Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive in 2010 witii funding from Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/pictureoflycominOOfede A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY w ® cousasfoir OTTER MARCH 26,1804 V N YORK MARCH 2bJ804 WQUKWO I G A r: APRIL 2,180* ) :H B R A D <F R D _________ —i.© mwiiiM FEBRUARY 21J810 APRIL 13,1795 LYCOMING ®MuiMisraitT S U L L I V A NC^ 0uratit MARCH 1SJ847 JVN£ 2/.78J9 ^ 4^ E N T FEBRUARY 1X1800 R E \ itwsaoita ®( -^ MARCH 22,1813 SHOWING COUNTIES TAKEN IN WHOLE OR IN PART FROM THE ORIGINAL COUNTY < <» O SCJUC IN MILES • •UK l lll l ll I , 1 *«3 C C c C c ■as? ^ c o A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Written and compiled by the Lycoming County Unit of the Pennsylvania Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administrarion Sponsored by the Superintendent of Schools of Lycoming County, Frank H. Painter First Edition Published by THE COMMISSIONERS OF LYCOMING COUNTY PENNSYLVANIA 1939 COPYRIGHT 1939, BY THE COMMISSIO^fERS OF LYCOMING COUNTY FOREWORD In A Picture of Lycoming County I believe that The Pennsylvania Writers' Project has prepared a book well fitted for use in teaching the history of our county. Interestingly written, it cannot help but give a truer and better picture of local history to any readers, from seventh and eighth grade pupils up to adults, many of whom will find the book stirring up reminiscences of their own youth. — ^Frank H. Painter Superintendent of Schools of Lycoming County IX FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY John M. Carmody, Administrator WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION Colonel F. C. Harrington, Commissioner Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner Lt. Col. Philip Mathews, Pennsylvania Work Projects Administrator PREFACE A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY is the first in a series of new county histories being prepared by the Pennsylvania Writers' Project. As befits their special purpose of classroom use, apart from their interest to the general reader, the method of treatment varies widely from the more formal guide books which have already appeared as units in the American Guide Series. For this reason, the staff of the Writers' Project has special reason to be grateful to the educators, historians, and other scholars whose contribution of time, advice, and constructive criticism are woven into the pages of this book. In this respect, grateful acknowledgment is here expressed to the following consultants, some of whom reviewed the entire manuscript, others devoting themselves to portions on which they have special knowledge: Frank H. Painter, Superintendent of Lycoming County Schools; Dr Charles A. Lose, President of the Montoursville School District; Russell H. Rhoads, head of the Department of Social Studies, Williamsport Senior High School; Bruce A. Hunt, editor of The Wiltiamspoct Sun and member of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission; Dr. T. B. Stewart, of Lock Haven; Dr. T. K. Wood, of the Muncy Historical Society; and Miss Katharine Bennet, Assistant Librarian of the James V. Brown Library, Williamsport. ' Acknowledgment for permission to use special photographs is hereby tendeied several friends of the project, whose names are given individually in the list of illustrations. Full cooperation was given by the various newspapers and by the James V. Brown Library in placing their files at the Writers' Project's disposal. Also worthy of mention is the spirit of cooperation shown by the various city and county officials to whom members of the staff went for special information on governmental topics. A Picture of Lycoming County was nearly completed by the Penn- sylvania Unit of the Federal Writers' Project, with Paul Comly French, State Diiector. The Pennsylvania Writers' Project superceded the activities of the Federal Project and brought the publication to completion under the immediate direction of Joseph A. Kilcullen, Editor-in-chief. The book from its beginning was under the supervision of James T. Gilson, formerly District Editor in charge of the Lycoming County Unit. His writing and research staff included Howard E. Painton, J. D. P. Smithgall, Morton B. Rceser, Leo Orso and George Reidell, Sr. Clerical assistance was given by Kathleen J. O'Connor and Florence Edythe Coder. , The drafting of maps was under the supervision of William J. Hagerty, of the State Staff. George B. Reeves, formerly Assistant State Director, gave final editorial supervision to the manuscript. The Pennsylvania Writers' Project, sponsored by the Pennsylvania De- partment of Public Instruction, operates under the supervision of Anna M. Lebengood, Director, Professional and Service Division, and under the juris- diction of Lt. Col. Philip Mathews, State Administrator, Work Projects Administration. November 10, 1939. . C. Lesley Acting State Supervisor, Pennsylucmia Writers' Project. XI TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. Introduction to the County 1 2. Indians of Lycoming County 5 3. Explorers and Land Purchases 15 4. Early Settlement 27 5. Lycoming in the Revolution 41 6. The Big Runaway 47 7. Pioneer Life 61 8. Lumbering 77 9.' Civil War Days 95 10. Industry, Agriculture, and Labor 103 1 1 . The Turn of the Century 117 12. The World War, Business Prosperity, and Depression 131 13. Contemporary Scene 143 Appendix A Civil Government County 157 City 167 The Judiciary 173 Borough 179 Township 181 Appendix B Townships of Lycoming County 183 Appendix C Boroughs of Lycoming County 201 Appendix D Williamsport 211 Bibliography 221 Lycoming County Court House, Williamsport XIII ILLUSTRATIONS Page Tiadaghton Elm (Rttter) Frontispiece Lycoming County Court House (Ritter) XVI Along Pine Creek (Courtesy Penna. Depl. of Highways) 4 Brock Mansion 30 Site of Indian Massacre 46 Model of Fort Muncy (Ritter) 50 Pioneer Log Cabin (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 70 Sawmill at Gray's Run (Courtesy Zimmermann) 72 Portable Sawmill (Courtesy Zimmermann) 78 Bark Peeling Scene (Courtesy Zimmermann) 80 Crew at Lumber Camp (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 84 Log Boom in the Susquehanna (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 90 Band Saw in Factory (Rttter) 91 Spraying Varnish (Rttter) 105 Com Husking (Rttter) 108 Scene in Muncy Valley (Rttter) 110 In Horse Car Days (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 1 20 Paddle- Wheel Boat Hiatvatha (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 121 At Old Curbstone Market (Courtesy Ztmmermann) 123 Oxen and Cart (Courtesy Zimmermann) 126 View from Wildwood Cemetery (Ritter) 144 Third Street, 1936 Flood (Courtesy Williamspert Sun) 146 Market Street, 1936 Flood (Courtesy Wtlltamsport Sun) 150 Williamsport, 1854 (Copy by Rttter) 153 Russell Inn 155 View above Trout Run (Courtesy Vtncent Smtth) 178 Quaker School, Pennsdale 192 View of Jersey Shore, 1854 (Copy by Rttter) 203 Peter Herdic (Courtesy Wtlltamsport Sun) 214 Williamsport Dickinson Seminary (Ritter) 218 Lycoming County Today (Map) Pocket XIV Lycoming County Court House, Williamsport Pa. CHAPTER I Intxoduaion to the County IN the heart of Pennsylvania, 125 miles west of the Delaware River and 30 miles south of the New York State line, is Ly- coming County, largest in area in the Commonwealth. Formed by act of the Legislature, April 13, 1795, Lycoming originally contained more than 12,000 square miles, or nearly one-third of the entire State. Through gifts of territory to new counties Lycoming County has been reduced to an area of 1,220 square miles, or approximately one-tenth of its original size. It is bounded on the north by Tioga and Bradford counties; on the east by Sullivan and Columbia; on the south ^by Montour, Northumberland, and Union; and on the west by Clinton and Potter. The area is drained by the West Branch of the Susque- hanna River and its numerous tributaries, the most important of which are Muncy, Loyalsock, Lycoming, Larrys and Pine Creeks. South of Lycoming County, at Northumberland, the West Branch unites with the North Branch to follow a south- eastwardly course to Chesapeake Bay. FIRST INHABITANTS The first human inhabitants of the county were the In- dians. In its primitive state the land, the forests, and the streams were ideally suited to their mode of living. Except for occasional warfare with another tribe, the Indians were con- cerned principally with the problem of finding food, clothing, and shelter necessary for existence. Game and fish were plentiful, and a few basic vegetables were raised in fertile land along the streams. A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY The factors which made the country attractive to the In- dian contributed directly to his replacement by white settlers. The valuable furs and plentiful supply of game and fish induced the first white traders to visit the region, and their reports at- tracted the first settlers. Once the natural wealth contained in its vast forests was recognized, the growth of the county was rapid. LUMBER BOOM Except for a few clearings, the first settlers found the terri- tory which is now Lycoming County covered with a magnificent growth of hemlock and pine trees. Although its value was not immediately recognized, this timber was later to provide the county with its largest industry and to make Williamsport the lumber center of the continent. From 1862 to 1894, lumber was "King." At the peak of the lumber era more than one and one-half million logs, containing over 318,000,000 board feet, were cut from the mountain slopes in a single year. Two disas- trous floods played a part in the destruction of the lumbering industry. The flood of June 1889 broke the booms which had been constructed in the river to catch and hold logs that had been floated down stream. Millions of feet of logs were lost in this flood and another which struck the valley in 1894. But, even if floods had not come, it was apparent that the reckless cutting could not continue. After the forests had been stripped of their most accessible trees, the lumber business declined. Many of the inhabitants returned to the cultivation of the soil. Thousands of acres of land which had been stripped of its trees were cleared of underbrush and prepared for crops, or used for grazing. Agriculture developed and expanded until it be- came the dominant industry. Some of the people, not inclined toward farming, founded industries based upon the wealth created by the lumber industry. INTRODUCTION TO THE COUNTY THE CONTEMPORARY PICTURE The valleys and lowlands of the county compare favorably in fertility with other sections of the State, and the hilly por- tions are particularly adaptable to grazing, dairying, and fruit growing. Although the county is primarily agricultural, it has numerous and varied industries. A variety of products, ranging from crepe paper novelties to steam boilers, are manufactured and shipped to every state in the Union and to many foreign countries. Nature has been exceedingly kind to Lycoming County. Majestic mountain ranges, deeply carved with narrow gorges, are contrasted with beautiful valleys and wide stretches of fertile farm land. Within an hour's drive of Williamsport, industrial center of the county, are mountain views, dense forests, crystal- clear streams, and picturesque waterfalls. Brooks meander through grassy meadows; cattle graze in green pastures, and prosperous-looking farm buildings are set in fields heavy with crops. .«i o c c c CHAPTER II The Indians of Lycoming County BEFORE the coming of white men, Lycoming County was inhabited in turn by two great Indian families or groups: the Iroquois and the Algonquin. Except for several dependent tribes who lived in the mountainous region of eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, northern and western North Carolina, and southern Virginia, the Iroquois lived in Central New York from the Genesee River in the west to the Hudson in the east. Just how long they had lived there is not definitely known, but they were well established in the territory before the white man arrived. Though their realm was not as extensive as the Algonquin, the Iroquois were the more powerful. About 1570, they or- ganized the powerful Indian confederacy known as the Five Nations. It was a league of five tribes, the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk. The Tuscaroras, an Iroquoian tribe living in North Carolina, were driven out by the white settlers, moved slowly northward over a period of a hundred years, and joined the Confederacy, thus forming the Six Nations or, as they called themselves, "The United People." Other tribes of Iroquoian stock, who were not taken into the con- federacy, were considered enemies or dependent tribes of the Six Nations. The first known inhabitants of Lycoming County were members of an Iroquoian tribe called Andastes, a name given by the French to the "Susquehannocks" who lived on the upper reaches of the Susquehanna River. The name Andastes distin- A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY guishcd the West Branch Valley Indians from those living on the river to the south. It was the Susquehannocks that Capt. John Smith contacted along the Chesapeake Bay in 1608. Since Capt. Smith saw many American Indians, the Susquehannocks must have been a splendid and magnificent people to deserve Smith's glowing description. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH'S DESCRIPTION In his journal, The True Travels, Adventures and Ob- servations, Smith wrote: "Sixty of those Susquehannocks came to us with Skins, Bowes, Arrows, Targets, Beads, Swords, and Tobacco-pipes for presents. Such great and well proportioned men are seldome seene, for they seemed like Giants to the English yea and to the neighbors, yet seemed of an honest and simple disposition," with much adoe restrained from adoring us as Gods. Those are the strangest people of all those Countries, both in language and attire; for their language it may well besecme their proportions, sounding from them as a voyce in a vault. Their attire is the skinnes of Beares. and Woolves, some have Cassacks made of Beares heads and skinnes, that a mans head goes through the skinnes neck, and the eares of the Beare fastened to his shoulders, the nose and teeth hanging downe his breast, another Beares face split behind hime, and at the end of the Nose hung a Pawe, the halfe sleeves coming to the elbows were the necks of Beares and the armes through the mouth with the pawes hanging at their noses. One had the head of a Wolfe hanging in a chaine for a Jewell, his tobacco pipe three-quarters of a yard long, prettily carved with a Bird, a Deere or some such devise at the great end, sufficient to beat out ones braines; with Bowes, Arrows and Clubs, suitable to their greatness. They are scarce known to Powhatan. They can make near 600 able men, and are palisaded in their Townes to defend them from the Massawomenkes [Iroquois] their mortal enemies. Five of THE INDIANS OF LYCOMING COUNTY their chief Werowanccs came aboard us and crossed the Bay in our Barge. The picture of the greatest of them is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose legs was three-quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his limbes so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the goddliest man we ever beheld. His. hayre the one side was long, the other close with a ridge over his crowne like a cocks combe. His arrowes were five- quarters long, headed with the splinters of a white chirstall-likc stone, in form of a heart, an inch broad and an inch and a half or more long. These he wore in a Woolves skinne at his backe for his quiver, his bow in one hand and his club in the other." The old Indian fortification on the bank of the Susque- hanna River near the mouth of Muncy Creek was built by the Andastes. This fort probably fell in 1663 when the Five Nations, armed with guns secured from the Dutch, attacked the Andastes and drove their remnants southward. It is believed that another Andaste fortification at the mouth of Pine Creek was destroyed at the same time. Although the Andastes were of the same linguistic stock, they did not accept the domination of the Iroquois and after a period of bitter struggle they faded into obscurity. In 1763 there were only twenty known sur- vivors of this once great tribe. Because of threats from whites, angered by Indian attacks on the Pennsylvania frontier, they took refuge in the Lancaster jail, where they were massacred by a mob. THE ALGONQUINS The Algonquian family inhabited a territory completely surrounding that of the northern Iroquois. While there were numerous tribes in this group, and they occupied a vast region, they were not able to organize with as high a degree of effective- ness as the Six Nations of the Iroquois. Their most important confederation was the Lenape, or, as it was more frequently A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY called, the Delaware. This confederacy was composed of three principal tribes, the Uname, also called the Turtle, because its totem was the turtle ; the Minsi or Munsee, or Wolf tribe, whose totem was the wolf; and the Unalach or Unatachtigo. The totem of this tribe was the turkey, and because of this was called the Turkey tribe. The Munsee or Wolf tribe is the only one of the Delaware group who lived in the Lycoming district. The others lived farther south, with the Turkey tribe being the southernmost. The Munsee tribe, most savage and warlike of the Dela- wares, at one time held a broad expanse of territory between the Blue Mountain and the headwaters of the Delaware and Susque- hanna Rivers and as far south as the Lehigh River. Though most of the Indians living in the West Branch Valley at the time of the first white explorations were Munsees, they were a migratory .tribe and scarcely left a mark upon Lycoming County. They had villages at the mouth of Loyalsock Creek; on the present site of Newberry; and at Linden. But they were not able to withstand the prolonged attacks of the Six Nations and after little more than a generation they went westward. When Conrad Weiser passed through in 1737, there were only mixed remnants of Munsees and Shawnees. The main body had already moved westward into Ohio. The name of this tribe has been perpetuated in the names of the borough of Muncy, the valley, creek, township, and the Muncy Hills to the south of the borough. After their conquest of the Munsee^, the Six Nations be- came the undisputed rulers of the West Branch Valley, and it was they who figured in the troubles between the early settlers and the Indians. Although the Six Nations did not settle in the region to any great extent, they were loath to relinquish valuable hunting and fishing grounds to the whites. During the Revolutionary War they allied themselves with the British and made many bloody forays into Lycoming County. THE INDIANS OF LYCOMING COUNTY TYPE OF HABITATION Before their contact with white men the Indians were not nomadic but lived in permanent villages, leaving them only to hunt, to fish, or to fight. Because they knew nothing about digging wells to obtain water, their towns were located near lakes, streams, or large springs. In winter they moved into timbered sections where game and furs were plentiful. The Iroquoian houses were mostly of one design, square or rec- tangular in shape, and ranging from 20 to 180 feet in length. The framework of the structure was constructed of peeled poles. Sides and roofs were covered with bark, with the smooth side inward, laid so that one strip of bark overlapped the other. The poles were fastened together by thongs made from the cured skins of animals or withes made from grass or green bark. Fires were built on the earthen floor, and directly overhead a hole in the roof functioned as a chimney. If a house was long, roof holes were provided for each fire. The average sized house would accommodate 1 5 persons, and each occupant was allotted a space. The floors were covered with skins and furs of animals and with woven mats. In the winter the occupants slept with their feet toward the fire. The Algonquian house, typified in Lycoming County by the dwellings of the Munsees, was described quite well by Wil- liam Penn: "Their houses are Mats, or Bark of trees set on Poles, in the fashion of an English Barn, but out of the power of the Winds, for they are hardly higher than a man ; they lie on reeds or grasses." Their houses were much smaller than those of the Iroquois, and much easier to move from place to place. Sometimes they were arranged in rows; often they formed a ring around a central space where games and occasional celebrations took place. The Indians, at least by modern standards, were untidy in their dress. Their garments were made chiefly from the cured 10 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY skins of animals. Frequently the head of the animal was re- tained, thus giving the wearer an exceedingly grotesque appear- ance. They cooked over open fires, roasting birds, squirrels, venison, and eels on spits. Fish, mussels, clams, and corn in the husk were covered with hot ashes. Heated stones, usually placed in bark vessels, were used in the treatment of disease. A hole was dug in the earth and lined with clay; into this the sick person crept through a small opening. He sat down and heated stones were placed around him. After sweating for some time, he would leave the rude vapor bath and plunge into a stream of cold water. This rigorous treatment was often fatal to them. Arthritis and tuberculosis were prevalent among the Indians, but they were not affected by smallpox and measles until after their contact with whites. A primitive, but apparently quite eflFective, division of labor existed between the sexes. It has been said that the men had all the better of the arrangement, perhaps because much of their time was spent in hunting and fishing. But what the city- bred white man might consider sport and recreation was to the Indian the sternest sort of struggle for existence. The Indian did not kill more food than he could eat, and because of this fact game was plentiful until after the introduction of guns and the development of trade in furs by the white man. In their villages the men were occupied in the making of snowshoes, lacrosse sticks, stone and pottery pipes, and knives of chert. They made implements as well as ornaiAents of bone, antler, and shell. After they had gathered elm and bass wood bark, the women made it into cords and ropes. Men hunted pelts and as- sisted the women in tanning and manufacturing them into cloth- ing and shoes. Women sewed hunting shirts and leggings, embroidering them with moose hair and porcupine quills which the men had secured. Corn mortars and pestles were made by THE INDIANS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 1 1 cutting logs to proper length and hollowing out by j5re. Some of the mortars were made of stone. Bows, arrows, war clubs, ladders, and troughs were fashioned of wood. They were very particular about their hats and each man made his own. The Iroquois hat was a tight fitting cap topped by gay-colored feathers. On the march, the women carried the burdens so that the men could use their weapons freely in case of attack. The guarding of the camp or village was a duty shared equitably by the men, and the provision of food for the party was a con- stant task, so difficult in fact that many perished on winter hunting trips. RELIGION The Indians were by nature religious. Before their con- tact with white missionaries they worshipped a "Great Spirit" or "Manito" whom they believed governed the universe. In the forests, streams, mountains, and valleys which supplied their sustenance they saw reflected the power and influence of this "Great Spirit." Because they believed that the earth was created by Him for the common good, they were hospitable and gen- erous, often sharing food and shelter with strangers. Marriages among them were not entered into for life, but only so long as husband and wife pleased each other. Before their contact with white men, they considered separation and divorce a disgrace and they happened rarely. The practice of polygamy was banned. CONDUCT IN WARFARE In military affairs the Indians were well disciplined; when confronted with a necessity for action, they could move quickly and in unison. Their strategy varied with circumstances and terrain. They often advanced in scattered formation for great distances without disorder or confusion, even though their line 1 2 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY was more than a mile in length. They were adept in the per- formance of various maneuvers, such as the formation of a circle, half circle, or hollow square. The latter maneuver was employed to avoid being surrounded and fired upon from the rear. They entered battle unencumbered with clothing, usually fighting naked, except for moccasins, leggings, and breechclout. Although military operations were planned by leaders, once the battle began each man fought as if the outcome depended upon his own ability. To disobey an order or shirk a duty was a degrading act, and punishment for such infractions was severe. Their strategy was to take advantage of the enemy, to surprise them if possible. They would seldom attack unless they were certain of victory. If they discovered they were mis- taken in their expectation of an easy victory, they would re- treat and await a better opportunity. The fact that they fre- quently retreated during the battle did not denote cowardice but the observance of their system of warfare. If surrounded by an enemy they would attempt to break through at one point and either return to the attack or retreat. The effectiveness of their manner of fighting was evidenced by the great losses sus- tained by the white man, and for self-preservation the whites soon adopted the Indians' tactics. CULTURE The Indians were a peaceful people and in their own way very polite. They granted few titles of honor, the great military men being known as captains or leaders. In civil affairs they were called chiefs, counsellors, or "the old wise men." These titles were seldom used in common address, but the salutations, grandfather, father, cousin, and uncle, were frequently employed. They were respectful of the aged of both sexes. When an old man was speaking, the young men would sit quietly and atten- THE INDIANS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 13 tivdy. No one was elevated to a position of honor or trust except by merit. Military rank was based upon the performance of heroic deeds in battle. Unusual wisdom was a prerequisite for elevation to a seat on the council. When they had food to offer they invited everyone to eat, and to refuse to do so was considered an exhibition of ill man- ners. They were very fond of tobacco. Both men and women smoked a mixture which included dried sumac leaves or red willow bark. They seldom chewed tobacco, and the pipe was used as a symbol of peace and friendship. The pathfinding skill of the Indians was remarkable. Their knowledge of direction and distance was uncanny. Guided only by the sun, moon, or stars they could enter the densest forest and emerge at a predetermined point. With consideration for topography and availability of water, their paths or trails always followed the shortest and best routes. CIVIL GOVERNMENT Their government was exceedingly democratic in character. They had no written code of laws, but were governed by rules or customs handed down from one generation to the next. Occasionally these rules were supplemented by new ones adopted at council meetings. The chief was not in absolute authority. He could not declare war, make treaties, or transact important business without consent of the council and other members of the tribe. There were no legal proceedings among them. They considered that all men had equal rights to the land, except that which a person had improved, and that portion only during occupancy. If a family erected a house, improved the soil and then moved away, the first person who came along could occupy it. Should the original owner return within a year or two the property was returned to him without question. Before white contact larceny was rarely committed, but if an article was 14 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Stolen, the owner took it wherever it was found. Murder was quite rare but when it occurred the murderer was required to indemnify the victim's immediate family with presents. Occa- sionally he was forced to provide for the victim's dependents during his lifetime. This primitive form of social security seemed to work very well. QUESTIONS CHAPTER II 1. What two great Indian families or groups lived in Lycoming County before the coming of the white man? 2. What tribes composed the Five Nations? What tribe became the Sixth Nation? 3. What was the first known Indian tribe on Lycoming County territory? 4. Give the names of several places in Lycoming County which were named for the Minsi tribe of Delaware Indians. 5. Give a description of the houses built by the Iroquois. 6. How did the Indians cook their food? 7. What were the principal occupations of the Indian men? 8. What was the battle strategy of the Indians? 9. How did the Indians govern themselves? CHAPTER III Explorers and Land Purchases THE STORY OF ETIENNE BRULE NO one knows who was the first white man to visit Lycoming County. Among those who have been mentioned for that honor is Etienne Brule (pronounced Aye-tee-ane Brulay) . Brule came to America in 1608 with Samuel de Champlain. Two years later, while Champlain was in France on a visit, Brule lived for a year with Iroquet, an Algonquian Indian chief. Dur- ing that time he became thoroughly acquainted with the Indian mode of living. He learned Indian language and woodcraft, and adopted their manner of dress. Because of this experience, Cham- plain employed him in the capacity of interpreter, guide, and messenger to various Indian tribes. It was while on a mission for Champlain that he may have passed through Lycoming. In 1615, Champlain, with a force of Frenchmen and Al- gonquian Indians, moved into Central New York to attack the Onondagas, a tribe of the Five Nations. It had been agreed that, in the event of war, the Andastes who lived south of the Five Nations would furnish 500 warriors to assist in the attack. Brule, accompanied by twelve Huron Indians, was sent by Champlain to advise them of the time and place of meeting. On their arrival, a great reception was accorded Brule and his company. The festivities consumed so much time that the re- enforcements did not arrive until two days after Champlain had retreated from the Onondaga stronghold. Brule then returned with the Andastes to their village. He spent a year or more visit- 16 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY ing neighboring tribes and exploring the Susquehanna River to its mouth. It is believed that the Andastes town he visited was Spanish Hill, near Athens, in Bradford County. Since he returned with the Andastes to their town and spent the winter in "exploring the country and visiting nearby lands and nations," it is possible that he entered the West Branch Valley. Those who contend that Brule visited the West Branch also claim that upon his return to Champlain he spoke of the ancient Indian fortifications near the mouth of Wolf Run. Whether Brule actually set foot in the West Branch Valley or not, he deserves a place in Lycom- ing County history because Spanish Hill in Bradford County was originally included in Lycoming and also because he was the first man to describe the natural beauty of this section of the state. CONRAD WEISER It was not until approximately one hundred and twenty years after Brule that the next European passed through Ly- coming. In 1737, while on a mission for the Provincial Gov- ernment of Pennsylvania to Onondaga, New York, the capital of the Six Nations, Conrad Weiser traveled through the West Branch Valley. Accompanied by Shikellimy (pronounced Shik-el-limy) , an Indian chief who later became vice-king of the Six Nations, he ascended the Susquehanna River to a point west of the present borough of Montoursvillc. Here they picked up a branch of the old Indian trail leading north of the present Williamsport and reached Lycoming Creek near what is now Hcpburnville. They followed the Sheshequin Path up that stream, then went northward through Tioga County to New York State. Weiser made many later trips through this region in the capacity of guide and emissary for the Provincial Government. EXPLORERS AND LAND PURCHASES 17 He was born in Germany in 1696. In 1710, at the age of fourteen, he came to America with his father, John Conrad Weiser, and a large group of immigrants. As a young man he was adopted into the Mohawk tribe of Indians and acquired a thorough knowledge of their language and customs. Later he became an interpreter in Penn's Province. He followed this calling throughout the rest of his life and proved a valuable asset to the Provincial authorities at conference and treaty councils. He died at Tulpehocken, July 13, 1760. Shikellimy, a member of the Oneida tribe, was probably born in New York State. His iSrst place of residence on the West Branch was at "Shikellimy 's town," a short distance south of Milton. Later he became chief of all the tribes living on the Susquehanna with his headquarters at Shamokin, an Indian town on the present site of Sunbury. He was a constant friend of the Provincial Government and advanced its cause in many of the treaty conferences held during his time. MORAVIAN MISSIONARIES Five years after Weiser's journey up the West Branch Count Nicholas Ludwig Von Zinzendorf, first of the Moravian missionaries, came to the county. Accompanied by his daughter Benigna, Conrad Weiser, Anna Nitchman, J. Martin Mack, and two friendly Indians, he left Shamokin (Sunbury) on Sep- tember 30, 1742 and ascended the West Branch as far as Otstuagy, an Indian village near the mouth of Loyalsock Creek, present site of the borough of Montoursville. The country at that time was a dense wilderness, abounding in both large and small game. The Count expressed surprise at not seeing any snakes on this journey since he had been informed they existed in great numbers. He was particularly wary of one species which was said to lie on the top of bushes and spring on passing travelers. 18 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Zinzendorf was followed by other missionaries, including Bishop Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg, David Zeisberger, David Brainard, and Walter Mack. The advent of these pioneer re- ligious teachers marked the beginning of a more friendly relation- ship with the Indians. The Moravians came to convert the In- dians to Christianity, and they were highly successful. Chief Shikellimy became a convert and adhered strictly to the beliefs of Christianity the remainder of his life. Since he was virtually a dictator over all the tribes then living along the West Branch, his conversion had a powerful influence upon the Indians. He was a close friend of Zeisberger, who administered last rites at his burial in Shamokin. The Moravians' reports of the beauty of the country, the abundance of fish and game, and the fertility of the soil, un- doubtedly were an important factor in opening the region for permanent settlement. LAND PURCHASE OF 1696 After the Six Nations of the Iroquois had succeeded in conquering the Delawarcs, they considered themselves the right- ful owners of the territory, but Thomas Dongan, governor of the Province of New York, also claimed the land. He declared that he had acquired it from "certain chiefs." Because the land was rich, William Penn also wanted it. He therefore contracted with Dongan for a large tract which in- cluded what is now Lycoming County. It was leased to Penn for one thousand years on the payment of one hundred pounds "lawful money of England" and "thenceforth at the annual rental of a peppercorn."* These lands included, to cite the deed, "all the said river Susquehanna; and all the lands lying on the west side of the river to the setting of the sun, and to extend from the mouth * Peppercorn is the dried berry of the black pepper: hence in this case it means something of little value, a mere trifle. EXPLORERS AND LAND PURCHASES 19 of th€ said river northward, up the same to the hills or moun- tains called by the said nations 'endless hills' — also with all the islands in the river, ways, watercourses, woods, underwoods, timber and trees, mountains, hills, mines, valleys, minerals, quarries, rights, liberties, privileges, hereditaments and appur- tenances thereunto " In fact, this purchase included prac- tically all of the northeastern part of Pennsylvania to the New York State line. After Penn had leased the land from Dongan the Indian chiefs occupying the territory objected to the transfer on the grounds that they, not Dongan, were its legal owners, and that any agreement for the sale or lease of the land must be made by them. As a result Penn endeavored to persuade the chiefs to conj&rm the transaction. On April 1, 1701, an agree- ment between Penn and the Indians was reached and a treaty signed. TREATY OF 1737 Although there had been some dispute over the legality of the purchase of 1696, it did not reach serious proportions until 1737. Not long after the purchase from Dongan and the later approval by the chiefs of the tribes living on the land, the Six Nations began to question the authority of those who had made the original transfer. By right of conquest they claimed that they alone had power to make treaties, even though they had remained silent at the time of the 1701 treaty. This feeling grew stronger until June, 1737, when a Great Council meeting was held in Philadelphia to restore good rela- tions. At this meeting a new agreement was signed and for an additional quantity of goods the Indians released their claims to the Susquehanna territory. The deed, dated June 17, 1737, was signed by twenty- three Indians representing the Six Nations. It was witnessed by seventeen representatives of the whites, among whom were Conrad Weiser and Chief Shikellimy. For the purpose of com- parison with other historic purchases and also with the present 20 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY land values in this territory the detailed list of articles contained in the "several quantities of goods" is as follows:- "500 lbs. powder; 600 pounds of lead; 45 guns; 60 stroud water match coats; 100 blankets; 100 diffle match coats; 200 yds. half thick; 100 shirts; 400 hats; 40 pairs shoes and buckles; 40 pairs stockings; 100 tobacco tongs; 100 scissors; 500 awl blades; 120 combs; 2000 needles; 1000 fliints; 24 looking glasses; 2 pounds of vermillion; 100 tin pots; 100 pipes and 24 dozen of gartering, besides 5 gallons of rum." Although the articles exchanged for the deed were of little worth in comparison to the value of the land in question, in signing the agreement the Six Nations were probably influenced by their friendship for the English. This belief is borne out by the fact that the Six Nations did not refuse to accept the trans- action Penn had made with Governor Dongan and the con- quered tribes. This treaty stood without change until 1768, when the so-called "New Purchase" was made. TREATY OF FORT STANWIX At the close of the French and Indian War, the oflSccrs who had taken part in Bouquet's expedition made application to the Provincial Government for a grant of land on the Susque- hanna River. They asked for a section of land where they "could establish a colony of sufficient strength to resist an attack from the enemy." Each member was to have "a reasonable and commodious plantation" in accordance with his rank and length of service. The application called for forty thousand acres on the West Branch. The Penns agreed to grant the request, providing that more territory could be purchased from the Indians. Accordingly a commission was appointed to hold a con- ference with the Six Nations at Fort Stanwix (now Rome, N. Y.) on November 5, 1768. In consideration of $10,000, the Indians conveyed another great slice of territory to the Penns. EXPLORERS AND LAND PURCHASES 21 Although much of the land in this purchase had been included in the previous purchase, it also included considerable new territory. This treaty specified Tiadaghton Creek as the western boundary, and later a great deal of controversy, misun- derstanding, and bloodshed resulted from confusion concerning the name Tiadaghton. The Indians claimed Tiadaghton signi- fied Lycoming Creek, but the Provincial Government insisted that Pine Creek was the stream referred to in the treaty. The disputed territory is that which lies between Jersey Shore and the city of Williamsport and comprises nearly half of present Lycoming County and a part of Tioga County. By the time these treaties and purchases had been completed the Indians had learned many tricks of the real estate business. They now realized the value of the lands and they set out to get as much from them as they could by selling as often as they could find a purchaser. In 1754 they had sold the Susquehanna Valley to the people of New England, and twelve years later they gave the section from Wyalusing to a point north of Tioga to the Christian Indians. At the treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 they sold this same tract to the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania. The Indians at Wyalusing knew nothing of the transaction until some time after it had been closed. The dispute over the boundary line of the New Purchase also demonstrated Indian shrewdness in dealing with the whites. By insisting that by Tiadaghton they meant Lycoming Creek, they were able to retain an excellent hunting and fishing territory for sixteen years. The country abounded in elk, deer, bear, small game, and fish, and the Indians were loath to abandon it. In a treaty negotiated in 1784 the Indians finally admitted that Pine Creek was the real Tiadaghton, and it was established as the western boundary line of the New Purchase. The treaty of 1784 gave the United States Government all the lands in the State over which the Indians had claimed jurisdiction. 