Skip to main content

Full text of "Picturesque Rhode Island. Pen and pencil sketches of the scenery and history of its cities, towns and hamlets, and of men who have made them famous"

See other formats




Rhode Island. 


Of the Scenery and History of its Cities, Towns and Ham- 
lets, AND of Men who have made them Famous. 


Providence : J. A. & R. A. Reid, Publishers. 


May 1913 








J. A. & R. A. KEID, Providence. 




"Decies repetita placebit." — Though ten times repeated, 
the story of the earHer and hiter days of the towns and cities of his 
native state will always be pleasing to every true-hearted American. 
Picturesque Rhode Island is not meant to be a history of the 
" State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations : " the extended 
and comprehensive work of Mr. Samuel G. Arnold, and the admir- 
able little volume of Professor Greene, render further labors in the 
Rhode Island historical field unnecessary at the present time. Its 
object is to give in concise and simple form a picturesque account 
of the origin and growth of the several towns of the State, and to 
note the prominent features they now present to the eyes of those 
who look upon them. To accomplish this object both pen and pencil 
have been employed. Brief sketches of the careers of men whose 
lives have been unusually noteworthy have been given, and many 
particulars, which, tliough interesting in themselves, would possibly 
be crowded by stern necessity from the chapters of a purely historical 
work, have found a place in its pages. 

As is almost always the case where a preface is written before all 
the pages that are to follow it have been placed in the hands of the 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

printer, it has become necessary to make a few additions to the " fore- 
words" put forth some four months ago, in the preceding paragraph. 
Before the first half of this book had been placed in type it had 
become plainly evident that if I adhered to the plan previously 
marked out it would be quite impossible to complete the work in time 
for its publication for the summer season. Unexpected events had 
made such an inroad upon my time that assistance became abso- 
lutely necessary. The pen of Mr. Robert Grieve, of Providence, 
was therefore placed at my disposal. To Mr. Grieve must be given 
most of the credit for the articles upon Pawtucket, North Providence 
and Lincoln, the two Smithfields, Johnston, Cranston, Scituate, Fos- 
ter, Coventry, Exeter, Hopkinton and Jamestown ; and for the notes 
upon the commerce and the manufactures of Providence and of War- 
wick. The sketches of Woonsocket, Burrillville, Glocester, East 
and West Greenwich, Westerly, Charlestown, Richmond and New 
Shoreham, and most of the historical portion of the article upon 
Providence are from the careful hand of Miss Ellen R. Luthery^f 


Bristol, R. I., June 15, iSSi. 

_ £ 


1 ' Vs 


- -'^^^^^^ 

1 'f-^'"^^- 


— =^ 












" CITY BY THE SEA," PaGES 23-52 







Pages 53-76 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 












— CAPT. Pierce's fight — the falls at various times 

sam patch samuel slater and the development 

of manufactures. north providence. lincoln, 

Pages 104 - 134 





THE forger's cave, Pages 135-157 









providence rocikr williams and " soul liberty'' man- 
ners and customs in early days old-time "con- 
veniences" for traveling roger williams park 

churches and educational institutions details re- 
specting the commerce the rise of manufactures, 

Pages 179-226 




















View of Newport from the Har- 

Gay Head Light, .... 

Brenton's Reef Lightship, . 

Landing of Gosnold, 1602, . 

Fort Adams, Newport, . . 

The Beach at Newport, . . 

Thames Street, Newport, 

The Casino, Newport, . . 

The Channing Memorial Church, 

Spouting Rock, Newport, . 

Lime Rocks, Newport . . 

The Drives, Newport, . . 

The Jewish Cemetery, Newport, 

The Old Coddington House, 

Ancient Days, Newport, . . 

A Newport Cottage, . . . 

The Lorillard Cottage, Newport 

Bird's-eye View of Newport, 

Redwood Library, " 

Trinity Church, " 

Perry Monument, " 

Forty Steps, " 

Land's End, 

Purgatory, " 

The Old Mill, 

TheTent on the Beach, Newport, 53 











Whitehall, Newport, .... 57 

Happy Valley, 59 

The Glen, 61 

A Glimpse of Bristol Ferry, . ^3^ 

Old Wind-mill, 65 

Mount Hope, 69 

Cold Spring Monument, Mount 

Hope, 71 

The Northmen's Rock, Mount 

Hope Bay, 73 

Residence of A. O. Bourn, 

Bristol, 76 

The Oldest house in Bristol, . 78 
Residence of Wm. T. C. Ward- 
well, Bristol, 80 

Bristol from the Harbor, ... 81 

St. Michael's Church, Bristol, . 82 
Chapel of St. Michael's Church, 

Bristol, 82 

High Street, Bristol, .... 83 
Residence of Mrs. R. D. Smith, 

Bristol 84 

The Rogers Free Library, Bris- 
tol, 85 

The Town Hall, Bristol, ... 86 
The Congregational Church, 

Bristol, 87 

The Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Bristol, 88 

List of Illustrations. 

Residence of Gen. A. E. Burn- 
side, Bristol, 89 

The Baptist Church, Bristol, . 90 
Residence of S. P. Colt, Esq., 

Bristol, 9' 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Warren, 9- 

Warren — From the Beacon, . 93 
A View of Main St.. Warren, . 95 
The Baptist Church, '' . 97 

Nayatt Point, 99 

The Old Watson House, Bar- 


Silver Spring 


Hunt's Mills, East Providence, 

Ocean Cottage, 

Pawtucket Falls, 1S81, . . . 
Universalist Church, Pawtucket, 
Pawtucket Falls, 1789, . . . 
Trinity Church, Pawtucket, . . 
A View in Main Street, Paw- 

Pawtucket from below Division 

Street Bridge, 

Music Hall, Pawtucket, . . . 
The Congregational Church, 
Pawtucket, ...... 

The River, from Exchange St. 
Bridge, Pawtucket, .... 

The Pumping Station, Pawtucket, 
First Baptist Church, " 
Old Slater Mill, Pawtucket, 
Glimpse of Lonsdale, .... 

Butterfly Factory, Lincoln, . . 
Baptist Church, Central Falls, . 
University Buildings, Prov,, 
Valley of the Abbott's Run, 
The Blackstone at Woonsocket, 
The Falls at Woonsocket, . . 
Main Street, Woonsocket, . . 
Harris Block, Woonsocket, . . 
High School, Woonsocket, . . 



1 1 





2 1 



Woonsocket from the Fast, . 

View of Greenwich, . . • 

Village of Slatersville, . . 

View of Pascoag, .... 

Providence from Smith's Hill, 

Lake Moswansicut, Scituate, 
, View on the Woonasquatucket, 

On the Pawtuxet, .... 

The State Prison, . . . 

Field's Point, .... 

Providence from Prospect Ter- 

Old City Building, Providence, 

The State House, " 

The New City Hall, " 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment, Providence, . . . 

Crystal Lake, Providence, . 

Exchange Place, Providence, 

Hoppin Homestead, " 

U. S. Custom House, " 

Butler Exchange, " 

The Athenxum, " 

New Court House, " 

The Arcade, 

Infantry Armory, " 

The High School, Providence, 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.' 
Buildings, Providence, 

Roger Williams Monument 
Providence, .... 

Park Garden Pavilion, Provi- 

Works of the Nicholson Fil 
Co., Providence, . . . 

The Betsey Williams House, 
Providence, .... 

The What Cheer Cottage, Provi- 

R. I. Hospital, Providence, 

The Butler Hospital, Providence, 198 

The Friends' School, " 198 

Narragansett Hotel, " 199 











Picturesque Rhode Island. 


Westminster Street, Providence, 200 
Hotel Dorrance, Providence, . 201 
Low's Opera House, " . 202 

The Cathedral, " . 205 

Grace Church, " .207 

Union Congregational Church, 

Providence, 211 

First Congregational Church, 

Providence, 215 

Beneficent Congreg'l Church, 

Providence, 217 

First Universalist Church, Provi- 
dence, 219 

First Baptist Church, Provi- 
dence, 221 

Chestnut St. M. E. Church, 

Providence, 223 

A View of Phenix, 229 

Rocky Point, 231 

Restaurant, Rocky Point, . . 233 
Flying Horses, Rocky Point, . 233 

Oakland Beach, 235 

Falls at Washington Village, . 237 
East Greenwich from the Water, 241 
Academy, East Greenwich, . .243 
Street View in East Greenwich, 245 
Episcopal Church, East Green- 
wich, 249 

Beach Pond, Exeter, . . . .251 


Hope Valley, Hopkinton, . . 255 
Broad Street, Westerly, . . . 257 

Westerly, 263 

Congregational Church, West- 
erly, 265 

Seventh-Day Baptist Church, 

Westerly, 271 

Dixon House, Westerly, . . . 273 
Watch Hill Light, . . . . • 273 
Indian Burying-ground, Charles- 
town, 274 

The Court House at Kingston, 277 
Congregational Church, Peace- 
dale, 279 

A Bit of Wickford, . . . .281 
Swamp Fort, South Kingstown, 285 
Hazard's Castle, Narragansett 

Pier, 287 

Hazard's Gate, Narragansett 

Pier, 289 

Bathing Scene, Narragansett 

Pier, 290 

Narragansett Pier, . . . .291 
Indian Rock, Narragansett Pier,. 292 

Fort Dumplings, 293 

Point Judith, 293 

Block Island Light, .... 295 
New Shoreham, Block Island, . 299 

Index to Advertisements, 

Aiiv. Drpl., Page. 

Allen Fire Department Supply Co., cor. Eddy 

and Friendship Prov. map, 2 

Allen R. \V., .'4 Market Sq.. S7 

American Enamel Co., 1 J XVarren S5 

Ames B. K., iia Westminster S3 

Ames Mrs. B. K., 104 Westminster Sj 

Ames Georjje H., 17 Mathcwson 7f> 

Ames John B., 29.5 Broad Prov. map, 4 

Andrews A. L., 142 Westminster 79 

Arnold A. E., 240 Westminster ^5 

Arnold, Bukcr & Miller, 254 it 256 Hig:h 71 

Arnold & McGowan, 6 Exchange Place §5 

Arnold Welcome, 213 High Si 

Arnold W. El., 12 Weybosset Prov. map, 4 

Atwater J. II., 26 & 2S Potter S9 

Austin John, 74 Clifford 54 

Babcoc'k E. & F. P., 225 Broad §2 

Bagley J. S., 179 Broad 40 

Baker II. R., 23 South Water S6 

Banigan P. T., 355 Westminster SS 

Barker Wni., 2S3 Westminster 7^ 

Baxter P. W., 41 Lippitt Prov. map, 4 

Bavliss lohn A., 80 Orange 79 

Beane liben J., iK) Westminster outside cover 

Blanding Win. B., 54 \- 5S Weybosset S 

Bliss Bros., 115 South Main Prov. map, 10 

Block N., 346 Westminster 82 

Blundell Henry & Co., 35 Clifford Prov. map 9 

Boland Frank P.. 116 Pine SS 

Bovce James, 202 Broad Prov. map, 2 

Bridge W. W., 363 Westminster 76 

Briggs C. S., 235 Washington 79 

BriggsN. C, 530 & 532 High So 

Brown E. A., 290 Westminster S5 

Brown J. A. & Co., 104 Eddy 50 &94 

Brown Reginald C, iSo Friendship Si 

Brown A: Sharpe Mfg. Co., Promenade 45 

Brownell A. C, 90 Westminster . . Prov. map, 2 

Bruce S. H., cor. Potter and Friendshi)) 7S 

Buckland E. L., 14O Westminster 76 

Rucklin J. C. A: J. A., 29 Weybosset 75 

Burt;ess A. & Son, 39 Weybosset 51 

Burlingame Geo. II., 172 ftroad Si 

Burt Walter L. , 224 Benefit 77 

Butcher Win., 3 Young Orchard ave., Prov. map, 3 

Butlerjohn, Canal ave So 

Cady Gieorge W., 164 Westminster 75 

Cahoone Alexander & Co., 129 Westminster. . . S3 

Calder Edwin A., 2S7 High Si 

Camm Mrs. Thomas W , 46 Westminster. . . . S3 

Capwell Rosrer F., HI Charles 79 

Cargill Charles, 495 iliah S6 

Carleton O A. A: Co., 129 & 131 Eddy Bay map 

Carpenter Clarence II., 270 Dyer 10 

Carpenter Earl & Sons, 2 Westminster 37 

Carpenter Frank F., 22 Branch ave S5 

Carpenter II. F., 29 & 31 Page 12 

Adv. Drpt., Page. 







Carpenter S. E.,^)5 Summer 

Carter H. E., 55 £ddy 

Central Hotel, 6 to 10 Canal 

Chambers, Calder & Co , 1 1 Exchange PI. .Bay 

Charnley J. A., 131 Dorrance 

Chase Stephen F., 2S9 Broad 

Church W. P., 260 Westminster. . . 

Clark Herbert E., 295 High 

Clark John L., ^4 As'hburton Prov. map, 

Collins T. F., 106 Hospital 

Colwell W. II., 65 Westminster 

Coombs II. M. &'Co., 37 Custom House 

Congdon, Carpenter & Co., Si Canal Bay 

Continental Steamboat Co , 136 & 13S Dyer 

Corliss Steam Engine Co., Charles 

Covinuton & Ilowland, 12 Market Sq 

Crandall Geo. E., 24 Dorrance 

Cranston II. C, 37 Weybosset 

Crowell A. & Co., i6i Eddy 

Crowell Edward R., 61 South Main 

Cruickshank I). B., 243 Dyer 

Cummings E. D. & Co., ijCi Dorrance 

Darling M. V. B.. ^i Elm 

Davenport G. S., loS Dorrance Prov. map. 

Davis George II., 297 Westminster. . 

Davis Lewis E., corner Orange and Pine 

Davis Perry & Son, 136 High . Prov. map 

Deming Morris B.. 76 and 78 Orange 

Dewing, Monsell & Co.. 24 Exchange Place, So 

Dodge'j . C. & Son, 450 South -Main '. 

Dorrance John R., 9 Wevbosset 

Douglass'G. C, 9 Calender 

Draper Geo. B., 01 Westminster 

Drown W. M., 2S3 Westminster, Room 3 

Dunham Josej)!! R.. rear 340 Friendship. 

Egan Thos. H., 194 Pine 

Easton Jas. J.. 2S3 Westminster 

Eatough John, 199 Washington 

Eddy Ijerbeit L.. 2S3 Westminster 

Eddy I. P., 255 High 

Eddv lohn HV.t Co., 5 & 7 Exchange 

Eddy X- Chapman, 375 High Prov. map, 

Edwards John II.. op]i. loO So. Water 

Elleman James. 9 Mathcwson 

Evans Henry R.. 99 Dorrance 

Fairbrother C. F., 21.^ So. -Main 

F'ales Ecwis L.. 157 Gaspee 

Fales T. I., 2 Planet, cor. So. Water 

Farren Bros. & Co., 4 High 

Feiin Chas., 42 Beacon 

Fenner Win. H & Co.. 129 & 131 Broad 

Ferguson Henry W.. 487 Pine Prov. map 

Ferrin Frank C.', 76 Wevbosset Bay 

Finley D. II., 1,1, k .55 Peck 

Fisher Orville. 33 Westminster 

Fisher Virgil, ij, Westminster 79 

F'letcher .ManuV. Co., 47 Charles 

Flint A: Co., Broad, cor. Eddy 


. 47 




. 3 

> 12 

» ^S 









■ 4 


& 91 



Picturesque Rhode Island. 

AJv. Dept., Page. 

Folsom J. A.,4S4 Broad 78 

Franklin Bros., 69 Dorrance Prov. map, 2 

Franklin Foundry & Mch. Co., Charles 11 

Franklin Mut. Fire Ins. Co., 12 So. Main 7 

Freeborn G. M. & Co., 30 So. Water 86 

French, Mackenzie & Co., 69 Friendship 51 

Gladding- B. H. &Co., 93 Westminster, Prov. map 7 

Glover David, 135 So. Main So 

Goerner Wm., 199 Westminster SS 

Goft' Ira N., 16S VVestminster 56 

Goff James C., 66 So. Water 79 

Gorton Dexter & Co., 27? Dyer So 

Gowdey J. A. & Son. 40 Clifford 87 

Grano^er F. and M. Co., cor. Gaspee and Francis, 6 

Grant J. W. & Co., 25 Calender S3 

Gray Joshua, 241 Westminster S4 

Greene Ray, 75 Washington SS 

Griswold F. W., 493 High 84 

Hall J. C. & Co., 62 Weybosset 87 

Hamiltons & Hunt, 226 Fddy 84 

Handy \\^m. W., 140 Broad Si 

Hanney James K., 295 Broad 40 

Harrington & Son, 176 Broad 84 

Harson M. J., 162 Westminster S3 

Hartwell, Richards & Co inside back cover 

Haselwood Geo. W., 283 Westminster, room 14 77 
Hastings J. Jr.,i Aborn, r. Music Hall, Prov. map 10 

Haughey John, Hill's wharf, foot of Henderson 79 

Hawes A." B., 88 Westminster 76 

Hawkins E. E. i& Co., 55 Dyer Si 

Hawksworth Mrs. 217 High 81 

Heintzeman C. C, 176 Broad 77 

Hemenway C. H. Jr., 12 Westminster 79 

Hemingway Mrs. S. E., 2S6 Westminster S3 

Henry J. W. & Co., 24 Calender 84 

Hogg Robert, 15S IJroadway Prov. map, 3 

Holmes D. & Co., 61 Eddy Prov. map, 4 

Hoppin Howard, 33 Westminster 75 

Hopkins, Pomroy & Co., 330 Eddy 14 

Horton Bros., S7 Westminster 74 

Howard & Scherrieble, 102 Orange 84 

Hubbard H. W., Si Westminster 77 

Hudson & Goft", 6 Cranston 87 

Hunt H. & Bro,, 103 Dorrance 86 

Hutchins Geo., 176 & 17S Westminster 59 

Irons Chas. F., 102 Friendship Bay map 

Japanese Ink Co., II Haymarket S3 

Johnson Oliver & Co., 19 Exchange, Prov. map, 11 

Jones Benj. F , 357 Westminster 86 

Jordan Julian, Butler Exchange 77 

Kelly Eben A... 2S3 Westminster, room 23 77 

Kennedy Jerome & Co inside front cover 

Kinnicutt & Brown, 134 Westminster, Prov. map 7 

Knowles Horace B., 99 No. Main Newport map 

Knowlton (?. H., 146 Westminster S3 

Latham Josepli A., 14 Westminster 75 

Law Chas., 13 Mathewson S7 

Leavens O. E. & Co., 58 Westminster, Prov. map S 

Leffingwell C. H., 332 Broad 77 

Lenahan M., 11 Waterman 87 

Leonhard John & Son, 374 High 86 

Lester David, 1 12 Dorrance 88 

Lewis George W., S Gilmore 86 

Lindseyjohn D., 1S2 Broad • 83 

Littlefield N. W., Butler Exchange 77 

Lobdell, C. P., 575 High 49 

Lovegrove W. E., 397 High SS 

Luke Horace, 14 & 16 Maple Prov. map, 4 

Magoon A. J. & Co.. 216 & 218 Broad .Bay map 

Mahler Daniel J., 331 Westminster 83 

Manchester & Hudson, 354 Eddy 55 

Manchester Jas B., 190 Eddy §7 

Manchester L. T., 347 Fountain So 

Manning Mrs. M. J., 630 Broad 82 

MarcyFred. I. &Co., 95 Pine Bay map 

Marshall Henry F., 254 Westminster 76 

Martin & Norris, 319 Fountain 85 

Mason, Chapin & Co.. 11 to 37 Canal 9 

Mason &Coppell, i^ Weybosset So 

Mason Norman N., 129 North Main Si 

Mason Volney W. & Co.. Lafayette S 

Mason William, Lafayette 81 

Mathews Jos. G., 23 Exchange Place 82 

Adv. Dept., Page. 

McKenzie John &:Co., 430 High. .. . 87 

McNaughton Walter, Greenwich, c. Congress. 82 

Mead W. B , 249 Westminster 76 

Merchants Savings Bank, 62 Westminster 7S 

Midwood Wm. H., 1 19 North Main 82 

Millard Charles E. & Co., 125 So. Main. S6 

Miller Chas. W., 20 Mill SS 

Miller Jos. A. & Co., 25 & 26 Butler Exch 77 

Miller W. H. & Co . 196 Eddy Prov. map, 3 

Morton H. Q^. 75 Westminster 96 

Mowrv Wm. G. R., 457 So. Main Bay map 

Muerrle A., 84 No. Main 83 

Mumford George A., 444 High 83 

Narragansett Card Co., II Richmond 79 

Narragansett Hotel, Broad. Dorrance and Eddy, 51 

New England File Co., loi Friendship §2 

Nichols C. E., 49 Bridgham 82 

Nicholson File Co., liS Acorn 46 

Nisbet John A., 150 Hope 82 

O'Donnell B.. 22 South 40 

Onslow & Spaulding, 5 P. O. court 87 

Osgood E.R., 246 High 88 

Paine J. B. & M., 193 Cranston. 79 

Paine Walter J . , 29 Weybosset 75 

Parsons Henry L.. 100 & 102 Dyer 15 

Pearce Chas., 78 Wickenden 87 

Pearce E. A. & Co., 293 Broad Prov. map, 3 

Peckham Geo. A., 19 Peck Prov. map, 3 

People's Savings Bank, i Market square 78 

Phenix Iron Foundry, cor. Elm & Eddy 4 

Phillips Eugene F.,67 Stewart 82 

Phillips F. J., 155 Charles, & 99 Main, Paw't. ... 81 

Pinkham D., 2S3 Westminster, room 20 83 

Pluminer Cornelius C, 64 TSo_, Main 77 

Pocasset Ice Co., 373 High.. . .rrrr-TT-TT S3 

jPoole C. H. & Co., Harris ave Prov. map, 4 

Prav J. C.. 86 So. Main 84 

Prior & McGuckian, 64 MatheXvson, Prov. map, 3 
Prov. Coal Co., successors to Tucker & Little, 

cor. Dorrance and Dver 43 

Prov. Dyeing, Bleaching & Cg. C-^.. 14 Sabin. . 82 

Prov. Inst, for Savings, 76 So. Main 78 

Prov. N. & B. S. S. Co., India St. outside b. cover 

Prov. Saw & Tool Works. 35 Calender 85 

Prov. Washington Ins. Co., 20 Market square. 57 

Prov. & Worcester R. R., Exchange Place 74 

Randall E. R., foot of South 85 

Read F. & Son, 257 Westminster 86 

ReidH. L 91 

Reid T. A. & R. A., 56 Wevbosset 94 

R. I. Braiding Mch. Co.. §9 Aborn 16 

R. I. Coupling Co., 32 Middle S2 

R. I. Hospital Trust Co.. 60 So. Main 78 

R. I. Horse Shoe Co., 31 Exchange Place 13 

R. I. Nickel Plating Works. 281/2 Potter 85 

Rice, Starkweather & Co. , 25 Exchange Place . . i 

Richards W. R., 107 Friendship. . 84 

Robinson A. J. & Co., 223 Westminster 84 

Root Henry T., 144 Westminster 41 

Rumford Chemical Works back of State map 

Russell Wm. Jr., 913, 915 & 921 Eddy 70 

Ruth Henry A., 3 Crawford S7 

Ryan & Sullivan, 36 Fountain So 

Sanger J. E., 199 Westminster 83 

Sawtelle F. J., 5 Custom House 75 

Seabury F. N. & F. W., 25 Union 76 

• Security Blind Fast. Co., 19 Calender 79 

ShackfordA., 105 Orange So 

Shafford F. C. & Co., 164 Eddy So 

Shedd & Sawyer, 65 Westminster 75 

Sheldon F. P., 91 Westminster 77 

Sheldon I. R. ic Co.. iii Summer 84 

Simmons E. R., 71 Pine SS 

Sisson Gilbert. 71 Clifford 79 

Small M. W. & E. P , 91 Westminster 76 

Smith A. D. 2d. 219 Eddy 79 

Smith Fred. J., 8 Spring, r. 290 High 88 

Smith T. & Bro., S3 Friendship 87 

Spencer Gideon, 269 Westminster 76 

Spencer H. C, 275 High 67 

Spicers & Peckham, 22 Exchange Place 3 

Stafford & Co., 27 Custom House 40 

Stanley A. W., 179 Washington 80 

Index to Advertisements. 


Aiiv. Dept., Page. 

Stickles George W., t; Otis, r. \y) Can;il So 

Slillman \V. B. M., 105 High ^ ^O 

Sterling J.J. . 47 Mallicwson b>J 

Stone I-.. ^fSo Kountain Ss 

Stowcll T.'li., 2$3 Wustminslcr 2, 

Stuart laincs D.. 279 Broad S6 

Sweet 1). D. & Co., i5Eaiiy 27 

Sweet Dr. Thomas. 1 27 Broad 77 

Sweet T. E..i44 High i>6 

Talhot Stephen L.. ii\ Westminster Si 

Tallv i: Slatterv, 2S1 Westminster SS 

Tavfor Chas. F'., s Custom House 41 

Teel Wm. H. & Son. 70 Eddv Bay map 

Terbriggen P. A., Butler Exchange Si 

Third Sat. Bank, I3 Market Sq 7S 

Thompson J. C, uyi Westminster 76 

Thompson W. B.,'.?SS High Bay map 

Thurber N. D., 13 Arsenal lane 79 

Tibbitts Ac Shaw. 2\ Westminster 49 

TiernevP. \- J.,Si High S7 

Tilling"hast VV. H.. 220 Westminster State map 

Tinglev E. W., 137 So. Main Prov. map, 2 

Tingley Geo. C, 21 So. Main 75 

Towne' A., 1 1 Havmarket S6 

Tove Wm. Jr., cor. James and So. Water 86 

Tn'pp John S. Jr. , 54 Westminster. . . Prov. map, 4 

Undervvood George B., 312 Fountain So 

Vose S. M., 337 Westminster Bay map 

Walton I.e., 19 Manton ave., Olneyville 76 

Webster" J. L., 271 Westminster S4 

Webster Walter M., 14 Snow SS 

Welch J. Harrv, iSS Westminster 83 

Westland Sat'e'tv Lamp Co., 52 Xo. Main. 73 

Whittakcr X. B., 30^ Westminster 76 

White Addison H.. 2 Market Sq. .. Newport map 

White Sewiuii Machines, 240 Westminster SS 

White Stillmitn, i Bark Prov. map, 2 

Whiteman H. W., 212 Westminster 75 

Wilcox C. F., 6 Exchange '>•, 

Willis Thomas. 94 Friendship S4 

Wilson Charles A., Butler Exchange 77 

Windsor E. G., P. \- W. K. R. depot, Xewport map 

Winsor E. & Co., i Eddy 5° & 94 

Winsor & Money, ^22 Dorrance ^i 

Wood & Sherida'n, 19 Washington 86 

Work Joshua H., 51 Dorrance SS 

Wright Chas., S Franklin S2 

Wright L., 159 Westminster 86 


Alderson jnlin, 210 Thames 32 

Alderson 'William, Washington Sq 36 

Allen lolin B., 6 Broadway .. 35 

Ambrose Dining Rooms, 57 Thames. Xewport map 

Aquidneck Hotel, Pelham ,30 

Bellevue Ave. Hotel, Bellevue ave. . .Xewjlort map 

Bosworth Smith & Co., Green Lane 36 

Bowler W. T., 3V. Brinley 36 

ISurdick A. L., 15S Spring Xewport map 

CasttotV H. M., corner Spring and Touro 37 

Caswell, Massev & Co., 167 Thames. .Xewport map 

Covell Wm. K..," Tr. 95 Thames 31 

Crocker Y.. A., Bellevue ave .35 

Crosby Thos., 12 Avrault Xewport map 

Denham D. C, 190'Thames Xewport map 

Denniston Geo.. 26 Kinsley's Wharf 37 

Dodge Wm . R . . Warner, opp. Xewport ave 36 

Downing B. F., Jr., \(i Broadway 37 

Fadden Fred W. & Co., Bellevue ave 36 

F"averweather Chas. V. D., 7 West Broadway. . 36 
Fludder Wm. & Co. , Bellevue ave. . . Xewport map 
Franklin R. & W., corner Spring and Mary.. . 31 

Frasch Chas. F"., 102 Thames 36 

Gould & Son, 70 Thames. Xewport map 

Gratrix Geo., iS Broadway 37 

Greene Fred W., 7214 Thames 32 

Herrmann Geo. O., 149 Thames 36 

Holm A. M., Long wharf.... 37 

Howard J. X. & Co., Bellevue ave.. .Xewport map 

Hull Geo. G., 4 Elm Xewport map 

Ince Madame, 26 Washington Sq 35 

Adv. Dept., Page. 

Johnston I. D., 192 Thames 37 

Lambert D. J., 10 Pelham 36 

Langley Wm. C, 104 Thames 33 

Langley iV Bennett, 10 Franklin 32 

Lawton George P., 19 Marlboro Xewport map 

Lawton W. H. H., 13 Long wharf 37 

Leddv John E., 7 Farewell 37 

Lee Bros., 179 Thames 30 

Lineham Geo. N., 21 West Broadway 37 

McAdam cV Openshaw, 6 Mill 35 

Murray Hirani, DeBlois ct., ft. State. .Xewport map 

Xewport Gas Light Co., 1 13 Thames 33 

Ocean House, Bellevue ave 34 

Old Colony R. R. Co 62 

Otto Edward, Cottrell Block 36 

Perry House, Washington Sq 33 

Porter Frank B. & Co., Bellevue ave 34 

Reynolds Gardiner B. & Co., opp. Post Office. 32 

Scott Bros., cor. Spring and Sherman 37 

Seabury John E., 138 Thames 35 

Seabury T. Mumford, 134 Thames. . .Xewport map 

Sherman Walter Xewport map 

SouihwickJ. M. K., 117 Thames 35 

Spencer George L, 43 Bridge 37 

Stoddard W. C, Washington Sq 36 

Swan John M., 100 Thames, .p. 31 & Prov. map, 10 

Swinburne, Peckham & Co., 145 Thames 31 

Thompson Xoah, Kinsley's wharf 37 

Tilley R. H., 12S Thames 36 

U. S. Hotel, Thames, cor. Pelham . . .Xewport map 

Weaver George A., 19 Broadway 34 

W'ilbur George V., Bellevue ave., n. Kay 34 

Wright Richard, 12 Ferry wharf 37 

Young & Potter, 42 Broadway 37 


Adams Chas. P.. 94 Main 23 

Arnold C. O., 92 Mill S9 

Arnold E. M., rear 56 East ave 89 

Barnefield Thos. P., Music Hall Building 90 

Benedict House, cor. Main and Broad 69 

Blake F\ X., rear 221 Main S9 

Bliss J. v., 42 Pleasant 90 

Bravman Wm. A., 48 Broadway 89 

Brown James S., 2S7 Main 20 

Chickering Chas. E., 13 No. Union 27 

Clark Daniel A., 5 Park place 21 

Clougli Chas. W., 17 Mill 27 

Cole Bros., Bailey 21 

Crocker J. & Son 2S 

Crowell A. W., 22 Cross, C. F 89 

Darling L. B. & Co., 142 Main 19 

Davis James & Son, 22 Pleasant 29 

Draper J. O. &Co., 75 F'ront 25 

Elliott & Hawkins, 61 Mill 89 

Falcs &Jenks Machine Co., 118 Dexter 17 

Fournier lames, Broad, C. F 90 

Gelinas JS Chapi)ell, 52 Pleasant 28 

Goodale 1. K., 132 Main 90 

Greene H. P., 147 Broadway 89 

Harrington Mrs. E. R., 90 "Hisrh 89 

Haskell Wm. H.&Co., 277 Main iS 

Hornby Jas. R., 5 Read 89 

Ledyard Miss Annie M., 203 :Main 89 

Linton Bros. & Co., Bailey 2^^ 

Lomas Geo. H., 5 Mill 2S 

Martin W. A., 49 Central, C. F 28 

Mason Geo. & Bros., 115 Pine 2i 

Mason Robert D. & Co., 75 East avenue 74 

Matthews & Allen, 20 & 31 Main 89 

McElroy Robert, 46 Central, C. F 90 

Millman A.T.,34^Mill,C. F 89 

MonkL.M.,2i High 28 

Nisbet James, 47 Prospect Newport map 

Payne Geo. W. & Co., 24 East ave 26 

Perry Oil Co., Exchange 24 

Pierce S. R. & Son, 90 Main 90 

Providence County Savings Bank 78 

Ritlmann Charles, 19 & 21 Broad 90 

Satrer H. H., ^Mill 9° 

Salisbury A. t'\, 65 Mill 28 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

AJz\ Dept., Page. 

Sibley & Lee, 29 Mill 22 

Smith Jos. Co., S2 Main 27 

Spencer J. L., Old Slater Mill 24 

Thayer P. E. & Co., 34 East ave 26 

AVarland Chas. A., 56 East ave 21 

WhiteJ. S.. 21 Dexter 24 

Woodbury Geo. E., 5 Mill 90 


Arnold Dr. Seth 3S & 39 

Baxter H., rear Fletcher's Building 90 

Lake & Earned 90 

LazelleH.C 9° 

Sibley A. C, 157 North Main 90 

Teston &Horton 67 

Thayer F. S. & Co., 171 Main 67 

Woonsocket Horse Nail Co 90 


Gallup J. C, 114 Hope 90 

Herreshoff Mfg. Co . . 90 

Wardwell W. T. C, foot of Bradford 90 


Blakeslee F. D Prov. map, 

Crompton S. F Prov. map, 

Lawton Geo. G. & Co., Main 

R. I. Pendulum ... 


Buttonwood Beach Hotel, S. D. Snink 

Oakland Beach Hotel, Elias Hotc'hkiss 

Rocky Point Hotel, Geo. Hackett.. .Prov. map, 
Wai-wick Neck House, B. S. Hazard. Prov. map, 


Ocean Viev? Hotel, Nicholas Ball 

Pequot House, Nicholas Ball 

Spring House, B. B. Mitchell, Jr 


Luther E. J., 21 Warren ave 

Wood Mason B., Valley, cor. Taunton ave. 


Spicer Geo. H 

Wells A. L. & Co. 


Adv. Dept., Page. 

Davies Henry 91 

Niles G. W.,'Odd Fellows' Building 91 


Atlantic House, Abijah Browning 63 

Atwood House, J. A. Tucker 66 

Billington W. H., Exchange PI 67 

Elmwood House, F.P.W. Teftt 65 

Massasoit House, N. G. Burr 63 

Metatoxet House, John H.Caswell 65 

Narragansett House, E. S. Taylor 65 

Narragansett PierR. R., G.T. Lanphear, Supt.. 64 

Revere House, J. H. Rodman 65 

Southern Hotel, Henry W. Greene 64 

Tucker J. C, Jr 64 


Blake & Maxson, Bridge Block 66 

Collins Albert B. ,48 Main 66 

Collins Cranston, Mechanic, cor. West Broad. .. 67 

Pollock \Vm., West Broad 66 

Schofield Brothers, 30 Main 66 

Segar S. B., Main 66 

Stillman A. A., 16 High 66 


Larkin House, D. F. Larkln & Co 6i 


Chase Isaac F ,. 91 


American House 9S 

Boston Type Foundry, 104 Milk 91 

Coffey W'i H., 129 Tremont Prov. map, 6 

Goodxvillie. Wvman & Co., 41 Federal " " i 

Ladd H. W., lbs Fulton " " i 

Nonotuck Silk Co., iS Summer " " 6 

Osgood J. H. & Co., 3 Bath " " 6 

Peters C. J. & Son, 73 Federal " " 6 

United States Hotel 93 

Whitcomb H. C. & Co., 22 Milk Prov. map, i 


Gouraud Mme. M. B. T., 48 Bond.. .Prov. map, i 



MAP OF THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAM), Between paijes 144 and 145 

MAP OF NARRAGAXSETT BAY, Between pages 272 .and 27.? 

MAP OF THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE, Between pages 20S and 2ix, 

MAP OF THE CITY OF .NEWPORT, Between pages 6+ and 65 














— ^% 




OCKED incessantly by the heaving billows of tiie 
Atlantic Ocean, at one time soothed by their gentle 
caresses, as the infant in its cradle is lulled to repose by 
the tender hand of its mother, at another tossed wildly 
L about by the raging tempests when the demons of the 
storm hold high carnival upon the ocean ; in summer a 
pleasant refuge from the scorching breezes that sweep 
over the land ; in winter a dreadful prison, whose thick 
walls of oak are often cased with thicker walls of ice ; 
always, in summer breezes and winter storms, alike 
hailed with delight by the homeward-bound mariner, 
rides the Brenton's Reef Lightship. 

Like the sea which it inhabits, the stout vessel upon 
whose seaworthiness the safety of so many lives de- 
pends, appears never to change. Just as it challenged the attention 
of the sailor when its home was first fixed near its dangerous reef, 
so it demands the notice of every one who sails through the entrance 
of Narragansett Bay to-day. As one wave sweeps onward and gives 
place to another while the ocean itself seems always the same, so 
lightship may have yielded to lightship, but the change has been un- 
noticed by the passing voyager. Almost unconsciously the mind 
of him who gazes upon it is carried backward to the earliest days of 
American history. As the sun goes down in the western sky and 
the evening shadows creep slowly over land and sea, visions of the 
ships that once sailed these waters come crowding before our eyes. 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Dimly seen through the shrouding mists of ahnost nine centuries, 
the ships of the Northmen come speeding onward. Strong arms, 
that have gathered strengtli from life-long contests with the ice-floes 
of the Arctic Ocean, send the long keels leaping Irom billow to bil- 
low as the sight of the strange shores inspires the breast of each 
sturdy oarsman. Wild and savage is the appearance of those fair- 
haired s-ailors. More brightly even than their terrible weapons, gleam 
the fierce eyes under their shaggy brows. No longer the Vikings 
sang of ''chanting mass with their lances:" they were Christians 
when they landed upon the shores of New England, but the soften- 
ing influence of Christianity had hardly begun to make itself felt 
among them. Other ships from Iceland and Greenland succeed the 
pioneer vessel of Leif Ericson. One of these bears within its ice- 
scarred walls a mother and her infant son. the first child of Euro- 
pean descent born upon the shores of the American continent. 
Snorri Thorfinnson was the name of the boy. Thorvaldsen, the 
t\imous sculptor, claimed him as his ancestor. As the last of the 

long keels from 
G r e^e n land are 
drawn up upon the 
shores of " Vinland 
the Good," their 
crews are telling' of 
the immense glaciers 
that are creeping- 
down upon their 
northern homes, and 
wondering why no 
\'essel for so many 
vears has reached 
their ice-bound col- 
ony from the shores 
of their Norwegian 
fatherland. The 
darkness of midnight settles down upon the ocean as the sails of 
that hardy race sink below the horizon. 

The bold hand of Sebastian Cabot, "The Great Seaman," of 
whom it has been said, " he gave England a continent — and no one 
know\s his burial-place," thrusts it aside. In 1498, with two ships 
and 300 men, Cabot sailed from Bristol, England, to search for the 
northwest passage to China and Japan. From Labrador to Mary- 

Gay Head Light. 

Till'; Early Vovagkrs. 


Bfnton's Reef Lightship. 

land he sailed along the coast, and then went back to England. lie 
had opened a new world to English enterprise, and almost regal 
lionors greeted his return. 

Next, a ship from the pleasant shores of France comes sailing 
into view. I'he Italian Verrazani, is her commander; he bears a 
commission from King Francis I. In the spring of 1524 Verrazani 
sailed alonfr the coast from North Carolina to Newfoundland. To 
the whole country he gave the name of New France. Of his voy- 
age, an account, which is generally received as authentic, may be 
found in llakliiyt's Voyao-cs. It contains the earliest full descrip- 
tion of the North American coast. For more than a fortnight the 
ship of Verrazani lay at anchor in the harbor of Newport, and every 
day the natives of the country, " the goodliest people " he had found 
in his voyage, repaired to see his ship. As we read his picturesque 
narrative their dusky forms seem to rise in bodily presence before us, 
so vividlv and perfectly does he describe them. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The bark of Bartholomew Gosnold follows in the wake of the 
French exploring ship. Friday, March 26, 1602, Captain Gosnold 
sailed from Falmouth, England. His vessel, the " Concord," carried 
thirty-two men, tw^enty of whom were intending to remain as settlers 
in the New World. Gosnold sighted land on Friday, May 14. The 
next day he anchored near a cape, in fifteen fathoms of water, and 
" took a great store of codfish." The name Cape Cod is due to that 
chance anchorage. Sailing by No Man's Land, then a " disinhab- 
ited island," and Gay Head, which he called " Dover Clift'," the 
Englishman landed upon the shores of Cuttyhunk. This island was 
also " altogether unpeopled and disinhabited." The name of Eliza- 
beth's Island was bestowed upon it. The colonists determined to 
make their abode and plantation upon a rocky islet in a pond of 
fresh water not far from the place where they had landed. The 
project was afterwards given up, but the fact remains that upon this 
island was founded the first English settlement in North America. 
In 1797 the " cellar of Gosnold's store-house" w^as easily found by a 

Landing of Gosnold, 1602. 

The Early Voyagers. 



company of antiquarians; in 1848 another company "examined the 
locality, described with minute exactness in the journals of Gosnold's 
voyage, and the outlines of their works were then distinctly visible." 
' Adrian Block, the Dutch navigator, who first of all Europeans 
sailed through Ilurlgatc, succeeds Gosnold. Sailing into Narra- 
gansett Bay he " commemorated the fiery aspect of the place, caused 
bv the red clay in some portions of its shores, by giving it the name 
oi" Roodt Eylandt, the Red Island. The names Rhode Island and 
Block Island still testify to his visit. 

The shadow V sails thicken upon the ocean. With their faces 
lighted with the stern joy that danger always gave them, the men of 
Plymouth and of Boston urge their little shallops over the boiling 
surges. The ships of Rhode Island come next. The expanding 
commerce of the little colony stretches out over all seas. Into the 
harbors of Newport and Bristol and Providence sail vessels from the 
West Indies, from the Spanish Main, from the ports of Northern and 
Southern Europe. From a greater distance still come some of these 
little craft. Thev are engaged in a hideous traflic. though the world 
did not then regard it as such. The dark-skinned forms that lie list- 
lessly about their decks have been torn from the wilds of their native 
Africa to serve as slaves in the country that called itself /"rrr America. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Peaceful merchantmen give place to black war-ships, and the thun- 
ders of a naval battle reverberate over the waters as the French and 
English fleets of D'Estaing and Howe engage in a contest which is 
terminated by the irresistible force of outraged Nature. Primitive 
steamboats succeed the sailing-vessels. At lirst they pick their way 
cautiously from point to point, but gradually plow fearlessly on- 
ward through the opposing waves. Waking at last from the dreams 
of the past to the wonderful realities of the present, we behold within 
the horizon's rim the ocean studded with sails so numerous that the 
eyes grow wearied as we attempt to count them. Almost every day, 
during the warm months, more vessels than the coasts of America saw 
during the first two centuries after the discovery of Columbus, pass 
within sight of the Brenton's Reef Lightship. 


The Beach at Newport, 



PON the shore of the beautilul island of Aquidneck, 
Nicholas Easton, William Brenton, and Thomas Haz- 
ard were standinu- one day in great perplexitv. It was 
in the Year of Our Lord 1639. A few weeks before, 
tliey had chosen a site for the town they proposed to 
build. The great forest trees that shot upward from its 
hillsides had been felled, but a low, swampy ground, 
covered with a dense growth of underbrush, had been 
reached, which seemed to render additional labor futile. 
The tremendous waves rolling in upon Eai^ton's Beach 
had shown them it was useless to hope for a safe anchor- 
Reluctantly the}' had turned away, and had decided to 
place their dwellings upon the spot where the citv of Newport now 
stands. Nature again appeared to def\' their feeble powers. An 
Indian canoe approached the spot where the three men were stand- 
ing. One of the \vhite men addressed its occupants and asked them 
'• How much they would take to clear tliat swam]-*."' After a short 
consultation one of thr Indians rejilicd. "If \()u will gi\e me \'our 
coat, the pale-faces shall have the land made clear." The coat was 
given. The warrior cut from it its large brass buttons, and put them 
upon a string. Then he tied tlie co\eted ornament around his neck, 
and went to summon his companions to assist him in I'ullilling his 



Picturesque Rhode Island. 

agreement. The Indians shortly afterwards set fire to the under- 
brush, and thus, without any difficulty, disposed of one great 
obstacle that had hindered the work of the colonists. By the united 
efforts of the Indians and Englishmen the swamp was cleared of 
timber, filled in with gravel and sand, and made sufficiently firm for 
building lots. 

The founders and first officers of the little settlement were : Wil- 
liam Coddington, Judge ; Nicholas Easton, John Coggeshall, William 
Brenton, John Clarke, Jeremy Gierke, Thomas Hazard, and Henry 
Bull, Elders ; William Dyre, Clerk. All these men had once been 
prominent citizens of the Massachusetts Ba}' Colon}-. Having es- 
poused the weaker side in the famous Hutchinson controversy, they, 
with nine others, had been first disarmed and afterwards forced to 
leave Massachusetts by their triumphant opponents. After examin- 
ing various lands that had been offered them for settlement, they de- 
termined to make their new home in Delaware. Wiljh this end in 
view the colonists had sent their household goods hf ship around 
Cape Cod, intending themselves to go overland and take the vessel 
at Providence. After they had reached Providence the representa- 
tions of Roger Williams and his influence with the Indian owners of 

the island in- 
duced them to 
change their 
plans, and to 
take up their 
abode upon 
Aquidneck. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 
24th of March, 
1638, they began 
a settlement at 
Pocasset, now 
called Ports- 
mouth, upon the 
northern end of 
the island. So 
rapidly did the 
colony increase, 
that in the follow- Street, Newport. . ^'''i? yCar it WaS 


fhe Casino, tNev.poit. 

<leci(led to Ibund the new town upon the southwestern part ol the 
island, whose bc<rinnin,i( has just been traced. 

On the first day of May. 1639. they landed near the site of New- 
port : on the i6th the town was laid out and named. Four acres 
were assigned for each house-lot, and six acres were granted to Mr. 
Coddington for an orchard. (This was the second orchard planted 
in the State. William Blackstone had planted the first in 1635.) 
The first street marked out was Thames Street. It was about a mile 
in length, and was laid out "according to the convenience of the 
shore," as the quaint phrase of the olden time puts it. Almost all 
of the dwelling-houses were placed upon the east side of the street. 
It was hardly supposed that buildings would ever be placed upon the 
west side, except in a few unusually favorable locations. No room 
was therefore left for the purpose. But in course of time the neces- 
sities of commerce called for the erection of stores and warehouses, 
the owners of the adjoining land encroached more and more upon 
the highway, and the narrow street which now so surprises the visi- 
tor, is the result. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

As the traveler 
lands to-day upon 
the wharves of New- 
port, it is almost im- 
possible for him to 
realize that he has 
reached the most 
lamoiis summer re- 
sort upon the West- 
ern Continent. In- 
stead of the beauti- 
tul residences he 
had expected to see 
— those palatial 
structures, rich with 
all the treasures 
wealth and taste can 
gather together, 
which have made 
the Newport '' Cot- 
tage" so famous 
throughout Amer- 
ica, — his eye rests 
onl}' upon old and 
weather-worn build- 
ings, standing like 
monuments to commemorate the spot where once a world-wide com- 
merce found its home. He hardly needs to be told in his guide-book 
that Newport was once, with the exception of Boston, the most 
flourishing commercial town in America. Every old building seems 
to speak in pathetic accents of that dead past. It requires only a 
slight effort of the imagination to make these old wharves groan 
once more beneath the load of rich freight, and to crowd these old 
warehouses again, almost to bursting, with the varied merchandise 
Irom lands that lie far be3'ond the swelling seas. The eighteenth 
century was the period of Newport's commercial importance. Dur- 
ing the fifty years that preceded the American Revolution it reached 
the zenith of its maritime prosperity. When the Revolutionary War 
broke out its population was over 11,000. In the town were seven- 
teen manufactories of sperm oil and candles, five rope-walks, three 


The Channing Memorial Church, Newport. 



sugar relineries, one lircwcry. and tw L-ntx-two distilleries for the 
manufacture of rum. In its foreign counnerce upwards of two hun- 
dred ships were employed ; its domestic trade called for the services 
of nearly four hundred coasting vessels. Tn the two months of June 
and July, i774? sixty-lbur vessels from foreign voyages were entered 
at the Newport Custom House. In the same time one hundred and 
thirty-two coastwise vessels, and seventeen engaged in the whale- 
fishery, were also entered. A regular line of packets kept up com- 
munication A\ ith London. At this time at least three thousand sea- 
men thronged the streets of the port, or found employment upon the 
ships Avhich lined its docks. In many cases goods could not be 
stored for lack of room. 

though the coasters would -^— _ _^^ ^ — ^_ — ^ 

take the foreign freight if 
directly from the wharx'es y 
to the less important j^orts T^^^j^rf^ 
which depended upon New - 
])ort for their supplies. As 
many as eighteen Indiamen 
are recorded to have ar- 
rived in one day. It was 
about this time that a far- 
seeing writer in the New- 
port jl/rrr/iry, after con- 
gratulating New York upon 
its healthy growth, ventured 
to predict that the home of 
the Knickerbockers might 
one day, in the far-distant 
future, " rival Newport in 
commercial prosperitv and 
greatness." The British 
fleet which anchored in its 
harbor in 1775, gave the 
death-blow to its commercial supremacy. '* Its manufactories were 
soon closed, its ships, one by one, fell into the hands of the enemy, 
and its patriotic population, impoverished and despairing, were forced 
to flee for safety to the inland towns. From the efTects of ' the British 
occupation ' Newport never recovered. Not until 1850 did it again 
number as many inhabitants as in 1775 ; its lost ships have never 
been replaced."' 

Spouting Rock. 

28 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The oldest wharf in the city is Long Wharf. This has lately 
been more than doubled in size by the " filling-in " of the shallows 
near it. There, in the very earliest days, the nine founders of 
the town and those who joined fortunes with them, used to land. 
*' Queen-hithe, " the wharf was then called, and on the earlier 

Lime Rocks. 

maps this name always appears. Hithe or Hythe means a small 
harbor; the termination is found in many English names. Many a 
strange scene has this old wharf beheld. Thither, in 1729, rushed 
the Rev. Mr. Honeyman, prayer-book in hand, to welcome a " great 
dignitary of the Church of England, called the Dean." Mr. Honey- 
man was holding a service in Trinity Church when the letter from 
Dean Berkeley was handed to him. He read it aloud, and then, 
accompanied by all his flock, ran down to the wharf to greet the 
distinguished stranger. There, during the wars with France, that 
began in 1744 and in 1756, were landed the freights the swift-sailing 
privateers had plundered Irom the Spanish Main. In the year i745 
more than twenty prizes were sent into Newport, and from 175^ t^"* 
1763 almost fifty private armed vessels of war sailed out from the 
port. Along the old wharf Washington and Rochambeau walked 
bare-headed between lines of enthusiastic soldiers, when, in March, 
1781, the American Commander-in-Chief came to confer with his 
French allies. Washington wore that day the insignia of a Marshal 
of France. The office had been bestowed upon him when the 
French troops were sent to aid the struggling Americans. Without 
the honor he could not have commanded the French army. Once 
it was used as a market-place. Upon the side of the patient crea- 
ture that was waiting to be slaughtered, each hungry purchaser 
marked with a piece of chalk the cut he desired to have from the 
fresh carcass. A refinement of cruelty the practice seems, as we 
look back upon it. How hideous would have been the thoughts of 
the victim, could it have understood the speech of those who sur- 
rounded it. 



Upon the southern side of the Long Wharf of to-day is a row 
of boat-builders' shops, carefully placed to catch the brightest rays 
of the winter's sun. Various other buildings also encumber its sur- 
face. The intricate by-ways among them recall the days when ves- 
sels of doubtful antecedents lay at anchor in the outer harbor, and 
the swarthy ruffians who manned them lurked about the wharves to 
meet the cautious purchasers of their ill-gotten merchandise. Men- 
tion of pirates is frequently made in the colonial records of Rhode 
Island. In 1723 two sloops, which had been committing extensive 
piracies in the West Indies, and robbing the vessels that plied along 


The Drives. 

the coast of the Southern Colonies, sailed northward in search of 
more profitable cruising-grounds. Near the coast of Long Island 
they made several valuable captures, and at last attacked what they 
supposed was a rich merchant ship. It proved to be His Britannic 
Majesty's sloop-of-war "Greyhound," of twenty guns. The pirate 
vessels were not long in finding out their mistake. One of them suc- 
ceeded in making its escape ; the other was not so fortunate. After 
a desperate struggle it was captured, and llu* ihirty-si.x men who 
formed its crew were taken into Newport to be tried. Their trial 
lasted two days, and resulted in the conviction of twenty-six of the 
number. Thev were straightway sentenced to be hung. The ex- 
ecution took place July 19, on Gravelly Point (called also Bull's 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Point). The bodies were buried on the Goat Island shore, between 
high and low-water mark. It was a great event for Newport. Peo- 
ple flocked into the town from all the surroundino- country to see the 
wonderful sight. One of the more aisthetic spirits among the pirates 
composed a poem for the occasion, and almost all of them took ad- 
vantage of the unequaled opportunity which was afforded them to 
address the spectators in most edifying terms. 

North of the Long Wharf light row-boats pass to-day over sub- 
merged capstones. The merry oarsmen little think of the tales of 
departed commerce those immense masses of granite tell. Through 
those great iron rings, that are sometimes seen in the depths of the 
clear waters, were passed the detaining cables of many a stout ship ; 
and where the tide each day sweeps onward without obstruction, the 
products of many lands once lay piled in rich profusion. At qne 
___ time this was the busiest portion 

The Jewish Cemetery. 

of the busy port. The Revolution- 
ary' War caused this part of the 
harbor to be deserted. The feeble 
commerce that was revived after 
peace came chose other wharves 
for its home. The old piers had 
survived their usefulness, and 
when the great gale of 1815 
burst in fury upon the town, the 
swelling seas of that terrible Sep- 
tember day found nothing here 
to oppose them. Exultingly they 
seized the opportunit}'^ to satiate 
their vengeance upon the solid walls that had so long withstood the 
ocean's power. Along the abandoned wharves scarcely one stone 
was left upon another when the wind went down. 

