PICTURE OF NEW-YORK
WITH A SHORT ACCOUNT OF
PLACES IN ITS VICINITY;
DESIGNED AS A
GUIDE TO CITIZENS AND STRANGERS
■WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS,
& JHap of tije <Eit2?.
HOMANS & ELLIS, 295 BROADWAY.
Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by
HOMANS & ELLIS,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the
Southern District of New-York.
James Van Norden'& Co., Printers,
60 William-street, New-York.
Asylum for Blind, 47
" for Deaf and Dumb,. 46
" for Orphans, 48
" for Coloured People,. 37
" for the Insane, 43
" foraged Females,.. 48,79
American Bible Society, 38
Apprentices' Library, 54
Artists of New-York, 113
American Institute, 57
American Art Union, 59
American Museum, 68
Arrivals of Ships and Pass'rs., 120
Benevolent Inst'ns of N. Y.,.. 42
Bowery Theatre 65
Battery, (The)..' 83
Churches, list of, their location,
year of erection, dimensions
and pastors, 140-148
Churches, (Description of.)
Christ's Church, 124
Church of the Messiah, .... 134
Carmine st. Presby t'n Ch.,. . 136
Church of Holy Commu'n., 139
Dutch Reformed Church,... 132
Dutch Reformed Church.... 131
First Presbyterian Church,. 129
Fir^t Unitarian Church,.... 133
French Church 124
First Baptist Church, 127
Floating Chapel, 137
Grace Church, 130
Presbyterian Church, 135
St. George's Church, 123
St.. John's Church, 126
St. Mark's Church, 122
St. Patrick's Cathedral, .... 123
St. Thomas' Church, 136
St. Paul's Church, 125
Swamp Church, 13tf
Trinity Church, 121
Columbia College, 35
College of Phys. and Surg'ns,. 56
Cabs and Hackney Coaches,. 100
Croton Aqueduct, 70
Climate and Diseases of N. Y., 109
Distances from New-York,.. . 98
Daguerrian Galleries 112
Early History of New-York,. 1
Eating Houses of New-York, 80
Ethnological Society, 54
Forts and Fortifications, 77
Hudson (or St. John's)'Square, 84
Harlaem Uail-Koad, 86
Jersey Prison Ship, 6, 12
Literary Institutions, 50
Lyceum of Natural History,.. 52
Masonic Hall 37
Mercantile Library, 52
Mechanics' Institutions, 57
Mechanics' Institute, 57
Mercantile Institutions, 58
Meteorological Table, 110
Mortality (Bills of,) 117
Negro Plot of 1741, 7
New- York, early history of,.. 1
do. general description of, 17
do. environs of, 19
do. Society Library, 50
do. Lyceum,--.. 53
do. Law Institute, 53
do. Historical Society,.. . 54
do. Medical Society, 56
do. Hospital, 42
do. Quarantine Hospital, 44
do. Art Re-Union, 61
do. Gallery of Fine Arts,.. 61
do. Drawing Academy,.. 62
N'iblo's Garden, 67
National Academy of Design, 60
Olympic Theatre, 66
Public Buildings, viz:
Cily Hall, 27
Hull of Records, 29
Merchants' Exchange,... 32
Post Office, 32
Park, (The) 83
Picture Galleries and Fine Arts 59
Places worth visiting, . ...... ^ 74
Places of public amusement,. . 62
Public Schools, 73
Public Squares, 83
Public Porters, 102
Population of New- York,.... 106
Public School Fund, HI
Public Baths, 115
Places worth visiting, 112
Religious Institutions, 39
Steamboats, 75, 91,103
Steam-boat and Packet Lines, 91
Stage Lines and departures,.. 95
Steam-boats built in New-
York since 1807, 103
Theological Institutions, 54
Tompkins Square, 85
University of New-York, 34
University Medical School,... 55
Union Place, 85
Washington's (Geo.) Retreat, 9
Washington Square, 85
Walton House, 116
Yellow Fever and Cholera,... 16
LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.
View in Broadway,
Harlaem Tunnel, 86
8 Asylum for the Blind, 47
9 Asylum for Orphans, 48
10 New-York Society Library, 50
11 Clinton Hall 52
12 University Medical School, 55
13 Union and National Banks, 114
14 Monument at Greenwood. . 162
15 Long Island R. R. Tunnel, 160
17 Packet-ship off the Quar-
18 Navy Yard, Brooklyn,.... U0
19 Croton Aqueduct 70
20 Carmine st. Church, 136
21 Ch. of Holy Communion, 139
22 Dutch Reformed Church,.. 132
23 First Unitarian Church,. .. 133
24 French Church 124
25 Floating Chapel J37
26 Presbyt'n Ch., (Dr. Potts',) 135
27 St. Mark's Church, 122
28 St. Patrick's Cathedral,... 128
29 St. Thomas' Church, 136
30 Swamp Church, 138
31 Trinity Church, 121
32 Unitarian Ch., Brooklyn,.. 168
33 Old Dutch House, 117
34 Walton House, 116
35 Broome-st. Baptist Church, 127
33 Sir Henry Clinton's House, 113
Atlantic Dock, 164
Brooklyn, (City of,) 149
Brooklyn Female Academy,. . 166
City Buildings, Brooklyn, .... 168
Churches in Brooklyn, 168
Fortifications on Long Island, 151
Greenwood Cemetery, 162
Jersey Prison-ship, 152
Long Island, (Battle of,) 152
Long Island Rail-Road, «. 160
Navy Yard, Brooklyn, 160
Private Schools, 166
Public Schools, 167
Union Ferry Company, 165
EARLY HISTORY OF NEW-YORK CITY.
It was formerly the custom of the Atlantic tribes of
North American Indians to resort to the sea coast during
the summer months, where they spent their time in the
peaceful employments of hunting and fishing ; leaving the
sterner occupations of war for the secret ambushes of the
interior forests. They generally selected for their summer
residences some place easy of access, and immediately
contiguous to their sporting grounds. The island of New-
York, or as it was called by the natives, Manhattan, was
a favourite resort of the Hudson river tribes. Abundant
evidence of this fact is found in the history of its first dis-
covery, and the indestructible relics that every where
abound, buried in the ground. Excavations in the primitive
soil often expose large quantities of shells, the remnants
of their " clam bakes;" and various specimens of arrow,
heads, stone-axes and chisels, are found in the upper parts
of the island.
From their temporary villages they went forth in search
of game, and long before the white man came, the expan-
sive bay that now reflects the sails of an hundred nations,
was dotted by the humble canoes of a race, whose very
name has long been lost to history. The ground that
now sustains half a million of inhabitants, then hid in its
forest shades the dusky forms of a few hundred wild men ;
and the waters that are now but the threshold of the
commerce of the world, were then timidly navigated by the
birchen canoe of a race who never ventured beyond the
protection of its inland bounds. On the 2d of September,
1609, a beautiful autumn day, the adventurous bark of
Henry Hudson made its appearance in the lower harbour.
The Indians, whose fishing canoes were scattered about in
every direction, attacked one of his boats which was sent
out to fish, and killed its commander. They buried him
PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
on an island, which was named after him, Colman's Island,
now degenerated into Coney Island.
After this, these Indians became more friendly, and
came on board, where they exchanged tobacco and In-
dian corn for trinkets. Hudson passed up with his vessel,
(the Half Moon,) as far as the present site of Albany, and
then returned to Manhattan ; and after sometimes trading
with the natives, and sometimes killing them, he went
back to Europe again. His mutinous men forced him to
go to England instead of Holland, from whence became.
The British government, which had formerly driven him
from their service, now detained him, and in a subsequent
voyage to North America, he was set adrift by his crew in
an open boat, with his young son and seven others, with-
out compass or food, and never heard of after. This was
brought about through the treacherous agency of one of
his men, whom he had formerly befriended, under circum-
stances that claimed lasting gratitude. Hudson was a bold
and skilful navigator, and had formerly distinguished him-
self in his attempts to discover a North West passage to
the East Indies.
The Dutch, finding that they could get furs of the North
American Indians, sent out another ship to New- York, to
trade with them ; and in 1614, the Dutch government en-
couraged a company of merchants, and licensed them as
the " West India Company." Soon after this the company
sent out two ships, one of which was accidentally burned,
but was replaced by another, which was built by her
commander on the East river. After sailing along the
coast to Martha's Vineyard, they returned to the Hud-
son river, and proceeded up to Castle Island, near Al-
bany, where they commenced a settlement. For many
years after this first settlement, Albany was the remotest
point of interior civilization. In 1615, a fort was built on
Manhattan Island ; a few huts were soon added, to accom-
modate the settlers who traded with the Indians. This
fort was just in the rear of the present site of Trinity
Church, on the immediate bank of the river — the tide
then came up to where the western wall of the churchyard
now stands. In 1751, some workmen digging in the bank,
back of the church, discovered a stone wall, which occa-
sioned great wonder at first, but was soon ascertained to
be the remnants of the long forgotten fort. In 1621, the
Dutch government gave the New Netherlands to their
West India Company. The territory so denominated ex-
tended from Delaware river to Cape Cod. In 1623, they
built anew fort, which stood on the ground now occupied
by the Bowling Green, then a high mound of earth, over-
looking an extensive ledge of rocks, the site of the pre-
There is every indication to evince the fact, that New-
York was in primitive days the "city of hills" — such ver-
dant hills, of successive undulation, as the general state of
the whole country part of the island now presents. " The
hills were sometimes precipitous, as from Beekman's and
Peck's Hills, in the neighbourhood of Pearl, Beekman
and Ferry streets, and from the Middle Dutch Church,
in Nassau-street, down to Maiden lane ; and sometimes
gradually sloping, as on either hills along the line of the
water, coursing along the region of Maiden lane. Be-
tween many of the hills flowed in several invasions of
water : such as " the canal" so called to gratify Dutch
recollections, which was an inroad of river water up Broad-
street. Up Maiden lane flowed another inroad. A little
beyond Peck's Slip existed a low water-course, which in
high water ran quite up in union with the Collect, (Kolck,)
and thence joining with Lispenard's swamp on North river
side, produced a union of waters quite across the former
city ; thus converting it occasionally into an island, which
is shown by the present lowness of the line of Pearl-street
as it traverses Chatham-street. Boats were used occasion-
ally to carry the foot passengers from either side of the
high rising ground ranging on both sides of Pearl-
Part of the people who came out in the Tea Company's
ships settled, in 1625, on an island, at what is now called
the Wallabout, a word importing the waloon bend. About
this time we find in the public records, that " Paulus Hook
PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
was sold by Gov. Keift to Abraham Isaacs Plank, for 450
guilders. For scandalizing the governor, one Hendrick
Janeson, in 1638, was sentenced to stand at the fort door,
at the ringing of the bell, and ask the governor's pardon.
On the 6th of August, 1638, two persons were appoint,
ed to inspect "tobacco cultivated here for exportation ;"
and on the 19th of the same month it was ordered, that in
consideration of " the high character it had obtained in
foreign countries," any adulteration should be punished
with a heavy penalty. In 1641, a cattle fair was estab-
lished, to be held annually on the 15th of October.
The lands on " York Island," without the bounds of the
town walls, along Wall-street, were either used for public
grazing grounds for the town cows, sheep or swine, or else
for the governor's farms, under the names of Bouwerys.
The Bouwery or farm sold to Governor Stuyvesant in 1631,
now so valuable as building lots in the hands of his de-
scendants, was originally purchased by him for 6,400 guil-
ders (XI, 066 ;) and having besides the land, " a dwelling-
house, barn, reek-lands, six cows, two horses and two
On another farm the company erected a wint molen
(wind-mill) for the use of the town. Its site was near the
" Broadway," between the present Liberty and Courtlandt
streets. The first having decayed, it was ordered, in 1662,
that there be another on the same ground " outside of the
city land-port (gate) on the company's farm."
In 1663, all the carmen of the city, to the number of
twenty, ordered to be enrolled, and to draw for 6d an or-
dinary load, and to remove weekly from the city the dirt
of the streets at 3(7. a load.
In 1675, the rates of tavern fare were thus ordered : For
lodging 3d. ; for meals 8d. ; brandy per gill 6d. ; and cider
per quart 4d. In 1676, all the inhabitants living in the
street called the Here Graft, (now Broad-street,) were re-
quired " to fill up the graft, ditch or common shore, and level
the same." In this same year is given the names of all the
then property holders, amounting to only 300 names, and
4< assessed at 1£ dollars a pound, on £99,695."
Luke Lancton, in 1683, was made " collector of cus-
toms at the custom house near the bridge, and none shall
unload but at the bridge." The house called " Stuy.
vesant Huys," at the northwest corner of present Front
and Moore streets, was then called the "custom house."
In 1683, it was ordered that " no youthes, maydes or other
persons maymeete together on the Lord's day, for sport or
play, under fine of Is." "No more than four Indian or
negro slaves may assemble together." In 1683, the ves-
sels and boats of the port were enrolled as follows : — 3
barques, 3 brigantines, 26 sloops and 46 open boats. The
old Dutch records show that all the rear of the town was
divided into farms called " Bouwerys," from whence we
have Bowery now. In 1687, sixteen acres of the Basse Bow-
ery was granted to Arien Cornelisson, for the considera-
tion of one fat capon a year. In 1695, the celebrated
Capt. Kidd came to New-York to see his wife. He
soon after this commenced his piracies, and continued
them till 1699, when he visited Long Island sound, and
made several deposits of money on the shores. One of
these deposits was discovered a few years since by some
labourers, while digging on the shores of the East river.
Kidd was decoyed to Boston, where he was arrested, sent
to England, and hung in 1701.
In 1698, the Council agreed to build the " new City-
Hall," by the head of Broad-street, for £3,000 ; the same
afterwards the Congress Hall, on the corner of Wall-
In 1699, they sold the old City-Hall to John Rodman
for £920, reserving only " the bell, the king's arms, and
iron works, (fetters, &c.,) belonging to the prison," and
granting leave also to allow the " cage, pillory and stocks
before the same, to be removed within one year ; and the
prisoners in said jail within the said City Hall, to remain
"The Indians, in the year 1746, came to the city of
New-York in a body, say several hundreds, to hold a
PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
conference or treaty with the governor. They were
Oneidas and Mohawks ; coming from Albany, crowding
the North river with their canoes ; bringing with them
their squaws and papouses ; they encamped on the site
now Hudson's Square, before St. John's church, then a
low sand beach."
In 1756, the first stage started between Philadelphia
and New- York, three days through.
In 1765, a second stage, announced to travel between
New-York and Philadelphia, to go through in three days,
being a covered Jersey wagon, at 2d. a mile.
In 1766, another stage, called " the Flying Machine," to
go through in two days, " in good wagons, and seats on
springs," at 3d. a mile, or 20s. through.
These extracts are principally drawn from Watson's
Annals of New-York. The public records, always acces-
sible at the City Record office, are very numerous, and
will well reward the curious for their perusal.
The Middle Dutch Church, Nassau-street, was used as a
" prison for 3,000 Americans." The pews were taken
out and used for fuel. Afterwards the church was used
as a riding school by the British cavalry. The North
Dutch Church, in William-street, was also used as a prison-
house, and at one time held 2,000 prisoners ; all the Pres-
byterian churches were used for military purposes, but
the Methodists' houses were spared on account of their
adherence to Wesley, who was known to be a loyalist.
It is estimated that 11,000 Americans were interred
from the British prisons at the Wallabout, near the
present Navy Yard. In cutting down the hill for the
Navy Yard, there were taken up as many as thirteen large
boxes of human bones : which, being borne on trucks
under mourning palls, were carried in procession to Jack-
son-street, on Brooklyn height, and interred in a charnel
house constructed for the occasion beneath three droop-
Two of the burnt hulks of the prison ships still remain
sunken near the Navy Yard ; one in the dock, and one,
the Good Hope, near Pinder's Island.
In 1785-6, Alderman William Bayard sold his farm of
fifty acres, situated on the west side of Broadway, where St.
Paul's Church now stands. He divided it into lots of
twenty-five by one hundred feet, and sold them at twenty-
five dollars each.
The old fort at the Bowling Green was taken down in
17S8, and the grounds around levelled, to the extent of the
present Battery. It was then designed to build a house there
for Gen. Washington, but the plan was defeated by the re-
moval of Congress to Philadelphia. The house was after-
wards built and occupied by the English Gov., Clinton, and
still remains under the name of the Clinton House. The great
fires which occurred in 1776 and 1 778, are still remembered
with lively interest. They occurred while the British held
possession of the city. The fire in 1776 commenced in
Whitehall slip, late at night, and consumed all the build-
ings west of Broadway and south of Barclay-street. Trinity
Church was burnt at this time ; four hundred and ninety-
three houses were destroyed. The fire in 1778 occurred
on Cruger's wharf, and burnt about fifty houses. The
buildings destroyed on both of these occasions were of
an inferior order, and built of wood.
The celebrated Negro Plot, in 1741, occurred when
there were about ten thousand inhabitants in the city, of
which one sixth part were negro slaves. After the lapse
of a century, we look back with astonishment on the panic
occasioned by these conspiracies, and the rancorous hatred
that prevailed against the Roman Catholics. There was
doubtless a plot ; but its extent could never have been so
great as ihe terror of the times depicted. The only testi-
mony taken was the mutual criminations and confessions
of the abettors ; and by this means every negro in the
city, and some of the white inhabitants, became objects of
suspicion. The first suspicion of a plot was caused by
frequent alarms of fire, and robberies committed on the
premises of one of the citizens. The first fire destroyed
the Governor's house and the old church, both of which
were within the walls of the fort. A few days after this,
another fire occurred under very mysterious circumstances,
8 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
and subsequently, in the space of three weeks, eight more
fires served to spread great consternation among the peo-
ple. Many negroes were executed, and the investigations
were long and intricate.
While the trials were going on, and the execution of
several negroes taking place, proclamations were made
offering pardons to the free who should make discovery of
the plot, or accuse others ; and pardon and liberty to the
slaves who should do the same ; and rewards in money to
both. The consequence was, that the negroes who were
in jail, accused themselves and others, hoping to save their
own lives and obtain the promised boons. What one poor
wretch invented, was heard and repeated by another ;
and by degrees the story assumed the shape of a regular
plot. In the course of the evidence it appears that the
city was destined to be fired, and the inhabitants massa-
cred, on coming out of the English Church in Broadway.
St. Patrick's night was selected for the catastrophe, and
many Irish Catholics lately arrived enlisted in the gang of
murderers. The negroes were led by one Kughson, at
whose house they were entertained, and where they brought
their stolen goods. An unfortunate man, named Ury, an
English clergyman, who had been teaching school in the
city, was tried and condemned on the most trivial testi-
mony. He was hung amid the greatest excitement. There
were thirteen blacks burned alive at the stake, at a place
then out of town, but situated near the present intersec-
tion of Pearl and Chatham streets, where there was form-
erly a hollow place. Twenty were hung " on the island
by the powder-house," where the Arsenal now is in Elm-
street. Seventy were transported to foreign parts ; Hugh-
son, his wife, and Peggy Carey, a noted informer, were
hung. Several of the negroes declared that they had
accused themselves and others because they had been told
that was the only way to save their lives.
WASHINGTON'S RETREAT FROM NEW-YORK.
After taking possession of Long Island in 1776, Gene-
ral Howe began to unfold his plan of attacking New- York
city, then in possession of the xA.mericans. He intended
to encompass the city on the land side, and to refrain
from cannonade and bombardment, by which the city
might be injured and rendered unfit for the accommoda-
tion of his troops during the winter. Such being clearly
the aim of the British commander, the attention of Wash-
ington was drawn to the best mode of evacuating the city.
As a preparatory step, he removed beyond King's bridge
the stores and baggage least wanted. It was seriously
contemplated in a council of officers at the time to destroy
the city, but Washington's objections overruled the opin-
ion of his counsellors. It was resolved so to dispose the
troops, as to be prepared to resist any attack on the upper
part of the island, and retreat with the remainder when-
ever it should become necessary. Nine thousand men
were to be stationed at Mount Washington, King's bridge,
and the smaller posts in the vicinity of these places, five
thousand in the city, and the residue to occupy the inter-
mediate space, ready to support either of these divisions.
The sick, amounting to one quarter of the whole army,
were to be removed to the Jersey side of the Hudson.
While these arrangements were in progress, the enemy sent
four ships up the East river, which came to anchor about
a mile above the city. The next day six others followed.
Parties of British troops landed on Buchnan's Island, and
a cannonade was opened upon a battery at Haven's Hook.
On the 15th of September, in the morning, three men-of-
war ascended Hudson's river as high as Bloomingdale,
with the view of dividing the attention of the Americans,
by making a feint on that side. At the same time, Howe
embarked a strong division of his army, under Gen. Clin-
ton, consisting of British and Hessians, at the head of New-
town Bay on Long Island. About eleven o'clock, these
troops having come into the East river, began to land at
10 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
Kip's Bay, under the fire of two forty gun ships and three
frigates. Batteries had been erected there ; but the men
were driven from them by the firing from the ships. Gen.
Washington was now at Harlaem, whither he had gone the
night before on account of the movements of the enemy
at Montressor's Island ; and, hearing the sound of the
guns, he hastened with all despatch to the place of land-
ing. To his inexpressible chagrin he found the troops that
had been posted on the lines, precipitately retreating with-
out firing a shot, although not more than sixty or seventy
of the enemy were in sight ; and also two brigades, which
had been ordered to their support, flying in the greatest
confusion, it spite of their officers. It is said, that no in-
cident of the war caused Washington to be so much ex-
cited as he appeared on this occasion. His exertions
to restrain the troops were fruitless. The troops, eight
regiments in all, fled to the main body on Harlaem plains.
The division in New- York, under the command of Gen.
Putnam, retreated with difficulty, and with considerable
loss. Fifteen men were killed, and three hundred taken
prisoners. Nearly all the heavy cannon, and a consider-
able quantity of baggage, stores and provisions were left
behind. The Americans were not pursued with much
rigour in their retreat. Washington drew all his forces
together within the lines on the heights of Harlaem, where
they encamped the same night. Head quarters were fixed
at Morris's house, a mile and a half south from Mount
Washington, on which was situated the fort of that name.
Howe encamped with his army near the American lines,
his right resting on the East river, and his left on the
Hudson, supported at each extreme by the ships in these
rivers. The next morning, Col. Knowlton went out with a
party of rangers, and advanced through the woods towards
the enemy's lines. When he was discovered, Gen. Howe
detached two battalions of light infantry and a regiment of
Highlanders to meet and drive him back. On the appearance
of these troops in the open grounds between the two camps,
Washington rode to the outposts, that he might be at hand
to make such arrangements as circumstances should require.
WASHINGTON'S RETREAT. 11
He had hardly reached the lines when he heard a firing,
which proceeded from an encounter between Col. Knowl-
ton and one of the British parties. The rangers returned
and said that the body of the enemy, as they thought,
amounted to three hundred men. Knowlton was imme-
diately reinforced by three companies, and ordered to gain
their rear, while their attention was diverted by making a
disposition to attack them in front. The plan was suc-
cessful. As the party approached in front, the enemy
rushed down the hill, to take advantage of a fence and
bushes, and commenced firing, but at too great a distance
to be effectual. Meantime Knowlton attacked on the
other side, and advanced with spirit. A sharp conflict
ensued. Maj. Leitch, who led the attack, was carried off
mortally wounded, and in a short time Col. Knowlton fell.
The action was resolutely kept up by the remaining offi-
cers and men till detachments arrived to their support,
and they charged the enemy with such firmness and intre-
pidity as to drive them from the wood to the plain, when
Gen. Washington ordered a retreat, apprehending that a
large force was on their way from the enemy's camp. The
engagement continued four hours, although the sharp
fighting was of short duration. Howe reported eight offi-
cers and seventy privates wounded, and fourteen men
killed. The American loss was fifteen killed and forty-
five wounded. The events of this day were important in
giving spirit to the army. For more than three weeks
Howe's army remained inactive, the American posts being
too formidable to attack. On the 28th October the Brit-
ish army attacked the American lines, and after a sharp
action drove them from their works, with a loss of twenty-
five men. Gen. Howe subsequently withdrew his army
to King's Bridge, and on the morning of November 16th
attacked Fort Washington, after Col. Magow, its com-
mander, had refused a summons to surrender. Gen.
Knyphausen advanced with a body of Hessians to the
north of the fort, and commenced the attack. Earl
Percy, nearly at the same time, assailed the outer lines on
the south. The lines, in every part, were defended with
12 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
great resolution and obstinacy ; but after a resistance of
four hours the men were driven into the fort, and its com-
mander compelled to surrender. The Americans lost
fifty killed and two thousand eight hundred prisoners.
This was a severe loss. The fort was defended contrary
to the wishes of Washington. Washington soon after this
abandoned the Hudson river, and retreated through New-
Jersey to the Delaware river.
THE OLD JERSEY PRISON SHIP.
This was an old sixty-four gun ship, which through age
had become unfit for further active service. She was
stripped of every spar, and all her rigging. After a battle
with the French fleet, her lion figure-head was taken away
to repair another ship ; no appearance of ornament was
left, and nothing remained but an old, unsightly, rotten
hulk. Her dark and filthy external appearance perfectly
corresponded with the death and despair that reigned
within, and nothing could be more foreign from truth than
to paint her with colours flying, or any circumstance or ap-
pendage to please the eye. She was moored about three
quarters of a mile to the eastward of Brooklyn ferry, near
a tide-mill, on the Long Island shore. The nearest dis-
tance to land was about twenty rods. And doubtless no
other ship in the British navy ever proved the means of
the destruction of so many human beings. It is computed
that not less than eleven thousand American seamen
perished in her.
We extract from a book published by Mr. Andros, an
aged clergyman, an account of his sufferings on board of
this ship :
11 On the commencement of the first evening we were
driven down to darkness between decks, secured by iron
gratings and an armed soldiery; and now a scene of hor-
ror, which baffles all description, presented itself. On
every side wretched, desponding shapes of men could be
JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 13
seen. Around the well-room an armed guard were forcing
up the prisoners to the winches, to clear the ship of water
and prevent her sinking, and little else could be heard but
a roar of mutual execrations, reproaches and insults.
" All the most deadly diseases were pressed into the
service of the king of terrors, but his prime ministers were
dysentery, small pox and yellow fever. There were two
hospital ships near to the old Jersey, but these were soon
so crowded with the sick that they could receive no more.
The consequence was, that the diseased and the healthy
were mingled together in the main ship. In a short time
we had two hundred or more, sick and dying, lodged in
the fore part of the lower gun deck, where all the prison-
ers were confined at night. Utter derangement was a
common symptom of yellow fever; and, to increase the
horror of the darkness that shrouded us, (for we were
allowed no light betwixt decks,) the voice of warning
would be heard, ' Take heed of yourselves ; there is a mad-
man stalking through the ship with a knife in his hand.'
I sometimes found the man a corpse in the morning by
whose side I laid myself down at night. While so many
were sick with raging fever, there was a loud cry for
water, but none could be had except on the upper deck,
and but one allowed to ascend at a time. The suffering
then, from the rage of thirst during the night, was very
great. Nor was it at all times safe to attempt to go up.
Provoked by the continual cry for leave to ascend, when
there was already one on deck, the sentry would push
them back with his bayonet. By one of these thrusts,
which was more spiteful and violent than common, I had
a narrow escape of my life. In the morning the hatch-
ways were thrown open, and we were allowed to ascend,
all at once, and remain on the upper deck during the day.
But the first object that met our view in the morning was
a most appalling spectacle— a boat loaded with dead bodies,
conveying them to the Long Island shore, where they were
very slightly covered with sand. I sometimes used to
stand to count the number of times the shovel was filled
with sand to cover a dead body ; and certain I am that a
14 PICTUKE OF NEW-YORK.
few high tides or torrents of rain must have disinterred
them ; and had they not been removed, I should suppose
the shore, even now, would be covered with huge piles of
the bones of American seamen. There were, probably,
four hundred on board who had never had the small pox —
some, perhaps, might have been saved by inoculation. But
humanity was wanting to try even this experiment. Let
our disease be what it would, we were abandoned to our
fate. Now and then an American physician was brought
in as a captive, but if he could obtain his parole he left the
ship, nor could we much blame him for this, for his own
death was next to certain, and his success in saving others
by medicine, in our situation, was small. No English
physician, or any one from the city, ever, to my know-
ledge, came near us. The most healthy and vigorous
were first seized with the fever, and died in a few hours.
" There is one palliating circumstance as to the inhu-
manity of the British, which ought to be mentioned. The
prisoners were furnished with buckets and brushes to
cleanse the ship, and with vinegar to sprinkle her inside ;
but their indolence and despair were such that they would
not use them, or but rarely ; and, indeed, at this time, the
encouragement to do it was small, for the whole ship,
from her keel to the taffrail, was equally infected, and
contained pestilence sufficient to desolate a world ; disease
and death were wrought into her very timbers. At the
time I left, it is to be presumed, a more filthy, contagious
and deadly abode for human beings never existed among
a Christianized people."
In addition to the testimony of Mr. Andros, we have
that of an aged gentleman, who confirms the state-
ment made in Andros's book. He says he was an officer
on board of the United States frigate Confederacy, and was
captured by two English frigates. Being at the time of cap-
ture sick, he was put on board one of the hulks in the
Wallabout that served as an hospital ship for convalescents,
but was, as soon as somewhat restored, transferred to the
" Old Jersey," to make room for others more helpless.
Here he experienced all the sufferings, and witnessed the
JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 15
horrors described by Andros, for five months. The con-
finement in so crowded a place, the pestilential air, the
putrid and damaged food given to the prisoners, (procured
by the commissaries for little or nothing, and charged to
the English government at the prices of the best provisions,)
soon produced a fever, under which this young man suf-
fered, without medicine or attendance, until nature, too
strong for even such enemies, restored him to a species of
health, again to be prostrated by the same causes. He
says he never saw given to the prisoners one ounce of
wholesome food. The loathsome beef they prepared by
pressing, and then threw it, with damaged bread, into the
kettle, skimming off the previous tenants of this poisonous
food as they rose to the top of the vessel.
And these commissaries became rich, and revelled in
luxuries, hearing the groans of their victims daily, and
seeing the bodies of those who were relieved from torture
by death, carried by boat loads to be half-buried in the
sands of the Wallabout. The testimony proving these
atrocities cannot be doubted. Yet, in answer to the re-
monstrances of General Washington, Admiral Arbuthnot
denied the charge altogether.
To save his life, the prisoner who gives this account ac-
cepted the offer of the purser to become his deputy, in
which office he fared well and recovered his health. He
witnessed a mode of cheating practised by the clerks and
underlings, not less criminal than that of the commissaries of
prisoners. Such of the captives as had money were libe-
rated by bargain with these officials, and returned on the
report as dead; and the deaths were so many, that this
passed without inquiry.
A boat would be brought to the ship at night, and by a
system of collusion, the person who had bought his liberty
would be removed on some specious pretence. Faith was
kept with them to encourage others in the same process.
The old prison ship was sunk after the Revolution, and
now remains underwater, off the present Navy Yard. But
a few years since, part of her hull was seen above water
at low tide.
16 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
YELLOW FEVER AND CHOLERA.
In 1778, the yellow fever broke out in this city, and
continued its ravages under more distressing circumstances
than at any subsequent appearance of the disease. The
first victim died on the 29th of July, in Front-street, — his
disease assuming the most malignant form. It raged with
great violence in New Slip, in Cliff-street, John-street and
Rider-street, where not a family escaped its ravages. It was
thought at the time that it had its origin in some unfinished
docks, in which putrid matter existed. On the 12th, 13th
and 14th of August, there were heavy showers of rain,
which covered the streets knee deep, and filled many
cellars. This, instead of abating the pestilence as was an-
ticipated, seemed to increase it. From this time till the
middle of September, the daily deaths fluctuated from 20
to 60. The fever entirely ceased about the 10th of No-
vember. The whole number of deaths was estimated at
two thousand and eighty-six. More than one half of the
population left the city soon after the first appearance of
the disease. Most of the places of public business were
removed far out of town, away from the infected districts.
In July, 1803, the yellow fever again made its appear-
ance in New-York, and continued till the end of the fol-
lowing October. About six hundred deaths occurred at
this time. The alarm of the people was very suddenly
produced, and the suspension of business and the deser-
tion of the city, far exceeded that of any former occasion.
In 1805, about four hundred people died from yellow
fever ; and in 1822, twelve hundred and thirty-six more fell
victims to its ravages.
In July, 1832, the Asiatic Cholera made its appearance
in New-York. It commenced July 2d, and continued till
October 19th. During this time the average of deaths
per day was about sixty. The whole number of deaths
was four thousand three hundred and sixty.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 17
(Etotcral S3 ascription oi Ncto-jjork.
New. York City, from its wealth, population and com-
mercial importance, has been justly called the Metropolis
of the United States. It is the largest city in America —
the second, in commercial importance on the globe, and
is not exceeded in population by more than five cities in
all Europe. With unequaled advantages as to central
position, and long established commercial precedence,
with one of the finest harbours in the world, and possessing
great natural facilities of inland communication, it must
ever maintain its position as the London of America. At
its present rate of increase, its population, in fifty years,
will exceed that of any city in the world. All history does
not furnish another instance of such rapid growth.
The compact part of the city occupies the southern ex-
tremity of Manhattan, or New-York Island, at the conflu-
ence of the Hudson river with a strait called East river,
which connects Long Island sound with the harbour of
New-York. The chartered limits of the city embrace the
whole island, which is of the same extent with the county.
The island extends from the Battery, on the south point of the
island, 13^ miles to King's Bridge, in its north part ; and has
an average breadth of one mile and three fifths. The
greatest breadth is on a line with 88th street, where it is
2i miles wide. The island contains 14,000 acres. It is
separated from the main land, on the north, by Harlsem
river, a tide-water strait, which flows between the Hudson
and East rivers. The Harlsem river is crossed by three
bridges, the Harlaem rail-road, and the Croton aqueduct.
