' Remains,' and he has availed himself of one or 
two peculiarities of the story, as there related : — 
"All the members of the body conspired against 
the stomach, as against the swallowing gulf of all 
their labours : for whereas the eyes beheld, the 
ears heard, the hands laboured, the feet travelled, 
the tongue spake, and all parts performed their 
functions; only the stomach lay idle and consumed 
all. Hereupon they jointly agreed all to forbear 
their labours, and to pine away their lazy and public 
enemy. One day passed over, the second followed 
very tedious, but the third day was so grievous to 
them all that they called a common council. The 
eyes waxed dim, the feet could not support the 
body, the arms waxed lazy, the tongue faltered 
and could not lay open the matter; therefore they 
all with one accord desired the advice of the heart. 
There reason laid open before them," &c. 

^ Scene III. — " I praij you, daughter, sing." 

According to Plutarch, Coriolanus, when he 
married, " never left his mothers house ; " and 
Shakspere has beautifully exhibited Volumnia 
and Valeria following their domestic occupations 
together : — 

" The only thing that made him to love honour 
was the joy he saw his mother did take of him ; 



for he thought nothing made him so happy and 
honourable as that his mother might hear every- 
body praise and commend him, that she might 
always see him return with a crown upon his head, 
and that she might still embrace him with tears 
running down her cheeks for joy. Which desire, 
they say, Epaminondas did avow and confess to 
have been in him, as to think himself a most happy 
and blessed man that his father and mother in their 
lifetime had seen the victory he won in the plain 
Leuctres. Now, as for Epaminondas, he had this 
good hap, to have his father and mother Uving to 
be partakers of his joy and prosperity ; but Martius, 
thinking all due to his mother, that had been also 
due to his father if he had lived, did not only con- 
tent himself to rejoice and honour her, but at her 
desire took a wife also, by whom he had two 
children, and yet never left his mother's house 
therefore." 

■'Scene III. — "To a cruel war I sent him; from 
whence he returned, his brows hound with oak." 

Plutarch thus describes the prowess of Coriolanus, 
" When yet he was but tender-bodied : " — 

" The first time he went to the wars, being but 
a stripling, was when Tarquin, surnamed the Proud 
(that had been King of Rome, and was driven out 
for his pride, after many attempts made by sundry 
battles to come in again, wherein he was ever over- 
come), did come to Rome with all the aid of the 
Latins, and many other people of Italy, even, as it 
were, to set up his whole rest upon a battle by 
them, who with a great and mighty army had un- 
dertaken to put him into his kingdom again, not so 
much to pleasure him as to overthrow the power of 
the Romans, whose greatness they both feared and 
envied. In this battle, wherein were many hot and 
.«'• irp encounters of either party, Martius valiantly 
ft • ht in the sight of the dictator ; and a Roman 
solaier being thrown to the ground even hard by 
him, Martius straight bestrid him, and slew the 
enemy with his own hands that had before over- 
thrown the Roman. Hereupon, after the battle was 
won, the dictator did not forget so noble an act, 
and therefore, first of all, he crowned Martius with 
a garland of oaken boughs : for whosoever saveth 
the life of a Roman, it is a manner among them 
to honour him with such a garland." 

5 Scene IV.—" Be/ore Corioli." 

Shakspere has followed Plutarch very closely in 
his narrative of the war against the Voices : — 

" In the country of the Voices, against whom 
the Romans made war at that time, there was a 
principal city, and of most fame, that was called 
Corioles, before the which the consul Cominius 
did lay siege. Wherefore, all the other Voices 
fearing lest that city should be taken by assault, 
they came from all parts of the countrj- to save 

165 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT I. 



It, intending to give the Romans biittlo before the 
city, and to give an onset on them in two several 
places. Tlie consul Cominius, understanding this, 
divided his army also into two parts, and, taking 
the one part with himself, be marched towards 
them that were dr.iwiiig to the city out of the 
country ; and the other part of his army he left 
in the camp with Titus Lartius (one of the 
valiantest men the l^omans had at that time), 
to resist those that would make any sally out of 
the city upon them. So the Coriolans, making 
small account of them that lay in camp before the 
city, made a sally out upon them, in the which at 
the first the Coriolans had the better, and drove 
the Komans back again into the trenches of their 
cnmp. But Martius being there at that time, 
running out of the camp with a few men with 
him, he slew the first enemies he met withal, and 
made the rest of them stay upon the sudden, 
crj-ing out to the Romans that had turned their 
backs, and cr.lling them .again to fight with a 
loud voice. For he was even such another as 
Cato would have a soldier and a captain to be ; 
not only terrible and fierce to lay about him, but 
to make the enemy afeared with the sound of his 
voice and grimness of his countenance. Then 
there flocked about him immediately a great 
number of Romans : whereat the enemies were 
6o afeared, that they gave back presently. But 
Martius, not staying so, did chase and follow them 
to their own gates, that fled for life. And there 
perceiving that the Romans retired back, for the 
great number of darts and arrows which flew 
about their ears from the walls of the city, and 
that there was not one man amongst them that 
durst venture himself to follow the flying enemies 
into their city, for that it was full of men of war, 
very well armed and appointed, he did encourage 
his fellows with words and deeds, crying out to 
them that Fortune had opened the gates of the 
city more for the followers than the flyers : but 
all this notwithstandinrj, few had the hearts to 
follow him. Howbeit, Martius, being in the throng 
amongst the enemies, thrust himself into the 
gates of the city, and entered the same among 
them that fled, without that any one of them 
durst at the first turn their face upon him, or 
ofler to stay him. But, he lo'ikiug about him, and 
seeing he was entered the city with very few men 
to help him, and perceiving ho was environed by 
his enemies that gathered round about to set upon 
him, did things, as it is written, wonderful and 
incredible, xs well for the force of his hand as 
also for the agility of his body, and with a won- 
derful courr.ge and valiantncss he made a lane 
through the midst of them, and overthrew also 
those he laid at : that some he made run to the 
furthest part of the city, and other for fear he 
made yield themselves, and to let fall their weapons 
before him. By this mains, Maitius, that was 
166 



gotten out, had some leisure to bring the Romans 
with more safety into the city. 'J'he city being 
taken in this sort, the most part of the soldiers 
began incontinently to spoil, to carry away, and to 
look up the booty they had won. But Martius 
was marvellous angry with them, and cried out on 
them, that it was no time now to look after spoil, 
and to run straggling here and there to enrich 
themselves, whilst the other consul and tlieir 
fellow-citizens, peradventure, were fighting with 
their enemies : and how that, leaving the spoil, 
they should seek to wind themselves out of danger 
and peril. Howbeit, cry and say to them what 
ho could, very few of them would hearken to him. 
Wherefore, taking those that willingly offered 
themselves to follow him, he went out of the 
city, and took his way towai'd that part where he 
understood the rest of the army was, exhorting 
and entreating them by the waj' that followed him 
not to be faint-hearted ; .and oft holding up his 
hands to heaven, he besought the gods to bo 
gracious and favourable unto him, that he might 
come in time to the battle, and in a good hour to 
hazard his life in defence of his countrymen. 
Now the Romans, when they were put in battle 
array, and ready to take tlieir targets c)n their 
arms, and to gird them upon their arming coats, had 
a custom to make their wills at thiit very instant, 
without anj' manner of writing, naming him only 
whom they would make their heir in the pi-esence 
of three or four witnesses. Martius came just to 
that reckoning, whilst the soldiers were doing 
after that sort, and that the enemies were ap- 
proached so near as one stood in view of the other. 
When they saw him at his first coming all bloody 
and in a sweat, and but with a few men following 
him, some thereupon began to be afeared. But 
soon after, when they saw him run with a lively 
cheer to the consul, and to take him by the hand, 
declaring how he had taken the city of Corioles, 
and that they saw the consul Cominius also kiss 
and embrace him, then there was not a man but 
took heart again to him, and began to be of good 
courage, some hearing him report from point to 
point the happy success of tliis exploit, and ot,her 
also conjecturing it by seeing their gestures afar 
off. Then they all began to call upon the consul 
to march forward, and to del.-\y no longer, but to 
give charge upon the enemy. Martius asked him, 
how the order of the enemy's battle was, and on 
which side they had placed their best fighting 
men ? the consul made him answer, that he 
thought the bands which were in the vaward of 
their battle were those of the Antiates, whom 
they esteemed to be the warlikest men, and which 
for valiant courage would give no place to any of 
the host of their enemies : then prayed Martius 
to bo set directly against them. The consul 
granted him, greatly praising his couiixge Then 
Martius, when both anuics came almost to join. 



il 



COEIOLANUS. 



advanced Limaelf a good spac j before bis company, 
and went so fierely to give cbarge on tbe vaward 
that came rigbt against bim, that they could stand 
no longer in his bands ; he made such a lane 
through tbem, and opened a passage into the 
battle of the enemies. But the two wings of 
either side turned one to tbe other, to compass 
him in between them : which the consul Cominius 
perceiving, he sent thither straight of tbe best 
soldiers he had about him. So the battle was 
marvellous bloody about Martins, and in a very 
short space many were slain in the place. But in 
the end the Romans were so strong that they dis- 
tressed tbe enemies and brake their array ; and, 
scattering tbem, made tbem fly. Then they prayed 
Martius that he would retire to the camp, because 
they saw he was able to do no more, be was already 
so wearied with the great pain be had taken, and 
so faint with the great wounds he had upon him : 
but Martius answered them that it was not for 
conquerors to yield, nor to be faint-hearted : and 
thereupon began afresh to chase those that fled, 
until such time as the army of the enemies was 
utterly overthi-own, and numbers of them slain 
and taken prisoners. The next morning, betimes, 
Martius went to the consul, and the other Romans 
with him. There the consul Cominius, going up 
to his chair of state, in tbe presence of the whole 
army, gave thanks to the gods for so great, glorious, 
and prosperous a victory. Then he spake to Mar- 
tius, whose valiantness be commended beyond the 
moon, both for that he himself saw him do with 
his eyes, as also for that Martius bad reported 
unto him. So in the end he willed Martius that 
he should choose out of all the horses they had 
taken of their enemies, and of all tbe goods they 
had won (whereof there was great store), ten of 



every sort which he liked best, before any di.?tribu- 
tiou should be made to other. Besides this great 
honorable offer be had made him, he gave him, in 
testimony that he had won that day the price of 
prowess above all other, a goodly horse with a ca- 
parison, and all furniture to him : which the whole 
army beholding, did marvellously pi'aise and com- 
mend. But Martius, stepping forth, told the consul 
he most thankfully accepted the gift of bis horse, 
and was a glad man besides that bis service had 
deserved bis general's commendation : and as for 
his other offer, which was rather a mercenary 
reward than an honourable recompense, he would 
have none of it, but was contented to have his 
equal part with tbe other soldiers. Only, this 
grace (said he) I crave and beseech you to grant 
me : among tbe Voices there is an old friend and 
host of mine, an honest wealthy man, and now a 
prisoner, who, living before in great wealth in his 
own country, liveth now a poor prisoner in the 
hands of his enemies : and yet, notwithstanding 
all this his misery and misfortune, it would do 
me gi-eat pleasure if I could save him from this 
one danger, to keep him from being sold as a slave. 
The soldiers, bearing Martius's words, made a 
marvellous great shout among them. * * * * 
After this shout and noise of the assembly was 
somewhat appeased, the consul Cominius began 
to speak in this sort :— We cannot compel Martius 
to take these gifts we offer bim if he will not 
receive tbem, but we will give him such a reward 
for the noble service be hath done as he cannot 
i-efuse. Therefore we do order and decree that 
' henceforth he be called Coriolanus, unless his 
valiant acts have won him that name before our 
nomination. And so ever since he still bare the 
third name of Coriolanus." 




[Sife of tbe Koman Forum.] 



ACT II. 



SCENE I.— Rome. A public Flare. 
Enter Menenius, SiciNius, and Brutus. 

Mfn. The augurer tells me we shall have news 
to-night. 

Bru. Good, or bad ? 

Mf/t. Not according to the prayer of the 
people, for they love not Marcius. 

Sic. Nature teaches beasts to know their 
friends. 

Men. Pray you, who does the wolf love ? 

Sic. The lamb. 

Men. Ay, to devour him ; as the hungry ple- 
beians would the noble Marcius. 

Bru. He's a lamb indeed, that baes like a 
bear. 

Men. He 's a bear, indeed, that lives like a 
lamb. You two are old men ; tell me one tiling 
that I shall ask you. 

Both Trih. Well, sir. 



Men. In what enormity is Marcius po)r ir,^ 
that you two have not in abundance ? 

Bru. He 's poor in no one fault, but i tored 
with all. 

Sic. Especially in pride. 

Bru. And topping all others in boasting. 

Men. This is strange now : Do you two know 
how you are censured here in the city, I mean 
of us o' the right-hand file ? Do you ? 

Both Trih. ^^hy, how arc wc censured ? 

Men. Because you talk of pride now, — Will 
you not be angry ? 

Both Trih. WeU, well, sir, well ! 

Mfn. Why, 'tis no great matter: for a very 
little Ihicf of occasion will rob you of a great deal 
of patience : give your disposition the reins, and 

■ The repetition of the preposition, as in this sentence, ii 
found in other passages of Sliakspere. In Romeo ai.d 
Juliet, 

" That fair, for which love proan'd for : " 
in As you Like It, " the scene wherein we play in." 



ACT II.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[SCEKE I 



be augry at jour pleasure? ; at the least, if you 
take it as a pleasure to you, in being' so. You 
blame Marcius for being proud ? 

Bru. We do it not alone, sir. 

Men. I know you can do very little alone; 
for your helps are many; or else your actions 
would grow wondrous single : your abilities are 
too infant-like for doing much alone. You talk 
of pride: O, that you could turn your eyes 
towards the napes of your necks,* and make but 
an interior survey of your good selves ! O, that 
you could ! 

Bru. What then, sir ? 

Men. Why, then you should discover a brace 
of unmeriting, proud, violent, testy magistrates, 
(alias, fools,) as any in Rome. 

Sic. Meuenius, you are known well enough 
too. 

Men. I am known to be a humorous patrician, 
and one that loves a cup of hot wine with not a 
drop of allaying Tyber in 't ; said to be some- 
thing imperfect, in favouring the first complaint : 
hasty, and tinder-like, upon too trivial motion : ^ 
one that converses more with the buttock of the 
night than with the forehead of the morning. 
What I think I utter ; and spend my malice in 
my breath: Meeting two such weals-men as 
you are, (I cannot call you Lycurguses,) if the 
drink you give me touch my palate adversely, I 
make a crooked face at it. 1 cannot say your 
woi'ships have delivered the matter well, when I 
find the ass in compound with the major part of 
your syllables : and though I must be content 
to bear with those that say you are reverend 
grave men, yet they lie deadly that tell you have 
good faces. If you see this in the map of my 
microcosm, follows it that I am known well 
enough too ? What harm can your bisson*^ con- 
spectuities glean out of this character, if 1 be 
known well enough too ? 

Bru. Come, sir, come, we know you well 
enough. 

Men. You kuow neither me, yourselves, nor 
anything. You are ambitious for poor knaves' 
caps and legs ; you wear out a good wholesome 
forenoon in hearing a cause between an orange- 
wife and a fosset-seller ; and then rejourn the 
controversy of three-pence to a second day of 
audience. — When you are heai'ing a matter 
between party and party, if you chance to be 
pinched with the coUc, you make faces like 

a Johnson explains, "with allusion to the fable whicl\ 
savs that every man has a bag hanging before him in which 
he" puts his neighbour's faults, and another behind him in 
which he stows liis own." 

b See recent New Reading at the end of Act II. 

0. 7i/,>io«— hlinil. 



mummers ; set up the bloody flag against all 
patience; and, in roaring for a chambcr-pol, 
dismiss the controversy bleeding, the more en- 
tangled by your hearing : all the peace you 
make in their cause is, calling both the parties 
knaves : You are a pair of strange ones. 

Bru. Come, come, you are well understood to 
be a perfecter giber for the table, than a necessary 
bencher in the Capitol. 

Men. Our very priests must become mockers, 
if they should encounter such ridiculous subjects 
as you are. When you speak best unto the 
purpose, it is not worth the wagging of your 
beards ; and your beards deserve not so honoui- 
able a grave as to stuff a botcher's cushion, or 
to be entombed in an ass's pack-saddle. Yet 
you must be saying, !Marcius is proud ; who, in 
a cheap estimation, is worth all your predeces- 
sors since Deucalion ; though, peradventurc, 
dome of the best of 'em were hereditary hang- 
men. Good e'en to your worships; more of 
your conversation would infect my brain, being 
the herdsmen of the beastly plebeians : I will be 
bold to take my leave of you. 

[Brutus and Sicixius retire to the back of the 
scene. 

Enter Volumnia, Vikgilia, and Valeria, §-c. 

How now, my as fair as noble ladies, (and the 
moon, were she earthly, no nobler,) whither do 
you follow your eyes so fast ? 

Vol. Honourable Menenius, my boy Marcius 
approaches ; for the love of Juno, let 's go. 

Men. Ha ! Marcius coming home ? 

Vol. Ay, worthy Menenius ; and with most 
prosperous approbation. 

Men. Take my cap, Jupiter, and I thank thee 
— Hoo ! Marcius coming home ! 

Two Ladies. Nay, 't is true. 

Vol. Look, here's a letter from him; the state 
hath another, his wife another; and I thmk 
there 's one at home for you. 

Men. I will make my very house reel to-night : 
— A letter for me ? 

Vir. Yes, certain, there 's a letter for you ; I 
saw 't. 

Men. A letter for me ? It gives me an estate 
of seven years' health ; in which time I will 
make a lip" at the physician : the most sovereign 
prescription in Galen is but empiricutick," and, 
to this preservative, of no better report than a 
horse-drench. Is he not wounded!' he was 
wont to come home wounded. 

" Empiricutick. This is a word coined from empiric, and 
is spelt in the original " cmpcrickqutique." 

169 



Act II.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



[Scene I. 



Vir. O, no, no, no. 

Vol. 0, he is wounded, I thank the gods for 't. 

Men. So do I too, if it be not too much : — 
Brings a' victory in his pocket? — The wounds 
become him. 

Vol. On 's brows -. ' Mcnenius, he comes the 
third time home with tlie oaken garland. 

Men. Has he disciplined Aufidius soundly ? 

Vol. Titus Lartius writes, — they fought toge- 
ther, but Aufidius got off. 

Men. And 't was time for him too, I'll v.ar- 
rant him that : an lie had staid by liim, I would 
not have been so fidiused for all the chests in 
Corioli, and the gold that 's in them. Is the 
senate possessed of this ? 

Vol. Grood ladies, let 's go : — Yes, yes, yes : 
the senate has letters from the general, wherein 
he gives my son the whole name of the war : he 
hath in this action outdone his former deeds 
doubly. 

Val. In troth, there 's wondrous things spoke 
of him. 

Men. Wondrous ! ay, I warrant you, and not 
without his true purchasing. 

J'ir. The gods grant them true ! 

Vol. True ? pow, wow ! 

Men. True ? I '11 be sworn they are true : — 
^nlere is he wounded? — God save your good 
worships ! [7'o the Tribunes, icho come f one ard7\ 
Marcius is coming home : he has more cause to 
be proud. — "WTiere is he wounded ? 

Vol. r the shoulder, and i' the left arm : 
There will be large cicatrices to show the people 
when he shall stand for his place. He received 
in the repulse of Tarquin seven hui'ts i' the body. 

Men. One in the neck, and two in the thigh, 
— there 's nine that I know. 

Vol. He had, before this last expedition, 
twenty-five wounds upon him. 

Men. Now it 's twenty-seven : every gash 
was an enemy's grave : [a shout ayid flourish^ 
Hark ! the trumpets. 

Vol. These are the ushers of Marcius : before 
him he carries noise, and behind him he leaves 
tears : 

Death, that dark spirit, in 's nervy aim doth lie ; 
"Which, being advanc'd, declines ; and then men 
die. 

A Sennet. Trumpets sound. Enter Coiliyirs 
and Titus Lartius ; beticeen. them, Coriola- 
NUS, crotcnrd tcith an oaken garland ; tcilh 
Captains, Soldiers, and a Herald. 

» Voliimnia here answers the question of Mcnenius, 
"bring* m'(he) victory in his pocket?' without iioiici'jg the 
old man's obiervatum about the " wounds." 

170 



Her. Know, Rome, that all alone [Marcius did 

Within Corioli' gates : where he hath won. 
With fame, a name to Caius Marcius; 
Tlicsc in honour follows, Coriolanus : — 
Welcome to Home, renowned Coriolanus ! 

^^Flourish. 
All. Welcome to Rome, renowned Coriolanus ! 
Cor. No more of this, it does ofi'end my heart ; 
Pray now, no more. 

Com. Look, sir, your mother ! 

Cor. ! you have, I know, pctitiou'd all the 
gods 
For my prosperity. [Kneels. 

Vol. Nay, my good soldier, up ! 

!My gentle Marcms, worthy Caius, 
And by deed-achieving honour newly nam'd. 
What is it ? Coriolanus must 1 call thee ? 
But, thy wife ! 

Cor. My gracious sUence, hail ! 

Would'st thou have laugh'd had I come coffin'd 

home. 
That Aveep'st to see me triumph ? Ah, ray dear. 
Such eves the widows in Corioli wear. 
And mothers that lack sons. 

Men. Now the gods crown thee ! 

Cor. And live you yet? — O my sweet lady, 
pardon. [To Valeria. 

Vol. I know not where to tuni ; — welcome 
home; 
And welcome, general : — And \ou are welcome 
aU. 
Men. A hundred thousand welcomes : I could 
weep, 
And I could laugh ; I am light and heavy : 

Welcome : 
A curse begin at every root of his heart 
That is not glad to see thee ! — You are three 
That Rome should dote on : yet, by the faith of 

men. 
We have some old crab-trees here at home that 

will nut 
Be grafted to your relish. Yet welcome, war- 
riors : 
We call a nettle but a nettle ; 
And the faults of fools but folly. 

Com. Ever right. 

Cor. Mcnenius, ever, ever. 
Her. Give way there, and go on. 
Cor. Your hand, and yours : 

[To his wife and mother. 
Ere in our own house I do shade my head, 
The good patricians must be visited ; 
From whom I have receiv'd not only greetings. 
But with them change of honours. 



Act II.J 



CORIOLAl^US. 



[Scene 1. 



Vol. I have liv'd 

To see inherited my very wishes. 
And the buildings of my fancy : 
Only there 's one thing wanting, which I doubt 

not. 
But our Rome will cast upon thee. 

Cor. Know, good mother, 

I had rather be their servant in my way, 
Than sway with them in theirs. 

Com. On, to the Capitol ! 

[Flourish. Cornets. Exeunt in state, as before. 
The Tribunes remain. 

Bru. All tongues speak of him, and the 
bleared sights 
Are spectacled to see him. Your prattling nm-se 
Into a rapture* lets her baby cry, 
While she chats him ; the kitchen malkin'' pins 
Her richest lockram" 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clambering the walls to eye him : Stalls, bulks, 

windows. 
Are smother'd up, leads fill'd, and ridges hors'd 
With variable complexions : iiU agreeing 
In earnestness to see him : seld-shown flameus 
Do press amoug the popular throngs, and puif 
To win a vulgar station : our veil'd dames 
Commit the war of white and damask, iu 
Their nicely-gawded cheeks,'^ to the wanton 

spoil 
Of Phoebus' burning lasses : such a pother. 
As if that whatsoever god who leads him 
Were slily crept into his human powers. 
And gave him graceful posture. 

Sic, On the sudden, 

I warrant him consul. 

Bru. Then our office may. 

During his power, go sleep. 

Sic. He cannot temperately transport his ho- 
nours 



•"> Rapture — fit. 

b Malkin. A scarecrow— a fipiire of rafrs— is called a 
malkin. Is the kitchen-wench called a nialkln from her 
sxipposed resemblance to such a fi{,nire? On the other hand, 
Malkin is the diminutive of Mall, Moll ; and thus the lady 
of the May had degenerated into Malkin in the time of 
Beaumont and Fletcher. Is the scarecrow then called after 
the kitchen-wench? Our readers must decide the question 
for themselves. 

c Lockram was no doubt a coarse linen. In Beaumont 
and Fletcher's ' Spanish Curate ' we have— 

" To poor maidens' marriages 
I give per annum two hundred ells of lockram." 

<1 Shakspere has the same image in the Tarquin and Lu- 
crece, of white and red contending for the empire of a lady's 
cheek : — 

" The silent wars of lilies and of roses 
Which Tarquin view'd in her fair iace's field." 

But we are inclineci to think that in the passage before us 
the word "damask " conveys an allusion to the more fearful 
AVar of the Roses, which is more specially introduced by a 
later writer, Cleaveland : — 

" Her cheeks 
AVhere roses mix : no civil war 
Between her York and Lancaster." 



From where he should begin, and end; but 

will 
Lose those he hath won. 

Bru. In that there 's comfort. 

Sic. Doubt not the commoners, for whom we 
stand. 
But they, upon their ancient malice, will 
Forget, with the least cause, these his new 

honours ; 
Wliich that he'll give them, make I as little 

question 
As he is proud to do 't. 

Bru. I heard him swear, 

Were he to stand for consul, never would he 
Appear i' the market-place, nor on him put 
The napless* vesture of humility; 
Nor, showing (as the manner is) his womids 
To the people, beg their stinking breaths. 

Sic. 'Tis right. 

Bru. It was his word : 0, he would miss it, 
rather 
Then carry it, but by the sidt o' the gentry to 

him. 
And the desire of the nobles. 

Sic. I wish no better 

Than have him hold that purpose, and to 

put it 
In execution. 

Bru. 'T is most like, he will. 

Sic. It shall be to him then, as oui' good 



will; 



. h 



A sure destruction. 

/?/■«. So it must fall out 

To him, or our authorities. For an end, 
\{& must suggest the people in what hatred 
He stiU hath held them ; that, to his power, he 

would 
Have made them mules, silenc'd their pleaders, 
And dispropertied their freedoms : holding them, 
In human action and capacity, 
Of no more soul, nor fitness for the world, 
Than camels in then- war ; who have their 

provaud 
Only for bearing burdens, and sore blows 
For sinking under them. 

Sic. This, as you say, — suggested 

At some time when his soaring insolence 
Shall touch the people, — (which time shall not 

want, 
If he be put upon't, and that's as easy 
As to set dogs on sheep,) will be his fire 



a Napless — threadbare. 

b The passage may be either taken to mean that the pur- 
pose of Coriolanus will be to him a sure destruction, in the 
same way as the good wilts (ironically) of the tribunes; oi 
as our good, our advantage, tuUls (a verb). 

in 



ACT 11.) 



COIUOLANUS. 



[Scene II. 



To kindle their dry stubble ; * aud their bliize 
Shall darken him for ever. 

Enter a Messenger. 
J^rti. "What's the matter? 

Mess. You are sent for to the Capitol. 
'Tis thought that Marcius shall be consul : 
I have secu the dumb men throng to see hiui, 
And the blind to hear him speak: Alatrons 

fluiig gloves,*" 
I>adics and maids their scarfs aud handkcrcluefs, 
Upon him as he pass'd : the nobles beudcd, 
As to Jove's statue; aud the commous made 
A sliower aud thunder, with their caps aud 

shouts : 
I never saw the like. 

Bru. Let 's to the Capitol ; 

And cai-ry with us ears aud eyes for the time, 
But hearts for the event. 
Sic. Have with you. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE II.— The same. The Capitol. 
Enter Ttco Officers, to lay cushions. 

1 Off. Come, come, they are almost here: 
How many stand for consulships ? 

2 Off. Three, they say : but 't is thought of 
every one Coriolanus will carry it. 

1 Off. That 's a brave fellow ; but he 's ven- 
geance proud, and loves not the common people. 

2 Off'. 'Faith, there have been many great 
men that have flattered the people, who ne'er 
loved them; and there be many that they have 
loved, they know not wherefore : so that if they 
love they know not why, they hate upon no 
better a ground : Therefore, for Coriolanus 
neither to care whether they love or hate him, 
manifests the true knowledge he has in their 
disposition ; aud, out of his noble carelessness, 
lets them plainly see 't. 

1 Off. If he did not care whether he had their 



» r/iM— this plan — is the antecedent to " will be his fire. " 
The double parenthesis makes the sentence involved ; am! 
we alwaya doubled whellier leach was the right word. We 
incline to think that louch was the word ; as in Othello, — 

" Touch me not so near." 
We now alopt touch. 

>> We pive the metrical arrangement as well as the words 
of the ori|?inal. The versification indicates the freedom 
which marks all Shakspere's later i<lays. Steevens says, 
" the words the and their, which are waTiting in the old 
ropy, were properly supplied by Sir T. llanmer to com- 
pleie the verse " These words were adopted by Ilanmcr 
from Pope. The following arrangement was long received : — 

" You are sent for to the Capitol. 'T is thought, 
That Marci\is shall he consul : I hare seen 
The dumb men thronp to see him, and the blind 
To hear him speak : The matrons flung Iheir gloves, 

172 



love or no, he waved indifferently 'twixt doing 
them neither good nor harm ; but he seeks their 
hate with greater devotion than they can render 
it him ; and leaves nothing undone that may 
fully discover him their opposite. Now, to seem 
to affect the malice and displeasure of the people 
is as bad as that which he dislikes, to flatter 
them for their love. 

2 Off. He hath deserved worthily of his coun- 
try : And his ascent is not by such easy degrees 
as those who, having been supple and courteous 
to the people, bonneted,* without any further 
deed to have them at all into their estimation 
aud report : but he hath so planted his honours 
in their eyes, and his actions in their hearts, that 
for their tongues to be silent, and not confess so 
much, were a kind of ingrateful injury; to re- 
port otherwise were a malice, that, giving itself 
the lie, would pluck reproof and rebuke from 
every ear that heard it. 

1 Off. No more of him : he is a worthy man : 
Make way, they are coming. 

A Sennet. Enter, with lictors before them, Co- 
MiNius the Consul, Menenius, Coriolanus, 
mani/ other Senators, Sicinius and Brutus. 
The Senators take their places ; the Tribunes 
take theirs also bi/ themselves. 

Men. Having determin'd of the Yolsces, 
And to send for Titus Lartius, it remains, 
As the main point of this our after-meeting. 
To gratify his noble service, that hath 
Thus stood for his country: Therefore, please 

you. 
Most reverend and grave elders, to desire 
The present consul, and last general 
In our well-found successes, to report 
A little of that worthy work perform'd 
By Cains Marcius Coriolanus ; whom 
We meet here, both to thank, and to remember 
AVith honours like himself. 



••> Bnnneled. The variorum editors said that to bonnet is 
fo take oir the bonnet ; as to ca/t in the academic phrase is to 
lake olf the cap. In illustration we may remark that in 
the quarto edition of Othello we find "oft capp'd ; " in the 
folio " oflf-capp'd ; " and we believe from the collateral cir- 
cumstances that ilie latter is the true readiiig. (See note on 
Othello, Act I. Scene i.) In a subsequent scene Othello 
says — 

" My demerits 
May speak, unbonncted." 

This is clearly without the bonnet, in whatever sense we 
receive it. (See note on Othello, Act i. Scene ii.) But here 
in the text before us we are told that bonneted also means 
without the bonnet. Malonc says, "They humbly took oflT 
their bonnets without any farther deed." The context 
appears to us to give exactly the contrary meaning: " His 
ascent is not by such easy degrees as those who, having 
been supple and Ci iirteous to the people," put on their 
bonnets "without anv farther dee 1." 



&(T 11.] 



CORIOLAl^TJS. 



I Scene II. 



1 Sen. Speak, good Cominius : 

Leave nothing out for length, and make us 

think, 
Rather our state 's defective for requital. 
Than we to stretch it out. Masters o' the 

people. 
We do request your kindest ears ; and, after, 
Your loving motion toward the common body. 
To yield what passes here. 

Sic. We are convented 

Upon a pleasing treaty ; and have hearts 
Inclinable to honour and advance 
The theme of our assembly. 

Bru. Wliich the rather 

We shall be bless'd to do, if he remember 
A kinder value of the people than 
He hath hereto priz'd them at. 

Men. That's off, that's off;" 

I would you rather had been silent : Please you 
To hear Cominius speak ? 

Bru. Most willingly : 

But yet my caution was more pertinent 
Than the rebuke you give it. 

Men. He loves your people ; 

But tie him not to be their bedfellow. — 
Worthy Cominius, speak. — Nay, keep your 
place. 
[CoRiOLANUS rises, and offers to go away. 
1 Sen. Sit, Coriolanus ; never shame to hear 
What you have nobly done. 

Cor. Your honours' pardon ; 

I had rather have my wounds to heal again. 
Than hear say how I got them. 

Brtt. Sir, I hope 

My words dis-bench'd you not. 

Cor. No, sir : yet oft, 

When blows have made me stay, I tied from 

words. 
You sooth'd not, therefore huit not : But, your 

people, 
I love them as they weigh. 

Men. Pray now, sit down. 

Cor. I had rather have one scratch my head 
i' the sun. 
When the alarum were struck, than idly sit 
To hear my nothings monster' d. 

\_Exit C0KIOLA.NTJS. 
Men. Masters 0' the people. 

Your multiplying spawn how can he flatter, 
(That's thousand to one good one,) when you 

now see 
He had rather venture all his limbs for honour. 
Than one of his ears to hear it ?— Proceed, Comi- 
nius. 

a That is nothing to the matter. 



Com. I shall lack voice : the deeds of Corio' 
lanus 
Should not be utter'd feebly. — It is held 
That valour is the chiefest virtue, 
And most dignifies the haver : if it be. 
The man I spe^ of cannot in the world 
Be singly counterpois'd. At sixteen years, 
AVhen Tarquin made a head for Rome, 



16 



fought 



Beyond the mark of others : our then dictator, 
TVTiom with all praise I point at, saw him 

When with his Amazonian chm he drove 

The bristled lips before him : he bestrid 

An o'erpress'd Roman,* and i' the consul's 

view 
Slew three opposers : Tarquin's self he met. 
And struck him on his knee : '^ in that day's 

feats. 
When he might act the woman in the scene, 
He prov'd best man i' the field, and for his 

meed 
Was brow-bound with the oak. His pupil age 
Man-enter'd thus, he waxed like a sea ; 
And, in the brunt of seventeen battles since. 
He lurch'd" all swords 0' the garland. For this 

last. 
Before and in Corioli, let me say 
I cannot speak hun home: He stopp'd the 

fliers ; 
And by his rare example made the coward 
Turn terror into sport : as weeds '^ befoie 
A vessel under sail, so men obey'd. 
And fell below his stem: his sword (death's 

stamp), 



a A touch of Malone's minute criticism will amuse our 
readers: — " This was an act of similar friendship in our old 
English armies: but there is no proof that any such practice 
prevailed among the legionary soldiers of Rome, nor dirt 
our author give himself any trouble on that subject." 
b On his knee — down on his knee. 

c Lurch'd. We have a similar expression in Ben Jensen's 
'Silent Woman:' " Vou have lurched your friends of the 
better half of the garland." The term is, or was, used in 
some game of cards, in which a complete and easy victory 
is called a lurch; and the w<ird, as we fnul in Florio's 
Italian Dictionary, was in use in Shakspere's time,— " gioco 
marzo— a lurch at any game;" and " gioce marcio-a 
lurch-game." 

d IVneds. The second folio chansred this wonl to fcirw ; 
and Steevens adopting it, this reading became the common 
one. Malone supports the original; of the correctness of 
which we think there can be no doubt. Waces falling before 
the stem of a vessel under sail is an image which conveys no 
adequate notion of a triumph over petty obstacles: a ship 
cuts the w.-ives as a bird the air; there is opposition to the 
progress, but each moves in its element. But take the 
ima^e of weeds encumbering the progress of a vessel under 
sail, but with a favouring wind dasliing them aside; and we 
have a distinct and heautifu! illustration of the proyf* "' 
Coriolanus. Steevens says, " Weeds, instead of f-'Hing 
below a vessel under sail, cling fast about the stem of it. 
But Shakspere was not thinking of the weed floating on the 
biliow: the Avon or the Thames supplied him wiiU tne 
image of weeds rooted at the bottom. 

173 



Act II.] 



COrJOLANUS. 



[ScrNE in. 



"Wlicrc il did mark, it took ; from face to foot 
He was a thing of blood, whose every motion 
Was tim'd witli dying cries : alone he enter'd 
Tiie mortal gate o' the city, which he painted 
With shunless destiny, aidless came off, 
And with a sudden re-enforcement struck 
Corioli like a planet : Now all 's his : 
Wien by and by the din of war 'gan pierce 
His ready sense, then straight his doubled spirit 
Ke-quicken'd what in flesh was fatigate, 
And to the battle came he ; where he did 
Run recking o'er the lives of men, as if 
'Twere a perpetual spoil : and, till we call'd 
Both field and city ours, he never stood 
To ease his breast with panting. 

Men. Worthy man ! 

1 Sen. He cannot but with measure fit the 
I honours 
Which we devise him. 

Com. Our spoils he kick'd at ; 

And look'd upon things precious as they were 
The common muck o' the world; he covets 

less 
Than misery itself would give; rewards 
His deeds with doing them ; and is content 
To spend the time, to end it. 

Men. He 's right noble ; 

Let him be call'd for. 

1 Sen. Call Coriolanus. 

Off. He doth appear. 

lie-enter Couiolaxus. 

Men. The senate, Coriolanus, are well pleas'd 
To make thee consul. 

Cor. I do owe them still 

My life and services. 

Men. It then remains 

That you do speak to the people.^ 

Cor. I do beseech you. 

Let me o'erleap that custom ; for I cannot 
Put on the gown, stand naked, and entreat 

them. 
For my wounds' sake, to give their suffrage : 

please you 
That I may pass this doing. 

Sic. Sir, the people 

Mast have their voices ; neither will they bate 
One jot of ceremony. 

Men. Put them not to 't : — 

Pray you, go fit you to the custom ; 
And take to you, as your predecessors have, 
Your honour with your form. 

Cor. It is a part 

That I shall blush in acting, and might well 
Be taken from the people. 
174 



Bru. !Mark you that ? 

Cor. To brag unto them, — Thus 1 did, and 
thus ; — 
Show them the unaching scarg which I siiould 

hide. 
As if I had reeeiv'd them for the hire 
Of their breath only : — 

Men. Do not stand upon 't. — 

We recommend to you, tribunes of the people. 
Our purpose to them; — and to our noble 

consul 
Wish we all joy and honour. 

Sen. To Coriolanus come all joy and honour ! 

[Flourish. Then exeunt Senators. 

Bra. You see how he intends to use the 

people. 
Sic. May they perceive his intent ! He will 
require them, 
As if he did contemn what he requested 
Should be in them to give. 

Bru. Come, we'll inform them 

Of our proceedings here ; on the market-place 
I know they do attend us. [Erennt. 

, SCENE III.— The same. The Market-place. 

Enter several Citizens. 

1 at. Once, if he do require our voices, we 
ought not to deny him. 

2 at. We may, sir, if we will. 

3 at. We have power in ourselves to do it, 
but it is a power that we have no power to do : 
for if he show us his wounds, and tell us his 

'deeds, we are to put our tongues into those 
wounds, and speak for them; so, if he tell us 
his noble deeds, we must also tell him our noble 
acceptance of them. Ingratitude is monstrous : 
and for the multitude to be ingrateful were to 
make a monster of the multitude ; of the which, 
we being members, should bring ourselves to be 
monstrous members. 

1 at. And to make us no better thought of, 
a little help will serve : for once, when we stood 
up about the corn, he himself stuck not to call 
us the many-headed multitude. 

3 at. We have been called so of many ; not 
that our heads are some brown, some black, 
some auburn,'"' some bald, but that our wits are 
so diversely coloured : and tnaly I think if all 
our wits were to issue out of one skull, they 
would fly east, west, north, south ; and their 



' Auburn. The word of the or4f;inaI is nbram, and it so 
continued until the publication of the fourth folio, when it 
tirranie auburn. 



i I 



ACT II.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



[ScENi: 111. 



consent of one direct way slioiild be at once to 
all points o' the compass. 

2 at. Think you so ? Which way do you 
judge my wit would fly ? 

3 at. Nay, your wit will not so soon out as 
another man's will, 't is strongly wedged up in a 
block-head ; but if it were at liberty, 't would, 
sure, southward. 

2 at. Why that way ? 

3 at. To lose itself in a fog; where being 
three parts melted away with rotten dews, the 
fourth would return for conscience' sake, to help 
to get thee a wife. 

2 at. You are never without your tricks : — • 
You may, you may. 

3 at. Are you all resolved to give your 
voices ? But that 's no matter, the greater part 
carries it. I say, if he would incline to the 
people, there was never a worthier man. 

Enter Coriolanus and Menenufs. 

Here he comes, and in the gown of humility ; 

mark his behaviour. We are not to stay all 

together, but to come by him where he stands, 

hy ones, by twos, and by threes. He 's to make 

his requests by particulars: wherein every one 

of us has a single honour, in giving him our own 

voices with our own tongues : therefore follow 

me, aud I'll direct you how you shall go by 

him. 

All. Content, content. [Eveunt. 

Men. sir, you are not right : have you not 
known 
The worthiest men have done 't ? 

Cor. AVhat must I say ? — 

I pray, sir, — Plague upon 't ! I cannot bring 
My tongue to such a pace : — Look, sir ; — my 

wounds ; — 
I got them in my country's service, when 
Some certain of your brethren roar'd, and ran 
From the noise of our own drums. 

Men. O me, the gods ! 

You must not speak of that : you must desire 

them 
To think upon you. 

Cor. Think upon me ? Hang 'em ! 

I would they would forget me, like the virtues 
\Yhich our divines lose by them. 

Men. You '11 mar all ; 

I '11 leave you : Pray you, speak to them, I pray 

you. 
In wholesome manner. \_E.ril. 



Cor. 



Enter two Citizens. 

Bid them wash then- faces, 



And keep their teeth clean. — So, here comes a 

brace. 
You know the cause, sir, of my standing here. 

1 at. Wc do, sir ; tell us what hath brought 
you to 't.'' 

Cor. Mine own desert. 

2 at. Your own desert ? 
Cor. Ay, not mine own desire. 

1 at. How ! not your own desire ? 

Cor. No, sir : 'T was never my desire yet to 
trouble the poor with begging. 

1 at. You must think, if we give you any- 
thing, we hope to gain by you. 

Cor. Well then, I pray, your price o' the 
consulship ? 

1 at. The price is, to ask it kiudly. 

Cor. Kiudly, sir ? I pray, let me ha 't : I have 
wounds to sliow you, which shall be yours in 
private. — Your good voice, sir ; what say you ? 

2 at. You shall have it, worthy sir. 

Cor. A match, sir: — There is in all two 
worthy voices begged: — I have your alms; 
adieu. 

1 at. But this is sometliing odd. 

2 at. An 't were to give again,— But 't is no 
matter. \_Exeiint two Citizens. 

Enter two other Citizens. 

Cor. Pray you now, if it may stand with the 
tune of your voices that I may be consul, I have 
here the customary gown. 

3 at. You have deserved nobly of your 
country, and you have not deserved nobly. 

Cor. Youi" enigma ? 

3 at. You have been a scourge to her enemies, 
you have been a rod to her friends ; you have 
not, indeed, loved the common people. 

Cor. You should account me the more virtu- 
ous that 1 have not been common in my love. 
I will, sir, flatter my sworn brother the people, 
to earn a dearer estimation of them ; 't is a con- 
dition they account gentle : and since the wis- 
dom of their choice is rather to have my hat 
than my heart, I will practise the insinuating 
nod, and be oft" to them most counterfeitly : that 
is, su-, I will counterfeit the bewitchment of some 
popular man, and give it bountifully to the 
dcsirers. Therefore, beseech you, I may be 
consul. 

4 at. We hope to find you our friend ; and 
therefore give you our voices heartily. 



a All this dialogue is printed in the original ss we print 
it,— as prose. The variorum editors turned it into limping 

biauk-verse, f.iUowin? Capell. 

170 



Act II.] 



CORTOLANUS. 



[SCENEli;. 



ynur knowledge with 
make much of your 



3 at. You have received many wounds for 
your country. 

Cor. 1 will not seal 
showing them. I will 
voices, and so trouble you no farther 

Both at. The gods give you joy, sir, heartily ! 

\_E.rei(iit. 

Cor. Most sweet voices ! — 
Better it is to die, better to starve, 
Than crave the hire which first we do deserve. 
Why iu this woolvish gown" should 1 stand here, 
To beg of Hob and Dick, that do appear. 
Their needless vouchers ? Custom calls me to 't: — 
What custom wills, in all things should we do 't, 
The dust on antique time would lie unswept. 
And mountainous error be too highly hcap'd 
For truth to overpeer. Kathcr than fool it so. 
Let the high office and the honour go 
To one that would do thus. — I am half through 
The one part suffer' d, the other will I do. 

Enter three other Citizens. 

Here come more voices. — 
Your voices : for your voices I have fought ; 
Watch'd for your voices ; for your voices, bear 
Of wounds two dozen odd ; battles thrice six 
I have seen and heard of; for your voices 
Have done many things, some less, some more : 

your voices : 
Indeed, I would be consul. 

5 at. He has done nobly, and caniiot go 
without any houest man's voice. 

G at. Therefore let him be consul : The gods 
give him joy, and make him good friend to the 
people ! 

All. Amen, amen. God save thee, nuble 
consul ! [^Exeunt Citizens. 

Cor. AYorthy voices ! 

Re-enter Meseniu.s, with Brutus and SiciNius. 

Men. You have stood your limitation; and 
the tribunes 
Endue you with the people's voice : 
B^mains, that, in the official marks invested, 
You anon do meet the senate. 



» Wooli-hh giiicn. The readin); of the fir>l folio is woolilsh 
tongue; of t'lie second, ttuolvith gowne. We l)eliev-; the 
C'lTrction of tongue to gown is right. Some of tlie com- 
meniators think that the original word was loge. It Is 
difllcult to say whether woolvish means a gown made of 
wool, or a gown reieinhling a woU or tcolfiih. The notion 
of Stecvens that the allusion was to tiie wolf in ^heell■s 
cUithing iieenis iiierel) fanciful. Mr. Collii-r's Corrector 
given us woollett logue. As the gowrn wa< made of wool, it 
tur'.-ljr cannot be voolteit. 

176 



Cor. Is this done ? 

Sic. The custom of request you have discliarg'd : 
The people do admit you ; and are suminon'd 
To meet anon upon your approbation. 

Cor. Where ? at the senate-house ? 

Sic. There, Coriolanus. 

Cor. May I change these garments ? 

Sic. You may, sir. 

Cor. That I 'II straight do ; and, knowing 
myself again. 
Repair to the senate-house. 

Men. I'll keep you company. — Will you 
along ? 

Br/i. We stay here for the people. 

Sic. Fare you well. 

^Exeunt Coriol. and Mknkn. 
He has it now ; and by his looks, methinks, 
'T is warm at his heart. 

Bnt. With a proud heart he wore 

His humble weeds : Will you dismiss the people ? 



Re-enter Citizens. 

Sic. How now, my masters ? have you chose 
this man ? 

1 at. He has our voices, sir. 

Bru. Vie pray the gods he may deserve your 
loves. 

2 at. Amen, sir : to my poor unworthy notice, 
He nioek'd us when he begg'd our voices. 

3 at. ' Certainly, 
He flouted us dowTiright. 

1 at. No, 't is liis kind of speech, he did not 

mock us. 

2 at. Not one amongst us, save yourself, but 

says 
He used us scornfully : he should have shovv'd us 
His marks of merit, wounds receiv'd for his 
country. 
Sic. Why, so he did, I am sure. 
at. No, no ; no man saw 'em. 

[^Several speak. 

3 at. He said he had wounds, which he could 

show in private ; 
And with his hat, thus waving it in scorn, 
' I would be consul,' says he : ' aged custom. 
But by your voices, will not so permit me ; 
Your voices therefore : ' When we granted that. 
Here was, — ' I thank you for your voices, — 

thank you, — 
Your most sweet voices : — now you have left 

your voices, 
I have no further with you : ' — Was not this 
mockery ? 
Sic. Wliy, either, were you ignorant to see'tP 



Act II.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



[Scene IJI. 



Or, seeing it, of such eliildish friendliriess 
To yield your voices ? 

Bru. Could you not have told him, 

As you were lesson'd, — When he had uo 

power, 
But was a petty servant to the state, 
He was your enemy ; ever spake against 
Your hberties, and the charters that you bear 
I' the body of the weal : and now, arriving 
A place of potency, and sway o' the state, 
If he should still mahgnantly remain 
Fast foe to the plebeii, your voices might 
Be curses to yourselves ? You should have said, 
That as his worthy deeds did claim no less 
Than what he stood for, so his gi-acious nature 
Would thiuk upon you for your voices. 
And translate his malice towards you into love, 
Standing your friendly lord. 

Sic. Thus to have said, 

As you were fore-advis'd, had touch'd his 

spirit. 
And tried his inclination ; from him pluck'd 
Either his gracious promise, which you might. 
As cause had call'd you up, have held him to ; 
Or else it would have gall'd his surly natare, 
Which easily endures not article 
Tying him to aught ; so, putting him to rage, 
You should have ta'en the advantage of his 

choler. 
And pass'd him unelected. 

Bnt. Did you perceive 

He did soUcit you in free contempt, 
When he did need yoiu- loves; and do you 

think 
That his contempt shall not be bruising to you, 
When he hath power to crush ? Why, had your 

bodies 
No heart among you? Or had you tongues, to 

cry 
Against the rectorship of judgment ? 

Sic. Have you, 

Ere now, denied the asker ? and, now again. 
Of him that did not ask, but mock, bestow 
Your sued-for tongues ? 

3 at. He 's not confirm' d, we may deny him 
yet. 

2 at. And will deny him : 
I '11 have five hundred voices of that sound. 

1 at. I twice five hundred, and theii- friends 
to piece 'em. 

Bru. Get you hence instantly ; and tell those 

friends. 
They have chose a consul that will from them 

take 
Their liberties ; make them of no more voice 



Tragedies.- 



-VoL. IT. 



Than dogs, that are as often beat for barking 
As tlierefore kept to do so. 

Sic. Let them assemble ; 

And, on a safer judgment, all revoke 
Your ignorant election : Enforce his pride. 
And his old hate unto you : besides, forget not 
With what contempt he wore the humble 

weed : 
How in his suit he seorn'd you : but your 

loves, 
Thinking upon his services, took from you 
The apprehension of his present portancc, 
Which most gibingly, ungravely, he did fashion 
After the inveterate hate he bears you. 

Bru. Lay a fault on us, your tribunes, that wc 
labour' d 
(No impediment between) but that you must 
Cast your election on him. 

Sic. Say, you chose him 

Jklore after our commandment, than as guided 
By your owii true affections ; and that, your 

minds, 
Pre-occupied with what you rather must do 
Than what you should, made you against the 

grain 
To voice him consul ; Lay the fault on us. 
Bru. Ay, spare us not. Say we read lectures 
to you. 
How youngly he began to serve his country,^ 
How long continued : and what stock he springs 

of,2 
The noble house o' the jMarcians ; from whence 

came 
That Ancus Marcius, Numa's daughter's son, 
Who, after great Hostilius, here was king : 
Of the same house Publius and Quintus were. 
That our best water brought by conduits hither ; 
[And Censorinus, darling of the people,]" 
And nobly nam'd so, twice being censor, 
Was his great ancestor. 

,5-/^. One thus descended. 

That hath beside well in his person wrought 
To be set high in place, we did commend 
To your remembrances : but you have found, 
Scaling his present bearing with his past. 
That he 's your fixed enemy, and revoke 
Yom- sudden approbation. 

a The line in brackets is not in the original, but was sup- 
Dlied bv Pope. Something is clearly wanting to connect 
with "nvice being eensor;" and Plutarch tells us who was 
"nobly named: "—"Censorinus also came of that famiU, 
that was so surnamed because the people had chosen h.m 
rensor twice" The Cambridge editors have a readmg ol 
^hefrown, which leaves the words of the folio still in thsu 
order :— 

" And [Censorinus] nobly named so, ^^ 

Twice being [by the people chosen] censor. 

177 



Act ri.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[SCBMB III. 



Bru. Say, you ne'er had done 't, 

(Ilarp ou that still,) but by our putting on : 
And presently, when you have drawn your 

number, 
Repair to the Capitol. 

Cit. We will so : almost all repent in their 
election. [^Several speak. 

[Eretini Citizens. 
Bru. Let them go on ; 
This mutiny were better put in hazard. 



Than stay, past doubt, for greater : 

If, as his nature is, he fall in rage 

With their refusal, both observe and answer 

The vantage of his anger. 

Sic. To the Capitol ! 

Come ; we '11 be there before the stream o' the 

people ; 
And this shall seem, as partly 't is, their own, 
Whieh we have goaded onwaid. 

[Exeunt. 



RECENT NEW READING. 



Sc. I. p. 1C9. 



" I am known to be a lunnorous patrician, and one that 
loves a cup of hot wine with nol a drop of allaying Tiber in 
't ; said to be somewhat imperfect \n favouring the/rf< com- 
plaint ; hasty," &c. 

" 1 am known to be a humorous patrician, and one that 
lOves a cup of hot wine, without a drop of allayins; Tiber in 
't : said to be somewhat imperfect in favouring the thirst 
complaint; hasty," &:c.— Collier. MS. Corrector. 

The alteration of iciih not to u-ithout is needless; and in 
Lovelace's beautiful 'Verses to Althea,' we have — 

" When flowing cups run swiftly round, 
JTi'M no allaying Thame?." 



Would either passage be improved by substituting without f 
In the second part of the sentence, common sense will not 
stt thirst aside because Mr. Singer has discovered that thirst 
was sometimes provincially pronounced and spelt yfr«^ and 
fiirst. We believe the expression has nothing to do with 
the hot wine that .N(enenius loved. He acknowledges to be 
jovial; he confesses to the imperfection of listening with 
favour to him who first complains of a grievance; he is 
hasly, &c. Complaint \t invariably used by Shakspere iij 
this sense. The secondary meaning of complaint— a ma'.ady 
— is modern. 




[Koman Vittorj*.] 



ILLUSTKATIONS OE ACT II. 



' Scene II. " It then remains. 

That you do speak to the people." 

The circumstance of Coriolanus standing for the 
consulship, which Shakspere has painted with such 
wonderful dramatic power, is told very briefly in 
Plutarch : — 

" Shortly after this, Martins stood for the consul- 
ship, and the common people favoured his suit, 
thinking it would be a shame to them to deny 
and refuse the chiefest noble man of blood, and 
most worthy person of Rome, and especially him 
that had done so great service and good to the 
commonwealth ; for the custom of Rome was at 
that time that such as did sue for any of6.ce should, 
for certain days before, be in the market-place, 
only with a poor gown on their backs, and without 
any coat underneath, to pray the citizens to 
remember them at the day of election ; which 
was thus devised, either to move the people the 
more by requesting them in such mean apparel, or 
else because they might show them their wounds 
they had gotten in the wars in the service of the 
commonwealth, as manifest marks and testimonies 
of their valiantness. * * * » Now, Martins, fol- 
lowing this custom, showed many wounds and 



cuts upon his body, which he had received in 
seventeen years' service at the wars, and in many 
sundry battles, being ever the foremost man that 
did set out feet to fight ; so that there was not a 
man among the people but was ashamed of himself 
to refuse so valiant a man ; and one of them said 
to another, We must needs choose him consul, 
there is no remedy." 

- Scene III. — " What stock he springs of." 

The ' Life of Coriolanus,' in Plutarch, opens 
with the following sentence : — 

" The house of the Martians at Rome was of 
the number of the patricians, out of the which 
have sprung many noble personages, whereof 
Ancus Martius was one, King Numa's daughter's 
sou, who was King of Rome after Tullus Hostilius. 
Of the same house was Publius and Quintus, who 
brought to Rome their best water they had by 
conduits. Censorinus also came of that family, 
that was so surnamed because the people had 
chosen him censor twice, through whose persuasion 
they made a law that no man from thenceforth 
might require or enjoy the censorship twice." 




[Aiigui's Stafl.] 



>. . 









St/-?*'';' . 







I Old Walls of Rome.] 



ACT III. 



SCENE \.—The same. A Street. 

Conwts. Enter Coriolanus, Menexius, Comi- 
Nius, Titus Lartius, Senators, and Patri- 
cians. 

Cor. Tullus Aufidius then had made new 

head ? 
Ijort. He had, my lord ; and that it was which 
caus'd 
Our swifter composition. 

Cor. So tlien the Voices stand but as at first ; 
Ready, when time shall prompt them, to make 

road 
Upon us again. 

Com. Tiiey are worn, lord consul, so 

That we shall hardly in our ages see 
Their banners wave again. 

Cor. Saw you Aufidiur, ? 

I^arf. On safeguard he came to mc; and did 
curse 
Against the Volsccs, for they had so vilely 
Yielded the town : he i.s retir'd to Antium 
Cor. Spoke he of mc ? 
180 



Lart. He did, my lord. 

Cor. How ? what ? 

Lart. How often he had met you, sword to 
sword : 
That of all things upon the earth he iiated 
Your person most : that he would pawn his for- 
tunes 
To hopeless restitution, so he might 
Be call'd your vanquisher. 

Cor. At Antium lives he ? 

T/firt. At Antium. 

Cor. I A\ish I had a cause to seek him there. 
To oppose his hatred fully. — AVeleome home. 

\_To Lautius, 

Enter SiciNius and Brutus. 

Behold ! these are the tribunes of the people, 
The tongues o' the common mouth. I do despise 

them ; 
For they do prank them in authority, 
Asainst all noble sufferance. 



Sic. 

Cor. Ha ! what is that ? 



Pass no further. 



Act 111. J 



COEIOLANUS. 



[Scene 1. 



Bru. It will be dangerous to go oii : no fur- 
ther. 

Cor. What makes this change ? 

Me7i. The matter? 

Cojn. Hath he not pass'd the uoble and the 
common ? * 

Bru. Cominius, no. 