Upon some of the smaller wharves, to the southward, the battered 
warehouses of past generations are ^-et standing. A grisly tale is 
told of one of them. Instead of the stout wooden shutters which 
now close its windows, rows of iron bars once shocked the gaze, 
and the dark faces of those to whom libert}' had forever ceased to 
be anything more than a name, looked despairingly through them. 
The building was used for a slave-pen many, manyj'ears ago, before 
the consciences of Englishmen had been awakened to a sense of the 
sinfulness of the traffic in human ffesh. In the second story of some 


The Old Coddington House. 

of these warehouses 
\vere the countini;- 
rooms of the Jews, 
whose enterprise did 
so much to enliance 
the e o 111 111 ere i a 1 
jirosperitx ol thi' 
town. The name 
of Aaron Lopez is 
connected with one. 
J^opez is said at one 
time to have own- 
ed eiffht\' vessels. 
Many of these were 
^\ hivlers : twenty- 
seven were stjuare- 
i-i(roed. All were of 
li<Xht tonnage ; a 

ship of three hundred tons was considered an enormous vessel in 
those days. 

The first Jews came to Newport during- the last quarter ol the 
se\-enteenth centur\-. ^Jlie deed of their burial-place is dated in 1677. 
T'heN- were of Dutch extraction, and came from Cura(;oa. Alter the 
Lisbon earthquake of 1755, many of their Portuguese countrymen 
came to settle with them. There were more than sixty families of 
the Hebrew faith in the town in 1763. Many of these Portuguese 
Jews became naturalized citizens. The privilege of naturalization 
was sometimes denied them, though it is difficult to conjecture why tlu- 
distinction was made. Thus, in 1761 " Lucena the Portuguese " was 
naturalized bv the General Assembly, and in the following year the 
petition of Aaron Lopez for the same privilege w^as rejected. The 
case of Lopez was peculiar in every respect. When the Court re- 
jected his petition, a svnagoguc, the only one in America, had been 
commenced. It was dedicated in the follow ing year, and the Hebrew 
faith was here most amply protected, while in every other colony 
it was denounced. 

The Jew s brought many new branches of industry into the town. 
Thus, Jacob Rodriguez Riveira introduced the manufacture of .sperma- 
ceti, of which Newport enjoyed the monopoly before the Revolution ; 
and Moses Lopez obtained from the Colonial Assembly a patent for 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Ancient Days." 

an improved method 
of making potash. 
In 1774 there were 
three hundred Jew- 
ish families in New- 
port. All of them 
left the place very 
soon after the war 
began, and very few 
ever came back. 
Joseph Lopez was 
the onl}^ one of the 
race who resumed 
business in the 

ruined town. Not one of the descendants of those princely merchants 
now remains in the island metropolis. 

" Closed are the portals of their synagogue, 

No Psalms of David now their silence break, 
No Rabbi reads the ancient Decalogue 
In the grand dialect the Prophets spake. 

Gone are the living, but the dead remain, 

And not neglected ; for a hand unseen, 
Scattering its bounty like a summer rain, 

still keeps their graves and their remembrance green." 

Isaac Touro, the priest, fled to Jamaica when the British troops 
took possession of the town. His son Abraham, who died in Boston 
in 1822, left a fund of $10,000 for the support of the synagogue and 
cemetery, and $5,000 to keep in repair the street on which they front 
— Touro Street. Another son, Judah Touro, born in Newport in 
1775, was a philanthropist, and a staunch patriot also. When a 
young man he removed to New Orleans, and there acquired a large 
fortune. He served as a volunteer at the battle of New Orleans, and 
was wounded by a cannon-ball in the hip. In 1842 he erected the 
granite entrance and the railing around the cemetery, at a cost of 
$11,000. Though a Jew, he contributed generously to many Chris- 
tian church enterprises. Towards the erection of the Bunker Hill 
Monument he gave $10,000. 

A story told of Abraham Riveira illustrates the sterling worth of 
those Hebrew merchants. At one time, losses upon the sea had so 


crippled his resources that hv was ohHgecl to make an assi«(nment ot" 
his propert\-. Rccoirniziiii;- his honesty and his great abihty, his 
English creditors oflered him \ erv easv terms ol' settlement, and pro- 
vided him with mone\' and goods with which to resume business. 
Success once more smiled upon liim. .Vlter a tew prosperous years 
he gave a great dinner-part\ . to which he invited all ot his old 
creditt)rs wlio could possibK hv reached, iieside his jilate, e\ery one 

I t Cottage 

of his guests Ibund a check ibr the amount that was originally due 
him, with interest added from the date of the failure. 

The names of many of the founders of Newport are heard upon 
its streets to-dav. The family of Coddington has become extinct. 
William Coddington, the lirst governor, was born in England. He 
was a man (jf considerable influence, and of large landed property in 
his native countrv, and was named an Assistant in the Massachusetts 
Colony before he left England. In the records of the early days of 
Boston he is often spoken of as one of its j-)rincipal citizens, and is 
said to have built the fn-st brick house in that town. lie became 
perhaps the largest land-holder upon Rhode Island, and was probably 
the wealthiest of the Newport settlers. All things went well with 
him until his ambition led him to procure for himself greater official 
station than his own qualili cations or the wishes of his associates 
seemed to w arrant. Then he fell from his high estate, and never 
recovered his lost influence. At present a shadow rests upon his 
name, and Rhode Island historical authorities by no means agree as 
to the place he should hold in the records of the State. The. story 
goes that his last male descendant in his early years inherited an 
ample estate. This he gradually w asted away in reckless dissipation, 


34 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

until at length nothing was left to him but the ancestral shield which 
bore the arms of his lamily. Through all his reverses this degenerate 
scion of a noble race maintained the lofty bearing of a high-toned 
gentleman. One day, when his well-worn suit of clothes had for a 
long time been shining with the unwelcome gloss of age, he was 
offered a new suit in exchange for the old escutcheon. With the 
greatest indignation he repulsed the offer. " What,*' said he. " sell 
the coat-of-arms of a Coddington ! " The ancient relic hangs to-dav 
in the City Hall, for the old roue ended his days in the poor-house, 
and the cit}* inherited this last remnant of his patrimonial estate. 

Upon the Brenton family, Fate has smiled more kindlv. William 
Brenton, the surveyor, was the first of the race in America. Coming 
to this country in 1634, he brought Avith him a commission from King 
Charles I., which allowed him a certain number of acres per mile on 
all lands he should survey in the New England Colonies. The tract 
he chose for his home in Newport comprised very nearly two thousand 
acres of the best land in the Colony. Brenton's Point, at the extrem- 
ity of which Fort Adams now stands, formed a part of it. Upon this 
farm was built the edifice commonly called "• The Four Chimney 
House," said to be the largest house in the colonies at the time of its • 
erection. It was one hundred and fifty feet square. Through it ex- 
tended a hall that was sixteen feet wide. Upon its roof, which was 
surrounded by a railing, seats were built and a promenade was con- 
structed. The grounds surrounding it were laid out in the most 
artistic manner, and were kept in a high state of cultivation. The 
fruit trees in the orchards were mostlv imported from England. 
Among theni were found many varieties never before cultivated in 
this countr}'. It is said that the " vellow russet" apple was first 
grown upon the Brenton grounds. A wall of granite, five feet in 
height, surrounded the estate, which was named Hammersmith, from 
its owner's English birth-place. 

In 1660 Mr. Brenton was chosen President of the Rhode Island 
Colon}', and thus happened to be its chief officer when the family of 
the Stuarts was placed again upon the English throne. The Court of 
Commissioners for the Colonv was sitting at Warwick when the news 
of the Restoration was received. President Brenton, as a loyal sub- 
ject of King Charles II., immediately appointed a day of thanksgiv- 
ing and rejoicing, to be observed throughout the Colony. He also 
directed that processions in each town should commemorate the 
event, and that a holidaA' should be given to servants and children. 



The Lorillard Cottage. 

Tradition savs that a Ioiil;- jirocossion passed through the streets ol 
Newport on the night of the celebration. The thronging people car- 
ried lanterns with which to illumine the darkness, and kettle-drums, 
hand-bells, and tit'es 
for the more perfect 
manifestation o t 
their joy. Upon a ^- 
platform was carried 
a person dressed to 
represent the late 
Lord Protector. Be- 
hind him stood one 
who was supposed 
to personate Ilis 
Satanic Majesty. 
One of the hands 
of the ruler of the 

lower world was placed upon CromwelFs head, while the other 
brandished a spear in air. From time to time the procession halted 
to listen to the repetition of these lines : 

" OKI Cromwell — man '. your tiim.- is come. 
We tell it here with life and drum : 
And Satan's hand is on your head. 
He's come for you before you 're dead, 
And on his spear he '11 throw you in 
The very worst place that ever was seen. 
For good King Charles is on his throne. 
And Parliament now you '11 let alone." 

This practice of marching through the streets on the anniversary 
of the Restoration was maintained for many years. At last it became 
simply a nuisance, and as such was suppressed by the town author- 

Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton and Captain Edward Pelham Bren- 
ton, both of the Bridsh navy, and Sir I^renton Halliburton, long the 
Chief Jusdce of Nova Scotia, were all descended from William 
Brenton, and were all born in Newport. 

WiUiam Brenton's son, Jahleel, was about twenty-one years of 
age when King Philip's War broke out. When the news of the 
destruction of Providence by the Indians was received in Newport, 
he quickly manned a schooner and hastenetl to the relii-f of llu- home- 

36 Picturesque Rhode Island, 

less fugitives. Jahleel Brenton, after serving as His Majesty's Col- 
lector of Customs in Boston, for some years, came back to end his days 
in Newport. He was for a time Collector of Customs for Newport 
also, and thus became very prominently identified with the commercial 
history of the port. In 1720, he built the famous Channing House, 
which is still standing upon Thames Street. 

Says the novelist Cooper, in the Red Rover: ••Enjo^•ing the 
four great requisites of a safe and commodious haven, — a placid 
basin, an outer harbor, and a convenient roadstead with a clear 
offing, — Newport appeared to the eyes of our European ancestors 
designed to shelter fleets and to nurse a race of hardy and expert 
seamen."' During the collectorship of Brenton, and from that time 
forward until the Revolution, Newport seemed in a fair wav to realize 
that splendid commercial future of \\ hich its people dreamed. 

The name which stands forth most prominenth'. as we peruse the 
records of those golden days, is that of Wanton. Four of the family 
— William, John, Gideon, and Joseph — were at difl^erent times elected 
governor of the Colony ; another, Joseph. Jr., held for two vears the 
office of deputy-governor. The Wantons were shipwrights when 
they took up their abode upon Aquidneck. Edward Wanton, first 
of the name in America, was an officer of the y-uard at Boston when 
Mary Dyer (wife of the first secretary of Newport) suffered death 
because guilty of the unpardonable crime of being a Quaker. The 
unshaken firmness with which she submitted to her fate moved Wan- 
ton p;reatlv. "Alas! Mother!" said he, as he went into his house 
after the execution, ''We have been murdering the Lord's people;'' 
and, taking off his sword, he made a solemn vow never to wear it 
again. Not long afterward he became a member of the societv of 
Friends, and, moving to Scituate, Mass., established a shipyard in 
that town. Like their father, the sons were also members of the 
society of Friends, but the spirit sometimes moved them to deeds 
their quiet sire bv no means approved. For resenting an insult to 
their father they were forced to flee from Scituate. This is the 
story of one of their exploits after they had taken up their abode 
upon Rhode Island. It \von them fame not only throughout the 
length and breadth of the American Colonies, but in England as well. 
"A piratical ship, of three hundred tons, mounting twenty cannon, 
appeared ofl' the harbor of Newport, cruising between Block Island 
and Point Judith, interrupting everv vessel that attempted to pass, 
capturing property, and treating the officers and crews with great 

Xia\i'()K-r. 37 

severity. To renioNt.' an annoNanee so injurious to the comfort and 
prosperity ot' the inhabitants of .W-wport, two Nouni; infii. WilHani 
and John Wanton, sons of the lirst Edward, determined to attempt 
her capture, and the means the\- resorted to were as novel as the suc- 
cess was glorious. No sooner had thc\ made known their intention 
than they were joined by about thirt\- \()un<*- men ot' their acquaint- 
ance, and a sloop ot' thirty tons was en^-a<(ed lor the enterprise. The 
bra\e lellows went on hoard with onl\ their small-arms to defend 
themsebes. and sailed out of the harbor, apparenlh' on a little coast- 
ing excursion. e\ery jierson beini;- concealed below except the few- 
required to naxigate the \-essel. After cruisini;- a few dax's the\' 
espied the object of their search. As the\ dn-w near the piratical 
vessel, with the intention, apparentlv, to pass, the pirate tired a shot 
at them. This was what they desired, in order to <»-i\e them an 
opportunity to approach the pirate. The sloop immediatelx lowered 
the peak of her mainsail and lutl'ed uj") lor the iiirati-. but instead of 
going alongside thev came directh" under her stern. Iler men at 
once sprang upon deck, and, with irons prepared for tlu' purpose, 
grappled their sloop to the ship and wedged lier iHiddei- to the stern- 
post so as to render it unmanageable. Haxing so far succeeded in 
their purpose without alarming the piratical crew, or leading them to 
suppose the}' were approached by an\ thing but a littk- coaster, each 
man seized his musket, and taking deliberate aim, shot e\ery pirate 
as he appeared on deck. After making great etlbrts to disengage 
themseh'es, and finding it impossible so to do, the rest sun-endered, 
and were taken into the harbor of Newport b\ tlu-ir bra\ i- and gallanl 
captors, and turned o\'er to the authorities, where, alter a trial, they 
suffered the penaltv of their crimes b\' being hanged. When this 
affair took place W^illiam Wanton was but twent\-four, and John 
twent\'-t\vo vears of a<;e."' Man^• like stories miii'ht be told con- 
cerning these brothers. They were fit leaders for the acbenture- 
loving voung men who thronged the streets of New jiort. In 1702 
the\' went to London, and were receixed at court with other heroes 
who had contributed to swell the renown of the English na\y. 
Qi_ieen Anne granted them an addition to their coat-of-arms, and 
presented them each with two jiieces ol jilate. .\ complimentarx 
inscription (in Latin, of course.) adorneil each silver \essel. 

William Wanton did not long remain a (^laker. W^hen he was 
twent\-one \ears old he married Kulh. llu' lu-autitul daughter of 
Deacon John Hrxant. of Scituate. Then- was much ojijiosition to 

Xi:\\ I'ORi-. 39 

the match rnmi both ihcir faniihcs. Deacon Hrxant was a riijid 
Presbyterian. He detested Quakers. The Wanton taniilv, on the 
other hand, frowned whenever the idea of a Presb\terian daughter- 
in-huv was brought forward. Tlie eager lover quickly cut the 
Gordian knot. •' Ruth." said hv to the maiden one day, as they 
were standing in the spacious '• sitting-r(K)m "' of her father's house. 
" let us break from this unreasonable bondage, /will give up ///v 
religion, and ///o// shalt thine : we will both go to tiie Ciiurch of 
England and to the de\il together." A happ\- marriage it pro\ cd 
to be. 

Joseph Wanton was the last of his race to hold the otHce of gov- 
ernor. The Revolution terminated his j")olitical life. lie was a Tory, 
and his large estates were therefore confiscated and sold. But though 
he was thus despoiled of his property, he never lost the respect of his 
fellow-townsmen. During the British occupation he remained in 
Ne\vport, living ver}' quietlv and unostentatiousl\'. After the de- 
parture of the troops he was not molested by the patriot party, but 
continued to reside until his death in the town of which, for almost a 
centur\', his ancestors had been the most conspicuous citizens. 

Another famous merchant of that early time was Godfrey Malbone. 
When a mere lad he ran awav to sea. and was not heard from for 
many a year. About the beginning of the last century he settled in 
Newport, and soon became the most noted of all its merchant princes. 
Dark and full of mvsterv are some of the tales that are told concern- 
ing him. His \entures upon the sea seem to ha\ e been unusually 
lawless, even for that lawless age. and the fair fame of the city in 
which he dwelt suffered in consequence. During tiie French war. 
which began in 1744, Newport sent forth more than a score of pri- 
vateers. The Frenchmen called the town a " nursery of corsairs," and 
planned its capture. " Perhaps we had better burn it as a pernicious 
hole, from the number of privateers there fitted out, as dangrroiis in 
■peace as in n'ar," wrote one officer to his superior in rank. Smuggling, 
Malbone of course indulged in. It was hardly deemed discreditable 
to anv one. — not at all to be censured if he who engaged in it hap- 
pened to be a man of wealth. Persons now living have seen upon 
the estate Malbone once owned, the entrance to an underground jias- 
sage which afforded easv communication with the beach, and thus 
enabled him to elude the vii^ilance of the custom-house officers. It is 
said that his *■ corsairs " jirexed upon both Spaniard and Frenchman 
with an impartial disregard for treaties : and it is a well-established 

40 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

lact that large sums of money were recovered from him in England, 
by legal process, for the spoliations he systematically practiced upon 
the Dutch. In 1745 two of his privateers, large and beautiful ves- 
sels, fresh from the stocks, sailed out of the harbor on the day before 
Christmas, bound for the Spanish Main. A violent snow-storm came 
up, and the gale soon changed to a hurricane. Newport had two 
hundred widows in consequence, lor the ships were never heard of 

The hospitality of Malbone was proverbial. Sometimes tempered 
with shrewdness it was, withal. Thus, the gossips affirm that after a 
successful voyage he was accustomed always to* invite his buccaneer- 
ing crews to a splendid feast in his princelv banquet-hall. At the 
close of the repast, when the fun was waxing fierce and furious, the 
shipping-books were produced, and his impulsive guests were easily 
induced to enroll themselves for new ventures. 

The building of the famous country-house of Godfrey Malbone 
was commenced in 1744. It was without doubt the finest mansion in 
the colonies when it was completed. It was built of stone brought 
from a Connecticut quarry (some of this stone was used in the con- 
struction of the house which now occupies its site), was two stones 
high, and had in the centre a circular staircase, leading to the cupola 
upon its roof. This staircase was esteemed an architectural marvel, 
and is reputed to have cost much more than an ordinar\' house. In 
the construction of the edifice $100,000 was expended : an enormous 
sum for the days when one might li\'e in elegant style for $500 a 
year. One day, in the vear 1766, the owner of the mansion — 
Co/oncl ISl'dlbont^t he was then — had bidden a select company of the 
eliU' of Aquidneck to a more than usually magnificent feast. More 
costly than even his lavish hospitality had designed, it proved to 
be. Just as the slaves were placing the viands upon the table, the 
house caught fire, and the flames spread so rapidh' that all attempts 
to save it were in vain. It was earlv summer, and with one of those 
great oaths that rolled so easilv from his lips, the owner swore that 
though his house was undoubtedlv lost, his dinner should not be. B3' 
his orders the tables were spread once more upon the lawn, the rare 
old wines were brought forth from the cellar, and so, by the light of 
the burning dwelling, the feast was finished. One ^'ersion of the 
storv ascribes the loss of the house to the fastidious pride of Mrs. 
Malbone. That elegant lady refused to allow the rude tread of 
plebeian feet to soil her beautiful drawing-rooms, even for the pur- 

Xi;\\ I'oK'i' 


Redwood Lioiai 

pose of savin*;- tlu- mansion IrDni lirstruction. 'I'lu- ii,ult which st-p- 
arated the two chisses ofsociotx- was mucli broader and dci-pcr in the 
old colonial davs of Newport, than that which the more enlii;htenetl 
judgment of a later a<i^e deems necessary for the welfare ot mankind. 

The most jirominenl of 
the contemjioraries ol Mal- 
bone was Abraham Ked- 
wood. Radically ditferent 
\vere the characters and li\es 
of the two men. Redwood 
Avas a Qiiaker, a nati\e ot' 
the island of Antigua. lie 
was born the heir to an im- 
mense estate, and w as edu- 
cated at Philadelphia in the 
enjovment of all the advan- 
tages that unlimited wealth 
could command. Very early 

hi life he became a resident of Newport. l-'or almost sexenty years 
(he died March 8, 1788). his stately presence graced the streets ot 
the town. "He lived in a style of opulence becoming his fortune, 
mixed with the elegant simplicity of a Qiuiker. His town house and 
countrx- house were appointed with every ri-tined luxury, and his 
munificence not only made his name famous by donations to public 
institutions, but inspired a hundred private charities which made it 
blessed." The famous "Literary Club." wliicli nunilnTed among its 
members such men as Callender, Ellery, Ward, 1 loneyman, Checkley, 
Updike and Johnson, flourished with wondrous vigor in those days. 
That genial societv of scholars did much to maki- Dean Herkeley (ot 
whom more will be said in another chapter) such an ardent lover ol 
the town. The gentle English scholar, charmed with the unusual 
attainments and pleasant converse of his companions, — all tin- mon- 
delightful to him because entirely unlooked tor. — is said to have 
suggested the formation of a permanent literary society which should 
perpetuate these happy features of Acpiidneck lite. 

The Redwood Library is the result of that suggt-slion. although 
the •' Librarv Company" was not tormed until several years alter 
Berkeley had gone back to England. In 1747 the society was incor- 
porated. Toward the purchase of the books that were most nei-ded, 
Abraham Reilwood contributed 1'500. Stimulated by this rt-ady 'j^>.'nc- 


rosity, his fellow-townsmen experienced but little difficulty in raising- 
£5,000 for the erection of the building to which they gratefully gave 
his name. A more beautitlil and more enduring monument than the 
chaste, Doric structure, it would be difficult to hnd. Henry Collins, 
"•the Lorenzo de Medici of Rhode Island," presented to the society 
the lot of land upon which the edifice was erected. Peter Harrison 
was the architect employed. In this age of cheap books and free 
libraries, it is almost impossible for us to realize how much the Red- 
wood Library has done for Newport. When it was founded books 
were a rare luxury in America. The acquisition of learning was re- 
garded as the happy priyilege of the few, and not the inherent birth- 
right of the many. There were then only four colleges in the colonies. 
All of these were poorly endowed, and the eager aspirants for knowl- 
edge were for the most part obliged to seek it in the lands beyond the 
sea. To this little temple, with its precious store of books, flocked 
not only thoughtful students of limited means, but polished, scholarly 
gentlemen also, from all parts of the country. Thus the town quickly 
acquired the enyiable distinction which it enjoyed in the days that pre- 
ceded the Revolution -^ of being the most congenial abode for learned 
opulence which could be found in America. The ruthless hands of 
the British invaders despoiled the Library of the greater portion of its 
treasures, and in those dreary, hopeless years that followed the war, 
it seemed hardly possible that its lost fortunes could ever be repaired. 
Of those years, one of Newport's most eminent sons, who was then 
in his quiet, studious boyhood, William Ellery Channing, afterward 
wrote : "• The edifice was then so deserted that I spent day after day, 
and sometimes week alter week, amidst its dusty volumes, without 
interruption from a single visitor." Gradually the wounds the war 
had inflicted were healed, but it was not until late in the present cen- 
tury that a healthy life w\as infused again into the languid veins of 
the historic society. Then such generous contributions of money, 
books, and works of art were poured in from all quarters, that the 
old building was no longer able to accommodate its ever-increasing 
treasures, and in 1875 its enlargement became an imperadve necessity. 
The most prominent benefactor of the Library in these later days 
was Charles Bird King. At his death he bequeathed to it real estate 
amounting in value to $9,000, his valuable librar3% his carefully 
selected engravings, and more than two hundred of the paintings 
which now adorn its walls. The jealous restrictions which once kept 
the general public awa}' from its carefull\'-guarded precincts have 



been (jradually rcnioNcd. and tlu- Library has bi-coiiu- a popular and 
much frequented reading-room. 

Peter Harrison was the assistant architect of lilenheim House — 
that magnilicent residence which grateful England erected at a cost 


.500.000. as a s 


token of its esteem for the 
Duke of Marlborough. He 
was for many years a resi- 
dent of Newport, and the 
Redwood Library is not the 
only evidence of his skill 
which the city possesses. 
The ancient State House, 
from the balcony of whicii 
the election of the governor 
of the " State of Rhode Isl- 
and and Providence Planta- 
tions" is annually proclaimed 
with a pomp that saxors of 
the dusty flavor of colonial 
days, was designed b}' him. 
From the steps of this old 
building the Declaration of 
Independence was read on 
the twentieth day of July. 
1776. During the war which 
followed, it was used as a 
hospital, both by the En- 
glish and French troops. 
Stuart's famous life-size portrait of Washington — a jiresent from the 
artist to the city in which he once dwelt — graces its senate-chamber. 
In the early part of the eighteenth century it is recorded that the 
street leading to this building was jia\ed from tin- funds drrixed from 
the importation of slaves. 

Trinit}' Church is another of his buildings. This cdilici.'. " ac- 
knowledged hv the people ol that day to be the most beautiful limber 
structure in America,"' was completed in 1726. Harrison also de- 
signed King's Chapel, Boston. He was the recognized head of his 
profession in New England, and, as a late writer has well said, '• he 
did what he could to drajj; architrcture out of tin- nnrc of Puritan 

Trinity Church 

44 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ugliness and neglect." Notwithstanding the frequent changes that 
have been made in Trinity Church since the day when the first ser- 
vices were held within its walls, it still retains many of the features 
with which those who built it were familiar. Upon its spire is fixed 
the crown which typified the sovereignty of Great Britain. Below 
the crown, the clock Jahleel Brenton presented even now holds an 
honored place. William Claggett, a Welshman who lived tor a 
quarter of a century in the town, was the maker of this clock. A 
" cunning workman," was this old horologer ; he is said to have con- 
structed the first electrical machine ever known in America. Within 
the church, the organ Berkeley presented, and the pulpit from which 
the famous dean was wont to preach, still greet the eye. The or- 
ganist tells us that his quaint instrument, after a hundred and fifty 
years of service, still possesses some pipes of unrivaled excellence. 
A crown surmounts it, supported by a mitre on either side. A huge, 
old-tashioned sounding-board over the pulpit, and square, high- 
backed pews, with their seats facing in four directions, quickly 
awaken the mind of the visitor to recollections of the earlier days of 
the town. Sitting in one of these pews, when the mellow notes of 
the old organ are floating through the air, it is easy to fancy the 
church filled once more with the congregation of a hundred years 
ago, — with the forms of those now sleeping peacefully in the quiet 
graves around it. All the other places of worship were converted 
into riding-schools or hospitals when the English troops held pos- 
session of the town. The old church, which their own "■ Society lor 
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts " had fostered for many 
years, they did not desecrate. Its congregation continued to worship 
within its walls during all the Sundays of the British occupation. 
The greater proportion of the Church of England people were, very 
naturally. Royalists. They followed the troops to New York, and 
adversity seized upon Old Trinity. The hot-blooded young patriots 
of the town hastened to despoil the edifice that had been cherished 
by their hated foes. The emblems of royalty upon the spire and the 
organ they were unable to reach. Thus those relics happily remain, 
to delight the eye of the antiquarian. The altar-piece, a most con- 
spicuous feature of the church, was the principal object upon which 
their wrath was expended. It had been placed against the great 
east window, and consisted of the king's arms, the lion and the 
unicorn. These the iconoclasts quickly tore from their place, and 
vengefully trampled under foot. Afterward, they carried them away 



Perry Monumer.t. 

from the church and used thtMU lor a tari^a-l until so riddled with 
musket-balls as to be no Ioniser serviceable, even for that jiurpose. 
The church itself was closed, and no services were held in it for 
several years. 

On Sunda\-. the eighth day of De- 
cember. 1776. the Jiritish fleet and anm . 
under conunand of (leneral Clinton, took 
possession of the island of Rhode Island. 
The land forces consisted of fi\e Jiritish 
regiments and four regiments of Hessians. 
They were quartered in farm-houses scat- 
tered over the whole island, as well as in 
the larger dwellings of Newport. For 
three years they nuiintained their jiosition 
upon Aquidneck, and almost as terrible 
as one of the plagues of Egypt their sta\ 
proved to be. Not only on this one island 
was their destructixe presence telt. All 
along the shores of the Bav. desolation 
and devastation marked the path of their 
foraging parties. Most dreaded of all foragers were the German 
mercenaries. Frightful excesses not seldom attended their steps. 
The unfamiliar language the Hessians spoke naturally intensified 
the feeling of abhorrence with which they were regarded, but their 
conduct upon the island only ser\ed to deepen the cordial haired 
their first coming had excited. 

How could it be otherwise I For the luunblesl and most ignorant 
soldier among the British troops there w as a possibility of future ad- 
yancement. Chance might some day open for him the way to honor- 
able distinction, if only his courage and his manhood did not fail 
when the hour of trial came. For the Hessian there \\ as no such 
jx)ssibility. Never could he ho]")e to attain to exalted station. To 
procure lor himself the means with which to indidgi- in more ex- 
tended debaucheries, the petty tyrant in whose dominions he had 
been born had sold him aiul his companions to a foreign king. 
From these unfortunate creatures every incentive to honorable con- 
duct had been taken away, and the}' had been nuide to feel that 
the}' were hardly better than brute beasts. Whether they lived or 
died was a matter of but little concern to their cAreless owner. Fresh 
victims to fill their places he could easil\ draw from his loo-crowded 
dominions when they fell. 



Forty Steps. 

There are few tales in the story of the Revolution more pathetic 
than that of the fate which betell so man}- of these poor wretches 
during the terrible winter of 1778. Never, since the settlement of 
the English colonists upon the shores of the Narragansett, had such 

a season of cold been known. For 
six weeks the bay was frozen from 
shore to shore, and as far as the 
eye could reach the ice extended 
out to sea. On the twelfth day of 
December, when immense drifts of 
snow already covered the earth, 
another blinding storm came sweep- 
ing over the island, and raged for 
hours with irresistible fury. The 
intensity of cold also was unpar- 
alleled, yet the Hessian sentinels 
were stationed at their posts, as on 
the balmy days of summer. 
Though the snow was whirling in 
stifling sheets around them, and the piercing wind was congealing 
their very life-blood, they were compelled to perform their accus- 
tomed duty. After the storm had ceased, the frozen bodies of some 
of them were found standing bolt upright, amid the deadly drifts, 
with the useless weapons tightly grasped in their icy fingers. So 
many perished from cold and exposure on that awful night, that the 
gale has ever since been known in Newport as the " Hessian storm." 
On the twenty-ninth day of July, 1778, the first ray of light broke 
through the dark war-cloud that had for so long a time shrouded 
Aquidneck. On that day twelve ships of the line and four frigates, 
under command of Count D'Estaing, arrived oft' Newport. Most of 
the English ships in the harbor were at once scuttled or burnt, to pre- 
vent them from falling into the hands of the enemv. But the gleam 
of hope which the coming of the French fleet had lighted, quickl}^ 
faded away. Lord Howe, with an English fleet of thirty-six sail, 
came in sight of the island on the ninth of the following month, and 
a few days later D'Estaing sailed forth to meet him. A most violent 
hurricane prevented the conflict, although some of the ships at- 
tempted to fight in the midst of the gale. Three of the French ves- 
sels were dismasted ; all were more or less disabled, and the ad- 
miral deemed it necessary to proceed to Boston to refit. Not until 

Xi;\\ I'oK r 


Oct. 25, 1779. was Newport rclievt'd iVoni ihc presence of the enemy. 
At sunset of that day the KnirHsh i^rarrison sailed away, and the 
town's peojile reahzed that they wcri- once more tree. 

To the (Hsmal period of the British occupation, the brilhant epi- 
sode of the French sojourn succeedech N\-\ cr was there contrast 

Land s End 

more marked. Lite and jirojierty had ne\ er been sate whik' the 
mercenaries of Kino- Georij^e iield possession ot" the town. The 
country people who came to \iew the French camp ("the different 
deputations of savages." our polished allies called them, in the epis- 
tles the\- sL'ni\yAc\^\o La BcHc France.) "could not recover trom 
their astonishment at seeing apple-trees loaded with fruit above the 
tents which the soldiers had been occupying tor three months."* 
Ordinarilx . in lime of war the property of llu- citizens ot" a garrisoned 
town is almost equallx preyed uj^on by l"riend and t"oe. The French 
soldiers, w iili the most scrupulous care, paid t"or the slightest article 
of value they converted to their own uses. Their coming had been 
dreaded, but their departure was lamentid by all. 

Some of the most accomplished soldiers and gentlemen of France 
were numbered among these troops. It nuist be confessed, however, 
that their militar\- career in America -did not add lustre to the reputa- 
tion these distinguished soldiers had gained by their bravery and 
skill upon the famous battle-tields of KuroiH-. The unfamiliar con- 
ditions of their lit"e in this country, and their disgust at being obliged 
to serve under American gt-nerals, w iio w i-re not soldiers but ••(»nly 
lawyers, shoemakers, and blacksmiths."" may have had something to 
do with this. The\- could not realize that patriotism might inspire 



in these same blacksmiths, shoemakers, and lawyers, a courage that 
could not be subdued, an invincible determination that not even a 
regular militar\' education in the most famous military schools of 
Europe could supph". When their own fair land was deluged with 

blood, not many years afterward, 
the ideas of many of these gay 
courtiers were strangely broadened, 
and not a few of them paid the 
penalty for their lack of knowledge 
upon the crimson platform of the 

The Chevalier de Tiernay com- 
manded the fleet, the Count de 
Rochambeau the French army. 
Admiral de Tiernay died not long 
after his arrival in Newport, and 
was buried in Trinity Church- 
vard. He covdd not endure the 
reproaches heaped upon him for 
his seeming lack of energy and 
courage. The brave old Rocham- 
beau was made of sterner stuff, but 
even this gallant ijeneral was 
scarcely able to bear the taunts of 
his impetuous allies. It is quite possible that, hampered by his 
instructions, he was unable to act as his own judgment dictated. 
This is the note he wrote to one of his young oflicers who had urged 
him at once to join battle : 


'* I owe it to the most scrupulous examination of my conscience, 

that of about flfteen thousand men killed or wounded imder my 

orders in different grades and in the bloodiest actions, I have not to 

reproach myself with having caused the death of a single one to 

gratify my own ambition. 

•'■ Z^' z'/67^v_^e7'f Rochambeau." 

How many names, famous in French history, greet the eye as we 
peruse the records those brilliant officers have left us of their stay in 
Newport. That of the Due de Lauzun, the most noted gallant of his 
times, a man whose amours were almost as endless as they were 
entirely unscrupulous, heads the Hst. The Viscount de Noailles is 

Newport. 49 

almost as proiiiincnl ; in his rci;'iinent Xapolcoii aftt-rwards served 
as a subaltern : to his hai-)py lot, when ambassador to England, it 
fell to convey to Lord Weymouth the tidings of the acknowledgment 
of the independence of the American Colonies. The Marquis de 
Chastellux was the "host beyond compare." Tender recollections 
of his fctits soiipcrs continued tor long years to tantalize the thoughts 
of those who had sat aroimd his festal board. \'ionn'nil, I^ozon de 
Talle\rand, Dumas, Desoteux, afterward a Chouan leader in the 
French Revolution, Broglie, Jourdan, the future commander of the 
arniv of the Satubrc cl Mensi\ Berthier, friend of Napoleon, all these 
we fmd, — many others beside might be mentioned. 

These men were fresh from the intrigues of the most licentious 
capital of Europe. From earliest youth they had been accustomed 
to breathe its tainted air. and they had engaged in this expedition 
mainU because it seemed to promise distraction and fresh excite- 
ments to their wearied senses. The stern patriots who remained 
with their families in the city, looked forward with the gloomiest 
apprehension to their coming. Very different from the picture pater- 
nal fears had painted, its realization proved to be. He who reads 
the French memoirs of that period will note with astonishment the 
tona of respectful admiration their authors use in speaking of Ameri- 
can women. From the easy smiles of the noble ladies whose pres- 
ence graced the Court of France at the very culmination of the old 
regime, these jaded voluptuaries fled with delight when the prospect 
of new conquests in untried fields was held out. The most hardened 
debauchee among them was forced to kneel in reverence before the 
beauty, the dignity, and the purity of the daughters of Newport. In 
the reputation of these fair maidens, the busy tongue of scandal 
could find no vulnerable point through which to thrust its envenomed 

The daughter of Abraham Redwood was one of the leading belles. 
It is said that when she walked the streets of the town, even the 
rough sailors involuntarily raised their hats in homage, and turned 
to look back with sincerest admiration upon her retreating form. 
•• The beautiful Miss Champlin "' attained even a higher fame. Her, 
Washington selected for his partner, at the ball the citizens gave in 
honor of his visit to his allies, and asked to select the dance. She 
chose "A Successful Campaign," and the gallant French officers, 
taking the instruments from the hands of the musicians, themselves 
furnished the music for the distinguished couple, as they stepped 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

through the stately minuet. The two Misses Hunter, ''of noble 
aspect, an air of high breeding, and spiritual face and grace of 
movement," also attracted universal admiration. Both these ladies 
afterwards found homes in Europe. The elder became the bride of 
the Count de Cardignan : the younger was married to M. Falconnet, 
an opulent Swiss banker, who was engaged in business at Naples. 

But by unanimous consent, the most charming of all that galaxy 
of beauties was the Quaker vestal, Polly Lawton. (With the in- 
genuous disregard for the plain and simple English orthograph^^ 
which always characterizes the French nation, her infatuated ad- 
mirers either spelled her name Leighton or Levton ; never Lawton.) 
This is the account of his visit to the maiden, which the Prince de 
Broglie has sent down to an appreciative posteritv. In companv 
with his friend, M. de Vauban. he entered the house of her father. 
"'A silent, serious old man, who very seldom bared his thoughts, 
and never his head," received them with a gravity somewhat amus- 
ing from its singularity, and yet hardly satisfactorv to their fevered 
imaginations. "• Suddenh' we beheld the Goddess of grace and of 
beauty, Miner\-a in person ha^■ing exchanged her sterner attributes 
for pastoral charms. It was the daughter of the Quaker, Polly Law- 
ton. In accordance with the customs of her sect, she addressed us 
lamiliarly iyuoiis paria cii iioits tutoxant). but with a simplicit}' and 
grace which I can only compare to that of her toilet. It was a kind 
of English dress, fitting the figure closelv,- and was white as milk, 
a muslin apron of the same color, and a large handkerchief gathered 
close around the neck. Her coiffure, composed of a simple little 
cap of bap/istc, with round plaits, and permitting only a half-inch 
of hair to be perceived, completed the virgin attire of Poll}' Lawton. 
I confess that this seductive Lawton appeared to be the chef (f oeiivrc 
of Nature ; and whenever I recall her image, I am tempted to write 
a great book against the finerv, the factitious graces, and the co- 
quetry of many ladies whom the world admires." The Count de 
Segur is equally enthusiastic : '-So much beauty, so much simplicity, 
so much elegance, and so much modest^■," says he, enchanted, '• were 
perhaps never combined in the same person." We can readily be- 
lieve these fascinated swains when thev confess that the beautiful 
Quakeress drew their minds awav from the frivolities which, up to 
that time, they had deemed so necessary to their happiness. 

Even after the war had ceased the gallant Frenchmen came 
back from time to time, across the ocean, to bask once more in the 


The Old Mill. 

light of the sniik's that had so chaniiocl ihciii. Hut wliik' they still 
dilate with unraiHng rajHure upon the neNer-fadini;- beauty ol its 
maidens, thev all lament the decay that seemed the inevitable lot ol 
the town. Most melancholy is this description, from tlie pen ol 
Brissot de Warville, the exiled Girondist : 

"The solitude which reigns here, and 
which is onl}' interrupted by groups of 
idlers who stand listlessly at the street 
corners, the general dilapidation of tiie 
houses, the wretched look of the shops, 
which offer for sale nothing but bunches 
of matches and baskets of apples, or other 
articles of little \alue, the grass growing 
in the square opposite the Court House, 
the muddy and ill-paved streets, the rags 
at the windows or which cover either hid- 
eous women " (the citizen l^rissot sighed in 
^■ain to enter that charmed circle which 
had welcomed the members of the okl 
noblesse), "lean cliildren. or pale, wan 
men, wath deep eyes and sinister looks, 

making the observer very uncomfortable, all prochiim misery, the 
reign of bad faith, and the influence of a bad government." Not 
without some reason, this dismal chronicler believes paper money 
to be the principal cause of all this misery wliich he beholds. 

For almost half a century the town remained in this state of ex- 
treme prostration. The feeble symptoms of reviving life which it 
manifested in the early part of this century, quickly vanished when 
the War of 1812 beifan. From 181 < to 1828 not a house was built 
withm its liniits. Not until 1830 did its renaissance commence. In 
that year boarding-house keepers began to find their resources taxed 
to furnish accommodations for the summer visitors. From Providence, 
from the Southern States, and from Cuba came the first of the return- 
ing tide of pilgrims to this island Mecca. Ten years later the hotels 
could no longer contain the swelling throngs. About that time some 
man of genius conceived the idea of building for himself a habitation 
which might protect him from the mikl inclemencies of the summer 
months. It did not cost much to live in Newport in those days. 
Land was cheap, and a very respectable dwelling could be erected at 
a comparatively slight cost. So, without a llioughi of the immense de- 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

velopment it would afterwards attain, the system which is the marked 
teature of this great watering-place was begun. According to the 
guide-book of last year, more than two hundred and fifty persons 
owned " summer cottages" in the city. For the last thirt}' years the 
annual sales of real estate have averaged more than half a million 
dollars. In all that time the value of land has been steadilv increas- 
ing. There have been no " real estate panics " in this "■ City by the 

To the eye of the visitor, searching, like Dr. Syntax, for " the 
picturesque," Newport presents very many attractive features. Nat- 
urall}^ and properly, on the first favorable day, the venturesome 
enthusiast turns his steps toward the Scouting Rock, just beyond the 
western end of Bailey's beach. Huge rocks surround on every side 
a great cavern. During the violent easterlv storms that sometimes 
sweep along this coast, fierce seas rushing in from the open ocean 
fill this cavern with a boiling mass of water. The waves, following 
steadily in constant succession, force the imprisoned surges out through 
an opening in its roof, and fill the air with dense clouds of foam. 
Not far from Sachuest Beach is Pu7'gaiory (represented in the cut 
upon page 48). The story common to such places, — of the careless 
maiden who tested her lover's devotion by requiring him to leap 
across the chasm (it is from eight to fourteen feet wide), — is, of 
•course, told concerning it. The guide-books also speak of satanic 
( ?) foot-prints, plainly visible in the rough grayzvacke, and give 
vague traditions of the terrible fate that once befell a sinning Indian 
maiden in this romantic spot. Toward the Liiuc Rock Lighthotisc, 
the eyes of all those who enter Newport from the Bav instinctively 
turn. It is the home of Ida Lewis, "the Grace Darling of America.'" 
In Touro Park stands the monument which commemorates Com. 
M. C. Perry, of the United States Navy, the officer who commanded 
the lamous expedition to Japan. In the Island Cemetery, a plain, 
granite shaft marks the grave of Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of 
Lake Erie ; he, also, was a son of Newport. On Bellevue Avenue, 
not far from the Ocean House, stands the Casino, the pioneer build- 
ing of its class in America. On Easton's Beach stands the cool and 
commodious structure, called " The Tent on the Beach." On 
Church Street stands the Rogers High School. For the erection of 
this building, William Sanford Rogers left in his will the sum of 
$100,000. To prolong the enumeration is needless. More than to 
mention the places of interest would be impossible. In the guide- 



nt 0'-. tne bea 

books glowing descriptions of llu-ni can hv read. To tlu- guide- 
books, therefore, the reader is respectfully referred. 

For the transportation of visitors, the facilities are ample and con- 
venient. Tiie city may be reached by the Old Colony Line, of which 
J. H. Jordan, is the 

agent in Newport : ^ 

by the Newport and 
Wick f o r d Li n e . 
Theodore Warren , 
agent ; or by the 
Continental Steam- 
boat Line. 

The leading ho- 
tels of Newport to- 
dav, are the Ocean 
House, J. G. Weav- 
er & Sons, proprie- 
tors, with accom- 
modations for 300 guests : Hotel Aquidncck, L. P. Attleton, pro- 
prietor, accommodating 150; Perry House, 100 guests, E. Y. West- 
cott, proprietor; United States Hotel, 100 guests, W. B. Hathaway, 
proprietor: Clifl' Cottage Hotel, 75 guests, M. S. Flagg, manager; 
and Hall's Clift' House, 50 guests, William T. Hall. 

Newport is not a manufacturing city. The two manufactories ol 
special note are the Perry Mill and the Aquidneck Mill, both cotton 

Among the manv enterprising business men of to-day, to whom 
the city is indebted for much of its revixing prosperity, may be 
mentioned : T. M. Seabury, John C. Seabury, Wm. C. Cozzens & 
Co., A. C. Titus, J. F. Marden, M. Cottrell, Bateman & Gardner, 
JuHus Sayer, J. H. Crosby, Jr., Slocum & Black, Bull & Powell, 
Job T. Langley, J. B. Finch, Albert Hammett, H. D. Scott, J. D. 
Richardson, Swinburne & Peckham, R. S. & W. B. Franklin, Cas- 
well, Hazard & Co., H. E. Turner & Co., King & McLeod. Wm. 
Sherman, Caswell, Massey «&Co., Walter Sherman, B. F. Downing. 
R. H. Taylor, W. H. Colton, W. S. N. Allan. J. S. Hazard & Co.. 
Wm. Fludder & Co., G. P. Lawton, A. L. Burdick. W. C. Lang- 
lev, J. Alderson, C. S. Murray & Co., A. H. Ilayward. A. Stewart 
&'Co., H. M. CasttotL W. T. Bowler, lliram Murray, E. P. Swan. 
Gould c^' Son, Geo. A. Weaver. Langley c\: Bennett, J. M. K. 

54 - Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Southwick, C. H. Burdick & Co., J. T. Burdick & Co., H. A. 
Heath & Co., E. C. Blain, D. C. Denham, D. L. Cummings, G. O. 
Herrmann, Geo. C. Barker & Son, J. C. Stoddard, T. Gladding & 
Son, Ira E. Wilson, W. K. Covell, Jr., Langley & Sharpe, Alfred 
Smith & Sons, F. B. Porter & Co., T. G. Ford, J. N. Howard 
& Co., C. P. Barber, Peckham & Manchester, Stafford Bryer, 
McAdam & Openshaw, C. Sherman & Co., R. S. Barker, E. P. 
Allan, A. C. Landers, Smith Bosworth & Co., J. H. Hammett, 
Carry Brothers, G. B. Reynolds & Co., Pinniger & Manchester, 
Wm. Swinburne, Perry Brothers, Brown & Howard, C. E. Ham- 
mett, W. P. Clarke, E. W. Lawton, J. H. Cozzens & Son, A. 
Goffe, Wm. B. Sherman, and Taylor & Bennett. 

" It is more difficult to tind the end of this oration than the begin- 
ning," said the immortal Tully, almost two thousand years ago, when 
he was about to pronounce that splendid panegyric upon the eminent 
virtues and the extraordinary talents of Gneius Pompey, with which 
every classical student is so familiar. Again and again will the 
words of the Roman orator recur to the mind of him who attempts to 
describe the ancient glories of Newport, — to tell the fascinating- 
story of its later days. Even before the task is fairly outlined the 
reluctant pen must be forced away from the enchanting theme. To 
do it justice would require not one book but many. As the eye of 
the philosopher scans the varied and peculiar phases of its social 
life, the flying hours glide by unheeded. The heart of the biog- 
rapher swells with delight as he thinks of the fame the city's sons 
have won bv their achievements in literature, in science, and in art — 
of their matchless valor upon land and sea. The imaginative writer, 
be he novelist or poet, grows rapturous as he contemplates the pos- 
sibilities one only of its treasures — the Old Stone Mill — affords 
him. Already volumes have been written concerning this quaint 
structure, and volume upon volume must follow in the years to come. 
The brain of the soberest historian reels as he strives to pierce the 
mystery of its erection. We can never hope to know surely who its 
builders were — whether it is a relic of the old Vikings, a martello 
tower of the years between Guanahani and Plymouth Rock, or 
simply the " stone built wind mill" of Gov. Benedict Arnold. Why 
should we seek to know it? Better the old ruin as it is ; better than 
any certainty is the unique position it holds in American history. 


MiDDi.i: I <)\\ \ — i)i:.\\ 1!i;i;ki;i.i;^ — isA.vf hakkkk's sekvkks i)ri:i.\(. i iik re\"- 

TON — WEETAMOE, cy.EEX OK pocAssj-n — rni: cArruRE of 

Till-; '-PlGOl" GAI.I.EV. 


^ IDDLETOWX owes its existence to the leeling ot'jeal- 
()us\' and opposition whicli is sure to arise, sooner or 
later, between those who chvell in tlie •• compact part " 
ot" a town and those who Hve in •• tlie woods." In 
, '/^ Newport more than a century elapsed before the feel- 
ing- became sutFicientlv strong to necessitate dixision. 
It was not until x\ugust, 1743, that the inhabitants of 
"the woods" secured the incorporation of the new 
town. Before that time the people of Middletown 
rightly claim for their own a share in the fame which' 
fell to Newport. When Dean Berkeley came to re- 
side in the chief city of Rhode Island, it was in what 
is now the town of Middletown that he chose the sj-)ot ujion which 
to build his house. An\ sketch ol' our colonial claws would be in- 
complete in which mention was not made of George, liishop of 
Clo\ne. and of his sojourn upon Acpiiihu-ck. It woidd be diflicult 
to select a verse which has been more familiar to Americans (and 
more Irequenth- mistjuoted) than tin- four lines in \\'hich, one him- 
dred and tlftv \ears ago, he foretold the destim that awaited the 

•• Wc>l\v;iril the cimrsc- (ifiiiipirc- takes it way: 
The four first acts alrcadj past, 
A tifth shall clnsc the ilraina with the ilay ; 
'rime's noblest ofl'spriiii; is the last '" 

56 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

George Berkeley was born at Kilcrin, County Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, March 12, 1684. His father was Collector of Belfast. He 
came from a family noted for its loyalty to Charles I. Before he 
was twenty, young Berkeley had written a famous book. In 1707 
he became a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. His unusual talents 
secured for him the acquaintance of the famous men of his time ; 
his sweet and gentle disposition quickly won their friendship. With 
Swift and Steele he became specially intimate. Pope has left a 
striking testimonial of his friendship, in the line in which he ascribes 

" To Berkeley every virtue under Heaven." 

Bishop Atterbury said of him : "-So much understanding, so much 
knowledge, so much innocence, and such humility, I did not think 
had been the portion of any but angels, until I saw this gentleman." 

In 1713 Berkeley accompanied the Earl of Peterborough to Italy, 
as Chaplain and Secretary of the Legation. Two years later he paid 
his famous visit to Malebranche, the celebrated French philosopher. 
The two entered into a discussion on the theory of the non-existence 
of matter, and the arguments of the EngHsh scholar so excited his 
opponent that his frail system was not able to withstand the shock, 
and he died a few days afterward. In 1724 Berkeley was made 
Dean of Deny, with an income of £1,100 per annum. The follow- 
ing year he published A Profosal for the better supplying of 
Churches in our Foreign Plantations, and for converting the Savage 
Americans to Christianity by a College to be erected upon the Sum- 
mer Islands, otherzuise called the Isles of Bermuda. It was in de- 
lightful anticipation of the results about to follow^ the carrying out of 
his scheme, that he wrote the stanzas On the Prospect of Planting 
Arts and Sciences in America, from which the verse lately quoted 
is taken. 

The possession of w^orldly w^ealth seems to have afforded the 
gentle enthusiast but little gratification. As soon as his proposal 
was published, he offered to resign his living and devote his life to 
the instruction of the " Savage Americans," for the sum of £100 
a year. Wridng of him at this time to one of his noble friends, 
Swift says : " His heart will break if his deanery be not taken from 
him and left to go to your lordship's disposal." In 1728 Berkeley's 
plan was laid before Parliament by Sir Robert Walpole, and but 
little difficult\' was experienced in obtaining a preliminary grant of 
£20.000. Full of hope, the philosopher sailed at once for the New 




World. Alter a tedious passage of li\e inontlis, he reached New- 
port, intending thence to sail for Bermuda alter he should have re- 
covered from the debilitating elVects of the long voyage. His wile, 
whom he had just married, accompanied him. Several gentlemen 
of note also came in the ship. One of these was the painter, John 
Smybert ; his presence for some years 
in Newport, and the paintings he left 
behind him, did nuich to stimulate the 
love of art in America, and to encour- 
age the young etlbrts of Copley, Trum- 
bull, Allston, and Malbone. This is 
the w^ay a letter from Newport in tlu' 
A'rzc England WccMy Journal (ol 
Boston), notes the arrival : " Vester- 
dav arrived here Dean J^erkeley, of 
Londonderry, in a prett}' large ship. 
He is a gentleman of middle stature, of an agreeable, pleasant and 
erect aspect. He was ushered into town with a great number ol 
gentlemen, to whom he behaved himself after a very complaisant 
manner. 'T is said he purposes to tarry here with his family about 
three months.'' 

One account savs that it was not Dean Berkeley's intention to 
land at Newport, but that the captain of the ship, after searching in 
vain for the Summer Islands, was forced to turn the prow of his 
vessel northward, toward lands more accurately placed on his chart. 
He who on (me of the calm, bright days of spring has seen the 
'• Still vexed Bermoothes" rising just above the tossing billows that 
always encircle them, can easily realize how difficult it was lor the 
earlier vovagers to descry the little group when the whole horizon 
was foaming with raging waxes. It is related, moreover, that one 
of the Newport captains of half a century ago, who had sailed lor 
Bermuda with an assorted cargo, came back after a voyage ol some 
months .with his hatches unopened, conlidently allirming that the 
islands had sunk. 

This account, however, is not the correct one. 'i'he dean's own 
letters show that Rhode Island was his intended destination. Hav- 
ing once tasted the sweets of Aquidneck life, he became so en- 
amored of the spot that he determined to fix his residence there. 
To his friend Smvbert, who did not agree with him in his sanguine 
views respecting the coming importance of the town, he is reported 

58 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

to have said: "Truly, you have very little foresight, for in fifty 
years' time ever}' foot of land in this place will be as valuable as in 
Cheapside." He was but a centur}^ out of the wa}' in his reckon- 
ing. Very shortly afterward he purchased a farm of a hundred 
acres, some three miles distant from the town. Upon this yet stands 
the unpretentious mansion which he built. Whitehall was the name 
he gave it, the name of the best-loved residence of the king, for whom 
his ancestors had suffered so much. This house is placed not upon 
the summit of a hill, where one would naturally expect to find it, 
but in a valle}'. Its builder feared that the magnificent view the 
hill commands might lose its charm if seen too constantly. Not far 
away is Sachuest Beach. In a natural alcove, in the most elevated 
part of the hanging rocks which overlook this beach, Berkeley had 
his chair and writing-materials placed. There, without doubt, Alci- 
■phron^ the Minute Philosopher, was meditated and composed. ' ' Anti- 
quated," the critics of to-day call the book ; and yet the sermon it 
preaches will never be out of date as long as the world lasts. The 
work is, of course, mainly argumentative, but it abounds in delight- 
ful paragraphs, descriptive of the scenery and customs of the country, 
like these which follow : 

" The Library is a gallery on the ground floor, with an arched 
door at one end, opening into a walk of limes, where, as soon as we 
had drunk tea, we were tempted by fine weather to take a walk, 
which led us to a small mount of easy ascent, on the top whereof we 
found a seat under a spreading tree. Here we had a prospect, on 
one hand, of a narrow bay, or creek, of the sea, inclosed on either 
side by a coast beautified with rocks and woods, and green banks 
and farm houses. At the end of the bay was a small town, placed 
upon the slope of a hill, which from the advantage of its situation, 
made a considerable figure. Several fishing-boats and lighters glid- 
ing up and down on a surface as smooth and as bright as glass, en- 
livened the prospect. On the other hand, we looked down on green 
pastures, flocks and herds basking beneath in sunshine, while we 
in our superior situation, enjoyed the freshness of air and shade." 

