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Full text of "A picture of New-York in 1846; with a short account of places in its vicinity; designed as a guide to citizens and strangers .."

PICTURE OF NEW-YORK 

1/ 

1846; 

WITH A SHORT ACCOUNT OF 

PLACES IN ITS VICINITY; 



DESIGNED AS A 



GUIDE TO CITIZENS AND STRANGERS 

■WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, 

AND 

& JHap of tije <Eit2?. 

NEW-YM^ 
HOMANS & ELLIS, 295 BROADWAY. 

184 6. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by 

HOMANS & ELLIS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the 
Southern District of New-York. 



<^3 



James Van Norden'& Co., Printers, 
60 William-street, New-York. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Asylum for Blind, 47 

" for Deaf and Dumb,. 46 

" for Orphans, 48 

" for Coloured People,. 37 

" for the Insane, 43 

" foraged Females,.. 48,79 

American Bible Society, 38 

Apprentices' Library, 54 

Alms-Huuse, 10* 

Artists of New-York, 113 

American Institute, 57 

American Art Union, 59 

American Museum, 68 

Arsenal, 74 

Arrivals of Ships and Pass'rs., 120 
Benevolent Inst'ns of N. Y.,.. 42 

Bowery Theatre 65 

Battery, (The)..' 83 

Bowling-Green, 84 

Churches, list of, their location, 
year of erection, dimensions 

and pastors, 140-148 

Churches, (Description of.) 

Christ's Church, 124 

Church of the Messiah, .... 134 
Carmine st. Presby t'n Ch.,. . 136 
Church of Holy Commu'n., 139 
Dutch Reformed Church,... 132 
Dutch Reformed Church.... 131 
First Presbyterian Church,. 129 
Fir^t Unitarian Church,.... 133 

French Church 124 

First Baptist Church, 127 

Floating Chapel, 137 

Grace Church, 130 

Presbyterian Church, 135 

St. George's Church, 123 

St.. John's Church, 126 

St. Mark's Church, 122 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, .... 123 

St. Thomas' Church, 136 

St. Paul's Church, 125 

Swamp Church, 13tf 

Trinity Church, 121 



Page. 

Columbia College, 35 

College of Phys. and Surg'ns,. 56 

Castle-Garden 68 

Cabs and Hackney Coaches,. 100 

Croton Aqueduct, 70 

Climate and Diseases of N. Y., 109 
Distances from New-York,.. . 98 

Daguerrian Galleries 112 

Early History of New-York,. 1 
Eating Houses of New-York, 80 

Ethnological Society, 54 

Forts and Fortifications, 77 

Ferries, 90 

Gymnasiums, 114 

Hudson (or St. John's)'Square, 84 

Harlaem Uail-Koad, 86 

Jersey Prison Ship, 6, 12 

Literary Institutions, 50 

Lyceum of Natural History,.. 52 

Masonic Hall 37 

Mercantile Library, 52 

Mechanics' Institutions, 57 

Mechanics' Institute, 57 

Mercantile Institutions, 58 

Markets, £5 

Meteorological Table, 110 

Mortality (Bills of,) 117 

Negro Plot of 1741, 7 

New- York, early history of,.. 1 
do. general description of, 17 

do. environs of, 19 

do. Society Library, 50 

do. Lyceum,--.. 53 

do. Law Institute, 53 

do. Historical Society,.. . 54 

do. Medical Society, 56 

do. Hospital, 42 

do. Quarantine Hospital, 44 

do. Art Re-Union, 61 

do. Gallery of Fine Arts,.. 61 
do. Drawing Academy,.. 62 

N'iblo's Garden, 67 

National Academy of Design, 60 
Olympic Theatre, 66 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Omnibuses, 69 

Public Buildings, viz: 

Cily Hall, 27 

Hull of Records, 29 

TheTombs, 29 

Custom-House, 30 

Merchants' Exchange,... 32 

Post Office, 32 

Rotunda, 33 

Park, (The) 83 

ParkTheatre 63 

Picture Galleries and Fine Arts 59 

Places worth visiting, . ...... ^ 74 

Places of public amusement,. . 62 

Public Schools, 73 

Public Squares, 83 

Public Porters, 102 

Population of New- York,.... 106 

Public School Fund, HI 



Page. 
Public Baths, 115 

Places worth visiting, 112 

Religious Institutions, 39 

Steamboats, 75, 91,103 

Steam-boat and Packet Lines, 91 
Stage Lines and departures,.. 95 
Steam-boats built in New- 
York since 1807, 103 

Theological Institutions, 54 

Theatres, 62 

Tompkins Square, 85 

University of New-York, 34 

University Medical School,... 55 

Union Place, 85 

Washington's (Geo.) Retreat, 9 

Washington Square, 85 

Walton House, 116 

Yellow Fever and Cholera,... 16 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



Page. 
View in Broadway, 

(frontispiece.) 

Harlaem Tunnel, 86 

City-Hall, 27 

Tombs,... 29 

Custom-House, 30 



Merchants' Exchange, 
New-York University, 

8 Asylum for the Blind, 47 

9 Asylum for Orphans, 48 

10 New-York Society Library, 50 

11 Clinton Hall 52 

12 University Medical School, 55 

13 Union and National Banks, 114 

14 Monument at Greenwood. . 162 

15 Long Island R. R. Tunnel, 160 

16 Penitentiary, 

17 Packet-ship off the Quar- 

antine, 18 



Page. 

18 Navy Yard, Brooklyn,.... U0 

19 Croton Aqueduct 70 

20 Carmine st. Church, 136 

21 Ch. of Holy Communion, 139 

22 Dutch Reformed Church,.. 132 

23 First Unitarian Church,. .. 133 

24 French Church 124 

25 Floating Chapel J37 

26 Presbyt'n Ch., (Dr. Potts',) 135 

27 St. Mark's Church, 122 

28 St. Patrick's Cathedral,... 128 

29 St. Thomas' Church, 136 

30 Swamp Church, 138 

31 Trinity Church, 121 

32 Unitarian Ch., Brooklyn,.. 168 

33 Old Dutch House, 117 

34 Walton House, 116 

35 Broome-st. Baptist Church, 127 
33 Sir Henry Clinton's House, 113 



BROOKLYN. 



Atlantic Dock, 164 

Brooklyn, (City of,) 149 

Brooklyn Female Academy,. . 166 

City Buildings, Brooklyn, .... 168 

Churches in Brooklyn, 168 

Fortifications on Long Island, 151 

Greenwood Cemetery, 162 



Jersey Prison-ship, 152 

Long Island, (Battle of,) 152 

Long Island Rail-Road, «. 160 

Navy Yard, Brooklyn, 160 

Private Schools, 166 

Public Schools, 167 

Union Ferry Company, 165 



EARLY HISTORY OF NEW-YORK CITY. 



It was formerly the custom of the Atlantic tribes of 
North American Indians to resort to the sea coast during 
the summer months, where they spent their time in the 
peaceful employments of hunting and fishing ; leaving the 
sterner occupations of war for the secret ambushes of the 
interior forests. They generally selected for their summer 
residences some place easy of access, and immediately 
contiguous to their sporting grounds. The island of New- 
York, or as it was called by the natives, Manhattan, was 
a favourite resort of the Hudson river tribes. Abundant 
evidence of this fact is found in the history of its first dis- 
covery, and the indestructible relics that every where 
abound, buried in the ground. Excavations in the primitive 
soil often expose large quantities of shells, the remnants 
of their " clam bakes;" and various specimens of arrow, 
heads, stone-axes and chisels, are found in the upper parts 
of the island. 

From their temporary villages they went forth in search 
of game, and long before the white man came, the expan- 
sive bay that now reflects the sails of an hundred nations, 
was dotted by the humble canoes of a race, whose very 
name has long been lost to history. The ground that 
now sustains half a million of inhabitants, then hid in its 
forest shades the dusky forms of a few hundred wild men ; 
and the waters that are now but the threshold of the 
commerce of the world, were then timidly navigated by the 
birchen canoe of a race who never ventured beyond the 
protection of its inland bounds. On the 2d of September, 
1609, a beautiful autumn day, the adventurous bark of 
Henry Hudson made its appearance in the lower harbour. 
The Indians, whose fishing canoes were scattered about in 
every direction, attacked one of his boats which was sent 
out to fish, and killed its commander. They buried him 



PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



on an island, which was named after him, Colman's Island, 
now degenerated into Coney Island. 

After this, these Indians became more friendly, and 
came on board, where they exchanged tobacco and In- 
dian corn for trinkets. Hudson passed up with his vessel, 
(the Half Moon,) as far as the present site of Albany, and 
then returned to Manhattan ; and after sometimes trading 
with the natives, and sometimes killing them, he went 
back to Europe again. His mutinous men forced him to 
go to England instead of Holland, from whence became. 
The British government, which had formerly driven him 
from their service, now detained him, and in a subsequent 
voyage to North America, he was set adrift by his crew in 
an open boat, with his young son and seven others, with- 
out compass or food, and never heard of after. This was 
brought about through the treacherous agency of one of 
his men, whom he had formerly befriended, under circum- 
stances that claimed lasting gratitude. Hudson was a bold 
and skilful navigator, and had formerly distinguished him- 
self in his attempts to discover a North West passage to 
the East Indies. 

The Dutch, finding that they could get furs of the North 
American Indians, sent out another ship to New- York, to 
trade with them ; and in 1614, the Dutch government en- 
couraged a company of merchants, and licensed them as 
the " West India Company." Soon after this the company 
sent out two ships, one of which was accidentally burned, 
but was replaced by another, which was built by her 
commander on the East river. After sailing along the 
coast to Martha's Vineyard, they returned to the Hud- 
son river, and proceeded up to Castle Island, near Al- 
bany, where they commenced a settlement. For many 
years after this first settlement, Albany was the remotest 
point of interior civilization. In 1615, a fort was built on 
Manhattan Island ; a few huts were soon added, to accom- 
modate the settlers who traded with the Indians. This 
fort was just in the rear of the present site of Trinity 
Church, on the immediate bank of the river — the tide 
then came up to where the western wall of the churchyard 



EARLY HISTORY. 



now stands. In 1751, some workmen digging in the bank, 
back of the church, discovered a stone wall, which occa- 
sioned great wonder at first, but was soon ascertained to 
be the remnants of the long forgotten fort. In 1621, the 
Dutch government gave the New Netherlands to their 
West India Company. The territory so denominated ex- 
tended from Delaware river to Cape Cod. In 1623, they 
built anew fort, which stood on the ground now occupied 
by the Bowling Green, then a high mound of earth, over- 
looking an extensive ledge of rocks, the site of the pre- 
sent Battery. 

There is every indication to evince the fact, that New- 
York was in primitive days the "city of hills" — such ver- 
dant hills, of successive undulation, as the general state of 
the whole country part of the island now presents. " The 
hills were sometimes precipitous, as from Beekman's and 
Peck's Hills, in the neighbourhood of Pearl, Beekman 
and Ferry streets, and from the Middle Dutch Church, 
in Nassau-street, down to Maiden lane ; and sometimes 
gradually sloping, as on either hills along the line of the 
water, coursing along the region of Maiden lane. Be- 
tween many of the hills flowed in several invasions of 
water : such as " the canal" so called to gratify Dutch 
recollections, which was an inroad of river water up Broad- 
street. Up Maiden lane flowed another inroad. A little 
beyond Peck's Slip existed a low water-course, which in 
high water ran quite up in union with the Collect, (Kolck,) 
and thence joining with Lispenard's swamp on North river 
side, produced a union of waters quite across the former 
city ; thus converting it occasionally into an island, which 
is shown by the present lowness of the line of Pearl-street 
as it traverses Chatham-street. Boats were used occasion- 
ally to carry the foot passengers from either side of the 
high rising ground ranging on both sides of Pearl- 
street." 

Part of the people who came out in the Tea Company's 
ships settled, in 1625, on an island, at what is now called 
the Wallabout, a word importing the waloon bend. About 
this time we find in the public records, that " Paulus Hook 



PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



was sold by Gov. Keift to Abraham Isaacs Plank, for 450 
guilders. For scandalizing the governor, one Hendrick 
Janeson, in 1638, was sentenced to stand at the fort door, 
at the ringing of the bell, and ask the governor's pardon. 

On the 6th of August, 1638, two persons were appoint, 
ed to inspect "tobacco cultivated here for exportation ;" 
and on the 19th of the same month it was ordered, that in 
consideration of " the high character it had obtained in 
foreign countries," any adulteration should be punished 
with a heavy penalty. In 1641, a cattle fair was estab- 
lished, to be held annually on the 15th of October. 

The lands on " York Island," without the bounds of the 
town walls, along Wall-street, were either used for public 
grazing grounds for the town cows, sheep or swine, or else 
for the governor's farms, under the names of Bouwerys. 
The Bouwery or farm sold to Governor Stuyvesant in 1631, 
now so valuable as building lots in the hands of his de- 
scendants, was originally purchased by him for 6,400 guil- 
ders (XI, 066 ;) and having besides the land, " a dwelling- 
house, barn, reek-lands, six cows, two horses and two 
young negroes." 

On another farm the company erected a wint molen 
(wind-mill) for the use of the town. Its site was near the 
" Broadway," between the present Liberty and Courtlandt 
streets. The first having decayed, it was ordered, in 1662, 
that there be another on the same ground " outside of the 
city land-port (gate) on the company's farm." 

In 1663, all the carmen of the city, to the number of 
twenty, ordered to be enrolled, and to draw for 6d an or- 
dinary load, and to remove weekly from the city the dirt 
of the streets at 3(7. a load. 

In 1675, the rates of tavern fare were thus ordered : For 
lodging 3d. ; for meals 8d. ; brandy per gill 6d. ; and cider 
per quart 4d. In 1676, all the inhabitants living in the 
street called the Here Graft, (now Broad-street,) were re- 
quired " to fill up the graft, ditch or common shore, and level 
the same." In this same year is given the names of all the 



EARLY HISTORY. 



then property holders, amounting to only 300 names, and 
4< assessed at 1£ dollars a pound, on £99,695." 

Luke Lancton, in 1683, was made " collector of cus- 
toms at the custom house near the bridge, and none shall 
unload but at the bridge." The house called " Stuy. 
vesant Huys," at the northwest corner of present Front 
and Moore streets, was then called the "custom house." 

In 1683, it was ordered that " no youthes, maydes or other 
persons maymeete together on the Lord's day, for sport or 
play, under fine of Is." "No more than four Indian or 
negro slaves may assemble together." In 1683, the ves- 
sels and boats of the port were enrolled as follows : — 3 
barques, 3 brigantines, 26 sloops and 46 open boats. The 
old Dutch records show that all the rear of the town was 
divided into farms called " Bouwerys," from whence we 
have Bowery now. In 1687, sixteen acres of the Basse Bow- 
ery was granted to Arien Cornelisson, for the considera- 
tion of one fat capon a year. In 1695, the celebrated 
Capt. Kidd came to New-York to see his wife. He 
soon after this commenced his piracies, and continued 
them till 1699, when he visited Long Island sound, and 
made several deposits of money on the shores. One of 
these deposits was discovered a few years since by some 
labourers, while digging on the shores of the East river. 
Kidd was decoyed to Boston, where he was arrested, sent 
to England, and hung in 1701. 

In 1698, the Council agreed to build the " new City- 
Hall," by the head of Broad-street, for £3,000 ; the same 
afterwards the Congress Hall, on the corner of Wall- 
street. 

In 1699, they sold the old City-Hall to John Rodman 
for £920, reserving only " the bell, the king's arms, and 
iron works, (fetters, &c.,) belonging to the prison," and 
granting leave also to allow the " cage, pillory and stocks 
before the same, to be removed within one year ; and the 
prisoners in said jail within the said City Hall, to remain 
one month." 

"The Indians, in the year 1746, came to the city of 
New-York in a body, say several hundreds, to hold a 

_ - 



PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



conference or treaty with the governor. They were 
Oneidas and Mohawks ; coming from Albany, crowding 
the North river with their canoes ; bringing with them 
their squaws and papouses ; they encamped on the site 
now Hudson's Square, before St. John's church, then a 
low sand beach." 

In 1756, the first stage started between Philadelphia 
and New- York, three days through. 

In 1765, a second stage, announced to travel between 
New-York and Philadelphia, to go through in three days, 
being a covered Jersey wagon, at 2d. a mile. 

In 1766, another stage, called " the Flying Machine," to 
go through in two days, " in good wagons, and seats on 
springs," at 3d. a mile, or 20s. through. 

These extracts are principally drawn from Watson's 
Annals of New-York. The public records, always acces- 
sible at the City Record office, are very numerous, and 
will well reward the curious for their perusal. 

The Middle Dutch Church, Nassau-street, was used as a 
" prison for 3,000 Americans." The pews were taken 
out and used for fuel. Afterwards the church was used 
as a riding school by the British cavalry. The North 
Dutch Church, in William-street, was also used as a prison- 
house, and at one time held 2,000 prisoners ; all the Pres- 
byterian churches were used for military purposes, but 
the Methodists' houses were spared on account of their 
adherence to Wesley, who was known to be a loyalist. 

It is estimated that 11,000 Americans were interred 
from the British prisons at the Wallabout, near the 
present Navy Yard. In cutting down the hill for the 
Navy Yard, there were taken up as many as thirteen large 
boxes of human bones : which, being borne on trucks 
under mourning palls, were carried in procession to Jack- 
son-street, on Brooklyn height, and interred in a charnel 
house constructed for the occasion beneath three droop- 
ing willows. 

Two of the burnt hulks of the prison ships still remain 
sunken near the Navy Yard ; one in the dock, and one, 
the Good Hope, near Pinder's Island. 



EARLY HISTORY. 



In 1785-6, Alderman William Bayard sold his farm of 
fifty acres, situated on the west side of Broadway, where St. 
Paul's Church now stands. He divided it into lots of 
twenty-five by one hundred feet, and sold them at twenty- 
five dollars each. 

The old fort at the Bowling Green was taken down in 
17S8, and the grounds around levelled, to the extent of the 
present Battery. It was then designed to build a house there 
for Gen. Washington, but the plan was defeated by the re- 
moval of Congress to Philadelphia. The house was after- 
wards built and occupied by the English Gov., Clinton, and 
still remains under the name of the Clinton House. The great 
fires which occurred in 1776 and 1 778, are still remembered 
with lively interest. They occurred while the British held 
possession of the city. The fire in 1776 commenced in 
Whitehall slip, late at night, and consumed all the build- 
ings west of Broadway and south of Barclay-street. Trinity 
Church was burnt at this time ; four hundred and ninety- 
three houses were destroyed. The fire in 1778 occurred 
on Cruger's wharf, and burnt about fifty houses. The 
buildings destroyed on both of these occasions were of 
an inferior order, and built of wood. 

The celebrated Negro Plot, in 1741, occurred when 
there were about ten thousand inhabitants in the city, of 
which one sixth part were negro slaves. After the lapse 
of a century, we look back with astonishment on the panic 
occasioned by these conspiracies, and the rancorous hatred 
that prevailed against the Roman Catholics. There was 
doubtless a plot ; but its extent could never have been so 
great as ihe terror of the times depicted. The only testi- 
mony taken was the mutual criminations and confessions 
of the abettors ; and by this means every negro in the 
city, and some of the white inhabitants, became objects of 
suspicion. The first suspicion of a plot was caused by 
frequent alarms of fire, and robberies committed on the 
premises of one of the citizens. The first fire destroyed 
the Governor's house and the old church, both of which 
were within the walls of the fort. A few days after this, 
another fire occurred under very mysterious circumstances, 



8 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

and subsequently, in the space of three weeks, eight more 
fires served to spread great consternation among the peo- 
ple. Many negroes were executed, and the investigations 
were long and intricate. 

While the trials were going on, and the execution of 
several negroes taking place, proclamations were made 
offering pardons to the free who should make discovery of 
the plot, or accuse others ; and pardon and liberty to the 
slaves who should do the same ; and rewards in money to 
both. The consequence was, that the negroes who were 
in jail, accused themselves and others, hoping to save their 
own lives and obtain the promised boons. What one poor 
wretch invented, was heard and repeated by another ; 
and by degrees the story assumed the shape of a regular 
plot. In the course of the evidence it appears that the 
city was destined to be fired, and the inhabitants massa- 
cred, on coming out of the English Church in Broadway. 
St. Patrick's night was selected for the catastrophe, and 
many Irish Catholics lately arrived enlisted in the gang of 
murderers. The negroes were led by one Kughson, at 
whose house they were entertained, and where they brought 
their stolen goods. An unfortunate man, named Ury, an 
English clergyman, who had been teaching school in the 
city, was tried and condemned on the most trivial testi- 
mony. He was hung amid the greatest excitement. There 
were thirteen blacks burned alive at the stake, at a place 
then out of town, but situated near the present intersec- 
tion of Pearl and Chatham streets, where there was form- 
erly a hollow place. Twenty were hung " on the island 
by the powder-house," where the Arsenal now is in Elm- 
street. Seventy were transported to foreign parts ; Hugh- 
son, his wife, and Peggy Carey, a noted informer, were 
hung. Several of the negroes declared that they had 
accused themselves and others because they had been told 
that was the only way to save their lives. 



Washington's retreat. 



WASHINGTON'S RETREAT FROM NEW-YORK. 

After taking possession of Long Island in 1776, Gene- 
ral Howe began to unfold his plan of attacking New- York 
city, then in possession of the xA.mericans. He intended 
to encompass the city on the land side, and to refrain 
from cannonade and bombardment, by which the city 
might be injured and rendered unfit for the accommoda- 
tion of his troops during the winter. Such being clearly 
the aim of the British commander, the attention of Wash- 
ington was drawn to the best mode of evacuating the city. 
As a preparatory step, he removed beyond King's bridge 
the stores and baggage least wanted. It was seriously 
contemplated in a council of officers at the time to destroy 
the city, but Washington's objections overruled the opin- 
ion of his counsellors. It was resolved so to dispose the 
troops, as to be prepared to resist any attack on the upper 
part of the island, and retreat with the remainder when- 
ever it should become necessary. Nine thousand men 
were to be stationed at Mount Washington, King's bridge, 
and the smaller posts in the vicinity of these places, five 
thousand in the city, and the residue to occupy the inter- 
mediate space, ready to support either of these divisions. 
The sick, amounting to one quarter of the whole army, 
were to be removed to the Jersey side of the Hudson. 
While these arrangements were in progress, the enemy sent 
four ships up the East river, which came to anchor about 
a mile above the city. The next day six others followed. 
Parties of British troops landed on Buchnan's Island, and 
a cannonade was opened upon a battery at Haven's Hook. 
On the 15th of September, in the morning, three men-of- 
war ascended Hudson's river as high as Bloomingdale, 
with the view of dividing the attention of the Americans, 
by making a feint on that side. At the same time, Howe 
embarked a strong division of his army, under Gen. Clin- 
ton, consisting of British and Hessians, at the head of New- 
town Bay on Long Island. About eleven o'clock, these 
troops having come into the East river, began to land at 



10 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

Kip's Bay, under the fire of two forty gun ships and three 
frigates. Batteries had been erected there ; but the men 
were driven from them by the firing from the ships. Gen. 
Washington was now at Harlaem, whither he had gone the 
night before on account of the movements of the enemy 
at Montressor's Island ; and, hearing the sound of the 
guns, he hastened with all despatch to the place of land- 
ing. To his inexpressible chagrin he found the troops that 
had been posted on the lines, precipitately retreating with- 
out firing a shot, although not more than sixty or seventy 
of the enemy were in sight ; and also two brigades, which 
had been ordered to their support, flying in the greatest 
confusion, it spite of their officers. It is said, that no in- 
cident of the war caused Washington to be so much ex- 
cited as he appeared on this occasion. His exertions 
to restrain the troops were fruitless. The troops, eight 
regiments in all, fled to the main body on Harlaem plains. 
The division in New- York, under the command of Gen. 
Putnam, retreated with difficulty, and with considerable 
loss. Fifteen men were killed, and three hundred taken 
prisoners. Nearly all the heavy cannon, and a consider- 
able quantity of baggage, stores and provisions were left 
behind. The Americans were not pursued with much 
rigour in their retreat. Washington drew all his forces 
together within the lines on the heights of Harlaem, where 
they encamped the same night. Head quarters were fixed 
at Morris's house, a mile and a half south from Mount 
Washington, on which was situated the fort of that name. 
Howe encamped with his army near the American lines, 
his right resting on the East river, and his left on the 
Hudson, supported at each extreme by the ships in these 
rivers. The next morning, Col. Knowlton went out with a 
party of rangers, and advanced through the woods towards 
the enemy's lines. When he was discovered, Gen. Howe 
detached two battalions of light infantry and a regiment of 
Highlanders to meet and drive him back. On the appearance 
of these troops in the open grounds between the two camps, 
Washington rode to the outposts, that he might be at hand 
to make such arrangements as circumstances should require. 



WASHINGTON'S RETREAT. 11 

He had hardly reached the lines when he heard a firing, 
which proceeded from an encounter between Col. Knowl- 
ton and one of the British parties. The rangers returned 
and said that the body of the enemy, as they thought, 
amounted to three hundred men. Knowlton was imme- 
diately reinforced by three companies, and ordered to gain 
their rear, while their attention was diverted by making a 
disposition to attack them in front. The plan was suc- 
cessful. As the party approached in front, the enemy 
rushed down the hill, to take advantage of a fence and 
bushes, and commenced firing, but at too great a distance 
to be effectual. Meantime Knowlton attacked on the 
other side, and advanced with spirit. A sharp conflict 
ensued. Maj. Leitch, who led the attack, was carried off 
mortally wounded, and in a short time Col. Knowlton fell. 
The action was resolutely kept up by the remaining offi- 
cers and men till detachments arrived to their support, 
and they charged the enemy with such firmness and intre- 
pidity as to drive them from the wood to the plain, when 
Gen. Washington ordered a retreat, apprehending that a 
large force was on their way from the enemy's camp. The 
engagement continued four hours, although the sharp 
fighting was of short duration. Howe reported eight offi- 
cers and seventy privates wounded, and fourteen men 
killed. The American loss was fifteen killed and forty- 
five wounded. The events of this day were important in 
giving spirit to the army. For more than three weeks 
Howe's army remained inactive, the American posts being 
too formidable to attack. On the 28th October the Brit- 
ish army attacked the American lines, and after a sharp 
action drove them from their works, with a loss of twenty- 
five men. Gen. Howe subsequently withdrew his army 
to King's Bridge, and on the morning of November 16th 
attacked Fort Washington, after Col. Magow, its com- 
mander, had refused a summons to surrender. Gen. 
Knyphausen advanced with a body of Hessians to the 
north of the fort, and commenced the attack. Earl 
Percy, nearly at the same time, assailed the outer lines on 
the south. The lines, in every part, were defended with 



12 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

great resolution and obstinacy ; but after a resistance of 
four hours the men were driven into the fort, and its com- 
mander compelled to surrender. The Americans lost 
fifty killed and two thousand eight hundred prisoners. 
This was a severe loss. The fort was defended contrary 
to the wishes of Washington. Washington soon after this 
abandoned the Hudson river, and retreated through New- 
Jersey to the Delaware river. 



THE OLD JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 

This was an old sixty-four gun ship, which through age 
had become unfit for further active service. She was 
stripped of every spar, and all her rigging. After a battle 
with the French fleet, her lion figure-head was taken away 
to repair another ship ; no appearance of ornament was 
left, and nothing remained but an old, unsightly, rotten 
hulk. Her dark and filthy external appearance perfectly 
corresponded with the death and despair that reigned 
within, and nothing could be more foreign from truth than 
to paint her with colours flying, or any circumstance or ap- 
pendage to please the eye. She was moored about three 
quarters of a mile to the eastward of Brooklyn ferry, near 
a tide-mill, on the Long Island shore. The nearest dis- 
tance to land was about twenty rods. And doubtless no 
other ship in the British navy ever proved the means of 
the destruction of so many human beings. It is computed 
that not less than eleven thousand American seamen 
perished in her. 

We extract from a book published by Mr. Andros, an 
aged clergyman, an account of his sufferings on board of 
this ship : 

11 On the commencement of the first evening we were 
driven down to darkness between decks, secured by iron 
gratings and an armed soldiery; and now a scene of hor- 
ror, which baffles all description, presented itself. On 
every side wretched, desponding shapes of men could be 



JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 13 

seen. Around the well-room an armed guard were forcing 
up the prisoners to the winches, to clear the ship of water 
and prevent her sinking, and little else could be heard but 
a roar of mutual execrations, reproaches and insults. 

" All the most deadly diseases were pressed into the 
service of the king of terrors, but his prime ministers were 
dysentery, small pox and yellow fever. There were two 
hospital ships near to the old Jersey, but these were soon 
so crowded with the sick that they could receive no more. 
The consequence was, that the diseased and the healthy 
were mingled together in the main ship. In a short time 
we had two hundred or more, sick and dying, lodged in 
the fore part of the lower gun deck, where all the prison- 
ers were confined at night. Utter derangement was a 
common symptom of yellow fever; and, to increase the 
horror of the darkness that shrouded us, (for we were 
allowed no light betwixt decks,) the voice of warning 
would be heard, ' Take heed of yourselves ; there is a mad- 
man stalking through the ship with a knife in his hand.' 
I sometimes found the man a corpse in the morning by 
whose side I laid myself down at night. While so many 
were sick with raging fever, there was a loud cry for 
water, but none could be had except on the upper deck, 
and but one allowed to ascend at a time. The suffering 
then, from the rage of thirst during the night, was very 
great. Nor was it at all times safe to attempt to go up. 
Provoked by the continual cry for leave to ascend, when 
there was already one on deck, the sentry would push 
them back with his bayonet. By one of these thrusts, 
which was more spiteful and violent than common, I had 
a narrow escape of my life. In the morning the hatch- 
ways were thrown open, and we were allowed to ascend, 
all at once, and remain on the upper deck during the day. 
But the first object that met our view in the morning was 
a most appalling spectacle— a boat loaded with dead bodies, 
conveying them to the Long Island shore, where they were 
very slightly covered with sand. I sometimes used to 
stand to count the number of times the shovel was filled 
with sand to cover a dead body ; and certain I am that a 



14 PICTUKE OF NEW-YORK. 

few high tides or torrents of rain must have disinterred 
them ; and had they not been removed, I should suppose 
the shore, even now, would be covered with huge piles of 
the bones of American seamen. There were, probably, 
four hundred on board who had never had the small pox — 
some, perhaps, might have been saved by inoculation. But 
humanity was wanting to try even this experiment. Let 
our disease be what it would, we were abandoned to our 
fate. Now and then an American physician was brought 
in as a captive, but if he could obtain his parole he left the 
ship, nor could we much blame him for this, for his own 
death was next to certain, and his success in saving others 
by medicine, in our situation, was small. No English 
physician, or any one from the city, ever, to my know- 
ledge, came near us. The most healthy and vigorous 
were first seized with the fever, and died in a few hours. 

" There is one palliating circumstance as to the inhu- 
manity of the British, which ought to be mentioned. The 
prisoners were furnished with buckets and brushes to 
cleanse the ship, and with vinegar to sprinkle her inside ; 
but their indolence and despair were such that they would 
not use them, or but rarely ; and, indeed, at this time, the 
encouragement to do it was small, for the whole ship, 
from her keel to the taffrail, was equally infected, and 
contained pestilence sufficient to desolate a world ; disease 
and death were wrought into her very timbers. At the 
time I left, it is to be presumed, a more filthy, contagious 
and deadly abode for human beings never existed among 
a Christianized people." 

In addition to the testimony of Mr. Andros, we have 
that of an aged gentleman, who confirms the state- 
ment made in Andros's book. He says he was an officer 
on board of the United States frigate Confederacy, and was 
captured by two English frigates. Being at the time of cap- 
ture sick, he was put on board one of the hulks in the 
Wallabout that served as an hospital ship for convalescents, 
but was, as soon as somewhat restored, transferred to the 
" Old Jersey," to make room for others more helpless. 
Here he experienced all the sufferings, and witnessed the 



JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 15 



horrors described by Andros, for five months. The con- 
finement in so crowded a place, the pestilential air, the 
putrid and damaged food given to the prisoners, (procured 
by the commissaries for little or nothing, and charged to 
the English government at the prices of the best provisions,) 
soon produced a fever, under which this young man suf- 
fered, without medicine or attendance, until nature, too 
strong for even such enemies, restored him to a species of 
health, again to be prostrated by the same causes. He 
says he never saw given to the prisoners one ounce of 
wholesome food. The loathsome beef they prepared by 
pressing, and then threw it, with damaged bread, into the 
kettle, skimming off the previous tenants of this poisonous 
food as they rose to the top of the vessel. 

And these commissaries became rich, and revelled in 
luxuries, hearing the groans of their victims daily, and 
seeing the bodies of those who were relieved from torture 
by death, carried by boat loads to be half-buried in the 
sands of the Wallabout. The testimony proving these 
atrocities cannot be doubted. Yet, in answer to the re- 
monstrances of General Washington, Admiral Arbuthnot 
denied the charge altogether. 

To save his life, the prisoner who gives this account ac- 
cepted the offer of the purser to become his deputy, in 
which office he fared well and recovered his health. He 
witnessed a mode of cheating practised by the clerks and 
underlings, not less criminal than that of the commissaries of 
prisoners. Such of the captives as had money were libe- 
rated by bargain with these officials, and returned on the 
report as dead; and the deaths were so many, that this 
passed without inquiry. 

A boat would be brought to the ship at night, and by a 
system of collusion, the person who had bought his liberty 
would be removed on some specious pretence. Faith was 
kept with them to encourage others in the same process. 

The old prison ship was sunk after the Revolution, and 
now remains underwater, off the present Navy Yard. But 
a few years since, part of her hull was seen above water 
at low tide. 



16 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



YELLOW FEVER AND CHOLERA. 

In 1778, the yellow fever broke out in this city, and 
continued its ravages under more distressing circumstances 
than at any subsequent appearance of the disease. The 
first victim died on the 29th of July, in Front-street, — his 
disease assuming the most malignant form. It raged with 
great violence in New Slip, in Cliff-street, John-street and 
Rider-street, where not a family escaped its ravages. It was 
thought at the time that it had its origin in some unfinished 
docks, in which putrid matter existed. On the 12th, 13th 
and 14th of August, there were heavy showers of rain, 
which covered the streets knee deep, and filled many 
cellars. This, instead of abating the pestilence as was an- 
ticipated, seemed to increase it. From this time till the 
middle of September, the daily deaths fluctuated from 20 
to 60. The fever entirely ceased about the 10th of No- 
vember. The whole number of deaths was estimated at 
two thousand and eighty-six. More than one half of the 
population left the city soon after the first appearance of 
the disease. Most of the places of public business were 
removed far out of town, away from the infected districts. 

In July, 1803, the yellow fever again made its appear- 
ance in New-York, and continued till the end of the fol- 
lowing October. About six hundred deaths occurred at 
this time. The alarm of the people was very suddenly 
produced, and the suspension of business and the deser- 
tion of the city, far exceeded that of any former occasion. 

In 1805, about four hundred people died from yellow 
fever ; and in 1822, twelve hundred and thirty-six more fell 
victims to its ravages. 

In July, 1832, the Asiatic Cholera made its appearance 
in New-York. It commenced July 2d, and continued till 
October 19th. During this time the average of deaths 
per day was about sixty. The whole number of deaths 
was four thousand three hundred and sixty. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 17 



(Etotcral S3 ascription oi Ncto-jjork. 



New. York City, from its wealth, population and com- 
mercial importance, has been justly called the Metropolis 
of the United States. It is the largest city in America — 
the second, in commercial importance on the globe, and 
is not exceeded in population by more than five cities in 
all Europe. With unequaled advantages as to central 
position, and long established commercial precedence, 
with one of the finest harbours in the world, and possessing 
great natural facilities of inland communication, it must 
ever maintain its position as the London of America. At 
its present rate of increase, its population, in fifty years, 
will exceed that of any city in the world. All history does 
not furnish another instance of such rapid growth. 

The compact part of the city occupies the southern ex- 
tremity of Manhattan, or New-York Island, at the conflu- 
ence of the Hudson river with a strait called East river, 
which connects Long Island sound with the harbour of 
New-York. The chartered limits of the city embrace the 
whole island, which is of the same extent with the county. 
The island extends from the Battery, on the south point of the 
island, 13^ miles to King's Bridge, in its north part ; and has 
an average breadth of one mile and three fifths. The 
greatest breadth is on a line with 88th street, where it is 
2i miles wide. The island contains 14,000 acres. It is 
separated from the main land, on the north, by Harlsem 
river, a tide-water strait, which flows between the Hudson 
and East rivers. The Harlsem river is crossed by three 
bridges, the Harlaem rail-road, and the Croton aqueduct. 
The East river separates the city from Long Island on the 
east ; on the south is the harbour, and on the west is the 
Hudson river, with the State of New-Jersey on the oppo- 
site shore. 

2* ~~ 



18 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

The surface of the island was originally uneven and 
rough, as is now the case in the northern parts, with occa- 
sional low valleys and marshy swamps ; but the hills in the 
southern part of the island have been levelled, and the 
swamps and marshes filled up. Many creeks and inlets 
on the margins of the rivers have also disappeared, and the 
large ledge of rocks that occupied the site of the present 
Battery has long since been buried by made ground. The 
water line has been materially altered from what it was. 
A large part of Water, Front and South streets, on the 
East river, and of Greenwich, Washington and West 
streets, on the Hudson river, occupy made ground. 

