Skip to main content

Full text of "The pictorial story of America : containing the romantic incidents of history, from the discovery of America to the present time"

See other formats


Tne PlGioriai Siom oi flmerica 














Enlered according In Act nf Congr. ss. in llie year 1895. 


In the office of the Librarian of Congress, al Washington. D. C. 




HE desire throughout, in the writing of this 

history, has been to record the heroic adventures 

and celebrate the picturesque incidents that make 

our iiistory romantic and memorable. Such 

incidents as awaken patriotism and enthusiasm 

are those which are most worthy of preservation, 

and the influences they have upon the imaginative and 

generous minds of the young are incalculable. If some 

of the duller pages of the congressional debate and 

ineffectual law making have been neglected for these 

more brilliant chapters, it is not the young who will 

reproach us. 

For the minds of the young select with unerring 
instinct those things which are of actual importance. 
They read with passionate tears of the martyrdom of the 
devoted; they are fired with heroism and lofty pride at the accomplish- 
ments of the heroic, and they condemn with bitter contempt the 
intrigues of the mean, and the cowardice of the time-serving. To 
arouse the noble impulse, and keep alive the love for patriotism, 
fidelity, braver}-, and true holiness, has been the aim of the book. 

It contains little that is new; but it has been sifted from the best 
histories, and the latest ones. It is, however, the first book to record 
tlie events of the last ten years, and these events it has tried to deal 
with impartially, unblinded by the conflict of parties, sects^ or factions. 
If injustice has been done in any way, it l;as been unwitting. If it 
conveys, in understandable language, the mosr memorable occasions of 
our national history, condemning and praising where condemnation and 
praise are due, then it has accomplished all that it aimed to for its 
young readers. 





I. Mastodons and Mvstery. 

Earliest Inhabitants — Mound-Builders — American Indians. 

II. The Legendary Century. 

Tile first Discoverers of America — Myths, Legends and 
Traditions — Journey of the Norsemen. 

III. The Dreamer of Genoa. 

Columbus and His Voyages — Amerigo Vespucci — The 

IV. Across the Dark Water. 

Ponce De Leon — The Fountain of Youth — The Discovery 
of the South Sea by Balboa — De Soto — His Death. 

V. The Lilies of France. 

France: Her Explorers and Settlements — The Fight Be- 
tween French and Spanish Colonies. 

VI. A Lodge in the Wilderness. 

The English — Their Search for the Northwest Passage — 
Frobisher's Explorations — Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Set- 
tlement — The Colony of Sir Walter Raleigh — Gosnold's 

VII. Founding the Old Dominion. 

The London and Plymouth Companies — The Virginian 
Settlement — Captain John Smith and His Wonderful Ad- 
ventures — Pocahontas — The New Charter — The Wreck of 
the "Sea Adventure." 

VIII. Through Death to Victory. 

From the Bermudas to Virginia — The Starving Times — 
The Arrival of Lord De la Warre — Help from England — 
The Beginning of Slavery — The First Blow at Intem- 

IX. Norumbega, the Beautiful. 

The Settlement of Maine — The Voyage of the English — 
Chamolain and Vermont — The Settlement of Mt. Desert. 

Table of Contents. 


X. Conquest of the Wilderness. 

Nova Scotia and the English Despoh'ation — The Settlement 
of New Hampshire — The Mode of Northern Colonial 
XI. The Dutchmen of New Netherland. 

The Settlement of New York— The Dutch: Their Explora- 
tions and Settlements — Their Dealings with the In- 
dians — Their Success. 
XII. The Mayflower. 

The Puritans — Their Trials and Wanderings — The Landing 
at Plymouth Rock — The First Winter. 

XIII. The Daily Round. 

The Next Three Years — The Order, Civil, Martial and Re- 
ligious, which they Maintained — The Manner of their 
Daily Living, etc. 

XIV. The Reward of Treachery. 

The Massacre at Jamestown — Lord Baltimore and the Set- 
tlement of Maryland — The Liberal Laws of the Baltimore 

XV. The Peace-Keepers. 

Prosperity of the Maryland Settlement — Conspiracies Against 
Them — The Triumph of Virginia Over Them, and the 
Persecution of the Catholics — Calvert's Success and the 
Return of the Jesuits. 
XVI. A Brief Authority. 

New Jersey — The Settlement Under Peter Minuet — Oppo- 
sition of the Dutch — The Triumphs of the Dutch Under 
Peter Stuyvesant — End of Swedish Independence in 
XVn. Old Wine in New Bottles. 

The "Patroons" of New Netherland — The Settlement at 
Manhattan — The IManners and Customs of the Dutch — 
Establishment of Popular Land Laws. 

XVIII. Knickerbocker Days. 

The Government of William the Testy — Trouble with the 
Indians — The Night Attack on Pavonia — Revenge oi' the 
Indians — Dismissal of Kieft and Arrival of Peter Stuy- 

Table of Contents, 










The Old Bay Settlement. 

The Massachusetts Bay Company — The Trials of the First 
Year — Arrival of Roger Williams — John Eliot — Perse- 
cution of Williams — His Settlement at Providence. 
The Ravages of Civilization. 

The American Indian — The Destruction of the Block 
Island Indians — The Extinction of the Pequot Tribe-— 
The Federation of the English Colonies. 
The Pride of the Righteous. 

The Religious Law of Boston — Gorton and His Beliefs — 
The Settlement at Shewanet — Persecution of the Gor- 
tonites — Persecution of the Baptists — The Obtaining of 
a Roj'al Charter for Rhode Island and the Providence 
Through Pain to Peace. 

The Quakers — Their Persecution — George Fox and His 
Friends — M'ary Fisher and Ann Austin — The Quaker 
The Royalist Colony of Virginia. 

Governor Berkeley and His Reign — More Trouble with 
the Indians — The Puritans Ap-ain Victorious — The Re- 
turn of the Stuarts to Power. 
"Hey, for St. Mary's!" 
The Colony of Virginia — The Indians — The Uprising of 
Bacon and His Friends — Restriction of the Governor's 
Rights — Return of Berkeley — Desertion of Jamestown~~ 
Death of Bacon — Breaking up of Bacon's Party. 
Each for Himself. 

The Carolinas — The Proprietors and Their "Grand 
Model" — The Albemarle Settlement — The Removal of 
Charleston — The Spanish Buccaneers — Seth Sothell — 
Quaker Rule. 
Man's Inhumanity to Man. 

Attack of Indians on New Netherland — Destruction of 
Pavonia — Persecution of Lutherans and Quakers at 
New Amsterdam— Slavery Among the Dutch — English 
Encroachments — Surrender of New Netherland — Settle- 
of New Jersey. 

Table of Contents. 









Our Country, Right or Wrong. 

Political Policy of Massachusetts — Efforts of England to 
Recover the Charter — Edward Randolph — Coin of the 
Colony — Sir Edmund Andros — ^The Episode of the 
Connecticut Charter — Arrest of Andros and Election 
of Phips — Death of Phips. 

Days of Dread. 

King Philip's War— Fight at Brookfield— Fight at Had- 
ley — Fight at Deerfield. 

A Passing Madness. 

How the Witchcraft Hallucination Started — Samuel Par- 
ris and His Witch-craft Library- — The Trial and Death 
of Giles Corey and Other Victims of this Hallucination. 

A Gentleman. 

William Penn — The Settlement of Pennsylvania — Re- 
markable Growth of the Colony — Change of Govern- 
ment — Restoration of Penn — His Death — The Slavery 
Question — Benjamin Franklin. 

The Dutchm.\n's Fireside. 

The Rule of Lovelace at New York — The Dutch Retake 
the City — It Again Reverts to the English by Patent- 
Governor Andros and His Unpopular Rule — Leisler 
Assumes Control — Trouble with New France. 

Frontenac the Fighter. 

Frontenac's Attack Upon New York — The Massacre at 
Schenectady — New York is Fortified by Leisler — 
Sloughter is Sent to Supersede Him — Leisler's Defense 
Gets Him Into Trouble — The Governor's Dastardly 
Taking Off. 

The Pest of the Pirates. 

The Rule of Governor Fletcher — Fletcher Succeeded by 
the Earl of Bellomont — The Commission of Captain 
Kidd, and How it was Carried Out — Lord Cornbury 
Becomes Governor — The Expeditions Against Port 
Roval and Onebec. 

Table of Contents. 


XXXIV. The Holy Voyageurs. 

The French and the Discoveries in the Northwest — 
Fathers Joliet and Marquette Discover the Source of 
the Mississippi and Sail Down the River — Death of 
Marquette — The Expedition of La Salle and Henne- 
pin — Louisiana Discovered and Named. 

XXXV. The Chevalier La Salle. 

La Salle Lands on the Shore of Texas — He is Mur- 
dered — The Hut in the Wilderness — The Expedition 
of d' Iberville — The Settlement of New Orleans, and 
the Mississippi — Scheme of John Law — The Massacre 
of Chopart — Bienville's Ill-fated Expedition Against 
the Chickasaws. 

XXXVI. The Land of Gold. 

California — Spanish Explorers — The Journey of Sir 
Francis Drake — The Coast Indians — Expedition of 
Espejo — Overthrow of the Jesuits — Onate and His 
Labors — The Missions at the South — The Decline of 
Spain and Her Colonies. 

XXXVII. The Carolinas. 

Sir Nathaniel Johnson in Carolina — Strategy at Fort 
Johnson — Religious Differences — Massacre of 17 ii — 
Uprising in South Carolina — The Yemassees — The 
Buccaneers — Rebellion Against the Proprietors. 

XXXVIII. From Alleys and By-ways. 

How Georgia Came to be Settled — The Emigrants — The 
Wesleys and Whitefield — The March of the Slaves — 
The Spanish Attack — Georgia as a Royal Province. 

XXXIX. The Cavaliers of Virginia. 

Culpepper in Virginia — Governor Effingham — Nicholson 
and Andros — The Growth of Industries — Mar>'land — 
The Clergymen of Virginia. 

XL. A Reign of Terror. 

The First Trial for Libel in America — The Negro Plot 
in 1 741 — The Burning of Quack and the Hanging of 
Ury — The Mingling of Dutch and English in New 
York — The Government of Lieutenant-Governor 

Table of Contents. 

XLI. The Clash op Arms and Ideas. 

Ivord Bellomont's Rule Over New York, New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts — Dudley's Rule — The French and 
English War of 1702 — Taking of Port Royal — The 
Lumberers' Difficulties in Maine and New Hampshire. 

XLII. "Americans Are Born Rebels." 

Expedition of Maine and New Hampshire Against the 
Norridgewocks — The Command of Captain John Lov- 
ell — William Drummer in Massachusetts — Whitefield's 
Revival and Shirley's Administration — Louisburg — 
The Surrender. 

XIvIII. "They Nurse Treason With Their j\Iilk." 

The Growing Spirit of Independence— The First Expe- 
dition Against Fort Du Ouesne — I'he Colonists for 
Aggression and Offense — Braddock's Ill-fated Expedi- 
tion — George W'ashington's First Appearance — Brad- 
dock's Defeat and Death. 

XEIV. Desolated Acadia. 

French and English Settlements in Nova Scotia — The 
Rivalry Between the Settlements — Colonel W^inslow 
Drives Out the Acadians — The Pathetic Exodus — Per- 
secution of the Exiles. 

XlyV. The Lion or the Lilies. 

Operations Against the French in the North — The Battle 
at Bloody Pond — The French Take Forts Oswego and 
William Henry — The English Retake Louisburg — The 
Battle of Carillon — The English Retake Oswego and 
Capture Frontenac and Du Quesne. 

XLVI. The Paths of Glory. 

The Expedition Against Quebec — The Night Attack and 
the Fight on the Plains of Abraham — The Death of 
Montcalm and Wolfe — New Orleans and the IMississippi 
Valley Given to Spain. 

XLVIL A Blow for Liberty. 

Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas — Arrival of Rogers' Men 
at Detroit — Pontiac's Conspiracy — Beginning of War- 
The Siege of Detroit — The Battle of Bloody Bridge 

Tabic of Coiilcitis. 13 


XLVIII. Cesar Had His Brutus. 

The Stamp Act — Condition of the Colonies — The Oppo- 
sition to Taxation — Repeal of the Stamp Act — Refusal 
of the Assembly to Provide for the Troops Sent 0\-er 
by England. 

XLIX. The Boston Tea-Drixkers. 

Trouble in Boston — "The Boston Massacre" — The Tea 
Tax — Attitude of Governor Hutchinson — The Boston 
"Tea Party"— The Boston Port Bill. 
L. The Blood of P.atriots. 

The First Blood of the Revolution— The IMen of Bille- 
rica — Fight at Concord and Lexington — The Siege of 
Boston— The Battle of Bunker Hill. 
LI. Liberty or Death. 

Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys — Surrender 
of Ticonderoga — Washington Chosen Commander-in- 
Chief — The Lack of Powder — Recall of General Gage — 
Small Naval Conquests. 
LH. The Plains of 

The Designs for the American Conquest of Canada — 
Montgomery's Move Against Montreal — Arnold's Fail- 
ure at Quebec — The Union of the Forces — The Second 
Defeat at Montreal — The Americans Fall Back Upon 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 
Lni. The Palmetto Logs. 

The Feeling in England — The Hiring of the Hessians — 
Attitude of New York — The Conflict with the South- 
ern Colonies — The Defense of Fort IMoultrie. 
LIV. The Sons of Liberty. 

The Growth of a Desire for Independence — The Declara- 
tion of Independence — The Forming of State Consti- 
LV. The Coxtixextals. 

Washington at New York — x\rrival of Thirty-two Thou- 
sand British Troops — Overtures for Peace by the 
British— Battle of Long Island— The Battle of Harlem 
Heights— Destruction of New York — Battle of White 


Table of Contents. 










Battle Field and Bivouac. 

The Jersey Campaign — The Battle of Trenton — The Battle 
of Princeton — Winter Encampment of Washington at 
The Year of the Three Gallows. 

State of the American Army — The Pennsylvania Cam- 
paign — The Battle of Brandywine — The "Paoli Massa- 
cre" — The British at Philadelphia — The Battle at Get- 
mantown — Washington Winters at Valley Forge. 

Tattered Conquerors. 

Washington's Camp at Valley Forge — Neglect of Congress — 
The Conway Cabal — General Stenben — Burgoyne in the 
North — The Siege of Ticonderoga — The Battle of Oris- 
"Elbow Room." 
The Raid on Bennington — General Gates Given Command 
at the North — The Battle of Freeman's Farm — Battle of 
Bemus Heights — Surrender of Burgoyne. 

Sabre and Musket. 

Evacuation of Philadelphia by the British — The Battle of 
Monmouth Court House — Firing of Bedford and Fair- 
haven — The Wyoming Massacre — Warfare in the West. 

The "Bon Homme Richard." 

British Reduction of Georgia — The Destruction of New 
Haven — The Americans Capture Stony Point — The Great 
Naval Engagement of John Paul Jones. 

The Six Nations. 

Expedition Against the Six Nations — The Civilization of 
the Indians — Humiliation of the Six Nations — Expedi- 
tion up the Mississippi from Louisiana — Triumph of 
Clinton in the South. 

"Whom Can We Trust Now?" 
Plans of the Two Armies — Siege of Charleston by the 
English — Capture of the American Army at the South — 
The Burning of Connecticut Farms — Arrival of Rocham- 
beau — Treason of General Arnold. 












Table of Contents. i.S 

"I Have Sent You a General." 
Cornwallis and Gates at the South — The Command of the 
Southern Force Given to General Green — The Battle 
of King's Mountain — Battle of Guilford Court House. 
The United States of America. 

Arnold's Expedition — Battle Between Cornwallis and 
Lafayette — The Siege of Yorktown and Surrender of 
Cornwallis — The Sacking of New London b}- Arnold. 

The Plowshare Versus the Sword. 

Condition of the Country at the Close of the Revolution — 
John Adams Made Minister to England — The Disband- 
ing of the Army — The Call for Delegates to Construct 
a Constitution. 
"First in War, First in Peace." 
The Forming of the Constitution — Washington Elected 
Starting the Wheels of Progress. 

Hamilton's Policy as the First Secretary of State — In- 
crease of American Commerce — The Question of 
Slavery — Frontier Troubles at the West. 
The Courtly Times of Washington. 

Death of Franklin — The Humor of Washington's Time — 
The Policy of Hamilton — The Pennsylvania Whisky 
A Democracy. 

The Political Parties of the Young Nation — The Jay 
Treaty — Election of John Adams to the Presidency — 
Alien and Sedition Laws — Trouble with France. 

A Modern Lucifer. 

The Fries Insurrection — Selection of the National Capi- 
tal — Death of Wa.shington — Louisiana — Aaron Burr. 
Decatur'^ Tribune. 

The Piracy of the Barbary States — War with Tripoli — 
Exploits of our Naval Heroes — Triumph of America. 
"Jeffersonian Simplicity." 
Exploration of the Northwest — Introduction of the Steam- 
boat — Passage of a Law Forbidding the African Slave 
Trade — The Jeffersonian Policy — Maritime Troubles. 


Table of Contents. 










War Again. 

Administration of James Madison — The Southern War 
Party — Declaration of War and Popular Protest — The 
Troubles on the Western Frontier — The Chicago Mas- 
sacre — Surrender of Hull. 
"Never Give Up the Ship.' 

War of 1 812 — The Niagara Campaign — The Battle ot 
Oueenstown — Naval Operations — The Six Triumphs 
of the Americans — Affairs in the West — The Conflict 
on the Lakes — Perry's Victory. 

"Blue Lights." 
The War with the Creeks — Jackson's Campaign — Affairs 
on the Sea-board — "Yankee Strategy" — The Treaty 
of Peace. 
A Country Without a Capital. 
Jackson's Campaign Among the Creeks — Discourage- 
ments on the Northern Frontier — The Battle of 
Lundy's Lane — The War on the Sea-coast for 1814 — 
The Capture and Destruction of the City of Washing- 
ton — Vicissitudes at the South — The Battle of New 
A Transient Amiability. 

The Era of Good Feeling — War with Algiers — Finan- 
cial Condition of the Country — The First Seminole 
War — The Missouri Compromise. 
The Second Adams. 

Monroe's Administration — Election to the Presidency of 
John Quincy Adams — The Assertion of State Su- 
premacy in Georgia — Tariff Disputes — Andrew Jack- 
son Elected President — The Financial Crisis of 1837. 
Fiction and Truth. 

The Literary History' of the Last Fifty Years — The 
A House Divided Against Itself. 

Second Seminole War — Election of Van Buren — Finan- 
cial Depression — Election of William Henry Har- 
rison — The Dorr Rebellion — The Mormons — Annex- 
ation of Texas. 

Table of Contents. 










The Sad Plain of Monterey. 

The Administration of Polk, and the War with 
Mexico — Various Severe Battles — Conquest of Cali- 
fornia and New Mexico — Occupation of the City of 
Mexico — Treaty of Peace — Birth of the Free Soil 
Party and Election of Taylor. 
Gold and Iron Chains. 

Death of Taylor, and Administration of Millard Fill- 
more — Discovery of Gold in California — Slavery 
Agitation — The Trouble in Kansas. 
The Truth Goes Marching On. 

Sacking of Lawrence— John Brown and the Destruction 
of Ossawottomie — Election of Buchanan — Assault 
on Sumner — The Mormons — Election of Lincoln. 

"We Are Coming, Father Abraham." 

Secession — The Southern Confederacy — Attack on 
Fort Sumpter— The First Call for Troops — The 
Three Years' Enlistment — The Battle of Bull Run. 

The Union Forever. 

Attitude of Foreign Powers — Bombardment of Forts at 

Hatteras Inlet — Conquest of Charleston Harbor — 

The Campaign West of the Alleghanies — Grant at 

Forts Henry and Donelson — The War in Missouri. 

With Shot and Shell. 

The Capture of New Orleans — Fight Between the 
"Monitor" and the "Merrimac." 
Shiloh and its Sequel. 

The Campaign at Island No. lo — The Battle of 
Shiloh— Siege of Corinth— The Conflict at the East 
Under McClellan— Siege of Yorktown— The Battle 
of Williamsburg — The Battle of Seven Pines — 
Battle of Chickahominy — Battle of Malvern Hill. 
Close of the Peninsula Campaign. 

The Army of Virginia Under the Command of Pope — 
General Halleck Made General-in-Chief— Battle of 
Cedar Mountain — McClellan Leaves the Peninsula — 
Battle of Groveton — Loss of Generals Stevens and 


Table of Contenis 


XC. The Bloody Field of Antietaji. 

Lee's Array Moves Northward — The Battle of South 
Mountain — The Battle of Antietam. 

XCI. "All Us Niggahs is Free!" 

Burnside Made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the 
Potomac — The Battle of Fredericksburg — The Eman- 
cipation Proclamation — Battles of Perryville, luka 
Corinth, Murfreesboro and Chancellorsville. 

XCaI. The Deadly Parallels. 

The Battle of Gettysburg and the Siege of Vicksburg. 

XCIII. The Martyrs. 

Why the War Did Not End After Gettysburg— The New 
York Riots — Atrocities in the South — Southern Prison 

XCrV. The Swamp Angel. 

The Siege of Charleston — Dupont's Defeat — Gilmore's 
Siege — The "Swamp Angel" — Morgan's Raids. 

XCV. "The River of the Dead." 

Campaign at the West Between Generals Rosecrans and 
Bragg — Battle of Chickamauga — Battle of Chatta- 
nooga — The Sanitary and Christian Commissioners. 

XCVI. "Forward by the Left Flank." 

Grant Given Absolute Command — The Battle of the 
Wilderness — "Forward by the Left Flank" — Second 
Battle of Cold Harbor. 

XCVIL The Confederate Cruisers. 

The Confederate Privateers — Fight Between the "Kear- 
sarge" and "Alabama" — The International Court of 
Arbitration — Sherman and the Western Campaign. 

XCVIII. "After You, Pilot!" 

Sherman's March to Atlanta — The Bombardment of Mo- 
bile — Destruction of the "Albemarle." 

XCIX. From Atlanta to the Sea. 

The March from Atlanta to the Sea — The Entrance to 
Savannah — The Siege of Richmond — Burnside's Blun- 
der — The Burning of Chambersburgr. 

Tabic of Contents. ^9 


C. Whirling Through Winchester. 

Sheridan and the Shenandoah Campaign — Sherman's March 
Northward from Savannah — The Burning of Cohnnbia. 

CI. "Oh, Captain! IMy Captain I" 

Closing of the Virginia Campaign — The Evacuation of 
Richmond — Surrender of Lee at Appomattox Court 
House — Assassination of President Lincoln, 

CII. "Ye Cannot Serve Two Masters." 

Administration of Andrew Johnson — Capture of Jefferson 
Davis — Reconstruction — Impeachment of President John- 
son — Purchase of Alaska — Returning Prosperity to the 

CIII. A Hundred Years of Liberty. 

Administration of Grant — The Ku-Klux Klan— The Chi- 
cago Fire — The Custer Massacre — The Panic of 1873 — 
The Centennial Exposition — Administration of President 
Hayes — Railroad Riots of 1877. 

CIV. The Old Haymarket. 

Election and Death of President James A. Garfield — Ad- 
ministration of Arthur — The Anarchists of Chicago. 

CV. Civil-Service Reform. 

President Cleveland's Administration — Civil-Service Reform 
and Pension P>ills — ]\Iany Noted Union Generals I'ass 
Away — Death of General Grant — Prominent Events of 
Four Years of Democratic Power. 

CVI. President Harrison's Inaugur.\tion. 

The Members of the Cabinet and the Foreign Ministers — 
The Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of Wash- 
ington's Inauguration — The C)pening of Oklahoma Ter- 
ritory — The Samoan Disaster. 

CVIL The Great Calamity. 

Bursting of a Reservoir in the Conemaugli Valley,~^Penn- 
sylvauia — Appalling Rush of Water Down the Valley — 
Destruction of Johnstown — Thousands of Lives Lost and 
Millions of Dollars' Worth of Property Destroyed. 

20 Tabic of Contents. 


CVIII, Through One Administration. 

The Four Years of President Harrison's Term — Complications 
with Italy and Great Britain — Reciprocity and the Pan- 
American Congress — Second Election of Cleveland. 

CIX. The Passing of a Great Man. 

The Death of James Gillespie Blaine — Election to Congress 
— Candidate for the Presidency — Reciprocity and the Pan- 
American Congress — The Grief of the Nation. 

ex. A Mid-Pacific Revolution. 

How the Inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands Threw Off the 
Burdensome Yoke of Monarchy — The Elmbassy to the 
United States — Seeking Annexation to Uncle Sam's Family 
of Commonwealths. 

CXI. The Crowning Glory of the Century. 

The World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago — Our Coun- 
try's History 400 Years Old — The Magnificent Site and 
Buildings — Objects of Interest. 

CXll. President or Governor? 

Administration of President Cleveland — The New Tariff — 
The Income Tax — The Coal Strike — The Coxey Movement 
— The Pullman Boycott — The Silver Question. 

CXI II. Of the Making of Good Books, Etc. 
The Literature of the Last Thirty Years. 

CXIV. The Supreme Court of the United States. 

Its Organization and Duties — The Lives of the Chief Jus- 

CXY. The United States Navy. 

Its Old Ascendancy — The Invention of the Monitor — The 
Deterioration of the Navy, After the Civil War — Appoint- 
ment of the Advisory Board — The New Navy — Improve- 
ments in Naval Artillery — Organization of the Navy De- 
I partment — Sketch of John Ericsson — Uses of the Navy. 


George Washington, - - - (Frontispiece.) PAGE. 

Columbus Frightens the Indians, etc., _ _ _ ^o 

Viking Boat, Found in Denmark, - - - - 34 

Columbus and His Son Begging, - - - - 35 

Columbus — The Yanez Portrait, - - - ~ 39 

Amerigo \ espucci, _____ ^q 

Sebastian Cabot at Labrador, ----- 44 

A Spanish Soldier, ______ ^O 

Burial of De Soto, - - - - - ~ 51 

Spanish Armor, - - - - - - 51 

Wolpi, --------52 

John Adams, ------ ^ ^g 

Thomas Jefferson, ------ 87 

A Puritan Type, - - - - - - g2' 

Miles Standish Filling Rattlesnake Skin with Bullets, - - 98 

James Madison, ______ 125 

James Monroe, _____ ^ 1^-7 

Charles I., ______ jj2 

John Quincy Adams, - - - - ~ '55 

Charles II. of England, _____ j^g 

Andrew Jackson, - - - - - - 172 

Benjamin Franklin, _____ jgg 

William Penn's Residence, _____ 205 

Martin Van Buren, ______ 217 

William Henry Harrison, _____ 240 

A Cavalier of Virginia, - - - - - 252 

A Moravian Settlement, - - - - - - 256 

Frozen In, ------ - 2615 

John Tyler, -____._. 272 

George Washington in His Youth, - - - - . ; 273 

Quebec, - - - - - ~ - ■. 287 

James Knox Polk, - - - - - - > 295 

Patrick Henry, - - - - - _ ,■ 299 

Building Where the Tea Plot was Hatched, - - 307 

Bunker Hill Monument, - - - _ j. 1 ^15 

A Spouting Geyser, - - - - - - 317 

Washington Taking Command of the Continental Army, - 319 

Zachary Taylor, ______ ^21; 

Signing the Declaration of Independence, _ _ _ ^38 

Old Liberty Bell, - - - _ . _ _ ^^^ 

House in which the Declaration of Independence was Signed, . 345 

Independence Hall, - - - - - 348 

Washington Crossing the Delaware, - - .. _ 254 

22 Illustrations. 



VVasliingtoii on the Hudson, - - - - 35^ 

Marqui.s Marie Joseph Paul de Lafayette, _ _ _ 362 

Haiou Von Steuben, _____ 366 

The Assault on Stonv Point, - - - , - - 382 

Millard Fillmore, '-__--- 387 

Escaj^e of Benedict Arnold, _____ 398 

Washington's Treasure Chest, _ _ _ _ 422 

P'ranklin's Grave, ______ 427 

P'ranklin Pierce, ______ 430 

Washington's Grave, ______ 437 

Duel lictwceii Burr and Hamilton, _ _ _ 43g 

The White House, Washuigton, _ _ _ _ 44- 

Brock's Monuments, _____ 457 

Indian Burial in Tree-tops, _____ 469 

The Fort at Pensacola, _____ 472 

Fall of Table Rock, ______ 482 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, _ _ _ _ 494 

Attack upon Fort King, - - ' - - - 503 

Border of Great Salt Lake, _ _ _ - - 506 

Oldest House in the United States, - - - 5I3 

Catching Wild Horses in Te.xas, - - - - 5'^ 

James Buchanan, - - - - - "5 '9 

Salt Lake City and Mormon Temple, _ _ _ 525 

Abraham l^incoln, ______ 527 

Capture of John Brown in the Engine House, - - 53' 

Jeffersqi^' Davis in 1861, - - - - - 535 

The Csiflcderatc Flag, _____ 538 

Stonewall |ackson, _____ 540 

Birfhplaceof General Grant, _ _ _ _ 545 

Federal iron-clad River Gunboat, _ _ _ _ 54- 

Admiral Farragut and His X'ictorious Squadron, - - 55^ 

Admiral David Farragut, _____ 552 

General Benjamin F. Butler, - _ _ - - 553 

The '■ Merrimac " Sinking the " Cumberland," - - 55*^ 

General Robert E. Lee, - - - - - 5^3 

A Railroad Battery, ----- 56S 

United States Military Telegraph Wagon, - - 582 

General Pickett's Charge Against the Union Forces at Gettysburg, 589 

Gunboats Passing Before Vicksburg, - - - 591 

View of a Cotton Chute, _____ 592 

Horace Greeley, ______ 596 

The Tombs Prison, New York City, _ _ _ _ 598 

Flight of Negroes from Fort Pillow, - - - 601 
Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the United Fleet Under Admiral 

Dupont _______ 603 

Picking Cotton, ______ 622 

General W. T. Sherman, ______ 625 

Lieutenant Cushing's Attack on the "Albemarle," - - 628 

Illustrations. 23 



Sheridan's Famous Ride from Winchester to Cedar Creek, - 63; 

Sheridan's Attack upon Lee's Army at Appomattox Court House, 643 

Jefferson Davis in 1S88, _____ g^r 

Andrew Johnson, ______ 5^5 

View of Salt Lake City, _____ 5^0 

General Ulysses S. Grant, _____ 5^^ 

Massacre of General Custer and Command on the Little Big Horn 

River, _______ (3;g 

Denver, Twenty Years Ago, _____ 5^^ 

The Maid of the Mist Going Through Whirlpool Rapids, - 661 

Rutherford B. Hayes, _____ 56^ 

James A. Garfield, ______ 55- 

Chester A. Arthur, _____ 669 

The Haymarket Riot, - - - - - - 671 

Grover Cleveland, ______ 675 

The Johnstown Disaster, _____ -tq- 

Bird's-eye View of the United States, - - - 712 

James G. Blaine, ______ 7^5 

Benjamin Harrison, - - _ _ _ jgg 

Battle Ships — Ancient and Modern, - _ _ _ 789 



Oh! a wonderful stream is the river Time, 
As it runs through the realm of tears, 
With a faultless rhythm and a musical rhyme 
And a broader sweep and a surge sublime, 
As it blends in the ocean of years! 

How the winters are drifting, like flakes of snow. 

And the summers, like birds, between, 
And the years in the sheaf, how they come and go 
On the river's breast, with its ebb and its flow, 
As it glides in the shadow and sheen! 

There's a magical isle up the river Time, 
Where the softest of winds are playing; 

There's a cloudless sky and a tropical clime, 

And a song as sweet as a vesper chime. 

And the Junes with the roses are straying. 

And the name of this isle is the "Long Ago,'* 

And we bury our treasures there; 
There are brows of beauty, and bosoms of snow, 
Ihere are heaps of dust— oh! we loved them so— 

There are trinkets and tresses of hair. 

There are fragments of songs that nobody sings, 

There are parts of an infant's prayer; 
There's a lute unswept, and a harp without strings. 
There are broken vows and pieces of rings. 
And the dresses that sAg used to wear! 

There are hands that are waved when the fairy shore 

By the fitful mirage is lifted in air, 
And we sometimes hear, through the turbulent roar. 
Sweet voices we heard in the days gone before. 

When the wind down the river was fair. 

Oh! remembered for aye be that blessed isle, 

All the day of our life until night; 
And when evening glows with its beautiful smile. 
And our eyes are closing in slumbers awhile, 

May the Greenwood of soul be in sight. 



Term of Office. 

1 George Washington, - - Virginia, 

Two terms, 1789-97. 

2 John Adams, 

One term, 1797— 1801. 

3 Thomas Jefferson, - - Virginia. 

Two terms, 1801-09. 

4 James Madison, - - - Virginia. 

Two terms, 1809-17. 

5 James Monroe, - - . Virginia. 

Two terms, 1817-25. 

6 John Q. Adams, - 

One term, 1825-29. 

7 Andrew Jackson, - - - Tennessee. 

Two terras, 1829-37. 

8 Martin Van Buren, - - New York. - 

One term, 1837-41. 

9 William H. Harrison, - Ohio. - - - 

One month, 1841. 

10 John Tyler, - - . - Virginia. 

Three years and 11 months, 1841-45. 

11 James K. Polk, - - - Tennessee. 

One term, 1845-49. 

12 Zachary Taylor, ... Louisiana. - 

One year and 4 months, 1849-50. 

13 Millard Fillmore, - - New York. 

Two years and 8 months, 1850-53. 

14 Franklin Pierce, - - - New Hampshire. 

One term, 1853-57. 

15 James Buchanan, - - Pennsylvania. 

One term, 1857-61. 


- John Adams. 
Massachusetts. Thomas Jefferson. 

Aaron Burr. 
George Clinton. 
George Clinton. 
El bridge Gerr}-. 
Daniel D. Tompkins, 

Massachusetts. John C. Calhoun. 

John C. Calhoun. 
Martin Van Buren. 
Richard M. Johnson. 

John Tyler. 

George M. Dallas. 
Millard Fillmore. 

William R. King. 
J. C. Breckinridge. 



"erm of Office. 

l6 Abraham Lincoln, - - Illinois. 

One term and i month. 
i7 Andrew Johnson, - - Tennessee. 

Three j'ears and 1 1 months. 

1 8 Ulysses S. Grant, - - Illinois. - 

Two terms, 1869-77. 

19 Rutherford B. Haj'es, - Ohio. - 

One term, 1877-81. 

20 James A. Garfield, - - Ohio. 

Six and a half months, 1881. 

21 Chester A. Arthur, - - New York. 

Three years, 5 and a half months, 188 

22 Grover Cleveland, - - New York. 

One term, 1885-89. 

23 Benjamin Harrison, - - Indiana. • 


24 Grover Cleveland, - New York. 



Hannibal Hamlin. 
Andrew Johnson. 

Schuyler Colfax. 
Henry Wilson. 
William A. Wheeler. 

Chester A. Arthur. 

Thos. A. Hendricks. 
Levi P. Morton. 
Adlai E. Stevenson. 


1$ nnh. ii^siar^. 


iHE plans of God are ver>- wide. No 
nation may have the right to say, "We 
>«'*"***■' — ^Sb'* -^.<*^,)P^ JWl' ^^^ the people, and wisdom shall die 
with us." Traces are left of so many great and perished nations, that 
we are constantly reminded that a thousand years is but as a day in His 
sight, and that the work and progress we are so proud of may disappear 
and leave but little hint of us by which the coming race may guess 
what we were like. 

In the skeletons of the huge animals called the Mastodons and 
Mammotns, which once roved this country, and which have ceased to 
exist for so many thousand years, there are found flint arrow-heads, 
which must have been made by men who lived in that time, and by 
which these wild and terrible creatures were slain. Besides the many 
animals which belonged entirely to that age, and which there is nothing 
like now, there were many then upon this continent which we read of 
now only in foreign countries. The monkey was here in what we call 
United States, and the camel and rhinoceros. What the character was 
of the people who lived at that time it is impossible to guess. 

The first race which has left any distinct traces of itself was the 
Mound-builders, and it hardly seems as if the)- could have lived at the 
time of the Mastodon, for they made pictures of all the things about 
them, and among those pictures there is nothing which resembles these 
huge animals. This race of men was not savage, in one sense of the 
word. They worked hard, a thing which the savage seldom does. 
They had skill, and loved the beautiful. They are called the Mound- 
builders, because they have left behind them thousands of immense 
mounds; some curved, some square, some in the shape of a snake. 
Sometimes these earthworks have from fourteen to sixteen miles of 
embankment. Some look as if they may have been the dwelling-places 


of their kings. Others seem as if they may have protected temples or 
altars where they worshiped. 

This people understood the smelting of ores, and mining. Their 
pottery was far fro.^i rude, and their implements of warfare very 
serviceable. They buried their great men under huge pyramids of dirt, 
but the common people, to judge from the great stack of bones which 
had been found in parts of the country', were doubtless thrown together 
and left in the open air. At the time they lived, this country must 
have been thickly populated. It must have taken millions of men to 
do what they did. No one can guess what became of them, or why 
they left the possessions upon which they had spent so much time and 
labor. They disappeared many years before the American Indians 
roamed through our forests. 

The American Indians, as the European discoverers of this country 
found them, were not the race that we know. They were said to be 
well formed, winning, gentle and trustful. They were gracious in 
their speech and friendly in their manner, with soft, brown bodies, and 
delicate movements. They had little strength for work, but great 
endurance in running. Here they lived, free as birds, without need of 
much work, with no cares, no sorrows except natural ones, until the 
civilized warriors drove them west, and ever west, setting an example 
of treachery and cruelty which the Indians were not slow to follow. 


History -Squire and Davis' "Ancient Monuments." 

Baldwin's "Ancient America." 

Foster's "Prehistoric Races of America." 

Drake's "Abori^-nal Races of North America."' 

Jones' "Mound Builders of Tennessee." 

Shaler's "Time of the Mammoths." 

"American Naturalist," iv: 148. 
Fiction— Matthew's "Behemoth: A Legend of the Mound-Builders." 


>^0 Jf0gsnhar^ ianlur^. 


TTLE children, standing on the shores of Europe 
and looking toward the west, could make no 
guess at what lay beyond the water. They were 
told it was the ' 'dark water, ' ' from which all the 
spirits and goblins came, things unknown and 
unnamable. The winds seemed always to blow 
toward the west. Even the mariners believed that 
it did so. If, by any chance, a sailor drifted out of his 
course toward the west, he was filled with alann. It 
seemed possible to him that the waters might run off, 
somewhere, into a terrible nothingness. It is hard to 
tell which of the nations first found men courageous 
enough to cross these unknown waters. There are tradi- 
tions that the Chinese did so, and that these Buddhists 
wandered down to the California shore, and went deep 
into the country that we now know as Mexico. There 
are traditions, too, that the Breton fishermen cast their lines upon the 
Newfoundland coast. It is certainly true that North American Indians 
have been met with whose languages were mixed with French. The 
Welshmen also claim that a number of their countrj'men came to 
North America and settled there. The traditions concerning this are 
peculiarly romantic. Two brothers, David and Medoc, quarreled for 
the throne of Wales. The younger gave up his right, and, fitting out 
a ship, sailed west. The next year he returned, and said that he had 
found a fruitful country. He called upon his friends to follow him, and 
filled ten ships with inen, women and children. They sailed away, 
and were never heard of again. Five times in American writings there 
are references to them. They are described as a race of white Indians, 


usiii<^ many Welsh words, and having a manuscript copy of the BiV^le, 
in the Welsh language, with them. The last reference to them speaks 
of their living among the upper courses of the Missouri. 

But the journeys of the Northmen to America arc well known. 
These Northmen were splendid seamen, and splendid fighters. They 
had been all over the known world. They had frightened even the 
great emperor, Charlemagne, in France, and had put their horses in his 
palace. Wherever they went they seemed to conquer, until at last 
they were driven from Scotland. Then, on the melancholy island of 
Iceland, they made their republic. Two-thirds of the year they lived 
in twilight. Books were their consolation, the sea their play-ground. 
It was no wonder that they went this way and that, wherever their 
fancy prompted, and wherever they felt they could fight with weaker 

men. They discovere I Green- 
land, and settled a village 
there; then in strange, strong, 
if not fleet ships, went coasting 
further south. It was Bjarne 
Herjulfsen, with his crew, who 
first coasted — driven by adverse 
winds — along the coast of Nar- 
ragansett Bay, Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia. He went back to Iceland with the tales of what he 
had .seen. "What," cried Erik the Red, a wild Norseman, who had been 
banished from his native country for murder, "you saw a new country 
like that, with green fields and trees, and never put a foot on it?" He 
talked so much, and so long and loud on the subject, that his son, Leif 
Erikson, made up his mind to find out what kind of lands these were 
which were so much talked about. He bought Bjarne's ship from him, 
took thirty-five good seamen, and went far away to the southwest. 
They landed in Newfoundland, which they called Helluland, and in 
Nova Scotia, which they termed Markland. They looked about these 
countries a little, gave them names, and sailed away, and were two da}s 
at sea before they saw land again. Then they sailed into a sound. It 
was a beautiful place. There were larger salmon there than they had 
ever seen, and grass, which looked wonderful to these men from a 
barren country. They found luscious grapes growing wild, grapes 
from which wine could be made with wonderful ease, and a Gennan 
among them named it Vinland. We have changed the name very 
little. We call it Martha's Vinvard now. This was in the year looo. 




When Leif Erikson reached home, his brother made the complaint that 
he had brought home much too little news. "You may go in my ship. 
brother, to Vinland, if you like," said Leif, and thus Thorbald, in 
I002, went to Vinland, and stayed there three years. It is thought that 
the skeleton in armor, found near Fall River, in Massachusetts, in 
1 83 1, was that of Thorbald, who was killed by a poisoned arrow from 
Indians. Skraellings, the Norsemen called the Indians, because they 
were so scrawny, compared to themselves; and, indeed, there are tradi- 
tions, among the eastern Indians, of the great, fair giants, who had 
come to the eastern shore, which shows that there must have been a 
great difference in the stature of the Norsemen and the red men. In 
1005, the last son of Erik the Red started to Vinland, to try and fetch 
the body of his brother Thorbald. His ship was blown out of its 
course, and he never reached his destination. Then came Thorfinn 
Karlsfenn, with his handsome wife, Gudrid, and with them one hundred 
and fifty-one men and seven women. For three years they lived at 
Vinland, and, perhaps, built the tower that still stands in Newport, and 
wrote the inscriptions on the blocks near the Taunton river. The con- 
stant fights with the Indians decided them at last to leave their beauti- 
ful bay and go back to Iceland. They carried with them little Snorre, 
the first child of European blood born in America. Snorre was three 
years old when they took him back to Iceland, a little blue-eyed boy 
with golden hair. There are stories of other journeys by the Norse- 
men, in the years ion and 1121, and accounts of their going as far 
south, along the Atlantic coast, as to what we now call Florida. It is 
believed that the Welshmen came later than this, in 11 70. The tower 
which stands at Newport, which is the only sub<^tantial monument that 
the Norsemen left of their visits, is low and round. It has two 
windows and a fire-place, and the cement with which the stones are put 
together is still strong, and but for the fact that the roof is gone, it could 
hardly be called a ruin. It is covered with ivy now, and ser^^es the 
purpose of amusing the chance tourist. Longfellow has made this 
tower the subject of his poem, "The Skeleton in Armor." Perhaps it 
was Thorfinn Karlsfenn who was his hero, and the ' 'viking wild. ' ' 

History— Leland's "Fusang, Discovery of America by Chinese." 
"America not Discovered by Columbus." 
Bowen's "America Discovered by the Welsh." 
Anderson's *'Discoverj' of America by Norsemen." 
Beal's "Buddhist Records of the Western World." 
Fiction — Ballantyne's "Norsemen of the West." 
Poetry — Whittier's "Norsemen." 

Longfellow's "Skeleton in Armor." 
Montgomery's "Vinland." 


)}^$ Jraamar of $mnn. 


F VMNG cloth or combing wool 
patiently in Genoa, there lived in 
the fifteenth century an Italian by 
the name of Cohimbo. In the 
^ear 1435 his son was born, whom 
he named Cri::.toforo. Perhaps the 
comber of wool in his dull shop 
used to dream of the sea, and the 
delights and freedom of it. There 
could have been little other reason 
for his sending the little Columbus 
to school, at ten, to study naviga- 
tion. At fourteen, this restless Italian boy went to sea, and from that 
time till he died, he never left it, unless, indeed, it was to draw charts 
for other seamen. He loved books, too, and read much. He read the 
books of great scholars, and it is more than possible that some of these 
planted in his mind the idea that the world was round — an idea which 
was to double Christian civilization. Christopher went on numerous 
voyages with the celebrated admiral of his time, who bore the same 
family name, Columbo, and it is thought he may have traveled with a 
certain wild corsair, named Colon. The years between 1470 and 1484 
Christopher spent in Portugal. Ever\-one was talking about the dis- 
covery of new lands. The Portuguese seamen were going down the 
African coast. Prince Henr^- was making presents of islands to his 
navigators, and he gave the island of Porto Santo, of the :\Iadeira 
group, to a man named Prestrello. Columbus married the daughter of 
this man, and on the island of Porto Santo was bom Columbus' son, 

It was not the children alone who wondered about the great, dark 
water. The Spanish seamen were vastly curious. It seemed to them 
iliat the earth was a flat surface, with this great river of water running 



around the land. Like the children, they were terrified b_s the thought 
of what might be on the other side. A few scholars thought that it 
might be a sphere, but they never dreamed that it could be large enough 
for more than one continent; so it seemed quite simple to them, that if 
it was a sphere, it would be possible, by sailing westward, to reach 
Asia — the land from which the luxurious merchants of Spain and 
Portugal brought their richest wares; tlie land from which the spices 
came, the silks and the inlaid work, the gold and jewels. 

The Yanez portrait, Madrid Library. 

Certain of these learned men, among them Toscanelli, the Italian, 
corresponded with Columbus. They drew up charts with his help, and 
laid out the plan by which one might cross into India, and Tartar}-, and 
Cathay. Cohnnbus was a great dreamer, and these plans filled him with 
wild visions. He thought of nothing and talked of nothing else. He 
talked with sailors who had found pine trees washed upon the Madeira 
coast, where no pine trees grew, and those who had seen tropical caue 



stalks upon the European beaches. He was restless and excited ; he could 
never keep still. He even went to Iceland, and it is possible that he 
talked there with the descendants of the men who had been at Vineland. 
Gudrid, too, had been at Rome, and it may be that she left traditions 
there of the three years which she had spent in the beautiful country 
across the water. Though Columbus could interest many people with 


tales of all he fancied, and all he hoped, it was difficult to win the 
hearing of those who could give him help. It is said that he went, 
or sent, to King Henry VII, of England, with the hope of gaining 
his assistance. It is almost certain that he tried to get the help 
of the King of Portugal, and it is possible that he sought the aid of 



some of the cities of his own country, Italy. At last his wife died. He 
took his boy, Diego, and seems to have wandered about, in a desolate 
way, for a year. One day he went with Diego to the Franciscan con- 
vent of Santa Maria de la Rabida, asking for bread. He interested the 
prior, and the prior in turn interested a gentleman of importance, Mar- 
tin Alonzo Pinzon, and he carried letters of credit with him from these 
persons to Cordova, where the king and queen were. But King Ferdi- 
nand was busy, and it was a long time before he could listen to Colum- 
bus. For seven years, or at the very least five, Columbus hung around 
the Spanish court. The courtiers laughed at him, and Isabella and 
Ferdinand seemed to have little confidence in his plans. At last, a day 
came when Columbus was treated with such contempt that he burst 
into a sudden fit of rage, flung himself out of the court, and taking ta 
his horse, rode toward France. Isabella, fearing both that tlie kingdom 
might have lost a good thing, and that Columbus' feelings were 
severely hurt, sent after him. He was brought back, and in three 
months an expedition was ready to sail, part of which was fitted out at 
the credit of Isabella's own kingdom, Castile. It was not very strange 
that the sailors were afraid to go. How could they tell what they were 
running into? They had to be driven to their task by force; but 
at last Columbus left with three ships — the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and 
the Nina. The Santa Maria was ninety-six feet long and carried 
sixty-six seamen. It was decked all over, and had four masts — two 
with square sails and two with lateen sails. Tiie other vessels were 
smaller and without decks. They all carried provisions for a year, and 
Cohunbus had with him an agreement signed by Ferdinand and 
Isabella, by which he was made High Admiral and Viceroy in these 
lauds, and given one-eighth of the possible profits in return for the 
eighth of the costs which he advanced. Columbus hardly knew how 
to show his happiness. He vowed that if there were any profits, they 
should be used to free the Holy Sepulchre from the Moslems; so, with 
much hope, and many prayers, he left with his discontented sailors, 
leaving his son in care of the royal household. 

It was on the third of August, 1492, that Columbus and his men 
sailed from Palos. In a month they had reached the Canar}- Islands. 
After that they passed man)- desolate days on the water, with the sailors 
discontented at day and weeping at night. It took all of the tact that 
Columbus had at his command to quiet them. Once the sailors plotted 
to throw Columbus overboard, but he was keen and watchful, and, above 
all, a man of prayer, and his stern dignity of character held them in 


check. At length, however, he was obliged to tell them that he would 
turn back if they saw no land within three days. The anxiety which 
he felt can be imagined. Was it possible that he would be forced to 
give up his long-nursed hopes and forego the glory of discovery, and 
all because of a handful of fearful and ignorant sailors ? But the out- 
come was as strange as a miracle. In the morning of the third day, a 
sailor, standing aloft with his seaman's glass, espied land. The joy-guns 
were fired, to let the men upon the other vessels know of this wondrous 
fact. They sailed all day toward land. Anchor was cast over night, 
and the following morning they rowed Columbus to the shore, with 
music and waving banners, and, highest of all, the great flag of Spain, all 
red and gold. With him came his captains, with green flags, which bore 
the cross upon them. The island he called Guanahani. It is thought 
it may have been the island we call San Salvador, but this is not cer- 
tain. It was a flat island, with a shallow lake in the centre, and not 
especially inviting, so the men sailed on and visited Cuba, Hayti and 
other of the West India islands. He did not doubt but that he had 
found the eastern extremity of Cathay. 

He was not a little proud when he went back to Spain, and the rea- 
son that he stopped at Portugal may have been to let the king know all 
that he had lost, in not giving him a chance to find these new dominions 
for him. In Spain, he was received with much honor, and, when he 
started back for the new land, he had seventeen vessels and 1,500 men. 
On this journey he discovered the Windward Islands, part of Jamaica 
and Porto Rico, and founded his colony in Hayti. Hayti he called 
I/ittle Spain, or Hispanola. In the winter of 1497-98, Amerigo 
Vespucci, a friend of Columbus, succeeded in some manner in obtain- 
ing ships, by which he reached the mainland of the new continent. 
Everyone was going to the "New Spain" who could possibly get there. 
All of the men who had laughed at Columbus before, seemed now to 
be trying to get as much of his territory and honor away from him as 
possible. Those who had sneered, "L,ook at the Admiral of Mosquito- 
land, ' ' and who had made light of Columbus' discovery because he 
brought home so little treasure, were, nevertheless, glad to start out to 
find what they could. If Amerigo made this voyage, as he said he did, 
he touched upon the mainland before any other Spaniard. In the same 
year John Cabot, a merchant, born at Venice, but living in England, 
also went to America, and touched upon the coast of Labrador. 
Sebastian Cabot, a son of John, a year later (1498) sailed with two ships 
and three hundred men. In his second voyage, he became persuaded 



that the land which they had found was not Asia. He discovered 
Hudson's Bay upon his third voyage. He loved the sea always, and 
lived upon it as long as he had strength. Meanwhile, Columbus, his 
mind still filled with visions, and believing that he was inspired of God, 
went upon his third journey. With his six ships, he reached the main- 
land of South America. Touching at his colony of Hispanola, he 
found his people quarrelling bitterly, and much dissatisfied with his 
government as admiral. He was arrested by Bobadilla, a Spanish com- 
missioner, and carried on board ship in chains. These he wore till he 
reached Spain, although his captors would willingly have taken them 
off. The chains had the effect which he had expected; the monarchs 
were ashamed, the people horrified. He was released. He wished 
then to keep his vow, to wrest the Holy Sepulchre from the infidels, but 
Ferdinand and Isabella would not permit him to do so. Then he asked 
to go once more to America. He was given four vessels, and took with 
him his brother, and his younger son, Fernando. By the time they 
had reached the American coast, Columbus was ill. He lay upon the 
deck, and watched the land as the ship sailed around by Honduras, for 
they had passed be3'ond the islands. He tried several times to found a 
colony, but the Indians were shy and crafty, and very naturally resented 
the invasion of their land. Two of his ships were lost. His crew 
mutinied, and no one would send him any relief At last he went back 
to Spain, only to find his friend, Isabella, dead. He died on May 20, 
1506, with the chains he had worn upon his return to Spain hung by his 
bed-side. They were put in his coffin, and he was buried with the monu- 
ment : ' 'To Castile and Leon, Columbus gave a new world. ' ' About two 
centuries after that his remains were carried to the cathedral of Havana, 
that they might lie in the soil of the new world which he had found. 

It was better for his peace of mind that he never knew that the land 
he reached after so much suflTering of mind and body, was to bear the 
name of another man. But, after all, justice will always be done in the 
Lord's good time, and, in the minds of everj'one, America is the monu- 
ment of Columbus, and not of Amerigo Vespucci. 

History— Prescott's "Conquest of Mexico." 
Biography— W. Irving's "Columbus." 

W. Irving's "Companions of Columbus." 
Dexter's "Letters of Columbus and Vespucci." 
Tr.welS — Hakluyt's "Voyages." 

Kohl's "Discoverers of the East Coast of .\merica.'* 
Fiction — Bird's "Calavar" and "Infidel." 

Wallace's "Fair God." 
Poetry— Barlow's "Colombiad." 
Lowell's "Columbus." 
Rogers' "Columbus." 
Sir ,\ubrey De Vere's "Sonnet.s on Columbus." 



HE islands of the Atlantic became rapidly peo- 
pled with Spaniards. "Ever^'one," complained 
Colnmbus, before his death, "even the very 
tailors, are bent upon discovery," and, as the 
islands filled with Europeans, the Indians were 
crowded out. The manner in which they were killed, and the awful 
sufferings they endured at the hands of men who called themselves 
Christians, is told most pathetically in the chronicles of Las Casas, one 
of the few friends which these unhappy people had. They were carried 
to Spain as slaves, or worked with cruelt)' upon the new possessions in 
the Atlantic. The tender-hearted old man. Las Casas, made the mis- 
take, in his firm defence of the Indians, of advising the ^-oung king, who 
then reigned over Spain, to let each resident in Hispanola bring a dozen 
negro slaves from the African coast; and it was thus, in about 1518, that 
negro slavery' was first introduced in America. 

Juan Ponce De Leon, a gay and courteous cavalier, who had been 
with Columbus on his second voyage, had made up his mind to go to 
the countries of the new world upon his own account. It was in 1513 
that he set sail, with three caravels well fitted with men. He had been 
a brave soldier and a verj' active man, and hated, as all such men must 
do, the thought of growing old. His ambition was to maintain his 
youth, and he was filled with the pleasant stories of some luscious 
fountain of clear water in the new world, from which all men might 


-drink and become eternally young. He was made Governor of the 
island of Porto Rico, but even this honor would not tempt him to rest. 
He pushed on westward in search of the wonderful fountain, and at last, 
on Easter Sunday, he saw land. The Spaniards called Easter Sunday 
the day of flowers, and Ponce De Leon named the new land Florida. 
He landed near what is now St. Augustine, and, with his men, went 
about the woods and coasts there for many weeks. Five years latei' he 
came back again, and was wounded with a poisoned arrow, and went 
sadly back to his countn,' to die. He had escaped old age, but not by 
drinking from the foimtain of youth. 

Vasco Nunez de Balboa, an adventurous Spaniard, was the first to 
cross the isthmus which divides Nort'h and South America. Looking 
down from a mountain, he saw the ^eat western ocean stretching before 
him. He called it the South Sea, and took possession of it in the name 
of his Christian Majesty, the King of Spain. Meanwhile, Cortez was 
exploring in Yucatan and ]\Iexico. By this time the King of Portugal 
deeply regretted that he had not accepted the services of Columbus 
when they were first oflfered to him. He grew envious of the rich pos- 
sessions of Spain, and fitted out ships in 1519, under the leadership of 
Magellan, a sailor of wide experience, and a man whom the king counted 
among the greatest of his realm. Magellan passed the Indies and bore 
southward, sailing entirely around South America, marveling at the 
"mountain of fire," and rejoicing over the placid world of water which 
rolled in peaceful majesty before them. He named it the Pacific Ocean, 
because of its tranquility. 

The unhappy relations between the Indians and the Europeans grew 
worse, instead of better. The white man gave the Indian lessons in 
treachery, which he was not slow to profit by. A party of gentle St. 
Dominican Brothers, who had come to America to make a "conquest of 
peace" among the savages, were captured, upon their landing, and 
brutally murdered. It was too late for kindness to be imderstood — too 
late for the word of the white man to be believed. 

In 1 519, a planter named D'AUyon, a man of wealth and high 
family, came to the American coast in search of slaves. He landed 
where South Carolina now is, and, kidnapping natives there, put them 
in the Spanish slave markets. His adventurous nature would have 
made him of much value to his country, but he fell a victim to his own 
evil works. On his second voyage he was murdered by the angry 
Indians. Eight years after this, an expedition in quest of gold was led 
out from the West Indies by Pamphilo de Nars'aez. He and hir. 


companions landed near Tampa Ba>-, and went westward along the 
Gulf of Mexico. The sufferings of Narvaez' men were very great. 
Their number rapidly decreased. They were restless with the spirit of 
adventure, and were not willing to settle down and wrench a living from 
the soil. Cuba put forward every effort to find the men, but was not 
successful. All but fjur of them died. These four were made slaves 
by the Indians, and wandered from tribe to tribe for six years. They 
came out at last near the Gulf of California. But it was a long time 
before they were heard from. 


Hernando De Soto held a grant of the province of Florida from the 
crown of Spain, and landed not far from the spot where his fated 
predecessors had in Tampa Bay. This was on ]Ma)- 30, 1537. He was 
ven.' ambitious, and wished to louud a great empire, over which he 
should rule. Blinded with ambition, he had no pity for any one. In 
all that he did he was fierce and shamefullv cruel. Following him was 



a splendid retinue of noblemen. Thej- were tricked out in the most 
fashionable costumes of Spain, and glittering with inlaid armor, which 
recalled the magnificence of the crusades. None but a leader of iron 
will could hsve governed men so proud and ambitious. He took his 
companions through the lakes, streams and everglades of Florida. They 
lived upon water-cresses, shoots of Indian corn and palmetto leaves. 
Their policy was to fight the natives wherever they met them — an odd 
policy for men whose chief boast was their Christianity. Wherever 

they went, they left behind them 
burned wigwams and aching hearts. 
Once, De Soto was met by a certain 
Indian chieftainess. She was a grace- 
ful }'oung savage, with courteous 
manners, and went to meet De Soto 
in a canopied canoe, carr^-ing gifts with 
her, among them a necklace of pearls, 
which she flung about the neck of the 
Spanish leader. But her people were 
used as slaves, and herself taken pris- 
oner in spite of her gentleness. De 
vSoto still went westward. He sent 
men to explore for gold, and took all 
the treasures from the Indians which 
he could find. He went up the Mis- 
sissippi for some distance, and then 
westward, nearly to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. After his return to his post, in 
tn,-ing to force an opening through the 
swamps about the ^Mississippi river, he 
sickened and died. He was dropped, 
in the silence of the night, into the 
deep waters of the Mississippi, the 
victim of his own stubborn pride, for 
he could have had help and rescue had he been willing to accept it; 
but he refused to take his men back, shorn of their fine trappings and 
lessened in numbers. A few of his men, long months afterwards, 
reached the settlement of their countr>'men on the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Spaniards in the north of Mexico were greatly excited when 
the four unfortunate men who had escaped from the expedition of 
Naivaez reached them, with wonderful stories of the countries thev had 




seen. They told of stately cities, in which there were buildings of 
stone and a great quantity of jewels, besides silver and gold in plenty. 
In a short time an expedition was sent to explore this countrj', going up 
the coast of California, and exploring part of the Colorado river. 
They found the well-built cities, but the gold, silver and jewels were in 
small quantities. Later, a Spanish explorer name Cabrillo, went up the 
Pacific coast as far as Oregon. Following him came Sir Francis Drake, 
the celebrated English voyager. The history of his exploits is not full, 
but it is known that he was received pleasantly by the natives, and, after 
a brief exploration, crossed the ocean to the East Indies. England, 
however, never claimed California on the score of Drake's discovery. 
In the year 1580, an expedition of travelers followed up the river Del 
Norte, and made a settlement upon the site of the present city of 
Santa Fe. This expedition was under Onate. That city, with one 
exception (St. Augustine), is the oldest in the United States. 

History— Parkman's "Pioneers of France." 

Parkman's "France and England in North America." 
Reynold's "Old St. Augustine." 
Baird's "Huguenot Emigration to America." 
Jones' "De Soto and His March Through Georgia." 
Fiction — Simm's "Damsel of Darien," "Vasconselas" and "The 

Lily and the Totem." 
Drama— Mrs. L. S. McCord's "De Soto." 
Poetry — Butterworth's "Dream of Ponce de Leon." 


il^B J[iHe$ ot 1|rant0. 


ONG before this time, France was growing im- 
patient to have a foothold in the new world; so 
she sent westward a mariner, named Verazzano, 
with a single ship. He reached the shore of 
North Carolina, and followed it southward for a 
time, trading with the Indians as he went. He 
carried home full accounts of what he saw, and a de- 
scription of the Indians and their ways, and said that 
' ' these new countries were not altogether destitute of 
the ' drugs and spiceries, pearls and gold, ' for which 
everj'one was looking." It was he who first gave an 
accurate idea of the true size of the globe, and of the 
western continent. France rested content with this 
triumph for some time, and it was ten years later before 
she sent out Jacques Cartier, who set up the cross of France in New- 
foundland, where the people, so he said, were the poorest in the world. 
In 1535 he made another journey, carr\'ing the lilies of France up the 
St. L,awrence, and to the mouth of the stream which he named the St. 
Croix. The Indians received him as some great spirit, who could heal 
the sick and perform miracles, but he, like the Spaniards, seemed to 
forget that he belonged to a Christian country^, and though the Indians 
treated him with much civility, made a treacherous return. When he 
set sail for his own land he seized a friendly chief and nine of his tribe, 
and, amid the wailing of the amazed Indians on the shore, carried them 
away across the sea. It was little wonder that the Indians remembered 
these things against the invaders, and that when the French returned, in 
1540, and set up a colony near the mouth of the St. Lawrence, they 
found the Indians hostile. It was in vain that the lying Frenchmen 



told them that the Indians they had carried over seas with them had 
been made into great men in the land, and lived in palaces of marble. 
The Indians had learned that one would expect nothing but lies from 
men with white faces; and the truth was that all of those proud-spirited 
Indians nad died of broken hearts, except one poor lonely little maiden, 
whose duty it was to show herself at fetes for the curious French ladies to 
wonder at and exclaim over. Two forts were built to protect the new 
colony, one at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, and the other at the 
mouth of the St. Croix. 

France also started a colony far south. At the head of this was 
John Ribault, and with him a band of soldiers, seamen and gentlemen. 
This was in the midst of the great religious refonnation of Europe, 
when the Huguenots had been driven in large numbers from France to 
Holland. These oppressed people decided to set up their refonned 
protestant church in the wilderness, and for the first time made the new 
world the shelter of the scorned and the outcast. So, with a sword in 
one hand and a cross in the other, staunch John Ribault led his band of 
faithful worshipers into a land where they hoped to find peace. But it 
was not to be. When the King of Spain became aware that the French 
had planted a colony upon this territory, he sent Menendez, one of his 
most fonnidable generals, to oust them. Rene Laudonriere was tempo- 
rarily in charge of the fort at Port Royal, where the Huguenots were, 
and John Ribault was hurrying over seas with supplies and additions to 
the settlement. The fleets of Ribault and Menendez had some thrilling 
adventures at sea, in which the Spanish general was outwitted. He re- 
tired to the coast and founded the city of St. Augustine, the oldest city 
within the present boundary of the United States, older even than 
Santa Fe. Here men, women and children were settled. Amid music 
and the thundering of guns Menendez landed, and kneeling to kiss the 
cross took possession in the name of Philip II, King of Spain. A few 
days after this, while Ribault was still at sea, a terrible stonn broke 
over the country, which seriously disabled his fleet. Menendez guessed 
that Ribault would not have had time to reach Port Royal, and 
saw that a safe opportunity for attack had come. Hunying overland 
he fell upon the French in the fort. The surprise was complete. The 
French were put to the sword. One hundred and thirty-two were killed 
that night, and in the morning ten of the fugitives were captured and 
banged. Over these Menendez hung the label, "I do not this to 
Frenchmen, but to heretics. ' ' Among the number who escaped were 
the younger Ribault and Rene Laudonriere. 


Ribault did not know that Port Royal had been taken. He had 
been wrecked on the coast with his three hundred and fifty men. He 
begged Menendez to spare them, and even offered a heavy ransom, but 
Menendez refused. Such as laid down their arms and surrendered to 
Menendez were butchered. Among these was Ribault. A few went 
southward, preferring to tr>' the perils of the wilderness. In a few days 
the fort at Port Royal, which the Spaniards had re-named San Mateo^ 
caught fire, and burned to the ground. 

Three years later, the French sent over another expedition, under the 
command of De Gourgues. His purpose was to be revenged upon the 
Spaniards. He made friends with the Indians, who were ready to join 
in any enterprise which would be likely to make the Spanish suffer. 
De Gourgues fell upon the Spaniards exactly as Menendez had on Fort 
Caroline, and left only fifteen of the Spanish garrison living. The 
soldiers upon the other side of the river were also massacred. The 
party went on to San Mateo, which the Spaniards still held, and killed 
nearly all of the soldiers there. Those that were captured were hung, 
and De Gourgues put on the trees, "I do not this as unto Spaniards, 
but as unto traitors, robbers and murderers." St Augustine was finally 
burned by Sir Francis Drake. 

History — Jeffeir's "French Dominions in America." 
Jones^ "Antiquities of Southern Indians." 

LasCasas' "Narrative and Critical History of America" in a vols. 
Parkman's "Jesuits in America." 

Schoolcraft's "History and Condition of the Indian Tribe*." 
Fiction— Chateaubriand's "Atala." 
POBTRV— I,evi Bishop's "Jesuit Missionary." 


jl Jfcbga in {\$ li[HkniB$$. 





' 1 1 


L M i 

,/'vJ\l \h' '-' 

- jr^'^^ 


T was the glowing stories which the 
Huguenots told in the flight which 
some of them made from Florida to 
England, after the massacres, that 
induced the English navigators to 
secure that land. They tried to find 
the northwest passage, for which Cabot 
had looked, and in 1578, Sir Francis Drake sailed up the Pacific coast, 
plundering, in the wicked fashion of those days, Spanish settlements as 
he went. He went as far as Washington Territon,'. But no slight 
failure could discourage the English. The land for which they looked 
wore such a dazzling aspect to them that neither the loss of men or 
money could stop them in their search for the way to Catha)'. Pictures 
of the wonderful country of Kublai Khan filled them with dreams. 
Here, so they had heard, were twelve thousand cities, all near together. 
The estate of the king, spreading over ten miles, was a luxurious gar- 
den, watered with clear rivers and filled with the music of fountains. 
There were marble palaces, summer houses indescribably beautiful and 
air}-, wonderful armies of trained soldiers, and magnificent fortresses. 
From here all the finest silks, the brightest gold and the richest spices 

And yet, for all their attempts, more than one hundred years passed 
from the time of the landing of the Cabots before an English colony 



was planted on American soil. It was in 1527 that one of the futile 
attempts was made. Two fine ships set sail from London and went 
toward the northeast, but encountering a sea of ice there, turned back. 
Only one of the ships reached England. 

In 1536 the determined English sought once more for the mysteri- 
ous passage, but so ill provided was the expedition, that when the men 
reached Newfoundland they were reduced to killing each other that all 
might not starve. The captain, who had thought at first that the loss 
of his men was. due to wild beasts, or to Indians, finally discovered the 
truth, and set forth their sin in the strongest words of which he 
was master. The miserable men stopped murdering each other, but 
it was not long before hunger drove them to cast lots for the choice of 
one who should die to save the rest. Fortunateh- for them a French 
ship, with plenty of food on board, arrived that night. The desperate 
Englishmen managed to get possession of the boat and put to sea, leaving 
the Frenchmen their empty vessel. However, the Frenchmen finally 
reached England, and were recompensed by the king for their losses. 

It was in 1553 that Sir Hugh Willoughby, a most valiant gentle- 
man, well born, renowned for singular skill in the service of war, 
started out with four vessels. They were well built and well provided, 
and one of them was considered quite a marv^el of skill and strength. 
No expedition which left England went with more display. The whole 
court came to Greenwich, and the noblemen came running out to see 
the ships. The windows were crowded, and people looked down from 
the tops of towers. The shore was black with sight-seers. Sailors 
crowded the ships in the harbor. The American-bound vessels set sail 
amid salute after salute from the royal guns, but the cniel northern seas 
wrecked them as they have so many since. Two of them were found 
years later by some Russian fishermen, and in the cabin of one sat Sir 
Hugh Willoughby, with a pen in his frozen fingers. Scattered about 
both ships lay the bodies of the perished crew, every man of them 
frozen to death. The sailors tried to take the ships back to England, 
but they foundered at sea. But, though this expedition was so tragic, 
it was not absolutely useless, for some of the crew in one of the other 
ships reached Archangel, and traveled overland to Moscow, and com- 
merce between England and Russia was opened. This was of great 
value to England. 

England could not quiet her enthusiasm on the subject of the new 
world, and in 1576 Martin Frobisher set sail with his three small vessels. 
Queen Marj', leaning from her windows, condescended to wave her 


hands to the passing ships as a farewell token of her good wishes. The 
first journey of Frobisher brought few results; one of them was some- 
what humorous. He brought with him a few black stones, which he 
had picked up on the island of Cumberland. These he gave his wife 
as a souvenir of his journey. She put them into the fire, and when 
they were taken out, they proved to be gold. This filled Frobisher with 
impatience to return. He started with fifteen ships, all of which were 
to come back laden with ore, and so they did, but the ore had in it no 
gold. Frobisher found the strait into Hudson's Bay which bears his 
name, and which he supposed was a passage into the sea of Suez. Just 
what these ship-loads of black stones cost England, it would be difficult 
to guess. In time, however, even the most saving forgot about that 
unfortunate waste, and another northern expedition was planned in 1585, 
under the charge of John Davis. Davis' Strait is all that serves to 
Tceep alive this voyage. Then came the scheme of Sir Humphrey 
■Gilbert, a very distinguished gentleman, as full of ideas as he was of 
"bravery. He sailed in 1583, with a fleet of five ships, and with a com- 
pany of two hundred and sixty men, among whom were refiners of 
minerals and mechanics of all trades. They settled, for a time, near 
the mouth of the St. Johns river, in Newfoundland, and set up a pillar, 
w^ith the arms of England carved upon it. Indeed, there was more 
display than work, with the usual unhappy results. Many of Sir 
Humphrey's men deserted, and some died. 

At the colony at St. Johns, a conspiracy was started to seize the vessels 
while the admiral and captains were on shore. Gilbert, therefore, found 
necessary to send home as many of the sick and insubordinate as could 
be spared. Soon after this, those remaining resumed their voyage. One 
of the ships was lost, but Sir Humphrey was still in a comparatively 
happy frame of mind. Had he not found ore which the assajer said 
held silver? But the mines, or what he thought were the mines, proved to 
yield nothing after all. On the way to England, the Golden Hind 
foundered. Gilbert himself was on the ship. It was the smallest of the 
fleet, but Gilbert refused to let any of his men stand a peril that he did 
not share. In the midst of the terrible storm, in which the boat sank. 
Sir Humphrey sat quietly in the stern with a book in his hand, and 
called out cheerfully, when the companion boat offered help: "We are 
as near Heaven by sea as by land." When Sir Gilbert died, his ambi- 
tious projects were taken up by Sir Walter Raleigh, his half-brother. 

No more channing figure than he ever figured in American history. 
He was a soldier, a sailor, a statesman, and a most polished gentleman, 


a graceful poet, a historian and a thinker. He had sent numerous ships 
to America at his own expense, being ver>' eager for England's glory, 
but the men on them offended the Indians by their bad conduct, and 
were always forced to return to England. Finally, he sent out a colony 
which he felt sure would succeed. It had as a governor a respected 
Englishman by the name of John White; with him was his family, many 
friends, and a corps of mechanics and farmers. John White established 
his company on Roanoke Island, and having settled them as well as 
possible, left for England to obtain more supplies. Before he left. 
White's daughter, the wife of Ananias Dare, gave birth to a daughter — 
the first little English girl born on American soil. White was gone a 
long time — a strangely long time, considering everything. Wlien he 
returned the colony had entirely disappeared. It is true that they found 
the word ' 'Croatoan' ' carved upon one of the trees. This was the name 
of one of the islands not far distant, and it had been agreed upon by 
the colonists, at the time of the departure of their governor, that, should 
they see fit to leave for any reason, they would write the name of their 
destination where it could be found. But John White was only a 
passenger upon the vessel which visited the spot where the colony had 
been, and he was taken to the far south. Sir Walter Raleigh sent out 
ship after ship to search for the lost colony, but every captain found 
excuses for not obeying his commands, and the unfortunate people were 
never definitely heard from. After the gallant Sir Raleigh was impris- 
oned in the Tower of London, no one thought more about tlie matter. 
They were probablj' killed by Powhatan. Sir Raleigh has the distinction, 
among greater ones, of having made the use of tobacco fashionable in 
England, as well as having introduced potatoes to English tables. He 
himself never visited the North American colony which had cost him so 
much money and anxiety. The two trips which he made to America 
were to the mouth of the Orinoco river, in South America. 

The next colonial failure was in charge of Bartholomew Gosnold. 
He, also, started for the great extent of territory which Raleigh had 
named Virginia after the virgin Queen Elizabeth, and which included 
all the region lying between Canada and Florida. Gosnold' s colony was 
attempted on Cuttyhunk Island, but he and his company only stayed 
there a few months. 

History— Buchanan's "History, Manners and Customs of North American Indians." 
Biography — Oldys' "Lifeof Raleigh." 

Southey's "Life of Raleigh." 
Fiction — "First Settlers of Virginia." 
Poetry— Longfellow's "Sir Humphrey Gilbert." 


l[aunbing 11^$ §lb Jlominian. 


^HE English king saw that it was 
necessan- to take fresh measures 
if he ever wished to establish a 
successful colony in America. He 
therefore formed two large compa- 
nies, one of which he called the 
London Company, and the other 
the Plymouth Company. The 
first of these was to go to the 
south, and the other to the north, 
and they were to build no dwell- 
ings nearer to each other than one 
hundred miles. It was evident 
that the king understood the 
quarrelsome nature of his sub- 
jects. Each of these colonies was 
to be governed by thirteen men, 
who were appointed by the king; and should any of them die, or resign 
their positions, they were at liberty to choose a man to fill the place 
themselves, provided that the man was not a clerg}'man. The king, it 
will be remembered, was James I, a man of much learning, though not 
of so much wisdom, for his learning was not of a sort which taught him 
kindness. In the summer of 1606, two ships belonging to the Plymouth 
Company sailed away from England. One of these ships was taken by 
the Spaniards, but the other one coasted off Maine and made a hasty 
return. The general report of the captain pleased Chief Justice 
Popham, who made up his mind, on the following year, to send his 
brother, George Popham, and Raleigh Gilbert, a son of Sir Humphrey, 


to settle a colony; but they made no permanent settlement, and 
it remained for the London Company to make the first permanent 
village. In this there were one hundred and five men, and no 
women. Among them were mechanics, soldiers and servants, and, 
if the truth must be told, rather too many gentlemen. Their ships 
were the "Sarah Constant," the "Godspeed" and the "Discovery," 
and Captain Christopher Newport was their commander. They 
were foolish enough to go by the old route of the West Indies, 
stopping along by the way in the pleasant towns of the Spaniards, and 
wasting both food and time. There were too many proud men among 
them for such a thing to be advisable, for they were certain to get into 
quarrels. The London Council had told them not to break the seals of 
their letters of instruction until they had landed on the shores of 
Virginia, so no man know which was greatest, and all tried to exercise 
authority. One of the most disagreeable among them was John Smith. 
This }'oung man was always energetic and nervous. He wanted to do 
a great many things, and do them in his own peculiar way, and had 
very little patience with slower and duller persons, so he very naturally 
fretted at the wasteful way in which matters were being conducted, and, 
as a consequence, found himself suddenly arrested. It was in the lovely 
month of April when they sailed into the Chesapeake Bay, and giving 
names to Cape Henr^- and Cape Charles, went eagerly to work. The 
sealed box was opened, and the names of the council were heard. 
They were Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Wingfield, 
Christopher Newport, John Ratcliff, John Martin and George Kendall. 
They spent half a month in looking for a suitable place for their 
colony, and fixed at length on the spot where Jamestown still stands, 
and which they named in honor of their king. All of the council, 
except Smith, who was still in disfavor, were sworn into office. Then 
work began seriously. Try to imagine how they cut the trees and 
pitched their tents, how they split the logs for boards and made gardens, 
planting the seeds they had brought with them, and braided nets from 
twine. Imagine, too, how heartily they must have talked, laughed, 
sung and quarreled. They had been instructed by the council to see if 
an opening could be found by some river or lake from Virginia to the 
South Sea, and Captain Newport fitted out a shallop, and went with 
quite a number of men up the James river, toward the Appalachian 
mountains. The Indians received them with kindness, and fed them 
with the best that they had. The best was not bad. It consisted of 
venison, turkey, maize, strawberries, mulberries, dried nuts and tobacco. 


The returns which Newport's men gave for these dainties was princi- 
pally beads and whisky. It seems as if always the invading Christian 
was the first to do a wrong thing. One of the remarkable characters 
they met upon this voyage was a strong, manlike queen, who refused to 
be scared at the sound of a gun, although her braves were so. New- 
port and his men went on till they came to a great waterfall, and then 
turned back, noticing, with some fear as they did so, a change in the 
manner of the Indians. When they got back to the camp they found 
that several men had been wounded and one boy killed. A fort was 
built for further protection, and in a short time Newport set sail for 
England. While he was gone, those remaining at the settlement quar- 
reled frightfully. For one thing, they were suffering from hunger. It 
seemed as if they never had enough to eat. With game in the woods 
and fish in the rivers, why this should be so, it is difiicult to guess. 
Disease broke out among them, occurring principally from the want of 
food and proper shelter. For, instead of building substantial houses of 
logs, they crowded into one miserable, insecure building. Each man 
had for his daily allowance but half a pint of boiled wheat, and another 
of barley, infested with worms. At last it became necessary for the 
president, Wingfield, to set aside such sack and vinegar as was left, to 
use in case of extreme .sickness, and for the communion table. It was 
this action largely which caused the hungry' and selfish men of the 
colony to find fault with Wingfield, and to depose him from his position 
as president. John Smith, Ratcliff" and Martin were the men who took 
the principal part in this, and from that time on, John Smith seems to 
have been the moving spirit of the colony, although many of its best 
actions were suggested by Gosnold, a man very wise and pious. That 
any of the colony lived over that dreadful summer was owirg largely to 
the kindness of the Indians, who brought them provisions. In the 
autumn, things went more peacefully, as the game became more plenti- 
ful and the harvests were gathered. Smith then went upon one of his 
journeys into the interior, where he came very near losing his life at the 
hands of some strange Indians. It is said that he tied his guide to his 
own body with his garters, and as his guide was an Indian, his foes 
would not shoot at him. At length, however, he was obliged to surren- 
der, and was taken before the king of the tribe. Then he displayed all 
of that matchless ingenuity which made him so interesting to all. He 
showed the Indians his round compass made of ivory, and explained to 
them the movements of the sun, moon and stars, the shape of the earth, 
the comparative differences of the land and sea, and told them of all the 


sorts of men about which he knew anything. But notwithstanding this 
entertainment, tiie Indians tied him to a tree and were about to shoot 
him with arrows, when the king, suddenly concluding that he would 
like to save a man who knew so many curious things, released him. 
They fed him so well that Smith became alanned. He was quite 
sure they were fattening him before they killed him. Finally they 
promised him his liberty, and even offered to give him some land and 
women, if he would help them attack Jamestown. But he told them 
of the great guns which the English had, and frightened them into 
giving up the plan. Then he capped the climax of their wonder by 
writing to the fort for a quantity of presents for the Indians, who were 
unable to imagine how paper could speak. At last he was taken to the 
greatest king of all, Powhatan, who received him with much state, with 
a young Indian girl upon each side of him, and rows of men and women, 
much decorated, around about. He was treated with great ceremony 
and distinction, which, however, according to Smith's account, ended 
in rather a peculiar way. He was dragged to a great stone, upon which 
his head was laid, and by which stood men with clubs ready to beat out 
his brains, but at this very dreadful moment, Pocahontas, the king's 
dearest daughter, threw her arms about his head and laid her face 
across his, to prevent them from touching him. His life was spared. 
The story is so romantic that there is a reluctance to doubt it, 
especially when it is remembered that Pocahontas was only twelve years 
old at this time. 

The little princess, Pocahontas, figured largely in the history of the 
colony. She shocked the decorous gentlemen exceedingly by turning 
somersaults about the fort, but conciliated them by frequently bringing 
them food, and by warning them of attacks from the Indians. Years 
afterward she was baptized and re-named Lady Rebecca, which was a 
much more respectable name than Pocahontas, which means "Little 
Wanton," and was given to her because she was noticeably wild, even 
among the Indian maidens. In course of time she married John Rolfe, 
an English gentleman, who took her to England, where she was pre- 
sented to the Queen by Lord and Lady de la Ware. She sickened with 
small-pox just before taking the ship to return to America, and died at 
the age of twenty-two. No woman of those days has so extended a 
reputation; no other one has been so much written about. She is the 
subject of man}' novels and poems, and even the dullest historian has 
not been able to pass her by without some mention of her kindness of 
heart, her wayward impulsiveness, and her beauty. It was not strange 


that John Smith wished to publish tlie fact that she showed some interest 
in him. Her father, Powhatan, has also been much written about. Ke 
was the most powerful of all the Indian chiefs of Virginia; perhaps the 
most wily of them as well. He is described as being very stalwart and 
well-shaped of limb, and with a sad countenance and thin grey hair. 
So proud was he that he could not be made to kneel when the council 
saw fit to crown him after the English manner. King James, of Eng- 
land, sent robes and a crown that the ceremony might be carried out in 
a king-like manner, but neither threats nor coaxing could make the 
disdainful old savage bend a knee, and it became necessary for two of 
the noblemen to press heavily upon his shoulders, so that his head was 
sufficiently bowed to suit popular prejudice. 

Meanwhile, Smith was having a most melancholy time. Several 
times he was taken captive. Once he was condemned to death by his- 
own colony, because two Englishmen lost their lives fighting the Indians, 
under his command. But upon the very day when he was to be killed, 
Captain Newport fortunately returned from England, where he had been 
for supplies, and interceded for Smith's life. Smith was also stung by 
a poisonous fish when he was wading the creek, and was so severely 
poisoned that his friends had no doubt of his near death, and hastened 
to dig a grave for him, but this redoubtable hero unexpectedly brought 
himself to, and helped eat the fish that came so near ending him. By 
this time, what with malaria, lack of food and exposure, the colony had 
been reduced in nine months to about forty persons, but Newport's ship 
brought one hundred and twenty men, besides a stock of provisions, 
fanning implements, and of seeds. It seemed, however, as if good 
fortune was never to be theirs. Hardly had they got in better mood 
from Newport's help, than the fort was almost destroyed by fire. Worse 
still, the company became wildly excited over some hills of yellow mica, 
which they supposed to be gold, and this fever of happy excitement had 
its re-action, which left them more miserable and despondent than 
before. Smith spent the summer in sailing upon the waters of Virginia, 
along the bays and rivers, and in becoming acquainted with the different 
tribes of Indians. On the return from the last expedition. Smith was 
made president of the colony, a position which he had always desired. 
About the same time, Newport arrived again from England with a 
second supply of men and provisions, and with him the two first women 
of the colony. Mistress Forrest and her maid, Ann Burras. It is 
unnecessary to say that it was not many weeks before Ann Burras was 


Upon this occasion, Newport had orders from the London Council 
to bring home a hunp of gold, to discover the passage to the South 
Sea, and to find the survivors of the Roanoke colony. It goes without 
saying that he was able to do none of these things. All of his ingenuity 
was bent upon keeping the friendship of Powhatan, and he was 
aided in this, to a certain extent, by John Savage, an English lad, who, 
for thirteen years, lived with Powhatan, acting as an interpreter 
between the English and the Indians. Histoiy says little about his 
youth, and, indeed, his name is the only thing remembered of him, but 
he must have led a very wild and exciting life — indeed there must have 
been an uncertainty about his life which, of itself, made existence 
interesting. John Smith had difficulty in keeping the colony from 
starving. He relied chiefly upon the Indians for food, for the colonists 
were too lazy to protect the stores brought from England, but allowed 
them to decay and to become infested with the rats, which came in the 
ships, and which, like themselves, found a settlement on the shores of 
the new world. Smith's greatest trial was in trying to persuade the 
gentlemen about him that they were able to work, for they would 
neither plant, fish, nor hunt, and would shirk, like schoolboys, each 
task given them. It is said that two of them did go to work felling 
trees, and worked so hard that the president wrote that forty of them 
would be worth a hundred common men, but they failed to keep up 
their labor. At length, the entire council of the colony, with the 
exception of Smith, was drowned. Smith then became more necessary 
to the company, and more important in his own esteem than ever. The 
way in which he slew Indian chiefs of gigantic size, and, alone, routed 
great annies of savages, is more like the history of some modern Jack 
the Giant-Killer, than of any ordinary man. The colony was in very 
bad humor. Sometimes members of it mutinied, and two Dutchmen 
fled to the Indians, and inspired a conspiracy with Powhatan for the 
entire destruction of Jamestown. Smith learned of their plans, how- 
ever, and brought even Powhatan into a state of humility. But for 
all of his bravery, the colony was steadily failing. The cost by which 
it had been maintained was great, and, in 1609, the king found it nec- 
essary to form a new corporation to sustain it. This was composed of 
the most distinguished and wealthy men of England, and a fleet of nine 
ships, carrying five hundred people, left England in the month of May 
— a month when England is most beautiful — for the tragic shores of 
America. Seven of these reached the settlement in August, but one of 
them foundered at sea, and another, the Sra Adventure^ on board 


which was the admiral, Gates, Captain Newport, William Strachey 
and Summers, also failed to appear. This vessel was wrecked off the 
Bermudas, in a storm so terrible that the description which William 
Strachey afterwards gave of it served to inspire Shakespere's descrip- 
tion of the storm in the first act of "The Tempest." "Such was the 
tumult of the elements that the sea dashed above the clouds, and gave 
battle unto Heaven. It could not be said to be rain. The waters, like 
whole rivers, did flood into the air. Winds and seas were as mad as 
fury and rage could make them." They passed three days and four 
nights in this dreadful strait, and, on the last night of their struggle, 
were cheered with a strange, fantastic light, that trembled up among 
the shrouds and staj-ed there till the morning watch. When morning 
really came, they found the boat lodged between two rocks, in still 
waters. The passengers and crew of the Sea Adventure spent their 
winter on the island. The climate was delightful. There was hunting 
and fishing, as well as plenty of berries and wild fruits. A few persons 
died, others married, and there were two births. One of the little 
children born there, in the midst of the Atlantic ocean, was named 
Bennuda; the other, a boy, Bermudas. In May, a year from the time 
when they had left England, they started once more for the Virginian 

History — Smith's "True Relation of Virginia." 
Campbell's "Virginia." 
Doyle's "English Colonies in America." 
Fiction — Hopkins' "The Youth of the Old Dominion." 

Moseby's "Pocahontas." 
Poetry — Hillar's "Pocahontas," 

Seba Smith's "Powhatan." 
Mrs. Heman's "Pocahontas." 
Mrs. Sigourney's "Pocahontas." 
Dkama — Owen's "Pocahontas." 

Seagull's "Eastward, Ho!" 
Shakespere's "Tempest"— ist act. 






sHEN Sir Thomas Gates and his men arrived at the 
Virginian colony, they found things in a most 
distressing condition. Once more the people 
were without food, and were begging from the 
Indians. For one reason and another the Indians 
(' were becoming sullen, and were more inclined to 
fight than to give favors. Various smaller settle- 
ments were started around about, and John Smith, in 
visiting one of these, met with a serious accident by the 
explosion of gunpowder, which made it necessary for 
him to go to Englana. Percy became president in 
the place of Smith, but he was a character of a very 
different sort. It needed Smith's overbearing deter- 
^ mi nation to control the men of the colony. Smith had 
been able to make the colonists work a little. Percy was not able to do 
this. What with hard drink and idleness, and all of its various conse- 
quences, the men were reduced in health and in courage. They 
had killed the domestic animals and eaten up all the supplies which 
Smith had seen to the storing of That horrible winter is known as the 
starving time, a name which is remarkably appropriate, for at the time 
of Gates' arrival only sixty out of five hundred were alive. These 
were hardly alive, and a few of them came crawling out to welcome 
Gates when he arrived. This was in May, 1610. No scene more 
disorderly and desolate could be imagined. The verj' houses had been 
torn down for firewood, because the colonists had been afraid to venture 
into the woods. Gates thought it best not to live in a place so associated 


■with terror and death. There were two vessels in port, and Gates was 
possessed of two which his men had built on the Bermudas. They 
boarded these and were about riding out of the harbor when word was 
brought them from Lord de la Ware that he was coming to their help 
with men and provisions. Lord de la Ware was chief of the London 
Company-, although up to this time he had not himself visited the colony. 
It had been with much care that Commander Gates saved the block -house, 
where the people had huddled that terrible winter, from being burned, 
for the colonists, like a set of crazy schoolboys, were much fonder of 
destroying than building up, and if they could have had their way, 
would have set fire to everything in Jamestown. They had reason to 
be ver\' thankful that Gates' wiser advice had been followed, and that 
upon the command of Lord de la Ware to return, they had a place to 
go into. Whatever these gentlemen of the old time did, they did with 
ceremon}'. They may have been very ragged and very worthless, but 
they were always dignified and pretentious. The landing of Lord de 
la Ware was a matter for much ceremony. It began, as did all their 
demonstrations, with praj-er. Though Lord de la Ware was so successful 
and brilliant a nobleman and governor, he bore always a spirit of tnie 
and sincere humility. He was, above all things, deeply reverential, and 
though he could be severe, he coiild also be gentle. It was the time 
now to be severe, and he determined there should be no more idleness, 
no more hard drinking, and much less playing of games among the 
wayward colonists. He began trading with the Indians for corn, built 
two substantial forts, and started various schemes, some of which were not 
successful. In a year the malaria, which had affected so many of the 
colonists, overpowered him, and it was necessary- for him to return to 
England. Shortly after his leaving Virginia, Thomas Gates and another 
commander. Sir Thomas Dale, arrived from England with fresh expedi- 
tions. They had not only men, but what was actually more important at 
that time, victuals and domestic animals. Sir Thomas seems to have 
understood, better than any who had preceded him, the economy by 
which a young nation should preserve itself To each man he gave 
three acres of ground, which should belong to him absolutely. He no 
longer allowed them to live upon the public stores. It became necessary 
for them to make their living, or starve. He insisted upon their building 
houses for themselves, and checked the disease which had spread so 
rapidly when they persisted upon crowding into one poorly ventilated 
shed. New settlements were made about this time, and though they 
were under the same local g-overnment, it extended the cidtivation of land. 


For the first time streets were laid out, and the plantations had definite 
boundaries. This progress was slow, but under the^e two determined 
leaders, it was sure. 

Stories of the wildness and drunkenness of the men of "Virginia 
had been carried back to England, and the dignified members of the 
lyondon corporation there detennined to uproot these evils by a set of 
laws. They must have imagined that the natures of Englishmen were 
very much changed by crossing the Atlantic, for it is certain that no 
Englishman living in their native island ever obeyed such laws as these. 
There was a penalty of death for wilfully pulling up a flower, a root or 
an herb when set to weeding. He who uttered an oath had a bodkin 
thrust tlirough his tongue at the second offense, and at the third offense 
suffered death. If he was absent from the place of public worship, he 
was deprived of a week's allowance for the first offense, publicly 
whipped for the second, and killed for the third. No one was allowed 
to kill any domestic animal, not even a chicken or a dog, though it 
might belong to the person who killed it. A tradesman who neglected 
his business was sent to the galleys for four years if he persisted in the 
offense. It was evident that the great waste of money, time, oppor- 
tunity and supplies of which the colony had been guilty had irritated 
the London Company into making these ridiculous regulations. Still 
more severe than these were the martial rules, which each private 
citizen was expected to know and obey. 

For the first time the colony began to make some money. It came 
from the sale of tobacco, and, for the raising of this plant, the cultiva- 
tion of corn was neglected. It was through the taxation of tobacco in 
England that the colony came to open its first 'rading with Holland, 
and the indirect outcome of it was the first quanel with England. A set- 
tlement was finally made, but not for several years. From the extreme 
of idleness the colonists went to the extreme of industry, as soon as their 
love for money prompted it, and those who owned no land did not hesi- 
tate to plant tobacco in the very streets of Jamestown. England began 
to see that the wealth of Virginia did not lie in gold, nor its advantages 
in a passage to the southern seas. Tobacco charmed them, as the 
prospects of Cathay had bewitched them before. Men were sent over 
in ship-loads, and most of these men were criminals, who had been con- 
demned to serve out a term of years. Others were paupers, who sold 
themselves into this voluntary slavery for a given period of time, with 
the understanding that at the end of that time they were to become free 
cil'zens. Worse, still, so valuable did men become, that in 1619 a 


Dutch ship came to Jamestown with a cargo of negroes, from the coast 
of Guinea. And thus the negro was brought under the American- 
English government for the first time. It was the beginning of slavery' 
in the colonies of the new world. 

Perhaps it is hardly worthy of mention — of such slight imi^ortance 
were things of this nature — that Captain Argall, who was for a 
time governor of the colony, saw fit to destroy a little colony of French, 
at Port Royal, in the Bay of Fundy. The destniction of a few men in 
those days mattered but little, and even the historian would only think 
this worthy of mention, because it was one of the first outbreaks 
between the French and the English. Governor Argall set the example 
of greediness. He and his colony gave themselves up to a near-sighted 
plan of money-making, neglecting all those things which were neces- 
sary for the real comfort of their homes, and for the better mode of 
living. The distinguished Lord de la Ware was sent out to displace him, 
but he died on his way. Sir George Yeardley was made President of 
Virginia, which now numbered about six hundred persons. Their 
reduction had come from the same old mismanagement. There was a 
scarcity of food. To put them in better position, Yeardley gave them 
the power of self-government, and on July 30, 1619, met the first legis- 
lative assembly in this country. It had twenty-two representatives, a 
governor, and the council. 

Here, the first blow was struck at intemperance. There was an 
enactment against drunkenness, making it a punishable offence. 

Three hundred members of the colony died the ne.xt year. The 
king determined to replace these men. He sent one hupdred felons 
from the jails of England. Sir Edward Sandys, one of the most 
thoughtful, courteous and cultivated men in Virginia, did what he 
could to turn this mistake into an advantage. He founded a university 
at Henricho, one of the smaller settlements, where both Indians and 
whites were accepted as pupils. About this University were ten 
thousand acres of land, and here, in less than two years, one hundred 
men were settled. Then, a fortunate thing happened. One hundred 
English maidens offered to come to the colony, as wives for the young 
men. After this there were homes. Wherever there are homes, there 
is order. For the first time, it began to look as if there might be a 
new and prosperous England on the shores of America. 

Another thing that marked this year was the sending out of many 
poor boys and girls, from the overcrowded factories of England, to 
»erve as apprentices in America. These boys and girls, who, in the 



condition of England, might have been doomed to a life of constant 
drndgery, laid the foundation of some of the best and most 
distinguished families of this conntry. Within a year 1,261 persons 
came to this conntry, either through Sir Edward Sandys, who was 
treasurer of the company, or through private ventures. Sir Edward 
Sandys should be remembered by all who love books, and have 
enjoyed the blessing of a free-school instruction, as the founder of the 
first school in America, and the writer of the first book. This was a 
translation of Ovid, made in leisure hours, upon the banks of the 
James river. 


History— Jefierson's "Notes on Virginia." 

Jefferson's "Old Churches of Virginia." 
Biography— Spark's "American Biographies." 
Fiction — Thackeray's "Virginians." 

Cooke's "Virginia Couiediaus." 
Janies' "Old Dominion," 
Defoe's "Jacques." 


l|orumbga^ l^g Jinuliful 


'^'*\I>EANWHILE, there were settlements far to the 
north. Maine was a most attractive country to 
^ the voyager. Its innumerable lakes and beautiful 

J>^3^i rivers, its magnificent coast, its hills and meadows, 
were all tempting. For three-fourths of a centurj', 
or nearly that, explorers had dallied about it. often 
stopping for a while and making insecure settlements. 
Not only had the English been enamored with it 
through all these years, but the French, as well, had 
loved to coast along its shores and explore its interior, 
and both nations had given names to its rivers and bays, 
its capes and islands. In nothing more than in this 
naming, was the different policy of the two nations 
shown. The English made the mistake of insisting 
upon the use of their own favorite names. The French used the Indian 
names, and seemed to bend to the customs and prejudices of the race whose 
countr}' they were invading. This was a very sure way of winning and 
keeping friendship. The French went further. They dressed as the 
Indians did whenever it was possible for them to do so; they hunted 
afte.- the fashion of the Indians, and fished with Indian tackle. Imita- 
tion is the sincerest flatter}-, and it could not fail to have its eff"ect even 
upon a race of savages. 

Innumerable voyages were made by both French and English to 
Norumbega, which was then the musical appellation of that countr\-, 
but no one ventured to put a king's name upon the soil or to found 
a lasting colony. The first actual settlement made in Maine was led by 
De Monts a governor of the province of Spain. With him came Samuel 


de Cliamplain. Both of these men had previously been to Maine upon 
expeditions, but this time they came with a charter from Henr^' IV. 
De Monts was created Lieutenant-General of Acadia, as the country 
was called, from the fortieth to the forty-sixth degree of north latitude. 
De Monts was a Huguenot, one of the despised sect, but he had given 
such signal service to Henr>' IV that it was decided to trust him with 
this important venture; but while he was to follow his conscience in the 
matter of his own personal religion, it was agreed that the savages over 
which he had ruled were to be converted into Catholicism. Thc- 
merchants of Rouen and Rochelle constituted the company which held 
the letters patent to the trade in furs and fish in Acadia. With De 
Monts came certain distinguished noblemen, Jean de Vincourt, the Baron 
de Pontrincourt, and Cliamplain. These gentlemen were anxious to 
find a quiet spot, to which they might bring their friends and families 
and live in peace, undisturbed by the politics of the Old World. Tt took 
the expedition two months to reach the eastern coast of Nova Scotia, 
and a month to explore the coast. They decided to settle their 
colony on a little island in the St. Croix river. Their histor)' is similar 
to that of the colonies who settled farther south. There were the same 
hardships, the same carelessness and lack of forethought, and the same 
suffering. Champlain coasted far to the south, taking in the innu- 
merable points of the bewildering coast, and turning up the mouth of 
ever}' river which he came to. The Indians were not inclined to be 
amiable. Doubtless they had had too many previous experiments with 
invaders. So wretched did the condition of the colony become, that it 
became necessary*, in the course of a few months, to move it to a harbor 
in Acadia, and here for several 3'ears it lived feebly. 

It will be remembered that the Virginian colony was sustained by 
a company which had its headquarters in London, and that this was 
one of two companies which the king granted patents to. The northern 
company sent out, in 1605, a fleet of ships, under the care of George 
Weymouth. The experiences of Weymouth and his sailors were not of 
the usual sort. They were delightful. They landed upon the pleas- 
antest of spots, and encountered beautiful weather. They found pearls 
in the shells on the beaches, and excellent clay for brickmaking, and 
trees whose gums smelled like frankincense. The Indians were friendly 
and hospitable, but the return made was that which could always be 
expected; Weymouth kidnaped five Indians, and carried them to 
England. The report which he brought to England hastened the 
action of the northern Virginia company in sending out that vain 


expedition of theirs, under the charge of Raleigh, Gilbert and George 
Pophani. A few months, as has been said before, ended the existence 
of the settlement. Then the French made a second attempt. This 
was in 1608. The expedition was under the leadership of Champlain, 
who sailed to where Quebec now stands, and founded that ancient city. 
He finished a fine, if primitive, fort there, saw that garden plots were 
laid out and planted, and then left the colony to its own industries, 
looking in on it from time to time in the midst of his many voyages. 

