Skip to main content

Full text of "The pictorial museum of animated nature .."

See other formats

Util IH-ij 






Pillar ia^l Jli|«$«g#ititi 











-Thk Royai. TiGKB ,— a coloured facsimile from an original drawing by T. Landsbeb. 

Dereriplioni. P»ge«- 

FelidsB (cat-tribe) . . ^~ }^ 

Marsupialia . . . • ^^— -■^ 

Quadrumana ... 20 — 

Orangs 26-30 

Gibbons 3*^— ^^ 

Monkeys . . . • 33 39 

American monkeys . 39 — 46 

Lemurs 46— 51 

Quadrumana fossil . . 51 

Rodentia .... 54 • 

Squirrels .... 54— 55 

Dormice .... 55— 58 

.Jerboas 58— 59 

Mice ...... 59-66 

Beaver 66 — 

Musquash .... 66 

Burrowing rats . . . 67 — 70 

Utia IP ~ 

Coypu *^ 

Porcupines .... 70 • 

Chinchillas .... 71— 74 

Pacas 74 

Agoutis 74— 78 

Leporidae (Hares) . . 78 — 

Pachydermata ... 79 

Elephant .... 79— 86 

Mastodon .... 87 — 

Hippopotamus . . . 87 — 90 

Rhinoceros .... 90 — 91 
Daman or Hyrax . . 91— 94 

Tapirs 94 

Hogs 95-101 

Hc^es 102-110 





111— 129 
130— 137 
138— 109 
170— 192 
193— 218 

219— 231 
232— 236 
237— 251 
252— 268 
269— 270 

271— - 

272— 284 
285— 286 
287— 288 
289— 294 
295— 302 I 
303— 300 
307— 315 
316— 3-20 

321— 3C7 
368— 370 
371— 374 
375— 390 
391— 395 
396— 403 
404— 442 
443— 481 



110 — 


111 — 




115 — 



Adapis .... 
Ruminantia . 

Camels 115-120 

Llamas 121-123 

Giraffe 123-126 

Musk deer .... 127 — 

Cervidse 129 — 

Deer 130-138 

Antelopes .... 139-147 

Goats 147-150 

Sheep 150—155 

Oxen 155-170 

I Edentata 

Sloths . . • • 
', Mylodon . . • 
1; Scelidotherium . . 
ij Megatherium . . 
!( Armadilloes . . 
|! Anteaters . . . 
'■'' Manis .... 
!l Ursidae, or Bears . 
\\ Racoon .... 

Panda 191 


Kinkajou . . • 
CanidiB . . . • 




175 — 



178 — 






190 — 

191 — 
191 — 

194 — 

Jackal 206 — 




511— 546 

547— 550 

557— 560 

. 567— 577 

578— 619 
020— 659 
060— 071 
672— 685 
686— 740 
741— 767 

768— 773 
774- 778 
779— 783 
784— 789 
790— 804 
806— 812 
813- 822 
823— 850 
851- 852 
853— a54 

856— — 

857— 859 

860— 900 
901— 915 
916— 919 



Cape Hunting Dog 
Hyaenas . . . . 
Civets . . . . 
Weasels . . . . 






Insectivora . . . . 



Hedgehog . . . . 


Gymnure . . . . 

Banxring . . . ■ 

Pachydermata, aquatic 

Dugong .... 

Manatee .... 

Zeuglodon . 

Cetacea (Whales) . 



Whales, proper . . 

Quadrumana, additions 

Uisidse, additions to 

Vivenidae, additions to 
Rodentia, additions to 
Cats, tails of . . 


209—21 1 
211 — 

218 — 

219 — 
231 — 
235 — 
235 — 
238 — 
238 — 
238 • — 
238 — 

238 — 

239 — 

to 246 — 

246 — 

247 - 
247 — 
247 — 


920— 926 
927 — 
928— 938 
939— 940 
947 — 
948— 958 
959— 967 
968— 970 
971- 974 
975— 983 





1067 — 



1081 — 

1082 — 

1083 — 
1113 — 


Birds (Aves) . . . 249—254 

Raptores 2i}5 

Falconidae .... 255 — 

Eagles 256-200 

Falcons 260-270 

Hawks 270-271 

Kites 271-273 

Buzzards .... 274-275 

Vultures 275-280 

Owls 281-284 

Caprimulgidae (Nightjars^ 985—290 

or Goatsuckers) . I ~ 
Hinindinidae (Swallow) 290—295 
Todidffi (Todies) . . 295 — 
Halcyonidae (Kingfishers) 295—298 
Meropidae (Bee-eaters) 299 — 
Tro?onidae (Trogons) . 299—302 
Muscicapidae (Fly-l _ 3Q3 

catchers) . / 
Laniadae (Shrikes) . . 303—306 
Coracinida; (Fruit-crows) 300 — 
Ampelidae (Chatterers) 306—310 








Pipridae (Cotingas and| ^jq _ 

Manakins) . . . i 

Paridae (Tits) . . • 310—314 

Sylviadoe (Warblers) . 314—322 

Merulidac (Thrushes) . 322—327 

Menuridae (Lyre-bird) . 327—330 

Fringillidffi (Finches) . 330-339 

Sturnidae (Starlings) . 339—342 

Buphagidae (Pique-) 3^2 — 

Boeufs) . . / • 

Coividae (Crows) . . 342-346 

Paradiseidae (Birds of| _ 346—360 

Paradise) . . / ' 
Phytotomidae (Plant- \ grjQ 

cutters) . . / ' 

Coliadae (Colies) . . 350 — 

Musophagidae (Plantain | ^^q 

eateis)' .... J 

Buceridse (Ilornbills) . 350—351 

Upupidae (Hoopoes) . 351—352 

Scansores .... 354 — 

Ramphastidaj (Toucans) 354—358 

Cuculidae (Cuckoos) . 358-362 














-1578 ' 


Psittacidae (Parrots) . 
Certhiada; (Creepers) . 
Picida; (Woodpeckers) 
Tiochilidae (Humming-'l 
birds) . . . . / 
Cinnyridae (Sun-birds) . 
Nectariniadae (Honey- 1 
suckers) . . . / 
eaters) . 
ropes) . 
Wood-swallows . . . 


Goldcrest . . . • 
Wood-wren . . . • 
Gyratores . . . • 
Columbidse (Pigeons) . 


Phasionidae (Fowls andl 
Pheasants) . . . i 
Tetraonidoe (Grouse) 



379 — 

379 — 


379 — 


382 — 

382 — 

383 — 
383 — 
390 — 






1680 — 




1691 — 

1692 — 


1718— 1754 

No. 1. 


Wb enter nithiii tlie doon of our Pictorial Museum, 
and our eye i* at once arrested by a <roup of fierce 
yet beautit\il animals, amon< which standi) one pro- 
minent in stem grandeur and majestic bearing, — 
we cannot miiitake him.— the hon, king of beasts. 

The group which encircles tliis noble beast, 
and of whicli he is the most prominent example, is 
termed the Feline. (Felidw.) It includes the tiger, 
the leo|>aitl, the Ivnx, the cat, and many others. — In (his family group, which scarcely 
admits of any generic subdivisions, are compre- 
hended the roost sanguinary, the most formidable, 
and the most typical of the order Camirora. Tliat 
b to say, in these animals the organs of destruction 
exhibit the highest degree of development. Among 
quadrupeds they are what the eagles and falcons 
are amun:; birds. 

Essentially carnivorous, still, unlike the dog which 
relishes carrion, they reject putrescent flesh, and 
consequently are more expressly endowed and litted 
for the work of wholesale slausrhtcr. Their instincts 
and powers are, in fact, in ndmimblc accordance. 
Their frame is vigorous, but agile, — ^thcir limbs are 
short, the joints well-knit, but supple, and every 
motion is easy, free, and graceful. They leap and 
bound with astonishing velocity. Their footfall is 
silent, the feet being provided with elastic pads, 
namely, a large basal ball or cushion, and one under 
each toe (see fig. 5). The claws are of enormous 
siie, hooked, and sharp, and when not in use com- 
pletely retracted withm a sheath, so as not to be 
visible. These, indeed, and the teeth, are the in- 
struments of their destructive enerery. 

The dentition of the Kclidae is very characteristic. 
The incisors are very small, six above and six below. 
The canitu-s are of enormous size and strength ; the 
false molars are sharp and compressed ; above there 
are two on each side, — ^the first small, the second 
lonij and conical. This is followed by the laniary 
molar (csimassiere), which is bicuspid with an inner 
blunt tubercle ; behind the laniary is a very minute 
tuberculous molar, but this is wanting in the lower 
jaw, and the laniary is bicuspid. 

Dental formula.— (See figures 10, 11, 12.) 

Incisors _, canines 

1—1 , 4—4 

, molars 

The shortness of the muzzle and the boldness of 
the occipital ridge give an appearance to the skulls 
of the Felida; as if they were drawn out backwards ; 
the forehead has no sudden rise, but is continued 
from the nasal bones to the occiput, in a gradual 
arch. The union of the interparietal and occipital 
ridges forms a beetling promontory (to which is at- 
tached the ligamentum nuchac), overhanging the 
occipital bone, which has a perpendicular, and even 
inwardly inclined, direction ; so that the back of the 
skull appears abruptly tnincate. The orbits are 
large, of a somewhat oval form, and obliquely situ- 
ated. The outer ring is incomplete, excepting, as 
far as we ourselves have examined, in one species, 
the Felis jilaniceps of Sumatra, in v»'hich, as in the 
ichneumons, it is a fair circular ring ; indeed, the 
skull of this species (of which we have only seen a 
single specimen) we considered as approaching_in 
its contour to that of some of the viverrae. The 
tympanic bulla, enclosing the internal organs of 
heanne, is largely developed. In ihe Felis plani- 
cept it is of peculiar magnitude. 

The bold ridges, and the strenirth and form of the 
zygomatic arches, indicate the immense volume and 
stress of the muscles destined to act upon the lower 
jaw. The articulatine condyles are not raised above 
the straight horizontal line carried along the sides of 
the lower jaw ; they are cylindrical, .ind firmly 
locked in the transversely elongated glenoid ca- 
vities, the margins of which are so elevated before 
and behind as to render any but a simple hinge-l'.ke 
motion impossible. This scissor-like action of the 
lower jaw is in accordance with the trenchant cha- 
racter of the molar teeth, the mutual action of which 
on each other resembles that of the blades of a pair 
of shears. (See figures 2, 3, 4.") 

The skulls of the FeliiUp exhibit a general same- 
ness of contour; the principal difference being that 
of size, according to the species. The ocelot has, 
perhaps, the most rounded skull, while that of the 
Feli» planicejtt is flattened between the orbits and 
narrow. Those of the lion and tiger are very simi- 
lar, and not easy to be discriminated from each 
other. Tliere is greater straightness in the longi- 
tudinal outline of the upper suri'ace in that of the 
lion ; greater flatness of the space between the 
orhits; and the infra-orbitai foramina aro lanrer and 

often double. Tlie following character, first noticed 
by Professor Owen, appears to be an unfailing cri- 
terion. In the tiger, the nasal processes of the 
maxillary bones nevei extend upwards as far as the 
union of'^the nasal bones with the frontal, failing by 
the third of nti inch ; while in the lion, the nasal 
processes ot the maxillary bones always attain the 
line of union between the nasal and frontal bones, 
and sometimes even pa:ss beyond it. 

In the limbs of the FelidiP we behold the finest 
display of muscular development which can be con- 
ceived. The dissected arm 'of a lion or tiger is a 
subject v\'orthy the study of an artist. Hence to down their prey is an easy task. It has been 
said that the Bengal tiger has been known to frac- 
ture the skull of a man with one stj^ke of its heavy 
paw. We may ea-sily conceive the force of the 
muscles destined to act on the claws or talons to 
which we have already .alluded. There are five toes 
on the anterior, and four on the posterior extremi- 
ties ; and these are armed with the formidable 
weapons in question. By a beautiful structural 
conformation of the bones, ligaments, and muscular 
parts, they are always preserved without effort from 
coming in contact with the ground, and are retracted 
within a sheath, so as to be kept sharp and ready 
for service. 

This involuntary retraction, counteracted only by 
the action of muscles, is effected by two elastic 
ligaments so contrived as to roll back the ultimate 
phalanx which the claw encases, and bring it down 
by the outer side of the penultimate phalanx, which 
is flattened off to remove every obstruction. From 
this position the talon can be thrown forward in a 
moment, the action of the double elastic spring 
being counteracted by that of the flexor muscles. 
In the act of striking with great violence, the flexor 
muscles strongly contract, brace up the tendon, and 
throw out the talon, which, when the act is over, 
returns to its sheath. An analogous arrangement 
exists in the claws of the sloth. Its hooks, as they 
may be termed, are governed by an elastic liga- 
ment, but its tendency, contrary to what we see in 
the cat tribe, is to press them towards the palm, in 
order to enable the animal to cling without fatigue 
to the branches from which it suspends itself. In 
figure 7, which is a toe from the left foot of a young 
lion represented in a state of extension, a points to 
the two elastic ligaments ; b the tendon of the ex- 
tensor muscle ; c a slip of inelastic tendon ; d the 
tendon of the flexor muscle, which passes over the 
upper extremity of the last phalanx at e, as over a 
pulley, and thus assists the powerful action of that 

In figure 6, a toe from the hind foot, the two 
elastic ligaments (a) converge to be inserted into 
the upper angle of the last phalanx, and draw it 
backwards upon, instead of by the side of, the 
penultimate phalanx, c is a slip of the lateral in- 
elastic tendon, and d the tendon of the flexor pro- 
fundus, which is strongly strapped down by an 
annular ligament e. 

Figures 8 and 9 are also illustrative of the me- 
chanism described. 

Figure 9 a and b, the extremities of the two bones 
of the fore-arm ; c c the carpal or wrist bones ; d d 
the metacarpal bones ; e e the firet row of phalangal 
bones ; // the second row of phalangal bones ; g g 
the last row encased with the claws. 

Figure 8, a, second phalanx of a toe ; b the last 
phalangal bone ; c, an elastic ligament. 

The general skeleton of the FelidsE, as exemplified 
by that of the lion (figure 1), will claim a moment's 

The back and loins are long ; the vertebrse of the 
neck are remarkably large and solid, the first or 
atlas havinsf its lateral processes flat and expanded : 
the spinous processes of the dorsal vertebrae are 
long, with the exception of the last two or throe ; 
the transvei-se processes of the lumbar vertebra; are 
large ; the spinous processes are broad but rather 
short, and inclined gently forwards, but become, as 
they advance to those of the dorsal veriebiw, more 
upright, while, on the other hand, those of the dor- 
sal in descending lose their obliquity ; the chest is 
deep; the scapula is broad, with a high strong 
spine ; the clavicle is small, and merely imbedded 
in the muscles of the shoulder; the humerus is 
short and stout ; it is remarkable for a hiffh lidce or 
crest, which rises above the outer condvie of its 
lower articulation. Above the inner condyle there 
is an orifice for the pa.ssage of the artery, which 
does not nm round the bone, but, as it were, pierces 

it in a direct course onwards. This orifice is found 
not only in all the Felidae, but in some of the Ameri- 
can monkeys, m the seals, the badgers, the coatis, 
the racoons, the mustelse, the civets, the ichneu- 
mons, and othei-s, but not in the dog, the hyaena, or 
the bear. 

With respect to the perfection of the senses in 
the Felidie. a few words may be neces,sary. 

Siglil. — The sense of sight is very acute, and 
adapted not only for diurnal, but also for nocturnal 
vision. The eyes are placed obliquely, and t;lare 
in the dark, owing to the hrilliancy of the tapctum 
lucidum, a concave mirror at the bottom of the eye. 

This glare is visible even during the day, espe- 
cially when the animals are eni-aged, for the pupil 
dilates under excitement. In the smaller cats the 
pupil is vertically linear when contracted, but in 
the larger, as the lion, tiger, leopaixl, cheetah, ja- 
guar, &c., it is circular. 

Hniritig. — The sense of hearing is exquisite, and 
the auditory apparatus is accordingly developed. 
We h^ve already noticed the magnitude of the 
tympanic bulla. 

Smell. — ^This sense is also in great perfection, 
and the olfactory apparatus is complicated, and 
abundantly supplied with nerves. Ttie Felidae are, 
however, less distinguished for the sense of smel! 
than the canine race. 

Taste. — The sense of taste is not veiy refined. 
The tongue is rough. The roughness of the tongue 
of the common cat is familiar to every one, as well 
as the action of lions and tigers in licking the bones 
of their prey in order to scrape off the adherent par- 
ticles of flesh. This is effected by numerous homy 
Eapillae, differently arranged in difl'erent species, 
ut always with the points directed backwards. 
Figure 15 shows these papillae on the lion's tongue ; 
and figure 14, a magnified view of them on a small 

Feeling. — The long bristles called whiskers on 
each side of a cat's mouth are familiar to all : these 
are important organs of touch. They are attached 
to a bed of close glands under the skin, and each is 
connected with a nerve. Hence they communicate 
to the animal an impression from the slightest touch. 
If we imagine a lion or tiger stealing through 
a jungle during the darkness of night, we shall be 
able to account for the use of these whiskers. They 
indicate to him, through the nicest feeling, any ob- 
stacle which may present itself in his progress ; 
they prevent him from rustling the leaves or boughs, 
and alarming his prey ; and they thus, in conjunc- 
tion with the soft springy pads of his feet, which 
render his steps noiseless, enable him to steal upon 
his unsuspecting victim, and make his fatal bound. 

16—26. THE LION. 

Aiwv (I^on) of the Greeks (Aeaiva (Leana) lioness) ; 
Leo of the Latins {Lea and Letena, lionessl ; Leone 
of the Italians {Leonessa, lioness) ; Leo7i, Spanish ; 
Lion, French (Lionne, lioness; Linceaii, cub); 
Loire, German (Lowinn, lioness) ; Felis Leo, Linn. 
Male, as a general mie, ornamented with a mane, 
of which the femalais destitute. 

The stern dignity of the lion, his enormous 
strength, his glowing eyes, his deep roar, and his 
destractive powers, all combine to render this terror 
of the desert one of the most attractive objects of a 
menagerie. The lion is now limited to Africa and 
certain parts of Asia ; but formerly it was more ex- 
tensively spread, the eastern line of Europe being 
within its boundaries. Herodotus informs us that 
the camels which carried the baggage of the army 
of Xerxes were attacked by them in the district of 
the Paeonians and Crestonaei, on their march from 
Acanthus to Therme (afterwards Thessaloniiv, now 
Saloniki) : he adds also that these animals were 
numerous in the mountains between the rivers 
Nestus, in Thrace, and the Achelous, which flows 
through Acarnania. Aristotle gives the same local- 
ity as the abode of lions, and the same fact is re- 
peated by Pliny, who says, ' Longe viridibus prmstan- 
tiores iis quos Africa aut Lybia gignunt,' — 'They far 
exceed in strength those produced in Africa or 
Lybia.' Pausanias, alluding: to the disastei-s which 
befel the baargage-camels of Xerxes, states that the 
lions often descended to the plain at the foot of 
Olympus, between Macedonia and Thessaly. 

Lions were common in Syria, as we gather from 
numerous passages in the sacred reconls. Oppian 
states that Armenia and Parthia produced a formida- 
ble breed. At present the lion is confined to the inte- 



rior wilds ol' Africa, to some of the districts of Arabia 
and Persia, to the country bordering the Euphrates, 
and to some parts of India. We hesitate not to say 
that thronsrhout tlie whole of this range the lions 
are speciiieally identical, although different breeds 
may be distinguished. Of the African lions the 
Barbary breed is characterised by having a deep 
yellowish-brown fur, and the mane of the male is 
much developed (Fig. 17). 

The Senegal lion has the fur of a more yellow 
tint, the mane is less full, and nearly wanting upon 
the breast and insides of the fore-legs. 

The Cape lion presents two varieties, one yel- 
lowish, the other brown, the mane of the latter 
often deepening almost to black. Tlie dai'k lion is 
said to be the most ferocious (Fig. 22). 

Of the Asiatic breeds the Bengal lion has the 
mane inairniticently developed, the colour of the 
fur of a dark yellowish-brown (Fig. 18). It attains 
to a very large size. The Persian or Arabian lion 
is said to be characterised by the pale Isabella 
colour of the fur (Fig. 19). 

Within the last few years a maneless, or nearly 
maneless, breed has been discovered in Giizerat. 
Pliny alludes to a maneless lion which he regarded 
as a hybrid occurring in Africa. 

It is to Captain Smee that we owe our knowledge 
of the maneless lion. On his return- from Guzerat 
to England he brought several skins of such lions 
which he himself had shot : some of these he pre- 
sented to the Zoological Society of London, and 
communicated an interesting paper to the ' Zoologi- 
cal Transactions' on the subject. The maneless 
lion of Guzerat differs from its Bengal, Persian, and 
African relatives, not only in the absence of a full 
mane, but also in being rather lower on the limbs, 
and in having a somewhat shorter tail, furnished at 
its tip with a larger brush. The colour is pale ful- 
vous. A male killed by Captain Smee measured, 
mcluding the tail, eight feet nine and a half inches ; 
his weight, exclusive of the internal viscera, was 
thirty-five stone (fourteen pounds to the stone) ; his 
height three feet six inches ; and the impression of 
his paw on the sand measured six and a half inches 
across (Fig. 20). 

It is along the banks of the Sorabermuttee, near 
Ahmedabad, according to Captain Smee, that this 
variety of the lion is found : it occurs also on the 
Rhun, near Rhunpor, and near Puttun in Guzerat. 
'During the hot months they inhabit the low brushy 
wooded plains that skirt the Bhardar and Soniber- 
muttee rivere from Ahmedabad to the borders of 
Cutch, being driven out of the large adjoining tracts 
of high jungle called Bheers, by the practice annu- 
ally resorted to by the natives, of setting tire to the 
grass in order to clear it and ensure a succession of 
young shoots for the cattle upon the firet fall of the 
rains.' So numerous are they that Captain Smee 
killed in one district eleven in the couree of a month. 
They make terrible havoc among the cattle, and 
when attacked exhibit great boldness. The native 
name for this lion is Ontiah Bang, or camel-tiger, 
an appellation from the resemblance in colour to 
the camel. 

The habits and manners of the lion have been 
detailed by various travellers, and no one can doubt 
its strength, its daring, and ferocity. Near the pre- 
cincts of colonization in southern Africa and else- 
where, where firearms are in use, it has learned 
by experience their fatal effects, and gained a con- 
sciousness that its powers avail but little against 
such weapons of destruction. 

The king of the forest is a term misapplied to this 
noble beast ; I'orests are not his haunts, but burning 
desert plains and wide karroos covered only with 
shnibby vegetation, or interspersed with tracts of 
low brushwood. In India it frequents the jungles 
and the luxuriant borders of rivei-s, among which it 
makes its lair. 

During the day the lion usually slumbers in his 
retreat : as nisht sets in he rouses from his lair and 
begins \\n prowl. The nocturnal tempests of rain 
and lightning, which in southern Africa are of 
common occuiTence, are to him seasons of joy : his 
voice mingles with the roar of the thunder, and 
adds to the confusion and terror of the timid beasts 
upon which he preys, and upon which he now ad- 
vances with less caution and a bolder step. In 
general, however, he waits in ambush or creeps 
insidiou.sly towards his victim, which with a bound 
and a roar he dashes to the earth. 

Of the strength of the lion we have most extra- 
ordinary examples on record. To carry off a man — 
and this has but too often happened — is a feat of 
no difficulty to this powerful biute. Indeed when 
we find that a Cape lion seized a heifer in his 
mouth, and, though the l-egs dragged upon the 
ground, carried her off with apparently the same 
ease as a cat docs a rat. leaping a broad dyke with 
her without the least difficulty— that another, and 
a young one too, conveyed a horse about a mile 
from the spot where he had killed it — that a third, 
which had carried off a two-year-old heifer, was fol- 

lowed on the track for five hours by horsemen, who 
observed that throughout the whole distance the 
cai'case of the heifer had only once or twice touched 
the ground, — we may conceive that a man would 
be an insignificant burden. Such a powerful ani- 
mal, however, we must not expect to see in the 
confined dens of a menagerie : there their limbs 
become cramped, their muscular system unde- 
veloped, their bones often distorted, and their daring 
and feiocity subdued. Such a shadow of a lion the 
figure 26 exhibits, taken from an individual three 
years old, which had been pent up in a wretched 

The Indian lion displays the same courage as its 
African relative. Instead of retreating on the 
hunters' approach, he stands his ground or rushes to 
meet them open mouthed on the plain. Lions are 
thus easily shot ; but if they be missed or only 
slightly wounded, they prove very formidable. They 
will spring on the heads of the largest elephants, 
and have, it is asserted, often pulled them to the 
earth, ridere and all. 

In the defence of her cubs the lioness is resolute 
in the extreme, and is doubly savage during the 
time they remain under her care. Her mate parti- 
cipates in her feelings. The lioness goes with young 
five months, and generally produces from two to 
four young at a birth. They are born blind. For 
several months their fur is obscurely striped or 
brindled, the markings reminding us of those of the 
tiger : these stripes branch off from a blackish line 
running down the middle of the back. Their voice 
is a cat-like mew. Gradually the uniform colour is 
assumed, and at about the end of twelve months 
the mane begins to appear : this increases, and the 
voice deepens info a roar. 

The lion attains to maturity about the fifth year : 
its term of lii'e is of considerable extent. Pompey, 
which died in the tower in 1760, had been there for 
seventy yeare, and one from the Gambia died there 
at the age of sixty-three. Figure 16 is a fine repre- 
sentation of a time-worn lion stretched out in the 
act of expiring. Imagination pictures such a one 
in the solitary desert : age has overtaken him, his 
eye is dim, his tbrce abated, he fails in his once 
fatal spring ; gaunt, and lean, and feeble, he drags 
his weary limbs to the old haunt, — the haunt from 
which he once went forth in the pride of his 
strength, when his voice scattered terror through 
the desert, — there at length to die. Better had he 
fallen by the hunter's javelin when ' his limbs were 
strong and his courage high ' than thus drain to the 
dregs a miserable existence. 

It has long been a popular belief that the lion 
lashes himself with his tail to stimulate himself info 
a rage ; and though such a use for it is out of the 
question, a sort of claw or prickle has been detected 
at the termination of that organ. Mr. Benneft 
detected it in the tip of the tail of a young Bavbaiy 
lion. Blumenbach had previously ascertained the 
fact of its existence in a specimen examined by 
himself in 1829. M. Deshayes announced the ex- 
istence of this prickle in a lion and lioness which 
died in Paris menagerie. Mr. Woods detected it 
only once out of numerous lions which he purposely 
examined ; he also found a similar prickle on the 
tip of the tail of an Asiatic leopard. 

This prickle is in fact only occasionally present ; 
it is not connected' with the caudal vertebrae, but, 
as Mr. Wood states, appears to be inserted into the 
skin like the bulb of a bristle ; but M. Deshayes 
asserts that it is of a conical shape, and adheres 
to the skin by its base; as does also Blumenbach. 
(See fig. 13.) We are much inclined to think it 
nothing more than an indurated and partially de- 
tached cuticle ; certainly it falls off with the 
slightest touch. 

Hybrids between the lion and tigress (fig. 27) 
have occurred in our country. One litter was pro- 
duced in 1827 in Afkin's menagerie, and another 
litter subsequently from similar parents was pro- 
duced at Windsor. In both the hybrids died 
before arriving at maturity. Their colour was 
brighter than that of true lion-cuhs and the bands 
more defined and darker. 

Excepting in the vast wilds of Central Africa, un- 
trodden by the foot of the white man, the lion, even 
in the regions to which it is at present restricted, is 
much more rare than formerly. The ancient Ro- 
mans procured incredible multitudes for the arena : 
Scylla brought a hundred mules at once into the 
combat : Pompey gave six himdred, of which more 
thanhalf were males ; CiPsar four hundred ; norwasit 
until the time of the later emperors that any diffi- 
culty in procuring them began to be experienced. ' 

There are few travellers in Africa who have not 
been under the necessity of encountering this formid- 
able beast. And many are the exciting narratives 
which have been related, of the incidents of the 
chase — of escape from almost ceitain death— of 
triumph over the foe. 

The bushmen of Southern Africa, according to 
Dr. Philip, are in the habit of insidiously attacking 

the slumbering lion with their poisoned arrows. 
They have remarked that he generally kills and 
devours his prey in the morning at sunrise or in the 
evening at sunset ; and that he sleeps during the 
heat of the day so profoundly as with difficulty to 
be awakened ; and that when roused he seems to 
lose all presence of mind. Marking the spot where 
a lion is supposed to have taken up his quarters for 
sleep, they cautiously advance, and silently lodge a 
poisoned arrow in his breast. The lion, thus struck, 
springs from his lair, and hounds off; but the work 
is done, and the bushmen follow his tract, knowing 
that in a few hours, or less, he will expire. 

28.— THE TIGER. 
Tiypic {Tigris) of the Greeks ; Tigris of the Latins. 
Tigre Royal, Buffon's Nat. Hist.; Felis Tigris, 

The Royal Tiger, as it is often called to distin- 
guish it from the smaller tiger-cats, is far more 
limited in its range than the lion. It is exclusively 
Asiatic. Hindostan may be considered as its head- 
quarters, but it is common in the largei- islands, as 
Sumatra, where it is a fearful scourge. It is said to 
occur in the south of China, and also in the deserts 
which separate China from Siberia, and !us far as the 
banks of the Oby. It is found in Tonquin and 
Siara. The ancients regarded India and Hyrcania 
as nurseries of the tiger. Hyrcania was a province 
of the ancient Persian empire at the south-eastern 
corner of the Caspian Sea ; but its boundaries are 
not very determinate. Whether the tiger still in- 
habits this district is not very clear, there is no rea- 
son however to doubt the concurrent testimonies o( 
the ancient writers. 

The tiger is equal in size to the lion, but of a 
more elongated ibrm, and pre-eminently graceful. 
The head also is shorter and more rounded. Occa- 
sionally individuals occur exceeding anv lion we 
have contemplated in menageries ; but the average 
height is from three feet six inches to four feet. 
The general tint of the fur is of a fine yellow or red- 
dish-yellow, ornamented by a series of transverse 
black bands or stripes, which occupy the sides of 
the head, neck, and body, and are continued on the 
tail in the form of lings : the under parts of the 
body and inner parts of the limbs are almost white. 
Individuals are sometimes exhibited of a very p,ale 
colour, with the stripes very obscure, and Du Halde 
says that the Chinese tiger (Lou-chu or jC(rH-/!M)varies 
in colour, some being white, striped with black and 

1 he ancients make frequent mention of the tiger, 
with which it cannot be doubted that Aristotle was 
well acquainted, though he talks of a breed in India 
between this animal and the dog, meaning perhaps 
the cheetah, which is used for the chase. Pliny 
describes the 'tremendous velocity ' of thetigel', and 
the devoted attachment of the tigress to her young. 
()])pian speaks of swift tigei's, the offspring of the 
zephyr; and of its swiftness Mr. Bell the traveller, 
and Pere Gerbillon, were witnesses in China, the 
chase of this animal being a favourite diversion with 
the great Cam-Hi, the Chinese monarch. It ap- 
pears that Augustus was the first who exhibited a 
tiger at Rome, which was tame and kept in a cage. 
Claudius afterwards exhibited four, and Cuvier sug- 
gests that it was in commemoration of this rare 
spectacle that the mosaic, discovered some yeare 
since at Rome, was made, representing four royal 
tigers in the act of devouring their prey. As how- 
ever India and its products became better known to 
the Romans, the tiger became more familiar to 
them, but was never exhibited in great numbers. 
Ten were in the possession of Gordian III. 

Active, po.werful, and ferocious, the tiger is more 
to be dreaded than the lion, because it is niore in- 
sidious in its attack, and also prowls abroad by day 
as well as by night. In some districts of India and 
in Sumatra its ravages are frightful. We are in- 
formed by Col. Sykes that in the province of Khan- 
desli alone one thousand and thirty-two tigers were 
killed from the year 1825 to 1829 inclusive, aecorf- 
ing to the official returns. In Sumatra the infatu- 
ated natives seldom attempt their destruction, having 
a notion that they are animated by the souls of fheii 
ancestois. Tiger-hunting is one of the favourite 
field-sports of the East, and as the chase is not un- 
attended with danger it is productive of jiroportion- 
ate excitement. Though hoi'seraen as well as 
persons on foot attend on these occasions, it is more 
for the sake of ' being in at the death ' than of tak- 
ing a decided part, for the horse will seldom stand 
stea.dily when near this dreaded beast. It is to the 
armed riders on elephants that the dangerous work 
of rousing up the tiger from the jungle-covert is 
left, and of firing at him as he bounds along. The 
tiger's firet object is to escape under the covert of 
the long grass or jungle ; but, when wounded or 
hard pressed, he will turn with great fury, and by 
springing on the elephant's head or shoulder endea- 
vour to reach his antagonists. The agitation of the 

B 2 

Fig. ». 

Fig. 18. 

18 Lioa uitli Liouias, from Eastern A»ia. 

19. — Persian Lion. 

IT.— Africin Lion. (Barbuy.) 

i3.— Liou'ii and Wliclps. 

26.— Crippled Lion. 


tt.— C>pe I.ionfc 

SI.— liion Selling a Mm. 

20.— Manelejs I.iO!i of Guierat. 




i'TiGKu AND Leopards. 

elepluinta, which oflen lose all obedivnre to control 
at luch a niument, tOEether with the rapidity of the 
attack, render this a critical juncture, and fatal acci- 
dents have oHen embittered the conclii»ion of the 
contest. Iniitance:! are on record in which men 
have been ci»rried oJi" by timers while triivellinic in 
company with othera. The fate of Sir Hector 
Monro's son, who was carried off out of the midst of 
a party refre*hiii!; themselves on the edu;e of a 
junirle, IX'ci'iiiber, 171*2, in .Sawgar Island, is known 
to all. Similar instances aie related. 

Ti(ters are de>troyed by various devices — pitfalls, 
tram, the spenr, anil ^m. The plan of the box-trap 
and lookiiie-i;la.-.s for takinj^ ti<:ers, leopards. Sec., a 
device tu be found in ancient sculpture, occordint; 
to Montfaticon, is said to be practised by the Chinese 
at the present day. Fig. 32 refers to' this kind of 

Those who have represented the tieer as untame- 
able have no i;round for the assertion. It is as 
capable of beinsr tamed, and of attachment to its 
keeper, as any other animal of its kind. Yet with 
the liirer, the lion, and others of the race, caution 
should be usetl. Their natural disiiosilion is ever 
ready to break out, and the mildest will, how- 
ever tame they be, often show • the wild tiick of their 

Neither the tiger nor the lion are capable of 
climblim; trees, as are most of the lighter of the 
feline race : their prey is therefore exclusively con- 
fined to antelopes, deer, oxen, horses, and the like ; 
while monkeys, and even birtls, are anions; the prey 
of the leopard, the panther, and the smallerFehdae. 

29 — 33. Thk Leopard, Panther, and Ounck. 

The leopard (FelU LenjMrdas). the panther (/!?//> 
Pardiu^, and the ounce of Buffon ih'-lix O'nriu), 
have been by many naturalists confounded together, 
and even with the jiu^iarof the Amerifan continent. 
With respect to the leopard and pa:ilhei- there are 
great difficulties in coming to a determination 
whether they are distinct species or not. In both 
we observe rosettes, or spots arranged in rose-form, 
on a fine yellow ground ; but in the size and minor 
arrangement of these rosettes there is the greatest 
variation. Major H. Smith defines the leopard as 
differing from the panther in being of a paler yel- 
lowish colour, of i-ather smaller si^e, and with the 
dots rose-fonned, consisting of several dots partiallv 
united into a circular figure in some in.sfances, ani 
into a quadrangular, triangular, or other less deter- 
minate form, in others; having also isolated black 
spots, especially about the outside of the limbs. 

In the panther the open spots have the central 
space darker than the general colour of the sides. 
The subject is still open for investigation. 

Both these beautilul creatures are widely spread 
in the Old World, being natives of Africa, India, 
and the Indian Islands, as Ceylon, Sumatra, &c. &c. 
In Java a black variety { Felts melas) is not uncom- 
mon, and such are occasionally seen in our mena- 
geries: they are deeper than the general tint, and 
show in certain lights only (fig. 30). A black cub, 
it is said, occasionally occurs in the same nest with 
others of the ordinary colours. 

Nothing can exceed the grace and activity of 
these animals : they bound with astonishing ease, 
climb trees, and swim, and the flexibility of the 
body enables them to creep along the ground with 
the cautious silence of a snake on their unsuspect- 
ing prey. In India the leopard is called by the 
natives the Tree Tiger, from its generally taking 
refuge when pui-sued in a tree, and also from being 
often seen among the branches: so quick and 
active is the animal in this situation, that it is not 
easy to take a fair aim at him. 

Antelopes, deer, small quadrupeds, and monkeys, 
are its prey. It seldom attai^ks a man voluntarily, 
but if provoked becomes a formidable assailant. 

The leopard is taken in pitfalls and trap. In 
some old writers there are accounts of the leopard 
being taken in a trap by means of a mirror, which, 
when the animal jump* against it, brings the door 
down upon him. Tliis story may have received 
some sanction from the di.sposition of the domestic 
cat, when young, to survey her figure in a looking- 

The leopard and panther are easily tamed, and 
become gentle and affectionate, purring when 
pleased, and rubbing their sides against the bars of 
their cage, or against their keeper like a cat. 
When at play they bound around then- enclosurewith 
the agility of a squirrel, and so <)uick that the eye 
can scarcely follow their movements. From such 
an exhibition we may easily form some idea of their 
agile movements in a state of nature. 

In Ix)udonV " Magazine of Natural History ' is an 
account, by Mrs. Bowdich, of a tame leoi)ard which 
•he had in lier possession. She won the affections 
of the creature by presenting him with lavender- 
water on a tray-card. The animal revelle<l in the 
delicious essence almost to extacy. We know the 
fondness of the common cat for mint, valerian, and 

other aromatic herbs, on which they delight to roll. 
The leopard stands about two feet in iieight : its 
figure is slim and graceful, but vigorous, and its 
proportions admirable. 

The ounce {Oiicf, Buffon), PelU Unria. Whatever 
may be the specific distinction between the leopaiti 
and )>anther, no one can hesitate as to the oimce, 
figured by Buffon, and alter him by Bewick (' Quad- 
rupeds').* Till recently, however, it was con- 
founded with one or both of the above animals, but is 
most decidedly a difl'erent species. Our figure f31) 
is taken from a specimen in the British Museum, 
which in 1837 .Mr. Gray brought before the notice 
of a scientific meeting of the Zoological Society of 
Ix>ndon. It formed part of a collection made by the 
late (Jolonel Cobb in India. The fur is full and 
long, indicating most probably a mountain residence 
rather than the sultry plains. The general colour is 
grey or whitish-grey, tinged with yellow, lighter on 
the breast and under parts. The head is marked on 
the top with black spot.s, a large one being behind 
the ears. The body and sides of the limbs are 
variegated with irregular wavy marks, forming 
rounded or rather oval figures, but not definitely 
nor so orderly arranged as in the leopard. The 
fail, which is very long, is almost bushy, especially 
at its termination, the hair being very full. An 
individual of this species was seen by Colonel H. 
Smith in the Tower, before the menagerie contained 
within its precincts was dispereed. It was said to 
have been brought from the Gulf of Pei-sia. 

34. — The Kimau-Dahan 
(Fell's macrocelis, Temm.). This beautiful species 
is a native of Sumatra, where it was discovered by 
the late Sir Stamford Raffles, who brought a young 
specimen alive to England, where it died soon after 
its arrival. A larger and older individual was lost 
in the Fame. Respecting these individuals. Sir S. 
Raffles remarks that they were, while in confine- 
ment, remarkable for good-temper and playfulness ; 
no domestic kitten could be more so : they courted 
the notice of persons, throwing themselves on their 
backs, and delighting to be fondled. 

With a small dog that was on board, the rimau- 
dahan used to play and gambol, at the same time 
acting with great gentleness. He never seemed to 
look on men or children as iiiey, but as companions, 
and the natives assert that when wild they live 
principally on poultry, birds, and the smaller kinds 
of deer. They are not found in numbei-s, .and may 
be considered as rather rare even in Sumatra : they 
are found in the interior of Bencoolen, on the banks 
of the Bencoolen river, and frequent the vicinity of 
villages, not being dreaded, except for their pro- 
l)ensity to destroy poultry. The natives assert that 
they sleep and often lie in wait for their prey in 
tress, and from this circumstance they derive the 
name of dahan, which signifies the fork formed by 
the branch of a tree, across which they are said to 
rest and occasionally stretch themselves. The 
rimau-dahan is, when adult, larger than the leopard, 
and is remarkable for the thickness and strength of 
its limbs and paws, but the contour of its body is 
very giacet'ul. The head is small, and the physi- 
ognomy less expressive of ferocity than that of the 
tiger or leopard. The tail is extremely long and 
thickly covered with fine full fur, as indeed is the 
body also. The general ground-colour is brownish- 
grey, on which are dispersed streaks and marbled 
markings of black of an irregular form, and more or 
less angular. Two longitudinal bands pass along 
the spine ; a band stretches from each ear down the 
side of the neck, and two obliquely traveree each 
side of the face. The large marbled markings have 
an abrupt edge behind, and the black has the ap- 
pearance of velvet. 

An allied but much smaller species from the 
Indian Islands will be found descnbed in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London ' for 
1836, p. 107, under the title of Felis Marmorafa. 

3i). — The Nepaul Tiger-Cat 
{Felis NepQilensis). This is a slender species, 
measuring about one foot ten inches in the length 
of the head and body, that of the tail being ten and 
a half inches. Its distinguishing characters are its 
lengthened contour and the slendern£s.s and pro- 
l)ortional length of the fail. The ground is tawny- 
grey, pa-ssing into white on the throat and under 
paris; longitudinal marks of a deep black run down 
the back, and broad irregular dashes of the same 
colour ornament the sides, flanks, and outer .surface 
of the limbs ; the under parts are marked with 
oval spots, the thighs externally with rounded 
spots; the tail above, excepting at the extremity, 
spotted; the cheeks streaked with two black lines, 
and a transverse lunar mark p.asses round the 
angle of the mouth, while a narrow bjind is con- 
tinued at^ross the throat. An individual of this 
species was formeily living in the gardens of the 

Tlie TOnrlii.linii |«rt of llcwic'.'i ,«fciil« refer to tlio cliecbili, 
whicli he elsew here notices, liiit nut \>y ju nime. 

Zoological Society, London. It was extremely 
savage and wild : it generally sat up like a domestic 
cat, and never paced its den as do most of the feline 
animals. It is staled to have come originally from 
Nepaul, whence it was sent to Clalcutfa, and thence 
brought to England. 

36.— Thk Skrval 
(FHis Scrval). The serval is a native of Southern 
Africa, and is not uncommon in menageries • speci 
mens are living in the gardens of the Zoological 
Society of London. It is freauently very tame and 
playful, gambolling like a kitten, and enduring 
captivity without sullenness or a display of ferocity. 
The disposition of the feline race greatly dejiends 
on the treatment they experience, so that, while 
some are .savage and distrustful, othei-s of the same 
species are familiar. Some species, however, are 
more easily reclaimed than others, and of these we 
ma\' count the serval. 

The serval stands about eighteen inches in height 
at the shouldei-s : the length of the head and body 
is thirty-four inches, that of the tail ten inches. 

The up];er pai-ts are of a clear yellowish white 
with black spots: the lower parts are white, 
spotted more distantly with black. Symmetrical 
lines adorn the lie-adand neck directed towards the 
shouldei-s. The back of the eai-s is black at the 
base, then barred transvei-sely with white, and 
tipped with yellow : on the inside of the foreiimbs 
are two black biirs. Tail ringed with black. 

The general form is slender, and the limbs are 
thin : the head is long, compressed, and viverrine 
in its character : the ears are large and broad, and 
their bjises neai'jy meet each other on the top of the 
head, givinsf a singular expression to the phy- 
siognomy. In .some specimens the m.arkings are 
more decided than in othei-s. Our measurements 
are taken from one of five specimens in the Museum 
at Paris. 

37, 38.— The Cheetah 

{Felis jubata). This elegant, animal, the cheetah, 
or hunting leopard, is spread extensively through- 
out Africa and India. Mr. Bennett observes that 
"Chardin, Bernier, Tavernier. and others of the 
older travellers, had related that in several ]iarts of 
Asia it was customary to make use of a large spotted 
cat in the pursuit of game, and that this animal was 
called youze in Peivia, and cheetah in India ; but 
the statements of these writei's were so imperfect, 
and the descriptions given by them so incomplete, 
that it was next to impossible to recognise the par- 
ticular species intended. We now, however, know 
with ceitainty that the animal thus employed is the 
Felis jiibiila of naturalists, which inhabits the greater 
part both of Asia and Africa. It is common in 
India and Sumatra, as well as in Persia, and is well 
known both in Senegal and at the Cape of Good 
Hope ; but the ingenuity of the savage natives of 
the latter countries lias not, so far as we know, been- 
exerted in rendering its services available in the 
chase in the manner so successfully practised by the 
more refined and civilised inhabitants of Persia and 

The cheetah differs in one or two points from the 
more typical of its race. The Felida; in general 
possess a broad rounded paw, .armed with sharp- 
hooked .and completely retractile claws, which are 
protmded at pleasure; but in the cheetah the foot 
is long and narrow, and more like that of a dog, 
while the claws, from the laxity of the spring-liga- 
ments, are very p.artially retracted, and are coi;s(;- 
quently worn and blunted at the points. As large 
in the body as the leopard, the cheetah is superior 
to that animal in height, and diffei-s from it also in 
general figure. In the first place, the limbs, un- 
adapted for climbing, are long, slender, and taper- 
ing ; and the body, which is deficient in breadth, 
reminds one in some degi-ee of that of the grey- 
hound. In consequence of these dift'erences, Wag- 
ler separated it into a distinct genus, under the title 
of Cynailuras, in allusion to its intermediate station 
between the canine and feline races. The .\frican 
cheetah has been by some regarded as a distinct 
species from that of India, under the supposition 
that the thin mane which covers the back of the 
neck wiis characteristic only of the African animal. 
Under this impression, the term jubata traanedj 
was lestricted to the African, and the term venatica 
(hunting) given to the Indian, cheetah. This is, 
however, altogether erroneous. In India the wild 
animal a lough coat in which the mane is 
m.arked ; but domesticated animals from the same 
part of the country are destitute of a mane, and 
nave a smooth coat. The general colour of the 
cheetah is fawn-yellow, covered with round black 
spots ; a distinct black stripe passes from the inner 
angle of the eye to the angle of the mouth. The 
tip of the no^e is black. The profile of the fore- 
head and face is convex ; the eye is peculiarly large, 
fine, and expressive; the pupils are circular; the 
tail is long, and curled up at its extremity, which is 

Wild Cats.] 


white : the fur is not sleek, but rather crisp. The 
skin of the cheetah is an article of some importance 
m trade at Senegal, but is neglected at the Cape of 
Good Hope : this animal called luipard by the Dutch 
colonists is indeed rare in that district, but the skin 
is occasionally seen worn by Kaffir chiefs, by way of 
distinction. In Africa the rude natives never dream 
of empioyinsr the cheetah as a means of procuring 
I'ood, — they know not its value in the chase. In 
Persia and India it has, however, been employed 
from an early period. In the ' FieJd-Sports of 
India,' the mode of coursing with the cheetah is 
thus described. " They (the cheetahs) are led out 
in chains, with blinds over their eyes, and sometimes 
carried out in carts, and when antelopes, or deer, 
are seen on a plain, should any of them be separated 
from the rest, the cheetah's head is brought to face 
It, the blinds are removed, and the chain is taken 
off. He immediately crouches (see'figiue 38), and 
creeps along with his belly almost touching tlie 
ground, until he gets within a short distance of the 
deer, who, although seeing him approach, appears 
so fascinated that he seldom attempts to run awaj'. 
The cheetah then makes a few surprising springs, 
and seizes the deer by the neck. If many deer are 
near each other, they often escape by flight, their 
number, perhaps, giving them confidence." 

We may add to this that the cheetah takes ad- 
vantage of every means of making its attack, and 
that, when unsuccessful in its ettbrt, it returns sul- 
lenly to its keeper, who replaces the hood, and re- 
ser\'e3 him for another opportunity. When, how- 
ever, he has grappled with the quarry and fixed 
himself upon its throat, drinking the life-blood 
warm, his nature breaks out in all its violence, so 
that it requires some management to separate him 
from his victim. Partly awed by the keeper's voice, 
partly enticed by pieces of meat, and a ladleful of 
the blood, he is induced to relinquish the prize, and 
submit to be again hooded. In all this we are re- 
minded of the art of falconry. 

In captivity the cheetah is familiar, gentle, and 
playful ; and becomes greatly attached to those who 
feed or notice it. The general disposition of these 
beautiful creatures is, indeed, frank and confiding; 
and consequently there is little trouble in rendering 
them perfectly domestic. Their voice of pleasure 
is a fiiir ; of uneasiness or hunger, a, short reiterated 

"'*"'■ 39 & 49.— The Wild Cat 

(F(?/(> Coins). This cat is the C/iat Sauvuge of the 
French, Goto Monies of the Spaniards, fVilde Katze 
and Bawnritter of the Germans, Vitd Kat of the 
Danes, Calhgned of the ancient Britons, and Catus 
Sijlveslris of Klein. This species, which yet exists 
in the mountainous and wooded districts of the 
British islands, is spread through a great part of 
Europe and Asia. It is common in the forest tracts 
of Germany, Rus.sia, Hungary, the north of Asia, 
and Xepaul. It is larger, and has fuller fur, in the 
colder latitudes. 

In Britain it was formerly very abundant, and was 
one of the beasts of, as we learn from king 
Richard II.'s charter to the abbot of Peterborough, 
giving him permission to hunt the hare, fox, and 
will! cat. The fur in those days does not seem to 
have been of much value, for it is oixlained in 
bishop Corboyl's canons, a.d. 1127, that no abbess 
or nun should use more costly apparel than such as 
is made of iamb's or cat's skins. The wild cat is 
still found in the hilly parts of the north. of England, 
and more plentifully in Scotland and some parts of 

Its general form is robust ; the tail is bushy, and 
fuller at the termination. The general colour is grey, 
undulated with transverse blackish stripes ; a black 
streak runs down the back ; the tail is annulated ; the 
soles of the feet to the heel are black ; two black 
stripes pass from the eyes over and behind the eajs. 
The fur is deep. Length of head and boely one foot 
ten inches ; of the tail eleven inches. T'emminck 
^ives the total average length as three feet. Hares, 
leverets, rabbits, and birds are its prey. It is bold and 
savage, and defends its young with great obstinacy. 
Formerly naturalists regarded this cat as the origin of 
the domestic cat, but of late years this opinion has 
been questioned. In the first place, a cat in a do- 
mestic condition was one of the animals reverenced 
by the ancient Egyptians, and mummies of it are 
found in the pits of Thebes. Now this cat was not 
the common wild cat, but a distinct species. In 
the second place, the domestic cat is not noticed as 
being one of the domestic animals of the ancient 
Britons by any of the Latin writere, nor, indeed, do 
we hear of it in our island till the tenth century, 
when we find its value fixed at a high rate, and laws 
enacted to regulate its presei-vation. The Welsh 
statutes of Hovvel Dha (who died a.d. 948) are, in 
fact, proofs of its importance ; and such laws. would 
hardly have been laid down had not the animal 
been regarded in the light of a new and important 
acquisition. If it were indeed the offspring of the 
wild cat. which then abounded in the forests of our 

island, the opportunities of procuring young broods 
would have been so abundant, that all regulations 
respecting it would have been superfluous ; and 
still less would the then considerable sums of a 
penny as the price of a kitten before it could see, 
two-pence until it caught a mouse, and after that 
Ibur-pence, have been established. There are, be- 
sides, other regulations, all tending to prove the 
high value afiixed to the domestic cat at that pe- 
riod. In the third place, the wild cat is much 
larger than our domesticated cat, and this is con- 
trary to the general rule, domesticated animals being 
larger than their wild relatives. It may be observed 
that the tail of the wild cat is rather short, full, and 
cylindrical ; while in the domestic cat it is long and 
taper. Besides, the wild cat stands higher on the 
limbs, and is of a more lynx-like figure." Dr. Flem- 
ing considers it probable that the domestic kind is 
Oiiginally from Asia, but Ruppel and Temminc); 
consider it as decidedly the descendant of the tame 
Egyptian cat (Felis maniculata), found now wild in 
Upper Egypt and Nubia. It is to perceive 
how from Egypt the domestic cat would pass into 
Greece and Italy, and so into the western jjrovinces 
of the Roman Empire. It is most probable, then, 
that Temminek and Ri'ippel are correct ; but still, 
has not the domestic cat in Europe subsequently in- 
termingled with the wild cat, and produced a 
mixed, though fertile, breed ? We are inclined to 
think so. Cats of the domestic kind often assume 
wild habits, and live in warrens, preserves, and 
woods : we must distinguish between these and the 
true wild cat. 

40. — The Egyptian' Cat 
(Felis Maniculata). This cat was discovered in 
Nubia by Riippel, west of the Nile, near Arabukol, 
in a rocky district overrun with brushwood. It is 
of the size of a moderate domestic, cat, and is pro- 
bably of the same stock as that of the domestic cat 
which the Egyptians honoured. Ruppel considers 
it a descendant of that breed, but it may be, and 
probably is, from the wild original race, and is in- 
digenous in Nubia. It agrees exactly with the pre- 
served mummies of cats which the Egyptians em- 
balmed. The following is a detailed description 
of this species : — 

The woolly or ground hair is in general of a dirty 
ochreous, darker on the back and posterior parts, 
and becoming gradually lighter on the anterior and 
lateral parts ; longer hair of a swarthy dirty white, 
so that the appearance of the animal is greyish- 
yellow. Skin of the edges of the lips and of the 
nose bare and black. Beaiil and bristles of the eye- 
bro\ys shining white, biown at the roofs ; edges of 
eyelids black ; iris glaring yello.v. From the inner 
corner near the eye tiiere'is a daik-brown streak 
running in the direction of the nose, and there is a 
white streak as far up as the arch of the eyebrows : 
between these two streaks is another greyish one 
extending on the forehead by the side of the ears 
and under the eyes. Outside of the ears grey, in- 
side white and without tufts of hair. Eight slender 
black undulating lines arise on the forehead, run 
along the occiput, and are in the upper part of 
the neck. Cheeks, throat, and anterior part of the 
neck shining white. Two ochreous-yellow lines 
spring, the one from the outer corner of the eye, the 
other from the middle of the cheek, and meet both 
together under the ear, and two rings of the same 
colour encircle the white neck ; below the rings 
there are spots of ochreous-yellow. Chest and belly 
dirty white, with similar spots or semicircular lines. 
A dark streak along the back becomes lighter as it 
rises over the shoulders, and darker on the cross. 
This streak is gradually lost on the upper part of 
the tail, the lower sniface of which is white-yellow. 
The tail is almost of an equal thickness, rather slen- 
der, and with two dark rings at its point. The ex- 
tremities, which have less hair in proportion on the 
outer side, are of the general colour, with besides 
five or six blackish semicircular bands on the fore- 
legs, and six distinct dark cross streaks on the hind- 
legs. The inner sides are lighter in colour, with 
two black spots or streaks on the upper parts of the 
fore-legs, and the hind extremities show the cross 
streaks winding around the thighs towards the in- 
side. Foot, soles, hind parts of ankles, and wrists 
shining black. Length two feet five inches, the t.ail 
being about nine ; height at the shoulder about 
nine inches and a half. The description was taken 
from an aged female. 

41. — The Jaguar 
{Felis The jaguar is the leopard or panther 
of the American forests, and in power and daring 
almost approaches to the liger of the Indian jungles. 
We have already stated that specimens of this savage 
beast have been confounded wilh the leopard 
(42, 43) ; but the jaguar, besides differing in otlier 
points, always displays a bold s'reaJi or two of black, 
extending the chest Irom shoulder to shoul- 
der, which is a distinctive chaiaeter. Tlie rosettes 

on the body are very large, open, and somewhat, with a central spot or two of black in each • 
a central chain of black dashes extends al.)ncr the 
spine. The jaguar, though varying in size, generally 
exceeds the leopard ; and its form is more robu»« 
and less agile and graceful. The limbs are short 
but immensely thick and muscular ; the head larger, 
and of a squarer contour, and the tail of less com- 
parative length. Of all the American Felidae, the 
jaguar is the formidable. It prefei-s the marshy 
and wooded districts of the warmer latitudes, and 
haunts the vast forests along the larger rivei-s. It 
swims and climbs with equal ease, and preys oii the 
arger domestic quadrupeds, on peccaries, capy- 
baras, and monkeys, as well as on fish and tortoises 
.Sonnini saw the scratches left by the claws of the 
jaguar on the smooth bark of a tree some fortv feet 
high, without branches; he traced the marks of se- 
veral slips made by the climber, but the animal had 
at last readied the top. Humboldt heard the ja- 
suars^ yell from the tops of the trees, followed by 
the sharp, shrill, long whistle of the terrified mon- 
keys, as they seemed to flee. It takes birds on 
their nests, and fish in the shallows ; and, in some 
districts, the havoc it makes among horses, cattle 
and sheep is terrible. So great are the numbers of 
these beasts in the Spanish colonies, that, according 
to Humboldt, four thousand were annually killed • 
and two thousand skins were exported eveiy year 
IVom Buenos Ayres only. The emjity shells of 
turtles were pointed out to Humboldt as having 
been cleared of their contents by the jaguar, which 
watches them as they come to the sandy""beaches tc 
lay their eggs, pounces upon them, and turnsthem on 
their backs : he then insinuates his paw between the 
shells, and scoops out the contents as clean as with 
a knife. As he turns many more than he can de- 
vour at a meal, the Indians often profit bv his dex- 
terous cunning. The eggs of the turtle' are often 
dug up by him out of the sand, and devoured ; and 
voung turtles, on their road to the water, or in shal- 
lows, are also destroyed. 

It is not often that the jaguar voluntarily attacks 
man. When hard pressed, however, he makes a 
resolute defence. The Indians often despatch him 
with their poisoned arrows, and sometimes boldly 
attack him with lances. On the plains the lasso is 
used with great effect. 

There is a black variety of the jaguar, le jaguar 
noir of the French, and probably the juguarete of 
Marcgrave. This seems to have been the animal 
noticed by Lieut. Maw, R.N. (' Journal of a Passage 
irom the Pacific to the Atlantic: 1829), at Para, as 
a black on^a. It had been procured up the rivers, 
and was a formidable beast, with limbs as thick as' 
(Lieut. iAIawsavs thicker than) those of a Benjjal 

44, 4,5, 46.— The Puma 
{Felis concolor, Linn.) This large feline animal is 
often called the American lion, chiefly, as it would 
appear, from its uniformity of colour, which, com- 
bined with its ferocity, led the early travellers to 
give it that appellation. Thus John de Laet (1633) 
says that lions are found in Peru, though they be 
few and not so ferocious as they are in Africa, and 
that I hey are called in the native tongue puma. 
In ' The Perfect Description of Virginia,' (a tract, 
1619,) "Lyons, beares, leopards, and elkes" are 
enumerated. Hernandez describes it (1651) as the 
puma seu Ico Americaniis, and contends, rightly 
enough, that it is not a true lion. By Piso" the 
animal is noticed as the cuguacuura. Marcgrave 
terms it the cnguacurana of the Brazilians ; D'Azara, 
the gouazouara of Paraguay. Hence the French 
name, often used by British writers, couguar. Char- 
levoix descrilies it under the erroneous names of 
carcajou and quincajou. The Anglo-Americans 
term it " panther," and under this name Lawson. 
Catesby, and others describe it. 

In its general contour, the puma is elegantly 
formed ; but the limbs are very thick, while the 
head is comparatively small, particularly in the fe- 
male. The general colour is silvery-l'awn above, 
fading into white beneath and on the inside of the 
limbs ; the ears on the outside, particularly at their 
base, the sides of the muzzle and the end of the tail, 
which is destitute of a tuft, black. Length from 
nose to root of tail, about four feet ; of the tail, up- 
wards of two feet. The young are marked with 
three chains of blackish-brown streaks along the 
back, and the sides, shoulders, and neck have 
clouded spots of the same colour. As the animal 
advances in age, these mai-kings fade, and ultimately 

The puma is extensively spread throughout North 
and South America ; but it is not only more scaice 
than ibrnu'i'ly, but its range is more ccnitracted; 
and, as civilization advances, will be still further re 
duccd. This beautiful animal is savage and fero-- 
cious, but eiisily tamed, and soon becomes very fa- 
miliar. The late Mr. Edmund Kean had one in hi? 
possession, which was perfectly domesticated ; and 

J^ ^v^-^ 

ts.— So\al Tt^n. 

2". — Leopajd. 

30.— Blnck I'^nther. 

■ ..■ \-K 

SU— Oim:e. 

U.— Leopird Citchins. 

38.— Cheetah. 

33.— Leopinl. (SenegU.) 


34.— Rlima nahut. 

S«.— S«nl. 

^ ^^s:r — «^ 

3".— Cheetah. 

ss.-wnd Cat. 

40^£gyptlan Cat 

'1.— Jaguar. 


"^^"tP^^-^^? ,.:b>?^^-C"-^> 

45.— Pnraa. 

44^— Pama, 

46,— Puma, 







we have seen other* very gentle, though playfiU and 
animated. Law»on, who, in hi« ' History of Caro- 
lina,' well di'scribe* the puma, i« therefore in error 
when he states that " when taken young it is never 
to be rec-iaimed from its wild nature." This writer 
sayi, '•TTie panlhrr (puma) climbs trees with the 
jtreatest agility imaginable, is very strong-limbed, 
ca'cliiug a piece of meat from any animal he strikes 
.«t ; his tail is exceeding long ; his eyes look very 
fierce imd lively, are large, and of a grayish colour; 
his prey is swines-flesh, deer, or anything he can 
lake. He halloos like a man in the woods when 
killed, which is by making liim take to a tree, as the 
■ie«*t cur will presently do; then the huntsmen 
ihoot him ; if Uicy do not kill him outright he is a 
dangerous enemy when wounded, especially to the 
dogs that approach him. This beast is the greatest 
enemy to tne planter of any vermin in Carolina. 
His flesh looks as well as any shamble's meat what- 
soever : a great many people eat him as choice food, 
but I never tasted ot a panther, so cannot commend 
the meat by my own experience. His skin is a 
warm covering "for the Indians in winter, though 
not esteemed among the choice furs. This skin 
dressed makes fine women's shoes or men's gloves." 

The puma is indeed a very destructive animal : 
not only the peccan- and the cnpybara fall a prey 
to his destructive habits, but sheep, hogs, and cattle 
are among his victims ; of the former he has been 
known to kill fifty in a single night. It is not often 
that the puma attacks man, though when wounded 
he becomes a dangerous foe. Sir F. Head, in his 
'Journey across the Pampas,' gives the following 
interesting narrative, in proof of the fear of man 
which this animal, in common with others, enter- 
tains. Tlie person who related it to Sir Francis 
was himself tne actor in the scene. 

" He was trying to shoot some wild ducks, and, in 
order to approach them unperccived, he put the 
comer of his poncho (which is a sort of long narrow 
blanket) over his head, and, crawling along the 
ground upon his hands and knees, the poncho not 
only covered his body, but trailed along the ground 
behind him. As he was thus creeping by a large 
bush of reeds, he heard a loud sudden noise, between 
a bark and a roar : he felt something heavy strike 
his feet, and, instantly jumping up, he saw, to his 
astonishment, a large lion actually standing on his 
poncho ; and, perhaps, the animal was equally asto- 
nished to find himself in the immediate presence of 
so athletic a man. The man told me he was un- 
willing to fire, as his gun was loaded with very 
small shot ; and he therefore remained motionless, 
the lion standing on his poncho for many seconds : 
at last the creature turned his head, and, walking 
very slowly away about ten yards, he stopped and 
turned again : the man still maintained His ground, 
upon which the lion tacitly acknowledged his 
supremacy, and walked oif." (Fig. 45.) 

Audubon in his ' Ornithological Biography,' gives 
a spirited account of the chase of the puma, or 
cougar as he terms it, which was hunted by dogs, 
and men armed with rifles : it was driven by their 
united exertions from tree to tree, and perished, 
fighting with the dogs, having received several 
bSis, one of which produced a mortal wound. On 
the Pampas the puma is hunted with dogs, and, 
while it is engaged in the conflict sun'ounded by 
them, the dexterous Gaucho strikes him senseless 
with his bolas, or throws his lasso over him, and, 
galloping off, drags him along the ground till almost 
lifeless, when the dogs rush upon him and tear him 
to pieces. ^y^ ^ 50.— The Ocelot 

(Felit pardalis). This elegantly-marked species 
of tiger-cat is a native of Mexico, Paraguay, and 
probably of Peru. It measures nearly three feet in 
the length of the head and body, the tail is about a 
foot long, and the medium height is about eighteen 
inches. The ground-colour of the fur is grey, 
slightly tinged with fawn ; upon this are disposed 
longitudinal bands, of which the margins are per- 
fectly black, the central parts being of a deeper 
fawn than the general ground. These ribands of 
black, enclosing a deep fawn, become deep black 
lines and spots on the neck and head and on the 
outer aspect of the limbs. From the top of the head 
towards the shoulders there pass several diverging 
black bands, and on the top of the back the line is 
quite continuous. The tail is spotted upon a gi'ound 
like that of the body. The term ocelot is a corrup- 
tion of the Mexican names Tlacoozelotl, or Tlalo- 
celotl, as given by Hernandez, who terms it Catus 
pardiu Mexicanus. 

The ocelot is often exhibited in menageries, and 
IS generally good-tempered and playful : we have 
seen several which might be said to be perfectly 
domesticated. Bewick states that " nothing can 
•often the natural ferocity of its disposition, nor 
calm the restlessness of its motions. One of these 
animals, shown at Newcastle in 1788, although 
extremely old, exhibited great marks of ferocity. 
It was kept closely confined, and would not admit 

of being caressed by its keeper." Harsh usage and 
close confinement have otten spoiled the temper of 
animals, and the fault is always laid to their dis- 
position, and not to mismanagement. Mr. Bennett 
informs us that a specimen which was kept in tlie 
Tower menagerie was extremely familiar, and had 
much of the character and manners of the common 
cat. Its food consisted principally of rabbits and 
birds ; the latter it pluclted with great dexterity, 
and always commenced its meal with the head, of 
which it seemed particularly fond ; hut it did not 
eat with the ravenous avicfity which characterizes 
nearly all the animals of this tribe. 

Of the manners of the ocelot in a state of nature 
little is known. It inhabits the deep forests and 
preys upon small quadrupeds and birds ; climbing 
the trees in quest of the latter, and lying in wait for 
them concealed among the foliage. It is said to 
take monkeys by a very subtle mode of proceeding. 
When it perceives a troop of these active creatures, 
it immediately stretches itself out, as if dead, on the 
limb of some tree ; urged by curiosity they hasten 
to examine the supposed " mortal remains " of 
their enemy, — the foremost pays dearly for his 
curiosity. 51.-TheChxti 

{Felis mill's). The chati is regarded by Des- 
marest as the chibi-guazu of Azara. It is a native 
of Paraguay and other parts of South America, and 
is much smaller than the ocelot. Azara describes 
it as averaging three feet six inches in total length. 
The following is Fred. Cuvier's description of a 
female living in the menagerie of Paris: — " About 
a third larger than the domestic cat : length, ex- 
clusive of tail, rather more than two feet ; tail, 
eleven inches ; height to middle of back, about 
one foot two inches. Ground-colour of fur on the 
upper parts, pale yellowish ; on the lower pure 
w-hite ; at the roots, dull grey, and very thick and 
close. Body covered with irregular dark patches : 
those upon the back entirely black and disposed 
longitudinally in four rows; those upon the sides 
surrounded with black, with the centres of a 
clear fawn, arranged in nearly five rows. Spots 
upon the lower part of the body, where the 
ground-colour of the fur is white, full, and arranged 
in two lines composed of six or seven patches on 
each side. Limbs covered with nearly round spots 
of smaller dimensions : on the fore-legs, near the 
body, two transverse bands. On the throat a sort 
of half collar, and on the under-jaw two crescent- 
shaped spots. Behind each eye two bands about 
two inches long, terminating opposite the ear. 
Forehead bordered by two lines, between which are 
numerous spots, and, at their origin, a blackish 
mark from which the whiskers spring. Outside of 
the ear, black, with a white spot upon the small 
lobe. Base of the tail spotted with small blotches, 
which towards the end run into half-rings, which 
are broadest on the upper surface. Pupil round." 
(F. Cuv.) 

This animal was extremely gentle and familiar, 
so much so indeed that, if persons to whom it was 
attached passed its cage or did not approach it, it 
would express its discontent or solicit their attention 
by a short cry ; and when caressed it manifested 
great delight. 

According to Azara, the chibi-guazu is so com- 
mon, that his friend Noseda captured eighteen indi- 
viduals in two years within two leagues of his 
pueblo. Yet it would appear that few are acquainted 
with the animal, neither the huntsman nor his dogs 
being able to penetrate its haunts. By day it re- 
mains concealed in the most impenetrable and 
secluded places, only coming abroad after dark, 
especially when the night is stormy. The chibi- 
guazu then daringly enters courtyards and destroys 
the poultry or carries them away. When the night 
is moonlit they do not venture near inhabited spots, 
and are besides so wary, that it is hopeless to lie in 
wait for them with a gun. Men and dogs are most 
cautiously avoided. Each pair is supposed to have 
their own exclusive range of territory, for a male 
and female, and no more, are always caught in the 
same place. Tliose which Noseda caught soon 
became reconciled to captivity, and had much of 
the habits of a cat : nearly the whole of the day 
they passed in sleep rolled up in ball-like form ; 
twilight and night were passed in pacing to and fro 
close to the sides of their den. They never quar- 
relled unless they were much irritated, and then 
they struck at each other with their fore-paws ; 
when they crossed or interrupted each other's move- 
ments in traversing the den, they spit and gesticu- 
lated like a common cat. They were fed upon 
various kinds of flesh, rats, fowls, ducks, young dogs, 
&c. Cats' flesh gave them the mange, under which 
they soon sank : snakes, vipers, and toads, occa- 
sioned violent and continued vomiting, vmder which 
they wasted away and died. Dogs equalling them- 
selves in size they would not attack : fowls were their 
favourite food ; these they caught by the head and 
neck and instantly killed, stripping their feathers 

before beginning to cat them. In the night thei'i 
eyes shone like those of a domestic cat, which m 
their manners, in their mode of licking the fur and 
cleaning themselves, they entirely resembled. AzarH 
concludes by stating that a young one which No^eda 
caught became so thoroughly domesticated, that it 
slept on the skirts of his clerical gown and went 
about loose. .\(^ animal could be more tractable ; 
but the neighbours, among whose poultry it made 
havoc, killed it. 

52.— The Pampas Cat 

{Feli» Pajeros). Tliis species is also called Jungle- 
cat, and by the Spanish colonists Gato Pajero. 

The fur of this animal is very long, some of the 
hairs of the back being upwards of three inches, 
and those of the hinder part of the back foiu- and a 
half or nearly five inches long. General colour 
pale yellow-grey. Numerous irregular yellow or 
sometimes brown stripes run obliquely from the back 
along the sides of the body. On each side of the face 
two stripes of a yellowish or cinnamon colour com- 
mence near the eye and extend backwards and down- 
wards over the cheeks, on the hinder part of which 
they join and form a single line, which encircles the 
lower part of the throat. Tip of the muzzle and 
chin white ; a spot in front of the eye, and a line 
beneath the eye, of the same colour ; belly, inner 
side and hinder part of fore-legs, white also. An 
irregular black line running across the lower part of 
the chest, and extending over the base of the fore- 
legs externally : above this line two other transverse 
dark markings more or less defined on the chest. 
On the fore-legs three broad black bands, two of 
which encircle the leg : on the posterior legs about 
five black bands externally, and some irregular dark 
spots internally. Feet yellowish, and under side of 
tarsus of a slightly deeper hue. On the belly nume- 
rous large irregular black spots. Ears moderate, 
with long white hairs internally ; externally of the 
same colour as the head, except at the apex, where 
the hairs are black, and form a slight tuft. Tail 
short, somewhat bushy, and devoid of dark rings or 
spots ; the hairs are in fact coloured as those on the 
back. On the upper part of the body each hair is 
brown at the base, then yellow, and at the apex 
black. On the hinder part of the back the hairs are 
almost black at the base, and on the sides of the 
body each hair is grey at the base ; there is then a 
considerable space of yellowish-white colour : to- 
wards the apex they are white, and at the apex 
black. The greater number of the haiis of the 
moustaches white. Length, from nose to root of 
tail, twenty-six inches ; of tail, fur included, eleven 
inches. Height of body at shoulders, thiiteen inches. 
Size about equal to that of the common wild-cat of 
Europe ; but the Pampas cat is stouter, its head 
smaller, and its tail shorter. (Waterhouse.) 

This cat was known to Azara, but till recently 
European naturalists were but little acquainted 
with it. Fischer, in his ' Synopsis Mammalium,* 
put it among those species that are not well deter- 
mined. Azara says that the natives call this animal 
^ato pajero, because it lives on the plains, conceal- 
ing itself in jungles without entering the woods or 
thickets. Whether this species exists in Paraguay, 
Azara states, was a point he could not determine, 
but that it might perhaps have been formerly seen 
there before the country became well peopled. He 
caught four in the Pampas of Buenos Ayres, be- 
tween 35° and 36° S. lat., and three others on the 
Rio Negro. They are found, he adds, on both sides 
of La Plata. Its food consists principally of apereas, 
or wild guinea-pigs. 

According to Mr. Darwin (Zoology of the Beagle), 
this cat inhabits Santa Cruz, Patagonia, and Bahia 

" This animal," observes Mr. Darwin, " takes its 
name from paja, the Spanish word for ' straw,' 
from its habits of frequenting reeds. It is common 
over the whole of the great plains which compose 
the eastern side of the southern part of America. 
From the accounts I received I have reason to be- 
lieve that it is found near the strait of Magellan, 
which would give it a range of nearly 1400 miles in 
a north and south line," for Azara states that it is to 
be found as high north as 30° S. lat. One of Mr. 
Darwin's specimens was obtained at 50° S. at Santa 
Cnxi : it was met with in a valley where a few 
thickets were growing. When disturbed it did not 
run away, but drew itself up and hissed. The other 
spec men which Mr. Darwin brought to England 
was killed at Bahia Blanca. 


The name of lynxes is applied by zoologists to a 
subdivision of the Felidae, well marked externally, 
and regarded by some as entitled to a distinct ge- 
neric rank. About eight species are described, but 
there is still considerable confusion among those 
which are natives of America. The available cha- 
racters which the lynxes present consist in the 
pencils which tuft the ears, in the shortness of the 




tail, and the proportionate elevation of the body at 
the haunches. 

The lynx is one of those animals respecting which 
many absurd fables have been popularly current, but 
which are now in no danger of being revived. Pliny 
(lib. vii., 25) classes the lynx among the monstrous 
productions of .(iithiopia, in the existence of which 
ne seems to have implicitly believed. The lynx is 
often alluded to by the ancient poets, but from 
many expressions we easily perceive that they had 
no very precise ideas about the animal ; the lynx 
of poetry was sometimes a leopard or panther. 
Virgil calls the lynxes of Bacchus varite, and in 
another place alludes to the skin of the spotted lynx 
(maculosce lyncis). 

The representations of lynxes on antique gems 
and sculptures are as unsatisfactory and vague as 
the allusions in classic poetry. Still however the 
lynx described by Aristotle, vKlian, and Oppian was, 
it must be confessed, not one of these doubtful 
creatures, but a definite species, and, as we think, 
the caracal. 

53, 58, 59.— The Caracal 

(Felts Caracal). This animal derives its modern 
name from the Turkish, cara, black, and kulask, ear. 
Its Persian name has the same meaning, sujah-gush 
or sia-gusch (si'a, black, ^««cA, ear). It is widely dis- 
tributed, being found in Persia, India, Barbary, 
Nubia, Egypt, and the whole of Africa to Caifraria, 
Turkey, and Arabia. The general colour of the 
body IS of a pale reddish-brown, with a vinous 
tinge ; the lower parts are paler. Two spots of pure 
white are near each eye, one on the inner side of 
and above the eye, the other beneath its outer angle. 
The edges of the upper lip, the chin, and lower lip 
are white, as are the insides of the limbs. The 
whiskers rise from a series of black lines. The ears 
are long and tapering, and are surmounted by a 
pencil of long black hairs ; their colour externally 
IS black. The tail reaches only to the heel or hock- 
joint. Temminck gives the measurements as fol- 
lows : — length two feet ten inches, of which the tail 
measures ten. Average height about fourteen inches. 
We have ourselves seen much larger individuals. The 
eyes of the caracal have a marked nocturnal cha- 
racter, and are large, bright, and scowling in their 
expression. The limbs are extremely muscular, 
and its whole contour denotes great activity. The 
caracal feeds on small quadrupeds and birds, the 
latter of which it pursues even to the tops of the 
trees. It is said to follow the lion and other large 
beasts of prey for the purpose of feeding on what 
they leave. The caracal leaps upon its viclim and 
holds it with remarkable tenacity, as was noticed by 
./Elian. Oppian also alludes to its mode of springing 
upon hares, deer, &c. According to Temminck, 
these animals are in the habit of hunting in packs, 
like wild dogs, and of running down their prey ; 
most probably they creep towards it like the cheetah, 
and spring suddenly upon it. Pennant, quoting 
Thevenot, states that they are often brought up 
tame, and used in the chase of lesser quadrupeds 
and the larger sort of birds, as cranes, pelicans, 
peacocks, &c., and that when they seize their prey 
they hold it fast with their mouth and lie motion- 
less on it. He also adds, on the authority of Hyde, 
that the Arabians, who call it Anak-el-ard, affirm 
that it hunts like the panther, jumps up at cranes 
as they fly, and covers its steps when hunting. 

In captivity the caracal is ver)' irritable, often 
displaying great ferocity. Of its fierceness and 
strengh Dr. Charleton gives evidence, for he relates 
that he saw one fall on a hound, which it killed and 
tore to pieces in a moment, although the dog de- 
fended itself to the utmost. It would appear, from 
our repeated personal observations, that lew animals 
of the feline race are more impatient of confinement. 
Excepting in the instance of very young examples, 
we never knew one that would suffer the approach 
of strangers without exhibiting tokens of savage 
anger. Apparently annoyed by the light, they re- 
tire to a corner of their den, and there crouch in 
sullen and suspicious mood, repelling every attempt 
towards familiarity by a snarl. When thus irritated 
the ears are drawn down close to the head, the eyes 
glare with an expression of malignant fury, and the 
teeth are displayed, while, at the same time, they 
utter a deep hissing not unlike that of a cat, and 
very ditferent from the growl of the lion or tiger. 
In a state of nature they avoid the face of man, and, 
though of comparatively small size, are dangerous 
enemies when hard-pressed or wounded. 

54. — ^The Booted Lynx 

{Petit calisata). This is a small species with the 
tail much longer in proportion than in the caracal. 
The total length is about three feet, of which the 
tail measures thirteen inches. The ears are large, 
red within, and tipped with a pencil of brown hairs ; 
the sole and postenor part of the foot, or leg as it is 
usually called, are of a deep black. The upper 
parts of the body are of a deep bluish grey, in some 

specimens fulvous, clouded with grey and sprinkled 
with black hairs; the lower parts, throat, and 
breast are reddish ; the thighs are marked with in- 
distinct bands of rather bright brown, and two 
bands cross the cheeks. The tail is black at the 
tip with three or four incomplete rings above it, se- 
parated from each other by whitish intervals. The 
female has generally the tints more yellow ; the 
young have well-defined dark bands on their sides. 
This species inhabits the south of India, and Africa 
from Egypt and Barbary to the Cape of Good Hope. 
Birds and small quadrupeds are its prey. It makes 
havoc among the flocks of wild guinea-fowls in 
Africa, nor does it refuse the remains of large quad- 
rupeds on which the lion or panther have feasted. 
Cuvier applied the term Lynx des Marais to this 
species as well as to the chaus, but at the same 
time with a remark that some consider the two 
animals to be distinct. 

55. — The Chaus 

{Fells Chaus, Giildenst.). The Chaus, according to 
Colonel Sykes, is called mota rahn manjur, or larger 
wild cat, by the Marhattas. This species has been 
cleared up by Riippell from the confusion in which 
it had become involved. He describes it as well 
covered with fur, the under-coat of which is woolly 
and soft, but the long hairs are not thickly set. The 
colour of the woolly hair is a dirty palish ochre 
yellow, darker on the back, lighter beneath ; the 
long hairs are of the same tint at the base, have a 
dark-brown middle ring, and are tipped with greyish- 
yellow, whitish, or saffron, so that the appearance 
produced is a mixed colouring of greyish-yellow 
and dirty-white. Many of the hairs on the sides 
are tipped with black, and, where these are nume- 
rous, dusky lines or dashes are produced. The 
saffron-tipped hairs prevail on the back, and form 
a yellow stripe from the shoulders to the tail ; 
the nose is black ; above and below the eye is 
a large white spot ; a black streak runs from the 
inner corner of the eye to the nose. The edges of 
the lips are black, and encircled by a white ring. 
Cheeks and whiskers white, a few black bristles 
being interspersed among the latter : back of the 
ears grey-brown, with black pencils. Externally 
the limbs are barred with four or five transverse black 
bands. The tail is one-fourth as long as the body, 
and annulated towards the termination, which is 
black and abrupt. 

The chaus inhabits the north of Africa along the 
course of the Nile, and perhaps more remote dis- 
tricts. It is found in the morasses and bushy low- 
lands that border the Caspian Sea, and along the 
banks of its tributary rivers. It is said to be com- 
mon in Persia ; it is also an inhabitant of the 
Deccan. Everywhere it appears to give preference 
to marshes and boggy wastes, where brushwood 
afi"ords it shelter. It lives upon birds, small quad- 
rupeds, and even fishes : it seldom climbs trees, and 
is not easily tamed. 

56. — The European Lynx 

{Felis Lynx, Temminck, not Linn, and Nilsson ; 
F. virgata, Nilsson). This is the ordinary lynx of 
Europe, extending from Scandinavia to Naples and 
the Pyrenees. Specimens were lately living in the 
menagerie of the Zoological Society of London from 
Norway. Giildenstadt states it to exist on the Cau- 
csisus, where it is a great pest. Besides this lynx, 
Europe possesses the following : — 

The Arctic Lynx (Felis borealis, Temminck, not 
Thunberg ; F. Lynx, Linn, and Nilsson). It inhabits 
the north of Scandinavia, and probably Siberia and 
the forest of Ural. 

The Great Lynx {Felis cervaria, Linn. ; F. borealis, 
Thunberg, not Temminck; Siberian Lynx of fur- 
riers ; Kat-lo of Swedes). It inhabits Norway, Asia- 
tic Russia, and also the Caucasus, according to 
M. Menestries, who says the Persians call it Vaar- 
chach. (See Nilsson.) 

The Pardine Lynx {Felis pardina, Temminck). 
This is the Portuguese Lynx of furriers. It is a 
well-marked species, inhabiting the mountain re- 
gions of Spain, Portugal, and other southern dis- 
tricts. Fine examples are living in the menagerie 
of the Zoological Society of London, and specimens 
are preserved in the Paris Museum which were 
killed in Portugal, not far from Lisbon, in 1808 : 
it is a beautiful animal. Colonel Sykes obtained 
skins in Andalusia, where it is called gato clavo. 
It inhabits the Sierra Morena. 

The European or Red Lynx represented in the 
figure is of a dull reddish-grey, or rufous tint, with 
dark nisty-brown spots of an oblong form on the 
sides, and rounder and smaller spots on the limbs ; 
the under parts are whitish mottled with black. 
In winter the fur is much longer than in summer, 
and also fuller; and assumes a hoary tinge, the long 
hairs becoming tipped with greyish-white ; the 
ears are pencilled ; the tail is short, and tipped with 
black. The length of the head and body is nearly 
three feet ; of the tail, six or seven inches. The 

European lynx feeds upon small quadrupeds and 
birds, and climbs trees easily. Hares, squiirels, 
rabbits, and also sheep, fall victims to it. When 
attacked by a dog it lies down on its back and de- 
fends itself with its claws. Those we have seen in 
captivity were very playful. Its fur is valuable in 
commerce ; the colder the climate and season of 
the year, the finer and fuller it is. 

"The limits of the lynx," observes Cuvier, "in 
the ancient continent aie not perfectly ascertained. 
We know, indeed, that it is common in the forests 
of the north of Europe and Asia. MM. Blumen- 
bach, Bechstein, and Tiedemann cite instances of 
their having been killed even lately in Germany, 
but they are becoming more ancl more scarce. 
M. Schintz says that it is not uncommon in the 
mountains of Switzeriand. M. Delabre cites an 
instance of one killed in Auvergne in 1788." 

57. — The Canada Lynx 
{Felis Canadensis, Geoff.). There is some question 
about this species, which we believe to be entirely 
identical with the F. borealis of Temminck ; and 
consequently that the title Canadensis is a mere 
synonym. The range of this boreal lynx is not 
limited, therefore, to the old world only, but is also 
extended to the northern parts of America. It is 
found north of the great lakes, and eastward of the 
Rocky Mountains : it is rare on the sea-coast, does 
not frequent the barren grounds, but is not uncom- 
mon in the wooded districts of the interior. It is 
found on the Mackenzie River as far north as 66°. 
Specimens in the museum of the Zoological Society 
of London were procured by Douglas in California. 
Dr. Richardson states that the eariy French writew 
on Canada, who ascribed to this species the habit of 
dropping from the trees on the backs of deer and 
destroying them by tearing their throats and drink- 
ing their blood, gave it the name of Loup Cervier. 
The French Canadians now term it indifferently 
Le Chat or Le Peeshoo. With respect to its attack- 
ing deer in the way said, the statement is errone- 
ous ; and if really practised by any ferocious animal, 
is most probably so by the puma. The same habit 
has been attributed to the wolverene or glutton, from 
a mistake of Charlevoix in applying to this lynx the 
name of Carcajou, which is proper to the wolverene 
only. The following is Dr. Richardson's description :— 

" The head is round, the nose obtuse, and the face 
has much of the form of that of the domestic cat, 
but the facial line is more convex between the eyes. 
The ears are erect, triangular, and tipped by an up- 
right slender tuft of coarse black hairs : they are 
placed about their own breadth apart, and on their 
porterior surface they have a dark mark beneath 
the tip, which is continued near both margins down- 
wards towards their bases. On the body and ex- 
tremities the fur is hoary, most of the hairs being 
tipped with white ; on the crown of the head, and 
for a broad space down the middle -of the back, 
there is a considerable mixture of blackish-brown, 
and on the sides and legs of pale wood-brown. In 
some specimens these colours produce an indistinct 
mottling, but in general there are no defined mark- 
ings. A rufous tinge is also occasionally present 
about the nape of the neck, and on the posterior 
parts of the thigh. The tail is coloured like the 
back, except the tip, which is black. The fur is 
close and fine on the back, longer and paler on the 
belly. When blown aside it shows on the mid- 
dle of the back a dark liver-brown colour from the 
roots to near the tip, but on the sides it is for the 
greatest part of its length of a pale yellowish-brown, 
being merely a little darker near the roots. The 
legs are thick, the toes very thick and funy, and 
are armed with very sharp awl-shaped white claws, 
shorter than the fur. There are four toes on each 
foot, those on the hind-foot being rather the largest, 
but both feet have much spread. Length three 
feet, one inch," &c. 

This Boreal or Canadian lynx is by no means 
courageous : it never ventures to attack large quad- 
rupeds, but preys chiefly on the American hare, for 
the capture of which it is well provided. "Its 
large paws, slender loins, and long but thick hind- 
legs, with large buttocks scarcely relieved by a short 
thick tail, give it an awkward, clumsy appearance. 
It makes a poor fight when it is surprised by a hunter 
in a tree ; for though it spits like a cat, and sets its 
hair up, it is easily destroyed by a blow on the back 
with a slender stick ; and it never attacks a man. 
Its gait is by bounds straightforward, with the back 
a little arched, and lighting on all the feet at once. 
It swims well, and will cross the arm of a lake two 
miles wide, but is not swift on land. It breeds 
once a year, and has two young at a time." Its 
flesh is eaten by the natives, and is white and ten- 
der, but destitute of flavour, and closely resembles 
that of the American hare. The skin of this species 
is an important article in commerce. The annual 
importation by the Hudson's Bay Company is stated 
to be from seven to nine thousand. 

Besides this lynx there are others in America. 

C 2 

^^'< /■■■<-'., 


Do mesttc Ca: . 



•l ' l\ 


■ r^'^^x^^^ 





65.- Chans. 

63.— Caracal. 

59.— Carjcals. 

^^'^ y- 



66.- European Lynx. 






Most zooloi^ists of the present day, and amon;: them 
the first comparative anatoraint*,' concur in reeard- 
ing the marsupial animals (Marsupiaha or Marsii- 
piata*) as a distinct ^roup, or sub-class of the 
Mammalia. They differ essentially from all others 
in their orRaniiaiion, yet comprehend genera fed 
by every variety of nutriment. Some are insecti- 
vorous or carnivorous, others herbivorous, and others 
•gain frujtivorous ; some are diurnal, others noc- 
turnal in the habits. Accordingly we find a cor- 
responding modification of the teeth and digestive 
organs, as well as of those of progression and pre- 
hension. Hence may we trace in them analosics 
to the groups of the ordinary mammiferous auadru- 
neds, viz., to the Camivora,the Insectivora, tiie Uo- 
aents, and the Edentata, as was well observed by 
Cuvier, whose oi)inions have been abundantly con- 
firmed. It is on physiological grounds that the 
distinctness of the ^Iarsupials rests, that is, on their 
stracture and economy connected with the repro- 
duction of their species, on the abbreviated term of 
gestation, and on the immature condition of the young 
at their birth, which are generally received into the 
marsupium or pouch, in which nidus the unde- 
veloped being attaches itself to the teats, receives 
nutriment, and grows, till at length it is capable of 
acting for itself. In some instances the marsupium 
is nothing more than a fold of skin, and some- 
times it is wanting ; but two bones, situated on 
the anterior part of the pelvis, and termed the mar- 
supial hones, are never absent. These grounds of 
distinction have been extended by the researches of 
anatomists, and among them in particular Professor 
Owen, who has pointed out several never-failing 
accordances in the structure of other organs, as the 
heart and the brain, and also has cleared up many 
points respecting which doubts had previously ex- 
isted. Into the series of facts and deductions so 
luminously treated by that philosophic investigator 
of nature the plan of this work forbids us to enter : 
we refer our readers, however, to the ' Phil. Trans.,' 

?artii.. 1834; the ' Proceed. Zool. Soc. Lond.,' 1831, 
833, 1838, and 1839; 'Phil. Trans.,' part i., 1837; 
' Annals of Nat. Hist.,' Nov., 1839 ; ' Proceed. Geol. 
Soc. Lond.,' vol. iii., 1838-9, &c. 

The Marsupial animals are all restricted to two 
portions of the globe, namely, America and Aus- 
tralia, including certain islands of the Indian Ar- 
chipelago. The American species were the first 
known to European naturalists, and, indeed, the 
only ones with which Linnaeus was acquainted. 
Captain Cook introduced the kangaroo of Australia 
to science, and subsequent researches in that re- 
gion, the newest continent, have made us now 
familiar with its Fauna and Flora. Upwards of 
seventy species of Marsupials are known as Aus- 
tralian, besides about eighteen species belonging to 
other groups of quadrupeds, as the dingo dog, cer- 
tain seals, a few bats, and Rodents. The marsupial 
sub-class contains the following families, viz. : 
1. Didelphidse. 2. Dasyuridie. 3. Myrmecobiidae. 
4. Peramelidae. 5. Macropidae. 6. Phalangistidae. 
7. Phascolomyidae. 8. Monotremata. Of each of 
these family sections we shall give examples. 


60, 61. — The Virginian Opossum 

\DidelphU Virginiana). The genus Didelphis, of 
which the Virginian opossum is an example, is 
restricted to America. It contains about twenty 
species, some of which are very small. 

The teeth are as follows : — upper incisors ten, of 
which the two middle are longer than the rest, and 
■omewhat separated from them ; lower incisors 
eight ; canines as usual ; molars on each side above, 
seven, the three first false, triangular, compressed ; 
molars below, seven, the three first false ; the true 
molars both above and below crowned with sharp 
tubercles. Of all terrestria mammalia, the Myrme- 
cobius excepted, the teetli are in these animals 

the most numerous, amounting to fifty : Incisors _> 


canines , molars — : = 50. (See figure 62.) 

1—1 7—7 

The limbs are short, the feet plantigrade, the toes 
five on each foot, armed with sharp strong curved 
claws, excepting the inner toe or thumb on the 
hinder feet, which b opposable, and destitute of a 
nail. The soles are covered with a naked skin en- 
dowed with great sensibility. The tail is scaly and 
naked, except at its base, and constitutes an organ 
of prehension, not, however, to the same extent in 
every species. The head is long and pointed, the 
profile straight. The eyes are small, dark, promi- 
nent, and undefended by eyelids, but furnished 
with a nictitating membrane. The ears are large, 
thin, naked, and rounded. The tongue is rough 
with homy papillae. The snout is long ; the muzzle 

* Manmpimm, i purse or pouch. 

pointed, naked, and moist ; the nostrils are lateral : 
the mouth extremely wide ; and the expression of 
the physiognomy peculiar and unpleasant. In one 
division of this genus the females have a pouch for 
their young; in another division the poucn is rudi- 
mentary, con.sisting of a slight fold of skin. 

In tlie figure (03) of the skeleton of the Virginian 
opossum, the marsupial bones {a i are seen. 

Tlie Virginian opossum, and its immediate rela- 
tives, are slow in their movements, and nocturnal 
in their habits; they reside habitually on the 
branches and in the hollows of trees, remaining 
tornid during the day. At night they prowl about, 
and feed upon insects, eggs, birds, reptiles, and 
small mammalia, adding also fruits and roots to 
their diet. Their sense of smell is in high perfec- 
tion. Like our pole-cat, as respects voracity, though 
not activity, they often invade the precincts of the 
farm-house, destroy poultry and other domestic birds, 
and retreat on the first appearance of dawn, leaving 
their slaughtered victims behind. Their odour is 
disgusting, especially when alarmed or irritated. 

The Virginian opossum is common in pany parts 
of North America, from Mexico to the southern 
provinces of the United States. It is one of the 
largest and most robust of the genus, and equals a 
cat in size, being about twenty-two inches in the 
length of the head and body measured over the 
curve of the back ; the tail is fifteen inches long. 
The under fur is deep and woolly, traversed by 
long straight whitish hairs, often tipped with brown. 
The ears are large and black, margined at the tip 
with white. The scaled portion of the tail of a 
whitish tint. The general colour of the fur is dirty- 
white, with a slight yellow hue ; the legs are dusky- 
brown, a tint of which surrounds the eyes. Hairs 
of moustaches long and white, with a few of a black 
colour intermixed. 

There is nothing pleasing either in the appear- 
ance or habits of the Virginian opossum : in cap- 
tivity it is slothful in the extreme, and becomes 
inorainately fat, eating both animal and vegetable 
diet. Whatever may be its cunning in a state of 
liberty, it evinces but little intelligence when caged 
in our climate, but appeais to lie a compound of 
indolence and apathy, not unmixed with timidity. 
In its native woods it suffers from the attacks of 
birds and beasts of prey, and is also hunted by man 
for the sake of tlie flesh and fat. " As soon as the 
opossum discovers the approach of his enemies, he 
lies perfectly close to the branch, or places himself 
snugly in the angle where two limbs separate from 
each other. The dogs, however, soon announce the 
fact of his presence by their baying, and the hunter, 
ascending the tree, shakes the branch upon which 
the animal is seated with great violence, so as to 
alarm and cause him to relax his hold." In this 
way, driven from branch to branch, he is obliged 
at last to drop to the ground, where, unless the dogs 
are vigilant, the animal escapes ; for, as is asserted, 
it steals slowly and quietly to a little distance, and 
fathering up itself into a small compass, assumes 
the stillness and attitude of death. This artifice, 
under the obscurity of night, and amidst dense rank 
herbage, or tangled underwood, often proves suc- 
cessful. In the ' Perfect Description of Virginia,' 
1649, it is noticed as a beast " that hath a bagge 
under her belly, into which she takes her young 
ones, if at any time aifrighted, and carries them 
away." Lawson states that the 'Possum is found 
nowhere but in America. She is the wonder of all 
the land animals, being the size of a badger, and 
near that colour. The female doubtless breeds her 
young at her teats, for I have seen them stick fast 
thereto, when they have been no bigger than a 
small raspberry, and seemingly inanimate. She 
has a paunch or false belly, wherein she carries her 
young, after they are from those teats, till they can 
shift for themselves. Their food is roots, poultry, or 
wild fruits. They have no hair on their tails, but a 
sort of a scale, or hard crust, as the beavers have. 
If a cat has nine lives, this creature surely has nine- 
teen ; for if you break every bone in their skin, and 
mash their sKull, leaving them for dead, you may 
come an hour after, and they will be gone quite 
away, or perhaps you may meet them creeping 
away. They are a very stupid creature, utterly 
neglecting their safety. They are most like rats of 
anything. I have, for necessity in the wilderness, 
eaten of them. Their flesh is very white, and well 
tasted ; but their ugly tails put me out of conceit 
with that fare. They climb trees as the racoons do. 
Their fur is not esteemed nor used, save that the 
Indians spin it into girdles and garters." The pre- 
hensile power of the tail serves the animal in 
more ways than one, for it is stated that the little 
ones when advanced in growth leap upon their 
mother's back if they are frightened, and, twisting 
their tails round hers, escape, with her assistance, 
the threatened danger. 

This animal climbs with great facility, and will 
hang suspended from the branches by its tail, and 
by swinging its body contrive to fling itself to the 

wljoining boughs. It is often observed hangins' 
motionless for a considerable time with its he^ 

The opossum produces several young, sometimes 
as many as axteen at a birth. She makes a thick 
nest of dry grass, in some obscure retreat, in which 
to conceal herself. When first born the young are 
in a most rudimentary state, minute, blind, naked, 
and shapeless. Yet even in this state they are al- 
ways found adhering to the teats of the mother, 
shrouded in her pouch. There they remain until 
they have attained the size of a mouse, which is 
not until the fiftieth day, at which period their eyes 
are opened, and their bodies are covered with hair. 
They now venture occasionally from their hiding- 
place, returning to it on the least appearance of 
danger ; nor is it until they have attained to a con- 
siderable size that they finally quit their anxious 
parent. The period of gestation is said to be twenty- 
six days. 

64. — Merian's Opossum 
{Didelphis dorsieera). Among the opossums, ii» 
which a fold of the skin of the abdomen forms only 
a rudimentary pouch, must be enumerated Merian » 
opossum. Though the other opossums with com- 
plete marsupial pouches occasionally carry their 
young on the back, with their tails twined round 
that of the parent, still it is in these pouchless spe- 
cies that this curious habit most usually prevails ; 
hence the term dorsigera, which, though applied to 
the present animal, might with equal propriety 
be given to other species, as Didelphis brachyura, 
cinerea, tricolor, and murina. 

Merian's opossum is a native of Surinam, and in 
its habits it agrees with the rest of the genus. The 
tail is slender, and longer than the head and body 
taken together ; at the base it is clothed with fur 
resembling that of the body generally ; the naked 
portion is of a pale brown tint. The fur of this 
animal is short and lies close ; on the upper parts of 
the body it is greyish brown, the roofs of the hairs , 
being paler. 'The under parts of the body are yel- 
lowish white ; a deep brown spot encircles the eyes ; 
the forehead, top of the head, cheeks, outer side of 
the limbs and feet, are yellowish white. Length 
from nose to root of tail about six inches ; length of 
tail seven inches. A beautiful specimen of this 
active little opossum, with its young clinging to it, 
is preserved in the British Museum. 

6.0. — ^Thk Yapock Opossum 

(Cheironectes palmatus). This interesting animal, 
the yapock, is a native of Brazil, tenanting the 
smaller streams and rivers, and it appears to extend 
from the confines of that empire to the shores of 
the Gulf of Honduras. Buffon's specimen was 
procured in Cayenne. He terms it " Petite Loutre 
de la Guyene." It is also called " Demerara otter." 

The yapock measures from ten to fourteen inches 
long in the head and body, the tail being rather 
more. The limbs are short, and the contour of the 
body elongated. The ears are moderate, the nose 
pointed ; the fur of the body close, short, somewhat 
crisped and glossy ; the tail, excepting at the base, 
is scaly, the scales being spirally arranged and in 
terspersed with fine, short, bristly hairs. The fore- 
feet are divided into five long and slender toes, 
armed with small weak claws, the innermost or 
thumb excepted, which has a flat nail. It is not 
opposable, though placed rather behind the general 
line of the other toes. On the outside of the wrist 
there is an elongated tubercle (the pisiform bone 
developed) resembling a sixth finger, the use of 
which is not apparent. The hind feet, which are 
broad, are each divided into five toes, tied together 
by ample webs ; the claws are small ; the inner toe 
has a flat nail. This curious animal is furnished 
with cheek-pouches of great size, which extend far 
back along the sides of the mouth, and this circum- 
stance, as Mr. Ogilby remarks, " hitherto unob- 
served by zoologists, throws considerable light upon 
the habits of this rare animal, which thus appears, 
like the omithorhynchus, to feed upon fresh-water 
Crustacea, the larvae of insects, the spawn of fishes, 
&c., which it probably stows away in its capacious 
cheek-pouches." Small fishes are doubtless among 
its prey. 

The yapock, unlike the opossums, is incapable of 
climbing : it is an aquatic animal, like the otter, 
and lives in holes along the banks of the rivers which 
it frequents, and in which it seeks its food. It is 
said to take its young early to the water. Two spe- 
cimens in the possession of the celebrated naturalist 
M. Natterer, were caught near water not far distant 
from Rio Janeiro, and a third was captured alive 
near Para, in a basket similar to those used in this 
country for catching eels. It had made its way 
through the funnel-shaped entrance, under water, 
and could not return. 

The dentition of the yapock difl'ers in some points 
from that of the opossums : the incisor and canine 
teeth are the same in both, but the molars are only 
five on each side, two false and three true, both in 

Opossums. I 



the upper and under jaw. The ground colour of 
the upper surface is dusky black ; a white semilunar 
mark passes from ear to ear across the forehead; 
on each side are four large transverse marks of de- 
licate grey, one on the scapula, and three on the 
sides of the body, forming bands interrupted or 
rendered incomplete by a middle dorsal line. The 
under surface is white , the tail is black, its tip (the 
extent varying from half an inch to three or four 
inches) being white. 

6G.— The Brush-tailed Phascog.\le 
{Phasco^ale penicillata). This animal, the " Tapoa 
tafa " of White, is a native of Australia. It is found 
throughout the colony of New South Wales, and is 
common on Liverpool Plains ; Mr. Gould saw it also 
at Adelaide, in South Australia, where it frequently 
enters the houses. It is arboreal in its habits, and 
feeds on small birds, insects, &c. ; but little is known 
respecting its general economy. 

The brush-tailed phascogale belongs to the family 
of Dasyuridae. In size it exceeds the common brown 
rat of our country ; its tail is very bushy, and is 
probably used to assist in climbing. The fur of the 
body is long, full, soft, and loose ; the general colour 
above is grey ; the under parts are white. 

67. — ^The Ursine Opossum 
{Basyunis ursinus). In their dental system the 
animals of this genus (Dasyurus) approach the Ame- 
rican opossums ; they differ, however, in having 
only eight incisors in the upper jaw, and six in the 
lower. The canines are large ; the false molars are 
two on each side, above and below ; the true molars 

four. Dental formula: Incisors ^, canines, 

1— r 

molars ^^ = 42. (See figure 68.) All the animals 

6 — 6 
of this genus are Australian. 

The ursine dasyurus, or opossum, is a native of 
Van Diemen's I^nd, and is called by the colonists 
the native devil, by which name it was known up- 
wards of thirty years back. Instead of being slender 
and active, as are the Dasyuri generally, this animal 
is thickset in its proportions and heavy m its move- 
ments. Its shape is not unlike that of a badger, 
but the head is thick, the muzzle short and stout, 
the eyes small, the mouth wide. The limbs are 
short, robust, and clumsy ; the toes, five on the fore 
feet, four on the hind, are armed with large claws 
well adapted for burrowing. The heel is produced, 
and the sole is naked and callous, indicating a plan- 
tigrade step and heavy pace. 

Like the bear, which it resembles in its actions 
and gait, the ursine opossum sits up on its haunches, 
and frequently uses its paws in conveying food to 
the mouth. Its voice is a hollow barking growl. 
The female produces four or five young at a birth : 
as in all the Marsupials, they are rudimentary, 
small, naked, and blind, and in this stage ot their 
existence are found firmly adhering to the teats of 
the mother. 

The ursine opossum measures twenty-one inches 
in length, exclusive of the tail, which is seven inches. 
The fur of the body is rather long, harsh, and black ; 
a white gorget is conspicuous on the chest, and a 
white transverse mark often crosses the haunches. 
This animal is stupid and voracious in the extreme. 
Its habits are nocturnal, and it frequents the shore 
of the sea, feeding upon moUusca, carrion, &c. The 
flocks of the colonists in Van Diemen's Land, and 
domestic poultry, suifer from its ravages. Dunng 
the day it conceals itself in burrows or holes in the 

Mr. Harris, who first described this species under 
the name of Didelphis ursina, says, "These animals 
were very common on our first settling at Hobart 
Town, and were particularly destructive to poultry, 
&e. They however furnished the convicts with a 
fresh meal, and the taste was said to be not unlike 
veal. As the settlement increased, and the ground 
became cleared, they were driven from their haunts 
near the town, to the deeper recesses of the forests 
yet unexplored. They are however easily procured 
by setting a trap in the most unfrequented parts of 
the woods, baited with raw flesh, all kinds of which 
they eat indiscriminately and voraciously. They 
also, it is probable, prey on dead fish, blubber &c., 
as their tracks are frequently found on the sands of 
the sea-shore. In a state of confinement, they 
appear to be untamebly savage, biting severe y, 
and uttering at the same time a low yelling growl.' 
We have had frequent opportunities of observing 
the ursine opossum in captivity. Its heavy head 
and wide mouth give it a peculiar expression of 
ferocity unmingled with the slightest intelligence. 
When roused from its lethargy, it instantly displays 
its formidable teeth, ready to bite in a moment. It 
neither acknowledges its keepers nor those who 
habitually feed it : it keeps in the darkest part of 
the den, and the nictitating membrane of the eye 
i» in perpetual motion, and indication that light is 
distressing. It feeds indiscriminately on bread and 

milk, and flesh. From the strength of its jaws, and 
the severity of its bite, the ursine opossum is more 
than a match for an ordinary dog, and, as Mr. 
Gunn states, is the most destructive animal to sheep 
in the colony. It is fierce, and defends itself ob- 

69. — The Dog-head Thylacinus 

(Thylacinus Cynocephalus). This animal, called 
zebra opossum, and zebra wolf, tiger, hysena, &c., is 
a native of Van Diemen's Land, where fortunately 
it is much rarer than the ursine opossum, other- 
wise it would prove a greater pest, from its size and 
strength. In stature it nearly equals a wolf ; the 
head much resembles that of a dog, but the mouth 
is wider ; the tail is thick at the base, becoming 
more slender to the point : it is covered with short 
close hairs of a brown colour. The general fur is 
short and smooth, of a dusky yellowish brown barred 
or zebraed on the lower part of the back and rump 
with about sixteen black transverse stripes, broadest 
on the back and gradually tapering downwards, two 
of which extend a considerable way down the thighs. 
The ground-colour of the back has a tint of dusky 
grey. The eyes are large, full, and black. Length 
of head and body of adult male, nearly four feet ; of 
the tail two feet ; average height of back one foot 
ten or eleven inches. In the specimens we have 
examined, the tail appeared compressed, as was 
observed by Mr. Harris, its original describer. Mr. 
Gunn, however, in the ' Magazine of Natural History," 
contradicts this part of Mr. Harris's statement. 
Dental formula: — mcisors, g; canines, j— r ; mo- 

lars, ,j--^ = 46. 

The toes are 5 on the fore-feet, 4 on the hind- 
feet ; the claws are blunt as in the dog : a narrow 
naked line runs up the back of the wrist from the 
ball, and also up the metatarsus of the hind limbs, 
to half the distance between the ball or pad and 
the heel. 

In its habits the dog-headed thylacinus is noc- 
turnal, remaining concealed during the day in the 
caverns and fissures of the rocks, in the deep and 
almost impenetrable glens among the highest moun- 
tains of Van Diemen's Land. Like the ursine opossum 
it is distressed by the light, and brings the nictitat- 
ing membrane of the eyes into perpetual use. 
During the night it prowls, hyaena-like, in quest of 
prey. The bush kangaroo and other animals it 
destroys, and even manages to eat the spine-covered 
echidna (or porcupine anteater), which is so pro- 
tected by its panoply of spears as to seem almost 
invulnerable. An individual was caught by Mr. 
HaiTis in a trap baited with kangaroo flesh ; it lived 
but a few hours, having received some internal 
hurt in securing it, and appeared to be stupid, in- 
active, and ferocious, uttering from time to time a 
short guttural cry : like the owl, it was constantly 
drawing and undrawing the nictitating membrane 
of the eye. In its stomach was found the partly- 
digested remains of a porcupine anteater. IVlr. 
Gunn (see ' Annals of Natural History ' for 1838, 
vol. I., p. 101) informs us that the thylacinus is 
common in the more remote parts of the colony, 
and is often caught at Woolnorth and Hampshire 
Hills. It usually attacks sheep in the night, but is 
also seen during the daytime, upon which occasions, 
perhaps from its imperfect vision by day, its pace is 
very slow. We are not aware that this animal has 
ever been brought alive to Europe. 

70, 71. — ^The Long-nosed Bandicoot 
(Purameles nasuta). The Bandicoots appear to take 
in Australia the place of the shrews, tenrecs, and 
other Insectivora in the old world. Closely allied 
in the structure of their organs of locomotion to the 
kangaroos, yet in their system of dentition they 
exhibit a remarkable difterence. In this latter 
point they in some respects approach the opossums 
(Didelphis), and the characters of the teeth indicate 
an insectivorous appetite. Above the incisors are 
10 in number, of these the outermost on each side is 
conical and apart from the rest. The canines are 
curved and stand isolated ; the molars on each side 
are 7, of which the 3 first are false, compressed, 
and sharp. The four true molars are crowned with 
sharp tubercles. Below the incisors are 6 in close 
array, and projecting obliquely. The canines and 
molars are as in the upper jaw. 

10 1-1 

Dental formulo : — incisors, 



molars, ,^—==48, (See fig. 72). 