22 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY MADAME MONTOUR Early travelers on their journeys through the West Branch Valley found the Indian village of Otstuagy (present Montours- ville) at the mouth of Loyalsock Creek. The town was ruled by a French woman, Madame Montour. Few persons so greatly affected the fortunes of white men in this section of the State as this famous woman and her son, Andrew. Her ancestry has long been a subject of controversy. According to William Marshe, Secretary of the Commissioners at the Treaty of Lan- caster, who interviewed her in 1744, she was born in Canada, a daughter of a French Governor. In 1694, when she was ten years of age, her father was killed in a battle with the Five Na- tions, and she was captured and adopted by the Indians. Because of her knowledge of French, English, and the various Indian dialects, her services as interpreter at treaties were extremely valuable to Provincial authorities. Her first appearance as an interpreter was at a conference between sachems of the Six Nations and Robert Hunter, British Governor of New York. The English and Indians alike had confidence in hier ability and integrity. Because of her influence with the Indians, the French made repeated efi^orts to enlist her support against the British. Even though they offered her greater compensation she stead- fastly refused to desert the British. Her faithfulness seems all the more remarkable because at the time these overtures were made she had not received her pay from the British for more than a year. In 1702, Madame Montour married Car-on-do-wana, alias Robert Hunter, an Oneida chief. They settled at Otstuagy some time prior to 1727. Her husband was killed in a battle with the Catawbas in the spring of 1729. They had three children: Andrew, Lewis, and Margaret. Lewis, an interpreter and friend of the whites, was killed during the French and Indian war. Margaret, generally known as 'Trench Margaret," ruled a vil- EXPLORERS AND LAND PURCHASES 23 lage at the mouth of Lycoming Creek, on the present site of Newberry. On Scull's map of 1759, her place is designated as "French Margaret's Town." She prohibited the use of intoxi- cants in her realm, probably the first recorded case of enforced prohibition in the United States. Margaret's eldest daughter, Esther, frequently called "Queen Esther," resided at Tioga Point, Bradford County, Pa., at the time the Indians attacked the Wyoming settlers. It is said that she led the Indians in the Wyoming Massacre of July 3, 1778, one of the most brutal slaughters in the frontier history of the State. A group of prisoners, among them women and children, were lined up and Esther passed down the line dashing out their brains with her tomahawk. For her part in the massacre she received the name "Fiend of Wyoming." It is not definitely known when Madame Montour died, but it was probably between 1745 and 1748. When Conrad Weiser visited her in 1737, she was a widow well advanced in years. The journals of other travelers do not mention her after 1745. Zeisberger, who visited the valley in 1748, reported her village deserted and in ruins. ANDREW MONTOUR With the passing of Madame Montour, her son Andrew became a leading character in the colonial drama being enacted at that time. Andrew, whose Indian name was "Sat-tel-ihu," also became famous as an interpreter, guide, and ambassador to the Indian tribes in the eastern part of the country. In 1742, Count Von Zinzendorf, accompanied by Conrad Weiser, visited the Montours at Otstuagy. In his journal he gives the following interesting personal description of the man for whom the borough of Montoursville was named: "Andrew's cast of countenance is decidedly European, and had his face not been encircled with a broad band of paint ap- 24 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY plied with bear's fat, I certainly would have taken him for one. He wore a broad-cloth coat, a scarlet damasken lapel waistcoat, breeches over which his shirt hung, a black cordovan neckerchief decked with silver bangles, shoes and stockings and a hat. His ears were hung with pendants of brass and other wires plaited together like the handle of a basket. He was very cordial, but on addressing him in French, he, to my surprise, replied in English." Leaving the West Branch, Zinzendorf went to visit the Shawnee Indians at Wyoming, on the North Branch. Andrew went with him as guide and interpreter. In 1743, he acted as interpreter for the Delawarcs at a conference held at Shikellimy's house at Shamokin (Sunbury) . In 1745, with Conrad Weiser and Chief Shikellimy, he served as messenger from the Gov- ernor of the Province to the Indian headquarters at Onondaga. In 1748, he was presented to the Council of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, by Conrad Weiser who openly complimented him as a "faithful, knowing and prudent servant." After the Great Lakes region had been ceded to England following British victory in the French and Indian War, Mon- tour worked diligently to establish an alliance between the Ohio Indians and the English. His efforts were so successful that the Ohio Company offered him one thousand acres of land if he would move to Virginia and settle within the company's do- main. But he chose to remain in the West Branch Valley, where he accepted a grant which included the present borough of Mon- toursville. "Montour's Reserve" contained 880 acres lying on both sides of Loyalsock Creek. The original cost of this tract was $193.60, or approximately twenty-two cents per acre. In 1754 he was appointed to a captaincy in Washington's army and fought at Fort Necessity. Because of his influence among the Indians he was recognized as a powerful figure in the Lycoming country. Washington complimented him highly EXPLORERS AND LAND PURCHASES 25 and wanted him and "as many friendly Indians as would" to come and live among the English. His later life was devoted almost entirely to military service. He was made a captain in Sir William Johnson's regiment. In the dual capacity of officer and interpreter, he was sent as far west as Detroit. He took part in many expeditions against the French and Indians in Canada and on each occasion won the respect of his superiors and asso- ciates. Andrew Montour was married twice. His first wife was the granddaughter of Al-lum-ma-pees, a Delaware chief. They had one son, John, and a daughter, Mary Magdeline. Andrew also was the father of a son, Nicholas, by a second marriage. John Montour was born in 1744. He was educated at the Philadelphia Academy and served as a Captain in the Dunmore War. After leaving the West Branch, Andrew received a grant of land on the Juniata River. Finally he drifted to Montour's Island in the Allegheny River near Fort Pitt, where he died prior to 1775. In the contest between the French and British for control of what is now the eastern part of the United States and Can- ada, Madame Montour, Andrew Montour, Conrad Weiser, and Chief Shikellimy were leading figures. Their wisdom and in- fluence were potent factors in moulding the destinies of the early inhabitants. Their power was great enough to divide the Six Nations, and they were in large measure responsible for the breaking up of this great Indian confederacy. The Seneca tribes, who lived nearest the French in Canada, eventually responded to the overtures of the French, while Sir William Johnson, noted Indian agent of New York State, gained control over the Mohawks. Enough of the Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Tuscaroras were influenced by the emissaries of the British to throw the balance of power to their side. 26 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY QUESTIONS CHAPTER III 1. What reasons are there to support the belief that a Frenchman was the first white man to pass through Lycoming County territory? 2. Who was Conrad Weiser? 3. Who accompanied Weiser on his first journey through Lycoming County? 4. Name three Moravian missionaries who came to this region. 5. Why did the missionaries visit this territory? 6. From whom did William Penn purchase the land in which Lycoming County is now included? 7. What was accomplished by the Treaty of 1737? By the Treaty of Fort Stanwix? 8. Who was Madame Montour? 9. What other members of the Montour family figured in the early history of Lycoming County? CHAPTER IV Early Settlement IN the early days of the Province of Pennsylvania, William Penn's policy was to reserve one-tenth of all lands purchased from the Indians. These tracts were selected and laid out for the purpose of granting them to persons who had rendered spe- cial service to the Provincial Government, or were held by the Proprietaries for their own personal benefit. The first grant, or reserve, to be laid out within the present Lycoming County was the one given to Andrew Montour, October 29, 1768. The next was "Muncy Manor," the war- rant for which was issued by John Penn on December of the same year. The manor had been located and recommended to the Penns by Job Chilloway, a friendly Indian, and in recogni- tion of this service the Governor of the Province had the words "Job's Discovery" affixed to the original draft. The manor included in its acres practically all of the level and rolling land around the mouth of Muncy Creek, on the east bank of the Susquehanna River. The fertility of its soil, its natural beauty, and its location at a point where the old Indian trails met were factors which contributed to its desira- bility. The third and last of the reserves was "Orm's Kirk." It contained 599 acres and included all of what is now the western part of the, city of Williamsport. Part of this tract was pur- chased by Hawkins Boone, a relative of the celebrated hunter and Indian fighter, Daniel Boone. Hawkins Boone was killed in the battle of Fort Freeland, at the time of the Little Runaway. Orm's Kirk eventually became the Amariah Sutton farm. Sutton 28 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY donated a portion of his farm to the Methodist congregation, which erected one of the first church buildings in the county. In 1776, Muncy Manor was divided into five tracts and sold to the following persons: Tract No, 1 to Mordecai Mc- Kinney, Tract No. 2 to Peter Smith and Paulus Sheep, Tract No. 3 to Captain John Brady, Tract No. 4 to Caleb Knapp, and Tract No. 5 to John Scudder. Scudder was born in New Jersey in 1738. He came to Muncy Manor in 1769 on a prospecting tour and the next year brought his family here. His wife was the first white woman to locate in the settlement, and their second child, Mary, was the first white girl born west of the Muncy Hills. Scudder's cabin stood beside Glade Run, not far from the river. It was rudely constructed and without windows. The bed was set on posts, forked at the bottom, as a precaution against rattlesnakes and copperheads. Scudder served as lieutenant in the Associated Militia in guarding the frontier and also fought in the Revolu- tionary War. Mordecai McKinney also came here from New Jersey in 1775. At the time of the Big Runaway, he fled with his family to Harris's Ferry and never returned. JOB CHILLOWAY Job Chilloway, friend of John Penn and discoverer of Muncy Manor, was a Delaware Indian. Because of his knowl- edge of Indian dialects and his familiarity with the Indian trails his services as a spy and messenger were valuable to the Pro- vincial Government. As a young man, while serving under Sir William Johnson, noted Indian agent of New York, he dis- tinguished himself by his ability and honesty in negotiations with various chiefs. He entered military service during the Revolutionary War, serving in Colonel Potter's Regiment at the battle of Red Bank. At the expiration of his military ser- vice he returned to his home on the West Branch. EARLY SETTLEMENT 29 His favorite hunting grounds were in Nippenose Valley and it was while sojourning there that he became a friend of Colonel Antes, in command of Antes Fort. Because of his fre- quent long journeys through the country Chilloway was able to keep Colonel Antes informed of the movements and intentions of the Indians, and thus to prevent surprise attacks on the valley settlers. In appearance he was a "tall, muscular man, with his ears split to hang pendant, like a pair of earrings." He was married to an Indian girl whom the white settlers called Betsy. Unlike her husband she was not friendly toward the white settlers. As friendship grew between Job and the whites, his wife's unfriend- liness developed into hatred. Gathering what information she could from her husband, she carried it to her Indian friends. Her conduct so greatly annoyed Job that he warned the white men against having any communication with her. Betsy finally left Job because of his friendship with the whites and returned to her people. In 1770, Job joined the Moravian mission at Wyalusing, So highly regarded was he by those in charge that when they abandoned the mission and migrated to Ohio, Job was made custodian of the property. He was known and trusted by all the settlers in the valley. Even the unprotected women and children welcomed him to their cabins. Although he had a home in the Nippenose Valley, he left it and went to the Moravian settlement in Ohio, where he remained the rest of his life. SAMUEL WALLIS Samuel Wallis, born in 1730 of Quaker ancestry, erected the first permanent dwelling in Lycoming County in 1769, and became one of the most prominent land speculators in the his- tory of Pennsylvania. While engaged as a shipping merchant in Philadelphia before the Revolution, he saw the possibilities :3> c o O la* C S o •S I 3 MS a: o EARLY SETTLEMENT 31 offered to surveyors in this new country, and he spent consid- erable time preparing himself for that profession. When the "New Purchase" of 1768 was made, Wallis was working with a crew of surveyors along the Juniata River. As soon as he received news of the purchase he hurried to the West Branch Valley and settled in Muncy Township, purchased all the land he could in his own name, and induced others to take out claims and transfer the titles to him for five shillings each. By this method he acquired thousands of acres. So vast were his holdings that at one time he owned almost all of the terri- tory in the river valley between Muncy and Jersey Shore, be- sides thousands of acres in other parts of the state. The site he selected for his home is one-quarter mile west of Halls Station on Highway US 15, now (1939) owned by Henry G. Brock. This tract alone contained 7,000 acres. At Wallis' death in 1798 he left a large estate, heavily mortgaged. When his lands had been sold to satisfy creditors, nothing was left for his heirs. NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY INCORPORATED In 1772 the population of the West Branch Valley had grown to such proportions that the residents began a movement for the formation of a new county. The valley was included in Berks and Cumberland counties, but their county seats, Read- ing and Carlisle, were too far away. At some seasons of the year the roads were almost impassable, and even in good weather travel was slow and expensive. On March 21, 1772, a new county was erected from por- tions of Berks, Bedford, Cumberland, Lancaster, and North- ampton; it was named Northumberland for a northern county of England. Fort Augusta was established as the county seat, with the fort itself serving as a courthouse until a new one could be constructed. The first court met April 9, 1772. as a "private 32 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY session of the peace." One of the first actions of this court was to divide the new county into five townships. Muncy town- ship, one of the five, embraced an extensive area, nearly all of what is now Lycoming County. During this period it was the most thickly settled section in the West Branch Valley. FIRST ROAD SURVEYED In the same year the court authorized the "viewing and laying out" of a road from Fort Augusta to Lycoming Creek. The order called for a road thirty-three feet wide. It was not constructed at once, for a later court order instructed a group under Colonel Antes to "view, and if they saw cause, lay out a bridle path from Bald Eagle Creek to Sunbury." Eventually, however, the first order led to the building of a road to the settlement at Muncy, Lycoming Creek, and on up the river. It was the first road in the county upon which wagons could be used. Today it is part of the famous Susque- hanna Trail. FIRST GRIST MILL Another innovation of 1772 was a grist mill. It was erected by John Alward on the bank of Muncy Creek, just out- side the present borough of Muncy, near the junction of Big and Little Muncy Creeks. This rudely constructed mill, the first west of Muncy Hills, served an important purpose in the section. People came with their "grists" from miles around and "going to mill" was an event in the lives of the settlers. THE MORAVIAN EMIGRATION (1772) At Wyalusing on the North Branch of the Susquehanna the Indians who had been converted by the Moravian mission- aries had settled and established a mission. When the Iroquois sold their lands to the Provincial Government, the Moravians ap- pealed to the authorities for permission to remain. Failing to re- ceive this, they decided to abandon their town and migrate to EARLY SETTLEMENT 33 Ohio. For the first leg of their journey, they divided into two parties. The first party, consisting of about 140 persons, descended the North Branch of the Susquehanna River to the West Branch, and ascended the latter to the mouth of Muncy Creek. The other group, which included 54 persons, 60 head of cattle, and 50 horses, traveled an overland route through what is now Sullivan County, following the old Wyalusing path down Muncy Creek to its mouth. By prearrangement the two parties were to unite at Samuel Wallis' place, near the present Halls Station. The overland caravan was led by Bishop John Ettwein, who recorded in his journal the perils and obstacles of the wild, unsettled region. They crossed an almost impassable swamp where the undergrowth was so dense that it was impossible to sec more than six feet ahead. At several places the trail was en- tirely wiped out, and it was difficult to bring the cattle and horses through in safety. To add to the emigrants' discomfort, it rained continually during the passage through the swamp. When they reached Muncy, they had crossed Muncy Creek thirty-six times. The distance between these two points can be traveled today in a few hours. While waiting for the river party to join them their hunters killed fifteen deer and dried the meat for use on the remainder of the journey. On Saturday, June 20, 1772, the two groups united at Wallis' place and the next day they held a religious meeting, attended by settlers from a radius of twenty miles. The follow- ing Monday a market day was held. Among the things offered for sale were: cattle, canoes, fowls, casks, buckets, chains, and ironware. After resting a few days they traveled up the river, passing Loyalsock Creek, and camped near the mouth of Larrys Creek. The next night they camped on Long Island (Jersey Shore). 34 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Here the Bishop wrote about the numerous rattlesnakes that were killed and of a horse that died of snake-bite. From Long Island they pushed on to Lock Haven, then over the mountains to their new home in Ohio. The appearance of these Moravians and Christian Indians in the West Branch was an event of great interest to the settlers and the chief subject of conversation among them for many weeks. "YANKEES" IN WEST BRANCH During the period of early settlement Pennsylvanians came into the West Branch Valley mainly from the southeast. At the same time New England was extending its settlements from the northeast. Their villages were in the Wyoming Valley, along the North Branch, and at the present sites of Wilkes-Barre, Kingston, and Plymouth. Later they became a part of the Con- necticut Colony in the township of Westmoreland. The Con- necticut Colony claimed the land along the northern border of Pennsylvania, which in fact had been given to both Connecticut and Pennsylvania by the Crown. Originally the West Branch was not included in West- moreland Township, but an act of the Connecticut Council ex- tended the territory of the "Yankees" to the western boundary of the New Purchase, which at the time had been accepted as Lycoming Creek. In 1771 two townships were surveyed on the West Branch and named Charleston and Judea. They included the settlement at Muncy. The Susquehanna Land Company of Connecticut sent a group of about 540 colonists to settle at Wyoming. Three hundred of them expected to receive land along the West Branch river. The number that reached the river lands is not known, but there were enough to create a great disturbance among the Pennsylvanians who had preceded them. The new arrivals were looked upon as impostors and were told to leave immediately. But the "Yankees" claimed the EARLY SETTLEMENT 35 territory was legally theirs and said they intended to occupy it. The Pennsylvanians petitioned Richard Penn, acting Governor of the Province, for legal redress. The petition stated that a large body of armed men had invaded their territory and if the government did not provide some means of protecting their rights, they would assume the responsibility themselves and oust them by force. The governor, under instructions from the Assembly, objected to the invasion and advocated their removal on the grounds that their presence threatened the "destruction of the infant county" and "the peace of the whole province." He also called upon the various magistrates to protect the in- terests.of the Pennsylvania settlers. Zebulon Butler, the Connecticut leader, then announced that he had been appointed a justice by the authorities of Con- necticut. The Governor of Pennsylvania replied with an order forbidding the people to have any dealings with "this usurper" on the grounds he had no legal authority in the Pennsylvania colony. As the controversy continued, excitement increased. The Connecticut men held to their claim to the land and the Penn- sylvanians were just as resolute in their demands that they "get out." Finally it became evident that severe measures were neces- sary. The Yankees had not only demonstrated that they in- tended to stay, but it was rumored that re-enforcements were to be sent in to assist them. Colonel William Plunkett, with a force of fifty men, was ordered to march from Fort Augusta to "meet and demand a reason for this intrusion and hostile appearance." Evidently there was little resistance, since only one man was killed and several wounded. The Yankees' buildings were burned, their property taken, and a number of them made prisoners. Two of their leaders, William Judd and Joseph Shuman, were captured and placed in jail at Philadelphia. The women 36 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY and children were sent back to their friends in Wyoming. This was the end of Connecticut's attempt to establish a colony on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. FAIR PLAY MEN It will be recalled that the treaty of Fort Stanwix specified Tiadaghton Creek as the western boundary of that purchase. The Indians claimed that Tiadaghton referred to Lycoming Creek and not Pine Creek as the Provincial authorities had sup- posed. This was the state of aflFairs until the treaty of 1784, when the Indians finally admitted that Pine Creek was the Tiadaghton. Thus for sixteen years the territory lying between these two tributaries of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River was to all intents and purposes Indian land and was recognized as such by the Provincial Government. Although the governmental authorities had forbidden set- tlers to enter this disputed territory under penalty of a heavy fine and imprisonment, a number of fearless Scotch-Irish settlers from the lower counties and from New Jersey had come up the river and squatted near the mouth of Pine Creek. Where Pine Creek empties into the river there was a wide flat area covered with a vigorous growth of tall grass and a few trees. The soil was so rich and fertile that the squatters were willing to risk Indian attacks and the threats of the Provincial Government in order to hold it. Because of their insecure posi- tion with both the government and the Indians they were de- pendent entirely upon themselves for protection. For their own safety they organized a simple form of self-government which they called the Fair Play System. This system functioned under three commissioners, elected by ballot in March of each year. It was their duty to see that each person received "fair play" and to mete out punishment to all violators. They had no regular place or time of meeting. EARLY SETTLEMENT 37 When necessity demanded, a general summons was circulated and the place of meeting made known. No person could join the settlement except by permission of the commissioners. If any person absented himself from his land for more than six weeks at one time he lost all claim to it. The only exception to this rule was absence for military service. The decisions of the Fair Play Men were final. Anyone disregarding their verdict was placed in a canoe, paddled down the river to the mouth of Lycoming Creek, and set adrift with orders not to return. The justice of their decrees was never questioned. This was due to the high character and sense of honor of the men who administered them. Unfortunately no written records of their transactions exist. One reason advanced for their failure to keep records is that they were not friendly to the English Crown and did not wish to put anything in writing that might be used against them at any future time. At the time of the "Pine Creek Declaration of Independ- ence" of July 4, 1776, the Fair Play commissioners were Bratton Caldwell, John Walker, and James Brandon. Since these three men are the only commissioners mentioned in contemporary ac- counts, it is presumed that they were reelected from year to year and served throughout the system's existence. The Fair Play territory embraced the present townships of Old Lycoming, Woodward, Piatt, Porter and a portion of Watson, The system was in operation from 1773 to 1785. After the treaty of 1784 and the opening of a land office in May of the next year the rights of these settlers to the land were recognized, and deeds were granted to them by Act of Assembly, PINE CREEK DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE A remarkable coincidence occurred in the Fair Play Terri- tory in 1776, At a mass meeting held July 4, the Fair Play Men wrote and signed their own Declaration of Independence 38 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY on the same day and at approximately the same hour as the better-known document was signed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. That these pioneers, living more than two hundred miles from the seat of government, should frame a similar docu- ment is indeed unusual, but that it should take place on the same day has caused historians to proclaim it "an unparalleled coincidence in the annals of American history." Less than a mile from the mouth of Pine Creek, just over the Clinton County line, stands a stately elm more than seven- teen feet in circumference and approximately three hundred years old. It is said that it was under this giant tree that the meeting was held and after a great deal of discussion and nu- merous patriotic speeches, these pioneer patriots passed resolu- tions, renouncing allegiance to Great Britain and declaring them- selves free and independent. After the document had been signed the leaders retired to Fort Horn, on the south bank of the river, where its disposal was discussed. It was finally decided to place the original in a strongbox and bury it within the stockade of the fort and to send a copy- to the seat of government in Philadelphia. Two of the most daring men of the settlement, Patrick Gilfillan and Michael Quigley, Jr., were chosen as dispatch riders. Their course lay along Bald Eagle Mountain and the Susquehanna River to near the present site of Harrisburg ; thence southward through Lancaster to Philadelphia. While crossing Blouser Mountain, near the present town of Dalmatia, the couriers were ambushed by Indian allies of the British and robbed of their horses, saddles, money, and rifles. They then proceeded on foot to Harris Ferry, where they were arrested as spies. Quigley, who could speak the Indian language, enlisted the aid of an Indian girl named Lily Ann. At night the girl unlocked the prison in which the mes- sengers had been placed and guided them to freedom. The Fair EARLY SETTLEMENT 39 Play Men then concealed themselves under the hay in a covered wagon bound for Philadelphia. They finally reached their des- tination on July 10, only to discover that the Liberty Bell had proclaimed the Philadelphia Declaration almost a week pre- viously. After remaining for a few days in Philadelphia to take .part in the festivities and to gather news of the great event, they returned to the West Branch to urge their friends to join in the fight for American independence. In spite of a thorough search no draft of the Pine Creek Declaration has been found. Three reasons for its loss have been advanced. One is that when the two couriers were robbed on Blouser Mountain the copy they carried may have passed into the hands of British Tories, who under the circumstances would, have certainly destroyed it. Another possibility is that no written document existed, in accordance with the policy of the Fair Play System. A third theory, considered by many the most plausible, is that the original document was lost during the Great Runaway of 1778, when Indians and Tories burned Fort Horn. It was the opinion of the late Jacob Quiggle, Esq., (1821- 1911) whose grandfather, Phillip Quiggle (1745-1800), was one of the signers, that the actual signing took place inside the palisade of Fort Horn, after the meeting had retired to the fort from the great elm. According to Quiggle more than two hun- dred persons were within the palisade at the time the document was signed. He also claimed that a copy of the Declaration was writ- ten in the Clark family Bible, in the handwriting of Thomas Clark. Among the signers were : Thomas, Francis and John Clarke Alexander Hamilton, William Campbell, James Crawford, Alexander Donaldson, John Jackson, Jacob Pfouts, Adam Car- son, Henry McCracken, Adam Dewitt, Robert Love, Simon "^0 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Curts. Hugh Nichols, Peter Pents, Peter Grove, Robert Coven- hoven, Samuel Horn, and Phillip Quiggle. QUESTIONS CHAPTER IV 1. What was Muncy Manor? 2. Who was Job Chilloway? 3. Who built the first permanent house in present Lycoming County? 4. Where was this house erected? 5. When was Northumberland County created? Where did it get its name? 6. What was the cause for the Moravian Emigration? Where did they desire to settle? 7. What group of colonists from outside of Pennsylvania laid claim to territory in the West Branch Valley and attempted to occupy it? 8. What was the "Fair Play System"? 9. What was the Pine Creek Declaration of Independence? CHAPTER V Lycoming In The Revolution AT the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Lycoming County was a part of Northumberland County. It was sparsely settled, with few centers of population. The settlers, and especially the Fair Play Men, were enthusiastic supporters of the Declaration of Independence. Unfortunately they faced a difficult problem. The territory was a wild frontier, covered with dense forests, and inhabited by roving bands of Indians allied with the British. In addition to assisting the Continental Army by sending men and limited quantities of supplies, the settlers had to defend their homes and settlements against savages. At the beginning of the War the Proprietary Government was replaced by the State Government. Each township formed a Committee of Safety. On July 11, 1774 the township Com- mittee of Safety selected William Scull and Samuel Hunter to represent Northumberland County on the "Provincial Com- mittee of Deputies." COMPANY RECRUITED On June 15, 1775, a request for marksmen was received from the Continental Congress. John Lowden was commis- sioned as captain and instructed to raise a company of riflemen. He quickly performed the duty assigned him. The company as- sembled at Sunbury on July 8, 1775 and marched to Cam- bridge, Massachusetts. In it were many men from the West Branch Valley. Later the unit became part of the Second Regi- ment of the Army of the United Colonies, under the command 42 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY of Washington. On January 1, 1776 it was absorbed into the First Regiment of the Continental Army. Military records of the War describe the regiment's personnel as being remarkably accurate shooting, most of them being able to hit a seven-inch mark at a distance of two hundred yards. The company left Cambridge on March 14, 1776 with a battalion sent by General Washington to prevent the British from landing at New York. They were dismissed from service July 1, 1776. Almost to a man, the company re-enlisted for two years, a term which in October of the same year was ex- tended to the "end of the war." The First Regiment, com- manded by Colonel Daniel Morgan, participated in the Battle of Saratoga, and as "Morgan's Riflemen," became famous throughout the Continental Army. As the war continued, trouble increased in the valley. The Indians had supported the English during the French and In- dian War. Consequently when the colonies revolted, the ma- jority of the Indians remained friendly to England and were a great source of anxiety to the frontier counties. English agents used the friendship of the Indians to their advantage. Through- out the Revolutionary War the Indians received aid and support from Tory sympathizers, who at times were more cruel in their warfare than were the natives. COUNTY COMMITTEE OF SAFETY The County Committee of Safety was composed of repre- sentatives of the various township committees of safety. It met each month unless called together more frequently because of an emergency. The members served for six-month terms. At its meetings the Committee pondered an almost endless variety of problems caused by the Revolution. The Committee was fre- quently criticized. On one occasion recruiting officers visited the territory to enlist men in the Continental Army. Several LYCOMING IN THE REVOLUTION 43 officers of the Committee entered a protest. They argued quite reasonably that every available man was needed for protection against Indian attacks. Hawkins Boone, one of the recruiting officers, was sum- moned to appear before the Committee to answer charges that he had secured several enlistments in the army. Although Boone claimed he had authority from Congress for that purpose, he did not appear to answer the charges. At one meeting, the Committee received a complaint against two traders. They were charged with having a large quantity of salt which they were holding in anticipation of higher prices. This was contrary to a regulation of the Committee. After de- bating the question, William Sayers was instructed to confiscate the salt and sell it at a rate of fifteen shillings a bushel. No family was allowed to purchase more than half a bushel at one time. Sayers was told to keep an accurate account of every sale and, after deducting his commission, to turn the proceeds over to the Committee. At another time the Committee of Safety of Bald Eagle Township complained about the amount of grain taken out of the county and used for the manufacture of liquor. They urged the County Committee to seize the grain and sell it at a fair price. After consideration the resolution was referred back to the Bald Eagle Committee in altered form. It was suggested that the township committee use moderation, and "study a sort of medium between seizing of property and supply the wants of the poor," AID REFUSED SETTLERS As the war progressed, the Indians became bolder in their attacks. The settlers lacked numbers and ammunition. In a letter written on November 23, 1776, the Committee of Safety 44 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY appealed to the Supreme Executive Council at Philadelphia for assistance. The Supreme Executive Council was composed of thirteen members, chosen by districts, one from each of the twelve coun- ties, and one from Philadelphia. One-third of the Council were elected to terms of three years, one-third to two years and one- third to one-year terms. It was the duty of the Council to ex- ercise all the powers needed for the public safety and for the proper execution of the laws. The Committee of Safety urged the Philadelphia authorities to raise men and provide ammuni- tion for the defense of the frontier. They explained that the single men of the county felt that since they could not avoid fighting either in the Continental Army or against the Indians, they would prefer to enlist in the Army and be underpaid fight- ing a "humane enemy" than to fight "merciless savages" at their own expense. The appeal to the Supreme Executive Council was in vain. That body was interested in obtaining men to serve in the Continental Army, and apparently gave little thought to the consequence of taking many of the best fighters from the fron- tier. It was not until after several years of war that the county received support from the State Government. Towards the close of the war the State Assembly passed a tax law, making a heavy assessment against each county. The tax was the only method by which they could obtain needed war supplies. To the amaze- ment of the residents it was found that the tax quota for the county exceeded the total value of all the personal property. After a vigorous protest had been sent, no further effort was made to collect the county's quota. In 1777 a large number of settlers came from New Jersey. That state was overrun by both the British and the Continental Armies, and the New Jersey residents wanted to get away from the warfare. Most of the newcomers were poorly equipped with LYCOMING IN THE REVOLUTION 45 arms and the necessities of life, a factor which added to the burdens of the Committee of Safety. Approximately seventy-five men from the territory which is now Lycoming County served in the Continental Army. Hundreds of others served on the frontiers with the local militia. QUESTIONS CHAPTER V 1. What was one outstanding characteristic of the soldiers from Lycoming County who took part in the American Revolution? 2. Why did the Committee of Safety oppose the enlistment of men into the Continental Army? 3. What was the Supreme Executive Council? 4. Why did the Supreme Executive Council refuse aid to the settlers? CO c o o» O •2 S cS 'fe o 4» c o CHAPTER VI The Big Runaway As the Revolutionary War progressed, relations between the Indians and the settlers became acute. English agents had been active in inciting trouble between them. Although the out- break of the war had caused apprehension in the region, it had not stemmed the tide of migration. The portion of the valley called the "New Purchase" had attracted the largest number of settlers. They willingly faced Indian hostility in order to obtain their share of the rich farm lands. They were almost unani- mously sympathetic with the Revolutionary cause. A great many of these recent settlers joined the Continental Army, and still more of them enlisted in a company of militia formed for the purpose of protecting the frontier against attack by the Indians. The pioneers were in need of firearms, ammunition, and food. The latter was obtainable from the southeastern counties only in small quantities and at high prices. Supplies were trans- ported up the Susquehanna River in crude boats poled by hand, a slow and difficult task. All the while hostile bands of Indians constantly molested the inhabitants. Frequent attacks were made on the homes of the settlers. The residents either were carried away as prisoners or their scalps were taken and exchanged for bounty the British had offered. The most serious of these attacks took place on the site of the Calvary Methodist Church at West Fourth and Cemetery 48 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Streets, Williamsport, on June 10, 1778. A wagon party of six men, two women, and eight children, on their way to Ly- coming Creek, were ambushed. All were killed and scalped ex- cept Peter Smith, leader of the party, one other man, and two children, a boy and a girl. The dead were buried at the scene of the massacre. (An appropriate marker now designates this spot). As the war continued, more soldiers were needed for the Continental Army and supplies for the militia became more difficult to obtain. In spite of repeated appeals to State author- ities for more adequate protection, assistance was not forthcom- ing. In order to meet the urgent need for arms and ammunition, old and broken guns were repaired and household articles of lead were converted into war material. Lead weights were taken from the clocks and moulded into bullets. By the early summer of 1778, the settlers had realized that the British and Indians intended to drive them from the north and west branches of the Susquehanna River. Job Chilloway, a friendly Delaware Indian, had warned the authorities against a surprise attack. On July 3, 1778, there occurred the Wyoming Massacre, the first step in the plan of the British and Indians to destroy the settlements along the Susquehanna River. SETTLERS FLEE THEIR HOMES News of the terrible tragedy on the North Branch soon reached Lycoming. The settlers now realized the warnings had been true and that the West Branch Valley would be the scene of the enemy's next attack. Knowing that an attack by a large force could not be successfully resisted, the inhabitants began to abandon their homes and assemble at various points. Those at Muncy met at Captain John Brady's stockaded home; those living between Muncy and Lycoming Creek gathered at Samuel Wallis' place: and those west of Lycoming Creek went to Fort THE BIG RUNAWAY 49 Antes, opposite Jersey Shore, or Harris' Fort, near the mouth of Bald Eagle Creek. Colonel Samuel Hunter, in command at Fort Augusta, anxious for the safety of the people up the river ordered Colonel William Hepburn to evacuate the territory and retire to Fort Augusta. Colonel Hepburn called for volunteers to carry the message to Fort Antes. Robert Covenhoven, a fearless scout and skillful woodsman, was selected for the dangerous mission. To avoid the dangers of ambush by Indians, he kept away from the paths in the valley and climbed to the top of Bald Eagle Moun- tain, followed the ridge along the river to near the present village of Antes Fort, then dropped down to the fort. From Fort Antes the warning was sent on up the river. In a short time the exodus was under way. Covenhoven returned to the Wallis' place and assisted his family to escape to Fort Augusta. He then returned in a keel boat for their house- hold goods. Livestock was herded together and driven to the bank of the river. Boats, canoes, and rafts were pressed into service. Hog-troughs, barn-doors, anything that would float, were used. The women and children, with hastily collected household goods, were loaded on these makeshift craft and floated down the river. Men drove the livestock along the bank, guarding the river party. The excitement of the settlers was intense. Confusion and terror spread rapidly. Each mile of the journey brought new rumors and alarms to the refugees. At night the sky was red with the fires of burning buildings. When a craft was grounded, the men plunged into the river to push it into deep water. In a few days the countryside was deserted. The settlers' homes and their ripened harvests were left to the invaders. The advancing Indians entered the West Branch from Lycoming Creek, and swarmed up river as far as Fort Antes and down river THE BIG RUNAWAY 51 as far as the present site of Muncy. In their wake they left de- vastation and destruction. From Muncy to Fort Antes, the only buildings left standing were the Wallis house and Fort Antes. The former, built of stone, withstood the flames. The fort, constructed of peeled oak logs set on end, was not easily set afire. Four-fifths of the population of the West Branch Valley had deserted their homes. The loss in property and goods was estimated at 40,000 pounds (approximately $200,000) , When their destructive work was completed, the invaders returned to Fort Niagara over the same route by which they came. Most of the inhabitants took refuge at Fort Augusta, but some of the recent emigrants from New Jersey returned to their former homes. Colonel Hunter was severely criticized for acting so hastily in ordering the Big Runaway. Many of the settlers believed that if he had pursued a militant policy the militia, assisted by the inhabitants, would have been able to resist the invaders until re-enforcements arrived. Such a policy might have pre- vented the flight and spared the people much suffering and great property losses. As soon as the enemy had retired from the valley the set- tlers began to return to their homes. In fact, a few of them arrived before the ruins of their buildings had stopped smoulder- ing. In their mad haste, it had been impossible to corral all their livestock, and some of the braver men hurried back to salvage what they could. As soon as a large number of settlers had returned, the guerrilla warfare was resumed. Small bands of Indians were continually prowling through the territory annoy- ing the settlers in their work of rebuilding their homes. The State authorities, by this time aware of the necessity of protecting the frontier, ordered Colonel Daniel Brodhead, with a company of one hundred and twenty-five men, to the 52 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY region. Arriving at Sunbury too late to assist the settlers at Wyoming on the North Branch, Brodhcad pushed on to Wallis' place. The presence of the soldiers restored confidence among the people. Under their protection the portion of the harvest vsrhich had escaped the torch of the Indians was gathered. Colo- nel Brodhead remained until August 1, when he was replaced by Colonel Thomas Hartley. Hartley was deeply moved by the poverty-stricken plight of the inhabitants. One of his first duties was to build Fort Muncy, demanded by the women of the frontier before they would return. (The fort was situated 3^ miles west of the borough of Muncy near the present Reading Company railroad tracks. A boulder and plaque on U. S. High- way 15 marks the site) . COLONEL HARTLEY'S EXPEDITION The authorities, believing that the most eflFective means of ending Indian raids was to invade their territory, directed Colo- nel Hartley to lead an expedition against them. A force con- sisting of approximately two hundred men left Fort Muncy, September 24, 1778. It followed the West Branch to the mouth of Lycoming Creek. They ascended the stream, by way of the Sheshequin Trail, to near its head, where they followed a trail to the North Branch. The first engagement occurred on Lycoming Creek, a short distance south of Canton. An Indian chief was killed and his followers routed. At Sheshecunnunk, an Indian town near the present town of Ulster, a second victory was won. From this place Hartley and his men moved on to Teago (near Athens) , destroyed the village, took prisoners, and captured livestock and other articles of value. The little army marched to Wyalusing and then down the North Branch to Sunbury. They had covered about three hundred miles in less than two weeks. Hartley's losses were four men killed and ten wounded. Aside from the number of Indians killed and cap- tured, he returned to Fort Augusta with fifty head of cattle. THE BIG RUNAWAY 53 twenty-eight cannons, and other useful plunder. He had de- stroyed Queen Esther's town as well as the town of Teago, and for a time at least had subdued the Indians. From the prisoners captured by the expedition it was learned that preparations were being made for other attacks at Wyoming and along the West Branch. Although Hartley's ex- pedition did not end the trouble with the Indians, it did effect the postponement of a general attack. The expedition received a vote of thanks from the Supreme Executive Council for its splendid work. DEATH OF CAPTAIN JOHN BRADY Smarting under their defeat by Colonel Hartley, the In- dians waited for an opportunity to avenge their losses. Captain John Brady, who had been released from service in the Conti- nental Army to assist Hartley in the expedition, proved so valu- able that he received special mention in Hartley's report. Because of his capability as a frontier fighter, Brady was hated and feared by the Indians. During the fall and winter of 1778-1779, the situation near Muncy, where Brady lived, was comparatively quiet. The