The city extends over three miles on each river, and 
the compact part has a circumference of over nine 
miles. In latter times, care has been taken to lay out 
the streets straight, and of an ample width. This is par- 
ticularly true of all the northern part of the city, which was 
laid out under the direction of Governeur Morris, De Witt 
Clinton and others, and surveyed by Mr. John Randall, 
jr. The survey was completed in 1821, after having occu- 
pied ten years. No city can exhibit a more beautiful plan 
than this portion of the city of New- York, which extends 
to 154th street, about ten miles north of the Battery. 

The island is mostly composed of granite, which is gene- 
rally buried from 10 to 15 feet under ground. The su- 
perincumbent earth is composed of drift sand and pebbles, 
with large quantities of oxide of iron, which gives it a red 
colour. The rocks crop out, and appear on the surface, in 
the upper parts of the island, to a considerable extent. The 
soil for the most part is fertile, but from the abundance of 
rocks, hard to cultivate. The island was originally covered 
with a very large growth of wood. 

The harbour of New-York is safe and commodious, its 
circumference being about 25 miles. The largest vessels 
may come up to the wharves. 

On the Bar at Sandy Hook, the depth of water at high 
tide is 27 feet; from thence to the city, the channel is 
from 35 to 50 feet. The inner harbour communicates with 
the outer, or Raritan Bay and the ocean, by the Narrows, a 



ENVIRONS. 19 



passage between Staten Island and Long Island, and by a 
strait, called Staten Island sound, or the Kills, which empty 
into Raritan Bay, on the west. There are three islands in 
the harbour, namely : Bedlow's, Ellis's and Governor's, all 
strongly fortified, and owned by the United States govern- 
ment. United States criminals are hung on Bedlow's 
island. Governor's island, opposite the Battery, has three 
forts, and contains 70 acres. Castle William on the north- 
west side, is a large round structure, 200 feet in diameter, 
60 feet high, and mounts three tiers of guns. 



ENVIRONS OF NEW-YORK. 

The principal place in the neighbourhood of the city is 
Brooklyn. This city will be particularly described here- 
after. 

WILLIAMSBURG, 

A recenflybuilt town, situated on the East river, northeast 
of Brooklyn, and opposite the northeast part of New-York, 
with which it has frequent communication, by means of 
several steam ferry-boats. Population in 1840, 5,094 ; in 
1845, 11,338. Its chief buildings are, a town hall and seven 
churches, together with handsome private dwellings. 

ASTORIA, 

A flourishing village of Queen's county, six miles north- 
east from New-York. It has a population of about 750 — 
with four churches, an academy, and an extensive botanic 
garden. It occupies a beautiful position on Long Island 
sound, near that remarkable whirlpool, called by the Dutch, 
Helle Gat, " Hell Gate." Astoria is one of the favourite 
summer residences of the New-Yorkers. 

FLUSHING, 

An incorporated town of Long Island, situated on 
Flushing Bay, an arm of Long Island sound. Population 



20 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

about 2,000. This is the seat of several literary institu- 
tions, as St. Paul's College, St. Thomas's Uall, St. Ann's 
Hall, &c. The Linoean Botanic Garden is here. These, 
and other advantages, render Flushing one of the most at- 
tractive places of resort on the island. It is about ten miles 
distant from New- York. 

JAMAICA, 

A large and well built town of Queen's county, eleven 
miles from Brooklyn, with a population, according to the 
late census, of 1,650. Its chief buildings, besides those of 
the county, are five churches, one academy, eight hotels and 
taverns, and several manufactories of pianos and carriages. 
The Long Island Rail-Road Company have a large dep6t 
and machine shop here. Constant communication with 
Brooklyn, Flushing, Hempstead, Rockaway, &c, is afford- 
ed by the rail-road or stages, which ply in all directions. 
Jamaica Bay, five miles south from the town, abounds in 
wild fowl, oysters, clams, &c. 

ROCKAWAY BEACH, 

A celebrated watering place, on the shore of the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, twenty-two miles southeast from New-York. 

There are, in addition to the " Marine Pavilion" and 
" Rock Hall," both well kept, several private establishments ; 
where, with less parade and show of style, the invalid may 
enjoy the refreshing sea air and bath in their utmost per- 
fection, and at a moderate expense ; while those who in- 
habit the former are expected, and expect to pay liberally 
for their extravagant accommodations. 

FLATBUSH, 

A neat village of King's county, four miles southeast from 
Brooklyn ; containing 450 inhabitants. Near this village, 
in August, 1776, was fought the disastrous and memora- 
ble battle of Long Island, between the American and 
British forces. 

CONEY ISLAND, 

A bathing place of great resort, and forms a part of 
Gravesend township. 



ENVIRONS. 21 



FORT HAMILTON. 

This fortress, which, in connection with forts Lafayette 
and Tompkins, commands the Narrows, is situated on the 
western end of Long Island, and about 8 miles nearly due 
south from New-York. A small assemblage of houses 
has grown up around it, including one church and an exten- 
sive boarding house. It has recently become a place of 
fashionable resort, chiefly for the convenience of sea 
bathing. 

NEW-BRIGHTON AND STATEN ISLAND, 

A village of country seats, erected for the accommoda- 
tion of some of the " best society" of New-York. It occu- 
pies the most northern point of Staten Island, at the en- 
trance of the "Kills," which separate the island from the 
Jersey shore. The town plot, which for the most part is 
the result of expensive excavation, descends rapidly from 
the base of the adjoining hills, and the buildings range in a 
line with, and at nearly an equal distance from the margin of 
New-York bay. The situation is very fine, commanding 
a view of the bay, with its islets, the city, Long Island, &c. 
The houses, with their white fronts and massive columns, 
present a beautiful appearance from the water. There are 
two extensive hotels and several boarding houses. Popula- 
tion about 400. A short distance to the west stands the 
Sailors' Snug Harbour, a sort of Greenwich Hospital or 
Asylum for superannuated mariners. It consists of a large 
building with wings, so arranged as to accommodate a 
large number of inmates. Two miles east of Brighton lie 
the Quarantine Ground, the Marine Hospital, and Tomp. 
kinstille. The latter is a large town, containing upwards of 
1,400 inhabitants, three churches, several hotels, and beau- 
tifully situated on the high ground in the rear of fort Tomp- 
kins. Attached to the Quarantine establishment are, the 
Marine Hospital, for the reception of patients afflicted with 
contagious diseases ; a Yellow Fever Hospital ; a Small 
Pox Hospital ; besides several other buildings for the 
Physician, Health Officers and others. 

Steam-boats leave the lower part of the city every hour 



22 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

during the day for New Brighton, the Quarantine Ground, 
and Tompkinsville. 

JERSEY CITY, 

On the west side of the Hudson, opposite New- York, 
situated on a point or cape, formerly called Paulus Hook. 
The city is regularly laid out, with the streets, which are 
generally wide, crossing each other at right angles. The 
public buildings are, four churches, a lyceum, academy, high 
school, a bank, a pottery, glass factory, and about 300 pri- 
vate dwellings. Population, 3,072. The New-Jersey 
Rail-Road Company have an extensive dep6t here ; and the 
Morris Canal, from Bordentown, intersects the Hudson in 
the lower part of the city. 

HAK.SIMUS 

Is a small village directly in the rear of Jersey City, 
containing 125 inhabitants. 

UOBOKEN, 

A new village of Hudson county, New-Jersey, contain, 
ing about 200 inhabitants, an Episcopal church, and several 
public houses. Hoboken is much frequented by the citi- 
zens of New-York. The " Elysian Fields," so called, 
contain some beautiful walks. A fine view of the city may 
be had from the high grounds of Hoboken. Hoboken has 
recently acquired additional notoriety, as the scene of a 
most shocking tragedy, in which a young girl, Miss Rogers, 
was murdered by some unknown hand. The village of 
West Hoboken, situated on the summit of Bergen Hill, 
commands a fine view of the city and harbour. 

WEEHAWKEN, 

A small settlement on the Jersey shore, consisting of 
some twenty or thirty buildings ; beautifully situated, about 
two miles north of Hoboken, on an elevated bluff of the 
Hudson. 

BLOOMINGDALE, 

A remarkably neat village of New- York county, situated 
on the left bank of the Hudson, five miles above the City. 



ENVIRONS. 23 



Hall. An Orphan's Asylum is established here. The vil- 
lage consists chiefly of country seats, and contains some 
400 inhabitants. About two miles beyond Bloomingdale, on 
the same side of the river, is 

MANHATTANVILLE, 

Containing about 500 inhabitants, an Episcopal church, 
and some extensive factories. The New-York Lunatic 
Asylum occupies a commanding position in the southern 
part of the village. 

HARLiEM 

Is situated two miles southeast of Manhattanville, on Har- 
lsem river, near its discharge into Long Island sound. It is a 
flourishing village, with a population of 1,500, four churches, 
and a superabundance of hotels, besides a commodious 
depot, belonging to the New- York and Harlaem Rail-Road 
Company, and several factories. The cars for Harlaem 
start every hour from the depot, northeast of the City-Hall. 

NEWARK. 

This is by far the largest, and as a manufacturing place, 
the most important town, or rather city, for it is organized 
as such, in the state of New-Jersey. Its population, ac- 
cording to the census of 1840, is 17,292, a large portion of 
which is engaged in the various manufactories, which 
abound here to an unusual extent. Newark was first set- 
tled in 1666, by people from New-England. 

The Passaic, here a beautiful stream, flows along the 
eastern side of the town, and gradually curves towards the 
east, in its passage into Newark bay, three miles distant 
from the city. Its streets and avenues are wide, and 
shaded by an abundance of trees, which add greatly to the 
beauty of the city and the comfort of its citizens. The 
many manufacturing establishments in and about the place, 
give it an active and business-like appearance. 

Besides the factories, most of which are on a large scale, 
there are several breweries, grist and saw mills, dyeing 
houses, and printing offices, each of which issues a news- 
paper, &c. There are schools innumerable, academies, 



24 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

and several literary and scientific institutions. Of churches, 
the Episcopalians have two ; the Presbyterians five ; the 
Baptists two ; the Dutch Reformed one ; the Methodists 
three, and the Roman Catholics one. The other public 
buildings are the court house, county offices, three banks, and 
the immense dep6tof the New-Jersey Rail-Road Company. 

ELIZABETHTOWN, 

A beautiful town, situated on Elizabeth creek, in Essex 
county, containing about five hundred buildings and 3,000 
inhabitants. It is a borough town, and one of the oldest 
in the state, its site having been purchased from the In- 
dians by a company from Long Island, as early as the 
year 1664. 

There is in this town an unusual proportion of handsome 
dwellings and churches ; which, with the wide and regular 
streets, impart an air of great neatness and beauty to the 
place, and render it a very desirable residence. 

The Elizabethport and Somerville Rail-Road, as well as 
that from Jersey City to New-Brunswick, passes through the 
town. These, with turnpikes and several good common 
roads, afford extensive facilities for conveying to market 
the agricultural products and manufactures of the town 
and adjacent country. 

RAHWAY, 

A large and thriving town of Essex and Middlesex coun- 
ties, formed by the union of several villages, — population is 
2.533, originally from New-England. The Presbyterians 
Methodists, Baptists and Friends, have places of worship 
here. Those of the Presbyterians and Episcopalians are 
beautiful structures. Among the liberal institutions of the 
place, which possesses many, there are a public library, an 
" Athenean Academy," so called, a fine building, erected 
by a company expressly for the institution, which partakes, 
in some measure of the nature of a high school. Rahway 
is a large manufacturing place. Establishments on an ex- 
tensive scale are in daily operation here. The manufactures 
consist of silk printing, carriages and carriage furniture, 
hats, shoes, clothing, clocks, earthenware and cotton goods. 



ENVIRONS. 25 



NEW-BRUNSWICK. 

This place is situated in the counties of Somerset and 
Middlesex, and is the seat of justice of the latter. It is 
an incorporated city, and next to Newark the largest town 
in the state. Its population is 6,693, and the numher of 
buildings is about 1 ,200. 

PASSAIC FALLS. 

This is a beautiful sheet of water, which presents an 
unbroken fall of fifty feet. It is situated at the town of 
Paterson, on the Passaic river, whose banks here are nearly 
vertical. The water in its passage, through the lapse of 
ages, has worn a deep chasm into the solid rock, which is 
obviously retreating, as the abraded banks below testify. 
No spectacle can be more imposing than is presented by 
the falling water, as it glides gently over the brow of the 
precipice. The town of Paterson is admirably situated 
for manufacturing purposes at the falls, which afford a 
constant and abundant supply of water for the vast num- 
ber of factories in operation in the town, which is now one 
of the most important manufacturing places in the United 
States. The number of buildings at present in Paterson 
and New Manchester, an adjoining village, is upwards of 
one thousand, and that of the inhabitants, 7,598. Here 
are Presbyterians, both of the old and new schools ; Dutch 
Reformed, Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, Baptists, 
Metbodists, Seceders, Lutherans, Friends, Universalis ts, 
Unitarians, &c. There are in the town a society for the 
promotion of literature and science, which has an excel- 
lent Library, a Mechanics' Institute, a Museum, a Circula- 
ting Library, a Public Library, and some other institutions 
of a similar description. 

ELIZABETHPORT, 

A very neat and flourishing village of New-Jersey, 
which has recently started into notice ; being at the eastern 
terminus of the Elizabethport and Somerville Rail-Road, 
now in operation. Population about 600. 



26 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

PERTH AMBOY, 

A city and port of entry of Middlesex county, New. 
Jersey, at the confluence of Raritan river and Staten Island 
sound. Population 1,303. It derives its name in part 
from James, Earl of Perth, one of the original proprietors 
of the ground, which was laid off into town lots in 1683, 
and incorporated in 1784. A large portion of the buildings 
are elevated forty or fifty feet above the adjacent bay. 

The Brighton House, a large hotel, erected here several 
years since, forms a striking object of attention. Like 
many other " experiments," the hotel failed to realize the 
expectations of its proprietors ; and it is now occupied, 
during the summer months, by wealthy families from 
New- York. 

FORT LEE. 

This fort, which, with Fort Washington, on the oppo- 
site side of the river, was the scene of important military 
operations during the revolutionary war. A large body of 
American militia stationed here, in attempting to retreat, 
were overpowered by a vastly superior force, consisting 
chiefly of Hessians, when they were either slain or con- 
signed to the prison ship, a fate more terrific than death 
itself. The site of Fort Lee is upwards of 300 feet above 
the water. A hotel at the landing is much frequented. 
A few miles below Fort Lee commence the Palisades, a 
lofty basaltic wall, which extends for twenty miles up the 
west bank of the Hudson. They are nearly vertical, and 
range from 200 to 500 feet in height. 

SPUYTEN DUYVEL CREEK, 

An inconsiderable opening on the east side of the Hud- 
son, which, with Harlaem river, separates the island of 
New-York from the main land of Westchester county. 

king's bridge, 
A sort of rialto among the New-Yorkers, crosses the 
strait a short distance from the Hudson. 

YONKERS, 

A pleasant village of Westchester county, situated at 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 27 



the outlet of Saw-Mill Creek. It is built mostly on the 
river bank, which, being somewhat elevated, commands 
a fine view of the river and the Palisades opposite. Besides 
the two churches, an academy and several taverns and 
storehouses, there are upwards of 75 dwellings, and a 
population of about 500. 

HASTINGS, 

A small village and landing, of the same county, con- 
sisting of 15 or 20 buildings, of various sorts, including one 
hotel, a button factory, &.c 

dobb's ferry 

Is a small settlement and public landing in Westchester 
county, with a ferry to the opposite side of the Hudson. 

PIERMONT, FORMERLY TAPPAN SLOAT. 

This village having been selected for the eastern termi- 
nus of the New-York and Erie Rail-Road, the secluded little 
Dutch settlement of the " Sloat" has received the classic 
soubriquet of " Piermont," and is now an important town 
of Rockland county. Such has been the effect of this 
movement, that its site is now covered by handsome pub- 
lic and private edifices, which form a striking contrast with 
the little Dutch houses of its primitive inhabitants. 

There are in the town upwards of 150 buildings, inclu- 
ding two or three churches, and a population of about 1,100. 
A pier about one mile in length, which forms the com- 
mencement of the rail-road just mentioned, extends over 
the flats to a commodious dock, near the channel of the 
river. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

CITY-HALL. 

The City-Hall is one of the most prominent buildings in 
New- York, standing near the centre of the Park, an area of 
about ten acres. From this situation it is seen in every direc- 



28 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

tion to great advantage ; a few years since it was regarded 
as the finest building in the city, and now, with its interest- 
ing furniture and associations, commands great attention. 
The front and ends are made of white marble, from Stock- 
bridge, Mass., but the back is constructed of free-stone. 
At the time it was built marble was expensive, and it was 
determined to finish the back with cheaper stone. It was 
maintained that the population would never, to any extent, 
settle above Chambers-street, and therefore the rear of the 
hall would seldom be seen. The corner stone was laid on the 
26th of September, 1803, during the prevalence of the yel- 
low fever. It was finished in 1812, and the expense, ex- 
clusive of furniture, amounted to half a million of dollars. 

The City-Hall is 216 feet long, 105 wide, and 51 high. 
It is two stories high above the basement, with a third or 
attic story in the centre building. From the centre rises a 
cupola of very beautiful proportions. In the upper part of 
the cupola a man is lodged, whose business it is to give 
alarm in case of fire, by ringing the big bell, which occu- 
pies a small cupola on the back part of the roof. This bell 
is rung in cases of fire, when it indicates, by the number 
of its strokes, the part of the city where the fire is located. 
Small apertures are cut in the sides of the cupola, of suffi- 
cient size to allow of the eyes extending over only so much 
of the city as is included in the fire districts to which they 
severally belong, and thus the location of the fire is in- 
stantly ascertained. Tiie City-Hall bell weighs 6,910 lbs., 
and its tongue is over six feet long. It is probably the 
largest bell in America. There are four entrances to the 
building — one in front, one in the rear, and one in each end 
— the latter communicates with the basement apartments. 
The front entrance is on the first story, to which there is 
access by a flight of twelve marble steps, surmounted by 
a portico of sixteen columns. In the centre of the rear of 
the building there is a projecting pediment. The first 
story, including the portico, is of the Ionic style, the second 
of the Corinthian, the attic of the fancy, and the cupola of 
the composite. The rear of the building is by many con- 
sidered to be more beautiful than the front. In the centre 



.1 H - . L> R H k L L 8 F .! UiTlCS, 




Centre Street. 



!'ag<r 2i 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 29 



there is a double staircase, ascended by marble steps, at 
the top of which is a circular gallery, ornamented with ten 
marble columns, which support the ceiling. In the build- 
ing there are twenty-eight offices and public rooms. The 
Governor's room is a long hall, running 52 feet from wing 
to wing ; it is used as a reception hall by the Governor, 
Mayor, and other distinguished men. Its walls are hung 
with some of the finest pictures in America, consisting 
principally of portraits of great national characters. Among 
them are the Governors of New-York, Mayors of the city 
since the Revolution, some of the Dutch Governors, and 
the principal naval and military heroes of the late war. 
These were painted by Jarvis, Sully, Stewart, Inman, Page, 
and some other distinguished artists. The Common Coun- 
cil hall is a beautiful room, 42 feet long and 30 wide. It 
contains some fine portraits, and the chair which was oc- 
cupied by Washington when President of the first Con- 
gress. The Assistant Aldermen's hall is spacious, ele- 
gantly furnished, and hung with valuable paintings. Access 
to these rooms and the roof, free of expense, may be had 
by any person, by inquiring at the keeper's room. The 
keeper has no right to ask for remuneration, as he receives 
a salary from the city to attend to this business. The City- 
Hall, with its many interesting relics and paintings, is 
much visited, and is well worthy the attention of the stran- 
ger and citizen. 

HALL OF RECORDS. 

This building, situated in the Park, east of the City-Hall, 
was formerly a city prison, when it presented a very gloomy 
and unsightly appearance, being built of coarse black stone. 
It has since been stuccoed in imitation of marble, and 
two lofty porticoes added, consisting of four marble Ionic 
columns at each end. Its name indicates its present use. 
It was used during the time of the prevalence of the 
cholera, in 1832, as a hospital. 

HALLS OF JUSTICE. 

This building occupies the space between Centre, Elm, 



3* 



30 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Leonard and Franklin-streets, the site of the old Collect, a 
filthy pond, which had its outlet through Canal-street. The 
Halls of Justice is a much admired specimen of modern- 
ized Egyptian architecture. It is built of light granite from 
Hallowed, Maine. It is 253 feet long, and 200 wide, and 
occupies the four sides of a hollow square, with a laige 
centre building within the area. The front is approached 
by eight steps, leading to a portico of four massive Egyptian 
columns. The windows, which extend to the height of 
two stories, have massive iron grated frames, surmounted 
with cornices, ornamented with a winged globe and ser- 
pents. The two fronts on Leonard and Franklin-streets, 
have each two entrances, with two massive columns each. 
The gloomy aspect of this building, has won for it the 
general name of " The Tombs." It is occupied by the 
Court of Sessions, a police court, and some other court 
rooms, beside a male and female prison for city offenders, 
awaiting trial. State criminals are hung in the open court 
within the walls. 

The house of detention is a distinct and isolated build- 
ing, 142 feet in length, by 45 in width. It contains 148 
cells. The lower cells are 6 feet 9 niches wide, 11 feet 
high, and 15 feet long, diminishing 18 inches in length 
in each story. They are provided with cast-iron water 
closets, hydrant, water cock ventilators, and are warmed 
by hot water pipes. Every part of the building is con. 
structed in the most substantial manner, and with particu- 
lar reference to the security of prisoners. The building 
was finished in 1838. The female department is entered 
from Leonard-street. It is superintended by a matron, 
who keeps it in the most perfect order and neatness. She 
is very attentive to visitors, who can always have gratuitous 
access, between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M. The male prison 
opens on Franklin-street. Persons can gain admittance 
here on application for a written permit, at the keeper's 
room, between 10 A. M. and 5 P. M. 

CUSTOM HOUSE. 

This building equals any in the world, both in the beauty 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 31 



of its design and the durability of its construction. It is 
situated on the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, and oc- 
cupies the ground where once stood the old Federal Hall, 
the scene of Washington's inauguration. The building is 
in the form of a parallelogram, 200 feet long by 90 wide, 
and about 80 feet in height. Brick, granite and marble 
were used in its construction ; but its outside is entirely of 
marble from Massachusetts, except the steps. It is design. 
ed in imitation of the Parthenon at Athens, in the Doric 
order. At the southern end on Wall-street, is a portico of 
eight purely Doric columns, 5 feet 8 inches in diameter, 
and 32 feet high ; and on the opposite end, on Pine-street, 
is a corresponding portico ; on each side are 13 pilasters, in 
keeping with the front pillars. The front portico is ascend- 
ed by 18 granite steps. The interior is divided into a 
grand rotunda and numerous spacious rooms for the ac- 
commodation of officers. The rotunda is a magnificent 
room, 60 feet in diameter ; the dome supported by 16 Co- 
rinthian columns, 30 feet high. These columns are beauti- 
fully wrought, — the capitals being of most exquisite Italian 
workmanship. The largest blocks of marble used in the 
building weigh 33 tons. The ceilings of the apartments 
are arched, and richly ornamented with stucco. The roof is 
of marble ; the slabs weigh over 300 pounds, and lap over 
each other eight inches, to allow of the expansive power and 
to keep out water. There is not a particle of wood in any 
part of the building, and it is probably the only structure in 
the world, that has been erected so nearly fire proof. The 
building was commenced in May, 1834, and finished in 
May, 1841. The cost, ground included, was $1,195,000— 
building alone, $950,000. The architect was John Frazee. 
The exquisite ornamental work was designed and executed 
by Horace Kneeland, since become famous as a sculptor. 
The number of officers employed in the Custom House is 
354, of whom nearly 200 are inspectors. The Custom 
House may be visited by the stranger any time during the 
day, from 10 A. M. to 3 P. M. He will do well to enler 
at the side door in Nassau-street, and from thence ascend 
to the roof, inspecting the various rooms as he goes up. 



32 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

The key of the roof scuttle may be had by inquiring at any 
of the offices on the upper floor. There is no objection to 
the stranger's visiting any part of the building. The roof 
commands a fine view of the harbour. 

merchant's exchange. 

The Merchant's Exchange is located between Wall-street, 
Exchange-Place, William and Hanover streets. It is built 
in the most substantial form, of blue Quincy granite, and is 
200 feet long by 171 to 144 feet wide, 77 feet high to the 
top of the cornice, and 124 to the top of the dome. The 
front on Wall-street has a recessed portico of 18 massive 
Grecian Ionic columns, 38 feet high and 4 feet 4 inches in 
diameter, each formed from a solid block of stone, and 
weighing 45 tons. Besides numerous rooms for various 
purposes, the rotunda in the centre is 80 feet in diameter, 
with four recesses, making the length and breadth each 100 
feet, the whole 80 feet high, surmounted with a dome, rest- 
ing in part on eight Corinthian columns of Italian marble, 
41 feet high, and lighted by a skylight 25 feet in diameter. 
The granite columns cost $3,000 each. They are the 
largest whole columns in the world, with the exception of 
a church in St. Petersburgh. The rotunda is 80 feet in 
diameter, and will hold 3,000 persons. The architect was 
Isaiah Rogers. The building cost a little more than a mil- 
lion of dollars. It belongs to a corporation, — and has been 
so far a losing investment, although its rooms command 
enormous rents. It contains a very extensive reading room 
for merchant subscribers, accessible only to the stranger 
by introduction from a member. The Chamber of Com- 
merce holds its sessions here, and the Board of Brokers 
occupy the rotunda at certain hours of the day. The 
stranger may visit all parts of the building. 

POST OFFICE. 

The Post Office building, formerly the Middle Dutch 
Church, is situated in Nassau-street, between Cedar and 
Liberty streets. This building has stood over a hundred 
and fifty years — and nine generations have worshipped at its 



CHANGE. 




Wall Stre< u 



I\i„e M 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 33 



altar. It is not generally known, that its steeple, and much 
of its interior wood work, was brought from Holland. 
During the Revolutionary war, most of the churches were 
used by the British, and many of them much injured, but 
this church suffered most, being used successively as a 
riding school, a prison and a hospital. In 1790, it was re- 
paired and used for public worship again. The United 
States government have recently converted it into a Post 
Office, paying for its use the annual rent of five thousand 
dollars. It now presents the appearance of a Post Office in 
the heart of a grave yard ; a circumstance quite character- 
istic of New- York enterprise. The numerous signs which 
appear on the building, point out the various points of com- 
munication with the interior. Its internal arrangements 
are very extensive and commodious. The Postmaster's 
room is so situated that he can see every thing going on 
in the building. Office hours from 8 A. M. to 7 P. M. 
On Sundays, from 9 to 10 A. M., and from 12£ to 1£ P. M. 
There are Penny Postmen attached to the office, who go 
their rounds twice a day, and deliver letters and papers to 
all who request them. 

THE ROTUNDA. 

This classical edifice, which (as the word imports) is of 
a circular form, both internally and externally, was erected 
in the summer of 1818, for the exhibition of large panoramic 
paintings. It fronts in Chambers-street, near the head of 
Cross-street, occupying ground belonging to the copora- 
tion, which was granted to the projector, Mr. John Van- 
derlyn, the celebrated artist, free of rent for ten years, on 
condition that the building should devolve to the city at the 
expiration of that time. It is constructed of brick, is fifty- 
three feet in diameter, and forty feet in height, surmounted 
with a pantheon-shaped dome and skylight, through which 
the interior is lighted. 

It has a portico, supported by four columns, fronting on 
the Park, which gives it an imposing appearance. It was 
for some years occupied by the Marine Court, and subse- 
quently by the City Post Office. It is now occupied by 



34 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

the New-York Gallery of Paintings, who have its use from 
the corporation rent free. — See Department of Fine Arts. 

NEW-YORK UNIVERSITY. 

Situated between Washington Place and Waverly Place, 
fronts Washington Square towards the west, forming a 
noble ornament to the city, being built of Westchester 
marble, and exhibits a specimen of the English collegiate 
style of architecture. 

The building is 180 feet long and 100 wide. It was 
founded in 1S31. 

In front this oblong is divided into five parts — a central 
building, with wings flanked by towers, one rising on each 
of the four corners of the edifice. This central building or 
chapel is superior to the rest in breadth, height and charac- 
ter, and is somewhat similar to that of King's College, 
Cambridge, England — a masterpiece of pointed architec- 
ture, and a model for succeeding ages. It is fifty-five 
feet broad and eighty-five feet deep, including the octangu- 
lar turrets, one of which rises at each of the four corners. 
The two ends are gabled, and are, as well as the sides, 
crowned with an embattled parapet. The chapel receives 
its principal light from a window in the western end. 
This window is twenty-four feet wide and fifty high. It 
has eight lights and two embattled transoms. From the 
central building, or chapel, wings project right and left, 
and are four stories in height, flanked by towers, 
supported by angular buttresses of two stages, running 
above an embattled parapet, and are at the top themselves 
embattled. The windows in the wings have square heads, 
with two lights, a plain transom, and the upper division 
tre-foiled. The principal entrance is under the great west- 
ern window, through a richly moulded and deeply recessed 
portal, flanked by buttresses of two stages, the upper stage 
set diagonally, and rising above an embattled parapet. 
The doors are of oak, richly paneled, and filled with tra- 
cery of open work, closely studded with bronze. 

The school has a president and eleven professors. It 
has in its collegiate department 145 students, and a valu- 



(i E w • H' R 5 BNIV^SIT V 




Washingtc M Piuare. 






PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 35 



able library and philosophical apparatus. Connected with 
it is an extensive grammar school and a flourishing medi- 
cal department, the whole of which contain 680 students. 
Commencement, third Monday in July. 

The chapel is probably the most beautiful room of the 
kind in America. It is open to the public on Sundays for 
religious worship. The New-York. Historical Society's 
rooms are in the building. The building is accessible to 
the visiter at all times. 

Governing Faculty. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, L. L. D., Chancellor, and Pro- 
fessor of Moral Philosophy and Rhetoric. 

Rev. Cyrus Mason, I). D. , Professor of the Evidences of 
Revealed Religion, and Rector of the Grammar School. 

Elias Loomis, Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philo- 
sophy and Astronomy. 

Taylor Lewis, A. M., Professor of the Latin and Greek 
Languages and Literature. 

E. A. Johnson, A. M., Professor of Latin Language and 
Literature. 

Rev. C. S. Henry, D. D., Pofessor of Intellectual Philo- 
sophy, History and Belles Lettres. 

John W. Draper, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and 
Natural History. 

Professors, not of the Governing Faculty. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, Professor of the Literature of the 
Arts of Design. 

Rev. George Bush, Professor of Hebrew. 
M. Giraud, Acting Professor of the French Language. 
Julio Soler, Professor of the Spanish Language. 
Felix Forresti, Professor of the Italian Language. 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

Columbia College is situated at the foot of Park Place, 
near Broadway, with extensive grounds, beautifully orna- 
mented with a large growth of forest trees. It was char- 
tered by George II., in 1754, by the name of King's Col- 
lege, and confirmed, with the necessary alterations by the 



36 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

Legislature of New- York, in 1787. It has a president and 
ten professors, 1,170 alumni, 100 students, and 14,000 
volumes in its libraries. The building is 200 feet long and 
50 feet wide, with two projecting wings, one at each end, 
in which are accommodations for the families of the pro- 
fessors. It contains a chapel, lecture rooms, hall, museum, 
and an extensive philosophical and chemical apparatus. 
The funds amount to about $200,000, and the annual in- 
come to $7,000 or $8,000. There is a flourishing gram- 
mar school attached to the institution, over which a pro- 
fessor presides as rector. 

By a statute of Columbia College, the Corporation of the 
City of New-York, the Trustees of the New-York Public 
School Society, the Trustees or Directors of the Clinton 
Hall Association, of the Mercantile Library Association, 
and of the Mechanic and Scientific Institutions, the Gene- 
ral Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, and such other 
societies as the Board of Trustees may from time to time 
designate, are each entitled to have always two students 
educated in the college, free of all charges of tuition. 
Every religious denomination in the city is also entitled 
to have one student, who may be designed for the minis- 
try, educated free of all charges ; and every school, from 
which there shall be admitted in any one year into the col- 
lege four students, have the privilege of sending one scholar, 
to be educated gratuitously. Commencement, the day fol- 
lowing the first Monday in October. 

Faculty of Arts. 

Appointed. 

Nathaniel F. Moore, L. L. D., President, 1842 

Rev. John McVickar, S. T. D., Professor of Moral ) lgl7 

Philosophy, Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, — $ 

Charles Anthon, L. L. D., Jay Professor of the } 

Greek and Latin Languages, and Rector of the >1830 

Grammar School, ) 

James Renwick, L. L. D., Professor of Natural and ) iooq 

Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry, $ 

Rev. Charles W. Hackley, S. T. D. s Professor of ) -.040 

Mathematics and Astronomy, C 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 37 



James Kent, L. L. D., Professor of Law, 1823 

E. Felix Forresti, L. L. D., Professor of the Italian ) ,000 

Language and Literature, $ 

Felix G. Berteau, L. L. D., Professor of the French ) -.qoq 

Language and Literature, $ 

Rev. Samuel H. Turner, S. T. D., Professor of the J -.qon 

Hebrew Language, ^ 

Mariano Velasquez de la Cadena, Professor of the ) icon 

Spanish Language and Literature, ^ 

John Lewis Telkampf, J. U. D., Gottingen, Gebhard i 

Professor of the German Language and Litera- > 1843 

ture ; 



MASONIC HALL, 

Late head quarters of the Whigs, is situated on the east 
side of Broadway, between Duane and Pearl streets, and 
is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the country. It 
was built in 1826, by the Masons, before their importance 
was diminished by opposition. It is in the Gothic style of 
architecture. It fronts fifty feel on Broadway, and extends 
back one hundred and twenty feet. The front is built of 
granite, seventy feet in height from the street to the battle- 
ments in the centre. The second story is a grand Gothic 
saloon, ninety feet in length, forty-seven feet in width, and 
twenty-five feet high, and is one of the most magnificent 
halls in the union. The floor is supported by elastic 
springs for dancing ; the ceiling is divided into basket or fan 
arches, with pendants of open work, and columns support 
the arches projecting from the walls. The blank windows 
in the room are filled with mirrors, which render the hall 
when lighted very brilliant. This hall is now used as a 
bowling saloon, and is a place of great resort. 

COLOURED HOME, 

For the aged and indigent, is located in Forty-second- 
street, corner of Fifth Avenue. Officers : Miss Mary Shot- 
well, 1st Directress ; Mrs. P. G. Arcularius, 2d Directress ; 
Mrs. W.W. Chester, Secretary ; Dr. J. D. Fitch, Treasurer. 



38 PICTURE OF NEW-YOKE. 

RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. 

American Bible Society. — This Institution, which is lo- 
cated at 115 Nassau-street, was organized in 181 6. Hon. 
John Cotton Smith, President. Its government is in the 
hands of a Board of thirty-six Lay-managers of various 
religious denominations. The Society has a house one 
hundred feet square, extending through from Nassau-street 
to Theatre alley, with a court in the centre. In this build- 
ing are the offices of the Corresponding Secretary, the 
Financial Secretary and the General Agent. 

Over one thousand Bibles are produced here every day, 
and 429,090 were printed in 1845, costing $166,652. The 
Society sell 'heir books at cost, and give away very many. 

This institution is well worth visiting, as the printing ar- 
rangements are on a very large scale, and the whole art of 
book-making may be seen in one view. 

Officers: President, Wm. P. Buell, M. D. ; 1st Vice- 
President, A. Robertson Walsh; 2d do., G. Buck, jr.; 
3d do., Henry Rowland ; 4th do., G. A. Titus ; 5th do., 
Thomas Bond, jr. ; 6th do., George S. Conover. Corres- 
ponding Secretary, E. H. Blatchford ; Recording Secretary, 
J. F. Williams ; Treasurer, George H. Williams. 

American and Foreign Bible Society, (Baptist.,) 350 
Broome-street. — S. H. Cone, President; Rufus Babcock 
and T. Wallace, Secretaries ; William Colgate, Vice-Pre- 
sident ; I. M. Allen, General Agent. 

New- York Bible Society, 91 Wall and 115 Nassau. street 
— John Slosson, President ; E. H. Blatchford, T. Bond, Jr., 
Secretaries; G. H. Williams, Treasurer; L. P. Hubbard, 
Agent. 

City Bible Society, (Baptist,) 350 Broome-street— W, H. 
Wyckoff, President ; G. N. Bleecker and Lewis Colby, 
Secretaries; Samuel Raynor, Treasurer. 

New- York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society, 20 
John-street—Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, President ; W. H. 
Bell, Secretary ; T. C. Butler, Treasurer and Agent. 

American Tract Society, 150 Nassau-street — T. Fre- 



RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. 



39 



linghuysen, President; Wm. A. Hallock, 0. Eastman and 
R. S. Cook, Secretaries ; O. R. Kingsbury, Assistant Trea- 
surer. 

Protestant Episcopal Tract Society, 20 John-street — 
Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, President; Rev. E. N. Mead and 
D. H. Hoyt, Secretaries ; T. C. Butler, Treasurer. 

New-York City Tract Society, 150 Nassau.street 

-, President; William Walker, Treasurer ; A. R. Wet- 



more and Rev. Isaac Orchard, Secretaries. 

American Sabbath Tract Society, 9 Spruce-street — L. 
Crandall, President ; F. W. Stillman and P. Stillman, Sec- 
retaries ; T. B. Stillman, Treasurer. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
is situated near the Briek Church, corner of Spruce and 
Nassau streets. Theo. Frelinghuysen, President ; W. J. 
Armstrong, Secretary. 