The East river separates the city from Long Island on the
east ; on the south is the harbour, and on the west is the
Hudson river, with the State of New-Jersey on the oppo-
18 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
The surface of the island was originally uneven and
rough, as is now the case in the northern parts, with occa-
sional low valleys and marshy swamps ; but the hills in the
southern part of the island have been levelled, and the
swamps and marshes filled up. Many creeks and inlets
on the margins of the rivers have also disappeared, and the
large ledge of rocks that occupied the site of the present
Battery has long since been buried by made ground. The
water line has been materially altered from what it was.
A large part of Water, Front and South streets, on the
East river, and of Greenwich, Washington and West
streets, on the Hudson river, occupy made ground.
The city extends over three miles on each river, and
the compact part has a circumference of over nine
miles. In latter times, care has been taken to lay out
the streets straight, and of an ample width. This is par-
ticularly true of all the northern part of the city, which was
laid out under the direction of Governeur Morris, De Witt
Clinton and others, and surveyed by Mr. John Randall,
jr. The survey was completed in 1821, after having occu-
pied ten years. No city can exhibit a more beautiful plan
than this portion of the city of New- York, which extends
to 154th street, about ten miles north of the Battery.
The island is mostly composed of granite, which is gene-
rally buried from 10 to 15 feet under ground. The su-
perincumbent earth is composed of drift sand and pebbles,
with large quantities of oxide of iron, which gives it a red
colour. The rocks crop out, and appear on the surface, in
the upper parts of the island, to a considerable extent. The
soil for the most part is fertile, but from the abundance of
rocks, hard to cultivate. The island was originally covered
with a very large growth of wood.
The harbour of New-York is safe and commodious, its
circumference being about 25 miles. The largest vessels
may come up to the wharves.
On the Bar at Sandy Hook, the depth of water at high
tide is 27 feet; from thence to the city, the channel is
from 35 to 50 feet. The inner harbour communicates with
the outer, or Raritan Bay and the ocean, by the Narrows, a
passage between Staten Island and Long Island, and by a
strait, called Staten Island sound, or the Kills, which empty
into Raritan Bay, on the west. There are three islands in
the harbour, namely : Bedlow's, Ellis's and Governor's, all
strongly fortified, and owned by the United States govern-
ment. United States criminals are hung on Bedlow's
island. Governor's island, opposite the Battery, has three
forts, and contains 70 acres. Castle William on the north-
west side, is a large round structure, 200 feet in diameter,
60 feet high, and mounts three tiers of guns.
ENVIRONS OF NEW-YORK.
The principal place in the neighbourhood of the city is
Brooklyn. This city will be particularly described here-
A recenflybuilt town, situated on the East river, northeast
of Brooklyn, and opposite the northeast part of New-York,
with which it has frequent communication, by means of
several steam ferry-boats. Population in 1840, 5,094 ; in
1845, 11,338. Its chief buildings are, a town hall and seven
churches, together with handsome private dwellings.
A flourishing village of Queen's county, six miles north-
east from New-York. It has a population of about 750 —
with four churches, an academy, and an extensive botanic
garden. It occupies a beautiful position on Long Island
sound, near that remarkable whirlpool, called by the Dutch,
Helle Gat, " Hell Gate." Astoria is one of the favourite
summer residences of the New-Yorkers.
An incorporated town of Long Island, situated on
Flushing Bay, an arm of Long Island sound. Population
20 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
about 2,000. This is the seat of several literary institu-
tions, as St. Paul's College, St. Thomas's Uall, St. Ann's
Hall, &c. The Linoean Botanic Garden is here. These,
and other advantages, render Flushing one of the most at-
tractive places of resort on the island. It is about ten miles
distant from New- York.
A large and well built town of Queen's county, eleven
miles from Brooklyn, with a population, according to the
late census, of 1,650. Its chief buildings, besides those of
the county, are five churches, one academy, eight hotels and
taverns, and several manufactories of pianos and carriages.
The Long Island Rail-Road Company have a large dep6t
and machine shop here. Constant communication with
Brooklyn, Flushing, Hempstead, Rockaway, &c, is afford-
ed by the rail-road or stages, which ply in all directions.
Jamaica Bay, five miles south from the town, abounds in
wild fowl, oysters, clams, &c.
A celebrated watering place, on the shore of the Atlan-
tic Ocean, twenty-two miles southeast from New-York.
There are, in addition to the " Marine Pavilion" and
" Rock Hall," both well kept, several private establishments ;
where, with less parade and show of style, the invalid may
enjoy the refreshing sea air and bath in their utmost per-
fection, and at a moderate expense ; while those who in-
habit the former are expected, and expect to pay liberally
for their extravagant accommodations.
A neat village of King's county, four miles southeast from
Brooklyn ; containing 450 inhabitants. Near this village,
in August, 1776, was fought the disastrous and memora-
ble battle of Long Island, between the American and
A bathing place of great resort, and forms a part of
This fortress, which, in connection with forts Lafayette
and Tompkins, commands the Narrows, is situated on the
western end of Long Island, and about 8 miles nearly due
south from New-York. A small assemblage of houses
has grown up around it, including one church and an exten-
sive boarding house. It has recently become a place of
fashionable resort, chiefly for the convenience of sea
NEW-BRIGHTON AND STATEN ISLAND,
A village of country seats, erected for the accommoda-
tion of some of the " best society" of New-York. It occu-
pies the most northern point of Staten Island, at the en-
trance of the "Kills," which separate the island from the
Jersey shore. The town plot, which for the most part is
the result of expensive excavation, descends rapidly from
the base of the adjoining hills, and the buildings range in a
line with, and at nearly an equal distance from the margin of
New-York bay. The situation is very fine, commanding
a view of the bay, with its islets, the city, Long Island, &c.
The houses, with their white fronts and massive columns,
present a beautiful appearance from the water. There are
two extensive hotels and several boarding houses. Popula-
tion about 400. A short distance to the west stands the
Sailors' Snug Harbour, a sort of Greenwich Hospital or
Asylum for superannuated mariners. It consists of a large
building with wings, so arranged as to accommodate a
large number of inmates. Two miles east of Brighton lie
the Quarantine Ground, the Marine Hospital, and Tomp.
kinstille. The latter is a large town, containing upwards of
1,400 inhabitants, three churches, several hotels, and beau-
tifully situated on the high ground in the rear of fort Tomp-
kins. Attached to the Quarantine establishment are, the
Marine Hospital, for the reception of patients afflicted with
contagious diseases ; a Yellow Fever Hospital ; a Small
Pox Hospital ; besides several other buildings for the
Physician, Health Officers and others.
Steam-boats leave the lower part of the city every hour
22 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
during the day for New Brighton, the Quarantine Ground,
On the west side of the Hudson, opposite New- York,
situated on a point or cape, formerly called Paulus Hook.
The city is regularly laid out, with the streets, which are
generally wide, crossing each other at right angles. The
public buildings are, four churches, a lyceum, academy, high
school, a bank, a pottery, glass factory, and about 300 pri-
vate dwellings. Population, 3,072. The New-Jersey
Rail-Road Company have an extensive dep6t here ; and the
Morris Canal, from Bordentown, intersects the Hudson in
the lower part of the city.
Is a small village directly in the rear of Jersey City,
containing 125 inhabitants.
A new village of Hudson county, New-Jersey, contain,
ing about 200 inhabitants, an Episcopal church, and several
public houses. Hoboken is much frequented by the citi-
zens of New-York. The " Elysian Fields," so called,
contain some beautiful walks. A fine view of the city may
be had from the high grounds of Hoboken. Hoboken has
recently acquired additional notoriety, as the scene of a
most shocking tragedy, in which a young girl, Miss Rogers,
was murdered by some unknown hand. The village of
West Hoboken, situated on the summit of Bergen Hill,
commands a fine view of the city and harbour.
A small settlement on the Jersey shore, consisting of
some twenty or thirty buildings ; beautifully situated, about
two miles north of Hoboken, on an elevated bluff of the
A remarkably neat village of New- York county, situated
on the left bank of the Hudson, five miles above the City.
Hall. An Orphan's Asylum is established here. The vil-
lage consists chiefly of country seats, and contains some
400 inhabitants. About two miles beyond Bloomingdale, on
the same side of the river, is
Containing about 500 inhabitants, an Episcopal church,
and some extensive factories. The New-York Lunatic
Asylum occupies a commanding position in the southern
part of the village.
Is situated two miles southeast of Manhattanville, on Har-
lsem river, near its discharge into Long Island sound. It is a
flourishing village, with a population of 1,500, four churches,
and a superabundance of hotels, besides a commodious
depot, belonging to the New- York and Harlaem Rail-Road
Company, and several factories. The cars for Harlaem
start every hour from the depot, northeast of the City-Hall.
This is by far the largest, and as a manufacturing place,
the most important town, or rather city, for it is organized
as such, in the state of New-Jersey. Its population, ac-
cording to the census of 1840, is 17,292, a large portion of
which is engaged in the various manufactories, which
abound here to an unusual extent. Newark was first set-
tled in 1666, by people from New-England.
The Passaic, here a beautiful stream, flows along the
eastern side of the town, and gradually curves towards the
east, in its passage into Newark bay, three miles distant
from the city. Its streets and avenues are wide, and
shaded by an abundance of trees, which add greatly to the
beauty of the city and the comfort of its citizens. The
many manufacturing establishments in and about the place,
give it an active and business-like appearance.
Besides the factories, most of which are on a large scale,
there are several breweries, grist and saw mills, dyeing
houses, and printing offices, each of which issues a news-
paper, &c. There are schools innumerable, academies,
24 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
and several literary and scientific institutions. Of churches,
the Episcopalians have two ; the Presbyterians five ; the
Baptists two ; the Dutch Reformed one ; the Methodists
three, and the Roman Catholics one. The other public
buildings are the court house, county offices, three banks, and
the immense dep6tof the New-Jersey Rail-Road Company.
A beautiful town, situated on Elizabeth creek, in Essex
county, containing about five hundred buildings and 3,000
inhabitants. It is a borough town, and one of the oldest
in the state, its site having been purchased from the In-
dians by a company from Long Island, as early as the
There is in this town an unusual proportion of handsome
dwellings and churches ; which, with the wide and regular
streets, impart an air of great neatness and beauty to the
place, and render it a very desirable residence.
The Elizabethport and Somerville Rail-Road, as well as
that from Jersey City to New-Brunswick, passes through the
town. These, with turnpikes and several good common
roads, afford extensive facilities for conveying to market
the agricultural products and manufactures of the town
and adjacent country.
A large and thriving town of Essex and Middlesex coun-
ties, formed by the union of several villages, — population is
2.533, originally from New-England. The Presbyterians
Methodists, Baptists and Friends, have places of worship
here. Those of the Presbyterians and Episcopalians are
beautiful structures. Among the liberal institutions of the
place, which possesses many, there are a public library, an
" Athenean Academy," so called, a fine building, erected
by a company expressly for the institution, which partakes,
in some measure of the nature of a high school. Rahway
is a large manufacturing place. Establishments on an ex-
tensive scale are in daily operation here. The manufactures
consist of silk printing, carriages and carriage furniture,
hats, shoes, clothing, clocks, earthenware and cotton goods.
This place is situated in the counties of Somerset and
Middlesex, and is the seat of justice of the latter. It is
an incorporated city, and next to Newark the largest town
in the state. Its population is 6,693, and the numher of
buildings is about 1 ,200.
This is a beautiful sheet of water, which presents an
unbroken fall of fifty feet. It is situated at the town of
Paterson, on the Passaic river, whose banks here are nearly
vertical. The water in its passage, through the lapse of
ages, has worn a deep chasm into the solid rock, which is
obviously retreating, as the abraded banks below testify.
No spectacle can be more imposing than is presented by
the falling water, as it glides gently over the brow of the
precipice. The town of Paterson is admirably situated
for manufacturing purposes at the falls, which afford a
constant and abundant supply of water for the vast num-
ber of factories in operation in the town, which is now one
of the most important manufacturing places in the United
States. The number of buildings at present in Paterson
and New Manchester, an adjoining village, is upwards of
one thousand, and that of the inhabitants, 7,598. Here
are Presbyterians, both of the old and new schools ; Dutch
Reformed, Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, Baptists,
Metbodists, Seceders, Lutherans, Friends, Universalis ts,
Unitarians, &c. There are in the town a society for the
promotion of literature and science, which has an excel-
lent Library, a Mechanics' Institute, a Museum, a Circula-
ting Library, a Public Library, and some other institutions
of a similar description.
A very neat and flourishing village of New-Jersey,
which has recently started into notice ; being at the eastern
terminus of the Elizabethport and Somerville Rail-Road,
now in operation. Population about 600.
26 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
A city and port of entry of Middlesex county, New.
Jersey, at the confluence of Raritan river and Staten Island
sound. Population 1,303. It derives its name in part
from James, Earl of Perth, one of the original proprietors
of the ground, which was laid off into town lots in 1683,
and incorporated in 1784. A large portion of the buildings
are elevated forty or fifty feet above the adjacent bay.
The Brighton House, a large hotel, erected here several
years since, forms a striking object of attention. Like
many other " experiments," the hotel failed to realize the
expectations of its proprietors ; and it is now occupied,
during the summer months, by wealthy families from
This fort, which, with Fort Washington, on the oppo-
site side of the river, was the scene of important military
operations during the revolutionary war. A large body of
American militia stationed here, in attempting to retreat,
were overpowered by a vastly superior force, consisting
chiefly of Hessians, when they were either slain or con-
signed to the prison ship, a fate more terrific than death
itself. The site of Fort Lee is upwards of 300 feet above
the water. A hotel at the landing is much frequented.
A few miles below Fort Lee commence the Palisades, a
lofty basaltic wall, which extends for twenty miles up the
west bank of the Hudson. They are nearly vertical, and
range from 200 to 500 feet in height.
SPUYTEN DUYVEL CREEK,
An inconsiderable opening on the east side of the Hud-
son, which, with Harlaem river, separates the island of
New-York from the main land of Westchester county.
A sort of rialto among the New-Yorkers, crosses the
strait a short distance from the Hudson.
A pleasant village of Westchester county, situated at
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 27
the outlet of Saw-Mill Creek. It is built mostly on the
river bank, which, being somewhat elevated, commands
a fine view of the river and the Palisades opposite. Besides
the two churches, an academy and several taverns and
storehouses, there are upwards of 75 dwellings, and a
population of about 500.
A small village and landing, of the same county, con-
sisting of 15 or 20 buildings, of various sorts, including one
hotel, a button factory, &.c
Is a small settlement and public landing in Westchester
county, with a ferry to the opposite side of the Hudson.
PIERMONT, FORMERLY TAPPAN SLOAT.
This village having been selected for the eastern termi-
nus of the New-York and Erie Rail-Road, the secluded little
Dutch settlement of the " Sloat" has received the classic
soubriquet of " Piermont," and is now an important town
of Rockland county. Such has been the effect of this
movement, that its site is now covered by handsome pub-
lic and private edifices, which form a striking contrast with
the little Dutch houses of its primitive inhabitants.
There are in the town upwards of 150 buildings, inclu-
ding two or three churches, and a population of about 1,100.
A pier about one mile in length, which forms the com-
mencement of the rail-road just mentioned, extends over
the flats to a commodious dock, near the channel of the
The City-Hall is one of the most prominent buildings in
New- York, standing near the centre of the Park, an area of
about ten acres. From this situation it is seen in every direc-
28 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
tion to great advantage ; a few years since it was regarded
as the finest building in the city, and now, with its interest-
ing furniture and associations, commands great attention.
The front and ends are made of white marble, from Stock-
bridge, Mass., but the back is constructed of free-stone.
At the time it was built marble was expensive, and it was
determined to finish the back with cheaper stone. It was
maintained that the population would never, to any extent,
settle above Chambers-street, and therefore the rear of the
hall would seldom be seen. The corner stone was laid on the
26th of September, 1803, during the prevalence of the yel-
low fever. It was finished in 1812, and the expense, ex-
clusive of furniture, amounted to half a million of dollars.
The City-Hall is 216 feet long, 105 wide, and 51 high.
It is two stories high above the basement, with a third or
attic story in the centre building. From the centre rises a
cupola of very beautiful proportions. In the upper part of
the cupola a man is lodged, whose business it is to give
alarm in case of fire, by ringing the big bell, which occu-
pies a small cupola on the back part of the roof. This bell
is rung in cases of fire, when it indicates, by the number
of its strokes, the part of the city where the fire is located.
Small apertures are cut in the sides of the cupola, of suffi-
cient size to allow of the eyes extending over only so much
of the city as is included in the fire districts to which they
severally belong, and thus the location of the fire is in-
stantly ascertained. Tiie City-Hall bell weighs 6,910 lbs.,
and its tongue is over six feet long. It is probably the
largest bell in America. There are four entrances to the
building — one in front, one in the rear, and one in each end
— the latter communicates with the basement apartments.
The front entrance is on the first story, to which there is
access by a flight of twelve marble steps, surmounted by
a portico of sixteen columns. In the centre of the rear of
the building there is a projecting pediment. The first
story, including the portico, is of the Ionic style, the second
of the Corinthian, the attic of the fancy, and the cupola of
the composite. The rear of the building is by many con-
sidered to be more beautiful than the front. In the centre
.1 H - . L> R H k L L 8 F .! UiTlCS,
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 29
there is a double staircase, ascended by marble steps, at
the top of which is a circular gallery, ornamented with ten
marble columns, which support the ceiling. In the build-
ing there are twenty-eight offices and public rooms. The
Governor's room is a long hall, running 52 feet from wing
to wing ; it is used as a reception hall by the Governor,
Mayor, and other distinguished men. Its walls are hung
with some of the finest pictures in America, consisting
principally of portraits of great national characters. Among
them are the Governors of New-York, Mayors of the city
since the Revolution, some of the Dutch Governors, and
the principal naval and military heroes of the late war.
These were painted by Jarvis, Sully, Stewart, Inman, Page,
and some other distinguished artists. The Common Coun-
cil hall is a beautiful room, 42 feet long and 30 wide. It
contains some fine portraits, and the chair which was oc-
cupied by Washington when President of the first Con-
gress. The Assistant Aldermen's hall is spacious, ele-
gantly furnished, and hung with valuable paintings. Access
to these rooms and the roof, free of expense, may be had
by any person, by inquiring at the keeper's room. The
keeper has no right to ask for remuneration, as he receives
a salary from the city to attend to this business. The City-
Hall, with its many interesting relics and paintings, is
much visited, and is well worthy the attention of the stran-
ger and citizen.
HALL OF RECORDS.
This building, situated in the Park, east of the City-Hall,
was formerly a city prison, when it presented a very gloomy
and unsightly appearance, being built of coarse black stone.
It has since been stuccoed in imitation of marble, and
two lofty porticoes added, consisting of four marble Ionic
columns at each end. Its name indicates its present use.
It was used during the time of the prevalence of the
cholera, in 1832, as a hospital.
HALLS OF JUSTICE.
This building occupies the space between Centre, Elm,
30 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Leonard and Franklin-streets, the site of the old Collect, a
filthy pond, which had its outlet through Canal-street. The
Halls of Justice is a much admired specimen of modern-
ized Egyptian architecture. It is built of light granite from
Hallowed, Maine. It is 253 feet long, and 200 wide, and
occupies the four sides of a hollow square, with a laige
centre building within the area. The front is approached
by eight steps, leading to a portico of four massive Egyptian
columns. The windows, which extend to the height of
two stories, have massive iron grated frames, surmounted
with cornices, ornamented with a winged globe and ser-
pents. The two fronts on Leonard and Franklin-streets,
have each two entrances, with two massive columns each.
The gloomy aspect of this building, has won for it the
general name of " The Tombs." It is occupied by the
Court of Sessions, a police court, and some other court
rooms, beside a male and female prison for city offenders,
awaiting trial. State criminals are hung in the open court
within the walls.
The house of detention is a distinct and isolated build-
ing, 142 feet in length, by 45 in width. It contains 148
cells. The lower cells are 6 feet 9 niches wide, 11 feet
high, and 15 feet long, diminishing 18 inches in length
in each story. They are provided with cast-iron water
closets, hydrant, water cock ventilators, and are warmed
by hot water pipes. Every part of the building is con.
structed in the most substantial manner, and with particu-
lar reference to the security of prisoners. The building
was finished in 1838. The female department is entered
from Leonard-street. It is superintended by a matron,
who keeps it in the most perfect order and neatness. She
is very attentive to visitors, who can always have gratuitous
access, between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M. The male prison
opens on Franklin-street. Persons can gain admittance
here on application for a written permit, at the keeper's
room, between 10 A. M. and 5 P. M.
This building equals any in the world, both in the beauty
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 31
of its design and the durability of its construction. It is
situated on the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, and oc-
cupies the ground where once stood the old Federal Hall,
the scene of Washington's inauguration. The building is
in the form of a parallelogram, 200 feet long by 90 wide,
and about 80 feet in height. Brick, granite and marble
were used in its construction ; but its outside is entirely of
marble from Massachusetts, except the steps. It is design.
ed in imitation of the Parthenon at Athens, in the Doric
order. At the southern end on Wall-street, is a portico of
eight purely Doric columns, 5 feet 8 inches in diameter,
and 32 feet high ; and on the opposite end, on Pine-street,
is a corresponding portico ; on each side are 13 pilasters, in
keeping with the front pillars. The front portico is ascend-
ed by 18 granite steps. The interior is divided into a
grand rotunda and numerous spacious rooms for the ac-
commodation of officers. The rotunda is a magnificent
room, 60 feet in diameter ; the dome supported by 16 Co-
rinthian columns, 30 feet high. These columns are beauti-
fully wrought, — the capitals being of most exquisite Italian
workmanship. The largest blocks of marble used in the
building weigh 33 tons. The ceilings of the apartments
are arched, and richly ornamented with stucco. The roof is
of marble ; the slabs weigh over 300 pounds, and lap over
each other eight inches, to allow of the expansive power and
to keep out water. There is not a particle of wood in any
part of the building, and it is probably the only structure in
the world, that has been erected so nearly fire proof. The
building was commenced in May, 1834, and finished in
May, 1841. The cost, ground included, was $1,195,000—
building alone, $950,000. The architect was John Frazee.
The exquisite ornamental work was designed and executed
by Horace Kneeland, since become famous as a sculptor.
The number of officers employed in the Custom House is
354, of whom nearly 200 are inspectors. The Custom
House may be visited by the stranger any time during the
day, from 10 A. M. to 3 P. M. He will do well to enler
at the side door in Nassau-street, and from thence ascend
to the roof, inspecting the various rooms as he goes up.
32 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
The key of the roof scuttle may be had by inquiring at any
of the offices on the upper floor. There is no objection to
the stranger's visiting any part of the building. The roof
commands a fine view of the harbour.
The Merchant's Exchange is located between Wall-street,
Exchange-Place, William and Hanover streets. It is built
in the most substantial form, of blue Quincy granite, and is
200 feet long by 171 to 144 feet wide, 77 feet high to the
top of the cornice, and 124 to the top of the dome. The
front on Wall-street has a recessed portico of 18 massive
Grecian Ionic columns, 38 feet high and 4 feet 4 inches in
diameter, each formed from a solid block of stone, and
weighing 45 tons. Besides numerous rooms for various
purposes, the rotunda in the centre is 80 feet in diameter,
with four recesses, making the length and breadth each 100
feet, the whole 80 feet high, surmounted with a dome, rest-
ing in part on eight Corinthian columns of Italian marble,
41 feet high, and lighted by a skylight 25 feet in diameter.
The granite columns cost $3,000 each. They are the
largest whole columns in the world, with the exception of
a church in St. Petersburgh. The rotunda is 80 feet in
diameter, and will hold 3,000 persons. The architect was
Isaiah Rogers. The building cost a little more than a mil-
lion of dollars. It belongs to a corporation, — and has been
so far a losing investment, although its rooms command
enormous rents. It contains a very extensive reading room
for merchant subscribers, accessible only to the stranger
by introduction from a member. The Chamber of Com-
merce holds its sessions here, and the Board of Brokers
occupy the rotunda at certain hours of the day. The
stranger may visit all parts of the building.
The Post Office building, formerly the Middle Dutch
Church, is situated in Nassau-street, between Cedar and
Liberty streets. This building has stood over a hundred
and fifty years — and nine generations have worshipped at its
Wall Stre< u
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 33
altar. It is not generally known, that its steeple, and much
of its interior wood work, was brought from Holland.
During the Revolutionary war, most of the churches were
used by the British, and many of them much injured, but
this church suffered most, being used successively as a
riding school, a prison and a hospital. In 1790, it was re-
paired and used for public worship again. The United
States government have recently converted it into a Post
Office, paying for its use the annual rent of five thousand
dollars. It now presents the appearance of a Post Office in
the heart of a grave yard ; a circumstance quite character-
istic of New- York enterprise. The numerous signs which
appear on the building, point out the various points of com-
munication with the interior. Its internal arrangements
are very extensive and commodious. The Postmaster's
room is so situated that he can see every thing going on
in the building. Office hours from 8 A. M. to 7 P. M.
On Sundays, from 9 to 10 A. M., and from 12£ to 1£ P. M.
There are Penny Postmen attached to the office, who go
their rounds twice a day, and deliver letters and papers to
all who request them.
This classical edifice, which (as the word imports) is of
a circular form, both internally and externally, was erected
in the summer of 1818, for the exhibition of large panoramic
paintings. It fronts in Chambers-street, near the head of
Cross-street, occupying ground belonging to the copora-
tion, which was granted to the projector, Mr. John Van-
derlyn, the celebrated artist, free of rent for ten years, on
condition that the building should devolve to the city at the
expiration of that time. It is constructed of brick, is fifty-
three feet in diameter, and forty feet in height, surmounted
with a pantheon-shaped dome and skylight, through which
the interior is lighted.
It has a portico, supported by four columns, fronting on
the Park, which gives it an imposing appearance. It was
for some years occupied by the Marine Court, and subse-
quently by the City Post Office. It is now occupied by
34 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
the New-York Gallery of Paintings, who have its use from
the corporation rent free. — See Department of Fine Arts.
Situated between Washington Place and Waverly Place,
fronts Washington Square towards the west, forming a
noble ornament to the city, being built of Westchester
marble, and exhibits a specimen of the English collegiate
style of architecture.
The building is 180 feet long and 100 wide. It was
founded in 1S31.
In front this oblong is divided into five parts — a central
building, with wings flanked by towers, one rising on each
of the four corners of the edifice. This central building or
chapel is superior to the rest in breadth, height and charac-
ter, and is somewhat similar to that of King's College,
Cambridge, England — a masterpiece of pointed architec-
ture, and a model for succeeding ages. It is fifty-five
feet broad and eighty-five feet deep, including the octangu-
lar turrets, one of which rises at each of the four corners.
The two ends are gabled, and are, as well as the sides,
crowned with an embattled parapet. The chapel receives
its principal light from a window in the western end.
This window is twenty-four feet wide and fifty high. It
has eight lights and two embattled transoms. From the
central building, or chapel, wings project right and left,
and are four stories in height, flanked by towers,
supported by angular buttresses of two stages, running
above an embattled parapet, and are at the top themselves
embattled. The windows in the wings have square heads,
with two lights, a plain transom, and the upper division
tre-foiled. The principal entrance is under the great west-
ern window, through a richly moulded and deeply recessed
portal, flanked by buttresses of two stages, the upper stage
set diagonally, and rising above an embattled parapet.
The doors are of oak, richly paneled, and filled with tra-
cery of open work, closely studded with bronze.
The school has a president and eleven professors. It
has in its collegiate department 145 students, and a valu-
(i E w • H' R 5 BNIV^SIT V
Washingtc M Piuare.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 35
able library and philosophical apparatus. Connected with
it is an extensive grammar school and a flourishing medi-
cal department, the whole of which contain 680 students.
Commencement, third Monday in July.
The chapel is probably the most beautiful room of the
kind in America. It is open to the public on Sundays for
religious worship. The New-York. Historical Society's
rooms are in the building. The building is accessible to
the visiter at all times.
Theodore Frelinghuysen, L. L. D., Chancellor, and Pro-
fessor of Moral Philosophy and Rhetoric.
Rev. Cyrus Mason, I). D. , Professor of the Evidences of
Revealed Religion, and Rector of the Grammar School.
Elias Loomis, Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philo-
sophy and Astronomy.
Taylor Lewis, A. M., Professor of the Latin and Greek
Languages and Literature.
E. A. Johnson, A. M., Professor of Latin Language and
Rev. C. S. Henry, D. D., Pofessor of Intellectual Philo-
sophy, History and Belles Lettres.
John W. Draper, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and
Professors, not of the Governing Faculty.
Samuel F. B. Morse, Professor of the Literature of the
Arts of Design.
Rev. George Bush, Professor of Hebrew.
M. Giraud, Acting Professor of the French Language.
Julio Soler, Professor of the Spanish Language.
Felix Forresti, Professor of the Italian Language.
Columbia College is situated at the foot of Park Place,
near Broadway, with extensive grounds, beautifully orna-
mented with a large growth of forest trees. It was char-
tered by George II., in 1754, by the name of King's Col-
lege, and confirmed, with the necessary alterations by the
36 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
Legislature of New- York, in 1787. It has a president and
ten professors, 1,170 alumni, 100 students, and 14,000
volumes in its libraries. The building is 200 feet long and
50 feet wide, with two projecting wings, one at each end,
in which are accommodations for the families of the pro-
fessors. It contains a chapel, lecture rooms, hall, museum,
and an extensive philosophical and chemical apparatus.
The funds amount to about $200,000, and the annual in-
come to $7,000 or $8,000. There is a flourishing gram-
mar school attached to the institution, over which a pro-
fessor presides as rector.
By a statute of Columbia College, the Corporation of the
City of New-York, the Trustees of the New-York Public
School Society, the Trustees or Directors of the Clinton
Hall Association, of the Mercantile Library Association,
and of the Mechanic and Scientific Institutions, the Gene-
ral Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, and such other
societies as the Board of Trustees may from time to time
designate, are each entitled to have always two students
educated in the college, free of all charges of tuition.
Every religious denomination in the city is also entitled
to have one student, who may be designed for the minis-
try, educated free of all charges ; and every school, from
which there shall be admitted in any one year into the col-
lege four students, have the privilege of sending one scholar,
to be educated gratuitously. Commencement, the day fol-
lowing the first Monday in October.
Faculty of Arts.
Nathaniel F. Moore, L. L. D., President, 1842
Rev. John McVickar, S. T. D., Professor of Moral ) lgl7
Philosophy, Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, — $
Charles Anthon, L. L. D., Jay Professor of the }
Greek and Latin Languages, and Rector of the >1830
Grammar School, )
James Renwick, L. L. D., Professor of Natural and ) iooq
Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry, $
Rev. Charles W. Hackley, S. T. D. s Professor of ) -.040
Mathematics and Astronomy, C
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 37
James Kent, L. L. D., Professor of Law, 1823
E. Felix Forresti, L. L. D., Professor of the Italian ) ,000
Language and Literature, $
Felix G. Berteau, L. L. D., Professor of the French ) -.qoq
Language and Literature, $
Rev. Samuel H. Turner, S. T. D., Professor of the J -.qon
Hebrew Language, ^
Mariano Velasquez de la Cadena, Professor of the ) icon
Spanish Language and Literature, ^
John Lewis Telkampf, J. U. D., Gottingen, Gebhard i
Professor of the German Language and Litera- > 1843
Late head quarters of the Whigs, is situated on the east
side of Broadway, between Duane and Pearl streets, and
is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the country. It
was built in 1826, by the Masons, before their importance
was diminished by opposition. It is in the Gothic style of
architecture. It fronts fifty feel on Broadway, and extends
back one hundred and twenty feet. The front is built of
granite, seventy feet in height from the street to the battle-
ments in the centre. The second story is a grand Gothic
saloon, ninety feet in length, forty-seven feet in width, and
twenty-five feet high, and is one of the most magnificent
halls in the union. The floor is supported by elastic
springs for dancing ; the ceiling is divided into basket or fan
arches, with pendants of open work, and columns support
the arches projecting from the walls. The blank windows
in the room are filled with mirrors, which render the hall
when lighted very brilliant. This hall is now used as a
bowling saloon, and is a place of great resort.
For the aged and indigent, is located in Forty-second-
street, corner of Fifth Avenue. Officers : Miss Mary Shot-
well, 1st Directress ; Mrs. P. G. Arcularius, 2d Directress ;
Mrs. W.W. Chester, Secretary ; Dr. J. D. Fitch, Treasurer.
38 PICTURE OF NEW-YOKE.
American Bible Society. — This Institution, which is lo-
cated at 115 Nassau-street, was organized in 181 6. Hon.
John Cotton Smith, President. Its government is in the
hands of a Board of thirty-six Lay-managers of various
religious denominations. The Society has a house one
hundred feet square, extending through from Nassau-street
to Theatre alley, with a court in the centre. In this build-
ing are the offices of the Corresponding Secretary, the
Financial Secretary and the General Agent.
Over one thousand Bibles are produced here every day,
and 429,090 were printed in 1845, costing $166,652. The
Society sell 'heir books at cost, and give away very many.
This institution is well worth visiting, as the printing ar-
rangements are on a very large scale, and the whole art of
book-making may be seen in one view.
Officers: President, Wm. P. Buell, M. D. ; 1st Vice-
President, A. Robertson Walsh; 2d do., G. Buck, jr.;
3d do., Henry Rowland ; 4th do., G. A. Titus ; 5th do.,
Thomas Bond, jr. ; 6th do., George S. Conover. Corres-
ponding Secretary, E. H. Blatchford ; Recording Secretary,
J. F. Williams ; Treasurer, George H. Williams.
American and Foreign Bible Society, (Baptist.,) 350
Broome-street. — S. H. Cone, President; Rufus Babcock
and T. Wallace, Secretaries ; William Colgate, Vice-Pre-
sident ; I. M. Allen, General Agent.
New- York Bible Society, 91 Wall and 115 Nassau. street
— John Slosson, President ; E. H. Blatchford, T. Bond, Jr.,
Secretaries; G. H. Williams, Treasurer; L. P. Hubbard,
City Bible Society, (Baptist,) 350 Broome-street— W, H.
Wyckoff, President ; G. N. Bleecker and Lewis Colby,
Secretaries; Samuel Raynor, Treasurer.
New- York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society, 20
John-street—Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, President ; W. H.