Indians apparently were biding their time and laying their plans with care. Brady's family lived near the mouth of Glade Run in a stockaded house, known at the time as Brady's Fort. Accompanied by several men, Brady one day traveled to Fort Muncy for supplies. Having obtained them they started to return to his house. Brady, riding a horse, had lingered in the rear. Peter Smith, who had lost his wife and children in the massacre of June 10, 1778, was walking beside his mount talk- ing with him. When the pair were within a short distance of his home Smith proposed they take a short cut, which they did. As they approached Wolf Run, three rifles cracked and Brady fell from his horse, dead. 54 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Brady's body was buried in a small cemetery on a knoll facing the Susquehanna River near Hall's Station. The funeral was attended by nearly every one in the settlement. For some years the grave received no care and was not marked. Finally it was located and a marker placed. (Before the discovery of Brady's grave, a cenotaph had been erected in Muncy Cemetery in his honor) . Captain John Brady, the second son of Hugh Brady, was born in Delaware in 1733. He received a good education for the times and taught school in New Jersey for a few years. In 1750 he emigrated with his parents to Pennsylvania, settling at Shippensburg, Cumberland County. Before the outbreak of Indian troubles he was a surveyor. At the beginning of the French and Indian War, Brady enlisted and became a captain in the second battalion of the regiment under the command of Governor John Penn. He also took part in Bouquet's expedi- tion to Fort Pitt. In recognition of his services in the latter expedition Brady received a grant of land on the Susquehanna River, west of the present borough of Lewisburg. In 1769 he moved his family there, and made some improvements. Learning of the natural beauty of Muncy Manor and its fertile soil he selected a spot near the mouth of Glade Run for a home site. In 1776 Brady was commissioned a Captain in the Con- tinental Army and served at Brandywine. In 1778 he was sent back to the West Branch to assist in the protection of the frontier. THE LITTLE RUNAWAY (1779) The death of Brady was a serious blow to the settlers, for the Indians, encouraged by the removal of their most feared enemy, resumed the attacks with increased vigor. Meanwhile, General John Sullivan was making preparations for an expedi- tion on the North Branch. His purpose was to drive the Indians THE BIG RUNAWAY 55 from the vicinity of the North Branch and, if possible, from the entire northern part of the state. Sullivan's base of supply was Fort Augusta. Supplies were transported up the river in boats, as many as two hundred being used at one time. Sullivan be- lieved that as his army moved up the North Branch the Indians would be drawn to that section to resist him, and thus the West Branch Valley would be in no great danger. But Sullivan's strategy was faulty. The Indians, already acquainted with his plan, had mapped theirs accordingly. They planned to drive through the West Branch Valley and attack Sullivan from the rear. With a strong force in front of his party and another attacking from the rear, they believed Sulli- van could easily be defeated. Rumors of the approach of a large force of Indians reached the settlements every day. Colonel Hepburn, still in charge at Fort Muncy, decided to send a scout up Lycoming Creek to ascertain the truth of these rumors. Again Robert Covenhoven was selected for the job. Preferring to go alone, he ascended Lycoming Creek to the vicinity of Roaring Branch. Here in the dense forest he discovered a large force of Indians. After con- cealing himself in a heavy thicket and observing them for a day, Covenhoven concluded they were preparing to swoop down the West Branch. He immediately returned to Fort Muncy and re- ported his j&ndings to Hepburn. Covenhoven 's observation proved to be correct. The marauding Indian bands which had been harassing the settlements were only the advance guards of the vast hordes concentrating in the wilderness along Lycoming Creek. Hepburn at once notified the inhabitants of the threatening danger and they made immediate preparations to evacuate the territory. Although there was less excitement and confusion than at the time of the Big Runaway, the settlers retreated to Fort Augusta in much the same manner. The women, children, and household goods went down the river in rafts, boats, and 56 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY canoes. The men, under the leadership of Robert Covenhoven, marched along the bank as guards. The enemy entered the valley the 26th or 27th of July, 1779. Their forces consisted of approximately one hundred Tories and British and two hundred Indians. The British and Tories were commanded by Captain John McDonald, who lived near Albany, New York. The Indians were led by Hickatoo, a Seneca chief. They came down Lycoming Creek to the river valley, and followed the West Branch as far as Fort Frecland on Warriors Run, about four miles east of Watsontown. Here the settlers who either had ignored, or had not received the warn- ing, were attacked and more than half their number killed. The women and children were made prisoners, and the fort was burned. Among those killed in the attack was Captain Hawkins Boone. McDonald and his allies were enraged to discover that most of the inhabitants had escaped. They scoured the countryside, burning every cabin, granary, and haystack. Brady's Fort and Fort Muncy were destroyed. The livestock was driven away for their own use. The total number of persons killed and cap- tured is unknown, but it was large in proportion to the popula- tion. By this time Sullivan's army was well on its way up the North Branch. Messengers were sent to McDonald and Chief Hickatoo to hurry back northward to resist Sullivan's advance. They arrived in the Chemung country in time to take part in the battle of Newton (now Elmira, N. Y.), where the British and Indians were badly defeated. The Little Runaway had the effect of arousing the state authorities to the necessity of providing adequate military pro- tection for white settlers on the frontiers. General Sullivan's expedition had given the Indians a taste of war in their own territory. Although roving bands still raided the settlements THE BIG RUNAWAY 57 and scalpings were frequent, Sullivan had dealt the enemy a blow from which they did not recover. This time the settlers were more reluctant to return to their deserted farms and ruined homes. Some of the more venturesome returned that fall to collect stray livestock and other property. Frequent appeals were made to the State authorities. The settlers who had returned threatened to leave unless protection was as- sured. In response to these appeals, the German regiment of the Continental Army under command of Colonel Ludwig Weltner, was sent into the valley. Weltner had only the remnant of a regiment, approximately one hundred twenty men. With this small force it was impossible to patrol or protect the frontier properly. The winter of 1779-1780 was very cold, with a heavy snowfall which retarded the activities of the Indians. But with the spring thaws their invasions were certain to be resumed. Weltner's regiment was withdrawn the following spring. He was followed by other commanders, the last of whom was Cap- tain Thomas Robinson. During Robinson's tenure a sense of se- curity returned to the settlers. They now felt they could rebuild their homes in safety. Although frontier troubles were not en- tirely ended, there were indications that the end of the Revolu- tion was near. When the treaty acknowledging the independence of the United States was signed, the citizens on the frontier rejoiced in the hope that they could once more establish them- selves in the rich and beautiful Lycoming country. INCORPORATION OF LYCOMING COUNTY Settlers hurried to take possession of the fertile West Branch Valley, at that time part of Northumberland County. The upper valley soon became the most densely populated sec- tion of the country. Many of the settlers had to travel forty or fifty miles to reach Sunbury, the county scat. Since there were no bridges across the many streams, the journey was dangerous. 58 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Because of these hardships a movement began for the formation of a new county. The people who lived in or near Sunbury naturally opposed this action, since they profited from the business of a large area. In 1786 a motion was introduced into the General As- sembly to create a new county from the northern part of North- umberland County. The resolution failed of passage; and its advocates then submitted a petition requesting the removal of the county seat to a point more accessible to the West Branch Valley. This resolution was also defeated. Agitation for change continued and adherents of the new county plan increased in number. On February 27, 1787 a "petition of 385 inhabitants of Northumberland County was filed, praying that the seat of justice may be removed from Sun- bury to Northumberland," a village on the west side of the river. A year and a half later another "petition signed by 996 inhabitants of Northumberland County, residing on the west side of the Susquehanna, was read asking for a division of said county." The petition contained the names of almost every settler residing from Muncy Hills west to Bald Eagle Valley. A legislative committee brought in a report opposing the request. Despite the difficulties of transacting legal business, new residents poured into the West Branch Valley. For several years no further organized attempts to erect a new county were made. Efforts were renewed, however, in 1794. The journal of the House of Representatives for February 15 of that year records a "petition from a number of inhabitants . . . that in case a new county was erected, the seat of justice within the same may be fixed on the west side of Lycoming creek, at the mouth thereof." Nothing more is written in the journal about the subject until almost a year later when a "Mr. Hale, from the com- mittee appointed to consider and report on the petitions praying for a division of Northumberland county, made report, and the same was read, as follows: THE BIG RUNAWAY 59 " 'The committee appointed to consider the petitions pray- ing for a division of Northumberland county, report: that as, from the great extent of Northumberland county, much incon- veniences is suffered by many of the inhabitants of that county from their great distance from the present seat of justice, the com- mittee are of opinion that the prayer of the petitioners ought to be granted, and they therefore recommend the adoption of the following resolution: Resolved, That a committee be appointed to bring in a bill dividing Northumberland county in a manner that may appear most convenient to the inhabitants thereof.' " By this Act the territory taken from Northumberland to form Lycoming County included "all that part of Northum- berland county lying north westward of a line drawn from the Mifflin county line, on the summit of Nittany mountain; thence running along the top or highest ridge of the said moun- tain, to where the White Deer Hole creek runs through the same, and from thence by a direct line crossing the West Branch of Susquehanna, at the mouth of Black Hole Creek, to the end of Muncy hills and the Bald Eagle mountain, to the Luzerne county line." Thirteen counties, Armstrong, Bradford, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Indiana, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, Sulli- van, Tioga, Venango, and Warren have since been formed wholly or in part from the original area of the county. Senator William Hepburn of Williamsport was a member of the committee, and he was undoubtedly responsible for final passage of the bill. The committee adopted the name "Lycom- ing" for the new county. After all disagreements had been ironed out in conferences, the bill was passed by the legislature, and signed bv the Governor on April 13, 1795. The territory taken from Northumberland to form Lycoming County com- prised approximately 12,000 square miles. Later divisions and 60 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY subdivisions brought the area down to its present size of 1,220 square miles. QUESTIONS CHAPTER VI 1. Why were the Indians hostile to the white settlers at the time of the Big Runaway? 2. Where did the most serious of the local Indian attacks take place? 3. Name three places used as meeting points by the settlers. 4. Who warned the inhabitants of the West Branch Valley of an attack by the Indians? 5. Why did the settlers leave the territory rather than attempt to defend their homes? 6. How did the fleeing settlers transport their possessions from the West Branch Valley? 7. Where did the settlers go after leaving their homes? 8. Where was the site of Fort Muncy? 9. Who was Captain John Brady? 10. Who was Colonel Hepburn? 1 1 . What eflFect did the second or Little Runaway have upon the State authorities? 12. Why did the inhabitants of the West Branch Valley want to form a ntw county? 13. When was Lycoming County formed? CHAPTER VII Pioneer Life WHY THEY CAME THE earliest settlers of the West Branch Valley came from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany. Many of these immigrants came to America to escape religious persecution. Many others were mere adventurers. They were induced to come to the West Branch Valley through the enterprise of the land speculators and the stories of missionaries, hunters, surveyors, and traders concerning the fertility and beauty of the land along the Susquehanna River. They made their way slowly up the river to Lycoming Creek, then the Indian boundary. CHOOSING A SITE Choice lands were selected along the banks of the river and along Muncy and Loyalsock Creeks. The adventurous and fear- less Scotch-Irish disregarded the Indian claim to the land be- tween Lycoming and Pine Creeks and "squatted" there. Many of the bolder pioneers were killed or carried into captivity by the Indians, but the most pronounced setback came during the period of the Runaways, from 1778 until after the peace treaty of 1 784. The successful termination of the Revolutionary War instilled a sense of security in the settlers. Many now rebuilt their hastily abandoned properties, and many more came for the first time to take up home sites. People have wondered why many of the early settlers of Lycoming County selected lands far back in the hills, heavily wooded, difficult to clear, and infertile. Many of these pioneers 62 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY had come from New Jersey, which, in many places, was a barren, sandy, and unfruitful land. The emigrants mistakenly believed that land capable of growing big trees would naturally produce large crops. This reasoning caused many hardships. Those who came later and were obliged to take the lowlands discovered that their task of clearing was easier and their soil more fertile. The German immigrants preferred the heavily wooded areas because they had suffered from a scarcity of fuel in their homeland. When they learned that woodland could be pur- chased for a few dollars an acre, they rejected the scrubby growth of the lowlands. Some of the newcomers thought the titles to the bottom lands were defective, while others shunned the lands along the river because of the fear of fever and ague. HOW THEY CAME Most of the early emigrants from the southern counties came in by river. Although the Susquehanna was too swift running for easy upstream navigation, it provided an unob- structed avenue into this territory. However, some of the later arrivals took the land route and entered by wagon and on foot. The Germans, for example, left Germantown (near Philadel- phia) on foot, men, women and children, carrying cooking utensils, clothing, food, and household furnishings upon their backs or heads. They came to Lycoming by way of the turn-pike to Read- ing, thence through present-day Pottsville, Ashland, Mt. Carmel, and Bear Gap to Danville. Crossing the North Branch at Dan- ville, they followed an Indian trail up Mahoning Creek to the site of Washingtonvillc. Thence the route cut through the Muncy Hills and descended Glade Run to the West Branch, west of Muncy. The Germans then passed through Montoursville, forded the Loyalsock, ascended Sand Hill, and proceeded through the "Great Swamp" at Williams- PIONEER LIFE 63 port. From this point some of them followed the Sheshequin Trail up Lycoming Creek. It is said that one German immigrant woman carried her child in a basket, walking all the distance from Philadelphia to Lycoming County, and a father is said to have brought his small daughter in a wheelbarrow. HARDSHIPS After the early settlers had constructed crude huts, their energies were directed toward the clearing of land and the sowing of grain. In clearing the land they cut down and burned great trees which today would be worth more than the land on which they grew. Food was not their only problem. In the early days snow frequently fell to a depth of several feet and the streams often froze solidly to the bottom. Wild animals, made bold by hunger, carried off domestic animals and terrified the settlers. Their sleep was disturbed by the screams of panthers and the howling of wolves. Wily bears captured young pigs and tapered off their menus with stolen honey. Poultry yards suffered from the raids of foxes, minks, weasels, skunks, owls, and hawks. Deer did not hesitate to leap a ten-rail fence in search of grain. Many of the early settlers had religious scruples against the use of fire- arms, but it soon became necessary to use them in self preserva- tion. Their scruples abandoned, the settlers discovered that wild game was a partial solution to the ever empty family larder. Today one of the common commodities in the housewife's budget is salt, but this was not true in the early settlements. Salt was needed for the curing of meat and fish, as well as for seasoning. The only sizable source of salt in Lycoming County was from two wells walled up twenty feet deep, on Salt Run, a branch of Wallis Run. The water pumped from these wells yielded one tablespoonful of salt to eight quarts of water. Not only was it difficult to raise enough grain to eke out an existence, but the problem of grinding it perplexed the early 64 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY settlers. One of the earliest devices for making flour was em- ployed by Colonel Antes at the time of the erection of his fort, in 1776. It was simply a large iron coffee mill run by man power. The need was so great that it was operated day and night. The flour from this mill was quite coarse. The bran was separated by a hair sieve. This primitive mill was preserved as a relic until 1865, when the flood of that year swept it away. As the settlements grew and crops increased, crude mills were no longer able to supply the demands of the population. It now became necessary to load a bag of grain on a horse and travel as far as ten miles to a grist mill, where the customer was often obliged to wait his turn. But there was also a bright side to these trips, for the grist mills were the news centers of the countryside, and the waiting time was spent in playing games, gossiping, and visiting. It was not uncommon to see a mother and daughter carrying grists to the mill and returning with bran and middlings bal- anced on their heads. The footwear problem also occupied the attention of the early settler. Indian moccasins solved it for a time, but soon it became apparent that leather for real shoes was needed. To meet the need three tanneries were founded. Wyckoff's was started on the Loyalsock about 1800; Updegraff's at Williams- port about 1802; and a third somewhat later at Warrensville. A man who wanted leather first secured his raw hides, then went to the forest, peeled some oak bark, loaded hides and bark on a wagon, and drove to the tannery. At the tannery his own horse furnished the power to grind the bark. He left the hides at the tannery for a year-long tanning process. When he returned a year later, he received half of the tanned hides. The other half was retained by the tanner in compensation for his work. During the long winter months the settler himself or the traveling shoemaker made rough cowhide shoes for the PIONEER LIFE 65 men and calfskin shoes for the women and children. Boots were unknown until 1830. Since the footwear supply had to last a year it was neces- sary to practice strict economy. When they traveled long dis- tances the settlers often carried their shoes and went bare- footed. Among the German immigrants wooden shoes and shoes with wooden soles and leather uppers were common. The traveling shoemaker usually carried two or three pairs of lasts, a hammer, an awl, some wax-ends, and wooden shoe pegs. He charged fifty cents a day and board. The blacksmith was another important man in the early settlement. He shod the oxen and horses, made irons for the wagons, cranes for the fireplace, and manufactured trammel hooks, door hinges, and nails. Pioneer women were endowed with marvelous energy and endurance. Not only did they assist in wielding the sickle and mattock in the field, but to them fell the duty of caring for the flax from the sowing to the pulling, the break, hackle, spin- wheel and loom to the finished cloth. Then they completed the process by making the cloth into garments. The women also raised the sheep, sheared the wool, carded, spun, and wove the yarn. With natural dyes gathered from the forest they pro- duced their favorite colors and with their needles clothed them- selves and their children in linsey-woolsey. INCONVENIENCES OF FRONTIER LIFE As late as 1804 there was but one public road in the West Branch Valley. There were Indian paths, some of them brushed out wide enough to allow a horse to be led by the bridle, hence the name "bridle path." The streams had to be forded, a perilous task at flood time. Only three mechanical tools, the poleax, mattock, and sickle, were employed in clearing the land and harvesting crops. 66 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Food was cooked in an open fireplace in winter and a burning stump in summer. The settlers adopted the Indian practice of heating water by placing red-hot stones in sections of hollow trees. Great was the rejoicing when the fireplace crane and the iron kettle appeared in the settlement. Homestead bake ovens were scarce for a long time. Bread was baked in communal ovens, scattered through the country- side. In one instance, at least, a young man on his way to the community oven lost both his balance and his dough in climb- ing a rail fence. Undaunted, he is said to have retrieved his parcel, dusted it oflf, and proceeded on his domestic errand. The first platters were of wood, and it was some time be- fore pewter ware and the luxurious German silver were intro- duced. To meet the need for tableware, Joseph King set up a plant at the mouth of Lycoming Creek where for fifty years he made platters, bowls, and crocks of red clay, glazed with lead. Today matches are so cheap that many are given away. Not so in the days of the early Lycoming settlers. Until the early 1850's people were obliged to use the tinder box, flint and steel, to start their fires. For lighting they used pitch pine splints, unless they were prosperous enough to afford iron lamps for burning lard. Envelopes and postage stamps were not commonly used until the 1850's. Horses were not generally used for farm work in the early days. Oxen pulled the plows and carried the burdens. Within the memory of living residents proud young men and their best girls went about the streets of Williamsport in two-wheel, white oak sulkies, drawn by well-groomed steers. The couple would be tastefully attired in homespun and snuggled under deer skins and wolf hides. Parking their buggy at the north- west corner of Pine and Willow Streets they would dismount and enter a cafe where the "special" for the day was spruce beer and gingerbread. PIONEER LIFE ^1 The early settlers were tireless walkers. It was a common occurrence for a woman to walk fifteen miles or more, a great homemade basket filled with butter, eggs, and farm produce balanced on her head. Women and men carried boards for gables, doors, and floors from the saw mill on their backs and heads. RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION The first charter for a railroad in Lycoming County was granted on March 31, 1836, to the Jersey Shore and Willards- burg Railroad, which later became the Pine Creek Railroad. On May 20, 1837 a charter was granted to the Williamsport Rail- road Company, and a railroad was opened between Williams- port and Ralston in 1839. Although this road was constructed to handle iron and coal operations along Lycoming Creek, it was not until twenty years later that coal was used as a fuel for locomotives. The early locomotives were wood burning. The cutting of cordwood and its transportation to the railroad where it was cut into proper sizes was a sizable source of em- ployment. AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS The settlers were elated when Samuel Ball introduced his grain cradle in 1847. No longer was there need for the sickle in harvesting grain. To find naturally crooked snaths and fingers for his invention, Ball was first obliged to hunt in the woods for them. As demand for his product increased he used a steam box and form to get the proper bend. Another im- portant innovation was the use of the ox-drawn shovel-plow instead of the mattock in preparing the soil for sowing. DEVELOPMENT OF HOME CONSTRUCTION The earliest German dwellings in Lycoming County were huts made of small round logs. Joints were chunked and daubed; floors were of puncheon or earth; roofs were made of 68 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY clapboards held down by poles; the fireplace was open with a rough stone chimney on the outside. As an anchor from which to suspend long hooks and trammels to hold pots and kettles, a thinly hewn piece of white oak, set on edge and resting on pro- jecting stones within the jambs, was used. Hot ashes and coals served the dual purpose of cooking and heating. The huts had only one door, and frequently this was only an opening covered with a blanket or an animal hide. Alongside the door was a single window made of greased paper. As the settlers became more prosperous, larger homes were built. These were provided with a loft reached with the aid of a ladder from the inside, or, in a few cases, from the outside. As the walls were put up the interior surface was hewn flat or faced and the joints closed with chunks of wood and mortar and finished with whitewash. The introduction of the swing- ing crane, skillets, and the Dutch ovens was a long stride toward casing the cooking problem. Windows were now improved by using "bull's eye" glass instead of greased paper. Doors were hung on wooden hinges with great wooden latches, and the proverbial "latch string hanging out" was an evidence of hospitality. Straw played an important part in the economy of the home. With deft fingers it was twisted into ropes and, with the aid of white oak splints, transformed into bread baskets, bee hives, and cradles. To provide straw hats for summer, rye straw was twisted into braids which were formed over a block to get the proper head size. Twenty-four yards of braid were required for each hat. The men's winter caps were long and conical in shape, knit of colored wool and adorned with a tassel. On special occasions a Williamsport made fur hat was worn over the knitted cap. Iron for mounting farming utensils made of oak now came into more general use. The old natural crook sleds and dugout vessels were improved by the use of iron and cooperage. PIONEER LIFE 69 The next improvement in the construction of homes was made by adding an extra room or two, with inside chimneys, board floors, roofs of shaved shingles, iron hinges on doors. Cellars and spring houses became more common. The ten-plate stove came into vogue and in small families answered the double purpose of cooking and heating. But the acme of comfort seemed to have arrived when, in 1840, the first Hathaway cook- ing stove was brought to the valley. Houses were improved in appearance and comfort with the practice of weather boarding the crude log dwellings. Saw mills began to supply clapboarding and hewn timber frames, and houses were often constructed by professional builders, a divi- sion of labor not possible in the earlier days. PIONEER RECREATIONS The recreations of the pioneers were in harmony with their environment and experience. Among the most popular were hunting, fishing, horse-racing, rifle-shooting, fox chasing, and the netting of wild pigeons in the autumn. During the migra- tion season, flocks of wild pigeons darkened the sky, and with the aid of huge nets and "stool pigeons" it was not unusual to trap a thousand at a time. They were sold in the Williamsport market for as little as six cents a dozen. Shad of the finest quality were found in abundance in the Susquehanna and served as an important source of cheap food. Brook trout were caught in all the smaller streams of the county. Then as today horse racing was popular. From far and near the best horses were brought to be entered in the races. Wagers were made but seldom in cash. More often they were paid in corn, wheat, or other produce. During the holiday season shooting matches were popular. The prizes were usually turkeys, ducks, and chickens, and unless the rifleman could "drive the nail" at thirty yards he did not o ►^ c o PIONEER LIFE 71 carry home any poultry. From fall until early spring hunting furnished the chief sport for men. No license was required, there was no bag limit, and hounds were often used in chasing deer. During the long winters sleighing parties were popular aflFairs. Sleds large enough to hold fifty or sixty people were drawn by four horses liberally laden with bells. The ride us- ually ended at a tavern or friend's house miles distant from home. A fiddler provided the music, a leader called the rounds, and the dance was underway. At midnight there was a chicken- and- waffle supper and, at daybreak, a ham and egg breakfast. HABITS AND CUSTOMS Dress provided a difficult problem for the pioneer seam- stress. Calico was less common than silk is today and it cost seventy-five cents a yard. A person who bought the seven yards of calico needed for a dress was considered extravagant. A wo- man's everyday dress was "copperas and white," as it was called, and "copperas and blue, two and two" for special occasions. Each woman not only manufactured her own cloth, but did her own coloring with bark from a soft maple tree, hemlock, butter- nut or witch-hazel, as well as logwood and smartweed. Cop- peras, alum, and sorrel were used to set the colors. Garments had to give long service for it was uncertain when the next could be bought. Handkerchiefs or home-made bonnets served as hats. Maple syrup and honey took the place of butter. Bears' fat was used foreshortening. Fried cakes were baked in pots of bear and raccoon fat. Browned rye, peas, beechnuts, and chicory were substituted for coffee. Sage, thyme, peppermint, spearmint, evanroot, spice bush, sweet fern, and tansy were served instead of tea. The cabins were illuminated by the light of huge fireplaces and by blazing pitch-pine splinters stuck in the chimney jams. 72 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Sawmill at Gray's Run Sufficient light was furnished by these means for the women to sew, spin and weave; for the men to mend and make shoes; and for the children to read their lesson books. A supply of pitch- pine knots was usually put in before winter. Deer fat and lard were also used for illuminating purposes. Tallow lamps were introduced later, but were used only when tallow or lard could be spared. The time of day was determined by "sun marks" or "moon marks" upon the doors or windows. This method was finally superseded by the old-fashioned clocks, without cases and long cords, which sold at fabulous prices. PIONEER LIFE 73 FIRST SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY Because of the few and scattered inhabitants west of the Muncy Hills, popular education was not practicable until the advent of the Quakers at Pennsdale. As early as 1793, the So- ciety of Friends established a school there, probably the first one in the county. A school was founded in Jaysburg (south of the present site of Newberry) and one at Dunnsburg (near the Great Island at Lock Haven), then in Lycoming County. About 1796 the Michael Ross school was established on part of the present site of the Court House at Williamsport. Later, schools were started at Quaker Hill and at Jersey Shore. The free school system was established in 1834, and from that time they received regular financial assistance from various govern- mental units. The first school houses were patterned after the early cabins: small buildings somewhat longer than wide, made of unhewn logs notched at the ends, with joints chunked and daubed, puncheon floors, the usual clapboard roof held in place by poles. One window covered with greased paper was the only source of light. A stone chimney, with an open fireplace, to which a large log was daily dragged as a back log, served the purpose of heating. These buildings were constructed wholly through the enterprise and public spirit of the citizens of the neighborhood who also paid the salary of the teacher and boarded him "round," which means that families took turns boarding and lodging him. The^e primitive buildings gave place to a considerably im- proved structure. For better lighting purposes as well as for compactness many now took an octagonal shape, and were made of sawed lumber, embellished with a cupola and a shaved shingle roof. Windows of 8 x 10 inch bull's eye glass supplanted the sin- gle oil paper one, and Ben Franklin's ten-plate stove was adopted as the heating system. The elements and the march of time 74 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY compelled the replacement of these buildings. The later build- ings were constructed of brick and stone, well lighted and fur- nished. Many of these exist in the county today. Free textbooks and modern equipment which are now taken as a matter of course were not conceivable a century ago. Until the turn of the century it was necessary for parents to go to Williamsport to purchase school books, slates, pencils, and copybooks. Long box-like desks and uncomfortable benches were provided for older pupils; the smaller ones were seated on the flat side of slabs raised upon stakes. A popular method of punishment was the "dunce's hat," which was placed upon the head of the stupid pupil. To his embarrassment he was forced to stand on an elevated spot be- fore his schoolmates. Generally, the teacher or '"master" was respected by his pupils and their parents, but after the close of his term he was the object of many pranks. Thejre was dissen- sion in some communities regarding courses of instruction. The Germans naturally wanted their children taught in native tongue, but the other nationalities insisted that the instruction be given in English. These differences became so heated that separate buildings were erected at Jaysburg for the Pennsylvania German and the Scotch- Irish. There was no free transportation to the schools in the pioneer days. Children were accustomed to walking four miles through lonely forests or unfrequented trails to their log school house. Dressed in homespun or in furs they were immune to the freezing weather of the mid-winter months. School was in session only in the winter months, when pupil and teacher could be spared from work in the fields. There were no blackboards in the early schools. With a piece of keel or charcoal the teacher would write the A. B. C.'s on the walls or the pupils' desks. There were no textbooks for PIONEER LIFE 75 the advanced pupil. A spelling book, the Bible or prayer book, or an occasional newspaper served that purpose. Later the Yankee schoolmaster introduced Daboll's arith- metic and the New England primer, together with some ad- vanced educational ideas. He substituted a droll wit for the cudgel and employed fun and frolic for his weapon. Unfortu- nately the memory of the feud between the Connecticut Yankees and the Pennsylvanians over the Connecticut Claim still per- sisted and many residents were still prejudiced against Yankees. In spite of this preju^lice, the schoolmaster organized subscrip- tion schools, introduced the "spellin' skeule" and "singin' skeule" and the debating society. He soon convinced young people that it was fun to /'hook up Dobbin to the shay" and go to a schoolhouse gathering. Much credit is due the "writin' master." Before the days of the typewriter the art of writing was more important than it is today. Equipped with a "pen knife," the teacher sharpened points on goose quills at recess and noontime. The results of his teaching are found in old county court records. The beauty of the script has not improved with the steel pen. If one wishes to satisfy his mind as to whether or not the privations . and discomforts endured by the early scholars and teachers were worth what they cost let him but study the lives of the men who were a product of these mental nurseries. Forth frpm them came authors, statesmen, jurists, merchants, generals, patriots, and others who stamped an in- delible impression for good on the pages of history. That they acquired a foundation for honorable citizenship, a realization of the possibilities of human effort, an appreciation of the blessings of liberty and a spirit of patriotism that led them to sacrifice freely their lives that this nation might live is indisputable. QUESTIONS CHAPTER VII 1. From, where did the early settlers of the West Branch Valley come? Why did they choose this location? 76 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY 2. By what route did the German immigrants reach Lycoming County from Germantown? 3. What were some of the hardships suffered by the early settlers? 4. How did the settlers obtain leather for shoes? 5. What were the duties or tasks of the pioneer women? Write a letter about pioneer life. 6. What was the name of the first railroad in Lycoming County? 7. Describe how houses were built in pioneer days. 8. What were the recreations of the pioneers? 9. What did the early settlers use instead of coffee and tea? 10. What were some of the early customs? 11. How were the log cabins illuminated? CHAPTER VIII Lumbering WHEN the pioneers came to Lycoming County they found a wild and romantic region. Nine-tenths of it was a gloomy wilderness covered with an abundance of large timber, existing in tangled profusion. No wonder the Indian set fires to facilitate hunting. He had little use for wood. He was, in fact, unable to cut it easily with his axe of stone. When the white man ar- rived Lycoming County still had virgin forests of the finest hemlock and white pine. FIRST TIMBER CUT The first trees were cut for a twofold purpose: logs were needed for the erection of cabins, and the land had to be cleared for the sowing of crops. After the log huts had been built, trees seemed to the pioneers more of a liability than an asset. Since many of them had chosen land heavily covered with trees, the problem of getting rid of them was a major one. The easiest and most logical method was to burn them. Our grandfathers can well remember great piles of burning timber, of inestimable value at today's prices, consigned to the flames for lack of a market. THE FIRST SAWMILLS After the early settlers had cleared land for crops, their attention was directed to the improvement of their log houses. This required finished lumber and furnished the impetus for the erection ©f the first crude sawmills. One of the earliest and simplest devices for manufacturing lumber was the pit saw, a 78 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Portable Sawmill common cross-cut rip saw with one man in a pit and another on top of the log furnishing the power. Improvement came with plain "up and down" s.aws powered by water. This saw was improved from time to time by adding "slabbers" and flat or rolling gangs. An important innovation was the first steam sawmill introduced by Peter Tinsman on January 1, 1852. It was located on the river bank at Williamsport, east of the later Shaw mill. With the steam mill came the circular saws. Two objections to the circular saw were, first, the width of the kerf made by it wasted lumber; and secondly, it frequently was not big enough to cut large logs. The band saw was a long step forward in the LUMBERING 79 process of sawing lumber ; it is used today in all large operations and in many smaller mills. The band saw is an endless belt of flexible steel -saw which cuts logs of large diameter and makes a narrow kerf. FIRST MILLS IN COUNTY It is believed that Roland Hall built the first sawmill in 1792. The mill was on Lycoming Creek about four miles from its mouth. Although a crude apparatus, it produced lumber for many of the first houses in Williamsport. Six years later Samuel Torbett erected a mill on Bottle Run and Thomas Caldwell attached a sawmill to his gristmill on the same creek. Since the early mills were powered by water, they were naturally located along streams. As the water mills became out- moded they were converted into steam mills. The early steam mills stayed along the streams because there was an abundance of timber in the valleys, logs could be floated to the mills, and, in many instances, lumber could be rafted directly from the mills to distant markets. THE BUSINESS OF LUMBERING The first requisite in the business of lumbering was the acquisition of timber. The early lumbermen either bought the timber land outright or in fee-simple. Many of them owned hundreds of acres of land for which they had no use after the timber was gone. These men often became "land poor." To overcome this condition, and in order to conduct the business on less capital, the lumbermen bought only standing trees of a cer- tain size, leaving the title to the soil and mineral rights to the original owner. Sometimes the buyer paid for timber on a certain tract without measuring the log feet by scale. A timber estimator would travel over the tract and calculate from ob- servation the amount of lumber it would produce. It was sur- prising how accurately he estimated. Another much-used method 80 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Bcark Peeling Scene of purchasing timber was that of scaling the logs after they were cut. Expert scalers, selected by agreement between seller and buyer, determined accurately the number of log feet. After the timber had been purchased the next step was the cutting. There was little guesswork. Usually a jobber cut the logs at an agreed price for a thousand log feet. A crew of lum- berjacks felled the trees, cut them into proper sizes, and piled the logs on nearby skidways or along streams. TWO PERIODS FOR CUTTING Because of the importance of the bark in lumbering, timber was cut at two periods of the year. Hemlock trees could be peeled only from early spring until about July 1st, when because LUMBERING 8 1 of sap conditions the bark could no longer be stripped. Hard- wood trees, with the exception of some kinds of oak, were not peeled, and could therefore be cut in the fall and winter. The hardwoods could be handled more economically then because they had already been stripped of their leaves by frost. GETTING LOGS TO THE MILL After the logs had been cut and piled the next operation was transporting them to the mill. Since there were two kinds of timber — the heavy hardwoods and the lighter woods such as white pine and hemlock — it was necessary to employ dif- erent methods of transportation to the saws. Only the lighter logs, such as hemlock and pine, would float; the hardwoods, such as oak and maple, were transported on sleds. Floating or "driving" logs began with the first spring freshets or as soon as the heavy ice had cleared away. In some instances the work was done on a natural rise of water, but the lumber- men often built splash dams to facilitate the splashing or wash- ing of the logs downstream. Only experienced men were used in floating. Equipped with heavy, high topped, calked shoes, thick woolen clothes, and a peavey or "picklevcr" or "cant hook," the drivers chased the logs and broke up jams. Al- though care was exercised to prevent the formation of jams, the logs often became twisted into a tangled mass. The most skillful driver then had the dangerous job of releasing the key log. If he could not budge it, the jam was dynamited, with the re- sultant waste of valuable timber. Men and teams of horses fol- lowed the drive. It was a common sight to see horses, with men on their backs, swimming in the log-choked streams. On the larger streams, such as Loyalsock Creek, the driving crews were usually accompanied by large ark rafts in which they ate and slept. The tired men often crawled into the hard bunks without changing their wet and frequently icy clothing. Old 82 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY lumbermen who took part in the drives contend that the man who slept in his wet clothing suffered no ill eflfect and that colds, pneumonia, and rheumatism were unknown among those who followed this custom. SLEDDING The sled was an important vehicle in the lumber business. Because it was low, large logs could easily be placed upon it. The narrowness of its track enabled it to negotiate mountain trails, and a team of horses could draw an amazingly heavy load on snow or ice. When it became necessary to go farther back into the mountains to cut floatable logs, sleds were largely used to transport them to the streams. The heavy hardwoods had to be hauled all the way from the woods to the mills. During winters when the snowfall was light, logs were hauled day and night. Logs left in the woods through the summer greatly de- creased in value; also there was always the chance they would be destroyed in the numerous forest fires. When night hauling was necessary, the woods and log roads were illuminated with torches. Horses and men -were often so tired that they slept dur- ing the midnight lunch period. SLIDING Another method of moving logs toward the mills was the slide. By hewing logs on one side and placing the sides together in a series, a long trough or chute was made from the top of a mountain to the stream. After the slide was oiled or iced, logs were placed in the trough and started toward the water's edge where they piled up in a rough and tumble landing. To regu- late the speed of the logs in their wild ride it was necessary to insert protruding spikes at intervals along the slide to retard motion. In spite of these devices for controlling momentum the logs would often make terrifying jumps from the speedway. LUMBERING 83 CAMP LIFE Although the life of the lumberjack was strenuous, it was not without compensations. The atmosphere in which he lived and worked was conducive to health and high spirits. Though he sometimes worked from dark to dark the healthful mountain air laden with the aroma of pine and hemlock aroused a ravenous appetite which he satisfied with plain well-cooked food. After supper he could look forward to a restful night in the loft of a wind swept cabin. He was not surprised to find a carpet of snow in his loft when he heard the early breakfast call, "Come and get it!" The earliest lumber camps, like the pioneer dwellings, were built of logs, but after the sawmills were erected it was more economical to construct these temporary structures of cheap lum- ber and slabs. They were the plainest kind of buildings, with three rooms on the first floor:- kitchen, dining room and a lobby. The second floor had one large bunk room for the crew and fre- quently a smaller compartment for the boss. The furniture was crude: benches instead of chairs, a long dining room table of the picnic variety, and bedroom equipment of boards and straw. The most popular room in camp was the lobby. With a big chunk stove loaded with beech or maple radiating welcome heat, a table, cards, and plenty of tobacco, the woodsmen were fixed for the evening. It is unfortunate that many of the tall tales and stories have been lost, for these plain, unlettered men were prime storytellers. One of the popular discussions in the bark-peeling season centered about the subject of rattlesnakes. Timber, particularly hemlock, seemed to attract rattlesnakes. There were instances where certain tracts could not be cut dur- ing the summer season owing to the prevalence of these dan- gerous pests. A bark-i)ccler considered the killing of three or four rattlesnakes part of his day's work. One Lycoming County 8'4 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Crew' at Lumber Camp camp reported that had the men skinned all the "bell-snakes" they killed and tacked the hides on their sizable shanty, it would have been completely weather-boarded. RECREATION There was little time or opportunity for recreation. The camps were far from social centers, and evenings in the lobby were too short for more than a round or two of "seven-up." Because of the long hours of labor most of the men were ready to "hit the hay" shortly after supper. Rainy days were spent in grinding axes, repairing tools, greasing harness, calking and nailing shoes, mending and washing clothes. Sunday was wel- LUMBERING 85 corned as a day of well-earned rest. Men who lived near the camp would occasionally go home for the day, but most of them stayed in camp from spring until the 4th of July. Many of the men did not draw their pay during their entire stay, and, since their wages were above the average, they accumulated sizable bank rolls. They lost no time getting to the nearest town. Wil- liamsport, because of its size and accommodations, was the most popular resort. SAWMILL LIFE Sawmill men, like woodsmen, possessed great powers of endurance. The morning whistle blew promptly at six o'clock, and the saws began to whir immediately. Every man had to be at his post, for a sawmill was a well organized machine. The day's output of lumber depended, in large measure, upon the head sawyer. If no logs were slabbed by the main saw there were none to be finished by the gang saws, the edgers, the cut- offs, and the lath mill. The head sawyer paid little attention to what happened to the log after he had performed his initial operation. If he pushed the logs along too fast for the other sawyers, that was not his worry. When he outstripped the crews he was feeding, he felt he was deserving of his higher wage. His job was not without its hazards. When a saw was forced beyond its capacity, it was not unusual for it to break or to burst into flying pieces. Another valuable man about the sawmill was the master mechanic. He had to be versatile indeed. His principal work was to keep the saws sharp, but he was called upon to fix every- thing from the simple "bull- wheel" which dragged the logs up the "jack-slip" to the complex twin-engines which furnished the power to move the carriage forward and backward. Speed was the byword of a mill. The "setter" and the "dogger" who rode the carriage had to be particularly fast. The head sawyer gave them little time to adjust their instruments. 