" We had hardly seated ourselves and looked about us, when we 
saw a fox run by the foot of our mount into an adjacent thicket. A 
few minutes after, we heard a confused noise of the opening ot 
hounds, and winding of horns, and the roaring of country squires. 
While our attention was suspended by this event, a servant came 
running out of breath, and told Crito that his neighbor Ctessipus, a 



Happ) Val. 

sciuire of notf. was fallen from his horse, attempting to leap over a 

hedge, and brought into the hall, where he lay for dead. Upon 

which we all rose and walked hastily to the house, where we found 

Ctessipus just come to himself, in the midst of half a dozen sun-burnt 

squires in frocks, and short wigs, and jockey boots. Being asked 

how he did, he answered it 

was onlv a broken rib. With 

some difllculty Crito per- 
suaded him to lie on a bed 

till the chirurgeon came. 

These fox-hunters liaving 

been up early at their sport. 

were eager for dinner, which 

was accordingly hastened. 

Thev passed the afternoon 

in a loud, rustic mirth, gave 

proof of their religion and 

lovalty by the healths they 
drank, talked of hounds, 

and horses, and elections, and country fairs, till the chirurgeon. wlio 
had been employed about Ctessipus, desired he might be put into 
Crito's coach, and sent home, having refused to stay all night." 

A very short residence in Newport was sufficient to convince 
Berkeley that his college should be established upon the main land 
rather than upon the Summer Islands. " The truth is, I should like 
it better than Bermuda," he wrote to a friend. But the money 
promised for his college never came, and after a residence of two 
and a half years in America he went back to his native country, 
confessing, w^hen he went, that "no spot on earth has helped to 
form me so much as that beach." (Sachuest Beach, he meant, of 
course.) It may well be questioned whether any man ever did more 
in so short a time to form the society in which he lived. The genial, 
elevating influence of his presence in Rhode Island was felt for 
many years after the gracious bishop had passed away from earth. 
He was appointed to the See of Cloyne in 1734, and died, full of 
vears and of honor, in 1753- 

Middletown has always been simply an agricultural town. \'ery 
naturally, therefore, the historian searches in vain for striking events 
in its history. Isaac Barker's conduct during the Revolution well 
deserves notice. When the P)ritish took possession of the island he 

6o Picturesque Rhode Islanj 

]->retended to be a Tory, and remained on his farm. This was situ- 
ated on the east side of the island. His dwelling could plainly be 
seen from the Seaconnet shore. In this house a British colonel es- 
tablished his quarters. From this officer Barker was often able to 
learn the plans of the enemy. Between him and Lieutenant Chapin, 
oi Colonel Sherburne's regiment of Rhode Island troops, a system 
ot signals was arranged. It consisted of a peculiar arrangement of 
bars and stakes in a stone wall, and was easily visible to one using a 
sp3'-glass upon the main land. When any information of importance 
had been gained, a letter would be deposited by Barker in a certain 
crevice in a neighboring ledge of rocks. He would then arrange 
his signals, and the lieutenant would cross over at night and get the 
letter. For more than fourteen months, at the constant risk of his 
lite. Barker continued to perform this service. The departure of the 
English troops at last released him from his perilous employment. 

The population has not increased very largely during the 138 
years of the town's existence. In 1748, 680 people were numbered 
within its limits. The last census showed it to contain 1,139 ^^- 
habitants. The residents of the town are awakening at last to a 
sense of the possibilities within their grasp, and are stretching out 
their hands to secure a portion of the summer throng that fills each 
3^ear the cottages of the mother-town. Broad avenues, sweeping 
along the shores, and winding over the hills that command a pros- 
pect over the ocean, are projected. On these hills some of the most 
beautiful villa-sites in America are yet unoccupied. In the years to 
come, stately residences will rise upon them. The avenues may 
one day be crowded with a concourse rivaling that which now rolls 
onward, in the bright days of summer, along magnificent Bellevue. 

PocAssET, was the Indian name of the place where the first 
English settlement upon Aquidneck was established. Not until the 
Newport settlers had withdrawn from it was the name of Portsmouth 
given to the town. By the Indians, the opposite shore of the main- 
land and the narrow strait lying between was also called Pocasset. 
For the fee of the island, and for the grass upon the neighboring- 
islands, forty fathoms of white peage were paid. Ten coats and 
twenty hoes were given to the resident Indians to vacate the lands, 
and five fathoms of wampum were paid to the local sachem. 

Before leaving Providence this civil compact was drawn up and 
signed : 



7 rii Day 

oi- TiiK FiKST Month (March), 1638. 

'> We whose names are underwi-itten do hereby solemnly, in the 
presence of Jehovah, incorporate ourselves into a body politic; and 
as he shall help, will submit our persons, lives and estates, unto our 
Lord Jesus Christ, The King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and to 
all those perfect and most 
absolute laws of his given 
us in his holy word of truth 
to be guided and judgi-d 
thereby. Exod. xxiv., 3, 4 : 
2 Chron. xi.. 3; 2 Kings, 
xi., 17." 

Its signers were William 
Coddington, John Clarke, 
William Hutchinson. John 
CoireeshalL William Aspin- 
wall, Samuel Wilbore, John 
Porter, John Santord. Ed- 
ward Hutchinson. Jr.. Tho- 
mas Savage, William Dyre, 
William Freeborne, Philip 
Shearman, John Walker, 

Richard Carder, William Baulstone, Edward Hutchinson, Sr.. 
Henry Bull. Randall Holden's name is also affixed to the document, 
but the historian Arnold believes that Holden was not one of the 
proprietors, but simply one of the witnesses to the compact. The 
other witness was Roger Williams. 

In his settlement at Providence, the great founder of the State 
made no provision whatever for religious worship. He welcomed 
gladly all persons who desired to cast in their lot with him, asking 
no questions whatever concerning their religious beliefs. Whether 
they were ''Jews, Turks, Infidels or Heretics" mattered not to him. 
The Aquidneck settlers were not quite so liberal. But while they pro- 
posed to lay the foundation of a Christian State, they also meant that in 
that State every man should be allowed to worship God according to 
the dictates df his own conscience. The ditTerences between the fol- 
lowers of Roger Williams and those of Coddington and Hutchinson 
were but slight, and yet they served to bring to the island a more 
desirable class of inhabitants than those who settled at Providence. 

The Glen. 

62 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

It was the higher education and the superior social standing of the peo- 
ple of the island of Rhode Island which secured for it the controll- 
ing influence in the aflairs of the State it enjoyed for so man}^ years. 
The building of the town of Portsmouth was begun March 24, 
1638. Around the head of a cove on the northeastern part of the 
island, the first dwellings were erected. From this cove, an outlet 
deep enough for the passage of small vessels then extended to the 
bav. The people supposed that water sufficient to float the largest 
ships of the time might easily be tbund not far away. This deeper 
water could not be found, however, the action of the winds and waves 
gradually closed the outlet, and the first settlement was in time aban- 
doned. Not many years ago traces of some of the houses could 
with difficulty be perceived ; modern '' improvement" has since swept 
them entirely away. The second hamlet received the name of New- 
town, a designation still retained by that part of the town. 

Portsmouth is still, and always has been, mainly an agricultural 
community, but for an agricultural town it is unusually rich in histori- 
cal incident. Within its borders one of the most daring exploits of 
the Revolution was performed. Just north of the northern boundary 
line of Middletown, stands what is left of the house that was once 
the headquarters of the English General Prescott. Very little of the 
old dwelling remains, and the house wears a decidedl}'- modern as- 
pect. In May, 1777, Lord Percy departing from Newport, left Brig.- 
Gen. Richard Prescott in command of the British forces. ^' Prescott 
was a man advanced in years, of small stature, of harsh temper, who 
carried, even beyond the common measure of militar}^ insolence, his 
contempt and hatred for those whom he persistently refused to regard 
in any other light than as rebels against their king. He had brought 
with him to Rhode Island a reputadon stained with many acts of 
cruelty ; his conduct upon the island more than sustained the repu- 
tation he had before acquired. Thus, he ordered 300 lashes to 
be given to Thomas Austin, because he refused to yoke his team 
to carry a cannon across the island for use against the American 
troops. The remonstrances of attending physicians, who assured 
the tyrant that his bleeding victim could not possibly survive such 
torture, alone prevented the carrying out of the inhuman order. 

In the latter part of the year 1776 General Charles 'Lee, second 
in command of the American forces, had been captured by a British 
scouting party, under circumstances that were deemed peculiarly 
disgraceful by all true patriots. The character of Lee was not un- 



A Glimpse cf Bristol Ferry. 

derstood at the time: his entire hick of principle had not then been 
made manifest. Tlie Americans, for the most part, felt that a 
gallant officer was likely to be held in captivity for an indefinite 
time, because they held no English officer of equal rank, for whom 
to. exchange him. No one felt the humiliation more keenly than 
Maj. William Barton, of the Second Rhode Island Regiment, a 
}"oung man not \-et t\\en'ty-nine }ears of age. Major Barton, w ith 
his own hand, afterward prepared an account of the capture of 
Prescott. which is still preserved in the cabinet of the Rhode Island 
Historical Society. In it he says: *• He had a very high opinion 
of the general's ability, and used the greatest endeavors to get 
intelligence of some l^ritish oflicers of the same rank, and thus effect 
an exchange of that great man." 

On the tenth day of June. 1777. a fugili\e from the island carried 
to the quarters of Barton at ^Fiverton, the intelligence that Prescott 
was quartered at Mr. Overing's house, distant about fi\e miles from 
Newport, and one luile from the west shore of the island. He 
also reported that no troops were stationed near the house, and 
that the general's only protection was the guard-ship that lay oppo- 
site his quarters. Major Barton at once determined to effect his 
capture. Five whale-boats, large enough to contain fort\' men, \\ ere 

64 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

quickly secured. His regiment having been assembled, Barton 
explained that a secret expedition of great danger was to be under- 
taken, and called for volunteers. The whole regiment at once stepped 
forward. Barton selected forty men, expert in rowing, and practiced 
his crews daily until he had become satisfied with their proficiency. 
On the 4th of July the little flotilla left Tiverton, passing first to Bris- 
tol, and afterward to Warwick, as the most suitable point for the final 
departure. While ofi' Hog Island, in full view of the British ships, 
the object of the expedition was announced to the crews. Its tre- 
mendous risk deterred no one from continuing it. On the 9th of 
July the party, forty-one men in all, left Warwick. Their leader com- 
manded them " to preserve the strictest order ; to have no thought 
of plunder ; to observe the profoundest silence, and to take with 
them no spirituous liquors." Wise directions they were, and most 
faithfully carried out. Barton closed his short address by invoking 
the Divine blessing upon his undertaking. With muflled oars, the 
boats pulled silently onward through the friendly darkness of the 
summer night, passing so near the enemy's ships that they heard dis- 
tinctly the sentinel's " all's well," as the hours were called. 

On reaching the shore, one man was left in charge of each boat. 
The rest of the party, forming in five divisions, crept cautiously on 
toward the house. They found their way beset with dangers greater 
than those their leader had reckoned upon. On their left w^as a 
guard-house in which a squad of soldiers had been quartered. Two 
hundred yards away, on their right, a company of light cavalry had 
been stationed. Twenty-five yards from the gate of the house they 
encountered a sentinel. When the gate was opened this sentinel at 
once challenged the party. He was seized and bound, and threat- 
ened with instant death if he made the slightest noise. In the first 
chamber they entered was found Mr. Overing, the owner of the 
house. At the noise of their entrance, Prescott awoke, and at once 
called out to know what the matter was. Almost immediately he 
found himself a prisoner. The story often told is, that the door of 
Prescott's room was forced open by the ram-like stroke of a negro's 
head, but Barton, in his narrative, mentions no such incident. The 
British general made no attempt to conceal his identity. Clad in 
exceedingly scanty attire, he was hurried from the house and across 
the fields, rough with wheat-stubble and with brambles, to the 
boats. The sentinel who had been first captured, and Major Bar- 
rington, Prescott's aid, who had leaped from the window at the first 



alarm, were also carried a\va\' prisoners. Hardly had the party 
pushed oft' from the shore, before the whole island seemed aroused, 
but the darkness of the night efiectually concealed the Americans. 
Not until they received a dispatch from him at Providence, did his 
troops learn the fate of their commander. The track of his captors 
was easily traced to the water-side, but 
the rippling waves rendered further 
search hopeless. The party reached 
Warwick Neck at day-break, having 
been absent six hours and a half. 
The effect of Barton's exploit cannot 
be better told than in the words of the 
late Professor Diman, the orator of the 
celebration of the one-hundredth anni- 
versary of the event. " Wherever the 
news spread, it made a great impres- 
sion. It came at a period of discour- 
agement, when men were weary of the 
long inactivity of Spencer, and were 
watching with apprehension the ad- 
vance of Burgoyne ; and, of however 

slight importance in its bearing on military operations, it had a 
prodigious effect in rousing the popular spirit. Thatcher w^rites, in 
his Journal, that when the intelligence reached the northern armv 
' it occasioned great joy and exultation.' It even lifted the dark 
cloud w^hich hung over the face of Washington, who at once sent a 
dispatch to Congress announcing the capture of Prescott, and de- 
scribing it as ' a bold enterprise.'" 

On the hills of Portsmouth was fought the battle of Rhode Island, 
which the illustrious Lafayette is reported to have described as 
"the best-fought battle of the war." It showed the heroism undis- 
ciplined American troops could display, even when confronted with 
the veteran regiments of Great Britain. It was a victory for the 
Americans, but was followed by their retreat. Its moral effect was 
most important. 

Among the most prominent features of the Portsmouth landscape 
to-day are the great wind-mills that surmount some of the loftiest hills 
of the town. No traveler passes by on the waters of the bay who 
does not admire their picturesque appearance, as .their long arms 
revolve against the eastern sky. There are four of these antique 

Old Wind-mill. 

66 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

structures in the town. The town is also noted for its coal mines. 
The coal obtained is said to be most valuable for smelting- purposes, 
but, probably from the ignorance of those who have attempted to use 
it, has not w^on great commendation for its heating properties. It 
only needs more intelligence in the methods of using it to become of 
great value. '' It is hard to light it up, but it is harder to extinguish 
it." The poet Bryant thus apostrophizes it : 

" Yea, they did wrong thee foull)' — they who mocked 
Thy honest face, and said thou would 'st not burn ; 
Of hewing: thee to chimney-iiieces talked, 
And grew profane — and swore in bitter scorn. 
That men mig;ht to thy inner caves retire, 
And tliere, uiisinwed, abide the day of fire." 

The Name of Awashonks, the "squaw sachem," often greets 
the eye as we peruse the pages of the history of King Philip's War. 
She ruled over the Seaconnet Indians, in the territor}^ now mainly 
comprised within the limits of the town of Little Compton. The 
Indian queen was a kinswoman of Philip of Pokanoket. For years 
before the war w^as planned her tribe had acknowledged his superior 
authority. The great chieftain very naturally reckoned her warriors 
among his surest allies in war, and his most steadfast friends in peace. 
But for one seemingly unimportant circumstance, the famous sachem 
would perhaps never have had occasion to bemoan their defection, 
and the horrors of Philip's War would have been prolonged for years. 

In the year 1674 the first white settler took up his abode upon 
the lands belonging to the Seaconnet tribe. He was a tall and well- 
proportioned Englishman, with a frame so firmly knit and so finely 
developed that he seemed able to bid defiance to ph3'sical infirmity 
and bodily fatigue. Benjamin Church was then in the juicy prime 
of life, being about thirty-five years of age. His unusual muscvdar 
vigor, his constitutional cheerfulness, his remarkable tact, and above 
all, his dauntless courage, quickly compelled the respect of his sav- 
age neighbors. In the course of a year's residence among them he 
gained a keener insight into the Indian character, and a greater 
power to influence the Indian mind, than any man of his race has 
since been able to acquire. That year's residence at Seaconnet was, 
perhaps, the one thing that was needed to make Captain Church the 
unequaled " Indian fighter" that he soon proved himself to be. He 
was a native of Duxbury, a carpenter by trade, and had lived in 
many towns of Massachusetts, working at his trade in journeyman 

Little Compton. 67 

fashion, as was the custom in the colony at that time, before he 
determined to make for himseh" a home at Seaconnet. Having pur- 
chased a larm, he at once erected two buildings upon it, and set him- 
self diligently at work to improve it, "and had a fme prospect of 
doing no small things. Behold ! the rumor of a war between the 
English and the natives gave check to his projects." 

No one needs to be told of the part he took in that war. History 
has delighted to bestow her choicest encomiums upon him. The 
old hero himself, in the last years of his life, recognizing the fact 
that "every particle of historical truth is precious," wrote a very 
careful account of his participation in it. His narrative is told in 
plain and simple, and yet in exceedingly graphic style, is acknowl- 
edged to be singularly trustworthy in all its statements, and is writ- 
ten, as its author states in his preface, "with as little reflection as 
might be upon any particular person, alive or dead." From it, two 
striking descriptions of events which have made the territory of Little 
Compton historic ground, have been transferred to these pages. 

The " rumor of a war" was soon confirmed by a messenger sent 
from Awashonks to invite Mr. Church to be present at a great dance 
shortly to take place in her dominions. King Philip had already 
sent envoys urging the Seaconnets {Sogkonatcs, Captain Church 
always culls them) to join their fortunes with his, and at this dance the 
part they were to take in the war was to be decided. Mr. Church 
therefore hastened to accept the invitation. He found hundreds of 
warriors gathered together at the place appointed. Awashonks her- 
self was leading the dance ; but as soon as she learned of Church's 
arrival she broke off from it, called her nobles around her, and ordered 
him to be invited to her presence. After some minutes' conversation 
with him, during which she seemed much convinced by his arguments, 
she summoned the Mount Hope men, — the messengers from Philip. 
They presented a most formidable appearance; their faces were 
painted, " their hair was trimmed up in comb fashion," /. f:., like the 
comb of a cock ; and their powder-horns and shot-bags were at their 
backs, as was the custom of their nation when war had been deter- 
mined upon. 

"Stepping up to the Mount Hopes, Mr. Church felt of their 
bags, and finding them filled with bullets, asked them what those 
bullets w^ere for. They scoflingly replied, ' To shoot pigeons with.' 
Then Mr. Church turned to Awashonks and told her that if Philip 
were resolved to make war, her best way would be to knock these 

68 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

six Mount Hopes on the head, and shelter herself under the pro- 
tection of the English ; upon which the Mount Hopes were for the 
present dumb. But those two of Awashonks' men who had been at 
Mount Hope, expressed themselves in a furious manner against his 
advice. And Little Eyes, one of the queen's counsel, joined with 
them, and urged Mr. Church to go aside with him among the bushes, 
that he might have some private discourse with him, which other 
Indians immediately forbid ; being sensible of his ill design. But 
the Indians began to side and grow very warm. Mr. Church, with 
undaunted courage, told the Mount Hopes that they were bloody 
wretches, and thirsted after the blood of their English neighbors, 
who had never injured them, but had always abounded in their kind- 
ness to them. That, for his own part, though he desired nothing 
more than peace, yet, if nothing but war would satisfy them, he be- 
lieved he should prove a sharp thorn in their sides ; bid the company 
observe these men that were of such bloody dispositions, whether 
Providence would suffer them to live to see the event of the war, 
which others, more peaceably disposed, might do, etc., etc." 

Moved by Church's advice, Awashonks requested him to go to 
Plymouth in her behalf, to arrange a compact between her tribe and 
the English authorities. The war, breaking out sooner than was 
anticipated, rendered his mission useless at that time, but the part 
Church had taken had a very important bearing upon the issue of 
the contest. About a year afterward the English Captain happened 
to meet one of the Seaconnets, whose friendship he had won at this 
conference, and through him was enabled once more to open nego- 
tiations with the squaw sachem. A meeting was arranged between 
them. Church specifying that not more than three persons should 
attend the princess. He himself went to the place appointed in a 
canoe, with one man to attend him. Another canoe, with two other 
men in it, was stationed off the shore, to observe the fate which 
might befall the bold warrior. 

" He was no sooner landed, but Awashonks and the rest that he 
had appointed to meet him there rose up and came down to meet 
him ; and each of them successively gave him their hands, and ex- 
pressed themselves glad to see him, and gave him thanks for expos- 
ing himself to visit them. They walked together about a gun-shot 
from the water, to a convenient place to sit down, when at once rose 
up a great body of Indians, who had lain hid in the grass (that was 
as high as a man's waist), and gathered around them, till they had 

Little Compton, 


Mount Hope 

closed thorn in : being all armed with guns, spears, hatchets, etc., 
with their hairs trimmed and faces painted, in their war-like appear- 
ance. It was doubtless somew^hat surprising to our gentleman at 
tirst, but without any visible discovery of it, after a small silent 
pause on each side, he spoke to Awashonks, and told her that 
George (the Indian through whom he had arranged the conference) 
. had informed him that she had a desire to see him, and discourse 
about making peace with the English. She answered, ' Yes.' ' Then,' 
said Mr. Church, ' it is customary when people meet to treat of peace, 
to lay aside their arms, and not to appear in such hostile form as 
your people do.' lie desired of her, that if thev might talk about 
peace, which he desired they might, her men might lay aside their 
arms, and appear more treatable. Upon which there began a con- 
siderable noise and murmur among them in their own language, 
till Awashonks asked him what arms they should lav down, and 
where? He (perceiving the Indians looked very surlv and much 
displeased) replied: • Only tlu-ir guns at some small distance, for 
formality's sake.' Upon which, with one consent, the\- hiid aside 
their guns and came and sat down. 

" Mr. Church jnilled out his cd/a/xis/i. and asked Awashonks 
whether she had lived so long at W'c/iiset (Wachuset) as to tbrget to 
drink occafcchcs !* and drinking to her, he perceixed that she watched 
him very diligently, to see whether he swallowed any of the rum. 
He offered licr the shell, but she desired him to drink aiiain rirst. 

70 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

He then told her that there was no poison in it ; and pouring some in 
the pahii of his hand sipped it up. And took the shell and drank to 
her again, and drank a good swig, which indeed was no more than 
he needed. Then they all standing up he said to Awashonks, ' You 
ivon't drink for fear there should be poison in it,' and then handed it 
to a little ill-looking fellow, who catched it readil}^ enough, and as 
greedily would have swallowed the liquor when he had it at his 
mouth. But Mr. Church catched him by the throat, and took it from 
him, asking him whether he intended to swallow it shell and all ; 
and then handed it to Awashonks. She ventured to take a good 
hearty draw, and passed it among her attendants. The shell being 
emptied, he pulled out his tobacco ; and having distributed it, they 
began to talk. 

"Awashonks demanded of him the reason wh}^ he had not 
(agreeable to his promise when she saw him last) been down at 
Sogkonate before now? Saying, that probably if he had come then, 
according to his promise, they had never joined with Phihp against 
the English. He told her that he was prevented by the war's breaking 
out so suddenly ; and yet he was afterwards coming down, and came 
as far as Punkateese, where a great many Indians set upon him, and 
fought him a whole afternoon, though he did not come prepared to 
fight, and had but nineteen men wdth him, whose chief design was to 
gain an opportunity to discourse some Sogkonate Indians. Upon 
this there at once arose a mighty murmur, confused noise, and talk 
among the fierce-looking creatures, and all rising up in a hubbub. 
And a great surly-looking fellow took up his tomhog, or wooden cut- 
lass, to kill Mr. Church, but some others prevented him. The inter- 
preter asked Mr. Church if he understood what it was that the great 
fellow they had hold of said? He answered him ' No.' ' Why,' said 
the interpreter, ' he says you killed his brother at Punkateese, and 
therefore he thirsts for your blood.' Mr. Church bid the interpreter 
tell him that his brother began first ; that if he had kept at Sog- 
konate, according to his desire and order, he should not have hurt 
him. Then the chief captain commanded silence ; and told them 
they should talk no more about old things, etc., and quelled the tu- 
mult so that the}^ sat down again, and began upon a discourse of 
making peace with the English." 

The arguments of Captain Church were successful. At last "the 
chief captain rose up, and expressed the great value and respect he 
had for Mr. Church ; and bowing to him, said, ' Sir, if you will 

Little Comi'Ton. 


please to accept of me and my men, and will head us, we will fight 

for you, and will help you to Philip^s head before the Indian corn be 

ripe.' And when he had ended, they all expressed their consent to 

what he had said, and told Mr. Church tliey loved him, and were 

willing to go with him and light for him as long as the English had 

one enemy left in the coun- 
try." The defection of Awa- 

shonks and her tribe sealed 

the doom of Philip. The 

broken-hearted sachem was 

never known to smile after the 

news was received. He felt 

that his days were numbered, 

and that henceforth he must 

live like a wild beast, hunted 
from one hiding-place to 

another by Indians and En- 

ijlishmen alike. 

Not until many years after 

the w^arhad ceased did Captain 
Church go back to dwell at 

Seaconnet. When the town of Bristol was founded he became one 
of its most prominent citizens, and continued to live for several 
years upon the land that had once belonged to his dead foe. From 
Bristol he removed to Fall River, and at last went back to end his 
days at Little Compton. Returning one da}^ from a visit of con- 
dolence which he had paid his only sister, his horse stumbled, and 
the old hero was thrown with great force upon the frozen ground. 
He had become exceedingly corpulent, and the fall ruptured a blood- 
vessel. From the effects of this accident he died Jan. 17, 1718. 

Little Compton probably took its name from the Little Compton 
of Oxfordshire, England. It w^as incorporated as a town in 1682. 
Its Indian inhabitants condnued for many years to reside within its 
borders in perfect harmony with their white neighbors. In 1790 
there were 1,542 white inhabitants and twenty-three slaves in the 
town. Its population, according to the census of 1880, is 1,201. It 
was one of the five tow-ns transferred from Massachusetts to the 
colony of Rhode Island in January, 1746-7. Once a popular sum- 
mer resort, it still attracts many visitors, by reason of the unequaled 
advantages for fishing which it affords. A stone in the village 

Cold Spring Monui 

72 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

cemetery marks the resting-place of Elizabeth Alden, said to have 
been the first white woman born in New England. She became the 
wife of WilHam Pabodie, and died May 31, 1717, in the ninety- 
fourth year of her age. 

Tiverton was another of the five towns. Its Indian name was 
Pocasset. Punkateest it was also called sometimes ; but this name 
properly belonged to its southern portion only. It was purchased 
from the Indians by the Plymouth colonists in 1680, and was b}^ 
them sold to Edward Gray and seven other Englishmen, for £1,100 
(about $3,666). The fact has already been noted that Portsmouth 
was originally called Pocasset. It was probably the greater prom- 
inence of the mainland Pocasset that compelled the islanders to 
change the name of their town. Not until 1694 was the town of 
Tiverton incorporated. The powerful Indian tribe to whom the 
territory had once belonged had then almost entirely disappeared.. 
The Indian designation was therefore dropped, and an English name 
was taken in its stead. One point in connection with the early 
history of the town is specially worthy of notice. It had no settled 
minister, and maintained no regular rehgious services, until almost 
half a centurv had elapsed from the year in which it was founded. 
On this account presentments against the town were frequently made 
to the General Court of Massachusetts, but without any apparent 
effect upon the actions of its people. In striking contrast with the 
other towns of Massachusetts, it continued during this long period of 
time almost entirely to neglect its religious and educational duties. 
Not until August 20, 1746 — five months before it became a part of 
Rhode Island — was the First Congregational Church organized by 
the people in the sovith part of the town. 

Like its neighbor, Seaconnet, Pocasset was governed by a ''squaw 
sachem " when King Philip's War broke out. Weetamoe was the 
queen of the Pocasset tribe. When the conflict began, the part she 
might take in it seemed somewhat doubtful. Captain Church, pass- 
ing through lier dominions on his way from Seaconnet to Plymouth, 
thought she might be induced to take the side of the English. 
Events soon proved him to have mistaken both her temper and her 
designs. She espoused the side of her kinsman, and upon the 
broad hunting-grounds of her tribe many a deadly combat was 
fought. The writers of that period agree that "the 'squaw 
sachem' of Pocasset was next unto Philip in respect to the mis- 



chief tliat hath becti done, and the blood that hath been shed in the 

'• A severe and proud dame 'was she," wrote an Enjj^hshwonian 
who was once her captive, " bestowing every day in dressing herself 
near as much time as any of the gentry of the land. 
She had a Kearsev coat, covered with girdles of wampum from the 

"The Northmen's Rock," Mount Hope Bay. 

loins upward. Her arms, from her elbows to lu-r hands, -were cov- 
ered with bracelets ; there were handfuls of necklaces about her neck, 
and several sorts of jewels in her ears. She had tine red stockings 
and white shoes, her hair powdered, and her face painted red." 

Many of her tribe, discouraged by the apparent hopelessness of 
their cause, in time sought the alliance of the English. (It was a 
Pocasset Indian from whom at last Philip received his death-wound.) 
Weetamoe wavered never. Faithfully she clung to the fortunes of 
the great chieftain, and a fate more tragic even than his fell to her 
unhappy lot. From 300 fighting men, her tribe was at last reduced 
to twenty-six warriors. In August, 1676, the colonists learned from 
a deserter that the princess, with her few remaining adherents, had 
taken refuge at Mettapoiset (now Gardiner's Neck, in Swansey). 
Twenty men at once volunteered to hunt down the defenceless 
woman. With the Indian traitor tor a guide, tlu-y had no dilliculty 
in surprising the Pocassets in their hiding-place, and capturing all 
but two or three of their number. Weetamoe was one of the tew 
who escaped. The wretched princess seems to have preferred any 
form of death to capture. In the tumult which tbllowed the on- 
slaught of the attacking party, she hastily gathered for a raft a few 
broken pieces of timber tiiat had been cast by the waves upon the 
shore, and boldly pushed out upon the dark waters. No one alter- 

74 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

wards saw her alive. In a few days the naked body of an Indian 
woman was thrown upon the beach by the in-coming tide. The 
white settlers seized upon it without knowing whose it was, and 
with the brutality that was the prevailing characteristic of the age, 
decapitated it. Then, carrying the head to Taunton, they set it up 
upon a pole. Some Indian prisoners beholding it, broke forth at 
once in cries of heart-rending grief. To use the words of the Rev. 
Increase Mather, '' they made a most horrid and diabolical lamenta- 
tion, crying out that it was their Queen's head." The ill-starred 
Weetamoe, though dead, is not yet forgotten. On the banks of 
that river, over whose waters the cry of the despairing princess once 
rang upon the startled air, a great cotton-factory bears her name. 
The whirl of its thousand spindles, and the throb of its mighty 
engines, daily sound her requiem. 

Into the dismal recesses of a great cedar swamp in the Pocasset 
Country, King PhiHp once fled when hard pressed. This swamp 
was seven miles long. Amid its trembling bogs the Wampanoag 
king calmly awaited the assault of the white soldiers. With great 
bravery the colonists charged the Indian stronghold, and were re- 
pulsed with the loss of sixteen men. Then they resolved to close 
the avenues leading to it and starve the Indians to surrender. Philip 
was well pleased with the plan ; he was plentifully supplied with 
provisions, and was able to sustain a very protracted siege. For 
thirteen days he remained in his retreat. Then, having constructed 
canoes enough to carry all his party, he took advantage of an 
unusually dark night, fled from the swamp unperceived, and passed 
to the Nipmuck Country. 

When the British held Rhode Island, during the Revolutionary 
War, upon Tiverton Heights was pitched one of the most important 
camps of the American army. It served as the great rallying-place 
for the patriot forces in the State. From it most of the attacking 
parties that so annoyed the British went forth. From Tiverton, as 
has lately been related, Barton set out on the '' bold push" which 
resulted in the capture of Prescott. It will be remembered that Bar- 
ton wisely ordered his men to abstain entirely from intoxicating 
liquors. After the object of the expedition had been accomplished 
and the boats were leaping joyfully homeward, the prohibition was 
removed. As a consequence, the courage of the crews rose to such 
a pitch, that it was seriously ( ?) debated, as they rowed past Bristol 
Ferry, whether it was not their duty at once to turn back to capture 
the whole British fleet. 

Tiverton. 75 

With the waters of Tiverton a brilliant naval exploit is also con- 
nected. In the Seaconnct Passage an English nian-ot-war had been 
stationed to prevent the escape of the privateers that swarmed like 
wasps along the path of British commerce, it was the "Pigot" galley, 
a vessel of 200 tons burden. The "l^igot" carried eight twelve- 
pounders, was defended by strong boarding-nettings, and had a crew of 
forty-five men. Major Silas Talbot, of Providence, resolved to effect 
her capture. For this purpose he procured a small sloop called the 
" Hawk,"' placed on board two three-pounders and a crew of sixtv men 
under Lieutenant Baker, and proceeded down the river. Anchoring 
his little craft in Mount Hope Bay, he started alone for Little Compton, 
that he might ascertain the exact position of the English vessel. He 
tound the " Pigot " armed at all points, and much more thoroughly 
defended than he had believed was possible. He therefore secured 
fifteen more men from Popham's regiment, under the command of 
Lieut. William Helme. The next night (Oct. 28, 1778,) was favorable 
for his purpose. With a gentle wind the "■ Plawk "' sailed slowly down 
toward the British fort at Fogland Ferry. There the sail was lowered, 
and the little sloop drifted unperceived past the dreaded batteries. 
The night was so dark that Major Talbot found it necessary to send 
out a boat, with mutTled oars, to find the gallev- This having been 
done, he crowded all sail and bore down upon her. The British cap- 
tain was taken entirely unawares. Before he could bring his guns 
to bear upon his unseen foe, the jib-boom of the "Hawk" tore 
through tile nettings of the "Pigot" and caught in its fore-shrouds. 
Immediately a line of boarders, with Lieutenant Ilehne at their head, 
ran along the bowsprit of the sloop and leaped upon the deck of the 
enemy. The combat that followed was short but decisive. The 
crew of the galley were quickly driven below, her commander alone 
disdaining to leave the deck, and fighting bravely after his men had 
deserted him. The English vessel was taken without the loss of a 
man on either side. The "Ilawk"' and her jiri/.e innnediateh' set 
sail, and both reached Stonington in safet\". The " I'igot" was not 
long after purchased by the American government, and stationed 
permanently in the bay. For this gallant exploit Talbot was made 
a lieutenant-colonel. During the war he dislinguished himself bv 
many like deeds of daring, seeming equally at home, whether on land 
or water. The Rhode Island Assembly voted sw(jrds both to him 
and Lieutenant Helme. 

The interests of Tixerton to-da\' are mainK' agricultural. Some 



attention is also paid to "the fisheries. " The old hotel at Stone 
Bridge — the Stone Bridge House — has been in the past, and still 
is. a noted summer resort. The town has not, of late years, shown 
any marked increase in the number of its inhabitants. In 1862 a 
change in the boundary line between Rhode Island and Massachu- 
setts transterred a large portion of its territory to the jurisdiction of 
Fall River. It is quite possible that in the course of time it will de- 
velop into a manufacturing community. Already the mills of Fall 
River are crowding upon it. It may be that the next generation will 
see tall chimnevs rising from its valleys, and its breezy hill-sides 
covered with a monoton(^us arrav of factorv tenement-houses. 

Residence of A. O. Bourn, Esq., Bristol. 




HE history of Bristol is unusually varied and interesting. 
It goes back to the earliest ages of historic America, 
and claims for its own a share in the Icelandic sagas 
of six hundred vears ago. A large number of anti- 
quarian scholars, in Europe as well as in America, 
have united in pronouncing its Mount Hope to be the 
Hop of the old Norse voyagers. That the Northmen 
were familiar with these shores, and even dwelt for 
many years upon them, no unprejudiced man can 
doubt. The established antiquity of the sagas, the 
fact that at the time they were written there could 
have been no possible motive for manufacturing such 
a mass of circumstantial evidence, makes it impossible 
for any one to deny that they are substantially true. 
It is only because the advocates of the claims of the Northmen have 
attempted to prove too much, that they have thus far failed to win a 
more favorable verdict at the bar of puliHc opinion. It must be 
granted that it is impossible for us to determine with absolute cer- 
tainty the exact spot where the Vikings dwelt during their sojourn 
upon the coasts of America. The formidable array of details pre- 
sented in the ancient parchments makes the conjecture that the 
booths of Leif Ericson were erected upon the shores of Mount Hope 
Bay seem a very reasonable one. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Up the Seaconnet River, in the year of our Lord looo, the pio- 
neer vessel of Leif is supposed to have come. Near the foot of 
Mount Hope itseh', it is beheved that his dwelhngs were erected. 
He found the waters of the bay crowded with many varieties offish ; 
through the forests that lined its shores wild animals of manv kinds 

roamed unmolested. 
The winter that fol- 
lowed his coming- 
happened to be one 
of the unusually mild 
ones which some- 
times visit us to as- 
tound our bitter New 
England climate. 
Not much snow fell 
that year, and the 
grass hardly seemed 

The Oldest House in Bristol. tO witllCr. SubsC- 

quent voyagers had 
a very ditferent experience. One of Lief's party was a German. 
Tyrker was his name. One day he strayed away from the explor- 
ing part}^ Leif had sent out from the camp, and when he returned 
he hardly seemed to recognize his companions. His eyes rolled 
strangely about. He appeared to have forgotten the Norse language, 
and in German vaguely answered those who accosted him. After a 
while he came to his senses and his mysterious behavior was ex- 
plained. He had found some vines with grapes yet remaining upon 
them, and the sight of the almost-forgotten fruit had awakened such 
a host of recollections that his mind was for a brief time thrown off 
its balance. The Vikings deemed his discovery so important that 
they gave to the country the name of Vinland, the land of vines. 
They aK^"^ cured a quantity of grapes, and carried them with them in 
their ship when they went back to Iceland. 

Of the voyagers who came after Leif, Thorlinn Karlsefni was 
the most prominent. He came with three ships and 151 men. Gudrid, 
his wife, and six other women sailed in the expedition. Thorfinn's 
object was to found a colony. He carried with him many kinds of 
live stock. His first winter is supposed, from his description of the 
country, to have been passed upon the shores of Buzzards Bay. 
There, in the year 1007, his wife Gudrid bore him a son, the first child 

l^RISTOI.. 79 

of European blood born upon the soil of this continent. In the fol- 
lowing spring Thortinn sailed up to the place the Northmen called 
Hnp. The dwellings Leif had built were not large enough to accom- 
modate his men : additional booths were therefore erected not far 
away. The colonists, although well pleased with the quality of the 
lands, were yet deterred from making a permanent settlement by rea- 
son of the hostility of the natives. The expedition returned to Green- 
land in loio. 

Accounts of other voyages are also preserved, but the expedi- 
tions to Vinland soon became so frequent that they were no longer 
deemed worthy of record. From the annals of Iceland it would appear 
that in 1121 a permanent colony had been established in the country 
Leif had discovered. Two hundred years later, the arrival of a 
Greenland ship, bound to Markland (a country also discovered by 
Leif, supposed to be Nova Scotia), is recorded. The Greenland col- 
ony disappeared from history in 1406, the year when its last bishop 
was appointed. Its 280 villages were never afterwards heard of. 
Extensive ruins along the shores mark the places where they once 

Upon the western shore of Mount Hope Bay, between Mount 
Hope and the Narrows, lies a mass oi graywacke, about ten feet long 
and six feet wide, which is commonly known as " The* Northmen's 
Rock." At high tide its broad, flat surface affords a secure landing- 
place for those who approach it from the water : at low tide it pre- 
sents an inviting seat to every one who chances to wander along the 
beach. (Upon page 73 a representation of it may be found.) It 
was otten noticed by the early settlers of the town, and several refer- 
ences to it attest the curiosity its strange inscription aroused in their 
minds. For many 3'ears it was lost sight of, and has only recently 
been rediscovered. This is not remarkable ; for the inscription covers 
but a small part of its surface, and is by no means prominent. The 
record graven upon it cannot be an Indian one, for the Ind'ans had 
no written language. Popular conjecture has always associated it 
with the visits of the Northmen. It is supposed that one of their 
number, who had been left in charge of a boat while his comrades 
were exploring the country roimd about, seated himself upon it, just 
as would one of us to-day, and amused himself by tracing his name 
and the figure of his boat upon it. 

More prominent than any other in the long list of the famous 
names that appear in connection with the history of Bristol, is that of 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Residence of William T. C. Wardwell, Esq. 

the Indian warrior and statesman, Philip of Pokanoket. Massasoiet, 
the father of King PhiHp {Massasoit the name is usually spelled), 
was, throughout his long life, one of the most faithful friends of the 
Plymouth colonists. He had hastened to conclude a treaty with 
them as soon as he had learned of their arrival. Until his death he 
observed all its provisions with unequaled good faith, fidelity, and 
honesty. The English repaid flie many favors received at his hands 
by killing his son and successor before the turf was green upon the 
grave of the aged sachem. Before the unfortunate Alexander had 
given any decided indications of what his policy was to be, the Eng- 
lish, assuming that it would be hostile, summoned him to Ply- 
mouth to answer a false accusation of treacher}^ that had been 
brougl:)i against him. The haught}- chieftain could not endure the 
indignity. The brutal treatment received at the hands of his unfeel- 
ing persecutors so wrought upon his sensitive spirit, that he sickened 
and died before the first year of his reign was concluded. 

With the fate of his brother before his eyes, Philip was careful 

I^Kis roi. 


to furnish his white 
neighbors no possible 
grounds for doubting his 
tidelitN' towards them. 
He showed no sign 
whatever of the rage 
that burned within him. 
In the earHer years o\ 
his reign he gave the 
EngHsh ever}' reason to 
suppose that he would 
follow the peaceful pol- 
icy his father had al- 
ways pursued. He was 
only biding his time. He 
saw that his people must 
inevitably disappear be- 
fore them unless the ad- 
vance of the white men 
was checked, and his 
clear brain was ever de- 
vising measures by which 
to ward otT the impend- 
ing calamit}'. Very dif- 
ferenth- the page of Ne\\- 
England history would 
run to-day, if his re- 
sources had been at all 
commensurate w^th his 
wonderful genius. 

Philip's plan was to 
unite all the tribes of 
New England in a con- 
spiracy against the Eng- 
lish. From the Penob- 
scot to the Hudson, his 
r ed-s k i n n e d w a r r i or s 
were to descend upon 
the settlements of the 
whites, and sweep the 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

St. Michael's Church. 

English back again into the 
sea. His consummate abil- 
ity very nearly brought 
about the accomplishment 
of his design. But for an 
accident, which forced him 
to begin the war sooner 
than he had intended, he 
would, without doubt, have 
been successful. The col- 
(^nists here and there heard 
vague rumors of impending 
danger, but hardly deemed 
them worthy of serious con- 
sideration. Thirty-eight 
years of peace had made 
them strangely careless. 
When the report of the Hrst hostile gun was heard, it seemed to 
many like a thunderbolt shot from a cloudless sky. 

On Sunday, June 20, 1675, the war was begun. Its harrowing 
details need not here be given. '' Driven from his paternal domains 
at Mount Hope, Philip threw himself into the depths of those vast 
and trackless forests that skirted the settlements, and were almost 
impervious to anything but a wild beast or an Indian. Here he 
gathered together his forces, like the storm accumulating its stores 
of mischief in the bosom of the thunder-cloud, and would suddenly 
emerge at a time and place least expected, carrying havoc and dis- 
may- into the villages. In this way 
Philip became a theme of universal 
apprehension. The mystery in 
which he was enveloped exagger- 
ated his real terrors. He was an 
evil that walked in darkness, whose 
coming none could foresee, and 
against which none knew w^hen to 
be on the alert. Philip seemed al- 
most possessed of ubiquity. In 
whatever part of the widely ex- 
tended frontier an eruption from 
the forest took place, Philip was 

said to be its leader." Chapel of St. Michael's church. 



High Street, from Church to 5- .•■■. 

For more than a year the bloody combat was prolonged. The 
colonists mourned the loss of more than six hundred men, the flower 
and strength of the country. Thirteen towns were entirely destroyed; 
manv others were greatly damaged. Six hundred buildings, mostly 
dwelling-houses, were consumed by fire. The loss of the Indians 
was still more terrible. One by one, the followers of Philip deserted 
him : da\- b\- chw, his dominions became more and more contracted 
as the deadly coil of colonial troops was slowly tightened around him. 
The capture of his wife and only son seemed almost to crush the very 
life out of the unfortunate monarcli. From the woes that were 
heaped so heavih- upon him, no refuge seemed to be left but death. 
He came back to the green fields and waving forests he had known 
from earliest childhood, and wailed for his end to come. From the 
rifle of a renegade Indian sped the fatal bullet, and in the " miery 
swamp," near the foot of Mount Hope, the chieftain fell. Disap- 
pointed in the vengeance they had planned to execute upon him when 
living, his relentless foes procei-ded to wreak their fury upon Philip's 
dead bodx'. To the Indian who had shot him was given the scarred 
hand bv which his corpse had been identitied. His head was also 
severed from his bod\'. ^Fhe headless trunk w as quai'teretl ami hung 
up to rot above the ground. The fate the savage chief had brought 
upon so manv Englishmen, his Christian captors visited upon him. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The genius of Irving has summed up the character and life of 
the dead king in this eloquent paragraph : " Such is the scanty 
story of the brave, but unfortunate King Philip ; persecuted when 
living, slandered and dishonored when dead. If, however, we con- 
sider even the prejudiced anecdotes furnished us by his enemies, we 
may perceive in them traces of amiable and lofty character sufficient 
to awaken sympathy for his fate, and respect for his memory. We 
tind that, amidst all the harassing cares and ferocious passions of 
constant warfare, he was alive to the softer feelings of connubial 
love and paternal tenderness, and to the generous sentiment of 
friendship. The captivity of his 'beloved wife and onl}^ son' are 
mentioned with exultation, as causing him poignant misery ; the 
death of ahy near friend is triumphantly recorded as a new blow on 
his sensibilities ; but the treachery and desertion of many of his fol- 
lowers, in whose affections he had confided, is said to have desolated 
his heart, and to have bereaved him of all further comfort. He was 
a patriot attached to his native soil — a prince true to his subjects, 
and indignant of their wrong, — a soldier, daring in battle, firm in 

Residence of Mrs R. D. Smith. 


• adversity, patient of fatigue, of hunger, of every variety of bodily 
suffering, and ready to perish in the cause he had espoused. Proud 
of heart'^and with an untamable love of natural liberty, he preferred 
to enjov it among the beasts of the forest, or in the dismal and 
famished recesses ot 

swamps and morasses, ^^ ^^- ^ -^^^^^= 

rather than b o w h is 4- i- 

haughtv spirit to submis- 
sion, and live dependent 
and despised in the ease 
and luxury of the settle- 
ments. With heroic qual- 
ides and bold achieve- 
ments that would have 

m-aced a civilized war- 

rior, and have rendered 

him the theme of the poet 

and the historian, he lived 

a wanderer and a fugitive 

in his native land, and 

went down, like a lonely 

bark foundering amid darkness and tempest, without a pitying eye 

to weep his tall or a friendly hand to record his struggle.'" 

The echoes of the death-cry of the last sachem of the Wampa- 
noags had only I'ust died away when a dispute concerning the suc- 
cession to his lands arose between the neighboring colonies of Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts Bay, and Rhode Island. Another claimant 
also appeared in the person of John Crowne, an English poet, who. 
was at the time a prominent figure at the court of King Charles II. 
The committee to whom the whole subject was referred by the Privy 
Council, decided in favor of the Plymouth Colony. To that colony, 
therefore, bv special grant from the king, the lands were conveyed, 
a quit rent of seven beaver-skins per annum being reserved to the 


On the fourteenth day of September, 1680, the Mount Hope 
Lands were sold bv the General Court of Plymoutii to four mer- 
chants of Boston : Nathaniel Bylield, John Walley , Nathaniel Oliver, 
and Stephen Burton. In that same year the settk-ment of Bristol 
was begun. Its four "First Proprietors" were men of unusual prom- 
inence in the colonv of Massachusetts : the advanced ideas which 

The Rogers Free Library. 



Picturesque Rhode Island. 

they held concerning its future were made manifest in the plans 
they adopted for its welfare and development. Not a town in New 
England had before been laid out upon such a liberal scale ; not 
a town had been founded in which such liberal provisions were 

made for the support of 
religion and for the main- 
tenance of public schools. 
The name Bristol was prob- 
ably taken because of the 
prominence which Bristol, 
England, then held. The 
English city was the most 
important sea-port in Great 
Britain. Its people hoped 
that the American Bristol 
might become the great 
sea-port of New England. 
It was intended by its 
proprietors that the new 
town should be " a town 
tor trade and commerce," 
and prominent in trade and 
commerce it immediately 
became. Its principal 
commercial relations were 
with the West Indies and the Spanish Main. For almost a century 
and a half the streets of Havana and the other prominent West 
Indian cities were more familiar to the feet of its enterprising sailors 
than even the streets of the great cities of their native land. 

In January, 1746-7, the Mount Hope peninsula became a part of 
Rhode Island, and Bristol was at once accorded an honored place 
among the towns of the little colony. Puritan ideas had governed 
its early legislation, but its nearness to the territory Roger Williams 
once governed had worn away almost every trace' of Puritan prefu- 
dices. In one respect Bristol was far in advance of any other town 
in Rhode Island. The Rhode Island towns, for the most part, had 
almost entirely neglected to make provision for the support of good 
public schools. The records of the first Bristol town-meetings per- 
petuate the votes that were passed concerning the '' maintaining of 
an able school master." 

The Town Hall. 



The Congregational Cburch 

* In the events which preceded the Revolution, Bristol gave forth no 
uncertain sound as to the course it intended to pursue. It sent out a 
boat's crew to assist in the de- 
struction of the British armed 
schooner " Gaspee." Its con- 
tributions flowed freely to the 
relief of the distressed citizens 
of Boston. When the liritish 
held possession of the bay, all 
these thincrs were remembered 
against it. On the 7th of Oc- 
tober, 1775, three English ships 
of war and several smaller ves- 
sels cast anchor before the 
town. Their commander de- 
manded that some representa- 
tive man of the place sh(Hild 
visit his ship to learn the pro- 
posals he had to make. Answ er \\ as made that the people ol the 
town would consider his demands the next morning, whereupon, 
almost immediately, the British vessels began to bombard the place. 
For an hour and a half, until one of the citizens went on board the 
flag-ship, a very heavy fire was kept up. Very many buildings were 
struck, but. strange to sa}', no one was hurt by tlie flying balls. 
One man only, the Rev. John Burt, was tbund dead in a corn-tield 
the next morning. For a long time he had been sick and feeble, 
and the iiorrors of the night were too much for his weakened spirit 
to endure. The next day the requisitions of the British comman- 
der were partiallv complied witli. and the fleet sailed back to New- 

Three years later came a heavier calamit}-. A band of 500 
British and Hessian troops descended upon I^ristol, and burned 
almost all the houses upon tlue principal street. Even the Episcopal 
Church, which had alwa}s been under tiie charge of the Englisii 
*' Society for Propagating the Gosperin Foreign Parts," was burned, 
the English soldiers believing it to be a "Dissenters' Meeting-house"' 
when they set it on tire. Very many of the town's people were car- 
ried to Newport as ]-)risoners. 

In the War of 181 2 came the day of retaliation. In less than a 
month alter the President of the United States had issued his proc- 


PicTURESQjjE Rhode Island. 

lamation of war, the private armed brig "Yankee" sailed away 
from the harbor of Bristol upon its first cruise against the ships of 
Great Britain. The success of the " Yankee " is unparalleled in the 
history of American privateers. Six cruises she made in all. In 
her first cruise of less than three months she captured ten prizes, one 
of which netted over $200,000. The coast of Africa was her second 
cruising-ground (many of her crew were familiar with all its promi- 
nent ports, but of that more in future). She was absent one hun- 
dred and fift}' days. Then she came leisurely sailing up the bay 
with a prize on either side. Eight vessels she had captured, and 
one only of them had been retaken. The amount of prize-money 
apportioned to each share as the result of the third cruise was $173.54, 
— very respectable wages for a common sailor to earn in the short 
space of three months. The fourth cruise was a comparative fail- 
ure, but the fifth more than made up for it. The owners received 
more than $200,000 as their share of its profits. The share of the 
smallest cabin-boy was more than seven hundred dollars. The sixth 
and last cruise opened auspiciously, but the richest prize was lost 
upon Charleston bar, and only one vessel of any value was brought 

into port. The ' ' Yankee " was 
in service less than three years, 
yet in those years she captured 
British property amounting in 
value to almost a million of 
pounds. Many of her prizes 
were of course retaken, but she 
sent into Bristol a million of 
dollars as the profit from her 

The stain upon the history of 
Bristol is the share which it took 
in the infamous African slave- 
trade, a stain which is also to be 
observed upon the records of 
many of its sister towns. New- 
port was more prominent in this 
business than Bristol, and it was 
upon Providence ships that the 
most noted of the Bristol captains first learned the route to the African 
slave-pens. The age was in fault as well as the moral sentiment of 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. 



Residence of Gen. A. E. Burnside. 

the Rhode Ishiiul towns. I'he world has grown better since the last 
slaver sailed out from Narragansett Bay, and the moral sentiment ot 
Bristol has more than kept pace with the general progress of the 
age. Bitterly the town mourns to-day .over those black pages that 
canpot be suppressed, and nowhere in the United States is there leit 
a deeper abhorrence for the sin of slavery. 