Bell, Secretary ; T. C. Butler, Treasurer and Agent.
American Tract Society, 150 Nassau-street — T. Fre-
linghuysen, President; Wm. A. Hallock, 0. Eastman and
R. S. Cook, Secretaries ; O. R. Kingsbury, Assistant Trea-
Protestant Episcopal Tract Society, 20 John-street —
Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, President; Rev. E. N. Mead and
D. H. Hoyt, Secretaries ; T. C. Butler, Treasurer.
New-York City Tract Society, 150 Nassau.street
-, President; William Walker, Treasurer ; A. R. Wet-
more and Rev. Isaac Orchard, Secretaries.
American Sabbath Tract Society, 9 Spruce-street — L.
Crandall, President ; F. W. Stillman and P. Stillman, Sec-
retaries ; T. B. Stillman, Treasurer.
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,
is situated near the Briek Church, corner of Spruce and
Nassau streets. Theo. Frelinghuysen, President ; W. J.
American Home Missionary Society, 150 Nassau-street
— Henry D wight, President; Rev. Milton Badger and
Rev. Charles Hall, Secretaries ; Jasper Corning, Treasurer,
and H. W. Ripley, Assistant
Home Missionary Society, (Baptist,) 350 Broome-street
— Friend Humphrey, President ; B. M. Hill, David Bellamy,
Secretaries ; R. W. Marvin, Treasurer.
Missionary Society, (Methodist ,) 200 Mulberry-street —
Rev. J. Soule, President ; Francis Hall, Secretary ; G.
Neio-York and Brooklyn Foreign Missionary Society —
Pelatiah Pent, President; Rev. W. Adams and A. Merwin,
Secretaries ; J. W. Tracy, Treasurer.
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 23 Centre-
street — Samuel Miller, President ; Walter Lowrie, Secre-
tary ; Daniel Wells, Treasurer.
Presbyterian Board of Domestic Missions, 23 Centre-
40 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
street — Ashbel Green, President ; W. A. McDowell, Sec-
retary ; Thomas Hoge, Treasurer.
Protestant Episcopal General Missionary Foreign Com.
mittee, 281 Broadway — Rev. B. T. Onclerdonk, President ;
Rev. P. P. Irving, Secretary and General Agent ; Dr. J.
Smyth Rogers, Treasurer.
Protestant Episcopal General Missionary Domestic Com-
mittee, 281 Broadway — Rev. B, T. Onderdonk, President ;
Rev. N. S. Harris, Secretary and General Agent ; T. N.
Protestant Episcopal City Missionary Society — Rev. B.
T. Onderdonk, President ; W. Mulligan, Secretary ; Lewis
Protestant Episcopal Diocesan Society for the Promotion
of Religion and Learning — Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, Presi-
dent ; William H. Harrison, Secretary ; J. F. De Peyster,
Foreign Evangelical Society, 36 Park Bow — A. B. Has-
brouck, President ; E. N. Sautel, Gurdon Buck and Robert
Baird, Secretaries ; William W. Chester, Treasurer.
American Protestant Society, 143 Nassau-street — Rev.
Gardner Spring, President ; Rev. H. Norton and C. K.
Moore, Secretaries ; Mortimer De Motte, Treasurer.
Central American Education Society, 36 Park Bow — J.
C. Hornblower, President ; Rev. Eliakim Phelps, Secreta-
ry ; W. A. Booth, Treasurer.
Presbyterian Board of Education, 23 Centre-street —
Alexander Henry, President ; M. B. Hope, Secretary ; J.
R. Mitchell, Treasurer.
American Anti-Slavery Society, 143 Nassau.street —
William Lloyd Garrison, President; Maria W. Chapman
and Wendell Phillips, of Boston, Secretaries; Francis
BELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. 41
Foreign and American Anti-Slavery Society, 122 Pearl-
street — A. Tappan, President ; L. Tappan, Secretary ;
William Shotwell, Treasurer.
New-York State Colonization Society — Office in the
Brick Church Chapel. A. G. Phelps, President: Rev, G.
Spring, Vice-President; Rev. D. L. Carroll, Secretary;
Moses Allen, Treasurer.
American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the
Jeios, 23 Nassau-street— Rev. Phillip Milledoler, Presi-
dent; Rev. John Lillie, Secretary for Domestic Cor-
respondence ; Rev. John Proudfit, Secretary for Foreign
Correspondence; A. M. Burrill, Recording Secretary;
Thomas Bussing, Treasurer.
American Seaman's Friend Society, 91 Wall-street —
Edward Richardson, President ; John Spaulding and T.
Hale, Secretaries ; C.N. Talbot, Treasurer.
New-York Marine Bible Society, 91 Wall-street — Hugh
Aikman, President ; William Poole and L. P. Hubbard,
Secretaries ; William Woodhull, Treasurer.
American Sunday School Union, 152 Nassau-street —
J. C. Meeks and R. B. Camfield, Agents.
New-York Sunday School Union, 152 Nassau-street —
Isaac Ferris, President; N. N. Halsted, Secretary ; Jona-
than Leavitt, Treasurer; J. C. Meeks, Agent.
Protestant Episcopal General Sunday School Union> 20
John-street — Rev. A. Ten Broeck, Secretary; T. W.
Mitchell, Treasurer ; Daniel Dana, jr., Agent.
New-York City Sunday School Society, (Methodist,) 200
Mulberry -street — S. A. Purdy, President ; Wm. Truslow,
J. F. Truslow and W T alter Keeler, Secretaries ; J. W. Rum.
Sunday School Union, (Methodist,) 200 Mulberry-street
—Rev. J. Soule, President; Wm. Truslow, Rev. D. P. Kid-
der, Secretaries ; Wm. Morgan, Treasurer.
42 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
American Temperance Union, 148 Nassau-street — R.
Hide Walworth, President ; Rev. John Marsh, Secretary
and General Agent ; Jasper Corning, Treasurer.
Female Moral Reform Society, 36 Park Row — Mrs. C.
W. Hawkins, President ; Mrs. S. R. Ingraham, Secretary ;
Mrs. Jane Beatty, Treasurer.
New-York Sacred Music Society — Established in 1823.
Officers: L. B. Wyman, President; G. E. Vanderberg, W.
A. Tyler, Vice-Presidents ; H. R. Yenne, Secretary ; J.
P.Perkins, Treasurer; George Whitlock, Librarian; U.
C. Hill, Conductor.
This institution, located in Broadway, between Duane
and Anthony streets, was founded in 1771, by the Earl of
Duninore, at that time Governor of the Colony. The in-
stitution has an annual revenue from various sources of
about $68,000, the larger portion of which is annually
expended. There are three large hospital buildings, fitted
up in excellent style, for the accommodation of patients.
Patients can have the best of medical attendance, and the
convenience of nursing and medicine for three dollars a
week. Respectable persons without families will find this
a very desirable asylum during sickness. Patients can have
single rooms if they desire them. It is quite common for
physicians, who know the advantages of this Hospital, to
resort to it when sick themselves. In cases of sudden ac-
cidents, patients are received here, and their wants imme-
diately attended to. Medical students are permitted to go
the rounds with the attending surgeons for the annual fee
of eight dollars. Annual lectures are given by all the at-
tending physicians and surgeons. The buildings will ac-
commodate over 300 patients. Application for admission
must be made at the office within the Hospital. There are
ten attending and consulting physicians and surgeons.
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 43
THE BLOOMING-DALE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE,
Is a branch of the New- York Hospital, and, through a
delegated Committee of six of their number, is under the
general control of the Board of Governors of that, insti-
tution. It is situated near the Bloomingdale road, seven
miles from the City-Hall, upon an elevated and beautiful
site, half a mile from the Hudson river. This situation,
though perhaps not apparently so, is, after Fort Washing-
ton, the highest point of the island.
The approach to the Asylum from the southern entrance,
by the stranger who associates the most sombre scenes
with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The sudden
opening of the view, the extent of the grounds, the various
avenues gracefully winding through so large a lawn ; the
cedar hedges, the fir, and other ornamental trees, tasteful-
ly distributed or grouped, the variety of shrubbery and
flowers ; in fine, the assemblage of so many objects to
please the eye, and relieve the melancholy mind from its
sad musings, strike him as one of the most successful and
useful instances of landscape gardening.
There is, indeed, no private residence or public estab-
lishment in the vicinity of the city, which for beauty of
situation, or exercise of taste in the distribution of grounds,
can compare with it.
The principal building, which is constructed of hewn
stone, is two hundred and eleven feet long, sixty feet
wide, and three stories in height, exclusive of basement
and attic. There are two other buildings, each standing
at right angles with the principal edifice. These are each
three stories in height, sixty feet in length, and forty in
The modern greatly improved and humane system of
treating the insane has been fully introduced into this in-
stitution. The patients have well furnished apartments,
and eat at tables set in the usual manner in private fami-
lies. They walk out, with attendants, and many of them
ride, daily, in a carriage devoted to their use. They amuse
themselves with ten-pins, quoits, bagatelle, chess, chequers
44 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
and other games. Many of them work, the men on the
farm or about the premises, and the women with their
needles. Many of them are instructed in a school which
is kept in the Asylum, and by lectures upon scientific and
It is not customary for strangers to visit the apartments
of the patients, both to avoid excitement, and as a matter
of courtesy towards those whose friends are placed here
for restoration. The central building, however, is always
open to visitors, and the view from the top of it, being the
most extensive and beautiful of any in the vicinity of the
city, is well worthy of their attention.
The Asylum went into operation in June, 1821 ; since
which time more than three thousand patients have been
admitted. The number now in the institution is one hun-
dred and twenty-two.
Stephen Allen, No. 1 Washington Square.
Richard M. Lawrence, No. 7 Wooster-street-
Augustus Fleming, No. 10 Bond "
James Lovett, No. 12 Third "
James J. Jones, No. 5 Washington Place.
Wm.M. Halsted, No. 3L Nassau-street.
Physician. — Pliny Earle, M. D.
Warden. — George W. Endicott.
Application for me admission of patients, if by letter,
should be addressed to the Physician ; if otherwise, they
should be made to one of the members of the Asylum
NEW- YORK QUARANTINE HOSPITAL.
This institution is located on Staten Island, and was es-
tablished by act of Legislature in 1821. Boats leave the
city every hour for the Island, where they land very near
the Hospital. This institution is appropriated for the re-
ception of patients who have landed from vessels from
foreign ports, particularly those afflicted with contagious
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 45
disease?. Henry Van Hovenburgh, Health Officer ; Alex-
ander F. Vache, Resident Physician ; Stephen R. Harris,
Health Commissioner and Treasurer.
Lying-in-Ho&pilal — For destitute females, is situated
at 85 Marion-street.
Marine Society — Capt. Chas. H. Marshall, President;
William Thompson, J. J. Dickinson, Vice-Presidents ;
James Copland, Treasurer; Henry Russell, Secretary.
Mariners' Family Industrial Society. — The object of
this Society is to furnish employment at a fair remunera-
tion, for the female members of the families of seamen,
and to relieve the wants of such families as are incapable
of labour. A clothing store has been opened at 325 Pearl-
street, where may be found an assortment of garments for
seamen and others. Officers: Mrs. C. W. Hawkins, 1st
Directress; Miss M. Vale, 2d do.; Mrs. T. O. Taylor,
Treasurer ; Mrs. C. Tracy, Secretary.
American Shipwreck Society, office, Hall of American
Institute, west wing New City-Hall. James Depeyster
The British Protective Emigrant Society, of New-York —
Established for the purpose of preventing emigrants from
being cheated and imposed upon, will furnish them, free
of any charge, with every advice and information relative
to routes, expenses of travelling, and all matters of impor-
tance to them, on applying at the office of the Society, 14
Pine-street, near the Custom-House. C. H. Webb, Super-
intendent ; Geo. Wilkie, Active Agent.
Irish Emigrant Society, 6 Ann-street — T. W. Clerke,
President ; G. Dillon, Jos. Stuart, Vice-Presidents ; James
Reyburn, Treasurer ; J. T. Doyle, M. J. O'Connor, Sec-
Welsh Benevolent Society of the City of New-York —
Evan Griffith, President; Enoch Morgan, Treasurer; G.
W. Griffith, Corresponding Secretary. The objects of
46 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
this Society are the advising and protecting Welsh emi-
grants from the frauds and knavery of emigrant swindlers,
who abound in the city, and who are unrelenting in their
exactions from the poor emigrants. This is a very active
and useful society, and demands cordial support. Apply
to the British Protective Emigrant Society, 14 Pine-street,
Situated in White-street, corner of Centre-street, esta-
blished in 1790, " for the purpose of relieving such sick,
poor and indigent persons, as are unable to procure medi-
Situated in Christopher-street, corner of Sixth-street,
founded in 1829.
Situated in Ludlow-street, corner of Essex Market
Place, founded in 1834.
NEW- YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF
This institution commenced operations under its char-
ter, by opening a school for the reception of pupils on the
12th "day of May, 1818. Until the spring of 1829, the
school was held in the building now called the New City-
Hall. At that time the pupils were transferred to a large
building erected for the purposes of the Institution, on
Fiftieth-street and the Fourth Avenue, three and a half
miles from the City- Hall. Communication between the
Institution and the city is rendered very easy by the cars
which pass on the Harlaem Rail-Road, (Fourth Avenue,)
every fifteen or twenty minutes in both directions.
The principal building occupied for the purposes of the
Institution, is one hundred and ten feet by sixty, in the di-
mensions of its plan, and five stories in height, including
the basement. It accommodates about 160 patients, and
the teachers, the family of the Principal, and such other
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 47
persons as are needed to assist in conducting the affairs of
This Institution has been well sustained by appropria-
tions made by the Legislature of the State, by the Corpo-
rations of the City, and by private munificence.
There are usually at the Asylum about 160 pupils, who
are taught most of the useful branches of education, and
some of them are instructed in trades, such as shoemaking,
tailoring, cabinet making, bookbinding and gardening. At
the date of the last report, (Dec. 1844,) the number of
pupils was 168, (96 males and 72 females,) of whom 128
were supported by the State of New- York, 13 by the
Corporation of the City, three by the State of New-
Jersey, one by the County of St. Lawrence, 11 by their
friends, and 12 by the Institution. The charge for a pupil
is $130 per year, including all expenses, except clothing
and travelling expenses.
The Principal of the Institution is Mr. Harvey P. Peet,
who is assisted by a number of competent professors and
others. The government and management of the general
concerns are vested in a Board of Directors ; of the late
Board, the President, Rev. Doctor Milnor, and one of the
Vice-Presidents, Robert C. Cornell, Esq., are recently de-
Prosper M. Wetmore and Harvey P. Peet, Vice-PresHs.
Robert D. Weeks, Treasurer.
INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND,
Is located on Ninth Avenue, near Thirty-third-street,
where are 32 lots of land presented to the Institution by
James Boorman, Esq. The Legislature, in 1839, appropri-
ated .$15,000 towards the erection of the buildings, besides
which, considerable donations have been made by individ-
uals. The pupils are taught the usual branches of English
education. There is a manufacturing department, where
they learn basket making, weaving, band-box work, and
other similar work. There are usually about 60 pupils at
the Institution. Officers: A. G. Phelps, President ; Isaac
Wood, Vice-President ; S. Brown, Treasurer , E. Jones,
48 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Corresponding Secretary ; G. F. Allen, Recording Secre-
tary ; J. W. G. Clements, Physician ; Isaac Wood and J.
C. Bliss, Consulting Physicians ; J. Kearney Rodgers, Con-
The building is built of granite, in the Gothic style,
and is one of the most imposing structures in the city.
Admission to see the pupils, twice a week, maybe had, on
application to any of the officers. It is much resort-
ed to by those interested in such institutions. The en-
graving we give in another part of this book, presents a
very accurate view of the building.
Asylum for Respectable Aged Indigent Females. — This
institution is situated in 20th street, near the Second Ave-
nue. Aged and indigent ladies find in this truly benevo-
lent institution a grateful asylum for their declining years.
We are glad to learn that its managers are getting great
encouragement for its permanent success.
Magdalen Female Benevolent Asylum. — This institu-
tion is situated between Eighty-eighth and Eighty-ninth
streets, west of the Harlaem Rail-Road. Officers : Mrs.
George Warner, 1st Directress ; Mrs. Thomas Hastings,
2d Directress ; Mrs. Dr. Pierson, Treasurer ; Mrs. S. Van
Antwerp, Corresponding Secretary ; Mrs. J. Clibborn, Re-
cording Secretary ; Rev. C. C. Darling, Chaplain. Can be
visited any day.
New-York Orphan Asylum — Is situated at Blooming-
dale, near Eightieth-street, about five miles from the City-
Hall, and is a handsome building, 120 by 60 feet, connect-
ed with nine acres of ground. It is of stone, plastered in
imitation of yellow marble. It overlooks the Hudson river,
and is delightfully situated, being surrounded with trees and
cultivated grounds. It was instituted in 1806. The pre-
sent number of male and female orphans at the Asylum is
about 200. Till quite recently the inmates of this asylum
have been subject to a great deal of sickness, owing to its
contiguity to the foul air generated in Potter's Field. The
Potters Field has been recently removed. The Asylum
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 49
can be visited at any time, and great numbers resort to it
to see the pupils.
Leake and IVatVs Orphan Asylum — Is situated near
One Hundredth-street, between the Fourth and Fifth Ave-
Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum — Male and Female,
Sixth Avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh streets.
Boman Catholic Orphan Asylum — Is situated in Prince-
street, corner of Mott-street, and is conducted by the Sis-
ters of Charity. They have 250 orphans under their care.
Roman Catholic Half -Orphan Asylum — Eleventh-street,
near Seventh Avenue.
Coloured Orphan Asylum. — This institution is situated in
Twelfth-street, near the lower Reservoir, between Ave-
nues Fifth and Sixth. It has a large and commodious build-
ing, and is in a flourishing condition.
Prison Association of New-York, corner of Pine and
Nassau streets — Established for the amelioration of the
condition of prisoners, the improvement of prison disci-
pline, the government of prisons, and the encouragement
of reformed convicts after their discharge, by assisting them
in obtaining an honest livelihood.
A subscription of $25 constitutes a member for life.
Tiiere is a female department, consisting of such as take
an interest in the objects of the society. Officers : Hon.
William T. McCoun, President ; Isaac T. Hopper, Gene-
New-York Vaccine Institute, 369 Broome and 20 Third-
street — John C. Beales, President; James Weir, Record-
New-England Society — M. H. Grinnell, President; T.
Fessenden, Simeon Draper, jr., Vice-Presidents ; A. G.
Hazard, Treasurer ; A. A. Weeks, Secretary.
Ancient Britons' Benefit Society — W. J. Ormson, Pre-
sident ; David Roberts, Vice-President; Wm. Lewis, Secre-
50 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
St. Andrew* s Society — Richard Irvin, President; J. J.
Palmer, Adam Norrie, Vice-Presidents; Andrew Mitchell,
Treasurer; John Campbell, Secretary; J. T. Ferguson,
St. David's Benevolent Society of New -York and Brook-
lyn — David C. Colden, President; H. P. Edwards, M.
Morgans, jr., Vice-President.
St. George's Society of New- York — W. D. Cuthbertson,
President; Henry Jessop, Septimus Crookes, Vice-Presi-
dents; Robert Bage, Treasurer ; Henry Owen, James She-
St. Nicholas'' Society — J. R. Manly, President ; Peter
Schermerhorn, W. J. Van Wagenen, A. R. Lawrence, Og-
den Hoffman, Vice-Presidents; F. De Peyster, Treasurer;
S. G. Raymond, Secretary.
Hebrew Benevolent Society — M. M. Noah, President ;
S. Dreyfous, Vice-President ; John Levy, Treasurer ; Henry
Hibernian Universal Benevolent Society, 42 Prince-
street — John Farrigan, President; Farrel Lunney, Vice-
President ; John Heaney, Treasurer; James McGuire,
Corresponding Secretary ; Francis O'Rielley, Recording
NEW-YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY.
A conspicuous and beautiful edifice, of the ionic order, of
brown freestone, fronting on Broadway and Leonard-street.
This institution is the most ancient in the city, and is
co-eval in its origin with the English government of the
colony, having been founded in the year 1700, under the
administration of the Earl of Bellamont, then governor.
The New- York Society Library, established in 1754, with
the view of aiding and extending the objects of King's
(now Columbia) College, founded at that time, was en-
NEW-YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY,
Corner of Broadway and Leonard Street.
grafted on the old City Library, a name, by which, in com-
mon parlance, it is still known. Daring the revolutionary
war, the books being deposited in the old City-Hall in
Broad-street, were scattered and lost. Tradition affirms
that they were carried off by the British soldiers and bar-
tered for grog. On the restoration of peace the Library
was re-established, and continued for a long lime to occupy
a sphere of quiet and unobtrusive usefulness in a building
of considerable architectural taste, for that period, erected
by the society in Nassau-street, opposite to the Middle
Dutch Church, now used as the Post Office.
In 1838 and '39 the society erected the present edifice
in Broadway, at an expense, including the ground, of
$120,000. The building throughout is constructed in the
most thorough manner, and its apartments are unsurpassed
for architectural beauty by any in the United States.
The collection of books, selected with great care, con-
sists of the most important works for general reading, and
reference in every department of literature, science and
the arts. Constant accessions are made ; during the last
year there have been added 2,000 volumes, many imported
from London, Paris, &c, where the society has agents.
The reading and news room is a large and airy apartment,
open from 8 in the morning till 10 in the evening, and is
provided with various newspapers and periodicals, afford-
ing a most agreeable resort to subscribers. Besides the
library and reading room, one is appropriated to study and
reference, and another to conversation.
The privileges of this noble institution may be secured
for the moderate sum of $25, with an annual payment of
$6, or $100 without the annual payments, and the shares
are transferable like other property. Members may intro-
duce strangers to the use of the reading room, and reference
to the books of the library. Persons not members may
take out such books as are loaned, by leaving a deposit.
A lecture room, admirably adapted to scientific and
other lectures, is, from the conspicuous and central posi-
tion of the building, in considerable demand.
The objects of the institution are too obvious and im-
52 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
portant to require further explanation. No good citizen
will be without the privileges of a public library. The
stranger will find the Society Library well worthy of a
visit, and an agreeable resort during his sojourn.
The annual income of the society is about $9,000 ;
one half of which is derived from the annual payments of
the members, the other half from the rents of the building,
sale of new shares, &c. About $3,000 are appropriated
annually to the purchase of books and periodicals, the
balance to the extinguishment of debt, incidental ex-
MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.
This society is located in the Clinton Hall building,
in Beekman, corner of Nassau-street. It possesses a
library, reading room, lecture room, cabinet of minerals,
&.c. It was originally established for the express benefit
of clerks, but of late it has been thrown open to all who
will pay for the privilege. The library, in which all the
departments of science and general literature are well re-
presented, contains at this time 23,000 volumes. It is
peculiarly rich in periodical literature. Its collection in
this department is probably superior to any other institu-
tion in this country. The reading room is supplied with
a very extensive variety of foreign and American periodi-
cals and newspapers. The number of members at the
present time is 1,891. Clerks pay one dollar initiation
fee, and two dollars a year thereafter, which entitles them
to the use of the reading room and library. Merchants hold
honorary membership, and pay five dollars a year. Other
citizens have the privileges of the library and reading room
for five dollars a year.
LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.
This is a flourishing and vigorous association of scien-
tific men, for the promotion and study of natural history
in all its branches ; and for the furtherance of these purposes
stated meetings are held for conversation and lectures. It
was incorporated in 1818, and a room appropriated for their
LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 53
meetings, by the city government, in the building in the
rear of ihe City-Hall. It was afterwards removed to a build-
ing in Broadway, built for the purpose ; but it has recently
been removed again to a large and commodious hall in the
second story of the University Medical School, (formerly
Stuyvesant Institute.) The institution possesses a large
library, and an extensive cabinet of minerals, shells, plants,
and other specimens in natural history. Meetings are
held every Monday evening throughout the year — free
to strangers as well as members. The museum may be
visited gratuitously by application at the building.
Officers: Joseph Delafield, President; Jno. A. Smith,
Abraham Halsey, Vice-Presidents ; J. H. Redfield, Corres-
ponding Secretary ; R. H. Browne, Secretary ; J. P.
Giraud, jr., Treasurer.
Established in 1838, for the purpose of diffusing useful
knowledge, by means of lectures, a library and reading
room. During the winter season, evening lectures are de-
livered at the Tabernacle by distinguished scientific and
literary men, invited by the Society, from different parts of
the Union, to which the members and the public generally
are admitted, on payment of a small sum for the course, or
for each lecture. The library and reading rooms are at the
corner of Broadway and Lispenard-street.
Isaac T. Smith, President; George S. Stitt, Vice-Presi-
dent; John L. Salisbury, Treasurer ; Albert G. Zabriskie,
Corresponding Secretary ; Lewis G. Forman, Recording
NEW- YORK LAW INSTITUTE.
(Established 1828. Incorporated 1830.)
The Library, which is kept in the City-Hall, contains
about 3,500 volumes of select law books, including nearly
the whole series of English and American Reports. The
initiation fees are $20, and annual dues $10. Members
of the bar from abroad, and the judges of the courts, are
entitled to the free use of the Library.
Samuel Jones, L. L. D., President; John Anthon, Ge-
54 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
rardus Clark, James W. Gerard, Vice-Presidents ; Joshua
Coit, Treasurer ; Alex. H. Dana, Secretary ; Lewis H.
NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
This able and efficient association have their rooms in
the University Building. They have a library of 12,000
volumes, and a large collection of coins and medals. Its
library is open during each day. Albert Gallatin, Presi-
dent ; Luther Bradish and Thos. De Witt, Vice-Presidents ;
J. R. Bartlett, Foreign Corresponding Secretary; John
Jay, Domestic Corresponding Secretary ; G. Gibbs, Li-
This library occupies a large and commodious building
at 32 Crosby-street. It contains 12,000 volumes, for the
exclusive use of apprentices. Eighteen hundred young
mechanics avail themselves of the facilities of this valuable
Formed in 1842, for the purpose of inquiring into An-
tiquities, History, Languages, Geography, &c
Albert Gallatin, President ; Edward Robinson, Henry
R. Schoolcraft, Vice-Presidents ; John R. Bartlett, Corres-
ponding Secretary ; A. W. Bradford, Recording Secretary
Mechanics' and Tradesmen's Society and School, 32
Crosby -street — J. A. Westervelt, President.
Union Theological Seminary. — This Institution, founded
in 1836, is located in University Place, between Sixth and
Eighth streets, near Washington Square. The principal
edifice contains four large and commodious lecture rooms, a
chapel, library and study rooms, besides four large furnish-
ed rooms for the accommodation of the students. It has six
professors, and generally about 100 students. The library
contains over 16,000 volumes. R. T. Haines, President.
MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS. 55
The General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal
Church, is situated in Twentieth-street, corner of Ninth
Avenue, near the Hudson, two miles from the City-Hall.
There are two handsome buildings of stone, for the accom-
modation of professors and students. The Board of Trustees
consists of all the bishops, and one trustee from each dio-
cese in the United States. The institution is well en-
dowed and in a flourishing condition.
UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCHOOL.
This institution occupies the building formerly known as
the Stuyvesant Institute, a splendid granite edifice, in
Broadway, above Bleecker-street. The front is construct-
ed of hewn granite, and is 75 feet long. It has a portico
supported by four splendid granite columns. The building
in its present state cost over one hundred thousand dollars.
It contains three very spacious lecture rooms, one for anato-
my, one for chemistry, and one for general purposes. It
has also an extensive reading room and library. The New-
York Lyceum have deposited their cabinet in this building.
The museum and apparatus belong chiefly to the pro-
fessors. Their value is about $30,000.
The number of students at the last Winter Session of
1844-5, was 378.
The Winter Session begins on the last Monday of Octo-
ber, and ends on the last day in February.
Valentine Mott, M. D., Prof, of the Principles and Ope-
rations of Surgery, with Surgical and Pathological Anatomy.
Granville Sharp Pattison, M. D., Prof, of General De-
scriptive and Surgical Anatomy.
John Revere, M. D., Prof, of the Theory and Practice
Martyn Paine, M. D., Prof, of Institutes of Medicine
and Materia Medica.
Gunning S. Bedford, M. D., Prof, of Midwifery, and the
Diseases of Women and Children.
56 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
John W. Draper, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry.
William Darling, M. D., Prosector to the Professor of
John H. Whitaker, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.
COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS.
This is a handsome edifice, situated in Crosby-street. It
was founded in 1807, has eight professors and about 200
students. It has a library of over 1,000 volumes. Lectures
commence on the first Monday in November, and continue
about four months. Attached to the college is a very ex-
tensive medical museum containing a vast number of in-
teresting objects. It may be visited on application to the
Janitor, in the building.
The institution is governed by a Board of Trustees,
composed of physicians and other citizens.
Alexander H. Stevens, M. D., President and Emeritus,
Prof, of Surgery.
Joseph M. Smith, M. D., Prof, of Theory and Practice
of Medicine and Clinical Medicine.
John B. Beach, M. D., Prof, of Materia Medica and
John Torrey, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry and Botany.
Robert Watts, jr., M. D. Prof, of Anatomy and Physi-
Willard Parker, M. D. Prof, of Principles and Practice
of Surgery and Surgical Anatomy.
Chandler R. Gilman, M. D.,Prof. of Obstetrics and Dis-
eases of Women and Children.
Doctor G. A. Sabine, Demonstrator of Anatomy.
Gurdon Buck, jr., M. D., Registrar.
The whole number of under graduates in 1844, was 193.
There is no classification of students. The mode of in-
struction is entirely by lectures.
NEW-YORK MEDICAL SOCIETY,
Meets monthly in the Court Room, Halls of Justice — E.
Delafield, President; Isaac Wood, Vice-President; B. R.
MECHANIC INSTITUTIONS. 57
Robson, Treasurer ; B. Drake, Corresponding Secretary ;
W. P. Buel, Recording Secretary.
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY.
The object of this Institution is to prevent, as far as
possible, the manyfatal errors in the preparation of medicine.
Constantine Adamson, President ; Oliver Hull, John
Milhau, George D. Coggeshall, Vice-Presidents ; James S.
Aspinwall, Treasurer ; John Meakim, Secretary.
(Incorporated in 1829.)
This institution was established for the purpose of en-
couraging domestic industry in this state and the United
States, in agriculture, manufactures and the arts, by be-
stowing rewards and other benefits on those who shall
make any improvements, or excel in any of the above
branches. The Institute have a room in the building in the
Park on Chambers-street, which is fitted up as a library,
lecture hall and exhibition room. The library is extensive,
and particularly rich in those branches relating to the ob-
jects of the institution. A large collection of models, ag-
ricultural products, &c., are deposited in the room, which,
together with the library, are open to the public free of
expense, at all seasonable hours. The stranger will do
well to visit this interesting room. In connection with
the Institute, there is an Annual Fair held at Niblo's Gar-
den, which is visited by thirty thousand people. A cattle
show is also held by the Institute every season.
Officers : James Tallmadge, President ; A. Chandler,
Win. Inglis, Shepherd Knapp, Vice-Presidents ; H. Meigs,
Recording Secretary ; T. B. Wakeman, Corresponding
Secretary ; E. T. Backhouse, Treasurer ; T. B. Wake-
man, Superintending Agent.
This Institute has for its object the instruction of me-
chanics and others in science and the arts. The Institute
58 PICTURE OF NEW.YORK.
has established annual courses of popular lectures. It has
an excellent library, containing about twenty-five hundred
volumes, together with a reading room, supplied with popu-
lar reviews, literary and scientific journals and newspapers ;
a museum of models of machinery, and a valuable collection
of chemical and philosophical apparatus. A male school
was commenced in November, 1838, and a female school
in May, 1839, both of which have been eminently success-
ful. Rooms in the basement of the City-Hall. J. J. Mapes,
President ; Charles L. Barritt, Actuary and Librarian.
Chamber of Commerce — Instituted 1768 ; incorporated
1770, re-incorporated 1784. Officers: James G. King,
President ; H. K. Bogert, Stewart Brown, Vice-Presidents ;
J. J. Palmer, Treasurer ; P. M. Wetmore, Secretary ; Com.
of Arbitration : Matthew Maury, Calvin Durand, Chas.
King, J H. Brower, Robert Kermit. Pilot Commissioners :
R. S. Taylor, C. H. Marshall. Annual Election : 1st Tues-
day in May ; meetings 1st Tuesday in each month.
New. York Stock and Exchange Board. — Officers : David
Clarkson, President; Edward Prime, Vice-President; J.
W. Bleecker, Treasurer; B. Hart, Secretary; Meetings
daily at the Merchants' Exchange.
New- York Commercial Exchange Association. — Officers:
Seixas Nathan, President ; W. Borrowe, Vice-President ;
S. I. Josephs, Secretary ; W. H. Hayes, Treasurer. Daily
(public) meetings in the Rotunda of Merchants' Exchange.
Merchants'' Vigilant Association, (organized to investi-
gate and expose abuses in trade, to prevent frauds, and
punish the fraudulent.) Officers: Thomas Tileston, Pre-
sident; T. C. Doremus, Vice-President; David Wesson,
Treasurer ; Woodward & Dusenbery, Secretaries.
Metropolitan Association, 554 Broadway — Henry Kid-
dle, President; J. H. Fanning, Vice-President; J.J.An-
derson, T. J. Taylor, Secretaries ; R. H. Cudlip, Treasurer ;
L. B. Hardcastle, Librarian.
Italian Benevolent Society — Felice Argenti, President ;
Sebastiano Dacorsi, Treasurer; C. Ferrero, Secretary.
Independent Order of Odd Fellows'' Library Association :
Rooms at 31 Canal-street.
PICTURE GALLERIES AND INSTITUTIONS OF
THE FINE ARTS.
322 Broadway, near Pearl-street.
Officers: William Cullen Bryant, President; Ebenezer
Piatt, Treasurer ; Andrew Warner, Recording Secretary ;
Robert F. Fraser, Corresponding Secretary.
The American Art-Union, now in the sixth year of its ex-
istence, was incorporated by the Legislature of New-York,
for the promotion of the Fine Arts in the United States.
It is now firmly established ; its income the past year ex-
ceeded ten thousand dollars.
Each subscriber of five dollars becomes a member of the
Art-Union for the year. The money ihus obtained (allow-
ing for necessary expenses) is applied first, to the produc-
tion of a fine and costly engraving from a choice painting,
of which every member receives a copy ; second, to the
purchase of paintings and sculpture by native or resident
artists, which are publicly distributed by lot amongst the
members at the annual meeting in December. The
works of art distributed in this manner, in 1844, numbered
ninety-two, (exclusive of the engravings,) and cost the
Art-Union nearly seven thousand dollars.
The Room or Gallery of the Art-Union is hung with
paintings, either purchased by the Institution or sent there
by artists to the superintendant for sale, and is always
open, free of charge, to the members and the public gene-
We most cordially recommend this institution to the
New-York public, and to strangers generally. It possesses
very strong claims to patronage. Some of the best pictures
ever painted in this country have been distributed by the
80 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Art-Union; and as a promoter of the interests of the fine
arts in America, its facilities and efforts are unequalled.
Great impartiality in the selection of pictures, and faith-
fulness in disbursing the society's money have been hither,
to practised by the managers.
Its exhibition rooms are very interesting, and well wor-
thy of the attention of citizens and strangers.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN,
In Broadway, corner of Leonard-street.
An association of young men, artists and amateurs,
under the name above given, organized and opened
their first exhibition on the first of May, in 1826, at
the corner of Reade-street and Broadway. They af-
terwards occupied successively rooms over the Arcade
Baths in Chambers-street, the Clinton Hall, and the Society
Library building, where they now remain. They have an
exhibition of the productions of none but living artists, and
open annually during the months of April, May and June.
Their present accommodations consists of several large
rooms, elegantly fitted up with carpets, mirrors and seats ;
and from the pains taken to make it attractive, it has be-
come a very fashionable place of genteel resort. Nearly
all the artists in the United States annually send contribu-
tions to this exhibition. Admission 25 cents. Season
tickets 50 cents.
Connected with the institution is a gratuitous school for
drawing, held three evenings a week during the winter sea-
son. The Academy has a very valuable collection of cast3
from the antique and modern schools — which are used by
the drawing classes.
Application for admission to the school must be made to
the Council, accompanied with an original drawing made
from the round. Lectures on various subjects connected
with the fine arts are provided for by the laws of the insti-
tution — but none are given — for reasons inextricably in-
volved in the mysteries of the Council. A " life school,"
for drawing from the living figure, is also in successful ope-
The annual election for officers is held in May. Officers ;
Henry Inman, President ; A. B. Durand, Vice-President.
NEW- YORK ART-RE- UNION,
Instituted in 1845, by a number of artists and amateurs,
for mutual instruction and the promotion of the fine arts.
Weekly meetings are held, when the objects of the society
are carried out by the reading of essays and the introduction
of specimens and discussions, all confined to subjects con-
nected with the arts. The association is in a flourishing
condition, and promises great usefulness for the future.
It numbers among its members some of the most talent-
ed and promising artists in the country. E. Ruggles, M. D.,
President ; John M. Falconer, Recording Secretary ; John
P. Ridner, Corresponding Secretary.
NEW-YORK GALLERY OF THE FINE ARTS.
This institution was established for the purpose of form-
ing a permanent gallery of paintings, sculpture and engra-
vings. The society commenced by purchasing the collection
of the late Luman Read, consisting of some very valuable
paintings, principally by American artists. About fifteen
thousand dollars were raised by private subscription, some
individuals subscribing as high as one thousand dollars.
This sum has been principally expended in the purchase of
the above collection, and the fitting up of the old Rotunda in
the Park, as an exhibition room. By a provision in the con-
stitution, no property of the association can ever be sold,
and a work of art once possessed must ever remain a part
of the permanent gallery. The payment of one dollar,
and the subscription of the constitution, constitutes the
person making such payment a member for life — and for
this small sum he is entitled to free admission for life —
without any other cost. The present success of the insti-
tution has established it on a permanent basis. Among
the paintings are Cole's celebrated series of the Voyage
of Life ; his Course of Empire ; a picture by Morland, and
many others equally valuable. The gallery possesses also
a rich and numerous collection of Flag's paintings. Single
62 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
admission 25 cents. Strangers will find this collection
Jonathan Sturges, President; F. W. Edmonds, Vice.
President; Thomas H. Faile, Treasurer ; W.H.Johnson,
NEW-YORK DRAWING ACADEMY,
Situated at No. 103 Canal-street.
Drawing, painting and perspective are here taught
and illustrated by a very extensive apparatus, and other
unequalled facilities. Prof. J. R. Smith is celebrated as
one of the most successful teachers in the United States ;
many of our most distinguished artists have been gradu-
ates from his school. Pictorial anatomy, lithography and
engraving is also taught in this institution. Separate
classes for ladies and gentlemen.
Tuition, $1.0 per quarter.
PLACES OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT.
We possess but slender materials for describing accu-
rately the earliest efforts of our ancestors at theatrical
performances, which were commenced nearly a century
ago in a large store near the Old-slip, on a place called
Cruger's Wharf; at about the same period, by the way, the
first regular weekly was published in New- York, called the
" Weekly Gazette." The accounts before us do not repre-
sent the persons engaged in the undertaking to have been
either very serious or successful, but a mere party of frolick-
some young men, rather desirous of gratifying their own
love of mirth and frivolity, than of founding any perma-
nent and well regulated dramatic establishment.
About the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty, a
stone theatre was built in Nassau-street, in the rear of the
Dutch Church, near Maiden Lane. It is said to have been
quite well conducted by a Mr. Hallam, who principally, by
the aid of players from the Provincial theatres of Great
Britain, performed many of the best English plays, until
PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 63
the manager, either from want of encouragement or al-
lured by more lucrative prospecis elsewhere, withdrew his
company, and the building was pulled down.
In 1770, a new effort was made by a Mr. Miller, in a
miserable wooden house in Beekman-street, a few doors
below Nassau-street. This is described as inferior to the
other. The scenery was of paper, and the wardrobe de-
ficient both in quality and extent. This unfortunate struc-
ture was so far from being supported, that the public, not
satisfied with its passing to its fate in the ordinary course
of things, assembled one day, under the influence of some
political excitement, and tore it to pieces.
During the Revolutionary war, and while the city was
in possession of the English, the drama was once more re-
sorted to as a source of amusement. A building was
erected in John-street, and plays were represented by the
British officers. Among the pieces here performed were
several of a satirical character, from the pen of Burgoyne.
In 1783, after the British had evacuated the city, the John-
street theatre fell into the hands of a regular company,
and was for a time quite successful.
A circumstance occurred at this period, which evinces
the disposition of our forefathers towards theatrical per-
formances. The winter of 1785 was unusually severe,
and caused extreme suffering among the poor. The mana-
ger of the theatrical corps, offered for their assistance the
proceeds of a night, amounting to one hundred pounds ;
the offer was declined by the Common Council on the
ground that theatrical performances had an immoral ten-
dency. This building was destroyed by fire in 1799.
The Park Theatre was commenced in 1795, during the
alarming prevalence of the yellow fever in New-York. It
was completed in 1798, at which time a petition from the
proprietors for leave to erect a portico over the side-walk
was rejected by the Common Council, apparently as
unwilling to grant as to receive favours from a dramatic
G4 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
The cost of the building was one hundred and seventy.
nine thousand dollars, but was afterwards purchased at
auction for fifty thousand dollars, by its present owners.
It was opened for public performances in 1798, under
the management of the celebrated Hodgkinson, formerly
of the John-street theatre. This gentleman must have
been gifted with great powers as an actor, from the strong
and universal praise bestowed upon him by those familiar
with his personations. Since his death the theatre has
passed under the direction of Dunlap, Cooper, Price,
and its present manager, Simpson. In May, 1820, late
one night after the performance of the evening, the build-
ing was discovered to be on fire. We are not aware
that the original cause of the accident is known. The
interior was wholly consumed, but the walls, which are
of immense thickness, were left standing ; their height
also prevented the extension of the conflagration, and a
heavy shower came very opportunely to the assistance of
the firemen in the preservation of the surrounding build-
ings. Fortunately this calamity was attended by no loss of
life. No one who witnessed the destruction of the Park
Theatre can ever forget the grandeur and sublimity of the
spectacle. The sky was completely obscured with clouds,
and shrouded the scene in impenetrable gloom, which
greatly heightened the intense splendour of the fire-light.
The flames, ascending to the height of several hundred
feet, cast a glare of lurid radiance over a circle of many
miles, and illuminated the city with vivid brilliancy and
beauty. Crowds of citizens, lured by the awful grandeur
of the sight, thronged by thousands to the spot.
It was several months after the fire before the proprietors
rebuilt the edifice. The interior was much improved ;
but the exterior retained its unpromising aspect. It was
re-opened in August, 1821, with a prize address from the
pen of Sprague.
Brunei, the celebrated planner of the Thames Tunnel,
was the architect of this theatre, and at the time it was
erected, the New-Yorkers regarded it as a masterpiece of
taste. Its unsightly proportions have since been much
PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 65
ridiculed ; so much so as to induce the manager to alter
it, by adding some wood-work pilasters and paint. Its ap-
pearance has been very much improved by this addition.
The Park. Theatre was for many years surrounded by a
collection of houses, occupied by the lowest grade of hu-
man beings. It has now somewhat changed, being the
centre of a nucleus of eating-houses and gambling-shops.
All the great theatrical stars from Europe make their first
appearance here. The fact of coming from this theatre
stamps them at once with character. More attention is
paid to the detail and perfection of dramatic performances
in the Park Theatre than in any other house in the United
States. It has a collection of scenery which has cost over
two hundred thousand dollars — and its wardrobe and other
stage properties are very extensive.
Its internal plan and decorations are superior to any other
theatre in America. There are three tiers of boxes, each tier
seating 450 persons. Besides the boxes, there is a gallery
for coloured people. The pit seats 430, and the gallery 500.
The whole house, when full, holds 2,500 persons, which
pays the manager, at the present prices, $1,910 ; but many
more are often crowded into it. The house is 187 feet
deep, and 76 wide. It is now owned by John Jacob
Astorand the heirs of J. R. Beekman. Edward Simpson
is the lessee and manager. Strangers desirous of getting
seats on crowded nights, will do well to secure them during
the day, or go early in the evening, as the despicable prac-
tice of selling tickets after the house is full is much prac-
tised at this theatre, in imitation of the meaner establish-
ments about town. Prices of admission : boxes $1 ; pit
50 cents ; gallery 25 cents. Private boxes can be had by
application at the door.
Bowery, near Chatham. Square.
This building is one of the most conspicuous in the city.
Three theatres have been built and burned on the ground
now occupied by this building. The first stone was laid
in May, 1826, with great pomp and ceremony, by Philip
66 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Hone, then Mayor of the city. It was finished and deco-
rated in a very superior style, and opened for theatrical
representations in the October following. The manage,
ment was conducted with great spirit, and its popularity
soon became so great that the manager was enabled to pay
Signora Garcia the enormous sum of $600 a night for
performing in the Italian and English opera.
The Bowery Theatre continued to increase in favour and
prosperity until the evening of March 22d, 1829, when,
like its rival, the Park, it was totally consumed ; the
conflagration presenting one of the grandest and most sub-
lime spectacles ever witnessed in the city.
It was not long, however, before another magnificent
building rose in renovated splendour from its ruins. It was
designed by the classical taste of Mr. Tourn, from the
celebrated Temple of Theseus, at Athens, and was said to
be the finest specimen of doric architecture then in the
United States. The entablature above the portico was
ornamented with a boldly executed eagle, in bass-relief,
richly gilded, which had a noble effect. Many eminent
English performers have made their debut in this theatre.
Messrs. Holland, Chapman, De Camp, Pearman, and
Misses George and Rock ; also Mr. and Mrs. Younge,
with many others ; likewise Mr. Forrest, an American per-
The present building is rebuilt from the ashes of one
that was burnt in the spring of 1845. It is of the same
size as the former one, but with superior accommodations.
It is the largest theatre in the Union. The performances
are of a class inferior to the Park Theatre, and is never
visited by the higher classes of New-Yorkers. It is celebra-
ted for spectacles and patriotic pieces, sometimes lavish-
ing very great sums in getting them up. The stock com-
pany is vastly inferior to that of the Park Theatre. Prices
of admission : box, 50 cents ; second and third tiers, 25
cents ; pit, 12£ cents.
MITCHELL'S OLYMPIC THEATRE.
This building is situated in Broadway, just below Grand-
PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 67
street. The present building was converted into a theatre
in 1837, by Messrs. Willard and Blake, and after a few
months of unsuccessful management, failed. For the two
subsequent years it was under the management of seve-
ral individuals, but was unsuccessful.
Mr. Mitchell, the present manager, took it in 1839, and
by untiring industry and great skill and tact, he has con.
verted it into the most popular theatre now established in
New. York. Mr. Mitchell has, with great tact, seized
upon local incidents and prevailing follies, and moulded
them into most amusing pieces. This, together with an
unprecedented succession of novelties, has won for its
manager most unusual success. He has depended more
upon the excellence of his stock company, and the general
attention to stage management, than to the fashionable
system of starring. All the Olympic performances are
light and amusing, calculated to excite mirth rather than
seriousness. The boxes are nightly filled with a very re-
spectable audience. The building is small, but neatly
fitted up. The prices of admission are — 50 cents to the
first tier ; 25 cents to the second and third, and 12£ cents
to the pit.
This very popular place of entertainment is situated in
Broadway, corner of Prince-street. The grounds of this
establishment, which occupy nearly a whole city square,
are laid out with great taste, and ornamented with the
rarest of native and exotic plants. Besides the theatre
there is a large saloon, for concerts and refreshments, and
extensive covered walks, the whole open, during the sum-
mer months, to the outer air. The theatre is elegantly
fitted up, and capable of seating three thousand persons.
It has been for several years in most successful operation,
commanding large and very fashionable audiences. It is
open only during the summer months. Very expensive
fireworks are occasionally given here, and add much to
the variety of entertainment. Admission, 50 cents, to all
parts of the house.
68 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
This theatre is situated in Chatham-street, near Rose-
velt, and opposite Mulberry-street. It has been very sue-
cessf'ul under its present management. The building is
about half as large as the Park Theatre, and far inferior to
it in beauty, character of performance, and police order.
This theatre is the scene of the performances of such
actors as Hill, Rice, and Booth, since his palmy days.
Prices of admission : boxes, 25 cents; pit, 12^ cents. It
is managed by Messrs. Duverna & De Bar.
RICHMOND HILL THEATRE.
This building was formerly the country residence of
Aaron Burr. It was several years ago converted into a
theatre, and after variable success was modeled into a ball
room, under the name of Tivoli Saloon. It has been re-
cently opened for a theatre, under the management of
Mr. Draper, and promises to have a successful career.
Vauxhall Garden is situated in the Bowery, between
Fourth and Eighth streets. It was formerly much more
extensive than it is now, Lafayette Place having been
taken from its grounds. It is conducted by Bradford
Jones, and devoted to theatrical entertainments, concerts,
exhibitions of fireworks, &c. Prices of admission vary,
but generally are about 25 cents.
PALMO'S OPERA HOUSE
Was built for the use of an Italian Opera Company, but
that failing, it has since been devoted to various kinds of
theatrical entertainments. It is a small, but very beautiful
house. It is situated in Chambers-street, opposite the
Park. Prices of admission vary.
This institution was founded in 18 10, by the late John
Scudder, by whose arduous efforts, and the persevering
exertions of its more recent proprietor, it has arisen to its
present state of popularity. Scudder commenced his ca-
reer as an itinerant organ-grinder, and during his wander-
PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 69
ings he collected the first specimens towards the present
This museum was for many years, during his manage-
ment, almost the only place of public amusement in the
city. It is situated on Broadway, nearly opposite the
Astor House — a very convenient place for all classes of the
public. It contains several large halls, each over a hun-
dred feet in length, filled with curiosities of every variety.
The museum is peculiarly rich in natural history. It has
numerous paintings, a mineralogical cabinet, and a multi-
tude of rare curiosities, well worth visiting. In addition
to this, it has a saloon capable of seating about one thou-
sand persons, which is fitted with a stage and scenery,
and is used for concerts, dancing, philosophical experi-
ments, and a variety of other entertainments, all for the
sum of 25 cents. Persons may go in during the day, ex-
amine the museum at their leisure, and visit the saloon
in the evening without additional charge. The top of the
museum, fitted up as a garden and promenade, commands
a fine view of the city.
Is situated on a mole, connected with the Battery by a
bridge. It wa3 originally erected for a fortification, and
used for that purpose till 1823, when it was ceded by the
United States to this city; since which it has been leased
for a place of public amusement. It was built in 1807-8-9.
Immense sums of money were expended on its erection,
it having cost the government, at different times, several
hundred thousand dollars. The felicitous situation of this
spot, projecting into the bay, and commanding one of the
finest views in the world, causes it to be a favourite place
of resort in the summer months. In 1824, on the occa-
sion of the visit of Gen. Lafayette, a splendid fete and
gala were given to him at Castle Garden, which for gran-
deur, expense and entire effect, were never before wit-
nessed in this country. The building has lately been
altered, by the addition of a roof and outside promenade,
and fitted up with a stage for concerts, operas, &c. The
70 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
effect of the interior is very grand, it being by far the
largest audience room in the world. It will easily hold
15,(J00 people, being over six hundred feet in circum-
ference. Admission 25 cents; during the day, 12£ cents.
Refreshments always ready.
At the city charter election in 1835, it was voted to con-
struct this aqueduct, the vote standing 11,367 in favour,
and 5,963 against it. It was then estimated to cost five or
six millions of dollars. It has, however, cost the city over
twelve millions. It was commenced in 1837, and its com-
pletion celebrated on the 14th day of October, 1842. It is,
perhaps, the noblest work of the kind in any country, not
excepting the monuments of olden times, which have been
for ages the admiration of the world. By its facilities we are
supplied with the very best of water for culinary purposes,
and an unfailing means for the extinguishment of fires.
Excluding the grand reservoir, which is five miles long,
the length of the aqueduct, from the upper dam to the dis-
tributing reservoir on Murray Hill, is 40£ miles. The dam
crosses the Croton river six miles from its mouth on the
Hudson. This dam gives an elevation to the water of 166
feet above the mean tide in the Hudson river. From this
dam the aqueduct runs southerly through the valley of the
Hudson, 32 miles to the edge of the Harlaem river valley.
The whole of the distance is one continuous underground
canal, of stone and brick masonry. At the present time,
the Harlaem river and valley is crossed by iron pipes, but
this mode will soon be succeeded by a bridge. From the
Harlrcm river the conduit of masonry is resumed, but again
interrupted by iron pipes in the Manhattan valley. It finally
reaches the great receiving reservoir on York Hill, about
five miles from the City-Hall. The receiving reservoir in-
cludes an area of 35 acres. It is 1,826 feet long, and 836
fftet wide, and divided by a cross wall into two separate
apartments. This reservoir is constructed of immense em-
bankments of solid stone masonrv. It will contain 20 feet
CROTON AQUEDUCT. 71
depth of water and 150,000,000 gallons. From the
receiving reservoir the aqueduct is continued with cast-
iron pipes, two miles to the distributing reservoir at Mur-
ray Hill. This reservoir contains an area of more than
four acres, and is 2,120 feet square ; it is divided into two
basins by a partition wall. Its enclosing walls have an
average height of 44 i feet. It is three miles from the City-
Hall. It is constructed of solid masonry, with hollow walls,
built of granite. It is in the Egyptian style of architecture,
and presents a very imposing appearance. It has angular
buttresses projecting from the wall, and elevated several
feet above the main building. An iron railing encloses the
walk or promenade which is formed on the top of the walls.
In the central pilasters are doors leading to the pipe cham-
bers in the walls, where the cocks are regulated. On the
east side a door is cut and stairs constructed within the
wall, which ascend to the top. The reservoir holds 30 feet
depth of water, with its surface 115 feet above mean tide.
The basin measures 20,000,000 of gallons. From the dis-
tributing reservoir the water is drawn through large cast-
iron pipes, which lead through the central parts of the city,
and from which the distribution of water is made by small
lateral pipes, diminishing in size as they go from the larger
ones. There are over 150 miles of these pipes, and their
length is daily increasing. The. country for most of the
distance traversed by the aqueduct, consists of a series
of transverse ridges and ravines, mostly made up of rock,
all of which had to be excavated, tunnelled or embanked, at
an enormous expense. There are 16 tunnels, varying in
length from 100 to over 1,000 feet each. There are 114
culverts of masonry, varying in span from lh feet to 25- feet
each, crossing many larsje streams, principally in West-
chester county. The canal is built of stone, brick a.nd ce-
ment, arched over and under, 6 feet 3 inches wide at the
bottom, 7 feet 8 inches'at the top of the side walls, and 8 feet
5 inches high ; has a descent of 13^ inches per mile, and
will discharge 60,000,000 of gallons in 24 hours. The
most important structure is the high bridge over the Har-
laem river. The Harlaem valley is a quarter of a mile wide,
72 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
and the river 620 feet; and the whole is crossed by the
bridge. " There are eight arches over the river, with a
span of 80 feet each, springing from piers 20 feet wide at
the spring line, which is 60 feet above the surface of the
river at high water." The under side of the arches are
100 feet from the river's surface. There are several other
arches springing from the ground, of 50 feet span each.
The whole structure is of hewn granite. The water will
cross this bridge in iron pipes, and over this there will be a
carriage way. The whole will cost over $900,000, and
will probably be completed in 1847.
The Croton contains, by analysis, about five grains of
solid matter to the gallon. The Schuylkill, or Fairmount
water, a little less. The introduction of the Croton water
has had the effect of reducing the rates of insurance about ,
40 cents on the 100 dollars. The facilities for extinguish,
ing fires have greatly increased, as there are fire hydrants
at short intervals all over the city. There are also free
hydrants at convenient intervals in the streets for public
use. Fire plugs are not suffered to be opened, except by
authority of certain officers.
By the annual report of the Croton Aqueduct Board for
1845, the receipts for the year ending the 30th April, 1645,
were $118,582 74. The expenditures during the same
period, $73,411 78. The increase of receipts during the
present year, have been very great. It is calculated that
the whole revenue for the last year will be about $160,000,
and the annual increase will be about 35 per cent. The
whole number of permits issued during the year ending
the first of May, 1845, was 9,110, representing 9,582
water-takers. A number of steam-boats, houses, &c,
often take out but one permit, and hence the above dis-
crepancy between water-takers and permits. The revenue
is derived from the following sources : 7,171 private dwell-
ings, $72,123 88; 2,411 manufactories, mechanical and
other miscellaneous sources, $59,660 67.
Office of the Croton Aqueduct Board, No. 7 New City-
Hall. Board ; James A. Coffin, President ; M. Van
Schaick, Samuel B. Ruggles, Harvey Hunt, Horatio Allen.
The Common Schools in this city arc under the control
of the Board of Education and the Public School Society.
The Board of Education is composed of Commissioners
elected by the people of each ward agreeably to an act of
the Legislature, passed in 1842. The Public School So-
ciety was. incorporated in 1805, and has for many years
managed the affairs of the principal proportion of the Com-
mon Schools of the city.
According to a recent report made to the Board of Edu-
cation, by a committee of the Board, the average number
of schools reporting to them for the past year was as fol-
Number of Public Schools subject to the Public
School Society, 104
Number of Ward Schools subject to Ward Trus-
Number of Corporate Schools, 21
The average number of scholars that actually attended
the several schools during the past year, compared with
1843, is as follows (excluding fractions :)
1S44. 1843. Increase
Public Schools 15,977 15,938 39
Ward Schools, 6,806 2,078 4,728
Corporate Schools, 1,570 1,450 120
Total, 24,353 19,466 4,887
The increase in the average number of scholars attend-
ing the schools during the year 1844 over 1843, it will be
seen, is 4,887.
74 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
MISCELLANEOUS PLACES WORTH VISITING
IN NEW- YORK.
Among the places worth visiting in this city, few are
more interesting than the State Arsenal, in Centre-street,
next north of the City Prison. It occupies the site of the
old powder magazine, " built in the woods, far out of
town," by the early Dutch settlers. It can be visited at
any time by the citizens or strangers. Entrance on White-
street, by a small door, cut in the wooden fence near the
main entrance. The Arsenal occupies a whole square,
and consists of a quadrangular court, surrounded on two
of its sides by sheds, covering numerous pieces of ord-
nance, on another side by sheds and the keeper's dwell-
ings, and on the other side by a large building, two stories
high, filled with a vast assembly of munitions of war.
Over one hundred thousand stands of arms are here arrang-
ed in long columns, and present a most imposing appear-
ance. Swords, pikes, banners and various trappings of
war are ranged around the walls, in such a manner as to
form very pleasing figures. But by far the most interesting
objects are the various trophies, taken from the English
during the Revolution and the late war. Numerous field
pieces, mutilated standards, muskets and other warlike
trophies are exposed to view, appropriately labelled, and
carefully preserved. The " trophy room" is full of objects
of this kind, besides many other objects of interest. The
stranger may wander about the place unmolested, and he
will be amply repaid for a visit. As it is now, the Arsenal
is very poorly protected, being surrounded entirely by
simple boarded fences ; but, thanks to the liberal and
praiseworthy efforts of Gen. Storms, its able commander,
we are likely soon to have a handsome and substantial
building in place of the insufficient shanty that now cum-
bers the place.
PLACES WORTH VISITING. 75
The packet ships are generally objects of interest to
the stranger. Splendid packet ships are always to he found
at our docks, and may be examined at all times without
inconvenience. Their splendid cabins, vast size and ex-
quisite models, excite the admiration and wonder of those
unused to such things. Their cabins are often fitted up at
a vast expense, and their whole build and finish render
them superior to any other vessels in the commercial world.
Among the finest may be mentioned the Ashburton,
Garrick, Victoria, Liverpool, Queen of the West, York-
shire, and the Henry Clay.
The Atlantic steamers, Great Britain and Great West.
ern, dock at the foot of Clinton-street, East river, and
may be visited generally by requesting a written permit
of their agents.
The successful establishment of steam-boats in this state,
by Robert Fulton, in 1806, was one of the most important
events to this country, and to the world at large, that has
ever occurred. Since 1806 there have been at least five
hundred steam-boats, of every description, built in this city.
The success of Fulton, in spite of the opinions of his
friends, excited the bitterest enmity in those whose inter-
ests were affected and disturbed ; but this was soon
silenced by strong legislative enactments for protection,
and the powerful voice of public opinion. A company
was chartered, with exclusive privileges, for the purpose of
running boats on the Hudson river, for a limited number of
years. This monopoly became extremely lucrative, and
in a few years the legality of the charter was legally con-
tested, and Fulton's supposed rights overthrown by the
United States Supreme Court. Immediately after this de-
cision a superabundance of steam-boats were built, and the
effect of opposition was manifested in the reduction of the
fare from eight dollars to four, and even two dollars.
76 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Fulton did not live to see this disastrous consummation.
Our limits will not permit of a minute detail of the inter-
esting particulars connected with the rise and progress of
steam navigation in New. York. The stranger will hardly
be satisfied without seeing some of the noble specimens of
steam architecture which abound at our docks. The
North river boats are generally more elegantly fitted up,
and are lighter and more graceful than the sound-steam-
ers, but they lack the appearance of strength which cha-
racterizes the latter. The steamers Oregon, Uendrick
Hudson, Empire and Knickerbocker, are the finest on the
Hudson. The three first are more than a sixteenth of a
mile long each, and have accommodations for nearly a
thousand passengers. They are fitted up in most superb
style, and all that the arts of gilding, carpentery and fur-
nishing can do to make them perfect specimens of naval
architecture, has been lavished on them. The Oregon
cost ninety thousand dollars, and has attained a speed of
twenty-three miles an hour. There is but little difference
between the Oregon and Hudson, either in speed or
finish. Of the sound steamers, the Massachusetts and
Rhode Island stand pre-eminent. The Massachusetts is
over one thousand tons burthen, and is built in the most
substantial and elegant manner. The sound steamers'
berths are on the North river, near the Battery. The North
river steam-boats can be found all along the Hudson river,
from the Battery to Canal-street.
The extensive ship-yards in the northeast part of the
city, in the region called Dry Dock, are very interesting
places of resort. Here may be found ships of the largest
class, and steamers of every dimension, in progress, and a
vast variety of naval operations, rendering it a scene of
infinite variety and interest. Extensive machine shops,
for steam engines, will be found here also.
Foot of Pike-street.
This interesting machine attracts great attention from
PLACES WORTH VISITING. 77
mechanics and merchants, as it is yet something of a
problem. It consists of a series of tanks or vessels, con.
nected together by timber frame-work, which may be
sunk by filling them with water, and floated again by
pumping them dry. In the process of lifting a vessel, the
tanks are filled and sunk, and the vessel is floated over the
frame-work, which gradually lifts her out of water, as the
tanks are emptied by pumping out their contents, by
means of a steam engine. The several tanks are suffi-
ciently buoyant to lift the heaviest vessel; and very re-
cently the Great Britain, the largest hull in the world, was
raised far enough to repair her propeller.
Near to the sectional dock there is another on a different
plan. The vessel is raised by means of a series of pullies,
which, coming from a common point of purchase, diverge,
and are attached at different points along the length of a
platform, on which the vessel rests, and which lifts her out
of water, as the several pullies act. The pullies are acted
upon by the powerful influence of a hydraulic pump.
Still another plan may be found in successful operation
at the ship-yards. It is built on the plan of an inclined
rail-way, the vessel being pulled out of water and car-
ried up the inclined plane on a carriage, drawn by horse
power. This plan has been in successful operation many
years. All these docks are competing for the honour of
being introduced at the Navy Yard, at Brooklyn.
FORTS AND FORTIFICATIONS.
The national government has not been unmindful of
fortifying the defences of this important city and harbour,
and during the last twenty years enormous expenses have
been, and still continue to be bestowed upon this important
subject. Sufficient has been done to render the city safe
from sudden attack by sea or land.
The principal defence consists in the strong works at
the narrows. On the right this entrance is commanded by
Fort Hamilton and Fort Lafayette. Fort Hamilton is situ-
ated on Long Island, and is a very complete and beautiful
work. It protects Fort Lafayette, which stands on Hen-
78 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
drick's Reef, two hundred yards from the shore. Fort
Lafayette has three tiers of guns, and is a very strong and
efficient protection to the narrows. It has a very pictu-
resque and castellated appearance. On the opposite side
this passage is defended by Fort Tompkins and Fort Rich-
mond. Fort Tompkins is situaied on Statcn Island height,
and has under its protection many sea coast batteries,
among which is a permanent battery on the beach, called
Fort Richmond. Fort Tompkins is in a dilapidated state,
and being built in a very cosily manner, it now presents,
in its ruinous state, a very picturesque appearance. Its
numerous underground passages, which are very exten-
sive, and the splendid prospect enjoyed from its castellated
summit, render it an object of great attraction. It is about
three miles from the quarantine station. All these forts
may be visited at any time.
To protect the inner harbour there are Forts Colum-
bus and Castle Williams, on Governor's Island, and the
works on Bedlow's and Ellis's Islands, which unitedly
mount over a hundred cannon, of the largest calibre. Vast
stores of ordnance and ammunition, of every kind, are de-
posited in those public stores.
Castle Williams is a circular stone battery, six hundred
feet in circumference, and sixty feet high. The walls are
ten feet thick, and in the castle are barracks and maga-
zines, and two curious geometrical stone staircases, leading
from the lower tier to the terrace. This fort forms a very
picturesque object in the harbour.
Fort Columbus, on the same island, is built in the star
form, consisting of several batteries, with a covered way
leading to Castle Williams. On the island are barracks,
where are constantly stationed a corps of United States
soldiers. There is another small battery on the island.
Governor's Island was formerly covered wilh trees, and
nuts were obtained from it for t:e eatly inhabitants. It
was afterwards laid out in gardens for the English govern-
ors. It may now be visited at all times ; row-boats belong-
ing to the fort are constantly plying between the island and
PLACES WORTH VISITING. 79
Castle Garden bridge, which will take and return any pas-
senger who is desirous of seeing the forts.
There are several other fortifications, intended for the
defence of the city, but they are remote, on Long Island
GRANT THOREURN'S SEED STORE.
This beautiful establishment is fitted up with great taste,
and very liberally thrown open to the inspection of the
public. The visiter will here find at all times a choice
collection of flowers from the proprietor's gardens, and
every variety of seeds and plants, often of great rarity.
Besides these attractions, one of the rooms is fitted up as
a picture gallery, and some of the choicest pictures and
engravings of modern times adorn its walls. This store
is much resorted to by ladies, and is open at all hours for
the visiters' free inspection. It is situated in John-street,
This horse market, the largest in the United States, pre-
sents a very lively scene on Mondays, the days of auction
sales, and is much visited by strangers. On the day of
sales, the extensive area of the building is filled with pur-
chasers and spectators.
AGED INDIGENT FEMALES.
This praiseworthy Society was formed in 1814, by a
little band of females, and it kept on increasing until
1837-8, when they built an asylum, which contains sixty
of these aged females. During the last year the Society
has made an extension to the original building- — a substan-
tial wing, ihree stories high. Of the present inmates, there
are ten whose ages range from 80 to 90 years, and one of
the inmates who died during the last year, was within a
few days of being 110 years old. In addition to the regu-
lar inmates of the establishment, the Society has 80 pen-
sioners depending upon it, who receive aid in their own
humble dwellings. In looking at the report of the treas-
urer, we see that the funds of the Society are exhausted,
80 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
and that in addition to some few hundreds of dollars, for
which the Society is still indebted for the erection of the
addition, it will need sufficient to carry out the objects of
the Society for the coming year. We need hardly say that
this Society has the strongest claims for support, and that
all the funds which are needed to pay off the claims that
are outstanding against it, and what may be necessary for
the support of its inmates, ought to be promptly furnished.
Donations will be thankfully received by any one of the
philanthropic ladies who compose the Board of Manage-
ment — their names being: Mrs. Mowatt, 1st Directress,
144 Greene-street ; Mrs. H. Gillett, 2d Directress. 20 Oliver
street; Miss Maiia Boyd, Treasurer, 291 Fourth-street;
Miss Maynard, Secretary, 222 Vesey-street.
EATING-HOUSES IN NEW-YORK.
There are one hundred and twenty-three eating. houses
or refectories in the city of New-York. Those establish-
ments where oysters exclusively are kept are not included
in this number ; but we speak of those places only where
breakfast, dinner and tea can be had at all hours. Of this
number seventeen are in Broadway, fifteen in Nassau-
street, ten in Fulton-street, seven in Catharine-street, six
in West-street, six in Water-street, four in Washington-
street, four in Vesey-street, two in Chambers-street, two
in Chatham-street, two in South-street, two in Canal-
street, two in Grand-street, two in Spring-street. There
are thirteen in Fulton Market, six in Washington Market,
and the remaining twenty-three are scattered in various
parts of the city.
These establishments give employment to nearly a thou-
sand persons, of whom Irish and Germans form a large
portion. The waiters are paid, the men from ten to twelve
dollars, and the boys from six to seven dollars a month,
their board and lodging included. The cooks get about
eight and ten, and the scullions or dish-washers about four
and five dollars a month. In some of these eating-houses
the hands are kept at work for about fifteen and sixteen
hours out of the twenty. four. These places seldom close
before one and two o'clock in the morning ; but, as a gene-
ral rule, the cheap eating-houses close between eight and
ten in the evening. We present the following brief ac
count of those individuals who have been the pioneer ca-
terers of the eating-houses of our city.
George W. Browne started his celebrated eating-house
in Water-street about twenty-six years ago. It is now,
and always has been, a great resort for the merchants
Stephen Holt commenced an eating establishment
about twenty years ago on the corner of Fulton and Wa-
ter streets. He kept what is called a " Shilling Plate and
Two Shilling Ordinary." He built the splendid Hotel
formerly called " Holt's Hotel," but now known as the
" United States Hotel." Holt has lately started a new
eating-house on the corner of Fulton and Nassau streets,
Delmonico opened his capacious and splendid establish-
ment on the corner of South William and Beaver streets,
in 1827. His place was burnt in the great conflagration of
1835, and came very near being again destroyed during the
late fire of July, 1845. This is a very fashionable resort
for the French and Germans.
Hugh Pattinson started an eating establishment about
fifteen years since, on the corner of Ann and Nassau
streets, now occupied by Green &, Mercer.
Daniel Sweeney, whose fame has extended far and wide,
and who is looked upon as the father of the cheap eating
establishments, started his business about ten years ago in
Ann-street, where he still continues.
Gosling commenced in Fulton-street about six years
since. He remained there about two years, and then re-
moved to Nassau-street, where he now is. His is an Ameri-
can and French Restaurant. It is an immense establish-
82 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
ment. He dines over a thousand people every day. Open
Sundays. The establishment is on the cheap plan. The
house now occupied by Gosling was formerly the German
John Florence, Jr., opened his establishment about five
years ago, next door to the corner of Park Place and
Broadway. Three years since he enlarged his place, and
fitted it up in the most magnificent style. He is doing an
immense, business ; and his place is the resort of those who
delight in the rarer luxuries of life. No place in the city
is so celebrated for game.
Ephraim Sweeney has opened an establishment in Chat-
ham-street, near Chambers.
Thomas Downing — at the mention of whose name one
thinks of oysters served up in Downing''s inimitable style —
opened his ancient and celebrated establishment about
thirty years since in Broad-street. His establishment in
Broadway was opened about three years ago. He has
another oyster saloon in the upper part of Broadway.
Downing is a coloured man, and has realized a large fortune
in his business. His oyster establishment is the most
popular in the city.
Alexander Welsh, more familiarly known as " Sandy
Welsh," has in his day occupied quite a prominent position
among those who are fond of the luxuries of the table.
Welsh kept a popular establishment under the American
Museum, where game and other rarities were to be found
in abundance. It is now called Terrapin Lunch, and kept
by Peter R. Steile.
There are two principal classes of eating houses in New-
York — the cheap and the dear. At Sweeney's and simi-
lar establishments, the usual prices are six cents for a plate
of meats, and three cents for a plate of vegetables. The
more pretending ask twice or three times these prices.
Among those not before enumerated, it may be well for
the stranger to name Johnson's, in Fulton, near Broadway,
PUBLIC SQUARES. 83
Tammany Hall, Lovejoy's Hotel, Gunter's, in Fulton, near
Broadway, Parker's John-street Coffee House, 16 John-
street, and Brown's, 51 Nassau-street.
This is the most delightful promenade in the city, and
one of the finest in the world. The view from this spot
embraces the whole of the bay, its islands and fortifications,
and the shore of New-Jersey. The intense heat of sum-
mer, which compels most people to keep within doors, is
here moderated by the fresh sea breezes from the ocean
below. Originally this point of land was fortified by the
Dutch, who threw up embankments, upon which they
placed some pieces of cannon. In process of time it be-
came overgrown with grass, and lofty sycamores, and
became a favourite resort of the old burghers, who repaired
to its grateful shade to smoke and gossip. It became the
favourite walk of declining age ; the healthful resort of the
feeble invalid ; the Sunday refreshment of the dusty trades-
man ; the scene of many a boyish gambol, the comfort of
the citizen, and the pride and ornament of Manhattan.
Some years since the city government expended $150,000
in beautifying the ground — embanking and fencing its
front, grading its walks, and surrounding it with costly
iron railing. Originally its present site was a bristling
mass of rocks, but this appearance has long since vanished.
The Battery is in the form of a crescent, and contains
about eleven acres.
Was, in early times, called the Commons, being then un-
appropriated ground in the outskirts of the city. It con-
tains about ten acres and a half. Rows of trees are planted
here, and on many places in the Park, which is interspers-
ed with walks, that afford a cool and shady retreat in sum-
mer weather. The whole is surrounded with an iron rail-
ing that cost the city $15,000. It contains the City-Hall,
84 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Aims-House buildings, Rotunda and Hall of Records. On
the southend there is a marble gateway, beautifully finish,
ed, which was founded with great pomp, the Mayor pre-
siding at the ceremonies, and depositing in one of the vases
various coins, papers and memorials of present times.
Two of the stone balls surmounting the posts were pre-
sented to the city by Com. Perry, they having come into
his possession as gifts from the Turkish Government ; —
they are used by the Turks as cannon balls.
The Park contains the largest fountain in the city. The
basin i3 one hundred feet in diameter, and the circumfer-
ence is sometimes entirely filled by the various jets of the
" Holiday fountain." The machinery of the fountain is so
arranged as to supply a variety of forms in the jets, and
they may be changed in a few minutes. When the water
is thrown up in a single stream, it ascends to the height of
about seventy feet. It is in contemplation to ornament the
basin with marble work, statues, &c.
The Bowling Green, at the southern end of Broadway,
occupies ground immediately in front of the site of the old
Dutch fort and church, and was used during the revolu-
tion, by the British, for a bowling alley. It contained be-
fore the revolution a leaden equestrian statue of George
III, which was pulled down by the populace, and convert-
ed into musket balls. It contains a fountain, built at the
expense of the owners of the surrounding property. The
fountain emerges from an uncouth pile of stone, which was
intended to have a rural aspect, but does not have the de-
sired effect. In the summer season the fountain is occa-
sionally illuminated with coloured lights, which gives it a
magnificent effect. The enclosure is now made to hold
some deeT, geese and other live animals. It is said that
the balls which have been broken off the iron fence posts
were used as cannon balls during the last war.
Or St. John's Park, between Beach, Laight, Varick and
Hudson streets, was formerly a low sandy beach, partly
PUBLIC SQUARES. 85
covered with water at high tide. It belongs to the Vestry
of Trinity Church, but has been reserved as a permanent
square. It is accessible to the people in its neighbourhood,
who have keys. Any person may hire a key of the
keeper for a small annual sum. It is beautifully laid out
with walks, shaded with a lofty growth of trees, with nu-
merous beds of rare flowers, and surrounded with an iron
fence, which cost $26,000. It contains a very tasty foun-
tain, and is by far the most beautiful public square in the
city. It contains about four acres of land.
Another great and most effective ornament to the city
was formed by laying out the ground formerly occupied as
a Potter's Field. The bones were collected in a vast trench,
one on each side of the square, which were enclosed with
fences, and planted with trees. For many years this was
used for .burial purposes, and it is computed that over a
hundred thousand bodies have been buried where now as-
semble for pleasure multitudes of living beings. The
square is surrounded with splendid private houses, and on
one side is the University building and a splendid church.
One third of the ground comprising the square was pur-
chased for $80,000, making a gross value of $240,000 de-
voted to the improvement of this quarter of the city. The
square contains a little over nine acres.
Is an oval enclosure at the head of Broadway, between
Fourteenth and Seventeenth streets. It is enclosed with
an iron fence, of great beauty and cost, and has besides a
beautiful fountain with ornamental jets.
Which is used for a parade ground, is one of the largest
squares in the city. It is not yet much frequented, as the
trees are young, and the place not finished. It is between
Avenue A and B, and between Sixth and Tenth streets.
Farther up the city are other public squares, viz : Madi-
son square, Hamilton square, and others not yet regulated.
88 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
Bellevue square is not yet fully laid out, but will be when
finished one of the finest in the city.
NEW-YORK AND HARLJEM RAIL-ROAD.
This Company was incorporated in 1831, and has since
been so amended, that its capital, originallv $350,000, is
now $1,150,000. The road cost $1,159,323 66. The
route traversed by this road, is from the City-Hall, through
Centre-street, Broome-streetand the Bowery, twenty-seven
miles, to White Plains, passing through Yorkville and
Harlaem. The receipts of the road from January 1st,
1844, to January 1st, 1845, amounted to $140,684 90 :
from January 1st, 1845, to November 1st, of the same year,
$133,548 01. The first running of cars on this road was
in November, 1832, when they travelled no farther than
Fourteenth-street. The road has gradually lengthened
from that time, and it is now expected that it will soon
reach Albany, through the inland counties. The road to
Harlsem is laid on a heavy H rail. The Tunnel, (an en-
graving of which will accompany this article,) is an ex-
cavation in the solid rock, a quarter of a mile long, hand-
somely finished at both ends, and approached through a
long deep cut of more than a mile in length. It is one of
the most extensive excavations of this kind in the world,
and is much visited by the curious. This road furnishes
the means of a delightful journey into the country. In the
spring and summer, when the weather is favourable, it is
traversed by immense numbers of New-York citizens.
Cars leave the Depot, City-Hall, for Twenty-seventh-
street, every six minutes, from half-past seven, A. M., to
eight, P. M. Cars leave City-Hall, (night line) every
twenty minutes, from eight to twelve. Cars leave the
City-Hall every hour during the day for Harlaem, and re-
turn as often. Cars leave the City-Hall for White Plains
at half-past seven, and half-past ten, A. M., and one, and
half-past three, P. M.
Fare to Twenty-seventh-street, two miles and a half,
64 cents ; to Receiving Reservoir, three miles and a quar-
ter, 12§ cents ; to Harlaem, eight miles, 12£ cents ; and to
Vf 1 "■ : ,
White Plains, twenty-seven miles, 50 cents ; intermediate
places in proportion. Persons desirous of visiting the
Reservoir, and other places along the Croton Aqueduct,
would do well to travel on this Rail-Road.
MARKETS IN NEW-YORK.
A market place for the accommodation of the butchers
and the country people, was anciently under the trees in
front of the fort, near the corner of Water and Whitehall
streets. As the city enlarged, the market places were
removed to the east and north, first at the foot of Broad-
street, then to Coenties Slip, and subsequently to Old Slip,
and to the Vlie, (a Dutch word, indicating a valley, a rural
spot, formed by a river which formerly run up Maiden
Lane,) or Fly Market, foot of Maiden Lane, and to Fulton
and Catharine streets.
The market houses of this city are now judiciously dis-
tributed in various quarters of the town, to suit the wants
and convenience of the citizens; the two principal ones
being situated close to the water, one on the Hudson, and
one on the East river, at the extremity of Fulton-street on
each side, and adjacent to the two most important ferries,
which render them very accessible to the country people
and the fishermen.
Fulton Market. — The Fulton market was built in 1821,
on ground formerly occupied by unsightly wooden build-
ings, which were destroyed by fire.
When the Fulton market was completed, and the stalls
put up at auction, the whole number, amounting to eighty-
six, were disposed of for $ 19,015, an average of $216 each.
This number was found to be greater than could be profit-
ably occupied, as the victuallers could not pay their rents ;
consequently, the number was reduced, and twenty-seven
of the stalls in the southeast wing were allotted to fisher-
men, and the residue of the stalls were re-let at a diminish-
ed price. The first sale of the same number producing
$15,000, and the present receipts being only $6,445. In
the same manner, the rooms in the basement, only twenty-
88 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
one of which were let at auction for $7,775 per annum,
now let for $6,805. The purchase of the ground, and cost
of erecting the market was $220,000. The building is of
one story, with a basement, from which round stone pillars
rise, connected with each other by arches, and supporting
the roof. The interior ceiling is arched from one extrem-
ity to the other, plastered and white. washed. The build-
ings containing the stalls occupy three sides of a square,
with double ranges of stalls on each side, the first begin-
ning at South-street, extending up Fulton-street to Front-
street; the second, or main front, to Beekman-street ; the
third, thence to South-street. Over the centre of each
of the front entrances are rooms of one story, and from the
middle one, on Front-street, occupied by the clerk of the
market, rises a small neat cupola, containing a bell to
notify the close of the market. A separate building for
country people occupies the centre of the block, but en-
tirely insulated from the rest of the edifice, and surrounded
with an open paved area, with two pumps. The hucksters'
vegetable stalls, with cellars under each, are adjacent to
the inside eaves of the building on Fulton and Front streets.
As the other markets are somewhat on the same model,
this description will suffice for all. The fish cars are in the
adjacentslip, and constantly filled with live fish, the smacks
arriving hourly from the fishing grounds, a few miles out
in the Atlantic Ocean, and near Sandy Hook.
There is no official account taken in New-York of the
vast amount of pork and provisions that arrive coast-
wise, and down the Hudson, and sold at the docks to
consumers in the city, and which constitutes the chief
source of supply of many articles of importance, such as
butter, cheese, beef and pork, both fresh and salted, fis!i,&c.
The vast amount of business done at this market in
selling, eating, &c, will astonish the attentive observer.
It is a place well worth a visit from those curious in such
matters. The morning is perhaps the most interesting
time to visit it.
The revenue of the Fulton market in 1844, was
Washington Market. — The next principal market is the
Washington market, in Washington-street, corner of Ve-
sey and Fulton streets, near the water's edge. It occupies
a whole square, and is very similar to the Fulton market
in its construction and internal arrangements. This mar-
ket was formerly called the Bear market, from the fact
that bear meat was there exposed for sale. The amount
of business done here is less than at the Fulton, but the
whole south and west population of the city frequent it.
The products of the North river country find their princi-
pal sale in this market.
Its revenue in 1S44 was $18,775 20— its cost $130,000.
Catharine Market, Catharine Slip, occupies a small
square between Cherry and South streets.
Centre Market, Centre-street, between Grand and
Broome. This market occupies a large building, two sto-
ries high, and substantially built of brick. The market
rooms run its whole length, with stalls on each side, simi-
lar to the Boston markets, and it presents a neat and com-
fortable appearance, free from the bustle and confusion
that is so conspicuous in the other markets. The halls in
the second story are occupied by certain military compa-
nies as armories and drill-rooms — and for various other
purposes by the city police.
Chelsea Market — In Ninth Avenue, near Eighteenth-
Clinton Market — Between Washington and West
streets, and between Spring and Canal streets.
Essex Market — In Grand-street, between Essex and
Franklin Market — A small building in Old Slip, East
Gouverneur Market — Gouverneur-street, corner of
Greenwich Market — In Weehawken-street, eorner of
Christopher and West.
Jefferson Market — Sixth Avenue, corner of Greenwich-
90 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Monroe Market — Corlears-street, between Monroe and
Manhattan Market — Houston-street, corner of First.
Tompkins Market — Third Avenue, between Sixth and
Union Market — Second-street, corner of Houston.
All the markets are required by law to close every day,
except Saturdays, at 12 o'clock ; after which they are
thoroughly washed. On Saturdays they keep open till 12
o'clock at night. Each market has a clerk appointed by
the city, who attends to the general conduct of its affairs.
The idea has been entertained by many gentlemen of
taste in the city, of transforming the new City-Hall in the
Park into an elegant flower and fruit market. It would be
very great acquisition to the city if properly carried out.
All the Ferries in New- York are supplied with large
and safe boats, well fitted up for the accommodation of
passengers in inclement weather. The Fulton Ferry, in
particular, has some very fine boats. They are sources of
large revenue to the city, being leased by the Corporation
to separate companies.
Fulton Ferry — From Fulton-street, New-York, to Ful-
ton-street, Brooklyn, is 731 yards wide. Boats leave every
five minutes during the day and evening, till nine o'clock,
after which, till twelve o'clock, they leave every half hour
till morning. [For particulars, see Brooklyn.]
South Ferry — From Whitehall-street, near the Battery,
East river, to Atlantic-street, Brooklyn. Same regula-
tions as the Fulton Ferry. This Ferry is 1300 yards wide.
Catharine Ferry — From Catharine-street, New-York, to
Main-street, Brooklyn, is 736 yards wide. Boats run
every fifteen minutes during the day, and all night, same as
at the Fulton Ferry.
Navy Yard Ferry — From Walnut-street, New- York, to
Jackson-street, Brooklyn, is 707 yards wide. Boats
run every fifteen minutes.
Astoria, called Hell-Gate Ferry, from the foot of Eighty,
sixth-street, East river.
Elizabethport. — This Ferry lands at Port Richmond and
Staten Island once a day. It starts from Battery Place.
Fort Lee — -From the foot of Canal-street.
Hoboken Ferries. — Barclay-street Ferry to Hoboken,
every fifteen minutes during the day. This Ferry is two
miles long, and has admirable boats — Ferriage Gi cents.
Canal-street Ferry, from the foot of Canal-street, one
mile and a half long ; and Christopher-street Ferry, from
the foot of Christopher-street, Chelsea, one mile long —
runs every fifteen minutes to Hoboken — Ferriage 67 cents.
Jersey City Ferry — From the foot of Courtlandt-strcet,
one mile long; runs every fifteen minutes during the day,
and every half hour during the night, till twelve o'clock —
Ferriage 65 cents.
Staten Island Ferry. — This Ferry lands at the Quaran-
tine, and at the lower landing. Starts from Whitehall-
street every hour during the day, subject, however, to
some change in different seasons — Fare 65 cents in sum-
mer, and 12.] cents in winter.
William sburgh has three Ferries — one from the foot of
Peck Slip (2300 yards,) every half hour; also, from the
foot of Grand-street, (950 yards,) and from the foot of
STEAM. R0 ATS, TOW- BOATS AND PACKETS WHICH LEAVE NEW-
YORK, WITH THEIR PLACES OF STARTING.
Albany and Boston steam-boat, via Bridgeport and Housa-
tonic Rail-Road, foot of Market-street.
Albany tow-boat, Broad-street, E. R., and Courtlandt-
street, N. R.
Albany, People's Line, steam-boat, (evening,) Pier 14, be-
tween Courtlandt and Liberty streets.
Albany steam-boat, Pier 18, N. R., foot of Courtlandt-
Albany steam-boat, Pier 24, N. R., West, between Bar-
clay and Robinson streets.
92 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Albany and Troy steam-boat, (morning and evening,) foot
of Barclay-street and foot of Courtlandt-street.
Alexandria packet, Pier 14, E. R.
Amboy, Pier 2, N. R.
Apalachicola packet, Burling Slip, E. R.
Astoria, Flushing and Ravenswood steam-boat, Fulton
Slip, E. R.
Boston — See Norwich, Providence and Stonington.
Boston, packet, Coenties Slip and Maiden Lane, Pier 18,
Bridgeport steam-boat, foot of Market Slip, E. R.
Bridgeport packet, James' Slip, E. R.
Bristol, Eng., steam-ship, Clinton-street, E. R.
Caldwell's, West Point and Cold Spring steam-boat, foot
of Warren-street, N. R.
Caslleton steam-boat, foot of Battery Place.
Catskill steam-boat, Albany Basin, Pier 13, N. R., foot of
Charleston packet, Burling Slip and Wall-street, E. R.
Cold Spring, West Point and CaldwelVs steam-boat,
foot of Warren-street, N. R.
Darien packet, Beekman-street, E. R.
Bobbs' Ferry steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Cham-
Fast Haddam packet, James' Slip, E. R.
Easiport packet, Pier 2, E. R.
Elizabethtouin Point steam-boat, Pier 1, N. R., foot of
Fall Fiver packet, Maiden Lane and Coenties Slip, E. R.
Fishkill tow-boat, Liberty-street, N. R.
Flushing, Astoria and Ravensioood steam-boat, Fulton
Slip, E. R.
Fort Lee steam-boat, foot of Hoboken-street, N. R.
Georgetown, D. C, packet, Pier 14, E. R.
Georgetown, S. C, packet, Coenties Slip, east side, E. R.
Grassy Point steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R-, foot of Cham-
Hartford, Ci., steam-boat, Peck Slip, E. R.
Hartford packet, James' and Coenties Slips, E. R.
STEAM-BOATS, TOW-BOATS AND PACKETS. 93
Hudson steam-boat, Albany Basin, foot of Cedar-street,
Hudson tow-boat, Cedar-street, N. R.
Key West packet. Pier 11, E. R.
London packet, Maiden Lane, Piers 19 and 20, E. R.
do. do. Beekman.street, E. R.
Liverpool, do. Maiden Lane, E. R.
do. do. Beekman.street, E. R.
do. do. Wall. street, E. R.
Middletoion, Ct., packet, James' Slip, E. R.
Mobile packet, Burling Slip and Wall. street, E. R.
Nantucket packet, Stevens' wharf, E. R.
Newark steam-boat, foot of Barclay-street, N. R.
Newark, N. J., packet, Whitehall, E. R.
New. Bedford packet, Peck Slip, E. R.
New-Brighton steam-boat, foot of Battery Place.
New. Brunswick steam-boat, Pier 23, N. R., between
Barclay and Robinson streets.
New-Brunswick packet, Broad-street, E. R.
Newburgh steam-boat, Pier 26, N. R., between Murray
and Warren streets.
Newburgh packet, Warren-street, N. R.
New-Hamburgh and Marlborough steam-boat, foot of
New- Haven, Ct., steam-boat, (morning and evening,) Peck
Slip, E. R.
New- Haven packet, Peck Slip, E. R.
New-London packet, Burling Slip, E. R.
New- Orleans packet, Wall-street, E. R.
Newport and Providence steam-boat, Pier 3, N. R., office
New.Rochelle steam-boat, Fulton-street, N. R.
Norfolk packet, James' Slip, E. R.
Norwalk, Ct., steam-boat, Catharine Slip, E. R.
Norwich packet, Burling Slip, E. R.
Norwich, Ct., Worcester and Boston, by steam-boat, from
Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; for Boston, by Long
Island Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at
the foot of Whitehall-street.
94 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Peekskill steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers-
Petersburgh packet, Wall-street.
Philadelphia and Camden steam-boat, via Amboy, Pier'2,
Philadelphia, by the New-Jersey Rail-Road, from the foot
Philadelphia packet, Old and Coenties Slips, E. R.
Philadelphia tow-boat, Coenties Slip, Pier 2, N. R.
Port Chester, Rocky Neck, Stamford and Norioalk steam-
boat, from Catharine Market Slip.
Portland packet, Coenties Slip, E. R.
Portsmouth, N. H., packet, Coenties Slip, E. R.
Port Richmond steam-boat, foot of Battery Place.
Poughkeepsie steam-boat, Pier foot of Barclay-street.
Ponghkeepsie tow-boat, Liberty-street, N. R.
Providence and Boston, via Stoning ton, by steam-boat, from
Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; and by the Long
Island Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at
the foot of Whitehall-street.
Providence packet, Maiden Lane, E. R.
Ravenswood, Flushing and Astoria steam-boat, Fulton
Slip, E. R.
Rhinebeck steam. boat, foot of Robinson-street.
Richmond packet, Wall-street, E. R.
Sag Harbour packet, Peck Slip, E. R.
Salem, Mass., packet, Coenties Slip, E. R.
Savannah packet, Wall and Maiden Lane.
Shrewsbury, N. J., packet, Coenties Slip.
Sing Sing steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers-
Steam Navigation Company, 82 Courtlandt-street.
Stonington, Providence and Boston, by steam-boat, from
Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; and by Long Island
Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at the foot
Tarrytown, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers-street.
Trenton, by New-Jersey Rail-Road, Pier 16, N. R., foot
STAGE LINES. 95
Troy steam-boat, (morning and evening,) foot of Bar-
clay-street, N. R., and Pier 18, N. R.,foot of Courtlandt-
Troy tow-boat, Broad-street, E. R.
Troy and Albany steam-boat, (evening,) from Pier 18,
N. R., foot of Courtlandt-street.
Washington City packet, Pier 14, E. R.
West Point, Caldwell's and Cold Spring steam-boat,
foot of Warren-street, N. R.
Wilmington, N. C, packet, Central Wharf, Roosevelt-
street, E. R.
Yonkers steam-boat, Pier 21, N. R., foot of Chambers-
Time of departure varies with the seasons.
Harltem and Yorkville, every half hour, from 23 Chat-
Astoria and Yorkville, every hour, from 23 Chatham-street.
Dover, New-Jersey, leaves 73 Courtlandt-street daily.
Bloomingdale and Manhattanville, leaves every 40 min-
utes, from Tryon's Row, corner of Chatham-street.
Jamaica, L. I., leaves 340 Pearl-street.
Morristoicn, N. J., leaves 73 Courtlandt-street.
Newtown and Flushing, 340 Pearl-street.
Yorkville and Harltem, every half hour, from 23 Chat-
Yorkville and Astoria, every hour, from 23 Chatham-street.
Eoslin, Manhasset, Great Neck and Little Neck, from 340
Powerville, N.J., from 73 Courtlandt-street.
Morristown, N. J., from 73 Courtlandt-street.
From the following statement it appears that there are
258 regular Omnibuses in New- York. Besides these, there
are 19 other stages ; 2,989 drays ; 201 hackney-coaches,
and 231 cabs.
96 PICTURE OF NEW. YOKE..
BROADWAY LINES OF OMNIBUSES.
~2 2 «
.2 5 o S
Empire Line. — Lent # Andrews.
Route — From South Ferry, through While-
hall, up Broadway, through Ninth, up
Av. 6th to Uth.street, . . . 2§ 20 140 20
Chelsea Line. — Kipp <5f Brown.
Route — From Av. 9, cor. 27th-street, down
Av. 9, through Hudson, Canal and Broad-
way, to Bowling Green, . . 3fc 18 206 22
Fulton Ferry Line. — Slocum, Rey.
no Ids fy Co.
Route — From A v. 7, cor. 21st-?treet, down
Av. 7, through Greenwich Av., Av. 6,
Amity, Broadway and Fulton, to Fulton
Ferry, 3 20 120 51
Greenwich Line. — Kipp fy Brown.
Route — From Hudson, cor. Charles, down
Hudson, through Chambers, Greenwich,
Battery Place and Whitehall, to South
Ferry, 3 20 14 8
Knickerbocker Line. — Palmer cj- Peters.
Route — From Av. 8, cor. 23d, down Av. 8,
through Bleecker, Broadway and White-
hall, to South Ferry, . . . 3^ 16 222 38
Madison Line. — Slocum, Reynolds $• Co.
Route — From Av. 4, cor. 23d, down Av. 4,
through Broadway and Whitehall, to 1
South Ferry, 3 20 132 23
Route. — From Av. 6, cor. 23d, down Av. 6,
through Eleventh, Broadway, Wall and
Pearl, to Hanover Square, . 3h 20 120 20
Murphy & Co's Line. — Murphy $ Co.
Route — From Av. 3, cor. 28th, down Av. 3,
through the. Bowery, Chatham, Broad-
way, Whitehall, to South Ferry,
Tompkins' Square Line. — Murphy <£• Co.
Route — From Tompkins Square, through
8th and the Bowery, Chatham, Broad-
way, Whitehall, to South Ferry,
Union Line. — Hatfields $■ Bertine.
Route — Commencing at Av. D, in 10th,
down Av. D, through Columbia, Grand,
Bowery, Chatham, Broadway, White-
hall, to S. Ferry, . . . . .
16 175 27
East Broadway Line. — Hatfields cj Be.r.
Route — From Av. D, cor. 1 Oth, down Av.
D, through Columbia, East Broadway,
Chatham, Broadway, Whitehall, to South
16 178 25
Waverly Line. — Slocum, Reynolds <§• Co.
Route — Commencing at Av. 6, cor. 23d,
down Av. 6, Waverly Place, Broadway
and Whitehall, to South Ferry,
The Knickerbocker Line connects at Av. 8,25tl
with the Bloomingdale stages.
The whole number of miles traversed per
is 671 ;
number of horses, 1,598 ; and there are 25£
98 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
TABLE OF DISTANCES IN NEW- YORK.
To the To the To the
From City Hall. Battery. Exchange.
Rector-street, i mile.
Fulton, 4 \
Warren, f 4
Leonard,.... i 1 I
Canal, 4 li 1
Spring, I li li
Houston, 1 If 14
Fourth, li 2 If
Ninth, H 2i 2
Fourteenth, If 24 2i
Seventeenth, 2 2f 24
Twenty-fourth, 2i 3 2f
Twenty-ninth, 24 3i 3
Thirty-fourth, 2f 34 3i
Thirty-eighth, 2 3f 34
Forty-fourth, 3i 4 3f
Forty-ninth, 3h 4i 4
Fifty-fourth, 3f 44 4i
Fifty-eighth, 4 4f 44
Sixty-third,.. 4i 5 4f
Sixty-eighth, 44 5i 5
Seventy-third, 4f 54 5i
Seventy-eighth, 5 5f 54
Eighty-third,. 5£ 6 5f
Eighty-eighth, 54 6i 6
Ninety-third, 5f 64 6i
Ninety-eighth, 6 6f 64
One Hundred and Second, 64 7 64-
One Hundred and Seventh, 64 7i 7
One Hundred and Seventeenth,... 7 7f 74
One Hundred and Twenty-first,. . 7i 8 7f
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, 74 8i 8
One Hundred and Thirty-sixth,... 8 8f 84
One Hundred and Fortieth, S\ 9 8f
One Hundred and Forty-fifth 84 9i 9
One Hundred and Fifty-fifth, 9 91 9|
DISTANCES FROM THE CITY-HALL TO DIFFERENT PUBLIC
PLACES IN THE CITY, ETC.
From the City- Hall, Miles.
To the Battery, southend, 1
" north do. f
To the foot of Courtlandt-st. §
" Barclay-st. f
" Chambers-st. \
" Canal-st. 1
To the Old State Prison
To Fort Gansevoort,
To the Prot. Epis. Theolo.
Seminary, . .2^
To the House of Refuge, 2i
ToBellevue, . . 2J
From the City-Hall, Miles.
To the Dry Dock, . 2
To Corlear's Hook, . 1£
To Catharine-st. Ferry, f
To Fulton-st. Ferry, . £
To Brooklyn, foot of
Fulton-st. . . 1
" foot of Atlantic-st. 2
" City-Hall, . . 2
ToU. S. Navy Yard, . U
To Williamsburgh, . 2
To Jersey City, . . l£
ToHoboken, ... 2
To Harlsem, ... 8
Adams fy Co., 17 Wall-street, Boston, Worcester, Norwich,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Pittsburgh and
Baldwin, 6 Wall-street, Newark, New-Haven and Hartford.
Carman, Brooklyn, 20 Liberty-street.
Godfrey $- Co., 6 Wall-street, Taunton, New-Bedford and
Gorton, 17 Wall-street, Stonington, Providence, Newport
and Fall River.
Harnden fy Co., 6 Wall-street, Boston, Providence, Phila-
delphia, Baltimore, Washington, Pittsburgh and Foreign.
Matheios, 10 Wall-street, Oswego, (N. Y.,) Kingston and
Livingston <$> Co., 6 Wall-street, Philadelphia, Baltimore,
Washington, Pittsburgh and South.
Livingston <£ Wells, 10 Wall-street, Albany, Buffalo,
Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago and Canada.
Pullen fy Co., 10 Wall-street, Troy and Northern Express.
Virgil § Co., 10 Wall-street, Montreal and Quebec.
100 FICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
HACKNEY COACH STANDS.
1. On the south side of the Park.
2. In Broadway, near Wall-street.
3. In Broadway, around the Bowling Green.
4. In Pearl-street, at Hanover square.
5. Jn Hudson-street, along St. John's Park.
6. In Hudson-street, near Duane.
7. In Chatham square.
8. On the north side of Canal-street, near Broadway.
9. Near all the principal steam-hoat landings.
KATES OF FARE OF HACKNEY COACHES, CARRIAGES OR CABS.
(Established by City Ordinance.)
For conveying a passenger any distance not exceeding
one mile, twenty-five cents; for conveying two passengers
the same distance, fifty cents, or twenty. five cents each,
and every additional passenger twenty-five cents.
For conveying a passenger any distance exceeding a
mile, and within two miles, fifty-cents ; and for every ad-
ditional passenger, twenty-five cents.
For conveying one passenger to the New Aims-House,
fifty cents, and for returning, fifty cents; for conveying
two passengers the same distance, seventy-five cents for
the two, and twenty-five cents going, and twenty-five
cents returning, for every additional passenger.
For conveying any passenger to Forty-second-sireet,
and remaining half an hour, and returning, one dollar ;
and for every additional passenger, twenty-five cents.
For conveying one passenger to Sixty-first-street, and
remaining three-quarters of an hour, and returning, one
dollar and fifty cents ; and for every additional passenger,
thirty-seven and a half cents.
For conveying one passenger to Eighty-sixth-street, and
remaining an hour, and returning, two dollars ; and for
every additional passenger, fifty cents.