Cor. Have I had children's voices ? 

1 Sen. Tribunes, give way; he shall to the 
market-place. 

Bru. The people are incens'd against him. 

Sic. Stop, 

Or all wiU fall in broil. 

Cor. Are these your herd ? — ' 

Must these have voices, that can yield them now. 
And straight disclaim their tongues ?— What are 

your offices ? 
You being their mouths, why rule you not their 

teeth? 
Have you not set them on ? 

Men. Be calm, be calm. 

Cor. It is a purpos'd thing, and grows by plot, 
To curb the will of the nobility : 
Suffer it, and live with such as cannot ride. 
Nor ever will be rul'd. 

Bru. Call 't not a plot : 

The people cry you mock'd them ; and, of late. 
When corn was given them gratis, you repin'd; 
Scandal'd the suppliants for the people ; caU'd 

them 
Time-pleasers, flatterers, foes to nobleness. 

Cor. Why, this was known before. 

Bru. Not to them aU. 

Cor. Have you inform'd them sithence ? ^ 

Bru. How ! I inform them ! 

Com. You are like to do such busiaess.*^ 

Bru. Not unlike, 

Each way, to better yours. 

Cor. Why then should I be consul ? By yon 
clouds, 
Let me deserve so iU as you, and make me 
Your fellow tribune. 

Sic. You show too much of that 

For which the people stir : If you will pass 
To where you are bound, you must inquii-e your 

way, 
Wliich you are out of, with a gentler spirit ; 
Or never be so noble as a consul. 
Nor voke with him for tribune. 



a- The nolle and the common. Rowe changed this read- 
ing of the original to the nobles and the commons, partially 
adopting a reading of the subsequent folios. 

l> Sithence — since. 

•^ This interposition of Cominius is according to the old 
copy. Theobald gave the words to Coriolanus, as a con- 
tinuation of his dialogue with Brutus. The words are not 
characteristic of Coriolanus ; whilst the interruption of 
Cominius gives spirit and variety to the scene. 



Men. Let 's be calm. 

Com. The people are abus'd, — set on.* — This 
palt'ring 
Becomes not Home ; nor has Coriolanus 
Deserv'd this so dishonour'd rub, laid falsely 
r the plain way of his merit. 

Cor. TeU me of corn ! 

This was my speech, and I wiU speak 't again ; — 

Men. Not now, not now. 

1 Se%. Not in this heat, sir, now. 

Cor. Now, as I live, I will. — My nobler 
friends, 
I crave their pardons : 
For the mutable, rank-scented many,*" 
Let them regard me as I do not flatter. 
And therein behold themselves : I say again. 
In soothing them, we nourish 'gainst our senate 
The cockle " of rebellion, insolence, sedition. 
Which we ourselves have plough'd for, sow'd 

and scatter' d. 
By mingling them with us, the honour'd number ; 
Who lack not vu-tue, no, nor power, but that 
Which they have given to beggars. 

Men. Well, no more. 

1 Sen. No more words, we beseech you. 

Cor. How ! no more ? 

As for my country I have shed my blood, 
Not fearing outward force, so shall my lungs 
Coin words till their decay, against those measles, 
Wliich we disdain should tetter us, yet sought 
The very way to catch them. 

Bru. You speak o' the people as if you were 
a god 
To punish ; not a man of their infirmity. 

Sic. 'T were well we let the people know 't. 

Men. What, what ? his choler ? 

Cor. Choler! 
Were I as patient as the midnight sleep. 
By Jove, 't would be my mind ! 

Sic. It is a mind 

That shall remain a poison where it is. 
Not poison any further. 

Cor. Shall remain I — 

Hear you this Triton of the minnows ? mark you 
His absolute shall ? 

Com. 'T was from the canon. 

Cor. _ Shall.' 

good, but most unwise patricians, why. 
You grave, but reckless senators, have vou thus 
Given Hydra here to choose an ofiiccr. 



a Set on— stirred up. These words were printed by R.^we 
as a complete sentence, liaving the meaning o.'' iro forward. 

» Many. This is mcinij in the original. Shaksperc, in 
Lear, uses meini/ as a body of attendants, whence menials; 
but this is not the sense of the passage before us. 

o Cockle. A weed amongst liie corn. 

181 



^,rr HI] 



CORIOLA^^US. 



[Scene 1. 



'J'hat with his peremptory shall, being but 

The horn and noise o' the monsters, vants not 

spirit 
To say he'll turn your current in a ditch, 
And make your channel his ? If he have power, 
Then vail your ignorauce : if none, awake 
Your dangerous lenity. If you are learned. 
Be not as common fools ; if you are not, 
Let them have cushions by you. You are ple- 
beians. 
If they be senators : and thev are no less. 
When both your voices blended, the greatest taste 
Most palates theirs. They choose their magis- 
trate; 
And such a one as he, who puts his shall, 
His popular shall, against a graver bench 
Than ever frown'd in Greece ! By Jove himself, 
It makes the consuls base ! and my soul aches 
To know, when two authorities are up, 
Neither supreme, how soon confusion 
May enter 'twixt the gap of both, and take 
The one by the the other. 

Com. Well — on to the market-place. 

Cor. Wliocver gave that counsel to give forth 
The corn o' the storehouse gratis, as 't was used 
Sometime in Greece, — 
Men. "Well, well, no more of that 

Cor. Thougli there the people had more abso- 
lute power, 
I say, they nourish'd disobedience, fed 
The ruin of the state. 

Bru. Why shall the people give 

One that speaks thus, their voice ? 

Cor. I '11 give my reasons. 

More worthier than their voices. They know 

the corn 
Was not our recompense ; resting well assui-'d 
They ne'er did service for 't : Bemg press'd to 

the war, 
Even whea the navel of the state was touch' d. 
They would not thread the gates : this kind of 

service 
Did not desei-ve com gratis : being i' the war, 
Their mutinies and revolts, wherein they show'd 
Most valour, spoke not for them : The accusation 
Which they have often made against the senate. 
All cause unborn, could never be the native 
Of our so frank donaf ion. Well, what then ? 
How shall this bosom multiplied " digest 
The senate's courtesy ? Let deeds express 
"What 's like to be their words : — ' We did re- 
quest it ; 

a liotom muHiplicd. This is the reading of all the folios 
whicli may \>c mpported by consiicrmg that lio.om is used' 
as ehak.pcrp oflen usen it, in the sense of iemp»r disposi- 
tion. .Mr. Dyce, however, has given us the clearer readine 
ox btiion mullilude. 

182 



We are the greater poll, and in true fear 
They gave us our demands : ' — Thus we debase 
The nature of our seats, and make the rabble 
Call our cares, fears : which will in time 
Break ope the locks o' the senate, and bring in 
The crows to peck the eagles. 

Men. Come, enough. 

Bru. Enough, with over-measure. 

Cor. No, take more : 

What may be sworn by, both divine and human. 
Seal what I end withal ! — This double worship, — 
Where one part does disdain with cause, the 

other 
Insult without all reason; where gentry, title, 

wisdom, 
Cannot conclude, but by the yea and no 
Of general ignorance, — it must omit 
Real necessities, and give way the while 
To unstable slightness : purpose so barr'd, it 

follows 
Nothing is done to purpose : Therefore, beseech 

you,— 
You that will be less fearful than discreet ; 
That love the fundamental part of state 
More than you doubt the change on't; that 

prefer 
A noble life before a long, and wish 
To jump " a body with a dangerous physic 
That 's sure of death without it, — at once pluck 

out 
The multitudinous tongue, let them not lick 
The sweet which is their poison : your dishonour 
Mangles true judgment, and bereaves the state 
Of that integrity which should become it ; 
Not having the power to do the good it would, 
For the ill which doth control it. 



Bru. 



He has said enouglu 



Sic. He has spoken like a traitor, and shall 
answer 
As traitors do. 

Cor. Thou \vi-etch ! despite o'erwhclm thee ! — 
What should the people do witli these bald tri- 
bunes ? 
On whom depending, thcii- obedience fails 
To the greater bench : In a rebellion, ' 
VVhen what's not meet, but what must be, was law, 
Then were they chosen; in a better hour, 
Let what is meet be said, it must be meet. 
And throw their power i' the dust. 

Bru. Manifest treason ! 

Sic. This a consul ? no. 

Bru. The iEdilcs, ho! — Let him be appro 
heuded. 

Enter an jEdilc. • 

> Jump — in the sense of tisk. 



k 



Act 111.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[Scene I. 



Sie. Go, call the people; [Exii JEdile] in 
whose name, myself 
Attach thee, as a traitorous innovator, 
A foe to the public -weal : Obey, I charge tlicc. 
And follow to thine answer. 

Cor. Hence, old goat ! 

Sen. and Pat. We '11 surety him. 

Com. Aged sir, hands off. 

Cor. Hence, rotten thing, or I shall shake thy 
bones 
Out of thy garments ! 

Sic. Help, ye citizens ! 

Enter the ^diles, and a rabble o/" Citizens. 

Men. On both sides more respect. 

Sic. Here 's he that would take from you all 

your power. 
Bru. Seize him, Jidiles I 
at. Down with him, down with him! 

\_Seceral speak. 
Senators and others. Weapons, weapons, wea- 
pons! 

[Theif all bustle about CoKiOLANUS. 
Tribunes, patricians, citizens ! — what, ho ! — 
Sicinius, Brutus, Coriolanus, citizens ! 
Pefxe, peace, peace ; stay, hold, peace ! " 

Mtn. What is about to be ?— I am out of 
breath ; 
Confusion's near: I cannot speak: — You, tri- 
bunes 
To the people. — Coriolanus, patience : — 
Speak, good Sicinius. 
Sic. Hear me, people ; — ^Peace ! 

at. Let 's hear our tribune : — Peace ! Speak, 

speak, speak ! 
Sic. You are at point to lose your liberties : 
Marcius would have all from you ; Marcius, 
Whom late you have uam'd for consul. 

Men. Fie, fie, fie ! 

This is the way to kindle, not to quench. 

1 Sen. To unbuild the city, and to lay all flat. 
Sic. What is the city but the people ? 
at. True, 

The people are the city. 

Bru. ]3y the consent of all, we were establish'd 
The people's magistrates. 

Cit. You so remain. 

Men. And so are like to do. 
Com. That is the way to lay the city flat ; 
To brins: the roof to the foundation ; 
And bury all which yet distinctly ranges, 
In heaps and piles of ruin.'' 

a We follow the Cambridse editors in considering these four 
lines as the tumultuous cries of ihe partizans on both sides. 

b We give this speecli, as in the original, to the calm and 
reverend Cominius. Coriolanus is standing apart, in proud 



Sic. This deserves death. 

Bru. Or let us stand to our authority. 
Or let us lose it : — We do here pronounce, 
Upon the part o' the people, in whose power 
Wc were elected theirs, Marcius is worthy 
Of present death. 

Sic. Therefore lay hold of him ; 

Bear him to the rock Tarpeian, and from thence 
Into destruction cast him. 

Bru. jEdiles, seize him ! 

Cit. Yield, Marcius, yield. 

Men. Hear me one word. 

Beseech you, tribunes, hear me but a word. 

J^di. Peace, peace ! 

Men. Be that you seem, truly your country's 
friend, {To Brutus *] 
And temperately proceed to what you would 
Thus violently redi-ess. 

Bru. Sir, those cold ways. 

That seem like pnident helps, are very poisonous 
Where the disease is violent :— Lay hands upon 
him, 

And bear him to the rock. 

(7(,;._ No ; I '11 die here. 

\_Drawing his sword. 
There 's some among you have beheld me fight- 
ing ; 
Come, try upon yourselves what you have seen 

me. 
Men. Down with that sword !— Tribunes, with- 

di'aw a while. 
Bru. Lay hands upon him. 
jHfen. He'p Marcius ; help. 

You that be noble : help him, young and old' 
Cit. Down with him, down with him ! 

[In this mutiny, the Tribunes, the ^diles, 
and the people are beat in. 
Men. Go, get you to your house ; be gone, 
away ! 
All will be naught else. 
2 Sen. Get you gone. 

Com. Stand fast ; 

We have as many friends as enemies. 
Men. Shall it be put to that ? 
1 Sen. The gods forbid . 

and sullen rage; and yet the variorum editors, following 
Pope, put these four lines in his mouth, as if it was any part 
of his character to argue with the people about the prudence 
of their conduct. These editors continue this change m he 
persons to whom the speeches are assigned, without he 
slightest regard, as it appears to "S, to tlie exquisi e clia- 
rac'terisation of the poet. Amidst all .h.s tumult the firs 
words which Coriolanus utters, according to the original 
copv, are. " No, I '11 die here." He again continues silent 
butthe once-received edition must have him talking, an I 

so they put in his mouth the ""^.l-'^t'l^S ^,^°'^;;^,f; ' ha 
have as many friends as enemies.' and the equally cha 
racteristic talking of Menenius-" I would they were bar 
barians." We have left all these passages precisely a. they 

^^r. J^Ve Cambridge editors consider this to W^^-sed .0 
Brutus, the original having fried and not fnends as Ko«e 

printed. „ 

1 <■.••) 



Act III.] 



COEIOLA^US. 



ISCEKF. I. 



I prithee, noble frieud, home to tliy house ; 
Leave us to cure this cause. 

Men. For *t is a sore upon us 

You cannot tent yourself : Begone, 'beseech you. 

Com. Come, sir, aloug with us. 

Men. I would they were barbarians, (as they are. 
Though in Home litter' d,) not Romans, (as thoy 

are not. 
Though calv'd i' the porch o' the Capitol.) — Be 

gone ; 
Put not your Morthy rage into your tongue ; 
One time will owe another. 

Cor. On fair ground I could beat forty of 
them. 

Men. I could myself take up a brace of the 
best of them ; yea, the two tribunes. 

Com. But now 't is odds beyond arithmetic ; 
And manhood is call'd foolery, when it stands 
Against a falling fabric. — Will you hence 
Before the tag return ? whose rage doth rend 
Like interrupted waters, and o'erbear 
What they are used to bear. 

Men. Pray you, be gone : 

I '11 try whether my old wit be in request 
"With those that have but little ; this must be 

patch'd 
With cloth of any colour. 

Com. Nay, come away. 

{^Exeunt CoRiOLAKUS, Coiiixrus, and others. 

1 Pat. Tliis man has marr'd his fortune. 

Men. His nature is too noble for the world : 
He would not flatter Neptune for his trident. 
Or Jove for his power to thunder. His heart 's 

his mouth : 
What liis breast forges that his tongue must vent ; 
And, being angry, does forget that ever 
He heard the name of death. [A noise within. 
Here 's goodlv work ! 

?' Pat. I would tliey were a-bed ! 

Men. I would they were in Tyber ! — What, 
the vengeance, 
Could he not speak them fair ? 

Re-enter Bkutus and SiciNlus, with the rabble. 

Sic. "Wlicre is this viper. 

That would depopulate the city, 
And be every man himself ? 

Men. You worthy tribunes, — 

Sic. He shall be thrown down the Tarpeian 
rock 
With rigorous hands ; he hath resisted law. 
And therefore law shall scorn him further trial 
Tlian the severity of the public power. 
Which he so sets at nought. 

1 Cit. Ho shall well know 

The noble tribunes arc tiie people's mouths, 
184 



And we their hands. 

at. He shall, sure on't. 

\_Several speak together. 

Men. Sir, sir,— 

Sic. Peace ! 

Men. Do not cry havoc, where you should but 
hunt 
With modest warrant. 

Sic. Sir, how comes 't, that you have holp 
To make this rescue ? 

Men. Hear me speak : — 

As I do know the consul's worthiness. 
So can I name his faults : — 

Sic. Consul '.—what consul ? 

3[en. The consul Coriolanus. 

Bru. He consul ! 

Cit. No, no, no, no, no ! 

Men. If, by the tribunes' leave, and yours, 
good people, 
I may be heard, I would crave a word or two ; 
The which shall turn you to no further harm 
Than so much loss of time. 

Sic. Speak briefly then ; 

For we are peremptory,, to despatch 
This viperous traitor : to eject him hence 
Were but one danger ; and lo keep him here 
Our certain death ; therefore it is decreed, 
He dies to-night. 

Men. Now the good gods forbid. 

That our renowned Bx)me, whose gratitude 
Towards her deserved children is enroU'd 
In Jove's own book, like an iinnatui'al dam 
Should now eat up her own ! 

Sic. He 's a disease, that must be cut away. 
■ Men. 0, he 's a limb, that has but a disease ; 
Mortal, to cut itofl";to cure it, easy. 
What has he done to Home that 's worthy death ? 
Killing our enemies ? The blood he hath lost, 
(Which I dare vouch is more than that he hath. 
By manj an ounce,) he dropp'd it for his countiy : 
And what is left, to lose it by his coimtry, 
Were to us all, that do 't, and suffer it, 
A brand to the end o' the world. 

Sic. This is clean kam.-"" 

Bru. Merely awry : When he did love his 
country, 
It honour'd him. 

Men. The service of the foot, 

Being once gangren'd, is not then respected 
For what before it was — 

n Kam is probably from the French camut, bent, turiied- 
up, crookcil, and mians that tlie reasons arc a\vr>- from the 
purpose. Skehon, in hi> ' I'leiiis against Gamesci c' h.is 
" crooked as a canioke ; " and in a translation ot ' Giizni.in 
d'Alfarache,' we hav^ " all poes toi)sy turvy, aU kem-kam." 
Mr. Grant Wliile says it is Welsh, nuaninp awry. Nirris, 
in his Cornish Vocabulary, says cam in Welsh is crooked, 
and is applied to si|Uintiiig. Darid Gam, Mjiiirc (Henry V.), 
was so called fiom this peculiarity. 



Act III.] 



COEIOLAlfUS. 



ISCEKE 11 



Bru. We '11 hear uo more : — 

Pursue him to his house, and pluck him thence ; 
liest his infection, being of catching nature, 
Spread further. 

Me7i. One word more, one word. 

This tiger-footed rage, when it shall find 
The harm of unscann'd swiftness, will, too late. 
Tie leaden pounds to his heels. Proceed by 

process ; 
Lest parties (as he is belov'd) break out, 
And sack great Rome with Romans. 

Bru. If it were so, — 

Sic. What do ye talk ? 
Have we not had a taste of his obedience ? 
Our ^dUes smote! ourselves resisted! — Come: — 

Men. Consider this ; — he has been bred i' the 
wars 
Since he could di-aw a sword, and is ill sehool'd 
In bolted language ; meal and bran together 
He thi-ows without distinction. Give me leave, 
I'll go to him, and undertake to bring him in 

peace,'' 
Where he shall answer, by a lawful form, 
(In peace,) to his utmost peril. 

1 Se}i. Noble tribunes. 

It is the humane way : the other course 
Will prove too bloody ; and the end of it 
Unknown to the beginning. 

Sic. Noble Menenius, 

Be you then as the people's ofiicer : — 
Masters, lay down your weapons. 

Bru. Go not home. 

Sic. Meet on the market-place: — We'll at- 
tend you there : 
Where, if you bring not Marcius, we'll proceed 
In our first way. 

Men. I '11 bring him to you : — 

Let me desire your company. He must come, 

[To the Senators. 
Or what is worse wiU follow. 

1 Sen. Pray you, let 's to hun. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE II. — A Room in Coriolanus'-s House. 

Enter Cokiolanus and Patricians. 

Cor. Let them pull all about mine eai-s ; pre- 
sent me 
Death on the wheel, or at wild horses' heels ; 
Or pile ten hills on the Tarpeian rock. 
That the precipitation might down stretch 
Below.the beam of sight, yet will I still 
Be thus to them. 

"■ In peace. So tlie original. Pope and .subsequent editors 
have omitted these words, assuming' them to liave been 
brought by mistake from the line below. 



Enter VoLUMNIA. 

1 Pat. You do the nobler. 

Cor. I muse my mother 
Does not approve me further, who was wont 
To call them woollen vassals, things created 
To buy and sell with groats ; to show bare hcad.> 
In congregations, to yawn, be still, and wonder, 
When one but of my ordinance stood up 
To speak of peace, or war. I talk of you ; 

[To VOLUMNIA. 

Why did you wish me milder? Would you 

have me 
Palse to my nature ? Rather say, I play 
The man I am. 

Vol. 0, sir, sir, sir, 

I would have had you put your power well on. 
Before you had worn it out. 

Cor. Let go. 

Vol. You might have been enough the man 
you are. 
With striving less to be so : Lesser had been 
The thwartiugs'' of your dispositions, if 
You had not show'd them how you were dispos'd 
Ere they lack'd power to cross you. 

Cor. Let them hang. 

Vol. Ay, and bui-n too. 

Enter Menenius and Senators. 

Men. Come, come, you have been too rough, 
sometliing too rough ; 
You must return, and mend it. 

1 Sen. There 's no remedy ; 

Unless, by not so doing, our good city 
Cleave in the midst, and perish. 

Vol. Pray be counsell'd : 

I have a heart as little apt as youi-s. 
But yet a brain that leads my use of anger 
To better vantage. 

Men. Well said, noble woman ! 

' Before he should thus stoop to the herd,^ but 
that 
The violent fit o' the time craves it as physic 
For the whole state, I would put mine armour ou, 
Which I can scarcely bear. 

Cor. What must I do ? 

■]Ien Return to the tribunes. 

'cor. ^^ell. 

What then ? what then ? 

Men. Repent what you have spoke. 

Cor. For them ?— I cannot do it to the gods ; 
Must I then do 't to them ? 



» T/inmriings. This is an inginiious correction by Theo- 
bald. The original has iluni/s. - , » i 

h Herd. The original lias /icarl. The words might be 
easily mistaken in the old spelling of heard; and we adopt 
the correction, which is also Theobald's. 

185 



ACT III.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[SCEXK II. 



Vol. You are too absolute ; 

Though therein you can never be too noble, 
But when extremities speak. I have heard you 

say. 
Honour and policy, like unsever'd friends, 
r the war do grow together: Grant that, and 

tell me, 
In peace, what each of them by th' other lose. 
That they combine not there. 

Cor. ' Tush, tush ! 

Men. A good demand. 

Fol. If it be honour, in your wars, to seem 
The same you are not, (which, for your best 

ends, 
You adopt your policy,) how is it less, or worse. 
That it shall hold companionship in peace 
With honour, as in war ; since that to both 
It stands in like request ? 

Cor. Why force you this ? 

Fol. Because that now it lies you on to speak 
To the people ; not by your own instruction, 
Kor by the matter which your heart prompts you, 
But with such words that are but roted in 
Your tongue, though but bastards, and syllables 
Of no allowance, to your bosom's truth. 
Now, this no more dishonours you at all, 
Than to take in a town with gentle words,. 
Wliich else would put you to your fortune, and 
The hazard of much blood. — 
I would dissemble with my nature, where 
My fortunes, and my friends, at stake, requir'd 
I should do so in honour : I am in this. 
Your wife, your son, these senators, the nobles ; 
And you will rather show our general lowts 
How you can frown, than spend a fawn upon 

them. 
For the inheritance of their loves, and safeguard 
Of what that want misrht ruin. 

Men. Noble lady !— 

Come, go with us ; speak fair : you may salve so. 
Not what is dangerous present, but the loss 
Of what is past. 

Fol. I prithee now, my son, 

Go to them, with this bonnet in thy hand ; 
And thus far having stretch'd it, "(here be with 

them,) 
Thy knee bussing the stones, (for in such bu- 
siness 
Action is eloquence, and the eyes of the ignorant 
More learned than the ears,) waving thy head, 
Which often, — thus,— correcting thy stout heart,* 



» Thu pas>a<;e hai bf en a Btumblirg-lilock to tl.e varioriiin 
editors; and they want to know how the waving the 
head correctj the stout heart. They have fDr.'ottei the 
maxim which Volumnia ha* ju»t uttered, "Action ii elo- 
qoence." She is explaining her meninj by her action : — 

186 



Now humble, as the ripest mulberry 

That will not hold the handling : Or, say to 

them, 
Tliou art their soldier, and, being bred in broils. 
Hast not the soft way, which, thou dost confess, 
Were fit for thee to use, as they to claim. 
In asking their good loves ; but thou wilt frame 
Thyself, forsooth, hereafter theirs, so far 
As thou hast power and person. 

Men. This but done. 

Even as she speaks, why, their hearts were 

yours : 
For they have pardons, being ask'd, as free 
As words to little purpose. 

Vol. Prithee now 

Gro, and be rul'd : although I know thou hadst 

rather 
Follow thine enemy in a fiery gulf, 
Than flatter him in a bower. Here is Cominius. 

Enter CoMrsTCS. 

Com. I have been i' the market-place : and, 
sir, 't is fit 
You make strong party, or defend yourself 
By cabmess, or by absence ; all 's in anger. 
Men. Only fair speech. 

Com. I think 't wiU serve, if he 

Can thereto frame his spirit. 

Vol. He must, and will : — 

Prirhee now say you will, and go about it 
Cor. Must I go show them my uubarb'd 
sconce? Must I, 
With my base tongue, give to my noble heart 
A lie, that it must^'bear ? Well, I will do 't : 
Yet were there but this single plot to lose, 
This mould of Marcius, they to dust should 

grind it. 
And throw it against the wind. — To the market- 
place : — 
You have put me now to such a part, which 

never 
I shall discharge to the Ufe. 

Com. Come, come, we '11 prompt you. 

Fol. I prithee now, sweet son, as thou hast 
said, 
My praises made thee first a soldier, so. 
To have my praise for this, perform a part 
Thou hast not done before. 

Cor. Well, I must do 't : 

Away my disposition, and possess me 



waving thy head, which often wave— thus — (and she ther. 
waves her head several timesl. She adds, " correctinj; thy 
stout heart," be " humble as the ripest mulberry." We 
owe this interpretation to a pamphlet printed at Edinburgh 
in 1814 — ' Explanations and E iiendations of some Fassag'.-j 
in the Text of Shakespeare.' 



Act III.] 



CORIOLAJS^US. 



[SC£K£ 111, 



Some harlot's spirit ! My throat of war be turn'd, 
"Which quired with my drum, into a pipe 
Small as an eunuch, or the virgiu voice 
That babies lulls asleep ! The smiles of knaves 
Tent in my cheeks ; and schoolboys' tears take up 
Tlie glasses of my sight ! A beggar's tongue 
Make motion through my hps ; and my arm'd 

knees, 
Wlio bow'd but iu my stirrup, bend like his 
That hath receir'd an alms ! — I will not do 't : 
Lest I surcease to honour mine own tnith, 
Aud, by my body's action, teach my mind 
A most inherent baseness. 

Vol. At thy choice then : 

To beg of thee it is my more dishonour, 
Than thou of them. Come all to ruin ; let 
Thy mother rather feel thy pride, than fear 
Thy dangerous stoutness ; for I mock at death 
With as big heart as thou. Do as thou list. 
Thy valiantness was mine, thou suck'dst it from 

me ; 
But owe thy pride thyself. 

Cor. Pray, be content; 

Mother, I am going to the market-place ; 
Chide me no more. I '11 mountebank their loves, 
Cog their hearts from them, and come home be- 

lov'd 
Of all the trades in Rome. Look, I am going : 
Commend me to my wife. I '11 return consul ; 
Or never trust to what my tongue can do 
r the way of flattery, further. 

Vol. Do your wUl. [^Exit. 

Com. Away ! the tribunes do attend you : arm 
yourself 
To answer mildly ; for they ai-e prepai-'d 
With accusations, as I hear, more strong 
Than are upon you yet. 

Cor. The word is, mildly : — Pray you, let us 
go: 
Let them accuse me by invention, I 
Win answer in mine honour. 

^[en. Ay, but mildly. 

Cor. Well, mildly be it then ; mildly. 

\E.ceuHL 



SCENE 111.— The same, ^/^e Mai-ket-place. 
Enter SicinitjS atid Butjttjs. 

Bru. In this point charge him home, that he 
affects 
Tyrannical power : If he evade us there. 
Enforce him with his envy to the people ; 
And that the spoil, got on the Autiates. 
Was ne'er distributed. — 



Enter an -^dile. 

What, ■ndll he come ? 

^d. He 's coming. 

B/u. How accompanied ? 

^d. With old Menenius, and those senators 
That always favour'd him. 

Sic. Have you a catalogue 

Of aU the voices that wc have procur'd. 
Set down by the poll ? 

JEd. I have ; 't is ready. 

Sic. Have you collected them by tribes ? 

^d. I have. 

Sic. Assemble presently the people hither : 
And when they hear me say ' It shall be so 
r the right and strength o' the commons,' be it 

either 
For death, for fine, or banishment, then let them. 
If I say, fine, cry ' fine ; ' if death, cry * death ; ' 
Insistmg on the old prerogative 
And power i' the truth o' the cause. 

jfd. I shall inform them. 

Bru. And when such time they have begun 
to cry. 
Let them not cease, but with a din confus'd 
Enforce the present execution 
Of what we chance to sentence. 

^d. Very well. . 

Sic. Make them be strong, and ready for this 
hint. 
When we shall hap to give 't them. 

Bru. Go about it.— 

[Exit ^dile. 
Put him to choler straight : He hath been us'd 
Ever to conquer, and to have his worth 
Of contradiction : Being once chaPd, he cannot 
Be rein'd again to temperance : then he speaks 
What 's in his heart : and that is there which 

looks 
With us to break his neck. 

Enter CoKiOLAis^rs, Menenius, CoiiDfros, Sena- 
tors, and Patricians. 

Sic. Well, here he comes. 
Men. Calmly, I do beseech you. 

Cor. Ay, as an ostler, that for the poorest 
piece 
WUl bear the knave by the volume. — The ho- 

nour'd gods 
Keep Rome iu safety, and the chairs of justice 
Supplied with worthy men ! plant love among us ! 
Throng our large temples with the shows of peace, 
And not oui- streets with war ! 

1 Sen. Amen, Amen ! 

Men. A noble wish. 

137 



i 



Acr III.) 



CORIOLAKUS. 



(SCEKE III. 



lie-enler Jidilc, tcitk Citizens. 

Sic. Draw near, yc people. 

J-!d. List to your tribunes ; audience: Peace, 
I say ! 

Cor. First, hear me speak.^ 

Both Tri. Well, say.— rcace, ho ! 

Cor. Shall I be charg'd no further than this 
present ? 
Must all determine here? 

Sic. I do demand, 

If you submit you to the people's voices, 
Allow their officers, and arc content 
To suffer lawful censure for such faults 
As shall be prov'd upon you ? 

Cor. I am content. 

Mm. Lo, citizens, he says he is content : 
The warlike service he has done, consider ; 
Think on the wounds his body bears, Nvhich show 
Like graves i' the holy churchyard. 

Cur. Scratches with briars, 

Scars to move laughter only. 

Men. Consider further. 

That when he speaks not like a citizen. 
You find him like a soldier : Do not take 
His rougher accents* for malicious sounds. 
But, as I say, such as become a soldier, 
Rather than envy you. 

Com. Well, well, no move. 

Cor. What is the matter. 
That being pass'd for consul with full voice, 
I am so dishonour'd, that the very houi' 
You take it off again ? 

Sic. Answer to us. 

Cor. Say then : 't is true, 1 ought so. 

Sic. We charge you, that you have contriv'd 
to take 
From Rome all season'd office, and to wind 
Yourself into a power tyrannical ; 
For which you are a traitor to the people. 

Cor. Uow ! traitor ? 

Men. Nay ; temperately : Your promise. 

Cor. Tlie fires i* the lowest hell fold in the 
people ! 
Call me their traitor ! — thou injurious tribune ! 
Witiiin thine eyes sat twenty thousand deaths, 
In tt»y hands elutch'd as many millions, in 
Thy lying tongue both numbers, I would say. 
Thou liest, unto thee, with a voice as free 
As I do pray the gods. 

Sir. Mark you this, people ? 

at. To the rock ; to the rock with him ! 

Sic. Peace! 



« Jcctntt. This ii a Curn-ction by Tlitob.ilil ; tlic old 
copy hai achoni. 

183 



We need not put new matter to his charge : 
What you have seen him do, and heard him 

speak. 
Beating your officers, cursing yourselves. 
Opposing laws with strokes, and here defying 
Those whose great power must try him ; even 

this. 
So criminal, and in such capital kind. 
Deserves the extremest death. 

Brii. But since he hath scrv'd well for Rome, — 

Cor. What ! do you prate of service ? 

Bru. I talk of that, that know it. 

Cor. You ? 

Men. Is this the promise that you made your 
mother 'i 

Com. Know, I pray you, — 

Cor. I '11 know no further : 

Let them pronounce the steep Tarpeiau death. 
Vagabond exile, flaying, pent to linger 
But with a grain a day, I would not buy 
Their mercy at the price of one fair word ; 
Nor check my courage for what they can give, 
To have 't with saying. Good morrow. 

Sic. For that he lias 

(.As much as in him lies) from time to time 
Envied against the people, seeking means 
To pluck away their power ; as now at last 
Given hostile strokes, and that not in the pre- 
sence 
Of dreaded justice, but on the ministers 
That do distribute it : In the name o' the people. 
And in the power of us the tribunes, we. 
Even from this instant, banish him our city ; 
In peril of jirccipitation 
From off the rock Tarpeian, never more 
To enter our Rome gates ; I' the people's name, 
I say it shall be so. 

at. It shall be so : It shall be so ; let him 
away : 
He 's banish'd, and it shall be so." 

Com. Hear me, my masters, and my common 
friends ; — 

Sic. He 's sentene'd ; no more hearing. 

Com. Let me speak : 

I have been consul, and can show, for Rome, 



a If we turn to the bcKinninp of the scene, vre shall find 
the direction of the tribunes very precise as to the echo 
which the people were to raise of their words. When, there- 
fore, Sicinius here pronounces the sentence of banishment, 
he tpmiinates, as he said he should, with, " It shall be so; " 
and tlie people, true to the instruction, vociferate, " It 
shall be so." They afterwards repeat the cr)' in the sac.e 
words. Perhaps upon the whole the common ttxt formerly 
presented one of Steevens's most atrocious alterations. It 
can scarcely be conceived that he has had the folly to say, 
"old copy unmctrically, nnd it shall bit so," — and to print the 
passage thus: — 

" It shall be so. 

It shall be so; let him away: he's banish'd. 

And so il shall be." 



Act III.] 



COKIOLANUS. 



[Scene III. 



Her enemies' marks upon me. I do love 
My country's good, with a respect more tender, 
More holy and profound, than mine own life, 
My dear wife's estimate, her womb's increase. 
And treasure of my loins ; then if I would 
Speak that— 

Sic. We know your drift : Speak what ? 

Jii-n. There's no more to be said, but he is 
banish'd. 
As enemy to the people and his country : 
It shall be so. 

Ci(. It shall be so, it shall be so. 

Cor. You common cry of curs ! whose breath 
I hate 
As reek o' the rotten fens, whose loves I prize 
As the dead carcases of unburied men 
That do corrupt my air, I banish you ; 
And here remain with your uncertainty I 
Let every feeble rumour shake your hearts ! 
Your enemies, with nodding of their plumes, 
Ean you into despair ! Have the power still 
To banish your defenders ; till, at length. 



Youi- ignorance, (which fmds not, till it feels,) 
Making not * reservation of yourselves, 
(Still your own foes,) deliver you, 
As most abated captives, to some nation 
That won you without blows ! Despising, 
For you, the city, thus I turn my back : 
There is a world elsewhere. 

[Exei'jit CoRiOL.\.xus, Comisius, Mexenius, 

Senators, and Patricians. 
Jid. The people's enemy is gone, is gone ! 
at. Our enemy is banish'd ! ^ he is gone ! 
Hog ! hoo ! 
[The people shout, mid throw np their caps. 
Sic. Go, see him out at gates, and follow him, 
As he hath foUow'd you, with all despite ; 
Give him deserv'd vexation. Let a guard 
Attend us through the city. 

at. Come, come, let 's see him out at gates ; 
come :— ' 

The gods preserve our noble tribunes ! — Come. 

[E.rennf. 

" Not. The original has but, which Capell corrected, 



RECENT NEW READING. 



Apt III., Sc. IT., p. 1S.5— 



" I have a heart as little apt as yours, 

But yet a brain that leads my use of anger 
To better vantage." 

In this passage is introduced one of the ei-ht new lines, 
whieli Mr. Collier considers to have been recovered as tlie 
genuine writing of Shakspere. After the line " I liave a 
heart," S.C., the Corrector inserts — 

" Ti> brook control without l.'ie use of anger :" 



and he holds the sense to be incomplete without it. The 
incompleteness of the sense depends, in some degree, upon 
our interpretation of tlie word "apt." In Ben Jonson 
(' Cynthia's Revels') we liave, "I confess you to be of ar; 
nptc'd and double humour.'' Assuming "apt" to mean 
"ready," the new line is scarcely required ; for Volumnia 
may refer to the aptitude to be " counselled," for «liich her 
heart is as "little apt" as lliat of her son. Mr. Staunton 
says the MS. Corrector's line has underj;one a change since 
its first appearance. It is now— to brook reproof. 




V.*;"' '" .^ 



[Tarpeian Bock.] 




[Rome— a Fragment after Piranesi.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS OP ACT III. 



' ScESE I. — " Arc these your herd ?" 
We continue our quotations from North's ' Plu- 
tarch :'— 

•' But when the day of election was come, and 
that Martins came to the market-place with great 
pomp, accompanied with all the senate and the 
whole nobility of the city about him, who sought 
to make him consul with the greatest instance 
and entreaty they could or ever attempted for 
any man or matter, then the love and good will 
of the common people turned straight to an hate 
and envy toward him, fearing to put this office of 
Bovereign authority into his hands, being a man 
somewhat partial towards the nobility, and of 
great credit and authority amongst the patricians, 
and as one they might doubt would take away 
altogether the liberty from the people. Where- 
upon, for these considerations, they refused Martins 
in the end, and made two other that were suitors 
consuls. The senate, being marvellously offended 
with the people, did account the shame of this 
n-'fu.'^al rather to redound to themselves than to 
Marti uB : but Martins took it in far worse part 
than the senate, and was out of all patience ; for 
he waa a man t^)0 full of pa.'sion and choler, and 
too much given over to self-will and opinion, as 
one of It high mind and great courage, that lacked 
the gravity and affability that is gotten with 
judgment of learning and reason, which only is 
to be looked for in a gov.emor of state ; and that 
remembered not how wilfulness is the thing of 
the world which a governor of a commonwealth 
for pleasing shovdil shun, being that which Plato 
calle<l BoliuriueBs." 

' ScEXE III. — " Pirtt, hear vu gpeah." 

" So Martins came and presented himself to an- 
■wer their accusations against him ; and the people 
held their peace, and gave attentive ear to hear 
190 



what he would say. But where they thought to 
have heard very humble and lowly words come 
from him, he began not only to use his wonted 
boldness of speaking (which of itself was very 
rough and unpleasant, and did more aggravate his 
accusation than purge his innocency), but alsa gave 
himself in his words to thunder, and look there- 
withal so grimly, as though he made no reckoning 
of the matter. This stirred coals among the 
people, who were in wonderful fury at it, and 
their hate and malice grew so toward him that 
they could hold no longer, bear, nor endure his 
bravery and careless boldness. Whereupon Sici- 
nius, the cruellest and stoutest of the tribunes, 
after he had whispered a little with his companions, 
did openly pronounce, in the face of all the people, 
Martius as condemned by the tribunes to die. 
Then, presently, he commanded the a?diles to 
apprehend him, and carry him straight to the 
rock Tarpeian, and to cast him headlong down the 
same. When the jediles came to lay hands upon 
Martius to do that they were commanded, divers 
of the people themselves thought it too cruel and 
violent a deed." 

3 Scene III. — " Our enemy is hanish'cH" 
"When they came to tell the voices of the 
tribes, there were three voices odd which con- 
demned him to be banished for ever. After 
declaration of the sentence, the people made such 
joy, as they never rejoiced more for any battle 
they had won upon their enemies, they were so 
brave and lively, and went home so jocundly 
from the assembly, for triumph of this sentence. 
The senate again, in contrary manner, were as sad 
and heavy, repenting themselves beyond measure 
that they had not rather determined to have 
done and suffered anything whatsoever, before 
the common people should so arrogantly and out- 
rageously have abused their authority." 






1:1 &t;y--.- 




[Roman Highway on the Banks of the Tiber.] 



ACT IV. 



SCENE I.— The 



same. Before a Gale of the 
City. ' 



Enter Cokiolanus, Volumnia, Vikgilia, !Me- 
NENitrs, CoMiNiTJs, and several yoimg Patri- 
cians. 

Cor. Come, leave your tears ;^ a brief farewell : 
— the beast 
With many heads butts me away. — Nay, mother, 
Where is your ancient courage ? you were used 
To say, extremity* was the trier of spirits ; 
That common chances common men could bear ; 
That, when the sea was calm, all boats alike 
Show'd mastership in floating : fortune's blows, 
When most struck home, being gentle wounded, 

craves 
A noble cunning : you were used to load me 
'With precepts, that would make invincible 
The heart that conn'd them. 

* Ertremily. So the second folio; the first exircmities. 
This correction of what we call tlie false grammar, in an 
edition published so soon after the original, ought perhaps 
to be adopted in a modern text. 



rir. heavens ! O heavens ! 
Cor. Nay, I prithee, woman, — 

Vol. Now the red pestilence strike all trades 
in Rome, 
And occupations perish ! 

Cor. What, what, what ! 

I shall be lov'd when I am lack'd. Nay, mother, 
Resume that spirit, when you were wont to 

say. 
If you had been the wife of Hercules, 
Six of his labours you 'd have done, and sav'd 
Your husband so much sweat. — Cominius, 
Droop not ; adieu ! — Farewell, my wife ! my 

mother ! 
I '11 do well yet. — Thou old and" true Menenius, 
Thy tears are Salter than a younger man 's. 
And venomous to thine eyes. — My sometime 

general, 
I have seen thee stern, and thou hast oft beheld 
Heart-hard'ning spectacles ; tell these sad wo- 
men, 
'T is fond to wail inevitable strokes, 

191 



Act IV.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[Scene 11. 



As 't is to laugh at them. — My mother, you wot 

well 
Aly hazards still have becu your solace: and 
Believe 't not lightly, (though I go alone. 
Like to a lontly dragon, that his fen' 
Makes fcar'd and talk'd of more than seen,) 

your son 
Will, or exeeed the common, or be caught 
With cautclous baits and practice. 

Vol. My first •> sou, 

Whither wilt (hou go? Take good Coininius 
With thee a while : Determine on some course, 
More than a w.'.d exposure' to Cnich chance 
That st^irts i' the way before thee. 

Cor. O the gods ! 

Com. I'll follow thee a month, devise witii 
tliee 
Where thou shalt rest, that thou niay'st hear of 

us, 
And we of thee : so, if the time thrust forth 
A cause for thy repeal, we shall not send 
O'er the vast world, to seek a single man ; 
And lose advantage, which doth ever cool 
r the absence of the necder. 

Cor. Fare ye well : — 

Thou hast years upon thee ; and thou art too full 
Of the wars' surfeits, to go rove with one 
That's yet unbruis'd : bring mc but out at gate. — 
Come, my sweet wife, my dearest mother, and 
My friends of noble touch, when I am forth. 
Bid me farewell, and smile. I pray you, come. 
While I remain above the ground, you shall 
Hear from me still ; and never of me aught 
But what is like me formerly. 

Men. That 's worthily 

As any ear can hear. — Come, let 's not weep. — 
If I could shake off but one seven years 
From these old arms and legs, by the good gods, 
I 'd with thee every foot ! 

Cor. Give me thy hand. 

Come. [E.reunt. 

SCENE II. — The same. A Street near the 
Gale. 

Enter Siciyics, Bkutus, and an Miile. 

Sic. Bid them all home ; he 's gone, and we '11 
no further. — 
The nobility are vex'd, who, wc see, have sided 
In his behalf. 



» The fen U the pcitilentlal abode of the "lonely drafjon," 
which he maket "frarcd and talked of more than seen." 

b Firtt — in the «cii«e of noblest. 

<■ ' -• ••■-^ The original has expmturf ; but we think 
wi' 1 tli.it lhi« H a typographical error, and correct 

It 1 . y, tflcr Hfiwc. 

192 



Brii. Now we have shown our power, 

Let us seem humbler after it is dune, 
Thau when it was a doing. 

Sic. Bid them home : 

Say, their great enemy is gone, and they 
Stand in their ancient strength. 

Bni. Dismiss tlicra home. 

[Exit ^dile. 

Enter VoLUMNiA, Virgilia, and Menenius. 

Here comes his mother. 

Sic. Let 's not meet her. 

Bni. Why? 

Sic. Tlicy say she 's mad. 

Bru. They have ta'en note of us : 

Keep on your way. 

Vol. 0, you 're well met : The hoarded plague 
o' the gods 
llequitc your love ! 

Men. Peace, peace ! be not so loud. 

Vol. If that I could for weeping, you should 
hear, — 
Nay, and you shall hear some. — Will you be 
gone ? {_To Brutus. 

Vir. You shall stay too : [To Sicin.] I would 
I had the power 
To say so to my husband. 

Sic. Are you mankind ? " 

Vol. Ay, fool : Is that a shame ? — Note but 
this fool. — 
Was not a man my father ? Hadst thou foxship 
To banish him that struck more blows for Rome, 
Than thou hast spoken words ? 

Sic. blessed heavens ! 

Vol. More noble blows, than ever thou wise 
■words ; 
And for Rome's good. — I '11 tell thee what; — 

Yet go :— 
Nay, but thou shalt stay too : — I would my son 
Were iu Arabia, and thy tribe before him, 
His good sword in his hand. 

Sic. , What then? 

Vir. ' AVhat then ? 

He'd make an end of ihy posterity. 

Vol. Bastards, and all. — 
Good man, the wounds that he does bear for 
Rome ! 

Men. Come, come, peace ! 

Sic. I would he had continued to his country. 
As he began ; and not unknit himself 
The noble knot he made. 

Brii. I would he had. 



" Mankind. Sicinius asks insultinply wlicther Volun-.r-'n 
is mankinil — a woman with the rouphnesa of a man ? Shak- 
spcre, in A Winter's Tale, uses the term " mankind witch." 



Act IV.] 



COEIOLAi^US. 



[SCENEB III., IV. 



Vol. I ^yould he had ! 'T was you incens'd 
the rabble : 
Cats, that can judge as fitly of his worth, 
As I can of those mysteries which heaven 
Will not have earth to know. 

Bru. Pray, let us go. 

Vol. Now, pray, sir, get you gone : 
Ton have done a brave deed. Ere yo" go, hear 

this; 
As far as doth the Capitol exceed 
The meanest house in Rome, so far my son, 
(This lady's husband here, this, do you see,) 
Whom you have banish' d, does exceed you all. 

Bru. Well, well, we '11 leave you. 

Sic. Why stay we tr be baited 

With one that wants her wits ? 

Vol. Take my prayers with you. — 

I would the gods had nothing else to do, 

\_E.teunt Tribunes. 
But to confirm my curses ! Could I meet them 
But once a day, it would unclog my heart 
Of what lies heavy to 't. 

Men. You have told them home, 

And, by my troth, you have cause. You '11 sup 
with me ? 

Vol. Anger 's my meat ; I sup upon myself, 
And so shall starve with feeding. — Come, let's 

go: 
Leave this faint puling, and lament as I do, 
In anger, Juno-like. Come, come, come. 
Men. Fie, fie, fie ! \E.feuHt. 



SCENE III. — A Uigliway beticeen Eome and 
Antium. 

Bnter a Roman and a Voice, meeting. 

Rom. I know you well, sir, and you know me : 
your name, I think, is Adrian. 

Vole, it is so, sir : truly, I have forgot you. 

Rom. I am a Roman ; and my services are, 
as you are, against them : Know you me yet ? 

Vole. Nicanor ? No. 

Rom. The same, sir. 

Vole. You had more beard when I last saw 
you, but your favour is well appeared* by your 
tongue. What 's the news in Rome ? I have a 
note from the Volcian state, to find you out 
there : You have well saved me a day's journey. 

Rom. There hath been in Rome strange in- 
surrections : the people against the senators, 
patricians, and nobles. 

Vole. Hath been ! Is it ended then ? Our state 
thinks not so ; they are in a most warlike pre- 

* Well appeared — rendered apparent. 

Tragedies. — Vol. II, 



paration, and hope to come upon them in the 
heat of their division. 

Rom. The main blaze of it is past, but a small 
thing would make it flame again. For the no- 
bles receive so to heart the banishment of that 
worthy Coriolanus, that they are in a right apt- 
ness to take all power from the people, and to 
pluck from them their tribunes for ever. This 
lies glowing, I can tell you, and is almost ma- 
ture for the violent brealang out. 

Vole. Coriolanus banished ? 

Rom. Banished, sir. 

Vole. You will be welcome with this intelli- 
gence, Nicanor. 

Rom. The day serves well for them now. I 
have heard it said, the fittest time to corrupt a 
man's wife is when she 's fallen out with her 
husband. Your noble TuUus Aufidius will ap- 
pear well in these wars, his great opposer, Co- 
riolanus, being now in no request of his country. 

Vole. He cannot choose. I am most fortunate 
thus accidentally to encounter you : You have 
ended my business, and I wiU merrily accom- 
pany you home. 

Rom. I shall, between this and supper, tell 
you most strange things from Rome ; all tend- 
ing to the good of their adversaries. Have you 
an army ready, say you ? 

Vole. A most royal one : the centmions, and 
theii" charges, distinctly billeted, already in the 
entertainment,^ and to be on foot at an hour's 
warning. 

Ro7n. I am joyful to hear of their readiness, 
and am the man, I think, that shall set them in 
present action. So, sii', heartily well met, and 
most glad of your company. 

Vole. You take my part from me, sir ; I have 
the most cause to be glad of yours. 

Rom. WeU, let us go together. [Exeunt. 

SCENE IV.— Antium. Before Aufidius',? House. 

Enter Coriolanus, in mean apparel, disguised 
and muffled. 

Cor. A goodly city is this Antium : ^ City, 
'T is I that made thy widows : many an heir 
Of these fair edifices 'fore my wars 
Have I heard groan, and di'op : then know me 

not; 
Lest that thy wives with spits, and boys with 

stones. 

Enter a Citizen. 
In puny battle slay me. — Save you, sir. 

' In the c»/fWaJ«m«;j<— under engagement for pay. 

193 



Act IV.J 



CORIOLANUS. 



[ScENi: V. 



at. And you. 

Cor. Direct mc, if it. be yoiir •w-ill, 

Wbcrc great Aufidius lies : Is lie in Antium ? 

at. Uc is, aud feasts the nobles of the state, 
At liis bouse tliis night. 

Cor. AMiich is lus house, 'beseech you ? 

at. This, here, before you. 

Cor. Thank you, sir ; farewell. 

[^Exit Citizen. 
O, world, thy slippery turns ! Friends now fast 

sworn, 
Whose double bosoms seem to wear one heart, 
"Whose hours, whose bed, whose meal, and 

exercise. 
Are still together, who, twin, as't were, in love 
Unseparable, shall within this hour, 
Ou a dissension of a doit, break out 
To bitterest enmity : So, fellcst foes, 
Whose passions and whose plots have broke 

their sleep 
To take the one the other, by some chance. 
Some trick not woi'th an gq^, shall grow dear 

friends. 
And interjoin their issues. So with me : — 
My birthplace hate'' I, and my love 's upon 
This enemy town. — I '11 enter : if he slay me. 
He does fair justice ; if he give me way, 
I '11 do his country service. ^^Exit. 

SCENE \.—The same. A hall hi Aufidius'* 
House. 

Music icithin. Enter a Servant. 

1 Sere. Wine, wine, wine .' What service is 

here ! 
I think our fellows are asleep. \_E.rii. 

Enter another Servant. ■ 

2 Serv. Where 's Cotns ! my master calls for 

liim. 
^ius 1 [^Exit. 

Enter Coriolakits. 

Cor. A goodly house : The feast smells well : 
but I 
Appear not like a guest. 

He-enter the first SeiTant. 

1 Scrv. "What would you have, friend ? "Whence 
arc you ? llcrc 's no i)Uicc for you : Pray, go to 
the door. 

Cor. I have dcscrv'd no better entertainment. 
In being Coriolanus, 

* Halt. T)ic nrif^inal ha hare; and we owe the judici- 
ous correction tc CapelL 

194 



Re-enter second Servant. 

2 Serv. Whence are you, sir ? lias the porter 
his eyes iu his head, that he gives entrance to 
such companions ? Pray, get you out. 

Cor. Away ! 

2 Serv. Away? Get you away. 

Cor. Now thou art troublesome. 

2 Serv. Are you so brave ? I '11 have jou 
talked with anon. 

Enter a third SeiTant. The first meets him. 

?> Serv. "What fellow's this? 

1 Serv. A strange one as ever I looked on : I 
cannot get hir.i out o' the house : Prithee, call 
my master to him. 

3 Serv. What have you to do here, fellow ? 
Pray you, avoid the house. 

Cor. Let me but stand ; I will not hurt your 
hearth. 

3 Serv. What are you ? 

Cor. A gentleman. 

3 Serv. A marvellous poor one. 

Cor. True, so I am. 

3 Serv. Pray you, poor gentleman, take up 
some other station ; here 's no place for you ; 
pray you, avoid : come. 

Cor. Pollow your function, go ! aud batten on 
cold bits. \_Pi(shes him awai/. 

3 Serv. "What, will you not ? Prithee, tell my 
master what a strange guest he has here. 

2 Serv. And I shall. [_Exit. 

3 Serv. Where dwellest thou ? 
Cor. Under the canopy. 

3 Serv. Under the canopy ? 

Cor. Ay. 

3 Serv. Where 's that ? 

Cor. V the city of kites and crows. 

3 Serv. V the city of kites and crows ? — What 
an ass it is !— Then thou dwcUest with daws 
too? 

Cor. No, I serve not thy master. 

3 Serv. How, sir ! Do you meddle with my 
master ? 

Cor. Ay; 'tis an honester service than to 
meddle with thy mistress : Thou prat'st, and 
prat'st ; serve ^vith thy trencher, hence ! 

[Eeats him away. 

Enter Aufldius and the second Servant. 

Auf. Where is this follow ? 
2 Serv. Here, sir ; I 'd have beaten him like 
a dog, but for disturbing the lords within. 
Auf. Whence com'st thou? what wouJdst 



Act IV.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



[Scene V. 



thou? Thy name? "Wliy speak'st not? Speak, 
man : "Wliat 's thy name ? 

Cor. If, Tullus, \ii7im7fffiin(f\ not yet thou 
know'st me, and, seeing me, dost not think me 
for the man I am, necessity commands me name 
myself. 

Aitf. What is thy name ? [Servants retire. 
Cor. A name nnmusical to the Volscians' 
ears. 
And harsh in sound to thine. 

Auf- Say, what 's thy name ? 

Thou hast a grim appearance, and thy face 

Bears a command in 't ; though thy tackle 's torn. 

Thou show'st a noble vessel : Wliat 's thy name ? 

Cor. Prepare thy brow to frown: Know'st 

thou me yet ? 
Auf. I know .thee not : — Thy name ? 
Cor. My name is Cains Marcius, who hath 
done 
To thee particularly, and to all the Vol sees. 
Great hui't and mischief; thereto witness may 
My sm-name, Coriolanus : The painful service, 
Tlie extreme dangers, and the drops of blood 
Shed for my thankless country, are requited 
But with that surname ; a good memory, 
And witness of the malice and displeasure 
lYliich thou shouldst bear me : only that name 

remains ; 
The cruelty and envy of the people. 
Permitted by our dastard nobles, who 
Have all forsook me, hath devom-'d the rest ; 
And sujfer'd me by the voice of slaves to be 
"Whoop'd out of Rome. Now, this extrenaty 
Hath brought me to thy hearth : Not out of 

hope. 
Mistake me not, to save my life ; for if 
I had fear'd death, of all the men i' the world 
I would have 'voided thee : but in mere spite. 
To be full quit of those my bauishers. 
Stand I before thee here. Then if thou hast 
A heart of wreak '^ in thee, that will revenge 
Thme o^vn particidar wrongs, and stop those 

maims 
Of shame seen through thy country, speed thee 

straight, 
And make my misery serve thy turn ; so use it, 
That my revengeful services may prove 
As benefits to thee ; for I will fight 
Against my canker' d country with the spleen 
Of aU the imder fiends.^ But if so be 
Thou dai-'st not this, and that to prove more 

fortunes 
Thou art tur'd, then, in a word, I tdso am 



jrr«o At— revenge. 



l" Under fiends- 
2 



■fiends below. 



Longer to live most weary, and present 
My throat to thee, and to thy ancient malice : 
Which not to cut would show thee but a fool ; 
Smee I have ever follow'd thee with hate. 
Drawn tuns of blood out of thy counti-y's 

breast. 
And cannot live but to thy shame, unless 
It be to do thee service. 

^i^if- O Marcius, Marcius ! 

Each word thou hast spoke hath weeded from 

my heart 
A root of ancient envy. If Jupiter 
Should from yon cloud speak divine things. 
And say, ' 'T is true,' I 'd not believe them more 
Than thee, aU noble Marcius. — Let me t\vine 
Mine arms about that body, where against 
My grained ash an hundred times liath broke. 
And scarr'd the moon with splinters! Here I 

clip 
The ^nvil of my sword ; and do contest 
As hotly and as nobly with thy love, 
As ever in ambitious strength I did 
Contend against thy valour. Know thou first, 
I lov'd the maid I married ; never man 
Sigh'd truer breath ; but that I see thee here. 
Thou noble thing ! more dances my rapt lieart 
Thau when I first my wedded mistress saw 
Bestride my threshold. Why, thou Mars ! I 

tell thee, 
We have a power on foot ; and I had piu'pose 
Once more to hew thy target from thy brawn. 
Or lose mine arm for 't : Thou hast beat me 

out^' 
Twelve several times, and I have nightly since 
Dreamt of encounters 'twixt thyself and me : 
We have been down together in my sleep. 
Unbuckling helms, fisting each other's throat, 
And walc'd half dead with nothing. Worthy 

Alarcius, 
Had we no other quarrel else to Home, but that 
Thou art thence banish' d, we would muster all 
Prom twelve to seventy ; and, pouring war 
Into the bowels of ungrateful Rome, 
Like a bold flood o'erbeat. 0, come, go in, 
And take our friendly senators by the hands ; 
Who now are here, taking their leaves of me, 
Who am prepar'd against your territories. 
Though not for Kome itself. 