86 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY The log must go on; the slab must go off, to fall on "live- rollers," guided by "off-bear" men toward the rear of the mill. The finished lumber finally reached the end of the mill. Here it was pushed on hand cars to the pilers, the biggest and strong- est men on the job. Equipped with heavy leather aprons and "hand leathers" to protect them from splinters, they placed the heavy planks on an orderly pile. They were among the highest paid men in the unskilled class. The working hours, as late as the 90's, were from 6 A.M. to 6 P.M. with an hour for dinner. They worked six days a week. During winter the plant was illuminated by torches morning and evenings. Sometimes the mill ran all night with only the poor light of oil torches. Wages ran from 80 cents per day for boys to $4.00 for the sawyer and head mechanic. The lumber pilers received $2.00 a day and found. Most of the men were boarded by the mill owners in a nearby camp or house. If the worker paid his own room and board, he was allowed 40 cents a day extra. During the long summer days there was an hour or two for daylight recreation after supper. Some of the men went fishing, some swam in the mill pond, and others held a contest in "log cuffing" or "log rolling." Two men shod with calked shoes would ride a log to deep water and, with their feet, roll or spin it rapidly. The first man to tumble lost the game. One summer a sawmill crew had the good fortune of hav- ing an extraordinary entertainer among them. Mike Scully, the blacksmith, had a penchant for snakes. He had not been a member of the sawdust crew very long before he advertised, "Don't kill snakes. I pay money for live ones." Mike had been wise in choosing a location for the snake business, for there were plenty of snakes with which to operate. His verbal adver- tisement by way of the "grapevine" was so effective that a stranger soon inquired for the purchasing agent of the Scully LUMBERING 87 Snake Company, Limited. The stranger, a Mr. Catchem, had snared a particularly fine specimen of yellow rattlesnake and was anxious to get a market quotation. Mr. Scully, wishing to create the impression that his company's working capital was unlimited, informed the owner of the reptile that his sample was fine and asked how many dozens he had at home ready for delivery. The salesman replied by saying that he was just the junior partner of the firm of Snarem and Catchem, but, since his firm owned hundreds of untapped rattlesnake dens he was sure that Mr. Snarem would not bother with small orders. He preferred to do business on a wholesale scale. Mr. Catchem left his rattler — in exchange for 50 cents — and said he would report back in a few days. The news of the purchase spread like measles. Mike was deluged with snake vendors. The fire in his forge was neglected, his irons had to be reheated, his work piled up, and he almost lost his job, all because so much of his time was spent on snake deals. But he accomplished his purpose. He created one of the best menageries of its kind in the county. The warehouse of the Scully Snake Company was filled and purchasing stopped. Mike's pets needed exercise and training. They also needed an audience to cheer them when they performed laudable feats, and the mill-men had free grandstand seats to the circus. With every performer on his pedestal and the ringmaster in the center the show was on. Each actor had his chance to do a stunt. They tied themselves into fancy and difficult knots, shaped themselves into ornate pendants about their keeper's neck, con- torted themselves into stylish bracelets and anklets, and con- tested with each other in distance striking. Of course the com- petitors were classified. The water snakes competed in the aquatic events, the garter snakes in the stretching contests, the black snakes and racers in sprints, the adders and vipers in hissing and blowing, the green snakes in preening and showing, the milk 88 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY snakes in milkincss, and the copperheads and rattlesnakes in plain viciousness. WILLIAMSPORT. THE LUMBER CITY In 1838, forty-six years after Hall erected his primitive mill, Williamsport's first sawmill was built at the foot of Locust Street. Although it contained only four "up-and-down" saws powered by four water wheels it was known as the "Big Water Mill." Lumber was manufactured on a commercial scale and shipped to distant markets. With the success of the Big Mill others sprang up as if by magic. One of the most influential men in the development of the lumbering business, not only in Williamsport but all along the West Branch of the Susquehanna River, was Major James H. Perkins. He was born in 1803, in the village of South Market, New Hampshire. At middle age he had accumulated a fortune in the calico business in Philadelphia. Believing he could further increase his wealth by entering the lumber business in Lycoming County, he came to Williamsport in 1845. Shortly afterward he purchased the Big Water Mill. Armed with capital, business experience, and plenty of energy, Perkins soon demonstrated that the lumbering industry had a brilliant future. After oper- ating the mill for a number of years he sold it and constructed a more modern steam mill at DuBoistown, which he success- fully directed for fourteen years. When the timber in the immediate vicinity of Williams- port was exhausted, a cheap method of transporting logs from a distance had to be found. There were millions of trees farther up the river. The logical way to get the logs to the mills was to float them; but this process required a device for stopping them when they reached Williamsport. LUMBERING 89 THE BOOM In order to solve this problem Major Perkins put into operation a device that was to revolutionize the lumber industry and to make Williamsport famous for lumber throughout the country. The boom (the word comes from beam) consisted of a chain of logs stretched diagonally across the river. At the height of its development the boom extended from Williams- port to Linden, a distance of six miles, and was able to hold 300,000,000 feet of logs at one time. At the peak of operations the lumber kings of Williams- port operated some thirty great sawmills. To feed these giant hungry machines, in 1873, the peak year, 1,582,460 logs were required, which when converted into lumber amounted to 318,342,712 board feet. Today there is not a large sawmill in the county. Virgin trees are few and scattered, and the second- growth is small in size of logs as well as in tracts. The tan- bark industry, which was so important at one time that hemlock trees were cut and stripped for their bark and the wood allowed to rot in the forest, is now virtually defunct. Other tanning materials from which tannin is extracted, such as que-bracho- wood from South America, are now substituted for native bark. Most of the lumber is manufactured in the portable mill, some- times called the "vest-pocket" mill, a compact piece of machinery which may be moved easily from place to place. The mill is transported to the timber instead of the opposite. Finished lumber is delivered to the market by motor truck. THE FORESTS TODAY "I regard the forest as a heritage given to us by nature, not for spoil or to devastate, but to be wisely used, reverently honored and carefully maintained." Bacon Ferdinand von Mueller. I s « r CO c I HMi. LUMBERING 9 1 The war on the forests of Lycoming County has left a sorry aftermath. Gifford Pinchot, first chief of the United States Forest Service, once told a group of western lumbermen that if they continued cutting timber as fast as they had been cutting it, their forest would be cleared in thirty years. "Mr. Pinchot," replied the leader of the group, "there is enough timber tributary to our mills to keep them going for seven generations." That was in 1915. Today the timber is gone, the mills are closed, fifteen hundred workers are scattered. This is not an isolated case, but illustrates a condition that obtained not only in the West but also in Lycoming County. As late as the middle 90's a thousand board feet of grade- A hemlock lumber, after it had been hauled by wagon a dis- tance of ten miles, sold for $6.50. Less than twenty-five years later this same amount of lumber brought $36.50. The price of lumber today is so high as to make building costs prohibitive. Many buildings recently constructed in the county have not a piece of native timber in them. Most of the lumber has been transported for hundreds of miles. Because of high lumber and transportation costs all kinds of substitutes have been employed. Trees that were once considered worthless are today transported miles and manufactured into lumber that would have been classed as cull by the lumbermen of yesteryear. In the wake of the ax and saw came that wasteful demon — fire. The dead and dried limbs and tree tops, the stumps and abandoned logs provided excellent food for the flames. There were no fire roads to assist fighters. Fires were considered un- preventable, and were expected each spring and fall. For days they raged up the mountain sides and across the broad tops with such terrific heat that stones cracked and crumbled. In many instances only a welcome rain put an end to the destruc- tion. Wild life, seedlings, saplings, and promising young trees 92 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Band saw cutting out a piece of furniture all fell victim to the fiery scourge which left barren, desolated areas in its wake. With the destruction of the forests, the reservoir that ab- sorbed heavy rains was demolished. Devastating floods became common. Regions that had never before been flooded were regularly afi^ected. Inestimable damage was done to valuable lowland farms, villages, and cities. Springs, wells, and streams dried up. Game fish perished in dry or stagnant pools. The wholesale removal of the forests also worked wide- spread harm among the permanent residents of the mountains. These people were primarily dependent upon lumber for their sustenance. When lumbering ceased, their small fields and gar- LUMBERING 93 den patches were no longer able to support them. The impov- erished inhabitants were forced to abandon their homes and seek employment in the towns and cities. Their unproductive fields reverted to a wild state and so remain today. To illustrate the exodus from typical lumbering counties let two examples be given. Forest County, in 1900, had a population of 11,039; in 1910, 9,435; in 1920, 7,477; and in 1930, 5,180. Potter County for the same periods declined as follows: 30,621 to 29.729 to 21,089 to 17,489. This was the tragic aftermath of the war on the forests. REHABILITATION After the ruthless lumbermen had denuded the forests of timber, they gathered up their tools and set out for new forest lands. They headed North, West, and South, to the Adiron- dacks, Michigan, Georgia, and Louisiana. They had no further use for thousands of acres of timberless land upon which they were obliged to pay annual taxes. The owners naturally wished to sell, and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania bought the land, much of it for back taxes. The State Government de- cided that these boundless acres of treeless land must be refor- ested and set out to do the job. Today, almost half of the land area of Pennsylvania is forested. If the 13,200,000 acres of forest land were equally divided, each man, woman and child resident in the state would have one and one-third acres. There are about 110 different varieties of trees in the State forests, more than half of them of the timber variety. On March 1, 1936, the state forests embraced an area of 1,964,439 acres, purchased at an average cost of $2.43 an acre. This land was acquired in the short period of 38 years. A con- servative estimate of the value of this land is in excess of $20,000,000. The state forests have already yielded approxi- 94 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY mately $1,000,000 in income, most of which has been placed in the State School Fund. To preserve and protect this vast domain approximately 3,000 miles of forest roads and 4,000 miles of trails have been constructed and are being maintained. In conjunction with the roads and trails, the State owns and maintains about 425 build- ings valued at $700,000. To guard against devastation 144 forest fire observation stations have been set up, 57 of which are located upon State-owned lands. Of the 127 primary State game refuges and 65 auxiliary refuges, 44 of the former and 24 of the latter are situated in the State Forests. For the purpose of reforestation the Commonwealth in 1904 established its first tree nursery at Mt. Alto. Today there are four large nurseries with an annual capacity of 15,000,000 trees. Nearly 50,000,000 trees have been planted in the state forests. Private owners of woodland in Pennsylvania have pur- chased from the department and planted more than 150,000,000 trees. Forests are grown for other purposes than timber produc- tion. As agents in modifying the surface of the earth, as places of recreation, as moderators of floods and droughts, as sources of health-giving properties, and as hunting preserves, these forest lands are of incalculable value to the present generation and to posterity. The above figures were furnished by the Department of Forests and Waters and the Pennsylvania Game Commission. QUESTIONS CHAPTER VIII 1. For what two purposes was the first timber cut? 2. Who built the first sawmills in Lycoming County? 3. How did men become "land poor"? 4. How were the logs transported from the forest to the lumber mills? 5. Why were sleds used in the lumber business? 6. Write a short letter to a friend explaining the camp life and recreation of a lumberjack. 7. What were the hours of labor and wages of saw mill workers?? 8. Who was Major James H. Perkins? 9. What was meant by a log boom? 10. What is the State of Pennsylvania doing today to preserve its forest land? CHAPTER IX Civil War Days IN Lycoming County, as elsewhere throughout the country the events leading up to the Civil War provided topics for endless discussions. Since the newspapers of the district were usually affiliated with and interested in the success of a political party, the partisanship of their editorials and the coloring of their news columns intensified the prejudices of the readers. In the presidential election of 1860 Lincoln carried Ly- coming County, receiving 3,494 votes to Douglas' 2,541. But local newspapers were far from unanimous in their endorsement of Lincoln's victory. Shortly after his election he was attacked bitterly by The Lycoming Gazette, February 20, 1861. Lin- coln's speeches, on his way from Springfield to Washington were said to contain "neither statesmanship, tact, nor talent in them — only twaddle that the merest pettifogger in several coun- ties around would be ashamed to have set down as coming from him, and which the whole nation should blush to know came from one who is soon to be its chief magistrate." The firing on Fort Sumter in 1861 shocked Lincoln's editorial critic, and he immediately began to support the admin- istration's military policies and leadership. Throughout the Civil War the people of Lycoming County supported the Union cause with virtual unanimity. The spirit of '76 again quick- ened the hearts of descendants of Revolutionary families, and the more recent immigrants were also prompt in aligning them- selves on the side of the North. In Lycoming County little trouble was experienced in en- listing men. Party lines were erased. Republicans and Demo- 96 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY crats lined up shoulder to shoulder in answer to the call. Mili- tary enthusiasm was at such a high pitch that only twelve days after Fort Sumter had been fired upon the county had sent three companies to the front. The "Woodward Guards," which were organized on August 23, 1856 and named for Judge Apollos Woodward, was honored by being made company A of the Eleventh Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Com- pany D was mustered in Williamsport, and Company G was re- cruited in Muncy. These three companies were mustered into service on April 23, 1861, at Harrisburg, and were attached to the Eleventh Regiment. These companies not only served their first term of three months, but at the expiration of that period their regiment became the first to enlist for three years, a period everyone con- sidered "the duration of the war." The Eleventh Regiment Volunteers achieved an enviable record in service during the war, participating in almost all the engagements of the Army of the Potomac. The companies from Lycoming County attracted the ap- proving attention of all* who reviewed the regiment. A corre- spondent of the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin assigned to the regiment was so impressed that he wrote his paper, "The 11th Regiment was reported at Harrisburg to be the best drilled regi- ment in the camp. It is not uniformed and the men are armed with very diversified and wonderful weapons. Some firelocks that I have observed with them might have done service in the old Colonial wars. A few have no guns at all, but are provided with carving and sheath knives, veterans horse-pistols, rusty bayonets and swords that seem to have been beaten into shape in some village forge. What they lack in martial means they make up in physical excellence, as all are broad chested, huge limbed men with countenances already indurated and scarred by a lifetime battle with the elements. . . . They have ponderous CIVIL WAR DAYS 97 feet, if boots are testimonies, and might answer for grenadiers for Frederick the Great." The pay of soldiers in the Union Army as published in The Lycoming Gazette ranged from $218 a month for colonels to $22 for corporals, $21 for musicians, and $20 for privates. From this pay officers were required to furnish "their own uni- forms and supplies," but privates were provided with these necessities by the Government. The first Lycoming County soldiers to leave for military service were compelled to endure unexpected hardships. Despite the good intentions of the Federal Governmnt it was several months after their arrival in camp before they were provided with more than the bare necessities. Frequently the soldiers were dependent upon the people residing in communities adjoin- ing the camps for food. More than a month after their departure from Lycoming County, one soldier, in a letter to a county paper, wrote, "Thus far no uniforms have been furnished us — no shoes, no caps, or clothing of any kind — except perhaps in a few instances; some of the officers have supplied the wants of the most needy of their men from their own private purses; others cannot appear on parade in consequence of a want of clothing. Our rations have been tolerably good until quite recently, when we were served the other morning with hard crackers instead of bread, and salt meat, with half-browned coffee. The crackers were soon flying in every direction and shouts of disapprobation rent the air." The reason for the abject appearance of the men from Lycoming was due to the fact that they had been informed that upon their arrival at Harrisburg they would be supplied with army uniforms. They had worn their oldest clothes, which could be discarded, rather than sent home when they re- ceived government clothing. As the uniforms were not forth- 98 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY coming the men were compelled to continue wearing the shabby outfits taken from home. The rations for soldiers, as published in the Williamsport Press of May 10, 1861, consisted of "Breakfast — one quart of good coffee, eight ounces of bread, and three-eights pound of beef; Noon, five-eighth pound of beef or mutton, well cooked with potatoes, one quart of baked beans, rice, bean or vegetable soup at the rate of one pint per man. Supper, eight ounces of bread, three pints of coffee and one- fourth pound of cold beef or mutton. Coffee to be furnished properly sweetened, and milk in due proportion to be provided." An indispensable part of each soldier's equipment was the "work bag." Most of these were made by patriotic women of the community who desired to be of direct aid to the departing soldiers. The bags were made of "dark calico, double with compartments for each article, so as to be readily got at." Each usually contained "one pair of round pointed scissors, one pair coarse needles, one hank grey patent thread, two hanks black patent thread, one spool coarse white thread, three dozen por- celain shirt buttons, five dozen suspender buttons, one pair hose, one piece grey twilled tape, two pieces of white tape, half paper of strong pins, and woolen yarn to darn stockings, and darning needles." In addition to the "work bags," boxes containing bandages and other first-aid articles were made up and for- warded to the soldiers in camp. Persons exempt from military service tried in other ways to contribute to the comfort of the soldiers and to relieve them of worry concerning their families. Typical of this attitude was the action of one property owner in releasing all his tenants from paying rent while they were serving in the army. A well known physician of Williamsport offered free medical service to the families of volunteers in the Woodward Guards and Wil- liamsport Rifle Company. CIVIL WAR DAYS 99 Troop trains passed through Williamsport almost daily. Invariably the trains were met by the ladies of the county, who fed and entertained the soldiers. Thousands of dollars in con- tributions were raised in the vicinity to assist dependent fam- ilies. One small borough raised almost $1,500 in several "bene- fits," and the borough of Williamsport borrowed money to aid its fatherless families. Many of the men from Lycoming and neighboring coun- ties were from pioneer farms. This background proved to be a decided asset to the hastily recruited, largely volunteer army. If their regiment needed log cabins or larger buildings, men from Lycoming County were usually asked to build them. One soldier wrote as follows, "It is rather amusing to see them build cabins without having nails or any kind of tools except an axe . . . Company D ... is composed of men from Bradford, Tioga and Lycoming Counties. If our General or Colonel wants a cabin built, or wants any men to do any kind of work, it seems Company D has to do it." At the beginning of the war troops were obtained by en- listment. The results of this method were disappointing. Con- gress therefore passed a selective draft act, which, in its original version, contained inequalities. In order to secure a sufficient number of soldiers, all manner of inducements and rewards were offered. So numerous and complicated did these become that the filing of claims on behalf of veterans was a lucrative business. A little more than a year after the beginning of the Civil War several so-called "agents" were advertising in Lycoming County, offering to aid veterans in securing "soldiers pay, pensions, extra pay, bounty and bounty lands." For the Fourth Reserves, Thirty-third Regiment, Lycom- ing County recruited Company E. To the Fifth Reserves, Thirty-fourth Regiment, the county contributed one full com- pany. Company A. Many Lycoming men were in the ranks of 100 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Company K of the Forty-fifth Regiment. Several residents were in the Fifty-first Regiment which distinguished itself at Antie- tam. The Eighty-fourth Regiment, numbering 109 men from the county, made an enviable record for itself. While with this regiment Colonel Milton Opp, pioneer settler, lost his life in the battle of the Wilderness. To the Eightieth Regiment the county contributed fifteen men; to the Sixty-fifth, eighty; and to the Sixtieth, seventeen. Lycoming County was represented in the One Hundred and Sixth Regiment by several men, among whom was Captain W. N. Jones, later a Mayor of Williamsport. To the One Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment the county contributed three companies: Company G from Williamsport, Company H from Muncy and Company I from Jersey Shore. In the One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Regiment the county helped to man Company A. In the One Hundred and Ninety- fourth Regiment, Company A was wholly from Lycoming, and in the One Hundred and Ninety-fifth, Company F was re- cruited at Jersey Shore. When the state was invaded by the Confederates in June 1863, emergency regiments were organized. One of these regi- ments was the Twenty-sixth, to which Lycoming contributed Company G. Other regiments and companies of the emergency troops having Lycoming residents in their ranks were: Company K of the Twenty-eighth; the Thirty-seventh Regiment; the Forty-third, with Henry W. Petrikin of Muncy as Major; the Forty-seventh, with part Company B and all of Company G recruited in the county. The One Hundred and Forty-third Regiment, part of the famous Bucktail Brigade, included a number of Lycoming men. Lieutenant Colonel John D. Musser lost his life in the Wilder- ness, and W. F. Keys of Williamsport was taken prisoner in the same battle. CIVIL WAR DAYS 101 Lycoming County contributed also to the cavalry. The Eighty-ninth Regiment, Eighth Cavalry, included Company G. This regiment gained fame by its charge on "Stonewall" Jack- son's infantry at Chancellorsville, The county also contributed men to the Sixtieth Regiment, Third Cavalry; the Sixty-fifth Regiment, Fifth Cavalry; the Eightieth Regiment, Seventh Cav- alry; the One Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment, Thirteenth Cavalry; and to the One Hundred and Sixty-third Regiment, Eighteenth Cavalry. An independent cavalry company was organized in Wil- liamsport in September 1862, but it served for less than a month and its men drifted into other companies and regiments. On July 10, 1863, an independent cavalry battalion was organized. Lycoming furnished Company C. This unit was disbanded on August 18, 1863, and its members went to other regiments or returned home. The county was represented by musical organizations in the war. The Repasz Band of Williamsport, the oldest brass band in continuous existence in the country, served with the Eleventh Regiment Volunteers, and later with the Twenty- ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. The Stopper Silver Cornet Band, with Fridoline Stopper as leader, was a part of the One Hundred Sixth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. The band was composed of seventeen men, most of whom were from Lycoming County. On May 12, 1863, Williamsport was chosen as headquar- ters of the Board of Enrollment for the Congressional district composed of Lycoming, Centre, Clinton, Tioga, and Potter counties. It operated until April 14, 1865, furnishing 8,311 men to the colors. Of this number Lycoming contributed 2,471. The demands made upon local communities by the Federal Government as a result of the war were generally well received in Lycoming County. Difficulty was seldom encountered in 102 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY filling county, township, and borough quotas. Moreover, the local authorities applied the "draft act" in a fair and impartial manner. When draft call was issued in the early months of 1864, thousands of men had already enlisted, but hundreds more hastened to volunteer. The borough "Town Meeting" adopted a resolution requesting "all persons enrolled and subject to the draft within the Borough of Williamsport" to pay twenty-five dollars to the borough authorities. Council acted as custodian of the money thus raised. In a short period of time, 481 from Williamsport paid the amount into the fund. When a man who had subscribed was drafted, a substitute was hired for three hundred dollars and the fee paid from the fund. Such substitu- tion was permitted under the draft law and the subscription plan was entirely voluntary. This method of hiring substitutes held complaints to a minimum. It also allowed men a measure of choice and sometimes prevented needless hardships to their fam- ilies. Other townships and boroughs adopted the same pro- cedure to soften the effects of the compulsory draft. QUESTIONS CHAPTER DC 1. What were the names of the first companies from Lycoming County to be mustered into Civil War service? 2. What was a "work bag"? 3. How were the families of soldiers assisted? 4. What method was used to hire substitutes for military service? 5. Make a list of the various companies and regiments in which men from Lycoming County served. CHAPTER X Industry, Agriculture, and Labor INDUSTRY IN the early days of Lycoming County, when roads were little more than trails cut through the wilderness and there were numerous turbulent unbridged streams to be forded, wagons and river craft were the only means of communication with the outside world. From the early settlement of the territory to the construction of the West Branch Canal in 1834, virtually all of the necessities of life were produced in the home, the field, the grist mill, and the blacksmith shop. While men toiled in field, forest, mill, and shop, the women worked at home to pro- vide the family with wearing apparel. Wool was carded, spun, woven into cloth, and made into garments. From surplus fats and homemade lye, soap was made. A generous supply of roots and herbs was kept on hand for the treatment of infection and disease. Until the rise of the lumber business, most of the com- mercial enterprises in Lycoming County were personally owned and operated. The wild state of the territory and the difficulty of transporting supplies were not favorable to large scale manu- facturing like that which existed in New England and along the Atlantic seaboard. In 1838 the first large sawmill in the county was constructed. Its operation proved so profitable that others were soon built. Lumbering became a gigantic industry, and completely dominated the commercial life of the county. The first forward step in transportation was the comple- tion of the West Branch Canal from Northumberland to Lock 104 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Haven in 1834. The canal for many years played a significant role in the country's industrial development, particularly during the lumber era, when millions of feet of lumber were shipped. Although the canal was a great improvement over the horse- drawn wagon and the crude river craft, it still was a slow means of transportation. The first railroad in the county was from Williamsport to Ralston, constructed in 1839, but it was not until 1855, however, that the county was given easy access to the large eastern markets. Lumber, coal and iron-ore were responsible for attracting many of the early industries. Later, the development of modern transportation facilities, its nearness to the great an- thracite and bituminous coal fields and a quick means of reach- ing the eastern markets caused industries to locate in this section. The advent of improved marketing facilities brought an influx of tradesmen and craftsmen, not only to sell goods, but also to manufacture them. Shops sprang up in all sections of the county. In a comparatively short time, grist mills and sawmills operated by overshot water wheels were supplanted by larger ones pow- ered by steam. Woolen mills, with power-driven machinery, re- placed the hand-card (an instrument for combing wool) , the spinning wheel, and the hand loom. Tanneries, foundries, ma- chine shops, steel mills, furniture factories, and various indus- tries of other types produced a varied list of products, comparable to those made in any other county of the state. In 1860 there were 430 manufacturing establishments with a capital investment of nearly two and a half million dollars. Ten years later, there were 608 factories and the amount of the capital investment had more than trebled. During the next ten-year period, because of a financial depression, the advance was halted, but near the close of the century there were 645 in- dustries with invested capital totaling nearly seven million dol- lars. From that time to present there has been a marked de- INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 105 Spraying varnish on futnitute in a furniture factory at Williamsport crease in the number of manufacturing establishments, due largely to the consolidation of related interests and the elimina- tion of smaller ones. Athough the number of industries has steadily decreased since the 80's, capital investment has steadily increased. In 1938, the number of manufacturing establish- ments had shrunken to approximately two hundred, but the capital investment had grown to more than twenty-seven million dollars. The value of the manufactured products closely ap- proached the thirty million dollar mark, with an annual pay- roll of more than seven and one-half millions. The total num- ber of persons engaged in manufacturing industries was 9,598, 106 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY of whom 7,167 were males and 2,431 females. More than 500 different items were produced by the 192 industries and many products necessary to human existence were found in the list. Metal and metal products led the list, with lumber and its re- manufacture a close second. Textiles and textile products were a close third in the number of articles processed or manufactured in the county. Among the items produced by the metal and metal product industries are: gas, automotive and marine engines; generator plants; airplane propellors; steam boilers; smoke stacks; grates; metal and sheet-iron products; emergency light plants; air con- ditioners; gas boilers and humidifiers; foundry castings; iron; brass; bronze and aluminum; radiator shields; metal cabinets; grilles and boiler jackets; metal stampings and furniture hard- ware; cutting dies for leather, paper and rubber; metal stamp- ing dies for blanking and forming metal parts and leather spe- cialties ; wood- working machinery, gate valves and fire hydrants ; steel rcenforcement bars; steel rails, saws, and cutting knives; fire escapes and steel stairs; automatic magazine feed heaters for steam, vapor, hot water and warm air furnaces; steel oil boilers; steel stoker boilers, heavy duty tank heaters and rotary ash re- ceivers; oil well packing; valve caps; wire rope and steel cables. Among the products classified under- lumber and its re- manufacture are: dining, living, and bed room furniture; office furniture and hardwood flooring; doors, sash and wood trim; store fronts and fixtures; picture and mirror frames; spindle carvings and novelties; window shade rollers; Venetian blinds and roller awnings; trailers, excelsior, ironing boards, step and extension ladders, snow shovels, furniture frames, and all types of upholstered furniture. Among the hundreds of articles classified under chemicals, food products, textile, leather and rubber goods, and miscella- neous products are: soaps, disinfectants, insecticides, glues, grease and fertilizers, paints, enamels, stains, sweeping compounds and INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 107 varnishes for industrial and consumer uses, ice cream, dairy prod- ucts, pretzels, potato chips, candy, flour, ice, meats, shoes, sandals and slippers, braid, bindings, lingerie tape, men's uni- forms, caps, shirts, blouses, ladies' hosiery, shirts, pajamas, broad silks and rayons, ribbons and belting, men's and boys' sport shirts, ladies' underwear, cigars, musical instruments and optical supplies, cast stone and cinder blocks, paper boxes, mattresses and bedding, automobile springs, crepe paper, celanese products, ladies' and misses' hand bags, carbonated beverages, and many other articles. Industry in Lycoming County grew as a result of the tireless efforts of its citizenry. With the decline of the lumber business, many workmen who were skilled in this industry turned to the soil, but there was not enough land for all, and many were obliged to seek employment elsewhere. For a while business and industry were virtually at a standstill. Something had to be done to compensate for the lost lumbering business if Williamsport and the surrounding towns and villages were to avoid the fate of "ghost towns." In order to avert industrial and financial collapse a trade association was formed by a group of business men for the purpose of attracting new industries to the county. That the association was successful is evidenced by the foregoing list of products now (1939) being manufac- tured. These new industries have provided a balance in the busi- ness life enjoyed by few communities of Pennsylvania. Seldom have national economic depressions caused as much disorganiza- tion in Lycoming County as in other sections of the state. The industrial life of the county is affected very little by seasonal unemployment, since the industries operate on a fairly well bal- anced production schedule throughout the year. The population of Lycoming County is quite homoge- neous. Of a population of approximately 95,000, about 90,000 are native-born whites. Only a little more than three and one- 108 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Corn husking near Jersey Shore half per cent of the residents are of foreign birth. Except for a number of laborers imported for the construction of railroads and a few skilled workmen brought in by the steel mills, the mills and factories are manned by local labor. Most of those imported by the railroad interests were from Italy, Hungary, and Ireland, and those brought in by the steel interests came largely from New York and were of Polish descent. Several skilled mechanics in the machine shops came from Canada. AGRICULTURE From the time of the first pioneers to the present day, agri- culture has played an important part in the economy of the INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 109 county. Farming was the chief occupation of the population before the coming of the lumber industry. It was then, as it is now, the cornerstone of the county's economic structure. Dur- ing the heyday of the lumber business the farmer was hard pressed to provide the basic needs of the people engaged in it. Rough feed and grain, milk, butter, eggs, and meat were needed in large quantities in the lumber camps and in the towns. When, in spite of this heavy demand, the financial returns of farming dropped rapidly, farmers left their acres to work in the forests. When the lumber business declined many of them returned to their neglected fields, some of the land which had been stripped of its trees was now cleared and converted into farms. The West Branch Valley, Nippenose Valley, and Muncy Valley were dis- covered to be exceedingly adaptable to various types of farming, in spite of the rugged and rocky hills which enclose them. Because of great differences in elevation and wide varia- tions in temperature, Lycoming County is adaptable to a variety of agricultural pursuits. Elevation and temperature conditions divide the county into three zones, each of which reflects these differences in its agriculture. The first zone includes the West Branch Valley and its immediate environs. Here the frost-free season is longest, usually a full six months. In this valley the raising of dent corn is commercially successful and peach trees thrive. This district contains some of the most fertile and pro- ductive truck-farms in the state. Truck farming has been highly developed in the vicinity of Williamsport where an extensive acreage equipped with irrigation facilities produces a great variety of vegetables. Roadstands along the main highway, east of Williamsport, sell many kinds of fruits and produce throughout the year. The second zone embraces the central hill region and Nip- penose and White Deer valleys. Here the growing season is