No more adventurous spirit than he ever lived. His story reads 
like a romance, and one of his adventures is too interesting to pass. 
He started up the great river St. Lawrence, with a few companions, 
giving names as he went to the tributaries. So appropriate were these 
names that they cling to this day. At the mouth of the Richelieu river 
he met, by appointment, a party of natives. These were on the war- 
path against the Iroquois. He went with these Indians, sending back all 
but two of his men. The light canoes were carried from water to 
water, and at last they reached the magnificent lake of Champlain, the 
only thing which this great voyager ever gave his name to. After 
several da3's they met their foes. All night they camped upon the 
banks of the river, taunting each other with wild cries, and in the 
morning the savages confronted each other. The two parties approached 
until they were within a few hundred feet of each other, then Cham- 
plain's party of Indians opened, and let the astonished Iroquois behold 
the spectacle of three white men. The well-aimed guns of the French 
wounded three Iroquois, and the entire party took to flight. After this 
battle, Champlain returned to Quebec, and lived there in some primitive 
state as governor. With one interruption, when the French yielded 
their possessions to England, he was governor tintil 1635. The little 
struggling colony in Maine, which had been planted by De Monts, had 
but a sorr}' time. As might have been expected, De Monts' authority was 
finally taken from him, because of the prejudice existing against Hugue- 
nots. However, he managed to get over in 1606, just in time to keep 
the discouraged colonists from starting for France. About this time 
Pontrincourt returned from France, with orders to make the new settle- 
ment a central station for the conversion of the Indians, and brought 
with him a number of Jesuit missionaries. These, and the missionaries 
that succeeded them, have been ^'er>' prominent in religious work of this 
continent. The patroness of these voyages was Madame la Marquise de 
Guercheville, who was a very- devoted member of the Catholic Church, 
and who later held the grant, not only of Acadia, but tlic entire territory 


covered by the United Str.tes. In 1630, she sent other ships, with two 
more Jesuits. These settled upon Mt. Desert, one of the loveliest 
places, ever>' one will admit, on this continent, with mountains which 
reach down to the sea and lakes beyond the mountains, with vallej's 
and grand meadows. Flowers of all sorts grew here, and berries, all up 
the green mountain sides, which reached two thousand feet above the 
sea. The Indians were friendh", and turned willing ears to the preaching 
of the priests. The settlement was comfortabl}' established, when 
Argall came up from the Virginian colony. Without any warning, he 
opened a cruel warfare :ipon the peaceful people, stole the commission 
of their leader, and, under the pretense that they had settled without 
royal consent, arrested them. Many of them he took to Jamestown. 
Others were left to find their way in an open boat to Port Royal. 

History— Williamson's "Maine." 

Lodge's "English Colonies in America." 

Voyages of Samuel de Champlain." 

Thompson's "Vermont." 
Fiction— D. P. Thompson's "Grant Gurley." 
Poetry— Whittier's ''Norumbega." 

Whittier's "Bride of Pennacook.*' 

Whittier's "Mogg Megone." 


i0nt[U0$l of l^e li[ilWn0$$. 




' N STEAD of disapproving of this cniel 
action, the Governor of Jamestown 
sent him back to the pleasant hamlet 
of Acadia, where the French had a 
settlement, so thoronghly national 
in all of its characteristics that it 
seemed like a little piece of France 
set down upon the shores of the new 
world. None of the other colonists, 
then or later, accepted all of the trials 
which they experienced in an uncul- 
tivated countr)', with more bravery 
and jocularity of spirit. Thej- were 
fond of dancing and all sorts of 
merriments. They built their houses 
neatly, sustained their church, rever- 
enced their priest, and from the first 
encouraged home industries. They had herds of fine cattle and sheep, 
and well cared for fields. All of these possessions Argall destroyed. He 
burned the fort, drove away the cattle, and putting all the Acadians 
upon ships, with such of their worldly goods as he did not care to 
confiscate, sent them away from the home which they had, with the 
Frenchman's effusiveness, already learned to regard with so much 
affection. Long years after, when some of the Acadians were ver}' old, 
they came sadly back to die near the spot which they had learned to 
love so warmly. 

In 1614 Captain John Smith, who could not by any series of mis- 
fortunes be kept in England, came over to see what might be going on 
along the coast of Maine. He and his men were looking for gold, but as 
fishing seemed at that time to be as paying a business as gold mines, and 


as fishing was a bird in the hand, while mining was still in the bush, he 
concluded to lade his ships with a cargo of the best fish to be found 
along the coast. He carried home, in addition to this, twenty-seven 
savages, seized by his shipmaster, who were taken to Spain and dis- 
posed of there at a profit. But these were rescued by some Spanish 
friars, and finally returned to their native home. After laying the mat- 
ter of cod fishing before the English king and lords, he made another 
attempt to reach America in 161 5, but was driven back to port by 
storms, and historj- tells little or nothing more of him. 

About this time Ferdinando Gorges, who was president of the 
Plymouth Company in England, determined to send out a settlement at 
his own expense, since none of the companies seemed to second him in 
his aspiration to establish a successful fislier}\ The man whom he chose 
to cany out his plan was Richard Vines. So many selfish and con- 
temptible characters figured in the early history of America, that it is a 
relief to think of one man who was thoroughly good and noble in all 
that he did. Richard Vines was associated with no great discovery or 
conqest. He did not bring his nation any great wealth, but his life was 
one which everyone is glad to think of He reached Sago Bay in 161 7, 
and found that a terrible plague had broken out, which was rapidly 
thinning the Indian tribes. Vines coiild easily have left and gone back 
to England, or to some other port, but he stayed among the plague- 
stricken Indians as a physician, and attended them constantly through 
all of their trials. Neither he nor his men were ever ill, although they 
laid in cabins where the Indians were dying with the disease. His 
work of exploration through this tedious winter was verj' careful. He 
made the coast more thoroughly known to the English, and ventured 
far into the interior. It is said that he was the first to describe the 
White j\Iountains, if not the first to venture among them. Another 
thing that distinguished him from other Englishmen, was the fact that 
he always opposed the giving of rum to the Indians. 

Gorges sent out other expeditions, which, for various reasons, had no 
satisfactory results, though one of his mariners discovered Long Island 
Sound. The Northern Company of Plymouth had much difficulty 
about its charter at this time, not being satisfied with the relations 
which they bore to the Virginian colony. The French here pvit in a 
claim that the London Company was encroaching on the south. 
The Dutch had begun to creep in the slip which was left between 
the boundaries designated by tlie London and Plymouth grants. Just 
how all of this was finally divided up, it would be wearisome to 


write, and wearisome to read, and, since none of the grants were very 
enduring, it is perhaps best to pass over the geographical division. 

But one of these, the Laconia grant, given in 1623, should be 
especially mentioned, because from it came the settlement of New 
Hampshire. This was owned by Gorges and John Mason, and these 
two men sent over a ship-load of settlers, some of whom were fishennen, 
and others farmers, with a suppl>' of food and tools. A part of this 
company settled at Strawberry Bank, which they named because of the 
beautiful wild strawberries growing rank over the fields. What was 
Strawberr)- Bank, is now Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The other 
party went up the river a few miles and settled the plantation of Dover, 
which was verj- near the place where the present city of Dover stands. 

About this time, the English trade on the American coast had so 
increased, that in one year fifty ships came into English ports, with 
cargoes of various sorts, from America. 

The settlement of the ]\Iaine coast went on slowly. Many expeditions 
were sent out, which promised, in the beginning, to be successful, but 
the Englishmen seem to have been afflicted with home-sickness, and 
were forever leaving their cabins on that stern coast and going back to 
their milder countr}-. A certain merry captain, by the name of Levitt, 
started a plantation at the place he called York, which stands near the 
present city of York, and many other men built similar plantations, and 
fishers scattered huts along the beach, which protected them upon their 
fishing expeditions. At this time, all of the Plymouth company was 
under charge of the Governor, Robert Gorges, the son of Ferdinando. He 
visited America, but did not like the countr}-, and only remained a few 
months. It was not until 1625 that the company from Bristol, under 
the patronage of Robert Aldworth and Giles Eldridge, came to Monhegan 
Island, which these two wealthy merchants had purchased. They also 
bought the Point of Pemaquid, and established there a vigorous colony. 
A little later, the towns of Biddeford and Saco were founded by Richard 
Vines and John Oldham. In 1631 Mason and Gorges divided their 
grant, drawing the boundary between Maine and New Hampshire, 
Mason taking New Hampshire, and Gorges such portion of Maine as 
belonged to him. Gorges offered to bring planters to his dominion, 
promising to give them land at a very low rate, and, if they would consent 
to form a city or town, to give them such laws and liberties as they had 
enjoyed in England. His system of law-giving had in it a touch of 
feudalism, although this arose from its simplicity, aud not from any 
desire of Gorges to play the tyrant. He did more than an}- other one 


man iu the Northern Company towards settling America, but his repu- 
tation had suffered, because he was thought to have prejudices against 
the Puritans, who by this time were clinging like barnacles to the stem 
rocks of Plymouth. 

More interesting to the present American than the details and dates,. 
is the life of those early settlers. One likes to think about them living 
among these magnificent Maine woods, which alread)- began to furnish 
the ships of the rich countries of the Old World with spars and masts. 
The colonists were poor, it is true, but their wants were few. People of 
all stations made their morning and evening meal of boiled corn and 
milk, or pork and beans, or pork and peas. They drank home-made 
beer and cider. Tea and coffee were not }-et brought to this country. 
Their bread was usually of rye and Indian meal. They were not gay 
people like the French. They lived sternly, with rigid laws, and had 
a very high standard of morality. If vice was not punished with death, 
it was followed with such disgrace that the culprit had no longer any 
desire to live among his old friends. The laws here, however, were 
much milder than those of the other New England colonies, and people 
)ersecuted by the Puritans found that the\- could take refuge in Maine. 
On the other hand, there were disadvantages in being so close to Canada, 
for the French and Indians continually threatened the English colonies, 
and man}' Englishmen were carried captive up through that gap called 
Crawford's Notch, where the Sago river winds in creek-like narrowness, 
and which Richard Vines was the first white man to pass through. The 
traditions of Crawford's Notch are many and pathetic. 

The Indians had good cause to be bitter. There were acts of such 
wanton cruelty and contempt on the part of the settlers that the Indians 
would have been less than human had they not retaliated. At one 
time Massachusetts, fearing for the remote New Hampshire settle- 
ments, sent one hundred and thirty men to Dover to join the force of 
Major Waldron, who commanded there. He desired to punish the 
Indians for some massacres of which they had been guilty, and gave 
orders to his men to seize all of the Indians who had been guilty of 
murder. He invited the Indians, who were disposed for peace, to come 
to him under flag of truce. This was in 1671. He then drew his men 
up in line of battle, and asked the Indians to take part in a mock 
training. Anything of this sort suited their nature well, and they went 
at the sport with enthusiasm. At the command to fire, their muskets 
were emptied into the air, and then the troops closed around them, and 
took them all prisoners at the point of the bayonet. It had been 


Major Waldron's intention to retain only those interested in the massacre 
referred to — which was not extensive, thongh very heart-rending in its 
details — but little care was taken to look into the personal character 
of the Indians, and two hundred were sent to Boston and sold as slaves. 
It is no wonder that such treachery was punished. Murders among the 
outlying farms became frequent, and in 1689 Major Waldron's mock 
training bore its fruit. He had sown the wind and reaped the whirlwind. 
At Dover, there were five garrison houses, secure and well built. 
With such protection Waldron thought the people safe, and allayed the 
suspicion of some, who noticed the unusual actions among the Indians, 
by telling them to go back to their pumpkin planting; that he could 
attend to the Indians. One fair June day, at ever}' garrison house two 
squaws asked that they might be allowed to spend the night. The peo- 
ple let them in. At midnight the squaws arose, imbolted the gates and 
admitted the Indians. Old Major Waldron, now eighty years of age, 
was sleeping securely in his bed when the savages entered, fierce with a 
pent-up indignation of thirteen years. His determination and strength 
had not deserted him for all of his old age, and he drove the Indians 
from room to room by the soldierly method in which he handled his 
sword. But their number was too great for him. They seated them- 
selves at the table, on which they had placed Major Waldron in a 
chair. The women of the house they forced to serve them. After they 
had eaten, each of the Indians slit some part from the body of the 
Major. His nose, ears and right hand were cut off, and when, at last, 
he failed from loss of blood, they held a sword so that he might fall 
upon it. Everything of value was taken from the house, and it was 
set on fire. Throughout the settlement there was a general conflict. 
Twenty-three persons were killed, and twenty-nine were taken to 
Canada and sold to the French. But it was the stealing of women and 
children from the farm-houses, the terrible captivity, the long marches, 
the strange and savage life, not unfrequently accompanied by torture, 
which held the people in the northern settlements in the greatest fear. 
The details of the various fights with the Indians are too sad to tell. 
There was no time entirely free from hostility, and, in 1690, when the 
Governor of Canada organized expeditions of French and Indians 
against the colonists in New England and New York, and the northern 
settlements, of course, suffered intensely. Traditions of great heroism 
have come down from those times. The endurance of the people was 
wonderful, and it is difficult for us to believe how much they could 
undergo and live. 



The settlemeuts of Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire have now 
been tonched upon. Their colonies grew very slowly. At one time 
^•^ew Hampshire was connected with Alassachusetts in government, and 
at another time with New York, but finally, in 1741, it became a sepa- 
rate province, with a royal governor, who lived in great elegance at 
Portsmouth. Englishmen of great wealth and learning settled here, 
building substantial houses and furnishing them with massi\-e and 
costly goods. The northern townships constantly filled with imriii- 
grants from Scotland and Ireland, and, by the time of the American 
Revolution, New Hampshire was a very sturdy and independent colony. 

It was one hundred ^-ears from the time that Champlain first entered 
Vermont that the European settlers built there, and, until the time of 
the Revolution, it was not known as a separate colony, but was called 
New Hampshire grants. 

HiSTORV— Parkman's "The Old Regi; 


'Histon- of Nova Scotia." 
New Hampshire." 



p^r- \*i^i ^ ^^^ beginning of the seventeenth centur>- ther? 
were three European colonies established — none 
of them ver>- strong. This was when the French 
^ .-<f^^ were still in Acadia, the Spanish at St Augus- 
^/^ " tine, and the English on the James river. Spain had 
'^wi«^<" '- grown strong in Mexico and Peru, and in the conquest of 
i^P^^W those countries had gained enormoits riches, but the other 
nations had received little return for the money and 
enterprise la\ished upon the New World. Spain, puffed 
up with pride, here lost, by following a selfish policy in 
every direction. The Indians were being persecuted, 
the inquisition was in force and the Netherlands were 
being heavily oppressed. Great sums of money had been 
taken from the Netherlands, and a revenue drawn from 
them out of all proportion to their possessions. The}- were intelligent 
and liberal people, but were not allowed to have institutions of the sort 
that they demanded, and were treated more like slaves than a nation of 
great merchants and farmers. A most brutal governor was placed over 
them, and out of his cruelty- grew the long series of wars, which finally 
ended in a struggle for independence. At the close of it, the Netherlands 
became one of the most vigorous nations of Europe, and a refuge for all 
who were oppressed in other countries. Everyone knows how they 
seemed to snatch their lands from the very arms of the ocean. Their 
farms flourished with wonderful luxuriance. Their cities became 
leading commercial cities of the world, and their dykes barred the 
ocean from their possessions, only admitting it when it could aid them. 
The East India trade, which for so many years was one of the chief 


sources of income to Europe, was almost monopolized by them, and 
they had the sole right to send trading vessels around the Cape of 
Good Hope and through tlie Straits of Magellan. They also established 
a company for the purpose of trading at the West Indies, though for 
sometime this was not successful. As their interests were so associated 
with those of the East Indies, they, as well as other nations, had looked 
for that never-to-be-found northwest passage. The voyages which they 
sent out were many, but all of them failed. At last their little country, 
which gave out such wonders of wealth, seemed to be cultivated almost 
to its last acre, and they began to tuni their eyes toward the New World. 
They had watched the English voyages with much interest, and had 
heard of the .skill of a certain navigator, Henr}' Hudson, who had been 
employed in one of these expeditions. For this man they sent, and 
signed a contract with him which was to give him a certain sum of 
gold for his family during his absence, and to give his widow a sum of 
money in the e\-ent of his death, if he would search to the best of his 
ability for the pathway to India. On Saturday, the 4th of April, 1609, 
Hudson sailed from Amsterdam, on the Half Moon. His crew was 
composed of English and Dutch sailors — rather an unfortunate combina- 
tion. The Half Moon went up the Norway coast toward North Cape, 
and toward Nova Zembla; but so crowded was the .sea with jangling 
bergs and floating cakes of ice, and so impatient was his crew, that he 
was obliged to turn back. Acting upon their advice, he concluded to 
sail westward, and, reaching the American coast, to search for the 
possibility of an opening, by waj' of a river, to the desired Indian sea. 
He anchored in Penobscot Bay on July 18th, and remained there 
several days, while his crew repaired the vessel. Tliey treated the 
Indians in a murderous way, and found it necefsar)' to leave the bay in 
haste. He went close to the entrance of Chesapeake Bay, but did 
not visit his friends at Jamestown, perhaps because he did not wish 
to be seen in the service of another country. He turned northward 
again, and coasted until the 2d of September, when he reached a most 
beautiful bay, and .saw the hills of Neversink to the northward. The 
men were delighted with the wonderful harbor that lay before them, 
and passed beyond Sandy Hook, up into the Narrows. The small boats 
were put out to explore and fish, and on the 4th of August the first 
European stepped upon Coney Island. Finally the strait beyond the 
Narrows was explored, and grassy shores, pleasant flowers and goodly 
hees were all examined. They had a disastrous encounter with the 
Indians, who killed one of the sailors and wounded two others and 


then Hudson decided to push his boat up the great river which opened 
before him. It was in the midst of August, and oppressively hot, though 

It can easily be imagined that the hills of Staten Island and all those 
wonderful woods of L,ong Island were at their best. The boat went up 
with the tide, anchoring at night. The Indians were much delighted 
with the novel sight, and crowded out to the ship, bringing corn and 
tobacco with them. Nearly two centuries of civilization have not been 
able to spoil the Hudson, but one can guess that it must have been even 
more majestic then than now. So silent was it, so wild and rugged, 
that the sailors were awe-stricken as their boat turned slowly up the 
stream, and floated by the wooded hills and the Palisades to the High- 
lands. At length the stream got too narrow for the Half Moon to go 
farther, and Hudson was obliged to content himself by sending portions 
of his crew, in small boats, as far as the present site of Albany. With 
much regret, he was forced to believe that this was only a river running 
north, through which he could hope to find no opening to India. It 
was then that Hudson gave to certain Indian chiefs, with whom he had 
had pleasant trading, the banquet which lived in Indian tradition one 
hundred years, and which even the Dutch settlers along the banks oi 
the Hudson have been glad to relate of Hendrick Hudson and his merry 
crew. The Indians saw him depart with much regret, for he had 
furnished them with a very novel excitement; but it seemed as if Euro- 
peans were never to visit this country without being guilty of some act 
of great injustice to the natives. Hudson's men did not leave the 
beautiful "River by the Mountains," as they called it, without brutally 
killing a couple of Indians. The affair led to a general fight. Hudson 
started for Holland, but stopped at Dartmouth harbor, in England, and 
was held there by the English government, which saw that it had made 
a mistake in letting a man of such ability pass into the employ of a 
foreign nation. He was retained in the service of the Moscovy 
Company, for which he had previously sailed, and in 1610, made that 
last fatal voyage to the northwest, when he discovered the bay whicii 
bears his name. There among that white and desolate waste his men 
mutinied, tied him hand and foot and threw him on board a boat, with 
his son and a few companions. No one ever heard of him aftersvards, 
but the little children living up among the highlands on the Hud.son 
river still say, when the thunder rolls, "There are Hendrick Hudson and 
his crew playing nine-pins among the hills." 

Holland did not seem to be especially interested in Hudson's 



discoveries. It was not anxious, like Spain and England, for great 
territorial possessions. Since it could not have the northwest passage, 
il cared little about America and her virgin soil. But, though the 
governn-.ent was indifferent to the matter, certain private merchants 
thought they saw a way to make much money, by exchanging trifles 
for costly furs. The experiment worked well, and, in a short time, a 
very brisk trade had sprung up between the Indians and the Dutch ; the 
funny little vessels of the Hollanders going along the coast and up the 
streams, visiting the Indian hamlets and giving a few beads, or some 
other such trumpery, in exchange for beautiful skins. A sort of fort 
and store-house was built on Manhattan Island, as a station for their 
wares. The Netherland merchants soon saw that they had struck a 
good thing, and began to push their territory- north and south. 
Incidentally, they added some fresh discoveries to the few which their 
country had made. Among the captains distinguished in these discov- 
eries were Hendrick Christaensen, Adriaen Block and Cornelis Jacob- 
sen May. Adriaen Block was the first European to pass through Hurl- 
gate. This was in 1614. He, too, discovered and named the rocky 
little island which raises its head fifteen miles out of the New York 
liarbor, and which bears his name to this day. He spent the winter of 
161 3-14 on Manhattan Island, having lost his ship, the Tiger ^ by fire, 
and finding it necessary to build another. This he named the Onntst^ 
meaning the restless. It was he who first traversed Long Island 
Sound and sailed up the Connecticut river. He went along the New 
England coast as far as Nahant, and called that the limit of New 
Netherland. He entered the blue Narragansett Bay, and saw there the 
red island, or Roode Island, as he called it, fro n which our State of 
Rhode Island takes its name. Cape May was named after Captain May. 
Hendrick Christaensen biiilt the first great trading post up the Hudson 
river, on Castle Island, close by Albany. He was an excellent agent, of 
adventurous spirit, and was rapidly acqtiiring power and wealth, when 
he was killed by an Indian whom he had taken on a voyage to Holland, 
but had safely restored to his home. His position as Governor was 
taken by Jacob Eelkens. Out of the many Dutch navigators, these 
three men are especially remembered for their faithful services to 

The merchants who had first opened trade about Manhattan and the 

Hudson became alarmed at the munber who had followed their example, 

and succeeded in getting an ordinance to protect themselves. In this 

charter the name of New Netherland was officially given to that strip 



of land which lay between the 40th and 45th degrees, and which had 
the London Company upon one side and the Plymouth Company on the 
other. This was four years from the time that Hendrick Hudson's 
men pushed the //a// Moon into the Narrows. The merchants desired 
that this be given them for a term of three years, for they saw nothing 
in the venture except chances for successful trade. They were satisfied 
with their own, which, indeed, was the most advanced of the age, and, 
having no desire to settle on their new possessions, merely wished to 
get what wealth they could out of it. Their trading grounds extended 
widely, and their relations with the Indians were friendly. The shores 
of Delaware Bay and river were explored, and the trade for seal skins 
opened with the natives. They went as far south as the cape they named 
Henlopen, and wished to have a charter for the ground to this limit, 
but the Republic of Holland was afraid that it might be an encroach- 
ment upon the bounds of Virginia, and refused. The trading post on 
Castle Island was moved to a safer spot, where the spring freshets could 
not disturb it, and put in a more secure building, in 1618, the charter 
for which the Holland merchants had asked expired, but they continued 
to trade with much the same freedom as before, and with so overbeai- 
ing a policy that few ventured to trespass upon the ground which 
they claimed. So, in 162 1, the West India Conipau)', which had 
never really done anything previous to this, secured a charter which 
gave it great power. Among other things, its authority over the 
Dutch territory in America was absolute. It had a right to appoint all 
of the governing officers, and to rule with what laws it chose. It was 
to build forts, and to insure the protection of its own possessions. It had 
a board of nineteen delegates in the brave little country at home, and 
these ruled the great stretch of land by the Hudson. Thirty-two ves- 
sels-of-war and eighteen anned yachts were at the service of the com- 
pany, in case it needed protection. 

The first ship which went over with settlers was in 1623. ^^ her 
was a large company of Walloons. These Walloons were not Dutch- 
men, but Frenchmen, who had been driven from their home on account 
of their religion, to find a settlement in free Holland, for in France 
they had been treated in a most cruel and relentless manner. They 
were a class quite by themselves, and had kept, for many generations, 
their old French words and customs, so that they neither belonged to 
France of that day nor to any other country. The>- were quite 
distinguished for their mechanical cleverness, and for their .saving 
industr/. It is easy to see how such people should have an ambition to 


enter a countn- which the\- could call their own, and the West India 
directors, hearing of this aspiration, made them offers whicli they 
accepted. They sailed imder Captain Cornells Jacobsen May, and 
settled on the site of Albany. In a short time they had a group of 
comfortable bark houses, a goodly field of corn, and a pier, at which 
the round-prowed vessels of the Dutch could anchor. A part of the 
Walloons, and of the New Netherland passengers also, settled at Fort 
Orange. Some went to the north of the Connecticut river, and others 
to the western end of Long Island. A fort was built on the South 
river, and a trading establishment on Manhattan Island. So the Dutch 
now traded peaceably along the coast of the New Netherlands, and, 
being thrifty people, who were willing to treat the Indians with fair- 
ness, and with a love for buying and selling, they soon became quite 
prosperous. The Dutch settlements had three different governors 
during this period of its existence, the last of whom, Peter Minuet, 
succeeded, after a series of successes and mistakes, in making Man- 
hattan the central point of interest. The first pictures of this are 
very curious. They show groups of new buildings of wood and bark, 
and Fort Amsterdam, with its quadrangular stone walls, and a great, 
awkward Dutch wind-mill, which the ships in the harbor dwarfed to 
insignificant size. Under Peter Minuet, the colonists tried to come to 
an understanding with the Plymouth Company, but, though many 
courtesies were exchanged on both sides, the English frankly said that 
they considered the Dutch intruders. 

A great need was felt for some more substantial scheme of govern- 
ment. It was evident that the Dutch were not sufficienth' interested in 
the country to which they had come, and that it was a mistake to take 
all of the products to Holland and bring so few in return. 

History— Duulap's "History of New Netherlands.'* 

Barnes* "Early History of Albany." 

Clute's "Anna'ls of Staten Island?' 
Fiction — Irving's "Knickerbocker History." 

Irving's "Legend of Sleepy Hollow." 

Mrs. H. F. Parker's "Constance Aylmer." 




NOVELIST feels at liberty to go from one 
place to another, that he may keep the 
reader advised as to what all his characters 
are doing, in different places, and under 
different circumstances. Historj', like 
fiction, forces the writer to constantly go 
back, and reach his Rome by another road. 
The Dutch had become well acquainted 
with what we call New York before the 
greatest of all the colonies was settled, 
that of Plymouth. No other colony has 
such a fascination for the American 
reader. No other seemed to hold in it, 
to such an extent, the elements which 
went to make up the best in our 
republic. These people, as well as the 
settlers of IManhattan, came from Holland, 
though they were Englishmen. For 
years the Puritaus had been persecuted in England. The cause for 
their persecution was, that they objected to the ritual of the Church of 
England, and desired to have a simple gospel, with unpretentious 
teachings. They did not believe in what they called the Anti-Christian 
greatness and tjrannical power of the established church. This frame of 
mind was an offshoot of the Reformation. James I had no patience with 
these Puritans. He boasted of having peppered them soundly, and \va.= 
well pleased with any one of his magistrates, or sheriffs, who persecuted 
them. They were scattered throughout England, and existed in large 
numbers in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire. They were 
inspired by certain simple orators, who had a remarkable gift of 
eloquence. Almost all of the Puritans were yeomen, simple, sturdy 



folk, direct of speech, and strong of muscle. They were acquainted 
with no luxuries, although they seemed to have had enough money to 
enable them to emigrate to another country, when they found that they 
could no longer live, in liberty, in their own. They were not without 
education, and one of their chief ambitions was to send their sons to 
the universities. Being educated, they were all the more determined 
to protect their rights, and to insist upon being allowed to worship after 
their own manner; therefore, when they were hunted and imprisoned, 
their houses beset with spies, and their means of livelihood taken from 
them, they decided to leave England. In this, Brewster, their leader, a 
man of much experience, who had been a successful courtier and an office- 
holder under the government, sustained them. But though the English 
did not wish them within their neighborhood, neither did they seem to 
wish them to leave. It may have been, merely, that they never allowed 
them to do anything they wanted to do. On several occasions, when 
the Puritans had secured means of reaching Holland, where they 
understood every one was allowed to follow his own faith, they were 
detained by mobs of people and brought back, to suffer the jeers and 
cruelties of the hard-hearted people about them. Imprisonment was 
the general punishment for any such attempt to escape. At length 
they engaged a Dutch ship to take them on board, at a quiet place 
between Hull and Grimsby. They gathered from various directions, 
with all of their goods which they could carr>', and were waiting there 
when a mob of country people, armed with all sorts of rude weapons, 
rushed upon them. A boat load of Puritan men had been taken to the 
ship, and these had to witness the cruelty with which their wives and 
children and the small force of men left on shore were treated. The ship- 
master of the Dutch ship, frightened at what he saw, set sail, and 
carried the despairing men out to sea. The greater part of the 
unfortunate Puritans who were left on shore were arrested. After this 
their experiences were most pitiful. No magistrate seemed willing 
to decide upon their case, and they were driven from one place to 
another, until their money was exhausted, and all of their goods lost 
Finally, some people of note and money were moved by their patlietic 
condition, and secured means by which they reached Holland, wliere 
they were united with their friends. In the midst of opulent Holland 
they succeeded, in spite of their simple ways and meagre experiences, 
in earning a living, and were always treated with kindness and 
consideration by the Dutch. But as time passed on, they felt it a pity 
that their English children should grow up in the midst of Dutch 


surroundings, learning a foreign language and strange, un-English 
ways. It is not strange that the reports of America delighted them. 
They believed it to be a land where they would have fewer difficulties 
to struggle with, and where they might find an Eldorado where gold 
was plenty and ease ensured. They corresponded, therefore, with 
some of the leading men of Jamestown, especially with Sir Edward 
Sandys, who had been a friend of Brewster years before. 

He probably ad\'ised them to obtain a patent, for they sent two of 
their most trusty men, Robert Cushman and John Carver, to England 
to see if the king would grant them one. After many delays and much 
evasion on the part of the king, they got one, although it was never 
used. It was a grant of land somewhere near the mouth of the Hudson 
river, and the Puritans, who were under obligations to the Dutch, 
probabh- did not feel as if they cared to infringe upon their trading 
ground. Holland offered them its protection, but this also was refused, 
being unwilling to vex their native countr}-men, the English. It will 
be seen that they were very war,- and discreet people, anxious to be a' 
peace with everyone. 

In the month of July, 1620, at the Puritan Church in Leyden, 
Holland, the good pastor, Robinson, held a day of prayer, singing many 
psalms and feasting. The last night they spent with their friends in a 
long, long talk, and in the morning departed very sorrowfully, with 
many tears, from the spot which had been their dwelling-place for twelve 
years. The two ships, the Spccdivcll and Mayflower^ carried one 
hundred and twenty people from Southampton, on August 5th, but the 
Speedwell proved unseaworthy, and the Afayflozvcr finally went alone, 
carrying one hundred and two persons for the new colony, besides the 
crew. The ship was not strong, and half w^ay across the ocean they 
were on the point of returning, but pra}'erfully decided to go on, and, 
on the 9th of November, saw Cape Cod. They cast anchor in the 
harbor, where they could be free from the winds, and a few of them 
went on shore, where they fell upon their knees and thanked God for 
the perils which they had escaped, and for the new life which was 
opening before them. More than a month was spent in looking for a 
spot where they might settle. During this time they made a compact 
of government, in which it was agreed that they should bind themselves 
into a civil body politic for their ordering and preservation, and should 
feel at liberty to enact laws from time to time for the good of the colon>-. 
All of the profits in trading, fishing, planting or anything else, were to 
go, for a period of seven years, into common stock, and at the end of 


that time were to be equall)- divided among all who had contributed 
money to the enterprise, and those who had engaged in it personally. 
Every person o\'er sixteen years of age was rated as owning a single 
share, or ten pounds, and if he provided his own outfit to the amount of 
ten pounds, he was entitled to two shares. This was according to the 
advice of Thomas Weston, who had helped to supply ships and mone\- 
for the enterprise. The captain of the Mayflozvcr was impatient to land 
his passengers and return to England, and, therefore, the>- landed at 
last upon this "stern and rock-bound coast." Man)- journeys were 
made to the mainland, and one place was found where there were corn- 
fields, and little brooks of running water. Here it was decided to build 
the colony, and on the 15th of December, the Mayfloivcr\t{'i\\^r harbor 
at Cape Cod, and dropjjed her anchor half way between Plymouth and 
Clark's Island. Ten days later a shallop left the ship with the distinct 
purpose of landing the pilgrims upon the spot of their future home. 
Men, women and children went to look it over and say what they 
thought about it. The first shallop was filled with sailors, for the most 
part, but there were a few women aboard, and in the prow sat John 
Alden, the >oung scholar, and Mar}- Chilton, a gay young girl, wlio 
was the first to spring upon the rock. It was not imtil the 2 ist of March 
that all of the company went on shore. Shelter was still insufficient, 
and provisions were poor and scanty. Disease began to spread among 
them, and when spring came, almost one-half of the little company was 
dead. Miles Standish, the stalwart captain, was a widower, and half a 
dozen of the most reliable men of the company were in the same unfortu- 
nate state. John Carver, the Governor, died in April. Mar>' Chilton, 
the light-hearted girl, was left an orphan. There was great fear from 
the Indians, although they did not disturb them. One can see, in 
imagination, their poor little houses, built of logs, cemented with mortar, 
the low, thatched roofs, and the oil-paper which ser\'ed as window glass. 
Side by side in the rooms stood the beds, as many as could be crowded 
into an apartment. There was a great shed for the public goods, and a 
melancholy little hospital for the sick. On the top of the church stood 
the four brass cannons, pointing toward the several directions. 

History— Palfrey's and Elliott's "New England." 
Barrj*'s "Massachusetts." 
Young's "Chronicles of Massachusetts.'' 
Fiction— L. M. Child's "Hobomoc." 

H. V. Cheney's "A Peep at the Pilgrims." 
J. L. Motley's "Merry Mount." 
Poetry— Longfellow's "Courtship of Miles Standish." 
Mrs. Heman's "Landing of the Pilgrims." 
Rev. John Pierpont's "The Pilgrim Fathers." 


>\b Jlail^ !^ouiih* 



'XTHOUGH we now see fit to hold the Indians in 
such contempt, the early settlers realized that 
^1 they owed much to them. Such knowledge as 
i ", they had of planting corn and other indigenous 
productions, they had to thank the Indians for. 
The pilgrims at Plymouth had seen but little of the 
Indians through their tedious winter, but when March 
came, they were surprised one day by the sight of a 
naked Indian walking into their camp and looking 
around with unfeigned curiosity. This man's name 
was Samoset, and he gave them much knowledge of 
the country and of the Indians near them. Indeed, 
he opened friendly relation between them and the 
Indians round about, for he was able to speak the 
English tongue, having had dealings with certain explorers, whose 
settlements had been unsuccessful. Samoset introduced them to Massa- 
soit, the Sagamore of that region. These northern Indians seem to 
have lacked that dignity of carriage and grace of manner, which made 
the Indians of the islands in the West Indies so attractive. Samoset had 
an Indian friend who visited the colony much, and taught the colonists 
many things, for which they owed him a great debt of gratitude, and he, 
later, acted as guide for the ambassadors from the colony, when they 
made their treaty of peace with the surrounding Indians. The health 
of the people improved as the soft New England spring opened, and 
they gained courage from the very influence of the budding vegetation 
about them, and from the sea, which was alwa}'s in sight. The ground 
was carefully cultivated, and fishing became a fine art, so that at last it 


became possible for them to make journeys into the country, and become 
acquainted with the region about them. They explored the «;ape, and 
went as far as Boston harbor, and were filled, it is said, with regret that 
they did not settle upon this pleasanter spot, which was so sheltered and 
secure, compared to the bold and barren place which they had selected 
in the dreary January weather. The summer passed, and in November, 
a ship came from England, It was the first news that they had heard 
from home, and the eagerness with which they read their letters, and 
received their share of the supplies, can better be imagined than 
described. The Fortune brought, also, a new patent, issued to John 
Pierce and associates by the Plymouth Company, and for the tirst time 
establishing the Puritans legally. 

The London adventurers had the hardihood to send a letter filled 
with reproaches that the Mayflower had been sent to England 
without a cargo from America. They seemed to have no thought of 
the difficulties which the colonists had had in merely preserving life 
and beginning their settlement. What they expected as a cargo they 
did not say. There could have been very little to send them at that 
time. Bradford was now Governor, and he returned a quiet letter, that 
so general had been the disease through the winter, that the living had 
scarcely been able to bury the dead, and the well not in any means 
sufficient to attend the sick. ' However, they succeeded in putting some 
lumber and peltry on the Fortune^ on her home vo}-age, only a part 
of which reached England, as she encountered a French ship, which 
overhauled her. The second winter passed calmly, and with much less 
suffering than the previous one. It was a ver}' orderly community, not 
indulging in much pleasure, and yet not without quiet enjoyment. 
There were few books in the colony besides the Bible and hymn book, 
of which, indeed, there were very few copies. 

A little revelry was attempted on Christmas day, by some of the 
young men who had come over in the Fortune^ but this was promptly 
checked by Governor Bradford. The young men had said that it was 
against their conscience to work on Christmas day, and had, therefore, 
been excused from their tasks, but when the Governor returned at noon 
and found them playing at ball and pitching quoits in the street, he 
remarked that it was against his conscience to let others play while he 
worked. No doubt, however, there was good fellowship among the 
people, and many an hour of not unpleasant gossip in the twilight. The 
firm, religious faith of the people, and their sincere devotional exercises, 
were a great source of gladness and strength to them, and a help to that 


statesinaia-like order which made their little settlement so admirable. 
The Narragansett Indians at one time showed hostile intentions. 
The best description of their dealings with the colonists can be found in 
Longfellow's "Courtship of Miles Standish. " They sent a bundle of 
arrows, tied together with the skin of a rattlesnake. It was a challenge 
to war. Miles Standish, swelling with rage, stuffed the snake skin full 
of bullets and returned it. It was answer enough. The Narragan- 
setts left the colonists undisturbed, but it was thought best to palisade 
the town, and to keep the men in martial order, ready at any time for 
an attack. Toward spring, a fort was built on the spot called Burial 


In the simimer of 1622, a number of men were sent to the colony, 
who were of a ven*- vicious nature, and this occasioned the first actual 
difficulty with the Indians. They were a lazy, mischievous and dis- 
order!}, set of men, whom it was a great burden for the colony to 
support. It became necessary to send them away, such an offense 
were they to the upright and moral founders of tire community, and 
Plymouth rejoiced greatly when these unruly fellows set up a separate 
colony at Wessagusset, which we know as Weymouth. The manner 
in which these young men treated the Indians was shameful. Not only 
did they deal unfairly with them, but were giiilty of actual crimes 
toward them, and toward their women, which made them most obnox- 
ious. Even an Indian is a judge of character, and they soon perceived 


that they had to do with a lot of bullies, who, like all people of their 
class, were lacking in true courage. One of the colonists stole corn from 
the Indians, and his fellows decided to hang him, to appease their 
wrath. They had some doubt, however, about the advisability of 
wasting a strong and vigorous man, as the culprit chanced to be, and it 
was proposed by an economical wag to hang an old and feeble man in 
liis place, but fortimately for the old and feeble man, this was overruled. 
So offensive did this colony become that the Massachusetts Indians 
finalh- made up their minds to kill the whole of them off, and be well 
rid of them. They supposed that such an act would greatly offend the 
Plymouth colonists and call for active revenge, and, therefore, thought 
it best to kill all of the English. A yen,' slight accident prevented the 
entire massacre of the colonists. Massasoit, the great Sagamore, fell 
very sick, and two delegates from the Plymouth compan}' were sent to 
his place to express sympathy, and give help, if possible. They found 
the chief very ill, but by careful nursing and some simple medicine, 
restored him to health. The gratitude of the Sagamore was great, and 
he revealed the plan against the colonists. Captain StandLsh started 
out with eight sturdy men, and visited their disorderly neighbors at 
Wessagusset. He found them in a bad state, physically and morally, 
and quite unwilling to do anything in their own defense. Standish, 
therefore, engaged in a hand-to-hand struggle with the chiefs of the 
hostile tribles, and succeeded in killing two of them. Afterward, there 
followed a skinnish in an open field, but without loss. The head of 
one of the chiefs was taken to Plymouth, and exposed as a warning to 
the natives. As for the Wessagusset men, part of them went up to the 
Maine colonies, and the rest joined the pilgrims at Plymouth. The 
peace-keeping Puritans o\'er in Holland heard of this engagement with 
deep regret. The}- could not well understand how their old friends 
should have reached a point where they could shed blood. It was 
quite impossible for them to know anj'thing about the conditions. 

A little later than this, another colony was started by Robert Gorges, 
who was now Governor of the entire territory known as Massachusetts, 
upon the very spot where the Wessagiisset colon\- had been, but his 
people became di.scouraged in a short time and only a handful 

So dissatisfied did the people become with their articles of agree- 
ment with the London adventurers, which called for so much work, 
and from which they personally reaped no benefit, that it became 
nece.ssar}' to make some change. They followed the example of the 


Virginian colony, and gave to each man a certain quantity of laud to 
work on his own account. As in Virginia, also, this was the beginning 
of prosperity. The colonists took a deeper interest in the land which 
they now could call their own. 

At another time they had a struggle to preserve their independence, 
because John Pierce, procuring a second patent, wished to make them 
his tenants. This would have started a land system like that in England, 
but, fortunately for the colonists. Pierce met with such losses in send- 
ing a ship to America that he was persuaded to return the grant. The 
Puritans still remaining in Holland were very anxious to join their 
friends in Plymouth, but the London Company objected to this, and 
wished to force upon the devout Puritans people of a different sort. To 
this end they sent over a minister, named Lyford. He had been in 
Plymouth but a short time when he tried to introduce the old service of 
the Church of England. The Puritans resented this with pride and 
fierceness, and finally sent the minister and his friends from the colony. 
He had drawn about him many discontented spirits, among them John 
Oldham, who was finally expelled, with much disgrace, at the butt ends 
of the muskets of the sturdy Puritans. The company in London defended 
the action of Lyford, and finally refused to be responsible for the fate of 
the Puritans. This left the colonies without protection. They could 
no longer rely upon supplies from England, and were left to work out 
their own destiny. With such brave and stalwart men, nothing better 
could have happened. To be independent with them was to be success- 
ful. They sent for their friends in Leyden, but their dear old pastor, 
Robinson, whom they looked forward with so much pleasure to meet- 
ing, died, like Moses, in sight of the promised land. The colonists did 
not hear the last of Lyford for some time, for the London adventurers 
saw fit to send him over again to found a colony upon Cape Ann, a 
district which the pilgrims protested belonged to them, by right of a 
patent made out to Robert Cushman and Wiuslow. The choleric Miles 
Standish nearly got into an engagement with the Englishmen at Cape 
Ann, but finally made a compromise, by which they were to work 
together in the production of salt, and so lived amicably. But this 
colony came to little, though a company was formed at Dorchester, 
England, which sent out for three successive years men and cattle. The 
colonists went back to England, or scattered along the coast, and a few 
of them settled on the spot we now call Salem. Meanwhile, the 
Plymouth colonists had got some cattle, three heifers, and a great white 


The daj-s went on peacefulh- now. On Sundays, evetyone who was 
not sick met at the little church. The men sat upon one side and the 
women on the other, with those of noble rank quite by themselves. 
The little boys, very impatient at the long service, were crowded on the 
pulpit stairs and guarded by constables. These constables each had a 
wand, with a hare's foot on one end, and a hare's tail on the other. 
They used this to keep the people from sleeping. A woman's forehead, 
if by any chance she nodded, was only touched with the tail, but if any 
naughty little boy went to sleep, he was promptly pounded with the 
hare's foot. The services were three or four hours long, and the sexton 
stood near the minister, turning over the great hour-glass as it emptied. 
It was not until 1836 that they got the Metrical Bay Psalm-Book, with 
its great black notes and rugged lettering. They knew less than a 
dozen tunes, and sung these over and over, year in and year out. The 
houses were scrupulously neat. ]\Iost of them were one story in 
height, built of logs, with very steep roofs. In course of time a few 
wood and brick houses were built, two stories high in front, and one 
behind. The windows had many panes, and opened on hinges like 
a casement, and the huge fire-places admitted logs which would burn 
for nearly the whole day. There v/ere no clocks, only sun-dials, and 
many of the houses were built facing the south, so that the sun at noon 
would fall square on the floor, and tell them it was mid-day. The law 
allowed none of them to wear finerj-, unless he or she could prove that 
it could be afforded. All through the week the women wore home- 
spun, and on Sunday brought out from their chests the silk hoods or 
lace neckerchiefs which had been brought across the sea. Miles 
Standish kept the soldiers well drilled. They had match-lock muskets, 
fired by a slow match instead of a percussion cap. So heavy were 
lliese weapons that even these sturd\- soldiers had to have a large iron 
fork stuck in the ground to hold them. They were belted with bando- 
liers, wliich contained a sword and a dozen tin cartridge-boxes. Steel 
helmets and iron breast-plates were not unknown, although many of the 
colonists wore padded overcoats to keep off the arrows of the Indians. 
To be a voter, one must also be a church member. In everthing, 
religion ruled. The State had no existence without the Church. 

History— Cheever's "Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. '' 
Biography— Anderson's "Women of the Puritan Times." 
Fiction— H. M. Whiting's "Faith White's Letter-Book." 
E. N. Sears' "Pictures of the Olden Times." 
Mrs. J. B. Webb's "The Pilgrims of New England.'' 
Poetry— Whittier^s "The Garrison ot Cape Ann." 





(:^BOUT the time that the little Plymouth colony 
became alarmed at the threatening attitude of the 
Indians, the colony in Jamestown, Virginia, siifFered 
a great calamity. The condition of the colony was 
peculiar. In one way it did not lack prosperity. 
The raising of tobacco was continued to the exclu- 
iJ sion of everything else. Laws were made to regulate 
this, but it is a well-known fact that a law is good for 
nothing unless the people will agree to enforce it, and 
the people of Virginia did not wish this law enforced. 
King James had begun to look upon the colony with 
some suspicion. He suspected treason, and not without 
reason, for it was quite true that they did not care to be 
dictated to by their governors at home. Sir Edward 
Sandys was thought to be a man of too much intellect to safely act as 
treasurer of a community which was so rapidly increasing in power, 
and the Earl of Southampton was appointed in his place. Sir 
George Yeardley retired from the governorship in 1622, giving place to 
Sir Francis Wyat. These were all men of sense, and they did what 
they could for Virginia. They tried to raise grapes for the purpose of 
making wine, but they do not seem to have understood the art very 
well, for the wine had a trick of souring before they got ready to drink 
it. Mulberry trees and silk worms were brought over to start the 
cultivation of silk, but for all of that, most of the colonists were dressed 
in rags. Workmen were brought from Italy and employed in the glass 
works, and about the same time iron works were started. The 
Americans began making their own salt, and building their own ships, 


and saw-mills were put up by Dutchmen, but this work was very 
slow, and none of it really successful. They spent all their time, 
strength and money in the raising of tobacco, so that, fourteen years 
after the colony was started, there was next to no barley, oats or peas in 
the country, and even at this period they were frequently threatened 
with starvation. In the meantime, they treated the Indians with the 
same selfishness and lack of wisdom which they showed in all other 
matters. The Indians had, no doubt, long intended to take revenge. 
However that may be, suddenly, on the 22d of March, 1692, the Indians, 
loitering about the village, rushed upon the people in the fields and in 
the houses and slaughtered them. 

They did not even spare the little children, but killed all, regardless 
of the innocence of their victims. They went further than this, and 
hacked at the dead bodies with a wild cruelty of which only the 
American Indian is capable when he becomes imbruted by the sight of 
blood. The houses and barns of the people were burned and their 
animab killed. This did not occur in Jamestown, but in the little 
outlying villages and plantations. Jamestown would have suffered the 
same fate, but for the warning which one friendly Indian carried the 
night before. All who could, took refuge within the city, and took 
every possible means for defense. The panic was wide-spread. Some 
of the smaller places were entirely deserted, and it was many years 
before the plantations recovered from the harm which this did to them, 
for men were afraid to remain in isolated places. After this there was 
no mercy shown upon either side. The English were quite as cruel 
and remorseless as the Indians had been. The corn-fields, the fishing 
weirs, the villages of the natives, were entirely destroyed. Whenever a 
white man saw an Indian he shot him, and blood-hounds and mastifis 
were trained to follow and tear them to pieces. The King seemed to 
blame the colonists for the present state of affairs. The company was 
still more dissatisfied than the King, and out of the various misunder- 
standings which grew from this, and the disregard the colony paid to 
the King's wishes, came the breaking up of the Virginia Company. 
The government of the colony was put into the hands of a commission, 
with Sir Thomas Smith at the head. 

The unhappy people of Virginia were long in recovering from their 
calamity. The people were crowded once more into close quarters, and 
there was a great deal of sickness, of discouragement, and of hunger. 
Their viciousness took another, and yet more dreadful form. It was 
turned from wantonness and selfishness to revenge. They prayed, with 


a show of devotion, that the Indians might fall into their hands to be 
murdered and bereft of all that they owned. There was no longer 
any show of Christian kindness. If the colonists were filled with 
revenge, they were none the less troubled with fear, and it was a long, 
long time before they dared venture back to the cultivation of their 
plantations. This great anxiety about home matters made them rather 
indifferent about the whims of the London Council, and they worried 
little because their patent was taken away from them. After King James 
died, very little attention was paid to them one way or the other, and if 
they received no benefit, neither did they receive any checks from across 
the ocean. Four colonial governors served in turn, but they were 
displaced for the first royal governor, Sir John Harvey, who was sent 
over by the English King to administer royal laws after the King's own 
views. How the people, who had so long been independent, detested 
this arrangement, can well be imagined. 

Shortly before the appointment of Harvey, Jamestown had had a 
distinguished visitor. It was Lord Baltimore, a Catholic English 
nobleman of much wealth and culture. Virginia was quite in excite- 
ment about the visit of so distinguished a gentleman, and the council 
grew so curious that they oSicially inquired why he had come, and how 
long he was going to stay. The Virginians were neither the Church of 
England people nor Puritans — the Puritans having come later — and 
they objected to a settlement of Catholics among them. The}-, there- 
fore, put the oath of allegiance to the colony to him, which was of such 
a nature that he could not take it, for religious reasons, and the colonists 
were glad of this excuse to ask him to return to England. Seeing that 
his visit was disagreeable, he courteoush' withdrew from the colony, but 
left his family behind him at Jamestown. One reason why he was 
disliked at the colony was because he was principal Secretar)- of the 
State to King James for the last five or six years of that monarch's life, 
and the difficulty between King James and the colony was naturally 
visited upon Lord Baltimore. He held a grant to some lands in the 
southeast part of Newfoundland, and had there a Protestant colony, 
which he had established. It was after visiting this, and finding the 
climate not to his liking or at all suited to his delicate health, that he 
came to Virginia. This was in the spring of 1629. Leaving Virginia, 
he visited Chesapeake Bay, was charmed with that region, and begged 
the King to give him a patent to it. This the King willingly did, but 
before the patent was signed. Lord Baltimore died, and it was left for 
his son to carr}' out his plans. The new Lord Baltimore named the 


region Maryland, in honor of the Queen. The charter included all the 
country lying in the irregular triangle formed by the 40tli degree of 
latitude, the Potomac river and Chesapeake Bay, as well as that part of 
the Peninusla between the ocean on the east, and Bay of Chesapeake on 
the west, with a line dividing it from the rest, drawn from the head- 
land, called Watkins Point. With very slight changes, this is the State 
to-day. The grant gave this property to the Lords of Maryland abso- 
lutely, as long as they were faithful in their allegiance to the King. 
Not even taxes were required. No gift could have been more complete. 
All the acknowledgment required of Lord Baltimore was that twice a 
year he was to send to the King two Indian arrows as a token of fealty. 
But the charter did not overlook the rights of the colonists. It gave the 
people the right to call themselves together to take part in framing the 
laws which were to govern them. No religious nor political distinctions 
were made, but Maryland was to be the home of all Englishmen who 
wished to move there. Lord Baltimore found himself unable to go 
with the first expedition, and sent his brother Leonard in his stead, and 
with him two friends, also cultivated and able gentlemen, Jerome 
Hawley and Thomas Cornwallis. The Catholics were being greatly 
persecuted at this time, and Maryland became a refuge for them. In 
addition to the many gentlemen of wealth and influence who resorted 
thither, were many mechanics and laborers, and two Jesuit priests, 
whose simple and tender lives have made a white page in histor}-. 
These were Father Andrew White and Father John Althan. The 
former of these wrote the only narrative which was kept of the 
experiences of the colony, which was composed of about three hundred 
souls. They were borne to America on The Ark and The Dove, 
starting November, 1633. They encountered many dangers on their 
passage from stonns, pirates and war-like Spaniards, bnt at length 
reached Jamestown, where they were entertained for a week by Governor 
Harvey. The early part of March they sailed to their own possessions, 
and turning up the Potomac river, were enchanted with what they 
found. The groves of beneficent trees, the many inflowing streams 
and stately bluffs persuaded them that they could not have found a better 
place for a settlement. They landed first upon Blackstone Island, 
which then covered four hundred acres of land in the midst of the 
Potomac. It is now two centuries since, and nothing is left of these 
islands but sandy shoals. The 25th of March, the day of the landing, 
was the day of the annunciation of the most Holy Virgin, and they cele- 
brated mass upon the beach, at the close of which they planted a cross 


of wood upon the highest part of the island, taking possession of it for 
our Savior and for our Sovereign Lord, the King of England. 

They used much tact in their first dealing with the Indians, asking 
permission of them to settle upon their laud. It was a piece of good 
fortune for them that they chanced to meet with Captain Fleet, an 
Englishman, quietly trading in peltries upon his own account. He had 
been a prisoner for several years among the Indians, and was on 
excellent terms with them. Through his influence the colonists were 
soon in friendly trade with the natives, and the danger of hostility was 
averted. Fleet guided them through the forests and up tne rivers, 
showing them the best points of the country, and advising them about 
the site of their first town; and at the end of the broad harbors on 
the noble bluff they decided to build. Behind it lay the beautiful 
valley which the people of Baltimore know, with growths of nut trees 
and oak and springs of clear water. On the bluff stood a huge 
mulberr)' tree, and standing by this, Leonard Calvert, the brother of 
Lord Baltimore, made his treaty with the Indians, who had a village 
upon that spot. The tribe was called Yaocomico, and for a certain 
payment in goods prized by the Indians, the strangers were to share 
their town with them until their harvest was gathered, after which the 
savages were to move elsewhere. The first village of Maryland was 
called St. Marys, and the expedition being managed by men of states- 
men-like quality, and having in it workmen of strength and common 
sense, they immediately began building and planting. The Indians 
were of much help to them, teaching them not only how to plant native 
vegetables, but how to cook them in the best manner. Religious 
services were held from the first, and as soon as possible a neat little 
chapel was made. By the time the Indians had left them, quite a little 
town had been built, and some public buildings started on the bluff. 
Winter found them well provided, and already the liberality with which 
the government was conducted, began to invite the oppressed, not only 
from England, but from the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies as well, 
for in the Jamestown colonies Catholics were disapproved of, and in the 
Plymouth colonies the slightest deviation from the orthodo.x principles, 
as the Puritans held them, was promptly punished. 

Lord Baltimore's city was the first one in America where every man 
w;is allowed to worship God after his own conscience. 

HiSTORT — McSherry's "Marylanu." 

Griffith's "Annals of Baltimore." 
Fiction — Paulding's "Konigsniark." 

Kennedy's "Rob of the Bowl." 


\}p fmu-\$$pv^. 


j^^IRGINIA disapproved of the new colony of Mary- 
land. There was, certainly, ground enough upon 
the Atlantic coast for both of those settlements, 
but whether there was policy enough, was quite 
another question. The Virginians, it will be. 
remembered, had lost their royal charter, and the 
fact that lyord Baltimore's colony came with the royal 
grant, and with the royal encouragement, made them 
very envious. One man in the Virginian colony, 
especially, resented the settlement of Maryland. It was 
the secretary of the Virginian Council, William Clay- 
borne. He had taken possession of Kent Island, in 
Chesapeake Bay, and built a store-house there, for the 
beaver and other furs, in which he traded extensively. 
When Baltimore's people came, Clayborne said that he owned the 
island, and he refused in advance to leave it. 

The Viiginians had sent a protest to the King against the settlement 
of Maryland, but it had been decided in England that Baltimore's 
patent should not be destroyed, and both colonies were advised to be as 
amiable as possible. Amiability, however, was not in Clayborne's line. 
He had worked hard upon the ground where the Marjlanders now 
settled, and he felt that he had a right to it. Being a willful and strong- 
minded man, he took the worst methods for preserving that right. 
He incited the Indians against the colonists, who found it necessary to 
build a block-house for refuge, in case of attack ; but as the Indians met 
with nothing but kindness from the settlers, they became persuaded at 


length that Claybonie had misinfonned them. The ]\Ianlanders tried to 
capture Claybonie, but he knew the ways of the woods too well for them 
to succeed, and reached Jamestown, where he worked upon t!ie i:)roini- 
nent men, and won them to his side of the case. 

When the sprin<^ of 1635 came, and Clayborne wished to carry out 
his usual trading trip, he started for his island with a small vessel, 
called the Long Tail. The Marylanders met him with two armed 
pinnaces, under the command of Cornwallis. The Long Tail was 
seized after a vigorous fight, two of the Virginians being killed and 
one of Cornwallis' men. Then the people of Jamestown were in a 
great state of mind. They gathered in the streets, and talked and 
talked. They called an assembly and talked some more. No one had 
any sympathy with the Marylanders' defense of their property, except 
the royal Governor Harvey. So indignant did the people become with 
him that they sent him to England to be tried, but he was promptly 
sent back again by the King, with an inquiry as to what right they had 
to arrest a governor appointed by him. 

The people in Maryland, finding that they were to be protected, 
went on working busily. Their harvest was a great success. They 
stored away enough corn for the winter, and sent one thousand bushels 
up to Plymouth, asking for salt-fish in exchange. The cattle and 
poultry which they had purchased from Virginia had been so well 
managed by certain experienced breeders of stock, that it had greatly 
increased, not alone supplying them with eggs, but allowed them plenty 
to kill and eat. The people were not long satisfied with the rude build- 
ing.5 which they had first built. They had met with suflficient 
prosperity to be able to send to England for bricks and other building 
material, and the houses which they erected were firm, and to some 
degree elegant. A manor was built for Governor Calvert, and within 
two or three years an excellent State House, in the fonn of a cross, was 
built upon the bluff. In front of it stood the famous mulberry tree, 
luider which the first treaty had been made with the Indians, and upon 
this were nailed all the notices and State papers which the Governor 
issued. Here the little armed force gathered for drill, and here the 
town punishments were made. A little further back stood the church, 
and about it the church-yard. 

Certain fashions were set in the building of those days which are 
noticeable now in the city of Baltimore. The ground floor and base- 
ments were made of red brick, or paved with square red tiles. Some 
of the houses were of red brick, ornamented here and there with black. 


There were high, red brick walls, and stout chimneys built upon the 
outside, with the fire-places paved in red tile. Plantations began to be 
cultivated around the town, tobacco being the chief staple raised for 

In 1635, Lord Baltimore began to make grants of lands to settlers. 
To those who had come upon the first voyage extensive grants were 
made, so that the pioneers became, to an extent, lords of the property. 
Mills were built, both at St. Mar>''s and on the plantations, so that it 
became possible for them to make their own flour, and to start various 
other home industries. Under these fortunate conditions people 
crowded to the colony, and, in 1635, it was found necessary to make 
a new code of laws. The simple rules, which were at first sufficient to 
control the community, were no longer adapted to their growing and 
complex civilization. But Lord Baltimore did not approve of the laws, 
and refused assent to them. Two years later he made out a code, but 
tlie assembly of the people would not accept his laws any more than he 
accepted their's. It was not because they objected to the laws that he 
made, but because they wished to govern themselves, and at last they 
had their way, though it was not for several years. 

The Indians who lived about St. Mary's were always friendly to 
the settlement, but the Susquehanna Indians were the enemies of the 
Yaocomicos, and, therefore, of all whom the tribe were friendly to. In 
1642 the Susquehannas opened quite a warfare with the Marjdanders, 
which lasted for two years, when treaties were made. 

The kindness which the Catholics of Maryland had shown to all 
people of other religions did not meet with a proper return. The 
Catholics were the friends of the King in England, but the Protestants 
preferred the Parliament, which, at this time, was having much 
difficulty in getting along with the King. So when the revolution 
came in England against the King, the people of Marjdand were divided 
on this subject, and it put the Catholics against the Protestants in a 
way which made much trouble in the colony. Leonard Calvert became so 
troubled about the quarrels of the people he was trj'ing to govern, 
that he sailed for England, to have a talk with his brother. Lord Balti- 
more, leaving Giles Brent to look after the colony. 

This was a splendid chance for Clayborne to have revenge upon the 
Marylanders. He went to St. Mary's and stirred up the Protestants, or 
the Parliament faction, against the government of Baltimore, and his 
plans were aided in an unexpected way. Brent ordered that a vessel 
belonging to the Parliament party should be seized when it got to St 


Mar>''s, and its commander arrested on a charge of treason against the 
King. This made the Protestants very angry, and they allowed 
Clay borne to come in and take possession of his old island of Kent; so 
when Calvert returned he found everything in a very bad state, and he 
and his council and their friends were driven from the colony, and had 
to go to Virginia for safety. Captain Edward Hill, a Virginian, was 
made Governor, but everj'thing was done about as Clayborne said. 
Though he was such a determined man, he did not understand how to 
govern, and while he remained, there was constant quarreling and 
dissatisfaction in the colony. 

The Jesuit priests had to leave St. Marj^'s. They built a mission 
on the Ba)' of St. Inigo, and here Governor Calvert erected a fort, with 
a mill inside and a few buildings about, besides a chapel. Calvert 
collected his friends on the Virginia border, and in April surprised St 
Mar3''s, and took it with but little trouble. The people seemed to have 
been glad to get back a man who would govern them with lirmness and 
order. Captain Edward Hill was sent back to Virginia, and Clayborne 
escaped to Jamestown. Governor Calvert died in 1647, leaving Thomas 
Green to be his successor, and Mistress Margaret Brent the adminis- 
tratrix of his enormous possessions. She was a remarkable woman, 
with great strength of will, and a good understanding of business and 
government affairs. 

Mar}'land continued to be free to people of all religions, and the 
gentle Catholic missionaries continued their work. In many ways this 
was the most successful colony in its beginning upon the Atlantic coast. 
Its leaders were men of good blood and training, with a sincere rever- 
ence for God. and some experience in government. Their laws were 
suited to the time and the people, and Lord Baltimore's name is still 
held in high regard in the city which is called after him. 

BroGR.A PHY— Spark's "Calvert." 

Mill's "Fouuders of Maryland." 
BlCTioN— Mathilda Douglas' "Black Beard." 






^vEW JERSEY was the only State settled by the 
Swedes. In 1614, when the first Dutch settled 
their fort on Manhattan Island, they built also a 
redoubt on what is now the New Jersey shore, 
and the whole of this region they called New 
Netherlands. But little attention was paid to 
this, and the ground was practically unoccupied. 
Ten years later, William U.sselinex, of Antwerp, who 
had first succeeded in establishing the great Dutch West 
India Compan\', visited Sweden. Gusta^'us Adolphus was 
King of Sweden then, and before him, Usselinex laid 
the plan of founding a Swedish colony in America, 
telling him of the great profits which might arise from 
the trade there. The King was much impressed with 
the business-like eloquence of the Dutchman, and perhaps still more 
impressed with the idea that another Christian church might be built 
upon savage shores. He felt that Sweden had been behind the other 
nations, and it would greatly add to his power and reputation if he were 
to further such a scheme. The Diet of Sweden favored the King's 
project, an 1, therefore, when Gustavixs Adolphus was killed, in 1632, on 
the battle-field, the plans which he had laid were carried out. It was 
several years, however, before the company was fonned, calling itself 
the Sweden West India Company. Peter Minuet, who had been dis- 
charged from his post as Governor, asked to have charge of its first 
expedition. It was given him, on account of the experience he had 
had, and in the autumn of 1637, he set sail from Gottenburg, with two 


vessels and fifty emigrants. These vessels entered Delawaie Bay and 
sailed up the river, which they named after their Queen, Christina. 
Minuet bought of the Indians all the land on the west side of South 
river, from Cape Henlopen to near where Trenton now stands. As 
usual in such purchases, the land was to run westward indefinitely. 
They built a fort near the present site of Wilmington. 

The Dutch promptly resented this intrusion upon their territory, 
and sent down a sounding proclamation, which warned Minuet, in the 
most serious terms, that he was trespassing upon their rights; but the 
Swedes were charmed with the country' so in contrast to their bleak 
native land, and were in no mind to leave it. Minuet had said, in 
answer to the first question asked him by the Dutch, that he came for 
wood and water, but as the Swedes began gardening and building, he 
was forced to confess the truth. To the Dutch proclamation, however, 
he paid no heed, but went on working upon his fort and trading house 
and establishing commerce with the Indians. Twenty-four men were 
placed in possession, and vessels were sent home well laden, to return 
with more emigrants. Though the Dutch were very indignant, they 
hesitated to venture against the detennined and well-armed Swedes, who 
took a very flourishing trade away from the Dutch West India Company. 

The first summer and winter passed pleasantly with them, but in 
the second winter their supplies became low, and they seriously thought, 
at one time, of going to the Dutch at Manhattan, or of finding a way 
for returning to their native home. In the spring, however, matters 
became better. Some trade was established in New Netherlands, and 
further additions to the colon}' came from Sweden, bringing with them 
abundant supplies. They were an exceedingly industrious and saving 
people. Their selection for a settlement had been most happy; they 
lived at peace with each other and with the Indians, and in a short 
time their little towns began to wear a look of vigorous prosperity, 
especially in the autumn, when more colonists came, with tools and 
mechanics to use them. Three ships, at least, came in the autumn, and 
it is said that many were anxious to come, but had been unable to do 
so for want of ship-room. The following summer (1641) Minuet died 
in the fort which he had built. The Swedes were much attached to 
him, and mourned him deeply. A Swede — Holleandare — became Gov- 
ernor in his place. 

The English pursued toward them the policy which has made them 
the greatest nation in the world. They were bent on conquest, and 
constantly interfered with their quiet neighbors. At length a number 


of New England colonists, under the charge of Robert Cogswell, left 
Connecticut and came to the South river, having heard that that region 
was especially beautiful. William the Testy, Governor of the Dutch, 
protected in his usual high-flown language, but the English quietly 
worked on, and before the end of the summer, had planted corn and 
built trading posts on Salem creek and on the Schuylkill. New Haven 
took these towns under her especial protection, and William the Testy 
knew that it would be useless to come in conflict with the New Eng- 
land confederation of colonies. The Swedes, as well as the Dutch, 
were vexed at this intrusion of the English, and in 1642, when the 
Dutch sent a commissar\' to force the intruders away, the people at Fort 
Christina gave them all the help they could. The English were obliged 
to yield. They were taken prisoners to Manhattan, and then sent to 
their own homes. New Haven thought it best not to resent this insult 
to her dignity. 

About this time a fort was built twelve miles below where Philadel- 
phia now stands, and called the New Gottenburg. The building of 
this was superintended by John Printz, a cavalry lieutenant in the 
Swedish ser\-ice, who had been sent out to take the place of HoUeandare 
as Governor. Near the fort, Printz built a manor house, magnificent 
for that time, which he called Printz Hall. The home goveniment 
appropriated a large sum of money for the support of the colony, and 
promised to keep it supplied with soldiers. Printz was a very over- 
bearing and proud man, who, from first to last, managed the affairs 
of the colony with decision and dignity. Neither English nor Dutch 
were allowed longer to take liberties with the Swedes. His fort of New 
Gottenburg compelled ever}' vessel to show her colors as she passed, and 
no trade was allowed which did not pay tribute. The Dutch continued 
to send out fierce letters, but to these, a man like Printz was not likely 
to pay any attention. The English tried to trade on the rivers which 
the Swedes now claimed, but they were promptly arrested by order of 
the Governor, and the English learned that for once they were not to 
be allowed to have their own way. 

In 1645, the rather amiable commissar}- at the Dutch fort, Nassau, 
was removed by William the Testy, of New Amsterdam. The officer 
Avho took his place was more aggressive in his nature, and seized the 
first opportunity to put the authority of the Swedes to test. Disputes 
began between the governors of the colonies, and much diplomacy, and, 
to tell the truth, no little deceit was used. When Hudde, the new 
Governor of the Dutch fort, tried to start a settlement on some land 


■which he had bought near the present site of Philadelphia, Printz sent 
some men to stop it, and the Dutch arms were torn down and used in 
a manner which greatly outraged the feelings of the patriotic colonists. 
Letters of great stateliness and hostility were exchanged, but the choleric 
Governor Printz refused to listen to the sensible advice of Hudde. 
When the sergeant, by whom Hudde had sent his letter, reached Printz 
Hall, and had got through the anny of servants around it to where the 
Governor stood upon the steps, the letter was snatched from him and 
thrown carelessly to a man in waiting. After standing about unnoticed 
for some time, the Dutch soldier begged for a reply. This request was 
met in a way peculiar to the plethoric Printz, who weighed about four 
hundred poiinds, and was a man of extraordinary muscle. He picked up 
the unfortunate sergeant and threw him violently out of doors, taking a 
gim for the purpose of shooting him. After this there could be nothing 
but quarrels between the two nations. The Dutch trade was rapidly 
decreasing, for the Swedes kejjt both them and the English off the 
valuable lands which they occupied, and from which the Dutch had 
formerly made much money. Large companies of settlers continued to 
come to New Sweden, and these later settlers were of a much better 
class than those which had come at first. When New Netherlaud was 
at its most abject state, under the mismanagement of William the Testy, 
New Sweden wore an air of considerable prosperit}'. From the mouth 
of the Schuylkill to the Capes of Henlopen and May, Governor Printz 
held absolute control. It was one of the richest territories on the 
Atlantic coast, with sweeping hills and magnificent forests of trees. 
Not only did they claim the lovely waters of the Delaware, but many 
streams and winding creeks as well. Before them lay the bay, one 
hundred miles in length. 

When Peter Stuyvesaut was appointed Governor of New Netherlands, 
the polic)- was somewhat changed. For several years Stuy vesant could 
do little but support Hudde in the position which he had taken, and to 
sustain, in a negative way, the title of the Dutch, but at length he found 
time to visit the Swedish territor)-, and, being an old soldier, saw 
immediately the cause of the Dutch failures. Fort Nassau, instead of 
being at the mouth of the Delaware, was far up the stream, and quite 
useless to .protect against invasion. The Swedes had taken possession 
of the mouth of the Schuylkill. At the confluence of these two rivers, 
trade even then found its center. Printz had seen that this must be the 
case, and had built his forts there and barred the approach to that point 
bv others further down the Delaware. Modem commerce has improved 


the selection of Printz, by concentrating the shipping trade of Philadel- 
phia at exactly this point. Stuyvesant saw that Fort Nassau was 
useless, and ordered its destruction. He bought from the Indians all 
the land from Christina to Bombay Hook. Within this territor}-, about 
four miles below the mouth of the Christina, is the bold promontor>', 
which commands a view of the Delaware both up and down. On this 
point, where the town of Newcastle now stands, they built Fort Casimir. 
Governor Printz was indignant, and said that this was an invasion on 
the soil of the Swedes, but Stuyvesant seems to have quieted him iu 
some way, and the Swedes no longer commanded the Delaware. Their 
fort at the mouth of the Salem creek was abandoned as useless, but 
Printz was too proud to tell the real reason for its evacuation, and gave 
it out that the mosquitoes had been to bad for them to remain there 

The Swedes and the Dutch were united about this time in a common 
fear. The}- dreaded the English much more than they did each other, 
and made a compact of mutual protection. It is certainly true that the 
English continued to cast envious eyes at the beautiful stretch of 
country with its genial climate and broad, noble hills. Besides, English- 
men do not like to be beaten, and will hardly admit defeat. They had 
not forgiven the Swedes and Dutch for uniting to drive them from this 
place a few years before, and, shortly after the compact between the two 
governors, sent a company of fifty persons from New Haven to make 
another attempt at an English settlement on the Delaware. The}' 
stopped at New Amsterdam to visit Governor Stu}-vesant, and to tell 
him their purpose, but the independent Governor arrested them 
promptly, and onh- let them go when they promised to return to New 

Printz, liowever, had nothing of the diplomat in his composition, 
and could not abide the Dutch so near him, so he sent to Sweden for 
aid, but his impatience would not let him wait until he received an 
answer, and he sailed for Sweden himself, passing on his way John 
Rysingh, with a force of about three hundred men, who had been sent 
out to his relief The first act of this force was to demand the capture 
of Fort Casimir. The fort yielded without resistance, for they had no 
powder. The bark of the Dutch was apt to be much worse than theii 
bite". Thus the Swedes were again in absolute possession of the South 
river, and all the Dirtch in and about the fort were made to take the 
oath of allegiance to Sweden, or else forced to leave that part of the 
country. Fort Casimir was called Fort Trinit}', because it was taken 


Oil Trinity Sunda}-. It can be imagined that the excitement in New 
Amsterdam was great, and that tlie indignation meetings among the 
hot-headed Dutchmen were many. Governor Stuyvesant felt, with some 
justice, that he liad been imfairly treated, and seized every opportunity 
for retaliation. In this, the directors in Holland sustained him, but 
the winter passed and spring came before he was able to make prepa- 
rations for humbling the Swedes. At length a fleet of seven vessels, 
manned by a force of from six hundred to seven hundred men, sailed 
toward the South river. This was not until the loth of September. 
All the Swedes in the country did not number more than half the 
invading force. Resistance was absurd. The Swedes surrendered, and 
a part of them were made to take the oath of allegiance to the high and 
mighty lords and pratroons of this New Netherland province. Next, 
Fort Christina was taken, and after a siege of twelve days, a third fort 
surrendered. The invaders destroyed the little village of Christinaham, 
burning the houses and killing the cattle and seizing all the plunder 
they could. At length Rysing surrendered, conditionally. It was 
declared that the property belonging to the Swedes was to be unmolested, 
and that all who wished could have free passage to Europe. So ended 
Sweden's rule in America. Some Swedes still lived along the banks of 
the Delaware and cultivated their fanns, doing snuch to develop early 
the best resources of that country. 

Stuyvesant appointed Johans Paul Jaquet as Governor over the 
southern territory of the West India Company. The Swedish colony 
was now called New Amstel,- and the burgomasters of Amsterdam 
became much interested in their new possessions, making great offers 
to those who would move thither. The following years, however, were 
full of discontent. Malaria, as in all new agricultural settlements, 
weakened and dispirited the colonists, and though the farms promised 
well, the harvests were not plentiful, for insects of various sorts nearly 
destroyed the crops. Death became very frequent, especially among the 
children, and they came so near famine that they were obliged to use their 
seed corn for food. The Amsterdam Company no longer sent them sup- 
plies, as it had promised to do, and began to ta.x them. The colonists lost 
hope. Many moved to Virginia. vSome returned to their own countries, 
and those who had contracted with the company to remai-n for a given 
length of time, escaped through the forest to the southern settlements- 

History— Carpenter's "History of New Jersey." 

Smith's "Historj' ol the Colony of New Jersey." 


ilh nine in :|«tu |ollteB. 




T will be remembered that we left the Dutch in 
their settlements upon Long Island and the 
Hudson, just at the time when they were begin- 
ning to feel the need of a firmer government. 
None of the settlements had been prosperous 
until they were given an interest in the land they 
occupied. It was certain that this scheme must be used 
with the Dutch, for New Amsterdam settled but slowly, 
and it was .seen thst trading-posts were not the best 
means of establishing civilization. Only poor emigrants 
came for a long time, but after a while rich men from 
Holland were sent out, and given privileges by the 
Dutch West India Company. Each of these important 
gentlemen was allowed to found a colony of fifty 
persons, and to own a tract of land sixteen miles in length on any 
shores or streams not }et occupied. Westward there was no limit placed 
on his possessions, which were allowed to run into the interior as far as 
they might — to the Pacific coast, had he but known there was a Pacific 
coast. His colony was to be established within four years from the 
time the land was granted him, and he was required, by just provision 
not usually employed, to pay the Indians for liis land. His estate was 
called a "manor," and it was quite independent of colonial government. 
He was actually a lord of the soil, and lived in much elegance and w-ith 
a full sense of importance, such as the men of his time and nation were 
apt to feel. "patroons" as they were called, were allowed all 
'privileges, except the manufacture of woolen or cotton goods, which 
the West India Company wished to keep a monopcly of The company 


supplied the manors with negro slaves, which they imported from 
Guinea, but after a time this feudal system began to give wa)-. There 
seemed to be something in the air of the New World which was opposed 
to the pretentions of nobility. Even the stately patroons came to see, 
after awhile, that the>' were regarded more as land-holders than as 

It was so easy to see the injustice of giving a man such ad\antages 
over his fellows that the people would not patiently endure it. Nothing 
could more finnly prove that the plan of the government of Europe 
was, and is, false and wrong, since it fails to give men equal opportu- 
nities. It has existed so long in the Old World that it has almost come 
to seem right. Here, where it could be seen at its beginning, it was 
recognized as altogether wrong. The company had had a selfish reason 
for employing the feudal system in the New Netherlands. It believed 
that if it intrusted the care of immigration to the patroons it would be 
saved the expense of sustaining the government, and if each patroon 
protected his own property, with men established under him as serfs, 
there would be no need of any officers to do so. For, indeed, the people 
under these Dutch lords were little else than serfs. No "man or 
woman, son ordatrghter, man servant or maid servant," could leave a 
patroon' s service during the time he had agreed to remain, except by 
his written consent. On the other hand, the patroon was under no 
obligations to his people, but could do as he saw fit. It brought about 
evils almost as great as those of slavery. 

The right which was given to the patroons to settle upon any terri- 
tory not yet occupied, soon began to affect the great West India 
Company. They had wished to secure and retain a monopoly of trade, 
but by the short-sighted means employed they defeated this. A number 
of the Amsterdam directors availed themselves of this opportunity, and 
settled upon immense tracts of land, to which they gave high-sounding 
names. When it was too late the company perceived what it had done. 
The enterprising directors hastened to settle colonies upon their land, 
and so settlements were spread down to the South river, along the 
shores of what we now call Delaware Bay, and to the present town of 
Louiston, Delaware. One director went over to Cape May and bought 
a large tract of land there. One of the largest settlements was on 
Bear's Island, about twelve miles below Albany, to Smack's Island, and 
extended two days' journey inland. Afterward this estate was carried 
to the confluence of the Mohawk, and thus it was again extended. 
Another director acquired a vast quantity of land opposite Manhattan 


Island, and gave it the name of Hoboken — Hacking Island. This man 
afterward got the whole of Staten Island, and then the region where 
Jersey Cit)' now stands. Upon this estate the owner bestowed the name 
of Pavonia. 

The patroons were not satisfied to confine themselves to agriculture. 
They began a most profitable trading in peltries, so that the exports of 
Holland, in 1626, were valued at six thousand guilders. This, of 
course, was an infringement upon the rights of the Dutch Company, 
which drew up an order forbidding any one to deal in peltries, maize 
or wampum. The constant disputes which arose out of this greatly 
delayed the progress of New Netherland. 

The colony founded in Delaware, where Louiston now stands, was 
called Swaanendael, or the Valley of Swans, and here a curious thing 
happened. A pillar had been set up bearing the anns of Holland, in 
token of possession. This an Indian chief saw, and thinking it would 
make delightful pipes, took it down and proceeded to make it up into 
them. But to this piece of symbolical tin the Dutch attached a great 
deal of importance, and the officer left in charge of the colony fretted 
and fumed, with many high-sounding Dutch words, until the Indians, 
thinking that their chief had committed a terrible crime, put him to 
death in hopes of regaining the friendship of the Dutch. The officer 
explained then that his wild gestures and oaths had simply meant that 
he wished to have the chief reproved. The Indians were naturally out 
of patience to find that they had made such a sacrifice to so little a 
purpose, and soon after, a party scattered themselves through the town 
in a friendly manner, and then fell upon and murdered ever>' person at 
the post, leaving nothing but the ruins of the jurned houses. Peter 
Minuet, returning from Europe at this time, tliought best to make a 
treaty of peace with these Indians, and with the representatives of all 
other tribes which he met. He went to Janrestown instead of visiting 
the Dutch colony, which was at that time without a governor. 

A short time after this Wouter Van Twiller was sent over from 
Holland as Governor. He had married a niece of Van Rensselaer, the 
chief of the patroons, and came in much state and great finery. He 
had just got settled in his manor at New Amsterdam when an English 
vessel came into the harbor. The officers of the vessel dined with Van 
Twiller and his ceremonious Dutch friends, and made a great show of 
courtesy, but they coolly announced their intention of going up the 
river to trade with the Indians. Of course, all the Dutchmen fell into 
a rage. They swore that the English should not trespass upon their 


grounds, and in a warlike fever caused the flag of Orange to be raised 
over the fort and saluted with three guns, while the English quietly 
sailed on their way up the stream. Van Twiller saw that more active 
measures would have to be taken, so he got all the people in the fort 
before his door and ordered a barrel of wine to be broiight out. 

Upon this he mounted and set the example to his men of drinking 
glass after glass in defiance of the Englishmen. In the meantime the 
English had sailed out of sight. Several days after a force of soldiers 
did go after the scornful Englishmen and compelled them to return, 
but the Governor's reputation was gone. 

Though the settlement at Manhattan was twenty years old, it was 
still little more than a trading post. The company seemed to sap its 
strength. The interest was not so much in the soil as the money that 
could be got out of the country. Some new houses had been built 
which were firm and siibstantial, and three great wind-mills had been 
erected. About one hundred soldiers were well quartered. A good 
church had been built and shops established by various tradesmen. 
But it was lacking in that appearance of permanence and domesticity 
which characterized the New England colonies. 

Nothing could have been more crooked than the streets. The 
houses were of wood, with gable ends built of small black and yellow 
bricks, brought over from Holland. The doors and windows were 
many, and the date of the building of the house was put in iron letters 
in the gable; frequently the name of the builder was added. The 
Hollanders were noted for their cleanliness. Indeed, the people of 
Holland were scrupulously clean, at a time when the most cultivated 
people of England were walking on dirty rushes and had not yet 
learned to clean out their courts. The Dutch in the New Netherlands 
spun linen as they had done in the old country, and heaped up their 
closets with it. Their silver and brass-ware was kept perfectly polished. 
The floors were covered with white sand, on which figures were traced 
with a broom. Their stately furniture had claw-feet of metal. The 
time was told by hour-glasses and sun-dials, and neither of the time- 
pieces were allowed to keep the pompous Dutchmen in a rush. They 
ate plenty and drank plenty, knew how to tell a good story and how to 
laugh at it, and were forever having betrothal feasts, wedding banquets 
and gala days. Christmas, as we celebrate it, is a custom introduced 
by the Dutch. They taught us how to make and exchange colored 
eggs at Easter, and but for them, we should never have had the practice 
of New Year's calling. They loved to smoke and to drink, and thei*- 


hospitality was ven- great. The reputation for this their descendants 
have never lost. Then, as now, the Dutch housekeepers were excellent 
cooks, and were especially noted for the delicious cakes and cookies 
which they made, and which ever^'one who went to their houses had to 
share with them. 

Though religion was not, as in Pl)-mouth, the object of their lives, 
they went to church steadily and held their "dominies" in high esteem. 
There was a great deal of comfort, but little money, and wampum or 
beaver skins were frequently used in the place of money. The women 
dressed as they had done in Holland, with short, bright-colored, quilted 
petticoats, and knitted stockings of bright gieen, purple, or red. About 
their heads were white muslin caps, beneath which their hair was 
plastered down with pomatum. The jDortly Dutchman — and they were 
all portly — wore coats of linsey-woolsey, with wide skirts and large 
buttons of brass or silver. They sported several pairs of knee breeches, 
one over the other, with long, knitted stockings and immense buckles at 
their knees and on their shoes. One of their chief industries was ship 
building. They were A-er}' proud of their vessels, and gave them 
remarkable names, such as ''The Angel Gabrier'' and '■'King Solomon.'''' 

Van Twiller became so ridiculous in his management of the New 
Netherlands that he was removed, and William Kieft, who aftervvard 
acquired the name of "William the Testy," was sent out. He found 
things in a very bad state. There had been altogether too much 
drinking, too much smoking of pipes and telling of stories. The walls 
of the fort were down, the houses in need of repairs, the work shops in 
a useless condition. William the Testy began to straighten out things 
at once, not as may be imagined in the most amiable way. The 
company had bought back Pavonia and the Valley of the Swans, and 
thus checked some of the abuses of the patroons' rule. Affairs reached 
a crisis, for the people were becoming impatient at having first one 
monopoly and then another over them, and, therefore, the council of 
nineteen, at Old Amsterdam, decided that each man should have as 
much land as he could properly cultivate, and the Dutchmen were given 
free passage to New Netherland. Affairs began to improve imme- 
diately, not only along Staten Island, but awaj' up to Albany. 

But with the English there had been many difficulties, and they 
were steadily encroaching upon the land claimed b\' the Dutch. 

History— Davis' "History' of New Amsterda 






<ILLIAM THE TESTY was no wiser in his 
treatment of the Indiaiis than in his government 
of the Dutch. The frauds of which the trades- 
men were constantly guilty were not checked by 
him, and the serious mistake was made of 
placing guns in their hands. The Mohawks were 
enabled to arm four hundred men. This made 
the other Indian tribes ver}' envious, and even while the 
Mohawks remained friendly, the other tribes were 
gradually becoming hostile. When at last, in 1640, a 
a tax was laid upon the Indians, exacting corn, 
wampum, and furs from them, the injustice was enough 
to bring about an open war. The Raritan Indians 
destroyed the settlement on Staten Island, in revenge 
for which William the Testy offered a bounty for the head of every 
Raritan which should be brought to him. Later in the year — this was 
in 1641 — a young Indian chief murdered a farmer in retaliation for the 
killing of his uncle. Another private murder was committed by an 
Indian, and these two crimes aroused the enmity of all of the Dutch 
settlements. At the same time, the people considered it wisest and 
best to use policy. Governor Kieft, however, had nothing politic in 
his nature. He wished to send out an armed force against the Indians, 
and would have done so immediately had the people not protested. 
The tribes at the lower part of the river were not a prey to the enmity 
of their white neighbors alone, but were constantly harassed by the 
powerful Mohawks. Man}' of tliem had to flee from the coast into 


those dark and interminable forests which stretch westward. Some of 
these unhapp}' Indians at last had to take refuge with the whites, so 
merciless were their Indian foes, and by some of the whites they were 
treated with great kindness. But certain of the twelve selectmen of 
New Amsterdam insisted upon attacking the Indians at Pavonia, 
across the river; and, though the wiser men of the community tried to 
dissuade them from this action, an anned force was sent to fight them 
in the dead of night. Perhaps one thousand Indians in the encamp- 
ment were sleeping quietly in their tents. So sudden was the onslaught 
that the unfortunate victims believed that it was the Indians from 
Fort Orange who had fallen upon them, and some of them actually fled 
to the Dutch settlement for protection, only to learn who their true 
enemies were. 

One hundred and twenty Indians were murdered that night, with 
horrible and indescribable tortures. The limbs and arms were hacked 
from the little children. They were bound to boards, then cut to 
pieces. Some of them were thrown into the river to make their 
parents go after them, where they were kept at bay, by the muskets of 
the Dutch, until they were drowned. Those who escaped, and came 
out in the morning to beg for food, were killed in cold blood. Some 
were drowned, and some burned to death. The troops, marching back 
to the fort in the morning, were received with many praises. 

Then, over all the colonies, broke a wave of war and outrage. 
Everywhere in New Netherland, fanners were killed and wives and 
children carried away into a terrible imprisonment. Now and then a 
sort of a half peace was made, only to be broken — first on one side, 
and then on the other. Late in the summer the tribes on the 
Hudson Highlands began an open warfare, and made it impossible 
for trading boats to come up the river. Ann Hutchinson, the witty 
woman preacher, was killed near New Rochelle. Savages crept into 
the ver}' villages and murdered men in the twilight. The people had 
no longer any patience with Kieft. They felt that his terrible cruelty 
had been responsible for all this suffering. He appointed a council to 
help him decide upon this difficult matter; and, under this council, 
a large force of soldiers were armed and thoroughly drilled, with John 
Underbill at their head. John Underbill was a Massachusetts captain. 
A petition was sent to the states general of Holland for help — a 
petition eloquent with fear and suffering. Through the winter which 
followed, they lived in a terrible state of anxiety, crowded together at 
the southern end of the island, and being afraid to venture bevond their 


own doors. Occasionally, the Dutch would sally out and succeed in 
making a small skirmish, which only added to the Indians' hatred. 

There was a little settlement called Hempstead, on Long Island, where 
a number of English families were settled. These had been exceed- 
ingly annoyed by the Indians near them, and prayed that they might be 
protected by the Dutch. Consequently, one hundred and twenty 
soldiers made an attack on two Indian villages, which they sacked, 
killing more than one hundred braves, and carrying some to Manhattan, 
where they were tortured. 

Later, the little army marched through the snow-covered forests 
upon the prinr-pal village of the Long Island Indians. This they fired, 
and furnished light to do a most murderous deed. Only sixty-eight of 
seven hundred Indians escaped. The Dutch had fifteen men wounded. 
After this, the proud spirit of the Indians was broken, and, when a 
fresh force of one hundred and thirty soldiers was sent to New Nether- 
land, the Indians sulkily retreated to their forests. 

These soldiers were a terrible burden to the poverty-stricken settle- 
ment, and Kieft made the great mistake of taxing beer for their sup- 
port. This was the one thing under the sun which the Dutchmen 
would not have taxed, and they begged for Kieft's dismissal. They 
had to wait a whole year before their prayer was answered. In the 
meantime, the Indians lurked under the very palisades which they had 
built for their protection, and which stood on a line with the present 
Wall street, which, of course, took its name from that ancient fortifica- 
tion. The following spring the Indians signed a treaty of peace with the 
Dutch, and gathering iipon the spot still known as the Battery, smoked 
the pipe of peace with them. In the wars of the last few years sixteen 
hundred of the Indians had been killed, and nearly all of the Dutch 
settlements had been destroyed. In all the province there were no more 
than three hundred men capable of bearing arms, and the settlers 
prayed for a new Governor, who should bring to them peace and 

In the Connecticut valley, the English had steadily crowded upward, 
until Dutch control was gone. Fort Nassau, however, was still retained 
by the Dutch, and established as an important Indian trading post. 

On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant, the new Governor of the New 
Netherlands, arrived. He was an old soldier of bravery and experience, 
and lost a leg in his country's service. He wore, in the place of that 
tnember, a wooden leg bound with silver. The solemn burghers met 
him with uncovered heads, and he allowed them, it is said, to stand in 

'^T^ ?S» 

J^ O-.z-f^^- ^^^ .fc--^^^ . 


the sun for several hours in this way, and seated himself with great 
ceremony while they remained standing. These king-like airs were 
not well received, but, in a short time, the honest vigor of the man 
began to be felt in the colony, and his very tyranny was in happy- 
contrast to the former governor's weakness. The men who had brought 
a complaint against Kieft were not sustained by Stuyvesant. He said 
it was treason to petition against magistrates, very wisely thinking that 
it would not do to allow such an example to pass unreproved, for 
he knew that he himself might soon meet with popular disfavor. The 
men who had complained of Kieft' s abuses were tried and condemned 
to suffer severe punishments 

The West India Company was no longer much interested in the 
colony, and left the severe and angry-natured Stuyvesant to do as he 
pleased. As for Kieft, he started to sail for Holland, but his ship was 
pounded to pieces on the Welsh rocks, and, at the last, he was seized 
with repentance for the murders which he had committed and the 
cruelty with which he had treated his friends. The two men who had 
been persecuted, because of their complaints against him to the 
Governor at Holland, were on the ship with him, and he called them to 
him, saying: "Friends, I have been unjust toward you; can you forgive 

Governor Stuyvesant began to lay heavy taxes upon the people, and^ 
though in many ways they lived safely and well under him, with a 
sense of security in his finnness and courage, they nevertheless felt that 
he was an unjust Governor. He was assisted in his affairs by a board 
of nine men. These men were only allowed to advise the Governor. 
They could make no laws, and give no orders without his approval. 
One of the first things which Governor Stuyvesant tried to do, was to 
come to a pleasant understanding with the English; but though the 
English wrote polite letters, they were not inclined to remove their 
boundaries farther from the Dutch, and they even claimed that they 
held the first title to Long Island. Finally, a Dutch captain seized an 
English ship, and, against this high-handed act. Governor Eaton, of 
New Haven, protested vigorously. Henceforth, he and Governor 
Stuyvesant wrote hot and furious letters to each other, and the two 
Governors quarreled about things which school-boys might have been 
ashamed to get angry over. He got in disfavor with his own colonists 
at the same time, by putting a check upon their tradings with the 
Indians, for, in spite of his forbiddance, they sold the Indians arms and 
ammunition. It was through this cause that he got into his fierce 


quarrel with the }'oung patroon, Van Rensselaer, for the old patroon of 
that name was now dead. He could not well control a lord owning 
such vast extent of territory, and used to exercising such power, without 
getting into trouble. When the young patroon defied Stuyvesant's 
authority, the Governor sent a squad of soldiers to enforce it. These 
lie ordered to take stone and timber from the patroon' s land for the 
purpose of repairing the fortifications at Fort Orange, but the people of 
the village around about, who were loyal to the young lord, would not 
permit such intrusion, even from their great Governor, and, for once, 
Peter the Headstrong failed to have his way. So, with many jealousies 
and small envies, the next few years of the New Netherland colonies 
went on. Any one wishing to study the history of New York can find 
plenty, both amusing and instructive, in the pages of the old State 
chronicles, but, for one who wishes to take a broad and hasty view of 
national history, it is hardly worth while to linger over the foolish 
quarrels and pretensions of these Dutch burghers. 

Fiction — Cooper's "Water-Witch." 

J. H. Paulding's "The Dutchman's Fireside. 
"Woolfert's Roost" and "Rip Van Winlde," from 
Washington In-ing's "Sketch Book." 


)}p §Ih Ja^ ^0llbm$nl 


TNE of the most important colonies has not yet 
been spoken of, for, though it had much influence 
in forming the United States, it was not made 
until June, 1629, when the other settlements were 
well under way. Six vessels, with their crews, 
four hundred and six men, women and children, one 
hundred and forty head of cattle, forty goats, and a 
large quantity of provisions, tools, arms and building 
materials, left England, and arrived at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. It will be remembered that a few rude 
buildings had been put here by people who, for one 
reason or another, saw fit to leave the colony at 
Plymouth. Like the Plymouth colony, this had a 
deep and dignified purpose, and for this reason it and 
the Plymouth colony are the best remembered and the most talked of to 
this day. These English wanderers did not come to make money. They 
came to worship God as they saw fit. They were Puritans. Not like the 
Puritans of Plymouth, pilgrims who had journeyed from one place to 
another, but people who had protested against the practices of the 
Established Church of England and who had found it necessary to seek 
the new land if they wished to live the life of their liking. They had 
come out under the royal patent of the Massachusetts Bay Company, 
which had been formed at Dorchester. John Endicott was made 
Governor. He was a stern man, who, having made up his mind that 
a certain thing was best to do, never yielded or gave way. He showed no 


merc}' toward any one who broke his rules. He was very honorable a.nd 
straightforward, but he wished everyone to be of his way of thinking. 
This was shown by his treatment of the Reverend Ralph Smith, one of 
the several ministers who came over in the fleet. It is hard to find in 
what small particular Mr. Smith differed from his fellows, but he had 
some shade of belief which did not agree with their' s, and he was not 
suffered to stay in the colony, but was obliged to take his family and go 
to Nantasket, where he became so poor and underwent such hardships 
that the Ph-mouth people took pity on him and invited him to their 
settlement. Before the colony had been established six weeks, a day of 
fasting and prayer was held. One of the ministers who had come over 
to aid as counsel to Endicott was chosen pastor, and another teacher. 
A delegation was invited from Plymouth to witness the ceremony of 
establishing the government of the colony. The ver}- life and conver- 
sation of men was to be subject to the rules laid down. The book of 
common prayer, belonging to the Church of England, was discarded, 
and a covenant was set up according to directions found in the New 

It was hard to get all of the ministers who came over as counsel, to 
agree. One of them went back to England, as he could not approve of 
the m^ethods of the Reformed Church. Two of his followers, John and 
Samuel Brown, men of a good deal of importance, would have nothing 
to do with the new church, but called about them all who still had 
sympathy with the Church of England, and held separate meetings, 
worshiping after the Episcopalian method. Of course, Endicott would 
have none of this. He summoned the Browns before him. The 
Browns held, that if men had come to America to escape intolerance, 
they should not be persecuted because of their religion, but the 
ministers held that they had come because they wished to escape' the 
sinful corruptions of the church, and the Browns were sent back 
to England. Thus the Massachusetts Bay colon}- showed at the first, 
why it was started, and how it intended to govern. It did not wish to 
be governed by the council in London, nor looked after by a corrupt 
church, and a still more corrupt court. They therefore begged for 
a transfer of government, and in the course of a few weeks they were 
allowed to become an independent colony. This showed great courage 
and force of character, for the protection of the King was thought by 
all but these men to be a great thing. 

Endicott and his friends had the pluck to take matters upon their 
own shoulders. It was necessar}' now to make new appointments, and 


John Winthrop was elected Governor, with six men as council. John 
Winthrop was a lawyer of good birth, with quite a fortune for that day. 
He had a gentle nature and great tenderness of heart, though he did 
not lack in firmness. He was in England at the time of his election, 
but sailed immediately for Salem. He found the colony had suffered 
from the experiences which met most settlers during their first winter 
in America. Eighty of them had died, and they had many tales of woe 
to tell. Within a short time one thousand persons followed Winthrop 
to Salem. Settlements were made at many places along the coast, and 
quite a large one at Charlestown. Winthrop thought it best to 
strengthen his hold on the possessions of the colony by settling all 
along the coast. Some of them went up the Charles, and the beginnings 
of Dorchester, Medford, Watertown, Cambridge, Roxbur}', Lynn and 
Charlestown were made. Boston Common was settled on because of 
the excellent spring of water there, and Ann Pollard, a merry young 
girl, was the first person, according to tradition, to leap ashore where 
Boston now stands. 

There was a great deal of sickness in all of these settlements — 
partly from want of proper shelter, partly from the malaria, which 
always comes with the clearing of ground, and more than all, from the 
want of a variety of wholesome food. In Salem, some had reached such 
a bad condition that a day of fasting and prayer was ordered. Their 
prayers seemed to meet with prompt answer, for Captain William 
Pierce, who had made so many journeys over the Atlantic, appeared at 
the right moment with a large supply of provisions. On that ship was 
a man named Roger Williams. Williams was a young man about thirty 
years of age. On all subjects he was thoroughly radical. The condi- 
tion of his mind then was like that of most iVmericans now. He 
believed that every man had a right to do a thing in his own way. He had 
no respect for anything simply because it was established and approved 
of by the majority. He must have been an attractive young fellow, 
with a good deal of personal magnetism. Governor Winthrop liked 
him very well, but he shocked the Governor by his out-spoken ways. 
He was invited to act as teacher of the Boston church, but upon 
examination it was found that he did not agree with their religious 
beliefs. That ended it, of course. He would not even join the church, 
because the members would not openly express their repentance for ever 
having communed with the Church of England. He held, too, that 
the magistrate had no right to punish a breach of the Sabbath, and that 
civil government and religious government should not be confounded. 


His eloquence was attractive, and he was chosen minister of the Boston 
church, in spite of these heresies. Endicott, down at Salem, heard of 
this, and gave them no peace until he was driven from the church and 
had taken refuge at Plymouth. Governor Bradford had no fault to find 
with hiui, and he did much active work in the course of the next year. 