Cor. You bless me, gods ! 

Avf. Therefore, most absolute sir, if thou wilt 

have 
The leading of tliine own revenges, take 
The one half of my commission; and set 

dowa, — 



" Oa/— complete. 



195 



.Act IV.) 



COKIOLAiSUS 



[SCKNE T , 



As best thou art expcricnc'd, since thou know'at 
Thy countn-'s strength and weakness, — thine 

own ways : 
TMicthcr to knock against the gates of Rome, 
Or rudely visit them in parts remote, 
To fright them, ere destroy. But come in : 
Let me commend thee first to those that shall 
Say, Yea, to thy desires. A thousand welcomes ! 
And more a friend that e'er an enemy ; 
Yet, Marcius, that was much. Your hand! 

Most welcome ! 

\_E.reuii( CouioL.vNUS and AuFiDius. 

1 Sen. [AdcanctHff.] Here 's a strange alter- 
ation 1 

2 St'rc. By my hand I had thought to have 
struckcn him with a cudgel ; and yet my mind 
gave me his clothes made a false report of him. 

1 Serv. What an arm he has ! He turned 
me about with his finger and his thumb, as one 
would set up a top. ^ 

2 Sere. Kay, I knew by his face that there 
was something in liim : he had, sir, a kind of 
face, methought, — I cannot tell how to term it. 

1 Serv. He had so ; looking as it were, — 
'Would I were hanged but I thought there was 
more iu him than I could think. 

2 Serv. So did I, I '11 be sworn : he is simply 
the rarest man i' the world. 

1 Serv. I think he is : but a greater soldier 
than he, you Mot one. 

2 Serv. Who ? my master ? 

1 Serv. Nay, it 's no matter for that. 

2 Serv. Worth six of him. 

1 Serv. Nay, not so neither ; but I take him 
to be the greater soldier. 

2 Serv. Taith, look you, one cannot tell how- 
to say that : for the defence of a town our gene- 
ral is excellent. 

1 Serv. Ay, and for an assault too. 



Re-cxter third Servant. 

3 Serv. 0, slaves, I can tell you news ; news, 
you rascals ! 

1 iJ- 2 Serv. What, what, what ? let 's par- 
take. 

3 S'Tv. I would not be a Boman, of all na- 
tions ; 1 had as lieve be a condemned man. 

1 tj- 2 Serv. Wherefore ? wherefore ? 

3 Sere. Why, here 's he that was wont to 
thwack our general, — Caius Marcius. 

1 Serv. Why do you say thwack our gene- 
ral ? 

3 Serv. I do not say thwack our general : 
but he was always good enough for him. 
19G 



2 Sere. Come, we arc fellows and friends : 
he was tver too hard for him ; 1 have heard him 
say so himself. 

1 Serv. He was too hard for him directly, to 
say the truth on't: before Corioli he scotched 
him and notched him like a carbonado. 

2 Serv. An he had been cannibally given, he 
might have broiled and eaten him too. 

1 Scree. But, more of thy news 'r* 

3 Serv. Why, he is so made on here within, 
as if he were son and heir to Mars : set at upper 
end o' the table : no question asked him by any 
of the senators, but they stand bald before him : 
Our general himself makes a mistress of him ; 
sanctifies himself with 's hand, and turns up the 
white o' the eye to his discourse. But the bot- 
tom of the news is, our general is cut i' the 
middle, and but one half of what he was yester- 
day ; for the other has half, by the entreaty and 
grant of the whole table. He '11 go, he says, 
and sowle'' the porter of Rome gates by the ears : 
He will mow all down before him, and leave 
his passage polled.'' 

2 Sere. And he 's as like to do 't as any man 
I can imagine. 

3 Serv. Do 't ? he will do 't : For, look you, 
sir, he has as many friends as enemies : which 
friends, sir, (as it were,) durst not (look you, 
sir) show themselves (as we term it) his friends 
whilst he 's in direct itude." 

1 Serv. Directitude ! what 's that ? 

3 Sere. But when they shall see, sir, his crest 
up again, and the man in blood, they will out of 
their burrows, like conies after rain, and revel 
all with him. 

1 Sere. But when goes this forward ? 

3 Serv. To-morrow ; to-day ; presently. You 
shall have the drum struck up this afternoon ■ 
't is, as it were, a parcel of their feast, and to be 
executed ere they wipe their lips. 

2 Serv. Why, then we shall have a stirring 
world again. This peace is nothing, but to rust 
ii'on, increase tailors, and breed ballad-makers. 

1 Serv. Let me have war, say I ; it exceeds 
peace as far as day does night ; it 's sprightly, 
waking, audible, and full of vent. Peace is a 
very apoplexy, lethargy; mulled, deaf, sleepy, 
insensible ; a getter of more bastard children 
than war 's a destroyer of men. 

2 Sere. 'T is so : and as war, in some sort. 



" Soirle — a provincial word for pull out. 

1> /'o/Zfrf— cleared. 

c Directitude. Malone would read discredilude. He 
thinks the servant was not meant to talk absolute non- 
sense. Why then does the other servant ask the niefi:iing 
of the fine word \ 



Act IV.I 



COEIOLANUS. 



[Scene VI. 



may be said to be a ra\asher, so it cannot be 
denied but peace is a great maker of cuckolds. 

1 Serv. Ay, and it makes men hate one an- 
other. 

3 Serv. Reason ; because they then less need 
one another. The wars for my money. I 
hope to see Romans as cheap as Volsciaiis. 
They are rising, they ai'e rising. 

All. In, in, in, in ! [Kveiint 

SCENE VI.— Rome. A jmblic Place. 
Enter SiCDiius and Brutus. 

Sic. We hear not of him, neither need we 

fear him; 
His remedies are tame i' the present peace 
And quietness o' the people, which before 
Were in wild hurry. Here do we make his 

friends 
Blush that the world goes well; who rather 

had. 
Though they themselves did suifer by 't, beheld '^ 
Dissentious numbers pestering streets, than see 
Our tradesmen singing in their shops, and going 
About their functions friendlv. 

Enter Menenius, 

Bru. We stood to't in good time. Is this 
Menenius ? 

Sic. 'T is he, 't is he : 0, he is grown most 
kind of late. Hail, sir ! 

Men. Hail to you both ! 

Sic. Your Coriolanus is not much missed 
but with his friends ; the commonwealth doth 
stand; and so would do, were he more angry 
at it. 

Men. All 's well ; and might have been much 
better, if he could have temporised. 

§ic. Where is he, hear you ? 

Men. Nay, I hear nothing; his mother and 
his wife hear nothing from him.'' 

Enter Three or Four Citizens. 

at. The gods preserve you both ! 

Sic. Good-e'en, our neighbours. 

Bru. Good-e'en to you all, good-e'en to you 

all. 
1 at. Ourselves, our wives, and childreu, on 

oxir knees. 
Are bound to pray for you both. 



a Beheld. The original has behold, which is retained in 
most modern editions; but we should certainly read would 
behold, or had beheld. 

b We print this dialogue in prose, as in the original. 
It is ordinarily printed as ten lines of blank verse, after 
Capell. 



Sic. Live, and thrive ! 

Bru. Farewell, kind neighbours : We wish'd 
Coriolanus 
Had lov'd you as we did. 

Cit. Now the gods keep you ! 

Both Tri. Farewell, farewell. 

\_Exeunt Citizens. 
Sic. This is a happier and more comely 
time 
Than Mheu these fellows ran about the streets, 
Cryiag, Confusion. 

Bru. Caius Marcius was 

A worthy officer i' the war ; but insolent, 
O'ercome with pride, ambitious past all think- 



incr 



SeLf-loving, — 

Sic. And affecting .one sole throne. 

Without assistance. 

Men. I tliink not so. 

Sic. We should by this, to all our lamenta- 
tion. 
If he had gone forth consul, found it so. 

Bru. The gods have well prevented it, and 
Rome 
Sits safe and stUl without him. 

Enter M(!a\e. 

.^d. Worthy tribunes, 

There is a slave, whom we liave put ia prison. 
Reports, the Voices with two several powers 
Are enter'd in the Roman territories ; 
And with the deepest malice of the war 
Destroy what lies before them. 

Men. 'T is Aufidius, 

AVho, hearing of our Marcius' banishment. 
Thrusts forth his horns again into the world, 
"Which were insheU'd when Marcius stood fi^r 

Rome, 
And durst not once peep out. 

Sic. Come, what talk you of Marcius ? 

Bru. Go see this rumourer whipp'd. — It can- 
not be 
The Volsces dare break with us. 

Men. Cannot be ! 

We have record that very well it can ; 
And three examples of the like have been 
Within my age. But reason with the feUow, 
Before you punish him, where he heard this : 
Lest you shall chance to whip your informa- 
tion, 
And beat the messenger who bids beware 
Of what is to be dreaded. 

Sic. Tell not me : 

I know this cannot be. 

Bru. Not possible. 

787 



Aor iv.i 



CORIOLANUS. 



[SCEVl. VI. 



Enter a Messenger. 

Mess. The nobles, in great earnestness, arc 
going 
All to the sonatc-house : some news is come "* 
That turns their countenances. 

Sic. 'T is this slave ; — 

Go whip him 'fore the people's eyes : — liis rais- 
ing! 
Nothing but his report ! 

^fess. Yes, worthy sir. 

The slave's report is seconded ; and more. 
More fearful, is deliver'd. 

Sie. What more fearful ? 

Mess. It is spoke freely out of many mouths, 
(llow probable, I do not know,) tliat ^larcius, 
Joiu'd with Aufulius, leads a power 'gainst 

Rome ; 
And vows revenge as sjjacious as between 
The young'st and oldest thing. 

Sic. This is most likely ! 

Bru. Rais'd only that the weaker soi-t may 
wish 
Good Mareius home again. 

Sic. The very trick on 't 

Men. This is unlikely : 
He and Aufidius can no more atone,'' 
Than nolentcst contraiiety. 

Elder another Messenger. 

Mess. You are sent for to the senate ; 
A fearful army, led by Caius ]\Iarcius, 
Associated with Aufidius, rages 
Upon our temtories ; and have already, 
O'erbome their way, eonsum'd with fire, and 

took 
What lay before them. 

Enter CoiiiNlus. 

Com. O, you have made good work ! 
Men. What news ? what news ? 

Com. You have liolp to ravish 
daughters, and 
To melt the city leads upon your pates ; 
To sec your wives dishonour'd to your noses ; — 
Men. ^Vllat 's the news ? what 's the news ? 
Com. Your temples burned in their cement; 
and 



'^ Cn-rj>. The orIgin.il h.u cnming. The alteration to 
c>.TJ<! wa.1 by Ilowc, wlilcli \vc adopt, in Co:nmoii with other 
recent editors. Yet we unwillinf^ly give up cnminy. The 
reader will lemcmber Mr. Campbell's fine imat;L — 

" Coming events ca»t their shadows before." 

* AloTUr—ht reconciled— 3/ om. 

198 



your own 



Your franchises, whereon you stood, confin'd 
Into an auger's bore. 

Men. Pray now, your news ? — 

You have made fair work, I fear me: — Pray, 

your news ? 
If Mareius should be joiu'd with Volcians, — 

Com. If! 

He is their god; he leads them like a thing 
Made by some other deity than nature, 
That shapes man better : and they follow 

him, 
Against us brats, with no less confidence 
Than boys pursuing summer butterflies. 
Or butchers killing flics. 

Men. You have made good work. 

You, and your apron-men; you that stood so 

much 
Upon the voice of occupation, and 
The breath of garlic-eaters ! 

Com. He'll shake your Rome about your 
ears. 

Men. As Hercules did shake down mellow 
fruit: 
You have made fair work ! 

Bru. But is this true, sir ? 

Com. Ay ; and you '11 look pale 
Before you find it other. All the regions 
Do smilingly revolt ; and, who resist. 
Are mock'd for valiant ignorance, 
And perish constant fools. Who is 't can blame 

him? 
Your enemies, and his, find something in him. 

Men. We are all undone, unless 
The noble man have mercy. 

Com. Who shall ask it ? 

The tribimes cannot do 't for shame ; the people 
Deserve such pity of him as the wolf 
Does of the shepherds : for his best friends, if 

they 
Should say, 'Be good to Rome,' they charg'd 

him even 
As those should do that had deserv'd his hate. 
And therein show'd like enemies. 

Men. 'T is true : 

If he were putting to my house the brand 
That should consume it, I have not the face 
To say, "Beseech you, cease.' — You have made 

fair hands. 
You and your crafts ! you have crafted fair ! 

Com. You have brought 

A trembling upon Rome, such as was never 
So incapable of help. 

Tri. Say not we brought it. 

Men. How ! Was it we ? We lov'd him ; but, 
like beasts. 



Act IY.] 



COEIOLAlf[JS. 



[SCESE vn. 



And cowardly nobles, gave way unto your 

clusters. 
Who did hoot him out o' the city. 

Com. Bat; I fear, 

They '11 roar him in again. Tullus Aulidius, 
The second name of men, obeys his points 
As if he were his officer :— Desperation 
Is all the policy, strength, and defence. 
That Rome can make against them. 

Enter a troop of Citizens. 

Men. Here come the clusters. — 

And is Aufidius with him ? — You are they 
That made the air unwholesome, when you cast 
Your stinking, greasy caps, in hooting 
At Coriolauus' exUe. Now he 's comius' ; 
And not a hair upon a soldier's head 
WMch wUl not prove a whip; as many cox- 
combs 
As you threw caps up, will he tumble down. 
And pay you for your voices. 'T is no matter ; 
If he could bum us all into one coal. 
We have deserv'd it. 

at. 'Faith, we hear fearful news. 

1 Git. For mine own part. 
When I said, banish him, I said 't was pity. 

2 at. And so did I. 

3 at. And so did I; and, to say the truth, 
so did very many of us : That we did we did for 
the best ; and though we wiUingly consented to 
liis banishment, yet it was against our -nTll. 

Com. You are goodly things, you voices ! 
Meji. You have made 

Good work, you and your cry ! — Shall us to the 
Capitol ? 
Com. O, ay ; what else ? 

[Exeunt CoM. and Men. 
Sic. Go, masters, get you home, be not dis- 
may 'd. 
These are a side that would be glad to have 
This true, which they so seem to fear. Go home, 
And show no sign of fear. 

1 at. The gods be good to us! Come, masters, 
let 's home. I ever said we were i' the wrong 
when we banished him. 

2 at. So did we all. But come, let 's home. 

\Exeunt Citizens. 
Bru. I do not like this news. 
Sic. Nor I. 

Brti. Let's to the Capitol: — 'Would half my 
wealth 
Would buy this for a lie ! 
Sic. Pray, let us go. 

{Exeunt. 



SCENE vn. — A Camp ; at a small distance 
from Rome. 

Enter Aufidius and his Lieutenant. 

Aiif. Do they still fly to the Roman ? 
Lieu. I do not know what witchcraft 's in him ; 
but 
Your soldiers use him as the grace 'fore meat, 
Their talk at table, and their thanks at end ; 
And you are darken' d in this action, su-. 
Even by your own. 

. -^uf. I cannot Jielp it now ; 

Unless, by using means, I lame the foot 
Of our design. He bears himself more proudliei , 
Even to my person, than I thought he would 
When first I did embrace him : Yet his natia-e 
In that 's no changeling ; and I must exciise 
What cannot be amended. 

Lieu. Yet I wish, sir, 

(I mean, for your particular,) you had not 
Join'd in commission with him : but either had 

borne 
The action of yourself, or else to him 
Had left it solely. 

Auf. I understand thee well; and be thou 
sure, 
When he shall come to his account, he knows 

not 
What I can urge against him. Although it 

seems. 
And so he thinks, and is no less apparent 
To the vulgar eye, that he bears all things fairly. 
And shows good huabandi-y for the Volcian 

state ; 
Fights dragon-like, and does achieve as soon 
As draw his sword : yet he hath left undone 
That which shall break his neck, or hazard mine, 
Whene'er we come to our account. 

Lieu. Sir, I beseech you, think you he'll 

can-y Rome ? 
Auf. All places yield to him ere he sits down ; 
And the nobility of Rome are his : 
The senators and patricians love him too : 
The tribunes are no soldiers ; and their people 
Win be as rash in the repeal, as hasty 
To expel him thence. I think he '11 be to Rome, 
As is the osprey to the fish, who takes it 
By sovereignty of natm-e." First he was 
A noble servant to them ; but he could not 

* The force and propriety of this image will be seen from 
the following extract from Drayton's ' Folyolbion,' descrit 
ing the osprey, according to the popular notion : — 
" The osprey, oft here seen, though seldom here it breeds. 
Which over them the fish no sooner doth espy, 
But, betwixt him and tliem by an antipathy, 
Turning their bellies up, as though their death they saw, 
They at his pleasure lie to stuff his gluttonous maw. ' 

190 



Act IV. ] 



CORIOLANUS. 



(SCEKE VII. 



Carry his honours even : wlicthcr 't was pride, 
Which out of daily fortune ever taints 
The happy man ; Mlicthcr defect of judgment, 
To fail in the disposing of those chances 
"Which he was lord of ; or whether nature, 
Not to be other than one thing, not moving 
From the casque to the cushion, but command- 
ing peace 
Even with the same austerity and garb 
As he controU'd the war; but one of these 
(As he hath spices of them all, not all, 
For I dare so far free him) made him fcar'd, 
So liatcd, and so banish'd : But he has a merit, 
To choke it in the utterance. So our virtues 
Lie in the interpretation of the time : 
knd power, unto itself most commendable, 



Hath not a tomb so evident as a chair 

To extol what it hath done. 

One fire drives out one fire ; one nail, one nail ; 

Rights by rights fouler," strength by strengths do 

fail. 
Come, let 's away. WHien, Caius, Rome is thine, 
Thou art poor'st of all ; then shortly art thou 

mine. \_E.reuht. 



* Fouler. So the original. Malone substitutes /ountfcr; 
and the emendation has provoked three pages of controversy 
nmonKst the commentators. We may understand the mean- 
ing of the original expression if we substitute the op|)osite 
epithet, fairer. As it is, the lesser rights drive out the 
greater— the fairer rights fail through the fouler. In the 
same manner, in The Taming of the Shrew, fouler is not 
usad in the sense of more polluted ; we have, 

" The fouler fortune mine, and there an eiid." 




[Ancient Arch on Road leading int<i' Borne.] 




-'■•«^^^1 ""^^ry"- 



[Old Roman Willow Wood.] 



ILLITSTExiTIONS OP ACT IV. 



• Scene I.—" Come, leave your tears." 

The departure of Coriolanus from Rome is thus 
described by Plutarch : — 

" When he was come home to his house again, 
and had taken his leave of his mother and wife, 
finding them weeping and striking out for sorrow, 
and had also comforted and persuaded them to be 
content with his chance, he went immediately to 
the gate of the city, accompanied with a great 
number of patricians that brought him thither, 
from whence he went on his way with three or 
four of his friends only, taking nothing with him, 
nor requesting anything of any man. So he 
remained a few days in the country at his houses, 
turmoiled with sundry sorts and kinds of thoughts, 
Buch as the fire of his choler did stir up." 

2 Scene IV.— "A goodly city is this Antiuni." 
The entry of Coriolanus into the " enemy city," 
and the interview between the two rival captains, 
is most graphically told by Plutarch. Shakspere 
has put forth all his strength in working up the 
scene, and yet has kept to the original with 
wonderful exactness : — 

" It was even twilight when he entered the citv 



of Antium, and many people met him ic the 
streets, but no man knew him. So he went 
directly to TuUus Aufidius' house ; and when he 
came thither he got him up straight to the chimney- 
hearth, and sat him down, and spake not a woi-d 
to any man, his face all muffled over. They of 
the house, spying him, wondered what he should 
be, and yet they durst not bid him rise. For ill- 
favouredly muffled and disguised as he was, yet 
there appeared a certain majesty in his countenance 
and in his silence : whereupon they went to Tulhis, 
who was at supper, to tell him of the strange dis- 
guising of this man. TuUus rose presently from 
the board, and, coming towards him, asked him 
what he was, and wherefore he came. Then JIartius 
unmuffled himself, and after he liad paused awhile, 
making no answer, he said unto him — If thou 
knowest me not yet, Tulius, and, seeiug me, dost 
not perhaps believe me to be the man I am indeed, 
I must of necessity betray myself to be that I am. 
I am Caius Martins, who hath done to thyself 
particularly, and to all the Voices generally, great 
hurt and mischief, which I cannot deny for my 
surname of Coriolanus that I bear: for I never 
had other benefit nor recompense of the true and 

201 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT IV. 



painful service I have done, and the extreme 
dangers I have been in, but thia only surname, 
a good mcruor)' find witness of the malice and 
displeasure thou shouldst bear mo. Indeed the 
name only remaineth with mo : for the rest, the 
envy and cruelty of the people of Rome have 
taken from me, by the sufferance of the dastardly 
nobility and magisti-ates, who have forsaken me, 
and let mo bo banished by tho people. This 
extremity hath now driven me to come as a poor 
suitor to take thy chimney-hearth, not of any hope 
I have to save my life thereby, — for if I had feared 
death I would not have como hither to have put 
myself in hazard, — but pricked fonvard with desire 
to be revenged of them that thus have banished 
me, which now I do begin, in putting my person 
into the hands of their enemies. AVherefore, if 
thou hast any heart to bo wreaked of the injuries 
thy enemies have done thee, speed thee now, and 
let my misery serve thy turn, and so use it as my 



service may be a benefit to the Voices : promising 
thee that I will fight with better good will for all 
you, than I did when I was against you, knowing 
that they figlit more valiantly who know the force 
of tho enemy, than such as have never proved it. 
And if it be so that thou daro not, and that thou 
art wcaiy to prove fortimo any more, then I am 
also weary to live any longer. And it were no 
wisdom in thee to save the life of him who hath 
been heretofore thy mortal enemy, and whoso 
service now can nothing help nor pleasure thee. 
TuUus, hearing what he said, was a marvellous 
glad man, and, taking him by tho hand, he said 
unto him— Stand up, Martins, and be of good 
cheer, for in j)roffering thyself unto us thou doest 
us gi'eat honour : and by this means thou mayest 
hope also of greater things at all the Voices' hands. 
So he feasted him for that time, and entertained 
him in the honourablest manner he could." 



' •!' ''s^/mi 



i/ 




[Public Place in Rome.] 



ACT V. 



I 



S(3ENE I.— Rome. J public Place. 

Enter Menenius, Comintos, Sicmius, Brtjttts, 
and others. 

Men. No, I '11 uofc go : you hear wliat he hath 
said 
Which was sometime his general; who lov'd 

him 
In a most dear particular. He caU'd me father : 
But what o ' that ? Go, you that banish'd him ; 
A mile before his tent fall do^vu, and knee"' 
The way into his mercy : Nay, if he coy'd 
To hear Cominius speak, I '11 keep at home. 
Com. He would not seem to know me.^ 
Men. Do you hear? 

Com. Yet one time he did call me by my 
name : 
I urg'd our old acquaintance, and the drops 

a Knee. So the original. The second folio, which has 
been followed In all other editions, has the less expressive 
verb kneel. Shakspere uses knee as a verb in Lear : — 
" To knee his throne." 



That we have bled together. Coriolanus 
He would not answer to : forbad all names ; 
He was a kind of nothing, titleless, 
Tin he had forg'd liimself a name o' the fire 
Of burning Eomc. 

Men. Why, so ; you have made good work : 
A pair of tribunes that have rack'd for Rome, 
To make coals cheap : A noble memory ! 

Com. I minded him how royal 'twas to 
pardon 
WTien it was less expected : He replied. 
It was a bare petition of a state 
To one whom they had punish'd. 

Men. "Very well ; 

Could he say less ? 

Com. I offer'd to awaken his regard 
For his private friends : His answer to me was, 
He could not stay to pick them in a pile 
Of noisome musty chaff : He said, 't was folly 
For one poor grain or two to leave unbumt. 
And stiU to nose the offence. 

Men. For one poor grain or two ? 

203 



Act V.J 



CORTOLANUS 



[SCF.KS II. 



I am one of those ; his motlicr, wife, his child, 
And this brave fellow too, \rc arc the grains : 
You are tiic musty chaff ; and you are smelt 
Above the moon : We must be burnt for you. 

Sic. Nay, pray be patient : If you refuse your 
aid 
In this so ucvcr-nccdcd help, yet do not 
Upbraid us with our distress. But, sure, if you 
Would be your coimtry's pleader, your good 

tongue. 
More than the instant army we can make, 
Might stop our countryman. 

Men. No ; I '11 not meddle. 

Sic. Pray you, go to him. 

Men. What should I do ? 

Bru. Only make trial what your love can do 
For Rome, towards Marcius. 

Men. Well, and say that Marcius return me. 
As Cominius is returu'd, unheard ; what then ? — 
But as a discontented friend, grief-shot 
With his unkindness ? Say 't be so ? 

Sic. Yet your good will 

Must have that thanks from Rome, after the 

measure 
As you intended well. 

Men. I '11 undertake it : 

I think he '11 hear me. Yet, to bite his lip 
And hum at good Cominius, much unhearts me. 
He was not taken well : he had not din'd : 
The veins unfill'd, our blood is cold, and then 
We pout upon the morning, are unapt 
To give or to forgive ; but when we have stuff 'd 
These pipes, and these conveyances of our blood, 
With \vine and feeding, we have suppler souls 
Than in our priest-like fasts : therefore I '11 watch 

him 
Till he be dieted to my request. 
And then I '11 set upon him. 

Bru. You know the very road into his kuid- 
ness. 
And cannot lose your way. 

Men. Good faith, I '11 prove him. 

Speed how it will, I shall ere long have know- 
ledge 
Of my success. [^Exii. 

Com. He '11 never hear him. 

Sic. Not ? 

Com. I tell you, he does sit in gold, his eye 
Red as 't would burn Rome ; and his injury 
The gaoler to his pity. I kneel 'd before him ; 
'T was very faintly he said, ' Rise ;' dismiss'd me 
Thus, with his speechless hand : What he would 

do, 
He sent in writing after me, — what he would 
not ; 

204 



Bouud with an oath to yield to his conditions :* 

So that all hope is vain. 

Unless'* his no])le mother, and his wife ; 

Who, as I hear, mean to solicit him 

For mercy to his country. Tiierefore, let's 

hence. 
And with our fair entreaties haste them on. 

[Exeun/. 

SCENE 11.—^// advanced Post of the Volcian 
Camp before Rome. The Guard at their stations. 

Enter to them Menenius. 

1 G. Stay : Whence are you ? 

2 G. Stand, and go back. 
Men. You guard like men ; 't is well : But, 

by youi" leave, 
I am an officer of state, and come 
To speak with Coriolanus. 

1 G. From whence ? 

Men. From Rome. 

1 G. You may not pass, you must return 

our general 
Will no more hear from thence. 

2 G. Y'ou'U see your Rome embrac'd with 

fire, before 
You 'U speak with Coriolanus. 

Men. Good my friends. 

If you have heard your general talk of Rome, 
And of his friends there, it is lots*^ to blanks 
My name hath touch' d your ears : it is Me- 
nenius. 
1 G. Be it so ; go back : the virtue of your 
name 
Is not here passable. 

Men. I tell tliee, fellow. 

Thy general is my lover : I have been 
The book of his good acts, whence men have 

read 
His fame unparallel'd, haply amplified ; 
For I have ever verified my friends 
(Of whom he's chief) with all the size that 

verity 
Would without lapsing suffer : nay, sometimes, 
Like to a bowl upon a subtle ground. 



a Tlie commentators suspect some omission here; but it 
appears to us that Ihey have mistaken the passage. They 
conceive that " what lie would not " is the matter especially 
"bound with an oath." Coriolanus sends "in wri'lng " 
both " what he would do" and " what he would not ; " and, 
in justification of the harshness of his dem.Tnds, he adds that 
he is " bound with an oath to yield to his conditions," — 
that is, to make his sole law the " conditions " in which he 
had become placed — hi< duty to the Volscians;— to yield 
himself up entirely to the puidance of those " conditions." 

b Unless is here used in the sense of except : We have no 
hope except his noble mother, &c. 

c L'lli are the whole number of tickets in alottery ; blankt 
a proportion of the whole number. 



Act v.] 



CORIOLANUS 



fScE.NE II. 



I have tumbled past the throw ; and in his 

praise 
Have almost stamp'd the leasing: therefore, 

fellow, 
I must have leave to pass. 

1 G. 'Eaith, su-, if you had told as many lies 
in his behalf, as you have uttered words in your 
own, you should not pass here : no, though it 
were as virtuous to lie as to live chastely. There- 
fore, go back. 

Me7t. Prithee, fellow, remember my name is 
Menenius, always factionary on the party of 
your general. 

2 G. Howsoever you have been his Har, (as 
you say you have,) I am one that, telling true 
under him, must say you cannot pass. There- 
fore, go back. 

Men. Has he dined, canst thou tell ? for I 
would not speak with him till after dinner. 
1 G. You are a Roman, are you ? 
Men. I am as thy general is. 

1 G. Then you should hate Rome, as he 
does. Can you, when you have pushed out 
your gates the very defender of them, and in a 
violent popular ignorance given your enemy 
your shield, think to front his revenges with 
the easy groans of old women, the virginal 
palms of your daughters, or with the palsied 
intercession of such a decayed dotant as you 
seem to be? Can you think to blow out the 
intended fire your city is ready to flame in, 
with such weak breath as this ? No, you are 
deceived : therefore, back to Rome, and pre- 
pare for your execution : you arc condemned ; 
our general has sworn you out of reprieve and 
pardon. 

Men. Sirrah, if thy captain knew I were 
here, he would use me with estimation. 

2 G. Come, my captain knows you not. 
Men. I mean, thy general. 

1 G. My general cares not for you. Back, 
I say ; go, lest 1 let forth your half-pint of blood ; 
— back, — that 's the utmost of your having ; — 
back. 

Men. Nay, but feUow, fellow, — 

Enter Coriolaijus and Aufidius. 

Cor. What 's the matter ? 

Men. Now, you companion, I '11 say an errand 
for you ; you shall know now that I am in esti- 
mation ; you shall perceive that a jack guardant 
cannot office me from my son Coriolauus : 
guess, but by my entertainment with him, if 
thou stand'st not i' the state of hanging, or of 
some death more long in spectatorship, and 



crueller in suffering; behold now presently, 
and swoon for what 's to come upon thee. — 
The glorious gods sit in hourly synod about thy 
particular prosperity, and love thee no worse 
than thy old father Menenius does ! 0, my 
son ! my son ! thou art preparing fire for us ; 
look thee, here's water to quench it. I was 
hardly moved to come to thee : but being as- 
sured none but myself could move thee, T have 
been blown out of your gates with sighs : and 
conjure thee to pardon Rome, and thy peti- 
tionary couutrymeu. The good gods assuage 
thy wrath, and turn the dregs of it upon this 
varlet here ; this who, like a block, hath de- 
nied my access to thee. 
Cor. Away ! 
Men. How ! away ? 

Cor. Wife, mother, child, I know not. My 
affairs 
Are servanted to others : Though I owe 
My revenge pi'operly, my remission lies 
In Volcian breasts. That we have been fa- 
miliar, 
Ingrate forgetfulness shall poison rather 
Than pity note how much. — Therefore, be 

gone. 
]\line ears against your suits are stronger than 
Your gates against my force. Yet, for I lov'd 

thee. 
Take this along ; I writ it for thy sake, 

\_Gives a letter. 
And would have sent it. Another word, Me- 
nenius, 
I will not hear thee speak. — This man, Aufidius, 
Was my belov'd in Rome : yet thou behold'st — 
All/. You keep a constant temper. 

\E.veiint CoRioLANUs and Aufidius. 

1 G. Now, sir, is your name Menenius ? 

2 G. 'T is a spell, you see, of much power : 
you know the way home again. 

1 G. Do you hear how we are shent* for 
keeping your greatness back ? 

2 G. What cause, do you think, I have to 
swoon ? 

3Ien. I neither care for the world nor your 
general : for such thmgs as you, I can scarce 
think there's any, you are so slight. He that 
hath a will to die by himself, fears it not fr )m 
another. Let your general do his worst. Tor 
you, be that you are, long ; and your misery 
increase \vith your age ! I say to you, as I was 
said to. Away ! [Exit. 

\ G. k noble fellow, I warrant him. 



" S«en/— rebuked. 



205 



Act v.] 



COIlIOL.iNUS. 



[Scene III. 



2 G. The worthy fellow is our gcucral : He 
is the rock, the oak not to be \n:id-sh;ikcn. 

\_Exeunl. 

SCENE III.— r-i^ tent o/Coriolauus. 
EnUr CoRiOLANUS, Aufidius, and others. 
Cor. Wc M-ill before the walls of Rome to- 

Set down our host. — My partner in this action, 
You must report to the Volcian lords how 

plainly 
I have borne this business. 

Auf. Only their ends 

You have respected ; stopp'd your ears against 
The general suit of Home ; never admitted 
A private whisper, no, not with such friends 
That thought them sure of you. 

Cor. This last old man, 

Whom with a crack'd heart I have sent to Eome, 
Lov'd me above the measure of a father ; 
Nay, godded me, indeed. Their latest refuge 
Was to send him ; for whose old love I have 
(Though I show'd sourly to him) once more offer'd 
The first conditions which they did refuse. 
And cannot now accept, to grace him only 
That thought he could do more ; a very httlc 
I have yielded too : Fresh embassies, and suits. 
Nor from the state, nor private friends, hereafter 
Will I lend ear to. — Ha ! what shout is this ? 

[^Shout within. 
Shall I be tempted to infringe my vow 
In the same time 't is made ? I will not. — 

BiUer ViBGiLU, Volumnia, leading young Mah- 

cius, Valeria, and Attendants. 
My wife comes foremost;^ then the honour'd 

mould 
Wherein this trunk was fram'd, and in her hand 
The grandchild to her blood. But out, affection ! 
All bond and privilege of nature break ! 
Let it be virtuous to be obstinate. — 
What is that curtsy worth ! or those doves' eyes. 
Which can make gods forsworn! — I melt, and 

am not 
Of stronger earth than others. — My mother 

bows ; 
As if Olympus to a molehill bhould 
In suppUcation nod : and my young boy 
Hath an aspect of intercession, which 
Great nature cries, 'Deny not.' — Let tlic Volsces 
Plough Rome, and harrow Italy : I 'il never 
Be such a gosling to obey instinct ; but stand, 
As if a man were author of himself. 
And knew no otlier kin. 

206 



Vir. My lord and husband ! 

Cor. These eyes arc not the same I wore in 
Rome. 

Vir. The sorrow that delivers us thus chaug'd 
Makes you think so. 

Cor. Like a dull actor now, 

I have forgot my part, and I am out. 
Even to a full disgrace. Best of my flesh, 
Eorgivc my tyranny ; but do not say, 
For tiuit, 'Forgive our Romans.' — O, a kiss 
Long as my exile, sweet as my revenge ! 
Now, by the jealous queen of heaven, that kiss 
I carried from thcc, dear, and my true lip 
Hath virgin'd it e'er since. — You gods ! I 

prate,* 
And the most noble mother of the world 
Leave unsaluted : Sink, my knee, i' the earth ; 

\Knecls. 
Of thy deep duty more impression show 
Thau that of common sons. 

Vol. 0, stand up bless'd ! 

Whilst, Anth no softer cushion than the flint, 
I kneel before thee ; and unproperly 
Show duty, as mistaken all this whUc 
Between the child and parent. \Kncels 

Cor. What is this ? 

Your knees to me ? to your corrected son ? 
Then let the pebbles on the hungry beach 
Fillip the stars ; then let the mutinous winds 
Stiike the proud cedars 'gainst the fiery sun ; 
Murd'ring impossibility, to make 
What cannot be, slight work. 

Vol. Thou ai't my warrior ; 

I holp'' to frame thee. Do you know this 
lady? 

Cor. The noble sister of Publicola, 
The moon of Rome ; chaste as the icicle, 
That 's curded by the frost from purest snow. 
And hangs on Dian's temple : Dear Valeria ! 

Vol. This is a poor epitome of yours. 
Which by the interpretation of full time 
May show like all yourself. 

Cor. The god of soldiers, 

With the consent of supreme Jove, infonn 
Thy thoughts with nobleness ; that thou mayst 

prove 
To shame iuvuhierable, and stick i' the wars 
Like a great sea mark, standing every flaw. 
And saving those that eye thee ! 

Vol. Your knee, sirrah. 

Cor. That 's my brave boy. 

Vol. Even he, your wife, this lady, and myself. 
Arc suitors to you. 

» Prate. The original has pray. Wc owe the correction 
to Theobald, 
b Jlolp. In the original hope. Pope made the correctiou. 



Act v.] 



COEIOLAmJS. 



[SCESE III. 



Cor. I beseech you, peace : 

Or, if you'd ask, remember this before, — 
The things I have forsworn to grant may never 
Be held by you denials. Do not bid me 
Dismiss my soldiers, or capitidate 
Again Mith Rome's mechanics : — Tell me not 
AVherein I seem unnatural : Desire not 
To allay my rages and revenges witli 
Your colder reasons. 

Fol. O, no more, no more ! 

You have said you wiU not grant us anything ; 
For we have nothing else to ask but that 
"WTiich you deny already : Yet we wiU ask ; 
That, if you fail in our request, the blame 
May hang upon your hardness ; therefore hear 
us. 
Cor. Aufidius, and you Yolsces, mark ; for 
we'U 
Hear nought from Rome ui private. — Your re- 
quest ? 
Fol. Shoidd we be silent and not speak, our 
raiment 
And state of bodies would bewray what life 
We have led since thy exile. Think with thy- 
self 
How more unfortunate than all living women 
Are we come hither : siuce that thy sight, which 

should 
Make our eyes flow with joy, hearts dance with 

comforts. 
Constrains them weep, and shake with fear and 

sorrow ; 
Making the mother, wife, and child, to see 
The son, the husband, and the father, tearing 
His country's bowels out. And to poor we 
Thine enmity 's most capital : thou barr'st us 
Our prayers to the gods, wliich is a comfort 
That all but we enjoy : For how can we, 
Alas ! how can we for our country pray. 
Whereto we are bound j together with thy 

victory, 
WTiereto we are bound ? Alack ! or we must 

lose 
The country, our dear nurse; or else thy per 

son, 
Our comfort iu the country. We must find 
An evident calamity, though we had 
Our wish, which side should win : for eithei- 

thou 
Must, as a foreign recreant, be led 
With manacles through our streets, or else 
Triumphantly tread on thy country's ruin ; 
And bear the palm, for having bravely shed 
Thy wife and children's blood. For myself, sou, 
[ purpose not to wait on fortune till 



These wars deiermine:^ if I cannot persuade 

thee 
Rather to show a noble grace to both paiis 
Than seek the end of one, thou shalt no sooner 
March to assault tliy country than to tread 
(Trust to't, thou shalt not) on thy mother's 

womb. 
That brought thee to this world. 

Fir. Ay, and mine. 

That brought you forth this boy, to keep your 

name 
Living to time. 

Boy. A' shall not tread on me ; 

I'll run away till I am bigger, but then I'l! 
fight. 
Cor. Not of a woman's tenderness to be. 
Requires nor child nor woman's face to see. 
1 have sat too long. [Rising. 

J'ol. Nay, go not from us thus. 

If it were so that our request did tend 
To save the Romans, thereby to destroy 
The Voices whom you serve, you might con- 
demn us, 
As poisonous of your honour : No ; our suit 
Is that you reconcile them : while the A^olces 
May say, 'This mercy we have show'dj' the 

Romans, 
' This we receiv'd ; ' and each in either side 
Give the all-hail to thee, and cry, ' Be bless'd 
For making up this peace!' Thou know'st, 

great son. 
The end of war 's uncertain ; but this certain. 
That if thou conquer Rome, the benefit 
Which thou shalt thereby reap is such a name, 
Whose repetition will be dogg'd with curses ; 
Whose chronicle thus writ,— 'The man was 

noble. 
But with his last attempt he wip'd it out ; _ 
Destroy'd his country ; and his name remains 
To the eusuiug age abhorr'd.' Speak to me, son : 
Thou hast affected the fine strains of honour. 
To imitate the graces of the gods ; 
To tear with thunder the wide cheeks o' the air, 
And yet to charge thy sulphur with a bolt 
That should but rive an oak. Why dost not 

speak? 
Think'st thou it honourable for a noble man 
Still to remember wrongs ?— Daughter, speak you : 
He cai-es not for your weeping. Speak thou, 

boy : 
Perhaps thy childishness will move hun more 
Than can our reasons.— There is no man iu the 
world 



a Determine— coxae to an end. 



207 



Acv v.] 



COKIOLANUS. 



[Scene iV 



More bound to his motker ; vet here ho lets me 

prate, 
Like one i' the stocks. Thou hast never m thy 

life 
Show'd thy dear mother any courtsey ; 
Wiien she, (poor hen !) fond of no second brood, 
lias cluck'd thee to the ■wars, and safely home, 
Loaden with honour. Sav, my request's unjust, 
And spurn me back : But, if it be not so, 
Thou art not honest ; and the gods will plague 

thee. 
That thou restrain'st from me the duty which 
To a mother's part belongs. — He turns away : 
Down, ladies ! lot us shame him with our 

knees. 
To his surname Coriolanus 'longs more pride 
Than pity to our prayers. Down : An end : 
This is the last :— So we will home to Rome, 
And die among our neighbours. — Nay, behold 

us : 
Tliis boy, that cannot tell what he would have. 
But kneels, and holds up hands, for fellowship. 
Does reason our petition with more strength 
Than thou hast to deny't. — Come, let us go : 
This fellow had a Volscian to his mother; 
His wife is in Corioli, and his child 
Like him by chance : — Yet give us our despatch : 
I am husird until our city be afire, 
And then I '11 speak a little. 

Cor. mother, mother ! 

[Holding VoLUMSiA by the hands, silent. 

What have you done ? Behold, the heavens do 

ope. 
The gods look down, and this unnatural scene 
They laugh at. my mother, mother ! ! 
You have won a happy victory to Eome : 
But, for your son, — believe it, 0, believe it. 
Most dangerously you have with him prevail d, 
If not most mortal to him. But, let it come ; — 
Aufidius, though I cannot make true wars, 
I'll frame convenient peace. Kow, good Au- 
fidius, 
Were you in my stead, would you have heard 
A mother less ? or granted less, Aufidius ? 
Auf. I was mov'd ^vithal. 
Cor. I dare be sworu you were : 

And, sir, it is no little thing to make 
Mine eyes to sweat compassion. But, good sir, 
"What peace you '11 make, advise me : for my 

part, 
1 11 not to Rome, 1 '11 back with you ; and pray 

you, 
Stand to me in this cause. — O mother ! wife ! 
Ah/. I am glad thou hast set thy mercy and 

thy honour 

208 



At dilTcrence in thee : out of that 1 '11 work 
^Myself a former fortune. [Aside. 

[TAe Ladies make signs to Coriolanus. 
Cor. Ay, by and by ; 

[To VOLUMNIA, VlKGILIA, ^C. 

But we will drink together ; and you shall bear 
A better witness back than words, which we, 
Oq like conditions, will have counter-seal'd. 
Come, cuter with us. Ladies, you deserve 
To have a temple built you : all the swords 
In Italy, and her confederate arms. 
Could not have made this peace. [Exeunt. 

SCENE IV.— Rome. A public Place. 

Enter Menenius and Sicinius. 

Men. See you yond' coign o' the Capitol ; 
yond' corner stone ? 

Sic. AA'hy, what of that ? 

Men. If it be possible for you to displace it 
with your little finger, there is some hope the 
ladies of Rome, especially his mother, may pre- 
vail with him. But I say there is no hope in 't ; 
cm- throats are sentenced, and stay upon execu- 
tion. 

Sic. Is 't possible that so short a time can alter 
the condition of a man ? 

Men. There is difiercucy between a grub and 
a buttei-fly; yet your butterfly was a grub. 
This Marcius is grown from man to dragon : he 
has wings ; he 's more than a creeping thing. 
- Sic. He loved his mother dearly. 

Men. So did he me : and he no more remem- 
bers his mother now than an eight year old 
horse. The tartness of his face sours ripe grapes. 
When he walks, he moves like an engine, and 
tlic ground shrinks before his treading. He is 
able to pierce a corslet with his eye ; talks like a 
knell, and his hum is a battery. He sits in his 
state, as a thing made for Alexander. Wliat he 
bids be done is finished with his bidding. He 
wants nothing of a god but eternity, and a heaven 
to throne in. 

Sic. Yes, mercy, if you report him truly. 

Men. I paint him in the character. Mark 
what mercy his mother shall brag from him : 
There is no more mercy in him than there is 
milk in a male tiger ; that shall our poor city 
find : and all this is 'long of you. 

Sic. The gods be good unto us ! 

Men. No, in such a case the gods will not bo 
good unto us. AVhen we banished him we 
respected not them : and he returning to break 
our necks, they respect not us. 



Act v.] 



COEIOLANUS. 



fSCiNi! V. 



Enter a Messenger. 

Mess. Sir, if you 'd save your life, fly to your 
bouse ; 
Tlie plebeians bave got your feUow-tribune, 
And bale bim up and down ; all swearing, if 
Tbe Roman ladies bring not comfort bome, 
Tbey '11 give bim deatb by incbes. 

Enter another Messenger. 



Wbat 's tbe news ? 
news : — Tbe ladies 



Sic. 

Mess. Good news, good 
bave prevail' d, 
Tbe Voleians are dislodg'd, and Marcius gone : 
A merrier day did never yet greet Rome, 
No, not tbe expulsion of tbe Tarquins. 

Sif^- Friend, 

Art tbou certain tbis is tnie? is it most certain? 

Mess. As certain as I know tbe sun is fire : 
Wbere bave you lurk'd, tbat you make doubt 

of it? 
Ne'er tbrougb an arcb so bm-ried tbe blown tide, 
As tbe recomforted tbrougb tbe gates. Wby, 
bark you ! 
\Trumpets and hautboys sounded, and drums 
beaten, all together. Shouting also within. 
Tbe trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries, and fifes, 
Tabors, and cymbals, and tbe sbouting Romans, 
Make tbe sun dance. Hark you ! 

\_Shonting again. 
Men. Tbis is good news : 

I will go meet the ladies. Tbis Volumnia 
Is wortb of consuls, senators, patricians, 
A city full ; of tribunes such as you 
A sea and land full : You bave pray'd weU to- 
day; 
Tbis morning, for ten thousand of your tbroats 
I'd not bave given a doit. Hark, bow tbey joy '. 

[Shouting and music. 
Sic. First, tbe gods bless you for their tidings : 
next, 
Accept my thankfulness. 

3Iess. Sir, we bave all 

Great cause to give great thanks. 
Sic. Tbey are near the city ? 

Mess. Almost at point to enter. 
Sic. We wiU meet them. 

And help tlie joy. [Going, 

Enter the Ladies, accompanied by Senators, 
Patricians, and People. They pass over the 
Stage. 

1 Sen. Behold our patroness, tbe life of Rome : 
Call aU your tribes together, praise the gods. 
And make triumphant fires; strew flowers be- 
fore them : 

Tragedies. — Vol. II. P 



Unsbout the noise tbat bauish'd Marcius, 
Repeal him with the welcome of bis mother ; 
Cry, — Welcome, ladies, welcome ! — 
All. Welcome, ladies, welcome ! 

[AJlourish with druMS and trumpets. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE v.— Antium. A public Place. 

Enter Tullus Aufidius, with Attendants. 

Auf. Go tell tbe lords of the city I am here : 
Deliver them this paper : having read it, 
Bid them repair to the market-place ; wbere T, 
Eveu in theirs and in the commons' ears, 
Will vouch the truth of it. Him I accuse 
The city ports by this bath enter'd, and 
Intends to appear before the people, hoping 
To purge himself with words : Dispatch. 

[Exeunt Attendants. 

Enter Three or Four Conspirators of Aufidius' 

faction. 
Most welcome ! 

1 Con. How is it with our general ? 

Auf. Even so 

As \vitb a man by bis own alms empoison' d, 
And with his charity slain. 

2 Con. Most noble sii*. 
If you do hold the same intent wherein 
You -wish'd us parties, we '11 deliver you 
Of your great danger. 

Auf. Sir, 1 cannot tell ; 

We must proceed as we do find the people. 

3 Con. The people will remain uncertain 

whilst 
'T wdxt you there 's difference ; but tbe fall of 

either 
Maflces tbe survivor heir of all. 

Auf. I know it ; 

And my pretext to strike at bim admits 
A good construction. I rais'd bun, and I pawn'd 
Mine honour for his truth : Who being so heigbt- 

en'd, 
He water'd bis new plants with dews of flattery. 
Seducing so my friends : and, to this end, 
He bow'd his natui-e, never known before 
But to be rough, unswayable, and free. 

3 Con. Sir, his stoutness. 
When be did stand for consul, which be lost 
By lack of stooping, — 

Auf That I would have spoke of .- 

Being bauish'd for 't, be came unto my hearth ; 
Presented to my knife his throat : I took liim ; 
Made him joint-servant with me ; gave bim way 
In aU his own desires ; nay, let him choose 



Act v.] 



COEIOL^mUS. 



[SCESK V, 



Out of my files, Lis projects to acconiplisli, 
My best and freshest men ; scrv'd his desigu- 

ments 
In mine own person ; holp to reap the fame, 
Which he did end all iiis ; and took some pride 
To do myself this wrong : till, at the hist, 
I seera'd his follower, not padncr; and 
lie wag'd me with his countcuance, as if 
I had been mercenary. 

1 Con. So he did, my lord : 

The army marvell'd at it. And, in the last. 
When he had c;irried Rome; and that we look'd 
For no less spoil than glory, — 

Ah/. There was it ; — 

For wliich my sinews shall be stretch'd upon him. 
At a few drops of women's rhenm, which are 
As cheap as lies, ho sold the blood and laboiu- 
Of our great action : Therefore shall he die. 
And 1 '11 renew me in his fall. But, hark ! 

\_Drums and trumpets sound, with great 
shouts of the people. 

1 Con. Youi" native town you euter'd like a 

post, 
And had no welcomes home ; but he returns 
Splitting the air with noise. 

2 Con. And patient fools. 
Whose children he hath slain, their base throats 

tear 
With giving him glory. 

3 Con. Therefore, at yom- vantage. 
Ere he express himself, or move tlic people 
AVith what he would say, let him feel your sword, 
Which we will second. Wlien he lies along. 
After your way his tale prouounc'd shall bm-y 
His reasons with his body. 

Auf. Say uo more ; 

Here come the lords. 

Enter the Lords of the City. 

Tjords. You are most welcome home. 

Auf. I have not deserv'd it ; 

But, worthy lords, have you with heed penis'd 
What I have written to you ? 

Lords. We have. 

1 Lord. And grieve to hear it. 

"What faults he made before the last, I think, 
Might have found easy fines : but there to end 
Where he was to begin, and give away 
The benefit of our levies, answermc us 
With our own charge ; making a treaty where 
There was a yielding, — this admits no excuse. 

Auf. lie approaches ; you shall hear him. 

Enter C'ORlOLAXfs, tcith drums and colours ; a 
crowd of Citizens icith him. 
Cor. Uail, lords! I am retuni'd your soldier;* 

•J.O 



No more infected with my country's love 
Than when I parted hence, but still subsisting 
Under your great command. You are to know, 
That prosperously I have attempted, and 
With bloody passage led your wars, even to 
The gates of Itome. Our spoils we have brought 

home 
Do more tlian counterpoise, a full third part, 
The charges of the action. AVe have made 

peace. 
With no less honour to the Autiates, 
Than shame to the Romans: and we here deliver. 
Subscribed by the consuls and patricians. 
Together with the seal o' the senate, what 
We have compounded on. 

Auf. Read it not, noble lords ; 

But tell tlie traitor, in the highest degree 
He hath abus'd your powers. 

Cor. Tnulor ! — How now ? — 

Auf Ay, traitor, Marcius. 

Cor. Marcius ! 

Aif. Ay, Marcius, Caius Marcius : Dost thou 
think 
I '11 grace tlice with that robbery, thy stol'n name 
Coriolanus in Corioli ? 

You lords and heads of the state, perfidiously 
He has betray'd yom* business, and given up, 
For certain drops of salt, your city Rome 
(I say, your city) to his wife and mother : 
Breaking his oath and resoluiion, like 
A twist of rotten silk ; never admitting 
Counsel o' the war ; but at his nurse's tears 
He whin'd and roar'd away your victory ; 
That pages blush'd at him, and men of heart 
Look'd wondering each at other. 

Cor. Hear'st thou. Mars ? 

Auf. Name not the god, thou boy of tears,— 

Cor. . Ha ! 

Jjf. No more. 

Cor. Measureless liar, thou hast made my 
heart 
Too great for what contains it. Boy ! O slave! — 
Pardon me, lords, 't is the first time that ever 
I was forc'd to scold. Your judgments, my 

grave lords. 
Must give this cui* the lie : and his own notion 
(Who wears my stripes impress'd on him, that 

must bear 
My beating to his grave) shall join to thrust 
The lie unto him. 

1 Lord. Peace, both, and hear me speak. 

Cor. Cut me to pieces, Volsccs; men and lads, 
Stain all youi* edges on me. — Boy ! False hound ! 
If you have \vrit youi- annals true, 't is there. 
That, like an eagle in a dove-cote, I 



AiT v.] 



CORIOLANUS. 



Sceml V. 



Flutter'd your Volscians in Corioii: 
Alone I did it. — Boy ! 

Aiif. Why, noble lords, 

Will you be put in mind of his blind fortune, 
Which was your shame, by this unholy braggart. 
Tore your own eyes and ears ? 

Con. Let him die for 't. 

\_Several speak at once. 

at. [Speaking promiscuousli/.'] Tear him to 
pieces, do it presently. He killed my son ; — my 
daughter ; — He killed my cousin Marcus ; — He 
killed my father. — 

2 Lord. Peace, ho ! — no outrage ; — peace ! 
The mau is noble, and his fame folds in 
This orb o' the earth. His last offences to us 
Shall have judicious'* hearing.— Stand, Aufldius, 
And trouble not the peace. 

Cor. 0, that I had him, 

With six Aufidiuses, or more, his tribe, 
To use my lawful sword ! 

Auf. Insolent villain ! 

Con. Km, kill, kill, kill, kill him ! 

[AuFiDiTJS and the Conspirators draw, and 
kill CoRiOLANUS, who falls, and Atji'I- 
DIXJS stands on him. 

lA)rds. Hold, hold, hold, hold ! 

Auf. My noble masters, hear me speak. 

1 Lord. O Tullus,— 

2 Lord. Thou hast done a deed whereat 

valour will weep. 

a yKdJcioui— judicial. 



3 Lord. Tread not upon him. — Masters all, 
be quiet ; 
Put up your swords. 

Auf. My lords, when you shall know (as in 
this rage, 
Provok'd by him, you cannot) the great danger 
"\Yliich this man's life did owe you, you 'U rejoice 
That he is thus cut off. Please it your honours 
To call me to your senate, I '11 deliver 
Myself your loyal servant, or endure 
Your heaviest censure. 

1 Lord. Bear from hence his body, 
And mourn you for him : let him be regarded 
As the most uoble corse that ever herald 

Did follow to his urn. 

2 Lord. His own impatience 
Takes from Aufldius a great part of blame. 
Let 's make the best of it. 

Atf. My rage is gone, 

And I am struck with sorrow. — Take him up : — 
Help, three o' the chiefest soldiers; I'll be 

one. — 
Beat thou the dnim that it speak mournfully : 
Trail your steel pikes. — Though in this city he 
Hath widow'd and unchilded many a one, 
Which to this hour bewail the injury. 
Yet he shall have a noble memory. 
Assist. 

[Exeunt, bearing the body of CoRIOLA^■us. 
./ dead march sounded. 




[lloman Tomb and Fragments. J 



I 



<=!rC«:#r 




J' I'ebbles on the hungry beach.'] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT Y 



' Scene I. — " He would not seem to know me." 

We continue our extracts from North's ' Plutarch : ' 
" So they all agreed together to send ambassadors 
unto him, to let him understand how his country- 
men did call him home again, and restored him to 
all his goods, and besought him to deliver them 
from this war. The ambassadors that were sent 
were Martius's familiar friends and acquaintance, 
who looked at the least for a courteous welcome of 
him, as of their familiar friend and kinsman. How- 
beit they found nothing less ; for, at their coming, 
they were brought through the camp to the place 
where he was set in his chair of state, with a mar- 
vellous and an unspeakable majesty, having the 
chiefest men of the Voices about him : sn he com- 
manded them to declare openly the cause of their 
coming, which they delivered in the most humble 
and lowly words they possibly could devise, and 
with all modest countenance and behaviour agree- 
able to the same. When they had done their mes- 
sage, for the injury they had done him he answered 
them very hotly and in great choler ; but as general 
of the Voices, ho willed them to restore imto the 
Voices all their lands and cities they had taken 
from them in former vr.irs ; an' i , moreover, that they 
should give thcni the like honour and freedom of 
Rome as they had before given to the Latins. For 
otherwi.ac they had no other mean to end this wars 
if they did not grant these honest and just condi- 
tions of peace." 
212 



- Scene III. — " My wife comes foremost." 