considerably shorter than in the first zone. The production of no A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Scene in Muncy Valley seed corn is small, and peaches thrive only in carefully selected places. The third zone comprises the Allegheny plateau, most of the intervening lowlands, and the elevated area south of the Susquehanna River. In this zone the growing season is fre- quently less than 110 days and rarely more than 120 days. Some dent corn is grown for feed, rye is often substituted for wheat, but the main crops are the short-season crops: oats, buckwheat, and hay. Agriculture in Lycoming County has always consisted of general farming, dairying, and poultry raising. The general practice has been a five-year crop rotation of corn, oats, wheat, and hay. In some instances, the rotation period is shortened to INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 111 four years, and occasionally buckwheat is substituted for some other crop. In the western part of the county some tobacco is grown, but not extensively. For many years there were few im- provements in methods employed or in quality of farm prod- ucts. This was due in large measure to the fact that the finan- cial returns from the lumber industry were so much greater. Since the close of the lumber era, hundreds of acres have been cleared and devoted to farming. But for many years agri- culture was conducted along makeshift lines, and it was not until the establishment of farm agencies and associations that any great advancement was made. Since the inauguration of the County Agricultural Extension Association (1914) and the ap- pointment of a County Agricultural Adviser, progress in all phases of rural activity has been steady. The adoption of sci- entific methods of seed treatment, insect control, and soil fertili- zation has resulted in a great increase in virtually all crops. Due in a large measure to the various stock breeding and testing as- sociations, milk production per cow has nearly doubled, and the value of the herds has greatly increased. Although sheep raising is not practiced extensively at present, similar advances have been made. Through the introduction of high-class stock, culling of poor ewes, and improved methods of feeding and care, poor grades of wool have decreased from 12.7 per cent to 3.3 per cent. Along with these improvements in crop production and animal husbandry has come an increased efficiency in the economics of the home. Better foods are selected and prepared, and more stress is placed upon the relation of food to health. Careful grading and packing of farm products have resulted in larger income, and bookkeeping methods have removed the uncertainty of many farm activities. Because of the activities of farm agencies and trade associations, there has been a recent trend toward specialization in farming and in stock and poultry raising. Of the recently introduced crops, the most important 112 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY arc soy beans, alfalfa, and barley, with soy beans of greatest value in agriculture and industry. Barley in some localities is being substituted for wheat, and in other places alfalfa is re- placing clover or timothy as a legume crop. Agriculture in Ly- coming has reached the proportions of big business. Within the county arc 3,014 farms, of approximately 100 acres each, with an average value of $3,676 per farm. The value of all farm land and buildings is over $1 1,000,000. These farms pro- duce annually 7,000,000 gallons of milk and over 1,000,000- dozens of eggs. The estimated value of farm crops, including livestock, poultry, and livestock products, is considerably above the five million dollar mark. Farm implements and ma- chinery are valued at approximately $3,000,000 or about one thousand dollars for each farm. These figures and estimates arc based upon the United States Census of agriculture for the year 1935. LABOR Most of the early commercial enterprises in Lycoming County were personally owned and operated. Industry grew and mechanical improvements were introduced. These machines brought new problems in the relationship between employee and employer. While businesses were small the interests of the owner and his few employees were closer and a friendly feeling usually prevailed. But as industrial establishments became larger, these relationships were usually altered. With the growth of the lumber industry there came a rapid increase in population. Numbers of workers were attracted by reports of steady employment at high wages. Attempts to organize labor unions met with failure until 1872, when a labor dispute locally known as the "Sawdust War" occurred. This was the county's first and most serious labor disturbance. By 1872 the lumber business had reached gigantic proportions and huge profits were being made by the operators. The workers. IlSfDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 113 dissatisfied with their share of the benefits derived by various improvements in production, struck. Twelve hours was the usual working day, and in many industries it was not unusual for employees to work fourteen hours. Thus one of the main objectives of the workers was a shorter working day. On April 14, 1868, the State Legislature enacted a law defining a legal working day as "eight hours of labor between the rising and setting of the sun, where there is no contract or agreement to the contrary." One year later a law was passed by the legislature granting workers the right to or- ganize. Since there were many exceptions in these laws and no penalties were attached, there was no effort to enforce them. The county contained approximately seventy-five sawmills em- ploying about three thousand men. These men worked in the mills an average of six and one- half to seven months of the year. During the remainder of the year they were employed in the woods, cutting and rafting tim- ber for the coming season. The work was strenuous and haz- ardous. In the mills, the huge saws used to cut the logs were a constant source of danger. At the time there were no laws compelling employers to provide safety guards or periodical fac- tory inspections for the protection of workers. Serious accidents frequently occurred. Because of the dissatisfaction arising from these working conditions coupled with the decrease in the amount of free land available to settlement, large numbers of workers were in a mood to organize and to demand their rights. In 1871 a labor political organization known as the Labor Reform Union was organized and set up on a nation-wide basis. The movement grew and, in 1872, a branch was organized in Williamsport. As soon as the local branch was formed a meet- ing was called at Bender's Hall on Market Street, Williamsport. The immediate point at issue was the question of hours. Among the resolutions were demands that the workmen receive a share 114 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY of the benefits which had come with the invention of labor-sav- ing machinery. The resolutions pointed out that it was only just and equitable that the labor thus saved should result in a reduc- tion of working hours without a corresponding reduction in wages. The workers charged that they worked longer hours (eleven and one-half to thirteen per day) than their brothers in other cities, and they insisted upon the introduction of a ten- hour day. A committee of ten persons was appointed to see the mill owners, to present the resolutions, and to report at the next meeting. For several days meetings and parades were held, and most of the mills in Williamsport and vicinity were closed. Meanwhile, the West Branch Lumbermen's Exchange, an in- corporated association of businessmen of the West Branch Val- ley, held several meetings to discuss the situation. On June 29, the Exchange adopted a resolution defending the scale of hours and wages and announcing the reopening of the mills. The workers then visited the mills and induced the men to remain on strike. Day after day the union meetings continued, and the attitude of both the men and the owners became more bel- ligerent. Since the entire commercial life of the community was dependent upon the lumber industry, almost all activity was at a standstill. Fearing violence the Mayor and City Council ap- pointed special deputies and policemen to cope with the situa- tion. At several of the mills the strikers refused to obey orders to disperse, and forced their way into the mill yards. Minor riots resulted and several men were injured. The mill owners then appealed to the mayor and the sheriflF for further aid. An appeal was made to Governor John M. Geary to call out the local militia. The Governor acted promptly. Approximately 400 members of the Lycoming and Dauphin County militia were ordered to report for duty at Williamsport. The troops jBirst encamped in front of the court house. Later they were INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND LABOR 1 1 5 quartered in Herdic's Grove, the present site of the Williamsport Hospital. With the arrival of the militia excitement in the com- munity increased. Soldiers patrolled the city streets and numer- ous arrests were made. One of the union leaders, named Greevy, was arrested when he attempted to make a speech. He was charged with "inciting to riot" and held under five thousand dollars bail. Bail was provided by a friend, but an hour after his release he was rearrested and the amount of bail raised to ten thousand dollars. Other leaders were arrested and held for bail. In several instances when bail was furnished, the men were re- arrested on other charges and additional bail demanded. When their best leaders had been put in jail by the militia, the workers gradually returned to their jobs on the terms prescribed by the Lumbermen's Exchange. The arrested men were held for the next term of court. While they awaited trial, petitions contain- ing thousands of names and requesting pardons, were presented to Governor Geary. Local authorities also circulated petitions urging the governor to refuse pardons and compel the men to stand trial. The latter prevailed; the men were tried, convicted, and sentenced. In several instances the charges were dismissed; several persons received light sentences; but the leaders were com- mitted to the State Penitentiary for long terms. On the day their sentences were to begin, Governor Geary issued pardons for all those found guilty without stating his reasons. It is said that Peter Herdic interceded on behalf of the union men and con- vinced the governor that the time spent in jail awaiting trial was sufficient punishment. The outcome of the "Sawdust War" had a demoralizing effect on the Labor Reform Union and it soon disbanded. With only a few exceptions, attempts to organize labor unions in the county met with general failure until the beginning of the twen- tieth century. In 1878-79 the Knights of Labor organized sev- 116 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY eral units among the sawmill workers. They lasted but a short time, being replaced by the craft unions of the American Federa- tion of Labor and by the Railway Brotherhoods. The Typo- graphical Union, Local No. 141, one of the oldest labor or- ganizations in the county, has been in existence for more than fifty years and has achieved considerable success in improving the working conditions of its members. The years immediately preceding the World War were prosperous ones for labor organization in Lycoming County. In Williamsport alone the total union membership exceeded five thousand. But with the close of the war the unions rapidly de- clined in influence and membership. Except in a few instances there was little growth in the labor movement until 1933. Since that time, unionization has been greatly accelerated, due in a large measure to the organizing activities of the Congress of In- dustrial Organizations and the American Federation of Labor. The Lycoming County Labor Council was formed in order to provide a basis of cooperation between C. I. O. and A. F. of L. unions. The old Central Labor Union, which functioned for many years under an A. F. of L. charter, died when the split occurred in Pennsylvania. QUESTIONS CHAPTER X 1. What was the first large industry in Lycoming County? 2. What other industries located in the county? 3. How many factories were there in the county in 1860? 4. Name ten products manufactured in Lycoming County today. 5. What are principal farm crops grown in the county? 6. What was the "Sawdust War"? CHAPTER XI The Turn of The Century CHANGES IN LIVING ALONG with the growth in population occasioned by the lumbering industry came numerous changes and innova- tions which we call progress. The twenty years from 1894 to 1914 witnessed sweeping alterations aflFecting virtually every phase of individual and community life. Some of these changes are directly traceable to the disastrous floods of 1889 and 1894 in the West Branch of the Susquehanna River and the decline of the lumber industry. Others were brought about by new developments in the fields of communication, transportation, and entertainment. Social customs and ideas, many of them observed for cen- turies, were discarded and replaced. Habits, manners, and fash- ions in thought, dress, and action were changing amidst a chorus of cheers from youth and sighs from the aged. The business panics of 1893 and 1907, with their accompanying widespread unemployment and resultant lowering of living standards, were in large measure responsible for the re-examination of the beliefs of political and industrial democracy. Beginning with William Jennings Bryan's first presidential campaign, which projected the "free silver" controversy, on through to the split in the Republican party, which led to the election of Woodrow Wilson, there was a nationwide battle for political supremacy. In Lycoming County this struggle for power was marked by heated, often bitter, and sometimes hu- morous discussions. At times the Socialist party polled sub- 118 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY stantial and unexpected numbers of votes for its candidates. Commanding considerable attention during this period were the activities of groups demanding a woman's suffrage amend- ment to the United States Constitution. At the same time other groups and organizations were concentrating their efforts upon preventing the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors. These factions finally gained victory with the passage of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Amendments. The business life of the county also was undergoing a great change. This was a period which changed the county from an agricultural and lumber center to one with a variety of industries. By 1914 the vanishing lumber industry had been replaced by scores of busy factories in almost every section of the county. A great variety of products were being processed and shipped to all parts of America as well as to many foreign countries. With the establishment of new industries came a de- mand for skilled workers. This need was met partially by the transportation of workers from other sections of the country. But most of the workers had to be trained in the factories them- selves or in the schools. This added responsibility of the schools was met by pro- gressive advances in education. Special emphasis was placed upon training in the practical or vocational subjects. Instruction in the manual trades and commercial sciences was stressed and facilities were expanded. Strict attendance laws were enacted and the school term was lengthened. Fortunately, except for the Spanish-American War, this period was free of military strife. Thus the people of Lycoming County were able to pur- sue their tasks uninterrupted by abnormal financial demands upon the community. Although many changes took place be- tween 1894 and 1914, they were accomplished slowly enough to be accepted by the people. New inventions, customs, and ideas were necessary to progress, and they sometimes made neces- THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 1 1 9 sary restrictions which were unknown to the pioneer settlers. Laws were made to regulate public utilities, corporations, and large businesses. By these, obligations and responsibilities for- merly assumed by the individual were taken over by the com- munity or the state. Among these were the workmen's com- pensation laws, regulation of weights and measures, and laws relating to the public health. TRANSPORTATION The turn of the century also brought sweeping changes in methods of transportation. Horsedrawn street cars were sup- planted by those of the electric type. The invention of the in- ternal combustion engine made possible the "horseless carriage" which soon displaced the horse and buggy and resulted in the construction of a network of .paved highways. Bicycles, too, were widely used for travel and pleasure, and cindered paths for cyclists were constructed beside the public roads. In the West Branch Valley a favorite course was the tow-path of the old West Branch Canal. Although the motor-truck and motor-car had not yet be- come dangerous competitors of the railroad, the railroads com- peted with each other for business. One-day excursion trips at reduced rates were a popular method of attracting customers. Excursions from Hall's Station to Lake Mokoma at twenty- five cents the round trip were quite popular. Another popular trip was from Hall's Station to Harvey's Lake in Luzerne County. Complete time-tables were published in railroad ad- vertisements, and the superiority of the coal used on one line over that used by its competitor was stressed. The management of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway was particularly proud of the fact that their locomotives burned "hard coal — ^no smoke," A popular diversion was a ride on the paddle-wheel steamboat which made regular trips down the river from Market Street bridge in Williamsport to Sylvan Dell, then a favorite o o O a CO a O o :3; THE TURN OF THE CENTTtry 121 Paddle-Wheel Boat (Hiawatha) place for picnics. Another equally popular trip was the ride on the open trolley from city line to Star Island, later known as Indian Park, near Montoursville. CURBSTONE MARKET An important institution of the period was the curbstone market. It was conducted in Williamsport on Market Street between Fourth Street and the river, two days each week, Wed- nesdays and Saturdays. Farm products were brought into the city and offered for sale on the Street. The market vehicle was a one-room cabin on wheels, called a van, about six feet wide and eight to twelve feet long. These vans were drawn up to 122 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY the edge of the pavement, and purchases were made from the curb. Farmers who did not have vans sold their produce from wagons or carts. Many farmers started long before daybreak, to make the long drive to market. Others came a day in advance and spent the night with friends or at a hotel. Besides being a commercial enterprise the street market was an important social institution. It afforded a common meeting place for the people of the community. Streets were thronged with busy shoppers eager to visit with rural relatives or friends, discuss current issues of the day, and to garner a choice bit of scandal for retelling on their arrival home. RELIGION Religious institutions have always been a major part of the life of Lycoming County. Williamsport, where the spires of more than a half hundred places of worship point skyward, became familiarly known as the "City of Churches." Free from the competition of radio, the automobile, and the popular maga- zine, the church building was more than a place of worship. It was a center for recreation and a general meeting place for all social groups. Church buildings ranged in size and archi- tecture from the plain one-room building of the rural crossroads to the magnificent edifice of the more populous center. Each congregation owned an organ or piano. Several of the more prosperous ones had large pipe organs. To those living in the rural districts, attendance at Sunday services was necessarily preceded by considerable advance pre- paration. Livestock had to be fed, cows milked, horses hitched to the wagons. Then carefully, almost reverently, the "meetin" clothes were removed from the closets and young and old were properly groomed and attired for the occasion. The drive to the church often required from one to three hours. The spending THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 123 Scene at Old Curbstone Market of so much eflFort is a clear indication of the depth of their faith and the extent to which the church entered into their daily lives. An important addition to the educational facilities of the county was the establishment of the James V. Brown Library in 1906. Every year since its founding thousands of books, pamphlets, and periodicals have been added, and the library has become a great educational and cultural force. Of importance, particularly to the rural sections of the county, was the inauguration of the rural free delivery in 1896 and the parcel post in 1913. These services enabled the more remote sections of the county to buy a variety of merchandise ranging from pins and needles to a suit of clothes. 1 24 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY STYLE CHANGES The introduction of the bicycle hastened the end of Vic- torian ideas of modesty and morality, and women began to take part in athletics. This brought about radical changes in fash- ions of dress. Lisle and silk stockings replaced the old-fashioned cotton, and skirts began to leave the ground. Women's hair underwent a cycle of change which reached the stage of the "boyish bob." Dress-tight kid gloves, high buttoned shoes, and high tight-laced corsets were the object of severe criticism by reformers and physicians, but gradually women's clothing be- came more comfortable and practical. Men's styles, though not as quickly as women's, were also undergoing a change. The tendency was toward lighter weight clothing and more attention to appearance. The well-dressed young man at the turn of the century wore a woolen suit with heavily padded shoulders, a shirt with stiff front fastened to- gether with studs, separate stiff collars and cuffs, a derby hat, "tooth pick" shoes, fleece lined underwear, and heavy socks. Only "sports" wore garters. There were no winter and summer suits, only a "second best" or a "scuff" suit, which was worn every weekday of the year, and a Sunday suit for special occa- sions. These fashions were replaced by the soft hat, soft shirt with soft attached collars, and lighter weight suits for summer. Heavy kersey overcoats, made to last for years, gave way to lighter, though less serviceable, materials. Fads in men's jewelry revealed interesting phases of the life of the era. Emblems of trade were popular: a gold anvil or horseshoe for blacksmiths, a jeweled beerkeg for bartenders, an anchor or compass for sailors, and a miniature locomotive or caboose for railroaders. Gold-headed canes and umbrellas were signs of wealth, and hunting-case watches with heavy gold chains were regarded as signs of prosperity. THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 125 RURAL INNOVATIONS In the rural districts electricity was not yet in use for power or lighting. Coal-oil lamps illuminated the homes, the most convenient and elaborate of them having reflectors. The most ingenious type was the hanging lamp, suspended from the ceiling and raised or lowered by a small chain on pulleys. Laundering was done by hand or with a hand-turned ma- chine. The mechanical threshing machine was in general use, but it was vastly different from today's model. In the early part of the period threshing was done by a professional thresh- ing crew which travelled from farm to farm. The machine was powered by horses on a treadmill. This type was replaced by the portable steam engine and later by gasoline motors. The reaper, a horse-drawn machine which cut the grain and dropped it untied to the ground, was rapidly being replaced by the reaper and binder which not only cut the grain but tied it with twine into sheaves in one process. The combination binder and mowing-machine outmoded the scythe and grain-cradle except for fence corners and small patches. Every community had its gristmill where grain for stock feed or flour for the family bread was ground on shares. By preserving fruits, berries, and vegetables, the housewife of the period was able to enjoy a degree of economic independence. At the turn of the century rural folks depended on the grocery store far less than they do now. Almost every household had its sausage grinder, coff^ee grinder, and apple parer. Sugar, weighed and packaged by the grocer; molasses, drawn from a barrel into a jug; coffee, unground; and tea and spices were purchased, not for cash, but in exchange for butter and eggs. In the towns, milk was delivered to the door, not in bottles but in the consumer's own container, at a price of five cents a quart. The passing of the country store was regretted by many. It was more than just a commercial enterprise; it was a civic insti- c 3 O ^ U ^<»> o o c c O THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 127 tution. It afforded a common meeting place for the people of the locality; local and national news was gathered there; and the great problems of the times were discussed. In time the .sugar-bins, molasses-barrels, and the mummified cod and mack- erel that hung from hooks or wires on the walls and ceiling were replaced by the neatly arranged cans, bottles, cartons, and packages of the later-day store. MUSICAL DIVERSIONS Music, always an important factor in the cultural life of the county, underwent a great change during this era. From its beginning in 1831 the Repasz Band gained in popularity, being in great demand for special functions throughout the state. In Williamsport also were the Imperial Teteques, a unique mu- sical body organized in 1894 as the Triple Tongue Quartette, the Fisk Band, and the Stopper and Fisk Orchestra. Many of the boroughs and larger towns also supported brass bands or fife and drum corps. Musicales were frequently presented, and many of the nation's best artists appeared. An innovation which had a far-reaching effect in the field of music was the perfection of the talking machine or phono- graph. This instrument made it possible for people living in lemote sections of the county to enjoy the country's most popu- lar entertainers. It in large measure supplanted the guitar, vio- lin, mouth-organ, and other instruments which produced home- grown music. The phonograph popularized new songs and music rapidly and the demand for new works brought forth a ^reat variety of songs ranging from semi-classical to modern jazz. POPULAR SONGS AND HYMNS A popular hymn of the period was, "When the Roll is Called up Yonder I'll Be There," by James M. Black of Wil- liamsport. Highly popular were the Indian songs "Hiawatha" and "Red Wing," and the Hawaiian song "Aloha Oc." Other 128 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY songs in a lighter vein were "Yankee Doodle Boy/' "Alex- ander's Rag-time Band," "Oh! You Beautiful Doll," "Sweet Rosie O'Grady," "Down on the Farm," "I've Got Rings on My Fingers," and "I Want A Girl Just Like The Girl That Married Dear Old Dad." This was the gay and interesting period when the waltz dance for favor. A song popular among the exponents of the new dance was "Waltz me around again Willie — around, around, around; the music is dreamy, it's peaches and creamy; Oh don't let my feet touch the ground." Then there was the railroad song "Casey Jones," and two special favorites of vaude- ville vocalists "I'm Afraid to Go Home in the Dark," and "Please Don't Take Me Home." The Swarthmore Chatauqua was a valuable contribution to the culture of the county. It provided entertainment and en- lightenment by presenting many of the country's most outstand- ing musicians, speakers, and entertainers. The Chatauqua made seven-day stands with new talent presented daily, afternoon and evening. The old Lycoming Opera House, erected in 1892 and burned in 1915, was the theatrical center of the county. Al- most all of the country's great theatrical stars, and most of the leading stock and minstrel companies were seen there. During the summer season the open air pavilion in Vallamont Park, Williamsport, also presented excellent talent. A popular type of entertainment during the early part of this era was the travel- ing shows consisting of glass-blowers, ventriloquists, and Punch and Judy or puppet shows. Frequently came transient medicine shows, composed of a group of entertainers similar to the minstrel show, the main purpose of which was to sell medicines recommended for the cure of any disease "that human flesh is heir to," were frequent visitors. THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 129 SPORTS Although baseball had been a popular sport some time prior to the turn of the century, it was not until 1904 that or- ganized professional baseball was introduced to Lycoming County. In that year Williamsport joined with York, Harris- burg, Altoona, Lebanon, and Wilmington to form the Tri-State League. Originally this league was set up to include teams from the three states, but New York did not join. Later Trenton joined the league. The first pennant was won by York. The next year Williamsport, which had acquired the name "Million- aires" because of the excellent financial support given the club by a group of affluent citizens, finished second. In 1907 and 1908 the Williamsport club won pennants. In 1910 the league passed out of existence. The Williamsport "Grays" team is now (1939) a member of the Class A Eastern League. Football made its appearance in the early '90's but there was no real organization of this sport. At the time of its in- troduction it was still a game of brute strength, with laterals, reverses, and spinners unknown. However, it rapidly grew in popularity and in a few years most of the county schools boasted teams. Penn State, Bucknell, and the Carlisle Indians brought their teams to the Dickinson Seminary and the old Ath- letic Park fields in Williamsport for games. Golf had not yet attained a place in sports or recreation. It was not until 1909 that courses were constructed and golf began to grow in popularity. Basketball, introduced early in the century, was played only at the Y. M. C. A. After the World War it became a major sport in the colleges and high schools. Boxing com- manded considerable attention during this time. Exhibition matches between Jim Jefi^ries and Bob Fitzsimmons and other famous boxers were held, and several Lycoming County men 130 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY attained considerable prominence in this field. The most not- able of these were the "three greats of Lycoming County": Frankie Maguire, Tiger Thomas, and Jess Gilbert. QUESTIONS CHAPTER XI 1. What were two important changes in the social life of Lycoming County which took place between 1894 and 1914? 2. How did the industrial life of the county change during this period? 3. What added responsibility was assumed by the schools because of in- dustrial changes? 4. What changes occurred in transportation methods? 5. Describe the curbstone market. 6. How did rural people benefit by the establishment of the Rural Free Delivery and the Parcel Post? 7. Name the various early musical organizarions in the county? CHAPTER XII The World War, Business Prosperity, And Depression WHEN the factory whistles and church bells heralded A New Year in 1914, the people of Lycoming County were concerned with problems of unemployment; campaigns for better roads, better homes, and better living conditions; pro- posals for the prohibition of child labor and the limitation of feminine employment in factories; movements to stop the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages and to grant equal political rights to women. In scores of factories and mills in Lycoming County con- siderable unemployment existed. Because of a business depres- sion throughout the nation, many establishments had curtailed their operations and several had closed down. Agriculture, too, was affected. Prices of many farm products were below pro- duction costs. Farmers had difl&culty in finding a market for their surplus products at any price. This economic condition continued, with little improvement, until after the Presidential campaign in 1915. By that time most of the nations of Europe were at war. When the World War began, few residents of the county had any conception of the forces that were being set loose or of the far-reaching effect the war would have on community and national life. The war had not been waged very long before England and France were in need of supplies and munitions in enormous quantities. The United States, one of the few major industrial and agricultural powers not yet involved in the con- 132 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY flict, was the only nation in a position to furnish these neces- sities. In order to obtain war materials, England and France appointed certain business and financial houses in the United States to act as purchasing agents and to arrange credits. Huge orders were placed in factories throughout the country. Many of the companies were compelled to make mechanical changes and to expand their plants in order to fill the orders. A notice- able improvement in business conditions took place almost overnight. In order to counteract the effects of the blockade which England and France had placed against her shipping, Germany soon initiated a campaign of unrestricted undersea warfare. This action, together with the growing sentiment among the Amer- ican people in favor of the Allies, finally brought the United States into the war. A special session of Congress was called by President Wilson, and on April 6, 1917, Congress declared "that a state of war existed with Germany." In Lycoming County the action of Congress was not un- expected. Before the sinking of the Lusitania, sentiment in the county had been equally divided between England and France and their allies and Germany and her supporters. But shortly before the declaration of public opinion had swung overwhelm- ingly to the side of the Allies. In Williamsport, previous to the declaration of war, arrangements were made by City Council, local newspapers, and the fire department to sound all fire alarms as soon as word was received. With the beginning of hostilities, a Committee of Public Safety was formed in Lycoming County to coordinate military and civil activities. One of its first duties was the stationing of soldiers to guard the principal bridges, factories, highways, and railroads. A public proclamation warned all persons approaching bridges and other points under guard to obey promptly military commands. Every phase of community and individual life, related directly or indirectly THE WORLD WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION 133 to the conduct of the war, was placed under the direction of the full committee or one of its subcommittees. More than a dozen subcommittees functioned in the county. Most important of these were the Bureaus of Finance, Legislation, Publicity, Agri- culture, Motors, Medicine and Sanitation, Home Guards, Plants and Materials, Civic Relief, Commissary and Equipment, Fuel, Recruiting, Transportation, and Enrollment. Under the Selective Service Act every man within the age limits prescribed by the Government was compelled to appear at designated places for registration. From the registration lists persons were drawn by number and inducted into military ser- vice as needed. Because a number of Lycoming County men had enlisted before the adoption of the draft law, the county's first quota was considerably reduced. The first contingent of draftees left Williamsport for Camp Meade, Maryland, September 19, 1917, more than five months after America's entry into the World War. Several months be- fore, members of the National Guard and volunteers had left for service. Each group called to camp was given a splendid send- off by thousands of people gathered at the railroad stations. The Repasz Band, for many years considered one of the best brass bands in the country, was mustered into service as a unit. Re- named the Marine Band, it toured the county, appearing in re- cruiting drives and Liberty Loan campaigns. A total of 3,170 men from Lycoming County rendered military service during the war. Of this number 1,296 were enlistments — 207 in the navy and 1,089 in various branches of the army. A total of 1,874 were inducted into service under the selective draft law, 900 from Williamsport and 974 from the county outside of the city. Casualties among Lycoming County men totaled 311. The passage of the Selective Service Act solved the prob- lem of supplying men to the army, but the problem of main- taining our own army and those of our allies became quite 134 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY serious. As greater numbers of men from all walks of life were drawn into the armed forces, while orders for war materials poured into the factories of the county, hundreds of women took places vacated by men. Despite the entrance of women into industry, a grave labor shortage occurred. So serious did the shortage become during the latter period of the war that em- ployers joined in a public appeal to workers to refrain from changing their places of employment. Many articles necessary to the conduct of the war were manufactured in Lycoming County factories. Shells, shell cases, field desks, army shoes, shirts and uniforms, powder bags, and equipment for chemical and dyestuflF manufacture were among the county's wartime products. Of importance in the protection of shipping were mine nets and mine cables manufactured by the Williamsport Wire Rope Company. CONSERVATION MEASURES In addition to the task of feeding an American army on foreign soil there was the responsibility of supplying food to the armies and civil populations of our Allies. Before the termi- nation of the war the capacity of both farm and factory was taxed to the utmost. More than four million men had been taken from the industries and farms of the United States to serve in various military activities. The necessity of conserving food, fuel, and other war supplies became so great that a nation-wide campaign to avoid waste and duplication was inaugurated. Food and fuel were the articles most in need. In order to conserve the supply of these, a Food Administrator was appointed in each county. Certain days were set aside each week when the people were urged to abstain from using certain kinds of food and cer- tain types of fuel. There came into existence "meatless days," "wheatless days," and "gasoline-less days." To avoid a serious curtailment THE WORLD WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION 135 of factory production, a national campaign was conducted to induce householders not to maintain temperatures in their homes above 65° Fahrenheit and to avoid wasteful use of electricity, gas, and kerosene. Restrictions were placed upon the use of elec- tricity for window display lighting. Prices of food, fuel, cloth- ing, shelter and other commodities skyrocketed. During the last months of the war, sugar, wheat and other essential foods could be obtained only in rationed quantities. Retail food merchants were compelled to keep strict account of the names and addresses of purchasers and the amount of sugar obtained. In the last month of the war, the use of sugar was restricted to three pounds per person per month and the allowance to hotels and restau- rants was three pounds for each ninety meals served. Because wheat was a basic product, a mandatory regulation provided that each purchaser of white flour must buy an equal quantity of grain cereal substitute. Food substitutes came into more or less general use. Chicory was used for coflFee, oleomargarine for butter, and vegetable shortening for lard, to mention but a few. To discourage profiteering and to insure a just price to both re- tailer and consumer, a fair price list was issued weekly by the food administrator. Its purpose was to give information con- cerning fair prices, and at the same time to assure a just profit to the handlers. Soon after the signing of the Armistice on No- vember 11, 1918, restrictions on the sale of food and fuel were somewhat relaxed, but not until months after the end of the war did conditions approach normalcy. Local administrators were invested with authority to enforce rules and regulations pertaining to the conservation of food and fuel, but most of them were voluntary. However, behind the regulations was a strong public opinion, backed by the newspapers and churches. WAR FUNDS The raising of money to finance the war was a major task. In addition to unprecedented taxes on income and special sales 136 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY taxes on luxuries and many necessities, the Federal Government was forced to raise billions of dollars by the sale of "Liberty Bonds." Every cross-roads hamlet, village and town, every ward in the city, was visited by volunteer speakers asking the people to purchase these bonds. Through the efforts of the Sal- vation Army, the American Red Cross, the Young Men's Chris- tian Association, Knights of Columbus, and many other local organizations, thousands of dollars were raised in Lycoming County. The county subscribed its quota of bonds and thrift stamps, and also contributed generously to funds raised by the various organizations. Thrift stamps priced as low as 25 cents each were sold to pupils in the county schools. Bankers, busi- ness-men, and manufacturers, cooperated by assisting their em- ployees to purchase Liberty Bonds on the installment plan. INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC During the World War, an influenza epidemic swept the county, taxing local medical facilities to the limit. The simi- larity of this disease to the common grippe caused many persons to disregard preventive measures until the malady had taken a foothold. At the height of the epidemic, health authorities esti- mated that in Williamsport alone there were one thousand cases of influenza, and in the county a thousand more. Most of the preliminary measures adopted by city and county health boards had little effect on the spread of the epidemic. On October 4, 1918, the Williamsport Health Board, composed of the Mayor and City Council, issued an order closing all schools, churches, clubs, pool rooms, bowling alleys, public libraries, and theatres, and prohibiting all public meetings either indoors or out. Since most medical men and health officials were of the opinion that the disease was spread by close association in crowds or gather- ings, the ban against public meetings was extended and schools and churches were not permitted to reopen for several weeks. The epidemic struck with such great force that factories manufac- THE WORLD WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION 137 turing munitions and other war supplies were crippled. The disease seemed to be particularly severe among apparently healthy and robust persons. It was many months before the epidemic had spent its force, and in almost every home some member of the family was stricken. POST-WAR PERIOD For some time after the signing of the Armistice, industry and agriculture were carried along by the war momentum. A number of contracts for war materials held by county manu- facturers did not expire with the end of the war, but, in several instances, continued to keep factories busy for many months. The fulfillment of these contracts and the return of soldiers from overseas soon created a severe unemployment problem. By 1921 the situation had become so acute that a State employment office was established in Williamsport. Beginning in the summer of 1922, business improved and unemployment was reduced. During the twenties the county embarked upon a period of industrial expansion paralleled only by the lumber boom of fifty years before. This upswing surpassed even that of the war period. Everywhere in the county additions were being made in plants and equipment. Real estate values soared to new levels. In Williamsport alone, approximately $2,000,000 in building permits were issued in one year, and the county experienced the greatest building boom of its history. In 1924 and 1925 more than a thousand new homes were erected. Surplus savings ac- counts in the banks of the county reached a total in 1924 higher than at any time since 1900. Christmas savings accounts were exceedingly popular. The banks of Williamsport paid out more than $600,000 in these accounts in 1924. During this period the motor car completed its conquest of the horse and buggy as a means of transportation. Automobile dealers reported the sale of approximately four thousand trucks in 1924 at an esti- mated cost, including maintenance for the year, of more than 138 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY $4,000,000. Many of the trucks were powered by motors made in the county. This era of prosperity was marked with a movement to- ward friendlier relations between employer and employee. In- surance and pension systems were inaugurated. A number of industrial concerns installed cafeterias in their plants, organized bands or orchestras, and equipped athletic fields. High wages and an easy flow of money brought many improvements not only in the industrial but also in the social and educational structure