American Home Missionary Society, 150 Nassau-street 
— Henry D wight, President; Rev. Milton Badger and 
Rev. Charles Hall, Secretaries ; Jasper Corning, Treasurer, 
and H. W. Ripley, Assistant 

Home Missionary Society, (Baptist,) 350 Broome-street 
— Friend Humphrey, President ; B. M. Hill, David Bellamy, 
Secretaries ; R. W. Marvin, Treasurer. 

Missionary Society, (Methodist ,) 200 Mulberry-street — 
Rev. J. Soule, President ; Francis Hall, Secretary ; G. 
Lane, Treasurer. 

Neio-York and Brooklyn Foreign Missionary Society — 
Pelatiah Pent, President; Rev. W. Adams and A. Merwin, 
Secretaries ; J. W. Tracy, Treasurer. 

Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 23 Centre- 
street — Samuel Miller, President ; Walter Lowrie, Secre- 
tary ; Daniel Wells, Treasurer. 

Presbyterian Board of Domestic Missions, 23 Centre- 



40 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 



street — Ashbel Green, President ; W. A. McDowell, Sec- 
retary ; Thomas Hoge, Treasurer. 

Protestant Episcopal General Missionary Foreign Com. 
mittee, 281 Broadway — Rev. B. T. Onclerdonk, President ; 
Rev. P. P. Irving, Secretary and General Agent ; Dr. J. 
Smyth Rogers, Treasurer. 

Protestant Episcopal General Missionary Domestic Com- 
mittee, 281 Broadway — Rev. B, T. Onderdonk, President ; 
Rev. N. S. Harris, Secretary and General Agent ; T. N. 
Stanford, Treasurer. 

Protestant Episcopal City Missionary Society — Rev. B. 
T. Onderdonk, President ; W. Mulligan, Secretary ; Lewis 
Phillips, Treasurer. 

Protestant Episcopal Diocesan Society for the Promotion 
of Religion and Learning — Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, Presi- 
dent ; William H. Harrison, Secretary ; J. F. De Peyster, 
Treasurer. 

Foreign Evangelical Society, 36 Park Bow — A. B. Has- 
brouck, President ; E. N. Sautel, Gurdon Buck and Robert 
Baird, Secretaries ; William W. Chester, Treasurer. 

American Protestant Society, 143 Nassau-street — Rev. 
Gardner Spring, President ; Rev. H. Norton and C. K. 
Moore, Secretaries ; Mortimer De Motte, Treasurer. 

Central American Education Society, 36 Park Bow — J. 
C. Hornblower, President ; Rev. Eliakim Phelps, Secreta- 
ry ; W. A. Booth, Treasurer. 

Presbyterian Board of Education, 23 Centre-street — 
Alexander Henry, President ; M. B. Hope, Secretary ; J. 
R. Mitchell, Treasurer. 

American Anti-Slavery Society, 143 Nassau.street — 
William Lloyd Garrison, President; Maria W. Chapman 
and Wendell Phillips, of Boston, Secretaries; Francis 
Jackson, Treasurer. 



BELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. 41 

Foreign and American Anti-Slavery Society, 122 Pearl- 
street — A. Tappan, President ; L. Tappan, Secretary ; 
William Shotwell, Treasurer. 

New-York State Colonization Society — Office in the 
Brick Church Chapel. A. G. Phelps, President: Rev, G. 
Spring, Vice-President; Rev. D. L. Carroll, Secretary; 
Moses Allen, Treasurer. 

American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the 
Jeios, 23 Nassau-street— Rev. Phillip Milledoler, Presi- 
dent; Rev. John Lillie, Secretary for Domestic Cor- 
respondence ; Rev. John Proudfit, Secretary for Foreign 
Correspondence; A. M. Burrill, Recording Secretary; 
Thomas Bussing, Treasurer. 

American Seaman's Friend Society, 91 Wall-street — 
Edward Richardson, President ; John Spaulding and T. 
Hale, Secretaries ; C.N. Talbot, Treasurer. 

New-York Marine Bible Society, 91 Wall-street — Hugh 
Aikman, President ; William Poole and L. P. Hubbard, 
Secretaries ; William Woodhull, Treasurer. 

American Sunday School Union, 152 Nassau-street — 
J. C. Meeks and R. B. Camfield, Agents. 

New-York Sunday School Union, 152 Nassau-street — 
Isaac Ferris, President; N. N. Halsted, Secretary ; Jona- 
than Leavitt, Treasurer; J. C. Meeks, Agent. 

Protestant Episcopal General Sunday School Union> 20 
John-street — Rev. A. Ten Broeck, Secretary; T. W. 
Mitchell, Treasurer ; Daniel Dana, jr., Agent. 

New-York City Sunday School Society, (Methodist,) 200 
Mulberry -street — S. A. Purdy, President ; Wm. Truslow, 
J. F. Truslow and W T alter Keeler, Secretaries ; J. W. Rum. 
sey, Treasurer. 

Sunday School Union, (Methodist,) 200 Mulberry-street 
—Rev. J. Soule, President; Wm. Truslow, Rev. D. P. Kid- 
der, Secretaries ; Wm. Morgan, Treasurer. 

4* 



42 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

American Temperance Union, 148 Nassau-street — R. 
Hide Walworth, President ; Rev. John Marsh, Secretary 
and General Agent ; Jasper Corning, Treasurer. 

Female Moral Reform Society, 36 Park Row — Mrs. C. 
W. Hawkins, President ; Mrs. S. R. Ingraham, Secretary ; 
Mrs. Jane Beatty, Treasurer. 

New-York Sacred Music Society — Established in 1823. 
Officers: L. B. Wyman, President; G. E. Vanderberg, W. 
A. Tyler, Vice-Presidents ; H. R. Yenne, Secretary ; J. 
P.Perkins, Treasurer; George Whitlock, Librarian; U. 
C. Hill, Conductor. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

NEW-YORK HOSPITAL. 

This institution, located in Broadway, between Duane 
and Anthony streets, was founded in 1771, by the Earl of 
Duninore, at that time Governor of the Colony. The in- 
stitution has an annual revenue from various sources of 
about $68,000, the larger portion of which is annually 
expended. There are three large hospital buildings, fitted 
up in excellent style, for the accommodation of patients. 
Patients can have the best of medical attendance, and the 
convenience of nursing and medicine for three dollars a 
week. Respectable persons without families will find this 
a very desirable asylum during sickness. Patients can have 
single rooms if they desire them. It is quite common for 
physicians, who know the advantages of this Hospital, to 
resort to it when sick themselves. In cases of sudden ac- 
cidents, patients are received here, and their wants imme- 
diately attended to. Medical students are permitted to go 
the rounds with the attending surgeons for the annual fee 
of eight dollars. Annual lectures are given by all the at- 
tending physicians and surgeons. The buildings will ac- 
commodate over 300 patients. Application for admission 
must be made at the office within the Hospital. There are 
ten attending and consulting physicians and surgeons. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 43 



THE BLOOMING-DALE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, 

Is a branch of the New- York Hospital, and, through a 
delegated Committee of six of their number, is under the 
general control of the Board of Governors of that, insti- 
tution. It is situated near the Bloomingdale road, seven 
miles from the City-Hall, upon an elevated and beautiful 
site, half a mile from the Hudson river. This situation, 
though perhaps not apparently so, is, after Fort Washing- 
ton, the highest point of the island. 

The approach to the Asylum from the southern entrance, 
by the stranger who associates the most sombre scenes 
with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The sudden 
opening of the view, the extent of the grounds, the various 
avenues gracefully winding through so large a lawn ; the 
cedar hedges, the fir, and other ornamental trees, tasteful- 
ly distributed or grouped, the variety of shrubbery and 
flowers ; in fine, the assemblage of so many objects to 
please the eye, and relieve the melancholy mind from its 
sad musings, strike him as one of the most successful and 
useful instances of landscape gardening. 

There is, indeed, no private residence or public estab- 
lishment in the vicinity of the city, which for beauty of 
situation, or exercise of taste in the distribution of grounds, 
can compare with it. 

The principal building, which is constructed of hewn 
stone, is two hundred and eleven feet long, sixty feet 
wide, and three stories in height, exclusive of basement 
and attic. There are two other buildings, each standing 
at right angles with the principal edifice. These are each 
three stories in height, sixty feet in length, and forty in 
width. 

The modern greatly improved and humane system of 
treating the insane has been fully introduced into this in- 
stitution. The patients have well furnished apartments, 
and eat at tables set in the usual manner in private fami- 
lies. They walk out, with attendants, and many of them 
ride, daily, in a carriage devoted to their use. They amuse 
themselves with ten-pins, quoits, bagatelle, chess, chequers 



44 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

and other games. Many of them work, the men on the 
farm or about the premises, and the women with their 
needles. Many of them are instructed in a school which 
is kept in the Asylum, and by lectures upon scientific and 
miscellaneous subjects. 

It is not customary for strangers to visit the apartments 
of the patients, both to avoid excitement, and as a matter 
of courtesy towards those whose friends are placed here 
for restoration. The central building, however, is always 
open to visitors, and the view from the top of it, being the 
most extensive and beautiful of any in the vicinity of the 
city, is well worthy of their attention. 

The Asylum went into operation in June, 1821 ; since 
which time more than three thousand patients have been 
admitted. The number now in the institution is one hun- 
dred and twenty-two. 

OFFICERS. 

Asylum Committee. 

Stephen Allen, No. 1 Washington Square. 
Richard M. Lawrence, No. 7 Wooster-street- 
Augustus Fleming, No. 10 Bond " 

James Lovett, No. 12 Third " 

James J. Jones, No. 5 Washington Place. 
Wm.M. Halsted, No. 3L Nassau-street. 
Physician. — Pliny Earle, M. D. 
Warden. — George W. Endicott. 

Application for me admission of patients, if by letter, 
should be addressed to the Physician ; if otherwise, they 
should be made to one of the members of the Asylum 
Committee. 

NEW- YORK QUARANTINE HOSPITAL. 

This institution is located on Staten Island, and was es- 
tablished by act of Legislature in 1821. Boats leave the 
city every hour for the Island, where they land very near 
the Hospital. This institution is appropriated for the re- 
ception of patients who have landed from vessels from 
foreign ports, particularly those afflicted with contagious 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 45 



disease?. Henry Van Hovenburgh, Health Officer ; Alex- 
ander F. Vache, Resident Physician ; Stephen R. Harris, 
Health Commissioner and Treasurer. 

Lying-in-Ho&pilal — For destitute females, is situated 
at 85 Marion-street. 

Marine Society — Capt. Chas. H. Marshall, President; 
William Thompson, J. J. Dickinson, Vice-Presidents ; 
James Copland, Treasurer; Henry Russell, Secretary. 

Mariners' Family Industrial Society. — The object of 
this Society is to furnish employment at a fair remunera- 
tion, for the female members of the families of seamen, 
and to relieve the wants of such families as are incapable 
of labour. A clothing store has been opened at 325 Pearl- 
street, where may be found an assortment of garments for 
seamen and others. Officers: Mrs. C. W. Hawkins, 1st 
Directress; Miss M. Vale, 2d do.; Mrs. T. O. Taylor, 
Treasurer ; Mrs. C. Tracy, Secretary. 

American Shipwreck Society, office, Hall of American 
Institute, west wing New City-Hall. James Depeyster 
Ogden, President. 

The British Protective Emigrant Society, of New-York — 
Established for the purpose of preventing emigrants from 
being cheated and imposed upon, will furnish them, free 
of any charge, with every advice and information relative 
to routes, expenses of travelling, and all matters of impor- 
tance to them, on applying at the office of the Society, 14 
Pine-street, near the Custom-House. C. H. Webb, Super- 
intendent ; Geo. Wilkie, Active Agent. 

Irish Emigrant Society, 6 Ann-street — T. W. Clerke, 
President ; G. Dillon, Jos. Stuart, Vice-Presidents ; James 
Reyburn, Treasurer ; J. T. Doyle, M. J. O'Connor, Sec- 
retaries. 

Welsh Benevolent Society of the City of New-York — 
Evan Griffith, President; Enoch Morgan, Treasurer; G. 
W. Griffith, Corresponding Secretary. The objects of 



46 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



this Society are the advising and protecting Welsh emi- 
grants from the frauds and knavery of emigrant swindlers, 
who abound in the city, and who are unrelenting in their 
exactions from the poor emigrants. This is a very active 
and useful society, and demands cordial support. Apply 
to the British Protective Emigrant Society, 14 Pine-street, 
for information. 

NEW-YORK DISPENSARY, 

Situated in White-street, corner of Centre-street, esta- 
blished in 1790, " for the purpose of relieving such sick, 
poor and indigent persons, as are unable to procure medi- 
cal aid." 

NORTHERN DISPENSARY, 

Situated in Christopher-street, corner of Sixth-street, 
founded in 1829. 

EASTERN DISPENSARY, 

Situated in Ludlow-street, corner of Essex Market 
Place, founded in 1834. 

NEW- YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF 
AND DUMB. 

This institution commenced operations under its char- 
ter, by opening a school for the reception of pupils on the 
12th "day of May, 1818. Until the spring of 1829, the 
school was held in the building now called the New City- 
Hall. At that time the pupils were transferred to a large 
building erected for the purposes of the Institution, on 
Fiftieth-street and the Fourth Avenue, three and a half 
miles from the City- Hall. Communication between the 
Institution and the city is rendered very easy by the cars 
which pass on the Harlaem Rail-Road, (Fourth Avenue,) 
every fifteen or twenty minutes in both directions. 

The principal building occupied for the purposes of the 
Institution, is one hundred and ten feet by sixty, in the di- 
mensions of its plan, and five stories in height, including 
the basement. It accommodates about 160 patients, and 
the teachers, the family of the Principal, and such other 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 47 

persons as are needed to assist in conducting the affairs of 
the establishment. 

This Institution has been well sustained by appropria- 
tions made by the Legislature of the State, by the Corpo- 
rations of the City, and by private munificence. 

There are usually at the Asylum about 160 pupils, who 
are taught most of the useful branches of education, and 
some of them are instructed in trades, such as shoemaking, 
tailoring, cabinet making, bookbinding and gardening. At 
the date of the last report, (Dec. 1844,) the number of 
pupils was 168, (96 males and 72 females,) of whom 128 
were supported by the State of New- York, 13 by the 
Corporation of the City, three by the State of New- 
Jersey, one by the County of St. Lawrence, 11 by their 
friends, and 12 by the Institution. The charge for a pupil 
is $130 per year, including all expenses, except clothing 
and travelling expenses. 

The Principal of the Institution is Mr. Harvey P. Peet, 
who is assisted by a number of competent professors and 
others. The government and management of the general 
concerns are vested in a Board of Directors ; of the late 
Board, the President, Rev. Doctor Milnor, and one of the 
Vice-Presidents, Robert C. Cornell, Esq., are recently de- 
ceased. 

Prosper M. Wetmore and Harvey P. Peet, Vice-PresHs. 

Robert D. Weeks, Treasurer. 

INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND, 

Is located on Ninth Avenue, near Thirty-third-street, 
where are 32 lots of land presented to the Institution by 
James Boorman, Esq. The Legislature, in 1839, appropri- 
ated .$15,000 towards the erection of the buildings, besides 
which, considerable donations have been made by individ- 
uals. The pupils are taught the usual branches of English 
education. There is a manufacturing department, where 
they learn basket making, weaving, band-box work, and 
other similar work. There are usually about 60 pupils at 
the Institution. Officers: A. G. Phelps, President ; Isaac 
Wood, Vice-President ; S. Brown, Treasurer , E. Jones, 



48 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Corresponding Secretary ; G. F. Allen, Recording Secre- 
tary ; J. W. G. Clements, Physician ; Isaac Wood and J. 
C. Bliss, Consulting Physicians ; J. Kearney Rodgers, Con- 
sulting Surgeon. 

The building is built of granite, in the Gothic style, 
and is one of the most imposing structures in the city. 
Admission to see the pupils, twice a week, maybe had, on 
application to any of the officers. It is much resort- 
ed to by those interested in such institutions. The en- 
graving we give in another part of this book, presents a 
very accurate view of the building. 

Asylum for Respectable Aged Indigent Females. — This 
institution is situated in 20th street, near the Second Ave- 
nue. Aged and indigent ladies find in this truly benevo- 
lent institution a grateful asylum for their declining years. 
We are glad to learn that its managers are getting great 
encouragement for its permanent success. 

Magdalen Female Benevolent Asylum. — This institu- 
tion is situated between Eighty-eighth and Eighty-ninth 
streets, west of the Harlaem Rail-Road. Officers : Mrs. 
George Warner, 1st Directress ; Mrs. Thomas Hastings, 
2d Directress ; Mrs. Dr. Pierson, Treasurer ; Mrs. S. Van 
Antwerp, Corresponding Secretary ; Mrs. J. Clibborn, Re- 
cording Secretary ; Rev. C. C. Darling, Chaplain. Can be 
visited any day. 

New-York Orphan Asylum — Is situated at Blooming- 
dale, near Eightieth-street, about five miles from the City- 
Hall, and is a handsome building, 120 by 60 feet, connect- 
ed with nine acres of ground. It is of stone, plastered in 
imitation of yellow marble. It overlooks the Hudson river, 
and is delightfully situated, being surrounded with trees and 
cultivated grounds. It was instituted in 1806. The pre- 
sent number of male and female orphans at the Asylum is 
about 200. Till quite recently the inmates of this asylum 
have been subject to a great deal of sickness, owing to its 
contiguity to the foul air generated in Potter's Field. The 
Potters Field has been recently removed. The Asylum 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 49 

can be visited at any time, and great numbers resort to it 
to see the pupils. 

Leake and IVatVs Orphan Asylum — Is situated near 
One Hundredth-street, between the Fourth and Fifth Ave- 
nues. 

Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum — Male and Female, 
Sixth Avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh streets. 

Boman Catholic Orphan Asylum — Is situated in Prince- 
street, corner of Mott-street, and is conducted by the Sis- 
ters of Charity. They have 250 orphans under their care. 

Roman Catholic Half -Orphan Asylum — Eleventh-street, 
near Seventh Avenue. 

Coloured Orphan Asylum. — This institution is situated in 
Twelfth-street, near the lower Reservoir, between Ave- 
nues Fifth and Sixth. It has a large and commodious build- 
ing, and is in a flourishing condition. 

Prison Association of New-York, corner of Pine and 
Nassau streets — Established for the amelioration of the 
condition of prisoners, the improvement of prison disci- 
pline, the government of prisons, and the encouragement 
of reformed convicts after their discharge, by assisting them 
in obtaining an honest livelihood. 

A subscription of $25 constitutes a member for life. 

Tiiere is a female department, consisting of such as take 
an interest in the objects of the society. Officers : Hon. 
William T. McCoun, President ; Isaac T. Hopper, Gene- 
ral Agent. 

New-York Vaccine Institute, 369 Broome and 20 Third- 
street — John C. Beales, President; James Weir, Record- 
ing Secretary. 

New-England Society — M. H. Grinnell, President; T. 
Fessenden, Simeon Draper, jr., Vice-Presidents ; A. G. 
Hazard, Treasurer ; A. A. Weeks, Secretary. 

Ancient Britons' Benefit Society — W. J. Ormson, Pre- 
sident ; David Roberts, Vice-President; Wm. Lewis, Secre- 
tary. 



50 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

St. Andrew* s Society — Richard Irvin, President; J. J. 
Palmer, Adam Norrie, Vice-Presidents; Andrew Mitchell, 
Treasurer; John Campbell, Secretary; J. T. Ferguson, 
Physician. 

St. David's Benevolent Society of New -York and Brook- 
lyn — David C. Colden, President; H. P. Edwards, M. 
Morgans, jr., Vice-President. 

St. George's Society of New- York — W. D. Cuthbertson, 
President; Henry Jessop, Septimus Crookes, Vice-Presi- 
dents; Robert Bage, Treasurer ; Henry Owen, James She- 
ward, Secretaries. 

St. Nicholas'' Society — J. R. Manly, President ; Peter 
Schermerhorn, W. J. Van Wagenen, A. R. Lawrence, Og- 
den Hoffman, Vice-Presidents; F. De Peyster, Treasurer; 
S. G. Raymond, Secretary. 

Hebrew Benevolent Society — M. M. Noah, President ; 
S. Dreyfous, Vice-President ; John Levy, Treasurer ; Henry 
Goldsmith, Secretary. 

Hibernian Universal Benevolent Society, 42 Prince- 
street — John Farrigan, President; Farrel Lunney, Vice- 
President ; John Heaney, Treasurer; James McGuire, 
Corresponding Secretary ; Francis O'Rielley, Recording 
Secretary. 



LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

NEW-YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY. 

A conspicuous and beautiful edifice, of the ionic order, of 
brown freestone, fronting on Broadway and Leonard-street. 

This institution is the most ancient in the city, and is 
co-eval in its origin with the English government of the 
colony, having been founded in the year 1700, under the 
administration of the Earl of Bellamont, then governor. 
The New- York Society Library, established in 1754, with 
the view of aiding and extending the objects of King's 
(now Columbia) College, founded at that time, was en- 




NEW-YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY, 



Corner of Broadway and Leonard Street. 



INSTITUTIONS. 51 



grafted on the old City Library, a name, by which, in com- 
mon parlance, it is still known. Daring the revolutionary 
war, the books being deposited in the old City-Hall in 
Broad-street, were scattered and lost. Tradition affirms 
that they were carried off by the British soldiers and bar- 
tered for grog. On the restoration of peace the Library 
was re-established, and continued for a long lime to occupy 
a sphere of quiet and unobtrusive usefulness in a building 
of considerable architectural taste, for that period, erected 
by the society in Nassau-street, opposite to the Middle 
Dutch Church, now used as the Post Office. 

In 1838 and '39 the society erected the present edifice 
in Broadway, at an expense, including the ground, of 
$120,000. The building throughout is constructed in the 
most thorough manner, and its apartments are unsurpassed 
for architectural beauty by any in the United States. 

The collection of books, selected with great care, con- 
sists of the most important works for general reading, and 
reference in every department of literature, science and 
the arts. Constant accessions are made ; during the last 
year there have been added 2,000 volumes, many imported 
from London, Paris, &c, where the society has agents. 
The reading and news room is a large and airy apartment, 
open from 8 in the morning till 10 in the evening, and is 
provided with various newspapers and periodicals, afford- 
ing a most agreeable resort to subscribers. Besides the 
library and reading room, one is appropriated to study and 
reference, and another to conversation. 

The privileges of this noble institution may be secured 
for the moderate sum of $25, with an annual payment of 
$6, or $100 without the annual payments, and the shares 
are transferable like other property. Members may intro- 
duce strangers to the use of the reading room, and reference 
to the books of the library. Persons not members may 
take out such books as are loaned, by leaving a deposit. 

A lecture room, admirably adapted to scientific and 
other lectures, is, from the conspicuous and central posi- 
tion of the building, in considerable demand. 

The objects of the institution are too obvious and im- 



52 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

portant to require further explanation. No good citizen 
will be without the privileges of a public library. The 
stranger will find the Society Library well worthy of a 
visit, and an agreeable resort during his sojourn. 

The annual income of the society is about $9,000 ; 
one half of which is derived from the annual payments of 
the members, the other half from the rents of the building, 
sale of new shares, &c. About $3,000 are appropriated 
annually to the purchase of books and periodicals, the 
balance to the extinguishment of debt, incidental ex- 
penses, &c. 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

This society is located in the Clinton Hall building, 
in Beekman, corner of Nassau-street. It possesses a 
library, reading room, lecture room, cabinet of minerals, 
&.c. It was originally established for the express benefit 
of clerks, but of late it has been thrown open to all who 
will pay for the privilege. The library, in which all the 
departments of science and general literature are well re- 
presented, contains at this time 23,000 volumes. It is 
peculiarly rich in periodical literature. Its collection in 
this department is probably superior to any other institu- 
tion in this country. The reading room is supplied with 
a very extensive variety of foreign and American periodi- 
cals and newspapers. The number of members at the 
present time is 1,891. Clerks pay one dollar initiation 
fee, and two dollars a year thereafter, which entitles them 
to the use of the reading room and library. Merchants hold 
honorary membership, and pay five dollars a year. Other 
citizens have the privileges of the library and reading room 
for five dollars a year. 

LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

This is a flourishing and vigorous association of scien- 
tific men, for the promotion and study of natural history 
in all its branches ; and for the furtherance of these purposes 
stated meetings are held for conversation and lectures. It 
was incorporated in 1818, and a room appropriated for their 



LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 53 

meetings, by the city government, in the building in the 
rear of ihe City-Hall. It was afterwards removed to a build- 
ing in Broadway, built for the purpose ; but it has recently 
been removed again to a large and commodious hall in the 
second story of the University Medical School, (formerly 
Stuyvesant Institute.) The institution possesses a large 
library, and an extensive cabinet of minerals, shells, plants, 
and other specimens in natural history. Meetings are 
held every Monday evening throughout the year — free 
to strangers as well as members. The museum may be 
visited gratuitously by application at the building. 

Officers: Joseph Delafield, President; Jno. A. Smith, 
Abraham Halsey, Vice-Presidents ; J. H. Redfield, Corres- 
ponding Secretary ; R. H. Browne, Secretary ; J. P. 
Giraud, jr., Treasurer. 

NEW-YORK LYCEUM. 

Established in 1838, for the purpose of diffusing useful 
knowledge, by means of lectures, a library and reading 
room. During the winter season, evening lectures are de- 
livered at the Tabernacle by distinguished scientific and 
literary men, invited by the Society, from different parts of 
the Union, to which the members and the public generally 
are admitted, on payment of a small sum for the course, or 
for each lecture. The library and reading rooms are at the 
corner of Broadway and Lispenard-street. 

Isaac T. Smith, President; George S. Stitt, Vice-Presi- 
dent; John L. Salisbury, Treasurer ; Albert G. Zabriskie, 
Corresponding Secretary ; Lewis G. Forman, Recording 
Secretary. 

NEW- YORK LAW INSTITUTE. 
(Established 1828. Incorporated 1830.) 
The Library, which is kept in the City-Hall, contains 
about 3,500 volumes of select law books, including nearly 
the whole series of English and American Reports. The 
initiation fees are $20, and annual dues $10. Members 
of the bar from abroad, and the judges of the courts, are 
entitled to the free use of the Library. 

Samuel Jones, L. L. D., President; John Anthon, Ge- 

_ 



54 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

rardus Clark, James W. Gerard, Vice-Presidents ; Joshua 
Coit, Treasurer ; Alex. H. Dana, Secretary ; Lewis H. 
Sandford, Librarian. 

NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

This able and efficient association have their rooms in 
the University Building. They have a library of 12,000 
volumes, and a large collection of coins and medals. Its 
library is open during each day. Albert Gallatin, Presi- 
dent ; Luther Bradish and Thos. De Witt, Vice-Presidents ; 
J. R. Bartlett, Foreign Corresponding Secretary; John 
Jay, Domestic Corresponding Secretary ; G. Gibbs, Li- 
brarian. 

apprentices' library. 

This library occupies a large and commodious building 
at 32 Crosby-street. It contains 12,000 volumes, for the 
exclusive use of apprentices. Eighteen hundred young 
mechanics avail themselves of the facilities of this valuable 
institution. 

ethnological society, 

Formed in 1842, for the purpose of inquiring into An- 
tiquities, History, Languages, Geography, &c 

Albert Gallatin, President ; Edward Robinson, Henry 
R. Schoolcraft, Vice-Presidents ; John R. Bartlett, Corres- 
ponding Secretary ; A. W. Bradford, Recording Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

Mechanics' and Tradesmen's Society and School, 32 
Crosby -street — J. A. Westervelt, President. 



THEOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS. 

Union Theological Seminary. — This Institution, founded 
in 1836, is located in University Place, between Sixth and 
Eighth streets, near Washington Square. The principal 
edifice contains four large and commodious lecture rooms, a 
chapel, library and study rooms, besides four large furnish- 
ed rooms for the accommodation of the students. It has six 
professors, and generally about 100 students. The library 
contains over 16,000 volumes. R. T. Haines, President. 



MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS. 55 

THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

The General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal 
Church, is situated in Twentieth-street, corner of Ninth 
Avenue, near the Hudson, two miles from the City-Hall. 
There are two handsome buildings of stone, for the accom- 
modation of professors and students. The Board of Trustees 
consists of all the bishops, and one trustee from each dio- 
cese in the United States. The institution is well en- 
dowed and in a flourishing condition. 



MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS. 

UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

This institution occupies the building formerly known as 
the Stuyvesant Institute, a splendid granite edifice, in 
Broadway, above Bleecker-street. The front is construct- 
ed of hewn granite, and is 75 feet long. It has a portico 
supported by four splendid granite columns. The building 
in its present state cost over one hundred thousand dollars. 
It contains three very spacious lecture rooms, one for anato- 
my, one for chemistry, and one for general purposes. It 
has also an extensive reading room and library. The New- 
York Lyceum have deposited their cabinet in this building. 

The museum and apparatus belong chiefly to the pro- 
fessors. Their value is about $30,000. 

The number of students at the last Winter Session of 
1844-5, was 378. 

The Winter Session begins on the last Monday of Octo- 
ber, and ends on the last day in February. 

Valentine Mott, M. D., Prof, of the Principles and Ope- 
rations of Surgery, with Surgical and Pathological Anatomy. 

Granville Sharp Pattison, M. D., Prof, of General De- 
scriptive and Surgical Anatomy. 

John Revere, M. D., Prof, of the Theory and Practice 
of Medicine. 

Martyn Paine, M. D., Prof, of Institutes of Medicine 
and Materia Medica. 

Gunning S. Bedford, M. D., Prof, of Midwifery, and the 
Diseases of Women and Children. 



56 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

John W. Draper, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry. 
William Darling, M. D., Prosector to the Professor of 
Surgery. 

John H. Whitaker, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy. 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

This is a handsome edifice, situated in Crosby-street. It 
was founded in 1807, has eight professors and about 200 
students. It has a library of over 1,000 volumes. Lectures 
commence on the first Monday in November, and continue 
about four months. Attached to the college is a very ex- 
tensive medical museum containing a vast number of in- 
teresting objects. It may be visited on application to the 
Janitor, in the building. 

The institution is governed by a Board of Trustees, 
composed of physicians and other citizens. 

Faculty. 

Alexander H. Stevens, M. D., President and Emeritus, 
Prof, of Surgery. 

Joseph M. Smith, M. D., Prof, of Theory and Practice 
of Medicine and Clinical Medicine. 

John B. Beach, M. D., Prof, of Materia Medica and 
Medical Jurisprudence. 

John Torrey, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry and Botany. 

Robert Watts, jr., M. D. Prof, of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology. 

Willard Parker, M. D. Prof, of Principles and Practice 
of Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. 

Chandler R. Gilman, M. D.,Prof. of Obstetrics and Dis- 
eases of Women and Children. 

Doctor G. A. Sabine, Demonstrator of Anatomy. 

Gurdon Buck, jr., M. D., Registrar. 

The whole number of under graduates in 1844, was 193. 

There is no classification of students. The mode of in- 
struction is entirely by lectures. 

NEW-YORK MEDICAL SOCIETY, 

Meets monthly in the Court Room, Halls of Justice — E. 
Delafield, President; Isaac Wood, Vice-President; B. R. 



MECHANIC INSTITUTIONS. 57 

Robson, Treasurer ; B. Drake, Corresponding Secretary ; 
W. P. Buel, Recording Secretary. 

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The object of this Institution is to prevent, as far as 
possible, the manyfatal errors in the preparation of medicine. 

Constantine Adamson, President ; Oliver Hull, John 
Milhau, George D. Coggeshall, Vice-Presidents ; James S. 
Aspinwall, Treasurer ; John Meakim, Secretary. 



MECHANIC INSTITUTIONS. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 
(Incorporated in 1829.) 

This institution was established for the purpose of en- 
couraging domestic industry in this state and the United 
States, in agriculture, manufactures and the arts, by be- 
stowing rewards and other benefits on those who shall 
make any improvements, or excel in any of the above 
branches. The Institute have a room in the building in the 
Park on Chambers-street, which is fitted up as a library, 
lecture hall and exhibition room. The library is extensive, 
and particularly rich in those branches relating to the ob- 
jects of the institution. A large collection of models, ag- 
ricultural products, &c., are deposited in the room, which, 
together with the library, are open to the public free of 
expense, at all seasonable hours. The stranger will do 
well to visit this interesting room. In connection with 
the Institute, there is an Annual Fair held at Niblo's Gar- 
den, which is visited by thirty thousand people. A cattle 
show is also held by the Institute every season. 

Officers : James Tallmadge, President ; A. Chandler, 
Win. Inglis, Shepherd Knapp, Vice-Presidents ; H. Meigs, 
Recording Secretary ; T. B. Wakeman, Corresponding 
Secretary ; E. T. Backhouse, Treasurer ; T. B. Wake- 
man, Superintending Agent. 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 

This Institute has for its object the instruction of me- 
chanics and others in science and the arts. The Institute 



58 PICTURE OF NEW.YORK. 

has established annual courses of popular lectures. It has 
an excellent library, containing about twenty-five hundred 
volumes, together with a reading room, supplied with popu- 
lar reviews, literary and scientific journals and newspapers ; 
a museum of models of machinery, and a valuable collection 
of chemical and philosophical apparatus. A male school 
was commenced in November, 1838, and a female school 
in May, 1839, both of which have been eminently success- 
ful. Rooms in the basement of the City-Hall. J. J. Mapes, 
President ; Charles L. Barritt, Actuary and Librarian. 



MERCANTILE INSTITUTIONS. 

Chamber of Commerce — Instituted 1768 ; incorporated 
1770, re-incorporated 1784. Officers: James G. King, 
President ; H. K. Bogert, Stewart Brown, Vice-Presidents ; 
J. J. Palmer, Treasurer ; P. M. Wetmore, Secretary ; Com. 
of Arbitration : Matthew Maury, Calvin Durand, Chas. 
King, J H. Brower, Robert Kermit. Pilot Commissioners : 
R. S. Taylor, C. H. Marshall. Annual Election : 1st Tues- 
day in May ; meetings 1st Tuesday in each month. 

New. York Stock and Exchange Board. — Officers : David 
Clarkson, President; Edward Prime, Vice-President; J. 
W. Bleecker, Treasurer; B. Hart, Secretary; Meetings 
daily at the Merchants' Exchange. 

New- York Commercial Exchange Association. — Officers: 
Seixas Nathan, President ; W. Borrowe, Vice-President ; 
S. I. Josephs, Secretary ; W. H. Hayes, Treasurer. Daily 
(public) meetings in the Rotunda of Merchants' Exchange. 

Merchants'' Vigilant Association, (organized to investi- 
gate and expose abuses in trade, to prevent frauds, and 
punish the fraudulent.) Officers: Thomas Tileston, Pre- 
sident; T. C. Doremus, Vice-President; David Wesson, 
Treasurer ; Woodward & Dusenbery, Secretaries. 

Metropolitan Association, 554 Broadway — Henry Kid- 
dle, President; J. H. Fanning, Vice-President; J.J.An- 
derson, T. J. Taylor, Secretaries ; R. H. Cudlip, Treasurer ; 
L. B. Hardcastle, Librarian. 



INSTITUTIONS. 59 

Italian Benevolent Society — Felice Argenti, President ; 
Sebastiano Dacorsi, Treasurer; C. Ferrero, Secretary. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows'' Library Association : 
Rooms at 31 Canal-street. 



PICTURE GALLERIES AND INSTITUTIONS OF 
THE FINE ARTS. 

AMERICAN ART-UNION, 

322 Broadway, near Pearl-street. 

Officers: William Cullen Bryant, President; Ebenezer 
Piatt, Treasurer ; Andrew Warner, Recording Secretary ; 
Robert F. Fraser, Corresponding Secretary. 

The American Art-Union, now in the sixth year of its ex- 
istence, was incorporated by the Legislature of New-York, 
for the promotion of the Fine Arts in the United States. 
It is now firmly established ; its income the past year ex- 
ceeded ten thousand dollars. 

Each subscriber of five dollars becomes a member of the 
Art-Union for the year. The money ihus obtained (allow- 
ing for necessary expenses) is applied first, to the produc- 
tion of a fine and costly engraving from a choice painting, 
of which every member receives a copy ; second, to the 
purchase of paintings and sculpture by native or resident 
artists, which are publicly distributed by lot amongst the 
members at the annual meeting in December. The 
works of art distributed in this manner, in 1844, numbered 
ninety-two, (exclusive of the engravings,) and cost the 
Art-Union nearly seven thousand dollars. 

The Room or Gallery of the Art-Union is hung with 
paintings, either purchased by the Institution or sent there 
by artists to the superintendant for sale, and is always 
open, free of charge, to the members and the public gene- 
ral] v. 

We most cordially recommend this institution to the 
New-York public, and to strangers generally. It possesses 
very strong claims to patronage. Some of the best pictures 
ever painted in this country have been distributed by the 



80 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Art-Union; and as a promoter of the interests of the fine 
arts in America, its facilities and efforts are unequalled. 

Great impartiality in the selection of pictures, and faith- 
fulness in disbursing the society's money have been hither, 
to practised by the managers. 

Its exhibition rooms are very interesting, and well wor- 
thy of the attention of citizens and strangers. 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN, 

In Broadway, corner of Leonard-street. 

An association of young men, artists and amateurs, 
under the name above given, organized and opened 
their first exhibition on the first of May, in 1826, at 
the corner of Reade-street and Broadway. They af- 
terwards occupied successively rooms over the Arcade 
Baths in Chambers-street, the Clinton Hall, and the Society 
Library building, where they now remain. They have an 
exhibition of the productions of none but living artists, and 
open annually during the months of April, May and June. 
Their present accommodations consists of several large 
rooms, elegantly fitted up with carpets, mirrors and seats ; 
and from the pains taken to make it attractive, it has be- 
come a very fashionable place of genteel resort. Nearly 
all the artists in the United States annually send contribu- 
tions to this exhibition. Admission 25 cents. Season 
tickets 50 cents. 