"She took her daughter-in-law, and Martius's 
children, with her, and, being accompanied with all 
the other Roman ladies, they went in troop toge- 
ther imto the Voices' camp ; whom, when they saw, 
they of themselves did both i^ity and reverence her, 
and there was not a man among them that once 
durst say a word unto her. Now was Martins set 
then in his chair of state, with all the honours of a 
general, and when lie had spied the women coming 
afar off, he marvelled what the matter meant; but 
afterwards, knowing his wife which came foremost, 
he detei-mined at the first to persist in his obstinate 
and inflexible rancour. But, overcome in the end 
with natural affection, and being altogether altered 
to see them, his heart would not serve him to tany 
their coming to his chair, but, coming down in ha.ste, 
he went to meet them, an<l first he kissed his mo- 
ther, and embraced her a pretty while, then his 
wife and little children ; and nature so wrought with 
him that the tears fell from his eyes, and he could 
not keep himself froni making much of them, but 
yielded to the affection of his blood, as if he had 
been violently carried with the fury of a most swift 
running stream. After he had thus lovingly re- 
ceived them, and perceiving that his mother Vo- 
lumnia would begin to speak to him, he called the 
chiefest of the council of tbe Voices to hear what 
she would say. Then she spake in this sort : — ' If 
wo held our peace (my son), and determined not to 



COEIOLANUS. 



speak, the state of oui* poor bodies, and present 
sight of otir raiment, would easily betray to thee 
what life we have led at home, since thy exile and 
abode abroad ; but think now with thyself, how 
much more unfortunate than all the women living 
we are come hither, considering that the sight 
which should be most pleasant to all other to 
behold, spiteful Fortune hath made most fearful to 
us ; making myself to see my son, and my daughter 
here her husband, besieging the walls of his native 
country ; so as that which is the only comfort to 
all other in their adversity and misery, to pray unto 
the gods, and to call to them for aid, is the only 
thing which plungeth us into most deep perplexity. 
For we cannot (alas !) together pray both for vic- 
tory to our country, and for safety of thy life also ; 
but a world of grievous curses, yea, more than any 
mortal enemy can heap upon us, are forcibly wrap- 
ped up in our prayers. For the bitter sop of most 
hard choice is offered thy wife and children, to 
forego one of the two — either to lose the person 
of thyself, or the nurse of their native country. 
For myself, my son, I am determined not to tarry 
till fortune in my lifetime do make an end of this 
war. For if I cannot persuade thee rather to do 
good unto both parties, than to overthrow and 
destroy the one, i:)referring love and nature before 
the malice and calamity of wai's, thou shalt see, 
my son, and trust unto it, thou shalt no sooner 
march forward to assault thy country, but thy 
foot shall tread upon thy mother's womb, that 
brought thee first into this world. And I may not 
defer to see the day, either that my sou be led 
prisoner in triumph by his natural countiymen, or 
that he himself do triumph of them and of his 
natural country. For if it were so that my request 
tended to save thy country in destroying the 
Voices, I must confess thou wouldst hardly and 
doubfuUy resolve on that. For as to destroy thy 
natural country, it is altogether unmeet and un- 
lawful ; so were it not just, and less honourable, 
to betray those that put their trust in thee. But 
my only demand consisteth to make a gaol-de- 
liveiy of all evils, which delivereth equal benefit 
and safety both to the one and the other, but most 
honourable for the Voices. For it shall appear 
that, having victory in their hands, they have of 
special favour granted us singular graces, peace, 
and amity, albeit themselves have no less part of 
both than we ; of which good, if so it come to 
pass, thyself is the only author, and so hast thou 
the only honour. But if it fail, and fall out con- 
trary, thyself alone deservedly shall carry the 
shameful reproach and burden of either party ; so, 
though the end of war be uncertain, yet this not- 
withstanding is most certain, — that, if it be thy 
chance to conquer, this benefit shalt thou reap of 
thy goodly conquest, to be chronicled the plague 
and destroyer of thy country. And if fortune 
overthrow thee, then the world will say, that 
through desire to revenge thy private injuries, thou 
hast for ever imdone thy good friends, who did 
most lovingly and courteously receive thee.' Mar- 
tins gave good ear unto his mother's words, without 
interrupting her speech at all, and, after she had 
said what she would, he held his peace a pretty 
while, and answered not a word. Hereupon she 
began again to speak unto him, and said — ' My sou, 
why dost thou not answer me ? dost thou think it 



good altogether to give place unto thy choler and 
desire of revenge, and thinkest thou it not honesty 
for thee to gi-ant thy mother's request in so weighty 
a cause ? dost thou take it honourable for a noble 
man to remember the wrongs and injuries done 
him, and dost not, in like case, think it an honest 
noble man's part to be thankful for the goodness 
that parents do show to their children, acknow- 
ledging the duty and reverence they ought to bear 
unto them ? No man living is more bound to show 
himself thankful in all parts and respects than 
thyself, who so universally showestall ingratitude. 
Moreover, my son, thou hast sorely taken of thy 
country, exacting grievous payments upon them iu 
revenge of the injuries offered thee ; besides, thou 
hast not hitherto showed thy poor mother any 
courtesy, and therefore it is not only honest, but 
due unto me, that, without compulsion, I should 
obtain my so just and reasonable request of thee. 
But since by reason I cannot persuade .thee to it, 
to what fiurpose do I defer my last hope ? ' And 
with these words, herself, his wife and children, fell 
down upon their knees before him. Martius, seeing 
that, could refrain no longer, but went straight 
and lift her up, crying out, ' Oh, mother, what have 
you done to me ? ' And, holding her hard by the 
right hand, ' Oh, mother,' said he, ' you have won 
a happy victory for your country, but mortal and 
unhappy for your son ; for I see myself vanquished 
by you alone.' These words being .spoken openly, 
he spake a little apart with his mother and wife, 
and then let them return again to Rome, for so 
they did request him ; and so, remaining in camp 
that night, the nest morning he dislodged, and 
marched homeward into the Voices' country 
again." 

^ Scene V.—" Hail, lords I I am, retunCd your 
soldier." 

" Xow, when Martius was returned again into the 
city of Antium from his voyage, Tullus, that hated 
and could no longer abide him for the fear he had 
of his authority, sought divers means to make him 
away, thinking that, if he let slip that present time, 
he should never recover the like and fit occasion 
again. Wherefore Tullus, having procured many 
other of his confederacy, required ^lartius might be 
deposed from his estate, to render up account to the 
Voices of his charge and government. Martius, 
fearing to become a private man again, under Tullus, 
being general (whose authority was greater, other- 
wise, than any other among all the Voices), an- 
swered — he was willing to give up his charge, and 
would resign it into the hands of the lords of the 
Voices if they did all command him, as by all 
their commandment he received it ; and, more- 
over, that he would not refuse even at that present 
to give up an account imto the people, if they would 
tarry the heai-ing of it. The people hereupon called 
a common council, iu which assembly there were 
certain orators appointed, that stirred up the com- 
mon people against him : and when they had told 
their tales, Martius rose up to make them answer. 
Now, notwithstanding the mutinous people made a 
marvellous great noise, yet, when they s;iw him, for 
the reverence they bare unto his valiantness they 
quieted themselves, and gave him audience to al- 
lege with leisure what he could for his purgation. 

213 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 



Moreover, the houestest nieu of the Antiates, and 
who most rejoiced in peace, showed by their coun- 
tenance that they would hear him willingly, and 
judge also according to their conscience. Where- 
iipon Tulhis, fearing that if he did let him speak 
he would jrove his innocency to the j^cople, be- 
cause, amongst other things, he had an eloquent 
tongue ; besides that, the first good service he had 
done to the people of the Voices, did win him more 
favour than these last accusations could purchase 
him displeasure; and furthermore, the offence they 
laid to his charge was a testimony of the good will 
they ought him ; for they would never have 
'iiought he had done them wrong for that he 



took not the city of Rome, if they had not been 
very near taking of it by means of his approach 
and conduction ; — for these causes, Tullus thought 
he might no longer delay his pretence niKl enter- 
prise, neither to tairy for the mutining and rising 
of the common people against him : wherefore 
those that were of the conspiracy began to cry 
out that he was not to be heard, and that they 
would not suffer a traitor to usurp tyrannical 
power over the tribe of the Voices, who would not 
yield up his state and authority. And in saying 
these words they all fell upon him, and liilled him 
in the market-place, .none of the people once of- 
ferine: to rescue him." 




LK>mMe as Coriolnnns.] 



' 



I 

t ! 

•I ■ 

?! 

li 
i\ 



I 




[llonicin Standard r.earers.] 



INTRODUCTOEY NOTICE. 



Stath of the Text, and Chronology, op Julius Caesar. 

' The Tragedy of Julius Cfesar' was first printed iu the folio collection of 1623. This play, as well 
as Coriolanus, and Antony and Cleopatra, was entered in the Stationers' registers amongst those 
copies " not formerly entered to other men. ' The text is divided into acts ; and the stage directions 
are full and precise. Taken altogether, we know no play of Shakspere's that presents so few 
difficulties arising out of inaccui'acies in the original edition. There are some half-dozen passages 
in which there are manifest typographical errox's, such as occur in every modern book, even when 
it is printed under the eye of the author. There are one or two others in which we can scarcely 
venture to make alteration, although it is pretty manifest that error does exist. For example 
in the second act, Brutus, addressing Conspiracy, says — 

" Wliere wilt thou find a cavern dark enough 
To mask thy monstrous visage? Seek none, Conspiracy ; 
Hide it in smiles, and affability: 
For if thou path, thy native semblance on," &c. 

Johnson explains this, " If thou walk in thy true form." Coleridge says, " Surely, there need 
be no scruple in treating this path as a mere misprint or misscript for put." We are inclined to 
agree with him, for fxUte might be easily mistaken for pathe ; but we do not alter the passage, for 

21? 



1 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE 

there is a menning in it as it sUukIs. On the contrary, when Cxsar says that the couchings 
Cimber might 

■ Turn pro-ordinanrc and first decree 
Into the law of children, 

we reject the laru of the original as clearly wrong. 

lu the Introductory Notice to Coriolanua we expressed our opinion that the entry in the Stationers' 
registers in 1608 of ' a book called Anthony and Cleopatra' did not determine the date of Shakepere's 
tragedy; for the proprietors of the folio enter that tragedy in 1C23 as "not formerly entered." There 
was a careful avoidance of publishing any of Shakspero's dramas after 1603. What were published 
were piratically obtained. We believe the 'Anthony and Cleopatra' entered in 1608 was some other 
work. Malone has very sensibly remarked that there are passages in Shakspere's Antouj and 
Cleopatra which appear to discover " such a knowledge of the appropriated characters of the pereons 
exhibited in Julius Caesar, and of the events there dilated and enlarged upon, as Shakspcre would 
necessarily have acquired from having previously -written a play on that subject." The passages do 
not BO much point to the general historical notion of the characters as to the poet's own mode of 
treating them. This would imjily that the play of Julius Cresar had preceded that of Antony and 
Cleopatra. But there is nothing to lis the exact time when either of them was written. We believe 
that they were amongst the latest works of Shakspere. 



Sdi'poeed Source ov tds Tlot. 

We have given, as Illustrations to each act, very full extracts from North's translation of Plutarch. 
Shakspere is to be traced in each of the three lives of Julius Ctcsar, Autonius, and Brutus ; and we 
have selected those passages from the several narratives of the same events which appear to have 
furnished the poet with the fullest materials. 



SCENEiB. 

We are indebted to Mr. A. Poynter for six designs for this tragedy. The principle by which Mr. 
Poynter haq been guided in making these drawings is thus explained by himself in a note to the 
editor : — " Augustus foimd Rome of brick and left it of marble. I am inclined to think it would 
be an ungrateful task to illustrate the Home of brick : — the attempt would produce nothing either 
true or interesting. I propose, therefore, to give the Forum, the Capitol, &c., not as scenes but as 
illuttralions, and to represent them as tbey actually were some two centuries later." 



218 




Juomaii Soldier'i,^ 



Costume. 

From the reign of Augustvis downwards innumerable authorities exist for the civil and military costume 
of the Romans; but before that period much obscurity remains to be dispersed, notwithstanding the 
labours of many learned men. 

Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth King of Rome, an Etruscan by birth, introduced among the Romans 
many of the manners and habits of his native country. He first distinguished the senators and 
magistrates by particular robes and ornaments, surroimded the axes carried before great public 
functionaries with bundles of rods (fasces), and established the practice of triumphing in a golden car 
drawn by four horses. The toga pura, prastexta, and picta, the trabea, the paludamentum, the tunica 
palmata, and the curule chairs, were all derived from the Etruscans, and from the Greeks and 
Etruscans the early Romans borrowed also their arms, both offensive and defensive. Polybius extols 
the readiness of the Romans in adopting such foreign customs as were preferable to their own. It is 
therefore, amongst Grecian and Etrurian remains that we must look for the illustration of such points 
as are still undecided respecting the habits of the Romans during the commonwealth, and not on the 
columns and arches of the emperors, which may almost be termed the monuments of another nation. 
The date assigned to the death of Caius Marcius Coriolanus is B.C. 488. Julius Ccesar was assassinated 
B.C. 44. During four hundred years little alteration took place in the habiliments of the Romans, and 
the civil and military dress of the earher play may, with very few exceptions, be worn by similar 
personages in the other, and exhibit together the most particular drcses in use during the whole 
period of the republic. 

219 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

The civil dress of the higher classes amongst the ancient Romans consistdl of a woollen tunic, ovei 
which, in public, was worn the toga. The toga was also of wool, and its colour, during the earlier 
ages, of its o\vn natural yellowish hue. It was a robe of honour, which the common people were 
not permitted to wear, and it was laid aside in times of mourning and public calamities. The 
form of the toga has been a hotly-contested point; Dionysius of Halicamassus says it was semicircular; 
and an ingenious foreigner,* who devoted many years to the inquiry, has practically demonstrated 
that, though not perfectly semicircular, its shape was such as to be better described by that term than 
any other. 

The Roman tunic was of different lengths, according to the caprice of the wearer; but long 
tunics were deemed effeminate during the time of the republic. Cicero, speaking of the luxury of 
Catiline's companions, says they wore tunics reaching to their heels, and that their togas were as 
large as the sails of a ship. Some wore two or more tunics ; the interior one, which held the place 
of the modern shirt, was called intcrula or suhucida. The subucula of Augustus was of wool, 
according to Suetonius; and there does not appear any proof that linen was used for this garment 
by men before the time of Alexander Severus, who, according to Lampridius, was particularly fond 
of fine linen. Women, however, appear to have generally used it, for Van-o mentions, as an 
extraordinary circumstance, that it had long been the custom of the females of a particular Roman 
family not to wear linen garments. 

The common people wore over their tunics a kind of mantle or surtout, called lacerna, which was 
fastened before with a buckle, and had a hood attached to it {cucidlus). It was generally made of 
wool, and dyed black or brown. In the time of Cicero it was a disgrace for a senator to adopt such 
a habit ; but it was afterwards worn by the higher orders. The luThus was a similar vestment, 
also with a hood, but usually of a red colour. "When travelling, the heads of the higher classes were 
generally covered by the petasus, a broad-brimmed hat, which they had borrowed from the Greeks. 
The common people wore the pileiis, a conical cap, which was also the emblem of liberty, because it 
was given to slaves when they were made fi'ee.f 

Various kinds of covering are mentioned for the feet, and many were called by the Romans 
calceus which are found under their own n.imes, as pei'o, mulleus, phajcasium, caliga, solea, crepida, 
sandalium, baxea, &c. The caliga was the sandal of the Roman soldiei'y,+ such has had nails or 
spikes at the .bottom. The pero is supposed by some to be the boot worn by the senators ; the 
phtEcasium was also a kind of boot, covering the foot entirely. According to Appianus, it was of 
white leather, and worn originally by the Athenian and Alexandrian i^riesthood at sacrifices : it was 
worn in Rome by women and effeminate persons. Petronius, who wore it and called himself a soldier, 
was asked by a legionary if in his army soldiers marched with the phoecasium : — 

' Age vero, in exercitu vestro phscasiati milit»s ambulant ? " 

The mulleus is described by Dion Cassius as coming up to the middle of the leg, though it did 
not cover the whole foot, but only the sole, like a sandal : it was of a red colour, and originally 
worn by the Alban kings. 

The cothurnus, which Dion says it resembled both in colour and fashion, is described by Sidonius 
ApoUinaris as having a ligature attached to the sole, which passed between the great and second 
toes, and then divided into two bands. And Virgil tells us that it was worn by the Tyriau virgins.§ 

The armour of the Romans at the commencement of the republic consisted, according to Livy, of 



• The late Mons. Combre, costumier to tlie Theatre Fr-inyais, Paris. This intelligent person, at the recommendation o( 
Talma and Mr. Ch.irlcs Young, was engaged by Mr. Charles Kcnible, during his management of Covent Garden Theatre, 
for the revival of Julius Caesar, and made th« beautiful togas which have since been worn in all the Roman plays at that 
theatre, 
t Vide Persius, Sat. 5, thus translated by Dryden : — 

" What further can we from our caps receive, • 

But as wc please without control to live? " 
Suetonius (in Nero, cap. Ivii.) 8.-iys, " Mors Neronis tantum gaudiura publiciB prsebuit ut plebs pilcata tota urbe dis- 
currcret." 

I Hence Juvenal (Sat. IC) and Suetonius fin Augustus, 25) use the term caligali for tlie common soldiers, without the 
addition of a substantive. 

§ " Virpinibus Tyriis mos est gcstare pharetram, 

Purjiureoque alte suras vincire cothurno.'— jCn. 2. 
See many varieties of the mulleus and cothurnus in the paintings discovered at Ilcrculanxum. 
tented wearing the cothurnus. 

220 



Diana is generally lepre- 



JULIUS C^SAR. 

the galea, the cassia, the clypeus, the ocrecB or greaves, and the lorica, all of brass. This was the 
Etruscan attire, and introduced by Servius Tullius. The lorica, like the French cuirass, was so called 
from having been originally made of leather. It followed the line of the abdomen at bottom, and 
seems to have been impressed whilst wet with forms corresponding to those of the human body, and 
this peculiarity was preserved in its appearance when it was afterwards made of metal. At top, the 
square aperture for the throat was guarded by the pcctorale, a band or plate of brass; and the 
shoidders were likewise protected by pieces made to slip over each other. The galea and cassis were 
two distinct head-pieces originally, the former, like the loi-ica, being of leather, and the latter of metal : 
but in the course of time the words were applied indifferently.* 

Polybius has furnished us with a very minute account of the military equipment of the Eomans of 
his time ; and it is from his description, and not from the statues, which have been generally con- 
sidered as authorities, but which are in truth of a considerably later date, that we muit collect 
materials for the military costume of the latter days of the republic. 

He tells us then that the Roman infantry was divided into four bodies : the yoimgest men and of 
the lowest condition were set apart for the light-armed troops {velites); the next in age were called 
the haslati; the third, who were in their full strength and vigour, the principes ; and the oldest of 
all were called triarii.f The velites were armed with swords, light javelins (a cubit and a span 
in length), and bucklers of a circular foi-m, three feet in diameter; and they wore on their heads 
some simple covering, like the skin of a wolf or other animal The hastati wore complete armour, 
which consisted of a shield of a convex surface, two feet and a half broad and four feet or four feet 
and a palm in length, made of two planks glued together, and covered, first with linen and then with 
calves' skin, having in its centre a shell or boss of iron ; on their right thigh a sword, called the 
Spanish sword, made not only to thrust but to cut with either edge, the blade remarkably firm and 
strong; two piles or javelins, one stouter than the other, but both about six cubits long; a brazen 
helmet; and greaves for the legs. JJpon the helmet was worn an ornament of three upright 
feathers, either black or red, about a cubit in height, which, being placed on the very top of their 
heads, made them seem much taller, and gave them a beautiful and terrible appearance. Their 
breasts were protected by the pectorale of brass : but such as were rated at more than ten thousand 
drachmae wore a ringed lorica. The principes and triarii were armed in the same manner as the 
hastati, except only that the triarii carried pikes instead of javelins. The Roman cavalry, the same 
author tells us, were in his time armed like the Greeks, but that, anciently, it was very different, for 
they then wore no armour on their bodies, but were covered in the time of action with only an 
under garment; they were thereby enabled certainly to mount and dismount with great facility, 
but they were too much exposed to danger in close engagements. The spears, also, that were in 
use amongst them in former times, were in a double respect unfit for service : first, as they were of 
slender make, and always trembled in the hand, it was extremely difficult to direct them with any 
certainty, and they were sometimes shaken to pieces by the mere motion of the horse ; and, secoudly, 
the lower end not being armed with iron, they were formed only to strike with the point, and, when 
broken with this stroke, became useless. Their bucklers were made of the hide of an ox, and in fonn 
not unlike to the globular dishes which were used in sacrifices ; but these were also of too infirm 
a texture for defence, and, when relaxed by weather, were utterly spoiled. Observing these defects, 
therefore, they changed their weapons for those of the Greeks. 

The siguiferi, or standard-bearers, seem to have been habited like their fellow-soldiers, with the 
exception of the scalp and mane of a lion which covered then- heads and hung down on their 
shoulders. The eagles of Brutus and Cassius were of silver. The lictors, according to Petronius, 
wore white habits, and from the following passage of Cicero it would appear they sometimes 
wore the saga, or paludameutum, aud sometimes a small kind of toga : — " Togulaj ad poi-tam 
lictoribus praesto fuerunt quibua illi acceptis sagula rejecerunt." The fa.sces were bound with 
purple ribbons. The axes were taken from them by Publicola ; but T. Lartius, the first dictator, 
restored them. The augurs wore the frabca of purple and scarlet ; that is to say, dyed first with 
one colour and then with the other. Cicero uses the word "dibaphus," twice dyed, for the 



Vide Sir S. Meyiick's ' Crit. Inquiry,' Introduction. 



Uonii 
D. '/fo2. 



Our tusinRss here is only with the dress of the soldiery ; but those who wish for further particulars respecting the 
i; n legions will do well to consult Mons. le Beau's luminous account in the ' Acadeniie des Inscripticfls,' tome xxxv. 



211 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

augural robe (Epist, Fam., lib. 12. IC); auJ iu another passage calls it "our purple," being himself 
a member of the college of augurs. The shape of the aforesaid trabea is another puzzle for the 
antiquiu-ies. Dionysius of Halicarnasaus says plainly enough that it only differed from the toga in 
the quality of its stuff; but Kubeuius would make it appear from the lines of Virj^il — 

•' I'arvaque sedcbat 
Succinctus trabea." — .''En. " — 

that it was shoi-t, and resembled the paludamentum, for which reason he says the salii (priests of 
Mars), who are sometimes termed " trabcati," are called "paludati" by Festus. 

The Roman women originally wore the toga as well as the men, but they soon abandoned it for the 
Greek pallium, an elegant mantle, under which they wore a tunic descending in graceful folds to the 
feet, called the stola.* 

Another exterior habit was called the peplum, also of Grecian origin. It is very difl&cult, says 
Montfaucon, to distinguish these habits one from the other. There was also a habit called crocota, 
most probably because it was of a saffron colour, as we are told it was worn not only by the women, 
but effeminate men, revellers, and buffoons.t 

The fashions of ladies' head dresses changed aa often in those times as they do now. Vitta and 
fascia, ribbons or hllcts, were the most simple and respectable ornaments for the hair. Ovid par- 
ticularly mentions the former as the distinguishing badges of honest matrons and chaste virgins.t 

The calantica was, according to some, a coverchief. Servius says the mitra was the same thing 
as the calantica, though it anciently signified amongst the Greeks a ribbon, a fillet, a zone.§ 
Ajiother coverchief called flammeum, or flammeolum, was worn by a new-married female on the 
wedding-day. According to Nonius, matrons also wore the flammeum, and TertuUian seems to 
indicate that in his time it was a common ornament which Christian women wore also. The 
caliendrum, mentioned by Horace (i. Sat. viii. 48), and aftenvards by Arnobius, was a round of 
false hair which women added to their natural locks, in order to lengthen them and improve their 
appearance. The Roman ladies wore bracelets {arniilla) of silver, or gilt metal, and sometimes 
of pure gold, necklaces, and earrings. Pliny says, "they seek the pearl in the Red Sea, and the 
emeralds in the depths of the earth. It is for this they pierce their ears." These earrings were 
extremely long, and sometimes of so great a price, says Seneca, that " a pair of them would con- 
sume the revenue of a rich house;" and again, that "the folly of them (the women) was such, 
that one of them would carry two or three patrimonies hanging at her ears." Green and vei-mi- 
lion were favourite colours, both ^vith Greek and Roman females. Such garments were called 
"vestes herbidse," from the hue and juice of the herbs with which they were stained. The 
rage for green and vermilion was of long duration, for Cyprian and TertuUian, inveighing against 
luxury, name particularly those colours as most agreeable to the women; and Martian Capella, 
who wrote in the fifth century, even says, "Floridam discoloremque vestem herbida palla con- 
teiuerat." At banquets, and on joyful occasions, white dresses were made use of. || Among 
the many colours in request with gentlewomen, Ovid reckons "albeutes rosaa" (de Ait. iii. v. 189); 
and at v. 191 he says — 

" .\lba decent fuscas : albis, es Cephei placebas." 

In TibuUus we meet with the following passage : — 

" Urit seu Tyria voluit procedere pillaj 
Urit seu nivea caadida veste venit." — Eleg. iv. 2. 

Having thus ^ven a sketch of the general costume of the Romans, we will proceed to notice 

• " Ad talos stolaet demusa circumdata palla." — Horace, lib. i.. Sat. !, 99. 

t Yellow was always considered effeminate amongst the Romans, and the votaries of pleasure are generally described 
in it. See also a painting of vocal and instrumental performers found at Portici, A.D. 1701. 

t " Estc procul vittae tenues insigne pudoris." — Mctain., lib. i., fab. 9. 
And describing the chaste Daphne, he says, 

" Vitta coercebat positos sine lege capUlos." — Met. lib. i. 

§ " Unde mitram solvere quod metaphorice signiflcabat cum virgine coDcumberc." — .Montfaucon, Ant. £x;liq. 
tome iii. p. -It. 

1 Staekius, Ant. Con. IL 26. 
222 



JULIUS CJ^SAR 

such peculiarities as are requisite to distinguish the dr:42i«,iis persona cf the Roman plays of 
Shakspere. 

The dress of the ancient Roman consuls consisted of the tunic, called from its ornament latidavian, 
the toga pratexta (L e. bordered with purple), and the red sandals called mullei. Of all the disputed 
points before alluded to, that which has occasioned the most controversy is the distinguishing mark of 
the senatorial and equestrian classes. 

The latus clavus is said to have been the characteristic of the magistrates and senators, and the 
angustus clavus that of the equites or knights. 

That it was a purple ornament we learn from Pliny * and Ovid ; but concerning its shape there 
are almost as many opinions as there have been pages written on the subject, not one of the 
ancients having taken the trouble to describe what to them was a matter of no curiosity, or by 
accident dropped a hiut which "might serve as a clue to the enigma. Some antiquarians contend that 
it was a round knob or naU with which the tunic was studded ah. over ; others that it was a flower ; 
some that it was a fibula ; some that it was a ribbon worn like a modem order ; and others, again, that 
it was a stripe of purple wove in or sewn on the tunic ; but these last are divided among themselves 
as to the direction in which this stripe ran.f 

The learned Pere Montfaucon, in his 'Antiquite ExpUquee p>ar les Figures,' observes that Lam- 
pridius, in his ' Life of Alexander Severus,' says that at feasts napkins were used adorned with 
scarlet clavi, " clavata cocco mantili-.u" These clavi were also seen in the sheets that covered the 
beds on which the ancients lay to take their meals. Ammianus Marcellinus also tells us that a table 
was covered with cloths so ornamented, and disposed in such a manner, that the whole appeared like 
the habit of a prince. 

Upon this Montfaucon ingeniously remarks, that, presuming the clavus to be a stripe or band of 
purple running round the edges of these cloths, it would not be diificult by laying them one over the 
other to show nothing but their borders, and thei-eby present a mass of pui-ple to the eye, which 
might of course be very properly compared to the habit of a prince, but that this could not be 
effected were the cloths merely studded with purple knobs, or embroidered with purple flowers, as 
in that case the white ground must inevitably jippear. In addition to this, he observes that St. Basil, 
in explanation of a passage in- Isaiah, says, he blames the luxury of women "who border their 
garments with purple, or who insert it into the stuff itself;" and that St. Jerome, on the same 
passage, uses the expression of " daiatum purpura." 

Now, though these observations go some way towards proving the clavus to have been a band or 
stripe (broad for the senators and narrow for the knights), we are as much in the dark as ever 
i-especting the direction it took. It could not have hovdered the tunic, or surely, like that of the 
Spaniards,^ it would have been called prsctexta (as the toga was when so ornamented). On the line 
in Horace — 

" Latum demisH pectore clavum." — Sat. 1, 6, 28 — 

a commentator (Torreutius) says, "recto ordine descendebat insuti clavi vel intexti " — the clavi 
sewn on, or woven into, the garment, descended in a right line ; but if he founded this conjecture 
simply on the word " demisit," he did not recollect that the ornament gave its name to the garment, 
and that the tunic itself ia repeatedly called the latus clavus by the ancient writers. Hoi-ace might, 
therefore, merely allude to the tunic of the wearer hanging loosely and negligently down upon the 
breast, an affectation of weaving it which is imputed to Julius Ca;sar. Nothing, in short, appears likely 
to solve this difficulty but the discoveiy of some painting of Roman times, in which colour may afford 
the necessary information. 

Noble Roman youths wore the prtetexta, and the bulla, a golden ornament, which, from the rare 
specimen in the collection of the late Samuel Rogers, we should compare to the case of what is called 
a hunting- vvatch.§ It has generally been described as a small golden ball; but, imless the jne we 



• Lib. 9, cap. xxxi.x. 

t Those of our readers who would like to plunge into the depths of this unfathomable controversy are recommended to 
a perusal of the essays of Kubenius and Ferrarius. 

t Livy, speaking of the tunics of the Spaniards, says they were of a dazzling whiteness, and bordered with purple-" iV 
tii pretextcc." 

§ An exactly siruilar one is engraved in Montfaucon. 

225 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE 



liavo Been has been by accidout much compressed or flattened, wa eUould say they were not more 
globular than an old-fasliionod watcL Macrobius says they were sometimes in the shape of a heait, 
and that they frequently contained preservatives against envy, &c. On arriving at the age of 
puberty, which was fourteen, youths abandoned the bulla, and exchanged the io>ja pvatcxta for the 
toga pura, which was also called the "toga viniis," and "libera." — " virilis," iu allusion to the 
period of life at which they had anived ; and libera, because at the same time, if they were 
pupilii, they attained full power over their property, and were released from tutela. There is no 
ascertaining the age of young Marcius, in the tragedy of Coriolanus; but as ho only appears in 
the scene before the Volsciau camp when he is brought to supplicate his father, he phould wear 
nothing but a black tunic, the toga and all ornaments being laid aside iu mourning and times of 
public calamity. 

Of Julius Cffisar we learn the followuig facts relative to his dress and personal appearance. Sue- 
tonius tells us that he was tall, fair-complexioned, i-ound-limbed, rather full-faced, and with black 
eyes ; that he obtained from the senate permission to wear constantly a laurel crown (Dion Cassius 
Bays on account of his baldness); that he was i-eraarkable in his dress, wearing the laticlavian 
tunic with sleeves to it, having gatherings about the wi-ist, and always had it girded rather loosely, 
which latter circumstance gave origin to the esjiression of Sulla, " Beware of the loose-coated boy," 
or " of the man who is so ill girt.' Dion Cassius adds that he had also the right to wear a royal 
robe in assemblies;* that he wore a i"ed sash and the calcei muUei even on ordinary days, to show 
his descent from the Alban kings.f A statue of Julius Caesar, armed, is engraved in Rossi's 
' Racolta di Statue Antiche e Moderne,' folio, Rome, 1704, pi. 15; also one of Octavianus, or 
Augustus Coesar :— the latter statue having been once in the possession of the celebrated Marquis 
Maffei. Octavius affected simplicity in his appearance, and humility in his conduct ; and, con- 
sistently with this description, we find his armour of the plainest kind. His lorica, or cuirass, is 
entirely without ornament, except the two rows of plates at the bottom. The thorax is i)artly 
liidden by the paludamentum, which was worn by this emperor and by Julius Caesar of a much 
larger size than those of his successors. Although he is without the cinctura, or belt, he holds in his 
right hand the paragonium, a short sword, which, as the name imports, was fastened to it. 

Suetonius tells us that Octavius was in height five feet nine inches, of a complexion between 
brown and fair, his hair a little curled and inclining to yellow. He had clear bright eyes, 
small cars, and an aquiline nose, — his eyebrows meeting. He wore his toga neither too scanty nor 
too full, and the clavus of his tunic neither remarkably broad nor narrow. His shoes were a little 
thicker in the jole than common, to make him appear taller than he was. In the winter he wore 
a thick toga, four tunics, a shirt, a flannel stomacher, and wrappers on his legs and thighs. He 
could not bear the winter's sun, and never walked in the open air without a broad-brimmed hat on 
his head. 

From the time of Caius Marius the senators wore black boots or buskins reaching to the middle of 
the leg,i with the letter C in silver or ivory upon them, or rather the figure of a half-moon § or 
crescent. II There is one engraved in Montfaucon, from the cabinet of P. Kircher. It was worn above 
the heel, at the height of the ankle ; but this last honour, it is conjectured, was only granted to such 
as were descended from the huutlred senators elected by Romulus. 

In conclusion, it may not be amiss to say a few words respecting the purple of the ancients. 
Gibbon says " it was of a dark cast, as deep as bulls' blood." — See also President Goguet's 
' Origine des Loix et des Arts,' part ii. 1. 2, c. 2, pp. 184, 215. But there were several sorts of 
purjile, and each hue was fashionable in its turn. "In my youth," says Cornelius Nepos (who 



: 



* Cicero alio says that Cssar sat in the rostra, in a purple toga, on a golden seat, crowned : " Sedebat in rostris coUega 
tnus, aniictus toga purpurea, in sella aurea, coronatus." — Phil., 2, 34. 

t Rubcniui thinks he wore the sleeved tunic for the saint reason, to show his descent, through those monarcU3, from 
the Trojans, to whom Numanus objects, in Virgil, as a proof of their elTeminacy — 

" Et tunica; luanicas et habent rediraicula mitrae." — yEn. 9, CIC. 
I " Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impcdiit crus 

Pellibus, et latum dcmisit pectore clavum." — Horace, i.. Sat. C, v. 27. 
Hence also "calceos muiari," to become a senator, as they then exchanged one sort of chaussiire for anotbi.'r. — Cicero. 
Phil. ziii. IS. 
S Therefore called " Calcei /una/t."— Kubenius apud Philostratus. 

i The crescent it teen upon the standards of the Roman centuries, probably to denote the number 100. 
224 



JULIUS C^SAR. 

died during the reign of Augustus ; Pliny, ix. 39), " the violet purple was fashionable, and Eold 
for a hundred denarii the pound. Some time afterwards the red purple of Tarentum came into 
vogue, and to this succeeded the red Tyrian twice dyed, which was not to be bought under one 
thousand denariL" Here, then, we ha%-e three sorts of purple worn during the life of one man. 
The red purple is mentioned by Macrobius : he says the redness of the purple border of the toga 
prsetexta was admonitory to those who assumed it to preserve the modesty of demeanour becoming 
young noblemen ; and Virgil says that the sacrificing priest should cover his head with purple, 
without noticing whether its hue be red or violet. Indeed, purple was a term applied indiscri- 
minately by the ancients to every tint produced by the mixture of red and blue, and sometimes to 
the pure coloui-s themselves. J. R. P. 




I Plebeian 



TaACJEDiES. —Vol. IT. 



Q 






«i 



i 



■PV-.' 












pehsoxs represented. 

JULIDS C;E8AH. 

OcTAVius CxsAR, Marcvs Antonius, M. /Emu.. 

Lepiuus; triumvirs after the death 0/ Julius Cxsar. 
Cicero, Poblius, Popihus Lena; senators. 
Marcus Urutus, Cassius, Casca, Trebonius, Lica- 

Rius. Decius ISrutus, Metellus Cimrer. Cinna 

conspirators against Julius Csesar. 
Flavius and Marullis, tribunes. 
Artemidorus, a sophist o/Ciiidos. 
4 Soothsayer. CiS}i\, a poet. Another Poet. 
LuciLics, TiTixius, Messala, young Cato, and 

VoLUMNius; friends to Brutus and Cassius. 
Varro, Clitus. Claudius, Strato, Lucius, Darda- 

Nlis; servants to Brutu."!. 
PiNDARUs, servant to Cassius. 

Calpiiurnia ici/e <o Ca»sar. 



ml 





ACT I. 



SCENE I.— Rome. // Street. 



Enter Flavius, Mahullxjs, and a rabble of 
Citizens. 

Flav. Hence; home, you idle creatures, get 
you home ; 
Is this a holiday ? Wliat ! know you not, 
Being mechanical, you ought not walk, 
Upon a labouring day, without the sign 
Of your profession ? — Speak, what trade art thou? 

1 at. Why, sir, a carpenter. 

Mar. Where is thy leather apron, and thy rule ? 
What dost thou with thy best apparel on ? — 
You, sir ; what trade are you ? 

2 at. Truly, sir, in respect of a fine work- 
man, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler. 

Mar. But what trade art thou ? Answer me 

directly. 
2 at. A trade, sir, that I hope I may use 
with a safe conscience; \ihich is, indeed, sk, a 
mender of bad soles. 

Q 2 



Flac. ''What trade, thou knave? thou naughty 
knave, what trade ? 

2 at. Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out 
with me: yet if you be out, sir, I can mend 
you. 

Mar. What meanest thou by that? Mend 
me, thou saucy feUow ? 

2 at. Why, sir, cobble you. 

Flav. Thou art a cobbler, art thou ? 

2 at. Truly, su-, all that I live by is with the 
awl ; I meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor 
women's matters, but with ail.'' I am, indeed, 
SU-, a sm-geon to old shoes ; when they are in 
great danger, I recover them. As proper men 

a We follow the folios in givinfr this speech to Flaviu?. 
Capell assigns it to MaruUus, and he is generally followed. 
We doubt whether it is correct to assume that only one 
should take the lead; whereas it is clear that the dialogue is 
more natural, certainly more dramatic, according to the ori- 
ginal arrangement, where Flavins and MaruUus alternately 
rate the people, like two smiths smiting on the same anvil. 

ij With all.— The original has withal. Some editors write 
with awl, oiTering an equivoque to the eye which is some- 
what too palpable. 

227 



Act I.J 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[SCKNK II. 



as ever trod upon ueat's-Ieatbcr Lave gone upon 
my handiwork. 

Fldv. But wherefore art not in thy shop to- 
day? 
"Why dost thou lead these men about the streets ? 
2 at. Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to 
get myself into more work. But, indeed, sir, we 
make holiday, to see Csesar, and to rejoice in his 
triumph. 

Mar. Wherefore rejoice? Wliat conquest 
brings he home ? 
What tributaries follow him to Rome, 
To grace in captive bonds his chariot-wheels ? 
You blocks, you stones, you worse than sense- 
less things ! 
0, you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome, 
Knew you not Pompey ? ilany a time and oft 
Have you climbed up to walls and battlements. 
To towers and windows, yea, to chimney-tops, 
Your infants in your arms, and there have sat 
The livelong day, with patient expectation. 
To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome : 
And when you saw his chariot but appear. 
Have you not made an universal shout. 
That Tiber trembled underneath her banks. 
To hear the replication of your sounds. 
Made in her concave shores ? 
And do you now put on your best attire ? 
And do you now cidl out a holiday ? 
And do you now strew flowers in his way. 
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood ? 
Be gone ! 

Run to your houses, fall upon your knees. 
Pray to the gods to intermit the plague 
That needs must light on this ingratitude. 
Flat. Go, go, good countrymen, and, for this 
fault, 
Assemble all the poor men of your sort; 
Draw them to Tiber banks, and weep your tears 
Into the channel, till the lowest stream 
Do kiss the most exalted shores of all. 

[^Exeunt Citizens. 
See, whe'r their basest metal be not mov'd ; 
They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness. 
Go you down that way towards the Capitol ; 
This way will I : Disrobe the images. 
If you do fmd them deek'd with ceremonies. 

Mar. May we do so ? 
You know it is the feast of Lupercal. 

Flav. It is no matter ; let no images 
Be himg with Caisar's trophies. I '11 about. 
And drive away the vulgar from the streets : 
So do you too, wlicrc you perceive them thick. 
These growing feathers pluck'd from Caesar's 



wmg 



228 



Will make him fly an ordinaiy pitch ; 

Who else would soar above the view of men, 

And keep us all in servile fearfuluess. [Exeunt. 

SCENE U.—The same. A Public FImc 

Enter, in procession, with music, Cesah; Antony, 
for the course ; Caxphurnia, Poutia, Decius, 
CiCEiio, Brutus, Cassius, and Casca, a great 
crowd following ; among them a Soothsayer. 

Cas. Calphumia, — 

Casca. Peace, ho ! Casar speaks. 

[Music ceases. 
Cas. Calphumia, — 

Cal. Here, my lord. 

Cas. Stand you directly in Antonius' way. 
When he doth run his course. — .(Vutonius, — 
Ant. CfEsai', my loi"d. 
Cas. Forget not, in your speed, Antonius, 
To touch Calphumia : for our elders say, 
The barren, touched in this holy chase. 
Shake off their sterile curse.^ 

Ant. I shall remember 

When Ca;sar says, * Do this,' it is perform'd. 
Cas. Set on ; and leave no ceremony out. 

[Music. 
Sooth. Caesar. 
Cas. Ha! Who calls? 

Cas. Bid every noise be still: — Peace yet 
again. [Music ceases. 

Cas. Who is it in the press that calls on me ? 
I hear a tongue, striller than all the music, 
Cry, Caesar : Speak ; Caesar is tum'd to hear. 
Sooth. Beware the ides of March. 
Cas. What man is that ? 

Bru. A soothsayer bids you beware the ides 

of !March. 
Cas. Set him before me ; let me see his face. 
Cas. Fellow, come from the tlirong: Look 

upon Caesar. 
Cas. What say'st thou to me now? Speak 

once again. 
Sooth. Beware the ides of March.* 
Cas. He is a dreamer; let tis leave him; — 
pass. 

[Senet. Exeunt all but Bru. and Cas. 
Cas. Will you go see the order of the course?^ 
Bru. Not I. 
Cas. I pray you do. 

Bru. I am not gamesome: I do lack some 
part 
Of that quick spirit that is in Antony. 
Let me not hinder, Cassius, your desires ; 
I '11 leave you. 
Cat. Brutus, I do obsene you now of late : 



Acr I.] 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[SCESE II 



I Have not fi'om your eyes that gentleness. 
And show of love, as I was wont to have : 
You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand 
Over your friend that loves you. 

Brii. Cassius, 

Be not deceiv'd : If I have veil'd my look, 
I turn the trouble of ray countenance 
Merely upon myself. Vexed I am. 
Of late, with passions of some difference. 
Conceptions only proper to myself. 
Which give some soil, perhaps, to my behaviours : 
But let not therefore my good friends be gnev'd ; 
(Among which number, Cassius, be you one ;) 
Nor construe any fui-ther ray neglect. 
Than that poor Biiitus, with himself at war, 
Forgets the shows of love to other men. 

Cas. Then, Brutus, I have much mistook 
your passion ; 
By means whereof this breast of mine hati 

buried 
Thoughts of great value, worthy cogitations. 
Tell rae, good Brutus, can you see your face ? 

Bru. No, Cassius : for the eye sees not itself, 
But by reflection, by some other things. 

Cas. 'T is just : 
And it is very much lamented, Brutus, 
That you have no such mirrors as will turn 
Your hidden worthiness into your eye. 
That you might see your shadow. I have heard. 
Where many of the best respect in Rome, 
(Except immortal Csesar,) speaking of Brutus, 
And groaning underneath this age's yoke. 
Have wish'd that noble Brutus had his eyes. 

Bru. Into what dangers would you lead me, 
Cassius, 
That you would have me seek into myself 
For that which is not in me ? 

Cas. Therefore, good Brutus, be prepar'd to 
hear : 
And, since you know you cannot see yourself 
So well as by reflection, I, your glass. 
Will modestly discover to yourself 
That of yourself which you yet know not of. 
And be not jealous on me,'' gentle Bmtus : 
Were I a common laugher, or did use 
To stale with ordinary oaths my love 
To every new protester ; if you know 
That I do fawn on men, and hug them hard, 
And after scandal them ; or if you know 
That I profess myself in banqueting 
To all the rout, then hold me dangerous. 

[Flottnsh and shout. 



» On me. So the original. "We do not change this idiom- 
atic language of Shakspere's time into the 0/ me of modern 

speech. 



Bru. What means this shouting ? I do fear, 
the people 
Choose Caesar for their king, 

C'^^- Ay, do you fear it ? 

Tlien must I think you would not have it so. 

Bru. I would not, Cassius; yet I love him 
well : — 
But wherefore do you hold me here so long ? 
What is it that you woidd impart to me ? 
If it be aught toward the general good. 
Set honour in one eye, and death i' the other. 
And I will look on both indifferently : 
For, let the gods so speed me as I love 
The name of honour more than I fear death. 

Cas. I know that virtue to be in you, Bmtus, 
As well as I do know youi' outward favour. 
Well, hououi- is the subject of my story. — 
T cannot teU what you and other men 
Think of tliis life ; but, for my single self, 
I had as hef not be as hve to be 
In awe of such a thing as I myself. 
I was born free as Csesar ; so were you : 
We both have fed as well ; and we can both 
Endure the winter's cold as well as he : 
For once, \ipon a raw and gusty day. 
The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, 
Caesar said to me, ' Dars't thou, Cassius, now 
Leap in with me into this angry flood. 
And swim to yonder point ?' — Upon the word. 
Accoutred as I was, I plunged in. 
And bade him foUow : so, indeed, he did. 
The torrent roar'd ; and we did buifet it 
With lusty sinews ; throwing it aside 
And stemming it with hearts of controversy. 
But ere we could ai-rive the point propos'd," 
Caesar cried, ' Help me, Cassius, or I sink.' 
I, as ^neas, our great ancestor. 
Did from the flames of Troy upou his shoulder 
The old Anchises bear, so, from the waves of 

Tiber 
Did I the tired Caesar : And this man 
Is now become a god ; and Caseins is 
A wretched creatui-e, and must bend his body 
If Csesar carelessly but nod on him. 
He had a fever when he was in Spain, 
And, when the fit was on him, I did mark 
How he did shake : 't is true, this god did shake ; 
His coward lips did from their colour fly ; 
And that same eye whose bend doth awe the 
world 

a The use of arrire without the preposition has an examiile 
in the later writings of Milton : — 

" Who shall spread his airy flight 
Uphorne with indefatigable wings 
Over the vast abrupt, ere he arrive 
The happy isle " 

229 



Act I.) 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



ISlENE II. 



Did lose liis liistre : I did hear him groau : 

Ay, and that tongue of his tliat bade tlic Itoniaus 

Mark him, and \rrite his speeches iu their books, 

Alas ! it cried, ' Give rac some drink, Titiuius,' 

As a sick girl. Ye gods, it doth amaze me, 

A man of such a feeble temper should 

So get the start of the majestic world, 

And beAr the palm alone. ISAou/. Flourhh. 

Bni. Another general shout ! 
I do believe that these applauses are 
For some new honours that are heap'd on Cncsar. 
Cas. TMiy, man, he doth bestride the narrow 
world. 
Like a Colossus ; and we petty men 
Walk tuidcr his huge legs, and peep about 
To find ourselves dishououiable graves. 
Men at some time are masters of their fates : 
The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars. 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings. 
Brutus, and Caesar: What should be in that 

Cffisar? 
\VTiy should that name be sounded more than 

yours ? 
Write them together, yours is as fair a name ; 
Sound them, it doth become the mouth as well ; 
Weigh them, it is as heavy ; conjure with them, 
Brutus will start a spirit as soon as Csesar. 

IShoitt. 
Now in the names of all the gods at once, 
L^pon what meat doth this our Cajsar feed, 
Tliat he is grown so great? Age, thou art 

sham'd ! 
Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods ! 
Wiien went there by an age, since the great Qood, 
But it was fam'd with more than with one man? 
When could they say, till now, that talk'd of Rome, 
That her wide walls* cncompass'd but one man? 
Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, 
When there is in it but one only man. 
O ! you and I have heard our fathers say. 
There was a Brutus once that would have brook'd 
The eternal devil to keep his state in Rome, 
As easily as a king. 

Brii. That you do love me, I am nothing 
jealous ; 
AVhat you would work roe to, I have some aim ; 
IIow I have thoiight of this, and of these times, 
I shall recount hereafter ; for this present, 
I would not, so with love I might entreat you, 
Be any further mov'd. "What you have said, 
I will consider ; what you have to say, 
I will with patience hear : and find a time 
Both meet to hear and answer such high things. 



Walki in the original : changed by Rowe to vallt. 
230 



Till then, my noble friend, chew upon this ; 
Brutus had rather be a villager, 
Than to repute himself a son of Rome 
Under these hard conditions as this time 
Is like to lay upon us. 

Ciis. I am glad that my weak words 
Have struck but thus much show of fire from 
Brutus. 

Re-enter C^sar, and his Train. 

Bru. The games are done, and Casar is re- 
turning. 
Cas. As they pass by, pluck Casca by the 
sleeve ; 
And he will, aftf^r liis sour fashion, tell you 
What hath proceeded worthy note to-day. 

Bru. I will do so -.—But, look you, Cassius, 
The angiy spot doth glow on Caesar's brow. 
And all the rest look like a chidden train : 
Calphumia's cheek is pale ; and Cicero 
Looks with such ferret and such fiery eyes. 
As we have seen him in the Capitol, 
Being cross'd in conference by some senators. 
Cas. Casca will tell us what the matter is. 
Cces. Antonius. 
Ant. Ca:sar. 

Cas. Let me have men about me that are 
fat; 
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o'nights : 
Yond' Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 
lie thinks too much : such men are dangerous.'' 
Ant. Tear liim not, Cajsar, he's not dan- 
gerous ; 
He is a noble Roman, and well given. 

CcES. 'Would he were fatter : — But I fear him 
not: 
Yet if my name were liable to fear, 
I do not know the man I should avoid 
So soon as that spare Cassius. He reads much ; 
He is a great observer, and he looks 
Quite through the deeds of men: he loves no 

plays. 
As thou dost, Antony ; he hears no music : 
Seldom he smiles ; and smiles in such a sort 
As if he mock'd himself, and scom'd his spirit 
That could be mov'd to smile at anything. 
Such men as he be never at heart's ease. 
Whiles they behold a greater than themselves ; 
And therefore are they very dangerous. 
I rather tell thee what is to be fcar'd. 
Than what I fear, for always I am Caesar. 
Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf. 
And tell me truly what thou thiuk'st of him. 

\Excnnt CiiSAR and his Train. CiSCA 
stays behind. 



Act I.] 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[Some II. 



Casca. You pull'd me by the cloak: Would 
you speak with me? 

Bru. Ay, Casca; tell us what hath chanc'd 
to-day/ 
That Cffisar looks so sad ? 

Casca. Wliy, you were with him, were you 
not? 
Bru. I should not then ask Casca what had 

chanc'd. 
Casca. Wliy, there was a crown offered him : 
and being offered him, he put it by with the 
back of his hand, thus : and then the people fell 
a shouting. 

Bru, What was the second noise for ? 

Casca. Why, for that too. 

Cas. They shouted thrice : What was the last 

cry for ? 
Casca. Why, for that too. 
Bru. Was the crown offer'd him thrice ? 
Casca. Ay, marry, was 't, and he put it by 
thrice, every time gentler than other; and at 
every putting by, mine honest neighbours 
shouted. 

Cas. Who offered him the crown ? 
Casca. Why, ^intony. 

Bru. TeU us the manner of it, gentle Casca. 
Casca. I can as well be hanged as tell the 
manner of it : it was mere foolery. I did not 
mark it. I saw Mark Antony offer him a 
crown ; — yet 't was not a crown neither, 't was 
one of these coronets ; — and, as I told you, he 
put it by once ; but for aU that, to my thinking, 
he would fain have hud it. Then he offered it 
to him again ; then he put it by again : but, to 
my thinking, he was very loth to lay his fingers 
off it. And then he offered it the third time; 
he put it the third time by : and still as he re- 
fused it, the rabblement hooted, and clapped 
their chapped hands, and threw up their sweaty 
nightcaps, and uttered such a deal of stinking 
breath because Caesar refused the crown, that it 
had almost chok'd Csesar ; for he swooned, and 
fell down at it : And for mine own part, I dm-st 
not laugh, for fear of opening my lips and 
receiving the bad air. 

Cas. But, soft, I pray you: What? Did 

Csesar swoon ? 
Casca. He fell down in the market-place, and 
foamed at mouth, and was speechless. 
Bru. 'T is very hke : he hath the falling sick- 
ness. 
Cas. No, Csesar hath it not ; but you, and I, 
And honest Casca, we have the falling sick- 
ness. 
Casca. I know not what you mean by that; 



but I am sure Csesar fell down. If the tag-rag 
people did not clap him, and hiss him, according 
as he pleased and displeased them, as they use 
to do the players in the theatre, I am no true 
man. 
Bru. What said he when he came unto him- 
self? 
Casca. Marry, before he fell down, when he 
perceived tlie common herd was glad he refused 
the crown, he plucked me ope his doublet, and 
offered them his throat to cut. — An I had been 
a man of any occupation, if I would not have 
taken him at a word, I would I might go to hell 
among the rogues : — and so he fell. "V^Hien he 
came to himself again, he said. If he had done 
or said anything amiss, he desired their wor- 
sliips to think it was his infirmity. Three or 
four wenches, where I stood, cried ' Alas, good 
soul!' — and forgave him with all their hearts: 
But there's no heed to be taken of them; if 
Csesar had stabbed their mothers they would 
have done no less. 

Bru. And after that he came, thus sad, away ? 
Casca. Ay. 

Cas. Did Cicero say anything ? 
Ciisca. Ay, he spoke Greek. 
Cas. To what effect ? 

Casca. Nay, an I tell you that I '11 ne'er look 
you i' the face again : But those that understood 
hiia smiled at one another, and shook their 
heads : but, for mine own part, it was Greek to 
me. I could tell you more news too : Marullua 
and Flavins, for puUing scarfs off Csesar's images, 
are put to sdeuce. Fare you well. There was 
more foolery yet, if I could remember it. 
Cas. WiU you sup with me to night, Casca ? 
Casca. No, I am promised forth. 
Cas. WUl you dine with me to-morrow ? 
Casca. Ay, if I be alive, and yoiu: mind hold, 
and your dinner worth the eating. 
Cas. Good ; I wiU expect you. 
Casca. Do so : farewell both. [Exit Casca. 
Bru. What a blunt fellow is this grown to be! 
He was qiuck mettle when he went to school. 

Cas. So ia he now, in execution 
Of any bold or noble enterprise. 
However he puts on this tardy form. 
This rudeness is a sauce to his good wit. 
Which gives men stomach to digest his words 
With better appetite. 
Bru. And so it is. For this time I will leave 
you: 
To-morrow, if you please to speak with me, 
I win come home to you ; or, if you will. 
Come home to me, and I ^siU wait for you. 

231 



Act I.l 



JULIUS CAESAR. 



[ScEKE m. 



Cat. I ^vill do so: — till then, tliink of the 
world. \_Exit Brutus. 

Well, Brutn3, thou art noble ; yet, I see 
Thv honourable metal may be ^vTOught 
From that it is dispos'd : Therefore 't is meet 
That noble minds keep ever with their likes : 
For who so firm that cannot be scducM ? 
Caesar doth bear mc hard : But he loves Brutus : 
If I were Brutus now, and he were Cassius, 
lie should not humour mc. I will this night, 
In several hands, in at his windows throw, 
As if they came from several citizens, 
Writuigs, all tending to the great opinion 
That Rome holds of his name; wherein ob- 
scurely 
Caesar's ambition shall be glanced at : 
/Vnd, after this, let Csesar seat him sure ; 
For we will shake him, or worse days endure. 

[_ExU. 

SCENE Ul.—The same. A Street. 

ThtinJer and Lightning. Enter, from opposite 
sides, Casca, with his sword drawn, and 
CiCEKO. 

Cic. Good even, Casca : Brought you Caesar 
home ?• 
Wliy are you breathless ? and why stare you so ? 

Casca. Are you not mov'd, when all the sway 
of earth 
Shakes like a thing unfirm ? Cicero, 
I have seen tempests, when the scolding winds 
Have riv'd the knotty oaks ; and I have seen 
The ambitious ocean swell, and rage, and foam, 
To be exalted with the threat'ning clouds : 
But never till to-night, never till now. 
Did I go through a tempest dropping fire. 
Either there is a civU strife in heaven ; 
Or else the world, too saucy with the gods. 
Incenses them to send d est motion. 

Cic. ^ATiy, saw you anything more wonderful ? 

Casca. A common slave (you know him well 
by sight) 
Held up his left hand, which did flame and bum 
Like twenty torches johi'd ; and yet his hand. 
Not sensible of fire, remain'd unscorch'd. 
Besides, (I have not since pnt up my sword,) 
Against the Capitol I met a lion, 
Who glar'd* upon me, and went surly by 



a To bring one on his way was to accompany liim. 

•> Glar'd. The original has glnz'd. This is a mean- 
Inirless word ; and we have therefore to choose between one 
of two rorrectiont. Knowing the mode in wliicli typo- 
graphical crrori ari«c, wc should «ay that gtar'd in the 
manuscript might very rcudily become j/naVi in the printed 
copy, bv the substitution of a 2 for an r. Glar'd U the read- 
ing of Rowe. On the contrary, if the manuicript had been 

232 



Without annoying me : and there were drawn 
Upon a heap a hundred ghastly women. 
Transformed with their fear; who swore they 

saw 
Men all in fu-e walk up and down the streets. 
And, yesterday, the bird of night did sit. 
Even at noon- day, upon tlic market-place, 
Hooting and shrieking.'' When these prodigies 
Do so conjointly meet, let not men say 
'These are their reasons, — They are natural;' 
For, I behove, they are portentous things 
Unto the cUmate that they point upon. 