of the county. Public camps, playgrounds, and amuse- ment places were established and immediately received public favor. The first rural community vocational school was estab- lished in the county in 1922, and junior high schools with classes in home economics were inaugurated two years later. Household duties were lightened by the increased use of electrical appliances. The development and improvement in radio provided the home with a new source of entertainment and en- lightenment. Unlike many other sections of the United States, Lycom- ing County was fortunate in that the post-war boom continued for a longer period. Even the stock market crash in the fall of 1929, when prices of stocks and bonds dropped to extremely low levels had little immediate effect upon the county and its industries. DEPRESSION DAYS Industry continued on an even keel until the early spring of 1930, when there was a sharp decline in all commodity prices. This was followed by a curtailment in industrial ac- tivities and unemployment soon became a serious problem. In November 1930 a group of public spirited business men in Wil- liamsport formed a "Central Emergency Relief Committee" to distribute food and clothing to the needy unemployed. All of the work of this committee was done by non-salaried volunteers. THE WORLD WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION 139 Money to carry on the work was contributed by various com- panies, organizations, and individuals, and by means of benefit performances and dances. The first C. E. R. C. report for the period from November 24, 1930 to April 11, 1931, showed expenditures of approximately $28,000. Approximately one- fifth of the population of the city was given assistance. In addition to food and clothing, coal, coke, and fire wood were supplied to needy families. Doctors and dentists provided medical care, and drugstores filled prescriptions at cost. In con- junction with its other activities the C. E. R. C. conducted a city-wide survey of the unemployed and appointed an employ- ment sub-committee whose function was to place men in part- time or permanent jobs. An important feature of the employ- ment sub-committee was the "re-training program" by which men who had lost jobs were taught other occupations. During the first year the committee obtained 10,169 days of work for 470 men. The C. E. R. C. during its two years of existence pre- vented a great deal of suffering among the unemployed. Because of the work of this organization and the extensive road building program of the .State Department of Highways, unemployment in the county was kept at a minimum until 1932. During the summer and fall of 1931 more than a hundred miles of high- way were constructed, a job which provided work for more than 800 men. In 1932, with the passage of the Talbot Act, money for relief purposes was provided by the state. Under this system relief was administered through a County Relief Board composed of twelve persons. Distribution of food, fuel, and clothing by the county relief board was accomplished under the so-called "Commissary Plan." Relief was administered by volunteers. All funds were used for the purchase of food and other necessities. When it became apparent that the relief problem was a long term propo- 1 40 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY sition, the State Board made provision for administrative ex- penses and assumed direct responsibility for the distribution of relief. Under the State Emergency Relief Administration the "Community Market System" was adopted. The purpose of this method was to provide the recipient with a properly bal- anced diet at a low cost to the taxpayers. In September, 1933, the Community Market System was discontinued, and a budget system established. Under this system relief was given in a uni- form manner throughout the state. The peak of the relief case load in Lycoming County occurred in March and April of 1934 when the total number of cases reached 4,500, representing ap- proximately 22,000 persons. By July 1936 the load had fallen to 1,100 cases. WORK PROGRAM ESTABLISHED The Works Progress Administration was established July 1, 1935. From that date until the end of the third fiscal year on June 30, 1938, a total of $5,343,170 was expended for work relief in Lycoming County. Of this amount, $4,830,350 was paid out in wages, with $512,805 representing the cost of material and equipment. In June, 1938, W. P. A. was employ- ing 3,120 persons in the county. The greatest number em- ployed at any one time was during the two-month period im- mediately following the flood of March 1936, when 3,637 persons were on the rolls. Every employable man eligible for relief work was pressed into the task of clearing up the debris resulting from the flood. The program of the W. P. A. was designed to provide jobs for unemployed persons of all classes including "white- collar" and professional and skilled tradesmen. Both men and women were employed. In June 1938, women's and profes- sional projects in the county employed 627 persons, 42 of whom were engaged in educational and recreational work. THE WORLD WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION 141 A major portion of the W. P. A. program has been con- cerned with the improvement of the county's highways. This work took on many forms. Pavements were widened, shoulders, and berms were stabilized and graded; ditches and drains opened up and improved ; curves eliminated or eased ; bridges constructed or repaired ; retaining walls to prevent washouts and slides were built; and banks cleared of debris, fallen leaves and brush. On a number of important traffic routes in the county projects for landscaping and beautifying the rights-of-way were operated. W. P. A. projects have improved in one way or another 49 miles of primary highways, 30 miles of berms and shoulders, two miles of drainage and in addition have widened 1 7 miles of pavement. Rural or farm-to-market roads also have been im- proved under the program. Twenty and one-half miles of streets were paved, one mile and a half repaved, 56 miles im- proved and three miles of sidewalk laid in Williamsport and boroughs of the county. Other phases of public work include the construction or improvement of recreational facilities, such as parks, tennis courts, athletic fields, and swimming pools. During the three years 1935-1938, three new school buildings have been built, 56 rehabilitated, and additions made to two others. Twenty-four municipal buildings have been improved and three new public structures erected. Flood hazards along most of the important streams of the county have been elimi- nated. A modern airport and hangar were constructed at Mon- toursville. Shortly after the establishment of the work program, it was recognized that many needy persons were not able to per- form manual labor. Many eligible persons had educational qualifications which could be utilized on educational and recrea- tional projects. Thirty-nine educational centers were established. Among the subjects taught in these centers were English, music, naturalization, parliamentary law, public speaking, dramatics. 142 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY sewing, auto mechanics, Diesel and electrical engineering, build- ing construction, shop mathematics, and tool maintenance. The W. P. A. also provided instructors for the Williamsport Re- training School which had been created in 1931. This school, a cooperative enterprise, diagnoses the causes of individual unem- ployment, offers vocational training, and assists the student in adjusting himself to changing industrial requirements. More than 200 representatives of industries in the county cooperate with the school in placing retrained men in jobs. The success of the school has attracted considerable attention throughout the coun- try. Another important depression activity is that of the Na- tional Youth Administration, which gives assistance to students who are without funds to continue their studies. During the three years of N. Y, A. ending June 30, 1938, the sum of $34,145 was spent for this phase of assistance in Lycoming County. Information pertaining to W. P. A. activities was obtained from report of W. P. A. District, No. 8, now No. 4, for period 1935-1938. QUESTIONS CHAPTER XII 1 . What was the condition of industry and agriculture in Lycoming County in 1914? 2. How did the World War affect local industry? 3. What were the duties of the Committee of Public Safety in Lycoming County? 4. What measures were adopted to conserve food and fuel? 5. What methods were used to finance the war? 6. How was the influenza epidemic combatted in Lycoming County? 7. When did Lycoming County experience its greatest building boom? 8. How did the Central Emergency Relief Committee combat unemploy- ment? 9. What has the Works Progress Administration done in Lycoming County? CHAPTER XIII Contemporary Scene IN area the county contains 1,220 square miles, situated be- tween the ridge belt and the Allegheny plateau, its topog- raphy varies from rugged mountains to the flat river plain. The boundary line of the Allegheny plateau borders the northern limits of Shrewsbury, Mill Creek, Eldred, and Hepburn Town- ships, and from the northwest corner of the latter township, it runs southwestward to the county line in Watson Township. The ridge belt lies south of this line and the Allegheny plateau north of it. The southern half of the county consists of a hilly low- land ranging in elevation from about 500 feet in the river valleys to 1,000 feet on the hill-tops. The northern half is a plateau with an elevation of about 2,000 feet. This plateau is dissected by several large creeks, each of which has a valley about a thousand feet deep. The highest elevation in the county is more than 2,300 feet. The streams have cut deep valleys through which they flow rapidly, and the process of stream cutting is still active. The West Branch of the Susquehanna River has a fall of about 3 feet a mile; the larger tributaries descend from 8 to 30 feet a mile; and many of the small streams in the mountains have gradients ranging from 100 to 200 or more feet a mile. Population is densest in the valley of the West Branch, and the more important towns are located there. The moun- tainous regions are sparsely settled except along the railroads and in the lowland belts. The population is made up of native- :5s s C •a o o . ^ Si. o CONTEMPORARY SCENE 145 born whites, with many families of German and Irish extraction and a sprinkling of other nationalities in the industrial centers. The early settlers came largely from the southeastern part of the State. The population of the county, according to the 1930 census, is 93,421, an increase of 12.4 per cent over the 1920 figure. Growth of the county is shown by the following census figures: 1870. 47,626; 1880, 57,486; 1890, 70,579; 1900, 75,663; and 1910, 80,813. Lycoming County lies entirely within the drainage basin of the West Branch. Its most important tributaries are Pine, Lycoming, Loyalsock, and Muncy Creeks, all of which drain the section of the county north and east of the river. Pine, Loyal- sock, and Lycoming Creeks rise in lowland belts of the plateau region outside the county, but in Lycoming County they cut through elevated sections of the plateau and form narrow val- leys 1,000 to 1,500 feet in depth. Little Muncy, Little Pine, and Larrys Creeks all have rather extensive drainage basins with- in the county. Nippenose Valley is drained by subterranean streams which disappear when they reach the limestone strata underlying the valley. Uniting under ground, they emerge in an immense spring at the valley outlet and form Nippenose Creek, which cuts a rugged gap through Bald Eagle Mountain. This stream joins the West Branch opposite Jersey Shore. With the exception of Williamsport, Lycoming County is without a large industrial center. There are nine boroughs with a combined population of 22,557 (1930) which, with the population of Williamsport, makes a total of 68,286 resi- dents in the more thickly populated centers. Since the total population of the county is 93,421 (1930), roughly one- quarter of the residents live in rural sections. If all centers of population under 2,500 are classed as rural, the farm population would figure approximately 27 people to the square mile. 146 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Third Street, Williamsport, looking East, during 1936 Flood The 1935 census gives the number of farms as 3,014. They range in size from less than 3 acres, of which there are 14, to more than 1,000 acres, of which there are 4. The farms average 100 acres in area. The average value of the farms is $3,676. Although many of the farms are thin of soil and poorly cultivated, the greater number are in an excellent state of production and yield sufficient income to support a large part of the population. The typical Lycoming countian is proud of his county and its historical background. He firmly believes that his county is the favored spot of the world, and no amount of argument will cause him to retract. He loves to tell of the significant CONTEMPORARY SCENE 147 part his locality has played in the development of the state and nation. He recites tales of pioneering days on the turbulent Susquehanna and stories of trips through the wilderness from Philadelphia. The clearing of land, the building of homes and the reaping of the first crops are subjects for familiar stories handed down from father to son, mother to daughter. Family ties are closely held, and there is considerable interest in geneal- ogy. The interest in history is exemplified by collections of documents and relics brought together by local historians and anthropologists. The Lycoming Historical Society in Wil- liamsport and the Muncy Historical Society have been particu- larly active in the field of research and in the preservation of historical data. There are several excellent privately owned col- lections in the county. Because of excellent communication and transportation facilities, the average resident of the county frequently attends grange and fraternal gatherings, and is usually well informed in current events. He is keenly interested in politics, conversant with topics of the day, and he usually has definite ideas and opinions regarding them. He will travel miles to listen to a po- litical speech and will sacrifice a night's sleep to march in a torch-light parade. In matters of culture the county was quick to accept the idea of public education, and the philosophy of common schools was early entrenched. When an attempt to repeal the Free School Act, of 1834, was being made throughout the state, friends of education in Lycoming County vigorously fought the move- ment, and made their influence felt, not only in the retention of the original act, but also in securing valuable amendments. Unique in the history of education in the state was the founding of the Lycoming County Normal School of Muncy, which was a pioneer of this type. District teachers' institutes which are now so popular throughout the state, owe much to 148 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY this institution for their origin. This school, during its sixty years of existence, sent forth many scholars who later took prominent places in the educational institutions and school sys- tem of the state. Dr. Charles A. Lose of Montoursville, oldest educator in the county in years of service, was an early principal of this school. He later held the position of County Superin- tendent of Schools, Superintendent of Schools of Williamsport, Principal of the Central State Normal School at Lock Haven, President of Pennsylvania State Educational Association, and was a Member of the General Assembly for three terms. The late Dr. J. George Becht also was a principal of this institution. Through various educational stages, he was elevated to the posi- tion of Superintendent of Public Instruction. The same exper- ience holds true with Dr. Lester K. Ade who was Superintendent of Public Instruction 1935-1939. The above mentioned are but a few of the many men and women who have gone forth from this school to fill important positions. From the time when pioneers hunted the deer and wild turkey by day and feasted and danced about the fireplace by night, the people of Lycoming County have been a sporting, pleasure-loving, light-hearted folk. There has always been time for sport and recreation here. Because of a wide diversifica- tion of landscape, the county is particularly attractive to de- votees of hunting, fishing, and hiking. Its rugged, forest- covered hills and mountains, its green valleys, and its rushing streams oflFer healthful out-of-doors recreation to everyone. The mountain streams are particularly suitable for trout because of their gravelly and rocky bottoms and their sharp descent. These swift pure streams provide ideal habitats for three species of trout: the brook or charr, a native fish and the region's favorite; the rainbow, popular and game, brought from the Pacific coast; and the brown trout, imported from Europe. In the larger, slower streams the angler has a wide range in CONTEMPORARY SCENE 149 which to exercise his art. Depending on the time, the place, and his luck he may land one of the following species: large or small mouth black bass, pickerel, wall-eyed pike, catfish, suckers, <;arp, eels, yellow perch, rock bass, sunfish, chubs and any of the various types of minnows. A network of improved roads gives the hunter easy access to the remotest mountain regions, and the county is literally peppered with hunting and fishing lodges. It is estimated that of the 127,000 deer killed in Pennsylvania during the 1938 season, Lycoming contributed 8,000. More than 350 bears were killed in the season. Ringneck pheasants are plentiful and they are hunted extensively. The State Game Farm at Loyalsockville raises thousands of game birds annually for stocking purposes. Trappers and hunters of fur-bearing animals may seek the valu- able beaver, fox, mink, raccoon, wild cat, skunk, and weasel. THE FLOOD OF 1936 Of the many floods which have visited the county since its settlement, the one which swept through the West Branch Valley in March 1936 was by far the most widespread. The winter of 1935-1936 had been a season of unusual severity. For weeks the temperature registered close to the zero mark and there were record snowfalls. The mountains and val- leys were blanketed to the depth of several feet. The river and its tributaries were frozen. In March sudden warm weather thawed the deep snows, and rain fell heavily in the watershed drained by the river. Despite these threatening conditions the residents were not alarmed when the river overflowed its banks in a number of places. The rain stopped falling and colder weather caused the water to recede without causing great damage. Several days later it began to rain again. A warm sun melted the snow so quickly that water ran off^ the hillsides in torrents. On the night of March 17, at 9 o'clock, the Disaster 150 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Looking South on Market Street from Pennsylvania Railroad in Williamsport during the 1936 Flood Preparedness and Relief Committee was called together and met in the Grit ofl&ce. Steps were immediately taken to prepare for the emergency. A warning was broadcast by radio urging the people living in the threatened area to move to elevated sec- tions. The fire whistle also sounded the warning. Thousands of persons left their homes and went to higher ground. Throughout the night the flood warnings continued. By morning the Susquehanna had overflowed its banks, and water swirled through the lower sections of cities and towns along its course. The Lycoming and Loyalsotk creeks left their banks and grew to the size of rivers. CONTEMPORARY SCENE 1 5 1 At 3:30 A.M. the river stage at Williamsport had reached a height of 23 feet 1 1 inches. Five hours later the gauge regis- tered 27 feet 6 inches, and during the night flood stage reached the unprecedented height of 33.9 feet. Almost two-thirds of the municipality was covered with water, in some places more than ten feet deep. Most of the business and industrial district was in the flooded area. The waters deluged all but a few of the manufacturing establishments, most of the churches, all of the theatres, many schools, public buildings, hotels, and thou- sands of homes. Hundreds of marooned persons were rescued in boats. At the height of the flood, water swept through streets and build- ings with terrific force, carrying debris, breaking windows and doors, and overturning automobiles. Telegraph and telephone lines were broken and railroad tracks wiped out. The only contact with the outer world was the radio. Station WRAK broadcast thousands of personal and business messages. With the cooperation of several amateur stations service was main- tained 24 hours a day. Although losses were enormous, hundreds of thousands of dollars in goods were saved by the advance warnings. Despite the damage, only three lives were lost, a child at Williamsport and two men near Jersey Shore. Shortly before daybreak on Thursday morning, March 19, the water began to recede. The downtown business district was guarded against looters. Although guards prevented pre- sons from entering parts of the city which had been flooded, ex- cept on business, hundreds of men, women, and children began to sweep out the mud in a seemingly hopeless attempt to restore a semblance of order. An army of volunteer workers joined established agencies in relief work. Thousands of families were sheltered and fed 152 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY in school buildings outside the flooded area. Countless others were given quarters in private homes. Governmental agencies placed their entire forces at the dis- posal of the stricken communities. The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration employed hun- dreds of men in cleaning out flooded cellars and in spreading disinfectants. The American Red Cross played its part in the rehabilitation of financially embarrassed flood victims. Assist- ance came from all parts of the state. Food, fuel, and clothing were sent from other districts by the truckloads. At one time so much of this material was available that it was diverted to other areas. The Disaster Preparedness and Relief Committee was formed about four years prior to the flood of 1936, hence was ready for immediate action when the necessity arose. Had it not been for the warning issued by it the loss of life and property would have been much greater. Although the per- sonnel has been changed the committee is still intact and in case of an emergency functions in conjunction with the Lycoming County Chapter of the American Red Cross. THE LAST RAFT The greatest news event in Lycoming County during 1938 was the tragedy of Pennsylvania's "Last Raft." The lives of seven men were lost when the log craft crashed against the piers of the railroad bridge at Muncy, March 20, 1938, while on its historic trip down the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. Without warning, a happy carefree journey, heralded as a last tribute to the daring raftsmen of the logging days, sud- denly turned to tragedy before the horrified eyes of hundreds of onlookers. The men who perished in the disaster were Harry C. Con- nor, of Burnside, chief pilot; Dr. Charles F. Taylor, Burgess of Montgomery; Thomas C. Profiitt, of Chester, newsreel cam- CONTEMPORARY SCENE 153 View of Williamspott, 1854 eraman; Harold Bcrringer, of Tyrone; Malcolm McFarland, of Montclair; W. W. Holly, of Bradford; and W. C. VanScoyoc, of Philadelphia. The raft, 112 feet long and 28 feet wide, was built of giant white pine logs cut from the forests near McGees Mills, Clearfield County, near the source of the West Branch. R. Dudley Tonkin, of Clearfield, one of the surviving members of an old lumbering family, suggested the project to re-enact a typical rafting scene from the hewing of the timber to the final "tie-up" a hundred or more miles down the river. The proposal aroused enthusiastic support. On Monday, March 14, the raft, containing 35,000 feet of timber, was pushed into the swirling water about four miles 154 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY west of McGces Mills and after the short trip to the Mills was anchored for the night. The official start began early in the morning of March 15th. Manned by a crew of six men and carrying 38 passengers, the raft moved out of McGees Mills on a four-foot rise in the river. Hundreds of persons lined the shores as it got under way. At nightfall the party reached Clearfield, where it received a rousing welcome. On Wednesday morning the raft left Clear- field. It was maneuvered successfully over the dam and headed for Karthaus. A cold rain fell during the day, but bad weather could not dampen the enthusiasm of the raftsmen. At Karthaus the current was too swift to allow the craft to be moored, so the tie-up was made at Salt Lick Landing. Anchor was again lifted on Thursday morning. After Buttermilk Falls and the Cataracts had been negotiated, the raft party stopped at Keating for a noontime snack. Renovo was reached before dark. At Renovo a great crowd greeted the raft. Hundreds of school children boarded it in small groups, and in a ceremony on the river bank, the raftsmen were given the keys to the town. Lock Haven was the next port of call. The run from Renovo was completed by 3:30 P.M., on Friday, March 18th. The rivermen were entertained at a banquet by the Chamber of Commerce and the lumber pioneers were eulogized. On Saturday the voyagers were thrilled when Harry Con- nor, the chief pilot, shot the raft over a five foot drop at the Lock Haven dam. The feat was accomplished without a mishap and a few minutes later the raft was tied up long enough to take on several passengers. Between Lock Haven and Williamsport large crowds watched the progress of the raft. Shortly after 1 P.M. the craft slid under the bridge at Jersey Shore at a speed of approximately four miles an hour, but it was 8 o'clock when it docked at CONTEMPORARY SCENE 155 Russell Inn, first house erected in Williamsport, 1796 Lycoming County Maynard Street, Williamsport. Because of the hour, formal celebration of its arrival was curtailed, but the excursionists were welcomed by the Mayor and members of City Council. Shortly after daybreak the next day, Sunday, crowds of persons gathered at the riverbanks to see the raft. They watched with anxious eyes as it glided gracefully through the chute and tied up at the Market Street bridge. Here more passengers were taken on and the journey continued. As the current whirled the raft along, those aboard were in high spirits. Except for a slight scraping against one of the highway bridge piers north of Muncy there was no portent of the danger which was to inject tragedy into the gay voyage. 156 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY As the raft neared the Muncy railroad bridge the pas- sengers saw the huge crowd which jammed the span. Suddenly, Ord Tonkin, a lookout, yelled that the raft was heading for one of the bridge piers, and the riders braced themselves for the expected jar. With a loud crack the bow of the raft plowed into the abutment. The tail swung around, hurling nearly everyone on board into the swift icy water. Men floundered in the wreckage, trying to grasp a piece of timber for support. Rescue parties saved thirty-eight persons. The bodies of the seven drowned were recovered only after days of dragging and dyna- miting the river. An inquest held by Coroner Thomas C Brandon, of Ly- coming County, declined to fix responsibility for the disaster. Later the raft was repaired and with John B. Myers as pilot and Edward Winner as head steersman, it was floated to Old Heck's Mill, eight miles north of Harrisburg. Here the logs were manufactured into lumber and sold. QUESTIONS CHAPTER XIII 1. What is the area of Lycoming County? 2. What is the population of Lycoming County? 3. How many farms were there in the county according to the 1930 census? 4. What county groups are active in historical work? 5. Make a list of the men from Lycoming County who have made great contributions to education. 6. Why is Lycoming County suitable for hunting and fishing? 7. What was the height of the water in Williamsport during the flood of 1936? 8. How was relief given to flood victims? 9. What agencies aided flood sufferers? 10. What was the reason for the journey of the "Last Raft"? APPENDIX A Civil Government COUNTY GOVERNMENT BEFORE the Declaration of Independence the Province of Pennsylvania was governed by the Penns and their repre- sentatives or governors. Since most of these officers were sent from abroad and hence were not Pennsylvanians, their services were not satisfactory either to the Penns or the colonists. Op- position to this kind of government increased through the years until November 1765, when an envoy was sent to England to present the situation to the King. The controversy did not terminate until the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, when the proprietary government ended and was replaced by the State Government. At that time Lycoming County was a part of Northumberland, with Sunbury as its county seat. During the first years of the war the people living in the territory which now embraces Lycoming County were so demoralized by the demands made upon them by Colonial authorities and by Indian troubles that the machinery of civil government broke down. It was not until the close of the war that the administration of justice was reestablished on a firm basis. On April 13, 1795, Lycoming County was created. Soon afterwards, governmental machinery was set up and put in mo- tion. With certain changes, improvements, and additions this system of civil government still exists. Today the political divisions of Lycoming County consist of one incorporated city, nine boroughs and forty-two townships, each division to a degree, having its own system of government. Lycoming is a 158 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY county of the sixth class. (By Act of Assembly, July 10, 1919, it was declared that those counties having a population of fifty thousand and more but less than one hundred thousand inhabi- tants, shall constitute counties of the sixth class) , Its govern- mental set-up conforms with that of other counties of that classification. Townships are incorporated under the general townships laws of Pennsylvania, and derive their powers from these laws. Williamsport was designated the county seat during the first year of the county's existence, and the public buildings of the county were erected there. The first jail was erected in 1801 and the first court house in 1804. The court house contains all the county offices. The most important offices of the county government, with a brief outline of the duties, powers, and functions of each, the term of office, the amount of compensation, and the method of selection are described below. For more complete information it is sug- gested that the student consult the Pennsylvania Code. SHERIFF In listing the rank of the various officials who comprise the purely county officers, outside of the judiciary, the sheriflF is the highest ranking executive officer. The designation is de- rived from the two words, shire (county) and reeve (admin- istrator) . The authority of the Sheriff is displaced only when martial law is declared by the Governor of the State. He is elected by majority vote of the electors of the county and is for- bidden by state law to "succeed himself." The salary is $4,000 a year. The chief duties of the office are to conduct SheriflF's sales, execute judgments and writs, execute orders of the court, deputize persons in case of riots or emergencies, and keep in custody all prisoners in the county jail. He must produce before the court when so ordered by the court, any persons legally com- CIVIL GOVERNMENT: COUNTY 159 mitted to his care. The Sheriff is empowered with the authority to make arrests for violations of the law ; has custody of prison- ers being sent to other institutions, and he must be present when the jury commissioners make up the jury lists. He is assisted by two deputies. Lycoming County has had but one woman Sheriff. Mrs. Mable Gray, widow of Thomas M. Gray, was appointed by Governor Pinchot, in 1923, to serve the unex- pired term of her husband. She was the first woman Sheriff in the State. CORONER Second in rank among the county officials is the Coroner. The office is elective, for a term of four years. His most im- portant duty is to investigate accidental deaths, homicides, and other deaths not believed to be due to natural causes, and make a report with recommendations to the District Attorney. Only the Coroner has the authority to arrest a Sheriff. In the event of the sheriff's death the coroner automatically assumes that office and serves until a successor is appointed by the Governor. The Governor also appoints a successor to the Coroner in the event of death or resignation. There is no stipulated annual salary, the compensation being based upon a fee and mileage system. DISTRICT ATTORNEY He is the chief legal representative of the Commonwealth in criminal cases for the county. It is the duty of the District Attorney and his assistants to present the Commonwealth's evidence to the Grand Jury, and where a "true bill" or indict- ment is found, to represent the Commonwealth in a trial before a Petit Jury. He is elected for a term of four years at an annual salary of $3,125. By a recent act of Assembly, the salary will be increased to $3,800 per annum, with two assistants whose salaries will be $2,500 and $2,000, per year, respec- 1 60 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY tively. In case of death or resignation, a successor is appointed by the President Judge. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS The Board of County Commissioners is composed of three members, elected for a term of four years at an annual salary of $3,000 each, not more than two of whom may be of the same political party. They are in reality the managers of the business affairs of the county. Besides being the custodians of all county property, their office acts as a clearing-house for all county transactions. All county funds, which in the case of Lycoming County, amount to nearly three-fourths of a million dollars annually, are disbursed through this office. The commissioners also keep the permanent registration records of the voters of the county. If a vacancy occurs, a successor is appointed by the court to serve the unexpired term. A chief clerk to the commis- sioners is appointed by the commissioners at a salary set by the Salary Board. This board is composed of the county commis- sioners, the county treasurer and three county auditors. It is their duty to fix the compensation of the deputies, clerks, jani- tors, and other minor employees of the county. PROTHONOTARY This office in Lycoming County carries four commissions from the Governor of the State: Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Clerk of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, and Clerk of Naturalization Court. Its duties are varied and important. All court records except those of Orphans' Court are kept in this office. As an agent of the State, the Prothonotary collects taxes on tran- scripts and writs, for which he receives a small fee in addition to his yearly salary of $4,000. The office is elective for a term of four years and in event of death a successor is appointed CIVIL GOVERNMENT: COUNTY 161 by the court. A deputy is appointed by the Prothonotary and has full authority during the Prothonotary 's absence. REGISTER AND RECORDER He is elected for a term of four years at an annual salary of $4,000. In addition he receives fees for his Commonwealth work. The duties of this important office are varied. As Re- corder of Deeds it is the duty of this office to receive and enter for record all deeds, mortgages and other acknowledged legal instruments, such as power of attorney and various forms of releases, and to place them on record in the various dockets fur- nished by the county for that purpose. This officer also permits the satisfaction of mortgages by proper authority, and upon proper proof of payment, so marks it on the indices of both the mortgagor and mortgagee. He records all commissions of coun- ty officials, including aldermen, justices of the peace, and no- taries public and records the date when commissions were re- ceived by him from the Secretary of the Commonwealth. As Register of Wills, he issues letters testamentary, enters them in the proper dockets, and indexes and files them in the estate of decedent. He receives for record all partial and final accounts of executors, administrators and trustees under wills, also final accounts of guardians of minors, properly advertises and certi- fies these accounts, and presents them to the court for confirma- tion. As Clerk of Orphans' Court, he receives and records all orders issued by the Judges of Orphans' Court. He also receives, files, and confirms all reports of auditors appointed by the Court. Among his duties is the issuance of marriage licenses. COUNTY TREASURER The treasurer is elected for a term of four years at an an- nual salary of $4,000. He is forbidden by law to succeed him- self and is bonded to both the State and county. The State requires a bond of $10,000; the amount of the county bond 162 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY is fixed by the Board of County Commissioners. This is a highly important ofiice, since the County Treasurer receives all county funds and disburses them upon proper orders or vouchers from the County Commissioners. He issues the following li- censes: Hunting, fishing, dog, mercantile, dance hall, portable grinding mill and detective. He has two deputies, appointed by himself. Their salaries are set by the Salary Board. COUNTY SOLICITOR He is appointed by the County Commissioners for the length of their term of office, which is four years. He acts as legal adviser for county officials, mainly the County Commissioners. His salary at present is $1,500 a year. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS This officer is elected every four years by a majority vote of the School Directors of the county, who also fix the salary to be paid him by the state. The salary is $4,500 yearly, plus travel allowance. His chief duties are to inspect school grounds and buildings and to report any violation of the provisions re- garding safety and sanitation to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to determine the qualification of teachers and to make periodical visits to the schools; to plan the curric- ulum and to supervise the School System generally. Reports of the secretaries of the school districts are inspected and ap- proved by the County Superintendent of Schools, and upon his recommendation are approved by the County School Board. The County School Board is an innovation, having been or- ganized by a recent Act of Legislature (1937). It is composed of five members of the County School Directors Association, and elected by the members of that body. The term of office is fixed by State Law at six years. It is empowered to merge school districts and to consolidate schools and transportation CIVIL GOVERNMENT: COUNTY 163 routes. The County School Directors Association is composed of the directors of the various school districts of the county. Its functions are to meet at least once each year, receive reports from the County Superintendent, elect officers and, once every four years, elect a County Superintendent and fix his rate of pay. In case of a vacancy, a successor is appointed by the State Super- intendent of Public Instruction. The jurisdiction of the County Superintendent extends only to the districts of the Third and Fourth Classes, and does not include the City Schools. South Williamsport and Jersey Shore are the only Third Class dis- tricts in the county. All others are Fourth Class. An Assistant County Superintendent is appointed by the County Super- intendent with the consent of the County Board and is com- missioned by the State Department of Public Instruction. The salary of $3,500 per annum is fixed by the County Directors Association. The duties and authority are the same as those of the County Superintendent, who is responsible for the Assistant. COUNTY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ADVISER The Adviser is appointed by the County Superintendent of Schools and paid from State funds supplemented by Federal appropriations. The amount of compensation is set by the De- partment of Public Instruction. The present salary is $2,640 a year. The duties of this office are fourfold: (a) to provide in- struction in secondary education where a full time supervisor is not employed; (b) to promote interest in agricultural educa- tion and organize new departments; (c) to supervise the work of local teachers of agriculture, develop a work program and submit reports to the State Department of Agriculture; (d) to develop a long term program of agricultural education among out-of-school youths. He also supervises a student cooperative market at Growers Market, Market Street, Williamsport. 1 64 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY COUNTY HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATIONAL ADVISER She is also appointed by the County Superintendent of Schools. The salary is fixed by the State Department of Public Instruction and paid by the state, which receives a supplemen- tary appropriation from the Federal Government. The present salary is $2,640 a year. The duties of this ofiice are to supervise the teaching of Home Economics in the schools of the county and once each week personally teach a Home Economics class in one of the schools not having a regular teacher. The course includes homemaking, cooking and dietetics, sewing and per- sonal hygiene. COUNTY DETECTIVE The Detective is the County Police Officer and is appointed by the District Attorney at an annual salary of $1,920. He works under the direction of the District Attorney, and co- operates with the police officers of the various political sub- divisions of the county. He has full authority to make arrests and to prosecute cases. The major part of his work consists of investigations and the serving of Commonwealth papers. JURY SYSTEM The Jury System of Lycoming County conforms to the State Law pertaining to counties of the sixth class. Two Jury Commissioners are elected by the voters of the county to serve for a period of four years. They must not be members of the same political party. It is their duty to supply a list of names, picked from each ward, precinct or township, in proportion to the total number of voters of the district. These names are placed in the jury wheel until the jury lists are made up, when a number, determined at the previous session of court, are drawn by the Jury Commissioners in the presence of the SheriflF. There arc three distinct types of jurors — Grand Jurors, Petit Jurors CIVIL GOVERNMENT: COUNTY 165 and Traverse Jurors. The first twenty- four names drawn are selected as Grand Jurors. According to the law governing juries, a juror must be a qualified voter and may serve only once in three years. Petit and Grand Jurors are paid three dollars per diem, plus travel allowance. The same method is used in the selection of jurors for both criminal and civil trials. Traverse Jurors sit in the trial of civil cases and twelve of them constitute a jury. Before a criminal case is tried the evidence is submitted to a Grand Jury, composed of twenty-three persons, together with the in- dictment which has been prepared by the District Attorney or his assistants. The court always excuses from duty one of the twenty-four Grand Jurors so as to avoid the possibility of a tie vote in pass- ing on an indictment. After the evidence is heard the Grand Jury either finds a "true bill," or ignores the charge and makes a return of "not a true bill." Before an indictment may be ignored by the Grand Jury, all witnesses for the prosecution must be heard. A Grand Jury may, on its own initiative, in- vestigate any county institution and oflFer its recommendations to the court. In times of emergency, such as labor disturbances, riots, murders, etc., the District Attorney may convene a Grand Jury to investigate the circumstances and advise him concerning ap- propriate action. Petit Juries are composed of twelve persons, drawn to hear evidence and render a verdict in cases where the Grand Jury has returned a "true bill." To render a verdict a jury must agree unanimously. The Coroner's Jury is composed of six persons, drawn up and subpoenaed by the SheriflF of the county. It is their duty to hear the evidence and render a verdict in cases where the coroner has original jurisdiction, such as deaths of persons from other, than natural causes. Their findings are frequently used as a basis upon which to determine if crim- inal action should be taken by the District Attorney. 166 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY COUNTY AUDITORS There are three auditors elected by voters, two by the major party and the third from the minority. They are paid six dollars a day. Their duties are to examine the books and reports of all county officers and make a report to the court. BOARD OF VIEWERS This Board is composed of seven members, appointed by the court. It must contain one lawyer and the county surveyor. Its chief duties are the settling of damage claims, occasioned by the construction of new roads, the vacating of old roads, and any other duties which might be ordered by the court. The rate of pay is $10 a day. The County Surveyor, elected every four years, serves on the Board. His duty is to survey county land. For his work he receives $6 a day. QUESTIONS — APPENDIX A — COUNTY GOVERNMENT 1. When was Lycoming County created? 