For conveying one or more passengers to Harlsem, and
returning, with the privilege of remaining three hours, four
RATES OF FARE OF COACHES, ETC. 101
For conveying one or more passengers to King's bridge,
and returning, with the privilege of keeping the carriage
or cab all day, five dollars.
For the use of a hackney coach, carriage or cab, by the
day, with one or more passengers, five dollars.
For ihe use of a hackney coach, carriage or cab, by the
hour, with one or more passengers, with the privilege of
going from place to place, and stopping as often as may
be required, as follows : — for the first hour, one dollar ;
for ihe second hour, seventy-five cents ; and for every suc-
ceeding hour, fifty cents.
For children between two and fourteen years of age,
half price only is to be charged ; and for children under
two years of age, no charge is to be made.
Whenever a hackney coach, carriage or cab shall be
detained, except as aforesaid, the owner or driver shall be
allowed after the rate of seventy-five cents an hour, and
thirty.seven and a half cent3 for each and every subse-
quent hour, and so on in proportion for any part of the first
and subsequent hour which the same may be so detained.
For attending a funeral within the Lamp and Watch
District, two dollars, and the Potter's Field, three dollars ;
which charge shall include the necessary detention and re-
turning with passengers.
Every driver or owner of a hackney coach, carriage or
cab, shall carry, transport, and convey in and upon his
coach, carriage or cab, in addition to the person or persons
therein, one trunk, valise, saddle-bag, carpet-bag, port-
manteau or box, if he be requested so to do, for each pas-
senger, without charge or compensation therefor ; but for
every trunk or other such article above named, more than
one for each passenger, he shall be entitled to demand and
receive the sum of six cents.
In case of disagreement as to distance or price, the
same shall be determined by the Mayor, or Superintendent
of hackney coaches and cabs.
The owner of any hackney coach, carriage or cab, shall
not demand or receive any pay for the conveyance of any
passenger, unless the number of the carriage, and the rates
102 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
and prices of fare, shall be fixed and placed in a manner
hereinafter directed in second section of title fourth of
this law, at the time such passenger may be conveyed in
such coach, carriage or cab.
The owner or driver of any hackney coach, carriage or
cab, shall not be entitled to recover or receive any pay
from any person from whom he shall have demanded any
greater price of rates than he maybe authorized to receive
Upon the trial of any cause commenced for the recovery
of any of the aforesaid prices or rates, it shall be incum-
bent upon the plaintiff or plaintiffs in such action, to prove
that the number and prices or rates were placed and fixed
in pursuance of the provision? of this law, at the time the
services were rendered for which the suit may be brought.
No owner or driver of any hackney coach, carriage or
cab, in the city of New. York, shall ask, demand or re-
ceive any larger sum than he or they may be eniitled to
receive as aforesaid, under the penalty of ten dollars for
every such offence, to be sued for and recovered from the
owner or owners, or drivers, of any such hackney coach,
carriage or cab, severally and respectively.
Complaints of any violation of the hackney coach or
cab law, can be made at the Mayor's office, City-Hall,
or at the office of the Chief of Police, in the Park.
PUBLIC PORTERS AND HAND-CART MEN — RATES OF FARE.
For carrying a load upon a wheelbarrow —
1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 12| cents.
2. For any distance over half a mile, and not exceed-
ing a mile, 25 cents ; and in that proportion for any greater
For carrying a load upon a hand-barrow —
1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 25 cents.
2. For any distance over half a mile, and not exceed-
ing a mile, 44 cents ; and in that proportion for any greater
For carting a load in a hand-cart —
HUDSO.V RIVER STEAM-BOATS. 103
1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 18 cents.
2. For any distance over h
ilf a mile, and not exceed-
ing a mile, 31 cents ; and
in that proportion for any greater
The following list embj
all the Passage Boats built
and running on the Hu
river, between New- York,
Albany and Trov, since
first introduction by Robert
Fulton, in the fall of 1807.
built. Names -
Name changed to N. River
1808 North River,
I8i>9 Car of Neptune,
1815 Olive Branch,
1816 Chanc'r Livingston,
18-23 James Kent,
1825 Ch.Just'e Marshall,
Lost in Long Isl'd Sound.
1826 New Philadelphia,
Runs on Delaware river.
Runs to Troy.
On Philadelphia route.
1827 North America,
Destroyed by ice, 1839.
, Sunk in 1845.
1828 De Witt Clinton,
Engine in Knickerbocker,
, Tow barge.
104 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
Built. Names. Tons. Remarks.
1833 Helen, . Destroyed, 1834.
1835 Robert L. Stevens, 298, Runs to Saugerties.
1836 Rochester, 491, Runs to Albany.
1836 Swallow, 326, Destroyed April 7, 1845.
1837 Utica, 340, Runs to Albany.
1838 Diamond, 398, Laid up.
1839 Balloon, 204, Runs to Newark.
1839 North America, 494, Runs to Albany.
1840 South America, 638, "
1840 Troy, 724, Runs to Troy.
1841 Columbia, 391, Runs to Albany.
1841 Rainbow, 230, On Delaware river.
1842 Curtis Peck, On James river, Va.
1843 Empire, 936, Runs to Troy.
1842 Knickerbocker, 858, Runs to Albany.
Belle, 430, '<
Express, 288, "
1845 Niagara, 730, Runs to Troy.
1845 Rip Van Winkle, 540, Runs to Albany.
1845 Hendrick Hudson, 1170, "
Extract from the Pictvresqve Tourist, published by J.
Disturnell, in 1844.
" Passenger Barges. — In 1826, the steam-boat Com-
merce, Captain George E.Seymour, towed the passenger
barge, Lady Clinton, and the steam-boat Swiftsure, Capt.
Cowden, towed the passenger barge, Lady Van Rensse-
Extract from the Albany Gazette, dated Oct. 5, 1807.
" Friday, Oct. 2, 1807, the steam-boat (Clermont) left
New-York at 10 o'clock, A. M., against a stormy tide,
very rough water, and a violent gale from the north. She
made a headway beyond the most sanguine expectations,
and without being rocked by the waves.
" Arrived at Albany, Oct. 4, at 10 o'clock, P. M., being
detained by being obliged to come to anchor, owing to a
gale, and having one of her paddle wheels torn away by
running foul of a sloop."
HUDSON RIVER STEAM-BOATS. 105
Copy of an Advertisement taken from the Albany Gazette,
dated September, 1807.
" The North river steam-boat will leave Pauler's Hook
Ferry [now Jersey City] on Friday, the 4th of September,
at 9 in the morning, and arrive at Albany on Saturday, at
9 in the afternoon. Provisions, good berths and accom-
modations are provided.
*' The charge to each passenger is as follows:
To Newburgh, dolls. 3, time, 14 hours.
" Poughkeepsie, " 4 " 17 "
" Esopus, " 5 " 20 "
" Hudson, " 5£ " 30 "
" Albany, " 7 " S3 "
" For places apply to Win. Vandervoort, No. 48 Court-
landt-street, on the corner of Greenwich-street.
"Sept. 2, 1807."
Extract from the New-York Evening Post, dated Oct. 2,
" Mr. Fulton's newly invented steam-boat, which is fit-
ted up in a neat style for passengers, and is intended to run
from New- York to Albany as a packet, left here this morn-
ing with ninety passengers, against a strong head wind.
Notwithstanding which, it was judged she moved through
the water at the rate of six miles an hour."
Notice. — It is stated on the authority of Captain E. S*
Bunker, that the Clermont, or experiment boat, as some-
times called, the first steam-boat constructed under the di-
rection and superintendence of Robert Fulton, in 1807, was
100 feet long, 12 feet wide and 7 feet deep. In 1808 she
was lengthened to 150 feet, widened to 18 feet, and had
her name changed to North River. The engine was
constructed in England, by Watt &, Bolton, and brought to
New-York in Dec, 1800, by Mr. Fulton. The hull of the
boat was constructed by Charles Brown, an eminent ship-
builder in New- York. In August, 1807, the boat was pro-
pelled by steam from the East river to the Jersey shore,
and on the 2d of Oct. following, she started on her first trip
106 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
A general census of the population of the United States
is taken every ten years by the general government, and a
state census of this state in the intermediate five years. By
that of 1800, it appears that New. York city contained
60,489 inhabitants. In 1805, immediately after the disap-
pearance of the epidemic disease which had previously ra-
vaged the city, an enumeration was made by the common
council, when it was found the population had increased
to 75,570 ; viz :
White males, 35,384
White females, 36,378
Coloured males, free, 664
Coloured females, free, 1,096
Coloured males, slaves,. ..;.. 818
Coloured females, slaves.... 1,230
Total population, 1805, 75,570
During the last twenty years the population has doubled
itself; and if the same increase continue to the year 1868,
there will be 764,000, and in 1888, 1,620,000. On the
supposition that the population will double every 25 years,
the following would be the result, beginning with the cen-
sus of 1825 :
In 1825 there would be 166,000
" 1850 " " 332,000
" 1875 " " 664,000
" 1900 " " 1,328,000
The ratio of increase for the city of New-York appears
to be as follows :
From 1805 to 1830, 25 years, 160 per cent.
From 1830 to 1835, 5 years, 33
From 1835 to 1840, 5 years, 15
From 1840 to 1845, 5 years, 20 "
'We give the census of 1830, '35 and '40, together with
that recently completed for 1845.
Wards. 1830. 1835. 1840. 1845.
1st. 11,331 10,380 10,629 12,230
2d 8.203 7,549 6,394 6,962
3d 9,599 10,884 11,581 12,900
4th 12,705 15,439 15,770 21,000
5th 17,722 18,495 19,159 20,263
6th 13,570 16,827 17,198 19,343
7th 15,873 21,481 22,932 25,502
8th 20,729 28,570 29,073 36,846
9th 22,810 20,618 24,795 30,907
10th 16,438 20,926 28,026 20,993
11th 14,915 26,845 17,052 27,259
12th 11,808 24,437 11,652 ;13,378
13th 12,598 17,130 18,517 22,411
14th 14,288 17,306 20,235 21,103
15th 13,202 17,755 19,432
16th 22,273 40,337
17th 18,619 27,147
Total, 202,589 270,039 312,710 371,102
Males in 1845 180,365
Females in 1845, 190,732
The increase for the 5 years is 58,392.
In the census of 1845 we find the following results :
Natives of Great Britain, 95,373
" Germany, 43,416
" other foreign countries, 3,650
Total born abroad, 146,202
Native whites, 213,069
Of those born abroad, 61,961 are not naturalized.
108 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
The very extensive enclosure and buildings occupied by
the Aims-House department, stand on the eastern shore of
the island, three miles from the City-Hall, on the imme-
diate bank of the East river. The premises, consisting of
26 or 30 acres, are enclosed by a stone wall ten feet in
height. The main edifice is expensively constructed of
stone, three stories in height, 325 feet in length, and 55 in
width, with two large wings at each end. It contains 60
apartments, a chapel, and two large dining-rooms. Well
behaved persons may visit the Aims-House at all hours.
Able bodied paupers are provided with work. A school
for the children is connected with the establishment.
There is a resident physician and several assistants con-
stantly in attendance. The following statement of the con-
dition of the establishment in November, 1845, has been
given to us by the gentlemanly Commissioner, Mr. Ander-
The number of persons in the several departments con-
nected with the Aims-House department, is 4,628. In the
Alms House at Bellevue, there are 1,409 persons: 575
males, 555 females, 144 boys, and 135 girls. In the Hos-
pital there are 510 patients, of whom 313 are females, and
197 are males. In the Nursery on Long Island, opposite
the site of the Aims-House, there are 556 patients, and in
the hospital adjoining, there are 90 patients. In the Peni-
tentiary, Blackwell's Island, there are 1,095 convicts, of
whom 569 are males, and 5:28 are females. In the hospital
of the Penitentiary there are 250 patients. In the Lunatic
Asylum, Blackwell's Island, there are 384 inmates. In the
City Prison there are 172 inmates, of whom 118 are males,
and 54 are females.
Connected with the Aims-House there is an out-door es-
tablishment, consisting of paupers, foundlings and illegiti-
mates, 4,628 of whom receive a stipulated sum every week.
There are 1,250 out-door paupers receiving weekly relief
from the Commissioner of this department. The whole
CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 109
expenses of the Aims-House department for the year end-
ing January 1st, 1845, was $255,275 85.
CLIMATE AND DISEASES OF NEW- YORK.
The average temperature of our climate throughout the
year is 55° of Fahrenheit's thermometer; and that is also
the temperature of the deepest wells. The greatest degree
of cold ever experienced is 6 or 10° below zero ; but
that is very rare — having occurred in 1780 and in 1820,
when persons went between this city and Staten Island on
the ice. In winter the thermometer rarely sinks lower
than 10° or 20° below the freezing point, and in a few
hours the cold always moderates. The vicinity of the
ocean and the gulf stream produces a perceptible influence
on our atmosphere, and conduces to ameliorate the seve-
rity of the winter. The snow seldom lasts more than two
weeks, in January or February, and early in March the
winter usually terminates.
The highest temperature of our summer is about 80°
or 90, and is very rarely of long continuance. From the
middle of September to about the last of October, the
atmosphere will generally vie with any in the world for
serenity and beauty. Winter generally sets in about
Christmas, and continues for about two months.
The following table will give an idea of the weather
from day to day, during the year. The first frosts appear
about the middle of October, and the last are usually seen
in April, and occasionally in May. Gardening in the
vicinity begins in March, and the forests are usually in
full leaf in the latter part of April or beginning of May.
Sudden changes of temperature frequently occur in sum-
mer and winter, which, unless guarded against, will cause
severe colds and other diseases ; — but New-York, gene-
rally speaking, is as healthy a spot as any city in the
PICTURE OF NEW. YORK.
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APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL MONEY. Ill
APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL MONEY FOR THE YEAR 1845.
Whole amount apportioned, $187,089 44
Schools of the Public School So-
ciety, $122,739 78
1st Ward, $3,454 29
4th " 8,677 66
6th " 5,790 82
7th " 4,445 57
10th " 6,163 78
11th « 7,889 71
12th " 3,427 69
14th " 9,018 44
16th " 1,052 42
17th " 2,364 96
Harlaem School, 1,500 89
Yorkville Public School, 1,945 45
Manhattanville Free School, 730 70
Hamilton Free School, 248 14
Mechanics' Society's School, 486 26
New-York Orphan Asylum School, 1,328 69
Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum
School, 1,536 39
Leake & Watt's Orphan House,. 460 92
Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum
School, 1,551 75
Roman Catholic Half-Orphan Asy-
lum School, .'.. 775 88
School of the Institution for the
Blind, 702 89
School of the Association for the
benefit of Coloured Orphans, 796 36
112 PICTURE OF NE W-YORK.
The most extensive establishment of the kind is
Plumbe's, at 251 Broadway. The free gallery attached
to it is much frequented by persons interested in Daguer-
rian pictures, as it contains a very extensive collection
of choice specimens of the art. Several rooms are attach-
ed to the establishment for the various purposes connected
with the making of pictures. Mr. Plumbe is esteemed
one of the very best Daguerreotypists in the world.
Anthony, Edwards & Co., have also an extensive gal-
lery, possessing portraits of most of the distinguished men
of the country. These productions are equally as good
Chilton's gallery is also worthy of attention, as his
miniatures are very excellent.
Parkinson, an able Daguerreotypist, is celebrated for the
beauty and perfection of out-door scenes, buildings, &c.
A very splendid view of Niagara Falls, and views of most
of the public buildings in New-York, may be seen at his
rooms. In this department of the business he is unequalled
— his miniatures are very perfect.
The prices for miniatures in the various Daguerreotype
establishments, vary from one dollar to five dollars, but
none that are really good can be obtained for less than
three or four dollars.
In this city there are over three hundred artists in the
various branches of portrait, miniature, landscape and
historical painting. The most distinguished painters in
America find in New- York a liberal appreciation of, and
remuneration for their talents.
In portrait painting, Messrs. Page, Inman, Elliott, Ing-
ham, Huntington, Mooney, and some others, rank among
the highest in America. Their rooms generally have spe-
cimens of their work, and the lovers of art will be generally
received in them with kindness and hospitality.
Mr. Elliott's rooms, which are in the Granite Building,
corner of Broadway and Chambers-street, can be visited
?ir hknrv ci.inton's house,
at all hours by the stranger, who will find among his pic-
tures many well worth attention. Mr. Elliott's portraits
are very much admired for their truth to nature, freedom
of handling and beauty of colouring — particularly his
Mr. May's rooms, 44 Vesey-street, are also well worth
visiting. His portraits are highly valued, and few painters
have more promise for the future.
Among the landscape painters of New-York, the most
conspicuous are Cole, Durand and Cropsey.
Mr. Cropsey, whose rooms are in the Granite Building,
is a young artist, and is destined to take a high rank in
this department of art.
Mr. Matteson, historical painter, is beginning to take
high rank, and has already produced some very excellent
works. Boyle, May, Chapman and Hicks have also pro-
duced pictures which place them high in the estimation of
the lovers of art.
Kneeland, Frazee and Launitz, are names well known
among the admirers of sculpture. Mr. Kneeland's busts
are among the finest ever modelled in this country. No
American, except Powers, has ever surpassed them. He
has also acquired great celebrity for his equestrian statue
of Washington, — one of the most perfect works of the
kind produced in modern times. It is destined for the
Miniature painters abound in New- York. Among the
most conspicuous are Cummings, Fanshaw, Hite v Shum-
way and McDougal. Mr. McDougal's rooms contain
many interesting specimens of this department of art, and
will well repay the visiter for a call on the gentlemanly
sir henry Clinton's house,
Foot of Broadway.
This is one. of the curious relics of the style of building in
New-York during the last century. This house is now
occupied as a private dwelling by one of the merchants of
114 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
There are numerous other houses of old standing in
different parts of the city, remarkable for their appearance,
but our limits will not allow us to describe them.
BANKS OF NEW-YORK.
Among these are some of the most costly and elaborately
constructed public buildings of the city. The engraving
on the opposite page is a view of the Union Bank and the
National Bank, in Wall-street. There are several very
elegant buildings occupied by some of the banks of Wall-
street, among which we can name the Bank of America ;
the Merchants' Bank ; the Bank of the State of New-
York ; the American Exchange Bank, and the new Phe-
nix Bank. The last two mentioned, occupy large rooms
in the rear ; the front rooms being used for insurance
offices. There are now twenty-four banks in the city of
New- York, and three in Brooklyn. The New-York
banks are located as follows :
Thirteen in Wall-street, two in Greenwich-street, one
in Broadway, one in the Bowery, one in Chatham-street,
one in William. street, two in Pearl-street, one in Grand-
street, one in Hudson-street, and one in Avenue D.
In Canal-street, corner of Centre-street. This is a very
interesting place, for here the visiter can see the manner in
which the gas that lights the city is made. The machine-
ry is very interesting, and perfectly accessible at the usual
The principal establishment of this kind is situated in a
large and very commodious building, at Nos. 159 and 161
Crosby-street. Fencing, sparring, wrestling, reading,
dressing and bathing rooms are found in this establishment
and accommodations for all the exercises practised in Eu-
ropean gymnasiums. The institution is very complete in
all its departments, and forms one of the most interesting
objects for visiters in the city. Terms — one year, $12 ;
UNION BANK AND NATIONAL BANK.
W all Sueet.
six months, $8 ; three months, $5. J. T. Hatfield, pro-
prietor; H. T. Swiggs, director. This establishment has
the patronage of some of the most distinguished members
of the medical profession in this city. As a means of pre-
serving health, developing the physical faculties, and giving
ease, strength and grace to the body — gymnastic exercises
are of vast importance. Thousands of persons in this city,
of sedentary habits, are now suffering, and laying the seeds
of disease and death in their constitutions, who might gain
relief and prolong their lives by a timely resort to the
manly exercises above mentioned. It is strange that with
the vast amount of medical and scientific testimony that
exists in their favour, they should be so much neglect-
ed. These rooms are most used in the evening, when
the visiter can gain admission on application at the door.
The fancy store at No. 259 Broadway, is stocked with
an immense variety of fancy articles, of rare and curious
workmanship, and numerous articles of luxury and taste-
presenting a very beautiful melange, which is well worth
LOOKING GLASS STORE.
Messrs. Williams & Stevens, 343 Broadway, have a very
elegant establishment, got up with great taste, for the
sale and manufacture of picture-frames and mirrors, of
every size and price, from one thousand dollars down to
ordinary prices ; and frames of the most elaborate and costly
workmanship may be seen here.
There are three principal bathing establishments in
New- York, besides many smaller ones — the latter are,
however, inferior to the larger establishments in comfort,
neatness, and general accommodations. Stoppani's rooms,
corner of Walker-street and Broadway, are very sumptu-
ously finished, with marble baths and other elegant and
useful accompaniments. The establishment is well worth
116 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
visiting, as it is constructed with great taste and elegance.
Single baths, 25 cents. A set of ladies' baths are at-
tached to the establishment, with a separate entrance in
Walker-street, which deserve patronage. Warm, cold
and shower baths may be enjoyed in this establishment
from 6 A. M. till IIP. M.
Palmo's baths, in Chambers-street, opposite the Park,
are much frequented, and are in some particulars superior
to Stoppani's. The visiter will always be treated with po-
lite attention, and in all except decoration, these baths are
superior to their Broadway rivals. Price of baths, 25 cts.
Rabineau's"" baths, in the Astor House, entrance on
Vesey-street, is a very neat and popular establishment,
and is entitled to patronage. Medicinal baths are prepared
here, under the care of the proprietor, who is a physician.
There are several other establishments about town of an
inferior class, but very much frequented by the public, and
open at low prices.
Floating Baths. — There are several establishments of
this kind. The principal ones are stationed at Castle Gar-
den, and are open only during the summer months. The
salt water of the bay is used, and persons may be accom-
modated with a public bath basin, or small private rooms.
Price 25 cents for each bath. There is also a ladies' de-
partment, elegantly fitted up.
There are several other minor floating baths ; one at the
foot of Canal-street, one at the foot of Christopher-street,
and several on the East river.
OLD BUILDINGS IN NEW-YORK.
THE " WALTON HOUSE,"
No. 326 Pearl-slreel.
The "Walton House" was built in 1754, by William
Walton, a prosperous English gentleman, who resided in
Hanover square. This then splendid dwelling was built
out of town, as a kind of country seat. It was bequeathed
U AL ION HOI SK
BILL OF MORTALITY. 117
by the founder to his nephew William, who was one of His
Majesty's council before the revolution. It was built of
bricks brought from Holland, ornamented with brown stone
water tables, lintels, &c.
The hall is an ample room, and the staircase of large
carved work, gives the whole a most imposing air of aristo-
cratic grandeur. It is now a boarding-house, but well
worth the attention of the curious.
DUTCH HOUSES IN 1630.
The annexed cut exhibits the fashion of most of the
Dutch buildings in the early settlement of New- York.
The building here represented stood in Broad-street, and
was built by Peter Minuit, the first governor of New-Am-
sterdam. This house was built in 1629, and was a famous
house in its time. The greater part of Broad-street was
originally built up in the same manner. The houses were
all built of bricks brought from Holland, and were con-
structed with the gable end to the street, and usually with
a sharp and pointed roof. There is scarce a building of
the kind now left in the city.
BILL OF MORTALITY FOR THE YEAR 1844.
Abstract of the Annual Report of Eli Leavitt, City In.
spector, of the deaths in the city of New. York, for the
The whole number of deaths reported during the year
1844, amounts to 8,955, being 262 more than the number
registered in the preceding year, and 221 less than in the
Of these there were : — Males. Females. Total.
Whites, 4,534 3,983 8,517
Coloured, 219 220 438
4,753 4,202 8,955
Of this number, the premature and still births amounted
to 828, viz -.—whites, 786 ; coloured, 42. Total deaths,
exclusive of still-born, &c, 8,127.
118 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK.
The number of the deaths of white males exceeded that
of the females 631. Returns are ordered by law, and
weekly statements of deaths and diseases are published
in all the papers, and at the end of the year a minute an-
nual report is made, by the City Inspector.
The interments during the year 1844, were in the fol-
lowing cemeteries :
Associate Reformed, 24
Dutch Reformed, 214
Marble Cemeteries, 143
Potter's Field, 408
Randall's Island, 840
Removed from the city, 983
Not stated, 392
Of the above there died at —
Aims-House, Bellevue, 86
Hospital, " 402
Penitentiary, Blackwell's Island, 72
Penitentiary Hospital, 5
Lunatic Asylum, Blackwell's Island, 44
House of Refuge, 1
City Hospital, 119
City Prison, 13
Long Island Farms, 55
Home for aged coloured females, 1
Orphan Asylum, Prince-street, 1
BILL OF MORTALITY. 119
Deaths by the principal diseases in 1844, compared with
the two previous years : —
1st Class. 1842. 1843. 1844.
Small Pox, 181 117 20
Measles, 60 118 51
Scarlatina, 416 223 225
Hooping cough, 191 63 164
Cholera infantum, 513 378 329
Remittent fever, 90 63 77
Typhus fever, 214 191 131
Dropsv, 131 144 156
Atrophy, 327 355 340
Debility, 129 120 127
Cephalitis 261 191 167
Hydrocephalus, 394 430 473
Convulsions, 601 551 612
Apoplexy, 108 108 120
Delirium tremens, 52 37 64
Brain, disease of, 22 111 173
Pneumonia, 530 540 471
Hydro-thorax, 70 70 49
Consumption, 1339 1503 1466
Lungs, disease of, 48 68 24
Heart, disease of, 110 118 169
Teething, 99 54 71
Gastritus, &c , 268 282 249
Child birth, 69 78 54
Old age, 110 108 104
Intemperance, 31 41 46
Of the first class of diseases, the deaths by small pox,
measles, and cholera infantum, were 213 less in 1844 than
PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
Of the third class, the deaths by five of the diseases
above stated have each increased; of those reported of
convulsions, 471 were under the age of two years. Hy.
drocephalus has taken the precedence of Cholera In.
fantum, and has become the most formidable disease to
which infants are exposed.
Number of deaths in each month in 1844 and 1839.
January, 686 568
February, 605 613
March, 644 587
April, 560 528
May, 598 491
June, 620 483
July 836 739
August, 836 890
September,... 720 708
October, 667 612
November,.... 662 592
December,.... 707 550
Total, 8,969 7,953
ARRIVALS AT THE PORT OF NEW-YORK DU-
RING THE YEAR 1844.
FROM FOREIGN FORTS.
Arrivals coastwise, 5,360
Whole number in 1843, 6,566
TKINI IV CHUIiCil.
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 121
Of the arrivals from Foreign Ports, there were,
American vessels, 1,575
British do 321
Bremen do. Hamburgh, 83
Swedish do 91
Norwegian do 30
French do 11
All others, 97
Passengers arrived from Foreign Countries.
In 1844, 61,002 j In 1841, 57,337
1843, 46,302 1840, 62,797
1842, 74,949 | 1839, 48,152
CHURCHES IN NEW -YORK.
TRINITY CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
BROADWAY, OPPOSITE WALL-STREET.
Erected in 1841-1845.
This is the principal church building belonging to the
Episcopalians in the city, and is the mother of all the
others. The first place of worship in the city was the
" Chapel in the Fort," which was originally the Dutch
Church ; but after the city was surrendered to the English,
in 1664, it became the Episcopal Church, and was called
" The King's Chapel." In 1696, a small square building
called " Trinity Church," was erected on the site of the
present elegant building, on Broadway, at the head of
Wall-street. In 1735, the church edifice was enlarged,
and a farther enlargement took place in 1737, until it was
140 feet long, and 70 feet wide. In 1776, the edifice was
destroyed by fire. In 1788, a new building was erected
on the same site, of nearly the same dimensions, which
122 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
was taken down in 1839, and preparations made for the
new edifice, now nearly completed. The corner stone of
the present building was laid June 3, 1841. When com-
pleted, it will probably be the most elegant church edifice
in the city, and undoubtedly the most costly one. The
amount of its cost has never been publicly stated. The
material of the building is a fine, reddish sandstone,
nicely dressed. It covers a large space of ground, meas-
uring, when we include the tower, buttresses, &c, not
much short of 200 feet long, and more than 80 feet wide ;
and yet so much of the space is occupied by the tower at
the east end, and vestry at the west end, and space for the
chancel, &c, and having no galleries, it is not computed
to accommodate in the pews more than about 800 persons.
Externally the building has a most imposing appearance.
The walls of the house are about 40 feet high, and are
highly ornamented, having large buttresses between the
windows, terminating in tall pinnacles. The tower and
steeple at the east end of the house is the principal object
which engages the eye of the beholder : and whether we
consider its comely proportions, or its style of finish, or its
immense height, towering as it does 264 feet into the air,
it must be considered a noble specimen of architecture,
and a fine ornament to that part of the city.
ST. MARK'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
STUYVESANT-STREET, EAST OF THE BOWERY.
Erected in 1799.
St. Mark's Church is built of smooth stone, of a dark
gray colour. It measures about 100 feet by 66. A school
room and vestry are attached to the rear, occupying about
a third of the width of the building, and running out some
thirty or forty feet. The steeple is on the front of the
building facing the south, and is very lofty. It was not
built in its present form until 1826. The exterior of the
church is plain, and has, at first view, rather an antique
look ; but it has a very venerable appearance, and as a
whole, is in good keeping with the purposes for which it is
ST. MARK'S CHIJkC H
CHURCHES IN NEW. YORK.
occupied. It stands on the former estate of Petrus Stuy-
vesant, the last of the Dutch governors, and his remains
lie in a vault under the church : a brown tablet on the east
side of the church, outside, marks the place. The re-
mains of Col. Henry Sloughter, one of the English govern,
ors, lie in the same vault, and those of Gov. Daniel D.
Tompkins, in another near by. The heads of three dy-
nasties, Dutch, English and American, are thus reposing
in peace together. This church is in a very flourishing
condition. The Rev. Dr. Anthon is the present minister.
ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
CORNER OF BEEKMAN AND CLIFF STREETS.
Erected in 1752.
This building was originally a chapel of Trinity Church,
and continued in this relation until the year 1811. Hence
the spot it occupies was formerly called " Chapel Hill,"
and the street in front, " Chapel-street." The vicinity
was, at that time, a crowded and badly built part of the
city. The church is built of brown stone, and is 104 feet
long and 72 feet wide. It had originally a tall steeple,
but being destroyed by fire in 1814, it was rebuilt with
the same walls, with a round blunt turret, some 30 feet
high above the top of the building, containing a bell and
a clock. It is a very substantial building, though exter-
nally quite plain. The interior of the church is finished
in a style much more rich and imposing, and strikes the
beholder at once, on entering a place so unpretending
in its exterior.
A former minister of this church, the Rev. John Ogilvie,
D. D., was struck with apoplexy while reading the service
in the church, and died in a few days after. This hap-
pened in the year 1774. The late Rev. Dr. Milnor, the
lamented rector of this church, died more suddenly, with
scarce a moment's warning, in the early part of 1845.
The Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, D. D, is the present
124 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
CHRIST'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
ANTHONY-STREET, NEAR BROADWAY.
Erected in 1823.
This church was founded in the year 1794, and then
occupied a wooden building in Ann-street, near Nassau.
But in 1823, this house was erected, and the congregation
removed to it. The rear and side walls are of very rough
small stones, but the front is very beautiful smooth red
stone. The structure measures 90 feet by 64. In each
side there are five large pointed windows, containing 90
panes each, of common-sized plain glass, beside the points.
The front presents three doors, of a common size, all
alike, with a large pointed window over each. The
middle section of the front presents a small projection,
with flat columns on each side. On the centre of the
roof in front there is a tower of stone of about 15 feet
square, and perhaps 20 feet high, with pinnacles on the
four corners. The present minister of this church is the
Rev. Dr. Lyell.
FRENCH CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
FRANKLIN-STREET, CORNER OF CHURCH-STREET.
Erected in 1834.
This is a rich looking building, of fine hammered white
marble, measuring 100 feet by 50, and built at a cost of
$60,000. It has neither tower nor spire, but on the front
a deep pediment of between 20 and 30 feet in depth, sup-
ported by four massive pillars in front, raised on a platform
six steps from the sidewalk, and two others far under the
pediment, one on each side of the main entrance. The
front of the main building is plain, with one large door
and no window. On each side there are three long
windows, square at the top. The whole building, though
not ornamented, has about it an air of silent grandeur.
The congregation now worshipping in this church, for-
l'eglise du saint esprit,
Corner of Church and Franklin Streets.
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 125
merly occupied a large stone building standing on
Pine-street, near Nassau-street, which was erected in
1704, by some French Protestants, who founded their
church upon the principles and model of that in Geneva.
During the war of the revolution, the interior of this church
was nearly destroyed by the British soldiery. In 1794, it
underwent a thorough repair; and in 1603, the members,
with their minister, joined the Episcopal church, and from
that time have been known as the church Du St. Esprit.
Like many of the other churches, the business of the mer-
chants drove the families into the upper part of the city,
and the result was the sale of their property in Pine-street,
and the building of a new church.
ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL— (Episcopal,)
BROADWAY, BETWEEN FULTON AND VESEY STREETS.
Erected in 1766.
This is the third Episcopal church erected in the city.
It is a venerable looking building, of dark gray stone, with
a tower of stone and pointed steeple of wood on the
western end, opposite to the main entrance, different in
this respect from any other church in the city.
The total length of the edifice, including the portico in
front and tower in the rear, is 151 feet, and the width is
73 feet. The height of the steeple is 203 feet. There are
two bells hanging in the belfry, which once belonged to
the chime in Trinity church.
On the front, facing Broadway, a large pediment, 18
feet in depth, is displayed, supported by four Ionic co-
lumns. In a niche, in the centre of the pediment, is a
carved figure of St. Paul leaning on a sword. There is
also in the front a slab of white marble inserted, bearing
an inscription in remembrance of General Montgomery,
who fell at Quebec, during the revolutionary war, and
whose remains were removed to New-York by order of
the state, in July, 1818.
The sides of the building are not ornamented, and
excepting the portico in front, the whole exterior of the
126 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
building presents a plain and sober appearance. When
St. Paul's Chapel was built it was quite at the outskirts of
the city ; and the year in which the foundation was laid,
the lot on which it stands, near the cemetery, was plough-
ed up and sowed with wheat. The cemetery is a large
plot of ground, extending from Broadway to Church-street,
and from Fulton to Vesey streets. It is now filled with
tombs and single graves, and contains some elegant mo-
numents. At the side of the church, and near Broadway,
a tall column of white marble has been erected in memory
of Thomas Addis Emmet, the celebrated Irish barrister and
patriot, who died here in 1827. Inscriptions are made on
three sides, one in English, one in Latin, and one in Irish.
ST. JOHN'S CHAPEL— (Episcopal.)
VARICK-STREET, ON THE EAST SIDE OF ST. JOHN'S PARK.
Erected in 1807.
The situation of this church is not surpassed by any
church in the city, and the building itself presents altoge-
ther an imposing appearance. The material of which the
walls are composed is a brownish sand stone ; and the
Corinthian order is generally followed in the architecture.
It covers a large space of ground, being from outside to
outside, 132 feet in length and 80 feet in width. The
portico in front is about 20 feet deep, and the pediment is
supported by four large columns, which stand on a plat-
form raised five or six feet from the ground, to a level
with the floor of the main building. The edifice being
thus raised from the ground, presents a more sightly
The spire of the church is very lofty, being, as it is
stated, 214 feet and six inches from the ground, and with
the exception of the spire of Trinity Church, is the highest
in the city. The side walls of the church are considera-
bly ornamented, and a heavy ballustrade passes around the
At the eastern end of the main building, and adjoining
U A PTIST CHURCH.
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 127
it, the Sabbath school room was erected in 1826. This is
considerably narrower than the church, and consequently
not seen much from the front, but is a long building, con-
taining three Sunday school rooms, a vestry room, and
other rooms for various societies and committees connect-
ed with the church.
Hudson Square, better known at this day as St. John's
Park, is a fine large square in front of the church, extend-
ing from Varick to Hudson-street, east and west, and from
Beach to Laight-street, north and south. It is not like
most of the other squares in the city, a public promenade ;
but the gates are kept locked, it being considered private
FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH,
CORNER OF BROOME AND ELIZABETH STREETS.
Erected in 1841.
The former church edifice had been in Gold-street, near
Fulton, but in 1841 this building was erected, and the con-
gregation removed here. The building was designed by
Mr. Lefevre, of this city, and does him much credit as an
architect. The following particulars are copied, in part,
from a description given of the building in the appendix to
the Report of the American and Foreign Bible Society, for
the year 1842 : The walls are of a blueish stone, princi-
pally from Blackwell's Island, and from the old meeting
house in Gold-street. The window lintels, cornices and
battlements are of brown sandstone. The dimensions of
the house are 90 feet by 75 — the side walls 42 feet high,
and the apex of the battlements 71 feet. The heads of the
windows in the side walls, six in each side, are square-head
designs, executed with tasteful tracery-work. The front
of the house presents two octangular towers at the two
extremities, and a slight projection in the middle portion,
with buttresses raised to the top of the building. In the
projecting portion of the front are three doors of moderate
size, and immediately over them is a grand, pointed win-
128 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
dow, 22 feet wide, and 41 feet high. There are two other
pointed, and two square-headed windows placed in the re-
ceding portions of the front. The interior of the church is
well finished, but not gaudy. It has a gallery on three
sides, and a second gallery in front, for the Sabbath school
children. The floor of the basement is but about three or
four steps down, which brings the basement rooms, for
lecture room. Sabbath school room, &c, nearly above the
ground, which of course elevates the whole building. The
front of the building, except the main entrance to the
church, is divided into rooms for the accommodation of the
Baptist Home Missionary Society, and the American and
Foreign Bible Society. These rooms are very conveniently
arranged. The entrance to each is through the octagons
on the corners. Rev. Dr. Cone is the present minister.
ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL— (Roman Catholic,)
CORNER OF PRINCE AND MOTT STREETS.
Erected in 1815.
This building is very spacious. When first erected it
measured 120 feet by 80 ; since which, 36 feet more have
been added to the length, making it now 156 feet long,
standing on Prince-street, and covering in its length the
whole space from Mott-street to Mulberry-street, fronting
on Mott-street. The side walls and rear are built of rather
rough gray stone. The front is of nicely-smoothed red
free-stone. The height of the walls is perhaps 45 feet \
no buttresses on the sides, but two tall pinnacles are raised
from the two corners of the building in the rear. The
front presents a surface nearly smooth, with three doors,
but no windows. From the top of the roof, at each of the
two front corners, rises a square tower of stone, to the
height of about 15 feet ; and directly on the apex, between
the towers, there is a small, and rather awkward looking
wooden steeple, terminating in a cross. In the front of
the building, over the side doors, are two niches, fitted to
receive some images, and there are three such in the rear of
ST. PATRICK S CATHEDRAL.
Gorier of Prince and Mutt Streets,
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 129
the building, but at present they are empty. The rear of
the church is rather more ornamented than the front.
There are eight large windows in each side. The interior
of the church presents quite an imposing appearance.
There are no galleries, except an organ loft on the eastern
end. The roof is supported by 12 large pillars, standing
each alone, and running from the floor to the high ceiling,
and on each pillar, far above the pews, four large globular
lamps are suspended. The windows are of plain common
glass, with painted blinds inside. There are few orna-
ments except around the altar. The floor contains about
200 pews, and the whole house will probably accommo-
date 2,000 persons.
FIRST CHURCH— (Presbyterian,)
Erected in 1845.
This church stands on the west side of the Fifth avenue,
between Eleventh and Twelfth streets, and presents a ma-
jestic appearance. It is of reddish hewn stone. The ex-
treme length of the building is 1 19 feet, and the breadth 80
feet. The height of the walls is 40 feet, and it is 64 feet
from the ground to the peak of the roof. The height of the
tower is 130 feet to the top of the cornice, and thence is an
octagon spire of stone, 30 feet to the pinnacle. Large but-
tresses between the windows, seven on each side, are
built, surmounted by a pinnacle of eight feet in height.
The top of the corner pinnacles are 75 feet from the
ground. A battlement of stone passes around the roof.
Such is the outside. The inside of the building presents
a grave and dignified appearance, very becoming a house
of worship. The pulpit and pews are built of solid black-
walnut. The ceiling is rather plain, and there are no large
columns in front of the gallery. The height from the floor
to the ceiling is fifty feet. There are 124 pews on the
lower floor, and the house will accommodate from 1,200
to 1,500 persons. The estimated cost is $75,000. The
lecture room and the Sabbath school room, are both in a
separate building, 50 feet by 30, and two stories high, built
130 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
of stone like the church, on the same lot, but fronting on
Eleventh-street. Rev. Dr. Phillips is the minister of this
congregation. This church formerly worshipped in Wall-
street, on the spot where the first Presbyterian church in
New- York was built, in the year 1719.
GRACE CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
BROADWAY, ABOVE TENTH-STREET.
Erected in 1845.
This is one of the most splendid buildings in the city.
The material of which it is constructed is of white marble,
hewn, but not hammered. It is built in the form of a
cross. As viewed from Broadway, we are first presented
with a lofty tower of about 24 feet square, and of about 110
feet elevation from the ground to the cornice ; and from
thence an octagon spire of wood, running up nearly as
much higher, and terminating in a cross. Attached to the
tower is a building with its end to the street, of the same
width as the tower, and extending inward about 54 feet,
where it joins the centre of the large structure, 87 feet
long and 54 wide, standing side to the street. Large, deep
buttresses are built up between the windows and on the
corners of the building all around, with lofty pinnacles on
their tops, highly finished and ornamented. There are
three doors in front, two of moderate size and one very
large. Over this main entrance is a large, circular win-
dow, of stained glass, and two tall, oblong windows in
each side of the upper section of the tower. Such is a
"bird's eye view" of the outside. Now let us enter the
building : and here we are, standing at once amid pillars
and carved work, and have all the colours of the rainbow
brought to our vision through more than forty windows
of stained glass, each one giving some different hues.
On a line with the sides of the gallery are 16 massive
columns, eight on a side. The windows are all gothic,
three very large — one back of the pulpit, and one in each
end of the main building, on the right and left of the pul-
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 131
pit. On each side of the pulpit are two circular windows ;
and 36 others, large and small, are scattered above and be-
low in the two sides. The estimated cost of the building
is $145,000. The interior of the church is not yet quite
finished. The congregation who are to occupy it, once
worshipped at the corner of Rector-street and Broadway,
near Trinity Church. Rev. Dr. Taylor is the present
DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH,
ON LAFAYETTE PLACE.
Erected in 1839.
Lafayette Place is a short but rather elegant street,
parallel to Broadway, on the eastern side of it. Toward
the southern end of it it is crossed by Fourth-street, and
on the corner of Fourth-street, and fronting Lafayette
Place, stands one of the collegiate Dutch churches. It is
a very substantial building, of very nice hammered granite.
It is 110 feet long, and 75 feet wide. It was erected in
1839, at a cost of about $160,000.
A pediment of about 20 feet deep is displayed in front,
supported by eight massive granite columns, in a range
with the outside, and four shorter ones nearer the main
body of the building. A round tower rises from the pedi-
ment to the height of about 25 or 30 feet. Thus far all is
stone, and in a high state of finish. From the tower a
tall octagon steeple of wood ascends, surmounted by
a ball and vane, making the total height from the ground
to the top of the spire 215 feet. The sides of the building
are plain, having five windows without ornaments, and
square at the top. An area is opened all around the build-
ing, making a light and dry basement, finished into good
rooms for the accommodation of the Sabbath schools and
lecture room. The inside of the church is very handsome-
ly finished, in a style of what may expressively be termed
plain elegance. The pulpit is of solid marble.
The Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church is the oldest
132 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
religious establishment in the city. At the present they
occupy three houses of worship, viz. — The " North
Church," at the corner of Fulton and William streets, the
Ninth-street Church, and the church on Lafayette Place.
The church is considered as one, though assembling for
worship in three places, and is governed by one Consisto-
ry. At the present time they have four pastors, viz. —
Rev. Drs. Knox, Brownlee, De Witt and Vermilye.
DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH,
Erected in 1840.
The great fire in New- York, which took place Dec. 16,
1835, destroyed, among other buildings, the " South Dutch
Church," which stood on " Garden-street," now Exchange
Place. After this the congregation divided, a part of them
building a church on Murray-street, while those who had
removed far "up town," commenced worship in the
chapel of the New- York University, proposing to build in
that vicinity. A lot was purchased on the corner of
Washington Place and Wooster-street, fronting Washing-
ton Square, and here has been erected a most superb edi-
fice. The building is of dark coloured granite, rather
roughly hewn, and measuring 80 feet from the rear to the
tower, and 62 feet wide. On each of the two front cor-
ners there is a tower 24 feet square, and running up some
20 feet above the extreme point of the roof. A front view
of the building presents you with a large middle door and
two smaller ones, one being in each tower. The gothic
architecture in which the edifice was designed to be built
appears more prominently inside than outside. Inside are
eight large pillars supporting the roof, and attached to the
front of the gallery, which is handsomely ornamented with
carved work. The organ is very elegant; and the organ
loft is raised some eight feet above the back of the gal-
lery, appearing somewhat like a second gallery. The
height of the ceiling from the floor is 63 feet, and for so
J>UTCH REFORMED CHURCH.
ENTRANCE TO THE FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH,
l'.iu;ul XJ\ .
CHURCHES IN NEW-Y0RK. 133
high a ceiling the pulpit appears rather low. There are
10 large gothic windows below, of ground glass, and 10
smaller ones in the roof. These all admit a very clear
yet soft light; and the walls being painted a light drab
colour, and the wood work being painted light oak, give
the whole interior of the house a cheerful appearance.
Taken as a whole, the edifice is in good taste. The cost
is said to be $80,000, and the ground on which it stands
$44,000. It was dedicated Oct. 1, 1840. Dr. Hutton is
the present minister.
FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH,
BROADWAY, BETWEEN SPRING AND PRINCE STREETS.
Erected in 1845.
The First Unitarian Church in the city of New- York,
was built in Chambers-street. In 1844, that building was
sold, and a new and splendid one erected on Broadway.
The lot occupied by the church runs through from Broad-
way to Crosby-street, and the main building is placed on
the rear of the lot, which removes it from the noise of the
great street to a place of comparative quiet. It is built of
brick, and is 130 feet long and 75 feet wide. It cost
$82,000. It is a very lofty building, being about 70 feet
from the floor to the apex ; but standing back from the
main street, and having large buildings all around it, it is
scarcely seen from Broadway. The entrance is all that
would be noticed in passing it. The front of the entrance
is 27 feet wide, of elegantly carved reddish free stone,
with one large gothic door, with pillars on each side, run-
ning up some forty feet. Entering the front door there is
a long passage-way of the same width as the front, and
about 200 feet long, which brings us to the main body of
the church. Over this covered passage-way is a suite of
rooms, intended to be leased as offices. The interior of
the church is finished in more complete gothic style, proba-
bly, than any other building in the city. The material used
for the pews is pine, with black walnut capping ; and the
—— i2 —
134 PICTURE OF NEW-TORK.
pulpit, organ case, and all the other fine carved work is
pine, painted a beautiful dark oak colour. There are 140
pews on the lower floor, and about 60 in the gallery.
There are six windows on each side, of ground glass, ad.
mitting a soft and pleasant light. The walls are painted
drab colour. The side galleries are rather narrow, so
that the large pillars supporting the roof stand off about
five feet from the front of the gallery, which has a very
fine effect. The gas lights are attached to these pillars.
Taken as a whole, the house is beautiful, and well worthy
of attention. Rev. Mr. Bellows is the present minister.
CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH— (Unitarian,)
Erected in 1838.
The " Church of the Messiah," is the second Unitarian
Church in the city of New-York. It was commenced in
the year 1828, and was under the pastoral care of the Rev.
Mr. Lunt. A house of worship was built in Prince-street,
near Broadway, on the west side. This building was con-
sumed by fire in the year 1837, and in the following year a
new edifice was built on Broadway, nearly opposite Wash-
ington Square. Rev. Orville Dewey, D. D., is the present
minister. This building is a very substantial one. It is
built of rough granite, measuring on the ground 100 feet
by 74, and was built at a cost of $97,000. It is a plain
looking building, with a square front. The tower is not
high, not more perhaps than 20 feet above the walls, and
has no pointed spire. The roof is rather flat. The front
presents three doors, with a square window over the side
doors, and a large round window over the main entrance,
and circular windows in three sides of the tower above the
The finish of the interior is rich, being mostly of the
Corinthian order. The walls and ceiling are elaborate
in finish, but richly painted, and said to represent very
nearly the interior of Westminster Abbey.
PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 135
Erected in 1845.
This building is of a reddish gray stone, well smoothed,
having but few ornaments, and for so costly a building pre-
senting a rather plain appearance. It stands at the corner
of Tenth-street and University Place. The extreme length
of the edifice is 116 feet, and the width 65 feet, having a
lecture room, 25 feet wide, taken off at the rear, which
room is lengthened by a projection on the south side of the
house of about 10 feet, giving the lecture room a space of
75 feet by 25. This leaves the interior of the church at
about 91 feet by 65. A side view of the building from
Tenth-street, presents us with six large gothic windows
and three small windows over the lecture room, all of
stained glass. Between the windows are buttresses, built
to the height of the walls, and terminating in small pin-
nacles. As we look at the front from University Place,
we perceive three gothic doors, the main entrance being in
the tower, and one on each side in the body of the church.
A large gothic window is placed over the main entrance,
and smaller ones over the side doors. The tower, which
is about 24 feet square, is wholly in front of the main
building, and not partly on the roof, as is rather more com-
mon, and is built up square to the belfry, which is the first
section above the apex of the roof; above which it gradu-
ally tapers to the summit, being entirely of stone, and
terminates without a vane, at the height of 184 feet from
the ground. The building stands low, being raised but
three steps from the sidewalk, so that it does not look as
lofty as many others which are really not higher than this.
The interior of the church is divided into 124 pews on
the lower floor, and 64 in the gallery ; and the space over
the lecture room, in the rear of the pulpit, is open for the
accommodation of the Sabbath school. It is said that
1,200 persons can be accommodated in the house. The
pulpit and pews are built of solid black walnut, exhibiting
138 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK.
much richness, but it renders the house rather more dark
and gloomy than would be desirable. The total cost of
the building was $56,000. The present minister is the
Rev. Dr. Potts.
Erected in 1832.
This edifice is of brick, but plastered to resemble white
stone. It is a heavy looking building, especially in front.
It stands on a high basement of stone, so that the main
floor of the church is eight or nine feet above the side-
walk, which gives the building quite a lofty appearance.
There are five large windows, with square tops, in each
side of the house, with thick, flat columns between them,
but no windows in front. The front c-f the house presents
two large fluted pillars, one each side of the main entrance,
supporting the pediment, and outside of these pillars four
large square pillars, two on each corner, in front of a
turret 15 feet square, built to the roof. In each of these
turrets are doors facing each other toward the centre of
the house, the main entrance being in a deep recess under
the pediment, and fronting the street. The trimmings of
the pediment are of wood, and on the top of it there is built
a wooden square turret with heavy mouldings, about 30
The dimensions of the building are 84 feet by 62. The
interior is finished in a plain style, having 136 pews on the
lower floor. It was first opened for worship May 27, 1832.
Rev. Mr. Holt is the present minister.
ST. THOMAS' CHURCH— (Episcopal,)
CORNER BROADWAY AND HOUSTON-STREET.
Erected in 1826.
This is a stately edifice, measuring 113 feet by 62,
standing on the corner of Houston-street, fronting on
Broadway. It is built of very rough small stones, and was
st. thomas's church,
Corner of Houston Street a»t| Broadwaj
CHURCHES IN NEW- YORK. 137
more than two years building, being commenced in 1823,
and finished in the early part of 1826. When erected it
was considered as the most pure gothic structure of any in
the city, but probably now some others exceed it. " Its
distinguishing features are two large angular projecting
towers at the northeast and southeast corners, which rise
in undiminished proportions to a height of 80 feet, and
end in pointed turrets of a dwarf size ; also the immense
gothic window in front between the towers, and occupying
a large portion of the surface ; beneath this, and in each
tower, are the entrance doors." In the front of these
towers there are niches to receive figures, but none are
The interior of the church is very handsomely finished,
and painted oak colour. The windows are plain glass
without, but inside have elegantly painted transparent
shades, in frames. The house will accommodate a large
congregation, having large galleries on three sides, and
238 pews, above and below. Rev. Dr. Whitehouse is the
FLOATING CHAPEL— (Episcopal.)
Built in 1844.
It has always been considered that sailors needed some-
thing a little peculiar, and hence the idea of building a
house of worship for them, not only distinct from other
people, but, if practicable, to have it a floating temple,
moored in some dock, so that " Jack in his roundabout"
should feel perfectly at home. This desideratum was ac-
complished in this city in 1844, when the "Floating
Chapel" for seamen was built, and the Episcopal " Church
of the Saviour" organized therein. The chapel is built on
a deck 76 feet long, and 36 feet wide, covering two boats
of 80 tons each, and 10 feet apart. The length of the
chapel is 70 feet, and its breadth 30 feet. It is not a very
high building. It has four plain oblong windows on each
side, with buttresses between, terminating in pinnacles
above the walls. In the front is one large door, with a
138 PICTURE OF NEW- YOKE.
circular window over it, and a plain spire, rising above the
peak of the roof.
The interior presents one middle aisle, with a row of
seats on each side. It is a plain room, ornamented a little
around the pulpit and altar. It was built by the Young
Men's Missionary Society of the Episcopal Church, and
was opened for religious worship February 15th, 1844. The
present minister is the Rev. Mr. Parker. The chapei is
now moored in the East river, at the foot of Pike-street.
There is another Floating Chapel in the city, under the
direction of the Methodists, and the present ministry of
Rev. O. G. Hedstrom, which was put into operation in June,
1845. It is an old ship of 300 tons, which is well fitted up,
and moored at the foot of Rector-street, on the North river.
It will accommodate about 500 persons. The pastor of the
church is a native of Sweden, and preaches in Swedish
every Sabbath morning, and in English on Sabbath after-
noons and evenings. There are three other meetings for
seamen held in this city, viz : the " Seamen's Bethel,"
Methodist, Cherry-street, the " Seamen's Bethel," Baptist,
Catharine-street, and the old " Mariner's Church" Roose-
THE " SWAMP CHURCH,"
FRANKFORT-STREET, CORNER OF WILLIAM-STREET.
Erected in 1767.
This is one of the oldest church edifices in the city.
St. George's Church, in Beekman-street, was built in 1752,
nine years before it, but in 1814 was burnt, all but the
walls, and built up in modern style. St. Paul's Chapel,
near the Park, was built in 17G6, but the interior is in
modern style. The Brick Church was built the same year,
but that too has been remodelled, while the old " Swamp
Church," retains its ancient appearance, inside and out.
The land east of it was originally a marsh or swamp, and
hence its name. It is built of stone, and is a very strong
building. It is not large, measuring about 60 feet by 34.
FRANKFORT STREl-.T CHURCH.
CHUIiCH OK THE HOLY COMMUNION.
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 139
This building was erected by the German Lutherans,
and was the only place of worship in the city which was
not abused and torn in pieces by the British army in the
time of the revolution ; for it was here that the Hessian
troops, who were generally Lutherans, attended worship ;
and it is not unlikely that this circumstance saved it. After
the peace, the Rev. Dr. Kunze officiated here for more
than twenty years, in the year 1830, it was sold to the
coloured Presbyterian congregation, who now occupy it.
The Rev. Mr. Wright is the present minister.
CHURCH OF THE HOLY COMMUNION,
CORNER OF SIXTH AVENUE AND TWENTIETH-STREET.
Erected in 1845.
This is altogether one of the most singular buildings in
the city. The material of which it is built is well dressed
red granite. It is built in the form of a cross, having a
projection in the rear of about 30 feet wide and 18 deep,
containing the pulpit, reading desk, &c. The total length
of the building, from the front door to the extreme rear of
the projection, is 104 feet, and the breadth 66 feet. As
you stand in the pulpit, on the right hand is a deep recess
in the wing, which is the organ lofr. This is the only gal-
lery in the house. In the wing on the left hand is a large
door opening directly into the street, with a large circular
window over it. This is shown in the annexed cut, on
the right hand of the tower. Another principal entrance is
shown on the cut at the left of the tower, and like the
other door, opens directly into the street. The walls are
not very high, but the roof is high and very sharp, and
being arched within, it gives 52 feet as the extreme height
of the ceiling. The turret is on the south corner of the
building, and is about 15 feet square within the but-
tresses, and 70 feet high. There are few windows in the
house, and no ornaments either within or without. The
whole floor is occupied with plain oak seats, which are
all free. The cost of the building was about .$35,000.
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
«j ( John Knox.
}<o 1 William C. Brownlee.
s ^ Thomas De Witt.
O ' Thomas E. Vermilye.
Nicholas I. Marselus.
George H. Fisher.
J. B. Har.lonburgh.
Isaac S Demund.
John M Macauley.
Mancius S. Hutton.
Richard L Schoonmaker.
J. S. Ebaugh.
John C. Guldin,
Frederic F. Cornell.
E. Van Aken.
Edward H. May.
Samuel D. Westervelt.
CSCiv. "—i w. %_ ■_. v, <~ v, v« v, ci 4; ci tf 2 "~
01 1^ os tc -a«"co t~ os tCo of -^m -^"00 > «o
I- 00 . " i GC <X) CO CO X GO 00 CO 'j. 06 CO 00 ° 00
Washington Square Church,
German Evan. Miss. Church,
True Dutch Reformed,
■ '■ ■ ■
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
. - 4)
.5 2 fcJ1
Stephen H. Tyng.
B L. Haigljt.
G. T. Bedell.
B. C. C. Parker.
< ' F Cruse.
Thomas H. Taylor.
Samuel L. Southard.
It. M. Abercrombie.
L P. W Balch.
Edward N. Mead.
John M Forbes.
Joseph H. Price.
II. J. Whitehouse.
192 ft. by 84,
113 ft. by 72,
132 ft. by 80,
101 ft. by 72,
60 ft. by 50,
84 ft. by 60,
100 ft. by 74,
i.O ft. by 64,
70 ft. by ad,
80 ft. by 60,
SO ft. by 24,
140 ft. by 86,
63 It. by 57,
64 ft by 24,
72 ft. by 44,
64 ft. by 41,
116. ft. by 68,
75 ft. by 54,
66 ft. by 48,
100 ft. by 66,
53 ft. by 3fi,
86 ft. by 60,
75 ft. by 54,
113ft by 6>,
80 ft. by 64,
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St. Paul's (Chapel,)
St. John's (Chapel,)
St. Philip's (coloured,)
Church of the Saviour,
St. Simon's German (Miss.)
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
R.C. Shimeal] .
E. A. Nichols,
W. A. Muhlenberg.
C. H. Williamson.
75 ft. by 60,
66 ft. by 52.
100 ft. by 50,
67 ft. by 46,
74 ft. by 40,
68 ft. by 52
104 ft. by 66,
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Emanuel Free Church,
Church of Holy Communion,
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L'Eglise du St. Sauveur, (Fr.)
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Ch. of the Holy Apostles,
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CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
William E. Schenck.
John C. Lowrie.
145 ft. by 70,
46 ft. by 32,
60 ft. by 45,
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CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
70 ft. by 54, I [Vacant.]
65 ft. by 46, Chaiics G. Sornmers.
70 ft. by 50, David Bellamy.
56 ft. by 32, L. G. Marsh.
64 ft. by 50, Jacob Broun er.
40 ft. by 25, Luke Barker.
50 ft. by 35, Stephen Dutton.
70 ft. by 54, William It. Williams.
4S ft. by 22, Theophilus Jones.
70 ft. by 55. Alnnzo Wlieelock
80 ft. by 60, John Dowling.
70 ft. by 56. Henry Davis.
90 ft by 63, Edward l.athrop.
building, .1 < ' Hopkins.
65 ft. by 48, George Benedict.
85 ft. by 61, jW W. Everts.
60 ft. by 40, Mr: Spencer.
building, J. R. Stewarl.
60 fl. b V 40, L. Covcll.
64 ft. by 40, S. A. Cn!cy.
52 ft. by 33, [Vacant.]
40 It. by 20, 'Job Plant.
50 tt. by 30, E. Parmly.
60 ft by 40, H. Simonlon.
building, | Johnson Chase.
Providence Chape , Thompson street, 1823, 1 60 ft. by 40, i.Toseph Harrison.
Tabernacle Church, Broadway, 1836, i 100 H. by 100, j.T P.Thompson.
Fourth Congregational, Hancock street, no building, W.W.Wallace
First Free Congregational, Chrysiie street, 1844, 75 ft. by 4^, J. H. Martyn.
Second Free Congregational, Sullivan-street, 1845, | 90 ft. by 42, |Samuel D. Cochran.
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Bethel Particular Baptists,
Church of the Disciples,
Suffolk st. Christian Church,
CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
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CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK.
82 ft. by 54, Thomas J. Sawyer.
72 ft. by 00. William S. Balch.
80 ft. by 6:5, Moses Hallou.
60 ft. by 40, J. N. Parker.
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CITY OF BROOKLYN.
This town, the whole of which is now included within
the corporation of the city of Brooklyn, lies upon the ex-
treme western part of Long Island, opposite the southern
portion of the city of New-York, and separated therefrom
by the East river, which is here about three quarters of a
mile in width. Its length from northeast to southwest is
six, and its greatest breadth four miles. The population
in 1810 was 4,402; in 1820, 7,175; in 1830, 15,396; in
1840, 36,233; of whom 1,673 were employed in com-
merce; 4,666 in manufactures and trades; 978 in navi-
gating the ocean; 302 ditto rivers and canals; 307 in the
learned professions and engineers,. It is the second place
in population in the State, and the seventh in the United
States. The pure air and delightful prospects of Brook-
lyn render it a favourite place of residence to persons doing
business in New-York, and it is nearer to the business cen-
tres of the latter than residences in the upper part of the
city ; and these things have contributed to give it a very
rapid growth. The increase of population from 1830 to
1840 was 20,837. Its present population is about 60,000.
" The name conferred upon this town by the Dutch was
Breucklen, (or broken land ;) and in the act for dividing
the province into counties and towns, passed November 1,
1685, it is called Breucklyn; nor does the present appella-
tion appear to have been generally adopted until after the
revolution. Many changes have doubtless taken place
upon the shore, and it is believed that Governor's Island
was formerly connected with Red Hook Point. It is well
known, that a short period previous to the war of inde-
pendence, cattle were driven across what is called Butter-
milk Channel, now sufficiently deep to afford passage to
vessels of the largest class. The first European settler in
this town is supposed to have been George Jansen de
Rapelje, at the Waalboght, or Waaloons Bay, during the
150 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
Directorship of Peter Minuit, under the charter of the West
India Company. In a family record in the possession of
Jeremiah Johnson, Esq., it is stated that the first child of
Rapelje was Sarah, born in 1625, unquestionably the first
white child born upon Long Island. Watson says she
was born on theOth of June, and honoured as the first-born
child of the Dutch settlers; also that, in consideration of
such distinciion, and of her widowhood, she was afterward
presented with a tract of land at the Wallabout. In the
journal of the Dutch Council in 1056, it is related that
''the widow Hans Hansen, the first-born Christian
daughter in New-Netherlands, burdened with seven
children, petitions for a grant of a piece of meadow, in ad-
dition to the twenty moigen granted to her at the Waale-
Boght." A few of the other associates of De Rnpelje
wereLeEscuyc-r, Duryee ; La Sillier. Cershow.Conscillacr,
Musserol; these, with some changes in the mode of spell-
ing, are still found among us. It appears by the Dutch
records, that in 1634, a part of the land at Red Hook was
the property of Wouter Van Twiller, being one of the
oldest titles in the town. The earliest deed for land was
from Governor Kieftto Abraham Rycken, in 1638.
The city is regularly laid out, and the streets, with the
exception of Fulton-street, the oldest in the city, are gene-
rally straight, crossing each other at right angles, and are
from 50 to 60 feet wide, and a number of them have great-
er width. A. large number of the streets, including all
within the thickly settled parts, are paved and lighted. Ma-
ny of the streets are bordered with trees, giving the place
a peculiarly rural aspect. Fulton-street, originally narrow
in its lower portion, lias been amply widened, and is border-
ed with ranges of lofty brick stores, and presents a com-
manding entrance to the city. No city in the country, of
its extent, is better built than Brooklyn, and many of its
houses are distinguished for a chaste elegance, and some of
them are splendid. Brooklyn, as laid out by the commis-
sioners appointed by the State Legislature, is sufficiently
large to become another London; and if the spirit of specu-
lation could have been quiet, it is questionable whether it
would not have been better to have left many of its origi-
nal farms for the present undisturbed. Many of the streets
are not opened and regulated, though this has been done to
quite as great an extent as the present necessities of the city
require. The thickly settled parts have no public squares
or open grounds; and, though some have been laid out
within the city bounds, they are not in such locations as to
add, at present, to its beauty or its comfort. Many of its
principal avenues, however, have a commanding width, and
its whole appearance is open and airy; and its great extent,
and the many fine situations presented in its outer parts,
will probably long prevent it from being uncomfortably
crowded in the portions now most thickly settled.
A city-hall was projected a number of years since, on a
magnificent plan, to be built of white marble. A substan-
tial and durable foundation was laid, and the basement sto-
ry erected, at a great expense. But the location was unhappy,
and the plan altogether beyond the present wants of the
city. A new plan has been drawn, but nothing is yet de-
Brooklyn was incorporated as a village in 1816, and as
a city, with greatly extended limits, in 1834. It is divided
into nine wards, and is governed by a mayor and a board
of eighteen aldermen, two from each ward, all elected by
Brooklyn was first settled in 163G, but it did not choose
regular magistrates until 174G, though some kind of
authority was previously established. The first house for
publie worship, which was a Dutch church, was erected in
1666. Six years previous to this, the Rev. Henricus Sel-
wyn had been installed in Brooklyn, with a salary of 600
guilders, or $2-10, one half of which was paid by the in-
habitants, and the other half by Fatherland, or Holland.
There are some remains of fortifications which were
thrown up by both armies during the revolutionary war,
which may siill be traced on the hills in the back parts of
Brooklyn. The principal of these is Fort Greene. This
was originally a large fort. Many of the embankments
were repaired during the war of 1812, and the whole may
152 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
still be distinctly traced. It is one of the most interesting
spots in the vicinicy of New-York.
OLD JERSEY PRISON SHIP.
For a description of this, the reader is referred to pages
13 — 15 of this volume.
The place where this ship, and the other hospital ships
were moored, was near the present Navy Yard.
REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS' TOMB.
Those who died on board the prison ships were gene-
rally buried in the sand on the Long Island shore. In the
year 1808 the bones of those who had died, and which
were washed out from the bank where they had been slightly
buried, and were bleaching in the sun, were collected and
deposited in thirteen coffins, inscribed with the names of the
thirteen original states, and placed in a vault beneath a
suitable building, erected for the purpose, in Jackson-street,
opposite to Front-street, near the Navy Yard. On the
point of the roof of the building, which is a small, square
edifice, is an American eagle. On a row of posts and rails
in front of the tomb, are inscribed the names of the thirteen
original states, and the tomb is surrounded by a fence.
Over the entrance of the enclosure in which the building is
situated is the following inscription: " Portal to the tomb
of 11,500 patriot prisoners, who died in dungeons and
prison ships, in and about the city of New-York during
the revolution." An imposing ceremony took place when
the bones were deposited; and 15,000 persons were sup-
posed to have been present on the occasion. These re-
mains deserve a removal to the Greenwood Cemetery, in a
conspicuous place, and a national monument commemora-
ting the important battle of Flatbush, the interesting locali-
ties of which are in view from its more elevated portions.
Connected with the ancient history of Brooklyn, and the
scenes of the revolution, already sketched, it will not be
inappropriate to give some account of
THE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND.