The " round trip " of a slaver was usually an exceedingly profit- 
able one. Most of the vessels engaged in the trade were either 
schooners or sloops. From the disdlleries near the wharves in Bris- 
tol, they were filled with great casks of newly-made New England 
rum. (Hardly palatable would such a fiery beverage seem to the 
more delicate tastes of the present day : but like the nectar ot the 
gods it was to the well-seasoned throats of our hardy ancestors. ) 
Some goods of the gorgeous hues most pleasing to barbaric eyes 
were also placed on board, and the vessel was cleared for the coast 
of Africa. The voyage to the coast was almost always a long one. 
The earlier slave-ships were not built for speed, but simply to carry 
freight. The stav upon the coast was also of considerable length. 
One by one. the hogsheads of rum were bartered for sla\es, until the 
necessarv return cargo was obtained. Then the captain sailed lor 
the West Indies, where his living freight was always disposed ot 
without trouble. There he would take on board a load of molasses 
for his owner's distillery, and hasten back to Bristol. All this w^as 
done in the \ears befori- the sla\e-trade was declared to be illegal. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

For the slave-trade after the year 1808, when the "horrors of the 
Middle Passage" drew upon it the execrations of the whole world, 

the merchants of Bristol should 
not be held responsible. 

In the year 1804 the ports 
ot South Carolina were opened 
for the importation of slaves. 
They remained open for four 
years, and almost fort}^ thou- 
sand negroes were imported 
during that time. Of the two 
hundred and two slave-vessels 
entered at the Charleston Cus- 
tom-House, sixty-one be- 
longed to Charleston mer- 
chants, seventy belonged to 
natives of Great Britain, and 
fifty-nine were owned in 
Rhode Island. In the Rhode 
Island vessels were imported 
8,238 slaves. Of these, ^^914 
are credited to Bristol, 3,488 to Newport, 556 to Providence, and 
280 to Warren. Manv of the vessels entered as beloncxinp- in 
Charleston were really owned by Rhode Island men, as any one 
lamiliar with the names of the merchants of that day can easily 
learn from examining the full tables. The number to be set down 
to the credit (or discredit) of Bristol, should therefore be even 
larger than that which is here Hven. 

Some idea of the commercial importance of the town during the 
first quarter of the present centur^^ may be gained from the amount 
of duties paid at its custom-house. These are some of the statistics 
preserved upon the official books. The middle column mves the 
number of foreign arrivals in each year : 

The Baptist Church. 

I8IO . 

96 . 

. $152,380 92 

1816 . 

48 . 

• $78,543 97 

I8II . 

89 . 

109,181 78 

1817 . 

53 • 

74,095 28 

I8I2 . 

55 • 

100,137 ^i 

1818 . 

68 . 

. 103,665 69 

I8I3 . 

30 . 

. . 152,966 04 

1819 . 

69 . 

• 126,437 87 

I8I4 . 

19 . 

72,468 42 

1820 . 

50 . 

. 121,570 40 

I8I5 . 

n • 

. 120,693 53 

1821 . 

44 • 

. 137^275 06 



Durintr these years the average popuhition of tlie town was con- 
siclerabl}- less than 3,000 people. The disproportionate amount of 
its business is therefore plainly evident. It maintained extensive 
commercial relations with the ports of Northern and Southern Europe, 
with China, with the " Northwest Coast," with Africa, and of course 
with the West Indies. In the year 1825 Bristol merchants began to 
make large in\estments in the whale-fishery, and, as a consequence, 
the general commerce of the port began to decline. In 1837 twenty 
whale-ships bore the name of Bristol upon their sterns ; the aggre- 
gate tonnage of this fleet was 6,256 tons. After the discovery of 
gold in California the whale-fishery was gradually abandoned. The 
feeble remnant of the town's foreign commerce almost entirely dis- 
appeared in the late civil war. 

Very different is the thriving manufacturing town of to-day from 
the bustling little sea-port of half a centurv ago, and yet every sum- 
nu-r finds it crowded with \isitors, who seem never to tire of gazing 
uj-xju its tranquil beauty. A passing traveler, wandering through it 
on a pleasant July afternoon, could form no idea of the energy which 
is the birthright of the place. Its broad and shady streets are then 
almost deserted. Heav\ loads of merchandise pass along them 

Residence of S. P. Coif, Esq. 



from time to time, but they seem strangely out of place beneath the 
waving branches of the magnificent elms. Everything wears the 
restful air one expects to behold only in the verdant lanes of some 
remote countrv village. When the great engines cease to throb, 
and the shadows of evening fall, the old town wakes from its sleep, 
and for a few hours its streets are as crowded as are the thorough- 
fares of a great city at mid-dav. Then the noise dies away, and at 
midnight onlv the firm tread of the watchman echoes feebly through 
the sleepy air. 

Warren. — Not far from 
Baker's wharf, in the town of 
Warren, a stream of water "the 
size of a man's arm " flows out 
from a sluice-wa}" under the 
ground, and downward to the 
river, during all but one of the 
twelve months of t'he year. It 
comes from a spring in the mid- 
dle of one of the public streets. 
This spring was once distant 
about eight}' feet from the 
'• high-water mark'" of the early 
davs of the village. When the 
wharf near it was built, and 
buildings rose thickl}^ around, 
the land about it was gradually 
raised, and the spring itself was 
walled up like a well. It is now 
about eight feet deep. For un- 
known ages the waters of this fountain have been gushing forth. 
Pure and clear are they to-day, in their basin of stone, as when they 
cooled the parched throat of the tirst white man who halted beside 
its verdant banks. 

A little more than two centuries and a half ago, the wigwams of 
an Indian village were standing about this spring. Giant forest 
trees waved their green branches above the dusky forms that reclined 
in placid enjovment along its banks. Great heaps of clam-shells and 
of oyster-shells, scattered ever3'where about, showed that the spot 
had been for many ages a favorite camping-ground of the red men. 
The name of this Indian village, in the year 1621, was Sowams. Its 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. 



ruler was the sachem of 
the Pokanoket tribe, the 
ehieltainMassasoiet. The 
name of the I'ountain is 
to-day ahnost the only 
thing which remain<! to 
keep the fact in mind. It 
is still called Massaspiet's 

Massasoiet was one of 
the most prominent char- 
acters in the early history 
of this country. The 
writers of the seventeenth 
century tell us that he 
w^as " a very lust}' man. 
grave of countenance, 
spare of speech, in his 
attire dithering little or 
nothing from his tbllow- 
ers." On ceremonial oc- 
casions his face was 
painted a •' sad red" and 
oiled. He wore a chain 
of white bone beads about 
his neck, and a Ion a- 
k n i f e in his b o s o m . 
From the chain of beads 
a little bag, filled with 
tobacco, w^as usually sus- 
pended. In addition to 
the singular shrewdness 
and the unusiuil insight 
into the motives of men 
w h i c h was t h e d i s - 
tinguishing characteristic 
of his race, Massasoiet 
possessed genius which 
would have been called 
statesmanlike, had his 

94 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

skin been less dark, or his lot cast in other lands. When the Eng- 
lish landed at Plymouth, he hastened to bid them welcome and to 
form an alliance with them. All his life he remained their steadfast 
friend, never wavering in even the slightest degree from the faith 
pledged at his first interview with them. More than once, when fam- 
ine laid its terrible hand upon the feeble white settlements, the 
princely generosity of this illustrious savage rescued the starving 
settlers almost from the jaws of death. Conspiracies against the 
English, which neighboring tribes had formed, were oftentimes 
thwarted by his wise counsels and his fearless assertions of friend- 
ship. Before his death the faintly visible trail which had formerly 
connected Sowams with Plymouth had become a well-defined bridle- 
path, deeply marked by the tread of thousands of passing feet. 

Two visits paid by Plymouth men to Massasoiet are worthy of 
special mention. The first was made in 162 1, when Edward Win- 
slow and Stephen Hopkins were sent by Governor Bradford to return 
the visit the sachem had lately made to the infant settlement. The 
two white men carried with them as presents a horseman's laced coat 
of red cotton, and a copper chain. The chieftain was absent when the 
envoys reached his residence. One of them attempted to discharge 
his musket in order to give notice of their arrival, but was forced to 
desist because of the terror manifested by the women and children. 
The salute they gave to Massasoiet on his arrival pleased him greatly. 
The presents seemed to afibrd him extreme delight, and he yielded 
a ready and willing assent to all the proposals the Englishmen had to 
make. No notice had been sent to the sachem of the intended visit; 
he had therefore had no opportunity to make any preparation for the 
reception of his guests, and the proverbial scantiness of Indian fare 
was more than borne out on tliis occasion. The whole party were 
forced to go supperless to bed ; not until noon of the next day was 
any food procured, and the few fishes some of the tribe had shot were 
then bv no means sufficient to appease the hunger of the throng who 
had crowded in to gaze upon the two Englishmen. In the large 
wigwam of Massasoiet, Winslow and Hopkins found shelter, but not 
rest, during the night of their stay. The sleeping-place was a plat- 
form of rough boards, thinly covered with a mat of skins. On this 
rude couch, Massasoiet placed his visitors, " with himself and his 
wife, they at one end and the Englishmen at the other, and two more 
of Massasoiet's men pressed by and upon them, so that they were 
worse weary of the lodging than the journey." The next day they 
went back to Plymouth. 



A View of Main Street. 

Two years later news came to Plymouth that Massasoiet was 
sick and likeh' to die, — also that a Dutch ship had been stranded 
upon ihe shore of the Sowams River, not far from the sachem's 
residence. Again Edward Winslow ^vas sent to \isit the Indian 
king. (He was also to communicate with the captain of the Dutcli 
vessel, but the ship had left the bay before he reached Sowams.) 
John Hampden, he who in later years bore such a glorious part in 
the struiTple which <rave to England a free constitution, went with 
him as his companion. When Winslow and his friend reached 
Sowams thev found the chieftain's wigwam so crowded that they 
could hardh' etTect an entrance, thou<;h the Indians readih' made 
wav for them as thev pressed in. " There were they in the midst 
of their charms for him, making sucii a hellish noise as it distem- 
pered us who were w^ell, and therefore unlike to ease him that was 
sick. About him were six or eight women, who chafed his arms, 
legs, and thighs, to keep heat in him. When they had made an 
end of their charming, one told hhn that his friends, the English- 
men, were come to see him." The chieftain's sight was gone, but 
his understanding was still left him. Feebly he welcomed Winslow , 
and in tlie same breath bade him farewell. But the self-reliant 
colonist had come to restore Massasoiet to health, and was not 

96 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

daunted by the extremely unfavorable state in which he found 
his patient. The remedies at his command were few and simple, 
but his excellent common sense enabled him to use them so well 
that the sick man was soon out of danger and rapidly recovering. 
The gratitude of the chief knew no bounds. " Upon his recovery 
he brake forth into these speeches : ' Now I see that the English 
are mv friends and love me, and whilst I live I will never foro-et 
the kindness they have showed me.''" Faithfully he kept his word. 
Says Cotton Mather: "The fees he paid his English doctor were 
a confession of a plot among several nations of the Indians to destroy 
the English." 

It is believed that the deed of " Sowams and parts adjacent" was 
the last document that Massasoiet signed. The deed is given in 
the name of " Osamequen and Wamsetto, his son," and is dated 
'' 29th March, 1653." (Osamequen was the name the sachem had 
taken a few years before. The Indians often changed their names 
to commemorate important events in their lives.) The territory of 
Warren was originally included in the town of Swansea. In the 
Swansea town records the site of the village is spoken of as Brooks' 
Pasture. When the first house was built upon it cannot be ascer- 
tained. There were eighteen houses in the village when Philip's 
War broke out. All these were burned ; their inhabitants fled to 
the Island of Rhode Island. Soon after the close of the war Brooks' 
Pasture was carefully surveyed and laid out in house-lots. A new 
settlement was begun upon it, and its inhabitants were divided into 
three ranks, according to the peculiar system then in vogue in 
Swansea. (Of this strange regulation more will be said in another 
place.) In the year 1746 it was enacted by the Legislature of 
Rhode Island that " that part of the territory confirmed to Rhode 
Island, which has heretofore been part of Swansey and Barrington, 
with a small part of Rehoboth thereto adjoining, with the inhabit- 
ants thereon, be incorporated into a township by the name of War- 
ren." "The name of this town was given in honor of Admiral Sir 
Peter Warren, who the year before, June, 1745, had commanded the 
English fleet, which in conjunction with the colonial army of 4,400 
men, under the command of Gen. William Pepperell, captured 
Louisburg and the Island of Cape Breton, after a storming and 
siege of six weeks' continuance." 

On the 25th of May, 1778, a band of British troops made a raid 
upon the town. The special object of the expedition was to destroy 



The Baptist Church. 

a lk)lilla of boats that had been collected bv the Americans in the 
Kickemuit River. Seventy or more of these boats the British piled 
together and burnt. They also burnt the row-galley "Washington/* 
an^'d a Ln-ist-mill. Returning to Warren, they set tire to the Baptist 
Church, the Baptist parson- 
age, a powder magazine, 
and several other buildings. 
Having pillaged many houses 
and taken many prisoners, 
they hastened southward to 
the destruction of Bristol. 
Mr. Fessenden, in his Ilis- 
torv of Wa?')-cn (published 
in 1845), thus notes the pas- 
sage of the troops: "Aged 
people, still living among us, 
well remember the appear- 
ance of these soldiers as they 
passed through the town. 
The British were dressed in 
old-foshioned red coats, cocked hats, and small-clothes, with a great 
display of laced trimmings, shoe and knee buckles. The Hessians 
wore enormous fur caps and large, wide, and loose boots, into which 
they thrust all kinds of articles pilfered from the houses ; and these 
articles hanging over the tops of their boots gave them a singularly 
grotesque appearance as they left the town. A lady now^ living, 
and several others were at the time in the house which was after- 
wards Bradshaw's bake-house, on the east side of Main Street. 
They saw^ the troops pass by in hasty retreat, and at a short distance 
in the rear a single individual, encumbered with a big drum, unable 
to keep up wdth the main body. These heroic women ran out and 
surrounded him, and told him he was their prisoner, when he im- 
mediately surrendered, saying he was glad of it, for he was lamt 
and tired. This prisoner was afterward exchanged for one of the 
citizens of Warren." 

Before the Revolutionary War, Warren was largely engaged in 
the whale-fishery and in foreign commerce. Fourteen of its vessels 
were lost during the war, and it was many years before others were 
procured to take their places. The whale-fishery, indeed, was not 
again prosecuted until the year 182 1, when the ship " Rosalie " was 

9^ Picturesque Rhode Island. 

purchased and fitted for a voyage to the whaling-grounds in the 
Pacific Ocean. The Warren whalers were the last vessels of the 
class owned in Rhode Island. At one time the fleet numbered about 

The ship-yards of the town in other days turned out some very 
remarkable vessels. The United States frigate " General Greene," 
of 600 tons burden, was launched from the yard of Cromwell & 
Child. Her cost, when completed and fitted for sea, was $105,- 
492.32. She sailed from the port in 1799. In 1814 she happened 
to be lying at the Washington Navy Yard when that city was 
attacked by the British, and was destroyed, to prevent her from fall- 
ing into their hands. The United States sloop-of-war " Chippewa " 
was built by Capt. Caleb Carr. Captain Carr contracted with the 
Government to build this vessel in the shortest time possible. Fifty- 
seven days after her keel was laid he delivered her to Com. O. H. 
Perry, ready for her rigging and armament. From Captain Carr's 
yard was also launched the famous Bristol privateer, "Macdonough," 
of 300 tons burden. The " Macdonough " was celebrated for her 
wonderful speed. Her model was justl}^ regarded as a marvel of 
beauty. During the war she made but one cruise. Although she 
effected man}^ captures, all her prizes were retaken. She was 
finally sold in Cuba, and went to pieces in the harbor of Matanzas 
with a cargo of slaves on board. 

The commerce of Warren has now entirely vanished. All the 
energies of the town are devoted to manufactures. In its three great 
cotton-mills more than a thousand operatives, are employed. The 
annual value of their manufactured product is almost $1,200,000. 

Barrington. — The municipal career of Barrington has been 
more varied than that of an}^ other town in Rhode Island. It was 
once a part of Swansea, Mass. Within its present boundaries the 
first English settlement in that ancient town was made in 1632. In 
17 17 it was set off" from Swansea under the name of Barrington., 
For thirty years it was numbered among the towns of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, but in 1747, when the long-disputed 
" boundary question " was settled, it lost its identity completely, and 
became a part of Warren, R. I. In 1770 it was again awarded a 
separate existence, under the name it has ever since retained. 

Of the early settlers of Barrington, Arnold gives this brief 
account in his History of Rhode Island, Vol. II., page 158 : " Swan- 



Nayatt Point. 

zea was settled b}' men whose views on the subject of rehgioiis free- 
dom were too liberal even for the tolerant spirit of the Pilgrims. 
Rev. John Miles, a Baptist minister from Wales, with his friends, 
had settled in Plymouth, where their dissent from the prevailing 
creed soon placed them under the ban of the authorities. They 
were required to remove from the immediate neighborhood, but 
were permitted to settle within the limits claimed by Plymouth. 
Soon afterward the Court granted to Capt. Thomas Willett, Mr. 
Miles, and others, all the land west of Taunton and Rehoboth, as far 
as the Ba}', which included the present towns of Swanzea and Som- 
erset. The act of incorporation secured freedom of conscience to 
the settlers, who were thus left in the unmolested enjoyment of their 
religion. The place was called Swanzea from the Welch town 
whence Miles and most of his church had emigrated." 

The Plymouth assumption of jurisdiction over this territory was 
the beginning of the boundar}' trouble. Four years before Swansea 
was incorporated, the charter granted to Rhode Island had conveyed 
to that colon}' jurisdiction over the countr}' extending eastward three 
miles from the shores of Narragansett Bay. It seems most remarka- 
ble that the legal claim of Rhode Island to this territorv should have 
been disputed tor more than four-score years. Yet in the face of the 
unusually explicit terms of the charter from King Charles II., 
the question was kept undecided during all that time. The nurthcrn 
boundar}' has not yet been finally settled. 

The peculiar feature in the early history of the town was the 
division of its inhaljitants into three •' Ranks." The three Roman 

lOO Picturesque Rhode Island. 

orders — the Patrician, the Equestrian, and the Plebeian — probably 
suggested the arrangement. The power to make the division was 
assumed by the live persons appointed in 1667 by the Court of Ply- 
mouth to regulate the admission of inhabitants to the town. It was 
afterwards exercised by committees appointed by the town, and by 
the selectmen. The committees were allowed to make promotions 
from one rank to another, and also to degrade whom they pleased. 
Sometimes degradations were made by request of the person de- 
graded. The amount of land owned b}' each man at first determined 
the rank to which he should be assigned. Nowhere else in America 
did such a strange system prevail. 

It worked well enough at first, but in 168 1 the committee of 
admission granted to five persons and " their heirs and assigns for- 
ever T the full right and intent of the highest rank. This step of the 
committee of course made the rank hereditary, and disclosed to the 
eyes of the people of the town the dangers of the path in which they 
were treading. Secret dissatisfaction quickly broke out into open 
revolt ; the action of the committee was bv unanimous consent 
declared to be void and of none efiect, and the uncouth remnant of 
feudalism soon faded away. 

The first name in the first rank was that of Capt. Thomas Wil- 
lett. Captain Willett was one of the most noted men in the colony 
of Massachusetts. The story of his life belongs to the town of Har- 

Thomas V/illett was one of the last of the " Leyden Company" 
who came to this country. He arrived at Plymouth in 1629 ; although 
but nineteen years of age, he had already won an enviable reputa- 
tion for business ability. The people of Plymouth had some time 
before established a trading-post at Kennebec. Almost immediately 
after his arrival in the colony young Willett was sent thither to take 
charge of it. Resolute, ambitious, and independent, he was just the 
man for the place. His previous mercantile career had given him 
an unusual knowledge of the ways of men : he was an excellent 
linguist ; he possessed rare executive ability. For six years or more 
he remained at Kennebec. This singular anecdote concerning him 
is related in Governor Winthrop's yournal. 

" At Kennebec, the Indians wanting food, and there being store 
in the Plymouth trading-house, they conspired to kill the English 
there for their provision ; and some Indians coming into the house, 
Mr. Willett, the master of the house, being reading the Bible, his 



The Old Watson Houie. 

countenance was more solemn than at other times, so as he did not 
look cheerfully upon them as he was wont to do ; whereupon they 
went out and told their lellows that their purpt)se was discovered. 
They asked them how it could be. The others told them thai ihey 
knew it by Mr. Wil- 
lett's countenance, 
and that they had 
discovered it by a 
book he was read- 
ing. Whereupon 
they gave over their 

hi 1647 Mr. Wil- 
lett, having returned 
to Plymouth, was 
chosen to the com- 
mand of its military 
company. Miles 

Standish, the intrepid warrior who had asked for but eight men 
with which to subdue all the Indians of Massachusetts, had held 
the office before him. Advancing years had compelled the fiery 
captain to lay his sword aside. No higher tesdmoniai could be 
afforded of Willett's worth than this election. In 165 1 he became 
an "Assistant" in Plymouth, and was annually re-elected until 1665, 
when he declined to hold the ollice longer. 

A more important office was to be forced upon him. The prov- 
ince of New Amsterdam had lately become a part of the Bridsh 
possessions, and Captain Willett had been summoned to New York 
by the English Commissioners to act as their official interpreter. His 
thorough acquaintance with the language and customs of the Dutch 
rendered his services invaluable. No other Englishman in the coun- 
try was so well iitted for "modeling and reducing the aflairs in 
those settlements into good English." So admirably did he perform 
the duties assigned him, that after the reorganization of the prov- 
ince had been perfected, he was elected the first Mayor of New 
York City. At the close of his first term he was re-elected. His 
integrity was so highly esteemed by the Dutch that they appointed 
him their umpire to determine the disputed boundary between New 
York and New Haven. About the year 1667, he returned to 
Plvmouth Colony, and continued until the end of his life to reside 

I02 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

upon his plantation in Swansea. His sword, and one of the doors of 
the house in which he dwelt, are in the possession of the city of New 

The principal associate of M^illett, in the founding of Swansea, 
was the Rev. John Miles. Mr. Miles had been the pastor of the 
Baptist Church in Swansea, Wales, and had been ejected from his 
living lor " non-conformity." With a very large portion of his flock 
he came to this country, and in 1663 founded at Rehoboth the fourth 
Baptist church in America. This action of the Baptists being offen- 
sive to the Congregationalists, the former were advised to remove 
from the town. The settlement at Swansea w^as the result. It took 
its name from the Welch Swansea. (Its name is also written Swan- 
sey and Swanzea — Swansea, the sea of Swans, is the original s'pell- 
ing.) In the northern part of the present town of Barrington, the 
first Baptist church in Swansea was erected. Mr. Miles" own house 
was near the residence of the late Mason Barney, at "• Barneysville." 
The bridge near his house was called Miles' Bridge. The house 
was used as a fortress in Philip's War, and was often called " Miles' 
Garrison." Mr. Miles was the school-master, as well as the pastor, of 
the new settlement. In 1673 the town voted to establish a school 
" for the teaching of grammar, rhetoric, and arithmetic, and the 
tongues of Latin, Greek and Hebrew, also to read English and to 
write." Mr. Miles was elected school-master. For his services in 
conducting his scholars through this simple curriculum, he received 
the munificent sum of " forty pounds per annum in current country, 
funds.'" Notwithstanding his double employment, Mr. Miles did not 
acquire great wealth. A portion of the people considered it unnec- 
essary to pay his salary as a minister ; another part held learning in 
light esteem. Strange to say, the son of this Baptist who had fled to 
America for the enjoyment of his religious beliefs, took orders in 
the Church of Enj^land, and came back to assume the charcfe of 
King's Chapel, in Boston. 

The most noted dwelling in Barrington is the house which for 
six generations has been the home of the Watson family. The 
" Old Watson House" w^as built of brick, made by hand upon the 
"plantation" just north of it. Its mortar was mixed with lime 
obtained by burning the heaps of oyster-shells that numberless gene- 
rations of Indians had left scattered about. Matthew Watson, first 
of the name in America, was its builder. It was finished A. D. 
1660. The house, as first constructed, was one of the " lean-tos," 

Harrington. 103 

so dear to the hearts of the early settlers of Massachusetts. Two 
stories high it was in front : in the rear its roof terminated in a 
wood-pile. "Modern improvement" took away its second story a 
crreat manv years ago. It was the first dwelling of brick erected in 
the county, and was an unusually elegant mansion for its day. Its 
hearths, chimney-jambs, and mantels were all of imported marble. 
Quaint Dutch tiles, imported from Amsterdam, were freely employed 
for decoration. A generation or so ago a fire destroyed some of the 
partitions of the old building, but its exterior walls remain firm as of 
yore. Upon one of its floors was laid the first woolen carpet known 
in Barrington. The first wall-paper seen in the town was also hung 
in the same room. One of the Matthew Watsons of the family " w as 
born in the seventeenth, lived through the eighteenth, and died in 
the nineteenth century, at the age of 107 years." Some of his 
descendants aver that he lived to be no years of age, but the 
inscription upon his tombstone made him but 107. The additional 
tliree years do not matter much. Almost to the very last he retained 
his unusual muscular vigor. When 100 years old he was able to 
place his foot in the stirrup and mount his horse with more than the 
ordinary ease of a man of fifty. He lived a life of great energy and 
usefulness, and amassed what was considered at the time of his 
death to be an immense 

Barrington abounds in delightful bits of scenery, but by far the 
most beautiful spot wuthin its borders is Nayatt Point. No one. 
gazes upon it from the waters of the bay, or drives quietly past its 
well-kept lawns, without bestowing a spontaneous tribute of admira- 
tion. Nature has done much for Nayatt ; the art of man has been 
employed mainly to carry out the plans her lavish hand suggested. 
Its little cluster of houses has not been allowed to grow up in the 
careless, hap-hazard way that has marred the beauty of so many 
American towns. Upon the most picturesque sites the tasteful villas 
have been erected. The grounds about them have been laid out 
according to a simple but well-ordered plan. The owners of the 
little peninsula do not intend that it shall become only a summer 
camninfr-frround. It is meant to be a home, a place to which one 
can flee for shelter when the snow-flakes are covering all the land- 
scape with a fleecy pall, as well as when city streets are stifling those 
who dwell upon them with a pent-up volume of heated air. Happy 
would the State be, if all its villages were managed under the excel- 
lent system which has done so much for tliis favf)red community. 



,T is quite probable that not one-tenth part of those who 
have visited East Providence during the nineteen 
years of its existence, are aware that their feet have 
ever been placed upon its soil. And yet there are few 
y^^^s towns in the State more frequented by visitors during 
the warm summer months. The numerous trains of 
the Bristol railway are often stopping at its stations ; 
excursion steamers, " decked with flags and streamers 
gay," are ever landing great loads of human freight 
upon its bending piers. Silver Spring is the destina- 
tion of most of these excursionists. Some of them stop 
at Ocean Cottage. A few favored mortals enter the 
well-kept grounds over which the flag of the Squantum 
Club waves enticingly. The steps of all are turned 
towards one common goal. Some, to whom the spot is already 
familiar, press confidently on with poorly-concealed eagerness. 
Others advance with the air of hesitation which is always so becom- 
ing to the neophyte. A " genuine Rhode Island clam-bake" is the 
magnet which draws them forward. Your pardon, reader, if we 
attempt a feeble description of this world-famed production of our 
glorious State. 

East Providence. 


The history of the chim-bake has never yet been written. To 
unfold in fitting terms its mysteries, to describe the successive steps 
througii which perfection has at last been reached, requires a pen of 
more than ordinary ability. Frankly we confess ourselves to be 
incompetent to perform the task. Had Charles Lamb lived in this 
most favored land, his unequaled fancy might, perhaps, have done 
justice to the fruitful theme. Had the gentle Elia been a Rhode 
"islander, the •' succulent clam," rather than the " tender crackling," 
would have held the place of honor upon his never-to-be-forgotten 

A little encvclopivdic information may not be out of place just 
here. Mya arenaria, is the scientific name of the common "long 
clam" of Narragansett Bay. The "long clam," or, as it is some- 
times called, the "soft clam," must not be confounded with the qua- 
haug. The latter is a very diflerent creature. Scientific men call it 
Venus nicrccnaria. Those who have not penetrated the secrets of 
its mechanism are often greatly puzzled when they attempt to extract 
it from its hard, round shell. All along the shores of the bay the 
mxic are tbund. Thousands of bushels are dug each year, but the 
supply does not seem to diminish. The distinguishing feature of the 
clam is the " siphon." The American Cyclofiedia describes it thus : 
" The siphon is neither head nor tail, but a double retracdle tube for 
respiratory and feeding purposes." This " siphon " is a perpetual 
joy to those unfamiliar with the bivalve. Not long ago a learned 
doctor of divinity from one of our Western States came to the shores 
of the Narragansett for a short visit. All his life he had sighed for 
an opportunity to " entrap a clam in its lair." At last he realized 

Silver Spring. 

io6 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

the object of his ambition. The " siphon " drew out his unbounded 
admiration. Upon its admirable adaptation of means to an end, he 
enlarged with eloquent tongue, and seemed never to weary in the 
expatiation. Hastening to the railway station, after a stay far too brief 
for those who had enjo3'ed his genial society, he espied a basket of 
clams exposed for sale in front of a market. Never again could he 
hope to possess a more favorable opportunity for observing the 
" siphon." Stopping short in his walk, at the risk of losing his train, 
the grave and dignified divine tested for the last time with eager fin- 
ger its wonderful powers of contraction, then with visions of luscious 
myce dancing before his eyes, and their fragrant odors tantalizing his 
olfactory nerves, went sorrowfully back to the unromantic routine of 
his city life. 

Upon nearly all the shores of New England the clam is found. 
• Several times, in the early history of Massachusetts, the white settlers 
would have perished but for this lavish food-supply which nature had 
provided for them. From the Indians the English learned the way 
in which it should be cooked. Upon the shores of the Narragansett 
the "clam-bake" has gradually been brought to'its state of perfec- 

The modus operandi oi a "bake" is as follows: In the first 
place a rude floor of stones is laid. Upon this floor a pile of ordinary 
" cord-wood " is thrown. The wood is set on fire and allowed to burn 
until the stones beneath begin to crack with the heat. The half- 
burned brands are then pulled away, and a thin layer of sea-weed 
— the ordinary "rock-weed" of the shore — is thrown upon the heated 
. stones. (This lirst layer is not absolutely essential. It serves to 
prevent the lowest clams from being burned or discolored by the too 
great heat.) Next the clams are thrown upon the pile in a layer of 
uniform thickness, and another coating of "rock-weed" is placed 
over them. A piece of old canvas is spread over the whole (to 
keep in all the steam), and the fragrant pile is left to itself for about 
forty minutes. Then the "bake" is opened and the repast begins. 
Sometimes ears of green corn, baskets of potatoes and other 
vegetables, lobsters, fresh fish rolled in corn-husks, and various 
other edibles are deposited in the midst of the rock-weed. The 
steaming vapors from the clams permeate the whole mass, and 
impregnate everything with their rich odor. Many men would, any 
day, willingly leave the well-appointed table of the " Narragansett 
Hotel " to partake of such a feast. The relish for it seems to increase 
rather than to diminish, as it becomes more familiar. 

East Providence. 



Washington Bridge connects East Providence with the city of 
Providence. On the brow of the first hill the traveler surmounts as 
he drives away from the river and through the well-cultivated fields 
that border the road which leads to Bristol County, stands, at a little 
distance from the broad thoroughfare, a somewhat pretentious man- 
sion. It is guarded on every side by a row of sentinel columns, like 
one of the heathen temples of the olden- days of Greece. Almost 
every one who has passed by must have noticed it, and admired its 
comrqanding position. The view from its upper windows to-day is 
wonderfully fine. Much more charming it must have been half a 
century ago, before the long lines of city streets and the monotonous 
array of tenement-houses crowded themselves into tiie landscape, to 
the exclusion of the waving branches and the emerald banks kindly 
Nature had provided. In this house one of Rhode Island's most 
eminent men once lived. The little State can claim for its own an 
unusually large number of famous names. As a soldier of the 
Revolution the fame of Nathaniel Greene is second onlv to tiiat of 
Washington ; as a sailor the name of Oliver Hazard Perry shines 
with unequaled lustre; as an orator hardly a man throughout the 
length and breadth of the land was better known, as a debater no 
antagonist was more greatly feared, than Tristam Purges. 

Mr. Burges was born in Pl}'mouth C()unt\', Massachusetts, in 
February, 1770. His father was by trade a cooper, and the future 
lawyer's early years were full of the severe manual lalior which 
usually falls to the lot of the ciiildren of the poor. He was taught to 

io8 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

read by his sister ; his father gave him, according to his abiHty, 
scant}'' instruction in mathematics, but at twent3''-one, he had been 
at school but twelve week« during his whole life. In 1792 he 
became a student in the Academv at Wrentham, Mass., and there he 
made his first appearance as an orator. The attempt was almost a 
complete failure. A natural impediment in his speech was intensified 
by the unfamiliar circumstances of his position ; he found himself 
uttering but a succession of unintelligible syllables, and was com- 
pelled to retire in confusion from the rostrum. 

As he was returning to his home, one of his companions sug- 
gested to him, in a rather unfeeling way, that he "ought to get 
some one to do his speaking for him." The words were like gall to 
the ambitious young man, but they spurred him on to success ; like 
the late Lord Beaconsfield he resolved that his sneering associates 
should one day listen with respect to whatever he had to say. The 
difficulties in his path seemed almost insurmountable ; with resolute 
will he set himself to work to overcome them. Day by day, amid 
the cool shades of the neighboring tbrest, he labored to change his 
stammering utterances to distinct articulations. After a long time 
he was successful, so successful that at the graduation of his class he 
w^as chosen not only to speak for himself, but for the class also, as its 
valedictorian. In 1793 he entered Brown University as a member 
of the sophomore class, and at once assumed a leading position 
among the students. His unusual powers of application made him 
facile ^rincc^s whenever he chose to be so. He was the orator of 
his class, and was chosen a second time to deliver a valedictory 
oration, at its " Commencement Exercises." 

In 1799 Mr. Burges was admitted to the Rhode Island bar. Able 
lawyers then adorned it, but the young advocate was immediately 
accorded an unusually prominent place among them. To every 
case entrusted to his charge he devoted himself with an enthusiasm 
that was remarkable, even in that age of hard work. Whenever he 
rose to speak, he was sure of a most attentive audience. His pro- 
found knowledge of the law, his apt illustrations, and his exquisite 
command of language, rarely failed to win for him a favorable 
verdict. In 1825 he was elected a Representative to Congress, and 
his fame at once became national. The National House of Repre- 
sentatives afforded him an ample field for the display of his wonder- 
ful skill as a debater. It was the fashion at that time for the men 
from the South to revile New England, and the Northern members 

East Providence. 


The Falls at Hunt's Mills. 

were, perhaps, not so ready in debate as they should have been to 
resent the insults cast upon their states. After Mr. Burges took his 
seat the insults were not otTered with such frequency. Not a man 
in the House could cope with Rhode Island's representative when 
once his wrath had been aroused. Even the proud spirit of John 
Randolph, of Roanoke, could not withstand the torrent of fiery 
indignation and the terrible bursts of sarcasm which the " bald eagle " 
of Rhode Island poured out against those who had dared to slander 
his friends and neighbors. Mr. Burges served but two terms in 
Congress. He had espoused the losing side in politics, and thus 
w^as forced to retire from active political life before his work was 
half accomplished. The last years of his life were spent in com- 
parative retirement upon his farm. He died in 1853. 

East Providence became a town of Rhode Island in 1862. 
Before that date it formed a part of Seekonk, Mass. It wall, doubt- 
less, in course of time become one of the wards of the city of Prov- 
idence. Every day its relations with the principal capital of the 
State become more intimate. Its final annexation to its powertul 
neighbor is only a question of years. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The " Wilkesbarre Pier" is one of the most prominent features of 
the town. The pier was designed to accommodate the immense 
coal business of the Worcester railway. The first cargo was landed 
upon it about eight years ago. It is very nearly one thousand feet 
long, and covers about five acres of land. The head of the pier is 
not " made land, "as most people imagine it to be. A large number 
of piles, driven deep into the yielding mud, sustain a floor of stout 
planks, covered with a coating of earth two or three feet deep. Last 
year (in July, 1880) these piles were forced apart by the pressure of 
the great weight above them, and a very general collapse was the 
result. During the year 1880, 473 cargoes were landed upon this 
pier. From it more than 250.000 tons of coal were carried away in 
the railway cars. It appears somewhat strange at first sight to read 
that, while the number of tons of coal landed upon this great wharf 
increases each year, the number of vessels bringing cargoes steadilv 
diminishes. The age of small vessels has gone by. Large steamers, 
and great barges towed by steam-tugs, have taken the place of the 
" fore-and-aft" schooners of the early days of the pier. The average 
tonnage of the schooners engaged in the business is now about 750 
tons ; of barges rather more than 1,000 tons. 

The great manufacturing establishment of the town is the Rum- 
ford Chemical Works. The corner-stone of the main structure was 
laid in 1854. George F. Wilson and Eben N. Horsford were the 
originators of the enterprise. Mr. Horsford was at that time the 
'■^ Rumford Professor" of Chemistr}^ in Harvard University, hence 
the name of the works. On "Seekonk Plains," once apparently a 

Ocean Cottage. 

Pawtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln. 


Pawtucket Falls, 1881 . 

barren waste, but now abounding in well-cultivated tields, tlie factory 
is placed. Tbe buildings cover about two acres of land. Legions 
of iiouse-keepers throughout the countrv have learned to value the 
productions sent forth from them. 

It is almost impossible to select from the tangled mass of histori- 
cal detail which clusters around the Pawtucket Falls, the portion 
which specially applies to the several towns that have been formed 
in their neighborhood. The attempt at separation has not therefore 
been made, and the rise and progress of the manufactures has been 
considered as a whole. 

The First Settler withiA the limits of the present Town of 
Pawticki:'!' was Joseph Jenks. He was born in Buckinghamshire, 
England, in 1632, and came to America in 1645. His father, who 
bore the same Christian name, had settled in Lynn, Mass., some 
years before. In L\nn the son remained until his removal to 
Pawtucket, about 1655. The interval between the two dates was 
spent by him in Axorking with his father in the manufacture of iron 
tools, etc. The elder Jenks is credited with being the " first founder 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

who worked in brass and iron 
on the Western Continent. By 
his hands the first models were 
constructed, and the first cast- 
ings made, of many domestic 
implements and iron tools." 
From his father the younger 
Jenks acquired the skill of 
which he afterwards made good 
use in his new home. 

A virgin forest covered the 
banks of the river at Pawtucket 
Falls. As yet no white man 
had made a clearing when Jo- 
seph Jenks established his home 
upon it. He built a forge in a 
deep ravine, on the west bank 
of the river, a short distance 
below the falls. Here he plied 
his trade, finding customers for 
the products of his skill in the 
neighboring village of Prov- 
idence, and in the settlements around him. As the working of iron, 
including the making of tools, is one of the most important and 
necessary occupations in a new country, Mr. Jenks' forge quickly 
became the nucleus of an industrial settlement. New settlers were 
continually coming into the neighborhood, clearings were made, and 
houses built, and the materials for a future New England town were 
gradually brought together. 

Joseph Jenks had four sons, Joseph, Nathaniel, Ebenezer, and 
Wilham. All followed their fathers trade. The family was 
influential in political affairs as well as in business. The eldest son, 
Joseph, was governor of the Colony of Rhode Island from 1727 to 

About a score of years after Mr. Jenks came to Pawtucket, 
King Philip's War burst upon the land. The settlement was broken 
up ; the buildings were burned by thelndians, and the place was for 
a time entirely deserted. As soon as peace was restored the hamlet 
was rebuilt, and again the hum of industry was heard on the banks 
of the Pawtucket River, never again to be interrupted by war or 

The Universalist Church. 

Pawtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln. 113 

One of the most disastrous engagements of the war took place on 
the banks of the river, between Pawtucket and Valley Falls. Wan- 
dering parties of the Indians were committing great havoc among the 
settlements, and Captain Pierce, of Scituate, with a force of sixtv- 
three Englishmen and twenty friendly Indians, was ordered to follow 
thc enemy and disperse them. lie was on his march into the Nar- 

Pawtucket Faiis, 1789. 

ragansett Country, having iieard that many of the enemy had collected 
at Pawtuxet, a few miles to the southward of Providence. " Beino- 
a man of great courage, and willing to engage the enemy on any 
ground, he was led into a fatal snare. On crossing the Pawtucket 
River he found himself encircled by an overwhelming number. He 
retreated to the side of the river to prevent being surrounded ; but 
this only alternative failed ; for the enemy, crossing the river above, 
came upon their backs with the same deadly eflect as those in front. 
Thus they had to contend witii triple numbers and a double disad- 
vantage. Means were found to dispatch a messenger to Providence 
for succor, but through some unaccountable default in him or them 
to whom it was delivered, none arrived until too late. The scene was 
horrid beyond description. Some say that all the English were slain, 
others that only one escaped, which was effected as follows : A 
friendly Indian pursued him with an uplifted tomahawk, in the face 
of the enemy, who, considering his fate certain, and that he was pur- 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Trinity Churcn. 

sued by one of their own men, made no discovery of the stratagem, 
and both escaped. Another friendly Indian, seeing that the battle 
was lost, blackened his face with powder, and ran among the enemy, 
A.\h6m they took to be one of themselves, who also were painted 

black, then presently escaped 
into the woods. Another was 
pursued, who hid behind a 
rock, and his pursuer lay 
secreted near to shoot him 
when he ventured out. But 
he behind the rock put his 
hat or cap upon a stick, and 
raising it up in sight, the 
other fired upon it. He, 
dropping his stick, ran upon 
him before he could reload 
his gun and shot him dead. 
It appears that Canonchet, a 
Narragansett chief, who 
afterwards fell into the hands 
of the brave Captain Danton, commanded in this battle." 

In the records of the disputes which early arose between the 
colonies of Massachusetts and Rhode Island as to their boundaries, 
Pawtucket Falls is frequently mentioned. From the Falls the line 
was ''to be run north to the Massachusetts south line." Permission 
was granted by the General Assembly in 1761 for a lotter}', to raise 
money for making a passage around Pawtucket Falls, " so that fish 
of almost every kind who choose fresh water at certain seasons of 
the year may pass with ease." This trench was built, but failed of 
its end, and was afterwards used by the owners of the mill-privileges 
for their business. In 17 13 a bridge was built across the river at 
the Falls, and the cost divided between the two colonies. This 
bridge was pulled down in 1730, rebuilt in 1731-32, and in 1741, 
the expense being in every case shared equally between Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts. Five bridges, three of iron and two of 
stone, now span the stream. 

The abundant water-power was early made use of, and small 
manufacturing establishments of various kinds sprang up along the 
banks of the river. Not, however, until after the Revolution, did the 
manufactories increase to any considerable extent. Then the restric- 

Pawtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln. 


A View in Main Street. 

tions which the Government had imposed on the colonies 
were swept aw a}-, leaving- a large and promising field open to new 

Oziel Wilkinson, with his famil\', remox'ed, in 17H3. from Smith- 
field, and settled in Taw tncket, being induced to do so by the ample 
water-power and convenient nearness of the mills and forges at the 
Falls. He and his sons, of whom there were five, were all black- 
smiths. They were good mechanics and gifted with the inventive 
faculty. Some of the largest anchors in the country were made by 
them. They are said to have been the first in the world to make cut- 
nails, and were also the first to cast cannon solid. The cannon were 
afterwards bored by water-power. Through the exertions of these 
men and of the Jenkses who had preceded them, the village of Paw- 
tucket, on both banks of the river, became the principal centre of the 
iron manufacture in this part of the country during the last quarter of 
the eighteenth and the lirst quarter of the present century. The 

P.WVTlLKKT, XoRTII PkO\ 1 1) h:N(.'K , AM) LlNCOLN. II7 

famous Samuel Slater married Hannah, a daughter of Oziel Wilkin- 
son. The Wilkinsons were afterward, in connection with Slater, 
extensively engaged in the nianufaclure of cotton goods. 

The following description ot the village of Pawtucket, as it was 
in 1810, is taken tVom /Jzc/o/z/'s Travels: 

" In the northwestern corner of Rchoboth, there is a compact and 
neat settlement on the Pawtucket or Proxidence River. This, with 
another on the western bank, form what is called North Providence ; 
although this name, in strict propriety, belongs only to the latter. 
This village is well built, and wears a flourishing aspect. The river 
is a large mill-stream : and just below the \illage becomes navigable 
for boats. Directly under the bridge commences a romantic fall, 
vs'hich, extending obliquely down the river, furnishes a number of 
excellent mill-sites. Of this ad\ antage the inhabitants have availed 
themselves. There is probabh no spot in New England, of the 
same extent, in which the same tjuantity or varietv of manufacturing 
business is carried on. In the year 1796, there were here three 
anchor-forges, one tannin*/ mill, three snuir-mills, one oil-mill, three 

ii8 Picturesque Rhode Island. , 

fulling mills, one clothier's works, one cotton-factory, two machines 
for cutting nails, one furnace for casting hollow-ware, all moved by 
water; one machine for cutting screws, moved by a horse; and 
several forges for smiths' work. 

*'The whole descent of the river is said to be fifty feet. The 
principal fall is about thirty. The mass of rocks by which it is pro- 
duced, is thrown together in the wildest confusion. When we passed 
this place the river was low. In 1807, while crossing the feny just 
below in an oblique direction nearly a mile in extent, during the 
whole of which it was visible, I had a remarkably fine view of the 

The following extract from an old Gazetteer of Rhode Island and 
Connecticut, pubhshed in Hartford in 1819, gives an idea of the place 
at a later date : " The river here forms the boundary line between 
the two States. . . . That part of the village which is in Rhode 
Island is principally built on four streets, and comprises eighty-three 
dwelling-houses, twelve mercantile stores, two churches, a post office, 
an incorporated bank, an academy, and two or three flourishing 
schools. Of the ten cotton-mills in the town (North Providence), 
three are at this place, and upon an extensive scale. There are six 
shops engaged in the manufacture of machinery, having the advan- 
tage of Water-power, and various other mechanical establishments, 
aflbrding extensive employment and supporting a dense population. 
Upon the Massachusetts side of the river there is a village of nearly 
equal size and consequence, for its manufacturing and other inter- 

The present town of Pawtucket has been in existence but a few 
years. The east side of the river originally formed a part of the 
old town of Rehoboth. Seekonk was separated from Rehoboth 
in 1812 ; it comprised all of Pawtucket now on the east side of the 
river. This portion was taken from Seekonk and formed into the 
township of Pawtucket by an act of incorporation from the Mas- 
sachusetts General Court, dated March i, 1828. The first town- 
meeting after its incorporation was held on the seventeenth day of 
the same month. There were manufactories on both sides of the 
river, but those on the Rhode Island side predominated. On the 
Massachusetts side agriculture received more attention. As the two 
portions of the village were in different States, much inconvenience 
and local jealousy arose, operating against its business interests. 
These disadvantages were overcome to some extent by the cession 

Pawtucket, North ProvidExNce, and Lincoln. 


'of the town of Pawtucket to 
Rhode Ishincl, in iSOi. The 
act took effect in March, 1802. 
On tlie west side the \ilhii;e was 
originalh' in the town of Pro\'- 
idence, and was within the limits 
of North Proxidence when that 
town was incorporated in 1765. 
It continued an integral part of 
North Providence until 187}. 
At that time the latter town was 
dismembered, a part was oi\-c'n 
to Pawtucket, another part to 
Providence, and about one-lhii"d 
of its territory was left in the 
original town. By this arrange- 
ment the arbitrary boundaries 
which for some vears had di- 
vided what should ha\'e been a 
united communit}' were removed. 
The new act of incorporation 
was dated May i, 1874. ^^^ ^'^^S 
the population of Pawtucket was 5,000, and its area 6.9 miles — an 
average of 724.6 to the square mile. In 1875, after the consolidation, 
the population was 18,464; area, 10. i, and the average population 
to the square mile, 1,828.1. The population, according to the United 
States census of 1880, was 19,030. 

The celebrated "Sam Patch" began Ids career at Pawtucket. 
He was born at Marblehead, Mass., about 1796, and worked as a 
mule-spinner in Pawtucket in the early part of the present century. 
While here he attempted and successfully accomplished many 
hazardous leats, such as iumping from the bridges and Irom the 
roofs and windows of mills into the river. In fulhllment of a wager 
he jumped the Genesee Falls, at Rochester, N. Y., and afterwards 
performed the more ditlicult feat of jumping Niagara Falls. After 
many other prodigies of daring. In- at last lost his life in again 
attempting to jump the Genesee Falls. The saying, "Some things 
can be done as well as others," is attributed to him. It indicates 
the sanguine temperament which prompted him to undertakings that 
seemed to be phvsical impossibilities. W. ]). Ilowells says of him. 

The Congregational Church. 

I20 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

in Their Wedding Journey: ''It (Sam Patch) is as good a name 
as Leander, to my thinking, and it was immortahzed in support of 
a great idea, — the feasibility of all thincrs." 

To Pawtucket belongs the honor of being the first place in 
America where the manufacture of cotton goods was successfully 
accomplished. This industry, starting here from insignificant begin- 
nings, made rapid progress to perfection, caused the fcfunding of 
many new towns and villages throughout the country, and has now 
assumed proportions of immense magnitude. The story of the strug- 
gles of the first projectors, the success which ultimately crowned 
their eflbrts, the progress of the industry established with such difh- 
culty, and the changes in many directions following as a consequence, 
form a chapter in history more wonderful than any tale of battles or 

Until a little more than a hundred years ago, all cloth, of what- 
ever material, was mainly the result of manual labor. The machines 
in use were of small value, being little better than frames to hold 
the material in position for convenience in working. The first 
improvement of note, as applied to the treatment of cotton, was 
made in England by James Hargreaves, in the year 1767. This 
invention was the spinning-jenny. By the method of spinning then 
practiced, only one thread could be spun at a time. Hargreaves' 
machine had eight spindles, and of course could spin as many 
threads at once. Shortly afterwards, Richard Arkwright invented 
roller-spinning, and was the first to associate all the preliminary pro- 
cessess of the cotton manufacture, together with that of spinning, 
under the same roof. He was the originator of the English fac- 
tory system. Through the agency of these two inventions the 
business increased largely. Many factories were built, and im- 
provements in machinery followed in rapid succession. The prin- 
ciples of the spinning-jenny of Hargreaves, and the " water- frame " 
of Arkwright, were combined in the spinning-mule invented by 
Samuel Crompton, of Bolton, in 1779, which gave a still further 
impetus to this industry. The yarn spun in the mills was made into 
cloth on hand-looms, which were to be found in many private houses. 
All these inventions were made within the limits of a narrow district 
in England, where for a time this industry was confined, and which 
has continued to this day the centre of the cotton manufacture in 
the world. 

The British Government at that time prohibited the exportation 

Pavv'tucket, North Providkxce, and Ltxcoln. 


of machinery. It also forbade any plans, drawings, or models of 
the new inventions to be carried away from the kingdom. Manv 
attempts were made in this country to construct the various machines 
of the Arkwright patents, but, owing to imperfect drawings, the lack 
of models, and the absence of any person skilled in their construction 
and use, but little success was attained. " The lirst machines for 
carding, roving, and spinning, made in the United States, were the 
work of two mechanics from Scotland, Alexander and Robert Barr, 
employed by Mr. Orr, of East Bridgewater, Mass. The State made 
a grant in 1786 of £200 lawful money for the encouragement of the 
enterprise. The Beverly Company, in the same State, commenced 
operations in 1787, and, after expending £4,000, obtained in 1790 
a grant of 1' 1,000 from the Legislature, by the aid of which they 
succeeded in introducing the manufacture of cotton goods, but with 
very imperfect machinery. In 1788 a company was formed in 
Providence, R. I., for making ' home-spun cloths.' and they con- 
structed their machinery from the best drawings to be obtained of 
the English models and plans, which were afforded them by Mr. 
Orr and the Beverly Company. The carding and roving with these 
macliines was effected in a \er}- imperfect and slow manner, by 
hand-lalior : the spinning-frame, with thirtv-two spindles, differing 

122 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

little from a common jenny, was worked at first by a crank, turned 
by hand. The machinery was sold to Moses Brown, of Prov- 
idence, who, together with Mr. Almy, had several hand-jennies 
employed in private houses in Providence, making 3^arn for the weft 
of mixed linen and cotton goods. Such operations could accom- 
plish little in competition with the Arkwright machinery, and all 
attempts to procure plans of this failed." 

At this juncture Samuel Slater, who may with justice be called 
the father of the cotton industry in this country, appeared on the 
scene. Slater was born in the town of Belper, Derbyshire, England, 
June 9, 1768, the year after the invention of the spinning-jenny. He 
learned the business of manufacturing cotton with Jedediah Strutt, 
who, in connection with Sir Richard Arkwright, was then engaged 
in conducting a factory at a place called Milford. Here young 
Slater remained for more than eight years, learning thoroughly the 
processes of manufacturing, and also becoming an excellent machin- 
ist, skillful in the construction of cotton machinery. During the latter 
years of his apprenticeship his attention was called to the oppor- 
tunities for advancement offered in America to one familiar with 
the cotton manufacture. Soon after the term of his apprenticeship 
had expired, he observed in a Philadelphia paper notice of a reward 
offered by a society for a machine to make cotton rollers. He 
decided to go to the New World, and on the 13th of September, 
1789, sailed from London for New York, where he arrived in 
November, after a passage of sixty-six days. He went to work for 
the New York Manufacturing Company soon after his arrival ; but 
their machinery was very imperfect and their available water-power 
unsatisfactory. While here he heard, from the captain of one of the 
Providence packets, of Moses Brown, of Providence, and his attempts 
to manufacture cotton. Slater wrote to this gentleman, offering his 
services, and said: "I flatter myself that I can give the greatest 
satisfaction in making machiner}', making good 3'arn, either for 
stockings or twist, as any that is made in England, as I have had 
opportunity, and an oversight of Sir Richard Arkwright's works, 
and in Mr. Strutfs mill, upwards of eight years." A favorable 
answer was returned, and in January, 1790, he completed an 
arrangement with Almy & Brown to go to Pawtucket. 

" On the eighteenth day of the same month, the venerable Moses 
Brown took him out to Pawtucket, where he commenced making the 
machinery, principally with his ow'n hands, and on the twentieth of 

Pawtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln. 


The Pumping-Station. 

December, following, he started three cards, drawing and roving, 
and seventy-two spindles, which were worked by an old fulling-mill 
water-wheel in a clothier's building, in which the}' continued spin- 
ning about t\vent\' months, at the expiration of wliich time lhe\' had 
several thousand pounds of 
yarn on hand, notwithstand- 
ing every exertion was used 
to weave it up and sell it. 