Little by little the Massachusetts Bay colony grew into a common- 
wealth. It is true that it had enemies. There was one gay Sir 
Christopher Gardiner, who laid conspiracies against Winthrop, but he 
was finally arrested and sent back to England. Morton, of Merriment, 
had never forgotten the time when Endicott had grimly marched over 
and pulled down his May-pole, around which he and his hard-drinking 
friends were dancing with a company of Indian girls. This was a little 
colony called Merrimont, of which Morton was the leading spirit. 
Captain Standish had been obliged to take this man prisoner for his 
disorderly conduct, and to send him over to England in the custody of 
John Oldham, who had worked himself into favor with the Puritans 
again. Sir Ferdinando Gorges also quarreled with the Massachusetts 
Bay Company about patents, and the Browns were still sulky, but none 
of these did the colony any great harm. The ministers largely con- 
trolled matters, and to be a good citizen, according to the status of the 
colony, was also to be religious. 

One of these reverend gentlemen, John Eliot, of Roxbury, was 
renowned for his saintliness of character, and the work he did among 
Indians. For years he studied the Indian dialects, and was finally able 
to preach to them in their own tongtie. He made an entire translation 
of the Bible into the Indian tongue, one of the most important philo- 
logical works ever published in the United States. Copies of it are 
still extant, and sell at fabulous prices to collectors of Americana. He 
converted a whole tribe of Indians, who were known afterward as the 
praying Indians, and for whom the rest of the savages had a great 
contempt. Eliot's work was very difficult. The Indian was strangely 
lacking in moral sense, and it was necessary to teach him many things, 
which an European would know by instinct, about matters of right and 
wrong. Even the colonists seem not to have thought very well of the 
praying Indians. They preferred to have the native left in his savage 

Another minister of especial note was John Cotton, a man of such 
winning and triumphant eloquence that he influenced all who cime 
near him. After a time Roger Williams came back to Salem, and 
immediately got into trouble. Governor Bradford, his friend, was 


bound to admit that Roger had some vety strange ways of thinking and 
acting, and he warned the church at Salem against him. But the 
young man was so attractive that he overcame prejudices of this sort, 
and the Salem brethren took him into the church, where he began 
prophecying. His prophecies were not liked by the Salem people, and 
they arrested him for a treatise which he had written while in Ply- 
mouth, relating to the Indian title to the country, for he did not believe 
in the expulsion of the Indians. Nothing could be proved to his harm, 
however, on that charge. But Mr. Williams could not keep quiet. 
He certainly had very peculiar ideas. He convinced all of the women 
that it was immodest for them to go out of their houses unless they 
were veiled. Very naturally this was approved of neither by young 
men nor old men, and Mr. Cotton, the melting preacher, was called 
upon to persuade the wives and virgins that it was not necessary for 
them to hide their fair faces. Mr. Cotton went further, and repeated 
his sennon in the Boston lecture course, where Endicott fiercely got up 
and quarreled with him on the subject, and the debate got so hot that 
the Governor had to put a stop to it. Endicott was a fervid follower of 
Williams by this time. He went around looking everywhere for signs 
of anti-Christ, and actually cut St. George's cross out of the flag of 
England one time when he found it in Salem streets. The English 
soldiers very naturally refused to march after a flag which had been 
shorn of its sign of victory, and Endicott' s rash act made such a disturb- 
ance among the soldiers that he was dismissed from the council, and it 
was some time before he was readmitted. 

Williams and his friends asked the council for a grant of land at 
Marblehead, but it was not granted them. It was the first time that a 
church had been refused land to build on, and, of course, it only 
strengthened Roger Williams' following. Endicott's protest was so wild 
that he was imprisoned until he was ready to apologize. Williams was 
accused of unheard-of heresies. He held that the State had no right to 
meddle with a man's conscience or religioiis opinions. He was right, 
but he was also disagreeable. He would not bend to the advice of the 
court, nor take the warnings of the other ministers, and he was finally 
banished, though he was allowed to remain in town until spring. 
There was an attempt to put him on board a ship and send him to 
England, but he escaped and fled to the woods. There he lived, on the 
best of tenns with the Indians, for whom he had a great respect and 
affection. His dealings with them were upon a basis of equality'. 
Canonicus, chief of the Narragansetts, gave Williams a large tract of 


land, but the generous minister kept little for himself, and he gave 
away his lands to all that he thought in want. The place where he 
lived he called Providence, in his gratitude to God for having escaped 
from his enemies. 

Many persons persecuted for their religious beliefs in the different 
colonies came to live with him. Among these was Ann Hutchinson, a 
woman with a high sense of humor and of independence, who had 
mimicked some of the dry old preachers in Boston, and had drawn about 
her a number of people fond of a more simple. and straightforward 
doctrine. Ann Hutchinson, although she is almost forgotten, was one 
of the most remarkable women of the early history of this country. 
The new colony, after much trouble, obtained a charter under the name 
of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Never was there a more 
radical man than Roger Williams. The laws of his colony were based 
upon a plan of perfect religious toleration. He held that the most 
Paganish, Jewish, Turkish or anti-Christian conscience should be pro- 
tected in his colony. Such a thing was unheard of. It was new to the 
world. Thus was Rhode Island settled. 

History — Arnold's "Rhode Island." 
Fiction — Miss SedgTvick's "Hope Leslie." 
Holland's "Bay Path." 
Longfellow's "Rhyme of Sir Christopher." 


;\t \mn^u of SiuiiiHiintt. 


HE white man's first business in America was to 
.\^ destroy the forests. Before he could build him a 
home he laid his axe at the foot of a tree. From 
the very first, he showed how he diifered from the 
Indian, for the Indian lived in the forest; he wished 
to preserve it. The game in it was his means of 
livelihood. The wilder the streams, the better the 
fishing, and the only sort of warfare which he knew had 
to be conducted in the solitudes and fastnesses of the 
woods. His superstition had made it holj' to him ; his 
loves had made it dear, and from the first, the most 
thoughtful of the Indians had looked with great dread 
upon the growing power of the white man, and wondered 
if it could be possible for two nations so different in 
ever\-thing to live together in harmony. In the begin- 
ning, although the Indian was subtile in his dealings with his enemies, 
lie was true to his friends. He had the naturalness of a child. When 
he gave his word, he could be trusted. He could endure pain with a 
bravery only eqtialed by the old heroes of Sparta. In him was a lo\-e 
of liberty that centuries of injustice has not been able to crush, and in 
certain directio;is his mind was trained in a manner unequaled by any 
except the mystics of Asiatic India. He knew every sign of the forest, 
and the most timid animal had no match for his cunning. The soli- 
tudes were an open book to him, and the best power of his intellect was 
spent in evoh-ing a philosoph)' from its pages. He held mental and 
moral qualities in high esteem, and was willing himself to do but little 
manual labor, leaving that for the women of his tribe. Few nation? in 


the world have been found so swift of foot, so keen of sight and hearing, 
and so clever in detecting signs which no others might see. He was 
not without imagination or poetry, and for him, mountains, woods, lakes 
and streams were filled with spirits, good and bad, who watched over his 
destiny, or thwarted him in his ambitions. His life satisfied him, and 
so did his religion. It is not strange that the religion which the 
Englishmen offered him in place of his own was received with coldness. 

The lives of the Puritans did not set a good example to the Indians. 
Crimes of a certain nature were very frequent among them, and it is 
certain that the Christians did not teach the Indians honesty. Too 
much theology and too little religion naturally confused the Indian as 
to what the Christian faith really was, so when they saw themselves 
being driven inland, mile after mile, they knew that it meant the 
extinction of their race. They were forced to leave behind them the 
places which they cherished with a love almost fierce in its nature. 
The places where their dead lay buried, the monuments to which, day 
by day, the children added a stone, must all be left behind. The sea 
was no longer theirs. They saw that in a short time there would be 
nothing for them to do but march toward the setting sun, leaving the 
beloved sea behind them. 

This brooding hatred and distrust had its results. Captain Oldham 
had once more been taken into the favor of the Puritans, and when liis 
boat was found drifting at sea, with a band of Indians upon it and his 
dead body on the deck, the colonists made up their minds to reveuge 
his death; so in August of 1636, nearly one hundred men, in five small 
vessels, .sailed from Boston to Block Island — for it was the Block Island 
Indians who had murdered Oldham. In command of this expedition 
was John Endicott, the sternest Puritan of them all. To land at Block 
Island, even in fair weather, was a difficult thing. To do it in a 
heavy wind was a most dangerous one. Any seaman would shrink 
from it, but the Boston force did it in the midst of a shower of arrows 
from the Indians. The invaders stayed upon the island two days, laying 
waste the two hundred acres of land under cultivation, burning the 
maize already harvested, as well as the wigwams and all their furniture. 
Not one of the Englishmen was harmed, but such of the Indians as 
were left alive remained upon the island without shelter or food, or 
canoes in which to escape. Most of them perished wretchedly, but a 
few must have lived, because much later than this, the Indians of Block 
Island are referred to. 

Endicott took his men to the mainland near the mouth of what is 


now the Thames river. Proud of his victor}' over the Block Islanders, 
he wished to take revenge upon the Pequot Indians, for their murder of 
a Puritan named Stone. He asked that the Pequot chief be brought to 
him, but the chief would not come, and the Englishmen and Indians 
had some engagements, in which the Indians suffered severely. After 
burning the Indian villages, Endicott's men coasted on up to the mouth 
of the Connecticut river, where there was a fort imder the command of 
Captain Lion Gardiner, who was much distressed when Endicott stopped 
there. He had tried to keep on friendly terms with the Indians, and was 
much more afraid of starving to death than of being killed. Events 
show that Gardiner was right. The Indians were greatly irritated and 
were detennined to be revenged for the injustice done to the Block 
Islanders. They came upon the English at all sorts of unexpected 
places, and destrojed a large part of the corn which Gardiner had 
planted. It was hardly safe for the men to venture without the fort, 
for the Indians lurked about it constantly — never seen, bitt frequently 
felt. Cattle were killed or stolen, and the settlements near were greatly 
harassed. Wen went to church carr^'ing their weapons in their hands, 
and were afraid to labor in their own yards. Both men and women 
were fallen upon in the fields and murdered or carried into captivity. 
Had the Indians wished, they might have exterminated the English. 

Roger Williams saw the great danger. No man knew better than 
he the strength and qualities of the people on both sides. His diplomacy 
alone prevented a concerted attack by all the Indian tribes upon the 
colonies. Governor Winthrop and the rest were very glad to receive 
help from the man whom they had driven out in the dead of night and 
of winter because of his daring to differ from them. The efforts of 
Williams secured the friendship of the Narragansetts, who had long 
been enemies of the Pequots. The Massachusetts General Court 
decided at their May meeting to go to the help of the people in the 
Connecticut valley. They knew that the red cloud of war might sweep 
on to Massachusetts. Feeling that it was a common peril, the Bay 
people called upon Plymouth for help, but Plymouth held back. She 
had certain quarrels to pick with the Bay government. Both Massa- 
chusetts and Plymouth could take time to think. They were not — like 
the dwellers on the plantation of the Connecticut — being murdered in 
their beds, by their well-sweeps, and in their doorways" 

But in May, a force of ninety men, under the charge of Captain 
John Mason, sailed from Hartford for Fort Saybrook. Here they were 
joined by the friendly Uncas, the great Mohegan chief, with a body of 


Indians. Mason decided to attack the Pequots in the rear, although this 
was in disobedience to the orders of the general court. In pursuance of 
this plan, Mason left the fort and bore away for Narragansett Bay. The 
Pequots thought he was retreating, and late into the night they sang 
and boasted that their superior numbers had put the woman-hearted 
Englishmen to flight. But Mason landed near the entrance of Narra- 
gansett Bay, and marched eighteen or twenty miles distant on the 
Pequot frontier. The Narragansetts had a fort here, and Mason was 
anxious to make sure of their friendship. On the 25th of May the 
little army made the tedious march through the woods, with little to eat 
and less to drink, and encamped at night at the head of the Mystic 
river. Near that was the principal Pequot fort, crowded with men, 
women and children. 

Verj' early in the morning, when the east was first streaked with 
light, Mason awoke his men. Uncas, the Mohegan chief, guided them 
near to the palisaded village. There seemed to have been no sentinels 
about the fort, and, but for the barking of a dog, the Indians would not 
have known that the Englishmen were upon them. A part of ^Mason's men 
rushed in on one side, and the rest upon the other. The Indians could 
do but little, and, mad with terror, tried to rush for the woods, but there 
was little chance of escape. Mason was not satisfied with the rapid work 
that guns and swords were doing, but cried, "we must burn them," 
and snatching a brand from one of the smouldering fires at which the 
evening meal had been prepared, thrust it among the dead leaves that 
carpeted the wigwams. Some of the Indians, rather than die at the hands 
of their hated enemies, ran with a pride past all taming into the flame? 
and perished there. Others, seeing that their wives and children could not 
escape, threw themselves upon the swords of the Englishmen, who 
stood in an unbroken circle around the village, and behind whom was a 
yet sterner and more cruel company of their own countrj'men. 

It was hardly an hour from the time of the attack when the burned 
and bleeding bodies of nearly seven hundred Indians lay among their 
smoking wigwams. Only two of the English were killed. 

There was another Indian village belonging to the Pequots not many 
miles distant, and in this there were still three hundred and fifty warriors. 
A handful of men had escaped the morning massacre, and flying to this 
village, told their countrymen the particulars of the morning slaughter. 
Mad with sorrow and anger, these were soon upon the trail of the 
English. Mason's men, exhausted with the terrible fight, a third of 
them wounded, and all suffering from hunger and the intense thirst which 


follows such excitement, were in a very weakened condition, but they 
were able to repulse the Indians, and in the course of the day were met 
b}' a reinforcement of forty men from Boston. 

The Pequots were now the enemies of all the other tribes of Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, for the Narragansetts and Mohegans allied 
themselves with the stronger side. This the Indians always did in war- 
fare. So the Pequots were hunted mercilessly through the forests. 
The)- hid themselves in rocks, and caves, and bushes, and wherever 
they were found they were killed. The worst of it was that they were 
seldom killed immediately, but were tortured in the most terrible ways. 
Twent)- )oung Englishmen sometimes pulled the legs and arms of an 
Indian from their sockets by sheer brutal force. Few of the women 
and children were killed, but were sent to the West India Islands as 
slaves. In Jul}-, the remnant of this tribe were ensnared in a swamp. 
Here they fought like wild beasts, with the ferocity of despair, but 
most of them were killed or taken prisoners, and such as were left met 
with a fate still more hateful to them. They were permitted to become 
either Mohegans or Narragansetts, and lost their individuality as a tribe. 
They were a brave race of warriors, and their pitiable downfall and 
overthrow cannot but touch the heart of any who admire courage and 
patriotism. A few who fled to the Mohawks were treacherously killed, 
and their scalps sent to Governor Winthrop as a sign of Mohawk friend- 

The Pequot war lasted five months. This great tribe, numbering 
over one thousand warriors, was extinguished by a force of two hun- 
dred Englishmen. It is true that the Narragansetts and Mohegans had 
helped them, but they were never to be relied upon. There is no more 
striking proof of the superiority of civilized warfare. 

After this, for many years, the Indians of Connecticut were subdued. 
They were sometimes annoying, but seldom dangerous, and while the 
Dutch were suffering all the terrors of Indian conflict, the New 
England settlements remained for forty years in a state of comparative 

The heavy expense of this war had fallen upon the people of the 
Connecticut valley, and the colony was badly in debt. Its strongest 
and best men had been called to military service, leaving the women to 
look after the farms, and it seemed £3 if there might be a great lack of 
food for the coming winter. Active measures had to be taken to 
prevent this, ana every kernel of corn was carefully gathered and 
preserved. Companies of home soldiers were well drilled at every 


settlement, and the young colon)- had begun to feel its strength 
and firmness so well now that within eighteen months from this time 
the new government adopted a constitution. This constitution was 
very simple and eloquent, and said that the people of Connecticut 
recognized no allegiance to any other power, not even that of England. 
It constituted a popular government, in which all the freemen were 
equal before the law, promising to maintain the liberty of the gospel of 
our Lord Jesus. 

For two hundred years this was the basis of the law of Connecticut. 
John Haynes and Edward Hopkins served as Governors for many years, 
sometimes one and sometimes the other holding the position. The life 
of every man and woman in the community was carefully watched by 
the magistrate, and no license of speech was pennitted. No one was 
allowed to say what he or she thought about the minister's last sennon, 
or allowed to laugh at the peculiarities of his or her neighbors. From 
the ver\' strictness of the laws, now and then some man or woman 
broke out into a strange frenzy of viciousness or crime, which would be 
seldom heard of in a less severe community, where light amusements 
and diversions are allowed. The stern monotony of life seemed 
to make the heart prey upon itself, and the people broke into vice to 
supply the necessary excitement. In 1643 ^ confederation was made, 
embracing Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven. 
Their distance from each other was so great that it was not practical to 
have a single government for them all, but they had desired to link the 
English plantations together, that they might defend themselves against 
the people of several nations and strange languages who were settling 
around them. England, occupied with her own troubles, could pay 
little attention to her colonies, so they looked for no further help from 
the home country'. The main object of this confederation was an 
offensive and defensive league in case of war. In all other things each 
colony held the right of self-government. This was the genn of the 
Federal Union, which has grown great among the nations as the United 
States of America. 

History — Penshallow's "Indian Wars in New England." 
Biography— Winthrop's "Life and Letters ' 

Fiction— L. M. Child's "First Settlers of New :^Dgland." 








HE Boston people had come to America to worship 
God in what they believed to be the right way. 
If that was the right way, all other ways must be 
wrong, and they allowed no one to differ from 
them in the smallest shade of belief When Ann 
Hutchinson was driven from among them, they 
had hoped that all these ' 'notable errors' ' of belief were 
done with, and that God would reward them with con- 
tinued peace for driving such heresies from their 
midst. Indeed, they believed that God dev'oted the 
most of His time and attention to them, and the mis- 
fortunes of all others were counted to their own glor>'. 
If any one who had opposed them or criticised them 
fell sick or met with misfortune, they believed it another 
sign of the Lord's care. To be a citizen, it was first 
necessary to be a member of the church, and the court 
of justice was little more than a religious examining seat. If any one 
made remarks upon the preached word or showed any contempt of the 
preacher, he was called a ' 'Wanton Gospeller, ' ' and stood for two hours 
openly upon a block four feet high, on a lecture day, with a paper on 
his breast with "A Wanton Gospeller" written thereon in capital 
letters. It was this firm belief in their own righteousness which caused 
the people of Boston to persecute so many people at diiferent times on 
account of religious differences. 

One of the men who suffered most from this unforgiving spirit was 


Samuel Gorton. No one of a later day was able to tell just what this 
man believed, but it was certain that he believed something different 
from the people around him. He was one of the early settlers of 
Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and was given to advertising new theories, 
and to standing by them in a manner not so wise as it w?.s determined. 
He visited both Boston and Plymouth, and while at Plymouth got into 
his first fight with the authorities because he defended a servant of his 
own family who so far forgot herself as to smile in church, and who was 
therefore declared to be a heretic. At length he was driven out, 
and, very naturally, went to Acquidneck, Roger Williams' settlement, 
■where everyone was welcomed. In the year 1641, Gorton bought land 
at Pawtuxet. This was where Cranston now stands, and was within 
the bounds of Providence. Of the people of Providence,* Governor 
Winthrop had a very poor opinion. He said that some of them were 
against the baptizing of infants, and that others denied all magistracy, 
and claimed that Gorton was their captain. 

Roger Williams managed to keep them (the Gortonites) peaceful for 
a time, but at length arguments waxed so hot between them and their 
neighbors that blows followed. A man named Arnold, and a dozen 
others, appealed to Massachusetts for aid against Gorton and his friends, 
•who seemed to have had certain socialistic ideas in regard to land, ver}' 
offensive to people used to complicated government. Boston, however, 
refused to send help to the people of Pawtuxet, since they did not live 
imder the government of Massachusetts, as both parties had found 
Boston so little to their liking that they had run away from it. They 
were not willing to submit themselves to its government again even to 
win their point, but at length the quarrels grew so hot that they sent 
again to Boston for help. This appeal was sent out by four men, of 
whom Arnold was one. These four men submitted themselves to 
Boston, with their lands and possessions, and as these were very 
desirable, Boston consented to give them help. Having got the lands 
in this cheap way, the Massachusetts magistrates gave the four men 
leave, if they had a just title to anything which Gorton and his friends 
possessed, to proceed against them in court. This they did immediately, 
the case being, of course, decided in favor of Arnold and his friends. 
By this ver)- simple method, Massachusetts gained possession of that 
beautiful garden of the Narragansett. 

There were about twelve men of the Gorton party, and these imme- 
diately deserted their homes and gardens in Pawtuxet, and moved away 
in search of a new place. They settled about twelve miles south 


of Providence, calling their settlement Sliewanet. Before going there 
Samuel Gorton sent a remarkable letter to the Boston magistrates, 
which set forth all of their religious beliefs. The magistrates seemed to 
know what it meant, for they found twenty-six blasphemous particulars 
in it, though no one since has been able to tell what Gorton's theology 
was. The land at Sliewanet was bought of Miantonomo, the young: 
sachem of the Narragansetts, and it was so far from the settlement 
of any one else that they hoped they might be left in peace, but Arnold 
was not the man to let a personal matter drop so quietly, and he 
induced the Indians to say that they had been forced to sign the deed 
giving title to Gorton's people, and two small sachems, who were hired 
to tell this lie, were received as subjects of the Massachusetts govern- 
ment. That these two new subjects might be properly protected, the 
twelve men of Sliewanet were asked to appear before the general court 
at Boston. This, Gorton and his friends refused to do, and the colony" 
sent back a threat which showed the Shewanet people that they were iit 
danger of their 'lives. A band of soldiers and Indians charged uport 
the village, and the troops did not disdain to level their muskets u^jon 
women and children. Some of the people ran for the woods; others 
waded out into the river to reach a boat, which some Providence people, 
in pit3' for their condition, had brought to the place. Though none of 
them died at the time, a number died afterward from the exposure and 
suflfering. The men had not supposed that the Boston troops would 
trouble their wives and children, and had fortified themselves in one of 
their log houses. They stood the siege for several days, but without firing 
a shot — for they did not believe in the shedding of blood. Their 
houses were pillaged, their cattle driven off, and their wives and 
children, who lurked in the woods near by, were fired at. 

At length the Gorton men promised they would yield, and go to 
Massachusetts to be tried, if they could go as free men, and not as 
prisoners. This the soldiers promised, but as soon as they got in the 
house, the arms were taken from the Gorton men and they were marched 
off as captives. In Boston, they were received as if they were the most 
dangerous and dreadful men. 

The clergymen called the people together in the open streets to. 
thank God for his goodness in giving them the victory, and Governor 
Winthrop went out and publicly blessed the soldiers. The trial lasted 
four days, and the elders declared that the oflense of these men was 
deserving of death, but the large body of the delegates would not 
permit this sentence. The men were imprisoned. The winter tlie^ 


Spent in jail did not, however, keep their doctrines from spreading, and 
and at length Governor Winthrop thought it best to set them free. 
Within three days, however, they were told to depart out of the town 
before noon. They had nothing to do once more but to take to the 
wilderness, where they lived among the Indians. In time they succeeded 
in getting from King Charles a document which let them pass safeh* 
through any town of New England, and which gave them an order for 
the grounds at Shewanet, from which they had been evicted by Arnold 
and his friends. Of course, they had much trouble in carrying this 
into effect. The Earl of Warwick was the president of the Board of 
Commissioners who had seen to the rights of the Gorton party, and in 
gratitude Shewanet was named Warwick. Warwick became a part of 
Providence plantation under a charter got by Roger Williams, in 1644. 
This charter Williams carried to Boston and made them recognize its 
power, but they treated him w'ith no more friendliness there than they 
did before. He did not need to mind, however, when he was received 
at home with so much love. When the people heard that he was 
returning, the river was crowded with canoes, and the people gathered 
iipon the banks to welcome him. This charter gave to the people of 
the Providence plantations full power and authority to govern and rule 
themselves, and all others who came within their boundaries. It was 
the first colonial charter of the sort that had ever been given. When 
the first general assembly met under it at Portsmouth, the)- declared 
that the form of government established in Providence plantations was 
democratic; that is to say, a government held by the free and voluntarv 
consent of all, or the greater part of the free inhabitants. It granted 
to ever}' one absolute freedom of conscience. 

By this tinie political parties had begun to be felt in America. 
Men who had been Whigs and Tories in England, were Whigs and 
Tories here, and this declaration of democrac}' greatly offended the rov- 
alist party, who thought it an insult to the King. Some of these asked 
to be luiited to Massacliusetts, but were refused unless they would allow 
that their land came within the Plymouth patent. This, of course, 
they would not do. It came about in time that a royal charter was 
obtained from Charles II, after he was restored to the throne, which 
imited Rhode Island and the Providence plantations. The events which 
led to this are interesting, and form another chapter in that marvelous 
book of religious persecutions which go to make up so great a part in 
colonial history. 

The Re\erend John Clark was one of the most popular citizens of 


Rhode Island, and tlie pastor of the Baptist Church at Newport. The 
Baptists were one of the exiled sects who had come within the protec- 
tion of Roger Williams' strong arm. Holmes and Crandall were also 
Baptist ministers, and these three went together to Lynn, in Massa- 
chusetts, to visit one of their faith who was old, sick and blind, and had 
desired to see them. While they were visiting this old man they held 
divine service in his house, and were arrested by constables for daring 
to preach the despised religion on JNIassachusetts territor}'. Tbey were 
sent to the Boston jail until the court set, and, after ten days' confinement 
there, were found guilty of being Baptists. They were sentenced either 
to be whipped or pay a fine, and when they asked what they had been guilty 
of, Endicottreplied that they denied infant baptism, and John Wilson, the 
pastor of the Boston Church, so lost his temper that he struck Holmes. 
Friends paid the fine of Clark and Crandall, but Holmes' conscience 
would not allow him to be released that he might escape a painful 
punishment, so he was led out of the prison into the presence of the 
people to be whipped. The coat which he had put on with much 
neatness, that he might look worthy of the Lord, was taken from him, 
and he was given thirty strokes with a three-corded whip. When the 
sheriff had finished, and even the hardest-hearted of the bystanders 
turned sick at the sight of his bleeding back, he turned smilingly to 
the magistrates by, and said: "You have struck me as with roses." 

The political quarrels of the different towns of the Providence 
plantations had weakened their government, but the manner in which 
these Providence preachers had been treated determined them to see to 
their rights in the future, that they might be able to retaliate with 
proper force should Massachusetts interfere in this way again. Clark 
was sent to England to obtain the royal charter, which he did after 
working and waiting for several years. 

Biography— Spark's "'Gorton." 

Fiction— J. Bauvard's "PrisciUa." 

Hawthorne's "Scarlet Letter " 


il^rougl^ fnln la ymu. 




L l^\^HE Boston church seemed to feel for a while that 
it had done its duty, but after a time some 
strange people were found in their midst, who 
were called Quakers. Once i:iore the church 
was up in arms. It wanted to know who the 
Quakers were. They found that the)' were the followers 
of George Fox, a man who mingled much poetic 
mysticism with the stern and self-denying religion. It is 
said that he had the power of perceiving evil thoughts 
in others, and could not pass by a wicked person 
without stopping to point out the path of reform. His 
own life was beautifully pure and sanctified, and it was 
certain that he could read minds and influence people 
as it is given to only a few to do in this world. The 
doctrine of the Friends, as the followers of Fox were called, was to 
be at peace with all the world, to put aside vanities and show, to trust 
to the guidance of the inner spirit, and to put scholarship and holiness 
above gain in all cases. They used no titles, and would not permit 
steeples on their churches, and dressed in plain garb of uniform color, 
in protest against all the gay ruffling and slashing which they saw in the 
streets of England, where Fox was born. Plainness of speech, as well 
as plainness of dress, was held to. Fox dressed in a suit of leather, but 
it may not have been so much to be different from other men as for the 
convenience of having one durable suit to wear upon his long journeys, 
and to keep out the damp and cold of the many dungeons in which he 
was placed. One of the things which most irritated the magistrates 
was the habit which the Quakers had of continually wearing their hats, 
believing that they should pay no more honor to one person than 


another, and that it was a waste of time and sense to keep up so foolish 
a ceremony. The Friends insisted upon speaking in the churches, and 
interrupting the ministers when they overheard a remark to which they 
could not give their support. They believed that they had a call to 
bear their "message" into the verj' strongholds of their adversaries, and 
sometimes launched speeches against them so fiercely that it is little 
wonder that the Puritan ministers were irritated, especially as the 
Quakers objected to their receiving any money for their services. The 
fight they made against "hireling religion" was very bitter. The 
personal life of the Quakers was thoroughly pure. Indeed, to such a 
high strain did their minds grow, that it is difl5cult for any one in this 
busy and more commonplace age, to appreciate the ferv^or and beauty 
of their visions, their sacrifices, and their prophesies. 

The Friends were first called Quakers by Justice Bennett, of Derby, 
in 1650, because the people trembled or quaked when they listened to 
the powerful words of Fox. Fox even had the courage when he was 
taken to London, in 1654, as a prisoner, and lodged in the old Mermaid 
Tavern, which Shakspeare and his friends made famous, to write to 
Cromwell, protesting against the drawing of the sword of war. The 
English had grown to fear the Quakers, even before they came to America. 

In July, 1656, the first Quakers came to Boston. These were Mary 
Fisher and Ann Austin, who were imprisoned upon their arrival and 
sent back to the Barbadoes, from whence they had come. Mary Fisher 
had traveled, not alone over Europe, but in parts of Asia, preaching 
the word, and in the autumn of 1653, three years before her imprison- 
ment at Boston, she had preached to the Cambridge students. Endicott 
was absent, when the "Swallow" arrived, with Mar>' Fisher and Ann 
Austin on board, but the depitty governor had their baggage searched, and 
all of their books and tracts taken, and an order was issued, which was 
the first act of Massachusetts against the Quakers, in which the women 
were called preachers of corrupt, heretical, and blasphemous doctrines. 
While they were at Boston they were confined in the jail, with the 
windows boarded up. No one was allowed to speak to them, or render 
them any assistance. They were stripped, and examined for signs of 
witchcraft, but as they fortunately had no moles or freckles upon them, 
they were cleared of that charge. The people were even cautioned not 
to feed them, but Nicolas Upshall, an old gentleman of Boston, who 
held very grave ideas of justice, gave the jailor money to provide for 
them. He was arrested and thrown in jail, and upon release, was 
exiled. They would not receive him at Plymouth, and he went to live 


among the Indians, who had a friendly feeling for any who, like them 
selves, had the Puritan religion so obnoxiously thrust at them. The 
Swallow was barely out of sight, when a vessel from London arrived 
with eight Friends on board. Their boxes and chests were immediately 
searched for "hellish pamphlets," and, after many questions, they were 
sent to jail. They were ordered to return on the vessel which brought 
them, and when the master refused to take them at his own expense, 
he was imprisoned until he yielded. The people became dissatisfied 
with measures which could not be sustained by the laws of the colony, 
and on October 14th a law was passed which made every ship-master 
bringing Quakers to New England subject to a payment of one hundred 
pounds, or imprisonment until the money was forthcoming. Any 
Quakers who arrived should be put in the house of correction, severelj- 
whipped, kept at constant labor, and forbidden to talk with any one. 
There were also fines for bringing or sending Quaker tracts to the 
colony. Four of the federate colonies adopted this, but Rhode Island 
refused, and very cleverly held that the Quakers would not care to come 
to Rhode Island if they were not persecuted for doing so. Not that the 
Quakers had any desire to become notorious, or wished a vain martyr 
dom, but they naturalh- insisted upon tr}'ing to reform and soften the 
people who most reviled them. 

It is not necessary to repeat the particulars of each of their abuses 
of these gentle Friends. They were all much alike in cruelty, and it 
became common to whip them from town to town and to keep them for 
many days in jail withoiit food, with not even a bunch of straw to lie 
upon. The instrument used for whipping them was a three-corded 
knout, with knots tied in it. But the more the people suffered, the 
more converts they made. No one was allowed to entertain a Quaker 
without punishment, but for all of that, plenty of kind hearts were 
foimd who were willing to .shelter them. Women were stripped naked 
and whipped, and one of them was whipped with a little babe only a 
few days old clinging to her breast. 

Even the little children did not escape. Lawrence and Cassandra 
Southwick were banished from the colony under penalty of death, 
leaving behind them their poor little boy and girl in extreme poverty. 
They were fined for not attending regular worship, and having no 
money to pay the fine, were to be sold as slaves. It was hoped that 
they might bring ten pounds each, and so the treasury' got the money 
which it ached for, but not a sea captain in the port of Boston would 
take them away, and the magistrates had no choice but to let them stay. 


Another little child, Mary Wright, fourteen years of age, whose sister 
had been banished from Massachusetts, found her way from Long Island 
to Boston, that she might protest against the cruelty they were showing 
to these innocent people. Her words were so simple that even the 
hardened men about her were moved, and the secretary' cried: "What! 
shall we be battled by such a one as this? Come, let us drink a dram." 

Sweet Mary Dyer, hearing of some friends in prison, visited them, 
and was arrested for it and put under the same roof She was banished, 
but returned to Boston to again visit the persecuted Friends, bringing 
with her linen to wrap the dead bodies of those who were to suffer. 
With her came a party of Friends, four of whom were women. They 
had guessed right; some were to suffer death, and Marj' Dyer was one 
of them. The 27th of August she and two men were led to the Boston 
Common, with a great force of soldiers about them, and the drums 
beating. Mary Dyer walked as if to some great victor}-, with a smile 
upon her face. The two men were hung, and just as they had tied 
Mar}- D}er's clothes about her feet a cry came ringing across the 
Common announcing a reprieve, which her young son had got for her. 
She was banished, but in a few months returned again to Boston. It 
was required of her, she said, to take her message there. Her husband 
wrote a letter begging that she might be spared, but Endicott would 
show no mercy, and the tender appeal for Frieud Dyer's "most dearly 
beloved wife" only irritated him, so on a certain sad day, with a strong 
body of soldiers about her, for fear of the people who were moved to 
much pit}- in her case, she was led to the Common rud hung there, for 
'jthers to take example by, so her judges said. 

The last man to be hung on Boston Common was William L,eddra, 
who had dared to return after ha\-ing been banished. He came into 
the court dragging a log behind him to which he was bound with chains, 
and answered all questions put to him with a fearlessness which all of 
his sect showed. But by this time the severit\- of the judges began to 
defeat itself The people could not stand such cruelty, and they were 
frightened b}- the wild prophecies of Wenlock Christison. He was 
whipped through Boston, Roxbur}- and Dedham, and cast into the 
wilderness, but his prophecies remained behind him to frighten and 
subdue the people, for oddly enough man}- of them came true. 

At length the King of England put a stop to the cruelty with which 
the Quakers were being treated, and the order was placed in the hands 
of Samuel Shattock, a Quaker, who had been banished from Boston 
under penalty of death. When Shattock walked before Endicott, with 


his hat upon his head, he was met with the usual brutal questions, but 
when he showed his order, Governor Endicott, overcome with mortifica- 
tion, yet not forgetting his courtesy to an embassy from his sovereign, 
replaced the hat which he had snatched from Shattock's head and 
removed his own. The King ordered that all prisoners should be .sent 
to England. This, it goes without saying, Endicott and his friends 
would not dare permit. They settled the question by dismissing the 
prisoners. However, the cruelties against the Quakers were revived 
later, and men and women were frequently tied to the end of a cart and 
whipped from town to town. 

The last time a Quaker was imprisoned was at the time of Endicott' s 
burial. An old woman, sixty-five years of age, made some remarks, 
true but not savory, about the dead magistrate. These persecutions 
lasted ten years in all, until again the King interfered, sending to Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut orders that all persons of civil lives would 
fully enjoy the liberty of their conscience. 

History— Mather's "Magnalia.'* 
Poetry — Whittier's "Cassandra Southwick." 
Longfellow's "John Endicott." 

I From the paintinR by .\i 






I TER King Charles I had been beheaded, and 
Cromwell, the great dictator, ruled, many of those 
who had stood by the King, and were now in dis- 
favor and poverty, hastened to the Virginian 
colony. This was the only one of all the colonies 
which had steadfastly believed in the cause of the 
King. So the disappointed royalists of England 
were glad to come by hundreds to the only spot in the 
New World in which all that they loved was respected 
— where the>' could have the church ser\'ice which 
they wished, and where no one reviled the dead King. 
They brought with them their old ways. Used to the 
life of court and camp, they lived carelessly, spending 
their money without thought of its value, and caring 
little for the rights of those poorer or less powerful than themselves. 
They were a merry and elegant set, and even when their clothes were 
worn to rags, they were still wonderfully polite and lordly in their 

One of the pleasantest chronicles of colonial life has been left by one 
of the men who came over in the way described. This was Colonel 
Norwood, a young man of much bravery and originality, who was 
wrecked with his company on an island near \'irginia. They starved 
there for ten days, and were taken to the mainland by a party of Indians 
who chanced to pass. Among the Indians they were treated with much 
kindness, and finally were guided from plantation to plantation through 
the hospitable Virginian colonv until they reached the settlement. In 
these careless and genial old days, hospitality was not alone a matter of 


impulse. There was a law ordering that any stranger coming to the 
house should be cared for as a guest, unless an agreement in writing 
was made with him before he entered. It can easily be imagined that 
not one person in a thousand would do such a thing, especially in an 
age where inhospitality was considered the worst of crimes. 

After Governor Harvey had been sent back by the King to govern 
Virginia, the troubles between Maryland and Virginia continued to 
grow worse. In course of time he was succeeded by Sir Francis W)at, 
and he, in time, by Sir William Berkeley, the best known of the James- 
town governors. He came to Jamestown early in 1642, amid the 
enthusiasm of the people. Nothing was so dear to him as his King, 
and he followed the royal commands in everything. Under his rule 
the colony prospered. wBut the colony took some very ill-advised 
measures, and in 1643 enacted laws which broke up the Puritan 
churches. When, a little later, there was a sudden rising among the 
Indians, and a great number of Virginian planters were killed, the 
Puritans saw in it a meting out of God's justice to their persecutors. 
The Indians were treated as enemies, and it was declared that there 
should be no peace between them and the whites, and that a savage 
might be shot whenever he was seen. The Indians planned a cunning 
revenge, and killed from three hundred to five hundred of the English 
in return for this cruel law. But for .some reason which has never been 
explained, they drew off and retreated to the woods, instead of con- 
tinuing their slaughter, as they might easily have done. This was 
twenty-two years after the Virginian massacre, which had so nearly 
extinguished the colony. But now the province was of more than 
thirty years' standing, with good rulers and well-organized means of 
defence. All the forces of the colony were turned upon the Indians, 
and they were driven from one point to another, many of them taken 
prisoners, and, finally, the great chief who ruled over all of those lands 
where Powhatan had once been King, was taken and brought to 
Jamestown. This chiefs name was Opechancanough. He was nearly 
one hundred years old, and so crippled with paralysis that he could not 
even open his eyes to look at his victors, who crowded about him as he 
lay dying in prison. It had been the intention to take him to England 
to show the people there a man who had kept the colony in a state of 
terror for years, but he was cruelly shot by one of his guards, and so had 
the good fortune to die in his own country which he had loved deeply 
and fought for with extraordinary fierceness. 

During all the time of the great Revolution in England, the Virginian 

J, 2. Alcu^ 


colony was in a state of unusual prosperity. Tobacco was the chief 
export, and even in the midst of the war, men would not stop using 
tobacco; therefore, their income did not decrease. In England, there 
was no time to attend to colonial affairs, and Virginia grew stronger 
under home rule. There was plenty of skilled labor among the fifteen 
thousand Englishmen who made up the colony, and -smelting works, 
hemp and flax culture, vine-raising, indigo-making, and the manufacture 
of bricks succeeded well. The plantations grew, and in the midst of 
them were built those hospitable, porch-surrounded mansions which we 
still associate with the colonial period. More than thirty vessels 
brought out English goods every year, and took back cargoes of native 

Virginia had had the courage to openly denounce the execution of 
King Charles I, and had made a law calling it treason for any one to 
speak against him, so in 1650 the Parliament in England said that there 
should be no more trade with these uncompliant colonies, and sent over 
commissioners to force allegiance to Cromwell. With these commis- 
sioners came a regiment of soldiers and one hundred and fifty prisoners 
of war, who were to be sold as servants in Virginia. They demanded 
the surrender of Jamestown, and it was found necessary to yield. The 
Puritans were more than a religious party at this time. They were a 
political party as well, both in England and America, and Cromwell's 
men who came to demand the surrender of the Virginian colonies 
represented the Puritans. The terms of the surrender were not unkind, 
and even gave consent that the common prayer book should be used for 
the next year. Consideration was shown Governor Berkeley and his 
officers, and they were given liberty to sell their estates, if they wished 
to leave the colony. A government was established, with William 
Clayborne and Richard Bennett at its head. They were men highly 
esteemed and ver}' generous in their government. Clayborne, although 
he had had such quarrelsome experiences with Marj-land, was a ver}^ 
sensible and clever gentleman, from one of the best families of England, 
and was one of the strongest upholders of the Protestant faith. Though 
he did not forget his old troubles with Marj-land, and the serious 
grievance he had against Lord Baltimore, he was, nevertheless, con- 
siderate at first in his government of Maryland, now that it was partly 
in his power. 

Governor Stone, now at the head of the Maryland colony, was the 
second Governor since Leonard Calvert. The few months that followed 
the triumph of Cromwell were very bewildering to Governor Stone. 


Now he would have a message from the Long Parliament, saying that 
he must proclaim to his subjects the supremacy of the Dictator and give 
an oath of fidelity, and again would receive indignant letters from Lord 
Baltimore, saying that he owed allegiance to him. Several times he 
issued different manifestoes, until finally Bennett and Cla^-borne them- 
selves made a proclamation saying that Maryland belonged to the 
Protector, and removing the Catholic oflBcers, they appointed a Board of 
Puritan Commissioners. 

So at length the Puritans, who had been so much abused, began to 
be the stronger party in both countries. They were men of determined 
characters, who believed that God led them in everj'thing. Lord 
Baltimore protested against the easy way in which Stone had yielded 
to the Puritan will, and under his influence Stone gathered his forces 
and seized the State archives and all the arms and ammunition he could 
find. Then he took his force of two hundred men and embarked on 
twelve boats, which went up Chesapeake Bay to Severn, opposite Kent 
Island, where the Puritans were settled. Stone intended to enforce 
their submission. In the Sev-ern was a large ship, the Goldejt Lion^ 
which sent out shots among the advancing fleet as they came into the 
harbor, and Stone hurried his vessels farther up the creek and took his 
men on shore, with a good deal of noise and bluster. But while they 
were gone, the Puritans took possession of all their vessels, sending a 
detachment by land to force the Catholics up the peninsula. While 
they were retreating, they suddenly met one hundred and twenty men 
who had come out from Providence to meet them. With enemies on 
both sides it was necessar}^ to fight, so crying, "Hey for St. Marys," 
they rushed at the enemy. But the Puritans cried, "In the name of 
God, fall on; God is our strength," and elated with that stern frenzj- 
which carried them through such awful trials, they killed and wounded 
fift}- of the Catholics and took all but four or hve prisoners. Only four of 
the Puritans died in consequence of the engagement. Four of the 
leaders were killed, and Governor Stone was sentenced to death, but 
some of the Puritans begged for his life and he was spared. 

And now a letter came from the Protector, forbidding the \'irginians 
to have anything to do with the affairs of Mar\'land until the bound- 
aries could be settled. Lord Baltimore was pennitted to send out a 
deputy governor to keep his colony quiet, but it was two years before 
matters were settled, and the liberal laws of Maryland ratified by the 
English government. For several years all went well in Virginia 
Bennett resigned his office in favor of Edward Diggs, who was followed. 



in turn, by Governor Mathews. There were still two distinct political 
parties in Virginia, but their interests were too closelj- allied for them 
to keep quarreling with each other, and in these peaceful years nianj- 
laws were passed which were of great value to the colonists. 

After Cromwell died, the Puritans began to lose strength in Virginia, 
and when King Charles II was put on the throne of his father in 
England, the old royalist party of Virginia once more became the ruling 
power, and Sir William Berkeley was elected Governor. He sent a 
glad letter to the King telling how happy he was to serve the royal 
family again, and a day was set apart to the memory of King Charles 
I, to be kept alive by yearly feast on the 13th of January. Berkele\- 
did not put the distinguished Puritans out of office, but let them 
continue under him. The House of Representatives was not to 
meet unless there was positive need for it, so it chanced that for 
fifteen years there was no popular election. Tobacco currency was the 
money used in paying the State officers, and the salary of the Governor 
was equal to the whole annual expenditure of the colony of Connecticut. 

The slavery of negroes was steadily increasing, and a law was made 
condemning all children of mixed blood to serve as slaves for life. 
There were a great many white slaves, also, brought from the jails and 
slums of England, and these were much lower than the blacks, for they 
were vicious, while the negroes were only ignorant. The Church of 
England once more became the established church of the colony, but 
the Puritans were not persecuted, although they were held in check 
and not allowed to preach, even in private. In 1662 a fine was imposed 
upon all persons who would not subscribe to the orthodox religion. The 
Quakers here, as elsewhere, were held in disfavor, and many of them 
were driven into North Carolina. Penalties were still imposed for the 
purpose of making the colonists raise more corn and less tobacco, for 
the supply of tobacco was greater than the demand for it. 

The English made an effiDrt to confine all the foreign trade to them- 
selves, but this they found it very difficult to do. In 1663 a plot was 
discovered to overthrow the government. This may have been the 
outcome of the discontent which the people felt at having these trade 
laws enforced. The plot was discovered and four of the ring-leaders 
hung. After this a day was set for thanksgiving for the defeat of the 
conspiracy, on the 13th of September. 

Fiction— W. A. Carruthers' "The Cavaliers of Virsfinia." 



.05, for ^1. iarp' 






OF bacon's party. 

IRGINIA was founded upon a wrong basis. In 
1670 there were forty thousand people under the 
'"^i'w Virginian government. The militia of the province 
mustered eight thousand men. Of these forty 
(j thousand, two thousand were negro slaves and six 
thousand were white servants bound for a term of 
years. Many of these were soldiers who had risked 
their lives for liberty in England, and failing, had been 
brought as prisoners of war to the colonies. Every year 
fifteen hundred white servants were brought over, and 
the reason that the colony was not much greater was 
that four-fifths of them, when put upon the new planta- 
tions, died. They had but little clothing and but poor 
.shelter, for money was not plenty. In England, the 
price of tobacco had been reduced, and the price of goods which the 
tobacco was sent in exchange for had been raised to extravagant prices. 
The Virginia planter, therefore, got but little, and as they all took it 
upon themselves to maintain large mansions and generously entertain 
great numbers of guests, they economized at the expense of their slaves. 
The colony was not a religious one at any time, and though Mary- 
land and Virginia did quarrel upon religious grounds, this was but a cover 
for politics. It is true that there were forty-eight parishes in the colony, 
but most of these were illy provided with ministers. Nearly all of 
them were sixty or seventy miles in extent, and could not have 

"hey, for ST. Mary's!" i6i 

been well attended to even b}' the most zealous ministers, which 
the Virginian clergymen were not. They liked the free living of the 
colony as well as did their flocks, and were not held in much awe. 
There were no free schools in the colony, nor was there any printings 
for which Governor Berkeley was sincerely thankful. The taxes grew 
worse from )'ear to 3'ear, and the ofiicers of the go\'ernment more purse- 
proud and arrogant. The people had no voice in the government at all. 
Finally, in 1673, the whole colony was given as a present by the King 
to two of his favorites, Lord Culpepper and the Earl of Arlington. 
This meant more taxes, and the people became thorough !}• discon- 
tented. The Indians, also, were a great source of annoyance and 
anxiety to them, and the colonists wished to organize an anned force 
for protection, but Governor Berkeley was afraid of injuring the Indian 
trade, from which he drew a large revenue, and would not pennit the 
people to organize for defense. But when a quiet farmer was found 
murdered at his own door, the colonists determined to take revenge, 
regardless of what the government might say. Two forces, one under 
Captain Brent and the other under Colonel ]\Iason, started out. They 
invaded two wigwams, killing at least twenty-four Indians. This was- 
the signal for a general Indian war. Four great Indian tribes united to- 
take revenge — the Susquehannocks, Doegs, Senecas and Piscataways. 
Both in Maryland and Virginia the planters were badly alarmed, and 
they united in an expedition, sending out one thousand men, with 
Colonel John Washington and Major Thomas Truman, of Maryland. 
They surrounded the fort where the Susquehannocks had taken refuge, 
and were cruel enough to kill five of the chiefs who came out to peace- 
fully parley with them. Such a dishonorable act, opposed as it was to 
all rules of warfare, brought a severe reproof from the Governor and 
Council. But the Indians entered upon a systematic revenge. Before 
spring came, sixty of the colonists had been killed upon their farms, 
and the Indians were forever lurking in the shadow of the bushes, and 
under the river banks. No one felt safe. The people crowded together 
in the strongest houses, and at night barricaded their windows, and 
slept with their arms beside them. 

The colonists begged the Governor to give them some protection, 
but that rich old gentleman, rapidly making money for himself, 
and contented with his own fine living, paid no attention to their 
appeals. The young men, especially, became indignant at his selfish- 
ness and carelessness, and made up their minds that if he did not come 
to their aid, they would give open war on their own account. Among 


the )oung men was Nathaniel Bacon, who lived upon an estate called 
■'Curies," not far from Richmond, where Bacon Quarter Branch still 
stands. He had a plantation, and it chanced that his overseer upon 
this place was one of the iinforttmates on whom the Indians chose to 
take their revenge. Bacon was much attached to his overseer and he 
swore that these outrages must be stopped. Though he was not 
yet thirt}-, he was such a daring and independent young man that all of 
his neighbors looked to him as their leader, and when he had sent again 
to the Governor, asking him for a commission against the Indians, and 
been met with silence, he detennined to march out against the savages, 
regardless of consequences. A large force of men gathered about him; 
but even after that, Bacon sent once more to the Governor asking for a 
commission. As it did not come, they started on their march. They had 
gone but a little way when the)- were overtaken by a messenger from 
the Governor calling them all rebels, and forbidding them to proceed in 
any warlike action. The question was, then, whether any of them 
dare disobey the government of the colony. Fifty-seven of them had 
the courage, and went on with Bacon into the forest, but some of them 
feared that their property would be confiscated, and deserted him. In 
a short time they had annihilated the tribe of the Susquehannocks and 
returned to their farms. 

The Governor had sent a troop of horses after the ' 'rebels, " as he 
called them, and while the capital was thus deserted a revolt broke out 
among the planters at the south of Jamestown, so that when the 
Governor returned he found everj'thiug in such a turbulent condition 
that he had to yield to some of the demands of the citizenis. They 
asked that they might no longer be taxed for the several useless forts 
which their hard-earned money had to support, and also that the 
assembly, which had not been changed for fifteen years, might be 
dissolved, and the people allowed to elect their officers. It showed how 
well the people thought of Bacon that he was one of the new members 
elected. Bacon, confident and proud, came promptly to Jamestown, 
notwithstanding the fact that the title of "rebel" still hung over him. 
Governor Berkeley met him in great state. "Mr. Bacon," said he, 
"have }'ou forgotten how to be a gentleman?" "No, may it please 
your honor," the young man replied. "Then I will take your parole," 
said the Governor. Later, in the presence of all the assembly, Bacon 
delivered a written apologj- to the Governor for his independent and 
headstrong actions. The Governor seemed to be really attached to 
hini^ — and indeed few could help admiring his courage and brilliancy. But 

"hey, for ST. MARY'S !" 1 63 

Sacoii did not trust the Governor, and thought he was trying to deceive 
him, and he ran away from Jamestown to rejoin his neighbors. Some 
people say that he was afraid he would be arrested again, and 
that he had to flee for his life. Perhaps he did think so, but it is 
hardly possible that the stern old Governor would have dared to treat a 
young man of high famil}' so, although he was careless enough of the 
lives of the poor. In a few days, Bacon came marching back to James- 
town, with an anny of five hundred men. The Governor tried to 
gather the militia about him, but their sympathies were with Bacon, 
and in a short time the insurgents were in the capital, camped 
upon the green near the State House, and holding all the streets. The 
assembly was called together, and Bacon stood by the corner of the 
State House, guarded by a double file of soldiers. 

Berkeley came out on the steps, while the assembly hung out of the 
windows and cried to Bacon to shoot him, but the young rebel swore 
that he would not hurt a hair of his head nor any other man's, but that 
he wanted a commission to save the lives of his neighbors from the 
Indians, and reminded the Governor that he had often promised to give it 
to him and had broken his word. When the Governor turned and walked 
away, followed by the council, and Bacon saw that no attention was 
to be paid to his command, he grew furious, and swearing that he would 
kill Governor, council and assembly, and himself last, told his men to 
point their fusils at the windows. All the people shouted for the 
commission, and finally a handkerchief was waived from the window in 
sign of peace. The soldiers were sent away, and Bacon went alone to 
the assembly room, giving them some of his hot eloquence. But every 
one was afraid to act, and the Governor would do nothing. By morning 
the Governor changed his mind. He probably saw that there was 
nothing to do but to yield. Bacon got his commission, and immediately 
began organizing one thousand men to start a campaign against the 

After the Governor had yielded one point, he was forced by the people 
to yield many. The Governor's fees were restricted, and he was no 
longer allowed to have a monopoly of the foreign trade. Taxes were 
regulated upon a certain system ; so hot and furious did the members of 
the assembly grow in talking over these matters that many feuds were 
started in Virginia families, which continued over one hundred years. 
As soon as Bacon's back was turned, the Governor once more declared 
him to be a rebel, but when he ventured to say this before twelve 
hundrwi men whom he had collected about him for the purpose of 


fomiing a militia, they turned tlieir backs upon liiin and deserted, and 
let the fields ring with their cries of "Bacon!" "Bacon!" As soon 
as Bacon learned that he was once more proclaimed an outlaw, he 
promptly marched to meet the Governor, who fled hurriedly across the 
Chesapeake, leaving the province of \'irginia to the will of his vigorous 
young opponent. Practical!}-, Bacon was now Governor, and he began 
reorganizing immediately, calling a convention for the purpose of 
revising the laws. The matter was a verj- grave one, and the men who 
stood about Eacon knew that at any time they might be defeated and 
suffer the penalties of rebellion. The national revolution itself did not 
call for sterner constancy. 

One of the best inspiratie is of these men was a lady, Mrs. 
Drummond the wife of one of Bacon's closest councilors. Her ad\ice 
was followed in many matters, for she was a woman of great spirit and 
eloquence, and seemed to influence all who came near her. 

But Berkeley was not without friends, and succeeded, through the 
treachery of some of Bacon's men, in getting possession of an armed 
fleet. As soon as the roj-alists through the countr\- saw that there was 
a show of success for the Governor's arms, they came flocking to him, 
and in a short time he was in possession of a ver\- large force. He took 
Jamestown on September 17th, and at once re-established the old form 
of government and reinstated his friends in their places. Bacon had 
dealt some terrible blows to the Indians, and thinking that there was 
no need of keeping his men from their plantations, had allowed his army 
to dissolve. He called them together again and hurried across the 
country to the capital. Throwing up some rude breastworks on a hill, 
he awaited the attack of the Governor. It is said that he captured 
certain Virginian ladies from Jamestown, and taking them to his camp, 
sent word that he would hold them as hostages, and that they were to 
be placed before his men, in case the people of the town should make a 
sally upon them. If this was the case, it w^as no wonder that the men 
of Jamestown could not make a respectable defence. The gentle- 
women, be it said, were safely returned in course of time. Berkeley 
and his friends fled from Jamestown, getting upon their boats in the 
night and taking away their household goods, and ever>'thing, either of 
private or state nature, belonging to them. When Bacon entered the 
town in the morning, he found a deserted cit>', in which there was not 
even victuals for his men. He determined that the wasteful and 
arrogant cavaliers should never return, and ordered his army to set fire 
to the city. Ever>' house in Jamestown was burned to the ground. 

"hey, for ST. Mary's!" 165 

Thus perished the oldest English settlement in America. Bacon 
settled at Gloucester Point, and from there continued his raids upon the 
Indians, but in the midst of his victories he sickened and died. To this 
day the people of Virginia have not ceased to quarrel about the charactei 
of Bacon. A man so brilliant and determined could not but have warm 
friends and warmer foes. His party did not live long after his death. 
As soon as Berkeley heard what had happened, he sent out a force which 
captured several of the leading rebels. A proclamation of peace was 
made from which Bacon's friends were excepted. At length theii 
stronghold at West Point was lost. Drummond, Bacon's dear friend, 
was taken. The old cavalier Governor met him with much ceremony, 
and said, with a show of courtliness, "Mr. Drummond, you are more 
than welcome. I am more glad to see you than any other man in 
Virginia. Mr. Drummond, you shall be hanged within half an hour." 
Worse, his accomplished wife and hei five little children were driven 
out from the town into the forest. Many of the rebels were killed, and 
the bones of Bacon were everywhere looked for, that they might be hung 
in chains upon the gibbet, but to this day the place of his burial has 
never been discovered. 

Affairs became so serious after a time, what with imprisonment, 
banishment, confiscation of property and many sorts of tortuous punish- 
ments, that the King sent some trusted men from England to inquire 
into the state of affairs. Berkeley was taken to England, where he died 
without having had a chance to defend his conduct to the King whose 
approval he had always been so anxious for. It is said that he died of 
a broken heart, because the King disapproved of his conduct, and called 
him an old fool. Bacon had shown the people how strong they were, 
and planted in the colony a stern determination to preserve legislative 
rights. When the time of the national revolution came, Virginia was 
one of the strongest pillars of the new edifice. 

Fiction — Camither's "The Cavalier of Virginia." 

Carruther's "The Knights of the Horseshoe." 


y^nt}^ ht !f imsalf* 



is odd that the beautiful stretch of coast lyin^ 
between Florida and Virginia should so long have 
escaped permanent settlement. Possibly there 
were many unknown settlements of a quiet nature 
upon it, and that many a coaster had landed upon 
its fruitful shores and strayed among its silken 
grasses. It is known that one Quaker, by the name of 
George Durant, who was fond of solitude, built a cabin 
on the Chowan river, and paddled his canoe about 
between the banks of moss-hung trees. A company of 
New England men had also purchased land at the mouth 
of Cape Fear river, but for some mysterious reason left 
the settlement and their herds of cattle behind them, 
returning to New England with a very bad report of the 
spot they had visited. But it is q.uite possible that they were too indo- 
lent to undergo the hardships of new colonization, or that their treat- 
ment of the Indians obliged them to leave. They left a paper hidden 
in a post, warning everyone who landed there against the countr)'. 
This paper was found by a company of men from Barbadoes, but they 
were not dissuaded from settling there, the country "lying commo- 
diously by the river's side" being more eloquent than the written words 
of the men from New England. These settled about twenty or thirty 
miles up Cape Fear river. 

A very short time after this, settlement under a king's charter was 
made in this country. The King gave to certain gentlemen all the ter- 
ritory, which included the present States of North and South Carolina 


and Georgia, with the usual indefinite western boundar}'. The pro- 
prietors to whom the King gave this present were nine noble lords, one 
of them being Clarendon, Lord Chancellor of England, another being 
Duke of Albemarle, who was the leader in the restoration of the King 
to the throne. Besides these were Lord Berkeley and the Earl of 
Shaftesbur}'. These men laid great plans for their colony. It was to 
be the model settlement of the world. The constitution was prepared 
by John Locke, the great philosopher and statesman. So carefully pre- 
pared was this fundamental constitution that the colonies had already 
been established three years before they were finished. It is really worth 
while to quote from this "Grand Model." Eight proprietors were to 
be constituted lords, the eldest to be Palatine of the province, and 
upon his death the eldest of the survivors to succeed him. Seven other 
offices, of admiral, chamberlain, chancellor, constable, chief justice, 
high steward and treasurer, were to be divided among the others — the 
eldest always to have choice of a vacant place. All the rights of 
property were hereditary in the male line; in lack of direct male heirs, 
male descendants through the female line succeeded, and after them, 
heirs general. There were orders of hereditar}' nobility called land- 
graves and cassiques. The domains of the proprietors were called 
seigniories. Every seignior}-, barony and colony contained twelve 
thousand acres; each county four hundred and eighty thousand acres, 
of which three-fifths were to be owned by the people and two-fifths by 
the hereditar}- nobility. There was an absolute prohibition against the 
entrance of any common people into the titled class, and the highest 
dignity to which a common man might attain was to become lord of the 
manor, which manor must consist of not less than three thousand 
or more than twelve thousand acres. There was another small honor 
to be gained imder the jurisdiction of the lords of the seigniory. The 
men who attained to this dignity were called Leetmen. There were 
eight supreme courts and very elaborate laws for a parliament. The 
very amusements of the children were arranged, as well as the fashions 
of the women's gowns. All entertainments and decorations, marriages, 
burials, and every other circumstance and happening of home-life, was 
arranged for as accurately as if men were dices upon a chess-board. 

In the three years that Locke spent preparing this remarkable and 
elaborate system of government, two colonies had become ver\' well 
established in Carolina, as the proprietors called their new possession. 
On May 29, 1664, Sir John Yeamans brought over the first expedition. 
The province of which Yeamans was appointed Governor extended 


from Cape Fear to the St. Johns, in Florida. Sir William Berkeley, of 
Virginia, was asked by the proprietors to establish a government on the 
Chowan. At the head of this he placed William Drummond, the man 
who afterwards was Bacon's faithful friend in the Virginian revolution. 
This settlement was called Albemarle, and here, while this wonderful 
piece of law-making for their benefit was going on over in England, 
the busy people of the settlement had made practical and simple laws 
quite sufficient for their needs. 

The fact that they could never be more than leetmen or lords of 
manors, was not troubling them at all. ^ They were building houses and 
canoes, clearing land and planting fields, quite unconscious of the fact 
that a great, imaginary' population of landgraves and cassiques was going 
to watch over them. The New England people began to come down and 
j-ettle along the coast, and a company of Bermuda people had taken up 
lands by the Pasquotank river. 

Inducements were offered by the settlement at Albemarle to 
English maidens and widows, promising them honest and stalwart hus- 
bands if they were only civil and under fifty years of age. The colony 
had also the appearance of offering a refuge to runaway debtors, for it 
had a law which permitted no debt contracted outside of Albemarle to 
be sued for within five years. As a consequence, the reckless spend- 
thrifts of London found this a very convenient place of abode. Marriage 
was a civil contract, probably because there were so few ministers in 
the colony. There was no wish to discourage colonial lovers by making 
their wedding difficult. As for the great fundamental constitution, no 
one paid any attention to it, and though some men rejoiced in the title 
of landgraves and cassiques, their inferiors gave them little added 
respect on this account, and the "Great Model" was finally rejected by 
the assembly of South Carolina in 1698. 

In July, 1669, Captain William Sayle was sent over with the first 
expedition which the proprietors had directly made. Sayle was com- 
missioned Governor of that part of Carolina lying south and west 
of Cape Carteret, or Cape Remain, as it is now called. Sayle and 
Joseph West reached Port Royal in January of 1670, and finally chose 
a place for settlement on Ashley river. This they named Charleston, 
which still bears the name that they then gave it. This colony did not 
succeed very well, for the proprietors kept a heavy drain upon their 
treasury. Most of the hard labor was done by negro slaves. There 
were too few industrious and worthy men in the country, and far 
too many of the dissipated and vicious class of English criminals. Sir 


John Yeaman's management had been extendea over these people with 
whom he was unpopular, and when he retired he had a large fortune, 
wrenched from the people and the Indians. Joseph West was appointed 
Governor in his place. West was immensely popular, and affairs, under 
his administration, began to improve immediately. 

Meanwhile, the people of Albemarle had begun to express open 
discontent, and sent an address to the proprietors asking for a Governor 
who could understand their necessities. Many plans were tried, and a 
great deal of money spent on these people, who seemed unreasonably 
hard to manage. Governor after Governor was tried, but none proved 
efficient, and at length Seth Sothell arrived, in 1683, to take his position 
as Governor, to which he had been appointed some time before, but 
having been stolen by the Turks on his way over, had been held in 
captivity for some time. While Albemarle was passing through aV 
this trouble in Northern Carolina, Charleston, under the management 
of Joseph West, was continuing in prosperity. It is true that there 
were feuds between the Puritans of New England, who had come 
down, and the royalists whom the proprietors in Old England had sent 
out. The Huguenots of France also came here, and a large company 
of French artisans and farmers, who understood silk manufacture, vine 
growing, etc. 

As for the people on the Ashlc}- river, they saw that they had made 
a mistake in settling so far up the stream, and in 1680 the old town 
was abandoned and the foundation of a new Charleston laid upon the 
present site of the city of that name. As they had time to lay this 
with care, they saw to it that the streets were large and capacious, and 
that good spots were resen-ed for the building of churches and a town 
house, and artillery grounds for the exercise of their militia, and 
wharfs for the convenience of their trade and shipping. The people 
came to this colony in great numbers, from England, Ireland and llie 
West Indies. It goes without saying that the manners of this mi.Ked 
company were rather loose, though for this very reason less likely to have 
severe church and political differences. West was a man of detennina- 
tion, and saw to it that his militia was kept well armed and the colony 
well protected from the Indians. But out of their greed for money 
grew a most dishonorable method of conflict, which placed a price upon 
the head of every Indian captive, who was then sold to slave traders. 
When this was brought to the notice of the proprietors, however, they 
put an immediate stop to this barbarous practice. The old Spanish 
buccaneers found Charleston a most convenient retreat, and so careless 


were they with their money, and such good drinkers and story-tellers, 
that the citizens encouraged their coming, and when one of the 
Governors imprisoned some of them, the people protested so that he 
was obliged to release them. 

One act of cruelty on their part, however, brought about the enmity 
of the Carolinians. A company of Scotch Presbyterians had come, 
under the leadership of Lord Cardross, and made a settlement at Port 
Royal, in 1684. Three Spanish galleys appeared suddenly before this 
little colony in 1686, and destroyed the place. They landed again south 
of Charleston, at Bear's Bluif, and sacked the settlement and took 
Governor Morton's brother prisoner. They intended to keep these 
depredations up along the coast, in retaliation for the wrecking and 
despoiling of some of their galleys by the colonists, but they were met 
by a terrible hurricane, and the galley on which Morton was held was 
run ashore, so that she could not be got off. The Spaniards set fire to 
the galley where Mr. Morton lay in chains, and he was burned to death. 
England would not permit the colonists to move against the Spaniards 
at St. Augustine, however, fearing that it might involve the two great 
home nations in war. 

Setli Sothell, who has been mentioned as the Governor appointed in 
1683, proved to be a treacherous and selfish man, and used the govern- 
orship of North Carolina for his own gain. When he heard that there 
was.dissatisfaction in South Carolina, he called his followers together 
and seized the government of the other colony. Having everything 
under his control, he began to pile up a great fortune by a system of 
oppression and taxation. The proprietors were in despair, but finally 
appointed one Governor for all the province, north and south, who was 
to have his residence at Charleston. Philip Ludwell was this general 
Governor. He was sent over from England, and having no experience 
in colonial aflfairs, soon showed that he was not strong enough to 
manage the discontented settlers. Thomas Smith, one of the Caro- 
linian planters, was put in his place. He was a quiet, discreet and 
judicious man, who, without governing brilliantly or decisively, brought 
many benefits to the colony during the two years that he ruled. It was 
during his administration that rice was first planted in this countr). 
The rice grew wonderfully in the marshes along the rivers, of a superior 
quality to that of the east. It was but a short time before it became 
one of Carolina's most valuable products. Thomas Smith found the 
complexities of government too much for him, and wrote to the 
proprietors asking them to send over one of them.selves to govern. 


They did so, choosing John Archdale, a Quaker, who had bought out the 
interest of one of the older proprietors. With his hat upon his head, 
dressed in his quaint Quaker garment, this moderate and deliberate man 
stood before the assembly of the Carolinas, and told them gravely and 
firmly how he meant to manage them. He kept his word, with the 
quiet faithfulness of his sect. He inquired patiently into ever>' com- 
plaint which reached his ears, selected a council from among his citizens, 
and, in spite of the fact that he was a Quaker, and opposed to war, 
trained the militia better than it had ever been trained before, looking 
to every detail of militar}- matters himself There were already many 
other Quakers at Albemarle, and these increased in numbers, and 
became, it goes without saying, his wann supporters. All of the colo- 
nists recognized his judicious rule, and after having got the colony into 
a wholesome state, appointed a successor, Joseph Blake, and returned 
to England. Joseph Blake ruled for four years over a colony now well 
established and well ordered. 

History— Ramsay's "South Carolina." 

Williamson's "North Carolina." 
Fiction— Skitt. "Fisher's River." 

Simms' "Cassique of Kiawab." 


Inns. Jn|umaml^ to ®Hm 




pHILE Peter Stuyvesant was absent conquering 
New Sweden, a terrible calamity fell upon the 
Dutch behind him in the settlement. The 
Indians, realizing that this would be a fortunate 
time for attack, swarmed through New Amsterdam 
SVy one day. The people, knowing their helplessness, 
treated them with as much policy as possible, and suc- 
ceeded in getting them to leave the place at sunset and 
cross to Governor's Island. It was hoped that, by a 
conference between the chiefs and the magistrates, some 
arrangements for peace might be made, but it was not 
yet night when the Indians grew bolder, and the military 
had to be called from the fort to protect the people. 
The Indians fled before the soldiers, took once more to 
their canoes and paddled out across the dark waters, yelling and howling 
as they went. The people watched with anxiety to see what would 
happen next, and in a short time a light springing up over Pavonia 
and Hoboken told them that the Indians had fallen upon the helpless 
settlers there. In a little while the fires died down, and at New 
Amsterdam they knew that Pavonia and Hoboken were burned to the 
ground and the people killed. As it proved later, onl}' one man of 
each settlement was left alive, but the women and children were carried 
away as prisoners. The people at Staten Island knew neitlier of the 
threatenings of the Indians at New Amsterdam or of the destruction of 


man's inhumanity to man. 173 

the villages, and were sleeping when the savages, mad with thirst for 
blood, came upon them. Twenty-three of the ninety people who lived 
among the beautiful hills of the island were killed, and all the houses 
were burned. 

And now the people would have given all they possessed for a 
glimpse of the one-legged old soldier whom they had so frequently. 
abused, and they sent for Stuyvesant with all possible haste. He 
returned, full of determination, and gave heart to the people as soon as 
he appeared among them, though now for three days the Indians had 
been everywhere, ravaging and killing. No man knew better than he 
when to fight and when to treat for peace, and now he urged the people 
to cultivate friendly relations with the Indians and to rescue the prisoners 
with ransoms. Far north upon the Hudson, at Rensselaerswyck, the 
sturdy young patroon, Van Rensselaer, had already been following this 
policy, and had secured a renewal of the treaty with the Mohawks, so 
that that part of the country was spared. For several years compara- 
tive peace was kept between the Dutch and the Indians, but in 1658 
trouble began. Peter Stiiyvesant, after the massacre of 1655, just 
related, had induced the people to build fences about their villages 
and prepare themselves more carefully against attack. He also advised 
them to treat the Indians with fairness, but this they would not do, and 
the trouble of 1658 was brought about because a band of Indians were 
fired upon for being noisy and drunken. It is needless to say, however, 
that the whisky which put them in this condition was obtained from 
the Dutch. For this wanton killing the Indians took a prompt revenge 
by murdering farmers and burning their houses, and for six years the 
Esopus Indians and the Dutch were almost continually at war with each 
other. In 1663 the Indians fell upon the village of Wildwyck, plunder- 
ing the hotises and setting fire to them. Many men were killed, and 
over forty women and children taken as prisoners. Then the Dutch 
were aroused to a wholesome resistance, which ended in a subduing of 
the Indians for a short time. 

But, in spite of all this discouragement. New Netherland continued 
to prosper. Gradually, the people gained power and their governors 
yielded some of their arbitrary rights. The English towns upon Long 
Island became more numerous, but for the most part they lived quietly 
with their Dutch neighbors. Much less religious than the Massachusetts 
government, there was far less persecution among them. Holland was 
the most tolerant of countries, and her colony kept, to a certain degree, 
the policy which had animated the mother country in dealing with men 


of new and unpopular religions. Yet at one time the Lutherans were 
forbidden to hold meetings in New Amsterdam, and a poor shoemaker 
Avas imprisoned for addressing them. The Quakers, too, were persecuted 
for a time, but it could hardly be expected that any class of men, how- 
ever patient, would care to be railed against as the Dutch were by the 
Quakers. The women who spoke upon the streets against the steeple 
houses, the hireling preachers and the empty ceremonies to which the 
Quakers so intensely objected, were thrown into prison. One Friend^ 
Robert Hodgson, was treated most shamefully, being chained to a 
wheelbarrow and made to do hard work, while a negro beat him with a 
four-inch tarred rope. At night he was thrust into a dungeon. This 
continued for se\'eral days. His sentence condemned him to hard labor 
two years, but at length he was terribly whipped for speaking his 
message to those about him, and was so torn with the rods that his life 
was despaired of for a time. A sister of Peter Stuyvesant prayed that 
he might be released. When Hodgson recovered he was released, but 
banished. The Quakers increased rapidly, as they always did where 
they were persecuted. Finally, a quiet English fanner who professed 
the faith was sent to Holland to appear before the directors in Amster- 
dam. Peter Stuyvesant' s ambition to have the sect crushed had 
overleaped itself, for the directors of Amsterdam reproved him severely 
for the manner in which he nad treated these people, and told him thai 
ever^^one in the colony should be allowed to follow his own conscience. 
After this, the Friends were no longer molested, and the director had 
the grace to be a little ashamed of his actions. 

Slavery was rapidly increasing in New Amsterdam. By 1664, 
Africans were brought by hundreds to New Netherland, but the Dutch 
themselves were fond of agriculture, and did not grow to have that 
complete dependence upon the negro which the Virginians had. 
Slaver>', therefore, never developed its worst feature among the Dutch. 
The English kept steadily encroaching upon the land which the Dutch 
claimed. Lord Baltimore asserted that the whole South river region 
was included in his patent, and sent a delegation from Marjdand to 
demand a surrender for the province. The people in the South river 
country were willing enough to yield. They were dissatisfied with the 
management of the Dutch West India Company, and were perfectly 
willing to swear allegiance to any who would give them more comfoits 
and protection. The claims remained unsettled until after the surrendei" 
of New Netherlands. Then the Dutch and Swedes of the South river 
district quietly yielded to the government of England. New Haven 


and the other English towns along the Sound and on Long Island were 
brought under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, by a grant of land which 
John Winthro^J got from Charles II. This new patent covered not onl\- 
Long Island, but all northern New Netherland. 

Peter Stuyvesant was greatly alanned for the independence of his 
countrj'men. For two 5'ears he fought it as best he could. He was a 
man of statesmanlike ability and his policy was clever, but the English 
were very determined. They sent men to stir up discontent in the 
English towns situated in New Netherland, and forced Stuyvesant to 
consent that the Dutch should not interfere in the least with the English 
towns in his province. One John Scott was sent to inquire into the 
English titles upon Long Island and carried with him the news that the 
King had granted all Long Island to the Duke of York. The English 
towns of that district, Hempstead, Gravestead, Flushing, Newton and 
Jamaica, united, choosing John Scott as their president. He started 
through Long Island, with a force of one hundred and fifty men, to 
reduce the Dutch towns to obedience, but he succeeded in doing but 
little, and was finally imprisoned by the magistrates at Hartford for 
asserting his own rights, instead of those of the countn,- he represented. 

The English continued to buy up ground from the Indians which 
the Dutch had already purchased from them, and the King kept on 
giving grants of land to his favorites, which included the territory that 
the Dutch had long occupied. In April, 1664, a force of three or four 
hundred men under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls, who 
acted as Lieutenant-Governor for the Duke of York, sailed for England 
to enforce the Duke's claims to New Netherland. Peter Stuyvesant 
heard of it, and did all he could to prevent it. To him, Dutch 
independence was more than life. He had the fortifications repaired 
and enlarged, raised money, procured ammunition, stored provisions in 
the fort and drilled his men, but in the midst of these preparations he 
got word from the West India Conipany saj-ing that the fleet under 
Nicolls had been sent to foice the obedience of the Massachusetts 
colonies, and that New Netherland need have no fear. Stuyvesant 
believed that this was so, and went up to Fort Orange on business. 

Though it was true that Nicolls had come to see to Massachusetts 
affairs, he had also come to reduce New Netherland, and, in the course 
of a month, brought his four ships up the bay before New Amsterdam. 
His men seized the block-house on Staten Island and blockaded the 
harbor. Then a proclamation was sent out that none should be harmed 
who submitted quietly to the King of England. vStuyvesant hurried 


down from Fort Orange, and j^repared to make a defence, but no one 
would i-cand by him. When he tore up a letter from Nicolls demanding 
surrender, the people made him put it together again, and the mortified 
old Governor, who would so gladly ha\e died for the sake of his colony, 
had to yield to them. He stood on the walls of the fort by the side of 
a gun while the ships passed by him up the harbor and dropped their 
anchors near the fort. He did not order the gunner to fire. He feared, 
perhaps, that his people would not sustain him, and that in the end the 
Dutch would suffer more for such an act, but it can be imagined that 
his proud old heart broke at the humiliation. 

He wrote to Nicolls asking that a consultation might be held, but 
received answer that the white flag must be hung from the fort or 
Nicolls would come upon the town with ships and soldiers. The people 
of the town got up a petition asking Stuyvesant to yield. They said 
that they could see nothing but defeat, with all its terrors, before them, 
"whereas if they yielded, the enemy generously promised them protec- 
tion. The hired soldiers in the fort were as ready to prey upon the 
town as to fight the Englishmen. Stuyvesant knew this, and on 
September 8, 1664, New Netherland surrendered. The troops were 
put on a ship bound for Holland, and the English flag was raised over 
Fort Amsterdam, which was henceforth called Fort James. The 
Englishmen called New Amsterdam New York, and Fort Orange was 
given its present name of Albany. 

• A few weeks later. New Amstel, on the Delaware, was reduced, and 
the Dutch no longer had any authority on American soil. They 
seemed to take very kindly to their change of government, and matters 
went on with them ver>^ much the .same as they had before. There 
was no feeling of bitterness between the two nations, and the English 
had the wisdom to appoint some of the Dutch to the government of 
offices. The city officers were left unchanged. Patroons owning the 
great outlying tracts of land had only to change their patent and take 
an oath of allegiance to England. The Duke of York gave many 
grants of land to Englishmen. New Netherland was divided into two 
provinces, one of which was given to Lord Berkeley, the elder brother 
of Sir William Berkeley, of Virginia, and the other to Sir George 
Carteret. Carteret's province was named New Jersey, and in June, 
1665, Captain Philip Carteret, a brother of the proprietor, arrived as 
Governor, with a company of men. He settled his thirty emigrants 
at the point w.-iich he named, and which is still known as Elizabeth- 
point. In 1666, Newark was settled by a party from Connecticut. 

man's inhumanity to man. 177 

These were joined in a little time by English people from other settle- 
ments, who made it a condition of their joining the company, that none 
should be admitted as freemen, or have the right to vote or hold office, 
who were not members of the Congregational Church. 

Massachusetts was much alarmed with the fear that it might be 
forced to come under the Duke of York's patent. The Duke of York was 
a Catholic, and to have been placed under his authority would be the 
greatest pain for the Puritans which could be imagined. She, there- 
fore, refused to help NicoUs, although Connecticut and New Haven 
gave them what help they could against the Dutch. After the surrender 
of New Netherland, the Duke's cominissioners held a conference with 
representatives from Connecticut, and the boundary lines of the 
provinces were decided upon, Long Island being given to New York. 
The Duke's laws were put in force, and though there were objections to 
some portions, they were accepted in peaceful discontent. Nicolls 
ruled for about three years, while England and Holland, on the other 
side of the wo; Id, were engaged in war. When peace was declared, 
Nicolls asked that he might be permitted to go home. He had always 
greatly resented the loss of New Jersey, and thought the Duke of York 
had made a great mistake in giving away this beautiful country. 
Colonel Francis Lovelace succeeded Nicolls as Governor. He served 
verj' honorably for four years. In no colony of America were so many 
people of different nations and tongues gathered. At the time of the 
surrender of New Netherland eighteen different languages were spoken 
in New Amsterdam. Though it was under English rule, it continued 
to be Dutch in its peculiarities. The people were hospitable and kindly, 
though very simple and a little slow. They educated their children 
with care, and were proud of their respectability. The houses were well 
built and their inhabitants solid and worthy citizens. Their gardens 
and orchards prospered wonderfully. Along the river bank were lines 
of locust trees, under which the people walked in the evening. A 
canal was built to help commerce and a bridge constructed over it. An 
exchange was started for trading purposes and commerce rapidly 
increased. The fort held forty pieces of cannon, and was well built, 
being of stone, with a thick rampart of earth. Within this stood tlie 
mansion of the Governor. 

In 1672 Peter Stuyvesant died, at the age of eighty, and was buried 
in the little chapel which he had built upon his fann. 

History— "Whitehead'c. "New Jersey." 
Fiction— Paulding's Dulchmaus'Fireside" and "Book of St. Nicholas." 


§ur icunlr^, ^H^ig^ or Ii[r0ng. 







kROM the first, Massachusetts, as a colony, had 
been ambitious for political independence. 
Though the commonwealth had in it little 
liberty, it was in many respects excellent. The 
people were determined, and determination is 
the best corner-stone of government. No good 
intentions can make up for weakness. If the 
people of Massachusetts erred, it was upon the side of 
too much sternness and inflexibility of purpose. 
The>- believed that there was a right way of doing 
things; that their way was the right wa}', and all 
other ways were wrong. Liberty of conscience seemed 
vicious to them — for was not the conscience capable 
of great error? But being so determined in religious 
matters, made them equally so in political affairs, and no wheedling 
diplomacy or threatenings of the government of England could make 
them lose sight of their charter, which they loved as dearly as their 
own lives, and which they protected with no little danger to them.selves. 
Charles I had insinuated that they were governing without authority, 
and in man)- different ways had tried to get them to return their charter 
to England. His letters were passed over without replies from the 
colonial government. To refuse directh', would have been treason. To 
consent, would have been loss of liberty. To keep silent, was to con- 
tinue a delav which might end in victor\' for them. 


At this time the King had prohibited the Puritans from leaving 
England for Massachusetts, and on several occasions had made com- 
panies of them disembark from the ships on which they had taken 
passage. Two of the men who took passage for Massachusetts among 
the company of Puritans were Cromwell and John Hampden. Had 
they been allowed to get away, the most attractive of the Stuarts might 
have kept his head ujDon his shoulders. After the King was dead and 
the Long Parliament was in session, the charter was again threatened, 
but the temporizing policy of the colonists again stood them in good 
■stead. They wrote a letter to Cromwell which touched that religious 
strain he held in common with the Puritans of Massachusetts, and won 
his valuable friendship. At one time he was seized with an idea 
of removing the Massachusetts people to the Island of Jamaica, that the\' 
might undertake the conversion of the Catholics about there, but the 
general court pointed out the bad economy of such a step, and the matter 
was dropped. When Charles H was restored to the throne, the two 
regicides, Whalley and Goff, fled to America. Massachusetts, in sym- 
pathy, of course, with the Protestant revolution, protected these men, 
and when a royal order was sent for their surrender, succeeded in 
helping them to escape. But at the next general court a letter was 
given to Charles II which protested the loyalty of the colony, and 
asked for the protection of their government. The King sent a reply, 
but demanded again the surrender of the regicides. The Massachusetts 
people met this with their usual irritating silence, and the King's feel- 
ing toward them ceased to be amiable. 

In May, 1661, two men were sent to investigate the humor of 
the colony and see why it refused to obey the King and return 
the charter. The people explained as well as they could that it was 
the foundation of their colony and their protection ; that they were loyal 
to the home government, and desired a royal confirmation of the 
charter. It was granted, but with conditions which the colonists deepl\- 
resented. Every ordinance passed during the rule of Cromwell was to 
be pronounced invalid. iVIembers of the Church of England should be 
free to worship as they chose, and all should have the right of suffrage, 
without regard to their religious opinions. As none but the Puritans, 
who worship after the Congregational method, were allowed to vote, 
this was naturally ver}- displeasing to the Massachusetts people. 

A few years later the royal commissioners, under Nicolls, came 
to secure the conquest of New Netherland, and incidentally to enforce 
the obedience of the Massachusetts colony to the King. This commis- 


sion returned to England after the surrender of New Amsterdsnx 
There had been a thorough attempt on the part of this commission to 
enforce the authority of the King, but the general court was quite as 
firm. Its conscience would not allow it, it said, in Puritanic phrase, to 
swear allegiance to the King except under the protection of the 
charter. The commissioners returned to England baffled. Then came 
the great plague of London, and after that the historic fire. The 
colony was prompt to send all the assistance it could. Its generosity 
was remarkable, considering its size. By this time New Hampshire 
and Maine were included in the government of Massachusetts, and the 
spars sent to England from Maine forests were invaluable to an army 
engaged in naval warfare, as the English were with the Dutch at this 

These evidences of loyalty might have conciliated the home 
government had not the dissatisfaction felt toward the colonies been 
kept alive by Edward Randolph, a man who had been sent to settle the 
question of the New Hampshire government previous to its incorpora- 
tion with Massachusetts. This man was heartily hated in Massachu- 
setts. He was far too good a servant of the King, and carried stories 
to him which greatly damaged the colony in the royal ears. Especially 
did he complain that they broke the navigation laws, which, under 
heavy taxations, confined and limited the trade of the colony. They 
admitted that they did so, but said it was necessary to their prosperity. 
They offered, however, to cover the matter by an act of their own. 
Randolph would have none of this. He asked the general court to 
help him, but they followed their usual policy by paying no attention. 
Even the Governor seems to have kept a discreet silence. 

Another charge brought against them was that they coined their own 
money, which none but the King had a right to do. One clever gentle- 
man who had visited New England was sent for by the King that he 
might learn something about the matter. This man, whose name was 
Thomas Temple, showed the King some of the colony coins. They 
were of the old pine- tree variety. The King looked at them suspiciously, 
but Sir Thomas, being something of a courtier, told the King that the 
pine tree upon them was a royal oak; that the Massachusetts people did 
not dare to put the King's name upon their coin, and had, therelore, 
put on the oak, which, as everyone knew, had preserved the King's 
life. This money had followed wampum, the exchange of the Indians. 
At one time early in the history of Massachusetts musket bullets had 
been used in the place of money. There was a ver^- large coinage of 


the pine-tree money, and it was used for a long time. At last, in i68r, 
came another letter from the King, asking that deputies should be sent 
to him to tender the submission of the colonies. IMassachusetts dared 
delay no longer, and sent two men to England, armed with a letter of 
such finn pride that the King grew angry, and issued a writ against the 
colony, demanding to show by what warrant it held its charter. 

When Charles II died and James, his brother, became King of 
England, he put Sir Edmund Andros over all of New England. He 
was a proud Englishman of high birth, one of the old-time loyalists, 
who thought obedience to the King a much greater thing than the 
liberty of a people. His manner of living was very disagreeable to the 
Puritans. He gave large drinking parties and made much display of 
his wealth and authority, while it was their habit to live quietly. 

By this time many of the men of Boston were rich. They were 
naturally proud of all that they had done and the respect in which 
they were held, but their manners were without show. The loss of the 
charter which they so loved, the dissolving of the general court, and 
the setting up of an arrogant and selfish Governor over them, filled 
them with an angry discontent. Randolph, whom they so hated, was 
made licenser of the press, and other men as overbearing and disagree- 
able were put in office. No respect was shown for Puritan principles, 
and in the Old South Meeting-House, dedicated to Puritan worship. 
Governor Andros insisted upon holding Episcopalian service. He 
levied taxes pretty much to please himself, and was filled with great 
indignation when the people protested. He even made the land- 
owners give up their titles to him for examination, and said that the 
deeds from the Indians were not worth the scratch of a bear's paw. He 
made conditions, however, by which these titles could become legal; 
but the people would not accept them, since it was a matter of conscience 
to them not to give approval to his rule. In New Hampshire, Andros 
had but little trouble. In Maine, he had succeeded in ousting the 
Baron Vincent de Chastine, Lieutenant of the French government of 

His next work was to deprive Connecticut of its charter. In vain did 
the people protest. They set forth all they had suffered in subduing 
the soil and overcoming the Indians, and defended their claims to 
independence, but the plea had no effect. Andros insisted upon having 
the charter. The distressed Connecticut magistrates sat about the table 
of the little council chamber listening with anxiety to the royal 
governor. They talked about the matter all the afternoon and until 


evening had deepened and the candles were lit. Outside of the building 
crowds of excited citizens gathered. Andros made a final demand foi 
the charter. It was no gust of wind that blew out the candle. In the 
darkness, the charter disappeared. The crowd outside dispersed. The> 
were contented. The Governor, baflfled and furious, entered an account 
of the meeting upon the State records, and wrote "finis" at the end. 
No one in Connecticut appeared to know where the charter was. It 
was snugly hidden in a great oak tree on the grounds of Samuel 
Wallace, one of the magistrates. But Connecticut had lost its individ- 
uality. It was now a part of the royal province, and in a little whik 
New York and New Jersey were also a part of New England, undei 

But his authority was almost at an end. The pride of the people 
could stand no more, and when they heard that William of Orange hac 
landed in England and the throne of King James was tottering, the> 
wrote and read to the citizens of Boston a declaration of their inde^ 
pendence from ro^al rule. This was read from the balcony of th< 
town-house, on which were gathered the most prominent men of Boston, 
On Beacon Hill, tar barrels were blazing. All throiigh the streets 
the boys were beating drums. Flags flew bravely over the city. Th< 
declaration declared that it rejoiced that the Prince of Orange was upot 
the throne of England and that the power of the Stuarts had been over 
thrown. The royal servants were arrested and thrown into jail, Andro; 
among them. Simon Bradstreet was made president. He was eighth- 
seven years of age, but he was strong with the detennination of the 

The Massachusetts deputies, who visited the Prince of Orange, had 
permission to use their old charter until a new one coiild be made. 
This hardly satisfied the people, but they were better contented whet 
Sir William Phips was made Governor of New England. Phips hac 
been born on the Kennebec, in Maine, and was therefore welcomed bj 
the colonists. He had been a sheep-tender on the Maine hills, and hac 
worked as a carpenter in the great Maine shipping yards. He mar 
ried a Boston widow who had money enough to start him in business, 
Having a romantic character, he built him a ship for the purpose o; 
dragging lost Spanish treasures from the sea. He went to the Wesi 
Indies and hunted about for the sunken Spanish galleys which had lair 
there for years. One of these he found, but did not get a large amount 
of spoils, and was anxious to search for another which he thought nior< 
valuable. He soon interested the King of England in his project, anc 


was given a man-of-war, well fitted in all respects. For two years he 
searched without effect, having many odd experiences, and successfully 
stopping a mutiny of his sailors. 

In spite of his failure to secure the Spanish treasure, he had so 
much determination and eloquence that he was equipped for a second 
voyage. This time he found the ship, richly laden with treasure. He 
received a good share of the bullion, coin and plate, and was given a 
cup, valued at one thousand pounds, by the Duke of Albemarle, who had 
sent out the expedition. 

The King knighted him, and he returned to New England, wealthy 
and famous. It was this man who was appointed Governor of New 
England. It was during Phips' administration that a fleet was sent 
northward for the purpose of subduing Canada. The idea was to take 
Quebec and Montreal. The New England soldiers fared badly. They 
sailed along the coast and up the St. Lawrence in so lazy a way that 
Frontenac had time to prepare for defence. Phips was not a soldier, and 
Wallace, who was with him, was a coward. The combination was 
fatal. They made continual mistakes, and at last, with many men lost 
and many more sick, were obliged to turn their ships toward Boston. 
One of the .ships was never heard of, one of them burned, and a third 
was wrecked. 

The expense of the expedition had been so great as to bankrupt the 
treasur\-, and it was necessary to issue paper bonds. These soon fell in 
value thirty-three per cent. , and Phips redeemed them from the soldiers, 
to whom they had been paid, with money from his own private fortune. 
He also made an expedition to Maine, against the Indians, with but 
small results. His impulsiveness and generosity was not sustained by 
wisdom or quiet detennination. Though a picturesque and attractive 
man, he did not make a good Governor, and the vexations of his office 
did not improve his temper, which was always hot. At length he was 
ordered to England to answer certain charges against him, and in 
London, in 1694, he died of a fever. He was one of the most adven- 
turous and romantic of all the men who at that time distingushed 
American history. 

History— Trumbull's "Connecticut.' 

-W. Seaton's "Romance of the Charter Oak." 
R. Dawes' "Nix's Mate," 
E. Charles' "On Both Sides of the Sea." 





ORTY years after the destruction of th( 
Pequots, there broke over the New Englan( 
colonies another wave of Indian war. Phip; 
was in England, and William Stoughton, th( 
Lieutenant Governor, was attending to th( 
colonial affairs. There had been no direc 
and flagrant insult to the Indians which promptec 
this, but, through all the long years, there had been ; 
contemptuous treatment of them. For one thing, thi 
Indian did not understand that when land wa 
purchased of him for a few blankets, or scissors, tha 
he was to yield it up forever. His understandin| 
of it was that he gave the white man pennissioi 
to come upon it; but when the white man cauK 
and steadily drove him out, when his friends were treacheroush 
murdered, or sold to slaver}', he perceived too late what was intended 
The Narragansetts had much reason to hate the Englishmen. The} 
had never forgotten the treacherous murdering of their young anc 
beloved chief, Miantonomo. He had been executed, without cause, b} 
the Massachusetts commissioners, away back in 1643, more to please 
Uncas, the Mohican chief, who was the friend of the whites, than fo 
any offence which he had committed. At the present time, the son o 
Miantonomo was reigning over the Narragansetts, and he allied himsel 
to Philip, the second son of Massasoit, the sachem of the Wampanoags 
Massasoit, it will be remembered, had been a good friend of th( 
pilgrims of Plymouth at the time when they needed friends. In i66( 
he died, leaving two sons, to whom he had given English names 
Alexander and Philip. A year after Massasoit's death, the elder o: 


these brothers, Alexander, was carried as a prisoner to Plymouth, 
because he was suspected of joining- the Narragansetts for the purpose 
of moving against the English; but the chief died before they reached 
Plymouth. His wife, who was a queen among the Indians, believed 
that they had poisoned Alexander. When, fourteen years later, she 
heard that her brother-in-law, Philip, was going to make an effort to 
wipe out the bitter injustice and humiliation which had come to the 
Indians in all those tr}'ing years, she took her three hundred warriors and 
joined him. It was a fatal move for her. Within a year all but twenty- 
six of her braves were killed, and the young queen, trj'ing to swim the 
river, was drowned. When the Englishmen found her body washed 
ashore, they cut her head from her comely shoulders, and set it up 
where her disheartened warriors could see it, and around it the broken- 
liearted braves set up a most dismal wailing. 

Philip, himself, was a man with many friends. The natural vigor 
and determination of his character, his frank and convincing way of 
sjieaking, his upright carriage, and penetrating eye, forced the admira- 
tion of all. He had tried to treat the white man with fairness; had 
answered to his many rmjust suspicions with dignity and calmness, 
but in return had received many wounds which rankled. He was 
made to deliver up all the English arms which his tribe possessed. 
This humiliated him and his tribe deeply. Another incident irritated 
him also. One of the Indians whom Eliot had converted, warned the 
people at Plymouth that there was a growing anger among the Indians, 
and danger that they might soon break into war. The Indians probably 
learned of the story which the man had told, for he was found 
murdered and thrust into the ice of the river. Three Indians were 
accused of the deed, and a trial by jur}' was held, in which six white 
men and six Indians were impaneled. The accused Indians were 
executed. Philip hastened preparations for war. On a fair June day 
in 1675, the people of Swansea appointed a day of prayer and fasting 
that they might be spared from the horrors of war. Going home from 
church, a man was killed by an Indian in ambush. Several were 
wounded, and two who hastened for a surgeon were killed. Over by 
the garrison six more men were killed. A number of houses and bams 
were burned. This was the beginning of the war. It was the torch, 
so to speak, which called together the bands of savages. All through 
the remote settlements many houses were burned and much property 
destroyed. Cattle were driven away, and frequently farmers were 
murdered. Eighteen houses were destroyed in Providence. Through 


the months of July and August these crimes went steadily on. Ii: 
August the general court sent a ninnber of men to hold a peace confer- 
ence with some Indians at Brookfield. The Indians did not appeal 
there as they had promised to do, and Captain Wheeler, with twent\ 
men, went to look for them. The Indians had prepared an ambush foi 
them, and eight of the twenty Englishmen were killed. The captaii 
and many others were wounded. They hurried to Brookfield to givt 
the alarm to the people. Pell-mell the men, women and childrer 
rushed into the strong house in the settlement. Three hundred savages, 
as mad as wolves at the taste of blood, thronged into the village. The\ 
burned ever}- house except the one where the frightened people wert 

For two days and nights the men in that log cabin held out. Tht 
Indians had ammunition and guns, and kept up the fight from all sides. 
At night they would crawl along the ground and build fires against the 
walls of the building. They tied fire-brands to poles and tried to thrus! 
them through the cracks in the logs, and attached burning stuff to theii 
arrows. But the fires were put out by the besieged. Even wher 
burning sulphur was poured upon the roof, it was extinguished. The 
white men had become as cunning as the savages. They could fight 
them upon their own ground. The- third morning came, and with it 
despair. The Englishmen felt they could not hold out much longer. 

The Indians prepared a terrible machine. It was a cart piled high 
with hay and hemp, and blazing fiercely. This was pushed up against 
the building. It seemed as if there could be no escape. Either the 
brave men must see their wives and children burn there in the fire, oi 
what was worse, let them sufier the horrors of Indian captivity. Pray- 
ing and weeping, the women prepared to take their children in theii 
arms and venture out; but at that moment a cloud overspread the sky. 
There was a clap of thunder and a sudden down-pour of summer rain. 
The fire was extinguished. So wet did the building get that there was 
no longer any chance of burning it. The besieged held out during the 
afternoon, and before evening. Major Simon Willard, of Boston, with fifty 
or sixty men, dashed into the town and routed the Indians, eighty cl 
whom were killed or wounded. 

The war spread steadily. Philip's influence was great. He went 
from tribe to tribe, haranguing, encouraging and threatening. Those 
he could not win to his side in any other way he bought up with 
wampum and gifts. No white man felt safe at this time. Ever>- house 
and every church was an arsenal in which ammunition was stored. 


Men earned their arms everywhere, to church, to dinner and to bed. 
Flint-locks were already known in America, although they were not yet 
in use in England. 

The stories which could be told of this time would fill volumes, so 
many were hurried into captivity, so many tortured and mutilated. 
One of the fiercest fights was at Hadley, on the Connecticut, three or four 
weeks after the Brookfield fight. Hadley was a place for military 
supplies and had a garrison. Most of the soldiers were away at the 
time, and as at Swansea, the people were holding a feast day. Some one 
brought the alarm that the Indians were coming. Men had their arms 
at hand, and gathered about the door, while the women and children 
crowded into the corners of the building. The meeting-house was not 
a strong stnicture, and the Indians made an unusually savage onslaught. 
Resistance looked almost useless. The men were unnerved with fear. 
As the Indians surged up, and the first men who ventured to the open 
door were met with well-directed arrows, they fell back with despair in 
their faces. Suddenly an old man stood among them. No one had 
seen him before. He was tall and soldierly, with masses of flowing 
grey hair about his shoulders. He drew his sword like one used to 
wars, and stepping out with intrepid bravery, led the colonists to an 
attack. No one asked who he was. They simply felt that God had 
sent a deliverer. The Indians were chased to the woods, into whose 
murky depths they disappeared, and the colonists looked about for their 
leader, but he was gone. Not till long after did they know that it was 
Colonel Goff, the regicide, who was then in hiding at Hadley, and on 
whose head the King of England had fixed a price. No soldier with 
his experience could see a crowd of brave men perish for the want of 
a leader. 

On the ver^' same day Deerfield was attacked, and here, later in the 
month, the people were fired upon as they were going to the meeting- 
house. The block-house at Northfield was besieged, and a number of 
persons killed. 

Near Hadley a company of young men, eighty in number, were 
sent out to complete the threshing and load the wagons with grain. 
They were under the command of Captain Lathrop. In these days a 
soldier was at the head of every venture. Returning in the middle of 
the month to Hadley, the company stopped in a large grove beside a 
brook, and tl:e men broke their ranks and rested themselves in a 
pleasant spot. Suddenly, with no warning, seven hundred savages 
were upon them, and only seven of the men escaped. This was how 


Bloody Brook got its name. Captain Mosley, who had been left behir 
to protect Deerfield, heard the firing, and hurried to the spot with oi 
hundred and sixty men, part of whom were Mohegans. The attackir 
Indians were driven off. 