Cic. Indeed, it is a strange-disposed tune : 
But men may constmc things, after their fashion. 
Clean from the purpose of the things themselves. 
Comes Caesar to the Capitol to-morrow ? 

Casca. He doth ; for he did bid Antonius 
Send word to you he would be there to-morrow. 

Cic. Good night then, Casca: this disturbed 
sky 
Is not to walk in. 

Casca. Farewell, Cicero. [Exit Cicero. 

Enter Cassius. 

Cas. Who 's there ? 

Casca. A Roman. 

Cas. Casca, by your voice. 

Casca. Your ear is good, Cassius, what night 

is this? 
Cas. A very pleasing night to honest men. 
Ca^ca. Who ever knew the heavens menace 

so? 
Cas. Those that have known the earth so full 
of faults. 
For my part, I have walk'd about the streets. 
Submitting me unto the perilous night ; 
And, thus unbraced, Casca, as you see. 
Have bar'd my bosom to the thunder-stone : 
jVnd when the cross blue lightning seem'd to 

open 
The breast of heaven, I did present myself 
Even in the aim and very flash of it. 

Casca. But wherefore did you so much tempt 
the heavens ? 
It is the part of men to fear and tremble, 



gciz'd, which Malone adopts, the compositor must have in- 
serted an /, to change a common word into an unfamiliar 
one; and this is not the usual process of typographical 
blundering. Malone quotes a passage from Stow, describing 
a lion-fight in the Tower:— "Then was the great lion put 
forth, who fjazed awhile ;" and he thinks the term to have 
been peculiarly applied to the fierce aspect of a lion. 
Surely this is nonsense. A well-known quotation from 
Macbeth, given by Stccvcns, is decisive as to the propriety 
o( using glar'd in the passage before us : — 

" Thou hast no speculation in those eyes 
That thou dost glare with." 



Act I.] 



JULIUS CiESAR. 



[SCESE III. 



When the most mighty gods, by tokens send 
Such dreadful heralds to astonish us. 

Cas. Yon are duU, Gasca; and those sparks 
ofHfe 
That should be in a Roman you do want, 
Or else you use not : You look pale, and gaze. 
And put on fear, and cast youi'self in wonder. 
To see the strange impatience of the heavens : 
But if you would consider the true cause 
Why aU these fires, why all these gUding ghosts, 
"Why birds and beasts, from quaUty and kind ; 
Wliy old men, fools, and children calculate ; 
Why all these things change from their ordi- 
nance, 
Their natures, and pre-formed faculties, 
To monstrous quality, — why, you shall find. 
That heaven hath infus'd them with these spirits. 
To make them instruments of fear and warning 
Unto some monstrous state. 
Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man 
Most like this dreadful night ; 
That thunders, hghtens, opens graves, and roars 
As doth the hon in the Capitol : 
A man no mightier than thyself, or me. 
In personal action ; yet prodigious grown, 
And fearful, as these strange eruptions are. 
Casca. 'T is Caesar that you mean : Is it not, 

Cassius ? 
Cas. Let it be who it is : for Romans now 
Have thews and limbs like to then- ancestors, 
But, woe the while ! our father's minds are dead. 
And we are govem'd with our mothers' spirits ; 
Our yoke and sufferance show us womanish. 
Casca. Indeed they say the senators to-mor- 
row 
Mean to establish Caesar as a king : 
And he shall wear his crown by sea and land, 
In every place, save here in Italy. 

Cas. I know where I wiU wear this dagger 
then; 
Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius : 
Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most 

strong ; 
Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat : 
Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass, 
Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron. 
Can be retentive to the strength of spuit : 
But life, being weary of these wQrldly bars. 
Never lacks power to dismiss itself. 
If I know this, know aU the world besides. 
That part of tyranny that I do bear 
I can shake off at pleasure. \Thunder still. 

Casca. So can I : 

So every bondman in his own hand bears 
The power to cancel his captivity. 



Cas. And why should Caesar be a tyrant then ? 
Poor man ! I know he would not be a wolf, 
But that he sees the Romans are but sheep : 
He were no Hon were not Romans hinds. 
Those that with haste will make a mighty Gre 
Begin it with weak straws : What trash is Rome, 
AYhat rubbish, and what offal, when it serves 
For the base matter to illiuninate 
So vile a thing as Caesar ! But, 0, grief ! 
Where hast thou led me ? I, perhaps, speak this 
Before a willing bondman : then I know 
My answer must be made : But I am arm'd. 
And dangers are to me indifferent. 

Casca. You speak to Casca; and to such a man 
That is no fleering teU-tale. Hold my band : 
Be factions'' for redress of all these griefs; 
And I win set this foot of mine as far 
As who goes farthest. 

Cas. There 's a bargain made. 

Now know you, Casca, I have mov'd already 
Some certain of the noblest-minded Romans, 
To undergo with me an enterprise 
Of honourable-dangerous consequence ; 
And I do know by this they stay for me 
La Pompey's porch : For now, this fearful night, 
There is no stir or walking in the streets ; 
And the complexion of the element 
In favour 's'' like tlie work we have in hand, 
Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible. 

Enter Cinna. 

Casca. Stand close awhile, for here comes one 

in haste. 
Cas. 'T is Cinna, I do know him by his gait ; 
He is a friend. — Cinna, where haste you so ? 
Cin. To find out you : Who 's that ? Metellus 

Cimber ? 
Cas. No, it is Casca ; one incorporate 
To our attempts. Am I not staid for, Cinna ? 
Cin. 1 am glad on't. What a fearful night 
is this ! 
There 's two or three of us have seen strange 
sights. 
Cas. Am I not staid for ? Tell me. 
Cin. Yes, you are. 

0, Cassius, if you could but vnn the noble 

Brut\is 
To our party 



a Faciious. Johnson considers that the expression here 
means active. To be factious, in its original sense, is to be 
doing; but Malone suggests that it means "embody a party 
or faction." 

b The original has is favors. Some would read is fa- 
vour'd: but the use of the noun, in the sense of appearance, 
is probably clearer. 

233 



Act I.] 



JULIUS CiESAR. 



Cos. Be you content: Good Cimia, take this 
paper, 
Ajid look you, lay it in the prtetor's chair, 
WTiere Brutus may but find it ; and throw this 
In at his window : set this up with wax 
Upon old Brutus' statue : ' all this done. 
Repair to Pompey's porch, where you shall find 

us. 
Is Decius Brutus, and Trcbonius there ? 

Cin. All, but Metellus Cimber ; and he 's gone 
To seek you at your house. Well, I will hie, 
ind so bestow these papers as you bade me. 
Ca4. That done, repair to Pompey's theatre. 

[_Exit CiNNA. 



Come, Casca, you and 1 will yet, ere day, 
See Brutus at his house : three parts of Lim 
Is ours already ; and the man entire. 
Upon the next encounter, yidds him ours. 

Casca. O, he sits high in all the people's 
hearts : 
And that which would appear offence in us, 
llis countenance, like richest alchymy. 
Will change to virtue and to worthiness. 

Cas. Him, and his worth, and our great need 
of him. 
You have right well conceited. Let us go. 
For it is after midnight ; and ere day 
We will awake him, and be sure of him. 

[ExeuT. t. 




[Juliu3 Csesar.] 




LKoman Augur ] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT I. 



1 Scene II. " Our elders say, 

The barren," &c. 

" At that time tlie feast Luperoalia was celebrated, 
the which in old time, men say, was the feast of 
shepherds or herdsmen, and is much like unto the 
feast of the Lycseians in Arcadia. But howsoever 
it is, that day there are divers noblemen's sons, 
young men (and some of them magistrates them- 
selves that govern there), which run naked through 
the city, striking in sport them they meet in their 
way with leather thongs, hair and all on, to make 
them give place. And many noble women and 
gentlewomen also go of purpose to stand in their 
way, and do put forth their hands to be stricken, 
as scholars hold them out to their schoolmaster to 
be stricken with the ferula, persuading themselves 
that being with child they shall have good de- 
livery; and so being barren, that it will make 
them to conceive with child." 

2 Scene II.—" Beware the ides of March." 

" Furthermore, there was a certain soothsayer 
that had given Ctesar warning long time afore to 



take heed of the day of the Ides of March (which 
is the 15th of the month), for on that day he 
should be in great danger." 

3 Scene II.—" Will you go see the order of the 
course J" 

" Cassius asked him if he were determined to 
be in the Senate-house the first day of the month of 
March, because he heard say that Csesar's friends 
should move the council that day that Csesar should 
be called king by the Senate. Brutus answered 
him he would not be there. But if we be sent for 
(said Cassius), how then? For myself then (said 
Brutus), I mean not to hold my peace, but to with- 
stand it, and rather die than lose my liberty. Cas- 
sius being bold, and taking hold of this word,— 
Why (quoth he), what Roman is he alive that will 
suffer thee to die for thy liberty ? What? knowest 
thou not that thou art Brutus ? Thinkest thou that 
they be cobblers, tapsters, or such-like base mecha- 
nical people, that write these bills and scroUs which 
are found daily in thy pnctor's chair, and not the 
noblest men and best citizens that do it ? No; be 
thou well assured that of other prsetors they look 

235 



ILLUSTRA.TIONS OF ACT I. 



for gifts, common distribut'ious lAmoncpt tho people, 
and for common plays, and to see fencers fight at 
the sharp, to show the people pastime : but at thy 
hands they specially require (as a due debt unto 
them) the taking away of the tyranny, being fully 
bent to suffer any extremity for thy sake, so that 
thou wilt show thyself to be the man thou art 
taken for, and that they hope thou art." 

' SCF.XE II. — " Ld me hare men about me that arc 
fat, kc" 

" Csesar also had Cassius in great jealousy, and 
suspected him much : whereupon he said on a time 
to his friends, What will Caseins do, think ye ? I 
like not his pale looks. Another time, when 
Caesar's friends complained unto him of Autouius 
and Dolabella, that they pretended some mischief 
towards him, he answered them again, As for 
those fat men and smooth-combed head.s, quoth 
he, I never reckon of them ; but these pale-visaged 
and carrion-lean people, I fear them most, meaning 
Brutus and Cassius." 

' Scene II. — "Ay, Casca; tell us \chat hath chanc'd 
today." 

" Caesar sat to behold that sport upon the pulpit 
for Orations, in a chain of gold, appareled in tri- 
umphant manner. Antonius, who \vas consul at 
that time, was one of them that ran this holy 
course. So when he came into the market-jjlace 
the people made a lane for him to run at liberty, 
and he came to Caesar, and presented him a diadem 
wreathed about with laurel. Whereupon there 
was a certain cry of rejoicing, not very great, done 
only by a few appointed for the pui-pose. But 
when Caesar refused the diadem, then all the people 
together made an outcry of joy. Then Antonius 
offering it him again, there was a second shout of 
joy, but yet of a few. But when Caesar refused it 
again the second time, then all the whole people 
shouted. Cccsar, having made this proof, found 
that the people did not like of it, and thereupon 
rose out of his chair, and commanded the crown 
to be carried unto Jupiter in the Capitol." 

" When they had decreed divers honours for him 
in the Senate, the consuls and pra-tors, accompa- 
nied with the whole assembly of the Senate, went 
unto him in the market-place, where he was set by 



the pulpit for Orations, to tell him what honours 
they had decreed for him in his absence. But he, 
sitting still in his majesty, disdaining to rise up unto 
them when they came in, as if they had been pri- 
vate men, answered them, that his honours had 
more need to be cut off than enlarged. This did not 
only offend the Senate, but the common people also, 
to see that he should so lightly esteem of the ma- 
gistrates of the commonwealth ; insomuch as everj* 
man that might lawfully go his way departed 
thence very sorrowfully. Thereupon also Caesar, 
rising, departed home to his house, and, tearing 
open his doublet collar, m.iking his neck bare, he 
cried out aloud to his friends that his throat was 
ready to offer to any man that would come and cut 
it. Notwithstanding, it is reported that after- 
wards, to excuse his folly, he imputed it to his 
disease, saying that their wits are not perfect which 
have this disease of the falling evil, when, standing 
on their feet, they speak to the common people, 
but are soon troubled with a trembling of their 
body, and a sudden dimness and giddiness." 

^ Scene III. — " A common slave," &c. 
" Touching the fires in the element, and spirits 
running up and down in the night, and also the 
solitary birds to be seen at noon-days sitting in 
the great market-place, are not all these signs 
perhaps worth the noting, in such a wonderful 
chance as happened ? But Strabo the philosopher 
writeth that divers men were seen going up and 
down in fire; and, furthermore, that there was 
a slave of the soldiers that did ca-st a man-ellous 
burning flame out of his hand, insomuch as they 
that saw it thought he had been burned ; but when 
the fire was out, it was found he had no hurt." 

'' Scene III. — " Good Cinna, take this paper " &c. 
" But for Brutus, his friends and countrymen, 
both by divers procurements and sundry rumours 
of the city, and by many bills also, did openly call 
and procure him to do that he did. For under the 
image of his ancestor Junius Brutus (that drave 
the kings out of Rome) they wrote — 0, that it 
pleased the gods thou wert now alive, Brutus ! 
And again, That thou wert here among us now ! 
His tribunal, or chair, where he gave audience 
during the time he was pnctor, was full of such 
bills. Bnitus, thou art asleep, and art not Brutus 
indeed." 



2.36 




ACT 11. 



SCENE \.—The same. Brutus'* Orchard. 

Enter Brutus. 

Bru. What, Lucius ! lio ! — 
I cannot, by the progress of the stars. 
Give guess how near to day. — Lucius, I say ! — 
I would it were my fault to sleep so soundly. — 



When, Lucius, when!* 
Lucius ! 



Awake, I say ! What, 



Enter Lucius. 

Lnc. CaU'd you, my lord ? 
Bru. Get me a taper in my study, Lucius : 
When it is lighted, come and call me here. 
Lite. I will, my lord. [Exit. 

Bru. It must be by his death: and, for my 
part, 

^ So in Richard II. 

"When, Harry, when! 
A common expre.ssion of impatience 



I know no personal cause to spm-n at him, 
But for the general. He would be cro\yn'd : — 
How that might change his nature, there 's the 

question. 
It is the bright day that brings forth the adder ; 
And that craves wary walking. Crown him ? — 

That;— 
And then, I grant, we put a sting in him, 
That at his will he may do danger with. 
The abuse of greatness is when it disjoins 
Remorse* from power : And, to speak truth of 

Csesai-, 
I have not kno\vn when his affections sway'd 
More than his reason. But 't is a common 

proof 
That loMliness is young ambition's ladder, 
Whereto the climber-upward turns his face ; 
But when he once attaios the upmost round. 



=» Remorse — pity — tenderness, 
commonly used by Slir.kspere, 



A sense In which it u 
9Z^ 



Act II. j 



JULIUS C^SAll. 



[Sce:(E I. 



He then unto the ladder turns his back, 
Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees 
By which he did ascend : So Ccesar may ; 
Then, lest he may, prevent. And, since the 

quarrel 
Will bear no colour for the tiling he is, 
Fashion it thus ; that what he is, augmented, 
Would run to these and these extremities : 
And therefore think him as a serpent's egg, 
TVliieh, hateh'd, would as his kind grow mis- 
chievous ; 
And kill him in the shell. 

Re-enter Lucius. 

Luc. The taper burneth in your closet, sir. 
Searching the window for a fliul, I found 
This paper, thus seal'd up ; and, I am sure. 
It did not lie there when I went to bed. 

Bru. Get you to bed again, it is not day. 
Is not to-morrow, boy, the ides of March i' " 

Luc. I know not, sir. 

Bru. Look in the calendar, and bring me 
word. 

Luc. I will, sir. [E.iit. 

Bru. The exhalations, whizzing in the air. 
Give so much light that I may read by them. 

\_Opcns the letter, and reads, 
" Brutus, thou sleep'st ; awake, and see thyself. 
Shall Rome, &c. Speak, strike, redress ! " 
' Brutus, thou sleep'st ; awake ! ' — 
Such instigations have been often dropp'd 
Where I have took them up. 
' Shall Rome, &'c.' Thus must I piece it out ; 
Shall Rome stand under one man's awe ? "What ! 

Rome ? 
My ancestors did from the streets of Rome 
The Tarquin drive, when he was call'd a king. 
' Speak, strike, redress !'•' — Am I entreated 
To speak, and strike ? O Rome ! I make thee 

promise, 
If the redresd will follow, thou receivest 
Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus ! 

Be-enter Lucius. 

Luc. Sir, March is wasted fourteen days. 

[A«oc^ Kithin. 

Bru. 'Tis good. Go to the gate : somebody 

knocks. \_ExU Lucius. 

• Idei of March.— In the original the first of March. Pre- 
sently Lucius says also, in the folio, " March i.s wasted yf//ff;i 
rtaiji." Theobald made the correction in both instances. 

b Mr. Cralk, in his valuable Philological Commentary on 
Julius CjEsarC'The English of Shakespeare"), has pointed 
out that the letter unquestionably concluded with the em- 
phatic adjuration — "Speak, strike, redress! "and that the 
second enunciation of 'Brutus, thou tlccp'st; awake 1' is 
a repetition by Brutus to himself. 
238 



Since Cassius first did whet me against Caisar 

I have not slept. 

Between the acting of a dreadful thing 

And the first motion, all the interim is 

Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream : 

Tlic genius and the mortal instruments 

Are then in council ; and the state of a man,* 

Like to a little kingdom, suffers then 

Tlie nature of an insurrection. 

Be-enter Lucius. 

Luc. Sir, 't is your brother Cassius'' at the 
door, 
Wlio doth desire to see you. 

Bru. Is he alone ? 

Lac. No, sir, there are more with him. 
Bru. Do you know them ? 

Lite. No, sir; their k-.ts are pluck' d about 
their ears. 
And half their faces buried in their cloaks. 
That by no means I may discover them 
By any mark of favour.'^ 
Bru. Let them enter. 

[_E.dt Lucius. 
They are the faction. ConspiJracy ! 
Sham'st thou to show thy dangerous brow by 

night, 
"When evils are most free ? 0, then, by day 
\7here wilt thou find a cavern dark enough 
To mask thy monstrous visage? Seek none, 

Conspiracy ; 
Hide it in smiles and affability : 
For if thou path ^ thy native semblance on, 
Not Erebus itself were dim enough 
To hide thee from prevention. 

Enter Cassius, Casca, Decius, Cinna, Metel- 
Lus CiMBER, and Tbebonius. 

Cas. I think we are too bold upon your 
rest : 
Good morrow, Brutus. Do wc trouble you ? 



n i< mnn.— So the first folio; but the other folios and 
iiioderii editors omit the article, which, we think, explains 
"hat has preceded it. .-/ man individualizes the descrip- 
tion ; and shows that "the genius," on the one hand, 
means the spirit, or the Impelling higher power moving 
the spirit, whilst •' the mortal instruments " has reference 
to the bodily powers which the will sets in action. The 
condition of Macbeth before the murder of Duncan illus- 
trates this: — 

" I am settled, and bend up 
Each corporal agent to this terrible feat." 

Mr. Dyce holds th,it the article a is a barbarous addition. 
Mr. Craik retains the article. 

i) Cassius had married Junia, the sister of Brutus. 

c Favour — countenance. 

A Path — walk on a trodden way— move forward amidst 
observation. Sec Introductory Notice, p. 217. 






Act II.] 



JULIUS CvESAR. 



[SCEKB I. 



Bru. I have been up this hour ; awake all uight. 
Know I these men that come along with you ? 

Cas. Yes, every man of them ; and no man 
here 
But honours you : and every one doth wish 
You had but that opinion of yourself 
Which every noble Boman bears of you. 
This is Trebonius. 

Bru. He is welcome hither. 

Cas. This Decius Brutus. 

Bru. He is welcome too. 

Cas. This, Casca ; this, Cinna ; and this, 
Metellus Cimber. 

Bru. They are all welcome. 
What watchful cares do interpose themselves 
Betwixt your eyes and night ? 

Cas. Shall I entreat a word ? [The^ whisper. 

Dec. Here lies the east : Doth not the day 
break here ? 

Casca. No. 

Cin. 0, pardon, sir, it doth; and yon grey 
lines 
That fret the clouds are messengers of day. 

Casca. You shall confess that you are both 
deceiv'd. 
Here, as I point my sword, the sun arises ; 
Which is a great way growing on the south, 
Weighing the youthful season of the year. 
Some two months hence, up higher toward the 

north 
He first presents his fire ; and the high east 
Stands, as the Capitol, directly here. 

Bru. Give me your bauds all over, one by one. 

Cas. And let us swear our resolution. 

Bru. No, not au oath : If not the face of men. 
The sufferance of our souls, the time's abuse, — 
If these be motives weak, break off betimes. 
And every man hence to his idle bed ; 
So let high-sighted tyranny range on. 
Till each man drop by lottery. But if these. 
As I am sure they do, bear fire enough 
To kindle cowards, and to steel with valour 
The melting spirits of women ; then, countrymen, 
What need we any spur but our own cause 
To prick us to redress ? what other bond. 
Than secret Romans, that have spoke the word. 
And will not palter ? and what other oath. 
Than honesty to honesty engag'd. 
That this shall be, or we will fall for it ? 
Swear priests, and cowards, and men cautelous," 
Old feeble carrions, and such suffering souls 
That welcome wrongs ; unto bad causes swear 
Such creatures as men doubt : but do not stain 

• Cauteloui — vraxy — circumspect. 



The even virtue of our enterprise, 

Nor the insuppressive metal of our spii-its. 

To think that, or our cause, or our performance. 

Did need an oath ; when every drop of blood 

That every Roman bears, and nobly bears, 

Is guilty of a several bastardy, 

If he do break the smallest particle 

Of any promise that hath pass'd from him. 

Cas. But what of Cicero? ' Shall we sound him? 
I think he will stand very strong with us. 

Casca. Let us not leave him out. 

Cifi. No, by no means. 

MeL O let us have him ; for his silver hairs 
WUl purchase us a good opinion. 
And buy men's voices to commend our deeds : 
It shall be said his judgment rul'd our hands ; 
Our youths, and wildness, shall no whit appear, 
But all be buried in his gravity. 

Bru. O, name him not ; let us not break with 
him ; 
For he wiU never follow anything 
That other men begin. 

Cas. Then leave him out. 

Casca. Lideed, he is not fit. 

Dec. Shall no man else be touch'd but only 
Caesar ? 

Cas. Decius, well ui-g'd :— I think it is not 
meet, 
Mark Antony, so well belov'd of Caesar, 
Should outlive Csesar : We shall find of him 
A shrewd contriver ; and you know his means. 
If he improve them, may well stretch so far 
As to annoy us all : which to prevent, 
Let Antony and Csesar fall together.^ 

Bru. Our course wiU seem too bloody, Caius 
Cassius, 
To cut the head off, and then hack the lunbs ; 
Like wrath in death, and envy afterwai'ds : 
For Antony is but a Umb of Csesar. 
Let us be sacrificers, but not butchers, Caius. 
We all stand up against the spirit of Caesar; 
And in the spirit of men there is no blood : 
O, that we then could come by Caesar's spirit. 
And not dismember Csesar ! But, alas, 
Ctesar must bleed for it ! And, gentle friends. 
Let 's kill him boldly, but not wrathfully ; 
Let 's carve him as a dish fit for the gods. 
Not hew him as a carcase fit for hounds : 
And let our hearts, as subtle masters do, 
Stir up their servants to an act of rage, 
And after seem to chide them. This shall make 
Our purpose necessary, and not envious : 
Which so appearing to the common eyes. 
We shall be call'd purgers, not mui'derers. 
And for Mark Antony, think not of him ; 

239 



Act II. ] 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



[SCEKE 1 



For he can do uo more than Caesar's ami, 
When CiEsar's head is off. 

Cas. Yet I fear him : ■> 

For in the ingrafted love he bears to Csesar, — 

Bru. Alas, good Cassius ! do not think of hiin: 
If he love Caesar, all that he can do 
Is to himself, — take thought, and die for Ca;sar: 
And that were much he should ; for he is given 
To sports, to ^vildness, and much company. 

Treb. There is no feai' in him ; let him not die; 
For he will live, and laugh at this hereafter. 

[Clock strikes. 

£ni. Peace ! count the clock. 

Cai. The clock hath stricken thi-ec. 

Treb. 'T is time to part. 

Cas. But it is doubtful yet 

Wlicther Caesar will come forth to-day, or no : 
For he is superstitious grown of late ; 
Quite from the main opinion he held once 
Of fantasy, of dreams, and ceremonies ; 
It may be, these apparent prodigies. 
The unaccustom'd terror of this night, 
And the persuasion of his augurcrs. 
May hold him from the Capitol to-day. 

Ike. Never fear that : If he be so resolv'd 
T can o'ersway liim : for he loves to hear 
Chat unicorns may be betray'd with trees, 
And bears ^nth glasses, elephants with holes, 
Lions with toils, and men with flatterers : 
But when I tell him he hates flatterers, 
He says he does ; being then most flattered. 
Let me work : 

For I can give his humour the true bent ; 
And I will bring him to the Capitol. 

Cas. Nay, we will all of us be there to fetch 
him. 

Bru. By the eighth hour : Is that the utter- 
most? 

Cin. Be that the uttermost, and fail not then. 

Met. Caius Ligarius doth bear Csesar hard, 
^V^10 rated him for speaking well of Pompey ; 
I wonder none of you have thought of him. 

Bru. Now, good Metcllus, go along by him ; 
lie loves me well, and I have given him reasons ; 
Send him but hither, and I '11 fashion him. 

Ctw. The morning comes upon us : Wc '11 
leave you, Brutus : — 
And, friends, disperse yourselves : but all re- 
member 
What you have said, and show yourselves true 
Romans. 



• The pause vrhich naturally occurs before Cassius offers 

an answer to the impassioned argument of lirutus vrould 

\x most decidedly marked by a proper reader or actor ; yet 

Pope and other editors read do fear, to make out the inetre> 

>> By him — by his house. 

2tn 



Bru. Good gentlemen, look fresh and merrily; 
Let not our looks put on our purposes ; 
But bear it as our Roman actors do, 
With untir'd spirits and formal constancy : 
And so, good-moiTOw to you every one.' 

[Rveu/it all but BRTJirs. 
Boy ! Lucius ! — Fast asleep ! It is no matter ; 
Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber : 
Thou hast no figures, nor no fantasies. 
Which busy care draws in the brains of men : 
Therefore thou sleep'st so sound. 

Enter Portia. 

For. Brutus, my lord ! 

Brii. Portia, what mean you ? Wherefore rise 
you now ? 
It is not for your health thus to commit 
Your weak condition to the raw-cold morning. 

For. Nor for yours neither. You have lui- 
gently, Brutus, 
Stole from my bed : And yesternight, at supper, 
You suddenly arose, and walk'd about. 
Musing and sighing, with your anus across : 
And when I asked you what the matter was. 
You star'd upon me with ungentle looks : 
I urg'd you further; then you scratch'd youi- 

head. 
And too impatiently stamp'd with your foot : 
Yet I insisted, yet you answer'd not ; 
But, with an angry waftui-e of your hand. 
Gave sign for me to leave you : So I did ; 
Fearing to strengthen that impatience 
Which seem'd too much enkiudled ; and, withal. 
Hoping it was but an efi'ect of hujuour. 
Which sometime hath his hour with every man. 
It wiU not let you cat, nor talk, nor sleep ; 
And, could it work so mucli upon your shape. 
As it hath much pvevail'd on your condition, 
I should not know you, Brutus. Dear my lord, 
Make me acquainted with your cause of grief. 

Bru. I am not weU in health, and that is all. 

For. Brutus is wise, and were he not in health 
He would embrace the means to come by it. 

Bru. Why, so I do : — Good Portia, go to bed. 

For. Is Brutus sick ? and is it physical 
To walk unbraced, and suck up the humours 
Of the dank morning ? What, is Brutus sick ; 
And will he steal out of his wholesome bed. 
To dare the vile contagion of the night. 
And tempt the rheumy and uupurged air 
To add unto Ids sickness ? No, my Brutus ; 
You have some sick offence within youi* mind. 
Which, by the right and virtue of my place, 
I ought to know of : And, upon my knees, 
I charm you, by my once commended beauty. 



ACT II.] 



JULIUS CiESAR 



[Scene II. 



By all your vows of love, and that great vow 
Whicli did incorporate and make us one, 
That you unfold to me, yourself, your half. 
Why you are heavy ; and what men to-night 
Have had resort to you : for here have been 
Some six or seven, who did hide their faces 
Even from darkness. 

Bru. Kneel not, gentle Portia. 

For. I should not need, if you were gentle 
Brutus. 
Within the bond of marriage, tell me, Brutus, 
Is it excepted I should know no secrets 
That appertain to you ? Am I yourself 
But, as it were, in sort or limitation ; 
To keep with you at meals, comfort your bed. 
And talk to you sometimes ? Dwell I but in the 

subuibs 
Of your good pleasui'e ? If it be no more, 
Portia is Brutus' hai'lot, not his wife. 

Bn(. You are my true and honourable wife ; 
As dear to me as are the ruddy drops 
That visit my sad heart. 

For. If this were true, then should I know 
tliis secret. 
I grant I am a woman ; but, withal, 
A woman that lord Brutus took to wife : 
I grant I am a woman ; but, withal, 
A woman well-reputed,— Cato's daughter. 
Think you I am no stronger than my sex. 
Being so father-' d, and so husbanded ? 
Tell me yoiu- counsels, I will not disclose them : 
I have made strong proof of my constancy, 
Giving myself a voluntary wound 
Here, iu the thigh : Cau I bear that with pa- 
tience. 
And not my husband's secretsV 

Bru. ye gods, 

Ecnder me worthy of this noble wife 1 

\_Knockinff tcithin. 
Hark, hark ! one knocks : Portia, go in a while ; 
And by and by thy bosom shall partake 
The secrets of my heart. 
All my engagements I will construe to thee. 
All the charactery of my sad brows : — 
Leave me with haste. [Exit Portia. 

Enter Lucius and Ligaeius. 

Lucius, who 's that knocks ? 
Luc. Here is a sick man that would speak 

with you. 
Bru. Caius Ligarius, that MeteUus spake of.— 
Boy, stand aside.— Caius Ligarius ! how ? 
Lig. Vouchsafe good morrow from a feeble 



tongue. 



Tragedies. — Yol. II. 



11 



Bru. 0, what a time have you chose out, 
brave Caius, 
To wear a kerchief ! 'Would you were not sick ' 

Lig. I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand 
Any exploit worthy the name of honour.'' 

Bru. Such au exploit have I in hand, Liga- 
rius, 
Had you a healthful ear to hear of it. 

Lig. By all the gods that Romans bow before, 
I here discard my sickness ! Soul of Rome ! 
Brave son, deriv'd from honoiu'able loins ! 
Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjur'd up 
My mprtified spirit. Now bid me run. 
And I wiU strive with things impossible ; 
Yea, get the better of them. What 's to do ? 
Bru. A piece of work that will make sick 

men whole. 
Lig. But are not some whole that we must 

make sick ? 
Bru. That must we also. What it is, my 
Caius, 
I shall unfold to thee, as we are going 
To whom it must be done. 

Lig. Set on your foot ; 

And, with a heart new fir'd, I follow you. 
To do I know not what : but it sufiiceth 
That Brutus leads me on. 

Bru. PoUow me then. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE II. —The same. A Room vi Ca;sar'« 
Falace. 

Thunder and lightning. En-ter C^sae, in his 
nightgoicn. 

Cas. Nor heaven, nor eaith, have been at 
peace to-night : 
Thrice hath Calphumia iu her sleep cried out, 
'Help, hoi They murther Casarl' Who's 
within?^ 

Enter a Servant. 

Serv. My lord ? 

Cccs. Go bid the priests do present sacrifice. 
And bring -me then- opinions of success. 

Serv. I will, my lord. [Exit. 

Enter Calphurnia. 

Cat. \Yhat mean you, Ctesai- ? Tlunk you to 
walk forth ? 
You shall not stir out of your house to-day. 
Cces. Csesai- shall forth: The things that 
threatcn'd me 



Act II.] 



JULIUS C^:SAR. 



[ScEtiE II 



Ne'er look'd but ou my back; when they shall 

see 
The face of Cwsar, they are vanished. 

Cal. Cfesar, I never stood on ceremonies, 
Yet now they fright inc. There is one within, 
Besides the tilings that wc have heard and seen, 
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch. 
A lioness bath whelped in the streets ; 
And graves have yawu'd and yielded up their 

dead : 
Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, 
In ranks, and squadrons, aud right form of war, 
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol : 
The noise of battle hurtled* in the air, 
Horses do neigh,'' and dying men did groan; 
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the 

streets. 
Ctesar ! these things ai'e beyond all use. 
And I do fear them. 

C^s. Wliat can be avoided 

Whose end is purpos'd by the mighty gods ? 
Yet Csesar shall go forth : for these predictions 
Are to the world in general, as to Caesar. 

Cal. When beggars die, there ai-e no comets 

seen; 
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of 

princes. 
Cces. Cowards die many times before their 

deaths ; 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard. 
It seems to me most strange that men should 

fear; 
Seeing that death, a necessary end, 
WiU come when it will come. 

Re-enter a Servant. 

What say the augurers f 
Sen. They would not have you to stir forth 
to-day. 
Plucking the entrails of ua. offering forth. 
They could not find a heart witliin the beast. 

C(es. The gods do this in shame of cowardice : 
Csesar should be a beast without a heart. 
If he should stay at home to-day for fear. 
No, Cffisar shall not : Danger knows full well 



» IIurtUd.—'ThXi mapnificcnt word expresses the clashinf; 
of weapons : it is probably the same word as Hurled ; and 
Sbakspere, with tlie boldness of genius, makes the action 
give the »ound. 

b Do nfijA.— Stetvcns departs from the original in read- 
ing did neiyh; but the tenses might have been purposely 
confounded, to represent the vague terror of the speaker. 
Horses "do neigh ' continues the image of 

" Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds." 
But to make did nriyh consistent with the action of the 
"fiery warriors," Mr. Grant While writes /om<//i', and Mr. 
Kelghtley, did lighl. It is perhaps better to retain the ori- 
ginal text than go into alterations without knowing where 
to stop. 

242 



That Cassai' is more dangerous than he. 
Wc jirc •■* two lions litlcr'd in one day, 
Aud I the elder and more terrible ; 
Aud CiEsar shall go forth. 

Cal. Alas, my lord. 

Your wisdom is consum'd in confidence. 
Do not go forth to-day : Call it my fear 
That keeps you in Ihc house, and not your own. 
"W^c 'U send Mark Antony to the senate-house; 
And he shall say you are not wcU to-day : 
Let me, upon my knee, prevail in tliis. 

Ccfs. [Mark Antony shall say I am not well ; 
And, for thy humouj-, I will stay at home. 

Enter Decius. 

Here 's Decius Erutus, he shall teU them so. 

Dec. Cjfisar, aU hail ! Good morrow, worthy 
Caisar : 
I come to fetch you to the senate-house. 

Cas. And you are come in very happy time. 
To bear my greeting to the senators. 
And teU them that I will not come to-day : 
Cannot, is false ; aud that I dare not, falser ; 
I will not come to-day : Tell them so, Decius. 

Cal. Say he is sick. 

Cces. Shall Caesar seud a lie '< 

Have I in conquest stretch'd mine arm so far. 
To be afeard to tell greybeards the truth ? 
Decius, go tell them Caisar will not come. 

Dec. Most mighty Caesar, let me know some 
cause, 
Lest I be laugh'd at when I tell them so. 

Cas. The cause is in my will, I will not come ; 
Tliat is enough to satisfy the senate. 
But, for your private satisfaction. 
Because I love you, I wiU let you know ; 
Calphurnia here, my wife, stays mc at home : 
She di-eamt to-night she saw my statue. 
Which like a fountain, with an hundred spcuts, 
Did run pure blood ; and many lusty Romans 
Came simling, and did bathe thcii- hands in it. 
And these docs she apply for warnings aud por- 
tents. 
And evils imminent ; and on her knee 
Hath bcgg'd that I will stay at home to-day. 

Dec. This dream is all amiss interpreted ; 
It was a vision fair and fortunate : 
Your statue spouting blood in many pipes. 
In wliich so many smiling llomans bath'd. 
Signifies that from you great Rome shall suck 
Reviving blood ; and that great men shall press 
For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizance. 
This by Calphuniia's di-cam is signified. 

••< .-/re.— The original has heare: a correction by Theobald 
is ucre. Capell has are. 



Act II.] 



JULIUS CiESAR. 



[Scenes III., IV. 



Cecs. And this way have you well expounded 

it. 
Dec. 1 have, when you have heard what I 

can say : 
And know it now ; the senate have concluded 
To give, tliis day, a crown to mighty Cajsar. 
If you shall send them word you will not come, 
Their minds may change. Besides, it were a 

mock 
Apt to be render' d, for some one to say, 
' Break up the senate till another time. 
When Csesai-'s wife shall meet with better 

dreams.' 
If Caesar hide himself, shaU they not whisper, 
' Lo, Caesar is afraid ? ' 
Pardon me, Caesar : for my dear, dear love 
To your proceeding bids me tell you this ; 
And reason to my love is liable. 

C<ss. How foolisli do your fears seem now, 

Calphui-uia ! 
I am ashamed I did yield to them.— 
Give me my robe, for I will go : — 

Enter Publius, Brutus, Ligamus, IMetellus, 
Casca, Trebonius, and Cinna. 

And look where Publius is come to fetch me. 

Pub. Good morrow, Caesar. 

Cccs. Welcome, Publius. — 

What, Brutus, are you stirr'd so early too ? 
Good morrow, Casca.— Caius Ligaiius, 
Caesar was ne'er so much your enemy 
As that same ague which hath made you lean. — 
What is 't o'clock ? 

Bru. Caesar, 't is strucken eight. 

C(es. I thank you for your pains and courtesy. 

Enter Antony. 

See ! Antony, that revels long o' nights. 
Is notwithstanding up : Good morrow, iintony. 
Ant. So to most noble Caesar. 
CiBS. Bid them prepare within : — 
I am to blame to be thus waited for. — 
Now, Cimia :— Now, Metellus :— What, Tre- 

bonius ! 
I have an hour's talk in store for you; 
Uemember that you call on me to-day : 
Be near me, that I may remember you. 

Treb. Caesar, I will : — and so near wiU I be, 

\_Aside. 
That your best friends shall wish I had been 
further. 
Cues. Good fi-iends, go in, and taste some 
wine with me ; 
And we, like friends, will straightway go to- 
gether. 

R 2 



Bru. That every like is not the same, Caesar. 
The heart of Brutus yearns to think upon ' 

[Exeunt 



SCENE III. 



-The same. 
Capitol. 



A Street near the 



Enter Artemidobus, reading a paper. 

Art. • Ceesar, beware of Brutus ; take lioed of Cassius j 
come not near Casca; have an eye to China; trust not Tre- 
bonius; mark -well Jletellus Cnnber ; Decius Brutus loves 
thee not ; thou hast wronged Caius Ligarius. Tliere is tut 
one mind iu all these men, and it is bent against Caesar. If 
thou beest not immortal, look about you : Security gives 
way to conspiracy. The mighty gods defend thee ! Tliy 
lover Artemidorcs.' 

Here will I stand till Caesar pass along. 

And as a suitor will I give him this. 

My heart laments that virtue cannot live 

Out of the teeth of emulation. 

If thou read this, Caesar, thou may'st live : 

If not, the Eates with traitors do contrive. 

[E.vit. 

SCENE IV. — The same. Another part of the 
same Street, before the House of Bnitus. 

Enter Portia and Lucius. 

For. I prithee, boy, riui to the senate-house ; 
Stay not to answer me, but get thee gone : 
Why dost thou stay ? 

inc. To know my errand, madam. 

For. I would have had thee there, andjiere 
again. 
Ere I can tell thee what thou shouldst do 
there. — 

constancy, be strong upon my side ! 

Set a huge mountain 'tween my hetu-t and 
tongue ! 

1 have a man's mind, but a woman's might. 
How hard it is for women to keep counsel !— 
Ai-t thou here yet ? 

l^c. Madam, what should I do ? 

Bun to the Capitol, and nothing else ? 
Aud so retui-n to you, and nothing else ? 

For. Yes, bring me word, boy, if thy lord 
look well. 
For he went sickly forth : And take good note 
What Ctesar doth, what suitors press to him. 
Hark, boy ! what noise is that ? 

Luc. I hear none, madam. 

P(,^ Prithee, listen well; 

I heard a bustling rumour, like a fray, 
And the wind brings it from the Capitol. 
Luc. Sooth, madam, I hear nothing. 

243 



Act II.) 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[Scene tV. 



Enter Soothsayer. 

Por. Come liither, fellow • 

Which way hast thou been ? 

Sooth. At niiue own house, good lady. 

Por. AVhat is 't o'clock ? 

Sooth. About the ninth hour, lady. 

Por. Is Cfcsar yet gone to the Capitol ? 

Sooth. Madam, not yet; I go to take my stand. 
To see him pass on to the Capitol. 

Por. Thou hast some suit to Caesar, hast thou 
not? 

Sooth. That I have, lady: if it will please 
Cffisar 
To be so good to Cwsar as to hear me, 
I shall beseech him to befriend himself. 

Por. Why, know'st thou" any harm's intended 
towards him ? 



Sooth. Nouc that I know \nll be, much that 
I fear may chance. 
Good morrow to you. Here the street is narrow: 
The throng that follows Ca^ar at the heels. 
Of senators, of pnetors, conuiion suitors, 
AVill crowd a feeble man almost to death : 
I '11 get me to a place more void, and there 
Speak to great Ctcsar as he comes along. 

{Exit. 
Por. I must go in. — Ay me ! how weak a 
thing 
The heart of woman is ! Bnitus ! 
The heavens speed thee in thine enterprise ! 
Sure, the boy heard me : — Brutus hath a suit 
Thai Cffisar will not grant. — 0, 1 grow faint : — 
Run, Lucius, and commend me to my lord ; 
Say I am merry : come to me again, 
^^^i bring me word what he doth say to thee. 

[Exeunt. 





[Roman Matron, j 



ILLTJSTUATIONS OE ACT II, 



1 ScENK I,—" But what of Cicero ? " 
" They durst not acquaint Cicero with their con- 
spiracy, although he was a man whom they loved 
dearly and trusted best; for they were afraid that, 
he being a coward by nature, and age also having 
increased his fear, he would quite turn and alter 
all their purpose, and quench the heat of their en- 
terprise, the which specially required hot and earnest 
execution, seeking by persuasion to bring all things 
to such safety as there should be no peril." 

2 Scene I. — "Let Antony and Ccesar fall together." 
"After that they consulted whether they should 
kill Antonius with Caesar; but Brutus would in no 
wise consent to it, saying, that venturing on such 
an enterprise as that, for the maintenance of law 
and justice, it ought to be clear from all villainy." 

3 Scene I. — " Let not our holes" &c. 
" Furthermore, the only name and great calling 
of Brutus did bring on the most of them to give con- 
sent to this conspu-acy : who having never taken 
oaths together, nor taken nor given any caution or 
assurance, nor binding themselves one to another 
by any religious oaths, they all kept the matter so 
secret to themselves, and could so cunningly handle 
it, that notwithfit'indiug the gods did reveal it by 



manifest signs and tokens from above, and by pre- 
dictions of sacrifices, yet all this would not be be- 
lieved. Now Brutus, who knew very well that for 
his sake all the noblest, vaUantest, and most courage- 
ous men of Rome did venture their lives, weighing 
with himself the greatness of the danger, when he 
was out of his house, he did so frame and fashion 
his countenance and looks that no man could dis- 
cern he had anything to trouble his mind. But 
when night came that he was in his own house, then 
he was clean changed; for either care did wake him 
against his will when he would have slept, or else 
oftentimes of himself he fell into such deep thoughts 
of this enterpiise, casting in his mind all the dim- 
gers that might happen, that his wife, lying by him, 
found that there was some marvellous great matter 
that troubled his mind, not being wont to be in that 
taking, and that he could not well determine witli 
himself. His wife, Portia, was the daughter of 
Cato, whom Brutus married, being his cousin, not 
a maiden, but a young widow, after the death of her 
first husband Bi bulus, by whom she had also a young 
sou called Bibulus, who afterwards wrote a book of 
the acts and jests of Brutus, extant at this present 
day. This young lady being excellently weU seen 
in philosophy, loving her husband well, and being 
of a noble coiu->wre, a>? she w;is also wise, because 

2JI5 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT IL 



slie would not ask her buabontl what he ailed before 
she had made some proof by herself, she took a 
little i-azor, such as barbers occupy to pare incu'.s 
nails, and, causing her maids and women to go out 
of her chamber, gave herself a great gash withal in 
her thigh, that she was Btraightallof agoreof blood, 
and incontinently after a vehement fever took her 
by reason of the pain of her wound. Then perceiv- 
ing her husband was marvellously out of quiet, and 
that he could take no rest, even in her greatest 
pain of all she spake in this sort unto him : — I being, 

Brutus (said she), the daughter of Cato, was mar- 
ried unto thee ; not to be thy bedfellow and com- 
panion in bed and at board only, like a harlot, but 
to be partaker also with thee of thy good and evil 
fortune. Now for thyself I can find no cause of 
fault in thee touching our match; but, for my part, 
how may I show my duty towards thee, and how 
much I would do for thy sake, if I cannot con- 
stantly bear a secret mischance or grief with thee 
which requireth secresy and fidelity? I confess 
that a woman's wit commonly is too weak to keep a 
secret safely ; but yet (Brutus) good education, and 
the company of virtuous men, have some power to 
reform the defect of nature. And for myself, I have 
this benefit moreover, that I am the daughter of 
C&to and wife of Brutus. This notwithstanding, 

1 did not trust to any of these things before, until 
that now I have found by experience that no pain 
or grief whatsoever can overcome me. With these 
words she showed him her wound on her thigh, and 
told him what she had done to prove herself. Brutus 
was amazed to heai- what she said unto him, and 
lifting up his hands to heaven, he besought the gods 
to give him the grace he might bring his enterprise 
to so good pass that he might be found a husband 
worthy of so noble a wife as Portia : so he then did 
comfort her the best he could." 

■• Scene I.— "Mere is a sich man," &c. 
" Now amongst Pompey's friends there was one 
called Caius Ligarius, who had been accused unto 
Cxsar for taking part with Pompey, and Ctcsar 
discharged him. But Ligarius thanked notCtcsar 
so much for his discharge, as he was ofifendcd with 
him for that he was brought in danger by his ty- 
rannical power ; and therefore in his heart he was 
always his mortal enemy, and was besides very 
familiar with Brutus, who went to see him, being 
sick in his bed, and "aid unto him, Ligarius, in what 
a time art thou sick ! Ligarius, rising up in his bed, 
and taking hiui by the right hand, said unto him, 
Brutus (.«aid he), if thou hast any great enterin-ise 
in hand worthy of thyself, I am whole." 

* ScEJfE n. — " Thrice hath Calphumia in Jiei- sleep 
cried out," &c. 

" Then going to bed the same night, as his man- 



ner was, and lying with his wife Cidpurnia, all tho 
windows and doors of his chamber flying open, the 
noise awoko him, and made him afraid when ho saw 
such hght; but more, when ho heard his wife Cal- 
purnia, being fast asleep, weep and sigh, and put 
forth many grumbling lamentable speeches, for she 
deemed that Casar was slain, and that she had him 
in her arms. Others also do deny that she had any 
such dream, as, amongst other, Titus Livius writeth 
that it was in this soi't : — The Senate having set 
upon tho top of Cffisar's house, for an ornament and 
setting forth of tho same, a certain pinnacle, Cal- 
purnia dreamed that she saw it broken down, and 
that she thought she lamented and wept for it; in- 
somuch that, Caesar rising in the morning, sho 
prayed him, if it were possible, not to go out of the 
doors that day, but to adjourn the session of tha 
Senate until another day ; and if that he made no 
reckoning of her dream, yet that he would search 
further of the soothsayers by their sacrifices to know 
what should happen him that day. Thereby it 
seemed that Cres'ar likewise did fear and suspect 
somewhat, because his wife Calpurnia, until that 
time, was never given to any fear or superstition ; 
and that then he saw her so troubled in mind with 
this dream she had, but much more afterwards 
when the soothsayer, having sacrificed many beasts 
one after another, told him that none did like them. 
Then he determined to send Antouius to adjourn 
the session of the Senate ; but in the mean time came 
Decius Brutus, surnamed Albinus, in whom Cssar 
put such confidence that in his last will and testa- 
ment he had appointed him to be his next heir, and 
yet was of the conspiracy with Cassius and Brutus. 
He, fearing that, if Cajsar did adjourn the session that 
day, the conspiracy would be betrayed, laughed at 
the soothsayers, and reproved Crosar, saying that he 
gave the Senate occasion to mislike with him, and 
that they might think he mocked them, considering 
that by his commandment they were assembled, and 
that they were ready willingly to grant him all 
things, and to proclaim him king of all the provinces 
of the empire of Rome out of Italy, and that he 
should wear his diadem in all other places, both by 
sea and land ; and furthermore, that if any man 
should tell them from him they should dejiart for 
that present time, and retuni again when Calpurnia 
should have better dreams, what would his enemies 
and ill-willers say, and how could they like of his 
friend's words ? and who could persuade them other- 
wise, but that they would think his dominion a slav- 
ery unto them, and tyrannical in himself? And 
yet, if it be so, said he, that you utterly mislike of 
this day, it is better that you go yourself in person, 
and, saluting the Senate, to dismiss them till an- 
other time. Therewithal ho took Cicsar by the 
hand, and brought him out of his house." 



216 




'^.^iui"\"'-ili*T.-' 



f.-^i;^p|^'|]«^^rif=!U;iS^i^ 



ACT III. 



SCENE I.— The same. The Capitol; the Se- 
nate sitting. 

A crowd of peo])le in the street leading to the Ca- 
pitol; among them Autemidokus and the 
Soothsayer. Flourish. Enter C^sar, Bru- 
tus, Cassius, Casca, Decius, Metellus, 
Tbebonius, Cinna, Antony, Lepidus, Popi- 
Lius, PuBLius, and others. 

Cas. The ides of March are come. 
Sooth. Ay, Csesar ; but not gone. 
Art. Han, Caesar ! Read this schedule. 
Bee. Trebonius doth desire you to o'er-read, 
At your best leisure, this his humble suit. 
Art. 0, Caesar, read miae fii'st ; for mine 's a 
suit 
That touches Caesar nearer: Read it, great 
Caesar. 



CeEs. What touches us om-self shall be last 

serv'd. 
Art. Delay not, Caesar ; read it instantly. 
Gas. "What, is the fellow mad ? 
Pub. Sii'rah, give place. 

Cas. What, urge you yom- petitions in the 

street ? 
Come to the Capitol. 

C^SAR enters the Capitol, the rest following. All 
the Senators rise.^ 

Pop. I wish your enterprise to-day may thiive. 

Cas. What enterprise, Popiliiis ? 

Poj). Pare you well. 

\Adca7iCeS to C-ESAR. 

Bru. What said Popilius Lena ? 
Cas. He wish'd to-day our enterprise might 
thrive. 
I feax our purpose is discovered. 

24 r 



ACT in.] 



JULIUS CtESAR. 



[SCENK 1. 



Bru. Look, how he makes to Ctcsar : Mark 

him. 
Cas. Casca, be sudden, for we fear preven- 
tiou. — 
Brutus, what shall be done ? If this be known, 
Cassius or Ca>sar never shall turn back. 
For I will slay myself. 

])ru. Cassius, be constant : 

Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes ; 
For, look, he smiles, and Ca-sar doth not cliange. 
Cas. Trebonius knows his time ; for, look you, 
Brutus, 
lie draws !Mark Antony out of the way. 

[Exeunt Antony and Trebonius. Caesar 
and the Senators take their seats. 
Dec. Wlicre is MctcUus Cimbcr? Let him go. 
And presently prefer his suit to Cajsar. 
Bru. He is address'd:" press near, and second 

him. 
Cin. Casca, you are the first that rears your 

hand. 
Ctvs. Are we all ready ?'' what is now amiss, 
That Casar, and his senate, must redress ? 
Met. Most high, most mighty, and most 
puissant Ccesar, 
Mctcllus Cimber throws before thy seat 
An humble heart : — [Kneelint/. 

Cas. I must prevent thee, Cimber. 

These coucliings, and these lowly courtesies, 
Might fire the blood of ordinary men ; 
And turn pre-ordinance, and first decree. 
Into the law *" of children. Be not fond, 
To think that Csesar bears such rebel blood. 
That will be thaw'd from the true quality 
With that which melteth fools ; I mean sweet 

words. 
Low crooked curtsies, and base spaniel fawTiing. 
Thy brother by decree is banished ; 
If thou dost bend, and pray, and fawn, for hiin, 
I spurn thee, like a cur, out of my way. 
Know, Ca:sar doth not wTong: nor without 

cause 
Win he be satisfied.'' 



* Addrets'd — ready. 

^ Mr. Collier (,'ives the words to Casca; as Ritson also 
did. The distribution seems plausible. But Brutus lias just 
said of Ca!sar, " he is address'd," wliich means " he is ready." 
Catar, heinR ready himself, looks to the senate, and says 
"Are we all ready? " 

c Lmc. — The orijrinal has lane.— sn easy misprint for lau-e. 

d In Ben Jonson's 'Discoveries' there is the following 
passage referrinR to Shakspere : " Many times he fell into 
those thint's could not escape lauRhter: aa when he said in 
the person of Caesar, one speaking to him, 'Caesar, thou 
dost me wronp,' he rejjlied, 'Caesar did never wrong but 
with just cause.'" Jonson wrote this, we have no douht, 
before the publication of the folio of IC23; for he was in- 
capable of falsely quoting his friend's lines. T^iTwhitt sup- 
poses that the players altered the line; and maintains that 
Shakspere did not use urong in the sense of impropriety, 
liut with reference to his exercise of power which sometimes 

218 



Met. Is there no voice more worthy than my 
own. 
To sound more sweetly in great Ca;sar's ear. 
For the repealing of my banish'd brother ? 

Bru. I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery^ 
Cfcsar ; 
Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may 
Have an immediate freedom of repeal. 

Ctcs. What, Brutus ! 

Cas. Pardon, Crosar ; Csesar, pardon : 

As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall. 
To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber. 

Cccs. I could be well mov'd if I were as you ; 
If I could pray to move, prayers would move 

me : 
But I am const:ii:fc as the northern star. 
Of whose trae-fix'd and resting quality 
There is no fellow in the firmament. 
The skies arc painted with uuuumber'd sparks, 
They are all fire, and every one doth shine ; 
But there 's but one in all doth hold his place : 
So, in the world : 'T is furnish'd well with men. 
And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive ; 
Yet, in the number, I do know but one 
That unassailable holds on his rank, 
Unshak'd of motion : and, that I am he. 
Let me a little show it, — even in this. 
That I was constant Cimbcr should be banish'd, 
.;\jid constant do remain to keep him so, 

Cin. O Cajsar, — 

Cas. Hence ! wilt thou lift up Olympus ? 

Dec. Great Caesar, — 

Cas. - Doth not Brutus bootless kneel ? 

Casca. Speak, hands, for me. 

[Casca dabs Cesar in the neck. Caesar 
catches hold of his arm. He is then stabbed 
by several otlier Conspirators, and at last by 
!Marcus Brutus. 

Cas. Et tu, Brute f—lhen. fall, Csesar. 

[Dies. The senators and people retire in con- 
fusion. 

Cin. Liberty ! Freedom ! Tvranny is dead ! — 
Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets. 

Cas. Some to the common pulpits, and cry 
out, 
' Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement ! * 

Bru. People, and senators ! be not affrighted; 
Fly not ; stand still : — ambition's debt is paid. 

Casca. Go to the pulpit, Bnitus. 

Dec. And Cassius too. 

Bru. AVlicrc 's Publius ? 

required him to punish. "On the whole," say the Cam- 
bridge editors, " it seems more probable thai Jonson, quoting 
from memory; quoted wrong, than that the passage w,i8 
altered in consequence of his censure, which was first made 
publicly, in 1025." 



Act III] 



JULIUS OiESAR. 



fScElTE 1. 



Cin. Here, quite confounded with tMs mu- 
tiny. 
Met. Stand fast together, lest some friend of 
Csesar's 
Should chance — 
Bru. Talk not of standing ; — Pubhus, good 
cheer ; 
There is no harm intended to your person. 
Nor to no Ex)man else : so teU them, Publius. 
Cas. And leave us, Publius ; lest that the 
people, 
Rusliing on us, should do your age some mis- 
chief. 
Bnt. Do so ; — and let no man abide this deed 
But we the doers. 

Re-enter Trebonitjs. 

Cas. Where is Antony ? 

Tre. Pled to his house amaz'd : 
Men, wives, and childi-en stare, cry out, and run, 
As it were doomsday. 

Bru. Pates ! we wiU know your pleasures : — 
That we shall die we know ; 't is but the time, 
And drawing days out, that men stand upon. 

Casca. Why, he that cuts off twenty years of 
life 
Cuts off so many years of fearing death." 

Bru. Grant that, and then is death a benefit : 
So are we Csesar's friends, that have abridg'd 
His tune of fearing death.— Stoop, Eomans, 

stoop, 
And let us bathe our hands in Csesar's blood 
Up to the elbows, and besmear om- swords : 
Then walk we forth, even to the market-place ; 
And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads. 
Let 's all cry. Peace, Freedom, and Liberty ! 

Cas. Stoop then, and wash.— How many ages 
hence 
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over, 
La states unborn, and accents yet unknown ! 

Bru. How many times shall Csesar bleed in 
sport. 
That now on Pompey's basis lies along. 
No worthier than the dust ! 

Cas. So oft as that shall be, 

So often shall the knot of us be caU'd 
The men that gave their country liberty. 

Dec. What, shall we forth ? 

Cas. Ay, every man away : 

Brutus shall lead ; and we wiU grace his heels 
With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. 



a The original copies give this speech fo Casca. The 
variorum editors assigned it to Cassius. Jlr. Craik thinks 
it is more in tlie manner of Cassius. 