The general contour and form of the bandicoots 
is rabbit like, but the muzzle is elongated, narrow, 
and pointed, the nose advancing considerably be- 
yond the jaw. The fore-feet are divided into five 
toes, of these the innermost is rudimentary, and the 
outermost a mere cubercle, having a minute nail. 
The three middle toes are large, and armed with 

strong claws. The hinder limbs, though not de- 
veloped to the same proportionate extent as in the 
kangaroos, exceed the fore-limbs. The metatarsur 
is elongated and naked beneath ; the toes are fous 
in number, viz., on the inner side, two toes joined 
in common integument, as in the kangaroos, each 
furnished with its distinct claw ; a large and robust 
middle toe, with a straight strong pointed claw ; 
and a small outer toe also armed with a straight 

Though the system of dentition in the bandicoots 
is insectivorous, they do not refuse vegetable ali- 
ment; they live in buiTOws, for the digging o£ 
which their fore-paws are well adapted. In their 
movements these animals resemble a rabbit ; they 
do not, like the kangaroo, bound from the hind 
limbs alone, but arching the back, proceed with a 
saltigrade gait, that is half way between running 
and jumping ; or rather by a succession of short 
leaps from the hind to the fore feet, but not with 
much speed, nor maintained for a great length of 
time. The kangaroos make considerable use of the 
tail, but in the bandicoots it is by no means-so 
important an organ, though it assists them in 
sitting upright, an attitude usually assumed when 
eating, the fore-paws being brought into use as 
holders, like those of the squirrel. With these paws 
they scratch up the earth in search of roots and 
insects, and it is said that the potato crops of the 
colonists in some districts suffer from their incur- 
sions. They are readily tamed, and in a few days 
become reconciled and familiar. Five species are 
now known : of these one is a native of New Guinea. 
The long-nosed bandicoot is found in New South 
Wales. It measures about 16 inches in the length 
of the head and body, and 5 in that of the tail. 
The ears are erect, pointed, and covered with short 
hair ; the eyes are very small ; the nose remarkably 
long, pointed and naked at the extremity. The 
tail is slender, and though better covered with hair, 
bears some resemblance to that of a large rat. 
The hair is of two kinds, an upper and under coat ; 
the hairs forming the upper or external coat are 
coarse and harsh. In colour it resembles the 
rat, excepting that it is of a more sandy shade on 
the upper parts of the body, and of a more clear 
silvery white beneath. The under-coat, concealed 
by this outer garment, consists of soft ash-coloured 
wool or fur, well calculated to protect the animal 
from cold and variations of temperature ; for it 
appears to be an inhabitant of the mountain districts 
of Australia, principally, if not exclusively. 

The form and characters of its teeth would lead 
us to suppose that it fed almost entirely upon 
insects and similar creatures ; and M. Geoflfroy even 
imagines that it may use its long snout for the pur- 
pose of rooting up the earth like a pig in search of 
worms and grubs. The colonists however assert 
that these bandicoots are chiefly if not purely 
herbivorous, and that the principal part of their 
food consists of roots, which they dig up with their 
sharp and powerful claws. In the neighbourhood 
of human habitations they frequently enter into the 
granaries, and do as much mischief to the corn as 
the rats and mice of our own country. The Austra- 
lians have however one advantage over the Euro- 
pean farmers in this respect : the bandicoot is more 
easily excluded than the rat, for it cannot, like that 
destructive species of vermin, eat its way through the 
planks and timbers, and still less through the brick 
walls of the buUdings. It is probably from this 
habit of committing petty depredations upon the 
farm-yards and grananes, as well as from the gene- 
ral similarity of their external appearance, that the 
colonists of New South Wales sometimes confound 
the bandicoots with various species of murine ani- 
mals originally found in the country under the 
common denomination of native rats and mice. Nor 
is it at all improbable, notwithstanding the assertion 
of the colonists to the contrary, that M. Geoffrey's 
conjecture as to the insectivorous habits of this ani- 
mal may be at least partly if not entirely true. The 
common rat. with teeth much less adapted for 
living upon flesh than those of the bandicoots, is 
well known to have decidedly carnivorous propen- 
sities ; and, as M. Geoff'ry very correctly observes, 
it is seldom that analogous forms of dentition fail to 
indicate analogous appetites. 

The insectivorous hedgehog eats the root of the 
plantain, boring with its snout under the plant so 
as to get fairiy at it, leaving the leaves untouched. 

73. — Thb Ch.eropus 

{Chceropus ecaudaius, Ogilby). This animal,'which 
is closely allied to the bandicoots, was first described 
by Mr. Ogilby (March, 1838) from a drawing made 
by Sir Thomas Mitchell. The animal was found by 
that officer on the banks of the river Murray 
during his expedition into the interior of New South 
Wales. The following is from his journal :— 

"June 16, 1836. The most remarkable incident 
of this day's journey was the discovery of an animal 
of which I had seen only a head in a fossil state in 

ei'— VlrgliiliD Opotsnm. 

64.— Ueriu't Opossum. 

69.— Dog-hesd Thylacbnu. 


65. — Yapock Opowum. 

79*. — 1. Diiuected Head of mammftry fr«tua of a Kangaroo, 'i. Teat of 
the mother ; the mark shows how br it is taken in by the yoang. 

74.— Banded Myrmecobiils. 

7(;.— Ureat KaDgaroos. 

No. f3. 






the limestone c«ve« of Wellineton Valley, where, 
from iU very nineular form, I nupposed it to beloiuf 
to loaie extinct specie*. The chief peciiliaritv then 
obterved was the broad head and ver>- lone slender 
•noiit, which resembled the narrow neck of a wide 
bottle ; but in the living animal the absence of a 
tail was still more remarkable. The feet, and espe- 
cially the fore-le?8, were also sin^larly formed, the 
latter reteroblini? those of a pie ; and the marsupial 
openinjc was downwards, and not upwartls, as in the 
kanearoo and o'hers of that class of animals. Tliis 
nuadruped was discovered by the natives on the 
pound, but on beinft chased it soueht refuge m a 
hollow tree, from which they took it alive, all of 
them declarinsr that they had never before seen an 
animal of the kind. This was where the party had 
commenced the journey up the left bank of the 
Murray, immediately after crossing that river." 

The' specimen was presented to the museum at 

'The drawin)? of the fore-foot very closely resem- 
bles that of the pig : two toes are represented short 
and of equal length, with hoof-like claws ; but there 
is a swelling at the base of the first phalanges, 
which renders it probable that there may be two 
nidimentarv ones also present. The form and cha- 
racters of the hind-feet are perfectly similar to those 
of Perameles, as are also the teeth, as far as Mr. 
Ogilby could judge from the drawing, except that 
the canines appeared much smaller. The ears are 
long, elliptical, and nearly naked ; the head broad ; 
the muzzle long and pointed ; the body is described 
as being about the size of that of a small rabbit, 
and the fur much of the same colour and quality as 
tn that animal. (See Proceed. Zool. !<oc. Lond.. 
Mareh, 1838.) Most probably, in its habits and 
manners, the animal resembles the bandicoots, but 
wc must wait for definite information before we 
can speak positively. 

74. The Banded Myrmecobius 
{Mijrmecnbitiis fasciatus). This elegant little crea- 
hire is the example of a new genus recently de- 
scribed by Mr. Waterhouse. It is thus chai-acter- 
U!e<l : — Fore-feet with live toes, hind-feet with four 
toes, all free ; head elongated, snout produced ; 
ears moderate, subacute ; body slender ; tail rather 

Dental formula : — incisors, - ; canines, r— y ; 

4-4 , 4-4 _ 

false molars, ^—z ; true molars, j— j = 52. The 

teeth are minute and insectivorous in their charac- 
ter ; and the branch of the lower jaw fsee fig. 75) is 
twisted in such a manner, that the outer surfaces of 
the true molar» come in contact with the mastica- 
ting surface of those of the upper jaw. The toes 
are armed with strong curved claws. 

The banded Myrmecobius is about the size of a 
squirrel. The fore part of the body is reddish, gra- 
dually blended into the black, which is the prevail- 
ing colour of the posterior half, and which is 
adorned with nine white bands. Fur of two kinds. 
Under hair scanty and whitish grey ; upper hair 
rather coarse, short, and adpressed on the anterior 
parts ; long on the pgsterior and under parts ; hairs 
on the anterior part of the back generally black at 
the base and fulvous at the apex ; those on the 
head very short, brownish above, being composed 
of a mixture of black, fulvous, and a few white 
haiis: a few black haire spring from the sides of 
the muzzle and under each eye ; hair of the tail 
long and rather bushy ; most of the hairs on the 
under part fulvous at t)ie base and white at the tip; 
those on the under bide of the tail generally black 
at the base and white at the apex. Length from 
nose to root of tail, ten inches ; length of tail to the 
end of the hair, seven inches. 

It is a native of the district bordering the Swan 

"This beautiful and interesting little animal," 
observes Mr. Waterhouse, " was tii-st discovered by 
Lieut. Dale whilst on afi exploring party in the in- 
terior of the country at the Swan Kiver settlement, 
and was discovered about 90 miles to the south-east 
of that river. Two of these animals, says Lieut. 
Dale, were seen within a few miles of each other ; 
they were first obsei-ved on the ground, and on being 
pursued, both directed their fiight to some hollow 
trees which were near. We succeeded in capturing 
one of them ; the other was unfortunately burnt to 
death in our endeavour to dislodge it by lumigating 
the hollow tree in which it had taken refuge. The 
country in which they were found abounded in 
decayed trees and ant-hills. A second specimen 
has since been brought to England and placed in 
my hands for examination. I was informed this 
<vas brought from Van Diemen's T^nd; but Mr. 
Alexander Gordon, who had sent the specimen to 
England to be stutTed, has since assureil me that 1 
was misinformed, he having himself procured the 
•nimal at Swan River." 

76. 77. — The Great Kangaroo 
(Maeroput major, and M. Giganteut, Shaw). The 
general aspect of the kangaroos is very pecu- 
liar : the anterior parts of the body are light and 
flexible, and the fore limbs are small. In contrast 
with these characters is the vast development of the 
hinder quarters, the haunch, hind limbs, and tail ; 
ports of the frame in which the muscular power of 
the animals is concentrated. 

The hinder limbs are voluminous and long : the 
metatarsus is produced, and furnished beneath with 
a naked callous pad, running from the toes to the 
heel. The ordinary attitude of the kangaroos is 
upright, with a forward inclination, the weight rest- 
ing on the nmd limbs, the long sole (or metatarsus) 
of which is applied to the ground, and also on the 
tail, which with the limbs forms a tripod for the sup- 
port of the body. The chest is contracted, the body 
tapering from the haunches to the neck, tlie con- 
tour being pyramidal. The head is well proportioned 
and delicately turned. The fore-paws have 5 toes 
armed with strong sharp claws ; the hind feet are 
divided into four toes ; of which the two innermost 
are very small, and compacted together so as to 
appear as one ; but the slender bones of each and 
the claws are distinct. The third or middle toe is 
large and powerful, well padded beneath, and armed 
with a strong hoof-like nail. The outer toe is less 
than the middle, but larger than the two inner toes 
together; its nail is in proportion. The eyes are 
full ; the ears rather large ; the upper lip is cleft. 
There are perfect clavicles, and the arm enjoys 
considerable freedom of motion. 

The skeleton of the Great Kangaroo (fig. 78) well 
displays the difference in the development of the 
limbs, and the solidify of the osseous structure of 
the tail, which is clothed with voluminous muscles. 

The dentition in the genus Macropus is as fol- 
lows : — The incisore of the upper jaw are 6 in num- 
ber ; the lateral one on each side being the largest 
and furrowed. Between the incisors and the molars 
there exists a large unfilled space. The molars ...e 
five on each side, but the first is a false molar, and 
often wanting, being pushed out by the advance of 
those behind as the posterior ones rise from their 
sockets. In the under jaw the incisors are 2, long, 
powerful, and pointed ; thev advance horizontally 
forwards, and have a sharp oblique external edge op- 
posed to the edge of the upper incisoi-s. 

The molars as in the upper jaw, and also 
rough, with two transverse sharp prominences, which 
wear gradually down, showing a fold of enamel en- 
circling an osseous centre. Fred. Cuvier divided 
from the genus Macropus those kangaroos which had 
shorter ears, and a nearly naked tail, though, as in 
fig. 79, their dentition is the same. He placed them 
in a genus which he termed Halmaturus. 

. . 6 0-0 

Dental formula : — incisors 5- ; canines, jT— r ; mo- 

lars, _ — J = 28. 
5 — 5 

The ordinary mode of progression in these ani- 
mals, as well as their flight from enemies, is by a 
series of bounds, often of prodigious extent. They 
spring from their hind limbs alone, neither the tail 
nor the fore limbs being in requisition. In feeding 
they assume a crouching hare-like position, resting 
on the fore-paws as well as on the hinder extremi- 
ties while tf\ey browze on the herbage. In this at- 
titude they hop gently along, the tail being pressed 
to the ground. On the least alarm, however, they 
rise on their hind limbs and bound to a distance 
with gieat rapidity. Sometimes, when excited, the 
old male of the Great Kangaroo stands on tiptoe 
and on his tail, and is then of prodigious height. In 
fighting he balances himself for a moment on the 
tail, and strikes fonvard with both the hind legs, 
using his fore paws at the same time. The blows 
given by the hind feet are terribly effective. 

The diet of the kangaroo is exclusively herbace- 
ous ; the stotnach is very large and sacculated, and 
balls of hair, similar to those so often occurring in the 
stomach of cows and oxen, have in a few instances 
been ibund in it. These balls, as was observed by 
Mr. Owen, are entirely composed of the hairs of the 
animal matted together, and agglutinated by the 
mucus of the stomach. With the complexity of the 
stomach of the kangaroos is associated the act of ru- 
mination. The kangaroo ruminates while in its 
erect attitude ; bnt this act by no means takes 
place with the same frequency and regularity as in 
the true ruminants, viz., the ox or deer. 

The Great Kangaroo (the Boomer, Forester, and 
Old Man Kangaroo of the colonists ; Bundaary of 
the aborigines) is extensively spread in New Hol- 
land, in the intermediate country between New 
South Wales and South Australia, and also in Van 
Diemen's Land. It was first discovered by the cele- 
brated navigator Captain Cook in 1770, while sta- 
tioned on the coast of New South Wales. 

The Great Kangaroo is not strictly speaking gre- 
garious ; more than six or eight are seldom seen to- 

gether; most frequently it is met with singly or in 
pairs. The kind of country which it prefers con^ists 
of low grassy hills and plains skirted bv thin open 
forests of brushwood, to which Mr. Gfould says it 
resorts for shelter from the oppressive heat of the 
mid-day sun. That it would bear, if naturalized, the 
severities of our winter, is beyond a doubt, since in 
Van Diemen's Land, among other places, it resorts 
to the bleak, wet, and frequently snow-capped sum 
mit of Mount Wellington. 

The male greatly exceeds the female in size 
measuring 7 feet 10 inches from the nose to the 
extremity of the tail, the length of the latter being 
little more then 3 feet. Instances have occurred ol 
the weight being 220 pounds. The general colour 
is uniform greyish brown, grizzled on the aim 
and under suri'ace. A whitish mark runs above 
the upper lip, and is faintly traceable along the 
sides of the face. The hands, feet, and tip of the 
tail are black. 

Tlie kangaroo readily takes to the water, and 
swims well. It often resorts to this mode of es- 
caping from enemies, among which is the dingo, or 
Australian dog. Man, however, is the most unre- 
lenting foe of this inoftensive animal. The native 
employs several modes of obtaining it. Sometimes 
he steals upon it, under the covert of the trees and 
bushes, till within range of his unerring spear. 
Sometimes numbers of men unite in a large party, 
and, forming a circle, gradually close in upon the 
animals with shouts and yells, by which the animals 
are so terrified and confused, that they easily be- 
come victims to the bommerengs, clubs, and spears 
which are directed from all sides against them. 
The colonist employs the gun, and a breed of dogs 
between the greyhound and bulldog, fierce, power- 
ful, and very fleet, for the course. Many of these 
dogs, says Mr. Gould, are kept at the stock-stations 
of the interior for the sole purpose of running the 
kangaroo and the emu. The latter is killed solely 
for the supply of oil which it yields, and the former 
for mere sport, or for food for the dogs. " Al- 
though," he adds, " I have killed the largest males 
with a single dog, it is not advisable to attempt 
this, as they possess great power, and frequently 
rip up the dogs, and sometimes cut them to the 
heart with a single stroke of the hind leg. Tliree 
or four dogs are generally laid on, one of su- 
perior fleetness to pull the kangaroo, while the 
others rash in upon and kill it. It sometimes adopts 
a singular mode of defending itself by clasping its 
short but powerful arms around its antagonist, leap- 
ing away with it to the nearest water-hole, and there 
keeping it beneath the surface until drowned. With 
dogs the old males will do this whenever they have 
an opportunity, and it is also said they will attempt 
the same with man." 

In Van Diemen's Land the Great Kangaroo is re- 
gularly hunted with foxhounds, as the deer or fox 
in England. The sport is said to be excellent. Mr. 
Gregson says, in a letter to Mr. Gould, " I recollect 
one day in particular when a very fine boomer 
jumped up in the very middle of the hounds, in the 
open. He at first took a few high jumps with his 
head up, and then, without a moment's hesitation 
he stooped forward, and shot away from the hounds 
apparently without elibrt, and gave us the longest 
run I ever saw alter a kangaroo. He ran fourteen 
miles by the map, from point to point, and if he had 
had fair play, 1 have little doubt that he would 
have beat us. But he had taken along a tongue 
of land that ran into the sea, so that on being 
hard pressed, he was forced to try to swim across 
the arm of the sea, which cannot have been less 
than two miles broad. In spite of a fresh breeze, 
and a head-sea against him, he got fully half-way 
over ; but he could not make head against the 
waves any farther, and was obliged to turn back, 
when, being quite exhausted, he was soon killed. 
The distance he ran, taking the different bends of 
the line, was not less than eighteen miles." He 
wa.s fai- before the hounds, and quite fresh when he 
took to the water. His hind quarters weighed nearly 
seventy pounds. " We did not measure the distance 
of the hop of this kangaroo, but on another occasion, 
in which the boomer had taken along the beach, 
and left his prints in the sand, the length of each 
jump was found to be fifteen feet, and as regular as 
if they had been stepped by a sergeant. When a 
boomer is pressed, he is very apt to take to the water, 
and then it requires several good dogs to kill him ; 
for he stands waiting for them, and a.s they swim 
up to the attack, he takes hold of them with his 
fore feet, and holds them under water. The buck is 
very bold, and will generally make a stout resist- 
ance ; for, if he cannot get to the water, he will 
place his back against a tree, so that he cannot be 
attacked from behind, and then the best dog will 
find him a formidable antagonist. The doe. on the 
contrary, is a very timid creature ; and I have even 
seen one die of fear." 

The period of gestation in the kangaroo is thirty 
nine days. The appearances presented by the 




young; one twelve hours after birth, and adhering to 
the teat of the mother, within the pouch, are thus 
described by Mr. Owen : — " It resembled an earth- 
worm in the colour and semi-transparency of its in- 
tegument, adhered firmly to the pomt of the nipple, 
breathed strongly but slowly, and moved its fore- 
legs when disturbed. Its body was bent upon the 
abdomen, its short tail tucked in between the hind 
legs, which were one-third shorter than the fore- 
legs, but with the three divisions of the toes now 
distinct. The whole length from the nose to the 
end of the tail when stretched out did not exceed 
one inch and two lines."' 

Outline of tlie kan2ari>o almttt twelve hours after birth, showin;; 
its natural size autl external development at this period, n, tJie upper 
nipple uf the left side, to which it was uttaclied ; 6, the lower nipple 
f>f the same side. 

Though enabled by means of its lips to grasp 
the nipple with considerable firmness, the unaided 
efforts of the young one could not draw nutri- 
ment thence, and consequently the mammary gland 
IS acted upon by a peculiar muscle, which, com- 
pressing it, forces out the milk into the mouth of 
the young. Mr. Owen remarks, that it can scarcely 
be supposed that the efforts of suction should always 
be coincident with the successive jets of milk, and 
that there might arise danger from the flow of milk 
into the little creatures larynx. To remedy this 
there is a special contrivance, first described by 
Geoffroy, but which was not unnoticed by Hunter, 
as evidenced by preparations of the larynx and 
throat of two young kangaroos in the museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons. (Fig. 79.*) 

" Thus aided and protected by modifications of 
structure," continues Professor Owen, " both in the 
system of the mother and in its own, designed with 
especial reference to each others peculiar condition, 
and aflording, therefore, the most irrefragable evi- 
dence of creative foresight, the feeble offspring con- 
tinues to increase from sustenance exclusively de- 
rived from the mother for a period of about eight 
months. The young kangaroo may then be seen 
Vequently to protrude its head from the mouth of the 
pouch, and to crop the grass at the same time that 
the mother is browsing. Having thus acquired ad- 
ditional strength, it quits the pouch, and hops at 
first with a feeble and vacillating gait, but continues 
to return to the pouch for occasional shelter and 
supplies of food till it has attained the weight of ten 
pounds. After this it will occasionally insert its 
head for the purpose of sucking, notwithstanding 
another foetus may have been deposited in the pouch, 
for the latter, as we have seen, attaches itself to a 
different nipple from the one which had been pre- 
viously in use." 

80. — The Kanoaroo, or Potoroo 

{Hypsiprymnm murinus. Pander and D'AIton). 
The Bettong of the natives of New South Wales. 

It is principally in their dentition, and in the 
elongated narrow form of the head, that the little 
animals of the genus Hypsipiymnus differ from the 
kangaroos. There are canines in the upper jaw. 
The dental formula is as follows (see figure 81) : 

incisors, - : canines, .ZL. ; molars, ^I? = 30 

2 0—0 5—5 

Figure 82 represents the skull, the elongated con- 
tour of which is very conspicuous. 

The Potoroo (the Macropus minor of Shaw, H. 
Betosus of Ogilby ; H. Peronii, Quoy and Gairaard) ; 
is about the size of a rabbit, raea.suring fifteen inches 
from the nose to the root of the fail, the latter being 
ten inches and a half in length. The general colour 
of the fur is brown ; on the back blackish, pencilled 
with brownish-white. Lips, chin, throat, and under 
parts of the body dirty-white ; fore-feet brown ; 
ears rounded, and well covered with hair; tail 
scaled, and sparingly clothed with short decumbent 
hairs, which (excei)ting at the base and extreme 
pointj are of a black colour on the upper part and 
•ides of the tail. The hairs on the under side are 
brown ; and at the tip there are a few dirty-white 

The Potoroo is common in New South V/ales. 
It is timid and inofiensive, feeding on vegetables, 
and proceeding in the manner of the kangaroo. 
Of its habits little is known. It frequents the pre- 
cincts of scrubs and patches of brushwood, and 
scratches up the ground in quest of roots. These 
animals are found to be very destructive to the 

potato crops, and are very readily caught by baiting 
traps with this vegetable. 
Several other species have been described. 

83.— The Sooty Tapoa 

{Phalangista fuliginosa). This animal presents us 
with the example of a group termed Phalangers 
(genus Phalangista) ; but they are often, but erro- 
neously, called opossums in the writings of travellers 
and persons not conversant with natural history. 

The Phalangers of Australia have six incisors 
above, of which the two middle are the largest ; 
and in the lower jaw are two long obliquely pro- 
jecting incisors, which are met by the corresponding 
incisors of each side. There is a small canine on 
each side in the upper jaw only. The molars on each 
side, above and below, are five, of which the first 
is a false molar. These are the constant teeth, but 
besides there are in some species little additional 
molars, sometimes canine-like molars, in front of 
the contiguous and constant series. The number 
of these additional teeth varies in the same indivi- 
dual on different sides of the jaw. Dental formula : 

6 • 1—1 , 5—5 ,,. 

incisors, -; canines, ; molars, : addi- 

2 0—0 5— T) 

tionaJ inconstant molars, , or 1 !", or — , 

2—2 3—3 1—1 

3 3 

or - — . (See figure 84.) The head is somewhat 

elongated, the forehead slightly arched ; the mouth 
moderate. The feet have five toes; those of the 
fore-feet are armed with strong hooked claws ; 
those of the hind-feet consist of four true toes, and 
a large thumb destitute of a nail, and very distinct 
from the rest, of which the two innermost are 
shorter than the two outermost, and are united 
together to the base of the claws. The tail is long 
and prehensile, well furred, excepting at the ex- 
treme point and part of the apical portion beneath, 
which is bare to a greater or less extent. We may 
here observe that the Phalangers form three sec- 
tions or subgenera. The firs', {Phalangista) is 
exclusively Australian, and has the tail naked be- 
neath only at the tip. The second section compre- 
hends a group (Cuscus) distinguished by having the 
tail throughout the greater part of its extent be- 
neath naked, scaly, and highly prehensile. The 
eai-s are short and close. These animals inhabit 
the Celebes and Moluccas, where they are called 
Couscous, or Coescoes. The third group (Pseudo- 
nheirus, Ogilby) has the tail less densely clothed 
than in Plialangista proper : the apical portion is 
naked beneath ; the fore-feet, with the two united 
inner toes, slightly opposed to the others. 

Besides these, are the Flying Phalangers, consti- 
tuting a distinct genus, Petaurus. The true Pha- 
langei-s, of which we figure the Sooty Tapoa and the 
Vulpine Phalanger (Ph. vulpina), are animals of 
arboreal habits, residing almost constantly among 
the branches. Their food consists principally of 
fruits, buds, leaves, &c., but insects, eggs, &c. are 
also eaten. Night is their season of activity ; during 
the day they conceal themselves in the hollows of 
trees, or lie close on the branches, hidden by the 
foliage. The number of young which the females 
produce at a birth appears to be two, at least if 
the account of Mr. Bennett (see ' Wanderings in 
New South Wales") is to be taken as a criterion. 
He states that on one occasion he was present when 
a number of flying squirrels (viz., flying phalangers), 
opossums (phalangers), bandicoots, snakes, &c., 
were caught by the natives during what he terms 
a hunting expedition, and that one of the opossums 
among the game was a female, and had two large- 
sized young ones in her pouch. 

Though the Phalangei-s are at ease among the 
branches, the motions of these animals, generally 
speaking, are not distinguished by that nimbleness 
and rapidity which we so much admire in the 
squirrel. On the contrary, their motions are slow 
and cautious, and they use their prehensile tail as 
an additional security. When in danger of dis- 
covery, they are said to suspend themselves by 
the tail, hanging, head downwards, motionless as if 
dead ; and this is more remarkably the case with 
the Couscous of the Moluccas. It is, indeed, re- 
ported, that if a man fix his eyes on one thus coun- 
terfeiting death, it will continue to hang till, no longer 
able to sustain the weight, the muscles of the tail 
relax with extreme fatigue, and the animal falls to 
the ground. Few animals have more soft and deli- 
cately woolly fur than the Phalangers ; their 
skins are consequently highly prized by the abori- 
gines, as well as their flesh, which is eaten with 
avidity, and doubtless is not inferior to that of the 

Like many of the Marsupials, the Phalangers have 
an unpleasant smell, owing to a fluid secreted in 
certain glands ; but this does not affect the delicacy 
and flavour of the flesh. 

In captivity the Phalangers are not very attractive : 
during the day they slumber concealed among the 

hay or other bedding of their cage, shrouding them 
selves from observation, and are impatient of inter- 
ruption ; they do not, however, attempt to bite, and 
appear as stupid as they are sluggish : their form, 
however, is graceful, and their fur sets them ott' to 
much advantage. When feeding they sit up like 
the squirrel, holding the article of which they are 
partaking between the fore-paws. During the night 
they traverse their cage, take their food, and en- 
joy the active hours of their existence. We know 
of no instance in which they have bred in Europe ; 
but as the kangaroo produces young in our climate, 
it is not improbable that under favourable circum- 
stances these animals also might multiply in our 
extensive menageries, especially as they appear tc 
bear our climate very well, care being taken against 
their exposure to the severities of the weather. 

The following description of the Sooty Tapoa was 
taken from a living specimen : — " The shajje and 
Yiro^ovWons, oi Phalangista fuliginona axe those of 
the Phal. vulpina : the ears are also of similar 
shape and size, hairy on the outsides, but naked 
within. The colour is a uniform sooty-brown over 
all parts of the head and body, not even excepting 
the belly and the inner surface of the thighs. The 
hair has a frizzled appearance, but it is not so close 
nor so fine as in Phal. vulpina. The tail is long 
black, and rather bushy ; the nuked slip wnAnvnuaXh, 
as well as the nose ancl soles of the feet, which are 
also naked, is of a bright flesh colour. The mous- 
taches are large, stiff", and black." The individual 
was said to have been brought from Sydney. In 
the museum of the Zoological Society are seven or 
eight distinct species of this genus. 

85. — The Vulpine Phai.anoer 

{Phalangista vulpina). Of all the species the 
Vulpine Phalanger is probably the most carnivorous. 
The female is destitute of a true pouch, and the 
teats are two in number. The Vulpine Phalanger is 
about the size of a cat ; in captivity it disjilays but 
little to interest ordinary observers, the day being 
passed in sleep ; nor, when roused up by the ap- 
proach of night, is it remarkable for activity or 
alertness. Its fur is soft, fine, and woolly ; the pre- 
dominating tint is greyish brown, passing into a 
yellowish-grey on the shouldei's ; the tail is covered 
with long black fur, excepting along a line on the 
under side at the tip, which is naked. It is a native 
of New South Wales, and also of Van Diemen's 
Land, where it is common. The tint of colouring 
is subject to considerable variation as respects 
intensity, intermediate shades being observable 
between the ordinary grey specimens and the Sooty 
Tapoa, which is regarded as a distinct species. The 
native name of the Vulpine Phalanger, according to 
White, is JVha tapoa roo. 

86. — The Spotted Couscous 
(Cuscus maculatus. Cuscus Amboinensis, Lac^-p. ; 
Phalangista maculata, Geoffr.). This species is a 
native of the Islands of Amboina and New Guinea, 
where it is called Couscous or Coiiscoes. M. Lesson 
found it at Waigiou, where it is called Scham-scham. 
It is arboreal, and its flesh is in request, being 
esteemed as delicate food by the natives. In 
colouring this animal is subject to much variation ; 
generally the ground-tint is whitish, ornamented 
with isolated brown spots ; these sometimes blend or 
run into each other. The fur is thick and woolly. 

87. — The Squirrel Petaurus 

(Petaurus sciureus). This creature belongs to a 
group of beautiful animals, bearing the same rela- 
tionship to the phalangers that the flying squinels 
do to the ordinary squirrels. They constitute the 
genus Petaurus, subdivided into three minor sections, 
according to certain modiflcations of dentition. In 
the section termed Belideus to which the Squiirel 
Petaurus belongs the dental formula stands thus 
(see fig. 88) : 

Dental formula : — Incisors, - ; camnes, — - ; 

3 _3 4 4 

false molars, ^—. ; true molars, t^ = ^ 

In the figure of the teeth, from F. Cuvier, the 
number of lower molar teeth (false and tme) only 
amounts to five on each side ; in other points also 
he is erroneous. 

The Petauri, or Flying Phalangers, are characterized 
by a broad expansion of skin on either side of the 
body between the anterior and posterior limbs ; the 
tail is free, long, and destitute of prehensile power ; 
it forms a balancer to the body in the flying leaps 
which these animals take, and perhaps assists them 
in modifying the direction of their career. Tliese 
animals are nocturnal in their habits, and feed upon 
fruit, leaves, and insects. During the day they con- 
ceal themselves in hollow trees, and are said gene- 
rally to associate in small flocks. Their aerial 
evolutions, when the shades of evening have rouseu 
them to activity, are described as b^ing peculiarly 

07«— Sqoiml Fetanmi. 






84.— Teeth of Sooty Tapn. 

SS.^TmUi oI (Hjtiiricl ]V*t<tinu> 


!^«,a^£_^ l«g)g()^^ 

81.— Teeth of Kinguuu l!*t. 

8t -SkuU of Kuguoo Ra^ 

80 — Kangaroo Bi*. 

B^l^j? yL( *1_V,.. VtlVi y 





79.— Teeth of Great Kaniraroo 


JX o?--/^ 



»1.— Teeth of Wombat* 





grweful, and their leaps apparently desperate. The 
S<iuirrel Pelannis is one of the most beautiful of the 
genus. It is a native of New South Wales, and is 
called by the colonists the Sugar Sqmrrel and 
Norfolk ItUitut flying Squirrel. We have seen 
two of these animals in captivity : during the day 
they remained in a state of torpidity, rolled up in a 
bed of wool and soft hav. At ni§:hl they became 
animated, and traversed their cajje with gna.i rapi- 
dity, leaping from one part to another, and gambol- 
ling in the exuberance of a sportive disposition. 
At the same time they were timid and by no means 
remarkable for intelligeiue. While leaping, the 
lateral membranes are exjuinded so as to form a 
parachute. The following; anecdote serves to prove 
both the daring extent of the leaps taken by these 
animals, and the power they certainly posses.s of 
turning or altering their course : — " On board a 
Teasel sailing off the coast of New Holland was a 
Squirrel Petaunis, which was permitted to roam 
about the ship. On one occasion it reached the 
mast-head, and as the sailor who was dispatched to 
bring it down approached, it made a spring from 
aloft to avoid him. At this moment the ship gave 
a heavy lureh, which, if the original direction of 
(he little creature's course had been continued, must 
have plunged it into the sea. All who witnessed the 
scene were in pain for its safety ; but it suddenly 
appeared to check itself, and so to modify its career, 
that it alighted safely on the deck." 

The Squirrel Petaums is about 8 inches long in 
the head and body, and as much in the tail. The fur 
IS peculiarly delicate and solt ; the general colour 
above is fine grey, somewhat darker on the head, 
and white beneath. A black line passes from the 
point of the nose along the back towai-ds the full 
rutred tail ; and the lateral folds of skin are bounded 
in front, and on the sides by a similar band, which 
confounds itself gradually with the grey of the 
body : the outer margins of these expansions are 
fringed with white. The thumbs of the hind feet 
are strong, distinctly opposable to the sole, and des- 
titute of a claw. The eyes are full and large. 

89. — The Koala, 

Phascolarcioi cinereus (Lipurus cinereus, Goldf. ; 
Phase. fuscus, Desmar. ; Phoic. Flindertii, Less.; 
The Ashy Koala). 

The Koala, or Ashy Koala, is the only species of 
the genus which has been discovered. 

This extraordinary animal is thick and stoutly 
made, with robust limbs and powerful claws : there 
is no tail. The head is large, the muzzle blunt, and 
the naked space in which the nostrils are situated is 
continued along the nasal bones, till it nearly attains 
the level of the eyes. The ears are large, standing 
out from the sides of the head, and tufted w ith long 
full fur: the eyes are small. The fore feet have 
each five toes, armed with large sharp claws : these 
toes are divided into two sets ; the first two forming 
a pair by themselves, and antagonizing with the 
other three. The hind feet have also five toes, viz., 
a large and powerful thumb destitute of a nail, and 
well padded beneath, and four strongly clawed toes, 
of which the two firet, as in the phalangere, are 
united together as far as the last joint. It may be 
here remarked that in some of the phalangers (as 
Cook's phalanger, &c.) there is a decided tendency 
In the iiret two lingers of the fore paws to remain 
distinct and separate from the rest. The dentition 
approaches closely to that of the phalangers. 

6 1-1 

Dental formula: — incisors, -^; canines, 

false molars. 




, 4-4 
true molars, z — -. = 30. 

The Koala is a native of New South W^ales, but 
does not appear to be very abundant ; at least it 
is seldom seen in collections of natural objects from 
that country. In its habits it is nocturnal and arbo- 
real ; it climbs with great facility, and in passing 
along the branches suspends itself like a sloth by 
its claws, which in adults are very powerful. The 
female carries heryounjj one, when able to leave the 
pouch, clinging to her back, and long continues her 
care of it. The Koala however does not live exclu- 
sively on the trees: it visits the ground, and there 
burrows, and that with facility. In the cold season 
it is said to make a nest in its underground retreat, 
and retiring to it there to lie dormant. Its food is 
entirely vegetable, and consists, in part at least, of 
the young leaves of the gum-trees {Eucalyptus). 
It laps like a dog when drinking, and uses its fore 
paws in laying hold of the branches while it feeds. 
Its voice IS a soft barking sound. On the ground 
Its gait resembles that of a bear. Length of head 
and body, about 26 inches. The fur is compact, 
wjolly, and of an ashy grey, patched with white 
over the crupper : the inside of the thighs is rusty- 

The colonists term this animal native bear or 
luonkey. By the Yas natives it is called goiibtin. 

90. — The Wombat 

{Phatcolomyt H'ombal, Peron and Lesueur ; Didel- 
phit ursina, Shaw.) 

The Wombat is the only known ipecies of the 
genus to which it belongs. It is found in New 
South Wales, South Australia, and Van Diemen's 
Land, as well as in some of the islands in Bass's 

In its general figure this animal is heavy and 
clumsy : the limbs are short ; the muzzle blunt ; the 
eyes very small ; the ears short and pointed ; the 
nostrils widely separated ; the tail a mere tubercle. 
The feet are broad ; the lore feet have five toes with 
strong nails for burrowing. The hind feet have also 
five toes, but the inner is merely a little nailless 
tubercle. The teeth are formed lor grinding roots 
and other vegetable matters. (Fig. 91.) 

Dental formula : — incisors, — ; canines, - — -^ ; mo- 

5 — 5 
lars, g— ^ - 24. All the teeth are deeply implanted, 

and hollow at the base. 

The fur is moderately long and very coarse, indeed 
almost bristly ; the general tint is gnzzled-brown, or 
grey mottled with dusky black ; the feet are black ; 
the under parts of the body dirty white. The tip of 
the muzzle is naked. Length of head and body, 
upwards of three feet. The first account is in 
Lieut.-Col. Collins's work (' Account of the English 
Colony in New South Wales,' 1802), where there is 
an excellent description, an error as regards the den- 
tition of the animal excepted. The details were 
furnished by Mr. Bass, and drawn up from a speci- 
men obtained at Preservation Island, and sent to the 
Newcastle museum. 

As might be conjectured from its clumsy form and 
heavy squat proportions, the Wombat is slow and in- 
dolent. It lives in burrows, which it excavates to a 
considerable depth, and in which it quietly reposes 
during the day, being nocturnal in its habits. Its 
food is exclusively vegetable. Its temper is placid ; 
but its intelligence is at a low ratio. When pro- 
voked it uttei-s a hissing sound. Its flesh is said to 
be excellent. 

In captivity the Wombat is perfectly contented ; 
it passes the day in sleep, covered over by straw or 
other materials ; it feeds during the night, and in 
the morning resumes its tranquil slumber. Mr. G. 
Bennett, in his ' Wanderings,' notices one of these 
animals which was kept at Been, in the Tumat 
country, in a state of domestication. " It would re- 
main in its habitation till dark ; it would then come 
out and seek for the milk-vessels, and should none 
be uncovered it would contrive to get of}" the covere, 
and bathe itself in the milk, drinking at the same 
time. It would also enter the little vegetable gar- 
den attached to the station, in search of lettuces, for 
which it evinced much partiality. If none could be 
found, it would gnaw the cabbage-stalks without 
touching the foliage. Although these animals were 
numerous in the more distant parts of the colony, 
they are diflicult to procure, from the great depth to 
which they burrow." According to Mr. Bass, 
though its disposition is gentle, yet it bites and is 
furious if provoked, and then utters a low cry be- 
tween a hissing and a whizzing sound. Mr. Bass 
chased one of these animals, and lifted it off the 
ground, carrying it for upwards of a mile, without 
its exhibiting any discomposure, though it was 
often shifted from arm to arm. When however he 
proceeded to secure the animal by tying its legs, 
while he left it in order to cut a specimen of a new 
wood, it became initated, whizzed, kicked, and 
scratched with all its might, and snapped off a piece 
of Mr. Bass's jacket with its powerful incisors. The 
creature, whose temper was now ruffled, continued 
during all the rest of the way to the boat to kick 
and struggle, and only ceased from exhaustion. Ac- 
cording to the natives, the Wombat among the 
mountains westward of Port Jackson never comes 
out of its burrow to feed till night, but in the islands 
it is seen to feed during all parts of the day. The 
stomachs of such as Mr. Bass examined were dis- 
tended with coarse wiry grass, but these specimens 
were living on the islands ; and as such grass is not 
found in the hilly districts of the mainland, he con- 
cludes that the animal lives upon the sorts of vege- 
table that circumstances present to it._ He observed 
this animal on some occasions among the dry ricks 
of seaweed thrown up upon the shores, but could 
never discover what it was in search of. Its pace 
is a sort of hobble, something like the awkward gait 
of a bear. There is little doubt but that the Wombat 
might easily be naturalized in our island and other 
paits of Europe. 

92. The Echidna, or Porcupine Anteater 
{Echidna Histrir. Myrmecophagaaculeata, Shaw ; 
the Hedgehog of the colonists at Sydney). Tiie 
Echidna constitutes the only known example of the 
genus which it represents. It is characterised by 

the utter want of teeth. The body is stout ; the 
liml)8 are extremely short and thick ; the fore-paws 
are compact, and the toes undivided to the claws ; 
these are five in number, lar^e, flat, and blunt ; the 
inner claw is the smallest. The hind-feet are 
directed obliquely backwards, and are furnished 
with five claws, of which the first is short, and rises 
like a thumb at the junction of the foot to the limb. 
The hind limbs of the male are furnished with a 
sharp stout spur, situated internally on the tarsus. 
The head is small, the muzzle elongated into a pro- 
jecting narrow, beak-like snout, cleft transversely 
by a very small mouth at the apex. Tlie nostrils 
are above the mouth, minute and oval. The eyes 
are small and placed low on the sides of the head ; 
the iris is blue. There are no external ears. The 
upper surt'ace of the body and also of the short stout 
tail is covered by a compact mass of thick sharp 
spines more or less intermingled with coarse haii-s. 
Under ordinary circumstances these spines are 
directed backwards, converging obliquely to a cen- 
tral line down the back ; but they are capable of 
being elevated, and when attacked the animal rolls 
itself up like Ihe hedgehog, presenting at all points 
an array of levelled spears. 

The limbs and under surface we covered with 
brown hairs. 

As might be inferred from the strength of its 
limbs and size of its claws, the Echidna is a burrow- 
ing animal. Its food consists of ants and their 
young, which it takes by means of a wormlike 
tongue capable of being proliudcd to a great dis- 
tance. It appears to be nocturnal in its habits. 
Mr. G. Bennett states that the native names of the 
Echidna are ' Nickobejan' and ' Jannocumbine.' It 
is found in New South Wales, the islands of Bass's 
Straits, and in Van Diemen's Land. According to 
the writer last quoted, it inhabits the mountain 
ranges of Australia, and produces its young in 
December. It burrows with great celerity, and 
will even work its way under a pretty strong pave- 
ment or base of a wall, removing the stones with its 
claws. " During these exertions its body is stretched 
ir lengthened to an uncommon degree, and appears 
very diff'erent from the short plump aspect which 
it bears in its undisturbed state." 

The Echidna is eaten by the natives, and is said 
to taste much like young sucking-pig. 

In the ' Proceed. Zool. Soc. Lond.' for 1834, p. 
23, will be found the substance of a note from 
Lieutenant Breton, respecting an Echidna which 
lived with him for some time in New Holland, and 
survived part of the voyage to England. The ani 
mal was captured by him on the Blue Mountains, 
and is now very uncommon in the colony of New 
South Wales. He regards it as being, for its size, 
the strongest quadruped in existence. It burrows 
readily, but he knows not to what depth. Previ- 
ous to embarkation it was i'ed on ant-eggs and milk, 
and when on board its diet was egg chopped small, 
with liver and meat. Its mode of eating was very 
curious, the tongue being used at some times like 
that of the chameleon, and at others in the manner 
in which a mower uses his scythe, the tongue being 
laterally curled, and the food, as it were, swept into 
the mouth : there seemed to be an adhesive sub- 
stance on the tongue by means of which the food 
was secured. This individual died suddenly, but 
Lieutenant Breton agrees with MM. Quoy and Gai- 
mard in the opinion that with a little care and 
attention the animal might be brought alive to 

The skull of the Echidna (see fig. 93) is remark- 
able for the convexity of the cranial portion and the 
extreme prolongation and tenuity of the maxillaiy 
bones. The orbit is bounded by an oval rim, the 
lower portion of which consists of the zygomatic 
arch. The lower jaw is extremely slender. The 
structure of the sternal apparatus is the same as in 
the Ornithorhynchus (see fig. 102). 

94, 95, 9G, 97. The Ornithorhynchus, or Water- 
Mole OF THE Colonists 

{Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus, Blumenb. ; Platypun 
atiutinus, Shaw ; Mallangong and Tambrtet of the 
natives of the borders of the Yas river, Munum- 
bidgee, &c.). The genus Ornithorhynchus is per- 
haps the most singular of any contained in the class 
Mammalia, and certainly one of the most interesting, 
especially to the physiologist. It contains those 
remarkable creatines (perhaps more than one spe- 
cies) furnished with a duck-like beak and webbed 
feet, which would seem, even from their external 
organization, to partake in some degree of the 
nature of a bird — creatures, the first discovery of 
which excited the most lively astonishment. 

On looking at the Ornithorhynchus we are imme- 
diately stnick with the configuration of the head. 
Instead of a muzzle gradually continued as we see 
in other Mammalia generally, it abruptly assume:, 
the appearance of the bill of a duck, being broad. 
flat, rounded, and covered with a leathery mem- 
brane. The outer surface of the upper mandible is 


luSeum of animated nature. 


peyish black ; the palate flesh-coloured ; the under 
mandible paler externally. The edges of both are 
soft, and tlie lower, which is the shortest and nar- 
rowest of the two, has its edge adapted to a depres- 
sion under the margin of the upper mandible, which 
is also channelled with obliquely transverse furrows, 
those however are merely in the leatheiy skin. 
There are no horny laminae as in the bill of the 
duck. True teeth are wanting ; but on each side in 
either mandible there are two horny appendages 
without roots ; one on each side is large and tuber- 
culous, situated on the base of the mandibles, at the 
posterior part of the mouth ; the other forms a long 
narrow ridge on the anterior part of the mandible 
alonij the edge (see fig. 98). Capacious cheek- 
pouches are carried under the skin of the face, from 
the inside of the mouth, serving as receptacles for 
food. At the base of the beak, separating between it 
and the head, there projects a broad loose leathery 
flap from each mandible, the use of whiph is probably 
to defend the eyes and fur of the head from the 
mud in which the animal grubs, duck-like, in quest 
of insects. The tongue is short and thick, and 
covered with long papillse. The nostrils are two 
small orifices situated near the apex of Ihe upper 
mandible. The eyes are small, but Inilliant, and 
placed rather high in the head. The ears open ex- 
ternally by a simple orifice near the external angle 
of the eyes, and are capable of being expanded or 
closed at pleasure. 

The fore feet are largely webbed and divided into 
five toes, terminating in strong blunt burrowing 
claws. The web which unites the toes is tough and 
leathery : it extends considerably beyond the claws, 
and would appear at first sight to act as an impedi- 
ment to the animal while excavating its long bur- 
row. We do not find, however, that this is the 
case : it can be folded back at pleasure. The hind 
feet are smaller and less powerful than the anterior 
pair: they are divided mto five toes armed with 
sharp claws and webbed, but the membrane is 
not carried out beyond the roots of the claws. The 
hind feet are directed backwards as in those of the 
seal (see skeleton, fig. 99), and their action is 
backwards and outwards. The tarsus of the male 
is armed with a large sharp moveable spur turned 
backwards and inwards. It is not used as a weapon 
of defence, nor are accidental wounds and scratches 
made bv it while struggling in a person's hands 
attended with ill effects. Formerly this spur was 
regarded as poisonous. In the female a rudimen- 
tarv spur may be distinguished (see fig. 100). 

The body is elongated, low, and depressed ; the 
fur is close and fine, and consists of two sorts, an 
under-layer of soft, short, waterproof wadding, and 
an outer vest of long fine glossy hair, thickly set, 
and in many instances assuming a crisped appear- 
ance. The tail is strong, broad, flattened, and of 
moderate length : it is covered above with longer 
and coarser hairs than those of the body, but its 
under surface is only scantily furnished. General 
colour deep brown ; head and under parts paler ; 
a whitish spot in front of each eye ; average length 
of head and body, including tail, twenty to twenty- 
three inches; beak, about two inches and a half; 
tail, four or five inches. 

Eissentially aquatic, as is s"<ficiently declared by 
its outward structure, the J.iutnorhynchus passes 
the active part of its exigence almost exclusively 
in the water. The favourite places of resort of 
this animal are tranquil parts of rivers with high 
steep banks, and abounding in waterweeds, among 
which, and in the oozy mud, are the insects, &c. on 
which it feeds. 

Their burrows fsee fig. 101) are excavated in 
the steep banks overhanging the tranquil sheets of 
water in which they seek their food. These bur- 
rows are continued in a serpentine form, rising as 
they proceed, the termination often being at the 
distance of fifty feet from the mouth. The entrance 
is generally larger than the rest of the passage, but 
the termination is again enlarged, so as to be com- 
modious for the parents and their offspring. The 
female produces from two to four at a birth, and in' 
the month of November ^a summer month in Aus- 
tralia!. The young at an eariy period (immediately 
after birth, and for some time al^erwaicls) are naked 
and very small, and their general a.spect is very 
unlike that of the fully developed animal. They 
are curled round, the head and tail being doubled 
on the abdomen ; the skin of the body is thrown 
into transverse folds ; the eyes are merely indicated 
by the convergence of a few wrinkles on the skin, 
which over these organs, proving that their 
development does not take place till a considerable 
time after birth, and, together with the helpless 
rudimentary condition of the young animal, demon- 
rtrating that it is neces.saiily confined for a long 
period to the nest in which it is brought foith, 
and consequently that it does not and cannot follow, 
as has been conjectured, like a duckling just hatched, 
lt» parents to the water. The beak is small, soft, 
And covered with thin skin '• The margins of the 

upper mandibl - are rounded, smooth, tnicK, and 
fleshy ; the whole of the under mandible is flexible, 
and bends down upon the neck when ttie mouth is 
attempted to be opened. The tongue, which in the 
adult is lodged far back in the mouth, advances in 
the young animal close to the end of the lower 
mandible ; all the increase of the jaws beyond the 
tip of the tongue, which in the adult gives rise to a 
form of the mouth so ill calculated for suction or 
application to a flattened surface, is peculiar to 
that period, and consecjuently forms no argument 
against the fitness of the animal to receive the 
mammary secretion at an earlier stage of existence." 
(Prof. Owen.) 

That the Ornithorhynchus suckles its young, and 
possesses a milk-secreting apparatus, are facts 
which, though once denied, are now incontestably 

If the hairs be removed from the abdomen of a 
female Ornithorhynchus, an areola or oval spot may 
be distinguished, consisting of a group of ducts, 
very minute, yet with orifices larger than those in 
which the hairs are implanted. The areola varies 
in extent, and the ducts lead to a large gland be- 
neath the skin, and a thin muscular expansion. 
This mammary gland is composed of a number of 
lobes, amounting from one hundred and twenty to 
two hundred, and these are the cells in which the 
milk is secreted, and which oozes from the ducts, 
and is received by the soft mouth of the young, 
which is capable of being closely applied to the 

Specimens of two young Ornithorynchi of different 
sizes were minutely examined by Professor Owen. 
The smallest of these rather exceeded two inches in 
length ; the largest was double that size, and was 
one of the two young ones taken with a mother 
from a nest, on the banks of the Fish river, by Lieu- 
tenant the Honourable Lauderdale Maule, and kept 
alive for about a fortnight by that gentleman. The 
stomach of this larger specimen was fovind to be full 
of coagulated milk. On carefully inspecting the 
whole contents with a lens, no portion of worms or 
bread could be detected, which, Mr. Owen observes, 
solves the doubt entertained by Lieutenant Maule, 
as to whefher the mother nourished this young one 
with the food which was given to her for her sup- 
port, or with the secretion afterwards discovered to 
escape from the mammary pores ; for the mother 
having been killed by accident on the fourteenth 
day after her captivity, it was observed, on skinning 
her while yet warm, that milk oozed through the 
fur on the stomach. That it was really milk on the 
stomach of the young animal. Professor Owen de- 
monstrated, and the matter may be considered as 
fairly set at rest. Another point which seems to be 
now established is that the Ornithorynchus is ovovi- 
viparous, or, in other words, produces eggs, which, 
as in the case of the viper, and the viviparous lizard 
(Zootoca vivipara, Bell), are hatched just before ex- 
clusion, the young being born rudimentary and 

Referring to our illustrations, tig. lO.S exhibits 
a portion of the integument from the abdomen of 
the Ornithorhynchus, with the haire removed, to 
show the mammary areola. (Owen, ' Phil. Trans.) 
Fig. 104, a magnified view of the mammaiy 
areola, showing the orifices of the ducts of the 
glandular lobules. Fig. 105 shows the mammaiy 
lobular gland of the Ornithorhynchus, reduced be- 
low the natural size. (Owen, "'Phil. Trans.') Fig. 
106, view of the larger of the specimens of young 
Ornithorhynchi alluded to. a, the nostrils; c, the 
eyes ; d, the eai-s ; e, the vent ; /, the orifice and 
rudimentary spur of the hind foot ; g, membrane at 
the base of the mandibles. (Owen, ' Zool. Trans.') 
Fig. 107, smaller specimen of young ornithorhyn- 
chus, and front view of head, a, nostrils ; b, promi- 
nence on upper mandibles ; e, vent ; /, orifice and 
rudimentary spur on hind foot ; c, the eyes ; rf, the 
ears ; g, the membrane at the base of the man- 
dibles ; h. the tongue. (Owen, ' Zool. Trans.') 

The ratio in which the development of the young 
Ornithorhynchus proceeds is not ascertained. 

The Ornithorhynchus has never been brought 
alive to Europe. From the account of Mr. Ben- 
nett, who procured and kept several in Australia, 
it appears to be a lively interesting creature. Its 
voice, which it uttere when alarmed or disturbed, 
resembles the growl of a puppy, but in a softer 
key. It dresses its fur. and seems to delight in 
keeping it smooth and clean. (Fig. 96.) The 
mandibles are endowed with great sensibility. 
Speaking of a family of these creatures which he 
obtained, and which lived a considerable time 
in captivity, Mr. Bennett says "The young 
sleep in various postures; sometimes in an ex- 
tended position, and often rolled up, like a hedge- 
hog, in the form of a ball. (Fig. 97.) They 
formed an interesting group, lying in various atti- 
tudes in the box in which I had placed them, and 
seeming happy and content. Thus, for instance, 
one "lies cuHed up like a dog, keeping its barU warm 

with the flattened tail, which is brought over it. 
while the other lies stretched on its back, the head 
resting, by way of a pillow, on the body of the old 
one, which lies on its side, with the back resting 
against the box ; the delicate beak, and smooth 
clean fin- of the young, contrasting with the rougher 
and dirtier appearance of the older one : all fast 
asleep." The gambols of the young Ornithorhynchi 
are thus detailed : " One evening both the animals 
came out about dusk, and went as usual, and ate 
food from the saucer, and then commenced playing 
with one another like two puppies, attacking with 
their mandibles, and raising their fore-paws against 
each other. In the straggle one would get thrust 
down, and at the moment when the spectator would 
expect it to rise again and renew the combat, it 
would commence scratching itself, its antagonist 
looking on, and waiting for the sport to be renewed. 
When running they are exceedingly animated: 
their little eves glisten, and the orificesof their ears 
contract and dilate with rapidity : if taken into the 
hands at this time for examination, they struggle 
violently to escape; and their loose integuments 
make it difficult to retain them. Their eyes being 
placed so high on the head, they do not see objects 
well in a sti aight line, and consequently run against 
everything in the room during their perambula- 
tions, spreading confusion among all the light and 
readily-overturnable articles. I have occasionally 
seen them elevate the head, as if to regard objects 
above or around them. Sometimes I have been 
able to enter into play with them by scratching and 
tickling them with niy finger: they seemed to en- 
joy it exceedingly, opening their mandibles, and 
biting playfully at the finger, and moving about like 
puppies indulged with similar treatment. As well 
as comVjing their fur to clean it when wet, I have 
also seen them peck at it with their beak (if the 
term may be allowed) as a duck would clean its fear 
thers. When I placed them in a pan of deep water, 
they weie eager to get out after being there for 
only a short time ; but when the water was shallow, 
with a turf of grass in one corner, they enjoyed it 
exceedingly. They would sport together, attacking 
one another with their mandibles, and roll over in 
the v.ater in the midst of their gambols, and would 
afterwards retire, when tired, to the turf, where they 
would lie combing themselves. They appeared to 
be in a great measure nocturnal, preferring the twi- 
light to the bright glare of day." 

In fig. 108, the skull of the Ornithorhynchus is 
represented in diff'erent aspects : a, as seen from 
above ; b, as seen from below ; c, as seen from be- 
hind. The upper figure is that of the under jaw. 
The skull is remarkable for the flattened and elon- 
gated form of the bones of the facial portion ; the 
intermaxillary bones, which are, as it were, let into 
projecting maxiliaries, diverge, leaving a vast open- 
ing (the foramen incisivura). The cranial cavity is 
considerable ; the orl)its are small; the zygomatic 
arch slender and compressed. The suborbitar 
foramen appears on the edge of the upper mandible, 
its situation being marked by a projection of the 
bone. The lower-jaw is slender and depressed ; 
there are no coronoid processes ; the outer sides of 
the ascending rami (though very narrow) have, as 
in most, if, indeed, not all the Marsupials, a pit-like 
cavity for the lodgment of the masseter muscle. 
The extent of the temporal muscle is trifling. The 
skull of the Ornithorhynchus can be confounded 
with that of no other animal. 

With respect to the stenial apparatus to which 
we alluded in our account of the Echiana, it appears 
to be tbrmed more after the model of that of the 
Saurian reptiles, than after that of Mammalia. (See 
fig. 102.) 

Fossil Marsupials. — Besides the fossil opossum 
of the Montmartre gypsum {Didelphys Cuvieri), and 
the fossil Dasyurus, Hypsiprymnus, Halmaturus. 
Phascolomys, and Kangaroo, from the Australian 
bone-caves and breccia, two fossil forms discovered 
in the Stonesfield oolite, as evidenced by portions of 
the lower jaw, have recently attracted much atten- 
tion and no little discussion. Some anatomists, with 
M. de Blainville, contend against the Mammal origin 
of these relics, or at least of one of the forms ; but 
those who have examined the fossils and read the 
arguments on either side, will, we think, agree with 
Baion Cuvier and Professor Owen, and a-ssign them 
to animals of the Marsupial section, which at some 
epoch tenanted our quarter of the globe. The jaws 
of these extinct Mursupialir, named respectively 
Thylacotherium Provostii, Owen (fig. 109), and 
Phascolotherium Bucklandii, Owen (fig. 110), are 
represented of the natuial size, and also magnified, 
in order to show clearly the characters and arifl,nge- 
ment of the teeth. Those who wish to enter into 
the full details respecting these fossil relics will 
do well 10 consult the 'Geological Proceedings,' 
1838-9; Cuviers ' Ossemens Foss.," vol. v. : 'Ann. 
des Sciences,' 182.T ; and the papers of Mr. Broderip 
and Dr. Fitton in the 'Zool. .lournal," 1828. 

109. -Jaw of Thylacotheiium. 

107.— Soullet ipecimen of young Omithorhynchut 

103.— Portion of integomtnt Irom the Alidomen of Omithorhynchui. 

Front View of Muidibles of the above 

IM.— Mammary Gland nf Omithorhynchoa, reduced below the 
natural aiz^. 

110.— Jaw of Ph^urolotherinin 


122.— Orang-Outan. 

in^-Sknll of Orang-Outan. 






At the head of the Qimdnimanoug order U a jrroup 
consisting of the Chimpanzee, the Orane, and the 
Gibl)ons, constitutin); three genera; and it is among 
the members of these genera that the nearest ana- 
tomical approach to the human subject exists ; we 
luiy the nearest, for, after all, important and multi- 
lu'dinous are the points of difference. Figures 1 1 1, 
112, and 113, represent the skeleton of man, of the 
chimpanzee, and of the orang. A glance at them 
will snow the degree of their mutual resemblance, 
and the distance that intervenes between the 
osseous structure of the two latter and that of the 
human form. We shall not attempt to enter into 
minutige; but some of the more important dis- 
tinctions may be briefly touched upon. In both 
the chimpanzee and the orang we see the arms far 
longer than in man : in the former the hands, the 
skeleton being erect, reach the knee ; in the latter 
they nearly reach the ankle-joint. The propor- 
tionate shoi-tnessoi the lower limbs in these animals 
is very striking. In the chimpanzee, which is more 
fitted for the ground than the orang, the feet, or 
rather hind-paws, are broader and shorter in com- 
parison, and the thigh bone is secured in the socket 
oy means of a straight ligament (the ligamentum 
teres ', which is wanting in the orang ; and besides 
the orang, in a few quadrupeds only. The differ- 
ence in the form of the chest is evident: in the 
oranir, as in man, the ribs are twelve on each side ; 
but m the chimpanzee they are thirteen, the num- 
ber, consequently, of the dorsal vertebrte. In the 
orang the backward position of the occipital con- 
dyles (on which the skull rests on the spinal 
cbluran\ and the weight of the face, which is thus 
thrown forward, require a commensurate develoi)- 
inent of the spinous processes of the cervical (neck) 
vertebrae ; ailded to which, the general anterior in- 
clination of the vertebrse themselves renders the 
length and robustness of these processes the more 
imperative. In the chimpanzee the spinous pro- 
cesses, though necessarily developed, are so in a less 
degree than in the orang, the anterior inclination 
of the cervical vertebrse being less decided, and 
the weight of the face less oppressive. In both 
animals (and, indeed, in all the ape tribe) the cer- 
vical region is shorter than in man, and therefore 
better fitted for sustaining the weight of tlie head, 
which preponderates anteriorly. In the front view 
of the orang, the neck cannot be seen. The length 
of the forehead, and the proportionate shortness of 
the thumb, are marked characters. The difference 
in the form of the pelvis between these animals and 
man is obvious. The narrowness of the 06 sacrum, 
and the deficiency in expansion of the iliac bones, 
are not to be overlooked. With the expansion of 
the pelvis is connected the development of the 
lower limbs in man, to whom alone, of all animals, 
the erect attitude is easy and natural. The magni- 
tude and position of the skull, the stnicture of the 
spinal column, the osseous and muscular development 
of the pelvis and lower limbs, necessitate such an atti- 
tude. One advantage gained by this arrangement is 
the perfect freedom of the superior extremities, the 
lower limbs being the sole organs of progression. 
In the oiang and chimpanzee all four extremities 
are organs of locomotion : the chimpanzee, it is true, 
can proceed on the ground, supported, or rather 
balanced, on the lower extremities, calling the supe- 
rior only occasionally into use, except in as far as 
they are needed to maintain the equilibrium of the 
bo<ly ; but man walks with a free step, with his 
arm's at liberty, and with a precision very remote 
from tlie vacillating hobble of the tottering chim- 

Figures 114, 115, 116, and 117 are respectively 
repi esentations, first, of a well-developed human 
skull ; secondly, of the skull of a human idiot ; thirdly, 
of the chimpanzee (female') ; fourthly, of the orang. 
The contrast between the first and the two last is 
vei-y striking ; but that even of the idiot possesses 
those characters which at once proclaim it as be- 
longing to the human species. Professor Owen has 
well observed, that though " in the human subject 
the cranium varies in its relative proportions to the 
lace in different tribes, according to the degree of 
civilization and cerebral development which they 
attain, and that though in '.lie more debased 
/lithiopian varieties and Papuans the skull makes 
some approximation to tlie QuaiHimanous propoi- 
tions, still in these cases, as well as when the cra- 
nium is distorted by artificial means or by con- 
genital malformation, it is always accompanied by 
a form of the jaws, and by the disposition and pro- 
portions of the teeth, which afford unfailing and im- 
passable generic distinctions between man and the 
ape. To place this proposition in the most unex- 
ceptionable light, I have selected the cranium of a 
human idiot {\\o\ in whom nature may be said to 
have performed tor us the experiment of arrestinir 
the development of the biain, almost exactly at the 

size which it attains in the chimpanzee, and when* 
the intellectual faculties were scarcely more de- 
veloped ; yet no anatomist would hesitate in at 
once referring this cranium to the human species. 
A detailed comparison with the cranium of the i 
chimpanzee or orang shows that all those characters | 
are retained in the idiot's skull which constitute | 
the differential features of the human stnicture." | 
We refer those who wish to investigate the anatomy | 
of the orang and chimpanzee to Professor Owen s 
papers in the 'Trans. Zool. Soc.' and the 'Proceed- 
ings of the Zool. Soc' 

With regartl to the external characters of the 
chimpanzee, the orang, and the gibbons, it may be 
remarked that they agree in the total absence of a 
tail, and cheek-pouches, and in the extraordinary 
length of the anterior extremities compared with 
the posterior. In some few points the orangs and 
gibbons agree with each other the nearest, namely, 
in the presence of extensive laryngal sacculi, in the 
extreme length of the anterior extremities, and in 
the narrowness of the hands and feet, but not in 
general anatomical stnicture, aspect, or clothing. 
A small round head, a compressed face, a narrow 
under jaw, deep woolly fur, and ischiatic callosities, 
distinguish the gibbons, both from the orang and 
the chimpanzee. On the other hand, the orang and 
chimpanzee are less immediately related than 
Cuvier seems to have considered them. In most 
respects the chimpanzee approaches more nearly 
the type of the human structure, and particularly in 
the presence of a pendulous uvula at the bacl» of 
the palate, which is wanting in the orang, and in 
the structure of the laiynx, in which the laryngal 
sacs are not developed, as in the orang, but are pro- 
duced into a cavity of the os hyoides. Still, how- 
ever, the chimpanzee and the orang are more closely 
related to each other than the gibbons are to the 
latter. They are, moreover, the representatives of 
each other in their respective portions of the globe ; 
the one tenanting the secluded depths of the forests 
in Western Africa, the other the recesses of the 
still denser forests of Borneo and Sumatra. 

118, 119, 120, 121. The Chimpanzee 

(Pan go and Engeco, Battel, in Purchases ' Pilgrims ;' 
Barijs, Bans, and Quojas Morrou of Barbot, Dapper, 
&c. ; Smitten, Bosman; Pot'gn, Buffon; Pongn, 
or Great Black Orang, Shaw ; Jocko, Audebert ; 
Chimpanzee, Scotin's print, 1738; Troglodytes, 
Homo nocturnus, Linnaeus; Troglodytes ntger, 
Desmarest). The characters of the genus Troglo- 
dytes may be thus summed up : — muzzle long, and 
truncated anteriorly; supraorbital ridges promi- 
nent ; forehead depressed ; no cranial ridges ; facial 
angle .35°; external ears large and standing out; 
tail wanting ; arms reaching below the knee-joint ; 
feet wide, the thumb extending to the second joint 
of the adjoining toe, and always furnished with a 
nail. Canines large, overpassing each other, their 
points being lodged respectively in intei-vals of the 
opposite teeth; intermaxillary bones anchylosed to 
the maxillaries during the first dentition ; ribs, 
thirteen paii-s; no cheek-pouches; laryngal sac- 
culi, small. 

The Chimpanzee is a native of Western Africa, 
to the extent of ten or twelve degrees north and 
as much south of the torrid zone, including Guinea, 
Benin, Congo, Angola, &c. In some districts it 
appears to be common, and Bowdich ('Mission 
from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee :' Loud., 
1819) informs us that at Gaboon, where it is 
by no means rare, it was known to the natives 
under the name of Inchego and Ingeno. From 
the negroes he also learned that the adults gene- 
rally attain to the height of five feet, the breadth 
of the shoulders being very great, and their 
strength enormous. A female adult skeleton which 
we measured stood only three feet ten inches ; but 
the males most probably are larger. The hand of 
an adult, preserved in spirits of wine, measured nine 
inches and a half in length, and three inches and 
four lines in breadth, across the palm. The chim- 
panzee, the orang, and even the mandrill, have been 
strangely confounded together in the works of our 
older travellei-s, and even naturalists have regarded 
the two former as identical. Tulpius adopted the 
term Quojas Morion, used by Barbot ('Descr. of 
Guinea"), and Dapper ('Descr. of Africa") also calls 
the chimpanzee the Satyre of Angola, but he con- 
founded the orang of the Indian Islands with the 
chimpanzee, and fiirured as the latter an orang which 
was biOMght from Borneo, and presented to Fre- 
deric Henry, Prince of Orange, 1777. 

Buffon, who adopted the terms Pongo and Jocko 
(l"iom pongo, inchego, engoco, or cnjocko), in his 
great work (175(i', eives an imperfect sketch of a 
living young chimpanzee which he saw at Paris in 
the year 1740. and which was taken in Gaboon. 
At that time Buffon was not awareof any distinction 
between the African and the Indian animals. In 
the supplement (vol. vii.) the two are, however, dis- 
tinguished. Tc the Ai'iiciii chinipaniee the name 

•-.f Pongo ii appropriated, and to the Indian orang 
that of Jocko. Shaw describes " the Pongo, or irreat 
black orang-otan,"" as a native of Afri>^a, and tne 
" reddish-brown or chestnut oran-otan, called the 
Jocko," as a native of Borneo and the other Indian 
islands. With regard to the Smitten. Bairis, Bocgo, 
&c., and which have been applied by the early tra- 
vellers apparently to the chimpanzee, there is every 
reason to believe that they really refer to the man- 

Mr. Ogilby was the first to point out that the • 
chimpanzee is, as it would seem, alluded to in a 
work of great antiquity — the ' Periplus Hannonis."* 
It appears that a Carthaginian navigator named 
Hanno (a.c. "KK), or about that period", sent on an 
expedition of discovery, coasted Western Africa, 
and sailed from Gades to the island of Cerne in 
twelve days; and thence, following the coast, he ar- 
rived, in seventeen days, at a promontory called the 
West Horn. Thence, skirting a burning shore, he 
arrived in three days at the South Horn, and found 
an island inhabited by what were regarded as wild 
men, called by the interpreters Gorilloi, who were 
covered with long black hair, and who fled for re- 
fuire to the mountains, and defended themselves 
with stones. With some difficulty three females 
were captured, the males having escaped ; but so 
desperately did they fight, biting and tearing, that 
it was found necessary to kill them. Their pre- 
served skins were canied by Hanno to Carthage, 
and hung up in one of the temples as consecrated 
trophies of his expedition. From this time till the 
sixteenth century of our era we hear nothing of the 
chimpanzee ; for the western coast of Africa was, 
as it may be said, re-discovered only in the fifteenth 

One of the most trustworthy of our earlier tra- 
vellers, Andrew Battel, a sailor, who was taken pri- 
soner in 1589, and lived many years in Congo i Pnr- 
chas's 'Pilgrims'), describes two animals, the Pongc 
and the Engeco, the former as high and stouter than 
a man, the latter being much less. The Pongo, 
which is doubtless the chimpanzee, he describes a* 
having sunken eyes, long hair on the sides of the 
head, a naked face, ears, and hands, and the body 
slisrhtly covered. The limbs differed from those of 
man, being destitute of calves, but the animal 
walked upright. In its disposition it is stated to be 
grave and melancholy, and even when young far 
from frolicksome ; at the same time it is swift and 
agile, and is sometimes known to carry away young 
negroes. He further states that these animals con- 
structed arboure in which they slept. Their diet 
consisted of fniits, nuts, &c. ; and their muscular 
strength is such that ten men .vere unable to over- 
come one. Upon the death of one of their com- 
munity, the survivoi-s cover the body with leaves 
and branches of trees. 

Bosman, Froger, De la Brosse, and others describe 
the chimpanzee as living in troops, which resist the 
attacks of wild beasts, and even drive the elephant 
from their haunts. They possess matchless strength 
and courage, and it is very dangerous for single in- 
dividuals to pass near their places of abode. Bos- 
man states that on one occasion a number of them 
attacked, ovei-powered, and were proceeding to poke 
out the eyes of two slaves, when a party of negroes 
arrived to their rescue. That they surprise and 
carry away the negresses into the woods, and there 
detain them sometimes for years, is asserted by all, 
and an instance came under the personal notice oi 
De la Brosse. Captain Paine was assured that simi- 
lar instances happen in Gaboon. De la Brosse says 
they build huts, and ami themselves with clubs, 
and that they walk either upon two feet or four, as 
occasion may require. 

Lieutenant Matthews, R.N., who resided at Sierra 
Leone during the years 178.5-6-7, and whose letters 
describing this part of Africa appeared in 1788, in- 
forms us that the " chimpanzees,"" or "japanzees,"'are 
social animals ; and that " they generally take up 
their abode near some deserted town or village 
where the papau-tree grows in abundance, of the 
fruit of which they are veiy fond. They build huta 
nearly in the form in which the natives build their 
houses, which thev cover with leaves; but these are 
only for the females and young to lie in ; the males 
always lie on the outside. If one of them is shot, 
the rest immediately pursue the destroyer of their 
friend, and the only means to escape their vengeance 
is to part with vour gun, which they directly 
seize upon with afl the rage imaginable, tear it to 
pieces, and irive over the pui'suit." The terrestrial 
habits of the chimpanzee are confirmed by other 

Lieutenant Henry K. Sayers, who in 18.39 brought 
a young Chimpanzee to England, whicli he hatl 
procured in the Bullom country, the mother having 

* Tlie (iriijinal, nf wliich only a fir»'ek trnni.Ution is, wai 
nrilt^m in I'unic hy llumio.and i. a narrative uf a vny i^e he madt, 
hy uriler oftlie CartliKi.'iniau S'nate. nloni; Oie Afiican coiiiit. foi tlw 
estabUtitimoni of enliMiies Many celetirat<-d mtn of tlw name of 
Hanno have Itveil at iliirerent time«: hnt who the Hanno in f|iieiitioc, 
was- an<l what was llie exaet Uau- ul'liin vo\aue. are not a»n-naiDi.ii 




been shot, states that " trees are ascended by the 
chimpanzees (as he is led to conclude) only for 
food and observation." From the natives he learned 
that " they do not reach their full growth till be- 
•ween nine and ten years of age, vtfhich, if true, 
nrings them extremely near the human species, as 
the boy or girl of West Africa, at thirteen or four- 
teen years old, is quite as much a man or woman 
as those of nineteen or twenty in our more northern 
clime. Their height, when full grown, is said to be 
between four or tive feet; indeed I was credibly 
informed that a male chimpanzee, which had been 
shot in the neighbourhood and brought into Free 
Town, measured four feet five inches in length, and 
was so heavy as to form a very fair load for two 
men, who canned him on a pole between them. 
The natives say that in their wild state their strength 
is enonnous, and that they have seen them snap 
boughs otf the trees with the greatest apparent 
ease, which the united strength of two men could 
scarcely bend. The chimpanzee is, without doubt, 
to be found in all the countries from the banlcs of 
the Gambia in the north to the kingdom of Congo 
in the south, as the natives of all the intermediate 
parts seem to be perfectly acquainted with them. 
From my own experience I can state that the low 
shores of the Bullora country, situated on the 
northern shores of the river Sierra Leone, are in- 
fested by them in numbers quite equal to the com- 
monest "species of monkey. I consider these ani- 
mals to be gregarious, for when visiting the rice 
farms of the chief Dalla Mohammadoo, on the Bul- 
lom shore, their cries plainly indicated the vicinity 
of a troop, as the noise heard could not have been 
produced by less than eight or ten of them. The 
natives also affirmed that they always travel in 
strong bodies, armed with sticks, which they use 
with much dexterity. They are exceedingly watch- 
ful, and the first one who discovers the approach of 
a stranger utters a protracted cry, much resembling 
that of a human being in the greatest distress. The 
first time I heard it I was much startled ; the ani- 
mal was apparently not more than thirty paces dis- 
tant, but had it been bvA five I could not have seen 
it from the tangled nature of the jungle, and I cer- 
tainly conceived that such sounds could only have 
proceeded from a human being who hoped to gain 
assistance by his cries from some terrible and instant 
death. The native who was with me laid his hand 
upon my shoulder, and pointing suspiciously to the 
bush, said, ' Massa, Baboo live there,' and in a few 
minutes the wood appeared alive with them, their 
ones resembling the barking of dogs. My guide 
informed me that the cry first heard was to intorm 
the troop of my approach, and that they would all 
immediately leave the trees or any exalted situation 
that might expose them to view, and seek the bush; 
he also showed evident fear, and entreated me not 
to proceed any farther in that direction. The 
plantations of bananas, papaws, and plantains, 
which the natives usually intermix with their rice, 
constituting the favourite food of the chimpanzees, 
accounts for their being so frequent in the neigh- 
bourhood of rice-fields; The difficulty of procunng 
live specimens of this genus arises pnncipally, I 
should say, from the superstitions of the natives 
concerning them, who believe they possess the 
power of ' witching.' 

" There are authors who have, I believe, affirmed 
that some of the natives on the western coast term 
these animals in their language ' Pongos ;' but I 
beg leave to differ with them as to ' Pongos ' being 
a native term. The Portuguese formeriy monopo- 
lized the trade of the coast, and had large posses- 
sions there, as well as in the East Indies, most of 
the capes, rivers, &c. bearing the names they gave 
them to this day. Now ' Pongos ' 1 look upon to 
be a Portuguese East Indian term for a tailless 
monkey, and in consequence of their discovering a 
river in Africa the banks of which were inhabited 
by numbers of this species, they called it ' Rio 
Pongos,' a name which it bears still. This I con- 
ceive to be the origin of the term, whilst on the 
coast I observed that all the natives in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sierra Leone, when speaking of this 
animal, invariably called him ' Baboo,' a corniption, 
I should suppose; of our term Baboon." (' Proceed. 
Zool. Soc.,' ISjg.) , , . 

Within the last few years several young chim- 
panzees have been brought to this country, but 
none have long survived. Their human-like appear- 
ance, their intelligence and confiding manners, 
together with their activity, have attracted great 
interest and given rise to many narrations. Figs. 
121 and 124 were taken from an individual which 
lived in the menagerie of the Zoological Society 
from September, la3.5, to September, 1836. Its 
docility and gentleness were remarkable ; but it is 
v»ell known that the gentleness which characterises 
the young of all the ape tribe gives place, as matu- 
rity advances, to " unteachable obstinacy and un- 
Umeable ferocity ;" and from what we know of the 
Chimpanzee in its wiM state, we have reason to 

conclude that the young, however docile they are, 
would become savage and distrustful as they grew 
up, even in captivity, and thus form no exception 
to the role. 'The following description was taken 
from the young individual alluded to : — 

General figure short and stout; chest broad; 
shoulders square; abdomen protuberant; forehead 
retreating behind the supraorbital ridge, the cra- 
nium otherwise well developed ; nose flat ; nostrils 
divided by a very thin septum; lips extremely 
mobile, and traversed by vertical wrinkles; ears 
large, naked, and prominent ; eyes lively, deep-set, 
and chestnut coloured ; neck short : arms slender, 
but muscular, and reaching, when the animal 
stands erect as possible, just below the knee : all 
the four hands well developed, with opposable 
thumbs ; the nails human-like ; the hair moderately 
coarse and straight, longest and fullest on the head, 
down the back, and on the arms, thin on the chest 
and abdomen ; on the fore-arm it is reverted to the 
elbow; backs of hands naked to the wrist; muzzle 
sprinkled with short white hairs ; skin of the face 
dusky black; ears and palms tinged with a pur- 
plish hue ; hair glossy black : total height, two feet. 
The lower limbs are less decidedly organized for 
arboreal habits than in the orang ; but their tournure 
is obliquely inwards, the knees being bowed out, 
but the soles of the feet are capable of being applied 
fairly to the ground. It rons about with a hobbling 
gait, but very quickly, generally assisting itself by 
resting the knuckles of the two first fingers of the 
hand on the ground, to do which it stoops its shoul- 
ders forwards: it can, however, and does walk fre- 
quently upright. Its pace is a sort of waddle, and 
not performed as in man, by a series of steps in 
which the ankle-joint is brought into play at each 
successive step, the heel being elevated' and the 
body resting on the toes ; on the contrary, the foot 
is raised at once and set down at once, in a 
thoroughly plantigrade manner, as in stamping, 
which indeed is an action it often exhibits, first 
with one foot, then with the other. It grasps with 
its feet, which are broad and strong, with astonish- 
ing firmness, and has been seen, while resting on a 
perch, to throw itself completely backwards, and, 
without using its hairls. raise itself again into its 
previous position, a leal requiring both great power 
and agility. 

In the mutilated skin of an adult we found grey i 
hail's mixed with the black, especially on the lower 
part of the back, the haunches, and thighs, these 
parts having a grizzled appearance. 

122, 123, 124, 12.5, 126.— The ORANG-ouTA>f 

(Pithecus Satyrus, Geoffr.). So different are the 
characters, dependent upon age, which the Orang- 
outan assumes at different periods of its growth, and 
so much in many respects do the males diifer from 
the females, that no little confusion has arisen ; and 
the young, which is the Simla Satyrus of Linnaeus, 
has only recently been proved to be identical with 
the Asiatic Pongo (this word is now restricted to 
the orang) ; the latter, as Cuvier suspected, and 
indeed asserted, and as Professor Owen has proved, 
being the adult. (See Trans. Zool. Soc, voj. i., 
' Osteology of Chimpanzee and Orang.') 

The difference which the skull assumes in figure, 
and the relative proportions of the cranial and 
facial parts, during the transition from youth to 
maturity, is indeed extraordinary ; and so great is 
the amount of variation ultimately, that the errors 
of naturalists who had no opportunities of examin- 
ing a series of crania, of different ages, up to matu- 
rity, may well be pardoned. Fig. 1 17 is the skull 
of an aclult orang, remarkable for the development 
of the facial portion, the breadth and strength of the 
lower jaw, the deep cranial ridges, or crests, the 
contraction of the forehead, and the flattening of the 
occiput ; the strength of the teeth, and the enor- 
mous size of the canines. Totally different is the 
general form and appearance of the skull of the 

In Borneo there are two species of orang ; one of 
large size, and dreaded by the natives {Pithecus 
Wormbii, or Pongo Wormbii), the other of small 
size, recently characterized by Professor Owen from 
a skull. This species (Pithecus Morio) has been 
subsequently verified. It is timid and gentle. 

It would appear that a distinct species, of large 
size, distinct from the great Bornean orang, exists 
in Sumatra. Some naturalists, it is true, are dis- 
posed to regard the Bornean and Sumatran large 
orangs as identical, and it must be allowed that 
some difficulty exists which remains to be cleared 
up. Professor Owen has pointed out certain diffe- 
rences in the contour of their respective shells, 
which seem to justify those who contend for a dis- 
tinction of species. In the adult male Bornean 
orang (fig. 125) there are huge callosities, or pro- 
tuberances of callous flesh on the cheek-bones, 
giving a strange aspect to the countenance, and 
which are presumed to be absent in the Sumatran 
orang {Pithecus Abellii^. They are certainly not 

depicted in Dr. Abel's figure of the head Of the 
adult Sumatran orang (fig. 127) ; still, as figures are 
often faulty, and the adult male Sumatran animal 
remains to be examined, the point is undecided. 
With respect to difference of colour, little stress can 
be laid upon it : the Sumatran species is said ic 
be of a much lighter colour than the Bornean ; bin 
all the Bornean orangs we have examined (and 
those not a few) have been of a chestnut colour, oi 
■bright sandy rufous passing into a chestnut on the 
back, and scarcely, if at all, darker than the Suma- 
tran adult female in the collection of the Zoological 

The Sumatran animal is said to exceed the Bor- 
nean in stature. According to Dr. Abel the male 
orang killed at llamboon on the north-west coast 
of Sumatra exceeded seven feet in stature — a singu- 
lar exaggeration, as is now allowed. .In the span of 
the arms and hands, this animal, he states, measured 
8 feet 2 inches ; and in the length of the foot, 14 
inches. Now in the specimen of a Sumatran female 
in the collection of the Zoological Society, which 
could not have stood higher than 3 feet 6 inches, 
the span of the arms and hands is 7 feet 2 inches, 
and the length of the foot 10 inches and a half. 
That the Sumatran orang does not exceed the Bor- 
nean may therefore be safely concluded. The 
largest Bornean male orang, an adult, with large 
facial callosities, which we ever examined measured 
4 feet 6 inches from head to heel ; but Temminck, in 
his monograph of the genus, says, "Our travellei-s in- 
form us by letters from Bangarmasing, in the island 
of Borneo, that they have lecently procured oiangs 
of 5 feet 3 inches in height, Fjench measure " (5 
feet 9 inches English;. In both the Bornean and 
Sumatran specimens the ungueal or nail-bearing 
phalanx of the hind thumb is sometimes absent, 
sometimes present, in both sexes; sometimes it is 
present on one foot, and wanting on the other. 

Description of a nearly adult male orang from 
Borneo, in the Paris Museum : — The head is large, 
the forehead naked, retiring and flat ; large fleshy 
callosities in the form of somewhat crescentic ridges 
occupy the malar bones, extending from the tem- 
ples and giving a singular and even hideous expies- 
sion to the physiognomy. The eyes are small and 
set closely together; the nose is depressed; the 
septum of the nostrils thin, and carried outto blend 
with the skins of the upper lip; the nostrils are 
oblique ; the lips are thick and fleshy, and the 
upper one is furnished with scanty moustaches ; the 
chin is furnished with a long and peaked beard. 
The hair is very long and thick on the back, shoul- 
ders, arms, and legs ; very scanty on the chest, ab- 
domen, and inside of the thighs; the hair of the 
fore-arms is reverted to the elbows ; the hair of the 
head is directed forwards from a common centre of 
radiation on the back of the neck, or rather between 
the shoulders. The contour of the body is heavy, 
thick, and ill-shapen; the arms with the hands 
reach to the heel ; the thumbs of the hind feet are 
nailless ; the general colour is deep chestnut. Total 
height, 3 feet 8 inches. Breadth of face across the 
callosities, 9 inches. 

The organization of the orang (we refer to both 
Bornean and Sumatran animals) fits him almost ex- 
clusively lor arboreal habits : on the ground his 
progression is more awkward than that of the Chim- 
panzee ; for the abbreviation of the posterior limbs, 
their inward tournure, their pliancy, owing to tlie 
absence of the ligamentum teres of the hip-joint, 
and the mode of treading, not upon the sole, but the 
outer edge of the foot, tend all to his disadvantage. 
Among the trees, however, the case is reversed. In 
the mighty forests of his native climates he is free 
and unembarrassed, though by no means rajiid in 
his movements : there, the vast reach of his sinewy 
arms enables him to seize branches at an apparently 
hopeless distance ; and by the powerful grasp of his 
hands or feet he swings himself along. In ascend- 
ing a tall tree, the inward tournure of the legs and 
ankle-joints, and the freedom of the hip-joint, facili- 
tate the application of the grasping foot, as is well 
depicted in figure 124, a sketch taken from a 
living subject. The length and narrowness of the 
hands and feet render them hook-like in character: 
while the short thumbs, set as far back toward the 
wrist as possible, act as a fulcrum against the pres- 
sure of the fingers while grasping the branch to 
which the animal is clinging. 

The difference between the human foot and that 
of the orang (fig. 128) is very marked ; the arrange- 
ment of the bones, muscles, and muscular tendons 
being modified in each for a different purpose. 
Yet theie have been men of learning who have 
contended that in the coui-se of time, by use, the 
foot of the orang might assume the form and pro 
portions of the human, and the human that of the 
orang. Such opinions are beneath criticism. 

The physiognomy of the orang is grave, melan- 
choly, and even apathetic, but in adults not unac- 
companied by an expression of ferocity ; the huge 
fleshy callosities on tlie sides of the luce adding an 

E2 ' 

ISO,— C3iiinpanzee. 

123.— Oraug-Outan*. 

IDT.— Hmd ot Adult Sonutnn Onng. 

128.— Fool of Man and of Orang-OnUn. 

IS4.~FeiQale Oraiv-Outan. 


ISU— Chimpanzee. 


126.— Oran;,'-Outan. 

125.— Adult Male Bornean Oran^-Outan. 

:2«.— Orang-Outan of the Zoological Society. 

131.— Agile Gibbon. 



air of bnitish irt>ssness. The head lean* forward 
on the chest, the neck is short ; and loose folded 
skin hansrs round the throat, except when the larvn- 
lifaJ sacs are inflated, this loose skin is then swollen 
out. like a naked ohinini; tumour, extendine up 
alonf; the sides of the face under the small nnirular 
ear*, fillim; up the interspace between the chin and 
chest, and encroachini: upon the latter: the lips are 
wrinkled, and jxwsess extraonlinary mobility ; the 
animal can protrude them in the form of a snout or 
proboscis, contracting the mouth to a cirtuilar ori- 
nce, or, on the contrarj-, draw them back, and turn 
them in various directions. The breadth of the 
chest and shoulders conveys an idea of preat 
ttreneth ; the abdomen is protuberant ; the hair, 
which falls on the back and slioulders in lone: ma:»es, 
forms a coverinir to the animal crouching in repose, 
necessary as a protection by day ai^inst the bum- 
inif rays of the sun, by niijht against the heavy 
dews, and diirinc the rainy seasons as a shelter from 
the falling showers. The palms of the hands have 
lines and papillee. as on those of the human subject. 
All the nnKed parts of the hotly, with the exception 
of the orbits and lips, which are of sallow, coppery 
tint, are silvery-grey or plumbeous. The 
of the incisor teeth, which in adults are worn 
down to a flattened suiface, as are also the molar 
t^eth, shows that they are put to rough work, and, 
as Professor Owen remarks, it is probable that their 
common use is to tear and scrape away the toueh 
fibrous outer coverinsr of the cocoa-nut, and perhaps 
to gnaw through the denser shell. The husre 
canines are doubtless defensive weapons, which, 
in connection with the muscular strength of these 
animals, enable them to offer a more than suc- 
cessful resistance against the leopard, and render 
them formidable opponents even to the tiger. Of 
the habits of the Orang in a state of nature our 
knowledge is limited. It tenants the secluded 
recesses of the forests in the hilly and central 
districts of Borneo and Sumatra ; livinir, a.s it would 
appear, a secluded life, and not being, like the Chim- 
panzee, gregarious ; nor does it, like that animal, 
miild huts, but, in accordance with its arboreal pre- 
dilections, it constructs a rude scat or platform of 
interwoven boughs and twigs among the branches 
of the tallest trees, on which it takes up its abode. 
Here the adult male will sit, as is said, for hours 
together listless and apathetic. His movements 
are slow and indolent : when attacked, he swings 
himself from branch to branch, clearing vast inter- 
vals with ease, but not with the rapidity which has 
been imagined, and which is displayed by some of 
the Gibbons. If at last driven to extremity, he 
defends himself with determined resolution, and his 
prodigious bodily powers and prowess render it dan- 
gerous to venture on a close assault. The females are 
devoted to their young. A few years since, Captain 
Hall repaired to Sumatra purposely to obtain one of 
these animals, but at his outset he experienced a 
serious obstacle in the difficulty of procuring guides 
to conduct him to their usual haunts : this proceeded 
from the fears of the natives, who not only believe 
that the orangs possess a natural dominion over the 
great forests, but that they are animated by the 
souls of their own ancestors. Succeeding at length 
in this preliminary part of the undertaking, the 
Captain soon met with one of the objects of his 
search, a female, which he describes as having been 
five feet in height. When first discovered she was 
sitting on a branch of one of the highest trees, with 
a young one in her arms. Upon being wounded 
she uttered a piercing cry ; and immediately lifting 
up her little one as high as her long arms could 
reach, let it go among the topmost branches. 
While the paHy approached to fire again she made 
no attempt to escape, but kept a steady watch, 
glancing her eye occasionally towards her offspring, 
and at last seemed to wave her hand, to hasten its 
departure, which it safely effected. 

The following summary is the result of our re- 
peated observations upon young living specimens : — 
The progression of the orang on the ground is slow 
and vacillating, and is rather dependent on the 
arms, which from their length act as crutches, sup- 
porting the body between them, than upon the 
lower liml)s, which are ill calculated for such 
service. Wlien left entirely to itself on the floor, 
the young orang, if incited to walk, supports its 
weight on its arms, applying the bent knuckles to 
the ground, which, from the length of the arms, is 
an easy action. The lower limbs are at the same 
time bowed outward, and the outer side of the fjoot 
is placed upon the floor. In this attitude it waddles 
along, the arms being the main support ; when in- 
deed it wi.shes to hasten its progress, it fairly swings 
the body foi-ward between the arms, as if impatient 
of the hobbling gait to which the structure of the 
lower limbs restricts it. The lower limbs, however, 
are not incapable of supporting the body alone, and 
it can waddle along very fairly, especially if it can 
lay hold of anything by which to steady itself in its 
progress Id climbing it is at its ease, and confi- 



dent, but deliberate. It will suspend itself with its 
head downwards, sometimes by the hand and foot 
of the same side, the disengaged hand being 
stretched to seize objects within its reach ; some- 
times by the hook-like hands, or the feet alone, 
vai-ying its grotesriue attitudes in the most singular 
manner, and in all displaying the freedom of the 
hip-joint. Its arboreal progress is not by bounding 
like a monkey, but by swinging from branch to 
branch, grasping them by its hands in succession. 
Habitually dull and inanimate, it has still its times 
of sportiveness, and will engage in play with those 
to whom it has attached itself, following them to 
court their notice, or pursuing them in mimic 
combat. It has little curiosity, and is fond of sitting 
covered iiji by blankets or other articles of defence 
against the cold, and will wrap itself up with con- 
siderable dexterity. To those who attend it it 
becomes very affectionate, and readily obeys their 
voice, recognising its name, and the words and 
tones of command. Cotifinement is annoying to it 
in the extreme, and disappointment irritating. 
From these causes paroxysms of passion are often 
exhibited, in which it will dash itself about, uttering 
a whining ciy, and manifest eveiT token of anger. 
We have seen a young orang make the most stre- 
nuous efforts to escape from his inclosure, striving 
to force the door or the frame-work ; and then, 
screaming with disappointment, swing from branch 
to branch, and again repeat its endeavours, excited 
to the extreme, and all because its keeper had left 
it for a short time. Nothing but his return and 
attentions would pacify it. 

Dr. Abel states that his young orang displayed 
great alarm at the sight of some live turtles, and 
also of a tortoise ; looking at them with horror from 
a distant place, to which he had retreated for secu- 
rity, and projecting his long lips in the form of a 
hog's snout, while at the same time he uttered a 
sound between the croaking of a frog and the giunt- 
ingofapig. The young chimpanzee which lived 
in the year 1836 in the menagerie of the Zoological 
Society recoiled with horror from a large snake in- 
troduced into the room by way of experiment, and 
also regarded tortoises with aversion ; and a young 
orang in the same managerie, before which a tor- 
toise was placed, stood aghast in an attitude of 
amazement ludicrously theatrical, gazing uiion the 
crawling animal with fixed attention and evident 
abhorrence. On the other hand we have seen a 
young orang play with a full-grown cat, drag it 
about, put the animal on its own head, and cany it 
from branch to branch, regardless of its scratching 
and straggles to get free. Fred. Cuvier notices the 
same fact, which we have ourselves verified. The 
young orang may he taught to use a spoon, a cup, 
or glass with tolerable propriety, and will carefully 
put them down on the table, or hand them to some 
pei-son accustomed to receive them. To this point 
F. Cuvier also allude.s, as well as to the care it 
takes in adjusting its bed, and covering itself warmly 
with blankets and other materials when retiring to 

The young chimpanzee, in comparison with the 
orang, IS far more lively, animated, and liolicksome ; 
and displays much more curiosity, being alive to 
everything which takes place about it, and examin- 
ing every object within its reach with an air so con- 
siderate, as to create a smile in the face of the 
gravest spectator. In alertness it exceeds the 
orang, and is to the full as gentle and affectionate, 
and more intelligent. The expression of intelli- 
gence is indeed well denoted by the vivacity of its 
eyes, which, though small and deeply set, are quick 
and piercing. 

Figure 129 is a portrait of the young orang-outan 
in the menagerie of the Zoological Society in the 
■warm dress which it habitually wore ; but in which 
it was completely disguised. 


(Genus Hy I abates). The gibbons differ from the 
thickset orang in the slendemess of tlitjr form ; the 
chest is indeed broad and the shouldei-s muscular, 
but the waist and hips are contracted ; there are 
small ischiatic tuberosities hidden by the fur, on 
which the animals often rest, the commencement, 
so to speak, of a structural peculiaiity carried out 
to its maximum in the lower groups. The hands 
and feet are admirably formed for clinging with te- 
nacity to the branches. The arms are of excessive 
length, reaching in the erect attitude to the ankle- 
joint ; the hands are remarkably long and slender, 
the naked palm is linear, expanding at the base of 
the fingers, which are covered down the backs with 
fur ; the thumb of the fore-hands, though very shoit, 
resembles the fingers in form and direction, and is 
scarcely or not at all opposable to them ; it seems 
to rise from the wrist, owing to the almost complete 
separation of the metacarpal bone from that of the 
first finger ; and the ball formed by its adductor 
muscles is trifling. The feet arc long and slender. 

and their thumb is greatly developed, so as to form 
an antagonist to the other toes conjointly. In some 
species the first and second finger of the foot are 
more or less united together : this union in the Sia- 
mang is carried to the last joint. Tlie lower limbs 
are short, and bowed in, and the ankle-joint has that 
inward toiimure so advantageous to an arboreal ani- 
mal ; but the hip-joint is secured by the ligamen- 
tum teres. In one species, the Slamang, there is a 
large laryngal sacculus. The skull is well formed, 
though the forehead retreats. The rami of the 
lower jaw are narrow. Tlie incisor teeth are mode- 
rate, the canines slender ; the molam moderate. 

with the crown broaa, and bluntly 

130.) Incisors, 

Dental formula 






= 32. The gibbons 

j_j, molars, j._j. 

are clothed with deep thick fur, softer in some 
species than others : on the fore-arms it is in most 
species reverted to the elbows; in one or two it 
is erect. The prevailing colours of these animals 
are from black to brown, brown-grey, and straw- 

The gibbons are distributed through Java, Borneo, 
Sumatra, Malacca, and Siam, where they tenant the 
forest branches, among which they display the most 
astonishing activity. They sweep from branch to 
branch with arrow-like velocity: their mode is to 
suspend themselves by their long arms, and by an 
energetic muscular movement to launch themselves 
onwards, aiming at a distant branch, which they 
seize with admirable precision. Most live in troo|)S 
or families ; some species frequenting the mountain- 
ranges covered by forests of fig-trees, others keeping 
to the forests of the plains. 

The head of the gibbon is small and of an oval 
figure, and the face is depressed ; the expression of 
the countenance being grave, gentle, and rather 
melancholy. All utter loud cries, whence, in imi- 
tation of the sound, has arisen the name of Wou- 
wou, which appears to be common to two or three 
species; Fred. Cuvier has applied it to the Agile 
Gibbon, but Camper had previously appropriated it 
to the Silvery Gibbon, said by Dr. S. Miillor to be 
called Oa-oa by the natives of Java, a word differ- 
ing little in the sound from wou-wou, or woo-woo. 
None of the gibbons attain to the stature of the 
orang, about three feet being the height of the 
largest species standing erect, an attitude which 
they are capable of assuming on the ground or any 
level surface, along which they waddle, at a quick 
pace, in the manner of the chimpanzee, using the 
arms as balancers, or occasionally touching the 
ground with the fingers. 

131, 132, 133.— The Agilk Gibhon ; 

also known under the native titles Ungka-puti and 
tJngka-etam {Hylobates agilis, F. Cuv. ; Hylubatei 
Lur : H. Rafflesii). 

This interesting gibbon is a native of Sumatra, 
'and owing to certain variations in colour, to which 
it is subject, has been formed into two distinct 
species, an error now corrected. M. Miiller, in 
reference to this gibbon, states that it is curious to 
observe its numerous variations. "Two individuals 
are never precisely the same ; and we were therefore 
disposed to conclude, during the early part of nur 
stay in Sumatra, that there were really different 
species of what, as it proved, is but one Hylobates: 
for it was only after the examination of individuals 
of different coloui-s, and after we had killed many of 
both sexes and various ages, that we came to 1lie 
conclusion that the oengko-itam, or black oengKo, 
fcnd the oengko- poetih, or white oengko, of the 
Malayans, were the same species." 

The general colour of this species varies from 
black to brownish-yellow, and yellowish white ; a 
white or pale stripe traverses the brow; and the 
sides of the face and throat are often grey or flaxen : 
in black or dark individuals the lumbar region and 
crupper are usually of a pale rusty-brown or yellow- 
ish; the pale individuals have the throat, chest, and 
abdomen of a darker brown. The pale-colourec 
females often produce black young, and the black 
as often young of a palecolour. (See fig. 132.^ We 
have seen straw-white young. The fur is solt and 
woolly: the two first fingers of the feet are united 
together at the base. 

The Agile Gibbon usually lives in pairs, and is 
timid and gentle : its activity and the velocity of its 
movements are wondertul ; it escapes pursuit almost 
like a bird on the wing. On the sligntest alarm it 
ascends rapidly to the top of a tree ; it there seizes 
a flexible branch, swings itself two or three times 
to gain the requisite impetus, and then launches 
itself forward, repeatedly clearing, without effoit 
and without fatigue, as Mr. Duvaucel witnessed, 
spaces of forty feet. 

Some few years since a female of this species was 
exhibited in London. The activity of this animal 
in the large compartment .a which it exercised 




ttse.f, and the velocity and precision with which it 
launched itself from branch to branch, excited the 
admiration of all who beheld it. Distances of twelve 
and eighteen feet were thus cleared, the gibbon 
keeping up a succession of launches, without inter- 
mission and for a great leni^h of time, and all the 
while exhibiting an air of nonchalance, as if .the 
feat was of the most easy pert'ormance. In her 
flight, for so indeed it might be termed, the gibbon 
seemed but to touch the branches with her hands 
in her progress, the impetus being acquired during 
that momentary hold ; and il could not be doubted 
that if the animal had been in the enjoyment of 
liberty in her own native forest, distances far ex- 
ceeding eighteen feet would have formed no inter- 
ruption to her progress. It was curious to witness 
how she could stop in her most rapid flight when 
the momentum was at the highest, and it might 
naturally have been supposed that a gradual cessa- 
tion would have been required. iSuddenly as 
thought, however, she arrested her progress; the 
bi-anch aimed at being seized by one hand, a rapid 
and enersefic movement raised the body up; the 
branch was then grasped by the hind hands, and 
there she sat, quietly gazing at the astonished spec- 
latoi's of her extraordinary gymnastics. With the 
same abruptness did she throw herself into action. 
AJrairable was the precision with which she calcu- 
lated her distances and regulated the impulse 
necessary to clear intervals varying from four, five, 
or six, to eighteen feet : such indeed was her quick- 
ness of eye, that when apples or other fiuits were 
thrown at her, or so as to pass near her in her flight, 
she would catch them without apparent effort, and 
at the same time without discontmuing her career. 

While exerting her feats of agility the gibbon 
ever and anon uttered her loud call-notes, consisting 
of the syllables oo-ah, oo-ah, in a graduated succes- 
sion of' half-tones, ascending in the scale till an 
exact octave was attained, when a rapid series of 
descending notes, producing a shake, during the 
execution of which the lips vibrated and the whole 
frame quivered, concluded the strain. The quality 
of these notes was not unmusical, but their loudness 
was deafening as heard in the apartment, and when 
uttered by these animals in their native forests must 
resound far through their stilly depths. It is piin- 
cipally in the morning that the gibbon exerts the 
whooping cry, which is doubtless its call to its mate 
or comjjanions, and it was at that time that we 
heard it. It should be observed that at first the 
syllables were slowly and distinctly repeated, and 
on the same note, e. As the tones rose in the 
chromatic scale, the time quickened, till, gaining 
the octave, the descent by half-tones was inexpres- 
sibly rapid: this ended, two barks followed, each 
composed of the high and low e, sounded nearly 
together. At the conclusion the animal was always 
violently agitated, as if wrought up to a high pitch 
of excitement, and shook with all her strength the 
branch to which she was clinging, or the netting, 
the cords of which she grasped with her hands. 

The following notes will give a coiTCct idea of the 
musical call of this gibbon : — 






!^ U U U U 

((^^ a, (( (( (( a (c (( (( 

a a (c 








This interesting animal was timid and gentle; 
she greatly preferred the presence of females to 
that of men, and approached them and received 
their attentions with pleasure : there is reason to 
believe that ill-treatment had made her sus- 
picious of the sex from which she had experienced 
mjuiy. She was intelligent and observant, and her 
quick eyes seemed to be ever on the watch, scruti- 
nizing every person and observing all that passed 
around her. When a person had once gained her 
confidence, she would descend to meet him as olten 
ai invited, and allow her hands to be taken hold of, 
and her solt fur stroked without any hesitation : to 
females, though strange to her, she gave her confi- 
dence, without any previous attempts at concilia- 
tion. Tlie mu.scular power of the arms, shoulders, 
und chest was very great, and the muscles were 

finely developed ; the chest was broad and the 
shoulders high ; the reach of the extended arms 
was about six feet, and the animal when erect 
stood about three feet from the heel to the top of 
the head. The form and proportions of this gibbon 
could not fail to strike the most casual observer, as 
adapting it not only for an arboreal existence, but 
for that kind of arboreal progression, those flying 
launcties from branch to branch, which have been 

134, 135.— The Siamano 

{Hylobates syndactylas'). Tlie Siamang is the 
largest of the Gibbons, being upwards of three feet 
in height, and at the same time robust and muscular. 
The fur is woolly and black ; the first and second 
fingers of the feet are united to each other, and 
there is a huge laryngal pouch on the throat covered 
with black naked skin, which, when the sac is dis- 
tended with air, is smooth and glossy. The use of 
tliis apparatus is not very apparent ; most probably 
the sac has some influence on the voice ; for Mr. 
G. Bennett ('Wanderings,' &c.') observes that when 
the siamang in his possession was irritated he in- 
flated the pouch, uttering a hollow barking noise, 
the lips being at the same time pursed out and the 
air driven into the sac, while the lower jaw was a 
little protruded. It is this noise which M. Duvau- 
cel describes, as we suspect, when he states that the 
siamang reuses occasionally from its lethargy to 
utter a disagreeable cry approaching in sound to 
that of a turkeycock, and which he takes upon him- 
self to say expresses no sentiment and declares no 
wants. Mr. Bennett noticed that the sac was in- 
flated, not only during anger, but also when the 
animal was pleased. It is exclusively in Sumatra 
that the siamang is found : it is abundant in the 
forests, especially in the neighbourhood of Bencoo- 
len, which resound with the loud and discordant 
cries of the troops sheltered among the lofty 
branches. Duvaucel says that this species is slow, 
inanimate, and destitute of activity among the 
trees, and on the ground it is so overcome by fear 
as to be incapable of resistance ; that in captivity it 
exhibits no pleasing traits, being at once stupid, 
sluggish, and awkward, unsusceptible either of feel- 
ings of grateful confidence or of revenge, and re- 
garding nothing with interest. On the contrary. 
Sir T. S. Raffles, who kept several of these animals, 
describes the siamang as bold and powerful, but 
easily domesticated, gentle, confident, and social, 
and unhappy if not in company with those to whom 
it is attached. Nay, M. Duvaucel contradicts 
himself: first he says all its senses are dull and im- 
perfect, and then gives an account of its extreme 
vigilance and acuteness of hearing, and of the 
affection of the mothers for tlieir young. If a young 
one be wounded, the mother, who carries it or fol- 
lows it closely, remains with it, utters the most 
lamentable cries, and rushes upon the enemy with 
open mouth ; but being unfitted for combat, knows 
neither how to deal nor shun a blow. It is, he 
adds, " a curious and interesting spectacle, which a 
little precaution has sometimes enabled me to wit- 
ness, to see the females carry their young ones to 
the water, and there wash their faces, in spite of 
their childish outcries, bestowing a degree of time 
and care on their cleanliness, which, in many cases, 
the children of our own species might envy." The 
Malays informed him that the young are carried 
respectively by those of their own sex; and also 
that the siamang frequently falls a prey to the 
tiger, under the influence of that sort of fascination 
which intense terror produces, and which the snake 
is said to exercise over birds and squirrels. 

Mr. G. Bennett's account (' Wanderings,' &c.) of 
the siamang which he kept for some time gives us 
a very favourable impression of it disposition and 
intelligence. The adroitness and lapidity of its 
movements, the variety of attitudes into which it 
threw itself, when climbing about the rigging of the 
vessel in which it was brought from Singapore, and 
the vigour and prehensile power of its limbs, indi- 
cated its adaptation to the branches of the forest. 
Its disposition was gentle, but animated and lively, 
and it delighted in playing frolics. With a little 
Papuan child on board this siamang became very 
intimate ; they might often be seen sitting near the 
capstan, the animal with his long arm round her 
neck lovingly eating biscuit together. In his gam- 
bols with the child he would roll on deck with her, 
as if in mock combat, pushing with his feet (in 
which action he possessed great muscular power), 
his long arms entwined round her, and pretending 
to bite. With the monkeys on board he also seemed 
desirous of establishing amicable companionship, 
evidently wishing to join them in their gambols ; but 
as they avoided his company, probably from fear, he 
revenged their unsociableness by teasing them, and 
pulling their tails at every opportunity. He recog- 
nised his name, and would come to those he knew 
when called, and soon became a general favourite, 
for his hvelinesE was not accompanied by the love 

of mischief. Yet his temper was irritable, and on 
being disappointed, or confined, he would throw him- 
self into fits of rage, screaming, rolling about, and 
dashing everything aside within his reach: ne 
would then rise, walk about in a hurried manner, 
and repeat the scene as before. With the cessation 
of his fit of anger, he did not abandon his purpose, 
and often gained his point by stiiitaf^em, when he 
found that violence was of no avail. 

When vessels were passed at sea, it was very 
amusing to see him take his position on the peak 
haulyards, and there gaze on tlie departing ship till 
she was out of sight. After this he would descend, 
and resume his sports. One instance of his in- 
telligenae is peculiarly interesting. Among various 
articles in Mr. Bennett's cabin, a piece 01 soap 
greatly attracted his attention, and for the removal 
of this soap he had been once or twice scolded. 
One morning Mr. Bennett was writing, the siamang 
being present, in the cabin ; when casting his eyes 
towards the animal he observed him taking the 
s^ap. " I watched him," says the narrator, " with- 
out his perceiving that I did so ; he occasionally 
cast a furtive glance towards the place where I 
sat. I pretended to write ; he, seeing me busilv 
engaged, took up the soap and moved away with it 
in his paw. When he had walked half the length 
of the cabin, I spoke quietly, without frightening 
him. The instant he found I saw him, he walked 
back again, and deposited the soap nearly in the 
same place whence he had taken it: thus betraying, 
both by his fiist and last actions, a consciousness of 
having done wrong. " 

This animal died when nearing our shores, to the 
regret of all the crew. 

13G. — The White-handed Gibbon. 

(Hylnbatet Lar). T) this species we refer both the 
Grand Gibbon and the Petit Gibbon of Button. It 
is the Simla longimana of Erxleben, and the Simla 
albimana of Vigors and Horsfield, the Pithecu« 
Lar of Geoifroy, and the Pithecus variegatus of 
Geotfroy, Kuhl, and Desmarest. The fir is soil and 
woolly ; the colour varies from dirty-brownish, or 
from yellowish-white, to deep umbre brown or 
blackish brown, the crupper being paler ; the face 
is encircled by a band of white ; the hands and feet 
are white ; the first and second finger are some- 
times united at the base. 

The White-handed Gibbon is a native of Malacca 
and Siam ; but of its peculiar habits nothing is 
ascertained. It is one of those species which has 
hitherto been in a state of confusion ; but from 
which opportunities of examining numbers of speci- 
mens have enabled us, as we trust, to disentangle it. 


-The Silvery Gibbon, or Wouwou of 

{Hylobates leuciscus). This gibbon is a native of 
Java, where it was met with by M. Miiller, who 
states that it is called there Oa-op, from its cry, 
whence also the name Wou-wou, which has been 
given to other species. The fur is fine, long, close, 
and woolly ; the general colour is ashy-grey, some- 
times slightly tinged with brown, and paler on the 
lower part of the back ; the sides of the face are 
white; the soles and palms are black. According 
to Miiller, the tint of grey vanes in intensity, and 
sometimes has a brownish, sometimes a yellowish 
tone, the face being encircled with white or light 
grey. In aged anipials the chest becomes of a 
blackish colour. 

It is to the celebrated anatomist Camper that we 
owe the recognition of the Silvery Gibbon or Wouwou 
as a distinct species. The specimen which he dis- 
sected was brought from one of the Moluccas : in 
these islands it is reported to frequent the dense 
jungles of tall canes, amongst which it displays 
astonishing activity. Two or three living indivi- 
duals appear at different times to have existed in 
I England. Of these one belonged to Lord Clive, 
and is described by Pennant. It was good-tempered, 
lively, and frolicksome. In 1828, a young male 
lived for a short time in the menagerie of the Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 

(Genus Semnopithecus). The genus Semnopithecus 
was established by Fred. Cuvier, and anatomy has 
confirmed the propriety of this genus, originally es- 
tablished upon external charactei-s. 

The Generic Characters are as follow :— muzzle 
depressed ; head round ; superciliary ridge pro- 
minent, and with a row of long stiff haiis pro- 
jecting forwards and upwards ; molars crowned with 
obtuse tubercles, the last molar of the lower jaw 
with a fillh tubercle seated posteriorly: cheek- 
pouches wanting; laiyngal sac large; ischial ic cal- 
losities moderate; body slender; limbs long and 
thin ; the thumb of the hand small, short, almost 
rudimentary; stomach large and highly sacculated ; 
intestines long ; tail long and slender ; fur solt, flow- 
ing, and often glossy. 

130.— Teeth of Gibbon. 

139.— Skull and Caninetootli of Monkev. 

>.— Femide Agile Olbbon and Yoin,- 

1S3.— Male Agile Gibbon. 

I3S. — Siamang 

134. — Siamang. 

138 — Teeth of Monkey 


] JO,— Temminck's Colobiu. 

UH.— Entelloi. 

142.— Face of Adult Kahau. 

143. — Face of youni; Kahan. 

•'/ ' ■-? 

144.— Nose of Adult Kahau, seen from Ipeneath. 

Uj.— Skull (if Kalian. 

I4T.— BUd(.entt«d Monkey. 

149.— \Thite-tliighed Colobna. 

No. 5. 






Dental formula (figure 138) : inci»or«, - ; canines 

: molars, ; — -, • The incisors are small ; the 

1—1 •»— 5 

canines large, broad, and compressed ; the molars 
are bluntly tubeiculate ; and as they wear down, the 
surface shows the enamel very distinct and deeply 
indented. I'he skull, as exemplitied by that of 
S. Maurns (figure 139), may be characterised as 
round, the orbits large and squared, with an ab- 
ruptly prominent superciliary ridge, and with boldly 
projecting margins ; the interorbital space is broad, | 
and the lace depressed ; the lower jaw, however, is 
very deep, and the space for the masseter muscle 
considerable; the chin recedes obliquely. The ; 
hands of the Semnopitheci are remarkable lor their 
elongation and narrowness, and for the almost rudi- 
mentary condition of the thumb, which cannot be 
brought into action as an antagonist to the fingers ; 
the feet also are narrow and elongated, but the 
thumb is stout and well developed. 

There are no cheek-pouches, as in the ordinary 
monkeys, but a large laryngal sac extends over the 
whole of the throat, communicating with the laiynx 
(windpipe) by means of a large aperture. The 
stomach is sacculated in an extraordmary manner, 
the sacculi being in all probability preparatory re- 
ceptacles for the vegetable aliment, which under- 
goes digestion in an elongated pyloric portion. 

Cuvier calls the Semnopitheci slow monkeys ; 
but it is only in a certain sense that they merit the 
title. The length and slenderness of the limbs and 
body detract, if not from their agility, at least in 
some degree from the abruptness of their move- 
ments, which have a more sweeping character than 
those of the Cercopitheci. Nevertheless, they leap 
and bound among the branches of their native 
forests with great ease, and to vast distances, their 
long tail acting as a director or balancer in their 
motions. Less lively, less petulant, and, perhaps 
less inquisitive than the Cercopitheci, they appear 
at times as if oppressed with melancholy, and in 
captivity, at least, sit in listless apathy. While 
young they are very gentle ; but when adult they 
become sullen, morose, and vindictive ; and their 
long canines render them truly formidable. In their 
native regions they associate in troops. In some 
parts of India certain species, as the Entellus, are 
regarded as sacred, and tolerated notwithstanding 
their depredations. Many species attain to con- 
siderable dimensions. 

The Semnopitheci are all natives of India and its 
islands, and the Malay Peninsula. 

140, 141. — Thk Kahau, or Proboscis Monkey 

(Semnopithecus larvatus). This species is the 
Guenon u longue nez of Buffon, the Nasalis larvatus 
of Geoffroy, and the Nasalis rfefifirvus (young) of 
Vigors and Horsfield. This nftVpWtey is remarkable 
for the uncouth development of the nose, forming a 
sort of proboscis capable of dilatation, with the 
nasal apertures underneath, tha., bent-down apex, 
and divided from each ofherf'jSfea thin cartilage ; 
along the upper surface of thfs;^gular organ runs 
a longitudinal depression, indicating the division be- 
tween the two canals. The ears, which are small, 
and the face, together with the palms, are of a 
leaden colour, with a slight tinge of yellow ; the 
neck is short ; the throat swollen from the enormous 
laryngal sac. On the sides of the neck and shoul- 
ders the hair is long, compared with that of the rest 
of the body. The top of the head, the occiput, and 
the scapular portion of the back, are of a rich chest- 
nut-brown ; the sides of the face and a stripe over 
the shoulders are yellow; the general colour of 
the body is fine sandy-red. The crupper, the tail, 
the fore-arms, and legs are cinereous ; the under 
parts are yellow ; the tail is somewhat tufted at 
the tip. A full beard in the male advances forward, 
and curls up under the chin, almost to the long 
nose. In the young, regarded by some naturalists 
as a distinct species, the nose is somewhat recurved, 
and shorter than in the adult. That this distinction 
is not specific, as we ourselves formerly believed, 
we have fully satisfied ourselves by the examina- 
tion of specimens in Paris. Figure 142 represents 
the face of the adult kahau ; 143, that of the young; 
144, the nose of the adult as seen from beneath ; 
145 is the skull of the kahau : it has all the charac- 
ters of a true Semnopithecus. 

The male kahau is remarkable for size and 
strength, and, from the magnitude of the canines, 
must be a formidable animal. The female, how- 
ever, is considerably smaller, a circumstance noticed 
by Wurmb, who says these monkeys " associate in 
large troops ; their cry, which is deep-toned, resem- 
bles the word kahau. They assemble morning and 
evening, at the rising and setting of the sun, along 
the borders of rivers, and are to be seen on the 
branches of lofty trees, where they oifer an agree- 
able spectacle, darting with great rapidity from one 
tree lo another at the distance of fifteen or twenty 

feet. I have not observed that they hold their 
nose while leaping, as the natives affirm, but I have 
seen that they then stretch out their paws in a re- 
markable manner. They are of dificrent sizes; 
some, indeed, are seen which are not above a foot 
in height, but which yet have young." 

The kahau, as far as is known with certainty, is a 
native only of Borneo : perhaps it is to be found also 
in Sumatra. M. Geoffroy states it to inhabit the 
Malay Peninsula, but we are not aware that it has 
ever "been seen there. The adult male measures 
two feet in the length of the head and body, and 
two feet four inches in that of the tail. It has never 
been brought alive to Europe. 

146. — The Entkllcs, or Hoondman 
(Semnopithecus EtUellus). The Entellus is a native 
of India and the adjacent islands. The general 
colour is straw-yellow, mo^e or less inclined to ashy 
grey ; superciliary hairs black ; hands and feet 
washed with black ; face black. Length of head 
and body of adult male, two feet two inches ; of tail, 
three feet one inch. The adults are paler than the 

The Entellus, or Hoonuman, is held sacred in some 
parts of India, but not by the people of Mahratta, 
where it is called Makur ; it occurs in large troops 
in the woods of the Western Ghauts. In Lower 
Bengal, where it makes its appearance towards the 
latter end of winter (for it would seem that it 
migrates from the upper to the lower provinces, and 
vice versa in this part of India), the pious Brahmins 
venerate it, supply it with food, and zealously en- 
deavour to prevent its molestation by Europeans. 
According to Dr. Fryar and others these monkeys, 
in Malabar, toward Ceyion, and at the Straits of 
Balagat, are deified. At Dhuboy (see Forbes's 
' Oriental Memoirs') they are, if not worshipped, 
protected, from motives of humanity to the brute 
creation and a general belief in metempsychosis. 
According to the latter author there are as many 
monkeys as human inhabitants in Dhuboy, and the 
roofs and upper parts of the houses seem en- 
tirely appropriated to their accommodation. To 
strangers they are unbearably annoying. 

In Dhuboy, if a man wish to revenge himself on 
his neighbour for any insult or injury, he takes the 
opportunity, just before the periodical rains (about 
the middle of June) set in, and when the tiles have 
been adjusted to meet that season, of repairing to 
his neighbour's roof and scattering over it a quan- 
tity of rice or other grain. This is soon discovered 
by the monkeys, who not only devour it, but pull up 
all the tiles in search of what has fallen through the 
crevices. At this critical juncture the rain com- 
mences ; no one can be found to re-set the tiles ; 
the house is deluged, the furniture ruined, and the 
depositaries of grain, generally formed of unbaked 
earth, soaked through by the tailing torrent. 

The celebrated banian-tree on the banks of the 
Nerbuddah is tenanted by hosts of monkeys and 
myriads of snakes. The antics and gambols of the 
former are very amusing; if they ever suffer from 
the snakes, they repay the poor reptiles with interest. 
When they see one asleep, twined round a branch, 
they seize it by the neck, and descending run to the 
nearest stone, and on it commence to grind dovv-n 
the reptile's head, frequently looking at it and 
grinning at their progress. When convinced that 
its fangs are destroyed, they toss it, writhing with 
pain, to their young, and seem to rejoice in its 

Once a friend of Mr. Forbes, on a shooting ex- 
cursion, killed a female monkey under this tree, 
and carried it to his tent, which was soon surrounded 
by forty or fifty of the tribe, who made a great noise, 
and with menacing gestures advanced towards it. 
On presenting his lowling-piece, they hesitated and 
appeared irresolute. But one, which from his age 
and station in the van appeared to be at the head 
of the troop, stood his ground chattering and me- 
nacing in a furious manner, nor could any efforts less 
cruel than firing drive him off. He at length 
approached the tent door, and by every token of 
grief and supplication seemed to beg the body of 
the deceasecf, which was then given to him ; with 
every token of sorrow he took it up in his arms, 
embraced it with conjugal affection, and carried it 
off to his expecting comrades. The artless be- 
haviour of this poor animal wrought so powerfully 
on the sportsmen, that they resolved never to level 
a gun again at one of the monkey race. 

147. — The Black-crested Monkey 
(Semnopithecus melalophos; Ctmepai/e, or Simpai, 
of F. Cuvier, not Raffles). This slender and 
beautiful species is a native of Sumatra. The head 
is small ; the fur is long, soft, falling, and glossy ; 
the top of the head is ornamented with a long com- 
pressed crest. The general tint is a fine bright 
golden rust colour, pure and rich on the limbs, but 
slightly washed with a dusky tint on the back ; the 
abdomen and inside of the limbs are paler than the 

other parts. The crest is washed with a dusky 
tinge, passing into black at the tip. A black or 
blackish line beginning over the eyes passes across 
the temples, and turning up over each ear merges 
into the colour of the crest. The skin of the face is 
dusky-bluish; the palms, soles, and nails are black. 
Length of head and body, 1 foot 8 inches ; of tail, 2 
feet 8 inches. 

This species has not, as far as we know, been 
brought alive to Europe. Itissaid to be extremely 
active, and to tenant the remote parts of the forest ; 
but cf its e.\clusive habits nothing is known. 

148.— The Bldesg 

(Semnopithecus Maurus). The Budeng is a na- 
tive of Java; the general colour is black ; the fur 
is long and silky; the hairs, diverging from the 
crown of the head, conceal the eai-s. The young 
after birth are of a pale reddish-yellow ; first a grey 
discoloration appears on the hands ; then this begins 
gradually to spread, extending to the shoulders and 
sides ; as it spreads it becomes darker, and at last 
passes into black. The budeng, according to Dr. 
Horsfield, is grave, sullen, and morose : it is abun- 
dant in the extensive forests of Java, where it asso- 
ciates in large troops, often of more than 50 indi- 
viduals. On the approach of man they set up loud 
screams, and so violent and incessant are their mo- 
tions, that decayed branches are often detached and 
precipitated on the spectators. The natives chase 
them for the sake of their fur, which is jet black, silky, 
and employed in riding equipages and military de- 
corations. They are seldom kept alive, from the 
sullenness of their temper, which renders them any- 
thing but agreeable. While young they feed on 
the tender leaves of plants and trees ; but when adult, 
on wild fruits of every description. 

Genus Colobus.— The monkeys of this genus are 
restricted exclusively to Africa : in all respects they 
resemble the Semnopitheci, but the thumb, which in 
the latter is small, is in these wanting or reduced to 
a mere nailless tubercle. What the Semnopitheci 
are in India, the Colobi are in Africa. Tilflately 
only two species were known ; but the list now con- 
tains ten accredited species, to which others will no 
doubt be added as we extend our researches in 
Western Africa, along the borders of the Gambia, 
and the island of Fernando Po. 

149. — The White-thigbed Colobcs 
(CbfoJws leucomei-us, Ogilby). This beautiful mon- 
key is a native of the banks of the Gambia. The 
fur is long, fine, silky, and shining ; the general 
colour is black ; a white frontal band spreads from 
the forehead over the whiskers on the sides of the 
face, and passing down occupies the throat, so that 
the face is surrounded with white, which is narrow- 
est on the forehead. The hairs covering the thighs 
externally are white, more or less mixed with black, 
and gradually merging into the general hue. The 
tail is long and of a snowy white. 

The White-thighed Colobus has never been ob- 
served by European travellers in its native forests • 
the skins, mostly imperfect and wanting the head, 
are brought down by the negroes from the interior 
for the purposes of barter. Nothing respecting its 
habits has been ascertained. 

150. — Temminxk's Colobcs 
(Cohbus Temminckii, Kuhl, ' Beitr.,' 1820). The 
top of the head is black, as is also the occiput, 
which latter is slightly sprinkled with rufous ; the 
back and the outside of the humerus and of the 
thighs are of a sooty black, with a tinge of slate- 
blue. The sides of the face, the chest, the sides 
of the humerus, and the whole of the fore-arms 
are of a rufous colour, which becomes deeper and 
brighter on the hands ; the anterior part of the 
thighs, the knees, and the legs are also rufous, the 
feet being of a deeper hue ; the throat, together 
with a line along the chest and abdomen, are of a 
sandy-yellow ; the middle of the chest and of the 
abdomen is abruptly of a dirty yellowish-white 
varying to white; the tail at the base is black' 
with rufous hairs intermixed ; it then assumes a chest- 
nut red or rufous colour, becoming again darker 
at the extremity; an obscure dusky line runs alonn- 
the whole of its upper surface. The naked skin o^f 
the face is brown with a tinge of red purple; the 
palms and soles are of a purplish black. It was on 
a very pale-coloured and aged female of this species 
in the museum of the Zoological'Societv, London ("6 
Cat., ' Mamm.,' 1838), brought from the river Gam- 
bia, that Mr. Ogilby founded his Colobus fulitrinosus 
afterwards termed by him C. rufo-fuliginus." ' 

The original of Kuhl's description was formerly 
in Bullock's museum, but is at present in that of 
Leyden. With respect to the native country of this 
species, it is now ascertained to be Gambia. Length 
of head and body, 2 feet 2 inches; of tail, 2 feet 
6 inches. Nothing relative to the habits and man- 
ners of this species, as it exists in its native forests, 
has been collected. 





(^Colobus polycomos). Full-bottomed Monkey, Pen- 
nant.; Guenon a Camail, Bufton. The Full-maned 
Colobus is a native of the forests of Sierra Leone ; it 
is called by the natives ' the king of the monkeys,' on 
account of the beauty of its colours, and the camail, 
which represents a sort of diadem. Its fur is in high 
estimation, and applied to different ornamental pur- 
poses. The head and upper part of the body are 
covered with long hairs falling over the head and 
shoulders, forming a sort of mane-like hood and 
pelerine, vfhence the name given to it by Buffon. 
Pennant's title is in allusion to the full-bottomed 
perriwig worn in his day. These long hairs are 
mingled yellow and black ; the face is brown ; the 
body covered with short jet-black hair; the tail is 
snowy-white and tufted. 

152. — The Gueeeza 
(Colobus Guereza). General colour black; sides of 
the body and top of the loins ornamented with long 
pendent white hairs, forming a fringe-like mantle; 
face encircled by white ; tail ending in a white tuft. 
Native country, South and West Abyssinia. 

The Guereza, which is the Abyssinian name of this 
species, lives, according to RUppell, iri small fami- 
lies, tenanting the lofty trees in the neighbourhood 
of running waters. It is active and lively, and at 
the same time gentle and inoffensive. Its food 
consists of wild fruits, grain, and insects. It is only 
found in the provinces of Godjam,Kulla, and Damot, 
more especially in the latter, where it is hunted by 
the natives, who consider it a mark of distinction to 
possess a buckler covered with its skin, the part 
used being that covered with the long flowing white 
hairs. Ludolph (in the 'Hist, ^thiop.,' lib. i.) has 
made express allusion to this animal, but he figures 
a different species under its name. 

Genus Cercopithecus. In this genus are compre- 
hended the ordinary long-tailed monkeys or Gue- 
nons of Africa. The muzzle is moderately pro- 
minent ; the facial angle 45° to 50° ; the head is 
round ; the superciliary ridge moderate ; the molar 
teeth are crowned with acute tubercles; the last 
molar of the lower jaw with only 4 tubercles : there 
are ample cheek-pouches ; the laryngal sac is vari- 
able ; ischiatic callosities moderate ; general con- 
tour light, but vigorous ; limbs muscular ; stomach 
simple ; tail long ; the hairs composing the fur 

The Cercopitheci are all restricted to the African 
continent, but one speciesonly, the Vervet (C. pygery- 
thrus ; and one species of Baboon, the Chacma), in- 
habits Africa south of the tropic of Capricorn ; and 
one species, the White-throated Monkey, C. albo- 
gularis. is a native of Madagascar. These animals 
are arboreal in their habits ; they tenant the wild 
forests that skirt the rivers, and associate in troops, 
being gregarious in their habits. Their actions are 
full of energy ; their disposition is restless, petulant, 
and inquisitive. During infancy they are gentle, 
but as age advances they become irascible and mali- 
cious. Their displeasure is expressed by grinning 
and chattering ; and though they seldom venture to 
make a decided attack, yet collected in troops in 
their native woods, they endeavour to harass and 
annoy intruders within their territorial domains, and 
are not to be repelled without difficulty. Their diet 
is almost exclusively frugivorous ; and they often 
commit great havoc in the fields of grain adjacent 
to the wooded districts ; and that, not only by what 
they devour on the spot, but also by what they 
carry away in their cheek-pouches, which extend 
below the angle of the lower jaw, and which, when 
an opportunity occurs, they cram with food to be 
eaten at leisure. In these Guenons the thumb of the 
fore-hands is more developed than in the Semnopi- 
theci, and the hands themselves are shorter, and 
have better pretensions to the title than the long 
slender graspers of their Asiatic relatives. The 

Dental formula is as follows: — Incisors-- , canines 

Of these the canines (see 

figure 153) are very large, compressed, with a sharp 
cutting edge posteriorly. 

154. — The Mona 

(Cercopithecus Mono). La Mone of Buffon; the 
Varied Ape of Pennant. The hairs annulated with 
grey, yellow, and black, or with red and black, pro- 
ducing the various tints of the fur. Head of yel- 
lowish-olive colour ; a black frontal stripe above the 
eyebrows is surmounted by another of a whitish tint, 
more conspicuous in some individuals than in others ; 
back chestnut-brown ; haunches and limbs exter- 
nally dusky black ; tail black, with a white spot on 
each side of its origin on the crupper; under parts and 
inside of limbs white; whiskers very full, of a yel- 
lowish-tint, slightly washed with black; skin of orbits 
and cheeks bluish-purple ; lips flesh-coloured ; ears 
and head of a livid flesh-colour ; length of head and 


molars ■- — , = 32. 
5 — O 

body 1 foot 8^ inches; tail 1 foot 11 inches- The 
Mona is a native of Western Africa (Guinea), but of 
its manners in a state of nature little is known. It 
bears our climate better than most of its congeners : 
we have observed many adults in captivity, and 
always found them savage and irritable. 

The term Mone, or Mona, is of Arabic origin, and 
is the Moorish name for all long-tailed monkeys in- 
discriminately. From Northern Africa the terra 
passed into Spain, Portugal, and Provence; nor 
has it stopped here : it is evidently the root of our 
word Monkey, which has exactly the same meaning, 
but which has been supposed to be a corruption of 
the word monikin, or manikin. To say no more, it 
seems going out of the way to seek in our own 
language for the name of a foreign animal, with 
which our Saxon forefathers, and indeed ourselves, 
till at a comparative late era, were unacquainted, 
and which, when imported, was so with the name 
also, by which it was known to the people from 
whom it was originally obtained. 

155, 156.— The Green Monkey 

(Cercopithecus Sabmis). The St. Jago monkey of 
Edwards ; Le Callitiiche of Buffon ; Cere, viridis 
of Hermann. The general colour of the upper parts 
is olive-green, the hairs being annulated with black 
and yellow ; on the outer side of the limbs a greyish 
tint prevails ; the hands and feet are grey ; the 
under surface of the body and inside of the limbs 
are white with a faint tinge of yellow. The hairs on 
the side of the face are full and long, and directed 
up towards the ears, spreading in the manner of a 
frill ; their colour, with that of the hairs of the 
throat, is bright but delicate yellow. The tail is 
olive-green above, passing into yellow at the tip ; 
the face, ears, and palms are black. 

The Green Monkey is a native of Senegal and the 
Cape de Verd Islands. It is most probable that this 
is the species to which Adanson refers, under the 
name of Singe verte, as being abundant in the woods 
of Podor along the Niger; and of which he 
killed twenty-three in less than an hour, and in the 
space of twenty fathoms, without one of them hav- 
ing uttered a single cry, although they collected 
several times, knitting their brows, gnashing their 
teeth, and making demonstrations of an intended 
attack. (' Voy. au Senegal,' by M. Adanson, 1757.) 

In captivity the green monkey is alert, active, and 
intelligent, but spiteful and malicious. F. Cuvier, 
however, describes an adult which was good-tem- 
pered, gentle, and familiar, and expressed pleasure 
on being caressed : such exceptions are rare. 

157. — ^The Diana Monket 
(Cercopithecus Diana). Le Rohway ou Palatine of 
Buffon ; the Palatine and Spotted Monkey of Pen- 
nant and Shaw. The top of the head, the back of 
the neck, the shoulders, sides, and middle of the 
body are of a deep grizzled ashy grey ; the hairs 
being annulated with white and black, and white at 
the lips. This grey tint darkens into black on the 
hands ; the tail is grey, becoming black at the ex- 
tremity ; a crescent-shaped line of long white hairs 
(surmounting a band of dusky black), and resem- 
bling Dian's silver bow, has suggested the animal's 
name. The sides of the face are covered with 
long bushy white hairs, which merge on the chin 
into a long, thin, flat, and pointed beard. The 
front of the neck and the anterior part of the hume- 
rus are white; the latter with an abrupt line of de- 

On the middle of the back commences a mark of 
deep chestnut, which gradually widens as it de- 
scends to the root of the tail, forming an elongated 
triangle with the base on the crupper. A line of 
white beginning at the root of the tail runs ob- 
liquely along the outer side of each thigh to the 
knee; the lower part of the abdomen and the 
inner side of the thighs are abruptly of an orange- 
yellow, orange-red, or bright rust colour. The face 
IS long and triangular, and, together with the ears, 
intensely black. Length of head and body about 
2 feet ; of tail about 2 feet 4 inches. This richly- 
coloured monkey is a native of Guinea, Congo, and 
Fernando Po. It is very rarely brought alive to 
Europe ; nor indeed are its skins common in collec- 
tions. We have observed only one specimen in the 
Paris Museum, from the Gold Coast. Three speci- 
mens are in the collection of the Zoological Society, 
London. Of these, one died some years since in the 
menagerie of the Society: the other two were 
brought from Fernando Po. Of the habits of the 
Diana in its own forests we know nothing. While 
young in captivity it is gentle, active, familiar, and 
very playful : its frontal crest, and " beard of formal 
cut," give a singular aspect to its physiognomy. 
The latter has been observed to be solicitous in 
keeping neat and clean, holding it back when about 
to drink, lest it should dip into the fluid. Consider- 
ing the range of country through which thisspecies 
is spread, the scarcity of this monkey in the mena- 
geries and collections of Europe is rather surprising. 

158. — The Lesser White->osed Mokkky 

(Cercopitliecus Petaurista). Blanc-nez of Alia* 
mand ; Ascagne of F. Cuvier and Audebert. 

There are two distinct species of White-nosed . 
monkey, both natives of the forests of Guinea ; of 
these one is the Hocheur of Audebert, the Winking 
monkey of Pennant, the Cercopithecus nictitans of 
Geoffrey. The general colour of the Hocheur is 
black, freckled with white ; the limbs are black ; 
the whiskers, of the general colour, are ample ; the 
chin is beardless ; the nose, which is broad and ele- 
vated, is white from between the eyes to the nos- 

The Lrsser White-nosed Monkey, or Blanc-nez (see 
Fig. 158), has only the lower half of the nose white, 
but this colour extends to the adjacent part of the 
upper lip ; the face is covered with short black 
hairs, those on the cheek-bone having a fulvous 
tinge ; the whiskers and beard are white, as also the 
throat, chest, and abdomen. A streak of black 
hair runs from the face below the ear, and loses 
itself on the top of the shoulder ; and between this 
black line and the hairs of the head a conspicuous 
streak of white runs below the ears. The general 
colour of the back and head is reddish olive-brown ; 
the hairs being ranged with fulvous and black. A 
band across the forehead above the eyes, and a band 
traversing the top of the head from ear to ear, are 
black ; a grey tint prevails on the limbs, deepening 
to dusky black on the hands and feet. Tail dusky 
grey above, white beneath. Length of head and 
body, about 1 foot 4 or 5 inches ; of the tail, 1 foot 
9 or 10 inches. 

This species is common in Guinea, and is fre- 
quently brought to Europe, but does not well en- 
dure our uncongenial climate. It is gentle, grace- 
ful, and intelligent, but not without a mixture of 
the caprice and petulance of its race. The light- 
ness and agility of its actions, its playfulness, and 
beauty, certainly render it very attractive ; but it 
dislikes to be taken hold of or interfered with : so 
that though as docile as most monkeys, it becomes, 
familiar only to a certain extent. A Blanc-nez in 
the possession of Allamand, though usually good- 
tempered and sportive, became angry if interrupted 
while feeding, and also when mockery was made of 
it. We have observed a sensitiveness to ridicule 
or mockery in other species, and a strong desire to 
resent the insult, which is evidently felt. 

159. — The Collared White-eyelid Monkey 

(yEthiops torquatus). Cercocebus ^thiops, Geoff. ; 
Cercopithecus .^thiops, Kuhl. In Martin's 'Natu- 
ral History of Quadrupeds,' p. 508, a subgenus 
termed ^Ethiops is there proposed for two, if not 
three closely-allied species (the White-eyelid 
Monkeys), which differ on tangible grounds from the 
Cercopitheci, namely, in the presence of a fifth tu- 
bercle on the last molar of the lower jaw ;• the mag- 
nitude of the upper middle incisors ; and the hairs 
being destitute of annulations. For these monkeys, 
with other Guenons by no means closely allied to 
them, Geoffroy proposed his genus Cercocebus — a 
genus, the indeterminate characters of which, from 
the incongruity of the species thus brought together, 
was perceived by Desmarest, who, unwilling to sink 
it, endeavoured to reform it by the removal of some 
species and the addition of others : so that the 
genus as instituted by the one naturalist, and that 
remodelled by the other, were two different assem- 
blages; and the characters of both equally vague 
and indefinite. It therefore seems best to sink the 
genus altogether, and place the White-eyelid Mon- 
keys in a separate subgenus, to which the title 
Jithiops has been already applied. 

The Collared White-eyelid Monkey (the Manga- 
bey a Collier of Buffon and F. Cuvier), like the 
Sooty White-eyelid Monkey, is a native of Western 
Africa. The general colour is fuliginous or sooty- 
black, passing into black on the limbs and hancis. 
The top of the head is chestnut-coloured ; the whis- 
kers, throat, and collar round the neck are white. 
The upper eyelids are conspicuously dead-white. 

The native habits of this monkey are not known : 
in captivity it is gentle, active, and familiar, and 
testifies by a sort of jabber and grin its recognition 
of those for whom it has a partiality. We have ob- 
served many individuals, and have found them to 
be among the most diverting of their race. They 
would play a number of amusing tricks in order, to 
attract the attention of bystanders, and gain a share 
of the nuts and biscuits they saw dealt out to their 
companions ; and they testified their gratitude by 
a quick vibratory movement of the lips, producing 
a jabbering noise. When offended, their ill-temper 
was transient, and they soon became reconciled to 
the object of their anger. In their gambols with 
other monkeys they were invariably good-natured. 

Genus Macacus. The distinctions between the 
genus Macacus and Cercopithecus, though in some 
points definite, are in others rather variations in 

• See * Proceedings of Zoological Society, London,* 1838, p. 1 17. 


".— I)i»nn Monkeyi. 

1.'" .— t.rctu Monk«f> 


Ifil.— Toque. 

15H.— The Leswr White-nosed Monkey. 

19.— Bhander. 

160.— Teeth of Maoacus. 

159.— The Collared White-Eyelid Monkey. 

164, — Wanderoo. 

165.— ChKina, 

163.— Wanderoo. 




degree than anrthin^ potitive. In the Macaques, 
or Macaci, the body is stouter, the head larger in 
proportion, the limbs more muscular, and the tail 
shorter than in the Guenons. The muzzle is heavy ; 
the forehead is flattened behind a bold superciliary 
ridge; the callosities are lar^e, and mostly sur- 
rounded by a naked space of skin. There are ample 
cheek-pouches, and Cuvier states that a laryngal 
sac ia always present. The last molar of the lower 
jaw has a iifth tubercle, and the molai-s are broad 
(see Fig. 160). The tail is variable : in some it is of 
considerable length, and in these the general form 
approaches to that of the Guenons. In others again 
it M short and slender ; and in others it is reduced to 
a mere tubercle. The ears are angular. The Ma- 
caci are all natives of Asia. Like the Guenons, 
which they seem to represent, the long-tailed species 
tenant the forest in troops, and are remarkable for 
activity and impudence. Emboldened by tolerance, 
they become in many places very audacious, pil- 
laging the garden and fields of grain, and their 
rapacity is seconded by address and cunning. 

161. — The Toquk, or Radiated Macaqu* 

(Macacus radiatus). This species is the Bonnet 
Chinois of Buffon ; the Simla binica of Gmelim ; the 
Toque of F. Cuvier. 

The forehead is abruptly depressed behind the 
superciliary ridge, which is very bold ; the skin of 
the forehead is transversely wrinkled, and covered 
with short hairs, diverging laterally on each side 
from the middle longitudinal line. These hairs are 
continued round the temples, following the projec- 
tion of the superciliary ridge, and occupying the 
space before the ears. A circular cap of rather long 
hair radiating from the centre is seated flat on the 
crown. The muzzle is prominent, and the physiog- 
nomy malicious ; the form is robust ; the tail long. 
The general colour is greenish olive-grey, the hairs 
being annulated with dusky-black and pale yellow ; 
the under surface is ashy-white ; the ears are large 
and flesh-coloured, with straggling long grey hairs. 
The limbs are of a paler tint than the back. The 
sides of the face and throat are thinly clad with 
greyish hairs ; the naked skin of the face is of a 
tanned flesh-colour. 

The Toque is one of the commonest of the Ma- 
caques in our menageries, and appears to be widely 
distributed throughout India. It is found in Mala- 
bar. It inhabits the Western Ghauts, where it is 
called Waanur by the Mahrattas: it is abundant in 
Madras, and even in the southern regions of Nepal. 
In the Mahratta country portions of the mighty 
forest are, as Mr. Elliot states, left untouched by the 
axe or knife, forming an impervious shade for the 
growth of the black pepper, cai°damom, and mari- 
palm (Caryota urens). These parts, called kans, 
are the favourite resort of wild animals: here the 
Entellus abounds, and its loud and piercing cries 
may be frequently heard sounding through the dense 
foliage : the radiated Macaque, also, which is com- 
mon over the whole country, may be seen in troops, 
tenanting the wildest jungles. It is not, however, 
confined to these woodland recesses : it lives, as if 
at home, in the most populous towns, where it 
carries off fruit and grain with the greatest coolness 
and address, and commits incessant petty depreda- 
tions. The examples of this species which we have 
seen in captivity, have been all remarkable for intel- 
ligence and activity, and equally so for petulance 
when young, and irascibility — even ferocity — when 
adult. We have seen them display every mark of 
rage against persons who did not appear to give any 
definite offence. Numbers of these animals are 
kept in the Hindoo temples, where they are exceed- 
ingly jealous of intruders of any other species, which 
they drive forth from their asylum with the utmost 
hostility, a circumstance witnessed by M. de Mai- 
8onpr£ in the enclosures of the pagodas of Cherinan. 

162. — The Bbuhdeb, or Rhesus 

(Macacus Rhesus). This is the Patas a queue courte 
of Buffon ; the Maimon, or Rhesus, of F. Cuvier. 

The general colour of the fur is olive-green, with 
a wash of brown on the back ; the crupper and 
thighs externally orange-red ; the face orange- 
red ; the callosities and naked skin around intense 
red. The tail short. The skin of the throat and 
abdomen is loose, and usually hangs in folds. 
The Bhunder is a native of India, and is very abun- 
dant on the banks of the Ganges, being greatly 
reverenced by the Hindoos. It swarms not only in 
the woods, but in towns and villages, tenanting the 
tops of the houses. It would appear from the account 
of Mr. Johnson, in his ' Indian Field Sports,' that in 
some places ample provision is made for the support 
of these animals. At Bindrabun, a town near the 
holy city of Muttra, more than a hundred gardens 
are cultivated, sind all kinds of fruit grown, at the 
expense of pious and wealthy natives, for their 
sipply. Not content with remaining outside the 
houses, they boldly invade the rooms and steal 
everything that tempts them, such as bread, sugar, 

fruit, &c., ransacking every place in their search. 
To injure one is not only to bring down the ven- 
geance of the whole host, but, vvhat is more, of 
the besotted natives, as was experienced by two 
younp officers who imprudently fired while on a 
sporting excursion at one of these monkeys. They 
were mounted on an elephant, and no sooner 
was the profane assault committed than the in- 
habitants of Bindrabun rose incensed to the 
highest degree: they pelted the gentlemen and the 
elephant with bricks and stones, and drove them 
into the river : the two officers and the driver were 
drowned ; but the elephant landed about six miles 
lower down the river, and was saved. In the dis- 
trict of Cooch Bahar a large tract of country is con- 
sidered by the natives as in part the property of 
these monkeys ; and therefore, when they cut the 
grain, they leave a tenth part piled in heaps for 
these creatures, which come' down from the hills and 
carry off' their allotted tithes. 

In captivity the Rhesus, or Bhunder, displays 
cunning and sagacity ; but is at the same time ob- 
stinate, savage, and irascible. 

163, 164.— The Wanderoo 

(Macacus Silemis). Ouanderou and Lowando, Buf- 
fon ; Lion-tailed Baboon, Pennant and Shaw. 

The general colour of this species is black ; the 
tail is of moderate length and tufted at the tip ; the 
face is encircled by a mane of long hairs of a 
whitish or light ash colour, sometimes pure white ; 
the face is black ; the callosities flesh-coloured. 

This large and powerful Macaque is a native of 
Malabar and Ceylon. Knox, in his historical rela- 
tion of Ceylon, evidently describes this animal. 
They are, he says, " as large as our English spaniel 
dogs, of a darkish grey colour, with black faces, and 
great white beards from ear to ear, which make 
them show just like old men. They do but little 
mischief, keeping in the woods, eating only leaves 
and buds of trees ; but when they are caught they 
will eat anything. This sort they call in their lan- 
guage Wanderows." 

In captivity, judging from the specimens we 
have seen, the Wanderoo is surly and unsocial, and 
disposed to tyrannise over the other inmates of its 
compartment. Of its manners in a state of nature 
we have no detailed account. 

Genus Cynocephalus. In the massive Baboons 
composing this genus we find the characters of the 
Macaques exaggerated, so to speak, to their ultima- 
tum, and consequently impressing us with an idea 
of degradation m the scale ; we recognise an ap- 
proach in form and aspect to the Carnivora, and on 
reflection appreciate the distance to which we have 
receded from the Chimpanzee. 

Of large stature and prodigious force, the Baboons, 
though never voluntarily assuming an erect atti- 
tude, are to a great degree terrestrial, inhabiting 
rocky and mountain districts, rather than forests 
and woodlands. The head is heavy, not from cra- 
nial development, but from that of the face, which 
is prolonged and thick, resembling that of a mastiff, 
the muzzle being truncated, and the nostrils at its 

The maxillary bones are more or less swollen, 
and the superciliary ridge beetles over the scowling 
eyes, giving an expression of brutal and revolting 

The neck and shoulders are voluminous ; the 
chest is deep, and the great power and equal pro- 
portions of the limbs are favourable for quadrupedal 
movements. They climb trees with facility, but 
prefer craggy rocks and precipices, among which 
they dwell in security. In temper they are morose 
and daring, and their physical powers render them 
formidable. It is only during youth that they are 
tractable. They congregate in troops, and are bold 
and skilful in their predatory excursions. 

To bulbous roots, berries, and grain, the Baboons 
add eggs, scorpions, and insects, as their diet ; nor is 
it quite clear that they are not carnivorous as well 
as herbivorous. In domestication they relish cooked 
meat, and even devour raw flesh with avidity. They 
do not arrive at maturity till the seventh or eighth 
year of their age. 

All the Baboons are African : one indeed, the 
Hamadryas, is found in the mountain districts of 
Arabia, as well as in those of Abyssinia, and was 
well known to the Egyptians. 

165, 166, 167.— The Chacma 

(Cynocephalus porcarius). The Singe Noir of Le 
Vaillant ; the Choak-Kama of Kolbe ; Papio Coma- 
tus, Geoffroy. About the shoulders and neck the 
hairs are long and mane-like ; the general colour is 
grizzled dusky black, with a tinge of olive-green ; 
the face is black, with a hue of violet ; the upper 
eyelids are white ; the tail descends to the hock- 
joint, and is carried arched yet drooping down, as 
in Figs. 166 and 167. The male attains the size 
of a large mastiff, and is very formidable. Length 

of adult nearly 3 feet, exclusive of the tail, which 
measures about 27 inches. 

The terra Chacma is a corruption of the Hottentot 
name T'chacamma for this species, which inhabits 
the rocky mountains throughout the colony of the 
Cape of Good Hope, where, in the remoter districts, 
it is very abundant, and well known to the farmers 
from the depredations it commits in their cultivated 
enclosures. In its mountain fastnesses it is safe 
from pursuit, and troops may be frequently seen on 
the overhanging rocks gazing at the traveller as he 
traverses the mountain passes. 

An old male Chacma is more than a match for 
two large dogs ; and the boors of the interior will 
rather venture their hounds upon a lion or panther 
than one of these animals. Yet to no animal do the 
dogs show a more inveterate hostility. Burchell 
states that on one occasion a small company of 
them, being chased by his dogs, suddenly turned 
upon their canine foes and defended themselves 
most effectually. They killed one dog on the spot 
by biting it through the great blood-vessels of the 
neck, and disabled another by laying bare its ribs. 
Even the leopard, hyaena, or wild-dog is sometimes 
mastered by a troop, though the former, surprising 
individuals, destroys numbers. 

The devotion of the females to their young is very 
great, and in their defence they are ready to brave 
every danger. 

The food of the Chacma consists in a great mea- 
sure of bulbous roots, particularly of the Babiana ; 
and it is customary for the troops to descend from 
the precipices into the secluded valleys of rich allu- 
vial soil where these plants luxuriate. When sud- 
denly surprised, the cry of alarm is raised, and the 
troop ascend the rocky cliffs, often several hundred 
feet in perpendicular height, with surprising agility, 
the young clinging to their mothers, and the old 
males bringing up the rear. Besides bulbs and 
grain, they are fond of eggs, and greedily devour 
scorpions, which they seize, nipping off the sting 
with so rapid an action as to prevent the hands 
from being wounded. In captivity, while young, 
the Chacma is good-tempered and frolicsome, but 
as age advances it becomes savage and dangerous. 

168. — The M.^-ndbiu- 

{Cynocephalus Mormon). Le Choras, Buffon ; Man- 
tegar, Bradley ; Great Baboon, Pennant ; Variegated 
Baboon, Lev. Mus. ; Ribbed-nosed Baboon, Pen- 
nant ; Simla Mormon and Maimon, Linn. 

Adult male. General colour olive-brown, pass- 
ing into whitish in the under parts ; a golden-yellow 
beard hangs from the chin ; the hair of the forehead 
and temples converges to a peak ; skin round the 
callosities red. The nostrils have a broad rim around 
them, at the extremity of the muzzle ; the tail is 
short, and nearly hid by the fur. The cheek-bones 
are enormously swollen, rising like two ridges, and 
the skin is obliquely marked with deep furrows ; 
its colour is a fine blue, with a tinge of scarlet in 
the furrows ; a streak of brilliant vermillion, com- 
mencing on the beetling superciliary ridge, runs 
down the nose, and is diffused over the muzzle. 
Ears, palms, and soles violet black. In the female 
the cheeks are less swollen, and the scarlet is pale 
or wanting. In the young the cheeks are little if at 
all swollen, the furrows barely discernible, and the 
colour black. It is not until the fourth or fifth 
year, when the second dentition is fully complete, 
that the characters of maturity are assumed ; and to 
this point there is a gradual progress, the bones of 
the face developing, the colour of the skin chang- 
ing, the muzzle becoming broader and thicken and 
the furrows more marked. 

This massive, powerful, and ferocious baboon is 
of huge size, and very dangerous. It is a native of 
Guinea and other parts of western Africa, where it 
is greatly dreaded by the natives, who assert that it 
frequently attempts to cany oft' women into the 
deep forests where it resides, and occasionally suc- 
ceeds. However this may be, certain it is that in 
captivity the appearance of a female will excite in 
the mandrill unequivocal manifestations of brute 
passion, and any attention to her the most furious 

In its native forests the mandrill associates in 
large troops, which are more than a match for the 
fiercest beasts of prey, and often make incursions 
into villages and cultivated fields, which they plun- 
der with impunity. In their movements on the 
ground they are quadrupedal ; but their activity is 
very great, and they leap and climb with the "ut- 
most facility. Their voice is deep and guttural, 
consisting of hoarse, abrupt tones, indicative of fury 
or malice. That the species is abundant in western 
Africa is proved by the numbers of young indivi- 
duals brought from time to time to Europe ; these 
however very rarely attain to maturity, the period of 
dentition, which is accompanied by such marked 
changes, being peculiarly critical. In captivity this 
baboon is ferocious and malevolent ; one in the pos- 
session of Mr. Wombwell killed a monkey, a beagle, 




and a Java sparrow, which by accident came within 
his reach. A splendid specimen died some years 
ago in Mr. Cross's menagerie. He was accustomed 
to smoke, and to drink porter, which latter he quafFed 
■with an amusing air of gravity, holding the mug 
with great address while seated in his arm-chair. 
His temper was violent in the extreme, and the 
slightest oiFence roused him to fury : his appearance 
was then terrible, and well calculated to alarm the 
boldest ; nor could any man, without weapons, have 
had any chance in a contest. 

169. — Tub Drill 

(CynocepliacBlus leucophus). The Drill is a native 
of Guinea. The head is large ; the muzzle thick, 
with elevated maxillary protuberances, which, how- 
ever, are not furrowed. The general contour is 
robust. The tail is very short, and' carried erect. 
The general colour is greenish olive above, ashy 
white beneath ; the beard is short and orange- 
coloured ; the face and ears are glossy black ; the 
palms copper-coloured. The female is smaller, with 
a shorter muzzle and paler tint of colouring. The 
young males resemble the female till their second 
dentition is complete. It would appear that the 
Wood Baboon, the Cinereous Baboon, and the Yel- 
lovf Baboon of Pennant, are the young of the Drill 
at different stages of growth. 

The Drill approaches the Mandrill in size ; and 
though gentle when young, becomes when adult as 
sullen and ferocious as that animal . Adults are, how- 
ever, rare in menageries, the acquisition of the per- 
manent teeth being critical : but young specimens 
are far from uncommon. These have often been 
confounded with the young of the Mandrill ; indeed, 
it is to Frederic Cuvier that we owe the recogni- 
tion of the Drill as a distinct species, for the con- 
fused descriptions of Pennant aftbrd us nothing tan- 
gible. In its wild state the Drill resembles the 
Mandrill as regards habits and manners ; and tra- 
vellers seem to have confounded the two species to- 
gether, and even mixed up their history with that of 
the Chimpanzee. 


(CebidcB). The American monkeys diflfer from the 
monkeys of the Old World in the following par- 
ticulars. The thumb of the fore-hands is never op- 
posable to the fingers. 
The dentition, excepting in the Marmozets, is as 

4 1 I 

follows : — Incisors, - ; canines, -— ~ ; bicuspid mo- 

Jara, ^-— ; true molars, -— - =z 36, instead of 32. 

Callosities always wanting. Cheek-pouches always 
wanting. Nostrils lateral, with elevated margins, 
and separated from each other by a wide septum. 
Tail often prehensile, never wanting or rudimen- 

The American monkeys, or Cebidae, are exclu- 
sively confined to the warmer regions of the New 
World ; so that, although the species are numerous, 
their extent of territory is far more limited than 
that occupied by the Old World monkeys. Their 
northward range is bounded (in the tenth or eleventh 
degree of latitude) by the Caribbean Sea ; for they 
occur neither in the Caribbean group of islands, nor 
m Hayti, Cuba, or the Bahamas. Though found in 
the region south of the territory of Panama, they do 
not advance to Yutacan or Mexico. South of the 
line their range extends to the twenty-fourth or 
twenty-fifth degree of latitude, including Brazil, 
Peru east of the great chain of the Andes, and Para- 
guay. All are arboreal, frequenting the dense 
forests, which, as Humboldt observes, are so thick 
and uninterrupted on the plains of South America 
between the Orinoko and the Amazon, that, were it 
not for intervening rivers, the monkeys, almost the 
only inhabitants of these regions, might pass along 
the tops of the trees for several hundred miles to- 
gether without touching the earth. 

In South America monkeys are ordinarily killed 
as game by the natives for the sake of their flesh ; 
but the appearance of these animals is so revolting 
to Europeans, that it is only from necessity, and 
after custom has familiarised the sight, that they 
can force themselves to partake of such fare. The 
manner in which these animals are roasted also 
contributes to render their appearance disgusting. 
" A little grating or lattice of very hard wood is 
formed and raised a foot from the ground. The 
monkey is skinned and bent into a sitting posture, 
the head generally resting on the arfns, which are 
meagre and long; but sometimes these are crossed 
behind the back. When it is tied on the grating, a 
very clear fire is kindled below; the monkey, en- 
veloped in smoke and flame, is broiled and blackened 
at the same time. Roasted monkeys, particularly 
those that have a round head, display a hideous re- 
semblance to a child; the Europeans, therefore, 
who are obliged to feed on them, prefer separating 
the head and hands, and serve only the rest of the 

animal at their tables. The flesh of monkeys is f-o 
dry and lean, that M. Bonpland has preserved in his 
collection at Paris an arm and hand which had been 
broiled over the fire at Esmeralda, and no smell 
arises from them after a number of years."— Hum- 

Genus Ateles. This genus, which includes the 
spider-monkeys, is characterised thus :— Head round ; 
face moderately developed ; limbs long and slender. 
Tail longer than the body, thick at the base, strongly 
prehensile, and naked for a considerable space be- 
neath at its extremity. Fore-hands either destitute 
of an externally apparent thumb, or with the thumb 
a mere tubercle. Nostrils separated by a wide sep- 
tum and obliquely oval. Ears moderate, naked, 
with reflected margins. Dentition as described. 
Fur long, crisp, or rather harsh, sometimes silky ; 
prevailing colour black. 

In the slenderness of the limbs, and in the staid, 
quiet, and almost melancholy expression of the face, 
the Spider Monkeys remind us of the Gibbons ; both 
are timid and gentle, with an air of listlessness. lost 
only under excitement. 

From the length of the limbs and the remarkable 
flexibility of the joints, the motions of the Spider 
Monkeys on all fours on the ground seem to be 
crawling and indeterminate. They tread on the 
inner edge of the fore-paws, and to a great degree 
on the outer edge of the hind-paws, and endeavour 
to assist themselves by attaching the tail to every 
object as they proceed. They often, however, as- 
sume the erect attitude, and walk thus better than 
any other of the long-tailed monkeys. When pro- 
ceeding in this manner the tail is raised up as high 
as the shoulders, and then bent downwards at its 
extremity, evidently acting as a balancer while the 
animal moves steadily along. The proper place of 
these monkeys is among the branches of the forest ; 
there their movements are rapid, easy, and uncon- 
strained ; their progression is by a series of swing- 
ing evolutions, in the performance of which the 
limbs and tail take an equal share. The latter 
organ, the strength and prehensile powers of which 
are very great, enables them to assume the most 
varied attitudes. In ascending or descending trees, 
or in traversing the branches, it is in continual re- 
quisition ; they coil it round branch after branch in 
their passage, turning it in various directions, and 
applying it with wonderful precision. They often 
suspend themselves exclusively by it, and swinging 
until a sufficient impetus is gained, launch them- 
selves to a distant branch, or, stretching out their 
arms, catch it as they vibrate towards it. The ad- 
vantages of this additional instrument of prehension 
are palpable ; its sense of touch is finger-like ; and 
it is capable of seizing small objects with great ad- 
dress. They are said to introduce the extremity 
of the tail as a feeler into the fissures and hollows 
of trees, for the purpose of hooking out eggs or 
other substanees. 

170.— The Chambck 

(Ateles suhpentadactijlus). Fur long, flowing, glossy, 
and jet black. The fore-hands have a minute nail- 
less tubercle in place of a thumb. The face and 
ears are naked, and of a red flesh colour, with a tint 
of dusky brown. Length of head and body about 
twenty inches : of the tail twenty-five inches. Na- 
tive country, Peru. 

171. — The Mahimosda 
{Ateles Belzebuth, Desm.). Fur smooth and glossy ; 
general colour brownish black, deeper on the hands 
and feet, but fading on the loins and sides of the 
haunches to a glossy greyish brown. The long 
hairs at the angle of the jaw, those of the throat, 
under parts and inside of the limbs, dirty straw 
colour or yellowish white. A space along the under 
surface of the tail at its base rusty yellow. Skin of 
the face blackish brown, becoming of a tanned flesh 
colour about the lips and nose and around the eyes. 
Native country, the borders of the Orinoko, Cassi- 
quiare, &c. 

172.— The Coaita 

(Ateles Panisciis). The Quatto of V'osmaer. Ge- 
neral colour black, the fur being long, coarse, and 
glossy ; more scanty on the under parts of the body 
than on the upper. Face and ears of a flesh co- 
lour, with a tanned or coppery tinge. Neither in 
this nor the Marimonda is there any thumb on the 
fore-hands. Native country, Surinam and Guiana. 
In their general habits and manners these three 
fpecies of Spider Monkeys agree so closely that the 
details of one are applicable to the rest. In cap- 
tivity the Chameck is grave and gentle, but displays 
extraordinary agility ; its intelligence approaches 
that of the Gibbons. We have seen individuals re- 
peatedly walk upright with great steadiness, — cross 
their compartment to the window, and there gaze 
for a considerable time with an air amusingly like 
that of a human being, as if contemplating the state 
of the weather, the progress of vegetation, or the 

actions of persons passing by. At the same time 
the Chameck (and the same observation applies to 
the others) is not disposed to court the notice of the 
spectators around it, or invite the attention of stran- 
gers. Towards those by whom it is regulariy fed 
it displays confidence and partiality. In its gam- 
bols with others of the genus it exhibits great ad- 
dress in avoiding or returning their sportive assaults, 
and executes with surpassing ease the most fan- 
tastic manoeuvres. 

The Marimonda is termed Arir by the Indians of 
the Kio Guiania, and is a favourite article of food 
with the natives of the borders of the Cassiquiare, 
the higher Orinoko, and other rivers, and its broiled 
limbs are commonly to be seen in their huts. It is 
listless and indolent in its habits, and is fond of 
basking in warm rays of the sun. .Humboldt states 
that he has frequently seen these animals, when ex- 
posed to the heat of a tropical sun, throw their 
heads backwards, turn their eyes upwards, bend 
their arms over their backs, and remain motionless 
in this extraordinary position for hours together. 
They traverse the branches leisurely, and unite in 
companies, forming the most grotesque groups, their 
attitudes announcing complete sloth. 

In captivity the Marimonda is gentle, and exhibits 
nothing of the petulance of the guenons or the vio- 
lence of the macaques. Its anger, when excited, is 
very transient, and announced by pursing up the 
lips and uttering a guttural cry, resembling the ou-6. 
Humboldt notices the facility with which this ani- 
mal can introduce its tail into the narrowest crevices, 
select any object it pleases, and hook it out. 

173.— Ths Mibiki 
(^Eriodes tuberifer, Isid., Geoff.). Ateles hypoxan- 
thus. Prince deWied-Neuwied, but not of Desmarest. 
The Miriki and one or two more species have been 
recently separated from the genus Ateles and formed 
into a distinct group. There are indeed several 
differences between these animals and the ordinary 
Spider Monkeys, which, if taken together, justify the 
adoption of the genus Eriodes. The nostrils are ■ 
rounded, the interval between them is narrow, and 
their aspect is downwards, not lateral. The molar 
teeth, instead of being small, are large and quadran- 
gular, and the crown of the first two molars of the 
upper jaw is boldly and irregularly tuberculate : the 
incisors are small. The dentition in fact approaches 
close to that of the Howlers (Mycetes), and it is 
worthy of remark that, in F. Cuviers work on the 
teeth of quadrupeds, his figure of the teeth of the 
Howling Monkeys is in reality copied, as M. Isidore 
asserts, upon his own knowledge, from the teeth of a 
species of Eriodes. (See Fig. 174.) Besides these 
there are other characters of minor importance. 

The fur of the Miriki is soft and woolly, of a yel- 
lowish-grey, the base of the tail and the circum- 
jacent hairs being tinged with rufous. The fore- 
hands are furnished with a minute rudimentary 
thumb, in the form of a nailless tubercle ; the face 
is flesh-coloured, sprinkled with greyish hairs. Na- 
tive country, Brazil. The Miriki in its general habits 
agrees with the Spider Monkeys. It lives associated 
in troops in the vast forests, and displays great 
agility. Fruits form its principal diet. The Prince 
of Weid-Neuwied states that the Miriki seldom ap- 
proaches the abodes of man, keeping to the depths 
of the woods; Spi-v also states that it lives in troops 
which make the air resound with their loud cries 
incessantly uttered during the day. At the sight of 
the hunter they ascend with extraordinary rapidity 
the topmost branches of the trees, and passing from 
one to another are soon lost in the recesses of the 
forest. The Brazilians call this monkey Miriki and 
Mouriki; the Botacudas term it Koupo. 

Genus Mycetes. The Howlers, or Howling Mon- 
keys, as the animals of this genus are termed, con- 
stitute a natural and well-marked group distinguish- 
able from the Spider Monkeys by their greater 
robustness, by the more proportionate contour of 
the limbs, by the development of the bone of the 
tongue (OS hyoides), which is greatly enlarged and 
hollow, by the expansion of the lower jaw, especially 
at its angle, the prominence of the muzzle, and by 
the possession of a thumb (not opposable) on the 
fore-hands. The form of the head is pyramidal ; the 
fur of the forehead is directed upwards, that of the 
rest of the head forwards ; on the external surface 
of the fore-arms it is directed from the wrist to the 
elbow; the under parts of the body are almost 
naked ; on the back and shoulders the fur is full, 
long, soft, and glossy. The tail is strongly prehen- 
sile, and naked at its extremity beneath. The hollow 
drum formed by the os hyoides communicates with 
the interior of the cartilaginous expansion of the 
larynx (Fig. ITJ), in which arc several membranous 
valvular pouches. This apparatus gives to the voice 
extraordinary volume and intonation. The howl- 
irio-s uttered by the troops of these monkeys are as- 
toundinsr, and usually heard in the morning, at 
sunset, and during the darkness of night. Shrouded 
amidst the gloomy foliage of the woods, Ihey raise 

171.— Marimonda. 

ITO.— Chameck. 


179.— Tenow-bmttecl Sijon. 









their horrid chonu, " making; nif;ht hideout," aod 
startling the traveller who Tor the firet time hears 
it. It is not, however, only durini; the night or at 
daybreak and ereninK that the Howlers exert their 
voices; they are affected by electric chani^es in the 
dondltion of the atmotphere, and when, durint; the 
<*yi 'he gloomy sky Toretells the approach of a 
thunderstorm, their dissonant yelU resound through 
the gloomy woodlands. The range of the Howlers 
ii from Guiana to Paraguay. According to Spix 
and Humboldt, they subsist' principally upon fruits 
and leaves. The females pro<luoe one at a birth, 
and the mother carries her young clinging to her 
back until old enough to act for itself. In their 
disposition the Howlers are melancholy and morose ; 
their movements are tardy and inert ; on the ground 
they never attempt to walk on the hinder limbs 
alone. When pursued oralarmed, they retire slowly 
and take refuge in the highest branches of the trees, 
to which, if shot with a bullet or arrow, they orten 
remain suspended by the tail when life is extinct. 
As they are of large size and fatter than other mon- 
keys, they are in great request with the Indians as 
food ; but are seldom or never kept in confinement, 
having nothing pleasing in their mannent, voice, or 

176, 177.— The Abaocato, or Ursine Howleb 

(Mtfcetes urtinui). Araguato de Caracas of Hum- 
boldt. The extent of tne face destitute of hair is 
more circumscribed than in most of the genus, and is 
of a bluish black colour with long scattered black 
bristles on the lips and chin. The chest and abdo- 
men are well clothed with hair. The fur is long, 
resembling that of a young bear. The general 
colour is golden rufous, paler round the sides of the 
face, but deeper on the beard. In the figure of this 
species given in Humboldt's work, the hair of the 
liead is represented as all directed backwards from 
the forehead to the back of the neck : we hesitate 
not to say, by a mistake of the artist. Native coun- 
try, Brazil, Venezuela, &c. 

It was after landing atCumana, in the province of 
New Andalusia, that Humboldt and Bonpland first 
met the Araguato, while on an excursion to the 
mountains of Cocollar and the cavern of Guacharo. 
The convent of Caripr is there situated in a valley, 
the plain of which is elevated more than 400 toises 
above the level of the ocean ; and though the centi- 
grade thermometer olten descends during the night 
to I " degrees, the surrounding forests abound with 
Howlers, whose mournful cries uttered when the 
sky is overcast, or threatens rain or lightning, are 
heard at the distance of half a league. The Araguato 
was also met with in the valleys of Aragua to the 
west of Caracas, in the Llanos of the Apur6 and 
of the Lower Orinoco, and in the Carib missions of 
the Province of New Barcelona, where stagnant 
waters were overshadowed by the Sagoutier of 
America, a species of palm with scale-covered fruit 
and ilabelliform leaves, among which it dwells in 
troops. South of the cataracts of the Orinoco it 
becomes very rare. Of all the gregarious monkeys 
the Araguato was observed in the greatest abund- 
ance ; on the borders of the Apure Humboldt often 
counted 40 in one tree, and in some parts of the 
country he affirms that more than 2000 existed in a 
square mile. They travel in the forests in long files, 
consisting of 20 or 30 individuals or more, and pro- 
ceed with deliberation. An old male usually leads 
the troop, the rest follow his movements, and when 
he swings from one branch to another, the whole file 
■one by one perform in " order due " the same action 
«n the same spot. In other species also this habit 
has been observed. According to Waterton, the 
Araguato is very partial to the seeds of the vanilla, 
a creeper which ascends the trees to the height of 
forty or fiOy feet. 

Genus cfebus. The Sapajous, as the animals of 
this genus are termed, are prehensile-tailed, but the 
tail is everywhere clothed with fur, so that, though 
capable of grasping, and naturally curled round at 
its extremity when not in use, as in the Spider 
Monkeys and Howlers, it is not, as in these latter 
animals, an organ of tact, nor so powerful a grasper. 

The monkeys of this genus are all diurnal in their 
habits, and for the most part of small size. The French 
call them Sapajous, Sajous, Sais, and Capucins : they 
are also called Weepers (Singes pleureurs), from the 

Slaintive piping noise which many of them utter, 
[umboldt states that the Creoles of South America 
call them "Matchi," confounding underthisdenomi- 
nation very distinct species. In temper and disposi- 
tion the Cebi are lively and docile ; they show great 
attachment to some persons, and a capricious aver- 
sion to others. They are intelligent, mischievous. 
And inquisitive. Their activity and address are sur- 
prising ; in their native forests they live in troops, 
feeding on fniits, grain, insects, and eggs. So 
amusinf^ are they in their gambols, that even the 
apathetic natives will stop their canoes and watch 
their frolics with interest. They are, from their live- 
lineas and docility, great favourites, and often kept 

domesticated, but their amusing habits do not pro- 
tect them from the poisoned arrows of the Indians. 
The head is round, tlie muzzle short, and the 
limbs well proportioned. The dentation as usual : 
the incisors of the upper-jaw are larger than those 
of the lower ; the canines are often strong and large ; 
the molars are rather small. The ears are rounded. 
The species are very numerous, and involved In 
much confusion. 

178.— Thb Horned Sajou 

(Ctim* FatueUut, Linn.). Sajou comu, F. CUvier 
(not of Buifun). The general colour of the fur is 
brown, deepening to an almost black tint on the 
top of the head, on the middle of the black, and on 
the legs, hands, feet, and tail. A bandeau of hair 
rises on the forehead, the extremities of which are 
elevated in the form of egrets, or pencil-like tufts : 
these tufts are less conspicuous in the female. The 
sides of the face are garnished with white hairs. 
All the naked parts, and the skin under the fur, are 
violet-coloured. Native country, Brazil : it is found 
in the Provinces of Rio Janeiro. It is not until 
maturity that the horns or frontal tufts are acquired. 
In captivity the Horned Sajou is lively and amusing, 
active and good tempered. Its habits in a state of 
nature are not detailed. 

1 79. — TuE Yellow-breasted Sajou 

(CW»« zanthostemos. Prince Maxim., Kuhl, Des- 
mar.). Sai ii grosse tete, Cebus Monachus, F. Cuv. ; 
C. Zanthocephalus, Spix. This is one of the species 
which has been in confusion, but from which we 
trust it is extricated. The head is large, the fore- 
head broad and covered with very short hair ; the 
limbs are robust, the tail thick : in size this species 
is superior to the Homed Sajou. The forehead and 
anterior part of the head, and the hairs of the cheeks, 
which are full on the malar bones, arc yellowish 
white ; a dusky line, commencing before the ears, 
encircles the face ; the chest, the shoulders, and the 
anterior part of the humerus, are orange-yellow ; 
the fore-arms, the legs, the anterior portion of the 
back, and the tail, are black ; the sides of the body 
and the haunches are reddish-brown ; the abdomen, 
rich rufous chestnut. The depth of the tints vary 
with age ; the fore-arms and legs are often freckled 
with rufous and the tail grizzled with yellowish- 
white, especially at its base and underneath. 

This species inhabits the woods of Rio Janeiro 
and St. Paul. We have seen a fine specimen from 
Bahia Brazil. It is a young male which F. Cuvier 
figures as the Sai h grosse tete. He adds also the 
scientific appellation Monachus, which having been 
already given to a very distinct monkey (Cebus 
monachus, Fischer ; Pithecia monachus, Geoifroy), 
cannot be retained without confusion. According 
to Spix the Yellow-breasted Sajou associates in large 
troops, which often visit the fields of maze, where 
they commit great depredations. In captivity it is 
gentle, mild, and confiding, and though timid, fond 
of being noticed by those to whom it is famili- 

180. — The Brown Sajou 

(Cebus ApcUa). Sajou brun, Buffon. Head 
round ; colouring variable both as to intensity and 
markings. The following details are taken from 
specimens we have rigorously examined : — Hair of 
the temples short, scanty, and directed upwards. 
On the top of the liead the hair is moderately long, 
and forms a cap with an anterior slightly elevated 
marginal ridge advancing from the centre of the 
forehead along the sides of the head, so as to pro- 
duce a somewhat triangular figure; face covered 
with short dusky hair, that about the lips white ; 
ears large and nearly naked. From the black 
cap on the top of the head a blackish line ex- 
tends down before the cars and spreads over the 
beard-like hairs of the throat. The outer surface of 
the humerus is greyish, but a black line from be- 
hind the ears sweeps over the shoulder and runs 
along the anterior margin of the humerus to the 
fo;e-arm, which is black, grizzled with brownish 
grey. The general colour is brownish-black, pass- 
ing into black on the middle of the dorsal line, on 
the haunches, tail, thighs, and legs : the fur is 
glossy. Another specimen has the sides of the body 
and outside of the thighs of a glossy pale chestnut 
brown, and the temples yellowish grey washed in 
the middle with black. The Cebus Apella is the 
Capucin Monkey of Pennant and Shaw, but not the 
Simla Capucina of Linneeus, which is the Sai of 
Butfon, the Weeper Monkey of Pennant and Shaw. 
The Brown Sajou is a native of Guiana, and is 
■ plentifully brought over by vessels trading to the 
coast, so that it is common in our menageries, Its 
liveliness and activity are remarkable, and it bears 
our climate well. There are several instances of its 
having produced young in France, and each time a 
single offspring, to which both parents were strongly 
attached; In disposition the Brown Sajou is goud- 
tempered, but capricious. It is very intelligent 

and amusing. A male which was living a few years 
since in the Gardens of the Zoological Society would 
employ a stone for the purpose of breaking nuts too 
hard to be crushed by the teeth, or if no stone were 
at hand he would strike them forcibly against any 
hard surface, so as to split the shell : we have seen 
other sajous do the same. This species is continually 
in the habit of making grimaces; it grins, wrinkling 
up the face in a very singular manner ; its ordinary 
cry is jilaintive, but when in anger the voice is 
shrill and elevated. In chmbing, the tail is in con- 
slant requisition as a grasper. Though fruits and 
other vegetable productions constitute the diet of 
this species in its native forests, they are not ex- 
clusively so ; insects are highly relished, and there 
is reason to believe that eggs and young birds are 
also acceptable. A linnet, which by way of ex- 
periment was introduced into a cage where two of 
these monkeys were confined, was instantly caught 
by the strongest of them, and killed and eaten with 
scarcely even the ceremony of stripping off the 

Genus Pithecia. The Monkeys of this genus are 
termed Saki by the French. The tail is not in the 
slightest degree prehensile : it is shorter than the 
body, and generally bushy. The head is round, the 
muzzle moderately prominent. In the lower jaw 
the incisors project almost as in the Lemur, being 
compressed, narrowing atthe points, and are closely 
compacted together ; the upper incisors are nearly 
vertical and square, differing greatly in appearance 
from those of the lower jaw. The canines are large, 
strong, and three-sided. The molars bluntly tuber- 

The Sakis, or Fox-tailed monkeys, live either in 
pairs, or small troops of ten or twelve, and are 
usually seen on the outskirts of forests bordering 
rivers. They are to a certain degree nocturnal in 
their habits : some indeed have been considered 
decidedly so, but it would appear that, like the 
Howlers, they are the most animated just before 
sunrise and after sunset, at which times they utter 
their loud cries in concert. All are active and 
vigilant, and not easy to be surprised or captured. 

181.— The Cacajao 

(Pithecia meUuiocephala). This monkey is also 
called in America Caruiri. The body is rather 
robust, but elongated ; the head is ovate, oblong, 
and depressed on the crown ; the ears have a back- 
ward situation ; the tail is short, and ends abruptly. 
The face is black, as are also the ears ; the head is 
covered with full long black hairs, directed from 
the occiput forwards to the forehead, where they 
become parted in the centre. The hairs of the back 
are long, and of a brownish-yellow : this colour 
passes on the thighs and tail into a brighter or fer- 
ruginous tint. The fore-arms and legs are black or 
blackish. The chin is beardless, and the nose short, 
broad, and flat. Native country, the borders of the 
Cassiquiare and Rio Negro ; and in Brazil, those of 
the rivers Solimoens and 19a. 

The present Saki is described by Humboldt, and 
is doubtless identical with one also described and 
figured by Spix, which he terms Ouakary, and 
which he found in the forests between the rivers 
Solimoens and 19a (Brazil). He states that these 
monkeys congregate in troops frequenting the 
margins of large streams ; and that during their 
journeys from one part of the forest to another they 
fill the air with their piercing and disagreeable 
cries. Humboldt informs us that the Cacajo, or 
Cacaho, as it is called by the Marativitan Indians 
of the Rio Negro, is not common in the territories 
which he investigated, for he only saw one individual, 
which he bought, in an Indian cabin at San Francisco 
Solano ; and from which, after death, he took an 
accurate drawing. It was young, but he was assured 
by the Indians of Esmeralda, that though it attains 
to a considerable size, its tail is not sensibly aug- 
mented in length. According to the information 
obtained by Humboldt, the Cacajao inhabits the 
forests which border the Cassiquiare and Rio Negro, 
associating in troops : when kept in confinement it 
is voracious and listless, but gentle and timid, even 
shrinking from the society of other small monkeys. 
Baron Humboldt's specimen trembled violently at 
the sight of a crocodile or serpent. When irritated 
it opens its mouth in a strange manner, and its 
countenance becomes distorted by a convulsive sort 
of laugh. 

From the length and slenderness of its fingers, it 
grasps anything awkwardly, and when about to 
seize an object bends its back and extends its two 
arms, atthe same time assuming a singular attitude. 
It eats all sorts of fruits— the most acid, as well as 
the sweetest. It is termed Caruiri by the Cabres of 
the mission of San Fernando, near the junction of 
the Orinoco, the .\tabapo, and the Guaviare ; Mono 
feo (hideous monkey), and Chucuto, or Mono rabon 
(short-tailed monkey), by the Spanish Missionaries 
of the Cassiquiare. 




182, 183. — The Conxio, or Jacketed Monkey 

{Pithecia Sagulata, Traill, in ' Mem. Wern. Soc.,' 
iii.). The confu.sion in which this species has been 
involved is very remarkable. The lollowing are its 
synonyms: — Cebus Sagulatus, Fisch.; Cebus Sata- 
nas, HofFmans ; Pithecia Satanas, Kuhl and Geoffr. ; 
Simla Chiropotes, Humboldt ; Pithecia Chiropotes, 
Geoffr., Kuhl, Desm. ; Brachyurus Israelita, Spix. 

Head, limbs, and tail black, — the general tint of 
the back and top of the shoulders is grizzled rusty- 
brown or brownish-grey, differing in depth in differ- 
ent individuals. The hairs of the body are pale at 
the roots, sometimes indeed nearly white. The under 
parts are scantily clad. The hair of the head radiates 
from a point on the occiput, and on the sides of the 
forehead forms two conspicuous elevated tufts, with 
a depression between them. These tufts fold over 
and conceal the ears, which are black and naked. 
The face is black and furnished at its sides with 
full bushy whiskers which meet under the chin, 
forming an enormous glossy-black beard, directed 
obliquely forwards, and which gives a peculiar 
aspect to the physiognomy. The teeth are large, — 
the canines formidable. The head is large and 
rounded, and the nostrils very widely separated from 
each other. On the outer side of the fore-arms the 
hairs are reverted. Native country, Guiana and the 
borders of Rio Negro, &c. Of the four distinct 
specific appellations (viz. Sagulata, Satanas, Chiro- 
potes, and israelita), which we regard as belonging 
all to one animal, that of Sagulata claims the pre- 
ference, being the name under which the species 
was first described by Traill. Baron Humboldt, who 
erroneously regards the Satanas of Hoffmansegg 
(which he calls Couxio de Grand Para) and his 
Chiropotes (which he terms Capucinde I'Drenoque) 
as distinct, thus describes the latter (a description 
applicable fo each variety, under whatever name it 
may stand in the works of naturalists): — The Capucin 
de rOrenoque (Couxio, P. Sagulata) is robust, agile, 
wild, and very difficult to tame. When irritated, 
it raises itself up, grinds its teeth, rubs the extre- 
mity of its beard, and leaps around the object of its 
revenge. In these accessions of fury, Humboldt 
says that he has seen it drive its teeth into thick 
boards of the Cedrela Odorata. It drinks but rarely, 
and takes the water in the hollow of its hand, which 
it carries carefully to the mouth, so as avoid wet- 
ting its beard. If aware that it is observed, it does 
not perform this singular action. Sir Rt. Ker 
Porter (see ' Proc. Zool. Soc' London, 1834, p. 41), 
in a description of the P. Sagulata, distinctly states 
that the animal drinks frequently, bending down and 
putting its mouth to the water, apparently heedless 
of wetting its beard, and indifferent to the observa- 
tion of lookers-on. He never saw it take the water 
in the hollow of the hand, as described by Hum- 
boldt. Yet that it was observed by the latter we 
cannot doubt ; in our menageries, however, it drinks 
in the ordinary way of other monkeys. According 
to Humboldt, the Capucin de lOrenoque does not 
associate in troops ; a male and female in company 
wander by themselves through the forests, where 
their cry may be heard. In the vast wilds of the 
Upper Orinoco, south and east of the cataracts, this 
monkey is common, and the Aturian Indians, as well 
as those of Esmeralda, eat many of these animals at 
certain seasons of the year. In other parts of Guiana 
it seems to be much more rare. 

The individuals which we have seen in captivity 
have all displayed a morose and savage temper : 
on the slightest provocation they would menace 
the offender with their teeth, wrinkling up the skin 
of their face and displaying their immense canines, 
their eyes at the same time gleaming with fury! 
Towards other monkeys they were reserved, and dis- 
liked to be intruded upon. 

184.— The Yabke, or White-headed Saki 

(Pithecia leucocephala). The male and female of 
this species differ go much that it is not surprising 
that they should have been described as distinct 
species. The synonyms are as follows :— Male— 
P. leucocephala, Geoffr., Desm. ; Saki, Buffon ; 
\ arqut'. Butt'., ' Siipp.' ; Yarke, F. Cuv. ; P. ochroce- 
phala, Kuhl. Female— P. rufiventer, Geoffr., Desm 
Kuhl, Sec. ; P. rufibarbata, Kuhl. ; P. capillamen' 
toga, Spix : S. Pithecia, Linn. ; Singe de nuit. Buff. : 
Fox-tailed Monkey, Pennant. 

3/a/e.— The whole of the anterior part of the head 
covered with short close hairs of a white or rusty- 
white tint varying in depth; occiput jet-black, 
whence a narrow line is continued over the head to 
the nose ; fur of the body and tail very long, rather 
harsh ; and of a brown colour, more or less inclined 
to black ; under part of chin and throat naked and 
of an orange tint; abdomen also nearly naked ; tail 
bushy ; on the shoulders the long flowing hair has 
a tendency to divide. 

Fejnafc.— The hairs of the head, excepting on the 
interior part of the forehead, instead of being short, 
close, and gtiff, are long, like those cf the body, and 

radiate forwards and laterally. Between the eyes 
is a patch of short pale hairs. The fur of the body 
is long, of a dark or blackish brown tint, freckled 
paler, the hairs being annulated once or twice at 
the top with pale rusty-brown. In the male there 
is no annulation of the hairs. The scanty hairs of 
under parts are pale rusty-red. The long radiating 
hair of the head is of the same colour as that of the 
rest in the upper parts. In Fig. 184, which is that 
of the female, it is represented too pale. Till re- 
cently, the female of the present Saki has been re- 
garded by naturalists as a distinct species. The de- 
termination of its identity with the Yarke is due to 
M. Schomburgk, whose opportunities of observing 
this monkey in its native regions of Guiana have 
been very abundant, and who a few years since 
transmitted specimens of both sexes to the Zoologi- 
cal Society, London, More recently he brought 
other specimens to England. His testimony on the 
point is clear and decisive. 

Buffon, who figures a young male, which he 
terms Saki, describes the hair of the head as radiat- 
ing, and of a whitish tint ; whence we may suppose 
that till approaching maturity the males resemble 
the females in their " chevelure mal rangce," as he 
calls it, excepting as regards its colour. 

The Yarke appears to live in small troops, which 
tenant the bushes rather than the trees of the forest, 
living, according to M. de la Borde, upon the fruit 
of the guava, and also upon bees, demolishing their 
combs : they also eat all kinds of grain. The fe- 
male produces only a single offspring at a birth, 
which she carries on her back. 

Genus Callithrix.— Head short and rounded: 
muzzle short; ears large; general form slender; 
tail equalling or exceeding the length of the body ; 
not prehensile; nails, excepting on hind thumbs, 
long and narrow. Fur soft and delicate ; canines 
moderate ; lower incisors vertical and contiguous to 
the canines. Ears large, and more or less tri- 

The animals of this genus are light, active, and 
graceful, but so extremely delicate, that they do 
not endure removal from their own country without 
the greatest care. With the exception of the Sai- 
miri we have seen no living example. These little 
monkeys are termed Sagoins by the French : in 
their native regions they inhabit the depths of the 
forests, and are diurnal in their habits ; most are 
gregarious; fruits, insects, eggs, and birds constitute 
their food, and though habitually gentle and timid, 
they become animated even to ferocity at the sight 
of living prey. Tlieordinary voice of these monkeys 
is a short reiterated note, which when they are hurt 
or alarmed is changed to a shrill cry. 

185. — The Saimihi, or Squireel Mokkey 
(Callithrix sciureus, Desm.). Titi de I'Orenoque, 
Humboldt. General colour, greyish-olive ; the lace 
white, the lips and chin black ; the limbs tinged with 
fine rufous or gold colour ; the tail black at its tip ; 
eare large and white ; palms flesh-coloured ; eyes 
large and hazel, with a pink circle round the iris ; 
under parts of body greyish-white. Length of head 
and body I24 inches ; of tail 17 inches. Native 
country, Brazil, Cayenne, Guiana. 

This slender and elegant little monkey is widely 
spread : it is one of the earliest of the American 
species with which naturalists became acquainted ; 
and is most probably the Sapajou de Cayenne of 
Froger. (See ' Relat. du Voy. de Gennes,' 1CQ8.) 
Its intelligence, its beauty, and sportiveness, render 
it a favourite in its own country, where it is domes- 
ticated in preference to most others of its race. It 
is frequently imported into Europe, but our climate 
is very uncongenial. Though the tail of the Sai- 
miri has no truly prehensile power, it is used as a 
sort of boa, for protection against cold ; and when 
numbers crowd, huddled together, as they are often 
seen to do in the woods, they bring it between the 
hind legs, and twine it over the shoulders and round 
the neck, interlocking their arms and legs for the 
sake of warmth. This use of the tail we have ob- 
served in specimens in captivity. 

Highly sensitive and susceptible, the Sa'imiri dis- 
plays its feelings by the expression of its counte- 
nance ; in which pleasure, surprise, and fear, as they 
are experienced, are strongly depicted. 

Insects, and especially spiders, are eagerly sought 
for and devoured by this monkey : and, as Hum- 
boldt states, it gives no little trouble to entomologi- 
cal travellers, who may be tempted to keep it do- 
mesticated. If it can obtain access to their store- 
boxes, it will devour every specimen, taking each 
from the pin without injury to its own fingers. 

In their dense and humid forests troops of these 
monkeys may be seen traversing the branches in 
single file, the females carrying their young on 
their backs. The foremost leads and regulates the 
movements of the rest, and as he leaps from branch 
to branch with admirable grace and precision, all 
follow in succession. They ascend the " nebees," 
or natural ropes of creeping plants which intertwine 

among the trees, with great rapidity. Towards sun- 
set they ascend to the very tops of the palm-trees 
and there sleep in security. Accustomed to dense 
and humid forests, under a sky often covered with 
clouds, the Saimiri endures with difficulty the dry 
and burning atmosphere of the coasts of Guiana or 
the adjacent districts ; and it becomes melancholy 
and dejected in proportion as it quits the region of 
the forests and enters the Llanos. In captivity in 
our climate, though depressed by its influence, 
the Saimiri is very engaging. It has a habit of gazin? 
intently on the faces of those who notice it, a pecu- 
liarity alluded to by Humboldt, who says that it will 
attentively watch the motion of a person's lips in 
speaking, and that if it can climb on his shoulder, it 
will touch his teeth or tongue with its fingers 

The usual voice of this species is a low and 
quickly repeated whistle : but when "hurt or incom- 
moded by wet, rain, or other cause of annoyance. 
It utters a plaintive cry. 

Genus Nocthora.— Head large ; muzzle short ; eye* 
large and nocturnal ; nostrils separated by a mode- 
rate septum. Ears moderate, with an acute folded 
apex, the free portion being circumscribed. Nails 
long, narrow, and channelled ; fingere of fore-hands 
(Fig. 186) not extensible to the full. Tail lone 
non-prehensile. °' 

Humboldt proposed the term Aotus for this 
genus, which, by right of priority, should be retained • 
It IS rejected, however, because its meaning (earless) 
involves an error. ' 

This genus has been regarded by many naturalists 
as a transition form between the American monkeys 
and the Lemurs. It is true that, as far as general 
aspect and nocturnal habits are concerned, the re- 
semblance between the Douroucouli and Lemurs 
IS apparent ; still, however, the relationship (setting 
aside that common to all the Quadrumana) is oni 
of analogy, not afhnity ; for the Douroucouli in its 
dentition is more remote from the Lemurs than is 
the genus Pithecia, and in this point it agrees with 

187. — The Dobkoucocli 
(Nocthora trivirgata, F. Cuv.). Pithecia miriquo- 
uina, Geoffr. ; Callithrix infulatus, Lichtenst.: Nyc- 
tipithecus felinus, and vociferens, Spix.— Head 
round ; muzzle short ; eyes large, with' circular 
pupils. General colour greyish-brown above, pale 
rulbus below ; a whitish triangular mark over each 
eye, bounded by an intervening mark of black as- 
cending from the root of the nose, and another run- 
ning from the angle of the mouth, passing the outer 
angle of the eye. Tail black at the apex. General 
form slender; palms flesh-coloured; face dusky; 
nails black. Length of head and body ISinches ; of 
the tail 18 inches. Native country, Guiana, Brazil. 

According to Humboldt, the Douroucouli inhabits 
the dense forests of the Cassiquiare and Esmeralda, 
at the foot of Mount Duida, and the environs of the 
cataracts of Maypures, between the 2nd and 5th 
degrees of N. lat., 300 leagues from the coast of 
French Guiana. According to Spix it is found near 
Para, and in the forests ofTabatinga.on the confines 
of Brazil and Peru. 

The Douroucouli is nocturnal in its habits, and 
sleeps during the day. It is greatly incommoded 
by light, and seeks the holes of trees or similar 
places for concealment. When roused it is dull 
and oppressed, and can scarcely open its large white 
eyelids. Its attitude during repose is crouching. 
On the approach of dusk, all the lethargy of the 
Douroucouli leaves it, and it becomes restless and 
impetuous, and roams about in quest of insects and 
small birds. In addition to these, various fruits, seeds, 
and vegetables constitute its food; but the quantity 
of solid aliment it consumes is comparatively little : it 
drinks even less, and but seldom. It glides cat-like 
through apertures so narrow as to appear incapable 
of admitting it, and its actions resemble those of 
vivirine animals. Its beautiful glossy fur is in great 
request, the natives make tobacco-pouches and 
other articles of it, which they sell. A male and 
female are often taken together in the same hole 
asleep ; for the Douroucouli lives not in troops, but 
in pairs, and is strictly monogamous. The nocturnal 
cry of this animal is extremely loud and sonorous, 
and resembles that of the Jaguar : besides this, it 
utters a mewing noise like that of a cat, and also 
a deep, harsh, gntteral note, represented by the 
syllables r/uer, quer. When irritated, its throat 
becomes distended ; and in the posture then assumed, 
and in the puffed state of the fur, it resembles a cat 
attacked by a dog. 

In 18.33 a young male lived for a short time in 
the menagerie of the Zool. Soc, London. Its aspect 
and movements were very lemurine ; its large eyes, 
which it opened when the dusk of evening came 
on, were brilliant, and gave an animated expression 
to its countenance not exhibited during the day, 
when it rested crouching on its perch, lethargic and 
motionless. It lived chiefly upon bread sopped in 
milk, refusing meat, either dressed or raw. 

183.— Couliu. 


IH.— ["raUe and Feat of Doiuoncooll. 

i^^. — lurKe. 

190. — Manno»t. 

1B7.— DoanHKonli. 

IM. — Teeth ofHannozet. 


193.— Skull of the Monkey. 

!!)7.— White-fronted Ixmnr. 

192 — Marikina. 

]91. — Marmozets. 

j^ri.^HufTed I.«mur. 

194.— Skull of Lemur. 

198.— Wliite-fronted Lemur, 





Genus Hapale, Illiper (Jacchus and Midas, Geoff. ; 

Sa^inus, in part, of Lac£p<^e). The Marmozets, or 

OuisUlis, as the monkeys of this ^enus are termed, 

are distinguished from the rest of the American 

groups by some pccuUarities in their dentition. 

^ 4 1—1 

Dental formula : — incisors, t ; camnes, j^j ; 

3—3 2—2 _. 

false molars, 53^ ; true molars, ,,-3^ ■=32. (Fig. 

188.) Of tlie incisors of the upper jaw the two 
middle are the largest ; those of the lower jaw equal 
the lower canines in length : the tubercles of the 
molars are acute. The muzzle is short ; the nose is 
salient, with nostriU widely separate; the limbs arc 
short ; the fingers slender, and all, excepting the 
hind thumbs, which are remarkably short, are fur- 
nished with sharp, long, compressed, hooked claws, 
like those of a squirrel. The fur is full and soft ; 
the tail longer than the head and body, and gene- 
rally bushy. General contour, stature, and actions, 
squirrel-like. The Mar.mozets, or Uuistitis (so called 
from their sharp whistling cry), are diurnal in their 
habits ; they are irritable in their temper, but timid, 
and by no means remarkable for intelligence. The 
most prominent feature in their disposition seems 
to be extreme caution, an instinctive quality ne- 
cessary to their preservation ; for though nimble 
and quick, they are subject to the assaults of the 
smaller beasts of prey, and of hawks and snakes. 
Still they are not cowardly, and will defend them- 
selves with great spirit against the attacks of an 
enemy far stronger than themselves. Linnajus, in 
his account of the Common Marmozet, states that 
it displays great hatred towards cats, and attacks 
them with ferocity, an observation founded most 
probably on a single example which came under his 
immediate notice. 

None of the American monkeys are more sen- 
sitive of cold than the Marmozets, and nature has 
well provided for their comfort ; not only is the fur 
deep, soft, and warm, but the long, full tail is twisted, 
as m the Saimiri, round the body, which, during 
their noctural repose in some hollow tree, is gathered 
up into as small a space as possible, and in this 
crouching attitude they resemble a ball of fur with 
a, little face projecting from it. 

These animals are easily rendered tame ; and 
their elegant figure — their soft silky fur coloured 
withblendingtints — theirnirableness and diminutive 
size, have contributed to render them favourites in 
their native climate as well as in other parts of the 
world. From observations made upon the Marmo- 
zets in captivity, it appears that they are more 
prolific than other monkeys, producing two or even 
three young ones at a birth. In their native regions, 
viz., the deep forests of Para, Guiana, and Brazil, 
they associate in small families, and feed upon 
various fruits and insects, devouring the latter with 
great eagerness. 

189, 190, 191. — The Common Makmoet 
(Hapale Jacchus). Ouistiti, BufTon ; Sanglin, Ed- 
wards ; Jacchus vulgaris, Geoffr. ; Simia Jacchus, 
Linn. Fur long and soft, variegated black, white, 
and rusty yellow, the black and white forming 
alternate undulations. Ears surrounded by a large 
plume of erect hairs, white, sometimes tipped with 
dusky black, and sometimes perhaps largely washed 
with black, if not quite black. Head and throat 
dusky black : a white frontal mark above the root 
of the nose. Tail annulated, dusky black and white. 
Native country, Brazil, Guiana. 

Little has been recorded respecting the natural 
habits of this beautiful animal, beyond the facts of 
it congregating in small families, of being active 
and shy, and of its subsisting upon insects and eggs, 
together with fruits, such as bananas and mangoes, 
of which it is very fond. 

It is frequently brought to Europe, and has not 
only lived several years, but produced young in the 
menageries of France and England. Distrustful, 
especially towards those whom it is not accustomed 
to see, it retires from observation, and on being 
touched utters its peculiar whistling cry, or becomes 
angry and resists the unwelcome attempt to court 
its confidence. When undisturbed it displays much 
liveliness, and exerts its activity, leaping from perch 
to perch, with squirrel-like address, and in all its 
actions justifying the expression of "nimble mar- 
mozet," used by Shakspere. 

Extremely sensitive to cold, no little of the Mar- 
mozet's time is passed in protecting itself against 
the changes of temperature to which our atmosphere 
is subject. All the wool, cotton, or other soft 
materials with which it is furnished, it will carry to 
some convenient comer of its cage, or to an inner 
dormitory, and there completely bury itself in the 
downy mass, from which it will peep out on a per- 
son's approach, but from which, unless induced by 
the offer of tempting food, it can seldom be induced 
to emerge altogether. When two or three are con- 
fined in the same cage, they huddle themselves 
together, and lie nestled in their bed. 

The Marmozet eats bread, fruits, and finely- 
minced meat : it feeds in a crouching attitude, and 
usually holds everything between its two fore-paws, 
the long hooked nails assisting it. Edwards, in his 
' Gleanings,' speaking of one of these animals which 
came under his own observation, informs us that 
it fed upon various articles of diet, as biscuits, 
fruits, pulse, insects, and snails; and that, being 
one day at liberty, it darted upon a small gold-fish 
which was in a bowl, killed it, and greedily de- 
voured it. After this occurrence, some small eels 
were offered to it, which at first frightened it by 
twisting round its neck, but it soon overcame and 
eat them. 

In the first number of the ' Magazine of Natural 
History' (1822), an interesting account is given, by 
Mr. Neill, of the manners of one of these monkeys, 
which he purchased at Bahia, the capital of the 
province of St. Salvador, Brazil. At first, as he 
states, it displayed great wildness and even fierce- 
ness, screeching most vehemently when any one 
offered to approach it, and it was a long lime before 
it was so reconciled even to those who fed it as to 
allow the slightest liberty in the way of touching or 
patting its body ; it was impossible to do this by 
surprise, or by the most stealthy and cautious ap- 
proach, as the creature was not still for a moment, 
out was continually.tuining its head from side to 
side, eyeing every pei-son with the most suspicious 
and angry look ; and its sense of hearing was so 
exceedingly acute, that the slightest noise, or even 
a whisper, was sure to rouse it. Its diet consisted 
of I'ruits, such as bananas, mangoes, and Indian 
corn, but when during the voyage these failed, it 
eagerly fell upon the cockroaches, of which it 
effectually cleared the vessel. It would frequently 
eat a score of the larger kind, which are two inches 
and a half long, and a great number of the smaller 
ones, three or four times in the course of the day. 
It was quite amusing to see the Marmozet at its 
meal. When it got hold of one of the large cock- 
roaches, it held the insect in its fore-paws, and then 
invariably nipped the head off first : it then pulled 
out the viscera and cast them aside, and devoured 
the rest of the body, rejecting the dry elytra (wing- 
cases) and wings, and also the legs of the insect, 
which are covered with short, stiff bristles. The 
small cockroaches it ate without such fastidious 
nicety. In addition to these insects, milk, sugar, 
raisins, and crumbs of bread were given to it. From 
London it was conveyed to Edinburgh, where it was 
living, when Mr. Neill wrote his account, in perfect 
health : there, contrary to the statement of Linnaeus, 
who says that it is an enemy to cats, it made ac- 
quaintance with one, with which it fed and slept, 
and lived on the best terms imaginable. Though 
it became gradually tamer, it nevef lost its original 
wildness and distrust. 

The first account of the Marmozet having bred 
in Europe is given by Edwards (' Gleanings '), who 
received it from a lady living at Lisbon, a pair of 
these animals, during her residence there, having 
produced young. They were at first ugly, and 
almost destitute of fur, and clung to the breasts of 
the mother; but as they grew larger, they mounted 
her shoulders and back : when tired with carrying 
them, she would detach them from her by rubbing 
them against a wall or anything in her way : the 
male would then take charge of them, till she was 
inclined to resume her duties. 

In the year 1819, three young ones, a male and 
two females, were produced in the Menagerie of 
Paris. Their colour was of a uniform deep grey ; 
the tail was almost destitute of hair; and they were 
born with their eyes open. M. F. Cuvier, in de- 
scribing their domestic economy, confirms the 
account given by Edwards; but conlinement, in 
this instance, so far destroyed the admirable instinct, 
common even to the most savage animals, that one 
of the little ones was killed by its piother before it 
had an opportunity of asserlinsr the strongest claim 
to her affection ; and the other two, which she 
eagerly cherished the moment they commenced 
deriving their nutriment from the natural fountain 
of lif^, were deserted by both parents when the 
supply from that source, probably from improper 
nourishment, prematurely ceased. During the short 
time they existed, the task of nursing them almost 
wholly devolved upon the male parent, which, at 
first, most assiduously cherished them, placing them, 
when they claimed his protection, either under him 
or upon his back, and thus carrying them about. 
The female avoided, as much as possible, the trou- 
blesome charge, receiving them unwillingly from 
her partner ; and the moment she ha{> supplied 
them with nourishment, again forcing them upon 
his attention, at the same time uttering a peculiar 
cry, as if asking him to ease her of a burthen with 
which she was intolerably fatigued. 

In 1832 a pair bred in the Gardens of the Zoolo- 
gical Society, at the Regent's Park, London, and 
produced twins, which, liowevcr, died. Other ex- 
amples are also upon record. 

192. — ^The Marikina, or Silky Tauarin 
{Hapale rosalia). Midas rosalia, Geoffr. The 
Marikina is one of the species of the present group, 
which M. Geoffrey has separated, upon not very 
tangible grounds, into a genus termed Midas. Fur 
long, silky, and of a glossy golden yellow ; hairs of 
the head long and falling, parted down the middle 
of the crown by a line of short rust-brown hairs ; 
ears concealed by the long hair of the head ; tail 
almost tutted at the ajjex. Native country, Guiana, 

This species is subject to considerable variation ' 
in the richness of its colouring: we have seen spe- 
cimens of a straw-yellow, with a silvery lustre. 

Two or three opportunities have been afforded us 
of observing this beautiful species in captivity. 
Judging from these individuals, this animal is more 
confiding and less irritable than the common mar- 
mozet, which, however, it resembles in its actions. 
When alarmed or angry, it utters a shrill cry, and 
slightly raises the long hairs around the sides of its 
face, displaying its teeth, as if threatening to bite. 
Contrary to Buffon's opinion, who considers it to be 
more hardy than most of its congeners, it appears 
to be full as susceptible of the changes of our 
climate, and indeed dies immediately if exposed to 
damp or wet. 

In this opinion Fred. Cuvier fully coincides. 
These animals, he observes, are natives of Brazil, 
and from the delicacy of their constitution they 
cannot be kept alive in France without the greatest 
care to preserve them from the influence of atmo- 
spheric changes, and especially from the cold and 
humidity of the winter season : under the depressing 
effects of wet and chilly weather, they lose all their 
sprightliness, droop, and die. Speaking of the indi- 
vidual figured in his splendid work, and which was 
brought, in 1818, from Brazil to Paris, where it lived 
for a .short time in the Menagerie of the Jardin de 
Plantes, he slates that it was very active and lively, 
and, like a bird, preferred the topmost perches of 
the cage. On the least alarm it always concealed 
itself; and though it appeared gratified with the 
notice and caresses of those whom it knew, and 
came to them when called, it never returned any 
expressions or signs of attachment as other monkeys 
do when noticed by persons to whom they are 
attached. It disliked strangers and retired from 
them, regarding them with looks of defiance, and 
menacing with its feeble teeth. Fear or anger it 
expressed by a short, sharp, whistling cry, but some- 
times, as if from ennui, it raised its voice into a 
louder or more prolonged note. In these details 
the individuals described by Fred. Cuvier resembled 
the specimens which have lived in the vivarium of 
the Zool. Soc. Lond. The interest which attached 
to thera resulted only from the lustre of their silky 
fur and from the elegance of their actions, for it was 
evident that their intelligence was very circum- 
scribed. That prying curiosity, always amusing, 
sometimes troublesome, which monkeys in general 
exhibit, appeared to form no part of their character, 
and the confidence they manifested towards those 
accustomed to feed them was unmixed with tokens 
of attachment or gratitude. Still it is difficult to 
form a correct idea of the character of animals from 
individuals in confinement ; and it cannot be 
doubted that in its native forests, of which it is one 
of the ornaments, the Marikina, like the squirrel of 
our woods, displays habits and manners calculated 
to excite the interest of the observer. Of these, 
however, nothing is definitely known. According 
to Prince Maximilian, ihe Alarikina is more rarely 
found in Brazil than in Guiana. 

(Lemurida:). The Lemurs (Les Makis of the French) 
differ from the monkeys of both worlds in dental 
characters, but in quadrumanous structure they 
approach those of the old, having opposable thumbs 
on the fore-hands as well as on the hinder pair. 
The contour of their body is very peculiar: the 
general form is slender and elongated, the head is 
pointed and somewhat fox-like ; the nostrils have a 
sinuous opening, terminating a sharp, naked, and 
somewhat prominent muzzle ; the eyes are large 
and of a nocturnal chaiacter ; the limbs are long, 
especially the hinder pair, which in some species 
greatly exceed the anterior; the fore-hands have a 
true thumb, but in some species the index-finger is 
abbreviated ; the thumb of the hinder-hands is 
large, and greatly expanded at the tip; the index- 
finger of these hinder pair (and in the Tarsicr, the 
next also) is armed witli a long, subulate, slightly 
curved claw; the other nails are flat; the fur is 
full and woolly ; the tail varies, it is never prehen- 
sile, and is sometimes wanting: habits pre-eminently 
arboreal. If we compare the skull of the monkey 
(193) with that of the ordinary Lemurs (194), we 
shall observe many distinctions. The volume of 
the Lemur's skull, taken in relationship to that of 
the face, is greatly diminished ; no trace of a lore- 
head remains, but the frontal bone falls so com- 




pletely back behind the developed and projecting 
facial portion or muzzle, as to present an almost 
level surface along the nasal bones to the top of the 
head. The occipital condyles have the same poste- 
rior situation as in the dog, so that the head is sus- 
pended from, rather than even partially balanced 
on, the vertebral column. The orbits are not com- 
pletely walled within, but open into the temporal 
fossae, and have an obliquely lateral aspect; the 
nasal bones run the whole length to the tip of the 
snout, or nearly so ; the lower jaw is long and nar- 
row, and consists of two rami perfectly separate at 
the chin. Here indeed we first meet with the 
symphysis of the lower jaw unobliterated, even in 
the most advanced period of life. In man and the 
monkeys this suture is not apparent, even in the 
youngest subjects ; but in the lower mammalia, ex- 
cepting in the Pachydermata, as a general rule, it 
is always present. The teeth are as follows : — 
Four small incisors above in pairs, with an inter- 
mediate space between them for the reception of 
the points of the lower incisors and lower canine 
teeth. The lower incisors (in the true Lemurs) are 
four in number, but they are accompanied by the 
lower canines, which, except that they are stronger 
and larger, resemble the incisors in form and direc- 
tion. They are long, pointed, compressed, in close 
contact with each other, and directly obliquely for- 
wards. The canines of the upper jaw are com- 
pressed, pointed, and sharp on their posterior edge. 
The molars are crowned with sharp angular tu- 

Dental formula of the genus Lemur (Fig. 194*) : — 

Incisors, - ; canines, = — =• ; molars, ^^- The first 

false molar below is stout, and resembles a canine, 
whence has arisen the idea that it is so really, and 
that the lower incisors were 6 instead of 4. 

Genus Lemur. Head long, muzzle pointed, eyes 
moderate and oblique ; ears short and hairy ; tail 
long and bushy; mamma; two, pectoral. All are 
natives of Madagascar ; arboreal, nocturnal. Their 
movements are light, sweeping, elegant, and pre- 
cise. Their usual voice is a low inward grunt, but 
they often break forth into an abrupt hoarse roar, 
producing a startling effect. The term Lemur 
(from the Latin Lemures, Ghosts) was iirst adopted 
by LinniBus in allusion to the nocturnal habits and 
stilly sweeping movements of these singular ani- 

195. 196. — The Ruffed Lemue 
{Lemur Macaco). Le Vari, Buffon. This is one of 
the largest and most beautiful of the genus, exceed- 
ing a cat in size. Its fur is of admirable texture, 
being full, fine, and silky ; the tail is long and bushy. 
The general ground is pure white, on which large 
black patches are tastefully arranged ; the tale is 
black ; a full ruff of longer hairs than those of the 
body surrounds the face ; whence its English appel- 

Of the native habits of this and the other Lemurs 
in the deep forests of Madagascar little is known : 
they avoid the presence of man, and though harm- 
less, will defend themselves with great resolution, 
inflicting severe wounds with their sharp canines. 
They associate together in troops, and after sunset 
their hoarse loud roar may be heard in dissonant 
chorus, resounding among the recesses of the wood- 
land wilderness. The roar of the Ruffed Lemur is 
Eeculiarly deep and sonorous. During the day the 
emurs sleep m their retreats. Fruits, insects, rep- 
tiles, small birds, and eggs constitute their food. 

When taken young, these animals soon become 
familiar, and are fond of being noticed and ca- 
ressed, exhibiting considerable attachment to those 
who attend them : but we have known them bite 
severely persons who have irritated them. 

In captivity, with due care, they bear our climate 
well, though they are impatient of cold, as might be 
inferred from their soft thick fur. They are fond of 
sitting perched on the fender before a fire, and in 
this situation they will spread their hands, half close 
their eyes, and testify unequivocal satisfaction. 
During the day they sleep in a ball-like figure on 
their perch ; and if two be in a cage together they 
sit close to one another with their tails wrapped 
boa-like round each other's body, so as to make one 
round ball, from which, on being disturbed, two 
heads suddenly make their appearance. Though 
less intelligent than monkeys in general, they are 
more gentle and confiding : they will put their 
heads to the bars of their cage, to have them 
8c«atched and rubbed, and by their actions invite 
notice. They have little of the prying, misctiievous, 
petulant disposition of monkeys, so that with due 
precautions they may be trusted in a room at liberty. 
When presented with food, they usually take it in 
their hands ; but we have seen them feed upon soft 
bread without holding it. They lap fluid like a 
dog. They bound and leap with the most astonish- 
ing agility, gracefulness, and address ; and when in 
motion the tail is elevated in a sigmoid form, and 

not trailed after them. Strong light greatly incom- 
modes them ; their eyes gleam at night ; and the 
pupil is transverse, dilating with the advance of 
evenins; dimness. 

197, 198. — The White -feonted Lemub 

(Lemur albifrons). Fur ruddy or bronzed-grey 
above : male with the forehead and sides of the 
face white ; female with the same part of a deep 
grey. The female and the Lemur Anjuanensis 
(Malii d'Angouan) are distinct, contrary to the 
opinion of Lesson. 

The White-fronted Lemur is gentle, affectionate, 
and lively : it leaps with great agility, and after a 
spring of many yards, pitches so lightly on its fin- 
gers as hardly to attract the notice of the ear. Its 
manners are the same as those of its race in general. 

199. — The Flockt Lemub. 

Maki a Bourre of Sonnerat ; Lemur Langier, Li- 
chanotus Laniger, Indris Laniger. This species, 
which was first described and figured by Sonnerat, 
as the Maki b, Bourre, has been, we know not why, 
regarded as a species of Indris (Lichanotus, llliger), 
and placed in that genus. Cuvier doubted its al- 
liance to that group ; and for ourselves we hesitate 
not in referring it to the genus Chirogaleus, Geoffr., 
founded for the reception of certain Lemurs described 
and figured by Commerson, but till lately unknown 
to European naturalists. 

The fingers of both fore and hind hands are fur- 
nished with long pointed claws, the thumbs only 
having flat nails. 

The Flocky Lemur is about a foot in the length 
of the head and body, the tail being nine inches 
long. The colour is pale ferruginous above, white 
beneath ; the fur is extremely soft and curled, deep- 
est about the loins. Face black ; eyes large and 

In the museum at Paris we examined a species of 
Chirogaleus closely allied to (perhaps identical 
with) the Flocky Lemur : it was labelled Chiroga- 
leus Milii. Head broad and flat ; ears moderate 
and hairy. Fur soft, full, curly, and glossy, of a fine 
fawn-brown, paler between the eyes, which are 
large and surrounded by a brown disk. The hairs 
are all lead-coloured at the base : chin, throat, under 
surface, and inside of limbs white. Tail fawn- 
brown. Teeth as in the genus Lemur. Nails 
minute, flat, but sharp-pointed ; those of the thumbs 
as usual. Length of head and body about 14 inches ; 
of the tail 12. Of two specimens one was presented 
to the museum by M. Goudot ; the other, alive, by 
M. le Baron Milius. Native country, Madagascar. 

200. — The Shoet-tailed Ixdkis 

(Lichanotus brevicaudatus). L'Indri, Sonnerat ? 
Indris brevicaudatus, Geoffr. The genus Lichano- 
tus (or Indris) differs in some details of dentition 
from the genus Lemur, to which in most points it 
is closely allied. The following description of the 
Indris was taken from a fine specimen in the Paris 
Museum. The anterior part of the face nearly 
naked ; the forehead, temples, throat, and chest 
white ; the ears, the occiput, shoulders, arms, and 
hands black. The lower part of the back brown, 
which colour divides on the haunch into two lines, 
which run down the buttocks and spread on the 
thighs, leaving the crupper, tail, and posterior part 
of the thighs white ; the root of the tail is tinged 
with yellow. Anterior part of thighs and feet deep- 
ening into black ; heels white, with an anklet of 
greyish-white; breast brown. Flanks and lower 

Fart of belly white ; and also the inside of the arms, 
ur beautifully soft and woolly. Thumbs very 
large and powerful ; foretoe small and united to the 
next, almost to the last joint : it is armed with a long 
sharp nail. The nails of the thumbs and fingers, 
and also of the toes, the first excepted, are small, 
flat, subkeeled, and pointed. Length from muzzle to 
root of tail two feet ; of the tail three inches ; of the 
hind feet seven inches and a half. 

The Indris is a native of Madagascar, where it is 
said to be frequently trained by the natives for the Its voice resembles the wailing cry of a 
child. The word Indris is said to signify in the 
Madagascar language a " man of the woods." 

201. — The Diabem Lemue 

{Propithecus Diadana, Benn.). Mr. Bennett pro- 
posed the genus Propithecus lor this Lemur, which 
IS a native of Madagascar, and which appears to us, 
notwithstanding the length of the tail, to belong in 
reality to the genus Lichanotus. It is in fact a 
long-tailed Indris. Of its habits nothing is known. 
Description : — Face nearly naked, with short 
blackish hairs about the lips, and equally short yel- 
lowish-white hairs in front of the eyes. Above the 
eyes, the long, silky, waved, and thickly-set hairs 
which cover the body commence by a band of yel- 
lowish white crossing the front and passing beneath 
the eai-s to the throat. This is succeeded by black, 
extending over the back of the head and neck, but 

becoming freely intermingled with white on the 
shoulders and sides, the white gradually increasing 
backwards, so as to render the loins only slightly 
grizzled with black. At the root of the tail fulvous, 
that colour gradually disappearing until the ex- 
treme half of the tail is white with a tinge of yel- 
low. Outer side of the anterior limbs, at the upper 
part, of the slaty-grey of the sides, below which it is 
pale fulvous. Hands black, except tufts of long 
fulvous hair at the extremities of the thumb and 
fingers, extending beyond and covering the nails. 
Outer sides of the hinder limbs, after receiving a 
tinge of fulvous from the colour surrounding the 
root of the tail, of a paler fulvous than the anterior 
limbs : this becomes much deeper on the hands, 
which are fulvous, except on the fingers, where there 
IS a very considerable intermixture of black, the ter- 
minal tufts, equally long with those.of the anterior 
bands, being, as in them, fulvous. The under sur- 
face white throughout, except the hinder part of the 
throat, where it is of the same colour with the sides 
of the body. 

Hairs generally long, silky, waved, erect, and 
glossy ; shorter and more dense on the crupper, 
where they offer a sort of woolly resistance. Gene- 
ral character of those on the tail, that of the body 
hair, but shorter. 

Thumb of anterior hands slender, placed far back, 
and extremely free ; thumb of hinder hands very 

Length of body and head, measured in a straight 
line, one foot nine inches ; of the tail, one foot five 
inches. Anterior limbs, exclusive of hands, seven 
and a half inches in length from the body ; posterior 
limbs, fifteen inches and a half. 

Muzzle shorter than in the Lemurs generally ; the 
distance from the anterior angle of the orbit to the 
tip of the nose (one inch and a quarter) being equal 
to that between the eyes. Fars rounded, concealed 
in the fur : length one inch ; breadth one inch and a 

In a young specimen which we examined at Paris 
the yellow tint on the limbs was very bright and 

Genus Stenops (Loris and Nycficebus, Geoffr.). 
In the genus Stenops the dentition is the same as 
in the Lemur, but the tubercles on the crowns of the 
molars are more acute. The animals of this group 
are termed Loris, or Slow Lemurs. They are cha- 
racterised by the head being round, the muzzle 
short and acutely pointed ; the eyes large, full, 
bright, and approximating to each other : the ears 
short, round, open, and almost buried in the fur; 
the tail completely rudimentary, and the limbs 
slender. Two species are known, both natives of 
India and its islands, especially Ceylon, Java, Su- 
matra, Ssc. 

These animals have been long celebrated for the 
slowness and caution of their movements, to which 
may be added a remarkable tenacity of grasp, in 
conjunction with the power in the limbs of exerting 
a long continuance of muscular contraction. In 
the arteries both of the anterior and posterior extre- 
mities there is a peculiarity first detected by Sir 
A. Carlisle, and met with in the limbs of the Sloth 
and a few other instances. No sooner has the main 
artery, a single tube, reached the commencement 
of the limbs, but it assumes another character : in- 
stead of continuing its course as a simple tube, 
giving off branches as it proceeds, the usual mode, 
it becomes suddenly subdivided into a congeries of 
small tubes intertwined together, and communicat- 
ing with each other freely, thus forming an elon- 
gated plexus, which may act as a sort of reservoir, 
and carry onwards a large volume of blood. The 
relation of this plexus to the bulk of the limb it 
supplies with blood is greater in point of volume 
than that of the simple artery in ordinary animals. 

202. — The Slow-paced Lobis 

(Stenope tardigradus). Fur soft, and full ; colour 
brownish-grey, a deep chestnut stripe passing down 
the middle of the back ; this stripe, continued on to 
the head, gives off a branch which encloses each 
ear, and another which encircles. each eye, and ex- 
tends to the angles of the mouth ; figure short , 
hind limbs longer than the fore limbs. Eyes large, 
nocturnal, with transverse pupils ; muzzle short and 
pointed. Length 12 or 13 inches. 

203, 204.— The Sle.vdee Lobis 

(Stenops gracilis). Muzzle produced, slender 
acute ; figure slight ; limbs very lon^, thin, and 
meagre. General colour rufous-grey ; the under 
parts whitish ; space round the eyes dusky ; fur 
soft ; a whitish or white frontal spot points to the 
interval between the eyes. Length of head and 
body nine inches. 

These two singular animals arc eminently noc- 
turnal and arboreal : they sleep during the day on 
their perch, in a crouching attitude, with the body 
drawn together, and the head doubled down upon 
the chest. At night they prowl among the forest 

IM.-Flocky Ltmni. 

200.— Short-Uileil Indris. 

194*.— Teeth of Lamur. 

196.— Ruffod Lemur.' 

103.— aendeT Loris. 

. %\ 

203. — Slow-paced Loris. 

201.— Disdem Lemur. 


S04.— SleniitT Lorif. 

207.— Skull of Moholi. 

2)3.— Colli go. 

N,s. li..' 

2011 Moholi. 

2c8.^Bd^eof SkiiU of Molioli and I,o-.ver Jaw, natunl size. 

20i,— Teeth of TanJew. 

-'09. — Banca Tiirsier. 






bought in search of TouJ ; their larj^e glaring eyes 
now glow with peculiar lustre ; not an insect, not a 
bird escapes their scrutiny : they mark their victim ; 
stilly, and imperceptibly a.* the minutc-tinger tra- 
verses the dial-plate, do they advance upon their 
prey ; and not less surely does the minute-finger 
attain a giving mark than they their prey : when it 
is once within range of their grasp, tliey seize it by 
a rapid instantaneous action. Besides birds, insects, 
and eggs, fruits also form part of their diet. 

Of all the Lemurida; which we have seen alive, 
none appear to be so susceptible of cold or so in- 
commoded by daylight, nor are any so apparently 
dull and inanimate from morning till evening. They 
appear as if in a state of continual torpor ; yet if ex- 
posed to the influence of warmth, they will rouse 
up, not only on the approach of twilight, but even 
during the hours of day, if shielded from the glare 
of the sun. When fairly awake, and comfortably 
warm, they delight to clean and lick their full soil 
fur, and will allow themselves to be caressed by 
those accustomed to feed them. 

Mr. Baird, in an interesting paper in the ' Maga- 
2ine of Nat. Hist.' vol. i., 1829, remarks that all the 
known Mammalia close their eyelids in a direction 
upwards and downwards, and, in general, the upper 
eyelid is the one possessing the greatest degree of 
motion. He found, however, that in his slow-paced 
Lemur the eyelids were brought together in a dia- 
gonal direction, or outwards and inwards, which 
gave the animal at the moment of shutting its eyes 
a most peculiar look. It was the under or outer 
eyelid that had the greatest degree of motion, the 
upper or inner one being almost tixed ; and he con- 
cludes that the orbicularis oculi must be very 
powerful. After the death of the animal, and when 
Mr. Baird had left this country on a second voyage 
to India, the eye was dissected by Dr. Knox, who 
found that the peculiar movement of the eyelids 
above described did not depend on any peculiar 
structure, but merely on the greater degree of 
strength of the orbicularis muscle. 

Mr. Baiid also observed another peculiarity in the 
species. " Beneath the tongue proper," says he, 
" if I may so call it, which is somewhat like that of 
the cat, though not rough, is another tongue, white- 
coloured, narrow, and very sharp-pointed, which he 
projects along with the other one when he eats or 
drinks, though he has the power of retaining it 
within his mouth at pleasure." Mr. Baird, however, 
had not been able to see any particular purpose to 
which he applied it ; but he saw him use this double 
tongue when eating flies, of which he was exceed- 
inglj- fond, snapping them up most eagerly when 
presented to him, and catching them himself when 
they were reposing in the evening upon the walls of 
the room. 

Pennant, Vosmaer, Sir W. Jones, Mr. Baird, M. 
d'Obsonville, and others have published detailed 
observations made upon Loris in captivity, and their 
accounts coincide with the facts which have come 
under our own notice. 

Vosmaer's specimen (S. tardigradus) ate fruits, 
such as pears and cherries, with relish ; and also dry 
bread and biscuit ; but if dipped in water, would 
touch neither. When offered water, it smelt it, but 
drank not. Eggs were favourite diet. " II aimait 
k la fureur les oeufs," are the words of Vosmaer, who, 
concluding from its appetite for eggs that it would 
eat birds, gave it a live sparrow, which it instantly 
killed with a bite, and ate the whole very greedily. 
He gave it a live cockchafer, to fry whether it 
would eat insects : it took the offering in its paw, 
.and devoured it completely. Vosmaer afterwards 
gave it a chaffinch (pin9on), which it ate with much 
relish, and afterwards slept for the remainder of the 
day. He often saw it still awake at two hours past 
midnight ; but from half-past six in the morning its 
sleep was so sound, that its cage might be cleaned 
without disturbance to its repose. If forcibly 
awakened during the day in order to teaze it, it was 
vexed, and bit the stick ; but with a very slow mo- 
tion, repeating the cry Ai, ai, ai, drawing out the ai 
each time into a plaintive, languid, and trembling 
note, in the same manner as is reported of the 
Apierican sloths. When it was thus Harassed for a 
long time, and thoroughly nsused, it crawled two or 
three times round its cagej and then slept again. 
Mr. Baird informs us that he obtained his specimen 
at PuloPenang (Prince of Wales Island) ; and at 
the time he wrote, it had been nearly ten months in 
his possession. Its food consisted of fruit and small 
animals, such as birds and mice. The plantain was 
the fruit of which it was most fond, and was the 
only food Mr. Baird saw it eat when he first got 
it into his possession. The necks of fresh-killed 
fowls formed the major part of its sustenance during 
the voyage. It was particularly fond of small 
birds: these, when put into the cage, it killed 
speedily, and, stripping off the feathers, soon de- 
voured them, eating the bones as well as the flesh. 
Veal was preferred to all other butcher's meat, and 
It was fond of eggs: meat boiled, or otherwise 

cooked, it would not touch. Sugar appeared to be 
l^rateful to its palate, and it ate gum-arabic. The 
juiceof oranges wax also greatly relished, and, unlike 
Vosmaer's specimen, it readily led upon bread sopped 
in water and sprinkled with sugar ; and lapped 
water eagerly like a cat. 

Genus Tarsius. The Tarsiers, of which two 
species are known, are distinguished by the rounded 
figure of the head, and the extreme shortness of the 
muzzle ; by the enormous size of the eyes ; and the 
extraordinary length and slenderness of the hinder 
limbs, of which the tarsus is thrice as long as the 
metatarsus. The fingers both of the anterior and 
posterior limbs are elongated and slender ; the hind 
thumb is well developed, with a small triangular 
nail, and the first and second fingers are furnished 
with small, pointed, narrow claws. The ears are 
large, naked, and capable of being folded. Tail 
long, covered with short hair. The first de- 
scription of theTarsier (T. Spectrum) is due toDau- 
benton, who gave it this title, in allusion to the 
length of the tarsi. Gmelin, misled by its ap- 
parently anomalous structure, placed it in bis genus 
Didelphis (the receptacle alike of opossums and 
kangaroos), under the name of D. roacrotarsus. 
Pennant, misled by the tarsi, termed it the Woolly 
Gerboa. M. F. Cuvier considers its dentition to 
approximate to that of some of the bats. 


Dental formula (Fig. 205) : — Incisors,- ; canines, 

1—1 , 6— G 

; molars, = 4. 

1—1 ' '6-6 

In their habits the Tarsiers are arboreal and de- 
cidedly nocturnal, preying on birds, eggs, insects, 
&c. : one species is a native of the Moluccas, the 
other of the island of Banca. 

206. — ^Thk Moroli (Galago Moholi). 

We select as an example of the genus Galago 
(Otolicnus, III)., the Moholi of Southern Africa. The 
Galagos, though they approach the Lemurs in the 
dental characters, differ from those animals in many 
well-marked and important points. The ears are 
large, membranous, naked, and, as in the long-eared 
bats, capable of being folded down over the ex- 
ternal orifice. The posterior limbs are greatly de- 
veloped, and especially at the tareal portion. The 
eyes are large and full ; the head is round ; the 
muzzle pointed; the tail long; the fingers both of 
the foie and hind hands, long and slender, with the 
usual sharp claw on the first finger of the hinder 
pair. The fur is full, soft, and woolly. The skull 
(Figs. 207, 208) is more globular, and with larger 
orbits than we find in the Lemurs : it is more ele- 
vated above, and broader. 

The Galagos are nocturnal animals : during the 
day they sleep on the branches, their cars being 
folded down : on the approach of night they are all 
animation, and, with ears expanded and glistening 
eyes, they begin their prowl for food. They watch 
the insects flitting among the leaves : they listen to 
the buzzing of their wings amidst the foliage, and 
dart upon the incautious flufterer with great activity. 
In addition to insects, they feed on fruits and gum ; 
and one species is abundant in certain gum-forests 
in the great desert of Sahara. 

The Moholi was found by Dr. Smith, close to the 
Limpopo river, in about 25° S. lat. He observed 
these animals springing from branch to branch, and 
from tree to tree, with extraordinary facility. In 
their manner they considerably resembled the mon- 
keys, particularly in grimaces and gesticulations. 
According to the natives, the species is entirely 
nocturnal, and rarely to be seen during the day, 
which the animal spends in the nest which it has 
formed in the forks of branches or in cavities of de- 
cayed trees ; and in these nests, constructed of soft 
grass, the females bring forth and rear their young 
(generally two at a birth). Dr. Smith states that 
the food of the Moholi consists principally of pulpy 
fruits, though there is reason to believe it also con- 
sumes insects, as remains of the latter were dis- 
covered in the stomachs of several individuals which 
he Examined. 

Dr. Smith, for the reasons stated in his work, con- 
siders this animal different from Galago Sene- 
galensis. He gives an elaborate anatomical de- 
scription and good figures of the more important and 
interesting parts of this animal. 

The general colour is grey, with wavy or brin- 
dled markings of a darker tint, and the limbs are 
washed with yellow ; under-parfs white ; tail red- 
brown; ears flesh-coloured. Length from nose to 
tip of tail, sixteen inches. 

209.— TuK Banca Tarsiee 

(Tarsius Bancanus, Horsf.). This species was 
obtained by Dr. Horsfield in Banca, near Jeboos 
one of the mining-districts, where it inhabits the 
extensive forests. 

The fur is deep, soft, thick, and woolly, envelop- 
ing the head, body, limbs, and root of tail, where it 

tern^inates abruptly. The general colour is brown 
inclining to grey, especially on the inside of the 
limbs and the under parts ; a rufous wash appears 
on the head and outer surface of the limbs. The 
tail, which equals the head and body in length, is 
nearly naked, except at its base : towards the ex- 
tremity it is covered with a soft down, which forms, 
near the tip, a very obscure tuft. The backs of the 
hands are covered with a very soft down : the palms 
are naked, and provided with several prominent 
cushions, calculated to assist in climbing and 
perching with safety on the branches. Of its 
habits no details have been collected. 

Genus Chiromys. This genus was established by 
Cuvier for the reception of that extraordinary 
animal the Aye-Aye, respecting the affinities of 
which so many conflicting opinions have been ad- 

210, 211.— TuE Atk-Ayk 

{Chiromys Madagascariensis) is a native of Mada- 
gascar, where it appears to be extremely rare, and 
chiefly, if not exclusively, restricted to the western 
part: most probably it tenants remote solitudes, 
seldom visited by the natives, and never by Euro- 
peans. Only one specimen exists in Europe, viz. 
that brought home by Sonnerat, its discoverer, who 
fir.*t figured and described the animal in his 
; Voyage aux Indes ' (Paris 1781). It is deposited 
in the Museum of Paris. 

Sonnerat regarded the Aye-Aye (so called, like one 
of the sloths, from its cry) as allied to the Lemurs 
the Monkeys, and the Squirrels; and subsequent 
writers have taken opposite views, according as 
they have been biassed by one part of its organiza- 
tion or another, or according to their ideas of the 
respective value of characters, deduced from one set 
of organs or another. Pennant, Gmelin, Cuvier, 
Fleming,and Swainson, place it among the Rodents ; 
Linna;us and Schreber regard it as a Lemur. 

M. de Blainville, in his pamphlet 'Sur quelques 
Anomalies de systeme Denfairc,' &c., observes, that 
notwithstanding the rodent-like character of its 
teeth, the rest of its organization, its manners, and 
habits prove it to be a true Lemur, having abso- 
lutely no relation.ship with the Rodents, no affinity 
to them, in spite of all that many naturalists have 
imagined ; and, atler a careful examination of the 
specimen and skull, we coincide in this opinion. 

The teeth consist only of incisors and molars (see 
skull, Fig. 212): the incisors are two in each jaw, ' 
strong and powerful : those below are compressed la- 
terally, but are deep from back to front ; their roots 
are carried backwards each in an alveolus, or socket, 
extending almost the whole length of the ramus ol 
the jaw ; they are acutely pointed, their apex re- 
sembling a ploughshare. These teeth strongly re- 
mind one of the huge curved canines in the lower 
jaw of the Hippopotamus. The upper incisors are 
not so obliquely pointed, and are also smaller than 
the lower. Between the incisors and the molars an 
unoccupied space intervenes. The molars are 4 on 
each side above, 3 below, small, and of simple 
structure. The head is moderate and rounded, and 
the muzzle is rather short and pointed. The eyes 
are very large and nocturnal. The osseous ring of the 
orbits IS complete (Fig. 212). The ears are large ; 
and obscure furrows on their internal aspect seem 
to denote that, as in many bats, they are capable of 
being folded down : they are, in fact, bat-like, black, 
naked and smooth. 

The fore paws have each five fingers ; that 
which represents the thumb is short, and arises 
beyond the base of the rest ; these are long and 
slender : the middle finger is very thin, but it is ex- 
ceeded in length by the third or ring finger ; the 
thumb IS not opposable, and, like the other fingers, 
is furnished with a strong, sharp, hooked claw. The 
arms are short in proportion to the posterior limbs ; 
the latter being long, aud terminating in prehensile' 
feet. The thumb is well developed and protected 
by a flat nail : the toes are of moderate length and 
stoutness, but the first is the shortest, and, as in the 
Lemurs, is armed with a straight pointed c:law ; the 
rest have large hooked claws. The tail is long and 
bushy, with coarse black or brownish-black hairs : 
the general colour is ferruginous-brown, passing 
into grey on the sides of the head, the throat, and 
belly ; the feet are neariy black Beneath the 
brown outer-coat there is on the back and limbs a 
fine thick undcr-coat of soft yellow wool, which ap- 
pears more or less through the outer. In the female 
the teats are two and ventral. Length of head and 
body 1 foot 6 inches ; the tail being nearly the 

According to Sonnerat, who kept two of these 
animals, a male and female, in captivity, it would 
appear that the habits of the Aye-Aye are nocturnal 
By day they see with difficulty, and the eyes, which 
are of an ochre colour, resemble those of an owl 
Timid and inoffensive, they pass the day in sleep, 
and when roused up their motions are slow, like 
those of the Loris : they have also the same fond- 




ness for warmth ; their thick fur indeed sufficiently 
proves their impatience of cold. During the day 
the Aye-Aye conceals itself in its secluded retreat, 
some hole or excavation, whence it issues forth on 
the approach of darkness in quest of food ; its diet 
consists of buds and IVuits, together with insects 
and their larvae ; for the latter it searches the cre- 
vices and bark of trees, drawing them forth by 
means of its long finger, and so conveying them to 
its mouth. Sonnerat kept his specimens alive for 
two months, feeding them upon boiled rice, in tak- 
ing up which they used then- long slender fingers, 
much in the same manner as the Chinese do their 
chop-sticks. Sonnera* remarks that, during the 
whole of the time these animals lived, he never ob- 
served them set up their long bushy tail, like a 
squirrel, but that, on the contrary, it was always 
kept trailing at length. 

Considering the length of time that has inter- 
vened since the discovery of the Aye-Aye by Son- 
nerat, and visited as the island of Madagascar has 
been by Europeans, it is somewhat strange that no 
additional specimens should have been obtained, 
and that not a single notice of a living individual 
haviuf been seen or captured should have appeared. 

Genus Galeopithecus. This genus contams those 
strange animals the Colugos, called Flying Lemurs, 
Flying Cats, Flying Foxes, &c., by voyagers. The 
first notice of the Colugo is by Bontius, who terms 
it " Vespertilio admirabilis." It was afterwards 
figured by Seba, under the name of Felis volans 
Ternatanus : Linnaeus subsequently placed it among 
the Lemurs under the title of Lemur volans. Cu- 
vier places it at the end of the Bats. The query 
then at once arises, to what group is the Colugo to 
be referred ? M. Geoffroy, wlio denies its relation- 
ship to the Bats, observes that it is still less a 
Lemur, and that its head is altogether that of a true 
" Carnassier." Notwithstanding this authority, in 
our views its affinities, intermediate as they may be 
between the Lemurs and other groups, place it 
within the pale of the Lemurine family. 

213. — The Colugo 

is an animal of the size of a cat, furnished with an 
extensive parachute consisting of a lateral mem- 
brane, not only between the anterior and posterior 
limbs, but also between the posterior limbs, so as to 
include the tail, which is of considerable length : 
the fingers of the fore paws are also included in this) 
extensive membranous expansion. The whole of 
the upper surface of the body and lateral membranes 
is covered with woolly fur, but the under surface is 
nearly naked. The parachute is capable of being 
folded up ; but when on the stretch for action it 
forms a wide expanse, not indeed endowing its pos- 
sessor with true powers of flight, but enabling it to 
take long sweeping leaps from tree to tree with tho 
utmost facility. 

The general aspect of the head is Lemurine : the 
muzzle is produced; the nostrils are lateral, naked, 
and sinuous ; the eyes moderate ; the ears short and 
pointed. The anterior limbs are long : the hands 
are divided into five fingers ; the first, or thumb, 
separated from the rest though not antagonizing 
with them, is short ; the remaining four are nearl v 
equal ; all are armed, not with flat nails, but with 
large deep, hooked, sharp-edged, and retractile 
claws. The hinder limbs slightly exceed the fore 
limbs in length, and the feet are similar in character 
to the fore hands. 

Fred. Cuvier gives the Dental formulaas follows: — 

4 . 0—0 , 6—6 

Incisors, - ; canines, ;, — -; ; molars, ^ — ^ = 34. 

O U — U D — D 

(Fig. 214.) Mr. Waterhouse, whose excellent paper 

on the skull of the Colugo is in the 'Zoological 

Transactions,' vol. ii., gives the dentition thus: — 

, . 2—2 0—0 , , , 2—2 

Incisors,—^—; canines, ;j — j-j false molars, 

1— X' 


4 4 

true molars, ;- —34. 

4 1 

The upper incisors are placed. laterally in pairs, 
with a wide interval between each pair, occupying 
the anterior part of the jaw : the first is small, com- 
pressed and jagged, or pectinated ; the second is 
simiUr, but somewhat larger. The two false molars 
above rise up with sharp points ; the molars are 
crowned with acute insectivorous tubercles. Tho 
lower incisors are deeply and finely pectinate. (Figs. 
216, 218, Nos. 4 and u.) The canines are serrated. 

Some naturalists have considered the species of 
Colugo to be three ; while Fischer and others 
recognise only one, varying in colour according to 
age or sex. It has, however, been demonstrated by 
Mr. Waterhouse, from a rigorous investigation of a 
series of skulls, that there are two distinct species, 
and at one of the scientific meetings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society of London (Oct. 1838) he pointed out 
the ^llstingul»hing characteristics. 

He remarked, that in systematic works three 
species of the genus Galeopithecus are described, 
founded upon differences of size and colour : as 

regards the latter character, he had never seen two 
specimens which precisely agreed ; and with re- 
spect to size, the dimensions given of two out of 
the three species are, he observed, evidently taken 
from extremely young animals. Mr. Waterhouse 
then proceedecl to distinguish the two species on the 
table, and proposed for them the specific names of 
Temminckii and Philippinensis. 

The first and larger species measured about two 
feet in total length, and its skull was two inches 
eleven lines and a half in length. The anterior 
incisor of the upper jaw is broad, and divided by 
two notches into three distinct lobes; the next in- 
cisor on each side has its anterior and posterior 
margins notched ; and the first molar (or the tooth 
which occupies the situation of the canine) has its 
posterior edge distinctly notched. This tooth is 
separated by a narrow space, anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly, from the second incisor in front and the 
second molar behind ; the temporal ridges converge 
towards the occiput, near which, however, he ob- 
served, they are separated usually by a space of 
about four lines. This is probably the Galeopi- 
thecus volans of authora; but the identity cannot 
be said to be certain. 

The second species, G. Philippinensis, was de- 
scribed by Mr. Waterhouse as being usually about 
twenty inches in length, and its skull as measuring 
two inches seven lines in length. He observed, that 
this species may be distinguished from C. Tem- 
minckii by the proportionately larger ears, and the 
greater length of the hands. The skull, too, he de» 
scribed as narrower in proportion to its length, the 
muzzle as broader and more obtuse, and the orbit 
as smaller. The temporal ridges, he remarked, 
generally meet near the occiput, or are separated by 
a very narrow space. The anterior incisor of the 
upper jaw is narrow, and has but one notch ; the 
next incisor on each size is considerably larger, 
longer, and stronger than in G. Temminckii, and dif- 
fers moreover in having its edges even : the same 
remark applied to the first false molar. In this 
species the incisors and molars form a continuous 
series, each tooth being in contact with that which 
precedes and that which is behind it. But Mr. 
\Vaterhouse concluded by observing that the most 
important difference perhaps which exists between 
the two species in question consists in the much 
larger size of the molar teeth in the smaller skull, 
the five posterior molars occupying a space of ten 
lines in length, whereas in G. Temminckii, a much 
larger animal, the same teeth only occupy nine 
lines. Several minor points of distinction existed 
besides those here mentioned. (,' Zoological Pro- 
ceedings,' 1838 ; and sec further, 'Zoological Trans- 
actions,' vol. ii. p. 335.) 

If the reader will turn to Figs. 215, 216, 217, 218, 
he will be enabled to compare the form of the ikuil, 
and the variations in the characters of the teeth 
presented by these two species respectively. Fig. 
215 represents the skull of the Galeopithecus Tem- 
minckii ; a, as seen from above ; b, as seen from 
below. Fig. 216 represents the lower jaw and teeth 
of the same species (G. Temminckii) : 1, the under 
side of the lower jaw ; 2, side view of the same ; 
3, the three foremost teeth on either side of the 
upper jaw ; 4, 5, outer and inner incisors of the 
lower jaw. Fig. 217 represents the skull of G. 
Philippinensis: a, the upper side; i, the under 
side. Fig. 218 represents the lower jaw and teeth 
of the same species (G. Philippinensis): 1, under 
side of the lower jaw ; 2, side view of the same ; 
3, the three foremost teeth of the upper jaw ; 4, 5, 
outer and inner incisors of the lower jaw. If these 
skulls and teeth be compared, so many and import- 
ant distinctions will be perceived, that all doubt as 
to the correctness of the views entertained by Mr. 
Waterhouse will be dissipated. 

These strange and perplexing animals are natives 
of the Moluccas, Philippines, and various islands of 
the Indian Archipelago. In their habits they are 
arboreal and nocturnal, and feed, as it is supposed, 
upon fruits, insects, eggs, and birds. During the 
day they remain in the, depths of the forests, sus- 
pended like a bat from the branches, with the head 
downwards, and clinging by the hinder claws, 
immersed in tranquil sleep. At night they rouse 
up, are active in traversing the trees in every direc- 
tion and sweeping from one to another with great 
address, in search of food. Thoueh of a disagree- 
able odour, their fleth is eaten by the natives. The 
females are said to produce two young at a birth, 
which adhere to the teats of their parent. Camelli, 
in a MS. on the subject in the British Museum, 
asserts the female to have a double abdominal 
pouch, in which the young are carried, but in'_tj&is' 
statement he is certainly erroneous. _, • 


It is only very recently that the fossil relics of 
quadrumanous animals have been discovered ; pre- 
viously to this discovery, the Quadrumana were 
regarded as having no fossil prototypes. In 1836 

M. Lartet announced his discovery of the fossil 
bones of a large monkey, consisting of a lower jaw 
with its dentition complete, a molar tooth with four 
tubercles, a bone of one of the fingers, a portion of 
the thigh bone, together with the bones of the 
instep, &c. They were'found at Sanson, two leagues 
south of Auch (in the department of Gere), in a 
tertiary formation extending from the south of 
Auch to the foot of the Pyrenees, and apparently 
the result of a long succession of water alluvia. 
From the characters of the dentition, there can be 
no doubt that the animal belonged to one of the old- 
world sections of the Simiae, namely, the Gibbons 
(Hylobates), if indeed it be not the representative 
of a genus no longer extant. M. Lartet has named 
this fossil species Pithecus antiquus. With these 
relics oceured those also of the Mastodon, Rhino- 
ceros, Deinotherium, Palseotherium, &c. Within 
the last few years the fossil relics o( three species 
of ape or monkey have been discovered in the 
Sewalik hills, a portion of sub-Himalayan range 
imbedded in a tertiary stratum. Two of these 
species are due to the researches of Captains Fal- 
coner and Cautley, and one to the labours of Lieu- 
tenants Baker and Duvaud. Of these fossil Simiadae, 
one, as the fragments indicate, exceeded in size 
any living species of the present day : the second 
was also a large animal, superior to the Entellus mon- 
key in size ; the third appears to have been about 
equal to the Entellus, and was probably an Orang. 

In the basin of the Rio des Velhas in South Ame- 
rica, Dr. Lund, a Swedish naturalist, has discovered 
the fossil remains of extinct Quadrumana ; and it is 
interesting to know that they belong to a form 
clo.sely related to that of the existing American 
monkeys termed Sapajous ; but the animals must have 
far exceeded any living species. The larger, indeed, 
must have been upwards of four feet in height. 
Dr. Lund terms it Protopithecus Brasiliensis ; the 
other, and smaller, he terms Callithrix primaevus. 
We have then evidences of the existence of Quad- 
rumana at a remote epoch, in continental Europe, 
Asia, and America ; but what is more unexpected, 
we have proofs that, at some era, they existed in 
our island (if then an island), when, as we may 
imagine, its surface was very different from what it 
now appears. 

The first example, a portion of the lower jaw, 
containing the last molar teeth, was found with the 
teeth of sharks (in 1837) in a deep layer of whitish 
sand, beneath a stratum of blue clay on the banks 
of the river Deben, at Kingston, near Woodbridge, 
in Suffolk. This bed of clay is in many places 
overlaid by crag, and may probably be assigned 
to the age of the London clay. In the stratum of 
sand the fossil teeth and portions of the lower jaw 
of an opossum were also discovered. (See ' Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' 1839, pp. 448,450.) The extinct monkey, 
as proved by the characters of the molar tootli, 
belonged to the genus Macacus, oral least to a genus 
very closely related to it. The tooth, it may be ob- 
served, is somewhat narrower than in any recent 
species of Macacus, but the posterior fifth tubercle 
presents, as in most of that group, two cusps, instead 
of being simple, as in the genus Seranopithecus. 

In the 'Annals of Natural History,' Nov. 1839, 
Professor Owen describes a second tooth found in 
the same locality, which he identifies as the second 
molar of a Macaque ; and from being well worn, it 
is evident that the individual to which it belonged 
was aged at the time of its death. It differs from 
the corresponding tooth of a recent Macaque, in 
having a slight ridge along the base of the anterior 
part of the crown, and the same character occurs also 
in the molar previously alluded to, and which was 
rigorously examined by the same philosophic anato- 
mist. M. d'Orbigny's remark respecting the beds 
above the chalk in the neighbourhood of Meudon 
seems applicable in the present case, viz : — "that 
in the lower part of the plastic clay, new features 
are discovered to obtain, demonstrating in an espe- 
cial manner, that various genera of Mammals were 
living at the epoch when that layer was formed." 

That the Simiee should have existed in our lati- 
tudes at the time of the deposition of the London 
clay is not surprising, when we consider the tro- 
pical character of the fossil fruits so abundant in 
that deposit : we say London clay (as the geologists 
designate it), because the blue stratum, beneath 
which the fossil teeth were found, belongs un- 
doubtedly to that formation. Mr. Wood, in refer- 
ence to one of these relics, obfierves, ' As this fossil 
certainly belongs to some quadrumanous animal, 
there is no formation to which it could be so appro- 
priately assigned as that of the London clay ; the 
tropical character of the Fauna as well as the 
Flora of that period being such as to justify an 
assumption of a warmer climate quite suitable to 
the existence of our macacus." Besides the teeth 
of animals of the monkey tribe, a fragment of the 
jaw of an opossum, in which one of the false molars 
is retained, has been discovered in the same 



214.— Tc«th of CoUisfo. 



318,— Lowe; Ja-.v anJ Teeth of Golcrpithcnu Phnippinaiuj 

nt^lmm Jiw and Teeth of Odeopithecua Temminekii. 


S19.— SkuUofGaleopithccui Temmlnclvli. 

217.— Skull of G.ilepltliecus rhilippincnsia. 

6 ^<=5 S 

219.— Skull, Teeth, and Paws of Aplodontia. 

2£0.— Nciihcin Grev and lliaek Squirrel, 

823.— Commcn Gmand Squirrel. 

SS2.— Rocky M"ar.tain Flyin; !=qiiirrel. 

223.— Tcetli of TamiM. 

221 — Mala!;ar Squirrel. 

C24.— Te«th of Sciunu. 






The difficulty of instituting a natural arrangement 
(ttiat is, an arrangement exhibiting the mullirorm 
hnks and affinities uf different groups), is conress- 
edly a work of difficulty ; but peculiarly so as it 
respetis the component parts of the present order. 
In itself, indeed, this order is definite, and based 
upon characters which form a clear line of separation 
between it and every other ; but when we come to 
investigate the species it embraces, we soon feel 
ourselves perplexed among a multitude of forms, 
and begin to hesitate at every step. Hence it is 
that no two naturalistu have arranged the Kodentia 
in the same manner; nay, Cuvier himself, in the last 
edition of his ' Rdgne Animal,' set aside the prin- 
ciples by which in his earlier edition he was guided, 
and followed out other views. 

Among those naturalists who have lately devoted 
their attention to the Rodentia, Mr. Waterhouse 
takes a foremost place ; and his arrangement, 
founded on the truest philosophical principles, 
is ti decided step in the advancement of this 
department of Zoology. It would be out of 
place, in a work like the present, to follow this 
naturalist through his train of researches, but we 
may give an outline of their results. Mr. Water- 
house considers that the Rodents resolve themselves 
into three great primary sections: first, the Murine 
section; secondly, the Hystricine section; and 
thirdly, the Leporine section. 

Each of these sections embraces several families, 
each of the latter comprehending several genera. 
The principal genera contained in the Murine sec- 
tion are Sciurus, Arctorays, Spermophilus, Tamias, 
Myoxus, Dipus, Mus, Arvicola, Geomys, and Castor. 
The principal genera contained in the Hystricine 
section are Bathurgus, Orycfenis, Poephagorays, 
Octodon, Abrocoma, Myopotamus, Capromys, Echi- 
mys, Aulacodus, Histrix, Dasyprocta, Chinchilla, 
Cavia, and Hydrochaerus. The Leporine section 
contains the genera Lcpus and Lagomys. 

Respecting a few genera, as Ctenodactylus, 
Helamys, Otomys (Smitn, not F. Cuvier), Akodon, 
and Heteromys, Mr. Waterhouse has not been able 
to satisfy himself as to their precise systematic 
classification ; and with respect to the genus Aplo- 
dontia (Fig. 218, skull and teeth), though he places 
it in the St^uirrel family (Sciuridae), yet it differs, as 
he admits, in the absence of a post-orbital process 
to the skull, and the molar teeth being rootless. 
We may here remark that the genus Aplodontia 
contains a Rodent, called by Lewis and Clark the 
Sewellel(A. leporina),andwluch inhabits the neigh- 
bourhood of the Columbia river (N. America), 
where it lives in burrows, and associates in small 
companies. The head is large, the nose is thick and 
obtuse, covered with a dense coat of short fur; eye 
very small ; ear resembling the human in form. 
Body short, thick, and rabbil-like. Legs very short, 
and covered down to the wrists and heels with fur 
similar to that on the body : a little above the wrist 
joint, on the inner side, is a small tuft of stiff white 
hairs. Fur like that of a rabbit out of season, amber 
and chestnut-brown above ; greyish or clove-brown 
beneath ; lips whitish ; a rather large spot of pure 
white on the throat ; some white hairs dispersed 
through the fur. Tail slender, cylindrical, hardly 
half an inch long. The figure (219) represents the 
skull, teeth and paws: 1, anterior half of skull 
with lower jaw, profile ; 2, anterior half of skull 
seen from below ; 3, the same seen from above ; 
4, lower jaw with right condyle broken, seen from 
above ; 5, upper molar tooth ; 6, 7, fore-foot, upper 
surface ; 8, sole of hind-foot. 

The Rodentia, as the name implies, have the 
teeth constructed for gnawing, paring, or scramng 
down the substances on which they feed. The 
teeth are only of two kinds, incisors and molars. 
There are no canines ; and between the incisors, 
which project from the very apex of the jaws, and 
the molars, which are situated far back, there inter- 
venes an unfilled space of considerable extent. The 
incisors are universally two in number in each jaw 
(if we except the hares and rabbits, in which two 
minute incisors rise at the back of the large perma- 
nent ones) : these are strong, compressed, and some- 
what curved, with sharp chisel-shaped edges. It is 
only their anterior surface that is covered with a 
thick layer of enamel, and this layer forms the cut- 
ting edge, as does the layer of steel on softer metal 
composing a common chisel. Their insertion into 
their sockets is very deep, but the inserted part is 
not a true root : these incisors spring from a pulpy 
germ in their base, from which they are perpetually 
growing, and this growth bears a due proportion to 
the rapidity with which their cutting edges wear 
away by use. So imperative is this law, that where 
one incisor is lost by accident, its opposite, having 
no countercheck, keeps increasing, till it acquires 
an enormous development, to the annoyance, and 
often the destruction, of the sufferer. With regard 
to the molars it may be observed that they differ in 

number in different species: they are, however, 
generally characterised by a flat surface ; traversed 
transversely by ridges of enamel, their structure 
being composed of perpendicular folds of this sub- 
stance, compacted together by intervening osscus 
matter; but further than this, wc find in different 
species a structural distinction of physiological im- 
portance : in some, as the Arvicoliclae, they resemble 
the incisors, having no true solid roots, but are per- 
petually growing as their surface wears away; in 
others, on the contrary (as the squirrels), at a certain 
period they gain truly formed roots, and alter this 
cease all further growth. In the Rodentia the upper 
lip, which is cleft longitudinally, is in many species 
an organ of prehension ; or at least is of great im- 
portance in gradually transmitting the food into the 
mouth, as may be seen when we offer the rabbit a 
leaf, or a stalk of clover, or dandelion. The pharynx, 
or back of the mouth, is contracted, and in some 
species funnel-shaped, and capable of being closed 
by a circular muscle, in order that the food may pass 
gradual ly , as it becomes duly ground to pulp between 
the molars. The structural organisation of the 
Rodents, as evidenced by the characteisof the skull, 
the bird-like condition of the brain, and by other 
points, is at a low par, and the ratio of their intelli- 
gence is in a parallel degree. We may tame them, 
but we cannot educate them. They are all timid 
and feeble, and trust for self-protection to flight or 
concealment The prey of ferocious beasts and 
birds and reptiles, their fertility, by a wise provision, 
counterbalances their annual diminution. Spread 
over the earth, from the equator to the coldest lati- 
tudes, they tenant rocks and mountains, plains and 
woods, feeding on grain and vegetables, and often 
devastating the cultivated domains of man. To a 
vegetable diet some few, as the rat, add animal food 
also. Most are nocturnal or crepuscular in their 
habits ; many dwell in burrows, some conceal them- 
selves amidst herbage, some amongst the foliage of 
trees, and some build for themselves habitations 
which have excited the interest and admiration of 

In noticing the numerical abundance of the Ro- 
dentia, throughout the different quarters of the 
globe, it should be observed that in Australia six 
or eight species are all that we are acquainted with 
belonging to that region ; Europe, North America, 
and South America are nearly equal as to the 
number of species they contain. India and Africa 
are also nearly equal, but they contain fewer species 
than either of the other provinces. The squirrels, 
rats, porcupines, and hares are the only groups 
found in all the provinces ; all the rest of the 
groups are respectively confined to their own par- 
ticular geographical province. The naturalist will 
find some important observations on the Rodentia 
by Mr. Waterhouse, in the ' Zool. Proceeds.,' for 
1839 ; in the ' Zool. of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle ;' 
and in the ' Mag. of Nat. Hist.,' New Series, 1839, 
p. 90. 

The squirrels (Fam. Sciuridae). These elegant 
animals are distributed throughout every quarter of 
the world, Australia excepted. The general cha- 
racters of the true squirrels (Sciurus), as exhibited 
by our well-known British species, are familiar to 
all : its fine full eyes, its light contour, its activity, 
its deep soft fur, and long bushy fail, have contri- 
buted to render it a general favourite. They are 
furnished with proper clavicles, or collar-bones, and 
possess the use of the fore-arm and paws in a high 
degree of perfection ; the toes are four, with the 
rudiment of a thumb, on the anterior feet ; five on the 
hind feet ; the claws are sharp and hooked. Mo- 

5 5 

lars, xZd- ^*™ often tufted with a pencil of long 

hairs. In feeding, these animals sit up on the 
haunches, and hold their food (nuts, &c.) not 
between the fingers of their joined fore-paws, but 
between the rudimentary thumbs, while they work 
at it with their teeth. 

220. — The Northern Grey and Black Sqciheel 

(Scitirtis leucotis). It is to Dr. Bachman, D.D., Pre- 
sident of the Lit. and Phil. Soc, Charlestown, S. 
Carolina, that we are indebted for clearing up the 
mass of confusion in which the squirrels of America 
have been involved. 

It appears from this author that several black 
squirrels exist, totally distinct from each other, and 
that of these some are mere varieties. Of the 
genuine species he notices the large Louisiana black 
squirrel (S. .\udubonii-), the black squirrel (Sciurus 
niger, Linn., not Catesby), and the dusky squirrel 
(S. nigrescens). There is a black variety of the 
fox squirrel (Sc. capistratus), and a black variety 
of the northern grey squirrel, the species figured. 
The grey squirrels are numerous, and perplexing to 
the naturalist. The Northern grey squirrel has been, 
for instance, confounded with the Carolina grey 
squirrel, from which it is distinct. The Northern 
grey and black squirrel is a very common species, 
and exceedingly active and sprightly. It is spread 

through the Northern and Middle States : it is abun- 
dant in New York and in the mountainous parts of 
Pennsylvania, and extends as far north as Hudi^on's 
Bay : southwards, it occurs in Virginia, and perhaps 
still farther south. 

Like all the true squirrels, this species is arboreal 
in its habits, quick and alert :— it rises with the sun, 
and continues industriously engaged in search of 
food during four or five hours in the morning, ranning 
over logs, ascending trees and playfully coursing 
from limb to limb. During the warm weather of 
spring it prepares its cradle or nest on the branch 
of a tree, constructing it of dried sticks which it 
breaks off, or, if these are not at hand, of green 
twigs as thick as a finger, which it gnaws from the 
boughs. These it lays in the fork of a tree or of 
some large branch so as to make a framework : it 
then lines this framework with leaves : and over 
these again spreads a layer of moss. In the pre- 
paration of this nest, a pair is usually engaged for 
an hour in the morning, during several successive 
days, and the noise they make in cutting the 
branches and dragging the leaves may be heard at 
some distance. In winter they reside entirely in 
holes of trees, where their young in most instances 
are brought forth. The young are from four to six 
in number ; and in a few weeks are suflicieritly ad- 
vanced to leave their nest. It is generally believed 
that this squirrel lays up a great hoard of food as a 
winter supply, but Dr. Bachman doubts the fact, 
though he admits that other northern species do. 
Further he states that the species which inhabit the 
southern portion of the United States, where the 
ground is seldom covered with snow, derive in 
winter a precarious subsistence from seeds, insects, 
and worms, which are scratched up among the 
leaves. We may here observe that, singular enough, 
no one has noticed the fact, excepting Mr. C. 
Coward (' Mag. Nat. Hist.,' New Series, June, 1839, 
p. 311), of our common British squirrel being car- 
nivorous as well as frugivorous ; such is, however, 
the case ; it attacks young birds and greedily devours 
them, nor is evon the wood-pigeon safe from its 
assaults. The Northern grey squirrel feeds on nuts 
and v.arioiis seeds, but it seems to prefer the shell- 
bark (Carya alba) and the several species of hickory 
to any other food. Green com and young wheat 
suffer greatly from its depredations, and hence a 
war of wholesale destruction is everywhere waged 
against it. In Pennsylvania an old law existed 
offering threepence a head for every squirrel de- 
stroyed, and in 1749 the enormous sum of 8000A 
was paid out of the treasury for the destruction of 
these depredators. The extensive migrations which 
arc undertaken by this species, either from a scarcity 
of food or from some other inexplicable cause, have 
often excited not only wonder, but apprehension. 
They generally take place in autumn, but by no 
means with regularity. It would appear that in the 
far north-west multitudes congregate in different dis- 
tricts, forming scattered troops, which all bend their 
way instinctively in an eastern direction, collecting 
into larger bodies as they proceed; neither moun- 
tains nor rivers stop their progress: onward they 
come, a devouring army, laying waste the corn and 
wheat fields of the farmer; and as their numbers 
are thinned by the gun, others fill up the ranks: 
few, perhaps none, ever return westwardly ; those 
that escape the carnage take up their abode in the 
forests of their newly-explored country. The grey 
squirrel has many enemies; the fox, the lynx, the 
weasel, hawks, and owls are all eager to seize it : 
when attacked by the red-tailed hawk, its most for- 
midable foe, it is amusing to see the skill and dex- 
terity exercised by both, in the attack, and in the 
defence ; often, indeed, the squirrel, by dodging and 
twisting round the branches and large limbs of the 
tree, foils and weare out his antagonist ; when, how- 
ever, a pair of hawks combine, the squirrel has no 

221. — The Malabar Squirrel 

(Sciurus maximus). Of the Indian squirrels, one of 
the finest is the Malabar squirrel, measuring four- 
teen or fifteen inches in the length of the head and 
body, and somewhat more in that of its full bushy 
tail. This species is found in Malabar, and also in 
Ceylon. Like the rest of its tribe, it is eminently 
arboreal, tenanting the summits of palm-trees, anil 
feeding to a great extent upon the cocoa-nut, to 
the milk of which it is said to be very partial. We 
have seen several specimens in captivity. They 
soon become tame and familiar, but aie not to be 
trusted too far : their bite is very severe. General 
colour above, rich chocolate, deepening about the 
shoulders into black ; under parts abruptly pale 
reddish yellow ; ears tufted with a long full brush. 

222. — The Rocky-Mountain Flying Squirrkl 

(^Pteromys Alpinus, or Pt. Sabinus, var. ,8, Richard- 
son). The flying squirrels (Petromys, Geofr. : Sci- 
uropterus, F. Cuv.) agree in the general characters 
of their dentition with the rest of the family (see Fig. 




223 (or the teeth of Tamias, and Fig. 224 for the 
teeth of Sciuius). The incisors are laterally com- 
5—5 , 4—1 

pressed : the molars, -; — j , rarely - — i' ^rfi equal 

in size or nearly so, excepting the anterior molar of 
the upper jaw, where they are 5 — 5, which is smaller 
than the rest. The series of molars on eacli side are 
widely separate and parallel. It is in the possession 
of a lateral fold of skin, forming, when extended, a 
parachute, enabling them to take long sweeping 
leaps, that the flying squirrels are distinguishable 
from the ordinary group. These expansions are 
fully clothed with soft fur; and they usually project 
in a pointed form from each wrist, being there sup- 
ported by a long slender osseous stylet. In some 
species, as the one figured, this is either reduced to 
a mere tubercle or wanting. 

The flying squirrels are conspicuous for the ra- 
pidity of their evolutions : they ascend.the trees with 
such velocity that the eye can scarcely fallow them ; 
and they skim from one tree to another, or precipi- 
tate themselves to the ground, with singular agility. 
In their habits they are nocturnal. 

These elegant animals are respectively natives of 
the northern regions of Europe, the north of Asia, 
the north of America, and the glowing islands of 
the Indian Archipelago. The present species is 
one of the American flying squirrels, and was dis- 
covered by Dr. Drummond, on the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where it lives in dense pine-forests, seldom 
venturing from its retreat except in the night. Dr. 
Richardson received specimens from the Elk river, 
and also from the south branch of the Mackenzie. 
Whether it is a mere variety of the Pt. Sabrinus or 
a distinct species is not clear. 

Its general colour is yellowish-brown above. The 
tail is flat, longer than the body, and blackish-grey. 
Total length fourteen inches three lines, of which 
the tail, including the fur, measures six inches three 

225. — The Commos GKOusD-SQcntEEL 
{Tamias striatus). Unhke the true squirrels, the 
ground-squirrels are chiefly terrestrial in their ha- 
bits, and are furnished with cheek-pouches, in 
which they carry food to their retreats, forming 
magazines for winter. They live in burrows, but 
do not appear to become torpid. Their fur is shorter 
and closer, and the tail less bushy than in their ar- 
boreal relatives. These animals are chiefly spread 
through the northern and temperate regions of 
Europe, Asia, and America. The palm-squirrel of 
India, and the IJarbary squirrel, though associated 
by some authors with the ground-squirrels, occupy 
an intermediate situation between the latter and the 
true arboreal species. 

The common ground-squirrel is a native of the 
north-eastern part of Europe and the north of Asia. 
It is the Ecureuil Suisse of the French, so called 
because its .striped back has some resemblance to a 
Swiss doublet. According to Pallas, these striped 
squirrels dig their burrows in woody places, in small 
hummocks of earth, or near the roots of trees ; but 
never, like the common squirrels, make their nests 
in the trunk or branches, although when scared from 
their holes they climb with facility, and make their 
way from branch to branch with great speed. A 
winding passage leads to their nest, and they gene- 
rally form two or three lateral chambers to store 
their food in. The striped squirrel in its manners, 
and from having cheek-pouches, is allied to the 
hamster and Citillus (type of the genus Spermophi- 
lus), and is likewise connected with the latter by 
its convex nose, proper for an animal accustomed 
to dig. In its whole habit it difi"ers from the squir- 
rels which live in trees, and forms, with other striped 
squirrels, a division of the genus. It has a longer 
head than the common squirrel ; rounded ears, not 
tufted ; a roundish, hairy tail, which it less frequently 
turns up ; a slender body, and shorter limbs. The 
fur likewise is very short and less fine. Yet in its 
diurnal habits, and in not becoming torpid in win- 
ter, it comes near the squirrels : it is difiRcult to 

226. — Paebt's Spebmophile 
(^permophiliis Parryi). The genus Spermophilus is 
intermediate between the Ground-Squirrels and the 
Marmots. Besides possessing cheek-pouches, the 
Spermophiles are distinguished by the closeness of 
the ears, the slender form of the body, which is 
squirrel-like, and the narrowness of the paws. 

Two species are natives of eastern Europe, viz. 
the Souslik of the Volga, and the Zizel or Susel of 
Hungary, Poland, &c., which are, perhaps, mere 
varieties. Many species are American, one of which. 
Parry's Spermophilc, is the species figured. 

Colour of the body above, a mixture of white 
thickly spotted on a grey or black ground ; face 
chestnut ; under parts rust-brown ; tail with a nar- 
row white margin, and black at the extremity. 
This, according to Dr. Richardson, who first named 
the species, is the Ground-Squirrel of Heme ; the 
Quebec Mannot of Forster ; the Seek-Seek of the 

Esquimaux ; the Thoe-thiay (Rock Badger) of the 
Chepewyans ; and the Arctomys Alpina of Parry's 
' Second Voyage.' 

Dr. Richardson states that it inhabits the barren 
grounds skirting the sea-coast from Churchill in 
Hudson's Bay round by Melville Peninsula, and the 
whole northern extremity of the continent to 
Behring's Straits, where specimens precisely similar 
were procured by Captain Beechey. It is abundant 
in the neighbourhood of Fort Enterprise, near the 
southern verge of the Barren Grounds, in lat. 65°, 
and is also plentiful on Cape Parry, one of the most 
northern parts of the continent. It is found generally 
in stony districts, but seems to delight chiefly in 
sandy hillocks amongst rocks, where burrows, in- 
habited by different individuals, may be often ob- 
served crowded together. One of the society is 
generally observed sitting erect on the summit of a 
hillock whilst the others are feeding in the neigh- 
bourhood. Upon the approach of danger, he gives 
the alarm, and they instantly hurry to their holes, 
remaining however chattering at the (.-ntrance until 
- the advance of the enemy obliges them to retire to 
the bottom. When their retreat is cut oft', they be- 
come much terrified, and, seeking shelter in the crevice, they not unfrequently succeed only in 
hiding the head and fore-part of the body, whilst 
the projecting tail is, as is usual with them under 
the influence of terror, spread out flat on the rock. 
Their cry, in this sea-son of distress, strongly resem- 
bles the loud alarm of the Hudson's Bay Squirrel, 
and is not very unlike the sound of a watchman's 
rattle. The Esquimaux name is an attempt to 
express this sound. Heme states that they are 
easily tamed, and very cleanly and playful when 
domesticated. They never come abroad during the 
winter. Their food appears to be entirely vegeta- 
ble ; their pouches being generally filled, according 
to the season, with tender shoots of herbaceous 
plants, berries of the alpine arbutus, and of other 
trailing shrubs, or the seeds of grasses and legumi- 
nous plants. They produce about seven young at a 

The true Marmots (Arctomys) are thicker, more 
robust, and less elegant in figure than the Sper- 
mophiles ; the head is broad and flat, and the muzzle 
obtuse ; the limbs are short, and there are no cheek- 

227, 228, 229.— The Alpine Maemot 

(^Arctomys Marmotd). This well-known species is 
common in the high mountain districts of Europe, 
where it takes up its abode just below the line of 
perpetual snow, excavating a deep burrow, to which 
it has recourse on every appearance of an enemy. 
In this, which it lines with dried grass, moss, &c., 
it hybemates during the severity of the season. 
The burrows of the marmot are always constructed 
in dry situations, and mostly on declivities exposed 
to the south or south-east. They are of considerable 
extent, and are worked out and tenanted by families 
consisting of from five to fifteen individuals. They 
begin by a passage which runs for about six feet, 
and is just capable of admitting the animal's body. 
From the farther end of this gallery two others 
bifurcate, one of which, according to Desmarest, 
leads to a sort of chamber in the form of an oven, 
from three to seven feet in diameter ; the other ends 
abruptly, and serves as a storehouse for dried grasses, 
&c. According to some, these passages are not 
always to be met with, and MM. Geoffroy and F. 
Cuvier assert that the cell is at the end of the first 
gallery. During the summer months, groups of 
these animals may be seen feeding and sporting on 
the mountain-side. They never wander to any great 
distance from their burrows, and have aln-ays one 
ot more of their number posted as sentinels, which 
by a piercing cry give warning of danger. About 
the middle of September they betake themselves to 
their winter dormitories, and close the entrance with 
earth and the dried grass which they have accumu- 
lated : here they sink into a profound repose, from 
which they do not awaken till the return of April. 
Though timid and inoffensive, these animals defend 
themselves resolutely when driven to an extremity, 
and their powerful incisors inflict severe wounds. 
They lift their food to their mouths while sitting 
squirrel-like, and will walk on their hind-feet. On 
retiring for the winter, they are at first very fat, and 
numbers are taken at this season, partly for the sake 
of their skins, and partly for their flesh, which is 
eaten by the mountaineers. The young are easily 
tamed, and are often carried about by the Savoyards 
for the purpose of exhibition. The marmot pro- 
duces from three to five at a birth. 

This species is of about the size of a rabbit. Its 
general colour is yellowish-grey, passing into hoary 
about the cheeks, and blackish-grey on the top of 
the head ; the tip of the tail is black. 

230.— The Bobac. 

{Arctomys JBobac). This species inhabits the regions 
of Poland through which flow the Dneiper and its 

tributary streams, whence it ranges through a great 
part of Northern Asia. It gives preference to hills 
of moderate elevation, where it chooses a dry lo- 
cality in which to construct its burrows. These are 
carried to a great depth, and are tenanted by fami- 
lies consisting of twenty or even forty individuals. 
It accumulates in its retreat a quantity of dried 
herbage for use, before the severity of the season 
commences, and for early spring consumption, as 
well as for the sake of warmth. General colour 
of the fur greyish-yellow mingled with brown, which 
latter forms transverse undulations on the upper 
part-s. Under parts rust-brown. Length of head 
and body sixteen or seventeen inches ; of the tail 
six inches. 

231. — The Quebec Mabmot. 

(Arctomys Empetra). This species is one of the 
American marmots, and is a native 'of Canada and 
the neighbourhood of Hudson's Bay. It is the Que- 
bec Marmot of Pennant and Godman ; the Common 
Marmot of Langsdorft'; the Thick-wood Badger of 
the Hudson's Bay residents ; the SifBeur of the 
French Canadians, who apply the same name to the 
other species of marmot and to the badger ; Tarbagan 
of the Russian residents on Kodiak(?) ; Weenusk of 
the Crees ; Kath-hillae-Kooay of the Chepewyans; 
Mus Empetra of Pallas ; and Arctomys Empetra of 
Sabine and others. 

Dr. Richardson, who gives the above synonyms, 
states that the Quebec marmot inhabits the woody 
districts from Canada to lat. 61°, and perhaps still 
farther north. He says that it appears to be a 
solitary animal, inhabits burrows in the earth, but 
ascends bushes and trees, probably in search of buds 
and other vegetable productions on which it feeds. 
Mr. Drummond killed two, one on some low bushes, 
and the other on the branch of a tree. According 
to Mr. Graham it burrows perpendicularly, selecting 
dry spots, at some distance from the coast, and feed- 
ing on the coarse grass which gathers on the river 
sides. The Indians capture it by pouring water into 
its holes. Its flesh is considered delicate when the 
animal is fat, but its fur is valueless. 


(Myoxidce). The dormice seem to connect the 
squirrels, on the one hand, to the murine groups on 
the other. They are arboreal in their habits, and 
clothed with fine soft fur. The toes are four on 
each fore-foot, with the vestige of a fifth ; the hind- 
feet have five toes. The dentition (Fig. 232) is as 

2 4 4 

follows :— Incisors,-; molars, ——J. Incisors laterally 

compressed ; molars unequal in size, rooted ; the 
series on each side of each jaw widely separated and 

233, 234. — The ComMon Doemouse 

{Myoxus avellanarius). This elegant little creature 
is the Muscadin, Croque Noix, and Rat d'or of the 
French ; Moscadino of the Italians ; Liron of the 
Spanish ; Rothe Wald-maus, Hasel-maus, and Ha- 
sel-schliifer of the Germans ; Skogsmus of the 
Swedes ; Kassel-muus of the Danes ; and Pathew of 
the ancient British. It has been supposed by some 
that it was this species which the Romans fattened 
in their Gliraria for the table ; but that animal was 
most probably the Loir (M. Glis), which is common 
in the woods of Italy, and which approaches a squir- 
rel in size. 

Though common in the southern and midland 
counties of England, the dormouse is not so abundant 
in France as the Lerot (M. Nitela, Fig. 235), yet its 
distribution is very extensive. It ranges from the 
south of Europe as far north as Sweden. The fa- 
vourite resorts of this little animal are dense thickets, 
low woods and coppices of hazel, bushy dells, and 
tangled hedgerows. It creeps about the branches 
with a quickbut gliding sort of movement, and with 
singular facility. It leaps nimbly, and makes its 
way so quickly through intertangled brushwood, 
that it cannot be easily captured. The dormouse 
appears to be in some degree gregarious, or at least 
to colonize favourite spots, and ten or a dozen of 
their nests have been seen at no great distance apart 
in the shrubs of a thicket. These nests are made 
of leaves, grass, &c. : they are of a rounded form, 
about six inches in diameter, with the aperture at 
the top. It is in these that the young are brought 
forth and reared. The number of the young is about 
four: they are born blind; in a few days, however, 
their eyes are opened ; and in a short period they 
are capable of providing for themselves. Corn, haws, 
hazel-nuts, and fallen acorns, constitute the food of 
the dormouse. It eats sitting up like a squirrel, 
holding the food between its paws ; and often it 
harigs suspended by its hinder feet, in which posi- 
tion it feeds as easily as in its ordinary attitude. 

Mr. Bell states that the name Avellanarius is not 
well chosen, and that he never saw any dormouse 
that could knaw through the shell of that nut when 
fully ripe. We ourselves, however, have frequently 

2'.'9. — A'.pine Mwmjl. 

SS8.— Alpine Marmot. 

2? T.— Alpine Maimots 

230.— Dotae. 

223.— Common Dormouse. 


!••> l"t 

224. — Common Dormouse, 

23j. — Lerct, or Garden Dormouse. 

'J^a.—Ot^e tinipltiiire. 

2S9.— Egyptian Jerboas. 

ass.— Sknll and Teeth of AUetaga. 

240. — Egyptian Jerboa. ' 

232.— Teeth of Donuoiiae. 

237.— Sknll and Teeth of Eipnshirtipes. 

No. 8. 






■een the dormouse open with it« teeth the hard shell 
cf a nut, and clear it out with ereat address. The 
dormouse hybernates, and hoards up a store of pro- 
visions in holes, and the crevices about the roots of 
trees. &c., to which to have recourse in the winter ; 
for its torpidity is not without interruption. A mid- 
day gleam of sunshine rouses it up in its snug retreat ; 
and invites it forth, when it takes a little food ; on 
tine diminution of the temperature it betakes itself to 
its dormitory, and rolling up itself into a ball, sinks 
into a profound slumber. In this condition it may 
be handled, or rolled about a table, if not exposed 
to the influence of warmth, without being roused 
from its trance. It is not until the spring has fairly 
set in that the dormouse regains its full activity, 
and it is at this period that its magazine is of the 
greatest ser%ice : for without a store thus provi- 
dently accumulated, it would, for some time at least, 
be straitened for food. 

The head of this species is proportionately large ; 
the eyes are large, black, and prominent : the eare 
are broad ; and fur soft ; the tail long, fringed with 
hair on each side, and somewhat tufted at the end ; 
the body plump ; the limbs short. General colour 
cinnamon red, passing into pale yellow below. The 
young are of a mouse grey. Length of the head 
and body two inches eight lines; of the tail, two 
inches six lines. 

435. — The Garden Doemouse, or Lerot 

(Myozus iChda). The Greater Dormouse of Shaw. 
This species is a native of the whole of the tempe- 
rate portions of continental Europe, and indeed it is 
found as high north as Poland and Pmssia. In 
France it is very common, gardens and orchards 
being its favourite abode : it makes sad havoc among 
wall-fruits, attacking peaches, apricots, pears, &c., 
with great avidity. Its winter store, however, con- 
sists of nuts, peas, beans, and the like, which are 
collected in great abundance, and stowed away in 
some convenient recess, where eight or ten indi- 
viduals assemble to pass away the colder season 
in sleep. The summer nest of the Lerot, in which 
it rears its young, is built in the holes of walls or 
the chinks of aged trees. The young are four or 
five in number. The colour of this pretty but an- 
noying creature is reddish grey ; beneath, white ; 
a black patch surrounds the eye, and spreads be- 
hind the ear. The tail is covered with short black 
hair, except at the end, which is tufted with white. 
Length of head and body four inches and a half; 
of the tail, four inches. 

236. — ^Thb Cape Graphil-re 

(Grapldarus Capensis). The genus graphiurus is 
scarcely to be separated from Myoxus : it is repre- 
sented by the Cape Graphiure, a native of South 
Africa. This species is about the size of the lerot, 
which it much resembles in the style of its colour- 
ing, the general tint above being of a deep brown- 
ish grey ; the muzzle and sides of the face reddish 
white ; under parts greyish white, with a tinge of 
red ; tail brown, the tip, which is not tufted, reddish 
white; a band of blackish brown extends from the 
«yes to the base of the ears. 


(Dipui). The Jerboas constitute a group of the 
great murine section of Rodents, and termed by 
Mr. Waterhouse Dipodidae, of which, he observes, 
the genera Dipus, Alactaga, and Meriones are ex- 

All the animals of this tribe are remarkable for 
the shortness of the fore limbs, the development of 
the hinder limbs, and the length and slenderness 
of the metatarsus; they resemble in these points 
the kangaroos. They bound along on their hind 
iimbs with great rapidity, and appear almost to 
skim, like birds, the flat plains or sandy wastes 
where they take up their abode. In an elaborate 
memoir by M. F. Cuvier on the Jerboas and Ger- 
billes, he divides these animals into different ge- 
nera. The jerboas (Dipus) have only three toes 
on the hinder feet, and these, as in birds, are ar- 
ticulated to a single elongated metatarsal bone, 
commonly known as the canon-bone. In the Alac- 
tagas there are five toes; of these the three central 
are aiticulated to a single metatarsal bone, while 
the other two have each their own slender meta- 
tarsal bone. 

In Meriones and Gerbillus the toes are five, each 
■with their own distinct metatarsal bone. The in- 
cisors of the Alactagas are simple, whilst those in 
the upper jaw of the jerboas are divided longi- 
tudinally by a furrow. The molars of the latter 
genus are complicated in form, and but little re- 
semble those of the former. They are four in num- 
ber in the upper jaw, and three in the lower; but 
the firat in the upper is a small rudimentary tooth, 
which probably disappears in aged individuals. 
After a detailed account of the structure of the 
grinding teeth, M. Cuvier observes that the general 

structure of the head of the Alactagas and jerboas 
is evidently the same, and is characterized by the 
large size of the cranium, the shortness of the 
muzzle, and, above all. by the magnitude of the 
suborbital foramina. The cranium of the jerboa 
is distinguished by its great breadth posteriorly, 
resulting from the enormous development of the 
tympanic bone, which extends beyond the occipital 
posteriorly and laterally, as far as the zygomatic arch, 

by I 

where all the osseous parts of the ear are of mode- 
rate dimensions. Another differential character 
between the two genera is presented by the max- 
illary arch, which circumscribes externally the sub- 
orbital foramina, and which in the Alactagas may 
be said to be linear, presenting a very limited sur- 
face for the attachment of muscles. He then notes 
a difference in the relative development of the 
jaws, the lower being comparatively much shorter 
m the Alactagas than in .the jerboas. Having de- 
scribed a new specis of Alactaga, a native of Bar- 
bary, under the name of Alactaga arundinis, M. F. 
Cuvier proceeds to consider the charactei^ and 
affinities of the genera Gerbillus and Meriones, and 
enters into a critical examination of all the species 
referred to those genera, and comes to the conclu- 
sion that they have a closer affinity with the true 
Murida; than with the jerboas and Alactagas. 
Fig. 237 represents the skull and teeth of Dipus 
hirtipes : a, skull, profile ; b, the same seen from 
above ; c, the same seen from below ; d, e, the 

Fig. 23S represents the skull and teeth of Alac- 
taga; fl, ami A, the cranium, one-third larger than 
the natural size ; c, and d, the teeth, five times en- 

239, 240, 241, 242.— The Egyptian jERnoA. 

{Dipus j^gyptius). In the true jerboas the head is 
large, and not unlike that of a rabbit in form; the 
eara are long and somewhat pointed ; the eyes are 
full and prominent ; the tail is very long, cylindri- 
cal, and covered with short hair except at the ex- 
tremity, which is tufted. The fur of the body issoft 
and delicate ; the whiskers are long, the fore feet 
are very small, and have four toes and the rudi- 
ment of a thumb, furnished, however, with a nail. 
In the hind feet of these animals we behold palpa- 
ble evidences of their express adaptation to the 
deserts where they habitually reside. Not only is 
the metatarsal portion of the foot extremely elon- 
gated, but the toes are clad on the under surface 
with long bristly hairs, which while they add to 
their span, and give firmness and security to their 
tread on a loose and yielding surface, defend the 
foot from the heat of a glowing waste beneath a 
fervid sun. 

The Egyptian Jerboa is found in Egypt, Barbary, 
Nubia, and the warmer parts of Syria and Arabia. 
It lives in troops, which colonize the most arid parts 
of the desert, where, on hillocks of sand or the 
crumbled heaps of ruins, they work out long burrows 
in which to dwell. In these burrows they make 
their nests and rear their young. So powerful are 
their teeth, that they not only gnaw in a short time 
through the hardest wood, but, as Sonniiii affirms, 
through thin layers of stone beneath the sand. 
According to some, these animals are nocturnal in 
their habits, stealing forth to feed and sport when 
evening begins to close. They are, however, not 
altogether nocturnal, for Sonnini observed them in 
broad day playing around the mouths of their sub- 
terranean habitations, and he particularly noticed 
that those which he kept delighted to bask in the 
sun, and were always lively in that situation. The 
jerboas are very timid creatures, and hasten to their 
burrows for security on the least noise : if inter- 
cepted, they trust to their speed, and seem to fly 
across the plain ; so great indeed is the rapidity with 
which they bound along, that a greyhound has some 
difficulty in the chase." In making each leap they 
spring from the hind feet, the impulse being given 
by the powerful muscles of the thighs, while the tail 
serves as a balance and rudder. In the act of spring- 
ing the fore paws are pressed close to the chest ; 
they descend, however, upon them, but such is the 
quickness of the leap, and the celerity with which 
they recover their due posture, and spring again, 
that the eye is completely deceived, for it appears 
as if they never used the fore paws at all, but alike 
sprang from and alighted on their long slender hind 
legs alone. When undisturbed, their common atti- 
tude is that of sitting up on fte haunches ; and the 
fore paws are used in the same manner as in the 
squirrels and marmots. The food of the jerboa 
consists principally of bulbous roots, which the 
animals digup with their fore paws; they also devour 
grain and other vegetable matters. It would appear 
that the jerboa hybernates, but the duration of its 
torpor cannot be very protracted. 

The flesh of these animals, though unsavoury, is 
eaten by the Arabs and Egyptians, who contrive to 
capture them by stopping up all the openings of 

their subterranean retreat except one, which is 

Few animals, if we may judge from our own ob- 
servations, bear continement so inij)atiently as the 
jerboas: they sedulously exclude them.selves from 
observation, and when they come forth from their 
retreat in the evening, they are restless and distrust- 
ful in the extreme. 

In size this species is equal to a large rat ; the 
general colour is pale tawny yellow, passing into a 
lighter tint beneath ; the terminal tuft of tiie tail is 
black, merging at the tip into wliile; a white or 
whitish strip appears on each of the buttocks below 
the base of the tail. 

243, 244. — The Dark-banded Jerboa. 
Of this jerboa, which is figured by Shaw under 
the name of " the jerboa," we have never seen an 
example. It is neither noticed nor figured by I.ich- 
tenstein, who has published the best monograph of 
these animals that has yet appeared. For oui-selves 
we have no doubt but that the original figure was 
taken from a specimen of the Egyptian Jerboa, in 
which the abrupt border to the white mark was 
darker than usual ; for in some instances the back is 
washed with a dusky tint, which a tendency to 
assume wavy transverse bands, one of which, on the 
haunch, as it is said, is occasionally distinct. 

With regard to the Alactagas, to which we have 
alluded, the typical species, the Siberian .Vlactaga 
(Dipus Jaculus, Gmel. ; the Alactaga, Buff. ; the 
Siberian Jerboa, Peimant), is dl^tributed from 
Arabia, through Persia, Tartary, and Turkey, and 
as far north as the Volga and Irtish. It inhabits the 
plains and flat districts, where it makes extensive 
burrows; in general habits it resembles thecoramuii 
jerboa of Kgypt, but is of larger size. 

Its Ibod is stated to consist not only of vegetable 
but also of animal substances, as small biids and 
insects ; and, as we learn from Pallas, it spares not 
even its own species. The subterranean habitations 
of these animals are extremely capacious, and - 
formed about half a yard below the sorlace of the 
ground. The passage leading to them is of great 
length, and pursues a circuitous com-se, having at 
intervals additional shafts or openings upwards, 
affording extra facilities for escape in the event of 
danger. During the winter they hybernate ; retiring 
to their subterranean chambers, they shut up the 
openings, and sink into a complete state of lethargy. 
It is affirmed by Gmelin that when their burrows 
are opened at this season a quantity of grain, dried 
shoots, and herbs are found within them; on the 
contrary, Pallas atfirms that they collect no stores 
of provision for the winter. It is possible that both 
these naturalists, who had anipel opportunities of 
investigating the habits of the Alactaga in a state 
of nature, may be correct, and that in the more 
northern districts of its range it may accumulate a 
store of provision, for use in the spring, when it 
first rouses from its torpidity. The Alactaga is more 
numerous and fertile in the warmer than in the 
colder latitudes; but it is nowhere to be seen in 
such numbei-s as the Egyptian Jerboa. From its 
large size and the superior flavour of its flesh, it is 
more sought after, as food, than that animal, and is 
chased, and also taken by stratagem, by the Arabs 
and Tartars. Such is its swiftness that it appears to 
skim the plain without touching the ground ; even 
a mounted horseman on a fleet steed can scarcely 
overtake it. The fur of the Alactaga is extremely 
sort and fine ; on the upper parts it is of a pale 
fawn yellow, clouded with greyish brown on the 
lower part of the back ; a white crescentic line ex- 
tends on each side of the crupper, below the root of 
the tail. The under parts of the body and inside of 
the limbs are white ; the tail is brown, except the 
tuft at the extremity, which is black tipped, with 

245. — The Labrador Jumping Mouse 
{Meriones Labradoricus'). This species appears to 
be the Labrador rat of Pennant; the Gerbillus 
Hudsonius of Rafinesque ; Mus Labradoiius of 
Sabine ; Gerbillus Labradorius of Harlan ; the La- 
brador Jumping Mouse of Godnian ; and Katse (the 
Leaper) of the Chepewyan Indians. 

The genus Meriones in dental formula differs in 
some points from Dipus. The upper incisors, of a 
deep orange-colour, are marked with a longitudinal 
furrow ; the molars are four on each side above, 
and three below ; the first above is very small ; the 
surfaces of the rest in both jaws are marked with 
irregular winding lines of enamel (see Fig. 24C). 
The muzzle is narrow and elongated; the ears 
rounded, the hind limbs considerably developed; 
the tail long, ringed with scales, and thinly covered 
with short hair. 

The Labrador Jumping Mouse, which was first 
described by Pennant in his 'Arctic Zoology,' is 
very common in the fur countries of North America, 
as far north as the Great Slave Lake, and perhaps 
farther; but of its habits we liave no precise details. 




Its general colour is brownish yelloiv, merging into 
white beneath. The lengtli of the head and body 
is about five indies, that of the tail five and a half. 
Dr. Richardson remarks, respecting the jumping: 
mice, of which there are, it would appear, several 
species, that those inhabiting different districts in 
Ameiica require to be compared with each other, 
before the true number of species, and their geo- 
graphical distribution, can be ascertained. 

247. — The Cape Le-vpisq Hase 
(Pedetes Capensis, 111. : Helnmys Capensis, V. Cuvier). 
Grande Gerl)oise, Buffon ; Spring Haas of the Dutch 
Colonists; Cape Jerboa, Pennant. 

This curious animal, the only known example of 
the genus Pedetes. occupies an undeterminale situa- 
tion'among the Rodents; but is most probably the 
most nearly related to the true Jerboas, which it 
resembles in external appearance, 'i'he molars are 
four on each side, in each jaw, of simjlle structure, 
•with two lamiuie ; the incisors are large, strong, 
and broad (see Fisr. 248). The anterior limbs are 
short, but very strong, furnished with five toes 
armed wilh powerful claws. The hind limbs are ; 
developed and muscular, four-toed, the toes armed 
with long-pointed and somewhat hoof-like claws. 
Tail long. Tlie leaping hare equals our common 
hare in size : the fur is soft, and of a dark. fawn or 
brownish yellow, passing into white beneath ; the 
tail is hairy, and tufted at the extremity with a 
pencil of black. The head is large, the ears are 
long and pointed; and the eyes full and dark. 
Native country. South Africa. 

Tne leaping hare is a burrowing animal, making 
its holes in the soft sandy ground, which it digs up 
with its fore paws, spurting it backwards with its 
hind feet, as is done by the rabbit. In these bur- 
rows it sojourns during the day, secure from the 
attacks of the various carnivorous animals which 
infest the precincts of its retreat. Night is the 
season of activity: it steals forth on Itie close of 
daylight to feed ; and in some districts where it 
abounds, the depredations which it commits in the 
fields of grain are very serious. It proceeds in the 
same manner as does the jerboa, by a series of 
bounds : and when the animal is pursued, each 
bound it makes clears a space of twenty or thirty 
feet. It eats sitting nearly upright, and using its 
fore feet in the manner of a squirrel, to bring the 
food to the mouth. It also sleeps in the same atti- 
tude, excepting that the head is bent down between 
the hind limbs, while the fore paws cover the eyes 
and ears. 

The leaping hare gives preference to the sides of 
steep and craggy mountains, and in some places 
they colonize a considerable extent of ground, 
making it a complete warren. Mr. Burchell, on his 
second journey to Asbestos Mountain, observed 
their burrows in abundance. Whether this animal 
lays up a store of winter provision, or wliether it 
hybernates during a part of the year, does not ap- 
pear to be ascertained: but it is very certain that, 
in the localities it frequents, it is not only subject 
to a low temperature during the cold season, but 
that it will also experience a scarcity of its usual 

The voice of the leaping hare is a kind of inarti- 
culate grunt. 

The Catties esteem these creatures for food, and 
expel them from their burrows by pouring water 
into the entrances, when they issue fortli and are 
easily taken. 

249. — BcETOs's Gerbille 

(^Gerhilltis Burtoni). The Gerbilles belong to the 
family Murida; (and not to that of the true jerboas). 
The contour of the skull and the characters of the 
teeth are confessedly murine (see Fig. 250: a, the 
skull, profile ; b, the same seen from above ; c, the 
game seen from below , d, e, teeth of the same). 
Though the gerbilles have the posterior limbs 
developed, their development is by no means to the 
same extent as in the jerboas ; and there is a far 
more equal proportion between them and the 
anterior pair ; hence these animals run as well as 
leap. They are active, elegantlittle creatures, living 
in burrows which they excavate to a considerable 
depth, and are nocturnal in their habits. F. Cuvier 
enumerates eight species, respectively natives of 
Etrypt, and other parts of Africa, and India. The 
species figured (Fig. 249) has been recently described 
by F. Cuvier (see 'Trans. Zool. Soc' vol ii.) Of its 
peculiar habits we know nothing definite, but they 
in all probability aeree with those of the Indian 
Gerbille, so well described by General Hardwicke 
in the eighth volume of the ' Linn. Trans.' The 
Indian Gerbille is common in Hindostan, and seems 
lobe gregarious, great numbers associating together. 
"These animals are very abundant about cultivated 
lands, and are particularly destructive to wheat and 
barley crops, of which they lay up considerable 
hoards in spacious burrows near the scenes of their 
plunder. They cut the culms of the ripening corn 

just below the ears, and convey them thus entire to 
one common subterraneous repository, which when 
filled they carefully close, and do nut open for use 
till supplies abroad become distant and scarce. 
Grain of all kinds is their favourite food, but in 
default of this they have recourse to the roots of 
grass and other vegetables. About the close of 
day they issue from their burrows, and traverse 
the plains in all directions to a considerable dis- 
tance ; they run very fast, but oftener leap, making 
bounds of four or five yards at a time, canyina the 
tail extended in a horizontal direction. When 
eating, they sit on their hind legs like a squirrel, 
holding the lood between their fore feet. They 
never appear by day, neither do they commit depre- 
dations withindoors. I have observed their manners 
by night, in moonlight nights, taking my station on 
a plain, and remaining for some time with as little 
motion as possible. I was soon surrounded by 
hundreds at the distance of a few yards, but on 
rising from my seat the whole disappeared in an 
instant, nor did they venture forth again for ten 
minutes after, and then with much caution and cir- 

" A low tribe of Hindoos called Kunjers, whose 
occupation is hunting, go in quest of these animals 
at proper seasons to plunder their hoards of grain ; 
and often within the space of twenty yards find as 
much corn in the ear as cculd be crammed into a 
common bushel. They inhabit dry situations, and 
are often found at the distance of some miles out of 
the reach of water to drink. In confinement this 
animal soon becomes reconciled to its situation, and 
docile; sleeps much in the day, but when awake 
feeds freely at night. The Hindoos above mentioned 
esteem them good and nutritious food." 

The Indian Gerbille is of the size of a common 
rat ; its eyes are full and black ; the ears are 
large, rounded, and almost naked. The general fur 
is bright bay, variegated on the back, with pencil-like 
strokes of dark brown ; the under parts are white ; 
the tail is cylindrical, thickly covered with short 
hair except at the tip, which is somewhat tufted, and 
of a dark brown. 

251. — Mitchell's Gerboa. 

This animal, a native of Australia, and described by 
Mr. Ogilby under the name of Dipus Mitchellii 
(' Linn. Trans,' vol. xviii.), belongs, as we have every 
reason to believe, to the genus Ilapalotis (Lich- 
tenst., ' Saug.,' pt. vi. 1829). It seems to take the 
place, on the open plains of Australia, of the jerboas 
and gerbilles of the deserts and plains of Africa and 
Asia ; or of the jumping mice of North America. 
This singular species was found on the reedy plains 
near the junction of the Murray and Murrumbidgee, 
on the northern boundaries of Australia Felix. 
The cut is taken from the figure in Sir T. Mitchell's 
account of ' Three Expeditions into the Interior of 
Eastern Australia.' Sir T. Mitchell states that the 
fore and hind legs of this animal resemble in pro- 
portion those of a kangaroo ; and ii. used the latter 
by leaping on its hind-quarters in the same manner. 
It was not much larger than a common field-mouse, 
but the tail was longer in proportion than even that 
of a kangaroo, and terminated in a hairy brush 
about two inches long. We may here remark that 
the genus Hapalotis is the same as Conilurus, Ogilby 
('Linn. Trans.,' xviii. pt. i., p. 124, 1838), and must 
be retained, according to the law of priority. 

252, 253. — The Common Mouse 

(Mus Musculus). The genus Mus, which includes 
the true rats and mice, is typical of the extensive 
family Muridse. The characters of this genus may 
be thus summed up : incisors of the usual number ; 
those of the lower jaw compressed and pointed ; 
molars on each side, both above and below, three, 
with true roots, and a transversely tuberculated sur- 
I'ace, the ridges varying in number in each tooth; 
the anterior molar is Uie largest, the posterior the 
smallest. (See Fig. 254.) The muzzle is elongated 
and sharp ; the ears are oblong or rounded, and al- 
most naked. The toes of the anterior feet are four, 
with the minute rudiment of a thumb ; those of the 
hind feet are five. The limbs are short ; the tail 
is long, cylindrical, tapering, and annulated with 
scales &f epidermis, from, between which emerge 
short hairs, forming a scanty covering. The fur is 
soft, but traversed by long outer hairs of a stiffer 
quality than those composing the under-coaf. All 
these animals are of small size, yet many are among 
the greatest pests to man. Althoush vegetable 
aliment, as grain, peas, &c., forms their principal 
food, still, to a certain extent, they are carnivorous. 
We know the partiality of the mouse to cheese, 
butter, lard, tallow, &c., and of the brown rat to 
raw flesh. The stronger and larger species often 
prey upon the smaller, and in times of scarcity they 
will attack and devour each other. All are noc- 
turnal, and most, if not all, subterranean in their 
habits, and also gregarious. Some frequent the 

fields and woods, some the gardens, and some the 
abodes of man, undermining floors and walls, and 
breeding within the precincts of his habitation. 
They are spread througn every quarter of the globe ; 
and the common mouse and the brown rat have 
been introduced by the indirect agency of ajan, 
even into the remotest and most desolate islands. 
(See ' Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle — 
Mammalia,' No ii. of pt. ii.. p. 31, et seq.) With 
respect to the brown rat (Mus decumanus), some- 
times erroneously called the Norway rat, it appeai-s 
to have been originally transported from I'eisia or 
India into Europe; its place was previously occu- 
pied by the black lat (.Mus rattus), a smaller and 
more timid animal, and in some districts now quite 
extirpated by its more powerful rival. The brown 
rat was not known in England before 1730, nor in 
France before 1750. According to Pallas, it did 
not ajipear in Russia and Siberia tilt 1766 ; and Dr. 
Harlan states that it did not make its appeaiance 
in North America till 1775. When Dr. Richardson 
wrote his ' Fauna Horeali-Americana,' it was com- 
mon in Lower Canada, but had not advanced much 
beyond Kingston in Upper Canada. He did not 
observe it in the fur countries, and believes, if it 
I exis^ts there, that it is only at the mouth of the Colum- 
1 bia river or at the factories on the shores of Hud- 
son's Bay. Mr. Darwin found it at Buenos Ayres, 
Valparaiso, East Falkland Island, and Keeling 
Island. With respect to the black rat, even that 
is in all probability of foreign origin. It was not 
known in Western Europe belbre the middle of the 
sixteenth century, and Gesner was the first who 
described and figured it. 

In the island of Ascension, in the Atlantic Ocean, 
Mr. Darwin found two varieties, as he and .Mr. 
Waterhouse consider, of the black rat (Mus rattus). 
These two animals differ in the colour of the fur, 
one being of a grizzled brownish colour, the other 
black, with more soft or glossy fur. " The specimen 
which has a black and glossy fur frequents the short 
coarse grass near the summit of the island, where 
the common mouse likewise occurs. It is often 
seen running about by day, and was ibund in num- 
bers when the island was first colonized by the 
English a few years since. The other and browner 
coloured variety lives in the outhouses near the 
sea-beach, and feeds chiefly on the offal of the tur- 
tles slaughtered for the daily food of the inliabitaiits. 
If the settlement were destroyed, I feel no doubt 
that this latter variety would be compelled to 
migrate from the coast. Did it originally descend 
from the summit? and in the case first supposed 
would it retreat there ? and if so, would its black 
colour return ? It must, however, be observed that 
the two localities are separated from each other by 
a space, some miles in width, of bare lava and ashes. 
Does the summit of Ascension, an island so im- 
mensely remote from any continent, and the summit 
itself surrounded by a broad fringe of desert vol- 
canic soil, possess a small quadruped peculiar to 
itself? or, more probably, has this new species been 
brought by some ship from some unknown quarter 
of the world ? Or, I am again tempted to ask, as I 
did in the case of the Galapagos rat, has the com- 
mon English species been changed by its new habi- 
tation into a strongly marked variety ? — D." (' Zool. 
of Voyage of Beagle,' p. 36.) 

This zoological problem is one of the many so- 
difficult to solve. Mr. Waterhouse remarks, " It 
appears as if the brown and black rats (M. decuma- 
nus and M. rattus), and likewise the common mouse., 
all of which follovv man in his peregrinations, and 
which to a certain degree are dependent upon man, 
and may be therefore termed semi-domestic animals, 
are, like really domestic animals, subject to a greater 
degree of variation than those species which hold 
themselves aloof from him." (Ibid.) 

The common mouse is undoubtedly indigenous in 
Europe : and has been known from, the earliest 
times ; it is the Anglo-Saxon Mus, the German 
Mans, the Danish Muys, the Latin Mus, and the 
Greek Mw. In Spanish its name is Rat ; in Portu- 
guese Ratinho ; in Italian it is called Sorice ; and m 
French Souris: from the Latin Sorex, employed by 
zoologists to designate the Shrews. 

This elegant but troublesome little animal needs 
no description ; all are well acquainted with it. 
" Domestic in its habits," says Mr. Bell, "nourished 
by almost every article of human food, and findings 
effectual shelter in the secret of the habi- 
tations which human art has raised, it has accom- 
panied man in all his adventures for colonization, 
and identified itself with every new territorial occu- 
pation of our race." The mouse is easily tamed, 
and it is interesting to observe it sitting up holding 
its food between its paws, or cleansing with them 
the sides of its face and the back of its ears. it.s 
black eyes glistening with animation. An Albino 
variety (white, with red eyes) is not uncommon 
(Fig 253), and often kept in cages for the sake of its 
beauty. It breeds freely in captivity, perpetuating 
a white race, which, born and bred in captivity, are 

J -I 

Ml.-Ejjpt in Jcrioi. 

fit2.~EgypUaii Jerbo*. 

U« — TacUiof Oqw Lnpiag Hue 

-^ ^ , A^tV Yy^ __'-••: "*-' 

241.— Dalk-bandcil Jerboa. 

«47. -C<pe LwpinK Hare. 

SM. — Labrador Jiunpiog'Moue. 

246. -ToiUiof UbraJorJamping-Moiae. 


851.— Mitchell'j Jerboa. 

250.— Skull nnd Teeth of liurtor.s GetlMlle. 

2 19.— Burton's Gerbill?. 

25^— (.ommon Mouse. 

2j7.— Long-tailed Field Mouse. 

S53. — Common Mouse, 

3M.— Dinrin'i MouM. 

8&9.— Barbaiy Mouse* 

SM —Teeth of Commou Mouse. 





gentle and familiar, and when allowed to run about 
a room never attempt to escape. 

The uomraon mouse produces young to the num- 
ber of 5 or G, several times darine the course of the 
year. In about a fortnight they leave the mother, 
and obtain their livinc^ independently. 

To this species Mr. Wateihouse (see ' Zool. of 
Beagle') refers six specimens in Mr. Darwin's collec- 
tion: "Two were found living in the short grass 
near the summit of the island of Ascension, where 
the climate is temperate. Two othere were pro- 
cured on a small stony and arid island, near Porto 
Praya, the capital of St. Jago, in the Cape de 
Verde Islands, where ihe climate is very hot and 
dry. Excepting during the rainy season these little 
animals can never taste fresh water, nor does the 
island aflord any succulent plant. A specimen was 
also procured on a grassy clitf on East Falkland 
island, at the distance of a mile from any habitation. 
It is sincrular that so delicate an animal should be 
able to subsist under the cold and extremely humid 
climate of the P'alkland Islands and on its unpro- 
ductive soil. — D." It must be observed that all these 
specimens are rather less than full-grown indivi- 
duals of the same species procured in England: in 
other respects they do not differ. 

The sixth specimen is from Maldonado, where it 
is common in the houses of the town, and is ^inlilar 
in habits to its European relative. Tlie Maldonado 
mouse is considerably less than British specimens of 
the common mouse, and is of a richer and brighter 
colour; the head is smaller, the muzzle shorter in 
proportion, whilst the tarsi are even longer than in 
a large specimen of Mus musculus. These points 
of dissimilarity induced Mr. Waterhouse to regard 
it ns a distinct species, and to apply to it the name 
of * bievirosliis.' But upon subsequent re-examina- 
tion, he was induced to change his opinion. The 
teeth indicate that it is not an adult specimen. 

Mr. Darwin ('Journal and Remarks') observes 
that mice and other small Rodents subsist in con- 
siderable numbere in very desert places, as long as 
there is the least vegetation. In Patagonia, even 
on the borders of the Salinas, where a drop of fresh 
water can never be found, they swarm. Next to 
lizards, he adds, mice appear to be able to support 
existence on the smallest and driest portion of the 
earth, even on the islets in the midst of great oceans. 
He belie*es it will be found that several islands, 
which possess no other warm-blooded quadruped, 
have small Rodents peculiar to themselves. Sir 
Woodbine Parish (' Buenos Avres,' &c.) states, that 
after the great drought of 1830, 1831, and 1832, 
there was a prodigious increase of all kinds of ver- 
min, especially field-mice, myriads of which overran 
the country, and entirely destroyed the maize-harvest 
of 1833. 

255. — Tbe Babdabt MonsE 

(Mus Barbarus). In size this beautiful species is 
intermediate between the common mouse and rat. 
It is found in Barbary, where the natives term it 
Phar Azeph, the Palmetto mouse. Some time ago 
three individuals were living in the Vivarium of the 
Zool. Soc. Lond. ; and were described and figured 
by Mr. Bennett, who may be said to have really in- 
troduced this species to science : for, since the time 
of Linnasus, who first described the animal in the 
addenda to the twelfth edition (the last published by 
himself) of his ' Systema Naturae,' no naturalist ap- 
pears to have seen it. So completely, indeed, had 
It escaped the researches of later zoologists, that M. 
Desmarest ventured to suggest a doubt of its exist- 

" The ground-colour of the Barbary mouse is dark 
brown, maiked on each side with five or six yellow- 
ish stripes, about half as broad as the intervening 
spaces, extending along the whole length of the 
body, and becoming confused towards the under 
parts, which are nearly white. On the fore feet 
only three of the toes are at first visible, and this 
circumstance, mentioned in the specific character 
given by Linnaeus, has led many subsequent natu- 
ralisls to doubt whether the Barbary mouse really 
belongs to the genus with which it was associated. 
Linnaeus himself had, however, stated in his de- 
scription of the species, that rudiments of a thumb, 
and also of a fifth toe, were observable on a closer 
inspection ; and this statement has been fully con- 
firmed by an examination of the specimens in the 
Zool. Gardens." (' Gardens and Menagerie de- 
lineated,' p. 31.) 

Of the native habits and manners of the Barbary 
mouse we have no definite information. Those in 
confinement, to which we have alluded, resembled 
the rat in actions and disposition. Their carnivo- 
rous propensities indeed were amply evinced on Ihe 
death of one of their number, by the two survivors 
having commenced devouring the body. 

It may be observed that the specimens examined 
by Linneeus were very young, for he describes them 
as being smaller than the common mouse. 

A beiutiful striped mouse, termed the Cape striped 

mouse (Mus pumilio), is peculiar to the dristrcts of 
the Cape of Good Hope. It was first described by 
Sparrman, who gives a figure of it in his 'Travels in 
Africa,' taken from a young individual. The gene- 
ral colour is brownish grey, with four black stripes 
along the back ; the upper surface of the head is 
black. Another species, the Indian striped mouse 
(Mus striatus), of which a few years since little was 
known, may also be noticed. Specimens of this 
animal have been kept alive in the Vivarium of the 
Zool. Soc. The general colour is grey with a tinge 
of reddish or yellow, and the back is marked with a 
dozen longitudinal rows of small white spots distinct 
from each other, forming so many interrupted stripes; 
the under parts are whitish. 

256. — Darwi.n's Mouse 

(Mtii Dancinii). Among the numerous small Ro- 
dents belonging to the family MuridiB collected by 
Mr. Darwin (see 'Zool. .of 'H.M.S. Beagle '), is a 
small group, the species of which, Mr. Wateihouse 
observes, though very closely allied to the genus 
Mus, offer some slight modification not only in their 
external form, but also in the structure of the teeth. 
" They have the fur soft and silky ; the head large ; 
and the fore-legs very small and delicate ; the tarsus 
moderately long, and bare beneath. In the num- 
ber and proportion of their toes they agree with the 
true rats; the tail is moderately long, and more 
thickly clothed with hair than in the typical rats. 
The ears are large and clothed with hair. Like the 
true rats, they have twelve rooted molars ; the folds 
of enamel however, penetrate more deeply into the 
body of each tooth, and enter in such a way that 
the crowns of the teeth are divided into transverse 
and somewhat lozenge-shaped lobes of a triangular 
form. In ihe front molar of the upper jaw the 
enamel enters the body of the tooth twice, both in 
the outer and inner sides ; and in the second and 
posterior molars, both of the upper and under jaws, 
the enamel penetiates but once externally and inter- 
nally in each. In the front molar of the lower jaw 
the enamel enlers the body of the tooth three times 
internally and twice externally " (' Proc. Zool. Soc.,' 
1837, p. 27). These Murine animals Mr. Water- 
house regards as constituting a sub-genus for which 
he proposes the name of Phyllotis. Darwin's mouse, 
Mus (Phyllotis) Darwinii, was found in dry and 
stony places at Coquimbo in Chile. The fur above 
consists of cinnamon-coloured and blackish hairs 
intermixed ; the space before the eyes is of a greyish 
tint; the sides of the face and body are of a i-alo 
cinnamon colour; the under parts and limbs white ; 
the ears are large : the tail as long as the head and 
body ; brownish above, white beneath. Length of 
head and body six inches. 

Besides the sub-genus Phyllotis, Mr. Waterhonse 
characterizes the following as siib-eoneric sections 
of the genus Mus, all peculiar to South America, 
and of which specimens were collected by C. Darwin, 
Esq., at various localities, viz.,Coquimbo, Valparaiso, 
Port Desire, Maldonado, Bahia Blanca, &c. : Scap- 
teromys, Oxymycterus, Abiothrix, Calomys, Rei- 
throdon, and Acracoma. (' Proc. Zool. Soc' 1837.) 
The two latter, indeed, he considers as valid 

In North America there are two interesting ' 
genera of the Muridse, which may here be noticed, I 
namely, Neotoma and Sigmodon, both established 
by Say and Old in the ' Journal of the Acad. Nat. 
Soc.,' Philadelphia. To the firet genus belongs the 
Florida rat (Neotoma Floridana), larger than the 
ordinary rat, with soft velvety fur of a lead colour, 
with yellowish and black hairs intermixed. The 
specimen described by Say and Ord was discovered 
in a log granary situated in a ruined and deserted 
plantation in East Florida. "When first aroused it 
ran a short distance, then returned, and stood close 
by us, allowing us to touch it with a gun before it 
again retreated. It was mild, or without that sus- 
picious and cunning air so remarkable in the 
common brown rat. We have reason to think that 
the species is not uncommon in Florida, as several 
individuals were seen by Mr. Say, in an old mansion, 
but he was unprovided with the means of capturing 
them." Specimens are preserved in the Museum of 
the Zool. Soc. A second species was discovered by 
Mr. Drumraond in the Rocky Mountains, and is 
described by Dr. Richardson under the title of N. 
Drummondii. This animal " makes its nest in the 
crevices of high rocks, and seldom appears in the 
daytime. Its food most probably consists of herb- 
age of various kinds, and of small branches of 
pine-trees, because there is generally a considerable 
store of those substances laid up in the vicinity of 
its residence. It is very destructive. In the course 
of a single night the fur traders who have encamped 
in a place frequented by these animals have sus- 
tained much loss by their packs of furs beinsr gnawed, 
the blankets cut in pieces, and many small articles 
carried entirely away. Mr. Drumniond placed a 
stout pair of Enzlish shoes on the shelf of a rock, 
and ai he thought in perfect security, but on his 

return after an absence of a few days he found them 
gnawed into fragments as fine as saw-dust. This 
species is nine inches in the length of the head and 
body, its tail being seven and a half inches. It* 
general colour is yellowish brown above, and white 
beneath: the fur is full and soft, and the tail i» 
bushy and densely hairy, instead of being round, 
tapering, .ind thinly covered with hair, as in the 
Florida rat. (Specimen in Museum of Zool. Soc.) 
With respect to the genus Sigmodon. the dentition 
of which is characterized by the flexures w hich the 
folds of enamel on the molar teeth present, one 
species only is described, viz., the Rough-haired 
Sigmodon (S. hispidum). This animal is very 
numerous in the deserted plantations lying on the 
river St. John in East Florida, particiilarlv in the 
gardens. Its burrows are seen in every direction. 
Emigrants to that section of the country will find 
the species a creat pest to rural economy. General 
colour, pale dirty ochre mixed with black; under 
surface, ashy grey. Length of head and body, six 
inches ; of the fail, four inches. (Specimen in Mu- 
seum of Zool. Soc.) Closely allied 1o the genua 
Neotoma isa species termed the white-footed mouse 
(Mus leucopus), found in California, and on the 
borders of the Columbia river. The habits of thi» 
elegant little creature are well described by Dr. 
Richardson, who observed it as far north as the 
Great Bear Lake. " The gait and actions of thi» 
little animal are so much like those of the Eiiclish 
domestic mouse, that most of the Europeans resident 
at Hudson's Bay have considered it to be the same 
species, although overlooking the obvious differ- 
ences of their tails and other peculiarities. This 
American mouse, however, has a habit of making 
hoards of grain or liltle pieces of fat, wliich I 
believe is unknown of the European domestic 
mouse ; and what is more singular, these hoards are 
not formed in the animals' retreats, but generally in 
a shoe left at the bedside, the pocket of a coat, a 
nightcap, a bag hung against the wall, or some 
similar place. It not unfrequently happened that 
we found barley which had been brought from a 
distant apartment, and introduced into a drawer, 
through so small a chink, that it was impossible for 
the mouse to gain access to its store. The quantity 
laid up in a single night, neaily equalling the bulk 
of a mouse, renders it probable that several indivi- 
duals unite tlieir efforts to form it. This mouse 
does considerable mischief in gardens, and in a very 
few nights will almost destioya plantation of maize,, 
by tracing the rows for the purpose of collecting the 
seeds, and depositing them in small heaps under 
the loose mould, generally by the side of a stone or 
piece of wood. From the facility with which it 
seenvs to transport the substances it preys upon, f 
suspected that it had cheek-pouches, but none were 
found on examination. The ermine is a most in- 
veterate enemy to this species, and pursues it evea 
into the sleeping apartments of houses." The colour 
above is tine dark brown ; the under part and feet 
are white. (Specimens in Museum of Zool. Soc.) 

2J". — The Loxg-tailed Field-Mouse 

{Mus sylvaticvs'). Eyes full, black, and bright : — 
colour above reddish brown, beneath whiiisii ; eai* 
more than half the length of the head; tail some- 
what shorter than the head and body. Length of 
head and body three inches eight lines. It is Le 
Mulot ot Buftbn. 

This beautiful but mischievous liltle animal is 
spread over the whole of temperate Europe. It 
frequents woods, plantations, parks, orchards, and 
gardens, where it commits creat devastations. In 
some places it multiplies in hosts, and instances are 
on record of young plantations covering acre* 
having been totally destroyed by their depredations. 
They strip the bark and shoots from off the sapling 
trees, and root up the newly-planted acorns ; nor 
are they less injurious in wheat fields. Eacii indi- 
vidual lays up in its hole or burrow a winter store 
of food, consisting of grain, acorns, nuts, peas, &c. ;. 
and hence it is not only from what they devour at 
the time, but also from what they carry away that 
they cause such injuries. In the kitchen-garden, 
as we can personally testify, they are not a little 
annoying, digging up peas and beans when newly 
sown or when beginning to germinate. One of 
their natural enemies, and one of the most efficient 
asrents in their destruction, is the short-eared owl 
(Otis Ulula). Latham informs us that in certain 
districts which have been infested with these mice, 
the "owls have collected in large troops, and at- 
tacked the depredators to their utter extermina- 
tion." It is not exclusively to vegetable matters- 
thatthe<e mice confine their diet; young birds be- 
come their prey, and when food is scarce they will 
attack each other, the younger or weaker falling 
victims to the more poweiful. 

The field-mouse, thouch extremely timid, is easily 
tamed and rendered familiar, and its manneis are 
very ensrasing. It is free from ihe unpleasant 
odour which renders the common mouse a nuiaance. 




The field-monse breeds twice in the year, pro- 
ducing from six to ten young at a time. It is easy 
therefore, to calculate the rapidity of its multiplica- 
tion, and to account for the sudden appearance of 
swarms in spots where few had been previously ob- 
served. Buffon states that by means of a single 
trap two thousand three hundred were killed in 
twenty-three days in a single field of about forty 
acres in extent. In some parts of our own country 
their numbers have been incalculable and their de- 
vastations frightful. 

258, 259. — The Harvest-Mouse 

<iW«s Messorius). Of all our British mammalia the 
harvest-mouse is the smallest. This beautiful little 
species was first discovered in our island by Gilbert 
White, and described in his ' Natural History of 
Sel borne.' Yet it is by no means uncommon in the 
corn counties, and especially in Hampshire, though 
so long overlooked by British naturalists. It is 
found in Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Devonshire, 
and Cambridgeshire, and occurs in France, Ger- 
many, Russia, and Siberia. It is the Mulot nain 
and Hat de moissons of F. Cuvier; the Mus mi- 
iiutus of Pallas, and the Mus Pendulinus of Her- 

The harvest-mouse is a lively, active, playful 
little creature ; its eyes are dark : its general colour 
above is delicate reddish fawn ; the under parts are 
abruptly white: the ears are short and rounded; 
the tail is rather shorter than the body. Length of 
head and body two inches six lines. 

This animal lives entirely in the fields, resort- 
ing in the winter to burrows of its own construc- 
tion, or to corn-ricks, into which it penetrates, and 
there finds food and shelter. The asylum in which 
it rears its young is an artful and beautiful nest 
of a spherical figure, consisting of the split leaves 
and panicles of grasses artificially interwoven to- 
gether, and suspended among the stalks of standing 
corn, or thistles, or other plants, to which it is 
secured, and of which the leaves will shroud it from 

According to Dr. Gloger, the entrance to the nest 
is rather below the middle, on the side opoosite to 
the stems, and is scarcely observable ; the parent 
closes it when she leaves the nest, and probably 
while she remains herself within. The inside is 
warm, smooth, and neatly rounded. One nest ex- 
amined by Dr. Gloger contained five young, another 

It would appear that the harvest-mouse is insect- 
ivorous as well as granivorous, and this fact was 
first noticed by the Rev. W. Bingley, who obtained 
a female, which after its capture produced eight 
young, but being disturbed by a conveyance of 
several miles, she killed them, as the rabbit is fre- 
• luently known to do. "One evening," he observes, 
" as I was sitting at my writing-desk, and the ani- 
mal was playing about in the open part of its cage, 
a large blue fly happened to buzz against the wires ; 
the little creature, although at twice or thrice the 
distance of her own length from it, sprang along the 
wires with the greatest agility, and would certainly 
have seized it had the space between the wires 
been sufiiciently wide to have admitted her teeth or 
paws to reach it. I was surprised at this occur- 
rence, as I had been led to believe that the harvest, 
mouse was merely a granivorous animal. I caught 
the fly, and made it buzz in my fingers against the 
wires. The mouse, though usually shy and timid, 
immediately came out of her hiding-place, and run- 
ning to the spot seized and devoured it. From 
this time I fed her with insects whenever I could 
get them, and she always preferred them to every 
other kind of food that I off'ered her." The same 
writer observed that the tip of the tail possessed a 
prehensile power, and that the animal used it while 
climbing about the wires of its cage. We have seen 
the harvest-mouse in captivity tolerably tame, and 
reconciled to its prison. It' often bits erect, and 
feeds itself, holding grain between its paws, which 
it also uses in dressing its soft fur. It drinks by 
lapping the water with its tongue, and sleeps rolled 
up into a ball. 

260.— The Hamster 

(Cricelut vulgaris). Fortunately for England, the 
hamster is not indigenous within the precincts of the 
island. It inhabits the whole tract of countries ex- 
tending between the Rhine and the Ural mountains, 
and between the German Sea and Baltic to the 
north and the Danube to the south, wherever it 
finds a congenial soil. It is very common in Thu- 
ringia. Its proper soil is a deep alluvial mould 
with a substratum of clay ; in diy, strong-soiled, 
or stony districts, it is not often found. The 
teeth of the hamster closely resemble those of the 
rat. (Fig. 201.) The tail is short and hairy. 
There are large cheek-pouches, as in some of the 
monkeys, in the form of sacks, which serve for 
carrying home food: they extend from the in-^ide 
of the cheeks beneath the skin, along the sides of 

the neck, even over the shoulders. The general 
figure is thick : the limbs are short ; there are four 
toes and a small thumb on the anterior feet ; five 
toes on the hind feet ; the head is large, the muzzle 
abruptly pointed, the ears rounded. The general 
colour is as follows: head and upper parts reddish 
grey, verging to yellow on the face ; under parts 
black, with the exception of the throat and feet, 
which are white. Three large distinct spots of 
white are also disposed on each side, one on the 
cheeks, one on the shoulder, and one on the ribs. 
Black varieties are not unfrequent ; in these the 
nose and feet are white. There are two oblong 
spaces on the skin, situated one on each side of the 
spine, at a short distance in front of the thighs, 
which, instead of having the usual fur, are covered 
witli short, brown, stiff hairs. These patches, which 
are about an inch long, are not always directly per- 
ceptible, being obscured by the surrounding long 
fur, which must be blown aside to show them. 
The adult male measures from nine to twelve inches, 
exclusive of the tail, which is about three inches 
Jong. The weight is sometimes more tlian a pound. 
The female is smaller by one-fourth. 

The hamster is nocturnal in its habits: during 
the day it lies rolled up in its burrow : at night it 
issues forth to ramble in quest of food ; after mid- 
night it returns to its burrow and rests till about an 
hour before sunrise, when it takes a second ramble 
till the morning fairly dawns. Its movements are 
slow and creeping: it often utters short growling 
tones, but when irritated its voice is a shrill yelling 
cry. In collecting food, as beans, peas, wheat, &c., 
it uses its paws to press the grain backwards to the 
bottom of the pouches, in order to make room for 
the entrance of more. When these are well filled, 
it returns to its burrow to unload them, in which 
act it again uses its paws. In summer it feeds 
upon green fodder and the leaves of many plants; 
hut the hamster is also carnivorous, attacking and 
devouring rats, mice, birds, lizards, insects and their 
larvEB, and the weaker of their own species. Even 
the two sexes live in harmony only during the few 
days of each breeding season. The hamster fights 
obstinately, and will jump with equal fury at a 
waggon-wheel or at a horse if he tread near it ; and 
when two rival males meet, they engage in a despe- 
rate conflict till one retreats or perishes. In these 
paroxysms of fury the cheek-pouches become dis- 
tended with air, the animal at the same time blow- 
ing and uttering at intervals its shrill cry. 

In the construction of its burrows the hamster 
displays great ingenuity. They are in some re- 
spects modified according to age, sex, and soil ; lor 
each individual has its own exclusive burrow. Each 
burrow has at least two openings; one descends 
obliquely, the other perpendicularly. The former 
is termed the " creeping-hole," and l his is excavated 
from without, — but the perpendicular passage, 
termed the " plunging-hole," is worked out from 
one of the chambers, that is, from within the sub- 
terranean domicile, and is often four feet deep. 
The distance of these two holes from each other 
varies from four to ten feet, and between the ter- 
mination of these two passages are the chambers. 
The creeping-hole is not in such constant use as 
the other, and in an inhabited burrow it is regu- 
larly found stopped with earth at the distance of 
about a foot liom the mouth. The chambei's are 
more or less oval, and of large size ; that nearest 
the creeping-hole is the smallest, and is well lined 
with a bed of soft fine straw : it has three openings, 
one into the creeping-passage, one into the plung- 
ing-passage, and one communicating with the store- 
chambers, of which there are several, at least in the 
burrows of the old male. Each chamber is filled in 
the autumn with provisions, and sixty-five pounds of 
corn or a hundredweight of horse-beans have been 
found in the magazines of a single hamster. The 
burrow of a female has from three or four to eight 
plunging-holes, all terminating in her nest-chamber. 
Here she produces her litter, from six to eighteen in 
number. The young are born blind and naked, but 
in eight or nine days their eyes are opened ; they 
grow rapidly, and in about a fortnight begin to dig 
small burrows, each making its own. The female 
has several litters in the course of a year. About 
the middle of October the hamster retires for good to 
its retreat, stopping up first the creeping-holes, then 
the plunging-holes; — after this the animal keeps 
awake (though underground) for about two months, 
living on its store and becoming very fat. When 
the cold of winter has fairly set in and reached it, 
it sinks into a complete state of torpor, which con- 
tinues till the middle of February. About the 
middle of March it begins to open its passage, and 
re-visits the fields ; it now abandons its old burrow, 
and begins to form a fresh one. The flesh of the 
hamster is said to be very good ; the fur is also es- 
teemed, and the hamster-hunter, who trades in the 
skins, usually opens the burrows after the corn has 
been reaped, for the sake of obtaining the grain 
which the hamster has accumulated. 

2C2.— The Caffre Broad-eared Hat 
(Eiiryotis unisiilcnhis.) This species of rat ig a 
native of South Africa, whence it was brought by 
M. Delalande. It forms the type of the genus 
Euryotis of Brands, to which title that of Otomys, 
proposed by F. Cuvier, must give place. Dr. A.' 
Smith has appropriated the term Otomys to another 
group of Rodents. In its dentition (Fig. 203) this 
animal closely approximates to the true rats, as 
also in general form and structure : the eyes are 
large ; the ears are ample and broad, and furnished 
with an internal projecting membrane, which when 
its edges are approximated entirely shuts the en- 
trance of the auditory opening. Ihe fur is thick 
and sort, and the general tone of colouring is a 
clouded yellow tint, becoming yellowish white on 
the under parts. Length of head and body about 
I six and a half inches; of tail, nearly three inches. 
Of the habits and raannere of this animal we iiavij 
no definite information. 

204.— The IIydromys 

(Hi/dromi/s leucoyasta- and cimjsoijnatcr). Though 
we refer the genus Hydromys to the Muiida;, it 
differs in dentition from the other member, of that 
family. There are only two molars on each side 
above and below ; the first above is three times the 
size of the second, and is composed of three irregular 
portions, each portion being depressed in its centre, 
which is surrounded by a ridge of enamel ; the 
second molar is composed of two unequal parts: 
the first molar below is twice the size of the second, 
and both are composed of two parts. (See Fig. 265.) 
The Hydromys is' an aquatic animal, and well 
adapted for swimming: the head is flat; the body 
otter-like, elongated, and covered with close glossy 
fur: on the lore feet there are four toes and the 
rudiment of a thumb ; on the hind feet there are 
five toes united by webs. The tail is long and 
cylindrical, covered with close stift" hairs; the ears 
are short and rounded ; the upper surface is brown, 
the extremity of the tail for about a third of its 
length white ; the under surface varies from white 
to a fine deep orange-yellow. Some writers have 
regarded these varieties as distinct species; — we 
have seen specimens with the colour of the under 
surface in intermediate stages between white and 
yellow. Length of head and body, about twelve 
inches; that of the tail nearly as much. The Hy- 
dromys is a native of Van'Diemen's Land, and 
various small islands in D'Entrecasteanx Channel ; 
but of its habits we have no detailed accounts. 

The family Arvicolidse. — In this family are com- 
prehended the Water-rat, the Lemming, and other 
Rodents, termed Campagnols, Voles, &c., distin- 
guished from the Muriclie by having rootless molars, 
by having the angle of the lower jaw raised, and 
by certain peculiarities in the structure of the cra- 

266. — The Economist Mouse 

In the genus Arvicola the 

(^Arvicola aconomus). 

molars are q — r, composite with flat crowns, pre- 
senting angular enamelled laminae (Fig. 267). The 
■ears are moderate, the muzzle obtuse, the tail 
shorter than the body, and hairy. The Economist 
mouse is a native of the northern sweep of Siberia 
and Kamptschatka. It would appear that the same 
or a closely allied species inhabits Iceland. It is 
a burrowing animal, and constructs beneath the 
turf narrow galleries which lead to a chamber, in 
the form of an oven, communicating with another 
used as a magazine, in which it stores up food for 
winter consumption. This consists of bulbous roots, 
and various grains and berries ; and the quantity 
of provision amassed is often very considerable. 
These animals breed several times in the year, pro- 
ducing three or four at a birth. Like the lemming, 
from some unknown cause, these mice, at irregular 
periods, but always in the spring, perform extensive 
migrations. Multitudes assemble together, forming 
an army myriads strong. In Kamptschatka their 
progress is westward ; neither rivers, nor lakes, nor 
even arms of the sea stop them : thousands are 
drowned or destroyed by birds and beasts of prey, — 
but onwards the army marches, — pursuing their 
course, until they have crossed the river Penshim, 
when they bend their way towards Judoma, and 
Ochot, which they usually reach about July : they 
return to Kamptschatka in October, but sadly re- 
duced in numbers by the accidents of flood and 
field. According to Dr. Henderson, the Economist 
mouse of Iceland displays great sagacity in con- 
veying home and stocking its provisions ; and he 
corroborates the account of MM. Olafsen and 
Povelson respecting their mode of conveying them 
across such streams as they may meet with in their 
foraging expeditions. "The party, which consists 
of from six to ten, select a fiat piece of dried cow- 
dung, on which they place the berries in a heap in 
the middle; then by their united force they bring 
it to the water's edge, and, after launching it, em- 

— >. 

263.— Te«th of Calfte Dro»d-e»red Rat. 

861.— Teeth of Hamster. 

2i9.— Ilineit Mgu«e. 

•j4.— Hvi r ni>«. 

S67.*Tec'th of Economist Mouse. 

IP 8.— WVet-IUl. 

262 — Coffre Hroad-eareil Rat. 


S74.~Cainda Sand-BaL 

272.— Mole Kat. 

270.— IJeriV'T. 

269 — Ik'avers. 

271.— Miuqnwh 

a-;.*.- Melt-Rat. 

No. 9. 






bark and place themaelves round the heap with 
their heads joined over it, and their baclis to the 
water, their tails pendent in the stream serving the 
purpose of rudders." (Fig. 266.) The truth of this 
fact he says was confirmed by the testimony of two 
credible witnesses, the clergyman of Briamsloek, 
and Madame Benedictson, of Stickesholm. He 
further states that they make a drainas;e from their 
burrow, leading into a deep hole, intended for the 
reception of the water. 

268.— Thb Watee-Rat 
^Arvicola amphibia). Rat d'eau, Buff. The water- 
rat is by many regarded as a variety of that de- 
structive animal the common rat, which, as is well 
known, often takes up its quarters in drains and 
ditches, and the banks of canals, especially near 
houses, farms, stables, &c., making deep burrows 
in which to rear its young. From this pest the 
water-rat is totally distinct. It frequents the borders 
of large ponds, reservoirs, streams, and rivers, dwell- 
ing in burrows of considerable extent to which 
there are generally two or more outlets. The main 
outlet is in most instances close to the water's edge, 
«o that during floods it is not unfrequently below 
the surface, but the gallery, sloping upwards as it 
proceeds in the bank, terminates in a chamber 
which the water does not reach. Here, in a snug 
bed of dried grass and vegetable fibres, the female 
rears her young. Nocturnal or crepuscular in its 
habits, it is chiefly as the dusk of evening steals on 
that the water-rat emerges from its retreat, but it 
seldom ventures far from the margin of the pond 
■or river, into which when alarmed it immediately 
plunges, and swims under the cover of overhanging 
roots and herbage to its burrow. Though not web- 
footed, it is at home in the water, and dives with 
great ease. There are few persons who have not 
noticed its waymarks on the surface of stagnant 
ponds, or ditches mantled over with a thick crop 
of chickweed. These tracts are made during the 
night, the season in which it wanders in search of 
food or its fellows. The roots of aquatic plants, 
especially the typha, the stems of equisetum, buds 
knd bark, &c., constitute the diet of this species : 
it has been affirmed that it feeds also upon insects, 
small fishes, frogs. Sec, but for this assertion there 
is not the slightest foundation. It would appear 
that the water-rat hybernates during some portion 
of the winter, and also lays up a store of food. Mr. 
White says, " As a neighbour was lately ploughing 
in a dry chalky field, far removed from any water. 
Tie turned out a water-rat that was curiously laid up 
in an hybernaculum artificially formed of grass and 
leaves. At one end of the burrow lay above a 
gallon of potatoes regularly stowed, on which it 
Avas to have supported itself for the winter." It 
must be acknowledged that there are some points 
in the history of this species to be cleared up. In 
size this animal equals the common brown rat, but 
the head is thicker and more obtuse, the muzzle 
being blunt and short; the ears are scarcely appa- 
rent, being buried in the fur ; the eyes are small 
and black ; the tail is little more than half the 
length of the body, and thinly covered with short 
hairs. The fur is thick and close ; its colour on the 
Tipper parts is dark reddish brown, mixed with grey ; 
on the under surface brownish white : a black 
variety sometimes occurs. The species is spread 
over most parts of Europe. 

269, 270.— The Beaver 
{Castor Fiber). The Beaver is not exclusively con- 
fined to the northern portions of the American 
continent. Herman (see ' Journey round the Earth,' 
&c.) informs us that it " abounds in the Obi, and is 
taken, not for the sake of its fur, but for its musk, 
which bears a very high price." It is common 
along the Euphrates, and a skin sent home by Col. 
Chesney is in the possession of the Zool. Soc. 
Lond. The beaver occurs also along some of the 
larger rivers of Europe, as the Rhdne, the Danube, 
the Weser, and the Nuthe, near its confluence with 
the Elbe. It was formerly an inhabitant of our 
own island, and Giraldus Cambrensis gives us a 
short account of their manners in Wales ; but in his 
time (1188) they were only found in the river Teify. 
By the laws of Hoel-dda, the price of a beaver's 
skin was fixed at 120 pence, a great sum in those 
days. Whether the European, Asiatic, and Ame- 
rican beavers are specifically identical or not, yet 
remains to be determined. Certain it is that the 
European beaver, as proved by the little colony in 
the Nuthe, displays the same manners and building 
propensities as its Transatlantic brethren ; and per 
contra, the thirty scattered beavers near the settle- 
ments in America are solitary animals, dwelling in 
burrows like the scattered few along the RhOiie, 
though it must be observed that one from the latter 
river in captivity exhibited as marked a construc- 
tive disposition as any American beaver under the 
same restrictions. The mode of building as con- 
ducted by the beaver of America is described by 
Hearne with great clearness and the absence of the 

ordinary exaggeration. The situation chosen is 
various: where the beavers are numerous, they 
tenant lakes, rivers, and creeks, esjiecially the two 
latter, for the sake of the current, of wnich they 
avail themselves in the transportation of the ma- 
terials. They also choose such parts as have a 
depth of water beyond the freezing-power to con- 
geal at the bottom. In small rivers or creeks in 
which the water is liable to be drained off when 
the back-supplies are dried up by the frost, they 
are led by instinct to make a dam quite across 
the river, at a convenient distance from their houses, 
thus artificially procuring a deep body of water in 
which to build. The dam varies in shape : where the 
current is gentle, it is carried out straight ; but where 
rapid it is bowed, presenting a convexity to the 
current. The materials used are drift-wood, green 
willows, birch, and poplars, if they can be got, and 
also mud and stones ; are intermixed without 
order, the only aim being to carry out the work 
with a regular sweep, and to make the whole of 
equal strength. Old dams by frequent repairing 
become a solid bank, capable of resisting a great 
force of water and ice, and as the willows, poplars, 
and birches take root and shoot up, they form by 
degrees a sort of thick hedge-row, often of consider- 
able height. Of the same materials the houses 
themselves are built, and in size proportionate to 
the number of their respective inhabitants, which 
seldom exceeds four old and six or eight young 
ones. The houses, however, are ruder in structure 
than the dam ; the only aim being to have a dry 
place to lie upon, and perhaps feed in. When the 
houses are large, it often happens that they are di- 
vided by partitions into two or three or even more 
compartments, which have, in general, no commu- 
nication, except by water; such may be called 
double or treble houses, rather than houses divided. 
Each compartment is inhabited by its own pos. 
sessors, who know their own door, and have no con- 
nexion with their neighbours, more than a friendly 
intercourse, and joining with them in the necessary 
labour of building. So far are the beavers from 
driving stakes, as some have said, into the ground 
when building, that they lay most of the wood 
crosswise, and nearly horizontal, without any order 
than that of leaving a cavity in the middle ; and 
when any unnecessary branches project inward, 
they cut them oft' with their chisel-like teeth, and 
throw them in among the rest to prevent the mud 
from falling in. Wiih this wood is mixed mud 
and stones, and the whole compacted together. 
The bank affords them the mud, or the bottom of 
the creek, and they carry it, as well as the stones, 
under their throat by the aid of their foie-pavvs ; 
the wood they drag along with their teeth. They 
always work in the night, and have been known 
during the course of a single night to have accu- 
mulated as much mud as amounted to some thou- 
sands of their little handfuls. Every fall they cover 
the outside of their houses with fresh mud, and as 
late in the autumn as possible, even when the frost 
has set in, as by this means it soon becomes frozen 
as hard as stone, and prevents their most formid- 
able enemy, the wolverene or glutton, from dis- 
turbing them during the winter. In laying on this 
coat of mud they do not use their broad flat tails, 
as has been asserted, a mistake which has arisen 
from their habit of giving a flap with the tail when 
plunging from the outside of the house into the 
water, and when they are startled, as well as at 
other times. The houses when complete have a 
dome-like figure, with walls several feet thick, and 
emerging from four to six feet above the water. 
The only entrance is deep under water, below a 
projection called the " angle" by the hunters, and 
beyond the reach of the frost : near this, also under 
water, is laid up their winter store, a mass of 
branches of willows and other trees, on the bark of 
which they feed. These they stack up, sinking 
each layer by means of mud and stones, and often 
accumulate more than a cartload of materials. Be- 
sides ihese winter-houses, in which they are shut 
up during the severities of the season, they have 
always a number of holes in the banks which serve 
them as places of retreat when any injury is offered 
to their houses, and in these they are generally taken. 
The entrance to these holes is deep below the 
water, which fills a great part of the vault itself. 
When the hunter forces the houses of the beaver 
in winter (the hunting season), the animals swim 
beneath the ice to these retreats, the entrances of 
which are discovered by striking the ice along 
the banks with an iron ice-chisel, the sound indi- 
cating to practised ears the exact spot : they cut a 
hole in the house and surprise their booty. During 
the summer the beavers roam about at pleasure, 
and it is during this season that they fell tne wood 
necessary for repairing their houses and dams, or 
for building others, commencing the latter about 
the end of August. Such is the strength and sharp- 
ness ot their teeth that they will lop off a branch 
as thick as a walking-stick at a single effort, and 

as cleanly as if cut with a pruning knife. Large 
steins they gnaw all round, taking care that their 
fall shall be towards or into the water. They 
rapidly fell a tree, the shaft of which is as thick or 
thicker than a man's thigh, or from six to ten 
inches in diameter ; and places of more than three 
acres in front of the river and one in depth have 
been seen with the timber all felled by these ani- 
mals, though ftiany of the trees were as thick as a 
man's body. The beaver does not attain its full 
growth before three years, but it breeds before that 
time. It produces from two to six at a birth. The 
flesh of this animal is esteemed by the Canadian 
hunters, and by the natives, as a great delicacy, and 
we need not say how valuable its fur is as an article 
of commerce. It is from certain gandular sues in 
the beaver that the substance called castor, or cas- 
toreum, used in medicine, is obtained, and which 
(procured from the European variety) was well 
known to the ancients. 

In captivity the beaver soon becomes familiar 
and sociable, and, if permitted, will even in a room 
exercise itself in attempts to build, using brushes, 
baskets, boots, sticks, and in short anything it can 
get hold of for the purpose. 

The fine fur of the beaver varies from glossy 
brown to black ; the tail, or caudle paddle, used as a 
rudder in diving or in ascending, i$ flat, scaled, and 
oarlike. The length of the head and body of a 
full-grown animal is about forty inches ; of the 
caudle paddle, one foot. The feet are all five-toed ; 
those of the hind-feet are united by a broad pal- 
mated expansion ; the nails are strong, and Ihat of 
tiie second toe of the hind-feet consists of two por- 
tions. On land the gait of the beaver is awkward 
and shuffling, owing in part to the outward tour- 
nure of the hind-feet, which fits them for aquatic 
progression, and in part to the thii;k and clumsy 
configuration of the body. The genus Castor is 
somewhat isolated, and may be regarded as the type 
of a subfamily. 

271. — The Musquash 

( Ondatra Zibethica). Fiber Zibethicus, Sabine ; 
Musk-rat, Godman ; Ondathraof theHurons; Mus- 
quash, Watsuss, or Wachusk, and also Peesquaw - 
Tupeyew ('the animal that sits on the ice in a rouix. 
form ') of the Cree Indians. The dentition of ti 
animal (Fig. 271*) presents a close affinity to that i 
the water-rat and other species of Arvicola, as 

Q g 

Fig. 267. Molars, -— . 

The musquash is a native of North America, ai 
in its general form it resembles the common wat. 
rat, size excepted. In the length of the head t. 
body it measures about fourteen inches, that of ' 
tail being eight or nine. The fur, which is mi 
like that of the beaver, is dark umber brown pi 
ing into brownish yellow on the under pails: i,' 
and even white varieties are sometimes seen, j 
hind feet are not webbed ; the tail is comprest 
laterally, broadest in the middle and covered v 
a thin sleek coat of short hairs; lunger hairs i 
along the acute margins. 

The range of this animal is from lat. 30° as hii 
north as 69°. Small grassy lakes, or swamps, or i 
grassy borders of slow streams, are its lavom 
haunts. Vegetable matters are its principal ton 
as roots, tender shoots, the leaves of various caiic 
&c. ; to which it adds fresh-water muscles (Uni. 
The musquash swims and dives well, plunging in 
the water on the least alarm, and diving instani 
neously on perceiving the flash of a gun. Thisai. 
mal builds winter habitations, but far less sol. 
and durable than those of the beaver. These hab 
tations are thus described by Dr. Richard.son : — " 1 
the autumn, before the shallow lakes and swam] 
freeze over, the musquash builds its house of mui 
giving it a conical form, and asufficient base to rai> 
the chamber above the water. The chosen spot i 
generally amongst long grass, which is incoiporatu 
with the walls of the house from the mud being di 
posited amongst it, but the animal does not appcii 
to make any kind of composition or mortar by ten 
pering the mud and grass together. There is, how 
ever, a dry bed of grass deposited in the charobti 
The entrance is under water. When ice forms ovi 
the surface of the swamp, the musquash makt 
breathing-holes through it, and protects them frun 
the frost by a covering of mud. In severe wintei? 
however, these holes freeze up in spite of their ci 
verings, and many of the animals die. It is to b 
remarked that the small grassy lakes selected h 
the musquash for its residence are never so firm, 
frozen nor covered with such thick ice as deeper ai 
clearer water. The Indians kill these animals I 
spearing them through the walls of their house: 
making their approach with great caution, for tl 
musquashes take to the water when alarmed b\ 
sound on the ice. An experienced hunter isso wi 
acquainted with the direction of the chamlier ai 
the position in which its inmates lie, that he en 
transfix four or five at a time. As soon as, froi. 




the motion of the spear, it is evident that the animal 
is struck, the house is broken down, and it is taken 
out. The principal seasons for taking the musquash 
are the autumn before the snow falls, and the spring;, 
after it has disappeared, but while the ice is still 
entire. In the winter time the depth of snow pre- 
vents the houses and breathing-holes from being 
seen. One of the first operations of the hunter is 
to stop all the holes with the exception of one, at 
which he stations himself to spear the animals that 
have escaped being struck in their houses and come 
hither to breathe. In the summer the musquash 
burrows in the banks of the lakes, making branched 
canals many yards in extent, and forming its nest 
in a chamber at the extremity, in which the young 
are brought forth. When its house is attacked in 
the autumn, it retreats to these passages, but in the 
spring they are frozen up. The musquash may be 
frequently seen on the shores of small muddy 
islands, sitting in a rounded form, and not easily to 
be distinguished from a piece of earth, until, on the 
approach of danger, it suddenly plunges into the 
water. In the act of diving, when surprised, it 
gives a smart blow to the water with its tail. Its 
flesh is eaten by the natives, though it has a strong 
musky flavour. The fur is used for hat-making, 
and between four and five hundred thousand skins 
are annually imported into Great Britain. The mus- 
quash breeds three times in the year, producing from 
three to seven at a birth. 

272, 273.— The Mole-Rat 

(Aspalomi/s typhlus, Laxmann). Spalax typhlus, 
Guldenst. ; Aspalax typhlus, Desm. ; Zemni, Rzac- 
zinski ; Slepez, Gmelin ; Podolian Marmot, Pennant. 

This strange animal (which forms the type of 
a distinct family) is expressly organized as a miner. 
The body is mole-shaped and covered with close 
fur, the limbs are short and thick, with strong short 
claws. The head is broad and flat, with a lateral 
margin or ridge running from the great naked nose 
to the ears, and indicated by a line of white stiff 
hairs. Breadth of head across, 2| inches ; length 
the same. Total length eleven inches. Tail 
wanting. Teeth white : general colour pale sandy 
ash-grey ; the hairs pale lead colour at the base. 
The specimen from which these notes were made 
(in the Paris Museum) was brought from Russia 
(" le pays des Cosaques du Donn ") : a second 
specimen, from Syria, was smaller ; eight and a half 
inches long, with bright orange teeth, and the 
lateral ridge of the head not fringed with white hairs ; 
its colour also was darker. 

The mole-rat is a native of Asia Minor, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, and Southern Russia between the 
Tanais and Volga. The Russians term it Slepez, 
or the blind ; and the Cossacks, Sfochor Nomon, 
which has the same meaning. It is generally sup- 
posed to be the ii»-«-ixa{ (Aspalax) of Aristotle ; but 
as a species of mole inhabiting Europe (Talpa caeca) 
has the eyes also rudimentary, this point is doubtful. 
In the mole-rat the eye is a mmute black grain 
lying beneath the skin, which passes over it, and is 
besides covered with the fur : it is evident that the 
sense of vision is denied to this creature ; but by 
way of amends its internal organs of hearing are 
largely developed, and the external orifice is wide, 
though the conch of the ear is almost obsolete. 
The mouth is small ; the tip of the nose is largely 
bare and cartilaginous, with the nostrils wide apart 
and placed below. The mole-rat has much of the 
manners of our common mole : it is gregarious, and 
its burrows are clustered together. Rich level plains 
are its favourite localities. Its burrows consist of 
galleries at a little distance below the surface of the 
earth, which communicate with chambers sunk to a 
greater depth. From its galleries it drives lateral 
passages in search of roots, particularly of the bulbous ' 
Chaerophyllum, on which it feeds. According to 
Rzaczinski, it also devours grain, of which it amasses 
a store in its burrow for winter consumption. Its 
actions are sudden and quick, but irregular ; and it 
moves along with equal ease both forwards and 
backwards. It burrows very expeditiously. In the 
morning it often quits its retreat and basks with its 
mate in the sun. At the least noise it raises its 
head to listen, and in a menacing attitude ; when 
attacked, it snorts and gnashes its teeth, and defends 
itself resolutely, inflicting severe wounds. There is 
a superstition among the people of the Ukraine, 
that the hand which has suffocated one of these 
animals is gifted with the virtue of curing scrofulous 

274, 275.— The Canada Sand-Rat 

(GeomythuTsarmi). Mus bursarius, Shaw. Fischer 
regards, and perhaps correctly, the genera Sac- 
cophoms, Pseiidostoma, Diplostoma, and Saccomys, 
as synonymous with the genus Geomys of Rafinesque, 
ancl which is represented by the sand-rat, distin- 
guished by large cheek-pouches, which when full 
have an oblong form and nearly touch the ground, 
t)ut when empty are retracted for three-fourths of 
their length. Their interior is very glandular, par- 

ticularly the orifice that opens into the mouth. 

4 — 4 
The incisors are^ — ;. Fig. 275* represents the skull 

and teeth of Geomys, as given by Dr. Richardson : 
1, 2, 3, skull, natural size, in different views: 4, 
lower jaw; 5, palate and upper teeth; 6, upper 
grinder magnified. Fig. 270 represents the teeth of 
Geomys (Saccomys, F. Cuv.) enlarged. 

The skull is large and depressed, the nose short, 
the nasal and frontal bones are in the same plane ; the 

fjalate is very narrow, and the zygomatic arch is but 
ittle depressed below the upper surface of the skull. 
The nostrils are somewhat lateral ; the mouth is 
contracted ; the pendulous cheek-pou(;hes are thinly 
clothed with short hairs, and sometimes almost naked 
— they open into the mouth by the side of the molar 
teeth; auditory openings large, external ear almost 
obsolete ; eyes small and far apart ; body cylindrical ; 
tail of moderate length, round, tapering, and more 
or less hairy. Limbs short j toes five on each foot, 
with strong claws. 

, Dr. Richardson observes that the sand-rats bur- 
row in sandy soils, and feed on acorns, nuts, roots, 
and grass, which they convey to their burrows in 
their cheek-pouches ; they throw up little mounds 
of earth, like mole-hills, in summer, but are not seen 
abroad in the winter season; speaking of the 
Columbia sand-rat, he observes, that when in the 
act of emptying its pouches it sits up like a mar- 
mot or squirrel, and squeezes the sacks against 
its breast with its fore-paws and chin. These ani- 
mals commit great havoc on the potato-fields. 
The Canada sand-rat is known only from Dr. Shaw's 
description (in the 'Linnaean Transactions,' vol. v., 
p. 227) of a specimen in Mr. Bullock's Museum, 
and which afterwards passed into the hands of M. 
Temminck. There is no specimen in any of our 
museums ; nor did Dr. Richardson see the animal 
in his expedition. It may, however, possibly prove 
to be identical with one of the species he has de- 
scribed. This animal is stated to be about the size 
of a common rat, and of a pale-greyish brown. A 
specimen of the mole-like sand-rat (G. talpoides) is 
preserved in the collection of the Zool. Soc. It is 
a native of the borders of the Saskatchewan. 

277. — The Camas Pouched-Rat 

(^Diplostoma bulbivomrn). The animals of this 
genus difi'er from those of the genus Geomys, in 
having cheek-pouches which open externally at 
the sides of the mouth, and are carried inwards and 
downwards along the side of the lower jaw; these 
pouches are not pendulous ; the mouth is a vertical 
fissure nearly an inch long, entirely exposing the 
incisors ; and the lateral fold of skin before the open- 
ing of the pouch is covered internally and exter- 
nally with fur. The body resembles that of a great 
mole with a large clumsy head. 

The animals of this genus were termed" Gauff'res,'' 
by the early French travellers : there appear to be 
several species. 

The Camas pouched-rat is common in N. America, 
on the banks of the Columbia river, and the Mult- 
nomah, where it is known under the name of Camas- 
rat, because the bulbous root of the Quamash or 
Camas-plant (Scilla esculenta) forms its favourite 
food. It is eleven inches long, and of a chesnut- 
brown colour. These animals, the Gauffres of the 
French, are excessively voracious, and they are very 
destructive to beets, carrots, and similar vegetables. 
They live almost exclusively under ground, work- 
ing their way like a mole, and are said to fill their 
cheek-pouches with the earth by means of their 
paws, and to empty them of their contents at the 
mouth of the burrow. 

278.— The Coast-Rat 

(Bathiergus maritimus). The dental form of Ba- 
thiergus (Orycterus, F. Cuv.) is as follows : Molars 

4 4 

(see Fig. 278*). In this genus are compre- 
hended several species of mole-like Rodents pe- 
culiar to Africa, the whole form and organization of 
which fit them for an underground existence. The 
most remarkable is the coast-rat, or sand-mole of 
the downs. This species is a native of Southern 
Africa, frequenting sandy tracts along the coast. 
On the surface of the ground it proceeds slowly, 
but it burrows with great rapidity, and works out 
long galleries, throwing up hillocks as does the 
mole. In some districts these are extremely nu- 
merous, rendering it dangerous to pass over them 
on horseback, and not pleasant even on foot, the 
earth, where excavated, suddenly giving way. This 
animal is about a foot in length, exclusive of the 
tail, which is about three inches. The incisors are 
of enormous size, and those above have a deep 
longitudinal furrow down the front ; and a hairy 
palate extends behind them. The general colour is 
greyish ash. 

279.— The Rabbit Ceecomts. 
This animal, which in shape resembles a rat, repre- 
sents the genus Cercomys, closely allied to that of 

Echymys, containing the spiny raU. The molars 

4 — 4 
are ^— ^ rooted. The general colour of this spe- 
cies is deep brown above, paler on the sides and 
cheeks ; all the under parts are whitish ; the tale is 
long, like that of the rat ; ears and eyes large. It 
is a native of Brazil, but of its habits we have no 
detailed accounts. The teeth of the genus Echy- 
mys (a South American group) are figured 280. 

281. — Cuming's Octodon 

(Octodon Cumingii). Dendrobius Degus, Meyen. 
The family Octodontidae is established for a few 
allied genera peculiar to South America, of which 

that termed Octodon is the type. Molars,—^. 

The antorbital foramen is as large as the orbit, or 
nearly so. The descending ramus of Ihe lower jaw 
is deeply emarginated behind, and the posterior 
angle acute. Fig. 282 represents the skull of Oc- 
todon in different views ; and Fig. 283 the skull of 
an allied genus, Ctenomys. 

Cuming's Octodon in size and shape resembles 
a water-rat. General colour brownish grey ; clouded 
with dusky black ; under surface dusky grey ; base 
of the tail beneath nearly white. 

These animals are exceedingly abundant in the 
central parts of Chile. They frequent by hundreds 
the hedge-rows and thickets, where they make bur- 
rows which communicate with one another. In 
the neighbourhood of Valparaiso multitudes may be 
seen together feeding fearlessly in the day-time. 
Sometimes they ascend the lower branches of small 
shrubs, but not often. They are very destructive to 
fields of young corn. Onbeingdisturbed.they all run 
like rabbits to their burrows. When running they 
carry their tails raised up, more like squirrels than 
rats ; and they also sit up like those animals. Accord- 
ing to Molina lliey lay up a winter store of food, but 
do not become dormant. The Octodon is the Degu 
of that writer : he says that the Indians used for- 
merly to eat them with much relish. Piebald and 
albino varieties are not uncommon. The greatest 
enemy of these active little creatures is a species of 
horned owl, which feeds chiefly upon them. 

284. — The Tucdtuco 

(Ctenomys Magellanicus). General colour brown- 
ish grey tinged with yellow and slightly varied by 
a blackish tint ; under parts paler ; chin and throat 
pale fawn. Length of head and body about seven 
inches ; of the tail about two inches and a quarter. 
Toes, as in Octodon, five on each foot. 

Locality. — The east entrance of the Strait of 
Magelhaens at Cape Gregory and the vicinity 
(King). The wide plains north of the Rio Colo- 
rado are undermined by these animals : and near 
the Strait of Maeelhaens, where Patagonia blends 
with Tierra del Fuego, the whole sandy country 
forms a great warren for them. 

Mr. Darwin ('Journal and Remarks") gives a cir- 
cumstantial account of this curious animal, which 
he well describes as a rodent with the habits of a 
mole. "The tucutuco," says that author, " is ex- 
tremely abundant in some parts of the country, but 
is difficult to be procured, and still more difficult 
to be seen when at liberty. It lives almost entirely 
underground, and prefers a sandy soil with a gentle 
inclination. The burrows are said not to be deep, 
but of great length. They are seldom open ; the 
earth being thrown up at the mouth into hillocks, 
not quite so large as those made by the mole. 
Considerable tracts of country are so completely 
undermined by these animals, that horses, in passing 
over, sink above their fetlocks. The tucutucos 
appear, to a certain degree, to be gregarious. The 
man who procured specimens for me had caught 
six together, and he said this was a common occur- 
rence. They are nocturnal in their habits; and 
their principal food is afforded by the roots of 
plants, which is the object of their extensive and 
superficial burrows. Azara says they are so diffi- 
cult to be obtained, that he never saw more than 
one. He states that they lay up magazines of food 
within their burrows. This animal is universally 
known by a very peculiar noise which it makes 
when beneath the ground. A person, the first time 
he hears it, is much surprised : for it is not easy to 
tell whence it comes, nor is it possible to guess 
what kind of creature utters it. The noise consists 
in a short but not rough nasal grunt, which is re- 
peated about four times in quick succession ; the 
first grunt is not so loud, but a little longer and 
more distinct than the three following: the musical 
time of the whole is constant, as often as it is 
uttered. The name Tucutuco is given in imitation 
of the sound. In all times of the day, where this 
animal is abundant, the noise may be heard, and 
sometimes directly beneath one's feet. When kept 
in a room, the tucutucos move both slowly and 
clumsily, which appears owing to the outward action 
of their hind-legs: and they are likewise quite 
incapable of jumping even the smallest vertical 



*M.— Tucutdco. 

281.— Cumin"** Octodon. 


Skull of Acanthion Javaiiicum. 

2*1.— Common Porcupine. 

292.— CoHunas Vmaifiat. 

194.— Bntjllan PorcBpine. 

[ 28»^Teeth of HyitrU. 

287.— Coypu. 





height. When eating they rwt on their hind-legs 
and hold the piece in th-ir fore-paws; they ap- 
pear also to wish to drag it into some corner. 
They are very stupid in making any attempt to 
escape; when anp-y or frightened, they utter the 
tuculuoo. or those I kept alive, ceveral, even the 
first day, became quite tame, not attempting to bite 
or to run away; others were a little wilder. The 
man who caught them asserted that many are found 
blind. A specimen which I preserved in spirit* was 
in this state. When the animal was alive I placed 
my finger within half an inch of its head, and 
not the slightest notice was taken : it made its 
way however about the room nearly as well as the 

285.— TiiK Utia 

(Capromys Fumieri). Isodon Piloridcs, Say. Mr. 
Waterhouse considers the genus Capromys as one 
of those included in the Histricine section of Ro- 
dents. The anterior paws have four toes and a ru- 
dimentary thumb ; the hind-feet are thick, broad, 
and strong, and five-toed ; the claws are strong ; 
the soles of all the feet are naked, and covered with 
a coarse granular black skin, divided into pads by 
deep fissures. The muzzle is obtuse ; the nostrils 
are open, oblique, edged externally with an elevated 
rim, and separated by a medial furrow, running to 
the fissure of the upper lip. The whiskers are 
long ; the tail is annulated with a scaly epidermis, 
with short thinly-set hairs from between each scale 
(see Fig. 286 : a, muzzle ; b, portion of tail ; c, 
under part of fore-foot ; d, under part of hind-foot). 
The ears are moderate, erect, almost rounded. 

Molara rt — A< with the crown traversed by folds of 

enamel. Eyes small. 

This animal is a native of Cuba, where it is known 
by the name of Utia. It appears to have been de- 
scribed by Bomaxe and Oviedo three hundred years 
ago. Tne general colour of the utia is glossy 
brown grizzled with yellowish grey ; the muzzle, 
chest, and under parts greyish white ; the fur of a 
coarse texture ; length about two feet two inches, 
of which the tail is eight inches. 

With respect to the habits of the utias in a wild 
state, it is only known that they are found in the 
woods, that they climb trees with great facility, and 
that they live on vegetables. From observations 
on those kept in a domesticated state, M. Desmarest 
gives the following details : — " Their intelligence 
appears to be developed to as great a degree 
as that of rats and squirrels, much more so than 
that of rabbits and guinea-pigs. They have, indeed, 
a great share of curiosity. At night they are very 
wakeful, and the form of the pupils is indicative of 
nocturnal habits. The sense of hearing does not 
appear to be so acute as that of rabbits or hares. 
Their nostrils are incessantly in motion, especially 
when they smell any new object. Their taste is 
sufficiently delicate to enable them to distinguish 
and reject vegetables which have been touched by 
animal substances, to which they manifest the 
greatest repugnance. They agree perfectly well 
t}gether, and sleep close by each other. When they 
are apart they call each other by a sharp cry, dif- 
fering little from that of a rat. Their voice, when 
they express pleasure, is a low soft kind of grunting. 
They scarcely ever quarrel except for food — as when 
one piece of fruit is given between both ; in that 
case one seizes and runs away with it, until the 
other is able to take it from him. They some- 
times play for a long time together, holding them- 
selves upright in the manner of kangaroos, firmly 
supported upon the broad soles of their hind-feet 
and the base of the tail, and striking each other 
with their paws, until one of them, finding a wall | 
or some other body against which to support him- 
self, acquires an additional power, and gains an 
advantage ; but they never bite each other. To- 
vrards other animals they manifest the greatest 
indifference, paying no attention even to cats. 
They are fond of being caressed, and particularly 
of being scratched under the chin. They do 
not bite, but slightly press with the incisor teeth I 
the skin of those who caress them. They do not 
ordinarily drink, but occasionally suck up water 
as squirrels do. Their food consist of vegetables 
exclusively, such as cabbage, succory, grapes, nuts, 
bread, apples, &c. They are not very difficult in 
the choice of their food, but still have a particular 
fondness for strong-flavoured herbs and aromatic 
plants, as wormwood, rosemary, geraniums, pimper- 
nel, celery, &c. Grapes pleased them much, to 
obtain which they would instantly climb up a 
long pole, at the top of which the fruit was placed. 
They are also fond of bread steeped in aniseed 
or even wine. These animals are plantigrade : 
their movements aie slow, and their hinder parts 
are embarrassed when they walk, as is observable 
in the bear. They leap occasionally, turning 
suddenly round from head to tail like the field- 
mouse. When they climb, which they do with 

the greatest ease, they assist themselves with 
the base of their tail as a support, and the same 
in descending. In certain positions, on a stick 
for example, the tail serves as a balance to pre- 
serve their equilibrium. They often raise them- 
selves to a listening attitude, sitting erect, with the 
paws hanging down, like rabbits and hares. In 
eating they employ sometimes only one, sometimes 
both their fore-paws ; the former is the case when 
the substance they are holding is small enough to 
be held between the fingers and the tubercle at the 
base of the thumb." 

287.— The Cotpd 

(Mi/opotamtu Coypiu). Quoiya, d'Azara; CouV, 
Molina ; Hydromys Coypus, Geoff. ; Mus Castorides, 

The coypu is common in certain districts of 
South America, as Chile, Buenos Ayres, and 
Tucuman. The head is large ; the muzzle obtuse : 
the ears small and round ; fore-feet with a rudi- 
mentary thumb and four toes, all free : hind-feet 
plantigrade, with five toes, of which the outermost 
only is free, the rest palmatcd. Tail strong 
and scaly, and sprinkled with scattered hairs. 

Molars -j — -.' increasing in size from the first to 

the last, with winding folds of enamel (sec Fig. 
288). The eyes are small, approximating to each 
other, and placed high in the head. Behind the 
upper incisors there is a hairy palate or space, a 
peculiarity noticed also in Bathiergus. The body 
IS clothed with two sorts of hair, an under-garment 
of fine close fur almost water-proof, and an upper 
layer of long, shining, straight hairs of a rich brown, 
which is the general colour, the muzzle being dirty 
white. The limbs are short but strong; and the move- 
ments of the animal on land are slow and crawling. 
The coypu remained unknown to the scientific 
world, while thousands of its skins, under the name 
of Kacoonda, for more than forty yeai-s had been 
annually imported into Europe, for the sake of the 
fine under-fur, which, like that of the musquash and 
beaver, is extensively used in the manufacture of hats. 
This animal is gregarious and aquatic, residing in 
burrows which it excavates along the banks of rivers: 
and in these burrows the female produces and rears 
her young, from three or four to seven in number, 
to which she manifests great attachment. In the 
Chonos Archipelago, according to Mr. Darwin, 
" these animals, instead of inhabiting fresh water, 
live exclusively in the bays or channels which ex- 
tend between the innumerable small islets of that 
group." "The inhabitantsofChiloe, who sometimes 
visit this archipelago for the purpose of fishing, 
state that these animals do not live solely on vege- 
table matter, as is the case with those inhabiting 
rivers, but that they sometimes eat shell-fish. The 
coypu is said to be a bold animal, and to fight 
fiercely with the dogs employed in chasing it. 
Its flesh when cooked is white and good to eat. 
An old female procured on these islands weighed 
between ten and eleven pounds." An extensive 
trade in the skins of these animals is carried on at 
Buenos Ayres, where they are improperly called 
" Nutrias," or otters. In captivity the coypu soon 
becomes gentle and attached ; and is evidently 
pleased with marks of attention from those with 
whom it is familiar. Length of adult male, one 
foot eleven inches, exclusive of the tail, which is 
one foot three inches. 

The Family Histricidse, or Porcupines. — ^The 
porcupines, a spine-clad family, are divided into 
the genera Hystrix, Erethizon, Synetheres, &c., 
and are respectively distributed over Europe and 
North Asia, Africa, India and its islands, and North 
and South America. All the porcupines have the 
molars four in each jaw on each side ; nearly equal 
in size, and furnished with distinct roots ; when 
worn the surfaces present tortuous folds of enamel 
(see Fig. 289, the teeth of Hystrix, and Fig. 290, the 
teeth of Erethizon). The tongue is rough with 
papilliE, like those of the cats ; the head is short and 
blunt ; the nostrils large and open ; the ears and 
eyes comparatively small ; and the general form 
thick and clumsy. 

Two figures of skulls (Fig. 291) represent the 
skull of a species termed, by F. Cuvier, Acanthion 
Javanicum (1), and that of the common porcupine 
(2), by way of comparison. With respect to the 
genus Acanthion founded by F. Cuvier on the cha- 
racters of two skulls, one of which was brought from 
Java, we are strongly inclined to consider it iden- 
tical with the genus Atherura of Baron Cuvier, 
though the latter, in his'R6gne Animal,' makes no al- 
lusion to the genus proposed by his brother. Fischer 
gives the Acanthion Javanicum of F. Cuvier as 
identical with the fasciculated porcupine (.\theruia 
fasciculata), and is probably correct. The fasci- 
culated porcupine has been long known to science, 
and is figured by Buffon as the " Porc-^pic de 
Malacca;" but since his time, till within the few last 
years, no specimen had reached Europe. In 1828, 

M. Diard sent a skin and skeleton to France, from 
India, and about the same time a living individual 
was brought to England by Lieut. Vidal, and pre- 
sented to the /ool. Soc. Lond. It was described 
and figured by Mr. Bennett, and now forms a part 
of the riches of the museum. This individual, how- 
ever, was not brought'from India or its islands, but 
from Fernando Po, where it is stated to be in such 
abundance as to furnish a staple article of food to 
the inhabitants. Whether it be truly indigenous 
there, or was originally brought by the early Por- 
tuguese settlers to that island from India or Java, 
and has become naturalized, are points unsettled. 

292, 293.— TuE Commo.n Poeccpine 

{Hiitrix cristata)—V0TC-t^\c of the French: Istrice 
of the Italians ; Stachelschwein, Domschwein, and 
Porcopick of the Germans. This spine-covered 
animal is found in Italy, throughout Africa, in 
Southern Tartary, the borders of the Caspian Sea, 
Persia, and India ; it was observed by Mr. Hodgson 
inhabiting the central and lower regions of NepSl. 
When full-grown it is upwards of two feet in length ; 
but the specimens from Italy are generally smaller 
than the African, and have snorter quills. It would 
appear that in Italy it is not indigenous, but has 
become naturalized. 

The porcupine is a nocturnal animal, of quiet 
and secluded habits, passing the day in its subter- 
ranean retreat, for the digging of which its muscular 
limbs and stout claws are well adapted. At night 
it steals forth to feed ; roots, bark, fruits, and vege- 
tables constitute its diet. In winter it appears to 
undergo a partial hybernation. Sluggish and timid, 
the porcupine is yet enabled, clothed in its array 
of spears, to repel the assault of enemies : when 
driven to act on the defensive, he bends his head 
down, turns his back towards his assailant, erects 
his spines, and receiving the rash assault, pushes 
them forcibly by the action of the whole body 
against the aggressor. The wounds thus inflicted 
are veiy severe, and do not heal readily. The 
spines of the porcupine are of two sorts : one short 
being long, slender, and bending ; the other spines, 
concealed beneath the former, are short, thick in 
the middle, and tapering to a sharp point ; they are 
ringed black and white. The length of the short 
spines, which are the true effective weapons, is 
from four to ten inches, and the point, which con- 
sists of flint-like enamel, is somewhat comprei^ed 
with two slightly raised and opposite ridges, which 
when minutely examined are found to be finely 
jagged. There is another sort of furniture on the 
tail, namely, a number of dry, hollow, open quills, 
of considerable circumference, and supported upon 
long and very slender stalks, which vibrate with 
every motion. When the porcupine clashes these 
together they produce a rustling noise. The appa- 
ratus by which the spines and these hollow rattles 
are clashed and raised consists of a strong muscular 
expansion underneath, and adherent to the thick 
skin. From the raising and clashing of the spines, 
and perhaps the accidental falling of one looser 
than the rest (about to be shed natui-ally), has 
arisen the belief that the animal was capable of 
darting his spines, like a javelin, point foremost — 
an error we need not stay to confute. 

294. — The Brazilian Pobcdpine ' 

{Synetheres prehensUls). Cuandu of Marcgrave ; 
Coendu,Buft'on; Prehensile Porcupine of Pennant. 

In North America the porcupines are represented 
by the Hairy or Canada Porcupine (Erethizon dor- 
satum), which is in a great degree arboreal in its 
habits. In Brazil we are presented with the species 
termed Cuandu, more decidedly organised as a 
climber, having a prehensile tail, resembling that 
of the oppossum. The muzzle is broad and short ; 
the head convex in front, the spines rather short ; 
the tail very long, and naked for half its length. 
The feet have only four toes. The length of this 
species is about two feet, exclusive of the tail, which i 
is about eighteen inches ; the nose is covered with I 
brownish hair ; the ears are nearly naked ; the 
body is covered above with spines, the longest (on 
the lower part of the back) are about three inches 
in length ; those on the sides and base of the limbs 
are the shortest. All are sharp, and barred near 
their points and roots with white ; brown in the 
middle. The basal half of the tail is clad with 
short spines; the breast, under parts, and lower 
portion of the limbs with dark brown bristles. 

The Brazilian porcupine appears very much to 
resemble the Canada porcupine in its habits, living 
m woods, sleeping by day, and feeding on fruits, 
&c. by night. Marcgrave states that its voice is 
like that of a sow. The quills are stated to have 
the same penetrating and destructive quality as 
those of the Canadian species. It is a sluggish m 
animal, climbing trees very slowly, and holding on 1 
with its prehensile tail, especially in its descent. 
It grows very fat, and the flesh is said to be white 
and well-tasted. Our cut is taken from a living 
specimen in the garden of the Zoological Society. 





Family Chinchillidae.— To the animals of Ihis 
family, ol' wliich the beautiful chinchilla is the type, 
the attention of English naturalists was first called 
by Mr. Bennett, whose admirable paper on the sub- 
ject will be found in the iirst volume of the ' Trans. 
Zool. Soc' In this paper three genera are clearly 
and fully characterized, viz. : Lasotis, Benn. ; Chin- 
chilla, Benn. ; and Lagostomus, Brookes. The Chin- 
chiUidse are all peculiar to South America, and are 
burrowing and gregarious in their habits. Their 
food is exclusively vegetable. The mplar teeth are 

, destitute of true roots. 

295, 296, 297.— The Chischilla 
{ ChlnchiUa lanigera). The characters of the genus 
Chinchilla, as established by Mr. Bennett, are as 


follows : — Molars, 


crossed obliquely on their 

surface by three lines of enamel. Toes, on the fore- 
feet, five ; on the hind-feet, four. Tail of moderate 
length, and hairy; ears broad, rounded, and nearly 
naked ; eyes large and full ; fur long, thick, close, 
soft and woolly. 

The chinchilla appears to have attracted in very 
early times the notice of travellers, though the 
accounts scattered in their works have been but 
little regarded by naturalists. In 1824 Schmidt- 
meyer, in his travels over the Andes into Chile, 
notices the chinchilla as a " woolly field-mouse 
which lives underground, and chieily feeds on wild 
onions. Its fine fur is well known in Europe ; 
that which comes from Upper Peru is rougher and 
larger than the chinchilla of Chile, but not always 
so beautiful in its colour. Great numbers of these 
animals are caught in the neighbourhood of Co- 
quimbo, and Copiapo, generally by boys with dogs, 
and sold to traders, who bring them to Santiago 
and Valparaiso, from whence they are exported. 
The Peruvian skins are either brought to Buenos 
Ayres from the eastern parts of the Andes, or sent 
to Lima. The extensive use of this fur has lately 
occasioned a very considerable destruction of the 
animals." From this passage it would appear that 
there are two or more species of chinchilla, re- 
spectively Chilian aud Peruvian, and hence we 
suspect is to be accounted for the difference in the 
colour and quality of the chinchilla fur, which wc 
have frequently observed. Our examination of 
specimens in the Paiis museum also leads us to the 
same conclusion. 

A native of the valleys in the high mountain dis- 
tricts of South America, where the cold is often 
very severe, the deep woolly coat of the chinchilla 
is well calculated for preserving warmth. Whether 
in the winter season the animal hybernates or not 
yet remains to be discovered. Of its manners, in- 
deed, we know little. In captivity it is quiet, in- 
offensive, and cleanly : it feeds sitting up on its 
haunches like a squirrel, holding its food between 
its fore-paws. Its ratio of intelligence is on the 
same par with that of the rabbit or guinea-pig : 
hence it displays no indications of attachment to 
those who feed it, nor much animation or playful- 
ness. In its alpine valleys it associates in numbers, 
excavating burrows, in which it resides. The 
female breeds twice a year, producing from four to 
six young at a birth. Various roots, especially 
those of bulbous plants, constitute the diet of the 
chinchilla. The colour of the fur of this species is 
clear grey above, but varying in depth, and passing 
into white on the under parts : its quality is ex- 
quisitely fine, and its length renders it well adapted 
for spinning. Indeed, Molina informs us that '• the 
ancient Peruvians, who were far more industrious 
than the modern, made of this wool coverlets for 
beds, and valuable stuffs." The tail is covered with 
long bushy hairs, and usually kept turned up towards 
the back. In length the chinchilla measures about 
nine inches, exclusive of the tail, which is five inches. 
The fore-limbs are comparatively short : the head 
has much resemblance to that of a young, full- 
haired rabbit ; the muzzle is short and blunt, and 
furnished with long whiskers ; the eyes are black ; 
the ears are ample. The skull is remarkable for 
the size of the antorbital foramen and the amplitude 
of the tympanic bulla. The general skeleton is 
slightly built, and the bones are slender ; the ribs are 
thirteen on each side. Fig. 298 represents the skull 
and skeleton of the Chinchilla Lanigera : a, skull 
seen from above ; b, the same seen from below ; c, 
the lower jaw. 

299. — Covieb's Laootis 

(_Lagotis Cuvieri). Of the genus Lagotis two spe- 
cies were described and figured by Mr. Bennett 
(see the ' Trans Zool. Soc.,' vol. i.). In this genus 
the toes of the anterior as well as posterior feet are 
four. Tlie hind Innbs are considerably developed ; 
the muzzle is somewhat elongated and narrow, 
■and furnished with- long whiskers ; the eyes are 
moderate, but prominent ; the ears are elongated, 
rounded at the tip, and rolled inwards at the edges. 

The fur is soft, long, and downy, and but loosely 
attached to the skin. The tail of tolerable length, 
and bushy, with long, stiff, wiry hairs. General 
contour rabbit-like. 

M. Desmarest was the first to suggest that a vis- 
cacha observed by Feuill^e in Peru, and, as he says, 
often domesticated in the houses at Lima, was a 
distinct species from the viscacha of the Pampas ; 
and a careful examination of the scattered notices 
published by travellers respecting the viscachas of 
the eastern and western sides of the Andes led Mr. 
Bennett to form the same opinion, which was con- 
firmed by the acquisition of a living animal regarded 
as the Peruvian viscacha of the older writers. The 
references to the Peruvian viscacha by various of 
the early travellers in South America are by no 
means limited, and in collating them, Mr. Bennett 
evinced a spirit of laborious research. He refers to 
Pedro de Ciepa, 1554; Acosta, 1590; Garcilago de 
la Vega, 1609; Nieremberg, 1635; Feuillee, 1725; 
and Antonio de Ulloa, 1772. The last writer, in 
his ' Noticias Americanus,' gives a correct account 
of the habits and manners of the animal in question. 
Mr. Bennett's translation is as follows : — " Taking 
the place of the rabbit, which is wanting in Peru, 
there is another kind of animal, called viscacha, 
which is not found in Quito. In form and in the 
colour of the fur it is similar to the rabbit, but dif- 
fers from it in having a long tail furnished with 
tufted hair, which is very thin towards the root, but 
thick and long as it approaches the tip. It does 
not carry its tail turned over the head like the 
squirrel, but stretched out, as it were, in a horizon- 
tal direction : its joints are slender and scaly. 
These animals conceal themselves in holes of the 
rocks in which they make their retreats, not form- 
ing burrows in the earth like rabbits. There they 
congregate in considerable numbers, and are mostly 
seen in a sitting posture, but not eating: they feed 
on the herbs and shrubs that grow among the rocks, 
and are very active. Their means of escape do not 
consist in the velocity of their flight, but in the 
promptitude with which they run to the shelter of 
their holes. This they commonly do when wounded ; 
for which reason the mode of killing them is by 
shooting them in the head ; as, if they receive the 
charge in any other part, although much injured, 
they do not fail to go and die in the interior of their 
burrows. They have this peculiarity, that as soon 
as they die their hair falls off; and on this account 
although it is softer, and somewhat longer and finer 
than that of the rabbit, the skin cannot be made 
use of for common purposes. The flesh is white, 
but not well flavoured, being especially distasteful 
at certain seasons, when it is altogether repugnant 
to the palate." Molina speaks of the employment 
of its wool among the ancient Peruvians, adding, 
that the Chilians of the present day (his work was 
originally published in 1782, and reprinted with ad- 
ditions in 1810) use it in the manufacture of hats. 

The general colour of the viscacha of the western 
acclivities of the Peruvian Andes, or Cuvier's lagotis 
(L. Cuvieri), is greyish ash, clouded here and there 
with a tint of brown. The hairs of the tail are 
mingled black and white. The ears equal the head 
in length. The body measures sixteen inches, in- 
cluding the head ; the tail, about twelve inches. 
Fig. 300 represents the skeleton, with the skull of 
the Lagotis Cuvieri : a, skull seen from above ; b, 
the same seen from below ; c, lower jaw ; rf, crown 
of the two anterior molar teeth of the lower jaw 
enlarged ; e, crowns of the two posterior molar 
teeth of the upper jaw, enlarged. 

301. — Thk Viscacha ok Biscicha or the Pampas 
(Lagostomus irycliodactylus, Brookes). The Mar. 
mot Diana of Griffith. Generic characters : — the 
molars consisting of two oblique lamellse, excepting 
the posterior one in the upper jaw, which consists 
of three ; anterior feet with only four toes, hinder 
feet with only three ; tail moderate. Of this genus 
(Lagostomus) we know but one species, of which 
the earliest notice to be found is in Dobrizhofler's 
' Historia de Abiponibus,' 1784. He informs us 
that it is called by these people Nehelaterek, and 
that it resembles a hare with the tail of a fox. " It 
digs its burrows on the more elevated parts of the 
plains with so much art, that no aperture is left by 
which the rain can penetrate, and these burrows 
are divided into distinct settlements, numerous 
families inhabiting the same locality. On the sur- 
face of the ground are several entrances into the 
burrow, at which, towards sunset, the animals may 
be seen seated in crowds, diligently listening lor 
the sound of any person approaching. If every- 
thing remains quiet, they venture forth by moon- 
light to feed ; and commit sad havoc on the neigh- 
bouring fields, for they devour both European wheat 
and Indian corn with great avidity, despising grass 
when either is to be obtained. Hence the stations 
of the biscachas are seldom to be met with in the 
desert plains, but indicate with certainty the prox- 
imity of Spanish settlements ; and it has often been 

a matter of surprise to me that I have never seen 
the biscacha in the territories (though well covered 
with crops of all kinds) either of the Abipones or 
the Guaranis. They are in the habit of heaping up 
at the entrances of their burrow dry bones, chips of 
wood, and refuse articles of every sort which fall in 
their way. The purpose, however, for which these 
tilings are collected, is beyond conjecture. The 
Spanish colonists occasionally spend an idle hour 
in hunting them ; they pour buckets of water into 
the subterranean retreats of the creatures, which 
to avoid being drowned issue forth into the plain 
where, without any means of escape, they are killed 
with sticks. Their flesh, unless they are very old, 
is not considered despicable even by the Spaniards." 
In 1789 the Abbii Jolis wrote a work, which, how- 
ever, appears not to have been completed, entitled 
' An Essay on the Natural History of Grancliaco 
(Saggio sulla Storia Naturale della-Provincia del 
Granchaco), and in this he gives from long obsei-va- 
tion, a description of the Pampas biscacha. which 
differs in some particulars from that of J lobrizhoft'er. 
" They resemble," he says, " our hares, but have the 
body somewhat more arched. They live in society, 
in burrows underground, which they form for them- 
selves, excavating in all directions to the extent of 
a mile in circumference, with various exits and 
separate retreats, in which the old live distinct from 
the young. The soil in which these are usually 
made is that which is hard and barren, and destitute 
of everything, but with bushes (boscaglie) at no 
great distance, and pasture of tender grass, roots, 
and the bark of trees. They collect around their 
retreats bones, dried leaves, and whatever they find 
in the neighbourhood ; if anything is missing in 
their districts, it is to be found with certainty piled 
up in these situations the following day. As they 
are animals that avoid the light, having little power 
of vision, they are not to be seen in the daytime, 
unless at dawn, or towards evening after sunset. 
The night, and especially when the moon shines, 
is the proper time for seeking their food. Fierce 
and courageous, they defend themselves with all 
their might against the dogs, and sometimes even 
attack the legs of the hunters." 

But neither of those authors mentions the some- 
what anomalous companions with which the bis- 
cachas are associated; and we select, from the 
travels of Proctor, Head, Miers, and Haigh, the 
account of the first-named traveller, which, as Mr. 
Bennett observes, gives nearly all the particulars 
which are to be found in the rest. " The whole ' 
country from Buenos Ayres to San Luis de la 
Punta, is more or less burrowed by an animal be- 
tween a rabbit and a badger, called the biscacho, 
which renders travelling dangerous, particularly by \ 
night, their holes being so large and deep that a '< 
horse is almost sure to fall if he steps into one of \ 
them. The biscacho never ventures far from its : 
retreat, and is seldom seen till the evening, when , 
it comes out to feed, and hundreds may be observed i 
sporting round their holes, and making a noise very i 
similar to the grunting of pigs. Their flesh is , 
much liked by the people, and they are remarkably i 
fat, and on that account, when caught at any dis- 1 
tance from their holes, are easily run down ; they i 
will, however, defend themselves from a dog a j 
considerable time. The holes of these animals are \ 
also inhabited by vast numbers of small owls, which I 
sit, during the day, gazing at the passing travellers, j 
and making a very ludicrous appearance. The '' 
parts of the road most frequented by the biscacho ' 
are generally overrun by a species of small wild ] 
melon, bitter to the taste ; whether it thrives par- j 
ticularly on the manure of the animal, or whether ! 
the biscacho chooses its hole nearer this running ! 
plant, does not seem to have been ascertained." 

The viscacha of the Pampas of Buenos Ayres and 
Paraguay is, when fully grown, as large as our 
common badger. Above it is a blackish grey, 
beneath white. The head is large and obtuse, 
and a whitish band beginning on the nose passes 
across the face beneath each eye to the root of 
the ear, producing a sort of crescent-shaped mask 
when the face is viewed in front. The sides of 
the lips are furnished with a tuft of thickly-set 
whiskers, composed of long black bristles ; and 
from the angles of the mouth across the cheeks, 
below the white band, extends a brush of black 
bristles, stouter than those of the whiskers, but 
shorter, the lowermost being sharply pointed. This 
brush reaches the angle of the jaw, forming a 
beard : it does not, however, end here abruptly, 
but may be traced by bristly hairs intermingled 
with the fur across the shoulders as far as the 
middle of the back. The ears are moderate and 
rounded ; the fore-legs are rather slender and short ; 
the hind-legs are long, and the metatarsal portion 
reminds one of the same part in the limb of the 
kangaroo, though it is not so disproportionally 
elongated. At the heel there is a lo::g naked 
callous sole or pad, befoie which is a part covered 
with hair : the toes are three in number, of which 

2»5.— C.iinchllU. 

*M.-Sk«lelon of CblnehUU. 


M«.— Cbinehilk. 


300.— Skdeton and Sknll oTCoTiet'B Lagotia. 

303.*— Upper Jaw of Paca. 

302 — Skeleton of Viacacha. 

305.-Diaky Pact. 

304.— Lower Jaw of Paca. 


No. 10. 

305.— Tooth of Paca. 






the miiliile is ihe most elongated : ail are furnished 
with stioiif; hoot-like nails, and with naked pads 
beiiealh. The tail is rather short, and covered with 
greyish brown hairs, of which the longest form a 
fringe on tlie upper surface : it is generally kept 
retroverled on the back. The incisor teeth are 
remarkal)ly large and strong. Fig. 302 represents 
the skeleton of the Pampas viscacha; o, under 
view of skull ; A, lower jaw ; c, crown of the second 
molar tooth of the leftside of the lower jaw; d, 
crown of the last molar tooth of the right side of 
the upper jaw. 

Mr. urookes's paper on the anatomy of this ani- 
mal was read belore the Linn. Soc. in June, 1828, 
and published in the Linn. Trans, for the year fol- 

A small family of the Histricine section, which 
may be termed Dasyproctidaa, next claims our 
notice. It embraces two genera, Cielogcnys and 

4 — * 
Dasyprocta. In these genera the molars are xzzi' 

rooted, and bear much resemblance to those of the 
porcupines ; they are crowned with distinct tuber- 
cles, which, wearing down with use, give place to 
winding lines of enamel, set in the interior bony 

The genus Caelogenys includes two. or perhaps 
three, distinct species of Rodents, termed Pacas 
(a corruption of the word Pag of the Brazilians, or 
Paig of Ihe natives of Paraguay ; and Pakiri of some 
of the tribes of Guiana). 

These animals, the pacas, are remarkable for a 
curious structural peculiarity in the skull, which im- 
parts a singular aspect to their physiognomy. We 
give a sketch of the skull of the lulvous paca 
(Caelogenys fulvus), in profile (Fig. 303), and as 
viewed on its palatal aspect (Fig. 303*). The pe- 
culiarity in question is the immense development 
of the zygomatic arch, forming an expansive shield 
of bone, almost concealing the lower jaw, rough 
and convex externally, and deeply concave within. 
This broad projecting convex plate has its concavity 
lined by a continuation or reduplicatnre of the skin 
of the lace, constituting a sort of pouch, with a nar- 
row linear opening just below the angle of the 
mouth, and having its edges, from which the pouch 
leads directly upwards, almost if not quite destitute 
of hair. 

Notwithstanding; this narrow orifice, the sac or 
pouch is so closed, that it cannot be serviceable as 
the receptacle for food, for neither is the orifice 
dilatable, nor the pouch, enclosed as the latter is 
within walls of unyielding bone. The use of this 
sac is not ascertained : perhaps a secretion of some 
kind may take place from the subzygomatic fold of 
skin, but this remains to be determined. Besides 
the sac described, the pacas have true cheek- 
pouches of considerable extent, opening from the 
mouth, and extending down the sides of the neck 
and below the inferior margin of the zygomatic 

The lower jaw, which is almost concealed, is 
shown at Fig. 304. The characters of the molar 
teeth, worn by use, are well depicted. Fig. 305 re- 
presents the germ of the first molar, before the 
tooth is completely developed, in three views, 
namely, the outer aspect, the inner aspect, and the 
crown with its tubercles. The pacas are animals of 
considerable size, and of a heavy clumsy figure, 
having a thick muzzle, with the upper lip deeply 
•cleft ; a large inelegant head ; prominent eyes, 
rounded ears and stout limbs, of which the hinder 
pair exceed in length the anterior— but as the 
greater portion of the tarsus rests habitually on the 
ground, the body sinks even lower at the haunches 
than at the shoulders. The fore-feet are divided into 
five toes, of which the innermost is a mere rudi- 
ment, seated high, and furnished with a small claw. 
The hind-feet have also five toes, but of these the 
outermost on each side is small, and seated high : 
the three central are large, strong, and furnished 
with powerful hoof- like nails. The tail is wanting. 
The body is clothed with short, stiff, wiry hairs. 

306.— Thk Dusky Paca. 
This species, according to C'uvier, is identical with 
the fulvous paca; but we have examined the skulls, 
and find them different. In the former the bones of 
the skull are smooth, and the zygomatic arches less 
inordinately developed. The general colour of the 
dusky paca is brownish black, with four lateral 
rows of white spots, which begin on the shoulders 
and terminate on the buttocks. The lowest line is 
almost confounded with the white of the under sur- 
face. The sides of the lower jaw, the throat, and 
chest are also white. Total length of head and 
body, about two feet; average height fourteen inches. 
These animals are natives of the whole of the 
eastern portion of South America, from Surinam 
to Paraguay, and formerly existed also in some of 
the islands of the West Indies. ?'orests in the 
vicinity of water; wooded, marshy places ; and bor- 
ders of rivers, are their favourite localities : they 

inhabit burrows, which they excavate, but so super- 
ficially, that they are apt to give way beneath the 
foot of a person' passing over them, no less to his 
annoyance than that of the animal which thus sud- 
denly finds itself in open daylight. These bur- 
rows have, as it is asserted, three openings, which 
the animal conceals with dry leaves and branches. 
In order to capture the paca alive, the hunter stops 
two of these apertures, and proceeds to work at the 
third, till he arrives at the chamber to which the 
avenues lead. Driven to an extremity, the paca 
makes a desperate resistance, often intiicting very 
severe wounds. 

When not disturbed, the jiaca often sits up and 
washes its head and whiskers with its two fore-paws, 
which it licks and moistens with its saliva at each 
ablution, like a cat ; and with these fore-paws, as 
well as with the hind-ones, it often scratches itself 
and dresses its fur. TJiough heavy and corpulent, 
it can run with a good deal of activity, and often 
takes lively jumps. It swims and dives with great 
adroitness, and its cry resembles the grunting of a 
young pig. Its food consists of fruits and tender 
plants, which it seeks in the night, hardly ever 
quitting its burrow in the day, the strong light of 
which, as is the case with other nocturnal animals, 
is oppressive to its eye : the planter often rues the 
visits made by these midnight foragers to his sugar- 
canes. The female is said to bring forth at the 
rainy season, and to produce but a single young one, 
which stays a long time with the mother. The 
pacas are very cleanly creatures in all their habits, 
and keep their subterranean dwelling in a state of 
the utmost purity. 

It appears that these animals root in the ground 
with their nose — a circumstance which, taken in 
conjunction with their voice, a pig-like crunt, the 
bristly character of their hair, and the flavour of 
their flesh, probably gave rise, as Mr. Bennett ob- 
serves, to the comparisons made by the older writers 
between them and the tenant of the sty. Those 
which we have seen in captivity were gentle, but 
certainly not intelligent ; and so far we agree with 
M. F. Cuvier, who observes that when the animal 
is offended, it throws itself violently at the object 
which has displeased it, and then makes a kind of 
grumbling, which at length breaks out into a sort 
of bark. The greater part of the day it passes in 
repose, delighting in a soft bed, which it forms of 
straw, hay, and similar materials, collecting the ma- 
terials with its mouth, and making a little heap, in 
the centre of which it lies down. M. Buff'on gives 
a detailed account of one of these animals, which 
he kept alive in his house for some time, and which 
was gentle and very familiar. 

The flesh of these animals is in great estimation, 
and in some districts is in ordinary consumption, 
but as it is fat and rich it is apt to cloy. It is pre- 
pared for cooking by being scalded like a sucking- 
pig and roasted. The fur is of no value, but the 
skin might be useful if converted into leather. 
M. F. Cuvier thinks that it would be possible to 
introduce this animal into our European rural esta- 
blishments, and that once naturalised it would 
form no despicable acquisition in the department of 
domestic economy. 


{Dasyprocta, Illig. ; Chlormys, F. Cuv.). These 
animals differ from the pacas in the formation of 
the skull and the conformation of the feet and toes. 
With respect to the former, the zygomatic arch 
presents nothing of that strange development so 
remarkable in the pacas. The toes are distinctly 
four on each of the anterior feet : of these the 
outermost toe on each side is small and seated 
high, while the two middle are long, and armed 
with stout claws. The hind feet are divided into 
three toes, furnished with claws of a hoof-like cha- 
racter, and of considerable strength. The limbs are 
slender, and the hinder pair considerably exceed 
in length the anterior : hence the pace of these 
arfimals is tolerably rapid for a short distance, 
though they seldom trust to speed for .safety, but 
seek shelter and security in the first hollow tree 
they meet with, or under a rock. Here they allow 
themselves to be captured, without offering any 
resistance, only uttering a sharp plaintive note of 
alarm. The head of the agoutis is large, the fore- 
head convex, the nose swollen ; the ears round, short, 
and nearly naked ; the eyes large and black ; the 
tail is very short, generally indeed a mere tubercle. 
The hair is glossy and of a wiry character, and an- 
nulated in different degrees with black, yellow, or 

white, and olive green. The molars are t — r, nearly 

all of the same size, and when worn presenting 
winding folds of enamel on the flat crowns. It 
is impossible to convey by mere description an 
idea of the figures which these convolutions assume, 
and which vaiy in proportion to the wearing down 
of the tooth : we therefore refer to Fig. 307, where 

a and b represent respectively the upper and lower 
jaws. No. 1 represents the teeth when much worn 
difwn ; 2, the same in an intermediate stale ; and 3. 
the same when the tubercles are just effaced, and 
the surface smoothed down to a level. 

The flesh of the agoutis is in son;e districts highly 
esteemed, being white and tender. 

The agoutis use the fore-paws as hands to convey 
their food to the mouth, and usually sit upright on 
their haunches to eat : they frequently also assume 
the same position in order to look around them, or 
when they are surprised by any unusual SDund or 
occurrence. Their food is exclusively of a vegetal le 
nature, and consists most commonly of wild yams, 
potatoes, and other tuberous roots ; in the islands 
of the different West India groups they are par- 
ticularly destructive to the sugar-cane, of the roots 
of which they are extremely fond. The planters 
employ every artifice for destroying them, so that 
at present they have become comparatively rare in 
the sugar islands, though on the first settlement of the 
Antilles and Bahamas they are said to have swarmed 
in such countless multitudes as to have constituted 
the principal article of food for the Indians. They 
were the largest quadrupeds indigenous in these 
islands upon their first discovery. The same rule of 
geographical distribution holds good generally in 
other cases, viz. that where groups of islands are 
detached at some distance from the mainland of a 
particular continent, the smaller species of animals 
are usually found spread over both, whilst the 
larger and more bulky are confined to the mainland 
alone, and are never found to be indigenous in the 
small insulated land. 

Though the agoutis use the fore-paws as de- 
scribed, yet they are incapable of climbing trees ; 
and though the nails are strong, they do not burrow, 
but conceal themselves in hollow trees, among 
fallen logs and timber in the forest, and similar 
places of concealment. Here they produce and 
rear their young, which are born with the eyes 
closed : they soon become capable of shifting 'for 

303. — ^The Commox Agouti 

(^Dasyprocta Acuti). This species is very abundant 
in Brazil and Guiana, and occurs also in Paraguay, 
where it was observed by D'Azara, who informs us 
that the Guarinis term it Cotia : in size it is about 
equal to a rabbit, but it rarely if ever makes a 
buiTow. It frequents densely-wooded districts in 
preference to open lands, and generally takes up 
its residence in the hollow trunks of decayed trees, 
where it remains concealed during the day. This 
retreat usually serves for several individuals, for it 
appears to be gregarious, associating in small troops 
consisting of eighteen or twenty individuals. Its 
movements are rapid, active, and abrupt, and when 
chased, it bounds along, like a hare, to gain its ac- 
customed hiding-place : it is however seldom seen 
except during the night, or as evening begins to 
sink into twilight. 

In Brazil and Guiana the agouti is exposed to 
wholesale destruction for the sake of its flesh, which 
is said to be intermediate in flavour between the 
hare and rabbit ; but in Paraguay, according to 
D'Azara, no one eats if, and M. Moreau St. Mi^ry ob- 
serves that it has a strange sort of flavour, and is a 
dish of little relish to the palate. The latter writer 
also informs us that the agouti is common in the 
island of St. Lucia, and also inhabits others of the 
West India group; and that in 1788 several were 
taken in St. Domingo, which had made a hollow 
tree their domicile. It is said to breed several 
times in a year, and to produce from three to six at a 
birth. The general colour of the agouti is grizzled 
reddish brown, tinged on the neck, chest, and under 
surface with yellow. The haii-s of the upper and 
fore parts of the body are annulated with brown, yel- 
low, and black, which gives the animal a speckled 
yellow and green appearance on the neck, head, 
back, and sides: on the croup, however, they are of 
a uniform golden yellow, much longer than on any 
other part of the body, and directed backwards, con- 
cealing the tail, which is a mere naked stump ; the 
moustaches and feet black. The general length of 
the hair on the upper and anterior parts of the body 
is about an inch, that of the croup is upwards of four 
inches long, and all, excepting the short coarse fur 
of the legs and feet, and that on the breast and 
belly, is of a stiff', harsh nature, jiartaking more of 
the qualify of bristles than of .simple hair. 

The golden agouti differs from the common spe- 
cies principally in its brighter colouring. 

309. — The Black Agouti 

(Dasyprocta cristata). This species, to which the 
term crested (crLstata) is ill applied (since the hairs 
of the head and neck are not longer than those of 
the shoulders), is smaller than the common species, 
but its general proportions and form are the same : 
it differs, however, in colour, for the hairs of the 
back and sides, instead of being annulated with 




various tints, as in that animal, are nearly of a 
unit'oim black, whilst the long hairs of the croup 
are perfectly so. A specimen we regarded as the 
black as;outi, in the Paris Museum, might be thus 
described : — black, beautifuly freckled with pure 
■white, especially about the cheeks and sides, each 
hair on those parts being once ringed with white ; 
length twenty inches. 

310. — The Acoijchi 

(^Dasyprocta Acuchi). This animal differs from the 
agouti in being of a much smaller size, lighter 
make, and deeper colour, and especially in having 
a much longer tail, this appendage measuring two 
inches : it is very slender, being not much thicker 
than a crow-quill, and covered with short scattered 
hairs. Its manners resemble those of the agouti, 
and it also inhabits the woods of Guiana, but is not 
by any means so common as that animal. M. 
D'Azara was mistaken in asserting the acouchi to 
be identical with the agouti ; and it is very obvious 
that he never saw the former, for, if he had, the dis- 
tinction could not have escaped his notice ; indeed 
it does not appear to be a native of Paraguay. Spe- 
cimens of the acouchi, as well as its skeleton, are 
in the museum of the Zool. Soc. Two living in- 
dividuals (now the museum specimens alluded to) 
were described in the ' Pioceeds. Zool. Soc' 1830, 
by T. Bell, Esq., who obtained them from Guiana. 
" Both individuals," he observes, " are mild and 
gentle in their dispositions, but somewhat timid : 
they are, however, familiar with their master, and 
run to him whenever he enters the room in which 
they are kept, and about which they are allowed to 
range during the day. Their food is entirely vege- 
table ; they are especially partial to nuts and al- 
monds ; they drink but very little. They are ex- 
tremely cleanly, and take great pains to keep their 
fur in order, in cleansing which they mutually assist 
each other. They leap occasionally in play to a 
considerable height, and frequently, in springing 
from the ground to an elevation of two feet, descend 
on the spot from which they rose. Their voice is 
a short, rather sharp, plaintive pur. The indi- 
viduals, male and female, show great attachment 
to each other. They frequently agitate their tails 
with a quick tremulous motion." Mr. Bell ob- 
serves that he had never before the arrival of these 
individuals seen a specimen of the acouchi, nor was 
he aware of the existence of even a preserved skin 
in any English collection. It is the Olive Cavy of 
Pennant. The general colour is olive mixed with 
yellow and black : the hairs of the croup are not 
so long as in the agoutis, and black. 


(Fam. Cavidie) constitute a group (embracmg the 
genera Cavia, Dolichotis, Kerodon, and Hydro- 
choerus) which is one of themqgt distinctly marked 
in the class Rodentia, and which should not be 
con|founded with that of the pacas and agoutis, the 
diiierence being very great, both as respects the 
conformation of the skull and the characters of the 
teeth. The molars, as seen in the teeth of the 
guinea-pig or aperea (Cavia cobaia). Fig. 311, and 
of the kerodon. Fig. 312, may be compared with 
those of the agouti, Fig. 307, and the wide distinc- 
tion will be at once appreciated. 
The molars arer— r, lamellose, and composite ; 

the folds of enamel enclose triangular or cordiforra 
interspaces. A projecting ridge always occurs on 
the outer side of the ramus of the lower jaw. In 
the genus Cavia the anterior feet have four toes, 
the posterior three ; the nails are short and robust ; 
there is no tail. As an example of this genus we 
may take the common guinea-pig, or aperea, the 
domestic descendant of a species still common in 
a wild state in various parts of South America. 
Mr. Darwin, who met with the wild aperea abun- 
dantly, states it to be " exceedingly common in 
the neighbourhood of the several towns which 
stand on the banks of the Rio Plata. It fre- 
quents different kinds of stations, such as hedge- 
rows made of the agave and opuntia, or sand hil- 
locks; and again marshy places covered with 
aquatic plants, the latter appearing to be its fa- 
vourite haunt. Where the soil is dry it makes a 
burrow, but where otherwise it lives concealed 
amidst the herbage. These animals generally come 
out to feed in the evening, and are then tame ; but 
if the day be gloomy they make their appearance 
in the morning. They are said to be very inju- 
rious to young trees. An old mal(> killed at Mal- 
donado weighed 1 lb. 3 oz." Mr. Darwin observed 
that in this animal the attachment of the fur to the 
skin is very slight. Possessing but little intelli- 
gence and very timid, the aperea is nevertheless 
tamed without any difficulty. Azara, who kept one, 
remarks that though he took no pains to make it 
familiar, it manifested no fear when in his presence, 
and seemed quite unconcerned. It is to this ease 
with which the wild aperea becomes domesticated 

that we owe the introduction of it into Europe, for, 
excepting that it is a very pretty creature, there is 
nothing to render it a valuable acquisition. It is 
however eaten by the native tribes of Paraguay, 
who sometimes capture it by hundreds when, driven 
from the lowlands by sudden inundations, it retreats 
for safety to the ajacent hilly grounds, where it 
finds neither shelterd nor concealment. 

Of the genus Kerodon we may notice the Rock 
Kerodon (Kerodon moco, F. Cuv. ; Cavia rupestris, 
Pr. Max). It is a native of the rocky mountain 
districts in the interior of Brazil. It is less than 
the aperea, and its fur is very thick and short. The 
colour is grey mixed with black, and reddish brown 
above, the under parts being white. A second 
specis, King's Kerodon (Kerodon Kingii), was in- 
troduced to science by the late Mr. Bennett. It 
was lound by Captain King at Port Desire, on the 
eastern coast of Patagonia. In size it is less than 
the aperea, being about nine inches long. Its 
colour is more uniform than that of the rocky ke- 
rodon, and of a deeper tint ; a slight dash of white 
I's perceptible behind each ear, and a line of the 
same tint marks the edge of each branch of the 
lower jaw. Mr. Darwin states that this Kerodon 
" is common at intervals along the coast of Pata- 
gonia, from the Rio Negro (lat 41°) to the Straits 
of Magellan. It is very tame, and commonly feeds 
by day. It is said to bring ibrth two young ones at 
a birth. At the Rio Negro it frequents in great 
numbers the bottoms of old edges. At Port De- 
sire it lives beneath the ruins of the old Spanish 
buildings. At the Strait of Magellan I have seen 
amongst the Patagonian Indians cloaks for small 
children made with the skins of this little animal. 
And the Jesuit Falkner says that the people of one 
of the southern tribes take their name from the 
number of these animals which inhabit their country. 
The Spaniards and half-civilized Indians call the 
kerodon ' Conejos,' or rabbit, and thus has the mis- 
take arisen that rabbits are found in the neighbour- 
hood of the Straits of Magellan." 

313. — The Patagonian Cavy, ok Mara 

(Dolicholis Patachonica, Deam. ; Cavia Pataclionica, 
Shawj. This large cavy is rare in European mu- 
seums. A fine specimen, however, is preserved in 
the British Museum and the Museum of the Zool. 
Soc. It is a beautiful animal, standing high on the 
legs, with much of the port of some of the bush 
antelopes of Africa. Its height at the shoulder is 
about a foot and a half. Its length is about two 
feet six inches, including the tail, which is nearly 
two inches long. It lives on the Pampas south of 
Buenos Ayres, and especially in Patagonia. It is 
noticed by Narborough, Wood, and Byron as being 
very abundant in Port Desire, and also at Port St. 
Julian, where, however, il does not now appear to 
exist. It is only where the country has a desert 
character that this species is common ; and in the 
wilds of Patagonia little groups of two, three, or 
four may be continually seen hopping after each 
other in a straight line, over plains of gravel thinly 
clothed with a few thorny dreary bushes and a 
withered herbage. 

According to Azara, this cavy does not range 
higher north than latitude 35° : but in this state- 
ment he appears to be mistaken, for Mr. Darwin 
observed that near the coast of the Atlantic its 
northern limit is formed by the Sierra Tapalguon, 
in latitude 37° 30', where the plains rather sud- 
denly become greener and more humid; and he 
remarks that its limit there certainly depends on 
this change, since near Mendoza, 33° 30', four de- 
grees farther northward, where the country is very 
sterile, this animal again occurs. Azara states that 
this cavy never excavates its own burrow, but al- 
ways uses that of the viscacha or biscucha; and 
Mr. Darwin considers that where that animal is 
present, Azara's statement is doubtless correct, but 
that on the sandy plains of Bahia Blanca, where 
the biscacha is not found, this cavy, as the Spa- 
niards maintain, is its own workman. The same 
thing, he adds, occurs with the little owls of the 
Pampas (noctua cunicularia), which have been 
described by travellers as standing like sentinels at 
the mouths of almost every burrow ; for in Banda 
Oriental, owing to the absence of the biscacha, these 
birds are obliged to hollow out their own habita- 
tions. Azara moreover states that, except when 
pressed by danger, this cavy does not have recourse 
to its burrow for safety, but crouches on the plains, 
or trusts to its speed ; adding, however, that it is 
soon run down. On the contrary, Mr. Darwin as- 
serts that as I?ahia Blanca he repeatedly saw two 
or three animals sitting on their haunches by the 
mouths of their holes, which they quietly entered 
as he passed by at a distance. He remarks, how- 
ever, that, different from most burrowing animals, 
they wander, commonly two or three together, to 
miles or even leagues from their home, and he was 
not able to ascertain whether or not they returned 
at night. This species is diurnal in its habits, 

roaming about by day. It is very shy and watch- 
ful, seldom squats after the manner of a hare, an4 
cannot run fast, so that indifferent dogs easily over- 
take it. The female breeds in her burrow, generally 
producing two young ones at a birth. The flesh 
of this animal is white, but dry and insipid. The 
skin with the fur on is in esteem, being used for 
rugs, and is beautiful from the character of the 
hair, which is full and soft, and from the tasteful 
arrangement of the marking. The colour of the 
back is brown, grizzled with white, verging into 
vellow on the sides of the body and on the limbs, 
but becoming black as it approaches the haunch: 
this dark hue is there abruptly interrupted by a 
white band passing transversely above the root of 
the tail, and spreading on the back and sides of the 
thighs. The appearance of this white mark is very 
striking. The chest, inside of the limbs, and under 
part of the body are also white. The ears are three 
inches and a half in length, erect and pointed. 
Full-grown individuals weigh between twenty and 
twenty-six pounds. The young, it is said, may be 
easily domesticated. 

314.— The Oapybaba 

(Hydrochcervs Capyhara). Cabiai, Buff. The 
Capybara (the only known species of the genus 
Hydrochosrus) is the largest of all the Rodentia; 
and its size, its massive, heavy proportions, its 
thick head, and the bristly character of its hair, give 
it a degree of resemblance to some of the Pachy- 
dermata. Marcgrave regards it as a sort of aquatic 
hog ; Ferinius, in his ' History of Surinam,' 1775, 
terms it Porcus fluviatilis, or river-hog ; while 
Pennant gives it the thle of thick-nosed Tapir. 
It is also the Cochon d'eau ofDesmarchais; theSus 
maximus palustris of BarrC-re ; and the Sus hydro- 
choerus. Pig-like as the capybara may be in its 
external aspect, it is nevertheless a genuine Rodent, 
as much so as the hare or agouti. Its dentition con- 
sists of the usual incisors, which are of prodigious 
size and strength : those in the upper jaw have a 
deep longitudinal furrow on their outer surface. 
The molars are four on each side, above and below ; 
and consist of a series of obliquely transverse, 
parallel laminse of enamel (Fig. 315j, presenting 
acute lateral projections in the three first teeth : 
these projections are on the outer edge of the upper 
teeth and the inner edge of the lower. The spaces 
enclosed by the layers of enamel are filled in with 
osseous matter, and the whole is united into a sin- 
gle mass by intervening cortical matter, or crusta 
petrosa. The molars of the capybara are in fact 
analagous to those of the elephant. 

We have stated that in some Rodents the fauces, 
or back of the mouth, is continued funnel-shaped, 
opening into the ojsophagus through a small orifice 
surrounded by a muscle of circular fibres, allowing 
only the gradual transmission of food which has 
been previously reduced to a thorough pulp. This 
structural peculiarity was first pointed out in the 
capybara by Mr. Morgan (' Linn. Trans.' vol. xvi.), 
but we meet with it also in the Coypu, the Capromys, 
and the Beaver. (See ' Proc. Zooi. Soc' 1832, p. 73 ; 
1835, p. 175). In the capybara the head is large, 
the muzzle thick and blunt, the upper lip deeply fis- 
sured ; the eyes are moderately large : the ears small 
and rounded. The naked patch of the size of half 
a crown occupies the cheek a little below each eye. 
The fore-limbs are short and muscular, the toes 
being tour, furnished with strong claws ; the hind- 
limbs are also thick, but longer than those before, 
and the whole of the sole, which is covered with 
naked rough skin, is applied to the ground. The 
toes are three in number, having strong large hoof- 
like nails, and being partially connected together 
by intervening membranes. The tail, a mere rudi- 
ment, is scarcely to be perceived. This animal ex- 
ceeds three feet six inches in length, and its body, 
which is more than three feet in girth, owing to its 
bulk and the shortness of the limbs, almost touches 
the ground. It is covered with long, coarse thinly- 
set hairs of a sandy or brownish grey. A fine 
specimen, recently living, is preserved in the Mu- 
seum of the Zool. Soc 

The capybara is a gregarious animal, frequent- 
ing the rich and wooded borders of the lakes and 
rivers in Brazil, Guiana, and Paraguay. Mr. Dar- 
win states that it is common wherever there are 
large rivers or lakes, over that part of the South 
American continent which lies between the Orinoco 
and the Plata, a distance of nearly 1400 miles. They 
are not generally supposed to extend south of the 
Plata, but he heard that there were capybaras (pro- 
vincially termed Laguna Carpincho) high up the 
Salado, and presumes that they have sometimes 
been seen south of the former river. This animal 
lives usually in small companies, which remain con- 
cealed among the thickets and dense herbage of the 
borders of tiie water during the day, and wander 
forth at night to feed. When alarmed, the capy- 
bara utters a loud cry like the vowel sounds a-p4, 
and immediately makes for the water, into which it 



a 1 1<— T«cth of Oninn-pig. 

308.— Conmum Agoati. 

SOT.— T«eth of AgouU. 

310. — Acoachi. 

313.— IVitgonial C»vy. 



SIS.— Teeth of Rerodou 

314,— Cap>'bara, 



\ m 




3 1 5.— T«eth of C«pybar«. 

316. — Teeth of Commoa Hare. 

317, — Common Hare. 


380.— Dwiirf Plka. 

319.— Syrian Hare. 




plunges, swimmiD^ with great ease and quickness, 
little more than its nose appearing above the sur- 
face. If hard pressed or wounded, it dives in order 
to baffle its pursuers, and then endeavours to gain a 
more secure place of concealment. It is eagerly 
hunted for the sake of its flesh, which is accounted 
good, though of a musky flavour : the hind quarters 
are made into hams. Of its natural enemies the 
terrible jaguar is the most formidable : this powerful 
beast steals upon the capybam by surpiise, and 
destroys numbers. The food of the capybara con- | 
lists exclusively of grains and vegetables, as water- 
melons, gourds, &c. Azara does not believe that 
these animals ever frequent salt-water : 31 r. Darwin i 
shot one in the bay of Monte Video, an old female, 
measurmg, from the tip of the snout to the end of I 
the stump-like tail, three feet eight and a half inches, I 
in girth three feet two inches, and weighing UK lis. 
Several also were seen by the oiHcers of the Ueagle I 
on the island of Guritti, off Maldonado, where the j 
water is nearly as salt as in the sea. ; 

On the banks of the Apure, Humboldt saw the 
capybara, which he calls Cliiguira, in troops of fifty i 
or sixty. He notices the ease of the capybara in i 
the water ; and states that he saw with surprise the i 
animals, affrighted by the approach of a boat, dive I 
and remain from eight to ten minutes under water. 
On the Apure, Arauco, Sec, and in the vast savan- j 
nahs of the IJanos, the animal is said to be often \ 
seen in droves of a hundred. They there browse I 
upon a sort of grass called chiguirirero. | 

The common posture of the capjbara when at I 
rest is sitting >ipon the haunches, the soles of the |i 
hind-feet being applied flat to the ground, like the 
agouti, the viscacha, and many others of the Rodents, i 
The female breeds once in a year, and brings forth | 
from four to six or seven at a birth, having prepared j 
a snug bed of dried herbs and grasses. 

The Family Leporidae contains the hares and i 
rabliits (liCpus), and the pikas (Lagomys). This i 
family is well marked in its characters, comprehend- 
ing only two genera, of which one, the genus Lepus, 
is widely distributed, though it has the most repre- 
sentatives in North America, where the number of 1 
species already discovered is equal to that of all the 
rest found in the other portions of the globe taken 

317.— The Commojt Habe 

(Lepus Timidm). hiyi,; (Lagos) of the Greeks ; 
Lepus of the Latins ; Lepre and Lievora of the mo- 
dern Italians; Liebre and Lebratello of the Spa- 
niards; Lebre and Lebrimho of the Portuguese; 
Li6vre, French ; Has, Haas, and Hase of the Ger- 
mans ; Haas and Haze of the Danes ; Hara of the 
Swedes ; Hara of the Anglo-Saxons ; Ysgyfarnog, 
Ceinach, of the Ancient British. 

In the genus Lepus, behind the ordinary incisors 
of the upper jaw are two more of a much smaller 
size : the molars, the small posterior one excepted, 
are composed of two vertical plates soldered to- 

4 6—6 

gather. Dental formula : — Incisors, k ; molars, j: — . 

(see Fig. 316). The ears are long ; the eyes large ; 
the tail short and turned upwards ; five toes before, 
four behind ; feet and toes hairy beneath. 

Few animals are better known than our common 
hare, which is spread over the great portion of 
Europe, and appears to be indigenous in cur country ; 
but the ancient Britons abstained from eating its 
flesh on religions grounds. This species probably 
extends into Asia. Mr. M'Clelland states that it 
occurs in Assam, but is of degenerate size, measur- 
ing only from seventeen to nineteen inches, instead 
of twenty-one. " It is not esteemed there an article 
of food. The ears are more uniformly grey than in 
the European variety" (' Proc. Zool. Soc.,' 1839). 
We suspect the Assam hare to be a distinct species. 
Timid and defenceless, and surrounded by numerous 
enemies, the hare is yet well endowed with the 
means of self-preservation. It is watchful and swift ; 
and its brown fur assimilates in colour with the msset 
herbage among which it most makes its form. All 
are acquainted with the external characters of the 
hare, and with its habits, of which it is useless to 
give minute details. 

The hare swims well, and takes fearlessly to the 
water. We have known them cross a broad and 
rapid stream ; and Mr. Yarrold (see ' Tendon's 
Magazine,' vol. v.) gives an account of one which 
in the morning at high water came down to the sea- 
shore, and crossed over to an island a mile distant 
from the mainland. 

Wild and timid as the hare is, it is not unsuscep- 
tible of domestication. The poet Cowper, as is well 
known, kept tame hares ; and many other instances 
might be enumerated. 

The hare breeds when about a year old, and pro- 
duces two or three broods in the course of the spring 
and summer ; but the males and females do not 
form permanent associations. The female, after 
about thirty days' gestation, brings forth from three 
to five young. These are born covered with fur, 


and with the eyes open ; and in about a month they 
leave their parent and shill for themselves. The 
leverets, as the young are termed, are the prey of . 
stoats, weasles, polecats, owls, and hawks. : 

Besides the common hare, the Alpine or varying i 
hare inhabits certain districts of our island, namely, 
the northern parts of Scotland. This species (Lepus 
variabilis^ is common in the mountain districts of 
Sweden, Norway, Lapland, and in the Alps. It is ^ 
occasionally seen on the mountains of Cumberland. 

The Alpmo hare is intermediate in size between | 
the rabbit and the hare. In Sutherlandshire 
and other parts of the Scottish highlands it tenants { 
tlie summits of the mountains, hiding in the clefts 
of rocks or among rocky fragments. During the 
winter lichen is its staple food. At this season it j 
descends to a lower and less exposed station ; and J 
its fur, gradually losing the light fulvous grey of 
summer, becomes of a jsnowy white, the tips of its 
eai-s (which are shorter than the head) remaining 

The common hare of Ireland (Lepus Hibcrnicus) 
is again distinct from the common hare of England. 
The distinguisliing characters between the two were 
first pointed out by Mr. Yarrell. (See 'Proc. Zool. 
Soc' 1833, p. 88.) 

Though somewhat larger than the English species, 
its head is shorter and more rounded; its ears still 
shorter than its head, and its limbs less lengthened. 
The fur also dili'ers greatly in its quality from that 
of our common hare, and is useless as an article of 

318.— The Rabbit 

{Lepus Cuniculus). Coney, Anglic^ ; Coneglio of 
the Italians ; Conejo, Spanish ; Coclho, Portuguese ; 
Koniglein and Kaninchen, German; Konin, Dutch; 
Kanin, Swedish; Kanine, Danish ; and Cwningen of 
the Welsh. 

Size excepted, the rabbit closely resembles the 
hare in all its principal characters. It, may, how- 
ever, be at once disliniruished by the comparative 
shortness of the head and ears, as well as of the 
hinder limbs ; the absence of a black tip to the ears ; 
and by the brown colour of the upper surface of the 
tail. Its habits and general economy are totally 
opposite to those of the hare ; and its flesh, instead 
of being dark and highly flavoured, is white, and, 
though delicate, somewhat insipid, especially that 
of the tame breed. The flesh of the latter is indeed 
preferred by some, but we agree with M. Ude in 
thinking it very inferior. 

It would appear that the rabbit is not an aborigi- 
nal of our island, but the date of its introduction is 
unknown. In the year 1309, at the installation 
feast of the Abbot of St. Austin's, six hundred of 
these animals were provided, at the then great cost 
of 15/. ; the price of each, sixpence, being that of a 
pig. It is generally believed that the rabbit was 
first introduced into Spain from Africa by the 
Romans, whence it gradually spread, naturalising 
itself in temperate climates. 

This animal is eminently gregarious ; and, as is 
well known, makes extensive burrows, in which it 
habitually dwells and rears its young. Sandy soils, 
with a superficial layer of fine vegetable mould 
clothed with thyme, fine grass, and other herbage, 
which at the same time afford food and are easily 
mined, are favourable spols for the increase of the 
rabbit. They delight in steep sandbanks overhung 
with brushwood and furze ; and we have remarked 
that when the old red sandstone crops out and is 
rendered friable, or Somewhat decomposed by the 
action of the atmospheric elements, rabbits are very 
numerous, burrowing with great facility. They 
abound also in woods, especially such as clothe the 
declivities of hills, whence, like the hare, they make 
incursions into the adjacent corn-lands. A rabbit- 
waren, that is, a wide sandy heath, or extensive 
common, devoted to their increase and feeding, 
when visited at the close of day or by moonlight, 
affords an amusing spectacle. Hundreds may be 
seeu of all sizes, gambolling and sporting, and chasing 
eaCh other with astonishing rapidity. When alarmed, 
they take to their burrows, disappearing as if by 

The female is capable of breeding at six months 
old ; and four or five litters, consistineeach of about 
five young, are annually produced. We have stated 
that the hare produces her young clothed, capable 
01 seeing, and soon in a condition to shift for them- 
selves. With the rabbit, circumstances are widely 
different. The young are born blind, and naked, 
and totally helpless. The female forms a separate 
bill row, at the bottom of which she makes a nest of 
dried grass, lining it with fur taken from her own 
body. In this nest she deposits her young, carefully 
covering them over every lime .she leaves them. It 
is not until the tenth or twelfth day that the young 
are able to see; nor do they leave the burrow till 
four or five weeks old. 

The wild rabbit is undoubtedly the origin of. our 
various domestic breeds. Tame rabbits indeed easily 

resume their natural state of freedom, and return to 
their instinctive habits. Albinoes are common in a 
state of domestication, and it often happens that one 
or two appear in a litter when neither of the parents 
are so. 

319.— Thb Stwak Habe. 

According to Desmarest, the common hare of Europe 
exists in Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria. It is, how- 
ever, very probable that the Egyptian hare (Lepiu 
.(5igyptius) extends into the latter region. It differs 
from the Euro '>ean species principall' in the greater 
proportionate ength of its hind limbs and ears. 

320.— The Dwarf Pika 

(Lngomi/s piisillus). The Calling-hare of Pennant; 
Semlanoi Saelshik, or Ground-Hare, of the Russians 
about the Volga : Tschatschat or Ittsitskan, Barking 
Mouse, of the Tartars ; Rusia of the Calmucs. 

In the genus I.,agoinys the muzzle is acute ; the 
ears short and somewhat rounded, and the soles of 
the feet hairy ; the tail is wanting. The dental 
formula approaches that of the genus Lepus ; — In- 

cisors, ;j ; molars, e^. The genus Lagomys is 

widely distributed, though the species described are 
not numerous. About five are known, and of these 
three are natives of the rocky deserts of Tartary and 
Siberia ; the fourth is a native of the Himalaya 
Mountains; a fifth of the Rocky Mountains in the 
high northern regions of America, from latitude 52° 
to 60°. 

The pikas are pretty little animals, with something 
of the manners of our rabbits, and dwell in burrows, 
which are artfully concealed. 

The dwarf pika, or calling-hare, measures little 
more than six inches in total length. It has the 
head longer than usual with hares, and thickly 
covered with fur, even to the tip of the nose; 
numerous hairs in the whiskers; ears large and 
rounded; legs very short; soles furred beneath; 
its whole coat very soft, long, and smooth, with a 
thick, long, fine down beneath, of a brownish lead 
colour : the hairs of the same colour, towards the 
ends of a light grey, and tipped with black ; the lower 
part of the body hoary; the sides and ends of the 
fur yellowish. Weight from three and a quarter to 
four and a half ounces; in winter scarcely two and 
a half ounces. 

The dwarf pika, or calling-hare, is found in the 
south-east parts of Russia, and about the mountain 
ridge spreading from the Ural chain to the south ; it 
also frequents the borders of the Irtish and the west 
part of the Altaic chain, but occurs nowhere in the 
east beyond the Oby. 

These animals delight in sunny valleys and the 
declivities of hills, where food is plentiful, and es- 
pecially where woods or forests afford them a refuge 
in time of danger. They dig deep and intricate 
burrows, the openings of which are not above two 
inches in diameter, and are usually formed beneath 
the concealment of a bush, in situations abounding 
with thickets and underwood, and with the various 
shrubs and grasses upon which they feed. They 
lead for the most part a solitary life, sleep during 
the day with unclosed eyelids, like the hare, and ' 
emerge from their retreats at night, in search of 
food, which principally consists of the bark of the 
young bushes, flowers, buds, and grass. They form 
no winter store, but during the inclement portion of 
the year, still continue to seek out, by excavating 
tracks beneath the snow, their accustomed fare, 
and they are frequently subjected to severe priva- 
tions and even death, in consequence of a deficiency 
of their favourite plants. They drink often when 
they happen to be near water, but can exist with 
very little. The females produce at each litter five 
or six young, which are born blind, helpless, and 
without fur ; but in eight days they acquire sight, 
are covered with hair, and begin to enjoy the use of 
their limbs. 

The most obvious peculiarity of these pikas is ther 
voice, from which they have acquired their trivial 
name. Its tone is so like that of a quail, that 
it IS often mistaken for it even by the inhabitants 
of their native districts. It is heard only in the 
morning and evening, except in dark and cloudy 
weather, and is repeated five or six times by each 
animal at regular intervals, and is loud and sonorous. 
Both the male and female utter this note, but the 
latter is silent for some time alter she has brought 
forth her young, which takes place in the month of 

The pikas are exceedingly gentle. Pallas states 
that they will acquire confidence and become tame 
in the course of a day after captivity. They sit in 
a crouching posture, like the chinchilla, and are ex- 
tremely cleanly, frequently rubbing their faces with 
their fore-paws after the manner of rabbits, and 
scratching their fur with their hinder claws. They 
run by short leaps ; and sleep stretched out at full 





The term Pachydermata was given to the present 
order by Cuvier, and refers to the thickness of the 
hide so generally conspicuous in the animals it 
comprehends ; such, for example, as the elephant, 
hippopotamus, rhinoceros, hog, &c. 

On looking at the order Pachydermata as a whole, 
we find it for the most part composed of a genera 
between which there is a want of that intimate 
reJationship which gives us an idea of unity or 
completeness. We see chasms in the gradation of 
existing forms, and are forced, as it were, by abrupt 
transitions from one genus to another, mstead of 
passing through an intermediate series. Yet we are 
not rashly to infer the original plan and purpose of 
nature to have been destitute of unity. Far trom 
it : happily the researches of the geologist have 
brought to light the fossil relics of many species, the 
extinction of which at some remote epoch has lelt 
blanks in the series— blanks, however, which we are 
thus enabled to fill up. And as these researches 
are continued and extended, we have reason to con- 
clude that every hiatus caused by the absence of 
intermediate forms will become occupied. In the 
present order, indeed, the fossil relics of extinct spe- 
cies are peculiarly valuable and interesting : among 
them are found not only the fossil remains of ani- 
mals allied to existing species, as the fossil elephant 
or mammoth, fossil rhinoceroses, and others, but also 
of animals which have now no living representatives, 
and which constitute the types of distinct genera, 
comprehending exclusively beings whose characters 
are to be drawn only from their recovered relics, 
they themselves having been long blotted out from 
among the " things that be." Such are the Mastodon, 
the Anaplotherium, the Palaeotherium, the Toxodoc, 
the Dinotherium, and many more. 

The order Pachydermata is divided by Cuvier 
into three sections: the first (Proboscideans) in- 
cludes the elephants and the extinct Mastodon ; the 
second 'ordinary Pachyderms), the hippopotamus, 
tapir, rhinoceros, and' hoe,— the Anaplotherium, 
Palaeotherium, and many other extinct forms ; the 
third (the solidungulous Pachyderms) includes the 
horse and ass. To these we may add a fourth, 
namely, the aquatic, represented by the Dugong, 
Lamantin, &c. 

We shall commence our review of the Pachyderms 
with the history of the elephant ; of which gigantic 
beast our pictorial museum is replete with speci- 

321.— The Elephant. 
Two species of elephant are at the present day in 
existence, viz., the Indian elephant (Elephas Indi- 
cus). Figs. 321, 322, 323, 339, 340, and the African 
Elephant (Elephas Afiicanus), Figs. 324, 336. 

To the distinguishing characters between these 
two species we will first attend. 

The Indian Elephant is characterised by the elon- 
gation or pyramidal elevation of the skull (Fig. 327), 
the concavity of the forehead, the moderate size of 
the ears, and the parallel narrow transverse ribands 
or lines of enamel with indented edges which tra- 
verse the crown of the grinders. This character is 
well displayed in Fig. 330, (^" which a represents 
the upper molar tooth, and b the lower molar tooth 
of that species. The number of toes on each foot 
is really five, but of the hind-toes four only are 
indicated by hoofs, the fifth being buried within 
the dense skin. The tusks of the female never 
acquire the size of those of the male. The male 
attains to the height of 8, 9, or 10 feet at the 
shoulder. This animal is a native of India, Cochin- 
China, Siam, Pegu, Ava, the island of Ceylon, and 
other large islands, as Borneo and Sumatra. 

The African Elephant is distinguished by the 
rounded figure of the skull (Fig. 328), by the mag- 
nitude of the ears, which spread over the shoulders, 
and by the lozenge-shape assumed by the lines of 
enamel traversing the grinders. The figure of these 
lines is well represented by Fig. 331, of which a 
represents the surface of the upper grinder ; b, the 
Jovver grinder ; c, the original state of the grinders, 
when the laminae of which they consist are free, that 
is, as yet uncemented together ; and d, the laminae 
as they are attached in parallels one to the other 
by cortical substance, in a more developed slate of 
dentition, but before the crown of the tooth has j 
been worn by mastication, and when it only presents 
on its surface blunt tubercles. To the structure of 
these teeth we shall have occasion to refer again. 

The tusks in the African Elephant are often of 
huge size, and almost as large in the female as ia 
the male. The toes are really five, but four only 
on each anterior foot, and three on each hinder foot, 
are indicated externally by hoofs. In the present 
day this species is confined to the remoter regions of 
the African continent. 

We shall now proceed to a few general remarks 
on the structure and organization of the Elephant, 
applicable to both species. 

There is something, it must be confessed, noble 

and imposing in the appearance of the elephant ; 
and especially when viewed in front (see Fig. 343). 
Its colossal bulk, its vast powers, and the peculiarity 
of its form and proportions, render it conspicuous 
among the crowd of terre-strial animals. Its 
dignity, however, is the dignity of strength and 
stature ; there is no grace in its contour, but every 
part is heavy and massive. The huge body is sup- 
ported on four pillars, for such the limbs appear, the 
bones of which bear perpendicularly on each other 
(see skeleton. Fig. 341 ;, while a towering head of 
vast size seems to rise at once from the shoulders, 
without the intervention of a neck. The vertebrae 
of the neck (Fig. 341) are indeed seven, as is the 
general rule in the class Mammalia; but instead of 
being elongated, as in the ox, deer, or antelope, they 
are compressed into a short space, — for strength and 
firmness are required. How, indeed, could the pon- 
derous head of this animal be supported were the 
neck to be modelled upon a plan of slender elegance i" 
Independent of the ivory tusks, the weight of the 
^ull itself is very great : we have seen four strong 
men labour in carrying one of moderate size ; but 
the tusks make a considerable addition. Those of 
some of the Indian elephants vary from 70 to 100 
lbs. each ; but those of the African species are far 
heavier. Hartenfels, in his ' Elephantographia,' 
gives a table of the weight and length of the most 
remarkable upon record, with his authorities ; among 
oth(?rs, one is stated to have weighed 325 lbs. Cam- 
per, who possessed one weighing 105 lbs., notices 
one sold at Amsterdam, the weight of which was 
350 lbs. Well, then, may the head appear as if des- 
titute of a neck when we consider the load to be 
sustained. The shortness, however, of the neck (set- 
ting aside the projecting tusks, which of themselves 
would form an insuperable obstacle), prevents the 
elephant from applying his mouth to the ground ; 
neither can he browse on the foliage of the trees 
like the giraffe, for the position and formation of 
the mouth forbid the attempt. (See Fig. 342, the 
head of the elephant with the proboscis upraised, 
showing the mouth.) But to atone for the short- 
ness of the neck, and those harmonious concomi- 
tants of structure which exclude this animal from 
the pale of those that on the one hand graze, and on 
the other browse, the elephant is provided with an 
organ which more than supplies every deficiency ; 
we allude to the proboscis— an instrument in every 
respect of essential importance in this creature's 

The proboscis of the elephant must not, however, 
be regarded exactly in the light of a new organ : it 
is a modification of the structure of the upper lip 
and nose ; and though in the elephant this is car- 
ried out to its maximum, still we find an analogous 
but short proboscis in the tapir, nor are traces of it 
lost in the rhinoceros, which has the upper lip capable 
of being protruded, and endowed with considerable 
powers of prehension. If we turn to the skull of the 
elephant (Fig. 329, section of a skull ; a, the open- 
ing of the nostrils), we find the nasal orifice not only 
large, but appearing as if situated in the forehead, 
in consequence of the situation and development 
of the alveoli (sockets) in which the bases of the 
huge projecting tusks are imbedded. From the 
nasal orifice is continued the proboscis of the ele- 
phant, in the form of an elongated cone : in its an- 
terior aspect it is rounded, and the coarse skin which 
covers it is furrowed by transverse wrinkles very 
apparent when the animal contracts the proboscis, 
but which almost disappear when it is protruded to 
the full stretch. The under surface is flattened, 
with a rough projecting margin on each side, pro- 
ducing in some degree a similarity to the legs of a 
large caterpillar. Flexible to an extreme, and pos- 
sessing an amazing strength, this organ consists of 
bundles of muscular fibres, disposed, some longitudi- 
nally, others transversely, in various directions cross- 
ing each other, and diverging from two nasal canals 
separated from each other by a tendinous partition, 
and lined with a mucous membrane over which 
nerves are abundantly distributed. Fig. 344 shows 
a section of a portion of the proboscis or trunk of 
the elephant admirably illustrative of its structure :— 
A. Horizontal section, in which we see the small 
transverse muscles cut — some (a) across : others (b) 
In their length, n. Vertical section in lensth, 
which has divided the nasal canal on the left side. 
The small transverse muscles, which are seen in 
their length at 6, are cut across ate; — other small 
muscles of the same kind are seen at their length at 
d. We see in their length, at e, the antagonist of 
these transverse muscles — that is, the small longi- 
tudinal muscles, c. Vertical section across. The 
Email transverse muscles are seen in their length. 
They have various directions, not precisely radiating 
from the axis to the circumference, though their 
course is always across. They are all within the 
bed of the small longitudinal muscles which the 
section has divided across. The principal nerves 
and blood vessels are also shown in this section ; 
as also the two canals of the trunk. 

It is to this multiform arrangement of its muscles 
(and according to Cuvier their number is about forty 
thousand), all of which are under the will, that the 
proboscis of this animal owes its flexibility. It can 
be protruded or contracted at pleasure, raised up or 
turned to either side, coiled round on itself or twined 
around any object. With this instrument the ele- 
phant collects the herbage on which he feeds and 
puts it into his mouth ; with this he strips the trees 
of their branches, or grasps his enemy and dashes 
him to the ground. But this admirable organ is not 
only adapted for seizing or holding substances of 
magnitude ; it is also capable of plucking a single 
leal, or of picking up a straw from the floor. The 
orifices of the canals of the extremity are encircled 
by a projecting margin, produced anteriorly into a 
finger-like process endowed with a high degree of 
sensibility and exceedingly flexible. • It is at once 
a finger for grasping and a feeler ; the division be- 
tween the two nasal orifices or their elevated sides 
serves as a point against which to press ; and thus it 
can pick up or hold a small coin, a bit of biscuit, 
or any trifling thing with the greatest ease. Figs. 
345 — 351 will serve better than words to convey a 
clear idea of the structure of the termination of the 
trunk, and of the modes in which the animal uses 
it. Figs 346 and 347 show the difference of form 
in the termination of the trunk of the male and fe- 
male. As the elephant feeds himself by means of 
his proboscis, so he drinks by the same means also. 
The young elephant takes its mother's milk in the 
ordinary manner ; but in order to drink, the animal 
dips the extremity of the proboscis into the water, 
and sucks up the fluid, so as to fill the two canals ; 
it then inserts the extremity into the mouth, and 
discharges the contents. And here it may be ob- 
served, that at the upper part of the canal, just 
anterior to the nasal orifice of the skull, there exists 
a moveable cartilage so disposed as to lead to the 
conclusion that it acts as a valve in preventing 
the water when sucked up from passing through the 
posterior nares into the throat, which would be the 
case but for some remedial contrivance. The ele- 
phant can retain the water taken into his proboscis 
as long as he pleases, and discharge it either gently 
or with great violence : he does the latter, when 
throwing it over his own body to cool himself, or 
when in playfulness or anger he discharges "it against 
any bystander. Through this trunk, the shrill 
trumpet-like noise which the elephant often utters, 
and which is an expression of satisfaction, is pro- 

If we turn to the skeleton of this huge beast, its 
solidity will not fail to strike us. We shall not here 
enter into minute details ; we may, however, state 
that the head of the thigh-bone is not bound to the 
socket by the ligamentum teres : this peculiarity ex- 
ists only in the orang, the sloth, the seal, the enhy- 
dra, the walrus, and the ornithorhyncus, and in the 
present animal. The skull of the elephant is alto- 
gether extraordinary, and presents us with a vast 
frontal elevation, which gives it an air of great dig- 
nity, but, as we shall see, the appearance is decep- 
tive. Fig 329, which represents a vertical section 
of the skull, may be liere consulted. Before and 
above the cranial cavity c the two tables of the skull 
are separated from each other by a series of irregular 
cells (the frontal sinuses carried to an extreme) b b : 
whence it follows that the anterior and upper portion 
of the skull is more advanced and elevated than the 
development of the brain itself warrants. We read 
of instances in which many balls have been lodged 
in the head of the elephant without bringing him 
down, and the reason is obvious : they entered the 
vast region of cells, and did not touch the brain ; 
and to this circumstance is to be attributed the mi- 
serable failure of the attempt made some years since 
to shoot an infuriated elephant then existing at 
Exeter Change. A skilful elephant-hunter would 
have saved the poor animal from protracted torments 
and a lingering death. In the dentition of the ele- 
phant we find much analogy to the order Rodentia, 
and among them especially to the Capybara. The 
teeth of the elephant consist only of molars, and of 
incisors, or, as they are commonly called, tusks, which 
occur only in the upper jaw. The molars are of a 
compound structure, consisting of transverse folds of 
enamel, each fold enveloping a central nodule of 
bone, with an external coat of a different character, 
called cortical substance, or crusta petrosa, compacts 
the whole together. Thus a single grinder may be 
regarded as made up of a certain number of distinct 
teeth bound up into one mass. The process by 
which these separate constituents of the molars are 
deposited and arranged in the capsule is admirably 
described by Cuvier, in his ' Ossemens Fossiles,' to 
which work we refer those who wish to investigate 
the subject (see vol. i. p. 31). 

The molars of the elephant when perfected are not 
permanent, but are shed in due succession for six oi- 
eight times, perhaps oftener, and this not from the 
rising up of a fresh tooth below the one it is to suc- 
ceed, but by the rising up of a new one behind 

3X7.— skull of ludiu Elephant. 

Stl.— Aaiatic Elephant. 

3S8.— Skull of Alrieui Elephant. 

322. — Elephant of the Jardin des Plantes. 



^^ . 





331.— Teeth of African Elephant. 


32S.— Elephant broviing. 

326.— Voung Elephants browsing. 

343.— Head of Llephant. 

■il J .— liud of Elephtat'a Trunk (protk ) 

. my 

337, — Bleplunt lying down. 

3J8.— ProboncU in itallierin( lonj 
. herbage* 

2, — Head of EHephantrwhh proboeeia upraised. 

311.— Skeleton of Elephant. 

34'j.~IIerbag8 whea gathered. 

" 9 

4*- - •# 

3:l9.— Youn^ Elephant snekling. 

3M.— The Indira EWphaat. 

316.— Eud of Trunk of Male. 

347.— End of Trunk of Female. 

314.— Section of the Trunk of the Elephant. 

3Sfi.— African Elephant. 

338.— Elephant lineeling. 

No. 11. 






the old one, and which gradually becoming de- 
veloped advances forwards as the old one wears 
away, till its last remnant i» pushed out. The posi- 
tion of the new tooth, with respect to the old one, 
in progress of wearing will be seen by referring to 
the section of the skull. Fig. 329 ; the character* of 
the young teeth when forming and before worn 
down are delineated in Fig. 331, c, d. In the 
skull (Fig. 329) H shows the anterior tooth reduced 
almost to nothing by detrition, and by the compres- 
sion of the succeeding tooth ; i shows a full-formed 
tooth in activity, already partially ground down on 
it face I, but with the posterior laminee as yet un- 
touched ; L, is the germ of a tooth, to succeed the 
former (i) — it is enclosed in a membraneous capsule, 
and lodged in a cavity at the back of the jaw. 
On this subject wp might enlarge, but our limits for- 
bid. The tusks of the elephant (upper incisors) are 
destitute of true roots, and have no other union to 
their deep sockets than that of close contact ; they 
resemble a nail driven into a plank ; and by gentle 
and continued pressure may have their direction al- 
tered. They consist of concentric layers of ivory, 
and grow by the continued deposition of these layers 
added internally, for the pulp or core which deposits 
the ivory tills the cavity at the base of the tusk, and 
arises from the bottom of the socket ; it is of great 
size, and has no organic union with the tusk it se- 
cretes. We have seen several instances in which 
bullets have, on cutting the tusks, been found im- 
bedded in the ivory, to the astonishment of those 
who know not the manner in which the tusks are 
produced. In these instances the bullet has en- 
tered the socket, and lodged in the bottom of the 
hollow base of the tusk, and the pulp or core in that 
hollow has kept covering it with layer after layer 
of ivory, the tusk growing all the time, till at last, 
from being in the hollow, the bullet attains the solid 
centre of the full-grown tusk, being moved farther 
and farther forwards by each deposit of ivory from 
within. The tusks are not shed, as are the molars, 
but a permanent pair succeed a deciduous pair, shed 
between the first and second year of existence. 
These tusks vary in size and curve : we learn from 
Mr. Corse that one variety of Asiatic elephant is 
characterized by straight tusks pointing downwards ; 
it is termed IVlooknah : another variety has large 
heavy tusks inclining more or less upwards, and is 
termed Dauntelah. Independently, however, of the 
shape and size of the tusks in the male, the .Asiatic 
species is divided into two main or principal castes, 
between which ihere are many degrees of inter- 
mixture. These two castes are called respectively 
Koomareah and Merghee. The Koomareah is a 
deep-bodied, strong, compact elephant, with a large 
trunk, and legs short in proportion to the size of the 
animal. The Merghee when fully grown is gene- 
rally taller than the former, but he has not so com- 
pact a form, nor is he so strong or so capable of bear- 
ing fatigue ; his legs are long ; he travels fast, has a 
lighter body, and his trunk is both short and slender 
in proportion to his height. A large trunk is always 
esteemed a great beauty in an elephant, so that the 
Koomareah is preferred not only for this, but for its 
superior strength, by which it can undergo greater 
fatigue, and carry heavier loads than the Merghee. 

The external characters of the elephant, which 
we have not as yet noticed, need not long detain us. 
The skin is dark-coloured, rough, and nearly desti- 
tute of hair ; a tuft of bristles laterally disposed 
terminates the tail; the eyes are very small, but 
lively and intelligent ; the tusks project on each 
side of the base of the proboscis. On each temple 
are situated certain glands with ducts opening on 
the surface of the skin, whence exudes an unctuous 
secretion : but beyond this nothing appears to be 
ascertained. The udder of the female is placed on 
the chest between the fore-legs, and the young ele- 
phant sucks with the side of its mouth, compressing 
the udder with its trunk, to increase the flow of milk 
(Fig. a'W). 

The young elephant at its birth is about thirty-five 
inches m height, and it arrives at maturity when be- 
tween eighteen and twenty-four years of age. The 
average ratio of growth, as ascertained by Mr. Corse 
('Phil. Trans.' vol. xviii.), is eleven inches in the 
first year, eight inches in the second, six the third, 
five the fourth, five inches in the fifth, three inches 
and a half in the sixth, and two inches and a half 
in the seventli. The males are probably longer in 
attaining their full growth than the females ; but 
the females produce young before they have ceased 
to grow. Mr. Corse mentions one instance in which 
the increase of growth during pregnancy amounted 
to five inches. The period of gestation is twenty 
months and eighteen days. The elephant possesses 
the senses of smell and hearing in great perfection, 
and musical sounds evidently produce pleasure. 

Heavy and clumsy as is the form of this animal, 
yet its pace is tolerably quick, especially over level 
ground ; indeed, when irritated, the elephant rushes 
on with great rapidity, and many are the instances 
on record in which the hunter, unsuccessful in his 

shot, has been pursued, overtaken, and trodden to 
death. The gait of the animal is, however, peculiar, 
and destitute of elasticity, and on reference to the 
skeleton (Fig. 341) the reason will be immediately 
perceived. In the first place the bones of the limbs 
have an almost perpendicular bearing with respect 
to each other ; and in the next place there is no 
canon-bone (a long metacarpal and ■ metatarsal 
bone) as in the fore and hind limbs of the horse, 
which may thus be said to have three bones in the 
leg, those of the hinder limbs in particular being all 
oblique ; whereas the elephant has the Metacarpal 
and metatarsal bones five in number in each foot, 
shore, and restricted to the foot itself, instead of 
adding to the length and elasticity of the limbs. 
In the horse the thigh-bone is very short, the true 
knee-joint is as high as the flanks, and the whole of 
the limb from the hock-joint to the hoof, which really 
constitutes the foot, consists of tarsal or instep 
bones, a long metatarsal or canon-bone, and three 
phalangal bones, the last cased in horn ; these are 
commonly called the pastern bones and coffin-bone. 
The arrangement of these bones in the limb of the 
elephant is very different ; and the knee, from the 
length of the thigh-bone, is lower than in the horse, 
so that the animal kneels in the same way as man 
(see Fig. 338). 

The haunts of the elephant in his native regions 
are forests along the borders of rivers, well watered 
and fertile plains, where vegetation attains its ut- 
most luxuriance, and green savannahs. There he 
reposes in the shade of the trees, or cools himself in 
the waters. Bathing, indeed, is one of the favourite 
enjoyments of this beast. Even in our climate 
during the summer months the bath is a luxury : 
we have often seen the elephant in the gardens of 
the Zool. Soc. plunge into his tank, draw the water 
up into his trunk, and spout it in showers around ; 
then immerse himself completely, the end of the 
trunk alone appearing above the surface, and there 
flounder about in the exuberance of health and 
spirits. In his native country he crosses the broad- 
est rivers, the body, while swimming, being sub- 
merged, and nothing seen but the extremity of the 
upraised proboscis. Nor is it to water only that the 
elephant displays a partiality : he luxuriates in the 
ooze and mud of swamps and marshes, and rolls 
and wallows in the half-fluid mire. We have seen 
him fill his proboscis with this mixture, and dis- 
charge it over every part of his body so as to invest 
himself with a layer of mud. In the hot regions of 
which he is a native, he may find this a means of 
protecting the skin from the scorching of the solar 
rays, as well as a defence against the annoyance of 
insects, for the skin, thick and coarse as it is, is 
nevertheless extremely sensitive. The same par- 
tiality for the mud-bath is also displayed by the 
rhinoceros and the hog. 

Bishop Heber has described the bathing of wild 
elephants which he saw upon his approach to Decca ; 
" At the distance of about half a mile from these 
desolate palaces, a sound struck my ear, as if from 
the water itself on which we were riding, the most 
solemn and singular I can conceive. It was long, 
loud, deep, and tremulous, something between the 
bellowing of a bull and the blowing of a whale, or 
perhaps most like those roaring buoys which are 
placed at the mouths of some English harbours, in 
which the winds make a noise to warn ships off 
them. 'Oh!' said Abdallah, 'there are elephants 
bathing. Decca much place for elephant.' I 
looked immediately, and saw about twenty of those 
fine animals with their heads and trunks just ap- 
pearing above the water. Their bellowing it was 
which I had heard, and which the water conveyed 
to us with a tiner effect than if we had been on 
shore." Besides the water and mud-bath for cool- 
ing the skin and keeping off flies, the elephant, as 
is often seen in India, will fan himself with a large 
bough, and use it with ease and dexterity. The 
beautiful description by Mr. Southey of this habit 
is so appropriate, that we hesitate not to introduce 

" Trampling: his path throug^h wood and brake. 
And canes which crackling fall before his way, 
Alid tassel (jrass whose silvery feathers play, 
O'ertoppinc the yoiinjf trees. 
On comes the elephant, to slake 
HU thirst, at noon, in yon pellucid springs. 
ho] from his triinli upturn d, aloft he flings 
The grateful shower ; and now 
Pluclting the broad-leafe*i bough 
Of yonder plume, with waving motion slow. 
Fanning the languid air, 
lie waves it to and fro." 

A herd of elephants headed by their mighty 
leaders feeding in calm security in the secluded 
depths of the forest, or on the banks of a river in 
some secluded valley, forms one of the most imposing 
pictures in nature. Such a scene is beautifully 
described by Pringle ; but willingly as we would 
quote it, our limits forbid. One point, however, we 
may notice — the use, as observed by that traveller, 
to which these animals apply their tusks as levers 
in uproofinf trees. It was in the valley of the 
Koonap River that the narrator came upon the 

track of a herd : " Foot prints of all dimensions from 
eight to fifteen inches in diameter were eveiywhere 
visible, and m the swampy spots on the banks of 
the river it was evident that some of them had been 
luxuriously enjoying themselves by rolling their 
unwieldy bulks in the ooze and mud. But it was in 
the groves and jungles that they left the most 
striking proofs of their recent presence and peculiar 
habits. In many places paths had been trodden 
through the midst of dense thorny forests otherwise 
impenetrable. Among the groves of mimosa-trees, 
which were thinly sprinkled over the grassy meadows 
along the river margins, the traces of the elephants 
were not less apparent. Immense numbers of these 
trees had been torn out of the ground, and placed in 
an inverted position, in order to enable the animals to 
browse at theirease on the soft and juicy roots, which 
form a favourite part of their food. I observed that, 
in numerous instances, when the trees were of con- 
siderable size, the elephant had employed one of 
his tusks exactly as we should use a crow-bar — 
thrusting it under the roots to loosen their hold of 
the earth, before he could tear them up with his 

This account refers to the African species, but 
will also apply to the Indian. The noble elephant 
in the garden of the Zool. Soc. has at different 
times used his tusks in wrenching down the boards 
which line his apartment, and that with such effect 
as to demolish no small portion of the inner wood- 
work, which is of great strength and thickness. 

The African elephant equals, if it does not sur- 
pass, its Indian relative in size. Major Denham saw 
one killed which measured 12 feet 6 inches in 
height, and mentions others which appeared to be 
considerably larger. Mr. Pringle saw one which 
two officers of engineers agreed in stating at 14 feet. 
The Indian elephant seldom exceeds 10 feet. 

From the earliest times this noble beast has been 
employed by man ; and multitudes have been 
drafted from their native forests, and with little 
training brought to implicit obedience. It has 
served him as a beast of burden, or as an auxiliary 
of war, and has added by its presence to swell the 
pomp of kings and conquerors. Setting aside the 
rude method of taking these animals in pits, now 
seldom or never practised, it is remarkable that in 
every mode man avails himself of the assistance of 
individuals of the same species which he has already 

It is well known that large male elephants, from 
some cause not ascertained, occasionally wander 
about alone ; they are of large size and great fero- 
city, and wherever they pass do much mischief. 
Being the finest elephants, and best adapted for 
sale, great as the risk may be, the hunters eagerly 
endeavour to capture them. They follow them 
cautiously, by day and night, with two or four 
trained females, called koomkies. If it be dark 
they can hear the animal striking his food, to clean 
it, against his fore-legs, and then they approach 
tolerably close : if it be light they advance more 
cautiously. The females gradually move towards him 
apparently unconscious of his presence, gatheiing 
herbage and feeding on it with great complacency, 
as if they were, like him, inhabitants of the wild 
forest. It is soon seen by them whether he is likely 
to be entrapped by their arts; the drivers remain 
concealed at a little distance, while the koomkies 
press round the unfortunate goondah, or saun (lor 
so these solitary males are called). If he abandon 
himself to the caresses of his new companions, his 
capture is almost certain. The hunters cautiously 
creep under him, and during the time that his 
attention is thus absorbed they fasten his fore-legs 
with a strong rope. It is said that the wily females 
will not only divert his attention from their mohouts, 
but absolutely assist them in fastening the cords 
(see Fig. 352). The hind-legs are also secured, 
and, if the situation permits, lashed to a large tree. 
Tlie hunters then leave him, and the faithless 
females retire : he tries to follow, and discovers his 
condition. If fastened to a tree (Fig. 353), he ex- 
hausts himself with rage and vain efforts to break 
loose ; but if not secured, still he moves with diffi- 
culty in his shackles, and as long cables are left 
trailing behind him, the mohouts soon seize the 
opportunity of lashing them round a tree of suffi- 
cient strength. Sometimes he breaks his bonds and 
rushes madly to the forest, where the hunters dare 
not follow him. But if adequately bound, his 
struggles are useless ; and, worn out by the violence 
of his anger, his exertions, and hunger, he sub- 
mits at length, and is conducted under the escort of 
his treacherous friends to an appointed station, and, 
after a few months' discipline, becomes reconciled to 
his fate. 

In the 'Asiatic Trans.,' vol. iii., Mr. Corse gives 
an animated description of the mode of conducting 
the operation of elephant-catching on a great 
scale, as practised at lipperah, where thousands of 
people assemble to drive a herd of these superb 
animals with the clang of drums and trumpets, and 




the din of fireworks and musketry. The outline of 
the plan is as .'oUows : — The herd when discovered 
is surrounded by a circle of men, divided into small 
parties, at the distance of 20 or 30 yards from each 
other ; these, by noises of various kinds, and by fires 
lighted at different posts, drive the animals into a 
body ; in the morning the circle opens, and the 
herd is slowly driven forward towards a spot where 
a new circle is prepared to receive it ; the people 
closing up, taking their proper stations, and passing 
the remainder of the day and night as before. In 
this manner, day after day, it is conducted towards 
a sort of concealed pound or inclosure called a 
keddah, made of strong timbers, and divided into 
two or. three great pens communicating with each 
other by means of gates, which are shut as the 
herd is forced from pen to pen. The last pen has a 
narrow outlet passage with a doorway sufiicient for 
the entrance of only one elephant at a- time ; and 
the passage itself will not allow a large elephant to 
turn round. When by dint of noise and fires the 
animals have entered the first gate of the keddah, 
and they find themselves ensnared, their rage is 
extreme, but escape is now rmpossible ; one outlet 
only offers, but it leads to the next inclosure : the 
leader enters, the rest follow ; the gate is instantly 
shut by people who are stationed on a small scaffold 
immediately above it, and strongly barricaded ; fires 
are lighted, and the same discordant din made and 
continued, till the herd has passed through another 
gateway into the last inclosure, the gate of which is 
secured in the same manner as the former was. 
The elephants, being now completely surrounded on 
all sides, and' perceiving no outlet through which 
they can escape, appear desperate, and in their 
fury advance frequently to the ditch, in order to 
break down the palisades, inflating their trunks, 
screaming louder and shriller than any trumpet, 
sometimes grumbling like the hollow murmur of 
distant thunder ; but wherever they make an attack, 
they are opposed by lighted fires, and by the noiss 
and triumphant shouts of the hunters. As they 
must remain some time in this inclosure, care is 
always taken to have part of the ditch filled with 
water, which is supplied by a small stream, either 
natural, or conducted through an artificial channel 
from some neighbouring reservoir. The elephants 
have recourse to this water to quench their thirst 
after their fatigues, by sucking the water into their 
trunks, and then squirting it over every part of their 
bodies. While they remain in this inclosure they 
continue sulky, and seem to meditate their escape ; 
but the hunters build huts around them close to the 
palisades, watchmen are placed, and every precau- 
tion used to prevent their breaking through. 

When the herd has continued a few days in this 
partition, the door of the outlet passage is opened, 
and one is at last enticed in with food. Having 
entered, the door is closed and securely barred : 
retreat is impossible, and the captive is hemmed 
completely in. His struggles in that narrow cage 
are useless. He is then enveloped in a labyrinth of 
cords, and exhausted with fatigue and fury, he is 
led out between two powerful trained beasts, to 
whom he is bound and tied, and brought by them 
to a spot where he is fastened to strong trees (see 
Fig. 3J4). He then becomes again excited, and 
sometimes fulls a victim to his paroxysm of fury ; 
but commonly the cravings of hunger induce him 
to eat, and he gradually yields to the power of gen- 
tle discipline. 

It is not an unfrequent occurrence for a domesti- 
cated elephant to escape to the wild herd, and re- 
sume its former independence ; and such have been 
retaken, and submitted immediately to their former 
riders. Mr. Corse mentions a female which twice 
escaped, and who each time she was taken obeyed 
the words of command, attended to her name, came 
to the side of the keddah when called, ate from the 
hands of the hunters, and knelt down when ordered. 
In another case, that of a male, which had escaped 
about eighteen months, the animal was furious when 
entrapped in the keddah : an old hunter, however, 
recognised him, rode boldly up to him, and ordered 
him to lie down, pulling him by the ear. The animal 
seemed quite taken by surprise, and instantly obeyed. 
Warren Hastings, the governor-general of India, 
possessed an elephant which had been ten years 
absent from the rule of man. His keeper being 
dismissed, he was refractory to all others who at- 
tempted to control him ; and at length escaped to 
the wild herd. After the long interval we have 
mentioned, his old keeper recognised him in a ked- 
dah, and he instantly submitted himself to him. 
Mr. Zoffany painted the portrait of this animal, and, 
in the key to his published print of a tiger-hunt, 
vouches for the authenticity of this account. Fig. 
359 is a copy of Mr. Zoffany's print. 

The elephant is not used in the present day in 
India as an engine of war, but as a beast of bur- 
den, in the transport of baggage, tents, and various 
stores ; and there are peculiar circumstances in the 
march of an Indian army which render the elephant 

extremely serviceable. Where dense jungles offer 
impediments which the pioneers could not obviate 
without great labour and consequent delay, three 
or four elephants clear the way at once ; trampling 
down the long grass and bushes, and breaking 
down the slender trees ; in short, levelling all before 
them : again, where the artillery has to be dragged 
through heavy roads of clay and mire, and deep 
sloughs, their strength and sagacity are in great re- 
quisition. They always apply their force in the most 
efficacious manner, and assist each other with won- 
derful sagacity. Capt. Williamson thus notices their 
services in this particular: — " Many of our most ar- 
duous military operations have been greatly indebted 
for their success to the sagacity, patience, and ex- 
ertion of elephants. Exclusive of their utility in 
carrying baggage and stores, considerable aid is 
frequently supplied by the judgment they display, 
bordering very closely on reason. When cannon 
require to be extricated from sloughs, the elephant, 
placing his forehead to the muzzle, which when 
limbered is the rear of the piece, with an energy 
scarcely to be conceived, will urge it through a bog 
from which hundreds of oxen or horses could not 
drag it : at other times, lapping his trunk round the 
cannon, he will lift while the cattle and men pull 
forward. (Fig. 356.) The native princes attach an 
elephant to each cannon, to aid its progress in 
emergencies. For this purpose the animal is fur- 
nished with a thick leather pad covering the fore- 
head, to prevent its being injured. It has some- 
times happened that, in narrow roads or causeways, 
or on banks, the soil has given way under heavy 
cannon; when an elephant, being applied to the 
falling side, has not only prevented the piece from 
upsetting, but even aided it forward to a state uf 
security." Elephants have probably been employed 
in this manner Irorn the first introduction of artil- 
lery into Asia. Bernier, describing the army of 
Aurungzebe, says—" Many of these cannon are so 
ponderous, that twenty yoke of oxen is necessary 
to draw them along ; and some, when the road is 
steep or rugged, require the aid of elephants in ad- 
dition to the oxen, to push the carriage-wheels with 
their heads and trunks." Heavy guns are often 
carried on elephants' backs, both in the native and 
the Indian armies. 

In dragging cannon up mountain-passes, where 
the road is steep and rugged, these animals have 
often performed good service, stimulated by the 
praises and encouragement of their drivers, which 
have great effect upon them ; besides, when they 
have achieved any difficult operation, it is usual to 
reward them with sweetmeats and arrack, and from 
all accounts they labour expecting the customary 
reward. In former times, the elephant, adorned 
with gorgeous trappings, swelled the royal state of 
princes and persons of distinction, but in British 
India it is now rarely seen upon occasions of cere- 
mony, excepting at the courts of the native princes 
who still retain some degree of independent autho- 
rity. In Calcutta their use is prohibited, as horses 
unused to them often take fright and occasion acci- 
dents. A line of elephants richly caparisoned is 
however a noble spectacle. At Vizier All's wed- 
ding in 1796, there was a grand procession of twelve 
hundred elephants all magnificently adorned ; of 
these one hundred in the centre had howdahs, or 
castles, covered with silver; and in the midst ap- 
peared the nabob, mounted on an uncommonly 
large elephant, within a howdah covered with gold, 
richly set with precious stones. Some of the ele- 
phants of Aurungzebe were, according to Bernier, 
most splendidly attired. Sir T. Rowe thus describes 
the state elephants of Jehanghir : — " His greatest 
elephants were brought before him, some of which, 
being lord elephants, had their chains, bells, and 
furniture of gold and silver, attended with gilt 
banners and flags ; and eight or ten elephants 
waiting on him, clothed in gold, silk, and silver. 
Thus passed about twelve companies, most richly 
furnished ; the first elephant having all the plates 
on his head and breast set with rubies and emeralds, 
being a beast of wonderful stature and beauty. 
They all bowed down before the king." 

By Europeans in India, the elephant is used for 
travelling, and in hunting the tiger. The horse 
cannot be brought to follow the track, or stand 
firm at the sight of the ferocious beast, but the 
elephant will do both ; and besides his delicate 
scent, his bodily powers, which enable him to make 
his way through the thickest covers, and his great 
stature, which places the hunters seated in a howdah 
on his back in comparative safety, are peculiar re- 
commendations. (See Figs. 360, 361, 362,) After 
all, however, the sport is not unattended with danger, 
for the elephant fears the tiger, and the latter, when 
wounded or hard pressed, bounds upon the nearest 
elephant, and mostly tries to seize the creature's 
trunk : this it throws up as high as possible, and if 
a staunch beast, endeavours to receive the foe on its 
tusks : well-trained elephants have been known to 
succeed, and, instantly kneeling, transfix the tiger 

and pin him to the ground (Fig. 357) ; but it often 
happens that the tiger accomplishes his effort, in 
which case the elephant loses all self-possession, 
and sets off at full speed, roaring violently, and 
throwi- g all into contusion. Sometimes indeed the 
elephant will not stand the attack, but precipitately 
retreats in the greatest consternation, in which case, 
if the tiger springs upon the animal, the hunters are 
in imminent peril. Mr. Williamson ('Oriental Field- 
sports ') relates an instance in which a gentleman 
w'ent out with others in pursuit of a cunning 
and daring tiger, and who urged his mohout to 
make his elephant to beat among the tall grass 
where the scent was strongest; this being done, in 
spite of the tremendous tones of the agitated animal, 
the tiger found himself compelled either to resist 
or submit to be trodden upon : he sprang at once 
upon the elephant's quarter, fixed hi% fore-paws in 
the pad on the animal's back, and his hind-claws in 
the flesh of the thigh. In a paroxysm of fear, oc- 
casioned by the suddenness of the attack, and pain, 
the elephant dashed through the cover, the tiger 
still clinging, but unable, from the motion of the 
elephant, to mount higher. It was with difficulty 
that the gentleman could keep his seat, and he was 
prevented from firing at the grim beast, both from 
his unprecedented situation, and from the danger of 
wounding some of the numerous followers who were 
exerting the utmost speed of their respective ele- 
phants to come to his assistance. The pace of the 
elephant was wavy and irregular, owing to the 
animal's fear, and fortunately gave opportunity for 
some of those mounted on light and speedy animals, 
to overtake it, when a gentleman of the party de- 
spatched it with a shot. 

It is said that the elephant displays great fear 
towards the rhinoceros : Major Lally staled to the 
author of the ' Oriental Field-sports,' that he once 
witnessed, from a distant hill, a most desperate en- 
gagement between a large male elephant and a 
rhinoceros, in which the elephant was worsted and 
fled (Fig. 363). Baber, however, in his memoirs 
observes, that on the occasion of a rhinoceros hunt, 
one of the elephants fell right in with the rhino- 
ceros, upon which the latter immediately ran off in 
another direction. That an enraged male of each 
species may meet, and fight, is not perhaps impro- 
bable ; but we have no good grounds for supposing 
any animosity to exist between the two species ; 
certain it is that the male elephant and rhinoceros 
in adjoining compartments manifest towards each 
other neither fear nor dislike. 

White elephants, that is, albinos, are occasionally 
found, and are highly valued. At the court of Ava 
royalty is incomplete without such an appendage, 
and both the nobles and people would consider it 
inauspicious to want a white elephant. In Siam 
idso, as well as in the Birman empire, the white 
elephant is venerated. Mr. Crawford (' Embassy to 
the court of Ava'), who saw the celebrated white 
Birman elephant (Fig. 355), as well as six belonging 
to the king of Siam, states respecting the former 
that his establishment is very large. White ele- 
phants were not unknown to the ancients, and were 
occasionally exhibited to the admiration of the po- 
pulace — " Sive elephas albus vulgi converteret ora " 

Let us now turn from the Indian to the African 
species. This animal is found from Senegal and 
Abyssinia to the confines of the Cape settlement, 
wherever rivers, lakes, and extensive forests render 
the region suitable for its residence. In the plains, 
of the kingdom of Congo, where the herbage attains 
a wild luxuriance, amidst innumerable lakes, and on 
the borders of the Senegal, whose waters flow through 
extensive forests, herds of elephants still wander, 
and also in the remoter districts of Caff'raria. C'uvier 
appears to have had some suspicion that the ele- 
phant of Abyssinia and the eastern portions of Africa 
might possibly be identical with the Indian species, 
and he adduces the testimony of Ludolphe, who, in 
his ' History of Abyssinia,' states that the female ele- 
phants of that country are destitute of tusks : he ac- 
knowledges indeed that the authority of Ludolphe 
is doubtful ; nevertheless, he adds, his testimony is 
confirmed by Bruce, at least in one particular case, 
for, in the account of an elephant-hunt at which he 
assisted, the tusks of a female were small, whilst the 
male had them of great magnitude. We cannot 
lay much stress on a single case of this kind, and it 
is to be observed that no mention is made of the 
size of the ears or shape of the head ; nor can we 
say whether or not the individual was young or 
adult. It is not improbable that breeds or races 
may differ in Africa as they do in India. 

In ancient times the elephant appears to have 
ranged along the north and north-western shores. 
" Elephantos fert Africa ultra Syrticas solitudines, 
et in Mauritania," says Pliny, and.<?i;iian asserts that 
they dwell in the forests and pasture-lands at the 
foot of Mount Atlas. Though none are found in 
those localities in the present day, we give full credit 
to the assertion, for we know that the lion once 

M 2 

til.— Wild Elephant •ptarrd by nuwuof decoy Female mephaou. 

U3— Wild .Elephant ieaafket luTing been bouod. 

3i7.— Elephant pinaing a Tiger. 


.=^in ^i,■'-'—- 

335.— White Elppiiant'of Ava. 


3J8.— Scene exhibited it the Adelplu Thealte. 


:(.>8. — Lifimiiiitf < 

. Udd roada 

3«0 — Tiger springing. 

3«3.^Kieptiaat attacked by.Ubinoomt. 

359 — Wjuten HaatiDgs's Kleplian « 

307. — Fem»le Elepliant and her youi:g one 

3fiG,— Skull of Mnmmoth. 

36J.f— Mammoth founil in Silwria. 

3 Ci.^Ele pliant swimming. 

361.— Tiger at bay. 

3^2.— Hunters tn a Howdah. 





abounded in repiong where it has long disappeared. 
Moreover the Carthaginians, who used the African 
elephant as an engine of war, as Poms and the In- 
dian kings did the Asiatic, collected, on the threat- 
ened invasion of Scipio (b.c. 205), a great number 
of these animals, so quickly as to prove that they 
had not to penetrate far into the interior to procure 
them. The Ptolemies, it would seem, procured their 
elephants in Abyssinia. Herodotus states that this 
animal abounded, with bears and lions, in Libya. 
Ethiopia paid a tribute to Darius, which consisted 
in part of elephants' tusks. Though the Romans 
were at an early epoch acquainted with ivory, the 
Etruscan attributes of royalty being sceptres and 
thrones of this material, still the first personal ac- 
quaintance of the Romans with this animal was when 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (b.c. 281), invaded Italy, 
bringing elephants as part of the military force. 
These, however, were most probably Indian; and 
might indeed have been some of the numbers which 
were left by Alexander at his death, about half a 
century previously, and which with his kingdom 
and treasures were divided between his successoi-s, 
and employed in the sanguinary wars which arose 
out of their individual contests for empire. At all 
events, as India was open, these animals might easily 
have been procured. Perdiccas led them into 
Egypt against Ptolemy, and they were governed by 
Ind'ian mohouts ; Ptolemy opposed them by Ethio- 
pian elephants, which were not considered so eiFec- 
tive as the Indian animals, perhaps from not being 
80 well trained. The Romans called the elephant 
the Lucanian ox, as it would seem from having first 
encountered it in the territory of Lucania ; and this 
name was generally adopted afterwards. In the 
Punic war the Romans had to encounter the African 
elephant, and Regulas captured eighteen at the bat- 
tle of Adis. Afterwards at the battle of Panormis 
(Palermo) upwards of 100 were taken, and the con- 
sul Metullus transported them to Rome to gratify 
the wonder of the people, and die in the circus for 
their amusement. Hannibal employed them in 
Spain, and, as is well known, in Italy, and when 
those which he brought with him had all perished, 
he received large reinforcements from Carthage. 

After the close of the Punic war, the Romans 
themselves used the African elephant in subduing 
Macedonia; and thirty years afterwards, Perseus, 
the last king of Macedon, whose great predecessor 
had made Europe familiar with the power of the 
elephant, possessed none in his own army to oppose 
those brought against him by Quintus Martius 
Philippus, and, after four years' ineffectual resist- 
ance, Macedonia became a Roman province. At the 
battle of Magnesia, Scipio brought African elephants 
against Antiochus, who opposed them with elephants 
from India, and thus in hostile array were brought 
together the peaceful tenants of the plains and 
forests of two remote regions of the earth separated 
by seas and deserts. Julius Csesar employed on 
various occasions the elephant in his armies, but 
more perhaps as a beast of burden, and for the sake 
of ostentation, or of striking terror among barbarous 
people, than for actual combat. The Romans be- 
came now well acquainted vrith this beast, and 
availed themselves of it for the purpose of drawing 
splendid chariots in triumphal processions, but sel- 
dom used it as an arm of war. They, however, 
forced it into the brutal, demoralizing combats of 
the amphitheatre, or amused themselves with its un- 
wieldy performances in theatrical pageants — such 
as we have seen in our own days. (Fig. 358.) For 
more than 500 years did Africa contribute elephants 
to the Roman circus, and incalculable numbers 
perished during that long period ; thousands were 
dragged from the forests of Ethiopia to gratify by 
their torments an ignorant and deoased multitude, 
and thousands were slaughtered in their native 
regions for the sake of their ivory, of which both 
African and Indian were in the greatest request. Of 
this material were fashioned the most imposing sta- 
tues ; the rooms and furniture of the patricians were 
inlayed with gold and ivory; and it ornamented 
halls, porticoes, and temples. 

With respect to the African elephant it was most 
probably bred by the Romans in a state of domesti- 
cation. Fig. 367 is a copy of a representation on 
the walls of Pompeii of a female African elephant 
suckling her young one. The picture exhibits a 
perfect acquaintance with the mode in which the 
little elephant receives sustenance from its mother, 
a fact of which Button and the naturalists of the 
last century were ignorant. 

At length the power of Rome declined, the but- 
chery of the circus was suspended, and in the time 
of Justinian (a.d. .527) an elephant was esteemed a 
rare spectacle at Rome and Constantinople. The 
intercourse between Europe and Africa, on the fall 
of the Roman empire, became in a great measure 
suspended for centuries; a wandering population 
of Arabs spread over the northern regions of Africa ; 
and the elephant, no longer hunted for his ivory or 
captured for the circus, wandered unmolested in his 

native forests: the modes employed by the Cartha- 
ginians for training the animal were forgotten ; nay, 
that it had ever been reclaimed to the service of a 
people whose place had been since occupied by 
Roman, Vandal, and Arab conquerors, was a circum- 
stance buried in oblivion, and the African elephant 
was at last believed to be incapable of the discipline 
which still subjects the Indian to the use of man. 
In recent times the demand for ivory has again re- 
vived, and ill south and western Aftica the herds 
of elephants are thinned by the gun of the hunter. 

Hitherto we have conhned our observations to 
the two species of elephant at present existing on 
our globe ; time was, however, when a species dif- 
fering from either abounded on the earth, and 
ranged over a great extent of country, tenanting 
climates not only within the temperate latitudes, 
but such as are now exposed to the severities of an 
Arctic winter, where their tusks are found in great 
abundance, and collected for the sake of the ivory, 
which is still available.* More than this, however, 
the animal, flesh and all, has been found in a state 
of preservation entombed in ice. Ages had rolled 
by since the day which saw it inumed in its strange 
sarcophagus ; nations and tongues and empires had 
risen and passed away ; the very region it inhabited 
had undergone an alteration of temperature and 
productions — ^yet, while the proudest monuments of 
human industry were perishing, while nations were 
falling or rising, had this body remained, as when 
the life departed, to be displayed in later days as 
a relic of times beyond the date of human records. 
We allude to the mammoth found at the mouth of 
the Lena in Siberia. 

In 1799 a Tungusian, who went along the coast 
to seek for mammoths' tusks, first perceived the 
carcass on a vast block of ice, but without being 
able to make out its true character. In 1801 it 
became partially exposed ; in 1803 it became dis- 
engaged by the melting of the ice; and in 1804 
the "Tungusian, named Schumachoff, cut oif the 
tusks and sold them to a merchant for the value 
of fifty rubles. Two years afterwards Mr. Adams 
found the mammoth still on the shore, but greatly 
mutilated. The Yakutsk! had fed their dogs with 
the flesh. Bears, wolves, wolverenes, and foxes 
had feasted upon it ; but though all the flesh and 
the proboscis were gone, the skeleton remained 
with the exception of one fore-leg. The skin 
was also to a certain extent perfect, and one of 
the ears was well preserved with its tuft of hairs. 
The skin, of a dark tint, was covered with reddish 
wool and black hairs ; but much of the fur was 
injured by damp, and much trodden into the earth 
by the bears. "The skeleton and other portions of 
value were carefully collected ; the tusks were re- 
purchased, and the whole transported to St. Peters- 

The skeleton is now in the museum of the Aca- 
demy, and the skin still remains attached to the 
head and feet. A part of the skin and some of 
the hair of this animal were sent by Mr. Adams 
to Sir Joseph Banks, who presented them to the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. The 
hair is entirely separated from the skin, except- 
ing in one very small part where it still remains 
attached. It consists of two sorts, common hair 
and bristles, and of each there are several va- 
rieties, differing in length and thickness. That li 
remaining fixed on the skin is of the colour of the I 
camel, an inch and a half long, very thick-set, and I 
curled in locks. It is interspersed with a few I 
bristles, about three inches long, of a dark reddish | 
colour. Among the separate parcels of hair are ! 
some rather redder than the short hair just men- 
tioned, about four inches long; and some bristles 
nearly black, much thicker than horsehair, and 
from 12 to 18 inches long. The skin when first 
brought to the museum was ofi'ensive ; it is now 
quite dry and hard, and where most compact half 
an inch thick. Its colour is dull black. Fig. 365. 
represents this fossil elephant or mammoth {Elephas 
primigenius). Another and prior instance of the 
discovery of an ice-preserved elephant is recorded : 
in this case the carcass was found on the borders of 
the Alaseia river, which flows into the Icy Ocean 
beyond the Indigirska ; it had been set free by the 
stream, and was in an upright position, almost per- 
fect, and covered with the skin, to which there still 
adhered in many places hairs and fur, as in the 
Lena specimen. There are not wanting other in- 
stances of parts, as the head and feet, with the flesh 
on, having been found in ice : nor is it only of the 
elephant that preserved remains exist ; for in 1771 
the body of a rhinoceros, perfect, or nearly so, pre- 
served in frozen earth or gravel, was disinterred 
near the Vilhoui. The head and feet are at St. 

Asiatic Russia and Siberia appear to have been 
the stronghold of the mammoth ; over these vast 
regions indeed its fossil remains occur in incredible 

* Siberian fossil-ivory forms th« prlndpal material on which the 
Itunian ivory-turner worlu. 

numbers. There is in fact no river from the Don to 
Kamtschatka where, either along the banks or on 
the beds, these relics, with those of other extinct 
species, do not abound. It is not, however, only in 
that extensive tract that the fossil relics of elephanU 
occur. They are common in Italy, France, G«r. 
many, Bohemia, and the British Isles. They are 
found also in North America, mixed with those of 
the mastodon ; and have been brought by Baron 
Humboldt from Mexico and Peru. 

Fig. 366 represents the skull of the Elephaa 
primigenius. In form it approximates the most 
nearly to that of the Indian elephant, but has seve- 
ral distinguishing characteristics. The grindei-s for 
instance have the ribands of enamel across the worn 
crown thinner and less festooned at their edge, and 
in a given space are more numerous, being closer 
together. 'The facial line is more perpendicular, 
and the top of the skull more peaked. The alveoli 
of the tusks are far more extensively developed, a 
circumstance which must have given a pecu- 
liar character to the physiognomy of the animal, 
very unlike that of the living species. The lower 
jaw is shorter, and more upright at its symphysis ; 
while the grinder, instead of sweeping upwards as 
it proceeds, follows a nearly level fine. The tusks 
are generally very large, arched and directed up- 
wards and outwards with a hold and somewhat 
spiral turn. 

With respect to the strata in which these fossil 
relics are found, it may be stated that it is only in 
alluvial and superficial deposits— those filhng the 
bottoms of valleys, or forming the borders of rivere, 
the mud of certain caverns— the crag formation and 
other tertiary fresh-water deposits, that they as a rule 
occur. In these slightly consolidated strata are 
also found other fossil relics, some of quadrupeds of 
existing genera, and some of which there are no 
living prototypes. 

In some regions where the remains of the mam- 
moth and rhinoceros abound, as northern Siberia, a 
decided change in the climate must have taken 
place since the era of the existence of the animals ; 
although, as the clothing with which they were 
invested proves, the climate was moderate, and often 
cold ; not however as it is now— ibr, as Mr. Lyell 
observes, "it would be difficult, if not impossible, 
for such animals to obtain subsistence during an 
Arctic winter." Yet on the other hand, " So many 
skeletons could not have belonged to herds which 
lived at one time in the district, even if those north- 
ern countries had once been clothed with vegetation 
as luxuriant as that of an Indian jungle. But if 
we suppose the change to have been extremely 
slow, and to have consisted not so much in a dimi- 
nution of the mean annual temperature, as in an 
alteration from what has been termed an • insular' to 
an ' excessive' climate— from one in which the tem- 
perature of winter and summer were nearly equal- 
ised, to one wherein the seasons were violently 
contrasted— we may, perhaps, explain the phenome- 
non. Siberia and other Arctic regions, ailer having 
possessed for ages a more uniform temperature, may, 
after certain changes in the form of the Arctic land, 
have become occasionally exposed to extremely 
severe winters. When these first occurred at dis- 
tant intervals, the drift snow would fill the valleys, 
and herds of herbivorous quadrupeds would be sur- 
prised and buried in a frozen mass, as often happens 
to cattle and human beings overwhelmed in the 
Alpine valleys of Switzeriand by avalanches. When 
valleys have become filled with ice, as those of 
Spitzbergen, the contraction of the mass causes 
innumerable deep rents, such as are seen in the 
Mer-de-glace on Mont Blanc. These deep crevices 
usually become filled with loose snow, but some- 
times a thin covering is drifted across the mouth of 
the chasm, capable of sustaining a certain weight. 
Such treacherous bridges are liable to give way 
when heavy animals are crossing, which are then 
precipitated at once inio the body of a glacier, 
which slowly descends to the sea, and becomes a 
floating iceberg. As bears, foxes, and deer now 
abound in Spitzbergen, we may confidently assume 
that the embedding of animal remains in the glaciera 
of that island must be an event of almost annula 
occurrence. The conversion of drift snow into per- 
manent glaciers and icebergs, when it happens to 
become covered over with alluvial matter, trans- 
ported by torrents and floods, is by no means a rare 
phenomenon in the Arctic regions. Durino- a series 
of milder seasons intervening between the severe 
winters, the mammoths may have recovered theii 
numbers, and the rhinoceroses may have multiplied 
again, so that the repetition of such catastrophes 
may have been indefinite. The increasinir cold, 
and greater frequency of inclement winters^ would 
at last thin their numbers, and their final extirpa- 
tion would be consummated by the rapid augment- 
ation of other herbivorouS quadrupeds more fitted 
for the new climate."* 

• Lyell'i Geol., vol. i. pp. 96-99. 



368. — The Mastodox. 
Coexistent perhaps with the mammoth, a race of 
huge anm,als, now utterly extinct, once tenanted 
our slobe: their remains, which are met with in the 
superficial strata, occur in some localities in sreat 
abundance ; and, from the differences presented by 
the teeth and other parts, several species have been 
identilied lo these animals Cuvier gave the title 
ol .Mastodon, in allusion to the principal character 
of the molars, winch, instead of being formed, as in 
the elephant, of transverse laminae, have the crown 
ol simple structure, but exhibiting ranges of bold 
conical elevations, divided from each other by deep 
furrows (see Fig. 3G9). As the points of these eleva- 
tions become worn down by use, the crown presents 
a series of lozenge-shaped lines of thick enamel 
(Fig. 3/0), but when these are quite obliterated the 
surface becomes uniform and concave. 

Of the molars thus characterised thfere were two 
above and below on each side ; but before these mo- 
lars It would appear that in young individuals others 
had been situated, and had fallen in succession as 
Cuvier satisfactorily ascertained from the examina- 
tion ot various specimens. With regard to the mode 
of succession in the grinders of the mastodon, it takes 
place, says Cuvier, by a movement from behind 
lorwards. When tne back tooth is in the act of 
piercing the gum, that anterior to it is worn and 
ready to fall, and they thus replace themselves one 
at^er the other. It does not appear that it is 
possible for more than two at a time on each side 
to be in full operation, and ultimately, as in the 
elephant, there is only one. That the mastodon 
had tusks like the elephant is proved by the large 
a veoh lor their reception. As no perfect skull 
oi the mastodon is known, it is impossible to define 
Its contour: it must, however, have had a general 
resemblance to that of the elephant, inasmuch as 
the tables of the frontal bone are separated in a 
similar manner by extensive cells 

rp^j'%?!?'' '" ^^°'^' ^""^ ""^ ^■'^'^'o" generally 
(Fig. 368) approximates to that of the elephant 
The mastodon must have possessed a proboscis, as 
IS evident from a consideration of the structure of 
the skull and skeleton,-and indeed it would ap- 
pear that this proboscis has not in every instance 
been completely decomposed. The relics of the 
Mastodon giganteus, or " animal of the Ohio," are 
found m >.orth America, especially in saline mo- 
^'' f," K ? }^'t circumstance Barton thinks is 
to be attributed the occurrence of soft parts still 
capable of being made out. In 1762 (as he states) 
^^1 V *r,^^«'e'o"s which were seen by the natives, 
one skull still possessed what they called a " long 
nose with he mouth under it. Kalm. speaking of 
a huge skeleton which, in accordance with the 
Ideas of his time, he believed to be that of an 
elephant, and which was discovered by the savages 
in the country of the Illinois, says that "the form 
ofthe trunk (bee) was still apparent, though half 
decomposed •• Of the several species'of this extiiK 
genus the Great Mastodon, or animal of the Ohio 
!f„ B !°f'*t remarkable. Its relics appear to be 
confined to the American continent : tliey are dis! 
tnbuted very generally, and are accumulated in 
soma places in considerable abundance, but no- 

w"^'?^.""«'^'' r ^ '" **>** ^''""c """ass popularly 
ermed the Big-bone Lick. They are found buried 

It \t A '?r ^'?^ '^' ^°"^^'' "f the morass! 
at the depth of four feet and upwards, together with 

nn »rr "' ^""^fl""'' ''''^'' &«■ These relics have 
no appearance of haying been rolled, and, in some 
places, as for example along the Grea Osage River 
t'J h?H'°"f r " """"^' P°^'«°". as ifihe ani^ 
rJr them'""ThT '"'° '^' '""''' ''^ich had closed 
over them. The ierruginous matter with which the 

^nnrniTh'™'?''^""""'' '^y' ^'""". i« 'he main 
prool ot their long repose in the earth. 

Ihe traditions which were rife among the Red 
Men concerning this gigantic animal and its de- 
struction must not be passed over in silence. M 
>abri, a trench officer, informed Buffon that the 

Z'fnf r ^'""f '* '^1%' ^""'^ ^^^""«d i" various 
parts of Canada and Louisiana as belonging to an 
animal which they named the Pere aux Boeufs 
1-he Shawnee Indians believed that with these 
enormous animals there existed men of propor- 
tionate development, and that the Great Being 
destroyed both with thunderbolts. Those of Vir- 
ginia state that as a troop of these terrible qiiad- 
ropeds were destroying tlie deer, the bisons, and 
he other animals created for the use ofthe Indians, 
the Great Man slew them all with his thunder 
excep the Big Bull, who, nothing daunted, pre! 
sented his enormous forehead to the bolts, and shook 
^IZf T fl *r [''"• ""' '^«'"? at last bounded m 
L fo'lhL-dry"''' '°"^^''* *'''' 8-=^' '^l'-- -here he 
Besides the Mastodon giganteus, the followin<r 
d::", 'm'"'" i'"'' '^- A"?-iid-« (Europe: 
X'ceDcion ChiH '"m^'^"''''^' ^- Humboldtii 
(Wncepcion-Chih), M. minutus, M.t apiroides, 

M Turicensis, M. Avernensis (Epplesheim, Puv-de 
Dome), M. elephantoides (Irawaddi, Sewahk Moun! 
tains) M latidens (Irawaddi, Sewalik Mountains) 
and M longirostris, Kaup. Professor Owen h^ 

nameCeciet'' ''"'" ''' ^°^^'^"' "^^ »« ^^^ '-^ 

371, 372, 373.— The Hippopotamus. 
M. Desmoulins, from an examination of the skulls 

from1out"Ar "'P'""'°^'"' IVom Senegarand 
rom South Africa, considers that there are two 
distinct species, which he names respectively H 
Senegalensis and H. Capensis. Very probably m' 
De mouhns is correct, but as the habits of bothLeJ 
cies are precisely the same, and as the distinctive 
charac ers are founded on osteological minuti onlv 
we shall not treat them as different, more splcia [y 
?ro!ed. ^ " '^*" ^'"'"^'^ "'^" absolutely 
aHII ,''iPP°P0tamus is a native exclusively of 
Afiica, where, though much more limited than for- 
meHy in the range of its habitat, it tenants the 
iZ. ll"'' ^dsot-the larger rivers, and of the in! 
and lakes from the Gariep to the upper Nile and 

o th..p 7 '^r''^''- "'^' however, not restricted 
to these for It is marine as well as fluviatile ; and 
Di. Smith thinks it difficult to decide whether it 
gives preference to the river or the sea for its abode 
during the day. When the opportunity of choosing 

PPfpH .h"" ^^' '''': ^^''^"^^ ^^ '■"""'l 'hat some J- 
lected the one, and some the other 

Scarcely if at all, inferior to the elephant in bulk, 

t)ut much lower in stature from the shortness ofthe 

Jimbs, this massive animal presents us with the " ne 

hditv Tu l?'>""rf'"' '='"'"^in«^^ and heavy so- 
ld ty Its body, Ike an enormous barrel sup- 

ground; the head is ponderous; the muzzle is 
swollen : and the great tJiick lips, studded "^th wire! 
like bristles, entirely conceal the projecting incisors 
o the lower jaw, and the huge curved tutks or ca! 

to^ nf'ih '"n"'^ " "''f^' "^« "°**"l'* open «" the 
top of the swollen muzzle; and the eyes, which are 
very small are situated high on the head ; hence 
when ,„ the water, the anfmal by raismg ^eielv a 
Tfu?^F1'' fe*'0" ofthe head above the surface 
can both look around and breathe, the body re- 

S'o1Z^th'^"".'"?'''^ '^^'J^'^ are small \nd 
pointed the tail is short, and furnished with a few 

ZL^"f^''- 7X' ^°''' ''°"'- °" each foot! a,^ 
tipped with small hoofs. The hide is naked, coarse, 
and of great thickness, being two inches deep o 
more on the back and sides. It is made into shields, 
whips, walking-sticks, &c. Between the skin and 
the flesh IS a layer ot fat, which is salted and eaten 

?f,.L •'^''^^i^' ^"'""^ '^"'""'^'^ of Southern 
Africa ; indeed, the epicures of Cape-Town, as Dr. 
Smith says, do not disdain to use their influence 

fh. n,.H '°Tl'^ ^^""r' to obtain a preference in 
the mat er of Se«-W, ,pecft^ ^^ ,his fat is termed 
when salted and dried. The flesh also is excellent 
and in much request. The general colour of the 
hippopotamus IS dusky brownish-red, passing on 

the „nf "".'I' '"r" ^ "Sht purple red or brown; 
the under parts, he lips, and tfie eyelids are ligh 
wood-brown, with a tinge of flesh-colour; the 
hinder quarters and the under surface are freckled 
with spots of dusky brown ; the hairs ofthe tail and 
ears are black, those on the muzzle yellowish-brown. 
The male far exceeds the female in size. The 
hippopotamus is gregarious in its habits, sagacious 
wary and cautious. It has been long driven away 
from the rivers within the limits of the Cape colour 
but in remoter districts, where the sound of the 
musket 18 seldom heard, it abounds in every larce 
river, and is comparatively fearless of man " To 
convey, ' says Dr. Smith, " some idea ofthe numbers 
n which they were found in several of the rivers 
towards the tropic of Capricorn, it may suffice to 
state that in the course of an hour and a half a 
lew members of the expedition party killed seven 
within gun-shot of their encampment. Several 
other individuals were in the same pool, and might 
a so have been killed, had it been desirable. One 
ot the survivors was observed to make his escape 
to an adjoining pool, and in accomplishing that he 
walked with considerable rapidity along the bottom 
ot the river, and with his back covered with about 
a toot of water." 

The hippopotami, according to Dr. Smith, feed 
cniefly on grass, resorting to situations near the 
banks of rivers which supply that food. " In dis- 
tricts fully inhabited by man," says Dr. Smith, " they 
generally pass the day in the water, and seek their 
nourishment during the night; but in localities 
d tteren ly circumstanced they often pass a portion 
ol the day as well as the night upon dry land. In 
countries in which the night-time constitutes the 
only sale period for their leaving the water, thev 
are generally to be seen effecting their escape from 
It immediately before dark, or are to be heard doing 
so soon after the day has closed, and according to 
tne state ol the surrounding country ; they then 

either directly commence feedinir orh^o-in, ;„, 
towards localities where food ^^a'^'xTt'"" Whe? 
previous to nightfall they may havi been in pools 
or rivers, they are generally at once enabled to 
commence on reaching the dry landTbut 
when they may have passed the day in the sea thev 
reqmre commonly to proceed some distance after 
leaving i , belore they find the grass which appears 
congenial to their palate. It is not every deS 
lion 01 grass that hippopotami seem to relish MlX 
olten pass over, m search of food, luxuriant green 
swards, which would strongly attract many o her 
animals which feed upon |rL. Besides liavC a 
pecuhar relish for the'grasfes of certain situatkfn^ 
they appear to have a predilection for districts sur^ 
porting brushwood; and, owing to the latter pecSl 
ban y, they are often to be found wandering h, 
bcahties on which but little grass exists, whenfhey 
might have it in the neighbourhood in great aS 
ance, but without the accompaniment of wood " 

We learn Irom Mr. Salt, that in the district of 
Abyssinia watered by the Tacazze, a tributa v to 
the Nile, hippopotami are very Numerous The 
Abyssinians term the animal Gomari. As Mr Salt 
travelled along the line of the river, he found it 
intei-rupted by frequent overfalls and shallowford^ 
Between these shallows are holes or pits of vS 
depth, resembling the lochs and tarns in the mou^- 
ain districts of Scotland and England. It is to the« 

hp?i M^*^*h' •>'W°P°*'""' '''^"Sht to resort ;an^ 
here Mr. Salt and his companions observed the2 
actions which he compares to the rolling of a gram- 
pus in the sea. " ^ *" 
"It appeai-9," observes the same traveller, " from 
what we have witnessed, that the hippopotamu" 
cannot remain more than five or six minutes at a 
time under water, being obliged to come up to the 

?esp!ration."°™' '" '"''""' ''"' ^^' P^^'''''^ °^ 
It has generally been asserted that this hu-^e 
powerful, and, it should seem, inofi'ensive an mai 
has no enemy in the brute creation audacious enough 
to contend with it. Some travellers, however haf e 
attributed this boldness to the crocodile! describfnff 
combats between them, which in truth never takf 
WWi; MrTu^ subsisting between the two animals. 
While Mr. Salt and his party were engaged shoot- 
ing at the hippopotami, they frequently observed 
several crocodiles of an enormous size rise together 
to the surface of the same stream, apparently re- 
gardless ot and disregarded by their still more 
enormous neighbours.-Captain Tuckey, in his 
expedition to explore the Zaire or Congof observed 
immense numbers of hippopotami and alligators in 
hostilft"^ water-an association inconsistent with 
Burckhardt (see his ' Travels in Nubia') informs us 
that lower down the Nile, in Dongola, whereThere 
are neither elephants nor rhinoceroses, the hinno- 
potamus IS very common. The Arabic name for ft is 
whl"! I }t " " '^'^'"^ii ''courge to the inhabitants, 
who lack the means of destroying it. Occasionally 
but rarely, ii is seen much farther north, even below 
the cataract of the Nile at Assouan. 

The hippopotamus abounds in the Niger where It 
was seen by Richard and John Lander Cl'apperton 
observed them in the lake Muggaby. Bornou" and 
in the great lake Tchad and its tributary river^ 
♦wYk'^"""'' '"ofensive, it is only when attacked 
that the hippopotamus becomes furious, and if hard 
pressed on land, he rushes open-mouthed with the 
utmost desperation on his aggressor. If the party 
attacking the ammal in his watery domicile te m 
a boat, their danger is extreme. Captain Owen 
('Narrative of Voyages to explore the shores of 
Atrica, under Captain W. F. W. Owen') had many 
encounters with these animals. While examinino^ 
a branch of the Temby river, in Delagoa 8^1 
violent shock was suddenly felt from Snderneath 
the boat, and " in another moment a monstrous hip- 
popotamus reared itself up from the water, and in a 
most ferocious and menacing attitude rushed open- 
mouthed at the boat, with one grasp of iU tremen- 
dous jaws seized and tore seven planks from her 
side; the creature disappeared for a few seconds 
and then rose again, apparently intending to re- 
peat the attack, but was fortunately deterred by the 
contents of a musket discharged in its face The 
boat rapidly filled, but as she was not more than an 
oars length from the shore, they (the crew) suc- 
seeded in reaching it before she sank. The kee) 
in all probability, had touched the back ofthe animal' 
which, irritating him, occasioned this furious attack • 
and, had he got his upper jaw above the gunwale' 
the whole broadside must have been torn out. The 
force of the shock from beneath, previously to the 
attack, was so violent, that her stern was almost 
lifted out of the water, and Mr. Tambs, the mid- 
shipman steering, was thrown overboard, but for 
tunately rescued before the irritated animal couM 
seize him. v^^um 

Fig. 374 represents the skeleton of the hippo- 
potamus, which IS a ponderous frame-work in unison 

3T6.^1ndian Ithinuceroi. 

381,— Indian Rhinoceroi. 

368.— Javanese Rhinoceroa. 

384.~SkuU of Javanew Khinoceroa. 

3M.— Samattmn Rhitu>cenM. 


385 — Skeleton of Rhincceros. 


Stii).— Khinocerof Keitlo*. 

No. 12. 

379.~Khinocero« Keitlo*. 






with the vast weight of solid fle»h to be sustained 
and the enormous strength of the muscles. The 
neck, though short, is lonicer in proportion than 
that of the elephant, and from the shortness of he 
limbs gives the animal the power of grazing the 

*Folfr*fo«wl species of hippopotamus are described 
by Cuvier; of one (H. anliquus^ the rehcs are 
widely distributed, and are particularly abundant in 
the Val dAmo. Italy, intermixed with those of the 
elephant and rhinoceros. 

.375— Thk Rhinocero«. 
This genus contains six living and well-established 
species, as far as naturalists are at present able to 
determine, and several fossil species, of which the 
relics occur in the same strata as those of the fossil 

The existing species are confined to the hotter 
regions of the Old World, and are divided between 
Africa and India, including the islands of Java and 
Sumatra. It is in the land of the elephant and the 
hippopotamus that the rhinoceros wanders in fear- 
less confidence, as if aware of his enormous powers, 
and the advantage of his weapons of defence. One 
species (Rh. Indicus ; Figs. 375, 376, 378, 380, and 
381) is peculiar to continental India beyond the 
Ganges, Siam, and Cochin China ; one (Rh. Javanus; 
Fig. 382) is a native of Java; and one with two 
horns (Rh. Sumatranus : Fig. 383), of Sumatra. Three 
two-homed species are indigenous in Africa, viz. : the 
common two-homed or black rhinoceros (Rh. bi- 
comis, Linn. ; Africanus, Cuv. : Figs. 377, 387) ; the 
^hite rhinoceros (Rh. simus : Figs. 3S8,389): and the 
Keitloa(Rh. Keitloa: Figs. 379 and 386), discovered 
by Dr. Smith during his expedition into the interior. 
We may here add that though Bruce and Salt notice 

»»C lUaj licit »uu H1U.V ^...v^f^— , 

the existence of a two-horned rhinoceros in Abys_ 
sinia different from the common species of South 
Africa,* there is some reason to believe in the 
existence of a single-horned species in that region. 
Bruce states that a one-homed rhinoceros is found 
towards Cape Gardafui, according to the accounts 
of the natives in the kingdom of Adel. Accounts 
of such an animal were received by Dr. Smith from 
the natives in the interior of South Africa, who re- 
presented it as living far up the countiy ; moreover 
Burckhardt alludes to a one-horned species in the 
territory above Sennaar, and states that the inhabit- 
ants there give it the name of the " mother of the 
one horn." According to this traveller, its northern 
boundary^, like that of the elephant, is the range of 
mountains to the north of .\bou Huaze, two days' 
journey from Sennaar. The hide of this animal is 
manufactured into shields, which have an extensive 
sale ; the material of the horn is also sold, and at 
a high price, Burckhardt having seen four or five 
Spanish dollars paid for a piece four inches long 
and one inch thick. Was the one-horned rhinoce- 
ros seen by Strabo at Alexandria this species or 
the common Indian ?— and the same question ap- 
plies to the one-horned rhinoceros, which, with a 
hippopotamus, was given by Augustus, in the cele- 
bration of his triumph over Cleopatra, to be slain in 
the Circus ; which animals, Dion Cassius says, were 
then first seen and killed at Rome— an assertion per- 
fectly erroneous, as it respects the rhinoceros, if it 
was the common Indian species, for Pliny, in his 
eighth book, alluding to the games of Pompey, men- 
tions the one-horned rhinoceros (Indian, it is pre- 
sumed) as then exhibited (" lisdem ludis, et rhinoce- 
ros unius in nare cornu, qualis saepe visus"). With 
respect to the two-horned African species, it was also 
exhibited in Rome ; and had learned critics known 
anything of natural history, the line in Martial 
(" nami^ue gravem gemino cornu sic extulitursurn") 
would not have given rise to so many futile disquisi- 
tions and attempted corrections. Psusanias desciibes 
a two-homed rhinoceros under the name of Mi\\\o- 
pian Bull. Two individuals of the same species 
appeared at Rome under the emperor Domitian, on 
some of whose medals was impressed their figure ; 
others were exhibited under Antoninus, Helioga- 
balus, and Gordian III. Martial lived in the time 
of Domitian. and the rhinoceros " gemino cornu ' 
was doubtless seen by him. 

The animals of the present genus are all remark- 
able for the massiveness of their form and the clum- 
. siness of their proportions ; they are, however, more 
prompt and rapid than might be at first supposed, 
-.nd when attacked they rush on their foes with 
headlong impetuosity. The body is of great hulk, 
and protuberant at the sides ; the neck is short and 
deep; the shoulders are heavy, the limbs thick; 
the feet are divided into three toes incased in hoofs. 
The skin is thick and coarse, with aknotty or tuber- 
culous surface, and destitute, or nearly so. of hairs. 

• A pair of horiM bronxht by Salt from Abyarinia, and now in the 
mtueam of the Royal 0>llei(e of Sorgeonj, more nearlv resemble 
thoae of the KeiUoa than of the R. bicomii ; and Dr. Smith considers 
a pair brought by Major Denham from North Africa to be dilTerent 
a.;ain, and unliite those of any other species. Cluiw of rhinoceroa- 
hom. of about three fert in lenjfth, have been brought from Dahomy, 
Western Africa. It is evident tliat thrre are two OX three apeciea in 

In the common Indian species it is disposed in large 
folds, especially on the neck, shoulders, haunches, 
and thighs. The eyes are small, placed nearer the 
nose than in other quadrupeds, and high towards the 
upper surface of the skull ; the ears are moderate 
and erect. The head is large and ponderous : it is 
elevated between the ears, whence it svfeeps 
with a concave line to the nasal bones, which rise in 
the form of an arch to support the horn (see skele- 
ton, Fig. 385). The upper lip is soft, flexible, sen- 
sitive, capable of being protruded, and used to a cer- 
tain degree as an organ of prehension. 

But that which gives most character to the head 
of the rhinoceros is its horn, single in some species, 
double in others. This organ is of an elongated, 
recurvent, conical figure, arising from a broad, lim- 
pet-shaped base, seated on the nasal bones, which 
are of a thickness and solidity not to be found in 
other races of quadrupeds, they form a vaulted 
roof, elevated in a remarkable degree above the 
intermaxillary bones, containing the incisoi; teeth, 
and their upper arched surface is rough with nu- 
merous irregularities and depressions; and here 
we may pause, to reflect on the advantages gained 
by their form and structure. They have not merely 
to sustain the weight of the horn, no trifle in itself, 
but to resist the shock occasioned by the violent 
blows which the animal gives with the weapon upon 
various occasions. Hence, conjoined with their 
solidity, that form is given to the nasal bones 
which, of all others, is best calculated for sustaining 
a superincumbent weight or sudden jars ; while the 
rugosities and depressions tend to the firmer adhe- 
sion of the skin, to which the horn is immediately 
attached. In the two-horned species the posterior 
horn rests on the os frontis. The nasal horn of the 
rhinoceros is a solid mass, structurally composed of 
agglutinated fibres analogous to hair, and much 
resembling those into which whalebone is so easily 

It has been asserted by some travellers that the 
horns of the African species are moveable, and that 
the animal rattles them against each other : this, 
however, is a mistake— they are firmly fixed. The 
nostrils aie on each side of the upper lip ; the 
tongue is perfectly smooth, contrary to what is 
alleged by many of the older wiiters, who describe 
it to' be covered with spines, and capable of lace- 
rating the skin. The senses of smell and hearing 
are very acute. Dentition variable : canines want- 
ine In the Indian rhinoceros the formula is as 

4 7— 7_ 

follows :— Incisors, -; Molars, y—— 36. 

Africa with which naturaliats are nut acquainted. 

376, 378.— The Indian Rhinoceeos 
in his native regions leads a tranquil, indolent life : 
like the elephant, he gives preference to the marshy 
borders of lakes and rivers, or swampy woods and 
jungles, delighting to roll and wallow in the oozy 
soil, and plaster his skin with mud. He is also 
fond of the bath, and swims with ease and vigour. 
The splendid animal in the gardens of the Zoological 
Society may be often seen during the hot weather 
of summer enjoying the bath in the paddock ap- 
propriated for his exercise, or rolling and wallowing 
in the mud, or basking luxuriously, half in, half out, 
of the water, like a huge hog, uttering every now 
and then a low gruntof self-complacent satisfaction. 
Sluggish in his habitual movements, the rhino- 
ceros wanders through his native plains with a heavy 
step, carrying his huge head so low that his nose 
almost touches the ground, and stopping at intervals | 
to crop some favourite plant, or, in playful wanton- 
ness, to plough up the ground with his horn, throw- 
ing the mud and stones behind him. The jungle 
yields before his weight and strength, and his track 
IS said to be often marked by a line of devastation. 
When roused the rhinoceros is a most foi;midable 
antagonist, and such is the keenness of his senses 
of smell and of hearing, that, unless by vei-y cau- 
tiously approaching him against the direction of the 
wind, it IS almost impossible to take him by surprise. 
On the appearance of danger the rhinoceros gene- 
ritly retreats to his covert in the tangled and 
almost impenetrable jungle, but not always, and in- 
stances are on record in which, snuffing up the aii 
and throwing his head violently about, he has 
rushed with fury to the attack, without waiting fot 
the assault. There are, in fact, seasons in which the 
rhinoceros is very dangerous, and attacks every 
animal with impetuosity that attracts his notice or 
ventures near his haunts, even the elephant himself. 
From the earliest times the horn of the Indian 
rhinoceros (the observation applies to other species 
also) has been regarded either as an antidote against 
poison or as efficacious in detecting its presence, as 
well as useful in curing disease. The Indian kings 
made use of it at table, because, as was believed, 
" it sweats at the approach of any kind of poison 
whatever." Goblets made of it are in high estima- 
tion ; these are often set with gold or silver, and 
sell for large suras : when poison is poured into 
them, the liquor, it is said, betrays its noxious quali- 

ties by effervescing till it mns over the brim : water 
drank from them, or from the cup-like hollow at the 
base of the horn, is regarded as medicinal. In the 
latter case the water is to be stirred in the hollow 
with the point of an iron nail till it becomes dis. 
coloured, when the patient must drink it. 

The strong deep folds into which the coarse 
skin is gathered in the cheeks, neck, shoulders, 
haunches, and thighs are distinguishing characters 
of the Indian rhinoceros. The general colour of 
the skin is dusky black, with a slight tint of purple. 
Mr. Hodgson (' Proceedings ol the Zoological 
Society,' 1834) states that "the female goes from 
17 to 18 months with young, and produces one at 
a birth : he adds also, " It is believed that the 
animal lives for 100 years : one taken mature was 
kept at Katmandoo for 35 years without exhibiting 
any symptoms of approaching decline. The young 
continues to suck for nearly two years: it has for a 
month alter birth a pink suftusion over the dark 
colour proper to the mature hide." The female is 
desperate in the protection of her young. 

382.— TuK Javanese Rhinoceros 
{Rh. Javanus). As far as is ascertained, this species 
is conlined to the island of Java, where it is called 
Warak. In the character of the incisor teeth, and 
the horn being single, it agrees with the Indian 
species; but it is a less bulky animal, and in pro- 
portion, more elevated in the limbs ; the folds of the 
skin are both less numerous, less deep, and also 
' dift'erently arranged; the surface of the skin is 
divided into small polygonal tubercles with a slight 
central depression in each, from which arise a few 
short bristly hairs. In its habits this species is 
gregarious ; its range on the island extends from 
the level of the ocean to the summits of mountains 
of considerable elevation— the latter situations aie 
preferred ; its retreats in these mountains are to be 
discovered by deeply-excavated passages worked out 
on their declivities. When met with, or otherwise 
disturbed, it quietly retires, being very mild and 
peaceable. Night is the principal season of its ac- 
tivity, and it often commits considerable damage in 
the plantations of coffee and pepper. The horns and 
skin are employed for medicinal purpo<.es by the na- 
tives. Dr. Horsfield f Zoological Researches in 
Java ') gives a detailed account of one of these ani- 
mals which was kept at Surakarta, and which was 
very mild and .tractable, allowing persons even to 
mount on its back. In its habit of wallowing in 
the mire it reseqnbled the rest of the genus. The 
Javanese Rhinoceros was known to Boutins, who 
wrote on the productions of that island in 1629. 
Fig. 384 represents the skull of this species, which 
is more elongated in proportion and less heavily 
made than that of the Indian animal. 

383.— The Sumatran Rhinoceros 
(Rh. Sumatranus, Raffles) was first described by Mr. 
Bell, surgeon in the service of the East India Com- 
pany at Bencoolen (' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1793) ; but it appears to have been indicated pre- 
viously by Mr. C. Miller, long resident in Sumatra 
(Pennant's ' History of Quadrupeds,'3rded., vol.i.). 
The head is more elongated than in the other two 
species, and there are two horns on the nose : the 
neck is thick and short, the limbs massive ; the skin 
is rough and black, and covered with short hair ; the 
folds are very inconsiderable, but are most distinct 
i on the neck, shoulders, and haunches. The 
' female is stated to have a heavier head than the 
male. The number of incisors is four in each jaw, 
but of these the lateral ones aie very small and soon 
fall out ; hence Bell and others supposed the num- 
ber to be only two. 

The Sumatran rhinoceros is by no means bold or 
savage ; one of the largest size has been seen to run 
away from a single wild dog. Its native name is 
Badak, whence the term Abadia, or Abath, applied 
to the Indian rhinoceros by our early navigators. 
Sir S. Raffles says that, besides this species, there is 
another animal in the forests of Sumatra, never no- 
ticed, which in size and character nearly resembles 
this rhinoceros, but which is said to h;ive a single 
horn and to be distinguished by a narrow while belt 
encircling the body. The natives of the interior 
term it Tennu, which, at Malacca, is the name of 
the Tapir ; but in Sum.^tra the name of the Tapir is 
Gindol and Babialu. In the interior, however, where 
different tribes shut out from general communication 
speak different dialects, it is probable that the term 
Tennu may be the name applied by some, as at Ma- 
lacca, to the tapir, and hence would the confusion 
arise; for, from the description, notwithstanding 
the assertion that it possesses a horn, we cannot 
help regarding this Tennu of the forest of the interior 

as the tapir. .... c . 

Of the African species of rhinoceros we may ftrst 

notice the 

377, 387.— Black or Commos African Rhinoceros 
(Rh. bicornin, Linn. ; Rh. Africanus, Cuv.). This 
huge animal, though driven from the precincts of 




the colony, is still extensively spread throughout 
the southern regions of Africa. When the Dutch 
first formed their settlement on the shores of Table 
Bay, this rhinoceros was a regular inhabitant of the 
thickets which clothed the lower slopes of the 
mountain ; but it has retired, and continues to retire, 
betore the advance of colonization and the gun of 
the hunter. This species differs from the Indian, 
not only in the possession of a double horn, but in 
the absence of massive folds of skin, and in wanting 
the incisor teeth. The skin is thick, coarse, sca- 
t}rous, and forms a deep furrow round the short thick 
neck ; the head is heavy ; the eyes are small, and 
the skm round them, and on the muzzle, and before 
the ears, is wrinkled ; the upper lip is slightly pro- 
duced, and prehensile. The anterior horn is long, 
fibrous at the base, hard, and finely polished at the 
point ; the posterior horn is short and conical. Ge- 
neral colour yellowish brown, with tints of purple 
upon the sides of the head and muzzle ; eyes dark 
brown. Length about eleven feet. A few black 
hairs fringe the edge of the ears and the tip of the 
tail. This animal feeds upon brushwood, and the 
smaller branches of dwarf trees, " from which cir- 
cumstance," says Dr. Smith, " it is invariably found 
frequenting wooded districts, and in those situations 
its course may be often traced by the mutilations 
of the bushes. The mass of vegetable matter con- 
sumed does not appear to be in proportion to the 
bulk of the animal : indeed, as it feeds but slowly, 
and passes much of its lime in idleness, it must be 
regarded as a very moderate eater, and, considering 
that it appears to be fastidious in the choice of its 
food, it is fortunate for its comfort that it does not 
require more nourishment." Of the senses of the 
rhinoceros, those of hearing and smell are very acute, 
and aid the animal more than his sight in the dis- 
covery of danger, the bulk of the body screening 
objects not immediately before the eyes. "As these 
animals depend much upon smell for their existence 
and safety, it is necessary to advance upon them 
from the leeward side, it the aim be to get close 
without being discovered. In pursuit they also 
trust for guidance to the same sense, and may be 
heard forcibly inspiring the air, when they have lost 
the scent of the object they are folloning. The 
ticks and other insects with which they are covered 
furnish for them another source of intelligence, in- 
asmuch as they attract a number of birds, which sit 
quietly picking them off, when nothing strange is 
in sight, but fly away when any object excites their 
fear. So well does the rhinoceros understand this, 
that he proceeds feeding with the greatest con- 
fidence while the birds continue perched upon his 
back ; but the moment they fly, the huge animal 
raises his head and turns it in all directions to catch 
the scent. Whether he accomplishes this or not, he 
generally feels so uncertain of his position, that he 
moves to some other locality." The same observa- 
tions apply to the other African species. When 
disturbed or attacked, the rhinoceros becomes fu- 
rious, and especially when wounded : he then rushes 
towards his foe, and if he can get the hunter once 
within his sight, the escape of the latter, unless he 
exert great presence of mind, or the well-directed 
shot of a companion stop the animal in his career, 
is very doubtful. The best plan is to wait till the 
enraged beast approaches, and then step aside sud- 
denly, where some bush or inequality of the ground 
may afford a shelter, and give time to the hunter 
for reloading his gun before the rhinoceros gets 
sight of him again, which lortunately it does slowly 
and with difficulty. Travellers in the regions fre- 
quented by this animal are not safe during the night 
from its attacks. It appears to be excited by the 
glow of a fire, towards which it rushes with fury, 
overturning every obstacle. It has, indeed, been 
known to rush with such rapidity upon a military 
party lodged among the bush covering the banks 
of the Great Fish River, that before the men could 
be aroused it had severely injured two of them, 
tossed about and broken several guns, and com- 
pletely scattered the burning wood. Le Vaillant, 
in an animated account of a rhinoceros hunt, de- 
scribes the enraged and wounded animals as plough- 
ing up the ground with their horns, and throwing a 
shower of pebbles and stones around them : and 
Dr. Smith says that they are sometimes seen to 
plough up the earth for several paces with the front 
liom when not enraged, but for what object he could 
not discover. The native (Bechuana) name of this 
species is Borili. 

379, 386.— The Keitloa 

(Rh. Keitloa, Smith). In general figure this savage 
•pecies resembles most nearly the common African 
rhinoceros. There are, however, he observes, many 
marked differences between them, of which the Ibl- 
lowing are a few of the external and more palpable. 
In Rhinoceros Keitloa the two horns are of equal 
or nearly equal length ; in Rhinoceros Africanus 
the posterior in neither sex is ever much beyond a 
third of the length of the anterior horn ; the length 

of the head in proportion to the depth is very dif- 
ferent in the two. The neck of Rhinoceros Keitloa 
is much longer than that of the other, and the posi- 
tion and character of the cuticular furrows destined 
to facilitate the lateral motions of the head are very 
difi'erent. Besides these. Dr. Smith states that many 
other diagnostic characters might be instanced ; 
such as the black mark on the inside of the thigh 
of the Keitloa, the distinctly produced tip of the 
upper lip, and the comparatively few wrinkles on 
the snout and parts around the eyes. 

The first example of this animal which Dr. Smith 
met with, during his expedition, was shot about 
180 miles N.E. of Lattakoo, but considerably south 
of the country to which the species appears directly 
to belong, and from which it might be considered 
as a wanderer. On the expedition penetrating to the 
northward of Kurrichane, every one was found con- 
vereant with the name and able to direct to situa 
tions where the animal was found. Few mentioned 
the Keitloa without alluding to its vindictive tem- 
per and ferocity ; and those, says Dr. Smith, who 
had sufficient confidence in the party, compared to 
it a chief, then awfully oppressing that part of the 
country, and spoke of the man and the animal as 
alike to be feared. As the party advanced, the 
Keitloa became more common, though it never 
occurred in such numbers as the other two species. 

" The interest," says Dr. Smith, " wliich the dis- 
covery of this species excited, led to the making ot 
minute inquiries as to the animals of this genus: 
and the expedition had sufficient reason to believe, 
from the replies to constant questions, that two 
other undescribed species existed farther in the in- 
terior, one of which was described as being some- 
thing like the Keitloa, and having two horns — the 
other as dift'ering in many respects, and having only 
one horn. The Keitloa browses on shrubs and the 
slender branches of brushwood, using the upper lip 
as an organ of prehension." 

388, 389. — The White or Blunt-xosed 

(ifA. simtis), termed Mohoohoo by the Bechuanas, 
is larger than the two former species, being upwards 
of twelve feet in length, and neariy six feet in 
height. It is a huge, massive animal, with the neck 
longer than in the other African species, having 
three deep wrinkles running from tiie nape down 
the sides ; the muzzle is truncate, the mouth 
shaped like that of an ox, the upper lip perfectly 
square, and destitute of the mobility and power of 
protrusion, which it exhibits in the other species. 
Hence, instead of browsing upon shrubs, it feeds 
principally upon grass, and therefore frequents open 
plains where such herbage abounds, wandering very 
extensively in search of pasturage. This animal 
was first described by Mr. Burchell, who when at 
Lattakoo found it in abundance there, and Mr. 
Campbell brought the head of one to England. In 
the Mohoohoo the horns are situated close to the 
extremity of the nose : the first is very long, tapered 
to a point, and slightly curved back ; the second is 
short, conical, and obtuse. The general colour is 
pale broccoli-brown; the buttocks, shoulders, and 
under parts shaded with brownish purple ; tail 
clothed with stiff black hair. According to Dr. 
Smith, the introduction of fire-arms among the 
Bechuanas has rendered this animal rare in the dis- 
trict where Mr. Burchell found it numerous : higher 
up the country, however, it still maintains its ground. 
In disposition it differs from the other two species, 
being much more gentle, and is therefore regarded 
with less fear than either the Keitloa or the Borili. 

The tiesh of all three species is esteemed whole- 
some food by the natives, who dig pit-falls for them 
in situations to which they are known to resort; and 
sometimes, though rarely with success, attempt to 
kill them with the assagai or spear. In style of 
motion they are all alike, and so awkward that their 
swiftness is to be appreciated not by directly watch- 
ing the animal itself, but by fixing the eye upon 
some two points between which it takes its course. 
To revert to the one-horned rhinoceros, of which 
Dr. Smith heard in the interior of South Africa, 
and of which Bruce and Burckhardt received ac- 
counts as existing in Adel and the country south 
of Sennaar, it may be added that Dr. Smith adduces 
the testimony of Mr. Freeman respecting an animal 
by no means rare in Makooa, north of the Mosam- 
bique Channel, which, overlooking the absurdities 
and exaggeration of the description, he suspects to 
be a one-horned rhinoceros, and probably that of 
which he heard, and which may extend to the 
countries mentioned by Bruce and Burckhardt. 

Among the fossil relics of animals which at some 
former period have tenanted this globe, and after 
a quiet possession, generation succeeding generation, 
of their pasture-lands, have become as it were 
blotted out of the book of creation, those of the 
rhinoceros are extremely abundant, little less so, if 
at all, than those of the fossil elephant or mammoth, 
as widely distributed, and occurring in the same 

strata and the same localities. Several species 
have been distinctly made out, among which the 
most remarkable is that with a bony partition be- 
tween the nostrils, and supporting the nasal bones: 
it is termed by Cuvier Rh. tichorhinus. Fig. 390 re- 
presents the skull in two views : a, profile ; b, seen 
from below. 

It was of this species that Palla* in 1771 disco- 
vered an entire frozen carcass buried in the sand on 
the banks of the Wilouji or Viloui, which joins the 
Lena, in Siberia. Happily, therefore, we know the 
form and true proportions of the living animal. 
The skin was smooth and destitute of folds, and, like 
the common African rhinoceros, the animal had two 
horns. The feet had three toes, as in all extant 
species, but the hoofs were lost. Like the mam- 
moth of Siberia, this animal was originally covered 
with hair : in many parts of the skin this hair still 
remained, especially over the feet, where it was very 
abundant, measuring from one to three inches in 
length, of a stiff quality, and of a dusky grey. The 
head was invested with a similar clothing. The 
head and feet are preserved in their natural state in 
the museum of St. Petersburg. 

The skull of this species differs from that of the 
two-horned African rhinoceros, not only in the 
presence of the osseous nasal partition, but in gene- 
ral form and proportions. The length and narrow- 
ness of the skull are very remarkable, as is also the 
space between the orbits, which is much more con- 
tracted than in the common two-horned species, and 
the nasal bones are far more elongated. In the 
two-horned rhinoceros the disc which bears the an- 
terior horn is a semi-sphere, in this an oblong ellipse, 
and a disc of similar figure supports the second 
horn, whence it may be safely concluded that the 
horns of this fossil species were strongly compressed 
at the sides. The occipital ridge is elevated and 
drawn out backwards, so that from the highest point 
the occipital bone slopes at a very acute angle in- 
wards to the condyles. 

About nine fossil species of rhinoceros are de- 
scribed. Almost every bone-cavern in England, 
France, and Germany has afforded them in abund- 
ance ; and Dr. Buckland proves that there must 
have been a long succession of years in which the 
elephant, hippopotamus, and rhinoceros, with the 
hya;na, inhabited our island ; and that the former, 
as the bones testily, became the prey of the latter, 
or were devoured after natural or accidental death. 

391, 392, 393.— The Daman, or Hteax. 

When we look at the rabbit-like hyrax, it does 
not surprise us to find that all the older naturalists 
regarded it as a Rodent, and placed it in that order. 
It was reserved for Cuvier to point out its true situa- 
tion. " There is no quadruped," says this great 
man, " which proves more forcibly than the daman 
the necessity of having recourse to anatomy, as a 
test by which to determine the true relationship of 
animals." This fur-covered active creature is a true 
Pachydermatous animal, and, notwithstanding the 
smallness of its size, it is to be regarded as " inter- 
mediate between the rhinoceros and tapir." The 
resemblance which the hyrax bears to the former 
may be traced in its osseous system and internal 
anatomy (see 'Proceeds. Zoof. Soc' 1832 and 
1835). On these points it would here be out ot 
place to dwell ; we have, however, figured the 
skeleton (Fig. 394) and the skull (Fig. 395), which 
to many will be of interest. With respect to the 
latter, the singular depth of the lower jaw cannot 
but strike every attentive observer ; and it may be 
added that in the convexity of the posterior edge 
of the ascending portion it surpasses that even of 
the tapir, which, in this respect, is the nearest among 
all animals to the hyrax. In other particulars the 
skull approaches that of the rhinoceros; the molar 
teeth, in fact, are those of the rhinoceros in minia- 
ture, both as to form and number. There are, as 
in the rhinoceros, no canines. The ui)per incisors, 
two in number, are long, triangular, pointed, stout, 
and separated from each other by a small interval. 
The lower incisors are lour in number, set in close 
array, flat, and directed forwards. At first their 
edges are notched, but they become smooth by use. 
The molars are seven on each side, above and be- 
low : but the first, which is small, falls out, being 
worn down as soon as the last molar on each side 
has arisen ; and, in old individuals, the next is fre- 
quently wanting also. 

With respect to the skeleton, it may be remarked 
that there are 21 ribs on each suie, a number 
greater than in any other quadruped, except the 
two-toed sloth, which has 23. The elephant and 
tapir follow the hyrax. The fore-feet are divided 
into four toes, tipped with hoof-like nails ; the hind- 
feet into three, of which the innermost is furnished 
with a long claw-like nail. The toes are all buried 
in the skin, as far as the little hools, precisely as in 
the rhinoceros. 

Several species belong to the present genus : we 
have figured the Cape Hyrax or Daman (Fig. 391), 

N 2 

-^A. .■ 


StS.— Syrian Hynx. 

887. — Black Rhtnoceroa and-Yoaog. 

388.— Two-homed Rhinoceros. 

394.~Skeleton of Daman. 

ti '' ''"^ ■ 

J*t '^'^gl£;J.;i>=^l 


Ml.— Cape Hynx. 

390.— Sliull of Fosail Rhinocenn. 

3M.— Hymx. 

397.— Indian Tapir. 





and the Syrian Hyrax, or Coney of the Scripture* 
(Fig. 393). 

391.— Thb Capb Hybax, or Dassib of thb 


{Hyrax Copermt), is common in the rocky and 
mountain disliicU of South Africa, taking up its 
abode in the tissures of the rugged crags, which 
aftbrd it an asylum. It abounds on the sides of 
Table Mountain, but is so wary, quick, and active, 
that it is not to be approached without much diffi- [ 
culty. It often, however, falls a prey to the eagle 
and falcon, which pounce upon it while feeding in 
apparent security. The Vulturine Eagle (Aquila 
Vuliuiina), which makes the mountain precipices 
its abwle, destroys it in great numbere. This timid 
little animal is gregarious in its habits, like the 
rabbit, which it somewhat exceeds in size. The fur 
is soft and deep, and of a dark greyish brown, be- 
coming of a paler tint beneath. There is no tail. 
The following comrounicaiion, by Mr. W. R. Read 
(see 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' 1835, 
p. 13j, needs no apology for its insertion : — 

"The Hyrax Uapensis is found inhabiting the 
hollows and crevices of rocks, both on the summits 
and sides of hills, as well as near the sea-shore, even 
a little above hieh-water mark. It appeai-s to live 
in families, and is remarkably shy in its wild state. 
In winter it is fond of coming out of its hole, and 
sunning itself on the lee side of a rock, and in sum- 
mer of enjoying the breeze on the top; but in both 
instances, as well as when it feeds, a sentinel is on 
the look out (eenerallyan old male), which gives 
notice, usually by a shrill prolonged cry, of the ap- 
proach of danger, or even the least movement of any 
suspicious object. It lives on the young shoots of 
shrubs, the tops of flowers, herbs and grass, particu- 
larly of all those which are aromatic." 

393.— The Syrian Hyrax 
{H. St/rinais). This species, according to Bruce, 
is found in Abyssinia, where it haunts the deep 
caverns and clefts in the rocks. By the natives of 
Amhara it is termed Ashkoko, or Askoko. It also 
tenants the mountains of Syria and Arabia ; and, as 
in days of old, the rocks of Horeb and of Sinai are 
still "a refuge for the Coneys." By the Aralis, 
according to Dr. Shaw, it is called Daman Israel, 
that is, LamI) of Israel, or rather Ganara or Gannim 
Israi:!, as Bruce contends, the word Daman being 
mistaken for the latter. Most authorities agree 
that it is the Shaphan (translated Coney) of the 
Scriptures. The Syrian Hyrax agrees in habits 
with iis Cape relative. It tenants the acclivities of 
the rocks, sheltering itself under projecting ledges, 
in deep fissures and caves : it is gregarious, and 
dozens may be often seen either sitting upon the 
great stones at the mouth of the caves, to warm 
themselves in the sun, or playfully skipping about 
in the enjoyment of the freshness of the evening. 
When captured, they inflict severe wounds with 
their formidable incisors, but are soon rendered 
tame and familiar. Cuvier and many naturalists 
have heMtated as to the distinctness of the Syrian 
and the Cape Hyrax. They are, as we think, un- 
doubtedly different, and the Syrian species may be 
distinguished by the presence of long bristle-like, 
but slender, black hairs, dispersed not very thinly 
over its body and considerably exceeding the fur : 
such at least was the case with the specimen which 
we examined ; while in the numerous specimens 
from the Cape, of all ages, in the museum of the 
Zoological Society, nothing of the kind is to be per- 
ceived. Bruce, -indeed, noticed this peculiarity, 
and he considered the Amharic name Ashkoko "as 
derived from the singularity of those long herina- 
ceoiis hairs which, like small thorns, grow about his 
back, and which in Amhaia are called Ashok." 

A fossil form closely allied to the Hyrax, the skull 
of which has been discovered in the clay near Heme 
Bay, has been descrit)ed by Professor Owen. 

Genus Tapiriis. — This genus comprehends, as far 
as known, only three species, of which two are 
natives of Soiitli America, the other of Sumatra and 

The geographical distribution of the existing 
species of pachydermatous animals is so partial, 
that we are surprised to find the islands of Sumatra 
and the peninsula of Malacca dividing with South 
America this limited genus between them. America, 
compared with Asia and Alrica, is deficient in 
living forms of the Pachydermata : two only are 
indigenous to that vast continent, viz., the peccary 
and tapir; and, reasoning from analogy, we should 
not expect to find either of these forms in any por- 
tion of the Old World, and more especially in the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago. The great mass 
of the Pachydermata are peculiar to the warmer 
regions of Asia and the continent of Alrica; and 
many genera, as Elephas, Rhinoceros, Sus, and 
Equus. give species to each, but not to America : so 
that the existence of cognate species in one of the 
Indian Islands and in South America appears as if 

it were an exception to a general rule, at least if 
we limit our views to the races now extant on the 
earih. Once, indeed, America was replete with 
animals of this order : and why so few stiould now 
appear as their representatives is a point not easy 
of solution. In their general form and contour the 
tapirs remind us of the hog; but the snout consists 
of a flexible proboscis, not, indeed, elongated like 
that of the elephant, but still sufficiently developed 
to serve as a hook by which the animal is capable 
of drawing down twigs to the mouth, of grasping 
fruit or bunches of herbage. The nostrils open at 
its extremity in the form of two transverse fissures, 
but there is no finger-like appendage. (For ana- 
tomy see ' Proceed. Zool. Soc.,' 1830, p. 163.) 

The tapir is a massive, powerful animal ; the 
limbs are thick and moderately long ; the head is 
large, compressed, and, in the American species, 
elevated at the occiput (see Fig. 402), whence the 
thick neck rises with a. prominent upper crest or 
ridge, along which runs a mane of stift' thinly-set 
hairs. The eyes are small and deep set ; the ears 
are rather short ; the tail is rudimentary. The an- 
terior feet are divided into four toes, the hinder into 
three, the tips only being cased in hoofs. The skin, 
which is thick, tough, and solid, is sparelv covered, 
excepting in one species, with very short close 
hair. The dentition (see Fig. 403) consists of six 
incisors in each jaw ; the canines are small, espe- 
cially those of the upper jaw, and are separated 
from the molars by a considerable interval ; the 
molars are seven on each side §bove, and six below, 
and, until worn down by attrition, the crowns pre- 
sent two transverse ridges. Fig. 401 represents the | 
skeleton of the ordinary American Tapir ; in gene- 
ral details it approaches that of the rhinoceros. Of 
the two species of tapir peculiar to America, one has 
been only recently discovered. It was found by Dr. 
Roulin in the most elevated regions of the Cordil- 
lera of the Andes, and is covered with long, thick, 
black hair. The bones of the nose are more elon- 
gated than in the other species, and Cuvier regards 
it as approaching in some respects to the fossil genus 

398, 399.— The Common American.Tapib 

(Taph'us Americanus). This species is very ex- 
tensively spread throughout the warmer regions of 
South America, but especially between the tropics, 
where it inhabits the deep forests, leading a solitary 
life, and seldom stirring from its retreat during the 
day, which it passes in a state of tranquil slumber. 
During the night, its season of activity, it wanders 
forth in quest of food, which consists of water-melons, 
gourds, young shoots of brushwood, &c. Its choice 
of food is not very limited ; and indeed, it appears 
to be as omnivorous as the hog. Azara, who states 
that the Guaranis term this animal Mborebi, and 
the Portuguese of Brazil, Anta, affirms that it de- 
vours the barrero, or nitrous earth of Paraguay, and 
that he has found a quantity of this substance in the 
stomach. Its senses of smell and hearing are ex- 
tremely acute, and serve to give notice of the ap- 
proach of enemies. Its voice, which it seldom 
utters, is a shrill kind of whistle, in strange contrast 
with the massive bulk of the animal. Of enormous 
muscular power, and defended with a tough, thick 
hide, the tapir is capable of tearing its way through 
the underwood in whatsoever direction it pleases : 
when thus driving onwards, it carries its head low, 
and, as it were, ploughs its course. 

Its fondness for the water is almost as strong as 
that evinced by the hippopotamus. It swims and 
dives admirably, and will remain, as we have seen 
while observing the specimens in the gardens of the 
Zool. Soc, submerged for many minutes, rise to the 
surface for breath, and plunge again. When hunted 
or wounded it always, if possible, makes for the 
water, and in its nightly wanderings will traverse 
rivers and lakes in search of food, or for pleasure. 
The female is very attentive to her young one, lead- 
ing it about on the land, and accustoming it at an 
early period to enter the water, where it plunges and 
plays before its parent, who seems to act as its in- 
structress. The male takes no share in this work, and 
does not constantly associate with the female. 

In its disposition the tapir is peaceful and quiet, 
and, unless hard pressed, never attempts to attack 
ii either man or beast; when, however, the hunter's 
dogs surround it, it defends itself very vigorously 
with its teeth, inflicting tenible wounds. We have 
witnessed those in confinement in the gardens of 
the Zool. Soc. occasionally break out into fits of 
irritation, plunging about, lunging violently with 
their heads, and snapping with their teeth like a 
hog. The most formidable enemy of this animal (if 
we except man) is the jaguar; and it is asserted 
that when that tiger of the American forest throws 
itself upon the tapir, the latter rushes through the 
most dense and tangled underwood, bruising its 
enemy, and endeavouring thus to dislodge him, and 
sometimes succeeds in the attempt. 

In Cayenne the Tapir is occasionally domesticated, 

and is harmless and quiet : it becomes indeed fami- 
liar, and often proves troublesome to those who 
caress it, as may be imagined would be the case 
with a pet hog under similar circumstances. The 
adult Tapir measures from 5 to 6 feet in length, and 
between three and four in height ; its colour is uniform 
deep blackish brown ; the young are longitudinally 
marked with spots and six or eight bands of fawn- 
colour along the body, and with numerous spots of 
the same tint on the cheeks. (See Fig. 400.) 

396, 397. — The Malay ob India.n Tapib 
(Tapirus Iiidicvs, Farquhar). This species was first 
introduced to science by Major Farquhar in 1816. 
It is a native of Sumatra and the Malay Penin- 
sula, where it is called tannoh or tennu ; and is as 
well ^nown in Malacca as the elephant or rhino- 
ceros. In disposition it resembles its Amencan 
relative. It feeds on vegetables, and is very partial 
to the sugar-cane. Though the natives have not 
domesticated it, this species is as easily tamed as 
the Tapir of America, and becomes as gentle and 
familiar. Major Farquhar possessed one which was 
completely domesticated, and as much at home aa 
any of the dogs : it fed indiscriminately on all kinds 
of vegetables, and was very fond of attending at 
table to receive bread, cakes, and the like. This 
Tapir was procured in the Malay Peninsula. (See 
'Trans. Asiat. Soc.,' vol. xv., 1820.) A Sumatran 
tapir was about the same time presented alive to 
the Asiatic Society by G. J. Siddons, Esq., resident 
at Bencoolen. It was of a lazy habit, very familiar, 
1 and delighted in being rubbed or scratched ; and this 
I favour it solicited from the people about him, by 
throwing itself down on its side, and making sundry 
movements. It is distinctly stated of this Sumatran 
specimen, that another of its great delights was to 
bathe, — also "that it remained a very considerable 
time under water." The living specimen, says Sir 
S. Raffles, sent from Bencoolen to Bengal, " was al- 
lowed to roam occasionally in the park at Barrack- 
pore. The man who had the charge of it informed 
me that it frequently entered the pond, and appeared 
to walk along the bottom under the water, and not 
make any attempt to swim." This characteristic 
habit of the animal was not observed by Major Far- 
quhar in his Malacca specimen. That gentleman 
says, indeed, that he thought he might venture to 
affirm that the Malacca tapir is not, like the Ame- 
rican species, amphibious in its nature. He adds, 
that the one he reared showed rather an antipathy 
to water, and that in the peninsula of Malacca these 
animals are found to frequent high grounds. As, 
however, it is admitted on all sides that the Malacca 
and the Sumatran tapirs are the same, and as these 
creatures difter in no material points of conformation 
from the American tapir, it is not easy to imagine 
that, while the American animal and that from Su- 
matra are so aquatic in their habits, the animal from 
Malacca should exhibit contrary piopensities. In 
Sumatra the tapir inhabits the dense forests of the 
interior, and is, therefore, seldom seen : hence it has 
been considered rare in that island : it must, how- 
ever, be observed, that after the loss of the ship Fame 
by fire, when a living Sumatran tapir with other 
animals perished, Sir S. Rafiles, during the short 
period of his stay in Sumatra, was enabled to procure 
other specimens, one of which is in the museum of 
the Zoological Society, and another in the museum 
of the East India Company. 

The Indian tapir exceeds the American in size : it 
has no mane, and the snout is longer and more pro- 
boscis-like. The most striking external difterence 
between the eastern and western animal, however, 
is in colour. Instead of being of the uniform dusky- 
bay tint of the American, the Indian tapir is strangely 
parti-coloured. The head, neck, fore-limbs, and lore- 
quarters are quite black : the body then becomes 
suddenly white or greyish-white, and so continues to 
about half way over the hind-quarters, when the 
black again commences abruptly, and is spread over 
the legs. The abruptness and contrast of the mark- 
ing of this animal makes it look precisely as if it 
were covered round the body with a while horse- 
cloth, leaving the fore and hind-quarteis exposed. 
The young, until the age of four months, are black, 
beautifully marked with spots and stripes of fawn 
colour above, and white below. 

According to Sir S. Raffles, the Indian tapir re- 
ceives various names in difterent districts. By the 
people of Liraun it is called Saladang : in the inte- 
rior of Manna. Gindol ; at Bencoolen, Babi Ala ; and 
at Malacca, Tennu. Marsden .states that it is de- 
nominated by the Malays in many districts Kuda- 
aj'er, or river-horse. Though the flesh of the Indian 
Tapir, like that of the American, is dry and disagree- 
able, and therefore of little value as an article of 
food, still the animal might be domesticated with 
advantage (and the same observation applies to the 
western species), and employed as a beast of draught 
or burden, its docility and great strength being 
strong recommendations. Its skin would prove, 
from its toughness, useful for various purposes. 




404, 405. — The PAL^OTHKBirM. 

la the larypsum-quarries near Paris and in various 
parts of Fiance have been discovered the fossil rehcs 
of a group of Pachydermatous animals, to which 
Cuvier gave the title of Palaeotherium. Ten or 
eleven species are recognised, varying from the size 
of a rhinoceros to that of a hog. The most imme- 
diate alliance of these fossil forms is to the Tapir, 
and they, perhaps, take an intermediate station be- 
tween tliat animal and the rhinoceros. The bones 
of the nose prove that the Palceotheria must have 
been furnished with a short proboscis ; the toes 
were three in number on each foot : the dentition 
consisted of 6 incisors in each jaw ; canines, as 
usual ; and 7 molars on each side above and below. 
Figs. 404 and 405 represent --espectively outlines 
of the Palseotherium magnum and Palaeotherium 
minus, as restored by Cuvier ; Figs. 406 and 407 
represent the skeletons of the same animals ; Fig. 
40« is an imperfect skull of Palaeotherium magnum ; 
Fig. 409 shows the characters of the molar teeth ol 
the upper jaw ; Fig. 410, the lower jaw and molar 
teeth, imperfect. 

The restoration of the skeletons of these extinct 
forms is one of the triumphs of science ; and, by 
persons unacquainted with the law of harmonious 
dependence which reigns throughout the structure 
and organization of animal bodies, might be deemed 
an improbability, or at least, an uncertain process : 
not so — the bones of the feet, the teeth, the spine, 
or of the limbs, are to the comparative anatomist 
a foundation upon which he can rear a super- 
structure, a clue to the recomposition of the fabric, i 
Speaking of the accumulated stores of fossil relics 
at his command, Cuvier thus writes : — " I at length 
found myself, as if placed in a charnel-house, sur- 
rounded by mutilated fragments of many hundred 
skeletons of more than twenty kinds of animals 
piled confusedly around me ; the task assigned to 
me was to restore them all to their original positwn. 
At the voice of comparative anatomy every bone 
and fragment of a bone resumed its place. I can- 
not find words to expres.s the pleasure I experienced 
in seeing, when I discovered one character, how all 
the consequences which I predicted from it were 
successively confirmed. The feet accorded with 
the characters announced by the teeth ; the teeth 
were in harmony with those indicated previously by 
the feet. The bones of the legs and thighs, and 
every connectmg portion of the extremities, were 
seen joined together precisely as I had arranged 
them, before my conjectures were verified by the 
discovery of the parts entire. Each species was 
in short, reconstructed from a single unit of its com- 
ponent elements." The relics of the Palaeotheria 
are found mingled with those of many other extinct 
forms in a stratum of fresh-water formation, as is 
evidenced by the shells it contains : it is the first 
of the great fresh-water formations of the Eocene 
period of Lyell, a deposit in which nearly fifty extinct 
species were discovered by Cuvier. We cannot 
doubt but that, like the tapir and rhinoceros of the 
present day, the Palaeotheria frequented the borders 
of lakes and large rivers, feeding upon the leaves 
and twigs of brushwood : there they lived and died ; 
their dead carcasses drifted to the bottom of the lake, 
swept off from the shore in seasons of flood, when 
the swollen rivers cleared the adjacent lowlands of 
hosts of dead, and perhaps also of the living, hurry- 
ing them to destruction, and depositing their relics, 
to be in other ages brought to light, the " reliquia 
vetustioris aevi." 

Another fossil genus allied to the tapirs is termed 
by Cuvier Lophiodon : not less than fifteen species 
are determined ; and they are found in the same 
fresh-water formation as the Palaeotheria. The 
dentition of the Lophiodon differs from that of the 
last-named animals, the lower jaw having only six 
molars. The teeth in character approach those of 
the rhinoceros. Fig. 411 represents a lower back 
molar of the gigantic Lophiodon of Argenfon ; Fig. 
412, an upper back molar; Fig. 413, a canine tooth; 
Fig. 414, two incisor teeth : all of the same species. 
With many essential parts of the osteology of these 
extinct animals naturalists are as yet unacquainted ; 
the bones of the nose, for example, and those of 
the feet, are not recovered. The remains of the 
Lophiodons found at Issel, Argenton, Bucksweiler. 
Montpellier, Montabusard, &c., occur in beds of 
fresh-water formation, but below those superficial 
strata containing the bones of the Mammoth and 
Mastodon. They are associated with the relics ot 
forms of terrestrial animals of which we have no 
living prototypes, and with those of crocodiles and 
fresh-water tortoiaes. The antiquity of these beds 
may be inferred from the fact that in most places 
they are covered by strata of decidedly marine 
formation, so that the Lophiodon existed and passed 
away not only before the races had commenced 
whose remains are found (and found only) in the 
alluvial strata of the earth, but before the extinction 
of still older races : they belong in fact to strata of 

our continent, over which, after becoming consoli- 
dated, the sea has rolled, and remained long enough 
to cover them with rocks of a new origin. 

The Family Sitidie, or the Hog tribe.— The animals 
composing this family, of which the hog is the type, 
are distributed over Europe, Asia, Africa, and South 
America; it is indeed the only pachydermatous 
group the members of which are thus distributed. 
Viewed externally, the feet of these animals resemble 
those of the ordinary Ruminants, and may indeed 
be termed cloven ; but the distinction is evident 
when we come to examine the bones. In the hog 
every toe (there are four on each foot) has its own 
metacarpal or metatarsal bone, and though the 
outer toe on each side is shorter 1 han the two middle, 
still it is as perfect in conformation. The external 
similarity of the feet of the hog to those of the 
cloven-footed ruminants, and their real distinction 
did not escape Buffon, though at the same time 
that celebrated philosopher was unable to discern 
the true affinities of this animal, and its real place 
in the scale of the Mammalia. In the peccaries, 
hojvever, it must be observed that the metacarpal 
bones of the two middle toes of the fore-limbs and 
the corresponding metatarsal bones of the hind-lirabs 
are consolidated into a sort of canon-bone, as in 
ruminating animals, while at the same time the 
stomach is divided into several distinct sacculi — an 
additional point of structural approximation to the 

The general external characters of the hog tribe 
need not be recapitulated here ; all are familiar 
with them, as displayed by the ordinary tenant of 
the sty. 

415, — The Collared Pbccaet 

(Dicotyles torquatxts). The Peccaries are the only 
indigenous representatives of the porcine group in 
America ; the hog, which is now common there, 
being of recent introduction, though it wanders in 
wild herds. 

The peccary closely resembles the hog in form 
and in the quality of the bristly hair which covers 
the body. It differs, however, from the hog in den- 
tition, the incisors of the upper jaw being four in- 
stead of six, and the molars above and below on 
each side six ; while the tusks, which are of mode- 
rate size compared with those of the hog, instead of 
taking a curve outwards, meet like ordinary canines ; 
they are, however, sharp and effective weapons. 
Fig. 423 represents a lateral view of the teeth of 
both jaws; Fig. 424 those of the upper jaw in two 
views, and Fig. 425 those of the under. The limbs 
are more slender in proportion than in the hog, and 
there are only three toes on the hinder feet, the 
small outer toe being wanting. The tail is a mere 
tubercle : beneath the skin on the top of the loins 
is a large glandular apparatus, which pours out a 
secretion of disgusting odour. In their voice, their 
habits of rooting in the earth, the mode in which 
when angry they erect the bristles of the mane, and 
clash their teeth, they resemble their procine rela- 
tive of the Old World. 

The collared peccary is a native of the dense 
forests throughout the greater part of South Ame- 
rica, and is usually met with in pairs or small fami- 
lies : they take up their abode in hollow trees and 
holes of the earth, where they seek a refuge from the 
pursuit of their enemies, of which, man excepted, 
the jaguar is the most destructive. Plantations of 
maize, sugar-canes, and potatoes often suffer from 
their incursions. It is only when hard pressed that 
the peccary defends itself : indeeil it displays nothing 
of the sullen courage of the wild boar, but retreats 
on the appearance of danger, and precipitately seeks 
its hiding-place. 

Azara states that the Guarinis term this species 
Taytetou, and the white-lipped species Tagnicati. 
It IS, he adds, domesticated with more facility than 
the wild hog, and becomes troublesome from its fami- 
liarity. " It is saia, and I believe it, that their flesh 
is good, but not so fat as that of the hog; when 
killed, however, the elandular orifice between the 
haunches must be removed, since, if this be not 
done, the flesh acquires a bad odour and taste. 
Nevertheless the Indians eat it without this pre- 
caution." The inferiority of the flesh of the pec- 
cary to th»t of the hog, and its dorsal gland, will 
combine to exclude it from the European farmyard. 
The collared peccary is about three feet in length, 
and is distinguished by a stripe of white or yellowish 
white passing from the withers down each shoulder 
and meeting on the throat. Its general colour is 
grizzled blackish grey ; the bristles being ringed 
grey, straw-colour, and black. 

The white-lipped peccary (^Dlcotyhs lahiatus) is 
larger than the collared species and more robust; it 
associates in vast troops directed by an old male ; 
when attacked they surround the man, dog, or ja- 
guar, and if there be no means of escape, their 
enemy is soon torn to pieces. M. Schomburgk had 
a narrow escape from an infuriated herd, the leader 
of which he shot in the act of rushing at him; as 

the troop approached where he stood, the noise wa« 
like that of a whirlwind through the bushes; " but 
the peculiar growl and awful clapping of the teeth," 
he adds, " did not leave me long in doubt as to its 
cause : it was evident the herd had divided, and 
were coming directly towards me : I know not yet 
how I climbed the lower part of a mora-tree, when 
by they rushed, their muzzles almost sweeping the 
ground, and their rough bristles on the back stand- 
ing erect : they might have numbered fifty. They 
came and passed like a whirlwind ; and before I had 
recovered from my astonishment, I heard them 
plunge into the river and swim to the opposite 
bank." Both species delight to wallow in the mire 
and muddy pools, and readily take to the water, 
swimming with great vigour. 

In captivity the white-lipped peccary hag ap- 
peared to us to be more reserved and savage than 
the collared species, and more ready to testify 
by the clashing of its teeth its feelings of dis- 

416, 417. — The Babiboussa 

{Sus Babirussa, Linn. ; Babirttssa alfunu, F. Cuv.). 
The terra Babiroussa means literally hog-deer, and 
there is some reason to think that the ancients were 
not altogether unacquainted with the animal. Pliny 
notices a wild boar with horns on the forehead, 
found in India ; and Cosmes, a writer in the sixth 
century, uses the term hog-deer (xoip«Ao())os) as the 
designation of an Indian animal : however this 
may be, it is only recently that naturalists have be- 
come well acquainted with it and its habits, though 
its skulls have been brought over to Europe 
in abundance by vessels trading among the Mo- 

The Babiroussa differs somewhat in dentition 
from the hog, the incisors being four above, instead 
of six, and the molars five on each side in either 
jaw. The upper canines or tusks of the male emerge 
directly upward from their apparently distorted 
sockets, and sweep with a bold arch backwards, 
attaining to a very great length. The skin is thick, 
coarse, gi-anular, of a blackish tint, and sparingly 
beset with very short bristly hairs. The tusks of 
the lower jaw are long, strong, and sharp, emerging 
like those of the boar. The tusks of the upper jaw do 
not pass out between the lips, but cut their way 
through the skin, nearly halfway between the end 
of the snout and the eyes. The tusks of the lower 
jaw are formidable weapons. The male when adult 
equals the largest hog ; the female is of much 
inferior size, and destitute of the curled upper tusks, 
or has them only rudimentary. 

The Babiroussa is found in the marshy forests in 
the interior of Bourou, and other of the Molucca 
islands, as Araboyna, and also Java, where it as- 
sociates in troops. Its habits resemble those of 
the wild hog, and it is restless and ferocious. Ac- 
cording to Lesson it feeds chiefly upon maize, giving 
preference to that grain beyond other articles of 
diet. It is partial to the water, and swims with the 
greatest ease, often crossing the straits betneen 
adjacent islands without any difficulty. Some time 
.since a pair of these animals were living and pro- 
duced younsr in the menagerie of Paris. They were 
fond of nestling under the straw, and when the male 
retired to rest the female would cover him over 
with litter, and then creep under the straw to him, 
so that both were concealed. The following are 
notes which we made from a young male babiroussa 
living in the gardens of the Zool. Soc. : — This 
animal is hog-like in its figure, and much resembles 
a small pig of the Chinese breed. It is roundly 
formed like a young well-bred hog, and the skin 
lies close, giving a compactness to its appearance. 
The head is small, and high between the ears ; 
the snout is elongated ; the ears are very small, erect, 
and pointed ; the eyes in their form and expression 
resemble those of a stag ; the iris is brown ; the 
skin, which is thinly clothed with short black bristly 
hairs, is everywhere dotted with small granulations, 
which spread and become rougher, coarser, and 
more decided about the limbs and feet, and espe- 
cially on the anterior part of the head and sides 
of the face and under-jaw. Closely as the skin lies, 
it becomes thrown into a series of regular and prettily 
arranged wrinkles or furrows with the different move- 
ments of the body, and varying in direction accord- 
ingly. As the animal turns to one side, these fur- 
rows are transverse ; in other attitudes they become 
more or less oblique ; but none are to be seen when 
the animal stands still or lies quietly on its straw. 
The tail is rather long, slender, and tapering ; the 
limbs are well proportioned, and do not appear 
to be longer, in relation to the size of the body, 
than in the hog ; the tusks of the upper jaw (in the 
present individual) are at present small, but curved 

In its state of captivity this young babiroussa 
seems as contented as a pig in its sty, and it is not 
only quiet, but disposed to familiarity, raising itself 
up on its hind-legs, and putting its snout to the bars 

<0S.— Skeleton of TilBOtlnriiuil nugnum. 

4U7.-Skel*ton or Falaollurium mlnat. 

406,— Skull of Paleolhcrium maf^num. 

4M.-~Ou0inm't MBoifaeriium mignum. 

40S.— OwIIm or Pilsotherivm Minus. 

41«.— Btbiroiusa. 

417.— Bibinnuu. 

409.— Molu teeth of upper Jaw of the nme, Men from above. 

410.— External »iew of part of the lower jaw of the same. 

^-lll of Lopliiodon. 

414.— ainll of BabirouMa. 

418 Head of Babitoujsa, acan in pioSle. 

4 1».— Collated Peccary. 


429 — Skull of the 11. ir. 


4::) to 422. -Teeth of liablroussa 

430.— Tetth of ihe Hog. 

423 to 425.— Teeth of Collared Pcccaiy. 

426.— Wild Boar. 

CI.— Boar-htiBt. 






428.— Boar-bout. 


:,. 13. 






of the enclosure, evidently soliciting food. It turns 
the straw over and over with it* snout, and champs 
in eatini;, but utters, as far as we could learn, no 
grunt, as does the hoe, nor has it the unpleasant 
smell of the latter. That the babiroussa might be 
reclaimed, notwithstanding Lesson's account of its 
savasre disposition in capti% ity, and added to our 
domestic animals, is rer)- evident. Its flesh is re- 
ported to be held in high estimation. Fig. 418 
represents the head of the male babiroussa («) and 
of the female (A) by way of contrast. Fig. 419 is an 
admirable delineation of the skull of the adult 
male, in which the form of the tusks, their relative 
proportions and direction are faithfully given. Fig. 
420, a lateral view" of the dentition of upper and 
lower jaw. Fig. 421, dentition of upper jaw in two 
views ; Fig. 422, those of the lower jaw. 

426, 431.— The Wild Hog 

(Sus A/>er, Briss. ; Sim Scrtrfa, Linn.'). The wild hog 
is, as ail naturalists admit, the origin of our domes- 
tic race, but at what period it was reclaimed is very 
uncertain. The circumstances indeed connected 
with the domestication of everj- animal subject to 
the bondage of man are enveloped in obscurity. The 
domestication, however, of the wild hog would not 
involve much ditficulty. Young individuals taken 
in their native forest soon become reconciled to 
captivity, and display the same contentment and 
familiarity which are so conspicuous in the ordinary 
tame beast. It is this disposition, a characteristic 
of the Pachyderraata, which renders the elephant, 
the rhinoceroSj the tapir, and othere, so easily sub- 
jiisrated ; but, on the other hand, the readiness with 
which they submit to the restraints of captivity is 
counterbalanced by an equal readiness to assume a 
life of independence. The hog when left to itself 
resumes its original habits, as is the case in Ame- 
rica, where wild herds roam the forest ; and, as we 
have seen, the elephant oilen escapes its trammels 
and joins its wild brethren, immediately submitting, 
if retaken, to the voice of authority which it had 
previously learned to obey. The hoi'se in a wild 
state scours the plains of Tartary and South Ame- 
rica ; it requires but a struggle to break in the most 
spirited. It may be laid down as an axiom, that 
the animals of whose services man stands most in 
need are, each in their way, those whose nature 
most readily induces them to submit to his domi- 
nion, nay, even court his friendship. Some we 
can tame, and only tame ; others we can educate. 

The wild hog was once common in our island, 
and it is almost surprising, considering the passion 
for the chase which seems to be part and parcel of 
our English temperament, that this animal is not 
re-established in some of its old haunts, the parks 
and forests of nobility. In India, indeed, the chase 
of the wild boar is one of the field-sports to which 
our counti-ymen are enthusiastically devoted ; nor 
is there any reason why it might not be revived in 

The wild hog is still common in the forests of 
Germany, France, and other portions of Europe, 
and extends also through Asia and Africa ; if in- 
deed the species is positively identical — a point 
which there is some reason to question. At all 
events slight differences are observable between 
the Indian wild boar and the present breed of the 
German forests; and Sonnini expresses a doubt 
as to the identity of the Egyptian and European 
wild race. 

In no essential point does the wild race of Europe 
differ from our domestic breeds ; the snout however 
is more elongated, and, as might be expected, the 
contour of the frame is more gaunt and bony. The 
ears are short and erect, the tusks large, and the 
bristles long and coarse ; the general colour is 
rusty-black or blackish brown, more or less brindled 
in patches. After the age of three years, the wild 
boar leads a solitary life ifi the forest, fearless of 
every foe and confident in his weapons, which, 
added to his great strength, render him a formidable 
antagonist. It is not, however, until the age of five 
or six years that he attains to his full dimensions, 
and the duration of his life is from twenty-five to 
thirty years. The females with their young associ- 
ate in herds for the sake of mutual protection : on 
the approach of an enemy the young are placed in 
the centre, the old on«s forming a circle round 
them ; and should he be hazardous enough to ven- 
ture on the attack, he meets with a rough reception. 
It is thus that the young are preserved from wolves, 
the chief foes to be dreaded by them ; to which in 
some districts they often fall a prey, notwithstand- 
ing the vigilance of their parent. It is only in 
defence of their young that the females are furious, 
but the old males are not to be approached without 
caution, and often nish out upon those who venture 
near the precincts of their lair. At certain seasons, 
indeed, the wild boar is very savage, and should he 
meet a rival, the most sanguinarj' combat ensues. 

In the month of December or January, each male 
attaches himself to the society of a chosen female, 

whom he accompanies in the deepest glens of the 
forest for about thirty days. When about to pro- 
duce her young, the female seeks some imdisturbed 
retreat remote from the haunts of the male, who it 
appears exhibits a propensity to devour her pro- 
geny if he discover the litter. To her young the 
female is a most attentive mother; she suckles 
them for three or four months, and they remain 
with her for a long time : an aged female is some- 
times seen followed by several families, among 
which are some of the age of two or three years. 
I These young rovei-a the French hunters call bCtes 
de compagnie. The wild boar seldom stirs from 
his lair during the day, and may therefore be 
regarded as in some degree nocturnal ; on the ap- 
proach of twilight, he rouses from his indolent 
slumbers, and sets out in quest of food, which con- 
sists of acorns, beech-mast, grain, different vege- 
tables, and roots ; in search of the latter, he ploughs 
up the ground with his snout : corn-fields in the 
vicinity of forests where wild hogs exist often suffer 
extensively from their nightly incureions. The 
wild boar, though not truly carnivorous, does not 
refuse animal matters which chance may throw in 
his way : he does not however ordinarily attack and 
kill others for the sake of their flesh, but only 
devours what he may meet with in his lambles. In 
j the morning the wild boar returns to his lair in the 
j thickest and most gloomy part of the Ibrest, under 
I a rock, in a cave, or under the canopy of gnarled 
and intertwined branches. When roused by the 
hunter and his dogs, the old boar retreats sullenly 
and slowly, gnashing his teeth, foaming with anger, 
and often stopping to receive his pui-suers, on whom 
he ollen rushes with sudden impetuosity, striking 
with his tusks, goring doers and men, and scattering 
terror around. When the boar turns upon a pack, 
the foremost dogs are sure to suffer, and several 
will fall by as many strokes. An instance is on 
record in which a boar turned suddenly upon a 
pack of fifty dogs which pursued him, and instantly 
despatched six or seven of them, wounding all the 
rest with the exception of ten. The young boar is 
less resolute than the old animal, and will run to 
a considerable distance before he is brought to bay ; 
nor is the assault attended with any great degree 
of danger. In all ages, the chase of the boar has 
been a favourite diversion ; the classic writings 
abound with allusions to it and to the risk incurred. 
Ovid (Fab. iv., lib. viii.) gives a spirited account 
of the chase, in which the fury and strength of the 
enraged beast are admirably depicted. It would 
seem that the ancients endeavoured to enclose the 
boar by nets so as to prevent his escaping into the 
recesses of the forest : the combat was close, and 
therefore dangerous ; driven from his lair by the 
dogs, and hemmed in, the infuriated animal turned 
savagely upon his assailants, and died, after killing 
and wounding dogs and men, transfixed by spears 
and javelins. Our forefathers in the Middle Ages 
deemed the wild boar one of the noble " beastes of 
venery," and kept a powerful breed of hounds for 
the chase : the weapons used by the huntsmen were 
spears, and a sort of short sword, or couteau de 
cliasse ; the speai-s were used when the boar was 
brought to bay, and the attack gave abundant 
opportunities to the hunters of showing their skill 
and courage. The loud blast of the horn, mingled 
with the shouts of men and the baying of the 
hounds, proclaimed the vigorous home-thrust that 
struck the savage lifeless to the ground. Figs. 427, 
428, and 428* are illustrative of the boar-hunt as 
conducted in Europe in the Middle Ages. Fig. 432 
illustrates boar-hunting as practised in India at the 
present day. The hunters are always mounted on 
horseback, and, instead of meeting the animal with 
spears, attack him with javelins, which are launched 
at him as he flies, or as he rushes to the charge, 
which is often so determined that the horses cannot 
be brought to stand the shock, or, if they do, are 
thrown down and gored ; serious accidents some- 
times occur. Mr. Johnson relates an instance in 
which a large and resolute boar, after being driven 
by the hunters into a plain, stood at bay and chal- 
lenged the whole party : he charged every horse 
that advanced within fifty yards of him, with great 
ferocity, causing them to rear and plunge, and 
throw off their riders, whose lives were in jeopardy : 
though many of the horses were accustomed to the 
sport, none would stand his charges, or bring the 
rider within javelin distance, and at last he fairly 
drove the party from the iield ; and then, gnashing 
his tusks and foaming, he made his way to the 
jungle, where it was useless to attempt to follow 

In our own country the boar, reserved for the 
sport of the privileged classes, was protected by 
severe laws. By one of the edicts of William the 
Conqueror (a.d. 1087), it was ordained that any 
who were found guilty of killing a stag, roebuck, or 
wild boar were to have their eyes put out : some- 
times, indeed, the penalty appears to have been a 
painful death. 

At what precise period the wild boar became 
extinct in our island cannot be precisely deter- 
mined ; it is evident, however, that as population 
increased, and the vast woods which spread over 
many parts of the country were cut down and the 
land cleared, that the range of the boar would be- 
come more and more limited, and its numbers 
decreased, till at length its extirpation would be 
complete. We look in vain for the forest which, 
in the 12th century, covered the country to the 
north of London, and of which Fitzstephen, in the 
reign of Henry II., writes, observinsr that "on the 
north are corn-fields and delightful meadows, in- 
termixed with pleasant streams, on which stands 
many a mill, whose clack is so grateful to the ear ; 
beyond them an immense forest extends itself, 
beautified with woods and groves, and full of the 
lairs and coverts of beast and game, stags, bucks, 
boars, and wild bulls." Banished, however, as the 
wild boar is from among our native Mammalia, 
"its name is immortalized," as Mr. Bell observes, 
" by having given origin to the appellation of many 
places in different parts of the country, and by its 
introduction into the armorial bearings ot many dis- 
tinguished families of every division of the king- 

The skull of the hog (Fig. 429), which affords an 
index of the habits of the animal, is of a conical 
or wedge-like form ; the base or occipital portion 
forms a right angle with the oblique upper surface, 
and a bold transverse ridge is formed by the union 
of the occipital and parietal bones. The nasal 
i bones are prolonged nearly to the end of the snout, 
which, in the living animal, terminated in a move- 
able cartilaginous disc, pierced by the nostrils. 

The lower jaw is of great strength. The dentition 

f* 1 1 . 

(Fig. 430) is as follows : — Incisors, _ ; canines, ' 

7 ^7 

molars, - — =44. The canines of the upper jaw 

are prismatic, and curve downwards, having their • 
anterior surface worn by the action of the huge 
canines of the lower jaw, which are sharp, sweep 
out from the sides of the mouth, and often attain to 
the length of eight or ten inches, and sometimes 
even more. These canines or tusks are terrible 
weapons : rushing on his antagonist, the boar 
strikes obliquely upwards, right and left, with pro- 
digious violence ; a mode of action the best calcu- 
lated for bringing these weapons into effective play, 
and in which the muscular powers of the neck and 
shoulders are the most advantageously and naturally 

433, 434, d, e. — The Domestic Hog 

is too well known to need any description ; and its 
utility too well appreciated to require comment. 
It is not, however, valued alike in all countries, 
and in some is regarded with abhorrence. In India 
both Brahmin and Mussulman reject its flesh as 
food, yet in many districts of that country semi- 
domesticated hogs wander about the villages, feed- 
ing on the refuse which they pick up in the streets. 
Colonel Sykes states that in Dukhun "every vil- 
lage abounds with hogs, but any property in them 
is equally abjured by individuals and the commu- 
nity." Detestation of the hog was a feeling enter- 
tained by certain nations in remote antiquity. It 
was classed by the Jews among the vilest animals, 
and in Egypt the swineherd was numbered among 
the profane, and forbidden to enter the temples of 
their gods ; even the Ibwest dregs of the people 
refused to bestow their daughter on him in mar- 
riage. The Egyptians sacrificed the hog to Bac- 
chus, and to the moon when full. " In the evening 
of the festival of Bacchus," says Herodotus, " thougli 
every one be obliged to kill a hog before the door 
of his house, yet he immediately restores the car- 
cass to the swineherd that sold him." The ancient 
Scythians, according to- the same authority, made 
no use of swine, nor suffered any to be kept in the 
country. The Abyssinians and the Cophts of 
Egypt, as well as the Mohammedans, reject the 
flesh of the hog. Among the ancient Greeks and 
Romans, though the office of swineherd appeare to 
have been held in contempt, the flesh of the hog 
was in high estimation, and a sucking pig was as 
favourite a dish as amongst ourselves in the present 
day. The Chinese have derived no prejudices 
against the hog from the Mohammedan nations Of 
the East : on the contrary, they rear these animals 
in great numbers for the sake of their flesh ; and 
even the numerous population who tenant the float- 
ing town of rafts or barges contrive to keep and 
rear them. 

" One of the most singular circumstances," says 
Mr. Wilson, "in the domestic history of this animal, 
is tile immense extent of its distribution, more 
especially in far-removed and insulated spots in- 
habited by semi-barbarians, where the wild species 
is entirely unknown. For example, the South Sea 
Islanders, on their discovery by Europeans, were 
found to be well stocked with a small black-legged 




hoif ; and the traditionary belief of the people in 
regard to the original introduction of these animals 
Rliowcd that they were supposed to be as anciently 
descended as themselves. Yet the latter had no 
knowledge of the wild boar or any other animal of 
the hog kind from which the domestic breed might 
be supposed to be derived." ('Quarterly Journal 
of Agriculture.') 

Among our Saxon forefathers the hog was of 
great importance : its flesh was a staple article of 
consumption in every household, and a great por- 
tion of the wealth of the farmers and landed pro- 
prietors consisted of droves of swine, which were 
attended by swineherds, thralls, or bondslaves, and 
which were driven into the woods of oak and beech, 
in order to feed on acorns and mast, and all the 
while guarded from the attacks of the wolf. The 
domestic hog of that period appears to have closely 
resembled, in form and colour, the wild species, and 
the old unimproved breed, now seldom seen, may 
be regarded as its modem representative. (Fig. 
433.) There are now in our island several breeds 
of this useful animal, of acknowledged excellence, 
the result of judicious crossings. The test of ex- 
cellence is productibility, a readiness to become fat, 
small bone, and the quality of the whole animal 
when converted into bacon: size is of minor im- 
portance. The introduction of the small Chinese 
Dreed is one great source of improvement. The 
Chinese hog is short in the head, with sharp neat 
ears, low on the limbs, and high in the chine. It is 
very prolific, and fattens readily. (Fig. 434, </.) 
The prevailing colours are black or half black and 
half white. This breed, or one closely allied to it, 
extends from (^'hina throughout various groups of 
islands in the Pacific. 

The breed nearest to the Chinese in this country 
is the Suffolk (Fig. 4.34, /) : these are generally 
white ; they are compactly made, and deep in the 

Another source of improvement is the Neapolitan 
hog: this is a plump animal of a black colour, 
without any hair, and with a singular predisposition 
to become fat : it is however of a tender constitu- 
tion. The pure black breed of Essex, which has 
very little hair, is closely allied to it, and when 
crossed with the Neapolitan produces a most valu- 
able stock : a cross between the Neapolitan and 
Berkshire breed is also in high esteem. A breed 
between the Berkshire, Chinese, and Neapolitan 
may, by careful selection, produce every quality 
which can be desired : great fecundity, an early 
acquisition of fat, and moderate size, with admirable 
form and proportions. Our group of hogs fFig. 434) 
represent-i — a, the wild boar; b, the old unimproved 
breed ; c, the black or wire-haired breed ; d, e, boar 
and sow of the improved breed ; /, the pure Suffolk 
breed ; </. the Chinese breed. 

The domestic hog is by no means destitute of 
intelligence, and little deserves the character of a 
stupid filthy brute, as some are pleased to call it. 
As regards filthiness, everything will depend on its 
keeper: it is true that, like the elephant and hippo- 
potamas, it delights to wallow in the mire ; but no 
animal more luxuriates in clean straw, and when it 
is styed up in filth justice is not done to it. The 
hog is a " huge feeder," but so are the horse and ox, 
and a fat hog is a more comely-looking beast than 
one that is lean and ill-fed. With respect to intelli- 
gence, we rank it far before the ox and horse, 
though it is less docile. In Minorca it is used to 
draw the plough, and works well ; and Pennant says 
that in the district of Murray, between the Spey and 
Elgin, it was formerly employed for the same pur- 
pose, and that a. credible eye-witness informed riim 
" that he had seen in his parish there, a cow, a sow, 
and two younij horses voked together and drawing 
a plough in light sandy soil, and that the sow was 
the best drawer of the four." The senses of taste, 
smell, and hearing are possessed in great perfec- 
tion by the hog: it is a saying among a certain 
class of persons that pigs can smell the wind ; they 
are certainly aware of the approach of a storm, and 
we have seen them agitated during its continuance, 
screaming, and running about with straw in their 
mouths, or carrying it to their sty a* if to add to 
their shelter. In Italy advantage i« said to be 
taken of the sense of smell with which this animal 
is endowed in searching for truffles; and in our own 
country the famous sow Slut was broke in to the 
gun, and ittood to h^r game as stanch as the best 

The genus Su* as at present constituted contains, 
besides the common wild hog and its domestic re- 
latives, two other species known to naturalists : of 
thes« one is the Papuan hog, or BSne of the natives 
of New Guinea (.Sus Papuensis), figured and de- 
scribed in the 'Zoologie de la Coquille,' by MM. 
I<es«on and Gamot. It is remarkable for its small 
•ize, and its light and agreeable proportions, and 
the shortness of the tusks. It is common in the 
forests of New Guinea, where it is esteemed by the 
native Papuan* a* delicate food: they contrive to 

catch these animals when young, and rear them in 
a state of domestication. 

The other animal is the Woodswine of South and 
Eastern Africa, and of Madagascar, the Uosch-Vark 
of the Dutch colonists of the Cape (Sus larvatus, 
Cuv.). This savage and formidable animal resem- 
bles the wild boar of Europe, but its head is larger 
in proportion, its snout broader, and an elevated 
callous protuberance is seated on the cheeks be- 
tween the tusks and eyes, giving a revolting aspect 
to the physiognomy. Prompt and vicious, the 
Bosch-Vark is much to be dreaded in combat, its 
strength and the size of its tusks rendering it a 
match for almost any foe. It dwells in excavations 
in the ground, where it is dangerous to attack it, as 
it ruiihes out suddenly from its retreat and deals 
rapid destruction among its assailants. Dr. Smith 
obsei-ves that this species is subject to great variety 
of colouring, scarcely any two specimens being pre- 
cisely alike : some are of a brownish black variegated 
with white, and others are of an almost uniform light 
reddish brown or rufous without white markings ; 
and it is scarcely possible to say which is the most 
prevailing style of colouring. The bristles are long, 
particularly upon the upper parts of the neck and 
back; the canines are of huge size and strength: 
the ears are short, and thinly covered both without 
and within with coarse black hair, which is longest 
at their tips. The tail is thinly covered with black 
bristles. Average length of body, between four and 
five feet; of the tail, one foot. 

The discovery of the bones of an extinct hog of 
huge size in the cavern of Sundwick in Westphalia 
is due to M. Goldfuss. Bones of three distinct 
species occur in the Epplesheim sand (Miocene 
division of tertiary deposits, Lyell), and fossil relics 
of a species have been found in Ilutton Cave, in 
Mendip, and in other places. 

Several species of an extinct genus (Chseropo- 
tamus) closely allied to the hog have been disco- 
vered in the gypsum of Montmaitre, in certain 
strata in Switzerland, and in the Eocene formation 
of the Isle of Wight, &c. 

Genus Phacochcerus. — ^The animals contained in 
this genus resemble the hog in manners, form, 
and aspect, so that, were it not for the peculiarity 
of their dentition, they would necessarily be included 
in the genus Sus. Their dentition, however, is so 
different from that of the hog as to justify their se- 
paration. Instead of presenting the ordinary struc- 
ture, the grinders have a great analogy with those 
of the elephant: they are composea of vertical 
cylinders of enamel, enclosing an osseous deposit, 
and are cemented together by cortical substance, 
or crusta petrosa. It is long before the root of these 
teeth is perfected, and they advance in rotation 
from behind forwards, pushing before them the 
first molars, which in old individuals are found to 
be either greatly reduced or to have entirely dis- 
appeared. It is not till after ceasing to push for- 
ward that the roots become consolidated. With 
regard to number they appear to vary. In the skull 
of the Abyssinian Phacocnoere (Ph. ./Eliani, Riipp.), 
which we have carefully examined, the molars 
were found to be four on each side above and three 
below. From the first molar above, which was 
very small, to the third, the increase in size was 
gradual, but the fourth molar was long and nar- 
rowed gradually as it proceeded backwards. Had 
the animal lived much longer, it is probable that 
the first molar would have disappeared : the denti- 
tion would then have been as represented in Fig. 
4.36. The incisors were two above and six below. 
The tusks were enormous. It would seem that the 
presence of incisors is variable ; for in the South 
African species they either do not exist or are un- 
developed. Cuvier states that vestiges of them are 
sometimes found under the gum ; but in specimens 
from Cape Verde the incisors are generally com- 

Fig. 436 is one side of the upper jaw of the South 
African Phacochoere : Fig. 4'}7, one side of the lower 
jaw of the Cape Verde species : Fig. 438, a lateral 
view of the last molar tooth, which may be compared 
with the molar of the elephant. 

The head of these animals is enormously large 
and heavy ; the eyes are small and set high on the 
forehead, which is depressed between them ; under 
each eye is a large coarse fleshy lobe ; and a warty 
excrescence appears on each side of the muzzle, be- 
tween the eye and the tusks. The muzzle is very 
broad, and the ears are erect. 

435.— The South African PHACOCHffiHE 

(Phacochanu yJUl/iiopiau, F. Cuvier), or Vlacke 
Vark of the Cape colonists. The phacochoere found 
in Guinea, at Cape Verde, and along the Senegal, 
is regarded as distinct from the present species by 
F. Cuvier, in consequence of the possession of 
incisors ; and is termed by him Ph. Africanus, The j 
range of the South African phacochfere, or Vlacke ' 
Vark, does not appear to be precisely determined ; [ 
formerly it existed within the limits of the Cape I 

colony, and still lingers on the frontier districts, 
but is much more common in the remoter latitudes. 
In the frontier districts these animals seldom venture 
to seek their food during the day ; but in the coun- 
tries inhabited by natives who are destitute of the 
efHciunt arms of the colonists they are at all times 
to be met, though their favourite feeding-times are 
early in the morning, late in the evening, and even 
during the night, if it be moonlight. When disturbed 
in its retreats, and especially when hunted, the 
yiacke Vark is a very dangerous animal ; fur though 
it will not turn out of its way to give chase, yet if 
brought to bay, or forced to extremity, it attacks 
with furious impetuosity, and strikes with its tusks, 
which are dreadful weapons : it has been known to 
cut with one stroke completely through the fleshy 
part of a man's thigh. We learn that though this 
animal is used as food by the colonists, the Hotten- 
tots, and Bechuanas, it is rejected by the Coa*t 
Caffres, who are much more particular as to what 
thev eat than any other natives of South Africa, 
anu consider as an inferior class the persons who 
consume as food the articles which they hold as 
prohibited. The top of the head, the upper part of 
the neck, and the anterior part of the back are 
covered with very long and rigid bristles of a black- 
brown colour, those on the top of the head diverging 
like the rays of a circle. On the other parts the 
hair is shorter and of a dull brown, slightly inclined 
to white on the belly and flanks. The tail, except 
along the top, where it is furnished with a number 
of blackish brown bristles, is nearly naked. Lengtlv, 
of head and body, about five feet ; of the tail, about, 
eleven inches. 

439, 440. — The Abyssinian PHACOCHfERE 
(Ph. JEliani, Iliippell), This species was found by 
Riippell first in Kordofan, but afterwards in greater 
abundance on the eastern slope of Abyssinia. It 
haunts low bushes and forests ; and has a habit of 
creeping on its bent fore-limbs in quest of food. In 
this altitude, it uses its tusks in digging up or tear- 
ing out of the ground the roots of plants, which 
constitute part of its diet. When thus engaged it 
pushes its body forwards by means of its hind-legs, 
in order to move along. This habit of kneeling to 
feed has been observed in the species from Cape 
Verde. We have occasionally noticed it in the 
common hog. 

441, 442.— The ANopi.oTnp.iimM. 1», 

Our figures give Cuvier's restoration of the out- 
lines of two species of the extinct group of Pachy- 
dermata termed Anoplotherium, the (ussil relics of 
which, mixed v/ith those of the Palajotherium,. 
occur in the gypsum-quarries near Paris, and also, 
though more rarely, in the neighbourhood of 
Oritans and Genoa. These Anoplolhcria are 
remarkable for the characters of their dentition; 
the teeth consist in each jaw of six incisors, two 
canines, and fourteen molars, reckoning both sides - 
together; and these are arranged^ in a continued 
and uninterrupted series ; without any vacancy 
between the incisors and the canines, or between 
the canines and the molars. The canines resemble 
the incisors in form, and might be mistaken for 
them ; the four posterior molars are like those of 
the rhinoceros. The feet are cloven as in the deer, 
being divided into two toes, sheathed with a hoof 
at the extremity ; in the deer and other Kuminant* 
the metacarpal and metatarsal bones arc blended 
into a single canon-bone, but in the Anoplotherium 
they are separate as in the hog. Allied to the 
Pachydermata in some points, and in others to the 
Kuminantia, the Anoplotheria appear to have occu- 
pied an intermediate station between these two 
great orders : their heads, judging from the skull, 
partook of the form of that of the horse and of the 
camel ; the snout was not elongated into a pro- 
boscis as in the tapir or the elephant. The Anoplo- 
theria are divideu into three subgenera, on various 
minor details of structure. The restricted division 
Anoplotherium Proper comprehends two species, 
viz., A. commune ("big. 441), about the size of the 
ass, and the A. secundarium, about the size of the 
hog. These animals were low on the limbs, and 
probably resembled the tapirs in their habits, but 
were furnished with a long tail compressed horizon- 
tally at the base, and rendering them more essen- 
tially aquatic : they resorted to lakes and marshes 
in search of aquatic plants, and, as the flattened 
form of the tail indicates, must have swum and dived 
with greater ease than either the hippopotamus or 

The subgenus Ziphodon contains but a single 
species (A. gracile : Fig. 442), a light, slender, 
graceful creature, with much of the contour of the 
gazelle : it was probably fleet and active, and wa* 
confined to the dry land, where it fed like the deer. 
The tail was short, and in this respect and in its 
general figure, as the skeletons prove, it must have 
exhibited a complete contrast to the low-built, 
heavy Anoplotherium commune. The third sub 




433.— DocMtlc Hog. 

434.- Group of I>(;in(»st!c Hops. 

431.— Fin;a!e Wild Hog nml Young. 

436 to 43S.— Teeth of Phacochoere. 


' 14? ■ ' try, 

438.— Africiui Boar. 

432.— Boar-hunting hi India. 

442.— Anoplotberium. 

441.— Anoplotlieiiniii. 

439. — Abyssinian riiaccclicere. 

428*.- (J-and Bonr-hiint. 


440.— Abywlnlan Phaccchcerp. 

44-i*.- Skeleton of Horse. 





genus, Oichobnnes, contains three species, D. lepo- 
rinum, murinum, and obliquum : the first about the 
size of a hare ; the other two, of a guinea-pig. Tliey 
appear to have had much of the form, and probably 
of the habits, of the httle musk-deer, or chevro- 

Genus Equus. — This penus, which contains the 
Horse and its immediate relatives, presents us with 
a Solidungulous group of Pachyderms, of which the 
utility of some to man scarcely requires to be 
pointed out. These animals have but a single toe 
on each foot. The fore-arm (see skeleton, Fig. 444») 
consists of a single bone, made up, it is true, of an 
ulna and radius, but the ulna is only to be traced in 
the olecranon process showing itself as a fixed 
appendage to the radius at the elbow-joint. The 
carpus consists of seven bones, and to these suc- 
ceeds a long metacarpal bone, in one solid piece, 
called the canon-bone : to this succeed three 
phalangal bones, forming one digit; the first is 
termed the pastern, the second the coronet or 
crown-bone, the last the coffin-bone, which is in- 
closed in a hoof of thick, firm horn. On this the 
horse treads with an elastic step resulting from the 
oblique position of the bones of the leg and foot, 
but especially from the yielding of the pastern, its 
elasticity being provided for by a ligament which 
passes down the canon-bone and along the pastern 
to the coffin-bone. The expansibility of the hoof 
must not be overlooked ; it is essential to a free and 
safe step, but is too often irreparably injured by the 
mode of shoeing pursued by farriers. Under the 
coffin-bone, forming a sort of sole, is a part called 
the frog, consisting of an elastic, fatty cushion, 
covered by a triangular elevation of horn ; at each 
step the frog yields beneath the superincumbent 
pressure, and, swelling out laterally, expands the 
heels of the hoof. This frog ought always to touch 
the ground : it does so naturally ; and where bad 
shoeing prevents it, the crust of the hoof bearing 
all the weight of the body, and the shock of every 
step as the animal trots along a hard road, inflam- 
mation and disease ensue. It has been said, that 
the canon-bone of the horse, representing the meta- 
carpus (and the same observation applies to the 
canon or metatarsal bone of the hind-leg), consists 
of a single piece : there is, however, on each side 
at its inferior extremity a slender styloid-bone, 
narrowing as it proceeds to a point. These must be 
regarded as the rudiments of two additional meta- 
carpal bones. 

The dentition of the genus Equus is as follows : 


— =40. 

Incisors -, canines in male , — r, molars „ 
6 1 — 1 o 

The incisors in youth have broad edges channelled 
out into a cavity, which by degrees becomes ob- 
literated. The molars have square crowns, sharply 
edged with enamel, in a crescent form; the 
canines are only in the males. i\Iany tricks are 
played by horse-dealers, to give apparent age to 
a colt, and thereby enhance its value ; and, after 
maturity, to give to the teeth that appearance which 
they would have when the prime of strength and 
vigour was just attained to. The following observa- 
tions from the 'Penny Cycloptodia' are very ex- 
cellent : — 

"The honest mouth of a three-year-old horse 
should be thus formed : — the central incisors or nip- 
pers are palpably larger than the othere, and have 
the mark on their upper surface evident and well 
defined. They will however be lower than the 
other teeth. The mark in the next pair of nippers 
will be nearly worn away, and that in the comer 
nippers will begin to wear. 

" At three years and a half the second nippers will 
be pushed from their sockets, and their place gradu- 
ally supplied by a new pair ; and at four and a half 
the comer nippers will be undergoing the same 
process. Thus at four years old the central 
nippers will be fully grown ; the next pair will be 
up, but will not have attained their full height ; and 
the comer nippers will be small, with their mark 
nearly effaced. At five years old the mark will 
begin to be effaced from the central teeth, the next 
pair will be fully grown, and the blackness of the 
mark a little taken off, and the corner pair will be 
protruding or partly grown. 

" At this period, or between the fourth and fifth 
year, another change will have taken place in the 
mouth; the tushes will have begun to appear. 
There will be two of them in each jaw, between the 
nippers and the grinders, considerably nearer to the 
former than the latter, and particularly so in the 
jower jaw. The use of these tushes in the domesti- 
cated state of the horce is not evident ; but they 
were probably designed as weapons of offence in the 
wild state of the animal. Attempts are too fre- 
quently made to hasten the appearance of the 
second and the corner teeth, and the gum is often 
deeply lanced in order to hasten the appearance of 
the tush. 

" At six years old the mark on the central nippers 

will be diminished, if not .obliterated. A depres- 
sion and a mark of rather brown hue may remain, 
but the deep blackened hole in the centre will no 
longer be found. The other incisors will also be 
somewhat worn, and the tush fully developed. 

" At seven the mark on the next pair of incisors 
will have nearly disappeared and the tush will be 
rounded at the point and the edges. 

" At eight the mark will have disappeared from 
all the incisor teeth, and the tush will be evidently 
rounder and blunter." 

In the horse there are warty callosities on the 
inner aspect of the fore and hind legs ; in the other 
species, on the fore legs only. The lips are muscu- 
lar and prehensile, and the muzzle hairy. 

443.— The Horsk 

(Equus Caballus). We present at one view a group 
of British horses, which cjinnot fail to interest those 
who admire this noble animal, and are aware (and 
who is not ?) of the excellence of our breeds. Fig. 
443 : a represents the Welsh poney ; b, the Shetland 
poney; c, the Cart Horse; d, the Hunter; e, the 
Itacer. Fig. 444 is the copy of a horse's head, 
from a fragment in the Elgin Marbles, British 
Museum, which will serve to give an idea of 
the characters of the war-horse of ancient Greece, 
and which forcibly calls to mind the splendid 
description in the book of Job — " Thou hast given 
the horse strength, thou hast clothed his neck with 
thunder" (Job xxxix. 19 — ^25) ; or that of Vir- 
gil — " Turn siqua sonum procul arma dedere," &c. 
('Georg.' lib. iii., line 83, et seq.) 

A natural question at the outset of our description 
of the horse suggests itself; it is one, however, 
which has been often asked, but which is not easy 
of solution. What is the origin of our domestic 
horse ; and at what period, and by what people, 
was it first reclaimed ? We may at once state that 
the origin of the domestic hoi-se is unknown, and 
probably does not exist. The troops of wild horses 
which scour the deserts of Taitary are regarded by 
naturalists, and with justice, as the descendants of 
a domesticated stock ; and the herds of horses which, 
roam over the plains of South America are con- 
fessedly derived from horses introduced by the 
Spaniards, according to Azara, in 1535. It is a 
hazardous opinion, but some have been disposed 
to entertain it, that the horse as now existing is not 
the pure descendant of a single species, but a 
factitious being, the result of a mixture of closely- 
allied .primitive species, whose hybrid offsprings, 
possessing prolific powers, have again and again 
blended together, till, by care, climate, and soil, the 
distinct breeds have been formed which are now 
spread over different parts of the globe. How far 
this hypothesis, which was entertained by Pallas and 
others, approximates to the truth it is impossible 
to say ; certain it is that no primitive species of 
horse, no wild descendant of the original stock, is 
now existing. Whatever it once was, it exists no 
longer ; nor know we when or under what circum- 
stances it vanished from the face of the earth. Of 
what country is the horse originally a native ? 
According to Mr. Bell, who considers it "at least 
highly probable that the Egyptians first reduced the 
hoi-se under human subjugation, it is to the same 
country, or at least to those parts of Africa which 
were in close relationship to it, that we may rea- 
sonably look for its native locality before that 
event." It may be so ; out we cannot help think- 
ing that the wild horse (if specifically the same) 
was spread over many countries : nor is it per- 
haps too much to suspect that the bones found 
so abundantly in superficial gravels, sands, and 
clays, &c., may be, some of them at least, the 
relics of the primitive race, from which the modern 
stock has descended ; but which has, after giving 
to man a reclaimed progeny, passed utterly away. 
With respect to the ox, Cuvier maintains a similar 
theory, and Mr. Bell leans to the same opinion : 
" In this country," he observes, " and in many parts 
of the Continent, have occurred numerous Ibssil 
bones of oxen, with large horns," &c. ; and he adds, 
"I cannot but consider it as extremely probable 
that these fossil remains belonged to the original 
wild condition of our domestic ox — an opinion which 
Cuvier appears to have entertained, who calls the 
skulls ' cranes semblables i ceux d'un boeuf domes- 
tique.' They are found only in very recent de- 
posits, mingled with the remains of various other 

It is generally supposed that the Egyptians were 
the first who reclaimed the horse, and this opinion 
is founded on the circumstance that in Scripture the 
first notice of the horse is in connection with Egypt, 
when Joseph attained to power and dignity, and that 
at a subsequent period Egypt supplied Solomon with 
horses. Certainly the horse was at an early period 
domesticated in Egypt, and used as an arm of war, 
and on state occasions : " And he (Pharaoh) made 
him (Joseph) ride in the second chariot which he 
had" (Gen. xli. 43) ; and during the seven years' 

famine Joseph not only sold corn out of the royal 
granaries for money, but " gave them bread in ex- 
change for horses" (Gen. xlvii. 17) ; and no doubt 
Egypt had a noble breed. In their contests, how- 
ever, for the Promised Land, we find the Israelites 
brought in collision with the Canaanites, Amorite8 
and others, in whose armies were " horses, and cha- 
riots very manv" (Joshua xi. 4) ; and we read 
that " he houghed their horses, ana burned their 
chariots with fire'' — so that other nations of that 
period besides the Egyptians employed this animal,, 
and in the same manner. As far back as the re- 
cords of history conduct us, we find the Scythians- 
possessed of horses and celebrated as horsemen. 
vVas the Scythian breed anciently obtained from 
Egypt ? The Babylonians possessed vast numbers 
of horses : Tritantoechmes, a Satrap of Babylonia,, 
possessed, in addition to his war-horses, 800 for 
private use, and 16,000 brood mares. India pos- 
sessed horses, and assisted Xerxes with cavalry and 
chariots of war ; some drawn by horses, others by 
wild asses. The Bactrians and Caspians also brought 
cavalry and infantry. (Herodotus.) The same au- 
thor, speaking of the products of India, viz. quadm- 
peds and birds, whicti are larger than those of any 
other country, excepts the horse, which is surpassed 
in size by the Nisoean horse of the Medes, of which 
ten gorgeously caparisoned added to the splendour 
of Xerxes's array ; and Strabo expressly asserts that 
there was a dispute as to whether the Niscean horse 
was a native of Media or Armenia, as specimens of 
the breed were to be found in both countries. 
Leaving undecided, as it ever must be, the origin 
and original country of the horse, we may observe, 
that at an early period the horse was used in our 
island. When Julius CiEsar invaded our shores, he 
was opposed not only by infantry, but by horsemen 
and charioteers ; and the skill with which the horse* 
and chariots were managed excited the great war- 
rior's admiration — a circumstance sufficient to prove 
a long acquaintance with the animal, as well as 
that the Britons in Caesar's time were more ad- 
vanced in social refinement than some historian* 
have admitted. We do not know with certainty 
the characters of the ancient British horse ; yet, from 
the rapid movements of the cavalry and the man- 
ner in which the charioteers dashed along, we may 
readily infer that the horses were light, strong, 
docile, and spirited ; probably they much resembled 
those used by the Cossacks of the Don and Wolga 
at the present day. They were at all events highly 
valued, and were exported, together with Britisti 
mastiffs, to Rome. 

We know that the Romans possessed an excellent 
breed of horses, and paid great attention to them. 
In modern Italy the breed is crossed with the barb 
from the North of Africa ; at least, the horses used 
for light work, the saddle, and trials of speed, aie 
of this mixture, and the term barbari is given to 
them. These barbari are small, generally rather 
under than over fourteen hands, clean limbed, well 
formed, compact, and spirited, giving evidence of 
good blood. The barb is an offset of the Arab race, 
and is greatly mixed with the best Andalusiau stock 
in Spam. 

The Persian horse closely resembles the Arab, 
but is generally taller. M. Huzard states that in 
the north of Persia a race of horses exists stronger 
than the Normandy horse, and which are fed on the 
vast plains of Chirvan and Mazenderan. He adds 
that these horses are in great request for the Persian 

The best horses in India are of Arabic or Persian 
descent. In Moore's ' Notices of the Indian Archi- 
pelago,' we are assured that in every country lying 
east of the Burrampooter and south of the tropic, 
the horse, however diversified, is little better than a 

This fact, after quitting Bengal, is first noticed 
in the countries of Cassay, Ava, and Pegue. Here 
the horse seldom equals thirteen hands high, but is 
active, spirited, and well formed. As we proceed to 
the south and east, the horse becomes more diminu- 
tive, and those of Lao, Siam, and the southern pro- 
vinces of China are inferior in size and beauty to 
those of Ava and Pegue. The Siamese and Cochin- 
Chinese have no cavalry, and make no use of their 
poneys except for riding on ordinary occasions. Even 
for this last purpose they are not esteemed, the ele- 
phant being always preferred as a more respectable 
and dignified mode of conveyance. In the Malayan 
Peninsula there are no plains or roads, and the in- 
habitants, living almost exclusively on the low and 
woody banks of the rivers, naturally substitute theit 
canoes and boats for beasts of carriage and burden, 
and hence the horse has not yet been naturalised 
amongst them. Proceeding eastward in the .Ma- 
layan Islands, the. horse fii-st occurs in the interior 
of Sumatra, and her^ we have two of the best 
breeds known in those countries, the Achin and 
Batta, both very spirited, but .small, and better suited 
for draught than the saddle. 

Of all the countries of the Archipelago the horse 




is most frequent in the island of Java. The 
Javanese poney is generally larger than that of 
Sumatra, and has more the form of a horse, is more 
temperate, but less gay and handsome. Two dis- 
tinct races may be described — that of the plains, and 
that of the mountains. The iirst of these is some- 
what coarse, somewhat sluggish in disposition, and 
so large as occasionally to reach the height of 
thirteen hands and an inch. The second is small 
and hardy, and, as in the case of the kuningan, a 
breed in the interior of Qheribon, sometimes very 
handsome. The horse is used in Java for the saddle, 
and as a beast of burden, but never by the natives 
in agricultural labour or any species of draught. 
Europeans use them extensively in their carriages, 
and on the level and well-constructed roads of Java 
the traveller is conveyed at the rate of twelve and 
even fifteen miles an hour in a carriage drawn by 
four of these little animals. We must take this oppor- 
tunity, however, to remark that there is no advantage 
whatever in the employment of this diminutive 
breed of cattle. A pair of good English post-horses 
■will go a stage of fifteen miles on such roads as those 
of Java without difficulty. To perform the same 
distance in a carriage of the same weight requires 
twelve .Javanese poneys. One horse therefore is 
equal to six poneys, and as at the utmost a fnll- 
grown horse will not consume above double the 
food of a poney, the charge of maintaining him, in 
proportion to the work he is capable of performing, 
is no more than one third. 

The horse, but of a very inferior breed, is found 
on the islands of Bali and Lombok. Passing over 
these, we come to the island of Sambawa, which 
produces two different races — those of Tamboro 
and Bima. The last, especially those of Gunong 
Api, are by far the handsomest breed of the Archi- 
pelago, and are extensively exported. The Bima 
poneys possess strength, symmetry, and beauty; and 
at first appearance bear some resemblance to the 
Arab. Upon a closer examination, however, it does 
not appear that they are entitled to be considered 
as possessed of the quUities designated blood in the 
language of the turf, and which is only to be found 
in the Arab, and his descendant — the English race- 
horse. The limbs indeed exhibit this character, 
but it is wanting in the skin and coat, which are 
thick and harsh, and it is not even present in the 
shape and expression of the head, although very 

Alter pa.ssing Sambawa, the horse is traced to 
Flores, Sandal-wood Island, and Timor; but no- 
where farthrr to the east, being unknown in the 
Moluccas. New Guinea, and the neighbouring 
islands. Next to Java, the horse is found in the 
greatest abundance on the island of Celebes. Upon 
the whole, we consider this to be the best breed of 
the Archipelago. In the great island of Borneo 
the horse is found only in its north-eastern extremity 
opposite to the Suluk cluster, where also, as well as 
in the group of the Philippine islands, it is frequent. 
The Philippine poney bears some resemblance to 
that of Celebes, but, judging from the specimens 
we have seen, is somewhat larger than this, and in 
figure and beauty inferior to the breeds of Sambawa, 
Java, and Sumatra. We do not imagine that it 
contains any admixture of the Spanish blood, 
althoueh this has been suspected. 

Within the Archipelago, as in other part* of the 
world, the colour of the horse is singularly connected 
with qualify, temper, and locality. The prevailing 
colour of the Achin poneys is piebald, which be- 
comes rarer and rarer as we proceed eastward. A 
Bima poney of this colour is as rarely seen as a black 
Arab. The prevailing colour of the liatta poney is 
bay and mouse-colour. In Java the best horses are 
those of the most prevalent colours, viz., bays and 
greys ; the roan and mouse-coloured horses are very 
generally good. The worst colours are black and 
chestnut. The Javanese have such a dislike to the 
latter colour, that chestnut horses are not permitted 
to appear at their public tournaments. Bays, greys, 
and duns are the best and most frequent colours in 
the Bima poneys. Blacks itnd chestnuts are not 
frequent, but they are not considered inferior. 
■Greys and bays prevail amongst the poneys of Ce- 
lebes and the Philippines, nearly to the exclusion of 
all others. 

In the plains of Celebes wild herds of horses 
exist, doubtless the descendants of a domesticated 

During the dominion of the Romans in Britain it 
is very probable that some modification in the 
characters of the British horse would result from its 
admixture with other breeds imported by the con- 
querors from Italy, Gaul, and Spain ; but to what 
extent this took place we have no means of ascer- 
taining. At a suDsequent period, during the Saxon 
dway, it would appear that a fine breed existed in 
our island : for we find that Athelstan (a.d. 930) 
forbade the exportation of horses under any circum- 
itances, cxct^it as presents to monarchs, whence it 
may be concluded that the English horse was then 

valued on the Continent. Besides endeavouring to 
preserve the native breed, Athelstan endeavoured 
to improve it, and received several German running- 
horses, that is, horses formed for speed, from Hugh 
Capet of France. 

The Norman Conquest was productive of changes 
in the English breed, resulting from the introduc- 
tion of the Spanish horse by some of the barons on 
the estates Ihey had acquired by the right of the 
sword. The Crusades brought the English into con- 
tact with the spirited horses of Arabia and Syria ; 
and there is little doubt that some were brought to 
our country. Two horses of Eastern origin, and 
purchased at Cyprus, were possessed by Richard 
Cocur-de-Lion, and are celebrated as unequalled for 
speed : most probably they were not adapted for the 
tournament or the shock of battle, or the weight of 
a knight cased in a heavy mail. 

In the reign of John, who, as Rapin observes, 
scarcely possessed one valuable qualification, chosen 
horses were introduced by his direction from Flan- 
ders, for the purposes of improving the breed of 
draught horses; and that monarch himself accu- 
mulated a stud of the most superb horses to be 

During subsequent reigns Spanish barbs, Lom- 
bardy war-horses, and heavy Flanders horses, were 
obtained ; and thus gradually three sets or breeds 
of horses became established, exclusive of the 
poney, which, time immemorial, has inhabited the 
mountains of Wales and Scotland, and the Shetland 

Of these breeds, one was the war-horse, fitted 
to bear a warrior clad in heavy armour, oppressive 
to the wearer, but more to the horee, which was 
also to a great degree protected in the same man- 
ner. Its principal requisite was strength and en- 
durance, not, however, to the exclusion of a certain 
degree of fleetness : it probably resembled the 
coach-horse of the present day, and was a powerful 
animal, of high action and great spirit. Besides 
this stalwart breed, there was evidently a lighter 
race, fitted for ordinary purposes, of moderate 
stature, fleet, yet strong, and capable of under- 
going fatigue. Horses of this kind were termed 
running-horses : they were used as hackneys, for 
travelling, and also for running races, a sport prac- 
tised at Smithfield as early as the time of Henry II., 
though racing cannot be said to have fjeen then in 
its palmy days. It was in the reign of Henry VIII., 
and especially of Elizabeth, that regular race- 
meetings were established at Chester, Stamford, 
and elsewhere ; gradually a passion for the sport 
increased, and in the reign of James I., who en- 
couraged racing both in England and Scotland, it 
assumed a more definite character, and beci^me 
conducted according to fixed regulations. The 
breed appropriated to this sport, originally selected 
for speed, now became improved by Arab, Turkish, 
and Barbary admixture. James I. introduced the 
Arab, and purchased one of great celebrity for the 
then enormous sum of IjOO/. In the time of 
Charles I., Turkish and Barbary horses were ob- 
tained, and also in the reign of Charies II. It was 
in the reign of Queen Anne that the celebrated 
Dariey Arabian, bred in the deserts of Palmyra, 
was introduced, and which may be regarded as the 
progenitor of the most celebrated of our modem 
racing stock. He was the sire of Flying Childers. 
At a subsequent period. Lord Godolphin's barb, 
generally called the Godolphin Arabian, contributed 
to the celebrity of the English racer. From these 
and from other Eastern horses, which might also 
be enumerated, have descended a stock unequalled 
by any in the world for spirit and fleetness. Such, 
then, is the more than half Oriental orig:in of eur 
racer ; but while this stock was thus rising out of 
the old English running-horse, that breed itself 
partook of the improvement, and we have now the 
naif-blood saddle-horse and the three-parts-blood 

The third breed of the olden days was hea- 
vier and slower than the war-horse, and used for 
the purposes of draught. This breed, overlooked 
by the nobles, would necessarily vary in qualities 
as circumstances might influence it ; but in pro- 
portion as the war-horse and hackney improved, so, 
indirectly, would the old cart-horse become ele- 
vated into the Cleveland bay, the Suffolk punch, 
and the huge Lincolnshire black. 

The Suffolk punch is now seldom seen pure, 
being much crossed with other breeds. The Cleve- 
land bay is confined principally to Durham and 
Yorkshire. The Lincolnshire black exceeds all in 
size, and is a noble and massive animal. Its per- 
fection is to be attributed to the Flanders horse ; 
and it is of this admirable mixed breed that the 
teams in the brewers' and distillers' carts in London 
are chiefly composed. No one can behold them 
without being struck with their appearance. Their 
strength is prodigious, and many stand seventeen 
hands in height. 

From the varied stocks of horses which we now 

possess witliin the limits of our own island, by selec- 
tion and judicious admixture, may be acquired 
breeds modified to suit every purpose of use or 
luxury, from the racer to the serviceable roadster, 
from the splendid carriage-horse to the farmer's 
hard-working servant. 

When we look at the elephantine dray-horse, and 
the Welsh and Shetland poneys, the transition with 
respect to size is so great, that we are almost 
startled by the comparison, and wonder that such a 
difterenee can exist between two individuals of the 
same species. 

Wales and the Shetland Isles have been ever 
celebrated for miniature horses of great beauty, 
spirit, strength, and hardiness. The Welsh poney is 
often a model : a small head, high withers, a deep 
yet round body, short joints, flat legs, and small 
round hoofs, characterise him ; his ears are small, 
his eyes full and animated, and his actions are free 
and vigorous. 

The Shetland poney is still less in size than the 
Welsh, and is often very handsome, but the shoul- 
ders are usually low and thick ; the limbs, however, 
are well knit, and the strength of the animal in pro- 
portion to its size is astonishing. In 1831 we mea- 
sured a poney of the Shetland breed of very small 
dimensions, but of great beauty. Its height at the 
withers was only thirty-four inches ; its length, from 
between the ears to the insertion of the tail, follow- 
ing the curve of the neck and back, four feet two 

Poneys of different degrees of value range the 
New Forest, Exmoor, and the Highlands of Scotland, 
but much attention is not paid to their breeding. 

We have already stated that at a very early 
period the horse was employed in Egypt, both for 
the saddle and in drawing chariots. Among the 
very interesting series of Egyptian paintings in the 
British Museum is one (see Pig. 460) representing 
in the upper compartment a pair of horses yoked 
to a light chariot, of which one (the foreground 
horse) is black ; the other, of which the head, limbs, 
and tail are partially shown, is red. In the lower 
compartment are also a pair of horses, as most 
suppose, of a pale milk colour, attached to a chariot : 
one is about to eat or drink from a vessel before it. 
This chariot or car is perhaps intended to carry the 
sheaves of corn which a reaper is cutting. It has 
been observed that the tails of these horses appear 
as if shaved, with a tuft left at the end ; but we are 
inclined to think the animals are intended as mules, 
not horses, both from this appearance of the tail, 
and from the marked difference in the contour 
between them and the horses of the upper compart- 
ment, which cannot be mistaken. The chariot 
they are yoked to is a war-chariot, the form of 
which is more definitely given at Fig. 455, and 
which will convey a clear idea of the chariots with 
which Pharaoh pursued the Israelites, or of that to 
which Achilles lashed the body of Hector before the 
walls of Troy. 

It is remarkable that though there was a mounted 
cavaliy in Egypt, and that Solomon's horsemen 
were mounted on trained Egyptian horses, there is 
but one representation of a man on horseback in 
the whole range of the sculptured and painted an- 
tiquities of that country. The copy. Fig. 465, will 
be regarded with interest: the animal in all its 
points is an Arab. 

At what period the Arabs began fo employ the 
horse is not very clear ; certainly not till a compa- 
ratively late era, nor, as far as we are aware, is 
it known whence they obtained their breed. May 
it not be descended from the stock of Egypt, with 
which Solomon replenished his stables? Accord- 
ing to Burckhardt, there are three breeds of horses 
at the present day in Syria — the true Arab breed, 
the Turkman, and the Kourdy, which last is a 
mixture of the two former. The Turkman horses, 
from their superior size and more martial ajipear- 
ance, displaying when dressed the Turkish trappings 
to the greatest advantage, are preferred by the 
Osmanlis to the Arab horses. They are trained to 
walk gracefully, fo set off suddenly at full speed, to 
turn with the gentlest touch, and to stop short in- 

The Arabian horses are of more slender make, 
and less showy in appearance than the Turkman, 
but they are beautifully limbed, more hardy, and 
much fleeter. The esteem in which the Arabs 
hold them, the scrupulous care taken to preserve 
the purity of the breeds, and the reluctance with 
which the Arabs part with their mares, are circum- 
stances frequently noticed by travellers. The Rev. 
V. Monro, in his 'Summer's Ramble in Syria,' 
relates that on the visit to the river Jordan, one of 
the Arab escort, "a great ruffian, was mounted on 
a white mare of great beauty ; her large fiery eye 
gleamed from the edge of an open forehead, and 
her exquisite little head was finished with a pout- 
ing lip and expanded nostrils; her ribs, thighs, and 
shoulders were models of make, with more bone 
than commonly belongs to the Syrian Arab, and 

4U.— Eqnestriiu Ciaitto of the £iut. 

444.— Horses Head. 


i55.— Kgyptian War-cbariot. 


4U.— ArabUn Hone. 



4(i8.— English Hunter. 


453.— Tnrklsh War-horse. 





her stately step receivyd additional difmity from 
that aristocratic set on, and carriage of the tail, 
which is the infallible indication of good family. 
Having inquired her price, I offered the sum, 
whereon the dragoon asked one-third more. Alter 
much abating and debating, I accciled, and he im- 
mediately stepped back in the same proportion as 
before. This is invariably the practice with the 
Arabs. I therefore discontinued my attempts to 
deal. The Arab said he loved his mare better 
than his own life ; that money was of no use to 
him, and that when mounted upon her he felt rich 
as a pasha. Shoes and stockings he had none, and 
the net value of his dress and accoutrements might 
be calculated at something under seventeen-pence 

The fondness for their horses which the Arabs 
manifest partakes of the extravagance of Oriental 
feelings : they rear them up in their tents, among 
their children and family : they caress them, and ap- 
ply to them the most endearing epithets : witness the 
lamentations of an Arab, Ibrahim Abou Vouaases, 
over a favourite mare of noble race, which he had 
parted with; but which he frequently went to 
Kama to see : " He would embrace lier,"' savs D'Ar- 
vieux, "and wipe her eyes with his handkerchief, 
and rub her with his shirt-sleeves, and would give 
her a thousand blessings during whole hours that 
he would be talking to her. ' My eyes, my heart, 
my soul,' would he exclaim ; ' must I be so unfortu- 
nate as to have thee sold to many masters, and not 
be able to keep thee myself?! am poor, my gazelle. 
You know well enough, niv sweet,' that I have 
brought thee up like a child ; I never beat thee, 
never chid thee, but did cherish thee as the apple 
of mine eye : God preserve thee, my dearest ; thou 
art beautiful, thou art sweet, thou art lovely : God 
defend thee from the evil eye :' and so he would 
go on saying a thousand things like these ; he then 
embraced her, kissed her eyes, and went backwards 
bidding her the most tender adieus." 

The Arabs prefer mares for riding, the Turks 
prefer horses, and this difference of taste acts very 
well. The price of an Arab horse in 1810-1816 
was, according to Burckhardt, from 10/. to 120/. , 
but the price of a mare varies from 60/. to 200/, 
Some have sold for 500/., and Burckhardt mentions 
a sheikh who purchased a celebrated mare for 4001., 
with an agreement to give to the seller the first 
female colt she produced, or to keep the colt and 
return the mare. 

The Arab horses seldom exceed fourteen hands 
in height, but have all certain characteristic beau- 
ties which distinguish their breed from any other. 
Five noble breeds are counted, each, as is said, 
deduced from one of the five favourite mares of 
Mohammed. But these five races diverge into 
infinite ramifications ; and any mare of superlative 
excellence may give origin to a new breed, the 
descendants of which are called after her. "On 
the birth of a colt of noble breed, it is usual to 
assemble witnesses to write an account of its dis- 
tinctive marks, with the name of its sire and dam. 
These genealogical tables never ascend to the 
grand-dam, because it is presumed that every Arab 
of his tribe knows by tradition the purity of the 
whole breed. Nor is it always necessary to have 
surh certificates ; for many horses and mares are 
of such illustrious descent that thousands might 
attest the purity of their blood. The pedigree is 
often put into a small piece of leather, covered with 
a waxed cloth, and hung by a leather thong round 
the horee's neck." (Palestine.) 

Figs. 456, 457, 458, 459, are spirited illustrations 
of the Turk and Arab horse, and embody our ideas 
of its docility, and the fire and energy of its tem- 
perament. Fig. 456 represents the mode of playing 
the ball with a goff-stick on horseback, as pmctised 
in Turkey and Syria, and proves how admirably the 
spirited animals are trained, obeying the least touch 
of the bridle, wheeling, galloping at full speed, and 
stopping suddenly at the will of the rider. In Syria 
and elsewhere in western Asia the horse is fed upon 
chopped straw and barley, and of this provender a 
certain quantity is given morning and evening, none 
being supplied in the interim. In the spring season 
the horses are fed from 40 to 50 days on green bar- 
ley cut as soon as the corn begins to ear. This is 
termed tying down to grass, during which time the 
animals remain constantly exposed in the open air, 
and for the first eight or ten days are neither cur- 
ried, mounted, nor led about. After this they are 
dressed as usual and rode out gently, but are never 
much worked during the grass season. Some feed 
the horses with cut barley in the stable-yards, but 
the general practice is to confine them to a certain 
circuit by means of a long tether in the barley-field. 
This grazing is considered of great service to the 
health of the horses, and gives a beautiful gloss to 
their skin. 

Some Arab tribes, however, do not thus give their 
horses green barley, but allow them to feed on the 
kerbs of the desert, and give them a paste made of 

dates and water, and camel's milk to drink. " Even 
flesh, raw as well as boiled, is given to the horses in 
some quarters, together with the fragments of their 
owner's meals." An inhabitant of Hamah assured 
Burckhardt that he had often given his horses roasted 
meat before the commencement of a fatiguing jour- 
ney, that they might be better able to endure it ; and 
the same person, fearing lest the governor should 
take from him his favourite horse, fed him for a fort- 
night exclusively upon roasted pork, which so excited 
its spirit and mettle, that it became unmanageable, 
and no longer an object of desire to the governor. 
That the horse should under any circumstances be 
brought to eat animal food is very startling, but 
Burckhardt's authority induces us to believe it. It 
serves to show how domestication may modify ani- 
mal instincts, nor is it perhaps more strange than 
that the carnivorous dog and cat should be brought 
to eat bread and boiled greens, to which latter we 
have known cats apparently partial, feeding upon 
them when even meat was at hand. Horses will 
drink ale with great relish ; and the taste in this 
instance is certainly an acquired one. 

With respect to the wild horses in the countries 
bordering the Volga and the Oural, little is accu- 
rately established. They are said to associate in 
troops headed by a leader, but from all accounts to 
be depended upon they are by no means remarkable 
for beaury, though they appear to be fleet and 
hardy. In the Museum at Paris is the specimen 
of a wild horse from the country of the Bashkirs : it 
has a heavy, clumsy head, and short limbs ; and the 
hair, of a dirty greyish white, is long and shaggy, 
and hangs in a beard-like manner under the lower 
jaw. Pallas describes a young mare caught in the 
country between the Jaik and the Volga, which be- 
came very docile : its limbs were strong, the head 
large, the ears long and lying back upon the occi- 
put; the hoofs small and somewhat pointed, the 
colour light bay, with a black mane and tail. In 
South America the rich plains extending from La 
Plata to Paraguay are tenanted by herds of horses, 
in a wild condition, the descendants of those origi- 
nally introduced by the Spaniards. These horses 
are caught and broke in, and the singular mode in 
which their subjugation is effected is thus described 
by Captain Head:— "A man, mounted on a strong 
steady horse, threw his lasso over the neck of a 
young horse, and dragged him to the gate. For 
some time he was very unwilling to leave his com- 
rades, but the moment he was forced from them, his 
first idea was to gallop away ; however, the jerk of 
the lasso checked him in the most eft'ectual man- 
ner. The Peons now ran after him on foot and 
threw the lasso over his four legs just above the fet- 
locks, and, twitching it, they pulled his legs from 
under him so suddenly that 1 really thought the 
fall he got had killed him. In an instant a Gaucho 
was seated on his head, and with his long knife in 
a few seconds cut off the whole of the horse's mane, 
while another cut the hair from the end of the tail. 
This they told me is a mark that the animal has 
been once mounted. They then put a piece of hide 
into his mouth to serve as a bit, and a strong hide- 
halter on his head. The Gaucho who was to mount 
arranged his spurs, which were unusually long and 
sharp ; and while two men held the animal by his 
ears he put on the saddle, which he girthed ex- 
tremely tight ; he then caught hold of the horse's 
ears, and in an instant vaulted into the saddle ; upon 
which the man who was holding the horse by the 
halter threw the end of it to the rider, and from 
that moment no one seemed to take any further no- 
tice of him. The horse instantly began to jump in 
a manner which made it very difiicult for the rider 
to keep his seat, and quite different from the kick 
or plunge of an English horse ; however the Gau- 
cho's spurs soon set him going, and off he galloped, 
doing everything in his power to throw his rider. 
Another horse was immediately seized ; and so 
quick was the operation that twelve Gauchos were 
mounted in a space which I think hardly exceeded 
an hqur." 

The neigh of the horse, contradistinguished from 
the bray of the ass— its general form and propor- 
tions — and our mode of defending its hoofs, a mode 
unpractised in antiquity, are known to all. 

Fig. 461 represents the English Cart-horse ; Fig. 
462, the old Roadster ; Fig. 463, the Anglo-Arab ; 
Fig. 464, the Racer, mare and foal ; Fig. 466, the 
Welsh Pony ; Fig. 467, the old English War-horse ; 
Fig. 468, the English Hunter. Fig. 469 is the Head 
of a Horse in Greek statuary. 

The following original anecdotes, proving the saga- 
city of the horse, were sent to the ' Penny Magazine ' 
from a correspondent. They refer to horses bred 
and reared in North America : — 

■' A short distance below Fort Erie, and about a 
mile from where the river Niagara escapes over a 
barrier of rock from the depths of Lake Erie, a ferry 
has long been established across that broad and 
there exceedingly rapid river, the distance from 
shore to shore being a little over one-third of a mile. 

On the Canada side of the river is the small village 
of Waterloo, and opposite thereto, on the United 
States side, is the large village of Blackrock — dis- 
tant from the young and flourishing city of Buffalo 
two miles. In completing the Erie Canal, a pier 
or dam was erected — up and down the river, and 
opposite to Blackrock, at no great distance from 
the shore, for the purpose of raising the waters of 
the Niagara to such a height that they might be 
made to supply an adjoining section of the Erie 
canal. This pier was (and is) a great obstruction 
to the ferry-boats ; for previous to its erection pas- 
sengers embarked from terra /irma on one side of 
the river, and were landed without any difficulty on 
the other : but after this dam was constructed it 
became necessary to employ two sets of boats — one 
to navigate the river and the other the basin ; so 
that all passengers, as well as goods or luggage, had 
to be landed upon this narrow wall, and re-shipped. 
Shortly after the erection of the pier-dam, a boat 
propelled by horses was establi-shed between this 
pier and the Canada shore. The horses moved 
upon a circular platfoi-m, which consequently was 
put in motion, to which other machinery was con- 
nected, that acted upon paddle-wheels attached to 
the sides of the boat. "The boat belonged to per- 
sons connected with the ferry on the American side 
of the river ; but owing to the barrier formed by 
the pier, the horses employed on the boat were 
stabled at night in the village of Waterloo. I well 
recollect the first day this boat began to ply, — for 
the introduction of a boat of that description, in 
those days, and in such a situation, was considered 
an event of some magnitude. The two horses (for 
that boat had but two) worked admirably, consi- 
dering the very few lessons they had had pre- 
vious to their introduction upon the main river. 
One of the horses employed on the new ferry- 
boat had once been a dapple-grey, but at the period 
I am speaking of he had become white. He was 
still hale and hearty, for he had a kind and indul- 
gent master. The first evening after the horses had 
been a short time in the stable, to which they were 
strangers, they were brought out for the purpose of 
being watered at the river, the common custom at 
this place. The attendant was mounted upon the 
bay horse — the white one was known to be so gentle 
and docile that he was allowed to drink where 
he pleased. I happened to be standing close by, 

in company with my friend W n, the ferry 

contractor on the Canada side, and thus had an 
opportunity of witnessing the whole proceedings of 
old Grizzle, the name that the white horse still went 
by. The moment he got round the corner of the 
building, so as to have a view of his home on the 
opposite side, he stopped, and gazed intently. He 
then advanced to the brink of the river, — when 
he again stopped and looked earnestly across for a 
short time ; — then waded into the water until it had 
reached his chest, — drank a little, liftedhishead ; and, 
with his lips closed and his eyes fixed upon some 
object upon the further shore, remained for a short 
time perfectly motionless. Apparently having made 
up his mind to the task, he then waded farther 
into the river until the water reached his riDs,— when 
off he shot into the deep water without hesitation. 
The current being so strong and rapid, the river 
boiling and turmoiling over a rocky bed at the rate 
of six miles the hour, it was impossible for the cou- 
rageous and attached animal to keep a direct course 
across, although he breasted the waves heroically, 
and swam with remarkable vigour. Had he been 
able to steer his way directly across, the pier-wall 
would have proved an insurmountable barrier. As 
it was, the strength of the current forced him down 
to below where the lower extremity of this long 
pier abuts upon an island, the shore of which being 
low and shelving, he was enabled to effect a land- 
ing with comparative ease. Having regained terra 
/irma, he shook the water from his dripping flanks, but 
he did not halt over a few minutes, when he plunged 
into the basin, and soon regained his native shore. 
The distance from where Grizzle took the water to 
where he effected a landing on the island was about 
seven hundred yards ; but the efforts made to swim 
directly across, against the powerful current, must 
have rendered the undertaking a much more labo- 
rious one. At the commencement of his voyage his 
arched neck and withers were above the surface, but 
before he reached the island his head only was visible. 
He reached his own stable-door, that home for 
which he had risked so much, to the no small 
astonishment of his owner. This unexpected visit 
evidently made a favourable impression upon his 
master, for he was heard to vow, that if old Grizzle 
performed the same feat a second time, lor the 
future he should remain on his own side of the river, 
and never be sent to the mill again. Grizzle was 
sent back to work the boat on the following day, 
but he embraced the very first opportunity that 
occurred of escaping, swam back in the way he had 
done before, and his owner, not being a person to 
break the promise he had once made, never after- 

AssKs ] 



wards dispossessed him of the stall he had long been 
accustomed to, but treated him with marked kind- 
ness and attention." 

" During my residence on the head-waters of the 
Susquehana, I owned a small American horse, of 
the name of Charlie, that was very remarkable for 
his attachment to my own person, as well as for his 
general good quaUties. He was a great favourite 
with all the family ; and being a favourite, he was 
frequently indulged with less work and more to eat 
than any of the other horses on the farm. At a 
short distance from the dwelling-house was a small 
but luxuriant pasture, where, during the summer, 
Charlie was often permitted to graze. When this 
pasture had been originally reclaimed from its wild 
forest state, about ten yeare previous to the period 
of which I am speaking, four or five large trees of 
the sugar-maple species had been left standing 
when the rest were cut down, and means had after- 
wards been found to prevent their being scorched 
by the tire at the time the rest of the timber had 
been consumed. Though remarkably fine trees of 
their kind, they were, however, no great ornament, 
their stems being long and bare, their heads small, 
and by no means full of leaves — the case generally 
with trees that have grown up in close contact with 
eacl) other in the American forests. But if they 
were no ornament, they might serve as shade-trees. 
Beneath one of these trees Charlie used to seek 
shelter, as well from the heat of the meridian sun, 
as from the severe thunder-gusts that occasionally 
ravage that part of the country. On an occasion of 
this sort Ctiarlie had taken his stand close to his 
lavourite tree, his tail actually pressing against it, 
his head and body in an exact line with the course 
of the wind; apparently understanding the most 
advantageous position to escape the violence of the 
storm, and quite at home, as it were, for he had 
stood in the same place some scores of times. The 
storm came on, and raged with such violence that 
the tree under which the horse had sought shelter 
was literally torn up by the roots. I happened to 
lie standing at a window from whence I witnessed 
ihe whole scene. The moment Charlie heard the 
roots giving way behind him, that is, on the con- 
trary side of the tree from where he stood, and pro- 
l)ably feeling the uprooted tree pressing against 
his tail, he sprang forward, and barely cleared the 
ground upon which, at the next moment, the top 
of the huge forest tree fell with such a force that 
the crash was tremendous, for every limb and branch 
were actually riven asunder. I have many a time 
seen horses alarmed, nay, exceedingly frightened ; 
but never in my life did I witness anything of the 
sort that bore the slightest comparison to Charlie's 
extreme terror ; and yet Charlie, on ordinary oc- 
casions, was by no means a coward. He galloped, 
he reared his mane and tossed his head, he stopped 
short, and snorted wildly, and then darted off at the 
top of his speed in a contrary direction, and then as 
suddenly stopped and set off in another, until long 
after the storm had considerably abated, and it was 
not until after the lapse of some hours that he 
ventured to reconnoitre— but that at a consider- 
able distance — the scene of his narrow escape. For 
that day at least his appetite had been completely 
spoiled, for he never offered to stoop his head 
to the ground while daylight continued. The next 
day his apprehensions seemed somewhat abated, 
but his curiosity had been excited to such a pitch 
that he kept pacing from place to place, never 
failing to halt as he passed within a moderate dis- 
tance of the prostrate tree, gazing thereat in utter 
bewilderment, as if wholly unable to comprehend 
the scene he had witnessed the preceding day. 
After this occurrence took place I kept this fa- 
vourite horse several years, and during the summer 
months he usually enjoyed the benefit of his old 
pasture. But it was quite clear that he never for- 
got, on any occasion, the narrow escape he had 
had ; for neither the burning rays of the noontide 
summer sun, nor the furious raging of the thunder- 
storm, could compel Charlie to seek shelter under 
one of the trees that stiii remained standing in his 
small pasture." 

473, 477, 502.— The Ass 
{Equus Asinus, Linn.). It would appear, from vari- 
ous evidence, that the ass was domesticated at an 
earlier period than the horse : it vi'as the beast of 
civil life, in contradistinction to the horse, which was 
used almost exclusively for war. In the East the 
asH is treated with care and attention, and there its 
appearance is very different from that of the ser- 
viceable but neglected and undervalued beast of 
western Europe. According toChardin, " the asses 
of Arabia are among the finest in the world ; their 
coat is smooth and clean ; they carry their head 
elevated, and have fine well-formed legs, which they 
throw out gracefully in walking or galloping. They 
are used only for the saddle, and are imported in 
vast numbers into Persia, where they are frequently 
aoUi for four hundred livres, and being taught a kind 

of easy ambling pace, are richly caparisoned, and 
used only by the rich and luxurious nobles." 

White asses are not uncommon, and appear an- 
ciently to have been selected for the use of persons 
of distinction (Fig. 477). In Syria there are three 
or four distinct breeds of asses, of which the most 
valued is that of Arabia. 

Domesticated as the ass has been from the re- 
motest antiquity, and valued as it has ever been in 
western Asia, it was long before the animal became 
introduced into western Europe. Aristotle states, 
that in his time there were no asses in Pontus, Scy- 
thia, or in the country of the Celts (modern Ger- 
many and France) : and we know that even as late 
as the time of Queen Elizabeth the ass was ex- 
tremely rare in our country. 

It is a mistake to suppose that in every part of the 
East the ass is large ; there is a small but spirited 
breed in Syria, upon which the Syrian ladies are ac- 
customed to ride, and in western India we are assured 
" that the asses are not much larger than good-sized 
Newfoundland dogs. They are used in droves to 
carry small loads of salt or grain ; they are also 
used by the pofmakers to carry their clay, and are 
always seen, as in Europe, associated with gypsies." 
(' Proceeds. Zoological Society,' 1837, p. 95.) It 
is in fact principally in western Asia, the genial 
climate of the ass, that it is held in esteem, and 
carefully bred and reared. 

From the accounts of travellers there would ap- 
pear to be several species of wild ass, or Onager of 
the ancients, and the subject is altogether in con- 
fusion. Bruce talks of wild asses which he saw in 
Abyssinia, but he is of little authority on matters of 
natural history. Bell, in his ' Travels in Tartary,' 
notices a species of wild ass resembling the ordinary 
kind, excepting that their hair is waved white and 
brown, like that of a tiger ; an indefinite description, 
and if applicable to a species in the deserts of Tar- 
tary, naturalists are unacquainted with it. There is 
the wild ass, or Koulan, as it is called by the Tartars, 
which is said to be of a uniform silvery grey, with 
a broad coffee-coloured stripe extending down the 
spine, and crossed on the shoulders by a transverse 
band as in the domestic variety (see Fig. 473). This 
species is regarded as the origin of the ordinary ass. 
There is next the Ghur (Ghurkhud ?) of Persia, of 
which a detailed account occurs in Sir R. Ker Por- 
ter's Travels (vol. i.), and which he describes as being 
ten or twelve hands high, with a sleek coat, of a 
reddish colour, passing on the belly and hinder parts 
into silvery grey : the limbs were beautifully slender, 
" the mane was short and black, as was also a tuft 
which terminated his tail, but no line whatever ran 
along his back or crossed his shouldera." Moor- 
croft, in his ' Travels in the Himalayan Provinces,' 
describes another species under the name of the 
Kiang (Equus Kiang), with shorter ears than the 
wild ass, and which he says is certainly not the 
Gurkhor (Khur?), or wild ass of Sindh. From this 
the Dzigguetai, or Dzigtai (Equus Hermionus, Pal- 
las), is again distinct ; and which is a native of 
Mongolia and the borders of Thibet and China. Its 
general colour is Isabella yellow, passing into white 
on the under parts ; a dark cholocate line runs along 
the spine. 

In South Africa Le Vaillant observed, as he states, 
a wild ass, in large herds, of an Isabelline or pale yel- 
low colour, which is called by the Greater Namaquas 
the White Zebra. If Le Vaillant be correct, this 
animal is unknown indeed ; no traveller in Africa 
has seen it but himself, and Colonel Hamilton Smith 
suggests that he may have mistaken for this wild ass 
the female of the Isabelline antelope. 

In the Cutch and Northern Goojrat there is a 
wild ass, which Colonel Sykes identifies with the 
Dzigguetai of southern Siberia and the Ghur of 
Persia, considering them as one species, and observ- 
ing that all the " discrepancies of descriptions may 
be easily remedied by the supposition that animals 
examined by different individuals, at different sea- 
sons of the year, did really slightly differ owing to 
the difference of seasons." " The wild ass of Cutch 
and the north of Goojrat is not found farther south 
in India than Deesa on the banks of the Bunnas 
river, in lat. about 30° 30', nor have I heard of it to 
the eastward of the 75° of longitude on the south 
side of the Himalaya mountains. In Cutch and 
Northern Goojrat it frequents the salt deserts and 
the open plains of Thoodpoor, Jaysulmer, and 
Bickaneor. By swimming the Indus it may com- 
municate through Sindh and Baloochestand with 
Persia, and in Persia it evidently exists from Sir 
Robert Ker Porter's descriptions: to the north and 
east Persia abuts upon the peculiar localities of the 
Dzigguetai, through Bucharia to the Deserts of 
Cobi, where it delights in the salt marshes, as it 
does in India, and thence to Tartaiy, Thibet, and 
South Siberia." (' Proceeds. Zool.Soc.' 1837, p. 94.) 
The wild ass is common in many parts of central 
Asia ; herds in summer are found about the lake 
Aral, whence they migrate southwards in winter, 
returning northwards in the spring. The Persians 

and Tartars hold its flesh in high esteem, and hunt 
it in preference to all other descriptions of game. 
It is found west of the Euphrates ; " indeed we are 
informed by Colonel Smith," says the author of the 
'Physical History of Palestine,' "that not only is 
the Syrian ass larger and more handsome than the 
Ghurkhud of Persia, but that the species improves 
west of the Euphrates, and is very fine in the Bahar 
el Abaid, Africa." " Burckhardt declares that wild 
asses are found in great numbers in Arabia Petraea 
near the gulf of Akaba. The Sherarat Arabs hunt 
them, and eat their flesh, but not before strangers. 
They sell their skins and hoofs to the pedlars of 
Daniascus and the people of the Haouran. The 
hoofs furnish materials for rings, which are worn by 
the peasants on their thumbs, or fastened under their 
armpits, as amulets against rheumatism." (Notes 
on ' Bedouins.') 

The Tartars, Arabs, and Persians are not singular 
in their partiality for the flesh of the wild ass. The 
epicures of Rome held it in the same estimation as 
we do venison, and from a passage in Pliny it would 
appear that the species inhabited North Africa, 
and that the most delicate and best flavoured fat 
foals {lalisiones) were brought from that continent 
to the Roman market. Leo Africanus also gives 
North Africa as the locality of the wild ass. We 
have quoted above our authority for stating that it 
exists in Arabia and in the Bahar el Abaid. We are 
not aware that a specimen of the true wild ass, with 
a cross over the shoulders, has ever been imported 
into Europe. 

470, 471, 472.— The Dzigguetai 
{Eqtms Hei-mionus). Supposing that this species be 
identical with the wild ass of Cutch and Goojrat, 
and with the Khur (or Ghurkhud) of Persia, as we 
have stated is the opinion of Col. Sykes, its range 
will be very extensive. Its fleetness is extreme. 
Col. Sykes states that " Major Wilkins, of the cavalry 
of the Bombay army, who was stationed with his 
regiment for years at Deesa, on the borders of the 
Runn, or salt marshes east of Cutch, in his morning 
rides used to start a particular wild ass so frequently, 
that it became familiar to him, and he always gave ' 
chace to it ; and though he piqued himself on being 
mounted on an exceedingly fleet Arabian horse, he 
never could come up with the animal." A similar 
statement is given by Sir R. Ker Porter, of the 
Khur, one of which he chased in vain. "Tlie sun 
was just rising over the summits of the eastern 
mountains when my greyhound suddenly started oft" 
in pursuit of an animal which my Persians said, 
from the glimpse they had of it, was an antelope. 
I instantly put spurs to my horse, and with my at- 
tendants gave chace. After an unrelaxed gallop 
of three miles, we came up with the dog, who was 
then within a short stretch of the creature he pur- 
sued, and to my surprise, and at first vexation, I 
saw it to be an ass. Upon a moment's reflection, 
however, judging from its fleetness that it must be 
a wild one, a creature little known in Europe, but 
which the Persians prize above all other animals as 
an object of chace, I determined to approach as 
near to it as the very swift Arab I was on would 
carry me. But the single instant of checking my 
horse to consider had given our game such a head 
of us, that notwithstanding all our speed, we could 
not recover our ground on him. I however hap- 
pened to be considerably before my companions 
when at a certain distance the animal in its turn 
made a pause, and allowed me to approach within 
pistol-shot of him : he then darted off again with 
the quickness of thought, capering, kicking, and 
sporting in his flight, as if he was not blown in the 
least, and the chace was his pastime. When my 
followers of the country came up, they regretted 
that I had not shot the creature when he was within 
my aim, telling me that his flesh is one of the 
greatest delicacies in Persia. The prodigious swift- 
ness and peculiar manner in which he fled across 
the plain coincided exactly with the description 
that Xenophon gives of the same animal in Arabia. 
But above all it reminded me of the striking por- 
trait drawn by the author of the Book of Job. I 
was informed by the Mehmendar, who had been in 
the desert when making a pilgrimage to the shrine 
of Ali, that the wild ass of Irak Arabi diftere in 
nothing fiom the one I had just seen. He had ob- 
served them often for a short time in the possession 
of the Arabs, who told him the creature was per- 
fectly untameable. A few days after this discussion, 
we saw another of these animals, and, pursuing it 
determinedly, had the good fortune to kill it." 

The Dzigguetai lives in troops under the conduct 
of a leader whose motions the rest follow. Ever 
quick and watchful, they take the alarm on the 
least appearance of danger, and on the approach of 
the enemy skim the desert, clear hills and rocks, 
and bid defiance to pursuit. It is easy to conceive 
the difficulties attending the chace of this fleet and 
wary animal ; indeed without the aid of fire-arms 
pursuit would be in vain. 

P 2 


SOT.— Male. 

473.-Wn<l A»». 



M«.- Italian Uorn lUclos. 

47?.— Auet. 



475. -Male.' 


474.— Male. 

47«.— Male. 





With all its attractions, thi« spirited beautiful crea- 
ture has never been brought into the service of man. 
It is indeed extremely vicious, and uses its heels on 
the most trifling occasion, kicking violently, and 
for a considerable time together, rendering it dan- 
gerous for a person to venture near it. Yet it ap- 
pears that in India it has occasionally been tamed, 
and M. Dussumier states, "a European resident at 
Cutch had a dzigguetai which was accustomed to 
follow him in his rides. One day, having ended 
his ride at a large sheet of water, he went on board 
a boat ; the animal remained for some time, at tiret 
quiet on the shore, but becoming impatient on find- 
ing that the boat did not soon return, he took to 
the water, and swimming, came up with it and fol- 
lowed it to the end of the excursion." 

If the dzigguefai of southern Siberia andTartary, 
the wild ass of Cutch, and the ghur of Persia and 
Tartary, be one species, as we believe — in what, we 
would ask, doei< this animal differ from the wild ass 
of Tartary and other parts, called (as Desmarest 
expresses himself) Koulan or Choulan by the Kal- 
mucs? Every detail, as far as we can make out, 
which applies to one, applies to the other also; 
and as it respects colour, we know well that the 
dzigguetai itself, as naturalists must admit, varies 
in tint, and the lireadth and intensity of the dorsal 
stripe. We may here add, that one of the dziggue- 
tais in the gardens of the Zool. Soc. was certainly 
brought from Cutch ; and another, presented by 
Capt. Glasspoole, R.N., was most probably brought 
from the same country, or from Sindh or Persia, 
along the coasts of which three states he sailed in 
pursuance of his maritime duties. 

474, 475, 476, 478, 503.— The Mule. 
The mule is the offspring of the male ass and mare ; 
the offspring of the horse and female ass is termed 
the hinny, and is a small inferior animal of little 
value. The mule in general has the form of the 
ass, in some respects modified, and on a larger 
scale, but the head and tail approach nearer to those 
of the horse. We learn that the mule was bred in 
ancient times ; it is noticed in the reign of David, 
when it appears to have been in common use for 
the saddle, and consequently must have been known 
much earlier. The fiwt mention of mules is in 
Genesis xxxiv. 24; but the true meaning of the 
word thus rendered is doubtful. Bochart is of 
opinion that the word (yemin) really denotes a gi- 
gantic people, and this opinion has the sanction of 
the Samaritan text and version ; while the Syriac 
renders the word as " waters," in which meaning St. 
Jerome, Gesenius, and others concur. 

At the present day there are various breeds of 
mules in Syria, and very beautiful animals are 
produced between high-blood Arab mares and well 
selected male asses. (Fig. 476.) In Europe the 
Spanish mule is deservedly celebrated, as is also the 
Spanish ass. 

In Spain the muleteer is the general medium of 
traffic, and the legitimate traverser of the land, 
crossing the Peninsula from the Pyrenees and the 
Asturias to the Alpuxarras. the Serrania de Ronda, 
and even to the gates of Gibraltar. He lives fru- 
gally and hardily : his alforjas of coarse cloth hold 
his scanty stock of provisions ; a leathern bottle, 
hanging at his saddle-bow, contains wine or water, 
for a supply across barren mountains and thirsty 

f)Iains. A mule-cloth spread upon the ground is 
lis bed at night, and his packsaddle is his pillow. 
His low but clean-limbed and sinewy form betokens 
strength ; his complexion is dark and sunburnt ; his 
eye resolute, but quiet in its expression, except 
when kindled by sudden emotion ; his demeanour 
is frank, manly, and courteous, and he never passes 
you without a grave salutation — " Dios guarde h 
usted!" "Vausted con Dios, Caballero!" "God 
guard you ! God be with you, Cavalier ! " — Wash- 
ington Irving. (Figs. 505, 507.) 

We once saw four white Spanish mules of large 
size and admirable symmetry. 

In all mountain countries, the mule, from itssure- 
ness of foot, its instinctive caution in choosing the 
path, and the management of its proceeding in 
descending a perilous and steep track, is eminently 
serviceable. It is employed in the Andes, where it 
has superseded the Llama. 

The mule does not breed with the mule, but has 
occasionally been known to breed with the mare ; 
and an instance occurred in the gardens of the Zool. 
Soc, of a mare producing a foal, of which the male 
parent was a hybrid between the zebra and the ass. 

The use of the mule in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and 
also in the countnes of the East, is too well known, 
and has been too often described by travellers, to 
need our enlarging upon it. Next to the horse it is 
our most valuable beast of burden, and in some 
situations far preferable. In England, however, it 
is not in recjuest, nor is any care taken in the acqui- 
sition of a fine race ; yet its hardiness, strength, and 
power of enduring fatigue are great recommenda- 
tions in its favo'ir. 

The word mule,. observes Mr. Bell, "is doubtless 
derived from ^^Ao;, /ciAour ; from whence the Latin. 
multts, which atfoids the Italian mulo, the French 
ntulet, and our mule. It was formerly called Moyle 
and Moil ; and this word is still employed lx)th in 
the pouthern counties of England and in Scotland 
to signify labour. Thus Bums, in his exquisite 
' Cotter's Saturday-night ' — 

" The toil-worn cotter tne hi* labour go«a : 
Thii night bit weekly moil is at an end." 

He adds — " Mr. Yarrell informs me that in Corn- 
wall the word moyle signifies barren : this is a very 
remarkable coincidence ; and, after all, may probably 
be the etymology of the last-mentioned name of 
our animal." A mule may be produced between 
the zebra and the mare, or the quagga and the 

" Some years since the Earl of Moreton, being 
desirous of obtaining a breed between the horse and 
the quagga (Burchell's zebra ?), selected a young 
mare of seven-eighths Arabian blood, and a fine male 
of the latter species ; the produce was a female hy- 
brid. The same mare had afterwards, first a filly 
and next a col t, by a fine black Arabian horse. They 
both, strange to say, resembled the quagga in the 
dark line along the back, the stripes across the fore- 
head, and the bars across the legs. In the filly the 
mane was short, stiff, and upright, like that of the 
(juagga. In the colt it was long, but so stiff as to 
arch upwards, and hang clear of the sides of the 
neck ; in other respects they were nearly Arabian, 
as might have been expected from fifteen-sixteenths 
Arabian blood." 

To the physiologist this circumstance opens an 
interesting subject for investigation, nor is the fact 
unimportant to the breeders of animals, inasmuch 
as it incontestably proves that the characters of the 
male parent of the mother's first progeny exert a 
marked influence on her subsequent offspring, 
whatever may be the peculiarities of the father of 
the latter. 

479, 508.— The Zebra 

(Eqtats Zebra; Equus montanus, Burchell). This 
beautiful iiuimal is a native of the mountain dis- 
tricts of southern Africa, and is found, according to 
various writers, in Congo, Guinea, and even Abys- 
sinia, according to Ludolphe. Bruce, however, 
states that " the zebra is found nowhere in Abys- 
sinia, except in the south-west extremity of Kuora, 
amid the Shangalla and Galla, in Narea and Caff, and 
in the mountains of Dyre and Tegla, and thence to 
the southward." It is called in South Africa Wilde 
Paarde by the Cape colonists. 

The zebra is regulanly striped, even down to the 
hoofs, with glossy brownish black on a white or 
yellowish white ground. The ears are long, the 
neck short and deep, with a sort of dewlap under 
the throat produced by a loose fold of the skin ; 
the mane is short, and the tail sparely clad with 
long hair. 

Wild and swift, this species lives in troops in the 
bold ranges of craggy mountains remote from the 
abodes of man. Its disposition is savage and in- 
tractable, and it is by no means easily obtained, not 
only from its fleetness, but from the nature of the 
locality it frequents, where, like the wild ass of 
Tartary, in "the wilderness and the barren land is 
his dwelling; he scorneththe multitude of the city." 

Two mules in the gardens of the Zool. Soc. are 
between the male zebra and the common ass. They 
are strong, and work well. 

481. — Burchell's Zebra 

(Equus BurcheUu), the Dauw of the colonists of 
South Africa. This species is a tenant of the plains, 
and is found occurring in every district north of 
the Orange river, as far as travellers have pene- 
trated. It dwells in troops, which make occasional 
migrations from the interior to the more fertile 
districts in search of food. At irregular and uncer- 
tain intervals there occur seasons of drought in 
South Africa, when the pools of the desert are dried 
up, and the surface of the wilderness is parched. 
Driven from their native solitudes by the desolation 
around them, zebras, antelopes, and other animals 
in incredible multitudes pour like a torrent over 
the cultivated districts, destroying the pasturage 
and the corn ; with the return of the rain they re- 
trace their steps and seek their desert fastnesses. 
Burchell's zebra is strong and muscular, with sinewy 
limbs, and might perhaps be made serviceable to 
man. It is an animal that admits of being tamed 
to a certain extent with facility, and occasionally a 
half-domesticated specimen is exposed for sale at 
Cape Town with a rider on its back. The persons, 
however, who have had most opportunities of be- 
coming acquainted with its character, regard it, 
tractable as it may sometimes appear, as treache- 
rous, fickle, vicious, and obstinate. It is a remark- 
able fact that this species, and the quagga also, are 
oOen seen in company with the ostrich ; several of 

the latter feeding tranquilly in the midst of a herd, 
without experiencing any molestation. 

This species may be distinguished from its moun- 
tain relative by the shortness of its ears, by the ab- 
sence of stripes on the limbs and under surface of 
the body, and by the stripes of the upper parts be- 
ing brown. 

These animals present a brilliant appearance 
when flying in troops before the hunter. Their 
flesh (with that of the zebra and quagga) is relished 
by the natives, but Mr. Burchell thought it not much 
superior to horseflesh, and he would, with most 
Europeans, think the same respecting the flesh of 
the wild ass, which in Persia is in the highest esti- 
mation, and served at royal banquets. The drawing 
(Fig. 481) represents the spearing of one of these 
animals by a mounted Cafire. 

480.— The Qdagoa 
(•Equus Quagga). Like the preceding species, the 
Quagga is a native of the plain, and occurs south of 
the Orange river, within the limits of the Cape 
Colony. It roams in large herds, as does Burchell's 
zebra, but the herds of the two animals never 
mingle together, nor are the two species known to 
produce a mixed progeny. 

The quagga is far inferior to Burchell's zebra 
both in size and beauty ; its ground colour is a dull 
brownish white, clouded and striped with a darker 
colour on the head, neck, and withers, and less 
distinctly on the sides of the body ; the haunches 
are greyish ; the under parts, tail, and legs white. 
In its temper the quagga is wild and vicious ; never- 
theless it is said to be sometimes employed by the 
natives for the purposes of draught. 

We have already stated that fossil relics of animals 
of the genus Equus are abundant, and very widely 
dispersed. They occur in the third period of the 
tertiary series (Pliocene of Lyell), in the fresh-water 
deposits in what is called diluvial detritus, in super- 
ficial gravels, sands, and clays in the ossiferous 
caverns, in the osseous breccia, and in the Eppels- 
heim sand, &c. Captain Cautley found bones of 
the horse (but not in abundance) among other fossil 
remains lying on the slopes among the ruins of the 
■fallen clilifs, and also in situ in the sandstone of the 
Sewalik Mountains, at the southern foot of the 
Himalayas, between the Sutlej and the Ganges. M 

Several species of Equus have been recorded, • 
as Equus fossilis (E. Adamiticus, Schlotheim), 
Equus (Caballus) primigenius; Equus (Mulus) pri- 
migenius ; Equus (Asinus) primigenius. It is very ■ 
probable that these recorded species may be reaJly ■ 
distinct from each other, yet it is by no means cer- ' 
tain, for it would appear that it is rather upon size 
than any definite and persistent characters that the 
distinctions are founded. Indeed the bones of the 
living species do not afford any certain data by 
which to discriminate one from another. Cuvier 
informs us that he had carefully compared the 
skeletons of many varieties of horses, those of the 
mule, of the ass, the zebra, and the quagga, and 
that he could never find a character sufficiently 
fixed to enable him to pronounce on a species from 
an isolated bone. Size, he observes, furnishes but 
incomplete marks of distinction. Horses and asses 
vary much in this respect from their states of 
domestication ; and he adds that though he had 
not yet procured the skeleton of a dzigguetai, he 
doubted not its resemblance to the other species 
as much as they resemble each other in the same 
particular. To distinguish the skeleton, or a few 
bones of the skeleton, of the zebra, from those of 
Burchell's zebra, or the quagga, or the dzigguetai, 
is indeed difficult ; but still where the relics indi- 
cate great difference of size to have existed, taking 
into account the circumstance that the extinct 
Equi were wild, and therefore unmodified by the 
influence of domestication, there are good grounds, 
i"rom difference of size alone, for assuming specific 
flistinctions. With regard to the probability that 
to some of these extinct wild species is to be attri- 
buted the origin of our domestic races, we have 
jilready expressed our opinion. 

482. — Skull of the Fossil Adapis. 
To the order Pachydermata Cuvier refers an extinct 
animal, of which the remains have been found in 
the plaster-quarries of Montmartre. The remains, 
however, are very rare, and we believe that only 
tiiree fragments of skulls have been recovered. 
The adapis was evidently a small animal, its skull 
being only about a third larger than that of a 
hedgehog. There were four incisors, sharp-edged 
and oblique, in each jaw, followed byacanine tooth 
of a conical form and not exceeding the molars in 
length. Of these latter there were seven on each 
side, in each jaw. In the upper jaw the first molar 
was trenchant, the second and third surrounded by 
a small ridge, the last four flat-crowned. In the 
lower jaw the first three molars were pointed and 
trenchant, the remainder flat-crowned and tuber- 
culous, like those above opposed to flicni. Of the 




general outline of the adapis we have as yet no 
means of arrivins: at any idea. 

483, 485. — The Dinotherium 
(X). giganteum), as restored by Professor Kaup. 
Cuvier, from teeth and isolated fragments, gave, in 
his work on fossil bones, the title of " Tapir gigan- 
tesque " to the huge animal of which they were the 
relics, the only ones then discovered. It was re- 
served for Professor Kaup to add to our knowledge 
of the animal in question, by the discovery first 
of several lower jaws (Fig. 487), and subsequently 
of the skull (Fig. 486), which were found imbedded 
in a stratum of sandstone (the second or Mio- 
cene system of tertiary deposits), at Eppelsheim, 
about twelve miles south of Mayence, in company 
with relics of the following, viz. : a second species 
of Dinotherium, making the species 2 : Tapirus, 2, 
larger than living species ; Chalicotherium (allied 
to Tapirs), 2; Rhinoceros, 2; Tetracaulodon (allied 
to Mastodon), 1 ; Hippotherium (allied to Horse), 
1 ; Sus, 3 ; Felis (some as large as a Lion), 4 ; 
jilachairodus (allied to Bear, Ursus cultridens): 
Gulo (Glutton), 1 ; Agnotherium (allied to Dog, but 
as large as a Lion), 1. 

Cuvier, before he had completed the last edition 
of his ' Regne Animal,' became aware of M. Kaup's 
discovery of the lower jaw, and in his Additions, 
vol. i. p. 581, he alludes to this fragment as afford- 
ing data for the separation of the "Tapir gigan- 
tesque " into a distinct genus. To this genus M. 
Kaup has given the title Dinotherium. The skull 
of this extraordinary animal is more than a yard in 
length, and the size and situation of the nasal oritice 
(Fig. 484), with the salient portion of the short 
nasal bones, indicate the probable possession of a 
proboscis ; we say probable, because in the Manatee 
or Lamantin, and also the Duyong, we have a 
similar extent and situation of the nasal orifice, a 
circumstance militating against the inference that 
a proboscis necessarily accompanies this conforma- 
tion of the skull. Indeed the general aspect of the 
skull of the Dinotherium, setting aside the tusks of 
the lower jaw, and its strange alveolar projection, 
strongly reminds us of that of the Lamantip (Mana- 
tus, Cuv.j. The orbits themselves are very small, 
but the temporal fossae are very deep and extensive, 
indicating the great mass of the temporal muscle. 
The lower jaw is most remarkable. It is armed at 
the extremity with two enormous tusks (incisors), 
which, instead of projecting upwards or forwards, 
sweep downwards, and curve gently backwards, 
having their roots imbedded in enormous alveoli. 

The dentition is as follows: — Incisors — , Canines 

0-0 5-5 

' — ^, Molars, -^ — r = 22. Of the molars the third 
0-0 5— o 

has three transverse ridges across its surface, the 
others have two, with the exception of the first 
molar of the lower jaw, which has only one at its 
posterior part, the anterior portion being trenchant. 
Fig. 488 represents the palatal view of the skull of 
the Dinotherium. Fig. 490, the molar teeth and 
the relative bearing of the two rows, which approxi- 
mate towards each other anteriorly. 

The situation and afiinities of the Dinotherium 
have been the subject of much speculation, and very 
opposite opinions have been entertained by different 
naturalists. M. Kaup, influenced by the discovery 
of huge claws and a scapula, resembling in charac- 
ter those of the Pangolins (Manis), assigns the ani- 
mal to the Edentata, but differing from all extant 
species not only in exceeding the elephant in size, 
but in having, like the elephant, a proboscis. Dr. 
Btickland regards the Dinotherium as approximating 
to the tapir, of aquatic habits, and furnished with 
a proboscis, by means of which it conveyed to 
the mouth the vegetables raked from the bottom of 
lakes and rivers by its tusks and claws ; and he 
alludes to its claw resembling that of the Pangolins. 
MM. Blainville and Dum^ril consider the Dino- 
therium to have been allied to the Lamantins, or 
"aquatic gravigrades," — to have been in fact a 
Duyong with tusk-incisors, and therefore one of the 
concluding forms of the Pachydermata. They con- 
sider that it had no proboscis, but a huge inflated 
muzzle and upper lip. Gaeger places it with the 
seals. Now as regards M. Kaup's theory, we may 
at once state that the claws and scapula on which 
he founds it are not proved to belong to the Dino- 
therium ; and he himself admits that should the dis- 
covery take place of other fossil relics whence the 
certain existence of a Manis gigantea might be 
presumed, his theory would be overthrown. Our 
own opinion coincides with that of M. Blainville. 
The occipital condyles (see the posterior view of the 
»kull see from below. Fig. 489, and the skull. Fig. 
480) are terminal, or in the direction of the longitudi- 
nal axis of the skull, as in Lamantins, and also the 
Cetacea Mammalia modified for aquatic existence. 
The occipital surface is large, subvertical, and even 
inclined from before backwards, with a profound 
mesial depression for the insertion either of a very 

strong cervical ligament or powerful muscles for 
the elevation of the head. The basilary portion of 
the skull (Figs. 488, 489) is narrow in its com- 
ponent parts, while the vertical surface (Fig. 486) 
is, as in the Lamantins and Duyongs, very wide, 
overplumbing the temporal fossae, of which the 
depth and width indicate the enormous levator 
muscles of the lower jaw, not only for the purpose 
of mastication, but for the particular action of the 
lower jaw, with its rake-like tusks. Moreover, in 
the lower jaw we find an analogy to that of the 
Duyong, of which the branches curve downwards 
for a third of their length to a deflected symphysis, 
only that in the Dinotherium this downward curva- 
ture is carried to a far greater extreme, for the im- 
plantation of tusk -incisors. What were the limbs of 
this gigantic animal ? If its habits were terrestrial, 
which a consideration of the skull forbids us to be- 
lieve, the Dinotherium must have had solid pillars of 
support, like the limbs of the elephant, and destitute 
of that liberty which even in the Pangolins they are 
endowed with ; but, if our ideas are correct, its limbs 
were adapted for aquatic locomotion, and perhaps 
the posterior pair were wanting, or formed the ele- 
ments of a terminal paddle. Its diet was undoubt- 
edly vegetable, as in the Duyong ; and we may 
conceive it tearing up the strong-fibred vegetables 
from their subaquatic bed by means of its tusks, 
which might serve also as weapons of offence, or 
as anchors for the purpose of mooring itself to 
the banks of the lake or river, or of dragging its 
unwieldy body partially out of the water. 

Dr. Buckland informs iis that bones of the Dino- 
therium have lately been found in tertiary fresh-water 
limestone near Orthes, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 
and with them remains of a new genus allied to 
rhinoceros, of several unknown species of deer, and 
of a dog or wolf equalling a lion in size. 

Cuvier and Kaup calculate the length of the 
Dinotherium at about eighteen feet ; the massive 
lower jaw measures nearly four feet, exclusive of 
the tusks. 

491, 492. — Fossil Skull of Toxodon 
(Toxodon Platensis, Owen). We are inclined to refer 
the Toxodon, of which an imperfect skull and frag- 
ments of a lower jaw, and some teeth, are our only 
guides, to the aquatic Pachyderms ; and, as in the 
instance of the Dinotherium, we draw our deductions 
from the weight of the skull, from the form and 
position of the nasal aperture, the slope of the 
occiput, and the position of the occipital condyles. 

The skull in question was brought by Mr. Darwin 
from South America. It appears that during his 
sojourn in Banda Oriental he heard of some giant's 
bones at a farm-house on the Sarandis, a small stream 
entering the Rio Negro, about 120 miles north- 
west of Monte Video. Accordingly there he rode, 
and for the sum of eighteen-pence purchased the 
cranium now in the museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, London. Mr. Darwin was informed by 
the people at the farm-house that the relics were 
exposed in consequence of a flood having washed 
down part of the bank of earth. When first found 
the skull was perfect ; but unfortunately the boys 
of the neighbourhood knocked out the teeth with 
stones, and set up the head as a mark to tlirow at. 
Mr. Darwin, however, found a perfect tooth, and 
fragments ascertained by Professor Owen to be 
those of the lower jaw. These remains were so 
fresh as to render it difficult to believe that ages 
had passed since their interment ; and Mr. Darwin 
observes that they contained so much animal 
matter, that when a portion was heated in the fiame 
of a spirit-lamp, it not only exhaled a very strong 
animal odour, but burnt with a slight flame. The 
deposit in which they were imbedded was a whitish 
argillaceous earth, forming the banks of the Sa- 
randis, overlying a granitic foundation. 

The skull in question equals in size that of the 
hippopotamus, measuring two feet four inches in 
length, and one foot four inches in extreme breadth. 
The form of the skull (Figs. 491, 492) is elongated 
and depressed ; the zygomatic arches are of enor- 
mous size and strength, an index of the great 
volume of the temporal and masseter muscles. The 
occipital region (Fig. 493) slopes from the condyles 
upwards and forwards. The maxillary portion of 
the skull is compressed laterally, narrow across, and 
with large intermaxillary bones, slightly dilated at 
their extremity. The superior part of the skull was 
cavernous, with cells, or sinuses, giving to it greater 
apparent volume than the cerebral cavity would 
Jead us to infer : we have already alluded to the 
deceptive volume of the skull of the elephant. 
According to Professor Owen the dental formula 

is as follows : — Incisors _, canines none, a vacant 

7 7 

space being m their place ; molars =38. The 

incisor teeth (see Fig. 496, the fragment of the an- 
terior part of the lower jaw, with the teeth in situ; 
' and Fig. 495, an incisor of the lower jaw) are re- 

markable for their resemblance in many respects to 
those of the Rodents : they were rootless, and had 
persistent pulps ; growing, therefore, as worn down 
by use. In the upper jaw the two central incisors 
were very small ; the two e<xternal ones very large, 
curved, with their sockets extending back in an 
arched direction through the intermaxillary bones 
to the maxillary, and terminating, without becoming 
contracted, immediately anterior to the grinding 
teeth. In the lower jaw the two middle incisors are 
largest, the rest gradually diminishing in size. (Fig. 
496.) The molar teeth also were rootless, and curved, 
whence the name Toxodon (joiov, a bow, bioit, 
a tooth) ; and their grinding surface presented one 
or more folds of enamel re-entering the osseous sub- 
stance of the centre, as in Rodents. See Fig. 494, 
the last molar teeth but one of upper jaw ; Fig. 497, 
the grinding surface of the same ; Fig. 498, the 
grinding surface of the corresponding molar of lower 

We might here enter on many minutiae, and follow 
Professor Owen through his anatomical details, were 
it not that they are rather adapted for the close atten- 
tion of the comparative anatomist than the general 
leader. Those who wish to gain the fullest information 
on these points we may refer to the ' Proceeds. Geol. 
Soc. Lond.' 1837 ; and the ' Zoology of the Beagle : 
Fossil Mammalia.' We may observe, however, that 
" in the aspect of the plane of the occipital foramen 
and occipital region of the skull, in the form and 
position of the occipital condyles, in the aspect of 
the plane of the bony aperture of the nostrils, and 
in the thickness and texture of the osseous parietes 
of the skull," the Toxodon manifests an affinity to 
the Dinotherium and the aquatic Pachyderms (the 
herbivorous Cetacea of Cuvier, but whicli in man- 
ners and organization have little relationship to the 
true whales, excepting as far as they are all modified 
for the waters of the deep). 

With respect to the limbs of the Toxodon, we have 
as yet no evidence respecting their form or number ; 
how far, therefore, they were constructed for aquatic 
progression, whether for this solely, or for occasional 
visits to the land, is yet a problem to be solved. 
Professor Owen, however, suggests that the pre- 
sence of lai'ge frontal sinuses renders it not im- 
probable that the habits of this species were not 
so strictly aquatic as the total absence of hinder 
extremities would necessitate. 

In speaking of the Dinotherium and Toxodon it 
will be seen that we have referred them, with the 
Lamantins and Duyongs (often written Dugongs), 
to the aquatic Pachyderms, between which group 
and the ordinary Pachyderms we regard the hippo- 
potamus as forming a link, though decidedly within 
the pale of the latter. Cuvier has remarked that 
such of the Pachydermata as approach the Rumi- 
nants in the structure of their feet partake in some 
degree of the complication of the stomach which 
in the animals of the latter order is so remarkable 
a character ; and it may be said, per contra, that 
such Pachyderms as approach in a certain degree 
in habits to the aquatic group resemble them in 
the structure of the same organ. The stomach of 
the semi-aquatic hippopotamus, for example, con- 
sists of certain sacculi, which renders it analogous to 
that of the lamantin. Sir E. Home observes that 
" the stomachs of the manatee and hippopotamus 
bear a close resemblance to each other in structure, 
and are in many respects similar to that of the 
peccary, which is a variation of the hogs, to which 
the tapir is also allied ; and these circumstances 
throw no small light upon the preparatory processes 
required for the digestion of difterent kinds of ve- 
getable food. The grass of the field is the food of 
Ruminating animals, and, from the structure of their 
digestive organs, it is evident that much previous 
digestion is necessary for its preparation. The 
grass and weeds at the bottom and on the banks of 
rivers is the food of the manatee and hippopotamus, 
and the apparatus formed for preparing these sub- 
stances displays an approach to the stomachs in 
Ruminants. In the hog tribe the resemblance is 
less, those animals having a more indiscriminate 
diet : the structure of their stomach shows that 
grass is by no means their natural food. The 
stomachs of the manatee and hippopotamus, then, 
which at first sight appear so extraordinary and 
incomprehensible, are in fact the links which 
unite the Ruminants to those animals which feed 
on roots and various vegetable substances, and form 
a key, without which the different gradations can- 
not be satisfactorily explained." 

It is not only in the form of the stomach, but in 
the structure and contour of the skull, the position 
of the eyes and nostrils, and even in the nature of 
the skin, with its subcutaneous layer of fat, that we 
trace the approximation of the hippopotamus to the 
Lamantins ; and it may be that the Toxodon, and even 
Dinotherium, form links between the Lamantins and 
hippopotamus, being within the pale of the group 
to which the former belong. 
We may here observe, that the number of fossil 

485.— Dlnotherinm. 

487.— Lower Jaw of Dinotberium. 


Fig. 494. 





genera included within the Pachydermata g^atly 
exceeds that of genera containing living specie*, 
of which latter many, as Eqiius, Elephas, Rhino- 
ceros, and Hippopotamus, have fossil as well as 
living species : so that the number of fossil or ex- 
tinct species already ascertained of the Pachyder- 
matous order, taken collectively, is far greater than 
the number of living species. In some, perhaps 
many, instances the affinities of the fossil Pachy- 
derms are not understood, fragments of bones only 
having been recovered : in some instances they can- 
not be mistaken. 

We began our observation on the Pachydermata 
by alluding to the unfilled intervals between the 
forms now living on the surface of the earth, and 
a statement that in fossil forms — some yet to be 
discovered, others to be made out, and, as it were, 
re-coDstructed — would the lost links in the chain be 
recovered ; and we again express our opinion that 
ultimately the work will be, if not perfectly, at least 
to a great extent, accomplished. 

That our ideas are not unreasonable we have 
from time to time satisfactory proofs. Sir Thomas 
Mitchell has recently transmitted from Australia 
some fossil bones which incontestably prove the 
existence of at least one gigantic Pachyderm, at 
some remote period, in that region. These fossils 
consist of a piortion of a molar tooth, of the shaft 
of a thigh bone, with part of the spine, of a sca- 
pula, and some smaller fragments of a long bone. 
They were found on the Darling Downs, those ex- 
tensive plains marked to the south-west of Moreton 
Bay on most maps of Australia, at the source of 
the river Darling, and upwards of 4000 feet above 
the level of the sea. Sir Thomas Mitchell, in his 
letter to Professor Owen, to whom the relics were 
forwarded, states that these huge bones are found 
in some abundance. It would appear from Profes- 
sor Owen's examination, that this huge extinct 
animal was allied both to the Mastodon and Dino- 
therium. Fig. 499 represents the femur of this 
extinct Australian Pachyderm : a, its transverse sec- 
tion. Figs. 500, 501, two views of the portion of a 
molar tooth of the same. These fossils, now in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, cannot, 
observes Professor Owen, be contemplated without 
suggesting many interesting reflections. 