Connected with the institution is a gratuitous school for 
drawing, held three evenings a week during the winter sea- 
son. The Academy has a very valuable collection of cast3 
from the antique and modern schools — which are used by 
the drawing classes. 

Application for admission to the school must be made to 
the Council, accompanied with an original drawing made 
from the round. Lectures on various subjects connected 
with the fine arts are provided for by the laws of the insti- 
tution — but none are given — for reasons inextricably in- 
volved in the mysteries of the Council. A " life school," 
for drawing from the living figure, is also in successful ope- 
ration. 



INSTITUTIONS. 61 



The annual election for officers is held in May. Officers ; 
Henry Inman, President ; A. B. Durand, Vice-President. 

NEW- YORK ART-RE- UNION, 

Instituted in 1845, by a number of artists and amateurs, 
for mutual instruction and the promotion of the fine arts. 
Weekly meetings are held, when the objects of the society 
are carried out by the reading of essays and the introduction 
of specimens and discussions, all confined to subjects con- 
nected with the arts. The association is in a flourishing 
condition, and promises great usefulness for the future. 

It numbers among its members some of the most talent- 
ed and promising artists in the country. E. Ruggles, M. D., 
President ; John M. Falconer, Recording Secretary ; John 
P. Ridner, Corresponding Secretary. 

NEW-YORK GALLERY OF THE FINE ARTS. 

This institution was established for the purpose of form- 
ing a permanent gallery of paintings, sculpture and engra- 
vings. The society commenced by purchasing the collection 
of the late Luman Read, consisting of some very valuable 
paintings, principally by American artists. About fifteen 
thousand dollars were raised by private subscription, some 
individuals subscribing as high as one thousand dollars. 
This sum has been principally expended in the purchase of 
the above collection, and the fitting up of the old Rotunda in 
the Park, as an exhibition room. By a provision in the con- 
stitution, no property of the association can ever be sold, 
and a work of art once possessed must ever remain a part 
of the permanent gallery. The payment of one dollar, 
and the subscription of the constitution, constitutes the 
person making such payment a member for life — and for 
this small sum he is entitled to free admission for life — 
without any other cost. The present success of the insti- 
tution has established it on a permanent basis. Among 
the paintings are Cole's celebrated series of the Voyage 
of Life ; his Course of Empire ; a picture by Morland, and 
many others equally valuable. The gallery possesses also 
a rich and numerous collection of Flag's paintings. Single 



62 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

admission 25 cents. Strangers will find this collection 
worth visiting. 

Jonathan Sturges, President; F. W. Edmonds, Vice. 
President; Thomas H. Faile, Treasurer ; W.H.Johnson, 
Secretary. 

NEW-YORK DRAWING ACADEMY, 

Situated at No. 103 Canal-street. 

Drawing, painting and perspective are here taught 
and illustrated by a very extensive apparatus, and other 
unequalled facilities. Prof. J. R. Smith is celebrated as 
one of the most successful teachers in the United States ; 
many of our most distinguished artists have been gradu- 
ates from his school. Pictorial anatomy, lithography and 
engraving is also taught in this institution. Separate 
classes for ladies and gentlemen. 

Tuition, $1.0 per quarter. 



PLACES OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT. 

THEATRES. 

We possess but slender materials for describing accu- 
rately the earliest efforts of our ancestors at theatrical 
performances, which were commenced nearly a century 
ago in a large store near the Old-slip, on a place called 
Cruger's Wharf; at about the same period, by the way, the 
first regular weekly was published in New- York, called the 
" Weekly Gazette." The accounts before us do not repre- 
sent the persons engaged in the undertaking to have been 
either very serious or successful, but a mere party of frolick- 
some young men, rather desirous of gratifying their own 
love of mirth and frivolity, than of founding any perma- 
nent and well regulated dramatic establishment. 

About the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty, a 
stone theatre was built in Nassau-street, in the rear of the 
Dutch Church, near Maiden Lane. It is said to have been 
quite well conducted by a Mr. Hallam, who principally, by 
the aid of players from the Provincial theatres of Great 
Britain, performed many of the best English plays, until 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 63 

the manager, either from want of encouragement or al- 
lured by more lucrative prospecis elsewhere, withdrew his 
company, and the building was pulled down. 

In 1770, a new effort was made by a Mr. Miller, in a 
miserable wooden house in Beekman-street, a few doors 
below Nassau-street. This is described as inferior to the 
other. The scenery was of paper, and the wardrobe de- 
ficient both in quality and extent. This unfortunate struc- 
ture was so far from being supported, that the public, not 
satisfied with its passing to its fate in the ordinary course 
of things, assembled one day, under the influence of some 
political excitement, and tore it to pieces. 

During the Revolutionary war, and while the city was 
in possession of the English, the drama was once more re- 
sorted to as a source of amusement. A building was 
erected in John-street, and plays were represented by the 
British officers. Among the pieces here performed were 
several of a satirical character, from the pen of Burgoyne. 
In 1783, after the British had evacuated the city, the John- 
street theatre fell into the hands of a regular company, 
and was for a time quite successful. 

A circumstance occurred at this period, which evinces 
the disposition of our forefathers towards theatrical per- 
formances. The winter of 1785 was unusually severe, 
and caused extreme suffering among the poor. The mana- 
ger of the theatrical corps, offered for their assistance the 
proceeds of a night, amounting to one hundred pounds ; 
the offer was declined by the Common Council on the 
ground that theatrical performances had an immoral ten- 
dency. This building was destroyed by fire in 1799. 

PARK THEATRE. 

The Park Theatre was commenced in 1795, during the 
alarming prevalence of the yellow fever in New-York. It 
was completed in 1798, at which time a petition from the 
proprietors for leave to erect a portico over the side-walk 
was rejected by the Common Council, apparently as 
unwilling to grant as to receive favours from a dramatic 
corps. 



G4 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

The cost of the building was one hundred and seventy. 
nine thousand dollars, but was afterwards purchased at 
auction for fifty thousand dollars, by its present owners. 
It was opened for public performances in 1798, under 
the management of the celebrated Hodgkinson, formerly 
of the John-street theatre. This gentleman must have 
been gifted with great powers as an actor, from the strong 
and universal praise bestowed upon him by those familiar 
with his personations. Since his death the theatre has 
passed under the direction of Dunlap, Cooper, Price, 
and its present manager, Simpson. In May, 1820, late 
one night after the performance of the evening, the build- 
ing was discovered to be on fire. We are not aware 
that the original cause of the accident is known. The 
interior was wholly consumed, but the walls, which are 
of immense thickness, were left standing ; their height 
also prevented the extension of the conflagration, and a 
heavy shower came very opportunely to the assistance of 
the firemen in the preservation of the surrounding build- 
ings. Fortunately this calamity was attended by no loss of 
life. No one who witnessed the destruction of the Park 
Theatre can ever forget the grandeur and sublimity of the 
spectacle. The sky was completely obscured with clouds, 
and shrouded the scene in impenetrable gloom, which 
greatly heightened the intense splendour of the fire-light. 
The flames, ascending to the height of several hundred 
feet, cast a glare of lurid radiance over a circle of many 
miles, and illuminated the city with vivid brilliancy and 
beauty. Crowds of citizens, lured by the awful grandeur 
of the sight, thronged by thousands to the spot. 

It was several months after the fire before the proprietors 
rebuilt the edifice. The interior was much improved ; 
but the exterior retained its unpromising aspect. It was 
re-opened in August, 1821, with a prize address from the 
pen of Sprague. 

Brunei, the celebrated planner of the Thames Tunnel, 
was the architect of this theatre, and at the time it was 
erected, the New-Yorkers regarded it as a masterpiece of 
taste. Its unsightly proportions have since been much 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 65 

ridiculed ; so much so as to induce the manager to alter 
it, by adding some wood-work pilasters and paint. Its ap- 
pearance has been very much improved by this addition. 
The Park. Theatre was for many years surrounded by a 
collection of houses, occupied by the lowest grade of hu- 
man beings. It has now somewhat changed, being the 
centre of a nucleus of eating-houses and gambling-shops. 
All the great theatrical stars from Europe make their first 
appearance here. The fact of coming from this theatre 
stamps them at once with character. More attention is 
paid to the detail and perfection of dramatic performances 
in the Park Theatre than in any other house in the United 
States. It has a collection of scenery which has cost over 
two hundred thousand dollars — and its wardrobe and other 
stage properties are very extensive. 

Its internal plan and decorations are superior to any other 
theatre in America. There are three tiers of boxes, each tier 
seating 450 persons. Besides the boxes, there is a gallery 
for coloured people. The pit seats 430, and the gallery 500. 
The whole house, when full, holds 2,500 persons, which 
pays the manager, at the present prices, $1,910 ; but many 
more are often crowded into it. The house is 187 feet 
deep, and 76 wide. It is now owned by John Jacob 
Astorand the heirs of J. R. Beekman. Edward Simpson 
is the lessee and manager. Strangers desirous of getting 
seats on crowded nights, will do well to secure them during 
the day, or go early in the evening, as the despicable prac- 
tice of selling tickets after the house is full is much prac- 
tised at this theatre, in imitation of the meaner establish- 
ments about town. Prices of admission : boxes $1 ; pit 
50 cents ; gallery 25 cents. Private boxes can be had by 
application at the door. 

BOWERY THEATRE, 

Bowery, near Chatham. Square. 

This building is one of the most conspicuous in the city. 
Three theatres have been built and burned on the ground 
now occupied by this building. The first stone was laid 
in May, 1826, with great pomp and ceremony, by Philip 



66 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Hone, then Mayor of the city. It was finished and deco- 
rated in a very superior style, and opened for theatrical 
representations in the October following. The manage, 
ment was conducted with great spirit, and its popularity 
soon became so great that the manager was enabled to pay 
Signora Garcia the enormous sum of $600 a night for 
performing in the Italian and English opera. 

The Bowery Theatre continued to increase in favour and 
prosperity until the evening of March 22d, 1829, when, 
like its rival, the Park, it was totally consumed ; the 
conflagration presenting one of the grandest and most sub- 
lime spectacles ever witnessed in the city. 

It was not long, however, before another magnificent 
building rose in renovated splendour from its ruins. It was 
designed by the classical taste of Mr. Tourn, from the 
celebrated Temple of Theseus, at Athens, and was said to 
be the finest specimen of doric architecture then in the 
United States. The entablature above the portico was 
ornamented with a boldly executed eagle, in bass-relief, 
richly gilded, which had a noble effect. Many eminent 
English performers have made their debut in this theatre. 
Messrs. Holland, Chapman, De Camp, Pearman, and 
Misses George and Rock ; also Mr. and Mrs. Younge, 
with many others ; likewise Mr. Forrest, an American per- 
former. 

The present building is rebuilt from the ashes of one 
that was burnt in the spring of 1845. It is of the same 
size as the former one, but with superior accommodations. 
It is the largest theatre in the Union. The performances 
are of a class inferior to the Park Theatre, and is never 
visited by the higher classes of New-Yorkers. It is celebra- 
ted for spectacles and patriotic pieces, sometimes lavish- 
ing very great sums in getting them up. The stock com- 
pany is vastly inferior to that of the Park Theatre. Prices 
of admission : box, 50 cents ; second and third tiers, 25 
cents ; pit, 12£ cents. 

MITCHELL'S OLYMPIC THEATRE. 

This building is situated in Broadway, just below Grand- 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 67 

street. The present building was converted into a theatre 
in 1837, by Messrs. Willard and Blake, and after a few 
months of unsuccessful management, failed. For the two 
subsequent years it was under the management of seve- 
ral individuals, but was unsuccessful. 

Mr. Mitchell, the present manager, took it in 1839, and 
by untiring industry and great skill and tact, he has con. 
verted it into the most popular theatre now established in 
New. York. Mr. Mitchell has, with great tact, seized 
upon local incidents and prevailing follies, and moulded 
them into most amusing pieces. This, together with an 
unprecedented succession of novelties, has won for its 
manager most unusual success. He has depended more 
upon the excellence of his stock company, and the general 
attention to stage management, than to the fashionable 
system of starring. All the Olympic performances are 
light and amusing, calculated to excite mirth rather than 
seriousness. The boxes are nightly filled with a very re- 
spectable audience. The building is small, but neatly 
fitted up. The prices of admission are — 50 cents to the 
first tier ; 25 cents to the second and third, and 12£ cents 
to the pit. 

NIBLO'S GARDEN. 

This very popular place of entertainment is situated in 
Broadway, corner of Prince-street. The grounds of this 
establishment, which occupy nearly a whole city square, 
are laid out with great taste, and ornamented with the 
rarest of native and exotic plants. Besides the theatre 
there is a large saloon, for concerts and refreshments, and 
extensive covered walks, the whole open, during the sum- 
mer months, to the outer air. The theatre is elegantly 
fitted up, and capable of seating three thousand persons. 
It has been for several years in most successful operation, 
commanding large and very fashionable audiences. It is 
open only during the summer months. Very expensive 
fireworks are occasionally given here, and add much to 
the variety of entertainment. Admission, 50 cents, to all 
parts of the house. 



r 



68 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

CHATHAM THEATRE. 

This theatre is situated in Chatham-street, near Rose- 
velt, and opposite Mulberry-street. It has been very sue- 
cessf'ul under its present management. The building is 
about half as large as the Park Theatre, and far inferior to 
it in beauty, character of performance, and police order. 
This theatre is the scene of the performances of such 
actors as Hill, Rice, and Booth, since his palmy days. 
Prices of admission : boxes, 25 cents; pit, 12^ cents. It 
is managed by Messrs. Duverna & De Bar. 

RICHMOND HILL THEATRE. 

This building was formerly the country residence of 
Aaron Burr. It was several years ago converted into a 
theatre, and after variable success was modeled into a ball 
room, under the name of Tivoli Saloon. It has been re- 
cently opened for a theatre, under the management of 
Mr. Draper, and promises to have a successful career. 

VAUXHALL GARDEN. 

Vauxhall Garden is situated in the Bowery, between 
Fourth and Eighth streets. It was formerly much more 
extensive than it is now, Lafayette Place having been 
taken from its grounds. It is conducted by Bradford 
Jones, and devoted to theatrical entertainments, concerts, 
exhibitions of fireworks, &c. Prices of admission vary, 
but generally are about 25 cents. 

PALMO'S OPERA HOUSE 

Was built for the use of an Italian Opera Company, but 
that failing, it has since been devoted to various kinds of 
theatrical entertainments. It is a small, but very beautiful 
house. It is situated in Chambers-street, opposite the 
Park. Prices of admission vary. 

AMERICAN MUSEUM. 

This institution was founded in 18 10, by the late John 
Scudder, by whose arduous efforts, and the persevering 
exertions of its more recent proprietor, it has arisen to its 
present state of popularity. Scudder commenced his ca- 
reer as an itinerant organ-grinder, and during his wander- 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 69 

ings he collected the first specimens towards the present 
large collection. 

This museum was for many years, during his manage- 
ment, almost the only place of public amusement in the 
city. It is situated on Broadway, nearly opposite the 
Astor House — a very convenient place for all classes of the 
public. It contains several large halls, each over a hun- 
dred feet in length, filled with curiosities of every variety. 
The museum is peculiarly rich in natural history. It has 
numerous paintings, a mineralogical cabinet, and a multi- 
tude of rare curiosities, well worth visiting. In addition 
to this, it has a saloon capable of seating about one thou- 
sand persons, which is fitted with a stage and scenery, 
and is used for concerts, dancing, philosophical experi- 
ments, and a variety of other entertainments, all for the 
sum of 25 cents. Persons may go in during the day, ex- 
amine the museum at their leisure, and visit the saloon 
in the evening without additional charge. The top of the 
museum, fitted up as a garden and promenade, commands 
a fine view of the city. 

CASTLE GARDEN 

Is situated on a mole, connected with the Battery by a 
bridge. It wa3 originally erected for a fortification, and 
used for that purpose till 1823, when it was ceded by the 
United States to this city; since which it has been leased 
for a place of public amusement. It was built in 1807-8-9. 
Immense sums of money were expended on its erection, 
it having cost the government, at different times, several 
hundred thousand dollars. The felicitous situation of this 
spot, projecting into the bay, and commanding one of the 
finest views in the world, causes it to be a favourite place 
of resort in the summer months. In 1824, on the occa- 
sion of the visit of Gen. Lafayette, a splendid fete and 
gala were given to him at Castle Garden, which for gran- 
deur, expense and entire effect, were never before wit- 
nessed in this country. The building has lately been 
altered, by the addition of a roof and outside promenade, 
and fitted up with a stage for concerts, operas, &c. The 



70 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

effect of the interior is very grand, it being by far the 
largest audience room in the world. It will easily hold 
15,(J00 people, being over six hundred feet in circum- 
ference. Admission 25 cents; during the day, 12£ cents. 
Refreshments always ready. 



CROTON AQUEDUCT. 

At the city charter election in 1835, it was voted to con- 
struct this aqueduct, the vote standing 11,367 in favour, 
and 5,963 against it. It was then estimated to cost five or 
six millions of dollars. It has, however, cost the city over 
twelve millions. It was commenced in 1837, and its com- 
pletion celebrated on the 14th day of October, 1842. It is, 
perhaps, the noblest work of the kind in any country, not 
excepting the monuments of olden times, which have been 
for ages the admiration of the world. By its facilities we are 
supplied with the very best of water for culinary purposes, 
and an unfailing means for the extinguishment of fires. 
Excluding the grand reservoir, which is five miles long, 
the length of the aqueduct, from the upper dam to the dis- 
tributing reservoir on Murray Hill, is 40£ miles. The dam 
crosses the Croton river six miles from its mouth on the 
Hudson. This dam gives an elevation to the water of 166 
feet above the mean tide in the Hudson river. From this 
dam the aqueduct runs southerly through the valley of the 
Hudson, 32 miles to the edge of the Harlaem river valley. 
The whole of the distance is one continuous underground 
canal, of stone and brick masonry. At the present time, 
the Harlaem river and valley is crossed by iron pipes, but 
this mode will soon be succeeded by a bridge. From the 
Harlrcm river the conduit of masonry is resumed, but again 
interrupted by iron pipes in the Manhattan valley. It finally 
reaches the great receiving reservoir on York Hill, about 
five miles from the City-Hall. The receiving reservoir in- 
cludes an area of 35 acres. It is 1,826 feet long, and 836 
fftet wide, and divided by a cross wall into two separate 
apartments. This reservoir is constructed of immense em- 
bankments of solid stone masonrv. It will contain 20 feet 



CROTON AQUEDUCT. 71 



depth of water and 150,000,000 gallons. From the 
receiving reservoir the aqueduct is continued with cast- 
iron pipes, two miles to the distributing reservoir at Mur- 
ray Hill. This reservoir contains an area of more than 
four acres, and is 2,120 feet square ; it is divided into two 
basins by a partition wall. Its enclosing walls have an 
average height of 44 i feet. It is three miles from the City- 
Hall. It is constructed of solid masonry, with hollow walls, 
built of granite. It is in the Egyptian style of architecture, 
and presents a very imposing appearance. It has angular 
buttresses projecting from the wall, and elevated several 
feet above the main building. An iron railing encloses the 
walk or promenade which is formed on the top of the walls. 
In the central pilasters are doors leading to the pipe cham- 
bers in the walls, where the cocks are regulated. On the 
east side a door is cut and stairs constructed within the 
wall, which ascend to the top. The reservoir holds 30 feet 
depth of water, with its surface 115 feet above mean tide. 
The basin measures 20,000,000 of gallons. From the dis- 
tributing reservoir the water is drawn through large cast- 
iron pipes, which lead through the central parts of the city, 
and from which the distribution of water is made by small 
lateral pipes, diminishing in size as they go from the larger 
ones. There are over 150 miles of these pipes, and their 
length is daily increasing. The. country for most of the 
distance traversed by the aqueduct, consists of a series 
of transverse ridges and ravines, mostly made up of rock, 
all of which had to be excavated, tunnelled or embanked, at 
an enormous expense. There are 16 tunnels, varying in 
length from 100 to over 1,000 feet each. There are 114 
culverts of masonry, varying in span from lh feet to 25- feet 
each, crossing many larsje streams, principally in West- 
chester county. The canal is built of stone, brick a.nd ce- 
ment, arched over and under, 6 feet 3 inches wide at the 
bottom, 7 feet 8 inches'at the top of the side walls, and 8 feet 
5 inches high ; has a descent of 13^ inches per mile, and 
will discharge 60,000,000 of gallons in 24 hours. The 
most important structure is the high bridge over the Har- 
laem river. The Harlaem valley is a quarter of a mile wide, 



72 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

and the river 620 feet; and the whole is crossed by the 
bridge. " There are eight arches over the river, with a 
span of 80 feet each, springing from piers 20 feet wide at 
the spring line, which is 60 feet above the surface of the 
river at high water." The under side of the arches are 
100 feet from the river's surface. There are several other 
arches springing from the ground, of 50 feet span each. 
The whole structure is of hewn granite. The water will 
cross this bridge in iron pipes, and over this there will be a 
carriage way. The whole will cost over $900,000, and 
will probably be completed in 1847. 

The Croton contains, by analysis, about five grains of 
solid matter to the gallon. The Schuylkill, or Fairmount 
water, a little less. The introduction of the Croton water 
has had the effect of reducing the rates of insurance about , 
40 cents on the 100 dollars. The facilities for extinguish, 
ing fires have greatly increased, as there are fire hydrants 
at short intervals all over the city. There are also free 
hydrants at convenient intervals in the streets for public 
use. Fire plugs are not suffered to be opened, except by 
authority of certain officers. 

By the annual report of the Croton Aqueduct Board for 
1845, the receipts for the year ending the 30th April, 1645, 
were $118,582 74. The expenditures during the same 
period, $73,411 78. The increase of receipts during the 
present year, have been very great. It is calculated that 
the whole revenue for the last year will be about $160,000, 
and the annual increase will be about 35 per cent. The 
whole number of permits issued during the year ending 
the first of May, 1845, was 9,110, representing 9,582 
water-takers. A number of steam-boats, houses, &c, 
often take out but one permit, and hence the above dis- 
crepancy between water-takers and permits. The revenue 
is derived from the following sources : 7,171 private dwell- 
ings, $72,123 88; 2,411 manufactories, mechanical and 
other miscellaneous sources, $59,660 67. 

Office of the Croton Aqueduct Board, No. 7 New City- 
Hall. Board ; James A. Coffin, President ; M. Van 
Schaick, Samuel B. Ruggles, Harvey Hunt, Horatio Allen. 



INSTITUTIONS. 73 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The Common Schools in this city arc under the control 
of the Board of Education and the Public School Society. 
The Board of Education is composed of Commissioners 
elected by the people of each ward agreeably to an act of 
the Legislature, passed in 1842. The Public School So- 
ciety was. incorporated in 1805, and has for many years 
managed the affairs of the principal proportion of the Com- 
mon Schools of the city. 

According to a recent report made to the Board of Edu- 
cation, by a committee of the Board, the average number 
of schools reporting to them for the past year was as fol- 
lows : 

Number of Public Schools subject to the Public 

School Society, 104 

Number of Ward Schools subject to Ward Trus- 
tees, 42 

Number of Corporate Schools, 21 



Total, 167 

The average number of scholars that actually attended 
the several schools during the past year, compared with 
1843, is as follows (excluding fractions :) 

1S44. 1843. Increase 

in 1844. 

Public Schools 15,977 15,938 39 

Ward Schools, 6,806 2,078 4,728 

Corporate Schools, 1,570 1,450 120 



Total, 24,353 19,466 4,887 

The increase in the average number of scholars attend- 
ing the schools during the year 1844 over 1843, it will be 
seen, is 4,887. 



74 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

MISCELLANEOUS PLACES WORTH VISITING 
IN NEW- YORK. 

ARSENAL. 

Among the places worth visiting in this city, few are 
more interesting than the State Arsenal, in Centre-street, 
next north of the City Prison. It occupies the site of the 
old powder magazine, " built in the woods, far out of 
town," by the early Dutch settlers. It can be visited at 
any time by the citizens or strangers. Entrance on White- 
street, by a small door, cut in the wooden fence near the 
main entrance. The Arsenal occupies a whole square, 
and consists of a quadrangular court, surrounded on two 
of its sides by sheds, covering numerous pieces of ord- 
nance, on another side by sheds and the keeper's dwell- 
ings, and on the other side by a large building, two stories 
high, filled with a vast assembly of munitions of war. 
Over one hundred thousand stands of arms are here arrang- 
ed in long columns, and present a most imposing appear- 
ance. Swords, pikes, banners and various trappings of 
war are ranged around the walls, in such a manner as to 
form very pleasing figures. But by far the most interesting 
objects are the various trophies, taken from the English 
during the Revolution and the late war. Numerous field 
pieces, mutilated standards, muskets and other warlike 
trophies are exposed to view, appropriately labelled, and 
carefully preserved. The " trophy room" is full of objects 
of this kind, besides many other objects of interest. The 
stranger may wander about the place unmolested, and he 
will be amply repaid for a visit. As it is now, the Arsenal 
is very poorly protected, being surrounded entirely by 
simple boarded fences ; but, thanks to the liberal and 
praiseworthy efforts of Gen. Storms, its able commander, 
we are likely soon to have a handsome and substantial 
building in place of the insufficient shanty that now cum- 
bers the place. 



PLACES WORTH VISITING. 75 

PACKET SHIFS. 

The packet ships are generally objects of interest to 
the stranger. Splendid packet ships are always to he found 
at our docks, and may be examined at all times without 
inconvenience. Their splendid cabins, vast size and ex- 
quisite models, excite the admiration and wonder of those 
unused to such things. Their cabins are often fitted up at 
a vast expense, and their whole build and finish render 
them superior to any other vessels in the commercial world. 

Among the finest may be mentioned the Ashburton, 
Garrick, Victoria, Liverpool, Queen of the West, York- 
shire, and the Henry Clay. 

STEAM-SHIPS. 

The Atlantic steamers, Great Britain and Great West. 
ern, dock at the foot of Clinton-street, East river, and 
may be visited generally by requesting a written permit 
of their agents. 

STEAM-BOATS. 

The successful establishment of steam-boats in this state, 
by Robert Fulton, in 1806, was one of the most important 
events to this country, and to the world at large, that has 
ever occurred. Since 1806 there have been at least five 
hundred steam-boats, of every description, built in this city. 
The success of Fulton, in spite of the opinions of his 
friends, excited the bitterest enmity in those whose inter- 
ests were affected and disturbed ; but this was soon 
silenced by strong legislative enactments for protection, 
and the powerful voice of public opinion. A company 
was chartered, with exclusive privileges, for the purpose of 
running boats on the Hudson river, for a limited number of 
years. This monopoly became extremely lucrative, and 
in a few years the legality of the charter was legally con- 
tested, and Fulton's supposed rights overthrown by the 
United States Supreme Court. Immediately after this de- 
cision a superabundance of steam-boats were built, and the 
effect of opposition was manifested in the reduction of the 
fare from eight dollars to four, and even two dollars. 



76 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Fulton did not live to see this disastrous consummation. 
Our limits will not permit of a minute detail of the inter- 
esting particulars connected with the rise and progress of 
steam navigation in New. York. The stranger will hardly 
be satisfied without seeing some of the noble specimens of 
steam architecture which abound at our docks. The 
North river boats are generally more elegantly fitted up, 
and are lighter and more graceful than the sound-steam- 
ers, but they lack the appearance of strength which cha- 
racterizes the latter. The steamers Oregon, Uendrick 
Hudson, Empire and Knickerbocker, are the finest on the 
Hudson. The three first are more than a sixteenth of a 
mile long each, and have accommodations for nearly a 
thousand passengers. They are fitted up in most superb 
style, and all that the arts of gilding, carpentery and fur- 
nishing can do to make them perfect specimens of naval 
architecture, has been lavished on them. The Oregon 
cost ninety thousand dollars, and has attained a speed of 
twenty-three miles an hour. There is but little difference 
between the Oregon and Hudson, either in speed or 
finish. Of the sound steamers, the Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island stand pre-eminent. The Massachusetts is 
over one thousand tons burthen, and is built in the most 
substantial and elegant manner. The sound steamers' 
berths are on the North river, near the Battery. The North 
river steam-boats can be found all along the Hudson river, 
from the Battery to Canal-street. 

SHIP-YARDS. 

The extensive ship-yards in the northeast part of the 
city, in the region called Dry Dock, are very interesting 
places of resort. Here may be found ships of the largest 
class, and steamers of every dimension, in progress, and a 
vast variety of naval operations, rendering it a scene of 
infinite variety and interest. Extensive machine shops, 
for steam engines, will be found here also. 

SECTIOiNAL DOCK, 

Foot of Pike-street. 
This interesting machine attracts great attention from 



PLACES WORTH VISITING. 77 



mechanics and merchants, as it is yet something of a 
problem. It consists of a series of tanks or vessels, con. 
nected together by timber frame-work, which may be 
sunk by filling them with water, and floated again by 
pumping them dry. In the process of lifting a vessel, the 
tanks are filled and sunk, and the vessel is floated over the 
frame-work, which gradually lifts her out of water, as the 
tanks are emptied by pumping out their contents, by 
means of a steam engine. The several tanks are suffi- 
ciently buoyant to lift the heaviest vessel; and very re- 
cently the Great Britain, the largest hull in the world, was 
raised far enough to repair her propeller. 

Near to the sectional dock there is another on a different 
plan. The vessel is raised by means of a series of pullies, 
which, coming from a common point of purchase, diverge, 
and are attached at different points along the length of a 
platform, on which the vessel rests, and which lifts her out 
of water, as the several pullies act. The pullies are acted 
upon by the powerful influence of a hydraulic pump. 

Still another plan may be found in successful operation 
at the ship-yards. It is built on the plan of an inclined 
rail-way, the vessel being pulled out of water and car- 
ried up the inclined plane on a carriage, drawn by horse 
power. This plan has been in successful operation many 
years. All these docks are competing for the honour of 
being introduced at the Navy Yard, at Brooklyn. 

FORTS AND FORTIFICATIONS. 

The national government has not been unmindful of 
fortifying the defences of this important city and harbour, 
and during the last twenty years enormous expenses have 
been, and still continue to be bestowed upon this important 
subject. Sufficient has been done to render the city safe 
from sudden attack by sea or land. 

The principal defence consists in the strong works at 
the narrows. On the right this entrance is commanded by 
Fort Hamilton and Fort Lafayette. Fort Hamilton is situ- 
ated on Long Island, and is a very complete and beautiful 
work. It protects Fort Lafayette, which stands on Hen- 



78 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

drick's Reef, two hundred yards from the shore. Fort 
Lafayette has three tiers of guns, and is a very strong and 
efficient protection to the narrows. It has a very pictu- 
resque and castellated appearance. On the opposite side 
this passage is defended by Fort Tompkins and Fort Rich- 
mond. Fort Tompkins is situaied on Statcn Island height, 
and has under its protection many sea coast batteries, 
among which is a permanent battery on the beach, called 
Fort Richmond. Fort Tompkins is in a dilapidated state, 
and being built in a very cosily manner, it now presents, 
in its ruinous state, a very picturesque appearance. Its 
numerous underground passages, which are very exten- 
sive, and the splendid prospect enjoyed from its castellated 
summit, render it an object of great attraction. It is about 
three miles from the quarantine station. All these forts 
may be visited at any time. 

To protect the inner harbour there are Forts Colum- 
bus and Castle Williams, on Governor's Island, and the 
works on Bedlow's and Ellis's Islands, which unitedly 
mount over a hundred cannon, of the largest calibre. Vast 
stores of ordnance and ammunition, of every kind, are de- 
posited in those public stores. 

Castle Williams is a circular stone battery, six hundred 
feet in circumference, and sixty feet high. The walls are 
ten feet thick, and in the castle are barracks and maga- 
zines, and two curious geometrical stone staircases, leading 
from the lower tier to the terrace. This fort forms a very 
picturesque object in the harbour. 

Fort Columbus, on the same island, is built in the star 
form, consisting of several batteries, with a covered way 
leading to Castle Williams. On the island are barracks, 
where are constantly stationed a corps of United States 
soldiers. There is another small battery on the island. 
Governor's Island was formerly covered wilh trees, and 
nuts were obtained from it for t:e eatly inhabitants. It 
was afterwards laid out in gardens for the English govern- 
ors. It may now be visited at all times ; row-boats belong- 
ing to the fort are constantly plying between the island and 



PLACES WORTH VISITING. 79 

Castle Garden bridge, which will take and return any pas- 
senger who is desirous of seeing the forts. 

There are several other fortifications, intended for the 
defence of the city, but they are remote, on Long Island 
sound. 

GRANT THOREURN'S SEED STORE. 

This beautiful establishment is fitted up with great taste, 
and very liberally thrown open to the inspection of the 
public. The visiter will here find at all times a choice 
collection of flowers from the proprietor's gardens, and 
every variety of seeds and plants, often of great rarity. 
Besides these attractions, one of the rooms is fitted up as 
a picture gallery, and some of the choicest pictures and 
engravings of modern times adorn its walls. This store 
is much resorted to by ladies, and is open at all hours for 
the visiters' free inspection. It is situated in John-street, 
near Broadway. 

tattersall's. 

This horse market, the largest in the United States, pre- 
sents a very lively scene on Mondays, the days of auction 
sales, and is much visited by strangers. On the day of 
sales, the extensive area of the building is filled with pur- 
chasers and spectators. 

AGED INDIGENT FEMALES. 

This praiseworthy Society was formed in 1814, by a 
little band of females, and it kept on increasing until 
1837-8, when they built an asylum, which contains sixty 
of these aged females. During the last year the Society 
has made an extension to the original building- — a substan- 
tial wing, ihree stories high. Of the present inmates, there 
are ten whose ages range from 80 to 90 years, and one of 
the inmates who died during the last year, was within a 
few days of being 110 years old. In addition to the regu- 
lar inmates of the establishment, the Society has 80 pen- 
sioners depending upon it, who receive aid in their own 
humble dwellings. In looking at the report of the treas- 
urer, we see that the funds of the Society are exhausted, 



80 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

and that in addition to some few hundreds of dollars, for 
which the Society is still indebted for the erection of the 
addition, it will need sufficient to carry out the objects of 
the Society for the coming year. We need hardly say that 
this Society has the strongest claims for support, and that 
all the funds which are needed to pay off the claims that 
are outstanding against it, and what may be necessary for 
the support of its inmates, ought to be promptly furnished. 
Donations will be thankfully received by any one of the 
philanthropic ladies who compose the Board of Manage- 
ment — their names being: Mrs. Mowatt, 1st Directress, 
144 Greene-street ; Mrs. H. Gillett, 2d Directress. 20 Oliver 
street; Miss Maiia Boyd, Treasurer, 291 Fourth-street; 
Miss Maynard, Secretary, 222 Vesey-street. 



EATING-HOUSES IN NEW-YORK. 

There are one hundred and twenty-three eating. houses 
or refectories in the city of New-York. Those establish- 
ments where oysters exclusively are kept are not included 
in this number ; but we speak of those places only where 
breakfast, dinner and tea can be had at all hours. Of this 
number seventeen are in Broadway, fifteen in Nassau- 
street, ten in Fulton-street, seven in Catharine-street, six 
in West-street, six in Water-street, four in Washington- 
street, four in Vesey-street, two in Chambers-street, two 
in Chatham-street, two in South-street, two in Canal- 
street, two in Grand-street, two in Spring-street. There 
are thirteen in Fulton Market, six in Washington Market, 
and the remaining twenty-three are scattered in various 
parts of the city. 

These establishments give employment to nearly a thou- 
sand persons, of whom Irish and Germans form a large 
portion. The waiters are paid, the men from ten to twelve 
dollars, and the boys from six to seven dollars a month, 
their board and lodging included. The cooks get about 
eight and ten, and the scullions or dish-washers about four 
and five dollars a month. In some of these eating-houses 



eating-houses. 81 



the hands are kept at work for about fifteen and sixteen 
hours out of the twenty. four. These places seldom close 
before one and two o'clock in the morning ; but, as a gene- 
ral rule, the cheap eating-houses close between eight and 
ten in the evening. We present the following brief ac 
count of those individuals who have been the pioneer ca- 
terers of the eating-houses of our city. 

George W. Browne started his celebrated eating-house 
in Water-street about twenty-six years ago. It is now, 
and always has been, a great resort for the merchants 
down town. 

Stephen Holt commenced an eating establishment 
about twenty years ago on the corner of Fulton and Wa- 
ter streets. He kept what is called a " Shilling Plate and 
Two Shilling Ordinary." He built the splendid Hotel 
formerly called " Holt's Hotel," but now known as the 
" United States Hotel." Holt has lately started a new 
eating-house on the corner of Fulton and Nassau streets, 
up stairs. 

Delmonico opened his capacious and splendid establish- 
ment on the corner of South William and Beaver streets, 
in 1827. His place was burnt in the great conflagration of 
1835, and came very near being again destroyed during the 
late fire of July, 1845. This is a very fashionable resort 
for the French and Germans. 

Hugh Pattinson started an eating establishment about 
fifteen years since, on the corner of Ann and Nassau 
streets, now occupied by Green &, Mercer. 

Daniel Sweeney, whose fame has extended far and wide, 
and who is looked upon as the father of the cheap eating 
establishments, started his business about ten years ago in 
Ann-street, where he still continues. 