"Enter a SoiTant. 



Bru. Soft, who comes here? A friend of 
Antony's. 

Serv. Tlius, Brutus, did my master bid me 
kneel ; 
Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down ; 
Aid, being prostrate, thus he bade me say : 
Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest : 
Csesar was mighty, bold, royal, and lonng : 
Say, I love Brutus, and I honour him ; 
Say, I fear'd Csesar, honour'd him, and lov'd 

him. 
If Brutus wiU vouchsafe that Antony 
May safely come to him, and be resolv'd 
How Csesar hath deserv'd to lie in death, 
Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead 
So well as Brutus Uving ; but will follow 
The fortunes and affahs of noble Brutus, 
Thorough the hazards of this untrod state. 
With all true faith. So says iny master An- 
tony. 

Bru. Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman; 
I never thought him worse. 
TeU him, so please him come unto this place, 
He shall be satisfied ; and, by my honour. 
Depart untouch'd. 

Serv. I 'U fetch him presently. 

[_Bxit Servant. 

Bru. I know that we shall have him well to 
friend. 

Cas. I wish we may : but yet have I a miud 
That fears hira much ; and my misgiving stiU 
Falls shrewdly to the purpose. 

Re-enter Antony. 

Bru. But here comes Antony.— Welcome, 

Mark Antony. 
Ant. mighty Csesar ! Dost thou lie so low ? 
Are aU thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils. 
Shrunk to this little measure ?— Pare thee well— 
I know not, gentlemen, what you intend, 
Who else must be let blood, who else is rank : 
If I myself, there is no hour so fit 
As Csesar's death's hour ; nor no instrument 
Of half that worth as those your swords, made 

rich 
With the most noble blood of all this world. 
I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard. 
Now, whilst your purpled hands do reck and 

smoke. 
Fulfil yoiu- pleasui-e. Live a thousand years, 
I shall not find myseK so apt to die : 
No place will please me so, no mear. of death, 
^ 249 



Act III] 



JULIUS CvESAR. 



rScEXB L 



As here by CiBsar, and by you cut off, 
The clioicc and master spirits of this age. 

Bru. O Antony ! beg not your death of us. 
Though now we must appear bloody and cruel, 
As, by our hands and this our present act. 
You see wc do, yet sec you but our hands. 
And this the bleeding business they have done : 
Our hearts you see not, they arc pitiful ; 
.iVnd pity to the general wrong of Rome 
(As fire drives out fire, so pity, pity) 
Hath done this deed on Casar. For your pari, 
To you our swords have leaden points, Mark 

Antony : 
Our anus, in strength of nialiee," and oiu- hearts. 
Of brothers' temper, do receive you in 
With all kiud love, good thoughts, and reverence. 
Cas. Your voice shall be as strong as any niau'.s 
In the disposing of new dignities. 

Bru. Only be patieut, till we have appeas'd 
The multitude, beside themselves with fear ; 
And then we will deliver you the cause, 
>Vliy I, that did love Ctesar when I struck him. 
Have thus proceeded. 

j„/. I doubt not of your wisdom. 

Let each man render mc his bloody hand : 
First, Marcus Brutus, will I shake with you ; 
Next, Cains Cassius, do I take your hand ; 
Now, Dccius Brutus, yours ;— now yours, Mc- 

tellus ; 
Yours, Cinna ;— and, my valiant Casca, yours ; — 
Though last, not least in love, yours, good Tre- 

bonius. 
Gentlemen all,— alas ! what shall I say ? 
My credit now stands on such slippery ground, 
That one of two bad ways you must conceit me, 
Either a coward or a flatterer. — 
That I did love thee, Csesar, 0, 't is true : 
Tf then thy spirit look upon us now, 
Shall it not grieve thee, dearer than thy death. 
To see thy Antony making his peace. 
Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes. 
Most noble ! in the presence of thy corse ? 
Had I as many eyes as thou liast wounds. 
Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood. 
It would become me better than to close 
In terms of friendship with thine enemies. 
Pardon me, Julius!— Here wast thou bay'd, 

brave hart ; 
Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters 

stand, 
Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe. 
world ! tliou wast the forest to this hart ; 
And this indeed, world ! the heart of thee.— 

» See Recent New Reading at ihc end of the Act. 
2j0 



How like a deer, stricken by many princes, 
Dost thou here lie ! 
Cas. !M;u-k Antony, — 

Jnt. Pardon mc, Caius Cassius ; 

The enemies of CiEsar shall say this ; 
Then in a friend it is cold modesty, 

Cas. I blame you not for praising Ctesar so ; 
But what compact mean you to have with us ? 
■\yill you be prick'd in number of oui- friends ; 
Or shall wc on, and not depend on you ? 

Ant. Therefore I took your hands ; but was, 
indeed, 
Sway'd from the point, by looking down on 

Cicsar. 
Friends am I with you all, and love you all ; 
Upon this hope, that you shall give me reasons 
'\Vliy and wherein Cscsar was dangerous. 

Bru. Or else were this a savage spectacle. 
Our reasons are so full of good regard. 
That were you, Antony, the son of Ctesar, 
You should be satisfied. 

Ant. That 's all I seek : 

And am moreover suitor that I may 
Produce his body to the market-place ; 
And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend. 
Speak in the order of his funeral. 
Bru. You sliidl, Mark Antony. 
Cas. Brutus, a word with you. — 

You know not what you do : Do uot consent 

[^Aside. 
That Antony speak in his funeral : 
Know you how much the people may be mov'd 
By that which he will utter ? 

Brv. By your pardon ; — 

I will myself into the pulpit fu'st. 
And show the reason of our Caesar's death : 
What Antony shall speak, I will protest 
He speaks by leave and by permission ; 
And that we are contented Ca!sar shall 
Have all true rites and lawful ceremonies. 
It shall advantage more than do us wrong. 
Cas. I know not what may fall ; I like it not. 
Bru. Mark Antony, here, take you Caisar's 
body. 
You shall not in your funeral speech blame us, 
But speak all good you can devise of Caisar ; 
And say you do 't by our permission ; 
Else shall you not have any hand at all 
About his funeral : And you shall speak 
In the same pulpit whereto I am going, 
After my speech is ended. 

Ant. Be it so ; 

I do desire no more. 
Bru. Prepare the body then, and follow us. 

[E.Tettnt all but Aktonjt. 



Act rir.] 



JULIUS C^^SAR. 



[SCENIS IL 



Ant. 0, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of 
eai-th," 
That I am meek and gentle with these butchers ! 
Thou ai-t the ruins of the noblest man 
That ever lived in the tide of tunes. 
Woe to the hand that shed this costly blood ! 
Over thy wounds now do I prophesy, — 
Which, like duiub mouths, do ope their ruby 

lips, 
To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue, — 
A curse shall light upon the limbs of men ; 
Domestic fury, and fierce civil strife. 
Shall cumber all the parts of Italy : 
Blood and destruction shall be so in use, 
And dreadful objects so familiar, 
That mothers shall but smile when they behold 
Their infants qutirter'd with the hands of war ; 
All pity chok'd with custom of fell deeds : 
And Caesar's spuit, ranging for revenge. 
With Ate by his side, come hot from hell, 
ShaU. in these confines, with a monarch's voice. 
Cry ' Havock,' t" and let slip the dogs of war ; 
That this foul deed shall smell above the earth 
With carrion men groaning for burial. 

Eiite-i- a Servant. 

You serve Octavius Caesar, do you not ? 

Serv. I do, Mark Antony. 

Ant. Cffisar did write for him to come to Rome. 

Sere. He did receive his letters, and is coming : 
And bid me say to you by word of mouth, — 
Caesar ! — \8eeing the body. 

Ant. Thy heart is big; get thee apart aud 
weep. 
Passion, I see, is catching ; for mine eyes. 
Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine. 
Began to water. Is thy master coming ? 

Sero. He lies to-night within seven leagues of 
Rome. 

Ant. Post back with speed, and teU him what 
hath chanc'd : 
Here is a mourning Rome, a dangerous Rome, 
No Rome of safety for Octavius yet ; 
Hie hence, and tell him so. Yet, stay awhile ; 
Thou shalt not back till I have bonie this corse 
Into the market-place : there shaU I try, 
In my oration, how the people take 
The cniel issue of these bloody men ; 
According to the which thou shalt discourse 



a We give the line as in the first and second editions. 
The text was invariably corrupted in all modem editions 
before tlie Pictorial into — 

" O, pardon me, thou piece of bleeding earth." 

b Havock, according to Sir William Blackstone, was, in 
the military operations of ancient times, the word by which 
declaration was made that no quarter should be given. 



To young Octavius of the state of things. 
Lend me your hand. 

[Exeunt, with C^sab's bodi/. 

SCENE ll.—The same. The Forum. 

Enter Beuttts and Cassitts, and a throng of 
Citizens.^ 

at. We wiU be satisfied ; let us be satisfied. 

Bru. Then follow me, and give me audience, 
friends. — • 
Cassius, go you into the other street. 
And part the numbers. — 
Those that will hear me speak, let tliem stay 

here ; 
Those that wiU foUow Cassius, go with him ; 
And pubKc reasons shall be rendered 
Of Caesar's death. 

1 at. I win hear Brutus speak. 

2 at. I will hear Cassius ; and compare their 

reasons. 
When severally we hear them rendered. 

\Bxit Cassius, xcith some of the Citizens. 
Brtjxus goes into the Rostrum. 

3 at. The noble Brutus is ascended : Silence ! 
Bru. Be patient tUl the last. 

Romans, countrymen, and lovers ! hear me for 
my cause ; and be silent, that you may hear : 
believe me for mine honour; and have respect 
to mine honour, that you may believe : censure 
me in your wisdom ; and awake your senses, that 
you may the better judge. If there be any in 
this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to him 
I say, that Brutus' love to Cfesar was no less 
than his. If then that friend demand why 
Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer, — 
Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved 
Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, 
and die all slaves ; than that Caesar were dead, 
to live all iTce-men ? As Caesar loved me, I weep 
for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as 
he was valiant, I honour him: but, as he was 
ambitious, I slew him : There is tears, for his 
love ; joy, for his fortune ; honour", for his valour; 
and death, for his ambition. TVTio is here so 
base that would be a bondman ? If any, speak ; 
for him have I offended. Who is here so rude 
that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; 
for him have I offended. Who is here so vile 
that win not love his country? If any, speak; 
for him have I offended. I pause for a reply. 

at. None, Brutus, none. 

[Several speaking at once. 

Bru. Then none have I offended. I have 
done no more to Caesar than you shall do to 

251 



ACT III. J 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[ScEK3 n. 



Brutus. The question ot his death is enrolled 
in the Capitol ; his glory not extenuated, wherein 
he was wortliy; nor liis offences enforced, for 
which he suffered death. 

EHtrr .\jfTOXY and othfn, with Ciesar'* bo(I>/. 

Here comes his body, mourned by Jfark Antony : 
who, though he had no hand iu his death, shall 
receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the 
commonwealth : As which of you shall not ? With 
this I depart : That, as I slew my best lover for 
the good of Rome, 1 have the same dagger for 
myself, when it shall please my country to need 
my death. 

CU. Live, Brutus, live I live ! 

1 at. Bring liim with triumph home unto 

his house. 

2 at. Give him a statue with liis ancestors. 

3 at. Let him be Csesar. 

4 at. CfEsar's better parts 
Shall be crown'd in Brutus. 

1 at. We '11 bring him to his house with 

shouts and clamours. 
Bru. My countni-men, — 

2 at. Peace ; silence ! Brutus speaks. 
1 at. Peace, ho ! 

Bru. Good countrymen, let me depart alone. 
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony : 
Do grace to Caesar's corpse, and grace his speech 
Tending to Caesar's glories ; which Mark Antony, 
By our permission, is allow'd to make. 
T do entreat you, not a man depart. 
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke. [^Exit. 

1 at. Stay, ho ! and let us hear Alark Antony. 

3 at. Let him go up into the public chair ; 
We '11 hear him : Noble Antony, go up. 

Ant. For Brutus' sake, I am beholding to you. 

4 at. What does he say of Bmtus ? 

3 at. He says for Bmtus' sake. 
He finds himself beholding to us all. 

4 at. 'T were best he speak no hann of Brutus 

here. 

1 at. This Ctesar was a tyrant. 

3 at. Nay, that 's rortain : 

We arc bless'd that Rome is rid of him. 

2 at. Peace; let us hear what Antony can 

say. 
Ant. You gentle Romans, — 
Oil. Peace, ho ! let us hear him. 

Jnt. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me 
your cars ; 
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. 
The evil that men do lives after them ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones ; 
So let it be %vith Caesar. The noble Brutus 
252 



Hath told you CiEsar was ambitious : 

If it were so, it was a grievous fault ; 

And grievously hatii Cffisar answer'd it. 

Here, under leave of Brutus, and the rest, 

(For Brutus is an honourable man ; 

So arc they all, all honourable men ;) 

Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. 

He was my friend, faithful and just to mc : 

But Bi-utus says, he was ambitious ; 

And Brutus is an honourable man. 

He hath brought many captives home to Rome, 

Wliose ransoms did the general coffers fill : 

Did this in Caesar seem ambitious ? 

Wlien that the poor have cried, Cajsar iiath 

wept : 
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff : 
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious ; 
And Brutus is an honourable man. 
You all did see that on the Lupercal 
I thrice presented bim a kingly crown. 
Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition ? 
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious ; 
And, sure, he is au honourable man. 
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke. 
But here I am to speak what I do know. 
You all did love him once, not without cause ; 
What cause withholds you then to mourn for 

him ? 

judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts. 
And men have lost their reason ! — Bear with me ; 
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, 
And I must pause till it come back to me. 

1 at. Methiuks there is much reason in liis 

sayings. 

2 at. If thou consider rightly of the matter, 
Cffisar has had great wrong. 

3 at. Has he, masters ? 

1 fear there will a worse come in his place. 

4 at. ]Mark'd ye his words? He would not 

take the crown ; 
Tliercfore, 't is ecrtain he was not ambitious. 

1 at. If it be found so, some will dear abide 

it. 

2 at. Poor soul ! his eyes are red as fire with 

weeping. 

3 at. There 's not a nobler man iu Rome than 

Antony. 

4 at. Now mark him, he begins again to 

speak. 
Ant. But yesterday, the word of Cajsar might 
Have stood against the world : now lies he there, 
And none so poor to do him reverence. 

masters ! if I were dispos'd to stir 
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, 

1 should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, 



Act III.] 



JULIUS CiKSAR. 



[Scene IL 



Who, you all know, are honoui-able men : 
I will not do them wrong ; I rather choose 
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you, 
Than I will wrong such honourable men. 
But here 's a parchment, \vith the seal of Caesar, 
I found it in his closet, 't is his will : 
Let but the commons hear this testament, 
(Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read,) 
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds. 
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood ; 
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, 
And, dying, mention it wiihin their wills, 
Bequeatliing it, as a rich legacy. 
Unto their issue. 

4 at. We '11 hear the will : Read it, Mark 
Antony. 

at. The will, the will ! we will hear Csesar's 
will. 

Ant. Have patience, gentle friends, I must 
not read it ; 
It is not meet you know how Caesai- lov'd you. 
You are not wood, you arc not stones, but men ; 
And, being men, hearing the will of Csesar, 
It will inflame you, it wdll make you mad : 
'T is good you know not that you are his heirs ; 
For if you should, 0, what would come of it ! 

4 au. Read the will ; we '11 hear it, Antony ; 
you sliaU read us the will; Ctesar's will. 

Ant. Will you be patient? Will you stay a 
while? 
I have o'ershot myself to tell you of it. 
I fear I ^vrong the honourable men 
Whose daggers have stabb'd Cssar : I do fear it. 

4 at. They were traitors : Honourable men ! 

at. The win ! the testament ! 

2 ad. They were villains, murderers: The 
will ! read the will ! 

Ant. You will compel me then to read the 
will? 
Then make a ring about the corpse of Ceesar, 
And let me show you him that made the will. 
Shall I descend ? And will you give me leave ? 

ait. Come down. 

2 ait. Descend. 

\He comes down from the pulpit, 

3 at. You shall have leave. 

4 at. A ring ; stand round. 

1 at. Stand from the hearse, stand from the 
body. 

2 at. Room for Antony; — most noble An- 
tony. 

Ant. Nay, press not so upon me ; stand far off. 

ait. Stand back ! room 1 bear back ! 

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them 
now. 



You aU do know this mantle : I remember 

The first time ever Caesar put it on ; 

'T was on a summer's evening, in his tent, 

That day he overcame the Nervii : — 

Look ! in this place ran Cassius' dagger through : 

See, what a rent the envious Casca made : 

Through this, the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd ; 

And, as he pluck'd his cui-sed steel away, 

Mark how the blood of Ca;sar foUow'd it. 

As rushing out of doors, to be resolv'd 

If Brutus so unkindly knock' d, or no ; 

For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel : 

Judge, you gods, how dearly Caesar lov'd 

him ! 
This was the most uukindest cut of all : 
For when the noble Caesar saw him stab. 
Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms. 
Quite vanquish'd him: then burst his mighty 

heart ; 
^Vnd, in his mantle muffling up his face. 
Even at the base of Pompey's statue,* 
Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell. 
0, what a fall was there, my countrymen ! 
Then T, and you, and all of us fell down, 
AVhilst bloody treason flourish'd over us. 
0, now you weep ; and, I perceive, you feel 
The dint*" of pity : these are gracious drops. 
Kind souls, what weep you, when you but be- 
hold 
Our Caesar's vesture wounded ? Look you here, 
Here is himself, marr'd, as you see, with traitors. 

1 at. O piteous spectacle ! 

2 at. noble Caesar ! 

3 at. woeful day ! 

4 at. O traitors, villains ! 

1 ad. most bloody sight ! 

All. T^'e will be reveuged: revenge; about, 
— seek, — burn, — fire, — kill, — slay!— let not a 
traitor live. 

Ant. Stay, coimtrymen. 

1 Cd. Peace there :— Hear the noble Antony. 

2 ad. We '11 hear him, we 'U follow him, we '11 
die with him. 

Ant. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not 

stii- you up 
To such a sudden flood of mutiny. 
They that have done this deed are honourable ; 
WTiat private griefs they have, alas ! I know not, 
That made them do it; they are wise and 

honom-able. 



a Slaluc.—\\\ this passage, and in a previous instance, the 
word Hatua has been substituted for the English word. 
What we may gain in the harmony of the verse we lose in 
the simplicity of the expression, by this alteration. 

f) Dini— impression. 

253 



Act III] 



JULIUS C;ESAR. 



[Scene III. 



Ajid will, no doubt, with reasons answer you. 
I conic not, friends, to steal away your hearts ; 
I ain no orator, as Brutus is ; 
But as you know inc all, a plain blunt man, 
That love my friend; and tliat they know full 

weU 
That gtive me public leave to spcjik of hiiu. 
For 1 have neither wit,* nor words, nor worth, 
Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, 
To stir men's blood : I only speak riglit on ; 
I tell you that which you yourselves do know ; 
Show you sweet Cesar's wounds, poor, poor 

dumb mouths. 
And bid them speak for me : But were I Brutus, 
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony 
Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue 
In every wound of Csesar, that should move 
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny. 
at. We '11 mutiny ! 

1 at. We '11 bum the house of Brutus ! 

3 at. Away then; come, seek the couspii-a- 
tors! 

Ant. Yet hear me, countrymen ; yet hear me 
speak. 

at. Peace, ho! Hear Antony, most noble 
Antony. , 

Ant. Why, friends, you go to do you know 
not what : 
U herein hath Cesar thus deserv'd your loves ? 
Alas, you know not — I must tell you then : — 
You have forgot the will I told you of. 

Cil. Most true ; the will :— let 's stay, and hear 
the will. 

Ant. Here is the will, and under Caesar's seal. 
To every Roman citizen he gives, 
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas. 

2 at. Most noble Csesar ! — we '11 revenge his 
death. 

3 at. O royal Csesar ! 

Ant. Hear me with patience. 

at. Peace, ho ! 

Ant. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks, 
Ilis private arbours, and new-planted orchards. 
On this side Tiber ; he hath left them you. 
And to your heirs for ever ; common pleasures. 
To walk abroad, and recreate yourselves. 
Here was a C»sar ! When comes such another ? 

1 at. Never, never ! — Come, away, away ! 
Wc '11 bum his body in the holy place, 
\nA. with the brands lire the traitors' houses. 
Take up the body. 



» rr</.— The folif) of IC2.1 has irri<— tbat of IC.32 nil. 
irnl may be cxpUined n a prepared writinK; bulwe retain 
the readme of the tccond folio, receiving tcil in the sense of 
uoderttanding. 

254 



2 at. Go, fetch fu-e. 

3 at. Pluck down benches. 

4 at. Pluck down forms, windows, anytliing. 

[Exeunt Citizens, with the body. 
Ant. Now let it m ork ! Miseliicf, thou ait 
afoot. 
Take thou what course thou wilt ! — How now, 
fellow ? 

Enter a Servant. 

Serv. Sir, Octavius is already come to Rome. 

Ant. Where is he ? 

Serv. He and Lepidus are at Csesar's house. 

Ant. And thither wall I straight to visit him : 
He comes upon a wish. Fortune is merry. 
And in this mood will give us anything. 

Serv. I heard him say, Bnitus and Cassius 
iVi'C rid like madiucn thi-ough the gates of Rome. 

Ant. Belike they had some notice of the 
people. 
How I had niov'd them. Bring me to Octavius. 

\Exeunt. 

SCENE IJl.—The same. A Street. 

Enter Cinna, the Poet? 

at. I di-eamt to-night that I did feast with 
Csesar, 
And things unluckily charge my phantasy : 
I have no will to wander forth of doors. 
Yet something leads me forth. 

Enter Citizens. 

1 at. What is your name ? 

2 at. Whither are you going ? 

3 at. Wliere do you dwell ? 

4 at. Are you a married man, or a bachelor ? 

2 at. Answer every man diixctly. 

1 at. Ay, and briefly. 
4 at. Ay, and wisely. 

3 at. Ay, and truly, you were best. 

an. Wliat is my name ? Whither am I going ? 
Where do I dwell ? Am I a married man or a 
bachelor? Tlicn, to answer every man directly, 
and briefly, wisely, and tmly; wisely I say, I 
am a bachelor. 

2 at. That 's as much as to say they are 
fools that marry: You'll bear me a bang for 
that, I fear. Proceed; directly. 

an. Directly, I am going to Caesar's funeral. 

1 at. As a friend, or an enemy ? 
an. As a friend. 

2 at. That matter is answered dueetly. 

4 at. For your dwelling, — briefly. 
an. Briefly, I dwell by the Capitol. 



A.CT III.] 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



[ScEKK m. 



3 at. Your name, sir, truly. 
Citi. Truly, my name is Cinna, 

1 at. Tear him to pieces, he 's a conspii-ator. 
an. I am Cinna the poet, I am Cinna the 
poet. 

4 at. Tear him for his bad verses, tear him 
for his bad verses. 

Cin. I am not Cinna the conspirator." 

» Through a most extraordinary licence, or indolence in 



2 at. It is no matter, his name's Cimia; 
pluck but his name out of his heart, and turn 
him going. 

3 at. Tear him, tear hun! Come, brands, 
ho! firebrands. To Brutus', to Cassius'; bum 
all. Some to Decius' house, and some to Casca's ; 
some to Ligarius' : away ; go ! [_Exeunt. 

the collation of copies, this entire line is omitted in some 
modern editions. 



RECENT NEW READING. 



Act III., Sc. I., p. 250. 

" Our arms, in strength of malice," &c. 

" Our arms, in strength of welcome," &c. — Collier. 

We transcribe the following note from Mr. Craik's Philo- 
logical Commentarj- on Julius Cjeoar: — 

The word malice " has stood in every edition down to 
that in one volume produced by Mr. Collier in 1S53; and 
there, for the first time, instead of ' strength of malice,' we 
have ' strength of welcome.' This turns the nonsense into 



excellent sense; and the two words are by no means so un- 
like as that, in a cramp hand, or an injured or somewhat 
faded page, the one might not easily have been mistaken by 
the first printer or editor for the other. . . . Yet, strange 
to say, it is not so much as mentioned by Mr. Collier in the 
large voluftle, of above 500 pages (Notes and Emendations, 
etc.), which professes to contain an account of everything of 
interest or importance in his copy of the Second Folio. Nor, 
as far as I remember, has it attracted any attention from any 
one of the numerous critics of the new readings. As how, 
indeed, should it, smuggled into the text as it has been? " 





[Roman Consul.] 

ILLUSTEATIONS OF ACT III. 



' Scene I. — " All the Senators rise." 
" A SENATOR (Milled Popilius Locna, after lie had 
fsaluted Biiitus and Casaius more friendly than he 
was wont to do, he rounded softly in their ears, and 
told them, 1 pray the gods you may go through 
with that you have taken in hand ; but, withal, de- 
spatch, I rede you, for your enterprise is bewrayed. 
When he had said, he presently departed from them, 
and left them both afraid that their conspiracy 
would out. ***** When Caesar came out 
of hia litter, Popilius Lccna (that had talked before 
with Brutus and Cassius, and had prayed the gods 
they might bring this enterprise to pa.ss) went unto 
Caesar, and kept him a long time with a talk. 
Cscsar gave good ear unto him ; wherefore the con- 
spiratora (if so they should be called), not hearing 
what he said to Ctcsar, but conjecturing by that he 
had told them a Lttle before that his talk was none 
other but the very discovery of their conspiracy, 
they were afraid every man of them ; and one look- 
ing in another's face, it was easy to see that they 
all were of a mind that it was no tanying for them 
till they were apprehended, but rather that they 
should kill themselves with their own hands. And 
when CaMiuB and certain other clapped their Lands 
on their swords under their gowns to draw them, 
Brutus marking the countenance and gesture of 
Lxoa, and cjiisidcring that he did use himself 
rather like an humble and eamc-st suitor than like 
aa accuser, he said nothing to his companions (be- 
cause there were many amongst them that were not 
of the conspiracy), but with a pleasant countenance 
encouraged Cassiua, and immediately after Lxna 
went from Ca»ar, and kissed hia hand, which showed 
226 



plainly that it was for some matter conceraiug him- 
self that he had held liim so long in talk. Now all 
the senators being entered first into this place or 
chapter-house where the council should be kept, all 
the other conspirators straight stood about Cajsar's 
chair, as if they had had something to say unto him ; 
and some say that Cassius, casting his eyes upon " 
Pompey's image, made his prayer unto it as if it 
had been alive. Trebonius, on the other side, drew 
Antonius aside as he came into the house where the 
Senate sat, and held him with a long talk without. 
When Caesar was come into the house, all the senate 
rose to honour him at hia coming in; so, when he 
was set, the conspirators flocked about him, and 
amongst them they pi esented one Tullius (Metellua) 
Cimber, who made humble suit for the calling home 
again of his brother that was banished. They all 
made as though they were intercessors for him, and 
took Cscsar by the hands, and kissed his head and 
breast. Cscsar, at the first simply refused their 
kindness and entreaties ; but afterwards, perceiving 
they still pressed on him, he violently thrust them 
from him. Then Cimber, with both his hands, 
plucked Caesar's gown over his shoulders, and Casca 
that stood behind him drew his dagger first, and 
strake Cresar upon the shoulder, but gave him no 
great wound. Cajsar, feeling himself hurt, took him 
straight by the hand ho held his dagger in, and cried 
out in Latin, traitor Casca, what dost thou? 
Caaca on the other side cried in Greek, and called 
his brother to help him. So divers running on a 
heap together to fly upou Cxsar, he, looking about 
him to have fled, saw Brutus with a sword drawn in 
his hand ready to strike at him : tiieu he let Casca'n 



/ 




o 



o 



i 



g 

^ 



o 



o 
»4 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



haud go, and, casting his gown over liis face, suf- 
fered every man to strike at him that would. Then 
the conspirators thronging one upon another, be- 
cause every man was desirous to have a cut at him, 
so many swords and daggers lighting upon one body, 
one of them hurt another, and among them Brutus 
caught a blow on his hand, because he would make 
one in murthering of him, and all the rest also were 
every man of them bloodied. Casar being slain in 
this manner, Brutus, standing in the midst of the 
house, would have spoken, and stayed the other 
senators that were not of the conspiracy, to have told 
them the reason why they had done this fact ; but 
they, as men both afraid and amazed, fled one upon 
another's neck in haste to get out at the door, and 
no man followed them ; for it was set down and 
agreed between them that they should kUl no man 
but Csesar only, and should entreat all the rest to 
look to defend their liberty. All the conspirators, 
but Brutus, determining upon this matter, thought 
it good also to kill Antonius, because he was a 
wicked man, and that in nature favoured tyranny. 
Besides, also, for that he was in great estimation 
with soldiers, having been conversant of long time 
amongst them, and especially having a mind bent to 
great enterprises ; he was also of great authority at 
that time, being consul with Cresar. But Brutus 
(vould not agree to it : first, for that he said it was 
not honest ; secondly, because he told them there was 
hope of change in him, for he did not mistrust but 
that Antonius, b»ing a noble-minded and courageous 
man (when he should know that Ctesarwas dead), 
would willingly help his country to recover her 
liberty, having them an example unto him to follow 
their courage and virtue. So Brutus by this means 
saved Antonius' life, who at that present time dis- 
guised himself and stole away; but Brutus and his 
consorts, having their swords bloody in their hands, 
wont straight to the Capitol, persuading the Bomaris 
as they went to take their liberty again," 

^ Scene II. — "Enter Brutus and Cassius, and a 
throng of Citizens" 

" A great number of men being assembled toge- 
ther one after another, Brutus made an oration 
imto them to win the favour of the people, and to 
justify that they had done. All those that were 
by said they had done well, and cried unto them 
that they should boldly come down from the Ca- 
pitol ; whereupon Brutus and his companions came 
boldly down into the market-place. The rest fol- 
lowed in troof), but Brutus went foremost, very 
honourably compassed in round about with the 
noblest men of the city, which brought him from the 
Capitol, through the market-place, to the pulj^it for 
orations. When the people saw him in the pulpit, 
although they were a multitude of rakehells of all 
sorts, and had a good will to make some stu", yet, 
being ashamed to do it for the reverence they bare 
unto Brutus, they kept silence to hear what he would 
say. When Brutus began to speak they gave him 
quiet audience : howbeit immediately after they 
showed that they were not all contented with the 
murther. * * * * * Then Antonius, thinking 
good his testament should be read openly, and also 



that his body should be honourably buried, and noc 
in hugger-mugger, lest the people might thereby 
take occasion to be worse ofiended if they did other- 
wise, Cassius stoutly spake against it, but Brutus 
went with the motion, and agreed unto it, wherein it 
seemeth he committed a second fault; for the first 
fault he did was when he would not consent to his 
fellow conspirators that Antonius should be slain,and 
therefore he was justly accused that thereby he had 
saved and strengthened a strong and grievous enemy 
of then." conspiracy. The second fault was when he 
agreed that Crcsar's funerals should be as Antonius 
would have them, the which indeed marred all. 
For, first of all, when Ctesar's testament was openly 
read among them, whereby it appeared that he be- 
queathed unto every citizen of Rome 75 drachmas a 
man, and that he left his gardens and arbours unto 
the people, which he had on this side of the river 
Tiber, in the place Avhere now the Temple of For- 
tune is bunt, the people theu loved him, and were 
mai'vellous sorry for him. Afterwards, when CEesnr's 
body was brought into the market-place, Antonius 
making his funeral oration in praise of the dead, ac- 
cording to the ancient custom of Rome, and per- 
ceiving that his words moved the common people to 
compassion, he framed his eloqiience to make their 
hearts yearn the more ; and taking Cccsai-'s gown 
all bloody in his hand, he laid it open to the sight 
of them all, showing what a number of cuts and 
holes it had upon it ; therewithal the people fell 
presently into such a rage and mutiny, that there 
was no more order kept amongst the common peo- 
ple, for some of them cried out. Kill the murtherers; 
others plucked up forms, tables, and stalls about the 
market-place, as they had done before at the funerals 
of Clodius, and, having laid them all on a heap to- 
gether, they set them on fire, and thereupon did put 
the body of Cfesar, and bimit it in the midst of the 
most holy place. And, furthermore, when the fire 
was thoroughly kindled, some here, some there, took 
burning firebrands, and ran with them to the mur- 
therers' houses that killed him to set them on fire. 
Howbeit, the conspirators, foreseeing the danger be- 
fore, had wisely provided for themselves, and fled." 

3 Scene III. — "Enter Cinna, the Poet." 

" There was a poet called Cinna, who had been 
no partaker of the conspiracy, but was alway one 
of Cscsar's chiefest friends. He dreamed the night 
before that Cffisar bad him to supper with him, and 
that, he refusing to go, Cffisar was very imi^ortunate 
with him, and compelled him, so that at length he 
led him by the hand into a great dai-k place, where, 
being marvellously afraid, he was driven to follow 
him in spite of his heart. This dream put him all 
night into a fevei', and vet, notwithstanding, the next 
morning when he heard that they carried Csesar'a 
body to burial, being ashamed not to accompany his 
funerals, he went out of his house, and thnast him- 
self into the press of the common people that were 
in a great uproar ; and because some one called him 
by his name Cinna, the people thinking he had been 
that Cinna who in an oration he made had spoken 
very evil of Cffisar, they, falling upon him in their 
lage, slew him outright in the market-place." 



TiiAGEDiES. — Vol. II. 



257 







ACT IV. 



SCENE l.—A Room in Autony's Housed 

;bfTO>'T, OcTAVias, and Lepidtjs, seated at a 
table. 

Ant. These many then shall die ; their names 

are prick'd.' 
Oct. Your brother too must die : Consent you, 

Lepidus ? 
I/'p. I do consent — 

Oct. Prick him down, Antony. 

Lep. Upon condition Publius shall not live, 
Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. 
Ant. He shall not live : look, with a spot I 
damn him. 
But, Lepidus, go you to Ca;sar's house ; 
Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine 
IIow to cut off some charge in legacies. 

a The triuTTiTirii, It ii well known, did not meet at Rome 
to lettle their projcription.— (Sec Illustration.) — But it is 
eri(!ent th.itShakspcrc jilares irn nccne at Home, by Lepidus 
being aen: to C.xsar'i )i"U<ic, ami tolil that he shall find his 
confederates " or here, or at the Capitol." 

268 



Lep. What, shall I find you here ? 

Oct. Or here, or at the Capitol. 

[E.vit Lepidus. 

Ant. This is a slight unmeritable man. 
Meet to be sent on errands : Is it fit, 
the three-fold world divided, he should stand 
One of the three to share it ? 

Oct. So you thought him ; 

And took liis voice who should be prick'd to diPj 
In our black sentence and proscription. 

Atit. Octavius, I have seen more days than 
you: 
And though wc lay these honours on this man, 
To case oui-selvcs of divers slanderous loads. 
He shall but. bear them as the ass bears gold, 
To groan and sweat under the business. 
Either led or driven, as we point the way ; 
And having brought our treasure where wc 

will. 
Then take we do\vn his load, and turn him off. 
Like to the empty ass, to shake his cai's, 
And graze in commons. 



Act IV.] 



JULIUS CyESAE. 



r.Sc::x:-: I 



Oct. You may do youi- will ; 

But he 's a tried and valiant soldier. 

Ant. So is my horse, Octavius j and, for that, 
I do appoint him store of provender. 
It is a creature that I teacli to fight. 
To wind, to stop, to run dii-ectly ou ; 
His coi-poral motion govern'd by my spii'it. 
And, in some taste, is Lepidus but so ; 
He must be taught, and train' d, and bid go 

forth : 
A barren-spu-ited fellow ; one that feeds 
On objects, arts, and imitations,* 
Which, out of use, and stal'd by other men. 
Begin his fashion : Do not talk of him. 
But as a property. And now, Octavius, 
Listen great things. — Brutus and Cassius 
Are levying powers : we must straight make 

head: 
Therefore, let our alliance be combin'd. 
Our best friends made, our means stretch' d ; '^ 
And let us presently go sit in council. 
How covert matters may be best disclos'd. 
And open peiils surest answer'd, 

Oct. Let us do so : for we are at the stake. 
And bay'd about with many enemies ; 
And some that smile have in their hearts, I ftai". 
Millions of mischiefs. \Exeunt. 

SCENE 'XI.— Before Brutus' Tent, in the Camp 
near Sardis. 

Drum. Enter Brutus, Lucilius, Lucius, and 
Soldiers : Titinius and Pindabus meeting 
them. 

Bni. Stand, ho!' 

Luc. Give the word, ho ! and stand. 



» In the original there is a full point at the end of this 
line; and in variorum editions there is a semicolon, ■which 
equally answers the purpose of separating the sense from 
■what follows. ;This separation has created a difficulty. 
Theobald wants to know why a man is to be called a barren- 
spirited fellow that feeds on objects and arts; and he pro- 
poses to read abject oris. This is something too violent; 
and therefore Steevens maintains that objects and arts were 
unworthy things for a man to feed upon, because the one 
means speculative and the other mechanical knowledge. 
If these are excluded, what knowledge are we to feed upon? 
Lepidus is called barren, because, a mere follower of others, 
he feeds 

" On objects, arts, and imitations, 
Which, 0!(i of use, and stal'd by other men, 
Begin his faihion." 
b We print this line as in the first folio. It certainly gives 
one the notion of being imperfect; but it is not necessarily 
so, and may be taken as a hemistich. The second folio has 
pieced it out rather botchingly : — 

" Our best friends made, and our best means stretch'd out." 
This is a common reading. Malone reads, 
" Our best friends made, our means stretch'd to Che utmost." 
« Stand, ho! — This is the pass-word, which Steevens 
absurdly changes to stand here. 

S 2 



£ru. What now, Lucilius ! is Cassius near ? 

Luc. He is at hand ; and Pindarus is come 
To do you salutation from his master. 

[PiNDATvUS gives a letter to Brutus. 

Bru. He greets me well. — Your master, Pin 
darus, 
In his own change, or by ill officers. 
Hath given me some worthy cause to wish 
Things done, undone : but if he be at hand 
I shall be satisfied. 

Fin. I do not doubt 

But that my noble master will appear 
Such as he is, full of regard aud honour. 

Bru. He is not doubted. — A word, LucUius ; 
How he receiv'd vou, let me be resolv'd. 

Luc. With com-tesy, and with respect enougli, 
But not with such famihar instances, 
Nor with such free and friendly conference. 
As he hath used of old. 

Bru. Thou hast describ'd 

A hot friend cooling : Ever note, Lucilius, 
When love begins to sicken and decay. 
It useth an enforced ceremony. 
There are no tricks in plain and simple faith : 
But hollow men, like horses hot at hand. 
Make gallant show and promise of their mettle : 
But when they should endure the bloody spur-. 
They fall their crests, and, like deceitful jades. 
Sink in the trial. Comes his army on ? 

Luc. They mean this night in Sardis to be 
quarter'd ; 
The greater part, the horse in general. 
Are come with Cassius. [March within. 

Bru. Hark, he is arriv'd : — 

March gently on to meet him. 

Enter Cassius and Soldiers. 

Cos. Stand, ho ! 

Bru. Stand, ho ! Speak the word along. 

IFithin. Stand. 

Within. Stand. 

Within. Stand. 

Cas. Most noble brother, you have done mz 

wrong.- 
Bru. Judge me, you gods ! Wrong I mine 
enemies ? 
And, if not so, how should I wrong a brother ? 
Cas. Brutus, this sober form of yours hides 
wrona:s ; 
And when you do them — 

Bru. Cassius, be content ; 

Speak vour griefs' softly, — I do know you 
weU:— 



1 GriV/s— grievanoea. 



259 



Act IV.] 



JULIUS C/ESAR, 



[SCEMR III 



Before the eyes of both our armies licrc, 
Wliith should perceive uothiug but love from us, 
Let us uol wraugle : Bid them move away ; 
Then iu my tent, Cassius, enlarge your griefs, 
And 1 will give you audience. 

Cits. Pindarus, 

Bid our commanders lead their charges off 
A little from tliis ground. 

Jim. Lucilius, do you the like; and let no man 
Come to our teut.till wc have done our coiifcrcuce. 
Let Lucius ;md Titinius guard our door." 

SCENE m.— ini/i!n the Tent of Brutus." 

Lucius and Titinius at some distance from it. 

Enter Brutus and Cassius. 

Cas. That you have wrong'd mc doth appear 
in this : 
You have coudcum'd and noted Lucius Pella, 
Tor t;ddng bribes here of the Sardiaus ; 
Wliercm my letters, praying on his side. 
Because I blew the man, were slighted olT. 

£ru. You wrong'd yourself to write iu such 
a case. 

Cas. In such a tmie as this it is not meet 
That evci-y nice offence should bear his com- 
ment. 

£ru. Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself 
Are mncli coudenm'd to have au itching pahu j 
To sell aud mart your olEccs for gold 
To undescrvcrs. 

Cas. I au itching palm ? 

You know tliat you are Brutus that speak tiiis. 
Or, by the gods, this speech were else youi- last. 

Sni. The name of Cassius honours this cor- 
ruption, 
Aud chastisement doth therefore hide his head. 

Cas. Chastisement! 

Bru. llemember March, the ides of March 
remember ! 
Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake ? 
^Vhat villain toueh'd his body, that did stab, 
And not for justice ? What, shall one of us. 
That struck the foremost man of all this world 
But for supporting robbers, shall wc now 
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes. 



"i .18 in tlic ori|;inaI. Mr. Craik 

llic I.ucilius or III'.- flrst line and 

^ re, he knyi, Ihc lm|jcrfect 

;'.l rid of iliL- incongruity of 

1 boy being aj/pointcd to the 



! ■ 

a;. ; . 

laroc oincc. 

b Thii i> rot rfvi-n as a separate iccne in the original; 
but, with r' the (onttriu! ion of ilitr modern stage, 

theprcjen: nt ii ncccj^ary. In the Sliuksperian 

theatre lirutii .-mi Couiua miKht have retired to the 
aecondary utapc. — (See Othello. Jllustraliun of Act v.) 
260 



And sell the aiiglity space of our large honours 
Tor so much trash as may be grasped thus ? — 
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, 
Than such a Roman. 

Cifs. Brutus, bait'' not mc ; 

I '11 not endure it : you forget yom-selil 
To hedge mc iu ; I am a soldier, I, 
Older iu practice, abler than yourself 
To midcc couditions. 

Jiru. Go to ; you are not, Cassius. 

Cas. I am. 

Bru. I say you arc not. 

Cas. Urge mc no more, I shall forget myself; 
Have mind upon your liealth, tempt mc no 
furtiicr. 

Bru. Away, slight man ! 

Cas. Is 't possible ? 

Bru. Hear me, for I will speak. 

jNIust I give way and room to your rash cholcr ? 
Shall I be frighted when a madmau stares ? 

Cas. ye gods ! ye gods ! Must I endure all 
this ? 

Bru. All this ? ay, more : Fret, till your proud 
heart break ; 
Go, show yom- slaves how choleric you are. 
And make your boudaien tremble. Must I 

budge ? 
iMust I observe you ? Must I stand and crouch 
Under your testy humour ? By the gods, 
You shall digest the venom of your spleen, 
Thougli it do split you ! for, from this day forth, 
I 'U use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter. 
When you are waspish. 

Cas. Is it come to this ? 

Bru. You say, you are a better soldier : 
Let it appear so ; make youi" vaunting true. 
And it shall please me well : For mine o\vn part, 
I shall be glad to leai-n of noble men. 

Cas. You wroug me every way ; you wrong 
me, Brutus ; 
I said an elder soldier, not a better : 
Did I say better ? 

Bru. If you did, I care not. 

Cas. When Crcsar liv'd he durst not thus have 
mov'd me. 

Bru. Peace, peace ! you durst not so have 
tempted him. 

Cas. I durst not P 



a Bail. — So the original. Slccvens roads bay, conceiving 
that the repetition of the word used by Brutus is necessary 
to the spirit of the reply. However this may be, bai/ is not 
.so expressive as bail. Shakspcrc uses the wofd here as in 
the Midsummer Night's Dream : — 

" Injurious Hcrmia, most ungrateful maid, 

TIave you conspir'd, have you with these contrivM, 

'i'o bait me with this foul derision ?" 



Act IV.] 



JULIUS CiESAR. 



[SCESE III 



Bru. No. 

Cas. What ? durst not tempt him ? 
Bru. For your life you durst not. 

Cas. Do not presume too much upon my 
love; 
I may do that I shall be sorry for. 
Bru. You have done that you should be sorry 
for. 
There is no terror, Cassius, iu your threats ; 
For I am arm'd so strong in honesty, 
That they pass by me as the idle -sviud, • 
Which I respect not. I did send to you 
For certain sums of gold, which you denied 

me; — 
For I can raise no money by vile means : 
By heaven, I had rather coiu my heart. 
And ckop my blood for di-achmas, than to wring 
From the hard hands of peasants their vile 

trash 
By any radirection ! I did send 
To you for gold to pay my legions, 
\Yhich you denied me : Was that done Ukc 

Cassius ? 
Should I have answer'd Cains Cassius -so ? 
When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous, 
To lock such rascal counters from his friends, 
Be ready, gods, with aU your thunderbolts. 
Dash him to pieces ! 

Cas. I denied you not. 

Bru. You did. 

Cas. I did not : — he was but a fool 

That brought my answer back.— Brutus hath 

riv'd my heart : 
A fi-iend should beai- his fiiend's ioib-mities. 
But Brutus makes mine greater than they ai'e. 
Bru. I do not, tiQ you practise them on me. 
Cas. You love me not. 

Bru. I do not like youi- faults. 

Cas. A friendly eye could never see such 

faults. 
Bru. A flatterer's would not, though they do 
appear 
ks, huge as high Olympus. 
Cas. Come, Antony, and young Octavius, 
come. 
Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius, 
For Cassius is aweary of the world : 
Hated by one he loves ; brav'd by his brother ; 
Check'd like a bondman ; aU his faults observ'd, 
Set in a note-book, leam'd and conn'd by rote. 
To cast into my teeth. O, I could weep 
My spirit from miae eyes ! — There is my dagger. 
And here my naked breast ; within, a heart 
Deai-er than Plutus' miae, richer than gold : 
[f that thou beest a Roman, take it forth ; 



I, that denied thee gold, wiU give my heart : 
Strike, as thou didst at Caesar ; for, I know, 
When thou didst hate him worst, thou lov'dst 

liim better 
Than ever thou lov'dst Cassius 

Bru. Sheath your dagger : 

Be angry when you will, it shall have scope ; 
Do what you will, dishonour shall be humour. 
Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb 
That carries anger as the flint bears fire; 
Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark. 
And straight is cold again. 

Cas. Hath Cassius liv'd 

To be but mnth and laughter to his Brutus, 
When grief, and blood Ul-temper'd, vexeth 
liim? 
Bru. When I spoke that I was Ul-temper'd 

too. 
Cas. Do you confess so much ? Give me your 

hand 
Bru. And my heart too. 
Cas. O, Brutus ! — 

Bru. What 's the matter ? 

Cas. Have not you love enough to bear with 
me. 
When that rash humour which my mother gave 

me 
Makes me forgetful ? 

Bru. Yes, Cassius ; and, from henceforth, 

When yon ai'e over-earnest with your Bnxtus, 

He 'U thiuk your mother chides, and leave you 

so. \Noise within. 

Poet. [_Witliin.'\ Let me go iu to see the 

generals ; 

There is some grudge between them, 'tis not 

meet 
Tliey be alone. 
Lucil. [Within.'] You shall not come to them. 
Poet. [Within.'] Nothing but death shall stay 
me. 

Enter Poet. 

Cas. How now ? What 's the matter ? 
Poet. For shame, you generals : Wksti do you 
mean ? 
Love, and be friends, as two such men should 

be; 
For I have seen more years, I am sure, than ye. 
Cas. Ha, ha! how vilely doth tliis cynic 

rhyme ! 
Bru. Get you hence, skrah; saucy fellow, 

hence ! 
Cas. Bear with inm, Brutus ; 't is his fashion. 
Bru. I 'U know his humom-, when he loiows 
his time 

261 



ACT IV.] 



JULIUS C^SAR. 



[SCENF. lU. 



What should tlie wars do with these jigging 

fools? 
Companion, hence ! 

Cas. Awaj, away, begone ! 

[Lxit Poet. 

Enter LuciLlUS and TiTlNIUS. 

Brit. Lucilius and Titinius, bid the commanders 
i'rcparc to lodge their companies to-night. 
Cas. And come yourselves, aud bring Messala 
witli you. 
Immediately to us. 

[^Exeunt Lucilius and Titinius. 
Jim. Lucius, a bowl of wine. 

Cas. I did not think you could have been so 

luigry. 
Bru. Cassias, I am sick of many griefs. 
Ciis. Of your pliilosopliy you make no use, 
If you give place to accidental evils. 

Bru. No man bears sorrow better :— Portia is 

dead. 
Cas. Ila! Portia? 
Bru. She is dead. 

Cas. How 'seap'd I killing when I cross'd you 
so? — 
O insupportable aud touching loss !— 
Upon what sickness ? 

jirii. Impatient of my absence ; 

And grief, that young Octavius with Mark 

Antony 
Have made tlicmselves so strong ;— for \vith her 

death 
That tidings came :— With this she fell distract, 
And, her attendants absent, swallow'd lire. 
Cas. And died so ? 
Bru. Even so. 
Cas. ye immortal gods ! 

Enter Lucius, with wine and tapers. 

Bru. Speak no more of her.— Give me a bowl 
of \vinc : — ■ 
In this I bury all unkindness, Cassius. [Drinks. 
Cas. ;My heart is thii-sty for that noble 
pledge : — 
Fill, Lucius, till the wbe o'erswcll the cup ; 
I cannot druik too much of Brutus' love. 

[Drinks. 

B£-€nter Titinius toith Messal.\.. 

Bru. Come in, Titinius : — 'Welcome, good 
Messala. — 
Now sit we close about this taper here, 
And call in question our necessities. 
Cas. Portia, art thou gone ? 
Bru. No more, I pray yon. — 

262 



Bru. 
Mcs. 



Messala, I have here received letters, 
That young Octavius and Mark Antony 
Conic down upon us with a mighty power. 
Bending their expedition toward Philippi. 

Mcs. IMysclf liuve letters of the scif-same 
tenor. 
With what addition ? 
That by proscription, and bills of out- 
lawry, 
Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, 
Have put to death an luuulred senators. 

Bru. Therein our letters do not well agree ; 
Mine speak of seventy senators that died 
By their proscriptions, Cicero being one. 

Cas. Cicero one ? 

Mes. "Cicero is dead. 

And by that order of proscription. — 
Had you your letters from your wife, my lord ? 

Bru. No, !Messala. 

Mes. TSfor nothing in your letters writ of her ? 

Bru. Nothing, Messala. 

Mes. That, niethiidj:s, is strange. 

Bru. TVliy ask you ? Hear you aught of her 
in yours ? 

Mes. No, my lord. 

Bru. Now, as you are a Roman, tell me true. 

Mes. Then like a Roman bear the truth I tell : 
For certain she is dead, and by strange manner. 

Bru. Why, farewell, Portia.— We must die, 
Messala : 
With meditating that she must die once, 
I have the patience to endure it now. 

Mes. Even so great men great losses should 
endure. 

Cas. I have as much of this in art as you. 
But yet my nature could not bear it so. 

Bru. Well, to our work alive. Wliat do you 
think 
Of marching to Philippi presently ? 

Cas. I do not think it good. 

jiru. Your reason ? 

Cas. This it is • 

'T is better that the enemy seek us : 
So shall he waste his means, weary his soldiers. 
Doing himself offence ; whilst wc, lying still. 
Arc full of rest, defence, and nimblencss. 

Bru. Good reasons must, of force, give place 
to better. 
The people, 'twixt Philippi and this ground. 
Do stand but in a fore'd affection ; 
For they have grudg'd us contribution : 
The enemy, marching along by them. 
By them shall make a fuller number up, 

« Stecvens here thrusts in ay, "to complete the verse." 
by destroying the pause which makes it so emphatic. 



ACT IV.] JULIUS 


C-(ESAR. [Scene III, 


Come on refresh' d, new-added, and encourag'd ; 


It may be, I shall raiijc you by and by 


From which advantage shall we cut him off. 


On busiaess to my brother Cassius. 


If at Philippi we do face him there. 


Var. So please you, we will stand, and watch 


These people at our back. 


your pleasure. 


Cas. Hear me, good brother. 


Bru. I win not have it so: He down, good 


Bru. Under your pardon. — You must note 


sirs; 


beside. 


It may be, I shaU otherwise bethink me. 


That we have tried the utmost of our friends, 


Look, Lucius, here 's the book I sought for so : 


Our legions are brim-full, our cause is ripe : 


I put it in the pocket of my gown. 


The enemy increaseth every day. 


[Servants lie down. 


We, at the height, are ready to decline. 


Luc. I was sure your lordship did not give it 


There is a tide in the affairs of men. 


me. 


VV hich, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune ; 


Bru. Bear with me, good boy, I am much for- 


Omitted, all the voyage of their life 


getful. 


Is bound in shallows and in miseries. 


Canst thou hold up thy heavy eyes awhile. 


On such a full sea are we now afloat ; 


And touch thy instrument a strain or two ? 


And we must take the current when it serves, 


Luc. Ay, my lord, an it please you. 


Or lose our ventures. 


Bru. It does, my boy : 


Cas. Then, with your will, go on : 


I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing. 


We'U along ourselves, and meet them at Philippi. 


Luc. It is my duty, sir. 


Bru. The deep of night is crept upon our talk, 


Bru. I should not urge thy duty past thy 


And nature must obey necessity ; 


might ; 


Which we will niggard with a little rest. 


I know young bloods look for a time of rest. 


There is no more to say ? 


Luc. I have slept, my lord, ali'eady. 


Cas. No more. Good night ; 


Bru. It was well done ; and thou shalt sleej) 


Early to-morrow will we rise, and hence. 


again ; 


Bru. Lucius, my go^vn. \_Rvit Lacius.] Fare- 


I wUl not hold thee long : if I do live. 


well, good Messala ; — 


I will be good to thee. {Music, and a Song. 


Good night, Titinius : — Noble, noble Cassius, 


This is a sleepy tune : — mui'd'rous sbimber ! 


Good night, and good repose. 


Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy. 


Cas. my dear brother ! 


That plays thee music ? — Gentle knave, good 


This was an iU beginning of the night : 


night; 


Never come such division 'tween our souls ! 


I will not do thee so much wrong to wake thee. 


Let it not, Brutus. 


If thou dost nod, thou break'st thy instrument ; 


Bru. Everything is well. 


I 'U take it from thee : and, good boy, good 


Cas. Good night, my lord. 


night. 


Bru. Good night, good brother. 


Let me see, let me see: — Is not the leaf tum'd 


Tit. Mes. Good uight, lord Brutus. 


do\vn 


Bru. Farewell, every one. 


W here I left reading ? Here it is, I think. 


[_Exeunt C.iS., Tit., and Mes. 


[He sits down. 


Be-enter Lucius, with the gown. 


JEnter the Ghost of CjESks.. 


Give me the gown. Where is thy instrument ? 


How ill this taper burns!— Ha! who comes 


Luc. Here in the tent. 


here? 3 


Bru. What, thou speak'st drowsily ? 


I think it is the weakness of mine eyes 


Poor knave, I blame thee not ; thou art o'er- 


That shapes this monstrous apparition. 


watch'd. 


It comes upon me : — ^Art thou anything ? 


Call Claudius, and some other of my men : 


Ai't thou some god, some angel, or some devil. 


I'U have them sleep on cushions in my tent. 


That mak'st my blood cold, and my haii" to stare? 


Luc. Varro, and Claudius ! 


Speak to me what thou art. 




Ghost. Thy evil spirit, Brutus. 


Bnter Vaeko and Claudius. 


Bru. Why com'st thou P 


Far. Calls my lord? 


Ghost. To tell thee, thou shalt see me at 


Bru. I pray you, sirs, lie ia my tent, and 


Philippi. 


sleep ; 


Bru. Well : Then I shall see thee again P 

263 



I 



i=T»V.] 



JULIUS CESAR. 



[SCBSB III. 



Ghost. Ay, at Philippi. 

[Ghost vanishes. 

Bru. "Wliy, I will see thcc at Pliilippi then. — 
Now I have tiilcon heart thou vanislicst : 
111 spirit, I would hold more talk with thee. — 
Boy! Lucius! — ^Varro! Claudius! Sirs, awake! — 
Claudius ! 

Lhc. The strings, my lord, arc f;dse. 

Bru. lie thiuka he still is at his instrument. — 
Lucius, awake I 

Luc. ^ly lord. 

Bru. Didst thou dream, Lucius, that thou so 
cricdst out ? 

Luc. My lord, I do not know that I did cry. 

Bru. Yes, that thou didst: Didst thou sec 
anvthin" ? 

Luc. Notliing, my lord. 



Bni. Sleep again, Lucius. — Sin-ah, Claudius ! 
Fellow thou ! awake ! 

Var. My lord, 

Clau. ]\ry lord. 

Bru, Why did you so cry out, sirs, in your 
sleep ? 

Far. Clau. Did we, my lord ? 

Bru. Ay ; saw you anything ? 

Far. No, my lord, I saw nothing. 

Clau. Hot I, my lord. 

Bru. Go, and commend me to my brother 
Cassius ; 
Bid him set on his powers betimes before. 
And we will follow. 

Far. Clau. It shall be done, my lord. 

\Ej:eu7it.. 






ILLTJSTEATIONS OE ACT lY. 



' Scene I. — " These many then shall die." 