•' Early in the year 1793, 
Almy, Brown, and Slater, 
built a small factor\' in that 
village (known and called to 
this day the • Old Factory "). 
ill \vliich they set in motion 
July 12, the ^reparatiou and 
seventy-two spindles, and 
slowh' added to that number, 
as the sales of the varn ap- 
peared more promising, 
which induced the said Slater 

to be concerned in erecting a new mill, and to increase the machinerv 
in the old mill." 

Mr. Slater had great ditiiculties to contend with in his first 
attempt to spin cotton in Pawtucket. The machinery his emplovers 
had been using he declared unsuitable, and proceeded to construct 
maciiines on the English models. An important drawback was, that 
he had no plans or drawings, but had to trust entirelv to his memor\'. 
Though at times almost discouraged b\" his apparent want of success, 
he nevertheless succeeded in constructing the machines. A partner- 
ship was formed by Slater with William Almy and Smith Brown, 
April 5, 1790. "In 1798 Mr. Slater entered into companv with 
Oziel Wilkinson, Timothy Green, and William Wilkinson, the two 
latter, as well as himself, having married daughters of Oziel Wil- 
kinson. He built the second mill on the east side of Pawtucket 
River, the fn-m being Samuel Slater & Co., himself holding half the 
stock."' Mr. Slater superintended both these establishments, receiv- 
ing $1.50 per day for each mill. The business progressed under 
his management, and a number of mills in which he was interested 
were built in neigiiboring villages, both in Rhode Island and Mas- 
sachusetts. Other parties, mostl\" men who had learned the business 

124 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

in the factories of Mr. Slater and his partners, built factories, and 
the business was gradually extended throughout New England. 

The original factories of Slater and his partners, like those of Ark- 
wright in England, were engaged solely in the manufacture of yarn. 
The weaving was at first done on hand-looms in private houses. 
After the more general introduction of the power-loom (invented 
by the Rev. Edmund Cartwright, in 1785), it was performed in 
establishments erected for the purpose. The first mill in the world 
in which all the processes for the manufacture of cotton, from the raw 
material to the perfected cloth, were combined, was erected at Wal- 
tham, Mass., in 181 3. 

Mr. Slater was unostentatious in his habits, and was, as he him- 
self says, " a candid Englishman." His life outside of his business 
was uneventful. In his own sphere, however, he was a tireless worker 
and a consummate manager, as the extent of his business and his 
financial success testify. He was ever ready to help those of his 
countrymen who needed his assistance, and man}^ were the emi- 
grants who were aided by his quiet benevolence. He and his part- 
ners established schools at their factories for the benefit of their 
operatives, and Mr. Slater is said to have established the first Sun- 
day School in this country. His school was conducted upon the 
well-known plan of Robert Raikes. In the later years of his life 
Mr. Slater became largely interested in both woolen mills and 
machine shops. The life of Samuel Slater is more worthy of honor 
than that of many a statesman or warrior whose renown is world- 
wide. His triumphs were peaceful, but the}^ produced changes 
greater than the downfall or upbuilding of an empire. He died at 
Pawtucket, April 21, 1835. Many descendants in the United States 
still bear his name. 

From the "old mill" at Pawtucket, with its few imperfect 
machines, to the large factories of the present day, is an immense 
advance. Yet there has been no invention since that time embody- 
ing new principles. All this change has been brought about by the 
improvement and adaptation of the existing machinery. The process 
of development is still going on. The tendency is toward making 
all the machinery automatic. Much has been accomplished in this 
direction ; no doubt there is room for further progress. The follow- 
ing statistics will convey an idea of the growth of the business 
throughout the country : 

" The number of cotton-factories in the United States in 1810 

Pawtl'l'ket, North Promdenci;, and Lincoln, 


w'us reported to be 241 : the num- 
ber ot' spindles was estimated at 
96,400, an averai^e ot' 400 lor 
each mill. Accordincr to a re- 
port of a committee of Congress 
in 1815. $40,000,000 was then 
invested in cotton manufacture, 
and 100,000 persons were em- 
ployed: 27,000,000 pounds of 
cotton were consumed, produc- 
ing 81,000,000 yards of cloth, 
valued at $24,300,000. In Rhode 
Island, Massachusetts, and Con- 
necticut were 165 mills, witli 
119,310 spindles; and it has 
been estimated that the total 
number of spindles at that time 
w as 350,000. Power-looms soon 
alter ward coming into general 
use, as already stated, the num- 
ber of spindles increased to 
1 ,500,000 in 1830, and 1,750.000 
in 1835. Complete and trustwortlu' statistics of cotton manufacture 
seem to have been lirst reported by the census of 1840. There 
were then in the United States 1,240 mills, with 2,284,631 spindles, 
and 129 dyeing and printing establishments. These establish- 
ments employed 72,119 hands, and produced goods valued at $46,- 
350,430. The amount of capital invested was $51,102,359. The 
leading cotton manufacturing States were Massachusetts, liaving 
278 mills, with 665,095 spindles; Rhode Island, 209 mills, with 
518,817 spindles; New York, 117 mills, with 211,659 spindles; and 
Connecticut, 116 mills, with 181,319 spindles. There were no 
cotton-millij in Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, Florida, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, or the District of Columbia. The following totals for the 
United States, from the federal census, will aflbrd a comparison of 
this most im]>()rtant industr\-, with its condition prior to tlie Civil 
War : " 

The First Baptist Church. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 







Raw Cotton, lbs 
All materials.. . . 
All products 





Bales, i,5,86',4Si 










* 177.489.739 














The growth of a large manufacturing industry brings with it 
more changes than many agencies which occupy a larger place in 
municipal and state records. Though not so noticeable as an act of 
a Legislature, nor so liable to be observed and commented upon, the 
building of a factory often means far more, and its influence is much 
broader and deeper. A new industry in a community growing grad- 
ually to large proportions, will, in the course of events, produce new 
social combinations ; may, perhaps, create a new class ; and will in 
some instances induce changes leading almost to social and political 
revolutions. This is true of the cotton industry in New England, 
and particularly in this State. 

When Slater began to construct the Arkwright cotton machiner}^ 
at Pawtucket there was no dominant mechanical pursuit in this part 
of the country. The farmers had a very limited market for their 
produce. Poverty pressed hard upon many ; the means of nearly 
all were small. What was needed was work, and the necessity was 
supplied by the cotton business. As the industry increased, and new 
improvements were made each year in the machinery, mills were 
erected wherever water-power was available, and villages soon grew 
up around them. The operatives were at first drawn from the native 
population ; they were the children of the farmers and mechajiics in 
the surrounding towns and villages, reinforced, perliaps, by a few 
foreigners lamiliar with the business. The majority of the strangers 
were English. The factory population thus formed was homogene- 
ous in its character, with similar habits and customs, and a common 
ancestr}^ There was a large class that fluctuated between work on 
the farm and work in the factory. An easy independence was thus 
maintained by the working-class. The opportunity for diversity of 
employment preserved and nurtured that individuality which is the 
peculiar characteristic of New England, and which is only in very 

Pavvtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln 


rare instances found in a people compelled by the force of circum- 
stances to follow one calling. The population of these factory xW- 
lages were orderly, well-belia\ed, and moral. 

Tlie change which has taken j-)lace was brougiu about b}' the 
stream of emigration wiiicii began to ilow from Europe to America 
during the second quarter of this century. The Irish came in the 
largest numbers. In 1850 there were in this State 15,944 nati\ es of 
Ireland, — sixty-nine per cent, of its entire foreign population. At 
the same time the English numbered 4,490, or a little over nineteen 
in every hundred of the foreign population. Both nationalities on 
their arri\'al engaged in factorv labor : the English were already 
skilled in the business ; the Irish soon became so. While these 
accessions were made to the ranks of the factor}' population, an 
exodus was at the same time taking place. The native American 
sought emplo3'ment in directions where more opportunities were to 
be had for individual enterprise. In the city and the larger towns 
carrving on diversified industries the proportion of native Ameri- 
cans was larger than in the small factory villages. Since the War 
of the Rebellion the 
French Canadians ha\ c 
]")een thronging to the fac- 
tory districts. The increase 
in their numbers between 
the years 1865 and 1875 
was a little more than tliat 
of the Irish within the 
same period. In man\" \ il- 
lages in the State the\- at 
j-)resent outnumber the 
Irish, wiiom tiiev have 
supplanted as the Irish did 
the Americans. 

The factory \'illage of 
to-day is very different from ir,. o,d siat., Mhi. 

that of half a century ago. 

The various nationalities are not welded together. They remain 
distinct, in a measure preserving their own peculiarities and customs. 
What the result of this condition of things is to be, is a question of 
grave importance. If the " cotton industry " is maintained in New 
l""ngland. tlie children of these aliens nuist be American citizens. 

128 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Dr. Snow, the superintendent of the last State census, who is prob- 
ably more familiar with the characteristics of the operatives than any 
other man, says that the French Canadians, " more than any other 
class of the population, keep every child possible at work in the mills, 
to the utter neglect of schools and education. It is an urgent duty to 
them and to the State to compel them and their employers to obey 
the laws in relation to the employment of children." This may with 
truth be applied to all the elements composing the factory population. 
It is, however, very doubtful if these laws can be enforced. The 
situations of most of the villages in districts where the factories, 
houses and lands belong to a single firm, by placing such power in 
the hands of a few makes improvement depend too much upon the 
material interest of the owner. Where that interest conflicts with 
the enforcement of educational laws, law in too many cases inevi- 
tably yields to interest. 

According to the special report of the tenth census on the cotton 
manufacture, b}^ Edward Atkinson, the number of persons employed 
in this industry in Rhode Island in 1880, was 22,228; spindles in 
motion, 1,649,295; looms, 30,274: and cotton consumed, 161,694 

In Pawtucket, according to the state census of 1875, there were 
nineteen establishments engaged in various branches of cotton manu- 
facture, employing 2,322 persons, and wdth an invested capital of 
$2,492,600. The principal firms manufacturing cotton cloth are the 
Slater Cotton Co., the Bridge Mill Manufacturing Co., and the Uni- 
ted States Flax Manufacturing Co. Quite a number of establish- 
ments are employed in making spool-cotton and cotton yarns. The 
leading concerns are the Conant Thread Co., manufacturers of cot- 
ton thread ; the Greene & Daniels Manufacturing Co., Stafford & Co., 
and the Hope Thread Co., manufacturers of spool-cotton and cotton 
yarns. In the surrounding villages, within the limits of the towns of 
Lincoln, Cumberland, and North Providence, there are many facto- 
ries employed in the manufacture of cotton cloth, the principal com- 
panies being the Lonsdale Co., with mills at Lonsdale and Ashton, 
in Lincoln ; Albion Mills Co., Albion, Lincoln ; Manville Co., Man- 
ville, Cumberland; and the Berkeley Mills Co., Berkeley, Cumber- 
land. There are also mills at Allendale, Centredale, and Lyman- 
ville. North Providence. The Stafford Manufacturing Co., and the 
Cumberland Mills, at Valley Falls, are engaged in the manufacture 
of spool-cottons and cotton yarns. The Union Wadding Co. carries 
on an extensive business in white and colored waddings and battings, 

Pawtucket, North Providence, and Lincoln. 129 

A Glimpse of Lonsdale. 

and machine waste in Pawtucket. The lower floor of the *' Old 
Slater Mill" is at present occupied by J. L. Spencer in the manufac- 
ture of cotton yarns, twine, and thread. 

The woolen manufacture is represented by the Pawtucket Ilair- 
Cloth Co., manufacturers of hair seatings ; D. Goft' & Son, alpaca 
braids; George Mason & Co., braids; and in Central Falls, by the 
Central Falls Woolen Mill, cloth. 

The existence of so many factories creates a demand for manu- 
facturers' supplies of all descriptions. Among the establishments 
supplying this demand are E. Jenckes & Co., Pawtucket, manufac- 
turers of many kinds of small supplies, and dealers in belts, lacing, 
etc., Weatherhead, Thompson & Co., Central Falls, manufacturers 
of beking and thread spools : and Myron Fish & Co., Valley Falls, 
manufacturers of loom-harness, and dealers in general supplies. Sev- 
eral extensive machine shops are employed in the construction of 
cotton machinery. Among the principal establishments are those of 
James Brow^n, the Fales & Jenks Machine Co., and George W. 
Payne & Co. The latter also construct woolen machinery. Wil- 
liam H. Haskell & Co., bolt, nut, washer, and coach-screw manu- 
facturers; J. S. White, machinist and iron-founder; and Cole Bros., 
steam-fire, and stationary engine builders, are among the prominent 
firms engaged in the general machine business. 

The Bunnell Manufacturing Co. have one of the largest print- 

130 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

works in the State. These works are located on Prospect Street. 
Robert D. Mason & Co., on East Avenue, are extensively engaged in 
dyeing and bleaching. This firm was formed in 1805. Upon the 
same premises, for more than three-quarters of a centur3^ the busi- 
ness has been carried on without interruption. The present firm 
name was adopted in 1870. Other large establishments, specially 
'worthy of note in this connection, are those of the Pawtucket Dyeing 
and Bleaching Co., and the Moshassuck Bleachery, at Saylesville, 
Lincoln, owned by Messrs. W. F. & F. C. Sayles. 

Among the manv prominent merchants, business-men, and firms 
engaged in various manufactures, we may also mention the Bridge 
Mill Paper Co. : D. D. Sweet & Co., and Gelinas & Chappell, sash, 
doors, and blinds; the Joseph Smith Co., coal, lumber, etc. ; James 
Davis & Son, tanners and manufacturers of belting and lacing; 
J. O. Draper & Co., soap ; the Perry Oil Co., oil and soap : Linton 
Brothers, card-board and glazed paper; L. B. Darling & Co., 
artificial fertilizers; the New American File Co., Central Falls; 
P. E. Thayer & Co., brushes; J. Crocker & Son, coftin-trimmings ; 
W. W. Dexter, watches and jewelry ; Charles A. Warland, and 
Charles P. Adams, real estate ; Daniel A. Clark, coflins and cas- 
kets ; Loring M. Monk, carriages; S. Grant & Co., coal, wood, 
etc.; E. M. Hunt & Co., coal; Carpenter & Co. and Pawtucket 
Furniture Co., furniture; Small & Harle}', dr}' goods ; George H. 
Fuller, jewelers' findings ; A. F. Bray and C. M. Read, hardware ; 
Fisk & Co., C. E. Davis & Son, G. T. Dana & Co., Pawtucket, 
and Jones & Davis, Central Falls, druggists ; C. A. Luther, cloth- 
stretchers ; A. F. Salisbury, photographer ; J. N. Polsey & Co., 
packing-boxes ; Havens & DeWitt, bakers ; IL H. Sager, and H. 
N. Wilkinson, book-sellers and stationers : Lee & Burnham, and G. 
E. Woodbury, dentists. 

Pawtucket and Lincoln, like most other busy and thriving local- 
ities, have their indispensable newspapers ; in Pawtucket, the Gazette 
and Chronicle, published every Friday by Messrs. Sibley & Lee, 
Mill Street; in Central Falls, Lincoln, The Weekly ]^isttor, issued 
every Friday, by Messrs. E. L. Freeman & Co., publishers. 

The leading hotels in Pawtucket, to-day, are the Benedict House, 
J. L. McFarland, proprietor ; and tlie Pawtucket Hotel, D. W. Buck- 
lin, proprietor. 

To the traveler who obtains his first view of Pawtucket from the 
windows of the cars of the Boston and Providence Railroad, the place 

Pawtucket, North Providenck, and Lincoln. 


presents the appeiirance ol' a lar^e and Inisv citv. Before him the 
entire hindscape to the southward is wholly occupied by build- 
inos, closely packed together, — dwelling-houses of all descriptions, 
with here and there a factory or a church standing out prominently. 
Tiie whole of this 
busy scene, how- 
ever, is not located 
within the limits of 
the town of Paw- 
tucket ; a consider- 
able portion is in the 
town of Lincoln,' 
and is known as 
Central Falls. Since 
the consolidation of 
Pawtucket in 1874, 
various attempts 
Ikuc been made to 
unite Central Falls 
with it, but thus far 
without success. As 
the line which di- 
vides these two pla- 
ces is an arbitrar}- 

one, while the communities are in realit}' a unit, with no \isible 
natural separation, a union in the future is inevitable. Valley Falls, 
situated partly in Lincoln and partly in Cumberland, is in realitv 
only a suburb of Pawtucket and Central Falls, and is a short dis- 
tance from the latter place. 

Manv new and fine buildings have, within the past few years, 
been erected in the central portion of Pawtucket, thereby adding to 
the appearance of the place, and giving it more of the air of a cit\'. 
Music Hall, owned by L. B. Darling, is the latest erected, and one of 
the finest of these buildings. The Blackstone River flows through 
Valley Falls, Central Falls, and Pawtucket, affording water-power 
for the numerous factories on its banks. A succession of dams 
thrown across the stream make the water available. Five bridges 
now span the river in Pawtucket and Central Falls. The lowest 
bridge is a substantial stone structure of nine arches, and is very 
high above the water. The next bridge, also built of stone, with 

Old Butterfly Factory, Lincoln. 

132 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

two arches, is almost directly over the falls. The falls do not now 
exist in their original condition, but have been supplemented bv a 
dam. Below the dam, however, are the rag-^ed ledijes over which 
the waters still foam and boil as they have done for countless ages. 
When the water is abundant, or the river is in flood, the view of the 
falls from this bridge is worth a visit. The other three are iron 
suspension bridges. At V^alley Falls is an iron bridge, for foot and 
carriage travel, and the railroad bridge of the Providence and Wor- 
cester Railroad. The Boston and Providence Railroad crosses the 
Blackstone on an iron bridge just before its junction with the Provi- 
dence and Worcester. 

In the neighborhood of Lonsdale and Saylesville, in the town 
of Lincoln, the country presents a unique appearance. Hills and 
hollows succeed each other quickly and abruptly. From the roads, 
alternately in the depressions and the elevations, fine views mav 
often be obtained of the surrounding country. Where the lands in 
the neighborhood of the Blackstone River are low, in many places, 
forced back by the dams on the river, the water has overflowed and 
formed shallow ponds. Between Lonsdale and Saylesville a large 
pond is now in existence, mainly the result of a dam thrown across 
the old Blackstone Canal. The old canal trench is in the centre of 
the pond, and the water is of considerable depth. 

Pawtucket has an excellent system of water-works, which were 
put in operation Jan. 31, 1878, and have since that time worked well, 
supplying not only Pawtucket but also East Providence, Central 
Falls and other small places in the neighborhood. The engine used 
at the pumping-station is one made by George H. Corliss, and has 
given good satisfaction. A reservoir, 300 feet above tide-water, situ- 
ated on Reservoir Heights, two and a half miles from the business 
centre, was completed Nov. 6, 1878. Its area is about three acres, 
depth twenty-one feet, and capacity 20,000,000 gallons. The water 
is obtained from Abbott's Run, which has a water-shed of 26.6 miles. 
Up to this time the cost of the works has been about $633,000. 

As has already been stated. North Providence until 1874 ^oj\- 
tained within its limits all of Pawtucket on the east side of the river. 
In that year a partition was made, one part was given to the city of 
Providence, another to the town of Pawtucket, and only a small frag- 
ment of the original town was left. This portion is mainly peopled 
by an agricultural community ; there are only a few small manufac- 
turing establishments within its bounds. " Fruit Hill," in this town, is 

Pawtucket, North Pkovidence, and Lincoln. 133 

The Baptisi Church, Central Falls. 

an extensive upland, beautifully 
situated : it was early settled, 
and the sites of the dwellings of 
the first settlers are yet pointed 
out by antiquarians. An educa- 
tional institution, known at the 
outset as the Fruit Hill Semi- 
nary, and subsequently as the 
Fruit Hill Classical Institute, was 
started on the old Fruit Hill es- 
tate in 1835, ^^^^^ continued in 
existence until 1861. The his- 
tory of the other portions of 
North Providence will be found 
in the accounts of Providence 
and Pawtucket. 

Lincoln was formed from the 
old town of Smithfield in 1871. 
The cotton manufacture is here 
extensively carried on in the vil- 

lai^^es of Central Falls, Valley Falls, Lonsdale, Ashton, Berkeley, 
and Albion. Since its incorporation various eflbrts have been made 
to annex portions of the town to neighboring towns, but without suc- 
cess. "The principal if not the only peculiarity of this town in 
its government, as distinguished from other towns of this State, is, that 
while it is governed bv a town council, as other towns are, yet the 
southeasterly portion of it, embracing the most thickly settled part, 
is specially incorporated by the Legislature under the name of ' the 
Central Falls Fire District,' with power to elect a moderator, clerk, 
treasurer, three assessors, and a collector of taxes ; to elect fire-wards 
and presidents f)f fire-wards ; to order, assess and collect taxes on 
persons and property within such district for fire-extinguishing 
apparatus, and keeping the same in order and using it ; to prescribe 
the duties of fire-wards and of the citizens of said district in case of 
conflagration : to provide for suppressing disorder and tumult, for the 
lighting of streets, and the maintaining of such police force as they 
mav deem necessary." Altiiough so recently incorporated, Lincoln is 
one of the most important towns of the State, and its manufacturing 
business is constantlv on the increase. 


— iIJtob^ 



. ^^,' W4^,^ '- ^, 







HE torni of William Blackstone, sitting upon his bull, 
rides slowh- along- before the eyes of the historical stu- 
dent as he approaclies the town of Cumberland. With 
the single exception of Roger Williams, no figure in 
the earlv historv of the State is more prominent than 
that of this old " non-cortformist preacher." The cloud 
of mystery which enveloped him when the Massachu- 
setts colonists found him living in tranquil seclusion 
upon the peninsida of Shawmut, was never entirely dis- 
pelled. Until the day of his death he maintained the 
same singular reticence and lived in the same studious 
solitude, those who had met him hfty years before had noted with 
such wonder. 

When Governor W^inthrop and those w^ho came with him landed 
at Charlestown, in 1630, Mr. Blackstone had been living at Shaw- 
mut (the peninsula upon which the city of Boston now stands) long 
enough "to have raised apple-trees and planted an orchard." Tradi- 
tion sa\s that the would-be colonists were at first inclined to thrust 
out Blackstone from his home upon the peninsula, upon the specious 
pretence that they had received a grant of the tract from the king. 
As the old story runs, it would seem that the young hermit had lost 
nothing of his talent for argument during his residence in the wilds 
of America. Haughtily he made answer to the claims of the men 
of "the Bay." "The king," said he, " asserteth sovereignty over 

136 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

this new Virginia in respect that John and Sebastian Cabot sailed 
along the coast, without even landing at any place ; and if the qual- 
ity of sovereignty can subsist upon the substratum of mere inspec- 
tion, surely the quality of property can subsist upon that of actual 
occupancy, which is the foundation of my claim." 

This story is a most excellent one, and the speech put into the 
mouth of Blackstone so well accords with his character that we can 
almost beHeve the statement of the case to be a true one. It is quite 
possible, however, that the account may be a little overdrawn. 

In Prince's Chrotiology it is stated that the settlers of Charles- 
town having become sickly by reason of the poor water, Mr. Black- 
stone {Blaxton, Prince spells the name) invited them to come over 
and settle upon the peninsula, teUing the governor he had found 
there a most excellent spring of water. Under such circumstances, 
the attempt to dispossess him would have evinced extreme ingratitude 
on the part of theBay colonists. Moreover, it stands perpetuated in 
the Massachusetts records "• that WiUiam Blackstone shall have fifty 
acres of ground set off for him near to his house in Boston, to enjoy 

When or how Blackstone came to America is not known. In 
the year 1628 his name was mentioned for the first time in the 
Massachusetts records. It is likely that he had then lived for two or 
three years upon Shawmut. Of this fair peninsula he was, without 
doubt, the first white settler. That he had occupied it several years, 
" and with no slight advantage, we may presume from the expenses 
assessed on the several plantations, from Plymouth northward, for 
the campaign against Morton at Merry Mount, in 1628 ; his propor- 
tion, though the least, being more than one-third of that to be paid 
by the settlers of Salem, before the coming of Endicott." (Savage's 
Winfkrop, Vol. I., page 44.) Almost all that we know of his fife 
in England is, that he was " a non-conformist minister of the English 
Church." He is supposed to have graduated from Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 161 7. 

Mr. Blackstone did not long remain upon Shawmut after his 
countrymen had built their houses upon it. Their society did not 
prove congenial. In 1634 he sold out his title to the peninsula, 
each of the other inhabitants paying him six pence or more therefor. 
Having purchased a drove of cattle, he started in search of a new 
home in the wilderness. When asked the reason for his unusual 
course, he said, " I left England to get from under the power of the 



Lord-Bishops, but in America I am fallen under tiie power of the 

About three miles above the Pawtucket Falls, in what is now the 
town of Cumberland, he chose the spot for his new home. On the 
Plymouth patent this tract of country is known as " Attleborough 
Gore." " Study Hill," was the name he gave to his estate. There, 
for the rest of his life, he lived in studious seclusion. His few dis- 

Vaiiey of tne Abbult s Run. 

tant neighbors learned to love him for his kindly heart and generous 
nature. Respecting his upright character, they did not attempt to 
interrupt the eccentric course of his life. How he built his house 
we know not. It is said that he had a servant named Abbott. This 
man Abbott possessed some of the peculiarities that were so marked 
in his master. To this servant Mr. Blackstone gave a tract of land 
upon the stream which now bears the name of Abbott's Run. 

Mr. Blackstone planted upon his farm at Study Hill an orchard, 
the tirst in the colony of Rhode Island. *' Many of the trees which 
he planted about one hundred and thirt}' years ago (wrote Governor 
Hopkins in 1765), are still pretty thrifty fruit-bearing trees. He 
had the first of that sort called yellow sweetings, that were ever in 
the world, perhaps the richest and most delicious apple of the whole 
kind. Mr. Blackstone used frequently to come to Providence to 
preach the Gospel, and, to encourage his young hearers, gave them 
the first apples they ever saw. It is said that when he was old, and 
unable to travel on foot, and not having any horse, he used to ride on 
a bull which lie had tamed and tutored to that use." Mr. Newman, 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

in his discourse delivered July 4, 1855, said that as late as 1830, when 
they were nearly two hundred years old, three of these trees were 
living, and two were still bearing apples. 

Blackstone died at Study Hill only a few days before the com- 
mencement of Philip's War. Unusually fortunate was he in his 
death, for not long afterward the destroying torch of an Indian 
incendiarv was applied to the house in which he had lived so long. 
With the books and everything else it contained, the dwelling was 
entirely consumed. In the " Inventory of the Lands, Goods and 
Chattels of Mr. William Blackstone," taken May 28, 1675, — two 
days after their owner's death, — his library was prized as follows : 

" Library. 

3 Bibles, los. — 6 English books in folio, £2, 

3 Latin books in folio, 15s. — 3 do., large quarto, £ 

15 small quarto, £1, 17s. 6d. — 14 small do., 14s., 

30 large octavo, £4 — 25 small do., £1, 5s., . 

22 duodecimo, ...... 

53 small do., of little value, .... 

10 paper books, ...... 

Remainder personal. 

Total personal, 

£2 lOS. 

2, 2 15 

2 II 


5 5 

I 13 



£15 I2S. 


40 II 

£56 3s. 6d." 

This library of 186 volumes was a very unusual one. Not many 
of the private gentlemen of America could boast of such a collection. 
The " 10 paper books" were supposed to contain the record of his 
life, the well-digested reflections of half a century of study. 

Like his neighbor and friend, Roger Williams, Mr. Blackstone 
was more than a century in advance v of the age in which he lived. 
When the air of England was heavy with the life-destroying dews of 
religious intolerance, his free spirit sought in America the liberty he 
could not enjoy in his native country. Hardly had he become settled 
in his home in the new world, before he saw rising up about him the 
house-walls of a company of men far more bigoted than those he 
had left England to avoid. ''He uttered no complaints, he pro- 
voked no quarrels, but quietly sold his lands and again retired from 
the face of civilization and again took up his solitary abode in the 



The Blaokstone at 

wilderness ; and. luckilv for his peace, 
the tide of civiHzation had but just 
reached him at the period of his 
death." • 

By the side of the hill upon which |' 

so much of his life was spent, the gentle hermit lies buried. 
Although no ponderous monument, rich with sculptured decora- 
tion, marks the spot, the river gliding along through the meadows 
below will ever perpetuate his name. Only the hill and the ri\er 
remain of all the landscape with which he was so familiar. The 
forests that stretched away on every side in never-ending aisles of 
green have been gradually leveled as the steady growth of popula- 
tion made their destruction necessary. Prosperous villages have 
sprung up at almost every bend of the winding river. The waters 
that once crept peacefully onward through the verdant fields, or 
halted here and there in timorous hesitation at the brink of some 
miniature cataract, are now lashed into angrv foam by the revolving 
blades of hundreds of whirling mill-wheels, as they hasten on to 
mingle with the sparkling waves of Narragansett Ba}'. 

140 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Cumberland was one of the five towns received from Massachu- 
setts in 1746-7. Before its incorporation as a town of Rhode 
Island it had formed a part of Attleborough, and from its peculiar 
shape had received the name of Attleborough Gore. The name of 
Cumberland was gfiven it in honor of William, Duke of Cumberland. 
Possibly, also, the name may have been bestowed upon it because of 
its geological features, which resemble somewhat those of the Eng- 
lish Cumberland. 

The town possesses some very valuable mineral deposits. Per- 
haps in the course of years it may prove profitable to reopen its 
disused mines. From the Diamond Hill granite quarry some of the 
finest building-stone in New England is obtained. 

Very much might be written concerning the " Indian history" of 
the town. One very noted spot within its borders is known as " Nine 
Men's Misery." On the day of "Pierce's Fight" nine men here 
lost their lives. Daggett, in his History of Attleborough, gives this 
• version of the story : "A company of nine men were in advance of, 
or had strayed from their party for some purpose, when they discov- 
ered a number of Indians near the spot, whom they immediately 
pursued and attacked, but a large number of the enemy rushed out 
from the swamp and surrounded them. The whites, placing their 
backs to a large ro,ck near by, fought with desperation till every one 
of them was killed on the spot. The rest of their party, who were in 
hearing of their guns, hastened to their succor, but arrived too late to 
render them any assistance. Their bodies were buried on the spot, 
which is now designated by a large pile of stones." One tradition says 
that these nine men were prisoners who had been reserved for torture 
by the Indians. "They were carried to a sort of peninsula of upland, 
nearly surrounded by ' Camp Swamp,' and seated upon a rock in a 
kind of natural amphitheatre formed by the elevated ground around it. 
The savages commenced the war-dance around them, and were pre- 
paring to torture them ; but, disagreeing about the manner of torture, 
they fell into a quarrel among themselves, in which some of the Indians 
dispatched the prisoners with the tomahawk. The Indians, having 
scalped them, left their bodies upon the rock where they had slain 
them, and here they remained unburied till they were discovered by 
the English some weeks after. They were then buried, all in one 
grave. A heap of small stones, in the shape of the earth on a newly- 
made grave, still marks the spot where they lie." 


WooNSOCKET. — The origin of the name Woonsocket, if not 
precisely lost in the mists of antiquity, still does not stand out in tht- 
clear light of certainty. Its old Indian form is Woonesuckete, which 
has been explained with a good degree of probability as derived 
from two Indian words, Woone thunder, and Siickctc mists, meaning, 
in composition, thunder mists. When one imagines how the falls 
must have thundered through the solitude of the forest, and sees in 
fancy the column of mist which arose from their foot, it is easy to 
believe that this explanation, although not insisted upon by its 
author, is the true one. 

The town of Woonsocket, at least so much of it as lies upon the 
east side of the river, was until 1867, a period of one hundred and 
thirty years, a village in the town of Cumberland. At the January 
session of the State Legislature of that year it was incorporated as a 
separate township, and in 1871 its area was increased by the addition 
of that part of Smithfield which constituted Western Woonsocket. 
The Blackstone River flows through it and the Woonsocket hills lie 
around, enclosing it in a kind of amphitheatre. 

The first settlers in the town were Richard Arnold and Samuel 
Comstock. Arnold made the humble beginning of this present pros- 
perous borough by building a saw-mill on the river about the year 
1666. The precise date cannot be determined. Comstock settled at 
a point west of Union Village. Their lands, which were held in 
common during their lives, were divided by their heirs. By this 
division the Arnold family came into possession of a great estate in 
the vicinity of the falls, and may be looked upon as the forefathers 
of the town. Richard Arnold himself was an able and judicious 
man, ready and useful in the colonial council, and active and 
energetic in carrying his plans into efTect. He left four sons, the 
eldest of whom was also named Richard. This Richard built a 
house on the site now occupied by Mr. Albert Mowry. To any one 
of an antiquarian turn of mind, it may be interesting to know that a 
part of the house is still standing, and, dating from 1690, is doubtless 
the oldest building in town. 

Among the numerous descendants of the original Arnold was 
James Arnold, known in Woonsocket as " Uncle Jim." He owned 
large tracts of land upon the river. He was not a manufacturer him- 
self, but for several years he prospered and apparently grew rich 
by putting up buildings on his property and letting them out to 
manufacturers. The first one of these was erected in 1808. It was 

1^2 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

a grist-mill, and its upper stories were used for carding wool. He 
erected building after building and leased them to others, until in 
1814, by an unfavorable turn of Fortune's wheel,— ;- which seems at 
this time not to have been a mill-wheel, as formerly, — he was com- 
pelled to sell a part of his property. This sale is known as the 
''Arnold and Lyman Purchase." This was but the beginning. 
Again and again he was forced to part with portions of his riveij 
property, until he found himself stripped of all that vast estate with 
which he commenced life, excepting "the old saw-mill lot." This 
lot he had in 1822 leased to OHver Ballon and his son Dexter, who 
built thereon a wooden cotton-mill. This mill, after various vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, finally settled down to steady work as a yarn- 
spinning establishment, under the auspices of Mr. George C. Ballon. 
To give even a slight sketch of the career of all the noted manufac- 
turers of a place like Woonsocket, would require more space than we 
are at liberty to occupy in this work. And of Mr. Ballon and his 
brother Dexter, who is called fhe "pioneer of cotton-spinning in 
Woonsocket,'' it must suffice to say that the town is greatly indebted 
to them for much of its present prosperity. 

Let us now retrace our steps. The early settlers were not slow 
to see that the place was admirably adapted to manufacturing pur- 
poses, and in the latter part of the seventeenth century they began to 
utilize the waters of the Blackstone to the turning of mill-wheels. 
All around was the great forest, which must be converted into farms 
and dwellings, and a saw-mill was an urgent necessity. One was 
consequently erected where the tower of the Ballon Manufacturing 
Company's cotton-mill now stands. This is the one already mentioned 
as having been built about the year 1666. In 17 12 Mr. John Arnold 
built a " corn and fulling-mill "upon the " Island." The " Old Forge" 
dated from some time between 1712 and 1720, and stood upon the site 
of the boiler-house of the Ballon Manufacturing Company. It did 
quite an extensive business in iron. Later, a scythe-factory was 
established below the grist-mill. These include all the manufactories 
of Woonsocket up to 1807. In that year there was a great freshet. 
The river, as if angry at the restraints that man had imposed upon 
it (it is more submissive now), rose in its might, shook itself free, 
and tore along between its banks, "scattering ruin and spread- 
ing ban," until there was nothing left of these mills but wrecks, 
damaged beyond all hope. This is the historical freshet of the Black- 
stone. Even that of 1876, which was considered rather a brilliant 




The Falls at Woonsocket. 

performance for a river ordinarily so well conducted, failed to reach 
the high-water mark of 1807 by two and a half feet. For three years 
the river enjoyed complete rest, except that its otherwise unrestrained 
waters were forced to turn tlie wheel of that grist-mill, now grown 
familiar to the reader by repeated allusions, built by James Arnold, 
in 1808. 

Eras of great enthusiasm are common in all enterprises, and 
such an era in manufactures had its beginning in Woonsocket in 
1810. Mr. Samuel Slater had built the first cotton-mill, and so suc- 
cesstul had its operation been, that the attention of capitalists and 
manufacturers was turned to the making of cloths. Hitherto, onh- 
the first process of woolen manufacture, viz. : the carding of wool, had 
been carried on. But now the waters of the Blackstone, which as 
yet had only frolicked and chattered among the wheels of a few grist 
and carding mills, were to be bound down to steady, every-day labor. 
The lirst enterprise started under this new impulse was known as the 
Social Manufacturing Company, which began operations with a capi- 
tal stock of $16,000, a mill containing 2,000 spindles, together with 

144 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

cards and repairing machinery. I'his mill was known as the " Pis- 
tareen," on account of its size. It was burned down in 1874, having, 
however, before that been much enhirged and improxed. The com- 
pan V immediately began the erection of their present imposing brick 
structure. The village belonging to these mills is a model of a fac- 
tory village. The following description is quoted from one of a series 
of able papers published recently in the Rhode Island Pres§, called 
" Looms and Spindles," to which the present writer is indebted for 
much of the information upon this subject: "It consists of twelve 
double cottages, two long blocks, one containing nine tenements and 
the other eighteen, fourteen four-family houses, and the mill boarding- 
house. The double cottages are of brick, one and a half stories high, 
have gas and water, and rent for $100 per year for each tenement. 
The blocks are also of brick, not quite so well finished as the 
cottages, and rent for from $48 to $96 per year. The others are of 
wood, and rent for $50 per tenement. The boarding-house is four 
stories, and can accommodate 125 persons, but at present has only 
abovit fifty occupants. The three-story building at the westerly edge 
of the village is termed the Social Block, and is used for the com- 
pany's offices and store. It also includes a large hall for lectures, 
dancing, etc., and two of the rooms are occupied for dav and evening 

In 1827 the second wooden mill was begun. This building has 
reached a low estate, and has become a tenement-house known as 
the Castle. 

The largest woolen-factory in the countr}- is at Woonsocket. It 
was built by Edward Harris, whose name is identified with this 
branch of industry in Woonsocket. Mr. Harris was born at Lime 
Rock, in 1801. He was forced to earn his living while still a mere 
child. Thus business talent and a native shrewdness were developed 
in him at the expense of a social and mental training which he never 
ceased to miss in his after life. At the age of twenty-one he began 
life with a capital of 25 cents. He learned the business of cotton 
manufacture by actual experience as an ill-paid employe of his 
uncle. Afterwards he went into the employ of another uncle at the 
princely sum of $1.30 per day. After a while this uncle promoted 
him to the superintendency of the mill. This was at Albion. When, 
at the age of twenty-seven, he left Albion he became agent of the 
Harris Lime Rock Company. By the time he had reached his 
thirtieth year, his capital had increased to $2,500. With this he 


No. 220 Westminster Street. 




































































0- = 

2 ^ "^ 
O y ^ 

ft - 

l-S "i 

c 3 - 

AND — 

Strictly First-Class. 




Jor gy^pep^ia, Rental and physical pxhau^tion, ^er- 

Vo\x6m6^, ^imini^hed pitalitg, ^rinarij 

giMcultie^, gtc. 


Prof. E. N. HORSFORD, of Cambridge, Mass. 

There seems to be no difference of opinion in high medical authority, of the 
value of the Phosphates, and no preparation has ever been offered to the public which 
seems to so happily meet the general want as this. 

It is not nauseous, but agreeable to the taste. No danger can attend its use. 
Its action will harmonize with such stimulants as are necessary 
to take. It makes a delicious drink with 
water and sugar only. 

It is a pleasant and nutritious Substitute for Lemons or Lime Juice in the 
preparation of " Lemonade " or other acidulated drinks, with or without alcoholic 

Dr. M. H. henry, the widely known and eminent family physician of N. Y., says: 

" Horsford's Acid Phosphate possesses claims as a beverage, beyond anything I 
know of in the form of medicine, and in nervous diseases I know of no preparation to 
equal it." 

Dr. C. O. files, of Portland, Me,, says : 

" Through the summer I find that Horsford's Acid Phosphate affords the most 
refreshing drink I have ever used. After perspiring freely, when cold water has utterly 
failed to satisfy my thirst, it has accomplished the purpose with the most perfect success." 

Prices Reasonable. 

Pamphlet giving further particulars mailed free on application to 
manufacturers. Manufactured by the 

MFORD Chemical Works 





came to Woonsocket and commenced the manufacture of satinets. 
From this time his business life \Vas steadily successful, until at his 
death he stood the foremost woolen manufacturer of the country. 
The Harris Mills include the property known as the " Privilege 
Mill," on Mill River, a branch of the I^lackstone, and the mills on 

A View on Main Street. 

the Blackstone proper, near Main Street, in the business portion of 
the town. Three of these are woolen-mills and one a cotton-mill. It 
is said on reliable authority that not an ounce of shoddv was ever 
used in Edward Harris" mills. 

The town is one of the busiest towns of its kind in the coimtry. 
In 1875, according to the State census, it had nine establishments 
for the manufacture of cotton goods, employing 2,350 persons, with 
a valuation of $2,283,500; six establishments for the manufacture of 
woolen goods, employing 1,611 persons, and with an invested capital 
of $1,155,500. The factories are large, but the business is concen- 
trated within a more limited area than in any other locality in the 

The principal cotton-mills are those of the Clinton Manufactur- 
ing Company, the Enterprise Manufacturing Company, the Groton 
Manufacturing Company, the Social Manufacturing Company, the 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Woonsocket Company, the Hamlet Mills, the Woonsocket Mill, and 
the Woonsocket Yarn Company. 

Among the producers of woolen goods are the Harris Woolen 
Company, already mentioned, the Stafford Braid Company, the 

Li p pi tt Woolen 
Company, and the 
American Worsted 

Woonsocket is 
extensively engaged 
in the production of 
machines for domes- 
tic uses, the leading 
makers in this line 
being the Bailey 
Wringing Machine 
Company, and the 
Relief Washing Ma- 
chine Company. 
Among the builders 
of various kinds of 
machinery we mention the Bailey Tool Company, the Hautin Sew- 
ing Machine Company, the Woonsocket Nail Company, the Woon- 
socket Machine Company, the Kendrick Loom Harness Company, 
H. Jeffrey & Co., H. C. Lazell, and the Woonsocket Rubber Com- 
pany, the last doing a large business in the manufacture of rubber 

The records of the town would seem to indicate that the early 
inhabitants were not of a kind to whom church-going was a neces- 
sity. Not until 1 7 18 does there seem to have been any facility for 
assembling together for worship, unless indeed some ma}^ have done 
so at private houses. In that year the Society of Friends began to 
hold services there, attracted by its accessibility, it being situated at 
a " Cross Roads." In the language of her historian, Richardson, 
" Woonsocket became, not so much from the piety of its inhabitants 
as from the natural advantages of its location, first a religious and 
afterwards an educational centre of the large territor}^ now comprised 
within the counties of Worcester, Mass., and Providence, R. I." 
Among the early preachers of this sect was Elisha Thornton, of 
blessed memory. For more than a hundred years, in the whole 

Harris Block. 



settlement of Woonsocket, there was no place of public worship 
except the Friends' Meeting-house. But the clang of the mill-bell 
was speedily followed b}' the peal of the church-bell. From 1832 to 
1834, inclusive, sprang up all the religious denominations to be 
found in Woonsocket to-day, viz, : Episcopalians, Baptists, Meth- 
odists, Congregationalists, Universalists, and Roman Catholics, all 
of w^hom own substantial church edifices. On the twelfth of May, 
of the present vear, the old Friends' Meeting-house, at Bank Vil- 
lage, burned down. It was erected in 1775. 

The indilference of the early villagers to religious matters 
extended also to those of education. In the latter, as in the former, 
it was the Friends who undertook the initiative. They were the first 
to proclaim that the children of the poor ought to be "schooled," 
and to take measures for establishing a free school under their own 
auspices. Their zeal awoke that of the "world's people," and steps 
were taken to open a school free to all. This plan was defeated 
" bv a vote of the ignorant backwoodsmen of Smithfield, many of 

whoTn were unable to write . _^ 

their names." In 1800-1801 
Smithfield raised the sum of 
$2,200 for the support of 
twenty-four schools. From 
which statement it may be 
inferred that time spent in 
discussing the free-school 
system of that region, of 
four-score years ago, is but 
w^asted time. 

There w' e r e private 
schools, however, of a high 
grade of excellence. These 
were the Thornton Acad- 
emy, founded by the Quaker 
preacher, Elisha Thornton, 
which terminated its short 
but useful existence with 
the last century ; the Smithfield Academy, whose career ended in 
1853, and the Cumberland Academy, at Cumberland Hill. But 
private seminaries are only for the favored few, and the people at 
length awoke to the fact ,that if their children were to be educated 

Hign Sc 

148 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

at all, it must be in the public schools. This was about the year 
1840. '' The system of education within the town has made a 
marked advancement since the introduction of public schools. The 
rude and often ill-constructed school-house has given place to the 
present fine and convenient buildings, furnished with all the modern 
appliances for the comtbrt and convenience of both teacher and 
pupil. These excellent institutions are presided over by competent 
and accomplished teachers, and the citizens of Woonsocket have just 
reason to be proud of their present educational interests." One is 
hardly willing to leave this subject without allusion to that good man, 
the Rev. John Boyeden, whose name is one of the earliest and longest 
upon its records, and whose memor}' is held in veneration, not only 
in his own town, but throughout the length and breadth of the State. 

" Aside from its public schools, the town enjoys the use of a 
magnificent building through the munificence of the late Edward 
Harris. Here the Woonsocket Lyceum holds its meetings, a public 
reading-room is daily visited, and a large and well-selected library 
is opened to all. A portion of this library was originally a district 
organization, and named in honor of its most liberal benefactor, Mr. 
Edward Carrington. This was afterwards annexed to a library 
tbunded and endowed by Edward Harris, and the whole now bears 
the name of the Harris Institute Library." 

Woonsocket, being located as has been said, at a " Cross Roads," 
has always been well connected with the world outside. In early 
times it lay upon the stage route from Providence to Worcester, and 
was also itself one terminus of a stage route to Boston. There were 
many notable taverns in those days, but these disappeared with the 
stages of which they were the consequences. The Providence and 
Worcester Railroad now passes through the town, and the New 
York and New England Railroad connects it with Boston. 

Woonsocket is finely located in the valley of its encircling hills, 
from whose summits extensive prospects of the surrounding country 
are to be had. It is almost needless to say that the highest point 
of land in the State, Woonsocket Hill, is in this vicinity, although 
not belonging to the town of that name. The falls, from which 
the original village which tbrms the nucleus of the present town 
takes .its name, are worth a visit. The river, as has been said, 
flows through the town. But there are geological indications that, 
ages ago, its bed was in the valley on the north side of the town, 
near the railroad. Workmen digging below the surface find great 

Smithfield and North Smithpield. 


hollows in the rock, 
such as have been 
worn by the falls in 
their descent upon 
the rocks at their 
feet. The falls are 
in three ditTerent 
s t r e a ni s — t h e 
Blackstone and its 
tributaries, the 
Mill, and the Pe- 
ters. The total fall 
of the Blackstone 
is about thirty-one 
feet ; that of the 
Peters River is 
fifty-two feet; that 
of the Mill, sixty 
feet. This is in 
two falls, one of 
forty feet, which is 
used at the Harris 
Privilege, and the 
other of twenty feet, 
used at the Social. 

Smithfield was 
one of the three 
towns into which 
the "outlands" of 
Providence were 
divided in the year 
1730. A wild coun- 
try it was then, 
with beasts of prey 
roaming through 
its forests and some- 
times carrying de- 
vastation to the 
homes of the set- 

150 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

tiers. Along the banks of its streams and in the all-embracing 
forest were to be found the wigwams of the red men, who had not 
as yet. entirely disappeared. No mill-dams impeded the course of 
the streams, forming dark, deep, and sluggish mill-ponds, over- 
flowing the low lands in their neighborhood ; but the waters flowed 
on in their original channels, overshadowed by dense woods, and 
undisturbed save by the chance passage of an Indian, a white man, 
or a wild animal of the forest. 

The original territory of Smithfield extended from what are now 
the northern boundaries of Johnston and North Providence to the Mas- 
sachusetts south line, on the west bounded by Glocester, and on the 
east and northeast by the Blackstone River. Within its limits were 
comprised the present towns of Lincoln, North Smithfield, Smithfield, 
and part of Woonsocket. The dismemberment took place March 8, 
1871, and reduced the territory known by the name of Smithfield 
from seventy-three to twenty-seven square miles, and from a popula- 
tion in i860 of 13,283, to 2,605 ^^ 1870. The centres of population 
were in the town of Lincoln and in the portion set ofl' to Woon- 
socket. Accounts of those places have already been given under 
their respective heads. The present Smithfield is the southwestern 
portion of the original territory, and its population in 1880 was 

Smithfield is watered by the Woonasquatucket River, which flows 
through the town in a circuitous course. The country is diversified 
by hill and dale, and in many places the river flows between high, 
steep banks. From these elevations views of the river and the sur- 
rounding country may be had, which, while they are not grand, are 
still picturesque and pleasing. 

The water-power of the Woonasquatucket was first made avail- 
able early in the century to run saw and grist mills ; soon after, when 
the cotton manufacture had begun to spread, small cotton-factories 
sprang up along its banks. During the summer seasons great incon- 
venience was caused to these factories, and they were often obliged 
to stop, by reason of the scarcity of water. There was always an 
abundance in the spring, but the factories could only use a limited 
quantity, and the remainder, for their use at least, was entirely lost. 
The idea occurred to some wide-awake manufacturer that if this sur- 
plus water could be stored up, it would supply the deficiency in the 
summer. Accordingly, the Slack reservoir, covering 153 acres, 
near the village of Greenville, was built in 1823. A corporation was 

Smithkikld and North Smithfield. 


A View of Greenville. 

formed in 1824, and was chartered b\' the General Assembly under 
tlie name of the Woonasquatucket River Company, to carry on the 
work of building reservoirs for the storage of the surplus water. 
This was the first corporation chartered for this object in Rhode 
Island, and it was also the pioneer in this work. Among the mem- 
bers of this corporation wer.e Zachariah Allen, Philip Allen, Samuel 
G. Arnold, Thomas Thompson, and Samuel Nightingale. The 
Sprague lower reservoir, of seventy acres, was built in 1827 : the 
Sprague ui)iier reserxoii", of t\\ ent\'-five acres, in 1836; and the 
Waterman reservoir, of 318 acres, in 1838. These reservoirs were 
formed by danuning up the head waters of the river in low, marshy 
localities, and tlie ponds thus formed iuive all tiie irregularity of 
outline that characterizes natural ponds. In the summer, by means 
of sluice-gates, the water can be let down as it is needed. The cost 
of this work, which always included the price of the land overflowed 
by the reservoir, was assessed on the owners of the water-pri\ileges 
along the river, in a ratable proportion to the head of water and 
the number of feet of fall they had. A fifth reservoir was projected 
a number of years ago, l)ut has not been as vet completed. The 

152 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

entire area covered by the four reservoirs is about 565 acres, and 
the average depth of water about ninety-two feet. 

The most important village in the town is Georgiaville, at 
which place are the cotton-factories of the Smithfield Manufacturing 
Company. Other small factories are those at AUenville, Stillwater, 
Greenville, Knight's Mills, Granite Mills, and Winsor Mills. In all 
these places the tenement-houses and the land in their vicinity are 
mostly owned by the proprietors of the factories. 

The Providence and Springfield Railroad runs through the centre 
of the town, along the banks of the river, and has been instrumental 
in developing the territory. In the north part of the town there is a 
station at the village of Smithfield, which serves as a centre for a 
large farming district. Smithfield ranks third among the towns in 
the State in the extent and importance of its milk business ; a con- 
siderable amount of farming is also carried on. 

The churches in the town are as follows : a Baptist church at 
Greenville, a Freewill Baptist church at Georgiaville, at Allendale 
a free church which has no settled minister, but in which any 
Protestant clergyman is allowed to hold services ; the Central Union 
Church, at the extreme northern part of the State, a short distance 
north of the Providence and Douglas turnpike, which is on the same 
footing as the Allendale church ; and two Roman Catholic churches, 
St. Philip's and St. Michael's. 

North Smithfield is the northwestern portion of the original terri- 
tory of Smithfield. It is situated directly north of the town which 
retains the parent name. When it was incorporated, March 8, 1871, 
the name Slater was given to it, but sixteen days afterward its present 
name was bestowed upon it. Its history is comprised in that of 
Smithfield. The population of the town in 1875 was 2,797; in 
1880, 3,088. 

The only stream of importance is the south branch of the Black- 
stone River, which flows through the northern part of the town. On 
this stream is the village of Slatersville, at which place Almy, Brown 
and Slater erected a cotton-factory in 1806. Two other mills were 
subsequently built here, and the three factories have at various times 
been enlarged or rebuilt, as occasion demanded. John Slater was 
associated with Samuel in these mills, and eventually these two 
bought out the other owners. The factories and village remain 
in the possession of the Slater family. The village has good educa- 
tional advantages, and a fine library. Forestdale, about two miles 


below Slatersville, has two cotton-factories, and at Watcrford is the 
mill of the I'nion Worsted Compan\', which is partly in Massa- 

The Providence and Springfield Railroad runs across the south- 
west corner of the town, and has a station at Primrose, which is the 
railroad centre for a farming district. The country is in general 
undulating, and from the hills many fine landscape views may be 
had. In some parts the land is rocky, and quantities of coarse gran- 
ite are quarried. 

BuRRiLi.viLLE. — All Rhode Island revolves around Providence. 
To the native of the soil Providence is " the city" without qualifica- 
tion or reserve. Indeed, some one, in a fit of ill-temper born of 
political disappointment, has gone so far as to bring railing accusa- 
tion against the State by saying that Providence is Rhode Island. 
However this may or may not be politically, it was for generations 
half of the State, extending to the borders of Massachusetts. A 
great extent of territory, when it contains but few or no inhabitants, 
is easily controlled by the centre of government. When Roger 
Williams commenced this colony, whose first settlement was at the 
head of Narratjansett Bav, he sent out commissioners to consider 
the matter of organizing three towns at the north. They, convinced 
that no one would ever wish to settle in this uninviting wilderness, 
made report to that effect. Common experience has proved that it 
is quite impossible to answer for the actions of others, especially for 
those of generations yet unborn. Settlers did go out into this wil- 
derness, and hew down trees, and build houses, and increase and 
multiply, until, in 1730, the colony of Providence had become so 
unwieldy, and tne management of its affairs so bin-densome, that it 
was found necessary to erect the three new towns which a hundred 
years betbre existed in the imagination only of Roger Williams. 