The English, realizing that there was no prospect of peace, decidt 
that it was best to begin a systematic warfare. Soldiers were called fo 
Massachusetts gave five hundred and twenty men, Connecticut thr( 
hundred, and Plymouth one hundred and fifty-nine. The Mohegc 
Indians gave one hundred and fifty warriors. The idea was to marc 
under Governor Winslow, of Plymouth, to the country of the Narraga: 
setts, in Rhode Island. There they had a strong fort, occupying s: 
acres of dr}' ground. About it was a swamp, and beyond this a hig 
palisade, protected by a chevaiix-de-friese. There was a deep snow c 
the ground by this time, for it was now December. To reach the oi 
entrance of the fort, it was necessary to get over a log as high as a man 
breast. Under a fire from the Indians, four Massachusetts captains we 
killed, and three of the Connecticut leaders. But Captain Benjam: 
Church, putting those firm lips of his together, marched around to tl 
rear, and entered there, carrj'ing three bullets in him, but still : 
fighting condition. The savages were driven out into the swamp ar 
beyond that, leaving seven hundred dead behind them. Three hundr< 
of their wounded men died later. A great many of the old and feeb 
were burned in the wigwams which the Englishmen were foolish enoug 
to fire, within the fort. The colonists also lost heavily. 

In spite of this terrible battle, Philip was determined not to yiel 
He felt, no doubt, that it was the turning point in his countrj-men 
histor>'. If they lost their independence now, it would never 1 
regained, but if they could succeed in exterminating the hated Englis] 
all might be as before. Solitude would be theirs again, and liben 
their own. They could paddle their canoes at peace upon the wi' 
rivers. The deer would return to the forest. The clam banks upc 
the coast would be unmolested. They would no longer be the victin 
of the white man's pride and cupidity. In February, Lancaster w; 
attacked, but after that, for a month or two, affairs were quiet, and tl 
colonists were rarely disturbed. In May, a large party of Indiai 
gathered on the desolated fields by Deerfield, and began planting then 
This news was brought to Hatfield, and Captain Turner rode tweni 
miles, with one hundred men at his back, reaching the Indians in tl 
night. The roar of the fall on the river kept the horses' hoofs froi 
being heard. Leaving the horses in the ravine, the soldiers fell upc 


the Indians just at day-break. The Indians, dazed with sleep and 
entirely unprepared for the attack, could not do themselves justice. One 
hundred and forty of them took to their canoes, but, in the panic, went 
o\er the falls and perished. Many were shot, and others took refuge in 
the rocks, or were put to the sword. Turner lost but one man; the 
Indians lost three hundred. But another large party of Indians, not far 
distant, heard the fight, and soon overtook Turner and his men. The 
brave captain was killed, with many oi his followers, but most of them 
reached Hatfield safely. 

Philip had a fisher}' near the falls, from which he had intended to 
provide his men for the winter, and the breaking up of this greatly dis- 
turbed him. He made an attack upon Hatfield, but was defeated, and 
soon after he led seven hundred Indians against Hadley again, but 
many of them were slain and they were obliged to hastily retreat. 
Then he moved farther south. Town after town was sacked and 
burned. Now he was in Rhode Island, now in Connecticut, and now in 
Massachusetts. In these days every man became a fighter. Even the 
boys were enemies to be dreaded, and on more than one occasion whole 
families had been saved, in the absence of men, by the pluck and readi- 
ness of mere urchins. It was a great blow to the Indians when 
Nanuntenoo, the proud and revengeful son of Miantonomo, was taken 
captive. He was executed, of course, but was glad to die, so he said. 

All through the spring and summer of 1676 the colonies were in 
terrible fear. When Sudbury was attacked and partly burned, Captain 
Wadsworth, hurrying to the relief, was caught in ambush and killed, 
with sixty of his men. Captain Pierce was surprised, and his company 
of fifty Englishmen massacred. Only one of them escaped. Major 
Talcott, with a force of three hundred mounted men, surrounded 
a larger body of Narragansetts in a swamp in Rhode Island. All of 
them were either killed in the assault or put to death afterward. 

Philip was becoming discouraged. He saw that his men were 
breaking down under the strain. The white man had learned all his 
secrets. He understood the decoy, the night attack, and the stealthy 
waiting as well as the Indian, now, and to this he united greater 
endurance and courage in the face of heavy odds. Twice Philip had 
barely escaped capture. He had been obliged to disguise himself. At 
last, worn out and disheartened, he fled to his home on the isthmus of 
Mt. Hope. An Indian betrayed his whereabouts to Church. Church, 
whom Philip feared more than any other living man, started for the 
place at once. It was the middle of the night when he reached there. 


Across a swamp, on a bit of upland, slept the great chief, wi 
his Indians about him. The Englishmen sent a heavy fire into t 
camp. Philip sprang to his feet, gun in hand, and rushed forward, 
minute later he was dead, with his face in the dark swamp water. 

The Indians could do little more. Their great leader, whc 
eloquence was siich an inspiration to them, whose courage was ine 
haustible, and whose plans had been so daring and ingenious, w 
dead. The power of the Indians over all that section of the count 
was gone. Many rushed westward, and many, alas! served as slaves 
the West Indies. Others sought the powerful friendship of the wh; 
men. All over New England there was mourning, for hardly a hot 
had been left untouched by death. 

History — Abbott's "History of King Philip." 
Fiction*— R. C. Sands' "Ya'uioyden." 

Cooper's "The Wept of Wish-ton-wish." 

G. H. Hollister's "Mount Hope." 

Pierce's "Xarragansett Chief!" 


J[ passing i|abna$$» 


T is a pity that children should have been respon- 
;^~^ sible for some of the most dreadful crimes which 
disgraced New England. It was they who started 
what is known as the witch-craft delusion. It was 
a strange time. In Europe, as in America, the 
people were morbid. A series of misfortunes made 
them open to this disease of the mind, which physicians 
now recognize as a sort of hysteria, but which at that 
time even the wisest and best of men supposed to be the 
work of the devil. Ever>- one believed that there were 
witches, and the Bible said that witches should be hung. 
Men like Bacon went to the trouble of inventing a 
medicine for witches' ointment. Statesmen made laws 
concerning it. Ministers preached about it from the 
pulpit. To tell hideous stories of bewitched people about the win- 
ter fireside was one of the favorite amusements. Every one who wore 
scarlet, or who chanced to be peculiar, was sure to be thought a witch. 
This fearful disease had raged in Europe for a good many )ears before 
it reached the new world. So extensive had it become that a great 
many books had been written on the subject, and these books had been 
brought in considerable numbers to America. Samuel Parris, a man 
who had been a merchant in Barbadoes, but who had become a minister 
upon moving to Salem, had a number of these books in his library. In 
a town where books were comparatively few, they were naturally much 
borrowed and read, and appealed, as the horrible and mysterious always 
does, to the imagination of the people in general, and to children in 



particular. In Parris' family also was Tituba, an old slave, half 
negro and half Indian. She knew all the ways of witch-craft, and it was 
supposed that she could conjure up spirits with her black, bony hands, 
or, if she chose, ride through midnight storms, safely seated on a broom- 
stick. Not only has she figured in history, but in fiction and poetry, 
and all who know anything about those dreadful days know about 
Tituba and John Indian, her husband. Tituba had a habit of secretly 
gathering the children of the Parris and neighboring families into the 
kitchen, and there, by the flickering light of the fire, when the house 
■was still and the old people away, she taught them all the dark secrets 
of her imaginary art, and instructed them in the way the bewitched 
children acted, telling them about the little Goodwin girl whom Cotton 
Mather had taken to live with him because she was bewitched. He 
wished to have her near him that he might study the actions of Satan 
in her, and it was through watching her that he came to believe in 
witch-craft, and did so much hann by advocating it. The little Good- 
win girl had accused a quiet Irish washer-woman of having bewitched 
her. Whenever the woman came near, she fell into spasms and sank 
upon the ground. Three other children did as they saw her do, and the 
poor washer-woman was hanged. Tituba told these stories with delight, 
and the company of little girls practiced the actions of the bewitched. 
The children imagined such dreadful things that at last they were 
really no longer able to control themselves, but did really suffer almost 
as much as they had at first pretended to. So dreadfully did they act 
that doctors were called to visit them. They immediately said they 
were bewitched. The next thing then was to find the witches. The 
Reverend Parris, believing as he did in the existence of such a thing, 
was not illy pleased to have it come within his reach. If he really did 
not encourage the children in the matter, he at least influenced them to 
declare against his enemies. The first person the}- cried oiit against was 
Sarah Goodwin. She was accused of pinching them, and running pins 
and needles into them. The justices tried her, and sent her to prison. 
Many more were sent after her. Then came the charge against Giles 
Corey, a staunch old farmer, who was foolish enough to believe in 
witch-craft. The children cried out that he tormented them, and they 
fell into a strange illness, so real that the people had no choice but to 
"believe in their sufferings. Corey was pressed to death and treated with 
great contempt in every way. The acquisitions came faster and faster. 
A court of seven judges was appointed to decide upon the many cases 
brought before them. Among the children the epidemic spread. So 


strong a hold did it have on them, that they actually declined until they 
were little more than skin and bones. A sort of second sight, or 
clairv'oyancy, mingled with their hysteria, and the actual things which 
they foretold, or, being at a distance, correctly related, helped to confirm 
the popular belief. It got dangerous for one to have the least pecu- 
liarity. Any spot on the body — a mole or mark — was sufficient to convict 
one of being a witch. Gentle Rebecca Nourse, a farmer's wife, living 
in her own house and quietly tending her children, her house and her 
cows, was accused of being one of these balefiil creatures, and was 
taken from her home, executed and thrown into the pit which was set 
apart for the witches, Christian burial not being allowed them. Here, 
at midnight, when no one was watching, came her little children and her 
husband to search for her poor body and give it a more gentle burial. 

Longfellow writes of Bridget, a jolly woman, fond of jests 
and bright dresses, who was condemned as much for wearing a scarlet 
petticoat as for anything else. Ever}'one who had an enemy saw a 
quick way of taking revenge upon him, by accusing him of being a 
party to the strange wickedness. The prison became crowded. As for 
the children, they seemed to have found themselves the most important 
and dreaded personages in the community. They grew very clever at 
imitating the people whom they accused of bewitching them, and chil- 
dren with soft voices acquired the power of talking like a man in deep, 
bass tones. It was not all imagination. It became insanity. One child> 
more conscientious than the rest, realized after a time that she did not 
feel all that she said she felt. She confessed, and accused the other 
children of deceit. The children promptly denounced her as a witch. 
But the matter had aroused the suspicions of the people. The wiser of 
them began to think it was a plot, and when at length Mrs. Hale, a 
woman of great beauty of character and of high station, was accused^ 
the sympathy of the people was with her. Captain John Alden, a man 
of high character and good family, was accused. He made a sensible 
defence, which had no effect upon the justices, but at length he escaped. 
At last the children even dared to accuse the Governor's wife, and 
when they came to imitating some members of the Mather family, 
even Cotton Mather, the Methodist divine, concluded there must be 
a mistake somewhere. The matter ended almost as suddenly as it had 
begun. Governor Phips released one hundred and fifty persons from the 
jail. Several hundred more had, at one time and another, been impris- 
oned there, but only twenty were killed — not counting the two poor 
dogs which were formally executed for being familiars of witches. 


For one especial cruelty was Parris responsible. He hated, with all 
the narrowness of a minister of the time, the Reverend Stephen 
Burroughs, who seems to have had a belief which did not exactly 
agree with that accepted as orthodox by the Salem people. Parris had 
him driven out of the colony, and he took refuge with his family in 
Maine. At the time of the witch-craft excitement Parris succeeded in 
getting him accused and having him brought away down to Salem to be 
tried. An elder and two constables were sent to bring him, as Parris 
had chosen to given him the reputation of a dangerous man. He went 
with them cheerfully enough, having no thought that the matter was 
so serious. He was a remarkable man, of much animal magnetism, with 
a ver>' commanding and penetrating eye, and all who came near him 
felt his influence. It was this power, added to his eloquence, which 
had made Parris jealous, and indeed had laid him open to suspicion, 
for it was not safe in those days to know very much. He understood 
wood-craft as an Indian does, and being a man remarkably strong and 
unusually clever, had done many things which his more stupid asso- 
ciates could not understand. Having a reputation of this sort, the 
terrified constables and the elder who were sent after him were 
distracted when he insisted upon leading them at night through a 
pathless forest, the way which he knew as well as his own garden. A 
terrible storm, with most violent lightning, broke over them, fright- 
ening the horses, breaking the trees, and driving the men half mad with 
terror. To this day the spot in New Hampshire is called Witches' 
Trot. Once at Salem, all was over with him. He never went back to 
his wife and children beyond the forest. This dreadful chapter of 
Massachusetts history was verj- short. It was confined to the year 1692. 
In no time was it so sharp as it had been in the Old World, but it was 
bad enough, and made a great blot of ignorance and superstition on the 
fair page of native history. In 1720 a second attempt was made to stir 
up this old frenzy, but civilization had gone too far. The people would 
have none of it. 

History — Upham's "Histor>'of Witch-crafl." 
Fiction — J. Neal's "RacherDyer." 
Poetry — Long^fellow's "Giles Corev." 

•Whittier's "Witch of Wehham." 
Whittier's "Mabel Martin." 
Whittier's "Changeling-." 
Whittier's "Wreck of Rivermouth." 



jl fjulbman. 


HE great State of Pennsylvania was settled by the 
Quakers, or Friends. In speaking of Pennsyl- 
vania, it is necessary to speak of William Penii. 
He was the son of a noted admiral of England, 
who was not only a man of much intellect, but ol 
great humor and affability as well. His mothei 
was an unusual woman also, and gave her son 
lessons in kindness and amiability which influenced him 
all his life, and had no little effect upon the history of 
this country. From his earliest years he was unusual. 
When he was a school-boy of eleven, he had strange 
visions in which the works and glory of God were 
revealed to him. It was by such things as this that the 
growing Society of Friends was distinguished. But at 
this time, Penn knew nothing of the Friends nor the fre- 
quency of these visions in England. Yet Penn was no dreamer; he 
was a gay, active boy, very strong of ann, capable of swift running. 
and fond of that jollity which forms so large a part of the schoolboy's 
life. In the course of time, a great preacher of the Society of Friends 
came to Oxford. Young Penn became a willing and enthusiastic 

A short time after this, it was ordered that the surplice should 
be worn by the Oxford students. Penn could not permit this evidence 
of Episcopal pride to pass unchallenged. He and some of his friends 
tore the detested garments over the students' heads. He was expelled 
from school and banished from home. The tears of his mother, how- 
ever, softened the heart of the proud admiral, who forgave his son anu 


sent him to Paris, in the hope that its alhirements might win him from 
his fantastic ideas; and for a time they did, and he was as gay and 
heedless as any of the youths who lounged about Paris. He was bright 
and intelligent, and charmed London society with his graceful manner 
and witty speech; but it was only a short time that he gave himself up 
to this light manner of living. Again he was drawn to the meetings of 
the Friends, and after this, sincerely devoted his life to their service. 
At one time he was fined for attending their meetings; at another he 
was thrown into the Tower for writing a book, setting forth their views, 
but while there, he continued to write as his conscience prompted him. 
It was seven months before he was released. Soon after this, his father 
died, reconciled to his son's strange beliefs, and leaving him a 
large property, which Penn spent for the most part in the cause of the 

It was Penn's ambition to start a colony in the New World; already 
he had been interested in some settlements there. New Jersey, it will 
be remembered, had been granted to Lord Berkeley and Sir George 
Carteret, but the people of New Jersey protested against their ruling, 
which was overbearing and unfair. There had been an insurrection; 
two colonies had been made — East and West New Jersey — and Berke- 
ley had sold his share to a company of Quakers. William Penn was 
one of this company. A few years later, Sir George Carteret died, and 
his rights in East New Jersey were sold to twelve Quakers, and in this 
purchase William Penn had a share. But here there were so many 
Swedes, Dutch and Scotch, that no effort was made to make the 
colonies distinctly Quaker. Over these, Andros, the royal Governor, 
ruled. Penn was anxious, as has been said, to make a settlement of 
his own, and after his father died, he told the King, who was seriously 
in arrears with the admiral's pay, that he would liquidate this debt if he 
would give him a grant of territory in America. Penn's courtly air and 
handsome face and form, and his experience in diplomatic matters, stood 
him in very good stead. In 1680, he obtained a grant from Charles II, 
including forty thousand square miles of territory between Maryland 
and New York. To this the King gave the name of Pennsylvania. 
So well known was he in Europe, not only as the son of the dis- 
tinguished admiral, but as a man of great originality and courage, that 
the sturdy, industrious people of Germany, as well as those of his own 
countr}', were anxious to follow him. He did not, like George Fox, 
neglect everj'thing aesthetic, and dress himself in a not ver}' clean suit 
of leather, and though he wore the garb of the Friends, he saw to it 


that the fabric was good and the fit excellent. Dress and address are the 
two first things which one notices in a stranger. William Penn was 
too much of a statesman not to appreciate this. He knew that one 
could afford to be eccentric, but not disagreeable. It is not strange, 
however, that he was popular. 

His principles of government were of a broad nature. There jvas 
to be perfect liberty of conscience and political freedom for all — even 
the Indians. Only murder and treason were to be punished by death. 
Penn would not even have had these laws had he chosen himself, and 
while he lived, no gallows was ever erected in the province. He 
believed that a prison should be a place of reform. No oath was 
necessary to the man of good conscience. All pleasures which had in 
them any possibility of evil, such as cock-fighting, bull-baiting, card- 
playing and theatre-going, were forbidden. His scheme of government 
included one act which might be well imitated now — lying was 
punished as a crime. There was to be a trial by jury for all cases of 
injury, and Indians were to be among the jury, whenever Indian 
rights were in question. A German company bought fifteen thousand 
acres from Penn, and hastened to emigrate thither in 1681. It was in 
1682 before Penn and his friends set sail. Penn had an audience of the 
King, at which he astonished his Majesty by telling him that England 
had no right to molest the savages upon their own soil. "What," 
cried the King, ' 'have I not the right of discovery ?' ' ' 'Just suppose, ' ' 
said Penn, in his calm way, "that a canoe full of savages should 
by some accident discover Great Britain; would you vacate, or sell ?" 
When Penn reached New Castle, on the 27th of October, the Dutch and 
Swedes gave him a very cordial welcome. He naturalized all the 
inhabitants of the province, and then hastened up the river to Upland, 
which is now Chester, where he met the delegates who had already 
been selected by his commissioners. This was the first assembly. 
Everyone caught the infection of his sincerity and gentleness, and the 
arrangements made there by the assembly were remarkable for theii 
justice and liberality. 

Penn was delighted with the new country. The abundance 01 
natural fruits and berries, the beauty of the woods and hills, and the 
clearness of the river, charmed him. He went up the river himself, 
looking for a suitable site for the prospective city, and decided upon 
the sweeping peninsula around which the Delaware flows. This he 
named Philadelphia, that all might know the sentiment which prompted 
its founding. Penn called it his "holy experiment." He laid out the 


city himself, upon a great scale of squares; all of the avenues to be 
lined with trees, and houses to be set so that the)- might be surrounded 
with gardens. In the first year twenty-three ships filled with colonists 
came to Penn's province. 

The Indians, for the first time, were treated with absolute equality; 
there was not a touch of the arrogance of the Spaniard, the sternness of 
the Puritans, the commercial greed of the Dutch, or the bewildering 
mysticism of the French Jesuits. Penn was simple and direct. He ate 
with the Indians, out-ran them in jocular contests, and tried leaping 
matches with the sprightly young braves. Under the famous elm tree 
at Shackamaxon, the old resort for Indian councils, he held a treaty 
with the Indians. He and his followers wore no arms, and Penn was 
distinguished from his followers only by a sash of blue silk netting, 
falling like a soldier's scarf across his shoulders. The sachem of the 
Indians carried in his hand a chaplet, and when he donned this, the 
savages flung their arms to the ground, in token that the treaties were 
inviolable. The address which he made to the Indians won their hearts 
completely, and in a short time he had learned their language, and no 
longer had need of an interpreter. This increased his popularity among" 
them. The driving bargains of his officers in after years were nevei 
laid to his charge. 

Very early in its history, Pennsylvania had a school. Enoch Flowei 
was the teacher's name, and for four shillings a quarter he taught the 
bo3'S and girls of Philadelphia to write, and for six shillings, to read. 
He would take boarding-scholars, giving them "diet, lodging, washing 
and schooling for ten pounds the year. ' ' Nor was it long before a 
printing press was set up. Penn had a friend, James Claypool, who 
was quite an eminent scholar, and who may have inspired these move- 
ments to an extent. Penn built him a mansion, called "Pennsbur}' 
Manor," at Bristol, on the Delaware river. Here he lived happily for 
two years, when he found it necessary to go to England, to answer some 
of the charges which his envious enemies had brought against him. 
He remained in England fifteen years, during which time affairs did 
not run as quietly in the colony as might have been desired. There 
were religious quarrels and political quarrels, until the colonies were so 
misrepresented in England that the government was taken away from 
Penn and given to a royal commissioner. In 1694, however, William 
and Mary restored the province to Penn's absolute government — no one 
had ever questioned his proprietorship — and in 1699 Penn himself came 
from England, not a little wearv of courts and the friction of cosrao- 


politan life, intending to pass the remainder of his years in his beautiful 
home on the Delaware, surrounded by those who knew and appreciated 
his noble qualities of heart and mind. 

Not a little astonished was Penn when he saw Philadelphia, then a 
little more than eighteen years old. Doubtless he had carried in his 
mind's eye a picture of the colony as he left it, largely made up of 
rude huts, with chimneys of mud. When, therefore, he saw the noble 
city of over two thousand houses, most of which were built of brick, 
in that chaste, placid architecture of the Friends, and when he saw tl e 
wharfs and viaducts with their busy trade, he must have received quite 
a shock, in his sudden realization of the growth and success of his 
"holy experiment." He took for his own residence the slate- roofed 
house which stood in Second street, at the southeast corner of Norris' 
alley, until the year 1868, when it was torn down. 

John Penn, always called "The American," to distinguish him from 
William Penn's other children, was born in this house, of Penn's second 
wife, Hannah Callowhill, a delicate, sweet woman, whom Penn dressed 
with much pride in silks and jewels in spite of the stern Quaker regula- 
tions in regard to costume. She preferred the country- seat up the 
Delaware, and here Penn lived the greater part of his time, in some- 
thing of that state in which he had been raised. The house stood upon a 
hill, and was approached by an avenue of poplars. On one side ran 
the river, with the bank terraced down to it. The lawns were as well 
kept as the greener ones of England, and the gardens were planted, not 
alone with trees indigenous to Pennsylvania, but with many others 
brought from Europe and the tropics. The "forest primeval" of 
native elms and oaks was undisturbed, and in this were no formal walks, 
but only winding, woodland roads, made by accident, rather than 

Penn, like most Englishmen, was fond of good horses, and kept a 
stable of blood animals. Hannah Penn, tending her baby, or embroid- 
ering a screen in her boudoir, sat among satin-covered chairs, damask 
curtains, and silken blankets. The furniture was solid oak, spider- 
legged and car\'ed. Rare china and plate filled the dresser. To all, 
there was an open house at Pennsbury Manor; everj^ one was welcome, 
regardless of his or her standing, for Penn could never see a distinction 
of persons, and showed as much courtesy in the society of Indians as he 
did in his converse with kings. One entertainment which he gave to 
the Indians upon the lawn was so extensive that a hundred roasted turkeys 
were prepared as a part of the bill of fare. At a time when wild turkeys 


frequently turned the scales at forty-six pounds, the banquet must have 
been ample. Penn accepted hospitality with as much grace as he gave 
it, and did not drop his courtly manners when he entered the wigwam of 
the Indian and ate hominy and acorns with him. There is a story 
told of his riding to the Derby meeting with little Rebecca Wood, a 
bare-legged country girl, sitting behind him on his well-groomed horse 
— himself immaculate, no doubt, as to attire. Those two years spent 
at Pennsbury Manor were, without question, the happiest of his life. 

He was one of the first men in America to dimly perceive that au 
immorality lay in slavery. The truth did not come to him openly, for 
he and the rest of the Friends might well ask, "Did not the Bible 
sustain it?" Penn himself was an owner of slaves, but he felt in them, 
as in all the men he met, the common current of humanity, and in his 
w ill he gave freedom to his blacks. He tried to procure the passage of 
a law for the regulation of marriage of the negroes, but this law the 
assembly rejected. In 1701 he was obliged to leave the colony and 
rf:tnrn to England, and never again did he return to that peaceful spot 
upon the Delaware where the most placid years of his life had been 
spent. In England, he met with much trouble. At one time the 
charter of his province was threatened; again a lien was put on it- 
through misrepresentation and fraud. He found himself heavily in debt, 
and was arrested and lodged in Fleet Prison for nine months. But 
even the evil reports which came from his beloved colony concerning 
the mismanagement of government were not so distressing to him as the 
folly and selfishness of his eldest son, William, whom he sent to 
America in hopes that he would find more wholesome companions than 
in profligate London. In Philadelphia, his debauchery and drunkenness 
were borne with much patience, because he was the son of their dear 
Governor, but he was finally arrested in a tavern brawl; the court 
brought an indictment against him. Governor Evans, who was then 
administering affairs in the province, was his boon friend, and had 
been in the same disgraceful brawl at which Penn was arrested, but 
neither Penn's name nor his powerful friends could move the Quakers 
when they had determined to do their duty by a sinner, and he left the 
province in disgrace, leaving a large company of disgusted creditors 
behind him. 

So dissatisfied did the people become with the Governor that they 
actually defied his authority, and it was found judicious to dispose of 
him. Charles Cookin succeeded to the governorship in 1709, and ruled 
quietly, but without much distinction. His troubles were of an abstract 


kind, relating entirely to religious obligations, subtile enough to have 
satisfied Puritan Salem. Following him came Sir William Keith, a 
governor of more sense, though of little more force. Philadelphia had 
but little sympathy with the warlike actions of the other colonists; she 
was at peace with the Indians herself, and did not take a personal 
interest in those numerous expeditions against the French and Indians 
which disturbed the northern and southern colonies and steadil}' sapped 
their strength. 


As for Penn, he lived till 1718, and passed the last six years of his 
life in tranquility at Ruscombe, his English estate. Slowly and steadily 
his disease destroyed his powerful mind and wrecked his active body. 
In 1732 Thomas Penn, his second son by his second marriage, moved 
to Philadelphia. He was never popular, but his elder brother, who 
came two )ears later, had something of th? magnetism, vivacity and 
cordiality which distinguished his father. This was under Patrick 
Gordon's administration, and a time of great prosperity. Though the 
colony was the youngest on the continent, it had more white inhabivants 
than all Virginia, Maryland and the two Carolinas. Philadelphia was 



incomparably the finest city in America, and second in magnitude. Its 
trade was vex}- extensive and its manufacturing excellent. When 
Gordon died, in 1736, George Thomas followed him, and quietly ruled 
for nine years. 

Philadelphia, like Boston, had become the resort for enterprising 
boys. One of these boys was Benjamin Franklin, a rather comely printer's 
boy of seventeen, who quarreled with his elder brother, and made for 
the great "City of Brotherly Love." Everyone knows how he walked 
down the pavement, lonesome and hungry, eating his roll of bread; 
everyone knows of his unfortunate engagement with the printer, and 
how Governor Keith finally took him into his favor, or pretended to do 
so, and sent the eager lad to London. There Benjamin found out how 
little the Governor's promises were worth, and returned to Pennsylvania. 
After this he prospered, and in 1728 was one of the men who established 
the Pennsylvania Gazette^ a paper which lived for 120 years. He had 
previously written for the Netv England Current^ his brother's paper, 
and, indeed, it was on account of these articles on public affairs, that he 
had quarreled with his brother. Through his efforts, a library was 
started in Philadelphia in 1731. In 1741 he founded a philosophical 
society, and in 1749 a university in Pennsylvania. This was at a time of 
great national perplexity, which must be left for another chapter. 

Collectors of rare American literature cherish a few copies of "Poor 
Richard's Almanac," which are still extant. This he issued for twenty- 
five years. It was a collection of saws and sayings which have passed 
into the phraseology.- of our countr)' until the>' have become classic. 
The annual sale of this almanac was about ten thousand copies. These 
were handed down from family to family by country people, until they 
were worn to shreds. Franklin wrote many papers on political, financial 
and scientific subjects, and even now and then dipped a lighter pen in 
ballad-writing. He was the first great scientist of America. To him 
belongs the honor of showing that lightning is electricity, and the 
invention of the lightning-rod is his. Indirectly, all of our great 
electrical experiments are traceable to him. 

HlSTORV— Sypher's "Philadelphia." 
Biography— Ellis' "Penn." 

Fiction— W. H. G. Kingston's "A True Hero." 
Poetry— J. G. WTiittier's "Pennsylvania Pilgrim." 
Drama- Schmidt Eber's "William Penn." 





^EW NETHERLAND was governed by the Eng- 
lish with such happy results that the Dutch had 
no objections to any change of governors which 
might be desired, and when Nicolls wished to 
return home, the people gave a cordial welcome 
to Colonel Francis Lovelace. His rule was quiet 
and popular, and entirely without difficulty at the capital, 
although upon the borders there were some disturbances. 
At one time the men of the Long Island towns refused 
to give any money for renewing the New York fortifica- 
tions. Lovelace ordered their votes to be publicly burned, 
and this gave rise to difficulties which continued for a 
long time. In the north, the French were disturbing, 
and at several times it was thought that war must be 
declared against Courcelles, the Governor of Canada. But, while the 
people of New York were still thinking about the subject, they were 
given matters of more serious interest to attend to. England was again 
at war with Holland, and from time to time rumors reached New York 
that a Dutch fleet was on its way northward from the West Indies to 
retake the harbor. Lovelace was absent for the time being, and paid 
no attention to the summons from his Lieutenant-Governor. 

On August 7, 1673, twenty-three Dutch ships, carrying sixteen 
hundred men, sailed into the bay of New York. The Dutch of the city 
rejoiced at the sight of their countr>'men, and were not long in telling 
them the true condition of affairs. Such a force of men could well 


afford to laugh at the fret and fume of the village, in which men were 
running to and fro as if they had lost their heads. Drums were beaten 
about the streets. One nervous smith set to work on fire-locks, and the 
militia of the surrounding towns was called for. The Dutch commander 
quietly demanded surrender, and when the English came to treat with 
him and to beg for time, he quietly turned an hour-glass over and said 
that if the English did not surrender within half an hour he would 
open fire. He did as he said, and a few in the fort were killed, and 
others wounded. Six hundred Dutch landed on the banks of the 
Hudson. The fort surrendered, and the Dutch again took possession 
where Peter Stuyvesant had once stumped about in martial pride. 
The Dutch names were restored to cities, forts, rivers and bays. The 
Dutch burgomaster took the place of the English mayor. 

Antony Clove was chosen temporar}' Governor. Two ships-of-war 
were left him for protection, and the rest of the fleet sailed quietly 
away. New England was very much frightened when it heard of the 
success of the Dutch, but the Puritans were cautious, and though they 
took means for defending themselves, they did not venture to give the 
English of New York any assistance in ousting the Dutch. New York 
was easy to manage. So the citizens escaped plunder and outrage, they 
cared but little who their masters might be. The lawless class, which 
makes change of government in older cities so much to be dreaded, had 
no existence in the colonial towns. 

Over in Europe, events were taking a new direction. Peace was 
made between England and Holland, and though the States-general 
were really the winners of peace on their own continent, they never- 
theless gave up their possessions in the New World to the English. A 
patent of the New Netherland territory was given to the Duke of York 
in 1674. Major Edmund Andros was appointed by him to govern New 
York. The English names were restored, the officers reinstated, and all 
went on as it had under the rule of Nicolls and Lovelace. This was 
fifteen years before the time that Boston impeached the government of 
Andros and put him in prison. He thought but little of New York, 
which contained only six or seven thousand people, while New England 
had at least one hundred and twenty thousand — such a difference 
was there between the easy-going Dutch and the fiercely-determined 
Englishmen. Under English rule, a more rapid growth came to New 
York. There was not a little emigration from England. The industry 
of whaling, which brought so much wealth to Long Island, was taken 
up. All together there were twenty- foiir towms in the settlement and a 


remarkable increase of farms, on which not only wheat and tobacco 
was raised, but even horses. Fish, peltry and lumber were quite 
heavily exported. In a very short time the manufacture of flour 
became an important industry. 

When Andros chose to visit New York he was received with great 
pomp, which must have been a balm to his pride, hurt by the contempt 
with which the peoiale of the southern colonies treated him. He went 
to Albany for the purpose of holding a council for the chiefs of the five 
nations, and succeeded in securing the promise of their friendship. 
Perhaps one reason that the New Yorkers had so little against Andros 
was that they saw so little of him, and that he thought the colony of 
too slight importance to greatly interfere with. 

In New York were two decided political parties — or religious parties, 
for at this time it was hard to separate the two. James, the Catholic 
King of England, had been obliged to flee to France. William and 
Mary, the Protestants, had been proclaimed the King and Queen of 
England. The thoughtful saw that there would be danger of a conflict 
between the Catholic and Protestant factions. When Andros was 
deposed by the Boston Committee of Safety, the government of New 
York was left in the hands of the Eieutenant-Governor, Nicholson, and 
of the council. The Dutch inhabitants of New York were in sympathy 
with William and Mary. The English of New York were verj' largely 
Catholics. In New York, no proclamation of William and Mary was 
made, and the chaplain at the fort continued to pray for the infant 
Prince of Wales, and that the dethroned James might be victorious over 
his enemies. In consequence, there was a steadily increasing discontent 
shown among the Dutch. Nicholson feared that the question was 
getting too troublesome for him, and resigned his position and sailed 
for England. The council was very much frightened, which, as it 
lacked both brains and courage, it might well be. No one was 
appointed to take command, and it came about quite naturally, that 
one of the captains of the militia, with more vigor than the rest, should 
assume the control of affairs. It is such times of need which make 
leaders. This man was Jacob Leisler, who was willing to do no end of 
work and face a great deal of danger. The council would do nothing 
although the disposition of the colony grew steadily worse. Eeisler saw 
the full danger, and when it came his turn to guard the fort with his 
company, he called all the trained bands together and made them sign 
a declaration by which they said that they held the fort for William 
and Mary, and would protect the Protestant religion. The council, 


frightened at the threatening look of things, dispersed, some of the 
members going to Connecticut and others to Albany. Leisler, a 
merchant by trade, and a man of little education, was left in the entire 
control of affairs. He called a convention, at which he was appointed 
captain of the fort, and the delegates made themselves into a committee 
of safety. At the very outset Leisler was called upon to deal with some 
very serious matters. 

King James had fled to France, and was the guest there of Louis 
XIV. Ivouis sent word to Frontenac, who was then Governor of 
Canada, that he should take it upon himself to search among the inhabi- 
tants of New York, and to send all French Protestants to France. The 
English Protestants were to be exported to New England, France oi 
other places. The French Catholics were to be unmolested in theii 
homes. Enough artisans and farmers to provide for the colony were 
to be left as slaves. Frontenac was not slow to obey the orders foi 

Fiction— Noah Brooks' "In l,eisler's Time." 


1[ronbnat \\t %}i\^^^^ 



N Febniary, 1669, Frontenac marched down to the 
frontier. He had three war parties of chosen 
men. One was to attack Albany, one New 
Hampshire and one Maine. A part of the men 
were Christian Iroquois. All three parties were 
led by LeMoyne, a young French gentleman of 
courage and spirit, to whose family France was greatly 
indebted for services in the New World. They crossed 
Lake Champlain on the ice. The Indians were afraid 
to attack Albany, and compelled the French to march 
upon Schenectady. They did so on the eighth of the 
month, late in the evening. The sun had rolled down 
like a red ball along the curve of the southern mountain 
— a peculiar effect, which, perhaps, cannot be seen any- 
where else in the world. About it, even the Indians had poetic 
legends. There had been a festival at the village, but it ended early, 
as all gayeties did in those days, and everyone was in bed sleeping as the 
double line of warriors approached the palisaded town. There were no 
sentinels at the gate; instead there stood two gigantic snow figures, put 
up there by the boys and girls in jocund mockery of danger. 
One whoop from the Indians, and the men fell to work. In two hours 
sixty persons were killed, and eighty or ninety taken prisoners. Some 
ran through the snow and storm to Albany, but they were few. The 
village was burned. The commander at Albany saw that there was 
immediate need of reinforcement. Alban\- was the onlv town in New 


York which had not admitted Leisler's government, but now she was 
forced to do so, and Leisler set to work to provide her with the men and 
supplies. Leisler asked all the other colonies to send delegates for the 
purpose of forming an expedition against the French. Sev^n lelegates 
attended the first colonial congress, which met on May i, 1690. All of 
these seven men will be mentioned again in history, so it is well to re- 
member their names. They were Stoughton, Sewall, Gold, Pitkin, 
Walle}', Leisler and De la Noye. It was agreed that Leisler should 
appoint the commander; that New York should provide four hvmdred 
men, Massachusetts one hundred and sixty, Connecticut one hundred 
and thirty-five, Plymouth sixty, and Mar}-land one hundred. 

Leisler hastened to rebuild the fortifications of New York. He 
captured some French cruisers at sea, which were of considerable force 
to use at his need. The year was a busy and stirring one. The times 
"were turbulent. Leisler was a merchant by education, a leader and 
fighter by temperament, and kept ever^-one well at work. It goes with- 
out saying that he was heartily hated by the Catholics of the colony. 
They were not only the Catholics, but, as it chanced, the aristocrats of 
the place, for the Protestant movement was the movement of the 
people. When William found time to send over a royal Governor he 
fo and plenty of complaints awaiting his ear. This royal Governor was 
Colonel Henry Sloughter. But it was not he who first appeared at New 
York, but Richard Ingoldsby, captain of a company of grenadiers, who 
arrived in New York a few weeks before his Governor, because 
Sloughter had chosen to go by way of the Bermudas. Ingoldsb>- seems 
to have had a very high idea of his own position, and on entering the 
port and finding that Leisler was in command of the fort, he ordered 
him to surrender. Leisler treated Ingoldsby politely, gave him quarters 
for his troops, but told him that he would not deliver the fort to anj- 
save he who held a warrant from the King. Ingoldsby had the 
impertinence to fire upon the fort for several hours. Leisler was not 
the man to let a fire go luireturned. A number of soldiers were killed. 

Several weeks passed, with Leisler still governing and Ingoldsby 
protesting, before Sloughter arrived. The friends of Leisler say that he 
sent two gentlemen immediately to congratulate the Governor upon his 
arrival and to offer him the fort and government, but that the Governor 
would not listen to them, and threw them into jail. But Colonel 
Sloughter always said that he sent Ingoldsby to demand the fort, and 
that Leisler said he would own no Governor without orders from the 
King directed to him. However it may be, Ingoldsby marched into the 


fort. Leisler's men surrendered. Sloughter issued a warrant for the 
arrest of Leisler and his council. They were tried for treason and 
murder. Leisler and seven others were found guilty and sentenced to 
death, but all of them were reprieved until they should know what the 
King's pleasure was in the matter. 

The Catholics, so long irritated by Protestant rule, saw that their 
time for revenge had come. They used all the influence which they 
could bring to bear against Leisler. The Protestants were terrified^ 
especially when they remembered the tragedy of Schenectady, and 
inferred from that what Jesuit nile might mean in New York. They 
sent in petitions for Leisler's pardon, while on the other hand the 
Catholics pressed petitions upon the Governor, begging for Leisler's 
execution. But Sloughter refused to sign Leisler's death-warrant. 
The assembly and various of the rich Catholics of New York prepared 
a feast, to which Sloughter was invited. Wine was plentiful, and 
under its influence the Governor was got to sign the death-warrant. 
The eight prisoners were executed before the Governor had recovered 
from the effects of his drinking. Leisler's young son had the question 
of his father's guilt argued before a committee of the House of Lords at 
London, three years later, and the judgment of the New York goven?.- 
ment was reversed. It was judged that Leisler was neither guilty of 
treason nor of murder. The family of Leisler was given its honorable 
reputation, and also a sum of money, in return for the charges made upou 
his private property during the time of his government. Sloughter 
only ruled over New York for four months. He died suddenly, and it is 
not unlikely that the friends of Leisler saw a special providence in this. 

History— Broadhead and O'Callaghan's "New York." 


i]^0 fni of {}ft Jimits. 






. ; QUEBEC. 

OR a short time Captain Ingoldsb}- attended to 
the duties of governorship, but was relieved 
by Benjamin Fletcher, Governor for the King. 
His commission gave him command of the 
militia of the New England colonies as well as 
his own. It was thovight necessary for the 
safety of the colonies to have a general commander to 
protect them from the Indians. The colonies believed 
themselves to be independent, and certainly were 
under governors of their own, if one could tell au}-- 
thing by their charters. Connecticut sent a repre- 
sentative to England to complain of the violation of 
their rights imder the charter. Rhode Island also 
sent an agent to protest to the King. While these 
men were in England, Fletcher came to Hartford and ordered the 
militia under arms. Governor Treat refused to let Fletcher assume 
command of his troops, but the militia was permitted to muster at Hart- 
ford. Fletcher ordered his commission and instructions to be read to 
the troops. In command at the front was Captain Wadsworth, and as 
soon as the reading began he cried, "Beat the drums ! " and all the 
sturdy Puritan drummers fell to raising such a noise that the voice of 
the reader was entirely drowned. The more the Governor shouted for 
silence the louder the hot-headed Wadsworth shouted for them to drum, 
imtil finally the Governor had to yield, leaving Treat in command. 


Fletcher sold licenses to privateers and pirates, and under his rule New 
York and the surrounding islands gained the reputation of being a nest 
of pirates. 

In the north, Frontenac was still active. The Mohawks had been 
won to the side of the English, and three years after the massacre of 
Schenectady the French took three of the Mohawk towns. Major 
Schuyler, of Albany, was sent hurriedly after the French. In a few 
days he had overtaken them. They had three engagements, in which 
the French were repulsed each time. Then came a terrible fall of snow, 
and, hungry- and cold, the troops on both sides were forced to retire to 
their rude fortifications. On both sides were Indian allies. The Indians 
had a dislike for the Christian mode of warfare, and always shrank 
from open attack. For this reason they delayed the action constantly, 
first the French, then the English allies refusing to move. It was on 
this account that the French finally escaped by the floating ice on the 
Hudson, and got out of Schuyler's reach. Frontenac' s party, suffering 
for food, straggled back in small parties to Canada. 

Fletcher had shown such greed and dishonesty in his administration 
that he was deposed from ofiice, and the Earl of Bellomont put in his 
place. It was found by this time that the southern colonies could not be 
dealt with easily, and that their rights could not be disposed of without 
protest. The experiment which had failed with Fletcher was not tried 
with Bellomont. He was appointed Governor of New York and ]\Iassa- 
chusetts, but only Captain-General over the military forces of 
Connecticut, Rhode Island and the Jerseys. One of the first things 
which Bellomont did was to get from the New York assembly an 
acknowledgment of the error under which Leisler was condemned, 
and he had his body taken up from the private ground and reburied 
with public state in the Dutch church. His vigorous action gave 
strength to the Protestant party and the promise of a fair and deter- 
mined administration. 

Honest commerce had been almost choked under Fletcher's rule, 
and it was Bellomont's ambition to get xid of that class of French 
seamen who, under the excuse of war commissions, seized upon every 
ship whose cargo tempted them. These rovers made a journey upon 
the sea a thing of risk and terror to peaceable people. One of this 
class was Captain Kidd. This valorous but unfortunate personage, 
about whom so much has been written and told, was the friend of great 
men. One of Bellomont's methods for getting rid of the pirates was to 
send out a ship, at the expense of a joint stock company, for the purpose 


of capturing pirate vessels. A number of great noblemen, and the 
King himself, were to receive parts of the profits of the adventure. 
Bellomont and his friends provided a ship for Kidd's use, paying four- 
fifths of the cost. The rest was paid by Kidd. The crew was not to 
take more than one-fourth of the prizes captured. If nothing was 
taken, Kidd was to return the cost of the galley before March i, 1697. 
Kidd's previous reputation had not been particularly bad. He was a 
sea rover, and even then was known as a man of unusual adventure and 
daring. For this very reason he was thought a fit commander for the 
one hundred and fifty lawless men put under his charge. 

At that time Madagascar was a great resort for pirates. There they 
lived in barbaric splendor, in a manner not unsuggestive of the marvels 
of Monte Cristo. The first time Kidd was heard of he was living 
among these sumptuous outlaws. It seems that he had been unable to 
capture any of the pirates whom he had been sent out for, and had gone 
to Madagascar in the hope that he might fall in with some better luck. 
After a time he took to the sea again, and went as far as India, but 
meeting none of the vessels which he was authorized to overhaul, he 
finally preyed upon merchant vessels for his own benefit. For several 
years he followed this adventurous life, and in 1699 sailed uncon- 
cernedly into the New York harbor. Bellomont did not arrest him, 
because Kidd assured him that he could prove his innocence of the 
crimes of which he was accused, and he was allowed to go to Boston. 
There, however, he was arrested. He was thrown into jail, and tried 
to get out by telling of forty thousand pounds of treasure which was 
hidden in the West Indies, and which would be lost unless he himself 
went for it. Kidd was sent to England, where he lay in prison for a 
year. The Tories were determined that he should be convicted, since 
he had been the friend of the famous Whigs, and of Bellomont, the 
Governor. He was tried and convicted of the murder of a gunner 
whom he had accidentally killed in a brawl. And so Captain Kidd, the 
daring rover, was hanged. He was more famous than many better 
men, and it will be long before the youths of this country and England 
have ceased to feel interested in his daring exploits. 

When Lord Bellomont died, in 1701, Lord Cornbury, a cousin of 
Queen Anne, who, a year later, came to the throne, was appointed 
Governor. Truth to tell, it was only by quitting the country that he 
could escape being imprisoned for debt. He was a very worthless man, 
given up to drink and debauchery of all kinds, and the only interest 
that he took in his new office came from the hope that he might rapidly 


enrich himself. This year (1702) a dreadful yellow fever epidemic 
broke out in New York, which carried off more than five hundred 
within ten weeks. Cornbur}' was so unscrupulous that he did not 
even take pains to conceal his greed. He gathered large sums of money 
for the purpose of building a fortification at the Narrows, and then 
calmly kept the money for his own use. After this the assembly 
insisted upon giving all the money for public purposes into the hands of 
a treasurer of their own. The Governor immediately api^ealed to the 
crown, protesting against the insult to himself, but the crown refused to 
take his part. He was a fierce religionist, for all of his bad ways, and 
showed as great a lack of scruple in the matters relating to the church 
as in other affairs. One story which is told of him illustrates clearly 
the temper of the man. When the yellow fever was so bad in New 
York, he went to a town upon Long Island until it should be over. 
The Presbyterian minister there had the best house in town, and he 
courteously yielded this to the Governor to use during his stay. When 
the Governor no longer needed it he handed it over to a few represent- 
atives of the Established Church of England, who lived at the place, 
and said that the ground attached could be leased for the support of 
their church. He persecuted the Presbyterians throughout the colony, 
and would not allow a school teacher or clerg\'man to teach or preach 
except by a special license. 

Down in Massachusetts the royal Governor, Dudley, was making 
matters disagreeable, and continually fighting the charter governments. 
But there was a strong element in the colonies now which could not 
easily be crushed. The popular party had some brilliant men in it who 
were neither afraid to speak nor to suffer, and the arrogant governors 
knew they could go but so far. Everything which Cornburj- did was 
disagreeable to the simple and industrious colonists. For one thing, he 
dressed like a woman, in great splendor, saying that it was proper that 
he should be so clothed to more fittingly represent his sovereign 
mistress, the Queen. He insulted the Quakers, who were no longer the 
wild and ill-advised creatures who had shocked the Boston meetings, 
but grave and dignified citizens. The people appealed to the Queen 
for protection, and Cornbury was recalled. He was arrested for debt 
and thrown in jail, where he remained until he became Earl of 
Clarendon, through the death of his father. Lord Lovelace was 
appointed Governor, but died in a short time. At this time New York 
was intending to send an expedition against Canada, and as the treasury 
was empty, issued bills of credit, the first ever put out by New York. 


But the English fleet was routed, and it was necessary to think of other 
means for subduing the French pro^'nlce. 

At this time the five nations were the friends of the English, and it 
was thought best to take advantage of their fickle friendship. Schuyler, 
with five Indian chiefs, was sent to England to beg for help in the 
conquest of the French. He was given ships and men for an expedi- 
tion, and joined with the New England men in the taking of Port 
Royal. Robert Hunter had succeeded Lord Lovelace as Governor of 
New York. He was in favor of pushing the war against the French. 
The New England people had received most of the credit of the capture 
of Port Royal, and the New Yorkers were anxious to do something as 
brilliant. The fleet was a large one. There were sixteen men-of-war 
and twenty transports, which started in the summer of 171 1, under Sir 
Hovenden Walker, for the attack upon Quebec. Altogether there were 
seven thousand men. But the fleet had only sailed ten leagues up the 
St. Lawrence, when ten or eleven of the ships drifted upon the rocks, 
and one thousand men were drowned. Meanwhile, a detachment had 
marched from Albany to attack IMontreal. Hearing of the disaster to 
the ships, those troops fell back. England won nothing, biit the 
French were much alarmed. 

In 171 9 Hunter retired, and Burnet took his place. He was 
devoted to the interests of the people, but was not popular. He con- 
ceived a new plan for the conquest of the French. Most of the 
Canadian supplies were got from Albany, and he proposed to prohibit 
all trade between his own province and Canada, but this did not please 
the tradesmen, although it did the assembly. Few merchants care 
enough for national independence to see their trade decrease. The 
trade with Canada was carried on as if the Governor had not prohibited 
it. In the face of this opposition the Governor was not able to keep his 
temper, and did some ill-advised things. In 1727 he was removed and 
transferred to Massachusetts Bay. He was fonder of writing works on 
the Bible than governing, perhaps, and would no doubt have succeeded 
better as a private citizen than as a leader of men. The next Governor 
died shortly after his arrival, and Rip Van Dam, the eldest member of 
the council, acted as Governor until Colonel Cosby arrived, in 1732, to 
take the head of the colony. 

History — Parkman's "Frontenac." 
Fiction — ^J. H. Ingraham's "Captain Kyd." 


<? 7/7/Z^^ ^^-t^^U^.^.^c^^ 


>!$ l|0l^ Tc^agcurs. 


HE English treated with the Indians, the Dutch 
t^^ traded with them, and the French lived with 
them. More imaginative than the English or 
the Dutch, they saw at once the picturesqueness 
of savage life, and appreciated the wild delights 
of adventure and discovery. Chaniplain had ar- 
rived in Quebec on July 3, 1608. This was only a year 
after the settlement in Jamestown. Four years later he 
discovered Lake Ontario and Lake Nipissing. It was 
impossible to content that gallant explorer while he 
lived. Ever restless, he went from one point to another 
of the great unknown continent which stretched west- 
ward, and about which the English seemed to have had 
comparatively little curiosity. There grew up in Quebec 
a race of men half Indian in habit, who preferred 
the wilderness to civilization. They were absolutely fearless, good 
fighters, capable of endurance, fleet of foot, excellent hunters, and sin- 
cere Catholics. They carried the cross of Christ in one hand and their 
muskets in the other, so to speak. The jaunt)- .songs of these 
voyageurs made the wilderness ring. Jean Nicollet was one of these 
men, who went as far west as what we know as Wisconsin. 

In the year 1640 tlie Fathers Chaumonot and Brebceuf coasted 
along the northern shore of the State of Ohio, through the fair chain 
of waters by Detroit, and up the eastern shores of Michigan as far as 
the Straits of Macinac. F'ourtecn years later, two young traders went 


far west upon Lake Superior, and heard there of the great tribe of 
Sioux. When these traders returned to Montreal, in 1660, with six- 
teen canoes packed with furs, they excited great interest in the city, 
and quickened the love of adventure which already existed among 
the Frenchmen. The French had had many unhappy experiences with 
the Indians. The latter could not understand the mysticism of the 
Frenchman's religion; in his burning tapers, his altars, robes and 
crucifix, they saw the symbols of superstition, and thought the French- 
men must be the familiars of evil spirits. The French who had 
ventured to settle near Onondaga for the purpose of converting the 
Indians there, had been glad to escape with their lives. Father Jogues 
had been treacherously murdered, in 1646, by the Mohawks, in the 
Mohawk valley, simply because of the fear which his missal and altar 
produced. But undismayed by such catastrophes the zealous Jesuits 
continued to establish new missions. 

In the summer of 1660 Father Mesnard founded a misiion on 
a point of the southern shore of Lake Superior, known then and now 
as Chagwamegan. He lost his life in some mysterious way, and in 
1665 Father Allouez took up the mission there, preaching in the Algon- 
quin language to twelve or fifteen diflferent tribes. Even the Sioux 
heard of him, and it was through them that he heard first of the Mis- 
sissippi. In 1669 Father Aloney, with Father Dablon, went as far as 
the Fox river, learning from the Indians not a little about the 
geography of the country. 

But the more thorough enterprise began when Jean Talon was 
appointed overseer of the trade of Canada. He called a council of 
Indians at the fort of Lake Superior, in 1671. An adventurer who 
knew the language and customs of the Indians was there, and repre- 
sentatives of Louis XIV. Chiefs of tribes from Hudson Bay and the 
head of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan were there. A cross was 
erected to which the arms of France was fastened, and possession was 
taken in the name of the French crown, and the chiefs promised to be 
loyal to the great King of France. Under this guarantee of friendship, 
Louis Joliet and Father Marquette started on an expedition in 1673. 
They discovered the source of the Mississippi, and went as far south as 
the mouth of the Arkansas. Father Marquette was a delightful writer, 
and left an account of his travels, full of romance and piety. The 
Indians everywhere were friendly, and the travelers even saw at one 
village a cross erected and adorned, which showed that the religion of 
the Jesuits was creeping among the tribes. With two Indian guides, 


they were shown the passage from the Fox to the Wisconsin river, and 
from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi river. Down this wild ri\'er, 
many hundred leagues from their own countrymen, the two peaceful 
but courageous Frenchmen floated, seeing little life besides great herds 
of buffaloes. They slept in their canoes at night for fear of being sur- 
prised. It was a good many days before they found any traces of men. 
Following up a trail which they had discovered, they came upon a party 
of Illinois Indians. These Indians were more demonstrative than those 
of the east. They indulged more in ceremonials, and had a more com- 
plex religion, at least so one must believe from the accounts left of 
them, though the difference may have lain largely in the fact that the 
Frenchmen were appreciative. 

The chief of the Illinois village came forth from his wigwam, 
naked, to welcome Joliet and Marquette, raising his hands to the sun. 
About him danced other braves, with the red calumet, or pipe of peace, 
in their hands. They were invited to visit the Indian village, where 
they were given a feast and led in a sort of triumphal procession to see 
the town. The people went with them to their canoes, with every' 
expression of pleasure and courtesy which they could give. 

Soon after this the explorers saw the painted rocks, so famous after- 
ward. These were rocks on which the Indians had painted, in a way 
which Marquette protested to be as good as anything that could be done 
in France. They were ruthlessly destroyed by quarr>'ing, in the present 
century. They then struck the great, muddy flow of the Missouri, 
staining the blue Mississippi with its repulsive streak. Marquette 
hoped that he might reach the Gulf of California, of which the Sj^aniards 
had given such glowing accounts. Marquette saw iron mines up the 
Ohio river near its meeting with the Mississippi, which showed that the 
French traders had already been as far as that point. They met with 
Indians who had guns, powder, knives, hatchets and cloth, which they 
had got from the Europeans on the eastern coast. Again and again the 
calumet saved Marquette and his friend from attack by the Indians, and 
at length, fearing that they might fall into the hands of the Spaniards, 
they turned northward again. 

When they reached the Illinois river they followed the course of 
that stream and made a portage into Lake Michigan. "We have seen 
nothing equal to this river for the goodness of the land, ' ' said Marquette. 
"The prairies, wood, cattle, deer, goats, bustards, swans, ducks, paro- 
quets, and even beaver, abound here. There are many little lakes and 
little rivers. ' ' They had started in June, and b>- September were back 


to the French mission at Green Bay. Marquette lived for two years 
among the Miami Indians. His death is very touching. The gentle 
old man was making his way in his canoe to Macinac, in 1675, and 
stopped on the eastern shore of Lake ^Michigan to raise an altar and 
celebrate the mass. He seemed unaccountably sad, and asked his 
companions to leave him alone a little while. They did so, and when 
they came to him, found him dead. 

When Joliet reached Montreal with his story of the expedition, 
Robert Cavalier de La Salle, a Norman gentleman who had established 
a trading post at Lachine, not far from ^Montreal, felt that the time for 
an expedition had come. Frontenac gave La Salle letters of introduction 
at court, and he succeeded in getting all he asked for. With thirty 
men, plenty of stores and tools, he marched to Lake Ontario, made the 
portage by Niagara Falls to Lake Erie, and at Port Frontenac built a 
ship of forty-five tons. He named it the Griffin. She was armed with 
seven cannons, and well built, considering the disadvantages of her 
construction. She sailed westward in 1679, reaching the settlement of 
Green Bay in September. The Griffin was freighted with fur, and 
La Salle, with some of his men, walked to St. Joseph, at the head of 
Lake Michigan, nearly opposite the river Chicago. Here he waited for 
the Griffin.^ but it never appeared. Depressed, but determined, he 
pushed westward, and established in the present La Salle county, in 
Illinois, Fort Creve-Coeur. La Salle sent Father Hennepin to trace 
the Illinois to the mouth, which he did, and then went up the Missis- 
sippi as far as the falls of St. Antony. He was taken prisoner by the 
Sioux. They allowed him to return to his own country, with the 
promise that he would visit them the next year. 

La Salle decided to return to Niagara, and left Henri de Tout}- in 
charge at Creve-Cceur. The Iroquois Indians drove Tonty and his men 
from the fort, and as he hurried down the west side of Lake Michigan, 
La Salle came up the east side with reinforcements. Bitterly dis- 
appointed at finding the fort deserted. La Salle returned to Montreal, 
where he succeeded in making arrangements with his creditors — for the 
loss of the Griffin had serious!}- embarassed him — for another expedition. 
La Salle sailed in 1681, with twenty-three Frenchmen and eighteen 
Indians. The Indians took with them ten of their wives. With the 
party were the Chevalier Henri de Tonty, Father Zenobe, and Dautray, 
the son of the Procureur General of Quebec. These crossed the lake to 
the Chicago river, and it may interest the thousands who daily pass 
over that torpid and ill-smelling stream to know that they named it the 


"Divine River. " They stopped for a time upou the present site of 
Chicago, and then went on to the mouth of the Illinois. La Salle went 
on down the river as fast as the ice would permit him. On each side 
lay the shores, snow-clad; the trees glittering through the long, quiet 
nights with fairy frost. The stillness was absolute. It was not until 
they had sailed forty-five leagues that they heard the sounds of men. 
La Salle knew they had been seen by the savages, and thought it best 
to build a fort. He sent the calumet of peace to the Indian chiefs, and 
established pleasant relations immediately. He speaks particularly of 
the gaj-ety of these southern Indians as compared with the severe and 
sombre natives of the north. He left a cross there with St. Louis' 
arms, and upon his return found that the Indians had surrounded it 
with a palisade that it might not be harmed. Next he passed the 
village of the Arkansas, where a superior people lived, with well-built 
houses, having roofs of canes, fixed so as to form a dome. They were 
ornamented with barbaric but effective paintings. They had furniture, 
also, and understood the making of cloth. Next they came across the 
Natchez Indians, and passing them, pushed on in the hope of finding the 
sea. At last the water of the river tasted salt. A little further on and 
it became saltier. A little further yet and they looked upon the sea. 
Planting the cross, with the arms of France, they took possession of the 
mouth of the Mississippi in the name of King Louis. The expedition 
made its way back slowly. La Salle suffering from severe illness. The 
report of his great discovery was sent to France, and finally La Salle 
himself crossed to confer with King Louis. He was given power for 
the colonization of Louisiana. Louisiana, as La Salle named the 
territor)' for the King, included the present State of Louisiana and all 
the territory north of the line of Texas and west of the Mississippi to 
the Rocky Mountains. 


History— Parkuian's "France and England in North America." 

"Xa Salle's Discovery of the Great West." 









A SALLE set sail from France on the 24th of July, 
1684, with four vessels and a fine equipment, but 
one accident after another delayed him, and it was 
almost a year before he neared the mouth of the 
Mississippi. Through a miscalculation he passed 
beyond the mouth of the river and landed farther 
west. La Salle was sure that a mistake had been 
made, but could not induce the captain of the fleet to 
return, and had no choice but to land his goods where 
he was. By this accident Texas was first of the Gulf 
States, after Florida, to be settled by Europeans. The 
ship master cruelly deserted La Salle, and returning to 
France, abused the ear of the King with stories about 
the great discoverer, which so injured him in the esteem 
of the court that no relief was sent to him — relief which 
he was in great need of Fortunately the Indians were gentle and 
hospitable, and helped to supply the wretched little colony with food. 
La Salle spent his time in unavailing searches for the Mississippi, which 
came to seem to him at last like some mythical stream, having no 

It was on one of these journeys that the gallant and unfortunate 
explorer met his death. He left the post in charge of twenty of his 


colonists, and taking as many more with him, started out with no 
guide but a compass and no protection from savages, except that fur- 
nished by a few arms and his conciliatory policy. They had been out 
about three months, when La Salle sent out a party in search of some 
supplies which had been left upon a previous journey. This party 
killed two buffaloes and sent back for horses to bring the meat to camp. 

La Salle's young nephew, Morangetand, and two others, went with 
the horses. Morangetand flew into a passion because the hunters had 
set apart a portion of the meat for themselves. This the law of hunting 
clearly entitled them to, but Morangetand was a hot-headed young 
fellow, who had the pride of La Salle without his gentleness. 

The hunters laid a plot for the killing of Morangetand and two 
faithful servants who were with him. This they did at night while the 
men were sleeping. The hunters lacked the courage to meet La Salle, 
and lingered so long that the Chevalier grew anxious, and calling a 
friar for company, walked in search of them. There is a tradition that 
as he went a great sadness came over him. He talked of his successes 
as if they were things of the past, and all the philosophy of the gentle 
friar was not able to arouse him from this melancholy mood. As he 
neared the place where he knew the hunters to be, he fired his pistol to 
let them know of his approach, and the}' crossed the river to meet him. 
He asked where his nephew was, and was answered insolently. La Salle 
rebuked him, and the hunter fired, shooting him through the brain. 
He was only forty-six years old, and in all his able life was never more 
full of vigor and enterprise. Had he lived, the history of the Missis- 
sippi valley would have been very different. 

There was a quarrel among the murderers, in which the man who 
fired the fatal shot was himself killed. The rest of the colony were 
eager to get out of the wilderness as soon as they could. The good 
friar and four others decided to push toward Canada, and mounting their 
horses, bade their friends farewell. What became of those who 
remained at the colony is not known. The friar and his friends, jour- 
neying northward, came suddenly upon a cottage built in the French 
style. Near it stood a cross. The bewildering effect of such a sight in 
the heart of the wilderness can be imagined. It was the dwelling of 
two of Henri de Tonty's men, Charpentier and De Launay, who had 
been left on the banks of the Mississippi two years before. Here one 
of the friar's friends remained. These three Frenchmen were the only 
living souls left to mark the adventures of the French in the valley of 
the Mississippi — Louisiana, the French called it. 


It was ten years after La Salle's death before France made 
any strong effort to renew the colonization of the Mississippi valley. 
Sieur Lenioyne d' Iberville, son of the distinguished Baron Longueuil, 
of Canada, was then given the command of an expedition fitted out by 
the King for the planting of a colony. Baron Longueuil had eleven 
sons, not to mention numerous young kinsmen, all of whom were men 
of spirit. Many of them were concerned in the fierce fights of the French 
and English at the north. D' Iberville had two frigates under his 
charge when he left France, and the three vessels joined him at Saint 
Domingo. This was in 1699. With him was that same friar who was 
the friend of La Salle in that ill-fated colony, St. Louis. He it 
was who pointed out to d' Iberville the strong, turbid flow of the 
Mississippi, staining the blue gulf L^p the river they found Indians 
who had cloaks which La Salle had given them, and a breviary which 
the friar had left in 1682. The boats were moved from Biloxi Island 
to the Mobile Bay, on d'Iber\-ille's first journey. The second time he 
came, he found a point on the Mississippi river about thirty-eight miles 
below the present city of New Orleans. This settlement, established in 
1 700, was the first really made in Louisiana, as we know the State now. 
That on the Mobile Bay was abandoned in a short time and re-estab- 
lished on the Mobile river. By this time communication was established 
between Canada and the settlements of Louisiana, by way of the great 
river, Lake Erie, and the ]\Iiami Portage. About this time an English- 
man by the name of Coxe sent out an expedition to explore and take 
possession of the Mississippi, under a charter given to Coxe by Charles 
II for the territor\- west of Florida. This expedition was met by one 
of the Frenchmen, Bienville, the brother of d'lbervnlle, and when 
inquiry' was made concerning the situation of the Mississippi, Bien- 
ville, with a Frenchman's calm and polite exterior, told him that it was 
farther west. The Englishman turned into that dismal countrj' where 
La Salle had wandered so long. He who rides down the Mississippi 
may still know the place where the Englishmen went into the wilder- 
ness, by the name of "English Turn." Fortunately for the little 
French colony, Spain and France were in alliance at this period, and 
the Spanish governors of Mexico and Florida were willing to give such 
help as they could. The King granted the whole territory to Antoine 
Crozat. Crozat appointed as his Governor, Cadillac, a soldier, who came 
to the colony in May, 17 13. It was but natural that Bienville, wko 
had done so much practical work there — for his brother, d' Iberville, was 
now dead — should resent the coming of the new officials. Their 


quarrels were the beginning of parties, which lasted for man}- years. 
Cadillac was a determined explorer, and sent an expedition into 
Texas which had much to do with the early histor}' of that State. 
When he returned to France, in two years from the time of his coming, 
M. de L'Epiany was appointed Governor in his stead. But Ivouisiana 
was to have a success which no half-wa}- colonial enthusiasm could 
make. With the death of Louis the Magnificent, in 1715, began the 
reign of the Regent, Duke of Orleans, and with him there came into 
power in France a company of detennined financiers, unscrupulous 
men, who tried to avert the bankruptcy of the kingdom. Foremost 
among these men was John Law, an Englishman, who was already 
noted for daring business schemes, and who had laid out a plan for a 
national bank which was far superior to anything of that day. France 
was terribly in debt, and John Law proposed a bank discount which was 
to issue bills redeemable in coin on merchants' notes. The Duke of 
Orleans was the patron of this bank. Law asked and obtained Crozat's 
privileges to the Mississippi trade, and formed a company which united 
the commerce of Louisiana and the fur trade of Canada. This was 
called the Western Company, and grants were given to it for twent}'-five 
years. It had a nominal capital of 100,000,000 livres — an actual capi- 
tal of about 40,000,000 livres. Unsubstantial as the actual value of this 
property was, and as Louis must have known it to have been, it never- 
theless satisfied the depressed merchants of France. Law worked hard ; 
lie had troops sent over as well as vessels of colonists. Bienville was 
once more made Governor-General of Louisiana. He selected New 
Orleans for the capital, and in February, 1718, left fifty persons to 
secure the loan and begin the building of houses. Vessels brought 
large parties of colonists here the following years. 

John Law's scheme seemed to succeed, and in 17 19 he so gained the 
confidence of merchants, that he was able to join with the East India 
Company of France. The name of the corporation was changed to the 
Indian Company. New shares were now issued at a par of 500 li\rcs, 
and no one was allowed to take any new shares who had not four old 
•ones to show. For the first time for many years France found herself 
in a seemingly prosperous condition. John Law's scheme did not show 
itb hollov;ness, until at length the actual value of the bonds were put to 
test. The Indian Company would not even accept their own shares as 
collateral icr the purchase of new shares. It goes without saying that 
no one else v.ould accept them in exchange for things of actual value. 
All that vast stretch of land by the Mississippi, valuable enough to 


form the basis of a nation, had no value then, lying uncultivated and 
uninhabited. Among other serious mistakes, France had made that of 
sending adventurers and fortune-hunters, instead of industrious peasants, 
to Louisiana. 

The great bubble burst in 1770. Law was protected from the 
consequences of his fatal scheme by becoming a Roman Catholic and 
securing an appointment as minister. The valley of the Mississippi 
ceased to be of great commercial interest to France, and was left to the 
quiet attendance of the Jesuit missionaries; John Law's scheme had 
brought to Louisiana several hundred colonists and had not been so 
unfortunate an affair as might been expected from its magnitude and its 
false basis. The Germans whom Law had brought over had been 
deserted by him, but their habits of hard work and their love of nature 
had been their preser\'ation. There still exist above New Orleans, on 
the German coast, luxurious farms and homes, built by these exiles and 
sustained by their descendants. 

The French settlement at Natchez was the most prosperous of the 
trading posts upon the river. The Natchez Indians were a very inter- 
esting tribe, not lacking in some good form of government. Like all 
of the rest of the southern Indians, they had imagination and warmth 
of temperament. They were sun-worshipers. Their chief was called 
Brother of the Sun. The temple in which he worshiped was built in 
the shape of a dome, with walls of smooth clay. Three wooden eagles, 
one red, another white, and the third yellow, perched above it. Mats 
of braided straw were placed upon the top to furnish protection from 
the rain. Around it was a palisade, in which were placed the skulls 
the Natchez had brought back from battle. The palace of the chief 
was not unlike the temple. It was built upon an artificial hill, so that 
the first rays of the sun might awaken the chief, for the door fronted 
the east. With many wild howls to the sun, he lighted his calumet 
and devoted his first puffs to his mighty kinsman. He then directed 
his course through the heavens by moving his hands from the east to 
the west. The royal descent was traced through the female line. The 
royal princesses were allowed to marn,- none but men of low family. It 
was their sons who succeeded to the throne, and as soon as an heir 
presumptive was born, a number of infants nearest his age were selected 
to be his guard. All through his life he was taken care of by these 
servants, who hunted for him and farmed for him, and when he died, 
permitted themselves to be strangled, that they might continue to serve 
him in another world. AH this is described by Charlevoix, who left 


Canada in 1720 to visit the Canadian missions, and stopped at Kask- 
askia, in the present State of Illinois, the oldest settlement in that 
State. Going down the river in a canoe made from a large walnut 
tree, he visited the Gennan coast. New Orleans and Natchez. Charlevoix 
says that the Natchez Indians had decreased rapidlj' in number, and 
that in six years they had lost two thousand fighting men. 

The commander of the fort at Natchez, in 1729, was Chopart, a man 
both narrow and selfish. He sent to the Brother of the Sun and told 
him that the French wished the Natchez to leave the site of their beau- 
tiful village and give it up to the French. This the Natchez promptly 
refused to do. Chopart insisted that they must move away, within two 
months. Up to this time the Natchez had been friendly to the French, 
but they now made up their minds that they must get rid of them. 
They got the Choctaws to join in the plan, and little bunches of sticks 
were exchanged between the chiefs to indicate the number of days 
before that selected for the massacre, but unfortunately the little son of 
the Natchez chief saw his father burning the sticks in the temple, and after 
his father had left, burned two more which he added to the pack. This, 
of course, misled the Choctaw chief When the day appointed by the 
Natchez came, the)- gave a dinner to Chopart. He ate and drank with 
them till 3 o'clock in the morning, and then returned to his home. In 
a little while the Brother of the Sun came out with his warriors, who 
bore the calumet high on a stick. They went to Chopart' s house 
pretending they had come to bring him the tribute which he had told 
them he would exact if they did not move from the village in two 
months. Chopart, without dressing, opened the door and asked them 
to enter. At that time, in every house in the settlement were one or 
more Indians. Most of the chief's warriors went to the river, where a 
well-laden galley had just come from New Orleans. Ever}- Indian 
picked out a man among those working on the galley, and firing, killed 
him. This was the signal for a general slaughter. In ever}- house tlie 
Indians fell upon the settlers. Only one soldier escaped from the 
garrison. Some of the women were killed, but most of them were 
taken to be held as slaves. Two hundred Frenchmen were killed 
within an hour's time, Chopart among them. 

Two days later the Choctaws, down by New Orleans, sent a delega- 
tion to the Brother of the Sun, and learned that the Natchez had already 
moved against the French. The Choctaws, not understanding the 
reason of the mistake in the day of the attack, turned all of their anger 
against the Natchez. Fueitives from the massacre beran to arrive from 


New Orleans and Perier. The commander of the fort there formed an 
army, in which the Choctaws joined, to move against the Natchez 
Indians. The Natchez Indians surrendered, leaving their town and 
moving up the Red river. The next summer Perier moved after them 
again. Once more they surrendered to him, and two hundred of them 
were sold as slaves to Saint Domingo. Three hundred escaped, and 
their descendants are living at this time upon the fanns in the valleys 
of the Ouachita river. 

The Western Company, hearing of the difficulties, represented its 
losses to the King, and he assumed the responsibility of it by making it 
a royal province. Bienville, who had been in France for some time, 
was again sent over as Governor-General in 1736. The first thing he 
did was to prepare an expedition to the remnant of the Natchez Indians. 
The Chickasaws at that time were allies of the Indian colony, and sure 
of their strength, refused to yield up the Natchez Indians, who were 
given to thenr for protection. Bienville sent word to the fort at 
Kaskaskia to meet him with as many men as he could muster on the 
10th of May, in the Chickasaw country, so Bienville himself led out the 
army from New Orleans to Mobile, on sixty small craft. He was met 
by the Choctaws, his allies, and on the 24th began the building of a 
rude fort seven miles distant from the Chickasaw village. When they 
moved against the Chickasaw stockade they met with a heavy loss, and 
were obliged to retreat. They were much puzzled at seeing Europeans 
among the Chickasaw Indians. These they supposed to be Englishmen, 
but they were the Frenchmen from Kaskaskia, who had moved upon 
the day set by Bienville and had been taken prisoners. The Indian 
allies had forced the commander to attack, instead of allowing them to 
wait, as his judgment told him, for the reinforcement from New Orleans. 
After the retreat of Bienville on the 24th, this unfortunate commander 
and all of his followers were taken to a plain, tied to stakes, and burned 
to death. Bienville's warriors, who had been left upon the field over 
night, had their bodies cut to pieces and their heads stuck defiantly on 
the palisades of the Chickasaws. 

Four years later, in 1740, Bienville led another expedition against 
the Chickasaws by way of the Mississippi river. He had heavy reinforce- 
ments from Fort Assumption, which was near the site of the present 
city of Memphis. The Chickasaws were alarmed, and offered to 
surrender all the white slaves in their po.ssession on condition of peace. 
Bienville accepted the terms. After an absence of ten months the an^ay 
returned to New Orleans. Fort Assumption was torn down, and no 


Other militan- post was put in its place for one hundred and twenty 
\ears. In 1741 Bienville returned to France. 

Three years later than this there were but 1,700 white men, 1,500 
women, and 2,020 slaves in the whole Mississippi valley, after thirty- 
years of expensive colonization. Ffteen years later, when Louis X\' 
had come to the throne, there was a falling off of these homes. For 
eight years after the return of Bienville to France, the Marquis de 
Vandreuil held the position of royal Governor. The colony was in 
constant alarm from fear of the English by sea and the Indians by land 
— alarm which was greater than the case called for. In 1751 the 
Marquis had two thousand soldiers under his orders and the expenses of 
the colony were entirely out of proportion to its comforts. It was the 
fanners, quietly working upon their plantations, who conquered the 
Mississippi valley and made it valuable. Cotton was being raised, gin 
and sugar manufactured, indigo cultivated, and the common vegetables 
and fniits raised for the personal use of the settlers. Already in Illinois 
wheat was becoming so successful a product that it was exported to the 
distant seaport. The mines of copper and lead were being developed 
in the Northwest, and silk and tobacco were being introduced. 

Following, came the administration of Kerleric, which lasted for ten 
years. At the end of that time he was thrown into the Bastile, accused 
with misappropriating mone}-. 

Parkman's "France and England in North America." 


i\$ Jfanh of iolh* 






J^ i%/'J, COLONIES. 


AIvIFORNIA did not receive its name as the 
other States did. It took it from a certain fantastic 
romance, written by a Spanish author. This 
romance pictured an imaginary kingdom glittering 
with gold and diamonds, in which the most 
extraordinary events were constantly taking jslace, 
and where riches were free to everyone. The 
name of this remarkable land was California, and, oddly 
enough, its imaginary riches were hardly greater than 
those which the most western of our States actually 
contained. Cortez, always ambitious and eager for con- 
quests, sent out Hernando Grijalva, in 1534, on an 
expedition of discovery to the Pacific coast. It is not 
strange that the Spaniards gave the name of the 
romance to a country whose charms are so great that the people marvel 
over them to-day as they did then. The methods of Grijalva were too 
languid to suit the nervous and impatient Cortez, and the following 
year, taking four hundred Spaniards and three hundred slaves with him, 
he himself embarked for California. Not only was he impatient for 
the conquest of this productive land, but was anxious to see if he could 
learn the fate of a small expedition which he had previously sent north 
by land. He had only well started on his journey of discovery, when 
he heard that his civil power had been taken from him and given to 
the Viceroy, Mendoza. His militar>' position was all that vas left him, 


and he was obliged to return to Mexico, after coasting on both sides of 
the Gulf of California. Francisco de Ulloa was sent to take up the 
exploration. Pearls were found in the Gulf of California at the very 
first, and the pearl fishery that has continued to this day was systemat- 
ically taken up then. Reports of the richness of this country excited 
the jealousy of Mendoza, the ruler of Mexico, and he determined to 
send out an explorer himself in the same direction that Ulloa had 
taken. The Spaniards were excited with the reports brought to them 
by the four men who had started with Narvaez from Florida. These 
men, it will be recollected, traveled alone from Florida to the Gulf of 
California. They brought tales of seven wonderful cities which, 
contained castles built of gold, silver, turquoise and diamonds. 
Vasquez Coronado was the man chosen to go in search of these. It 
was not long before he reached the territory which the men had 
described as the "seven cities" but in them, alas! was found no gold, 
silver, diamonds nor turquoise. There were, however, very substan- 
tial buildings, three or four lofts high, with ladders leading from one 
story to another. The people wore cotton dresses and had taste in 
cooker)-. But Coronado was not after evidences of civilization, but in 
search of gold, and he pushed hastily on. Two years of disappoint- 
ment followed, until at length the perplexed and disheartened Spaniard 
went mad, and his party returned to Mexico. Meantime, in 1543 a 
voyage was made northward along the coast, which laid open to the 
Spaniards a portion of California. This was under the charge of 
Cabrillo, who went as far north as Cape Mendosino. He found it too 
cold to go farther. From this point the Spanish fleets, for long years 
after, took their departure on their journey to the East Indies. Other 
Spanish voyagers made much the same trip, but none of them discov- 
ered a seaport in California. 

This, Sir Francis Drake, the English seaman, who has been written 
of in the first chapters of this book, did. It will be remembered that 
he passed through the Straits of Magellan and came up the Pacific 
Ocean in 1578. One of his vessels was lost in a gale, the second 
deserted him, and he was left to make his voyage alone in the Pelican. 
His crew suffered terribly from the cold, on reaching forty-eight degrees 
north latitude, although it was in the month of June. He hurried 
away from this discouraging port and landed in a "goodly bay," which 
some identify with the beautiful Bay of San Francisco. 

When the Indians heard of the arrival of the white men, they 
gathered in large numbers to see them, and the King, a man of 

234 I'HK STORY OF Aj/lEFaCA.. 

dignified stature, came, with a guard of a hundred brave*, tc? -welcome 
him. In front of the King marched a tall man carrying a jceptre of 
black wood a j^ard and a half long. Upon it hung two crowns, and 
dangling from these were chains of bone. Each link was a mark of 
honor. All of the Indians wore skins, and the King wore rabbit's 
skin — a mark of royal distinction. Their heads were decorated with 
feathers of rare birds. They entertained Drake with a long ceremony, 
ending in a dance, after which they asked the Englishman to be King 
of their country. The crown was set upon Drake's head, and all the 
chains of honor hung about his neck. Drake thought it wise to accept 
these honors in the spirit which they were given, and took the countr}- 
in the name and for the use of Queen Elizabeth. It must not be 
forgotten that this was away back in 1579. Then followed a wild 
scene in which all the common people yelled and howled, and tore the 
skin from their faces with their nails, meaning to offer sacrifice to their 
new and mysterious Governor. Drake and his friends made a visit into 
the interior, where the Indian villages were. They found the countr}- 
fruitful, filled with game and excellently adapted for settlement. 
Neither Drake nor his men would have objected to lingering longer 
among these friendly tribes in a land of such unusual beaut)-, but their 
disabled ship was repaired and there was need for hastening back with 
reports of the voyage. A monument was left in the port composed of 
a copper plate, fastened to a wooden post. Upon this plate was engraved 
the right of Queen Elizabeth to the kingdom, the Queen's picture and 
Drake's arms. The Indians mourned exceedingly when Drake left 
them, and built bright fires on the cliffs to cheer his departure over the 

In 1581, Augustine Reyes, a Franciscan Father, went northward 
and rediscovered the pleasant land of which Coronado had written, and 
was able to guess at the site of the "seven cities." Reyes started 
thither, with two brethren of his order and eight soldiers, for the 
purpose of making converts to the Catholic faith among the Indians. 
But one of the friars was killed by the Indians, and the soldiers, fearing 
for their safety, deserted, leaving the two friars to go on alone. When 
the soldiers passed Santa Barbara, the)' confessed the state the)- had left 
the unfortunate Fathers in, and aroused the indignation of Antonio de 
Espejo, who hurried to their relief with a caravan of fifteen horses and 
mules and some Indian guides. Espejo discovered man)- interesting 
tribes of Indians who had progressed in the arts and industries to an 
unusual extent. Some of them wore cotton garments, striped with 


white and blue. Others understood the tanning of leather so well that 
the Spaniards held it to be as fine as anything done in Flanders. The 
great rivers and mighty forests, the mountains and the fruitful plains 
delighted them, but they were obliged to press on after the priests whom 
they were hurr}-ing to succor. In the country which they named New 
Mexico, they found people dressed in cotton and leather, with good 
boots and shoes. At last they learned that the poor Franciscan Fathers 
had been killed, and Espejo devoted himself merely to exploration, 
leaving a large part of his company in camp near the Tiguas tribe of 
the "sixteen towns." He found idols in some of the houses; umbrellas 
decorated with the sun, moon and stars were in use by one tribe, and 
many had wrought the precious metals into forms of ornament. Espe- 
cially interesting was the town of Acoma, which was inhabited by six 
thousand Indians. It was built on a high cliff, fifty platforms in height, 
and reached by steps cut out of the rock. The water was drawn from 
cisterns. Of course no crops could be raised upon the site of this rockj- 
city. The farms lay two leagues away and were irrigated by artificial 

Espejo at length visited the country which Coronado had entered 
half a century before. Here he found Christians and some baptized 
Indians, who understood the Spanish language. This was the great 
province of Zuni, which still holds its name and keeps the old customs 
as Espejo saw them in the last half of the sixteenth century. After 
journeying still farther, Espejo came to rich silver mines, but it is not 
known in what direction he journeyed. When Espejo rejoined his 
party he found most of them determined to return to Santa Barbara. 
He, with eight soldiers, concluded to explore the river Del Norte. It 
was two years before he ended his journeyings. 

Until 1595 the great western territon- remained undisturbed. Then 
the Count Monterey, at that time Viceroy of Mexico, and Juan de Onate 
went into New Mexico to plant colonies in the valley of the Rio Grande. 
Saute Fe, which was one of Onate' s settlements, was founded before 
Jamestown, and is, therefore, next to vSt. Augustine, the oldest town in 
the United States. This settlement had in its beginning one hundred 
soldiers and five hundred settlers, and the number continued to be about 
the same for a hundred years. Indian raids were not infrequent, and 
the people could offer but little resistance until 1692, when Diego 
de Barges established Spanish garrisons in the valley. El Paso, on the 
Mexican frontier, was one of Onate' s settlements. 

Farther west, on the ocean coast, .Spain followed up the discoveries 


of Drake. It is not necessary to mention each one of these. Spanish 
names were given to the coast, and Spain claimed it as her own, 
although she took but very languid interest in it. It was the Jesuits, 
anxious for the saving of souls, who finally settled upon the peninsula 
of California. Francisco Kino, a devoted brother of the Jesuit society, 
infused with a noble enthusiasm, undertook to Christianize the penin- 
sula. A series of missions were founded by him, and in 1697 he 
succeeded in getting a mission built in lower California. On the west 
side of the gulf was Father Salvatierra, and on the east side Father 
Kino. These two men, both systematic and capable of clear leadership, 
constantly helped one another. The system of the Fathers was very 
complete. The Indians were taught the Spanish language, and were 
induced to attend religious services ever}' day. Those who did so were 
supplied with rations. The sick, old and helpless were provided with 
food. All of the Indians were given coarse cloth, cloaks and blankets. 
The missionaries instructed them in the cultivation of their fields, but 
finding that the Indians would not harvest and preserve the crops, they 
themselves took care of them. Wine was one of the first products of 
California, bnt the Fathers soon found it was necessary to keep it from 
the Indians. 

By the time that the missions had existed in California for a gener- 
ation they were surrounded with a semi-civilized set of men and women 
who gave up the wild life of the forest for the more laborious and quiet 
one of the farms. 

Lonely and desolate, the little missions stood out from the savagery 
of the villages. In them there were often but two Spaniards, a Father 
and a soldier. The missions were well built, with a touch of that 
Moorish architecture which the Spaniards had made their own. Not 
alone were the missions the schools, the churches and the depot for sup- 
plies, but they served for courts of justice as well, and any culprit was 
punished there according to the judgment of the Spaniards. The 
children were educated in reading, writing and singing, and many of them 
were sent to Soreto, the chief station. Such of these as showed unusual 
intelligence were made church-wardens at the various rancherios. 
One Father taught his Indians to spin wool and weave it, and he him- 
self made the staffs, wheels and looms. This was opposed to the 
policy of Spain, which wished to force all her colonists to purchase man- 
ufactures direct from home. It was this same policy which kept the 
settlements of the Spaniards so far behind those of the English and 
French. Cortez tried to encourage manufactures in the colonies, but 


his policy was overturned, and the people received from Mexico the 
cloth which had been made in Holland and sold in Spain. The Fathers 
continued to form new missions whenever some benefactor could be 
found who would give an endowment of $10,000, $6,000 of which was 
put at interest and devoted to the education and care of the Indians. 
Each Father kept a chronicle of all which happened to him, and these 
engaging narratives helped not a little in the collection of money in 
Mexico and Spain. The mines of Arizona began to be richly devel- 
oped, and it is still possible to see the remains of old mining operations 
there. Every little while the Indians, who seemed so obedient and 
trustful, would uprise suddenly and war with each other in their old 
savage fashion. In their hearts they resented this easy conquest of the 
Spaniards. The eloquence of their orators was leveled against the 
woman-like patience with which the braves sat down to eat the bread of 
charity, and from time to time the well-fed proteges of the missions 
were lashed into insurrection. After the death of Father Kino, in 17 ir, 
the missions Ijegan to decay. He had baptized more than forty thou- 
sand infidels, founded numerous churches, and conducted valuable 

Spain, herself, was losing her glory, and it was not strange that the 
little missions, to which she had always been more or less indifierent, 
should suffer early from her decline. After this comes a histor>' of 
revolts, and at last, June 25, 1767, came the decree of the council 
chamber of Charles III for the expulsion of the Jesuits. 

The land upon the Gulf of Mexico had not been entirely neglected 
by the Spaniards. In 1690 a mission was established at the spot where 
La Salle's unfortunate colony had been. Other missions and militarj' 
posts were established about Texas and New Mexico. But in 1693 the 
Spaniards were driven from them by the Indians. However, there still 
remained, on the west side of the Rio Grande, the posts known as 
Presidio del Norte and El Paso. 

In 17 1 2, Louis the XIV gave the grant of Louisiana to Antonio 
Crozat, which included the land reaching to the Rio Grande on the 
west. Between this country and Mexico there has always been a brisk 
smuggling trade. The first Texas missions were founded by the Fran- 
ciscan Fathers, who used much the same plan that the Jesuits had done 
farther west. When the war of 17 18 was declared between France and 
Spain, the little settlements on these distant frontiers thought it 
behooved them to imitate the home countries, and war with each other. 
One large expedition was fitted out to move against the French settle- 



ments of the Upper Mississippi. The Spaniards lost their way and fell 
in with some Indians who massacred them and took all of their arms. 
After this Spain made no other attempt to settle on the land of the 
Upper Mississippi. In 1728 the Spanish government transported four 
hundred from the Canary Islands to Texas. A portion of these settled 
at San Antonio, Texas, but the growth of Texas was ver\' slow, and the 
deadly policj' of Spain took the life from the colonists. 

History — Bancroft's "Histor>- of California." 

Hittell's "Historj- of San Francisco."' 

Help's "Spanish Conquest of America." 

Kip's "Karlv Jesuit Missions in North America." 

Curtis' "ChiWren of the .Sun." 




J.FTER Governor Moore's administration in South 
Carolina, which, through his ill-advised move 
against St. Augustine, plunged the colony so 
heavily in debt, Sir Nathaniel Johnson was 
appointed to office in Moore's place. Johnson 
was a man who had more of the instincts of a 
general than of a ruler. His administration was 
marked by one of those religious disputes which made 
so much trouble in all the early colonies. It arose 
from an act passed by his first assembh', taking away 
the civil rights from all who blasphemed the Trinit}', or 
refused to believe in the divine authority of the Bible, 
and condemning them to three years' imprisonment. 
Following this, came a law which required every 
citizen who belonged to the assembly to conform to 
the religion of the Church of England. By this law every Puritan of 
whatever shade of belief was robbed of his civil rights, though these 
dissenters were far greater in number than the Episcopalians. This 
Episcopal minority, of course, represented the Lord Proprietors who 
governed the colony. The dissenters sent John Ashe to England to 
beg the protection of the Proprietors, but he got no satisfaction from 
them. Another agent, Joseph Boone, was sent to England to make an 
appeal to the House of Lords. They referred the petition to the Queen, 
with a prayer that the wrongs of the colonists might be righted, and 
Queen Anne declared the laws to be null and void. 


Though Johnson was so injudicious a ruler, he had some qualities 
which were not to be despised. At one time, when he learned that an 
attack was to be made upon Charleston by the French and Spanish, he 
superintended a pretty piece of strategy, which is worth relating. On 
James Island, in Charleston harbor. Fort Johnson held a few men for 
the protection of the city. William Rhett was placed as admiral over 
the militia of the province, which, with guns and ammunition, was put 
on board six merchant vessels which were in harbor. These prepara- 
tions had barely been completed when the invading fleet, consisting of 
a frigate and four smaller vessels, under the command of Captain Le 
Feboure, sailed up and demanded a surrender. The man who brought 
the demand was blindfolded and taken from fortification to fortification. 
In each one of these he saw a well-armed and uniformed force, and 
never guessed that the men in each fortification were always the same, 
and that they hurried quietly before his blindfolded eyes. He went 
back to his commander and reported the extent of the force. Rhett 
managed his little fleet of merchant vessels with such skill that Le 
Feboure was unable to make a landing, and in a few days the French 

The religious difierences of the colony were not easily quieted. In 
spite of the fact that John Archdale, the Quaker, was one of the 
Proprietors, the Friends were at one time refused seats in the assembly. 
The war of words between the dissenters and the Episcopalians was 
constant. These disputes led to serious political complications. After 
Johnson was removed. South Carolina was in doubt for some time as to 
who was really Governor, such misunderstandings and contentions 
were there. When the claimants for office tried to summon an armed 
force and to move against each other, the militia quietly refused to 
obey. It was not until 17 13 that Charles Eden was appointed Governor 
by the Proprietors and that religious freedom was allowed to be the 
right of every man in the Carolinas. During the last four years the 
colonies had not only been rent by internal rebellion and bitter perse- 
cutions, but by savage wars with the Indians as well. In 17 11 the 
Tuscaroras succeeded in uniting in North Carolina all of the smaller 
tribes, as well as the half-civilized Indians about the colonies, in a 
general conspiracy against the English. On an appointed morning a 
single war-whoop was given just at break of day and in every house the 
servants rose against their masters. All about the villages lurked bands 
of savages waiting to fall upon the .settlements in an unguarded moment. 
Few Indian massacres were conducted with so much fierceness and 

/a^ /^//a^. 



decision. In most cases there was a blunder somewhere, but here, 
unfortunately, there was none. Many hundred were killed within that 
hour at day-break through all the settlements, and for three days the 
tide of murder swept on from south to north, stopping at last for want of 
more victims to kill. In all Indian warfare the burning of houses and 
destruction of property was as much a part of the fight as the killing 
of men. Governor Hyde begged Virginia and South Carolina for aid. 
Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, interceded with the Indians, but 
Governor Craven, of South Carolina, sent a body of militia and several 
hundred friendly Indians hurriedly through the wilderness to the aid of 
the sister colony. In an open battle the Tuscaroras suffered heavy loss. 
The distracted remnant of settlers in North Carolina kept shut up in 
their garrison. The crops they had planted with so much care were 
destroyed. Little was left of the pleasant fanns and villages. The 
little store of wealth which had been accumulated through the patient 
years was gone, and in almost ever>' family there was mourning for the 
murdered. Through the long winter of 17 13 this remnant of a colony 
dragged out a wretched existence, owing what little life it had to the 
protection of the soldiers from the South. A treat>' was made at last 
with the Indians, and the soldiers retired to their homes. When the 
Indians were freed from their presence they broke their treaty, and the 
following summer was spent by both the English and the Indians in 
preparations for a renewal of the war. At the close of the summer 
Governor Hyde died, and Colonel Pollock was chosen Governor. He 
used the best means in his power for the protection of his colony. 
Realizing its limited resources and how few men it had to defend it, he 
sowed division among the Indians, weakening their party. Help came 
both from Virginia and South Carolina, and in an attack upon the 
Indians, in the spring, many of them were killed and eight hundred 
taken prisoners and carried to South Carolina as slaves. 

The next colony to suffer from the Indians was South Carolina 
itself. In the spring of 1715 there was a sudden uprising among the 
Yemassees, the tribe who had been the allies of the South Carolinians 
in their conflict with the Tuscaroras. As in North Carolina, a day was 
agreed upon, and the outbreak came with horrible suddenness. More 
than four hundred were murdered, and many hundred homes were 
burned. There was in the whole colony only one proof of friendship 
between the races. Sanute, a Yemassee chief, had a great reverence 
for a bonny Scotch woman who lived with her husband upon the 
frontier. After the habit of his race when they vowed friendship, he 


had washed his face with scented water and crossed his hands upon his 
breast, vowing that he should eternally be her friend. When the 
massacre was agreed upon, he warned her, and she and her husband fled 
to the coast. An organized force was led against the Yemassees by 
Governor Craven, and the Indians were defeated, and pushed through 
the wilderness across the Florida border. The Indians were now 
practically driven from the Carolinas — a country full of traditions for 
them and for which they had bravely fought. All the lands which had 
been reser\'ed to the Yemassees were taken possession of by the colony, 
but these the Proprietors wrenched from them for their own use, and 
the new emigrants, hastening over to the territory which was opened 
up to them, were ruined by the demands for rent and purchase money. 
Governor Craven, of South Carolina, was succeeded by Robert Johnson, 
a son of the former Governor, Sir Nathaniel Johnson. He took charge 
of the colony under great difficulties. The Proprietors had taken away 
all independent legislation from the assembly, and assumed the right to 
reject and repeal all laws as they saw fit. The revenue was taken off 
the imported British goods, which had been used for the support of the 
colony, and the pirates who lurked about the Carolinian coast had 
become so bold that it was necessary to incur the expense of open 
conflict with them. The vessels of these buccaneers were so well armed 
and manned that they were able to capture merchantmen within sight 
of Charleston. When any person fell into their hands they extracted 
a ransom from the government. The admiral of these rovers was the 
famous Blackbeard, who had a squadron of six vessels under his 
command. He and his dare-devil captains had a station at the mouth 
of Cape Fear river. From here they could sally out upon any vessels 
bound for Charleston, and thus seriously injure the commerce of the 
colon}-. William Rhett, who had so cleverly managed the little fleet of 
merchantmen at the time of the French invasion, was put in command 
of a ship sent out to capture Steed-Bonnet, one of Blackbeard's most 
dreaded allies. It had been thought almost impossible to take him, but 
Rhett attacked his pirate vessel with its crew of thirty, captured them 
and took them to Charleston, where they were hanged. Another of 
the pirate captains, Morely, angered at his companions' fate, soon after 
this sailed defiantly into the mouth of the harbor. Governor Johnson 
took command of his ship himself, and went out to meet him. The 
Governor's crew was triumphant, and boarded the pirate, killing ever)' 
one except the captain and one of the crew. These, though bleeding 
with many wounds, still refused to surrender, and were taken to 


Charleston and hurriedly hung, that the Carolinians might have the 
satisfaction of seeing them swing. A royal proclamation had been 
made some time before, promising pardon to all pirates who would 
surrender, and Blackbeard, with twenty of his friends, went to Governor 
Eden, of North Carolina, and took advantage of this proclamation. He 
rioted aboitt the village for a time, and then took to his life on the sea 
again. Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, offered a large reward for his 
head. Two armed sloops were fitted out and sent after him. He heard 
of their coming and made preparations. His twenty-five men were 
ready to fight to the death. He boarded one of the sloops, which had 
got aground, with the expectation of making an easy victory, but a 
large reserved force of men who had been kept below, sprang upon the 
deck as the pirates poured over the sides. A hand-to-hand fight 
followed, and the two captains closed upon each other. After they had 
fired their pistols they fought with dirks, until Blackbeard fell. The 
successful \'irginian party boarded the pirate vessels and made prisoners 
of the rest of the crew. A negro had been put with a fire-brand ac the 
magazine, with orders from the captain to blow up the ship as soon as 
she was taken, but he was discovered, and the act prevented. Black- 
beard's head was stuck upon the end of the bowsprit, and the young 
commander of the Virginian troops, Lieutenant Maynard, sailed proudly 
back into the Chesapeake. 

South Carolina had just got this well off"her mind and was freed from 
the depredations of the buccaneers, when she was threatened with 
Spanish invasion. Governor Johnson promptly called for money to 
prepare defences. The assembly said there was no money, and that the 
tax upon imports ought to be enough. The Governor reminded the 
assembly that the Proprietors had repealed the law. The assembly 
replied that they had nothing more to do with the matter. There was 
no Spanish invasion, as expected, but the difficulties between the Pro- 
prietors and the assembly had reached a climax. The people prepared 
for revolution, feeling they could stand the tyranny of the Proprietors 
no longer. Governor Johnson was held in respect and affection, in 
spite of the fact that he represented the hated Proprietors. His sin- 
cerity and good sense had won the hearts of the people, but notwith- 
standing this, they refused now to obey him or pay any attention to his 
orders while he voiced the will of rulers so tyrannical and unjust. The 
people elected a Governor for themselves — Colonel James Moore — and he 
was inaugurated on the same day that the militia was assembled for the 
revolution in Charleston. Governor Johnson had been at his plantation, 


and when he came into Charleston he found the city alive with excite- 
ment. Dnims were beaten about the streets, the ships were decorated 
with bunting, work was given up, and in the town square stood the 
militia of the whole province. Johnson tried to reason with the lead- 
ing men. Some he indignantly reproved, and he ordered Colonel 
Parris, who was at the head of the troops, to disperse his men at 
once. This Parris refused to do, saying that he was there in obedience 
to the orders of the assembly, and when Johnson insisted upon having 
his commands obeyed, the soldiers were ordered to present their guns, 
and Johnson was told that he came nearer at the peril of his life. No 
one came to Johnson's side, and he saw that although he had not one 
enemy among those around him, the cause of the Proprietors was lost. 
He was led politelj' from the field by one of the leaders of the uprising, 
more popular than ever, perhaps, for the courage with which he had 
faced the loaded muskets of the troops. Both parties sent agents to 
England to present their sides of the difficulty, and in 1721 the govern- 
ment was taken away from the Proprietors and became a royal province. 
Sir Francis Nicholson, who seemed to be the favorite adjuster of diffi- 
culties in the colonies, was sent over by the King. 

Queen Anne was dead, and George I had been King for over six- 
years. Nicholson showed his usual good sense. He imderstood what 
the people needed, and was nothing if not a diplomat. He secure ' 
peaceful relations with both the Spaniards and the Yemassees. He 
signed treaties with the Cherokees and Creeks, on the west, and encour- 
aged the building of churches and the laying out of parishes, sending to 
England for pastors. This was not so much that he had any personal 
religious enthusiasm, as that he knew the church was one of the comer- 
stones of government, and that it would greatly help the people in 
educational as well as religious and social affairs. There had not been 
a public school in the whole province when he came, but he constantly 
urged the necessity for them, and even used his private means, until at 
the close of his four years of administration a fair system of education 
had been begun. In 1729, both the northern and southern colonies 
were purchased by the crown. Lord Carteret refusing to sell his share, 
and retaining all the territory from 34° 35' to the boundarj- of \'irginia, 
and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. After this, North and 
South Carolina became legally two separate provinces. Burrington was 
the first royal Governor of North Carolina, but in a short time was dis- 
placed by Gabriel Johnson, who was appointed in 1734 and remained 
Governor of the colony for twenty years. In South Carolina, Robert 


Johnson, the Governor who had been so determined under the rule of 
the Proprietors, was sent back with a royal commission. He was wel- 
comed with enthusiasm, and for the four remaining years of his life 
worked to restore order, peace and prosperity. The colony was a 
mixed one, including English, French, Irish, Scotch and Spanish, dif- 
fering in taste, religion and educational prejudices. Besides these, 
were about twenty-two thousand African slaves, not to mention the half- 
civilized Indians who hung about the colonies. There were a great 
many white slaves at this time, and from these degraded people came 
the "poor whites" of the South. With such a population as this, Gov- 
ernor Johnson's difficulties were many, especially as the debts of South 
Carolina were heavier than ever before. But the colony was now too 
strong for its life to be again in danger. Its prosperity was assured. 

History— Ramsey's "South Carolina." 

Williamson's "North Carolina." 
Fiction— W. G. Simms' "The Yemassee." 

A. J. Requier's "The Old Sanctuary." 
Matilda Douglas' "Blackbeard." 


%rm jllli^s nnh l^-uia^s. 




HE English colonies of the North had been settled 
b}" men who thought themselves righteous. 
The most southern colony of the English — 
Georgia — was settled by men who were manifestly 
unrighteous. They were taken largely- from the 
jails of England. It came about through a 
movement for the reformation of English jails. James 
Oglethorpe, a humane gentleman, taking great interest 
in the poor and criminal classes of England, came to the 
conclusion that in another countn- they might be made 
good citizens. He procured a grant of land in the 
summer of 1732, which was granted to twenty trustees 
for the benefit of the poor of the kingdom, and included 
all of the land between the Savannah and Altamaha 
rivers. Oglethorpe was a gentleman of courtly manners 
and of ver)' noble family. He was also a soldier of experience. Sub- 
scriptions were obtained through England for the benefit of this colony, 
and a company of people were carefully chosen from the destitute 
among the large cities. They were largely laborers out of employment, 
or debtors who had long been imprisoned by their creditors. Ogle- 
thorpe himself took charge of the first company of emigrants. This 
contained about one hundred and fourteen persons. The place which 
they .selected for settlement was the site of the present city of Savannah. 
Under the intelligent direction of Oglethorpe, matters went well 
with the .settlement from the beginning. The people were divided into 
three parties. One prepared land for cultivation, a second felled trees, 
and a third built palisades. Until the town was built they lived in 


teuts. Their first care was to prepare a batteiY' and a magazine. 
Laborers were brought from Charleston to help in building, and 
Oglethorpe laid out the plan of the beautiful city of Savannah, which 
has been preserved to this day, and which stands as a monument to his 
judgtnent and taste. Even the names of the streets are, in many cases, 
the same which he gave. In a short time other colonists were sent over 
from England. A treaty was made with the Indians, and local govern- 
ment was established. South Carolina was most friendly to the colony, 
and gave it much help. As soon as possible substantial dwellings were 
put up in place of the cabins first erected. The manufacture of silk 
was made one of the principal industries of the colony, and a light-house 
was built on Tybee Island, ninety- feet in height. A company of 
Highlanders built Fort Argyle, on the Ogeechee river, as a defence 
against the Spanish. In the first year and a half the colony increased 
to nearly five hundred persons. Besides the poor of England, there 
came many Highlanders from Scotland, and they took most kindly to 
American life, being used to hunting and to the cultivation of a sterile 
soil. Their half-barbaric, picturesque garb, the music of their bagpipes, 
and their love for a life in the wilderness, won the admiration and 
friendship of the Indians. 

There came, also, a compau}- of Salzburgers to Georgia. These 
people were of a religious sect which had been persecuted for centuries. 
For a time a handful of them had found comparative peace in the 
valle\- of Salzburg, a province of Bavaria, but as they increased in 
numbers the wrath of the church was again turned against them, 
and the}' were driven from their homes, wives and husbands separated, 
and children taken to be raised in the Catholic Church. Twentj' 
thousand of them found refuge in Prussia. Some fled to Holland and 
some to England. In England, they were kindly received, and it was 
thought that a safe as}-lum might be provided for them in the American 
colony. Fifty families, still living near Salzburg, accepted the invita- 
tion, and marched through Gennany to the northern coast, carrying 
the young and old, with their few provisions, in rude carts. When 
they came through a Catholic district they were persecuted, but when 
the district was a Protestant one they were treated with great kindness, 
the peasants even carrying the women and children in their arms from 
one town to another. It was man\-, many wear}- months before they 
reached Savannah. Their industn- and their long acquaintance with 
privation made them ver>' valuable to a new colony, although, like the 
Friends, they did not believe in the taking up of arms, and would 


furnish no men to the fighting force of the community. Lands were 
given them on the Savannah river, which they selected themselves, and 
named the place Ebenezer. Soon after their arrival, in the spring of 
1734, Oglethorpe went to England, returning in the winter with about 
three hundred persons. With him came two young men by the name 
of Wesley, who stayed in Georgia but a short time. The people did 
not guess at that time the lofty strain of genius which ran in them, 
and which was to bring such powerful influence to bear on all 
Christendom in after years. John Wesley had a church at Savannah, 
and when he left, his friend, George Whitefield, who was to be no less 
noted than himself, took his place there. He and Wesley had been 
friends at Oxford. Oglethorpe brought with him on his second voyage 
two acts of Parliament. One of them prohibited the introduction of 
spirituous liquors in the colony and the other forbade the bringing of 
slaves. Unfortunately neither of these laws could be enforced. White- 
field fought the introduction of slaves for a time, but at length he 
himself yielded to it, and worked large plantations with them, using 
the money for the benefit of an orphan asylum which he built near 
Savannah. His influence had much to do with the introduction of 
slaves in Georgia. 

A large part of the emigrants which Oglethorpe had brought over 
with him were put on the Island of St. Simons, at the mouth of the 
Altamaha river. The island was made formidable with forts and 
batteries. The Governor made an imfortunate move against St. Augus- 
tine, and was severely repulsed there. On his third visit to England he 
obtained a military commission which included South Carolina as well 
as Georgia. In the summer of 1739 he learned that the Spanish were 
tr}-ing to make allies of the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws, who 
had formerly been friendly to the English. Zomo Chi-Chi, the 
friendly chief whom the first settlers of Savannah had used as an 
interpreter, begged Oglethorpe to attend a council three hundred miles 
northwest of Savannah, at which the chiefs were to gather. It took him 
one month to go and return, going through an unbroken wilderness, which 
no settler had previously entered. Not alone did he have the intenni- 
nable forests of the South to pass, but the bewildering swamps as 
well. He met chiefs of numerous tribes, who could bring seven thou- 
sand warriors into the field, and gained such influence over them that it 
was a protection to Georgia through all his life, and indeed long after that 
useful life had ended. Shortly after this, the slaves of Carolina arose 
and began a march toward Florida, destroying the plantations and 


killing the whites as they went, but getting badly intoxicated, they 
were surrounded by a body of militia and dispersed, a few being taken 
prisoners and others killed. 

In 1742 the Spaniards made up their minds to retaliate for the 
English expedition against St. Augustine, and sent a fleet of thirty 
vessels, with a force of five thousand men, against Georgia. Oglethorpe 
got his Highland forces together from Darien, and all Indian allies who 
were in reach. A force of about eight hundred men were put in the 
field. Oglethorpe's action in this was gallant, though he only had a 
merchant vessel of twenty guns and two schooners of fourteen guns 
each. When the fleet of vessels sailed up St. Simons harbor, Ogle- 
thorpe himself took command of the vessels. He put eight schooners, 
with one man each, out for the purpose of harassing the vessels or of 
conveying himself from one place to another. He directed the batteries 
on shore as well. The fight lasted twentj' hours, and the Spanish fleet 
fought their way through the fire of the batteries to the shore. 
Oglethorpe spiked his guns, destroyed all the provisions, and fell back 
upon Frederica, on St. Simons Island. The English were now behind 
those fine defences on which they had prided themselves. The head of 
the bay was difficult to navigate, and no ship could get through without 
"going about." As she did so, the batteries were so placed that she 
could be raked at once from three directions for three-fourths of a mile. 
The Spaniards dared not attempt this, and landed the fleet four miles 
below the town, with the intention of attacking the English at the rear 
with their force of five thousand men. A road ran southward from 
Frederica between a marsh and one of the tangled southern woods. At 
one place this road had a crescent shape, with a width of about sixty 
feet. The crescent ended in a wood, and here Oglethorpe left a detach- 
ment of troops, with some Indian allies. The Spaniards had no 
difficulty in driving this handful of men before them. Word was sent 
to the general, who hurried up, met the Spaniards at the entrance of 
the crescent and dro\-e them back through the wood, into the open 
country beyond. Leaving a force of men there, he went back to 
Frederica, fearing an attack from the front. Finding all quiet there, 
he took a large reinforcement and started once more down the road. 
He met his men ffj'ing before the Spaniards. He turned them back 
and hurried on, for he knew that if the enemy once got through the 
narrow road to the prairie, Frederica could not long stand out against 
five thousand men. The Spaniards had marched on, and two or three 
hundred of them la\- in the crescent of the road. The Englishmen 


had fled before them. From the rear there was no danger of attack, 
and they quietly went into camp there, and began to prepare a meal. 
But the rear guard of the Highlanders, who had been so far behind 
that they could not aid their comrades, had leaped into the wood when 
the panic had seized their fellow-soldiers. They were hidden completely 
in the dense woods, and the Spaniards swept by them without dreaming 
that any man either could or would enter that dark tangle. With the 
Highlanders were a few Indians, who understood well this method of 
warfare. The Highlanders and Indians waited in perfect silence, not 
allowing one sound to escape them, until all of the arms of the Span- 
iards were stacked and they were resting on the ground and quietly 
taking their dinner. Then two Highland caps were raised in the air at 
different points. This was the signal for attack. Fire was poured in 
upon the Spaniards. The Highlanders were in no danger, for they could 
not be seen, and consequentl}' could not be fought. The men in the 
roadway were falling with every shot. By the time Oglethorpe had 
reached the place the firing had ceased, and the Highlanders and Indians, 
shouting with triumph, stood in the midst of the Spaniards, hardly 
one of whom escaped. The Spaniards gave up the attempt of making 
an attack by land, and were easily defeated on the water, when, a few 
days later, an attempt was made to approach the town that way. The 
Spanish general, in the course of a few days, put his whole army on 
board his vessels, and went back to St. Augustine, persuaded that the 
English force must be a heavy one. Oglethorpe promptly manned his 
three boats and chased the fleet out of the sound. 

In 1744, General Oglethorpe returned to England, but he never, to 
the end of his ninety-six years of life, lost his interest in the colony. 
After his departure from Georgia, William Stephens was appointed 
president of the trustees. The colony had not kept up its first happy 
promise of prosperity. The manufacture of silk and of wine had both 
been unsuccessful. So much time had been spent in active warfare that 
lands had been neglected, and the prohibition of slave labor caused 
much discontent. The trustees, feeling that they could not govern the 
people to the satisfaction of either party, gave back the charter to the 
crown. For ten years after it became a royal province its growth was 
slow. In 1754, when a convention of delegates from the several 
Dolonies met at Albanj to form a union, Georgia was not represented. 

-Jones' "Georgia." 
Fairbank's "Florida." 
Carpenter's "Georgia." 
Jones' "Zomo-Chi-Chi." 


®l|0 Saiialiir$ nf Tlrjima* 




JFTER the trimiiph of Berkeley over Bacon in 
\'irginia, the Ro}-alists were verj' overbearing. 
Morals had become ver>^ loose. Ever}- one in 
the colon}- worked for himself There was an 
absence of that public pride, which was the 
strength of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts. In 1675, Lord Culpepper came to Virginia 
with a commission for life over the province, to take 
up the affairs of the colony where the proud old 
Governor Berkeley had dropped them. Culpepper's 
only interests in the colony were personal ones. He 
oppressed the people with fresh taxes. There was an 
over-production of tobacco, the only staple of the 
colon}-, and therefore a steady lowering of prices. 
Few towns sprung up, and the people living upon isolated plantations 
could not work in unity. The Assembly clamored for the rights of the 
people. They protested that a stop must be put to the over-production 
of tobacco. A few head-strong men undertook to jjut an end to this 
o\er-production by cutting the }-oung plants. This may be known as 
tlie earliest American strike. Like most strikes, it only increased the 
difficult}-. There was much distress, too, because the currency of the 
colon}- was not worth its face %-alue in gold. 

In 1684, Culpepper surrendered his patent and ceased to be governor. 
Virginia was once more a royal pro\'ince. Lord Howard, of Effingham, 
became the ruler of affairs. He levied new duties, invented new 
oppressions, and hung the foolish plant cutters. Imprisonment was 
common for slight offenses. Effingham repealed many laws of the 
Assembly, and re\':ved laws which were hateful to the colonies. Small 



rebellions were numerous during his rule, and the slave element con- 
stantly increasing and growing more turbulent, threatened the lives of 
the free population with insurrection. Affairs were bettered some when 
Effingham went to England, and Colonel Francis Nicholson became 

^=-~-^;- _-_ ^ —^~_ -_ Lieutenant-Governor. Though Xichol- 

^ - son had made so foolish a figure of him- 

^ --(.If in Xew York, he seemed to have a 

R i[th\- nifluence upon Virginia. More 
liberal, modest, and unselfish than before, 
lie went to work with a will to straighten 
out the complicated affairs of the colony. 
He visited every part of his province, 
tint he might become familiar with the 
people and their condition; he gave 
entertainments, and himself superin- 
tended athletic sports. By his enter- 
prise, a great public road was built 
through the province, and a public post- 
office instituted. He decided that the 
best wa}- to stop the over-production of 
tobacco was to encourage other industries, 
and he saw to it that flax w'as grown, 
leather manufactured, and that the trade 
with the Indians flourished. Drunken- 
ness he made a misdemeanor, punishable 
\\ ith the stocks, and instituted an almost 
Puritanic mode of living among the care- 
less, luxurious, and wine-loving Virgin- 
ians. He aided in the establishment of 
■^ W lUiam and Mar\' College, which had 
been established by the Rev. James 
Blair, the head of the Established Church 
of Virginia. This college was used then 
mainly for the education of men intending to be clerg}-men, and here, 
at the time of Nicholson's endowment, there were over a hundred pupils. 
Though Nicholson only remained in Virginia about two years, he 
made many radical improvements. Sir Edmund Andros was sent over 
in his place. Like Nicholson, Andros had learned wisdom with expe- 
rience. He came among the Virginians in a somewhat humbler frame 
of mind than he liad when he was first set over New England. Perhaps 

L \\ AI IFR 


the stern lessons which the Puritans taught him was not forgotten, and 
in an\- event he was more likely to be popular among the Episcopal 
royalists of Virginia than among the Puritan Whigs of Boston. He 
brought with him the charter of William and IMary College and began 
a good work in the colony by completing the post-office which Nich- 
olson had started. He also encouraged domestic manufacture and intro- 
duced cotton, although it did not succeed in Virginia. But the slave 
trade lay like a blight upon the colony, putting a check to true 
industry. A contest between President Blair, of William and Mary 
College, and Governor Andros resulted in the displacement of the latter 
from office, and Nicholson was called from Maryland to take his place. 

When Nicholson left Virginia, after his first administration there, 
he returned to England, and when a revolution in Maryland had 
deposed the government of Lord Baltimore, thus becoming a royal 
province, Nicholson was made the second royal Governor. In Mary- 
land, now the Catholics and now the Puritans were uppermost in polit- 
ical matters. In religious matters it was always liberal, and people of all 
faiths were welcomed there. The conflict between the Puritans and the 
Catholics was political, rather than religious. An anned revolution 
was brought against the Catholic government in i6Si, and Baltimore's 
government was overthrown. The Protestant assembly took upon 
itself the direction of the affairs of the colony. 

Nicholson ruled here with satisfaction until he was recalled to Vir- 
ginia. He substituted the Church of England for the Catholic Church. 
This, it can easily be imagined, was a difficult matter. There was a great 
lack of clergymen in Maryland, and Nicholson had a considerable number 
brought over. Public worship was forbidden to the Catholics. The 
Puritans and the Quakers were not interfered with, although they were 
greatly discouraged. Nicholson had a school built in each county of 
the province, and a school embracing the higher branches, called King 
William's School, was opened at Annapolis, in 1694. Annapolis had 
been made the capital of the province by Nicholson. In a short time 
ever}'one of the thirty parishes had a small librarj', in each of which 
there were about fifty volumes. At Annapolis there was a larger 
library, containing eleven himdred volumes. All of these books were 
free to everj-one in the colony. 

When Nicholson, fresh from these labors, went to Virginia, he found 
that the colony had grown in his absence. It now had a po]3ulation of 
forty thousand. This second rule was not so satisfactory to the people as 
the first one had been. The House of Burgesses, which represented the 


people, had grown ver}- strong. He had an open quarrel with the 
tnembers because he desired that Virginia should contribute to the 
building of forts for the protection of the northern provinces against the 
Indians. The burgesses refused to give anything. Nicholson felt 
that the colony was disgraced by this refusal, and said so in terms more 
unmistakable than polite. He became unpopular, also, because he 
took away the power of the vestries in the churches. These vestries 
had the right of controlling, to an extent, the action of the clerg\'men. 
These clergymen, be it said, were rather a rollicking and prodigal set. 
Frequently they were not even as orderly in their private living as were 
their careless parishioners. Their drinking was notorious. When 
Nicholson was guilty of the error of taking away the powers of the 
vestries the people felt that they were at the mercy of a lawless set of 
leaders, and complaints were sent to England against the Governor. 
These complaints were not all of a public nature. Nicholson had, 
unfortunately, made himself ridiculous in his love suit to a lady who 
refused to marry him, and he threatened the lives of her father and 
brothers. A thing of this sort naturally made him many enemies. 
Before he was deposed he laid out the town of Williamsburg, which 
was made the capital of the colony, and here, in the second year of its 
settlement, was held the first commencement of William and IMary 
College. This was nearly sixty years after the first commenceuient 
day of Harvard College, in Massachusetts. 

Nicholson was recalled to England, and for five years the colony 
managed its own aflTairs, under the couucil. Then Alexander Spots- 
wood arrived, bringing with him the writ of habeas corpus. Governor 
Spotswood was still young. He was full of life and ambition, with an 
inborn sense of justice and a true appreciation of happiness. He set 
about immediately reforming the courts, and tried to regulate the taxes. 
He was interested in the colony, and assisted it by raising a large fund 
for its support. He established a school for the education of Indian 
children also. Young and adventurous, he was not willing to stay 
cooped up in the settled part of his province, but desired to go beyond 
those beautiful mountains which raise themselves in blue mists at the 
west. In August, 1 716, he started from Germantown, on the Rappa- 
hannock, to cross the Blue Ridge. With him, on fine horses, were a 
company of gentlemen, filled with as much curiosity and gayety as him- 
self Troops of hunters and servants went with them, and liquors and 
provisions were carried upon a train of horses. Ever>' day this gallant 
company marched and hunted. With their trumpets, their gans, aud 


theii songs, they awoke for the first time the hoarse echoes of the moun- 
tains. They crossed be} end the dividing ridge of the mountains, where 
the waters parted, and took possession of the beautiful valley beyond. In 
six weeks they returned, having traveled more than two hundred miles. 
Spotswood, in memory of this charming expedition, founded tl.e order 
of the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe, giving each comrade who had 
accompanied him a little golden horseshoe to be worn as a badge. But 
it was sixteen years after this before the Shenandoah valley, which he 
and his merry companions had visited, was settled; and then the 
intruders came, not from Virginia, but from Pennsylvania, and were 
constituted largely of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Germans from Penn- 
sylvania also scattered themselves through this fertile country. 

Spotswood secured a treaty with the Indians, which gave to the Eng- 
lish all of the region east of the Blue Ridge and south of the Potomac. 
This treaty was of much value to Virginia. In 1722, Spotswood ceased 
to be Governor, but as a private citizen he was still valuable to the com- 
munity. He found beds of iron ore on his forty thousand acres of private 
property, and he was the first to establish a furnace and foundry in Vir- 
ginia. Following him came Hugh Drysdale. Thebuildingupof the val- 
ley beyond the Blue Ridge brought many emigrants direct from Germany, 
and in the first half of the eighteenth centur>' the population of Virginia 
was doubled twice. A better class of men began to come, who desired 
liberty and independence rather than riches, and who were willing to 
work themselves, instead of depending upon the toil of unhappy slaves. 
The people who came now were of the middle classes, self-respectful, 
industrious, and temperate. They had neither the arrogance of those 
of gentle blood, nor the viciousness of those unhappy creatures dragged 
from the shmis of London. A more vigorous religious life was 
apparent, too. Following Drysdale, came Governor Gooch, and he was 
in power when the great preacher, Whitefield, was welcomed on his 
first journey to Virginia. Governor Gooch, be it said, did not take part 
in this welcoming, but the people made up for his lack of enthusiasm. 
In 1736 a printing press was set up, and William Parkes published a 
weekly paper at Williamsburg. The colony was no longer made up 
entirely of plantations. Prosperous towns sprung up about the coast 
and the rivers. Norfolk, Fredricksburg, Falmouth, Richmond and 
Petersburg were founded and flourished. The life of the richer planters 
of Virginia was very luxurious. The women were renowned for their 
beauty and their coquetry. The men prided themselves upon their 
hunting and good fellowship. The entertainments of the day were cere- 



monious and stately, in violent contrast to the simplicitv' cultivated in 

In IMaryland, the government had once more passed into the hands 
of the Baltimore family. Now the Baltimores represented the Protest- 
ant faction, having seceded from the Catholic Church. Six Lord Bal- 
timores ruled over Marjland, the last of them dying in 1771. Their 
rule had always been wise and manly, and when Maryland passed into 
the hands of the royal government it was in a prosperous condition. In 
1750 the population was about one hundred and thirty thousand. Iron 
was being developed in the State, and a large number of furnaces and 
forges were working successfully. Woolen, linen, tanning, shoe- 
making and other trades were succeeding, but here, as in Virginia, too 
large a proportion of the people were slaves; there was an over-produc- 
tion of staples and an element of discontent 

Fiction — Caruther's "Knights of the Horseshoe." 



jl l^aign of Mmtv. 






:HEN Colonel Crosby came to New York, in 1732, 
to act as Governor, his coming brought about a 
difficulty which was the onl)' thing to make his 
administration memorable. Rip Van Dam had 
been attending to affairs before the Governor's 
arrival, and was asked to give an equal partition of 
the salars and perquisites of the office in the interval 
between Crosby's appointment and his actual appearance 
in New York. The popular party sympathized with 
Van Dam, and, as usual, the aristocratic portion of the 
city was in sympathy with the royal Governor. A suit 
in equit}' was brought about, and the JVew York Weekly 
Jounial laughed in rather an indiscreet way at the 
Governor. Two ballads were printed whose humor was 
considered to be of a libellous sort. It was decided that they should be 
burned in the public square by the common hangman, in the presence 
of the magistrates. The hangman burned them, but the magistrates 
refused to be present. The editor of the paper was arrested and brought 
to trial. The case was brought before the jun,-, and the prisoner was 
acquitted. It was held that the editor said nothing which was not true. 
It was perceived that to speak against people in power might not 
always be wrong, and that to tell the truth, however disagreeable, was 
a thing which should not be necessarily punished as an offense. This 
was the first trial of the kind in this countr>', and furnished a precedent 
which was long quoted. 


Crosby only lived four years after his appointment, and George 
Clark, a member of the council, quietly ruled over New York for seven 
years. His administration was marked by one dark tragedy, for which 
he "was not personalh- responsible an\- more than the city full of people 
about him. This was what is called the negro plot of 1741, when all 
New York went mad together. There were a few Spanish negroes in 
the place, who, though they were freemen in their own country, had 
been enslaved in New York. It was known that they were resentful, 
and when a large number of fires broke out about the city the blame 
was laid on them. The Governor's house was burned, and within a 
few days numerous other houses were found smoking. In most of the 
cases the fires were extinguished before they did much hann. But the 
people became excited over the matter, and when the crowd cried that 
the Spanish negroes had caused the fire, ever^'one was read)' to take it up. 
It is true that the negroes had faithfully worked with the white men to 
extinguish the fires, but this was not thought of All negroes found in 
the streets were arrested. Vague stories, lacking foundation, spread 
like wild-fire. It was thought that there was a plan to burn all of New 
York to the ground. A set of disreputable people who kept a saloon of 
ihe lowest order said that they knew of a conspiracy among the negroes. 
.\mong these people was one young girl, ]\Iary Burton, a ser^-ant, who 
had been raised in the lowest surroundings. She was met by the 
dignified council and all of the most powerful men of New York, and 
urged to tell the truth. Anxious to save herself from an}' blame, 
frightened, and naturally vicious, it is not strange that she stated that 
there was a terrible plot to burn the city and to murder and rob its 
inhabitants. Ever}- member of the bar wished to plead in behalf of the 
government, and not one person offered to present the cause of the 
friendless and quaking negroes who were imprisoned in the jail. The 
people demanded victims. They were willing to believe any story that 
might be told, even that of the lying, frightened child of fifteen. 
Others were found as willing as she to tell stories about the negroes, 
hoping to bring themselves into favor with the judge — for ever)' 
doubtful person of New York was under suspicion. A few, indeed, 
thought their might be no truth in it and took pity on the poor negroes, 
but these were a hopelessly small majorit)'. The negroes were wild 
with fright, and confessed to crimes which they had never committed. 
Standing on a pile of faggots which were presently to be lighted for their 
own consuming, it is not strange that they told of others implicated in 
the matter in the hope of saving themselves, but this it never did. 


They said that a few negroes had intended to watch tlie doors of Trinity 
Chitrch on some morning, and to kill the congregation as it came out; 
that they were then going to murder the rest of the inhabitants, assume 
nile, and select a king from among themselves. The court believed 
this ridiculous story. The most influential citizens of New York urged 
punishment, and in two or three months more than one hundred and 
fifty negroes were imprisoned. Over one hundred were convicted as 
conspirators, twelve of them were burned alive at the stake, eighteen 
were hanged, and seventy-two were transported as slaves to other 
countries. In the few cases where their masters came forward and 
protested their innocence, attempting to prove an alibi, the evidence 
was paid no attention to whatever. The terrified negroes were ready 
to confess to anything. One poor negro, named Quack, admitted that 
he set fire to the Governor's house; t!',at he took a brand from the 
kitchen fire and put it on a beam under the roof; that the roof did not 
catch fire, and that the next day he did the same thing, pufling at the 
brand until it flamed. The truth of the matter was, that a plumber 
had been up on the roof with an open furnace of live coals; that the 
wind was high and some sparks lodged in the shingles. As the 
excitement grew the people began to fear a Popish plot. They hunted 
the town over for Catholic priests, but found none. There was a rumor 
that priests were coming to New York in the guise of dancing-masters, 
school-masters, music-teachers, etc. One quiet school teacher, John 
Urj', was arrested on suspicion. Mary Burton, the child who had 
brought so much trouble on the negroes, said that he was one of the 
men in the habit of frequenting the place at which she had lived, and 
which was supposed to be the gathering spot of the conspirators. 
Though many protested that Ur>' was an honorable and quiet man of 
godly life, he was hanged. At last Mary Burton went too far, and 
began to implicate gentlemen who wore "ruffles," and who offered her 
presents of silk dresses. The judge and his friends thought this a good 
time to bring the examination to a close. 

Although this childish and abject excitement spoke so badly for 
New York, it was, as a matter of fact, growing in power. It had 
become the key of the colonies, so to speak. Presbyterians had come 
from Ireland and Protestants from France, toward the end of the seven- 
teenth century, and in 1710 three thousand of the Protestants who had 
fled to England, at the invasion of the Rhenish palatinate by Louis 
XIV, crossed to New York, settling upon the upper water of the Mohawk 
and Schoharie creeks. The Scotch, vScotch-Irish, Dutch and English 


came in large numbers to the colony, spreading over the country and 
cultivating the land. School-houses were built among the villages. 
New York itself wore a most attractive appearance. It had a reputa- 
tion for great cleanliness and order. The beautiful Holland tiles and 
bricks still held place in their house-building. The English lived with 
great luxuriance and wore fashionable clothes, but the Dutch clung for 
the most part to the quaint and picturesque costumes of their father- 
land. The life for all was pleasant, and amusements were much more 
sought by the people of New York than by those of New England. 
In 1756 the population of New York City was twelve thousand. In 
1738 lyieutenant-Governor Clarke founded a school for the teaching of 
Latin, Greek and mathematics. The other colonies were beginning to 
send their products to this port for shipment across the sea. The 
royalists and common people were constantly at verbal war with each 
other, but they united sufficiently to increase the mercantile value of 
their place. They reluctantly took part in the movement against the 
French or Indians, and gave money grudgingly. The Governor was of 
warlike spirit, and felt it a shame that the people under him were so 
reluctant to do their share of fighting for the defence of the confedera- 
tion of the colonies, but the assembly and the militia united in 
disregarding his orders, and he realized, as did De L,ancey, who 
followed him, that the time had come when concessions must be made, 
even by the King, to the stalwart burghers of the New World. 

History — Brodhead's and O'Callaghan's "New York." 
Fiction — F. Spielhagen's "Deutsche Pioniere.' . 
J. F. Cooper's "Satanstoe." 




'ORD BELLOMONT'S rule over New York, New 
Hampshire and IMassachusetts was a pleasant one. 
Though he was a member of the High Church 
of England, he deferred to the Puritanism of his 
colonies. The assembly refused to vote him a 
salar}-, as it had done with all of the Governors 
who preceded him. But the money which it 
appropriated for him was considerable. The assembly 
insisted that it should have the right to make such 
appropriations as it pleased from year to year. The 
amount depended entirely upon the popularity of the 
Governor. By this means the colonies kept to them- 
selves a reserve which would send any obnoxious or too 
tyrannical ruler back to his own countr}-. Governor 
Bellomont made an effort to check the unlawful priva- 
teering of Rhode Island, for this little State had become the home of 
pirates. It was not unusual for some ship, hovering about the shore, to 
make out after a vessel at sea, capture it, bring it to shore, and 
appropriate its cargo. The harbor was never closed with ice, as was 
that of New York. The Gulf stream, flowing around the rocky shores 
of Rhode Island, kept it free through all the seasons, so it became the 
favorite resort of the sea rovers. Rhode Island had once had a poor reputa- 
tion for harboring those obnoxious persons who dissented from the Con- 
gregationalism of IMassachusetts ; it now gained a worse reputation from. 
the favor it showed to the pirates. 


For many a long year Connecticut and Rhode Island quarreled with 
each other about boundary lines, and it was not until 1703 that Connec- 
ticut was willing to accept the Pawcatuck river as her eastern line. 
When Bellomont died, Stoughton became Governor for a short time, 
when he also died, and Dudley was sent to manage the affairs of 
Massachusetts. In May, 1695, that Board of Trade was organized in 
London which regulated the colonial and commercial affairs until 
the American Revolution. Its interference with trade and commercial 
liberty was a constant source of vexation to the people. The detested 
Randolph was again sent over as surveyor-general. Dudley tried to 
carry into effect an article of the new Massachusetts charter which gave 
the Governor the power to reject the nominations of the General Court. 
Cotton Mather headed a strong party, which included all the leading 
clergy of the province, to put Dudley from office. But Dudley also 
had a strong party among the royrilists, and this dispute serk-ed to keep 
up that internal dissension which Massachusetts wcr. never free from. 

For five years there had been peace between the French and English, 
and those terrible Indian raids upon New Hampshire and the province 
of Maine had ceased. But in 1702 war was again declared between 
France and England, and the French and Indians of Canada once more 
felt free to vent their native hatred against the English colonies of 
America. Never had the Indians been more cruel, subtle and suc- 
cessful. The town of Deerfield, in Connecticut, was surprised by three 
hundred French and Indians one morning in February, 1704. The 
town had been guarded by sentries, for an attack was suspected; but the 
savages in the woods waited until they retired at daylight, and then 
rushed upon the people, who were just arising for the labors of the 
day. Fift}- were killed, and a hundred of them were carried to Canada. 
Among these were children, who were given to the Jesuit priests that 
they might be raised in the Catholic faith. 

Many of the young women were married to Indians, and with 
that began the race of half-breeds, which filled the northwest with such 
good trappers and guides. It was not infrequent for the children stolen 
in this way to acquire such a love for Indian life that they could never 
bring one back to the dull restraints of Puritan civilization. The free 
woods were dearer to them than the tedious town. The delights of the 
chase were preferred to the labors of the field. 

The French claimed the whole of Maine as far as the Kennebec, 
and had established a trading and missionary post among the Norridge- 
wock Indians, who dwelt among the upper waters of the river. The 


French and Indians united in their efforts to keep the English east of 
tlie Kennebec, and ever\- English fishing vessel found in Canadian 
waters was seized upon by the French men-of-war. Governor Dudley 
saw with apprehension the growing enmity of the Indians, and asked 
the Norridgewocks to meet him in council. The Indians did so, prom- 
ised friendship, and helped in the building of two great cairns of stone, 
which was a sign of lasting friendship. All of the time that the 
Indians were feigning to be in such an amiable mood, they were 
preparing to seize the Governor and his suite and give them into the 
hands of the French. The plan was not carried out, because a French 
party expected did not arrive in time. In less than six weeks after this 
an attack was made upon the settlements between the Kennebec and 
the Piscataqua. All over the province the people hurried to the garrison 
houses. The fields were no longer worked, except under the protection 
of a force of armed men. The settlers armed themselves and went in 
pursuit of the Indians, but could not find them. Several of these 
unsuccesful tramps were made upon snow-shoes through the unbroken 
snow of the wilderness. Colonel Church, the celebrated Indian fighter, 
came up from Massachusetts with over five hundred men to protect 
these northern settlements. But aside from destroying some villages and 
killing a few of the enemies in chance engagements, he did little. 

In the midst of winter the New Hampshire men fell upon the 
Indian village of the Norridgewocks, burning the French chapel and 
the wigwams. This made the Indians more unrelenting than ever. 
Within a few months they attacked many of the settlements of Maine, 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The difficulty then, as in all 
Indian warfare, was that the Indians would never meet their enemies in 
open field, and more danger and expense was encountered in finding 
them than in fighting them. A high price was paid to ever^-one who 
brought in an Indian scalp to headquarters, a man's scalp being worth 
one hundred pounds, and that of a child or woman fifty pounds. 

Dudley was firm in his purpose to move against Canada and 
conqTier it. This seemed to him the only way of freeing the colonies 
from their enemy. Colonel March was sent with a force of a thousand 
men, in 1707, to reduce Port Royal, in Noval Scotia. All through the 
winter and the spring the men fought in vain. They had been 
reduced from one thousand to two hundred in number, principally from 
the hardships of the winter in that latitude. Then came Nicholson's 
campaign with the New York men, which also failed. In 17 10 the 
place was taken by five regiments of troops which sailed from Boston 


harbor. General Nicholson, of New York, commanded the expedition. 
Only forty lives were lost among the English, and Nova Scotia ceased 
to be a French province. 

In 1 7 14 Governor Dudley was removed from office. The Whigs 
had grown to be the stronger party, and they declared that the office of 
Governor was vacant. Following him came Colonel Burgess, who sold 
his commission to Samuel Shute. At the time Shute assumed authority 
Massachusetts contained ninety-four thousand inhabitants. It had one 
hundred and ninety vessels. In the fisheries were one hundred and 
fifty smacks. Manufactories of many sorts were flourishing to the great 
vexation of the English, who tried in vain to keep down colonial 

About this time inoculation was first introduced in the colonies. 
Boston had suffered frightfully from small-pox. At three different times 
it had raged in the city. When vaccination was introduced by a 
physician named Boylston, it was fought not only by the doctors, but 
by the ministers as well. Cotton IMather was one of the few who 
encouraged the brave physician. 

Shute had the same trouble in Massachusetts which his predecessors 
had had. The assembly refused to vote him a fixed salar>', and this, 
as usual, was made the subject of many quarrels. The currency of the 
colonies had fallen far below par, and the financial condition was gen- 
erally bad. Upon the north the Indians were constantly intrigued. 
The country was likely at any time to be plunged into continuous war.- 
In matters of theology there was less sternness. Newspapers were 
becoming more common. Jonathan Edwards was writing his books on 
Calvanistic philosophy, and following him were a number of theolog- 
ical writers for whom he furnished inspiration. Increase Mather, the 
father of Cotton Mather, did not cease, even in his old age, to write 
religious pamphlets. Benjamin Franklin at this time was writing with 
versatility and vigor. A few years later than this, William Livingston, 
a journalist, and Governor of New Jersey, wrote a poem on philosophic 
solitude. William Smith, at one time president of William and Mar}' 
College, wrote an excellent history of the first discovery and settle- 
ment of Virginia. This was published in 1 747. Cotton Mather, of 
course, expressed in newsj^aper and pamphlets his vigorous and com- 
bative ideas on the subjects of the day. 

The lumberers of IMaine and New Hampshire suffered great injustice 
at this period from the King's surveyors, who went through the forests 
selecting the best of the trees and marking them with a broad arrow. 



These the settlers were not allowed to touch. The farmers had a legal 
right to the land on which these trees stood, and they resented bitterly 
the stealing of their property. They were also kept from shipping 
timber to foreign countries — a matter which they felt concerned no one 
but themselves. In 171 8, a number of Scotch Presbyterians came to 
New Hampshire. They introduced the manufacture of linen, the spin- 
ning of wool and the cultivation of the potato. In 1723 Shute left foi 
England, and Wentworth became Governor of New Hampshire. The 
vear before this the third Indian war had broken out in the northern 

History— Drake's "Indi: 

Cotton Mather's "Maen.lHa. 
Thoriitiiii's '■Historical Kcla 
Kuglisli CoiimiuinvcaU 

if Xew England to the 



raBman$ jira Jiom 

Expedition of maine and new Hampshire against thit N<iF' 


ETWEEN the years 1722 and 1724 a harassing war- 
fare was kept up b}- the Indians. The savages crept 
in small bands about-the frontiers of Maine and New 
Hampshire, falling, at the most unexpected times, 
upon unprotected homes. If a woman ventured 
'_ alone into her yard, she was apt to be seized by the 
prowling Indians. A man journeying home in the 
twilight, knew that he did so at the imminent risk of his 
life. In 1724, Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
decided that an expedition must be sent out against the 
Norridgewock Indians. Twice before attempts had been 
made to break up the settlement of these Indians. 
Among them was a brave and determined man. Father 
Sebastian Rasle, a French priest who had gained immense 
<r the Indians. He had lived among them thirty-seven 
years, and though he was a scholar, dropped his own language for that of 
the Norridgewocks and adopted their manner of living. The Indians 
loved him with all the intensity of their wild natures and were willing 
to meet any danger in his defense. 

The Englishmen knew that if they wished to succeed in subduing 
the Indians, they must first capture Rasle. Twice they had failed. 
On the i2th of August, 1724, they succeeded. Two hundred English- 
men rushed upon the Norridgewock village when most of the warriors 
were absent. Such as escaped from the rifles and swords flew into the 
woods, and Father Rasle, in attempting to turn the attention of the 

influence ove 


enemy from these flying women and children, was himself killed. The 
Englishmen stuffed his mouth with dirt and hacked his poor old body 
horribly. It wanted only this to inflame the Indians. Captain John 
Lovell organized an expedition which started in April, 1725, against 
the Pequawkett Indians, of Maine. The Indians lay in ambush for 
Lovell, and he and eight of his men were killed. The remaining 
twenty-three retreated under cover of night to the stockade, taking 
with them the men who could walk. One brave-hearted fellow. Lieu- 
tenant Robbins, who was mortally wounded, asked that a musket be 
left beside him so that he might have one more shot before he died. 
The men, after their weary march, found the stockade deserted, and in 
continuing their march homeward, some of the wounded died on the 
way. There were few left of the Pequawkett Indians. 

But the English saw that yet sterner measures must be taken. 
They concluded, therefore, to move against the French, without whom 
the Indians might have lacked the courage to keep up their continuous 
fighting. Some commissioners were sent to the French Governor to 
inquire into his reasons for disturbing the treaty between France and 
England. The Governor was entirely under the influence of t^ie Jesuit 
priests, who believed that it was to the glory of their religion to fight 
the Protestant Englishmen whenever they could. The commissioners 
succeeded only in getting the Governor to procure the release of some 
captives. A treaty was made between the English and the Eastern 
Indians in 1725, and for twenty years there was comparative peace. 
Thus closed the third Indian war. 

New Hampshire was very anxious for a Governor of her own, who 
should in no way be beholden to Massachusetts authority. It was not 
until 1740 that she succeeded in getting the consent of the Crown to 
such a measure and that the boundary line which divided her from 
Massachusetts was definitely decided upon. Benning Wentworth, a son 
of Lieutenant-Governor Wentworth, was made the first Governor. He 
brought to his office all of the dignity which the New Hampshire 
people could have desired. With a troop of guards about him he rode 
in a pretentious coach, and lived in a house which, for those days, 
was little less than princely. The story of how he married pretty 
Martha Shortredge, one of his servants, is told so well b)' Mr. Long- 
fellow that it would be foolish to repeat it. 

In Massachusetts, William Drummer, the Lieutenant-Governor, 
was looking after the forces of the colony while Shute returned to 
England. Following, came Burnet, who had some bitter quarrels with 


the assembly on the old question of a fixed salarj'. In 1730 Jonathan 
Belcher was sent out from England as Governor. He refused to accept 
the grant of money voted him by the assembly, and dismissed the 
house. This had no effect upon the people, and at length the King 
was obliged to yield the point and consent that Massachusetts should 
do as she pleased about the payment of Governors. 

This was one of the strongest steps toward national independence — 
it was the greatest concession which the Crown of England had yet 
made. William Shirley who succeeded him in office, was much liked. 
He was the first of the royal Governors who succeeded in keeping up 
cordial relations with the people. Whitefield's great religious revival, 
which was shaking New England from its foundation, may have had 
something to do with these amicable relations. It may seem surprising 
that there was much need for a revival of this sort in Puritan New 
England, but the truth was that the people had begun to feel the 
reaction which naturally followed in the wake of religious discipline so 
stern as that the early Puritans imposed. People had grown indifferent 
and worldly, but their religious traditions made their remorse all the 
more sharp, when they were awakened to a sense of their falling-off by 
a man of Whitefield's eloquence. The religious excitement grew so 
high that even the colde'-t could not stand out against it. The more 
sensible people did not approve of this excitement, and thought it was 
doing great harm to the nervous and impressionable. 

In 1744 the French and English in the old country became involved 
in another war. The Governor of Breton, as soon as he heard of it, 
moved against a settlement of English fishermen on the island of 
Canso. The French had been very jealous of the English fishermen, 
and were glad of an excuse for striking a blow at them. The settlement 
at Canso was destroyed and the men sent to the French fortress at 
L,ouisburg. Governor Shirley at once began preparations for war. He 
made up his mind to take Louisburg. This was the strongest fortress 
in America. It had been twenty-five years in building, and cost 
France thirty millions of livres. At the southeastern point of Cape 
Breton was a walled town, two miles and a half in circumference. The 
stone rampart was over thirty feet high and in front of this ran a ditch 
eighty feet wide. The harbor was defended by a battery of thirt}' 28- 
pounders. Upon a little island just opposite was a battery of still 
larger guns. The town was entered over a draw-bridge which was 
guarded by a circular battery of thirteen 24-pounders. The batteries 
and six bastions could mount one hundred and forty-eight cannons. 


Shirley's preparations were made in secret. Only the New England 
troops consented to join the enterprise. Shirley took with him 4,500 
men. Whitefield encouraged the expedition, and his influence was 
\-ery valuable. Colonel William Pepperell was persuaded by Whitefield 
to take command of the expedition. The French heard nothing of the 
matter. All over the provinces a da)- of fasting and prayer was held. 
The troops met on the island of Canso; then, on April 29, 1744, they 
sailed for Cape Breton. A part of the English landed and set fire to 
some large warehouses filled with spirits. The smoke, drifting inland, 
so frightened the French that they spiked the guns of their batter}- at 
the bottom of the harbor, and taking boats, retreated to their walled 
town. Thirteen men who were rcconnoitering found that the battery 
was deserted, and took possession. As they had no flag with them, one 
of the soldiers went up the flag-staff with a red coat in his teeth and 
nailed it up, that the French might know they claimed possession. 
The French attacked them, but were held off until reinforcements came 
up, when they again retreated. On May 5th, Pepperell threw up three 
batteries near the city. Guns and ammunition had been dragged 
through the swamps during the past fourteen days, and these were 
hurried into the batteries. Another batter}' was thrown up within a 
short distance of the draw-bridge, but the town was not easily forced. 
Pepperell knew that the island battery must be taken. This could 
only be done by sending a fleet up the harbor. Commodore Warren, 
who was cruising around outside of the bay, had captured a French 
ship having sixty-four guns, six hundred men, and a quantity of 
military stores on board. From the men on the captured ship, the 
English learned that the French were expecting a large reinforcement. 
The English decided to move at once. Pepperell tried a night attack 
with his scaling ladders, but his men were repulsed with a loss of sixty 
killed, and one hundred and twelve taken prisoners. The siege was 
still continued from the batteries. Pepperell was getting very short of 
ammunition, and some of his best guns burst. By the first week in 
June, fifteen hundred of his men were sick. Commodore Warren kept 
the French from carr}dng the news of the siege to Quebec. But the 
French were not alarmed, and felt no great need of reinforcement. 
They were well-trained soldiers; their enemies were farmers and 
mechanics, many of whom knew little about the use of their fire-arms. 
Pepperell built another battery within range of the island battery in the 
harbor. He had nearly ruined the draw-bridge battery by this time. 
Co'umodore Warren and General Pepperell decided to make an attack 


together. Warren's fleet was drawn up in line and the land forces 
were put in a position to attack. This was the 15th of June, 1745. 
The French lost heart. The}- asked that hostilities might be suspended 
and terms of capitulation made. On the 17 th of June, Pepperell 
marched into the fortress at the head of his plucky men. Governor 
Shirle}- hastened up and was given the keys of the place by the general. 
Six hundred and seventy regular troops, thirteen hundred militiamen, 
six hundred sailors and two thousand inhabitants were sent to France, 
The English had lost one hundred and thirty men. The French lost 
three hundred. General Pepperell was made a baronet, and was the 
first American to receive that honor. Warren was made admiral. 
Pepperell was also given high honors in the English army and 
presented with a table of silver and a service of plate by the city of 
London. For a year Louisburg was garrisoned by New England 

History— Leaky's "England in the Eighteenth Centurv" (Chapter on Whitefield.) 
POBTRY — "Whittier's "Mogg: Megone." 
"WTiittier's "Mar\' Garvin." 



urB0 (Dransnn 

PEARANCE — braddock's defeat 

^■' N Boston, in the year 1747, there was an occur- 
rence which marked the growing independence 
of the colonies, and showed how near they were, 
even then, to revolution. Commodore Knowles, 
commanding an English man-of-war, sailed into 
Boston harbor, and to supply places of some 
sailors who had deserted, he took a press-gang from the 
merchant vessels of Bos:ou. As soon as the people 
learned that some of the Boston boys had been forced 
on the King's ship, they armed themselves with clubs 
and stones and hurried to the Governor's house, where 
the oflicers of the ship were being entertained. All day 
they surrounded the house, and in the evening the}- 
became so threatening that it required the utmost efiForts 
of the Governor and other influential citizens to keep them from 
violence. Even then they sent brickbats crashing through the win- 
dows of the council chamber, and demanded that every officer in town 
belonging to the fleet should be seized and held till the Boston boys 
were released. The militia was ordered out next day by beat of drum, 
but the drummers were in full sympathy with the kidnaped sailors, 
and refused to obey orders. The mob was made up mostly of mechanics 
and laboring men, and by their authority alone the officers of the ship 
were held in custody for three days. Commodore Knowles threatened 
to bombard the town if the)- were not released. Governor Shirley, 


disgusted with the disorderly conduct of the citizens, went to the castle 
on the harbor that he might be out of a town where law was so disre- 
garded. The General Court passed a series of resolutions which 
expressed sorrow for the behavior of the citizens, but declared that the 
House would exert themselves to redress their grievances. The militia 
came out promptl}', ready, and perhaps even anxious, for conflict. 
Governor Shirley returned to the city, and the Boston sailors were 
exchanged for the British officers of the man-of-war. When Knowles 
sailed out of the bay, everyone in Boston gathered on the wharves and 
shouted at the discomfiture of the Commodore, who went back to 
England with an appreciation of the fact that the people in the colonies 
would do pretty much as they chose. 

In 1 74S a treat}' was made between France and England which 
returned to France the fortress of Louisburg, which the English had so 
gallantly taken. There was not a man in the colonies who did not feel 
this to be a personal insult. It seemed as if the mother country set a 
low price upon the lives of her subjects. The engagement had plunged 
the colonies heavily in debt, also, and it was some time before Parlia- 
ment voted the money to pay it. The treaty between the countries in 
the Old World had little effect upon the colonies in America. Hostilities 
were kept up on the border constantly, and when open war was resumed, 
in 1755, there was but little change in the attitude of the French Cana- 
dian and the English settlements. The French had built a chain of 
military posts along the great lakes and upon the highways of the river 
system. About these grew up little settlements. They even com- 
manded a part of the Mississippi. The English were pushing their 
settlements westward, and in 1748 the Ohio Company was formed, 
which made use of the river communication by the Potomac and the 
eastern branches of the Ohio. A road was built over the mountains 
from Cumberland to Pittsburg, and exploring parties were sent out in 
1750 and 1751, under Christopher Gist, who was surveyor of the com- 
pany. In 1753, Major George Washington, a young Virginian, was 
sent out with Gist and others to visit the French forts which were 
encroaching upon the land which the English considered their own. 
The reports which he brought back in January, 1754, determined Vir- 
ginia to fit out an expedition immediately. This was done. Washington 
was made second in command under Colonel Joshua F'r>'. The French 
were under Contrecoeur, who soon met a detachment of the English, 
drove them from the fort which they were building and occupied it 
himself. Washington, who had command of the main body of the 



amiy, had a gallant engagement at Great Meadows, but was defeated 
and foi'ced to surrender. 

It had been proved that the colonies could not work independently. 
Benjamin Franklin and other of the wisest men of the colonies thought 
it was best to have a union. Congress assembled at Albany. Massa- 


After the painting- by C. W. Peale, and the en^avingof J. W. Paradise. 

chusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, 

the Jerseys, Pennsylvania, ;\Iar\land, Virginia and North and South 

Carolina sent delegates. Chiefs from six nations also met them there. 

This congress wished to meet annualh', but the Board of Trade in 


London would not permit it, thinking that it gave too much power to 
the colonists. In the convention it was agreed that war with Canada 
Was necessar}'. 

In 1754, Edward Braddock was made Commander-in-chief of all the 
fortresses in North America. Six thousand regular troops were given 
bj- the Crown, ready for service, as well as the money for the purpose 
of raising a colonial army. It was Braddock' s intention to march 
against Fort Cumberland. Unfortunately, Braddock started from Vir- 
ginia, because the road had already been built from there. But this 
made his march an exhausting and expensive one. He did not 
understand the nature of warfare in America, although he was a man of 
much experience and bravery. He was used to the well-regulated 
warfare of Europe, and could not, or would not, understand the savage 
methods which the frontiersmen used, owing to the fact that the 
Indians were always allies with them and they had no choice but to 
employ their methods. Braddock had one thousand regular soldiers, 
thirty sailors, twelve hundred provincials, a train of artillery, and 
wagons and horses which Benjamin Franklin had procured for him, 
beside the brave, friendly Indians. This line stretched along the narrow 
road. Had the Indians chosen at any time to attack it, as it wound its 
way through the great forest of white pines and the desolate mountains, 
it could have cut it into a dozen pieces. 

Washington was sent ahead with twelve hundred men, about half 
of the force, leaving the rest with the baggage and the horses at Little 
Meadows. There were not more than a thousand men under Contre- 
coeur holding the French fort. Contrecceur thought that it might be 
safest to surrender at once, but De Beaujeu, one of his captains, asked 
permission to lay an ambuscade for the British. The Indians put on 
their war-paint and followed him. The Frenchmen were wild with 
enthusiasm. Braddock, proudly confident of his strength, moved on. 
Washington said afterward that he never saw so beautiful a sight as the 
British troops made on that morning when they were ordered as if on 
dress parade, and with their flying colors, their martial music and 
glittering uniforms, hastened toward the fort. Suddenly Beaujeu, 
dressed in a French hunting dress and wearing a silver gorget, bounded 
down hill. Behind him came the French and Indians. At a signal 
the Indians disappeared. The French fired upon the English, then all 
about from the hollows and the woods came the fearful shrieks of the 
Indians. The English stood steady in a compact body and returned the 
fire. Beaujeu was killed, but his men, fighting from behind trees and 


in ravines, worked terrible destruction among the Englishmen, who 
were fighting after European methods on the clear ground. Washington 
wanted Braddock to allow the men to use the methods of the natives, 
but this was not soldierly, according to Braddock' s idea, and he would 
not permit it. Braddock had four horses shot under him, and was 
finally wounded himself His army beat a wild retreat. A few faithful 
friends carried him with them. He died, giving up his command to 
Washington, and was buried at Great Meadows. The army marched 
to Philadelphia. 

History— Spark's "Life ol Washington." 

Columbus' "Life of Washington." 
Parkman's "Pontiac." 
Fiction— C. McKnight's "Old Fort Du Quesne." 
Wright's "Marcus Blair." 
Thackeray's "Virginians." 







IVING upon the basin of Minas, in Nova Scotia, 
was a company of people called the French Neu- 
trals. They were British subjects, for at this time 
Nova Scotia was an English possession, but they 
were constantly suspected of being in sympathy 
I with the French and would take no oath of alle- 

giance which did not contain a proviso that they 
were never to take up arms against France. The pc .pie 
"the community were very industrious and frug.:i, and 
they gained wealth rapidly. Their religion held them 
together, and kept them from mingling with the Prot- 
estant English. The French and the English united in 
holding them in suspicion, feeling that they must be 
dangerous if they would give the allegiance to neither 
one nation nor the other. England was anxious to have 
Nova Scotia, or Acadia, settled with hearty British subjects, and in 
1749, Colonel Edward Cornwallis led an expedition of nearly two 
thousand five hundred persons into Chebucto harbor and settled the 
town of Halifax. The nearest settlement was that of the French, on 
the basin of Minas. A little cattle path ran through the woods for 
twenty miles, connecting the two towns. 

The garri.son was removed from Louisburg, and assisted in the work 
of the young settlement at Halifax. The English imagined that their 
French neighbors were setting the Indians upon an attack upon the 
colony, and all through the winter of 1749 the people lived in fear of 


an attack. There was also a French settlement at the mouth of the 
St. John, and it was feared that the two colonies would unite in a move 
against the English. To avoid such danger, the English decided that 
the people of Grand Pre must be made to take a complete oath of alle- 
giance or else be removed altogether from communication with the 
French. After several years of suspicion and dissatisfaction a crisis was 
reached in 1755, when the people of IMinas begged to have the arms, 
which had been taken from them, restored. There was a rumor that a 
French iieet was in the Bay of Fundy and that the Acadians intended 
to join the forces and attack the English garrison. The Governor 
ordered the French inhabitants to send delegates to Halifax for the pur- 
pose of giving the oath of allegiance. They refused to take it. It was 
therefore decided that the French inhabitants should be sent out of the 
province. An expedition was sent from Massachusetts, under the com- 
mand of Edward Winslow. The French fortifications were taken, the 
Acadian Indians disarmed, and some of the Acadians pressed into English 
service. The farmers of Grand Pre were then asked to meet the English 
in the little church at 3 o'clock in the afternoon to hear what the 
English officers had to impart to them. The old and young men, and all 
the boys often years of age, were required to be there. They assembled, 
unsuspiciously, to the number of four hundred and eighteen. The 
church was put under guard. Colonel Winslow told him that it was 
his Majesty's instructions and orders that all lands and tenements, 
cattle of all kinds, and live stock of all sorts, were forfeited to the 
Crown. Only their monej* and household goods were allowed them. 
It was promised that families should be kept together, and that removals 
should be as easy as it could be made. The poor French farmers were 
surrounded by troops, and their pra^-ers and protests were of no avail. 
The men were kept in the church for some time, waiting for the arrival 
of the vessels which would transport them. When they came, all the 
young unmarried men were placed upon the vessels first, then all of the 
young married men. Only the very young or the ver>' old were left on 
shore. There was no chance for a revolt. It was many weeks before 
the rest of the transports arrived in which the families were to be placed. 
In the meantime, the unhappy women spent their days in packing up 
their goods and arranging for departure. 

Colonel Winslow grew tired of his bitter task. The weeping of the 
women worried him, and their prayers were harder to face tiian the fire 
of an enemy would have been. On the 21st of October the remaining 
transports arrived and. the people were embarked. Tliere were at least 


two thousand of them, possibly more. The e.xiles were scattered 
through a number of the colonies. Some of them returned to France. 
There was a colony planted in Louisiana, and a few returned in time. 
In Massachusetts, they were persecuted. The children were taken 
from their parents and driven from town to town. Evenone refused to 
care for them. 

No doubt the Puritans thought that they were serving the Lord in 
•^his persecution of the Roman Catholics. In Pennsylvania, the exiles 
were distributed among country towns and provisions were made for 
them from time to time. They were always gentle under the wrongs 
which were heaped upon them. 

History — Haliburton's "Historj' of Nova Scotia.** 
Fiction — Mrs. Williams' "The Neutral French." 
Haliburton's "The Old Judge." 
De Mine's "The Lily and the Cross." 
Poetry— Longfellow's "Evangeline." 


>\t Jfion or I^b Jixlm. 







fCENERAL plan had been laid out by the English 
^ for the reduction of France in the New World. 
^ The unfortunate expedition of Braddock was but 
a part of this. He was to take Fort Du Quesne 
and move on to Niagara. Governors Shirle}- and 
Johnson met with their forces at Albany. Gov- 
ernor Shirle}' was to move against Niagara, where he 
was to be joined by Braddock' s men. General John- 
son was to move against Crown Point, a French 
garrison on the southern shore of Lake Champlain. 
While Governors Shirley and Johnson were waiting 
in Albany for the arrival of the last of their troops, 
they received word of Braddock' s disaster. The men 
were inexperienced and impatient. Fighting, they 
could understand, but waiting and planning, which 
is so large a part of the success of war, was distasteful to them. 
Shirley was obliged to wait so long before making his attack iipoii 
Niagara that a fall stonn set in. Many of his men deserted him, and 
he thought it best not to venture upon so long a march, amidst the 
inclemency of the coming weather, with a reduced force of men. He 
learned, also, that the French, under Baron Dieskan, were intending to 
attack Oswego. He strengthened that place by increasing the garrison 
there to seven hundred men. The French were anxious for Oswego, for 


though Forts Niagara and Frontenac commanded each end of Lake 
Ontario, Oswego, upon the southern bank, held the key to the Ohio 
valley. So long as this was not in the possession of the English, the 
French traders were not likely to be interfered with. Dieskau was, indeed, 
upon the point of moving against Oswego, when he heard of General 
Johnson's intentions to move against Crown Point. Dieskau abandoned 
his first intention and hurried to meet Johnson. He had two thousand 
men, whom he took up Lake Champlain to Fort St. Frederick, at Crown 
Point. There he waited for the English. General Johnson's forces 
had been sent northward, under General Lyman, in mid-summer. They 
spent their time in building a fort on the east bank of the Hudson while 
they waited for General Johnson to arrive with the necessary stores and 
equipments. It was the 8th of August, 1755, when General Johnson 
set out to join Lyman. Ammunition, provisions and all other necessaries 
of a campaign were carried fourteen miles to Lake George. Here they 
were obliged to wait for their boats, but built a fort in the meantime. 
Here Indians from the Six Nations joined John.son from time to time in 
small numbers. Lyman's men were engaged in strengthening the 
fort; Johnson encamped farther south on the lake, in a spot protected 
by the lake on one side and a marsh on the other. 

Dieskau left a strong party at Crown Point and marched southward, 
with the intention of taking Lyman's men, thus cutting off Johnson 
from his supplies. Could he do this, there would be nothing between 
him and the New England border. The Indians were full of objections. 
They were always reluctant about attacking forces, having a terrible 
fear of cannon. They refused to believe Dieskau when he told them 
that Lyman was entirely unprovided with them. Dieskau was, there- 
fore, obliged to march against Johnson's camp. Johnson heard of their 
approach and went to meet them. Dieskau prepared an ambush in the 
shape of a horseshoe, intending, when the English marched into it, to 
bring around one of the long lines and close about them, attacking 
from all sides. Hendrick, the chief of the Mohawks, and a detach- 
ment of Johnson's men, marched into this. Upon three sides oi' 
them the French and Indians rose with a yell and fell upon them. 
Blood}- Pond, on the east shore of Lake George, still marks the spot 
where those unfortunate men fell. Reinforcements covered the flight 
of the remnant of the English back to the rude barricade which 
Johnson had hastily raised and where he had placed his few cannons 
which he had brought up in boats. 

The Canadian Indians would not pursue the fight when they saw the 


cannons. The Mohawks, on the English side, had already fled. Their 
chief, Hendricks, had been killed. The provincial soldiers, hiding 
behind their barricade of trees, picked off the French regulars until 
they were obliged to take to the woods. Johnson had been wounded 
and Lyman took command. The French, protected by the trees, crept 
up close to the breastworks, and the battle became a hand-to-hand fight. 
Lyman kept the cannons busy sending a raking fire through the swamps 
where the savages were lurking. The French were obliged to fly. 
Johnson gave orders that his men were not to pursue them. The French 
rested and began preparations for a meal, for they were half starved. 
Just then a detachment of two hundred New Hampshire troops marched 
down from Fort Lyman. These fell upon the French, and besides 
doing much execution, got their baggage and ammunition. The French 
lost about five hundred, the English between two and three hundred. 
There was the greatest rejoicing in the colonies. Johnson was 
made a baronet and given a large sum of money. In Albany, the 
people knew that they had been saved from destruction. The English 
proceeded to build a strong fort at the south end of Lake George. It 
was called Fort William Henry. That and Fort Lyman were both 
well garrisoned. The French took possession of the pass at Ticon- 
deroga and fortified it. Governor Shirley, since the death of Braddock, 
had been at the head of the English army in America. The plans 
which he laid for the coming year, 1756, were a repetition of the year 
before. The desire was to capture Fort Du Quesne and Crown Point; 
Niagara, Frontenac, and Ticonderoga were to be taken, if possible. 
The British and French governments fonnally declared war in May, 
1756. Lord Loudon was made Commander-in-chief of the English 
forces, and the Marquis De Montcalm was placed at the head of the 
French. The Englishman was indolent and unambitious. He waited 
for this thing and that, while the army in America was suffering for 
his presence. Montcalm was very different. He hastened to Canada 
with two thousand men and a large quantity of stores. Under his 
directions the French cut off supplies intended for Oswego. They 
captured small English forts, took a considerable number of prisoners, 
and succeeded in winning the alliance of the Six Nations. The French 
succeeded in capturing Fort Ontario, with a slight loss to themselves. 
The English lost as prisoners of war, sixteen hundred men, including 
eighty officers, one hundred and twenty pieces of artillery, a large 
store of ammunition, and the seven armed ships and two hundred 
batteaux which were to have been sent against Niagara and Frontenac. 


The English, weakened by the languid and ineffectual command of 
Lord Loudon, continued to be inactive. The force had dwindled, by 
sickness, from seven to four thousand. Montcalm returned to Montreal 
for the winter. The English plans for the next year were to confine 
hostilities to a single expedition. This was to be against Louisburg, 
which the English had taken once before so gallantly. Four thousand 
more men were raised in the colonies. The troops met at Halifax and 
were joined by Loudon with six thousand regulars, but when Loudon 
learned that Louisburg was well garrisoned, he concluded to put off an 
attack for a year and returned to New York. When ]\Iontcalm heard 
of this, he made up his mind to move against Fort Willian Henry, 
This fort had been badly situated. Some of the hills by it commanded 
it absolutely, and around it were marshes and low-lying ground. 
Montcalm, with fifty-five hundred Canadians and regulars, and sixteen 
hundred Indians, made his way from Ticonderoga across the portage to 
the upper part of Lake George. Here he divided his men. Part were 
sent in batteaux and canoes down the lake with all the baggage, and 
twenty-eight hundred followed the Indian's trail by the side of the lake. 
These last mentioned were under the command of De Levis. Montcalm 
landed on the west side of the lake, about two miles from the fort, and 
demanded its surrender. Colonel Monroe, who was in command, 
promptly refused, thinking that he could rely on the assistance of 
General Webb's men at Fort Lyman, fifteen miles below. But Webb 
had the stupidity to advise Monroe to surrender, since he could give no 
aid to him unless General Johnson arrived with reinforcements. The 
French intercepted this letter, learned the nature of the men they had 
to deal with, and sent the messenger on his way. 

General Johnson did arrive with reinforcements, but Webb would 
not pennit him to give the assistance to poor Monroe, although the 
common soldier^' were wild for action, and outraged at the meanness 
which left him to his fate. The siege lasted for six days and Monroe 
was obliged to surrender. Montcalm made liberal terms but the Indians 
had been inflamed with liquor and their thirst for blood aroused. 
Montcalm had promised that the troops should be marched to Fort 
Lyman safely. He tried to keep his word, but the Indians broke from 
all control and fell upon the Englishmen. In their panic the English 
ev»n fled to the French for protection. It has never ceased to be a 
subject for dispute among the friends and enemies of Montcalm, as to 
whether he inspired the Indians in this treacherj' or not. Montcalm 
burned Fort William Henrj' and returned to Canada. 


The Indian depredations continued all along the English frontier as 
far as the valley of the Shenandoah. Oswego, the key of the Ohio valley 
and the great lakes, had been lost. It is true that the English held 
Acadia, but the silent and desolated villages were not a proud possession. 
Fortunateh', at this time, a man who was always a friend of the 
American colonies came to their relief. It was William Pitt, the 
English statesman. At this time he was Secretary- of State, and he 
took vigorous measures for sending armies, ammunition and a general 
equipment from England. He also called for a large number of 
colonial soldiers. All the New England men needed was encourage- 
ment and example, and they responded to the call with enthusiasm. 
.\dmiral Boscawen and Sir Jeffrey Amherst were placed in command of 
the forces which were called to attack Louisburg. On June 2, 1758, 
these forces arrived at Louisburg, and a well-planned assault was made. 
The French surrendered and the English took six thousand prisoners. 
This was verj- important to the English, for there now stood nothing 
between Louisburg and Quebec, the strongest and most impregnable of 
the Canadian cities. New England began to take courage once more, 
and looked to Brigadier-General Wolfe, who played an important part 
in the engagement, for a leadership of more power. Abercrombie, 
who had taken the place of the ineffective Loudon, was aiming at the 
capture of Ticonderoga. With him was Lord Howe, a general of 
bravery and dash, trusted by his officers and beloved by his men. 

On the 5th of July, Abercrombie came up Lake George with fifteen 
thousand troops, both regulars and provincials, in a fleet of batteaux. 
The scarlet uniforms of his English regulars, the plaids of his Highland 
troops, and the motley garb of his provincials making a picturesque 
spectacle. The French had been sent to keep the English from landing. 
One body of them was driven back, the other took to the woods, and 
wandering there bewildered, encountered a body of horsemen, who were 
also lost. In the engagement which followed, nearly all of the French 
(three hundred and fifteen) were killed. The English lost heavily also, 
and Lord Howe was shot. His loss was a greater disaster to the 
English than twice the number of the French slain would have been. 
On the 8th, a regular attack was made upon Carillon. Abercrombie 
sent his regulars again and again to the deadly abatis. The huge 
trunks and roots of the trees afforded the best protection in the world 
for the French. Lord Abercrombie, unused to this method of defence, 
did not sufficiently value its strength. 

At sunset the English gave the fight up as hopeless and withdrew to 


the lake. The discouraged men encamped upon the ruins of Fori 
William Henrj', and counting their numbers, found that tlie)- had lost 
over two thousand. Meanv/liile, Bradstreet. with tliree thousand men, 
had once more secured Oswego to the English. He then rode down the 
lake to Frontenac and captured its garrison, and then returned to 
Albany to join the men who remained. The third expedition which 
had been sent for the recovery of Fort Du Ouesne, under General Forbes, 
was successful. Forbes did not march b\' the road which Braddock 
had followed, but started from Bedford, Massachusetts. With Forbes 
was Colonel Washington and his Virginian troops. A great deal of 
time was wasted in building bridges and leveling woods after the 
manner of European warfare, which the commander followed and 
Washington protested against. The march was so long that the 
provisions were exhausted, and it was feared that the expedition would 
have to return without having accomplished anything. The French 
did not feel strong enough to venture resistance, and they set fire to their 
magazine. So the English conquered almost in spite of themselves. 
The key to the lakes and the Ohio valley was once more in their 
possession. A terrible disaster befell the army a few days later, when 
Grant's detachment of men, consisting largely of Highlanders, were 
surprised by seven or eight hundred Frenchmen, and nearly all killed. 
Pitt continued to send supplies and men over to America. By the 6th 
of July, the English were before Niagara. The general first in 
command was killed by the carelessness of one of his soldiers, and Sir 
William Johnson took his place. The French knew that their garrison 
was too small to hold against the besieging force, and sent to Detroit 
and Presque Isle for reinforcements. These the English met and 
defeated in a spirited engagement. When the French at the fort were 
convinced of this disaster, they surrendered. Meanwhile, Amherst had 
brought eleven thousand men to awe the little garrison of Ticonderoga. 
The French did not attempt resistance, but blew up the magazine and 
retreated northward. Amherst went on cautiously to Crown Point, 
only to find that the French had retreated still farther north. The rest 
of the year was employed by Amherst in building those massive works 
on Crown Point, which are still the wonder of tourists. Rogers was 
sent with his rangers against the Indians, but the great interest of the 
English campaign lay with General Wolfe. 

Fiction— James' "Ticonderoga." 

Cooper's "Last of the Mohicans." 
Poetry— Whittier's "Pentucket" 
Whittier's "St. John." 


>|$ JhI^s uf ilor^. 






'HOUGH Wolfe was a man of much strength of 
spirit, he suffered constantly from bodily weak- 
ness. Nothing but a fierce determination to 
restore the honor of the English colonies could 
have kept him up through those trj'ing expedi- 
tions. He rested in England for a time after 
the taking of Louisburg, and then returned to prepare 
for the capture of Quebec, suffering, meantime, from a 
deep melancholy and a presentment of death. At the 
close of June, 1759, the English forces left L,ouisburg 
and encamped on the Isle d' Orleans, in the St. Law- 
rence, a little below Quebec. A detachment was put on 
the promontory of Point Levi, on the southern shore of 
the river, and still nearer the city. Montcalm learned 
of their coming, and made preparations for defence. 
Rocky bluffs rose straight up from the St. Lawrence, and for years these 
natural fortifications had been considered impregnable. Montcalm had 
about three thousand men, in fortified camps, protecting the city. Across 
the St. Lawrence was a dam, with vessels sunk behind it and barges in 
front. The St. Lawrence, on the south side of the city, was about a 
mile wide, and at that place was a swift-flowing river. Montcalm's 
forces were much larger than Wolfe's, and the English soldiers were 
inclined to the belief that an attempt against such forces and fortifica- 
tions was useless. Wolfe did not depend upon strength, but on strategy. 
An attack was made on the French camp near the falls of Montmorenci. 
The Englishmen made a bold attack, but in the end were forced to take 


to their boats and retreat. The expedition was a sorr>' failure, and at 
least five hundred men were lost by the English. 

The siege was kept up for another month. Little effect was inade 
upon the upper town, but the lower one was almost destroyed. Wolfe was 
sick and melancholy. The inaction was dispiriting to the troops. 
What they desired was to force Montcalm to meet them on open fiel-d. 
At length Wolfe, lying ill in his tent, hit upon a plan which made him 
immortal. In the time which they had lingered there, Wolfe had 
become well acquainted with the countrj', for his men had reconnoitred 
faithfully. Therefore, on the night of the twelfth, a moonless night, 
Wolfe rose from his bed and led sixteen hundred of his men. They 
dropped silently down the river with the current, and landed beneath the 
overhanging heights above the city. Up these wooded bluffs were steep 
paths, and fourteen volunteers led the way while the sixteen hundred 
men followed. Once they were challenged by a sentinel. A High- 
lander replied, in the French tongue, that they brought provisions. 
There was no other interruption. It was the Highland boys in their 
plaids that sprang ashore first. They were used to mountain climbing, 
and rushed up the steep. The little guard at the head of the path was 
soon overpowered. When the morning light broke, Quebec was 
astonished to see an English army on the Plains of Abraham, the great 
table land behind the city. Montcalm hurried thither with twenty-five 
hundred men. 

He had been on the other side of the St. Lawrence river, and had to 
cross the bridge of boats and pass through the city before he reached 
the Plains. The English had already begun to intrench themselves. 
The French had no time for preparations, and one gun was all they 
had been able to drag after them. The Canadians crouched in the corn- 
fields and began the attack, and the French regulars, in three divisions, 
moved upon the centre and the flanks of the English. The French 
kept up a steady fire, but the English did not level their guns until 
their enemies were within a few feet. Then, of course, the fire was 
deadly, and the English followed it up by a hand-to-hand attack. The 
Frenchmen fell into disordered rout. 

Wolfe was wounded. He had one ball in his side, and another in 
his breast. Some one carried him to the rear and laid him on the grass, 
where he lay almost unconscious, but when a man cried, ' 'See how they 
run!" Wolfe raised himself suddenly and asked, "Who run?" When 
he heard it was the enemy, he gave his last orders: 

"Tell Colonel Burton to march Welb's regiment down the St 



I^awrence river and cut off their retreat from the bridge." Then he 
died peacefully. Montcalm was also killed, and was buried in -i cavity 
of the earth made by the bursting of a bombshell. It was the burial 
he had asked for. On the i8th of September, 1759, the British took 
possession of Quebec, the French withdrawing their troops to Montreal. 
With the opening of the river in the spring, De Levis came down 
from Montreal with an armv of seven thousand men. The English 
moved out with soldierly spirit, and a second battle was fought upon 
the Plains of Abraham. The English were worsted, and the French 
began a siege. Both forces waited in quiet for some time, expecting 
reinforcements. They came to the English first, and De Levis threw 
his guns into the river and retreated. On the 8th of September the 
city surrendered. In the terms of capitulation were included Detroit, 
Michelimackinac and all the French forts farther west. The French 
fleet, which arrived upon the coast soon after, was entirely destroyed 
by the British squadron. Canada, Nova Scotia and Cape Breton now 
belonged to Great Britain. 

History— Warburton's "Conquest of Canada." 
Fiction— Hall's "Twice Taken." 
Tiffany's "Brandon." 



jt 3pIout ^nr Jfibri^. 






HE chief of the Ottawas, Pontiac, claimed all 
^^^ the land upon the southern and western sides of 
Lake Erie. He is said to have commanded his 
Indians with great skill at the time of Braddock's 
defeat. In 1746, he and his warriors defended 
the French with bravery, against the Northern 
Indians. Practically, he was the principal chief of three 
great tribes, the Objibewas, the Ottawas, and the Potta- 
watoniies. At the time of which we write he was a 
little past the prime of life, but was still one of the most 
intelligent and formidable men of his race. He was 
haughty and eloquent, not lacking in statesmanlike quali- 
ties, nor in a certain poetic imagination. 

When the English detachment was sent to take pos- 
session of Detroit, under Major Rogers, Pontiac came in 
person to inquire what right he had to pass through the countr}-. He 
was told of the conquest of Canada and that the party were on the wa}- to 
accept the surrender of Detroit. Pontiac retired to turn the matter 
over in his mind for the night, and on the following day made a speech 
in which he affirmed his friendliness towards the English and prom- 
ised that they should be unmolested. That he was sincere in his pro- 
testations of friendship is proved by the fact that when Rogers and his 
famous rangers arrived at the Detroit river, Pontiac persuaded four 
hundred Detroit Indians, who were lying there in ambush for them, to 
disperse. Had he not done so, this would have been the last adventure 


of tliat picturesque band of men whose exploits have been the delight 
of all American boys. 

But the English were never so attractive to the Indians as were the 
French, and after a time the grim old savage, Pontiac, began to long 
for his more entertaining friends, who had so long lived near him in 
good fellowship. He could not understand why a large garrison of 
Frenchmen should lay down their arms and surrender to a handful of 
English rangers, and he listened with satisfaction to the tales which the 
French poured into his ears. They said that the great French Father 
had been asleep, but that he would awaken now and avenge the wrongs 
of his children. Pontiac, solitary and gloomy, pondered upon this in 
the depths of the Michigan forests, and laid plans for driving the Eng- 
lish from the country. This was to be done by attacking all the forts 
in a single day, as well as all the frontier settlements. He had heard 
that a large French fleet was on its way down the St. Lawrence, 
and he hoped to win the good will of the commander. With him, he 
would march upon the older English settlements and drive the people 
back across the Atlantic. Ambassadors were sped to the several 
Indian nations with a red-stained tomaha-yvk and the wampum war belt. 
The Senecas, Algonquins, Wyandots and some southern tribes became 
allies of Pontiac. Each tribe was to dispose of the garrison nearest it 
and then turn upon the adjacent settlements. On April 27, 1763, 
Pontiac called a great council on the river Ecorces and addressed his 
warriors there. He recounted all the wrongs the Indians had suffered 
at the hands of the English, and he told of a tradition that a Delaware 
Indian had been allowed to enter the presence of the Great Spirit, who 
told him that his race must return to the customs and weapons of their 
ancestors, give up the whisky which the white men had taught them 
to use, and throw away the implements with which he had tried to 
chain them to the dull drudger\' of civilization. Pontiac assured his 
friends that the French were coming down the St. Lawrence with a 
large fleet of soldiers who would stand by them and be their friends. 
The insurrection was to be on the 7th of "Slay, and Pontiac was to lead 
the attack on Detroit. 

On the 1st he visited the fort with forty warriors, and danced the 
the dance of peace before them. He retired to finish his plans of war. 
He and one hundred chiefs were to enter the fort for the purpose of 
holding a council with the commander. Pontiac was to make a speech, 
and when he presented the wampum belt wrong end foremost, it was to 
be the signal for the Indians to fall upon the officers and kill them. 


The Indians waiting outside about the streets were to do the same 
deadly work among the soldiers and citizens. The plans were well 
laid, but on the 5th, one of the English women visiting in Ottawa vil- 
lage to make purchases of maple sugar and venison, saw many warriors 
cutting off the barrels of their guns with files. She wondered why they 
could wish the barrels of their guns to be made shorter. There was 
only one conclusion; they wished to hide them under the folds of 
their blankets. One of the beautiful young Indian girls who were in 
the habit of visiting the fort left with so much reluctance on the night 
before the attack that she was questioned until she confessed the details 
of the plot. Pontiac made her suffer severely afterward for this 
treachery to her race. 

The force of Pontiac about Detroit was from six hundred to two 
thousand. The English garrison consisted of one hundred and twenty 
men. The fort was a square enclosed by a palisade twenty feet high. 
At each corner was a wooden bastion, with a few light pieces of artil- 
ler}-, and over the gateways were block-houses. Two armed schooners 
were anchored in the river. 

Pontiac came at the appointed time and entered the gate with his 
warriors. He saw at once that his plans had been discovered. "Why 
do I see so many of my father's young men standing in the street with 
their guns?" he asked. Gladwyn, who was commanding, replied, 
lightly, that they had been out for exercise. Pontiac began his speech, 
doubtless turning over in his mind the possibility of an attack even 
now. Once he lifted the wampum belt. Gladwjn replied with a 
slight movement of his hand. There was a rattle of arms at the door 
and the roll of a drum. Pontiac sat down in dismayed silence. The 
Indians were finally conducted to the gate by the soldiers, and ushered 
out in sullen silence. 

Pontiac and three chiefs came back the next day with a calumet and 
told Gladwyn that evil birds had sung lies in his ear. The following 
day he came with a large crowd of warriors, to find the gates barred. 
He was told that he alone would be allowed to enter. The war-whoop 
which his followers gave was the declaration of hostilities. Some of them 
ran to the defenceless English houses outside the fort, killed the inhabi- 
tants, and shook their bloody scalps at the soldiers. Pontiac' s village 
was hastily moved across the ri\'er to the mouth of the creek we now 
know as Bloody Run, a mile and a half north of the fort. On the loth 
he began a regular siege, fighting in the usual savage manner, behind 
barns and fences, keeping well out of reach of return fire. Two Scotch 


officers responded to Pontiac's wish to hold a council with the Eng- 
lish. Both were detained as prisoners and one was murdered. 

The Wyandots joined Pontiac and the siege was renewed with great 
vigor. It had taken Gladw>'n some time to realize the extent of the 
conspiracy. But now he removed everything about the fort which 
could obstruct the sweep of his guns. He carefully economized the 
provisions, and dug wells in the fort. These wells were not alone 
needed to provide against thirst, but to extinguish the fires as well, for 
one of the chief methods of Indian warfare was to tip the arrows with 
burning tow. Under cover of darkness the friendly Indians across the 
shore brought over supplies. Pontiac's soldiers had not been prepared 
for sustained conflict, and before long were short of provisions. The 
old chief was not lacking in dignified ideas of war and would not permit 
his men to prey upon the Canadian farms. He made a large number 
of promissory notes upon birch bark, which were to be exchanged for 
provisions. After his disastrous war had closed it is said that he 
redeemed all of these notes. 

Reinforcements were on their way up Lake Erie for Gladwyn. He 
knew of this, and sent one of his schooners to hasten their approach, 
but the schooner missed them, and they continued to slowly creep up 
the coast, not knowing of the siege, and were captured by a band of 
Wyandots, who killed or took as prisoners sixty men. Only two boats 

The Indians hid in the boats which they had captured and forced 
the crew to sail into the harbor. The Indians hoped to enter the fort 
by this strategy. At the fort they had watched the approach of the 
boats with great delight, and the disappointment when they were seen 
to be laden with Indians, was almost unbearable. The two boats which 
escaped hastened to Niagara and told their story. An expedition for 
relief was formed. The Indians made an attempt to capture this also, 
but it reached the fort in safety. 

The approaches to the fort were guarded b)- the schooners, of which 
the Indians stood in great fear. They made several attempts to 
destroy them with fire- rafts, but were not successful. The Wyandots 
and Pottawatomies exchanged prisoners with Gladwyn and sued for 
peace, but the Ottawas and Ojibewas kept up the conflict. On the 29th 
of July a reinforcement of two hundred and eighty men reached 
Detroit, and revived the spirits of the exhausted garrison. They now 
felt strong enough to march out from the fort and openly attack the 
Indian camp. But the Indian never could be made to fight in fair field. 


They hid behind every' tree and clump of bushes. Dalzell, who led 
the expedition, could find no enemy, and after going as far as the deep- 
ening twilight would permit, turned his men back toward the fort. 
Then every bush, tree and hill became alive with savages who had 
lain in ambush. Dalzell was killed. Rogers took possession of a house 
and defended some of his men there. The cellar of the house was 
crowded with women and children, and upon the trap-door, which 
covered it, stood an old man who needed all his little strength and his 
eloquence to keep the soldiers from rushing, in their terror, into the 
cellar. Rogers held out until the batteaux, which had gone down the 
river with the killed and wounded, returned. This was called the battle 
of Bloody Bridge. In it the English lost fifty-nine men and the Indians 
about twenty. The great desire of the i cidians was to keep supplies 
from reaching the fort. One of the ?chooners returning to the fort 
from Niagara was attacked in the Detroit river by a large number of 
Indians, who swam silently through the water with knives in their 
teeth. The crew fought them with spears and hatchets, and succeeded in 
saving the boats from capture, but the captain was killed and several 
men badly wounded. The boat would have been lost, had not the 
mate given an order that the magazines should be fired. The Indians 
understood enough English to take warning. The next expedition 
^ivhich was sent to the fort from Niagara was overtaken b)- a storm. 
Seventy men were lost, besides all the store of ammunition. 

The Ottawas finally sued for peace, and Pontiac raised the siege in 
October and returned to his melancholy forest. That portion of the 
Tvar which he superintended himself had not been successful, but his 
alli^r had been more fortunate. At almost ever}' fort in that country 
the work of destruction had been successfulh- carried out. Forts 
Sandusky, St. Joseph and Quatanoir, on the Wabash, were all captured, 
and in most cases the garrison were murdered. At Michelimackinac, a 
very crafty plan was laid for the taking of the fort. The Indians invited 
the officers to witness a game of ball on the plain in front of the fort. 
From early morning till noon the soldiers looked on, well pleased 
-with the sport. Finally the ball was thrown near the gate of the fort. 
The Indians made a rush for it, seized the two officers, who were stand- 
ing near, and bound them, while the savages poured into the fort. 
Inside were the squaws, with weapons concealed under their blankets. 
These the men seized and fell upon the soldiers. vSeventeen were killed 
instantly, and six were tortured to death. The English traders were 
led into captivit)-. The French, quietly looking on, were not touched. 


At Prasqui, near the present town of Erie, Pennsylvania, the fort was 
was besieged for two days and a half Here the Indians mined the fort 
and the English were obliged to surrender. They were taken as pris- 
oners to Pontiac's camp. At Fort Le Boeuf, a block-house, in which the 
garrison had taken refuge, was set on fire, and the garrison of fourteen 
men dug a hole in the ground in the rear and crept stealthily into the 
forest, while the Indians stood dancing around in the belief that they 
were burning to death. The men started for Fort Pitt, but some of 
them died of hunger by the way. At Fort Venango, on the Alle- 
glian)-, the garrison was butchered and Lieutenant Gordon slowly 
tortured to death. Fort Pitt itself was well fortified. It had a good 
supply of water and provisions, and the attack was not successful. A 
command was sent out from Philadelphia, under Colonel Henry Boquet, 
to strengthen the garrison at Fort Pitt. He had five hundred men with 
him, mostly Highlanders. These marched through a desolate tract of 
countrj' at the western part of Pennsylvania. Many settlements there 
had been laid waste and the inhabitants murdered. A fierce attack 
was made on him near the stream called Brush river, where the men 
had encamped. His little army was entirely surrounded, and his 
horses, unused to the blood-curdling shrieks of the Indians, were 
unmanageable. The Scotchmen fought firmly, rather than bravely, 
and their verj' lack of excitement won them the victor}'. The fight 
was resumed the next da}' at the first break of light. The Scotchmen 
were placed at a terrible disadvantage. They stood in an open space 
in a compact mass. The Indians were dispersed through the woods 
and fought from behind trees. Boquet feigned retreat. The Indians 
supposed that their prey was about to escape, and made a furious 
attack. This was exactly what Boquet desired. In a short time 
the Indians were flying before the Scotchmen. The march was 
resumed, and the force arrived at Fort Pitt, having lost eight officers and 
one hundred and fifteen men. 

In a short time general peace was made, but for many mouths after 
the people in the frontier villages lived in terror of their lives. Two 
thousand whites were killed. Several costly expeditions had been 
entirely destroyed. Pontiac, still revengeful, tried to start another con- 
spiracy, but failed. He was murdered in 1769 by a Kaskaskia Indian^ 
on the spot where St. Louis now stands. 

History — Parkman's "Conspiracy of Pontiac." 
Drama — .-V. Macomb's "Pontiac." 


S^Hr fait ]|i$ Jrulus. 






I OR a time after the close of the war a pleasant 
tranquility reigned in the colonies. George 
Washington, writing to a friend in England, 
confessed there was really nothing to say. 
' 'Happy the people whose annals are tiresome, ' ' 
says Montesquieu. For a time it seemed as if 
life in New England was to resolve itself into this 
fortunate monotony. But the young King George HI, 
in England, had ideas which brought this tranquility to 
an end. He believed that the colonies were rich 
enough to help him in carrying out one of his famous 
schemes. He wished to build a great palace which 
should rival the splendor of Versailles. To do this, it was 
evident that a prodigious sum of money was necessary-. 
There was no easier way to raise it than by taxing the American 
colonies. In 1763 a bill was introduced in Parliament which tested the 
whole question of the possible revenue to be derived from that source. It 
required that stamps varying in price, none of them less than one shilling, 
should be placed upon the records of all commercial transactions. An 
amendment to the sugar act was also introduced. The duty on foreign 
molasses was changed from six pence a gallon to three pence, and new 
duties were imposed on coffee, pimento. East India goods, and wines 
from Madeira and the western islands. George III was not mistaken 
in thinking that there had been a rapid increase of wealth in the 
American colonies. Between the years 1765 and 1775 two-thirds of 





tlu- foreign commerce of Great Britain was that which she conducted 
with America. Between 1700 and 1760 the value of property- in 
England increased fifty per cent. William Pitt claimed that this was 
due wholly to the American colonies, and said that Great Britain reaped 
a profit of two millions a year from them. At this time there were 
three millions of people in America, and these purchased almost every 
manufactured article from Great Britain, exporting, in return, fish, 
tobacco, indigo, rice and naval stores. England sent goods amounting 
to two million pounds annually to New York and Pennsylvania alone. 

But to the indignant Americans who turned the stamp act over in 
their assemblies, there seemed to be no reason why thej- should be 
imposed upon simply because the}- wei'C prosperous. That peculiar form 
of lawlessness which was so much stronger and more dignified than law, 
and which the people of NTew England had shown before, was 
thoroughly roused now. Samuel Adams, the leader of the popular 
party- in Boston, inflamed the people by his indignant eloquence. "If 
our trade may be taxed, why not our lands?" said he. "Why not the 
produce of our lands, and, in short, ever^'thing we possess or make use 
of? If taxes are laid upon us in any shape, without our having a legal 
representative where they are laid, are we not reduced from the 
character of subjects to the miserable state of tributary- slaves?" Such 
speeches, and James Otis' passionate pamphlet on the rights of the 
colonies, filled every American with courage and a determination to 
resist. Quietly, and to an extent secretly, every man in America armed 
himself. The speeches of the assemblies should have fairly warned the 
English ministers, but they were anxious to gratify the caprice of their 
half-mad King. A Continental Congress met at New York, in which 
there were delegates from the nine assemblies to consider what had best 
be done. Most of the assemblies had already met in the province and 
had made their individual protests. In Virginia, Patrick Henry had 
drawn up his famous resolutions denouncing the right of the mother 
countr}' to tax her colonies. These were wannly opposed, and Henr}-, 
rising in the house, cried, "Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom- 
well, George III" — "treason!" cried the men from every part of the 
house — "may profit by their example," continued Henr}-, firmly. "If 
this be treason, make the most of it!" 

The Continental Congress at New York was composed of the most 
distinguished men in the colonies. On the roll were the names of many 
men who, in the end, sided with the Crown. Among them was 
General Timothy Ruggles, of Massachusetts who was president of the 


Congress. He and several others were staunch Tories. The resohi- 
tions were not impertinent, nor even passionate. They were dignified, 
moderate, and absohitely firm. The thirteen articles of these resolu- 
tions had a single purpose — a protest against taxation. Meanwhile, 
the piles of stamp paper which were to produce this new revenue 
arrived in the different sea-ports. The collectors who brought the 
stamps were hung in effigy and waited on by mobs. Most of them 
were compelled to resign. In Boston, the mob entered the house of 
Oliver, the agent, and broke his windows. Then they gathered at the 
house of his brother-in-law, Governor Hutchinson, one of the richest 
men in Boston, and threw everything into the street. The militia was 
called out to arrest the ringleaders, which they made pretense of doing, 
but released them willingly enough, when they were ordered to do so 
by the mob. The newspapers were filled with letters of protest from 
private citizens. The opposition was led chiefly by the "Sons of 
lyiberty," an association in New York. 

The royal governors and the officers under them were very bitter. 
Lieutenant Cole, of New York, swore that he would cram the stamps 
down their throats with the sword. The distributor of the stamps in 
Maryland was obliged to fly to New York, and was finally visited by a 
delegation from the Sons of Liberty, and forced to take an oath to the 
effect that he would not resume the duties of his office. In South 
Carolina, the stamp act was publicly burnt, the bells of Charleston 
were tolled, and the flags of the ships in the harbor were at half-mast. 
Nor was it alone the young men, fond of novelty, who conducted these 
proceedings. The older and more dignified took part in them with 
equal enthusiasm. The colonies also took more radical and business- 
like methods of resistance. They agreed among themselves not to 
import English goods, and orders which had gone forward were 
countermanded. The retail dealers agreed neither to buy nor sell such 
goods as were brought into the country. A fair was opened in New 
York devoted to domestic manufactures. That the growth of wool 
might not be interfered with, it was determined that no lambs might be 
used as food. No mourning goods were manufactured in America and 
it was agreed that they should not be purchased. Some of the ship- 
masters bringing them over were forced to return with their cargo. 

In England there was a new ministry — a ministry which had not 
yet made up its mind what its attitude should be toward the colonies. 
For the first time in a year, William Pitt appeared in the House. His 
speecli upon the situation was most sarcastic. He said that Americans 


were the sous, not the bastards, of England, and closed his speech with 
the celebrated words: "The honorable gentleman tells us that America 
is obstinate; America is almost in open rebellion. Sir, I rejoice that 
America has resisted. Three millions of people, so dead to all the 
feelings of liberty as voluntarily to submit to be slaves, would have 
been fit instruments to make slaves of all the rest. " Benjamin Franklin 
was present, and was examined thoroughly on the question. The 
stamp act was repealed. Throughout the colonies this was received 
with the greatest enthusiasm. Joy bells were rung in the churches, 
liberty poles raised, and pictures of Conway and Barre hung in Faneuil 
Hall. Conway was the man who had brought in the resolution for the 
repeal of the act. Barre was the man, who, when the stamp act was 
passing through Parliament, replied to the remark that the colonies had 
been planted by the care of England, with this indignant speech: 
"They planted by your care! No, your oppressions planted them in 
America. They nourished up by your indulgence! They grew by 
your neglect of them. As soon as you began to care about them, that 
care was exercised in sending persons to rule them in one department, 
and another who were perhaps the deputies of deputies to some member 
of this house, sent to spy out their liberties, to misrepresent their 
actions and to prey upon them ; men whose behavior on many occasions 
has caused the blood of those Sons of Liberty to recoil within them!" 
Statues of George III and Pitt were erected in Virginia and Mrr}land. 
In New York, statues of the King and Pitt were also erected and liberty 
poles raised, at the bases of which hogsheads of punch were drank. 

But the people had rejoiced too soon. The habits of loyalty was 
still strong in them, and they desired to have cordial relations with the 
home government. They had taken the repeal of the stamp act for 
more than it really meant. The sugar act was not modified, and still 
collected a revenue. It was still required of the colonies that they 
should provide fire, candles, vinegar, salt, bedding, utensils for cooking, 
beer, cider and wine for all the troops who might be sent to America. 
Again the ministry of England had changed, and now had at its head a 
ma!i who was determined to tax the colonies as he pleased. He insisted 
that military garrisons should be kept up in all the large colonial 
towns, and that they should be supported by colonial taxation. In 
June of 1768, Sir Henr>' Moore, the Governor of New York, sent a 
message to the assembly, asking them to make pro\isions for the 
troops, then on their way to the colony. The assembly refused. They 
were willing, they said, to bear a share in the support of the troops on 


their way through the province, as they had always done, of their own 
free will. But they would contribute nothing to the quartering of 
troops in the colony. Parliament ordered that all the legislative rights 
of New York should be stopped until this command had been complied 
with. The sympathy of all the colonies was with New York. At 
this time port duties were levied on wine, wools and fruit, if shipped 
direct from Spain and Portugal, and upon glass, paper, lead, colors and 
tea. This revenue was to be used for the support of the civil officers 
of the colonies. It will be remembered that the assemblies had always 
insisted upon the right to care for the ro}-al governors in the way they 
considered best, and that the sum given to the Governor annually, 
depended partly upon the prosperity of the province, and partly upon 
the benefit which the Governor had actually been during the year. A 
letter of supplication was promptly sent to the King, The reply was 
a letter from the Secretary of State of England, to the General Court 
of Massachusetts, commanding them to withdraw the resolution which 
gave birth to the letter. If they refused, the government was to dissolve 
the court. The assemblies of the other colonies received word that they 
would also be dissolved if they were disobedient. A letter so insulting 
and patronizing showed tlie absolute ignorance which England was in 
regarding the character of the American men with whom they had to 

Four regiments of soldiers were then quartered in the town of 
Boston. Every man was curious to know why they were there. 
Americans could not grasp the idea of a standing army. They believed 
that the soldiers were there for no reason but to menace the community. 
The idea entertained in England, that it was a compliment to have 
troops stationed at a town, could not be understood by them. This 
Puritan town, forced by law into habits which were almost ascetic, and 
ruled by a government which was largely religious, could not tolerate 
the gayety, not to say debauchery, of the soldiers. The town had 
refused to prepare quarters for them. At a town meeting it was 
requested that every inhabitant should provide himself with fire-arms 
for sudden danger, in the case of a war with France. There was, as 
everyone knew, no likelihood of a war with France, but the fiction was 
sustained, and every man obeyed the bidding. When the troops arrived, 
one regiment was quartered in Faneuil Hall, another in the town hall, 
and one encamped on the Common. The Irish regiments, which arrived, 
a few days later, were added to those on the Common. A fleet of 
eighty men-of-war, having in all over one hundred and eighty guns, was 


anchored off the town. It was with difficnlty that the wisest among 
the Bostonians prevented an outbreak. The people were not only 
willing to fight, but they were anxious to do so. 

The verj- boys shared the popular discontent. There had been quite 
a quarrel between them and the soldiers, for the soldiers were in the 
habit of destroying the snow-slides which the boys had prepared for 
their sleds. The boys appealed in vain to the captain, and finally went 
to the British general. He said: "Have your fathers been teaching 
rebellion, and sent you here to exhibit it?" "Nobody sent us here," 
said one of the boys. "We have never injured nor insulted your troops, 
but they have been spoiling our snow-slides so that we cannot use them 
any more. We complained, and the)- called us young rebels and told us 
to help ourselves, if we could. We told the captains of this and they 
laughed at us. Yesterday our slides were destroyed once more, and we 
will bear it no longer." The general ordered the damage repaired and 
told General Gage about the matter, who said that it was impossible to 
beat the notion of liberty out of people who had it planted in them 
from childhood. 

Biography— Loring's "The Hundred Boston Orators." 
Tudor's "Life of Otis." 
Wells' "Life of Samuel Adams." 
Sparks' "Frauklin." 
Adams' "Life of John Adams." 
Wirt's "Patrick Henry." 