" All three met together (to wit, Caesar, Antonius, 
and Lepidus) in an island environed round about 
with a little river, and there remained three days 
together. Now, as touching all other matters, they 
were easily agreed, and did divide all the empire of 
Rome between them, as if it had been their own 
inheritance. But yet they could hardly agree whom 
they would put to death : for every one of them 
would kni their enemies and save their kinsmen 
and friends. Yet at length, giving place to their 
greedy desire to be revenged of their enemies, they 
spurned all reverence of blood and holiness of 
friendship at their feet. For Csesar left Cicero to 
Antonius' will ; Antonius also forsook Lucius 
Csesar, who was his uncle by his mother ; and 
both of them together suffered Lepidus to kill his 
own brother Paulus. Yet some writers affirm 
that Csesar and Antonius requested Paulus might 
be slain, and that Lepidus was contented with it." 

2 Scene II. — " Moit nolle brother, you have done 
me wrong." 
" About that time Brutus sent to pray Cassius to 
come to the city of Sardis, and so he did. Brutus, 
understanding of his coming, went to meet him with 
all his friends. There, both armies being armed, 
they called them both emperors. Now, as it com- 
monly happeneth in great affairs between two per- 
sons, both of them having many friends, and so many 
captains under them, there ran tales and complaiats 
betwixt them. Therefore, before they fell in hand 
with any other matter, they went into a little cham- 
ber together, and bade every man avoid, and did 
shut the doors to them. Then they began to pour 
out their complaints one to the other, and grew hot 
and loud, earnestly accusing one another, and at 
length fell both a weeping. Their friends that were 
without the chamber hearing them loud within, and 
angry between themselves, they were both amazed 
and afraid also lest it should grow to further matter : 
but yet they were commanded that no man should 
come to them. Notwithstanding one Marcus 
Phaonius, that had been a friend and follower of 
Cato while he lived, and took upon him to coun- 
terfeit a philosopher, not with wisdom and dis- 
cretion, but with a certain bedlam and frantic 
motion -, * * * This Phaonius at that time, in 
despite of the doorkeepers, came into the chamber, 
and with a certain scofSng and mocking gesture, 
which he counterfeited of purpose, he rehearsed 
the verses which old Nestor said in Homer : — 

' My lords, I pray you, hearken both to me, 
For I have seen more years than such ye three.' 



Cassius fell a laughing at him ; but Brutus thntst 
him out of the chamber, and called him dog and 
counterfeit cynic. Howbeit, his coming in broke 
their strife at that time, and so they left each other. 
The self-same night Cassius prepared his supper in 
his chamber, and Brutus brought Lis friends with 
him. * » * The next day after, Brutus, ttpon 
complaint of the Sardians, did condemn and noted 
Lucius Pella for a defamed person, * * * for 
that he was accused and convicted of robbery and 
pilfery in his office. This judgment much mis- 
liked Cassius : * * * and therefore he greatly 
reproved Brutus, for that he would show himself 
so straight and severe in such a time, as was meeter 
to bear a little than to take things at the worst. 
Brutus in contrary manner answered that he 
should remember the ides of March, at which 
time they slew Julius Csesar, who neither pUled 
nor polled the country, but only was a favourer 
and suborner of all them that did rob and spoil 
by his countenance and authority." 

^ Scene III. — " IToia ill this taper burns J" 

" But as they both prepared to pass over again 
out of Asia into Europe, there went a rumour that 
there appeared a wonderful sign unto him. Brutus 
was a careful man, and slept very little. * * * 
After he had slumbered a little after supper he 
spent aU the rest of the night in despatching of his 
weightiest causes, and after he had taken order for 
them, if he had any leisure left him, he would read 
some book till the third watch of the night, at what 
time the captains, petty captains, and colonels, did 
use to come unto him. So, being ready to go into 
Europe, one night (when all the camp took quiet 
rest) as he was in his tent with a httle light, think- 
ing of weighty matters, he thought he heard one 
come in to him. and, casting his eye towards the door 
of his tent, that he saw a wonderful, strange, and 
monstrous shape of a body coming towards him, 
and said never a word. So Brutus boldly asked 
what he was, a god or a man, and what cause 
brought him thither. The spu-it answered him, I 
am thy evil spirit, Brutus, and thou shalt see me 
by the city of Philippes. Brutus, being no other- 
wise afraid, replied again imto it, Well, then, I 
shall see thee again. The spirit presently vanished 
away ; and Brutus called his men unto him, who 
told him that they heard no noise, nor saw any- 
thing at all. Thereupon Brutus returned again to 
think on his matters as he did before : and when 
the day brake he went imto Cassius, to tell him 
what vision had appeared unto him in the night." 

265 




ACT y. 



SCENE l.—TAe Plains of PhilippL 

Enter OcTAvras, A^xoxy, a>id their Army. 

Oct. Now, Antony, our hopes are answered : 
You said the enemy would not come down, 
But keep the hills and upper regions ; 
It proves not so : their battles are at hand ; 
They mean to warn* us at Phihppi here, 
Answering before we do demand of them. 

Ant. Tut, I am in their bosoms, and I know 
Wherefore they do it : they could be content 
To visit other places ; and come down 
With fearful bravery, thinking, by this face, 
To fasten in our thoughts that they have courage ; 
Bat 't is not so. 

Enter a Messenger. 

Meu. Prepare you, generals : 

The enemy comes on in gallant show ; 



» To icarn— to summon. 



263 



I 



Their bloody sign of battle is hung out, 
And something to be done immediately. 

A)it. Octavius, lead your battle softly on, 
Upon the left hand of the even field. 

Oct. Upon the right hand I, keep thou the 

left. 
Afit. Why do you cross me in this exigent ? 
Oct. I do not cioss you; but I wiU do so. 

[^March. 

Drum. Enter Brutus, Cassius, and their 
Army; LuciLius, TiTiNius, Messala, and 
others. 

Bru. They stand, and would have parley. 
Cas. Stand fast, IHtinius : We must out and 

talk. 
Oct. ^lark Antonv, shall wc give sign of 

battle ? 
Ant. No, Cffisar, wc will answer on their 

cliargc. 
Make forth; the generals would have some words. 



Act v.] 



JULIUS CiESAR. 



[SrExa I. 



Oct. Stir not until the signal. 

Brii. Words before blows : Is it so, country- 
men? 

Oct. Not that we love words better, as you 
do. 

Bru. Good words are better than bad strokes, 
Octavius. 

Ant. In your bad strokes, Brutus, you give 
good words : 
Witness the hole you made in Caesar's heart, 
Crying, ' Long live ! hail Caesar ! ' 

Cas. Antony, 

The posture of your blows are yet unknown ; ^ 
But for your words, they rob the Hybla bees, 
And leave them houeyless. 

Ant. Not stingless too. 

Bru. 0, yes, and soundless too ; 
For you have stolen their buzzing, Antony, 
And, very wisely, threat before you sting. 

Ant. Villains, you did not so, when your vile 
daggers 
Hack'd one another in the sides of Caesar : 
You show'd your teeth like apes, and fawn'd 

like hounds. 
And bow'd like bondmen, kissing Caesar's feet ; 
Whilst damned Casca, like a cur, behind, 
Struck Caesar on the neck. you flatterers ! 

Cas. Flatterers! — Now, Brutus, thank your- 
self: 
This tongue had not offended so to-day, 
If Cassius might have rul'd. 

Oct. Come, come, the cause : If arguing make 
us sweat. 
The proof of it will tui'n to redder drops. 
Look J I draw a sword against conspirators ; 
When think you that the sword goes up again ? — 
Never, till Caesar's three-and-thirty ** wounds 
Be well aveng'd ; or till another Caesar 
Have added slaughter to the sword of traitors. 

Brii. Caesar, thou canst not die by traitors' 
hands. 
Unless thou briag'st them with thee. 

Oct. So I hope ; 

I was not born to die on Brutus' sword. 

Bru. 0, if thou wert the noblest of thy stram. 



a Where a plural noun being a genitive case immediately 
precedes the verb, it is not at all uncommon, in the Tvriters 
of Shakspere's time, to disregard the real singular nomina- 
tive. Such a construction is not to be imputed to gram- 
matical ignorance, but to a licence warranted by the best 
examples. Our language in becoming more correct has 
lost something of its spirit. 

b Three-and-thirty. — The variorum reading is three-and- 
iwenty; which Theobald gave us upon the authority of 
Suetonius and others. Beaumont and Fletcher speak of 
CsBsar's " two-and-thirty wounds." The poets in such 
cases were not very scrupulous in following historical au- 
thorities. They desire to give us an idea of many wounds, 
and they accomplish their purpose. 



Young man, thou couldst not die more honour- 
able. 

Cas. A peevish schoolboy, wortliless of such 
honour, 
Join'd with a masker and a reveller. 

Ant. Old Cassius still ! 

Oct. Come, Antony; away. — 

Defiance, traitors, hurl we in your teetli : 
If you dare fight to-day, come to the field ; 
If not, when you have stomachs. 

\_Exeu)it Octavius, Antony, and their Armtf. 

Cas. Why now, blow, wind; swell, billow; 
and swim, bark ! 
The storm is up, and all is on the hazard. 

Bru. Ho ! Lucilius ; hark, a word with you. 

Luc. My lord. 

[Brutus and Lucilius converse apart. 

Cas. Messala, — 

Mes. What says my general ? 

Cas. Messala, 

This is my bu-thday ; as this very day 
Was Cassius born. Give me thy liand, Messala : 
Be thou my witness that, agaiust ray wl11,i 
As Pompey was, am I corapeU'd to set 
Upon one battle all our liberties. 
You know that I held Epicui-us strong, 
And his opinion : now I change my mind, 
And partly credit things that do presage. 
Coming from Sardis, on our former ensign ^ 
Two mighty eagles fell ; and there they perch'd, 
Gorging and feeding from our soldiers' hands, 
Who to Philippi here consorted us ; 
This morning are they fled away, and gone ; 
And in their steads do ravens, crows, and kites, 
Fly o'er our heads, and downward look on us. 
As we were sickly prey ; their shadows seem 
A canopy most fatal, under which 
Oui" army lies, ready to give up the ghost. 

Mes. Believe not so. 

Cas. I but believe it partly ; 

For I am frssh of spirit, and resolv'd 
To meet all perils very constantly. 

Bru. Even so, LuciHus. 

Cas. Now, most noble Brutus, 

The gods to-day stand friendly ; that we may, 
Lovers in peace, lead on our days to age ! 
But, since the affairs of men rest stiQ incertain, 
Let 's reason with the worst that may befall. 
If we do lose this battle, then is this 
The very last time we shall speak together : 
What are you then determined to do ? 

Bru. Even by the rule of that philosophy 
By which I did blame Cato for the death 



^ Former ensign. — The ensign in the van. 

267 



Act T] 



JULIUS O^SAR. 



[SCESES II., III. 



YVTiich he did give himself : — I know not how, 

But I do find it cowardly and vile, 

For fcai- of what might fall, so to prevent 

The time of life : — arming myself with patience, 

To stay the providence of some liigh powers, 

That govern us below. 

C<is. Then, if we lose this battle. 

You are contented to be led in triumph 
Thorougli the streets of Rome ? 

Bru. No, Cassius, no : think not, thou noble 
Roman, 
That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome ; 
He bears too great a umid. But this same day 
Must end that work the ides of !Mareh begun ; 
And whether we shall meet again I know not. 
Therefore our everlasting farewell take : — 
For ever, and for ever, farewell, Cassius ! 
If we do meet agam, wliy, we shall smile ; 
If not, why then this parting was well made. 

Cas. For ever, and for ever, farewell, Bratus ! 
If we do meet again, we '11 smile indeed ; 
If not, 't is true tliis parting was well made. 

Bru. "WTiy then, lead on. — 0, that a man 
might know 
The end of this day's business ere it come ! 
But it suffieeth that the day will end. 
And then the end is known. — Come, ho ! away ! 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE Jl.—The same. The Field of Battle. 

Alarum. Enter Brutus and Messala. 

Bru. Ride, ride, Messala, ride, and give these 
bills 
Unto the legions on the other side : 

[Loud alarum. 
Let them set on at once ; for I perceive 
But cold demeanour in Octavius' wing, 
And sudden push gives them the overthrow. 
Ride, ride, Messala : let them all come down. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE in..— The same. Jnotlier Part of the 
Field. 

Alarum. Enter Cassius and TiTmius. 

Cas. O, look, Titinius, look, the villains fly ! 
Myself have to mine own tum'd enemy : 
This ensign here of mine was turning back ; 
I slew the coward, and did take it from him. 

Tit. O Cassius, Brutus gave the word too 
early : 
Who, having some advantage on Octaviu.s, 
Took it too eagerly ; hii soldiers fell to spoil, 
^V'hilst we by Antony are all enclos'd. 



Enter Pindauus. 

Pin. Fly further off, my lord, fly furthei off;' 
Mark Antony is in your tents, my lord ! 
Fly therefore, noble Cassius, fly far off. 

Cas. This hiU is far enough. Look, look, 
Titinius ; 
Are those my tents where I perceive the fire ? 

Tit. They are, my lord. 

Cas. Titinius, if thou lov'st me. 

Mount thou my horse, and hide thy spurs in 

liini, 
Till he have brought thee up to yonder troops. 
And here again ; that I may rest assur'd 
Whether yond' troops are friend or enemy. 

Tit. I ^vill be here a'gaiu, even with a thought. 

[E.Tit. 

Cas. Go, Pindarus, get higher on that hill ; 
My sight was ever thick ; regard Titinius, 
And tell me what thou not'st about the field. — 

[E.Vlt PlNDAEUS. 

This day I breathed first : time is come round, 

And where I did begin there shall I end ; 

My life is run his compass. — Sirrah, what news ? 

Pin. [Above.'] my lord ! 

Cas. "\yhat news ? 

Pin. Titinius is enclosed round about 
With horsemen that make to him on the spur ; 
Yet he spurs on. — Now they are almost on him; 
Now, Titinius! — Now some 'light: — O, he 

lights too : — 
He 's ta'en ; — and hark ! they shout for joy." 

[Shout. 

Cas. Come down, behold no more. — 
0, coward that I am, to live so long, 
To see my best friend ta'en before my face ! 

Enter Pindarus. 

Come hither, sirrah : 

In Parthia did I take thee prisoner ; 

And then I swore thee, saving of thy life. 

That whatsoever I did bid thee do 

Thou shouldst attempt it. Come now, keep 

thine oath ! 
Now be a freeman ; and. with this good sword. 



» We follow the metrical arrangement of the original, 
than which nothing can he more perfect. Boswell, the last 
editor of a variorum edition, has, for the first time that has 
come under our notice, reprehended this species of mis- 
chievous dabbling with the text. He says, " The modem 
editors, I know not why, have altered it thus : — 
"Titinius is 
Enclosed round about with horsmcn, that 
Make to him on the spur;— yet he spurs on. — 
Now they are almost on him; now, I'itiniusI — 
Now some 'liglit:— O, he "lights too:— he's ta'en: nud 

hark ! 
They shout for joy." 



Act v.] 



JULIUS CiESAll.. 



[SCEKE IV. 



That ran through Ccesar's bowels, search this 

bosom. 
Stand not to answer : Here, take thou the hilts ; 
And, when my face is cover' d, as 't is now. 
Guide thou the sword. — Csesar, thou art re- 

veng'd. 
Even with the sword that kUl'd thee. [Dies. 
Fin. So, I am free; yet would not so have 

been. 
Durst I have done my wiU. Cassius ! 
Far from this country Pindarus shall run, 
Where never Roman shall take note of him. 

[Exit 

Re-enter Titinius, with Messai^a. 

Mes. It is but change, Titinius ; for Octavius 
Is overthro^vn by noble Brutus' power. 
As Cassius' legions are by Antony. 

Tit. These tidiugs ^viLl well comfort Cassius. 

Mes. Where did you leave liim ? 

Tit. All disconsolate, 

With Pindarus his bondman, on this hiU. 

Mes. Is not that he that lies upon the ground ? 

Tit. He lies not like the living. my heart ! 

Mes. Is not that he ? 

Tit. No, this was he, Messala, 

But Cassius is no more. — setting sun ! 
As in thy red rays thou dost sink to night, 
So in his red blood Cassius' day is set ; 
The sun of Borne is set ! Our day is gone ; 
Clouds, dews, and dangers come ; oiu' deeds are 

done ! 
IVIistrust of my success hath done this deed. 

Mes. Mistrust of good success hath done this 
deed. 
O hateful error, melancholy's chUd ! 
"Why dost thou show to the apt thoughts of men 
The things that are not ? error, soon conceiv'd, 
Thou never com'st unto a happy birth, 
But kill'st the mother that engender'd thee. 

Tit. What, Pindarus ! Wliere art thou, Pin- 
darus ? 

Mes. Seek him, Titinius : whilst I go to meet 
The noble Brutus, thi'ustiug this report 
Into his ears : I may say, thrusting it ; 
Por piercing steel, and darts envenomed, 
Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus 
As tidings of this sight. 

Tit. Hie you, Messala, 

And I win seek for Pindarus the while. 

[JExit Messala. 
Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius ? 
Did I not meet thy friends ? and did not they 
Put on my brows tiiis wreath of victory, 



And bid me give 't thee ? Didst thou not bear 

their shouts ? 
Alas, thou hast misconstrued everything. 
But hold thee, take this garland on thy brow ; 
Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I 
WiU do his bidding. — Bmtus, come apace. 
And see how I regarded Caius Cassius. — 
By your leave, gods : — This is a Boraan's part : 
Come, Cassius' sword, and find Titinius' heart. 

[Dies. 

Alarum. Re-enter Messala, with Bkutus, 
young Cato, Strato, Voltjjinius, and Lu- 
ciLitrs. 

Bru. Where, where, Messala, doth his body 
He? 

Mes. Lo, yonder ; and Titinius mourning it, 

Bru. Titinius' face is upward. 

Cato. He is slain. 

Bru. Julius Ccesar, thou art mighty yet ! 
Thy spiiit Malks abroad, and tui-ns our swords 
In our own proper entrails. [Low alarums, 

Cato. Brave Tituiius ! 

Look, whe'r he have not crown'd dead Cassius ! 

Bru. Are yet two Romans living such as 
these ? — 
The last of all the Romans, fare thee well ! 
It is impossible that ever Rome 
Should breed thy fellow. — Friends, I owe more 

tears 
To this dead man than you shall sec me pay. — 
I shall fmd time, Cassius, I shall find time. — 
Come, therefore, and to Thasos send liis body ; 
His funerals shall not be in oui- camp, 
Lest it discou)fort us. — Lucilius, come ; — 
And come, young Cato ; let us to the field. — 
Labeo, and Flavins, set oiu' battles on : — 
'T is three o'clock; and, Romans, yet ere night 
We shall try fortune in a second fight. [Exeunt. 

SCENE W.— Another Part of the Field. 

Alarum. Enter, fighting, Soldiers of hoth Armies ; 
then Brutus, Cato, Lucilius, and others. 

Bru. Yet, countrymen, yet hold up your 

heads ! 
Cato. What bastard doth not ? Who will go 
with me ? 
I wiU proclaim my name about the field : — 
I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho ! 
A foe to tyrants, and my country's friend ; 
I am the son of Mai'cus Cato, ho ! 

[Charges the enemy. 
Bru. And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, I; 

269 



Act v.] 



JULIUS CJ]:SAll. 



[SCEXK V. 



Brutus, my country's friend; kno\? me for 
Brutus. 
[£rjV, charging the enemy. Cato /'* oter- 
poicered, and falls. 
Luc. young and noble Cato, art thou down ? 
Vfhj, now thou diest as bravely as Titinius; 
And mayst be honour' d, being Gate's son. 
1 Sold. Yield, or thou diest. 
Luc. Only I yield to die : 

There is so much that thou wilt kill me straight; 

\OJfering monev. 
Kill Brutus, and be lionour'd in his death.' 

1 Sold. We must not. — A noble prisoner ! 

2 Sold, "Room, ho ! Tell Antony, Brutus is 

ta'en. 
1 Sold. I '11 tell the news.— Here comes the 
general : — 

Enter Antont. 

Brutus b ta'en, Brutus is ta'en, my lord. 

Ant. Where is he ? 

Luc Safe, Antony ; Brutus is safe enough ; 
I dare assure thee that no enemy 
Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus : 
The gods defend him from so great a shame ! 
AVhen you do find him, or alive, or dead, 
lie will be found like Brutiis, like himself. 

Ant. This is not Brutus, friend ; but, I assure 
you, 
.K prize no less in worth : keep this man safe, 
Give him all kindness : I had rather have 
Such men my friends, than enemies. Go on, 
.\jid see whe'r Brutus be alive, or dead : 
.Vnd bring us word, unto Octanus' tent. 
How everything is chanc'd. [Exeunt. 

SCENE Y.— Another Part of the Field. 

Enter BfiUTCs, DABcorirs, Clitcs, Strato, 
and VoLUMyirs. 

Bru. Come, poor remains of friends, rest on 

this rocL* 
Cli. Statilius show'd the torchlight ; but, my 

lord, 
lie came not back ; he is or ta'en, or slain. 
Bru. Sit thee down, Clitua : Slaying is the 

word; 
It is a deed in fashion. Hark thee, Clitus. — 

[JFhispering. 
Cli. What, I, my lord ? No, not for all the 

world. 
Bru. Peace then, no words. 
Cli. I '11 rather kill myself. 

Brn. Hark thee, Dardanius. — [Whispen him. 

270 



Dar. Shall I do such a deed ? 

Cli. 0, Dardanius ! , 

Dar. O, cut us ! 

Cli. ^yiiat ill request did Brutus make to 
thee? 

Dar. To kill him, Clitus. Look, he meditates. 

Cli. Now is that noble vessel full of grief. 
That it runs over even at his eyes. 

Bru. Come hither, good Volumnius: list a 
word. 

Vol. What says ray lord ? 

Bru. Why, this, Volumnius : 

The ghost of Caesar hath appeared to me 
Two several times by night : at Sardis, once ; 
And, this last night, here in Philippi fields. 
I know my hour is come. 

Fol. Not so, my lord. 

Bru. Nay, I am sure it is, Volumnius. 
Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes ; 
Our enemies have beat us to the pit : 
It is more worthy to leap in ourselves. 
Than tarry till they push us. Good Volumnius, 
Thou know'st tliat we two went to school to- 
gether ; 
Even for that our love of old, I prithee, 
Hold thou my sword-hilts, whilst I run on it. 

Fol. That 's not an office for a friend, my 
lord. [Alarum still. 

Cli. Ely, fly, my lord; there is no tarrying 
here. 

Bru. Farewell to you — and you; — and you, 
Volumnius. — 
Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep ; 
Farewell to thee too, Strato. — Countrymen, 
My heart doth joy that yet, in all my life, 
I found no man but he was true to me. 
I shall have glory by this losing day. 
More than Octavius and Mark Antony 
By this vile conquest shall attaiu unto. 
So, fare you well at once ; for Brutus' tongue 
Hath almost ended his life's history : 
Night hangs upon mmc eyes; my bones would rest, 
That have but labour'd to attain this hour. 

[Alarum. Cry within ; Fly, fly, fly! 

Cli. Fly, my lord, fly ! 

Bru. Hence ; I will follow. 

[Exeunt Clitus, Daedanius, and VoLUM- 

KIUS. 

I prithee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord : 
Thou art a fellow of a good respect ; 
Thy life hath had some smatch of honour in it: 
Hold then my sword, and turn away thy face, 
'NYhile I do run upon it. Wilt thou, Strato ? 
Stra. Give me your hand first : Fare you well, 
niT lord. 



Act V.J 



JULIUS C^SAK. 



[SCEKS V 



Bru. Farewell, good Strato. — Caesar, now be 
still: 
I kill'd not thee with half so good a wUl. 

[He runs on his sword, and dies. 

Alarum. Retreat. Enter Octavius, Antony, 
!Messala, Lucilius, atid their army. 

Oct. What man is that ? 

Mes. My master's man. — Strato, where is thy 

master ? 
Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, Mes- 
sala; 
The conquerors can but make a fire of him ; 
For Brutus only overcame himself, 
And no man else hath honour by his death. 
Luc. So Brutus should be found. — I thank 
thee, Brutus, 
That thou hast prov'd Lucilius' saying true. 
Oct. All that serv'd Bmtus, I will entertain 
them. 
Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me ? 



Stra. Ay, if Messala ^^ill prefer me to you. 

Oct. Do so, good Messala. 

Mes. How died ray master, Strato ? 

Stra. I held the sword, and he did run on it. 

Mes. Octavius, then take him to follow thee, 
That did the latest service to my master. 

Ant. This was the noblest Roman of them all: 
All the conspirators, save only he. 
Did that they did in envy of great Caesar ; 
He only, in a general honest thought. 
And common good to all, made one of them. 
His life was gentle ; and the elements 
So mixed in him that Nature might stand up. 
And say to all the world, 'This was a man!' 

Oct. According to his vii'tue let us use him, 
With all respect and rites of burial. 
Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie. 
Most like a soldier, order'd honourably. — 
So, call the field to rest : and let 's away, 
To part the glories of this happy day. 

\E.xeunt. 





[Medal of Brutus.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT Y. 



' Scene I. — "Be thou viv witness that, against my 
icill'l' &c. 

" When they raised their camp, there came two 
eagles, that, flying with a marvellous force, lighted 
uj)ou two of the foremost ensigns, and always fol- 
lowed the soldiers, which gave them meat and fed 
them until they came near to the city of Philippes; 
and there one day only before the battle they both 
flew away. * ♦ * And yet, further, there were 
seen a marvellous number of fowls of prey that fed 
upon dead carcases. * * * The which began 
somewhat to alter Cassius' mind from Epicurus' 
opinions, and had put the soldiers also in a marvel- 
lous fear; thereujion Cassius was of opinion not to 
trj- this war at one battle, but rather to delay time, 
and to draw it out in length. * * * But Brutus, 
in contrarj* manner, did alway before, and at that 
time also, desire nothing more than to put all to the 
hazard of battle, as soon as might be possible. * * 
Thereupon it was presently determined they should 
fight battle the next day. So Brutus all supper- 
time looked with a cheerful countenance, like a man 
that had good hope, and talked very wisely of phi- 
losophy, and after supper went to bed. But touch- 
ing Cassius, Messala reporteth that he supped by 
himself in his tent with a few friends, and that all 
Buppev-time he looked very sadly, and was full of 
thoughts, although it was against his nature; and 
that after supper he took him by the hand, and, hold- 
ing him fast (in token of kindness, as his manner 
was), toM him in Greek — Messala, I protest unto 
thee, and make thee my witness, that I am com- 
jolled against my mind and ^vill (as Pompey the 
Great was) to 'jeopard ' the liberty of our country 
to the hazard of a battle. And yet we must be lively 
and of good courage, considering our good foi-tune, 
whom we lihould wrong too much to mistrust her, 
although we follow evil counsel. Messala writeth 
that Ca .-iu3 having spoken these last words unto 
liiiii, h'j U-ide him farewell, and willed him to come 
to supper to him the next night following, because 
it was his birtliday. The next morning by break of 
day the siLiial of battle w.as set out in Brutus' and 
C.-i.-i-iu-i' r.fip. which wafl an anniug scarlet coat, 
an i I -th ;l.e chit-ftains fpake together in the midst 
of their armies. Then C:us.siu8 began to speak first, 
and eaid, — The gods ^'rant lis, Brutus, that this 
day we may win the field, and ever after to live all 
the reat of our life quietly one with another. But 
272 



sith the gods have so ordained it that the greatest 
and chiefest things amongst men arc most uncer- 
tain, and that, if the battle fall out otherwise to-day 
than we wish or look for, we shall hardly meet 
again, what art thou then determined to do— to 
fly, or die ? Brutus answered him. Being yet but a 
young man, and not over-greatly experienced in the 
world, I trust (I know nob how) a certain i-ule of 
l">hilosophy, by the which I did greatly blame and 
reprove Cuto for killing ofhiraself, as being no lawful 
ni>r godly act touching the gods, nor concerning 
men valiant, not to give place and yield to Divine 
Providence, and not constantly and patiently to take 
whatsoever it pleasetli him to send us, but to draw 
back and fly : but being now in the midst of the 
danger, I am of a contrary mind ; for it be not the 
will of God that this battle fall out fortunate for us, 
I will look no more for hope, neither seek to make 
any new .supply of war again, but will rid me of this 
miserable world, and content me with my fortune ; 
for I gave up my life for my country in the Ides of 
March, for the which I shall live in another more 
glorious world. Cassius fell a laughing to hear 
what he said, and, embracing him, Come on then, 
said he, let us go and charge our enemies with this 
mind ; for either we shall conquer, or we shall not 
need to fear the conquerors. After tliis talk they 
fell to consultation among their friends for the ox*- 
dering of the battle." 

2 SCEKE III.—" Fly further off, my lord." 
" So Cassius himself was at length compelled to 
fly, with a few about him, xinto a little hill, from 
whence they might easily see w'hat was done in all 
the plain : howbeit, Cassius himself saw nothing, for 
his sight was very bad, saving that he saw (and yet 
with much ado) how the enemies spoiled his camp 
before his eyes. He saw also a great troop of hoi-se- 
men, whom Brutus sent to aid him, and thought 
that they were his enemies that followed him ; but 
yet he sent Titinius, one of them that was with him, 
to go and know what they were. Brutus' horsemen 
saw him coming afar off, whom when they knew 
that he was one of Cassius' chiefest friends, they 
shouted out for joy, and they that were familiarly 
acquainted with him lighted from their horses, and 
went and embraced him. The rest compassed him 
in round about on horseback, with songs of victory 
and great rushingof their harness, so that they made 
all the field ring again for joy. But this'marred all : 



JULIUS C^SAll. 



for Cassius thinking indeed that Titinius was taken 
of the enemies, he then spake these words : —Desir- 
ing too much to live, I have lived to see one of my 
best friends taken, for my sake, before my face. 
After that he got into a tent where nobody was, and 
took Pindarus with him, one of his bondmen whom 
he reserved ever for such a pinch since the cursed 
battle of the Parthians, where Crassus was slain, 
though he, notwithstanding, scaped from that over- 
throw. But then casting his cloak over his head, 
and holding out his bare neck unto Pindarus, he 
gave him his head to be stricken off. So the head 
was found severed from the body; but after that 
time Pindarus was never seen more : whereupon 
some took occasion to say that he had slain his 
master without his commandment. By and by they 
knew the horsemen that came towards them, and 
might see Titinius crowned with a garland of tri- 
umph, who came before with great speed unto Cas- 
sius. But when he perceived by the cries and tears 
of his friends which tormented themselves the mis- 
fortune that had chanced to his captain Cassius 
by mistaking, hedrewout his sword, cursing himself 
a thousand times that he had tarried so long, and so 
slew himself presently in the field. Brutus, in the 
mean time, came forward still, and understood also 
that Cassius had been overthrown ; but he knew 
nothing of his death till he came very near to his 
camp. So when he was come thither, 'after he had 
lamented the death of Cassius, calHng him the last 
of all the Romans, being impossible that Rome 
should ever breed again so noble and valiant a man 
as he, he caused his body to be buried, and sent it to 
the city of Thassos, fearing lest his funei-als within 
his camp should cause great disorder." 

^ Scene IV. — " Kill Brutus, and he honoured in his 
death." 

" So there were slain in the field all the chiefest 
gentlemen and nobility that were in his army, who 
valiantly ran into any danger to save Brutus' life. 
Amongst them there was one of Brutus' friends 
called Lucilius, who, seeing a troop of barbarous 
men making no reckoning of all men else they met 
in their way, but going altogether right against 
Bi'utus,he determined to stay them with the hazard 
of his life ; and, being left behind, told them that he 
was Brutus, and, because they should believe him, 
he prayed them to bring him to Antonius, for he 
said he was afraid of Csesar, and that he did trust 
Antonius better. The barbarous men being very 
glad of this good hap, and thinking themselves 
happy men, they carried him in the night, and sent 
some before imto Antonius to tell him of their 
coming. He was marvellous glad of it, and went out 
to meet them that brought him. Others also under- 
standing of it, that they had brought Brutus pi-i- 
souer, they came out of all parts of the camp to see 
him; some pitying his hard fortune, and others 
saying that it was not done like himself, so cowardly 
to be taken alive of the barbarous people for fear of 
death. When they came near together, Antonius 
stayed awhile bethinking himself how he should use 
Brutus. In the mean time Lucilius was brought to 
him, who stoutly with a bold countenance said — ■ 
Antonius, I dare assure thee that no enemy hath 
taken nor shall take Marcus Brutus alive, and I 
beseech God keep him from that fortune ; for where- 
soever he be found, alive or dead, he will be found 
like himself. And now for myself: — I am come 
unto thee, having deceived these men of arms here, 
Thauedibs. — Vol, II. T 



bearing them down that I was Brutus, and do not 

refuse to suffer any torment thou wilt put me to. 
Lucilius' words made them all amazed that heard 
him. Antonius on the other side, looking upon all 
them that had brought him, said unto them, My 
companions, I think ye are sorry you have failed of 
your purpose, and that you think this man hath done 
you great wrong ; but I do assure you, you have 
taken a better booty than that you followed ; for 
instead of an enemy, you have brought me a friend : 
and, for my part, if you had brought rhe Brutus 
alive, ti'uly I cannot tell what I should have done 
to him ; for I had rather have such men my friends, 
as this man here, than enemies. Then he embraced 
Lucilius, and at that time delivered him to one of 
his fi-iends in custody, and Lucilius ever after 
served him faithfully, even to his death." 

■* Scene V. — " Come, poor remains offnejids," &c. 

" Now, Brutus having passed a little river, walled 
in on every side with high rocks, and shadowed 
with great trees, being then dark night, he went no 
further, but stayed at the foot of a rock with certain 
of his captains and friends that followed him : and 
looking up to the firmament that was full of stars, 
sighing, he rehearsed two verses of the which Vo- 
lumnius wrote the one, to this effect : — 

'Let not the wight from whom this mischief went 
(O Jove) escape without due punishment;' — 

and saith that he had forgotten the other. Within 
a little while after, naming his friends that he had 
seen slain in battle before his eyes, he fetched a 
greater sigh than before, specially when he came to 
name Sabia and Flavins, of the which the one was 
his lieutenant, and the other captain of the pioneers 
of his camp. In the mean time one of the company 
being athirst, and seeing Brutus athirst also, he ran 
to the river for water, and brought it in his sallet. 
At the self-same time they heard a noise on the 
other side of the river. Whereupon Volumnius 
took Dardanus, Brutus' servant, with him, to see 
what it was ; and returning straight again, asked if 
there were any water left. Brutus, smiling, gently 
told them all was drunk, but they shall bring you 
some more. Thereupon he sent him again that 
went for water before, who was in great danger of 
being taken by the enemies, and hardly escaped, 
being sore hui't. Furthermore, Brutus thought that 
there was no great uumber of men slain in battle, 
and to know the truth of it there was one called 
Statilius that promised to go through his enemies 
(for otherwise it was impossible to go see their 
camp), and from thence, if all were well, that he 
should lift up a torchlight in the air, and then 
return again with speed to him. The torchlight 
was lift up as he had promised, for Statilius went 
thither. Now, Brutus seeing StatiUus tarry long 
after that, and that he came not again, he said. If 
Statilius be alive he will come again ; but his evil 
fortune was such, that as he came back he lighted 
in his enemies' hands and was slain. Now the night 
being far spent, Brutus, as he sat, bowed towards 
Clitus, one of his men, and told him somewhat in 
his ear : the other answered him not but fell a 
weeping. Thereupon he proved Dardanus, and 
said somewhat also to him. At length he came to 
Volumuius himself, and, speaking to him in Greek, 
prayed him, for the studies' sake which brought 
them acquainted together, that he would help him 
to put his hand to his sword to thrust it in him to 

273 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ACT V. 



kill him. Volumnius denied his request, and so 
di.l many others; and amongst the rest, one of them 
said there was no tarrying for them there, but that 
they must needs fly. Then Hrutus, rising up, We 
must fly indeed, said he, but it must bo with our 
hands, not with our feet. Then taking every man 
by the hand, he said these words unto them with 
a cheerful countenance : it rejoiceth my heart that 
not one of my friends hath failed me at my need, 
and i do not complain of my fortune, but only for 
my countrj"'B sake : for, as for me, 1 think myself 
happier than they that have overcome, considering 
that I have a perpetual fame of our courage and 
m.anhood, the which our enemies the conquerors 
8h;dl never attain unto by force or money j neither 
can let theirpostority to say that they ,beingnaughty 
and xmjust men, have slain good men, to usurp 
tyrannio:d power not pertaining to them. Having 
8aid so, ho prayed every man to shift for themselves. 



and then ho went a little aside with two or three 
onlj-, among the which Sti-ato wa-s one, with whom 
he came first acquainted by the study of rhetoric. 
He came as near to him as he could, and taking 
his sword by the hilt with both his hands, and falling 
down upon the point of it, ran himself through. 
Others say that not he, but Strato (at his request), 
held the sword in his hand, and turned his head 
aside, and that Brutus fell down upon it, and so 
ran himself through, and died presently. Messala, 
that had been Brutus' great friend, became after- 
wards Octavius Caesar's friend. So, shortly after, 
Cajsar being at good leisure, he brought Strato, 
Brutus' friend, unto him, and weeping said — Cocsar, 
behold, here is ho that did the last service to my 
Brutus. Crc.sar welcomed him at that time, and 
afterwards he did him aa faithful service in all hie 
affairs as any Grecian else he had about him, until 
the battle of Actium. 




[Pompey's Statue.] 




AN 






INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



State op the Text, and Chronology, of Antony and Cleopatra. 

'The Tragedie of Authonie and Cleopatra' was first printed in the folio collection of 1623. TLe 
play is not divided into acts and scenes in the original ; but the stage-directions, like those of the 
other Roman plays, are very full. The text is, upon the whole, remarkably accurate ; although 
the metrical arrangement is, in a few instances, obviously defective. The positive errors are very 
few. Some obscure passages present themselves ; but, with one or two exceptions, they are not 
such as to render conjectural emendation desirable. 

We have already stated our views of the chronology of this tragedy, in the Introductory 
Notices to Coriolanus and Julius Csesar, 



Supposed Source of the Plot. 

The Life of Autonius, in North's Plutarch, has been followed by Shakspei'e with very remarkable 
fidelity ; and there is scarcely an incident which belongs to this period of Antony's career which 
the poet has not engrafted upon his wonderful performance. The poetical power, subjecting the 
historical minuteness to an all-pervading harmony, is one of the most remarkable efforts of Shak- 
spere's genius. That this may be properly felt we have given very copious extracts from the Life 
of Antonius, as Illustrations of each Act. 



Costume. 

For the costume of the Roman personages of this play, we, of course, refer our readers to the 
Notice prefixed to that of Julius Csesar : but for the costume of Egypt during the latter period of 
Greek domination we have no satisfactory authority. Winkelman describes some figures which 
he asserts were " made by Egyptian sculptors under the dominion of the Greeks, who introduced 
into Egypt their gods as well as their arts ; while, on the other hand, the Greeks adopted Egyptian 
usages." But from these mutilated remains of Greco-Egyptian workmanship we are uuable to 
ascertain how far the Egyptians generally adopted the costume of their conquerors, or the con- 
querors themselves assumed that of the vanquished. In the work on Egyptian Antiquities pub- 
lished in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, the few facts bearing upon this subject have 
been assembled, and the minutest details of the more ancient Egyptian costume will be found in 
the admirable works of Sir G. "Wilkinson : but it would be worse than useless for us to enter here 
into a long description of the costume of the Pharaohs, uiJess we could assert how much, if any 
part of it, was retained by the Ptolemies. 



277 




>-.<;;ii;:i,vj|ii,ii!,ii'WiM'n-ili;^^ i.'i''!.i'^-'"' 




[Room in Cleopatra's Palace.] 



ACT I. 



SCENE I. 



-Alexandria. A Room 
patra'5 Palace. 



in 



Cleo- 



Enter DEiiETRirs and Philo. 

Phi. Nay, but this dotage of our general's 
O'erflows the measui'e : those his goodly eyes, 
Tliat o'er the files and musters of the war 
Have glow'd like plated Mars, now bend, now 

turn. 
The office and devotion of their view 
Upon a ta\my front : his captain's heart, 
Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst 
The buckles on his breast, reneaguesa all temper; 
Ajid is become the bellows, and the fan. 
To cool a gipsy's lust. Look, where they cornel 



a Remagues — renounces. Thia is sometiines spelt rfnejrar; 
but Coleridge suggested the orthography we have adopted, 
which gives us the proper pronunciation, as in league, s'tee- 
wr s proposes to read reneyes, a word used by Chaucer in the 
eame sense. 



Flourish. Enter Antony and Cleopatra, 
tcilh their Trains ; Eunuchs fanning her. 

Take but good note, and you shall see in hira 
The triple a piUar of the world transform'd 
Into a strumpet's fool : behold and see. 

Cleo. If it be love indeed, tell me how much. 
Ant. There 's beggary in the love that can be 

reckon' d. 
Cleo. I '11 set a bourn how far to be belov'd. 
Ant. Then must thou needs find out new 
heaven, new earth. 

Enter an Attendant. 

Alt. News, my good lord, from Rome — 
Ant. Grates me : '^ — The sum. 

a Triple is here used in the sense of third, or one of 
three. So in All 's Well that Ends Well we have a triple eye 
for a third eye. We are not aware that any other author 
uses triple otherwise than in the ordinary sense of three- 
fold. 

b Grates me — offends me; — is grating to me. 

279 



ACTl.J 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene II. 



Cleo. Nay, bear tbeni, Antony : 
Pulvia, perchance, is angry ; Or, who knows 
If the scarce-bearded Cajsar have not sent 
His powcrfid mandate to you, ' Do tliis, or this ; 
Take in that kingdom, and enfranchise that ; 
Perform 't, or else we damn thee.' 

Ant. How, my love ! 

Cleo. Perchance, — nay, and most like. 
You must not stay here longer, your dismission 
Is come from- Csesar; therefore bear it, An- 
tony. — 
Where's Fulviu's process?* Caesar's, I would 

say. — ^Both. — 
Call in the messengers. — As I am Egypt's queen, 
Thou blushest, Antony ; and that blood of thine 
Is Caisar's homager : else so thy check pays 

shame 
When shrill-tongued Fulvia scolds. — The mes- 
sengers. 

Ant. Let Rome in Tiber melt ! and the wide 
arch 
Of the rang'd empire'' fall ! Here is my space. 
Kingdoms are clay : our dungy earth alike 
Feeds beast as man : the nobleness of life 
Is, to do thus ; w hen such a mutual pair, 
And such a twain can do 't, in wliich I bind. 
On pain of punishment, the world to weet * 
We stand up peerless. 

Cko. Excellent falsehood ! 

Why did he marry Ful™, and not love her ? — 
I 'U seem the fool I am not ; Antony 
Will be himself— 

Aiit. But stirr'd by Cleopatra.'' — 

Now, for the love of Love, and her soft hours, 
Let 's not confound the time with conference 

harsh : 
There 's not a minute of our lives should stretch 
Without some pleasure now : What sport to- 
night ? 

Cleo. Hear the ambassadors. 

^nt. Fie, wrangling queen ! 

Whom everything becomes, to chide, to laugh. 
To weep ; whose every passion fully strives 



a /"rofM*— summons. 

b Riing'd empire. Capell, the mo^t ncplected of the com- 
mentators, properly explains this — "Orderly ranged— whose 
parts are now entire and distinct, like a number of ■well- 
built edifices." He refers to a passage in Coriolanus, — 

, " Rury all wliich yet distinctly ranget, 

In heaps and piles of ruin." 

' 7*0 if<e< — to know. 

d Johnson explains this as ifhul had the meaning of rjccp* 
—Antony will be himself, unless Cleopatra keeps him in 
commotion. Afonck Masnn objects to this; and interprets 
the pMsage,— i/ but stirred by Cleopatra. Surely the mean- 
ing is more obvious. Antony accepts Clcoi>aira'8 belief of 
what he will be. lie will be himself; but still under the 
influence of Cleopatra; and to show what that influence is 
he continues, " Now, for the love of Love," &c. ' 

280 



To make itself, iu thee, fair and admir'd ! 
No messenger ; but thine and aU alone, 
To-night we '11 wander tlirough the streets, and 

note 
The qualities of people.' Come, my queen ; 
Last night you did dcsii-e it : — Speak not to us. 
\_Exetnit Ant. and Cleop., tcilh their Train. 

Bern. Is Ca;sar with Antonius priz'd so slight? 

Phi. Sir, sometimes, when he is not Antony, 
He comes too short of that great property 
Which still should go with Antony. 

Bern. I 'm full sorry 

That he approves the common liar, who 
Thus speaks of him at Home : But I will hope 
Of better deeds to-morrow. Rest you happy ! 

\E.veunt. 

SCENE \\.— The same. Another Room. 

Enter Cilahmun, Iiias, Alexas, and a 
Soothsayer. 

Char. Lord Alexas, sweet Alexas, most any- 
thing Alexas, almost mfist absolute Alexas, 
where 's the soothsayer that you praised so to 
the queen ? O, that I knew tliis husband, 
which, you say, must change'' his horns with 
garlands ! 

Alex. Soothsayer. 

Sooth. Your will ? 

Char. Is this the man ? — ^Is 't you, su-, that 
know things ? 

Sooth. In natui-e's infinite book of secrecy 
A little I can read. 

Alex. Show him your hand. 

Enter Enobarbus. 

Eno. Bring in the banquet quickly ; wine 
enough 
Cleopatra's health to drink. 

Char. Good sir, give me good fortune. 

Sooth. I make not, but foresee. 

Char. Pray then, foresee me one. 

Sooth. You shall be yet far faiier than you 
are. 

Char. He means in flesh. 

Iras. No, you shall paint when you are old. 

Char. Wrinkles forbid ! 

Alex. Vex not his prescience ; be attentive. 

Char. Hush ! 

Sooth. You shall be more bcloving than be- 
lov'd. 

Char. I had rather heat my liver vn'Oa 
drinking. 

» Change — vary— give a difTerent appearance to. Changcxit 
the word of the original. Warburton and others propose to 
read cliarge. 



Act I.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene II. 



Alex. Nay, hear him. 

Char. Good now, some excellent fortune ! 
Let me be mamed to thi-ee kings in a forenoon, 
and widow them all : let me have a child at 
fil'ty, to whom Herod of Jewry may do homage : 
find me to marry me with Octavius Csesai-, and 
compamou me with my mistress. 

Sooth. You shall outlive the lady whom you 
serve. 

Char. O excellent ! 1 love long life better 
than figs. 

Sooth. You have seen and prov'd a fau-er 
former fortune 
Than that which is to approach. 

Char. Then, belike my children shall have 
no names : Prithee, how many boys and wenches 
must I have ? 

Sooth. If every of your wishes had a womb, 
And fertile^ every wish, a million. 

Char. Out, fool ! I forgive thee for a witch. 

Alex. You think none but your sheets are 
privy to your wishes. 

Char. Nay, cooie, tell Iras hers. 

Alex. We '11 know aU our fortunes. 

Em. Mine, and most of our fortunes, to- 
night, shall be — drunk to bed. 

Iras. There 's a palm presages chastity, if 
nothing else. 

Char. Even as the o'erflowing Nilus pre- 
sageth famine. 

Iras. Go, you wild bedfellow, you cannot 
soothsay. 

Char. Nay, if an oily palm, be not a fruitfid 
prognostication, I cannot scratch mine ear. 
Prithee, tell her out a worky-day fortune. 

Sooth. Your fortunes are alike. 

Iras. But how, but how? give me particulars. 

Sooth. I have said. 

Iras. Am I not an inch of fortune better than 
she? 

Char. Well, if you were but an inch of fortune 
better than I, where woidd you choose it ? 

Iras. Not in my husband's nose. 

Char. Oiu- worser thoughts heavens mend ! 
Alexas, — come, his fortune, his fortune; — 0, let 
him maiTy a woman that cannot go, sweet Isis, 
I beseech thee ! And let her die too, and give 
him a worse ! and let worse follow worse, till 
the worst of all follow hun laughing to his grave, 
fifty-fold a cuckold! Good Isis, hear me this 
prayer, though thou deny me a matter of more 
weight, good Isis, I beseech thee ! 

Iras. Amen. Dear goddess, hear that prayer 

s Fertile. The original has foretel. The emendation, 
■which is very ingenious, was made by 'Warbuiton. 



of the people ! for, as it is a heart-breaking to 
see a handsome man loose-wived, so it is a deadly 
sorrow to behold a foul knave uncuckolded : 
Therefore, dear Isis, keep decorum, and fortune 
him accordingly ! 

Char. Amen. 

Alex. Lo, now ! if it lay in their hands to 
make me a cuckold, they would make them- 
selves whores but they 'd do 't. 

Eno. Hush ! here comes Antony. 

Char. Not he ; the queen. 

Enter Cleopatra. 

Cleo. Saw you my lord ? 

Eiio. No, lady. 

Cleo. Was he not here ? 

Char. No, madam. 

Cleo. He was dispos'd to mii-th ; but on the 
sudden 
A Roman thought hath struck him. — Enobar- 
bus, — 

Eno. Madam. 

Cleo. Seek him, and bring him hither. 
Where 's Alexas ? 

Alex. Here,- at your service. — My lord ap- 
proaches. 

Enter Antony, with a Messenger, and 

Attendants. 
Cleo. "We will not look upon him : Go with 
us. 
\E.reunt Cleopatka, Enobakbtjs, Alexas, 
Lras, Chakmia^, Soothsayer, and 
Attendants. 
Mess. Eulvia thy wife first came into the field." 
Ant. Against my brother Lucius ? 
3Iess. Ay : 
But soon that war had end, and the time's state 
Made friends of them, jointing their force 'gainst 

Csesar ; 
"Whose better issue in the war, from Italy, 
Upon the first encounter, di-ave them. 

Ant. Well, what worst ? 

Mess. The nature of bad news infects the teller. 

Ant. "When it concerns the fool, or coward. — 

On: 

Things that are past ai-e done with me. — 'T is 

thus. 
"Who tells me true, though in his tale lie death, 
I hear him as he flatter'd. 

3Iess. Labienus 

(This is stiff news) hath, with his Parthian 
force, 

a Steevens here introduces madam, "as a proper cure foi 
the present defect in metre." 

2S1 



*CI I.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SC£KS IL 



Extended, Asia from Euphrates ; 

His conquering banner shook from Syria 

To Lvdia and to Ionia ; 

Whilst— 

Ant. Antony, thou wouldst say, — 

Mess. O, my lord ! 

Ant. Speak to me home, mince not the general 
tongue; 
Name Cleopatra as she *s call'd in Ex)me : 
Rail thou in FulvLVs phrase; and taunt my faults 
With such full licence as both truth and malice 
Have power to utter. 0, then we bring forth 

weeds 
^Vhen our quick winds lie stiU; and our ills 

told us, 
Is as our earing. '' Fare thee well a while. 

Mess. At your noble pleasure. [Exit. 

Ant. FromSicyon how the news r*^ Speak there. 

1 Att. The man from Sicyon. — Is there such 

an one? 

2 Att. He stays upon your will. 

Ant. Let him appear. — 

These strong Egyptian fetters I must break, 

Enter another Messenger. 

Or lose myself in dotage. — TYbat are you ? 

2 Mess. Fulvia thy wife is dead. 

Ant "Where died she ? 

2 Mess. In Sicyon : 
Her length of sickness, with what else more 

serious 
Importeth thee to know, this bears. 

[Gives a lettS: 

Ant. Forbear me. — 

[Exit Messenger. 
Tliere 's a great spirit gone! Thus did I desire it: 
WTiat our contempts do often hurl from us. 
We wish it ours again : the present pleasure 
By revolution lowering, does become 
The opposite of itself ;*" she 's good, being gone ; 

■ Eilfnded—stizt& upon. In North's Plutarch we find 
that Labienui had "overrun Asia from Euphrates." Nearly 
all Shakipere's contemporaries make the second syllable of 
Euphrates short. Drayton, for example, — 

" That gliding go in state, like swelling Euphralet." 

b Malone proposes to read mind$ instead of wintU ; and 
the commentator* have taken ditfercnt sides in this matter. 
Itcfore we adopt a new reading we must be satisfied that the 
old one ia corrupt. When, then, do we "bringforth weedsf " 
In a heavy and moist season, when there are no "quick 
winds *' to mellow the earth, to dry up the exuberant mois- 
ture, to fit it for the plough. The poet kn' \v the old pro- 
verb of the worth of abusl.cl of March dust; but "the winds 
of March," rough and unpleasant as they are, he knew also 
produced this good. The quick winds then arc the voices 
which bring us true reports to put an end to our inaction. 
When these winds lie still we htinn forth weeds. But the 
metaphor Is carricl farther: the winds have rendered the 
soil fit for the plough: but the knowledge of our own faults 
— ilN — is as the plouching itself — the " caring." 

* I/oic the neat r So the folio. Mr. Djcc reads Ao,/A< n«iri.' 

•i Warburton says, "Tbe allusion is to the sun's diu~nal 

couiBc; which, rising in the east, and by revolution lower- 

282 



The Lund could pluck her back that shov*d her 

on. 
I must from this enchanting queen break off ; 
Ten thousand harms, more than the ills I know. 
My idleness doth hatch. — How now ! Enobarbus 1 

Enter Enobarbus. 

Eno. What 's your pleasure, sir ? 

Ant. 1 must with haste from hence. 

Eno. Wh\, then, we kill all our women : Wc 
see how mortal an unkiudness is to them; if 
they suffer our departure, death 's the word. 

Ant. I must be gone. 

Eno. Under a compelling occasion, let women 
die : It were pity to cast them away for nothing ; 
though, between them and a great cause, they 
should be esteemed nothing. Cleopatra, catching 
but the least nobe of this, dies instantly ; I have 
seen her die twenty times upon far poorer mo- 
ment : I do think there is mettle in death, which 
commits some loving act upon her, she hath 
such a celerity in dying. 

Ant. She is cunning past man's thought. 

Eno. Alack, sir, no ; her passions are made 
of nothing but the finest part of pure love : We 
cannot call- her winds and waters, sighs and 
tears; they are greater storms and tempests 
than almanacs can report : this cannot be cun- 
ning in her; if it be, she makes a shower of 
rain as weU as Jove. 

Ant. 'Would I had never seen her ! 

Eno. 0, sir, you had then left unseen a won- 
derful piece of work ; wtiich not to have been 
blessed withal, would have discredited your 
travel. 

Ant. Fxdna is dead. 

Eno. Sir? 

Ant. Fulvia is dead. 

Eno. Fulvia? 

Ant. Dead. 

Eno. Why, sir, give the gods a thankful sacri- 
fice. When it pleaseth their deities to take the 
wife of a mau from him, it shows to man the 
tailors of the earth ; comforting therein, that 
when old robes arc worn out there are members 
to make new. If there were no more women 
but Fidvia, then had you indeed a cut, and the 
case to be lamented ; tlib gi-icf is crowned with 
consolation ; your old smock brings forth a new 
petticoat: — and, indeed, the tears live in an 
onion that should water this sorrow. 

ing, or setting, in the west, becomes the opposite of itself 
Itut, taking revolution simply as a change of circumstances, 
the passage may mean (and this is the interpretation of 
t^tecvens) that the pleasure of to day becomes subsequently 
a pain — the opposite of iiself. Mr. Collier's MS. Corrector 
alters revolution lotcermg to repetition touring, but we hold 
to the original 



Act I.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SCEKE III. 



Ant. The business she hath broached in the 

state 
Cannot endure my absence. 

Eno. And the basiness you have broached 
here cannot be without you ; especially that of 
Cleopatra's, which wholly depends on your 
abode. 

A>it. No more light answers. Let our officers 
Have notice what we purpose. I shall break 
The cause of our exDcdience to the queen. 
And get her love to part.* For not alone 
The death of Fulvia, with more urgent touches, 
Do strongly speak to us ; but the letters too 
Of many our contriving friends in Rome 
Petition us at home : Sextus Pompeius 
Hath given the dare to Caesar, and commands 
The empire of the sea : our slippery people 
(Whose love is never Kuk'd to the deserver 
Till his deserts are past) begin to throw 
Pompey the great, and all his dignities. 
Upon his son ; who high in name and power. 
Higher than both in blood and life, stands up 
For the main soldier : whose quality, going ou. 
The sides o' the world may danger: Much is 

breeding, 
Which, like the courser's hair, hath yet but life. 
And not a serpent's poison. Say, our pleasure, 
To such whose place is under us, requires 
Our quick remove from hence. 

Eno. I shall do 't. \_Exeunt. 

SCENE ni. 

Enter Cleopatra, Cilariiian, Iras, and 

Alexas. 

Cleo. Where is he ? 

Char. I did not see him si: r;e. 

Cleo. See where he is, who 's with him, what 
he does : — 
I did not send you : — If you find him sad, 
Say I am dancing ; if in mirth, report 
That I am sudden sick : Quick, and retui-n. 

{Exit Alex. 
Char. Madam, methinks, if you did love him 
dearly, 
You do not hold the method to enforce 
The like from him. 

Cleo. What should I do I do not ? 

Char. lu each thing give him way, cross him 

in nothing. 
Cleo. Thou teachest like a fool : the way to 
lose him. 

a Some of the commentators would read " leave to part." 
To get her love, here, may be to prevail upon her love that 
■we may part. Pope \vas the first to real leave. 



Char. Tempt him not so too far : I wish, for- 
bear; 
Li time we hate that which we often fear. 

Enter Autony. 

But here comes Antony. 

Cleo. I am sick and sullen. 

Ant. I am sorry to give breathing to my 

purpose. — 
Cleo. Help me away, dear Charmian, I shall 
fall; 
It cannot be thus long, the sides of nature 
Will not sustaia it. 
Ant. Now, my dearest qusen, — ' 

Cleo. Pray you, stand farther from me. 
Ant. What 's the matter ? 

Cleo. I know, by that same eye, there 's some 
good news. 
What says the married woman ? — You may go ; 
'Would she had never given you leave to come ! 
Let her not say 't is I that keep you here, 
I have no power upon you ; hers you are. • 
Ant. The gods best know, — 
Cleo. 0, never was there queen 

So mightily betray' d ! Yet, at the first, 
I saw the treasons planted. 