These were che towns of Smithfield, Glocester, and Scituate. In 
time, the population of Glocester increased to such an extent, and the 
dwellers in the northern part found it so inconvenient to go to Che- 
pachet to town-meeting, that the town was divided by an east and 
west line into two. In this wav, in the vear 1806, Burrillvillebeg'an 
its corporate existence. Its location is that of the most northwestern- 
town of the State, bordering upon Connecticut and Massachusetts. 
It covers an area of some sixty miles, its surface diversified by craggy 
hills and smiling vales, by quiet lakes and sparkling rills, and dotted 

154 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

by trim and thriving villages, and old-fashioned and not always trim 
farm-houses clinging to the rough and rocky soil ; and over all, the 
solemn forests keep perpetual watch. 

The town received its name from the Hon. James Burrill, at that 
time attorney-general of the State of Rhode Island. Mr. Burrill 
was a native of Providence, having been born there in 1772. He 
was graduated at Brown University in 1788, and immediately com- 
menced the study of law. So rapid was his acquirement of the neces- 
sary knowledge, that before he reached his majority he was admitted 
to the bar. While still a young man, he stood at the head of his pro- 
fession in the State. For seventeen years he held the office of 
attorney-general of Rhode Island. He was speaker of the House 
of Representatives from 1814 to 1816. In the latter year he was 
appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court, and in the following 
year the General Assembly elected him to the Senate of the United 
States. Here he served faithfully the interests of the State imtil his 
death, which occurred on Christmas day in the year 1820. As a 
token of his appreciation of the honor done to him, he presented the 
new town with a set of record-books. 

Burrillville, like most places, has its traditions. Wild tales of 
Indian warfare, of desolate hearth-stones, of blackened ruins of once 
happy homes, may still be heard, — stories of the giant strength of 
far back ancestors — of a huge skeleton unearthed (this, however, 
in quite modern times), of spells and incantations, of haunted houses 
and ghostly miners. 

In early days the town was rich in animal life, a fact which has 
been perpetuated in the nomenclature of many of its hills and waters, 
which names, if not always romantic, are certainly suggestive. Eagle 
Peak tells of the time when that kingly bird had his haunts there ; 
Buck Hill, of the deer which bounded through the forests ; Wolf 
Hill, of those fierce creatures whose howl strikes terror into the 
stoutest heart ; Herring Pond, of the delicious fish which once 
haunted its waters ; Pascoag, of the snakes which made, and still 
make, their fastness of the rocky ledge of that name. 

Away up in the northwestern part of the town, at the foot of the 
range of hills which crosses that part of the State, lies Wallum Lake, 
a charming sheet of water, with long, deep coves, where fish love to 
resort, shadowed by grand, centuries-old trees, and boasting of 
a beach, hard and white, and so safe that the most timid bather need 
feel no alarm. This lake is the source of a river of some impor- 



The Village of Slatersville. 

tance, the Clear, which " winds about, and in and out," through busy 
villages and lonely roads, until, together with the Chepachet, it loses 
its identity in the Branch, which finally pours its accumulated waters 
into the Blackstone. 

The most extensive forest in this State is a part of this town — a 
forest covering 6,000 acres of land, and full of the charm of bird and 
leaf and flower, of towering trunk and spreading branch. A clear- 
ing upon the summit, near the Connecticut line, gives a wide view 
of the surrounding country. 

In the Buck Hill Woods, on the edge of Round Pond, is a cave, 
which, although not remarkable in itself, derives interest from the 
fact that It w\is at one time the hiding-place of a gang of counter- 
feiters who plied their nefarious trade here. Arrests were made, 
and a suit commenced, but for some unexplained reason proceedings 
lagged, and the lame goddess became so exceedingly lame that she 
never fairly overtook the off'enders. 

A singular cave, sometimes called "Coopers Den," sometimes 
"Forger's Cave," is one of the curiosities of the town. It is situ- 
ated on the road leading from Glendale to the old Stephen Cooper 
house. At the entrance of the wood is a craggy ledge of rock, the 
hicrhest in the town. Half-way up the steep clifl'is a narrow^ open- 

156 PicTURESciUE Rhode Island. 

ing, through which one can crawl. It is the entrance to an irregular 
room, thirty feet by eight, and twelve teet high. It is an eerie place, 
with its torn and convulsed rocks, looking as if they might fall at 
an\' moment, and stirring up the imagination to picture all kinds of 
frightful forms in their startling outlines. 

Burrillville is not as rich in history as man}' of the older towns of 
the State. Among the early honorable names of the town are those 
of John Smith, the first pioneer, and Edward Salsbury, who served 
in the French War and helped build Fort Stanwix. But the best part 
of its history is to be read in its thriving villages, clustering around 
its solid and sometimes imposing mills, and in the record of those 
men who have attested by their energy and means that " Peace hath 
her victories no less than war." The most important industry is the 
manufacture of woolen cloths. Several mills which were built for 
other purposes have been torn down, and new ones have been erected 
for this branch of manufactures. The Glendale Mill was originally 
a saw and grist-mill. After the property passed into the hands of 
Mr. Anthony Steere, he built a cotton-mill on the site, which shortly 
after burned down. Before it was completely rebuilt it was bought 
by Mr. Lyman Copeland, who converted it into a woolen-mill. The 
Clear River Woolen Mills beg-an their career as iron-mills. The 
Harrisville, Mapleville, Oakland, and Fisk, Sayles & Co.'s mills, are 
all woolen-mills. Spindles and machinery are also made in the 
town. Without its mills, Burrillville would be still comparatively a 
desert place. Its soil is thin and poor, much of its surface is stony. 
There are large extents of marsh which could be made available 
only by a severe course of draining. The farmers .generally do not 
keep pace wath the times, but cling to the old-fashioned implements 
of their forefathers. With such unfavorable prospects for agricul- 
tural prosperity, and with a good supply of water, naturally the 
inhabitants turned their attention to manufactures. The first mill 
was built on the Tar Kiln River in 1810, by Solomon Smith, tor a 
Mr. Thurber, of Providence. The machinery was of the simplest, 
but very durable, and as it was run many years, it probably did its 
work satisfactorily. This was the beginning of that great manutac- 
turing interest which has since spread over the length and breadth 
of the town. 

The dwellers in Burrillville take pride in the fact that the first 
Freewill Baptist Church in the State was organized within their 
limits. It is in the village of Pascoag. There is an Episcopal 



churcli in Harrisville, which was built in 1857, under the auspices of 
the Rev. Dr. Eames, afterwards of the diocese of New Hampshire, 
and who died a few years since on the passage to Bermuda, whither 
he was going for his health, liesides these, there are the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Laurel Hill, which dates from 1847, the Berean 
Baptist Church, organized, as lately as 1874, the Society of Friends, 
which held meetings as early as 1783, and the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Patrick, at Harrisville, instituted about the year 1856. 
The Manton Library, at Pascoag, is an institution of the town that 
well deserves mention. 

A View of Pascoag 




HE town of Glocester constitutes a part of that terri- 
tory of which Roger Williams' commissioners thought 
with such scorn, when, in the early days of these 
settlements, he sent them up the Woonasquatucket to 
examine the countr}^ and report upon the advisability 
of constructing three new towns north of Providence. 
The impression that the region was a howling wil- 
derness, and the soil worthless for cultivation pre- 
vailed for a long time. But at length a few daring 
spirits, feeling themselves crowded, perhaps, in the 
fast growing colony of Providence (like the western man when 
a neighbor settled within twenty miles of him), ventured into this 
unknown and hitherto despised region, and actually began a set- 
tlement in 1706. Among them was a Frenchman named Abram 
Tourtelotte, who made for himself a home about a mile south of 
Acote's Hill. He was the grandson of Gabriel Bernon, in honor of 
whom the Bernon Mill at Woonsocket was named. The forests were 
found to yield excellent timber, the virgin soil proved abundantly pro- 
ductive, and water was plentiful. Owing either to the ignorance of 
the primitive settlers, or to their practice of a false economy, or both, 
the soil was soon exhausted by constant cropping without renewing ; 
the inhabitants consequently turned their attention to manufactures. 
There are numerous ponds within the limits of the town, three of 
which, Ponegansett, Smith and Sayles', and Woonasquatucket, are 

Glocester. 159 

known as reservoirs. The largest natural body of water is Keech's 
Pond, near Smith and Sayles' reservoir. The most important stream 
is the Chepachet, a tributary of the Blackstone, upon which is situ- 
ated the village of Chepachet, the business centre of the town. 

It is interesting to note how long the idea prevailed that Gloces- 
ter was far from being a desirable residence. In the early days ot 
the Revolution it was thought necessary to exile from their home in 
Newport, certain loyalists whose presence was naturally obnoxious 
to the patriots of that town. The Colonial Assembly therefore 
passed an act in June, 1776, banishing Thomas Vernon, Richard 
Beale, John Nichols, and Nicholas Lechmere to the town of Glo- 
cester. The act states that these gentlemen, " having been examined 
before the Assembly, refused to subscribe to the Test ordered by the 
Assembly to be tendered to suspected persons, and that while they 
continued in the principles avowed by them before the Assembly, 
thev were justly deemed unfriendly to the United Colonies." 

The long journey from Newport to Glocester — for it was long in 
those days — consumed one day and part of another. The exiles left 
Newport at four o'clock in the afternoon of June 20, 1776, in the boat 
of one William Green, and arrived in East Greenwich at seven in the 
evening. The sheriff of Newport County and his deputy who accom- 
panied them, together with the prisoners, spent the night at the house 
of Mr. Arnold. The next morning, with much difficulty, a negro 
obtained for their transfer to the wilds of Glocester, "an old crazy 
chaise with a very bad horse & two led horses quite as indifferent." 
In this way they arrived at Glocester at night, much fatigued, having 
ridden through a "very Rocky Country." That night they lodged 
at a public house, whose host was a man " very moderate in his senti- 
ments," from which we infer that his patriotism was not rampant. 
The next day, having refused to give their parole, the liberty of the 
town was denied them, and they were placed at the house of Mr. 
Stephen Keetche to await further orders. 

Life here passed quietly enough, after the gayety of Newport. 
The party, sustained by the consciousness that they were suffering 
for the sake of a principle, were disposed to make the best of their 
fate. The farm upon which they were, consisted of five hundred 
acres, only one hundred of which were under cultivation. The fam- 
ily were friendly, and Mr. Vernon, upon whose diary we depend for 
a knowledge of this curious passage of Glocester history, seems to 
have been a cheerful man, with a keen sense of humor. Daily life 

i6o Picturesque Rhode Island. 

commenced at four o'clock in the morning, and ended early at night, 
ten o'clock being regarded as a rather dissipated hour. The various 
dishes for breakfast, dinner, and tea are chronicled day by day by 
Mr. Vernon, with the minuteness of one whose time hangs heavy on 
his hands. The taking down of a vane is an event, a quiet game of 
whist an excitement. Frequent messages to Providence, the result 
of which was rum, lemons, and sugar, over which, when mixed in 
due proportion, they " remembered their Newport friends," consti- 
tute a part of this diary. One item reads oddly in these days, when 
one feels himself in a benighted region unless he has access to 
two or three daily papers. " Sunday, Aug. ii. Our Landlord this 
A. M. early sent his youngest son (as he always does on Sunday), 
about a mile for the Providence newspaper, and the whole forenoon 
is generally spent in perusing it, and this afternoon in hearing Mr. 
Johnson read it, such is the fondness of people for news." Mr. Ver- 
non states that the inhabitants of the town belonged to the religious 
sect called the New Light Baptists, and says that they had " preach- 
ers and Exhortors innumberable." Notwithstanding which, and that 
they made, great pretensions to religion, they were not a church-going 
people. During the month of August, Mr. Keetche took steps to 
lay his account for the board of his prisoners before the State Legis- 
lature, which was quite unjust, as most of the food which they had 
eaten at his table had been sent them by Newport friends, and had 
been shared with the family. Whether these Tories had during their 
sojourn rendered themselves actively obnoxious, or whether the 
increasing earnestness of the patriots as the war progressed pro- 
duced the same effect, there is no means of knowing. But it is a fact 
that by September, the people of Glocester would no longer receive 
them into their homes, and the governor of the State could give no 
farther directions for their bestowal. So, without any very elaborate 
ceremony, they took leave of the place of their captivity, and started, 
some for Providence, and the rest, Vernon being one of these, for 
Newport. The latter party took the Scituate road, and arrived, tired, 
hungry, and drenched, at East Greenwich at nine in the evening. 
After a while, the whole party were bestowed in safe places, and their 
banishment ended. 

Shay's RebelHon, which was brought about partly by suffering 
caused by heavy taxes, and partly by the selfishness and folly of a 
party calling themselves "Reformation men," who would neither 
fight nor pay taxes had its origin here. The disaffection towards 

Glocester. i6i 

State authority spread into Massachusetts, whither the rebellion 
betook itself bodily, and flourished until finally suppressed by the 
State troops. The dissatisfaction with political duties and privileges 
only slumbered, however, and two generations later broke out in 
that remarkable event of Rhode Island history, the Dorr War. 
This " tempest in a teapot," which shook the State well-nigh from 
her foundations, culminated in Chepachet, the most important village 
of the town of Glocester. 

From its earliest history, Rhode Island, although nominally a 
democracy, had placed certain healthful restrictions upon the right 
of suffrage. That one which limited the right of suffrage to the 
owner of a freehold worth, at least, $134, vvas held in especial abhor- 
rence by those who possessed no such freehold. The right of the 
oldest son of such a freeholder to vote was also regarded with great 
disfavor. Statistics added their share to the general dissatisfaction. 
Of the seventy-two representatives chosen in 1840, thirty-eight were 
elected by towns having an aggregate population of 29,020 and less 
than 3,000 voters, and the remaining thirty-four by towns whose 
population numbered 79,804, and whose voters were nearly 6,000. 
Providence, which had greatly outgrown her former rival, Newport, 
sent to the Council of the State but four representatives, while New- 
port sent six. The irritation and bitterness engendered by this state 
of affairs had been increasing and gaining strength for years. 
Appeals to the General Assembly for a change in the constitution to 
meet the difficulty had produced no result, and at length an appeal 
was made directly to the people. Meetings were held during the 
last part of 1840 and the first part of 1841. Polidcal leaders on the 
side of free suffrage left no means untried for inflaming the public 
mind, and so well did they succeed, that on the 5th of July, 1841, a 
mass-meedng was held in Providence, and the State Committee was 
instructed to call a convention for the formation of a constitudon 
which should represent their views. This convention, composed of 
delegates duly elected, met on the 4th of October, framed a consti- 
tution, and promulgated it as the " People's Constitudon." Under 
this instrument, those of the people whose will it expressed elected 
Thomas Wilson Dorr, of Providence, governor, April 18, 1842. At 
the same time the " Law and Order" party, with the old and tried 
constitution of the State at their back, elected Samuel Ward King 
governor. As soon as the new government attempted to test its 
power by performing execudve functions, it found itself confronted 

Foster. 163 

by the old, and that either a collision or a peaceable abdication must 
follow. But the " Dorrites " were lionest in the belief that thev 
should accomplish the thing wliich they desired, and, inflamed b}' the 
eloquence of their leaders, they were incapable of perceiving that 
they were not taking the right and effectual way of doing it. They 
therefore girded themselves for a conflict. On the 3d of May 
Governor Dorr made an attempt to displace Governor King, which 
failed. On the eighteenth his party made an abortive attempt to 
capture the Arsenal. The insurgents then began to retreat north- 
ward until, on the 25th of June, they had concentrated and made' a 
stand at Chepachet. Here the valiant troops remained, displaying 
the greatest bravery, so long as no enemy was in sight. But as soon 
as the State troops, augmented by volunteers from the various towns 
of the State appeared, they became suddenly impressed with the 
majesty of the law, and rather than defy it by actual bloodshed 
turned and fled in dismay. Three days after, the insurrection was a 
thing of the past, and the insurgents had metaphorically beaten their 
swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks. 
Dorr himself was taken, tried and sentenced to be imprisoned for 
life. The rigor of his sentence was soon abated, and in 1847, by an 
act of general amnesty, he was set free, and in 185 1 was restored to 
his rights as a citizen. 

Foster is a farming town, situated on the western border of the 
State, fifteen miles from Providence. Its area is fifty square miles. 
The surface is rugged and hilly, and much of the land stony, rough, 
hard to cultivate, and unproductive. Some of the best farming land 
in the State is, however, to be found within its borders. In 1820, 
the population was 2,900, — the largest number in the town's history ; 
by the census of 1880, it was 1,552. Foster was taken from Scituate, 
and was incorporated as a separate town August 24, 1781. It was 
named after the Hon. Theodore Foster, then a United States Senator 
from this State. 

The materials for romance are meagre in the life of a community 
like this. The early settlers had, no doubt, their adventures with 
the Indians, and the usual number of hair-breadth escapes. As the 
years passed slowly on, bringing exemption from the attacks of sav- 
age foes and deliverance from the control of the mother country, the 
lives of the inhabitants became monotonous and uneventful. In such 
isolated places the New England speech, embalmed by Lowell in 

164 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

the Bigloxu Papers, flourished with remarkable vigor. A certain 
shrewdness of character and an unusual physical pluck was devel- 
oped, which made these farming towns the fountains from which 
were drawn the energetic business men of the cities. 

The first settlement in Foster, according to tradition, was made in 
the year 1717, by Ezekiel Hopkins, whose descendants are at present 
numerous in the town. A large tract of land called West Quanaug 
was early purchased from the Indians by WilHam Vaughan, Zacha- 
riah Rhodes, and Robert Westcott. A number of the prominent men 
of* Newport were afterward associated with the original purchasers. 
The time of the settlement of this purchase is not definitely known, 
but it was no doubt occupied soon after its acquisition. The How- 
ards, who settled here very early, have always been a prominent 
family in the town. The Hon. Daniel Howard, lately deceased, was 
a man of influence in town affairs. He was conversant with its early 
history, and was for many years town clerk. He was also judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. 

An episode in the history of the town, though only a personal one, 
is well worth mention. A short time before the war of the Revolu- 
tion two young men, Theodore Foster and Solomon Drowne, were 
students in the Rhode Island College. They were close friends and 
inseparable companions, having all things in common, and confiding 
each to the other his inmost thoughts. One of their youthful dreams 
was that sometime in the future they would withdraw from the haunts 
of men, to a " lodge in some vast wilderness," where they might have 
the unrestrained pleasure of each other's society, and might engage 
in the pursuits of literature, art, and science. For many years they 
were prevented by circumstances from carrying their project into 
execution, but- never gave up the idea. 

Foster engaged in public life. He was town clerk of Providence 
for twelve years, and United States Senator from 1790 to 1803. 
Drowne became a physician, served in the Revolutionary War, trav- 
eled and studied in foreign countries, and was a pioneer in the settle- 
ment of the West. He was celebrated as a botanist, and for many 
years taught that science in Brown University. For a quarter of a 
century the friends had only occasional and hurried meetings. At 
length, in the year 1800, they were able to take steps to bring about 
the accomplishment of their long cherished design. Foster was inter- 
ested in the town which had taken his name, and wished to live within 
its borders. In connection with Drowne he purchased a farm in an 

SCITUATE. • 165 

elevated and eligible situation. They named the place "' Mount 
Hygeia, after the goddess ol" health, of the Greek mythology. Here, 
with their families, they took up their abode, Drowne in 1801, and 
Foster in 1803, at the close of his senatorial career, surrounded by 
such comforts as the time and their means allbrded. They com- 
muned together, as in tiieir boyhood they had planned, writing verses 
lull of classical allusions, as was the fashion of the age, and engag- 
ing in their favorite studies. To spots on their farm and in its neigh- 
borhood they gave classical names. While enjoying their " learned 
leisure" they found time to advance the interests of the town, 
l^rincipally through Foster's means, a bank and a library were estab- 
lished, and a road from Providence to Hartford was built. The por- 
tion of the road which passed through Foster's farm was made ol 
great widtli, and was named by him the " Appian Wa}." 

Within the limits of Foster are the head waters of the north 
branch of the Pawtuxet River, besides various other small streams. 
There are manv good sites for small factories, but the distance 
inland, combined with the small available water-power, render them 
of comparatively little \alue. 

SciTUATE. — The lands granted to Roger Williams and his asso- 
ciates, when they first settled in Providence, were extensive tracts 
whose bounds were not accurately defined. As the original settle- 
ment increased, portions of the outlying territory were occupied as 
farms by pioneers. In time, these farming districts, because of their 
remoteness from Providence, were formed into separate towns as their 
situation and w-ants required. Scituate was one of the towns so 
formed. It was incorporated Feb. 20, 1730-^1. At that time an act 
was passed "■ for erecting and incorporating the outlands of the town 
of Providence into three towns." The two other towns were Gloces- 
ter and Smithfield. 

Judging from the following verses, by Stephen Hopkins, the first 
settlers in this region must have been in a sad plight. There is a 
possibility, however, that reference is made to individuals striving to 
make a house in the forest to which afterwards they could bring their 
families. No doubt in all the early settlements were many pioneers 
who had, in their first essays to conquer the wilderness, undergone 
hardships equal to those depicted here : 

" Nor housL-, nor hut, nor fruitful field, 
Nor lowing herd, nor bleating flock, 
Or garden that might comfort yield, 
Nor cheerful, early crowing cock. 

1 66 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

No orchard yielding pleasant fruit, 

Or laboring ox, or useful plow; 
Nor neighing steed, or browsing goat, 

Or grunting swine, or feedful cow. 

No friend to help, no neighbor nigh, 

Nor healing medicine to relieve; 
No mother's hand to close the eye, 

Alone; forlorn, and most extremely poor." 

Emigrants with more means soon followed. In 1710 some 
arrived from Scituate, Mass., and through their agency when the 
town was incorporated it was named after their old home. 

The first settler is supposed to have been John Mathewson. He 
built a hut near Moswansicut Pond. The nearest trading town was 
Boston, to which he made journeys occasionally. Each of these trips 
occupied a number of days, and the traveler generally stopped at all 
the houses on the route. The roads were only paths through the 
woods. On one of these expeditions Mathewson proposed marriage 
to a Miss Malary, whose acquaintance he had made during some of 
his preceding journeys. She assented to his proposal, and the pair 
were married. Soon after his marriage Mr. Mathewson built a house 
at some distance from his hut, and in this house his children were 
born. John, one of his sons, was the direct ancestor of the Hon. 
Elisha Mathewson, at one time United States Senator from this 
State. Others of that name settled in the neighborhood of the pond. 

In 1775 James Aldrich removed from Smithfield to Scituate. 
After the Revolution he was active in local politics, and represented 
the town for nineteen consecutive years in the General Assembly. 
His house was a rendezvous for prominent men in the town and 
State. Here, at times, ^^lisha Mathewson, John Harris, Col. Ephraim 
Bowers, and others were welcome guests. Gov. Arthur Fenner fre- 
quently came down from Providence to visit Mr. Aldrich and enjoy 
the hunting to be had in the neighborhood. "Political, as well as 
social and hunting propensities doubtless mingled in these expedi- 
tions, for Mr. James Aldrich and his friend, Elisha Mathewson, 
were said to control the votes of Scituate, and the people loved to see 
a governor among them in such a free and eas}^ spirit and costume, 
and gladly gave him the favor of their votes." 

Gideon Harris, who died in 1777, was a noted man in the town. 
For many years he was town clerk. His disposition was benevolent, 
and having property and influence, he used both to a good purpose in 
benefiting his neighbors. Those who were in distress were sure of 



Lake Moswansicut. 

his counsel and assistance as soon as they made their necessities 
known to him. 

About the year 1703, Joseph Wilkinson moved from Providence 
into the north part of Scituate, then known by the Indian name of 
Chapumishcock. He was a surveyor, and his services were always 
in great demand. Mr. Beaman, in his Historical Sketch of tlie town, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Wilkinson's wife : "■ Her hus- 
band being absent at work some two miles oft\ she discovered a bear 
upon a sweet apple tree, shaking off the fruit that he might devour it 
on the <rround. As it was the onh' tree of the kind thev had, and 
highly valued, Mrs. Wilkinson not a little regretted the absence of 
her husband, whose gun, kept loaded for such emergencies, was in 
its place on the pegs at the side of the wall. The apples continued to 
fall and rattle on the ground, and there was no other help at hand but 
the gun, which Martha, in a fit of desperation took into her hands, 
and going out of the door which stood open, she took aim and fired. 
Dropping the gun on the ground immediately after the discharge, 
alarmed and trembling at what she had done, she ran back into the 
house and shut the door, afraid to look back and see the effect of her 
shot. When Mr. Wilkinson returned home, he found the bear dead 
on the groimd, so that his faithful and resolute wife had not only 

i68 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

saved the cherished apples, but had secured some good meat as a 

In 1765, or thereabout, William Hopkins, whose wife was a sis- 
ter of Joseph Wilkinson, settled near him. Two of his sons, Stephen 
and Esek, acquired national reputations. Esek, the younger of 
the two, was born in Scituate in the year 1718. In his youth he 
became a sailor, and very soon rose to the command of a vessel. On 
the 22d of December, 1775, he was appointed by the Continental Con- 
gress " commander-in-chief" of the American naval forces. He was 
thereafter commonly known b}^ the title of commodore, though 
Washington addressed him as admiral. In February, 1776, with four 
ships and three sloops, he sailed from the Bahama Islands and cap- 
tured the forts at New Providence. The ammunition and stores 
obtained here were of great advantage to the patriot cause. The 
squadron on the return voyage captured two small British vessels, for 
which exploit Commodore Hopkins was officially complimented. 
Two days after, three of the vessels, having engaged the " Glasgow," 
a vessel of twenty-nine guns, were repulsed, and the British vessel 
escaped. For this affair the commodore was censured, and was 
shortly afterwards brought to trial on this and other charges, but wa'S 
defended by John Adams, and acquitted. Commodore Hopkins 
found many difficulties in organizing a navy. Neglecting to obey a 
citation summoning him to appear at Philadelphia, to answer charges 
preferred against him, he was dismissed the service Jan. 2, i777- 
He was subsequently engaged in private armed vessels, and after the 
war was for many years a member of the General Assembly. He 
died Feb. 26, 1802. John Paul Jones, afterwards famous as a 
naval commander, was one of Commodore Hopkins' first lieutenants 
during the expedition that resulted in the capture of the forts at New 

Stephen Hopkins became much more celebrated than his brother. 
He was born on the 7th of March, 1707, O. S. ; of his early educa- 
tion absolutely nothing is known. At the age of nineteen he mar- 
ried. He engaged in business as a surveyor, and was noted for the 
accuracy of his work. When Scituate was incorporated, in 1730, Mr. 
Hopkins, though only twenty-three years of age, was elected its first 
moderator. In 1731 he became town clerk, and the year following 
was elected to the General Assembly ; of this body he remained a 
member for some years. From this time forth he was engaged in 
various public duties as a town officer, judge and surveyor. In 1742 

Johnston. 169 

he removed to Providence, where he continued to reside until his 
death on the 13th of July, 1785. During the forty-three years of his 
residence in Providence, Stephen Hopkins held very many puhlic 
offices. He was often elected to the General Assembly ; was 
chosen speaker of the House a number of times, and was for 
ten years chief justice of the Superior Court. In 1754 he was one 
of the commissioners to the Albany Convention, and in 1755 was 
elected governor of the Colony. '* From 1755 to 1768 the great 
political w^ar known as the Ward and Hopkins controversy raged 
w^ith violence. Of these thirteen exciting political years, Governor 
Hopkins held the office of governor nine years." In literary and 
educational matters. Governor Hopkins was quick to act. His name 
stands first among the incorporators of Rhode Island College (now 
Brown University) ; and it also heads the list on the petition for a 
charter for the Providence Library Company. In 1774 both Ward 
and Hopkins were elected members of the Continental Congress. 
Ward died just previous to the Declaration of Independence ; Hop- 
kins was one of the signers of that famous document. 

Governor Hopkins was the author of a famous tract entitled The 
Rights of the Colonies JSxaniincd, which was one of the most impor- 
tant of the revolutionary writings. During his controversy with Gov- 
ernor Ward he published in his own defence A True Representation 
of the proceedings of the convention at Albany in regard to the plan 
for a union of the colonies. Other literary fragments by him remain, 
principal among which are the preliminary chapters of a history of 
the town of Providence, first printed in the Providence Gazette. 
In 1767 he assisted the astronomer. West, in his observation of the 
transit of Venus. 

In a recently published historical tract the writer calls Stephen 
Hopkins " the ablest man of his time within her (Rhode Island) 
borders." With slight opportunities for early education, he steadily 
worked his way by the force of his own genius to a position of emi- 
nence. His knowledge of the needs of the communit}' in which he 
lived, his interest in science and education, his grasp of the great 
principles upon which government is based, and his fearless and 
devoted patriotism at critical times, all render him an object of 
admiration, a patriot of whom not only Rhode Island, but the whole 
nation, may be proud. 

John Adams says of Stephen Hopkins : "The pleasantest part of 
mv labors for the four vears I spent in Congress, from 1774 to 1778, 

lyo Picturesque Rhode Island. 

was in the naval committee. Mr. Lee and Mr. Gadsden were sensi- 
ble men, and very cheerful, but Governor Hopkins, of Rhode Island, 
above seventy years of age, kept us all alive. Upon business, his 
experience and judgment were very useful. But when the business 
of the evening was over, he kept us in conversation till ii and some- 
times 12 o'clock. His custom was to drink nothing all day until 8 in 
the evening, and then his beverage was Jamaica spirits and water. 
It gave him wit, humor, anecdotes, science, and learning. He had 
read Greek, Roman, and British history, and was familiar with Eng- 
lish poetry, particularly Pope, Thompson, and Milton : and the flow 
of his soul made all his reading our own, and seemed to bring up 
recollections in all of us of all we had ever read. I could neither eat 
nor drink in those days ; the other gentlemen were very temperate. 
Hopkins never drank to excess, but all he drank was immediately 
not only converted into wit, sense, knowledge, and good humor, but 
inspired us with similar qualities." 

In the days before the advent of railroads the wayside inns were 
notable places. The old Angell tavern in Scituate was a well-known 
hostelry. It was built before the incorporation of the town. In its 
rooms the town-meetings were held ; the weary traveler here found 
rest and refreshment, and entertainment also, if he chose to take it. 
Here would the local worthies congregate to discuss the politics of 
the day, and sometimes the young men and maidens of the town 
would assemble in the old house for a dance. General Washington 
was at one time a guest, and Lafayette, on his march through the 
town during the war of the Revolution, lodged in the tavern. 

The people of Scituate are mostly engaged in farming. Through 
the southern part of the town flow two small streams, which on unit- 
ing form the north branch of the Pawtuxet River. The water- 
power, though small, is well used. There are in the town ten or 
twelve cotton-mills, besides various other establishments. Hope 
Village, the terminus of the Pawtuxet Valley Railroad, is in the south- 
eastern part of Scituate, on the Pawtuxet River. In the early days 
there was a furnace located here, at which the ore obtained from the 
Cranston " ore-bed" was worked. 

The local history of the town of Johnston, because of its- prox- 
imity, is so interwoven with that of Providence, that it is difficult to 
separate the one from the other. Until shortly before the Revolu- 
tion it was a part of Providence. The inhabitants of this western 

Johnston. 171 

part t'ouiul it incomcniL-iit Id atti'iul the tow n-mcctiiiLj's. ami a move- 
ment to erect a separate town w as made. 

The petition lor a (Hxision represented that within the Hmits ol' 
Providence there were •• ujnvards ot" lour hiuuhx'd freemen, part ot* 

A View on the Woonasquatucket. 

wliom live ten miles from the place where the town-meetings are 
usually holden and the prudential allairs of said town are transacted; 
and that, when met, they are \er\' much crowded, to the great hin- 
drance of business, wiiich being inconvenient, they pray to be set off, 
made and created into a distinct township." The new town was incor- 
porated March 6, 1759, '^"^^ named in honor of the Hon. Augustus 
Johnston, then the attornex-general of the Colonw The pojiulation 
in 1880 was 5.765. Agriculture is the j^rincipal occupation of the 
iniiabitants, the nearness of the citv affording a good market tor all 
kinds of garden produce and \'egetables. Some manufactures are 
carried on along the banks of the Woonasquatucket River, which 
divides the town from Pro\idence. These are mainly cotton and 
woolen mills in Olnevville, Merino, and Simmonsville. 

In the deed C!)n\-e\'inLr the oriu'inal urant of land from the Indian 

172 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

chieftains, Canonicus and Miantonomi, to Roger Williams, one of the 
bounds of the grant is " the great hill of Neutaconkanut." This hill 
is also mentioned in a subsequent deed executed by Roger Williams 
to the other purchasers. There is no doubt that the hill mentioned 
is the one known at present in the town of Johnston by the same 
name. From its summit a line view ma}^ be obtained of the city 
of Providence, and of the valley of the Woonasqautucket River. 

In the colonial days lotteries were allowed by the Legislature for 
the purpose of raising money for nearly all objects. The General 
Assembly in the year 1761 passed the following grant: " Whereas^ 
several of the inhabitants of the town of Johnston preferred a petition 
and represented unto this Assembh' that there is no meeting-house in 
said town ; that Daniel Manton will give an acre of land near Ben- 
jamin Belknap, whereon to set a meeting-house ; that the circum- 
stances of said town are low, and, therefore, pray that a lottery might 
be granted to them to raise money sufficient to build a meeting-house 
for public worship, free to the Baptist Society of the Ancient Order, 
in the said place, of the dimensions of fort}^ feet long and thirty feet 
wide." This lottery was granted, and from it was realized almost 
money enough to build the church. The remainder was obtained 
by a second lottery. 

Both before and after the Revolution it was customary through- 
out New England for towns having no work-houses to let out their 
paupers to the lowest bidders. A town being obliged to support the 
poor wished to do it as cheaply as possible, and the person who 
would support a pauper for the smallest sum paid out of the town 
treasury, would have that opportunity. The paupers were sold at 
public auction, and the treatment they received under this arrange- 
ment depended entirely upon the character of their purchaser. In 
some instances individuals were treated with great harshness. There 
was, perhaps, some excuse for this practice ; but gradually public sen- 
timent caused it to be discontinued. (In several of the Southern 
States the same practice prevails to-day.) This incident is found in 
the records of the town of Johnston : A resolution was passed Oct. 8, 
I79i,that the poor supported by the town should be sold at public 
vendue for a period of six months, except all those whom the over- 
seer of the poor had agreed to support for one year. Under this res- 
olution Jabez Westcott was sold to Josiah King at the rate of four 
shillings per v\^eek, and Nathan Pearce at eight shillings. 

About five miles from Providence, in the town of Johnston, is' a 



A View on tlie Pawtuxet. 

romantic spot on the Pocasset Brook which is worth a visit. The 
hrook flows into a deep ravine, the banks of which are thirty or t'orty 
feet in height, at the upper end falling over a series of cascades. 
When the water is abundant, or during a freshet, the effect is pictur- 
esque, — much more so than that of many spots tourists go hundreds 
of miles to visit. The bottom and sides of the ravine below the falls 
are well wooded with tall, straight trees, whose tops rise as high as 
those of their brethren of the surrounding forest. 

Cranston. — Very early in the histor\' of the colony, attempts 
were made to have this territory set off from Providence, but for a time 
without success. The principal reasons for these repeated failures 
were the disagreements in regard to a name for the proposed town. 
Among those suggested were Mashapaug, Pawtuxet, Meshanticut, 
Lvnn, and Pocasset. Finally the town was incorporated June 14, 
1754, 'i"^^ named in honor of Samuel Cranston, the governor of the 
Colony from 1698 to 1727. Portions of the town were reunited to 
Providence June 10, 1868, and March 28, 1873. Its population in 
1880 was 5,941. 

Iron ore was early found here, and in 1767 a company was formed 
to mine the ore at a place known as the "• ore-bed." This business 
was successfully carried on for a number of years. Large quantities 

174 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

of ore were sent to supply the numerous furnaces in various parts of 
the countr}^ Much was sent to the Hope Furnace, in Scituate. 
From the metal there extracted, cannon were cast which were used 
in the Revolutionary War. At present the mine is filled with water. 
Coal was at one time mined on the slope of the Sockanosset Hill in 
Cranston. The deserted mine and the buildings at its mouth yet 
remain, and are situated between the Sockanosset Reservoir and the 
pumping-station of the Providence Water Works. Various attempts 
have been made to bring the coal obtained there into common use, 
^nd about ten years ago efforts were made to interest capital in the 
enterprise, but without success. The coal would burn, but required 
great watchfulness ; there is no doubt, however, that for some pur- 
poses it has superior qualities. 

In the Cranston records of the pre-Revolutionar}^ times an action 
is mentioned which is much to the credit of the place. By some 
means the town became possessed of a negro slave, named Jack, on 
the 22d of August, 1767. Having ascertained that the slave was 
industrious and likely to earn his own living, the town gave him his 
liberty five days thereafter. 

During the years immediately following the Revolution various 
attempts were made to establish manufactures. Before 181 2 there 
were four establishments for the manufacture of cotton yarn. In the 
succeeding years, down to the present time, many similar enterprises 
have been started. It is a singular fact, however, that with one 
important exception all these undertakings have failed. At present 
the only manufacturing concern of any extent within the limits of the 
town is the print-works of the A. & W. Sprague Manufacturing 

At Arlington are quarries where work was commenced in 1820, 
and is still carried on. In 1859 ^ brewery was built at Spectacle 
Pond, and " lager beer" is now made there. 

The first beginning from which has grown the immense business 
of the Spragues, was made by William Sprague, who built a mill at 
Cranston Village in 1807 for the spinning of cotton yarn. This mill 
was burned in 181 5, but was immediately rebuilt and enlarged. In 
the meantime Sprague had hired the Union Mills in Olneyville. In 
1825 he began to print cloth, at first from blocks. In 1827 he intro- 
duced one printing machine. This William Sprague died in 1836. 
He was the father of Amasa and William Sprague, the original mem- 
bers of the firm of A. & W. Sprague. The two sons continued the 
business after their father's death. 



William was the master spirit, and one of the most remarkable 
men of his time. He was governor of the State from 1838 to 1840, 
and in 1842 became United States Senator. He w^as subsequently 
known as the- "Old Governor." William Spraouc was an exaggerated 

A View of the State Prison. 

type of the Rhode Island factory magnate. With greater ability 
than his compeers (perhaps he was a little more unscrupulous than 
thev), he accompHshed his ends with more daring, but by the same 
methods ; shrewd, practical, and far-seeing, by the position of his 
business, in comparative isolation, he was enabled to exercise the 
authoritv of an autocrat. His w^orkmen he could control ; they 
would vote at his bidding. He was a feudal lord in the nineteenth 
centurv, accomplishing his own will, not by brute force, but within 
the bounds and with the sanction of law. 

On Sunday, the 31st day of December, 1843, Amasa Sprague was 
murdered. The deed was done in the afternoon, by the side of a 
beaten path constantly traveled, and within sight of the windows of 
many houses, yet no one saw^ it. The body was shockingly 
mutilated, and the gun with which the murder was committed was 
found lying in a damaged condition at a distance of about a hundred 
rods from the corpse. Three brothers, Nicholas S., John and Wil- 
liam Gordon were arrested on suspicion. Nicholas was accused 
of being an accessory, and the other tw^o were charged wdth having 
perpetrated the crime. They were natives of Ireland. Nicholas 
had been in this country a number of years ; John and William 
but a few months. The motive for the murder was said to be the 
enmitv which Nicholas Gordon felt towards Amasa Sprague, because 

176 Picturesque Rho^e Island. 

of the latter's opposition to the granting to Gordon of a license to sell 
liquor. The trial began April 8, 1844, and resulted in the acquittal of 
Nicholas and William Gordon. John Gordon was adjudged guilty, 
wholly on circumstantial evidence, and was executed Feb. 14, 1845. 
This was the last hanging which took place in Rhode Island. 

The present Amasa and William Sprague are the children of the 
murdered man. The business was built up by the " Old Governor," 
who resigned his seat in the United States Senate very soon after 
the murder of his brother. 

The village of Pawtuxet, about five miles below Providence, on 
the west side of Narragansett Bay, is partly in Cranston and partly 
in Warwick. It is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the Pawtuxet 
River. The river divides the village into two portions, which are 
connected by a bridge. From this bridge a fine view of the water-fall 
a short distance above may be obtained. A long, narrow peninsula, 
jutting out into the bay, encloses a basin at the mouth of the river 
just below the bridge, which forms a good harbor. This peninsula 
is known as Pawtuxet Neck, and is said to have been a favorite 
feasting-place with the Indians before the arrival of Europeans. A 
small amount of foreign commerce was at one time brought to the 
wharves of Pawtuxet, but now, like those of many other small har- 
bors, they are almost entirely deserted. 

In 1638, two years after the arrival of Roger WiUiams at Provi- 
dence, William Arnold, William Carpenter, Zachariah Tucker, and 
WiUiam Harris, removed from Providence and began the settlement 
at Pawtuxet. Four years afterwards the principal settlers in the 
place, because of their dissatisfaction with the insubordinate conduct 
of Samuel Gorton and his followers, put themselves under the pro- 
tection of the Massachusetts Colony. After the removal of Gorton 
to Warwick they withdrew their allegiance from Massachusetts, and 
came under the jurisdiction of Rhode Island. A dispute which had 
existed from the first settlement, about the boundary between Provi- 
dence and Pawtuxet, was finally setded in 1712. Gaspee Point, 
where the British armed schooner "Gaspee" was destroyed, is a 
short distance below Pawtuxet. 

In the year 1869 a farm containing 417.7 acres, situated in the 
town of Cranston, about six miles from Providence, was purchased 
by the State for the purpose of locating there the State institutions for 
the punishment and reformation of criminals, for the insane, and for 
the State paupers. The farm is in an elevated situation, and com- 



niancls a fine \-i(.'\v of the c\[\, ba\', and suiTonndini;- connti'N'. At fn'st 
temporary quarters were erected for those guilty of minor otVences. 
In a short time, however, a permanent work-house was built, which 
was gradually followed by a house of correction, an asylum for the 
insane, and an almshouse for paupers luuing no town settlement. 
The State Prison was commenced in 1874 '^"<^^ fniished in 1878, 
being ready ff)r occupancy in N()\ember of that ^•ear. '" A large part 
ot the tarni was very rough when the State bought it. (jreat quanti- 
ties ot stone ha\e been dug out of the meadows, drains have been 
laid, bushes cut, and roads opened. A very convenient and spacious 
barn has. been built, great storehouses have been erected, and num- 
bers of smaller buildings, such as blacksmiths' and carpenters' shops, a 
bakery, a laundry, a basket-shop, etc., luive been put up. An exten- 
sive system of water works has been established, gas has been intro- 
duced, and altogether a great amount of work has been done." 

The Sockanosset Reservoir and the Pettaconset pumping-station of 
the Providence Water Works are situated in Cranston, within a short 
distance of the State Farm. The reservoir is 185.5 ^^^^ above high- 
water mark at Providence, and is about 1,000 feet long by 860 wide. 
The base of the reservoir with the embankment covers 14.0719 
acres; reservoir bottom, 9.5383 acres; the area of water surface is 
10.9467 acres: length of embankments on centre line, 2,885.29 feet; 
capacity. United States gallons, 51,156,544; the embankment is 19 
feet high from bottom of reservoir, 15 wide on top, and the surface 
of the water is four feet below the top of the bank. The pumping- 
station is about a niilc distant from the reservoir. From the banks of 
this reservoir is obtained one of the finest views to be had in the 
environs of Providence. To the north the city is seen in nearly its 
whole extent, to tlu- south are the buildings on the State Farm, while 
eastward can be seen Warren and Bristol, and on a clear da\' h^ill 
River is visible. 

Field's Point. 




UCH time and labor have been spent in tracing the 
events in the life of the founder of Providence, pre- 
vious to his appearance on this side of the Atlantic. Un- 
til quite recently no very satisfactory results have fol- 
lowed these efforts. The grand difficulty in the way of 
identifying these events lay in the fact of the existence 
of two others of the same name, contemporary with 
him. His name, Roger Williams, is indicative of his 
Welch origin. He was born in Wales, in the year 
1599. The precise locality cannot be fixed, although 
Arnold, the historian of Rhode Island, thinks it not 
unlikely that it was Maestroiddyn. Authorities dis- 
agree upon many matters concerning his early life. 
It is, however, quite certain that he was educated at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge. Pie was ordained to the ministry 
of the Established Church of England, from whicli he afterwards 
dissented, and became a rigid separatist. 

This w'as an age of great religious agitation and of little religious 
toleration. The attempt to force a uniformity of liturgy and the 
supremacy of the Church of England upon the people had resulted 
in driving many out of that church. The Dissenters, as they were 
called, soon found that they had fallen upon troublous times. Long 
and bitter was the persecution waged against them, and many sought 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Old City Building. 

religious liberty in strange lands. 
Among these were the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth, and the Puritans at the 
head of Massachusetts Bay. Where 
better, than among these heroic men, 
who for conscience' sake had braved 
the perils of the wintry ocean and the 
greater perils of inhospitable shores 
and their savage inhabitants, could one 
enjoy freedom to worship God unre- 
strained by rules made and imposed by 
mortals as weak and erring as himself? 
Surely, in this new world, a new order 
of things would reign, and one would 
be allowed to possess one's own opinion 
in peace. So, to the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony, in 163 1, came Roger Williams. The colonists received 
him most gladly, for he was a profound scholar, and a " godly min- 
ister," and likely to become to them a tower of strength. But they 
were narrow, rigid, and sectarian, incapable of understanding the 
breadth of mind and liberality of thought which Williams brought to 
bear upon the sub- 
jects that were agi- 
tating their own 
minds. The perse- 
cution which had 
developed in them a 
heroism which has 
been the admiration 
of the Christian 
world ever since, 
seems to have stop- 
ped the springs of 
that charity which 
St. Paul has taught 
us is the first of all 
virtues. When dif- 
ferences arose, as 
they soon did, the 

Puritan colonists The state House. 



showed themselves quite ready to inaugurate a persecution quite as 
rancorous as that which they themselves had sulVered. Curiously 
enouoh, the tirst issue wii^ raised upon a question of cluirch suprem- 
acv, not of the English Church, hut of tliat ecclesiastical organiza- 

Thc Nc.v City HjII 

tion of which they themselves were the authors. The church at 
Salem had the hardihood to call Mr. Williams to assist their pastor, 
Mr. Skelton, without consulting the Boston authorities. Upon Mr. 
Williams' acceptance, the church at Boston remonstrated with that 
of Salem for such a course, hut without result. When, therefore, 
an opportunity presented itself for more active measures, they were 
by no means slow to avail themselves of it. Among otlu-r advanced 
opinions, Mr. Williams taught that the civil power had no authority 
to punish a "breach of the Hrst table," that is, an oflence purely 
against God. This was tiie iirst assertion of religious freedom, so 
broad in its application, so catholic in its spirit, that it seemed to 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

the narrow-minded Massachusetts colonists the rankest heresy. The 
fearlessness with which he proclaimed this doctrine " gave rise to a 
system of persecution which, before the c^ose of summer, obliged 
him to seek a refuge beyond the jurisdiction of Massachusetts in 
the more liberal colony of the Pilgrims." 

He remained at Plymouth two years. During his stay he 
became well acquainted with the sachems of the neighboring Indian 
tribes, and more or less familiar with their languages. This familiar- 
ity stood him in good stead when, later, he was forced to make a new 
settlement among them. 

Although the Plymouth Colony was far more liberal than the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, both in religious and secular matters, 
and although they showed a generous disposition towards him, 

they could not keep pace 

' " , with his theory that the 

^^W ""^N,, mind should be a free 

agent in spiritual matters. 
His attachment to his first 
charge never wavered, and 
when at length he obtained 
his dismissal from Plym- 
outh, he returned to Salem, 
many of his Plymouth con- 
gregation either going with 
him or following soon after. 
Here the bitter controversy 
and persecution broke out 
again. Mr. Williams de- 
clared his belief that the 
king of England had no 
right to confer patents upon 
companies or individuals, 
entitling them to lands in 
America, without purchas- 
ing such right from the 
aboriginals. This was not 
only in accordance with the theory, but also the practice of the colo- 
nists, yet for this declaration they summoned him to appear and 
answer for himst If before a court of law. Later, a still more serious 
cause of complaint was found against him, and again he was cited to 

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. 



A View of Crystal Lake, Roger Williams Park. 

appear before the council, tor teaching "• that a magistrate ought not 
to tender an oath to an unregenerate man." His defence was, that 
an oath is an act of worship, and that the person who takes it, by the 
very act acknowledges the existence of God. He reasoned that in 
accordance with liis own belief in the liberty of conscience, no man 
had a right to enforce an oath. 

The church at Salem had some time before presented a peti- 
tion to the General Court for certain " land in Marblehead Neck," 
which they said belonged to their town. This had been refused upon 
the extraordinary ground that "they had chosen Mr. Williams as 
their teacher." Indignant at such injustice, Mr. Williams united 
with his church in a letter of protestation, which met with but scorn- 
ful reception. The "contempt of authority" evidenced first by 
their unauthorized call of Mr. Williams, and now by this contuma- 
cious epistle, apparently had more weight with the council than all 
the heresies of which he stood accused. For two years a threat of 
sentence at the next session of the Court was kept hanging over 
him, until at length his health broke down under the accumulation 
of vexations. Worn in bodv and mind, he wrote a letter to his 



The Hoppin Homestead Building. 

church, declaring " that he woukl not communicate with the churches 
in the Bay ; neither would he communicate with them except they 
would refuse communion with the rest." Summoned before the 
Court for the fifth time, he was confronted with these letters, which 
constituted the only charges against him. Although he justified 
their contents, sentence of banishment was pronounced against him, 
and he was ordered to be beyond the jurisdiction of the colony within 
six weeks. The period was afterwards extended to spring, on con- 
dition that he would not teach any of his mischievous doctrines. 
But suddenly, upon the plea that he had imparted some of his views 
to friends at his own house, he was ordered to go to Boston, in order 
to embark in a vessel ready to sail for England. Upon his refusal to 
do so, a boat was dispatched to take him b\' force, but upon its arri- 
val he had been gone from his home three days. Alone, and in the 
depth of winter, he had set out upon that "sorrowful journey," 
through the trackless forest, and after fourteen weeks, during which 
he knew not what " either bed or bread did mean," he arrived at 


PicTUREsc^UE Rhode Island. 

the settlement of the Wampanoags, from whose friendly chief, Mas- 
sasoiet, he obtained a grant of land on the Seekonk River. He was 
soon warned by his friend, Governor Winslow, that it would be better 
for him to cross the river, and thus be beyond the jurisdiction of the 
Plymouth Colony, who wished to keep on good terms with that of 
Massachusetts Bay. He accordingly did so, with five others who had 
joined him from Salem. The names of these were William Harris, 
John Smith, Joshua Verin, Thomas Angell, Francis Wickes. They 
landed at Slate Rock, with which tradition will always associate the 
Indian welcome, " What cheer, netop." From this point they passed 
down the river and around the headlands into the Moshassuck, now 
the Providence River, to a point a little north of the present site of St. 
John's Church. Here a spring of water decided them to stop, and here 
they commenced the settlement which its pious Ibunder named Provi- 
dence — " God's Providence." Afterwards, in the apportionment of 
" home lots," this part of the settlement became the property of Mr. 

Williams, and w^as 
known as " What 
Cheer." In accord- 
ance with his prin- 
ciples concerning the 
tenure of lands, he 
obtained a grant of 
Providence, at or be- 
fore its settlement, 
from Canonicus and 
Miantonomi, uncle 
and nephew, and 
chief sachems of the 
Narragansetts. This 
was in 1636. Two 
years after, he made 
over by the "Initial 
Deed " an equal right 
m this grant to his 
companions, now 
twelve in number, 
and to such others as 
they should after- 
u. s. Custom House. Ward receive as 



members of their company. In the year 1661, a committee from 
the town waited upon him to procure a deed of the hrst purchase, 
which was accepted and placed upon record. 

The thirteen original proprietors determined, upon the accejit- 

The Butler Exchange. 

ance of the Initial Deed, to divide their purchase. Little informa- 
tion in regard to this division can be obtained from the records, 
except that the "home lots" began at the " Mile-end Cove," which 
lay between Fox Point and what is now Wickenden Street, and lay 
between the streets known now as North and South Main Streets, 
and Hope Street. Great difficulties grew out of this division. 

During the first summer of the Providence Colony the Pequots, 
a warlike tribe of Connecticut, stirred up the neighboring tribes to a 
war of extermination upon the whites. The Narragansetts, who 
lived in the south and western parts of Rhode Island, debated for a 
long time whether they should join the confederacy, and upon their 
decision hung the fate of the colonists. At this crisis, Roger Wil- 

1 88 

Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The Providence Athenaeum. 

Hams, the only man in 
the colony whose in- 
fluence could avert the 
threatened disaster, at the 
request of the Boston 
magistrate, alone and at 
the constant risk of his life 
undertook to prevent this 
alliance. Three days and 
nights he labored with 
their sachems, and at 
length succeeded, not 
only in the original under- 
taking, but also in form- 
ing a league between the 
English, the Narragan- 
setts and Mohegans, 
which soon after resulted in the disastrous Pequot War and the total 
destruction of that tribe. 

The government of the infant colony was at first a pure democ- 
racy. All the voters met and transacted the business of the com- 
monwealth in town-meeting once a month. The gradual change 
to a representative government cannot be traced, because the records 
have not been preserved. But the reasons therefor are plain enough. 
The first record of delegated power dates from 1640. The colonists, 
although forced to resort to such power, were exceedingly jealous of 
it, and hedged it around with innumerable restrictions. Meanwhile, 
the report of the freedom enjoyed by the new colony had spread 
abroad, and many in the neighboring settlements who wished to be 
free from restraint entered it, bringing with them all sorts of hetero- 
dox notions upon civil and religious subjects, and the result was 
that hberty which is freedom under the law degenerated into license 
which is freedom unrestrained by law. So turbulent did the con- 
dition of affairs become, that some of the colonists hastened to place 
themselves under the protection of Massachusetts, where they con- 
tinued until 1658. 