Gosling commenced in Fulton-street about six years 
since. He remained there about two years, and then re- 
moved to Nassau-street, where he now is. His is an Ameri- 
can and French Restaurant. It is an immense establish- 



82 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

ment. He dines over a thousand people every day. Open 
Sundays. The establishment is on the cheap plan. The 
house now occupied by Gosling was formerly the German 
church. 

John Florence, Jr., opened his establishment about five 
years ago, next door to the corner of Park Place and 
Broadway. Three years since he enlarged his place, and 
fitted it up in the most magnificent style. He is doing an 
immense, business ; and his place is the resort of those who 
delight in the rarer luxuries of life. No place in the city 
is so celebrated for game. 

Ephraim Sweeney has opened an establishment in Chat- 
ham-street, near Chambers. 

Thomas Downing — at the mention of whose name one 
thinks of oysters served up in Downing''s inimitable style — 
opened his ancient and celebrated establishment about 
thirty years since in Broad-street. His establishment in 
Broadway was opened about three years ago. He has 
another oyster saloon in the upper part of Broadway. 
Downing is a coloured man, and has realized a large fortune 
in his business. His oyster establishment is the most 
popular in the city. 

Alexander Welsh, more familiarly known as " Sandy 
Welsh," has in his day occupied quite a prominent position 
among those who are fond of the luxuries of the table. 
Welsh kept a popular establishment under the American 
Museum, where game and other rarities were to be found 
in abundance. It is now called Terrapin Lunch, and kept 
by Peter R. Steile. 

There are two principal classes of eating houses in New- 
York — the cheap and the dear. At Sweeney's and simi- 
lar establishments, the usual prices are six cents for a plate 
of meats, and three cents for a plate of vegetables. The 
more pretending ask twice or three times these prices. 
Among those not before enumerated, it may be well for 
the stranger to name Johnson's, in Fulton, near Broadway, 



PUBLIC SQUARES. 83 



Tammany Hall, Lovejoy's Hotel, Gunter's, in Fulton, near 
Broadway, Parker's John-street Coffee House, 16 John- 
street, and Brown's, 51 Nassau-street. 



PUBLIC SQUARES. 

BATTERY. 

This is the most delightful promenade in the city, and 
one of the finest in the world. The view from this spot 
embraces the whole of the bay, its islands and fortifications, 
and the shore of New-Jersey. The intense heat of sum- 
mer, which compels most people to keep within doors, is 
here moderated by the fresh sea breezes from the ocean 
below. Originally this point of land was fortified by the 
Dutch, who threw up embankments, upon which they 
placed some pieces of cannon. In process of time it be- 
came overgrown with grass, and lofty sycamores, and 
became a favourite resort of the old burghers, who repaired 
to its grateful shade to smoke and gossip. It became the 
favourite walk of declining age ; the healthful resort of the 
feeble invalid ; the Sunday refreshment of the dusty trades- 
man ; the scene of many a boyish gambol, the comfort of 
the citizen, and the pride and ornament of Manhattan. 
Some years since the city government expended $150,000 
in beautifying the ground — embanking and fencing its 
front, grading its walks, and surrounding it with costly 
iron railing. Originally its present site was a bristling 
mass of rocks, but this appearance has long since vanished. 
The Battery is in the form of a crescent, and contains 
about eleven acres. 

THE PARK 

Was, in early times, called the Commons, being then un- 
appropriated ground in the outskirts of the city. It con- 
tains about ten acres and a half. Rows of trees are planted 
here, and on many places in the Park, which is interspers- 
ed with walks, that afford a cool and shady retreat in sum- 
mer weather. The whole is surrounded with an iron rail- 
ing that cost the city $15,000. It contains the City-Hall, 



84 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Aims-House buildings, Rotunda and Hall of Records. On 
the southend there is a marble gateway, beautifully finish, 
ed, which was founded with great pomp, the Mayor pre- 
siding at the ceremonies, and depositing in one of the vases 
various coins, papers and memorials of present times. 
Two of the stone balls surmounting the posts were pre- 
sented to the city by Com. Perry, they having come into 
his possession as gifts from the Turkish Government ; — 
they are used by the Turks as cannon balls. 

The Park contains the largest fountain in the city. The 
basin i3 one hundred feet in diameter, and the circumfer- 
ence is sometimes entirely filled by the various jets of the 
" Holiday fountain." The machinery of the fountain is so 
arranged as to supply a variety of forms in the jets, and 
they may be changed in a few minutes. When the water 
is thrown up in a single stream, it ascends to the height of 
about seventy feet. It is in contemplation to ornament the 
basin with marble work, statues, &c. 

BOWLING- GREEN. 

The Bowling Green, at the southern end of Broadway, 
occupies ground immediately in front of the site of the old 
Dutch fort and church, and was used during the revolu- 
tion, by the British, for a bowling alley. It contained be- 
fore the revolution a leaden equestrian statue of George 
III, which was pulled down by the populace, and convert- 
ed into musket balls. It contains a fountain, built at the 
expense of the owners of the surrounding property. The 
fountain emerges from an uncouth pile of stone, which was 
intended to have a rural aspect, but does not have the de- 
sired effect. In the summer season the fountain is occa- 
sionally illuminated with coloured lights, which gives it a 
magnificent effect. The enclosure is now made to hold 
some deeT, geese and other live animals. It is said that 
the balls which have been broken off the iron fence posts 
were used as cannon balls during the last war. 

HUDSON SQUARE, 

Or St. John's Park, between Beach, Laight, Varick and 
Hudson streets, was formerly a low sandy beach, partly 



PUBLIC SQUARES. 85 



covered with water at high tide. It belongs to the Vestry 
of Trinity Church, but has been reserved as a permanent 
square. It is accessible to the people in its neighbourhood, 
who have keys. Any person may hire a key of the 
keeper for a small annual sum. It is beautifully laid out 
with walks, shaded with a lofty growth of trees, with nu- 
merous beds of rare flowers, and surrounded with an iron 
fence, which cost $26,000. It contains a very tasty foun- 
tain, and is by far the most beautiful public square in the 
city. It contains about four acres of land. 

WASHING-TON SQUARE. 

Another great and most effective ornament to the city 
was formed by laying out the ground formerly occupied as 
a Potter's Field. The bones were collected in a vast trench, 
one on each side of the square, which were enclosed with 
fences, and planted with trees. For many years this was 
used for .burial purposes, and it is computed that over a 
hundred thousand bodies have been buried where now as- 
semble for pleasure multitudes of living beings. The 
square is surrounded with splendid private houses, and on 
one side is the University building and a splendid church. 
One third of the ground comprising the square was pur- 
chased for $80,000, making a gross value of $240,000 de- 
voted to the improvement of this quarter of the city. The 
square contains a little over nine acres. 

UNION PLACE 

Is an oval enclosure at the head of Broadway, between 
Fourteenth and Seventeenth streets. It is enclosed with 
an iron fence, of great beauty and cost, and has besides a 
beautiful fountain with ornamental jets. 

TOMPKINS' SQUARE, 

Which is used for a parade ground, is one of the largest 
squares in the city. It is not yet much frequented, as the 
trees are young, and the place not finished. It is between 
Avenue A and B, and between Sixth and Tenth streets. 

Farther up the city are other public squares, viz : Madi- 
son square, Hamilton square, and others not yet regulated. 

8 



88 PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 

Bellevue square is not yet fully laid out, but will be when 
finished one of the finest in the city. 

NEW-YORK AND HARLJEM RAIL-ROAD. 

This Company was incorporated in 1831, and has since 
been so amended, that its capital, originallv $350,000, is 
now $1,150,000. The road cost $1,159,323 66. The 
route traversed by this road, is from the City-Hall, through 
Centre-street, Broome-streetand the Bowery, twenty-seven 
miles, to White Plains, passing through Yorkville and 
Harlaem. The receipts of the road from January 1st, 
1844, to January 1st, 1845, amounted to $140,684 90 : 
from January 1st, 1845, to November 1st, of the same year, 
$133,548 01. The first running of cars on this road was 
in November, 1832, when they travelled no farther than 
Fourteenth-street. The road has gradually lengthened 
from that time, and it is now expected that it will soon 
reach Albany, through the inland counties. The road to 
Harlsem is laid on a heavy H rail. The Tunnel, (an en- 
graving of which will accompany this article,) is an ex- 
cavation in the solid rock, a quarter of a mile long, hand- 
somely finished at both ends, and approached through a 
long deep cut of more than a mile in length. It is one of 
the most extensive excavations of this kind in the world, 
and is much visited by the curious. This road furnishes 
the means of a delightful journey into the country. In the 
spring and summer, when the weather is favourable, it is 
traversed by immense numbers of New-York citizens. 

Cars leave the Depot, City-Hall, for Twenty-seventh- 
street, every six minutes, from half-past seven, A. M., to 
eight, P. M. Cars leave City-Hall, (night line) every 
twenty minutes, from eight to twelve. Cars leave the 
City-Hall every hour during the day for Harlaem, and re- 
turn as often. Cars leave the City-Hall for White Plains 
at half-past seven, and half-past ten, A. M., and one, and 
half-past three, P. M. 

Fare to Twenty-seventh-street, two miles and a half, 
64 cents ; to Receiving Reservoir, three miles and a quar- 
ter, 12§ cents ; to Harlaem, eight miles, 12£ cents ; and to 



Vf 1 "■ : , 



> 




MARKETS. 87 

White Plains, twenty-seven miles, 50 cents ; intermediate 
places in proportion. Persons desirous of visiting the 
Reservoir, and other places along the Croton Aqueduct, 
would do well to travel on this Rail-Road. 

MARKETS IN NEW-YORK. 

A market place for the accommodation of the butchers 
and the country people, was anciently under the trees in 
front of the fort, near the corner of Water and Whitehall 
streets. As the city enlarged, the market places were 
removed to the east and north, first at the foot of Broad- 
street, then to Coenties Slip, and subsequently to Old Slip, 
and to the Vlie, (a Dutch word, indicating a valley, a rural 
spot, formed by a river which formerly run up Maiden 
Lane,) or Fly Market, foot of Maiden Lane, and to Fulton 
and Catharine streets. 

The market houses of this city are now judiciously dis- 
tributed in various quarters of the town, to suit the wants 
and convenience of the citizens; the two principal ones 
being situated close to the water, one on the Hudson, and 
one on the East river, at the extremity of Fulton-street on 
each side, and adjacent to the two most important ferries, 
which render them very accessible to the country people 
and the fishermen. 

Fulton Market. — The Fulton market was built in 1821, 
on ground formerly occupied by unsightly wooden build- 
ings, which were destroyed by fire. 

When the Fulton market was completed, and the stalls 
put up at auction, the whole number, amounting to eighty- 
six, were disposed of for $ 19,015, an average of $216 each. 
This number was found to be greater than could be profit- 
ably occupied, as the victuallers could not pay their rents ; 
consequently, the number was reduced, and twenty-seven 
of the stalls in the southeast wing were allotted to fisher- 
men, and the residue of the stalls were re-let at a diminish- 
ed price. The first sale of the same number producing 
$15,000, and the present receipts being only $6,445. In 
the same manner, the rooms in the basement, only twenty- 



88 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

one of which were let at auction for $7,775 per annum, 
now let for $6,805. The purchase of the ground, and cost 
of erecting the market was $220,000. The building is of 
one story, with a basement, from which round stone pillars 
rise, connected with each other by arches, and supporting 
the roof. The interior ceiling is arched from one extrem- 
ity to the other, plastered and white. washed. The build- 
ings containing the stalls occupy three sides of a square, 
with double ranges of stalls on each side, the first begin- 
ning at South-street, extending up Fulton-street to Front- 
street; the second, or main front, to Beekman-street ; the 
third, thence to South-street. Over the centre of each 
of the front entrances are rooms of one story, and from the 
middle one, on Front-street, occupied by the clerk of the 
market, rises a small neat cupola, containing a bell to 
notify the close of the market. A separate building for 
country people occupies the centre of the block, but en- 
tirely insulated from the rest of the edifice, and surrounded 
with an open paved area, with two pumps. The hucksters' 
vegetable stalls, with cellars under each, are adjacent to 
the inside eaves of the building on Fulton and Front streets. 
As the other markets are somewhat on the same model, 
this description will suffice for all. The fish cars are in the 
adjacentslip, and constantly filled with live fish, the smacks 
arriving hourly from the fishing grounds, a few miles out 
in the Atlantic Ocean, and near Sandy Hook. 

There is no official account taken in New-York of the 
vast amount of pork and provisions that arrive coast- 
wise, and down the Hudson, and sold at the docks to 
consumers in the city, and which constitutes the chief 
source of supply of many articles of importance, such as 
butter, cheese, beef and pork, both fresh and salted, fis!i,&c. 

The vast amount of business done at this market in 
selling, eating, &c, will astonish the attentive observer. 
It is a place well worth a visit from those curious in such 
matters. The morning is perhaps the most interesting 
time to visit it. 

The revenue of the Fulton market in 1844, was 
$18,775 69. 



MARKETS. 89 



Washington Market. — The next principal market is the 
Washington market, in Washington-street, corner of Ve- 
sey and Fulton streets, near the water's edge. It occupies 
a whole square, and is very similar to the Fulton market 
in its construction and internal arrangements. This mar- 
ket was formerly called the Bear market, from the fact 
that bear meat was there exposed for sale. The amount 
of business done here is less than at the Fulton, but the 
whole south and west population of the city frequent it. 
The products of the North river country find their princi- 
pal sale in this market. 

Its revenue in 1S44 was $18,775 20— its cost $130,000. 

Catharine Market, Catharine Slip, occupies a small 
square between Cherry and South streets. 

Centre Market, Centre-street, between Grand and 
Broome. This market occupies a large building, two sto- 
ries high, and substantially built of brick. The market 
rooms run its whole length, with stalls on each side, simi- 
lar to the Boston markets, and it presents a neat and com- 
fortable appearance, free from the bustle and confusion 
that is so conspicuous in the other markets. The halls in 
the second story are occupied by certain military compa- 
nies as armories and drill-rooms — and for various other 
purposes by the city police. 

Chelsea Market — In Ninth Avenue, near Eighteenth- 
street. 

Clinton Market — Between Washington and West 
streets, and between Spring and Canal streets. 

Essex Market — In Grand-street, between Essex and 
Ludlow. 

Franklin Market — A small building in Old Slip, East 
River. 

Gouverneur Market — Gouverneur-street, corner of 
Water-street. 

Greenwich Market — In Weehawken-street, eorner of 
Christopher and West. 

Jefferson Market — Sixth Avenue, corner of Greenwich- 
street. 

~™ 8* 



90 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Monroe Market — Corlears-street, between Monroe and 
Grand. 

Manhattan Market — Houston-street, corner of First. 

Tompkins Market — Third Avenue, between Sixth and 
Seventh streets. 

Union Market — Second-street, corner of Houston. 

All the markets are required by law to close every day, 
except Saturdays, at 12 o'clock ; after which they are 
thoroughly washed. On Saturdays they keep open till 12 
o'clock at night. Each market has a clerk appointed by 
the city, who attends to the general conduct of its affairs. 

The idea has been entertained by many gentlemen of 
taste in the city, of transforming the new City-Hall in the 
Park into an elegant flower and fruit market. It would be 

very great acquisition to the city if properly carried out. 



a 



FERRIES. 

All the Ferries in New- York are supplied with large 
and safe boats, well fitted up for the accommodation of 
passengers in inclement weather. The Fulton Ferry, in 
particular, has some very fine boats. They are sources of 
large revenue to the city, being leased by the Corporation 
to separate companies. 

Fulton Ferry — From Fulton-street, New-York, to Ful- 
ton-street, Brooklyn, is 731 yards wide. Boats leave every 
five minutes during the day and evening, till nine o'clock, 
after which, till twelve o'clock, they leave every half hour 
till morning. [For particulars, see Brooklyn.] 

South Ferry — From Whitehall-street, near the Battery, 
East river, to Atlantic-street, Brooklyn. Same regula- 
tions as the Fulton Ferry. This Ferry is 1300 yards wide. 

Catharine Ferry — From Catharine-street, New-York, to 
Main-street, Brooklyn, is 736 yards wide. Boats run 
every fifteen minutes during the day, and all night, same as 
at the Fulton Ferry. 

Navy Yard Ferry — From Walnut-street, New- York, to 
Jackson-street, Brooklyn, is 707 yards wide. Boats 
run every fifteen minutes. 



FERRIES. 91 

Astoria, called Hell-Gate Ferry, from the foot of Eighty, 
sixth-street, East river. 

Elizabethport. — This Ferry lands at Port Richmond and 
Staten Island once a day. It starts from Battery Place. 

Fort Lee — -From the foot of Canal-street. 

Hoboken Ferries. — Barclay-street Ferry to Hoboken, 
every fifteen minutes during the day. This Ferry is two 
miles long, and has admirable boats — Ferriage Gi cents. 

Canal-street Ferry, from the foot of Canal-street, one 
mile and a half long ; and Christopher-street Ferry, from 
the foot of Christopher-street, Chelsea, one mile long — 
runs every fifteen minutes to Hoboken — Ferriage 67 cents. 

Jersey City Ferry — From the foot of Courtlandt-strcet, 
one mile long; runs every fifteen minutes during the day, 
and every half hour during the night, till twelve o'clock — 
Ferriage 65 cents. 

Staten Island Ferry. — This Ferry lands at the Quaran- 
tine, and at the lower landing. Starts from Whitehall- 
street every hour during the day, subject, however, to 
some change in different seasons — Fare 65 cents in sum- 
mer, and 12.] cents in winter. 

William sburgh has three Ferries — one from the foot of 
Peck Slip (2300 yards,) every half hour; also, from the 
foot of Grand-street, (950 yards,) and from the foot of 
Houston-street. 

STEAM. R0 ATS, TOW- BOATS AND PACKETS WHICH LEAVE NEW- 
YORK, WITH THEIR PLACES OF STARTING. 

Albany and Boston steam-boat, via Bridgeport and Housa- 
tonic Rail-Road, foot of Market-street. 

Albany tow-boat, Broad-street, E. R., and Courtlandt- 
street, N. R. 

Albany, People's Line, steam-boat, (evening,) Pier 14, be- 
tween Courtlandt and Liberty streets. 

Albany steam-boat, Pier 18, N. R., foot of Courtlandt- 
street. 

Albany steam-boat, Pier 24, N. R., West, between Bar- 
clay and Robinson streets. 



92 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Albany and Troy steam-boat, (morning and evening,) foot 
of Barclay-street and foot of Courtlandt-street. 

Alexandria packet, Pier 14, E. R. 

Amboy, Pier 2, N. R. 

Apalachicola packet, Burling Slip, E. R. 

Astoria, Flushing and Ravenswood steam-boat, Fulton 
Slip, E. R. 

Boston — See Norwich, Providence and Stonington. 

Boston, packet, Coenties Slip and Maiden Lane, Pier 18, 
E. R. 

Bridgeport steam-boat, foot of Market Slip, E. R. 

Bridgeport packet, James' Slip, E. R. 

Bristol, Eng., steam-ship, Clinton-street, E. R. 

Caldwell's, West Point and Cold Spring steam-boat, foot 
of Warren-street, N. R. 

Caslleton steam-boat, foot of Battery Place. 

Catskill steam-boat, Albany Basin, Pier 13, N. R., foot of 
Cedar-street. 

Charleston packet, Burling Slip and Wall-street, E. R. 

Cold Spring, West Point and CaldwelVs steam-boat, 
foot of Warren-street, N. R. 

Darien packet, Beekman-street, E. R. 

Bobbs' Ferry steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Cham- 
bers-street. 

Fast Haddam packet, James' Slip, E. R. 

Easiport packet, Pier 2, E. R. 

Elizabethtouin Point steam-boat, Pier 1, N. R., foot of 
Battery Place. 

Fall Fiver packet, Maiden Lane and Coenties Slip, E. R. 

Fishkill tow-boat, Liberty-street, N. R. 

Flushing, Astoria and Ravensioood steam-boat, Fulton 
Slip, E. R. 

Fort Lee steam-boat, foot of Hoboken-street, N. R. 

Georgetown, D. C, packet, Pier 14, E. R. 

Georgetown, S. C, packet, Coenties Slip, east side, E. R. 

Grassy Point steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R-, foot of Cham- 
bers-street. 

Hartford, Ci., steam-boat, Peck Slip, E. R. 

Hartford packet, James' and Coenties Slips, E. R. 



STEAM-BOATS, TOW-BOATS AND PACKETS. 93 

Hudson steam-boat, Albany Basin, foot of Cedar-street, 

N. R. 
Hudson tow-boat, Cedar-street, N. R. 
Key West packet. Pier 11, E. R. 
London packet, Maiden Lane, Piers 19 and 20, E. R. 

do. do. Beekman.street, E. R. 

Liverpool, do. Maiden Lane, E. R. 

do. do. Beekman.street, E. R. 

do. do. Wall. street, E. R. 

Middletoion, Ct., packet, James' Slip, E. R. 
Mobile packet, Burling Slip and Wall. street, E. R. 
Nantucket packet, Stevens' wharf, E. R. 
Newark steam-boat, foot of Barclay-street, N. R. 
Newark, N. J., packet, Whitehall, E. R. 
New. Bedford packet, Peck Slip, E. R. 
New-Brighton steam-boat, foot of Battery Place. 
New. Brunswick steam-boat, Pier 23, N. R., between 

Barclay and Robinson streets. 
New-Brunswick packet, Broad-street, E. R. 
Newburgh steam-boat, Pier 26, N. R., between Murray 

and Warren streets. 
Newburgh packet, Warren-street, N. R. 
New-Hamburgh and Marlborough steam-boat, foot of 

Robinson street. 
New- Haven, Ct., steam-boat, (morning and evening,) Peck 

Slip, E. R. 
New- Haven packet, Peck Slip, E. R. 
New-London packet, Burling Slip, E. R. 
New- Orleans packet, Wall-street, E. R. 
Newport and Providence steam-boat, Pier 3, N. R., office 

19 West. 
New.Rochelle steam-boat, Fulton-street, N. R. 
Norfolk packet, James' Slip, E. R. 
Norwalk, Ct., steam-boat, Catharine Slip, E. R. 
Norwich packet, Burling Slip, E. R. 
Norwich, Ct., Worcester and Boston, by steam-boat, from 

Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; for Boston, by Long 

Island Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at 

the foot of Whitehall-street. 



94 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

Peekskill steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers- 
street. 

Petersburgh packet, Wall-street. 

Philadelphia and Camden steam-boat, via Amboy, Pier'2, 
N. R. 

Philadelphia, by the New-Jersey Rail-Road, from the foot 
of Courilandt-street. 

Philadelphia packet, Old and Coenties Slips, E. R. 

Philadelphia tow-boat, Coenties Slip, Pier 2, N. R. 

Port Chester, Rocky Neck, Stamford and Norioalk steam- 
boat, from Catharine Market Slip. 

Portland packet, Coenties Slip, E. R. 

Portsmouth, N. H., packet, Coenties Slip, E. R. 

Port Richmond steam-boat, foot of Battery Place. 

Poughkeepsie steam-boat, Pier foot of Barclay-street. 

Ponghkeepsie tow-boat, Liberty-street, N. R. 

Providence and Boston, via Stoning ton, by steam-boat, from 
Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; and by the Long 
Island Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at 
the foot of Whitehall-street. 

Providence packet, Maiden Lane, E. R. 

Ravenswood, Flushing and Astoria steam-boat, Fulton 
Slip, E. R. 

Rhinebeck steam. boat, foot of Robinson-street. 

Richmond packet, Wall-street, E. R. 

Sag Harbour packet, Peck Slip, E. R. 

Salem, Mass., packet, Coenties Slip, E. R. 

Savannah packet, Wall and Maiden Lane. 

Shrewsbury, N. J., packet, Coenties Slip. 

Sing Sing steam-boat, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers- 
street. 

Steam Navigation Company, 82 Courtlandt-street. 

Stonington, Providence and Boston, by steam-boat, from 
Pier 1, N. R., foot of Battery Place ; and by Long Island 
Rail-Road, from the South Ferry to Brooklyn, at the foot 
of Whitehall. 

Tarrytown, Pier 27, N. R., foot of Chambers-street. 

Trenton, by New-Jersey Rail-Road, Pier 16, N. R., foot 
of Courtlandt-street. 



STAGE LINES. 95 



Troy steam-boat, (morning and evening,) foot of Bar- 
clay-street, N. R., and Pier 18, N. R.,foot of Courtlandt- 
street. 

Troy tow-boat, Broad-street, E. R. 

Troy and Albany steam-boat, (evening,) from Pier 18, 
N. R., foot of Courtlandt-street. 

Washington City packet, Pier 14, E. R. 

West Point, Caldwell's and Cold Spring steam-boat, 
foot of Warren-street, N. R. 

Wilmington, N. C, packet, Central Wharf, Roosevelt- 
street, E. R. 

Yonkers steam-boat, Pier 21, N. R., foot of Chambers- 
street. 



STAGE LINES. 
Time of departure varies with the seasons. 

Harltem and Yorkville, every half hour, from 23 Chat- 
ham-street. 

Astoria and Yorkville, every hour, from 23 Chatham-street. 

Dover, New-Jersey, leaves 73 Courtlandt-street daily. 

Bloomingdale and Manhattanville, leaves every 40 min- 
utes, from Tryon's Row, corner of Chatham-street. 

Jamaica, L. I., leaves 340 Pearl-street. 

Morristoicn, N. J., leaves 73 Courtlandt-street. 

Newtown and Flushing, 340 Pearl-street. 

Yorkville and Harltem, every half hour, from 23 Chat- 
ham-street. 

Yorkville and Astoria, every hour, from 23 Chatham-street. 

Eoslin, Manhasset, Great Neck and Little Neck, from 340 
Pearl-street. 

Powerville, N.J., from 73 Courtlandt-street. 

Morristown, N. J., from 73 Courtlandt-street. 

From the following statement it appears that there are 

258 regular Omnibuses in New- York. Besides these, there 

are 19 other stages ; 2,989 drays ; 201 hackney-coaches, 

and 231 cabs. 



96 PICTURE OF NEW. YOKE.. 



BROADWAY LINES OF OMNIBUSES. 



~2 2 « 

6 



.2 5 o S 



Empire Line. — Lent # Andrews. 
Route — From South Ferry, through While- 
hall, up Broadway, through Ninth, up 
Av. 6th to Uth.street, . . . 2§ 20 140 20 

Chelsea Line. — Kipp <5f Brown. 
Route — From Av. 9, cor. 27th-street, down 
Av. 9, through Hudson, Canal and Broad- 
way, to Bowling Green, . . 3fc 18 206 22 

Fulton Ferry Line. — Slocum, Rey. 
no Ids fy Co. 
Route — From A v. 7, cor. 21st-?treet, down 
Av. 7, through Greenwich Av., Av. 6, 
Amity, Broadway and Fulton, to Fulton 
Ferry, 3 20 120 51 

Greenwich Line. — Kipp fy Brown. 
Route — From Hudson, cor. Charles, down 
Hudson, through Chambers, Greenwich, 
Battery Place and Whitehall, to South 
Ferry, 3 20 14 8 

Knickerbocker Line. — Palmer cj- Peters. 
Route — From Av. 8, cor. 23d, down Av. 8, 
through Bleecker, Broadway and White- 
hall, to South Ferry, . . . 3^ 16 222 38 

Madison Line. — Slocum, Reynolds $• Co. 
Route — From Av. 4, cor. 23d, down Av. 4, 
through Broadway and Whitehall, to 1 
South Ferry, 3 20 132 23 

Merchants' Line. 
Route. — From Av. 6, cor. 23d, down Av. 6, 
through Eleventh, Broadway, Wall and 
Pearl, to Hanover Square, . 3h 20 120 20 



OMNIBUSES. 






97 


<n • 

11 


p. . 

~ e 

I/! & 

a 3 


No. Horses. 
No. Stages. 


Murphy & Co's Line. — Murphy $ Co. 








Route — From Av. 3, cor. 28th, down Av. 3, 








through the. Bowery, Chatham, Broad- 








way, Whitehall, to South Ferry, 


■n 


16 


120 20 


Tompkins' Square Line. — Murphy <£• Co. 








Route — From Tompkins Square, through 








8th and the Bowery, Chatham, Broad- 








way, Whitehall, to South Ferry, 


'2'i 


16 


65 11 


Union Line. — Hatfields $■ Bertine. 








Route — Commencing at Av. D, in 10th, 








down Av. D, through Columbia, Grand, 








Bowery, Chatham, Broadway, White- 








hall, to S. Ferry, . . . . . 


3 


16 175 27 


East Broadway Line. — Hatfields cj Be.r. 








tine. 








Route — From Av. D, cor. 1 Oth, down Av. 








D, through Columbia, East Broadway, 








Chatham, Broadway, Whitehall, to South 








Ferry, 


3 


16 178 25 


Waverly Line. — Slocum, Reynolds <§• Co. 








Route — Commencing at Av. 6, cor. 23d, 








down Av. 6, Waverly Place, Broadway 








and Whitehall, to South Ferry, 


3 


20 


120 20 


The Knickerbocker Line connects at Av. 8,25tl 


i-street, 


with the Bloomingdale stages. 








The whole number of miles traversed per 


day 


is 671 ; 


number of horses, 1,598 ; and there are 25£ 


stages 





98 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



TABLE OF DISTANCES IN NEW- YORK. 

To the To the To the 

From City Hall. Battery. Exchange. 

Rector-street, i mile. 

Fulton, 4 \ 

Warren, f 4 

Leonard,.... i 1 I 

Canal, 4 li 1 

Spring, I li li 

Houston, 1 If 14 

Fourth, li 2 If 

Ninth, H 2i 2 

Fourteenth, If 24 2i 

Seventeenth, 2 2f 24 

Twenty-fourth, 2i 3 2f 

Twenty-ninth, 24 3i 3 

Thirty-fourth, 2f 34 3i 

Thirty-eighth, 2 3f 34 

Forty-fourth, 3i 4 3f 

Forty-ninth, 3h 4i 4 

Fifty-fourth, 3f 44 4i 

Fifty-eighth, 4 4f 44 

Sixty-third,.. 4i 5 4f 

Sixty-eighth, 44 5i 5 

Seventy-third, 4f 54 5i 

Seventy-eighth, 5 5f 54 

Eighty-third,. 5£ 6 5f 

Eighty-eighth, 54 6i 6 

Ninety-third, 5f 64 6i 

Ninety-eighth, 6 6f 64 

One Hundred and Second, 64 7 64- 

One Hundred and Seventh, 64 7i 7 

One Hundred and Seventeenth,... 7 7f 74 

One Hundred and Twenty-first,. . 7i 8 7f 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, 74 8i 8 

One Hundred and Thirty-sixth,... 8 8f 84 

One Hundred and Fortieth, S\ 9 8f 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth 84 9i 9 

One Hundred and Fifty-fifth, 9 91 9| 



EXPRESSES. 



99 



DISTANCES FROM THE CITY-HALL TO DIFFERENT PUBLIC 
PLACES IN THE CITY, ETC. 



From the City- Hall, Miles. 
To the Battery, southend, 1 

" north do. f 

To the foot of Courtlandt-st. § 
" Barclay-st. f 

" Chambers-st. \ 
" Canal-st. 1 

To the Old State Prison 

dock, 
To Fort Gansevoort, 
To the Prot. Epis. Theolo. 

Seminary, . .2^ 

To the House of Refuge, 2i 
ToBellevue, . . 2J 



H 
2 



From the City-Hall, Miles. 

To the Dry Dock, . 2 

To Corlear's Hook, . 1£ 

To Catharine-st. Ferry, f 

To Fulton-st. Ferry, . £ 
To Brooklyn, foot of 

Fulton-st. . . 1 

" foot of Atlantic-st. 2 

" City-Hall, . . 2 

ToU. S. Navy Yard, . U 

To Williamsburgh, . 2 

To Jersey City, . . l£ 

ToHoboken, ... 2 

To Harlsem, ... 8 



EXPRESSES. 

Adams fy Co., 17 Wall-street, Boston, Worcester, Norwich, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Pittsburgh and 
Foreign. 

Baldwin, 6 Wall-street, Newark, New-Haven and Hartford. 

Carman, Brooklyn, 20 Liberty-street. 

Godfrey $- Co., 6 Wall-street, Taunton, New-Bedford and 
Nantucket. 

Gorton, 17 Wall-street, Stonington, Providence, Newport 
and Fall River. 

Harnden fy Co., 6 Wall-street, Boston, Providence, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Washington, Pittsburgh and Foreign. 

Matheios, 10 Wall-street, Oswego, (N. Y.,) Kingston and 
Toronto, (Canada.) 

Livingston <$> Co., 6 Wall-street, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington, Pittsburgh and South. 

Livingston <£ Wells, 10 Wall-street, Albany, Buffalo, 
Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago and Canada. 

Pullen fy Co., 10 Wall-street, Troy and Northern Express. 

Virgil § Co., 10 Wall-street, Montreal and Quebec. 



100 FICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

HACKNEY COACH STANDS. 

1. On the south side of the Park. 

2. In Broadway, near Wall-street. 

3. In Broadway, around the Bowling Green. 

4. In Pearl-street, at Hanover square. 

5. Jn Hudson-street, along St. John's Park. 

6. In Hudson-street, near Duane. 

7. In Chatham square. 

8. On the north side of Canal-street, near Broadway. 

9. Near all the principal steam-hoat landings. 

KATES OF FARE OF HACKNEY COACHES, CARRIAGES OR CABS. 

(Established by City Ordinance.) 

For conveying a passenger any distance not exceeding 
one mile, twenty-five cents; for conveying two passengers 
the same distance, fifty cents, or twenty. five cents each, 
and every additional passenger twenty-five cents. 

For conveying a passenger any distance exceeding a 
mile, and within two miles, fifty-cents ; and for every ad- 
ditional passenger, twenty-five cents. 

For conveying one passenger to the New Aims-House, 
fifty cents, and for returning, fifty cents; for conveying 
two passengers the same distance, seventy-five cents for 
the two, and twenty-five cents going, and twenty-five 
cents returning, for every additional passenger. 

For conveying any passenger to Forty-second-sireet, 
and remaining half an hour, and returning, one dollar ; 
and for every additional passenger, twenty-five cents. 

For conveying one passenger to Sixty-first-street, and 
remaining three-quarters of an hour, and returning, one 
dollar and fifty cents ; and for every additional passenger, 
thirty-seven and a half cents. 

For conveying one passenger to Eighty-sixth-street, and 
remaining an hour, and returning, two dollars ; and for 
every additional passenger, fifty cents. 

For conveying one or more passengers to Harlsem, and 
returning, with the privilege of remaining three hours, four 
dollars. 



RATES OF FARE OF COACHES, ETC. 101 

For conveying one or more passengers to King's bridge, 
and returning, with the privilege of keeping the carriage 
or cab all day, five dollars. 

For the use of a hackney coach, carriage or cab, by the 
day, with one or more passengers, five dollars. 

For ihe use of a hackney coach, carriage or cab, by the 
hour, with one or more passengers, with the privilege of 
going from place to place, and stopping as often as may 
be required, as follows : — for the first hour, one dollar ; 
for ihe second hour, seventy-five cents ; and for every suc- 
ceeding hour, fifty cents. 

For children between two and fourteen years of age, 
half price only is to be charged ; and for children under 
two years of age, no charge is to be made. 

Whenever a hackney coach, carriage or cab shall be 
detained, except as aforesaid, the owner or driver shall be 
allowed after the rate of seventy-five cents an hour, and 
thirty.seven and a half cent3 for each and every subse- 
quent hour, and so on in proportion for any part of the first 
and subsequent hour which the same may be so detained. 

For attending a funeral within the Lamp and Watch 
District, two dollars, and the Potter's Field, three dollars ; 
which charge shall include the necessary detention and re- 
turning with passengers. 

Every driver or owner of a hackney coach, carriage or 
cab, shall carry, transport, and convey in and upon his 
coach, carriage or cab, in addition to the person or persons 
therein, one trunk, valise, saddle-bag, carpet-bag, port- 
manteau or box, if he be requested so to do, for each pas- 
senger, without charge or compensation therefor ; but for 
every trunk or other such article above named, more than 
one for each passenger, he shall be entitled to demand and 
receive the sum of six cents. 

In case of disagreement as to distance or price, the 
same shall be determined by the Mayor, or Superintendent 
of hackney coaches and cabs. 

The owner of any hackney coach, carriage or cab, shall 
not demand or receive any pay for the conveyance of any 
passenger, unless the number of the carriage, and the rates 

_ 



102 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 



and prices of fare, shall be fixed and placed in a manner 
hereinafter directed in second section of title fourth of 
this law, at the time such passenger may be conveyed in 
such coach, carriage or cab. 

The owner or driver of any hackney coach, carriage or 
cab, shall not be entitled to recover or receive any pay 
from any person from whom he shall have demanded any 
greater price of rates than he maybe authorized to receive 
as aforesaid. 

Upon the trial of any cause commenced for the recovery 
of any of the aforesaid prices or rates, it shall be incum- 
bent upon the plaintiff or plaintiffs in such action, to prove 
that the number and prices or rates were placed and fixed 
in pursuance of the provision? of this law, at the time the 
services were rendered for which the suit may be brought. 

No owner or driver of any hackney coach, carriage or 
cab, in the city of New. York, shall ask, demand or re- 
ceive any larger sum than he or they may be eniitled to 
receive as aforesaid, under the penalty of ten dollars for 
every such offence, to be sued for and recovered from the 
owner or owners, or drivers, of any such hackney coach, 
carriage or cab, severally and respectively. 