"They tell us plainly that the time was when 
Australia's arid plains were trodden by the hoofs of 
heavy Pachyderms ; but could the land then have 
been, as now, parched by long continued droughts, 
■with dry river-courses, containing here and there 
a pond of water? All the facts and analogies which 
throw light on the habits of the extinct Mastodons 
and Dinotheres indicate these creatures to have 
been frequenters of marshes, swamps, or lakes. 
Other relations of land and sea than now charac- 
terize the southern hemisphere, a different condition 
of the surface of the land and of the meteoric in- 
fluences governing the proportion and distribution 
of fresh-water on that surface, may therefore be 
conjectured to have prevailed when huge Masto- 
dontoid Pachyderms constituted part of the quad- 
ruped population of Australia. Rlay not the change 
from a humid climate to the present particularly 
dry one have been the cause, or chief cause, of the 
extinction of such Pachyderms? Was not the 
ancient Terra Australis, when so populated, of 

freater extent than the present insular continent? 
he mutual dependences between large mammalian 
quadrupeds and other members of the animal king- 
dom suggest other reflections in connection with 
the present fossil. If the extinct species ever so 
abounded as to require its redundancy to be sup- 
pressed by a carnivorous enemy, then some de- 
structive species of this kind must have co-existed, 
of larger dimensions than the extinct Dasyurus 
laniarius, the ancient destroyer of the now equally 
extinct gigantic Kangaroos, Macropus Titan, &c., 
whose remains were discovered in the bone-caves 
of Wellington Valley. Extremely few copropha- 
gous beetles have hitherto, I believe, been found in 
Australia ; and the scarcity of such is readily ex 
plained by the absence of native species of large 
herbivorous mammals ; but the dung of the Masto- 
dontoid quadrupeds which formerly existed in Aus- 
tralia must then have afi"orded the requisite condi- 
tions for a greater abundance of such Coleoptera. 
These and other speculations are naturally suggested 
hy the highly interesting fossils here described. 
The great importance of such organic remains will 
be obvious from the few inferences which have 
been briefly noted; our obligations to the en- 
lightened collector and transmitter of the Masto- 
dontoid fossils are great, and the arrival of addi- 
tional facts and specimens will be most earnestly 

A consideration of the fossil relics of extinct ani- 
mals throws the mind back upon remote periods 
before the surface of our globe had acquired its 
present aspect, its present arrangement of land 
and water, of mountains and plains, islands and 
conUnents ; and when we begin to review the histoij' 

of its phases, we find ourselves carried back into the 
obscure of time, till — in comparison with the ages 
which have passed since the commencement of the 
Primary period, wherein those oldest rocks were 
formed in which there are no traces of animal or 
vegetable life : to the conclusion of the Secondary 
geological period — the date of man's existence on 
the globe seems but of yesterday, and the few thou- 
sand years through which he has played his part 
sink into a span. 

But though the vast antiquity of the globe is 
clearly demonstrated, still the length of time which 
has elapsed during the formation of the whole or 
of any definite portion of the crust of the earth is a 
problem yet to be solved. We know that at one 
period life had no place on our planet. The gneiss 
and mica-schist systems of strata of the Primary pe- 
riod are destitute of all trace of organic remains. 
In these, the most ancient of rocks, which exhibit to 
us the combined effects of igneous and aqueous 
agency, no fossil relics speak of a Fanna or Flora 
during their formation, and we may believe that 
few or none of the organised wonders of nature 
were then in existence, because the physical con- 
ditions of the globe requisite for the existence of 
animals and plants were not then established.' How 
long did this state of the earth continue ? It is a 
question which cannot be answered. Passing from 
the primeval rocks, 

*• Where the bird dared not build, nor insect wing 
Flit o'er the herbless granite," 

we come to the Snowdon rocks of argillaceous slate, 
and the calcareous and argillaceous rocks, consti- 
tuting the Cumbrian system, in which a few traces of 
organic life have been detected, but of organic life 
in its lowest type. Then the Silurion or transition 
system succeeds, consisting of sandstones, limestones, 
and shale ; here corals, crinoidea, trilobites, terebra- 
tulae, &c., all belonging to extinct species and often 
to extinct genera and families, and all aquatic, are 
abundant. From these systems of the primary 
strata, we advance to the secondary strata — rich in 
oceanic life — divided into the carboniferous system, 
the saliferous or new red-sandstone system, the 
oolitic system, and the cretaceous or chalk system. 
The deposits constituting each of these systems are 
replete with organic remains, but all of extinct spe- 
cies and often of extinct genera. The coal-mea- 
sures are rich in an extinct Flora, principally con- 
sisting of ferns, often in an extraordinary degree of 
preservation, the most delicate leaves being spread 
out, and so arranged as to constitute a beautiful 
Hortus Siccus of a long-past period. About 300 
species of plants have been discovered in the coal- 
measures of this and other countries. Their luxu- 
riance indicates a genial temperature and a humid 
ground. " It would hardly be credited," says Pro- 
fessor Lindley, in his ' Fossil Flora of Great Britain,' 
" by persons unacquainted with the evidence upon 
which such facts repose, that in the most dreary and 
desolate regions of the present day there once flou- 
rished groves of tropical plants, of Coniferae, like 
the Norfolk Island and Araucarian pines, of bananas, 
tree-ferns, huge cacti and palms ; that the marshes 
were filled with rush-like plants 15 or 20 feet high, 
and the coverts with ferns like the undergrowth of 
a West India island. Our engraving (Fig. 510) is 
a restoration of some of the animals and plants 
characteristic of the oolitic system (lias, limestone, 
oolite, &c.) of the secondary strata, which will 
serve to convey some idea of the Fauna and Flora of 
the period when those strata were in process of 
formation — a period in which strange monsters 
ploughed their way through waters which have 
given place to solid rock. Plants. — a. Ferns (Fili- 
ces). b, Zamia (Cycadae). c. Arbor Vitae. d, 
Dracaena, e, Araucaria pine. /, Equisetum. — 
Animals. — g. Dragon-fly. h. Tortoise, j, Mega- 
losaurus. k, Ichthyosaurus. /, Plesiosaurus. to. 
Ammonites, n. Echinus, o, Nautilus, p. Cuttle- 
fish, q, Encrinites. r, Pterodactylus. 

The chalk system is rich in extinct corals, zoo- 
phytes, and echinoderms. Our lofty chalk hills and 
the white cliffs of Dover have been formed through 
a long succession of ages at the bottom of a deep 
sea. From the Secondary we advance to the Ter- 
tiary periods. In general, says a talented writer, 
" No contrast can be more complete than that 
between the secondary and the tertiary rocks ; the 
former retaining so much uniformity of character, 
even for enormous distances, as to appear like the ef- 
fect of one determined sequence of general physical 
agencies ; the latter exhibiting an almost boundless 
local variety, and relations to the configuration of 
land and sea not to be mistaken. The organic bodies 
of the secondary strata are obviously and completely 
distinct from those of the modern land and sea; but 
in the tertiary deposits, it is the resemblance between 
fossil and recent kinds of corals, shells, plants, qua- 

• We exclude microscopic animalcules from our consideration, be- 
cause at present we scarcely know under what circumstances they can 

drupeds, and other vertebrata, which first arrests the 
judgment. In genera] there is a decided break 
between the two groups of rocks, a discontinuity 
which is nowhere completely filled. Yet besides the 
pseudo-tertiary or transition chalky rocks of Maes- 
tricht and the Pyrenees, and the conchiferous marls 
of Gosau, we have in England and France above 
the chalk a prevalence of green and ferruginous 
sands similar to those below. Perhaps they have 
been derived from the waste of those older rocks. 
Mr. Lyell supposes the tertiaries of the London basin 
to have been formed from the waste of the second- 
ary strata of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Hampshire. 
With the tertiary system came into existence, if we 
may trust the evidence which the eariier strata pre- 
sent, many races of quadrupeds, some birds, reptiles 
and fishes, extremely analogous to, though for the 
most part specifically distinct from, the modern de- 
nizens of land and water; thousands of corals, shells, 
Crustacea, &c. which present with living races quite 
as great analogy as obtains between the tribes of the 
Atlantic and the Pacific oceans of our day. The 
general features of land and sea as they now exist 
began to appear, and there can be no doubt that in 
a philosophical study of the revolutions of the globe 
the tertiary era of geology cannot be properly sepa- 
rated from the existing system of nature."' "The ter- 
tiary period, taken in this extended sense, saw the 
creation and extinction of the mammoth, the mas- 
todon, the palaeotherium, the fossil rhinoceros and 
hippopotamus, the dinotherium, the toxodon, and the 
huge pachyderm of Australia : and next, the creation 
of all our modern races of animals. 

During the period of the deposition of the tertiary 
strata, the relations of land and sea were greatly 
altered in various portions of the globe ; in Europe 
by the rising of the Pyrenees beyond the heightthey 
reached after the cretaceous era, and by the uplift- 
ing of the Alps from the Mediterranean towards 
Mont Blanc. " In England we may believe the up- 
ward movement of the southern counties connected 
with the Hampshire axis of elevation, and the Isle 
of Wight convulsion was ended at an early epoch 
of the tertiary period. The eastern range of the 
Alps from Mont Blanc to Vienna is of later date, 
and may be viewed as the most marked phenomenon 
of elevation which accompanied or preceded the 
dispersion of erratic blocks in Europe." 

Besides the alterations thus produced in the rela- 
tion of the land and the sea, changes have taken 
place, and are still in progress, from other causes. 
Rivers bring down vast quantities of the disinte- 
grated particles of the strata through which they 
flow, and deposit the sediment at their mouths, 
forming deltas, or low tracts, won as it were particle 
by particle from the domain of the ocean ; on the 
other hand, the sea itself wears down coasts to a 
great extent, making vast inroads on the land, and 
converting the isthmus into an island : sometimes, 
by the sudden or gradual elevation of a large tract 
of land, an inland sea becomes drained, leaving in 
Its place a sandy desert. In the depths themselves 
there is no rest ; multitudes of zoophytes and testacea 
there live and die, there their remains accumulate 
layer upon layer, forming beds of vast thickness, 
which at a future day may be laid bare, covered with 
alluvium, and engage the researches of another 
Cuvier. The chemical action of the atmosphere ; 
heat and cold, rain and snow, winds, springs, rivers, 
torrents, the action of the tides ; life, animal and ve- 
getable ; and volcanic agencies, all contribute their 
part to alter the surface of the land, and to eff'ect 
changes in its relative extent to that of the sea, 
changes which are in reality never stationary, but, 
imperceptible as they may seem, in constant pro- 

The deposits of the tertiary period are divided by 
Mr. Lyell into three series : the oldest, or Eocene, in 
which there occurs from three to five per cent, of 
existing species of shells ; secondly, the series of the 
middle age, or Meiocene, averaging 18 per cent, in 
the occurrence of existing species of shells ; and 
thirdly, the superficial or Pleiocene deposits, in 
which the ratio of existing shells is from 40 to 95 
per cent. 

We trust we shall be pardoned for this brief ' 
digression, into which we were led by a desire to 
show that fossil relics are not all of the same era, and 
that Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary periods haw 
each their distinguishing characteristics, their own - 
fossil relics ; that on the whole the progression of i 
life has been from the lowest aquatic forms, to formi i 
analogous to those now tenanting the earth, which 
when they existed in the Eocene, Meiocene, or Pie 
iocene epoch of the Tertiary period, must have pre- 
sented to a certain extent the superficial features it i 
at present exhibits, though there were doubtless ' 
great modifications in the arrangements of land and ■ 
water, and in the temperature of given latitude*. ■ 
We beg to refer our readers to the articles ' Organic * 
Remains ' and ' Geology,' in the ' Penny Cyclopedia.' 
The perusal will give additional interest to our dfri 
tails of fossil relics. 





This order, termed Pecora by Linnaeus, is one of the 
most natural of the primary groups into which the 
Mammalia are divided. It contains all those qua- 
drupeds in which a cloven hoof, the act of rumina- 
tion (chewing the cud), and the absence of incisors 
in the upper jaw coexist together as data upon 
which to draw a line between them and all other 
Mammals. It is true that the Camelidae, or camel 
tribe, including the Llamas, exhibit in their denti- 
tion a departure from the rule, and exhibit, both in 
this particular and in osteological structure, some 
approximation to the Pachyderms ; nevertheless 
even the Camels, in common with the Ruminants 
generally, partake of those definite structural pecu- 
liarities from which there is no deviation, and which 
constitute a common bond of union. 

A rapid glance at the distinguishing characteris- 
tics of this order will not, we trust, be unacceptable ; 
certainly it is not out of place. Decidedly herbivo- 
rous, with lips modified either for browsing, as the 
camel, giraffe, &c., or for grazing, as in the ox, the 
Ruminantia are accordingly furnished with teeth, 
digestive organs, and limbs in accordance with the 
habits involved. 

To begin with the teeth. We may observe that 
there are no incisors in the upper jaw, the hardened 
gum sustaining the pressure of the lower incisors, 
which are eight in number, with thin, broad edges ; 
their position is not vertical, but oblique, so that 
their edges do not press directly against the gum, 
but rather their posterior surface. The two central 
are in general the largest, and the outermost on each 
side the smallest and most oblique. In the giraffe, 
hovtever, the outermost is the largest, and it ap- 
I>ears as if divided by a furrow. The molars are 
six on each side in both jaws : of these the first three 
are preceded by milk or deciduous teeth ; the three 
posterior are originally permanent. Their surface 
IS marked by two pairs of crescentic ridges. In the 
lower jaw these crescents have the convexity out- 
wards ; in the upper, the reverse. These crescents 
as they wear down by use show a centre of bone 
surrounded by a ridge of enamel. Between the 
molars and incisors of the lower jaw intervenes a 
vacant space. 

With respect to the camels, though the number 
of molars on each side above is really six, five only 
are in a continuous series, and resemble molars in 
their shape : anterior to these continuous teeth, and 
separated by a considerable space, we find a tooth 
resembling in shape a stout short canine, being of a 
rimple conical figure ; this is the first molar : it has 
been called a second canine, but erroneously, the 
true canine, which is large, strong, and pointed, be- 
ing placed before it, a small interval separating 
them. In the lower jaw the continuous molars are 
four, with a similar pointed and detached molar and 
canine ; there being true canines, as well as canine- 
like molars, in both jaws. Incisors also are found in 
both jaws : four in the upper, but the two central 
are small and fall out early ; the two lateral are per- 
manent, and resemble canines in figure. In the 
lower jaw there are only six incisors, compressed, 
oblique, and pointed. Fig. 517 shows the dentition 
of the upper jaw, in two views; Fig. 518, that of the 
lower, also in two views. 

The dentition of the Llamas closely approaches 
that of the camel ; there are, however, in these ani- 
mals only four molars on each side below, and five 
above, there being no detached canine-like molars. 
The Chevrotains (Moschidae) are remarkable for the 
developement of the canines of the upper jaw in the 
male ; they are pointed, recurved, compressed, with 
a posterior sharp edge, and project downwards out 
of the mouth. In the musk-deer they measure two 
inches and a half in length. There are no canines 
in the lower jaw. Incisors eight, as usual ; none 
above. The existence of canine teeth in the upper 
jaw of the males, though not a universal feature 
among the Ruminants, is by no means uncommon. 
They occur in the males of many of the deer tribe, 
and we have seen them in a rudimentary state and 
buried in the gum in the female of the South 
American species ; and they have been found in one 
species of antelope (Ant. montana, Riipp.) — in this 
animal, however, they are only half-developed germs, 
becoming lost before the animal attains to maturity. 
(See ' Proceeds. Zoological Society,' 1836, p. 3.) 

As the dentition of the Ruminants is so constant 
and unvarying in its general characters, so is the 
structure of the organs of progression ; and where, as 
in the Camelidae, we find a variation in the former, 
so do we also find a corresponding variation in the 
ktter. On looking at the feet of a Ruminant, the 
ilnrt thing we observe is, that they are hoofed and 
cloven ; an anatomy shows us that these hoof-cased 
toes, consisting of three phalangal bones, terminate 
• single long canon-bone. In the camels, however, 
the toes, instead of being stiort, abruptly truncated, 
and cased in pointed hoofs, so as to form a solid 
basis on which to rest, are elongated and only tipped 

with small hoofs, the animal resting on a large pulpy 
sole or pad, placed like a cushion beneath the toes 
(See Figs. 520 and 521.) Besides the two large or 
true toes, there are in some groups, as for instance 
the deer, two small short lateral toes consisting of 
three phalanges, and supported by stylets of bone. 
In the sheep these accessory toes are merely horny 
protuberances filled with condensed fatty cellular 

The act of ruminating supposes a complicated 
structure of the stomach. This organ is divided 
into four compartments, viz. : 1, the first cavity or 
paunch, la pause (ventriculus) ; 2, the hood or honey- 
coinb, le bonnet (reticulum) ; 3, the manyplies, le 
feuillet (omasus or psalterium) ; 4, the rud, la cail- 
lette (abomasus). These cavities are so arranged 
that the coarsely-ground herbage received into the 
first cavity is gradually propelled into the hood 
through a valvular aperture, where it is compacted 
into small balls, which, while the animal reposes at 
its ease, are returned seriatim to the mouth, to be 
remasticated by a voluntary effort. The aliment, 
when sufficiently remasticated, is again swallowed,' 
and passes at once into the third, or plicated, com- 
partment, by means of a peculiar mechanism, where 
it is compressed into flattened portions, which are 
gradually transmitted through a valvular orifice into 
the fourth compartment, or abomasus, the true 
digestive cavity. 

The inner membrane of this portion secretes a 
fluid (the gastric juice) well known for its power of 
coagulating milk ; taken from the calf, salted and 
dried, it is known under the name of rennet, and 
used in making cheese. 

In young Ruminants, while their food is merely 
the mother's milk, the process of rumination is not 
carried on ; and the proportion which the different 
compartments of the stomach bear to each other is 
very different from that presented afterwards, when 
their aliment is changed from milk to herbage. The 
huge paunch, forinstance, is less than the abomasus, 
or fourth stomach, this being as yet the largest of 
the compartments, and the milk as it is swallowed 
passes at once into it, where it becomes curdled and 
then digested. 

In the camel, besides the almost total absence of 
the third stomach, or omasus, there is another pecu- 
liarity to be noticed, viz. an arrangement of deep 
cells in the paunch for the reception and preserva- 
tion of water, and the enlargement of the cells of 
the reticulum for the same purpose. 'The paunch 
is divided into two portion?, a right and a left, by 
a longitudinal ridge of muscular fibres: in the left 
is a series of deep cells capable altogether of con- 
taining from four to five quarts of water; in the 
right is a smaller series capable of containing about 
a quart. When these cells are filled, the fluid is 
kept free from mixture with the food by the con- 
traction of the orifice of each cell, and it can be 
forced out at pleasure by the action of a muscular 
expansion covering the bottom of this cellular ap- 
paratus. The deep cells of the reticulum are ar- 
ranged in twelve rows, and are formed by muscular 
bands, intersecting each other transversely. This 
compartment in the camel appears to be destined 
exclusively as a reservoir for water, never receiving 
solid food, as in the ox or sheep ; and it would seem 
that the remasticated food passes into the third 
small cavity, being conducted along the upper mar- 
gin of the second, through a canal formed by a mus- 
cular ridge, which contracts with so much force as 
not only to open the orifice of the second cavity but 
so as to bring forward the mouth of the third into 
the second, by which action the muscular ridges that 
separate the rows of cells are brought close together, 
so as to exclude these cavities from the canal through 
which the water passes. Sir E. Home observes, 
that " while the camel is drinking, the action of the 
inuscular band opens the orifice of the second ca- 
vity ; at the same time it directs the water into it : 
and when the cells of that cavity are full, the rest 
runs oft' into the cellular structure of the first cavity. 
It would appear that camels, when accustomed to 
journeys in which they are kept for an unusual 
number of days without water, acquire the power of 
dilating the cells, so as to make them contain a 
more than ordinary supply for their journey ; at least 
such is the account given by those who have been 
in Egypt." The llama resembles the camel in the 
arrangement of a cellular apparatus in the stomach. 
Fig. 51 1 represents a portion of the cellular appara- 
tus of the camel's stomach, one-ninth of the natural 

The Ruminantia are dispersed throughout the 
globe from the equator to regions within the arctic 
circle ; but are most numerous in the warmer lati- 
tudes. The universality of the distribution of these 
animals is essentially connected with the welfare of 
our race, for not only is the flesh of most species ac- 
ceptable as food, but that of some is in the highest 
estimation : nor is this all— their hair or wool, their 
skin, their hoofs, their horns, their antlers, nay, their 
bones, and even their intestines, are converted to our 

benefit. It is from this order that man has derived 
the most valuable of his domestic animals, which 
have spread with him as he has spread, becoming, 
like himself, denizens of the globe. Such is the case 
with the ox, the sheep, and the goat. Domesticated 
from the earliest period, they have ever formed a 
main part of the national wealth of civilized king- 
doms, in all ages, and are intimately connected with 
the prosperity of our race. All the Ruminants, how- 
ever, which man has domesticated are not univer- 
sally spread ; some few are adapted by their consti- 
tution to certain localities, beyond the bounds of 
which their value becomes diminished. They are 
formed for the places they tenant, and there are of 
the highest importance. Of these, one is the rein- 
deer, an animal essential to the comforts if not the 
existence of the simple inhabitants of Lapland's ice- 
bound realm, where the ox and the sheep cannot 
exist. There " the reindeer form their riches." And 
again, who has not heard of the ship of the desert, 
the camel, which now, as in ancient days, freighted 
with merchandise, traverses the burning desert pa- 
tient of thirst and hunger? To this animal let us 
first direct our attention. 

513 to 540.— The Camel 

(Camdus Dromedarius; Gamal of the Hebrews 
Djemel of the Arabs). Our pictorial museum is rich 
in specimens of the camel, with accompanying de- 
tails so pertinent as to set forth the animal's history, 
and declare its use in graphic language speaking to' 
the eye. There is something strange and imposing 
in the aspect of the gaunt and angular camel, desti- 
tute, as it confessedly is, of grace and animation. 
We are amazed at its height, its uncouth proportions, 
its long thin neck, its meagre limbs, and the huge 
hump on its back, which conveys the idea of distor- 
tion. Quietly it stands in one fixed attitude, its 
long-lashed eyelids drooping over the large dark 
eyes : it moves— and onwards stalks with slow and 
measured steps, as if exercise were painful. "To 
complete the picture, it is covered with shaggy hair, 
irregularly disposed, here forming tangled masses, 
there almost wanting. Its thick mobile upper lip 
is deeply divided ; its feet are large and spreading, 
the toes being merely tipped with little hoofs. 
There are two species of this animal, the Bactrian 
and the Arabian. It is to the latter that we shall 
first direct our observation. 

The Arabian camel is distinguished from the- 
Bactrian by having only one large fatty hump upon 
the back, and in being of a somewhat slighter make. 
It is not known in a wild condition, but most pro- 
bably was indigenous in Arabia and the adjacent 
regions, the whole of its structure proclaiming the 
desert as its destined abode. Reclaimed fro'm the 
earliest state, its history is interwoven with that of 
the patriarchs of old : time immemorial it has been 
the bondslave of man ; and under his mastership 
is spread over the whole of northern Africa as far as 
Nubia, and from Syria, throughout Arabia, Persia, 
and India, being valued in all these regions as a 
beast of burden. In central Asia the Bactrian 
camel takes its place, but it is inferior in those 
qualities which render the Arabian species so emi- 
nently adapted to the arid burning desert over 
which it moves silently along, heavily loaded, pa- 
tient of thirst and hunger, thus maintaining an in- 
tercourse between districts separated by vast plains 
of sand, a barrier more effectual than that of the 
rolling ocean. It is the unwearied patience, the 
strength, the docility, the power of maintaining 
long journeys on scanty fare, that render the camel 
in its own country of intrinsic importance. By its 
means the merchant transports his merchandise 
from Aleppo or Baghdad to Mekkah or El-Basrah. 
Long strings of camels, or caravans, as they are 
called, venture across the desert, each animal 
bearing a load of 500 or even 600 pounds weight, 
and the procession moves at the rate of nearly three 
miles an hour, regular as clock-work, day after day 
for eight hours daily. A caravan of camels thus 
wending their way over the plain, their footsteps 
falling noiselessly, so that the ear cannot catch the 
sound of their approach, whether on hard ground or 
sand, strongly impresses those who for the first time 
witness this truly eastern spectacle, which indeed 
calls to mind the days when "a company of Ish- 
maelites came from Gilead with their camels, bear- 
ing spicery, and balm, and myrrh, going to carry 
it down to Egypt." 

The more prominent of the structural peculiari- 
ties of the camel may here be briefly noticed. The 
camel treads flat on his toes, and not, as the ox, 
on a thick hoofed termination : we have already 
stated that they are cushioned beneath with large 
spreading callous elastic pads, connecting them 
together, and extending laterally beyond them, the 
horn-covered tips being alone free and separate 
(see Fig. ,520— the Camel's Foot with the skin re- 
moved). This cushion expands by pressure at each 
step, a provision of evident advantage to the animal 

Q 2 


r-r,.-u-'*-'' «*»■■ 

.'.i:!. — S>:i: canul. 

tit.— Cameis WucHag. 

5:6.— liomiei) Cmncls. 


Fig. 611. 

Sir. i1«.— T«rth.orCaml. 

6U.— CameU Tethered. 

616.— S»-lft Cuniel. 


26.— Oriental Migration. 




in paasini; over a sandv, yielding surface, while on 
hard or stony ground the elasticity of the pad 

tives ease to its movements. The camel kneels 
own to be loaded, and kneeling is its natural state 
of repose, and hence it is provided with certain 
callosities upon which to throw the weight of the 
body, both in kneeling down and rising up. The 
largest of these callosities occupies the chest, 
which is always brought to the ground ; one is 
placed on each elbow and knee of the fore-limbs, 
one on the front of each knee of the hind-limbs, and 
a very small one on the outer side of each hock. 
These natural cushions are not produced by the 
habit of kneeling, as some have been ready to sus- 
pect, for the young camel is born with them already 
formed, and it may be observed that a similar cal- 
lous pad is spread on the breast of the ostrich, 
which dwells in the desert, and reclines upon its 
chest. The camel is essentially the inhabitant of 
a flat expaase of country, beneath a burning sky. 
Elevated as it carries its head, it can discern the 
green oasis in the sea of sand, at a vast distance ; 
and so acute is its sense of smell, that it can scent 
the far-distant water. To shield the large eyeball 
from the glare of light, a beetling brow overarches 
it, and long lashes fringe the upper lid. Incessantly 
exposed to clouds of suffocating dust, the camel has 
its nostrils so constructed as to exclude, as much as 
possible, the particles of sand driven by the wind ; 
they are in the form of slits, converging towards 
each other, with elevated margins, the upper of 
which is capable of being shut down like the lid of 
a box, so as to close the aperture, or keep it open to 
anv degree, at pleasure. 

hard and scanty is the desert fare upon which 
this animal subsists; but the fertile meads and 
flowery vales of our climate would afford it no 
temptation. Thorny shrubs, date-leaves, and the 
leaves and branches of the tamarisk, are its staple 
diet ; and dates, beans, the hard kernels of which it 
cnishes to powder, with cakes of barley, provided 
by its master, suffice to refresh it on its wearisome 
pilgrimage. Hence we see the necessity of its 
strong incisors, canine teeth, and canine-like mo- 
lars, which enable it to browze on the coarsest 
shrubs with ease, and sever branches of considerable 
thickness. With its powerful, cleft, prehensile lip 
it draws the twigs or leaves to its mouth, or even 
nips off the tender shoots, or holds the tuft of herb- 
age as it is gradually undergoing mastication. 
Hard and scanty, we have said, is the desert fare of 
the camel, but oftentimes the supply fails for days, 
or is to be obtained only in small quantities, and the 
travel-worn beast is put upon short allowance ; 
then it is that we recognise the utility of that 
hump, which seemed at first a deformity. The 
fatty mass is gradually absorbed into the system, 
which thus receives nutriment; for the hump is 
a magazine against a time of want, to which the 
system has recourse when other supplies are in- 

It is a saying of the Arabs that the camel feeds 
on its own hump, and in a certain sense they are 
correct. After the wasting of this fatty mass, as 
described, three or four months of repose and 
copious nourishment are required to restore it to 
its usual condition, and this does not take place till 
the other parts are well replenished. When an 
Arab is about to commence a journey, the first 
thing about which he is solicitous is the state of his 
camel's hump. 

We have already alluded to the cellular appara- 
tus in the camel's stomach. At all times patient of 
thirst, with this provision the camel can endure for 
se\eral days, beyond what is reserved in the cells ; 
and sometimes, it is said, driven by necessity, the 
driver sacrifices his camel in order to obtain the 
water, and prolong, perhaps preserve, his existence. 
This may have happened, but the statement rests 
on insufficient authority. 

From the data collected by Burckhardt there is 
great difference among different breeds of camels as 
respects the power of enduring thirst, according to 
the mode of life to which they have been inured. 
Thus the camels of Anatolia require water every 
second day during a summer's journey ; but the 
camels of Arabia can dispense with it until the 
fourth, or even the fifth. In spring, when the young 
herbage is succulent, the camel scarcely requires 
to drink, and the journey across the great Syrian 
desert, from Damascus to Baghdad, twenty-five 
days, may be then performed without any water 
being needed by or given to the camels. 

The senses of sight, hearing, and smell are ex- 
quisitely acute in the camel : it is said to delight 
in the jingle of the bells hung about its neck, for it 
is often thus ornamented, as in ancient days, and as 
pack-horses formerly were in England, perhaps in 
order that stragglers may be enabled to rejoin the 
caravan. (See Fig. 524.) Shells called cowries, 
and even ornaments of silver, are also added : the 
shells are strung in a semicirc\ilar form ; hence the 
phrase, " ornaments like the moon." 

During a journey it is customary to halt about 
four o'clock, to remove the loads and permit the 
camels to feed. If the Arabs are desirous of pre- 
venting them from straying too far, they tie their 
fore-legs together, or bind the fetlock to the upper 
joint by a cord. Towards evening they are called 
in for their evening meal, and Jpil&ced in a kneeling 
posture round the baggage. They do not browze 
after dark, and seldom attempt to rise, but continue 
the process of rumination for the greater portion 
of the night. Amongst themselves they are some- 
times very quarrelsome, and after the hardest day's 
journey, no sooner is the baggage removed than 
they begin to fight, and are prone to give each 
other the most savage bites, and are not to be 
separated without danger. (Fig. 532.) One of the 
favourite amusements of the Turks of Asia Minor is 
camel-fighting : each being previously muzzled, 
they stnke each other's heads, twist their neck, 
wrestle with their fore-legs, eSch endeavouring to 
throw the other to the ground. Crowds attend to 
witness the spectacle, and, as at the disgraceful dog- 
fights of our country, the Turks will clap their 
hands, encourage their respective favourites, and 
bet upon their success. The Pasha of Smyrna used 
frequently to regale the people with these games in 
an enclosed square before his palace. It is, how- 
ever, only at particular seasons that the temper of 
the animal is thus excited, and that these combats 
take place. 

The camel is often excessively loaded, and some- 
times, inhumanly, the load is laici on sores or wounds ; 
yet even then the animal neither refuses to rise 
nor attempts to cast it off: when suffering and 
irritated, however, he cries out, but his com- 
plaint is only of injustice, and then it must be ex- 
treme for him to complain at all. Fig. 532* is a de- 
lineation of the head of an ill-used camel uttering 
its cry of distress. When a camel, loaded or 
unloaded, fails, from hunger and excessive fatigue, 
and sinks down, it seldom gets on its legs again, and 
is left to perish. Wellsted tells us that he often 
passed them when thus abandoned, and remarked 
the mournful looks with which they gazed on the 
receding caravan. When the Arab is upbraided 
with inhumanity, because he does not at once put 
a period to the animal's sufferings, he answers, that 
the law forbids the taking away of life save for food, 
and even then pardon is to be asked for the neces- 
sity which compels the act. When death approaches 
the poor solitary beast, vultures collect around, and, 
eager for food, commence their repast even before 
life is extinct. The traveller continually sees re- 
mains of this faithful servant of man, exhibiting 
sometimes the perfect skeleton covered with a 
shrunk, shrivelled hide, sometimes the bones only, 
deprived of flesh, and bleached to dazzling white- 
ness by the scorching rays of a desert sun. 

The Arabian or one-humped camel is usually 
called, by way of distinction, the Dromedary, but 
erroneously. The Dromedary is a light variety of 
this species, and is termed Maherry or el Heirie in 
the Arabian desert, and Sabayee in the North of 
Africa. It is used principally for journeys of dis- 
patch, carrying a single rider, or but a very light 
burden ; and it will perform very long journeys in 
an almost incredible space of time. " When thou 
shalt meet a heirie, and say to the rider, ' Peace be 
between us,' ere he shall have answered, 'There is 
peace between us,' he will be far off, for his swift- 
ness is like the wind," is an Arabian figure to 
illustrate the fleetness of this saddle-dromedary. 
This fleetness is however much overrated, and it is 
less by positive speed than by extraordinary powers 
of sustained exertion, day after day, through a time 
and space which would ruin any other quadruped, 
that it accomplishes such surprising journeys. 
Urged to a gallop, it cannot maintain its pace for 
half an hour, and is easily distanced by the horse : 
but it can sustain a forced trot for several hours 
together ; Wellsted says for 24 consecutive hours, 
at the rate of from six to eight miles an hour. A 
gentle and easy amble of five or five miles and a 
half an hour is however the favourite quick pace of 
the dromedary, and if allowed to persevere in it, 
the animal will carry its rider an uninterrupted 
journey of several days and nights. A common 
caravan journey of 25 days is sometimes performed 
in five days at this rate. This swift breed is of 
great antiquity, and is referred to in several places 
in the Scriptures. The camels of Oman are the 
fleetest, the most beautiful, and the most high 
prized. It would appear that there is also a swift 
breed of the Bactrian or two-humped camel, which 
is in request in China. 

The rate of travelling long journeys performed by 
the heavy caravan, each camel carrying from 500 to 
800 pounds weight, does not exceed two miles and 
a half or two miles and three quarters an hour. 
This, however, can be maintained for .50 days in 
succession, and for eight hours each day ; but a 
more lightly loaded caravan will not only travel 
quicker, but continue the march for nine or ten 

hours daily. In 1751 Mr. Carmichael traversed 
the great desert from Aleppo to Bussorah, his 
course being 797 miles with a caravan of heavily- 
loaded camels, and was .322 hours on the road. In 
1781 Mr. Irwin travelled over the little desert from 
Aleppo to Baghdad, his route being 480 miles, in 
193J hours. 

The soil best adapted to the camel's foot is a dry 
and hard, but fine and gravelly plain ; where the 
sand is deep and soft, the loaded animal sinks at 
every step, and becomes rapidly exhausted. It can 
also ascend steep and rugged mountain-paths with 
considerable ease, but, as Belzoni once experienced 
to his cost, sometimes slips and rolls down. 

Besides the commercial caravans which traverse 
the desert, there are also caravans of pilgrims to 
Mecca, enjoined by the Mohammedan religion. 
At Mecca meet the Mohammedans from Abyssinia 
to India. It appears, according to Burckhardt, that 
the pilgrimage from Damascus to Mecca with the 
Syrian caravan cannot now be performed in the 
most humble way under a cost of 125/. sterling; 
and yet there are from five to seven great caravans 
which regularly arrive at Mecca after the feast of 
Bairam, which follows the Ramadhan. To have 
visited the tomb of Mohammed, which entitles the 
pilgrim to the proud distinction of being a hadji, is 
an honour to which the meanest devotee aspires ; 
and thus it is that within the walls of Mecca are 
annually assembled vast bodies of Asiatics and 
Africans, who have toiled thither, sustaining every 
privation and misery, and of whom many, worn out 
with fatigue, never return to claim the rewards of 
their enthusiasm. In these extraordinary journeys 
the camel sustains an important part, and, indeed, 
without the services of these animals — some bear- 
ing water in skins, some the merchandise of distant 
lands, some the food and necessaries of the pilgrims, 
and their own provender, and others the devotees — 
the pilgrimage could not be accomplished. 

Mr. Parsons, who saw the pilgrim caravan set out 
from Cairo about 40 years ago, has given a pro- 
gramme of the procession, drawn up with all the 
precision of a herald, and which occupies ten pages 
of his quarto work. The cavalcade was six hours in 
passing him. The most striking appearance to a 
European must have been the camels, in every 
variety of splendid trappings, laden with provisions, 
clothes, and cooking apparatus, and water-skins, 
and tents, and artillery, and holy sheiks, and Mame- 
lukes. There were camels "with two brass field- 
pieces each" — others " with bells and streamers" — 
others " with men beating kettle-drums" — others 
" covered with purple velvet" — others " with men 
walking by their sides, playing on flutes and flageo- 
lets" — others " handsomely ornamented about their 
necks, their bridles being studded with silver, inter- 
mixed with glass beads of all colours, and ostrich 
feathers on their foreheads" — and, last of all, " the 
sacred camel, an extraordinary large camel, with a 
fine bridle studded with jewels and gold, and led by 
two holy sheiks, in green, a square house or chapel 
on his back." In addition to these camel splen- 
dours there were horses with every variety of 
caparison ; Mamelukes, and pikemen, and janissa- 
ries, and agas, and the emir Hadjy (commander of 
the pilgrimage) in robes of satin — to say nothing of 
numberless " buffoons playing many pranks." Mr. 
Parsons sums up the splendour of this pilgrim 
caravan by declaring that "it is by much the 
grander exhibition than the spectacle of the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen going in procession through 
the City of London ;" — Ijut this may be doubted by 
some as the exaggeration of a traveller, while others 
may deem it impossible. 

Differing from the usual practice of commercial 
caravans, the pilgrimage is performed chiefly by 
night. The caravan generally moves about four 
o'clock in the afternoon, and travels without stop- 
ping till an hour or two after sunrise. A large 
supply of torches is carried from Cairo, to be lighted 
during the hours of darkness. The Bedouins, who 
convey provisions for the troops, travel by day only, 
and in advance of the caravan. The watering- 
places on the route are regularly established. Each 
is supplied with a large tank, and protected by 
soldiers, who reside in a castle by the well through- 
out the year. On parts of the route the wells are 
frequent and the water good ; but on others, three 
days of the journey frequently intervene between 
one watering-place and another — and the fountain 
is often brackish. When the Cairo caravan is com- 
pletely assembled, and the formalities which we 
have just descril)ed are gone through, the great 
body of travellers begin to move, the stations of the 
different parties of hadjis, according to their pro- 
vinces and towns, being appointed, and rigidly 
observed throughout the march. "This order is 
determined by the geographical proximity of the 
place from which each party comes. At Adjeroud, 
where the Egyptian caravan halts on the second day's 
march, it is supplied with water from Suez ; and 
here it reposes a day and a night, to prepare for a 




forced march of three days and two nights, through a 
region where there is no water, the desert of El Tyh, 
which nearly extends from the head of one gulf of 
the Red Sea to the other — that is, from Suez to 
Akaba. The Hadj route is circuitous. It is here 
that the privations both of men and quadrupeds 
commence. The splendid trappings of the camels, 
their velvets and their bells, have lost their attrac- 
tion ; but their power of endurance becomes the 
safety of the pilgrims — while the richly-caparisoned 
horse, impatient of thirst, and more easily subdued 
by fatigue, is more frequently a burthen to the 
caravan than an advantage. The route of the 
Egyptian caravan, alter it passes the Akaba, lies 
by the shores of the Red Sea for nearly six hundred 
rniles; and, therefore, it cannot properly be said 
at any time after the first ten days' march to be 
upon the desert, as the Syrian caravan is for thirty 
days. But its difficulties are more numerous ; and 
it has to pass regions quite as arid and inhospitable. 
Every part of Arabia is covered with sandy plains ; 
and when the mountain steeps are crossed, the long 
extended valleys rarely offer water. The Arabic 
language is rich in words expressing every variety 
of desert, differing from each other by very slight 
shades of meaning : thus, they have terms descrip- 
tive of a plain— a plain in the mountain — a plain 
covered with herbs — a naked sandy desert—a stony 
desert — a desert with little spots of pasturage — a 
desert without water.* Although the caravan route 
from Cairo to Mecca presents, with the exception of 
the desert El Tyh, none of those enormous wastes, 
like the great Southern Desert of Arabia, " where 
the Arabs have only the sun and the stars to direct 
their way ;" nor is, like the Libyan desert, " a sea 
without waters, an earth without solidity, disdaining 
to hold a foot-print as a testimony of subjection, '~f 
there are many tracts, as well as the desert from 
Suez to Akaba, in the forty days' journey, which 
offer to the pilgrim abundance of fatigue and suffer- 
ing. If water fail, as it sometimes does, even at 
the wells at particularly dry seasons — if the water- 
skins evaporate more quickly than they ordinarily 
do — the camel's power of endurance is severely tried 
— for his wants are the last attended to. Happy 
are the pilgrims if the rain of the mountains have 
filled the banks of some little river. Even the 
much-enduring camels, at the sighl of water, after 
many days' abstinence, break the halters by which 
they are led, and in rushing or stumbling down the 
banks throw off their loads, and occasion infinite 
disorder.'j; Mr. Buckingham has however described 
a scene in which the patience of the camel is con- 
trasted in a remarkable way with the eagerness of the 
horse : — " It was near midnight when we reached a 
marshy ground, in which a clear stream was flowing 
along, through beds of tall and thick rushes, but so 
hidden by these, that the noise of its flow was heard 
long before the stream itself could be seen. From the 
length of the march, and the exhausting heat of the 
atmosphere, even at night, the horses were exceed- 
ingly thirsty : their impatient restlessness, evinced, 
by their tramping, neighing, and eager impatience 
to rush all to one particular point, gave us indeed, 
the first indications of our approach to water, which 
was perceptible to their stronger scent long before 
it was even heard by us. On reaching the brink of 
this stream, for which purpose we had been forcibly 
turned aside, by the ungovernable fury of the ani- 
mals, to the southward of our route, the banks were 
found to be so high above the surface of the water, 
that the horses could not reach it to drink. Some, 
more impatient than the rest, plunged themselves 
and their riders at once into the current ; and, after 
being led swimming to a less elevated part of the 
Dank over which they could mount, were extricated 
with considerable difficulty ; while two of the horses 
of the caravan, who were more heavily laden than 
the others, by carrying the baggage as well as the 
persons of their riders, were drowned. The stream 
was narrow, but deep, and had a soft muddy bottom, 
in which another of the horses became so fastly 
stuck, that he was suffocated in a few minutes. 
The camels marched patiently along the edge of 
the bank, as well as those persons of the caravan 
who were provided with skins and other vessels con- 
taining small supplies of water; but the horses 
could not, by all the power of their riders, be kept 
from the stream, any more than the crowd of thirsty 
pilgrims, who, many of them having no small ves- 
sels to dip up the water from the brook, followed 
the example of the impatient horses, and plunged 
at once into the current.., . This scene — which, 
amidst the obscurity of the night, the cries of the 
animals, the shouting and quarrelling of the people, 
and the indistinct, and perhaps exaggerated, appre- 
hensions of danger, from a totally unexpected 
cause, had assumed an almost awful character — 
lasted for upwards of an hour." ^ 

• Seo Hamboldt'i Voyige, Note to p. 7. 
+ Furchaii. 

J BiiEckharfU'!! Nubia, p. 3S8, 
\ Kuckinifham'i Masopotamia. 

Fig. 512 represents this scene with considerable 

The camel is not only valuable as a beast of bur- 
den, its milk is in requisition : it is the milk used 
for ordinary purposes by the Arabs, that of goats 
and sheep being generally made into butter. The 
Arab feeds his colt with it, and even gives it to his 
mare. Flour made into a paste with sour camel's 
milk is a common dish among the Bedouins ; it is 
called ayesh. Rice or flour boiled with sweet 
camel's milk is another : it is called behatta. 

Though the flesh of the camel was among the 
meats prohibited to the Jews, it is not only eaten, 
but relished by the Arabs : it is not often, however, 
that the Arab kills a camel in order to enjoy this 
luxury. When this does happen, the flesh is cut 
into large pieces : some part is boiled, and its 
grease mixed with borgoul (wheat boiled with some 
leaven and then dried in the sun) ; part is roasted, 
and, like the boiled, put upon the dish of borgoul 
The whole tribe then partakes of the delicious feast 
The grease of the camel is kept in goat-skins, and 
used like butter. The woolly hair of the camel, 
which towards the close of spring is loose and easily 
pulled away from the skin, is applied to various pur- 
poses and woven into coarse cloth used as tent- 
coverings. Even the dung of the camel is not 
neglected : it forms the chief material for fuel in 
Egypt, Arabia, and Persia, and from the smoke, or 
rather soot, of this fuel is obtained sal-ammoniac, 
which was formerly procured almost exclusively 
from this source, and for the manufacturing of which 
there were, in 1720, laboratories at Cairo and other 
towns in Egypt. 

At San Rossora the Tuscan government esta- 
blished a stud of camels for the purpose of carrying 
faggots, hay, straw, &c. from the domain of San 
Rossora to Pisa and other towns. It would appear 
that this establishment was founded about the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century, in the reign of the 
Grand-Duke Ferdinand de' Medici II. We have 
not been able to ascertain to what extent the stud 
is now kept up, but in 1789 it consisted of one 
hundred and ninety-six camels, male and female, 
and in 1810 of about one hundred and seventy. 

The Moors introduced the camel into Spain, 
and after the conquest of Granada, and the expul- 
sion of the Moorish inhabitants, many of these ani- 
mals remained in the southern districts ; but the 
race was not kept up, and therefore Spain, where 
in various localities the camel would be peculiarly 
serviceable, no longer possesses this useful animal. 
We learn that camels have been lately imported 
into South America from the Canary Islands with a 
probability of success. 

The camel has bred in the gardens of the Zoolo- 
gical Society. 

The colour of this animal, as of most domestic 
animals, is subject to variety. The brown colour 
appears not to be esteemed ; reddish or light grey 
is preferred. Occasionally black camels are seen. 
In Egypt the average price of one of these beasts of 
burden is from thirty to fifty dollars : but the swift 
Oman camels, which are much valued, sell at a 
higher rate, and Burckhardt mentions an instance 
in which 300 dollars were given for one. When 
travelhng in Nubia Burckhardt saw the camel 
almost in a wild state, whole herds being left to 
pasture unattended by men : they were kept for 
the sake of their flesh and milk, few being employed 
as beasts of burden ; they even appeared fright- 
ened at the approach of men and loaded camels — 
a circumstance this traveller had never before 
witnessed. The Nubian camels are generally 

Many of our pictorial specimens of the camel 
are illustrative of scenes in its domestic life, and 
consequently of the manners of the people whose 
servant it is, and with whose history its own is in- 
timately connected. Fig. 514 — camels tethered, and 
unloaded of their luggage. Fig. 516— Loaded camels 
on a Journey. Fig. 51.'^— the Swift Camel, or Dro- 
medary ; Fig. 515— the same. Fig. 519— a Caravan 
traversing the Desert. Fig. 522— a Camel at the sight 
of which a horse is startled — the latter animal, unless 
used to the camel, evinces fear at its appearance. 
Figs. 523, 52,5— Loading the Camel. Fig. 526— an 
Oriental Migration. Fig. 530— Halt of Camels. Figs. 
529, 531 — Mounted Camels. Fig. 535, — Camel car- 
rying a Bride. " One of the greatest solemnities of 
these simple Arab tribes is that of conducting a 
bride to her husband. The lady is placed in a frame 
on the back of a camel, and is housed over with 
carpets, shawls, and ostrich feathers. The camel is 
led by a relation of the bride, preceded by dancing 
people, music, mounted and dismounted Arabs, who 
shout and fire their guns, running backward and 
forward in the procession. Captain Lyon made a 
drawing of the bridal camel and his trappings." Fig. 
536 — the Swift Camel, mounted. " The wandering 
Arab and his Maherry have an extraordinary appear- 
ance, which Captain Lyon has described. The sad- 
dle is placed on the withers, and confined by a band 

under the belly. It is very small and difiicult to 
set, which is done by balancing the feet against the 
neck of the animal and holding a tight rein to steady 
the hand." Fig. 537— a Malefactor after punish- 
ment, paraded on a camel ; his crime and sentence 
being proclaimed as he is led along. Fig. 528 — 
Camel of the swift breed. Fig. 539 — Camels water- 
ing at a Reservoir, called birket, and supplied by an 
Aqueduct, where caravans are accustomed to halt. 
Fig. 538 — an Attack, by Arab robbers, upon a Cara- 
van in the Desert. Fig. 540— a Bedouin Encamp- 
ment. " Those who are, from reading or travelled ob- 
servation, conversant with the existing manners of 
the Asiatic pastoral tribes, as the Arabians and the 
Tartars, can easily form in their minds a picture of 
this great migrating party. Under the conduct of 
their venerable emir, and the active direction and 
control of his principal servants, we behold, from 
the distance, a lengthened dark line stretching across 
the plain, or winding among the valleys, or creeping 
down the narrow pathway on the mountain side. 
That in this line there are hosts of camels we know 
afar oft', by the grotesque outline which the figures 
of these animals make, their tall shapes, and their 
length of neck ; and that the less distinguishable 
mass which appears in motion on the surface of the 
ground is composed of flocks of sheep, and perhaps 
goats, we can only infer from circumstances. On 
approaching nearer we find that all this is true, and 
that, moreover, many of the camels are laden with 
the tents, and with a few utensils and needments 
which the dwellers in tents require ; and if the na- 
tural condition of the traversed country be such as 
to render the precaution necessary, some of the ani- 
mals may be seen bearing provisions and skins of 
water. The baggage camels follow each other with 
steady and heavy tread, in files, the halter of those 
that follow being tied to the harness of those that 
precede, so that the foremost only needs a rider to 
direct his course ; but nevertheless women, children, 
and old men are seen mounted on the other burdens 
which some of them bear. These are slaves, re- 
tainers, and other persons not actively engaged in 
the conduct of the party, and not of sufficient conse- 
quence to ride on saddled dromedaries. Such are 
reserved for the chiefs of the party, their women, 
children, relatives, and friends; and are not, un- 
less it happen for convenience, strung together 
like the drudging animals which bear the heavier 

533, 534. — The Bacthian Camel 

(Camelus Bactrianus). This species is at once to 
be distinguished from the Arabian by the presence 
of two humps on the back ; it is comparatively rare, 
and limited in the extent of geographic range : it is 
spread, however, through central Asia, Thibet, and 
China, and is reported to exist in a wild state in 
Turkestan, anciently Bactriana. Pallas states that 
very large camels with two hunches occur wild in 
the deserts of Shamo, towards the frontiers of China ; 
but as the Calmucks liberate all animals upon a 
principle of religion, we may conclude that these 
camels are the descendants of the domestic stock. 
Occasionally the Bactrian camel is seen in Egypt 
and Arabia : during his travels through the latter 
country Niebuhr saw three, and only three, speci- 
mens— ^-and Mr. Macfarlane met with only one in 
Asia Minor, which came from some remote pro- 

In 1829 a Bactrian camel was daily led about the 
streets of London ; it was a very fine male, of a 
dark rusty-brown colour, and very picturtsque and 
striking in appearance, walking with a stately pace, 
and apparently well able to bear our climate. His 
hair was full, long, and shaggy, and hung like a fringe 
along his throat. The natural country of this spe- 
cies, viz. the great middle zone of Asia, to the 
north of the Taurus and the Himalayah moun- 
tains, is very different in temperature from the 
hot regions of Arabia, whence it is probable that it 
might with due precautions become naturalized in 

The manners of the Bactrian camel are the same 
as those of the Arabian, and its utility is as great as 
that of the latter. It is the patient, laborious, and 
willing slave of man, travelling over sandy deserts, 
and administering to the wants of a wandering 

The height of this species is about eight feet be- 
tween the two humps. 

Here, then, we conclude our sketch of the history 
of the camel — an animal, in the countries for which 
it is specially organized, the most important and 
valuable to man, and one of the earliest which he 
reclaimed to his service. It is true that it has not 
spread, like the horse and the ox, over the whole 
globe, but the reason is evident : out of its own 
regions its value and importance are diminished ; 
within them no other beast of burden can compete 
with it, and for ever will it remain, as it is and has 
been, the ship of the desert. 

.— ^lalcfactur Paraded on CameL 

640.— Bedouin Kncampment. 


517.— Vlcagna. 

550.— Paoo. 

549.— Male Brown Wild Uama, or Gtiatiaco 

548.— Gnimacp. 

SSSmtG nuiacoi and Tame White Llama. 

' 551.— Foot of Llama. 

55i.— White Llama. 






547 to 556.— Thk Llama 

Genus Auehenia). Under Ihe general term Llama 
are comprehended three, if not more species, which 
belong to the same section of the Ruminants as 
the camel (CameKdtr). Indeed the llama was re- 
ferred by Linnsus, and other naturalists of the 
last century, to the genus Camelus ; from which 
1 Hitter separated it, and assigned it to a genus 
which he established under the title of Auehenia, 
in allusion to the length and slenderness of the 
neck, for.«hich the llamas are remarkable. 

The llamas may be regarded as the analogues of 
the camel ; and, in the Cordilleras of Peru and 
Chili, are the mountain representatives of that 
desert-bom servant of man. 

In outward form, excepting that there is no hump 
on the back, in the general structure and cellular 
apparatus of the stomach, with the concomitant 
power of enduring thirst, or abstaining lor a long 
season from water, in the expression of the large 
full overhung eye, in the mobility and division of 
the upper lip, the fissured nostrils, the slender neck, 
and meagre limbs, together with the long, woolly 
character of the clothing, the llama and the camel 
exhibit striking points of agreement. The foot of 
the camel, however, with its broad elastic pad, ex- 
pressly adapted for traversing the sands of the de- 
sert, differs in its modification from that of the 
llama, destined to inhabit the rough and rocky 
Cordilleras, along the craggy sides of which the 
llama proceeds vfith a free and fearless step. 

The foot of the llama (Fig. 551) consists of two 
springy toes, completely divided, each with a rough 
cushion beneath, and provided at the end with a 
strong short hoof; these hoofs are pointed at the 
tip, and hooked down somewhat like a claw ; they 
are compressed laterally, and the upper surface 
represents an acute ridge; the under surface is 
linearly concave — a form well fitted for a mountain 

climber. j^,.,- 

When the Spaniards first invaded Peru and Chili, 
they found the llama domesticated, and used as a 
beast of burden, its flesh and wool being also in 
great request. It was their only beast of burden : 
its flesh was eaten, its skin prepared into leather, 
and its wool spun and manufactured into cloth. 
One of the labours to which the llama was sub- 
jected was that of bringing down ore from the 
mines among the mountains : its ordinary load was 
80 or 1(X) pounds, and its average rate of travelling 
with its burden 12 to 15 miles a day, over rugged 
mountain-passes ; but, like the camel, if too heaviiy 
laden it would lie down, and obstinately refuse to 
proceed, nor would it bear to be urged beyond its 
accustomed pace. Gregory de Bolivar estimated 
that in his day 300,000 were employed in the trans- 
port of the produce of the mines of Potosi alone, 
and four millions annually killed for food. 

Augustin de Zerate, treasurer-general of Peru, 
in 1544, under the Spanish dominion, thus describes 
the llama, which he calls a sheep, though it is, 
he observes, camel-like in shape, but destitute of a 
hump :— " In places where there is no snow, the 
natives want water, and to supply this they fill the 
skins of sheep with water, and make other living 
sheep carry them, for it must be remarked, these 
sheep of Peru are large enough to serve as beasts 
of burden. They can carry about one hundred 
pounds or more, and the Spaniards used to ride 
them, and they would go four or five leagues a day. 
When they are weary they lie down upon the 
ground, and as there are no means of making them 
get up, either by beating or assisting them, the 
load must of necessity be taken off. When there 
is a man on one of them, if the beast is tired, and 
urged to go on, he turns his head round, and dis- 
charges his saliva, which has an unpleasant odour, 
into the rider's face. These animals are of great 
use and profit to their masters, for their wool is 
very good and fine, particularly that of the species 
called Pacas, which have very long fleeces ; and 
the expense of their food is trifling, as a handful 
of maize suffices them, and they can go four or five 
days without water. Their flesh is as good as that 
of the fat sheep of Castile. There are now public 
shambles for the sale of their flesh in all parts of 
Peru, which was not the case when the Spaniards 
came first; for when one Indian had killed a sheep 
his neighbours came and took what they wanted, 
and then another Indian killed a sheep in his 

D'Acosta gives nearly a similar testimony ; and 
notices two kinds (species)— one which is woolly, 
and called Paco by the natives : the other covered 
with a slight fleece (villis levibus) only, and nearly 
naked, whence it is more fitted for carrying bur- 
thens, called Guanaco. 

Captain G. Shelvocke, an Englishman who sailed 
round the world in 1719-22, gives a similar account, 
informing us that the Indians of Peru call these 
animals Llamas ; the Chilese, Chilihueque ; and the 
Spaniards, Cameros de la tierra. 

With respect to the distinct species of llama, we 
learn from De Laet that, besides the domestic race, 
there are in Peru and Chili various wild animals, of 
which some are called Guanaco, or Huanacu, whence, 
from their resemblance to the lame breed, the latter 
have obtained the same appellation ; their flesh is 
good, but, according to Garcilaso, inferior to that of 
the doraesticor Huanacu llamas. These animals in- 
habit the mountain-ranges, where the males keep 
watch above whilst the females are feeding in the 
alpine valleys. When the males observe men ap- 
proaching in the distance, they utter a sort of neigh, 
not unlike that of a horse, to warn the females ; and 
if the men advance nearer, they flee, driving the 
females before them. The wool of these animals is 
short and rough, but is notwithstanding used by the 
natives for making cloth. These animals are taken 
in traps and snares. Another kind are termed Vi- 
cunas ; excepting that th^ have no horns, they are 
not much unlike goats, but are larger, and of a 
tawny or lion-like colour with a rufous tint : these live 
in the highest mountains, giving preference to the 
colder regions, and especially the bleak solitudes 
which the Peruvians designate by the common name 
of Punas. Frost and snow, so far from annoying, 
seem rather to invigorate them. They associate in 
flocks, and run with great swiftness. Such is their 
timidity that at the sight of men or wild beasts, they 
instantly betake themselves into hidden and inac- 
cessible fortresses. Formerly these animals were 
very numerous, but they are now become much more 
rare in consequence of the promiscuous licence for 
hunting. Their wool is very fine, and resembles 
silk, or rather the fur of the beaver, and the natives 
deservedly estimate it highly : besides other proper- 
ties, it is sajd to resist heat and impart coolness, and 
consequently is especially used in the manufacture 
of caps. Besides these are the Tarugas or Tarucas, 
which are larger and more swift than the Vicunas, 
and of a more burnt colour, with pendulous and 
light ears ; they rarely associate in flocks, but wander 
singly about the precipices : according to Garcilaso 
they are a species of deer, inferior in size to those 
of Europe. In the time of the Incas they were in- 
numerable, and even entered the precincts of the 
towns, nor was there any deficiency of their fawns 
and does. All these animals, he adds, produce be- 
zoar stones. 

A question here arises, what is the Taruga de- 
scribed by De Laet ? Is it identical with the Paco 
(otherv/ise called Pacaor Alpaca") of D'Acosta, who, 
it may be observed, does not mention the Vicuna or 
Vicugna? This question is not easily answered. 
With respect to the Chilihueque of Shelvocke, the 
Hueque or Hueco of Molina, it is evidently identical 
with the Huanacu of De Laet, which is the Guanaco, 
and the words are the same, with trifling differences 
in orthography easily accounted for. We have 
then the domestic Llama, the Guanaco, the Paco or 
Alpaca, the Taruga, and the Vicugna. 

Now it is generally believed by naturalists, and 
among them F. Cuvier, that there are really only 
three species, viz. the Llama, called, when wild, Gua- 
naco, the Paco or Alpaca, and the Vicugna. Mr. 
Bennett, indeed, and Baron Cuvier, suspect there are 
but two species. The former expressly states that 
he should have little hesitation in proceeding still 
farther than F. Cuvier, being strongly inclined to 
agree with the Baron in regarding the Paco as a 
mere variety of the Llama with the wool more amply 
developed, and in considering the Vicugna as the 
only animal of that group that deserves to be spe- 
cifically distinguished from that animal. From our 
own personal observations we are inclined to believe 
that there are three species as indicated by F. 
Cuvier, but we confess that we have our doubts as 
to whether De Laet's Taruga with pendulous ears 
may not prove to be a fourth species— a point, how- 
ever, on which we would not insist. Our figures 
of these animals are as follows :— Fig. 553— the re- 
cumbent animal is the Domestic, the standing ani- 
mal the Wild Llama; Figs. 554, 555, are the 
Domestic Llama; Figs. 548, 549, 552, the Wild 
Llama or Guanaco ; Fig. 550— the Paco or Al- 
paca ; Figs. .547, 556, the Vicugna. 

The Guanaco (Auehenia Llama) ; in a domestic . 
state, the Llama.— At what period the Guanaco be- 
came domesticated, whether before the foundation 
of the ancient Peruvian empire while the natives 
were in the rudest state of savage life, or after Manco 
Capac had established over the Peruvians the reign- 
ing line of Incas, it is useless to inquire. All we 
know is, that the Spaniards on their invasion found 
the llama trained as a beast of burden, and except- 
ing as regards its milk, to them what the camel is 
to the native of the Arabian desert. 

The Guanaco, or wild llama, is more slender and 
has an aspect more expressive of energy and spirit 
than its domesticated relative, but it soon becomes 
familiar in captivity. In its native regions, the 
highlands of Peru and Chili, it lives in herds, con- 
tinuing among the mountains during the summer, 
but descending to the valleys on the approach of 

winter. At this latter season the Chilians hunt 
them with dogs, but it is only the young and the 
feeble that can be thus taken ; the old ones are swift, 
active, and vigorous, and easily escape. During the 
chase they ai-e said frequently to turn upon their 
pursuers, neigh loudly, and then take to their heels 
again. Indeed when alarmed they often stop in 
their flight to gaze at the ob'ect of their fear, and 
again gallop off. 

The guanaco feeds upon mountain herbage, and 
especially a species of rushy grass called ycho ; and 
when there issufiicient of this green fodder for them, 
they are never known to drink. The same observa- 
tion applies to the domestic breed and the Paco and 
the Vicugna. Mr. Bennett suggests as a probability 
that they may have the power of extracting from 
their food sufficient liquid to satiate theirthirst. It 
cannot have esca|)ed notice that the secretion of 
saliva in these animals is remarkably abundant, even, 
as we have observed, in the hottest weather in Eng- 
land, and that upon the slightest ofi'ence, real or 
supposed, they discharge a copious shower of it 
over the person of the offender. May it not be that 
the naturally abundant flow of this saliva obviates 
the necessity of frequently drinking ? This saliva 
was once supposed to possess acrid, irritating quali- 
ties, which certainly is not the case, though it must 
be confessed a sprinkling with rose-water would 
be more pleasant. 

When assaulted and pushed to defend themselves, 
these animals strike with their fore-feet, and that 
with great energy, giving very severe blows : we 
have, indeed, seen them strike upon trifling provo- 
I cation, though in general they are quiet and in- 

The wool of the guanaco is in request, being 
of fi^e texture : the general colour is rich rufous 
brown, the head and ears being grey. The neck is 
peculiarly long ; the tail a little raised and curved 
down. Height at the top of the shoulders about 
three feet and a half. 

Mr. Darwin states, the guanaco " abounds over 
the whole of the temperate parts of South America 
from the wooded islands of Tierra del Fuego, 
through Patagonia, the hilly parts of La Plata, 
Chili, even to the Cordillera of Peru. Although 
preferring an elevated site, it yields in this respect 
to its near relative, the vicugna ; on the plains of 
Southern Patagonia we saw them in greater num- 
bers than in any other part. Generally they go in 
small herds from half-a-dozen to thirty together, 
but on the banks of the St. Cruz we saw one herd 
which must have contained at least .500. On the 
northern shores of the Strait of Magellan they are 
also very numerous. Generally the guanacoes are 
wild and extremely wary. The sportsman fre- 
quently receives the first intimation of their pre- 
sence by hearing from a distance the peculiar shrill 
neighing note of alarm. ,Ifhe then looks attentively, 
he will perhaps see the herd standing in a line on 
some distant hill. On approaching them, a few 
more squeals are given, and then off they set at an 
apparently slow, but really quick, canter along 
some narrow beaten track to a neighbouring hill. 
If, however, by chance he should abruptly meet a 
single animal, or several together, they will gene- 
rally stand motionless and intently gaze at him ; 
then, perhaps, move on a few yards, turn round, 
and look again. What is the cause of this dif- 
ference in their shyness ? Do they mistake a man 
in the distance for their chief enemy, the puma, 
or does curiosity overcome their timidity? That 
they are curious is certain; for if a person lies 
on the ground and plays strange antics, such as 
throwing up his feet in the air, they will almost al- 
ways approach by degrees to reconnoitre him. It 
was an artifice that was frequently practised by our 
sportsmen with success ; and it had, moreover, the 
advantage of allowing several shots to be fired, 
which were all taken as parts of the performance. 
On the mountains of Tierra del Fuego, and in other 
places, I have more than once seen a guanaco, on 
being approached, not only neigh and squeal, but 
prance and leap about in the most ridiculous man- 
ner, apparently in defiance, as a challenge. These 
animals are very easily domesticated, and I have 
seen some thus kept near the houses, although at 
large on their native plains. They are in this state 
very bold, and readily attack a man by striking him 
from behind with both knees. The wild guanacoes, 
however, have no idea of defence : even a single 
dog will secure one of these large animals till the 
huntsman can come up. In many of their habits 
they are like sheep in a flock. Thus when they 
see men approaching in different directions on 
horseback, they soon become bewildered, and know 
not which way to run. This greatly facilitates the 
Indian method of hunting, for they are thus easily 
driven to a central point and encompassed. The 
guanacoes readily take to the water ; several times 
at Port Valdes they were seen swimming from 
island to island. Byron, in his Voyage, says he saw 
them drinking salt water. Some of our officers, 





likewise, saw a herd drinkini; the briny fluid from 
salina near Cape Blanca. I imagine, in several 
parts of the country, if they do not drink salt water, 
they drink none at all. In the middle of the day 
they frequently roll in the dust in saucer-shaped 
hollows. The'raales fight together; two one day 
passed quite close to me, squealing, and trying to 
bite each other ; and several were shot with their 
hides deeply scored. Herds sometimes appear to 
set out on exploring parties. At Bahia Blanca, 
where, within 30 miles of the coast, these animals 
are extremely unfrequent, I saw one day the 
tracks of30 or 40 which had come in a direct line 
to a muddy salt-water creek. They must then 
have perceived that they were approachmg the sea, 
for they had wheeled with the regularity of cavalry, 
and had returned back in as straight a hue as they 
had advanced. The guanacoes have one smgular 
habit, which is to me inexplicable,' namely, that on 
successive days they drop their dung in the same 
defined heap. I saw one of these heaps which was 
eight feet in diameter, and necessarily was com-. 
posed of a large quantity. D'Aubigny says that all 
the species of this genus have this habit; and Fre- 
zier remarks that it is very useful to the Indians, 
who use the dung for fuel, and are thus saved the 
trouble of collecting it. The guanacoes appear to 
have favourite spots for dying in. On the banks of 
the St. Cruz the ground was actually white with 
bones in certain circumscribed places, which were 
generally bushy, and all near the river. On one 
such spot I counted between ten and twenty heads. 
I particularly examined the bones ; they did not 
appear, as some scattered ones which I have seen, 
gnawed and broken, as if dragged together by some 
beasts of prey. The animals must have crawled, 
before dying, beneath and amongst the bushes. 
Mr. Bynoe informs me that during the voyage he 
observed the same circumstance on the banks of 
the Rio Gallegos. I do not understand the reason 
for this, but I may observe that all the wounded 
guanacoes at St. Cruz invariably walked towards 
the river. At St. Jago, in the Cape de Verd islands, 
I remember having seen in a retired ravine a corner 
under a cliff where numerous goats' bones were 
collected : we at the lime exclaimed that it was 
the burial ground of all the goats in the island. I 
mention these circumstances, because in certain 
cases they might explain the occurrence of a num- 
ber of uninjured bones in a cave, or buried under 
alluvial accumulations, and likewise the cause why 
certain mammalia are more commonly imbedded 
than others in sedimentary deposits. Any great 
flood of the St. Cruz would wash down many bones 
of the guanaco, but probably not a single one of the 
puma, rhea, or fox." (' Voyage of the Beagle.') 

Like the elephant, the horse, the camel, and many 
others, the guanaco has its fossil prototypes. Mr. 
Darwin found at Port St. Julian (Patagonia) the 
fossil bones of a llama which must have fully 
equalled the camel in magnitude ; and he observes 
that, " as the guanaco is the characteristic quad- 
ruped of Patagonia, and the vicugna of the snow- 
clad summits of the Cordilleras, so in bygone days 
this gigantic species of the same family must have 
been conspicuous on the southern plains." 

The domestic llama is more stoutly built than 
the guanaco, its limbs are thicker, its neck shorter, 
and its aspect more subdued. The wool is longer 
and fuller, but of a coarser quality. We have seen 
brown and white individuals, but the white seem to 
be the most common. 

When the Spaniards became acquainted with 
Peru and Chili, these animals were kept by the 
natives in vast numbers ; but now the horse, the 
ass, and especially the mule, have superseded the 
llama as a beast of burthen ; while the introduction 
of the sheep, the goat, and the ox has rendered it 
less necessary, either as contributing by its flesh or 
its fleece to the benefit of man. Tn some places, 
however, it still is, or was recently, employed as a 
beast of burthen. 

The Paco (Auchenia Alpaca, Desm. ; Camelus 
Pacos, Linn.), Figs. 548, 549, 532, is as large as the 
guanaco, but proportionately shorter in the limbs ; 
its forehead, instead of being regularly arched to 
the nose, rises abruptly promment above the eyes ; 
the wool is long, delicately fine, and silky, ex- 
cepting on the head and limbs, and of a deep fawn 
colour; it is moreover disposed in long flakes or 
tassels. Black varieties also occur, of which a most 
beautiful specimen some years ago existed in the 
Gardens of the Zool. Soc. Lond. 

The paco dwells in herds among the mountains 
of Peru and Chili ; it is less fleet than the light- 
limbed guanaco, but its general habits are the 
game ; it would appear, however, to frequent a 
higher and colder range of elevation, as it is said to 
be frequently seen with herds of vicugnas. 

The Vicugna, or Vicuiia (Avchenia Vicugna), 
Figs. 547, 556, is a smaller animal than either the 
guanaco or the paco, and more slender in its pro- 
portions. Its limbs are thin, its neck swan-like. 

the forehead is broad and also prominent, but not 
abruptly so, as in the paco ; the muzzle is very 
narrow, and the head short. The eyes are large, 
and the ears long. The height of the animal at the 
shoulder is about two and a half feet. 

The wool of the body is extremely delicate and 
soft, varying from an inch to three inches in length : 
on the breast it is of the latter measurement ; on 
the head and limbs it is close. The colour is 
pale yellowish brown, passing into white on the 
under parts. 

The vicugna lives in herds on the bleak and 
elevated parts of the mountain-range bordering the 
region of perpetual snow, amidst rocks and preci- 
pices, where the chase is both toilsome and arduous. 
The Cordilleras of Copiapo, Coquimbo, and Peru are 
the principal seats of its abode, but it is also found in 
Chili. Its manners very much resemble those of 
the chamois of the European Alps, and it is as 
active, vigilant, wild, and timid. Its wool is highly 
valued, and for this alone thousands are annually 
killed, various means being employed in their whole- 
sale destruction. 

Holding, as the llamas do, especially the paco 
and vicugna, so conspicuous a place among wool- 
bearing animals, it is singular that after Europeans 
became acquainted with them, and with the beauti- 
ful fabrics manufactured by the native Peruvians, 
three centuries should have elapsed before any at- 
tention was paid in Europe to the importation of 
their produce as an article of commerce, or any 
attempts were instituted with regard to the na- 
turalization of the animals in localities best fitted 
for their multiplication ; and this more especially 
as the fineness of the wool had, from the first, at- 
tracted the notice both of the Spaniards and other 
Europeans. That no diflSculty exists in the trans- 
portation of the llama to Europe, and that it bears 
our climate well, is abundantly proved by the nu- 
merous individuals which have lived both in the 
Gardens of the Zoological Society and in other 
places, and which, under the inevitable disadvan- 
tages of confinement, and perhaps too luxurious a 
diet, have continued long m health and vigour — ■ 
as long, indeed, as animals indigenous to Europe 
under the same circumstances. There can be there- 
fore no doubt but that if suffered to wander at large, 
in situations resembling as nearly as possible those 
of their native regions — regions, be it remembered, 
of cold, and snow, and storms — these animals would 
thrive and multiply. 

The coarse herbage of the mountains, and the rushy 
grass, called ycho, which covers the slopes of the hills, 
constitute the natural diet of the wild races ; and in 
the mountains of Scotland, Wales, and Ireland herb- 
age of a corresponding nature would meet their ap- 
petite, while, as far as temperature is concerned, there 
would be no imnediraent to their naturalization. 

At the Ninth Meeting (held at Birmingham) for 
the Advancement of Science, the value of the silk 
wool of these animals, and the benefits which would 
result from their naturalization in our country, 
formed an interesting topic of discussion. The sub- 
ject was introduced by Mr. W. Danson, who, in ill- 
lustration of his views, exhibited samples of Alpaca 
wools, and manufactured specimens in imitation of 
silk (and without dye) as black as jet. Mr. Danson 
urged that " the animals producing it ought to be 
propagated in England, Ireland, Scotland, and 
Wales, and stated that to the two latter places the 
alpaca is well suited, being an inhabitant of the 
Cordilleras, or mountain district in Peru. Importa- 
tions (of the wool) have already taken place to the 
extent of one million of pounds, and are likely to 
increase. There are five species of llamas: of these 
the alpaca has fine wool, six to twelve inches long, as 
shown by the specimens exhibited ; the llama, coarse 
long hair ; and the vicugna, a very short fine wool, 
more of tlie beaver cast. The Earl of Derby has 
propagated the alpaca in his private menagerie at 
Knowsley, and Mr. Danson understood that Mr. 
Stephenson, at Oban in Scotland, has a few of these 
animals. The wool of these animals would not 
enter into competition with the wool of the sheep, 
but rather with silk. It is capable of the finest 
manufacture, and is especially suited to the fine 
shawl trade of Paisley and Glasgow, &c. The 
yams spun from it are already sent to France in 
large quantities, at from 6s. to 12s. Gd. per pound, 
the price of the raw Alpaca wool being now 2s. and 
2s. 6d. per pound." 

560, 564, 565, 5G6.— The Giraffe 

(Camelopardalis Giraffa; Zarapha, Zerafet, and 
Ziiralel of the Arabs ; Surnapa, Ziirnapa and Ziirnepa 
of the Turks). The genus Camelopardalis stands 
in a certain sense isolated among the Ruminants, 
and is the representative of a family group, interme- 
diate, as Professor Owen's researches demonstrate, 
between the Deer and the Antelopes. Col. H. 
Smith, indeed, has observed that the characters of 
the giraffe offer a mixture of several genera, among 
which the followers of the quinary system may 

select whether to class it, with Illiger, among the 
Camels, or, with other naturalists, among the Cer- 
vine or Antelopine animals ; and he points out its 
assimilation with the camels, in the length of its 
neck, the callosities on the sternum and knees, and 
the want of spurious hoofs, adding that this ap- 
proximation did not escape the notice of the an- 

This extraordinary animal, of which at one period 
the very existence was almost doubted, has become 
now familiar to us ; and though we gaze with won- 
der upon its strange proportions, we no longer re- 
gard it as one of the monsters of a land which 
credulity pictured as tenanted by creatures which 
exist only in imagination. On beholding the giraffe 
we are at once struck with the shortness of its body, 
the length of its limbs, the elevation of its withers, 
and the elongation and slenderness of its neck, 
supporting a small and delicately modelled head. 
Its movements are no less strange than its figure ; 
for owing to the shortness of the body, and the 
length of the limbs, the hind-hoofs are brought at 
each step as far Ibrward as the spot the previous 
moment occupied by the fore-hoofs, but somewhat 
to the outside of it, for the hind-limbs diverge 
somewhat outward from the hock-joint. The legs 
of each side are in action nearly in unison together, 
those of the right side appearing to alternate with 
those of the left, and vice versa. 

The giraffe, however, is not really awkward, and 
is very far from being slow ; indeed the swiftesst 
coursers of the desert are scarcely equal to the 
chase, and among rugged and broken ground utterly 
unable to overtake it. 

When walking along, the giraffe does not ordi- 
narily carry its beautiful swan-like neck upright, 
but obliquely forwards in a line continued from the 
spine, over the withers, to the top of the head — an 
attitude scarcely consistent with grace ; the animal, 
however, often wreaths it very gracefully, nor can 
anything produce a more imposing effect than the 
giraffe when its neck is stretched up to the full, 
while the animal gazes around with his large beam- 
ing eyes, or plucks the foliage from the branches of 
the trees, browsing beneath their shade. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that the giraffe 
is exclusively confined to the continent of Africa. 
Its characters may be detailed as follows : — The head 
(Fig. 562) is small, and narrows to a slender elongated 
muzzle entirely covered with hair. The nostrils are 
longitudinal slits capable of being closed or opened 
at pleasure ; the upper lip is endowed with great 
flexibility and muscular power, and projects beyond 
the lower ; it is used as an organ of prehension in 
the acquisition of food. The tongue is an extraordi- 
nary instrument, and requires special notice. It is 
long, slender, pointed, and endowed with a surpris- 
ing share of mobility. Nor is this all ; it is capable 
of being greatly elongated, and in this state of being 
coiled round twigs or branches, and of drawing 
them to the mouth (P'igs. 559, 561). In this respect 
it is analogous to the proboscis of the elephant, 
and is at once a feeler, a grasper, and an organ of 
taste. It is interesting to see with what address the 
giraffe uses this instrument, and how dexterously he 
applies it as a hook or holder. It is smooth, ex- 
cept when the papillas are raised — its surface then 
becomes rough: its colour is black. The eyes are 
full, dark, lustrous, and prominent, and the upper 
eyelid is furnished with a fringe of long lashes. So 
prominent indeed are the eyes, that they command, 
without the animal moving its head, a survey of the 
whole horizon, thus enabling it to see, without 
turning, what passes on each side and even behind 
it, and, from the elevation of the head, to discern its 
enemies at a great distance. Fig. 558 represents a 
back view of the giraffe's head, showing this ad- 
vantageous position of the eyes. The ears are long, 
pointed, and moveable; and the sense of hearing 
is very acute. There are no suborbital sinuses. 
Both sexes have horns, if they can be so termed, 
for they are truly analogous to the peduncles of 
the horns in the Muntjak-deer, being in fact 
processes of bone covered with skin, having a tuft 
of black hairs at the top ; but besides these sub- 
stitutes for horns, a similar but shorter process 
projects from the forehead between the eyes, more 
developed in males than females, and in adults than 
in the young. According to Riippell and Cuvier, 
this, like the other horns, is articulated by suture to 
the skull ; but Professor Owen has demonstrated that 
this frontal protuberance is not a true horn articu- 
lated by a suture, but results from a singular thick- 
ening of the bone of the forehead (see Fig. 563). 
The osseous peduncles, or horns as they are com- 
monly called, continue for along time united to the 
frontal bone only by means of a suture, and are not 
fairly anchylosed till at an advanced period. This 
indeed is the case with all the bones of the skull of 
the giraffe: it would appear that the process of ossi- 
fication is carried on but slowly in this part of the 
framt-work, and as it respects the horns,that nature 
having completed the first stage of her intentions, 


557.- Skeleton ut Giraffe. 

xSUr^Blck Tlew of Oinffe's Head. 

666.— Ginffe alwut to lie down. 

566.- Vicngiu. 


659. — >I(xla of prccming Food. 

S6l.~Mode of procuring Food, 

562.— Head of Giraffe. 

' S63.-^£l»U cf Qiroffe. 

565.— OiTaffes. 

664— Giraffe. 





having in fact prepared the peduncles, was ar- 
rested in her operations and forbidden to add the 

The lone flexible neck of the giraffe is provided 
with a short mane extending from the withers to the 
top of the head : the elevation of the withers is re- 
markable, and from this part to the crupper there is 
a rapid descent, whence has arisen the idea that the 
fore-limbs are much longer than the hinder pair, 
which is not the case. The fore-knees are large, 
and when about to lie down the animal sinks upon 
thcra, and assumes an attitude by no means easy or 
graceful. (.Fig. 566.) 

The tail is ratlier long, slender, and tufted at the 
extremity with long coarse black hairs. The skele- 
ton of the giratfe (Fig. 557) is well worthy the at- 
tention of an anatomist ; we cannot here enter into 
osteological minutiie, but recommend our readers to 
Professor Owen's papers in ' Proceeds. Zool. Soc' 
1838 ; and to Cuvier's ' Le9ons d' Anatomic Com- 

In giving a sketch of the history of the giraffe, we 
may commence by observing that some naturalists 
of the present day consider that there are two 
distinct species, one peculiar to Nubia, Abyssinia, 
and the adjacent districts, the other a native of the 
regions of Southern Africa. We regard them as 
mere varieties. 

It is with the North African variety that the 
ancients were acquainted, and of which there are 
several delineations preserved to the present day. 
Among the most remarkable is one on the Prae- 
neitine pavement, where two of these animals are 
pictured : one in a straddling attitude endeavouring 
to reach the ground with his mouth ; the other in 
the act of browsing on the trees. It is supposed 
that this pavement, which was executed by the 
direction of Sulla, is the work of Egyptian Greeks. 
Belzoni notices the giraffe on the walls of the Sekos 
of the Memnonium and on the back of the temple 
of Erments. A giraffe led by Nubians is given in 
Rosellini's work on Egypt. 

It is supposed by some that the word Zemer, 
translated Chamois in the book of Deuteronomy 
(ch. xiv., V. 5), of which animal the flesh was for- 
bidden, really refers to the giraffe, and there is cer- 
tainly some affinity between the Hebrew Zemer and 
the Arabic Zurafa or Zurafet. It is a point, how- 
ever, not easily decided. 

Though the Praenestine pavement was made by 
the orders of Sulla (born a.c. 138), the animal itself 
was not seen in Rome before the time of Julius 
Caesar, who exhibited it at the Circensian games. It 
is described by Pliny (book viii.) from a specimen, 
as is conjectured, which Varro mentions as having 
been brought from Alexandria. Afterwards the 
giraffe became not unfrequent among the animals 
exhibited in the Roman games.* Oppian, who lived 
in the second century, notices this animal in the third 
book of his treatise on hunting. Gordian III., em- 
peror of Rome from a.d. 239 to 244, is stated to have 
possessed ten of these animals. After the fall of 
the Roman empire we hear nothing of the giraft'e 
for a considerable period. The first instance, after 
the darkness of the middle ages had passed, of a 
living giraffe in Europe, is that of one possessed by 
Frederick II., king of Germany (crowned 1215), 
which he received from the prince of Damas, now 
Damascus, and which was described by Albertus 
Magnus under the name of Anabula, with the sy- 
nonyms Seraph, Oraflus, and Orasius. 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Sol- 
dan of Egypt presented one of these animals to 
Lorenzo de' Medici, grand-duke of Tuscany : it was 
a great favourite with the inhabitants of Florence, 
and was accustomed to walk about the streets, 
stretching its neck to the balconies and windows 
for fruits and other articles of food. Its picture 
exists in the frescoes of the Poggio Acajano, one of 
the duke's villas near Florence. 

From this time no living giraffe was seen in Eu- 
rope for nearly three centuries and a half; though 
in that space various descriptions and figures were 
published by writers on natural history, mixed up 
with abundant errors. Gesner, however, gives a 
tolerable account and figure in his ' Natural History,' 
published in 1551. Thevet, in his ' Cosmographia ' 
p.575), describes and figures the giraffe ; Bellonius, 
in his ' Observations,' 1605, also figures it ; Wolf- 

fang, in his ' Historia Animalium Sacra,' mentions it. 
opsell, in his ' History of Four-footed Beasts ' ( 1C07), 
describes it, and gives two figures. Leo Africanus 
and Ludolph both describe the giraffe, as does 
Johnston (cum figura) in his 'Quadrupeds.' We 
may also mention Alpinus (' Nat. Hist. Egypt ') ; and 
Carteret, whose paper read before the Royal Society 
is entitled ' Observations on a Camelopardahs 
found about the Cape of Good Hope.' (See ' Phil. 
Trans.' Ix. p. 27.) Buffon describes and figures the 
giraffe, but in his drawings, as in those of all the 
preceding writers, the fore-leg^ are much too long. 

• ' DiTemiDi confun genus Paatheni Camelo.' 

Horace. Epitt, ii. 195. 

In the supplement (Supp. vol. vii.) the figure is 
improved, but still is not without faults. Vos- 
maer published in 1787, at Amsterdam, a quarto 
tract on this animal, with tolerable figures. It 
may here be noticed that when the supplement to 
Bunon's great work was published there was an 
adult female specimen in the museum of Paris, and 
M. Allemand of Amsterdam had also a young spe- 

Le Vaillant when in South Africa hunted the 
giraffe and procured some specimens ; his descrip- 
tion of the habits of the animal and his narrative of 
the incidents of the chase are interesting and graphic, 
but perhaps a little overcoloured. It is from this 
time that we may date our correct knowledge of 
this animal, of which several skins found their way 
from time to time into our island ; that brought by 
Mr. Patterson, and ultimately deposited in the Bri- 
tish Museum, being the first.* It was in the year 
1827 that the first living giraffe visited our shores. 
The Pasha of Egypt destined four of these animals 
as presents to some of the European princes : of 
these, one died at Constantinople ; one reached 
Venice, 1828; one was sent to Paris; and the fourth, 
which fell by lot to England, reached its destination 
safely in August, 1827, but died, worn out by illness, 
in 1829. Its preserved skin and skeleton were 
presented by H. M. George IV. to the Zoolo- 
gical Society, and now grace the museum of that 

In 1836 the arrival of four living giraffes at the 
gardens of the Zool. Soc, procured in Kordofan by 
M. Thibaut, created a lively sensation in the world 
of science. From a letter of M. Thibaut to the 
secretary of the Zool. Soc, in which he details 
his proceedings and manner of conducting the ex- 
hausting pursuit, we take the following extract : — 
" The first run of the giraffe is exceedingly rapid. 
The swiftest horse, if unaccustomed to the desert, 
could not come up with it unless with extreme 
difficulty. The Arabs accustomed their coursers to 
hunger and to fatigue ; milk generally serves them 
for food, and gives them power to continue their 
exertions during a very long run. If the giraffe 
reaches a mountain, it passes the heights with 
rapidity : its feet, which are like those of a goat, 
endow it with the dexterity of that animal : it 
bounds over ravines with incredible power ; horses 
cannot, in such situations, compete with it. The 
giraffe is fond of a wooded country. The leaves 
of trees are its principal food. Its conformation 
allows of its reaching their tops. The one of which 
I have previously spoken as having been killed by 
the Arabs measured twenty-one French feet in height 
from the ears to the hoofs. Green herbs are also 
very agreeable to this animal ; but its structure 
does not admit of its feeding on them in the same 
manner as our domestic animals, such as the Ox 
and the Horse. It is obliged to straddle widely ; 
its two fore-feet are gradually stretched widely 
apart from each other, and its neck being then bent 
into a semicircular form, the animal is thus enabled 
to collect the grass. But on the instant that any 
noise interrupts its repast, the animal raises itself 
with rapidity, and has recourse to immediate flight. 
The giraffe eats with great delicacy, and takes its 
food leaf by leaf, collecting them from the trees by 
means of its long tongue. It rejects the thorns, 
and in this respect differs from the camel. As the 
grass on which it is now fed is cut for it, it takes the 
upper part only, and chews it until it perceives that 
the stem is too coarse for it. Great care is required 
for its preservation, and especially great cleanliness. 
It is extremely fond of society, and is very sensible. 
I have observed one of them shed tears when it no 
longer saw its companions or the persons who were 
in the habit of attending to it." (' Proceeds. Zool. 
Soc," 1836.) 

The efforts made by the spirited agent of the 
Zool. Soc. in Nubia, and the success of his ar- 
rangements for the transport of the animals from 
the interior to the coast, not only encouraged others 
to make a similar attempt, but opened the way 
for .them in which to proceed; and subsequently 
other living specimens were sent to Malta, and 
thence to England, so that at one time there were 
seven giraffes in London. 

The giraffe with due care endures our climate 
well; the female in the gardens of the Zool. Soc. 
has bred twice ; the first fawn died, but the second, 
which grew rapidly, is in excellent health and con- 

The giraffe, as its figure, the mobility of the lips, 
and the prehensile power of the tongue declare, is 
formed for browsing on the leaves of trees, those of 
the mimosa being especially relished. The first 
giraffe which Le Vaillant saw was under one of 

* Mr. Patterson was sent to the Cape as botanist by Lady Strath- 
more, and lie l)A(i|{lit to this country the Hrsl entire skin of a giraffe 
on rerowl- La^ Striithmore gave it to the celebrated John Hunt«T, 
in whose museum it was preserved- Alterwards the trnsU'es of the 
Uoyal CoUt'du of Surgeons tran>ffrred tiie skin to the British Museum. 
Its condition is very bad, the hair Ivinjj almost all oft the skin: yet 
as a sort of Imtorical monument in the department of Zoology, it is 
worthy of preservation. 

thee trees, on the leaves of which it was making 
a re,)a8t : with his characteristic enthusiasm he 
began the pursuit— "We saw her cross the plain 
towards the west, and hastened to overtake her: 
she was proceeding at a smart trot, but did not 
appear to be at all hurried. We galloped after 
her, but she insensibly gained so much upon us, 
that after having pursued her for three hours we 
were forced to stop, because our horses were quite 
out of breath, and we entirely lost sight of her." 
Le Vaillant afterwards was more successful. 

We have already alluded to the difficulty which 
the giraffe experiences in putting its lips to the 
ground, being obliged to set its fore-limbs wide 
apart ; it is indeed an action which it seldom at- 
tempts unless induced by some tempting morsel, 
as, for instance, sugar, of which the giraffes in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society are very fond, 
and for which they will follow their attendants, 
trying to gain possession of it by insinuating their 
long slender tongue or upper lip into the hands of 
the person who holds it. In their play we have 
several times noticed that they strike out with the 
fore-limbs, and these, as well as the hind-limbs, 
they use in self-defence, lashing out with rapid and 
impetuous force. "His defence," says Le Vaillant, 
"consists in kicks, and his hinder limbs are so 
light and his blows so rapid, that the eye cannot 
follow them ; " and " I know beyond a doubt that 
by its kicking it often tires out, discourages, and 
even beats off the lion." After his dogs had 
brought an individual to bay, they dared not make 
an attack, as it defended itself "with asuccession of 
rapid kicks." Major Gordon notices the force with 
which one which he killed spumed the ground in 
the agony of death. 

Le Vaillant observes that the giraffe never uses 
its horns in resisting any attack ; we have, however, 
often seen the gentle and beautiful animals in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society, while playing 
with each other, swing the head round and butt 
with the horns ; but in earnest self-defence we may 
easily believe that this mode would never be 
adopted. While speaking of these individuals, we 
may state that they often take each other's mane 
between the lips, and appear to nibble it as they 
pass their mouth along its course. They are ex- 
tremely confiding in disposition : the presence of 
strangers is far from giving them annoyance ; 
they gaze with calmness on the crowd of admirers 
around them, and bend their necks down as if to 
contemplate them more closely, or in order to 
solicit some delicacy. 

In its native wilds, man excepted, the lion is the 
only enemy to be feared by the giraffe ; and from 
various sources we learn the lion often surprises the 
latter when he comes to drink at the pools or foun- 
tains, and springs from his ambush upon the tall 
and powerful beast, which, mad with terror and 
pain, rushes over the desert, bearing the " great 
destroyer," till, strength failing, he reels, sinks, and 

According to M. Thibaut, the Arabs of Nubia 
are very fond of the flesh of the giraffe ; and he 
himself partaking of the repast (viz., broiled slices), 
found it to be excellent. In South Africa its flesh 
is equally acceptable. 

The height of the male giraffe to the top of the 
head is from fifteen to sixteen feet, of the female 
from thirteen to fourteen. The general colour is 
fawn-white, marked regularly with large angular 
spots of chocolate-brown, compacted rather closely 
together ; the throat and legs are white ; the tuft 
at the end of the tail black ; the hair is close and 
glossy. The South African variety is generally 
darker than the Nubian. The specimens presented 
by Mr. Burchell to the British Museum came from 
Kosi Fountain, and of these the female is lighter 
coloured than the male. A specimen from Cen- 
tral Africa, presented by Colonel Denham, is 
young, and the spots are lawn-coloured on a white 

In the Museum at Paris is a very young giraffe, 
about four feet seven or eight inches in total height, 
of a uniform mouse-colour, the hair being remark- 
ably close and fine, resembling the nap of velveteen ; 
the place of each horn is indicated by a tuft of 
black hairs. The Nubian giraffes in the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens differ in the intensity of their colour, 
one of the males being of a lighter tint than the 

The period of gestation is about sixteen months. 
(See 'Proceeds. Zool. Soc.,' 1839, p. 108.) 

In a state of confinement the giraffe eats hay, 
carrots, and onions, to the latter of which it is very 
partial. We have never heard these animals utter 
any noise or cry, nor do travellers make any men- 
tion of their voice. The giraffe shot by Colonel 
Gordon, to which we have already alluded, when so 
wounded as to be incapable of rising from the 
ground, exhibited no signs of anger or resentment, 
nor is it stated to have made any moan. Hence 
we conclude that the giraffe is mute. 




Family MoschidiB. — Linnaeus gave the title 
Moschus to a group of Ruminants, from the circum- 
stance of one of the species producing that well- 
known substance called musk, the secretion of a 
peculiar glandular pouch in the abdomen of the 
male, for the sake of which the animal is eagerly 
hunted in the regions it frequents, namely, the high 
mountain -ranges in China, Thibet, Tonquin, Pegu, 
and also Southern Tartary. The musk-deer, how- 
ever, is the only known species of this srroup in 
•which this secretion is produced. The Moschida; 
closely resemble the deer in general form and ap- 
pearance ; but they resemble them in miniature, for 
with the exception of the true Musk (M. moschife- 
nis), which equals a roebuck in size and stature, 
the rest are extremely small, some not exceeding a 
hare in magnitude. They are extremely beautiful : 
the eyes are large, dark, and beaming with a mild 
and animated expression; the head is small and 
tapers to a slender muzzle ; the eai-s are moderate 
and open ; the haunch elevated and round ; and the 
limbs delicately slender and tapering to narrow- 
pointed hoofs. The family characters consist in 
the absence of horns, and also of suborbital sinuses 
(pits beneath the inner angle of the eye), so con- 
spicuous in many of the deer and antelopes. The 
muzzle is naked. There are long canines in the 
upper jaw of the males, projecting downwards, and 
coming out from between the lips. These canines 
are compressed, pointed, arched backwards, and 
have a sharp posterior cutting edge. In the true 
musk they are at least three inches in length. The 
crowns of the molars are acutely tuberculated. 
Fig. 569 represents the teeth of the upper jaw 
in two views: Fig. 568, those of the lower; Fig. 
570, a lateral view of teeth of both jaws together. 
Besides the two toes united to a single canon-bone, 
as usual, there are two accessory toes on each foot, 
each of which has its own slender metatarsal or 
metarcarpal bone. See Fig. 571, the skeleton of 
the Moschus moschiferus, and Fig. 572, the skeleton 
of the Meminna, which are excellent illustrations of 
their osteology. There are no horns or antlers, nor 
even their rudiments. 

Mr. Gray divides the Moschidae into three 
genera, viz., Moschus, Meminna, and Tragulus. 
The latter title, however, is applied by Mr. Ogilby 
to a species of antelope (A. pigmaea). Most au- 
thors, moreover, adopt the Linnaean genus Moschus, 
and we shall in this instance follow their example. 
Setting aside the true Musk, the other members of 
the genus are termed Chevrotains, and till very re- 
cently were supposed to be respectively restricted 
to Java, Sumatra, Ceylon, and perhaps other adja- 
cent islands : recently, however, to the surprise of 
naturalists, a species has been discovered in Sierra 
Leone, to which, from its aquatic habits, Mr. Ogilby 
has given the title of Moschus aquaticus. (See 
' Proceeds. Zool. Soc' 1840, p. 35.) 

573, 577.— The Musk-Deer 

{Moschus moschiferus'). The musk-deer, unlike its 
relatives which tenant the forests of Ceylon and 
Java, &c., inhabits the great mountain-range which 
belts the north of India, and branches out into Si- 
beria, Thibet, and China, through a vast extent of 
which it ranges, preferring the bold precipitous crags 
and wild rocks on the borders of the line of snow to 
the valleys or the lower elevations. It is common 
to Nepal, Boutan, Thibet, and the adjacent districts 
of Chma. It also abounds in the Altaic range near 
Lake Baikal, where it was observed by Pallas on the 
mountains of Kouznetzk, near the lake Telet Koi. 
The texture and thickness of the fur of the musk- 
deer sufficiently demonstrate the animal to be the 
native of a cold and elevated region. The fur is not 
only full and long, but presents that peculiar harsh 
or rigid and inelastic texture, which we observe in 
the chamois, or rather in the Klip-springer of the 
mountains of South Africa. Instead of lying flat on 
the skin, it grows erect, and is so closely set as to 
form a dense substantial covering. Common as is 
the musk-deer in the great alpine ranges of Asia, 
nevertheless it does not appear to have been known 
to the ancients, a circumstance doubtless to be attri- 
buted to the almost inaccessible nature of the regions 
it frequents. Neither Aristotle nor Pliny mentions 
either the animal or its celebrated produce. It is 
from the male only that the drug and perfume 
termed musk is procured ; it is the unctuous secre- 
tion of a certain glandular pouch, and when dry it 
becomes dark brown or black, and somewhat granu- 
lar. Its peculiar odour is well known. Formerly it 
was in high repute for its medicinal qualities, and 
still holds a place as an antispasmodic in the Materia 
Medica. It was first, as we learn, introduced into 
the practice of medicine among the Arabfans, by 
whose writers the animal producing it is iirst dis- 
tinctly mentioned; having, as Daubenton states, 
been described by Serapion in the eighth century : 
but we know not the time when this article first 
found its way to Europe ; probably after the early 
Crusades. In Boutan, Tonquin, Thibet, Sec., it ap- 

peal's from time immemorial to have been used as a 
medicine and perfume, and to have formed an arti- 
cle of trade amongst the inhabitants of those coun- 
tries. Abusseid Serafi describes the musk-deer as 
an animal resembling the roe, but erroneously as- 
signs to it horns, in which error he is followed by 
Aldrovaiidus. Among other Arabian writers who 
notice this animal is Avicenna, who refers to its 
musk-pouch and large bent canines. Kircher (' La 
Chine illustrce,' Transl. Fran?., IGIO) gives an ac- 
count of the musk-deer which is tound in the pro- 
vinces of Xensi and Chiamsi : he quotes several de- 
tails respecting it from the Chinese Atlas, whence 
we learn that the Chinese term it Xe, which means 
odour ; that its flesh is accounted delicate ; and that 
it abounds in the provinces of Suchuen and Junnan. 
In some districts the musk-deer is very common, 
and multitudes are slaughtered for the sake of their 
costly perfume ; which, however, is always greatly 
adulterated. To the practice of adulterating it the 
celebrated merchant-travellerTavernieralludes, add- 
ing that the odour of the substance when recent is 
so powerful as to cause the blood to gush from the 
nose. Chardin says, " It is commonly believed that 
when the musk-sac is cut from the animal, so power- 
ful is the odour it exhales, that the hunter is obliged 
to have the mouth and nose stopped with folds of 
linen, and that often, in spite of this precaution, the 
pungency of the odour is such as to produce so vio- 
lent an haemorrhage as to end in death. I have," 
he adds, " gained accurate information respecting 
this circumstance ; and as I have heard the same 
thing talked of by some Armenians who had been to 
Boutan, I think that it is true. The odour is so 
powerful in the East Indies that T could never sup- 
port it ; and when I trafficked for musk, I always 
kept in the open air, with a handkerchief over my 
face, and at a distance from those who handled the 
sacs, referrmgthem to my broker ; and hence I knew 
by experience that this musk is very apt to give 
headaches, and is altogether insupportable when 
quite recent. I add, that no drug is so easily adul- 
terated, or more apt to be so." 

These accounts must be taken, we suspect, with 
some allowance. Certain it is that, when procured 
in Europe in the ordinary way of commerce, it pro- 
duces no such violent effects. It must be confessed, 
however, that before arriving in Europe, not only 
much of its strength is lost, but it has undergone 
several adulterations. 

Tavernier states that the musk-deer is very nu- 
merous in the sixtieth degree, among the wooded 
mountains, whence in Februa>y and March, when 
the snows have deeply covered the earth, hunger 
drives them southward into the lower lands, to the 
forty-fourth or forty-fifth degree, in search of herb- 
age. At this season the peasants wait for them on 
their passages, and catch them in snares, or kill 
them with clubs and arrows. At Patana he bought 
on one occasion 1673 musk-bags, weighing 2557^ 
ounces, and of pure musk 452 ounces. 

In size the musk-deer is about equal to our Eu- 
ropean roebuck, standing two feet in height at the 
shoulders ; the forehead is arched, the eyes large, 
the ears rather ample, and very moveable ; the tail 
is a mere rudiment, concealed by the long, harsh, 
and almost spine-like hair with which the animal 
is universally covered. The general contour is 
compact, and displays great vigour, the limbs being 
robust, and well adapted for climbing and leaping 
among the rocks of the mountain ranges. The 
hoofs are strong, broad, and expanded ; and the 
posterior rudimentary hoofs are so developed as 
to touch with their points the surface on which the 
animal treads, so as to add to the security of its 

The general colour of ^he musk-deer is brown, 
washed with grey and pale yellow, each hair being 
tipped with ferruginous ; obscure grey or whitish 
marks often occur on the sides, especially in imma- 
ture individuals; the shoulders and limbs are of a 
deeper tint than the body. The female is less than 
the male, and is destitute of tusks or long canine 
teeth, and of a musk-sac. The teats are two in 
number. In its manners the musk-deer resembles 
the chamois : its favourite haunts are the pine- 
forests on the mountains, and its agility is very 
great, enabling it to spring from rock to rock with 
great ease and address. It is extremely wild and 
shy, and is said to be cautious and watchful against 
surprise, taking refuge, when pursued, among the 
crags and precipices of the more elevated peaks of 
the ranges it tenants ; yet, in despite of all its 
vigour and shyness, it falls a sacrifice to the energy 
and the contrivances of man. 

In 1772 a male of this species was living in the 
park of Mons. de la Vrilliere, at Versailles, in 
France ; and Daubenton, who published a descrip- 
tion of it, informs us that the odour it exhaled, and 
which was carried with the wind, was quite suffi- 
cient to guide to the spot where the animal was 
kept enclosed. " When I first saw it," he adds, 
" I recognised much resemblance in its figure and 

attitude to those of the roe, the gazelle, and the 
chevrotain. No animal of this (the deer) tribe has 
more activity, suppleness, and vivacity in its move- 
ments."' It was extremely timid and wild ; but 
like all the species of the peculiar group to which it 
belongs, it is gentle and inoffensive. The chev- 
rotains, as we well know, may be rendered very 
tame : and it is probable that if the musk-deer 
were taken while young, it might be easily domesti- 
cated, since the former animals are shy and timid 
in the extreme while in a state of natural freedom, 
but soon gain confidence, and have even bred in 
captivity in our uncongenial climate. 

A good figure of the musk-deer is given by Buffon 
in the 6th vol. of his Supplement. 

574.— The Meminna 
{Moschus Meminna). This elegant little species is 
a native of Ceylon and Java, and is also found in 
considerable numbers in the dense woods of the 
Western Ghauts (but never on the plains), where it 
was seen by Colonel Sykes, who observes, that it 
readily reconciles itself to confinement : the flesh 
is excellent eating. In size it exceeds a large hare, 
being about one foot five inches long, and eight inches 
high. Its colour is olive-grey, spotted and streaked 
on the sides and haunches with white ; the ears are 
large and open ; the tail is very short. 

575.— The Napu 

{Moschus Javanicus). The species constituting the 
little section of which the Napu is a representative, 
are characterised by having the hinder edge of the 
metatarsus bald and slightly callous: the throat is 
provided with a somewhat naked concave subglan- 
dular callous disc, from which a band extends to 
the fore part of the chin ; and most of them have 
three diverging bands of white on the chest. The 
animals of this group are distinguished by their 
beauty and diminutive size, the largest not equal- 
ling a hare. Their limbs are very slender and deli- 
cate ; their hoofs are long and narrow ; the muz- 
zle is acute ; the eyes large and dark ; the ears 

The species are enveloped in some degree of 
confusion ; indeed they resemble each other so 
closely, that it requires some attention to discrimi- 
nate between them. Mr. Bennett, who investigated 
these animals with the greatest care, considered 
that three species were defineable, viz., the Napu, 
the Kanchil, and the Pelandok ; the two former of 
which are described by Sir T. S. Raffles, in the 
'Linn. Trans.' vol. xiii. Mr. Gray considers the Pe- 
landok to be in all probability iden^al with a 
species described by him under the specific title of 
Rufiventer, and adds another species to the group 
under the designation of Stanleyanus— of this species 
a pair bred in the gardens of the Zool. Society. 

The napu is a native of Java and Sumatra, and 
is the largest of this section ; its colour is ferru- 
ginous brown above and white beneath, the chest 
having two longitudinal dusky stripes, so as to pro- 
duce a central and two diverging lateral lines of 
white, below which passes a transverse band of 
pale yellowish fawn. The muzzle, which is naked, 
is black, with a tinge of flesh colour, as are the ears, 
which are also nearly naked. The tail is rather 
short, and white at the tip. In its native regions 
the napu gives preference to thickets and districts 
overgrown with brushwood, near the sea-shore, and 
feeds principally on the berries of a species of Ar- 
disia. It is said to be inferior to the kanchil in 
speed,, activity and cunning, and is therefore more 
exposed to danger from the assaults of wild beasts, 
which abound in the forest ; and hence it prefers to 
lurk in coverts nearer the vicinity of man, from 
whose observation it can more easily conceal itself 
than from the watchful eyes of the feline race. 

In its manners the napu is mild and gentle, and 
soon becomes reconciled to captivity : it bears our 
climate well, with care ; though destitute of marked 
intelligence, its graceful form, agreeable colouring, 
and full dark eyes render it an interesting object. 

576. — The Kanchil 
{Moschus Kanchil, Raffles). The Kanchil is lighter 
in form and more spirited than the napu, and con- 
siderably smaller. Independent of the difference 
in size, it is easily distinguished by its darker co- 
lour, by a broad stripe of dark chestnut verging 
upon black, which runs down the back of the neck, 
and by the width of the band across its chest. Of 
all the chevrotains this is the most active and ele- 
gant ; indeed its address and resolution are the 
common theme of discourse in Java, its native 
country ; and the most extraordinary instances are 
related of its cunning. Unlike the napu, it resides 
in the depths of the mighty forests which cover so 
large a portion of the island, feeding chiefly on the 
frijit of the Kayo-briang (Gmelina villosa) : and 
though it will live in confinement, it endures cap- 
tivity with great impatience and restlessness, 
availing itself of the first opportunity of escape 

572.— Skoleton of Meminna. 

tU.— Skeleton oT Unsk-Decr. 


~^^^ F%. 569. ^ 

Fig. 668. 

516.— KanchtL 

Fig. tn. 

i\ \ fjf'if'lr, 

578.— Horna of FaUow-Oeer.' 

57t.— Hemlnoa., 

S79.-St«g8' Bonu. 


1 2 1 3 


480.— HoiM of WapiU. 

11 \ll2 

581.— Horns of Fallow-Deer. 

S77.— Mnsfc-Deer. 

592.— Foot of Rein-Deer. .'.93.— Foot of llein Deer. 

■-, 6 

586.— MoawDwi. 

No. 17. 

<>»4. — IiiKCU which attack Uein-Deer. 


oHj.- AlUtTlUUU ii.lh. 





that sffers, when it bounds away for the forest, the 
deep recesses of which afford it a welcome refuge. 
Such are its cunning and alertness, and so prompt 
is it with expedients when pressed by dxnger, that, 
as Sir Stamford lUffles informs us, " it is a oommon 
Malay proverb, to designate a great rogue to be as 
cunning as a kanchil ;"ami he adds, of this cunning 
many instances are related by the natives. "If 
taken in a noose laid for it, the kanchil, when the 
hunter arrives, will stretch itself out motionless, and 
feign to be dead ; and if, deceived by this manoeuvre, 
he disengage the animal, it seizes the moment to 
(tart on its legs, and disappears in an instant. A 
■till more singular expedient is mentioned, viz. that 
when closely pursued bv dogs, the kanchil will 
sometimes make a bound upwards, hook itself on 
the branch of a tree by means of its bent tusks, and 
there remain suspended till the dogs have passed 
beneath." In vigilance, activity, and cunning, if 
these statements be but partially true, the kanchil 
surpasses the rest of the group ; none indeed, except- 
ing this, have gained a reputation for these qualities, 
though all are light-limbed, free, and vigorous. 

Among the species to be erased from the genus 
Moschus, are the Guevi, or pigmy antelope, or Sene- 
gal (Antilope pigmtBa), regarded by Buifon as a 
chevrotain ; and the Moschus Americanus, and M. 
delicatulus of South America, »vhich are- the young 
of one of the deer of that country. The Moschus 
pygmff!us, Linn., is the young of an antelope. The 
Moschus Guineen.sis, Bri^son and Gmelin, is 
mcst probably the young of an antelope. As we 
have said, however, Africa produces one species 
at least of the genus Moschus, of which a perfect 
skin and skeleton are in the museum of the Zool. 
Soc. Ijond. 

The African musk-deer (Moschus aquations, Ogil- 
by, ' Proceeds. Zool. Soc' 1844, p. 35) very much 
resemble the meminna, but is larger, being about 
midway in size between that species and the Moschus 
raoschiferous. Its general colour is a deep rich 
brown, with white spots and markings, nearly similar 
to those of the meminna, but with the throat-marks 
as in the napu or kanchil. This interesting species 
is a native of Sierra Leone, where it lives on the 
borders of rivers, and takes freely to the water. 


The animals of this great group, celebrated for 
their beauty, vigour, and speed, are spread very ex- 
tensively, each quarter of the globe having its own 
peculiar species. To this universality of distribution 
there are, however, certain exceptions ; none are 
found in Australia, and none in the southern and 
central regions of Africa, their place in the latter 
regions being supplied by the giraffe and hosts of 
antelopes Hills of moderate elevations, wide plains, 
and forests, are the localities to which these fleet- 
limbed creatures give preference ; none tenant the 
peaked ridges of the mountain-top, where the cha- 
mois and musk-deer find a congenial abode. They 
deligiit in a wide range of country, and trust to their 
swiftness of flight for safety. Most herd together in 
troops; some few live singly. It may be observed 
that, in general, their body is round and stout; 
their limbs long, sinewy and powerful ; their neck 
long, and very muscular; their head small, and 
carried high ; their eyes large and full ; their ears 

Many species have suborbital sinuses (or lachry- 
mal sinuses), but not all. With respect to these 
sinuses, or fissures below the eyes, in so many both 
of the deer and antelopes, we may here remark that 
their use is not understOdd : they have nothing to do 
with respiration, being mere follicles or pits in the 
skin, having no communication wilh the interior 
of the nasal passages. They secrete a peculiar 
unctuous fluid, exuding more abundantly at certain 
seasons than at others, when their edges become 
very tumid, and are incapable of being closed to- 
gether as at other times. The animals often apply 
them to obje