Meantime, in 1638, a new colony had settled at the north end of 
the island of Rhode Island, driven thither by the fury of the Antino- 
mian controversy. Their numbers increased so, that in the following 
spring a part of them withdrew and planted the colony of New- 



port. On the main land, the town of Warwick was settled in 1643. 
under the leadership of Samuel Gorton. A charter, dated 1644, 
but which really went into etl'ect in 1647, united these four colonies 
under the name of the "Providence Plantations in Narragansett Bay 
in New England." Roger Williams had been sent to England to 
obtain this charter. Upon his return with it he was received with 
the utniost enthusiasm. In 165 1, Coddington, who had been to 
England, returned with a charter appointing him governor of New- 
port for life. This appointment broke up the colonial government. 
The separation lasted until 1654, when, by the efforts of Roger Wil- 
liams, who again went to England for the purpose, the colonies were 

Mr. Williams' good ollices were in constant requisition, not onh- 
to preserve peace and unity between the colonies themselves, but 
also between the colonies and the surrounding Indian tribes, with 
whom his personal influence was almost unbounded. Again and 
again did he preserve 

the colonists from de- 
struction at their 
hands. The first time 
was when, as we have 
seen, he went alone 
and at the constant 
risk of his life, among 
the Narragansetts and 
persuaded them to 
stand by their white 
allies. Again, in 
1645, the Narragan- 
setts threatened to de- 
stroy the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colon v. 
The year before, while 
Williams was in Enn- 
land negotiating for 
the first charter, Mian- 
tonomi, the noble, 
high-souled ally of 
the whites, had, 
through the treacherv 

The New Court House. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

of two of his captains, 
fallen into the hands of 
the cruel Uncas, sachem 
of the Mohegans. With 
the shameful connivance 
of the Massachusetts 
Colony, which had be- 
come prejudiced against 
Miantonomi, — either 
because of certain calum- 
nies spread by his ene- 
mies, or because of his 
mistaken act of kindness 
in selling Shawomet to 
that " arch-heretic," Gor- 
ton, or both, — he was 
put to death in the most 
cowardly manner. Great 
was the rage of the Nar- 
ragansetts. But it was 
not until the spring of 
1645 that it broke forth 
into action. A thousand of their warriors salHed out ag-ainst the Mo- 
hegans ; the latter met them with Uncas at their head, and were 
defeated with considerable slaughter. The colonies of Connecticut 
and New Haven espoused the cause of Uncas, and sent troops to his 
aid. The General Court sent a letter to the Narragansetts, laying 
commands upon them to desist from the war, and a very short time 
afterwards sent Benedict Arnold as a messenger to them with a 
similar requisition. The Narragansetts declared afterwards that he 
misrepresented their reply, and sent for Roger Williams to come to 
their help. The New England commissioners held a meeting at this 
crisis, and again sent messengers to require both the Narragansetts 
and the Mohegans to send deputies to Boston, who should explain 
the cause of the war, receive satisfaction, and make terms of peace. 
The Narragansetts, bent upon revenge for the death of their chief, 
would not be satisfied except with the head of Uncas. Mr. Williams, 
instead of personally accepting their invitation to come among them 
and help them out of their difficulty, sent a letter by their deputies 
upon their return from Boston, saying that since the Indians had 

The Arcade. 



made terms of neutrality with the Rhode Ishmd Colonies, they, the 
colonies, did not feel called upon to interfere, and that the war must 
be regarded as inevitable. The United Colonies — who, having left 
the Rhode Island Colonies entirely out of their calculations in form- 
ing their league, would gladly have made use of their superior 
influence with the Indians, now that danger threatened them — 
immediately declared w^ar, and made such energetic preparations for 
carrying their declaration into etlect, that the Narragansetts, alarmed 
in their turn, sued for peace. At this crisis Mr. Williams came 
forward and threw the weight of his influence in favor of peace, 
and through his mediation Pessicus and two other principal sachems 
were induced to go to Boston and conclude a treaty of peace. The 

The Infantry Armory. 

conditions of this treaty were very severe upon the Narragansetts, 
but by its means, the colonists w^ere saved from the horrors of an 
Indian war, which, disastrous at the best, might have terminated 
fatally for them. 

It is quite useless to attempt to deny to the founder of these Plan- 
tations a disputatious temperament, — his enemies would and did say, 
a factious and contentious one. But it must be remembered that the 
spirit of the age was controversial, and all thoughtful minds were 
exercised upon the practical settlement of dithcult questions. Roger 
Williams" w^as the master mind of the time, and his clear and unpreju- 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

diced perception of the great truths for which he made such a good 
fight, would often raise issues where inferior minds could see no 
necessity for discussion. As a matter of course, he was often 
engaged in controversy, in many cases entered into deliberately and 
voluntarily, in others thrust upon him by the ignorance of his oppo- 
nents, or by their willful misunderstanding of his words. In the tur- 
bulent times of the early years of the Providence settlement, his 
ready pen was often busy in making clear to the dull or prejudiced 
perception of others, the principles which were so well defined in his 
own mind. Many could not, or would not, understand the difference 
between liberty and license. They reasoned that since liberty of con- 
science was the foundation principle of the colony, that therefore they 
could in all things do precisely as they chose. This was to them the 
meaning of the phrase. 

The winter of 1654- 
55 was one of unusual 
disorder in Providence. 
A general training was 
made the excuse of a 
riot of such magnitude, 
that some of the lead- 
ing citizens were impli- 
cated in it. A paper 
was sent to the town, 
in which the author 
asserted that " it is 
blood-guiltiness to exe- 
cute judgment upon 
transgressors against 
the public weal." This 
absurd doctrine, so ut- 
terly subversive of 
organized society, was 
met by the following 
masterly letter from 
Mr. Williams, in which 
he again explains the much abused doctrine of " liberty of con- 

" There goes many a ship to sea, with many hundred souls in 
one ship, whose weal and woe is common, and is a true picture of 

The High School. 



a commonwealth or a human combination of society. It hath fallen 
out sometimes that both Papists and Protestants, Jews and Turks, 
may be embarked in one ship ; upon which supposal I aflirm that 
all the liberty of conscience, that ever I pleaded for, turns upon 

The Buildings of the Brown &. Sharpe Manufacturing Company. 

these two hinges : that none of the Papists, Protestants, Jews, or 
Turks, be forced to come to the ship's prayers or worship, nor com- 
pelled from their own particular prayers or worship, if they prac- 
tice any. I further add, that I never denied, that notwithstanding 
this liberty, the commander of this ship ought to command the ship's 
course, yea, and also command that justice, peace, and sobriety, be 
kept and practiced, both among the seamen and all the passengers. 
If any of the seamen refuse to perform their service, or passengers 
to pay their freight; if any refuse to help, in person or purse, 
towards the common charges or defence ; if any refuse to obey the 
common laws and orders of the ship, concerning their common 
peace or preservation ; if any shall mutiny or rise up against their 
commanders and officers ; if any should preach or write that there 
ought to be no commanders or officers because all are equal in 
Christ, therefore no master nor officers, no laws nor orders, no cor- 
rections nor punishments; I say, I never denied, but in such cases, 
whatever is pretended, the commander or commanders may judge, 
resist, compel, and punish such transgressors, according to their, 
deserts and merits." 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ate 4' 

The Roger Williams Monument. 

mony of the dispute engendered 
Hams which never died out dur 
of controversy, so far 
forgot what they owed 
to their own dignity, as 
to descend to personal 
invective. Harris had 
published '• that his 
conscience would not 
allow him to be subject 
to any man," and had 
attempted to sustain his 
position by perverting 
texts from Scripture in 
its support. It was the 
same mischevious doc- 
trine which had called 
forth the letter quoted 

This letter, however con- 
vincing to an unprejudiced 
mind, by no means ended 
the controversy. The idea 
set forth in the paper re- 
ferred to, although absurd 
upon the face of it, found 
ready supporters among the 
lawless, and notably one in 
William Harris, who, how- 
ever, can hardly in fairness 
be called lawless, since, al- 
though he did many un- 
principled things, he seems 
to have done them under 
an honest conviction of their 
lawfulness. He was a man 
of pleasing address, culti- 
vated mind, and strong feel- 
ing, all of which he brought 
to bear upon the discussion 
of the subject. The acri- 
a hostility between him and Mr. Wil- 
ing their lives, and both, in the heat 

The Park Garden Pav 



above. Gentle means having failed, Mr. Williams, as president of 
the colony, resorted to harsher measures, and issued a warrant for 
his arrest, on a charge of high treason against the Commonwealth 

The Works of the Nicholson File Company. 

of England, and he and his son, Andrew, were placed under bonds 
of £500. 

The year 1656 is memorable as the time of the advent of the 
Qj^iakers into the Puritan colony. If the colonists meted out such 
persecution to those who, while offending in a few points of doctrine, 
yet held many of the essentials in common with themselves, how 
direful was the punishment which they inflicted upon this " cursed 
sect of heretics," who differed so totally from them. A stringent law 
was enacted and rigidly enforced for their suppression, and in 1658, 
to hold Qiiaker tenets was punishable with death. " Fines, impris- 
onment, banishment, mutilation, death were denounced and inflicted 
upon them. . . . The wildest fanaticism on their part was met 
with frenzied bigotry on the other." The persecutions which they 
had suffered were productive of morbid conditions of mind, and 
many committed acts which could be accounted for only upon the 
ground of insanity, but which were visited with the extremity of the 
law. So great was the fear of them, and the hatred cherished 
towards them by the Puritans, that they were not content with 
inflicting punishment upon overt acts of offence, but visited their 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The Betsey Williams House. 

severity upon persons of blame- 
less life and character, who held 
their heretical opinions. This 
persecution lasted five years, and 
was only stayed then by an order 
from King Charles II. that it 
should cease, and that obnoxious 
persons should be sent to Eng- 
land, to be dealt with by the home 
government. Like others who had 
been driven from the Massachu- 
setts Colony for daring to differ 
from its founders, many Quakers 
fied into Rhode Island, where 
they led peaceable lives, cherish- 
ing their own belief without let or 
hindrance. This state of affairs 
was almost as vexatious to the 
Puritans as their presence among 
themselves. Their commissioners 
assembled at Boston and framed a letter requesting the Rhode Island 
Colony to banish those who were already within the limits of the 
colony, and to take immediate measures to prevent the entrance of 
any more. Mr. Williams, who w^as then president of the Rhode 
Island Colonies, and his assistants met in Providence, and replied 
to this request, that there was no law in Rhode Island by which any 
one could be pun- 
ished for his opin- 
ions; that the 
Qj.iakers, being 
allowed to hold 
and to s^t forth 
their doctrines 
without molesta- 
tion, had met with 
so little success in 
converting others 
to them, that they 
were becominef 

discouraged ; and The what Cheer cottage. 



finally, that if they committed any extravagancies, such as they had 
been guilty of in Massachusetts, the next General Assembly would 
provide a corrective. Tiie charter of Rhode Island guaranteed that 

The Rhode Island Hospital. 

every person shovdd be free to enjoy his own opinions so long as 
they did not militate against the general good. So the Quakers 
were allowed free access to the coIoun', and during the years which 
immediately followed, great numbers made it their home. They 
found it a convenient central point from which to make excursions 
abroad for the purpose of disseminating their doctrines. So bigoted 
were tlie surrounding colonies, that thev could not comprehend that 
a thing might be tolerated which yet might not be believed. 

Seeing that the Qiuikers were neither burned nor hanged, they 
asserted that tlie colony was actuated by an imdue friendliness 
towards the teachings of Fox. Some color was given to this asser- 
tion by the fact that some of its magistrates belonged to the hated 
sect. Roger Williams, true to his character of champion of intel- 
lectual and religious freedom, undertook to prove them in the wrong, 
and that his colony, while faithful to their ruling idea, yet had no 
sympathy with Q^uiker dogmas, even altiiough some of the highest 
places in the governmeni were filled by their supporters. For this 
purpose he drew up a statement of fourteen propositions, in which 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The Butler Hospital 

he denoun- 
ced in un- 
terms the 
tenets of 
the Quak- 
ers. He 
Fox to a 
public dis- 
cussion of these, seven to be debated in Newport and seven in Prov- 
idence. The challenge was sent to Deputy-Governor Cranston, to 
be delivered by him, but so long was it in reaching the governor, 
that Fox had left the island, and consequently did not receive it. It 
was accepted, however, in his behalf by his disciples, Burnyeat, 
Edmundson, and Stubbs, — all thoroughly qualified by natural gifts 
and by training to discuss the subject in all its branches. Roger Wil- 
liams, then seventy-three years old, performed the remarkable feat 
of rowing himself from Providence to Newport in order to meet his 
engagement. The first seven of the propositions were debated in 
Newport, and then, according to agreement, the discussion was 
resumed in Providence, but only for one day. No special good 
resulted from the debate, as far as convincing either party of error 
is concerned, but the immediate object of Williams was attained, — 
that of convincing the neighboring colonists, especially those of Mas- 
sachusetts, that while protecting the persons of the unpopular sect, 
they refused to be identified in the remotest way with their creed. 

When King 
Philip's War .- -" -t^^^^^-^j=-^ 

broke out, Roger __ _""- ~ ~ '~^- — _ 

Williams was an 
old man. Not- 
wi t h standing 
which, he accep- 
ted a commission 
of captain of mi- 
litia in the year 
1676. Provi- 
dence had been 
nearly deserted. 

The Friends' School. 



Less than thirty men remained for its protection. Two phices in the 
town liad been fortified, chiefly through Mr. Williams' efforts. Tra- 
dition relates that upon the approach of the enemy the venerable 
captain went out alone to meet and rerson witii them. " Massachu- 
setts," said he. 



1 ?;-''» NjiiijI 

" can raise thous- 
ands of men at this 
moment, and if you 
kill them, the Kinej 
of E n g 1 a n d will 
supph' their place 
as fast as they fall." • 
''Well, let them 
come," was the 
reply, "we are 
ready for them. 
But as for you, 
Brother Williams, 

, . :. ■ ^ ' tt Hotel. 

you are a good 

man ; you have been kind to us for many years ; not a hair of your 
head shall be touched." The savages were true to the man who had 
kept faith with them all those years, and although they burnt the 
town, he was not harmed. The town records were saved Irom 
destruction by being thrown into the mill-pond of John Smith, the 
miller, who was town clerk at the time. 

Early in the year 1683, at the ripe age of eighty-four, Roger Wil- 
liams was gathered to his fathers. Precisely how or when his death 
occurred is not known. He was buried in a spot said to have 
been selected by himself on Wiiat Cheer, not tar from the place where 
he first landed on Rhode Island shores. At the head of his grave an 
apple-tree stood for many years. Not long ago, when the grave was 
opened, the roots of this tree were found to have passed through the 
space the body is supposed to have occupied. • From the main root 
smaller branches had followed the course o£ the arms and legs. This 
singular specimen is still preserved, and may be seen in the Museum 
of Brown University. 

Arnold thus sums up the character of this "Christian statesman" : 
" He suffered more than most men from the slanders of those who 
should have been his friends, as well as from the oppression of ene- 
mies. . . . But posterity has rendered justice to his memory. 



and the founder of Rhode Island, the great champion of intellectual 
liberty, has outlived the efforts of his detractors. The leading pecu- 


Hotel Dorrance 

liarities of his mind may be briefly sketched. A firmness, amounting 
in some cases perhaps to obstinac}-, enabled him to sutler hardships, 
rarely if ever surpassed by those of any exile for opinion's sake. His 
generosity amounted to prodigality ; for after having purchased of 
the Indians all the lands around his new plantations with his own 
money, he divided them equally among those who followed him. 
His charity was an active principle, that led him to brave all peril to 
effect good to the natives, or to reconcile feuds among his fellow- 
citizens. Of his forgiving spirit, his conduct towards the neighboring 
colonies furnishes ample evidence. He harbored no feelings of 
revenge for injuries received, but pitied the weakness, or lamented 
the delusion whence they arose. His consistency and love of truth 
are alike apparent in his controversy with the Quakers at Newport, 
which has been so much misrepresented : yet he would have laid 
down his life rather than have a hair of their heads injured on account 
of their doctrinal views. His industr}- was unwearied; he valued 
time and he well improved it. ' One grain of its inestimable sand,' 
said he, ' is worth a golden mountain.' His faults were those of an 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Low's Opera House. 

ardent mind, sometimes hasty, ever slow to yield ; but these are few 
beside his exalted virtues. He was a varied scholar, a profound 
philosopher, a practical Christian, a true philanthropist, — one whose 

deep knowledge of 
men, and whose 
acute perception of 
principles as dis- 
played in the foun- 
dation of an Amer- 
ican State, entitle 
him to the rank, 
which posterity has 
bestowed, among 
the far-sighted 
statesmen of his 
age — one who, 
were it his only praise to have been the first of modern legislators to 
embody the principles of universal toleration in the constitution of a 
State, would, by this act alone, secure a niche in the temple of fame, 
and cause his name to be handed down through all future time as the 
great Apostle of Religious Freedom." 

It is a matter of lasting regret that no portrait of Roger Williams 
exists. Probably none was ever painted. Historians, in the descrip- 
tions of him, although acknowledging the influence of his personal 
presence, quite ignore his personal appearance. Undoubtedly the 
grandeur of his character and actions quite overshadowed it. The 
statue of him in the Old Representatives' Hall at Washington — the 
first statue presented by any state to the Nation — is a purely ideal 

In the early years of Providence there was a sheet of water called 
the Mile-end Cove, between Fox Point and Wickenden Street. This 
has been filled up for many years. Within the last century, the tide 
flowed over Westminster Street and all north of it. At the head of 
Long Wharf was a round hill, which was then an island. The first 
vessel which sailed from Providence to the West Indies was loaded 
at a wharf a little west of the canal market. Large vessels used to 
lie at wharves adjoining the present Smith Street. There was a draw 
in the great bridge, which was fifty or sixty feet longer than it now 
is. Two highways originally led from the Moshassuck to the See- 
konk River, — one where Power Street now is, and the other at Meet- 

Providence. 203 

ing Street. Before the year 1770 very little attention was given to 
the subject of education.- Some small schools were kept soon after 
that time, having about a dozen scholars each. The text-books used 
in them were the Bible, spelling-book, and primer. One was taught 
by George Taylor, for the special benefit of church scholars, and was 
partly or entirely supported by England. There were also some 
" dames' schools." "When one had learned to read, write and do a 
sum in the rule of three, he was fit for business." About 1770, the 
first school-house was built, through the exertions of Dr. Jonathan 
Arnold. It was situated near the north end of Benefit Street, and 
was called Whipple Hall. 

The customs and fashions of Providence in those days were 
necessarily plain and simple. Durability in the materials of dress 
was consulted rather than beauty. Men generally wore breeches of 
wash-leather : laborers of all kinds wore leather aprons ; those whose 
aspirations and means were equal to it wore clothes of English 
manufacture, but made in the plainest of styles. Most of the cloth 
used in the settlement was made by those who used it. Occasionally 
one with an inordinate passion for dress would appear in a cocked 
hat, or a powdered wig. W^omen made neighborly calls, dressed 
in a striped loose-gown, a checked apron, a handkerchief folded 
over the shoulders and across the bosom, and a sun-bonnet upon the 
head. The more opulent among them wore silk gowns, or calico 
ones, long rufiles at the wrist, and a lawn apron in place of the com- 
mon check. The hair was dressed high over a roll, upon which was 
worn a low-crowned chip hat, covered with thin silk of whatever 
color individual taste suggested. 

The amusements of young men were chiefly games of ball, shoot- 
ing at poultry or at a mark, wrestling, jumping and dancing, in the 
latter of which, as a matter of course, the young women shared. 
Occasionally a pack of hounds would be kept, and a fox-hunt would 
give variety to their ordinary amusements. 

People lived to be very old in those days. Mr. Samuel Thurber, 
himself then in his eighty-first year, gives an account of several 
whom he knew personally, who had reached a great age. A Mrs. 
Eddy died at the age of 105, and a Mr. Miller, at the same time, 
at about the same age. Mr. Thurber met a man in Newport who 
told him he was a hundred years and one month old that day. Mr. 
Richard Brown, who lived somewhere in the northeastern part of the 
town, was so active and cheerful that on his hundredth birthdav he 

204 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

played a violin which his family presented to him, and to which in 
his younger days he had been much attached. 

The machinery used was of the simplest kind. Furniture was 
very plain, and hard, ornamental woods but little used. Chairs and 
tables were straight and smooth, without paint or polish, and kept 
white by constant scouring. China and glass were almost unknown, 
and the few crockery dishes in use were of the coarsest. Most of 
the dishes were made of pewter or wood, and often a family did not 
possess enough of these to allow each person one. 

The first coach in town was owned by Mr. Merritt, an English- 
man. Its advent upon the street created as much excitement as the 
street parade- of a circus does now. Windows and doors were full 
of excited faces watching the passage of the wonderful object. Col. 
William Brown kept a vehicle which he called a " curricle," in which 
he would take an occasional passenger to Boston. The round trip 
occupied three days. Thomas Sabin, in 1767, advertised that a 
stage would "start every Tuesday morning from the house of 
Richard Olney, inn-holder, to carry travelers to Boston on the 
most expeditious and cheap rate." The coach returned on Thurs- 
day. Olney's inn was nearly opposite the Court House parade on 
North Main Street. The owners of stages used occasionally to give 
notice a week or ten days beforehand, that on a certain day, if suffi- 
cient encouragement were given, they would start for Boston. The 
object of this long notice was, that passengers might settle their 
worldly affairs and ma*ke their wills, preparatory to entering upon 
such a perilous undertaking. In 1783 a stage ran twice a week 
to Boston, and it was possible to look with calmness upon a man 
who had been to New York. In 1763 a line of two boats began 
to ply between Providence and Newport twice a week, and oftener 
if the number of passengers and amount of freight warranted it. The 
line of packets which soon after began to ply between Providence 
and New York were said " not to be surpassed in speed and accom- 
modation by any in the world." In 1820 the New London turnpike 
was built, and a line of stages put upon it connected with steamboats 
to New York from New London. The following charge, extracted 
from the account-book of Richard Brown, gives some idea of trav- 
eling expenses 150 years ago. 

Oct. the 25, 1737, Mary Tillinghast, Dr. 
For the use of my mare the three days last past, a journey to East 
Greenwich, and carrying double on said mare, £0.12.0 



On the third of June, 1769, a transit of Venus occurred. Great 
interest in this phenomenon was shown in Providence, and no expense 
was spared in securing all the instruments necessary for observing it. 

The Cathedral. 

A temporary observatory was erected upon a cross street, about one 
hundred feet east of Benefit. The street has ever since borne 'the 
name of Transit Street. Dr. West published an account of the obser- 
vation, which compares most favorably in point of accuracy with 
those published in Europe. 

The winter of 1779-80 was one of unprecedented severity; and is 
the historical " cold winter." Providence Harbor was closed by the 
ice as early as November, and continued so two months. The island 
of Rhode Island became practically a part of the main land, beaten 
paths over the ice leading to it from Providence, East Greenwich and 

2o6 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Wickford. The ground was covered with snow the whole time, but 
its depth was not sufficient to interfere materially with travel. 

The ecclesiastical history of Providence began with the founding 
of the First Baptist Church, in 1639. The first settlers were mem- 
bers of the Plymouth and Massachusetts churches. These organiza- 
tions possessed a Congregational government, were moderately Cal- 
vinistic in doctrine, and held to infant baptism. From the beginning 
of the settlement, meetings for public worship were held with regu- 
larity and frequency, and the service was conducted either b}^ Mr. 
Williams or Mr. James, both of whom were ordained ministers. In 
March, 1639, active steps were taken to organize a church. Before 
this they had denied the doctrine of infant baptism, and Mr. Holy- 
man, a layman, had baptized Mr. Williams by immersion, after 
which Mr. Williams baptized Mr. Holyman in the same manner. 
By this act they disowned the churches of which they had been mem- 
bers, and were therefore excommunicated by them. They formed 
a church, and called Mr. Williams to the pastorate of it. This was 
the commencement of the First Baptist Church, the oldest organiza- 
tion of its kind in the country. 

Mr. Williams held this position for four years, at the end of which 
he resigned it. Mr. Holyman was his colleague. Their successors 
were Chad Brown, William Wickenden, Gregory Dexter, Pardon 
Tillinghast, Ebenezer Jenckes, James Brown, Samuel Winsor, 
James Manning, Jonathan Maxcy, Stephen Gano, Robert E. Patti- 
son, William Hague, Robert E. Pattison, J. N. Granger, W. C. 
Richards, Dr. Francis Wayland, S. L. Caldwell, and the present 
pastor. Dr. Edward Glenn Taylor. 

Dr. James Manning removed to Providence with the Rhode Island 
College, of which he was president. He was invited by the pastor of 
the church to preach before the society, and afterwards to partake of 
the communion with them. His acceptance gave great offence to 
some members of the church, because he did not hold that the doc- 
trine of the laying on of hands was an essential one, although he had 
submitted to the rite, and was in the habit of administering it whenever 
desired. So great a schism did this create, that at length the pastor 
withdrew and joined the separates in May of the year 1771. With the 
advice of some other Baptist churches. President Manning was elected 
to the vacancy in the following July. It was not the custom to make 
singing a part of public worship. Mr. Manning held that it should 
be such, but to Mr. Winsor, the idea was " disgustful." 



The records o\ tin- 
church state that -'the 
church at tirst met for wor- 
ship in a grove, unless in 
wet and stormy weather, 
when they assembled in 
private houses ;" that after- 
wards Pardon Tillinghast 
" at his own expense built 
the hrst meeting-house 
about the year 1700." This 
house stood on the west side 
of North Main Street, nearly 
opposite Star Street. Mr. 
Tillinghast afterwards 
made a free gift of the 
house and lot to the society 
and their successors in the 
same faith and order. A 
new house was built in 
1726, on the lot south of 
this one. In 1740 the Gen- 
eral Assembly, for reasons 
which have not been hand- 
ed down, allowed the so- 
ciety to hold service in the Court House. The house now occupied 
by them was first opened for public worship on May 28, 1775. The 
lot upon which it stands belonged to John Angell, whose orchard it 
was. They had reason to think that nothing would induce him to 
let it pass into their hands, knowingly, to become the site of a 
Baptist meeting-house. They therefore arranged that it should be 
purchased by an Episcopalian and conveyed to them. 

The church, or meeting-house, as it is still most commonly called, 
stands in the middle of the lot, surrounded with grass, and enclosed 
by a fence. It is of wood, 80 feet square, of the Roman Ionic order, 
with a symmetrical and graceful spire at the west end, 196 feet high, 
said to have been modeled after designs by Sir Christopher Wren. 
The story is told of a student of Brown University, now living in 
Kansas, that he once climbed to the top of tins steeple. Another 
tradition relates that at one time, when it required painting, no 

Grace Church, 

2o8 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

painter would take the contract, until one, quicker witted than the 
rest, agreed to do it, and fulfilled his agreement by importing sailors 
from Boston for the purpose. 

The harmony of construction has been marred of late years by 
substituting slips for the old-fashioned square pews, and a pulpit of 
modern style for the old-fashioned one, with its sounding-board. The 
first bell weighed 2,515 pounds, and had the following inscription : 

" For freedom of conscience, the town was first planted; 

Persuasion, not force, was used by the people. 
This church is the eldest, and has not recanted. 

Enjoying and granting- bell, temple and steeple." 

The present bell weighs 2,387 pounds, and is thus inscribed : " This 
church was founded A. D. 1639, the first in the State, and the oldest 
of the Baptists in America." 

In the year 1871, more than two hundred years after Roger Wil- 
liams had made the purchase of Providence and Pawtuxet, and had 
made his companions equal owners thereof with him, a part of the 
original grant came into the possession of the city. In that year 
Miss Betsey Williams, a lineal descendant of the fifth generation 
from Roger Williams, died, and by her will bequeathed to the city 
of Providence the farm which had been in the possession of her fam- 
ily ever since it was given to her great ancestor by the sachem, 
Miantonomi. It lies partly in Providence and partly in Cranston, 
and consists of about one hundred acres of plain and woodland, with 
gently rising elevations and a stream of water. It was given to the 
city for a public park forever, to be called Roger Williams Park. 
The testatrix made but few conditions upon which the city should 
receive it, but among these few was one that it should erect in it a 
memorial to Roger Williams, at a cost of not less than five hundred 
dollars. In 1872 the city formally accepted this bequest, and 
straightway began to plan for a monument on a much more expen- 
sive scale than stipulated in the will. The result was, that in Octo- 
ber, 1877, the present monument, designed by Mr. Franklin Sim- 
mons, of Rome, and executed by the Smith Granite Company, was 
unveiled and dedicated with great pomp in the presence of many 
thousands of people. It stands facing the west, on an elevation west 
of the lake, and is visible from the Cranston road, and from most 
parts of the park. The old gambrel-roofed homestead, with its well- 
sweep, is in close proximity, and the immediately surrounding land 
has been reduced to order and beauty. The monument is of Westerly 

Providence. 209 

granite of the finest quality, and uniform throughout in shade. A 
pedestal of great solidity, reached by a flight of steps, supports the 
statue of Roger Williams, which was cast in bronze of a peculiarly 
brilliant color, in Munich. It is seven and a half feet in height, and 
represents the founder of these Plantations holding in his left hand, 
against his breast, a volume entitled " Soul Liberty," and with his 
right hand extended as if in the act of addressing an audience. He 
wears low shoes, long stockings meeting his knee-breeches, a 
straight vest buttoned the whole length and finished at the bottom by 
a frill, a broad, turned-down collar, fastened with cord and tassel, a 
long cloak, and hair falling upon his shoulders. Although the statue 
is an ideal one, the artist has succeeded in infusing into its outlines 
all those characteristics with which w^e are wont to invest the orig- 
inal. At the foot of the statue, in front of the pedestal, stands a fig- 
ure of History, clad in classic, flowing drapery, and holding in her 
right hand the stylus, in the act of completing the inscription : " Roger 
Williams, 1636." At the right of this figure is a group of bronze 
emblems, comprising a shield with the anchor, a scroll, book, and a 
laurel wreath. On the opposite tablet is the inscription: "Erected 
by the City of Providence, A. D. 1877." 

When the natural charms of this park shall have been enhanced 
by taste and money, as they gradually will be in process of time, the 
city will own a public pleasure-ground which will be of inestimable 
benefit to itself, and an honor to him whose name it bears. 

The great gale of 181 5 wrought terrible havoc in the town of 
Providence. The tide rose nearly ten feet higher than had ever been 
known before, and all but two of the vessels in the harbor were 
driven from their moorings. Only one bridge, the Weybosset, then 
connected the two sides of the town. Against this the flying vessels 
were impelled with irresistible force. Very quickly the bridge gave 
way, and " vessels, lumber, buildings, and property of every descrip- 
tion, in one crowded mass, were hurled with great velocity up 
the Cove. Thirty-five vessels, including four ships, nine brigs, seven 
schooners, and fifteen sloops, have been enumerated on its shores." 
The great ship " Ganges," as it sped by the Washington Buildings, 
thrust its bowsprit into the rooms of the Washington Insurance Com- 
pany. Very many smaller vessels were dashed against the sides of 
this same building. All the cellars near the river were filled with 
water. In many cases the inhabitants were compelled to leave their 
houses and to take refuge upon the hills. Everywhere chimneys 


2IO Picturesque Rhode Island. 

were thrown down, out-buildings overturned, and fences demolished. 
Five hundred buildings in all, were said to have been destroyed. It 
was estimated that the loss of property amounted to considerably 
more than a miUion of dollars. Not for many a day was the dam- 
age repaired. 

All the churches were more or less injured. The Second Baptist 
Meeting House, with several dwellings near it, was entirely destroyed. 
When the gale subsided, the shores of the Cove were covered with 
wrecked vessels and their cargoes, with the remnants of dwelling- 
houses, and with the household furniture they had contained. Upon 
nearly all the wharves some vessel or wrecked dwelling was left 
when the tide went down. At India Point, the bridge was carried 
away, and two men, David Butler and Reuben Winslow, lost their 
lives. The buildings that had stood upon these wharves were nearly 
all swept into the river. 

Notwithstanding the immense losses the gale had caused, the 
energy of the merchants of Providence soon repaired the damage 
done to its commerce, and in a very short time the trade was going 
on as prosperously as before. 

In the colonial days the commerce of Providence, although not so 
large as that of Newport, was still very considerable. As early as 
1708 the town carried on a large trade with the West Indies, and in 
a report made to the Board of Trade in that year it was said that in 
the twenty years preceding, its shipping had increased four-fold. 
Many subsequent reports show a continued and steady increase. 
The war of the Revolution interfered greatly with the trade of the 
port, but did not paralyze it so completely as it did the commerce of 

In 1776, after Commodore Esek Hopkins had made his famous 
expedition to New Providence, his fleet made a rendezvous at Provi- 
dence, but never left the port in company again to engage in any 
naval enterprise. Two armed vessels, the " Warren" and the " Provi- 
dence, " were here built under the authority of the Continental Con- 
gress. Commodore Hopkins found great difficulty in procuring 
sailors for the new vessels, as the privateers which then frequented 
the harbors of the bay offered much more advantageous terms. 
Both the privateers and the government vessels had either to fight 
their way through the British fleet stationed at the mouth of the bay, 
or to elude the enemy by speed or strategy. As all the avenues to 
peaceful trade were closed to the Providence sailors, they engaged 



extensively in privateerinnr, and " were generally successful in elud- 
ing the British cruisers which swarmed on our coast, and in making 
prizes of merchantmen, transports, and small vessels of war." 

The Union Congregational Church. 

After the close of the Revolutionary War the foreign trade, having 
been quickly resumed, began slowly to increase, though under great 
disadvantages. While the American states were independent of 
Great Britain, they had not as yet perfected a union among them- 
selves. Each was an independent commonwealth, exercising all the 
functions of a sovereign state. In its sovereign capacity each state 
immediately proceeded to levy duties upon all merchandise imported 
from other states. 

The records of the Providence Custom House from the year 1785 
to the year 1789 present some interesting figures in this connection. 

212 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

In those years the majority of the arrivals were from ports in the 
other American states. Quite a large number came from the West 
Indies, and occasionally a vessel sailed into the harbor from some 
European port. An import duty of 2.5 per cent, was collected on all 
goods imported from the West Indies, or from abroad, and on manu- 
factured articles from the other states. Country produce, flour, 
lumber, oil, fish, and all kinds of raw material from American ports 
were admitted free of duty. The duties were estimated and paid in 
pounds, shiUings and pence. Sometime in the year 1787 the rate 
was increased to 5 per cent. A large amount of merchandise was 
brought from Boston by " land transportation" in those years. 
This business was nearly all carried on by Dexter Brown and Moses 
Guild. From the records, they seem to have made one trip per week 
each. The first importation of cotton to Providence of which record 
has been found, was a bag of ninety pounds of "cotton wool," 
brought by the sloop "Fox," May, 1785, from " Hyspaniola," to 
Thos. L. Halsey. At the beginning of the year 1790 there were 
owned in Providence, "no sail of 10,590 tons, exclusive of river 
craft." The statement was then made, in a petition to Congress, that 
"there is a greater number of vessels belonging to the port than 
to New York," and that " it is a place of more navigation than any 
of its size in the Union." 

Rhode Island adopted the new Constitution of the United States 
in May, 1790. An import " act to provide more efl'ectually for the 
duties imposed by law on goods, wares, and merchandise imported 
into the United States, and on the tonnage of ships or vessels," had 
passed through several stages in the United States Congress. By its 
provisions, Rhode Island was divided into the two customs districts 
of Providence and Newport. The act was approved Aug. 4, 1790. 
The first entry recorded under its operation in the books of the Prov- 
idence Custom House, is that of the sloop " Betsey," William Young, 
master, from Port au Prince, with a cargo of salt, molasses, sugar, 
coffee, and oil, on which the duties paid were $244.45. Under this 
new condition of affairs, business increased rapidly, and the trade 
with the West Indies and Europe assumed greater proportions. 

During the year 1 791, sixty-four vessels arrived from foreign ports, 
the duties on the cargoes of which amounted to nearly $80,000. Of 
these vessels, fifty-three were from ports in the West Indies, one from 
Canton, China, one from Cape de Verde Islands, and the remainder 
from European ports. The following is a summary of the foreign 



commerce of tlie port from the year 1810 to 182 1 inclusive, showing 
the number of arrivals each year, and the amount of duties paid : 


* No of vessels. 

American vessels. 

Foreign vessels. 

181O .... 


$336,098 83 

$2,074 40 



207,989 90 

8,985 96 



184,624 31 



72,117 87 

87,093 68 



13427 50 

58,623 49 



99,830 85 

559 88 



269,650 12 

10 17 



210,359 40 



210,163 03 



399,837 81 

5'Oi2 37 



118,439 93 



99,626 99 

The trade to Canton, China, was important. The first direct arri- 
val from this port was the ship "General Washington," July 5, 1789. 
A continuous trade existed for more than half a century, the last 
arrival being the ship " Lion," Jan. 30, 1841. For the years covered 
by the preceding table, the arrivals from Canton and the duties paid 
were as follows : 







1810 . . 

1811 . . 
1816 . . 



53.130 74 
118,503 86 
104,973 13 

1817 . . 
1819 . . 



106,886 44 
278,467 10 

The cargoes brought from Canton were mainly of teas, and the 
duties w^ere more in amount than those paid on cargoes from any 
other port. In some cases, indeed, a single vessel from Canton 
paid more duty than all the other vessels entered during the year. 
The principal imports from the West Indies and South America 

* Of these vessels only twenty-nine were foreign; most of the foreign vessels re.iched the port dur- 
ing the War of iS:2, when the American merchant ships had been almost swept from the ocean. This 
fact accounts for the large amount of duties recorded in the fourth column of the foregoing table for the 
years 1813 and 1S14. 

214 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

were rum, molasses, sugar, salt, and limes. From Europe came 
manufactured articles and cloths. About the beginning of the cen- 
tury the European trade began to increase, and vessels arrived from 
Liverpool, London, Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Cronstadt, St. Peters- 
burg, Lisbon, and other European ports. Occasionally a vessel 
arrived from Bombay, Calcutta, or Africa. 

The War of 1812 seriously affected the trade of Providence. 
During its continuance, the duties paid on merchandise imported in 
foreign vessels largely exceeded the amount paid on goods imported 
in American ships. As a small compensation, some of the vessels 
captured from the British by privateers were brought into this port. 
In the year 1813 three prizes were entered; the duties paid on their 
cargoes amounted to $28,127.49. In 1814 three more arrived, on 
which the duty was $12,495.66. In November, 1814, the private 
armed brig " Scourge," Samuel Eames, master, returned from a 
cruise with seventeen bales of raw silk, captured from the enemy, 
on which the duty amounted to $488.31. 

The ship " Governor Tompkins" arrived at Providence in .Octo- 
ber, 1819, with a cargo of 1, 981 bushels of coal from New Castle, Eng., 
on which a duty of $99.20 was paid. During the early years of the 
century, and until 1 83 1, nearly every Liverpool ship brought coal as 
part of its cargo. In July, 1831, a vessel arrived from Sidney, N. S., 
with a cargo of coal, and from that time forth all the coal received 
in Providence from outside the United States, came from Nova 
Scotia, principally from the port of Pictou. Since the development 
of the Pennsylvania coal mines the Nova Scotia coal has been 
crowded out by protective duties. 

A great change has taken place in the ownership of the vessels 
engaged in the American foreign trade. Until the war of the Rebel- 
lion they were nearly all owned by citizens of the United States ; now 
the majority are owned in foreign countries. The arrivals for the 
past two years will illustrate this fact. At the port of Providence in 
1879 there were 116 arrivals, only 27 of which were American; in 
1880, 139 arrivals, of which only 39 were American. The foreign 
commerce of Providence has not increased in proportion with the 
growth of the city. In fact, there has been a very marked decrease. 
The growth of the city has been in the direction of manufactures, 
and this growth has brought a large coasting trade to the port. 

The first steamboat that ever sailed on the waters of the Provi- 
dence River was one invented by Elisha Ormsbee, of Providence, 



in 1792. It was run by an atmos- 
pheric engine, and attained a speed 
of four or five miles an hour. David 
Wilkinson, of Pawtucket, made all 
the iron work for this vessel. After 
a few trials the engine was taken out 
of the boat and the attempt aban- 
doned. The lirst steamer embody- 
ing the invention of Robert Fulton 
which was seen in Providence was 
the "Firefly." This vessel came 
from New York, and arrived at 
Newport, May 26, 1817, and at 
Providence two days later. For four 
months the "Firefly" plied between 
Providence and New York, but, ow- 
ing to the competition and opposition 
of the captains of the packets, was 
obliged to discontinue her trips. No 
steamer again appeared in Narra- 
gansett Bay until the "Robert Ful- 
ton" came from New York, August, 

182 1. She brought an excursion party, and stopped at Newport, 
Bristol, and Providence. At all these places great crowds were 
assembled on the wharves to see her. The year following, the 
Rhode Island Steamboat Company was organized. This company 
had two steamers, the "Robert Fulton" and the "Connecticut," 
which made regular trips between Providence and New York, 
touching at Newport each way. These vessels continued to run for 
a number of years, and new boats were constantly added to the line. 
Many opposition boats were put on from time to time, and much 
competition existed. In 183 1 there were two lines to New York, 
each with two steamers. In those days races frequently took place 
between the opposition vessels. From that time onward the business 
has continued, many changes occurring in the companies engaged 
in it. During all these years the vessels have been growing larger, 
more elegant, and in every way better suited for travel than were 
their predecessors. The existing lines are the Fall River line be- 
tween Providence and Fall River, stopping each way at Bristol and 
Bristol Ferry ; the Providence line to New York ; the Providence, 

The First Congregational Church. 

2i6 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Norfolk and Baltimore line ; the Winsor line to Philadelphia ; and 
the Continental Steamboat Company, whose steamers ply to New- 
port and all the shore-places on Narragansett Bay. 

When the first steamer came to Providence the only means of 
traveling or carrying merchandise on the water was by sailing vessel, 
and the quickest way of traveling on land was in a stage-coach. 
Between Providence and New York a number of packets plied. 
They were sloop-rigged vessels, built with an eye to speed, and 
with accommodations for passengers. The captains and owners of 
these vessels were much opposed to the steamers, and used every 
means in their power to drive them out. As we have seen, the first 
steamer that appeared at Providence was unable to compete with the 
packets, but this was owing more to the clumsiness of her construc- 
tion than any other cause. The triumph of the steamers was only 
a question of time. In those days, as now, a great deal of the travel 
and trade between Boston and New York passed through Providence. 

To accommodate this trade a large number of stages were run, 
making connections with the New York packets at Providence. 
These vehicles carried both freight and passengers, and made the 
journey rapidly by means of relays of horses. When the sailing 
packets were succeeded by the steamers, the business of the stages 
was largely increased. " During the summer of 1829 there were 
328 stage-coaches a week to and from Providence, not counting the 
local stages running to points within a dozen miles of the city." 
Very exciting races often occurred between coaches of opposing 
lines when they happened to come together on the road. The arrival 
of a number at once, as was usual, to connect with the New York 
boats was a daily event of great interest. It could not be otherwise, 
when the ten or twelve large coaches, each drawn by four horses, all 
filled with passengers, and their tops loaded with freight, came dash- 
ing furiously down the street. In those days the "wayside inns" 
flourished. At present we know them only through Longfellow's 
poems, Dickens' novels, and other kindred sources. Let us be con- 
tent with that knowledge, since both the stage-coach and the wayside 
inn, viewed through the vista of the past, appear more inviting than 
they were in reality. The Boston and Providence Railroad was 
completed in 1835, ^^^ the death-blow thereby given tojhe general 
stage-coach business between the two cities. 

, Previous to the Revolution, Providence was engaged in the whale- 
fishery to an extent almost equal to that of any port in Rhode Island. 



The war interfered with the business, but did not destroy it. as soon 
after the peace, in the year 1785, record is found of the arrival of six 
vessels from whalincr voyages. The amount of oil these vessels 

The Beneficent Congregational Church. 

brought was small, but with one or two exceptions they also brought 
cargoes from the West Indies, and other foreign ports. From that 
time very few vessels were fitted out until about the year 1820, when 
a sHght revival of the business occurred. Between 1830 and 1840 a 
more marked revival took place, and in the year 1841 seven ships 
cleared from Providence on whaling voyages. For a number ot 
years there were nine vessels licensed to engage in the whale-fishery 
belonging to Providence, but the number gradually diminished, most 
of the vessels being sold to New Bedford, and the remainder lost or 
burned at sea, until not one remained. The last whaler was the ship 
" Lion," which sailed July 17, 1854, for the Pacific Ocean, and was 
lost at sea Nov. 30, 1856. The ship "South America," which cleared 
at Providence Nov. 10, 1843, for the Northwest Coast, and arrived 
home March 5, 1846, made the best whaling voyage on record up to 
that date. She had sent home 800 barrels of whale oil, 100 barrels 

2i8 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

of sperm, 36,000 pounds of bone, and had sold at Bahia, Brazil, 
1,000 barrels whale oil. 

Providence is one of the great industrial centres of the United 
States. Because of the great variety of its manufactures, less disas- 
ter befell it during the years of financial distress, from which the 
country has only just emerged, than almost any city in the Union. 
And yet, the stranger who walks its streets for the first time does not 
notice much in the appearance of the city to lead him to suppose that 
he is in the midst of a "perfect bee-hive of industry." A purely 
commercial town, the place seems to the chance visitor to be, unless 
he has the curiosity to inquire carefully as to the secret sources of 
the wealth that is so plainly proclaimed. 

In 1875, before the efi:ects of the panic had worn away, the num- 
ber of manufacturing establishments in the city was 940. In these 
factories 20,271 operatives were employed; their invested capital 
was $16,393,734; the value of their product manufactured each 
year, was $52,782,875. Ever since that time there has been a 
gradual and healthy growth of business. The statistics of the last 
census will undoubtedly show that a much greater business, propor- 
tionally to the population, is now done than was done five years ago. 

One of the most prominent industries is the manufacture of jew- 
elry. There were in the State, in 1875, 133 establishments where 
jewelry was manufactured. Very nearly all of these factories are 
within the limits of Providence. The business is yearly increasing 
in magnitude. It is mainly confined to the territory bounded by 
Chestnut, Ship, Eddy and Broad streets. 

Within the city limits are a number of cotton-factories. Among 
the principal establishments are the Oriental Mills, the Providence 
Steam Mill, the Grant Mill, and the James Y. Smith Manufacturing 

In 1875, according to the census report, about one-fourth of all the 
woolen goods in the State were manufactured in Providence. Among 
the principal concerns are the Geneva Worsted Mills, and the Prov- 
idence Worsted Mill (worsted goods) ; the Valley Worsted Mills 
(braids, yarns and hosiery) ; the Elba Woolen Mills and the Wey- 
bosset Mills (cassimeres) ; the Wanskuck Mill (coatings) ; and the 
Riverside Worsted Mills (suitings). 

The Fletcher Manufacturing Company, established in 1793 and 
incorporated in 1865, manufacture boot, shoe, and corset laces, lamp 
wicks, yarns, braids and twines. Their mills are situated on Charles 
Street, in the north part of the city. 



The Allen Print Works is one of the best-known establishments of 
the kind in the country. In the tirst ward, near the North Burying 
Ground their buildings stand. Other establishments in the printing 

,,«•" L^gMCasfe^. 

The First Universalist Church, 

and bleaching business are the Woonasquatucket Print Works, on 
the river of that name, the Silver Spring Bleaching and Dyeing Co., 
the Rhode Island Bleaching and Dye Works, and tlie Sun Bleach- 
ing, Dyeing and Calendering Works. 

In the manufacture of silver-ware, Providence has one establish- 
ment whose reputation is world-wide, both in regard to the quality 

220 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

and workmanship of the articles produced, and the extent of the 
business carried on. It is the Gorham Manufacturing Company. 
The business was founded by Jabez Gorham in 1831, and at first 
only one small room was needed for it. Now the tall buildings of 
the factory cover nearly an entire square between North Main and 
Canal streets. 

Very many large establishments are engaged in the manufacture 
of machinery. One of the largest works is that of the Corliss 
Steam Engine Co., situated in the northern part of the city, just 
above the Charles Street railroad crossing, on the line of the Boston 
and Providence, and Providence and Worcester Railroads. The 
buildings cover several acres of ground. Everybody knows that the 
engine which supplied the power for the machinery at the Centennial 
Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, was made in these shops. 

The Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company are engaged in 
the construction of the Wilcox & Gibbs sewing machine, the mak- 
ing of fine tools, and various machines and contrivances for special 
uses. Their factory is on Promenade Street, a short distance west of 
the Cove basin. This company has a most enviable reputation for the 
exactness and accuracy of its tools and machines. Darling, Brown 
& Sharpe, rule and gauge makers, occupy a part of the factory of the 
Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company. 

The works of the Providence Tool Company are among the largest 
of their kind in the country. The company was organized in 1845, 
and incorporated in 1847. Sewing machines and ship-chandlers' 
hardware are now made in its shops, but its specialty is the Peabody- 
Martini breech-loading rifle. Trustworthy military authorities say 
that but for these wonderful Providence rifles, the Turks could never 
have held out half so long against their adversaries, the Russians, in 
the late sanguinary war. The factories of the company are situated 
on West River and Burt streets, in the Tenth Ward, and on Wick- 
enden Street, not far from Fox Point. 

The American Screw Company, organized in i860, is the largest 
screw manufacturing company in the United States. The works 
comprise five large brick mills — the Eagle Mills, Stevens Street, 
and the New England Mills, Eddy Street. When working at their 
full capacity they give employment to 2,500 persons. 

The works of the Nicholson File Company are located on a plat of 
about four acres, on the banks of the Woonasquatucket River, fifteen 
minutes' walk from the railroad station. The company was organ- 



ized in 1865. The work of 
making the files is nearly 
all done by machinery. A 
large prop>ortion of this ma- 
chinery was patented by W. 
T. Nicholson, the founder 
of the company. About 250 
persons are employed in the 

Other large manufac- 
tories are the Rhode Island 
Locomotive Works, corner 
of Hemlock and Valley 
streets ; the Franklin Foun- 
dry and Machine Company, 
Charles Street, incorporated 
in 1836, manufacturers of 
cotton machinery ; the Prov- 
idence Steam Engine Com- 
pany, 373 South Main 
Street ; Providence Machine 
Company, manufacturers of 
cotton and worsted roving 
frames, and other machines 
used in the manufacture of 

cotton and wool, 564 Eddy Street ; the Granger Foundr}- and Ma- 
chine Companv, bleaching, dyeing, printing and paper machinery, 
Gaspee, corner of Francis Street ; Spicers & Peckham, manufac- 
turers of the most approved patterns of American ranges, furnaces, 
and stoves, foundry on Cove Street; the Barstow Stove Company, 
works on Point Street, corner of Chestnut ; City Machine Company, 
Harris Avenue, corner of Acorn Street ; Phenix Iron Foundry, Elm, 
corner of Eddy Street, manufacturers of machinery for bleaching, 
dyeing, printing and finishing cotton goods, etc. ; Volney W. Mason 
& Co., elevators and hoisting machinery, Lafayette Street, rear 405 
High, and the Rhode Island Braiding Machine Compan}', Aborn 

Providence is situated almost at the head of navigation, on Narra- 
gansett Bay. Two fresh-water rivers, the Woonasquatucket and the 
Moshassuck, flow into the Providence River, and at their confluence 

The First Baptist Church. 

222 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

form a broad sheet of water called the " Cove." This body of water 
was originally much more extensive than at present, but its area has 
from time to time been reduced by filling in the surrounding low 
lands. It is now a circular basin about a mile in circumference, the 
sides of which are built up with stone. A public walk, the Cove 
Promenade, encircles it. The central passenger station is on the 
southeast of the Cove, and the railroads converging there run along 
its banks in both directions for a short distance. The Woonasqua- 
tucket River flows into the Cove from the west, the Moshassuck from 
the north, and the Providence River flows outward to the east. 
Rising from the valleys of these three streams are the hills, on the 
slopes of which the city is built. 

One of the best places from which to get a view of the city is Pros- 
pect Terrace, a little park near the summit of Prospect Hill, on the 
east side of the river. From this point of view, the central portion 
of the city, — where the business is mainly transacted, — in the 
neighborhood of Westminster, Weybosset, and Dorrance Streets, the 
railroad station and Exchange Place, lies to the southward. The 
buildings of this section are mostly large blocks ; red brick is the most 
common material seen. The principal buildings of the city stand 
out in bold relief, the City Hall, the Butler Exchange, and the Nar- 
ragansett Hotel, being the more prominent. To the southwest, almost 
directly at the foot of the hill, is the circular basin of the Cove, with 
its fringe of trees ; and beyond it, to the westward, the broad expanse 
of lowlands through which flows the Woonasquatucket River. On 
these lands a number of large manufacturing establishments are 
located. Rising up on either side of these lowlands, are high sand- 
blufts. On the north side of the valley is Smith's Hill, and on the 
south is Federal Hill. 

To the southward of the Cove lies the most densely populated 
part of the city ; spires of churches are seen shooting up here and 
there, huge school-houses thrust their solid walls upward from the 
hills, and a few monster gasometers, with the great domes that give 
such an oriental appearance to the landscape, stand out prominentl}'" 
against the quiet sky. 

The stately Rhode Island Hospital tells how well private benefac- 
tions have provided for public suflering, and the twin towers of the 
new Cathedral, on High Street — the largest place of worship in the 
city — of the wonderful strides the Roman Catholic Church has been 
making in Rhode Island during the last quarter of a century. 



Unlike most American cities, 
Providence lias but few 
blocks of tenement-houses. 
Apart from each other and 
overshadowed by \\avin<r 
branches, stand the homes 
of the great mass of her 
citizens. Almost like a 
forest appears the portion 
of the city which is occu- 
pied by dwelling-houses, to" 
one who looks upon it from 
the " Terrace."' 

Providence is divided into 
three well-defined parts by 
the two fresh-water rivers, 
the Woonasquatucket and 
the Moshassuck, and the 
Providence River in its pro- 
gress from the Cove to the 
bay. The most important 
and populous, though not 
perhaps in territorial extent 
the largest division, is that 
on the west side of the Prov- 
idence River, having this river for one of its sides, the Woonasqua- 
tucket for the other, and for the base of the triangle the towns of 
Johnston and Cranston. This division includes within its borders 
the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth wards, and most 
of the business portion of the city. In this section, also, are Roger 
Williams Park, at the extreme south of the city ; the Park Garden, 
on Broad Street ; Mashapaug Pond ; Long Pond ; Benedict Pond ; 
and Field's Point, the first shore-resort on the ba}^ as we go down 
the river. 

The eastei;n part of the city is situated on a range of hills extend- 
ing from Fox Point some distance, along the banks of the Moshas- 
suck River. In this portion, commonly called the " east side," are 
many of the finest residences. 

At the head of College Street are the buildings of Brown Uni- 
versity, and further to the north are the Hope Reservoir and Pump- 

The Cheitnut btreet Methodist Episcopal Church. 

224 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ing-Station of the Providence Water Works. Within this portion 
are the Friends' School, the Dexter As3dum, the Butler Hospital, 
the Reform School, the Athenaeum, the Court House, the Normal 
School, and Swan Point Cemetery. On the water-front and the 
banks of the Moshassuck River are many manufacturing establish- 
ments. Until very recently this was the principal part of the city, 
but of late years the business has moved across the river. 

The third triangle includes Smith's Hill, and the country in its 
neighborhood, and is bounded on the east by the Moshassuck, on 
the south by the Woonasquatucket, on the north and northwest by 
North Providence and Pawtucket. This portion is perhaps the 
largest in territorial extent, but is the most thinly populated. Smith's 
Hill proper is mostly occupied by dwellings. In this part are several 
manufacturing villages, among which are Dyerville, Wanskuck, 
Geneva, and part of Olneyville. 

A good view of the lower part of the city and the central portion 
is obtained from the cupola of the City Hall. Other points from 
which extended views of the city may be had are Fort Hill, in East 
Providence, the heights at Field's Point, Smith's Hill, and Neutacon- 
kanut Hill, in Johnston. 

The principal hotel in Providence is the Narragansett, a massive 
building, seven stories in height. Externally it is not a beautiful 
structure. The money which might have been expended to no pur- 
pose in outside decoration was wisely spent in furnishing its interior 
in the best style possible. It is situated on the corner of Broad and 
Dorrance streets, and is visible from any elevated out-look in the city 
or its suburbs. The next important pubHc house is the Hotel Dor- 
rance, which attracts notice by its imposing front. 

Brown University crowns the educational system of Rhode Island. 
It began its career in Warren, under the name of Rhode Island Col- 
lege. Dr. WilHam Rogers, afterward for many years a distinguished 
professor in the University of Pennsylvania, was its first student. 
The first Commencement was held in the Warren Meeting House in 
1769. In the following year the college was moved to Providence, 
and in May, 1770, the foundations of the first college-building were 
laid. A year afterward a portion of the building was ready for the 
use of students, but it was not until 1788 that the structure was com- 
pleted. During the Revolutionary War all college exercises were 
suspended. From 1776 to 1782 the " College Edifice" (this was the 
only name applied to University Hall — the central building — until 

Providence. 225 

1822) was devoted to the use of the American troops and their French 
alHes, first for barracks, afterwards as a hospital. Under such cir- 
cumstances, it is not to be wondered at that the close of the war found 
it "in a very dilapidated condition." In 1804 the name of the college 
was changed to Brown University, in honor of Nicholas Brown, its 
irenerous friend and benefiictor. In 1822 Mr. Brown erected and 
presented to the corporation Hope College — the building at the ex- 
treme left of the cut on page 134. (The name was given it in honor 
of his sister, Mrs. Hope Ives.) Manning Hall — next to Hope Col- 
lege — (Dr. James Manning was the first president of Rhode Island 
College) he gave to the University in 1835. Towards the erection 
of Rhode Island Hall — at the extreme right — and the President's 
House he subscribed $10,000. In all he gave more than $160,000 
to advance the interests of the institution which bears his name. Of 
the newer buildings, the Chemical Laboratory was completed in 
1862. The beautiful Library Building, which testifies to the inherited 
interest of the late John Carter Brown (the son of Nicholas) ; the 
stately Slater Hall — next to Rhode Island Hall — which com- 
memorates the liberality of Mr. H. N. Slater, and the magnificent 
Sayles Memorial Hall, the monument erected by Mr. W. F. Sayles 
to the memory of a son who died before his college course was half 
completed, have all been erected since the Rev. Dr. E. G. Robinson 
took his seat as the president of the University. 

St. John's Church is the oldest of the Protestant Episcopal 
churches in Providence. The first clergyman to officiate in the par- 
ish was probably the Rev. James Honeyman, of Newport, though 
Dr. McSparran, in his America Dissected, claims the honor for 
himself. In 1722 Mr. Honeyman preached "in the open fields to 
more people than he had before seen together in America." The 
Rev. George Pigot was the first settled minister of the parish, but his 
stay was not a long one. On St. Barnabas' Day, June 11, 1722, the 
erection of the first church-edifice was begun. It was called King's 
Church. In its steeple was placed the first church-bell hung in the 
town. This old building, having stood for almost a century, was 
pulled down in 1810 to make way for the present edifice. Grace 
Church, now the largest of the Protestant Episcopal Churches in 
the State, is a comparatively new parish, having been organized in 

The First Congregational Church was formed about the year 1720. 
In 1723 its first house of worship was erected upon the lot where the 

226 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

new Court House now stands. In 1794 this building was sold to the 
town, and was ever after known as the " Old Town House." The 
second building of the society was erected at the corner of Benevo- 
lent and Benefit streets. It was destroyed by fire in 1814 ; two 
years afterward the present structure was finished. The Beneficent 
Congregational Church was erected in 1808. The building has been 
greatly enlarged since that time. 

Jesse Lee, the leading apostle of Methodism in New England, 
was the first of the sect to preach in Providence. The first Meth- 
odist meetings were probably held in the " Old Town House." Not 
until 1816 was the society able to build a church. This house stood 
at the corner of Aborn and Washington streets. In the course of a 
few years, having become too small to accommodate its congrega- 
tion, it was sold, and converted into a dwelling-house. The second 
meeting-house, at the junction of Chestnut and Cliftbrd streets, was 
dedicated Jan. i, 1822. 

The meetings of the Universalist Church Societ}'^ were begun in 
1772. In 1822, the first house of worship was erected, corner of 
Washington and Union streets. This was burnt in 1825, and in the 
following year a new one took its place. 

The Rev. Robert D. Woodley was the first Roman Catholic 
priest regularly stationed in Providence. He was sent to the town 
by Bishop Fenwick in 1827, and remained in the place about three 
years. At that time there may perhaps have been two hundred 
members in his congregation. The first services of the church were 
held in Mechanics' Hall; afterward for four or five years the " Old 
Town House" was used. In 1832, a lot of land was purchased, and 
on this the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul was erected five years 
later. The diocese of Providence was set off" from that of Hartford 
in 1872. The imposing Cathedral, on High Street, which is just 
approaching completion, is altogether the largest house of worship 
in the city. 



:• ii'^Jc^S- 



•••• > ■-"■^1?%.'--. 



ARWICK. — The settlement at Shawomet, as the town 
of Warwick was first called, was due to the determined 
persistency, not to say obstinacy, of one of the most re- 
markable men that ever dwelt within the boundaries of 
New England. Hardly a name arrests the eye more 
frequently from the pages of early Rhode Island history, 
than that of the " most prodigious minter of exorbitant 
novelties," the "proud and pestilent seducer," Samuel 
Gorton. Even in their strangely copious vocabulary the 
Puritan writers of his age could not find epithets harsh 
enough to express their hatred of him and of the ideas 
he promulgated. And yet, notwithstanding the load of obloquy that 
has been heaped upon him, it must appear to those of unprejudiced 
minds who scan the record of his life that his character was greatly 
misunderstood. Faults he undoubtedly had, and great ones, but the 
same were to be found in the career of every one of his opponents. 
They belonged to the age rather than to the individual. The historian 
Arnold well says that " his career furnishes an apt illustration of the 
radicalism in action, which may spring from conservatism in theory. 
The turbulence of his earlier history was the result of a disregard for 
existing law, because it was not based upon what he held to be the 
only legitimate source of power — the assent of the supreme authority 
in England. He denied the right of a people to self-government, and 

228 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

contended for his views with the vigor of an unrivaled intellect, and 
the strength of an ungoverned passion. But when this point was 
conceded, by the securing of a patent, no man was more submissive 
to delegated law." 

In 1636 Gorton came to Boston. Of his life before his coming to 
America, almost nothing is known. Cotton, Hubbard and Mather, 
those fierce old partisans, who could never see anything to commend 
in those who disagreed with them, assert that he left England " to 
escape the claims of a creditor." This seems rather absurd, inas- 
much as his removal to America would not have secured to him 
immunity from arrest. Less prejudiced and more trustworthy histo- 
rians make no mention of such a reason. The charge is undoubtedly 
a portion of the persecution which fell to Gorton's lot in this country. 
About a year after his arrival at Boston he incurred the enmity of 
one Ralph Smith, who had once been a minister in Plymouth. Of 
him Gorton had hired a portion of his house, and some of Smith's 
household were at once drawn to attend the religious services the 
new comer held daily, morning and evening, in his own family. The 
ex-minister, a man of very moderate mental capacity, seems to have 
been endowed with an unusually fiery temper. He could not endure 
the preference thus plainly shown for his tenant's glowing discourses, 
and therefore ordered him to leave his house. Gorton, who was 
nothing if not pugnacious, refused to go, and Smith had recourse to 
a warrant from the General Court. 

Very shortly after the " beast," " miscreant," and " arch-heretic" 
had thus called to himself the attention of the public, he was guilty 
of an almost unpardonable offence. One of his female servants was 
seen to smile in church. To escape the direful consequences of her 
levity she fled into the woods, having before her flight received an 
assurance from her master that he would undertake her defence. 
At the session of the court which followed, Gorton conducted him- 
self in such a "rude and contemptuous" manner that he was bound 
over to appear at the next session, and ordered to find sureties for his 
conduct until that time. Immediately he left Plymouth and went to 
Aquidneck. June 20, 1638, he was admitted an inhabitant of the 
latter colony, and somewhere about this time he was banished in 
due process of law from Massachusetts. 

The reception accorded to Gorton upon his arrival at Pocasset 
was most cordial. The fact that his is one of the four names, 
on the list of fifty-nine inhabitants, which bear the prefix Mr. (Mr. 



A View of Phenix. 

was used as a special mark of respect in those days), shows the 
esteem in which he was held. This esteem was quickly forfeited 
by his outrageous conduct upon tlie island. He carried his doctrine 
of " soul-liberty " to such an extreme, and showed so many repulsive 
traits of character, that he was soon thrust out from Aquidneck, with 
even more severity than had attended his expulsion from Plymouth. 
Not only was sentence of banishment pronounced against him, but 
he was soundly whipped as well. 

Respecting tliis matter, Gorton says in his own defence, that he 
conducted himself "obediently to the government of Plimouth, 
so farre as it became me at least, for I understood that they had 
commission wherein authoritie was derived, which authoritie I rev- 
erenced ; but Rhode Island at that time had none, therefore no 
authoritie legally derived to deale with me. Neither had they the 
choice of the people, but set up themselves. I know not any man 
that was present in their creation but a clergie man, who blessed them 
in their inauguration, and I thought myselfe as fitt and able to 
governe myselfe and family as any that were then in Rhode Island." 
The account of his " contention " with the islanders, though most 
interesting, is yet too long to be transcribed. 

From Aquidneck the twice-exiled man went to Providence, and 

230 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

there stirred up so much strife that Roger Williams deliberated 
seriously whether he should not himself abandon the plantation and 
remove to Patience Island. While in religious matters Gorton " main- 
tained with Williams the great doctrine of the underived indepen- 
dence of the soul, in civil concerns he was an absolutist, a stickler 
for authority, yielding, theoretically at least, entire obedience to char- 
tered power, but ignoring any other, and steadily denying the right of 
the people of Aquidneck or Providence to govern themselves, and 
hence refusing to be controlled by them. And because of this defect 
in the basis of their government he used every effort to weaken or 
destroy it, assuming for that object the attitude of the veriest leveller 
recorded in history." So entirely subsersive of all order was his 
course, that his application for admission to the rights of citizenship 
was denied. In November, 1641, the tumult this "insolent, railing 
and turbulent person " had aroused, culminated in a riot. Some blood 
was shed upon both sides, and many of the inhabitants, following a 
strange precedent which had been established some time before, 
invoked the aid of the neighboring colony of Massachusetts in the 
interests of peace. 

Finding that the sentiment of the colony was so strongly against 
him, Gorton and his adherents moved to Pawtuxet, whereupon its 
few, scattered inhabitants, well knowing what was coming, hastened 
to submit themselves to the government of Massachusetts Bay. The 
"letter" this action drew forth from Gorton is a most marvelous 
composition, but one that is not likely to receive a very careful exam- 
ination at the hands of this impatient generation. It occupies nearly 
twenty-six closely printed octavo pages, and is filled from beginning 
to end with scorching invective and bitter sarcasm. To its writer it 
brought trouble without end ; for the Massachusetts magistrates were 
able on every page to single out heretical doctrines upon which to 
ground the pretexts for their vengeance. The Gortonists (Gorton- 
oges, the Indians called them) left Pawtuxet soon after it was written, 
and having purchased land from the Indians, began at Shawomet, in 
the wilderness, and beyond the jurisdiction of Providence, the settle- 
ment which now bears the name of Warwick. 

As the purchasers of Shawomet were but twelve in number, they 
deemed it unnecessary at first to adopt any regular form of govern- 
ment. Until a charter from England could be obtained they pro- 
posed to adjust any differences that might arise by arbitration. The 
action of the authorities of the Massachusetts Colony soon rendered 



the acquisition of the desired charter an absolute impossibility. By 
the men of the Bay the Warwick sachem was induced to submit him- 
self to the authority of the Massachusetts government, and to deny the 
sale he had made to Gorton. A voluminous correspondence, con- 

A View of Rocky Point 

ducted on Gorton's part with consummate ability, and with a most 
exasperating weight of argument upon his side, followed this submis- 
sion. The upshot of the matter was, that in the early fall of 1643 a 
company of Massachusetts soldiers were sent against the contuma- 
cious Gortonoges. 

The approach of these troops caused the greatest alarm among 
the people of the new settlement. The women and children lied for 
refuge to the neighboring woods : the men hastily fortified one of their 
strongest dwellings and there, "as men prepared for slaughter," 
awaited the attack of the assailing party. Negotiations looking 
toward a peaceful settlement of difficulties having failed, the cattle of 
the besieged were seized and an assault upon the improvised fortress 
was begun. Thereupon a strange spectacle was presented to view. 
As English citizens, the men of Warwick hung an English flag from 
one of their upper windows. Immediately it was riddled with bullets 
from English muskets. The assaulting troops, knowing w^ell that no 
aid would come to the relief of the beleaguered garrison, entrenched 
themselves, and opened a regular system of approaches. For several 
days the siege lasted, and all the time the Gortonoges, acting solely 
upon the defensive, did not fn-e a shot. On the 8th of October, the 

232 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

works approached so near the house that an attempt was made to set 
it on fire. It failed, but the determined assailants were not to be 
baffled, and immediately sent back to Massachusetts for more troops. 
The Gortonists saw that unless they surrendered a bloody conflict 
must ensue, and that death would surely come to them, either among 
the ruins of their house, or else upon the scaffold under cover of the 
law. • Wisely, they surrendered, and were at once carried to Boston 
as prisoners and placed on trial for their lives. 

The courage of most men would have given way under such a 
combination of circumstances, but the untamable spirit of Gorton was 
not daunted even by the desperate strait in which he found himself. 
In his SimfUcities' Defence he taunts his captors with the extent of 
their triumph — " a whole county to carry away eleven men." Not 
in the slightest degree did he moderate the harsh epithets he was 
accustomed to apply to .his adversaries, and the result was that all 
but three of the magistrates who sat in judgment upon him united in 
condemning him to death. To the credit of the Bay Colony it is re- 
corded that the majority of the House of Deputies refused to sanction 
the barbarous decree. (It should be borne steadily in mind all the while 
that the crime of which Gorton was accused was " heresy.") The 
sentence was therefore modified, and Gorton and six others were 
ordered to be confined in chains during the pleasure of the court. 
" Should they break jail, or in any w^ay proclaim heresy, or reproach 
the Church or State, then upon conviction they should suffer death.' 
In the course of a year after the sentence was carried into effect 
public opinion had changed to such an extent that the prisoners were 
given their liberty, but sent away into banishment. The island of 
Aquidneck having received most of them, found that the bitter expe- 
rience they had passed through had left its trace upon them, and had 
made them much better and less quarrelsome citizens. Gorton him- 
self soon afterwards went to England, and through his efibrts he and 
his partisans were at last placed in quiet possession of the lands they 
had purchased. The name Warwick was given to the town in honor 
of the great earl through whose influence Gorton's mission was at 
last successful. When at last, by the Royal Charter, the jurisdiction 
of Rhode Island was extended over Shawomet, a wonderful change 
came over the cavilling Gortonoges. " Their rigid adherence to all 
the forms of law, as well as to its spirit, was no less remarkable than 
had been their previous neglect. The charter supplied their theo- 
retical wants, and devotion to its letter and spirit marked all their 



The Restaurant. 

subsequent conduct." Gorton 
himself settled down into a 
peaceful, quiet and law-abid- 
ing citizen, and his great 
abilities soon secured for him 
tlie leading position in the 
colony. He lived tor thirt\" 
years atlter the events thai 
have just been narrated, and 
died in 1677. Says his bi- 
ographer : •• The exact spot 
where his ashes repose, is 
marked by no pious stone or 
monumental marble. Yet, 

if without other honors, mav it at least ever be their privilege to 
sleep beneath the green sward of a free state." 

The history of the town that was founded more than two hundred 
years ago, amid such turmoil and strife, is peculiarly rich in roman- 
tic incident. Many a noble son it has sent forth from its borders to 
win distinction and honor for himself and it. Of one such man the 
fame is national — that one who was second only to Washington in 
the ability displayed upon man}?^ a bloody field during the gloomy 
days of the American Revolution. While the Union he did so 
much to perfect shall last, the name of Nathaniel Greene shall not 
cease to be cherished and held in veneration. 

Many a stirring deed also, has the old towm witnessed. Upon 
Gaspee (then called Namquit) Point it was that the British armed 
schooner ** Gaspee " ran aground on the ninth day of June, 1772. 

What Rhode Islander is not 
familiar with the story of the 
vessel's destruction ! The 
' ' Gaspee" had been stationed 
in the bay to prevent smug- 
gling. Her commander had 
discharged his duty with 
needless severity and with 
an entire disregard of the 
rights of the colonists. One 
day, while chasing a sloop 
The Flying Horses "P thc bay, the uiau-of-war 

234 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ran aground. The "chase" escaped and announced in Providence 
the condition of its would-be captor. Immediately a drummer went 
through the streets of the town proclaiming the situation of the hated 
vessel, and calling for volunteers to destroy her. It was not difficult 
to find men ready to engage in such an expedition. At nightfall 
eight long boats, with muffled oars to enable them to reach the enemy 
unperceived, started down the bay. As they approached the "Gas- 
pee " they were joined by another boat from Bristol, under the com- 
mand of Capt. Simeon Potter. The approach of the boats was 
after a while perceived by the people upon the schooner, who dis- 
charged at them a volley of musketry. The assailants promptly 
returned the fire and dashed forward to board the vessel. The com- 
bat which followed was short but decisive. The English commander 
was wounded, his vessel was captured, set on fire, and entirely 
destroyed. Without any attempt at concealment the victorious party 
rowed joyfully homeward. For information which might lead to the 
conviction of those who had participated in the affair the British gov- 
ernment offered a reward of £i,ooo. Almost every one in Provi- 
dence and Bristol was familiar with some of the attacking party, yet 
no one of any character in Rhode Island could be found to testify 
against them. The blood of Lieutenant Duddingston was the first 
British blood shed in the contest which resulted in the independence 
of America. The effect of the destruction of the " Gaspee " was felt 
throughout the length and breadth of the American Colonies, and the 
wave which closed over the charred timbers of the burning vessel 
swept onward, gathering might, across the ocean, until at last it 
broke with irresistible fury against the rocky coasts of the British Isles. 
On the shores of Warwick are many of the most noted summer 
resorts upon Narragansett Bay. Of these, Rocky Point is the best 
known and the most picturesque. It is situated about twelve miles 
from the city of Providence, and was first opened to the public by 
Captain Winslow in 1847, who in that year purchased the property 
and began to carry excursionists to it in a steamboat. During his 
ownership, Captain Winslow spent nearly the whole income of the 
place in improvements. He sold it, at last, to Byron Sprague for 
$60,000. Mr. Sprague still further improved it, spending about 
$300,000, and in 1869 sold it to the American Steamboat Company. 
The Continental Steamboat Company, the present owners, are their 
successors. The hotel has accommodations for three hundred 
boarders, and the dining-hall for shore-dinners will seat 1,500 per- 



sons. The grounds are ample and the means of enjoyment many, 
comprising a bathing-beach, a large dance-hall, a summer theatre, 
an observatory, swings, flying horses, etc. Shore-dinners are served 
every day during the summer. 

Oakland Beach, about two miles southwest from Rocky Point, at 
the extremity of the peninsula of Horse Neck, is on Cowesett, or 

Oakland Beach. 

Greenwich Bay. Compared to Rocky Point this resort is new, 
having been first opened in 1873. It has a fine hotel, and the grounds 
are well laid out. On these grounds it is proposed to hold the 
annual encampment of the Rhode Island State Militia. The Warwick 
Railroad, a branch of the Providence and Stonington, which forms a 
junction with the main line in the southeastern part of the tow^n of 
Cranston, has its terminus at Oakland Beach. It was opened in 
1874, discontinued in 1876, and remained idle for a number of years. 
It is at present running under the management of the New York, 
Providence and Boston Railrf)ad. 

Buttonwood Beach is a lar^re stretch of shore on the north side of 
Greenwich Bay which has always been a noted resort for clam-bakes. 
In 1871 the Buttonwood Beach Association purchased a tract of land 
at the eastern end of this beach, erected a large hotel, and laid out 
their land in cottage-lots, many of which are now occupied by taste- 
ful structures of the style of the Martha's Vineyard cottages. Directly 
across Greenwich Bay, to the southward from the Buttonwoods, lies 
Pottowomut Neck, a part of Warwick which is occupied by farms and 
summer residences. 

Apponaug, at the head of the river of that name (which is an inlet 

236 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

from Greenwich Bay), is a small manufacturing and fishing village, 
on the line of the Providence and Stonington Railroad. As early as 
1690, a fulling mill was erected here. This mill was kept in opera- 
tion until within sixty or seventy years, but whether uninterruptedly 
from its first establishment in the place, is unknown. Permission 
was given by the General Assembly, in 1796, for the erection of a 
tide-mill ; the power thus obtained, with that derived trom the stream 
that flowed into the inlet, was used at first for running grist and saw 
mills, and eventually some small cotton and woolen factories. The 
principal industrial establishment in the place at present is the Orien- 
tal Print Works, one of the largest concerns of the kind in the State. 
Ship-building was at one time carried on in Apponaug, and also a 
brisk trade with neighboring parts. Fond dreams were indulged 
in by its. inhabitants of the future importance of the place, and 
one individual declared that "Apponaug will yet be bigger than 

The Pawtuxet River flows through a portion of Warwick. On 
both of its branches are many reservoirs for the storage of the 
superabundant spring waters. The water thus stored up is not suffi- 
cient to last through a very dry season, but in ordinary cases it ren- 
ders effectual aid to the thirsty mills. For the town is no longer 
devoted to agriculture, as in olden days. It has become one of the 
great manufacturing centres of the State, and very many factory vil- 
lages have grown up within its borders. In some of these villages 
the owners of the mills are also the owners of the tenement-houses 
which cluster about them. The great store, with its miscellaneous 
assortment of groceries, dry goods, hardware and crockery, in many 
cases likewise belongs to "the corporation." The earliest attempt 
to manufacture cotton goods in this part of the State was made in 
Centreville in the year 1794. The second cotton-mill in the country 
is said to have been erected in that village during that year. 

During the early part of the present century most of the estab- 
hshments here located were started. Since the war of the Rebellion 
few new cotton-mills have been erected, but many of the old factories 
have been very greatly enlarged. One of the most noted of the 
early manufacturers was Dr. Stephen Harris. He was one of the 
original members of the Greene Manufacturing Company, which 
began the manufacture of cotton at what is now the village of River 
Point, in 1813. In 1818 the business came under Dr. Harris' exclusive 
control, and from that time has been steadily prosperous. Two more 

Warwick and Coventry. 


■le Falls at Washington Village, Coventry. 

mills were built, and many cjianges and improvements made bv Dr. 
1 larris, as his pecuniary means increased. "The tract of land which 
in 1798 was taxed for $800, and for which he subsequently paid about 
$2,500, he saw taxed, with its improvements, before he died for 
$190,000." Dr. Harris died Oct. 10, 1858, aged 72. His heirs still 
carry on his business under the name of the Greene Manufacturing 
Company. The Hon. Simon Henry Greene, a grandson of Col. Chris- 
topher Greene, of revolutionary fame, was the successful conductor of 
a business, which, from small beginnings, has attained to consider- 
able proportions. In 1828, in company with Edward Pike, he began 
the bleaching business, on the lowest water privilege on the north 
branch of the river. The firm subsequently engaged in calico print- 
ing. After Mr. Pike's death the interest of his heirs in the business 
was purchased by Mr. Greene, by whom and his sons the business 
has been continued until the present time, under the name of the 
Clyde Print Works and Bleachery. 

In the year 1741 the town of Warwick had become sufficiently 

238 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

populous to render its division advisable. On the 21st of August, in 
that year, the western part was set off and incorporated into a new 
town, under the name of Coventry. The area of the portion thus 
incorporated was fifty-eight square miles. In the original town only 
forty-four square miles were left. The new town, however, was 
much more sparsely settled than the old, and has always continued 
to be so. In 1748 the population was 792, while at the same date 
that of Warwick was 1,782. The population of Coventry in 1880 
was 4,520; of Warwick, 12,167. 

The greater portion of this township is rugged and hilly, though 
some parts are quite level and fertile. Flat River, the name which 
the south branch of the Pawtuxet receives in the first part of its 
course, for more than six miles beyond Washington does not fall 
more than sixteen inches to the mile. From this fact it derives its 
name. West of Washington Village, and south of the river, the land 
is low and marshy ; here are located some of the largest reservoirs 
for the storage of water. Further west, along the line of the New 
York and New England Railroad, are extensive granite ledges. One 
is known as Nipmuc, and is situated a short distance from the rail- 
road station of that name. Another is located between Coventry 
Centre and Summit stations. Summit obtains its name from the fact 
that it is on the ridgfe between the water-sheds of the Flat River and 
the Moosup, a tributary of the Thames. A small stream, which here 
issues from a ledge, divides into two streamlets, and one reaches the 
sea through Narragansett Bay, and the other through the Thames 
River in Connecticut. 

Carbuncle Hill, in the northwestern part of Coventry, near the 
Connecticut border, is a natural curiosity, with which are connected 
some Indian legends. Tradition says that the Indians in its neigh- 
borhood had once in their possession a valuable carbuncle. The 
settlers desiring to obtain this gem, resorted to many expedients, but 
without success. Fearing that the white men might accomplish their 
purpose, the Indians buried the jewel in the pond near by, which is 
known by the name of Carbuncle Pond. 

Before the Revolutionary War an anchor forge stood on the south 
branch of the Pawtuxet, between the present villages of Anthony 
and Quidnick. At what time the working of iron was begun here 
is unknown. Arnold, in his History of Rhode Island, states that 
"James Greene and others petitioned for the right to place a dam 
across the south branch of Pawtuxet River in the town of War- 

East Greenwich. 239 

wick, and to erect works thereupon for the refining of iron." This 
was in April, 1741, before the incorporation of Coventry. No doubt 
the anchor forge was afterwards built near the locality mentioned. 
Gen. Nathaniel Greene, in company with his brother, here engaged 
in business just before the Revolution. 

The town of East Greenwich was founded, not like Provi- 
dence, Newport and Warwick, by fugitives from persecution for 
opinion's sake, but by a deliberate act of legislation. At the session 
of the General Assembl}^ held in Newport, May, 1677, it was 

" Ordered that a certain tract of land in some convenient place in 
the Narragansett country, shall be laid forth into one hundred acre 
shares, with the house lots, for the accommodation of so many of the 
inhabitants of this colony as stand in need of land, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall judge fit to be supplied. 

"In pursuance of said act of the General Assembly, this present 
court do enact and declare, that the said tract of land be forthwith 
laid forth to contain five thousand acres, which shall be divided as 
follows ; five hundred acres to be laid in some place near the sea, 
as commodious as may be for a town, which said five hundred acres 
shall be divided into fifty house lots, and the remainder of said five 
thousand acres, being four thousand five hundred acres, shall be 
divided into fifty equal shares, or great divisions, and that each person 
hereafter named and admitted by this Assembly, to land in the said 
tract, shall have and enjoy to him and his heirs and assigns forever, 
in manner and form and under the condidons hereafter expressed, 
one of the said house lots and one great division, containing in the 
whole one hundred acres." 

Then follows a list of forty-eight names of persons to whom 
this tract was granted in consideration of services rendered during 
King Philip's War, who thus became the proprietors of the town 
and founders of the new settlement of East Greenwich, this being the 
name which by act of legislature it was to be known. Farther legis- 
lation in regard to its settlement extended to very minute details. 

The early settlers expected great things of the town. They antici- 
pated, in view of its excellent harbor, that it would become a place 
of great commercial importance, and that its healthful location would 
attract thither many in search of homes. The liberality with which 
they laid out the streets shows that they meant that it should be worthy 
of its future greatness. The names which they bestowed upon them, 

240 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

King, Queen, Marlboro, Duke, London, etc., are proofs of their 
loyalty to the mother country. Main Street is sixty feet wide, as are 
also some of the cross streets. The town is situated on an arm of 
a bay of the same name, which is itself an arm of Narragansett Bay. 
Its harbor is almost land-locked, and aftbrds safe anchorage from 
storms which may visit the outer bay. The entrance to it is clear of 
sand-bars and rocks, so that it is easy of access, and its shores rise 
abruptly, giving sufficient depth of water to float large vessels. 
According to its local historian, the climate is healthful, and so mild 
that a number of delicate plants live out-doors during the entire win- 
ter, which in other places in the same latitude can only be preserved 
under cover. 

In the year 1709 the town purchased a tract of land adjoining its 
western border, containing 35,000 acres. Until 1740 the township 
extended from the bay on the east to Connecticut on the west. In 
that year it was divided into two parts which have ever since been 
called East and West Greenwich. On the 15th of June, 1750, the 
General Assembly formed a new county of the southern part of 
Providence County, comprising the towns of Warwick, Coventry, 
East and West Greenwich. It received the name Kent, and East 
Greenwich was selected to be the county-town, much to the disgust 
of Warwick, which craved the honor. It was also made a port of 

The first collector was Thomas Arnold, formerly an officer in the 
Revolutionary army. At the battle of Monmouth he lost a leg, 
and its place was supplied by a wooden one. At that time the town 
carried on quite an extensive trade with the Dutch colony of Surinam. 
The officers of the vessels belonging to the trade seem to have been 
possessed with the common delusion that it is no sin to cheat the 
government, and generally managed to enter the harbor during the 
night and smuggle taxable articles ashore before morning, the col- 
lector never venturing out in the- night on account of his infirmity. 
At one time a vessel was obliged to stay outside until morning on 
account of the fog. Its officers, at a loss how to outwit the collector 
in broad daylight, invoked the aid of his son, by whose connivance 
his wooden leg disappeared and could not be found until all articles 
on board the vessel, subject to duties, were safe beyond the reach of 
custom-house officers. A part of the collector's duty was to issue 
licenses for the sale of spirituous liquors, the revenue from which 
helped to fill the treasury of the general government. 

East Greenwich. 


At the becrinnincr 
of the Revokition, a 
Mr. Upton came 
from Nantucket and 
set up tlie Hrst man- 
ufacturing establish- 
ment of the town. It 
was a pottery, and 
stood on the corner 
of King and Marl- 
boro streets. The 
articles made in it 
were of coarse ma- 
terial and very rude 
in form. The clay 
used was obtained 
from Gould's Mount, 
in Quidnesett, where 
it is still found in 
great quantities. At 
the close of the war 
Mr. Upton returned 
to Nantucket, and 
his short-lived un- 
dertaking came to 
an end. 

The record of 
first undertakings is 
always interesting. 
East Greenwich has 
the honor to have 
printed the first cal- 
i c o in America. 
Some time previous 
to 1794, a man nam- 
ed Dawson erected 
print-works, and 
carried on the busi- 
ness. The material 
used was linen, spun 

242 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

and woven in the families of the town. " A calico, or as it was then 
called, a chintz dress, was at that time a rare and costly article, and 
ranked as high in the scale of fashion as the silks and velvets do 
now. . . . Every family made their own cloth, and then carried 
it to the printing establishment to be printed, each person selecting 
their own pattern and colors. The patterns were very neat and 
prettv, and the colors remarkably brilliant." 

The first establishment in the country for the manufacture of 
woolen cards was located at East Greenwich, in the dwelling-house 
opposite the Updike house. During the Revolution, saltpetre and 
wire were manufactured in the town. Previous to the year 1800 
there were several tanneries in existence. 

The first cotton-mill within the limits of the township was Til- 
linghast's Factory, situated on a small stream at the head of Hunt's 
River. It is now owned by Mr. Moon. It was built about the year 
18 12. Green's Dale Bleachery was built by the East Greenwich 
Manufacturing Company in company with some private individuals. 
It was situated on the Maskerchugg, but operated by steam. It was 
used at first as a bleachery, but after it came into the possession of Mr. 
George J. Adams it was converted into an establishment for printing 
mouseline de laine. These were so elegant in material, design, and 
color, that they were readily imposed upon the public, which saw no 
reason for doubting the genuineness of the labels, as of French make. 
Mr. Adams afterwards removed his business to Taunton, but for 
some reason he could not produce clear colors, and the undertaking 
proved a failure. He therefore returned to Maskerchugg, and de- 
voted himself to calico-printing, which was attracting much atten- 
tion among printers upon cloth. The buildings have been twice 
destroyed by fire, and each time rebuilt on a larger scale. The 
works have been operated by Adams & Butterworth since 1862. 

Sixty years ago the town could boast a brass foundry. It was not 
extensive, but the articles manufactured in it were very elegant. It 
was owned by Mr. Cromwell Salisbury. He was a very ingenious 
mechanic, made his own metal, designed his own patterns, and him- 
self did all the iron-work necessary at his own forge. He made tongs, 
shovels, andirons and supporters. In the year 1845 a machine-shop 
was erected on the corner of Division and Marlboro streets by Mr. 
Asa Arnold. Mr. Arnold is known as the inventor of compound 
motion, or diff'erential wheels, as applied to cotton speeders, an inven- 
tion which has never been superseded during the fifty years in which 

East Greenwich. 


it has been in general use throughout the world. The shop was at 
first used for the manufacture of various kinds of macliinery, but is 
now confined to that for making seine and fish nets. 

In 1873 Mr. Earnshaw commenced the manufacture of mats and 
scrubbing-brushes out of coir. This is a product of the fibrous part 

The Academy, East Greenwich. 

of the husk of the cocoanut. This manufactory is the only one of its 
kind in the United States. 

There is no place, however small, without its local celebrity, 
famous either for good or for evil, for wisdom or for folly. Such a 
one in East Greenwich was Jemima Wilkinson, and her claim to fame 
was her almost incredible folly. She was not a native of the town, 
having been born in Cumberland, in the year 1751, but she included 
East Greenwich in her periodical visitations, and had here a meedng- 
house which was called by the irreverent "the Jemima Meeting- 
house." From a gay, worldly girl, fond of dress, society and amuse- 
ment, in the year 1774 she suddenly became a religionist, gave up 
all society, and studied the Bible continually. After about two years 
of retirement, she pretended to be ill, remaining in bed and exciting 
mucli sympathy and solicitude. She recounted to her nurses and 
watchers marvelous stories of celestial visitors and visions. At length 
she went into a trance which lasted several days, from which she 
suddenlv awoke, asked for her clothes, rose and dressed, and went 
about in perfect health. She announced that although it was the bod}^ 
of Jemima, the soul had gone to heaven, and she blasphemously 

244 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

asserted that the spirit of Jesus Christ now dwelt in her body. She 
declared that she should live and reign a thousand years on earth, 
and then be translated, and that her name was the "Universal 
Friend." Notwithstanding the arrogance and absurdity of her claims, 
she collected about her some very devoted adherents, not only among 
the ignorant, but also among the intelligent, who are not supposed to 
be so susceptible to imposition as the former. This can be partly 
explained by the fact that she possessed great personal beauty, both 
of face and form, was graceful, and apparently believed supremely 
in herself. 

Her object seems to have been to found a new religion, of which 
she should be the head. Disaffected members of various societies 
became her disciples, and three or four meeting-houses were built for 
her in different parts of the State. The form of worship which she 
imposed upon her followers was modeled after that of the Friends, 
but she continually varied it by enforcing capricious and tyrannical 
rules from which she allowed no appeal. Her moral character was 
by no means above reproach, several scandals having been coupled 
with her name. At one time she was convicted of having stolen 
$2,000 from the general treasurer of Rhode Island, either directly 
or through the instrumentality of one of her satellites who was enter- 
tained at his house during one of her visits. Immediately after this, 
in the spring of 1779, she removed with her adherents to Ontario 
County, New York, and founded a settlement which she called " New 
Jerusalem." Here she administered affairs with shrewdness and skill, 
and died in 1819, at the age of sixty-eight, some nine hundred and 
odd years before she intended to. 

She pretended to work miracles, which, however, invariably 
proved failures, " owing to want of faith on the part of the specta- 
tors." One of these attempts at miracles was openly turned into ridi- 
cule by the wit of a military officer who was present. A favorite 
" apostle " had been ill, and his death was announced. Jemima gave 
public notice that after he had slept four days, she would restore him 
to life. An immense throng of people, believers and sceptics, assem- 
bled to witness the act. Jemima discoursed briefly on death and the 
resurrection, and then declared that then and there she would con- 
vince them of her heavenly mission by raising the " apostle " from the 
dead. At this crisis, the officer stepped forward with drawn sword 
and remarked that he would just run his sword through the body, to 
make sure that the man was dead. Whereupon the top of the coffin 

East Greenwich. 


was violent!}- thrown back, and the ghostly tenant incontinently fled, 
to the dismay of the faithful and the amusement of the unbelieving. 
It is a little remarkable that this fanaticism of Jemima Wilkinson 
is the only one that has ever had birth within the limits of Rhode 
Island, a colony whose foundation-stone is religious toleration. 

A Street View in East Greenwich. 

The Society of Friends has always been identified with East 
Greenwich. Driven from the Massachusetts colonies, they found 
rest and security within the borders of Rhode Island. The first house 
of worship in the town was built by them. The society organization 
consists of a Yearly Meeting, made up of several quarterly meetings, 
which in their turn are made up of sundry monthly meetings, and 
these are composed of preparative meedngs. The Yearly Meetings, 
of which there are several in the country, are organizations entirely 
independent of each other, and of equal importance and authority. 
The New England Yearly Meeting comprises the quarterly meetings 
of Rhode Island, New Bedford, Falmouth, Dover, and some others, 
and is held on alternate years in Newport and Portland. Until 
within three years, it was held in Newport every year. Great eflbrts 
have been made to efiect its permanent removal to Portland, but they 
have been unsuccessful, the tenure of some of the property of the 
meeting being dependent upon its being held in Newport. The East 
Greenwich meeting is a quarterly one, comprising its own monthly 
meetings, and those of South Kingstown, Providence, and Swansea. 
East Greenwich monthly meeting includes the preparative meetings 
of itself and Coventry, which are held on alternate First-days in 
the two towns. This meedng was organized June 12, 1699, at the 

246 Picturesque Rhode Island^ 

house of John Briggs, Kingstown, and was first called the Narragan- 
sett Monthly Meeting. First-day meetings were held in Kingstown, 
near Wickford, in Joseph Hull's house, and afterwards in that of 
WiUiam Gardiner. Three monthly meetings were held in the house 
of John Briggs, after which they were held in that of Jabez Greene, 
of Warwick. Before the close of the year it was resolved to build a 
meeting-house.' This was erected about half a mile southwest of the 
village, near Payne's grist-mill. It was not finished until 1703, 
although it was used lor First-day meetings for some time before 
that. In the third month of that year Peter Greene, Jabez Greene, 
and Thomas Greenall were appointed a committee to finish it. The 
records of the next month contain the following minute: "Upon 
further consideration of ye finishing our meeting house, it is seen con- 
venient by this meeting yt those three Friends may omit ye finishing 
at ye present, yt they may propagate ye building a small addition to 
ye meeting house as they may see convenient." The addition could 
have hardly been extensive enough to warrant much delay, as the 
bill presented therefor amounted to only £1, los. 3d. The meedng- 
house in which the society now worships was built in 1804. 

Many able ministers of the society have lived ,within the limits of 
the East Greenwich meeting. Among them, in the early part of the 
eighteenth century, was James Scrivens, or Scribbens, as he was com- 
monly called. His preaching was wonderful, but he himself had so 
little common sense that he could not earn his own living. He gen- 
erally attended the Yearly Meeting at Newport. Returning thence, 
at one time, he boasted that he had preached, and preached well. 
"No, James," said a Friend who had been present, and who thought 
it his duty to rebuke such spiritual pride, "thou art greatly mis- 
taken ; thou hast not preached to-day, it was thy gift that preached." 

East Greenwich is the site of a classical school of a high order of 
excellence. At its incorporation, in 1802, it was known as Kent 
Academy. It was opened to pupils in 1804, under Mr. Abner Alden, 
a very successful instructor. In the year 1841 the estabhshment 
was sold to the Providence Methodist Episcopal Conference, and is 
now known as the Greenwich Academy. 

West Greenwich. — The town of West Greenwich was origi- 
nally a part of the "Vacant Land Tract." In the year 1709 East 
Greenwich found it expedient to enlarge her borders, and accordingly 
.purchased a tract of land adjoining her western boundary containing 

West Greenwich. 247 

some thirty-five thousand acres. Its owners, thirteen in number, 
" made Saile *' of this tract to the governor and company of " her 
Majestie's" Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in 
consideration of the sum of one thousand one hundred pounds of 
current money of New England "well and truly paid" to them. 
This tract became part of the town of East Greenwich, and remained 
so until 1740, when a petition was laid before the General Assembly 
to set oft' the western part into a separate township. Tliere seems to 
have been no reluctance upon the part of the inhabitants of the eastern 
part of the town to agree to this petition, and they laid no restraint 
upon the departure of their western neighbors from their control. 
Indeed, the care which thev took to record that thev gave their con- 
sent "by a great majority,"' would seem to indicate a rather unflat- 
tering willingness to be rid of them. 

In 1740. therefore. West Greenwich commenced existence as an 
independent township. It is an inland town, mathematically regular 
in outline, being a rectangle three times as long as wide, it greatest 
length being from east to west. Its surface is somewhat hilly. The 
most considerable eminence is Hopkins Hill, from whose summit a 
fine view of the surrounding country, with its forests and streams, 
its hamlets and out-lying tarms can be obtained. The town is an 
agricultural one, although in many places the soil is light and thin, 
and in others the advantages which a more favorable condition of 
the soil would naturally give, are in a great measure neutralized by 
want of proper cultivation. 

A large part of the town is still forest, white pine, oak, chestnut 
and birch growing in great quantities. These forests are a source 
of considerable revenue to their owners, and there are not less than 
twelve saw and shingle mills for their conversion into lumber. 
There are several ponds within the limits of the town, the principal 
of which are Teppecansett and Bailey's ponds on the Connecticut 
line, Wickaboxet Pond, a little east of these, and Mishnock and 
Carr's ponds in the eastern section of the town. The streams in this 
section flow north into the Pawtuxet River, while those of the west- 
ern half of the town flow south and find their wa}' into the ocean 
through the Pawcatuck. In the northwestern part of the town, 
there is a mass of gray granite call Rattlesnake Ledge. It was 
formerly the fastness of great numbers of those deadly reptiles. 
They were so numerous years ago, that the inhabitants of the vicinity 
used to make a practice every year of assembling on a fixed day and 

248 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

going out to wage a war of extermination against them. In this way 
they succeeded in greatly reducing their numbers, but they have not 
been altogether destroyed, a few lurking around the ledge to this 

When, at the Restoration of the Stuarts to the throne of Eng- 
land, the regicide judges found it necessary for the safety of their 
lives to flee from their native land, they came to America, and 
Theophilus Whalley found his way into the Rhode Island Colony. 
After a short stay in North Kingstown, he removed to West Green- 
wich, where he lived to a very old age in exile. His remains were 
buried on his farm near Hopkins Hill. This custom of having a 
private burying-ground on the family estate is one very commonly 
followed in the town. There is but one pubHc cemetery, and that is 
connected with the West Greenwich Centre Baptist Church. 

There are several villages within the township, all of which are 
small. Nooseneck Valley is the largest of these. It is almost at the 
centre of the town, and lies in the valley of the Big River, a branch 
of the Pawtuxet, which at this point in its course has a very rapid 
fall. It derives its name, " Nooseneck," from the fact that numbers 
of deer were formerly entrapped here in a running noose. The 
mill privilege formed by the rapid fall of the river is quite valuable, 
and has been improved at various times by different mill-owners. A 
fatality, which extended to other mills in the town, seems to have 
attended those built upon this privilege. One built by David Hopkins 
for the manufacture of yarn was three times destroyed by fire, and 
another one on the opposite bank, the property of Jonathan Hopkins, 
twice suffered the same disaster. A short distance above the site of 
these two mills, one was erected in 181 2 by the West Greenwich Man- 
ufacturing Company for the purpose of spinning yarn. They became 
involved in a lawsuit arising out of the question of the title deeds, 
and the property was sold according to a decision of the United States 
Circuit Court. Passing through several hands, it finally came into 
the possession of its present owner, Mr. R. K. Edwards, who having 
enlarged and improved the mill, manufactures yarn and carpet- 
warps. This is the most extensive business of the town and employs 
twenty hands. There is one other yarn-factory about a quarter of a 
mile above this one, owned by the firm of Hopkins & Edwards. 
Two establishments for distilling pyroligneous acid are in operation, 
which together produce about a thousand and fifty gallons a day. 
Various other industrial enterprises have been attempted in different 



parts of the town, but have not proved successful. The mills already 
mentioned, together with four grist-mills, constitute the principal 
claims which the town can bring to be considered as interested in 

Episcopal Church, East Greenwich. 

West Greenwich Centre, which one \vould naturally expect to 
find in the middle of the town, is a village in the northwestern cor- 
ner, and is probably so called in accordance with the principle enun- 
ciated by that amiable, witty, and altogether admirable young man, 
the younger Mr. Weller, when he explained that certain persons 
were called laundresses, "because they has such a mortal aversion 
to washing anything." 

Exeter. — That part of the State comprised within the limits of 
the town of Exeter has been called the " Alps of Rhode Island.'" 
This name applies more properly to the western portions of the town. 
Numerous small streams, tributaries of the Pawtuxet and Pawcatuck 
rivers, have their sources among these hills. Because of its remoteness 
and physical features, this region remained for a longer period than 
neighboring sections of the country a haunt of the red men. Previous 
to King Philip's War no settlements had been made in it, and not until 
the power of the Indians was etfectually broken were its hill-sides 
and valleys occupied by white settlers. It formed a part of the 

250 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

" Pettaquamscot Purchase," which was bought from the Indians in 
1657, and for many years portions of it were inchided in the cele- 
brated " vacant lands." Exeter continued an integral part of North 
Kingstown until March 8, 1742-43, at which date it was incorporated, 
and was named after Exeter, in England. 

Queen's River flows through the eastern part of the town, and 
Wood River through the western portion. The source of one of the 
branches of the last-named river is Deep Pond. An unsuccessful 
attempt was made by the fish commissioners in 1872 to stock this 
pond with black bass. Beach Pond, on the border between Exeter 
and Connecticut, witnessed in by-gone days many exciting scenes. 
On its shores on the last Saturday in June, the people from all the 
surrounding country w^ere accustomed to congregate and engage in 
various athletic sports. The favorite horses of the neighborhood 
were pitted against each other in trials of speed. In foot-races and 
trials of strength the young men found enjoyment and afforded 
amusement to the spectators. In many other sports and pastimes 
was the day passed, the people finding thereby " relaxation from the 
busy toil of the farm and the drudgery of the household." This prac- 
tice has now been discontinued. 

Five hundred acres of land within the present limits of Exeter 
had been given, about the year 1696, by " Samuel Sewell, of Boston, 
one of the original purchasers of Pettaquamscot," to support a school 
for the children of the inhabitants. Previous to the incorporation of 
Exeter this gift had not been used. In 1766 the General Assembly, 
in response to a petition to that effect, conferred power to render the 
gift available according to the original design, and "the town of 
Exeter had leave to build a school-house near the east end of the 
town, on the public highway, which was laid out ten rods wide." 

The celebrated James Lillibridge is said to have been born in 
Exeter, about the year 1765. He was the natural child of a Miss 
Mowrey, and was known by the name of his reputed father, James 
Lillibridge. In the records of Exeter there is no mention of his 
birth or of the residence of his mother in the town. " He lived on 
the Long Wharf in Newport, with his mother and sisters, in the house 
now known as 'the Bohanna House.' It is said that his mother and 
sisters were disreputable persons, and that in consequence of a family 
quarrel he left home and went to sea. Lillibridge changed his sur- 
name to that of Murray, and was afterwards known as James Murray. 
He was bound as an apprentice to some mechanical trade before he 



became a sailor. After following the sea for a time he arrived at 
Tranqiiebar, on the coast of Coromandel, about 1790, and some 
time in that 3'ear, having heard that certain Frenchmen who had 
entered the service of the Indian ]-)rinces had risen rapidly in rank 
and fortune, he determined to take service under some one of the 
Mahratta chiefs. He reached the province and entered the service 
of Holkar, one of the most formidable of these leaders. Instead of 

Beach Pond. Exeter. 

uniting against the common enemy, these petty sovereigns for a half 
century had been engaged in an intestine warfare. In the hazardous 
enterprises of these inglorious wars, Murray ' became conspicuous for 
his invincible courage and undaunted presence of mind, as well as for 
his personal prowess.' He remained in the Mahratta service for fif- 
teen years, during which he was actively engaged in every species 
of peril and hardship known to that terrible warfare, from Cape Cor- 
morin to the borders of Persia." 

He was brought to the notice of the British government in India, 
by having saved the lives of a number of British officers whom he 
had captured, but who had been condemned to death by Holkar. 
At the risk of his own life Murray prevented their execution, but by 
this act he lost the confidence of Holkar, and, disgusted with the ser- 
vice of his barbarous master, he revolted and contrived to get pos- 
session of a considerable tract of country, which he governed as an 
independent ruler. On the breaking out of the War between the 
British government and Scindia, Murray surrendered his sovereignty 
and proclaimed the supremacy of the British government in his 
principality. At the head of 7,000 native cavalry he entered the 

252 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

British service and rendered valuable aid throughout the war. He 
retained his independent command, and was treated with much 
deference and respect by the British generals. " At the siege of 
Bhurtpore, where the British arm}^ lost nearly ten thousand men in 
four successive attempts to storm the place, Murray was in continual 
action, and earned the title of being ' the best partisan officer in India.'" 
At the conclusion of the war Murray was retired on half-pay, and as 
he had acquired a large fortune, he determined to visit his native 
country. A further reason that caused him to determine upon this 
course was that, while during the war he had Been treated by the Brit- 
ish officers with great consideration, on the restoration of peace they 
manifested indifference toward him. 

"A few days before the time fixed for his embarkation he gave 
a splendid entertainment to his acquaintances in Calcutta. After 
dinner, when elated with wine, he undertook the entertainment of 
his guests by riding his Arabian charger, which had carried him in 
the war, over the dining-table. The horses foot became entangled in 
the carpet and threw his rider. Murray received internal injuries, 
which induced mortification, and he died in a few days. He was 
said to have been the best horseman in India, and unrivaled in the 
use of the broad-sword. He is described as having been, in ordinary 
life, a mild and amiable man, but when aroused in anger he became 
ferocious and ungovernable. He was of middling height, pleasing 
expression of countenance, and had great bodily strength and agility. 
He is said to have been attacked upon one occasion by seven Mah- 
ratta horsemen, of whom he killed three and then effected his escape 
from the other four. Many were his wild and romantic adventures 
and hair-breadth escapes, but their history is but imperfectly known, 
for he was modest, and not given to boasting of his own exploits. 
Though he had been from his home since his boyhood, he retained 
a wonderful attachment for his native country, and he sometimes 
loaned considerable sums of money to persons upon no other assur- 
ance than that they were Americans. After his death a portion of 
his fortune, some $20,000, it is said, was transmitted to his mother 
and sisters at Newport, upon the receipt of which they changed 
their residence and became candidates for respectabihty, but they 
afterwards returned to Newport. 

"The history of India for twenty years is the record of his achieve- 
ments and "of his wonderful daring. He not only fought Scindia, 
but the forces of the nabobs of Arcot, of Oudre and Surat, and under 


the direction of Major-General Arthur Wellesley, at'terwards Duke of 
Wellington, and Lord Lake, he took Indore and Malwa, and with 
equal valor he fought on the plains, in the mountain passes, and 
among the jungles of Hindostan, either under the cross of St. George 
or in defence of the claims of some savage master." 

The town of IIopkixtox comprises an oblong section of country 
in the southern part of the State, bounded on the north by Exeter, 
on the east by Richmond, on the south by Westerh^ and on the 
west by Connecticut. In the northern part the country is rather 
hilly, and there are numerous ponds. The land is rough and stony, 
and was originally covered with a strong growth of trees. Farmino- 
is the principal occupation of the inhabitants. Wood River is the 
boundary between Richmond and Hopkinton, and on its banks and 
those of its tributaries within the tow^n are many grist and saw mills 
and other small manufacturing establishments. The most considera- 
ble village in Hopkinton on this river is Hope Valley, where there 
are a number of cotton and woolen factories. Here also are located 
the works of Nichols & Langworthy, machinists and iron founders, 
and builders of engines, boilers, and printing presses. The Wood 
River branch of the New York, Providence and Boston Railroad, 
which connects wdth the main line at Wood River Junction in the 
town of Richmond, terminates at Hope Valley. This railroad was 
opened in the year 1874. Through the southern part of the town, 
near the Connecticut border, flows the Ashaway River, a tributary 
of the Pawcatuck. On this stream are several manufacturingvillages, 
the principal one of which is Ashaway, where the w^oolen manufac- 
ture is the leading industry. Hopkinton originally formed part of 
Westerly, but on March 19, 1757, it was incorporated as a separate 

The first settlement in Hopkinton is supposed to have been made 
in 1704, by Daniel Lewis. He was a fuller by trade, and carried on 
his business near the present village of Laureldale, at which place 
he built a dam across the Ashaway River. Many of his descendants 
still reside in the town. One of them, Christopher C. Lewis, was 
town clerk from 181 7 to 1858, when he resigned. During that entire 
period he was present and officiated at every town-meeting except 
one, at which his son, