(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pictorial Pickwickiana; Charles Dickens and his illustrators. With 350 drawings and engravings by Robert Seymour, Buss, H.K. Browne ("Phiz") Leech, "Crowquill", Onwhyn, Sibson, Heath, Sir John Gilbert ... C.R. Leslie ... F.W. Pailthorpe, Charles Green ... Notes on contemporaneous illustrations and "Pickwick" artists"

PICTORIAL 



ftPICKWICKlANA 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 




Pit T( UUAL PlCKWICKIANA." 



PICTORIAL 
PICKWICKIANA 

CHARLES DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 



WITH 350 DRAWINGS AND ENGRAVINGS 

BY 

ROBERT SEYMOUR, BUSS, H. K. BROWNE ("PHIZ"), LEECH, "CROWQUILL,' 
ONWHYN, SIBSON, HEATH, SIR JOHN GILBERT, R.A., 
C. R. LESLIE, R.A., F. W. PAILTHORPE, 
CHARLES GREEN, R.I., 

ETC., ETC. 

NOTES ON CONTEMPORANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS 
AND "PICKWICK" ARTISTS 



EDITED BY JOSEPH GREGO 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOL. I 



LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL, LTD, 
1899 

All rights 



lCrfA 



RD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 

LONDON AND BUNGAY. 




V 

968727 



PREFACE 

TEMPTATIONS 

THE subject of the intimate and familiar relationships 
which were established between CHARLES DICKENS and his 
artist-friends and graphic illustrators has always appealed 
to the present writer, as offering exceptional interest 
and popular attractions, not only for collectors of 
" DICKENSIANA," but further for that great novelist's ad- 
mirers in general, an audience comprising the larger pro- 
portion of the English-speaking races, to say nothing of the 
innumerable and^enthusiastic students of " the inimitable 
' Boz ' " found abroad. Moreover, it is a noteworthy circum- 
stance that the list of DICKENS\S illustrators includes so many 
names of artists of leading eminence. 

The temptations of this theme have proved too strong to 
be resisted, and, since the published announcement of the 
present Editor's long-projected work first appeared, other 
hands have turned to the same topic under different auspices, 
and, it is just to mention, without either the sanction or 
approval of DICKENS'S publishers, who, as the legal holders 
of vested rights in this literary and artistic property, the 
novels and their illustrations alike, are obviously the persons 
most concerned. 



viii PREFACE 






LIMITATIONS 



The subject is too extensive and expansive, as it proves 
on investigation, to be easily exhausted, and, to begin at 
the beginning, the merely pictorial resources of DICKENS'S 
first great serial work " THE POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE 
PICKWICK CLUB " that sparkling venture which brought 
world-wide fame, favour, and ultimate fortune to " Boz," 
are so prolific that, in the present contribution to the theme, 
it has been found obligatory to confine the illustrations to 
contemporary or relatively early examples, and to abandon 
the idea of bringing these pictorial embellishments and 
accessories up-to-date. 

LTTRACTIONS OF " PICKWICK " 

Conspicuously " the book of its time," all the artistic 
talents of the generation by which its advent was raptur- 
ously welcomed were, as concerns the efforts of book-illustra- 
tors, exerted to register the graphic impressions evoked by 
the appreciative study of " THE PICKWICK PAPERS " upon 
the imaginations of those avowedly humorous designers who 
light-heartedly rushed into the field ; it was finally deter- 
mined, on the part of the present publishers, to devote at 
least one volume to the consideration of this popular topic in 
its earliest " PICKWICKIAN " relationship. 

EARLIEST OFFICIAL ILLUSTRATORS 

Taking as the normal starting-point, the first appearance 
of " PICKWICK " with its " official v illustrators the artists 
employed by Chapman and Hall ; as chosen by the youthful 
" Boz" himself to enliven his vivacious pages with etched plates, 



PREFACE ix 

and to embody in pictorial form the leading " PICKWICKIAN " 
incidents we arrive at the discovery that variorum draw- 
ings, and the variations of the actual etchings to say 
nothing of " states " so understood but limiting our 
reproductions to those plates which exhibit palpable alter- 
ations and diversities ; together with the numerous alternative 
versions, substituted designs, and engravings subsequently 
issued as amended editions, or ultimately adopted in prefer- 
ence to these artists 1 " first attempts," as executed respec- 
tively by ROBERT SEYMOUR, R. W. Buss, and " PHIZ " (Hablot 
K. Browne), are in themselves sufficiently numerous in their 
facsimiled and reproduced forms to fill a fairly compendious 
volume, illustrated on a scale sufficiently liberal to enable 
collectors of " DICKENSIANA " to compare at their ease the 
more marked variations existing between respective versions 
of similar subjects, both in the form of the original designs, 
or as etched plates executed after these initial sketches. 

CONTEMPORARY EXTRA ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Our first volume, however, is more comprehensive than 
this programme implies, for it has been made to include a 
further and more extensive group of " PICKWICK" illustra- 
tions, voluntarily produced contemporaneously with the 
first appearance of that epoch-making epicine publication 
in monthly parts in the years 1836 and 1837. 

The list of artists commissioned to supply the familiar 
series of plates officially issued w r ith the publication in 
numbers, was at the time augmented by the addition of 
another band of illustrative humorous designers, who sought 
favourable recognition, fame, and profit, by producing 
unsolicited as regards the author and his publishers on their 
own behalf, series of etchings intended to be bound up as 

VOL. i b 



x PREFACE 

" EXTRA PLATES " with the original issue in the successive 
monthly numbers. 

The best-known of these ingenious and enterprising 
designers were WILLIAM HEATH, " ALFRED CROWQUILL " 
(Alfred H. Forrester), THOMAS ONWHYN (who signed a 
portion of his series of engravings under the pseudonym of 
44 SAM WELLER"), together with that promising youthful 
genius, THOMAS SIHSON, whose remarkable contributions are 
the least known. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. I 

Selected examples from the suites of contemporaneous 
illustrations to " PICKWICK," together with the entire succes- 
sive series of EXTRA PLATES which made their appearance 
coeval with the first issue, in parts, are thus included in 
our First Volume. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. II 

" PICKWICKIAN CHARACTERS " 

" PICKWICK " CHARACTERS were supplied by KENNY 
MEADOWS, and other artists. Simultaneously with the pro- 
duction of the different dramatised versions of " PICKWICK," 
we are introduced to " Stage-portraits " of the best-known 
and most popular performers in the " PICKWICKIAN " characters 
they assumed on the theatrical boards, in the adaptations 
which, to the disgust of the youthful " Boz," appeared some 
months before the original novel itself was concluded. 

PIRACIES 

The unexampled success, of phenomenal proportions 
amounting to a universal " craze," which attended the first 
appearance of " THE POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK 






PREFACE xi 

CLUB," encouraged the unlicensed efforts of numerous un- 
scrupulous imitators, and we are confronted with quite a 
small library of these illegitimate attempts, in the form of a 
group of contemporaneous piracies, plagiarisms, forgeries, and 
so-called " Continuations," with their equivocal " artists," and 
pseudo " illustrations " ; yet it may be felt that all these 
" oddments " excrescences grafted upon the genuine " PICK- 
WICKIAD " have the interest pertaining to " curiosities " of 
quasi literature and art, and, exclusively in this sense, may 
be deemed worthy of record. 

IMITATIONS OF PICKWICK 

The universally wide-spread popular approval oi PICK- 
WICK " was sufficiently remarkable to beget further imitations 
of various orders!; " PICKWICK " CHARACTERS figured in numerous 
ways and fashions ; while we have collections of avowed 
" PICKWICK " Portraits, Comicalities, " Selected Beauties," 
Almanacks, Annuals, Twelfth-Night Characters, Tricks, 
Shadows, Songs, Songsters, Jest-Books, and even Gazettes ; 
of this curious art and literature examples are interesting in 
their distant relationship to the great original. 

We have DICKENS'S aggrieved protests and indignant 
"proclamations," issued while smarting under these crying 
injustices, denunciations of unblushing forgers, hurled by " the 
inimitable Boz," against what he justifiably stigmatised as the 
" predations of piratical gangs." 

PICKWICK REVIVED BY DICKENS 

Further, realising too painfully that various shameless 
plagiarists utterly without merit of their own were filling 
their pockets with nefarious spoils filched from his own 
legitimate freeholds, and that, more particularly, these 
pirates were making a good thing by basely attempting to 

b 2 



xii PREFACE 

continue the popular run of " PICKWICK," obviously unexhausted 
when "Boz" thought it fitting to bring the immortal " PAPERS " 
to a conclusion, while an eager public, " Oliver Twist 11 like, 
continued " asking for more, 11 the gifted young author was 
himself tempted to revive " PICKWICK 11 on his own behalf, 
with his original pictorial coadjutor, the faithful " PHIZ," as 
artistic collaborateur. 

This revival occurred on the unfolding of "MASTER 
HUMPHREY'S CLOCK CLUB," and " MR. WELLER'S WATCH 
CLUB," included amongst the desultory opening chapters of 
" MASTER HUMPHREY^ CLOCK" in 1840, papers subsequently 
omitted when "The Old Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby 
Rudge " made their appearance as separate volumes. 

ANOTHER GROUP OK ILLUSTRATIONS 

The pioneer of cheap literature, the earliest CHEAP 
EDITION of "PICKWICK" which a decade later followed 
the first or original issue evoked another rush of " PICK- 
WICKIAN" EXTRA illustrations. In addition to the com- 
missions given to " PHIZ " and C. R. Leslie, R.A., less 
recognised hands on the same uninvited principle for the 
most part, and unsolicited as regards either author or pub- 
lishers contributed further embellishments to be bound 
up at discretion with this initial effort of the " Popular 
Press." For this edition was published the memorable series 
of thirty-two drawings on wood by the versatile artist, 
Sir John Gilbert, R.A., whose " PICKWICKIAN " illustrations, 
produced half a century ago, derive just now an increased 
interest owing to the recent decease of that veteran and 
accomplished artist. In a similar spirit THOMAS ONWHYN 
executed certain additional plates, while anonymous de- 
signers of the time produced further illustrative uitess on the 



PREFACE xiii 

chance of their efforts being incorporated with the Cheap 
Edition. 

LATER OFFICIAL ILLUSTRATIONS 

Then we get the " LIBRARY EDITION " of 1858, issued with 
dainty miniature "vignettes" by "Pniz," now choice and 
rare; followed in 1874 by a more extended popular issue," 
"THE HOUSEHOLD EDITION," to which "PHIZ" contributed 
fifty-seven large drawings, somewhat in the autumn of his, 
at that date, declining career. 

FURTHER EXTRA ILLUSTRATIONS 

FREDERICK PAILTHORPE has favoured the collectors of " PICK- 
WICKIANA" by publishing, in 1882, twenty-four spirited 
Extra Plates, etchings of much power, the incidents being 
selected for illustration on the rational plan of exclusively 
dealing with episodes which had hitherto escaped pictorial 
treatment at the hands of " DICKENSONIAN " designers. 
These PAILTHORPE plates are executed with such congenial 
and thorough-going respect for the traditions of the first 
" PICKWICK " serial issue, it must be acknowledged that they 
consistently pertain to the 1836-37 issue ; while it is recog- 
nised that this artistes illustrations are completely inspired 
by the true sentiment of DICKENS^S early days. 

The late CHARLES GREEN, R.I. suddenly passed away, to 
the public loss while further embellishing the pages of 
DICKENS'S incomparable fictions with truly artistic apprecia- 
tion of his favourite author, was perhaps the foremost of 
artists who have brought for the due embodiment and pic- 
torial translation of the illustrious "Boz\s" characters and 
situations, the highest technical proficiency, with artistic 
attainments beyond the average, in alliance with that un- 
mistakable appearance of reality, inseparable from his invari- 



xiv PREFACE 

able practice of actually and consistently " working from the 
life," while his genial humour essentially ran in closest 
sympathy with his author in so full and satisfying a degree 
as to leave nothing to be desired. By this incomparable 
" vanished hand " we have two unpublished " PICKWICK CLUB " 
subjects. 

Among other " novelties," we are enabled to offer some few 
examples of " PICKWICK " illustrations, which, although dating 
back to earlier stages of the " PICKWICKIAN " renown, are 
now published for the first time. 

Nor must the name of the late FRED BARNARD be omitted 
in this connection ; his overflowing and quaintly original 
humour was shown to the best advantage in his " PICKWICK " 
cartoons. 

Then the American and Colonial outlooks are vastly inter- 
esting ; these, amongst other contributions from the other side, 
introduce the admirable and sympathetic DICKENS illustrations 
by the late F. O. C. DARLEY, with further references to 
S. EYTINGE, JR., T. NAST (1873), A. B. FROST (1881), &c., all 
duly particularised. 

The consideration of these additional resources, briefly 
summarised in the foregoing skeleton programme, com- 
pendiously fills our Second Volume. 

RESOURCES 

With all this wealth of material some of which is abso- 
lutely fresh, while much is so rare as to be generally un- 
familiar, or only known to experienced collectors of 
" DICKENSIANA " the feeling arises that, superabundant as 
are the present illustrations, the subject is still unexhausted. 

Friends on the Press have playfully averred that the flush 
of literature of one kind and another directed of late to 






PREFACE xv 

this fruitful topic, have left little or nothing to be said ; the 
present writer's experiences go a considerable way towards 
demonstrating the opposite theory. 



ORIGINAL DRAWINGS 



We may take this opportunity of pointing out to our 
readers that many of our illustrations are unique, being 
literary and artistic treasures unlikely to come into the 
market, although their value in this relationship is practically 
inestimable. Of this order are the numerous original sketches 
designed for " PICKWICKIAN " illustrations by SEYMOUR, " PHIZ," 
Buss, &c., with other artists of the time more particularly, 
the further designs by SEYMOUR for Part II. of the first issue 
of " PICKWICK," and hitherto unpublished examples beyond 
price, dealing with a portion of that inimitable work which, 
on the faith of his own personal statement, even the gifted 
Author himself believed to be unillustrated by the hand of 
the genius in whose fancy the original scheme of the 
" Cockney Nimrod Club " had its inception. Much has 
been said, conjectured, and written concerning these identical 
drawings unequalled in interest from a literary-historical 
point of view studies unfamiliar even to the majority of 
special " DICKENSIANA " collectors, and now for the first time 
given to the public by the obliging favour of the present 
owner, Mr. AUGUSTIN DALY ; the story of these mementoes is 
related in this connection under the section of the present 
work treating of the artist ROBERT SEYMOUR and his " PICK- 
WICK " designs. 

Much interest attaches to the numerous unpublished 
" PICKWICKIAN " designs by " PHIZ," Buss, and other artists, of 
which we are enabled to offer facsimiles, and we claim that 
these rare memorials are only secondary in value in 



xvi PREFACE 

comparison with SEYMOUR'S unpublished " PICKWICK " pictures, 
which derive a further melancholy interest owing to the tragic 
ending of their gifted designer. 

ETCHINGS 

As regards the very numerous suites of engraved works, 
all published, as described, -during the early issue of 
the " PICKWICK PAPERS," many of these series, such as the 
little sheaf of " PICKWICK " etchings by that precocious genius 
THOMAS SIBSON, are little known, and are scarce, costly and 
necessarily difficult to procure; in fact it is obviously 
impossible for any individual to secure a collection of 
" PICKWICKIANA," as regards the original drawings, equally 
comprehensive with the present selection ; and, even as 
relates to the various suites of original etchings, it would be 
found both difficult and expensive to bring together a 
similarly representative gathering. 

FRIENDLY ASSISTANCE 

In accomplishing this curious " hobby -horsical " compilation, 
impelled, as we trust, by an adequate motive, seeing the 
paramount interest which has been evoked by the ever- 
memorable "POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB," 
the Editor has been encouraged and assisted by the 
sympathetic and greatly valued co-operation of, it may be 
said, the foremost " experts," and most experienced veterans, 
in this dilettante branch of the arts of " collecting " and 
" extra illustrating." 

GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

It will be seen that the liberal proprietors of those 
inestimable treasures of " PICKWICKIANA," the ever-important 
original designs, with exceptional munificence which both the 



PREFACE xvii 

writer and his public must ever gratefully acknowledge, have 
allowed their most precious memorials to be reproduced in 
facsimile. The rare generosity of MR. AUGUSTIN DALY in this 
regard has laid under a lasting obligation all DICKENS lovers. 
With similarly generous enthusiasm the Editor's very good 
friend, MR. WILLIAM WRIGHT, of Paris, has allowed the 
Editor and present publishers to avail themselves of all his 
unique resources ; in " the annals of collecting expertise " it 
is familiar that MR. WRIGHT'S treasures of " DICKENSIANA " 
are unequalled, as the reader will readily gather from 
incidental allusions to these matchless resources, scattered 
throughout the present work. To the liberality of MR. 
WILLIAM LOCKWOOD, of Aspley Hall, we are indebted for the 
privilege of reproducing examples from the inimitable series of 
DICKENS drawings important examples of the highest resources 
of water-colour art, executed by the late regretted CHARLES 
GREEN, R.I., an extended commission from that enlightened 
collector unsurpassable drawings which on their original 
appearance in the annual exhibitions at the Royal Institute 
of Painters in Water-Colours, Piccadilly ; and lent to the 
writer as a complete series as the feature of the Humourists'* 
in Art Exhibition held at the same galleries in 1889 ; at the 
Nottingham Castle Exhibition ; and, quite recently, at the 
Victorian Jubilee Exhibition, 1897, at EaiTs Court, have 
afforded to the public in general and DICKENS READERS in 
particular, unqualified delight, and elicited appreciation as 
popular and wide-spread as the favourite incidents in DICKENS'S 
novels themselves, thus sympathetically further immortalised 
in the universal language of pictorial art. 

To well-known collectors and experts we owe many valued 
privileges and special kindnesses ; MR. FRANK SABIN, MR. 
JOHN DEXTER and that ingenious DICKENS Illustrator, MR. 



xviii PREFACE 

FRED PAILTHORPE among other liberal-mined past-masters 
of the art implied in this field of collecting have allowed 
the Editor the run of their resources, what these treasuries 
and stores of literary and artistic wealth imply in hands thus 
experienced, will be realised from the contents of our two 
volumes. To the public spirit of MR. ALBERT JACKSON, and 
MR. BARTHOLOMEW ROBSON respectively, we are indebted for 
permission to reproduce special " PICKWICK " etchings, by the 
capable hand of MR. FRED PAILTHORPE, issued by these 
two gentlemen, who are not only booksellers and publishers, 
but individually rank high among the expert collectors of 

" DlCKENSIANA." 

The well-known name of another widely-recognised authority 
upon every phase of " DICKENSIANA," MR. PERCY FITZGERALD, 
F.S.A., will at once commend itself to DiCKENs-lovers in the 
same connection ; this eminent litterateur enjoyed the signal 
privilege of being one of the " Illustrious Chiefs " own chosen 
"band of merry men, 11 and is familiarly recognised as an 
esteemed lieutenant and literary colleague of the great 
" Inimitable " himself. As an accomplished worker in the same 
prolific field, MR. PERCY FITZGERALD has produced vast stores 
of " PICKWICKIANA," his own extensive collection of these 
memorials the pleasurable labour of a lifetime has fre- 
quently been described, and that facile author's exhaustive 
"HISTORY OF PICKWICK" is an acknowledged storehouse of 
interesting facts, discoveries, details, anecdotes, and " ana " in 
general of the most entertaining and comprehensive character 
relating to " the book of the century." 

To all these friendly collectors the Editor returns his most 
grateful acknowledgments ; it speaks volumes for the liberal 
spirit, possibly bred and nourished by the enthusiastic 
appreciation of CHARLES DICKENS, his works and teachings, 



PREFACE xix 

that these gentlemen have proved thus expansively generous 
as regards the loan of their treasured resources ; at once 
demonstrating the fallacy of the threadbare theory that your 
true collector is so exclusive as to aspire to keep all his good 
things for his own peculiar gratification ; as conventionally 
pictured, gloating curmudgeon-like over the grim miserly 
instinct of denying to others the realisation of treasures and 
advantages which, beyond purely selfish motives, have in his 
eyes lost their true value, the power of giving pleasure to 
the world at large. 

MOTIVES FOR PRODUCING "PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA " 

The Editor has frankly set down his own impression that the 
present venture is of the nature " hobby-horsical," according 
to modern lights ; the frequent and chilling accusation of 
" dilettante-ism" is anticipated. In a deferential spirit it is sug- 
gested that the execution of this project in collecting together 
so much that might otherwise have escaped being brought to a 
focus, or incorporated in an accessible form is neither utterly 
worthless in the eyes of the public at large, nor devoid of 
popular interest, if the ever-potent attractions of CHARLES 
DICKENS have solid significance, and the enduring humouristic 
qualities which made " PICKWICK," " the book of the time " 
continue popular factors in the present generation. There is 
certainly hopeful encouragement even as regards an out-of- 
the-way compilation like the present modest opnsculum to 
be garnered from the prophetic utterances of philosophic 
writers, like JOHN FORSTER, who have left us their well-con- 
sidered literary verdicts upon the question in point, weighty 
opinions alluded to in our opening chapter. We cannot 
better conclude these prefatory lines than by quoting the 
following authority : " The characters of Charles Dickens 



xx PREFACE 

are something more than mere fictional creations, mere 
creatures of the imagination; they breathe and live in real flesh 
and blood, they exist in our very midst. We know, or seem 
to have known them personally ; we have smiled with Sam 
Weller, we have sympathised with Tiny Tim, we have wept 
with Little Nell. They will cease to charm us only when the 
English language is forgotten, or human nature ceases to 
exist." 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE "PICKWICK PAPERS." Frontispiece 
PREFACE vii-xx 

UNIVERSAL POPULARITY OBTAINED BY "PICKWICK" AT 

A BOUND 1 

ORIGIN OF THE " PICKWICK CLUB " 6 

THE ARTIST, ROBERT SEYMOUR 7 

SEYMOUR'S DESIGN FOR THE "PICKWICK" WRAPPER 13 

THE PUBLISHERS 18 

SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS 27 

THE AUTHOR'S VERSION 30 

THE PUBLISHERS' ARRANGEMENTS WITH "Boz" 33 

ORIGINAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE "PICKWICK PAPERS" 35 

FIRST NUMBER OF "PICKWICK" PUBLISHED 37 

ROBERT SEYMOUR'S SAD ENDING 39 

" THE GEORGE AND VULTURE " COPY OF " PICKWICK," with Con- 
temporary Notes by J. Buckham 43 

DICKENS'S "ADDRESS" PUBLISHED WITH No. XV. (July, 1836)... 52 

ROBERT SEYMOUR- 
SEYMOUR'S Six ORIGINAL " PICKWICK " DESIGNS, PURCHASED BY 

MR. AUGUSTIN DALY, 1889 53 

SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS, 

1836 54 

Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF EIGHTEEN ORIGINAL DRAWINGS 

AND ETCHINGS BY ROBERT SEYMOUR 55 

SEYMOUR'S SUCCESSORS (21st April, 1836). "WANTED A 'PICK- 
WICK' ILLUSTRATOR" . , 91 



xxii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

)BERT WILLIAM BUSS 97 

Buss's ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF Buss ILLUSTRATIONS, 1836 ... 107 
Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF Six ORIGINAL DRAWINGS AND 
ETCHINGS BY ROBERT WILLIAM Buss 109 

W. M. THACKERAY'S PROPOSAL TO ILLUSTRATE " PICK- 
WICK," 1836 121 

JOHN LEECH .' 127 

JOHN LEECH'S ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR "PICKWICK" ILLUSTRA- 
TION, 1836 129 

. " PHIZ " HABLOT KNIGHT-BROWNE .' 131- 

"Pniz's" ORIGINAL PLATES AND THEIR EARLIEST TITLES, 1836-7 146 
"Pniz" ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF "Pniz" ILLUSTRATIONS ... 151 
Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF THIRTY-NINE ORIGINAL DRAWINGS 
AND ETCHINGS BY "Pmz" 153 

WILLIAM HEATH-PICKWICKIAN ILLUSTRATIONS 231 

LIST OF HEATH'S ILLUSTRATIONS, 1837 235 

Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF TWENTY ETCHINGS BY WILLIAM 
HEATH, 1837 237 

"ALFRED CROWQUILL" (ALFRED H. FORRESTER) 277 

"PICTURES PICKED FROM THE PICKWICK PAPERS." 283 

LIST OF " CROWQUILL'S " ILLUSTRATIONS 285 

Facsimile REPRODUCTION OF FORTY PLATES OF "PICKWICK" 
PICTURES BY "ALFRED CROWQUILL" 287 

THOMAS ONWHYN "< SAMUEL WELLER'S' ILLUSTRA- 
TIONS TO < THE PICKWICK CLUB '" 1837 367 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF " S. WELLER" PLATES 371 

ILLUSTRATION OF "MR. PICKWICK'S COTTAGE" 373 

LIST OF "THE 'PICKWICK' ILLUSTRATIONS" 375 

Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF THIRTY-TWO ETCHINGS BY T. 
ONWHYN AND "SAM WELLER" 377 

THOMAS ONWHYN 441 

FURTHER ILLUSTRATIONS TO "THE PICKWICK CLUB," 1847 ... 443 
ADVERTISEMENT TO THE EDITION PUBLISH' D BY ALBERT JACK- 
SON 445 

LIST OF TWELVE EXTRA PLATES BY T. ONWHYN 447 

F. W. PAILTHORPE 

ETCHING OF FRONTISPIECE TO TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS BY T. 
ONWHYN. Published by Albert Jackson 449 



CONTENTS xxiii 

PAGE 

THOMAS SIBSON 451 

" RACY SKETCHES OF EXPEDITIONS FROM ' THE PICKWICK CLUB' " 457 

LIST OF SIBSON'S ILLUSTRATIONS 461 

Facsimile REPRODUCTIONS OF PICTORIAL WRAPPER AND TEN 
ETCHINGS BY THOMAS SIBSON .. 463 



APPENDICES TO VOL. I. 

ROBERT SEYMOUR. COLLABORATION WITH CHARLES DICKENS 
ANTERIOR TO THE " PlCKWICK PAPERS," "THE LIBRARY OF 

FICTION" , 487 

ROBERT SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS TO "THE TUGGS'S AT RAMS- 
GATE" (Sketches by " Boz") 489 

R. W. Buss's EARLIER ASSOCIATION WITH CHARLES DICKENS. 
" THE LIBRARY OF FICTION" 
R. W. Buss's ILLUSTRATION TO "SPRING AND SWEEPS," "THE 

FIRST OF MAY" (Sketches by "Boz") 493 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



UNIVERSAL POPULARITY OBTAINED BY 
"PICKWICK" AT A BOUND 

IT is proposed to briefly point out the truth of the well- 
established statement " that the fame of ' Pickwick ' filled 
the entire generation," when the famous " Club " was first in- 
troduced to delighted readers spread over the universal globe. 

Under the consideration of " Dickens's first years of fame 
1836 and 1837," his biographer and steadfast literary 
adviser, John Forster, in " The Life of Charles Dickens," 
under the chapter devoted to the story of "Writing The 
Pickwick Papers? has thus capably summarised his own 
personal recollections of the effects produced on the original 
appearance of that ever-memorable work : 

" Of what the reception of the book had been up to this 
time, and of the popularity Dickens has won as its author, 
this will be the proper place to speak. For its kind, 
its extent, and the absence of everything unreal or fictitious 
in the causes that contributed to it, it is unexampled in 
literature. Here was a series of sketches, without the pre- 
tence to such interest as attends a well-constructed story ; put 
forth in a form apparently ephemeral as its purpose ; having 
none that seemed higher than to exhibit some studies of 
cockney manners with help from a comic artist; and, after 
four or five parts had appeared, without newspaper notice, or 
VOL. T B 



2 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

puffing, and itself not subserving in the public anything false 
or unworthy, it sprang into a popularity that each part 
carried higher and higher, until people at this time talked of 
nothing else, tradesmen recommended their goods by using 
its name, and its sale, outstripping at a bound that of all the 
most famous books of the century, had reached to an almost 
fabulous number. Of part one, the binder prepared four 
hundred ; of part fifteen, his order was for more than forty 
thousand. Every class, the high equally with the low, were 
attracted to it. The charm of its gaiety and good humour, 
its inexhaustible fun, its riotous overflow of animal spirits, 
its brightness and keenness of observation, and above all, the 
incomparable ease of its many varieties of enjoyment, 
fascinated everybody. Judges on the bench and boys in the 
street, gravity and folly, the young and the old, those who 
were entering life and those who were quitting it, alike found 
it to be irresistible. ' An archdeacon, 1 wrote Mr. Carlyle 
afterwards to me, ' with his own venerable lips repeated to 
me, the other night, a strange profane story : of a solemn 
clergyman who had been administering ghostly consolation 
to a sick person ; having finished, satisfactorily as he thought, 
and got out of the room, he heard the sick person ejacu- 
late : " Well, thank God, Pickiwck will be out in ten days 
anyway ! " This is dreadful ! ' 

" Let me add that there was something more in it all 
than the gratification of mere fun and laughter, or even than 
the rarer pleasure that underlies the outbreak of all forms of 
genuine humour. Another chord had been struck. Over and 
above the lively painting of manners which at first had been 
so attractive, there was something that left deeper mark. 
Genial and irrepressible enjoyment, affectionate heartiness 
of tone, unrestrained exuberance of mirth, these are not 
more delightful than they are fleeting and perishable quali- 
ties ; but the attention eagerly excited by the charm of them 
in Pickwick, found itself retained by something more per- 
manent. We had all become suddenly conscious, in the very 



FAME AT A BOUND 3 

extravaganza of adventure and fun set before us, that here 
were real people. It was not somebody talking humorously 
about them, but they were there themselves. That a number 
of persons belonging to the middle and lower ranks of 
life (Wardles, Winkles, Wellers, Tupmans, Bardells, Snub- 
binses, Perkers, Bob Sawyers, Dodsons and Foggs), had been 
somehow added to his intimate and familiar acquaintance, 
the ordinary reader knew before half-a-dozen numbers were 
out; and it took not many more to make clear to the 
intelligent reader that a new and original genius in the walk 
of Smollett and Fielding had arisen in England. 

" Apart from the new vein of humour it opened, its 
wonderful freshness and its unflagging animal spirits, it has 
two characters that will probably continue to attract to it an 
unfading popularity. Its pre-eminent achievement is of 
course Sam Weller ; one of those people that take their place 
among the supreme successes of fiction, as one that nobody 
ever saw but everybody recognises, at once perfectly natural 
and intensely original. Who is there that has ever thought 
him tedious ? Who is so familiar with him as not still to be 
finding something new in him ? Who is so amazed by his 
inexhaustible resources, or so amused by his inextinguishable 
laughter, as to doubt of his being as ordinary and perfect a 
reality, nevertheless, as anything in the London streets ? 
When indeed the relish has been dulled that makes such 
humour natural and appreciable, and not his native fun 
only, his ready and rich illustration, his imperturbable self- 
possession, but his devotion to his master, his chivalry and 
his gallantry, are no longer discovered, or believed no longer 
to exist, in the ranks of life to which he belongs, it will be 
worse for all of us than for the fame of his creator. Nor, 
when faith is lost in that possible combination of eccentrici- 
ties and benevolences, shrewdness and simplicity, good sense 
and folly, all that suggests the ludicrous and nothing that 
suggests contempt for it, which form the delightful oddity of 
Pickwick, will the mistake committed be one merely of 



4 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

critical misjudgment ? But of this there is small fear. Sam 
Weller and Mr. Pickwick are the Sancho and the Quixote 
of Londoners, and as little likely to pass away as the old city 
itself." 

As it happened, after making a modest appearance before 
the public, little heralded by flourishes of trumpets, before 
many numbers had been published, the entire kingdom was 
looking forward to the monthly issues of " Pickwick " with 
eager expectancy. A notable and exceptional point in the 
success of this buoyant and vivacious fiction, as Mr. Croker 
has recorded, was that " Boz " made his way practically by 
sheer force of genius, and without puffery, advertisement, or the 
laudations and kindly-intentioned exertions of friendly 
confreres: "With the exception of occasional extracts in 
the newspapers, he received little or no assistance from the 
Press. Yet, in less than six months from the appearance of 
the first number of the ' Pickwick Papers, 1 the whole reading 
world was talking about them the names of Winkle, 
Wardle, Weller, Snodgrass, Dodson, and Fogg had become 
'familiar in our mouths as Household Words.' - Nay, 
4 Pickwick chintzes ' figured in linen-drapers' windows, and 
' Weller corduroys ' in breeches-makers' advertisements ; ' Boz 
cabs ' might be seen rattling through the streets ; and the 
portrait of the author of ' Pelham ' or ' Crichton ' was scraped 
down, or pasted over, to make room for that of the new 
popular favourite in the omnibuses." 

Here is another contemporaneous reminiscence : 
" Few works of this or any other age have enjoyed greater 
or more universal popularity. The unprecedented sale of 
copies ; the feverish anxiety with which every one watched 
the coming ' first of the month,' as being to usher in a new 
number of the engrossing series ; the voracious eagerness with 
which each precious morsel was literally devoured as soon 
as presented ; the feeling of half-disappointment, half- 
anticipation in which we closed each number, with a know- 
ledge that a long month must elapse before curiosity could 



FAME AT A BOUND 5 

be satisfied or anxiety relieved these every reader will 
recollect as furnishing an index of public favour." 

No more enthusiastic appreciation is recorded than the 
genial testimony of a sister-novelist ; Miss Mitford, writing 
to friends in Dublin a description of the latest literary 
novelty, offers a lively picture of London society universally 
under the influence of " Boz^s " fascination : 

" So you never heard of the ' Pickwick Papers ' ! 
Well, they publish a number once a month, and print 
S5,000. It is fun London life but without anything 
unpleasant ; a lady might read it aloud ; and this so graphic, 
so individual, and so true, that you could courtesy to all the 
people as you see them in the streets. / did think that there 
had not been a place zvhere English is spoken to which Boz 
had not penetrated. All the boys and girls talk his fun 
the boys in the streets ; and yet those who are of the highest 
taste like it the most. Sir Benjamin Brodie takes it to read in 
his carriage between patient and patient ; and Lord Denman 
studies ' Pickwick ' on the Bench while the j ury are deliber- 
ating. Do take some means to borrow the ' Pickwick Papers? 
It seems like not having heard of Hogarth." 

Despite the temptations of the theme, with its astonishing 
diversity, we feel it is unnecessary to further enlarge on the 
unexampled vogue enjoyed by " Pickwick " as the monthly 
numbers came out to bewitch every class of the reading 
public, for the sufficient reason that the extended popularity 
monopolised by this unique production, absolutely un- 
precedented in its own day, or in any day, has been ably 
described in the exhaustive " History of Pickwick," industri- 
ously compiled by that enthusiastic collector of " Pickwick- 
iana," Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, M.A., F.S.A., one of "the 
chiefs " own " merry men," and a chosen literary coadjutor 
of Dickens himself. 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 

4< A FIRST book has its immunities, and the distinction of 
this from the rest of the writings appears in what has been 
said of its origin. The plan of it was simply to amuse. It 
was to string together whimsical sketches of the pencil by 
entertaining sketches of the pen ; and, at its beginning, where 
or how it was to end was as little known to himself as to any 
of his readers." Thus candidly does John Forster register 
the facts appertaining to the inception of " Pickwick " as set 
down in his " Life of Charles Dickens." 

It is a sad truism that good work is frequently born of travail 
and suffering. The origin of the " Pickwick Club," a wholly 
mirth-provoking production, happily predestined to increase 
the harmless gaiety of nations, was, in its inception, a startling 
instance of those stern doctrines involving the " irony of fate " 
theory, inexorable and inevitable. 

There are three official accounts variously explaining the 
veracious story, each materially differing in dates and details, 
and respectively emanating from the three principal personages 
most likely to be fully informed upon the actual facts of the 
case. The artist Seymour undoubtedly originated the initial 
scheme of illustrating various unconnected adventures of 
Cockney sportsmen, to be graphically portrayed under the 
convenient if trite expedient of a " Nimrod Club " all three 
accounts are agreed to this extent. The vivacious author of 
" PICKWICK" from the first start, turned, twisted, shaped, 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 7 

and made the crude materials his very own by the absolute 
force of his genius, and fiery Pegasus-like, immediately dashing 
away with the lead, from ingredients, perhaps a trifle uncon- 
genial to himself, produced the most popularly appreciated 
book of the century possibly of any century ; and, at one 
lucky bound, on the strength of his parts, became the most 
famous of novelists. The " third party " was the connecting 
link, the useful, necessary publishers, upon whose business- 
like conduct of the affair the commercial responsibilities 
depended. 

SEYMOUR THE ARTIST 

Robert Seymour, a blithe, pleasant, busy little man, had 
industriously administered to the amusement of his generation 
throughout a hard-working career, already extending to a 
score of busy years, by producing hundreds of humorous 
pictures, and was popularly appreciated as the droll designer 
of " Seymour's Sketches," amongst innumerable similar comic 
productions, which had made his name reasonably familiar in 
the annals of art and letters, as recognised in his generation. 

In 1835, this indefatigable hard worker was, as usual, very 
busy indeed ; born with the century, the designer was at that 
time some thirty-five years of age. There were periodicals, 
like the " Figaro in London," and a rival venture, " The 
Comic Magazine," to which he was week by week contributing 
comic illustrations ; finding time meanwhile for numerous 
etchings on steel of a more advanced and exacting order ; 
together with multifarious drawings on wood for " Hood's 
Comic Almanacs." Simultaneously with these there was 
proceeding " The Squib Annual of Poetry, Politics, and 
Personalities," and " The Book of Christmas," with thirty-six 
admirable designs, no less happily etched upon steel, u investing 
Christmastide with the picturesquenesfcTof '"Old England,' 1 and 
the festive observances of modern times added to enliven that 
joyous season." At the same time, for the elder Thomas 



8 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

McLean of the Haymarket, Seymour was producing a great 
deal of meritorious humorist ic work, separate caricatures, 
after the nature of those made familiar by the brothers G. and 
11. Cruikshank, Heath, H. B. (the elder J. Doyle), Theodore 
Lane, M. Egerton, Crowquill, Alken, and many other cari- 
caturists under similar auspices, and enlisted under the same 
patronage, issued in the familiar form of pictorial skits in 
folio, etched on copper, or drawn on stone, and coloured by 
hand. There was the satirical serial publication, entitled 
" The Looking Glass," entirely produced by our artist, a 
lithographic sheet in folio of political and other caricatures ; 
this, in Seymour's hands, became a medium for amusing 
pleasantry, and to this venture a lithographic " Charivari " 
he contributed pictures, descriptive " tags," and occasional 
verses. There was also " The Omnibus," a series of copper- 
plates; and "The Heiress," of earlier date, a sort of 
pictorial fashionable novel, consisting of six copper-plates in 
folio, each containing a centre picture with several smaller 
designs grouped around ; the whole series unfolding the 
story of a young lady suddenly dowered with wealth; the 
swarming suitors attracted by the heroine^s fortune ; and 
episodes of fashionable life, dramatically ending in an elope- 
ment to Gretna Green with a gallant captain ; a graphig 
romance a la mode, according to the moving fictions in three 
volumes of that epoch. All this incessant occupation as 
described brought the indefatigable designer into constant 
touch with publishers ; there were the " Seymour's Sporting 
Sketches," drawn on stone for Carlile, and etched on steel for 
Tregear ; and the twelve designs drawn on stone to illustrate 
" Maxims and Hints for an Angler," for the Houghton 
Fishing Club. Spooner, like McLean, a well-established 
publisher, who brought out many of Seymour's drawings on 
stone, books, and broadsides, worked at the lithographic 
press, was also issuing the steel plates to the "Book of 
Christmas " ; while a young enterprising firm, at that time 
projecting the series entitled "The Library of Fiction," also 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 9 

busied about publishing " The Squib Annual " entirely by our 
artist. 

With all this work daily growing under his hands, Seymour 
in 1835 proposed to turn his recreations, w r hich were of a 
sporting nature (chiefly those pastimes most readily accessible 
to a Londoner such as fishing and shooting of a confessedly 
Cockneyfied order), into further comic pictorial capital ; and, 
pursuing the vein which had secured his name most popular 
recognition with the " Cockney Sporting Sketches,"" he finally 
projected the scheme of a " Nimrod Club," the members to be 
led into ludicrous adventures owing to their general want of 
skill and grotesque incompetence ; the series to be published 
in monthly parts, price one shilling. This method of pro- 
duction was all the fashion for circulating sporting and 
Cockney adventures, and much encouraging success had re- 
warded similar ventures ; there is of the time a lengthy list 
of publications issued in monthly parts. TThe interest chiefly 
centred in the etchings or etched and aquatinted plates 
mostly coloured by hand with a letter-press frameworty or 
literary " padding," written around the plates, so as to lend to 
the otherwise fragmentary and disconnected embellishments 
a more or less coherent narrative according to the ability of 
the auxiliary hack ; the whole stitched in a wrapper bearing 
some spirited design, or series of incidents worked into an 
attractive and appetising frontispiece, the pictorial show-card 
of these enlivening and instructive medleys nowadays in 
considerable request amongst collectors, and proportionately 
high priced. Rowlandson, with his faithful, fluent and facile 
scribe, Combe, as his rhyming colleague, had early obliged 
the world with " Eccentric Tours," like the " Adventures of 
Dr. Syntax," in respective suites, " In Search of the Pic- 
turesque," " In Search of a Wife," and " In Search of Conso- 
lation ; " followed by the " Adventures of Dr. Syntax's 
foundling ' Johnny Qure Genus,' " " The Dance of Life," 
" The Dance of Death," and so on through a long succession 
of protracted series similarly compounded. All these successes 



10 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

begot numerous imitators, with suites issued in monthly 
parts, just as the triumphant career of " Pickwick " evoked 
plagiaristic versions in turn later on. 

The brothers George and Robert Cruikshank hat! followed 
the veteran caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (while that 
humoristic delineator's suites were still being issued by 
Rudolph Ackermann), with well-known and inspiriting strings 
of subjects drawn from the annals of the "Fancy,' 11 otherwise 
scenes of " fast life," high and low, and equally instructive ; 
notably the famous " Life in London," with the ingenious 
sportive writer Pierce Egan as " chorus " to connect the 
plates, and unfold the adventures of " the Corinthians," Tom, 
Jerry, and Bob, who, like Pickwick, Winkle, Tupman, 
Snodgrass, and other Pickwickian followers, constituted the 
dramatis persona?, plunged on a sea of eccentric experiences ; 
all these stimulating and highly-coloured pictures of men 
and manners appeared in monthly parts, contained in a 
coloured wrapper, adorned with an appetising design, in- 
dicating the " prime " order of the composition ; of this 
nature was the rarer series " Life in Paris," embellished by 
George Cruikshank ; " Real Life in London," founded upon 
and written around a lengthy series of designs by H. Alken ; 
the vivacious " Bob Transit's" " Finish " to the adventures of 
Tom, Jerry, and Bob Logic, a continuation of " Life in 
London," on the same plan, Robert Cruikshank furnishing 
the plates, and Pierce Egan supplying the framework and 
the engaging " copy." More typical than even these choice 
examples was " The English Spy," " Bob Transit " again 
designing the plates, and C. M. Westmacott evolving the 
extraordinary narrative and scandalous chronicles ; artist and 
author, in their proper persons, the heroes of most of the 
adventures. There were the sporting suites by the versatile 
Henry Alken ; " Annals of the Fancy and Sporting Gazette," 
by that promising youthful artist, Theodore Lane, some time 
a fellow-worker with Robert Seymour. Not to prolong the 
list of publications of this order (all apparently unknown 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 11 

to Dickens), these were the models of racy style, and the 
artistic triumphs of the age preceding the appearance of 
Boa?. 

In their serial form, these extravagant but popular monthly 
numbers, were the chief avenues for illustrative designers and 
for writers electing to serve as "hacks," whose proclivities 
and peregrinations through modish society led them to 
furnish forth to order their enlightening observations upon 
the seamy side of the social world, the current scandals of the 
haut monde, unsophisticated proceedings of low life, annals 
of the prize-ring, and various phases of sporting life, of a 
burlesque description for the most part ; all introduced to an 
appreciative public, issued in serial form and in monthly 
parts, price one shilling. With such encouraging sheaves of 
successful sporting and sportive suites illuminating his 
generation, Seymour the contemporary and some time work- 
ing colleague of every individual of the band of 
humorous designers aforesaid, very naturally aspired to similar 
notoriety and success ; his talents were inferior to none, his 
life better regulated, his industry more remarkable, while 
his sense of humour of a gentler order was rather calculated 
to improve the taste of the patrons of pictorial pabulum of 
the order sufficiently described for our present purpose. 

Largely founded upon his personal experiences, Sey- 
mour, revolving the idea in his mind, resolved upon 
converting his plan into something of a sporting charac- 
ter, and settled upon a " Nimrod Club" of awkward 
inexpert Cockney neophites, whose misfortunes and mis- 
adventures he was, by long practice, thoroughly qualified to 
depict. 

The success of " The Heiress " series, excellently etched, 
had at first encouraged Seymour to bring out something on 
a similar plan, and he proposed the subject to McLean. 

The story as related by the artist, and subsequently 
recorded by his family after his unfortunate decease, is thus 
set down -.This was in the autumn of 1835, during which 



12 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

time Mr. Spooner frequently called at Seymour's house to 
ascertain the progress of the plates for " The Book of Christ- 
mas,*" and, on one of these occasions, Seymour brought 
forward the proposal of his projected " Nimrod Club," which 
Spooner highly approved, and, in talking the matter over 
between them, it was decided that it would be an improve- 
ment to add letter-press. The undertaking was so far put 
in motion that Seymour etched four plates from the draw- 
ings which he had made, and Mr. Spooner suggested that 
Theodore Hook should, if possible, be engaged for the 
letter-press. In consequence of Spooner being very much 
occupied in the production of "The Book of Christmas" 
(which, through the dilatoriness of the author, T. K. Hervey, 
came out a month later than it should have done), the 
" Sporting Club " project lay in abeyance, and the four 
plates that were etched remained in the artist's drawer for 
about three months, so that Seymour began to think that, 
if he did not soon hear from Spooner, he would bring out 
the work on his own account, and get Henry Mayhew (who 
was at that time his editor on the " Figaro "), or the ready 
adapter Moncrieff (who had dramatised " Life in London " 
for the stage), to write up to his plates. All this was of 
course anterior to the appearance on the scene of the future 
publishers. Unfortunately, Seymour and his friends do not 
enlighten us upon the subject of the wrapper design, as 
already explained, an important element in reference to the 
success of similar ventures, predecessors of the soi-dimnt 
" Transactions of a Cockney Sporting Club " ; much depended 
on the attractive character of the designs on the the covers 
of these monthly parts, and the " crux " of Seymour's 
original plans is found in this design, now so familiar on the 
green covers of the monthly numbers of " Pickwick " ; other- 
wise, by a coincidence, although in every way consistent with 
the " Nimrod Club " notion, having no connection whatever 
with the course pursued and brought to so amazingly 
successful an issue by Dickens, who never in any way carried 




The drawing on wood executed by Robert Seymour. 
Designed for the wrapper of "The Pickwick Papers," issued with the first 

number, 31st March. 1836. 
Engraved on wood by J. Jackson. 

Mr. Winkle missing a robin ; Mr. Pickwick asleep in a punt moored on the Thames 
off Putney Bridge ; Putney Church in the distance. 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 15 

out the suggestions thus indicated on the actual wrapper of 
" Pickwick." The theory of adventures planned to be 
delineated, but never executed by the artist, probably owing 
to his sudden exit, are evidently foreshadowed ; there are 
several fishing-rods, for " fly " and " bottom " fishing ; nets, 
both " landing " and " casting " ; a bow and quiver of arrows, 
on the archery side ; all implements suggesting " gentle 
Waltonian" recreations, in which the designer was an 
adept, and the future illustrious author was not. There is 
the typical Cockney sportsman of comic fiction, ultra- 
professional in equipment, elaborately missing a dicky-bird, 
perched at two guns 1 length from the shooter ; the bird, 
calmly contemptuous of the sportsman, evincing no uneasi- 
ness or alarm ; the would-be sportsman, described subse- 
quently by " Boz " as " Mr. Winkle," was a favourite figure 
with the artist, and often occurs in Seymour's sketches ; 
every one familiar with the series has met that Cockney 
fraud and pretender frequently, anterior to his introduction 
on the wrapper of " Pickwick." There too is a farcical 
version of a well-known character, fast asleep, with his 
fishing-rod between his knees, and blackbirds eating his pie ; 
the hero seated in a punt, moored off Putney Bridge, with 
Putney Church conscientiously sketched in the background. 
Another favourite of Seymour's, the irascible elderly gentle- 
man, portly, short, blue-coated, with white vest, nankeen 
tights or pantaloons, black gaiters, wearing round spectacles 
with tortoiseshell rims, and sporting a low-crowned beaver 
with a broad brim. A typical being, as to externals, we 
have encountered for a long succession of years, occurring 
through a considerable series of the artist's sketches, and in 
the "Cockney Sporting" series, apparently sharing the 
questionable compliment of figuring as the designer's elderly 
type, while the younger typical Cockney was subsequently 
christened " Winkle " by " Boz," who, as he relates, adopted 
this weakly bantling "for the convenience of Seymour." 
Needless to say, the elderly portly gentleman became world- 



16 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

famous, when Dickens embraced his odd personality, and 
sent him forth to the world as that wonderful entity " Mr. 
Pickwick," whose lovable character and human attributes 
were entirely conferred by his literary creator. Seymour's 
typical elderly sportsman, by the genius of Dickens, was 
confessedly removed from the commonplace, and elevated 
into everything vital, lovable, and enduring ; " Boz's " teeming 
invention converted a mere pictorial pleasantry or graphic 
figment into the immortal " Pickwick," favourably known to 
generations of appreciative readers. Even those chiefly 
concerned in the appearance of the genial and eccentric 
" Pickwick " have lost sight of the simple facts, sufficiently 
familiar to contemporaries. That celebrated personage was 
by his literary sponsor introduced to universal recognition 
with minute exactness ; Dickens having carefully lent an 
air of realism to the otherwise imaginary " Proceedings " by 
precisely stating the date both of the foundation of the 
association in 1822, and of the meeting of the " Pickwick 
Club " at which the veracious " Transactions " started on 
their remarkable career, with " Boz " as their chronicler, by 
Dickens fixed as May 12, 1827. 

The founder of the memorable association was at that 
time a venerable gentleman whose birthday dated back to 
the early years of the accession of our revered monarch 
George III. ; Samuel Pickwick had necessarily witnessed 
many sumptuary changes ; at the age of early maturity he had 
probably followed the fashions of the time, when the gallant 
and youthful prince Florizel led the fashions in garments, 
and fairly gay and extravagant they were ! Another twenty 
years brought Mr. Pickwick to the days of the Regency, when 
Beau Brummel was pleased to pose as the arbiter eleganti- 
arum ; now these fashions remained in force for a decade ; 
even after Waterloo the prevailing costume happened to be a 
blue or mulberry dress coat, such as we see our hero wearing, 
with gilt buttons ; a white vest ; " nankeen " or drab " tights " ; 
with black " shorts," pumps, and silk stockings for dress ; 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 17 

gaiters and shoes for workaday wear ; a low-crowned beaver, 
with a broad brim ; and, where eye-glasses or spectacles were 
needed, the glasses were circular and the frames were of 
tortoiseshell. " Trousers," it may be remembered, were the 
dreadful revolutionary French fashion, only imported here 
about 1816, after the close of the Peninsular Wars. When 
Captain Gronow aspired to lead the fashion in London on his 
return from Paris in 1816, being invited to meet that exalted 
personage, the Prince Regent, by Lady Hertford at Man- 
chester House, the dandy young guardsman thought proper 
to present himself, like a fashion-loving aspirant, wearing 
the latest novelty, and, for his pains, was summarily ordered 
off the premises when the august Regent discovered his nether 
limbs. " The great man," said the Prince's aide-de-camp, " is 
very much surprised that you should have ventured to appear 
in his presence without knee-breeches ; " for " tights " or 
culottes were de rigueur^ and trousers regarded as lese-majeste. 
Probably our venerated friend, Mr. Samuel Pickwick, in 
common with thousands of middle-aged gentlemen, who 
had been accounted dandies in their prime, adhered to the 
fashions of a few years anterior ; and, as a lover of the past 
(we know he was enthusiastically attached to things that 
savoured of antiquity), still clung to the prevailing fashions of 
the Regency about the " twenties." Generations of elderly 
bucks did not fall into innovations rashly, and, all things 
considered, Mr. Pickwick's general fashion was but very few 
years behind the most modish tailor's " latest novelties " for 
the season of 1822 (according to the fashion plates). There 
must have been a considerable leaven of contemporaries, 
equally conservative, to keep him in countenance, although 
that was barely necessary, for the fashions of George IV.'s 
time approximated to the guise pertaining to Mr. Pickwick's 
externals ; we venture to set down this explanation in the 
belief that the identity of this illustrious character is an item 
worthy of grave and exhaustive consideration. 

VOL. i C 



18 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



THE PUBLISHERS 

It will be noted that Mr. Chapman's account differs from 
that given by the designer, especially on a point of dates ; in 
the publisher's version it is stated that it was in 1835, on one 
of the occasions he visited Seymour in connection with his 
illustrations for the " The Squib Annual of Poetry, Politics? 
and Personalities" (as seen, a venture of Chapman and 
Hall's), that the artist unfolded his schema, which eventuated 
in the publication of " PICKWICK." According to the artist, 
who is circumstantial, it was February, 1836, when his plan 
was imparted to Chapman, who had waited on Seymour to 
induce him to make certain drawings on wood for the 
projected serial which Chapman and Hall had in progress. 
This was the " Library of Fiction," and, " subject to the 
express condition that his drawings were to be engraved by 
a certain engraver on wood, whom he named," this commis- 
sion was undertaken. The engravings in question, repro- 
duced in the Appendix at the end of the present volume, 
were admirably cut by Landells; as it happens, they 
illustrate " The Tuggs's at Ramsgate," Dickens's first contri- 
bution to Number I of the " Library of Fiction " ; while 
among the advertisements bound up in this part was 
announced the prospectus of the coming work by " Boz " and 
Seymour. 

The circumstances under which Dickens, at that period 
unknown to the publishers, had been induced to become a 
contributor to the " Library of Fiction " through the offices 
of his early friend Charles Whitehead, the editor, are 
briefly set down by John Forster : " A new publishing house 
had started, recently, among other enterprises ingenious rather 
than important, a ' Library of Fiction ' ; among the authors 
they wished to enlist in it was the writer of the * Sketches ' in 
the ' Monthly ' (Magazine) : and to the extent of one paper 
during the past year they had effected this through their 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 19 

editor, Mr. Charles Whitehead, a very ingenious and very un- 
fortunate man." The leading member of the firm, Mr. Edward 
Chapman, thirteen years later, in a letter (dated 7th July, 
1849, to which letter special reference was made by the 
author of " PICKWICK " in his preface to one of the later 
editions), thus wrote to Dickens : " I was not aware that you 
were writing in ' The Chronicle, 1 or what your name was ; but 
Whitehead, who was an ' Old Monthly ' man, recollected it ; 
and got you to write 6 The Tuggs's at Ramsgate.' " 

In the old " Monthly Magazine " had appeared certain 
papers of the "Sketches by <Boz'"; Charles Whitehead, 
from his association with that periodical and with the serial 
" Library of Fiction," was evidently the confidential and 
handy editor likeliest to be consulted by the youthful firm, 
some of whose publications he conducted ; it is certain that 
Dickens was engaged to contribute to the " Library of 
Fiction" solely through his agency. As stated by Edward 
Chapman, the firm, at the date in question (when starting 
the "Library of Fiction"), professed to be in blissful 
ignorance as regards their coming " Fortunatus," being un- 
acquainted with his name, and not aware that the promising 
young writer had contributed to "The Chronicle" those 
lively and realistic "Sketches" which first brought their 
author into notice. We have mentioned Charles Whitehead 
in this place designedly, for, among other writers, he was one 
of the earliest to be consulted by the publishers as to fitting 
Seymour's projected new series of "Sporting Sketches" with 
the necessary descriptive narrative; and as Whitehead was 
already overdone with work, and as young Dickens, then 
some twenty-two years of age, was evidently making his way 
by literary " Sketches," which were attracting favourable 
recognition, the elder editor suggested to the publishing firm 
" the new hand," as, being a dab at " Sketches " himself, most 
likely to work harmoniously with the artist, whose reputation 
had likewise been founded upon his own graphic " Sketches " 
published as such; in fact, "Seymour's Sketches" had 

c 2 



20 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

gained popular favour long before " Sketches by ' Boz ' " had 
entered upon the field of competition in another pathway 
to fame. 

It is beyond dispute that the first suggestion for the 
intended new work at first implied no more than a literary 
job, " a piece of hackwork," as Mr. Percy Fitzgerald has 
clearly elucidated, " in which the writer was to be useful to 
Mr. Seymour." The commission had been offered to Clarke, 
unsuccessfully, according to Chapman's account; and sug- 
gested to Theodore Hook by Mr. Spooner, earliest proposed 
as the publisher ; Mr. Buss, in his memoir, has alluded to 
other writers who were thought of as likely scribes to furnish 
literary illustrations to the plates, and string together the 
letter-press to accompany Seymour's graphic panorama of 
sporting incidents, originally designed by the artist to tell 
its own story pictorially, on the lines of " The Heiress." The 
names of Leigh Hunt, Hood, and John Poole were at one 
time proposed, it is stated. The story which leads directly to 
" Boz's " engagement is told by Mr. Mackenzie Bell, and is 
incidentally confirmed by John Forster; it was Charles 
Whitehead, the more experienced editor and friend of 
Dickens, and who had already been in successive positions 
enabling him editorially to lend the young writer a helping 
hand, who found " the coming man." " Whitehead used 
constantly to affirm that he had been asked to write to 
Seymour's sketches ; but that, feeling uncertain as to his 
being able to supply the copy with regularity, he had recom- 
mended Dickens." 

As affirmed by the artist, Seymour at the time being 
employed upon the illustrations for " Boz's " " Sketches " for 
the " Library of Fiction " thought fit to confide the much- 
discussed plan to Edward Chapman, and, according to this 
feasible version, showed that publisher the sketches and four 
plates ; it was recorded by the artist's relatives that these 
four designs were subsequently modified ; it is certain, from 
an entry in Seymour's books, that the steel plates in question 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 21 

were re-etched ; there was no motive in executing the plates 
afresh, excepting in compliance with the representations of 
others to carry out modifications, improvements or sugges- 
tions, which, in a similar instance, as will appear, were later 
made " to personally oblige " the author of " Pickwick," with 
tragic results, which were a source of unavailing regret to 
all concerned. In the official Seymour version it is alleged : 
" Chapman very soon closed with the illustrator's offer, pro- 
posing at first that the new work should be brought out in 
half-guinea volumes; but Seymour, who desired the widest 
circulation, insisted on his original plan, for it was his own 
idea that it should be in shilling monthly numbers. The 
publisher then asked Seymour if he had engaged an author 
to do the writing, and upon receiving an answer in the 
negative, mentioned Mr. Clarke, the author of ' Three 
Courses and a Dessert.' This writer, however, the artist 
objected to for a private reason. Chapman then spoke of 
' Boz,' and having in his hand "one of the drawings, which 
was a representation of a poor author's troubles (afterwards 
converted into the 6 Stroller's Tale '), he ended the matter by 
some pleasantry about the proverbial poverty of literary men, 
expressed a hope he would see Mr. Dickens, and lay his 
views of the matter before him. Soon after an interview 
took place between the parties, and the sum of 15 per 
month was agreed on as Dickens's recompense. The artist, 
however, soon found, like Winkle on the tall horse, that 
it was a difficult thing to direct the motions of an author 
who had his own views to consult. Seymour's scheme was 
certainly a form of narrative in which the principal incidents 
should be of a sporting character, something as Mr. Dickens 
describes it, ' a Nimrod Club, the members of which were to 
go out shooting, fishing, and so forth.' Whether this design 
involves such a pastoral simplicity and restricts the range of 
description so much as Mr. Dickens seems to imply, is 
perhaps capable of being disproved. Certain it is that 
sketches to illustrate the contemplated work according to 






PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



Seymour's intentions, were designed a considerable time 
before the letter-press was arranged for, and the well-known 
portrait of the founder of the club existed on paper at least 
five years prior to Mr. Chapman's visit to Seymour, when the 
artist unfolded his views. 1 ' The figure was a stock-piece with 
Seymour, a favourite model for his elderly gentlemen (as was 
Winkle the type of his Cockney " shootists ") ; the main fact 
has never been questioned by any rational critic that it was 
solely due to the invention of " Boz " this otherwise conven- 
tional " lay-figure," by the writer endowed with the effectively 
odd and striking cognomen of " Pickwick," became a real 
living personage ; the designer was responsible, so far, for the 
familiar outward man, but Dickens quickened these externals 
with vital qualities and characteristics which have endeared 
this eccentric prototype of " Boz's " literary creation to 
myriads of readers all over the wide universe. 

Dickens's biographer, John Forster, has alluded to the 
claims set forth by the Seymour family (in justification of 
the memory of and in place of the dead man), to be heard as 
to the genuine facts of the case ; it is to be deplored that 
there was an inevitable grievance ; the artist propounded his 
pet scheme with simple confidence, and the publishers carried 
it out according to the requirements of the writer whose 
collaboration they had invited. Dickens could only carry 
out the object according to his lights ; it is evident the 
misfortune was that of Seymour, the unfortunate victim of 
circumstances, whose original project was accepted, and, 
from the first, turned inside out, and quickly discarded for 
something presumably infinitely preferable and more popularly 
attractive in Dickens's liveliest vein, " the first sprightly 
runnings of his genius," in fact. 

At this point of the story it is fitting to quote all that has 
been made public of the letter (written at Dickens's earnest 
desire), dated 7th July, 1849, by Mr. Edward Chapman, 
embodying the publisher's impressions of his original con- 
nection with Seymour, and, later on, with " Boz." We have 



ORIGIN OF THE " PICKWICK CLUB" 23 

shown how the publisher, in compliance with" this request, 
informed the author that, until his name was introduced by 
the editor, Charles Whitehead, as a " likely hand " for their 
forthcoming serial, the " Library of Fiction," the firm had 
no knowledge of his writings in " The Chronicle," nor even of 
" Boz's " existence ! The letter, on these premises, furnishes 
the circumstances of Dickens's 'engagement by Mr. Chapman, 
according to the publisher's recollections : 

"In November, 1835, we published a little book called 
' The Squib Annual,'* with plates by Seymour, and it was 
during my visits to him to see after them, that he said he 
should like to do a series of Cockney sporting plates of a 
superior sort to those he had already published. I said I 
thought they might do, if accompanied by letter-press and 
published in monthly parts; and this being agreed to, we 
wrote to the author of ' Three Courses and a Dessert, 1 and 
proposed it, but receiving no answer, the scheme dropped 
for some months, till Seymour said he wished us to 
decide, as another job had offered which would fully occupy 
his time ; and it was on this we decided to ask you to do it. 
Having opened a connection with you for our ' Library of 
Fiction ' we naturally applied to you to do the ' Pickwick, 1 but 
I do not think we even mentioned our intention to Mr. 
Seymour, and I am quite sure that from the beginning to the 
end nobody but yourself had anything whatever to do with 
it. Our prospectus was out at the end of February, and it 
had all been arranged before that date. 

" As this letter is to be historical I may as well claim what 
little belongs to me in the matter, and that is the figure of 
' Pickwick. 1 Seymour's first sketch was of a long, thin man. 
The present immortal one he made from my description of 
a friend of mine at Richmond, a fat old beau who would 
wear, in spite of the ladies 1 protests, drab tights and black 
gaiters. His name was John Foster. 11 

There doubtless were plenty of " Pickwick " models walking 
about in the flesh even as late as 1835-6 ; the publisher's 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 






"prototype," John Foster, had been anticipated in many 
earlier instances among Seymour's sketches, as already 
described, and the type occurs so frequently amidst the 
artist's earlier studies of character, that any one familiar with 
the numerous foregoing suites already referred to, ceases to 
remark upon the coincidence of the repetitions of respective 
graphic types, evidently favoprite stock models with the 
designer, some of whose figures of this order invariably 
suggest the popular personality of the founder of the " Pick- 
wick Club," later made a reality and immortalised by Dickens. 

It is further a coincidence that neither the publishers nor the 
author of " Pickwick " had the curiosity to glance through a 
few suites of the numerous humorous designs, sporting and 
social, which had given Seymour's name an extended reputa- 
tion among his contemporaries ; otherwise they could not have 
failed to recognise the oft-repeated coincidences of running 
against startling prototypes of " Pickwick " and " Winkle " 
in various phases, all published years before the lively 
invention of " Boz " evolved the more familar " Pickwick 
Club," and furnished to these conventional figments " a 
local habitation and a name." 

It has been shown that Mr. Edward Chapman was the 
partner with whom Seymour made his arrangements in an 
apparently loose fashion, and without any written agreement 
it seems ; how easily these preliminary verbal stipulations on 
the part of the artist were overlooked, forgotten, or ignored, 
can be understood when it is explained that it was Mr. 
William Hall, the junior partner, to whose offices were en- 
trusted those overtures to. the writer inaugurating arrange- 
ments which led to the " Pickwick Papers " flowing from 
Dickens's pen; although his original commission amounted 
to little more than " a piece of literary drudgery, which 
was to consist in illustrating certain illustrations that were to 
be executed by an artist of much popularity, a combination 
then in favour." Mr. Hall was possibly unencumbered with 
provisos laid down by the designer, who first started into 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 25 

motion this undertaking, which was to produce such un- 
exampled results. Evidently Mr. Hall made no consistent 
stand for the principles involved in the original verbal 
engagement with Seymour ; from this point the artist's part 
of the performance became subordinate, and, so far, of 
merely secondary consideration, according to the statements 
of the publishers and author. 

When, thirteen years subsequently, Edward Chapman, at 
Dickens's request, committed to paper his recollections of the 
preliminary arrangements made by the publishing firm with 
both contracting parties, the partner, who had, in the first 
instance, carried the proposal to Dickens, was deceased; 
it was consequently left for Mr. Chapman to relate (in 1849) 
his impressions upon the nature of the contract between the 
firm and the young author, as a supplement to the account 
already given of his own share in the preceding agreement 
with the artist : " There was no agreement about 4 PICK- 
WICK,' except a verbal one. Each number was to consist of a 
sheet and a half, for which we were to pay fifteen guineas, 
and we paid him for the first two numbers at once, as he 
required the money to go and get married with. We 
were also to pay more according to the sale, and I think 
' PICKWICK ' altogether cost us three thousand pounds." 

Mr. John Forster, who, as Dickens's adviser in literary and 
business matters, had very good reason to be informed upon 
the true facts, has seen fit to qualify the above statement : 
" Adjustment to the sale would have cost four times as 
much, and of the actual payments I have myself no note ; 
but, as far as my memory serves, they are overstated by 
Mr. Chapman. My impression is, that, above and beyond 
the first sum due for each of the twenty numbers (making no 
allowance for their extension after the first to thirty-two 
pages), successive cheques were given, as the work went 
steadily on to the enormous sale it reached, which brought 
up the sum received to two thousand five hundred pounds. 
I had however always pressed so strongly the importance to 



26 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

him of some share in the copyright that this at last was 
conceded in a properly executed deed, 1 though five years were 
to elapse before the right should accrue ; and it was only 
yielded as part consideration for a further agreement entered 
into at the same date (the 19th of November, 1837), whereby 
Dickens engaged to ' write a new work, the title whereof 
shall be determined by him, of a similar character and of the 
same extent as " THE POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK 
CLUB." ' The name of this new book, as all the world knows, 
was the ' Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby." " 

While considering the payments made by the firm as 
respects the original cost of producing " PICKWICK," this is 
the proper place to say a word concerning poor Seymours 
bad bargain ; no one will discredit the assertion subsequently 
made by his family, that the artist had ample cause to regret 
"having committed his favourite design to the parties who took 
it in hand " : " It has been recently asserted," it was written, 
"that Seymour received 5 for each drawing, and relin- 
quished all further concern in the work ; but we are able to 
state positively that the sum which he received on account 
was only 1 15<s. for each drawing, and he never relinquished 
the entire right which he had to his designs. It should here 
be noted that the illustrations which adorn the new editions 
of ' PICKWICK ' are not identically those which Seymour 
etched." These happen, in respect to one set of plates, to be 
excellent copies by " PHIZ." On the same authority the 
plate doubly tragic of "The Stroller's Tale" which 
Seymour handed to Dickens on their Sunday evening's inter- 

1 This original deed, which is a landmark in literary history, and the first 
written agreement as regards the author's interest in " PICKWICK," is 
now in the possession of Mr. William Wright of Paris ; this interesting 
document was by the liberality of the present proprietor allowed to be 
exhibited, with a portion of that gentleman's enviable and unique collec- 
tion of " Dickensiana," at the popular "Victorian Era Exhibition" of 
1897, held at Earl's Court. The " PICKWICK " agreement necessarily proved 
one of the most attractive memorials in the Section allotted to " Art and 
Letters, Literary and Illustrative," as organised by the present writer at 
the "Jubilee Exhibition" in question. 






ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 27 

view at Furnival's Inn, some fortnight before the rash act of 
April 20th, 183j6, which terminated that unhappy artist's 
career, " was done gratis." 

SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS 

The fact that Seymour retained the greater part of his 
sketches for the work in question, together with the designs 
executed for two further illustrations, supports the family 
tradition ; the drawings long remained in the possession of 
the artist's relatives, and were purchased so lately as 1889 
for a very large consideration as described later on, by Mr. 
Augustin Daly, of New York and Daly's Theatre, London, 
by whose obliging generosity we are enabled to reproduce 
these interesting memorials \\\ facsimile. 

It is noteworthy that the last design (unpublished) goes 
farther into the progress of " Pickwick " than the author 
himself has mentioned, for " The Pickwickians in Wardle's 
Kitchen " illustrates the episode given on page 50 of the 
original issue, described as actually unwritten at the time of 
Seymour's decease, according to Dickens's familiar " personal 
statement." The illustrations on the wrapper, foreshadow- 
ing as they do those Cockney sporting adventures originally 
intended to be developed with the progressive stages of the 
work the various phases of shooting, fishing, archery, &c., 
certainly emanated solely from Seymour, and the author, after 
the artist's death, pursued his own proper course, judiciously 
taking no further heed of the " Nimrod Club " programme 
thus pictorially advertised on the covers, and thenceforward 
completely ignored by the writer, it must be acknowledged 
with discretion, for Dickens " as he confessed, being no 
sportsman " was not the man to " cram" for subjects which 
did not directly appeal to his own sympathies, although, in 
the first two numbers of " PICKWICK " he made conces- 
sions perhaps to the detriment of the narrative, in en- 
deavouring to accommodate his hand to the sporting 
requirements of the illustrations. 



28 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

The familiar picture of the Club, intended by Seymour as 
the frontispiece of Part I, bears every evidence of being, 
according to the artist's assertion, the opening tableau, ex- 
ploiting at one glance his own views of the machinery of the 
"Nimrod Club' 1 ; the situation there portrayed has practi- 
cally been turned inside out by the author to fit his purpose. 

Seymour's idea, as his frontispiece exhibits, exclusively 
centred round a sporting club, and nothing less; his dramatis 
personce, as may be seen, are introduced in full conclave ; the 
revered founder of the association is pictured addressing his 
co-disciples ; while the surroundings, as was Seymour's forte, 
are designed to enforce the story. The scene would appear 
the meeting-room of a casual hostelry, but is evidently the 
city headquarters of the Club, " The George and Vulture," for, 
in the place of honour, in the centre of the wall, is the portrait 
of the eminent founder. All the pictures are devised to 
testify unmistakably to the exclusively sporting tastes and 
pursuits of the members assembled ; there is a full-length 
portrait of Mr. Winkle with a fowling-piece in his hand ; 
a smaller version of a similar sportsman smoking a cigar, 
with his gun on his shoulder ; the portrait of a favourite 
hunter ; a gentleman holding a fishing-rod, in an amended 
version apparently altered into a coachman, with his capes 
and whip ; a panoramic view of " Foxhunting," with its 
companion " A Run with the Stag Hounds " ; and there is a 
stag's head with antlers arranged upon the valence of the 
cornice. Moreover, the members have met after a "field 
day " or " outing " ; there are the accessories of a gun, game- 
bag, bait-box, a can, fishing-rods, and like paraphernalia 
conspicuously grouped in the foreground, as having been 
recently in use, and laid aside for a " social glass." Winkle 
is displayed wearing his pronounced sporting get up ; and a 
particularly characteristic and game-looking bulldog is seen 
under the table. 

Everything indicated the machinery appropriate for a 
" Nimrod Club," the members of which were to be further 






ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 29 

exhibited in all sorts of adventures connected with their 
favourite pursuits, as foreshadowed on the wrapper ; a line 
consistently followed up by the artist in his subsequent 
pictures. Witness "The Sagacious Dog" plate, a typical 
Seymour cut ; as, for that matter, is " The Pugnacious 
Cabman," with the artist's picturesque dustman, pieman, 
sweeper-boy, &c., street-types repeated ad infinitum amongst 
" Seymour's Sketches " ; " The Ball-room Staircase," in the 
same series, no less a favourite situation with the artist, as 
is " The Review " ; while the episode of Winkle with his tall 
quadruped, " The Refractory Steed," had evidently been 
designed for the sporting sketches. Finding the " machin- 
ery," as projected by Seymour, conventional and clumsy, 
the writer, although later much given to similar expedients 
by his own choice, adopted something else, and at once 
discarding the stories so transparently told by the ultra- 
sporting surroundings and accessory "properties" of the 
opening tableau of " Mr. Pickwick addressing the Club," 
elected to introduce his actors, and the motives for the 
future action of the piece, in a burlesque, by way of pro- 
logue, upon the transactions of certain would-be learned 
societies ; a parody, it was hinted, intended to ridicule the 
proceedings of the " British and Foreign Institution," or 
some kindred association of the day, with its correspond- 
ing societies, and multiplicity of meaningless qualifications, 
expressed by long strings of initials appended to the names 
of members; altogether dissociated from the scheme of a 
sporting Club. 

All this somewhat forced pleasantry was quickly relin- 
guished for a happier medium ; " Boz's " true genius contrived 
its congenial opening, and henceforward there was nothing 
but approval for the sprightly young writer who had 
arrived to carry all before him, with buoyant high spirits 
which seemed infectious, and with a native ease and 
facility hitherto unexampled. 



30 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



THE AUTHOR'S VERSION 

In his all-felicitous prefaces to respective editions of " THE 
POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB," the gifted author 
has characteristically recorded his recollections of the origin 
of his association with that world-famed work. It was in his 
preface to the first cheap edition, pioneer of the cheap press, 
given to the public in 1847, that Charles Dickens unfolded 
the now familiar story of how " PICKWICK " originated as con- 
cerned his personal connection therewith : 

" I was a young man of three-and-twenty when the present 
publishers, attracted by some pieces I was at that time writing 
in the 4 Morning Chronicle ' newspaper " [As added, in later 
prefaces, " or had just written in the old ' Monthly 
Magazine ' " l ] " waited upon me to propose a something that 
should be published in shilling numbers then only known 
to me, or I believe to any one else, by a dim recollection of 
certain interminable novels in that form, which used, some 
five-and-twenty years ago, to be carried about the country by 
pedlars, and over some of which I remember to have shed 
innumerable tears before I served my apprenticeship to life. 2 

" When I opened my door in Furnival's Inn to the 
managing partner who represented the firm, I recognised in 
him the person from whose hands I had bought, two or three 
years previously, and whom I had never seen before or since, 
my first copy of the Magazine in which my first effusion "- 
[" A paper in the ' Sketches," called ' MR. MINNS AND HIS 
COUSIN,' " added in later prefaces] " dropped stealthily one 
evening at twilight, with fear and trembling, into a dark 
letter-box, in a dark office, up a dark court in Fleet Street 

1 " Sketches by Boz " appeared in the " Evening Chronicle" ; while, ac- 
cording to Chapman, the publishers came about the " Library of Fiction." 

2 It is a coincidence that " Boz " was unacquainted with the diffuse 
suites of publications already referred to, all issued in shilling monthly 
parts, such, for instance, as the "Life in London." It was aggressively 
asserted by the editor thereof, Pierce Egan, to wit, that Dickens had 
followed his lead. 




ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 31 

appeared in all the glory of print ; on which occasion, by-the- 
bye how well I recollect it ! I walked down to Westminster 
Hall, and turned into it for half-an-hour ; because my eyes 
were so dimmed with joy and pride that they could not bear 
the street, and were not fit to be seen there. I told my visitor 
of the coincidence, which we both hailed as a good omen ; and 
so fell to business. 

" The idea propounded to me was that the monthly some- 
thing should be a vehicle for certain plates to be executed by 
MR. SEYMOUH, and there was a notion, either on the part of 
that admirable humorous artist, or of my visitor (I forget 
which), that a ' NIMROD CLUB,' the members of which were to 
go out shooting, fishing, and so forth, and getting themselves 
into difficulties through their want of dexterity, would be the 
best means of introducing these. 

"I objected, on consideration, that although born and 
partly bred in the country, I was no great sportsman, except 
in regard of all kinds of locomotion ; that the idea was not 
novel, and had already been much used ; that it would be 
infinitely better for the plates to arise naturally out of the 
text, 1 and that I should like to take my own way, with a freer 
range of English scenes and people, and was afraid I should 
ultimately do so in any case, whatever course I might prescribe 
to myself at starting. 

" My views being deferred to, I thought of MR. PICKWICK, 
and wrote the first number, from the proof sheets of which 
MR. SEYMOUR made his drawing of the Club and that happy 
portrait of its founder, by which he is al ways _ recognised, and 
which may be said to have made him a reality. I connected 
MR. PICKWICK with a Club because of the original suggestion, 
and I put in Mr. Winkle expressly for the use of MR. 
SEYMOUR. We started with a number of twenty-four pages 
instead of thirty-two, and four illustrations in lieu of a 
couple. MR. SEYMOUII'S sudden and lamented death before 

1 This natural course was certainly an easement for the writer, but 
under the circumstances of the case it was hard upon the projector of the 
series, who had already prepared certain sketches, 



32 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

the second number was published brought about a quick 
decision upon a point already in agitation ; the number 
became one of thirty-two pages with two illustrations, and 
remained so to the end." 

In his " Preface " to the original edition, Dickens has 
thought proper to explain " that the machinery of the Club, 
proving cumbrous in the management, was gradually aban- 
doned as the work progressed 1 ": 

" Deferring to the judgment of others in the outset of the 
undertaking," the youthful author " adopted the machinery 
of the Club, which was suggested as that best adapted to his 
purpose ; but finding that it tended rather to his embarrass- 
ment than otherwise, he gradually abandoned it, considering 
it a matter of very little importance to the work whether 
strictly epic justice were awarded to the Club or not." 

It will be gathered from these statements that the at-that- 
time almost unknown young writer calmly asserted his 
independence ; from the very start relegating the well-known 
and leading artist, who had first propounded the scheme, 
to a subordinate position, which he had no intention of 
accepting for his part. The history is continued from the 
printed documents, which lucidly illustrate the course of the 
author and his associations with " PICKWICK " from this time 
forward. Possibly the most interesting of these, and certainly 
the most characteristic of Dickens's earnest, resolute nature, 
is his letter, communicating the news of the important over- 
tures made to him, as already described, and conveying to 
Miss Kate Hogarth, his betrothed, the first consequences of 
the responsibilities entailed by his new venture : 

"MY DEAREST KATE- "FURNIVAL'S INN. 

" The House is up, 1 but I am very sorry to say I must 
stay at home. I have had a visit from the publishers this 

1 Dickens was at that time engaged in the Gallery of the House of 
Commons as a parliamentary reporter on the "Morning Chronicle," as 
was Mr. George Hogarth, his future father-in-law. It was in the " Evening 
Chronicle," an offshoot of the same journal, that "Boz's" " Sketches" 
made their earliest appearance, 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 33 

morning, and the story * cannot be any longer delayed ; it 
must be done to-morrow. As there are more important con- 
siderations than the mere payment for the story involved 
too, I must exercise a little self-denial and set to work. 

" They (Chapman and Hall) have made me an offer of 
fourteen pounds a month to write and edit a new publication 
they contemplate, entirely by myself, to be published monthly, 
and each number to contain four woodcuts. I am to make 
my estimate and calculations, and to give them a decisive 
answer on Friday morning. The work will be no joke, but 
the emolument is too tempting to resist.'" 

The arrangement was shortly concluded ; Dickens's early 
friend, Mr. James Grant, who had taken over the editorship 
of the " Monthly Magazine," to which " Boz " had furnished 
"Mrs Joseph Porter" and other "Sketches" of the "Boz" 
series, applied to him to continue his contributions ; the young 
writer in reply communicated two important items in his 
career that he was very shortly going to be married, and 
he had just concluded his arrangement with Messrs. Chapman 
and Hall for an important monthly serial, and that as 
regarded the " Monthly," he would be obliged " to raise his 
terms to eight guineas a sheet, or ten shillings a page." 

The appearance of " PICKWICK " was heralded by a character- 
istic announcement, given in extenso on the wrapper of No. 1 of 
the " Library of Fiction," the part containing " Boz's " spirited 
sketch of " The Tuggs's at Ramsgate," with Seymour's two 
admirable illustrations ; the latter as instances of the artistes 
earliest association with Dickens, and as conclusively proving 
how happily it was in the power of that gifted designer to 
enhance the interest of " Boz's " fictions by the force of his 
sympathetic pictorial art, have been reproduced in the 
Appendix to the present volume. It is interesting to note 
how thoroughly the artist has appreciated the true character- 

1 The story thus alluded to was probably Dickens's first contribution, 
" The Tuggs's at Ramsgate," written for the opening number of Chapman 
and Hall's new serial, the "Library of Fiction." 

VOL. I D 



34 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

istics of the author he was invited to illustrate ; " Boz's 
humour is not burlesqued. 

On the 26th of March, 1836, the coming publication was 
thus advertised in "The Times" : 

THE PICKWICK PAPERS 

" On the thirty-first of March will be published, to be 
continued monthly, price Is., the first number of THE 
POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB, containing a 
faithful record of the perambulations, perils, travels, 
adventures, and sporting transactions of the corresponding 
members. Edited by ' Boz/ Each monthly part embellished 
with four illustrations by Seymour. Chapman and Hall, 
186, Strand, and all booksellers." 

The same day was announced the first part of the " Library 
of Fiction." 

From the advertisement inserted in this serial, it will be 
recognised that while adhering to Cockneyfied humours and 
traditions, which were, at the time of " Sketches by Boz," 
congenially in Dickens's walk, the author had evidently put 
in the line " Sporting Transactions of the Corresponding 
Members " in deference to Seymour. Moreover, " Boz " had 
judiciously made up his mind to substitute "peregrinations," 
in which he was a great expert, for " sporting incidents,"- 
which were outside his experiences ; travelling adventures 
were pet hobbies of his, and these were to take the place of the 
artist's shooting and fishing episodes, subjects with which the 
writer was unfamiliar ; being, as he stated at the start " no 
great sportsman except in regard of all kinds of locomotion." 
" Boz " had further chosen for similar reasons, and to 
consult his own convenience, in preference to the simpler time- 
honoured pretext of a " Nimrod Club," the cumbrous 
machinery (of which he quickly tired), intended as a 
burlesque on certain learned societies, a parody upon the 
transactions and proceedings of the British and Foreign 
Institute, or some pretentious Association of the day. 






ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 

Original Announcement of The Pickwick Papers. 
NOW PUBLISHING, 

TO BE COMPLETED IN ABOUT TWENTY MONTHLY NUMBERS, 

PRICE ONE SHILLING EACH, 
No. I. OF THE 

$D8ti)umou8 Capers 

OF 

THE PICKWICK CLUB, 

CONTAINING A FAITHFUL RECORD OF THE 

PERAMBULATIONS, PERILS, TRAVELS, ADVENTURES, 

AND 

Spotting ^Transactions 

OF THE CORRESPONDING MEMBERS, 

WITH BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES BY THE SECRETARY. 

EDITED BY " BOZ." 

AND EACH MONTHLY PART 

EMBELLISHED WITH FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS 
BY SEYMOUR, 



" THE PICKWICK CLUB, so renowned in the annals of Huggin 
Lane, and so closely entwined with the thousand interesting 
associations connected with Lothbury and Cateaton Street, 
was founded in the year One Thousand Eight Hundred and 
Twenty-two, by Mr. Samuel Pickwick the great traveller, 
whose fondness for the useful arts prompted his celebrated 
journey to Birmingham in the depth of winter ; and whose 



36 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

taste for the Beauties of Nature even led him to penetrate to 
the very borders of Wales in the height of summer. 

"This remarkable man would appear to have infused a 
considerable portion of his restless and inquiring spirit into 
the breasts of other Members of the Club, and to have 
awakened in their minds the same insatiable thirst for Travel, 
which so eminently characterised his own. The whole 
surface of Middlesex, a part of Surrey, a portion of Essex, 
and several square miles of Kent, were in their turns 
examined, and reported on. In a rapid steamer, they 
smoothly navigated the placid Thames ; and in an open boat, 
they fearlessly crossed the turbid Medway. High-roads and 
bye-roads, towns and villages, public conveyances and their 
passengers, first-rate inns and roadside public-houses, races, 
fairs, regattas, elections, meetings, market-days all the 
scenes that can possibly occur to enliven a country place, and 
at which different traits of character may be observed, and 
recognised, were alike visited and beheld by the ardent Pick- 
wick, and his enthusiastic followers. 

" The Pickwick Travels, the Pickwick Diary, the Pickwick 
Correspondence in short the whole of the Pickwick Papers, 
were carefully preserved and duly registered by the Secretary, 
from time to time, in the voluminous Transactions of the 
Pickwick Club. These Transactions have been purchased 
from the patriotic Secretary, at an immense expense, and 
placed in the hands of "Boz," the author of Sketches 
Illustrative of Every Day Life, and Every Day People a 
gentleman whom the publishers consider highly qualified for 
the task of arranging these important documents, and placing 
them before the public in an attractive form. He is at 
present deeply immersed in his arduous labours, the first 
fruits of which appeared on the 31st of March. 

" SEYMOUR has devoted himself, heart and graver, to the 
task of illustrating the beauties of PICKWICK. It was reserved 
to Gibbon to paint, in colours that will never fade, the Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire to Hume to chronicle the 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 37 

strife and turmoil of the two proud Houses that divided 
England against herself to Napier to pen in burning words, 
the History of the War in the Peninsula ; the deeds and 
actions of the gifted PICKWICK yet remain for ' Boz ' and 
SEYMOUR to hand down to posterity. 

"From the present appearance of these important . docu- 
ments and the probable extent of the selections from them, it 
is presumed that the series will be completed in about twenty 
numbers.' 1 '' 



FIRST NUMBER OF " PICKWICK " PUBLISHED 

The first number of " Pickwick," announced for the 31st of 
March,1836, appeared on the 1st of April ; this was probably 
the most eventful incident in Dickens^s career, with the ex- 
ception of the more domestic episode, which immediately 
followed the issue of No. 1 of the " Pickwick Papers," on 
the 2nd of April, when the young author was married to 
Catherine, eldest daughter of Mr. George Hogarth, his 
fellow-worker on the " Chronicle." " The honeymoon," 
writes Forster, " was passed in the neighbourhood to which 
at all times of interest in his life he turned with a strange 
recurring fondness the quiet little village of Chalk, on the 
road between Gravesend and Rochester." 

Passing brief was the honeymoon, for No. 2 of the 
" Pickwick Papers " was under way ; the aspiring " Boz " was 
back at FurnivaFs Inn, and sending Seymour a letter, 1 which 
in terms conveyed in a considerate manner proved that, 
although the artist, as he had possibly anticipated, was not 
allowed a hand over his bantling, the writer assuming 
absolute authority over his own proper kingdom the letter- 
press, was, by easy stages, invading the artist's little province, 

1 The letter in question passed from the Seymour family, with the 
extended series of original drawings designed for the " Nimrod Club" 
and two unpublished designs, into the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly. 
The letter had been published several times before its sale at Sotheby's, 
14th of June, 1889 (subsequently described, see page 53). 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 






and asserting a control over the illustrations to the con- 
sternation of the designer : 

MY DEAR SIR, 

" I had intended to write you to say how much grati- 
fied I feel by the pains you have bestowed on our mutual 
friend, Mr. Pickwick, and how much the result of your 
labours has surpassed my expectations. I am happy to be able 
to congratulate you, the publishers, and myself on the success 
of the undertaking, which appears to have been most complete. 
I have now another reason for troubling you. It is this. 
I am extremely anxious about ' The Stroller's Tale," 1 the more 
especially as many literary friends, on whose judgment I place 
great reliance, think it will create considerable sensation. I have 
seen your designs for an etching to accompany it. I think it 
exr.remely good, but still is not quite my idea ; and as I feel 
so very solicitous to have it as complete as possible, I shall 
feel personally obliged if you will make another drawing. It 
will give me great pleasure to see you, as well as the drawing, 
when it is completed. With this view I have asked Chapman 
and Hall to take a glass of grog with me on Sunday evening 
(the only night I am disengaged), when I hope you will be 
able to look in. 

"The alteration I want I will endeavour to explain. I 
think the woman should be younger the dismal man 
decidedly should, and he should be less miserable in appear- 
ance. To communicate an interest to the plate his whole 
appearance should express more sympathy and solicitude ; 
and while I represented the sick man as emaciated and 
dying, I should not make him too repulsive. The furniture 
of the room you have depicted admirably. I have ventured 
to make these suggestions, feeling assured that you will 
consider them in the spirit in which I submit them to your 
judgment. I shall be happy to hear from you that I may 
expect to see you on Sunday evening. 

" Dear Sir, very truly Yours, 

" CHARLES DICKENS." 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 39 



ROBERT SEYMOURS SAD ENDING 

Dickens has alluded to the circumstances of this interview, 
Chapman and Hall are not mentioned, and were evidently 
absent, but Mrs. Dickens and the author's brother Frederick 
Dickens were present. Dickens averred that at the time 
only twenty -four pages of " Pickwick " were published, as 
all the world knows ; and that assuredly not forty-eight 
pages of " Pickwick " were written, and that, at this, their only 
interview, Seymour " certainly offered no suggestion what- 
ever." 

Before the interview, Seymour had made a new drawing 
embodying the suggestions offered in Dickens's letter. This 
slight sketch is given in the present work by the obliging 
permission of Mr. Augustin Daly, who, as related, purchased 
the very interesting " Pickwick " sketches which had been 
treasured by the Seymour family ; the amended sketch was 
also etched upon steel in readiness for the coming appear- 
ance of the second number of the " Pickwick Papers," although 
another design, " The Pickwickians in Wardle's Kitchen," a 
spirited study for the fourth plate intended to embellish 
page 50 of the second part, and also in the possession of 
Mr. Augustin Daly, proves that Seymour had proceeded 
farther in his task than the foregoing implies ; there 
is no direct evidence to attest the fact, beyond surmise, 
that this etching was ever commenced ; the illustrations for 
convenience in printing are etched in pairs on an undivided 
plate ; the steel of " The Stroller's Tale " has been cut, so 
that it is obvious that Seymour never finished, even if he 
commenced, the execution on steel of this fourth plate for 
the embellishment of page 50 of Part II. of the " Pickwick 
Papers." This most interesting drawing, reproduced in 
facsimile, is now for the first time included among the 
" Pickwick " illustrations, a signal privilege for which we are 
indebted to the kindly liberality of Mr. Augustin Daly. 



40 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

The results of Seymour's interview with Dickens were truly 
deplorable : - 

" What other cause of irritation arose we cannot say, but 
Seymour returned home very discontented ; he did nothing 
for ' Pickwick ' from that time, and destroyed nearly all his 
correspondence relating to the circumstance. " 

On the 20th of April, 1836, .Seymour was discovered to 
have committed suicide. This rash act had been carried out 
with deliberation in a summer-house in the back garden of 
his residence at Islington, where the artist was in the habit 
of retiring ; possibly it was his practice to carry on his work 
there. Seymour had attached a string to the trigger of a 
fowling-piece, placed the muzzle to his head, released the 
trigger, and thus shot himself dead. 

In the account already mentioned as emanating from the 
Seymour family, the writer has set down : " It is not our 
wish to connect that event in an invidious manner with the 
' Pickwick ' vexation. Seymour was greatly overworked ; his 
energies were taxed to the utmost to supply the many works 
which his ever-increasing popularity brought to him, and 
the effect of such increasing labour is well known. He had 
not the slightest pecuniary embarrassment ; although the 
Portuguese and Spanish bonds in which he had in-vested 
money suffered a slight depreciation, they exhibited no 
alarming aspect during his lifetime. He was quite happy 
in his domestic affairs, very fond of his family, and naturally 
of a very cheerful disposition." 

Dickens has related that his brother Frederick came 
knocking at his bedroom door before he and his wife were 
up, to tell them with horror that it was in the papers that 
Seymour had shot himself. 

Various and rash were the statements in these papers ; 
one of the journals of the day contained the following 
mixture of fact and falsehood : " Poor Seymour the carica- 
turist, with all his relish for fun and quick perception of the 
humorous, was subject to dreadful fits of despondency, in one 






ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 41 

of which he committed suicide. The contrast is strange, but 
not inexplicable nor, indeed, so strange as may appear, since 
literary biography affords abundant proof of such conditions. 
He was undoubtedly a man of considerable talent, and his 
premature loss is greatly to be deplored. " 

The family account completely contradicts the assumption 
that the unfortunate artist was constitutionally a melan- 
cholic being : " There is no foundation for the assertion that 
he was subject to fits of despondency; on the contrary, 
Seymour was a man of the most equable and cheerful 
disposition, although at the same time nervous and sensitive. 
His cheerfulness and merriment in society had nothing of 
a boisterous character, but, with a most remarkable per- 
ception of the humorous, he had a taste for more sedate 
pleasures and for music, frequently humming some favourite 
air while drawing. Although his professional avocations 
obliged him often to visit the busy scenes of life, it did 
not diminish his relish of domestic enjoyment, and, in fact, 
the multitude of his engagements left him but little time for 
any other society than that of his family. He was naturally 
of a very benevolent disposition, and many are the instances 
which might be here recorded of his good-natured actions 
to strangers as well as relatives. 

" Driving was a favourite diversion, and it was his custom 
during the summer to drive down to Datchet, near Windsor, 
and enjoy several days in fishing, sketching, and making 
excursions. He was also very partial to theatrical amuse- 
ments, and seldom failed to visit the theatre when any good 
piece came out. Although there was not that excessive 
hilarity in Seymour's composition which the character of his 
works might seem to imply, there was a general adaptability 
for enjoyment, which went far to justify the opinion ex- 
pressed of him after his death. 'We should have quoted 
Seymour's name if we had been asked to select a man of all 
others with the lightest heart, upon whom the world and its 
cares made but small and brief impression, and who would 



42 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

have passed through life with a natural gaiety which shook 
off sorrow as the swan does the rain-drops from his wings. 1 
Art Union" 

Here indeed was a catastrophe of the most disheartening 
character, and the fortunes of " Pickwick," before the second 
number could appear, were in evident jeopardy. A sympa- 
thetic address, dated 27th of April, 1836, accompanied the 
second part of " Pickwick " : 

" Before this number reaches the hands of our readers, they 
will have become acquainted with the melancholy death 
of MR. SEYMOUR, under circumstances of a very distressing 
nature. Some time must elapse before the void which the 
deceased gentleman has left in his profession can be filled up ; 
the blank his death has occasioned in the society which 
his amiable nature won, and his talents adorned, we can 
hardly hope to see supplied. 

"We do not allude to this distressing event in the vain 
hope of adding, by any eulogium of ours, to the respect 
in which the late Mr. Seymour's memory is held by all who 
ever knew him. Some apology is due to our readers for the 
appearance of the present number with only three plates. 
When we state that they comprise Mr. Seymour's last efforts, 
and that on one of them, in particular (the embellishment to 
'The Stroller's Tale"), he was engaged up to a late hour 
of the night preceding his death, we feel confident that the 
excuse will be deemed a sufficient one. 

"Arrangements are in progress which will enable us to 
present the ensuing numbers of the ' Pickwick Papers ' on 
an improved plan, which, we trust, will give entire satis- 
faction to our numerous readers." 

With Part III. of " Pickwick," issued 30th of May, 1836, a 
further " Address from the Publishers " was appended, ex- 
plaining to readers further plans for the continuance of the 
work : 

" We announced in our last that the ensuing Numbers of 
the 'Pickwick Papers" would appear in an improved form, 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 43 

and we now beg to call the attention of our readers to the 
fulfilment of our promise. 

"Acting on a suggestion which has been made to them 
from various influential quarters, the Publishers have deter- 
mined to increase the quantity of Letter-press in every monthly 
part, and to diminish the number of Plates. It will be seen 
that the present number contains eight additional pages of 
closely -printed matter, and two engravings on steel, from 
designs by MR. Buss a gentleman already well known to 
the public as a very humorous and talented artist. 

"This alteration in the plan of the work entails upon 
the Publishers a considerable expense, which nothing but a 
large circulation would justify them in incurring. They are 
happy to have it in their power to state that the rapid sale 
of the two first numbers, and the daily-increasing demand for 
this Periodical, enables them to acknowledge the patronage of 
the Public, in the way which they hope will be deemed most 
acceptable. 1 ' 1 

"THE GEORGE AND VULTURE" COPY OF " PICKWICK," WITH 
CONTEMPORARY NOTES 

The writer by good fortune has alighted upon a note- 
worthy curiosity amongst Dickens memorials the particular 
copy of " PICKWICK " (1837) originally subscribed for by the 
members of a Club whose actual meeting-place and head- 
quarters was the very identical and veritable " George and 
Vulture," the reputed city rendezvous of the famous " Pick- 
wick Club" itself. The interest of this copy which is now 
appropriately deposited in the Library of the British 
Museum is vastly increased, beyond the striking coincidence 
connected with its early history, by having been made by its 
owner (who has set down in Pickwickian form the facts under 
which this particular copy came into his possession) the 
repository for ample contemporary notes upon the circum- 
stances attending its original appearance. 



44 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

" George and Vulture 

" At a meeting of the Circulating Book Society, held 30th 
March, 1837, W. Hamilton, Esq., in the chair; Mr. J. R. 
Robinson, Secretary. 

" Mr. Buckham proposed that the ' PICKWICK PAPERS,' now 
in course of publication, be taken .in for circulation. 

" The motion was opposed by Messrs. Musket and Beckwith, 
who considered the work vulgar. 

"The motion was carried with the amendment, that the 
work, when complete, be obtained and circulated as one 
volume." 

" George and Vulture 

"At a meeting of the above Society, held on the llth 
April, 1838, E. H. Jones, Esq., in the chair ; Mr. Buckham, 
Secretary ; the books which had gone through the Society 
during the preceding year were sold by auction amongst the 
Members. 

" The ' PICKWICK PAPERS ' were put up at the usual rate, viz. 
one-third of the publishing price, in this case seven shillings, 
when a competition took place between Messrs. Keill and 
Buckham, to the latter of whom the volume was ultimately 
knocked down at 13s. 6d. 

" This is the volume so purchased. 

"J. BUCKHAM." 

" Considering, as I do, this singular and original work not 
only entitled by its merits to rank with the classics of 
England, but as the commencement of an era in literature, 
as well as the first of an entirely new style of writing, I 
thought it desirable at the time of its publication to illus- 
trate my copy with a few notes, historical and explanatorv, 
comprising such information as might be very easily picked 
up at the time, but would become every day more difficult to 
obtain as time advanced ; in effect, a few memoranda regard- 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 45 

ing its appearance before the public. The slightest contem- 
porary notice of such a work, I thought, must be interesting 
in future times ; for it struck me as a work entitled to rank 
with the immortal novel of Cervantes, conceived in the self- 
same spirit, and coming nearer to it in genius than anything 
given to the world since the appearance of 6 Don Quixote.' 

" Indeed, the evidently unintentional resemblance between 
the character of MR. PICKWICK and that of the Knight of 

La Mancha must strike the most superficial reader 

Such were my sentiments, hastily noted in 1837, and such 
they remain, after a lapse of nearly twelve years, in 1849. 
Public opinion has now stamped the work with its proper 
value. 

" Unfortunately, much that I contemplated was never 
carried into effect ; and of what was done only a few scattered 
notes have been preserved. These I now reduce to form, 
along with such observations as may at the present time 
suggest themselves. 

" With regard to the manner in which this individual 
volume was procured, as detailed in the two minutes upon 
the preceding folio, it is detailed as giving a slight additional 
value to the volume, from the circumstance that the meetings 
of our Book Society there mentioned were, it will be per- 
ceived, held as indeed they had been held for many years 
without variation at the GEORGE AND VULTURE, the tavern 
patronised by MR. PICKWICK and his friends, and where they 
still continue to be held. The book sale took place in a 
large room on the first-floor, probably the same which the 
author had in view when describing the meetings of the 
PICKWICK CLUB. This latter consideration gave a sort of 
interest and individuality, made me desirous of possessing 
that rather than any other ; and if any future possessor is 
at all influenced by the association of ideas, it may give a 
little additional interest in his eyes beyond its mere price. 

" Should this be you, reader, accept my best wishes. 

" VALETE." 



46 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

"The next scrap which I find between the leaves of the 
volume I subjoin ; it is 

" A Note of Publication. 

" The PICKWICK PAPERS were originally published in twenty 
monthly numbers at one shilling each ; a specimen of the 
wrapper in which they were done up, bearing an excellent 
woodcut by Seymour, is inserted at the beginning and end of 
the work. 

" At first the work excited comparatively little attention, 
nor was it till the first two or three numbers were before the 
public that it became decidedly popular, but gradually the 
interest rose as the work advanced till it reached a most 
unprecedented height it amounted to a mania. Indeed, it 
may be said to have formed a new era in imaginative writing ; 
it was in every one's hands, and formed the subject of conver- 
sation everywhere. The interest it excited can only be 
compared with that excited by the ' Waverley Novels. 1 Yet 
there were not wanting those who condemned this, and 
indeed, all the other publications by ' Boz ' as vulgar, and 
fit only for the kitchen ; these belong to a particular class 
of society. 

" The first number of the work appeared on the last day of 
March, 1836. It was described as ' edited by Boz ' the 
only name by which Dickens was yet known to the public, 
and under which he had recently published his unequalled 
' Sketches."* The monthly issue continued uninterrupted till, 
I think, May, 1837 ,when No. XV., which was due that month, 
not appearing, a variety of rumours were circulated, which only 
tended to show the extraordinary interest felt by the public 
in the unknown author. They were, of course, of the most 
contradictory nature, both regarding the work and its author, 
whose name, as I have said, had never yet been publicly 
announced, although both his name and whereabouts were 
most eagerly inquired after. Up to the present time an 
opinion had been very prevalent that it was impossible that 




ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 47 

such a work, so varied, so extensive, and yet so true in its 
observations, could be the production of any single individual. 
That it was the joint production of an association, the different 
members of which transmitted their various ideas and obser- 
vations to one of their number, whose province it was to 
reduce them to a connected form, and that this member was, 
and had for many years been, a prisoner in the King's Bench. 

"The non-appearance of No. XV. gave rise to new con- 
jectures, the most generally received of which and the one 
nearest the truth was that the author was a young gentle- 
man of about eighteen years of age, named Dickens, a 
Catholic, and bred to the bar; to this it was added that 
his health was so impaired by his literary exertions that 
there was not the slightest chance of his ever producing 
another number, as indeed may be . seen in the address 
published with No. XV. and appended to this volume. 1 

" From this time the work continued without interruption 
till completed by the publication of Nos. XIX. and XX. 
together in October, 1837. 

" As the work advanced towards completion numerous sets 
of illustrations by different artists made their appearance, but 
none of them, in my estimation, possessed any very high 
degree of artistic merit ; by far the best was a series of litho- 
graphic sketches, consisting of heads, figures, and groups, 
by Alfred Crowquill (Forrester), published by Ackermann, 
though all exhibited more or less appreciation of the 
humour of the writer. Upon the back of the wrapper (to 

1 The Dickens "Address" in question, dated 30th of June, 1837, is 
printed at the end of these " GEORGE AND VULTURE Pickwick Notes " ; it 
was issued anonymously as described, and appeared on the front of 
Chapman and Hall's four pages of advertisements; " The Sketches of 
Young Ladies," by " Quiz," and illustrated by " PHIZ," being advertised on 
the back ; facing this is a bold announcement of an entirely new work by 
" Boz " undescribed, and as yet unchristened the first number to appear 
31st of March, 1838 (nine months ahead ; later this followed as "Nicholas 
Nickleby"); and " Sketches by Boz," in twenty monthly numbers, price 
one shilling each part, embellished with two illustrations by GEORGE 
CRUIKSHANK, the first number to appear on the 1st of November, 1837. 



48 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

No. XV.) at the beginning of this volume will be found some 
notices of one of these productions, that from the ' Chronicle ' is 
simply stark, staring nonsense ; the prints are in my possession, 
and though they show some merit and a considerable degree 
of invention, the figures are nevertheless stiff, wooden, and 
lifeless. 1 

" This series I selected as one of the best, and I would have 
bound it up with the volume, but the fear of increasing its 
size deterred me, and caused me to exclude several other 
matters which might have been of interest. 

" These were engraved by ONWHYN, who has since been 
extensively employed in illustrating the periodical literature 
of the day. 

" I wish to add a few observations regarding the prints 
which are actually found in the work and originally apper- 
tained to it ; they are, I think, forty-three in number. Such 
was the unexampled demand for the work in its monthly 
form, that, by the time the issue was completed, the plates 
from which the first impressions were obtained were worn 
out. It became necessary to re-engrave the designs to supply 
impressions for the work in its complete state. The impres- 
sions in this volume are these last ; they differ considerably 
from the originals, and a comparison might be interesting, but 
I have been deterred from inserting impressions of the first 
plates, which I succeeded in procuring, by the consideration 
already mentioned. 

" When the work was started, the late talented and 
lamented SEYMOUR was entrusted with the artistic depart- 
ment. SEYMOUR in his own particular line, I mean in 
humorous subjects connected with sporting and the like, 
came nearer to the artist of the age, GEORGE CRUIKSHANK, 
than any other artist whatever, then or now living, and 
was peculiarly qualified by the peculiar bent of his genius to 
do justice to the work now under consideration. 

1 See "Press Notices" to "Samuel Weller" and Thomas Onwhyn 
series, page 372. 



ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB 11 49 

" To Seymour alone belongs the merit of having embodied 
the principal characters in this work as we now have them, to 
the seizure of and faithfully carrying out of his idea, is to be 
attributed the success of the artist who succeeded him, and 
who acquired at the time no small popularity, and, as sub- 
sequent events show, an extensive employment in works of a 
similar kind on the strength of the ' PICKWICK "* etchings. 

" The first two numbers of the work were all that Seymour 
illustrated ; the first containing four and the second three 
etchings by him. The impressions in this volume are of 
course copies, but they are tolerably faithful ones, and have 
preserved the spirit of the originals. Before a third number 
could be issued, poor Seymour had died by his own hand. 
The ' Dying Clown " is said to have been almost the last 
work he was engaged upon. A single glance will show the 
superiority of the first seven over the succeeding prints. Upon 
the death of Seymour, Mr. Buss was engaged, but did not 
illustrate more than one number, viz. No. III. ; for this he 
did two prints, ' The Cricketers, 1 and the ' Fat Boy with Mr. 
Tupman and Miss Wardle in the Arbour. 1 Upon the appear- 
ance of the work in its complete form, these two prints, which 
were of no great merit, were withdrawn, and two by ' PHIZ,' 
the artist who completed the illustration of the work, were 
substituted ; they will be found at pages 73 and 76. l 

" This artist is Mr. H. K. Browne, better known as ' PHIZ,"" 
who now appeared before the public for the first time. That he 
was not a regularly trained artist the faulty drawing and strange 
composition of his productions will sufficiently demonstrate ; 
nevertheless, with a success less sudden and rapid than that 
which he met with, he must inevitably have become a book- 
illustrator of much eminence and ability, but the sudden and 
constant demands upon his time subsequent to the publica- 
tion of ' PICKWICK ' proved to be of a more tempting as well 
as a more lucrative nature than mere hard study, conse- 

1 The original sketches by "Pniz" are reproduced on pages 163 and 
165 of the present work. 

VOL. E 



50 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



quently the defects incident to his original want of instruc- 
tion and study have never been remedied to this day. 

" He was, I have been informed, a picture cleaner who, 
having learned to etch for his own amusement, and shown 
considerable genius, was engaged to carry on this work, and he 
did it successfully, and this success, owing chiefly to his 
having caught and carried out SEYMOUR'S idea, raised him at 
once to the rank of a popular illustrator, and had his subse- 
quent productions borne out the promise of the present ones, 
he would have deserved it. But this his first work proved 
incomparably his best, every succeeding work betrays more 
carelessness and less skill than its predecessor, and when he 
had advanced some little way into ' Nicholas Nickleby ' his 
faults became too glaring to be overlooked. Valpy an<j 
myself took great interest in them ; he was the first to perceive 
the want of sound bottom in the artist, I clung longer to 
hope, even against my internal convictions. Even in the 
4 PICKWICK ' prints a great falling off is observable as he 
proceeds, and it is to be regretted that ever since his 
progress has been in the same direction. 

" How comes it, then, that being an unskilful artist he is 
so extensively employed? I reply, that, although not a 
skilful artist, he has very considerable tact in seizing upon 
prominent points in the story, and exhibiting in a way more 
gratifying to the many because more amusing than would 
be the same scenes delineated by a more able and tasteful 
artist. He most undeniably possesses a vivid imagination, 
and at once catches the real view of the author, and 
conceives strongly in his own mind the position of the 
cnaracters, but here his merit ceases, he attempts to 
commit his idea to paper and the result is the caricature of 

caricature, everything is extravagantly exaggerated 
badly composed, chiaro-scuro painful to the eye, drawing 
perfectly monstrous, and individuality, except in a few rare 
instances, either altogether wanting, or ludicrously over- 
charged. On his perspective and proportion, I shall not say 






ORIGIN OF THE "PICKWICK CLUB" 51 

one word. Thus is a really talented artist spoiled by sudden 
success ; he conceives but cannot execute his own conception. 
Nevertheless he now almost monopolises the illustration of 
the monthy serials, and his exertions appear to satisfy the 
purchasers of these works. 

" This privilege is to a certain extent shared by two or 
three others. Crowquill, already mentioned, confines himself, 
if I mistake not, to drawing on the wood block, and his draw- 
ings are excellent. Leech and Onwhyn are more aspiring, 
they rival ' PHIZ ' in the etching department, and surpass him, 
if anything, in the execution, though in imaginative faculty 
they fall far short of him, but I do not think any of them 
are calculated to produce anything very great. 

" Yet with these is frequently coupled the sacred name of 
Cruikshank ! to name Geo. Cruikshank in this category is 
simply blasphemy. 

" Cruikshank is the Artist of the Age. 

" With regard to the now boundless celebrity of ' Boz ' I may 
well be excused saying a single word ; his reputation is not 
European it is indeed mundane. 

" ' Boz ' is the AUTHOR OF THE AGE. 

" His ' Sketches,' the present work, and his tale of ' Oliver 
Twist," commenced with ' Bentley's Miscellany ' in 1837, have 
never been surpassed. The two latter especially are amongst 
our received Classics, and quoted as such by numerous 
authorities ; amongst others ' Oliver Twist ' has had the 
distinction of being cited by the Lord Chief Justice from the 
bench, and scarcely a month passes in which ' The Times,"* ad- 
mitted to be the leading journal in Europe, does not draw 
illustrations of some position from one or other of his works. A 
word more would be superfluous." l [Incorporated 3 Feb. 
1849, from Notes and Scraps.] 

1 It is unnecessary to say the Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
freely ventilated in the Notes to "THE GEORGE AND VULTURE ' PICK- 
WICK,' " as described ; but, as examples of contemporary criticism, it may 
be felt that these expressions have an interest which time has enhanced. 



52 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

ADDRESS BY " Boz " 

Published with No. XV. of the "Pickwick Papers " 
186 Strand. June 30, 1837 

" The author is desirous to take the opportunity afforded 
him by his resumption of this work, to state once again what 
he thought had been stated sufficiently emphatically before, 
namely, that its publication was interrupted by a severe 
domestic affliction of no ordinary kind ; that this was the 
sole cause of the non-appearance of the present number in 
the usual course ; and that henceforth it will continue to be 
published with its accustomed regularity. 

" However superfluous this second notice may appear to 
many, it is rendered necessary by various idle speculations and 
absurdities which have been industriously propagated during 
the past month ; which have reached the author's ears from 
many quarters, and have pained him exceedingly. By one 
set of intimate acquaintances, especially well-informed, he has 
been killed outright; by another, driven mad; by a third, 
imprisoned for debt ; by a fourth, sent per steamer to the 
United States ; by a fifth, rendered incapable of any mental 
exertion for evermore ; by all, in short, represented as doing 
anything but seeking in a few weeks retirement the restora- 
tion of that cheerfulness and peace of which a said bereave- 
ment had temporarily deprived him." 






ROBERT SEYMOUR 

SEYMOUR'S ORIGINAL DESIGNS FOR " PICKWICK " 
PURCHASED BY MB, AUGUSTIN DALY, 1889 

The original drawings by Robert Seymour, designs 
executed in pen and ink, and shaded in sepia " Mr. 
Pickwick addressing the Club,'" " The Pugnacious Cabman," 
" Dr. Slammer's Defiance of Jingle," the altered version of 
" The Dying Clown " (a slighter sketch), and two important 
unpublished designs for later episodes in the " PICKWICK 
PAPERS " ; an alternative version of " The Runaway Chaise," 
and " The Pickwickians in Wardle's Kitchen " (illustrating 
p. 50), together with Dickens's now historical letter to 
Robert Seymour, and a portrait in miniature of the artist 
by Taylor (drawn in pencil and shaded in Indian ink), long 
remained in possession of the Seymour family. 

This interesting group of Seymour memorials, in a little 
scrap-book, somewhat unexpectedly appeared in an auction 
sale room. Offered in one lot, they were sold by Messrs. Sotheby, 
Wilkinson and Hodge, Wellington Street, 14th June, 1889. 

The modest parcel excited warm interest and competition 
amongst well-recognised collectors of " Dickensiana." 

Mr. John Dexter, an " expert " of wide experience in 
these matters, who compiled a valuable " Dickens Biblio- 
graphy," 1879, upon the subject on which he is so proficient 
an authority, bid up the lot to ^190. This was in an early 
stage of the contest. 

The final struggle was between Mr. B. F. Stevens and Mr. 
Bernard Quaritch ; as usual, the latter competitor carried 
the day at the astounding figure of ^?500. Curiosity was 
rife as to the destination of these interesting artistic relics ; 
it was at first conjectured that Mr. William Wright, of Paris, 
was the bold purchaser, but it was afterwards whispered that 
Mr. Quaritch's client was a gentleman hailing from America, 
who is popularly respected on both sides of the Atlantic as a 
highly successful and enterprising public character, best known 
in the theatrical world for his brilliant managerial capabilities. 



54 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



LIST OF SEYMOUR'S ILLUSTRATIONS, 1836 

DRAWING ON WOOD FOR THE PICTORIAL WRAPPER OF "THE POS- 
THUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB." ENGRAVED BY 
J. JACKSON 1 

[N.B. The original drawings by Robert Seymour (marked with three 
stars *% in the List) are the property of Mr. Augustin Daly, of 
"Daly's Theatres," New York and London. It is due to the obliging 
generosity of this munificent collector that we are enabled to repro- 
duce facsimile versions of these most interesting sketches.] 

SEYMOUR'S ORIGINAL SKETCH OF THE PICKWICK CLUB. 

# * ^ (I) "MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE CLUB." Facsimile 2 

Etching 3 

^% (II) "THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN." Facsimile of Seymour's 

original drawing ... 4 

,, ,, ,, Etching 5 

(III) "THE SAGACIOUS DOG." Etching 6 

[The Sketch of this subject is apparently missing], 
# % (IV) "DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE." (Facsimile of 
Seymour's original drawing, showing alteration made at 
Dickens's suggestion in the position of Dr. Slammer's 

arm) 7 

"DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE." Etching 8 

(V) "THE DYING CLOWN." The original drawing in Sepia, 

formerly in the possession of the publishers 9 

*% "THE DYING CLOWN." Sketch of alternative version, the 
attitude of the "dismal man" altered at Dickens's 

suggestion 10 

"THE DYING. CLOWN." Etching 11 

" THE DYING CLOWN." The second etching for the dupli- 
cate set of plates as executed by PHIZ after Seymour's 

engraving 12 

(VI) "MR. PICKWICK IN CHASE OF HIS HAT." The original 
drawing in Sepia, formerly in the possession of the 

publishers 13 

"MR. PICKWICK IN CHASE OF HIS HAT." Etching ... 14 
(VII) "MR. WINKLE SOOTHES THE REFRACTORY STEED." The 
original drawing in Sepia, formerly in the possession 

of the publishers 15 

" MR. WINKLE SOOTHES THE REFRACTORY STEED." Etching 16 
# \ "THE RUNAWAY CHAISE. ADVENTURES ON THE ROAD TO 
MR. WARDLE'S MANOR FARM." Tupman and Snod- 
grass thrown out. Unpublished design, illustrating 

Chap. IV. page 48 17 

% "ARRIVAL AT MANOR FARM. THE PICKWICKIANS IN 
MR. WARDLE'S KITCHEN." Unpublished design, illus- 
trating Chap IV. page 50 18 



POSTHUMOUS PAPEKS 



CONTAINING A FAITHFUL RECORD OF THE 

PERAMBULATIONS, PERILS, TRAVELS, ADVENTURES 



Spot tiitg ^Transactions 



EDITED BY " BOZ." 

WITH FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS 
BY SEYMOUR. 




LONDON : CHAPMAN & HALL, 186, STRAND. 



MPCCCXXXVI. 



57 










Robert Seymour. 

" MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE CLUB." 

Facsimile of the original sketch, opening tableau of "The Pickwick Papers. 

In the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly, by whose obliging liberality the publishers have 

been enabled to offer this reproduction. 



59 




Robert Seymour. 

" MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE CLUB." 

The first etching for "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club.' 
Part I. Issued 31st March, 1836. 







Robert Seymour. 

"THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN. 

Facsimile of the original sketch. 

In the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly, by whose obliging liberality the publishers have 
been enabled to offer this reproduction. 



63 




Robert Seymour. 
" THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN." 

Etching (II.) for " The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club " (Chap. II.). 
Part I. Issued 31st March, 1836. 



65 







Robert Seymour. 
" THE SAGACIOUS DOG." 

Etching (III.) for " The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club " (Chap. II.). 
Part I. Issued 31st March, 1336. 



VOL. I 



67 





Kobert Seymour. 

"DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE." 
Facsimile of the original sketch (showing alterations, made at Dickens's suggestion, in the 

position of Dr. Slammer's arm). 

The drawing in the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly, by whose obliging liberality the 
publishers have been enabled to offer this reproduction. 



C9 




Robert Seymour. 
"DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE." 

Etching (IV.) for "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club" (Chap. II.). 
Part I. Issued 31st March, 1836. 




Robert Seymour. 
Facsimile of Seymour's drawing 

"THE DYING CLOWN." 

On the etching of this subject, the last executed by his hand for " Pickwick, the artist 

was engaged shortly before his suicide, 20th April, 183(3. 

The drawing bears a stain, said to be his blood. 

(" The Pickwick Papers." Part II. Chap. III.) 




Robert Seymour. 

"THE DYING CLOWN" ("The Stroller's Tale "). 
Facsimile of the artist's last sketch as amended, with the attitude of the " Dismal Man " 

and the " Dying Clown," modified at Dickens's request. 

Facsimile of the alternative and final sketch in the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly, by 
whose obliging liberality the publishers have been enabled to offer this version. 




RoberfcSeymour. 
" THE DYING CLOWN." 

(The last etching worked on by the artist before his suicide.) 
Etching(V.) (Part II.) for " The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club." (Chap. III., 

April 30th, 1836.) 

N.B. The etchings VI. and VII. (which follow) had been executed in advance ; it 
was owing to a misunderstanding over this plate that Seymour's difficulties are supposed 
to have in part arisen. 



77 




"Pniz," after Robert Seymour. 

" THE DYING CLOWN." 

The second version, as copied by " PHIZ " after the original by Seymour. Reproduced 
for facility of comparison with the original etching, showing variations introduced by 
H. K. Browne in executing this, the alternative plate, for the " duplicate set." 



79 




Robert Seymour. 

Facsimile of Seymour's original drawing for 

"MR. PICKWICK IN CHASE OF HIS HAT." 

(" The Pickwick Papers." Part II. Chap. IV.) 



81 




Robert Seymour. 

"MB. PICKWICK IN CHASE OF HIS HAT." 

Etching (VI.) for " The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club." (Chap. IV.) 
Part II. Issued 30th April, 1836. 



VOL. 1 



83 




Robert Seymour. 

Facsimile of Seymour's original drawing for 
" MR. WINKLE SOOTHES THE REFRACTORY STEED. 
(" The Pickwick Papers." Part II. Chap. V.) 



85 




Robert Seymour. 

"MR. WINKLE SOOTHES THE REFRACTORY STEED." 

Etching (VII.) for " The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club." (Chap. V.) 
Part II. Issued 30th April, 1836. 



87 





Robert Seymour. 

"THE RUNAWAY CHAISE." 

"Adventures on the road to Mr. Wardle's Farm Tupman and Snodgrass thrown out." 

Facsimile of alternative design (unpublished) illustrating Chap. IV., p. 48. 

The original in the possession of Mr. Augustin Daly, by whose obliging liberality the 

publishers have been enabled to reproduce this version. 










Robert Seymour. 

"ARRIVAL AT MANOR FARM." 

"The Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's Kitchen." 

Facsimile of the last design, evidently prepared in advance by the artist for the fourth 
plate of Part II., but owing to his suicide never etched by his hand (unpublished). 
The original sketch, illustrating Chap. IV., p. 50, in the possession of Mr. Augustin 
Daly, by whose obliging liberality the publishers have been enabled to produce this 
facsimile. 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 91 



SEYMOUR'S SUCCESSORS. WANTED A "PICKWICK" ILLUSTRATOR 

The tragic ending of Seymour, who, it must be conceded, 
had practically originated the scheme of the " Pickwick Club," 
must have dismayed Dickens and his publishers, who, in the 
first instance, had taken over the plan direct from the gifted 
artist, and thereafter, in a way perhaps unavoidable under 
the circumstances, left him to play an unmistakably sub- 
ordinate part to the all-victorious youthful author, who 
was making his reputation through this vehicle as it happened, 
although, as it is needless to state, Dickens's future fame was 
assured in every case by the force of his own genius. 

The progress of the publication was endangered, as 
Dickens himself informed his readers in a sympathetic little 
address added to Part II., in consequence of Seymour's 
lamentable fate : 

" Some time must elapse before the void the deceased 
gentleman has left can be filled up." 

Never did a cheery enterprise, conducted with equal spirit, 
and destined to make so vast and popular an impression on the 
world at large, encounter more trying obstacles at the outset. 
First, before March, 1836, the publishers had settled to 
carry forward Seymour's long-suggested proposal, which had 
been delayed and jeopardised owing to the difficulties they 
had primarily encountered in finding an author qualified 
and willing to supply the narrative framework, and to act 
as literary coadjutor to the artist, who had become impatient 
at the postponements and uncertainties ; secondly, when the 
phoenix amongst writers had luckily been discovered by 
the publishers, and had revealed his brilliant parts to 
delighted audiences, the artist no less popularly appreciated 
at that time whose pictures were considered of the first 
consequence, was for ever removed ; the famous hand, pledged 
to tickle the public into smiles and into good spirits with 
four humorous etchings per month, for twenty successive 



92 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

months, was stilled in death, tragic and regrettable beyond 
ordinary. 

Robert Seymour and George Cruikshank were the fore- 
most book illustrators of the day ; beyond these was William 
Heath, at a considerable distance as regards talent ; the 
versatile "Alfred Crowquill," then regarded as a "gifted 
amateur,'" who was doing a good deal of comic etching work 
and producing humorous book-plates with considerable 
facility; and there was further Thomas Onwhyn, another 
youthful artist, also working in the same field ; all three 
prolific etchers, and ready for any fortune. Less known was 
the gifted Sibson, aspiring to continue Seymour's unfinished 
work, whose genius had inspired his ambition too. It is 
not recorded whether these gentlemen volunteered, or were 
otherwise invited to carry on the task of illustrating " Pick- 
wick." It is certain that Dickens inevitably, as he had 
frankly pointed out at the initiation of the scheme, had 
taken the entire control of the story, and the plates had to 
rationally arise from the text. Poor Seymour's troubles had 
arisen * from his fixed belief in the opposite theory that the 
plates ought to be " written up to," as in former instances of 
this kind of collaboration ; witness the familiar instances 
already cited of Rowlandson's innumerable suites, with the 
poetical Combe as his subordinate literary " hack," and their 
long-standing, and, it must be acknowledged, fully successful 
partnership ; in the cases of George and Robert Cruikshank, 
with Pierce Egan as hireling scribe, stringing together the 
enlivening "descriptive narrative" portion of "Life in 
London " ; a collaboration continued by Robert Cruikshank, 
such as " The Finish," with numerous successors, similarly 
compiled, to " Life in London " ; and the same designer's 
relationships with C. M. Westmacott, which favoured the 
public with the two improving volumes of "The English 
Spy," all published in monthly parts, the plan insisted upon 
by Seymour in respect to " Pickwick " ; with Theodore Lane 
and Henry Alken's early relations with their chosen scribes, 



SEYMOUR'S SUCCESSORS 93 

not to multiply references to this order of coadjutorship 
previously set forth at greater length. 

It seems likely that George Cruikshank held his own 
strongly personal theories as to his own individual artistic 
independence, as experienced by Dickens in the instance of 
" Sketches by Boz," and promised to be even more tenacious 
than the unfortunate Seymour. Did Dickens reject the over- 
willing collaboration of Heath, Crowquill, and Onwhyn respec- 
tively ? To say nothing of that other youthful genius, Sibson, 
also making his artistic debut with his remarkable sheaf of 
etchings, rarest of all, illustrating the "Pickwick Club." 
There is apparently no evidence forthcoming or existing 
on these points. But it is beyond controversy that all these 
humourists esteemed themselves individually the especial 
artist for the purpose, and they each were unanimously 
prepared to prove this belief in their own abilities, and each, 
in turn, resolved that, failing to be officially retained as 
Dickens's chosen artistic colleague, they would still exert 
themselves to obtain a whiff of the fame so abound ingly 
attaching to " Pickwick." Thus we have four extra series 
of etchings, all apparently unsolicited, and equally " without 
your leave " ; all four sets executed contemporaneously, while 
the story was being gradually and periodically unfolded in 
monthly instalments, and thus voluntarily offering the re- 
spective graphic views of Heath, Crowquill, Onwhyn, and 
Sibson, as to the fittingly humorous delineations of the 
characters, scenes, situations, and incidents lavishly enliven- 
ing the pages of " Pickwick." The author has not recorded 
his personal impressions upon these, his would-be artistic 
coadjutors, and it does not appear that he recognised, or, at 
least, acknowledged the gratuitous compliment ; these artists 
were trading on Dickens's phenomenal success, and rushing 
in, wholly uninvited, to pick up a few crumbs from that 
overflowing banquet. The writer had occasion, later on, 
to fiercely denounce the literary pirates who were nefariously 



94 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

feasting on what he rightly held as illegitimate gains filched 
from himself. The exertions of the four artists above 
named were of a recognisably legitimate order, although it 
does not appear that the author of " Pickwick " was grateful 
to them or otherwise; and their efforts, for that matter, 
were perhaps rather beneficial than harmful, as tending to the 
fuller adulation of " Pickwick," and the extended apprecia- 
tion of the good things and graphic possibilities contained 
in that vivacious and resourceful picture of the humours of 
men and manners of the pre- Victorian era. 

As related, those artists best known to that generation as 
facile etchers of comic book illustrations, seem to have been 
rejected or ignominiously passed over ; an advantage, other- 
wise, for the " new hands " or to those aspiring youths of 
promise who, like Dickens himself, were anxious to witch 
the public with talents which should, brilliant meteor-like, 
burst upon the age. Before the coming luminaries revealed 
their advent, within the " Pickwickian " firmament there 
was evidently gloom, and apprehensions of temporary sus- 
pension, though probably the fate of extinction was never 
contemplated. 

Dickens himself was, at the time, a brand-new hand at 
this " illustrative art " business ; it can be seen that he was 
less confident about the artistic side of the undertaking; 
at the commencement, the young author expected the scheme 
resembled the venture by the same publishers, entitled 
"The Library of Fiction, 11 illustrated with drawings on 
wood ; as related, he had addressed his future bride concern- 
ing the offer received from Chapman and Hall " to write 
and edit a new publication they contemplate to be published 
monthly ," and " each number to contain four wood-cuts." 
Seymour had already, on the eve of the appearance of " Pick- 
wick," very cleverly designed on wood two illustrations for 
one of Dickens's later famous " Sketches by Boz," " The 
Tuggs's at Ramsgate " (see Appendix), which appeared in the 



SEYMOUR'S SUCCESSORS 95 

very " Library of Fiction " wherein was issued the " Boz " 
manifesto announcing the forthcoming publication of " The 
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club," " each monthly 
part embellished with four illustrations by Seymour," as 
Dickens genially declared, the artist who had "devoted 
himself, heart and graver, to the task of illustrating 
< Pickwick. 1 " 



ROBERT WILLIAM BUSS 



VOL. i 



ROBERT WILLIAM BUSS 

PROBABLY it followed, as a natural consequence, that, as 
one artist of convincingly popular capabilities, in the instance 
of the unfortunate Seymour, had been associated with " The 
Library of Fiction, 11 where, as we have shown, he had 
illustrated one of the most effective of Dickens's " Sketches 
by Boz" with remarkable felicity (as may be seen in the 
Appendix to the present volume), the author of the "Pick- 
wick Papers," and the publishers of the dual series, alike 
turned to that venture, in the expectation of being enabled 
to secure further talent of similar order, forgetting that 
artists possessing abilities of this rare character were indeed 
of the nature of the fabled phrenix, though they were shortly 
to stumble upon two designers, in the persons of the youthful 
" PHIZ " and Leech, destined to leave a mark upon their gener- 
ation almost as distinguished, in their vocation, the realms 
of graphic art, as the popular and enduring impression made 
by Dickens himself in the annals of literature. 

Robert William Buss, as it happened, was working for 
" The Library of Fiction," and his design for Dickens's 
paper ("Sketches by Boz,") "Sweeps and Spring," drawn 
upon wood (as reproduced in the Appendix) to illustrate 
the effective episode founded upon the pathetic story of the 
little unconscious sweeper-boy, kidnapped in infancy, who, 
tired out by the labour of climbing chimneys, fell asleep upon 
the very bed he slept in as an infant, and was there discov- 
ered and recognised by his mother (as associated with " The 



100 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

First of May " and old May Day observances), had been 
engraved by John Jackson, who, under their difficulties, 
acting as art-adviser to the publishers, recommended Buss to 
them as likely to prove the means of helping them out of 
their embarrassing situation. It has been stated that Buss, 
although already an artist of fair reputation and experience, 
engaged in painting pictures of humorous tendency, and, as 
we have seen, ambitious of enlarging his practice by taking 
up the readier branch of designing book-illustrations at 
that time had no practical acquaintance with the executive 
part of etching no difficult feat to a wood-draftsman ; this 
point has been enlarged upon unnecessarily, as it would 
seem.J For Buss justly claimed to be an extensively versatile 
artist, and he was the son of an engraver ; moreover, accord- 
ing to his own statement, he successfully executed a prelim- 
inary etching, which was submitted to Chapman and Hall 
as a test of his qualifications for the position to which he 
aspired. This plate was, of its kind, fairly satisfactory ; 
the subject, taken from Part II. of the " Pickwick Papers," 
represented " Mr. Pickwick at the Review " ; a proof from 
the plate, with the original drawing, remained in possession 
of the publishers. The drawing is reproduced in facsimile 
in the present series, and originally made its first appearance 
in the 1887 " Victoria " edition of the " Pickwick Papers," 
edited by Mr. Charles Plumtre Johnson, and illustrated 
throughout with reproductions in photogravure of the 
original suite of drawings by Seymour, Buss, and H. K. 
Browne, which had, up to that epoch, remained in the 
keeping of Chapman and Hall. 

The execution of this plate must have been purely tentative ; 
Part II. of "Pickwick," with Seymour's plate of "The 
Review," was already published, it is assumed, before Buss 
sent in his etching, which is, as the artist admitted, techni- 
cally weak, " the execution thin and scratchy." However, 
Buss seems to have settled down kindly to the work, probably 
encouraged by the flattering outlook which Dickens's little 



ROBERT WILLIAM BUSS 101 

"address," inserted in Part III. (the number containing 
Buss's only contributions published in " PICKWICK "), thus 
serenely promised : 

"We announced in our last, that the ensuing numbers of 
the * Pickwick Papers ? would appear in an improved form ; 
and we now beg to call the attention of our readers to the 
fulfilment of our promise. 

" Acting upon a suggestion which has been made to them 
from various influential quarters, the publishers have deter- 
mined to increase the quantity of letter-press in every monthly 
part, and to diminish the number of plates. It will be seen 
that the present number contains eight additional pages of 
closely-printed matter and two engravings by Mr. Buss, a 
gentleman already well known to the public as a very humorous 
and talented artist. 

" The alterations in the plan of the work entail upon the 
publishers a considerable expense, which nothing but a large 
circulation would justify them in incurring. They are happy 
to have it in their power to state that the rapid sale of the 
two first numbers, and the daily increasing demand for the 
periodical, enables them to acknowledge the patronage of 
the public in the way which they hope will be deemed most 
acceptable." 

With all respect for the bona fides of this manifesto, it 
must be pointed out that eight extra pages of letter-press, 
though an advantage to the writer (and to the public in this 
instance), should not have been a costly substitute for two 
etchings, printed apart, and taking a very considerable time 
to work and to " inset." 

The fact of discarding two plates, halved the extremely 
trying responsibilities entailed by the preparation and 
working of these extraneous embellishments ; a great gain as 
to economising time, when the circulation of " Pickwick " was 
" increasing by leaps and bounds," and the necessarily time- 
consuming process of plate-printing by hand-press was already 
so formidable an obstacle to the monthly parts being ready 



102 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

to date, that duplicate sets of plates were needed, and, as 
each plate was available, the printing went on incessantly, 
day and night, in the endeavour to keep up the supply to 
meet the overwhelming demands for a larger output of copies 
/ in time for the exacting requirements of " publishing day. 11 

Buss had settled down seriously to the task he had 
originally taken up with diffidence, and, as he has explained, 
solely in deference to the insistent assurances of the publishers, 
while still unsettled and struggling with the perplexities 
entailed by the unexampled loss of Seymour. 

Beyond designing the two plates which in their etched form 
furnished the illustrations of Part III., Buss prepared sketches 
(in readiness to be etched for Part IV.), which were superseded 
by the opportune engagement of H. K. Browne. Buss also 
handed the publishers a design for " Mr. Winkled First 
Shot " ; a sheet of " Studies of Characters in Pickwick " ; and 
even went the length of submitting a rough sketch of his 
suggestion for a title page, " The Transactions of the Pickwick 
Club," inscribed with the premature and misleading legend, 
" Illustrated by R. W. Buss, 11 a fate from which " Pickwick, 11 
Dickens, the publishers, and the public were happily reprieved. 
In after years the artist himself candidly confessed concerning 
his plates which made their brief, cursory appearance in 
Number III. of the monthly parts, and then disappeared 
for ever : " there was a vague impression on my mind that 
these etchings were abominably bad, and utterly devoid of 
promise and hope." 

The prospect of Buss ever inscribing his name on the title 
page as " Illustrator 11 to the exclusion, too, of the original 
projector of the series (who had created the " Nimrod Club 11 
and the personality of " Pickwick, 11 the immortal founder 
thereof), was rudely shattered by an abrupt intimation that 
his future assistance was dispensed with. Thus there was a 
second grievance, to be handed down with the first calamitous 
grievance among the traditions of the Seymour and Buss 
families, of supposed injustice and injuries at the hands of 



ROBERT WILLIAM BUSS 



103 



Dickens, who was probably unconscious of his manifold 
wickednesses, and merely striving, like the eager young spirit 
he was, to give his growing public the best in his power, and 
to secure an artistic coadjutor whose illustrations should duly 
interpret the story to the best graphic advantage. 

Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, M.A. and F.S.A., one of the few sur- 
viving " trusty lieutenants " of " the Inimitable " (as " Boz's " 
colleagues had christened Dickens), from his extensive collec- 
tion of " Dickensiana," his widespread acquaintance with this 
extended theme, and his patient researches into the byeways, 
curiosities, and traditional data of " Pickwick," has been 
enabled to favour the public with an exhaustive " History of 
Pickwick." (Chapman and Hall, 1891.) In the course of 
his perquisitions into the facts of the case, and the vexed 
relations of Dickens with his early illustrators, Mr. Fitzgerald 
had occasion to meet the representatives of R. W. Buss, the 
artist, and he has recorded that the dismissal, somewhat 
ungracious in this gentleman's instance, was felt bitterly, 
and brought great mortification : " It must be said the 
fault was not altogether his. In an elaborate statement 
which he drew up for his children, he set out his case, under 
a sense of having been dealt with unjustly. This feeling lay 
dormant for nearly forty years, until it was awakened by an 
allusion in Mr. Forster's ' Life of Dickens." It must be said, 
however, that his style of humour was unsuited to that of 
6 Pickwick. 1 " 

R. W. Buss, though his work is for the most part avowedly 
humorous, aspired to rank as a serious painter. He was 
born in 1804, and at the time of his connection with " Pick- 
wick," was well known among his contemporaries. He was 
apprenticed to his father as an engraver, and might be 
assumed to have in his youth mastered a general knowledge 
of that profession. Early in life he showed promise of 
becoming a painter, and was placed under the tuition of 
George Clint, A.R.A., whose practice was largely among 
theatrical circles. It was probably due to this introduction 



104 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

that Buss shared with Clint commissions for character-por- 
traits of actors and actresses ; to his hand was entrusted the 
execution of fifteen small full-lengths of theatrical performers, 
designed for engraving as frontispieces to the volumes of 
Cumberland's British Drama. Leaving portraiture, Buss 
continued for many years to contribute subject-pictures, of 
more or less comic intention, to the Society of British Artists, 
first exhibiting in 1826. He further exhibited vast historical 
cartoons at the Westminster Competition in 1844-45, sending 
in 1845 " Prince Henry acknowledges the authority of Justice 
Gascoigne." The artist has dwelt upon his unfamiliarity with 
the etching craft at the time of his relations with " Pickwick " ; 
he later became an energetic etcher of book-illustrations, and 
executed several series of plates, illustrating various novels, 
which appeared in the New Monthly Magazine and elsewhere. 
For Colburn he illustrated Mrs. Trollope's story of " The 
Widow (Barnaby) Married" (1839). His plates do not com- 
pare favourably with those executed under similar conditions 
by John Leech for a continuation of the " Widow Barnaby," 
" The Barnabys in America." His hand is found in the 
illustrations of Captain Marryat's " Peter Simple " and 
"Jacob Faithful," the engravings to which demonstrate his 
powers, knowledge, and painter-like feeling for correctness of 
costume and accessories. 

It will probably be recognised that Buss's art was seen to 
the best advantage in his forcible etchings, also published in 
the New Monthly Magazine, as illustrations to the historical 
romance, " The Court of James II.," by Harrison Ains worth, 
where the artist's historical knowledge had a favourable 
opening. His occasional plates to Mrs. Trollope's " Michael 
Armstrong," also in part illustrated by T. Onwhyn, are 
vigorously melodramatic, and it has been pointed out that 
in the delineation of grim realism he imitated the style of 
G. Cruikshank ; his manipulation lacks the delicacy, " charm," 
and superior technical qualities distinguishing Cruikshank's 
etchings; the tendency of his handling being to harshness, 



ROBERT WILLIAM BUSS 105 

without the cunning subtleties to which are due the wonderful 
contrasts of light handling, and the mysteries of Rembrandt- 
like light and shade ; nor did his handiwork approach the 
playful dexterity which characterises the productions of the 
better-recognised designers of his day, Cruikshank, " PHIZ," 
Leech, Doyle, and others. Buss was also an industrious, 
conscientious, and painstaking draftsman on wood, 
especially in treating antiquarian topics ; for the enterprising 
Charles Knight he drew a vast number of designs for the 
wood-engravers, illustrations which appeared in Knights 
Shakespeare, Knight's London, Knights Old England, Knight's 
Chaucer, and The Penny Magazine. His original oil-paint- 
ings, many of which were engraved, fill quite a catalogue 
of themselves. 

R. W. Buss, who was born in 1804, died at Camden Town, 
February 26, 1875. 



Buss's "PICKWICK" ILLUSTRATIONS 

~ r^ 

Beyond the examples of original sketches here reproduced 
in facsimile, and the two etchings actually executed and 
issued with Part III. of " Pickwick (" the suppressed plates "), 
R. W. Buss submitted to the publishers various designs (over 
slight and crude to be of interest for the present purpose), 
which, with the foregoing, remained in the possession of 
Chapman and Hall ; these sketches included the two designs 
for the published etchings, " The Cricket Match" and " The 
Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion Only " ; as the engraved 
versions happen to be clearer and, in all respects, more 
presentable than the drawings, the etchings have been 
selected, after careful comparison, in preference to the vaguer 
sketches. 

There exist by the same artist no less than three tentative 
sketches, unfinished and evidently hurried, of the plate 
(subsequently replaced by the more satisfactory " PHIZ " ver- 




106 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

sion) of " The Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion Only " 
(Chap. VIII.). 

R. W. Buss further submitted, with similar want of success 
with that which marked H. K. Browne's earliest suggestion 
for the same subject a design for " Mr. Winkle's First 
Shot "(Chap. VIL). 

This Buss sketch was rejected, with justification on the 
part of the gifted author, who, it must be acknowledged, had 
ample reasons for his decision ; a page of " Studies of Charac- 
ters in Pickwick " shared a similar fate, on grounds equally 
unassailable ; and the fair fame of the artist himself has not 
suffered by either of these rejections. It is to be regretted 
that Buss made his brief passing appearance on the 
" Pickwickian " stage to exit summarily ; the results were 
depressing, unfortunate, and disappointing to every one con- 
cerned. It must have been an indescribable relief to the 
brilliant young author, to the publishers, and to the public 
at large when the youthful Hablot Knight Browne was 
found, at the precisely critical moment, to more pliantly 
carry on the traditions of the lamented Seymour ; hence- 
forward " Pickwick's " career of success and appreciation was 
popularly assured, and left nothing to be desired, so happily 
had the fates ordered matters " for that lucky fellow, Charles 
Dickens," as the other great novelist of the Victorian era has 
been pleased to asseverate in referring to his most famous 
contemporary. 



LIST OF R. W. Buss's " PICKWICK " ILLUSTRATIONS, 1836, 

HERE REPRODUCED 

"MR. PICKWICK AT THE REVIEW." Facsimile of the original draw- 
ing. Submitted to Chapman and Hall 1 

[N.B. This subject was subsequently etched by R. W. Buss him- 
self, as a specimen of his qualifications as an etcher, for the 
publishers' assurance ; but the plate never appeared in the 
" Pickwick Papers," and impressions are necessarily very rare.] 

"THE CRICKET MATCH." The Etching 2 

[N.B. The plate inscribed by R. W. B. "Drawn and Etch'd 
by R. W. Buss."] 

"THE FAT BOY AWAKE ON THIS OCCASION ONLY" 3 

[N.B. The plate inscribed by R. W. B. " Drawn and Etch'd 
by R. W. Buss."] 

"Mr. WARDLE AND HIS FRIENDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 'THE 
SALMON.'" Original design for Part IV. of "Pickwick." 
[ Unused] 4 

"THE BREAKDOWN." Original design for Part IV. of "Pickwick." 

[Unused] 5 

" THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB. Illustrated by 
R. W. Buss." Suggested design for the title page of "Pick- 
wick," as submitted to the publishers by R. W. Buss. [Unused 
study] 6 



100 




Robert William Buss. 
Facsimile of the original drawing, 

"ME. PICKWICK AT THE REVIEW." (Chap. IV., Par II. 

This subject was etched by R. W. Buss, and the plate submitted to "Boz" and to 
Chapman and Hall, the publishers, as an instance of his artistic qualifications for his 
proposed task, as successor to the artist, Robert Seymour, deceased 20th April, 1836. It 
is noteworthy that in this design Buss's work is successful to the extent of suggesting the 
style of his gifted predecessor. 

This plate illustrated Part II., issued 30th April, 1836, published before the actual 
etching was made. Buss's experimental etching was never used in "The Pickwick 
Papers." 



Ill 




Executed by R. W. Buss. 
Original illustration for the first edition (Part III.) of " The Pickwick Papers," as issued 

in monthly numbers, May, 1836. 
(These designs are described as the Buss " Suppressed Plates," as they were omitted from 

subsequent issues.) 

"THE CRICKET MATCH DINGLEY DELL AGAINST ALL MUGOLETON." (Chap. VII.) 

N.B. The design by " PHIZ," " Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the Influence of 'the 

Salmon,' " was substituted for this plate in the collected edition. (See page 165.) 



113 




Executed by R. W. Buss. 
Original illustration to the first edition (Part III.) of "The Pickwick Papers," as issued 

in monthly numbers. 
(These designs are described as the Buss "Suppressed Plates," as they were omitted from 

subsequent issues.) 
" THE FAT BOY AWAKE ON THIS OCCASION ONLY." (Chap. VI IT.) 

Part III. Issued May, 1836. 

The original design by " PHIZ," treating the same episode (the etching which re- 
placed the Buss plate in the "collected edition") is reproduced with H. K. BROWNE'S 
" Pickwick " illustrations (see page 163). 

VOL. I I 



115 




Robert William Buss. 

Facsimile of the original design submitted by Buss to illustrate the incident. 
" MR. PICKWICK AND HIS FRIENDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE 'SALMON' " (Chap. VIII.) 
This drawing, having by the publishers and author, been found unsuitable, was 
never etched, and another version by "PHIZ" was subsequently introduced in the 
collected edition. 

N.B. The H. K. BROWNE drawing is reproduced in facsimile (see page 1C5) under 
that artist's " Pickwick " illustrations. 



117 








Robert William Buss. 
Facsimile of the original design submitted by Buss to illustrate the incident of 

"THE BREAKDOWN." (Chap. IX.). 

This drawing, like its predecessor, was designed by the artist to embellish Part IV. of 
"The Pickwick Papers." The youthful Hablot Knight-Browne 1 , in the interval, had sub- 
mitted two spirited sketches, '*The Break-down," and "The First Appearance of Mr. 
Samuel Weller," and this promising young artist had received a. commission to execute 
the two admirable etchings which appeared with Part IV., his first introduction (under 
the sobriquet of " NEMO," changed to " PHIZ " in Part V.) to the readers of " Pickwick " as 
the artistic exponent of Dickens's characters. 

N.B. The drawing and two etchings by "PHIZ" are given (see pages 107, 169, 171) 
under H. K. Browne's "Pickwick" illustrations. 




Design, suggested by Robert William Buss, for the title page of "Pickwick" (unused 

study). 



W. M. THACKERAY 



JOHN LEECH 



W. M. THACKERAY 

WHILE considering Dickens's actual illustrators, we are 
tempted to mention the name of one gifted aspirant, whose 
assistance in this phase never reached beyond the willing 
inclination to enlist his services as a " Pickwick " illustrator. 
We have it from Thackeray's own publicly-made statement 
that he, too, had aspired to the popular distinction of being 
associated with " Boz " in the character of illustrator of the 
" Pickwick Papers." This interesting offer was further referred 
to by Dickens himself many years later. Regarded by the 
fuller light of Thackeray's subsequent career, at first sight 
this claim does not seem a serious one, although the proposal 
was made in all earnestness, and the reception accorded to 
the artistic collaboration thus volunteered was doubtless the 
cause of gravely disenchanting if transitory disappoint- 
ment. John Forster and others present have described the 
occasion when, before the brilliant assembly gathered at the 
annual Royal Academy banquet, in the presence of the repre- 
sentatives of every branch of art, letters, science, &c., there 
congregated, one memorable anniversary, when Dickens and 
Thackeray themselves illustriously represented literature in 
returning thanks for the compliment paid to the art of 
letters, the latter disclosed the little disappointment which in 
1836 had discouraged one of his youthful ambitions that of 
appearing before an appreciative public as Dickens's illus- 
trator, in the instance of the immortal " Pickwick." 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

"I can remember," said Thackeray, "when Mr. Dickens 
was a very young man, and had commenced delighting the 
world with some charming humorous works, in covers, which 
were coloured light green, and came out once a month ; that 
this young man wanted an artist to illustrate his writings ; 
and I recollect walking up to his chambers in FurnivaFs Inn, 
with two or three drawings in my hand, which, strange to 
say, he did not find suitable. But for the unfortunate blight 
which came over my artistical existence, it would have been 
my pride and my pleasure to have endeavoured one day 
to find a place on these walls for one of my performances.'*'' 

" Dickens collectors " no less than Thackeray 's admirers 
would vastly enjoy a sight of those " two or three drawings " 
by W. M. T.'s hand so provokingly lost to fame and to the 
collector ! 

Foreign as it at first hearing must now seem, at that stage 
of his career, and at the period in question, there were many 
reasons to encourage Thackeray's aspirations to fill this, to 
him, most desirable and honourable post ; he had been 
working with Seymour on the " Comic Magazine " up to that 
time, contributing comic etchings to its pages ; he had been 
probably associated with the same gifted and unfortunate artist 
on similar publications, such as the " Figaro," and was 
endeavouring to make his way as a humorous artist no less 
than as a writer. 

Macready in his Diary has recorded that this very year 
Thackeray had told him that art was to be his career, and 
that he had decided to study art seriously in Paris. The 
year 1836 had seen the publication of Thackeray "s rare and 
richly humorous suite of subjects, lithographed by Morton, 
the series which appeared simultaneously in Paris and 
London under the title of " Flore et Zephyr, Ballet Myiholo- 
gique ; " judging from the admirable character of these 
drawings alone, it may be recognised that Thackeray felt 
justified in having sufficient confidence in his artistic powers 
to believe his efforts would satisfy Dickens. The world is 



W. M. THACKERAY 125 

sufficiently acquainted with Thackeray 's original abilities as 
the illustrator of his own inimitable writings, and he had 
already figured in " Fraser's Magazine " as an etcher of much 
original humour and spirit, as was inevitable in the case 
of one dowered with such unwonted satiric force and genius, 
who had commenced life as an art-student. While failing in 
securing the goodwill of Dickens at this particular juncture, 
Thackeray more successfully turned to another popular 
author of that day, the mutual friend and colleague alike of 
Dickens and himself, namely Douglas Jerrold, who at the 
time was contemplating the republication, in a collected 
form, of his well-recognised series, " Men of Character " ; for 
these amusing satirical " historiettes," Thackeray drew a suite 
of water-colour illustrations, which ultimately came into the 
possession of Dickens's biographer, John Forster, and are now 
with that liberal donor's interesting collection of artistic and 
literary memorials in the " Forster Library," South Kensing- 
ton Museum. The " Men of Character " illustrations were 
engraved for the collected series, in three volumes, of Douglas 
Jerrold's very original work, published shortly after " Pick- 
wick," was issued in its first completed form. These de- 
signs were transferred to steel or copper by another hand, 
and much of Thackeray's spirit has been lost in the trans- 
lation ; the etchings, curiously enough, were made by 
"Pniz," and are somewhat laboured and ineffective; prob- 
ably H. K. Browne, an all-facile etcher as regards working 
out his own conceptions with effective spirit and lightness of 
touch, was in this instance at a disadvantage in undertaking 
to render the ideas of another designer ; moreover, these 
sketches by Thackeray are water-colour drawings, and it was 
in endeavouring to suggest " colour " rather than broad out- 
line his own and Thackeray's ordinary specialities that the 
etcher has crowded his engraved versions of the " Men of 
Character " drawings with unnecessary work ; neither are the 
two styles in the case in question so happily blended as could 
be desired. 



126 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

It may be conjectured whether "Boz" afterwards recon- 
sidered the offer made by Thackeray at this early stage of a 
career as brilliant, in literary and artistic achievement, as 
Dickens's own phenomenal progress, and equally illustrious in 
popular estimation. Certain it is the chance of collaboration 
suggested in juvenile days made a firmer impression on 
Dickens's mind than appeared at the time. 

Upon Thackeray's death, on the Christmas Eve of 1863, 
Dickens was moved to contribute to the " Cornhill Magazine," 
February, 1864, a touching memento of the departed genius. 
He wrote : " I saw him first, nearly twenty-eight years ago, 
when he proposed to become the illustrator of my earliest 
book." 



JOHN LEECH 

AFTER the lamented death of Robert Seymour, 20th April, 
1836, it has been seen that the author and publishers of 
the " Pickwick Papers " were placed in the difficult position 
of having to discover an artist qualified to take the place of 
that admirable designer, who was, in so considerable a degree, 
concerned in the original appearance of the " Pickwick Club." 

Mr. John Jackson, the eminent wood-engraver (a personage 
of practical influence in the arts), who was working at the 
time for Chapman and Hall, and had engraved on wood the 
Seymour design for the wrapper now historical, recommended 
R. W. Buss, whose drawings on wood he was engraving for 
" The Library of Fiction," another venture of Messrs. 
Chapman and HalPs. 

Hablot Knight Browne, then a youth of twenty, and 
W. M. Thackeray then at the age of twenty-five, who was 
already a more experienced hand had offered their artistic 
assistance ; but the gifted and versatile " PHIZ," with marked 
success, had been commissioned to continue the traditions of 
Seymour. 

About the same time John Leech, still younger, had also 
entered the field. He, too, though but eighteen at the time, 
had in 1835 made a juvenile attempt at publication in " The 
Etchings and Sketchings, by A. PEN, Esq." More considera- 
tion was given to his application than was afforded to the 
sketches submitted by Thackeray, for to Leech was proposed 



128 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

a subject for illustration, about Part V., " Tom Smart and 
the Chair," and he accordingly sent in a pencil drawing, 
tinted in water-colours, which remained in the possession of 
the publishers. By that date the position of H. K. Browne 
had been assured by the success of his plates for Part IV., 
already published, and the promising plates in hand for 
PartV. 

The incident of "Tom Smart and the Chair" was never 
illustrated in the original issue, for " PHIZ " was carrying on 
the work with spirit, and Leech was not commissioned to etch 
his design. The water-colour drawing in question, of " Tom 
Smart and the Chair," indicated promise, but that gifted 
artist was then a mere beginner, and his art at that date 
obviously crude, inexperienced and undeveloped. 

John Leech and Charles Dickens (in the first instance 
through their mutual intimate, Albert Smith) were destined 
to become such close and affectionate friends in the future, 
it is a source of surprise, and speaks volumes for the high 
estimation in which was held Dickens's long-established 
artistic colleague and coadjutor " PHIZ," that it was not 
until the appearance of Dickens^s Christmas Book, the im- 
mortal "Christmas Carol," in 1843, that these staunch and 
attached friends Dickens and Leech in their respective 
walks the most popular artists that have ever delighted the 
British public, had the desirable advantage of appearing in 
collaboration. 

The universal success of the little " Christmas Carol," 
an undoubted chef' cfceuvre, probably unique alike in the 
annals of literature and of illustrative art, must have con- 
soled the sensitive John Leech for the unfavourable recep- 
tion his immature design for the " Pickwick Papers " had 
encountered in being " shelved " seven years previously, when 
his artistic future lay unexplored and, in those juvenile days, 
unsuspected. 



129 



fWtf-t 







Original design for "The Pickwick Papers." 

By John Leech (at the age of 19). 

Pencil drawing, faintly tinted in colours, as a specimen of the artist's work submitted 
) the publishers early in the progress of the first issue in monthly parts. 

" TOM SMART AND THE CHAIR." 
" A Tale told by a Bagman at the ' Peacock.' " (Chap. XIV. 1 ) 



vor,. i 



PHIZ" HABLOT KNIGHT BROWNE 



HABLcVr KNIGHT BROWNE" PHIZ" 

IT has already been seen incidentally that, after the appear- 
ance of Part II. of the " Pickwick "Papers," the publishers 
were at their wits'* end as to securing an appropriate artistic 
successor to poor Seymour, one duly qualified to consistently 
carry on the illustrations of the work, and to supply the 
place of the lamented artist departed. With the same 
phenomenal luck which uniformly attended the fortunes of 
" Pickwick," the publishers were destined to find the identical 
treasure amongst designers, already awaiting the propitious 
chance of making his debut on the Pickwickian stage. By a 
similar coincidence it was that influential master of wood- 
engraving, Mr. John Jackson, the zealous friend of both 
Seymour and Buss, who was fated to influence Edward 
Chapman in selecting young Hablot Knight Browne as the 
future and well-nigh life-long artistic coadjutor of Dickens. 
The circumstance is referred to chance, assisted by the 
accident of coming across that artisfs large and spirited 
early engraving of " John Gilpin's Ride," a work produced by 
H. K. Browne in 1833 at the age of eighteen, and for which 
he had gained the Society of Arts 1 medal. 

After the introduction of Buss by Jackson, Chapman, 
calling at the engraver's atelier, happened to see this dashing 
example of promising genius, " PHIZ " being at the time a very 
youthful hand, as may be judged. 

In common with every one who had come across the 
animated picture in question, the publisher was delighted 



134 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

with the etching, and, through the friendly offices of the wood- 
engraver, was introduced to Browne, who had been appren- 
ticed to the Findens, the fashionable engravers on steel of their 
generation, who found occupation for a very large staff of 
assistants. 

The happy manner in which the flexible accomplishments 
of H. K. Browne adapted thenwelves to the sympathetic 
illustrating of " Pickwick " was so exceptional that " PHIZ'S " 
name must always be associated with the reputation of that 
immortal work. Nothing in the way of collaboration could 
have fallen out more felicitously. " PHI/ " was possessed of 
an exuberant fancy, and his humorous faculties readily seized 
all the salient points of Dickens's narrative, with the person- 
alities of the Pickwickian characters, and the fun of respective 
ludicrous episodes and situations, while his dashing execu- 
tive facility kept pace with the gifted author's own surprising 
fluency. Possibly the charge could be sustained of over- 
exaggeration otherwise caricaturing, on occasions degene- 
rating into burlesque, of actual situations, drawn from life 
as regards the story ; and, if Dickens desired to be taken as 
seriously realistic, as, in fact, was the case, his grievance against 
his more farcical artistic interpreters must readily be fully 
justified. Here, in this work, we have examples of various 
views of illustrating the veracious Pickwickian chronicles ; 
greater realists, and more sober practitioners of serious art 
than the fanciful and facile " PHIZ," have interpreted the same 
suggestive situations, resourceful alike in character and 
incident ; but, as it is superfluous to point out, Dickens's 
creations are so intimately associated with their pictorial 
embodiment at the hands of " PHIZ," to all time, we must 
always see the gifted author's dramatis personoc through that 
ready designer's artistic medium. It matters little who is 
tempted to enter the field, or how elevated the art or 
technical proficiency brought into play for the reconstruction 
of Dickens's fictitious characters and life-like creations the 
verdict is already forestalled the models stereotyped ; the 



" PHIZ " 135 

ideals imagined by " PHIZ " must inevitably continue to remain 
the prototypes which appeal to all readers, and there is no 
getting away from them. 

Buss himself, all-quivering with the disappointment of his 
own deposition from the coveted post of " Pickwick '" 
illustrator, has generously set down his personal convictions 
upon these points, in his statement, already referred to, 
wherein he accords to the successful rival who had unwittingly 
stepped into his artistic position ungrudging admiration, 
uninfluenced by his own feeling of grievance due to his 
having had to give way to a more popular successor. 

With remarkable impartiality, Buss was pleased to record 
at the time this liberal appreciation of " PHIZ'S " noteworthy 
gifts for the office : " Though personally unknown to Mr. 
Browne, I have always admired his clever and spirited 
etchings to the great novelist's works. He has presented to 
the public mind numerous life-like representations of the various 
persons described by Dickens, and stamped them upon the 
public eye in a manner far more forcible than any description, 
even by the great power of Dickens himself, could do. Take 
Sam Wetter i for instance ; words show his oddity of 
expression and his extraordinary similes, but the pencil only 
could convey the queer look he has. Why, the mere mention 
of Sam Weller summons up, in the public vision, ' PHIZ'S ' Sam, 
presented by a few effective lines ! So of old Weller so of 
Stiggins of Squeers of Captain Cuttle of Dombey 
Dick Swiveller the Marchioness Quilp Pecksniff Sairey 
Gamp through a complete gallery of portraits. All these 
personages are so many living beings amongst us." 

This just and generous view of " PHIZ'S " abiding influence, 
as associated with the affectionate regard of myriad readers, 
who must remember Dickens's characters, and identify their 
outward personalities through that artist's illustrations, has 
been confirmed and fixed by many judicious critics, who have 
enlarged upon this circumstance. No more graceful tribute 
could be offered than is enshrined in the verses consecrating 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

" PHIZ'S " memory in the pages of Punch, 22nd July, 
when that gifted artist had gone to his rest : 

"PHIZ." 

HABLOT K. BROWNE, Artist. 
Born, 1815. Died, July, 1882. 

The lamp is out that lighted up the text 

Of Dickens, Lever heroes of the pen. 
Pickwick and Lorrequer we love, but next 

We place the man who made us see such men. 
What should we know of Martin Chuzzleu'it, 

Stern Mr. Dombey, or Uriah Heep ? 
Tom Burke of Ours ? Around our hearts they sit, 

Outliving their creators all asleep ! 
No sweeter gift e'er fell to man than his 

Who gave us troops of friends delightful " PHIZ." 

He is not dead ! There, in the picture-book, 

He lives with men and women that he drew ; 
We take him with us to the cosy nook, 

Where old companions we can love anew. 
Dear boyhood's friend ! We rode with him to hounds ; 

Lived with dear Peggotty in after years ; 
" Messed.," in Old Ireland, where fun knew no bounds ; 

At Dora's death we felt poor David's tears. 
There is no death for such a man he is 

The spirit of an unclosed book ! immortal " PHIZ ! " 

In his critical and scholarly review of " Graphic Humour- 
ists of the Nineteenth Century," Mr. Graham Everitt has 
produced a thoughtful review of " PHIZ'S " career ; he has 
pointed out that, of all Dickens's illustrators, H. K. Browne 
was the individual artist who in almost every regard best 
suited his special requirements ; it must be confessed that 
gifted writer was generally the reverse of happy in his illus- 
trators. True it is that a large share of the talent of his time 
was directed to this avenue the pictorial embellishment of 
" Boz's " writings ; George Cruikshank and Robert Seymour 
insisted on taking lines of their own, and embarrassed Dickens 
by their ambitious views of leading ; " PHIZ," on the other hand, 
was a marvel of pliability, but, as a man of genius, trusted 



! 



"PHIZ" 137 

over-carelessly to his ready invention, and, in opposition to 
Dickens's own true method of working, relied upon his exu- 
berant imagination, troubling little or nothing about either 
" nature " or actualities. Probably " PHIZ " proved himself a 
very phoenix as regards " Pickwick " ; Dickens himself, in his 
preface to " Pickwick," hints as much. " It is due to the 
gentleman whose designs accompany the letter-press to state 
that the interval has been so short between the production of 
each number in manuscript and its appearance in print, that 
the greater portion of the illustrations have been executed by 
the artist from the author's verbal description of what he 
intended to write." 

As Mr. Everitt, with judicial frame of mind, has pointed 
out : " One may readily understand this nervous anxiety of 
Charles Dickens with reference to the character of his illustra- 
tions. He worked, be it remembered, under conditions 
entirely different to the novelist of a later date. The etched 
illustrations of his day formed a most important in some 
cases (in the instance of inferior writers) by far the most im- 
portant portion of the work itself. Under the'charm of the 
illustrations and the mode of issue, the tale was protracted to 
a length which would be impossible in a novel which depends 
for its success upon the skill of the novelist alone. The 
novel issued in monthly numbers depended on two sources of 
attraction the skill of the novelist and the skill of his artistic 
coadjutor. Dickens's requirements, however, were of so 
exacting a nature that they proved in the end too exacting 
even for the patience of the accommodating artist, and the 
reader will not be surprised to learn that a coolness was 
ultimately established between artist and author. 

" Those who would find fault with Charles Dickens for the 
mode in which he controlled his artists quite fail to understand 
the man himself. Although he had no knowledge of the pencil, 
although he himself had no knowledge of drawing, he was 
nevertheless a thorough artist in heart and mind. There is 
scarcely a character in his books which does not show the 



138 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

care and thought which he bestowed upon its elaboration 
. . . and all show how distinctly they presented themselves 
to the retina of the mind of their distinguished creator." 

It has been demonstrated that Dickens, albeit dowered 
with marvellously vivid imaginative faculties, like a true 
artist, bv preference elected to work direct from nature ; all 
his backgrounds are actual realistic studies of recognisable 
localities and places, which otherwise passing away with the 
march of time, must owe their survival mainly to his writings. 
It seems a further instance of the irony of fate that his fore- 
most artistic exponent, his pictorial alter ego, constitutionally 
despised or at least neglected this workman-like habit of 
taking infinite pains, and, from indifference, dispensed with 
the advantage of consistently going to nature so as to set the 
stamp of truth and reality to the creations of a vivid 
conception. 

It is interesting to surmise whence came the astonishingly 
receptive and artistic capabilities of " PHIZES " nature, for these 
rare qualities were inborn ; he owed little to professional 
training, and, beyond the business-like exercise of evolving, 
drawing and etching illustrations to order, seems to have 
been at the least possible pains to cultivate his native gifts, 
while serious study and drawing from nature appealed to his 
mind in but a restricted sense. The talents that were in- 
digenous to this facile and dexterous executant are described 
as hereditary. The Huguenot Brunets were forced from 
their native France by persecution, like so many compatriots 
who have sought the asylum of a more liberal-spirited land ; 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes drove them to our 
shores, and settling in Norfolk, the eminent Brunets were 
translated into essentially conventional Brownes. It is im- 
portant to remark that, with a changed cognomen, their 
nature remained the same ; and through generations the 
converted Brunets preserved the vivacity, keen sense of 
humour, fertility of fancy, imaginative faculties, facility of 
hand, powers of observation, and artistic perceptions bv tra- 



" PHIZ " 139 

dition associated with the race from whence they descended. 
Hablot was the ninth son of a family of ten boys and five 
girls ; his first Christian name was given him in honourable 
remembrance of one of Napoleon's officers of the Imperial 
Guard, who was engaged to be married to one of the artist's 
elder sisters, the Hablot whose career was cut short at 
Waterloo, fighting for Napoleon, the very same year that 
ushered his godson into life. Thus the first sponsor died 
fighting for the French ; the second name, Knight, we are 
assured was given in honour of another worthy warrior 
Admiral Sir John Knight whose services were employed in 
the opposite camp. 

It was through the friendly offices of his wealthy kinsman, 
Mr. Bicknell, the encourager of art, who, among other art- 
treasures, possessed so many of Turner's fine drawings, that 
young Hablot Knight Browne's ready faculty for designing 
met early recognition. Endeavouring to encourage his taste 
for drawing in some practical direction, Mr. Bicknell, who, 
in connection with his Turner drawings, in all probability 
was brought into relations with the Findens, thought proper 
to pay for young H. K. Browne's apprenticeship to the firm ; 
it is said that there was quite a school of engravers, etchers, 
apprentices, improvers, and youthful artists engaged on the 
premises. For at least a year our coming genius was set to 
copy outlines, to studies in light and shade, and to make 
drawings after the antique from plaster casts, as was the 
customary training it appears for Finden's apprentices ; in 
less severe manner than studying at academies or at art- 
schools, this method of education was a step in the direction 
of training, but it was not carried far ; it seems that, 
enthusiastic as was young Browne for the joys of designing, 
the preparatory drudgery was distasteful to his aspiring 
spirit. We must accept the facts, which otherwise speak for 
themselves, as related by " PHIZ'S " biographer, Mr. David 
Croal Thomson, who, in his " Life and Labours of Hablot 
Knight Browne" (Chapman and Hall, 1884*), does not dis- 



140 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

guise the truth that the young apprentice chiefly aspired to 
follow his own inclinations, and was at no pains to cultivate 
his very exceptional and precocious talents by serious appli- 
cation. " The ways of art are long," the sages have taught, 
and as hundreds of practical philosophers have proved, 
" PHIZ," with a hop, step, and bound, at once sprang upon 
the very topmost pinnacle of fame, as regarded the pri/es 
of his particular branch of the artistic vocation the etching 
of illustrative plates. 

According to his biographers, it was solely at Findeirs 
ateliers young Browne received the only scraps of regular 
training he ever had ; it cannot be said that he enjoyed even 
this precursory schooling : " No greater mistake could have 
been made than in apprenticing a youth with the aesthetic 
temperament of Hablot Browne to a partly mechanical and 
always monotonous business like that of an engraver. 4 PHI/ ' 
was eminently original and fanciful, ill-disposed to be bound by 
any rules and regulations, and this occupation, however suited 
to the plodding and patient section of the artistic community, 
was the last to which he ought to have been sent. It is easily 
believed, therefore, that with engraving after the manner of 
Finden, Hablot Browne troubled himself very little. He was 
faithful enough to go regularly to his workshop, but after a 
time he only made believe he was drawing, and would sit at 
his engraver's desk, with its little drawer open, reading a 
favourite author. A writer with brilliant imagery was his 
delight, and Shakespeare's poems and Butler's ' Hudibras " 
were the books most frequently found in his hands. As lie 
read, even under the eyes of his master, he would make rapid 
sketches of the scenes as they presented themselves to his 
mind, and these were often as excellent as the productions of 
his prime. This was all very wrong, prosaic people will say, 
but the artistic gift could not be subdued, and the blunder 
was not so much in Hablot Browne deceiving his master, as 
in his guardians binding him to an occupation for which lie 
was totally unfitted by his natural qualifications." 



"PHIZ 11 141 

Finderfs studio was agreeable enough in its associations, 
and there Browne made some friends whose companionship 
lasted through life. Mr. Robert Young, his oldest and most 
intimate friend, his partner in many speculations, and ad- 
vocate and admirer on every occasion, was an apprentice 
there at the same time. Mr. James Stephenson, Mr. Weather- 
head, Mr. John Cousen, and the late W. H. Simmonds and 
Henry Winkles were also among the thirty assistants and 
apprentices engraving in the same rooms. 

"Notwithstanding that a certain amount of artistic pro- 
gress was made and life-long friendships were thus begun, the 
engraver's business was so unsuited to Browne that he soon 
felt it was not possible for him to prosecute it further. He 
more and more neglected his work ; disagreements ensued, 
and ultimately it was agreed to cancel the indentures. This 
could hardly have been done without serious consideration. 
Bicknell, who paid Browne's apprentice fees, was very fond 
of dealing with engravings as commercial speculations, and 
was entitled to have some deference paid to his wishes ; he 
was rather annoyed at the seeming perverseness of the young 
man, but genius and fate were stronger than the will of 
a patron, and Hablot Browne left mechanical engraving for 
good in the year 1834." Although relinquishing the 
mechanical side of the calling, as it happened Browne luckily 
brought away certain vastly useful snippits of practice ac- 
quired during his apparently " idle apprenticeship " ; nor 
were the acquaintances gained in this big, busy, and business- 
like studio-workshop without their significant influences over 
future developments ; and these admiring fellow-apprentices, 
more suited to the engravers 1 vocation, were subsequently 
instrumental in giving the fertile artist a good deal of 
valuable practical assistance, which made his future work 
fairly easy sailing from the very start, in this wise : Browne 
was a born artist, and drawing up to a certain point of 
dexterity and facility was his easily gained gift; of drudgery, 
as we have seen, he had an instinctive horror ; etching, or 



142 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

the original gift of being able to execute his conceptions with 
ease and spirit by the medium of a point or etching-needle 
lightly and playfully working through the etching-ground on 
the steel or copper plate, and then, so far, for " PHIZ'S " facili 
ties went no further his task was finished ; it was his early 
friends, Young, Weatherhead, c., who did the bi ting-in, 
stopping-out, the re-biting, strengthening, and what not, as 
regards the biting-in part ;- 1 -and then, with the knowledge 
and experience gained by their apprenticeship as engravers, 
these more expert, technical and " mechanical hands " pulled 
the work together, re-entering lines with the graver to give 
depth and colour here or there in the " darks," and finishing 
up with sharper fine " dry-pointing " in " the lights." The 
early " Pickwick " plates are quite wonders of painstaking, of 
artistic and scientific finish and perfection in their proof 
states ; the later plates to the same work being nearly all 
etching, without studying the advantages of artistic " carry- 
ing-further " and enhancing " values," obtaining colour, and 
the contrasted effects of light and shade by further artistic 
toil. The execution at length grew somewhat flat and 
monotonous, with a corresponding sacrifice of brilliancy and 
sparkle. 

We shall see that Browne, made his drawings with amazing 
cleverness and ready ease, both of conception and execution; 
his manual dexterity was extraordinary, and his needle 
evidently safe and sure ; his touch unhesitating, sharp, and 
crisp, and his handling as free, facile, and spontaneous as 
could be ; from this point came in outside assistance. It was 
Robert Young who " bit-in and re-entered " ; or it was 
Sands, or perhaps others ; Weatherhead seems to have done 
the biting-in of nearly all the Lever illustrations, and some 
few of the Dickens's plates ; for the most part, it certainly 
fell to Young to bite-in or pull-together, and finish off the 
best known and most considerable portion of the Dickens 
series, beginning with "Pickwick"; " Copperfield," " Dombev 
and Son," and "Bleak House" we know fell to Young. 



"PHIZ" US 

Before the advent of " Pickwick,' 1 ' 1 Browne was doing most 
excellent artistic work. For Henry Winkles a man of 
parts, and one of the thirty assistants and apprentices to 
whom young Hablot was introduced at Finden's studios and 
work-rooms at that date, and before Browne turned his back 
on indentures had projected an ably conducted publication 
upon " the architectural and picturesque illustrations of the 
cathedral churches of England and Wales," generally favourably 
and familiarly known as " Winkles' Cathedrals ": "Having 
observed the talent of young Hablot Browne, he gave him 
some drawing to do in his spare time ; Winkles made an out- 
line," so we are told by D. C. Thomson, " of any cathedrals 
he required to have illustrated, and it was then handed j to 
Browne, who dexterously ' invested it with artistic merit,' 
adding figures, and light and shade to the scene." The 
numbers or monthly parts commenced in 1835 ; for the first 
volume twenty-six of the views were drawn or traced in out- 
line or etched for biting-in on the steel plates by Browne, 
and the second volume contains fewer contributions by the 
busy " PHIZ " ; the practical experiences by these means ac- 
quired remained useful lessons, the reward for labours un- 
likely to be associated with this facile designer. The plates 
show a delicate and a spirited mastery in a very unusual 
degree over the intricacies of architecture, which accounts 
for " the delightful bits " the artist subsequently loved to set 
down in his backgrounds, with a relish stimulating to all who 
can appreciate his finely picturesque and elevated sentiments 
of this architectural order. 

Although it has been said everything about " Pickwick " 
was astounding, perhaps the most striking feature was the 
wonderful development of youthful talent. It was through 
this coincidence that both " Boz " and " PHIZ " thus early 
manifested their personalities before the world. Mention has 
been made of the happy recognition at the hands of the 
Society of Arts accorded to Browne's juvenile etching (16x10), 
the triumphal progress of John Gilpin and his horse in the 



144 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

famous ride, the version which in 1833 gained the Society's 
medal for " the best representation of an historical subject ! " 
" There are," says " PHIZ'S " biographer, " potentialities in the 
plate which make it interesting ; and it speaks highly for the 
artistic acumen of the Society that in the youthful etcher 
they divined the world-renowed ' PHIZ ' of coming years." 
On the same authority : " It was in the early summer of 1836 
that Dickens and 4 PHIZ ' first met, just when the success of 
the serial publication of ' PICKWICK ' seemed likely to be 
wrecked by the want of a good illustrator. ' NEMO ' was the 
title Hablot Browne first wrote underneath his etchings. He 
had made up his mind to be a painter, and had no desire to 
appear before the public as a ' mere book-illustrator. 1 In the 
third plate, however, he etched for the novel he changed his 
signature to ' PHIZ,"* the name which has become famous to 
all readers of Dickens's works, and of many of the most 
popular novels published between 1836 and I860." 

The origin of the title " PHIZ " is very simple : " I signed 
myself 'NEMO' to my first two etchings," said the artist, 
" before adopting ' PHIZ ' as my sobriquet, and this change 
was made to harmonise, I suppose, better with Dickens's 
4 Boz.' r " PHIZ, whiz, or something of that kind ! " was 
Thomas Hood's jocular comment. 

" It was the artist's fancy to take a peculiar name, and 
whether he did so to conceal his identity, hoping always to 
achieve what he thought would be more worthy fame as a 
painter, or simply, as he says, to correspond with Dickens's 
' Boz,' is a matter really of small moment. Having hit on 
' PHIZ ' as an easily remembered title which formed an artistic- 
looking signature " (and was wondrous easy to etch in seven 
or eight rapid strokes) "he employed it in most of his 
Dickens illustrations." 

Mr. Robert Young, " PHIZ'S " early and life-long friend and 
assistant, related to H. K. Browne's biographer the particulars 
of that artist's first appearance on the Pickwickian platform ; 
the story is thus set down by Mr. David Croal Thomson in 



"PHIZ" 145 

his interesting memorial, " The Life and Labours of Hablot 
Knight Browne " : 

" When Hablot Browne had left the service of Finden the 
engraver, and was setting up as a draughtsman, he saw the 
two illustrations by Buss, and called at Chapman's with speci- 
mens of his work for Dickens to see William Makepeace 
Thackeray was another artist who had similar thoughts, and 
he too submitted drawings for the author's inspection. As 
fortunately for the future author of ' Vanity Fair ' as for the 
future ' PHIZ,' the choice fell on Hablot Browne. Fortunate 
it was because Thackeray would never have made a good 
illustrator ; and fortunate it was for Browne, for without 
Dickens to illustrate, his skill would never have gained him 
great fame, while associated with such stories, the artist was 
assured of an audience as wide as the use of the English 
language. Browne and Dickens also were already known to 
each other, for the little pamphlet, ' Sunday under Three 
Heads,' written by the author of ' PICKWICK ' under the nom de 
plume of 6 Timothy Sparks,' had been illustrated by H. K. B. 

" At this time Browne was lodging in Newman Street. 
He called one evening on Mr. Young at his rooms then in 
Chester Place, Regent's Park, just after dinner. Mr. Young 
was still engaged with Finden, the line-engraver (where 
Hablot Browne had been apprenticed), and he had mastered 
all the technical work of biting-in a steel plate with acid 
after it had been etched, this being a partly artistic and 
partly mechanical process which Browne never undertook to 
do himself. Browne on entering said, ' Look here, old 
fellow : will you come to my rooms and assist me with a plate 
I have to etch ? ' On Mr. Young being as obliging a man 
as ever lived readily assenting to go, Browne told him to 
take his key with him, as they might be late. The result was 
that the two conspirators sat up all night working hard at 
the steel. Browne's work at etching the design was done 
before he called on Mr. Young, so that the biting-in was the 
occupation of the night, while both indulged in flights of 

VOL. i L 



146 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIAN A 

fancy as to the final outcome of the good fortune that was 
then dawning on the young artist. 

" This was the illustration of ' Sam Weller at the Borough 
Inn.' Mr. Young's part of the work consisted in rendering 
the lines etched with a needle by Browne the proper depth 
of colour by the application and manipulation of acid ; and 
this without necessarily adding or taking away from the 
artistic merit of the production. The design (called in later 
editions, when titles were added to the plates, ' The First 
Appearance of Sam Weller **), is an inimitable composition, 
one in which ' Sam ' was created and ' Pickwick ' perpetuated, 
and which must have made Dickens's heart warm as he looked 
at it and became conscious that Seymour's place would cer- 
tainly be more than filled by the young man who then signed 
himself ' NEMO."* It is not certainly so cleverly drawn as the 
second plate of the same subject done later (for the duplicate 
set of steels) ; it is influenced by the study of Seymour's illus- 
trations, and shows want of experience ; but it went very far 
to make the success of the publication assured, and was a 
distinct advance on Seymour's plates, and was not to be named 
in the same breath with Buss's productions." 

We are told that " PHI/ " generally worked under pressure 
and as described, owing to the exigences entailed by the mode 
of publication, " Boz " usually being in arrears, and late 
with his suggestions for illustrations (often merely verbal 
in the instance of " PICKWICK " numbers) the artist would 
etch a plate in one day, have it bitten-in by a friend in the 
evening, and ready for the printer the succeeding day. 



" PHIZ'S" ORIGINAL PLATES AND THEIR EARLIEST TITLES, 

1836-7 

The plates to illustrate " Pickwick," as regards the original 
publication in twenty monthly numbers, it will be seen, were 
at first issued unlettered, bearing neither titles, publishers" 
address, date, nor any description beyond the name of the 



"PHIZ" 147 

artist lightly etched, with the number of the page to which 
the plate referred marked beneath the respective illustrations 
as a guide to the binders ; and even these slight directions 
are omitted after the appearance of the first eleven parts. 

Nor to the first serial issue as aforesaid was there provided 
the customary " List of Illustrations " ; thus the plates so far 
remained unchristened. The numerals referring to the re- 
spective pages which the plates were designed to face, are also 
omitted after page 325, " The Interview at Sergeant Snubbing 
Chambers." The two plates which illustrate Part XII. 
have no numerals referring to pages, and are further over- 
looked in the " Directions to the Binder " issued with the final 
part, and providing for the placement of the remainder of the 
illustrations. 

The plates undescribed were " Sam Weller with his Father 
in the Snug Parlour of the ' Blue Boar"" engaged in con- 
cocting the celebrated Valentine to " Mary at Mrs. Nupkin's," 
page 342, subsequently lettered " The Valentine " ; and the 
famous Court scene at Guildhall during the memorable trial 
of " Bardell versus Pickwick," page 358, later simply entitled 
"The Trial." 

The succeeding fourteen plates bear no paginal references 
in the original issue, but the publishers realised the incon- 
venience entailed by this evident oversight, and they caused to 
be printed with the " Contents " a fly-leaf (bearing " errata ' 
on the back) to supply the needful 

" DIRECTIONS TO THY. BINDER." 

This leaflet is interesting, beyond its original purpose, as 
giving the first official descriptions of the last fourteen plates, 
the only ones thus specified. These particular descriptions 
were never engraved in the form set down, for " the first " or 
original set of plates still remain in their original unlettered 
condition, and when the second so-called " duplicate set of 
plates," executed by " PHIZ " throughout (who carefully fac- 
similed the Seymour plates also), ultimately came to be 



148 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

lettered for the " first collected edition,' 1 revised titles were 
adopted, as here indicated. 

We give the descriptions originally chosen, with the titles 
subsequently engraved beneath the respective subjects : 

FIRST DESCRIPTION [" DIRECTIONS TITLE ENGRAVED ON PLATE, WHEN 
TO BINDER." Issued 1837]. THE "PUBLICATION LINE" WAS 

To face ' ADDED. 

page 

Part 13. The Card Table at 

Bath 391 The Card Room at Bath. 

,, Mr. Winkle Entering 

the Sedan Chair . . . 382 Mr. Winkle's Situation when the 

Door " blew to." 
Part 14. The Drinking Party at 

Bob Sawyer's . . . 409 Conviviality at Bob Sawyer's. 
,, Mr. Pickwick Sitting 

for his Portrait ... 434 Mr. Pick wick "Sits for his Portrait." 
Part 15. Mr. Mivins Dancing in 

the Warden's Room 441 The Warden's Room. 
,, Discovery of Mr. Jin- 
gle in the Fleet ... 453 Discovery of Jingle in the Fleet. 
Part 16. Mr. Stiggins Discours- 
ing 484 The Red-nosed Man Discourseth. 

,, Mrs. Bardell Recog- 
nising Mr. Pickwick 498 Mrs. Bardell encounters Mr. Pick- 
wick in the Prison. 
Part 17. Mr. Winkle Disclosing 
his Marriage, on his 

Knees 504 Mr. Winkle Returns under Extra- 
ordinary Circumstances. 
,, The Bagman's Uncle 523 The Ghostly Passengers in the 

Ghost of a Mail. 
Part 18. Bob Sawyer on the Roof 

of the Chaise 533 Mr. Bob Sawyer's Mode of Travel- 
ling. 
,, The Combat between . 

the Rival Editors... 553 The Rival Editors. 
Parts 19 and 20 were issued as one number, and only two plates 

were given with these. 
Parts 19 and 20. The Fat Boy 

and Mary ... 579 Mary and the Fat Boy. 
,, ,, The Coachmen 
'Drinking the 

Toast 590 Mr. Weller and his Friends Drink- 
ing to Mr. Pell, 



"PHIZ" 149 

After the original first issue of " Pickwick " in monthly 
parts, the titles, now universally familiar, were engraved in 
"script" beneath the plates described as "the duplicate 
set," executed throughout by H. K. Browne; and this 
" working " set has been in use ever since. By a fortunate 
coincidence the publishers have reason to congratulate them- 
selves upon the circumstance of still possessing the original 
set of plates, which remain in the state described, without 
titles or similar indications, and are by them treasured as 
the " best plates " ; these have recently been carefully 
restored and strengthened by the skilful hand of Mr. F. W. 
Pailthorpe, with all reverence for the preservation of the 
original work. The original plates are instances of " PHIZ'S " 
best work ; the engraving was careful and painstaking, and 
the first conceptions are generally more interesting. " PHIZ " 
by no means confined his efforts to the execution of facsimiles ; 
on the contrary, he indulged himself in varying his versions of 
several incidents, especially in the instances of plates pertaining 
to the earlier chapters. For example, there were two versions 
of the following : " The Breakdown," " Mrs. Bardell Faints 
in Mr. Pickwick's Arms," " The Election at Eatanswill," and 
" Mrs. Leo Hunter's Fancy-dress Dejeune " : these show the 
most distinct variations. There are noticeable differences 
to be observed in other plates " The Middle-aged Lady in 
the Double-bedded Room," and " Mr. Pickwick in the 
Pound " ; there are also less strongly marked differences in 
the alternative versions of " The First Appearance of Mr. 
Samuel Weller." We have illustrated the more important 
divergencies by reproducing for facility of comparison the 
alternative plates side by side, together with those respective 
drawings which show interesting differences as regards their 
subsequent carrying out in engraved form. There are minor 
differences in nearly every instance, and no two plates of the 
respective series are exact facsimiles ; there are details in one 
not given in the other. The second set of plates were 



150 



PICTORIAL PICKWICEIANA 



executed with greater facility than the first or original 
plates ; but the second series shows more of " PHIZ'S " marked 
dexterity, later on running to conventionality, at the loss of 
the quality of " characterisation,"" which distinguished the 
original plates in a marked degree. 



"PHIZ" 151 



LIST OF "PHIZ" ILLUSTRATIONS 

"MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSING THE CLUB." Facsimile of the water- 
colour drawing by H. K. B. for "Pickwick Characters." Chap. I. 1 

"MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE PICKWICK CLUB." Drawing. 

Facsimile of " PHIZ'S" version after Seymour. Chap. 1 2 

"THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN." Drawing. Facsimile of " PHIZ'S " 

version after Seymour. Chap. II 3 

" DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE." Drawing. Facsimile of 

" PHIZ'S " version after Seymour. Chap. II 4 

"MR. WINKLE'S FIRST SHOT." Unused Drawing by "Pmz." 

Chap. VII 5 

"THE FAT BOY AWAKE ON THIS OCCASION ONLY." "Pniz" Draw- 
ing. Chap. VIII 6 

"MR. WARDLE AND HIS FRIENDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 'THE 

SALMON.'" " PHIZ " Drawing. Chap. VIII 7 

"THE BREAKDOWN." " PHIZ " Drawing. Chap. IX 8 

,, The First Etching ,, 9 

,, ,, The Second Etching ,, 10 

"FIRST APPEARANCE OF MR. SAMUEL WELLER." The First Etching 

by "Pmz." Chap. X 11 

" FIRST APPEARANCE OF MR. SAMUEL WELLER. " The Second Etching 

by "Pmz." CHAP. X. 12 

"MRS. BARDEIL FAINTS IN MR. PICKWICK'S ARMS." The First 

Etching by "Pmz." Chap. XII 13 

"MRS. BARDELL FAINTS IN MR. PICKWICK'S ARMS." The Second 

Etching by "Pmz." Chap. XII 14 

" THE ELECTION AT EATAXS WILL." " PHIZ " Drawing. Chap. XIII. 15 
,, The First Etching by "Pniz." 

Chap. XIII 16 

The Second Etching by "Pmz." 
Chap. XIII 17 

"MRS. LEO HUNTER'S FANCY-DRESS DEJEUNE." " PHIZ " Drawing, 

with Dickens's handwriting. Chap. XV 1 

"MRS. LEO HUNTER'S FANCY-DRESS DEJEUNE." The First Etching 

by "Pmz." Chap. XV 19 

"MRS. LEO HUNTER'S FANCY-DRESS DEJEUNE." The Second Etching 

by "Pmz." Chap. XV 20 

"MR. PICKWICK IN THE POUND." "Pmz" Drawing. Chap. XIX. 21 
,, ,, The First Etching by "Pmz." 

Chap. XIX 22 

"THE MIDDLE-AGED LADY IN THE DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM." The 

First Etching by "Pmz." Chap. XXII 23 



152 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

"THE MIDDLE-AGED LADY IN THE DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM." The 

Second Etching by ' ' PHIZ. " Chap. XXII 24 

"JoB TROTTER ENCOUNTERS SAM IN MR. MUZZLE'S KITCHEN." 

" PHIZ" Drawing. CHAP. XXV 25 

" JOB TROTTER ENCOUNTERS SAM IN MR. MUZZLE'S KITCHEN." 

The First Etching by "PHiz." Chap. XXV. ' 26 

" THE FIRST INTERVIEW WITH SERGEANT SNUBBIN." " PHIZ" Draw- 
ing, with Dick ens's handwriting. Chap. XXXI 27 

" THE VALENTINE." " PHIZ " Drawing'. Chap. XXXIII 28 

,, The Second Etching by "Pniz." Chap. 

XXXIII 29 

"THE TRIAL OF BARDELL versus PICKWICK." "PHIZ" Drawing. 

Chap. XXXIV 30 

"THE TRIAL OF BARDELL versus PICKWICK." The Second Etching 

by "PHiz." Chap. XXXIV 31 

"MR. WINKLE'S SITUATION WHEN THE DOOR 'BLEW TO.'" "PHiz" 

Drawing, with Dickens's handwriting. Chap. XXXVI 32 

"MR. WINKLE'S SITUATION WHEN THE DOOR 'BLEW TO.'" The 

First Etching by " PHIZ." Chap. XXXVI 33 

"CONVIVIALITY AT BOB SAWYER'S." "PHiz" Drawing. Chap. 

XXXVIII 34 

"MR. MIVINS DANCING IN THE WARDEN'S ROOM FLEET PRISON." 

" PHIZ " Drawing. Chap. XLI 35 

"MR. MIVINS DANCING IN THE WARDEN'S ROOM FLEET PRISON." 

The First Etching by ' ' PHIZ." Chap. XLI 30 

" MR. WINKLE DISCLOSING HIS MARRIAGE ON HIS KNEES." " PHIZ" 

Drawing, with Dickens's handwriting. Chap. XLVII 37 

"MR. WINKLE DISCLOSING HIS MARRIAGE ON HIS KNEES." The 

Second Etching by " PHIZ." Chap. XLVII 38 

" THE BAGMAN'S UNCLE." " PHIZ" Drawing, with Dickens's hand- 
writing Chap. XLIX 30 






155 



Jmib> $ 




Hablot Knight Browne, after Robert Seymour. 

Facsimile of the water-colour drawing by "PHIZ" of his version 

"MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE PICKWICK CLUB." (Chap. I.) 

See the Seymour etching (page 59). 

The above version was produced, in later years, by " PHIZ " to supply the place of the 
original design by Seymour (which the publishers had not retained) in a complete series 
of "Pickwick" drawings, executed as a commission for a friendly patron, the late Mr. 
F. W. Cosens, of Melberry Road. 



157 




Hablot Knight Browne, after Robert Seymour. 

Facsimile of the water-colour drawing by " PHIZ " of his version 

"THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN." (Chap. II.) 

See the Seymour etching (page (53). 

1 The above version was executed, in later years, by " PHIZ " to supply the place of the 
original design by Seymour (which the publishers had not retained) in a complete series 
of drawings to " Pickwick," executed as a commission for a friendly patron, the late 
Mr. F. W. Cosens, 



159 



ft 




Hablot Knight Browne, after Robert Seymour. 

Facsimile of the water-colour drawing by " PHIZ," of his version 

"DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE." (Chap. II.) 

See the Seymour etching (page 09). 

The above version was executed, in later years, by " PHIZ," to supply the place of the 
original design by Seymour (which the publishers had not retained) in a complete series 
of drawings to ' ; Pickwick," executed as a commission for a friendly patron, the late 
Mr. F. W. 



161 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ " 
"MR. WINKLE'S FIRST SHOT." (Chap. VII.) Unused. 

This subject was designed by H. K. Browne to illustrate an incident in No. III. of the 
first issue of " Pickwick " in monthly parts. Like the Buss drawing of " Mr. Pickwick 
at the Review," the above was probably submitted to the publishers as a specimen of 
" PHIZ'S " qualifications for the post of artist to continue the illustrations to " Pickwick " 
when abruptly interrupted by the death of Seymour, on the eve of the publication of 
Part II. This design was too late for insertion apparently, and the artist was never 
commissioned to make an etching of the subject in question. It was first reproduced by 
photogravure, with the .facsimiles of the complete series of " Pickwick" drawings, given 
in the 1887 (" Victoria") Edition, and has not otherwise appeared before. 

VOL. I M 



163 







Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 
" THE FAT BOY AWAKE ON THIS OCCASION ONLY." (Chap. VIII.) 
This design, which did not appear in the original issue in monthly numbers, was a 
later commission to " PHIZ " from the publishers to replace the etching of the same 
subject by R. W. Buss, which appeared in No. III. of the monthly parts, and was subse- 
quently omitted. The " PHIZ " etching, after this design, was substituted in the first 
" collected edition," and in all later issues. (See the Buss etching, page 113). 



165 





Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by ' ' PHIZ. 

"MR. WARDLE AND HIS FRIENDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 'THE SALMON.'" 

(Chap. VIII.) 

This design, which did not appear in the original issue in monthly numbers, was a 
later commission from the publishers to replace the etching of " The Cricket Match " 
(Chap. VII.), by R. W. Buss, published with No. III. of the monthly parts, and sub- 
sequently omitted. The etching by "PHIZ" was substituted in the first "collected 
edition," and in all later issues. (See the Buss etching, page 111). 



167 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
FasimUe of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 

"THE BREAKDOWN." (Chap. IX.) 

The design submittedby H. K. BROWNE for " The Postchaise Incident" (Part IV.) of 
the issue in monthly maibers ; this drawing was approved by Dickens, and, with 
certain modifications, etcied on steel accordingly. It is understood that the companion 
etching to Part IV., "Tb First Appearance of Mr. Samuel Weller " was executed in 
advance of this plate of The Breakdown." H. K. BROWNE signed these " NEMO " in 
faintly scratched capital leters. These etchings, both on one plate, very successfully 
introduced the young artistto the public, and, from that period, "PHIZ" was regarded 
as the illustrator of Dickeis by general acceptation until after the publication of 
"A Tale of Two Cities" wascompleted, when the author and his artist finally broke off 
their relations, which, to thir mutual advantage had continued unaltered for nearly 
a quarter of a century. R. W. Buss also sent in a drawing of " The Breakdown." 
(See the Buss design, page 17.) 



169 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

The original etching by " PHIZ," illustrating 
"THE BREAKDOWN." (Chap. IX. Part IV.) 

This first plate is introduced, for purposes of comparison, to show the modifications 
and differences between the foregoing original design and the actual engraving, which 
appeared in No. IV. of the monthly parts. The second etching follows the original 
design, and appeared later on as an alternative illustration, belonging to the "duplicate 
set." 



171 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
" PHIZ'S " second or lettered etching 

"THE BREAKDOWN." (Chap. IX.) 

This plate of the " duplicate set " differs in many respects from the original etching 
particularly in showing four post-horses and in other details, in which the second 
etching more closely adheres to the original design. 



173 



-^Sp^fSmKsssjg^Bv - 
\j^Pg^ajgv^Sfe, 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

" FIRST APPEARANCE OF MR. SAMUEL WELLER." (Chap. X. Part IV.) 

The original etching of this subject. The plate from the " duplicate set," follows, 

showing alterations introduced by the artist. 



175 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

" FIRST APPEARANCE OF MR. SAMUEL WBLLER." (Chap. X.)' 

The second or lettered etching of this subject, a facsimile of " PHIZ'S " sketch as submitted 

to Dicken.s 



177 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

"MRS. BARDELL FAINTS IN MR. PICKWICK'S ARMS." (Chap. XII.) 

The original etching of this subject, introduced for facility of comparison, as showing 
the alterations made by the artist in executing his second version. 



VOL 1 



179 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

"MRS. BARDHLL FAINTS IN MR. -PICKWICK'S ARMS." (Chap. XII.) 

The second etching of this subject, executed by " PHIZ" for the duplicate or lettered set 

of plates. 



181 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ " 
"THE ELECTION AT EATANSWILL." (Chap. XIII.) 

The original etching, as it appeared in Part V. of the monthly numbers, follows for 
purposes of comparison, as showing the considerable modifications and alterations intro- 
duced by the artist_in executing his engraving after this first design. 



i 



183 




Hablot Knight Browne, 
The first issue. " PHIZ'S" original etching (the unlettered plate, which appeared in the 

monthly parts), 

" THE ELECTION AT EATANSWILL." 

Showing the modifications introduced by the artist in executing his first engraving after 
the foregoing design. 




The second etching by Hablot Knight Browne. 
"THE ELECTION AT EATANSWILL " (Chap. XIII.) 

This alternative plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing 
sketch and original etching as showing the very considerable modifications and altera- 
tions made by the artist in executing the so-called duplicate plate, which appeared 
lettered in " script " in the first collected edition. 



187 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
Facsimile of the original drawing, with the suggestions for improvements, written by 

Charles Dickens upon the margin. 

"MRS. LEO HUNTER'S FANCY-DRESS DEJEUNE." (Chap. XV.) 
The etching follows, showing the modifications carried out by the artist. 



191 




The second etching by Hablot Knight Browne. 
" MRS. LEO HUNTER'S FANCY-DRESS DEJEUNE." (Chap. XV.) 

This alternative plate is reproduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing 
original design and etching, as showing those alterations introduced by the artist in 
executing his second engraving for the " duplicate series.' 



! 



193 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 
" MB. PICKWICK IN THE POUND." (Chap. XIX.) 

The first etching after this design follows for purposes of comparison with the original 
the en' a r v- Wing modifications and alterations introduced by the artist in executing 

VOL. I 



195 



\ 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

THE ORIGINAL ETCHING OF " MR. PICKWICK IN THE POUND." (Chap. XIX.) 
This first plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing design, as 
showing the modifications and alterations made by the artist in executing his second 
engraving. 

N.B. The second etching of this illustration varies in there being but one donkey. 
The groups in the background differ, and there are more children looking between the 
bars of the pound. 



197 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

"THE MIDDLE-AGED LADY IN THE DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM. (Chap. XXII.) 
The original etching of this subject, closely adhering to the first design ; introduced 
for facility of comparison with the second version as etched for the "duplicate series." 



109 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

" THE MIDDLE-AGED LADY IN THE DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM." (Chap. XXII.) 
The second plate of this subject, showing the modifications introduced by the artist 
in executing his alternative etching for the " duplicate series." 



201 





Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 

"Jos TROTTER ENCOUNTERS SAM IN MR. MUZZLE'S KITCHEN." (Chap. XXV.) 
The original etching after this design follows for purposes of comparison with the 
original sketch, as showing the modifications introduced by the artist in executing the 
engraving. 



203 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
The original etching by " PHIZ.' 

" JOB TROTTER ENCOUNTERS SAM IN MR. MUZZLE'S KITCHEN." (Chap. XXV.) 
This first plate is ^introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing original 
drawing, as showing the modifications made by the artist in executing the engraving. 

N.B. The second etching, executed for the "duplicate set" varies in details; the 
figures are a trifle larger and more spirited. The kitchen floor is shown paved with 
pan-tiles. 



205 




Habl6t Knight Browne. 

PHIZ,'' with remarks and suggestions for 
modifications written by Charles Dickens on the margin. 
"..THE FIRST INTERVIEW WITH SERGEANT SNUBBIN." (Chap. XXXI.) 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 
" THE VALF.NTINE." Chap. XXXIII. (Part XII). 

The second etching produced after this design follows for purposes of comparison with 
the first sketch, as showing the modifications introduced by the artist in executing the 
engraving. 



209 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

The second etching by " PHIZ.' 

"THE VALENTINE." (Chap. XXXIII.) 

This alternative plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foreeoine- 
^ showingthe modifications subsequently made by the artist in executing the 



N.B. In the original etching after this plate there are various minor differences and 
the newspaper on the floor is omitted. 



VOL. I 



211 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 

" THE MEMORABLE TRIAL OF BARDELL AGAINST PICKWICK.' Chap. XXXIV 7 . (Part XII.) 
The second etching after this design follows for purposes of comparison as showing 
the considerable modifications and alterations introduced by the artist in executing his 
engraving. 



213 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
The second etching by " PHIZ." 
" THE TRIAL." (Chap. XXXIV.) 

This alternative plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing 
original drawing, as showing the alterations and modifications subsequently made by the 
artist in executing the engraving. 

N.B. The first plate varies in minor respects ; Mr. Porker's hat did not appear on the 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ," with remarks and suggestions written by 

Charles Dickens on the margin. 
" MF. WINKLE'S SITUATION WHEX THE DOOR ' BLEW TO.' " Chap. XXXVI. (Part XIIT.) 



21' 




Hablot Knight Browne. 
The original etching by " PHIZ " of 

" MR. WINKLE'S SITUATION WHEN THE DOOR ' BLEW TO.' " (Chap. XXXV.) 
This plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing origina Idrawing, 
as showing the alterations made by the artist at Dickens's suggestion. 

N.B. There are minor differences in details between the first and second plates. In 
the second etching Winkle's nightcap has a tassel. 



219 







Hablot Knight Browne. 
Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ." 

" CONVIVIALITY AT BOB SAWYER'S." Chap. XXXVIII. (Part XIV.) 
The etching after this design differs in several minor respects from the above drawing, 
but chiefly in the omission of the skeleton, which Dickens thought proper to have 
suppressed when H. K. B. etched the plate. 



221 








Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawinj by "PHIZ." 
"MR. MIVINS' DANCING IN,THE WARDED lit OM FLEET PRISON.' 



(Chap. XLI.) 

...edcs'gn, afttr 

second drawing. "PHIZ" executed the actual etching, which appeared in the original 
issue in monthly numbers (Part XV.). 



This version was not used, its place being taken by an alternative dcs : gn, afttr the 



223 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

" THE WARDEN'S ROOM FLEET PRISON." (Chap. XLI. 

The original etching of this subject is reproduced for facility of comparison with the 
foregoing alternative design, for which the present version was substituted 
N.B. " PHIZ'S " second etching varies slightly in minor details. 



225 





<>S & Ln^^M 



Hablot Knight Browne. 
Facsimile of the original drawing by "PHIZ," with remarks and suggestions written by 

Charles Dickens on the margin. 
" MR. WINKLE DISCLOSING HIS MARRIAGE ON HIS KNEES." Chap. XLVII. (Part XVII.) 

Are Sam and the housemaid clearly made out ; and would it not be better if he were 
looking on with his arm round Mary ? Irayther question the accuracy of the housemaids. 

VOL. I Q 



227 




u 



Hablot Knight Browne. 
Second etching by " PHIZ." 

" MR. WINKLE RETURNS UNDER EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCES." (Chap. XLVII.) 
This plate is introduced for facility of comparison with the foregoing original 
drawing, as showing the slight modifications made by the artist at Uickens's suggestion. 

N.B. " PHIZ'S " first etching varies in details, principally in the contents of shelves in 
background. 



229 




Hablot Knight Browne. 

Facsimile of the original drawing by " PHIZ.' 
" THE BAGMAN'S UNCLE." 

With the " sign manual " of approval, and " his mark," inscribed by Charles Dickens 
on the margin. 

" THE GHOSTLY PASSENGERS IN THE GHOST OF A MAIL." 



WILLIAM HEATH 



PICKWICKIAN ILLUSTRATIONS 



BY 

WILLIAM HEATH 



TWENTY ETCHINGS 



PUBLISHED BY THOMAS McCLEAN 
1837 



LIST OF HEATH'S ILLUSTRATIONS, 1837 
" SUCH WAS THE INDIVIDUAL ON WHOM MR. PlCKWICK GAZED THROUGH 

HIS SPECTACLES." Chap. II 1 

"NOT THE MAN !" Chap. II 2 

" ' RESTRAIN HIM !' CRIED MR. SNODGRASS. ' LET ME GO,' SAID MR. 

PICKWICK." Chap. Ill 3 

" ' WHAT MAKES HIM GO SIDEWAYS?' SAID MR. SNODGRASS IN THE 

BIN TO MR. WINKLE IN THE SADDLE." Chap. Ill 4 

"'BLESS MY SOUL, I DECLARE I FORGOT THE CAP !'" Chap. VII. 5 
"MR. JINGLE FELL ON HIS KNEES, REMAINED THEREUPON FOR FIVE 

MINUTES THEREAFTER, AND ROSE THE ACCEPTED LOVER, ETC." 

Chap. VIII 6 

" ' ASK NUMBER TWENTY-TWO VETHER HE'LL HAVE THEM NOW, OR 

VAIT TILL HE GETS 5 EM ? ' " Chap. X 7 

"'You WOULDN'T MIND SELLING IT NOW?' 'An! BUT WHO'D BUY 

IT?'" Chap. XI 8 

"MRS. POTT AND MR. WINKLE." Chap. XIII 9 

"'WHAT THE DEVIL ARE YOU WINKING AT ME FOR?' 'BECAUSE 

I LIKE IT, TOM SMART,' SAID THE CHAIR." Chap. XIV 10 

"'SlR,' SAID MR. TUPMAN,' ' YOU'RE A FELLOW !' ' SlR,' SAID MR. 

PICKWICK, ' YOU'RE ANOTHER !'" Chap. XV 11 

"'YOU SEEM ONE OF THE JOLLY SORT, YOU LOOKS AS CONVIVIAL 

AS A LIVE TROUT IN A LIME BASKET.'" Chap. XVI 12 

"'WHAT,' SAID MR. POTT SOLEMNLY, 'WHAT RHYMES TO TINKLE, 

VILLAIN?'" Chap. XVIII 13 

"'WHO ARE YOU, RASCAL?' SAID THE CAPTAIN. ' COLD PUNCH,' 

MURMURED MR. PICKWICK." Chap. XIX 14 

"'I AM EXCEEDINGLY SORRY, MA ? AM,' SAID MR. PlCKWICK. ' IF 
YOU ARE, SIR, YOU WILL IMMEDIATELY LEAVE THE ROOM.'" 

Chap. XXII 15 

"*WERY GOOD POWER o' SUCTION, SAMMY!'" Chap. XXIII. ... 16 

" ' LAW, 3 REPLIED MR. GUMMER, ' LAW, CIVIL POWER, AND EXEKA- 

TIVE ; THEM'S MY TITLES ; HERE'S MY AUTHORITY.' " Chap. 

XXIV 17 

" ' VELL,' SAID SAM, ' ALL I CAN SAY is I WISH YOU MAY GET IT ! ' " 

Chap. XXV 18 

"' MOTHER-IN-LAW, HOW ARE YOU?'" Chap. XXVII 19 

" BLIN OMAN'S BUFF." Chap. XXVIII 20 



237 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

1. "SUCH WAS THE INDIVIDUAL ON WHOM MR. PlCKWICK GAZED THROUGH HIS 

SPECTACLES." (Chap. II.) 
Published 1837. 




By William Heath. 

Pickwickian illustrations. 

2. "NOT THE MAN!" (Chap. II.) 

Published 1837. 



241 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 
'RESTRAIN HIM!' CRIED MR. SNODGRASS. 
'LET ME GO,' SAID MR. PICKWICK." (Chap. III.) 
Published 1837. 



VOL. I 



243 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 
WHAT MAKES HTM GO SIDEWAYS?' SAID MR SNODGRASS IN THE BIN TO MR WINKLE 

IN THE SADDLE." (Chap. III.) 

Published 1837. 



245 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

5 '"BLESS MY SOUL, I DECLARE I FORGOT THE CAP ! ' " (Chap. VII 
Published 1837. 



247 




By Williim Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

MR. JINGLE FELL ON HIS KNEES, REMAINED THEREUPON FOR FIVE MINUTES THERE- 
AFTER, AND ROSE THE ACCEPTED LOVER, ETC." (Chap. VIII.) 

Published 1837. 



249 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

7. "'AsK NUMBER TWENTY -TWO VETHER HE'LL HAVE THEM NOW, OR VAIT TILL HE 

GETS 'EM?'" (Chap. X.) 

Published 1S37. 



251 




By William Heath. 

Pickwickian illustrations. 

'"You WOULDN'T MIND SELLING IT NOW?' 

'An! BUT WHO'D BUY IT?'" (Chap. XI.) 

Published 1837. 



253 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

9. "MRS. POTT AND MR. WINKLE." (Chap. XIH.) 
Published 1837. 



255 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 
10. "'WHAT THE DEVIL ARE YOU WINKING AT ME FOR?' 

BECAUSE I LIKE IT, TOM SMART,'" SAID THE CHAIR." (Chap. XIV.) 
Published 1837. 



257 




VOL. I 



By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 
11. "'SiR,' SAID MR. TUPMAN, 'YOU'RE A FELLOW!' 

'SiR,' SAID MR. PICKWICK, 'YOU'RE ANOTHER!'" (Chap XV.) 
Published 1837. 



S 



259 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

12. " ' YOU SEEM ONE OF THE JOLLY SORT, YOU LOOKS AS CONVIVIAL AS A LIVE TROUT 
IN A LIME BASKET.' " (Chap. XVI.) 

Published 1837. 










By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

13. " 'WHAT,' SAID MR. POTT SOLEMNLY, 'WHAT RHYMES TO TINKLE, VILLAIN' 
(Chap. XVIII.) 
Published 183T. 







By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

14. '"WHO ARE YOU, RASCAL?' SAID THE CAPTAIN. 

'COLD PUNCH,' MURMURED MR. PlCKWICK." (Chap. XIX.) 

Published 1837. 



265 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

15. "'I AM EXCEEDINGLY SORRY, MA'AM,' SAID MR. PlCKWICK. 

' IF YOU ARE, SIR, YOU WILL IMMEDIATELY LEAVE THE ROOM.'" (Chap. XXII.) 

Published 1837. 



267 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

3. " ' WERY GOOD POWER o' SUCTION, SAMMY!'" (Chap. XXIII. 
Published 1837. 



269 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

17. "'LAW, REPLIED MR. GRUMMER, 'LAW, CIVIL POWER, AND EXEKATIVE ; THEM'S 

MY TITLES; HERE'S MY AUTHORITY."' (Chap. XXIV.) 

Published 1837. 



271 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

18. "'VELL,' SAID SAM, 'ALL I CAN SAY is I WISH YOU MAY GET IT!'" (Chap. XXV.) 
Published 1837. 



273 




By William Heath. 
Pickwickian illustrations. 

19. '" MOTHER-IN-LAW, HOW ARE YOU?'" (Chap. XXVII.) 
Published 1837. 



VOL. I 



275 




By William Heath. 

Pickwickian illustrations. 

20. "BLINDMAN'S BUFF." (Chap. XXVIII.) 

Published 1837. 



ALFRED CROWQUILL" 
(ALFRED H. FORRESTER) 



"ALFRED CROWQUILL" 

" ALFRED CROWQUILL," otherwise Alfred Henry Forrester, 
enjoyed in his day a considerable share of popular appre- 
ciation, both as a ready and facile writer, and as a humorous 
designer, equally facile. Curiously enough, his lines for 
awhile ran parallel with those of Charles Dickens ; for he 
was, on the literary side of his career, also earliest associated, 
as literary colleague, with the etchings .of the gifted George 
Cruikshank, and later on with the equally interesting artist, 
Robert Seymour, to whose sketches he was subsequently 
commissioned to supply a literary setting or descriptive and 
discursive sporting narrative, both in prose and verse. 
Further, it is hinted that, among the promising young 
authors whose names were suggested to Chapman and Hall 
originally, or who, like Henry Mayhew and Monprieff, were 
by Seymour pointed out as likely coadjutors of the pen to 
furnish forth the necessary " skeleton " or framework for his 
series of etchings of sporting and grotesque Cockney adven- 
tures (the germ destined to develop into the renowned 
"Pickwick Club"), Crowquill was one of the writers pro- 
posed to the publishers to act as literary collaborates with 
the artist. The names of several other writers, popular at 
the date, such as Theodore Hook ; Clarke, the author of 
" Three Courses and a Dessert " ; Charles Whitehead (said to 
have himself first introduced the name of Dickens) ; John 
Poole, the author of " Paul Pry " ; and of Leigh Hunt, are 
mentioned among those to whom the work was suggested. 

The ease and spirit distinguishing " the new hand " 
evidently favourably impressed Alfred Forrester, for he was 



280 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

led by ambition to endeavour to secure for his name, already 
of repute as a humorous author and artist, some small 
share of the popular recognition commanded on a scale 
hitherto unprecedented by the convincing genius of " Boz," 
who had straightway captivated the public without apparent 
effort. Having lost the opportunity (once freely offered, or 
" going a-begging," according to contemporary accounts) of 
writing up to the designs by ' Seymour, projected for his 
" Nimrod Club," subsequently world-famed, " Crowquill " 
as a light skirmisher, entered the field to carry 
off' such "snippets" of present reputation as might be 
snatched from the overwhelming success of " Pickwick," by 
producing a lengthy series of his own graphic ideas of 
Pickwickian characters and illustrations, under the title of 
" Pictures picked from the Pickwick Papers," the first sheet 
of these unofficial artistic contributions bearing the date 
1st May, 1837, and being issued in similar form, at fort- 
nightly intervals for the most part, up to the concluding 
number of Chapman and HalFs original series, when Dickens 
had brought his story to a finish ; both undertakings thus 
ending almost simultaneously. 

"Crowquill's" publisher, Ackermann, it appears, ingeniously 
devised an original outlet for these extra plates ; taking from 
Chapman and Hall the monthly parts of the " Pickwick 
Papers " as they were issued, and inserting the " Crowquill " 
series as additional illustrations. On the simultaneous com- 
pletion of the three series, viz., the original twenty monthly 
parts (with the seven Seymour plates, two Buss plates, and 
thirty-four " PHIZ " plates) ; the thirty-two additional plates 
by Thomas Onwhyn and " Sam Weller " ; and the forty 
octavo plates by " Alfred Crowquill," Ackermann evidently 
incorporated the original issue (with the first 1837 title 
page) and the two suites of extra illustrations by " Crowquill " 
and Onwhyn respectively, in one compendious fat volume, 
all the plates being inserted with due respect for the context, 
and the whole bound up and lettered as " THE PICKWICK"- 



4 < ALFRED CROWQUILL" 281 

in the style of the " Annuals " issued by the same firm. Extra 
illustrated copies answering this description, though neces- 
sarily somewhat costly, are by no means rare, and it is thence 
inferred that Ackermann found a fairly considerable sale for 
these special " Pickwicks " thus early in the annals of " extra- 
illustrated volumes." 

Sets of the " Crowquill " " Pictures picked from the Pickwick 
Papers " are now always regarded as luxuries, and are pro- 
portionately expensive, the current value being about 1%, 
according to the catalogues of enterprising booksellers who 
make " Dickensiana " a speciality. 

These "Pickwick Pictures" did not exhaust "Alfred 
CrowquilFs " ambition to participate even by stealth or 
without authorisation in the fame and profit appertaining to 
the phenomenal success of " Pickwick " ; about a year after 
the completion of the great original, Forrester was associated 
as illustrator with the most successful of the numerous 
imitations of Dickens's unique venture, namely, the work 
hereafter mentioned amongst " plagiaristic continuations " of 
" The Pickwick," a colourable imitation, published in monthly 
parts, under the title of " Pickwick Abroad ; or, the Tour in 
France," written by George W. M. Reynolds, with forty-one 
illustrations on steel by "Alfred Crowquill" and John Phillips, 
and thirty-three views of Paris engraved on wood by Bonner. 
The pictorial wrapper for this foreign continuation of the 
Pickwickian adventures was also designed (in the manner 
made familiar by Cruikshank, Seymour, and " PHIZ ") by 
" Alfred Crowquill." Illustrations of " Pickwick Abroad" are 
given under the section of the present work (Vol. II.) set 
apart for the description of " Plagiarisms, Imitations, and 
Continuations of ' Pickwick. 1 " 

Alfred Henry Forrester was born in London in 1805, and 
he survived Charles Dickens by two years, dying in May, 
1872 ; he was buried in Norwood Cemetery. 



PICTUEES PICKED FKOM THE 
PICKWICK PAPERS 



BY 

ALFEED CKOWQUILL 



Twenty double-page sheets (12x10, undivided), or forty single (octavo, 
9 x 5|) pages of illustrations ETCHED on stone ; lithographed by 
Standidge and Co., London. Originally issued in buff illustrated 
wrapper (with " The Pickwickians " as a device); in ten bi-monthly 
parts ; plain, Is. each part ; coloured, 2,9. each. The first part dated 
1st May, 1837, and the final part, 9th November, 1837. 

Also published complete, in lavender-coloured wrappers, and in cloth. 



LONDON: ACKERMANN AND CO., 96 STRAND 
1837 



LIST OF " CROWQUILL'S " ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE PICKWICKIANS. Frontispiece. [Also appeared on Wrapper.] ... 1 
WATERMAN PICKWICK AND CABMAN PIEMAN PAYNE DR. SLAM- 
MERJINGLE. Chap. II 2 

TAPPLETON, SLAMMER, PAYNE FAT BOY THE REVIEW DISMAL 

JEMMY. Chaps. III. and IV 3 

Miss RACHAEL WARDLE (THE MAIDEN AUNT) AND TUPMAN Miss 
ISABELLA WARDLE Miss EMILY WARDLE PICKWICK AND 
HORSE WARDLE AND FAT BOY TUPMAN AND EMMA. Chaps. 

IV. and V 4 

WHIST AT WARDLE'S. Chap. VI ' 5 

FAT BOY AND CROW WINKLE ROOK SHOOTING CRICKETERS PICK- 
WICK DRUNK WINKLE DRUNK. Chaps. VII. and VIII 6 

JINGLE ELOPING THE PURSUIT MR. PERKER WELLER AND PICK- 
WICK. Chaps. IX. and X 7 

SAM WELLER. Chap. X 8 

MRS. BARDELL'S MISTAKE SAM IN HIS NEW SUIT MR. POTT 

ELECTORS AT EATANSWILL. Chaps. XII. and XIII 9 

TOM SMART. Chap. XIV 10 

MRS. LEO HUNTER'S Fete Al Fresco THE MISSES HUNTER MRS. 
LEO HUNTER RECITING " THE EXPIRING FROG" COUNT SMORL- 
TORK TUPMAN, PICKWICK, SNODGRASS MRS. POTT AND WINKLE 

MR. POTT THE SOMETHINGEAN SINGERS. Chap. XV 11 

JOB TROTTER MR. PICKWICK IN THE GARDEN SAM HELPING HIS 
MASTER OVER MlSS TOMKINS AND BOARDERS MlSS TOMKINS'S 

COOK AND HOUSEMAID. Chap. XVI 12 

POTT AND WINKLE SERPENT ! ! GAMEKEEPER BOY WITH PRO- 
VISIONS DODSON AND FOGG'S CLERKS. Chaps. XVIII. and XIX. 13 
PICKWICK GOING SPORTING CAPTAIN BOLDWIG AND HIS MEEK 

GARDENERS. Chap. XIX 14 

MR. LOWTON OLD JACK BAMBER MR. MAGNUS THE SHEPHERD 

MR. WELLER, SENIOR. Chaps. XX. and XXI 15 

PICKWICK'S MISTAKE. Chap. XXII 16 

MAGNUS AND PICKWICK QUARRELLING MR. NUPKINS AND MIDDLE- 
AGED LADY MR. JINKS MUZZLE. Chap. XXIV 17 

GRUMMER AND VILLAGE POSSE MRS. AND Miss NUPKINS MARY. 

Chaps. XXIV. and XXV 18 

MRS. WELLER AND THE DEPUTY SHEPHERD WINKLE TRAVELLING 

PICKWICK TRAVELLING TUPMAN SNODGRASS. Chap. XXVII. 19 

WINKLE DANCING PICKWICK AND OLD MRS. WARDLE PICKWICK'S 
UNEXPECTED SALUTE THE GRAVEDIGGER's DRAUGHT WlNKLE 

AND THE YOUNG LADY WITH FUR BOOTS. Chap. XXVIII. ... 20 



286 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

BEN ALLEN BOB SAWYER WINKLE'S SKATING "SiR, YOU'RE A 

HUMBUG! "-THE SLIDE. Chap. XXX. 21 

PICKWICK'S ACCIDENT SERGEANT SNUBBIN DODSON AND FOGG'S 
CLERK BEN ALLEN'S VISITORS BEN ALLEN'S LANDLADY. Chaps. 
XXX. and XXXI 22 

MR. JONAS MUDGE MR. ANTHONY HUMM SAM'S VALENTINE THE 

TOTALLERS. Chap. XXXII 23 

SERGEANT BUZFUZ MR. SKIMPIN MR. PHUNKEY THE INTELLI- 
GENT JURY MRS. CLUPPINS'S EXAMINATION. Chap. XXXIV... 24 

MR. DOWLER MRS. DOWLER IN THE BATH COACH BANTAM, M.C., 

AT THE ASSEMBLY. Chap. XXXV 25 

HONBLE. MR. CRUSHTON AND LORD MUTANHED MRS. DOWLER'S 
SEDAN MR. WINKLE AT DOOR BANTAM'S FOOTMAN THE 
GREENGROCER OLD BLAZES MR. W^HiFFERS. Chap. XXXVII. 26 

SAM WELLER AND MARY SHAKING CARPETS THE SURLY GROOM 
PICKWICK WITH DARK LANTERN PICKWICK AT THE ASSIGNATION 
WITH Miss ALLEN SAM CARRYING PICKWICK BOB SAWYER'S 
BOY. Chap. XXXIX 27 

BAILIFF AND FOLLOWER THE THREE PRISONERS IN SPONGING HOUSE 
JAILOR AT WHITE CROSS STREET BAIL IN CHANCERY LANE. 
Chap. XL. 28 

PRISONERS IN THE FLEET. Chaps. XLI. and XLII 29 

THE OLD PRISONER IN THE FLEET MlVINS SMANGLE MR. SOLOMON 

PELL AND BOY. Chap. XLIII 30 

THE COBBLER IN HIS FOUR-POST BEDSTEAD JlNGLE JOB THE 

DEPUTY SHEPHERD MRS. WELLER. Chaps. XLIV. and XLV. 31 
MRS. BARDELL AND PARTY AT THE SPANIARDS TEA GARDENS. 

Chap. XLVI 32 

SULKY GROOM BEN ALLEN'S AUNT THE GREY BOY'S EXPULSION 

JOB'S CHEAP BED MR. AND MRS. WlNKLE AND MAID. Chap. 

XLVIII 33 

THE ONE-EYE'D MAN'S STORY THE ONE-EYE'D MAN'S UNCLE THE 

PHANTOM GUARD THE PHANTOM ABDUCTORS THE PHANTOM 

LADY. Chap. XLIX 34 

PICKWICK, BOB SAWYER, AND BEN ALLEN WINKLE'S SERVANT 

OLD WINKLE BEN ALLEN BOB SAWYER MAKING FACES. 

Chap. L 35 

MESSRS. SLURK AND POTT THE SHEPHERD OLD WELLER KICKING 

THE SHEPHERD BOB SAWYER THE BUXOM WIDOW. Chaps. 

LI. andLII 36 

THE FAT BOY AT PfiRKER'S CHAMBERS PlCKWICK CONSOLING MRS. 

WINKLE THE FAT BOY OGLING MARY. Chap. LIV. f 37 

MR. WELLER AND THE TWO ARBITRATING COACHMEN THE BETTING 

STOCKBROKERS BANK CLERKS. Chap. LV 38 

EMILY WARDLE AND BRIDESMAIDS. Chap. LVII 39 

SAM WELLER'S CHILDREN. Chap. LVII 40 



289 



Payne,. 




VOL. I 



"Pictures picked from 'The Pickwick Papers.'" (Chap II) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May 1, 1837. 



291 



Pnynr 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. III. and IV.) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May 1, 1837. 

u 2 



293 




" Pictures picked from ( The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. IV. and V.) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May 1, 1837. 



295 




Wardfa. 



' Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.'" (Chap. VI.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May .15, 1837. 



297 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. VII. and VIII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May 15, 1837. 



299 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. IX. and X.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 

Published May 15, 1837. 



301 




Sam, Wetter* 

' Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers. 1 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published May 15, 1837. 



(Chap. X.) 



303 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XII. and XIII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published June 1, 1837. 



305 




" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XIV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published June 1, 1837. 



VOL. 1 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XV.) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published June 1, 1837. 

x 



Swnt, hdping tuS Master over 



Jtf-i/fs Tonikins' Cook catd/ Housemaid 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XVI.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published June 1, 1837. 



Potts & WvnMe 
with- Provisu>rvs. 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XVIII. and XIX.) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 1, 1837. 



313 



gcnm*? 
\ w (' Sporting 

Si'tfJ W? 




medt> Gardeners. 



Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XIX. 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 1, 1837. 



315 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XX. and XXI.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 

Published July 1, 1837. 



317 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXII.) 
By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 1, 1837. 



JuT N~vcph~vn &JtfuZclZe< v? greet, Jj cufy 




1 Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXIV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 15, 1837. 



321 




" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XXIV. and XXV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill 
Published July 15, 1837. 
VOL. I v 



323 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXVII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 15, 1837. 

v 2 




b unexpected' SctZufiu 



' Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXVIII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published July 15, 1837. 




Ticturcs picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXX.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published August 1, 1837. 



329 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XXX. to XXXII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published August 1, 1837. 



331 




Z'cct, 



Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers. " (Chap. XXXII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published August 1, 1837. 



333 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXXIV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published August 1, 1837. 



335 




/>V/ /? tarns Jf O. out? ffv&Ass emt>ly . 

Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXXV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published September 1, 1837. 



337 



WMstJU,,<J>daor 



ms* fan, 







*ws^%l W(l{'' 
^K./r)^. .^m. 





" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXXVII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published September 1, 1837. 



VOL. I 



339 




" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XXXIX. 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published September 1, 1837 

Z 




JcuZor aJs 
W fates Cross Jfrect 



" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XL.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published September 1, 1837. 




"Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.'" (Chaps. XLI. and XLII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 2, 1837. 




Pictures pickod from 'The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XLIII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 2, 1837. 




Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. XLIV. and XLV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 2, 1837. 



349 




' Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XL VI.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 2, 1837. 



351 




Th&grcy 'boy's OKfniZturn/ 



" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. XLVIII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 10, 1837. 



353 



u s L r nclc< 




VOL. I 



" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers."' (Chap. XLIX.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 16, 1837. 



A A 



355 









WvriJCUb 



" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. L.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 16, 1837. 

A A 



357 




Bob Sca 



" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chaps. LI. and LII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published October 16, 1837. 



359 




Pickwick- ocnfcitny MT 




The Fat' Bej> oglnttj Mary 






;i 




The, Ftil.Tiey at/ Per kerb 



Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. LIV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published November 9, 1837. 



361 



Wie two vdrbiLrattng Coachmen. 




" Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' "(Chap. LV.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published November 9, 1837. 



363 




' Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. LVII.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published November 9, 1837. 



305 



^\ 

*'\* yt?^, 




Stem, Welter's Children 



Pictures picked from ' The Pickwick Papers.' " (Chap. LVII., finis.) 

By Alfred Crowquill. 
Published November 9, 1837. 



THOMAS ONWHYN AND "SAM WELLER " 



Published by E. GRATTAN, 51 PATERNOSTER Row. 

(1837.) 

THE PICKWICK ILLUSTRATIONS 

THIRTY-TWO ETCHINGS 

BY 

THOMAS ONWHYN AND "SAM WELLER" 



NOTE. Originally published in eight parts, demy 8vo. , green wrappers, 
Is. each. India proofs, 4to., 2s. In one volume, cloth, 9s. 

London : E. GRATTAN, 51 Paternoster Row. 

In monthly and bi-monthly parts, from May 1 to November 9, 1837. 

The same series of thirty-two Etchings republished, in brown paper 
wrapper, with wood-cut of "Mr. Pickwick's Cottage" on wrapper. 
Price 9s. 

London: GRATTAN AND GILBERT. (Undated.) 

Also republished, by transfers to stone, styled "proofs," in small 4to. 
Eight parts, at 4d. each ; or in complete sets of thirty-two, price 2,?. Qd. 

London : J. NEWMAN, 48, Watling Street. (Undated.) 
Sold wholesale by G. Vickers, Holywell Street, Strand. 
[At the time of the issue of the first cheap edition, 1847.] 

Described in the advertisement as " Thirty- two plates to illustrate the 
cheap edition of ' Pickwick ' now publishing. Engraved on steel in the 
best manner from designs by eminent artists, and printed on plate paper 
of good quality." 

N.B. Although thus described, the edition in question consisted of 
transfers from the plates to stone, printed on the lithographic press, for 
cheapness of working. 

N.B. Described and issued to the public as thirty-two plates by 
Thomas On why n and " Sam Weller " (the latter a pseudonym adopted by 
Onwhyn) ; practical experts in these matters, like Mr. F. W. Pailthorpe arid 
Mr. John Dexter, inexhaustible authorities on all that appertains to 
Dickens and his illustrations, have pointed out that a certain number of 
these plates, about one-third, in fact, are by an anonymous hand. 

The illustrations improperly attributed to Thomas Onwhyn, as 
indicated, are marked by an asterisk on the accompanying list. 

VOL. I B B 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF "SAM WELLER" PLATES 

THE " extra plates " by Onwhyn, announced as " WELLER/'S 
ILLUSTRATIONS," "an important addition to the ' PICKWICK 
PAPERS,' " were advertised on the actual wrappers of the first 
issue of " PICKWICK " in monthly parts. 

The entire page at the back of the familiar Seymour wood- 
cut of No. XV. was given over to the following announce- 
ment, now interesting in connection with the " Onwhyn " 
series of plates, as reproduced in the present series : 

" Just published, price One Shilling each, Parts I. and II., 
containing eight engravings on steel of 

" SAMUEL WELLER^S ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE PICKWICK CLUB. 

" The engravings will be beautifully etched on steel, and 
adapted for binding with the work. 

" To be completed in Ten Parts ; the last of which will 
appear in December. A Quarto Edition, with Proofs on 
India Paper, price Two Shillings. A few of the criticisms to 
Part I. are subjoined. It is confidently expected the future 
Parts will considerably extend the fame of the Artist." 

" ' These delineations are imputed to no less a person than 
SAM WELLER, himself; the characters are graphically con- 
ceived, and their features well preserved ; the local scenery is 
said to be sketched on the spot. The drollness and spirit of 
these illustrations make us anxious to see more of the 
artist." Atlas. 

" ' We hail with satisfaction the commencement of a series 
of illustrations to this popular work by SAMUEL WELLER. 

B B 2 



372 



PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 



himself. Judging from his natural shrewdness, and these his 
earliest pencillings, we feel confident they will prove a very 
popular addition to the work ; indeed the first part justifies 
us in expecting an inimitable series of etchings.' Observer. 

" ' The characters of this now celebrated club are well 
preserved in the various scenes illustrated, and in some there 
is much humour. 1 Guide. 

" 4 In the first part Pickwick and Wardle are beyond praise ; 
SAM WELLER is a great hit, but his figure is too aristocratic ; 
the whole group is admirably illustrative of the letter-press. 
In the last plate, Dr. Slammer and old Pickwick are immense, 
the person to the left is the beau Ideal of Dr. Cantwell, in the 
play of the Hypocrite ; this plate is very fine. The artist 
must be a great man, should he live ; he has nothing of the 
caricature of George Cruikshank, which pervades all that 
artist's best performances ; his pencil is more Hogarth-like 
and dramatical, each figure is a study, and the combinations 
are exquisitely good. 1 Chronicle. 

" ' This is a clever work, in which the characters in the 
celebrated ' PICKWICK PAPERS ' are graphically delineated by a 
talented artist, who has ' taken the idea,' and embodied it in 
a masterly manner.' Bell's Life. 

" ' These illustrations are very clever and humorous.' 
BelTs Weekly Messenger. 

" E. GRATTAN, 51 Paternoster Row. 
" Sold by all Booksellers, Stationers, and Printsellers. 
%* "The Trade will find these Illustrations meet with 
certain sale to the various subscribers of the ' PICKWICK 
PAPERS ' ; and many of the thousands who read, but do not 
purchase the work, will, it is confidently expected, be anxious 
to possess these Gems." 



[WRAPPER.] 

"SAM WELLEE" ("ONWHYN") PLATES. 
THIRTY-TWO 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

TO THE 

POSTHUMOUS PAPEES 

OF THE 

PICKWICK CLUB, 

ENGRAVED ON STEEL, BY VARIOUS HUMOURISTS, FROM SKETCHES 
AT THE TIMES AND PLACES, 

BY ME. SAMUEL WELLER. 




MR. PICKWICK'S COTTAGE. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED BY G RATTAN & GILBERT. 
Price Nine Shillings. 



LIST OF "THE PICKWICK ILLUSTRATIONS'" 

[N.B.* The asterisk indicates those plates wrongly attributed to 
T. Onwhyn, evidently executed by some artist hitherto unidenti- 
fied, and engraved in another manner to the rest, which were 
etched by T. Onwhyn.] 

FRONTISPIECE AND TITLE-PAGE. By T. Oiiwhyn 1 

" ' YOU CANNOT PROCEED IN THIS AFFAIR, SLAMMER IMPOSSIBLE ! ' " 

By ''Sam Weller." Chap. Ill 2 

" SOME PERSON BEHIND WOULD KNOCK HIS HAT OVER HIS EYES, 
AND BEG THE FAVOUR OF HIS PUTTING HIS HEAD IN HIS 

POCKET." By T. Onwhyn. Chap. IV 3 

" ' BLOWED IF THE GEN'L'M'N WORN'T AGETTIN' UP ON THE WRONG 

SIDE!" : By " Sam Weller." Chap. V 4 

"ONE OF THE MEN SUDDENLY SEIZING MR. PlCKWICK BY THE 
LEG, AT THE IMMINENT HAZARD OF THROWING HIM OFF HIS 
BALANCE, BRUSHED AWAY AT HIS BOOT TILL HIS CORNS WERE 

RED HOT." Anonymous. Chap. V 5 

"MR. WINKLE, INSTEAD OF SHOOTING AT THE PIGEON AND KILLING 

THE CROW, SHOT AT THE CROW AND WOUNDED THE PIGEON." 

By "Sam Weller." Chap. VII ,.6 

" 'CERTAINLY, SIR,' REPLIED SAM, WHO HAD ANSWERED WARDLE'S 

VIOLENT RINGING OF THE BELL WITH A DEGREE OF CELERITY 
WHICH MUST HAVE APPEARED MARVELLOUS TO ANYBODY." 

By "Sam Weller." Chap. X 7 

" 'I KILLED HER. I AM A MADMAN. DOWN WITH YOU. BLOOD, 

BLOOD; I WILL HAVE IT!'" Anonymous. Chap. XI 8 

" 'WELL, DAMN MY STRAPS AND WHISKERS,' SAYS TOM, ' IF THIS 

AIN'T PLEASANT, BLOW ME!'" Anonymous. Chap. XIV. ... 9 

"'TOM!' SAID THE OLD GENTLEMAN, 'THE WIDOW'S A FINE 
WOMAN REMARKABLY FINE WOMAN EH, TOM?'" Anonymous. 

Chap. XIV 10 

" MR. PICKWICK STEPPED OUT OF THE CLOSET, AND FOUND HIM- 
SELF IN THE PRESENCE OF THE WHOLE ESTABLISHMENT OF 

WESTGATE HOUSE." By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XVI 11 

" 'YES, I DID, MR. LOBBS I DID COME AFTER YOUR DAUGHTER, 

I LOVE HER, MR. LOBBS.'" Anonymous. Chap. XVII. ... 12 
"'WHERE ARE THEY?' SAID WARDLE, TAKING UP A BRACE 

OF BIRDS WHICH THE DOGS HAD DEPOSITED AT HIS FEET. 

' WHERE ARE THEY ? WHY, HERE THEY ARE ! ' " By T. Onwhyn. 

Chap. XIX 13 

" ' WEAL PIE,' SAID MR. WELLER, SOLILOQUISING, AS HE ARRANGED 

THE EATABLES ON THE GRASS." By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XIX. 14 

"'YOU JUST COME AVAY,' SAID MR. WELLER. 'BATTLEDORE AND 

SHUTTLECOCK'S A WERY GOOD GAME, WHEN YOU AIN'T THE 
SHUTTLECOCK, AND TWO LAWYERS THE BATTLEDORES, IN VICH 

CASE IT GETS TOO EXCITING TO BE PLEASANT.'" Signed by 

"Sam Weller." Chap. XX 15 



376 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

*"'YOU ARE VERY RIGHT, SIR,' SAID THE GHOST POLITELY, ' IT 
NEVER STRUCK ME TILL NOW. I'LL TRY A CHANGE OF AIR 

DIRECTLY!'" Anonymous. Chap. XXI 16 

* " I FIRST GAVE HIM TWO OR THREE FOR HIMSELF, AND THEN TWO 

OR THREE MORE TO HAND OVER TO THE MAN WITH THE RED 

NOSE, AND WALKED AWAY.'" Anonymous. Chap. XXII. ... 17 
" ' SAMMY, HELP YOUR MASTER UP TO THE BOX ; T'OTHER LEG, SIR ; 
THAT'S IT ; GIVE us YOUR HAND, SIR. UP WITH YOU. You 

WAS A LIGHTER WEIGHT WHEN YOU WAS A BOY, SIR.'" By 

T. Onwhyn. Chap. XXII. 18 

* " ' WHAT PREVENTS ME,' SAID MR. NUPKINS, WITH MAGISTERIAL 

DIGNITY, AS JOB WAS BROUGHT IN, ' WHAT PREVENTS ME FROM 

DETAINING THESE MEN AS ROGUES AND IMPOSTORS?'" Signed 

by "Sam Weller." Chap. XXV 19 

* " ' AND NOW,' SAID THE GOBLIN KING, 'SHOW THE MAN OF MISERY 

AND GLOOM A FEW OF THE PICTURES FROM OUR OWN GREAT 

STOREHOUSE.'" Anonymous. Chap. XXVIII 20 

"OLD WARDLE WOULD NOT HEAR OF HIS RISING, so THAT THEY 

MADE THE BED THE CHAIR, AND MR. PlCKWICK PRESIDED." 

By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XXIX 21 

* " 'VERY GOOD PLANT,' REPLIED JACKSON, 'BUT IT WON'T DO. No 

HARM IN TRYING, BUT THERE'S LITTLE TO BE GOT OUT OF ME.' " 

Anonymous. Chap. XXXI 22 

"'BROTHER TADGER, SIR,' SAID MR. STIGGINS, SUDDENLY IN- 
CREASING IN FEROCITY, AND TURNING SHARP ROUND ON THE 
LITTLE MAN IN THE DRAB SHORTS, 'YOU ARE DRUNK, SIR.'" 

By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XXXIII 23 

"'THE FAT OLD LADY?' INQUIRED MR. PlCKWICK INNOCENTLY. 
'HUSH, MY DEAR SIR NOBODY'S FAT OR OLD IN BA ATH.' " 

By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XXXV 24 

"MR. WELLER SURVEYED THE ATTORNEY FROM HEAD TO FOOT 

WITH GREAT ADMIRATION, AND SAID EMPHATICALLY ' AND 

WHAT'LL YOU TAKE, SIR ? ' " By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XLIII. 25 

"'HE HAS GOT HIS DISCHARGE, BY G !' SAID THE MAN." Bv 

T. Onwhyn. Chap. XLIV .". 26 

"'HE'S NOT MUCH USED TO LADIES' SOCIETY, AND IT MAKES HIM 

BASHFUL. IF YOU'LL ORDER THE WAITER TO DELIVER HIM 

ANYTHING SHORT, HE WON'T DRINK IT OFF AT ONCE, WON'T 

HE? ONLY TRY HIM.'" By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XLVL ... 27 

"'DEAR ME,' SAID MR. PICKWICK; 'POOR LADY, GENTLY, SAM, 

GENTLY !" : By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XLVIII 28 

" STORY OF THE BAGMAN'S UNCLE ' THERE THEY BOTH STOOD, 

GENTLEMEN, JERKING THEIR ARMS AND LEGS ABOUT IN AGONY, 
LIKE THE TOY-SHOP FIGURES THAT ARE MOVED BY A PIECE OF 

PACKTHREAD.'" By T. Onwhyn. Chap. XLIX 29 

"MR. BOB SAWYER PLACED HIS HANDS UPON HIS KNEES, AND 

MADE A FACE AFTER THE PORTRAITS OF THE LATE MR. GRIMALDI 

AS CLOWN." By T. Onwhyn. Chap. L 30 

" ' WRETCHED CREATURE, WHAT DO YOU WANT HERE ? ' " By T. On- 
whyn. Chap. LIV ; 31 

' ' WELL, I'LL BET YOU HALF-A-DOZEN OF CLARET ON IT, COME,' SAID 

WILKINS FLASHER, ESQUIRE." By T. Onwhyn. LV 32 



.377 




By T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller " 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

Frontispiece. 
Published November 30, 1837. 



379 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 
"The Pickwick Illusl rations." 

" ' YOU CANNOT PROCKED IN THIS AFFAIR, SLAMMER IMPOSSIBLE ! ' " (Chap. III.) 

Published May 31, 1837. 



381 




By T. Onwhyu and " Sam Weller.' 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

; SOME PERSON BEHIND WOULD KNOCK HIS HAT OVER HIS EYES, AND BEG THE FAVOUR 
OF HIS PUTTING HIS HEAD IN HIS POCKET." (Chap. IV.) 

Published June 30, 1837. 



383 




By T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations.' 

; BLOWED IF THE GEN'L'M'N WORN'T A GETTIN' UP ON THE WRONG SIDE ! ' " (Chap. V ) 
Published May 31, 1837. 



385 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller " series. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

ONE OF THE MEN SUDDENLY SEIZING MR. PlCKWICK BY THE LEO AT THE IMMINENT 

T 



Published August 31, 1837. 



VOL. I 



C C 



387 




By T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
MR. WINKLE INSTEAD OF SHOOTING AT THE PIGEON AND KILLING THE CROW SHOT AT 

THE CROW AND WOUNDED THE PIGEON." (Chap. VII.) 

Published May 31, 1837. 



o c 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

" ' CERTAINLY, SIR,' REPLIED SAM, WHO HAD ANSWERED WA ROLE'S VIOLENT RINGING OF 
THE BELL WITH A DEGREE OF CELERITY WHICH MUST HAVE APPEARED MARVELLOUS TO 

ANYBODY, ETC." (Chap. X.) 

Published May 31, 1837. 



391 




Included in the T. Omvhyn and " Sam Weller " series. 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
I KILLED HER. I AM. A MADMAN. DOWN WITH YOU. BLOOD, BLOOD. I WILL 

IT!'" (Chap. XI.) 
Published June 30, 1837. 



393 




i g^ 



Included in the T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller " series. 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 
WELL, DAMN MY STRAPS AND WHISKERS,' SAYS TOM, 'IF/THIS AIN'T PLEASANT, BLOW 

ME!"' (Chap. XIV.) 
Published June 30, 1837. 



395 




Included in the T. Oiiwhyn and ' ' Sam Weller " scries. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

' TOM ! ' SAID THE OLD GENTLEMAN, ' THE WIDOW'S A FINE WOMAN REMARKABLY FINE 

WOMAN EH, TOM?'" (Chap. XIV.) 
Published June 30, 1837. 



397 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
MR. PICKWICK STEPPED OUT OF THE CLOSET, AND FOUND HIMSELF IN THE PRESENCE OF 

THE WHOLE ESTABLISHMENT OF WESTGATE HOUSE." (Chap. XVI.) 

Published September 30, 1837, 



399 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller " series. 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
1 YES, I DID, MR. LOBBS I DTD COME AFTER YOUR DAUGHTER, I LOVE HER. MR. LOBBS.' 

(Chap. XVII.) 
Published July 31, 1837. 



401 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller.' 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
; ' ' WHERE ARE THEY?' SAID WARDLE, TAKING UP A BRACE OF BIRDS WHICH THE DOGS 

HAD DEPOSITED AT HIS FEET. ' WHERE ARE THEY ? WHY, HERE THEY ARE ! ' " (Chap. XIX.) 

Published July 31, 1837. 



VOL. I 



D D 



403 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller.' 

"The Pickwick Illustrations. ' 

WEAL FIE,' SAID MR. WELLER, SOLILOQUISING, AS HE ARRANGED THE EATABLES ON THE 
GRASS." (Chap. XIX.) 
Published July 31, 1837. 



D D 



405 




Included in the T. Qnwhyn and " Sam Weller " series. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

'' YOU JUST COME AVAY, ' SAID MR. WELLER. 'BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK'S A WERY 

GOOD GAME, WHEN YOU AIN'T THE SHUTTLECOCK, AND TWO LAWYERS THE BATTLELORES, IN 

VICH CASE IT GETS TOO EXCITING TO BE PLEASANT.' " (Chap. XX.) 

Published July 31, 1837. 



407 




Included in the T. Onwhynand "Sam Weller " series. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

; YOU ARE VERY RIOHT, SIR,' SAID THE GHOST POLITELY, ' IT NEVER STRUCK ME TILL 
NOW. I'LL TRY CHANGE OF AIR DIRECTLY !'" (Chap. XXI.) 

Published August 31, 1837. 



409 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller" series. 
" The Pickwick Illustrations " 

I FIRST GAVE HIM TWO OR THREE FOR HIMSELF, AND THEN TWO OR THREE MORE TO HAND 
OVER TO THE MAN WITH THE RED NOSE, AND WALKED AWAY.' " (Chap. XXII.) 

Published August 31, 1837. 



411 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
" ' SAMMY, HELP YOUR MASTER UP TO THE BOX ; T'OTHER LEO, SIR ; THAT'S IT ; GIVE us YOUR 

HAND SIU UP WITH YOU. YoU WAS A LIGHTER WEIGHT WHEN YOU WAS A BOY, SIR. 

(Chap. XXII.) 
Published September 30, 1837. 



413 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller" series. 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

" ' WHAT PREVENTS ME,' SAID MR. NUPKINS, WITH MAGISTERIAL DIGNITY, AS JOB WAS 
BROUGHT IN, 'WHAT PREVENTS ME FROM DETAINING THESE MEN AS ROGUES AND IMPOSTORS?' " 

(Chap. XXV.) 
Published July 31, 1837. 



415 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller " series 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

' AND NOW,' SAID THE GOBLIN KING, ' SHOW THE MAN OF MISERY AND GLOOM 
THE PICTURES FROM OUR OWN GREAT STOREHOUSE.' " (Chap. XXVIII.) 
Published September 30, 1837. 



A FEW OF 



417 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

OLD WARDLE WOULD NOT HEAR OF HIS RISING, so THAT THEY MADE THE BED THE CHAIR 
AND MR. PICKWICK PRESIDED." (Chap. XXIX.) 
Published September 30, 1837. 



VOL. I 



E E 



419 




Included in the T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller " series. 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

VERY GOOD PLANT,' REPLIED JACKSON, 'BUT IT WON'T DO. No HARM IN TRYING, BUT 
THERE'S LITTLE TO BE GOT OUT OF ME.' " (Chap. XXX.) 
Published November 30, 1837. 



E E 



421 



' -. S 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
" ' BROTHER TADGER, SIR, SAID MR. STIGGINS, SUDDENLY INCREASING IN FEROCITY, AND 

TURNING SHARP ROUND ON THE LITTLE MAN IN DRAB SHORTS, 'YOU ARE DRUNK, SIR.'" 

(Chap. XXXIII.) 
Published October '26, 1837. 



423 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 
" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

: THE FAT OLD LADY?' INQUIRED MR. PlCKWICK INNOCENTLY. 'HUSH, MY DEAR S1R- 

NOBODY'^ FAT OR OLD IN BA. ATH.'" (Chap. XXXV.) 
Published October 31, 1837. 



425 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller.' 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

MR. WELLER SURVEYED THE ATTORNEY FROM HEAD TO FOOT WITH GREAT ADMIRATION, AND 
SAID EMPHATICALLY ' AND WHAT*LL YOU TAKE, SIR? ' " (Chap. XLIII.) 
Published October 26, 1837. 



427 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

HE HAS GOT HIS DISCHARGE, BY G ! ' SAID THE MAN." (Chap. XLIV.) 

Published November 15, 1837. 



429 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

" ' HE'S NOT MUCH USED TO LADIES* SOCIETY, AND IT MAKES HIM BASHFUL. IF YOU'LL ORDER 
THE WAITER TO DELIVER HIM ANYTHING SHORT, HE WON'T DRINK IT OFF AT ONCE, WON'T HE ? 

ONLY TRY HIM.' " (Chap. XLVI.) 
Published October 26, 1837. 



431 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 

DEAR ME,' SAID MB. PICKWICK, ' POOR LADY, GENTLY, SAM, GENTLY.' " (Chap. XLVIII. 
Published November 15, 1837. 



433 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller. 
"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
" Story of the Bagman's Uncle." 

" 'THERE THEY BOTH STOOD, GENTLEMEN, JERKING THEIR ARMS AND LEGS ABOUT IN AGONY, 
LIKE THE TOY-SHOP FIGURES THAT ARE MOVED BY A PIECE OF PACKTHREAD. 1 " 

(Chap. XLIX.) 
Published November 15, 1837. 



VOL. r 



p F 



435 







By T. On why n and "Sam Weller." 

"The Pickwick Illustrations." 
MR. BOB SAWYER PLACED HIS HANDS UPON HIS KNEES, AND MADE A FACE AFTER THE 

PORTRAITS OF THE LATE MR. GRIMALDI AS CLOWN." (Chap. L.) 

Published November 15, 1837. 



437 







By T. Onwhyn and "Sam Weller." 

" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

'WRETCHED CREATURE, WHAT DO YOU WANT HERE?' " (Chap. LIV.) 
Published November 30, 1837. 



439 




By T. Onwhyn and " Sam Weller. 
" The Pickwick Illustrations." 

WELL I'LL BET YOU HALF-A-DOZEN OF CLARET ON IT COME,' SAID WILKINS 
FLASHER, ESQUIRE." (Chap. LV.) 
Published November 30, 1837. 



THOMAS ONWHYN 

(1847 Series) 



Published by ALBERT JACKSON, 

GREAT PORTLAND STREET. 



TWELVE 

ILLUSTRATIONS 



TO 



THE PICKWICK CLUB 



BY 

T. ONWHYN. 



DRAWN AND ETCHED IN 1847. Now FIRST PUBLISHED. 



LONDON : 

ALBERT JACKSON, 224 GREAT PORTLAND STREET. 
1894. 



" ADVERTISEMENT. 

" IN the year 1847 was issued ' The Cheap Edition of 
Pickwick] with a new preface by Dickens, but without 
illustrations excepting a frontispiece by Leslie. Thereupon 
T. Onwhyn designed a set of twelve humorous etchings on 
steel, which it was his intention to publish independently, as 
extra illustrations. 

" He had, however, in 1837 designed another and entirely 
different set of illustrations to Pickwick, and before there was 
time to issue the new set, the earlier plates were repub- 
lished. Onwhyn then relinquished the idea of issuing the 
new set, and their existence was lost sight of. They have, 
however, been recently discovered by the Onwhyn family, from 
whom I purchased them, and are now printed and published for 
the first time. Apart from the interest attaching to the 
illustrating of so phenomenal a book of the century as 
Pickwick, by an artist of the time, and a book-illustrator of 
note, the designs have decided merit of their own, and will 
be welcomed by every collector of the works of Charles 
Dickens. They possess also the advantage of being of a size 
suitable for insertion in any edition of the work. 

"ALBERT JACKSON. 
"January, 1894," 



LIST OF TWELVE EXTRA PLATES BY T. ONWHYN 

"DOCTOR SLAMMER'S EXTRAORDINARY DEMEANOUR." Chap. II.... 1 

"THE STROLLER'S TALE." Chap. Ill 2 

"THE REVIEW." Chap. IV 3 

"MR. PICKWICK SUSPECTED OF HORSE-STEALING." Chap. V. ... 4 

"MR. WINKLE SHOOTS AT THE CROW AND KILLS THE PIGEON." 

Chap. VII 5 

"THE FAT BOY'S DISCOVERY." Chap. VIII 6 

"MR. WELLER INDUCED TO GET A LICENCE." Chap. X 7 

"THE PICKWICKIAN DISCOVERY." Chap. XI 8 

"SAM'S FIRST SIGHT OF JOB TROTTER." Chap. XVI 9 

"CAPTAIN BOLDWIG DISCOVERS MR. PICKWICK." Chap. XIX. ... 10 

" STOP, SAM, STOP ! '" Chap. XXX 11 

"SAM INTRODUCED TO THE SELECTION." Chap. XXXVII 12 



449 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS 




LONDON 
ALBERT JACKSON 224 C T PORTLAND ST 



ETCHED BY F. W. PAILTHORPK. 
Frontispiece. 



VOL. I 



THOMAS SIBSON 



G G 



THOMAS SIBSON 

THOMAS SIBSON is described as a subject-painter. He was 
apparently an artist of whom, on the evidence of his rare 
illustrations and etchings, much might have been expected 
had his life been prolonged. 

The " Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club," 
beyond their rarity, have special features to recommend them ; 
they are prized by collectors of " Pickwickiana " at exception- 
ally high figures ; the little opusculum containing ten etchings 
within an illustrated wrapper, and originally published at half- 
a-crown, being nowadays priced at 30 for a clean copy in 
fine original preservation. 

Wildly extravagant both in design and execution, there is 
a dashing abandon about these illustrations, an exuberance of 
life, action, and movement in harmony with the sprightly 
narrative by which they were inspired. In considering these 
unsophisticated experiments in illustrative art, it must be 
remembered that, like the illimitable " Boz's " exhilarating 
" Pickwick," they were the first sprightly runnings of a youth- 
ful genius. Experience tempered subsequent productions by 
the same hand ; his illustrations to " Master Humphrey's 
Clock " gained Sib.son the highest possible compliment after 
his own taste, that of being pronounced " a pictorial ' Boz."* " 

Those unconventional " first attempts," the etchings con- 
tributed for the further embellishment of " PICKWICK " when 
young Sibson was pleased to make his early appearance as an 
artist, are at a first glance liable to startle rather than please ; 



454 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

eccentric and weirdly grotesque, with an extravagance sur- 
passing rational limits, it must be urged, in favour of these 
" seeming oddities," that their overflowing vivacity may 
reconcile the exacting critic to reconsider a judgment which 
might otherwise summarily condemn them for their daring 
nnovations upon traditional canons of art, and reject them 
without deliberation. 

With all their indiscretions on their head, they have a 
weird attractiveness rare in the run of illustrative art. 

The strikingly vigorous qualities manifested in so abounding 
a measure recall the amazing superabundance of animal 
spirits which at the time characterised the youthful author 
of the " Pickwick Papers." The artist evidently overflowed 
with imagination and high spirits ; the few lines of his little 
" preface " are instinct with this inspiration no less than his 
etchings, in which the etching-point has seemingly dashed 
about at its own volition, as ideas surged into the mind of 
the etcher. Moreover, the most exacting precisian cannot 
fail to realise that the artist appreciated the overpowering 
fun and vivacity endowing the " Pickwick Papers " with their 
enduring charm, Papers fittingly described by Sibson, the 
daring illustrator, as " bursting with incident and intoxicated 
with wit." 

A few years later (1840) Sibson produced a series of 
seventy-two very spirited etchings to illustrate " Master 
Humphrey's Clock." The designer met the fate of precocious 
genius, for he died young, and little is known of his career. 
It is recorded that Thomas Sibson was born March, 1817, at 
Cross Canonby, in Cumberland, the son of a yeoman. Like the 
gifted Caldecott, he was destined for commercial life, and a 
similar coincidence commenced his apprenticeship in Man- 
chester, where he held a clerkship in his uncle's counting- 
house. 

Young Sibson preferred the unstable delights of the artistic 
profession, with its uncertainties and ambitions, and came to 
London, that stage for the youthful aspirant, at the age of 



THOMAS SIBSON 455 

twenty. In 1837 he designed and etched the juvenile opus- 
culum " Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club," 
which was issued, with apparently little encouraging success, 
on New Year's Day, 1838. At the same time he had prepared 
a second opuscidum on similar lines, " Sibson's Sketches of 
Life and Humour," which was announced on the back of the 
green wrapper enclosing the " Racy Sketches of the Pickwick 
Club," and also consisted of etched designs, no less extravagant 
in conception, and unconventional, both in drawing and 
execution ; this publication shared the fate of the companion 
effort. It is evident that the bold youth, full of talent, un- 
trammelled by preparatory " art- training," and obviously inex- 
perienced, had at the epoch set his ambition to follow in the 
footsteps of poor Seymour, " whose life-depicting hand " had 
been chilled by a premature ending, inflicted by that very 
magical hand in a moment of despondency, due to untoward 
circumstances beyond his own controlling, " the force of the 
unforeseen." Sibson also published in 1838 a pair of etchings, 
" The Anatomy of Happiness." 

After other attempts of like nature, Sibson betook himself 
to Edinburgh, where he found employment as a book 
illustrator. 

In 1842 he was enabled to settle down to serious art-study 
in Munich, r and there, under the great master KAULBACH, 
worked with such assiduous and enthusiastic application that 
his health suffered, and he was obliged to return to England. 
He proposed to winter in Italy, but died at Malta, November 
28th, 1844. 

In the Department of Prints and Drawings, British 
Museum, is an album containing numerous studies and sketches 
made by Sibson before his visit to Munich. At the artist's 
death this collection passed to his friend William Bell Scott : 
the eminent wood engraver W. J. Linton purchased this 
memorial at the sale of Mr. W. B. Scott's collection, and 
generously presented the album of Sibson's studies to the 
British Museum. 



456 PICTORIAL PICKWICKIANA 

It was recorded at the time concerning Sibson's illustrations 
to Master Humphrey's Clock " (1840) : 

" Mr. Sibson completely sustains his ascendency over all 
his rivals in this peculiar department. He must have a soul 
of mixed humour and pathos, just like < Boz 'himself, smiles 
that are ever and anon breaking out into tears, and tears that 
are perpetually falling through floods of sunshine. Mr. 
Sibson is, in the best sense, a pictorial 'Boz. 111 Atlas. 



THOMAS SIBSON'S 



KACY SKETCHES OF EXPEDITIONS 



FROM 



THE PICKWICK CLUB 



JANUARY IST, 1838 



PRICE 2*. Qd. 

SIBSON'S RACY SKETCHES OF EXPEDITIONS 
FROM THE PICKWICK CLUB. 1 



SKETCHES OF EXPEDITIONS FROM THE 
PICKWICK CLUB. 

BY 

THOMAS SIBSON. 

Published by SHERWOOD, GILBERT, & PIPER. 1838. 



NOTE BY THOMAS SIBSON. 
Addressed from 11, Buckingham Street, Portland Place, London. 

" PREFACE. 

" Originally the ' Pickwick Club'' appeared with four 
illustrations, but since Death chilled the life-depicting 
hand of poor SEYMOUR, two embellishments have disappeared, 
while eight pages of letter-press have been added. 

"These papers, thus arranged, bursting as they do with 
incident, and intoxicated as they are with wit, must have 
come before the public without illustrations for many of their 
most striking scenes. Reader, were it not so these sketches 
had never seen the light of your eyes. 

" The artist's hope is (may you find it not a vain one) that 
these humble efforts may afford some of the pleasure he 
enjoyed when imagining them. 

"T. S. 

"January 1st, 1838." 

1 On the back of the green wrapper is announced "Shortly will appear 
' Sibson's Sketches of Life and Humour.'" 



LIST OF SIBSON'S ILLUSTRATIONS 

"THE REVIEW." Chap. IV 1 

"MR. WINKLE'S ROOK SHOOTING." Chap. VII 2 

"MR. JINGLE'S CONQUEST." Chap. VIII 3 

"Miss WARDLE AND MR. JINGLE DISCOVERED AT THE 'WHITE 

HART.'" Chap. X 4 

" THE ELECTION." Chap. XIII." 5 

" SAM RESCUING MR. PICKWICK FROM THE SHARKS." Chap. XX. 6 

"SAM WELLER SALUTING HIS FATHER." Chap. XXIII 7 

"CAPTAIN FITZ-MARSHALL UNMASKED." Chap. XXV 8 

"OLD WELLER DRIVING THE DIVINE STIGGINS A-GOING TO SOFTEN 

IMPRISONED SAM." Chap. XLIV 9 

"SAM'S DECLARATION." Chap. LV 10 



or EXPEDITION S,FROM 

~ ~ 

THE 




By Thomas Sibson. 

Illustrated wrapper enclosing " Sibson's Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club. 

January 1, 1838. 



465 




By Thomas iSibson. 
" Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 

"THE REVIEW." 

Everybody stood up in the carriage, and looked over somebody else's shoulder at the 
evolutions of the military." (Chap. IV.) 

January 1, 1838. 
VOL. I H H 



467 




By Thomas Sibson. 

" Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club. 
"MR WINKLE'S ROOK SHOOTING." (Chap. VII.) 
January 1, 1838. 



H H 



469 




By Thomas Sibson. 

Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club. 

" MR. JINGLE'S CONQUEST." (Chap. VIII.) 

January 1, 1838. 



47 J. 




By Thomas Sibson. 

" Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club.' 

Miss WARDLE AND MB. JINOLE DISCOVERED AT THE ' WHITE HART.' " (Chap. X.) 
January 1, 1838. 



473 




By Thomas Sibson. 

llacy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 
"THE ELECTION." (Chap. XIII.) 
January 1, 1838. 



475 




By Thomas Sibson. 

"Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 

; SAM RESCUING MB. PICKWICK FROM THE SHARKS." (Chap. XX.) 

January 1, 1838. 



477 




By Thomas Sibson. 

Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 
"SAM WELLER SALUTING HIS FATHER." (Chap. XXIII.) 
" Wery good power o' suction, Sammy ! " 
January 1, 1838. 



479 




By Thomas Sibeon. 

Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 

"CAPTAIN FITZ-MARSHALL UNMASKED." (Chap. XXV.) 

January 1, 1838, 



481 




By Thomas Sibson. 

" Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 

'OLD WELLER DRIVING THE DIVINE STIGGINS A-GOING TO SOFTEN IMPRISONED SAM. 

" He wos a flyin' out o' the harm-cheer all the vay." (Chap. XLJV.) 

January 1, 1838. 



VOL. I 



I I 



483 




By Thomas Sibson. 
" Racy Sketches of Expeditions from the Pickwick Club." 

" SAM'S DECLARATION." 
" The elder Weller waved his hat above his head and gave three vehement cheers. 

(Chap. LV.) 
January 1, 1838. 



I I 



APPENDICES 



APPENDICES. 
ROBERT SEYMOUR'S COLLABORATION 

WITH 

CHARLES DICKENS 

ANTERIOR TO " THE PICKWICK PAPERS." 
ILLUSTRATIONS 

TO 

44 THE TUGGS'S AT RAMSGATE," 

" SKETCHES BY ' Boz." 1 " 
(From' 11 The Library of Fiction.") 



R. W. BUSS'S APPEARANCE 

AS 

A DICKENS ILLUSTRATOR. 

"SPRING AND SWEEPS THE FIRST OF MAY 

" SKETCHES BY ' BOZ/ " 
(From " The Library of Fiction.") 



489 




Robert Seymour. 
No. 1 of "The Library of Fiction " (" Sketches by ' Boz.' "). 

"THE TUGGS'S AT RAMSGATE." 

' Captain and Mrs. Waters greeting the Tuggs's family on Ramsgate sands. 
1836. 



491 




Robert Seymour. 
From " The Library of Fiction " (" Sketches by ' Boz ' "). 

"THE TUOGS'S AT RAMSQATE." 

Mr. Cynion Tuggs discovered, concealed behind the curtains, at the Waters's lodgings 

the vengeance of Captain Walter Waters and Lieutenant Slaughter." 

1836. 



493 




Robert William Buss. 
" SPRING AND SWEEPS." 

From " The Library of Fiction " (" Sketches by ' Boz.' ") 
Engraved on wood by J. Jackson. 

" THE FIRST OF MAY." 

" Little Montague, kidnapped in infancy, discovered by his mother asleep on the bed 
in which he had slept as a child. Weary, after, as a sweeper-boy, climbing the chimney, 
which happened to be that of his mother's bedroom, little Montague lay down upon the 
bed, unconscious it was the same in which he had slept as an infant, and was recog- 
nised by his mother ; ' who, once every year of her life, thereafter requested the pleasure 
of the company of every London sweep, at half-past one o'clock, to roast beef, plum 
pudding, porter, and sixpence.' " 1836. 



RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 
LONDON AND BUNGAY. 



c 



PR Grego, Joseph (ed.) 

^577 Pictorial Pickwickiana 

G7 

v.l 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



HDI