Complaints of any violation of the hackney coach or 
cab law, can be made at the Mayor's office, City-Hall, 
or at the office of the Chief of Police, in the Park. 



PUBLIC PORTERS AND HAND-CART MEN — RATES OF FARE. 

For carrying a load upon a wheelbarrow — 

1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 12| cents. 

2. For any distance over half a mile, and not exceed- 
ing a mile, 25 cents ; and in that proportion for any greater 
distance. 

For carrying a load upon a hand-barrow — 

1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 25 cents. 

2. For any distance over half a mile, and not exceed- 
ing a mile, 44 cents ; and in that proportion for any greater 
distance. 

For carting a load in a hand-cart — 



HUDSO.V RIVER STEAM-BOATS. 103 


1. For any distance not exceeding half a mile, 18 cents. 


2. For any distance over h 


ilf a mile, and not exceed- 


ing a mile, 31 cents ; and 


in that proportion for any greater 


distance. 

HUDSON RIV 






ER STEAM-BOATS. 


The following list embj 


aces 


all the Passage Boats built 


and running on the Hu 


Json 


river, between New- York, 


Albany and Trov, since 


their 


first introduction by Robert 


Fulton, in the fall of 1807. 




When XT 
built. Names - 


Tons 


:. Remarks. 


1807 Clermont, 




Name changed to N. River 


1808 North River, 


166 


Broken up 


I8i>9 Car of Neptune, 


295 


K tl 


1811 Hope, 


280, 


tC It 


1811 Perseverance, 


280 


« (t 


1811 Paragon, 


331, 


Sunk, 1825. 


1813 Richmond, 


370 


Broken up, 


1815 Olive Branch, 


295 


(i k 


1816 Chanc'r Livingston, 


495 


it (( 


18-23 James Kent, 


364 


Coal barge. 


1824 Hudson, 


170 


Broken up. 


1825 Sandusky, 


289 


Tow boat. 


1825 Constitution, 


276 


Now Indiana. 


1825 Constellation, 


276 


Tow barge. 


1825 Ch.Just'e Marshall, 


300 


Lost in Long Isl'd Sound. 


1825 Saratoga, 


250 


Tow barge. 


1826 Sun, 


280 


Burnt, 1831. 


1826 New Philadelphia, 


300 


Runs on Delaware river. 


1827 Albany, 


298 


Runs to Troy. 


1827 Independence, 


368 


On Philadelphia route. 


1827 North America, 


497 


Destroyed by ice, 1839. 


1827 Victory, 


290 


, Sunk in 1845. 


1828 De Witt Clinton, 


571 


Engine in Knickerbocker, 


1823 Ohio, 


412 


Tow barge. 


1830 Novelty, 


477 


Broken up. 


1832 Champlain, 


471 


, Tow barge. 


1832 Erie, 


472 


Tow barge. 



104 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

Built. Names. Tons. Remarks. 

1833 Helen, . Destroyed, 1834. 

1835 Robert L. Stevens, 298, Runs to Saugerties. 

1836 Rochester, 491, Runs to Albany. 

1836 Swallow, 326, Destroyed April 7, 1845. 

1837 Utica, 340, Runs to Albany. 

1838 Diamond, 398, Laid up. 

1839 Balloon, 204, Runs to Newark. 

1839 North America, 494, Runs to Albany. 

1840 South America, 638, " 

1840 Troy, 724, Runs to Troy. 

1841 Columbia, 391, Runs to Albany. 

1841 Rainbow, 230, On Delaware river. 

1842 Curtis Peck, On James river, Va. 

1843 Empire, 936, Runs to Troy. 
1842 Knickerbocker, 858, Runs to Albany. 

Belle, 430, '< 

Express, 288, " 

1845 Niagara, 730, Runs to Troy. 

1845 Rip Van Winkle, 540, Runs to Albany. 

1845 Hendrick Hudson, 1170, " 

Extract from the Pictvresqve Tourist, published by J. 
Disturnell, in 1844. 

" Passenger Barges. — In 1826, the steam-boat Com- 
merce, Captain George E.Seymour, towed the passenger 
barge, Lady Clinton, and the steam-boat Swiftsure, Capt. 
Cowden, towed the passenger barge, Lady Van Rensse- 
laer." 

Extract from the Albany Gazette, dated Oct. 5, 1807. 

" Friday, Oct. 2, 1807, the steam-boat (Clermont) left 
New-York at 10 o'clock, A. M., against a stormy tide, 
very rough water, and a violent gale from the north. She 
made a headway beyond the most sanguine expectations, 
and without being rocked by the waves. 

" Arrived at Albany, Oct. 4, at 10 o'clock, P. M., being 
detained by being obliged to come to anchor, owing to a 
gale, and having one of her paddle wheels torn away by 
running foul of a sloop." 



HUDSON RIVER STEAM-BOATS. 105 

Copy of an Advertisement taken from the Albany Gazette, 
dated September, 1807. 

" The North river steam-boat will leave Pauler's Hook 
Ferry [now Jersey City] on Friday, the 4th of September, 
at 9 in the morning, and arrive at Albany on Saturday, at 
9 in the afternoon. Provisions, good berths and accom- 
modations are provided. 

*' The charge to each passenger is as follows: 
To Newburgh, dolls. 3, time, 14 hours. 

" Poughkeepsie, " 4 " 17 " 

" Esopus, " 5 " 20 " 

" Hudson, " 5£ " 30 " 

" Albany, " 7 " S3 " 

" For places apply to Win. Vandervoort, No. 48 Court- 
landt-street, on the corner of Greenwich-street. 
"Sept. 2, 1807." 

Extract from the New-York Evening Post, dated Oct. 2, 

1807. 
" Mr. Fulton's newly invented steam-boat, which is fit- 
ted up in a neat style for passengers, and is intended to run 
from New- York to Albany as a packet, left here this morn- 
ing with ninety passengers, against a strong head wind. 
Notwithstanding which, it was judged she moved through 
the water at the rate of six miles an hour." 

Notice. — It is stated on the authority of Captain E. S* 
Bunker, that the Clermont, or experiment boat, as some- 
times called, the first steam-boat constructed under the di- 
rection and superintendence of Robert Fulton, in 1807, was 
100 feet long, 12 feet wide and 7 feet deep. In 1808 she 
was lengthened to 150 feet, widened to 18 feet, and had 
her name changed to North River. The engine was 
constructed in England, by Watt &, Bolton, and brought to 
New-York in Dec, 1800, by Mr. Fulton. The hull of the 
boat was constructed by Charles Brown, an eminent ship- 
builder in New- York. In August, 1807, the boat was pro- 
pelled by steam from the East river to the Jersey shore, 
and on the 2d of Oct. following, she started on her first trip 
to Albanv. 



106 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

POPULATION. 

A general census of the population of the United States 
is taken every ten years by the general government, and a 
state census of this state in the intermediate five years. By 
that of 1800, it appears that New. York city contained 
60,489 inhabitants. In 1805, immediately after the disap- 
pearance of the epidemic disease which had previously ra- 
vaged the city, an enumeration was made by the common 
council, when it was found the population had increased 
to 75,570 ; viz : 

White males, 35,384 

White females, 36,378 

71,762 

Coloured males, free, 664 

Coloured females, free, 1,096 

1,760 

Coloured males, slaves,. ..;.. 818 

Coloured females, slaves.... 1,230 

2,048 

Total population, 1805, 75,570 

During the last twenty years the population has doubled 
itself; and if the same increase continue to the year 1868, 
there will be 764,000, and in 1888, 1,620,000. On the 
supposition that the population will double every 25 years, 
the following would be the result, beginning with the cen- 
sus of 1825 : 

In 1825 there would be 166,000 

" 1850 " " 332,000 

" 1875 " " 664,000 

" 1900 " " 1,328,000 

The ratio of increase for the city of New-York appears 
to be as follows : 

From 1805 to 1830, 25 years, 160 per cent. 
From 1830 to 1835, 5 years, 33 
From 1835 to 1840, 5 years, 15 
From 1840 to 1845, 5 years, 20 " 
'We give the census of 1830, '35 and '40, together with 
that recently completed for 1845. 



POPULATION. 107 



Wards. 1830. 1835. 1840. 1845. 

1st. 11,331 10,380 10,629 12,230 

2d 8.203 7,549 6,394 6,962 

3d 9,599 10,884 11,581 12,900 

4th 12,705 15,439 15,770 21,000 

5th 17,722 18,495 19,159 20,263 

6th 13,570 16,827 17,198 19,343 

7th 15,873 21,481 22,932 25,502 

8th 20,729 28,570 29,073 36,846 

9th 22,810 20,618 24,795 30,907 

10th 16,438 20,926 28,026 20,993 

11th 14,915 26,845 17,052 27,259 

12th 11,808 24,437 11,652 ;13,378 

13th 12,598 17,130 18,517 22,411 

14th 14,288 17,306 20,235 21,103 

15th 13,202 17,755 19,432 

16th 22,273 40,337 

17th 18,619 27,147 



Total, 202,589 270,039 312,710 371,102 

Males in 1845 180,365 

Females in 1845, 190,732 

Total, 371,102 

The increase for the 5 years is 58,392. 

In the census of 1845 we find the following results : 

Natives of Great Britain, 95,373 

France, 3,763 

" Germany, 43,416 

" other foreign countries, 3,650 

Total born abroad, 146,202 

Blacks, 11,831 

Native whites, 213,069 

Total, 371,102 

Of those born abroad, 61,961 are not naturalized. 



108 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 



ALMS- HOUSE. 

The very extensive enclosure and buildings occupied by 
the Aims-House department, stand on the eastern shore of 
the island, three miles from the City-Hall, on the imme- 
diate bank of the East river. The premises, consisting of 
26 or 30 acres, are enclosed by a stone wall ten feet in 
height. The main edifice is expensively constructed of 
stone, three stories in height, 325 feet in length, and 55 in 
width, with two large wings at each end. It contains 60 
apartments, a chapel, and two large dining-rooms. Well 
behaved persons may visit the Aims-House at all hours. 
Able bodied paupers are provided with work. A school 
for the children is connected with the establishment. 
There is a resident physician and several assistants con- 
stantly in attendance. The following statement of the con- 
dition of the establishment in November, 1845, has been 
given to us by the gentlemanly Commissioner, Mr. Ander- 
son : 

The number of persons in the several departments con- 
nected with the Aims-House department, is 4,628. In the 
Alms House at Bellevue, there are 1,409 persons: 575 
males, 555 females, 144 boys, and 135 girls. In the Hos- 
pital there are 510 patients, of whom 313 are females, and 
197 are males. In the Nursery on Long Island, opposite 
the site of the Aims-House, there are 556 patients, and in 
the hospital adjoining, there are 90 patients. In the Peni- 
tentiary, Blackwell's Island, there are 1,095 convicts, of 
whom 569 are males, and 5:28 are females. In the hospital 
of the Penitentiary there are 250 patients. In the Lunatic 
Asylum, Blackwell's Island, there are 384 inmates. In the 
City Prison there are 172 inmates, of whom 118 are males, 
and 54 are females. 

Connected with the Aims-House there is an out-door es- 
tablishment, consisting of paupers, foundlings and illegiti- 
mates, 4,628 of whom receive a stipulated sum every week. 
There are 1,250 out-door paupers receiving weekly relief 
from the Commissioner of this department. The whole 



F SB 




CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 109 

expenses of the Aims-House department for the year end- 
ing January 1st, 1845, was $255,275 85. 

CLIMATE AND DISEASES OF NEW- YORK. 

The average temperature of our climate throughout the 
year is 55° of Fahrenheit's thermometer; and that is also 
the temperature of the deepest wells. The greatest degree 
of cold ever experienced is 6 or 10° below zero ; but 
that is very rare — having occurred in 1780 and in 1820, 
when persons went between this city and Staten Island on 
the ice. In winter the thermometer rarely sinks lower 
than 10° or 20° below the freezing point, and in a few 
hours the cold always moderates. The vicinity of the 
ocean and the gulf stream produces a perceptible influence 
on our atmosphere, and conduces to ameliorate the seve- 
rity of the winter. The snow seldom lasts more than two 
weeks, in January or February, and early in March the 
winter usually terminates. 

The highest temperature of our summer is about 80° 
or 90, and is very rarely of long continuance. From the 
middle of September to about the last of October, the 
atmosphere will generally vie with any in the world for 
serenity and beauty. Winter generally sets in about 
Christmas, and continues for about two months. 

The following table will give an idea of the weather 
from day to day, during the year. The first frosts appear 
about the middle of October, and the last are usually seen 
in April, and occasionally in May. Gardening in the 
vicinity begins in March, and the forests are usually in 
full leaf in the latter part of April or beginning of May. 
Sudden changes of temperature frequently occur in sum- 
mer and winter, which, unless guarded against, will cause 
severe colds and other diseases ; — but New-York, gene- 
rally speaking, is as healthy a spot as any city in the 
world. 



10 



110 



PICTURE OF NEW. YORK. 



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APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL MONEY. Ill 
APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL MONEY FOR THE YEAR 1845. 

Whole amount apportioned, $187,089 44 



Schools of the Public School So- 
ciety, $122,739 78 

Ward Schools. 

1st Ward, $3,454 29 

4th " 8,677 66 

6th " 5,790 82 

7th " 4,445 57 

10th " 6,163 78 

11th « 7,889 71 

12th " 3,427 69 

14th " 9,018 44 

16th " 1,052 42 

17th " 2,364 96 

52,285 34 

Harlaem School, 1,500 89 

Yorkville Public School, 1,945 45 

Manhattanville Free School, 730 70 

Hamilton Free School, 248 14 

Mechanics' Society's School, 486 26 

New-York Orphan Asylum School, 1,328 69 

Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum 

School, 1,536 39 

Leake & Watt's Orphan House,. 460 92 

Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum 

School, 1,551 75 

Roman Catholic Half-Orphan Asy- 
lum School, .'.. 775 88 

School of the Institution for the 

Blind, 702 89 

School of the Association for the 

benefit of Coloured Orphans, 796 36 



$187,089 44 



112 PICTURE OF NE W-YORK. 

DAGUERRIAN GALLERIES. 

The most extensive establishment of the kind is 
Plumbe's, at 251 Broadway. The free gallery attached 
to it is much frequented by persons interested in Daguer- 
rian pictures, as it contains a very extensive collection 
of choice specimens of the art. Several rooms are attach- 
ed to the establishment for the various purposes connected 
with the making of pictures. Mr. Plumbe is esteemed 
one of the very best Daguerreotypists in the world. 

Anthony, Edwards & Co., have also an extensive gal- 
lery, possessing portraits of most of the distinguished men 
of the country. These productions are equally as good 
as Plumbe's. 

Chilton's gallery is also worthy of attention, as his 
miniatures are very excellent. 

Parkinson, an able Daguerreotypist, is celebrated for the 
beauty and perfection of out-door scenes, buildings, &c. 
A very splendid view of Niagara Falls, and views of most 
of the public buildings in New-York, may be seen at his 
rooms. In this department of the business he is unequalled 
— his miniatures are very perfect. 

The prices for miniatures in the various Daguerreotype 
establishments, vary from one dollar to five dollars, but 
none that are really good can be obtained for less than 
three or four dollars. 

ARTISTS. 

In this city there are over three hundred artists in the 
various branches of portrait, miniature, landscape and 
historical painting. The most distinguished painters in 
America find in New- York a liberal appreciation of, and 
remuneration for their talents. 

In portrait painting, Messrs. Page, Inman, Elliott, Ing- 
ham, Huntington, Mooney, and some others, rank among 
the highest in America. Their rooms generally have spe- 
cimens of their work, and the lovers of art will be generally 
received in them with kindness and hospitality. 

Mr. Elliott's rooms, which are in the Granite Building, 
corner of Broadway and Chambers-street, can be visited 




?ir hknrv ci.inton's house, 



ARTISTS. 113 

at all hours by the stranger, who will find among his pic- 
tures many well worth attention. Mr. Elliott's portraits 
are very much admired for their truth to nature, freedom 
of handling and beauty of colouring — particularly his 
female heads. 

Mr. May's rooms, 44 Vesey-street, are also well worth 
visiting. His portraits are highly valued, and few painters 
have more promise for the future. 

Among the landscape painters of New-York, the most 
conspicuous are Cole, Durand and Cropsey. 

Mr. Cropsey, whose rooms are in the Granite Building, 
is a young artist, and is destined to take a high rank in 
this department of art. 

Mr. Matteson, historical painter, is beginning to take 
high rank, and has already produced some very excellent 
works. Boyle, May, Chapman and Hicks have also pro- 
duced pictures which place them high in the estimation of 
the lovers of art. 

Kneeland, Frazee and Launitz, are names well known 
among the admirers of sculpture. Mr. Kneeland's busts 
are among the finest ever modelled in this country. No 
American, except Powers, has ever surpassed them. He 
has also acquired great celebrity for his equestrian statue 
of Washington, — one of the most perfect works of the 
kind produced in modern times. It is destined for the 
national capitol. 

Miniature painters abound in New- York. Among the 
most conspicuous are Cummings, Fanshaw, Hite v Shum- 
way and McDougal. Mr. McDougal's rooms contain 
many interesting specimens of this department of art, and 
will well repay the visiter for a call on the gentlemanly 
artist. 

sir henry Clinton's house, 
Foot of Broadway. 

This is one. of the curious relics of the style of building in 
New-York during the last century. This house is now 
occupied as a private dwelling by one of the merchants of 
New- York. 
— __ 



114 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

There are numerous other houses of old standing in 
different parts of the city, remarkable for their appearance, 
but our limits will not allow us to describe them. 

BANKS OF NEW-YORK. 

Among these are some of the most costly and elaborately 
constructed public buildings of the city. The engraving 
on the opposite page is a view of the Union Bank and the 
National Bank, in Wall-street. There are several very 
elegant buildings occupied by some of the banks of Wall- 
street, among which we can name the Bank of America ; 
the Merchants' Bank ; the Bank of the State of New- 
York ; the American Exchange Bank, and the new Phe- 
nix Bank. The last two mentioned, occupy large rooms 
in the rear ; the front rooms being used for insurance 
offices. There are now twenty-four banks in the city of 
New- York, and three in Brooklyn. The New-York 
banks are located as follows : 

Thirteen in Wall-street, two in Greenwich-street, one 
in Broadway, one in the Bowery, one in Chatham-street, 
one in William. street, two in Pearl-street, one in Grand- 
street, one in Hudson-street, and one in Avenue D. 

GAS WORKS, 

In Canal-street, corner of Centre-street. This is a very 
interesting place, for here the visiter can see the manner in 
which the gas that lights the city is made. The machine- 
ry is very interesting, and perfectly accessible at the usual 
business hours. 

GYMNASIUMS. 

The principal establishment of this kind is situated in a 
large and very commodious building, at Nos. 159 and 161 
Crosby-street. Fencing, sparring, wrestling, reading, 
dressing and bathing rooms are found in this establishment 
and accommodations for all the exercises practised in Eu- 
ropean gymnasiums. The institution is very complete in 
all its departments, and forms one of the most interesting 
objects for visiters in the city. Terms — one year, $12 ; 




UNION BANK AND NATIONAL BANK. 



W all Sueet. 



STORES. 115 

six months, $8 ; three months, $5. J. T. Hatfield, pro- 
prietor; H. T. Swiggs, director. This establishment has 
the patronage of some of the most distinguished members 
of the medical profession in this city. As a means of pre- 
serving health, developing the physical faculties, and giving 
ease, strength and grace to the body — gymnastic exercises 
are of vast importance. Thousands of persons in this city, 
of sedentary habits, are now suffering, and laying the seeds 
of disease and death in their constitutions, who might gain 
relief and prolong their lives by a timely resort to the 
manly exercises above mentioned. It is strange that with 
the vast amount of medical and scientific testimony that 
exists in their favour, they should be so much neglect- 
ed. These rooms are most used in the evening, when 
the visiter can gain admission on application at the door. 

FANCY STORE. 

The fancy store at No. 259 Broadway, is stocked with 
an immense variety of fancy articles, of rare and curious 
workmanship, and numerous articles of luxury and taste- 
presenting a very beautiful melange, which is well worth 
visiting. 

LOOKING GLASS STORE. 

Messrs. Williams & Stevens, 343 Broadway, have a very 
elegant establishment, got up with great taste, for the 
sale and manufacture of picture-frames and mirrors, of 
every size and price, from one thousand dollars down to 
ordinary prices ; and frames of the most elaborate and costly 
workmanship may be seen here. 

PUBLIC BATHS. 

There are three principal bathing establishments in 
New- York, besides many smaller ones — the latter are, 
however, inferior to the larger establishments in comfort, 
neatness, and general accommodations. Stoppani's rooms, 
corner of Walker-street and Broadway, are very sumptu- 
ously finished, with marble baths and other elegant and 
useful accompaniments. The establishment is well worth 



116 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

visiting, as it is constructed with great taste and elegance. 
Single baths, 25 cents. A set of ladies' baths are at- 
tached to the establishment, with a separate entrance in 
Walker-street, which deserve patronage. Warm, cold 
and shower baths may be enjoyed in this establishment 
from 6 A. M. till IIP. M. 

Palmo's baths, in Chambers-street, opposite the Park, 
are much frequented, and are in some particulars superior 
to Stoppani's. The visiter will always be treated with po- 
lite attention, and in all except decoration, these baths are 
superior to their Broadway rivals. Price of baths, 25 cts. 

Rabineau's"" baths, in the Astor House, entrance on 
Vesey-street, is a very neat and popular establishment, 
and is entitled to patronage. Medicinal baths are prepared 
here, under the care of the proprietor, who is a physician. 

There are several other establishments about town of an 
inferior class, but very much frequented by the public, and 
open at low prices. 

Floating Baths. — There are several establishments of 
this kind. The principal ones are stationed at Castle Gar- 
den, and are open only during the summer months. The 
salt water of the bay is used, and persons may be accom- 
modated with a public bath basin, or small private rooms. 
Price 25 cents for each bath. There is also a ladies' de- 
partment, elegantly fitted up. 

There are several other minor floating baths ; one at the 
foot of Canal-street, one at the foot of Christopher-street, 
and several on the East river. 



OLD BUILDINGS IN NEW-YORK. 

THE " WALTON HOUSE," 

No. 326 Pearl-slreel. 

The "Walton House" was built in 1754, by William 
Walton, a prosperous English gentleman, who resided in 
Hanover square. This then splendid dwelling was built 
out of town, as a kind of country seat. It was bequeathed 




U AL ION HOI SK 



PearJ Strest 




OLD HOUSE. 



BILL OF MORTALITY. 117 

by the founder to his nephew William, who was one of His 
Majesty's council before the revolution. It was built of 
bricks brought from Holland, ornamented with brown stone 
water tables, lintels, &c. 

The hall is an ample room, and the staircase of large 
carved work, gives the whole a most imposing air of aristo- 
cratic grandeur. It is now a boarding-house, but well 
worth the attention of the curious. 



DUTCH HOUSES IN 1630. 

The annexed cut exhibits the fashion of most of the 
Dutch buildings in the early settlement of New- York. 

The building here represented stood in Broad-street, and 
was built by Peter Minuit, the first governor of New-Am- 
sterdam. This house was built in 1629, and was a famous 
house in its time. The greater part of Broad-street was 
originally built up in the same manner. The houses were 
all built of bricks brought from Holland, and were con- 
structed with the gable end to the street, and usually with 
a sharp and pointed roof. There is scarce a building of 
the kind now left in the city. 



BILL OF MORTALITY FOR THE YEAR 1844. 

Abstract of the Annual Report of Eli Leavitt, City In. 
spector, of the deaths in the city of New. York, for the 
year 1844. 

The whole number of deaths reported during the year 
1844, amounts to 8,955, being 262 more than the number 
registered in the preceding year, and 221 less than in the 
year 1842. 

Of these there were : — Males. Females. Total. 

Whites, 4,534 3,983 8,517 

Coloured, 219 220 438 

4,753 4,202 8,955 
Of this number, the premature and still births amounted 
to 828, viz -.—whites, 786 ; coloured, 42. Total deaths, 
exclusive of still-born, &c, 8,127. 



118 PICTURE OF NEW- YORK. 

The number of the deaths of white males exceeded that 
of the females 631. Returns are ordered by law, and 
weekly statements of deaths and diseases are published 
in all the papers, and at the end of the year a minute an- 
nual report is made, by the City Inspector. 

The interments during the year 1844, were in the fol- 
lowing cemeteries : 

African, 190 

Associate Reformed, 24 

Baptist, 139 

Catholic, 3,043 

Dutch Reformed, 214 

Friends, 52 

German, 325 

Hebrew, 60 

Methodist 1,388 

Presbyterian, 753 

Marble Cemeteries, 143 

Moravian, 1 

Potter's Field, 408 

Randall's Island, 840 

Removed from the city, 983 

Not stated, 392 

Total, 8,955 

Of the above there died at — 

Aims-House, Bellevue, 86 

Hospital, " 402 

Penitentiary, Blackwell's Island, 72 

Penitentiary Hospital, 5 

Lunatic Asylum, Blackwell's Island, 44 

House of Refuge, 1 

City Hospital, 119 

City Prison, 13 

Long Island Farms, 55 

Home for aged coloured females, 1 

Orphan Asylum, Prince-street, 1 

Total, 798 



BILL OF MORTALITY. 119 

Deaths by the principal diseases in 1844, compared with 
the two previous years : — 

1st Class. 1842. 1843. 1844. 

Small Pox, 181 117 20 

Measles, 60 118 51 

Scarlatina, 416 223 225 

Hooping cough, 191 63 164 

Cholera infantum, 513 378 329 

Remittent fever, 90 63 77 

Typhus fever, 214 191 131 

2d Class. 

Dropsv, 131 144 156 

Atrophy, 327 355 340 

Debility, 129 120 127 

3d Class. 

Cephalitis 261 191 167 

Hydrocephalus, 394 430 473 

Convulsions, 601 551 612 

Apoplexy, 108 108 120 

Delirium tremens, 52 37 64 

Brain, disease of, 22 111 173 

4th Class. 

Pneumonia, 530 540 471 

Hydro-thorax, 70 70 49 

Consumption, 1339 1503 1466 

Lungs, disease of, 48 68 24 

5th Class. 

Heart, disease of, 110 118 169 

6th Class. 

Teething, 99 54 71 

Gastritus, &c , 268 282 249 

8th Class. 

Child birth, 69 78 54 

llth Class. 

Old age, 110 108 104 

12th Class. 

Intemperance, 31 41 46 

Of the first class of diseases, the deaths by small pox, 
measles, and cholera infantum, were 213 less in 1844 than 
in 1843. 



120 



PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 



Of the third class, the deaths by five of the diseases 
above stated have each increased; of those reported of 
convulsions, 471 were under the age of two years. Hy. 
drocephalus has taken the precedence of Cholera In. 
fantum, and has become the most formidable disease to 
which infants are exposed. 

Number of deaths in each month in 1844 and 1839. 



1844. 1839. 

January, 686 568 

February, 605 613 

March, 644 587 

April, 560 528 

May, 598 491 

June, 620 483 



Still born,., 



1844. 1839. 

July 836 739 

August, 836 890 

September,... 720 708 

October, 667 612 

November,.... 662 592 

December,.... 707 550 

8,141 7,361 
828 592 



Total, 8,969 7,953 



ARRIVALS AT THE PORT OF NEW-YORK DU- 
RING THE YEAR 1844. 



FROM FOREIGN FORTS. 



Steamers,.. 

Ships, 

Barques,.... 

Brigs, 

Galliots, .... 
Schooners,. 
Sloops, 



3 

471 
351 
929 

8 
443 

3 



2,208 



Arrivals coastwise, 5,360 

Total, 7,568 

Whole number in 1843, 6,566 

Increase, 1,002 




TKINI IV CHUIiCil. 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 121 

Of the arrivals from Foreign Ports, there were, 

American vessels, 1,575 

British do 321 

Bremen do. Hamburgh, 83 

Swedish do 91 

Norwegian do 30 

French do 11 

All others, 97 



Total, 2,208 

Passengers arrived from Foreign Countries. 

In 1844, 61,002 j In 1841, 57,337 

1843, 46,302 1840, 62,797 

1842, 74,949 | 1839, 48,152 



CHURCHES IN NEW -YORK. 

TRINITY CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

BROADWAY, OPPOSITE WALL-STREET. 

Erected in 1841-1845. 

This is the principal church building belonging to the 
Episcopalians in the city, and is the mother of all the 
others. The first place of worship in the city was the 
" Chapel in the Fort," which was originally the Dutch 
Church ; but after the city was surrendered to the English, 
in 1664, it became the Episcopal Church, and was called 
" The King's Chapel." In 1696, a small square building 
called " Trinity Church," was erected on the site of the 
present elegant building, on Broadway, at the head of 
Wall-street. In 1735, the church edifice was enlarged, 
and a farther enlargement took place in 1737, until it was 
140 feet long, and 70 feet wide. In 1776, the edifice was 
destroyed by fire. In 1788, a new building was erected 
on the same site, of nearly the same dimensions, which 

il " 



122 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

was taken down in 1839, and preparations made for the 
new edifice, now nearly completed. The corner stone of 
the present building was laid June 3, 1841. When com- 
pleted, it will probably be the most elegant church edifice 
in the city, and undoubtedly the most costly one. The 
amount of its cost has never been publicly stated. The 
material of the building is a fine, reddish sandstone, 
nicely dressed. It covers a large space of ground, meas- 
uring, when we include the tower, buttresses, &c, not 
much short of 200 feet long, and more than 80 feet wide ; 
and yet so much of the space is occupied by the tower at 
the east end, and vestry at the west end, and space for the 
chancel, &c, and having no galleries, it is not computed 
to accommodate in the pews more than about 800 persons. 
Externally the building has a most imposing appearance. 
The walls of the house are about 40 feet high, and are 
highly ornamented, having large buttresses between the 
windows, terminating in tall pinnacles. The tower and 
steeple at the east end of the house is the principal object 
which engages the eye of the beholder : and whether we 
consider its comely proportions, or its style of finish, or its 
immense height, towering as it does 264 feet into the air, 
it must be considered a noble specimen of architecture, 
and a fine ornament to that part of the city. 



ST. MARK'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

STUYVESANT-STREET, EAST OF THE BOWERY. 

Erected in 1799. 

St. Mark's Church is built of smooth stone, of a dark 
gray colour. It measures about 100 feet by 66. A school 
room and vestry are attached to the rear, occupying about 
a third of the width of the building, and running out some 
thirty or forty feet. The steeple is on the front of the 
building facing the south, and is very lofty. It was not 
built in its present form until 1826. The exterior of the 
church is plain, and has, at first view, rather an antique 
look ; but it has a very venerable appearance, and as a 
whole, is in good keeping with the purposes for which it is 





ST. MARK'S CHIJkC H 



CHURCHES IN NEW. YORK. 



123 



occupied. It stands on the former estate of Petrus Stuy- 
vesant, the last of the Dutch governors, and his remains 
lie in a vault under the church : a brown tablet on the east 
side of the church, outside, marks the place. The re- 
mains of Col. Henry Sloughter, one of the English govern, 
ors, lie in the same vault, and those of Gov. Daniel D. 
Tompkins, in another near by. The heads of three dy- 
nasties, Dutch, English and American, are thus reposing 
in peace together. This church is in a very flourishing 
condition. The Rev. Dr. Anthon is the present minister. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

CORNER OF BEEKMAN AND CLIFF STREETS. 

Erected in 1752. 

This building was originally a chapel of Trinity Church, 
and continued in this relation until the year 1811. Hence 
the spot it occupies was formerly called " Chapel Hill," 
and the street in front, " Chapel-street." The vicinity 
was, at that time, a crowded and badly built part of the 
city. The church is built of brown stone, and is 104 feet 
long and 72 feet wide. It had originally a tall steeple, 
but being destroyed by fire in 1814, it was rebuilt with 
the same walls, with a round blunt turret, some 30 feet 
high above the top of the building, containing a bell and 
a clock. It is a very substantial building, though exter- 
nally quite plain. The interior of the church is finished 
in a style much more rich and imposing, and strikes the 
beholder at once, on entering a place so unpretending 
in its exterior. 

A former minister of this church, the Rev. John Ogilvie, 
D. D., was struck with apoplexy while reading the service 
in the church, and died in a few days after. This hap- 
pened in the year 1774. The late Rev. Dr. Milnor, the 
lamented rector of this church, died more suddenly, with 
scarce a moment's warning, in the early part of 1845. 

The Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, D. D, is the present 
minister. 



124 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

CHRIST'S CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

ANTHONY-STREET, NEAR BROADWAY. 

Erected in 1823. 

This church was founded in the year 1794, and then 
occupied a wooden building in Ann-street, near Nassau. 
But in 1823, this house was erected, and the congregation 
removed to it. The rear and side walls are of very rough 
small stones, but the front is very beautiful smooth red 
stone. The structure measures 90 feet by 64. In each 
side there are five large pointed windows, containing 90 
panes each, of common-sized plain glass, beside the points. 
The front presents three doors, of a common size, all 
alike, with a large pointed window over each. The 
middle section of the front presents a small projection, 
with flat columns on each side. On the centre of the 
roof in front there is a tower of stone of about 15 feet 
square, and perhaps 20 feet high, with pinnacles on the 
four corners. The present minister of this church is the 
Rev. Dr. Lyell. 



FRENCH CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

FRANKLIN-STREET, CORNER OF CHURCH-STREET. 

Erected in 1834. 

This is a rich looking building, of fine hammered white 
marble, measuring 100 feet by 50, and built at a cost of 
$60,000. It has neither tower nor spire, but on the front 
a deep pediment of between 20 and 30 feet in depth, sup- 
ported by four massive pillars in front, raised on a platform 
six steps from the sidewalk, and two others far under the 
pediment, one on each side of the main entrance. The 
front of the main building is plain, with one large door 
and no window. On each side there are three long 
windows, square at the top. The whole building, though 
not ornamented, has about it an air of silent grandeur. 
The congregation now worshipping in this church, for- 




l'eglise du saint esprit, 
Corner of Church and Franklin Streets. 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 125 

merly occupied a large stone building standing on 
Pine-street, near Nassau-street, which was erected in 
1704, by some French Protestants, who founded their 
church upon the principles and model of that in Geneva. 
During the war of the revolution, the interior of this church 
was nearly destroyed by the British soldiery. In 1794, it 
underwent a thorough repair; and in 1603, the members, 
with their minister, joined the Episcopal church, and from 
that time have been known as the church Du St. Esprit. 
Like many of the other churches, the business of the mer- 
chants drove the families into the upper part of the city, 
and the result was the sale of their property in Pine-street, 
and the building of a new church. 



ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL— (Episcopal,) 

BROADWAY, BETWEEN FULTON AND VESEY STREETS. 

Erected in 1766. 

This is the third Episcopal church erected in the city. 
It is a venerable looking building, of dark gray stone, with 
a tower of stone and pointed steeple of wood on the 
western end, opposite to the main entrance, different in 
this respect from any other church in the city. 

The total length of the edifice, including the portico in 
front and tower in the rear, is 151 feet, and the width is 
73 feet. The height of the steeple is 203 feet. There are 
two bells hanging in the belfry, which once belonged to 
the chime in Trinity church. 

On the front, facing Broadway, a large pediment, 18 
feet in depth, is displayed, supported by four Ionic co- 
lumns. In a niche, in the centre of the pediment, is a 
carved figure of St. Paul leaning on a sword. There is 
also in the front a slab of white marble inserted, bearing 
an inscription in remembrance of General Montgomery, 
who fell at Quebec, during the revolutionary war, and 
whose remains were removed to New-York by order of 
the state, in July, 1818. 

The sides of the building are not ornamented, and 
excepting the portico in front, the whole exterior of the 

11* ~~~ 



126 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

building presents a plain and sober appearance. When 
St. Paul's Chapel was built it was quite at the outskirts of 
the city ; and the year in which the foundation was laid, 
the lot on which it stands, near the cemetery, was plough- 
ed up and sowed with wheat. The cemetery is a large 
plot of ground, extending from Broadway to Church-street, 
and from Fulton to Vesey streets. It is now filled with 
tombs and single graves, and contains some elegant mo- 
numents. At the side of the church, and near Broadway, 
a tall column of white marble has been erected in memory 
of Thomas Addis Emmet, the celebrated Irish barrister and 
patriot, who died here in 1827. Inscriptions are made on 
three sides, one in English, one in Latin, and one in Irish. 



ST. JOHN'S CHAPEL— (Episcopal.) 

VARICK-STREET, ON THE EAST SIDE OF ST. JOHN'S PARK. 

Erected in 1807. 

The situation of this church is not surpassed by any 
church in the city, and the building itself presents altoge- 
ther an imposing appearance. The material of which the 
walls are composed is a brownish sand stone ; and the 
Corinthian order is generally followed in the architecture. 
It covers a large space of ground, being from outside to 
outside, 132 feet in length and 80 feet in width. The 
portico in front is about 20 feet deep, and the pediment is 
supported by four large columns, which stand on a plat- 
form raised five or six feet from the ground, to a level 
with the floor of the main building. The edifice being 
thus raised from the ground, presents a more sightly 
appearance. 

The spire of the church is very lofty, being, as it is 
stated, 214 feet and six inches from the ground, and with 
the exception of the spire of Trinity Church, is the highest 
in the city. The side walls of the church are considera- 
bly ornamented, and a heavy ballustrade passes around the 
roof. 

At the eastern end of the main building, and adjoining 




U A PTIST CHURCH. 
Urooine Street 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 127 

it, the Sabbath school room was erected in 1826. This is 
considerably narrower than the church, and consequently 
not seen much from the front, but is a long building, con- 
taining three Sunday school rooms, a vestry room, and 
other rooms for various societies and committees connect- 
ed with the church. 