>]^B Pnslnn M$n- 


RRITATION in Boston reached its height on 
March 3, 177O. For a long time there had been 
many quarrels among the common soldier\' and 
the Boston .'itamen. Probabl}- there was little 
choice between the ignorance and brutalit)' of 
both parties, but the popular sympathies were, of 
course, with the j\mericans. On the evening of the 3d, 
some soldiers had agreed to hold a sort of free fight with 
a company of rope-makers. In the rough hand-to-hand 
fight several men on both sides were wounded. On the 
following nigbt an attempt was made to renew the 
squabble, and it was suppressed with some difficulty. 
The soldiers were resentful and naturally had a strong 
partisan fetling. On the night of March 5th, two 
young men tried to pass a sentinel at the foot of Cornhill. The senti- 
nel told them that they could not pass. A struggle followed and a 
crowd gathered. The sentinel was snow-balled. A file of troops was 
sent out to defend the sentr>-, and succeeded in getting him into the 
barracks safely. But the blood of the crowd was up. The actual indig- 
nities which had been heaped upon them made them anxious for 
revenge, and they can hardly be criticised if their methods were petty. 
Another sentinel vas espied, who had, it was said, knocked down a 
Boston boy ?. few days before. The ill-nature of the mob was turned 
against him. H^ tried to enter the building and escape, but found the 
door locked, and was forced to call for the main guard. Six men were 
sent to his -^elief. Captain Preston, the officer of the day, was at an 


entertainment in the cit)-. A messenger was dispatched for him. The 
mob grew ever}- minute, and the bells throughout the city were set 
ringing as if for fire. Captain Preston and six more men came on the 
oTound. The men presented onl>- their bayonets by way of defense 
against the mob, and fell back in front of the custom-house. Thej- 
were ordered not to fire, and, in spite of the missiles and epithets hurled 
at them, managed to control themselves. But when a soldier received 
a severe blow from a club, he lost his sense of discipline, leveled his 
gun, and fired. Seven or eight more soldiers followed his example. 
When the mob had fled, three men were found dead on the ground. 
Two others were mortally wounded, and six slightly. The exploit 
afforded the Bostouians a certain grim satisfaction. The strain upon 
their patience had ended. The longed-for opportunity for action had 
come. The twenty-ninth regiment answered the beat of arms, and soon 
formed in King street. From the balcony of the State House, Governor 
Hutchinson, a man of old New England blood, promised that a thorough 
investigation should be made. Captain Preston, before daylight, sur- 
rendered himself and was placed in jail. The selectmen lost no time in 
waiting upon the Governor and assuring him that the troops must be 
removed from town. The Governor replied that the regiment that had 
had the fight with the rope-makers might be marched to the castle. 
This answer was carried to the town meeting, where the selectmen 
awaited it, in the Old South Church. Samuel Adams said that if there 
was authoritv for removing one regiment, there was authority to remove 
two. "Nothing short of the total evacuation of the town by all the 
regular troops," said he, "will satisfy the public mind and preserve the 
peace of the province." Hutchinson knew the humor of the New Eng- 
land men, and though all England laughed at him afterward for his 
compliance, he had all the troops removed. It delayed, beyond ax'^oubt, 
the War of the Revolution, just five years. Preston was tried for mur- 
der, but was acquitted. Two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter 
and sentenced to be branded in the hand. 

In the English cabinet it was decided that tea was still to be 
retained as a subject of taxation. An efibrt was made by the wiser 
members of Parliament to repeal this in less than a year after the act 
had been passed, but Lord North carried it by a majority. Lord North, 
who was minister, and the "Friends of the King," were now directing 
English affairs. The half-distraught young King was in no position to 
be either wise or generous, had he wished to be so; in truth, he was 
seriously out of patience with America, and was well pleased to vent his 


irritation upon her. The tranquility which had followed the removal 
of the troops from Boston was soon disturbed by the poor policy of Lord 
North. The Crown of England was interested in the prosperity of the 
East India Company. The United States steadily refused to import tea 
from England, and as a consequence the East India Company found 
itself burdened with seventeen million pounds of tea in its English 
store houses. To save it from bankruptcy the government lent it a 
million and a half of money. The directors of the East India Com- 
pany wished to be allowed to land the tea free in America. They 
knew much better than the English minister the humor of the men 
with whom they had to deal. The King insisted there must be one 
tax to keep up the right. The tax was only three pence a pound — 
half of that which was j^aid in England — but the English subject had the 
right to cast his vote upon the matter. American colonies were not 
represented. In this distinction la}- all the difference between slavery 
and freedom. To their great chagrin the people in Boston discovered, 
at this time, that their Governor, Hutchinson, was writing letters 
which they considered treasonable. He talked about the establishment 
of a patrician order, and in one letter said that there must be an abridge- 
ment of English liberties among the people of the colony. These 
letters were shown to Franklin, who was in England, and he obtained 
permission to send them to America. The Massachusetts assembly 
begged the King to remove Hutchinson and the Lieutenant-Governor 
from office. Edmund Burke, the young English statesman, says the 
council which met to consider this letter had the fullest meeting he ever 
remembered. Wedderburn, a lawyer, and one of Lord North's favorites, 
spoke for three hours against the petition, and turned a storm of per- 
sonal abuse upon Franklin, who was present. Walpole and Pitt 
made the day famous — one by an epigram, the other by a reproof 
Franklin was quiet and apparently undisturbed, but he laid aside a suit 
of velvet clothes which he wore that day with the remark that he would 
never put them on again until Wedderburn's insults were avenged. It 
was ten years before he enjoyed that privilege, and then, as Plenipo- 
tentiary of America, he signed, with the English Plenipotentiary, the 
treaty by which England acknowledged the independence of Franklin's 
countr}-. To add to the excitement of the council in England, news 
had just reached them that three cargoes of the taxed tea which had 
been sent to Boston had been thrown overboard. 

The Da> tmotitlt^ the first of the tea vessels, had arrived in Boston 
on November 24, 1774. A town meeting was called the next da}- at 



the Old South Meeting-house. Samuel Adams moved that the tea 
should not be landed, that it should be sent back to the place froin 
which it came, and that no duty should be paid on it. These resolu- 
tions were passed unanimously. The owner and master were directed 
that they were neither to enter the tea at the custom-house nor to land 
it. A watch was put on the ships, and six horsemen were appointed 

to notify the country at once of an\- effort to land it by force. In every 
town, it will be remembered, were a compan}- of minutemen, well 
equipped and drilled, who were marksmen of no mean order. 

It was understood that in twenty days from the arrival of the first 
ship, the collector woiild make a formal demand for duties. The 
twenty days passed and the Governor would not permit the ship to 


return to London, even if she had desired to do so. Ships-of-war 
crowded the channels so that no vessel without a pass could go by the 
castle outward bound. The town meeting, which was held daily at the 
Old South Church, had rapidly increased, and on the twentieth day 
there was a throng. Messengers were sent to the Governor to make one 
last inquiry as to whether he would give the pass permitting the ship 
with its lading to leave the harbor or not. He refused. Samuel 
Adams arose in his seat, and said, with significant emphasis: "This 
meeting can do nothing more to save the country." Then there was a 
rush for the wharves, and in the hurrying crowd were seen two bodies 
of young men, disguised as Mohawk Indians. They took possession of 
the tea ship, and bidding the captain furnish them with ropes and tackle, 
they elevated the chests on board, split them open and poured the tea 
into the harbor. There was no noise, no shouting or rejoicing. The 
matter was too serious. Every man who stood there, gravel}- watching the 
performance, knew what it meant, and that the responsibility assumed 
by the act was not small. It was nearly dawn when the young men 
had finished. Who they were no one to this day has ever learned. 

One man named Captain O'Connor, a devoted tea-drinker, tried to 
fill his pockets with the tea. Some more patriotic person seized him 
as he leaped from the vessel, and Captain O'Connor left the skirts of his 
coat in the hands of the man who tried to stop him. O'Connor's coat 
was nailed to the whipping-post next day as a punishment for his lack of 
public spirit. Boston was not the only place which refused to accept the 
ta.xed tea. The ship sent to Philadelphia was stopped before she reached 
the city, and the captain was forced to turn her toward home. The tea 
sent to Charleston was landed, but was purposely stored in damp cellars. 
It would be safe to say that not one cup of tea was ever made from that 
which North tried to force upon the American colonies. On March 14, 
1775, North introduced the Boston port bill, which, by way of punish- 
ment for the insubordination of the place, closed the port. After June 
1 8th no person was to be allowed to load or unload any ship in the 
harbor. The council was hereafter to be appointed by the crown and 
the magistrates by the Governor. Government was provided for Quebec 
and all persons who had taken part in the late disturbance were to be 
tried in England. 

History — Bord's "Boston Massacre." 
Scudders "Boston Town." 
Poetry— "The Boston Tea Partv." See Ford's Poems of History. 
Charles T. Brook's "The Old Thirteen. " 
Philip Frenlaw's "An Ancient Prophecy." 


i^a pioah of yalmb. 




' HERE was never a time when the people of the 
American colonies liked to be called traitors. 
Their habits of loyalty to the King of England 
made them lay all blame of oppression upon the 
king's ministers. The bills which had caused so 
much dissatisfaction were called ministerial bills; 
the army whose presence so outraged them was called a 
ministerial army. Yet, if George III was determined in 
anything, it was to subdue and humiliate his colonies in 
America, which he deemed woefully arrogant and lacking 
in reverence. Besides, from no other source, he believed, 
could the treasury' of England be so easily and rapidly 
replenished. The pushing of this policy on the part of 
the king, and the sturdy resistance on the part of the 
people, brought matters to a crisis. General Gage sent 
a small detachment of soldiers to Marshfield, in Plymouth county, for 
the purpose of protecting Tories there from insult. The people made 
no resistance or complaint about the matter, and General Gage 
gathered confidence from their apparent indifference. On the twenty- 
sixth of February, 1775, he sent out Colonel Leslie with a considerable 
company of men, to seize some cannon at Salem. The soldiers lauded 
at Marblehead on Sunday morning, while the people were all at 
church, but the news of their landing was hurriedly carried to Salem 
by a messenger loyal to the American cause. The soldiers were 
allowed to march unmolested through the town of Salem, but when 
they came to the North Bridge, be\ond which the cannon lay, they 
found that it had been drawn uji — for it was a draw-bridge. The 


people standing there qnietly told Colonel Leslie that it was a private 
way, and that no one conld be allowed to nse it without the owner's 
consent. Colonel Leslie's reply was to put his men on board a couple 
of scows. The owners of these scows jumped into them and began to 
scuttle the boats. The soldiers drove them out with their bayonets. In 
this way the first blood of the Revolution was shed. There were no 
further hostilities then. The minister of Salem had a short talk with 
Colonel Leslie, and got him to accept a compromise. The draw-bridgt 
■was lowered. Colonel Leslie and his men walked over it and back 
again — but without the cannon. Then he retreated to ]\Iarblehead, 
and to Boston, while about him, as he retreated, sprang up the ready 
minute-men, who did nothing, however, but watch him. To detail all 
the irritations which deej^ened the feeling of resentment on both sides 
would be tedious. Not only was the feeling of anger steadily increasing 
between the English and Americans, but a stricter line was being drawn 
Ijetween the Conservatives and Radicals. A dispute as to where loyalty 
ended, and treason began, divided neighborhoods, churches and families. 
The Provincial Congress at Massachusetts was quietly providing arms 
and provisions. The magazines of the province were at Concord and 
Worcester. Almost every' town had its own little magazine. The 
confidence of these little hamlets is something really amazing. What 
they lacked in strength, they made up in determination. At Billerica, 
a citizen had bargained with a soldier for a gun. There was an act 
against trading with soldiers, and the citizen was locked up all night by 
the officers of the guard, and in the morning was tarred and feathered, 
without a hearing. The soldiers paraded him through the streets with 
a placard, on which was written, "American Liberty; or, a Specimen 
of Democracy. ' ' There were fifty voters in Billerica. These sent this 
portentious paper to General Gage: "May it please your excellency, we 
must tell you we are determined, if the innocent inhabitants of our 
country towns must be interrupted by soldiers in their lawful inter- 
course with the town of Boston, and treated with most brutish ferocity, 
we shall, hereafter, use a different style of petition than complaint." 
These petty defiances were really not without their effect upon General 
Gage. He was fully convinced that the countr)' was a hot-bed of 
rebellion, and that it could not be taught a lesson too soon. He sent 
two officers to reconnoitre about Concord and Worcester, where the maga- 
zines of the province were. On Tuesday evening, the eighteenth of 
April, eight hundred men were given instructions to seize and destroy 
the guns, ammunition and stores at Concord. The troops marched 


at night. They left Boston, nnder command of Colonel Smith, embark- 
ing at the water edge of the Common. They landed at Leshmoor's^ 
which is now called Cambridge, and marched across the salt marshes^ 
striking the road to Menotomy. This excursion had long been expected. 
The Americans had prepared for it. Doctor Warren had returned to 
Concord from the meeting of the Provincial Congress at Boston. As 
soon as Gage launched his boats, Warren sent word to Hancock and 
A.dams by Paul Revere. Paul Revere was a coppersmith and engraver. 
He had been one of the thirty mechanics to patrol the streets of Bostoa 
at night all through the winter, in order to watch the movements of the 
English troops. Revere carried his message to Hancock, and passings 
through Charlestown, agreed, with a number of gentlemen there, that if 
the British started out by sea, two lanterns should be shown in the 
North Church steeple, and if by land, one as a signal. On the night 
that General Gage moved, Warren sent in great haste for Revere and 
begged him to set off for Lexington. He took his coat and boots with 
him for his ride and was rowed across the river to Charlestown. The 
night was clear and frosty, with stars overhead. Revere found a good 
horse and waited for the signals. At eleven o'clock, two lanterns were 
hung in the belfr}' of the Old North Church. Revere began his famous 
ride. At ever\' farm house, in every town, the people were aroused. 
At Lexington he told Hancock and Adams. Here, also, he was joined 
by Dr. Prescott and William Dawes. On the way, Dawes and Prescott 
stopped to alarm a house, and Revere was taken prisoner by four 
English officers. Dawes was also detained, but Prescott escaped ta 
ride on with the news. Colonel Smith, at the head of the English 
detachment, had made every effort to keep the news from spreading. 
When he found that the alarm had been given, he sent to Boston for 
reinforcements. As he had taken all the boats with him which were 
at the command of General Gage, the reinforcements were obliged to 
lEarch by land in a roundabout way. General Gage's men were not 
used to rapid action of this sort, and it was nine o'clock in the morning 
before they had even gathered upon the Common ready for the march. 
It was ver>' different, however, with the minutemen of the colonies. 
Waking and sleeping, for weeks, they had thought of nothing but such au 
opportunity. The Lexington minutemen were soon drawn up in 
array. They were under the command of John Parker, a veteran of the 
French war. Parker saw that his men were largely outnumbered, 
and tried to withdraw his men. Colonel Pitcairn, who commanded the 
column, rushed forward, cr},-ing, "Disperse, rebels, disperse!" No 


other words, however carefully selected, could have so inflamed the 
Americans. But there was a great desire on both sides not to have the 
responsibility for beginning the war. To the last the coriimanders of 
both forces ordered the men not to fire. Both commanders always 
insisted afterwards that their men did not fire first. What really 
happened is not known, nor does it especially matter. There was a 
general firing on both sides. The shots from the Americans hurt no 
one. The firing of the English killed and wounded many of the 
lycxington part}'. Seven were killed and ten wounded out of the little 
force of seventy, that, in the grey light of the early morning, fought on 
Lexington Common. The English troops pressed on to Concord. The 
whole country was alarmed and the people were rising rapidly. There 
are traditions still in Middlesex and Worcester counties, of a man on a 
white horse, who rode faster than any mortal man could ride, to say that 
the English had left Boston and the war had begun. The minutemen 
were cautious, and seeing that they were far outnumbered, they formed 
upon a bold hill about eighty rods behind the village of Lexington, 
near the "North Bridge." There Colonel Barrett joined them as soon 
as he had done all that was possible in the way of concealing the 
ammunition and supplies in the storehouse. Colonel Smith, the 
English commander, began his duties by destroying three new cannons, 
which Colonel Barret had been unable to remove. To this he added 
the not very dignified action of breaking up some wooden spoons and 
trenchers. He set fire to a number of buildings — among them the 
court house. In the midst of all this, shots were heard at the North 
Bridge, where the minutemen had taken their stand. Some English 
soldiers had been stationed on the bridge and the ofl[icers of the 
minutemen decided to drive them away. It was the Lincoln minute- 
men who volunteered to clear. the bridge. "There is not a man in my 
company that is afraid, ' ' .said Captain Davis. The column was ordered 
to pass the bridge without firing, but if attacked, to return the fire. 
They marched to the air of ' 'The White Cockade. ' ' When they were 
within a short distance of the bridge the English fired three volleys. 
Two captains were killed. One of them was Davis, who, had he lived, 
might have done much good to the American cause. The English 
were forced to retreat, and the minutemen crossed the bridge. The 
militia, gathering in the town, joined as rapidly as they could the main 
force upon the hill. In one way the Provincials had decidedh- the 
better of the Englishmen. They knew every inch of the ground. The 
fords, the passes between the hills, the irregular roads through the 


forest were as well known to them as if they had been the square of a 
city. The way in which these determined, but raw companies of mea 
poured down into Lexington never ceased to amaze the Englishmen. 
As Smith marched back from Concord, he found ever}- cross-road held 
by the Americans. 

"They are trained," wrote General Gage, "to protect themselves 
behind stone walls; they seem to drop from the skies." Smith was 
badly wounded. His men returned to Lexington — a inarch of nearh- 
eight miles — in two hours. The retreat from Lexington to Boston 
was a rout. There was not then, and there never could be, a question 
about English discipline or bravery, but now the men had no choice 
but to retreat in rapid disorder. The road seemed to be lined with 
men, between which the panting English had to run. Lord Percy, 
with the reinforcements, met them away below Lexington and guarded 
them with field-pieces, that they might rest for a time. They laid on 
the ground panting, in the midst of a hollow square he formed to shield 
them. The sun was going down when the)' reached Charlestown 
Neck, which leads into Boston. Beacon Hill was crowded with people 
watching for their return. The English posted their sentries on their 
side of Charlestown Neck and the Americans rested on the other side. 
The militia were ordered to lie on their arms at Cambridge. In that 
dreadful march the English lost sixty-five killed, one hundred and 
seventy-eight wounded and twenty-six missing. The loss of the 
Americans was forty-nine killed, thirty-six wounded and five missing. 

The minutemen continued to pour down. They were stationed at 
Cambridge. The news of the attack at Lexington was carried from 
province to province. From New York it was sent to Virginia, from 
Virginia to the Carolinas, from the Carolinas to Georgia, while other 
messengers carried it in haste to Maine, New Hampshire and the 
"Grants," as Vermont was then called. When General Gage's forces 
were taken back to the barracks at Charlestown, the American army 
was in a condition to besiege Boston. All through the winter the 
patriots had been lading plans for the removing of the people from 
Boston in the event of a siege. They now asked permission of General 
Gage to take thirty families from the town daily. This he consented 
to, but the Tories of Boston finally persuaded him that if the American 
Whigs all left the city, they (the English) would probably burn tlie 
town. General Gage withdrew his consent to the evacuation, and the 
militia were obliged to besiege a town in which their own kinsmen 
■were still li\-ing. Minutemen were posted in Cambridge, just outside of 


Charlestown Neck, and in Roxbnry. Works were thrown np on the 
Charles river and on the salt marshes. The only egress from Boston 
was guarded by a strong fort. General Artemas Ward, of Shrewsbur)-, 
was the chief officer of the American forces. Under him were Spencer, 
of Connecticut, Green, of Rhode Island, and Folsom, of New Hamjishire. 
The works were all planned by Henry Knox, a young Boston book- 
seller, who had long been interested in military studies. He was helped 
by Gridley, a veteran of the French war. On the 4th of May there was 
a rumor that General Gage intended to march out, and all the minute- 
men near Boston were called into service, but nothing came of the 
matter, except that General Gage was given a chance to see how large a 
reserve force there was at the command of the eneni}-. On the 1 3th of 
May, General Israel Putnam marched an army of thirteen hundred 
men from Cambridge to Charlestown Neck, and from Charlestown to 
the ferry there. On the 27th, Putnam led a skirmish at an island 
northeast of Boston, in the harbor. The English, by this raid, lost a 
large number of sheep and cattle, besides a sloop and several men. 
There were several skirmishes of this character, in which the English 
were generally worsted. The Americans desired to get all the cattle off 
the islands and to provision themselves as well as possible for the 
coming conflict. In two of these skirmishes alone, Gage lost thirteen 
hundred sheep. On the 25th of May, Generals Howe, Clinton and 
Burgoyne came over from England with large reinforcements. When 
they reached Newport harbor they met a vessel, of which they asked 
the news. When they learned that Boston was being held by an army 
of ten thousand, and that the English garrison of five thousand was 
permitting the siege to continue, General Burgoyne cried, "Ten thou- 
sand peasants keep five thousand of the King's troops .shut up? Let us 
get in and we will soon find elbow-room." After this, Burgoyne was 
oftener called "elbow-room" than anything else. 

Boston is commanded by Charlestown on the north and by Dorchester 
heights on the south. Both parties were ambitious to occupy these 
heights. The English general laid explicit plans for the occupation of 
both of them. While the Englishmen were making their soldierly 
plans, the Americans, with less system, were marching to take possession 
of them. They desired to fortify Bunker Hill and command the har- 
bor. After much consultation they finally fortified a spur of Bunker 
Hill, which was called Reed's Farm, and from which guns could .swep 
the harbor more effectually than they would if placed on the main hill. 
This hill was well fortified. Colonel Gridley marked out the lines of a 



redoubt. An earthwork extended for a hundred rods to the north and 
stopped at the marshy place at the north side of the hill, where the 
marsh was thoug-ht a sufficient obstacle. This work was begun at mid- 

night and progressed steadily and quietly by the bright moonlight. It 
was some time after day-break before the commander of an English 
frigate saw the new fortification, and awoke the town with the fire 


which he opened upon them. General Gage was soon up and talking 
with his officers about what had best be done. He was a brave man 
even to rashness. He decided to attack the American redoubt in front. 
He had been greatly reinforced since the day of Lexington, and had 
with him a reliable corps of generals, in whom he placed great con- 
fidence. But they were not ready to attack until the afternoon, and the 
American works were being strengthened every hour. Few of the 
Englishmen had been under fire, and at the first attack they broke 
ranks and ran. The second attack was as fatal, but in the third a weak 
spot was discovered in the American lines. This was pressed upon 
from the rear as well as the front. There would still have been no 
need of yielding upon the part of the Americans, had not their supply 
of powder given out. As it was, the Provincial forces were withdrawn 
to Bunker Hill. The English did not follow. From first to last the 
patriots had conducted the matter with great discretion. They had had 
the courage to stand still until the English were within a few feet of them 
and to be fired upon without rephing until the}' could do so with effect. 
The enthusiastic American officers, most of whom had hung over the 
pages of Frederick the Great, knew almost as well what was the best 
policy as if they had had practical experience. It is said that at the 
battle of Prague the Prussian order was "no firing until you see the 
whites of their eyes. ' ' Prescott, who had studied the memoirs of the 
wars of Frederick the Great, gave this order at Bunker FT:!!, with the 
added instruction to "fire low" and to "fire at their waist-bands." 
That their small supply of powder held out so long was owing entirely 
to this econoni}', which required far more courage than vigorous action 
would have done. 

The victory had been won at a terrible cost. The English had a 
force at the beginning of the battle of two thousand five hundred men, 
of whom one thousand and fifty-four were killed and wounded. Howe 
said, "They may talk of their Mindens and their Fontenoys, but there 
was no such firing there. ' ' Among those killed was the brave Warren 
— who became a general on the very day of his death. In the fifty- 
second company, led by Howe, every man was killed or wounded. 
From that time till the close of the war, seven years later, the English 
were always careful of leading their troops against entrenched men. 
The American loss was one hundred and fifty killed, two hundred and 
seventy wounded and thirty prisoners. In a sense, the battle of Bunker 
Hill decided the war. For the future there could be no drawing back. 
The English were put upon their metal. They no longer deluded them- 



selves with the belief that the\' were ttying to quell a party of dissat- 
isfied farmers. It was no longer possible for any man in the colonies 
to remain neutral. Personal matters were lost sight of The money, 
time and brains of every one in the United Colonies were given up 
aow to a struggle for the overthrow of oppression. 

Poetry— Long-fellow's "Ride of Paul Revere.'' 
S. R. Bartlett's "Concord Fight." 
Emmons' "The Battle of Bunker Hill." 
Sidney Lainer's "Battle of Lexington." 
Geo. H. Calvert's "Bunker Hill." 
W. C. Bn-ant's "'76." 
Dr.^m.v— Breckiiiriduc's "Bunker Hill." 
J. Eurke'b ' Bunker Hill." 


Jfibrl^ or ^aallj. 


HE Continental Congress met on May lotli. It? 
members did not icnow that far in the north Ethan 
Allen and a band of Vennonters, known as the 
"Green Mountain Boys," were making efforts to 
help in the establishment of American independ- 
ence. The country known as the New Hamp- 
shire Grants, otherwise our State of Vermont, was 
then a wilderness. For years it had been the site of colo- 
nial strife between New Hampshire and New York, both 
of which claimed the territory. The people of the grants 
were without regular government and had no village. 
There was not even a country store in the entire territory. 
But the people had formed a league for mutual protection 
against the claims of New York, This league was known 
by the name of the "Green Mountain Boys." They 
had a rude military organization which showed such systematic 
resi; stance to the law that a price was set upon the heads of the leaders. 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, now held by the English, were consid- 
ereil by the people of the grants as the gates to New York. The officers 
of the Crown, who so frequently made their unjust demands on the 
farms scattered about the sides of the Green Mountains, made their 
headquarters at Ticonderoga, and the indignation of the Green Moun- 
tain Boys was especially leveled at that garrison. The first tidings of 
war that reached the North made the men anxious to do their part in 
freeing; the countrv from the British tvrannv which thev had felt so 





keenly. John Brown, of Pittsfield, a lawyer, and one of the leading 
patriots, made a journey through the grants to Canada, for the pur- 
pose of learning what the sentiments of the Canadians were in regard to 
the approaching struggle. On returning to his home he felt justified 
in applying to the Committee of Safety, in Boston, for help. The stores 
at Ticouderoga were coveted, and Connecticut and Western Massachu- 
setts were as anxious as the people of the grants to conquer the fort, 
which, it was understood, was thinly garrisoned and in a decayed con- 
dition. Colonel Parsons, of Connecticut, and Captain Benedict Arnold 
got three hundred pounds from the treasury on their own responsibility 
and set off with two men, one of whom had been an engineer in the 
British service. They conveyed northward permission from the Con- 
gress of Connecticut to lead the Green Moimtain Boys against Ticou- 
deroga. In the meantime, Ethan Allen, who had long been the chief 
of the Green Mountain Boys, had made ready for an attack. All the 
roads leading to the lake were guarded to prevent any one from carrying 
news to the fort. He knew nothing of the scheme which Benedict 
Arnold had laid, and on May 8, 1775, started with one hundred and 
forty men to go to the lake opposite Ticonderoga. 

His plans had been craftily laid. A man by the name of Phelps 
had disguised himself as a countryman, and entered the fort on the pre- 
text of wanting his face shaved. In a manner of great stupidity and 
curiosity he asked all the questions he wished, and left without being 
suspected. Thirty men had been detailed by Allen to capture the 
British camp and then to drop down the lake and join him. Allen had 
reached the point he desired, when Benedict Arnold came hurrying to 
the camp and announced that he was colonel and commander-in-chief 
of all the party. The officers took him into their confidence, showed 
him their plans, and tried to win his co-operation. Allen was in a 
hurry for action, and feared unless they moved quickly they would not 
be able to surprise the fort. Arnold insisted on taking entire com- 
mand. Ethan Allen, brave, vain, and headstrong, was not likely to 
yield at the head of men whom he had organized. At length it was 
proposed that the two men should march together at the head of the 
column. This compromise was accepted, and a force of eighty-three 
men marched upon the fort. The garrison was asleep, and Allen 
hastened to the quarters of Captain Delaplace. The Captain leaped out 
of bed, crying: "By what authority?" "In the name of the Great 
Jehovah and the Continental Congress," said Allen. It doubtless went 
against the grain of the experienced soldier to yield to an uncouth, 


awkward braggart, such as Allen must have seemed to him. But the 
garrison was asleep, himself unarmed, undressed, and at disadvantage. 
There was nothing for it but surrender. The stores and militar\- 
material, including one hundred and twenty pieces of cannon, were 
captured. Crown Point was taken a little later. 

The Continental Congress, during its session at Philadelphia, chose 
as Commander-in-chief of the American forces, George Washington, of 
Virginia. Artemas Ward, of Massachusetts, was to be his Major-Gen- 
eral. Gates, of Virginia, his Adjutant-General. Charles Lee, an Eng- 
lish officer, and Schuyler and Putnam, were also Major-Generals. 
Washington and Gates hastened to Cambridge, hearing on their wa)- of 
the battle of Bunker Hill. It was the 2d of July when Washington 
and his friends arrived at Cambridge, and on the 4th of July he 
assumed command. His hurried but thorough investigation of the 
army, its plans and materials, shov/ed him that their great danger lay 
in a lack of powder. In the thirteen States there was hardly enough 
for one general action. The apothecary shops in New York were 
searched for saltpetre. Letters were written in all directions, asking 
that it might be sent to headquarters, if only in the smallest quantities. 
A man of less tact than Washington might have started many feuds in 
the army for he had difficulty in getting his officers and Congress to 
always work in harmony. Unlike many of the men about him, he was 
a gentleman of high breeding, cultivated, politic, and experienced. 
The reputation which he had of being the best statesman and the 
richest man in Virginia won him the admiration of the people of the 
southern colonies, while, on the other hand, his directness and sim- 
plicity of speech, his gravity and sensible caution, endeared him to the 
northern men. 

An attack from the English lines was dreaded. The Americans 
feared to be outnumbered. Of the sixteen thousand seven hundred 
and seventy-one New Englanders, nearly two thousand were sick or 
absent from duty. The American army was divided by the Charles 
river, over which there was but one small and insecure bridge. Orders 
were given to keep the minutemen in the towns in constant readiness 
and to sustain a thorough drill. But the English Generals had no 
intention of moving. The strain on them at Bunker Hill had been 
greater than the Americans guessed. The heat of the summer was 
hard on the wounded. In England it was thought that Gage was inex- 
cusably languid, and he was recalled and practically disgraced. These 
matters hindered the attack of the English, which hindrance the 


devoted New England men considered nothing less than providential. 
The Americans were making every effort to procure powder, lead, cloth- 
ing and tents. Benjamin Franklin was on the Committee of Safety, in 
Philadelphia, and he was among the most active in the attempts to pro- 
vide these necessar}- articles. Robert Livingstone, of New York, estab- 
lished a powder mill so secretly that none of the English spies ronnd 
about found it out until L,ivingstone made a raid on the government's 
stock of saltpetre and carried it off. The Committee of Safety, in 
Georgia, got hold of a supply of powder intended for the Florida 
Indians. Several hundred barrels were captured from a trading vessel 
in the Gulf of Mexico. An attack was made on Bennuda and a goodly 
quantity secured there. In New Orleans, Oliver Pollock, an American, 
was sending powder to Pittsburg by the river. As soon as the English 
cruisers were taken away from the coast at the approach of autumn, the 
government sent an eighty-ton vessel to Bordeaux to buy powder on the 
account of "The Continent." The lead mines of Connecticut had been 
worked some, and the products were now used for ammunition. By the 
press of necessity a little navy was being started. On May 5th the 
people of New Bedford and Dartmouth, irritated at the Falcon^ one of the 
British sloops of war, which hunc about the coast, recaptured a vessel 
with fifteen prisoners which the Falcon had previously secured. On 
June 1 2th the Margarctta^ an armed sloop belonging to the Crown, 
was taken off the main coast, as well as two other sloops of lesser size. 
Jeremiah O' Brien was made marine captain b}' the Provincial Congress 
of Massachusetts, and was stationed in Boston harbor to intercept sup- 
plies sent to the English troops. Washington supplied armaments and 
money from the Continental treasury' and six small vessels received 
commissions. Both Connecticut and Rhode Island had a small vessel 
in the service. 

The destitution of the English troops was becoming extreme. 
They were shut up in Boston by the activity of the Continental troops. 
Their supplies were being carried into the camp of the enemy, and sick- 
ness was rapidly increasing among them. But the forces under 
Washington were rapidly growing. In six weeks they had increased 
two thousand three hundred and ninety. Among them were several 
companies of riflemen from Virginia — men who could hit a target of 
seven inches at a distance of two hundred and fifty yards, while in rapid 
motion. But the Americans were unused to camp life, and sickness 
began to tell among them also. As soon as Washington received a 
sufficient supply of powder to justify action he advance his works to the 


left by fortifying Plowed Hill. This brought the circle of his lines so 
that the extreme left was north of Boston. His headquarters were on 
the Charles river, just beyond Cambridge. The right wing, under Gen- 
eral Ward, reached Dorchester Neck, directly .south of Boston. 

In October, Cape Ann, or what we now know as Gloucester, and 
Falmouth, now Portland, in Maine, were burned by the English. This 
was done by a fleet of armed vessels. The act seemed like a misfortune, 
but in reality it raised the Americans to a full understanding of what 
war meant. Previously they had hardly realized that they had laid 
themselves open to attack in any direction. They had believed that 
the conflict would be confined to Boston Bay. It was necessary to take 
active measures for meeting the enemy upon the sea as well as on the 
land. During the past few months the coast towns had been at the 
mercy of the English vessels. Newport had been threatened, and was 
only spared when it consented to furnish the commander of the English 
fleet with provisions. Bristol was bombarded, and many houses 
destroyed. A force landed on the island of Canonicut, in December, 
burned houses and barns, and carried off' all the live stock. Washington 
was obliged to send down a detachment of men, although he could ill 
spare them. General Eee took a force of eight hundred to Newport, 
and not only placed them so that they could protect a considerable 
stretch of land, but so that they could keep a close watch upon the 
Tories of the district as well, who were suspected of carrying informa- 
tion to the enemy. It was not easy for the New Englanders to equip a 
fleet of war. But the work progressed steadily, if slowly. The first 
notable victory at sea was the taking of the brigantine Na;/n', loaded 
with military stores. These were more than acceptable to the army. 
Washington was with difficulty keeping the soldiers with him. Thr 
term of enlistment of the Connecticut men had expired, and they were 
anxious to return to their homes. It was found that Dr. Benjamin 
Church, a member of the House in Massachusetts, was secretly writing 
letters to his brother-in-law in Boston, which revealed the condition and 
plans of the American army. He was expelled from the House and put in 
close confinement. Washington reorganized his army and issued a general 
order for the enlistment of new men. The corps of officers was pruned and 
improvements were made in all respects. On January 2, 1776, the army 
was practically a new one. At this time the army cari'ied the national 
flag which we now have, with the exception of the number of stars, 
which were then but thirteen, in accordance with the number of the 
colonies. General Howe, shut up in Boston, met with many discoui- 


agements. Numerous accidents befell his provision ships. Some of 
them were taken by the eneni)-, and others met with severe storms and 
were obliged to discharge their cargoes. He even found difficulty in 
providing barracks for his troops during the winter season. He would 
have been glad to evacuate, but thought he had not transports enough 
to remove his force, and wrote to England for more help. He pulled 
down the Old North Church Meeting-house for fuel, and was obliged to 
mine for coal in Cape Breton. Faneuil Hall, to the great horror of the 
Bostonians when they heard of it, was used to hold theatrical entertain- 
ments in. General Burgoyne, who had at that time more fame as a 
literar)- man than as a soldier, wrote a little play which he called the 
"Siege of Boston." This was being performed, when a sergeant rushed 
upon the stage and cried that the Yankees were on Boston Hill. The 
audience laughed heartih-, thinking it a part of the performance, but in a 
few moments the officers were ordered to hasten to their posts, and the 
audience broke up in confusion. It was true that some of the Connec- 
ticut companies had crossed the Neck, and fired the bakery of the 
English at Charlestown. In the midst of such alarm Burgoyne returned 
to England. The "elbow-room" which he had thought to make was 
not )et his. The American Congress, from time to time, had consid- 
ered the advisability of setting fire to Boston, but this Washington was 
reluctant to do. He believed that if such a disaster could be avoided, 
it was best to do it. General Howe himself did not permit the destruc- 
tion of property more than he could help. 

Washington wished to cross to Boston on the ice, but in the council 
of war which he called he was outvoted. General Howe, on his part, 
sent a party on the ice to Dorchester Neck, who destroyed every house 
on the peninsula, and took some Americans prisoners. Washington 
would never have remained so inactive had he been supplied with 
powder and heavy artillery. He was almost in despair, when the 
capture of the Nancy renewed his hopes, and gave him ammunition. 
Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen sent down the guns they had taken 
from Ticonderoga. Under the direction of Henry Knox, the cannon 
were put upon fifty-two sleds and drawn by long teams of men over the 
snow-covered passes of the Green Mountains and the rude roads of New 

As soon as these reached Washington he called out all the militia of 
the neighborhood. Ten regiments reinforced him 3X once. Ward was 
given the over-sight of the movement upon Dorchester heights and 
entrusted the immediate command to John Thomas. The ground was 


frozen and it was impossible to throw up works, but fascines were 
collected and made a fair defence. On the night of Saturday, March 
7, 1776, the American works opened a cannonading at the north of 
Boston. This was kept ujj through the two following nights for the 
purpose of occupying the attention of the English. Meanwhile John 
Thomas' train, which consisted of twelve hundred men, took possession 
of a high hill upon Dorchester heights. Four hundred yoke of o.xen drew 
the material for the works, passing within a mile of the English sentinels, 
who had no thought for anything but the cannonading at the north. 
In one night the men threw up a very good defence. The works had 
been planned by Gridley, who had been so successful with the plans of 
Bunker Hill. When Howe's astonished eyes saw these in the morning 
he thought they must have been built by twelve thousand men. The 
English fleet dared not remain under fire from these guns. Howe 
himself feared to attack the works. He notified Washington at once 
that if he would not molest the town or the ships, he would leave 
Boston peaceably. On the morning of Sunday, the 17th of March, he 
sailed with his whole army, after destroying all of his property which 
he could not take away. He found that in an emergency he had ship- 
ping enough to carry off" his force. With Howe, sailed about eleven 
hundred loyalists, to whom the cause of the King was still dear. Many 
of these settled in Nova Scotia. 

The few people left in Boston received the army as benefactors 
when they marched in with music and flying banners. Washington 
was treated with great courtesy, and the street up which he rode still 
bears his name. Congress ordered a gold medal to be presented to him 
— the first coin struck by independent America. Upon its face was a 
picture of besieged Boston with a group of horsemen in the foreground 
and the proud motto: "Hostibus primo fugatis." 

Washington believed that the next point of attack would be New 
York, and continued his preparations for an engagement there. For 
three months the country was left with hardly a foreign soldier on its 

Fiction — H. Hagel's "Old Put." 

Hawthorne's "Septimius Felton.'' 

Cooper's "Lionel Lincoln." 

D. P. Thompson's "Green Mountain Boys." 
Poetry — "Song of the Vermonters." Anon. 

'y/ y^^-^ 


)\$ yinm nl jLbral^am. 


r the north, Arnold and Allen carried on a sort of 
freebootkig together. They were ambitious to 
get Lake Champlain in the hands of the patriots. 
In all sea adventures Arnold was given the lead, 
and under his command an English sloop was 
captured. Encouraged by this, they laid a plan for 
the conquest of Canada. Arnold took up his quarters 
at Crown Point, and Allen remained at Ticonderoga. 
Congress was timid about seconding the ambitious 
designs of Arnold, and sent a committee of men to 
confer with him. They found him sullen and obsti- 
nate, and learned that his followers were in a state of 
mutiny against the government, and willing to side 
with him even at the cost of patriotism. A thousand 
men had been assigned by Connecticut to garrison Ticonderoga. When 
Arnold learned that these were to be commanded by Colonel Hinman, 
he resigned, as he was not willing to be second in command. 

The Governor of Canada was determined to retake Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point. As for the Canadians themselves, they were in a state of 
comparative indifference. The richer element was probably truer to the 
king than were the common people. The Indians of the Mohawk val- 
ley had been estranged from the Americans, and were now the allies of 
the Canadians. There was a call for volunteers on the part of the 
American Congress, and, meanwhile, Ethan Allen and Major John 


Brown were sent into the country between Lake Champlain and 
Montreal, to discover the true condition of affairs there. Schuyler was 
Commander-in-chief of all the northern forces, and about the middle of 
August, 1775, was ready to move his troops. Altogether, these did not 
number quite two thousand. Schuyler's chief subordinate officer was 
General Richard Montgomery-, a young Irishman of much soldierly 
experience and strong personal attractions. He was with Wolfe at the 
capture of Quebec, in 1759, and had further won the confidence of the 
Americans by marrying one of the ladies of the patriotic Livingstone 
family. No general among the Americans was more popular with the 
soldiers. Schuyler fell ill shortly after leaving Ticonderoga, and the 
command devolved upon Montgomery. In the light skirmish in which 
the conflict opened, Montgomery was thoroughly disheartened by the 
cowardice of his soldiers. The troops were raw and undisciplined. 
They suffered not alone from bodily ailment, but from intense homesick- 
ness. Boston men, fighting for the protection of their homes, and in 
the face of a brave and determined enemy, had plenty to keep up their 
spirits. But to fight in the midst of a wilderness for the possession of a 
fortification, with winter approaching, and a poor outlook for provisions, 
could not but be dispiriting to men who were new to the profession of 
arms, and cared little for conflict in the abstract — men who had not 
even learned the value of subordination and discipline. 

Allen himself, though a brave man, was a bad soldier in some ways. 
He had never learned the necessity of waiting for orders, and was quick 
to do whatever his impulse prompted. When he was on his way to 
join Montgomery's camp, with a force of eighty Indians, he fell in with 
Major Brown, who had two hundred men in his party. These two 
leaders decided to attack Montreal. They had heard that there were no 
more than thirty men in garrison at that point, and that the towns- 
people sympathized with the Americans. The plan was for them to 
attack the city with two columns of men, above and below. The 
river was crossed in a blustering storm, and Allen's band, at early dawn, 
stood shivering upon the river bank waiting for Brown's men, who 
never came. The garrison set upon Allen, killed a number of his men, 
and carried others as prisoners to England. Among these unfortunates 
was Allen himself. 

The American expedition against the fort of Chambly was successful. 
The inhabitants round about aided in its capture. The stores of ammu- 
nition and provisions were taken to the army encamped under the walls 
of St. John. An attempt on the part of the English to relieve the 


garrison there was repulsed and the fort was finalh' surrendered, 
principally because the provisions had given out. By this surrender 
five hundred regular troops, the greater part of the British army in 
Canada, fell into the hands of the Americans. Montgomery believed 
that the time had now come to take Montreal. He posted forces so 
that all communication would be prevented between that city and 
Quebec. Upon both sides of the river he planted batteries. On the 
13th of November he marched into the town, without bloodshed, the 
Governor and the garrison having left. In the meantime, Washingtoa 
had sent up a supjDorting party, numbering eleven hundred men. 
These were well equipped, although, from the nature of the journey, 
they could carry no field-pieces. Washington himself had outlined the 
expedition. He desired them to ascend the Kennebec river, cross the 
highlands that divided it from the Chaudiere, and descend that stream 
to where it enters the St. Charles, nearly opposite Quebec. Wa.shington 
had a hand-bill printed, which was distributed among the Canadians 
for the purpose of impressing upon them the friendlj- spirit of the 
Americans and begging them to join in the cause of liberty and assist 
in driving the British from America. With the men who had the 
country's interests most at heart the conflict in Canada was not a side 
issue, but an important part of the war. They set a high value upon 
that extensive and fertile country, with its magnificent rivers and 
superior natural advantages. 

But Washington expected far too much of Arnold and his men. 
He desired them to meet Schuyler's army, which was then in motion, 
and to take but twenty days for a march of two hundred miles. It 
took, instead, sixty days, and the little army of eleven hundred men 
had been reduced to about one-half when it reached the St. Charles. 
Their boats had been swamped in the treacherous Chaudiere; they had 
marched through bogs and were forced to make exhausting portages, 
carrying their heavy loads with them; they had a fatal lack of 
acquaintance with the country, and were out of provisions long before 
they reached their destination, and were obliged to eat shaving soap, 
candles, salve and dogs, even boiling their moccasins in the hopes of 
getting some nourishment from them. The horrors of the march are 
sickening, and not the least shocking scene was when Arnold, who had 
hurried on to procure provisions, sent back cattle and other supplies to 
his starving men. They ate like wild beasts, and many of them died 
from the effects of their indiscretion. It took them ten days to march 
the last thirty miles after they had entered Canada, for, although the 


road was now comparatively easy, the men were too exhausted to go lar 
ill a day. During that last delay, one hundred men, mostly carpenters, 
had come down from Newfoundland and were busy repairing tlie 
defenses of Quebec. By the time Arnold was in a position for attack, 
soldiers were brought down the river and had prepared for the defense 
of the city. Washington had relied upon the surprise of Quebec, but 
Arnold had himself given information of his movements by a letter 
which he entrusted to a faithless guide. 

On the 13th of November, the very day that Montgomery entered 
Montreal, Arnold took his men over the same ground that Wolfe had 
taken, and in the morning had an army on the plains of Abraham, 
behind Quebec. But the English did not, as Montcalm had done, 
respond to the challenge. There was no revolt in the cit}' — a thing 
which both Arnold and Washington had counted upon. Arnold had 
not the power to make a breach in the walls near the city. The 
garrison was shortly reinforced, and Arnold was obliged to break camp 
and retreat to Point Aux Trembles. Here Montgomery joined him on 
the 1st of December and took the command. The army now consisted 
of three thousand men, with six field-pieces and five light mortars. 
They encamped before Quebec. Deep snow lay over all the country, 
and as it was impossible to build earthworks, Montgomery had fascines 
set up. These were filled with snow, over which water was poured, 
making a barricade of ice. It looked cruel and forbidding, but the 
first cannonading broke it in pieces. The men were encamped there 
for three weeks. Montgomery found them hard to manage, and on 
Christmas day decided that an attack should be made under cover of the 
first stormy night. The plans were elaborately laid. Arnold was to 
penetrate the lower town, Montgomery to advance to the rocky heights 
of Cape Diamond and reach the upper town by an easy communication. 
Aaron Burr had charge of a forlorn hope which was to scale the Cape 
Diam jnd bastion. The night of the 30th, as had been hoped, was dark 
and stormy. Montgomery's men made their way over blocks of ice 
and through the drifting snow till they reached the barricades under 
Cape Diamond. The Americans crowded past this and Montgomery 
urged on the advance, but as they neared the block-house, which was 
pierced for muskets, the brave young leader was killed, just as he cried, 
"Push t)n, brave boys. Quebec is ours." Two captains and two 
piivates were killed at the same moment, and the Americans retreaied 
in disorder. Arnold's men, under cover of the storm, had reached the 
palace gate, but here at the first barricade Arnold was wounded. 


Morgan, a Virginian, at tiie head of his riflemen, took the lead, and 
scaled the barricade with ladders. He was knocked down once; he 
mounted again at the head of his men. He carried the barricade and 
drove the enemy into the houses at the sides of the street. If he could 
have had reinforcements, he would have carried the day; but the odds 
were too heavy. He tried to cut his way out, but was surrounded on. 
all sides and obliged to surrender. He had four hundred and sixty-six 
men with him at the time. The Englishmen buried Montgomery 
within the city. Forty-two years later his body was given to the 
Americans, who carried it, with great honors, to New York and raised 
a monument to his memory in front of St. Paul's Church. His wife, 
then a ver}- old woman, sat alone upon the porch of her house on the 
Hudson, watching the funeral boat as it sailed by. 

The discouraged army was now placed under the command of 
Arnold, who begged Schuyler for reinforcements. In the course of the 
winter three thousand were sent to him. The English were afraid to 
risk an engagement against so heav}^ a force of men. The Canadians 
took neither one part or the other, with a few exceptions. A commis- 
sion, consisting of Benjamin Franklin and four other gentlemen, one of 
whom was afterwards Archbishop of Baltimore, was sent to visit Canada 
and see if a political union could not be made, but they had scarcely 
reached Montreal when news came of a British fleet at Quebec, and 
Fi'anklin hurried back to Philadelphia to urge the great need of 
reinforcements. These came in ]\Iarch, under General Wooster, who 
tried for two months to make an impression upon the fortifications of 
Quebec. He failed, not from lack of courage, but from want of 
military experience. Major-General Thomas took his place, and 
decided that it was wisest to retreat. He was not permitted to do even 
this unmolested. He lost one hundred men as prisoners, as well as 
most of his stores and provisions. In a number of small engage- 
ments which followed between detachments of both armies, the English 
troops were successful. Brigadier-General John Sullivan was sent to 
take the place of John Thomas, who, it was believed, retreated with 
unnecessary readiness. A last stand was made and an engagement 
fought, but the English had three times more men than the Americans, 
and one hundred and fifty of Sullivan's men were taken prisoners. 
They were obliged to fall back upon Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 

Fiction* — Gleig's ".\ Day on the Neutral Ground." "In Chelsea Prison." 
Drama — "The Death of General Montgomery in Storming Quebec." Anon. 


il^0 yakatto Jfog$. 





•V/f^^^^ \X<^ HE Parliament in England was thoroughly aroused 
^l^f^St^ ^''tw ^y '■^'^ *-""^ *^° '-^^^ importance of subduing and 
punishing the rebels in America. The friends of 
the colonies in Parliament, Edmund Burke, Barre, 
and Wilbur, protested against the measure which 
voted the King and ministry all the men and 
material they should need in carrying on the war, but no 
opposition could stem the tide of King George's impa- 
tience. He decided that the disorders in America must 
be put down. 

It was not so easy as he had supposed to obtain addi- 
tional troops. Men could not be found in England, and 
the King was forced to draw upon his garrisons in the 
West Indies, Ireland and Gibraltar. Even then the 
number was not sufficient for the successful carrying on 
of the war, and King George was forced to beg of friendly nations fm 
help. To his surprise, some of these nations which he had felt sure he 
could count upon, refused him. The reply from Holland was that the 
States-General considered the Americans worthy of ever}- man's esteem, 
and looked upon them as a brave people, 'lefending in a becoming, 
manly and religious manner those rights which, as men, they derived 
from God, not from the legislature of Great Britain, and that if soldiers 
were to be brought against them, the States-General of Holland pre- 
ferred to see Janizaries hired rather than soldiers of a free State. 
Russia, for different reasons, refused help. Frederick the Great had 
little sympathy with the English movement, and practically did not 
believe that a great State should have colonies which were severed from 


it by natural obstacles. In short, the sympathy throughout Europe was 
with the Americans. The foreign troops which George III finally 
obtained were from the petty German princes. Among these men there 
was little voluntary' service, but almost all, with the exception of the 
oiEcers, were impressed, and a small price per head was paid by England 
to the German potentates for their services. There were 29,166 men in 
the German troops sent to America. 

The English and Americans agreed that the campaign for 1776 
must center at New York City. As soon as news of Concord and Lex- 
ington had reached New York the people had taken immediate steps to 
defend the city. The feeling there had, from the first, been as strong 
as elsewhere. The year previous, when the British garrison there had 
been ordered to join the army in Boston, the citizens consented to let 
them embark unmolested, but as the troops marched down Broad street, 
led by five carts loaded with arms, they were stopped by Marinos 
Willett, a "Son of Liberty." He seized the first horse by the head and 
brought the whole line to a stand-still. When the commanding officer 
asked what he meant by the interruption, he replied that it had been 
agreed that the troops should embark without molestation, but they had 
not been given permission to take away anus to use against their friends 
in Massachusetts. The mayor of the city and Governor Morris protested 
against Willett' s high-handed proceeding, but the sympathy of the 
crowd was with him, and the English were forced to leave without 
their arms. He then addressed the soldiers, and said if any of them 
were willing to join the ranks of liberty and desert their ranks they 
should be protected. One soldier only responded to the invitation, and 
was marched off with much cheering b}' the crowd. 

The Americans helped themselves to the cannon at the Battery, and 
placed them along the Hudson to protect the river, now that the conflict 
of '76 seemed to threaten that point. Lee was ordered by Washington 
to take command at New York. This was not a little alarming to the 
Tories of the town, who feared that this decisive action would bring 
about immediate hostilities, and that the place might be bombarded by 
the English vessels lying off the coast. There were hot internal dissen- 
sions in the city. The conflict between the Whigs and Tories was verj^ 
bitter. The Tories were powerful and rich, but the Whigs outnum- 
bered them, and had on their side that fierce determination and sense 
of religious right which gave them their strength from the beginning to 
the end of the conflict. It must be owned that their treatment of the 
Tories was not Christian. Some of the Tories were tarred and feathered, 


some were waylaid, mobbed and insulted, while others were deprived 
of office and driven from home. Laws were enacted which inflicted 
penalties of great severity on them. It is estimated that during the 
course of the Revolution more than twenty-five thousand loyalists 
joined the military service and arrayed themselves against the patriots. 

The defenses of the city which the Whigs prepared, were, as can 
easily be imagined, accomplished under constant protest from a large 
portion of the inhabitants. When Lee aissumed command of aflairs 
at New York he turned all of the city into a camp of war, and 
presented as bold a face toward the threatened harbor as was possible. 
The works were strengthened, batteries were wisely placed, and the 
streets well barricaded. On March 6, 1776, Congress divided the 
southern and middle colonies into two military departments. Lee was 
sent south and Lord Stirling given the command of affairs at New 
York. He carried on Lee's work with the utmost vigor. Every male 
inhabitant of the town was put to work on the fortifications — rather 
rough work for some of the ostentatious gentlemen of New York. 
Washington himself arrived in the city on April 13, and took up his 
headquarters there. Families began leaving the town as rapidly as 
possible and the soldiers took possession of the dwellings which they 

The British had other plans besides the capture of New York. They 
were anxious to move against the southern colonies, where they believed 
submission could be easily enforced. The Governors of Virginia and 
North Carolina labored under the delusion that most of the people in those 
colonies were loyal to the King's cause. Each Governor was provided 
with a small force to back his authority, and the King sent seven 
regiments to strengthen them. These he himself selected with great 
care. They were led by Earl Cornwallis, while the fleet was com- 
manded by Admiral Peter Parker. When they reached America, 
General Clinton was given the general command. The colonists who 
stood by Governor Martin, of North Carolina, were 'Scotch loyalists, 
chiefly Highlanders, who had emigrated to America after the defeat of 
the Pretender, and who still held to their oath of allegiance. The son 
and husband of Flora McDonald were among their leaders, and with 
them were a large number of Stuarts. But the sturdy Scotch Presby- 
terians in the back counties took up anns for the patriots, and the 
Governor soon realized that matters were not to run as smoothly as he 
had expected. As soon as the Provincial militia heard of the mustering 
of ]\IcDonald's clans, they arrayed themselves to prevent them from 


reaching the Governor. They were led by Brigadier-General James 
Moore, who had with him many gentlemen of wealth and influence. 
These walked in the ranks wnth the common soldiery, to keep up the 
spirits of the men. Moore's force numbered two hundred less than 
McDonald's. In the first engagement the loyalists were routed. Eight 
hundred and fifty men were taken prisoners, disarmed and discharged 
and fifteen hundred excellent rifles were secured, besides a quantity of 
money, and, what was equally valuable, a chest of medicine. This 
was practically the end of Torj-ism in North Carolina. Within two 
weeks the patriots had ten thousand men in arms, these prompt meas- 
ures securing peace for North Carolina until 1780. The State was at 
liberty to give its aid to the other colonies. 

The next attempt was upon South Carolina. From the first, this 
province had felt much sympathy with Massachusetts, and was now 
prompt to arise for the defense of her own border. The militia was 
ready to move at the earliest call. Those on the border of North 
Carolina were held in readiness to join the southern men, should it be 
necessary. Colonel Christopher Gadsden and William Moultrie were in 
command of the regular troops. William Thompson led a regiment of 
riflemen, all of whom were excellent marksmen — the Colonel the best 
of them all. North Carolina sent down a regiment to join them, with- 
out even waiting to be requested. The first thing seen to was the 
.securing of Charleston harbor, for it was known that Clinton could do 
nothing without the aid of the men-of-war, and that these men-of-war 
could do nothing unless the}' held possession of the harbor. There 
were already some defences there, and these were hurriedly strength- 
ened. Stillivan's Island, a long, marshy strip of ground, well wooded, 
guarded the entrance to the harbor. Opposite was James Island, which 
was practically a part of the main coast. Gadsden was put on James 
Island and Moultrie and Thompson were put upon Sullivan's. Pennsyl- 
vania had sent down a force of men under the command of Armstrong, 
and these were placed near the city of Charleston: Every preparation 
possible was made in the town. Warehouses were torn down that the 
cannon might have full sweep. The streets were barricaded. All the 
horses, wagons and boats were impressed into service, and all the lead 
in the cit}- was made up into bullets, the very weights of the windows 
being used. On the 4th of June, General Lee arrived and assumed 
command. The brunt of affairs rested, however, upon Colonel Moul- 
trie, who was working to complete his fortifications on Sullivan's 
Island. His men worked upon it night and da}-. But only the two 


sides fronting the channel were completed when the enemy attacked. 
These walls, however, were sixteen feet thick and guarded with 
palmetto logs. Into their tough and spong)- fibres the balls could sink 
without doing harm. In the centre of the fort was a marsh, which the 
men left undisturbed, knowing that shells would be much less apt to 
explode if they fell into it. 

On the 31st of May the enemy appeared. Messengers were sent for 
the militia in all direction.s. The women and children were hastened 
out of the city. The slaves were set to completing the works. Every 
freeman worked of his own accord. Lee, and other soldiers as well, had 
little confidence that Moultrie's fort could stand out against the heavy 
guns of the enemy. But Moultrie himself was confident. The land forces 
of the enemy landed on Long Island, which lay north of Sullivan's. 
These were to attack in the flank and rear while the fleet bombarded the 
fort in front. Thompson's sharpshooters were to oppose the land 
forces. The English had two 56-gun ships, five frigates of twenty-eight 
guns each, a mortar ship and two smaller vessels, bearing in all two 
hundred guns. The bombardment was continuotis after it once began, 
the shot streaming steadih' against the side of the fort. But the spong\- 
palmetto logs could not be split and the banks of sand kept them from 
being dislodged. The shells, as had been expected, fell into the marsh 
and seldom exploded. Colonel Moultrie was inside nursing a gouty 
foot and calmly smoking as he gave orders to his intrepid men. More 
gallant defense could not ha\e been made. When the flag of the fort — 
a blue banner with a silver crescent, bearing the word liberty — was shot 
away, Sergeant William Jasper leaped the parapet and. in the midst of 
the hottest fire, replaced it on the bastion. The men aboard the ships 
suflfered terribly. Three vessels ran aground, and one of them was 
deserted and burned. Early in the evening the ships withdrew two 
miles from the island. Clinton had directed his forces at the north side 
of Sullivan's Island, but was held in check there by Thompson. A 
victor)' could not have been more absolute. Moultrie was accounted 
one of fhe successful commanders of the army. The fort was named 
after him. and his regiment was presented with a pair of beautiful 

History— Carrington's "Battles of the Revolution." 
Coffin's "Boys of ■76." 

Moultrie's "Memoirs of the American Revolution." 
Ramsay's "American Revolution in South Carolina." 
Poetry— Robert M. Charlton's "Death of Jasper." (See Ford's 
Historical Poems.) 


"" ^ «i^-.^. 





^B^^^B^r^^iiB^^^^^^^^^K^^^^i ''^^I^^^^^E 


^^V*^-^'— ? 


( i ii^ 



\ "^ 


y .^a^-i' : .^H 

1 i^^N«3. 


'M^^C - -^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^S^K^^ '~ ''- ^r 


^^^gpr . 


IlV*'^. - A%J.. ' ".;^^^^-, 

r— !'■■ 



1 ^'l^HLriJ 

^B| ^HE^^^^a^^H^B^H 

■II ^11 ■■III II .j^r- ^Vi^.'/^m .|l--- 

^^^^^^E; ^^S^'*^^^'^^ '" ' 


e fim^ of Jfibrl^. 


OR a long time the people of America were 
unwilling to admit, even to themselves, that the 
Revolution was a war for independence. Frank- 
lin himself assured Pitt, in ilarch, 1775, that, 
though he had traveled in America, he had never 
heard any expression in favor of independence. 
Even the "Sons of Libert}-'' were unwilling to talk 
about this matter, feeling that the people were not 
ready to accept it. The newspapers openly denounced 
the idea. Until Thomas Paine' s book, "Common 
Sense," was published, the subject was almost a tabooed 
one. But that pamphlet presented a strong plea for 
independence. Men, women and children read it. It 
was for them an education — a liberator from old preju- 
ive them fresh ideas and fresh courage. The different 
States began to urge Congress to take a more decided position. Samuel 
Adams, "the Father of American Independence," saw that at last the 
countr}- was reaching the point which he had so long been hoping for. 
Resolutions were passed in each Colonial Assembly which heralded the 
"Declaration of Independence." On the second day of July, 1776, the 
Thirteen States, assembled in Congress, resolved unanimously "that the 
thirteen colonies are, and of right ought to be, independent States." 
Following this came deep deliberations. The matter was one in which 
there could be no hurr>'. All knew that if the position was once taken, 
it would be impossible to draw back from it. There were main- dele- 
gates to the Congress who did not fully understand the situation, and 
who asked that all the consequences of such a step might be fully 

dices. It 


pointed out to them. This John Adams did, eloquently and clearly. 
At last all of the members signed the Declaration, except the delega- 
tion from New York, which had not been empowered to do so. But it 
is possible that there were many who signed with reluctance and regret. 
John Adams was elated. He wrote to his wife that the day had been 
the most memorable epoch in the history of America, and that it should 
be celebrated by succeeding generations as a great anniversary festival. 
"It ought to be solemnized," said he, "with pomp and parade, with 
games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations, from one end of 
the country to the other, from this time forward forever more ;' ' and so 
till now it has been, though on the fourth of July instead of the second. 
Thomas Jefferson prepared the original draft of the Constitution, 
although he was indebted to the resolutions passed by the several 
colonies for some of his best ideas and expressions. The clause relating 
to slavery, which Jefferson had written, was cut out. Had it remained, 
it might have had its influence in a matter which plunged the nation 
into a yet more dreadful war than the Revolution, nearly a hundred 
years later. It was not until the eighth that the Declaration was read, 
and printed copies distributed. A great concourse of people gathered 
about the observator}' of the State House, in Philadelphia, and here the 
Declaration was read to them from the balcony by John Nixon, a mem- 
ber of the "Committee of Safety." 


In Congress, July ^, i/"/6. 

The Un-^nimous Declar.\tion of the Thirteen United 

States of America: 
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with 
another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate 
and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature's God entitle 
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they 
should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. \^'e hold 
these truths to be self-evident : That all men are created equal ; that they 
are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that 
among these are life, liberty, and the pursiiit of happiness; that to 
secure these rights governments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any 
form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right ot 
the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, 


laying its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in 
sucli form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and 
happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long 
established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, 
accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed 
to suffer while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolish- 
ing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of 
abuses and usurpation, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a 
design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is 
their duty, to throw off such a government, and to provide new guards 
for their future security. Such has been the patient suffering of these 
colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter 
their former system of government. The histor\- of the present King 
of Great Britain is a history- of repeated injuries and usurpations, all 
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public good. 

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operations till his assent 
should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to 
attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other laws for the accomodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of 
representation in the legislature — a right inestimable to them, and 
formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable and distant from the repository of their public records, for the 
sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedh' for opposing, 
with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of 
annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their e.xercise, the 
State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dangers of invasion 
from without and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States — for 
that purpose, obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners, 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising 
the conditions of new appropriations of lands. 


He has obstructed the administratioii of jiistice, by refusing his 
assent to laws for establishing judiciar}- powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his wiU alone for the tenure of 
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of 
officers to harass our people and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in time of peace, standing armies, without 
the consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the military- independent of, and superior 
lo, the ci\-il power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign 
to OUT Constitution and unacknowledged by our laws, giving his assent 
to their acts of pretended legislation; for quartering large bodies of 
armed troops among us; for protecting them, by a mock trial, from 
ptmishment for an}- murders which they should commit on the inhabi- 
tants of these States; for imposing taxes on us without our consent; 
for depri^•ing us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jun."; for 
transporting us beyond the seas to be tried for pretended offences; for 
sbolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring pro\nnce, 
establishing therein an arbitrary" government and enlarging its bounda- 
ries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing 
the same absolute rule into these colonies; for taking away onr charters, 
abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the 
forms of governments; for suspending our own legislatures, and 
declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for i^s in all cases 

He has abdicated government here by declaring us out of his 
protection, and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries 
to complete the works of death, desolation and t^•ranny already begun, 
with circumstances of cruelt\" and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the 
most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a ci%-ilized 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high 
seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of 
their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has endea\ored 
to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, 


whose known mie of warfare is an nndistingnished destmctkm of all 
ages, sexes and conditions. 

In e\er\- stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redres in 
the most humble terms. Onr repeated petitions have been answered only 
bj' repeated injnr\-. A prince whose charaxrter is thns maiked by e^er}' 
act which may define a tyrant, is tmfit to be the mler of a free people 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legisla- 
ture to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction o\-er ns. We ha\'e 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement 
here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity', and 
we have conjured them b>- the ties of a common kindred to disavow 
these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and 
correspondence. The\-, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and 
consanguinity. We must, therefore, acqtiiesce in the necessity which 
denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of man- 
kind — enemies in war; in peace, friends. 

We, therefore, representatives of the United States of .\menca, in 
general congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the 
World for the rectitude of onr intentions, do, in the name and In- the 
authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and 
declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, /ree 
and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to 
the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and 
the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally disolved; and 
that as/ree and independent States, they have full power to lev}- war, 
condnde peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other 
acts and things which independent States ma>- of right 60. And for 
the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of 
Di\-ine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our 
fortunes, and onr sacred honor. JOHX Haxcock. 

Xew Hampshire. — Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, ilatthew 

Massackusetis Bay. — Samuel Adams, John Adams. Rober: Treat 
Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island, etc. — Stephen Hopkins, William Elleiy. 

Connecticut. — ^Robert Sherman, Samuel Huntington. William 
Williams, Oliver Wolcott. 

Xeu- York. — William Floyd. Philip Li~lng5tone, Francis Lewis, 
Lewis Morris. 



Nciv /ersey. — Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hop- 
kinf^n, j'jhn Hart, Abraham Clark. 

Pcnnr>ylvania. — Robert Morris, Benjamin Rnsh, Benjamin Franklin. 
John ]\Iorton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James 
Wilson, George Ross. 

Delaware. — Csesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas M. Kean. 

Maryland. — Samnel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton. 

Virginia. — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Harrison. Thomas Nelson, Jr. , Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 

North Carolina. — William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

South Carolina. — Edward Rntledge, Thomas Hay ward, Jr., Thomas 
Lynch, Jr. , Arthnr Middleton. 

Georgia. — Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton. 


Through the countr}-, wherever the declaration was received, it 
awoke great excitement. In New York, a mob pulled down the gilded 
leaden equestrian statue of King George. The head was severed from 
the body and wheeled in a barrel to the Governor's house. The rest 
of the statue was moulded by a company of ladies into forty-two 



thousand bullets, which were to be shot at the King's soldiers. Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, ^Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina 
adopted State constitutions in 1776; New York, South Carolina and 
Georgia in 1777; Massachusetts in 1780 and New Hampshire in 1781. 
Connecticut and Rhode Island continued to use their royal charters as 
the law of the States. Not till 181 8 did Connecticut adopt a State 
constitution, and Rhode Island waited until 1840. Few of the consti- 
tutions admitted religious liberty. The constitution of South Carolina 
said "that no person shall be capable of holding any place of honor, 
trust or profit under the authority of this State, who is not a member 
of some church of the established religion thereof." The constitution 
of Pennsylvania required ever}' member of the legislature to declare not 
only his belief in the existence of a God who is a rewarder of good and 
a punisher of evil, but also to believe that the Scriptures are given by 
Divine inspiration. The constitution of New Hampshire stipulated 
that the members of its legislature should be of the Protestant religion. 
The constitution of Massachusetts provided against luxury, plays, 
extravagant expense in dress, diet, and the like. Every minister or 
public teacher of religion was obliged, in Massachusetts, to read the 
Constitution to his congregation once a year. 

History— Winsor's "Readers' Hand-book of the Revolution." 
Biography — Goodrich's "Lives of Signers of the Declaration." 
Fiction— John Neal's "Seventv-six." 

H. C. Watson's "Old Bell of Independence." 
POHTRY — Charles Sprague's "Fourth of July." (See Ford's Historical Poem.) 



ilj0 ionlinintals. 




WASHINGTON was anxious to hold New York 
permanently, and he believed that it could be 
done. He continued the work which Lee had 
begun. Governor's Island, Fort Stirling and 
Long Island were well fortified and manned. 
Strong works were built upon the Palisades and 
three water batteries were also built along the 
shore of the Hudson. By June eight}' pieces of cannon 
and mortars were mounted, bearing upon the bay and 
the two river channels. It was not until the last of 
June that the enemy arrived. The first to come was 
vSir William Howe, commander-in-chief, with his Boston 
arm}-. Governor Tryon, of New York, and many 
loyalists, went out to meet him. The troops followed 
in one hundred and thirty ships, and by June 29th all 
were in the ba}'. The}- debarked upon Staten Island, and here the 
General took up his headquarters. Admiral Howe, Sir William's 
brother, followed with some troops, and on August latli the Hesssian 
arrived. These forces numbered altogether thirty-two thousand men. 
Washington had upon his rolls about nineteen thousand. Under 
Howe's command were many distinguished officers, men of high 
breeding, intelligence and bravery. The English and Hessian soldiers 
were well trained. De Heister, the general of the Hessians, had been 


in many European campaigns. Among- the Hessians was a famous 
company of sharpshooters, under Donop. Even those Hessians who 
had come against their will and who were not used to bearing arms had 
still warlike traditions, and they were surrounded by such good material 
that their inexperience did not greatly lessen the strength of the force. 
As for Washington's men, they were made up of farmers, merchants, min- 
isters and mechanics. They were brave, but lacking in discipline and 
an understanding of war. They were without uniforms, a thing which 
is always depressing to the soldier, and were poorly equipped, the old 
flint-lock piece being the common arm. Bayonets were few. These 
men, in motlej- array, presented but a poor contrast to the elegantly 
costumed Englishman, and the Hessian, with his brass-pointed cap, his 
brass-hilted sword and glittering bayonet. General Washington's 
headquarters overlooked the Hudson, near Varick. Admiral Howe 
and his brother said that they had come bringing the olive branch of 
peace, and on July 1 4th sent a flag of truce up the bay with a letter to the 
commander-in-chief The generals sent out to receive this letter found 
that it was addressed to George Washington, Esq., and returned it with 
the remark that there was no such man in the American army. On 
the 20th another flag of truce was sent up with a message to his Excel- 
lency, General Washington. This was received and read with atten- 
tion, but Washington could entertain no proposition for peace which 
did not acknowledge American independence. An interview was held 
between Lord Howe and a committee of Congress, which came to nothing, 
because Howe had not been empowered by the King to admit the inde- 
pendence of the colonies. On August 20th all of the British troops were 
moved over to Long Island. The sight was an exhilarating one. 
Nearly ninety boats and flat-boats were filled with the best troops of the 
army, the glittering arms, the artillery and handsome horses, making 
a. display which that harbor has never seen excelled. Fifteen thousand 
men took possession of the roads of the island and occupied the Dutch 
village, while General Cornwallis and Donop' s sharpshooters drove back 
the Pennsylvania riflemen who had been patrolling the coast. Gen- 
eral Green was in command of the Americans at Long Island, and 
had surrpunded himself with strong earthworks thrown up in what is 
now the heart of Brookl)-n. On what is now Washington Park stood 
Fort Putnam, at the crown of the hill. The ridge of hills which lay 
between the Brooklyn lines and the coast of Gravesend Bay was made 
the outer line of defense by Washington. Several regiments were 
brought over from New York to reinforce the Brooklyn wing. General 



Green was ill with a fever which was raging among the soldiers, and 
his command fell upon General Sullivan. Early on the morning of 
August 27th the American guards were unexpectedh- attacked bv the 


English. The da)' had not yet broken, and in the confusion the 
American pickets retreated, ]ea\'ing their major a prisoner with the 


eneni, . Reinforcements soon arrived and the men held to a steady 
resistance, although most of them were untried and raw. Against the 
seventeen hundred inexperienced troops of Lord Stirling were placed 
at least six thousand English veterans. The Americans took advantage 
of an orchard near by and the heavy growth of hedges to protect them. 
Stirling was making a fair defense, when Generals Clinton, Cornwallis, 
Howe and Earl Percy came up with their men. These marched 
well around the American lines before they were observed. Two 
battalions fell into the hands of the English. The rest of the Ameri- 
cans retreated toward the Brooklyn camp, fighting as they went. 
General Sullivan was captured. The Hessians marched on rapidly 
after the retreat had begun, attacking the broken detachments. Ten 
thousand British and four thousand Hessians chased less than three 
thousand Americans through the woods and over the hills of Long 
Island, but most of the Americans succeeded in getting behind the 
works. Stirling still held the field with an organized force. They 
were surrounded and obliged to surrender to the Hessian commander, 
De Heister. Two other regiments were captured as well. The English 
loss was three hundred and seventy-seven officers and soldiers. The 
American loss in killed and wounded was less than three hundred, but 
they had given between eight hundred and one thousand prisoners into 
the hands of the enemy. 

On the afternoon of the 29th a council of the general officers met" 
Washington, and it was decided to retreat from Long Island. For 
twelve hours the troops were ferried across, in the midst of serious 
interruptions. There was still doubt as to whether it would be wise to 
continue the defense of New York, and at one time the Americans 
thought seriously of burning it before they deserted it. For two weeks 
there was comparative quiet. Had Howe chosen, he might have 
destroyed New York himself, but he, as well as Washington, concluded 
that it would be wiser to let it remain unharmed. Washington, after 
considering how insubordinate his soldiers were becoming, concluded 
not to continue the defence of New York. The men were sadly 
discouraged by the disaster at Long Island, and they were neither well 
paid nor well fed. The disorders were many, and some of the men 
were so homesick that, though they remained faithful to their jDosts, 
they could not be relied upon for \'igorous fighting. Fortunately, 
Washington's call for fresh men was responded to and he was able to 
allow some of his disabled men to return to their homes. On the 2d 
of Februarv Washington's arm\- numbered less than twentv thousand 


New York was to be evacuated on the 15th, and the activity of the 
city for a few days previous could easily be observed by the English. 
Howe was prompt to move his ships up closer to the city, and about lo 
o'clock on the morning of the day appointed for the removal, these 
ships opened fire. Under cover of this, Donop's Hessian sharpshooters 
crossed to New York and chased the Americans over the fields to 
Murray Hill. Washington and his men rode out in a vain attempt to 
rally the militia. Even those of the men who were willing to fight, 
could make no stand against the headlong and terrified rout of the 
majority. Washington was worked up to one of those fierce spasms of 
anger for which narrow-minded people have so often criticised him. It 
is said that he drew his sword and threatened to run some fugitives 
through, and that he laid his cane over many of the officers who showed 
their men the example of running. He dashed his hat on the ground 
and cried, "Are these the men with whom I am to defend America." 
So disgusted was he and so regardless of his life, that had not one of 
his attendants seized his horse's reins and turned him toward Harlem 
Heights, the General would probably have fallen into the enemy's 
hands. It is said that Putnam and Aaron Burr gathered up a portion 
of the soldiers, and by the most extraordinar}' exertions marched up the 
west side of the island through the woods and brought the men to Harlem 
Heights in safety when night had falleii. Howe was close upon this 
column in pursuit, and might have overtaken them, but for the 
exertions of a charming Quaker lady, Mrs. Murray. The General and 
his staff stopi^ed at her door to ask how long since the Americans had 
passed. Mrs. Murra}- replied that they were long since out of reach, 
and begged that General Howe and his followers would come in and 
rest from the heat. Mrs. Murray and her daughter treated them with 
cake and wine, and held the men by their quaint Quaker coquetry for 
two hours. As a matter of fact the Americans had not been gone ten 
minutes when Howe inquired for their whereabouts. 

A terrible rain fell that night. The patriot soldiers were without 
shelter. They had lost their provisions, cannons and baggage. The 
generals were not in a mood for giving them much sympathy for they 
felt that a more ready courage and obedience would have saved the 
day. There was a brisk engagement in the morning which was fairly 
well fought, and put some fresh spirit into the army. Early on the 
morning of the i6th occurred the battle of Harlem Heights, in which 
Washington himself directed the movements. He succeeded here in 
driving the English regulars in an open field — an experience new to 


the American soldiers. In this engagement tlie Americans lost four 
valuable leaders. But the troops were reanimated, and Washington set 
great store by the influence of this victory- upon their minds. 

New York was now entirely in the possession of the English. On 
the 2ist it was nearly destroyed by fire, though not intentionally. 
Five hundred buildings were burned, and it is supposed that several 
women and children perished in the flames. The Americans were 
suspected of setting the fire and about two hniulred of them were 
arrested. Most of them were discharged as soon as examined. One 
man was hanged. This was Captain Nathan Hale, of Connecticut, a 
patriot of great courage and influence. He had volunteered to go 
within the British lines at Long Island and obtain information concern- 
ing the forces of the enemy, which was absolutely necessar)- to 
Washington. He was captured, and papers found upon him which 
showed his purpose. He did not at any time deny that he was a spy. 
He was hung without any trial, and was not even permitted to see a 
clerg}man or use a Bible in his last hours. The letters he had written 
to his mother and sister were burnt. History- has placed him among 
the honored men of America. 

There was quiet for a few weeks, and it was not until the 12th of 
October that Howe was ready to renew hostile measures. The position 
of the Americans at Harlem Heights had been strengthened, but the 
Commander-in-chief feared that they could not be held, with the 
exception of Fort Washington. This was filled with a good garrison. 
The majority of the troops were scattered along the hills west of the 
Brown river, which runs nearh- parallel to the Hudson. The army 
were disposed here in position to face the enemy. Washington held 
W'lile Plains and the' roads leading up the Hudson and to New Eng- 
land. The English moved up in two columns — an impressive sight to 
Wasliington and his officers, who looked down upon them from the 
hills. At the time of Howe's approach the troops were disposed along 
the brow of a steep declivity. The enemy came clambering straight 
up the ascent, but recoiled under the hot fire with which they were 
recei\ed. They made a second attempt and were again forced to 
retreat, but in the third rush they were successful, and drove the 
Americans before them. All through the retreat the patriots kept up 
a steady fire from behind trees and fences, and at the close of the day 
the loss of the English was much greater than that of the Americans. 
Within the next two or three days Washington withdrew his army to a 
position on the North Castle heights, which was so strong that Howe 


did not attempt to capture it. He now turned his attention to Fort 
Washington. On the I5tia of November Howe demanded a surrender 
of the fort, threatening that if he was obliged to take it by assault the 
garrison would be put to the sword. I\Iagaw, who was commanding 
the Pennsylvanians holding the fort, replied that he preferred to defend 
it. So insulting a demand for surrender would probably have deter- 
mined him to this course, even if he had not previously intended it. 
The fight was a hot one. The American forces were scattered over the 
hills, along the shore of the river, and about the fort. All of these 
were finally crowded into the fort. Magaw was obliged to surrender, 
but it was upon honorable terms. The loss of the English army was 
three times as great as that of the Americans. Fort Lee was also forced 
to surrender. The Americans withdrew to the other side of the 
Hackensack river. Howe commanded the entrance to the Hudson. 
Washington believed that the British would follow their successes 
about New York by an immediate attack upon Philadelphia. 

Fiction— J. R. Sinims' "The American Spy." 

Alden's "Old Store House." 
Poetry— F. C. Finch's "Xathan Hale." 
Drama— D. Fnimbell's "Death of Captain Nathan Hale." 


iallb %}d& nnh '^mnnu 




Washington left a part of his force to hold the 
the posts which they still retained at the north, 
and took Putnam, Green, Stirling and Mercer 
southward with him. The entire force which 
accompanied him was less than four thousand. 
He wrote to Governor L,ivingstone, of New Jer- 
sey, telling him to prepare for an invasion of 
his territory, and asking the people to remove their 
stock, grain and other possessions out of the reach of 
the eneni)". The treatment of the people in the villages 
of New York, by the English, had been merciless, and 
Washington wished to prevent, as far as he could, 
another scene of such desolation. Washington was 
anxious about the condition of his anny. The enlist- 
ment terms of his men were short, and by the first of December Wash- 
ington would have but two thou.sand men with him. The two armies 
moved through northern New Jerse}', Washington always a little in 
advance of Cornwallis. The two Howes, as peace commissioners, 
offered pardon to all who had taken up arms against the king, if they 
would return quietly to their homes. This offer held good for sixty 
days, and many in New Jersey and Pennsylvania accepted it. As the 
British moved on through the towns, they took possession of horses, 
cattle, wagons and whatever else they desired. Washington kept a 
close outlook, and steadily retreated. His intention was to make a 
stand for the protection of Philadelphia. Fearing that at any time he 
might be forced to retreat into Pennsylvania, he had boats in readiness 
at Trenton, and, to keep the English from pursuing him, he ordered 



that all sorts of craft should be removed from the Jersey side, for 
seventy miles up and down the Delaware river. The American force 
crossed the Delaware just as the English entered Trenton. The two 
armies moved southward. Congress thought it unsafe to remain in 
Philadelphia, and adjourned to meet in Baltimore. Washington was in 
great need of reinforcements, and kept sending commands to Lee, who 
Was at the north, to join him with his forces. But Lee was envious of 
Washington's position, and desired to be first in command himself. He 
paid no attention to the commands, although they were imperative, and 
it was a fortunate thing for the army when he was finally taken 

prisoner by a compan)- of British dragoons. His command fell to 
General Sullivan, who lost no time in obeying Washington's orders, 
and reached headquarters just sixteen days after the first command was 
sent to Lee. Howe swept on through the country, the Americans 
hurr>-ing before him. The Pennsylvania and New Jersey men had gone 
to their homes, their tenn of enlistment having expired. The patriot 
troops Avere thoroughly dispirited. Washington felt that warm action 
was necessary, even though it might be risky. He decided to fix 
Christmas day as the date of an attempt upon Trenton. The British 
were confident that rebellion was about put down in America. They 


had scattered themselves widely over the countr>', parti}- to afford pro- 
tection to the lojal inhabitants and partly to keep recruits from joining 
the American army. The men were quartered in companies of twelve 
and fifteen to a house, all through the farm district, and were given 
over to plunder of the most vicious sort. Barbarians could not have 
been more merciless. The wanton destruction of property was the 
least of their offences. The English had acquired a thorough contempt 
for Washington's army. They no longer felt fear or any need of watch- 

Situated at Trenton was Rahl, with twelve hundred men. Against 
these men Washington meant to move. Cornwallis was so confident 
that the campaign was over that he had obtained leave of absence, and 
had already reached New York, on his way to England. It was upoji this 
lack of suspicion that Washington relied for the success of his plan. 
He determined to cross the Delaware at night above and below Trenton, 
to fall upon Rahl and his Hessians, capture them, and recross before he 
could be overtaken. That Donop and his sharpshooters, who were 
below Trenton, might have their attention engaged, a body of militia 
kept up a skirmish which drew off part of his force eighteen miles. 
General John Cadwallader was directed by Washington to cross the 
Delaware at Bristol, with a force of Pennsylvanians, and General 
Ewing was told to cross directly opposite Trenton. The main column, 
landing nine miles north of Trenton, at McConkey's ferry, was to be 
led by Washington himself When the night came it was found unfa- 
vorable. Both Cadwallader and Ewing were unsuccessful in their 
efforts to cross, for the ice was piled up high on the Delaware shore. 
But Washington made up his mind that he would act, even though he 
was obliged to do so without support. The troops in his immediate 
command he felt that he could trust. Twenty-four hundred men 
composed the expedition. Most of them had seen service, and they 
were led by valiant men, but the difiiculties they had to contend with 
now were not common ones. There was a driving storm, which half 
blinded the troops and threatened to make the guns useless. The 
current of the river was swift and filled with cakes of floating ice. The 
gentlemen who composed Washington's staff were filled with a ».ourage 
which was almost gay. All the way across the treacherous river they 
encouraged the troops in every manner possible. The boats were 
manned by Massachusetts fishermen, who were natural sailors, and 
among the best soldiers of the war. Washington had hoped to be on 
the Jersey shore by midnight, but it was four in the morning before 


troops and cannons were safely landed. It was too late to retreat, how- 
ever, and there was nothing to do but to push on, although there was 
no longer hope of surprising the town. The road was slippery, and 
many of the men were nearly barefoot, but among the troops were the 
most experienced and tried men of the army, and no complaints were 
made. At Birmingham village the troops were divided, so that they 
might march around the town in two columns. It was found that the 
priming of the muskets had become too wet to use in many cases. Wash- 
ington gave orders for the men to fight with bayonets. The Hessian 
outposts were surprised. A detachment of Americans, led by Lieu- 
tenant James Monroe, dashed in among them and was soon within 
Trenton. Sullivan had led the men up the lower road and had 
succeeded in surprising the outposts there as well. The Hessians made 
an attempt to form in the streets, but Washington himself directed the 
guns which cleared them away. Rahl had been indulging in Christmas 
festivities through the night, and neither he nor his men were clear- 
headed enough to do their best. They ran for their lives and were 
checked at ever\' quarter. In a short time they were compelled to lay 
down their anns. Rahl, their lieutenant, was mortally wounded, but 
lived long enough to give up his sword to Washington. The Ameri- 
cans took nine hundred and fifty prisoners and six guns, and killed 
seventeen and wounded nearly eighty of the enemy. Their own loss 
was only two killed and four wounded. By evening Washington had 
recrossed the Delaware, and by the 30th he had mustered his whole 
force in the neighborhood of Trenton. 

Cornwallis was determined to have revenge for the Trenton aflfair. 
He gathered all his available forces at Princeton, and on January 2, 1777, 
marched with his seven thousand men upon Trenton. They succeeded 
in cooping the Americans up there in a position which Washington 
recognized at once as being very perilous. To cross the Delaware in the 
presence of the enemy and retreat once more into Pennsylvania was 
impossible. Between Trenton and McConkey's ferrj' lay a part of the 
English army. In any position for battle his flanks could easily be 
turned, for the enemy outnumbered him. In a council of war a for- 
tunate plan was hit upon. It was to follow an almost unused road and 
to reach Princeton secretly, if possible, in the night, and so escape from 
the trap in which they were at present caught. General St. Clair 
attended to all the details of preparation. Along the front of the camp 
the appearance of an army at rest was kept up. The guards were 
relieved, the camp fires were kept burning, and every semblance oi 


peaceful encainpuient sustained. As a matter of fact, the troops were 
quietly niarcliing along what was called the Quaker Road towards 
Princeton. The ground was frozen and the artillery moved without 
trouble. Washington went with them in the midst of his guard, which 
was composed of twenty-one gentlemen of fortune, from Philadelphia, 
who were volunteers to the army and paid their own way. In the 
morning Cornwallis awoke to the realization that his prey had escaped, 
and that the Trenton affair was still unavenged. But before the success 
of the manoeuvre was assured there occured a brisk engagement between 
General Mercer's men and a detachment of the English. This was 
known as the battle of Princeton. In it the English were routed, losino- 
sixty killed and many wounded, besides one hundred and fifty prisoners. 
The American loss was small. General Mercer had been unhorsed, and 
on refusing to surrender, was baj-oneted on all sides while he fought 
single-handed with his sw'ord. He died a day or two later. Not a few 
of the men died from the effects of that night march through the bitter 
wind. They went without rest or provisions for two days and nights, 
and all of them were insufficiently clothed. As soon as Cornwallis 
learned that the enemy was at Princeton, he marched his soldiers in 
hasty pursuit, and entered that town just an hour after the Americans 
had left it. Washington took up winter quarters at Morristown. There 
was a feeling of general satisfaction throughout the United Colonies, for 
though the army had met with many disasters, it had succeeded in 
holding the English well in check. It was now seated in the verj- 
heart of New Jersey, which at one time everyone felt sure that the 
enemy would overrun. True, Howe held New York, but he had been 
obliged to abandon his plans against Philadelphia. Cornwallis and 
Howe had been outgeneraled and their veteran troops had suffered 
severely at the hands of the raw militia. George Washington was 
recognized as a great soldier, patient, discreet, ingenious and brave. 
Europe, and even England, were obliged to admit the dignity of the 
American Revolution, and to recognize the fact that the world had a 
new nation. 

Biography— G. W. Greene's 'Life of General Green. " 
Fiction — C. J. Peterson's "Kate Aylesford," 

Paulding's "Old Continental.*' 
Poetry— "Battle of Trenton." (See Ford's Historical Poem.) 
C. F. Ome's "Washington at Princeton." 





X April, 1777, General Howe demanded of Wash- 
'^ ington a return for a number of officers and 
twenty-two hundred privates whom he had released 
and sent within the American lines. Washington 
refused to make an exchange which would be 
equal in numbers, for he said that the eneni)- had 
broken the spirit of the contract made concerning 
prisoners. He accused Howe of great injustice and 
cruelty, and said that many of the prisoners, when 
released, were in so weak a state that they died before 
reaching their homes, or immediately afterward. In 
exchange for these suffering men, broken in body and 
mind, Washington did not propose to make a return of 
an equal number of able-bodied Englishmen. As a 
matter of fact, the American prisoners met with terrible treatment. As 
soon as they were taken they were robbed of their baggage, their 
money and their clothes. Many of them were kept upon the prison 
ships, which were terribly overcrowded, with only one-third tiie 
allowance of food which they should have had. It is said that at least 
eleven thousand five hundred men died upon the prison ships. Wash- 
ington continued to refuse an equal exchange of men for the melancholy 
creatures who were sent him, almost none of whom were able to be 
placed in the field again. This was a great disappointment to Washing- 
ton, for he was in serious need of men. The term of man\- of his 


regiments had expired, and in the spring of 1777 he did not have four 
thousand names on his muster-roll. The difficulty of procuring 
munitions of war was as serious as that of procuring men. Arms were 
scarce and gunpowder almost unattainable. But for France, it is 
doubtful if the war could have been carried on. In spite of her treaty 
with Great Britain, France was friendly to the American cause. 
Though the French minister deeply deplored to the English government 
the aid which the people of France were giving to the American 
patriots, he took care to remain ignorant of what was actually being 
done. Large supplies of powder, cannon and field equipage were 
shipped from France and allowed to leave without hindrance from the 
government. Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane and Arthur L,ee were 
sent by Congress to France, and these asked the King to recognize the 
independence of the United States. He would not do this, although 
he expressed his good will and ordered two million livres to be paid 
them by quarterly payments. Spain secretly joined France in helping- 
the colonies, and contributed one million livres, but she was not willing 
to be known in the matter. 

It is not necessay to relate in detail all the numerous and unimportant 
skirmishes which took place at different points between the Americans 
and the English. During the spring of 1777 the English burnt a 
number of villages, and Governor Tyron, who was now Major-General 
of the Provincials, did some disastrous work through Connecticut. 
Each of those engagements between the opposing forces has left many 
interesting traditions, but to cite them all, or even the best of them, 
would be a task too great to undertake. In May, Long Island was the 
scene of some determined fighting, the hostilities reaching as far as Sag 
Harbor. General Prescott, of the English army, was captured, and 
Washington hoped that he might be exchanged for Lee, whom it will 
be remembered was in the hands of the English. Lee was still believed 
in by many people, although he had offered to sell himself and his 
plans to the English and had for months been disloyal to his country. 
By the 28th of May, Washington broke camp, moving to the southeast 
that he might be in a better position to watch Howe's movements. 
The patriot army had now increased to seven thousand. Sullivan was 
in command of the continentals at Princeton, and the first move of 
the English army was to send Cornwallis to attack this town. Sullivan 
fell back and was not overtaken. Cornwallis tried to bring Washington 
into action, but failed. A little later he succeeded in taking three 
cannons and two hundred prisoners from General Stirling, but on the 



30th the English withdrew and crossed in a body to Staten Island. 
For six weeks they made no move, and Washington was unable to guess 
what their intentions might be. On the 23d of July, Howe set sail 
from New York, with eighteen thousand men, leaving six thousand in 
the city, under Clinton. A week later the English fleet appeared in 
the Delaware, but Washington had put such good obstructions there 
that it again put out to sea. Washington was as anxious as he was 
curious. He feared that it might be Howe's intention to move upon 
Charleston, and knew that defences could not reach the city in time to 
be of help. When next the fleet was hea: d of it was off the Chesapeake, 



and Washington was reassured by the reilection that Howe's intention 
must still be to move upon Philadelphia. At this time Washington's 
army was joined by several foreign officers, who distinguished them- 
selves in their devotion to the American cause. Among them were 
Lafayette and Baron John De Kalb. De Kalb and Lafayette were 
commissioned by Congress. Lafayette was very young— indeed he had 
not yet reached his majority — and it was oulv "-'..en he assured 
Congress that he had come as a volunteer and would pay his own 
expenses, that he was commissioned. The very ship in which he had 


brought his men had been purchased and fitted out at his own expense. 
Washington marched his army through Philadelphia on the 22d of 
August. Howe was pushing his army through Pennsylvania. On the 
loth of September Washington determined to hinder his further 
progress. At this time Howe was on the bank of the Brandywine 
river, commanding the principal forts. The engagement was a general 
one all along the lines. The Americans were finally forced to retreat. 
Their loss was three hundred killed and five hundred wounded. The 
English loss was less than si.x hundred in killed and wounded. 
Lafaj'ette distinguished himself, and received a wound in the leg which 
kept him confined to his quarters for two months. The American 
arm)' retreated the following day towards Pennsylvania and Gennan- 
town. On the 15th of September it crossed the Schuylkill. Here 
Howe advanced upon them. Anthony Wayne was in the American 
advance and was quite willing for a battle, but a drenching rain storm 
put an end to it. On the 19th of September Wayne was at Paoli, and 
within sight of Howe's encampment. He saw that the army was 
quietly engaged in camp occupations and told Washington that if he 
would come to his aid with the whole army he believed that a deadly 
blow might be dealt them. The intention was to move upon them in 
the night. Wayne had fixed midnight for the time of his movement. 
The watchword in his camp was "Here we are and there they go," but 
it proved to be a watchword without a signification, for, two hours 
before midnight Howe did exactly the thing which Wayne was 
intending to do. The British fell upon the American camp, firing no 
shots, but using their bayonets. The Americans were in the light of 
their camp-fires, and the British in the protection of the shadow. 
W^ayne's men ran in confusion through the dark woods. Nearly one 
hundred and seventy were killed. This is known as the Paoli massacre. 
At I o'clock that nigliL an aid-de-cainp dashed into Philadelphia 
with a message from Washington that the enemy had crossed the 
Schuylkill and would be in the town in a few hours. The news spread 
through the town wildly and the people were roused out of their beds 
to hurr)- from the place. A patrol was put in the streets to guard 
against fire. It was over a week before Howe marched into the city. 
His troops were received with loud cheers by the Tories. 

Washington learned a few days later that Howe had sent a small 
detachment to reduce the American forts on the Delaware. Washington 
decided that this was a good opportunity to strike an effectual blow. 
Howe's army was encamped in a long, straight line, to wiiich there 


were four approaches. Washington's plan was to advance on all four 
roads and engage the enemy along the whole line at the same moment. 
The attack was to be made at precisely 5 o'clock on the morning of the 
4th of October. On the evening of the 3d the American army left its 
encampment and marched all night. They reached the points aimed 
at about daybreak on the 4th. The morning was misty and they were 
upon the outposts of the enemy before their approach was known. 
The Americans were in good fighting mood. Their cry was to revenge 
the Paoli massacre. A part of the English lines broke, and the day 
might have been won, but that in the fog and smoke the Americans 
mistook their own lines for those of the enemy, and did serious injury 
among themselves, delaying the general movement. The battle was 
lost and Washington ordered a retreat. A thousand men had been left 
behind, while the English lost not more than five hundred. But Howe 
was alarmed, nevertheless, and withdrew his army into the city. He 
was in doubt where to take up his winter quarters. The Delaware 
river was commanded by the Americans and it was not easy, therefore, 
to obtain provisions. The Schuylkill was seriously impeded by 
obstructions and by floating batteries along the shore. Howe sent 
Colonel Donop, with his Hessian sharpshooters, to reduce Fort Mercer. 
Donop made a furious assault, but both he and his lieutenant-colonel 
were killed, as well as four hundred Hessians. The two British ships, 
which had moved up the river to aid in the assault, ran aground. One 
was blown up by the fire from the fort and the other burnt to escape 
capture. But Howe still felt that he could not afford to let the enemy 
retain possession of the Delaware river. On the 1 9th of November the 
British fleet was brought to bear upon Fort Mifilin. The garrison 
there made a sturdy fight, but could not hold out against the heavy 
guns of the vessels, and they were obliged to take refuge on the other 
side of the river, in Fort Mercer, having had two hundred and fifty out 
of four hundred either killed or wounded. Comwallis now moved 
into New Jersey, at the head of so large a force that even Fort IMercer 
had to be deserted. The Delaware, below Philadelphia, was now under 
the control of the British fleet. Washington took up his winter 
quarters at Valley Forge, and it is said that the march of his army over 
the frozen ground could be tracked bv the blood from their uncovered 

History — Cooper's "History of the American Na^y." 
Fiction— Cooper's "Pilot.'' 

J. R. Jones' "Quaker Soldier." 
E. H. Williamson's "The Quaker Partisans." 
Poetry— Carleton's "I^ittle Black-eyed Rebel.'' 


mlbrait ©onijucrnrs. 







HE winter at Valley Forge was a dreary one. 
Congress neglected the soldiers woefully. For 
months the)- were left to suffer with hunger, cold, 
and disease. They slept without blankets, many 
of them sitting all night by their camp-fires. At 
one time there were more than a thousand of 
'them without shoes. Even the sick had to lie on the 
ground without even a bunch of straw under them. 
There were but few horses, and the soldiers themselves 
drew their wood and provisions to their huts in little 
carts. It was verj- seldom that the troops received any 
money, and when they did, it was in Continental cur- 
rency, the value of which was steadily decreasing. It 
fell so low that at one time it took one hundred Conti- 
nental dollars to buy a pair of shoes. The foreign officers 
who had joined the camp were still faithful. Besides Lafayette and 
DeKalb, were Kosciusko, Pulaski and Von Steuben. These lived in little 
log huts ' 'no gayer, ' ' writes Lafayette, ' 'than a dungeon. ' ' These men 
were used to courts, luxurj' and adulation, and their devotion to the 
American cause was put to a severe test, although, of course, they did 
not suffer the stinging privations of the common soldiery. The camp 
at Valley Forge was laid out in parallel streets of log huts, built by the 
soldiers. Fortunately there was plenty of building material close at 
hand. This was their salvation. Had they not been well sheltered, 
it is doubtful if they would have had courage to face the rigors of that 
winter. Even as it was, the death-rate increased thirty-three per cent. 



from week to week. Desertion was frequent, but not so frequent as one 
might expect. 

Congress was at York, Pennsylvania. It seemed to the men who 
had the interests of the national army at heart, that Congress was 
strangely neglectful and indifferent. Upon Washington's shoulders 
fell the responsibility and burden of providing supplies and putting 
down mutiny. His distresses were added to by the fact that he had 
many enemies who were planning for his overthrow. Chief among 
these was General Gates, who had conducted the latter part of a suc- 
cessful campaign at the north — a -campaign in which he won more 


credit and did less work than several other generals whose names history 
has not so faithfully preserved. He was exceedingly jealous of Wash- 
ington, and conspired with a man by the name of Conway for the 
overthrow of the Commander-in-chief This was called the "Conway 
Cabal." A conspiracy of this kind could not be conducted without 
correspondence, and this made discovery almost inevitable. Through- 
out the countrj' the cabal aroused universal indignation. In the midst 
of these troubles Washington had the satisfaction of knowing that the 
best men of the coimtry were his warm frietids, and he also perceived 


that in spite of their privations the army was growing in effectiveness. 
This was due largely to William \'on Steuben, the Prussian general, 
who has been mentioned before. He had been with Frederick the 
Great, and understood the management of men thoroughly. He intro- 
duced the Prussian system of minor tactics, and beginning on a small 
scale, he gradually brought the whole army into an admirable state of 
drill. The fact that he had no personal ambition in the matter and 
was moved solely by a sympathy for the soldiers and the cause they 
represented, endeared him to the hearts of the men. He had a quick 
temper and a brusque manner. He swore at the soldiers in German, 
and compelled his aids to swear at them in English. But the men had 
the sense to perceive that what they were learning would make them 
formidable. They saw now, if they had never before, the necessity of 
absolute obedience on the part of the soldier, and that he is valuable 
only when he becomes an unthinking part of a great human machine. 
In the battles which were to come Steuben was remembered with affec- 
tion and tenderness when the men saw the strength they had gained 
under his instruction. Stories of his bluffness, his roughness and his 
profanity were told for long years after with a humor which but illy 
disguised the emotion which the mention of his name awakened. So 
the long months of the winter passed with Washington's men, and mean- 
while, in the North, there were active hostilities. 