2. How many townships are there in the county? How many boroughs? 3. What is a county of the sixth class? 4. When was the first jail in the county erected? 5. Make an outline of the various officers of the county showing how elected, terms of office and most important function of each. 6. Make an outline showing how education is carried on in the county. 7. Name the various types of jurors. 8. What action must be taken by a Grand Jury before a criminal case may be tried? CITY GOVERNMENT WILLIAMSPORT was incorporated as a city in 1866. Un- til 1914 its government was patterned after the state gov- ernment, in that it had two legislative bodies. These were called the Common and Select Councils. The Common Council, comparable to the State General Assembly, was composed of two council men from each ward of the city. The Select Council, which was likened to the State Senate, was made up of one representative from each ward. Hence the Select Council con- sisted of as many members as there were wards in the city and the Common Council double that number. This system was replaced by a commission form of Gov- ernment, under the Clark Act of 1914, which stipulates that cities of the third class (in which group Williamsport belongs) shall elect four Councilmen and one Mayor to serve for a term of four years. The salary of a Councilman is fixed at $3,000 a year while that of the Mayor is $3,500 a year. Two of the Council- men are to be elected every two years, so that at all times there arc two old members if necessary. Under this system of operation the city government is divided into five departments, namely: Public Safety; Ac- is divided into five departments, namely: Public Safety; Ac- counts and Finance; Public Affairs; Highways and Parks; and Public Property. The head of the Department of Public Affairs which includes the Police Department is always the Mayor. The heads of the four remaining departments are elected and their duties assigned to them by the members of the council at the inaugural meeting of the body, which is held the first Mon- day in January following their election. 168 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY MAYOR To qualify as Mayor the candidate must be at least twenty- five years of age and shall have been a resident of the state for four years and of the city at least one year prior to election. He is also required to live in the city during his full term of office. The Mayor is the Chief Executive of the city and as such his duties are many. It is his duty to manage the aflFairs of the city in the best interests of the majority of its citizens, to be vigi- lant and active in the maintenance of peace and in the enforce- ment of the laws of the city and of the Commonwealth. He has the power to prevent violence by mobs, suppress riots, or deal with any other emergency that may arise. The Mayor supervises the conduct of all city officials and examines all com-' plaints against them. In case of violation of law or neglect of duty, he metes out proper punishment or reports the infraction to the city council. To make less difficult the performance of this function he is empowered to subpoena such persons, books, or papers as he may consider necessary. He may call upon officials of the city or heads of departments for any information he may require and from time to time, as he may deem necessary he may communicate to the council a statement of the aflFairs of the city and offer such recommendations as he believes to be in the best interests of its citizens. He has the power of an alderman in criminal cases within the city, but not in civil cases, except in relation to fines, penalties, or forfeitures imposed by virtue of ordinance, or the laws of the Commonwealth. He is empowered to take acknowledgments of any instrument in writ- ing, perform marriage ceremonies, and administer oaths and affirmations. All actions or proceedings taken before him are entered in a docket and these entries may be used in evidence in the same manner as the docket entries and transcripts of aldermen. For this work he receives the same fees and costs as is allowed by CIVIL GOVERNMENT: CITY 169 law to an alderman, but he is required to pay them over to the City Treasurer monthly. DIRECTOR OF ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE The member of city council designated as Director of Accounts and Finance is Vice-Mayor and during the absence of the Mayor is authorized to exercise all rights and powers of that office. In case of absence or inability of the Director of Ac- counts and Finance to act, the council designates another of its members to serve as Mayor. The Director of Accounts and Finance must be a competent accountant. His chief duties are to keep the accounts of the city and, in conjunction with the City Controller, to pay all bills, salaries, etc. DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND PUBLIC PROPERTY This department has supervision over the fire department and makes periodical inspection of public buildings for fire hazards. It also has charge of street signs, traffic regulations, and light poles. DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND PUBLIC SAFETY This department has charge of public buildings, such as the City Hall, fire houses, and highway buildings, as well as the parks, playgrounds, golf course, tennis courts, recreational places, airport and incinerator plant. It also supervises the activities of the health department and milk and plumbing in- spection. DEPARTMENT OF STREETS AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS This department supervises the engineering department and all street construction and improvements. CIVIL SERVICE The personnel of many of the departments of the city gov- ernment are appointed under civil service. This system com- 170 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY prises three Civil Service Boards, of three members each, including a physician and an educator, chosen by the City Council for a term of four years, to serve without pay. Two members of a board constitute a quorum. These boards handle applications for various city positions. It is the duty of these boards to ascer- tain the physical j5tncss, habits, reputation, education and ex- perience and to "prepare examinations upon the subjects deemed proper or necessary for the purpose of determining the qualij5ca- tion of the applicant." After the examinations are given the boards make up a list of the names of all applicants who have passed the mental and physical examinations, with their ratings. When a vacancy occurs, the Civil Service Board supplies the City Council with the names of four applicants who have the highest ratings. The director of the department in which the appointment is to be made then presents the name of one of these to the council for approval. In case the council does not approve the name of the j&rst nominee, a second name is presented and so on down the list. In any case the boards may recommend per- sons already employed in the department for promotion. Ex- soldiers and sailors are given preference, in that they are credited with an additional fifteen per cent above the grade established by the examination. Appointments are permanent, except for dismissal for misconduct or violation of city ordinances or state law; or when it may become necessary, for reasons of economy, to reduce the number of employees. When this occurs, the em- ployees last appointed shall be the first removed. In case of emergency, temporary appointments may be made without the regular procedure. OTHER OFFICERS OF GOVERNMENT Besides the ofl&ce of Mayor and City Councilmen there are several other offices for the transaction of the city's business. Some of these officials arc elected by the voters; others are se- CIVIL GOVERNMENT: CITY 171 lected by vote of the city council. Some of the more important of these, together with a brief outline of the qualifications and duties of the office holder, are described below. CITY CONTROLLER This officer is elected by the voters of the city at large for a term of four years. He must be a competent accountant, a resi- dent and an elector of the city for at least three years previous to his election. His annual salary is fixed by city ordinance and may not be less than that paid to members of the city council. His duties consist of "examining, auditing and settling all accounts in which the city is concerned, either as debtor or creditor, and ex- amine the accounts of all bureaus, offices and departments which collect, receive and disburse city funds." The Controller is authorized to administer oaths and is also empowered to issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of officers whose accounts he is authorized to adjust, CITY TREASURER The qualifications for this office are the same as those of the City Controller. The candidate must be a com- petent accountant and a resident of the city for three years prior to election. The term of office for which the treasurer is elected is four years and the incumbent is required to give bond for the faithful performance of his duties. He receives all funds due the city from all sources and pays them out upon proper authoriza- tion from City Council. City funds are kept in such banks or financial depositories as the City Council may direct. The City Treasurer is required to keep separate accounts of the receipts and expenditures of city, such as the sinking fund, water and light- ing department and any special fund which may come into his hands. 172 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY CITY SOLICITOR He is elected by the City Council for a term of four years. He must be qualified to practice in the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth. His duties are to prepare all bonds, obliga- tions, contracts, leases, conveyances and assurances to which the city, or any department of the city, may be a party; and to act as legal adviser to the City Council and the Mayor. CITY ENGINEER This officer is elected by City Council for a term of four years. He must be a registered engineer and is required to give a bond for the faithful performance of his duties. The salary is fixed by city ordinance. His chief duties are to prepare plans, specifications and estimates on any engineering work to be done by the city and to superintend and direct all engineering work. CITY CLERK He is elected by the City Council for a term of four years. His salary is fixed by council. He has the power of a notary public to administer oaths in matters pertaining to the city or, in any legal proceedings in which the city is interested. Since he is in reality a clerk of the City Council his duties are those pre- scribed by law, ordinance, or resolution of that body. QUESTIONS — CITY GOVERNMENT 1. Why is Williamsport a third class city? (Consult Pennsylvania Manual) 2. How many councilmen are there in Williamsport? How do they obtain office? How long is their term of office? 3. What are the departments of the city government? 4. What are the qualifications of the Mayor? 5. When the Mayor is absent who takes his place? 6. What city department has charge of traffic regulations? 7. What are the duties of the city controller? THE JUDICIARY THE judicial branch of the county government may be divided into two departments, major and minor. The judges who preside at courts which arc held in the court house at the county seat are the major judiciary; the police courts or mayor's court and courts conducted by aldermen in cities and by justices of the peace in boroughs and townships are classed as minor judi- ciary. The major judiciary comprises the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, which has jurisdiction over the trial of civil cases only: the Court of Oyer and Terminer, which has juris- diction in the trial of felonies; the Court of Quarter Sessions which has jurisdiction in the trial of misdemeanors; and the Orphan's Court, which settles the estates of deceased persons. Although there are these several classes of county courts, they are presided over by the same judges. In Lycoming County there are two common pleas court judges. They are designated as the President Judge and the Additional Law Judge. A judge of a Court of Common Pleas is regarded by the Constitution of Pennsylvania as a state officer and not a county officer. He is paid $10,000 a year by the state and may be assigned by the Supreme Court to hold court in any county in the state with the same powers and authorities of the judge who resides there and is bound to obey such an assignment. They are elected for a ten-year term at elections held in the odd-numbered years, when county, city, borough, and township officers are elected. The judge older in point of service is commissioned by the Governor as President Judge. When both are elected to their first term at the same time lots are drawn to determine who shall be com- missioned as President Judge. The duties and authority of the judges are the same, except the President Judge has charge of 1 74 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY assigning the cases for trial, and when the court sits en banc (the judges sitting together) the President Judge presides. In passing on the question of whether a new trial shall be granted the action of the President Judge is decisive in the matter. When for any reason such as illness or absence of one of the judges or otherwise, it may become necessary to have an out- side judge assigned to assist in holding court, the request for such judge is made by the President Judge to the Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of the State. In order to define the diflfcrent kinds of county courts it is necessary to distinguish between civil actions at law and crim- inal oflFenses. A civil suit in law is one instituted to collect a debt, to recover damages or to secure the legal rights of a citizen. A criminal suit is one in which a person is charged with the commission of a crime. The minor judiciary in Lycoming County is composed of the aldermen and justices of the peace. Each borough and town- ship is entitled to two justices of the peace, and Williamsport, a city of the third class, one alderman for each of its sixteen wards. These officials are elected by the electors of their respec- tive wards, for a term of six years. Since there is no stipulated salary connected to the office, the compensation being derived from fees, many of the thinly populated townships elect only one justice and some of them none at all. Aldermen and justices of the peace have limited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases. In civil cases, aldermen and justices of the peace have no jurisdiction in cases of indirect injury, such as an injury in- flicted by an agent, servant, or employee of the defendant, or in cases which involve the title to land. A civil case is begun by making information before an alderman or justice of the peace, who issues a summons to the defendant and serves him with a copy of the information. After the defendant has been sum- moned the case is brought to a hearing. The magistrate hears CIVIL GOVERNMENT: THE JUDICIARY 175 both parties and their witnesses. Either or both parties may be represented by an attorney. After all testimony is taken, the de- cision is rendered by the magistrate. In cases involving $5.33 or less the magistrate's decision is final and no appeal can be taken. Either party, if dissatisfied with the judgment, may seek redress in the Court of Common Pleas, by appeal or by certiorari. The latter is an order upon the magistrate to present to the court a copy of the record of the entire proceedings before the magis- trate. The judge then decides whether the record is proper and renders judgment accordingly. Where there is no error alleged in the record itself the aggrieved person may appeal. Then the case is taken into court and tried before a jury in the same man- ner as if it were a new case. In taking either a certiorari or an appeal, it must be done within twenty days of the date the judg- ment was rendered by the magistrate. Criminal cases begin with an information, sworn to by the prosecutor who may be either a law officer or a private citizen. A warrant is then issued by the magistrate for the arrest of the defendant. The defendant may give bail for a hearing before the magistrate issuing the warrant, in which case he retains his freedom until the date set for the hearing. If the defendant does not furnish bail for his appearance he is taken to jail to await the hearing. At the hearing the procedure differs according to the nature of the crime charged. In minor offenses, such as vio- lations of the motor vehicle code, the alderman has authority to hear the entire case and decide summarily as to the innocence or guilt of the accused, and if he is found guilty, to impose sen- tence according to the law. From this decision there is no abso- lute right of appeal, but within five days' time, the defendant may petition the Court of Quarter Sessions for permission to take an appeal. If the court allows such appeal to be taken, then on a day set by the court, the judge hears the testimony of both 176 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY parties and their witnesses, and decides the case without a jury. In felonies and misdemeanors, the alderman or justice of the peace does not decide the question of innocence or guilt of the accused. He hears only the prosecutor and his witnesses and from this testimony decides whether there is sufficient evidence to warrant the defendant being held to bail for a jury trial. If, in the opinion of the magistrate, there is sufficient evidence to warrant holding the defendant for action by the court, the ac- cused is either committed to jail, or released on sufficient bail. There is one exception to this rule and that is in case of assault and battery where the magistrate hears both the witnesses for the prosecutor as well as for the defense. In all cases except where a felony is charged the magistrate fixes the amount of bail. In felonies the bail is fixed upon request made of one of the judges. This may be cash put up by the defendant himself or in the form of a bond signed by a responsible person or persons. The alderman then makes a transcript of the proceedings and files it in the office of the Prothonotary. Thus it may be seen that the laws of the Commonwealth protect the liberty of its citizens. The evidence of the prosecutor is subjected to two tests, the magistrate and the Grand Jury, before a defendant may be brought into court to stand trial and defend himself. Before a criminal case may be tried before the county court, the evidence of the prosecution is first submitted to a Grand Jury. If the Grand Jury finds that the evidence does not war- rant a jury trial, it ignores the charge by making a return of "not a true bill" and the charge is then dismissed, but if suffi- cient evidence is produced, the Grand Jury returns a "true bill" or indictment, which commits the defendant to a trial before a judge and petit jury composed of twelve persons. Integral parts of the Major Judiciary are the court crier and the court reporters. They are appointed by the President CIVIL GOVERNMENT: THE JUDICIARY 177 Judge. The salary of the Court Crier is $1,000 a year. The duties of this office are to act in the capacity of constable for the court in bail forfeitures, bench warrants, etc., to assume charge of the Law Library and preside at the opening ceremonies of the courts. Salaries of the court reporters are fixed by the county salary board. It is their duty to take and transcribe testimony in court trials. They are also subject to call by the coroner to take testimony at inquests. QUESTIONS — JUDICIARY 1. How many Common Pleas Court judges are there in Lycoming County? 2. What is a civil suit at law? 3. Who arc the members of the minor judiciary in the county? 4. Who hears cases for violations of motor vehicle code? 5. How are boroughs governed? 6. How are townships governed? c 3 3 O g O 3 O CO o c <-0 BOROUGH GOVERNMENT THE civil government of a borough is similar to that of the city of Williamsport. Boroughs not divided into wards, elect a burgess, seven councilmen, a high constable, constable, assessor, tax collector and three auditors. Boroughs divided into wards elect at least one and not more than three councilmen in each ward, an assessor in each ward, except in boroughs where as- sessment of property for county purposes is made by a county board of assessors. These boroughs also elect a burgess, con- stable, tax collector, and three auditors. All borough officials are elected for a term of four years. The duties and functions of the burgess are comparable to those of mayor. As chief executive officer of the borough, it is his duty to be active in the mainte- nance of peace and in the enforcement of the laws of the bor- ough. Like the mayor in a city the burgess has the power of a committing magistrate, with the same authority and jurisdic- tion as an alderman or justice of the peace, except that the fees or costs collected must be turned over to the borough treasurer. The Burgess' salary is limited. It cannot exceed $1,000 per year for the first 5,000 population and $50 a year for each additional 1,000 population. No member of Congress or any person holding any office or appointment of profit or trust under the government of the United States is eligible to the office of burgess. The borough council is required by state law to meet at least once each month. A majority constitutes a quorum. It is their duty and authority to revise, repeal and amend such laws, rules, regulation and ordinances as are not consistent with the laws of the state; and to enact or amend such laws as it may deem beneficial to the borough and to provide for the en- 180 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY forccment of the same. The council is required to preserve all records of its proceedings. ASSESSORS The chief duty of these officers is to list the names of tax- able persons in the borough or township including a description and valuation of property that is taxable by law. TAX COLLECTOR The list of names of taxable persons made up by the as- sessor is received by the Tax Collector whose duty it is to collect the taxes — county, borough, and township — which provide the revenue from which the expenses of government are paid. Assessors are compensated on a fee basis and tax collectors re- cieve a percentage of taxes collected. Tax collectors are required to give bond in sufficient amount to insure the faithful perform- ance of their duties. AUDITORS They are required to meet on the third Tuesday of January each year and adjust, audit and settle the accounts of the town- ship or borough officials. They publish annually an itemized statement of the receipts and expenditures of officials who re- ceive or disburse public funds. TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT THE simplest governmental unit of the state is the township. A long time ago the whole area of the Commonwealth was divided into townships patterned after the political divisions of England. In size and population they are small. From time to time new townships are formed by taking territory from one or more old ones. This is done by proper action by the county court. Thus every township is created by an act of law and constitutes what is called a corporation. Being incorporated under the General Township Act of Pennsylvania, they derive their powers from the General Township laws of the Common- wealth. Of the 42 townships which compose Lycoming County, Muncy is the oldest. It was created April 9, 1772 by the North- umberland County Court. As a separate political division, each township has its own governmental officials elected by the electors of the townships. The offices and the duties of the offi- cials of a township elects a board of school directors, road super- visors, board of auditors, assessors and tax collector, constable, justice of the peace and election officers. Road supervisors are responsible for the maintenance of all township roads. Since many of the township roads have recently been taken over by the state, this township office does not carry the same responsi- bility as heretofore. However, a township supervisor may sue at law or be sued; therefore this office is one of the most im- portant in the township. The duties of auditors, assessors and tax collectors are the same as those described in county and borough government. Lycoming County Townships Anthony McNett Armstrong Mclntyre Bastress Mifflin Brady Mill Creek Brown Morcland Cascade Muncy Clinton Muncy Creek Cogan House Nippenose Cummings Old Lycoming Eldred Penn Fairfield Piatt Franklin Pine Gamble Plunketts Creek Hepburn Porter Jackson Shrewsbury Jordan Susquehanna Lewis Upper Fairfield Limestone Washington Loyalsock Watson Lycoming Wolf McHenry Woodward APPENDIX B Townships of Lycoming County ANTHONY was named for Judge Joseph B. Anthony. Erected September 7, 1844, out of Old Lycoming Town- ship. During the period of the Indian wars it was a part of the "Fair Play" territory. One of the first three German Baptist churches in America was founded here. Bruce Caldwell was the earliest settler. Armstrong was named for Honorable James Armstrong, prominent member of the bar and a Justice of Supreme Court. This township, erected in 1842, was taken from Clinton, which in turn had been created in 1825 from Washington. Thomas Hartley, on February 11, 1773, became the first to take up land in this township. There are two streams in the township. Mos- quito Creek and Hagerman's Run. They drain an extensive territory on the northern slope of Bald Eagle Mountain and fur- nish the water supply for the city of Williamsport. Mosquito Creek enters the Susquehanna at DuBoistown, Hagerman's Run at South Williamsport. An old Indian trail at one time followed Mosquito Creek through the ravine to DuBoistown. Albert Culbertson built a grist mill at the mouth of the creek, and gave his name to Cul- bertson's Trail or Path, which is still visible in many places. Bastress erected December 13, 1854, was named for Solomon Bastress, Associate Judge and member of the General Assembly. The township was first settled by German Catho- lics in 1837 under the leadership of Rev. Nicholas Steinbacher, S. J. The present building of the Church of the Immaculate Conception was erected in 1860. Adjacent to the church is a 1 84 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Lourdes Grotto erected in 1 9 1 5 . A niche in the hill beside the road contains a statue of the Immaculate Conception carved out of a solid block of Carrara marble in Genoa, Italy. Thousands of people attend annual religious services there Sunday after- noons during the month of May. Brady was named for the distinguished family of Indian fighters. It was created from a part of Washington township on January 31, 1855. The Stone Church (Lutheran) is a historic spot in the township. The original log structure, built about 1780, was near the present church. The present Stone Church was built in 1847. A cemetery adjoins the church property, and many of the pioneers of White Deer Valley are buried there. Brown was named for Major-General Jacob Brown of Bucks County, a hero of the War of 1812. It was erected May 3, 1815 from Mifflin and Pine townships. Pine Creek, which divides the township, runs through picturesque, mountain scen- ery which at one point reaches an altitude of 820 feet above sea l?vel. The land contains coal, slate, iron ore, and fire clay. The first resident was Jacob Lamb, who settled at the mouth of Slate Run. Lumbering for many years was the chief industry; millions of feet were taken from the territory surrounding Pine Creek. Cascade derives its name from the cascades or waterfalls along its streams. It was erected from Hepburn and Plunketts Creek townships on August 9, 1843. Burnett's Ridge crosses the township and enters Sullivan County to the east. The ridge was named for William Burnett, Indian trader. The first settler was Michael Kelly, who built on Wallis Run in 1843. He was the founder of Kellysburg and a pioneer in road building. Clinton was named in honor of DeWitt Clinton, Gov- ernor of New York. It was erected December, 1825, by divi- sion of Washington township. The first settler was Cometine TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 185 Low. Low and his family joined the Great Runaway, fled to Fort Augusta, and later returned to New Jersey. After the restoration of peace, several of Low's sons returned to the town- ship and became influential in its affairs. Its natural features are the Black Hole Valley, a rich agricultural section, and Penny Hill, a scenic point. COGAN House erected December 16, 1843, was named for David Cogan, the first settler. Cogan built a cabin on Larrys Creek in 1825, and lived there until 1843. After he left, the buildings and improvements fell into decay and hunters named the entire vicinity Cogan House. Early industries of the township were lumbering and the manufacture of maple sugar. Fire clay, iron ore, copper ore and a fine grade of building stone are among its natural resources. The principal stream is Larrys Creek. Other streams are Hoagland's Run, Flook's Run, Pack Horse and Trout Run. CUMMINGS named for Associate Judge John Cummings, was erected in 1832 from Brown and Mifflin townships. Pine Creek flows through the center of the townships, and Little Pine Creek flows from the northeast. The township contains excellent beds of flag and building stone and some iron ore and fire clay. The first white settler was John English, who came in 1784. English settled there when the territory was practically a wilderness; Seneca Indians still inhabited the region and fre- quently passed his cabin. Lumbering was the first industry of this section. Near Waterville are many summer cottages, most of them erected since paved roads have made the district access- ible. Other villages are English Mills and Rameyville. Eldred one of the smallest in the county, was erected November 16, 1858 and named for C. D. Eldred, an Associate Judge. The land speculations of Robert Morris attracted Quaker settlers, for whom Quaker Hill was named. The site of War- rensville, only village in the township, was cleared in 1802 by 186 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Samuel Carpenter, who erected the first grist and saw mill and installed the first carding machines. The town was plotted in the year 1841 by John Weisel and was named in honor of Gen- eral Warren. A post office was established on July 25, 1842, with Samuel Torbert as first postmaster. About a mile east of Warrensville the first school building, a stone structure, was erected. Fairfield created in 1826, was named for the rolling land of the Susquehanna River Valley. In this township is the Samuel Wallis house, now the Brock estate, the oldest house in the county. The first road from Northumberland to Lycom- ing Creek passed through its southern part. Governor John Andrew Shulze, upon his retirement from office in 1829, came to the township to live. Franklin named for Benjamin Franklin, was erected from Moreland in 1882. Topographically the township is a section of Muncy Hills. Among its earliest settlers were Wil- liam Howell, Nathan Howell, Peter Snyder, Solomon Reed, Joseph Lyons, Daniel Ritter, and William Lore. During the lumbering boom many mills operated in this section, but the most important industry was the Franklin tannery near Lairds- ville. At one time this was the largest tannery in northern Pennsylvania. The only village in the township is Lairdsville. Its first post office was known as Chestnut Grove. Gamble was named for Jesse Gamble, a President Judge of Lycoming County. It was erected January 30, 1875. The first settler was David McMicken, who was said to have dis- covered Rose Valley about 1784. About 1820, Germans began to arrive and in a short time these energetic settlers developed prosperous farms. An early industry was the manufacture of salt and potash. The salt plant was on Salt Run and the potash works nearby. Lumbering and the extraction of hemlock bark were also early industries. TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 187 Hepburn erected 1804, was named for William Hepburn, State Senator and County Judge. Hepburnville stands on the site of an old Indian village, called Eeltown, perhaps because of the abundance of eels found in Lycoming Creek. The first settler was James Thompson, in 1784. The next was Samuel Reed, whose house was the only one between Trout Run and Newberry. Reed was also the first school teacher in the town- ship at what is now Cogan Station. German colonists founded Blooming Grove, the most important early settlement of the township, in 1807. The colony located near the present village of Balls Mills, functioned under a written agreement, signed by all, with power of representation vested in Wendel Herman. Still standing is the Blooming Grove Dunkard Meeting House, built in 1828. In 1930 the Pennsylvania Historical Commis- sion and the Lycoming Historical Society erected a marker on the site. Behind the building is the Dunkard Cemetery. A museum, housing relics of these pioneer settlers, is also on the property. Jackson created in 1824, lies in Liberty Valley. It was named in honor of the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. Within its boundaries are Little Pine Creek, Roaring Branch, and Big and Little Elk Lick Runs. Peter Sechrist, who came from Perry County in 1811, was the first settler. About 1817, Jacob Beck, Daniel Beck, and George Miller established homes there. The Charles Williamson road from Montoursvillc to Painted Post, N. Y. was built in 1792. Williamson also built that noted landmark, the Block House, on the edge of the county and township lines. Jordan was named for Alexander Jordan, a President Judge of Lycoming County. It was erected February 7, 1854, from Franklin township. William Lose settled there in 1812. Unityville is the only village in the township. Lumbering was its early industry, but today it is an agricultural section. 188 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Lewis erected in 1835, was named for Ellis Lewis, a President Judge. In 1840 a part of Cascade was annexed to Lewis. Lycoming Creek flows through the township. Along the banks of this stream was the old "Shcshequin Path," an Indian trail. Conrad Weiser often traveled over it and Colonel Hartley followed it in 1778, when he invaded the Indian terri- tory. In 1779, when the West Branch Valley was devastated, the Indians came on this trail from the north, burning and de- stroying everything in their path. The first resident was A. M. Slack, who came there after the Revolutionary War. Slacks Run gets its name from him. There are small amounts of iron ore, copper shale, fire clay, and building stone in the township. The bottom lands along the valley are productive, but the re- mainder is mountainous. Limestone was originally called Adams, in honor of President John Adams. The name was changed on April 14, 1835. The first settler was probably William Winland, who came there in 1789. Jacob Sallada, of French extraction, came to Nippenose Valley in 1 8 1 1 . He was a carpenter and builder and played an important part in the early development of this and adjacent townships. The borough of Salladasburg is named for him. Nippenose Valley, one of the scenic spots in the town- ship, is an oval limestone basin, surrounded by mountains ris- ing to a height of nine hundred feet. Two breaks occur in the ridge line. Ranch's Gap and Nippenose Gap. A natural phe- nomenon in the valley is the immense "sink holes" in the lime- stone floor of the basin. Water from the mountains enters the "sink holes," and after flowing through a subterranean passage for some distance, it gushes forth in a huge spring. The spring forms Antes Creek, which flows northward through a gap in Bald Eagle Mountain to the Susquehanna River. Collomsville, named for Seth CoUom, an early settler; Oriole, or Jamestown, the original name; and Oval are township villages. TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 189 LOYALSOCK erected in 1786, was named for the creek which bounds it. The only settlements at the time of its founda- tion were near the river and a short way up Loyalsock and Ly- coming Creeks. The township affords geologists excellent op- portunity for the study of rock strata. The first permanent settlers arrived there in the years between 1796 and 1800, but the pioneers had entered the territory as early as 1768. Peter Smith, Samuel Harris, the Covenhovens and the Benjamins were early settlers. Industrial development began with the Mc- Kinney Iron Works, established in 1825 at Heshbon. Iron was brought by boats from Centre County to Jaysburg, then trans- ferred to carts and hauled to the works, which consisted of a furnace and rolling mill equipment. Lumbering was also an important industry in the early days. Lycoming was erected on December 2, 1857 from Old Lycoming. The Hayes, Inigels, and Kulp families first settled along Hoagland's Run. Quiggleville, on Hoagland's Run, is the largest village in the township. Perryville, on Lycoming Creek, is the second- largest village. Its first mill was built by Josiah Hays in 1831. McHenry was created from Brown, Cummings and Cogan House townships on November 18, 1858. Its first name was Kingston; but a meeting of citizens held shortly after its creation voted that the name be changed in honor of Alexander H. McHenry, a veteran surveyor. John Mix probably plotted the first settlement in 1785, with Claudius Boatman settling there in the same year. McNett erected February 10, 1878, was named for H. H. McNett, one of the petitioners for the new township. Coal, iron ore, fire clay and building stone are found in the area. The greater portion of the surface is mountainous, consisting of glacial moraine. Near Roaring Branch good fossil plates and casts have been found. Roaring Branch, the largest village, is 190 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY situated half in McNett township and half in Tioga County. Penbryn, also called Leolyn, is the next village in size. The name is Celtic and means "Head of the mountain." EUenton and Chemung are other villages. McIntyre erected 1848, was named for Archibald Mcln- tyre of Philadelphia, one of the founders of the Williamsport and Erie Railroad. The surface of the township is rough and mountainous, with steep rocky slopes. Back of Ralston is a high ledge of rocks, on the summit of which is a level notch. It was over this notch that the Shcshequin Path, an old Indian trail, passed to avoid the almost impassable thickets in the valley below. On this precipice Shikellimy, famous Indian chief and vice-King of the Six Nations, nearly lost his life while guiding Conrad Weiser and party through this territory on their his- toric journey to Onondaga, capital of the Six Nations. Settlers were slow to come to the township, because of the density of the wilderness. In 1794, Aaron Levy, and Michael and Hyman Gratz settled on land near Ralston, and John Smith Koutz and John Blackwcll, in 1805, settled on Pleasant Stream and near Roaring Branch, respectively. About 1831 an iron furnace was established near Frozen Run, several buildings were erected, and the place was named Astonville, in honor of the manager of the enterprise. The ore was filled with fire clay and at that time the only method by which it could be removed was by freezing. It was from this process that Frozen Run received its name. Ralston was named for Mathew Ralston of Philadelphia, a pioneer in the iron and railroad industry, Mifflin was named for Governor Thomas Mifflin. When it was created in 1803, it was quite extensive but since has given territory for the creation of other townships, with the result that it is now eighth in size. Mifflin was in the "Fair Play" region, land whose ownership was disputed by Indians and white men. Among those who settled in the territory were John TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 191 Murphy, Anthony Pepperman, John Olen, and Joseph Robin- son. These men were of the old school of pioneers; they lived in primitive cabins and spent much of their time hunting and fishing. In this township is "Ogontz," summer home built by Jay Cooke of Philadelphia. Mill Creek erected in 1879, was named for its principal stream. Samuel Hall and Jonathan Collins were the first set- tlers. They were followed by the Nunn, Klees, Lockard, Wil- son, Moon, and Reeder families. Since the removal of the tim- ber, the township has become an agricultural section with good farming and sheep grazing land. Along the base of the mountain there is some fine flag stone. MORELAND was erected in 1813 and probably derives its name from its hilly terrain. The hills give it a greater surface area than level country of the same dimensions. Colonel George Smith, an ofiicer in the Revolutionary War, was the first set- tler on Muncy Creek in 1 790. Among those who took an active part in the early development of the township were the Opp, Gower, Hill, Shipman, Jones, Fiester, Brittian, Christopher, Derr, and Taggart families. MUNCY is a name derived from the Monsey Indian tribe, who once inhabited the territory. Muncy is the oldest township in Lycoming County. It was erected as a part of Northumber- land County on April 3, 1772, or twenty-three years before Lycoming County was created. Samuel Wallis, builder of the first permanent residence, lived there. Muncy Farms and Muncy Manor were within its boundaries. Pennsdale is the only vil- lage in the township. It was first known as Pennsville, later changed to Hicksville, and finally to Pennsdale. Pennsdale is the site of the historic Friends' Meeting House, built in 1779 and in continual use ever since. The old furnishings, the in- terior, and the original parts of the exterior are well preserved and hundreds of persons visit this historic building annually. Quaker School, Pennsdale TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 193 MUNCY Creek erected in 1797, was named for the stream of the same name. The borough of Muncy, with its southern line crossing the Muncy Hills, lies within its borders. On the river bank is Port Penn, where under a great elm, noted Indian chiefs met in conference. This was also the junction of several Indian trails. On Little Muncy Creek is Clarkstown, site of one of the oldest churches in the county, the Immanuel Luth- eran. The deed for the land on which it was erected was exe- cuted on April 5, 1791. Its constitution, written in German, dates back to 1794. The township, a rich agricultural section, also contains paint rock which has been successfully worked since 1888. NiPPENOSE is a name whose derivation is not clear. One definition is "nose nipped by the frost." Another, more logical perhaps, is the Indian word, "nippc-no-ivi," meaning "like the summer." This township was erected in May, 1786. Its best land is in the southern section, where Bald Eagle Moun- tain is split by a great canyon through which Antes Creek flows. Prominent in the Colonial history of the area was Colo- nel John Henry Antes, who came to the section about 1772. The stockade, erected by him at the mouth of Antes Creek, played an important role during early settlement. The village of Antes Fort gets its name from this soldier of pioneer days. Antes Fort was laid out by Jonathan White and called Gran- ville. The name never became popular and finally was changed to its present title. Some years ago, Nippcnose Park was situated in the eastern end of the township. There were cottages and pavilions, a steam boat ran from Williamsport, and it was a train stop on the Pennsylvania Railroad. The park survives only in the memory of the older residents of the community. Old Lycoming named for Lycoming Creek, received the prefix "Old" to distinguish it from Lycoming, a more modern subdivision. One of the original townships, it was created 194 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY August 22, 1785, nine years before the erection of Lycoming County. Newberry and Jaysburg were its early villages. At Jaysburg the first county courts were held and the first jail built. Near this place the Moravian missionaries met French Margaret Newberry, head of an Indian clan, for whom New- berry was named. Among the early settlers were the McMeens, Mahaffeys and UpdegraflFs. Their descendants are still promi- nent in the life of the community. Penn was named for William Penn by Tobias and Isaac Kepner, former residents of Penn Township in Berks County. It was erected in 1828. The surface is mountainous and rough, not suited to agriculture. Benoni Wiesner, whose place was near the base of North Mountain, was the first settler. He was fol- lowed by Christopher Frey, Thomas Reed, John Craft, and Thomas Strawbridge. Fribley, Strawbridge, and North Moun- tain are villages in the township. Piatt erected April 20, 1858. was named for William Piatt, an Associate Judge. The surface of the township, though mostly rolling contains some fine bottom land, particularly at Level Corners. This area was in the disputed territory ruled by the "Fair Play System." Larry Burt, an Indian trader, was the first settler. The next was Simon Cool, a