Hudson Square, better known at this day as St. John's 
Park, is a fine large square in front of the church, extend- 
ing from Varick to Hudson-street, east and west, and from 
Beach to Laight-street, north and south. It is not like 
most of the other squares in the city, a public promenade ; 
but the gates are kept locked, it being considered private 
property. 



FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, 

CORNER OF BROOME AND ELIZABETH STREETS. 

Erected in 1841. 

The former church edifice had been in Gold-street, near 
Fulton, but in 1841 this building was erected, and the con- 
gregation removed here. The building was designed by 
Mr. Lefevre, of this city, and does him much credit as an 
architect. The following particulars are copied, in part, 
from a description given of the building in the appendix to 
the Report of the American and Foreign Bible Society, for 
the year 1842 : The walls are of a blueish stone, princi- 
pally from Blackwell's Island, and from the old meeting 
house in Gold-street. The window lintels, cornices and 
battlements are of brown sandstone. The dimensions of 
the house are 90 feet by 75 — the side walls 42 feet high, 
and the apex of the battlements 71 feet. The heads of the 
windows in the side walls, six in each side, are square-head 
designs, executed with tasteful tracery-work. The front 
of the house presents two octangular towers at the two 
extremities, and a slight projection in the middle portion, 
with buttresses raised to the top of the building. In the 
projecting portion of the front are three doors of moderate 
size, and immediately over them is a grand, pointed win- 



128 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

dow, 22 feet wide, and 41 feet high. There are two other 
pointed, and two square-headed windows placed in the re- 
ceding portions of the front. The interior of the church is 
well finished, but not gaudy. It has a gallery on three 
sides, and a second gallery in front, for the Sabbath school 
children. The floor of the basement is but about three or 
four steps down, which brings the basement rooms, for 
lecture room. Sabbath school room, &c, nearly above the 
ground, which of course elevates the whole building. The 
front of the building, except the main entrance to the 
church, is divided into rooms for the accommodation of the 
Baptist Home Missionary Society, and the American and 
Foreign Bible Society. These rooms are very conveniently 
arranged. The entrance to each is through the octagons 
on the corners. Rev. Dr. Cone is the present minister. 



ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL— (Roman Catholic,) 

CORNER OF PRINCE AND MOTT STREETS. 

Erected in 1815. 

This building is very spacious. When first erected it 
measured 120 feet by 80 ; since which, 36 feet more have 
been added to the length, making it now 156 feet long, 
standing on Prince-street, and covering in its length the 
whole space from Mott-street to Mulberry-street, fronting 
on Mott-street. The side walls and rear are built of rather 
rough gray stone. The front is of nicely-smoothed red 
free-stone. The height of the walls is perhaps 45 feet \ 
no buttresses on the sides, but two tall pinnacles are raised 
from the two corners of the building in the rear. The 
front presents a surface nearly smooth, with three doors, 
but no windows. From the top of the roof, at each of the 
two front corners, rises a square tower of stone, to the 
height of about 15 feet ; and directly on the apex, between 
the towers, there is a small, and rather awkward looking 
wooden steeple, terminating in a cross. In the front of 
the building, over the side doors, are two niches, fitted to 
receive some images, and there are three such in the rear of 




ST. PATRICK S CATHEDRAL. 

Gorier of Prince and Mutt Streets, 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 129 

the building, but at present they are empty. The rear of 
the church is rather more ornamented than the front. 
There are eight large windows in each side. The interior 
of the church presents quite an imposing appearance. 
There are no galleries, except an organ loft on the eastern 
end. The roof is supported by 12 large pillars, standing 
each alone, and running from the floor to the high ceiling, 
and on each pillar, far above the pews, four large globular 
lamps are suspended. The windows are of plain common 
glass, with painted blinds inside. There are few orna- 
ments except around the altar. The floor contains about 
200 pews, and the whole house will probably accommo- 
date 2,000 persons. 



FIRST CHURCH— (Presbyterian,) 

Erected in 1845. 

This church stands on the west side of the Fifth avenue, 
between Eleventh and Twelfth streets, and presents a ma- 
jestic appearance. It is of reddish hewn stone. The ex- 
treme length of the building is 1 19 feet, and the breadth 80 
feet. The height of the walls is 40 feet, and it is 64 feet 
from the ground to the peak of the roof. The height of the 
tower is 130 feet to the top of the cornice, and thence is an 
octagon spire of stone, 30 feet to the pinnacle. Large but- 
tresses between the windows, seven on each side, are 
built, surmounted by a pinnacle of eight feet in height. 
The top of the corner pinnacles are 75 feet from the 
ground. A battlement of stone passes around the roof. 
Such is the outside. The inside of the building presents 
a grave and dignified appearance, very becoming a house 
of worship. The pulpit and pews are built of solid black- 
walnut. The ceiling is rather plain, and there are no large 
columns in front of the gallery. The height from the floor 
to the ceiling is fifty feet. There are 124 pews on the 
lower floor, and the house will accommodate from 1,200 
to 1,500 persons. The estimated cost is $75,000. The 
lecture room and the Sabbath school room, are both in a 
separate building, 50 feet by 30, and two stories high, built 



130 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

of stone like the church, on the same lot, but fronting on 
Eleventh-street. Rev. Dr. Phillips is the minister of this 
congregation. This church formerly worshipped in Wall- 
street, on the spot where the first Presbyterian church in 
New- York was built, in the year 1719. 



GRACE CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

BROADWAY, ABOVE TENTH-STREET. 

Erected in 1845. 

This is one of the most splendid buildings in the city. 
The material of which it is constructed is of white marble, 
hewn, but not hammered. It is built in the form of a 
cross. As viewed from Broadway, we are first presented 
with a lofty tower of about 24 feet square, and of about 110 
feet elevation from the ground to the cornice ; and from 
thence an octagon spire of wood, running up nearly as 
much higher, and terminating in a cross. Attached to the 
tower is a building with its end to the street, of the same 
width as the tower, and extending inward about 54 feet, 
where it joins the centre of the large structure, 87 feet 
long and 54 wide, standing side to the street. Large, deep 
buttresses are built up between the windows and on the 
corners of the building all around, with lofty pinnacles on 
their tops, highly finished and ornamented. There are 
three doors in front, two of moderate size and one very 
large. Over this main entrance is a large, circular win- 
dow, of stained glass, and two tall, oblong windows in 
each side of the upper section of the tower. Such is a 
"bird's eye view" of the outside. Now let us enter the 
building : and here we are, standing at once amid pillars 
and carved work, and have all the colours of the rainbow 
brought to our vision through more than forty windows 
of stained glass, each one giving some different hues. 
On a line with the sides of the gallery are 16 massive 
columns, eight on a side. The windows are all gothic, 
three very large — one back of the pulpit, and one in each 
end of the main building, on the right and left of the pul- 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 131 

pit. On each side of the pulpit are two circular windows ; 
and 36 others, large and small, are scattered above and be- 
low in the two sides. The estimated cost of the building 
is $145,000. The interior of the church is not yet quite 
finished. The congregation who are to occupy it, once 
worshipped at the corner of Rector-street and Broadway, 
near Trinity Church. Rev. Dr. Taylor is the present 
minister. 



DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH, 

ON LAFAYETTE PLACE. 

Erected in 1839. 

Lafayette Place is a short but rather elegant street, 
parallel to Broadway, on the eastern side of it. Toward 
the southern end of it it is crossed by Fourth-street, and 
on the corner of Fourth-street, and fronting Lafayette 
Place, stands one of the collegiate Dutch churches. It is 
a very substantial building, of very nice hammered granite. 
It is 110 feet long, and 75 feet wide. It was erected in 
1839, at a cost of about $160,000. 

A pediment of about 20 feet deep is displayed in front, 
supported by eight massive granite columns, in a range 
with the outside, and four shorter ones nearer the main 
body of the building. A round tower rises from the pedi- 
ment to the height of about 25 or 30 feet. Thus far all is 
stone, and in a high state of finish. From the tower a 
tall octagon steeple of wood ascends, surmounted by 
a ball and vane, making the total height from the ground 
to the top of the spire 215 feet. The sides of the building 
are plain, having five windows without ornaments, and 
square at the top. An area is opened all around the build- 
ing, making a light and dry basement, finished into good 
rooms for the accommodation of the Sabbath schools and 
lecture room. The inside of the church is very handsome- 
ly finished, in a style of what may expressively be termed 
plain elegance. The pulpit is of solid marble. 

The Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church is the oldest 



132 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

religious establishment in the city. At the present they 
occupy three houses of worship, viz. — The " North 
Church," at the corner of Fulton and William streets, the 
Ninth-street Church, and the church on Lafayette Place. 
The church is considered as one, though assembling for 
worship in three places, and is governed by one Consisto- 
ry. At the present time they have four pastors, viz. — 
Rev. Drs. Knox, Brownlee, De Witt and Vermilye. 



DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH, 

WASHINGTON SQUARE. 

Erected in 1840. 

The great fire in New- York, which took place Dec. 16, 
1835, destroyed, among other buildings, the " South Dutch 
Church," which stood on " Garden-street," now Exchange 
Place. After this the congregation divided, a part of them 
building a church on Murray-street, while those who had 
removed far "up town," commenced worship in the 
chapel of the New- York University, proposing to build in 
that vicinity. A lot was purchased on the corner of 
Washington Place and Wooster-street, fronting Washing- 
ton Square, and here has been erected a most superb edi- 
fice. The building is of dark coloured granite, rather 
roughly hewn, and measuring 80 feet from the rear to the 
tower, and 62 feet wide. On each of the two front cor- 
ners there is a tower 24 feet square, and running up some 
20 feet above the extreme point of the roof. A front view 
of the building presents you with a large middle door and 
two smaller ones, one being in each tower. The gothic 
architecture in which the edifice was designed to be built 
appears more prominently inside than outside. Inside are 
eight large pillars supporting the roof, and attached to the 
front of the gallery, which is handsomely ornamented with 
carved work. The organ is very elegant; and the organ 
loft is raised some eight feet above the back of the gal- 
lery, appearing somewhat like a second gallery. The 
height of the ceiling from the floor is 63 feet, and for so 




J>UTCH REFORMED CHURCH. 

Washington Square. 




ENTRANCE TO THE FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH, 

l'.iu;ul XJ\ . 



CHURCHES IN NEW-Y0RK. 133 

high a ceiling the pulpit appears rather low. There are 
10 large gothic windows below, of ground glass, and 10 
smaller ones in the roof. These all admit a very clear 
yet soft light; and the walls being painted a light drab 
colour, and the wood work being painted light oak, give 
the whole interior of the house a cheerful appearance. 
Taken as a whole, the edifice is in good taste. The cost 
is said to be $80,000, and the ground on which it stands 
$44,000. It was dedicated Oct. 1, 1840. Dr. Hutton is 
the present minister. 



FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH, 

BROADWAY, BETWEEN SPRING AND PRINCE STREETS. 

Erected in 1845. 

The First Unitarian Church in the city of New- York, 
was built in Chambers-street. In 1844, that building was 
sold, and a new and splendid one erected on Broadway. 
The lot occupied by the church runs through from Broad- 
way to Crosby-street, and the main building is placed on 
the rear of the lot, which removes it from the noise of the 
great street to a place of comparative quiet. It is built of 
brick, and is 130 feet long and 75 feet wide. It cost 
$82,000. It is a very lofty building, being about 70 feet 
from the floor to the apex ; but standing back from the 
main street, and having large buildings all around it, it is 
scarcely seen from Broadway. The entrance is all that 
would be noticed in passing it. The front of the entrance 
is 27 feet wide, of elegantly carved reddish free stone, 
with one large gothic door, with pillars on each side, run- 
ning up some forty feet. Entering the front door there is 
a long passage-way of the same width as the front, and 
about 200 feet long, which brings us to the main body of 
the church. Over this covered passage-way is a suite of 
rooms, intended to be leased as offices. The interior of 
the church is finished in more complete gothic style, proba- 
bly, than any other building in the city. The material used 
for the pews is pine, with black walnut capping ; and the 

—— i2 — 



134 PICTURE OF NEW-TORK. 

pulpit, organ case, and all the other fine carved work is 
pine, painted a beautiful dark oak colour. There are 140 
pews on the lower floor, and about 60 in the gallery. 
There are six windows on each side, of ground glass, ad. 
mitting a soft and pleasant light. The walls are painted 
drab colour. The side galleries are rather narrow, so 
that the large pillars supporting the roof stand off about 
five feet from the front of the gallery, which has a very 
fine effect. The gas lights are attached to these pillars. 
Taken as a whole, the house is beautiful, and well worthy 
of attention. Rev. Mr. Bellows is the present minister. 



CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH— (Unitarian,) 
Erected in 1838. 

The " Church of the Messiah," is the second Unitarian 
Church in the city of New-York. It was commenced in 
the year 1828, and was under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
Mr. Lunt. A house of worship was built in Prince-street, 
near Broadway, on the west side. This building was con- 
sumed by fire in the year 1837, and in the following year a 
new edifice was built on Broadway, nearly opposite Wash- 
ington Square. Rev. Orville Dewey, D. D., is the present 
minister. This building is a very substantial one. It is 
built of rough granite, measuring on the ground 100 feet 
by 74, and was built at a cost of $97,000. It is a plain 
looking building, with a square front. The tower is not 
high, not more perhaps than 20 feet above the walls, and 
has no pointed spire. The roof is rather flat. The front 
presents three doors, with a square window over the side 
doors, and a large round window over the main entrance, 
and circular windows in three sides of the tower above the 
roof. 

The finish of the interior is rich, being mostly of the 
Corinthian order. The walls and ceiling are elaborate 
in finish, but richly painted, and said to represent very 
nearly the interior of Westminster Abbey. 




PRKSBYTER1A.N CHURCH, 

University Place. 



PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 135 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

UNIVERSITY PLACE. 

Erected in 1845. 

This building is of a reddish gray stone, well smoothed, 
having but few ornaments, and for so costly a building pre- 
senting a rather plain appearance. It stands at the corner 
of Tenth-street and University Place. The extreme length 
of the edifice is 116 feet, and the width 65 feet, having a 
lecture room, 25 feet wide, taken off at the rear, which 
room is lengthened by a projection on the south side of the 
house of about 10 feet, giving the lecture room a space of 
75 feet by 25. This leaves the interior of the church at 
about 91 feet by 65. A side view of the building from 
Tenth-street, presents us with six large gothic windows 
and three small windows over the lecture room, all of 
stained glass. Between the windows are buttresses, built 
to the height of the walls, and terminating in small pin- 
nacles. As we look at the front from University Place, 
we perceive three gothic doors, the main entrance being in 
the tower, and one on each side in the body of the church. 
A large gothic window is placed over the main entrance, 
and smaller ones over the side doors. The tower, which 
is about 24 feet square, is wholly in front of the main 
building, and not partly on the roof, as is rather more com- 
mon, and is built up square to the belfry, which is the first 
section above the apex of the roof; above which it gradu- 
ally tapers to the summit, being entirely of stone, and 
terminates without a vane, at the height of 184 feet from 
the ground. The building stands low, being raised but 
three steps from the sidewalk, so that it does not look as 
lofty as many others which are really not higher than this. 

The interior of the church is divided into 124 pews on 
the lower floor, and 64 in the gallery ; and the space over 
the lecture room, in the rear of the pulpit, is open for the 
accommodation of the Sabbath school. It is said that 
1,200 persons can be accommodated in the house. The 
pulpit and pews are built of solid black walnut, exhibiting 



138 PICTURE OF NEW-YORK. 

much richness, but it renders the house rather more dark 
and gloomy than would be desirable. The total cost of 
the building was $56,000. The present minister is the 
Rev. Dr. Potts. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

CARMINE-STREET. 

Erected in 1832. 

This edifice is of brick, but plastered to resemble white 
stone. It is a heavy looking building, especially in front. 
It stands on a high basement of stone, so that the main 
floor of the church is eight or nine feet above the side- 
walk, which gives the building quite a lofty appearance. 
There are five large windows, with square tops, in each 
side of the house, with thick, flat columns between them, 
but no windows in front. The front c-f the house presents 
two large fluted pillars, one each side of the main entrance, 
supporting the pediment, and outside of these pillars four 
large square pillars, two on each corner, in front of a 
turret 15 feet square, built to the roof. In each of these 
turrets are doors facing each other toward the centre of 
the house, the main entrance being in a deep recess under 
the pediment, and fronting the street. The trimmings of 
the pediment are of wood, and on the top of it there is built 
a wooden square turret with heavy mouldings, about 30 
feet high. 

The dimensions of the building are 84 feet by 62. The 
interior is finished in a plain style, having 136 pews on the 
lower floor. It was first opened for worship May 27, 1832. 
Rev. Mr. Holt is the present minister. 



ST. THOMAS' CHURCH— (Episcopal,) 

CORNER BROADWAY AND HOUSTON-STREET. 

Erected in 1826. 

This is a stately edifice, measuring 113 feet by 62, 
standing on the corner of Houston-street, fronting on 
Broadway. It is built of very rough small stones, and was 




PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 



Carmine Street, 




st. thomas's church, 



Corner of Houston Street a»t| Broadwaj 



CHURCHES IN NEW- YORK. 137 

more than two years building, being commenced in 1823, 
and finished in the early part of 1826. When erected it 
was considered as the most pure gothic structure of any in 
the city, but probably now some others exceed it. " Its 
distinguishing features are two large angular projecting 
towers at the northeast and southeast corners, which rise 
in undiminished proportions to a height of 80 feet, and 
end in pointed turrets of a dwarf size ; also the immense 
gothic window in front between the towers, and occupying 
a large portion of the surface ; beneath this, and in each 
tower, are the entrance doors." In the front of these 
towers there are niches to receive figures, but none are 
placed there. 

The interior of the church is very handsomely finished, 
and painted oak colour. The windows are plain glass 
without, but inside have elegantly painted transparent 
shades, in frames. The house will accommodate a large 
congregation, having large galleries on three sides, and 
238 pews, above and below. Rev. Dr. Whitehouse is the 
present minister. 



FLOATING CHAPEL— (Episcopal.) 
Built in 1844. 

It has always been considered that sailors needed some- 
thing a little peculiar, and hence the idea of building a 
house of worship for them, not only distinct from other 
people, but, if practicable, to have it a floating temple, 
moored in some dock, so that " Jack in his roundabout" 
should feel perfectly at home. This desideratum was ac- 
complished in this city in 1844, when the "Floating 
Chapel" for seamen was built, and the Episcopal " Church 
of the Saviour" organized therein. The chapel is built on 
a deck 76 feet long, and 36 feet wide, covering two boats 
of 80 tons each, and 10 feet apart. The length of the 
chapel is 70 feet, and its breadth 30 feet. It is not a very 
high building. It has four plain oblong windows on each 
side, with buttresses between, terminating in pinnacles 
above the walls. In the front is one large door, with a 

_ 



138 PICTURE OF NEW- YOKE. 

circular window over it, and a plain spire, rising above the 
peak of the roof. 

The interior presents one middle aisle, with a row of 
seats on each side. It is a plain room, ornamented a little 
around the pulpit and altar. It was built by the Young 
Men's Missionary Society of the Episcopal Church, and 
was opened for religious worship February 15th, 1844. The 
present minister is the Rev. Mr. Parker. The chapei is 
now moored in the East river, at the foot of Pike-street. 

There is another Floating Chapel in the city, under the 
direction of the Methodists, and the present ministry of 
Rev. O. G. Hedstrom, which was put into operation in June, 
1845. It is an old ship of 300 tons, which is well fitted up, 
and moored at the foot of Rector-street, on the North river. 
It will accommodate about 500 persons. The pastor of the 
church is a native of Sweden, and preaches in Swedish 
every Sabbath morning, and in English on Sabbath after- 
noons and evenings. There are three other meetings for 
seamen held in this city, viz : the " Seamen's Bethel," 
Methodist, Cherry-street, the " Seamen's Bethel," Baptist, 
Catharine-street, and the old " Mariner's Church" Roose- 
velt-street. 



THE " SWAMP CHURCH," 

FRANKFORT-STREET, CORNER OF WILLIAM-STREET. 

Erected in 1767. 
This is one of the oldest church edifices in the city. 
St. George's Church, in Beekman-street, was built in 1752, 
nine years before it, but in 1814 was burnt, all but the 
walls, and built up in modern style. St. Paul's Chapel, 
near the Park, was built in 17G6, but the interior is in 
modern style. The Brick Church was built the same year, 
but that too has been remodelled, while the old " Swamp 
Church," retains its ancient appearance, inside and out. 
The land east of it was originally a marsh or swamp, and 
hence its name. It is built of stone, and is a very strong 
building. It is not large, measuring about 60 feet by 34. 




FRANKFORT STREl-.T CHURCH. 




CHUIiCH OK THE HOLY COMMUNION. 



Twentieth Street. 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 139 

This building was erected by the German Lutherans, 
and was the only place of worship in the city which was 
not abused and torn in pieces by the British army in the 
time of the revolution ; for it was here that the Hessian 
troops, who were generally Lutherans, attended worship ; 
and it is not unlikely that this circumstance saved it. After 
the peace, the Rev. Dr. Kunze officiated here for more 
than twenty years, in the year 1830, it was sold to the 
coloured Presbyterian congregation, who now occupy it. 
The Rev. Mr. Wright is the present minister. 



CHURCH OF THE HOLY COMMUNION, 

CORNER OF SIXTH AVENUE AND TWENTIETH-STREET. 

Erected in 1845. 

This is altogether one of the most singular buildings in 
the city. The material of which it is built is well dressed 
red granite. It is built in the form of a cross, having a 
projection in the rear of about 30 feet wide and 18 deep, 
containing the pulpit, reading desk, &c. The total length 
of the building, from the front door to the extreme rear of 
the projection, is 104 feet, and the breadth 66 feet. As 
you stand in the pulpit, on the right hand is a deep recess 
in the wing, which is the organ lofr. This is the only gal- 
lery in the house. In the wing on the left hand is a large 
door opening directly into the street, with a large circular 
window over it. This is shown in the annexed cut, on 
the right hand of the tower. Another principal entrance is 
shown on the cut at the left of the tower, and like the 
other door, opens directly into the street. The walls are 
not very high, but the roof is high and very sharp, and 
being arched within, it gives 52 feet as the extreme height 
of the ceiling. The turret is on the south corner of the 
building, and is about 15 feet square within the but- 
tresses, and 70 feet high. There are few windows in the 
house, and no ornaments either within or without. The 
whole floor is occupied with plain oak seats, which are 
all free. The cost of the building was about .$35,000. 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 


^* 
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«j ( John Knox. 

}<o 1 William C. Brownlee. 

s ^ Thomas De Witt. 

O ' Thomas E. Vermilye. 

Nicholas I. Marselus. 

George H. Fisher. 

J. B. Har.lonburgh. 

Isaac S Demund. 

Isaac Ferris. 

John M Macauley. 

Mancius S. Hutton. 

Richard L Schoonmaker. 

J. S. Ebaugh. 

John C. Guldin, 

Frederic F. Cornell. 

E. Van Aken. 

Edward H. May. 

John Lillie, 

Samuel D. Westervelt. 


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William street, 
Ninth-street, 
Lafayette Place, 

Bleecker-street, 

Broome-street, 

Franklin-street, 

Greene-street, 

Market-street, 

Murray-street, 

Washington Square, 

Harlaein, 

Forsyth -street, 

Houston-street, 

Avenue B, 

Bloomingdale, 

Twenty-first street, 

Stanton-street, 

King street, 


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North Churrh, 
Niuth-street Church, 
Collegiate Church, 

Greenwich Church, 
Broome-street Church, 
Northwest Church, 
Greene-street Church, 
Market-street Church, 
South Church, 

Washington Square Church, 
Harlaein Church, 
German Reformed, 
German Evan. Miss. Church, 
Manhattan Church, 
Bloomingdale Church, 
Twenty-first-street Church, 
Stanton-street Church, 
True Dutch Reformed, 



■ '■ ■ ■ 

CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 


EPISCOPALIANS. 


.£?„• 

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£§'■3 
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Stephen H. Tyng. 
Alexander Frazer. 
B L. Haigljt. 
G. T. Bedell. 
Thomas Lyell. 
B. C. C. Parker. 
Lot Jones. 
< ' F Cruse. 
Thomas H. Taylor. 
Samuel L. Southard. 
Samuel Seabury. 
Caleb Clapp. 
Isaac Pardee. 
It. M. Abercrombie. 
L P. W Balch. 
Edward N. Mead. 
John M Forbes. 
Henry Anthon. 
William Richmond. 
William Richmond. 
Hugh Smith. 
Joseph H. Price. 
II. J. Whitehouse. 
Richard Cox. 


192 ft. by 84, 
113 ft. by 72, 
132 ft. by 80, 


101 ft. by 72, 
60 ft. by 50, 
84 ft. by 60, 

100 ft. by 74, 
i.O ft. by 64, 
70 ft. by ad, 
80 ft. by 60, 
SO ft. by 24, 

140 ft. by 86, 

63 It. by 57, 
building, 

64 ft by 24, 
72 ft. by 44, 
64 ft. by 41, 

116. ft. by 68, 
75 ft. by 54, 
66 ft. by 48, 

100 ft. by 66, 

53 ft. by 3fi, 
86 ft. by 60, 
75 ft. by 54, 
113ft by 6>, 
80 ft. by 64, 


1815, 
1766, 
1807, 


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Broadway, • 

Broadway, 

Varick-street, 


Beekman-street, 

Centre-street, 

Henry-street, 

Fifth Avenue, 

Anihony-street, 

Pike Slip, 

Stanton street, 

Houston-street, 

Broadway, 

Fourth Avenue, 

University Chapel, 

Avenue D, 

Sixth street, 

Harlaem, 

Lafayette Place, 

Amity-street, 

Hudson-street, 

Stuyvesant- street, 

Manhattanville, 

Bloomingdale, 

Twentieth-street, 

Chrystie-street, 

Broadway, 

Mott-strtet, ' 


Trinity, 

St. Paul's (Chapel,) 

St. John's (Chapel,) 


St. George's, 

St. Philip's (coloured,) 

All Saints, 

Ascension, 

Christ's Church, 

Church of the Saviour, 

Epiphany (Mission,) 

St. Simon's German (Miss.) 

Grace Church, 

Calvary Church, 

Annunciation, 

Nativity, 

Redemption, 

St. Andrews', 

St. Bartholomew's, 

St. Clement's, 

St. Luke's, 

St. Mark's, 

St. Mary's, 

St. Michael's, 

St. Peter's, 

St. Stephen's, 

St. Thomas', 

Zion's, 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 



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B. Evans. 
Jesse Pound. 
A. Verren. 
R.C. Shimeal] . 
J. Uowdney. 

E. A. Nichols, 

W. A. Muhlenberg. 
Alexander Cromwell. 

C. H. Williamson. 
Moses Marcus. 

F. Thayer. 


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75 ft. by 60, 

66 ft. by 52. 
100 ft. by 50, 

67 ft. by 46, 
74 ft. by 40, 

68 ft. by 52 
104 ft. by 66, 

building, 
building, 
building, 
building, 


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Christopher street, 

Franklin-street, 

Sixth Avenue, 

Hamilton Square 

Thompson-street, 

Sixth Avenue, 

■592 Broadway, 

Brick Church Chape], 

Broadway, 

36th st., near 8th Av., 


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Holy Evangelists, (Mission,) 
St. Matthews', (Mission,) 
Du St. Esprit, (French,) 
St. Jude's Free Church, 
St. James', 

Emanuel Free Church, 
Church of Holy Communion, 
P. E. Ch. of Messiah, (col'd,) 
L'Eglise du St. Sauveur, (Fr.) 
Free Ch. for Brit. Emigrants, 
Ch. of the Holy Apostles, 



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CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 



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George Potts. 
William E. Schenck. 
John C. Lowrie. 
[Vacant] 


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46 ft. by 32, 
60 ft. by 45, 

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Hammond-street, 
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Hammond-street Church, 
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Blooiningdale Church, 



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CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 


70 ft. by 54, I [Vacant.] 
65 ft. by 46, Chaiics G. Sornmers. 
70 ft. by 50, David Bellamy. 
56 ft. by 32, L. G. Marsh. 

64 ft. by 50, Jacob Broun er. 
40 ft. by 25, Luke Barker. 

50 ft. by 35, Stephen Dutton. 
70 ft. by 54, William It. Williams. 
4S ft. by 22, Theophilus Jones. 
70 ft. by 55. Alnnzo Wlieelock 
80 ft. by 60, John Dowling. 
70 ft. by 56. Henry Davis. 
90 ft by 63, Edward l.athrop. 
building, .1 < ' Hopkins. 

65 ft. by 48, George Benedict. 
85 ft. by 61, jW W. Everts. 
60 ft. by 40, Mr: Spencer. 

building, J. R. Stewarl. 

60 fl. b V 40, L. Covcll. 

64 ft. by 40, S. A. Cn!cy. 
building, [Vacant.] 

52 ft. by 33, [Vacant.] 

40 It. by 20, 'Job Plant. 

50 tt. by 30, E. Parmly. 

60 ft by 40, H. Simonlon. 
building, | Johnson Chase. 


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Providence Chape , Thompson street, 1823, 1 60 ft. by 40, i.Toseph Harrison. 
Tabernacle Church, Broadway, 1836, i 100 H. by 100, j.T P.Thompson. 
Fourth Congregational, Hancock street, no building, W.W.Wallace 
First Free Congregational, Chrysiie street, 1844, 75 ft. by 4^, J. H. Martyn. 
Second Free Congregational, Sullivan-street, 1845, | 90 ft. by 42, |Samuel D. Cochran. 


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MeDougal-street, 

Nassau-street, 

Stanton-street, 

Avenue A, 

Christopher- street, 

Laurens-street, 

Pearl-street, 

Amity-street, 

Chrystie-street, 

Sixteenth-street, 

Downing- street, 

Cannon-street, 

Mulberry-street, 

Crosby-street, 

Norfolk street, 

Laight-street, 

Eorty-third-street, 

Catharine-street, 

Fourth-street, 

Eleventh-street, 

Harlsem, 

King-street, 

Elizabeth-street, 

Greene-street, 

Suffolk-street, 

Chrystie-street, 


North Berish, 
South Church, 
Stanton-street Church, 
Ebenezer Church, 
North Church, 
Laurens-street Church, 
Zion Church, (coloured,) 
Amity-street Church, 
Welch Church, 
Sixteenth-street Church, 
Berean Church. 
Cannon-street Church, 
Tabernacle Church, 
Bethe.sda Church, 
Norfolk-street Church, 
Laight-street Church, 
Bloomingdale Church, 
Seamen's Bethel. 
Fourth street Church, 
Eleventh-street (.'hurch, 
Harlaem Church, 
Salem Church, 
Bethel Particular Baptists, 
Church of the Disciples, 
Suffolk st. Christian Church, 
Bethel Church, 



13 



CHURCHES IN NEW-YORK. 



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CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



This town, the whole of which is now included within 
the corporation of the city of Brooklyn, lies upon the ex- 
treme western part of Long Island, opposite the southern 
portion of the city of New-York, and separated therefrom 
by the East river, which is here about three quarters of a 
mile in width. Its length from northeast to southwest is 
six, and its greatest breadth four miles. The population 
in 1810 was 4,402; in 1820, 7,175; in 1830, 15,396; in 
1840, 36,233; of whom 1,673 were employed in com- 
merce; 4,666 in manufactures and trades; 978 in navi- 
gating the ocean; 302 ditto rivers and canals; 307 in the 
learned professions and engineers,. It is the second place 
in population in the State, and the seventh in the United 
States. The pure air and delightful prospects of Brook- 
lyn render it a favourite place of residence to persons doing 
business in New-York, and it is nearer to the business cen- 
tres of the latter than residences in the upper part of the 
city ; and these things have contributed to give it a very 
rapid growth. The increase of population from 1830 to 
1840 was 20,837. Its present population is about 60,000. 

" The name conferred upon this town by the Dutch was 
Breucklen, (or broken land ;) and in the act for dividing 
the province into counties and towns, passed November 1, 
1685, it is called Breucklyn; nor does the present appella- 
tion appear to have been generally adopted until after the 
revolution. Many changes have doubtless taken place 
upon the shore, and it is believed that Governor's Island 
was formerly connected with Red Hook Point. It is well 
known, that a short period previous to the war of inde- 
pendence, cattle were driven across what is called Butter- 
milk Channel, now sufficiently deep to afford passage to 
vessels of the largest class. The first European settler in 
this town is supposed to have been George Jansen de 
Rapelje, at the Waalboght, or Waaloons Bay, during the 

__ 



150 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



Directorship of Peter Minuit, under the charter of the West 
India Company. In a family record in the possession of 
Jeremiah Johnson, Esq., it is stated that the first child of 
Rapelje was Sarah, born in 1625, unquestionably the first 
white child born upon Long Island. Watson says she 
was born on theOth of June, and honoured as the first-born 
child of the Dutch settlers; also that, in consideration of 
such distinciion, and of her widowhood, she was afterward 
presented with a tract of land at the Wallabout. In the 
journal of the Dutch Council in 1056, it is related that 
''the widow Hans Hansen, the first-born Christian 
daughter in New-Netherlands, burdened with seven 
children, petitions for a grant of a piece of meadow, in ad- 
dition to the twenty moigen granted to her at the Waale- 
Boght." A few of the other associates of De Rnpelje 
wereLeEscuyc-r, Duryee ; La Sillier. Cershow.Conscillacr, 
Musserol; these, with some changes in the mode of spell- 
ing, are still found among us. It appears by the Dutch 
records, that in 1634, a part of the land at Red Hook was 
the property of Wouter Van Twiller, being one of the 
oldest titles in the town. The earliest deed for land was 
from Governor Kieftto Abraham Rycken, in 1638. 

The city is regularly laid out, and the streets, with the 
exception of Fulton-street, the oldest in the city, are gene- 
rally straight, crossing each other at right angles, and are 
from 50 to 60 feet wide, and a number of them have great- 
er width. A. large number of the streets, including all 
within the thickly settled parts, are paved and lighted. Ma- 
ny of the streets are bordered with trees, giving the place 
a peculiarly rural aspect. Fulton-street, originally narrow 
in its lower portion, lias been amply widened, and is border- 
ed with ranges of lofty brick stores, and presents a com- 
manding entrance to the city. No city in the country, of 
its extent, is better built than Brooklyn, and many of its 
houses are distinguished for a chaste elegance, and some of 
them are splendid. Brooklyn, as laid out by the commis- 
sioners appointed by the State Legislature, is sufficiently 
large to become another London; and if the spirit of specu- 
lation could have been quiet, it is questionable whether it 
would not have been better to have left many of its origi- 



FORTIFICATIONS. 151 



nal farms for the present undisturbed. Many of the streets 
are not opened and regulated, though this has been done to 
quite as great an extent as the present necessities of the city 
require. The thickly settled parts have no public squares 
or open grounds; and, though some have been laid out 
within the city bounds, they are not in such locations as to 
add, at present, to its beauty or its comfort. Many of its 
principal avenues, however, have a commanding width, and 
its whole appearance is open and airy; and its great extent, 
and the many fine situations presented in its outer parts, 
will probably long prevent it from being uncomfortably 
crowded in the portions now most thickly settled. 

A city-hall was projected a number of years since, on a 
magnificent plan, to be built of white marble. A substan- 
tial and durable foundation was laid, and the basement sto- 
ry erected, at a great expense. But the location was unhappy, 
and the plan altogether beyond the present wants of the 
city. A new plan has been drawn, but nothing is yet de- 
termined on. 

Brooklyn was incorporated as a village in 1816, and as 
a city, with greatly extended limits, in 1834. It is divided 
into nine wards, and is governed by a mayor and a board 
of eighteen aldermen, two from each ward, all elected by 
the people. 

Brooklyn was first settled in 163G, but it did not choose 
regular magistrates until 174G, though some kind of 
authority was previously established. The first house for 
publie worship, which was a Dutch church, was erected in 
1666. Six years previous to this, the Rev. Henricus Sel- 
wyn had been installed in Brooklyn, with a salary of 600 
guilders, or $2-10, one half of which was paid by the in- 
habitants, and the other half by Fatherland, or Holland. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

There are some remains of fortifications which were 
thrown up by both armies during the revolutionary war, 
which may siill be traced on the hills in the back parts of 
Brooklyn. The principal of these is Fort Greene. This 
was originally a large fort. Many of the embankments 
were repaired during the war of 1812, and the whole may 



152 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 

still be distinctly traced. It is one of the most interesting 
spots in the vicinicy of New-York. 

OLD JERSEY PRISON SHIP. 

For a description of this, the reader is referred to pages 
13 — 15 of this volume. 

The place where this ship, and the other hospital ships 
were moored, was near the present Navy Yard. 

REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS' TOMB. 

Those who died on board the prison ships were gene- 
rally buried in the sand on the Long Island shore. In the 
year 1808 the bones of those who had died, and which 
were washed out from the bank where they had been slightly 
buried, and were bleaching in the sun, were collected and 
deposited in thirteen coffins, inscribed with the names of the 
thirteen original states, and placed in a vault beneath a 
suitable building, erected for the purpose, in Jackson-street, 
opposite to Front-street, near the Navy Yard. On the 
point of the roof of the building, which is a small, square 
edifice, is an American eagle. On a row of posts and rails 
in front of the tomb, are inscribed the names of the thirteen 
original states, and the tomb is surrounded by a fence. 
Over the entrance of the enclosure in which the building is 
situated is the following inscription: " Portal to the tomb 
of 11,500 patriot prisoners, who died in dungeons and 
prison ships, in and about the city of New-York during 
the revolution." An imposing ceremony took place when 
the bones were deposited; and 15,000 persons were sup- 
posed to have been present on the occasion. These re- 
mains deserve a removal to the Greenwood Cemetery, in a 
conspicuous place, and a national monument commemora- 
ting the important battle of Flatbush, the interesting locali- 
ties of which are in view from its more elevated portions. 