Burgoyne, on his return to England after the end of the American 
campaign in Canada, submitted to the ministry' his "Thoughts for con- 
ducting the war from the side of Canada. ' ' His plans were approved, 
and in March of 1777 he was given command of a force. Lieutenant- 
Colonel St. Leger was to assist him by making a diversion on the 
Mohawk river. The Governor of Canada was order.ed to give all the 
assistance possible by adding Canadians and Indians to the expeditions. 
'But the Canadians were more than indifferent; they were disinclined to 
the service. It was a matter which did not concern them, and in which 
they would have preferred to take no part. With the Indians, a^ can 
easily be imagined, it was quite different. But Burgoyne was seriously 
criticised, even in England, for the use of these savages in honorable 
warfare. The plan of the campaign was for Burgoyne to get possession 
of Albany, control the Hudson river, co-operate with Howe, and allow 
that general to act with his whole force southward; in short, to divide 
New England from the other States, and thus make their reduction 
easier. But through a very slight accident, which, however, was not 
slight m its consequence. General Howe was not informed of these 


plans at all. Burgoyne landed with his eight thousand men off St. 
John's river, with the finest artiller\' train in America. Under him 
was a corps of successful officers. An English fleet was put upon Lake 
Champlain, consisting of nine vessels, carrying one hundred and forty- 
three giins and manned by one hundred and forty seamen. 

On the 17th of June Burgoyne prepared for an attack against Ticon- 
deroga. The river of St. John being the outlet of Lake Champlain, he 
had easily moved down to the western shore of the lake, and arrayed 
himself before the fort. Ticonderoga was still thought to be the key to 
the northern colonies, and the Hnglish believed its reduction to be 
necessar)-. The Americans were confident of holding the fort. General 
Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, was in command of the post with a 
force of three thousand men. Major-General Schuyler, who at this 
time had chaige of the northern department, hastened to strengthen the 
chain of posts from Ticonderoga to the Hudson and Albany. St. 
Clair's force was too small to cover every explored point, and to save 
some of his out-post detachments, he withdrew them. One of the posts 
which he was forced to abandon was Mount Hope. This the English 
General, Frazer, took possession of with heavy guns, and cut off the 
communication of the Americans with Lake George. But this was a 
little matter compared with an unexpected move on the part of the 
British, which amazed and dismayed the Americans. South of Ticon- 
deroga was a steep wooded height, which rose more than six hundred 
feet above the level of the lake. This was Sugar Loaf Mountain. It 
overlooked every fortified elevation in the vicinity, but had always been 
neglected in former wars because it was thought to be inaccessible. 
Burgoyne had with him engineers of ambition and skill, who secretly 
made a path up which the artillery could be drawn to the top, and one 
morning the American garrison, awoke to find the best guns of the 
English army frowning down upon them. St. Clair had but one; 
chance of saving his garrison and that was by leaving the fort secretly 
at night. On the 6th of July, at 3 o'clock in the morning, the 
troops marched out of the Ticonderoga forts and moved towards 
Castleton, thirty miles southeast. The guns had been spiked, the tents 
struck, the women and the sick sent hours before up the lake with the 
stores, and all would have gone well if some one had not been foolish 
enough to set fire to one of the houses. By the light of the blaze the 
English saw the Americans retreating, and started immediately in 
pursuit. All the next day St. Clair retreated through the woods and on 
the morning of the 7th was attacked. He met with a heavy loss and 


was obliged to retreat. Forty of his men were killed and three hundred 
and fifty wounded or taken prisoners. General St. Clair made a 
circuitous march of more than one hundred miles and reached Fort 
Edward with the remainder of his army. 

Throughout the colonies there was a feeling of deep chagrin which, 
to tell the truth, was out of proportion with the disaster. In England 
there was rejoicing as ill-proportioned. There was no question, of 
course, but that the condition of the northern army was serious. All 
the troops that General Schuyler could muster at Fort Edward by the 
middle of July were barely five thousand. He called for assistance, and 
Washington sent him two brigades of Morgan's splendid riflemen, 
besides tents, ammunition and guns, which he could but illy spare from 
his own arlny. General Benedict Arnold and General Lincoln, of 
Massachusetts, were ordered to report to Schuyler. Burgoyne, for 
some reason, was slow in moving, and these reinforcements had time to 
reach Fort Edward without interruption. In all, the American army 
at the north numbered six thousand, two-thirds of whom were Conti- 
nentals, fairly armed. When Burgoyne' s soldiers began their march, 
they found that the roads had been torn up, trees felled across them, all 
the bridges destroyed, and the cattle driven off. Their provisions were 
tardy, and the month of July had almost passed before they reached the 
river at Fort Edward. -. On the 22d Schuyler abandoned this fort and 
took a better position on Moses' creek, three miles below. Being 
threatened here, he fell back from one point to another until he reached 
Von Schaick's Island, where the Mohawk runs into the Hudson. 
Burgoyne' s plan of the campaign, as has been said before, was to send 
two forces southward. One of these was to march through the Mohawk 
valley to Albany and join the main body. This was composed of 
eighteen hundred men, under St. Leger. These reached the vicinity of 
an old fortification on the Mohawk river, known as Fort Schuyler. St. 
Leger demanded surrender but was promptly refused. The people of 
the valley were patriotic, and at the first alarm the militia had turned 
out eight hundred in number and hurried to the relief of the garrison, 
which was composed of seven hundred and fifty New York and 
Massachusetts Continental troops, under Colonel Gansevoort. At the 
head of the militia was General Nicholas Herkimer, a sturdy German, 
who had been so warm in his defence of the popular cause that his 
leadership alone gave courage to the people of the valley. He sent 
word to Gansevoort of his approach, and suggested that the garrison 
should meet him at an appointed place. But St. Leger heard of 


Herkimer's approach and intercepted him. Herkimer was marching 
carelessly through the IMohawk valley where the river bends frequently 
and the ground is broken with ravines, when he found himself 
surrounded by Indians and Englishmen in ambush. The Americans 
had entered well into the defile near Oriskany, where they were quite 
at the mercy of the enemy. Herkimer was mortally wounded at the 
beginning of the engagement, but he seated himself upon his saddle at 
the foot of a tree, lit his pipe, and determining to die as slowly as 
possible, gave his orders. No fight of the revolution was more 
desperate. For a large part of the time it consisted of hand-to-hand 
struggles, in which the men fought with knives, tomahawks, swords 
and spears. The fight lasted for five hours, till the ground was covered 
with the dead and wounded, nearly two hundred being killed on each 
side. At length help came to the Americans. Gansevoort had been 
reached by a messenger and sent out a sortie, composed of two hundred 
and fifty New York and Massachusetts men, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Willett, of New York. This party rushed into the enemy's camp, 
where only a few troops had been left in charge, capturing baggage, 
stores, papers and flags and drawing the attention of the enemy away 
from Herkimer's hard-pressed forces. The Indians were frightened 
and soon retreated. This weakened the British so that they had no 
choice but to follow. St. Leger did not, however, give up the siege of 
the fort until news reached him of Arnold's approach, when the Indian 
allies compelled him to abandon the siege. 

This was the first check to Burgoyne's plans. The hatred of him 
among the Americans had increased a thousand fold. His cruelty in 
employing the Indians was everywhere condemned. The fate of Jane 
McCrae was quoted as an example of the horrors which Indian alliance 
involved. She was a young woman, beautiful and gently reared, 
affianced at the time of her death to a young loyalist officer. She was 
killed while in the hands of two Indians, and her long hair was after- 
wards shown at Burgoyne's headquarters. People chose to believe that 
she was killed by the Indians, but in fact she was killed by her friends, 
the American soldiers, who were firing upon a party of Indians who had 
captured Miss McCrae and a friend with whom she was staying, Mrs. 
McNeal. Miss McCrae was buried by the soldiers who had attempted 
her rescue and heedlessly caused her death. 

History — Burgoyne's "Expedition from Canada." 
Biography — Spark's "Life ot Allen." 





JRGOYNE, moving his main column with slow, 
military' precision, was in great need of stores, and 
was delighted when he learned that abont twenty- 
five miles east of his line of march, at Bennington, 
in the New Hampshire grants, was a depot of 
horses and stores, which the Americans had established 
To marcli against this store-house was, therefore, his 
intention, and he appointed for the leader of the raid 
Lieutenant-Colonel Baume, a trusted German officer. 
Under him was a select corps, five hundred strong, and a 
party of loyalist rangers. About one hundred Indians 
joined the column also. Baume started out on the 
eleventh of August, and on the afternoon of the 
thirteenth, then sixteen miles distant from his starting 
point, wrote to Burgoyne that the rebels were now aware of the expe- 
dition, but that the Tories all about the country were flocking in to him. 
He complained that the Indians were uncontrollable, and added that he 
had learned that the strength of the American militia at Bennington 
was about eight hundred. Burgoyne concluded, on receiving this 
niformation, that it would be best to reinforce Baume, and on the 
fifteenth sent forward Colonel Breyman and his five hundred Brunswick 
chasseurs. It was true that Burgoyne' s approach had been learned of 
by the ' 'rebels. ' ' They had risen with their usual promptititde, and at 
their head was General Stark, who, at the time of the Boston fight, had 
gathered the farmers of the country around him and hastened to the 
rescue. At Bunker Hill, and at Trenton, he had done brave work, and 
now the whole region was read\- to answer to his call. The State 


ordered out the militia, and gave Stark the command. His brigade 
consisted of fifteen hundred militia. To these were added companies of 
"Green Mountain Boys," which swelled the entire force to about 
twenty-two hundred. These hastened to Bennington, many of thenj 
marching by night in a severe rain. B\- the sixteenth, Stark was 
ready to attack Baume's main body. There is a story that as the 
general came in sight of the enemy he cried: "See there, my men; 
ihere are the red coats; before night they are ours, or Mollie Stark is a 
widow." The fight lasted for two hours, and the British were finally 
forced to give wa)-. No road of escape was left open to them, and the 
entire body surrendered. Baume was mortally wounded. The Ameri- 
can militia-men, in great exultation, scattered over the abandoned camp 
for the purpose of plundering it. By this greed and disorder they came 
near losing all the advantage the\- had gained, for the}' were surprised 
by Colonel Breyman with his reinforcements, and it was only by the 
promptest action of the American officers that the English were driven 
back. When night fell, it was certain that the Americans had gained a 
signal victory. The)' had taken four cannon and nearly seven hundred 
prisoners, with but a small loss to themselves. This was known as the 
Battle of Bennington. This success at the north reanimated the spirits 
of the colonies. Volunteers hastened northward to swell the victorious 
army there. General Gates was given command of the northern 
department, in the place of Schuj'ler, and the former general reaped 
the credit of all the work Schuyler had done. Gates moved the camp 
from the mouth of the Mohawk, and took possession of Bemus Heights, 
twenty-five miles north of Albau)-. This site was commanding, and 
capable of easy defense, and, under the direction of Kosciusko, was 
strengthened by a line of breastworks and redoubts. This post held the 
road to Albany, and to reach that town Burgoyne must first overcome 
this obstacle. The British were still annoyed by lack of supplies, but 
it was necessary that the)- should push on, and the}' hastened to attack 
the Americans on Bemus Heights as soon as possible. 

Gates had about nine thousand men. His position was excellent. 
Upon the right was the Hudson; on the left, ridges and thick woods; in 
front, a ravine and abattis. Commanding with Gates was a large 
number of efficient officers, among them Arnold, and Colonel Daniel 
Morgan of Virginia, with his famous rifle corps. On the eighteenth there 
was a skirmish, in which a number of Englishmen, who were gathering 
potatoes, were killed or captured. On the nineteenth, work began in 
good earnest. Burgo}'ne mo\'ed upon Gates in three large columns. 

"ELBOW ROOM." 373 

Gates hastened to send out Arnold and Morgan to meet him. The 
battle ground was interspersed with thick woods, occasional clearings, 
and ravines. With such protection the lines were able to approach 
within close range. The fight was a long and serious one; now one 
side and now the other fell back. A number of the American com- 
manders lost half of the men in their force. The English had four 
pieces of artillery on the ground, but the Americans had none. A partv 
of New Hampshire men charged upon and seized a twelve-pounder. 
They were driven from it by a larger body of the enemy, but secured it 
a second time, and were again forced back. Private Thomas Haynes, 
of Concord, sat astride the muzzle of a piece when the enemy came up, 
and killed two men with his bayonet before a bullet struck him. The 
fierceness of the struggle can be imagined when it is known that thirty- 
six out of the forty-eight British gunners were either killed or wounded. 
The firing ceased at sunset. The Americans withdrew their fortified 
lines and the enemy held the field. Neither side were victorious, but 
Burgoyne had received his second check. The engagement was known 
as the battle of Freeman's Farm. 

The British fortified the ground which they held, and rested there 
for eighteen days. In the meantime, reinforcements came to Gates. 
General Stark threatened Burgoyne's communication with the north, 
and Colonel John Brown, with five hundred men, had made a dash at 
Ticonderoga and taken prisoners and guns. Burgoyne's constant hope 
was to join the main body under Howe, and thus force Gates to fall 
back. By the 2ist of September he received word that Sir Henr}- 
Clinton had been sent from Howe's army with an expedition which 
would sail up the Hudson for the purpose of taking the forts near West 
Point, thus creating a diversion in Burgoyne's favor. Clinton succeeded 
in doing as he desired, and carried both Forts Montgomen,- and Clinton 
by assault. The American loss was about three hundred, of whom 
• sixty or seventy were killed or wounded. The British dismantled the 
forts, burned two American frigates and laid a village in ashes. General 
Putnam, who was in command of the Americans at that point, retreated 
farther up the river and attacked the post at Fishkill. Clinton then 
returned to New York. 

This had not been of such marked relief to Burgoyne as he had 
hoped. The American lines were closing about him. He was short of 
provisions, and he found his Indian allies restless. It was necessary for 
him to either advance or retreat, and it was more in keeping with his 
character to do the first. With his best generals, he took position on 


Open ground within a mile of the American lines, sending an advance 
around to reach the American rear. Gates was quick and cordial in his 
response, sending out Morgan, with his riflemen, to begin the work. 
Hardly an hour passed after the British gave battle before their whole 
line was retiring in disorder. The success of the day had largely been 
due to the efibrts of Arnold. There were many jealousies and enmities 
in the northern division, and Arnold's impassioned and overbearing 
disposition had brought him into disgrace. Gates had taken his 
command from him and told him to remain in his tent, but when he 
heard the firing upon the field and saw how the American lines wavered 
for a time, he rushed out and took command of first one corps and then 
another, rousing the troops to enthusiasm. Gates sent a messenger 
ordering him to leave the field, but Arnold succeeded in avoiding him, 
and continued to cheer on the men who followed wherever he led. 
Even when the English were driven to their intrenchments, and the 
twilight had deepened almost to darkness, Arnold and Morgan broke 
through the lines and works and forced the Hessians to abandon their 
position. In this last charge Arnold was wounded. Congress promoted 
him to the rank of Major-General. The American loss had been small, 
but the English had lost many men as well as one of their best generals, 
and altogether the defeat of the English was decisive. Burgoyne 
retreated to Saratoga and encamped at the north side of the Fishkill. 
Gates followed him and made such a disposition of his troops as to 
surround him. His line of retreat was severed; he was threatened in 
the rear, and had but five days rations in the camp. Under the 
circumstances there was little choice but for him to make proposals for 
surrender. These he sent to the American commander, who agreed 
that the British anny should march out with all the honors of war and 
have free passage to England, upon condition of not serving again 
during the war. The surrender included five thousand seven hundred 
and sixty-three officers and men. On the 17th of October the army 
laid down their arms in the presence of two majors of General Gates' 
staff". For several days after, Burgoj'ue and his officers were entertained 
courteously by Gates and his staff". In England, Burgoyne was severely 
blamed for a blunder in which the ministry should have taken the blame 
to themselves. Congress presented Gates a medal for accomplishing 
what, up to this time, was the most important event of the war. 

History— Burgoyne's "Orderly Book." 

Felton's "Journal of American Rcvolutiou." 
Biography— Spark's "Life of Stark." 
F.XTiON — Cooper'.s "Chain-Bearer.' 


Snltra anb ffiuska). 



. HE British forces had occupied Philadelphia for 
more than eight months with a force much larger 
than Washington's, but they had failed to estab- 
lish themselves in the State at large. Early in the 
summer of 1778 they received orders to return tc 
New York, for the concentration of their forces had 
become necessary. On June i8tli they began to 
move, and were soon ferried across the river and marching 
northward through the Jerseys. Howe had been relieved 
and Sir Henry Clinton had the command. The train 
was composed of fourteen thousand effective men and the 
provision train was eight or ten miles long. The heat 
was intense, the roads bad, and during the long march to 
) New York between six and eight hundred Hessians 
deserted. As soon as Washington heard of Clinton's 
start he broke camp at Valley Forge and sent his men forward to 
destroy bridges and delay the enemy. On the 21st the Americans 
crossed the Delaware and on the 28th struck the rear of Clinton's 
columns, bringing about the battle of Monmouth Court House. General 
Steuben himself had reconnoitred the enemy the day before. Lafayette, 
Green and Lee were given commands. The night before the 28th several 
hundred men were moved up closer to the enemy, where they could be 
in position to watch their movements in the morning. As soon as Clin- 
ton's troops were set in motion Washington sent word to Lee to hasten 
operations and force an engagement. The main army moved forward 
to support the advance corps. Lee was thrown into confusion by con- 


flicting reports, and it was 9 o'clock in the morning before he was 
assured that the British were realh- continuing their march. The 
opportunity for attack, according to Washington's plan, was lost. A 
second skirmish took place between detachments of both armies, the 
Americans gaining the advantage. 

At this stage of the conflict Lee sent orders to Wayne to move to 
the right and capture the enemy's rear guard. This looked like a 
retreat to the rest of the commanders, and they left their positions and 
fell back some distance, when Lee sent his tardy orders to stand fast. 
By this time the entire division was in retreat. This the British saw 
and were not slow to take advantage of Lee watched his detachments 
retreat across the ravine and then, seeing that they were safe, followed 
them, to find that Washington had come up with the main army and 
taken command himself In a moment the atmosphere changed. The 
vacillation of the troops was gone, and they responded to the command 
of Washington's vigorous leadership. The Commander-in-chief ordered 
the nearest officers to hold the ground, while he formed the main army. 
The retreating troops were quick to join those in position. When Lee, 
last of all, came across the ravine, Washington met him and reproached 
him in terms as angry as they were justifiable. Lee's militar\' career 
was practically ended. He was soon after brought to trial before a 
court-martial, found guilty of disobedience to orders, misbehavior before 
the enemy, disrespect to the Commander-in-chief, and was sentenced to 
suspension from command for a year. The British soon advanced, but 
the Continentals stood finn, and Lafayette prevented Clinton from 
deflanking the position. Not until 5 o'clock in the afternoon did the 
British fall back. The loss was about three hundred and fift}- on each 
side. Clinton marched on to New York without further interruption, 
Washington following him. The Americans encamped upon White 
Plains, where they could watch the enemy. Late in July the Count 
D'Estaing arrived from France with a squadron of twelve ships, carrying 
four thousand troops. This fleet was intended for the relief of Phila- 
delphia, but did not reach the Delaware until that city had been evacu- 
ated. It finally put in at Newport, and at its approach twenty-one 
English vessels were burned to avoid capture. The Continentals had 
been in great hopes that D'Estaing would put in at the harbor of New 
York, but he claimed that the water there was not sufficient. Not a 
little dissatisfaction was felt, but this was soon forgotten in a determina- 
tion to be grateful for his aid. It was decided that the French and 
American armies were to co-operate in an attack upon Newport, where 


General Pigot was stationed with six thousand British and Hessians. 
There were ten thousand Continentals in Rhode Island, under the 
command of Sullivan. Sullivan agreed with D'Estaing that an attack 
should be made on August loth, but he moved before that date and 
neglected to inform the French commander of his change of purpose. 
On the 9th, when the French were ready to co-operate, a fleet of 
thirty-six vessels, under Lord Howe, appeared at sea, and D'Estaing 
re-embarked his men and put out after them, but no battle followed, for 
the fleets were overtaken by a terrible storm which scattered them. 
Sullivan thought best to push on, even without the French troops. He 
forced the enemy to withdraw within their lines of intrenchment, 
covered his own men with earthworks, and waited for D'Estaing' s 
return. The French commander, instead of returning, went to Boston 
to have his fleet repaired. It was a bitter disappointment to the Conti- 
nentals. Sullivan was doubtful about the safety of attacking under the 
circumstances, for D'Estaing steadily refused to separate his men from 
the ships. But on the 29th an engagement took place, which was 
provoked by Sullivan. In the end the Americans were driven from 
their positions, though with a loss of only one-fifth as large as that sus- 
tained by the British. On the following day Sullivan learned that 
Pigot was to be reinforced by Clinton with five thousand men, and he 
therefore began a hasty retreat across the country'. Clinton finding 
there were no soldiers to fight, set fire to New Bedford and Fair Haven 
and all the vessels at their wharves. Howe sailed to Boston and chal- 
lenged D' Estaing to battle, but he was not yet ready for sea, and when 
his fleet was at length refitted he sailed for the West India station 
without any further effort to help the American cause. 

While these hostilities were being conducted along the coast, in the 
west the Tories and the Indians were still keeping up frequent though 
irregular hostilities. In the battle of Oriskany, the year before, more 
than one hundred Indians had been slain, and in the tribes of the Si.K 
Nations there was a thirst for revenge. Joseph Brant was the most 
influential of all their chiefs. He had been educated among the whites, 
and having naturally an active mind and a savage nature, was now a 
most formidable leader. He was attached to the Tory interest of cen- 
tral New York by a sort of relationship with Sir William Johnson. 
The Tories did not disdain to use him as one of their chief allies, and 
among the Whigs he was dreaded without measure. From July to 
November of 1778, a merciless warfare was kept up by the Tories and 
Indians on the defenseless Whigs. Tne warfare extended all along the 


valley of the Susquehanna, northward through the west of Albany. 
Villages were burned, and men, women and children murdered. 
Toward the last of June two forts were taken at Wyoming, and many of 
the inhabitants of the valley were obliged to fly for their lives to Fort 
Forty. Colonel Zebulon Butler had command of the garrison here, 
and foolishly moved out against the Tories and Indians, who had a 
much larger force than he. All but sixty of his three hundred men 
were killed. As the news of this terrible massacre spread through the 
valley, the people fled from their homes to the woods and mountains, 
or sought protection at Fort Wyoming. In a little while this fort was 
also surrendered on a promise that the settlers should be permitted to 
return to their farms. But, as might have been expected, this promise 
Avas broken and many of the farmers, with their wives and children, were 
slain. About this time Joseph Brant had entered the settlement of 
Springfield, at Oswego Lake, and burnt every house in the village 
except one, in which he had had the humanity to place the women and 
children. Two months later Brant, with a large body of followers, 
destroyed the settlement of German Flats, in the valley of the Mohawk. 
For ten miles not a house or field was left unmolested. Earlj- in 
November a terrible fate overtook Cherry Valley, a village remarkable 
for the refinement and virtue of its inhabitants. The people were 
staunch patriots, and were, therefore, sure targets for Tory vengeance. 
Nearly fifty persons were killed here in -the course of one day, and all 
but sixteen were women and children. The fort was not taken, but 
most of the buildings in the village were burned. 

Still farther west the warfare was waged as mercilessly. The terri- 
tory which is now the States of Tennessee, Ohio and Kentucky was 
then thinly settled with pioneers. It was three years since Daniel 
Boone had blazed a trace in the wilderness west of Virginia. The men 
who followed him were among the bravest and most enduring of 
the nation. Hunting and fighting were necessary to their bare 
existence. Their deeds of endurance and fortitude are among the 
most romantic tales of histor)'. They had settled, unfortunately, upon 
what was considered the common hunting grounds of both the northern 
and southern Indians, and the savages naturally resented the encroach- 
ment upon their lands. The terrible disasters which overtook the 
pioneers of that region caused it to be called "the Dark and Bloody 
Ground." The English added fuel to their hatred, and many of the 
expeditions against the unfortunate settlers were inspired at Detroit, 
Vincennes and Kaskaskia by the commanders of the garrisons there. 


Colonel George Rogers Clark, one of the hardy pioneers of Kentucky, 
determined to strike at the source of this mischief Patrick Henry, 
who was then Governor of Virginia, gave him aid, and Clark got. 
together a band of one hundred and fifty men, and in May, 1778, went 
down the Ohio. At Corn Island, by the falls of the Ohio, he built a 
block-house as a depot for provisions, and leaving five men in chaige, 
went on with his force, which had now increased a little. While he 
was gone, these five men built cabins where Louisville now stands. He 
left his boat at the mouth of the Tennessee and marched across to Kas- 
kaskia. Here he surrounded and took the town. He sent the 
Governor to Virginia, and exacted an oath of allegiance to the United 
States from the people. Cahokia was soon taken in the same manner, 
and after that Vincennes, on the Wabash. It was in the autumn of 
1778 that the county of Illinois was first recognized and a civil com- 
mandant appointed. Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, soon recovered 
Vincennes, where Clark had left only two men in the fort. Hamilton 
was not aware of this fact, and approached with eight hundred men, 
demanding a surrender. The captain refused till he knew the lerms. 
Hamilton conceded the honors of war, and the captain and his one man 
marched out with dignity between the surprised columns of the enemy. 
Late the following winter Clark marched from Kaskaskia throvigh the 
swamps of that country- and retook the fort. Hamilton was sent as a 
prisoner of war to Virginia. The Indians, who were always anxious to- 
be on the strongest side, now became the friends of the Americans. 


History— Moore's "Treason of Charles Lee." 
Biography— Abbott's 'Life of Boone." 
Stone's "Life of Brant." 
Fiction— H. Peterson's "Pemberton." 
Poetry— Hopkinson's "Battle of the Kegs." 

Campbell's "Gertrude of 'Wyoming." 

William Collins' "MoUie Pitcher at Monmouth." 

ch.\pti;r lxi. 


m mmmt 






OWARD the close of the year the war drifted to 
the South. The ministry of England still held 
that the southern colonies ought to be, and could 
be, subdued. Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell was 
sent, with two thousand men, to reduce Savannah. 
There were twelve or fifteen hundred Continent- 
als at that place, under the command of General 
Robert Howe, of North Carolina. He was well situated, 
witli a lagoon in front, a morass on the right and the 
swamps of the river on the left. The works of the town 
were in his rear and he thought himself safe, but Campbell 
discovered a path through the swamps, which had been 
left unguarded. A detachment, led by a negro, went over 
this path and turned Howe's right. At the same time an 
attack was made in front, and the Americans beat a confused retreat 
into the town, losing over five htmdred in killed and as prisoners, as 
well as baggage and artillen,-. In a short time Campbell was in 
possession of Augusta, and the people of Georgia were obliged to 
acknowledge royal rule. Throughout Georgia and the other southern 
colonies there had been a fierce jjartisan warfare. Nowhere else in the 
colonies had there been neighborhood feuds as bitter as in those vStates. 
The loyal and patriot parties were about equally divided all through 
the South, and first one and then the other would be in the ascendancy. 
As soon as Campbell took Augusta a company of Tories assembled for 
the purpose of joining him, but they were intercepted by a band of 
Whigs. Seventy men were captured, tried for treason, and five of them 



were hanged. In March, 1779, five hundred North Carolina militia 
were ordered to move down the Savannah towards the enemy, who had 
left Augusta. The Patriots were surprised by the Tories, two hundred 
men killed or wounded and the rest frightened into dispersing with as 
much speed as possible. Occurrences of this sort were not unfrequent. 
A party feeling existed everywhere, and neighbors whose plantations 
adjoined each other waged as bitter war against one another as if they 
had been denizens of different countries. The militia could not be 
relied on, for they were likely at any time to leave their duties and 
hasten home to the protection of their households against private 

By the nth of May the English commander was before Charleston 
and summoned it to surrender. This Moultrie and the other military 
leaders would not consent to, and in the engagement which followed 
the English were obliged to move back upon Savannah. In the course 
of the summer General Clinton sent down several expeditions for the 
purpose of harassing the people. Along the Virginian coast many 
merchant vessels were burned and large quantities of provisions 
destroyed. General Tr>^on landed at New Haven on the 5th of July 
with three thousand men. The move was an unexpected one, and 
there were no soldiers to oppose him. But the people armed, and the 
Yale students formed themselves into a military company, Dr. 
Daggett, the president of the college, sending his daughter to a place of 
safety and then shouldering his musket to fight with his pupils. He 
was, unfortunately, taken prisoner. The inhabitants did all that they 
could to check the progress of the enemy, but the Hessian and British 
soldiers filled the town and indulged in every sort of outrage. The 
houses were robbed, the men murdered and a scene of debauchery and 
cruelty followed which was a disgrace to civilized soldiers. Norwalk 
and Green's Farms were visited next and treated in the same manner. 

Washington had placed his force so as to cover West Point. He 
had recovered Stony Point, which Clinton had taken from him but a 
short time previous. The attack for recovery was made at midnight on 
July 15th. Every soldier had a badge of white paper fastened to his 
hat, that he might be distinguished from the enemy. Each man was 
to shout, "The fort is our own," as he entered the works. Between 
the point and the mainland was a neck, which, at the hour of the 
attack, was covered by the tide about two feet deep. While crossing 
this, fire was opened upon the Americans from the guns. The 
Americans had been ordered by Anthony Wayne, who led them, not to 


fire, but to depend entirely on their bayonets. The English stood by 
their guns crying, "Come on, ye damned rebels, come on," to which 
Wayne's men cheerfully responded, "Don't be in such a hurry, my lads; 
we will be with you presently" — and they were, although they had to 
scramble up the steep ascent and over the abatis with the English fire 
upon them. The attack was one of those impetuous ones which none 
could lead so successfully as "Mad Anthony Wayne." He was struck 
in the forehead with a ball, but insisted on being carried into the fort 
by his men. The entire capture had not taken more than half an hour, 
and by i-t the Americans gained nearly fifteen hundred prisoners, fifteen 
pieces of cannon, and large quantities of stores and ammunition. 
This defeat delayed Clinton's advance and caused him to postpone 
indefinitely the movement upon Connecticut. 

A little later than this he met with another surprise in the loss of 
the post at Paulus Hook, now Jersey City. On the igtli of August, 
Major Henry Lee, with five companies of southern troopers, carried 
the place by assault without firing a shot. The)- were hotly pursued, 
but took one hundred and fifty prisoners with them in safety. Clinton 
sent out a naval expedition in August, which had an engagement near 
the mouth of the Penobscot, in which they were successful. In this 
affair the American colonists showed a lack of courage and judgment. 

Not more than a month after this. General Paul Jones fought his 
great battle upon the sea. It was the most important event of the year, 
and indeed one of the most remarkable battles which ever took place 
upon the ocean. The contest upon the sea up to this time had been 
barely respectable. It was mostly a warfare of privateers, with plunder 
for its aim. Congress had been anxious for a navy, and had made all 
the eflForts possible for establishing one. But their means were limited, 
and the work had been left mostly to the small frigates and privateering 
vessels, who, in their way, did not a little work for the Revolution. 
In the year 1777 two hundred and fifty British vessels were captured by 
American cruisers before the ist of February. By the end of that year 
the number taken was four hundred and sixty-seven. The most 
successful of all the seamen was Paul Jones. All along the English 
coast he was held in terror and dread. To him the King of France 
gave an old Indiaman, fitted out as a man-of-war. This Paul Jones 
named the Bo7t Homme Richard. This cruised along the west coast of 
Ireland and the north of Scotland for more than a month, with two 
consorts, the Alliance and the Paulus. On the 2 2d of February they 
came in sight of a fleet of merchantmen under convoy of two frigates. 


One of these, the Serapis^ carried fifty guns, the other, the Counless of 
Scarhoroughy carried twenty-two. Jones gave the signal for pursuit as 
they were off Flaniborough Head, on the coast of Yorkshire. He was 
not altogether in good condition for fight, for his crew had been reduced 
to man prizes, and hi;; prisoners were two-thirds as numerous as his 
remaining crew. Besides, the Serapis was a new frigate. She had 
twenty guns on each of her decks, main and upper, and ten lighter ones 
on her quarter deck and forecastle. The Richard had only six guns on 
her lower deck, which were all on the same side. Above these, on the 
main deck, were fourteen gims on each side. She had a high quarter 
and forecastle, with eight guns on these, and was of old-fashioned 
build, with a high poop, so that her lower deck was but little below 
her antagonist's main deck. It was after stmset, and a full moon had 
arisen, when the Richard came within hail of the Serapis. Captain 
Pearson, of the latter frigate, spoke the Richard twice. For answer 
Jones opened fire. Unfortunately, at the ver)- first, two heav}- guns on 
the lower deck burst. Many of the men were killed by the explosion. 
The rest went up to the main deck. The Serapis responded to the fire 
immediately. Jones pushed up closer, and as the heavy vessels swung 
arotmd, the jib-boom of the Serapis ran into the niizzen rigging of the 
Richard. Jones himself fastened the vessels together, and one of the 
anchors of the Serapis catight the quarter of the Richard., lashing them 
fast. The Serapis was so close to her antagonist that she could not 
open her ports on the starboard side, and her first shots were fired 
through her own port lids to free her guns. The fire from the main 
deck of the Serapis, while it badly injured the Richard, had but little 
effect upon the men, who, as has been said, deserted the lower deck, 
where the cannonading did most execution, at the beginning. The 
upper ginis of the Richard, of course, hung over the Serapis, as the 
former vessel had greatly the advantage of height. Muskets were little 
used, for it was night and clouds of smoke enveloped the vessels. At 
length, after two hours of about equal fighting, the men in the 
Ri.liard^s tops began throwing hand-grenades upon the deck of the 
Serapis, and one sailor, who had worked himself out to the end of the 
main yard with a bucket filled with grenades, lighted them one by one 
and threw them down the hatchway of tlie Serapis. They fell among 
a row of eighteen-pounder cartridges. The row was lighted, and in the 
explosion which followed, twenty men were blown to pieces. Many 
others were frightfully burned. Some of them were stripped naked, 
leaving nothing but the collars of their sliirts and their wrist-bands 


upon them. This roused them to desperation, and they made an 
attempt to board the Richard. They were met by Jones with a spike 
in his hand at the head of his men. The English were forced to fall 
back. At half past ten, Pearson, of the Serapis, struck his colors, but 
the fight was so equal that the men upon the Richard hardly knew, 
when the cry "they have struck" came, whether it was Pearson or 
Jones who had yielded. There is a story that when Pearson delivered 
his sword to Jones he said : ' 'I cannot, sir, but feel much mortification 
at the idea of surrendering my sword to a man who has fought me with 
a rope around his neck." Naturally this reproach did not in the least 
discomfort Jones. He returned the sword courteously, saying, "You 
have fought gallantly, sir, and I hope your King will give you a better 
ship." When Jones heard afterward that Pearson had been knighted 
for his intrepid action, he remarked: "He deserved it, and if I fall in 
with him again I will make a lord of him." When morning dawned 
the Richard was found to be sinking. The fires on her had not been 
put out, and she had been sadly torn to pieces. The wounded were, 
therefore, removed to the Serapis and were followed by the crew, who 
watched the gallant ^zV/zar^f sink to the bottom. The King of France 
presented Jones a sword, and Congress gave him a vote of thanks. 
Jones' action was the last important one between the English and the 
American ships in tLe war. The French fleet was relieving the 
American government from the expense of maintaining a navy. For 
the most part the naval actions during the remainder of the war were 
between privateers, of which there were a large number. 

History — Tarleton's "Histon,- of the Southern Campaign.*' 
Lee's "War in the "Southern Department." 
Hawk's "Revolutionarj' History- of North Carolioa." 
Drajlon's "Revolution "in the CaroUnas" 
Biography— McKenzie's "Paul Jones." 
Fiction— Cooper's "The Pilot." 

T. Mirgge's "Paul Jones." 

A. Cunningham's "Paul Jones." 

Dumas' "Captain Paul." 

c/^^ja^Xj /u^^-^t-u) 


)}p jlir Tlalians. 


i^[-ASHINGTON was opposed to the movement 
fi against Canada. He thought it involved an 
unnecessary waste of lives and money, and it 
seemed to him that the great cause would not be 
materially affected by victor}- in that direction, 
and that the army of the nation, feeble enough at 
best, had need to concentrate its attention upon 
the defense of American homes. The plan of Cana- 
dian conquest had been a favorite one with Congress, 
and they listened to Washington's objections with 
unfeigned irritation. When at length they yielded, 
it was only upon condition that an effort should be 
made to take the British fort at Niagara. This Wash- 
ington did not altogether approve of, but he hoped, by 
sending an expedition against that fort, to severely 
Dunish the Six Nations, from whose atrocities the frontier settlements 
still continued to suffer. Early in 1779, preparations were made for 
carrying the war into Central New York and Western Pennsylvania. 
The command was given to Sullivan. The directions from Wash- 
ington were that he was to seem to have Niagara as his destination, but 
the punishment of the Indians was to be his sole object. These com- 
mands Sullivan followed closely, never approaching within seventy- 
five miles of Fort Niagara. But the spring and the summer passed 
before Sullivan was able to move. Congress showed its usual indif- 
frence, and the men were in no way provisioned for such an expe- 


dition. At one time all the officers in the New Jersey brigade sent in 
their resignations. In doing so, not even Washington could accuse 
them of lack of patriotism. Their families were actually suffering for 
the necessities of life, for the soldiers had received no pay for months. 
The officers insisted that they must return to their homes and provide 
for their families. Washington made a protest to the New Jersey legis- 
lature, which brought help for the time being, and the men resumed 
their duties. Before Sullivan could obtain supplies for his men he had 
to indulge in reproaches to Congress which were more candid than 
courteous, and which made him many enemies. 

It was late in August when Sullivan was ready to move. He found 
the enemy in force near Elmira. This force was placed in a position 
protected on two sides by a bend in the river, and strengthened in 
front by a breastwork which was artfully hidden by woods and under- 
brush. Into this ambush it was expected that the American forces 
would march. Joseph Brant led the Indians, and the Butlers, father 
and son, fiercest among the Tories, were the commanders of the loyal 
militia. The Americans knew well that should they fall into the hands 
of such enemies, no quarter would be shown, and in case of defeat, 
victory would be turned into massacre. But this stratagem was not 
successful. A rifleman who had climbed a tall tree discovered the 
whole plan, and by his discovery defeated it. Sullivan had three thou- 
sand men, led by able and experienced officers. He sent a portion of 
his army to face the Indians and force them into fight. Another por- 
tion was sent quietly through woods and swamps for an attack on the 
rear and flank. The enemy was caught in its own trap, and when the 
artillery broke in upon them from the rear, crying, "Remember 
Wyoming!" they took to headlong flight. 

Sullivan's army resumed its march in two days, and for weeks kept 
on its way leaving behind it the most utter desolation. Never before 
had Indians attained such a degree of civilization. They had built 
themselves towns and comfortable log huts, conveniently furnished and 
surrounded by excellent orchards and fields. Sullivan spared none of 
these. His relentless destruction set back the civilization of the Indian 
permanently. Never since, except among the Cherokees, have they 
shown the industry', frugality and self-respect which they did at that 
time. Thousands of fruit-bearing trees were cut down. Two hundred 
bushels of Indian corn and immense quantities of potatoes, beans and 
other products of their farms and gardens were destroyed, as well as 
forty villages. The Indians were left with neither shelter nor food to 


carry them through the winter, which was close at hand, and which 
proved to be one of terrible severity. It was little wonder that when 
any of Sullivan's men fell into their hands they were tortured in that 
manner of ingenious cruelty of which only the savage is capable. Sul- 
livan went as far as the most western settlement of the Six Nations, 
called Seneca Castle. From here he retraced his footsteps, having lost, 
in a long series of encounters, only forty men. Upon rejoining Wash- 
ington's army he resigned his commission. He had done the work 
appointed him and had done it well, but the reproaches which he had 
heaped upon Congress for their neglect of the national army caused 
them to accept his resignation without demur. 

At this time, or a little before, an expedition was undertaken from 
Louisiana, which, in the final settlement between England and the 
United States, probably did more than anything else towards securing 
the territor}' west of the Mississippi to the United States. This expe- 
dition was led by Galvez, the young and ambitious Governor of Louis- 
iana. A declaration of war had been made by Spain against England. 
The bonds of friendship between Spain and the United States were 
therefore strengthened, and Galvez joined with Pollock, the agent of 
Congress, in moving against the British forts, i\Ianchac, Baton Rouge 
and Natchez. They also succeeded in capturing eight English vessels on 
Lake Pontchartrain, and a few months later took Mobile. The following 
year Pensacola, the last post in Florida in British possession, was also 
reduced by Galvez. But for this, in the final adjustment, the United 
States might have been bounded by the Mississippi river on the 

The war had now lasted for five years. Clinton was stfU of the 
opinion that the quickest way to bring it to an end was to overrun the 
thinly settled southern country and compel the people to swear alle- 
giance to the King. By dividing the L^nion there, it was hoped that 
the rebellion could be suppressed. The national anny was in despair. 
Washington mustered only about fifteen thousand men, and of these not 
more than eleven or twelve thousand were in the ranks. The time was 
approaching when mau)^ of the terms of enlistment would expire. For 
months the pay of the soldiers had not been forthcoming. They were 
often hungr>', all were poorly clothed, and some were actually naked. 
Had it not been for foreign loans, the nation could not have been sus- 
tained. It was this wretched army of half-starved men which Wash- 
ington had to bring against Clinton's well-cared-for troops. A common 
commander would have done one of two things — he would cither have 


lost heart aud surrendered, or brought on a rash attack to bring an end 
to these desperate straits. But Washington's military genius was equal 
to the occasion. His policy was to watch warily every movement of 
the enemy, to harass, annoy, delay, and to seize those rare opportuni- 
ties where a blow could be struck in safety. Clinton was lacking in 
that energy which sustained Washington, and while it seemed to lie in 
his power to win victor}-, he preferred to remain passive. Clinton 
believed that should he make both the South and North points of 
attack that he could crush either one or the other, for Washington, it 
was obvious, could not divide his forces. Charleston was still in 
possession of the Americans, being held by General Lincoln. The 
Americans were anxious to regain Savannah, and a plan was laid by 
which D'Estaing was to return from the West Indies, join with Lincoln, 
and move upon Savannah for the purpose of recapturing it. They did 
so, and demanded surrender. The answer of Prevost, the commander 
of the fort, was one of defiance. A siege was sustained there for a 
month, but as Prevost showed no signs of yielding, an assault was 
made on October 9th. D'Estaing and Lincoln led the attack with 
their combined force of four thousand men. The French fleet in the 
harbor kept up a cannonading of shot and shell. The English had a 
strong defense, and from behind the abatis and earthworks, kept up a 
murderous fire. The American bravery displayed was superb. Ser- 
geant Jasper, who had restored the flag to its place when it was shot 
down at Fort Moultrie, was killed here in defense of his colors. 
Between eleven and twelve hundred on the American side were killed, 
among them Count Pulaski. The British lost less than fifty. This 
ended the siege of Savannah. The French fleet set sail for the West 
Indies and Lincoln retreated to Charleston. Clinton now resolved upon 
energetic measures for the reduction of the whole South. 

History— Ramsay's "American Revolution in South Carolina." 
Stone's'"Border Wars of the American Revolution." 
"Siege of Savannah." Anon. 


Worn San /^a %vm\ Tfoui? 


HE winter of 1779-80 was one of great severity. 
The sufferings of the American army at Morris- 
town were almost unendurable, and even the 
English, in their comfortable quarters at New 
York, were not a little annoyed by the extreme 
cold. The English constantly expected an attack, 
-^ for the ice was so solid that the town could be easily 
approached. Lord Stirling led his Continentals across 
the Kill on the ice, at Elizabethtown, to Staten Island, 
marched two thousand men north to the Narrows, and 
burned a fortified house and several vessels. Another 
party crossed the North river in sleighs, and marching 
to Newark, burned the Academy and sacked some of the 
houses. Expeditions of this sort ser\-ed to keep the Eng- 
lish in expectation of a general attack. Clinton's ambi- 
tious designs for subduing the southern colonies were not a little delayed, 
and it was the middle of March before he was ready to take the final 
steps for investing Charleston. ^leanwhile, the American envo}s 
begged for more extensive help from France. Franklin and his asso- 
ciates, who represented America in France, were doing work of as 
much importance to the independence of this countr}^, as were Washing- 
ton and his devoted generals. Lafayette visited France to join his 
solicitations to those of Franklin. Together they persuaded the court 
to send nearly six thousand men, under Count De Rochanibeau. The 
expedition was a splendid one. It sailed in April, at the time that 
Clinton appeared before Charleston and demanded surrender. General 
Lincoln, who was in command of the American defense at that 



point, sent word that lie should hold it to the last extrt:nity. This lie 
did. The English fleet crossed the harbor, and closed slowly around 
the city. The American troops, defending the cit}- at the rear, were 
met b)- the enemy and defeated, so that all of Lincoln's available roads 
for retreat were cut off. On the eighth of May the town surrendered, 
and the Continental troops and seamen were held as prisoners of war. 
The entire southern army of America was thus in the hands of the 
British. Savannah and Charleston, the foremost seaports, were 
captured and held by the enemy. The British armj- in Georgia and 
South Carolina numbered nearly fourteen thousand men. Clinton's 
plan of subduing the southern colonies seemed to him, and to even'one 
else, only a question of time. In spite of all lessons, however, the 
English continued to under-estimate the inherent patriotism of the 
American heart. Clinton issued a proclamation requiring all persons 
to take an active part in settling and securing his majesty's govern- 
ment, and declaring that all who refused to do so should be considered 
enemies and rebels. In all of the southern States there were many 
who were willing to remain neutral, but comparatively few — aside, of 
course, from the open Royalists — who were willing to take up arms 
against their own countr}-men. In the popular protest which was 
made to this proclamation, a Major James was sent to ask the com- 
mander of a British post at Georgetown for an explanation of the proc- 
lamation. The commander replied: "His majest}- offers you a free 
pardon, of which you are undeserving, for you all ought to b-^ hanged; 
but it is only on condition that you take up arms in his cause." Major 
James, the American, replied that those whom he represented would 
not submit to such conditions. "Represent! You damned rebel, if you 
dare speak in such language I will have you hung at the yard arm." 
James had no weapons, but for answer he knocked the British officer 
down with a chair and left him senseless. James and his four brothers 
were, after this, among the leaders of the partisans of the State. 

When the news of the surrender of Charleston reached Morris- 
town, it had a verj' dispiriting effect upon the troops. The English 
counted upon this, and on the sixth of June, six thousand troops were 
marched from Staten Island to the village of Connecticut Farms. The 
militia of the country fought ever)- step of the way with them, falling 
back slowly and coolly before the superior numbers of the English, but 
they were unable to protect the village, and Connecticut Fanns was 
burned. The wife of the Rev. James Caldwell was killed by a shot 
through the window of the room where she was sitting with her 

"whom can wk trust now?" 395 

children. A few da\s later, when the English had undertaken another 
movement, the husband of this murdered woman was among the 
leading spirits of the defense. The engagement took place at Spring- 
field, and in spite of the utmost efforts of the Americans the place was 
taken and burnt. When the men were in want of wadding for their 
guns, Caldwell distributed hymn books among them with the exhorta- 
tion, "Put Watts into'em, boys!" After the burning of Springfield, the 
enemy returned to Staten Island. 

By the nth of July, De Rochambeau arrived in Newport with his 
troops, now swelled by the addition of a fleet to twelve thousand men. 
Washington wished to move at once upon New York, but many of the 
French were ill from the effects of a troublous voj^age, and their 
commander would not consent to action. So, to the great disappoint- 
ment of the people and of the army, the autumn passed in inactivity. 

As Washington was returning to his army from an interview with 
Rochambeau, at Hartford, in Connecticut, his iinexpected arrival at 
West Point discovered the gigantic treason of General Arnold. Arnold 
was a man of proud and haughty spirit. As a soldier, his bravery and 
dash were never questioned. As a gentleman and a patriot, there was 
always some doubt of him in the minds of those who knew him best. 
His naturally arrogant nature had been irritated by the neglectful 
conduct of Congress in not paying that tribute to his ability which he 
felt that it deserved. This is urged as his only motive for his treason- 
able actions. For several months he corresponded with the British 
Commander-in-chief, giving him all the military' and civil news which 
could be of any use to the enemy. While Arnold was in command at 
Philadelphia, various charges had been brought against him by the 
State, for which he was taken before a court-martial. After a public 
rebuke from the Commander-in-chief, he was restored to the service and 
tmder pretense of being disabled from duty in the field by an old 
wound, was given the command of West Point. He took this for 
the sole purpose of betraying his trust and selling himself at a high 
price to the English. No post in the country was of greater import- 
ance to either side than that of West Point. It commanded the 
navigation of the Hudson, and to a degree the communication with 
Canada, as well as that between the Northern and Southern States. The 
garrison by which it was held numbered more than three thousand men. 
These were defended by one hundred guns. With the betrayal of the 
place, large stores of provisions, ammunition, and the greater part of 
the men would inevitably fall into the hands of the English, and a blow 


^%■ould be struck at the Anierican cause which would render success 
more than doubtful. 

In order to make the final arrangements, it was necessary that a 
personal interview should be held between Arnold and some represent- 
atives of General Clinton. Major Andre was the officer chosen by 
Clinton, as being a man of discretion and bravery. Arnold dared not 
trust any one on his own side with a knowledge of his villainy, and 
determined to converse with Clinton's emissary himself. He deter- 
mined, too, to take as little personal risk as possible, and after making 
several ineflfectual efforts to induce Andre to come within the American 
lines, he at last succeeded. It became necessary that if the plan ^\■as to 
be carried out, it should be done immediately, and under stress of this 
pressure Andre consented to leave the British ship, on which he had 
put himself that he might be nearer to Arnold, and to come on shore 
within the American lines. Hiding his uniform under a long overcoat, 
he took a boat and w-as rowed to the foot of Long Clove Mountain, 
about six miles below Stony Point, where he met Arnold. There, 
hidden in the bushes, the conspirators talked through the night. At 
dawn, Andre was taken to Arnold's headquarters and concealed there. 
To escape with his news was a difficult matter. The vessel in which 
he had been brought had moved farther down the river, and he was 
obliged to risk a ride through the coimtn,- To provide against 
suspicion, Arnold gave his confederate a pass made out to John 
Anderson, which allowed him to pass White Plains and beyond. 
Mounted upon a good horse, Andre began his perilous ride through the 
country. He was within half a mile of Tarry-town, when he was 
stopped by three men who wished to know his business and destination. 
How so brilliant a man could have blundered in the carrying out of a 
scheme of such paramount importance, it is not easy to see, but in the 
alann of the moment he confided that he was a British officer. The 
men took him to the nearest military- post. Here the pass of John 
Anderson seemed to be a sufficient explanation of his presence. But 
his gait betrayed the fact that he was a soldier, and the matter was 

No one was willing to believe that one of the most trusted generals 
of the American army was a stupendous traitor, and it was some time 
before that idea even occurred to any one. The commander of the post 
to which Andre was taken wrote a letter to Arnold concerning the 
mysterious person, John Anderson, and asking an explanation. When 
Arnold received it he was at breakfast with two of Washington's aids. 




He saw that his treason would soon be known in all its enormity. He 
quietly went into another room, told his wife, in a few hurried words, 
of his peril, mounted a horse at his door, and riding to the river side, 
took a boat. Then, tying his handkerchief to his cane as a flag of 
truce, he sailed to the British ship, the Vulture. It was afternoon 
before his escape was noticed. 

Andre was hung. He had risked his life to oblige his commander, 
and under the promise of the reward of a large sum of money. He 
failed in his scheme, and received the punishment due a spy. It has 
been the fashion, both in England and America, to sympathize with 
him greatly because he was young, high born, scholarly and brave, but 
he did not act the part of a hero in the cause in which he died. No 
one who has read history can help contrasting his dramatic self-con- 
sciousness — for he wrote and talked much about his sense of honor and 
his bravery — with the modesty and devotion of Nathan Hale, the sp)- 
who died regretting that he had not another life to give his countr\-. 
Washington offered to exchange Andre for Arnold, but Clinton was a 
man of honor, and would not break his word to a traitor, even to save 
a man who was the victim of his plans and his friend. 

The British government showed its gratitude to Arnold by giving 
him a commission as Brigadier-General in the army, and 6,315 pounds 
sterling in money. His wife and all of his children were pensioned, 
and throughout their lives received half pay as retired officers. But 
Arnold received no more respect among the English than among his 
own countr>'men. Later, in the southern campaign, Cornwallis 
positively refused to have him in his command. That .spirit of brilliant 
daring which had distinguished him in the American army never again 
showed itself In the victories which he won for the English he 
showed more of the spirit of a murderer and a marauder than of a 

History— "Trial of Benedict Arnold." 

"Trial of Major John Andre." 
"New York City in the American Revolution." 

Tuckerman's "America and her Commentators." {French auxiliaries.) 
Biography — J. N. Arnold's "Life of Arnold." 

Fiction— E. P. Roe's "Near to Nature's Heart." 
Poetry — Harte's "Caldwell, of Springfield." 
Freneau's "Arnold's Departure." 
Bradley's "Andre's Last Moments." 
Drama— Calvert's "Arnold and Andre." 
Lord's "Andre." 
Dunlap's "Andre." 


'^ l|atj0 ^m{ fctt n §mtvnV 





FORTUNATELY no serious harm came of 
Arnold's treachery, but to the people, and to 
the Commander-in-chief in particular, it was 
ver}' discouraging. "Whom can we trust 
now?" asked Washington, sadly. It might 
well be a moment of gloom, for in the South, 
affairs for the time seemed hopeless. After Charleston 
was taken and the army moved . through the State, 
Colonel Abraham Beaufort was sent, with about four 
hundred Virginian troops, to harass the enemy. He 
was met by thirty cavalry and mounted infantry under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bamastre Tarleton. 
Tarleton fell upon the Americans without giving them 
time for defense, and when they threw down their arms 
and begged for mercy, he cruelly killed them. It was not a battle, but 
a massacre, and won for Tarleton that reputation for cruelty by which 
he is remembered to this day. Had not the country been filled with 
partisans likely to rise at any time, this might have seemed the end of 
the war in the South, but since there was not a citizen who was not 
likely at any time to become a soldier, it was impossible to tell when 
the country was conquered. The loyal partisans of the CaroHnas and 
of Georgia were obliged to content themselves at this time by harassing 
the enemy in every way possible. Sumpter, Davie, Marion and many 
others were the leaders of desperate bands of men who hid themselves 
in the swamps and thick woods of the southern country, and sallied 


forth at unexpected moments to annoy and injure the enemy. The 
camp of Marion was hid in the swamps of the Pedee, and so securely 
concealed, that even his men had sometimes to search for hours before 
they found it. 

Cornwallis, a soldier on the old plan, used to military' precision and 
well-regulated warfare, was not a little chagrined and vexed by hostil- 
ities of this sort. He was never certain where he would find the enemy, 
and when he did find them he could not rely upon their keeping in 
battle array. They were verj- much more apt to disperse, baffle pursuit, 
and only appear again when they could strike an unexpected blow. 
When he learned that Baron De Kalb was marching southward 
with Maryland and Delaware troops, Cornwallis was prompt in his 
measures to intercept them. Gates had now been appointed by 
Congress to conduct the campaign, and he hastened forward wdth 
cavalr\' from Virginia and North Carolina, for the purpose of forming a 
junction with De Kalb. The American anny numbered three thousand 
men, most of whom were raw recruits, without discipline, sufficient 
arms, or comfortable clothing. The British troops were veterans, but 
were fewer in number than the Americans. Gates wished to wage 
active warfare, although he must have known that his men could not 
be relied upon to stand steady fire. Gates sent Marion with his men 
into South Carolina on a reconnoisance, ordering him to destroy all 
the bridges and boats on his way, that the British might have no means 
of escaping to Charleston should they be defeated. - But Cornwallis 
had no intention of being defeated. He was as anxious as Gates for 
action, and with far better cause. On the 15th of August, 1780, both 
armies moved, each with the intention of surprising the other. At the 
first fire the Americans broke ranks and fled, but a portion of the militia 
had the courage to check the advance, and the fight continued till night 
forced them to desist. When morning dawned Cornwallis was able to 
take in all the weakness of his opponents. He posted his best men 
opposite the untried Virginia militia, who, as he expected, fired a single 
shot, threw away their arms and fled. The panic spread along the 
lines, and a great part of the army fled without a blow. The Conti- 
nentals, under De Kalb and Gist, fought with coolness and decision, 
pushing the enemy before them. But they were finally so hard pressed 
that one-third of them were killed or wounded and the rest were forced 
to seek safety in the woods. De Kalb, the distinguished French 
commander, fell under eleven wounds. His clothing was stripped from 
him by the soldiers, and it was only when he was discovered by Com- 


wallis that any attention was paid to his needs. Gates' army was 
practically annihilated, and the militia, who never felt under obligations 
to remain in organized force, returned to their homes. Within a few 
days Gates gathered together such of his men as could be found, with 
the intention of forming a new army, making his headquarters one 
hundred and eighty miles from his dreadful defeat. 

Cornwallis determined to subdue South Carolina before Congress 
could send another army. With Tarleton and Ferguson, two unrelenting 
persecutors of patriots, to help him, he started out on a journey through 
the State. In many of the smaller engagements all through the 
southern country Cornwallis had had reason to believ-e that success 
would soon crown the English arms. He therefore followed the 
Americans with enthusiasm and on the 8th of October fought the battle 
of King's Mountain, near the boundary line of North and South 
Carolina. Here Cornwallis suffered, losing about one-fourth of his 
fighting force. He sent to New York for reinforcements and spent the 
time mainly in attempts to meet with Sumpter, or Marion, or some of 
the other partisan leaders who waged constant hostilities. In the 
autumn. Green arrived to take command of the remnant of the army 
which Gates had so nearly destroyed. He came with Washington's ■ 
warm recommendation, but it was feared that he could do little, so 
reduced was the southern army and so illy provided with necessities. 
Green did not believe that the army could sustain an active campaign, 
and began with a policy exactly opposite to that of Gates. His plan 
was to avoid a general battle as long as possible, to delay the enemy at 
every step of his progress — to tire him out, as it were. His army 
moved into South Carolina in two bodies, the larger part of which was 
commanded by the General himself and the other by Morgan. Green 
moved steadily towards Cornwallis, and only halted when he was about 
seventy miles east of him. Tarleton was sent in pursuit of Morgan, 
who, it was feared, threatened the whole line of posts in the rear of the 
British army. So great was his anxiety that Cornwallis himself, instead 
of moving upon Green, tried to intercept Morgan. This American 
general was therefore forced into an engagement. He chose a field of 
open woods in which his cavalry could easily maneuvre, and behind 
which there were two hills which he could use in case of need as a 
protection. He posted four hundred men on the first eminence and in 
front placed militia and skirmishers. On the second eminence was 
Colonel Washington's famous cavalry and a corps of mounted infantry. 
Behind them were the horses and militia, ready either for pursuit or 


flight. Eight hundred men were on the field and all were so well 
disposed, that when Tarleton looked at them he thought that the enemy 
was at least two thousand strong. The English came on with a rush — 
one of those charges which have made them famous in battle fields all 
over the world. They were met with a deadly fire, and when the first 
line was broken through, the second stood valiantly for a time and then 
gave way. Colonel Washington, with his cavalry, charged upon the 
wing, broke straight through a line and charged again from the rear. 
He found himself then at the rear of the other wing of the forces, and 
fell upon them there, while Morgan conducted the conflict in front. 
The English prayed for quarter, and it was with much diificult>' that 
the American commanders kept their soldiers from slaughtering 
Tarleton's men as Tarleton's men had slaughtered so many of their 
comrades. Tarleton lost six hundred prisoners out of his thousand 
men; one hundred were dead upon the field; his two guns, his colors, 
eight hundred muskets, one hundred dragoon horses and a large part of 
his baggage train were in the hands of the enemy. Upon the i\merican 
side only twelve were killed and sixty wounded. But still Green knew 
that discretion compelled him to act upon the defensive rather than the 
oflFensive. His orders to Morgan were, therefore, to retreat and join the 
main army, which he did. Cornwallis pushed on through the State, 
and Green slowly retreated before him in good order. 

The American army grew, by reinforcements from the Virginia and 
Carolina militia, to forty-three hundred men, but as nearly three-fourths 
of this force were raw recruits, the strength of the army was not 
materially added to. March 15, 1781 — the winter having been passed 
by Green in eluding Cornwallis — Green made a stand near Guilford 
Court House and awaited the enemy. The battle field was well chosen, 
the men being under good commanders. They were well placed, and 
there was no essential point of weakness except the inexperience of the 
greater part of the men. The British, as usual, advanced steadily and 
quickly, and as usual the American militia fired one shot and then fled. 
But a few of them held their ground until the British charged with 
their bayonets, then they also fled, and the conflict was left to Green's 
regulars who fought desperately. Colonel Washington, with his 
splendid cavalr}', was there, in which one expert swordsman cut down 
thirteen of the enemy, There were many hand-to-hand encounters. 
The fight was a desperate one, but Cornwallis' force was so held that in 
the end the Americans retreated, though they did so slowly and in good 
order. Cornwallis lost nearly one-fourth of his army. The victory 


was with the British, but they paid far too great a price for it. Green's 
anny was too exhausted to venture an attack the next day and Com- 
wallis, who said that he was tired of going about the Carolinas in 
search of adventure, wrote a letter to his Commander-in-chief, begging 
that he might be allowed to quit the Carolinas and put his army in 
march for Wilmington. Green started after him in hurried pursuit, 
but he was not able to overtake him. 

History — Draper's "King^s Mountain and'its Heroes." 
Fiction — W. G. Simms' "The Partisan." 

C. H. Wiley's "Alamance." 
Poetry — "Battle of King's Mountain." 

William C. Bryant's "Song of Marion's Men." 



^HAT," Arnold once asked of a prisoner, "wouU 
be done with me if I should be captured by the 
Americans?" The prisoner replied: "If my 
countr>-men should catch you, I believe they 
would cut off that lame leg, which was 
wounded in the cause of freedom and virtue, 
and bur}' it with the honors of war, and after- 
ward hang the remainder of your body on gibbets." 
The answer was, probably, a reflex of Arnold's own 
fears. He could no longer be relied upon for daring 
attack, and was sent b}' Clinton upon marauding expedi- 
tions. It was he who was selected to lead the expedition 
to Virginia, the sole purpose of which was harassing 
and ravaging any part of the country where he could 
do so with safety to his men. Arnold had with him a force of nine 
hundred. He landed at Westover, on the James river, and marched to 
Richmond. Here he divided his troops, remaining, himself, in Rich- 
mond, to destroy much private propert}-, militar}- stores and public 
archives. The detachment which he had sent on an excursion of 
destruction was met by Baron Steuben, but not checked by him. 
Arnold went as far as Portsmouth, wreaking his anger and bitterness 
upon the country he passed through. Congress and the Commander-in- 
chief were seriously distressed. Their impulse was to send immediate 
help, but this they were in a bad condition to do. Thirteen hundred 
Pennsylvania men had mutinied. There had been a misunderstanding 
about the term of their enlistment, and the neglect which they had 
sustained at the hands of Congress irritated them beyond endurance. 


They were not lacking, as their many hard-fought fields testified, in 
patriotism, but their physical suffering, added to a sense of having been 
imposed upon, was more than they covxld patiently stand. That they 
were patriotic, is shown by the fact that the emissaries sent by Sir 
Henry Clinton, ofiFering them aid and protection if they would join the 
English standard, were delivered to the proper authorities to be 
executed as spies. With a great effort the States raised a large sum of 
money to quiet the complaints of the soldiers. In Februar\', Washing- 
ton was able to make preparations for a campaign in Virginia, which 
should oppose Arnold's progress. He sent a detachment of twelve 
hundred New England troops, under Lafaj-ette. These he ordered to 
the head of Chesapeake bay, wdiere they weic to embark for the lower 
part of Virginia. The British fleet had been recently disabled by a 
storm, and W^ashington was anxious that his French allies should seize 
this time to send the whole French squadron to the bay, in aid of the 
movement imder Lafayette. These started, but in an engagement with 
the English were defeated, and sent back to Newport. When Clinton 
heard this, he sent General Phelps, with an additional force of two 
thousand men, to take command in Virginia. These followed the same 
plan which Arnold's troops had done. They did not fight, but they 
ravaged. Steuben was sent to pursue him, and the two generals chased 
each other about the country, without either much profit or harm. The 
great point with the English was to deprive Green of men and supplies. 

Cornwallis was still at the south, and hoped to conquer the colonies 
by moving northward from Georgia. When his force moved up to join 
that of Arnold and Phelps, Eafayette was largely outnumbered, and he 
fell back to make a junction with Antony Wayne, who was approaching 
with eight hundred Pennsylvania men. Cornwallis had little respect 
for Lafayette. So boyish was the young French general that the 
Englishman could not believe that he imderstood or could apply 
military tactics. But the first engagement between the forces was a 
drawn battle. Lafayette's men in the retreat were maneuvred with 
cleverness. The vexation of Cornwallis was added to by the fact that 
Clinton begged him to send three thousand of his men northward to 
jis relief. Cornwallis was ordered to put himself behind the defences 
at Portsmouth, and, as soon as he started for this place, Lafayette 
followed after in close pursuit. Lafayette received some severe checks, 
on this march. 

Green, meantime, was marching southward. One of the English 
forts was taken. This success was due to the erection of a wooden 


tower of logs, so tall that it could overlook the stockade. Here the 
sharpshooters could pick off the garrison without danger to themselves. 
In course of time other forts were taken by the same means. Thus the 
hostilities at the South progressed. They were made up mostly of 
skirmishes, to which the name of battles could not be appropriately 
applied, but the fighting was fierce, and the consequences marked. 
The personal partisanship of the colonies grew, rather than decreased, 
and all the while a net was slowly closing about the English. Green 
was frequently defeated and compelled to retreat, but as the enemy fol- 
lowed up his forces, they became only the more enmeshed in the web 
which he was weaving about them. Washington himself crossed the 
Delaware and reinforced Lafayette. Following him came Rochambeau 
with his force. Clinton was mewed in New York, and, as his call for 
reinforcements showed, was continually expecting an attack from Wash- 
ington. In fact, Washington had been threatening that city all summer, 
and his rapid movements toward the South were unknown by Clinton 
for some time. De Grasse, the admiral of the French fleet, had been 
requested by Washington to come from the West Indies and join him in 
the Chesapeake. As Washington neared the lower part of that bay and 
learned that the summons had been promptly obeyed, he rode back to 
tell Rochambeau himself, waving his hat and calling to the French 
commander like a child. This, he felt sure, was the herald of victory 
and peace. Fifteen hundred men were carried down the Chesapeake 
Bay in boats to the mouth of the James river. The rest went to 
Annapolis by aid of the French frigates and then marched overland. 
Washington had time to stop for a day at his beautiful home. Mount 
Vernon, and to entertain Rochambeau and all the other officers for a 
few hurried hours. On the arrival of this large force Cornwallis with- 
drew behind the fortifications which he had built to defend Yorktown. 
The American and French generals promptly laid works by which the 
town might be approached — for the first time conducting a regular 
siege by the system of scientific and technical warfare. On September 
30th the town was surrounded. Cornwallis did all that he could to 
annoy the men at work. This was the utmost that he could do. On 
October 9th fire was opened by the besiegers, and one by one the 
batteries and cannons of Cornwallis were rendered useless. He wrote a 
letter begging Clinton to come to his help lest army and navy should 
be lost. He made one attempt in the night to cross the York river and 
escape, but a violent storm put an end to these plans, and on October 
19th this brave general surrendered tipon honorable terms. His most 


important redoubts had been carried by assault. He had been crowded 
within the innermost part of his works. All avenues of escape were 
shut off. There were many sick and wounded among his men, and it 
would have been selfish and grossly inhuman to have required more 
fighting from them. On the ver}- day that he surrendered, Clinton 
sailed from New York to the relief of Yorktown, but learning that 
every British soldier in Virginia was a prisoner of war, put back again. 
With it he sent the history of a dishonorable triumph which he 
hoped would coiinterbalance it somewhat. This triumph was that of 
an expedition against New London, commanded by Arnold. Arnold 
landed his force at the mouth of the Thames river on September 6th. 
He divided his force in two columns and marched one column up each 
side of the river. His own home had been in New London, and he 
made use of his local knowledge of the town to direct the troops which 
had been sent to destroy it. Cornwallis, it is said, refused to have him 
iinder his command in Virginia, and it was this that caused his diversion 
northward. The expedition against New London had been proposed 
by the Commander-in-chief to divert Washington's attention from the 
South. It was hoped that he might return to the protection of New 
England. New London was surrounded and burnt. The militia of 
the neighborhood gathered in Fort Griswold, but they had not nearly 
force enough to man the parapets. Arnold's men were crazy with 
liquor. These poured over the eartnworks and demanded surrender. 
Led)ard, the American commander, ordered his men to throw down 
their arms and surrender to Major Bronfield, who was at the head of 
the Englishmen. That officer stabbed Ledyard with his own sword as 
he surrendered it and a general massacre followed in which the whole 
garrison were killed or wounded. Of these, only three had been killed 
before Ledyard had given the order to surrender. The dead were 
stripped of their clothing, and when preparations were made for blowing 
up the magazine of the fort, the wounded were piled upon a wagon and 
which, being sent rolling down the steep hill, against a tree, many of 
the wounded were killed by the shock. Groton, on the other side 
of the river, was also burnt, though Arnold, it is said, had the humanity 
to direct that a few of the houses, belonging to old friends, should be 

FiCTlo.N" — J. P. Kennedy's ■■Horseshoe Robinson." 
J. P. Simms' "The Scout." 

■Catherine Walton." 
*' ■■ ■"Woodcraft." 




HE surrender of Coniwallis did not end the troubles 
of this country-. The people were neither at war 
nor at peace. They were very poor, terribly in 
debt, with a standing army which the}- dare not 
dissolve still on their hands, and no government 
except that of the Continental Congress. Com- 
merce could not be conducted upon the seas without 
danger. The fisheries were not yet open to Americans, 
and the English still held some of the military' posts. 
To remedy these troubles and bring about a condition 
of greater order and prosperity, was the ambition of 
every man in America; but from the outset, they were 
divided as to the means. One party desired that the 
country might have a general government. The other 
preferred that each State should have a government of its 
own, but that for safety, all should be united in a confederation. Thus, 
for several years after the war, the country was in a state of half peace, 
which was most unhappy in its eflfects. Meanwhile the political 
disagreements of the people strengthened and multiplied. The weak- 
ness of the confederation was becoming apparent. Congress had only 
an advisory power. It could compel no measures and had always to 
wait for the sanction of the people in ever^-thing. It was remarked at 
the time that it could not even command the money to buy the quills 
with which the pens for writing the laws were made. It had been 
necessary for years to run the goveniment and the army upon loans. 
Franklin, John Adams and the other commissoners in Europe had 



talked constantly abont the great value of American lands, and thus 
money was easily secvired from European financiers. But the money 
borrowed was insufficient to meet the demands of the people, and paper 
currency had been issued. In course of time two hundred million 
dollars of Continental currency was sent afloat. Congress seemed to 
think for a time that to make money it needed only to have a printing 
press which could send out crisp sheets of paper. But this currency 
fell steadily in value until, in 1779, one hundred paper dollars were 
worth only two and a half dollars in silver. The last issue of the 
Continental currency still exist in the large sheets in which they were 
printed. The man who received the sheet from the public treasury did 
not think it worth while to cut it into separate bills. The country now 
needed specie, and this began to be furnished in small quantities by the 
payment of gold, which the French commissaries paid for the supplies 
they required for their men. Trade was slowly opening up with 
Europe again, and ever}- shipment brought a little valuable coin to the 
impoverished commerce of America. The right to the fisheries of 
eastern waters and the right to dry fish on the uninhabited lands of the 
coast were secured to the Americans by John Adams, who obtained it 
with great persistence. 

Scarcely had the war tenninated, when each country' charged the 
other with the violation of the treaty of peace. The disputes were so 
hot that it was decided to hasten the appointment of a minister 
plenipotentiary to the court of Great Britain. In February, 1785, 
John Adams was made Ambassador to represent the United States at 
that court. Meantime, civil war on the northern American frontier had 
more than once seemed certain. Vermont was determined to preserve 
her independence, in spite of the claims of New York on the one side, 
and New Hampshire on the other. She had asked again and again for 
admission to the Union, but this had been denied her, partly because of 
the jealousy of her neighbors, and partly for the reason that the 
Southern States were unwilling to have a Northern State entered with- 
out a Southern one to counterbalance it. Vermont had no political 
existence as a distinct colony of the Crown, at the time that the thirteen 
other States were created into a confederacy by the agreement of the 
representatives, and it was now claimed that this was one reason why 
her prayer should not be granted. The "Green Mountain Boys" felt 
that if the Union owed nothing to them, they, in turn, owed nothing 
to the Union. They therefore threatened to offer Great Britain terms 
of peace and allegiance. Only then did Congress awaken to the danger 


which threatened. In the spring of 1781 a force of ten thousand men 
from Canada threatened an invasion across the northern border. 
Washington dared not spare a man from his arm}-. The panic every- 
where was intense. Letters were written by certain English generals 
to Ethan Allen, begging the people of Vermont to return to their 
allegiance to the King, and promising, in the case of her revolt against 
the United States, she would be made an independent British province. 
Perhaps the people of Vermont never had any intention of accepting 
this invitation, and that they only endeavored to mislead their country- 
men for the purpose of making them do as they wished, but it is certain 
that for a time they were considered as very dangerous and treacherous 
neighbors by the inhabitants of the States. Concessions were made by 
New York and New Hampshire, and Vermont was given the boundarj- 
lines which she herself had drawn, so that when peace was declared 
Vermont was not a British province. She was not, however, admitted 
as a State to the Union till 1791. 

In these years of turmoil and perplexity one of the things which 
distressed Washington, and the people in general, was that the English 
continued to hold New York, Charleston and Savannah. While the 
enemy was still in the countn,' it was impossible for Washington to dis- 
band his army, and the men, without pay and with little to eat or wea-r, 
became exceedingly discontented and mischievous. They now knew by 
experience what they could do by force of arms, and it is little wonder 
that they plotted among themselves to bring about a -state of affairs 
which would give them increased importance and comfort. Letters 
were circulated in camp, setting forth the injustice with which the army 
had been treated, and suggesting that it refuse to disband unless its 
rightful dues were paid, and that Congress be told that this army 
continue to exist and would keep its anns. A meeting was called on 
the nth of March. The writers and instigators of the letters had an idea 
that the army would take the position for America which Cromwell's 
army took for England. The leader of this army might, as Cromwell 
had done, place himself at the head of the nation. When news of 
these letters reached Washington, he asked the representatives of the 
army to meet him for the purpose of talking the matter over. In the 
meantime, a second letter was written which was even more outspoken 
than the first. When Washington met the representatives the)' had 
profited by reflection, and were prepared to receive in a humble spirit 
the stern rebuke which Washington gave them. After setting forth 
the true nature of these letters, exposing all the sophistr}' in them, and 


calling their treasonable intentions by their right names, he begged the 
army to have confidence in Congress, and promised to do all that he 
could himself in their behalf. Resolutions were passed which declared 
that the army viewed with abhorrence and rejected with disdain the 
suggestions of the letters. Washington's common sense alone saved 
the country', if not from overthrow, at least from terrible disaster. The 
many weary months that followed before the soldiers were allowed to 
return to their homes, were endured with comparative patience. At 
one time a company of eighty recruits mutinied and took possession of 
the State House in Philadelphia, but in a short time this insurrection 
died from its own feebleness. 

On November 25, 1782, New York was evacuated by the British, 
and Washington marched in with his army to take possession. A little 
less than a month afterwards the Commander-in-chief met his compan- 
ions in arms at Fraunces Tavern to take leave of them. It would be 
difficult to imagine a scene of more dignified pathos. For years. 
Washington and many of hisofiicers had been in the closest association. 
They were more than comrades — they were friends — and the terrible 
trials which they had undergone together, the great risks which they 
had run, the difficulties which they had overcome, bound them as no 
prosperous acquaintanceship could have done. Washington spoke a 
few broken words of farewell, and the officers dispersed. On the 29th 
of December he returned his commission to Congress, which was then 
at Annapolis in public session. 

On September 3, 1783, the final treaty of peace was signed at Paris, 
by which Great Britain acknowledged the United States to be free, 
sovereign, and independent. At this time Philadelphia was the chief 
city in the country, having a population of forty thousand. This was 
three times greater than that of New York and twice as large as that of 
Boston. New York was still suffering from the effects of the devasta- 
tion caused by the war. In New England the people were busy with 
ship-building and coast trading. Throughout the Middle States 
manufacturing was rapidly increasing. The Southern States were 
made up of plantations worked by slaves. 

Between England and America the balance of trade against this 
country' was greatly increasing. Within two years after peace was 
declared the value of goods imported from England into the United 
States was nearly thirty million dollars, while the exports for the same 
time were only between eight and nine millions. What little good 
money there was in the United States was thus drawn off" to England, for 


the young manufactures of America could not, it goes without saying, 
compete with those of England. In 1783 the debt of the United States 
was forty-two millions, and that of the separate States, twenty millions. 
There was no mint, and both Congress and States continued to issue 
currency. It was in vain that Congress implored the States to provide 
means for paying their debts. England, with difficulty, collected the 
debts due her by the Americans, and it looked as if the States, for com- 
mercial reasons alone, might be forced to yield their independence and 
return to a country which would at least provide them with a government 
and an exchecquer. The Congress of Delegates, which had been formed 
with such haste at the breaking out of the Revolution, and which was 
composed of men from all parts of the country, was not equal to meeting 
the present emergencies. Washington himself, who never made a 
written statement without deep thought and reflection, admitted that 
Congress was not able to execute the functions of government. John 
Adams wrote from England that so contemptible was America in the eyes 
of Great Britain that she was not considered at all in state matters. 
Thomas Jefferson was Minister to France, and was obliged to exercise 
all of his ingenuity to keep America and American commerce 
rightly before the French court. Since the disregard of government 
was so great in the old States, it is not surprising that on the frontier 
this was carried to still greater lengths. In the Wyoming country of 
Pennsylvania there had long been a dispute concerning boundaries and 
rights which reached a crisis in 1786. The settlers took up arms and 
declared their intention to form a new State, but they were suppressed 
as rioters. In the western part of North Carolina a number of counties 
set up an independent government, calling themselves the State of 
Franklin, but this soon came to an end through internal troubles. In 
several different places efforts were made by armed mobs to prevent the 
sitting of courts and legislatures, but like most mobs, these were 
dissolved with comparatively little trouble. About this time Alexander 
Hamilton proposed that a national convention meet at Philadelphia in 
May, 1787, for the purpose of providing a new constitution which 
should give strength to the Federal Government. Addresses were sent 
to the legislatures asking them to send delegates to this convention. In 
Congress, the party which objected to the consolidation of power was the 
stronger, and this only consented to the convention on the conditioa 
that it confine itself to revising the articles of confederation. 

Fiction— J. E. Cooke's "The Youth of Jefferson." "Rose Hill," 
J. P. Kennedy's "Swallow Barn." 


"lirsl in l[ar. ^irsl in finn." 


HK convention met at the time appointed, 
with George Washington in the chair. The 
legislative chambei was the same in which the 
Declaration of Independence had been signed, 
and many of the signers were then present. 
The most influential men of the States were 
there, many of them differing bitterly in opinion, but 
all agreeing in their desire to give to the United States 
a constitution which should add to its dignity and 
power. The greatest cause of dispute was about the 
preponderance of power. The question was: Should 
power rest in the people, or in Congress? In other 
words, should the general government coerce the States, 
or should the States be sovereign to themselves? The 
promise that the convention was only to revise the 
articles of confederation as Congress desired was, of course, brought to 
notice. Various plans were laid before the House by Alexander 
Hamilton, and other leaders of public thought. All of these were 
considered in turn. Randolph, of Virginia, and Patterson, of New 
Jersey, had plans of government which were long debated upon. But 
so angry and hopeless did the debates become, that even the calmest 
and most judicious despaired of reaching any results. Benjamin 
Franklin, an old man now, was present, and in the midst of these diffi- 
culties and misunderstandings he arose and made this speech: "It is to 
be feared that the members of this convention are not in temper, at 
this moment, to approach the subject on which we differ, in a candid 
spirit. I would, therefore, propose, Mr. President, that, without pro- 
ceeding further in this business at this time, the convention shall 

"first IX WAR, FIRST IX PEACE.'' 417 

adjourn for three days, in order to let the present ferment pass off, 
and to afford time for a more full, free and dispassionate investi- 
s:ation of the subject; and I would earnestly recommend to the members 
of this convention that they spend the time of this recess, not in asso- 
ciating with their own party and devising new arguments to fortify 
themselves in their old opinions, but that they mix with members of 
opposite sentiments, lend a patient ear to their reasonings, and candidly 
allow them all the weight to which they may be entitled; and when 
we assemble again I hope it will be with a determination to form a 
Constitution, if not such a one as we can individually and in all respects 
approve, yet the best which, under existing circumstances, can be 
obtained. Before I sit down, Mr. President, I will suggest another 
matter, and I am really surprised that it has not been proposed by some 
other member at an earlier period of our deliberations. I will suggest, 
Mr. President, the propriety of nominating and appointing, before we 
separate, a chaplain to this convention, whose duty it shall be 
unifonnly to assemble with us and introduce the business of each day 
by imploring the assistance of Heaven, and asking Its blessing upon 
our deliberations." The three days were spent in the manner which 
Dr. Franklin advised, and, on reassembling, the chaplain who had been 
appointed appeared and led the devotions of the assembly. Dr. 
Franklin addressed the house first, as everyone expected and desired 
that he should do. His wisdom, experience, common sense and deep- 
seated calmness gave a placidity to the convention whjch it had not had 
before. With more earnest intentions the convention renewed its work. 
The Constitution was finally amended. It prescribed that the laws of 
the United States were, thenceforth, to be administered, not by a 
confederacy or mere league of friendship between the sovereign States, 
but by a government distributed into three great departments — legisla- 
tive, judicial and executive; that the powers of government should be 
limited to concerns pertaining to the whole people, leaving the internal 
administration of each State in time of peace to its own constitutional 
laws, provided, that they should be republican, and interfering with 
them as little as possible in case of war; that the legislative 
power of this government should be divided between the two 
assemblies, one representing directly the people of the separate States, 
and the other their legislatures; that the executive power of this 
government should be vested in one person, chosen for four years, with 
certain qualifications of age and nativity, and invested with a qualified 
negative upon the enactments of the laws; and that the judicial power 


should consist of tribunals, inferior and supreme, to be instituted and 
organized by Congress, the judges removable only by impeachment. 
Washington signed the Constitution first, remarking solemnly as he did 
so: "Should the States reject this excellent Constitution, the probability 
is that an opportunity will ne\'er again be offered to cancel another in 
peace; the next will be drawn in blood." With three exceptions the 
Constitution was signed by all the delegates present. The convention, 
however, which framed the Constitution, was not clothed with legisla- 
tive power, and the Constitution was, therefore, referred to the several 
States. In the summer of 1788, nine of the States ratified it. Rhode 
Island was the last of the thirteen original States to accept the Constitu- 
tion, which .she did in May, 1790. The year of suspense was full of 
internal troubles. In New York, the brilliant young Alexander 
Hamilton led the Federal party with dramatic fervor, and when his 
triumph was made apparent by the ratification of the Constitution, a 
great festival was held in New York City. There was a procession of 
traders, merchants, artisans and professional men, who bore aloft on 
their banners the names of Washington and Hamilton, and a frigate 
fully manned, called the Federal ship "Hamilton," was borne on wheels 
through the streets, her cannons replying to the salutes with which she 
was greeted. 

The first Congress met in New York on March 4, 1789. When the 
votes of the Presidential electors were counted, the first choice was 
unanimous for Washington. John Adams received the largest number 
of votes for Vice-President. A special messenger was sent by the 
president of the Senate to notify Washington of his election. This 
great man was living quietly at his princely home of Mount Vernon. 
His home life was very dear to him, and it was with the most painful 
reluctance that he took upon himself once more the burdens of the 
nation. As Washington traveled from his home in Virginia to New 
York, which was now the seat of government, he received enthusiastic 
greetings everywhere. At Trenton, where he had fought with such 
brilliancy, a triumphal arch was thrown across the bridge which he was 
to cross. The arch was supported on thirteen pillars, which were 
wreathed with flowers and bore inscriptions which must have been 
deeply gratifying to him. Beneath this arch stood a party of young 
girls with baskets of flowers in their hands, and the}' greeted Washington 
with a song which had been composed for the occasion, strewing flowers 
before him as they sang. As he neared New York a delegation was 
sent to meet him. A barge, with a crew of thirteen to represent the 


colonies, was for his special use, and following this, with flying flags, 
came many other boats. The Governor of the State and many other 
distinguished persons awaited Washington at the wharf and escorted 
him to his quarters, Washington preferring to walk up the crowded 
streets that he might seem to enter the city in humbleness and good 
fellowship. A few days later the ceremony of inauguration took place 
in the balcony of what was then the Senate chamber. This was called 
Federal Hall, and it stood at the meeting of four streets, which were 
crowded to suSbcation with people. Washington came on the balcony, 
and the Chancellor of New York read the inaugural oath to him. After 
the oath was administered, the people cried, "Long live George 
Washington, President of the United States!" But this was a reminder 
of kingly customs which was never repeated for any other President. 
Flags were raised, cannons were fired and bells were rung, launching 
in with joyful burst of song the new Republic, with a magistrate at its 
head who, for wisdom, disinterestedness and pure patriotism, has never 
been equaled by any following President save one. This was April 
30, 1789. 


History— Curtis' "Flistory of the Constitution." 

Frothingham's "Rise of the Republic." 
Fiction— N. M. Curtis' "Doom of the Tot^ Guard.'' 






Alexander Hamilton was made Secretary 
of the Treasury, an office hardly second in 
importance to that of the President itself at this 
time. If the nation was to be restored to pros- 
perity, it rested upon him to devise efficient 
measures. Hamilton's policy from the first was 
to give notice to the Old World that the new Federal 
government assumed all the obligations of the old 
confederation, and provided, as that enfeebled body 
had not been able to do, for their discharge. Ham- 
ilton succeeded in getting the government to assume 
the State debts. One of the first acts of Congress was 
to pass a tariff bill, for Hamilton and many others 
believed that protection was the only system possible 
in that stage of national life and in the condition of 
the civilized world. A national bank was started which was under 
private direction, and yet served the government by making it owner 
of one-fifth of the capital stock of ten million dollars and the preferred 
borrower to the same amount. A hundred minor matters were attended 
to by the Secretary with equal care. The sale of public lands increased, 
regulations were made for the coast trade, navigation laws enacted, 
revenue cutters established, light-houses built, and numerous plans 
were formed for the sustaining of law and good order. A bill was passed 
imposing a duty on imported domestic spirits, for the purpose of swelling 
the revenue. American enterprise soon felt the benefit of these 
measures. In 1787 the French government issued a decree placing 
American citizens on the same commercial footing as Frenchmen, and 


admitting American produce free of duty. As France had a free trade 
treaty with England, this act had much to do with the ceasing of com- 
mercial hostilities between America and England. When war broke 
out between France and England, the carrying trade of the world fell 
into the hands of the United States. The trade with the West Indies 
became almost wholly American, for French ships could not go there. 
Spanish trade was carried on under a neutral flag and English merchants 
found it safer to use American vessels. Great commercial houses came 
into existence. The trade with China and East India became a source 
of wealth, and the seamen of America were counted remarkable for their 
enterprise and courage. 

The question of slavery was one of the most iuiportant with which 
the Federal Congress interested itself It was held that Congress had no 
power over slavery in the States, but that it had power in the terri- 
tories. By the ordinance of 1787, all the territor>' northwest of the 
Ohio then belonging to the United States, and comprising what is now 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, was to 
be the home of free labor forever. Slaves had become especially valu- 
able in the South by the growth of the cotton industry-. In 1793, 
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. America has been the home of 
many great inventions, but none of them have been of greater import- 
ance than this to the Republic. It was the first key which was applied 
to the unlocking of the natural capabilities of this land. Whitne\- was 
the son of a Massachusetts farmer. He chanced to visit Georgia and 
saw there the great difficulty with which the seed was separated from 
the cotton. After a few months of hard study he invented a successful 
machine which in one day, by the labor of a single hand, could do 
more than was usually performed in many months by the old method. 
Whitney afterward made a fortune by the invention of fire-arras. The 
slave was thought to be a necessary part of the cotton trade, and there- 
fore assumed an importance in American aSairs which it had never 
before held. It is very interesting to note how good and bad tendencies 
seemed to conflict with each other at this period of national history. 
At this very time an impetus was given to public educational matters 
which they had never received before. Education for all was a part of 
the free government. Noah Webster began the publication of his 
school books and gave his life up to the establishment of a national 
literature. In these matters the young States led, rather than followed, 
the older onei.. Civilization spread westward and marked its progress by 
a series of triumphs over the savages and the soil. John C. Symmes 


obtained a grant of one million acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, 
and on the west by the Miami, and here, in 1788-9, South Bend and 
Cincinnati were settled. 

The English still retained some of the frontier posts, and about 
these the Indians continually flocked. They were persuaded by the 
English that the Americans had no claim to any territory' beyond the 
Ohio, and in truth ever)' State westward had been an encroachment 
upon Indian territory. Indian warfare upon the settlers, therefore, 
took on its worst form here. At no time were the settlers safe. The 
man who left his home in the morning never knew whether he should 

return alive to it or not, and would have felt no surprise if on returning 
he should find his wife and children dead in his cabin. Several villages 
were plundered and burned, and every train of emigrants was sure to 
encounter danger, if not death. On the Ohio and other rivers many 
tragic scenes were enacted. The Indians would watch for a passing 
boat, murder the passengers, and let the boat-load of corpses drift with 
the flow of the stream to the settlements below. In seven years fifteen 
hundred persons were killed or captured by the Indians on the Ohio, 
and twenty thousand horses were stolen. It was in vain that the 
Americans sued for a treaty of peace. War was forced upon them — a 


war which ended in disaster the most serious ever sustained by an 
American army in its battles with the Indians. 

In the month of September, 1790^ General Harmar was intrusted 
with the dut)- of subduing the fierce tribes on the Miami and Wabash. 
The general had with him a body of three hundred and twenty regulars, 
who, being reinforced by the militia of Pennsylvania and Kentucky, 
formed a corps of four hundred and fifty-three men. Upon his approach 
the Indians set fire to their villages, but they could not be brought to 
an engagement. At length the Americans were unexpectedly attacked 
and severely disabled. After this humiliation to the United States, 
Congress, in the following year, 1791, strengthened the national 
military force and placed in the hands of President Washington larger 
means for the protection of the frontier. General St. Clair, then 
Governor of the territory west of the Ohio, was appointed commander 
of a large force. When Washington parted from, him he impressed 
upon him again and again the danger of a surprise "You know how 
Indians fight," said he; "I repeat it, beware of a surprise." St. Clair 
went out into the wilderness with these words ringing in his ears, but 
on the 4th of November, while the regulars were encamped on one of 
the tributaries of the Wabash and the militia were resting upon a high 
flat on the other side of the stream, they met with that disaster which 
Washington had especially warned them against. The Indians rushed 
upon them at a most unexpected moment, taking advantage of a 
division of the ami)-. Nearly half of St. Clair's force were slaughtered 
and he beat a headlong retreat. His militia had proved useless, and 
even his regulars had been panic-stricken. The Indians, as usual, fought 
from cover, and against them the fire of the Americans, aimed at random 
into a dusky forest, could have little effect. The pursuit was kept up 
about four miles, when, fortunately for the Americans who still 
survived, their foes could no longer restrain their eagerness for plunder, 
and returned to rifle the bodies of the dead soldiers. For thirty miles 
the terrified Americans continued their panic-stricken flight, throwing 
away their anns as they went. They left their wounded at Fort Jeffer- 
son and retreated to Fort Washington, at Cincinnati. Washington 
learned of the disaster with rage and agony. Never since the interview 
at the battle of Monmouth did he so give way to that terrible wrath of 
which he was capable. Thirty-eight ofliicers and six himdred privates 
were killed or missing, and twenty-one officers and two hundred and forty- 
two privates wounded. Among the camp-followers were two hundred 
and fifty women, most of whom were killed or captured. 


No time was lost m sending out another expedition. The iudig- 
nation of the people had been roused to the highest pitch. It was 
said that during the fight several British ofiicers were seen upon the 
field with the Indians, who had come down from Detroit to urge on 
their savage allies. The man sent out to take St. Clair's place was 
General Anthony Wayne. His courage was reckless, and gained for 
Irim the name of "Mad Anthony," which he was called by his soldiers 
more in love than criticism. Washington himself carefully instructed 
Wayne in his mode of warfare. Nearly two years passed before Wayne 
had gathered his four thousand men and built the line of forts necessary 
to success. He followed Washington's directions implicity during all 
this time. He never permitted his army to be divided, and marched 
with open files that a line might be quickly formed in the thick woods. 
It was his habit to halt early in the afternoon, that the camp might be 
surrounded by a rampart of logs before nightfall. His cavalry laid 
waste the country for many miles on each side of the line of march. 
When he had four good forts behind him to offer protection in case of 
retreat, he decided to» attack. The Indians had consented to an 
engagement, and on the morning of August 20th the two forces met on 
the banks of the Maumee river. The action was short and decisive. 
The cavalry attacked the flanks of the Indian line and the infantry 
charged with the bayonet upon the centre, and as soon as they caused 
a retreat, poured a volley of musket balls into their foes. Tlie Indians 
were pursued until within reach of the guns of the British fort. Here 
the Americans encamped for a few days, destroying all the property in 
the neighborhood. Wayne's loss was comparatively small, and for a 
time the Indians were effectually subdued. A treaty was made with 
them in 1795, by which they ceded a large tract of land to the United 
States, and from that time the more rapid settlement of the West 

History — Flint's "Indian Wars of the West.*' 
Fiction— Gait's "Lawrie Todd." 

Bird's "Nick of the Woods." 





OT long after Washington became President, one 
of the greatest of Americans died — the first 
scientist, perhaps, which this country had ever 
produced. This was Dr. Benjamin Franklin, 
-iy\>,«Y]Xfr^ ''iy^ whose early life has been told of in another part 
•*\a!^\v(,/«V^ V^ of |-i^ig histor}-. In the courts of England and of 
France he won a consideration which was not paid 
to any other envoy from the young nation. Had he 
been known for no other reason, he would have been 
celebrated as the discoverer of the electric fluid in light- 
ning. He had long been a student of electricity, and 
fonned a theor\' that lightning and the electric fluid 
were the same thing. He was vers- much laughed at 
when he circulated this idea, in a little pamphlet, and 
he made up his mind to prove it to the satisfaction of everyone. He 
and his young son together made a great kite of a silk handkerchief, 
and fastening a piece of sharpened wire to the stick, went out to fly the 
kite in a thunder-storm. As a low thunder-cloud passed, the electric 
fluid went down the string of the kite and when Franklin touched the 
key that he had fastened to the string, his knuckles drew sparks from it, 
showing that the electricity was there. In a short time he invented the 
lightning rod. 

In all public matters he had great influence, and he founded more 
good institutions and benevolent enterprises than any American of his 
time. The last public act which he performed was to sign a memorial 
to Congress, in behalf of the Philadelphia Anti-Slaven.- Society, asking 
the abolition of slaver}'. He lived to be eighty-four, and died on April 
17, 1790. Throughout the States the mourning was universal, and 


in France the Assembly went into mourning for him three days. 
At this time the customs and habits of the people of this republic 
were very different from those of the present day. It was a ceremonious 
age — an age of display — and the traditions of royal splendor still 
clung, in a degree, about the capital of the republic. President Wash- 
ington was a man of great wealth, and one who believed that there 
should be distinctions in men, and that honor should be paid to those 
who deserved it. He desired, for instance, that the official name of the 
President should be "High Mightiness," which were the words 
employed in describing the Stadtholder of Holland, which at that time 
was a republic. But this title was objected to, and Excellency was 
substituted. Washington's levees were very stately entertainments, 
and differed exceedingly from the free and easy receptions which are 
at present held at the White House. Once in two weeks at precisely 
three in the afternoon, the doors of the great dining-room were thrown 
open. By the fire-place stood President Washington, with members of 
his Cabinet and other distinguished gentlemen about him. His usual 
dress was a black velvet coat, with white or pearl-colored waistcoat, 
yellow gloves, and silver knee buckles and shoe buckles. His hair was 
powdered and gathered in a silk bag behind. In his hand he carried a 
cocked hat, and wore a long sword, with a scabbard of polished white 
leather. The habit of shaking hands would have been considered too 
familiar at that time, and Washington greeted each of his guests with 
a courteous bow. Mrs. Washington gave brilliant evening levees, 
which it was considered a great privilege to attend. Dinners and 
public meetings were held in all the large towns of the nation on the 
birthday of the President, and the local poets were expected to address 
odes to Washington. When Washington drove to the sessions of Con- 
gress, he went in a state coach, the body of which was in the shape of a 
hemisphere, cream-colored, bordered with flowers around the panels, 
which were ornamented with figures representing cupids, and support- 
ing festoons. On great occasions the coach was drawn by six horses, 
on ordinary occasions by four, and on Sundays by two only. The 
driver and postillions wore liveries of white and scarlet. This display 
and formality upon the part of the President influenced the whole 
nation. It was, indeed, but the continuation of the state in which the 
Governors had lived. The forms of politeness were very elaborate, and 
the people devoted much attention and money to their dress. In 
Connecticut and Massachusetts there were still sumptuary laws against 
extravagance, but at this time they were not enforced. E\'«.n the 



clergymen wore wigs, with gowns and bands, in the pulpit, and cocked 
hats on the streets. The Judges of the Supreme Court, in winter, wore 
robes of scarlet faced with velvet, and in summer, very full black silk 
robes. It is still their practice to wear the latter sort. The ladies 
dressed their hair with powder and pomatum, and built it to such a 
great height above the head that it became necessary to have carriages 
of greater height made than those which had previously been used. 
At this time Sedan chairs were used as well as carriages, and in these 



the grand dames were carried from place to place by two servants in 
dashing liveries. The ladies themselves were gorgeous in rustling 
brocades, powder, patches and jewels. These patches, which were of 
black silk, were pasted upon the face, and were cut in a great variety 
of fantastic shapes. There were crescents, stars, anchors and even 
elephants, and a belle would sometimes decorate herself with at least 
twenty of these. Gentlemen dressed as brilliantly as the ladies, and in 


the same sort of fabrics. If a gentleman went abroad, he appeared in 
his wig, white stock, white satin embroidered vest, black satin small 
clothes with white silk stockings and fine broadcloth or velvet coat. 
If at home, a velvet cap, sometimes with a fine linen one under it, took 
the place of a wig, while a gown, frequently a colored damask lined 
with silk, was subsituted for the coat, and the feet were covered with 
leather slippers of some fancy color. No gentleman's costume was 
complete without a snuff-box, and on these little trifles the greatest art 
was expended. A salutation between friends was immediately followed 
by an offer of snuff, and a man who did not take it laid himself open to 
the charge of being discourteous. 

The nation still felt the influence of Puritan prejudices, and was 
only beginning to tolerate the theatre, which at one time had been 
considered by the stern citizens of Massachusetts as one of the worst 
beguilements of Satan. Massachusetts is spoken of, because in religious 
and philosophic matters she was the leader. Private theatricals, which 
Washington and other fashionable people occasionally had at their 
hoiises, gradually pav-ed the way for public entertainments. Musical 
concerts were allowed at this time, which, in itself, marked quite a 
growth in public taste and liberality, for at one time they would have 
been considered the height of frivolity. Balls were popular, and some 
of them were given on a very large scale. The French Ambassador 
gave one in Philadelphia which was so large that a building was erected 
on purpose for the entertainment. It is said that on fete days the hair- 
dressers were kept so busy that ladies had to employ their services at 4 
or 5 o'clock in the morning, and to sit upright all day to keep from 
disturbing the head-dress. 

It was thought that when the army was disbanded the country 
would be filled with beggars, for it could hardly be expected that men 
who had been kept without other occupation than that of arms for 
eight years, would easily adapt themselves to ways of industry' again. 
But they went back to their workshojDS and farms, and places were 
found for them by a people who, although they were capricious, were 
certainly not ungrateful. At that time the working people did not, as 
now, depend upon great monopolies for support. Cloth was spun in 
almost every house; tallow candles made in every kitchen. Wood 
was to be had almost for the chopping, and neighbors exchanged the 
produce of their farms and gardens. 