captain in Colonel Plunkett's Army. At the time of the Big Runaway Cool fled the valley. After his return he was killed by Indians. Another early settler was John Knox, descendant of the re- former. He settled on Pine Creek in 1799, and erected a grist mill at what is now Safe Harbor. Level Corners was the home of Robert Covenhoven, Revolutionary soldier, spy and scout, in the period following the Indian troubles in the region. Pine derives its name from the heavy pine timber which covered its surface. It was erected January 27, 1857 from terri- tory belonging to Brown, Cummings, and Cogan House town- ships. It is the largest township in the county, containing TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 195 48,640 acres. Originally covered with a heavy growth of tim- ber, it is mountainous and wild, with knob-like hills, one of which, Oregon Hill, rises to a height of nineteen hundred feet above sea level. Little Pine Creek and its tributaries constitute its principal drainage system. The scenery along its course is^ magnificent ; in many places it cuts through deep ravines of great beauty. In 1800 John Morris settled above the mouth of Little Pine Creek, where the village of Texas now stands. Morris and his wife, in 1806 leased the Moore property and opened a girl's seminary. This venture, a bold one for the period, met with considerable success. It was the only school of its kind in northern Pennsylvania. The school, which later received the name of "Wilderness Seminary," was on the Newberry-to- Painted Post road. Many of the persons who helped to make county history were at one time enrolled in the school and taught by Mr. and Mrs. Morris. Oregon Hill and English Cen- ter are important villages. The former was so named because of the intense interest shown by the early settlers in the Oregon Boundary dispute, which had for its slogan "forty- four- forty or fight." English Center gets its name from its early English settlers. Plunketts Creek, erected 1838, was named for Colonel William Plunkett, Commander at Fort Augusta prior to the Revolutionary War. Louis Donelly settled near the mouth of Bear Creek in 1818. When Donelly arrived he found evidences of a predecessor; a man named Paulhamus had squatted there for a while and left about 1776. It is said that he was a de- serter from the British army. Another early settler was John Barbour, a Scotchman, who became an extensive land owner, built the first lumber mill, and took an active part in the de- velopment of the township. Proctorville, named for Thomas Proctor, was the home of a large tannery during the latter half of the nineteenth century. It employed several hundred men and 196 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY did an extensive business for many years. Another early indus- try, which exists only in the memory of the older inhabitants of the township, was Roger's Woolen Mills on Bear Creek, which did a thriving business until its destruction by fire in 1891. In general the township is wild and mountainous, since much of its territory is part of the main Allegheny range. Its mountains and streams provide hunting and fishing of the finest sort. Comfortable summer houses and cabins have been erected in many places. Porter erected in 1849, was named in honor of Governor David Porter. It is one of the smallest townships in the county. Part of its surface is rolling and hilly, but along the river are some very valuable bottom lands. Until 1784, the township was "forbidden territory," governed by the "Fair Play Men." The first settler was William McClure, who located near Jersey Shore in 1773. Another prominent settler was Dr. James Davidson, who settled here prior to the creation of Lycoming County, about 1791. He was a native of New Jersey, and had served in the Revolutionary War as physician and surgeon. After the close of the war he purchased a farm two miles above Jersey Shore, and for a long time was the only physician in that section. Upon the erection of Lycoming County he was appointed Associate Judge by Governor MiflBin. Stone quarry- ing along Pine Creek has for many years been a profitable in- dustry. Shrewsbury was taken from Muncy Township in 1804. Its original area embraced Sullivan County, which was erected from it in 1847. Theophilus Little, Sr., a native of Monmouth County, Shrewsbury Township, New Jersey, succeeded in per- petuating the name of his old home by naming the new town- ship. Peter Corson, who located in the woods along Muncy Creek in 1794, was the first settler. Jacob Maish and John Rynearson were the first on Big Run, and Peter Buck was the TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 197 earliest pioneer on Lick Run. Tivoli and Mawr Glen are the only villages in the township. Susquehanna formed in 1838, was settled by Anthony Moore, Thomas and John Miller, Alexander Beatty, and John Gibson. The township has some very productive farm land. Nisbct is the only village in the township. Its post office was established on November 23, 1867. Upper Fairfield, erected in 1851, was originally named Pollock in honor of Judge James Pollock, the seventh judge of Lycoming County. Pollock became Governor of Pennsylvania and later Director of the Philadelphia Mint. On January 29, 1853, the name was changed to Upper Fairfield. Among the names of early settlers appear: Osbourn, Rooker, Rothfuss, Entz, Heylman, Rentz, Sweely, Buckley and Slaugen white. Washington, named for George Washington, is one of the oldest in the county. It was erected August 23, 1785, while Lycoming County was still part of Northumberland. The first settler was Michael Huling, a blacksmith by trade. Another early settler was Catherine Smith, a widow with ten children, who was left three hundred acres of land near the mouth of White Deer Creek. Since her property was an excellent site for a saw and grist mill, she borrowed money and built one in 1774. The following summer she built a boring mill, where a great number of gun barrels were bored for use in the Revolutionary War. Later she built a hemp mill. At the time of the Little Runaway, when the Indians devastated the valley, her mills were burned and she with her children were forced to flee. She returned in 1783 and rebuilt the mills. Business was resumed only a short time when Claypoole and Morris, claiming priority rights to the land, instituted eviction proceedings against her. She appealed to the General Assembly to no avail. After years of litigation Catherine Smith was finally dispossessed. During litigation it is said that she made thirteen trips on foot to Phila- 198 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY delphia and return. The heroic struggle of her life is a legend in this section. Watson was named for Oliver Watson a prominent banker of Williamsport. It was erected from Cummings and Porter in January, 1845. The first settlement was by John Alexander at the mouth of Tomb's Run in 1784. The valley along Pine Creek is a fertile farming section. Iron ore has been mined along Furnace Run, but not in sufficient quantities to be of commercial value. Wolf, named for George Wolfe, Governor of Pennsyl- vania, was formed from Muncy township in September, 1834. Since the formation of the township it has contributed land for the creation of two boroughs, Hughesville and Picture Rocks. The history of the township is intertwined with that of Muncy, the parent township. David Aspen, who arrived in 1775, is credited with being the first settler. His cabin was located on the southern boundary line of the present borough of Hughes- ville. It was to his place that Rachel Silverthorn made her his- toric ride of warning prior to the Big Runaway, in 1778'. Aspen escaped to Fort Muncy, where he remained for a few days. He then returned to his cabin on a tour of inspection. When he failed to return a searching party discovered his body near his cabin. He had been shot and scalped by the Indians. Another early settler was Abraham Webster, who came from England and located near Pennsdale. In 1778 the family was attacked by Indians, a son, Abraham, killed and another son, Joseph and two daughters captured. One of the girls was drowned in Seneca Lake by an angry squaw, and the other was never heard of again. The southern part of the township is rolling country, with many fine farms, the northern section is hilly and rough. Limestone is quarried west of Hughesville. There are great quantities of flagstone in the northern section. TOWNSHIPS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 199 Woodward, erected November 23, 1855, was named for Apollos Woodward, of Williamsport, an Associate Judge. Its surface is rolling, with fertile farm land along the river valley. The principal streams are Queneshaque Run, Kulp's Run, and Pine Run. Linden is the only village. When the canal was be- ing built, several shanties were put up there and the place was called "Shanty Town." Eventually better homes were erected and the pleasant little village was named Linden. Queneshaque Run derives its name from the unpronouncable Indian word "Quenis-chasch-hacki," which is interpreteci ' "long straight water." The Delaware Indians, whose town was on the present site of Linden, used this name to designate the long, straight stretch of still water in the river at this place, now known as the "Long Reach." The white settlers called the creek by the Indian name for "Long Reach" which has been corrupted to "Queen-e-shock-any" and other forms of spelling. Quene- shaque is now the spelling generally used. One of the outstand- ing early settlers was Brattan Caldwell. He came to this country from County Kildare, Ireland, about 1770, and to the West Branch about 1772, settling west of Lycoming Creek on Indian land. Caldwell was one of the organizers of the "Fair Play System" and frequently served as commissioner. At the time of the Big Runaway he and his family fled to Lancaster County, but they returned as soon as the immediate danger was past. Lycoming County Boroughs DuBoistown Montoursville Hughcsville Muncy Jersey Shore Picture Rocks Montgomery Salladasburg South Will iamsport APPENDIX C Boroughs of Lycoming County DUBOISTOWN was incorporated as a borough in October, 1878. The population in 1930 was 1,049. It was named for John DuBois, who in 1867 built a large lumber mill there. The mill burned in 1884 and was never rebuilt. Subsequently DuBois moved to Clearfield County and founded the city of DuBois. The borough is on the south side of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River in the shadow of the Bald Eagle Mountain. Mosquito Creek, a mountain stream, flows through the town before joining the river. The early settlers called the place Wal- nut Bottom, for the heavy growth of walnut trees. Numerous Indian implements and fireplaces found by the early settlers were evidences of Indian occupation, near the town. The In- dians undoubtedly considered it a desirable spot for a village, since the trail over the mountain passed through it and crossed the West Branch at what is now Newberry, where it joined the Sheshequin Path up Lycoming Creek. It is believed that Albert Culbertson entered Mosquito Valley by this mountain path and was favorably impressed with its natural advantages. He pur- chased land on both sides of Mosquito Creek at its juncture with the river. On this tract he erected a spacious dwelling and, near the edge of the river, a sawmill. This mill he replaced with a larger one, driven by an overshot water wheel twenty-one and a half feet in diameter. Soon after the Revolutionary War Cul- bertson erected a grist mill on the bank of the river. The build- ing was strongly built, two stories high, and stood on a high stone foundation at the water's edge. Canoes were paddled up 202 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY close by and their cargoes of grain hoisted into the mill by a rope. Because of the quality of the flour made in his mill its popularity grew and people came laden with grain from great distances up and down the river. At the time of the Great Run- away, when the hostile Indians invaded the West Branch Val- ley. Culbertson was compelled to flee and all of his improve- ments were destroyed. When peace again came to the valley he returned and rebuilt his saw mill and grist mill and a few years later erected a mill for pressing nut and linseed oil. Other prominent early settlers in the district were Captain William Patterson and Samuel Caldwell. Patterson was a mem- ber of the Lycoming County bar and an accomplished fiddle player. Caldwell became an outstanding figure in the borough because of his frequent litigations in the county courts. He later purchased the Culbertson mill and erected a fine stone mansion. HUGHESVILLE was laid out in 1816 by Jeptha Hughes, for whom the town was named. It was incorporated as a bor- ough April 23, 1852. The population in 1930 was 1,868. The first white settler on the site of the present borough was David Aspen. (See Wolf Township) The town grew very slowly during the early days. About 1820 a grist mill was erected by Jacob Clayton. In the same year a blacksmith shop was opened by Fingley and Carson. In 1829, William Kitchen started a chair factory. The following year. Wells and Johnson began to make the famous Dearborn wagons. Robert Pursel opened a tannery in 1832. A furniture factory erected in the 1870's is now the property of J. K. Rishel Company, manufacturers of desks. In 1818 a log school house was erected. To this crude structure, heated by a ten-plate stove, came pupils from five to eight miles distant. When the town -was incorporated as a borough, this building was torn down' and a two-room brick BOROUGHS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 203 ^.^ View of Jersey Shore, 1854 structure erected in its place. From time to time this building has been remodeled and additions made. Near the Newman school house, on the edge of the bor- ough, is one of the oldest graveyards in the valley. It contains the graves of the Newmans, Ryncarsons, Lows and many other early settlers of the section. Though abandoned as a burial ground it is still kept enclosed and preserved. Jersey Shore was incorporated as a borough March 15, 1826. It was first named Waynesburg but was changed to its present title at the time of its incorporation. The name Jersey Shore was suggested by the fact that some of the first settlers came from Essex County, New Jersey, along the Jersey Shore. The land upon which the borough now stands was in the dis- 204 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY puted territory ruled by the "Fair Play System." It did not come under the jurisdiction of the Province until after the second treaty of Fort Stanwix, in 1784. Reuben Manning, in 1785, was the first settler. Samuel Boul followed in 1786. Boul was the first justice of the peace in the new borough. For many years the growth of the borough was slow. Jared Irwin was the first store-keeper. About 1800, Samson Crawford established the first tannery and three years later another was started by Abraham Lawshe. A citizen of im- portance in the early life of the borough was Thomas Calvert, an Englishman by birth, who came with his parents to Wil- liamsport, in 1794, where he learned the trade of cabinetmaker under Alexander Sloan. At the end of his apprenticeship he went to Jersey Shore and established the first cabinet making business in the borough. Calvert Street in the borough was named for him. In 1817, Solomon Bastress, who was a weaver and dyer by trade, settled in the borough. He eventually gave up this vocation and became a surveyor and scrivener. From 1827 to 1830 inclusive he was a member of the General Assembly. In 1846 he was chosen Associate Judge and served in that capacity for ten years. When Susquehanna Township was divided in 1854, a new township was named in his honor. Today Jersey Shore is the second largest borough in the county with a population of 5,781 (1930). Its chief indus- tries include a canning factory, hosiery mill, wire manufactory and the New York Central Railroad shops at nearby Avis, in Clinton County. Montgomery was incorporated as a borough March 27, 1887. Its first name was Black Hole, changed to Clinton Mills in 1853; but when the post office was established, May 25, 1860, it was called Montgomery Station for Robert Mont- gomery who owned a carding mill in the borough. Cornelius BOROUGHS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 205 Low was the first settler, in 1778. He was followed five or six years later by John Lawson and Nicholas Shaffer. The first business enterprise was a distillery operated by P. M. Barber in 1859. He also made the first plot of the town. Among the earliest industries of Montgomery were sawmills, a carding mill, and a planing mill. In 1870 the Montgomery Machine Shop was established, which for many years did a thriving business, employing at one time about 250 men. Fur- niture manufacturing and upholstering and the manufacture of leather specialties are the present industries of the borough. The population in 1930 was 1,903. MONTOURSVILLE was laid out by John Burrows in 1820. It was incorporated as a borough 30 years later. It received its name in remembrance of Andrew Montour, whose Indian town, "Otstuagy," was situated near the mouth of Loyalsock Creek. For many years prior to the establishment of a post office in 1831, the town was composed of two sections. The eastern part of the borough was called "Coffee Town," and the western portion was known as "Tea Town." They were so named by teamsters who while passing through on their way to Williams- port were often besieged by housewives requesting them to bring a quantity of these commodities. The first permanent white settler was John Else, who erected the first house. Else, a carpenter-contractor, built many of the homes in early Williamsport and his services were in de- mand from Muncy to Bellefonte. Among the early settlers Gen- eral John Burrows was outstanding. As a boy of thirteen years he carried mail on horseback from Philadelphia to New York. During the Revolution he participated in many important bat- tles. After several years spent in farming and blacksmithing, he went to Muncy, where he engaged in the liquor distilling busi- ness for a time. In 1796, the year after the erection of Lycom- ing County, he was appointed a justice of the peace by Governor 206 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY McKcan. In 1802 he was elected a County Commissioner. While a commissioner he assisted in building the first court house and hauled the bell which still hangs in its belfry from Phila- delphia to Williamsport in a wagon. In 1808 he was elected State Senator. At the end of his senate term he purchased a large tract of land near the mouth of Loyalsock Creek. This was the site of the old Indian village, Otstuagy. Except for a small plot which had been cleared by the Indians, the territory was a forest. In 1811, Burrows was appointed Major General in the Ninth Division of the Pennsylvania Militia. In 1820, with Thomas Lloyd, he laid out the borough and sold lots at fifty dollars each. For many years lumbering was the chief industry. Later three furniture factories provided the major portion of employ- ment. Today Montoursville is a pleasant town with well-kept streets, comfortable homes and a municipally owned water sys- tem. Two silk mills, two sand and gravel plants, a Venetian blind factory and the Maintenance Division of the State High- way Department are now the chief sources of employment. A modern airport, with two large hangars and hard surfaced run- ways, is situated within the borough limits. MUNCY's name was derived from the Monsey Indians, a tribe of Delawares that inhabited the region before the arrival of the white man. Remnants of this tribe later settled at present Muncie, Indiana. The town was laid out in 1797 by Benjamin and William McCarty and Isaac Walton and named Pcnnsborough, in honor of the Penns. For years it was just a straggling village better known as "Hardscrabble." More than a quarter of a century passed before it became an incorporated borough, on March 15, 1826. On January 19, 1827 the name was changed to Muncy. Its population in 1930 was 2,419. Of the old families who played an important part in the early days of the town were the Brindles and Petrikins. The BOROUGHS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 207 early merchants and postmasters were members of the former family. William Brindle was at one time the publisher of the Lycoming County Gazette. William Petrikin, too, was a post- master, and in 1842, was appointed Major General in the Penn- sylvania Militia. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Muncy Female Seminary. The Lycoming County Normal School, organized in Montoursville in 1870 and moved to Muncy in 1877, was the first school of this type where local and district institutes were held. The school existed about sixty years and many men prominent in the aflFairs of the state were students or instructors there. An important industry in the early days of the borough was the Muncy Agricultural Works. It was a thriving business in the days of fine carriage, buggies, buck boards and wagons. Clinton Guyer, inventor of a hammerless gun and the Staymen- Guyer automatic engine, operated an engine works and machine shop here for several years. Industries which constitute a major part of the present industrial life of the community arc: two machine manufacturing plants, a woolen mill, and a wire rope plant. Picture Rocks on Muncy Creek about two and a half miles north of Hughesville, was incorporated as a borough Sep- tember 27, 1875. Its population in 1930 was 548. The name of the borough is derived from the crude Indian pictures painted on a ledge of rocks which rises perpendicularly two hundred feet above Muncy Creek. These pictures were objects of great cur- iosity to the first white men. It is said that Wolfs Pathway, a Seneca chief, ordered Fisher Fox, a famous Indian artist, to re- move the original pictures and in their place to depict his great victory in the Battle of Canoes. The battle occurred near Nip- penose Park on the Susquehanna. The discovery of arrowheads and other implements adds credence to the story. 208 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY The land was first owned by Henry Rody, whose warrant bears the date of June 3, 1773. He sold it to Abraham Singer, who later conveyed it to John Tice. In 1848, A. R. Sprout and Amos Burrows of Susquehanna County purchased the land from Mr. Tice. Previous owners had erected a cabin and a saw- mill but had made little progress in the seemingly impossible task of clearing the land, which was covered with logs, rocks and brush. Sprout and Burrows established the first sash, door and blind factory in the county. As the settlement grew, other industries were founded. Some of these have been discontinued or absorbed. The present industries include furniture manufac- turing; manufacturing of excelsior and tool handles; and the making of extension and step ladders. Salladasburg is on Larry's Creek about five miles north of its junction with the Susquehanna River. It was erected from Mifflin Township, January 12, 1884, and named in honor of its founder Jacob Sallada. Sallada, in 1837, erected the first grist mill, which he operated until 1867. About this time Sallada and Stephen Bell built another mill near the older one. Cline finally sold his mill to Good and Company, who converted it into a planing and cider mill, and a few years later he pur- chased the new mill of Sallada and Bell. This mill was de- stroyed by fire in 1887, and the site was purchased by Thomas and Brothers who rebuilt it and did a flourishing business until 1928, when it was again partially destroyed by fire. It was re- built and modern machinery was installed, and it is still the property of the Thomas family. For some time the leading industry of the borough was a tannery established in 1848 by Robert Lawshe. In 1882 the buildings were destroyed by fire and Robert McCuUough re- built them on a larger scale. After modern machinery had been installed, the plant had a capacity of four hundred hides a day. The hides were hauled in wagons from Larry's Creek station BOROUGHS OF LYCOMING COUNTY 209 and returned there by the same means. Steady employment was furnished to about one hundred men. The industry exists today only in the memory of the older inhabitants of the bor- ough. Jim's Inn Beach in the borough is one of the popular recreational places of the county for swimmers and skaters. It has a modern bath house with showers and lockers with life guards on duty during the season. The population of Salladas- burg in 1930 was 227. South Williamsport is practically a part of the city of Williamsport, being separated only by the Susquehanna, but connected by two free bridges. It is on a low plateau that was known by early pioneers and surveyors as the "Lower Bottom" to distinguish it from the "Upper Bottom" opposite Linden. On its western boundary is the borough of DuBoistown. The borough is cut by Hagerman's Run, which drains the northern slope of Bald Eagle Mountain and empties into the Susquehanna River. When the Williamsport Water Company located their original reservoir it was placed near the mouth of this stream, but when more water was needed the company con- structed a storage reserve farther up the ravine to be used in conjunction with its reservoir in Mosquito Valley. Aaron Hagerman, who came to this country from Holland before the Revolutionary War, was responsible for the name of Hagerman's Run. Hagerman settled along the stream at a point near where Koch's brewery now stands. During the canal days a sizable village named Rocktown sprang up. Inasmuch as the mouth of Hagerman's Run was a popular place for "tieing up," McMichael McDonough established a tavern there. Good shad fishing in the river nearby increased the business of the place. The tavern was also at the junction of two public roads. The initial movement towards the establishment of a town occurred when Jacob Weise bought a tract of forty acres, laid it out in town lots, and established a brick yard near McDonough's 210 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY tavern. He later built an oil mill, which was razed when the water company erected their, reservoir. He also erected a grist mill near the Koch Brewery. The furniture factory of George Luppert, the sawmills of Green, Sands and Company, and Valentine Luppert, and the planing mill of the latter, together with the mills of the Wil- liamsport Iron and Nail Company, brought about a second set- tlement, this one named Bootstown. The origin of the name "Bootstown" is interesting. Through George Luppert a number of Germans from Neuberg on the Rhine settled just below the Kaiser spring. Shortly after they had selected their new homes, a pair of boots was stolen from one of them. In spite of the fact that the Germans wished the town called Neuberg, news of the stolen boots spread widely and the name remained until it was amalgamated with Rocktown into the borough of South Williamsport (1886). The population of South Williamsport grew from 2,900 in 1890 to 6,058 in 1930. Most of this increase has been due to the introduction of new industries and the growth of some of the older ones. The old Koch Brewery still does business under the orig- inal name, though under diflFerent management. The more recent industries in the town manufacture the following: Institutional supplies, cement blocks, furniture, hardware, and silk textiles. APPENDIX D Williamsport WILLIAMSPORT is the county seat and the only city in Lycoming County. It was laid out by Michael Ross in 1795, incorporated as a borough in 1806 and as a city January 16, 1866. Little is known of the place of origin or ancestry of its founder. Ross was born in Europe of German and Scotch parentage and came to this country when he was about ten years old. In 1772, with his mother he came to Samuel Wallis* Muncy Farms, where as a "redemptioner" he served as a sur- veyors' assistant until 1779. At the expiration of his term Wallis gave him 100 acres of land, some livestock and equip- ment. During the following fourteen years, little is recorded of Ross' activities, except his marriage to Ann Courson in 1793. By that year he had acquired the 300 acres which now comprise the borough of South Williamsport. How he came into posses- sion of this tract is not known, nor is there any record of what became of the land he received from Wallis. Tradition has it that Ross while plowing his tract in the spring of 1794 became impressed with its natural surroundings and, believing the river to be navigable, visioned a "city" or "port" on the oppo- site or north side of the stream. Imitating Cincinnatus of old, he left the plow in the field and set out to acquire the land on which the foundation of Williamsport was to be erected. On May 7, 1794, the Commonwealth patented to him a 280-acre tract. The following spring he employed William Ellis and Joseph Williams to assist him in laying out the town. The orig- inal plot extended from the river north to Brandon Park and west from Penn to Hepburn Street. It contained approximately 212 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY 111 acres, divided into 302 lots, with a public square in the center in accordance with English custom. Ross lived in an abandoned log cabin until 1800 when he erected a large brick dwelling at the northeast corner of Basin and Third Streets. Because he always believed that the Susquehanna River would eventually be made navigable and that the infant town would be the "port of entry," he reserved all fishing and ferrying rights for himself and for years after his death his heirs retained title to the land lying along the river bank between Penn and Hepburn Streets- In 1795, the first year of Lycoming County's existence, Williamsport was chosen as the county seat. Jaysburg, a small village west of Lycoming Creek and Dunnsburg (now Dunns- town, Clinton County) , were vigorously contending with each other for this honor. Dunnsburg had already set aside a plot of ground for a court house. Jaysburg had provided a jail and temporary quarters for county oflicials. The designation of Wil- liamsport caused a great deal of bitterness between the villages west of Lycoming Creek and that to the cast. People residing west of Lycoming Creek charged Michael Ross and Judge Wil- liam Hepburn, who owned a tract of land adjoining Ross', with fraud and coercion. They were accused of transferring choice lots to friends and relatives of the commissioners appointed by Governor Thomas Mifflin to select the county seat. In 1794, Hepburn had been elected to the State Senate from Northum- berland County. As Senator he was instrumental in the creation of Lycoming County. He resigned his senatorship and was appointed the first President Judge of the new county. The first court house was started in 1800 and completed in 1804. It was constructed on the site of the present building at a cost of $20,417.80. In 1860, the old one having become obsolete, a new one was built. It was ready for occupancy in the spring of 1861 and cost $41,030. The bell, which still hangs WILLIAMSPORT 213 in the belfry, and the image which adorns the dome were used in the first building. The bell was brought in a wagon from Philadelphia by General John Burrows, one of the county com- missioners. It bears the inscription: "George Hedderly made me in Philadelphia Anno. Di. 1804." The image on the dome is a female figure holding the scales of justice. The clock in- stalled in the 1861 building still remains, except that the original wooden dials have been replaced by glass ones. The first jail was started in 1799 and completed in 1801. The cost probably did not exceed $8,000. In 1867 it was so badly damaged by fire that the old building was razed and the present jail erected at a cost of $139,440.87. At the time of its incorporation as a borough the town had less than one hundred taxable inhabitants. For some time it grew slowly, due in part perhaps to the enmities caused by the competition for a county seat. It required many years, and, in fact, a new generation, to entirely efface the bitterness resulting from this vigorous and spirited campaign. Almost fifty years after its incorporation as a borough Williamsport had a popu- lation of less than 17,000. In 1853 Peter Herdic came to town and aroused it from its lethargy. Herdic was born at Fort Plain. New York, on December 14. 1824. Soon after his arrival in Williamsport. his dynamic personality and restless energy infused new life into the community and every branch of business and industry was renewed and invigorated. The town immediately began a period of unprecedented development and prosperity. During the next ten years. Herdic built houses, business blocks, hotels and churches. He organized bands, purchased the gas works and, failing in an attempt to purchase the water works, he con- structed a rival one. In 1864. he erected the Herdic House (later called Park Hotel), a very pretentious structure for the tiine. more than a mile from the business center of town. He then in- Peter Herdic WILLIAMSPORT 215 duced the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to locate its station adjoining the hotel, built a street car line to connect the hotel with the business district and proceeded to sell building lots. From the sale of lots he was able to pay for the hotel and car line, and there were still many lots unsold. Another illustra- tion of Herdic's foresight was the purchase of a large tract of land in what is now South Williamsport. Then, as now, the Pennsylvania Railroad, in the eastern end of the city, crossed from the south to the north side of the river and, after passing through Williamsport, recrossed to the south side near the vil- lage of Nisbet. Because the bridges were frequently damaged by floods, Herdic was able to persuade the railroad company to construct a spur line through his property connecting these two points. Thus the value of his land was considerably en- hanced and he proceeded to sell factory sites and building lots. The venture was not only a financial success for Herdic, but South Williamsport, a borough of over six thousand popula- tion has grown up on the site, largely as a result of the enter- prise of this man. He built the Weightman Block on West Fourth Street and persuaded the city to construct a sewer from the present underpass at Campbell Street to the river. After its completion the "Dutch Gap Canal" as it was popularly called, provided excellent drainage for Herdic's land. Herdic's greatest feat was gaining control of the great log boom on the river, which he and two others, Mahlon Fisher and John G. Reading, bought from Major James Perkins and others in 1857. The log boom was virtually the toll-gate of the lumber industry. He increased the tolls from seventy-five cents to a dollar and a quarter a thousand feet. Since the num- ber of logs passing through the boom in a year reached hundreds of millions of feet, the profits were enormous. The income of the company for the first eight years after the increase in tolls totaled over two and a quarter million dollars. In the course 216 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY of his business career, Herdic became owner or controller of all the principal enterprises in Williamsport. He organized the Lumbermen's National Bank, operated sawmills, started a rub- ber works, owned a brush factory, a nail works in South Wil- liamsport, the gas plant, the upper water works, the Maynard Street bridge, the West Branch Gazette and Bulletin, the Herdic House (now Park Hotel), and great tracts of coal lands, be- sides other extensive tracts of land and scores of dwellings. He had Williamsport incorporated as a city in 1866 and was the "power behind the throne" in having Newberry annexed to Williamsport. During the panic of 1873 he went into volun- tary bankruptcy. At the time of his financial collapse his lia- bilities were approximately $1,000,000. But for his untimely death February 2, 1888, it is very probable that he would have again become a potent factor in the further development of his adopted city. Within five years after his failure, the property turned over to his creditors was valued at more than $2,000,000. Herdic's business tactics were often the object of severe criti- cism. He had faults, but his virtues probably exceeded them. He gave freely to the poor and to every community enterprise. He built the beautiful Trinity Episcopal Church and presented it to the congregation. He gave lots for the Congregational Church, the Church of the Annunciation, the First Baptist Church, the First Evangelical Lutheran and contributed gen- erously toward building the Jewish Synagogue. To Peter Herdic, more than to any other man, belongs the credit of awakening the sleepy little country town that was Williams- port in 1853 and transforming it into a thriving city. At the time of Herdic's arrival the town's population was less than 2,000 but by I860 it had grown to nearly three times that number. Since the 1860's the city's growth has been continuous. After the forests had been divested of their timber, other in- WILLIAMSPORT 2 1 7 dustries took the place lumbering had occupied. There arc about ninety manufacturing plants in the city, with an annual payroll of almost $8,000,000. The population, including immediate environs, is approximately 55,000 persons. The city has a modern business district, with office buildings, stores and hotels. There are more than sixty churches, representing almost every denomination. Splendid educational facilities are provided. Williamsport Dickinson Seminary furnishes an opportunity for higher studies. This recognized co-educational institution maintains college preparatory courses and also has two years of studies paralleling the freshman and sophomore years in a liberal arts college. The public school system of the city includes one senior high school, three junior high schools and eleven elementary schools. Total enrollment for the 1938-1939 term was 8,775 pupils with 293 teachers and instructors. There also are two Roman Catholic high schools and two parochial elementary schools with a total enrollment of approximately 1,000 students. Three business schools, maintaining accounting and secretarial courses, also are located in the city. The Williamsport Hospital, an institution of 275 beds, is one of the best equipped in the state. A nurses' training school also is connected with the hospital. There also is a well equipped private hospital in the city. The James V. Brown Library, the only large size free public library in Lycoming County, has complete facilities for the reading needs of the city's inhabitants. In addition to the main building, the library maintains two branches, one in the western part of the city and one in Montoursville. The inaugu- ration this year (1939) of a county- wide traveling circulating library has brought a wide variety of reading material to the rural population. Funds for this purpose are provided by the county with State aid. A truck is used for the distribution of WiUiamsport Dickinson Seminary and Junior College WILLIAMSPORT 2 1 9 books in charge of a librarian. The project is administered by the Board of Directors of the James V. Brown Library. Two daily newspapers, the Gazette and Bulletin and the Williamsport Sun, are published in the city. Williamsport also is the home of Grit which has the largest circulation of any weekly newspaper in the United States, 600,000 copies. Residents have excellent recreational facilities at their dis- posal. There are two city parks, twelve playgrounds and five athletic fields, in addition to a nine-hole municipal golf course and a number of tennis courts. Swimming is provided in near- by streams. The Young Men's Christian Association and the Young Women's Christian Association also have swimming pools in their buildings which arc fully equipped to care for the needs of their members and guests. Approximately sixty per cent of the homes in the city are owned by the occupants. The newer residential districts are in the Vallamont and Grampian sections in the northern part of the city, where winding drives traverse the foothills overlooking the river valley. Faxon and Kenmar, suburbs to the cast of the city, also arc fast-growing residential areas. QUESTIONS — WILLIAMSPORT 1. When was Williamsport laid out? 2. Who was Michael Ross? 3. Who was Peter Herdic? 4. What did Herdic do for Williamsport? 5. How many manufacturing plants arc there in Williamsport? 6. What opportunities in education are oflFered in Williamsport? Bibliography Bell, Herbert C. History of Northumberland County. Pennsyl- vania. Chicago, Brown, Runk and Company. 1891. Cadzow, Donald A. Archaeological Studies of the Susquehan- nock Indians of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa., 1936. (Pennsylvania Historical Commission. Publications, Vol. 3. Safe Harbor Report No. 2.) Clark, John S. Selected Manuscripts, Relating to the Aborigi- nal History of the Susquehannas; ed. by Louise Welles Murray. (Publications, v. 1) Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology, F. Dorrance, sec, 69 S. Franklin St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 1931. Cooper, H. C, Jr. Twentieth Century Bench and Bar. Chi- cago, Brothers and Company. 1903. 2 v. Commercial Reference Map of Lycoming County. Washing- ton, D. C, Capital City Map Company. 1931. Community Trade Association. Statistical Reports and Pam- phlets. Williamsport, Pa. 1939. Day, Sherman. Historical Collections of the State of Penn- sylvania. New Haven, Conn., Durrie and Peck. 1843. Donehoo, George P. History of the Indian Villages and Place Names in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa., Telegraph Press. 1928. Donehoo, George P. ed., Pennsylvania; a History. New York- Chicago, Lewis Historical Publishing Company. 1926. » 7 V. Ellis, Franklin. History of Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Evarts, Peck and Rich- ards. 1886. Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Indian Forts Commission. Report of the Commission to locate the site of the frontier forts of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa., State Printer. 1896. 222 A PICTURE OF LYCOMING COUNTY Gazette and Bulletin. Library Files. Williamsport, Pa. Godcharles, Frederic A. Pennsylvania: Political, Governmental. Military and Civil. New York, American Historical Society. 1933. 5 v. Daily Stories of Pennsylvania. Milton, Pa. the Author. 1924. Grit. Library Files. Williamsport, Pa. Hazard, Samuel, comp. Pennsylvania Archives, vol. 1 , Phila- delphia, Joseph Scverns and Company. 1852. Hrdlicka, Ales. Physical Anthropology of the Lenape or Dela- wares and of the Eastern Indians in General. Wash- ington, D. C, Bureau of American Ethnology. 1916. (Bui. 62.) Jenkins, Howard M. ed., Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal, a History, 1608-1903. Philadelphia, Pa. Pennsyl- vania Historical Publishing Association. 1903. 3 v. Landis, David H. A Brief Description of Indian Life and In- dian Trade of the Susquehannock Indians. Lancaster, Pa. 1929. Reprinted from Lancaster New Era and Lancaster Intelligencer. Lloyd, Thomas W. History of Lycoming County. Topeka- Indianapolis, Historical Publishing Company. 1929. 2 v. Lycoming County Agricultural Extension Association. Statis- tical Reports and Pamphlets. Williamsport, Pa. 1938- 1939. Lycoming Democrat. Library Files. Williamsport, Pa. Lycoming Gazette. Library Files. Williamsport, Pa. Mcginness, John F. Lycoming County, Its Organization and Condensed History for One Hundred Years. Chicago, Brown, Runk and Company. 1892. Otzinachson or a History of the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna. Williamsport, Pa., Gazette and Bulletin Printing House. 1889. Menges, Franklin. Soils of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa. 1914. (Pennsylvania Agricultural Department.) Morgan, Lewis H. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iro- quois, new edition. N. Y., Dodd, Mead and Com- pany. 1904. BIBLIOGRAPHY 223 Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State Manual. Harrisburg, Pa. Bureau of Publications. 1937. Pennsylvania. Department of Forests and Waters. Map of Tiadaghton State Forest. Harrisburg. Pa. 1938. Pennsylvania. Department of Internal Affairs. Genealogical Map of Counties of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pa. 1931. Pennsylvania. Department of Internal Affairs, Bureau of Sta- tistics. Eigfith Industrial Directory. Harrisburg, Pa. 1935. Carrow, Goldsmith Day, D.D. Introduction of Methodism into Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Philadel- phia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. vol. 12 (1888.) Shoemaker, Col. Henry W. Susquehanna Legends: Collected in Central Pennsylvania. Reading, Pa., Bright Printing Company. 1913. Sipc, Chester Hale. The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Har- risburg, Pa., Telegraph Press. 1929. Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report. Washington, D. C, Government Printing Office. 1928. Stewart, D. J. History of Lycoming County. Philadelphia, Pa., J. B. Lippincott and Company. 1876. Sullivan, Mark. Our Times: the United States 1900-1925. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1926. 2 v. United States. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, Agri- - culture. Washington, D. C, Government Printing Of- fice. 1935. Williamsport Sun. Library Files. Williamsport, Pa. Wood, Dr. T. K. Now and Then. Published at Muncy, Pa. 1868-1939.