Ant. Cleopatra, — 

Cleo. Why should I think you can be mine, 
and true. 
Though you in swearing shake the throned gods. 
Who have been false to Fulvia ? Riotous mad- 
ness. 
To be entangled with those mouth-made vows, 
"Which break themselves in swearing ! 

Ant. Most sweet queen, — 

Cleo. Nay, pray you, seek no colour for youi 

going, 

But bid farewell, and go : when you sued stay- 
ing. 

Then was the time for words : No going then ;— 

Eternity was in our lips and eyes ; 
Bliss in our brows' bent ; none our parts so poor. 
But was a race of heaven : They are so still. 
Or thou, the greatest soldier of the world, 
Ai-t turn'd the greatest liar. 

Ant. How now, lady ! 

Cleo. I would I had thy inches ; thou shouldst 
know 
There were a heart in Egypt. 

j^iil^ Hear me, queen : 

The strong necessity of time commands 
Our services a while ; but my fuU heart 
Remains in use with you. Our Italy 
Shines o'er with civil swords : Sextus Pompeiuj; 
Makes his approaches to the port of Rome : 

2oa 



Act M 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene IV. 



Eqiulitj of two domestic powers 

Breeds scrupulous faction: The bated, grown 

to strength, 
^\je ucwlj grown to love : the coudemiicd Pom- 

pe.v, 
Rich in his father's honour, creeps apace 
Into the hearts of such as have not thriv'd 
Upon the present state, whose numbers threaten ; 
And quietness, grown sick of rest, would purge 
By any desperate change : My more particular, 
And that which most with you should safe' my 

goiug, 
Is Fuhia's death. 

Cleo. Though age from foUy could not give 
me freedom, 
It does from childishness :— Cim Fid\ia die? 

Ant. She 's dead, my queen : 
Look here, and at thy sovereign leisure read 
The garboils'' she awak'd ; at the last, best ; 
See when and where she died. 

CUo. most false love ! 

Where be the sacred vials thou shouldst fiU 
"With sorrowful water ? Now I see, I see. 
In Fulvia's death how mine receiv'd shall be. 

A>U. Quarrel no more, but be prepar'd to 
know 
The purposes I bear ; which are, or cease. 
As you shall give the advice : By the fire . 
That quickens Nilus' slime, I go from hencp, 
Thy soldier, servant ; making peace or war 
As thou affect'st. 

CUo. Cut ray lace, Charmian, come ; — 

But let it be. — I am quickly ill, and well, 
So Antony loves.'' 

Ant. My precious queen, forbear ; 

And give true evidence to his love, which stands 
An honourable trial. 

Cleo. So Fulvia told me. 

I prithee, turn aside, and w eep for her ; 
Then bid adieu to me, and say the tears 
Belong to Egypt : '' Good now, play one scene 
Of excellent dissembling ; and let it look 
Like perfect honour. 

Ant. You '11 heat my blood : no more. 

Cleo. You can do better vet ; but this is 
meetly. 

Ant. Now, by my sword, — 



» .?(7/e— render safe. 

** Gar<ioi/<— disorders, commotioni; probably derived frbm 
the »ame tourcc as turmoil. 

c This passage was usually pointed «itli .-i colon alter 
" well;" and, »o pointed, it is interpreted by Capell, "such is 
Antony s love, fluctuating and subject to sudden turns, like 
my health." We follow the punctua'.ion of the original, 
which is more consonant with the rapid and rnpricioiis 
demeanour of Cleopatra— I am quickly ill, and I am well 
again, so that Antony loves. 

d Kgypl—the quten of Egypt. 

234 



Cleo. And target, — Still he mends ; 

But this is not the best : Look, prithee, Char- 
mian, 
How this llerculcan Roman docs become 
The carriage of his chafe. 

Ant. I '11 leave you, lady. 

Cleo. Courteous lord, one word. 
Sir, you and I must part, — but that 's not it : 
Sir, you and I have lov'd, — but there 's not it ; 
That you know well : Something it is I would, — 
O, my oblivion is a very Antony, 
And I am all forgotten. 

Ant. But that your royalty 

Holds idleness your subject, I should take you 
For idleness it.self. 

Cko. 'T is sweating labour 

To bear such idleness so near the heart 
As Cleopatra this. But, sir, forgive me ; 
Since my becomings kill me, when they do not 
Eye well to you : Your honour calls you hence ; 
Therefore be deaf to my uupitied folly. 
And all the gods go with you ! Upon your sword 
Sit laui-el" victory, and smooth success 
Be strew'd before your feet ! 

Anf. Let us go. Come : 

Our separation so abides, and flies. 
That thou, residing here, go'st yet with me. 
And I, hence fleeting, here remain with thee. 
Away. [^Exeunt. 

SCENE IV. — Rome. An Apartment in 
Csesai-'* House. 

Enter Octavius Cesaii, Lepidus, and 
Attendants. 

C'^5. You may see, Lepidus, and henceforth 
know. 
It is not CfEsar's natural vice to hate 
Our great competitor'': from Alexandria 
This is the news : He fishes, drinks, and wastes 
The lamps of night in revel ; is not more man- 
like 
Than Cleopatra ; nor the queen of Ptolemy 
More womanly than he : hardly gave audience, 
Or vouchsafd to think he had partners : You 

shall find there 
A man who is the abstract of all faidts 
That all men follow. 

Lcp. I must not tliiuk there arc 

Evils enow to darken all his goodness : 



a Lnurel. The use of the substantive adjectively wa.s a 
peculiarity of the poetry of Shakspcrc's time, which has been 
revived with advantase in our own da 

^ Our great.— Ihit is Johnson's cniuiidaiion of the original 
one great. Competitor is Uicd in tlic .sense of associate. 



Act I.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene IV. 



His faults, in him, seem as the spots of heaven, 
More fiery by night's blackness ; hereditary, 
Rather than purchas'd ; what he cannot change. 
Than what he chooses. 

Cces, You are too indulgent : Let 's grant it 
is not 
Amiss to tumble on the bed of Ptolemy ; 
To give a kingdom for a mirth ; to sH 
And keep the turn of tippling with a slave ; 
To reel the streets at noon, and stand the buifet 
With knaves that smell of sweat ; say, tliis 

becomes him, 
(xVs his composure must be rare indeed 
Whom these things cannot blemish,) yet must 

Antony 
No way excuse his soHs," when we -do bear 
So great weight in his Hghtness. If he fiU'd 
His vacancy with his voluptuousness, 
Pull surfeits, and the dryness of his bones. 
Call on him for 't : but, to confound such time. 
That drums him from his sport, and speaks as 

loud 
As his own state, and ours, — 't is to be chid. 
As we rate boys ; who, being matm-e in know- 
ledge. 
Pawn their experience to their present pleasure, 
And so rebel to judgment. 

Unter a Messenger. 

jjej). Here 's more news. 

Mess. Thy bidduigs have been done; and 
every hour. 
Most noble Ceesar, shalt thou have report 
How 'tis abroad. Pompey is strong at sea ; 
And it appears he is belov'd of those 
That only have fear'd Csesar : to the ports 
The discontents repair, and men's reports 
Give him much wrong' d. 

Cas. I should have known no less : — 
It hath been taught us from the prunal state. 
That he which is was wish'd, until he were : 
And the ebb'd man, ne'er lov'd till ne'er worth 

love. 
Comes fear'd^- by being lack'd. This common 

body. 
Like to a vagabond flag upon the stream, 
Goes to, and back, lackeying ■= the varying tide, 
To rot itself with motion. 

a 5oi7j— defilements, taints. The original has /oi7s, which 
Malone amended. . , 

b Fi-ar'd in the original : the general reading is dear d. 
But it mav be argued that Caesar is speaking; and that, in 
the notion's of one who aims at supreme authority, to be 
feared and to be loved are pretty synonymous. 

c Lackeying— the original has lacking (not lashing as the 
commentators state) ; but the reading is evidently corrupt, 
and we may properly adopt Theobald's emendation ot 
lackeying. 



Mess. Caesar, I bring thee word, 

Menecrates and Menas, famous pirates. 
Make the sea serve them ; which they ear and 

wound 
With keels of every kind : Many hot inroads 
They make in Italy ; the borders maritime 
Lack blood to think on 't, and flush youth 

revolt: 
No vessel can peep forth but 't is as soon 
Taken as seen ; for Pompey' s name strikes more 
Than could his war resisted. 

C^s. Antony, 

Leave thy lascivious vassails.* When thou once 
Wast beaten from Modena, where thou slew'st 
Hu-tius and Pansa, consuls, at thy heel 
Did famine foUow ;^ whom thou fought'st against. 
Though daintily brought up, with satience more 
Than savages could suffer : Thou didst drink 
The stale of horses, and the gilded puddle 
Which beasts would cough at : thy palate then 

did deign 
llie roughest berry on the rudest hedge ; 
Yea, like the stag, when snow the pasture sheets. 
The barks of trees thou browsed'st ; on the Alps 
It is reported thou didst eat strange flesh. 
Which some did die to look on : And all tliis 
(It woimds thine honour that I speak it now) 
Was borne so like a soldier, that thy cheek 
So much as lank'd not. 

Lep. 'T is pity of him. 

Cas. Let his shames quickly 

Drive him to Rome : T is time we twain 
Did show ourselves i' the field ; and, to that end, 
Assemble me'' immediaie council. Pompey 
Thrivcj in our idleness. 

Zep. To-morrow, Caesar, 

I shaU be furnish'd to inform you rightly 
Both what by sea and land I can be able. 
To front this present time. 

(j^s. TiU wliich encounter. 

It is my business too. Farewell. 

a Vassalls.—The spelling of the original is vassaiks. The 
modern reading is wassals or wassails. A question then 
arises in what sense Shakspere used this word. In three other 
passages of the original, where the old English word wassal 
is used it is spelt wassels. Wassal is employed by Shakspere 
in the strict meaning of drunken revelry; and that could 
scarcely be called "lascivious." On the contrary, "leave 
thy lascivious vassals" might express Cssavs contempt for 
Cleopatra and her minions, who were strictly the vassals of 
Antony, the queen being one of his tributaries. W e leave 
the original word vassails. Henley, one of the variorum 
commentators, says, " rassahis, without question, the true 

'^t'Afscmbleme. So the original. The modern reading is 
assemble we; and it is justified by the assertion that one 
equal is speaking to another. The commentators forget the 
contempt which Caesar had for Lepidus : they forget, too, 
the crouching humility of Lepidus himself:— 

" What you shall know meantime 
Of stirs abroad, I shall beseech you, sir, 
To let me be partaker." 

285 



-Act I.J 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SCEKE V. 



Lep. Farewell, my lord: What vou shall 
know meantime 
Of stirs abroad, I shall beseech you, sir, 
To let me be partaker. 

("'f^- Doubt not, sir ; 

I knew it for my bond. \_Exeunt. 

SCENE v.— Alexandria. A Room in the Palace. 

Enler Cleop.\tra, Ciiarmian, Iras, and 
Maudiax. 

Cleo. Charniian, — 
Char. Madam. 
Cleo. Ha, ha !— 
Give mc to drink mandragora. 

Char. Wliy, madam ? 

Cleo. That I might sleep out this great gap 
of time 
My Antony is away. 

Char. You think of him too much. 

CUo. 0, 't is treason ! 

Char. Madam, I trust not so. 

CUo. Thou, eunuch ! ^fardian ! 
Mar. Vfhai 's your highness' pleasure ? 

Cleo. Not now to hear thee sing ; I take no 
pleasure 
In aught an eunuch has : 'T is well for thee. 
That, being uuseminar'd, thy freer thoughts 
May not fly forth of Egypt. Hast thou aiTec- 
tions ? 
Mar. Yes, gracious madam. 
Cleo. Indeed? 

Mar. Not in deed, madam; for J can do 
nothing 
But what indeed is honest to be done : 
Yet I have fierce affections, and think 
What Venus did with Mars. 

Cleo. O Charmian, 

Where think'st thou he is now ? Stands he, or 

sits he ? 
Or docs he walk ? or is he on his horse ? 
happy horse, to bear the weight of Antony ! 
Do bravely, horse ! for wot'st thou whom thou 

mov'st ? 
The denu-Atlas of this earth, the arm 
And burgonet * of men.— He 's speaking now. 
Or murmuring, 'Wliere 's my serpent of old 

Nile?' 
For so he caUs me : Now I feed myself 
With most delicious poison : — Think on me. 
That am with Phoebus' amorous pinches black, 
And wrinkled deep in time? Broad-fronted 
Cffisar, 



When thou wast here above the ground, I was 
A morsel for a monarch : and great Pompey 
Would stand, and make his eyes grow in my 

brow J 
There would he anchor his aspect, and die 
With looking on his life. 

Enter Alexas. 

■^le.r. Sovereign of Egypt, hail ! 

Cleo. How much unlike art thou ]\Iark An- 
tony! 
Yet, coming from him, that great medicine hath 
With his tinct gilded thee. — 
How goes it with my brave ^Mark Antony ? 

Alex. Last tiling he did, dear queen. 
He kiss'd,— tiie last of many doubled kisses, — 
This orient pearl:— His speech sticks in my 
heart. 
Cleo. Mine ear must pluck it thence. 
Alex. Good friend, quoth he, 

Say, 'The firm Roman to great Egypt scuds 
This treasui-c of an oyster ; at whose foot. 
To mend the petty present, I \vill piece 
Her opulent throne with kingdoms : All the cast,' 
Say thou, 'shall call her mistress.' So he nodded. 
And soberly did mount an arm-gaunt* steed, 
WTio neigh'd so high, that what I would have 

spoke 
Was beastly dumb'd by him. 

Cleo. What, was he sad, or merry ? 

Alex. Like to the time o' the year between 
the extremes 
Of hot'' and cold : he ^Tas nor sad nor merry. 

Cleo. O wcU-divided disposition ! — Note him, 
Note him, good Charmian, 't is the man ; but 

note him : 
He was not sad ; for he would shire ou those 
That make their looks by his : he was not merry ; 
Which seera'd to tell them liis remembrance lay 
In Egypt with his joy : but between both : 
heavenly mingle ! — Beest thou sad, or merrv. 
The violence of either thcc becomes ; 
So does it no man else. — Mett'st thou my posts ? 
Alex. Ay, madam, twenty several messengers : 
"Why do you send so tliick ? 

Cleo. Who 's bom that day 

When I forget to send to Antony, 
Shall die a beggar. — Ink and paper, Charmian. — 
Welcome, my good Alexas.— Did I, Charmian, 
Ever love Caesar so P 



» flurj^nW— helmet. In Henry VI. we have, "I wear 
*\ofr. my burgonet." i i » ur 

286 



a Arm-gaunt. So the original. Some propose to read 
tcrnuigant; but arm-gaunt, of whicli we have no other 
example, conveys the notion of a steed fierce and terrible in 
•irmour; and the epithet therefore is not to be lightly 
replaced by any other. 

i* Hot. So the original. Stecvens reads heat. 



Act I.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene V. 



Char. that brave Caesar ! 

Cleo. Be chok'd with sach another emphasis ! 
&ay, the brave Autony. 

Char. The vaUant Caesar ! 

Cleo. By Isis, I will give thee bloody teeth, 
If thou with Caesar paragou again 
My man of men ! 



Char. By your most gracious pardon, 

I sing but after you. 

Cleo. My salad days ! 

When I was green in judgment, — cold in blood. 
To say as I said then ! — But come, away : 
Get me ink and paper : he shall have every day 
A several greeting, or I '11 uupeo])le Egypt. 

{Exeunt 



WiM^i^^': 




[Scene IV. Atrium in C;csar's House. J 




IMcdal of Antony aoU Cleopntra.j 



ILLUSTRATIONS OE ACT I. 



'Scene I. — "Tonight we'll wander through the 
stress," &c. 

In this, and the subsequent Illustrations in each 
act, the quotations are from North's Plutarch, 
unless otherwise distinguished. 

"But now again to Cleopati-a. Plato writeth 
that there are four kinds of flattery, but Cleopatra 
divided it into iiiauy kinds. For she (were it in 
sport, or in matters of earnest) still devised sundry 
new delights to have Antonius at commandment, 
never leaving him night nor day, nor once letting 
him go out of her sight. For she would play at 
dice with him, drink with him, and hunt commonly 
with him, and also be with him when he went to 
any exercise or activity of body. And sometime 
also, when he would go up and down the city dis- 
guised like a slave in the night, and would peer 
into poor men's windows and their shops, and scold 
and brawl within the house, Cleopati-a would be also 
in a chambermaid's array, and amble up and down 
the streets with him, so that oftentimes Antonius 
bare away both mocks and blows. Now, though 
most men misliked this manner, yet the Alexan- 
drians were commonly glad of this jollity, and liked 
it well, saying, very gallant ly and wisely, that 
Antonius showed them a comical face, to wit, a 
merry countenance ; and the Romans a tragical face, 
that is to say, a grim look." 

' Scene II.—" Fidvia thy wife first came into the 
field." 

" Now, Antonius delighting in these fond and 
childish pastimes, very ill news were brought him 
from two places. The first from Rome, that his 
brother Lucius and Fulvia his wife fell out first 
between themselve-s, and afterwards fell to open war 
with C;csar,and had brought all to nought, that they 
were both driven to fly out of Italy. The second 
news as ba'l as the first : that Labienus conquered 
all Asia with the army of the Partbians, from the 
river of Euphrate-i, and from Syria, unto the country 
of Lydia and Ionia. Then began Antonius, with 
much ado, a little to rouse himself, as if he had been 
wakened out of a deep slecj), and, as a man may say, 
coming out of a great drunkenness. So, first of all, 
he bent him.se'Jf against the Parthian.^, and went as 
far aa the country of Phccnicia ; but tlierc he received 
lamentable letters from his wife Fulvia. Whereupon 
he straight returned towardflItaly,with two hundred 
288 



sail, and as he went took up his friends by the way 
that fled out of Italy to come to him. By them he 
was informed that his wife Fulvia was the only caxise 
of this war ; who, being of a peevish, crooked, and 
troublesome nature, had purposely rai.sed this up- 
roar in Italy, in hope thereby to draw him from 
Cleopatra. But by good fortune his wife Fulvia, 
going to meet with Antonius, sickened by the way, 
and died in the city of Sicion : and therefore Octa- 
vius Caesar and he were the easier made friends 
again." 

3 Scene IV.— " TMien thou once 

Wast beaten from Modena," &c. 

" Cicero, on the other side, being at that time the 
chiefest man of authority and estimation in the city, 
ho stirred up all men against Antonius ; so that in 
the end he made the Senate pronounce him an ene- 
my to his country, and appointed young Ciesar Ser- 
jeants to can-y axes before him, and such other signs 
as were incident to the dignity of a consul or prretor ; 
and, moreover, sent Hircius and Pansa, then con- 
suls, to drive Antonius out of Italy. These two 
consuls, togetherwith C;esar, who also had an army, 
went against Antonius, thatbeseiged the city of Mo- 
dena, and there overthrew him in battle ; but both 
the consuls were slain there. Antonius, flying upon 
this overthrow, fell into great misery all at once: but 
the chiefest want of all other, and that which pinched 
him most, was famine. Howbeit he was of such a 
strong nature, that by patience he would overcome 
any adversity ; and the heavier fortune lay upon 
him, the more constant showed he himself. Every 
man that fceleth want or adversity knowcth by vir- 
tue and discretion what he should do ; but when in- 
deed they are overlaid with extremity, and be sore 
oppressed, few have the hearts to follow that which 
they praise and commend, and much less to avoid 
that they reprove and mislike : but rather to the 
contrary, they yield to their accustomed easy life, 
and through faint heart and lack of courage do 
change their first mind and purpose. And therefore 
it was a wonderful example to the soldiers to see 
Antonius, that was brought up in all fineness and 
superfluity, soea-ily to drink puddle-water, and to 
eat wild friiits and roots : and, moreover, it is re- 
ported, that even as they passed the Alps they did 
eat the barks of trees, and such beasts as never man 
tiiated of their flesh before." 




[Room in Pompey's House.] 



ACT II. 



SCENE I. — Messma. A Room in Pompey'5 
House. 

Enter Pomtey, Meneckates, and Menas. 

Fom. If the great gods be just, they shall 
assist 
The deeds of justest men. 

Mene. Know, worthy Pompey, 

That what they do delay they not deny. 

Fom. Whiles we are suitors to their throne, 
decays 
The thmg we sue for. 

Mene. We, ignorant of ourselves. 

Beg often our own harms, which the wise powers 
Deny us for our good ; so find we profit, 
By losing of our prayers. 

Tom. I shall do weU : 

The people love me, and the sea is mine ; 
My power 's a crescent, =" and my auguring hope 
Says it will come to the full. Mark Antony 
In Egypt sits at dinner, and -will make 
Nc wars without doors: Caesar gets money 
where 

3 The original has, " My powers are crescent." The use 
of if iu the next line shows that crescent is a substantive. 
The correction, which we give in the text, was made by 
Theobald. 

TRAaEDI133.--V0L II. U 



He loses hearts : Lepidiis flatters both, 
Of both is flatter'd ; but he neither loves, 
Nor either cares for him. 

Men. Ceesar and Lepidus 

Are in the field ; a mighty strength they carry. 

Fom. Where have you this ? 't is false. 

Men. From SUvius, sir. 

Fom. He dreams ; I know they are in Borne 
together. 
Looking for Antony : But all the charms of love. 
Salt Cleopatra, soften thy wan'd lip ! 
Let witchcraft join -with beauty, lust with both ! 
Tie up the libertine in a field of feasts ; 
Keep his brain fuming ; Epicurean cooks 
Sharpen with cloyless sauce his appetite ; 
That sleep and feeding may prorogue his honour 
Even till a Lethe'd dulness.— How now, Var- 
rius? 

Enter Vaukius. 
Far. This is most certain that I shall deliver : 
Mark Antony is every hour in Borne 
Expected ; since he went from Egypt, 't is 
A space for farther travel. 

Fom. I could have given less mattei' 

A better ear. — Menas, I did not think 

289 



ANTONY AND CLEOrATllA. 



At! II ] 

This amorous surfcifcr woiUil have doui\'d his 

hchu 
For such a petty war : Ids soldiership 
Is twice the other twain: Eut let us reai- 
The higher our opinion, that oui- stirring 
Can from the bp of Egypt's widow pluck 
The ne'er lust-wcaricd Antony. 

jff„, I cannot hope" 

CiBSiu: and Antony shall well greet together : 
His wife that 's dead did trespasses to Cresar; 
His brother warT'd** upon him ; although, I think. 
Not mov'd by Antony. 

jPoni. I know not, Meuas, 

How lesser enmities may give way to greater. 
Were 't not that we stand up against them all, 
'Twerc pregnant they should squai-e between 

themselves ; 
For they have entertained cause enough 
To draw their swords : but how the fear of us 
May cement their divisions, and bind up 
The petty difference, we yet not know. 
Be it as our gods will have it ! It only stands 
Our lives upon to use our strongest hands. 
Come, Menas. [Exeunt. 

SCENE II. — llome. A liooi>i in the House of 
Lepidus. 

Enter Exobajibus and Lepidus. 

Lrp. Good Enobarbus, 't is a worthy deed, 
iVnd shall become you well, to entreat youi- 

captain 
To soft and gentle speech. 

Eiio. I shall entreat him 

To answer like liimself : if Csesar move him. 
Let Antony look over Caesar's head, 
.Vnd speak as loud as IMars. By Jupiter, 
Were I the wearer of Antonius' beard, 
I would not shave 't to-day ! 

Lep. 'Tis not a time 

For private stomacliing. 

Eno. Every time 

Serves for the matter that is then bom in it. 

Lep. But small to greater matters must give 
way. 

Eno. Not if the small come first. 

Lep. Your speech is passion : 

But, pray you, stir no embers up. Here comes 
The noble Antony. 



« Hope U here used in the sense ot expect. Chaucer em- 
ploy! the word in thii sense ; but the inaccuracy of this use 
wa» czcmplificd in Shaksperc's time, by I'uttenham, wlio 
quote!! the spccchof the Tanner of Tarn worth to Edward IV. : 
" I hope I shaU be handed to-morrow." 

b IVarr'd. The original, by a typogr.iphical error, has 
uan'd. 

290 



ISCESE It. 



Enter Antony and Venxidius. 
Eno. And yonder Csesar 

Enter C^esab, Mecenas, and Agkippa. 

Jnf. If we compose' well here, to Parthia : 
Hai-k, Vcntidius. 

Qcs. I do not know, Mccienas ; ask Agrippa. 

L('p. Noble friends, 
Tliat which combin'd us was most great, and 

let not 
A leaner action rend us. What 's amiss, 
May it be gently heard : When we debate 
Our trivial difference loud, wc do commit 
Murlhcr in healing wounds : Then, noble part- 
ners, 
(The rather, for I earnestly beseech,) 
Touch you the sourest points with sweetest terms. 
Nor ciu'stness grow to the matter. 

Jut. T is spoken well : 

Were wc before our armies, and to fight, 
I should do thus. 

Cees. Welcome to llome. 

Jnt. Thank you. 

Cas. Sit. 

ylnt. Sit, sir." 

Ctes. Nay, then. 

Jnt. I learn, you take things ill which arc 
not so ; 
Oi*, being, concern you not. 

Cas. I must be laugh'd at, 

If, or for nothing, or a little, I 
Should say myself offended ; and with you 
Chiefly i' the world: more laugh'd at, that 1 

should 
Once name you derogately, when to sound 
your name 

It not concem'd mc. 
Jnt. My being in Egypt, Csesar, 

What was 't to you r 

C(Ps. No more than my residing here at llome 
Might be to you in Egj-pt : Yet if you there_ 
Did practise on my state, your being in Egypt 
Might be my question. 

Jnt. How intend you, practis'd ? 

Ceps. You may be plcas'd to catch at mine intent 
By what did lierc bcf;d me. Your wife and 

brother 
Made wars upon rac ; and their contestation 
Was theme for you, you were the word of war. 

a Compo««^a(frce— conic to agreement. 

bin the variorum editions a note of admiration is here 
put, it being explained by Stcevens that Antony means to 
resent the invitatiim of C'aisar tliat he should be seated. 
That invitation implied superiority. We agree witli Malonc 
that they each desired the other to be seated; and that 
Ca'sar puts an end to the bandying of compliments by taking 
his seat. 



AitII.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene IL 



Ant. You do mistake your business ; my 
brother never 
Did urge me in his act : I did iuquii-e it ; 
And have my learning from some true reports, 
That dre-w their swords with you. Did he not 

rather 
Discredit my authority with yours ; 
And make the wars alike against my stomach, 
Having aUke your cause? Of this, my letters 
Before did satisfy you. If you '11 patch a 

quarrel, 
As matter whole you have to make it with,'' 
It must not be with this. 

Cees. You praise yourself by laying defects 
of judgment to me ; but you patch'd up yom- 
excuses. 

Aiif. Not so, not so ; 
I know you could not lack, I am cei-taiu on 't. 
Very necessity of this thought, tliat I, 
Your partner iu the cause 'gainst wliich lie 

fought. 
Could not with graceful eyes attend those wars 
Which frouted mine own peace. As for mj 

wife, 
I would you had her spirit in such another : 
The third o' the Morld is yours ; which with a 

snaffle 
You may pace easy, but not such a wife. 

Em. 'Would we had all such wives, that the 
men might go to wars with the women ! 

Ant. So much uncm-bable her garboils, 
Caesar, 
Made out of her impatience, (which not wanted 
Shrewdness of poHcy too,) I grieving grant 
Did you too much disquiet : for that, you must 
But say I could not help it. 

Cas. I wrote to you 

When rioting in Alexandria ; you 
Did pocket up my letters, and with taunts 
Did gibe my missive out of audience. 

Ant. Su-, 

He fell upon me, ere admitted ; then 
Three kings I had newly feasted, and did want 
Of what I was i' the morning : but, next day, 
I told him of myself ; which was as much 
As to have ask'd Mm pardon : Let this fellow 
Be nothing of our strife ; if we contend. 
Out of our question wipe him. 



a This is the reading of the original; T)ut an ordinary 
reading, from the time of Rowe, has been 

" As matter whole you have not to make it with." 

We doubt the propriety of departing from the text, and the 
meaning appears to us — if you'll patch a quarrel so as to 
seem the luhole matter you have to make it -with, you must 
Dot patch it with this complaint. Whole is opposed to 
patch, 

U 2 



Can, You have broken 

The article of your oath ; which you shall never 
Have tongue to charge me -with. 

Lep. Soft, Cgesar. 

Ant. No, Lepidus, let him speuk ; 
The honour is sacred which he talks on now. 
Supposing that I lack'd it : But on, Caesar ; 
The article of my oath, — 

C<es. To lend me arms and aid when I re- 
quir'd them ; 
The which you both denied. 

Ant. Neglected, rather ; 

And theu, when poison'd hours bad bound me up 
From mine own knowledge. As nearly as I 

may, 
I '11 play the penitent to you ; but mine honesty 
Shall not make poor my greatness, nor my power 
Work without it : Truth is, that Fulvia, 
To have me out of Egypt, made wars here ; 
For which myself, the ignorant motive, do 
So far ask pardon as befits mine honom- 
To stoop in such a case. 

Lep. . 'T is nobly spoken. 

Mec. If it might please you to enforce no 
fui"ther 
The griefs between ye : to forget them quite. 
Were to remember that the present need 
Speaks to atone you. 

Lep. Worthily spoken, Mecsenas. 

Eno. Or, if you borrow one another's love 
for the instant, you may, when you hear no 
more words of Pompey, retm-n it again : you 
shall have time to \vrangle in when you have 
nothing else to do. 

Ant. Thou art a soldier only ; speak no more, 

Eno. That truth should be silent, I had abuost 
forgot. 

Anf. You wrong this presence, therefore 
speak no more. 

Eno. Go to, then ; yom- considerate stone.'' 

Cas. I do not much dislike the matter, but 
The manner of his speech : for it cannot be 
We shall remain in friendship, our conditions 
So differing in their acts. Yet, if I knew 
What hoop should hold us stanch, from edge to 

edge 
0' the world I would pm-sue it. 

Agr. Give me leave, Caesar, — 

Cces. Speak, Agrippa. 

A(/r. Thou hast a sister by the mother's side,' 
Admir'd Octavia : great Mark Antony 
Is now a widower. 

a This is most probably an allusion to the old saying "ss 
silent as a stone," which is a frequent comparison amongst 
our ancient writers. 

291 




ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scene 11. 



ACT II.) 

Ors. Say not so, Agrippa ; 

If Cleopatra heard you, your reproof 
Were well descrv'd of raslmcss.» 

Jnl. I am uot married, Ciesur; let me hear 
Agrippa further speak. 

J(/r. To hold you iu perpetual amity. 
To make you brothers, and to knit your hearts 
With an uuslipping knot, take Antony 
Oetavu to his wUc : whose beauty clanns 
No worse a husband than the best of men ; 
Wliosc %-irtue, and whose general graecs, speak 
That wliicli none else can utter. By this mar- 
riage, 
All little jealousies, which now seem great, 
.Ynd all great fears, which now imjort their 

dangers. 
Would then be nothing : truths would be talcs 
Wicre now half tales be truths: her love to both 
Would, each to other, and all loves to both. 
Draw after her. Pardon what I have spoke : 
For 't is a studied, not a present thought. 
By duty ruminated. 
' jnt. Will Caesar speak ? 

GO'S. Not till he hears how Antony is touch'd 
Witii what b spoke akeady. 

^„t. "^Vhat power is in Agrippa, 

Lf I would say, 'Agrippa, be it so,' 

To make this good ? 

^, The power of Csesar, 

And his power unto Octavia. 

Ani. May I never 

To this good purpose, that so fairly shows, 
Dream of impediment !— Let mc have thy hand : 
Further this act of grace; and, from this hour, 
The heart of brothers govern in our loves, 
And sway ovs great designs ! 

Q^.^ There 's my hand. 

A sister I bcqacj.h you, whom no brother 
Did ever love so Uearly : Let her live 
To join our kingdoms, and our hearts: and never 
Fly off our loves again ! 

Lep. HappUy, amen! 

Ant. I did not think to draw my sword 'gainst 
Pompey ; 
For he hath kid strange courtesies, and great. 
Of ktc upon me : I must thank him only. 
Lest my remembrance suffer ill report ; 
At heel of that, defy him. . 

Igp^ Time cjiUs upon us : 

Of us must Pompey presently be sought. 
Or else he seeks out us. 

^„t. Where lies he ? 

Cat. About the Mount Misenum. 



Ant. What is his strength by laJid ? 

Ctcs. Great and increasing : 
But by sea he is an absolute master. 

Ant. So is the fame. 
'Would we had spoke together! Haste we for it: 
Yet, ere wc put ourselves iu arms, despatch wc 
The business wc have tidk'd of. 

Qf.^ With most ghidncss ; 

And do invite you to my sister's view. 
Whither straight 1 '11 lead you. 

j^l Let us, Lepidus, 

Not lack yoiur company. 

lpp_ Noble Antony, 

Not sickness should detain me. 
{Flourish. Exeunt Cesaii, Ant., and Lepidus. 
Mec. Welcome from Egypt, sir. 
Eno. Half tlie heart of Cffisur, worthy Me- 
ca;nas !— my honourable friend, Agrippa !— 
Agr. Good Enobarbus ! 
Mec. We have cause to be glad that matters 
ai-e so weU digested. You stayed weU by it in 

Egypt. 

Eno. Ay, sir; we did sleep day out of coun- 
tenance, and made the night hght with drinking. 

Mec. Eight ^vild boars roasted whole at a 
breakfast, and but twelve persons there: Is 

this true ? ^ 

Eno. This was but as a fly by an eagle : wc 
had much more monstrous matter of feasts, 
which worthily deserved noting. 

Mec. She 's a most triumphant lady, if report 
be square to her. 

Eno. \\Tien she first met Mark Antony,^ she 
I pursed up his heart, upou the river of Cydnus. 
Agr. There she appeared indeed; or my re- 
porter devised well for her. 

Eno. I \vill tell you : 
The barge she sat in, like a bumish'd throne. 
Burnt on the water: the poop was beaten 



gold 



• of rath lies I 
262 



-on account of rafhneti. 



Purple the sails, and so perfumed that 

The winds were love-sick with them : the oars 

were silver ; " 
Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke, and 

made 
The water, which they beat, to follow faster, 
As amorous of their strokes. For her own person. 
It bcggar'd all dcscriplioii: she did lie 
In her pavilion, (cloth of gold, of tissue,) 
O'er-pieturing that Venus, where we see 
The fancy outwork nature : on each side her 
Stood pretty dimpled boys, Hkc smiling Cupids, 

» The punctuation of the original Rives U3 a full pausa 
at love-.ick. The ordinary reading is "^^e wmds were lo^e- 
»ick with them. 



Act ri.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



With divers-colom-'d fans, whose wind did seem 
To glow tlie delicate clieeks which they did cool, 
And what they undid, did. 

Agr. 0, rare for Antony ! 

Uno. Her gentlewomen, like the Nereides, 
So many mermaids, tended her i' the eyes. 
And made their bends adomings : » at the helm 
A seeming mermaid steers ; the silken tackle 
Swell with the touches of those flower-soft hands, 
That yarely frame the office. Trom the bai-ge 
A strange invisible perfume hits the sense 
Of the adjacent whaifs. The city cast 
Her people out upon her ; and Antony, 
Enthrou'd in the market-place, did sit alone, 
"VATiistling to the air ; which, but for vacancy. 
Had gone to gaze on Cleopatra too. 
And made a gap in nature. 

Agr. Rare Egyptian ! 

Bno. Upon her landing, Antony sent to her. 
Invited her to supper : she replied. 
It should be better he became her guest ; 
Which she entreated : Our courteous Antony, 
Whom ne'er the word of ' No ' woman heard 

speak. 
Being barbor'd ten times o'er, goes to the feast ; 
And, for his ordinary, pays his heart. 
For what his eyes eat only. 

Agr. Royal wench ! 

She made great Csesar lay his sword to bed ; 
He plough'd her, and she cropp'd. 

Eno. I saw her once 

Hop forty paces through the public street : 
And having lost her breath, she spoke, and panted, 
That she did make defect, perfection. 
And, breathless, power breathe forth. 

Mec. Now Antony must leave her utterly. 

'Em. Never ; he will not ; 
Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale 
Her infinite variety : Other women cloy 
The appetites they feed ; but she makes hungry 
Wbere most she satisfies. For vilest things 
Become themselves in her ; that the ho'y priests 
Bless her when she is riggish. 

Mec. If beauty, wisdom, modesty, can settle 
Tlie heart of Antony, Octavia is 
A blessed lottery to him. 

Agr. Let us go. — 

Good Enobarbus, make yourself my guest, 
Whilst you abide here. 

Eno. Humbly, sir, I thank you. 

\Exe2mt. 



a TVartiirton proposed to read adorings ; and the contro- 
versy upon the matter is so full ;hat Boswell prints it as a 
sort of supplement at the end of the play. We hold to the 
cdcrninys of the original. 



[SCEKE III. 

SCENE III.— The same. A Room in Censara 
House. 

Enter Cesab, An'tont, Octavia letweett them^ 
Attendants, and a Soothsayer. 

Ant. The world, and my great office, will 
sometimes 
Divide me from your bosom. 

Octa. All which time 

Before the gods my knee shall bow my prayers 
To them for you. 

Ant. Good night, sir. — My Octavia, 

Read not my blemishes in the world's report : 
I have not kept my square ; but that to 

come 
Shall all be done by the rule. Good m'ght, dear 
lady. — Good night, sir. 

des. Good night, 

[Exen7it C^SAE, a}Hl Octavia. 

Ant. Now, sirrah ! you do Avish yourself in 
Egypt ? 

Sooth. 'Would I had never come from thence, 
nor you thither ! 

Ant. If you can, your reason? 

Sooth. I see it in my motion, have it not in 
my tongue : But yet hie you to Egypt again. 

Ant. Say to me. 
Whose fortunes shall rise higher, CsEsar's or 
mine?* 

Sooth. Csesar's. 
Therefore, Antony, stay not by his side : 
Thy daemon (that thy spirit which keeps thee) is 
Noble, coiu'ageous, high, unmatchable, 
"VThere Csesar's is not ; but near him thy angel 
Becomes a Fear, as being o'erpower'd; therefore 
Make space enough between you. 

A7it. Speak this no more. 

Sooth. To none but thee ; no more, but when 
to thee. 
If thou dost play with him at any game. 
Thou art sm-e to lose ; and, of that natural luck, 
He beats thee 'gainst the odds ; thy lustre 

thickens 
Wlien he shines by : I say again, thy spirit 
Is all afraid to govern thee near him ; 
But, he away, 't is noble. 



Ant. 



Get thee ffone ; 



Say to Ventidius I would speak with him : — 

[E.vit Soothsayer. 
He shall to Parthia. — ^Be it ai't, or hap. 
He hath spoken true : The very dice obey liini ; 
Aiid in our sports my better cunning faints 
Under his chance : if we di-aw lots, he speeds ; 
His cocks do win the battle still of mine, 
"When it is all to nought ; and his quails ever 

2S3 



Act II.] 

Beat mine, inlioop'd, at odds. I will to Egyrit : 
And though I make this marriage for my peace, 

i:nter Ventiditjs. 

I' the east my pleasure lies: — 0, come, Ventidius, 
You must to Parthia; your commission's ready : 
Follow me, and receive it. [Exeunt. 

SCENE Vf.—Thc same. A Street. 
Enter Lepidvs, ^Iec.3EKAs, and Agrippa. 

Lep. Trouble yourselves no further: pray 
you, hasten 
Your generals after. 

Jffr. Sir, Mark Antony 

Will e'en but kiss Oetavia, and we'll follow. 

Lep. Till I shall see you in your soldier's dress, 
Which will become you both, farewell. 

]\[(c. We shall, 

As I conceive the journey, be at the Mount" 
Before you, Lepidus. 

Lep. Your way is shorter ; 

Jkly purposes do draw me much about ; 
You '11 win two days upon me. 

Mec, Agr. Sir, good success ! 

Lep. Farewell. \Exevnt. 

SCENE V. — ^Uexaudria. A 'Room in the 
Falace. 

Enter Cleopatka, Chaemiax, Iras, and 
Alexas. 

Cleo. Give me some music; music, moody food 
Of us that trade in love. 

Attend. The music, ho ! 

E7iter Mabdiax. 

Cleo. Let it alone ; let us to billiards : 
Come, Charmian. 

Char. Mv arm is sore, best plav with Mai-dian. 

Cleo. As well a woman ^vith an eunuch play'd 
As with a woman : — Come, you '11 play with me, 
sir? 

Mar. As well as I can, madam. 

Cleo. And wlien good will is show'd, though 't 
come too short. 
The actor may plead pardon. I '11 none now : — 
Giye me mine angle,— we'll to the river: there, 
My music playing far off, I will betray 
Tawny-finn'd '' tishes; my bended hook shall 

pierce 
Their slimy jaws ; and, as I draw them up, 

» At Ihr Mount. This no doubtmcans at Mount Misenum. 
The original has not the article, 
b Tatmgjlnn'il. The original has tawny fine. 

20 i 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SCEKES IV., v. 



I '11 thiidc ihera every one an Antony, 
And say, Ali, ah ! you 're caught. 

Char. 'T was merry when 

You wager'd on your angling ; when your diver 
Did hang a salt-flsh on his hook, which he 
With fervency drew up.* 

Cleo. That time !— O times ! 

I laugh'd him out of patience ; and that night 
I laugh'd him into patience ; and next mora. 
Ere the nintli hour, I drunk him to his bed; 
Theu put my tires and mantles on him, whilst 
I wore his sword Philippan. ! from Italy ; 

Enter a Messenger. 

Ram thou thy fruitful tidings in mine ears, 
That long time have been barren. 

]i[ess. Madam, madam, — 

Cko. Antony 's dead ? — 
If thou say so, villain, thou kill'st thy mistress : 
But well and free. 

If thou so yield him, there is gold, and here 
]\Iy bluest veins to kiss ; a hand that kings 
Have lipp'd, and trembled kissing. 

^ess. First, madam, he 's well 

Cleo. Why, there 's more gold. But, sirrali, 
mark ; we use 
To say the dead are well : bring it to that. 
The gold I give thee will I melt, and pom- 
Do^vn thy ill-uttering throat. 

Mess. Good madam, hear me. 

Cleo. "Well, go to, I will ; 

But there 's no goodness in thy face, if Antony 
Be free and healthful :— so tart a favour 
To trumpet such good tidings ! " If not well, 
Thou shouldst come like a fury crown'd with 

snakes, 
Not like a formal man. 

Mess. Will 't please you hear me ? 

Cleo. I have a mind to strike thee ere thou 
speak' st : 
Yet, if thou say Antony lives, is well. 
Or friends with Csesar, or not captive to him, 
I '11 set thee in a shower of goll, and hail 
Rich pearls upon thee. 

Mess. Madam, he 's weU. 

Cleo. ^Vell said. 

Mess. And friends with Casai-. 

Cleo. Thou 'rt an honest man. 



a How full of characteristic si>iritis thispassaRO, in which 
wo exactly follow the punctuation of the original ! But the 
variorum editors were not »ati«lied witti it. According to 
them, something is wanting butli to the sense and to the 
metre, and so they render 't as follows : 

"Well, go to, I will; 
But there 's no goodness in thy face : if Antony 
Be free, and healthful,— icAy so tart a favour 
To trumpet such good tidings t " 



Act 11.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SC£NE 7, 



Mess. Caesar and he are greater friends than 

ever. 
Cleo. Make thee a fortune from me. 
Mess. But yet, madam, — 

Cleo. I do not like ' but yet/ it does allay 
The good precedence ; fie upon ' but yet : ' 
' But yet ' is as a gaoler to bring forth 
Some monstrous malefactor. Prithee, friend, 
Pour out the pack of matter to miue ear. 
The good and bad together : He 's friends with 

Caesar ; 
In state of health thou sa/st; and thou say'st free. 
Mess. Free, madam ! no ; I made no such 
report : 
He 's bound unto Octavia. 

Cleo. For what good turn ? 

Mess. For the best turn i' the bed. 
Cleo. I am pale, Charmian. 

3Iess. Madam, he 's married to Octavia. 
Cleo. The most infectious pestilence upon 
thee ! [Strikes him down. 

Mess. Good madam, patience. 
Cleo. What say you ? — ^Hence, 

\_Strikes him again. 
Horrible villain ! or I 'U spurn tliine eyes 
Like balls before me ; I 'U unliair thy head ; 

\_She hales him up and down. 
Thou shalt be wliipp'd with wire, and stew'd in 

brine. 
Smarting in Hng'ring pickle. 

Mess. Gracious madam, 

I that do bring the news made not the match. 
Cleo. Say, 't is not so, a province I will give 
thee. 
And make thy fortunes proud : the blow thou 

hadst 
Shall make thy peace for moving me to rage ; 
And I win boot thee with what gift beside 
Thy modesty can beg. 

Mess. He 's married, madam. 

Cleo. Rogue, thou hast liv'd too long. 

[Draws a dagger. 
Mess. Nay, then I 'U rim : — 
What mean you, madam ? I have made no fault. 

[Etit. 
Char. Good madam, keep yourself within 
youi'self ; 
The man is innocent. 

Cleo. Some innocents 'scape not the thunder- 
bolt.— 
Melt Egypt into NOe ! and kindly creature,? 
Turn all to serpents ! — Call the slave again ; 
Though I am mad, I will not bite him : — Call. 
Char. He is afeard to come. 
Cleo. I will not hurt him : — 



These hands do lack nobility, that they sti-ike 

A meaner than myself ; since I myself 

Have given myself the caxise. — Come hither, sir. 

Re-enter Messenger. 

Though it be honest, it is never good 
To bring bad news : Give to a gracious message 
An host of tongues ; but led ill tidings tell 
Themselves, when they be felt. 

Mess. I have done my duty. 

Cleo. Is he married ? 
I cannot hate thee worser than I do 
If thou again say. Yes. 

Mess. He is married, madam. 

Cleo. The gods confound thee ! dost thou 
hold there still ? 

Mess. Should I lie, madam ? 

Cleo. 0, I would thou didst ; 

So half my Egypt were submerg'd, and made 
A cistern for scal'd snakes ! Go, get thee hence : 
Hadst thou Narcissus in thy face, to me 
Thou wouldst appear most ugly. He is married? 

Mess. I crave your highness' pardon. 

Cleo. He is married ? 

Mess. Take no offence that I woidd not offend 
you: 
To punish me for what you make me do 
Seems much unequal : He is married to Octavia. 

Cleo. O, that his faidt should make a knave 
of thee, 
That art not what thou 'rt sure of ! " — Get thee 

hence : 
The merchandise which thou hast brought from 

Rome 
Are aU too dear for me ; lie they upon thy hand, 
And be undone by 'em ! [Exit Messenger. 

Char. Good your highness, patience. 

Cleo. In praisiag Antony, I have disprais'd 
Caesar. 

Char. Many times, madam. 

Cleo. I am paid for 't now. 

Lead me from hence ; 

I faint ; O Iras, Charmian. — 'T is no matter : — 
Go to the fellow, good Alexas ; bid hiai 
Report the feature of Octavia, her years. 
Her inclination ; let him not leave out 
The colour of her hair : — bring me word 
quickly. — [Exit Alexas. 

Let him for ever go : — Let him not — Charmian, 



a Such is the reading of the original. The passage is 
somewhat obscure, but it has been thus explained: — Thou 
art not an honest man, of which thou art thyself assured, 
because thy master's faulthasmadeaknaveof thee. Several 
emendations have been proposed ; and one suggested by 
Monck Mason has been adopted by Steevens: — 

" O, that his fault should make a knave of thee, 
That art not !— What 1 thou 'rt sure of 't f " 

295 



ACT II.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[Scr.sB VI, 



Tliough be be painted one way like a Gorgou, 

The other way 's a Mars :— Bid you Ak-xus 

ITo Makdian. 

Bring me word bow tall she is.— Pity me, 
Chamiian, 

But do not speak to mc.— Lead me to my cham- 
ber, [Exeunt, j 

SCENE Tl.—Near Misenum. 

Enter Pompey and Menas at one side, icith 
drum and trumpet : at another, Cesak, Le- 
piDTJs, Antony, Enobakbus, Mecjenas, 
tcith Soldiers marchinff. 

Pom. Your hostages I have, so have you mine; 
And we shall talk before we fight." 

Q^s, Most meet 

That first we come to words ; and therefore have 

we 
Our written purposes before us sent ; 
"\Yhich, if thou hast consider'd, let us know 
If 't will tie up thy discontented sword ; 
.Vnd carry back to Sicily much tall youth, 
Tliat else must perish here. 

Pom. To you all three. 

The senators alone of this great world, 
Chief factors for the gods,— I do not know 
Wherefore my father should revengers want, 
Having a son, and friends ; since Julius Caesar, 
Wlio at Philippi the good Brutus ghosted, 
There saw you labouring for him. What was it 
That mov'd pale Cassius to conspire ? And whafc 
Made the all-houour'd, honest, Roman Brutus, 
With the arm'd rest, courtiers of beauteous 

freedom. 
To drench the Capitol ; but that they would 
Have one man but a man ? And that is it 
Hath made me rig my navy ; at whose burthen 
The anger'd ocean foams ; with which I meant 
To scourge the ingratitude that despiteful Rome 
Cast on my noble father. 

Cas. Take your time. 

Ant. Thou canst not fear us, Pompey, with 
thy sails. 
We '11 speak with thee at sea : at land, thou 

know'st 
How much we do o'ercount thee. 

Pom. At land, indeed, 

Thou dost o'ercount me of my father's hou.se ; 
But, since the cuckoo builds not for himself, 
Remaui in 't as thou mayst. 

Lep. Be pleas'd to tell us 

(Tor this is from the present) how you take 
The offers we have sent you. 

CiFs. There 's the point. 

296 



Ant. Which do not be entreated to, but weigh 
What it is worth embrac'd. 

Cas. And what may follow, 

To try a laigcr fortune. 

Pom. You have made me offer 

Of Sicily, Sardinia ; and I must 
Rid all the sea of pii-atcs ; then, to send 
Measures of wheat to Rome : This 'greed upon, 
To part with uuhack'd edges, and bear back 
Our targes undinted. 

Cas., Ant., Lep. That 's our offer. 
Po7n. Know then, 

I came before you here, a man prepar'd 
To take this offer : But Mark Antony 
Put mc to some impatience : — Though I lose 
The praise of it by tcUing, you must know, 
When Caesar and your brother were at blows, 
Your mother came to Sicily, and did find 
Her welcome friendly. 

Atit. I have heard it, Pompey ; 

And am well studied for a liberal thanks. 
Which I do owe you. 

Pom. Let me have your hand : 

I did not think, sir, to have met you here. 
Ant. The beds i' the east are soft; and thanks 
to you. 
That call'd me, timelier than my purpose, hither; 
For I have gain'd by it. 

Cas. Since I saw you last. 

There is a change upon you. 

Pom. Well, I know not 

What counts harsh Fortune casts upon my face; 
But in my bosom shall she never come, 
To make my heart her vassal. 

Lep. Well met here. 

Pom. 1 hope so, Lepidus. — Thus we are 
agreed ; 
I crave our composition may be written. 
And seal'd between us. 

Cas. That 's the next to do. 

Pom, We '11 feast each other ere we part ; 
and let us 
Draw lots who shall begin. 
Ant. That will T, Pompey. 

Pom. No, Antony, take the lot : but, first 
Or last, your fine Egyptian cookery 
Shall have the fame. I have heard that Julius 

Caesar 
Grew fat with feasting there. 
Ant. You have heard much. 

Pom. I have fair meanings, sir. 
Ant. And fair words to them. 

Pom. Then so much have I heard : — 
And I have heard, Apollodorus carried^ 
Eno. No more of that : — He did so. 



iCT II.] 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[SCENS VII. 



Pom. What, I pray you ? 

lEno. A certain queen to Cassar in a mattress. 
Pom. I know thee now : How far'st thou, 

soldier ? 
Uno. Well; 

And well am like to do ; for I perceive 
Four feasts are toward. 

Poyn. Let me shake thy hand ; 

I never hated thee : I have seen thee fight, 
Wien I have envied tliy behaviour. 

Eno. Sir, 

I never lov'd you much ; but I have prais'd you, 
When you have well deserv'd ten times as much 
As I have said you did. 

Pom. Enjoy thy plainness, 

It nothing iU becomes thee. — 
Aooard my gaUey I invite you all : 
Will you lead, lords ? 

Cas., Ant., Lep. Show us the way, sir, 

Pom. Come. 

[Exeunt Pompey, C.es.vh, Antony, Lepi- 
Dus, Soldiers, and Attendants. 

3Ien. Thy father, Pompey, would ne 'er have 
made this treaty. — [Aside.'] — You and I have 
known, sii*. 

Pno. At sea, I think. 

Men. We have, sir. 

P/io. You have done well by water. 

Men. And you by land.. 

Pno. I will praise any man that will praise 
me; though it cannot be denied what I have 
done by land. 

Men. Nor what I have done by water. 

Pno. Yes, something you can deny for your 
own safety ; you have been a great thief by sea. 

Men. And you by land. 

Pno. There I deny my land service. But 
give me your hand, Menas : if owe eyes had 
authority, here they might take two thieves 
kissing. 

Men. All men's faces are true, whatsoe'er 
then- hands are. 

Pno. But there is never a fair woman has a 
true face. 

3Ien. No slander; they steal hearts. 

Pno. We came hither to fight with you. 

Men. Por my part, I am soiTy it is turned to 
a drinking. Pompey doth this day laugh away 
his fortune. 

Pno. If he do, sure he canuot weep it back 
again. 

3fen. You have said, sii-. We looked not for 
Mark Antouy here. Pray you, is he married 
to Cleopatra ? 

Pno. Caesar's sister is caU'd Octavia. 



Men. TiTie, sir ; she was the wife of Caius 
Marcellus. 

Pno. But she is now the wife of Marcus 
Antonius. 

Men. Pray you, sir ? 

Pno. 'T is true. 

Men. Then is Caesar and he for ever knit 
together. 

Pno. If I were bound to divine of this unity, 
I would not prophesy so. 

3fen. I think the policy of that purpose made 
more in the marriage than the love of the parties. 

Pno. 1 think so too. But you shall find the 
band that seems to tie their friendship together 
will be the very strangler of their amity : Octa- 
via is of a holy, cold, and stiU conversation. 

Men. Who would not have his wife so ? 

Pno. Not he, that himself is not so ; whicli 
is Mark Antony. He wiU to his Egyptian 
dish again : then shall the sighs of Octavia 
blow the fu'e up in Caesar; and, as I said be- 
fore, that which is the strength of their amity 
shall prove the immediate author of their vari- 
ance. Antony will use his affection where it 
is ; he married but his occasion here. 

Men. And thus it may be. Come, sii-, wiU 
you aboard ? I have a health for you. 

Pno. I shall take it, sir ; we have used our 
throats in Egypt. 

Men. Come ; let 's away. [P.reunf. 

SCENE YU.—On board Pompey's Galley, 
lying near Misenum. 

Music. Pnter Two or Three Servants, tcilh 
a banquet. 

1 Serv. Here they '11 be, man : Some o' then 
plants are Hi-rooted already, the least wind 
i' the world will blow them down. 

2 Serv. Lepidus is high-coloui-ed. 

1 Serv. They have made him drink alms- 
driuk. 

2 Sen-. As they pinch one another by the 
disposition, he cries out ' no more ; ' reconciles 
them to his entreaty, and himself to the drink. 

1 Serv. But it raises the greater war between 
him and his discretion. 

2 Serv. Why this it is to have a name in great 
men's fellowship : I had as lief have a reed that 
wUl do me no service, as a partizan I could not 
heave. 

1 Serv. To be called into a huge sphere, and 
not to be seen to move in 't, are the holes 
where eyes should be, which pitifully disaster 

the cheeks. 

297 



Aci n. 



ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 



[bCENK Vll. 



J tenet sounded. Enter Ces.ui, Antony, Pom- 
pet, LzriDUs, Agrhta, Mec^nas, Enobar- 

BUS, Menas, Kith other captains. 

Jut. Thus do they, sir : [To Cjesab.] ITicy 
take the flow o' the Nile 
By certain scales i' the pyramid; ' they know. 
By the height, the lowness, or the mean, if dearth 
Or foison follow : The higher Nilus swells. 
The raore it promises : as it ebbs, the seedsman 
Upon the slime and ooze scatters his grain, 
.fViid shortly comes to hancst. 

Leji. You have stnuige serpents there. 

Jut. Ay, Lepidus. 

Lep. Your serpent of Egypt is bred now of 
your mud by the operation of your sun: so is 
your crocodile. 

Ant. They are so. 

Pom. Sit, — and some wine. A health to 
Lepidus. 

Lep. I am not so well as I should be, but 
I '11 ne'er out. 

Eno. Not Hll you have slept; I fear me 
you '11 be in till then. 

Lep. Nay, certainly, I have heard the Ptole- 
mies' pyramises are very goodly things ; without 
contradiction, I have heard that. 

Men. Pompey, a word. [Jside. 

Pom. Say in mine eai- : what is 't ? 

Men. Forsake thy seat, I do beseech thee, 
captain, [Aside. 

And hear me speak a word. 

Pom. Forbear me till anon. — 

This wine for Lepidus. 

Lep. What manner o' thing is youi- crocodile? 

Jnt. It is shaped, sir, like itself; and it is as 
broad as it hath breadth : it is jiist so high as it 
is, and moves with its own organs : it lives bv 
that which nourisheth it : and the elements 
once out of it, it transmigrates. 

Tjep. What colour is it of ? 

Ant. Of its own colour too. 

Lep. 'T is a strange serpent. 

Jnt. 'T is so. And the tears of it are wet. 

C(es. Will tliis description satisfy him ? 

Ant. With the health that Pompey gives him ; 
else he is a very epicure. 

Pom. [To Menas aside.] Go hang, sir, 
hang ! Tell me of that ? away ! 
Do as I bid yon.— 'Where 's this cup I call'd for? 

Men. If for the sake of merit thou wilt hear me. 
Rise from t