Secretar>' Hamilton was doing all in his power to restore the 
commercial confidence of the people and place the government on a 


sure financial basis. In tn-ing to do this, he took some measures 
which were very distasteful to the people. A bill drawn up by him 
was passed in Congress in March, 1791, which increased the duty on 
imported spirits, making it from twenty to forty cents a gallon, and 
what was still more offensive to the people, laid a tax on distillation. 
The people of various States, held meetings, appointed committees, and 
adopted resolutions asking for an unconditional repeal. Those who 
accepted the offices of collectors were treated with ever>' sort of indig- 
nity. Some of them were tarred and feathered, their houses were 
burned, and they were ostracized, although many of them were men of 
high business and social standing. The insurrection gathered rapidly 
and finally organized for resistance to the law. Under the leadership 
of John Holcraft, known more widely as "Tom the Tinker," the mob 
attacked several houses in Pennsylvania. The handful of militia was 
forced to surrender to them, and the mob burned several houses 
belonging to the law-and-order party. A few days later the mail to 
Philadelphia was stopped and the insurgents took from it several letters 
which gave accounts of the riot. The writers of these letters were 
severely persecuted. The insurgents next summoned the militia to 
meet on Braddock's Field, August i, 1794. Seven thousand came 
armed and provisioned for four days, but when they were told to capture 
Fort Pitt, they dispersed. 

President Washington was alarmed, and fearing that the rebellion 
might spread through the country-, called on New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Marj'land and Virginia for fifteen thousand men, and sent commissioners 
to the scene of the disturbance, with power to arrange for peaceful 
submission any time before September 14th. As these commissioners 
soon returned without having come to any satisfactorj- arrangement, the 
troops were put in motion with the Governors of New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, and \'irginia at the heads of their men, under the leadership of 
General Henr>' Lee. Most of the disturbances were in the counties 
west of the Alleghanies, and the soldiers were obliged to cross these 
motmtains, suffering not a little from disease and exposure as they did 
so. The insurrection died quickly upon the appearance of the troops. 
Some of the leaders left the country- and some were arrested and 
brought to trial. Only two were convicted of treason, and these were 
pardoned bv the President. 

Fiction— Charlotte Walsinghain's "Annette." 

H. H. Brackenridge's "Jlodem Chivalrj'-" 


jl Jsmntrat,. 

■^^ FRANCE. 

HE influence of the French rebellion was strongly 
felt in America, and the discontented among the 
people showed a willingness to imitate, upon the 
slightest provocation, the example of the French 
people. The old French monarchy had been over- 
thrown, and an attempt made to establish a republic 
in its place — an attempt which had led to violence 
and bloodshed which had never been equaled in the 
history of civilized nations. This struggle Americans 
watched with much interest. They were not free from a 
disinterested desire to see their great ally firmly estab- 
lished in a republic such as they themselves were found- 
ing. Jefferson had long been in Paris, and was among 
the company of brilliant fanatics whose heads were after- 
wards sacrificed to the relentless commune. Of all of 
them, he was the only one whose dream of power was finally realized, 
and who, in later years, stood at the head of a nation. The party in 
.America which sympathized with the French and had democratic sim- 
plicity for their watchword, were inclined to quarrel with what was. 
considered the ostentation of President Washington, as well as with the 
vigorous legislative measures of Secretar)- Hamilton. The men of this 
party first called themselves Republicans, and afterwards Democrats. 
Samuel Adams, as well as Jefferson, belonged to this party. The party 
on the other side were known as Federalists, and desired that the States 
should all be governed by one central government, and that to an extent 
the judicial and executive laws of England should be imitated. Wash- 


ington, Hamilton ' and John Adams were among the foremost Feder- 
alists. Questions of international commerce were of the greatest polit- 
ical interest at the time, and the Federalists associated themselves with 
protection, while Jefferson and his friends headed the free trade move- 
ment. From time to time different influences were brought to bear 
upon each of these parties, and cliques or bands of partisans came up 
which held individual views of some of the questions of the day. The 
Democrats were especially fearful that the national governmetit would 
become too powerful and destroy the rights of the States. They feared 
that it might grow aristocratic and exclusive, as in European natious. 

As early as 1791 a minister had been sent from England. He made 
laws concerning the capture of French merchant vessels, which created 
the strongest indignation among the Democrats. No minister arrived 
in America from France until 1793, and the man sent was Edmund 
Charles Genet, who was received with great enthusiasm by the French 
party in the United States, because he was one of the "Liberators" who 
had beheaded Louis XVI. He was intoxicated with the wild notions 
of the French revolution, and had not the common sense to perceive 
how different was the government which he was now sent to confer 
with. He quarreled with the laws, threatened to head an uprising of 
the people, and at last became so intolerable that the Americans were 
obliged to request that he should be recalled. 

The British continued to wage war upon the French vessels, and 
issued an order directing cruisers to make a prize of any vessel carrj-ing 
the produce of a French colony or transporting supplies to such colony. 
This, of course, was a serious interference with America as well as 
France, and Congress decided to stop all commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain till the western posts still held by the British were sur- 
rendered. Washington was anxious to avert war and in 1794 sent an 
envoy extraordinary to London to negotiate a treaty of amity and com- 
merce. Chief Justice John Jay was the man selected for this enterprise. 
The minister for foreign affairs in England met Jay half way, and 
in a short time a treaty was agreed upon, which went into operation in 
February, 1796. The withdrawal of British troops and garrisons from 
the western posts was agreed upon, as well as free inland navigation and 
trade to both nations upon lakes and rivers, except that the United 
States were excluded from the domain of the Hudson Bay Company. 
There were many other particulars relating to trade by water which 
need not be mentioned. Great Britain was to pay for losses by her 
irregular captures by British cruisers. Citizens of either countr}- were 


pennitted to hold landed property in the territory of the other, and no 
private propert)' was to be confiscated in case of war. Ships of wai 
were to be received in each other's ports. Citizens of either in the 
other's territory were not to be molested, and criminals escaping from 
one country to the other were to be delivered up. When this treaty 
and all of its particulars were known about in America, it aroused the 
warmest controversy. The President and most of his Cabinet were 
fairly well pleased with it, but the Democrats were so incensed against 
it that they proposed to nullify the law by withholding the necessary 
appropriations to carry out the terms of the treaty. Their particular 
argument was that it benefited England at the expense of France, and 
that it was for the benefit of northern trade, and failed to provide for 
the loss of slaves who fled with the British armies at the close of the 
Revolution. The needed appropriations were obtained only after fierce 
debates, only four votes from States south of the Potomac being given 
in its favor. The South was ambitious for ascendancy, and already the 
breach between the two sections became noticeable. 

Washington's second administration was coming to an end. During 
the eight j^ears of his government the nation had gained more confi- 
dence in herself and had increased greatly in size. In 1792, Kentucky 
had come into the union. This region was at first, as has been said 
before, considered a part of Virginia. The Spanish government had, 
at one time, endeavored to induce the Kentuckians to declare themselves 
independent of tne Union, and to join Louisiana, which still belonged 
to Spain, but these efforts failed. In 1796, Tennessee became a State. 
This part of the country had been explored much earlier than Ken- 
tucky, and, indeed, may have been visited by De Soto, long before the 
settlement of the Eastern States. It was, however, settled much more 
slowly than Kentucky, and the settlers came chiefly from North Caro- 
lina. It was here that the attempt to establish the State of Franklin 
was tried. This failed, after two or three years of unhealthy existence. 
Being so near North Carolina, Kentucky could hardly fail to be a slave 

At the end of Washington's Administration there were si.xteen States 
in the Union. The first census of the nation, which was taken in 1790, 
showed a population of about four millions. Washington refused a third 
election to the presidency. John Adams, of Massachusetts, who had been 
Vice-President, was chosen by a small majority over Thomas Jefferson, 
who, as it will be remembered, belonged to the Democratic party. In 
those days the candidate who received the second number of votes in 


the presidential election was made \'ice-President, and thus Thomas 
Jefferson was given that position, although he and the chief executive 
differed so widely in politics. From the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tion, President Adams had been one of the most unselfish of the patriots. 
He had assisted in framing the Declaration of Independence, and had 
been one of the Ambassadors to make the treaty with France at the 
close of the war. But notwithstanding these services he was elected 
against the protest of a large part of the nation. Never since has any 
election been conducted with such bitterness of spirit and such public 
revilement. The volcanic government of France had thrown into this 
countrj- many burning brands. The young "philosophers," as they 
termed themselves, could not, and would not, understand the principles 
of this government. They were accomplished in vituperative rhetoric, 
and astonished the moderate-speaking Americans with all sorts of wild 
speeches, which were mistaken for eloquence. So troublesome did chey 
become that on June i8, 1798, were passed what were known as the 
alien and sedition laws. By these, naturalization was restricted and the 
President was permitted to send out of the country^ such aliens as he 
thought dangerous to the United States. He was permitted to give 
license to aliens to remain during his pleasure, and, if he wished, to 
e.xact bonds for their good behavior. Aliens who had no license might 
be imprisoned, and masters of vessels who brought them might be fined 
for not reporting their arrival. The sedition law made five offences 
penal. These were: "Defaming Congress or the President;" "excit- 
ing the hatred of the people against them;" "stirring up sedition in 
the United States;" "raising unlawful combinations for resisting laws," 
and "aiding foreign nations against the United States." A wild storm 
of dissent greeted these acts, which, indeed, were hardly in keeping 
with the sentiments which America had always voiced, calling herself 
the asylum for the oppressed of all nations. In the legislatures of 
Virginia and Kentucky it was declared that Congress had acted be\ond 
its constitutional powers; that the States were not bound to obe)-, and 
that each State had the right to determine the question of constitu- 
tionality. With these resolutions, which Vice-President Jefferson 
sanctioned, the Democratic party strengthened its power. The 
Democratic party urged that these laws were such an insult to France, 
which had many distinguished citizens in America, that she could well 
be excused for the diplomatic measures which she took to annoy 
America. At one time nearly one thousand American vessels were 
detained or captured by the French government, and when the American 


government sent an envoy to France, the Director)' ordered him to 
qnit the county. The Englisa cruisers were also exceedingly annoying, 
and the commanders had no hesitancy in searching for English seamen 
on board of American vessels, under which pretext they frequently 
kidnaped American seamen. 

Adams was constantly hampered b\ the peace policy of Jefferson, 
who did not believe that war was right in the new brotherhood which 
had grown out of the French commune. But Adams had determination 
■enough to insist that another commission should be sent to France. 
When this commission reached that country they were told that they 
would be received by the Directory if they chose to make a handsome 
loan to the French Republic. When the envoys refused to accept such 
humiliating terms, they were ordered out of the country. Congress 
determined to take a hostile attitude, and ordered the standing army to 
be enlarged by twelve regiments. A navy of twenty-four vessels was 
ordered, and merchantmen were allowed to ann themselves against the 
French vessels of war. In theorj-, the two nations were at war, but 
there were no engagements between them except among the cruisers. 
Two serious conflicts took place in the West Indies. A heavy French 
privateer and a French frigate were captured and sent into port as prizes. 
But at this time Napoleon came into power, and everj'thing was changed. 
He received a new embassy sent out by Adams with great cordiality. 
The French cruisers were told to leave American vessels alone, and 
America changed her aspect to one of friendship. The Federalists, 
who were for war, were thoroughly dissatisfied with peaceable measures. 
The President tried in vain to take a middle course which should please 
both parties, and succeeded in pleasing neither of them. The unpopular 
sedition law was one of the things most talked of in the election of 
1800, by which the administration of the government fell into the hands 
of the Democrats, to remain there for a quarter of a centur}-. But in 
the meantime, there had been several occurrences of national interest 
outside of this. 

Biography — "Life of John Jay." 

History— Carlyle's "French Revolution." 


iloitarn Jfutife 

things which awakened national 
was the Fries insurrection of 1799. 


,)/ y'l , I AARON BURR. 


?|MONG the 

Discontent with the window tax began to show 

itself in 1798, and, in the spring of the following 

year, a rebellion against it broke out in North- 

ampton county, Pennsylvania. It spread rapidly, 

especially among the Germans. The militia was 

called out, the insurgents soon subdued, and their 

leaders arrested. John Fries was tried for high 

treason and found guilty after two trials, but the 

President pardoned him. Fries afterwards became a 

rich and respectable citizen of Philadelphia. 

In the same 3'ear, 1799, the site of the national 
capital was decided upon. Some of the members of 
Congress were verj' anxious that the place should be New York. This 
the southern members fiercely opposed, and threatened, as they always 
did when in any way annoyed, to secede from the Union. There was 
some thought of placing the national government at Philadelphia for 
ten years, but a desire among many of the members that a permanent 
site should be selected, hindered the carr>'ing out of this plan. At 
last it was agreed, "that a district of territory on the river Potomac, at 
some place between the mouths of the eastern branch and Connogoche- 
ague, be, and at the same time is, hereby accej)ted for the permanent 
site of the government of the United States." To this city was given 
the name of Washington. The plan of the city was laid out by 
Washington himself, and the present stately city shows how excellent 
these plans were. But it was desolate enough when John Adams took 
his wife to the White House, and placed her in charge of that mansion, 


which in those days was considered by many as far too elaborate an 
edifice for a republican president to live in. The long, unimproved 
avenues, up which few people went, the deep morasses and thick 
groves, were dreary surroundings for the nation's capital and the 
residence of its President. Mrs. Adams complained that so few people 
lived round about that they could not even get fire-wood drawn for 
their comfort. The malaria which arose from the swamps was 
dangerous indeed, and the expense of keeping up such a huge building 
was entirely out of proportion to the President's salary. But these 
inconveniences were, of course, soon remedied. There is no question 
but that the site is a beautiful one for a large city. A level plain, 
three miles in length and two miles wide, extended from the banks of 
the Potomac to a range of hills bounding the plain on the east. The 
hill on which the Capitol stands has a noble view. This is the centre 
of the city, and the avenues radiate from it, thus making the city the 
shape of an amphitheatre. The institutions of government, art, 
science and education stand at great distances from each other, and 
have given to the city its name of "The City of Magnificent Distances." 

Before the year 1799 had closed, George Washington was dead. 
The party bitterness which had called down so many criticisms upon 
him vanished suddenly out of sight. The nation recognized how much 
it owed to his wisdom, tiprightness, unselfishness and honest pride. 
Congress declared what has since passed into a proverb, that he was 
"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," 
and Europe recognized the fact that one of the three great men of the 
age had died. These three were Napoleon, Wellington and Washington, 
and of them, Washington can safely be said to be the most disinterested. 

When Thomas Jefferson followed Adams as President of the United 
States, in 1801, his way was made comparatively easy for him, by the 
fact that Napoleon was now at the head of the French nation. The 
confused and complicated foreign conditions were altered. Especially 
did this affect the West, where there had been a continual distrust 
between the Americans and the Spaniards in Louisiana. Upon three 
different occasions the western men had been upon the point of war, by 
the authority and with the sanction of the President. One of the chief 
causes of the quarrels was, that the Spanish commanders at New 
Orleans refused to let the men from the territories unload any of their 
exports at the New Orleans wharves. To end these troubles, Jefferson 
sent Robert Livingstone to Paris, with a proposal to purchase the 
island on which New Orleans stands, and the right of passage to the 



sea. The original territory of Louisiana, be it understood, as a French 
province, comprised the valleys of the Mississippi, the Ohio, the 
Missouri and the Illinois. At the close of the French war, in 1763, 
France ceded to Great Britain all that portion of Louisiana lying east 
of the Mississippi and north of the Iberville, about a hundred miles 

above Orleans; at the same time France transferred to Spain all the 
rest of her territory' on the western side of the Mississippi. In 1800, the 
province was returned to France by Spain. This will account for the 
fact that the officers at Orleans, civil and military, were sometimes 
French and sometimes Spanish. At the time referred to the Intendant 


of Orleaus was a Spaniard, although France was the possessor of the 
province. Robert Livingstone agreed, for the United States, to pay 
sixty million francs to the French nation for the province of Louisiana. 
When Napoleon heard that the negotiation had been completed, he 
said, with great satisfaction, "I have given England a rival." In 
America there was comparative indifference in regard to the purchase. 
The western men were glad to be protected from the petty authority of 
the foreign officers at Orleans. But Robert Livingstone said — and no 
one contradicted him — that the United States had no wish to extend 
their boundaries across the Mississippi. The government took posses- 
sion of the new territory by a public act on the 20th of December, 1803. 
The Vice-President at this time was Aaron Burr, one of the most 
hrilliant of American statesmen. When he had held the position of 
Vice-President for three years, he committed the great crime which 
began his downfall. He challenged Secretary Hamilton to a duel and 
killed him, as both Burr and Hamilton and everyone else knew that he 
would. In the election of 1804, when Jefferson was returned to office, 
Burr was not re-elected, and George Clinton became Vice-President in 
his stead. Burr was as restless and ambitious as ever. He had lost his 
friends, but his thirst for power had only increased. It is hard to tell 
just what motive actuated him when he drew about him a company of 
adventurers, and sailed down the Mississippi river with all the theatrical 
display and assurance of a conqueror. He and his followers were in 
search of fortune, authority, and empire. No crusade of the middle 
ages could have been more romantic or vaguely ambitious in its 
purpose. Many people thought, and still think, that his intention was 
to take Orleans and establish a western empire. Burr was a man of 
verj^ rare magnetism. The man who wished to disbelieve in him must 
first avoid him. He was courtly, elegant, and accomplished, haughty 
with men, and suave with women. He had offended Washington by 
his profligacy, and on that account had been removed from Wash- 
ington's militar}' family at the time of the Revolution. As he went 
through the West, he took care to arouse in the pioneers of that country 
the hatred which they had so long felt against the Spaniards of Orleans. 
He begged them to remember Philip Nolan, a young agent of the 
American government, who had gone to Texas to collect horses for the 
Spanish post at Orleans, under a pass from the Governor of Texas. 
Through the treachery of the Spanish government he had been killed 
and all of his companions sent to the mines — mines in which so many 
unfortunates met with a mvsterious end. 



Burr visited Bleunerhassett' s Island, in the Ohio, not far from 
Marietta. Harmon Blennerhassett and his beautiful wife were emi- 
grants from Ireland. They had purchased this exquisite island, built a 
fine house upon it, and lived there in state which was little less than 
princel}-. Even at that time of open and prodigal hospitality, they 
were celebrated for the splendor of their entertainments, and their large 
circle of distinguished friends. Mrs. Blennerhassett was a woman of 

queenly manners and of keen intellect, and the cleverest men and women 
in the nation were glad to know her and to have the entree of her 
house. Through her influence Burr won the co-operation of hex 
husband, and Harmon Blennerhassett imited himself to the adventurer 
and placed a large part of his fortune at his disposal. In the summer 
of iSo6 Burr made the attempt which he had so long threatened. On 
Blennerhassett' s Island he collected boats, provisions, arms and ammu- 


nition. Here a goodly luimber of recruits joined him, and as the boats 
sailed down the Ohio and the Mississippi, other confederates were 
picked up by the way. 

Jefferson, for many reasons, had shut his eyes to Burr's actions as 
long as possible, but was now forced into publishing a proclamation 
which denounced the whole scheme, and the United States Marshals of 
Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky made attempts to arrest the expedition, 
which, however, were not successful. As Burr neai'ed Natchez, he had 
thirteen boats and sixty men in arms. Here the adventurer's party 
found the militia of the territory in arms to oppose them, and the)' were 
all taken to Natchez as prisoners. Burr was tried, but pronounced 
guilty of no crime, which showed how thoroughly the western people 
sympathized with him. Disguised as a boatman, he disappeared into 
the wilderness. In the middle of January he was discovered and 
arrested, and conducted to Richmond, Virginia, to be tried by the 
United States on a charge of high treason. Such, however, were his 
personal attractions still, that when he was placed under guard, it was 
thought necessary that every man in the squad should be taken apart 
and compelled to swear that no interviews should be held with Burr 
upon the road, and that he should not be permitted to escape. His 
trial lasted three or four weeks, and ended in a verdict of not guilty. 

Burr became an exile in Europe, where he lived in great poverty 
and was shunned as a felon and an outlaw. He was ordered to quit 
England and while in France was kept constantly under the eyes of the 
police. Weary of such existence, he returned to America and resumed 
his profession of the law, but he never won the confidence or the 
friendship of any of his countrymen. His daughter Theodosia alone 
remained loyal to him. She was the wife of Governor Allston, of South 
Carolina. When she heard that Burr was returning from France, she 
set out from Charleston to meet him at New York, but the boat in 
which she sailed was never heard of again. This blow was the bitterest 
which Burr had endured, and the rest of his miserable life was spent 
sorrowfully alone. Blennerhassett died bankrupt and broken-hearted 
on the Isle of Guernsey. A few years later the beautiful Mrs. Blenner- 
hassett died in New York, in the most abject poverty, and was buried 
by some lowly Irish women. 

A fall more profound than that of Burr's has seldom been known. 
He came within one vote of being President of the United States; he 
died almost, if not literally, a beggar, with whom other beggars might 
have been ashamed to associate. 


J)$talur $ "Sritona. 


ONSIDERING the comparative weakness and the 
insignificance of the Barbarj- States, it seems 
strange that for twenty years they should have 
forced the United States to submit to the depreda- 
tions of their corsairs. From its earliest years 
the American government made a mistake in its 
treatment of the semi-barbarous States of northern 
Africa. As early as 1787 a treaty was ratified with 
Morocco, for which Congress paid eighty thousand dol- 
lars. In 1796 another was made with Algiers, by 
which it was agreed to pay forty thousand dollars 
for the release of thirteen Americans held as slaves 
in that State, a large amount of cash besides, and 
an annual tribute of twenty-five thousand dollars as 
the price of exemption from further aggressions. When there chanced 
to be a delay in the first remittance the Dey exacted still further tribute, 
and a ship of war costing about one hundred thousand dollars, was 
sent to him as a present for his daughter. 

The Barbary States subsisted almost entirely by piracy, and it 
was not upon the United States alone that they levied such tribute, 
but upon European nations also, though, of course, England or France 
at any time could easil)- have humiliated them had they taken the 
trouble to do so. Thousands of Americans were taken captive and 
millions of dollars were spent for ransom. It was a common thing for 
notices to be read in American churches of the captivity of members of the 
church in Tripoli or Algiers, and a sum of money was usually raised for 
the ransom of each. It required four thousand dollars to rescue a captain 
or a passenger. The Dey said that if the people of the United States 


paid him tribute, they were his slaves, and acting upon this principle, 
he force the frigate George Washington to carrj- his own tribute to the 
Sultan. This tribute consisted partly of slaves and wild animals, and 
was carried to Constantinople under the flag of the Barbary States. 
This insult was more than even Jefferson, with his dislike for war, could 
endure without a protest. 

In 1801 Tripoli herself took the initiative and declared war before 
America did so. Jefferson sent four of the six American vessels to the 
Mediterranean. It was his policy to economize in every direction, and 
he believed that a navy was an unnecessary expense. He thought all 
that was necessary- to protect the country was a few gunboats, capable 
of bearing but one gun each, which were to be kept under shelter 
where they could be easily launched in case of necessity. Many small 
engagements were fought in the Mediterranean which brought no notable 
results. In August, Lieutenant Sterrett, in the Enterprise^ of twelve 
guns and ninety men, fought with a Tripolitan vessel of fourteen guns, 
off Malta The Tripolitan vessel struck after a two-hours' fight, and 
then discharged another broadside when the Americans had left their 
guns and were cheering for their victory. Sterrett ordered his men back 
to the guns and raked the treacherous ship from end to end, not stop- 
ping till the mizzen mast was shot away, the hull riddled, fifty men 
killed and wounded and the colors thrown into the sea by the frantic 
commander. Sterrett then ordered that the enemy should throw all 
their arms and ammunition overboard. The remaining masts were cut 
away, the ship completely dismantled and then left to make its way 
home with a single sail. The Americans did not lose a man. As a 
matter of fact the Tripolitans were not good fighters, and they relied 
upon surprising their victims for their piratical successes. Their 
triumphs had usually been over peaceful merchantmen, whom they ter- 
rorized by their wild manner and show of blood-thirstiness. It became 
frequent for the Americans to destroy their vessels and crews without to themselves. In July, 1802, the frigate Conste/iation bought nine 
gunboats off Tripoli, and drove five of them ashore while the others 
escaped into the harbor. In June of the next year there was a battle 
of still greater odds. A cruiser from Tripoli, carrying twenty-two 
guns, was driven into a bay seven leagues east of Tripoli. Here, with 
nine gunboats about her and a body of cavalry on the beach, the /okn 
Adams and the Enterprise fought at close range for three-quarters of au 
hour, till the enemy's guns were silenced and her crew leaped over- 
board. The Americans were about to take possession of the boat, 


when a boat-load of Tripolitans returned to her and re-opened fire. 
'Thejofni Adams replied, and the colors on the Tripolitan vessel were 
taken down. A moment later all her guns were discharged at once and 
she blew up with an explosion which tore her to pieces. 

In 1803, the squadron on the Mediterranean had increased to nine 
ships, which carried in all two hundred and fourteen guns. The 
Philadelphia captured a Moorish cruiser which the Governor of Tangiers 
had authorized to prey upon American commerce. Commodore Preble 
entered the harbor of Tangiers with four of his fleet and asked an 
explanation of the Emperor, who claimed that he was not responsible 
for the act of the Governor, and renewed the treaty with the United 

.The PJiiladclphia struck upon a reef in the harbor of Tripoli, and 
while she was in this helpless state, was attacked by gunboats, and her 
commander. Captain Bainbridge, was compelled to surrender. The 
Tripolitans took advantage of an unusually high tide to haul her off 
and refit her. The American commodore was, of course, anxious 
to repossess this valuable vessel, or, failing in that, to unfit her for 
service by the Tripolitans, and Stephen Decatur successfully carried 
out a strategy by which this end was reached. He ran into the harbor 
one night in February, 1804, in a small prize vessel, the Intrepid. He 
pretended that the ship was a merchantman which had lost its anchor, 
and gained consent to make fast to the Philadelphia. At a signal his 
men arose from the decks, and poured through the ports and over the 
decks of the frigate. The barbarians ran shrieking to hide in the hold 
or dash into the sea, and in less than half an hour Decatur had cleared 
the decks, put combustibles in every part of the ship and set fire to 
them. B\- the time the Philadelphia was in flames the little vessel of 
Decatur was sailing away out of the harbor without the loss of a man. 

On August 3d Preble entered the harbor of Tripoli with his fleet 
and bombarded the town from his mortar boats. His frigates and 
schooners were out where they could fire upon the batteries. Of the 
gimboats, three, for different reasons, were thrown out of the combat 
and the other three closed with the enemy. One of these, commanded 
by Lieutenant James Decatur, a brother of Stephen, forced a Tripolitan 
gunboat to yield, but as he was stepping upon deck, was treacherously 
shot through the head by the Tripolitan commander. The boats drifted 
apart and the enemy escaped. Stephen Decatur, in command of 
another boat, was fighting with might and main. He boarded one of 
the enemy's boats, and dividing his men into two parties, charged 


around each side of the open hatcliway, calling for surrender and bayo- 
neting all who resisted. When he had done his work here thoroughly, 
he closed with the boat where he knew his brother had just been mur- 
dered. He boarded this recklessly, and after a fierce fight, singled out 
the captain who had shot his brother. He was an immense barbarian, 
armed with a sharp pike. He and Decatur closed in a hand-to-hand 
fight. Decatur's sword broke at the hilt, and he parried the thrust of the 
pike with his naked arm. It entered his breast, but he wrenched it out, 
tore the staS" away from his enemy, grappled him and rolled him upon 
the deck. The savage Turk struggled to draw his poniard, but Decatur 
grasped his pistol and shot his antagonist, who fell back d)'ing upon the 
deck. In the midst of this, a blow was aimed at Decatur from behind 
by a Tripolitan officer. This would doubtless have killed the distin- 
guished commander had not a young sailor named Reuben James 
stretched out his arm to receive the blow. The life of Decatur was 
saved, but it was at the expense of the right arm of the young sailor. 
There were eighty men in the two boats captured by Decatur, and of 
these fifty-two were killed or wounded. The third boat engaged in the 
struggle was commanded by Lieutenant Tripp, who boarded one of the 
enemy's gunboats and by a rebound of his own boat, was left with only 
ten men on the deck of the enemy. The two commanders fought each 
other — the Tripolitan with a sword, Tripp with a pike. The Ameri- 
can, covered with wounds, was forced to the deck, but with a sudden 
renewal of strength, succeeded in piercing the Turk with his pike. 
The rest of the crew surrendered. At the close of the engagement it 
was found that three of the enemy's boats were sunk and three others 
captured. The Americans had but fourteen killed and wounded. 

A little later than this, Commodore Preble engaged in a conflict 
with some of the enemy's vessels, in which he lost eighteen men. 
Most of these were injured by the explosion of the magazines of one of 
his gunboats. A few days later the bomb ketch Inti-epid was fitted up 
as an "infernal," and one hundred barrels of powder and missiles were 
put in her hold in tightly planked rooms. In the deck, immediately 
above, were piled one hundred and fifty shells and a great quantity of 
shot and fragments of iron. The plan was for her to be taken by a 
crew of men in among the Tripolitan fleet. The combustibles were to 
be fired and the men make their escape in two boats. There was a thick 
haze over the water and her movements could not be seen by the 
enemy. She had neared the enemy's batteries before they saw her and 
opened fire. Exactly what happened has never been known, but a 


light was seen to move horizontally along her deck, then to drop out of 
sight, and the next minute there was a frightful explosion, a great 
shaft of fire darting up from the vessel and the blazing rigging and 
canvas were lifted high into the air. The thirteen bodies of the crew 
were found two days later mangled be}ond recognition. Lrittle or no 
harm had been done to the enemy by the explosion of the boat. 

In November, 1S04, Samuel Barron was made Commodore of the 
Mediterranean squadron, which then consisted of ten vessels, carr>'ing 
two himdred and sixty-four guns. The United States had never before 
assembled so large a squadron. At this time America took advantage 
of a national dispute among the Tripolitans to strengthen herself there. 
The reigning Bashaw of Tripoli had gained the throne by deposing his 
elder brother, and the United States agreed to reinstate the exiled 
prince. They got together a force of adventurers from various nations 
and the American flag was raised upon Derne — the first time that it ever 
floated over any fortification on that side of the Atlantic. The town 
surrendered, and the reigning Bashaw was frightened into making 
peace. The United States no longer paid tribute, the prisoners in the 
hands of the Tripolitans were ransomed, and for some time Barbary 
States ceased to trouble America. But they dealt most unfairly by the 
exiled prince, whom they had promised to return to his throne. Again 
he was exiled, and this time without his wife and children, who were 
kept as hostages by his brother for his peaceful behavior in the future. 
He complained to the United States that they had left him in poverty 
and wretchedness, but they paid no attention to his appeal. They were 
learning lessons in statesmanship ! 


Biography— McKenzie's "Life of Stephen Decatur." 

Poetry— C. H. Calvert's "Reuben James." 



"Pfrsnnian limplitH^.' 


WO great enterprises marked Jefferson's adminis- 
tration. One of these was the invention of the 
steamboat; the other was the exploration of the 
Northwest by Meriwether Lewis and William 
Clarke, whom the President sent out for that 
purpose. The first person to propose the steam- 
boat was Thomas Paine, in 1778, during the Revolu- 
tion; and in 1784, James Ramsey built a vessel, which 
reached a speed of three or foiir miles an hour against 
the stream, on the Potomac. James Fitch built one, 
which was used on the Delaware, and predicted, to the 
great amusement of everyone who heard of it, that 
steamboats would one day cross the Atlantic. But 
^ these boats were constructed upon a principle which 

made them impracticable, and the first one built upon the present plan 
was launched on the Hudson, by Robert Fulton, in 1807. Three 
years before, Fulton had urged upon Napoleon, in Paris, his plans for 
the steamboat. Napoleon, always progressive, was willing to witness 
the trial of a boat and adopt it for the use of his nation, should it prove 
successful. But the experimental vessel was built too slightly, and the 
boiler and engine proved a greater weight than it could bear. They 
broke through it, and sank to the bottom of the Seine. Fulton was 
dismissed in disgrace, and returned to his own countr)'. The Clc-- 
niont, which he launched upon the Hudson, made the trip from New- 
York to Albany in thirty-two hours, and back again in thirty, Fulton 
said that the morning he left New York, there were not more than 



thirty persons in the city who beheved that the boat would ever move 
one mile an hour. Indeed, he was laughed at very heartily, and the 
vessel was called "Fulton's Folly." But as it went up the river 
against wind and tide, at the rate of five miles an hour, throwing showers 
of sparks into the air and making a great roar of machinery and paddles, 
the people gave a shout of applause, the first sign of encouragement 
which the devoted inventor had ever received. After this, steamboats 
increased rapidly, and, by the suggestion of many thoughtful men, were 
greatly improved and soon in general use, although it was a long time 
before an ocean steamer was ever biiilt, and it was not until 1812 that 
a steamboat navigated the waters of the Ohio. 

It was in 1804 that Lewis and Clarke were given their commissions 
by the President, and started out with a large party to explore the 


waters of the Missouri river, cross the mountain range and descend to 
the Pacific. For twenty-six hundred miles they pushed their flotilla 
against the current of the Missouri; then, leaving a considerable por- 
tion of the party to guard the boats, they crossed the mountains, 
mounted on horses which they had captured, aud discovered the two 
streams which are known as the Lewis and Clarke rivers. The>' 
followed up these rivers to where they joined with the Columbia, and 
then went on to the sea. Robert Grey, of Salem, Massachusetts, had 
discovered the river Columbia in IMay, 1792, he being the first man to 
carry the American flag around Cape Horn and up the Pacific ocean. 


He had named the river after his ship, the Columbia Rcdiviva. Lewis 
and Clarke met upon their journey with numerous Indian tribes who 
had never before seen white men — many, indeed, who had never heard 
of them. This journey was the first ever made by any white man to 
the Pacific, north of the line of Mexico. 

One important event that happened during Jefferson's administra- 
tion was the passage of a law forbidding the African slave trade. It 
will be remembered that this trade had existed ever since 1619, and it 
was agreed when the constitution was formed that there should be no 
interference with the slave trade until January i, 1808. More than a 
year before that time President Jefferson called the attention of Congress 
to the subject, and congratulated the members upon the fact that they 
would soon be able to forbid the barbarous traffic. The debate which 
followed in Congress was very long and bitter. Although no one was 
in favor of continiiing the slave trade, there were wonderfully wide 
differences of opinion as to the best way of putting it down. It was 
argued, too, that if it was right to hold slaves at all, it could not be 
wrong to import them. At length, under the lead of Joshua Quincy, 
of Massachusetts, and others, a law was passed forbidding the importa- 
tion of slaves from any foreign country into the United States after the 
year 1807. But in spite of the law, slaves were secretly imported for 
many years, until treaties were made with other maritime countries by 
which the slave trade was declared to be piracy. But it must be 
understood that the slave trade between the different States of the 
American Union was not abolished. The only States free from it were 
those which had incorporated in their charter an act forbidding slaverj^ 
forever within their borders. 

The population of the country had nearly doubled in twenty years. 
At the end of the first ten years of the century the census showed a 
population of seven million two hundred and forty thousand. Wealth 
was increasing in a much greater proportion. After the invention of 
Whitney's cotton gin the exportation of cotton had increased from one 
hundred and eighty-nine thousand pounds exported in 1791, to sixty- 
two million pounds exported in 181 1. Not alone in this, but in every 
direction, increase of prosperity v.'as visible. Ship-building and fisheries 
were sources of great wealth. The State of Ohio was organized and 
admitted into the Union in 1802, making the seventeenth State of the 
Union. When its people adopted a constitution, they incorporated i'j 
it some principles which were new to the world, and which were much 
considered in the formation of other States. To encourage settlement. 


they provided that for four years after any settler purchased land of the 
United States no local taxes should be laid upon it, and Congress uiet 
this generosity of the people with another gift, which has been made a 
precedent in all similar legislation since that time. This law granted 
to the State one township in each section of their survey for the estab- 
lishment of its schools. This gave to the new States of America 
opportunities for public education which are unequaled in the world. 
Thus it came about that for that State and all which followed it, every 
man who desired could lay claim to a generous portion of land, and 
could have, without expense to himself, a liberal education for all of 
his children. 

Emigration to the Ohio valley became rapid. It no longer seemed 
as far west as it had previously, though people still thought that any 
man who had looked upon Lake Michigan was a very great traveler 
indeed. There had been but comparatively little interest felt in that 
vast stretch of western territory, but the purchase of Louisiana, which 
more than doubled the area of the national territory, and the tales which 
Lewis and Clarke brought back of the richness of the mysterious north- 
west country, aroused an interest which had never been felt before. In 
the narrative, which the explorers published, they told of finding the 
buffalo so numerous that in one case a herd occupied the whole breadth 
of the river a mile wide, and the party had to stop for an hour to see 
the animals pass by. Trade with the Indians was another spur to 
western excursions, and a New York merchant, John Jacob Astor, 
started a trading post called Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia river. 
But this post was afterwards sold to one of the British fur companies. 

Jefferson's administration was very different in all social respects 
from that of Washington and Adams. From the severity of his life 
and habits we have gained the expression, "Jeffersonian simplicity." 
Washington, upon his inauguration, had driven in a coach and six to 
the capital, dressed in velvet and wearing costly jewels. Jefferson, on a 
like occasion, rode on horseback in a dress which, though careful, was 
certainly not ceremonious. When he dismounted he tied his own horse 
to a post, walked unattended into the Capitol building, and read his 
address. Upon his second election he did not go to the capital at all, 
but set the example of sending a "message" to Congress by a secretary. 
This has been the practice ever since. He did not believe in those 
stately ceremonies which had graced Washington's time, and he 
abolished the weekly levees, only opening his doors on New Year's day 
and tlie 4th of July, at which time he welcomed any one who cared to see 


hiiu. He was a strong believer in universal suffrage, and thought that 
all men had a right to vote for their own rulers. The Democratic 
party sustained him in this, but the Federal doubted whether it would 
be safe to place the ballot in the hands of the people and leave govern- 
ment to popular vote. At that time republican government, even to 
the most patriotic, was a thing looked on with distrust. Jefferson was 
very anxious to pay off the indebtedness of the government, and he 
succeeded iti paying thirty-three millions of debt. This was largely 
done by reducing the expense of government, and to this day it is a 
mooted question as to whether this economy was wise or not. 

A great carrying trade had fallen to America because of the European 
war, which placed an embargo upon European courts. Holland, Italy 
and France were largely dependent upon America for sugar, as well as 
coffee. Tobacco and cotton were also largely exported. The extensive 
trade of the West Indies was transacted for the most part through the 
United States. So profitable did the carrying trade become that 
building and maritime commerce increased in a ratio larger than that 
of the population. In commercial rivalry with Great Britain, the new 
nation almost equaled the old in her shipping on the seas. It was not 
strange that the older nation should look on this with jealousy, and out 
of this jealousy there grew a rancour which caused the seizure of many 
an American merchantman. When it was proved that the ship was 
neutral in the court of inquiry, it would be released, but if by chance 
the cargo had been perishable, the ship owner had suffered a severe 
damage for which he could obtain no reprisal. 

Thus it happened that American merchantmen were constantly 
obliged to submit to indignities of one sort and another. Chiefest 
among these was the impressment of her seamen into the English 
service, for it was quite common for English officers, seeking deserters 
from the King's service, to overhaul American ves.sels and look for the 
deserters, very frequently taking off with them an American-born man. 
This trouble culminated in the proclamations known as the Decrees of 
Berlin and Milan and the Orders in Council. By the Berlin and Milan 
decrees. Napoleon declared the English Islands to be in a state of 
blockade, and claimed the right to seize all vessels trading with England 
or her dependencies. The English Government replied to these decrees 
by the "Orders in Council" prohibiting all commerce with those parts 
ot the continent of Europe which were under the dominion of France 
or her allies. Practically, this meant all of Europe except Russia, and 
laid American vessels open to seizure wherever they might go. The 


United States protested against these blockades, and maintained that the 
blockade of a port mnst be maintained by a competent force upon the 
spot. This, of course, was the right and dignified position to take, but 
the country' had no navy to sustain its policy, and this is where 
Jefferson's econoni)- showed itself to be poor and false. He did not 
even believe in fortifications for harbors, but thought they should be 
protected by cannons on wheels, which could be dragged from place to 
place as they were needed. Thus it was that America was obliged to 
submit to these insults when native pride prompted every man in the 
country to resent them. At length, however, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was overhauled at sea by an English vessel, which fired 
several broadsides into the American ship. As the Chesapeake had 
gone to sea without any expectation of war, the men were not able to 
fire a gun, and the English officers carried off four deserters which had 
belonged to their crew, but had been previously impressed from an 
American ship. Jefferson forbade American harbors and waters to all 
vessels of the English navy, and sent a vessel of war with a special 
minister to London to demand satisfaction. The English offered 
reparation, but at the same time issued a proclamation, directing 
commanders to make a demand for all English seamen serving on all 
foreign ships of war, and to report refusal should they meet with it. 
There would doubtless have been war as a result of this, had the 
Americans possessed a navy to fight with. When Congress met in 
1807, it prohibited the departure from American ports of all American 
vessels. No merchandise of any kind was to be exported. The people 
of the United States, and particularly of the South, were foolish enough 
to believe that Europe would suffer severely if it did not receive her 
products, and that they were practically making war against England 
without expense to themselves or danger to their fellow-citizens. But 
at the North, where men were engaged in commerce, shijD-masters and 
seamen were naturally dissatisfied with a measure which kept them 
shut in port. It was actualh- a fact that the grass grew in the streets 
and on the piers of the sea-board cities, and as week after week passed, 
the depression of trade grew deeper, until the fallacy of the measure 
became apparent to all, and Jefferson awoke to the realization that the 
States which had been his warmest friends, rebelled against his policy. 
At this time a presidential election came on. 

Travels— Lewis' and Clarke's "Expedition to the Rocky Mountains." 
Fiction — Mrs. Stowe's "Minister's Wooing." 
J. C. Hart's ■Mariam Coffin." 





MADISON, of Virginia, was the next 
President. He had been a member of the conven- 
tion that had framed the Constitution, and had 
been Jefferson's friend upon all occasions. Indeed 
Jefferson may be said to have been his political 
master, and he was anxious that when he left the presiden- 
tial chair, the mantle should fall upon Madison. Madison 
came into power at a troublous time. The foreign rela- 
tions were especially unfortunate, and in the West there 
was danger on the frontier. The Indian chief Tecumseh 
and his brother the "Prophet" had for a long time been 
tr}'ing to persuade the western tribes to give up drinking 
whisky and return to the customs of their fathers. 
Tecumseh held also that the treaty made in 1809, by 
William Henrv Harrison, Governor of the Indiana territory, with several 
of the tribes, ceded to the government lands which belonged to the 
Indians. Harrison invited Tecumseh and his brother to a conference, 
which barely escaped ending in a massacre. The attitude of the 
Indians was so threatening after this that Harrison, with two thousand 
men, ascended the Wabash and built a military post at Terre Haute. 
This was in 181 1. Harrison tried in vain to open friendly relations 
with the "Prophet," but when he found that he could not hope to 
succeed in doing this, he marched against the Indian village and 
encamped within ten miles of it, on the Tippecanoe. On the morning 



of September jtli his camp was surprised by the savages. The soldiers 
had the presence of mind to put out their camp-fires, that they might 
not furnish so ready a target for the arrows of the enemy, and forming 
in a square, fought the Indians with courage. When the sun arose the 
men who were mounted made a charge which dispersed the enemy. 
Harrison found the Prophet's town deserted the next day and burnt it. 

At this time Henr>- Clay, of Kentucky, and John Calhoun, of South 
Carolina, both young and ambitious men, stood at the head of the 
southern party who desired to have war with England. New England 
was anxious for a fleet, if such a war was to be undertaken, but the 
southern faction consisted of the slave-holding element, and were not 
willing to unite with New England in any measure, or even to accept 
her advice. The plan was to invade Canada by the enlargement of the 
regular army and the help of the militia. Madison desired peace, but 
as another election day rapidly neared, he was informed that unless he 
declared for war he would not be renominated as a candidate for the 
presidency. He was a man who had long been overshadowed by others, 
and his ambition now was supreme. He declared war against England 
June i8, 1812. 

A protest against the war was drawn up by Joshua Ouincy, of Mas- 
sachusetts, and signed by thirty-eight members of the House. They 
denoimced the war as a pretext to give aid to Napoleon against Eng- 
land, and showed how unprepared the nation was, without either anny 
or navy, to begin a contest with the strongest nation in the world, and 
they pointed out to their constituents the fact that the declaration of 
war was a party measure and that it was dangerous to the Union in the 
extreme. The people also expressed extreme disapprobation; ministers 
made it the subject of sermons; it occupied the pens of the pamphlet- 
eers and was the subject most discussed in newspapers. Against the 
Federalists, who took this view of the matter, the Democrats, who 
constituted the war party, were greatly incensed. On June 22, 1812, 
a mob sacked the oflfice of the Federal Republican^ in Baltimore, and 
followed it up by doing great damage to several houses belonging to 
Federalists and to vessels in the harbor. Within a month the editor 
of the Federal Republican^ Alexander Hanson, once more issued his 
sheet. The office was again attacked, but Hanson had taken means 
for defending his property and fired upon the mob, killing one and 
wounding several. When the militia was called out, instead of arrest- 
ing the rioters, they arrested Hanson and his party and lodged them in 
jail, where they were again attacked by the mob, who killed, in the 


most wanton manner, General Lingen, and lamed General Henry Lee 
for life. The ringleaders of the mob were tried, but acquitted. The 
regular army at this time numbered six thousand men. To these were 
added fifty thousand volunteers and one hundred thousand militiamen, 
and Henr\- Dearborn, of Massachusetts, was given the command. 
General William Hull, the Governor of Michigan, was appointed com- 
mander in the West and was ordered to be in readiness to invade Canada 
in the event of war. His intimate acquaintance with the country- made 
him well aware of the danger which was run by taking a warlike atti- 
tude in a territor}- where there were so many Indians. But he was not 
able to impress upon the government all of the needs and conditions, 
and marched from Ohio with about two thousand men, chiefly militia, 
who were especially uncontrollable and insubordinate. When the 
declaration of war reached him, he promptly crossed the Detroit river, a 
few miles below Detroit, for the purpose of taking Fort IMalden. He 
issued a proclamation promising protection to the inhabitants, but 
stating that no quarter would be given to those who were fighting in 
company with the Indians. The news of the declaration of war reached 
the Canadian commanders before it did Hull, and the first movement 
was upon the part of the English who took the fort at Michelimackinac 
by surprise and compelled its surrender. The Indians, who were 
always ambitious to be on the strongest side, immediately joined the 
English. This filled Hull with great apprehensions, and he sent to 
Captain Nathan Heald, who was in command of Fort Dearborn, where 
Chicago now stands, to hasten and join him at Detroit. The Indians 
about Chicago were supposed to be friendly, but their actions were per- 
plexing, and Heald was anxious about the outcome. He promised the 
Indians the property in the fort which he could not take away, and in 
the night he destroyed the fireanns, gunpowder and liquor, which was 
the articles for which they were most eager. On the morning of August 
15th, he set out with fifty soldiers and the families of the village. The 
party followed the road by the shore of the lake which was guarded by 
a low range of sand hills, behind which the disappointed Indians were 
crouched. At a point near the southern extremity of what is now the 
Lake Front Park, the Indians rushed upon them with their war crj-. 
In the conflict which followed, the women fought with the men, but they 
were no match for the savages, and such as sur\'ived after a short but 
deadly struggle surrendered. Of these, all the wounded were scalped, 
for it was known that the British Colonel Proctor, at Maiden, had 
offered a high price for American scalps. The children, twelve of 

WAR AGAIN'. 455 

them in all, had been put together in one wagon, in the futile hope that 
the Indians might spare them, but the little ones were all tomahawked 
by one Indian. The massacre was attended by peculiar horrors, which 
are too terrible to bear description. 

At about the same time Hull sent out Thomas B. Van Home to 
guard a supply train. Home's detachment met a force of English and 
Indians at Brownstown, and were defeated with dreadful slaughter. 
Another expedition, under Lieutenant-Colonel James Miller, was sent to 
open communication with the base of supplies at Racine river. These 
were caught in an Indian ambuscade, but after a valiant fight for two 
hours succeeded in routing the savages and returned to their boats. 
They left fifty of their comrades dead behind them, but had the satis- 
faction of knowing that twice that number of Indians had been killed. 
Hull retreated to Detroit, where, with the eight hundred and fifty men 
still left him, he made arrangements for defense. The rest of his men 
had been sent on distant expeditions. On the i6th of August General 
Isaac Brock, the English commander, crossed the Detroit river with over 
two thousand regulars and Indians, and demanded the surrender of the 
city. When Brock demanded surrender he had said that he could not 
restrain his allies, the Indians, from rapine and murder, in case the 
place should be carried by assault. Hull dared not rely upon his 
insubordinate militia for any desperate fighting, and as he had learned 
that the officers had formed a conspiracy to take away his command 
from him, he decided to surrender. He knew that if he defended the 
place and his enemies succeeded in defeating him, the fate of the 
women and children would be terrible. Among them was a part of his 
own family, and he had not the courage to ran the risk. He 
surrendered without making an effort to fight, and for this was counted 
a traitor, tried by court-martial and condenmed to be shot. But 
Madison, remembering that he had served through the Revolution with 
devotion, and feeling that the neglect of the government had much to 
do with the case, pardoned him. 

History— Drake's Life of Tecumseh and the Prophet." 
FiCTlos — Richardson's "Hardscrabble." 
Richartifion's "Waumaugee." 



/-perry's VICTORY. 

had been given command on the Niagara 
frontier, with orders to capture the heights of 
Queenstown. On the morning of October 13, 
1 81 2, he sent two small columns across the river. 
Some of the men succeeded in landing, but 
several of the boats lost their way. The regulars 
charged up a hill and took position on a plateau, wait- 
ing here for the attack of the enemy. The American 
force was worsted and obliged to retreat to the beach. 
They were here reinforced, and ordered to scale the 
heights, which they did, capturing a battery at the top 
of the slope. General Brock had heard of the conflict, 
and had ridden at full speed from Fort Dodge. Upon 
his appearance on the field the English regained courage, and made an 
effort to recover their batten,-. They drove the Americans to the very 
verge of the precipice. The American commander realized that a 
desperate defence must be made, and he cheered on his men to such a 
fierce assault that the English broke and fled down the slope. General 
Brock made a brave effort to reorganize the English, but fell, mortally 
wounded. Three other officers in turn took up his command, but all 
fell, and a retreat was ordered. Lieutenant-colonel Winfield Scott now 
reinforced the Americans, and assumed command on the heights. He 
had expected that the militia would follow him, but the militia refused 
to be taken out of their State, and cautiously remained where they were. 
The British were quick to take advantage of Scott's unprotected 



position, and charged upon liim with a heavy force. He repelled thejn 
twice with the bayonet, and npon the third charge, in which the 
English were reinforced, the Americans were driven to the precipice, 
and let themselves down from ledge to ledge, hanging by bushes and 
roots till they reached the water. The boats were not here to receive 
them, and they were forced to surrender, making the entire American 

loss in this action about one 

The war party were much 
opposed to the use of the 
navy — if the few gunboats 
possessed by the Americans 
could be distinguished by 
that name — but, at length, 
Madison was persuaded to 
order out the vessels, such 
as they were. The 
British navy at this 
time had more than 
one thousand vessels, 
manned by one hun- 
dred and forty-four 
thousand sailors. The 
[United States had 
twenty large war 
vessels and a few 
gunboats, together 
carrying about three 
hundred guns. The 
nav}' itself was anx- 
ious to take part in the war, 
and one hour after consent 
was given Commodore John 
Rogers put to sea in the 
President, and gave chase 
to the English frigate Belvi- 
dere, which escaped with a 
loss of seven men. The Presi- 
dent lost sixteen men by the 
bursting of a gun, and six 


from the fire of the enemy. Rogers went on across the Atlantic, 
capturing an English privateer and seven merchantmen, and retaking an 
American prize. At the same time an English squadron off New 
York captured several merchantmen and the man-of-war Nautilus. 

Thus began the wars upon the seas. After this there were 
numerous engagements, one of the most notable of which was the 
victor}' of the frigate Constitution., under Captain Isaac Hull. He fought 
the British frigate Gucrricre. The vessels opened broadsides upon 
each other at close range, and finally grappled, both parties trjing to 
board. But the sea was rough and the musketry fire unceasing, and 
they were obliged to give this up. The Guerriere lost her mainmast 
and foremast, and the Constitution freed herself, and got into a position 
where she could take her antagonist fore and aft. The Guci-riere, 
therefore, struck. The ' Americans lost but fourteen men and the 
British seventy-nine, losing their ship into the bargain, for in the 
morning it was found necessary to blow her up, as she was sinking. It 
was said that the victory to the Americans came through superior gun 
practice, which was not a little astonishing to the English, who 
had especially prided themselves upon proficiency in that direction. 
The Americans had placed sights upon their guns and could, therefore, 
fire with great accuracy. The English, as yet, had not adopted this 
plan. When Captain Hull landed in Boston he was met with a public 
welcome. Triumphal arches had been raised, the streets decorated, 
and he and his officers were entertained at a public dinner. In New 
York and Philadelphia he met with a like recognition of his services, 
and Congress voted him a gold medal, and his crew fifty thousand 
dollars. At the beginning of autumn, in the conflict between the 
Wasp., of America, and the Frolic, of England, the vessels grappled and 
the Americans sprang on the deck of the Frolic and compelled surrender. 
The Frolic carried a large crew, of which only twenty were unhurt. A 
few weeks later. Commodore Stephen Decatur captured a packet with 
a large amount of specie, and afterwards fell in with the frigate Mace- 
donia with which he fought two hours. The Macedonia struck, and 
owned to a loss of one hundred and four men. Decatur lost but twelve. 
Captain Bainbridge fell in with the British frigate yia'Z'rt, off the coast of 
South America, and after a fight of two hours the Java struck, having 
lost every spar and one hundred and twenty men. Bainbridge' s frigate, 
the Constitution, lost but thirty-four men. It was this engagement 
which gave to the Constitution the title of "Old Ironsides." England 
was amazed, that in the six encounters at sea the enemy should have 

"never give up the ship." 459 

been successful in everv- one. The war party of America was almost 
amazed at the sticcess of the navy, since it had steadily objected to its 
use. But the capture of three hundred British merchantmen which 
were now kept in American ports, and the presence of the three 
thousand prisoners belonging to them, was a matter which could not be 

Early in the winter of 181 2, a new army, numbering about ten 
thousand, drawn from the Western States, was put under command of 
William Henr}' Harrison, for the purpose of recovering the territory' 
lost by Hull's surrender of Detroit. An advance detachment at that 
time occupying Monroe, Michigan, was attacked on Januar.^ 2 2d by 
fifteen hundred British and Indians, under Colonel Henrj- Proctor. The 
Americans fought behind fences, but these were poor shields against the 
British artiller>'. General Winchester was captured, and from what he 
saw in the enemy's lines, feared that wholesale slaughter would ensue 
unless the Americans surrendered. He found means to send word to 
that effect, and the Americans surrendered, under Proctor's promise of 
protection against the Indians. This promise was broken, and the Indians 
not only killed all the prisoners, but tortured them cruelly. Harrison 
now hastened to build Fort Meigs, at the rapids of the Maumee river, 
and Proctor besieged this work in April, threatening, as usual, that if 
the place was carried by assault the men would be massacred. The 
Americans succeeded in spiking the enemy's batteries, and Proctor was 
forced to raise the siege. A little later, Tecumseh, the Indian chief, 
joined Proctor, and their force, five thousand strong, attacked Fort 
Stevenson, on the Sandusky, where Fremont now stands. The garrison 
numbered but one hundred and sixty men and possessed but one gun. 
When Major George Croghan received the summons to surrender or be 
massacred, he replied that when the fort was taken there w^ould be no 
men left to kill. After bombarding the fort without eflfect for a long 
time from their gunboats and with the field artillery-, the British 
advanced to the attack on two sides at the same moment. Croghan placed 
his single gun where it would sweep the ditch. He loaded it to the 
muzzle, and waited till the attacking party leaped over the ditch. In 
the discharge it swept down nearly ever)- man. A second column met 
with a like fate and the party retreated. 

The attention of the nation was turned more particularly for a time 
to the lakes, where both parties were struggling hard for ascendancy. 
Isaac Chauncey was the American commodore, and Sir James Yeo the 
British admiral. Both countries had expended much money and pains 


upon the fitting out of fleets, and here it was felt the war would be 
largely decided. In April, 1813, Commodore Chauncey's fleet carried 
General Dearborn and fifteen hundred men from Sackett's Harbor, and 
landed them two miles west of what 'is now Toronto. At that time it 
was called, York, and was the capital of Upper Canada. The expedi- 
tion had for its purpose the capture of a large ship then building 
at the docks, the capture of which Chauncey thought necessary' 
to his success. But the ship was afloat before Chauncey and 
and his fleet reached York, and nothing came of the movement. When 
the Americans had landed, under protection of a well-armed schooner, 
the body of English and Indians, who had withstood them, fell back 
behind some fortifications. They were closely followed by the Amer- 
icans, who ordered that a halt should be made till the artillery had time 
to come up. While they were waiting, a magazine near the works, 
containing one hundred barrels of powder, exploded, killing or wound- 
ing two hundred Americans. But they rallied and pressed forward into 
the town, and during the four days which they remained, fired the 
government buildings. In the legislative chamber they found a human 
scalp hanging as a trophy, or a reminder of their Indian allies, and this 
was sent, with the speaker's mace and a British standard, to Washing- 
ton. Chauncey now returned to Sackett's Harbor, landing Dearborn 
and his force near the mouth of the Niagara river. Here, a month 
later, Chauncey rejoined them and Fort George was taken. At this time 
Yeo, the English admiral, with General Prevost, was on his way to 
Sackett's Harbor, which had been left almost without defense at the 
time that Dearborn was in York. The English attacked the town in 
-front, while their Indian allies fought at the rear. The American 
militia fled after the first fire, but the regulars and volunteers fought 
until they were forced to take refuge in the log barracks. Their com- 
mander ordered them to pretend to march for the boats, and General 
Prevost, fearing that his escape would be cut ofi", ordered a retreat 
leaving two hundred and sixty dead and wounded behind him. The 
loss among the Americans was as severe in proportion to their numbers, 
and their stores, which were worth half a million dollars, were unfortu- 
nately burned. Several other mishaps overtook the Americans on the 
Niagara frontier, and closed the campaign for the summer with as 
melancholy a record of defeat as could well be imagined. 

On Lake Erie, however, there was an exploit which was most 
successful for the Americans. Here a squadron was commanded by 
CajDtain Oliver Hazard Perry. By Avigust he was afloat with ten vessels, 

"never give up the ship." 461 

carrying fifty-five guns, in vigorous search of the British squadron 
of six vessels, which bore sixty-five guns and was commanded 
by Captain Barclay. These forces did not meet till the 
middle of September. The English squadron drew up in line of 
battle, but the American line was straggling, and one of the American 
vessels was soon reduced to a wreck and obliged to drop out of action. 
Perry left her, took a small boat, and in the midst of a fierce storm of 
bullets reached the Niagara. He sailed this vessel straight through 
the British lines, delivering broadsides on both sides as he went. Then 
getting across the bows of the English vessels he raked two or three of 
them while his smaller craft poured in grape and canister. Perry told 
the outcome of the day's work in his brief despatch to General 
Harrison: "We have met the enemy and they are ours — two ships, 
two brigs, one schooner and one sloop." 

Harrison was transported by Perry's fleet to the Canadian shore of 
the Detroit river and besieged Fort Maiden. The English general set 
fire to the place and retreated, and Harrison pursued him by land while 
Perry carried his baggage and supplies by water. On the 5th of 
October Proctor turned about and faced his pursuers, choosing a posi- 
tion where he could plant his guns in a highway, and be protected on 
each side by marshes. Tecumseh was with Proctor, and the Indians 
and British were arrayed for the defence of the highway. Harrison 
placed his mounted infantry in the front of the ranks, and faced the 
Indians who were in the marsh. The horsemen moved slowly when the 
bugle gave them the signal, but increased their pace till they dashed 
with terrible force through the enemy, killing, capturing or scattering 
the English regulars. Proctor was pursued by a dozen well-mounted 
men, but escaped. Tecumseh was killed and the Indians fled. The 
Americans had regained the territory of Michigan, and Harrison and 
his troops returned to Buffalo. This decisive conflict was known as the 
battle of the Thames. Hull, and then Dearborn, had then been retired 
with their military reputations shattered, and General Wilkinson was 
now put in charge of the northern forces, which consisted of Harrison's 
force at Buffalo, the force at Fort George, that at Sackett's Harbor, and 
the right wing of the Vermont frontier, under Wade Hampton, these 
numbering altogether about twelve thousand men. Wilkinson was in 
poor health, and was much more interested in a whisky bottle than in a 
campaign, and therefore left his command largely to inferior officers. 
It was the plan for him to move down the St. Lawrence with a part of 
the men, while Hampton was to advance overland, make a junction 


with liini and the whole army was to move upon ^Montreal. To make 
the road easy, Chauncey drove Yeo into port and kept him there. But 
notwithstanding this, the Americans met with many disasters. The 
weather was bad, the boats poor, and some were driven ashore, while 
others went to the bottom, causing the delay of the whole flotilla until 
they could be replaced. At Williamsburg, they encountered troops to the 
number of seventeen hundred. A sharp battle followed, from which 
both parties retired in good order with a loss which was similar upon 
both sides. The other general. Wade Hampton, was as inefficient as 
Wilkinson, and he sent word that he could not make the junction 
agreed upon. Upon receiving this news Wilkinson willingly went 
into winter quarters. Hampton, with five thousand men, had been 
successfully checked by the English Lieutenant-Colonel de Dalaberry, 
who had a force of four or five hundred. In December General Drum- 
mond appeared between Lakes Ontario and Erie, and the Americans 
holding Fort George, which had been so expensivel}' gained the summer 
before, fled at his approach, taking refuge in Fort Niagara and burning 
Newark as they went. The enemy followed them and captured Fort 
Niagara without meeting with any respectable resistance. They killed 
eighty of the garrison, including the men in the hospital. A number 
of towns were destroyed, and all the farming region laid waste, many 
of the inhabitants being put to death. 

Fiction — Kirkland's "Zur>'." 

W. C. Iron's 'The Double Hero." 
Poetry — J. G. PercivaVs "Perry's Victory on Lake Erie." 

Oliver W. Holmes' "Old Ironsides." 

Levi Bishop's "Battle of the River Raisiu." 


"|lus Jtigljls." 


lA the treaty of PEACE. 

EFORE Wilkinson had been removed from the 
southern to the northern departments, he had taken 
Mobile away from the Spaniards. This he did 
without resistance. It was done in accordance with 
the claim that the eastern boundar)- of Louisiana 
was the Perdido river. Spain denied this, and 
resented the seizure of Mobile. The powerful tribe 
of Creek Indians were given supplies of arms and am- 
munition at Pensacola and incited against the Americans. 
Tecumseh, who had since met with a warrior's death, 
had been sent south to lash the Creeks by his resentful 
eloquence into a still more warlike frame of mind. 
Both the English and the Spaniards urged them on, 
and early in 1813 they began their hostilities. In the 
first encounter they were defeated, but in the second one, at Fort 
Mimms, a thousand of them, under the command of a noted half-breed, 
William Weathersford, besieged a stockade in which the inhabitants of 
the neighborhood had taken refuge. The men and women fought 
together here for many hours, and large numbers of the Indians were 
killed, but the buildings were finally set on fire, and the Indians 
massacred the people as usual, not even sparing the children. Only 
twelve of the garrison escaped. The rest were murdered with horrible 

The Southwestern States were prompt to punish these atrocities. 
The legislature of Tennessee appropriated three hundred thousand 
dollars for the campaign, and placed Andrew Jackson at the head of 
five thousand men. These men were composed largely of Western 


pioneers, well mounted, used to forest fighting, and capable of great 
endurance. Among them were Sam Houston and Davy Crockett, men 
which every American schoolboy counts among his heroes. Jackson 
"built Fort Deposit, on the Tennessee, as a depot for supplies, and 
foraged the country thoroughly, burning every Indian village in his 
way. The Indians were first met at the little village which occupied 
the site of the present Jacksonville. The American detachment con- 
sisted of one thousand mounted men, who gave the Indians no quarter, 
killing every one of them, and taking the squaws and children 
prisoners. In a later encounter they killed three hundred out of one 
thousand of the eneni}-. At this time a force of about fifteen hundred 
came from Georgia, while from the West came another force, so that 
the Creeks had enemies upon three sides of them. The Western men, 
under General F. S. Claiborne, discovered a town of refuge on the 
Alabama. This was built on holy ground, and no path led to it. In it 
were the women, children and the prophets. When Claiborne broke in 
upon their religious rites, he found captives bound to stakes ready to be 
burned. Claiborne sacked and burned the town. By this time winter 
liad closed in, and the short enlistments of the men were expiring, and 
therefore the operations for the year were closed. 

Along the sea-board, America had met with continued disasters 
through the year of 1813. Early in the spring a blockade had been 
declared from Montauk Point, on the eastern extremity of Long Island, 
to the mouth of the Mississippi. It was true that the British squadron 
was not sufficient to guard such a vast extent of coast, but it was well 
able to seriously interfere with commerce, and harass the people of the 
towns. Admiral Cockburn was especially dreaded for his cruelties. 
Along the shores of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, 
he waged an unsoldierly warfare upon the quiet people of the villages 
and farms. His brutal sailors, half intoxicated, were allowed to over- 
run the countr}', robbing, burning, and committing every outrage which 
their ungoverned viciousness prompted. Cockbum's men enticed awa\- 
slaves and sold them in the West Indies. But their destruction and 
appropriation of property were the least of their offences. 

In the course of the year Congress authorized the building of four 
ships of the line, six frigates, six sloops of war, and as many vessels as 
might be necessary for operation on the lakes. Besides these, a large 
number of privateers were commissioned, and did some excellent 
service. One of the most notable of the engagements between privateers 
was between the Shannon and the Chesapeake. This happened before 

'blue lights." 465 

Perry's victor>' on Lake Erie, and, indeed, the vessel which Perry 
fought in was the Lawrence, named after the gallant commander of the 
Chesapeake, and on Perry's flag were the last words of Captain 
Lawrence, "Don't give up the ship." The fight between the Shannon 
and the Chesapeake took place in Boston Bay, and the American 
vessel was so injured that she became unmanageable. The enemy 
swarmed upon the decks and poured a terrible fire down the hatchways, 
and after an engagement of fifteen minutes the ship was theirs, and 
though the fight had been so brief, the Chesapeake had forty-eight 
killed and nearly one hundred wounded, and the Shannon twenty-three 
killed and over fifty wounded. Another naval engagement with a 
pathetic ending was that of the brig En/erprise, and the English brig 
Boxer. The Boxer surrendered after a fight of three-quarters of an 
hour, oflF the coast of Maine. Both captains were killed and buried side 
by side in Portland. There is an exciting little story told of the fishing 
smack Yankee, which had forty well-armed men concealed below, but 
showed on deck only three men, a calf, a sheep, and a goose. After 
sailing out of New York she met with a British sloop of war, the Eagle, 
which was in want of provisions, and as the Yankees drew along side, 
her forty men sprang on board the sloop of war, killed a number of the 
crew, drove the rest below, and took possession, sailing up the bay with 
their prize. Thousands cheered them from the batter}', where they 
were celebrating the anniversary of American independence. Perhaps 
it is better to leave untold histories like that of the American brig 
Argus, which captured an English merchantman laden with wine, to 
which the crew were allowed to help themselves till they were all 
drunk. They then set the prize on fire, and by this brilliant light 
they were seen by the English brig Palatine, which bore down upon 
the Argus and captured her. One disaster which greatly disheartened 
the people was the defeat of Decatur, whose squadron was driven into 
New London and kept there by the larger force of the blockaders, so 
that none of these ships got to sea again while the war lasted. The 
Connecticut militia gathered upon the shores in such numbers that it 
was impossible for the English to capture them. But Decatur and his 
officers fretted under the idleness and made more than one attempt to 
break through the line of the enemy's ships. When they failed in 
these attempts they complained that there were traitors on shore, who 
warned the ships outside of their movements by burning blue lights. 
This the people of Connecticut stoutly denied, but as they belonged to 
the party which was oppo.sed to the war, they were not believed, 


although their militia stood staunchly by Decatur's fleet week in and 
week out. It is possible, and even probable, that upon occasions these 
blue lights were burned by some traitor on shore, but it was the grossest 
injustice to accuse the loyal people of Connecticut of this. It was a 
time, however, of great political hatred, and the Federalists were always 
afterward called the "Blue Lights." 

As the year 181 4 opened, the outlook for American success was 
dark. Napoleon's power had been broken, and an act was passed to 
increase the regular army to sixty-six thousand men. It was evident 
that if England chose, she could overrun the country with veteran 
troops. But negotiations for peace now began. It was decided that 
these should be conducted at Gottenburg. John Quincy Adams, James 
A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell and Albert Gallatin were 
appointed commissioners and instructed to insist that in the future 
there should be no search or impressment by English naval commanders 
upon American vessels, but to offer to exclude British seamen from 
American vessels and to surrender deserters. This was practically 
yielding up the cause for which the war had been fought, for had this 
arrangement been made at the outset there could have been little excuse 
for war. While these matters were under slow consideration, prepara- 
tions for the campaign of the coming year, 1814, were continued. 






p^NDREW JACKSON had been made Major-Gen, 
eral, and commanded nine hundred raw recruits. 
His late army had gone home at the end of their 
time of service, in spite of his prayers. With 
these inexperienced men he marched into the 
country of the Creeks, fought two battles, and 
lost a hundred soldiers. Shortly after this, his army 
was increased to five thousand men, and he renewed 
hostilities. At Horseshoe Bend, in the Tallapoosa, 
there is a peninsula of one hundred acres, with a neck 
not more than five hundred feet wide. Upon this 
peninsula one thousand Creek warriors encamped, and 
threw up a rude breastwork across the neck. Jackson 
marched with nearly three thousand men against this 
defence, sending a detachment of mounted men and 
friendly Indians to the enemy's rear. After cannonading without 
effect upon the breastwork for two hours, Jackson saw smoke arising in 
the rear and knew that his detachment had reached the Indian village 
and fired it. He then ordered his men to storm the works, and the\- 
fought hand-to-hand with their enemies through the loop-holes for a 
while, then leaped the defence, and charged with the bayonet. It was 
seldom that an Indian asked for quarter. His idea of warfare was to 

4d8 the story ok AMERICA. 

kill or be killed, and he did not complain when luck was against him. 
The Americans shot down the Indians as they ran to hide themselves 
in the thickets, or to swim the stream, and thus for a time the Creeks 
were checked. 

Not so encouraging was the reopening of affairs in the North. 
Wilkinson's militaiy career was ended in the beginning of the year by 
two military' disasters. The Secretary of War still wished to invade 
Canada by the river St. L,awrence, and to do this, proposed to take 
Kingston. To conceal this movement and to make sure that no enemy 
was left in the rear, Major-General Brown was ordered to commence 
operations on the peninsula between Erie and Ontario. On July 2d 
he compelled the surrender of Fort Erie. On the 5th he was unex- 
pectedly forced into a battle, in which the British retreated, and the 
Indians, disgusted at their defeat, all deserted them. Brown felt it to 
be safe, after this success, to move upon Kingston along the lake shore, 
and asked for the co-operation of Chauncey's fleet, assuring that admiral 
that Canada could now be taken without difficulty. But this co-opera- 
tion Chauncey did not give him, and Brown was forced to turn back, 
upon learning that the English general; Riall, with large reinforce- 
ments, was at Queenstown. Winfield Scott, now a brigadier-general, 
was sent forward with a corps of observation, and as his troops came 
into an open space looking upon Lundy's Lane, nearly opposite Niagara 
Falls, they were met by the entire British force drawn up in line of 
battle. Scott at once sent detachments to turn the wing of the enemj' 
and succeeded in capturing a large number of prisoners. General 
Brown was soon on the ground with reinforcements, and he saw that 
the great strength of the British lay in their centers, where they had 
seven guns planted upon a low hill. Colonel James Miller was ordered 
to take this batter}-, and modestly answering, "I will trj-, sir," he put 
his men in motion and ordered them to move cautiously through the 
dusk — for it was after sunset. The men crept along the ground up to 
a fence, and when their commander whispered the order, they shot 
every man at the guns, and rushed forward in the face of a sharp fire 
and captured them. The British made two determined efforts to retake 
the battery but failed, and as the darkness deepened they retired. The 
battle of Lundy's Lane was not a decisive one, but it was one of the 
hardest ever fought. Of the two thousand Americans engaged, seven 
hundred and forty-three were killed or wounded, and of the four thou- 
sand British, eight hundred and seventy-eight. General Winfield Scott 
was so severely wounded that he could not serve during the rest of the 



war, and General Brown for some time was obliged to leave the com- 
mand in other hands. In the meantime General Edward Gaines was 
given command of the American troops, and conducted a defense 


against a midnight assault, on August loth, with great success, the 
English losing nearly a thousand men.- 

The Americans were besieged in Fort Erie and the English brought 
their parallels so close that showers of hot shot were thrown into the 
fort. One of these disabled General Gaines, and Brown, though still 
far from well, assumed command. On December 17th, a sudden sortie 
with two thousand men was made by the Americans, overwhelming the 
besiegers, dismounting the guns and destroying the works. In this the 
Americans lost five hundred men and the British nine hundred. The 
siege was then abandoned, and in October the Americans destroyed 
Fort Erie and returned to their own shore. 

In spite of these successes the Americans had gained but little. Two 
thousand of their men had been buried on Canadian soil. It had been 
proved that the Americans had not quite forgotten how to fight, but 
nothing had been gained which was of permanent value to the country. 
As the summer closed, both parties stood on the defensive on their own 
side of the border. Sir George Prevost made an attempt to invade 
New York as far as Crown Point, on the old path over which so many 
warlike expeditions had moved, but this attempt was unsuccessful, and 
Prevost abandoned his plan. 

On the sea-coast the war had been one signal disaster. The block- 
ading squadron was increased and the American vessels kept well in 
shore, while depredations upon the coast were frequent and vicious. 
The valley of the Penobscot was seized as a conquered province, being 
invaded by General Pilkington, who met with no defense except that 
which a half-armed and thoroughly frightened militia could give. 

In August, the English fleet appeared oif Stonington, Connecticut, 
and gave the inhabitants one hour to remove the women and children. 
The little village was then bombarded steadily for three days, and into 
it was thrown fifty tons of iron and solid shot, bombshells, etc. There 
were only about a score of men to defend the town, and these mounted 
three old guns and handled them so well that they kept the enemy from 
landing, and inflicted a loss upon them of seventy men killed or 
wounded. Seven of the defendants were wounded, but none killed. 

Shortly after this, occurred that epi.sode of which the Americans are 
perhaps more ashamed than of anything else in their national histor>'. 
In August of 1 814 General Ross, with thirty-five hundred men, the 
finest regiments of Wellington's army, appeared in the Chesapeake and 
was here reinforced by one thousand marines from Cockbum's block- 
ading squadron. The whole force was landed about forty miles below 


Washington. President Madison and the Senate had been warned again 
and again of the purpose of Ross' expedition, but the war party refused 
to believe or listen, and when the English appeared upon the coast, but 
slight defense was possible. Brigadier-General William Winder had 
been placed in command of five hundred regulars, a few weeks before, 
with the assurance that two thousand militia would respond to his 
orders. But no effort was made to put this little force in condition to 
take the field. When Ross made his undisputed arrival, he could hardly 
believe that the way had thus been left open to him. He moved on 
cautiously, and at length met Winder, whose militia, at the firing of 
the first English rockets, fled to Washington. The President and his 
Cabinet had their personal safety more at heart than any other matter, 
and set the example by getting away with as much haste as possible. 
The only honest defense which the British met with was from a small 
band of seamen and marines, commanded by Commodore Barney and 
Captain Miller. When these men, six hundred in number, were 
obliged to retreat, they left six hundred dead Englishmen behind them 
to show that every man had done his duty. As the British entered 
Washington the Americans set fire to their own navy yard, forgetting 
that the English could do no worse should they take it. The invaders 
burned ever>' public ofl5ce in Washington except the patent office, 
which was spared because of the assurance that it contained nothing 
but private property and models of the arts, which were of general use to 
the world. Admiral Cockburn, leaping into the speaker's chair as his 
followers entered the halls of Congress, cried out: "Shall this harbor 
of Yankee democracy be burned? All for it say, aye." The public 
libraries were also burned, and the next night the invaders crept quietly 
away, expecting to be severely punished for their depredations — a sus- 
picion which was a compliment to the Americans not deserved by them. 
The British were almost as bewildered as gratified by a success so 
extraordinary, and they hastened to send an expedition against Balti- 
more. The citizens of that city were warned in time, and put up 
fortifications, calling out all of the available troops to repel the invasion. 
When Ross landed at the head of his advance, he was picked off by a 
sharpshooter and carried to his boat, where he died in a few minutes. 
The three thousand volunteers, under General John Sticker, withstood 
the enemy for three hours, and then fell back upon the intrenchments. 
The following day they were reinforced, and the British quietly retreated 
in the night. In the meanwhile, sixteen vessels moved up the bay and 
opened fire upon the defences of Baltimore. For twenty-four hours 



they poured a continuous stream of rockets and shells into the forts, 
and at night sent a strong force to attack them in the rear. But this 
was discovered and dispersed by a fire of red-hot shot, and the fleet 
retired. There were four notable battles on the ocean during the 
year, in three of which the Americans were successful. These only 
showed, by contrast, how disgraceful was the fight upon shore. The 
efibrt to make a conquest of Canada was as far from accomplishment as 
at the beginning. The Federalists were not slow to point oiit the weak- 

ness of the Administration, and to dilate upon the great injury which 
it was doing to the country, and to the commercial States in j^articular. 
The cost of the war was but a small item compared with the loss which 
the people of New England sustained from the crushing of their trade. 
There were serious thoughts of forming a Northern Confederacy, not 
for the purpose of disbanding the Union, but that it might not be 
tyrannized over by a faction whose policy was so disastrous. It was 
questioned by great statesmen whether the Union had not been a failure, 


and a coiu'ention, having representatives from all the Northern States, 
met at Hartford, for the purpose of considering the new Constitution, 
or of making ameudments to the old one which should prevent such 
evils as they were then suffering from. Massachusetts was particularly 
anxious that the legislati\-e powers of the people should rest upon a 
different basis, and that the number of representatives should depend 
upon the population, but nothing definite was done at the convention. 

In the meantime, the British force had taken possession of the Span- 
ish town of Pensacola, in Florida, and used it as a station to fit out 
expeditions against Mobile and New Orleans. Here they equipped the 
Indians for war, and attempted to drill them. Jackson received fresh 
troops from Tennessee and Kentucky, and marched southward to meet 
this new invasion. The British attacked Fort Bowyer, at Mobile, in 
September, but were repulsed. They blew up the fort at Pensacola in 
November, when they heard that Jackson was approaching, and left 
him to take undisputed possession of the town. 

Jackson now hastened to New Orleans and made preparations to 
defend that port, the loss of which would give the English the com- 
mand of the Alississippi. Jackson was in his element, for he was never 
better pleased than when encountering difl&culties. He made up his 
lack of men b}- enrolling convicts, appealing to the free negroes and 
calling out the militia. He proclaimed martial law through the city, 
built intrenchments, and considered ever>' possibility and exigency 
which might arise. The British landed twenty-four hundred men nine 
miles below the cit}-, and Jackson went down to meet them with about 
two thousand men. It was on the 23d of December, when the days 
were short, and night was closing before he reached the enemj', so that 
the attack had to be made after dark. The armies became intermingled 
and the fights were largely hand-to-hand. When the Americans with- 
drew to their fortifications, after two hours of fighting, each side had 
lost more than two hundred men. Almost immediately after the action 
the British troops received large reinforcements, and among them was 
General Sir Edward Pakenham, brother-in-law to the Duke of Well- 
ington, who was to take the chief command. The situation of his 
armies seemed to him unfortunate. They were on a narrow strip of 
low land, bounded on one side b}- a broad river and on the other by a 
morass. The enemy in front, of unknown numbers, were behind forti- 
fications. Two American vessels in the river harassed the camp day 
and night, and the weather was causing sickness among the men. 
Pakenham brought some guns across the peninsula, destroyed one 


American vessel with hot-shot and drove the other up stream. He then 
erected bastions of hogsheads of sugar, behind which he mounted thirty 
guns, and opened the year 1815 with this warlike action. Jackson, on 
his part, used cotton bales for his bastion, and before these were knocked 
out of place and set on fire, had constructed good earthworks a mile and 
a half in the rear. Both sides were reinforced during the week that 
followed, and both generals laid excellent plans of procedure. 

On the 8th of Januar)' the English opened an attack, advancing in 
two columns, and preceded by regiments bearing ladders and fascines. 
Between them marched a thousand Highlanders, to support an attack 
on both wings. But Jackson' s men were those of the West and South, 
who, as riflemen, have never been excelled, and their aim was unerring. 
The artillery- was handled with precision, and in the first discharge from 
the thirty-two-pounder, the entire van of one of the British columns 
was swept away. In attempting to reform his men, Pakenham was 
killed, two other generals were seriously wounded, and the commander 
of the Highland regiment was shot dead. In twenty -five minutes the 
action was over, and the British found that they had lost seven hundred 
killed, fourteen hundred wounded and five hundred prisoners, while the 
American loss was but seventeen. Such a brilliant success as this might 
well have raised the confidence of the American people, but at this 
time news was received that peace had been concluded at Ghent, on the 
24th of December, two weeks before the battle of New Orleans. 

Biography— Parton's "Life of Jackson." 
f iCTIo;.-— Glerg's "The Subaltern." 

J. H. Ingraham's "Lafitte." 
O. W. Cable's "Grandissimes." 
G. W. Cable's "Old Creole Dajjs." 
G. C. Eggleston's "Captain Dain." 
PoETKY— Francis Scott Key's 'The Star-Spangled Banner." 


jl Sransiani J[miatilil^. 


^HEN the Treaty of Peace was at last ratified, there 
came what is known as ' 'the era of good feeling. ' ' 
For a time the political parties were glad to»forget 
their quarrels and rejoice together over the restora- 
tion of peace. Everj'where there were celebra- 
tions, public dinners, congratulatory speeches and 
wine-drinking. In the general rejoicing, the 
people did not much concern themselves that the treaty 
was not a good one, and that it left matters practically 
where they were before the war. Those who thought 
about the matter doubtless consoled themselves that, 
however weak the treaty was, England would not soon 
again impose upon American vessels as she had done 
previously, and that she would stand in wholesome fear 
of the resistance with which an}' presumptuous step on 
her part would be met. 

There was one other question of foreign difficulty to be settled, and 
that was with Algiers. The Dey of Algiers was dissatisfied with the 
measure of the usual tribute. He declared war against the United 
States and renewed his depredations upon American commerce. Early 
in the spring of 1815, Decatur, his old enemy, was sent with a squadron 
of nine vessels to the Mediterranean. In June, he captured an Algerian 
frigate and a brig of twenty-two guns. He then anchored his whole 
squadron in the harbor of Algiers and demanded immediate negotiations 
for a treaty. To conduct these negotiations the Dey came on board 
Decatur's ship and begged that there might be a continuation of tribute, 
if only of a little powder, for fonn's sake. The Dey knew that should 


the United States refuse to pa}- tribute, all of the nations would follow 
the example, and the Barbary States would no longer receive a large por- 
tion of their wealth from these sources. "If you insist on receiving 
powder as tribute," said Decatur, "you must expect to receive balls- 
with it. ' ' The Dey yielded, and a treaty was concluded with Algiers, 
followed by others with Tunis and Tripoli. Thus the United States, 
the youngest of all the nations, was the first to put an end to that sur- 
prising submission to the piratical Barbary States. 

As might be expected, the country' was in the worst of financial 
conditions, and the immediate measures of the Secretary of the Treasurj' 
and of Congress were for the purpose of bettering commercial affairs. 
A new national bank was chartered, with a capital of thirty-five million 
dollars, and duties were raised on imports to such an extent that they 
amounted almost to prohibition. The Democrats, or the Southern 
element, were in favor of this policy which protected their great staple, 
cottoo, but the men of New England opposed it, since it ruined the 
carrying trade, which was their great source of profit, and which the 
war had deprived them of for the last four years. The free-trade party 
was led by Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, and the tariff party by 
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. All the flourishing sea-ports of 
New England, from Portsmouth to Long Island Sound, received at this 
time a blow from which they never recovered. 

As another presidential election neared, the power of the Federal 
party continued to wane until it was quite annihilated. James ]\Ionroe, 
of Mrginia, was made President in 1817. He had fought in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and had been Secretary of State under Madison. 
Though an amiable man, he had but little strength of character, and 
was not well calculated to manage the affairs of State. He was not 
well established, when he was called upon to consider some serious 
matters on the southern frontier. For a short time it looked as if 
America might once more be plunged in war, end this time with Spain, 
as well as England. Florida, which was still a Spanish province, was 
the home of the Seminole Indians, and these savages had for many 
years offered protection to the slaves who sought it. It will be remem- 
bered that many years before there had been an insurrection among the 
slaves of South Carolina and Georgia, and that they had fled into 
Florida. There had been three generations of people since that time, 
but the slave-holders of the States mentioned could never forget that 
within a short distance of them were hundreds of people who were 
their property. When, therefore, there was any war with the Indians 


of Florida, it was always practically a slave hunt, and both the Span- 
iards and Seminoles were quick to aid in repulsing such movement. 

When the British army left Florida, in 1814, a colonel by the name 
of Nichols remained in Florida, and having much sympathy for the 
Indians, he built a fort for them on the Appalachicola, near its mouth. 
This he supplied with large quantities of arms and ammunition, and 
returned to England, leaving the fort in the hands of the Seminoles. 
It soon passed from theii hands into those of the negro refugees. Gen- 
eral Edmund P. Gaines, who had charge of the southern frontier, con- 
tinually complai-ned of this "negro fort," and united with Georgia in 
urging the Federal government to war. There was no question but 
that the fort was an excellent place of refuge for any overburdened 
slaves who found a chance to escape from the lash of the overseer, and 
as the slave-holders believed that the Federal government was framed 
for the purpose of protecting their interests, and that their chief duties 
lay in that direction, it is not strange that the Southern States should 
assume the government to be willing to take up arms for the purpose 
of recovering these unfortunates. 

In July, 1816, a detachment of Americans was sent to attack this 
fort, and some red-hot shot entered the magazine, where nearly eight 
hundred barrels of gunpowder were stored. The fort was laid in ruins 
instantly, and two hundred and seventy of the three hundred and thirty- 
four inmates killed outright, most of the others djing from their 
wounds soon after. The inmates were negroes and Indians, of both 
sexes and all ages. An Indian chief and the negro commander were 
among those who were not killed by the explosion, and these were 
tortured to death after the Indian manner. It is not surprising that in 
the year that followed, the settlers were murdered, and the settlements 
robbed. The wonder is rather that the retaliations were not more 
numerous. The Seminole chiefs warned the American soldiers not to 
cross the Flint river, saying that the land beyond was theirs, and that 
they should protect it by every means in their power. General Gaines 
did not regard this warning, and marched upon the Seminole village, 
burning it to the ground. The Seminoles took to the forest and 
waited. A few days later a boat passed down the river carrying forty 
soldiers, with some women and children. The Indians, concealed upon 
the bank, killed everj' one of these except four men, who swam to the 
shore, and one woman, who was kept in captivity by a chief 

The command in this border war was now given to Andrew Jack- 
son. Jackson paid no attention to the orders given him to call upon 


the militia of the border States through their governments, but raised a 
volunteer force among his old companions-in-arms in Tennessee — all of 
them magnificent fighters, and men who worshiped Andrew Jackson as 
the hero of his country. On the site of the negro fort he built and gar- 
risoned another, which he called Fort Gadsden. From here he advanced 
toward the Bay of St. Marks, driving away without difiiculty the few Sem- 
inoles who tried to intercept him. The Spanish Governor of the fort at 
St. Marks could not make a defense, and Jackson marched in on the 7th 
of April, hauled down the Spanish flag and raised the American in its 
place. A few days before, an American armed vessel had sailed up the 
bay, ran up English colors, and thus enticed on board two well-known 
Seminole chiefs who were suppo.sed to have been the leaders in the 
recent massacre. They were brought on shore and hung by Jackson's 
orders. A strong garrison was left at St. Marks and the march was 
resumed. Jackson wished to march upon and surprise the Indian 
town Suwannee, which was said to be a place of resort for negro 
refugees. Jackson was too late, however, for when he reached the vil- 
lage he found it deserted. 

At about this time occurred one of those incidents which showed 
Andrew Jackson's inflexible and iron nature. At St. Marks he had 
taken prisoner a Scotchman named Alexander Arbuthnot, who was a 
trader with the Indians. He had a depot of goods near Suwannee, and 
from his writing to his son to remove the goods to a place of safety, the 
Indians were warned of the advance of the Americans. On this account 
Jackson chose to look upon him as a spy. At Suwannee, Robert C. 
Ambrister, an ofl&cer of the English army, who had been suspended 
from duty for a year on account of fighting a duel, got into the Ameri- 
can camp by mistake. It had been his intention to join the Indians. 
He was therefore kept as a prisoner of war. Both these men were sen- 
tenced to death. Arbuthnot was hanged and Ambrister shot. These 
excutions were against all law and entirely without justification. Upon 
Jackson's previous campaign he had caused six militiamen to be shot, 
because they claimed that their terms of enlistment had expired, and 
that they should return to their homes. The men were honest in their 
claim, and were entirely innocent of any intention to offend. 

When Jackson reached Fort Gadsden upon his return, he was met 
■with a protest against this invasion of Spanish territory from the Gov- 
ernment of Pensacola. He promptly turned back, reoccupied Pensa- 
cola and took the fort to which the Governor had fled. It is said that 
he afterwards regretted that he did not hang the Governor. Jackson 


tried afterwards to shift the responsibility of all these aggressions upon 
the shoulders of Monroe, but it is not rightly known where the greater 
part of the blame should be put. It was not Andrew Jackson's habit 
to ask permission of any one to do what he considered his duty. Nego- 
tiations for a treaty with Spain were being conducted in Washington, 
and in February, 1819, they were concluded. The Floridas were ceded 
to the United States for the sum of five million dollars. 

The breach between the Southern and the Northern States was 
widening. The value of slave labor rose as the new lands on the lower 
Mississippi opened fresh fields for cultivation. Slave-raising had 
become a science, and it was concluded by the economists that it was 
better to use up a gang of negroes in seven years and supply their 
places by new purchases, than to attempt to prolong the lives of the 
gang in hand by moderate labor. The invention of the cotton gin had 
also greatly increased the value of slaves, for two hundred pounds of 
fibre could be freed of seeds in a single day by the gin. As it was dif- 
ficult to overstock the market with this produce, thus it became almost 
impossible to overstock the plantations with slaves. There was nothing 
the slave-holders so much dreaded as legislative interference, and it was 
their constant ambition to keep a man in the presidential chair who 
should look after the interests of this wicked traflSc, and see to it that 
the Northern States did not get in the ascendancy. To do this it was 
necessary that they should insist that as many slave States were included 
in the Union as free States. Thus, after Indiana, came Mississippi, in 
1817, a free State and a slave State. After Illinois, 1818, came Ala- 
bama, 1819, a free State and a slave State. In March, 1818, the citizens 
of Missouri asked permission of Congress to form a State constitution, 
and to be admitted into the Union. Missouri lay beyond that district 
where slaver}' had existed up to this time, and Congress, and indeed 
the whole country-, was divided upon the question as to whether Mis- 
souri should be a slave State or not. In admitting the other slave States 
to the Union, Congress had not instituted slaver}', but only allowed it to 
exist. Should the government conclude to permit slaver}' in Missouri, 
it would be giving official encouragement to it. When a formal bill 
was entered in February, 1819, for the admission of Missouri, a New 
York Congressman proposed, as a condition of admission, that from that 
moment there should be no personal servitude within the State except 
of those already held as slaves, and that these should be freed within a 
short time. The South met this proposition with defiance and the 
haughtiest indignation. The North was threatened with terrible pun- 


ishmcnt for her interference with the States of the Sonth. Even as the 
question was being discussed a slave-coflle passed the Capitol, the men 
being bound together with chains and the women and children walking 
behind under the lash of a slave-driver. But this degrading sight served 
no otner purpose than to point the paragraph of an eloquent Senator. 
For many weeks the debate went on passionately, and finally, when 
Maine asked for admission into the Union, the Southern men protested 
that she could only be admitted on the condition that Missouri was 
allowed to come in as a slave State. Had not some of the Northern 
men gone over to the side of the South, slavery might have been kept 
out of Missouri, but at last the Southern faction grew so strong that it 
became necessary' to accept a compromise, which is known as the Mis- 
souri Compromise, in which slavery was prohibited in. all that portion 
■of the Louisiana purchase lying north of 35°, 30', excepting Missouri. 
This compromise was only carried by much trickery, and what little 
good there was in the compromise was taken out of it by the President 
and the Cabinet. When the bill was brought to the President he asked 
two questions. First, whether Congress had a constitutional right to 
prohibit slavery in a territory. The Cabinet were all agreed that Con- 
gress had such a right. Second, he wished to know if the section 
prohibiting slavery "forever," referred only to the territorial condition 
or whether it also applied when the Territory became a State. With 
the exception of John Quincy Adams, the Cabinet claimed that this 
referred only to the Territory, and that when any of these Territories 
became States, they could admit slaves, should they choose to do so. 
In the next session of Congress a bill was passed preventing free negroes 
and mulattoes from settling in Missouri under any pretext whatever. 
In short, negroes in Missouri were to have no rights — they were not 
under any circumstances citizens. Thus did the Federal government 
make itself responsible for slaverj', and aided in its establishment where 
it had not previously existed. From this time forward the fight between 
slavery and freedom was an open one. 

Fiction — Leba Smith's "P.Iajor Jack Downing.'* 
Hall's "Legends of the West." 
W. G. Simms' "Guv Rivers." 
W. G. Simms' "Richard Hurdis." 







,^^ CRISIS OF 1837. 

HE history of a nation is not confined to its wars 
and its disasters. These, though thej' may seri- 
ously disturb, cannot uproot the home life in 
which the seed of the growth and evolution lies. 
During IMonroe's administration the civilization 
of America was becoming more profound. Educa- 
tion, particularly in the Northern and Western States, 
was spreading rapidly. The power of church doctrine 
was decreasing and in its place was springing up a 
Christianity in which there was more kindliness than 
dogma. Already that private enterprise, which at a 
later day made America the most convenient country in 
the world, began to show itself. DeWitt Clinton dug 
the Erie canal, three hundred and sixtj'-three miles long, 
connecting Lake Erie and all the upper lakes with the 
tide-waters of the Atlantic. Noah himself, when he built his ark, could 
hardly have met with more ridicule than did Clinton when he began 
this great task. The first spadeful of earth was turned on the 4th of 
July, 1817, and in October, 1825, the largest canal in the world was 
opened for trafiic. It ran through a rich and fertile wilderness — a 
wilderness soon broken by the building up of many towns upon the 
banks of the canal. Its original cost was seven million six hundred 
thousand dollars. 

Steamboats were gradually coming into favor. In 1818 the steamer 
Walk-in-ihe-zvatcr ran regularly to Detroit from the eastern extremity 
of Lake Erie. In 1819 the first passage on a steamboat was made across 


the Atlantic. This was by the ship Savannah^ owned and commanded 
by Moses Rogers, of New London, Connecticut. He went from New 
York to Savannali, from Savannah to Liverpool, and then up the 
Baltic to St. Petersburg. He used both sails and wheels, depending 
on his sails when the wind was favorable. When the ship appeared off 
the coast of Ireland, she was supposed to be on fire, and a cruiser was 
sent out from Cork to offer her relief Congress was too busy atttending 
to political affairs to give any recognition to enterprise so remarkable, 
and the attempt was not repeated for twenty years. 

At the close of Monroe's second term of office, many candidates 
for the presidential chair were before the people. The Federal party 
had been crushed out and the Democratic party was in power. New 
ideas were giving birth to new parties, but at this time it was hardly 
apparent what form they wottld take. Throughout the North and the 
West, however, there was a firm determination to put an end to 
Virginia supremacy. For twenty-four years the office of President had 
been held by men from Virginia, and the affairs of the entire nation had 
been made subservient to those of the South. Monroe was almost lost 
sight of in the midst of the controversies and agitations of the time. 
His long and honorable service for his country had not won for him the 
consideration and deference which it should. His yielding disposition 
had made him seem contemptible, although he was a man of calm 
judgment and undeniable patriotism. In his last message to Congress 
he fortunately gave voice to what is known as the Monroe Doctrine, 
and to this, more than anything else, is he indebted for the preservation 
of his name from oblivion. This message expressed great interest in 
the young South American States, some of which the King of Spain 
was attempting to force into a colonial condition. President Monroe 
declared that should any European power attempt to interfere in 
American affairs or to deprive any country on the Western continent of 
its liberty, it would be considered as a manifestation of an unfriendl}' 
disposition towards the United States. Monroe also said that hence- 
forth the American continents were not to be considered as subjects for 
colonization in the future by any European power, meaning that 
hereafter no nation of the Eastern continent should have a right to 
usurp any territory upon either of the Americas, and that hereafter the 
unsettled country within the acknowledged boundaries of American 
States was exclusively their own, and not subject to foreign occupation. 

In the presidential election which followed, John Quincy Adams, 
of Massachusetts, was elected. All the previous Presidents had taken 


part in the revolutionary war or in the founding of the governnieut, 
but John Ouinc}' Adams belonged to the generation of younger men, 
and was but nine years old when his father had signed the Declaration 
of Independence. The opposition to Adams drew together the party 
composed mainly of Southern slave-holders with a considerable Northern 
alliance. To the support of the Administration rallied all those who 
were opposed to a slave-holding Democratic party, and which became 
known as National Republicans, although they did not assume this 
name definitely until near the close of Adams' administration. So 
intensely did the Southerners fear that slavery might be interfered with, 
that the Senators from the slave-holding States would not even allow 
Congress to send representatives to a Congress of the South American 
States, which was to meet at Panama with the purpose of defining their 
relations to each other and to foreign States, political and commercial, 
and the expediency of a league among themselves. They objected to 
this for the reason that the emancipation of slaves might be, and 
probably would be, one of the subjects discussed, and they all agreed 
that it was a subject which could not with safety be talked about. 
They constanth- preached the doctrine of State rights, and .seized every 
opportvmit}- to uphold that theory- in the Senate. Georgia was the first 
of the States to give a practical illustration of what the South meant by 
vState rights. When she became a State, one condition of the cession of 
her western territory to the Federal Government was, that the title to 
the Indian lands should be acquired by the United States and transferred 
to her. The Government had been unable to redeem this promise, 
because the Creeks and the Cherokees would not part with their lands, 
and had sworn to put to death any chief who should prove such a 
renegade to his race as to make a treaty with the United States of 
which they should be a part. However, in 1825, certain chiefs 
concluded a treaty conveying these lands to the United States, and the 
Creeks kept their word and put them to death. The State of Georgia 
then ordered a survey of the territory occupied by the Indians, but it 
was found that should they do this, it would involve the country in an 
Indian war. Besides, the treaty which had been ratified by the Senate 
and the President did not put the Creeks out of possession until Septem- 
ber I, 1826, and it still lacked over a )ear of the time of its fulfillment. 
The President, therefore, refused to consent to the survey, but the 
Governor of Georgia insisted upon the right of the State to do as it saw 
fit in such matters, and pretended to see in the decision of the President 
a secret hostility 10 slavery. The Indians appealed to Adams and the 


whole case was presented to Congress, but nothing was done. The 
Administration consented to be quiet, and Georgia was allowed to do 
as she pleased. Encouraged by her success at this time, Georgia sooti 
asserted her power in other matters and the States of the South rejoiced 
in her success. 

There had been a time when the protective policy was identified 
with the Southern States, but as they saw the North constantly 
increasing in riches and prosperity, they concluded that the North must 
be reaping more than her share of the benefits which arose from the 
protection of commercial industries, and they therefore decided to 
advocate free trade measures. The North had been forced to take up 
industries by the ver}- protective policy which the South had advocated, 
and now wished to abide by the principles of protection. Hereafter, 
the question of tariff became a sectional one, the North advocating 
protection and the South free trade. As a matter of fact, the North, 
with its free labor, would have succeeded under any international 
arrangement, while the South, with its reluctant and groveling slave