Connected with the ancient history of Brooklyn, and the 
scenes of the revolution, already sketched, it will not be 
inappropriate to give some account of 

THE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 

After the commencement of hostilities in 1776, New- 
York beins: situated near the centre of the colonial sea- 



BATTLE OF LONG- ISLAND. 153 

board, and consequently readily accessible from the sea, 
was selected by the British as the principal point for their 
future operations. With this view, the first division of their 
army arrived at Staten Island in the latter part of June 
that year, followed, about the middle of July, by the grand 
armament under Lord Howe, consisting of six ships of the 
line, thirty fngates y with smaller armed vessels, and a great 
number of transports, victuallers, and ships with ordnance 
stores. 

The Americans, anticipating the invasion of Long 
Island, had fortified Brooklyn before the arrival of the 
British at Staten Island. A line of intrenchment was 
formed from a ditch near the late tollhouse of the bridge at 
the Navy Yard to Fort Greene, and from thence to Freek's 
mill-pond. A strong work was erected on the lands of Jo- 
hannis Debe voice and Van Brunt; a redoubt was thrown 
upon Bcemus' C JL ill, opposite Brown's Mill, west of Fort 
Greene. Ponkicsberg, now Fort Swift, was fortified, and a 
fort built on Brooklyn Heights. Such were the defences 
of Brooklyn in 177t>, while chevauz de frise were sunk in 
the main channel of the river below New- York. It was 
not until the middle of August, that a first landing on Long 
Island was made by them, which was effected at New- 
Utrecht, or Bath. Here they were joined by many royalists, 
who, it was supposed, acted the part of guides and in- 
formers to the enemy. General Sir Henry Clinton also 
arrived about the same time, and Commodore Hotham soon 
after appeared with his escort; so that in a short time, the 
hostile army amounted to about twenty-four thousand men, 
consisting of English, Hessians and Waldeckers. Several 
regiments of Hessian infantry were expected to arrive 
shortly, when the army would be swelled to the number of 
thirty-five thousand, of the best troops of Europe, all 
abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition, and 
manifesting extreme ardor for the service of their king. 
Their plan of operations was, first to get possession of 
New-York, which was deemed of the most paramount im- 
portance. The American troops being divided, and their 
generals surprised and pressed on all sides, it was not 
doubted but the British arms would soon obtain a complete 
triumph. 



To resist this impending storm, Congress had ordered the 
construction of rafts, gun-boats, galleys and floating 
batteries, for the defence of the port of New-York, and the 
mouth of the Hudson. They had also decreed, that thir- 
teen thousand of the provincial militia should join the army 
of General Washington, who, being seasonably apprized 
of the danger of New-York, had made a movement into 
that quarter ; they also directed the organization of a corps 
of ten thousand men, to serve as a reserve in the central 
provinces. All the weakest posts had been carefully in- 
trenched, and furnished with artillery. A strong detach- 
ment occupied Long Island, to prevent the English from 
landing there, if possible, or to repulse them, should they 
effect a debarkation. But the army of Congress was very 
far from being able to bear the brunt of so terrible a war. 
It wanted arms, and was wasted by diseases. The reite- 
rated calls of the commmander-in-chief for reinforcements, 
had brought into his camp the militia of the neighbouring 
provinces, and some regular regiments from Maryland, 
Pennsylvania and New England, which had swelled his 
army to twenty-seven thousand men in number ; but one 
fourth of these troops were invalids, and scarcely another 
fourth of them were furnished with arms. 

The American army, such as it was, occupied the po- 
sitions that were best adapted to cover the menaced points. 
The corps which had been stationed on Long Island was 
commanded by General Sullivan. The main body of the 
army was encamped on the island of New-York, which 
it appeared was likely to receive the first attack of the 
English. 

Two feeble detachments guarded Governor's Island and 
the point of Paulus' Hook. The militia of the province, 
commanded by the American General Clinton, were posted 
upon the banks of the sound, where they occupied East and 
West Chester, and New-Rochelle; for it was to be feared 
that the enemy, landing in force upon the north shore of the 
sound, might penetrate as far as King's bridge, and thus en- 
tirely lock up all the American troops on the island of New- 
York. Lord Howe, the commander-in-chief of the British 
forces, made some overtures of peace, upon terms of sub- 



BATTLE OF LOS>G ISLAND. 155 

mission to the royal clemency, which resulting in nothing, 
decided him in making an attack on Long Island ; and on 
the 22d of August, the British troops landed, without oppo- 
sition, near Gravesend. 

A large part of the American army was at this time 
stationed on Brooklyn heights, under General Putnam. 
The right wing was covered by a marsh, near Gowanus 
cove, and having Governor's Island in the rear, he could 
in this way communicate with the army in .New-York, 
under Washington. 

The English having effected their landing, marched ra- 
pidly forward. The two armies were separated by a chain 
of hills, covered with woods, called the heights, which run- 
ning from west to east, divide the island, as it were, into 
two parts. They are only practicable upon three points; 
oneof which is near theNarrows, the second, the road lead- 
ing to the centre through the village of Flatbush, and the 
third is approached far to the right, by the village of Flat- 
lands. Upon the summit of the hills there is a road which 
continues along the whole length of the range, and leads 
from Bedford to Jamaica, which is intersected by the two 
roads last described : these ways are interrupted by preci- 
pices, and exceedingly difficult and narrow defiles. 

The American general, wishing to arrest the enemy in 
his progress, had carefully furnished the heights with troops, 
so that, if all had done their duty, the English would not 
have been able to force the passes without the greatest diffi- 
culty and danger. The posts were so frequent upon the 
road from Bedford to Jamaica, that it was easy to transmit 
the most prompt intelligence of what passed upon these 
three routes, from one point to another. Col. Miles, with 
his battalion, was appointed to guard the road to Flatlands, 
and scour it continually with his scouts, as well as the road 
to Jamaica, in order to reconnoitre the movements of the 
enemy. Meanwhile the British army pressed forward, its 
left wing being to the north, and its right to the south ; the 
village of Flatbush being in the centre. The Hessians, 
commanded by General de Heister, formed the main body; 
the English, under Major General Grant, the left; and other 
corps, conducted by General Clinton and the two Lords, 



156 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



Percy and Cornwallis, composed the right. In this wing 
the British generals placed their principal hope of success, 
and directed it upon Flatlands. Their plan was, that while 
the corps of General Grant and the Hessians of General 
Heister should distress and annoy the enemy upon the two 
first defiles, the left wing, taking a circuitous route, should 
march through Flatlands, and endeavour to seize the point 
of intersection of this road with that of Jamaica; and then, 
rapidly descending into the plain which extends at the foot 
of the heights upon the other side, should fall upon the 
Americans in flank and rear. The English hoped, as this 
point was the farthest from the centre of the army, the 
advanced guards would be found more feeble there, and per- 
haps more negligent; finally, they calculated that the Ameri- 
cans would not be able to defend it against so superior a 
force. The right wing of the English was the most nume- 
rous, and entirely composed of the best and most select 
troops. 

On the evening of the 26th of August, the British army 
took up their march in admirable silence and order, and, 
passing Col. Miles, who had relaxed in his duty, arrived two 
hours before day break within half a mile of the road lead- 
ing to Jamaica upon the heights. Here General Clinton halt- 
ed and prepared for the attack. General Sullivan had no 
advices of their movements, having neglected to send out 
scouts. 

General Clinton, learning that the road to Jamaica was 
not guarded, hastened to avail himself of the circumstance, 
and occupied it by a rapid movement. Without loss of 
time, he immediately bore on his left towards Bedford, and 
seized an important defile, which the American generals 
had left unguarded. From that moment the success of the 
day was decided in favour of the English. Lord Percy came 
up with his corps, and the entire column descended by the 
village of Bedford, from the heights, into the plain which 
lay between the hills and the camp of the Americans. Du- 
ring this time General Grant, in order to amuse the enemy, 
and direct his attention from the events which had taken 
place upon the route of Flatlands, endeavoured to disquiet 
him upon his right; accordingly, as if he intended to force 



BATTLE OF LONG-ISLAND. 157 

the defile which led to it, he put himself in motion about 
midnight, and attacked the militia oi New-York and Penn- 
sylvania, who guarded it. At first they gave ground ; but 
General Parsons being arrived, and having occupied an emi- 
nence, he renewed the combat, and maintained his position 
till Brigadier General Lord Sterling came to his assistance 
with about fifteen hundred men. The action now became 
general and extremely animated upon both sides, fortune 
favouring neither one or the other. The Hessians had at- 
tacked the centre at break of day; and the Americans, com- 
manded by General Sullivan in person, fought valiantly. 
At the same time the English ships, after making several 
movements, opened a brisk cannonade against a battery 
established at Red [look Point, upon the right flank of the 
Americans, who combatted against General Grant. This, 
also, was a diversion, the object of which was to prevent 
them from attending to what passed in the centre and on the 
left. The Americans, however, defended themselves with 
great bravery, ignorant, as they were, that so much valour 
was exerted in vain, as the victory was already in the 
hands of the enemy. General Clinton having descended 
into the plain, fell upon the left flank of the centre, which 
was engaged with the Hessians. He had also previous- 
ly detached a small corps in order to intercept the Ameri- 
cans. 

As soon as the appearance of the English light infantry 
apprized the Americans of their danger, they sounded the 
retreat, and retired in good order towards their camp, 
bringing ofT their artillery. But they fell in with a party of 
royal troops which had occupied the ground in their rear, 
who charged them with fury ; and they were compelled to 
throw themselves into the neighbouring woods, where they 
again met with the Hessians, who repulsed them back upon 
the English; thus the Americans were driven several times 
against one or the other with great loss. They continued 
for some time in this desperate situation, till at length se- 
veral regiments, animated by an heroic valour, forced their 
way through the midst of the enemy, and gained the camp 
of General Putnam ; others escaped through the woods. 
The inequality of the ground, the great number of posi- 



158 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



tions which it offered, and the disorder that prevailed 
throughout the line, were the cause for many hours of seve- 
ral partial combats taking place, in which numbers of the 
Americans fell. 

Their left wing and centre being discomfited, the Eng- 
lish, desirous of having a complete victory, made a rapid 
movement against the rear of the right wing, which being 
ignorant of the misfortune that had befallen the other corps, 
was engaged with Gen. Grant. Finally, having received 
the intelligence, they retired from so unequal a contest. 
But, again encountering the English, who had cut off their 
retreat, part of them took shelter in the woods, others 
endeavoured to make their way through the marshes of 
Gowanus's cove, but many , were drowned in the waters 
or perished in the mud ; a very small number only 
escaped the hot pursuit of the victors, and reached the 
camp in safety. 

The total loss of the Americans in this battle was esti- 
mated at more than three thousand men, in killed, wounded 
and prisoners. Among the latter was General Sullivan and 
Brigadier General Lord Stirling. Almost the entire regi- 
ment of Maryland, consisting of young men of the best 
families in that province, was cut to pieces. Six pieces of 
cannon fell into the hands of the victors. The loss of the 
English was very inconsiderable; it did not amount to four 
hundred men, in killed, wounded and prisoners. 

The enemy encamped in front of the American lines; 
and on the succeeding night broke ground within six hun- 
dred yards of a redoubt on the left, and having thrown up 
a breastwork on the Wallabout heights, upon the Debe- 
voice farm, commenced firing on Fort Putnam, and recon- 
noitred the American forces. 

The Americans were here prepared to receive them ; and 
orders were issued to the men to reserve their fire till they 
could see the eyes of the enemy. A few of the British 
officers reconnoitred the position; and one, on coming too 
near, was shot by William Van Cotts, of Bush wick. The 
same afternoon, Captain Rutgers, brother of the late Col. 
Rutgers, also fell. Several other British troops were killed, 
and the column which had incautiously advanced, fell back 
beyond the range of the American fire. 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 159 

In this critical state of the American army on Long 
Island, having a numerous and victorious enemy in front, 
with a formidable train of artillery, the fleet indicating an 
intention of forcing a passage up the East river, the troops 
lying without shelter from heavy rains, fatigued and dis- 
pirited, General Washington determined to withdraw the 
army from the island ; and this difficult movement was 
effected, not only with great skill and judgment, but with 
complete success. The retreat was to have commenced at 
eight o'clock in the evening of the 29th, but a strong north- 
east wind and a rapid tide caused a delay of several hours; 
a southwest wind, however, springing up r-.t eleven o'clock, 
greatly facilitated the passage of the army from the island 
to New- York city; and a thick fog hanging over Long 
Island towards morning, covered its movements from the 
enemy, who were so near, that the sound of their pick- 
axes and shovels were distinctly heard by the Americans. 
General Washington, as far as it was possible, inspected 
every thing himself, from the commencement of the action 
on the morning of the 27th, till all the troops had crossed 
the river in safety; he never closed his eyes, and was 
almost constantly on horseback. After the American army 
had evacuated Long Island, and the British troops and 
their allies, the tories and refugees, had taken possession 
of it, many distressing occurrences and heart-rending 
scenes of persecution took place. Those whigs who had 
been at all active in behalf of the cause of independence, 
were exiled from their homes, and their dwellings subjected 
to indiscriminate plunder. Such as could be taken, were 
incarcerated in the churches of New-Utrecht and Flat- 
lands; while royalists, wearing a red badge in their hats, 
were encouraged and protected. It is believed that had 
Lord Howe availed himself of the advantage he possessed, 
by passing his ships up the river between New- York and 
Brooklyn, he would have cut off their retreat, and the 
whole of the American army must have been captured. 
Washington saw this, and wisely abandoned the island. 
The unfortunate issue of the battle was altogether owing 
to the misconduct of Col. Miles and the unfortunate igno- 
rance of Gen. Putnam, who had just taken the command. 



160 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



Gen. Greene being sick, Putnam could give no order about 
the lines and positions, for he had not had time to under- 
stand them. 

NAVY YARD. 

This naval depot is situated on the south side of the 
Wallabout Bay, in the northeastern part of the city, and 
is well worthy the notice of strangers visiting Brooklyn. 
The government possess about forty acres of land, inclu- 
ding the site of the old mill-pond. There is a spacious 
yard, public store houses, machine shops, and two immense 
edifices, built of wood, in which ships of war of the largest 
class are protected from the weather while they are build- 
ing. On the opposite side of the bay the " Naval Hos- 
pital" which is a splendid and magnificent building, has 
been lately erected, and the site on which it is built is very 
beautiful and picturesque. 

" Unileil States Naval Lyceum" is also in the Navy 
Yard. This institution was organized by the officers of 
the Navy and Marine Corps, in order to promote the dif- 
fusion of useful knowledge, and to foster a spirit of har- 
mony, and a community of interest in the service. 

It contains a splendid collection of curiosities and sci- 
entific specimens. Its minerologieal and geological cabi- 
nets are not surpassed by any in New-York. A fine col- 
lection of Egyptian antiquities may be found here. The 
walls of the room are adorned by collections of fine paint- 
ings. Trophies of war, rare and curious weapons of war, 
and an extensive library, are among the objects of interest 
here collected. The whole forms a very interesting place 
of resort. 

Ships of war of all classes are always stationed at this 
yard, either undergoing repairs, being built, or laying up 
in ordinary. Several vessels of a large class are now, and 
have been for many years, on the stocks. Immense stores 
of lumber, cannon, ammunition, and other naval stores, are 
here in preparation for any emergency. 

LONG ISLAND RAIL-ROAD. 

The length of the road, from Brooklyn to Greenport, is 
96 miles. 




LONG ISLAND RAILROAD TUNNEL. 



BROOKLYN LYCEUM. 161 



The rail used in the construction is what is known as 
the heavy H rail, and weighs 56 pounds per lineal yard. 

The whole cost of construction of the rail-road, including 
the tunnel, was $1, 746. 000. 

The tunnel under Atlantic-street is 2,750 feet long, and 
cost $96,000. 

The termination of the Long Island Rail-Road is at the 
South Ferry, in Brooklyn, through Atlantic-street. The 
land being somewhat elevated, it became necessary either 
to cut down the street, or construct a tunnel. This last 
was done. The depth at the highest part of the street is 
about 30 feet. 

A line of cars start from this place to Boston daily, and 
accommodation trains for the intermediate places on the 
island, at several times in the day. 

Distance Fare 

Names of Places. from from 

Brooklyn. Brooklyn. 

Bedford, Si M. 12* 

East New- York, 5 " 12* 

Union Course, 7* " 18| 

Jamaica, 11 " 25 

Brushville, 14 " 37£ 

Hempstead Branch, 18 " 43f 

Carl Place, 20 " 43f 

Hicksville, 26 " 56* 

Farmingdale, 31 " 68| 

Deerpark, 37 " 87* 

Suffolk Station, 44 <! 1 12* 

Medford Station, 55 " 1 50 

St. George's Manor, 67 " 175 

Riverhead, 74 " 2 00 

Mattetuck, 84 " 2 00 

Southold, 91 " 2 12i 

Greenport, 95 " 2 25 

BROOKLYN LYCEUM. 

One of the principal public buildings in the city is the 
"Lyceum" which is a fine specimen of architecture, built of 
granite, and every way adapted to the purpose of its pro- 
jection. It is situated in Washington-street, near Concord. 



14* 



162 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



The institution was organized in October, 1833. The 
" City Library 11 has been lately established here, which 
contains a great number of valuable literary works, and is 
highly deserving of the general patronage and support of 
the citizens. 

THE SAVINGS BANK 

Is also located in the Lyceum building; an excellent insti- 
tution, managed by careful men, and in a prosperous con- 
dition. 

GREENWOOD CEMETERY. 

This rural depository for the dead attracts much attention 
at the present time, and therefore claims somewhat of an 
extended notice. 

These grounds comprise about 185 acres, and are more 
extensive than the grounds of any similar institution in 
this country. They are situated in Brooklyn, at Gowa- 
nus, on a high ridge of hills, commanding beautiful and 
extensive views of the bay and cities of New-York and 
Brooklyn, the Narrows, Jersey shore, and the Atlantic 
Ocean ; and are distant from the South Ferry, at Brooklyn, 
two and a half miles. 

Persons wishing to visit the Cemetery can take the stages 
which leave the Fulton Ferry, in Brooklyn, every hour 
during the day, and return by the same as often. — Fare 
12| cts. 

The charter authorizes the land belonging to the corpora- 
tion to be used exclusively for the burial of the dead; ex- 
empts the lands for ever from assessment and public taxes, 
and requires that the proceeds of all sales shall be applied 
to the improvement of the Cemetery. It also authorizes 
every proprietor of 300 square feet or more of land, to vote 
at any election of Trustees. Persons buying lots acquire 
the fee simple of the ground which they purchase. They 
control the government of the institution, and, by legis- 
lative acts, can never be forcibly deprived of the ground. 
The price of an ordinary burial lot is one hundred dollars. 
Four lots in a group may be bought for eighty dollars 
each. 

The beautiful grounds of Greenwood have already be- 
come the scene of much resort. They will be visited by in- 




MONUMENT 'ID IMC. Miitl,lh. GilKENH'OnD. 



GREENWOOD CEMETERY. 163 

creasing numbers, as they become more known, and espe- 
cially as the circle widens which connects by lies of mourn- 
ful interest its silent occupants with the living multitudes in 
the adjacent cities. To such they should present all that 
becomes a Christian Cemetery, situated in a wealthy neigh- 
bourhood, and commenced in an age of refinement and of 
art. In the variety and beauty of these grounds — so open 
and sunny in some parts — so shaded and secluded in others 
— so near to a vast city, yet so retired and still — nature has 
left us nothing to desire. Art has but just commenced its 
great work of improvement here. The work has been well 
begun. Several of the monuments and tombs are strictly 
original, and if not perfect, are pioneers to a better taste. 
From the happy and fertile inventions which produce these, 
as well as from other kindred sources, it is hoped we shall 
obtain many more of equal if not superior merit. The gate 
of the Cemetery is constructed of timber, in the rustic style, 
and presents a very picturesque appearance. There is 
also a chapel, constructed in the same style, with a bell, 
which tolls during the time of funerals. 

The circumference of one lot is 82 feet, or 12 by 25 
square. A receiving tomb is provided at the Cemetery, in 
which interments may be made by proprietors of lots, or 
those intending to become such. This tomb is situated in 
Willow Avenue. 

A receiving tomb is also provided in Brooklyn, for the 
convenience of those who may wish the funeral procession 
to terminate there. 

A receiving tomb is also provided in New-York, in the 
Carmine-street Cemetery, where temporary interments may 
be made, subject to the charge of three dollars for the use of 
the tomb, and one dollar each time for the opening of the 
same. The key of this tomb is in charge of Mr. John 
Mace, No. 75 Carmine-street. 

Graves. — Single graves may be procured in grounds ap- 
propriated for that purpose and enclosed by a hedge, at ten 
dollars each. Children's graves, under twelve years of age, 
at five dollars each. 

Rules concerning Visiters. — Visiters will obtain the best 
general view of the Cemetery, and reach the entrance again 



164 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 

without difficulty, by keeping the main Avenue, called The 
Tour, as indicated by the guide boards. A little fa- 
miliarity, however, with the grounds, will enable them to 
take the other avenues, many of which pass through 
grounds of peculiar interest and beauty. 

Each proprietor of a lot will be entitled to a ticket of ad- 
mission into the Cemetery with a vehicle, under the follow- 
ing regulations, the violation of which, or a loan of the 
ticket, involves a forfeiture of the privilege. 

No vehicle will be admitted unless accompanied by a pro- 
prietor, or a member of his or her household, or unless 
presenting a special ticket of admission. 

On Sundays and Holidays the gates will be closed. 
Proprietors of lots, however, will be admitted on foot. 

No person or party having refreshments will be permitted 
to come within the grounds, nor will any smoking be al- 
lowed. 

Children will not be admitted without their parents or 
guardians. Persons having dogs mustleavethem fastened 
at the gate. 

No horse may be left by the driver in the grounds, unfas- 
tened. 

All persons are prohibited from picking any flowers, 
either wild or cultivated, or breaking any tree, shrub or 
plant. 

Any person disturbing the quiet and good order of the 
place by noise or other improper conduct, will be compelled 
instantly to leave the grounds. 

The gates will be opened at sunrise, and closed (for 
entrance) at sunset. 

No money may be paid to the Porter. 

The Keeper of the grounds, appointed by the Mayor of 
Brooklyn a special Marshal, with a view to the preserva- 
tion of the grounds, is authorized and directed to remove 
all who violate these ordinances or commit trespasses. 
Trespassers are also liable to criminal prosecutions and a 
fine of Fifty Dollars. 

ATLANTIC DOCK. 

The company who are prosecuting this extensive work 
was incorporated in May, 1840, with a capital of 



UNION FERRY COMPANY. 165 



SI ,000,000. The shares are one hundred dollars each. 
It is situated on the water front of the Sixth Ward of 
Brooklyn, below the South Ferry, within " Red Hook 
Point," the outside pier extending 3,000 feet on " Buttermilk 
Channel." The basin within the piers will contain about 
forty-two acres, with a sufficient depth of water to ac- 
commodate the largest ships. On the piers there are to be 
built large warehouses, many of which are already 
erected. Some improvement of this kind was needed, by 
the crowded state of the docks around New-York city, and 
the difficulty of finding suitable berths to unload vessels 
with heavy cargoes. When this improvement is com- 
pleted, it will throw into the market more than five hundred 
valuable building lots, valuable, especially for stores and 
large warehouses, all of which are now below high water 
mark, but which must be filled in when the piers are built. 
A new ferry is projected from the north corner of the basin 
to the Battery in New-York. The whole work is im- 
mense, and is well worthy the attention of a stranger. 

BROOKLYN UNION FERRY COMPANY. 

The distance across the South Ferry, from Atlantic- 
street to Whitehall, New. York, is 1,472 yards. 

The distance across the Fulton Ferry, from Fulton- 
street, Brooklyn, to Fulton-street, New-York, is 731 
yards. 

The Union Ferry Company own eight boats, six of 
which are kept running. The average cost of each boat 
is about $30,000. 

Three boats are run on each ferry throughout the year. 

The hours of running at the South Ferry are from 4 
A. M. toll P. M. 

At the Fulton Ferry a boat is kept running all the time, 
with the exception of one hour at night, viz., from 2 to 3 
o'clock. 

The price of passage at both ferries is two cents for foot 
passengers; small children half price. 

The ferriage for a carriage and two horses is 25 cents, 
do. do. and one horse is 18| " 



166 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



The price of commutation for males over 21 is $10 per 
annum. 

For males under 21 is from $4 to $6. 

The price of commutation for females, $5. 

Commuters have the privilege of crossing both ferries. 

The whole number of persons employed at both ferries 
is about 100. 

The improvements at the ferry landings recently made 
have cost. $50,000 ; the buildings at all the four points be- 
ing substantial and convenient. 

The commutation at the two ferries for the year 1845 was 
$30,000. By articles of agreement, the dividend to stock, 
holders is limited to seven per cent, per annum ; the sur- 
plus profit to be applied to the improvements of the fer- 
ries and the extinguishment of the stock. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

Of these there are many, both for males and females, and 
many of them of a high order. Without instituting any 
invidious comparisons, the stranger will feel richly com- 
pensated by visiting two of them, the oldest it is believed 
of the whole, viz. : Mr. Putnam's school for boys, and Mr. 
Greenleaf's school for girls. Mr. Putnam has been teach- 
ing in Brooklyn for fifteen years, with an average of 40 
pupils a year. Some of the boys have been with him for 
several years, and he has thus had the instruction of about 
600 boys. The most thorough foundation is here laid for 
a complete English education. The school is in Henry- 
street, corner of Love-lane. 

Mr. Greenleaf's school has been in operation ten years, 
with an average of 10 pupils a year, comprising in the 
whole length of time250 individuals. Here is taught every 
branch of solid study comprised in a thorough female edu- 
cation. At least $20,000 is here invested in library, text- 
books, apparatus, &c. &c. This school is located in 
Pierrepont-street, corner of Clinton-street. 

BROOKLYN FEMALE ACADEMY. 

Such is the name of an institution projected, but not yet 
in operation. A very spacious building is in progress of 
erection on Joralemon-street, near Clinton. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 167 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The public schools are under the control and management 
of a Board of Education, composed of three representa- 
tives from each of the ten school districts, together with the 
county Superintendent and Mayor of the city, who are ex 
officio members. 

The representatives are appointed by the Common Coun- 
cil, (who are the commissioners of common schools,) and 
hold their office for three years, and are divided into three 
classes, one class being appointed annually on the first 
Monday in February. 

The Board of Education appoint from among their own 
body a President, Vice-President and Secretary, (the city 
Treasurer being ex officio Treasurer.) The present officers 
are Theo. Earnes, President ; Stephen Haynes, Vice-Presi- 
dent; and Alfred G. Stevens, Secretary. 

The number of children comprised within the ten dis- 
tricts, which includes the whole city, between the ages of 
five and sixteen, and upon which is based the apportion- 
ment of school money, is about twelve thousand white , and 
four hundred coloured. The number which attends the 
schools is about two thousand and jive hundred white, 
and one hundred and fifty coloured. 

The number of teachers and monitors engaged in the va- 
rious schools is about sixty, and the amount of compensa- 
tion annually paid for teaching amounts to about fourteen 
thousand dollars. 

The course of instruction embraces all the various 
branches of English education. Vocal music also forms a 
prominent feature of instruction, a competent teacher being 
engaged expressly for that purpose. 

In each district there is a valuable library, free not only 
to the scholars but also to every inhabitant, male and fe- 
male, in the district. The number of volumes in some ex- 
ceeds 2,500. 

The school houses in the inner or compact pai-t of the 
city are handsome brick buildings, three stories in height, 
costing about six thousand dollars each, exclusive of the 
ground. The others, in the outer sections, are substantial 
frame buildings. 



168 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 

ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

This institution has been in operation for about twelve 
years. Some eight or ten years ago a spacious brick edi- 
fice was erected near Myrtle Avenue. A large number of 
children are here provided for. It is patronized by all de- 
nominations. 

CITY BUILDINGS. 

The " City Buildings" are situated at the corner of 
Henry and Cranberry streets; there is nothing in the 
architecture of the exterior of them worthy of notice; they 
are used as courts and offices of the corporation lor the 
transaction of the public business of the city. 

The "King's County Courts" are held in the large build- 
ing called the " Exchange" situated at the corner of Cran- 
berry and Fulton streets ; it is a plain brick building, with- 
out any extraordinary architectural beauty. 

The " King's County Jail or Prison" is situated in 
Raymond-street, at the foot of Fort Greene ; it is a dark, 
heavy-looking, castellated gothic edifice, in front built of 
red sandstone, with gothic windows at each side, and a 
large yard at the back ; the site where it is located is not a 
very favourable one for the display of its architectural 
front; had it been erected on the summit of Fort Greene, it 
would have had a more commanding appearance, and have 
been a much more healthy location for the prisoners. 



CHUBCIIES IIV BROOKLYN. 

There are nearly forty church buildings in Brooklyn, 
and some of them elegant structures. Our limits allow us 
to describe only a few of them. 

CHURCH OF THE SAVIOUR, 

(first unitarian congregational,) 
Picrrepont-strcet, corner of Monroe Place. 
This church is built in the perpendicular gothic style, of 
red sandstone: the walls, which are rubble, from the quar- 




UNITARIAN CHURCH, 

Bro<" 



CHURCHES I.V BROOKLYN. ] 69 



nes at Nyack, N. J., and the ornamental portions, which 
are finely hammered, from those of Connecticut. The en- 
tire length of the building, exclusive of ihe front towers, 
winch project ci-ht feet, is eighty feet; and its width, ex- 
clusive of the buttresses on the corners, which project four 
feet, is sixty-five feet. The front central towers are about 
sixteen ftet at the base, and rise one hundred and eighteen 
feet, being terminated by pinnacles fully enriched. The 
corner towers rise sixty-five feet, terminated like the others. 
The walls are crowned by a battlement of hammered 
stone. The doors are deeply recessed; the central one 
opening fourteen feet high and ten feet wide, being recessed 
four feet six inches. Above this door are shields of ham- 
mered stone on the wail, bearing the name of the church 
and the date of its erection. Over these is the front win- 
dow, twelve feet wide and twenty-eight feet high; and 
windows of less size, but of like character and proportions, 
are above the side doors. Over the central window is a 
large stone cross in basso relievo on the wall. 

The approach to the church is by stone steps, through 
gothic gateways attached to a substantia! paling of wrought 
iron. The outer doors, of elaborate tracery, open into the 
vestibule, ten feet in width, extending across the entire 
church, with stairs to the basement, and galleries at either 
end. The nave is seventy-five feet long, opened through of 
equal width, thirty-five feet, to the great window in front ■ 
and on cither side the additional width of thirteen feei for 
the galleries. The roof of the nave is elegantly vaulted 
and groined, the extreme height beinir fifty-seven feet ; that 
ol the galleries is of the same style, the height bein^ thirty 
feet from the floor of the church. 

The entire cost of the building, land, furniture, organ 
and external items, may bs stated at about thirty-six thou- 
sand dollars. 

The church was consecrated on the 24th of April 1844 
and the present pastor, the Rev. Frederick A. Farley, was 
installed on the following day. 



15 



170 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 



CHRIST'S CHURCH, 

CUNTON-STREET. 

Erected in 1842. 

This is a gothic building of a reddish stone, about 100 
feet long and 60 feet wide. The height of the -walls is 
about 36 feet, and the extreme height of the tower about 
100 feet. The tower in front is about 24 feet square, having 
heavy buttresses on each corner, built to the top of the 
roof, and then becoming octagons to the top, ending in 
four large pinnacles. The main entrance is in the tower, 
and smaller doors on each side in the body of the church. 
There is a large gothic window over the main entrance. 
In the tower is a bell and clock. The body of the house 
is lighted by 15 windows, seven on each side and one in 
the rear, with buttresses between them, running to the 
eaves, and there terminating without pinnacles. In the 
rear of the building is a lecture room of one story, with 
a flat roof, showing above it the large pulpit window of 
ground glass, — all the other windows being stained glass. 
On the apex of the roof in the rear there is a short stone 
cross. The cost of the edifice was about $28,000. Rev. 
John S. Stone, D. D., is the present minister. 



FIRST REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, 

JORALEMON-STREET. 

Erected in 1834. 
This church is built of brick, stuccoed to represent clear 
white marble. The extreme length of the building is 111 
feet, and its width 66 feet, and was erected at a cost of 
about $26,000. It is a noble looking structure, and pre- 
sents probably one of the best specimens of a Grecian 
temple which can be found in this region. Viewing the 
building in front we are presented with a deep pediment, 
supported by eight Ionic massive fluted pillars, standing 



CHURCHES IN BROOKLYN. 



171 



on a platform raised about four feet from the ground, and 
two similar pillars within these, and nearer to the body 
of the house. A lighter pediment projects in the rear of 
the building, supported also by one row of pillars. The 
house is lighted on the sides only with eight long windows, 
four on a side, with square heads. The building is unor- 
namented, exhibiting a plain grandeur, well becoming the 
purpose for which it was erected. The interior is also 
plain. Instead of a close pulpit there is a table or reading 
desk, on a raised platform, with a sofa seat. In the rear 
of this is a fine perspective, representing a recess, with a 
profusion of pillars. It is well executed, and the illusion 
very perfect. Rev. M. W. Dwight, D. D., is the present 
pastor of the church. 



SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

FULTON-STREET, CORNER OF CLINTON. 

Erected in 1834. 

This is one of the largest and most commodious church 
edifices in Brooklyn. It is built of brick and stuccoed, and 
after the Grecian model, with six heavy Doric pillars sup- 
porting the pediment, standing on a platform raised six 
steps from the sidewalk. The front presents three large 
uniform doors. In each side of the building there are 
six tall windows with square tops, having flat pilasters 
between them. On the roof, back of the pediment, there is 
built a wooden turret about forty feet high, divided into 
three sections ; the first being square, the second an octa- 
gon, and the third round ; the upper section having several 
windows. This turret is not in very good keeping with 
the building, as an imitation of a Grecian temple, though 
the effect is not bad on the whole. The steeple contains a 
fine toned bell, altogether the best in the city. The interior 
of the house is plain. It contains about one hundred and 
forty pews on the lower floor, and has a deep gallery on 
three sides. The cost of the building was about $24,000. 
Rev. Ichabod S. Spencer, D. D., is the present minister. 



172 CITY OF BROOKLYN. 

CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMS, 

HENRV-STREET, CORN'E.1 OP REMSEN-STREET. 

Erected in 1845. 

The Church of the Pilgrims is a congregational body, 
formed after the pattern of the churches in New-England. 
The church edifice is a very singular one, and altogether 
different from any other in this region. It is a very large 
building, being in extreme length 135 feet, and its breadth 
80 feet. M he height of the walls is 38 feet. It is built of 
granite, hewn, but not hammered. The front of the 
edifice, on Henry-street, presents us with two towers, one 
at each corner; that on the north corner being small, not 
over twelve fret square, and being built to about the height 
of the. roof of the church, and there terminating in a small 
pointed wooden roof. The tower on the west corner is 
20 feet square, and built up of stone 100 feet from the 
ground, anil thence there ascends a gradually tapering 
spire 70 feet farther, where it terminates in a large gilded 
ball. There is one large door in front, between the 
towers, having over it a large window; and a profusion of 
small, narrow windows are scattered about in the towers. 
In the centre of the main tower, about six feet from the 
ground, a piece of the "forefather's rock," from Plymouth, 
Mass., is inserted in the wall, and projecting clearly in 
view. In each side of the house there are three large 
arched windows, that being the style in whieh all the 
windows are made. The lecture room is cut off from the 
rear of the building, and is a very large and commodious 
room. The rear of the building presents four short windows 
below, and one large one above, and a small circular win- 
dow in the gable, near the apex. The cosi. of the building 
is about $50,030. There is as yet no stated pastor. 



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NOTICE. 



The Publishers of this little volume have in preparation 
a History of the Churches of New. York, accompanied by 
engravings, which will render the work highly interesting 
to citizens and strangers, and particularly to members of 
the churches. 

The volume will contain about two hundred pages, uni- 
form in size and appearance with the " Picture of New- 
York ;" and will furnish particulars from authentic sources 
of every church in this city, prepared by ihe writer of the 
short notices of the churches contained in this volume. 

Engravings will be given from original designs of the 
following buildings, viz., First Presbyterian Church, Christ's 
Church, Second Unitarian Church, and various others of 
the Presbyterian, Catholic, Episcopal and other societies. 

The Publishers will be glad to receive, until the 1st of 
March, communications in reference to the date of erection, 
dimensions, cost and construction of the churches through, 
out the city. The tabular list of the churches in this vol- 
ume will be found curious and valuable by those who take 
much interest in the subject. The facts have been ascer- 
tained by diligent inquiry and personal application or ex- 
amination by the compiler. 



GYMNASIUM. 

No. 29 Ann-street, New-York. 

WILLIAM FULLER respectfully informs the Gentle- 
men of New-York and vicinity, that his Gymnasium is now 
open for the reception of pupils. W. F. respectfully calls 
the attention of the faculty, parents and guardians, towards 
this establishment, which he assures will be conducted in 
the strictest manner. Sparring taught as usual. 

W. F. has made arrangements with Mr. Hamilton, 
teacher of the American and French Broad Sword, also the 
Small Sword and Musket exercise. Terms moderate.