After the commencement of hostilities in 1776, New-
York beins: situated near the centre of the colonial sea-
BATTLE OF LONG- ISLAND. 153
board, and consequently readily accessible from the sea,
was selected by the British as the principal point for their
future operations. With this view, the first division of their
army arrived at Staten Island in the latter part of June
that year, followed, about the middle of July, by the grand
armament under Lord Howe, consisting of six ships of the
line, thirty fngates y with smaller armed vessels, and a great
number of transports, victuallers, and ships with ordnance
The Americans, anticipating the invasion of Long
Island, had fortified Brooklyn before the arrival of the
British at Staten Island. A line of intrenchment was
formed from a ditch near the late tollhouse of the bridge at
the Navy Yard to Fort Greene, and from thence to Freek's
mill-pond. A strong work was erected on the lands of Jo-
hannis Debe voice and Van Brunt; a redoubt was thrown
upon Bcemus' C JL ill, opposite Brown's Mill, west of Fort
Greene. Ponkicsberg, now Fort Swift, was fortified, and a
fort built on Brooklyn Heights. Such were the defences
of Brooklyn in 177t>, while chevauz de frise were sunk in
the main channel of the river below New- York. It was
not until the middle of August, that a first landing on Long
Island was made by them, which was effected at New-
Utrecht, or Bath. Here they were joined by many royalists,
who, it was supposed, acted the part of guides and in-
formers to the enemy. General Sir Henry Clinton also
arrived about the same time, and Commodore Hotham soon
after appeared with his escort; so that in a short time, the
hostile army amounted to about twenty-four thousand men,
consisting of English, Hessians and Waldeckers. Several
regiments of Hessian infantry were expected to arrive
shortly, when the army would be swelled to the number of
thirty-five thousand, of the best troops of Europe, all
abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition, and
manifesting extreme ardor for the service of their king.
Their plan of operations was, first to get possession of
New-York, which was deemed of the most paramount im-
portance. The American troops being divided, and their
generals surprised and pressed on all sides, it was not
doubted but the British arms would soon obtain a complete
To resist this impending storm, Congress had ordered the
construction of rafts, gun-boats, galleys and floating
batteries, for the defence of the port of New-York, and the
mouth of the Hudson. They had also decreed, that thir-
teen thousand of the provincial militia should join the army
of General Washington, who, being seasonably apprized
of the danger of New-York, had made a movement into
that quarter ; they also directed the organization of a corps
of ten thousand men, to serve as a reserve in the central
provinces. All the weakest posts had been carefully in-
trenched, and furnished with artillery. A strong detach-
ment occupied Long Island, to prevent the English from
landing there, if possible, or to repulse them, should they
effect a debarkation. But the army of Congress was very
far from being able to bear the brunt of so terrible a war.
It wanted arms, and was wasted by diseases. The reite-
rated calls of the commmander-in-chief for reinforcements,
had brought into his camp the militia of the neighbouring
provinces, and some regular regiments from Maryland,
Pennsylvania and New England, which had swelled his
army to twenty-seven thousand men in number ; but one
fourth of these troops were invalids, and scarcely another
fourth of them were furnished with arms.
The American army, such as it was, occupied the po-
sitions that were best adapted to cover the menaced points.
The corps which had been stationed on Long Island was
commanded by General Sullivan. The main body of the
army was encamped on the island of New-York, which
it appeared was likely to receive the first attack of the
Two feeble detachments guarded Governor's Island and
the point of Paulus' Hook. The militia of the province,
commanded by the American General Clinton, were posted
upon the banks of the sound, where they occupied East and
West Chester, and New-Rochelle; for it was to be feared
that the enemy, landing in force upon the north shore of the
sound, might penetrate as far as King's bridge, and thus en-
tirely lock up all the American troops on the island of New-
York. Lord Howe, the commander-in-chief of the British
forces, made some overtures of peace, upon terms of sub-
BATTLE OF LOS>G ISLAND. 155
mission to the royal clemency, which resulting in nothing,
decided him in making an attack on Long Island ; and on
the 22d of August, the British troops landed, without oppo-
sition, near Gravesend.
A large part of the American army was at this time
stationed on Brooklyn heights, under General Putnam.
The right wing was covered by a marsh, near Gowanus
cove, and having Governor's Island in the rear, he could
in this way communicate with the army in .New-York,
The English having effected their landing, marched ra-
pidly forward. The two armies were separated by a chain
of hills, covered with woods, called the heights, which run-
ning from west to east, divide the island, as it were, into
two parts. They are only practicable upon three points;
oneof which is near theNarrows, the second, the road lead-
ing to the centre through the village of Flatbush, and the
third is approached far to the right, by the village of Flat-
lands. Upon the summit of the hills there is a road which
continues along the whole length of the range, and leads
from Bedford to Jamaica, which is intersected by the two
roads last described : these ways are interrupted by preci-
pices, and exceedingly difficult and narrow defiles.
The American general, wishing to arrest the enemy in
his progress, had carefully furnished the heights with troops,
so that, if all had done their duty, the English would not
have been able to force the passes without the greatest diffi-
culty and danger. The posts were so frequent upon the
road from Bedford to Jamaica, that it was easy to transmit
the most prompt intelligence of what passed upon these
three routes, from one point to another. Col. Miles, with
his battalion, was appointed to guard the road to Flatlands,
and scour it continually with his scouts, as well as the road
to Jamaica, in order to reconnoitre the movements of the
enemy. Meanwhile the British army pressed forward, its
left wing being to the north, and its right to the south ; the
village of Flatbush being in the centre. The Hessians,
commanded by General de Heister, formed the main body;
the English, under Major General Grant, the left; and other
corps, conducted by General Clinton and the two Lords,
156 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
Percy and Cornwallis, composed the right. In this wing
the British generals placed their principal hope of success,
and directed it upon Flatlands. Their plan was, that while
the corps of General Grant and the Hessians of General
Heister should distress and annoy the enemy upon the two
first defiles, the left wing, taking a circuitous route, should
march through Flatlands, and endeavour to seize the point
of intersection of this road with that of Jamaica; and then,
rapidly descending into the plain which extends at the foot
of the heights upon the other side, should fall upon the
Americans in flank and rear. The English hoped, as this
point was the farthest from the centre of the army, the
advanced guards would be found more feeble there, and per-
haps more negligent; finally, they calculated that the Ameri-
cans would not be able to defend it against so superior a
force. The right wing of the English was the most nume-
rous, and entirely composed of the best and most select
On the evening of the 26th of August, the British army
took up their march in admirable silence and order, and,
passing Col. Miles, who had relaxed in his duty, arrived two
hours before day break within half a mile of the road lead-
ing to Jamaica upon the heights. Here General Clinton halt-
ed and prepared for the attack. General Sullivan had no
advices of their movements, having neglected to send out
General Clinton, learning that the road to Jamaica was
not guarded, hastened to avail himself of the circumstance,
and occupied it by a rapid movement. Without loss of
time, he immediately bore on his left towards Bedford, and
seized an important defile, which the American generals
had left unguarded. From that moment the success of the
day was decided in favour of the English. Lord Percy came
up with his corps, and the entire column descended by the
village of Bedford, from the heights, into the plain which
lay between the hills and the camp of the Americans. Du-
ring this time General Grant, in order to amuse the enemy,
and direct his attention from the events which had taken
place upon the route of Flatlands, endeavoured to disquiet
him upon his right; accordingly, as if he intended to force
BATTLE OF LONG-ISLAND. 157
the defile which led to it, he put himself in motion about
midnight, and attacked the militia oi New-York and Penn-
sylvania, who guarded it. At first they gave ground ; but
General Parsons being arrived, and having occupied an emi-
nence, he renewed the combat, and maintained his position
till Brigadier General Lord Sterling came to his assistance
with about fifteen hundred men. The action now became
general and extremely animated upon both sides, fortune
favouring neither one or the other. The Hessians had at-
tacked the centre at break of day; and the Americans, com-
manded by General Sullivan in person, fought valiantly.
At the same time the English ships, after making several
movements, opened a brisk cannonade against a battery
established at Red [look Point, upon the right flank of the
Americans, who combatted against General Grant. This,
also, was a diversion, the object of which was to prevent
them from attending to what passed in the centre and on the
left. The Americans, however, defended themselves with
great bravery, ignorant, as they were, that so much valour
was exerted in vain, as the victory was already in the
hands of the enemy. General Clinton having descended
into the plain, fell upon the left flank of the centre, which
was engaged with the Hessians. He had also previous-
ly detached a small corps in order to intercept the Ameri-
As soon as the appearance of the English light infantry
apprized the Americans of their danger, they sounded the
retreat, and retired in good order towards their camp,
bringing ofT their artillery. But they fell in with a party of
royal troops which had occupied the ground in their rear,
who charged them with fury ; and they were compelled to
throw themselves into the neighbouring woods, where they
again met with the Hessians, who repulsed them back upon
the English; thus the Americans were driven several times
against one or the other with great loss. They continued
for some time in this desperate situation, till at length se-
veral regiments, animated by an heroic valour, forced their
way through the midst of the enemy, and gained the camp
of General Putnam ; others escaped through the woods.
The inequality of the ground, the great number of posi-
158 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
tions which it offered, and the disorder that prevailed
throughout the line, were the cause for many hours of seve-
ral partial combats taking place, in which numbers of the
Their left wing and centre being discomfited, the Eng-
lish, desirous of having a complete victory, made a rapid
movement against the rear of the right wing, which being
ignorant of the misfortune that had befallen the other corps,
was engaged with Gen. Grant. Finally, having received
the intelligence, they retired from so unequal a contest.
But, again encountering the English, who had cut off their
retreat, part of them took shelter in the woods, others
endeavoured to make their way through the marshes of
Gowanus's cove, but many , were drowned in the waters
or perished in the mud ; a very small number only
escaped the hot pursuit of the victors, and reached the
camp in safety.
The total loss of the Americans in this battle was esti-
mated at more than three thousand men, in killed, wounded
and prisoners. Among the latter was General Sullivan and
Brigadier General Lord Stirling. Almost the entire regi-
ment of Maryland, consisting of young men of the best
families in that province, was cut to pieces. Six pieces of
cannon fell into the hands of the victors. The loss of the
English was very inconsiderable; it did not amount to four
hundred men, in killed, wounded and prisoners.
The enemy encamped in front of the American lines;
and on the succeeding night broke ground within six hun-
dred yards of a redoubt on the left, and having thrown up
a breastwork on the Wallabout heights, upon the Debe-
voice farm, commenced firing on Fort Putnam, and recon-
noitred the American forces.
The Americans were here prepared to receive them ; and
orders were issued to the men to reserve their fire till they
could see the eyes of the enemy. A few of the British
officers reconnoitred the position; and one, on coming too
near, was shot by William Van Cotts, of Bush wick. The
same afternoon, Captain Rutgers, brother of the late Col.
Rutgers, also fell. Several other British troops were killed,
and the column which had incautiously advanced, fell back
beyond the range of the American fire.
BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 159
In this critical state of the American army on Long
Island, having a numerous and victorious enemy in front,
with a formidable train of artillery, the fleet indicating an
intention of forcing a passage up the East river, the troops
lying without shelter from heavy rains, fatigued and dis-
pirited, General Washington determined to withdraw the
army from the island ; and this difficult movement was
effected, not only with great skill and judgment, but with
complete success. The retreat was to have commenced at
eight o'clock in the evening of the 29th, but a strong north-
east wind and a rapid tide caused a delay of several hours;
a southwest wind, however, springing up r-.t eleven o'clock,
greatly facilitated the passage of the army from the island
to New- York city; and a thick fog hanging over Long
Island towards morning, covered its movements from the
enemy, who were so near, that the sound of their pick-
axes and shovels were distinctly heard by the Americans.
General Washington, as far as it was possible, inspected
every thing himself, from the commencement of the action
on the morning of the 27th, till all the troops had crossed
the river in safety; he never closed his eyes, and was
almost constantly on horseback. After the American army
had evacuated Long Island, and the British troops and
their allies, the tories and refugees, had taken possession
of it, many distressing occurrences and heart-rending
scenes of persecution took place. Those whigs who had
been at all active in behalf of the cause of independence,
were exiled from their homes, and their dwellings subjected
to indiscriminate plunder. Such as could be taken, were
incarcerated in the churches of New-Utrecht and Flat-
lands; while royalists, wearing a red badge in their hats,
were encouraged and protected. It is believed that had
Lord Howe availed himself of the advantage he possessed,
by passing his ships up the river between New- York and
Brooklyn, he would have cut off their retreat, and the
whole of the American army must have been captured.
Washington saw this, and wisely abandoned the island.
The unfortunate issue of the battle was altogether owing
to the misconduct of Col. Miles and the unfortunate igno-
rance of Gen. Putnam, who had just taken the command.
160 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
Gen. Greene being sick, Putnam could give no order about
the lines and positions, for he had not had time to under-
This naval depot is situated on the south side of the
Wallabout Bay, in the northeastern part of the city, and
is well worthy the notice of strangers visiting Brooklyn.
The government possess about forty acres of land, inclu-
ding the site of the old mill-pond. There is a spacious
yard, public store houses, machine shops, and two immense
edifices, built of wood, in which ships of war of the largest
class are protected from the weather while they are build-
ing. On the opposite side of the bay the " Naval Hos-
pital" which is a splendid and magnificent building, has
been lately erected, and the site on which it is built is very
beautiful and picturesque.
" Unileil States Naval Lyceum" is also in the Navy
Yard. This institution was organized by the officers of
the Navy and Marine Corps, in order to promote the dif-
fusion of useful knowledge, and to foster a spirit of har-
mony, and a community of interest in the service.
It contains a splendid collection of curiosities and sci-
entific specimens. Its minerologieal and geological cabi-
nets are not surpassed by any in New-York. A fine col-
lection of Egyptian antiquities may be found here. The
walls of the room are adorned by collections of fine paint-
ings. Trophies of war, rare and curious weapons of war,
and an extensive library, are among the objects of interest
here collected. The whole forms a very interesting place
Ships of war of all classes are always stationed at this
yard, either undergoing repairs, being built, or laying up
in ordinary. Several vessels of a large class are now, and
have been for many years, on the stocks. Immense stores
of lumber, cannon, ammunition, and other naval stores, are
here in preparation for any emergency.
LONG ISLAND RAIL-ROAD.
The length of the road, from Brooklyn to Greenport, is
LONG ISLAND RAILROAD TUNNEL.
BROOKLYN LYCEUM. 161
The rail used in the construction is what is known as
the heavy H rail, and weighs 56 pounds per lineal yard.
The whole cost of construction of the rail-road, including
the tunnel, was $1, 746. 000.
The tunnel under Atlantic-street is 2,750 feet long, and
The termination of the Long Island Rail-Road is at the
South Ferry, in Brooklyn, through Atlantic-street. The
land being somewhat elevated, it became necessary either
to cut down the street, or construct a tunnel. This last
was done. The depth at the highest part of the street is
about 30 feet.
A line of cars start from this place to Boston daily, and
accommodation trains for the intermediate places on the
island, at several times in the day.
Names of Places. from from
Bedford, Si M. 12*
East New- York, 5 " 12*
Union Course, 7* " 18|
Jamaica, 11 " 25
Brushville, 14 " 37£
Hempstead Branch, 18 " 43f
Carl Place, 20 " 43f
Hicksville, 26 " 56*
Farmingdale, 31 " 68|
Deerpark, 37 " 87*
Suffolk Station, 44 <! 1 12*
Medford Station, 55 " 1 50
St. George's Manor, 67 " 175
Riverhead, 74 " 2 00
Mattetuck, 84 " 2 00
Southold, 91 " 2 12i
Greenport, 95 " 2 25
One of the principal public buildings in the city is the
"Lyceum" which is a fine specimen of architecture, built of
granite, and every way adapted to the purpose of its pro-
jection. It is situated in Washington-street, near Concord.
162 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
The institution was organized in October, 1833. The
" City Library 11 has been lately established here, which
contains a great number of valuable literary works, and is
highly deserving of the general patronage and support of
THE SAVINGS BANK
Is also located in the Lyceum building; an excellent insti-
tution, managed by careful men, and in a prosperous con-
This rural depository for the dead attracts much attention
at the present time, and therefore claims somewhat of an
These grounds comprise about 185 acres, and are more
extensive than the grounds of any similar institution in
this country. They are situated in Brooklyn, at Gowa-
nus, on a high ridge of hills, commanding beautiful and
extensive views of the bay and cities of New-York and
Brooklyn, the Narrows, Jersey shore, and the Atlantic
Ocean ; and are distant from the South Ferry, at Brooklyn,
two and a half miles.
Persons wishing to visit the Cemetery can take the stages
which leave the Fulton Ferry, in Brooklyn, every hour
during the day, and return by the same as often. — Fare
The charter authorizes the land belonging to the corpora-
tion to be used exclusively for the burial of the dead; ex-
empts the lands for ever from assessment and public taxes,
and requires that the proceeds of all sales shall be applied
to the improvement of the Cemetery. It also authorizes
every proprietor of 300 square feet or more of land, to vote
at any election of Trustees. Persons buying lots acquire
the fee simple of the ground which they purchase. They
control the government of the institution, and, by legis-
lative acts, can never be forcibly deprived of the ground.
The price of an ordinary burial lot is one hundred dollars.
Four lots in a group may be bought for eighty dollars
The beautiful grounds of Greenwood have already be-
come the scene of much resort. They will be visited by in-
MONUMENT 'ID IMC. Miitl,lh. GilKENH'OnD.
GREENWOOD CEMETERY. 163
creasing numbers, as they become more known, and espe-
cially as the circle widens which connects by lies of mourn-
ful interest its silent occupants with the living multitudes in
the adjacent cities. To such they should present all that
becomes a Christian Cemetery, situated in a wealthy neigh-
bourhood, and commenced in an age of refinement and of
art. In the variety and beauty of these grounds — so open
and sunny in some parts — so shaded and secluded in others
— so near to a vast city, yet so retired and still — nature has
left us nothing to desire. Art has but just commenced its
great work of improvement here. The work has been well
begun. Several of the monuments and tombs are strictly
original, and if not perfect, are pioneers to a better taste.
From the happy and fertile inventions which produce these,
as well as from other kindred sources, it is hoped we shall
obtain many more of equal if not superior merit. The gate
of the Cemetery is constructed of timber, in the rustic style,
and presents a very picturesque appearance. There is
also a chapel, constructed in the same style, with a bell,
which tolls during the time of funerals.
The circumference of one lot is 82 feet, or 12 by 25
square. A receiving tomb is provided at the Cemetery, in
which interments may be made by proprietors of lots, or
those intending to become such. This tomb is situated in
A receiving tomb is also provided in Brooklyn, for the
convenience of those who may wish the funeral procession
to terminate there.
A receiving tomb is also provided in New-York, in the
Carmine-street Cemetery, where temporary interments may
be made, subject to the charge of three dollars for the use of
the tomb, and one dollar each time for the opening of the
same. The key of this tomb is in charge of Mr. John
Mace, No. 75 Carmine-street.
Graves. — Single graves may be procured in grounds ap-
propriated for that purpose and enclosed by a hedge, at ten
dollars each. Children's graves, under twelve years of age,
at five dollars each.
Rules concerning Visiters. — Visiters will obtain the best
general view of the Cemetery, and reach the entrance again
164 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
without difficulty, by keeping the main Avenue, called The
Tour, as indicated by the guide boards. A little fa-
miliarity, however, with the grounds, will enable them to
take the other avenues, many of which pass through
grounds of peculiar interest and beauty.
Each proprietor of a lot will be entitled to a ticket of ad-
mission into the Cemetery with a vehicle, under the follow-
ing regulations, the violation of which, or a loan of the
ticket, involves a forfeiture of the privilege.
No vehicle will be admitted unless accompanied by a pro-
prietor, or a member of his or her household, or unless
presenting a special ticket of admission.
On Sundays and Holidays the gates will be closed.
Proprietors of lots, however, will be admitted on foot.
No person or party having refreshments will be permitted
to come within the grounds, nor will any smoking be al-
Children will not be admitted without their parents or
guardians. Persons having dogs mustleavethem fastened
at the gate.
No horse may be left by the driver in the grounds, unfas-
All persons are prohibited from picking any flowers,
either wild or cultivated, or breaking any tree, shrub or
Any person disturbing the quiet and good order of the
place by noise or other improper conduct, will be compelled
instantly to leave the grounds.
The gates will be opened at sunrise, and closed (for
entrance) at sunset.
No money may be paid to the Porter.
The Keeper of the grounds, appointed by the Mayor of
Brooklyn a special Marshal, with a view to the preserva-
tion of the grounds, is authorized and directed to remove
all who violate these ordinances or commit trespasses.
Trespassers are also liable to criminal prosecutions and a
fine of Fifty Dollars.
The company who are prosecuting this extensive work
was incorporated in May, 1840, with a capital of
UNION FERRY COMPANY. 165
SI ,000,000. The shares are one hundred dollars each.
It is situated on the water front of the Sixth Ward of
Brooklyn, below the South Ferry, within " Red Hook
Point," the outside pier extending 3,000 feet on " Buttermilk
Channel." The basin within the piers will contain about
forty-two acres, with a sufficient depth of water to ac-
commodate the largest ships. On the piers there are to be
built large warehouses, many of which are already
erected. Some improvement of this kind was needed, by
the crowded state of the docks around New-York city, and
the difficulty of finding suitable berths to unload vessels
with heavy cargoes. When this improvement is com-
pleted, it will throw into the market more than five hundred
valuable building lots, valuable, especially for stores and
large warehouses, all of which are now below high water
mark, but which must be filled in when the piers are built.
A new ferry is projected from the north corner of the basin
to the Battery in New-York. The whole work is im-
mense, and is well worthy the attention of a stranger.
BROOKLYN UNION FERRY COMPANY.
The distance across the South Ferry, from Atlantic-
street to Whitehall, New. York, is 1,472 yards.
The distance across the Fulton Ferry, from Fulton-
street, Brooklyn, to Fulton-street, New-York, is 731
The Union Ferry Company own eight boats, six of
which are kept running. The average cost of each boat
is about $30,000.
Three boats are run on each ferry throughout the year.
The hours of running at the South Ferry are from 4
A. M. toll P. M.
At the Fulton Ferry a boat is kept running all the time,
with the exception of one hour at night, viz., from 2 to 3
The price of passage at both ferries is two cents for foot
passengers; small children half price.
The ferriage for a carriage and two horses is 25 cents,
do. do. and one horse is 18| "
166 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
The price of commutation for males over 21 is $10 per
For males under 21 is from $4 to $6.
The price of commutation for females, $5.
Commuters have the privilege of crossing both ferries.
The whole number of persons employed at both ferries
is about 100.
The improvements at the ferry landings recently made
have cost. $50,000 ; the buildings at all the four points be-
ing substantial and convenient.
The commutation at the two ferries for the year 1845 was
$30,000. By articles of agreement, the dividend to stock,
holders is limited to seven per cent, per annum ; the sur-
plus profit to be applied to the improvements of the fer-
ries and the extinguishment of the stock.
Of these there are many, both for males and females, and
many of them of a high order. Without instituting any
invidious comparisons, the stranger will feel richly com-
pensated by visiting two of them, the oldest it is believed
of the whole, viz. : Mr. Putnam's school for boys, and Mr.
Greenleaf's school for girls. Mr. Putnam has been teach-
ing in Brooklyn for fifteen years, with an average of 40
pupils a year. Some of the boys have been with him for
several years, and he has thus had the instruction of about
600 boys. The most thorough foundation is here laid for
a complete English education. The school is in Henry-
street, corner of Love-lane.
Mr. Greenleaf's school has been in operation ten years,
with an average of 10 pupils a year, comprising in the
whole length of time250 individuals. Here is taught every
branch of solid study comprised in a thorough female edu-
cation. At least $20,000 is here invested in library, text-
books, apparatus, &c. &c. This school is located in
Pierrepont-street, corner of Clinton-street.
BROOKLYN FEMALE ACADEMY.
Such is the name of an institution projected, but not yet
in operation. A very spacious building is in progress of
erection on Joralemon-street, near Clinton.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 167
The public schools are under the control and management
of a Board of Education, composed of three representa-
tives from each of the ten school districts, together with the
county Superintendent and Mayor of the city, who are ex
The representatives are appointed by the Common Coun-
cil, (who are the commissioners of common schools,) and
hold their office for three years, and are divided into three
classes, one class being appointed annually on the first
Monday in February.
The Board of Education appoint from among their own
body a President, Vice-President and Secretary, (the city
Treasurer being ex officio Treasurer.) The present officers
are Theo. Earnes, President ; Stephen Haynes, Vice-Presi-
dent; and Alfred G. Stevens, Secretary.
The number of children comprised within the ten dis-
tricts, which includes the whole city, between the ages of
five and sixteen, and upon which is based the apportion-
ment of school money, is about twelve thousand white , and
four hundred coloured. The number which attends the
schools is about two thousand and jive hundred white,
and one hundred and fifty coloured.
The number of teachers and monitors engaged in the va-
rious schools is about sixty, and the amount of compensa-
tion annually paid for teaching amounts to about fourteen
The course of instruction embraces all the various
branches of English education. Vocal music also forms a
prominent feature of instruction, a competent teacher being
engaged expressly for that purpose.
In each district there is a valuable library, free not only
to the scholars but also to every inhabitant, male and fe-
male, in the district. The number of volumes in some ex-
The school houses in the inner or compact pai-t of the
city are handsome brick buildings, three stories in height,
costing about six thousand dollars each, exclusive of the
ground. The others, in the outer sections, are substantial
168 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
This institution has been in operation for about twelve
years. Some eight or ten years ago a spacious brick edi-
fice was erected near Myrtle Avenue. A large number of
children are here provided for. It is patronized by all de-
The " City Buildings" are situated at the corner of
Henry and Cranberry streets; there is nothing in the
architecture of the exterior of them worthy of notice; they
are used as courts and offices of the corporation lor the
transaction of the public business of the city.
The "King's County Courts" are held in the large build-
ing called the " Exchange" situated at the corner of Cran-
berry and Fulton streets ; it is a plain brick building, with-
out any extraordinary architectural beauty.
The " King's County Jail or Prison" is situated in
Raymond-street, at the foot of Fort Greene ; it is a dark,
heavy-looking, castellated gothic edifice, in front built of
red sandstone, with gothic windows at each side, and a
large yard at the back ; the site where it is located is not a
very favourable one for the display of its architectural
front; had it been erected on the summit of Fort Greene, it
would have had a more commanding appearance, and have
been a much more healthy location for the prisoners.
CHUBCIIES IIV BROOKLYN.
There are nearly forty church buildings in Brooklyn,
and some of them elegant structures. Our limits allow us
to describe only a few of them.
CHURCH OF THE SAVIOUR,
(first unitarian congregational,)
Picrrepont-strcet, corner of Monroe Place.
This church is built in the perpendicular gothic style, of
red sandstone: the walls, which are rubble, from the quar-
CHURCHES I.V BROOKLYN. ] 69
nes at Nyack, N. J., and the ornamental portions, which
are finely hammered, from those of Connecticut. The en-
tire length of the building, exclusive of ihe front towers,
winch project ci-ht feet, is eighty feet; and its width, ex-
clusive of the buttresses on the corners, which project four
feet, is sixty-five feet. The front central towers are about
sixteen ftet at the base, and rise one hundred and eighteen
feet, being terminated by pinnacles fully enriched. The
corner towers rise sixty-five feet, terminated like the others.
The walls are crowned by a battlement of hammered
stone. The doors are deeply recessed; the central one
opening fourteen feet high and ten feet wide, being recessed
four feet six inches. Above this door are shields of ham-
mered stone on the wail, bearing the name of the church
and the date of its erection. Over these is the front win-
dow, twelve feet wide and twenty-eight feet high; and
windows of less size, but of like character and proportions,
are above the side doors. Over the central window is a
large stone cross in basso relievo on the wall.
The approach to the church is by stone steps, through
gothic gateways attached to a substantia! paling of wrought
iron. The outer doors, of elaborate tracery, open into the
vestibule, ten feet in width, extending across the entire
church, with stairs to the basement, and galleries at either
end. The nave is seventy-five feet long, opened through of
equal width, thirty-five feet, to the great window in front ■
and on cither side the additional width of thirteen feei for
the galleries. The roof of the nave is elegantly vaulted
and groined, the extreme height beinir fifty-seven feet ; that
ol the galleries is of the same style, the height bein^ thirty
feet from the floor of the church.
The entire cost of the building, land, furniture, organ
and external items, may bs stated at about thirty-six thou-
The church was consecrated on the 24th of April 1844
and the present pastor, the Rev. Frederick A. Farley, was
installed on the following day.
170 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
Erected in 1842.
This is a gothic building of a reddish stone, about 100
feet long and 60 feet wide. The height of the -walls is
about 36 feet, and the extreme height of the tower about
100 feet. The tower in front is about 24 feet square, having
heavy buttresses on each corner, built to the top of the
roof, and then becoming octagons to the top, ending in
four large pinnacles. The main entrance is in the tower,
and smaller doors on each side in the body of the church.
There is a large gothic window over the main entrance.
In the tower is a bell and clock. The body of the house
is lighted by 15 windows, seven on each side and one in
the rear, with buttresses between them, running to the
eaves, and there terminating without pinnacles. In the
rear of the building is a lecture room of one story, with
a flat roof, showing above it the large pulpit window of
ground glass, — all the other windows being stained glass.
On the apex of the roof in the rear there is a short stone
cross. The cost of the edifice was about $28,000. Rev.
John S. Stone, D. D., is the present minister.
FIRST REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH,
Erected in 1834.
This church is built of brick, stuccoed to represent clear
white marble. The extreme length of the building is 111
feet, and its width 66 feet, and was erected at a cost of
about $26,000. It is a noble looking structure, and pre-
sents probably one of the best specimens of a Grecian
temple which can be found in this region. Viewing the
building in front we are presented with a deep pediment,
supported by eight Ionic massive fluted pillars, standing
CHURCHES IN BROOKLYN.
on a platform raised about four feet from the ground, and
two similar pillars within these, and nearer to the body
of the house. A lighter pediment projects in the rear of
the building, supported also by one row of pillars. The
house is lighted on the sides only with eight long windows,
four on a side, with square heads. The building is unor-
namented, exhibiting a plain grandeur, well becoming the
purpose for which it was erected. The interior is also
plain. Instead of a close pulpit there is a table or reading
desk, on a raised platform, with a sofa seat. In the rear
of this is a fine perspective, representing a recess, with a
profusion of pillars. It is well executed, and the illusion
very perfect. Rev. M. W. Dwight, D. D., is the present
pastor of the church.
SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH,
FULTON-STREET, CORNER OF CLINTON.
Erected in 1834.
This is one of the largest and most commodious church
edifices in Brooklyn. It is built of brick and stuccoed, and
after the Grecian model, with six heavy Doric pillars sup-
porting the pediment, standing on a platform raised six
steps from the sidewalk. The front presents three large
uniform doors. In each side of the building there are
six tall windows with square tops, having flat pilasters
between them. On the roof, back of the pediment, there is
built a wooden turret about forty feet high, divided into
three sections ; the first being square, the second an octa-
gon, and the third round ; the upper section having several
windows. This turret is not in very good keeping with
the building, as an imitation of a Grecian temple, though
the effect is not bad on the whole. The steeple contains a
fine toned bell, altogether the best in the city. The interior
of the house is plain. It contains about one hundred and
forty pews on the lower floor, and has a deep gallery on
three sides. The cost of the building was about $24,000.
Rev. Ichabod S. Spencer, D. D., is the present minister.
172 CITY OF BROOKLYN.
CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMS,
HENRV-STREET, CORN'E.1 OP REMSEN-STREET.
Erected in 1845.
The Church of the Pilgrims is a congregational body,
formed after the pattern of the churches in New-England.
The church edifice is a very singular one, and altogether
different from any other in this region. It is a very large
building, being in extreme length 135 feet, and its breadth
80 feet. M he height of the walls is 38 feet. It is built of
granite, hewn, but not hammered. The front of the
edifice, on Henry-street, presents us with two towers, one
at each corner; that on the north corner being small, not
over twelve fret square, and being built to about the height
of the. roof of the church, and there terminating in a small
pointed wooden roof. The tower on the west corner is
20 feet square, and built up of stone 100 feet from the
ground, anil thence there ascends a gradually tapering
spire 70 feet farther, where it terminates in a large gilded
ball. There is one large door in front, between the
towers, having over it a large window; and a profusion of
small, narrow windows are scattered about in the towers.
In the centre of the main tower, about six feet from the
ground, a piece of the "forefather's rock," from Plymouth,
Mass., is inserted in the wall, and projecting clearly in
view. In each side of the house there are three large
arched windows, that being the style in whieh all the
windows are made. The lecture room is cut off from the
rear of the building, and is a very large and commodious
room. The rear of the building presents four short windows
below, and one large one above, and a small circular win-
dow in the gable, near the apex. The cosi. of the building
is about $50,030. There is as yet no stated pastor.
— »., ■ ■ ■■
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The Publishers of this little volume have in preparation
a History of the Churches of New. York, accompanied by
engravings, which will render the work highly interesting
to citizens and strangers, and particularly to members of
The volume will contain about two hundred pages, uni-
form in size and appearance with the " Picture of New-
York ;" and will furnish particulars from authentic sources
of every church in this city, prepared by ihe writer of the
short notices of the churches contained in this volume.
Engravings will be given from original designs of the
following buildings, viz., First Presbyterian Church, Christ's
Church, Second Unitarian Church, and various others of
the Presbyterian, Catholic, Episcopal and other societies.
The Publishers will be glad to receive, until the 1st of
March, communications in reference to the date of erection,
dimensions, cost and construction of the churches through,
out the city. The tabular list of the churches in this vol-
ume will be found curious and valuable by those who take
much interest in the subject. The facts have been ascer-
tained by diligent inquiry and personal application or ex-
amination by the compiler.
No. 29 Ann-street, New-York.
WILLIAM FULLER respectfully informs the Gentle-
men of New-York and vicinity, that his Gymnasium is now
open for the reception of pupils. W. F. respectfully calls
the attention of the faculty, parents and guardians, towards
this establishment, which he assures will be conducted in
the strictest manner. Sparring taught as usual.
W. F. has made arrangements with Mr. Hamilton,
teacher of the American and French Broad Sword, also the
Small Sword and Musket exercise. Terms moderate.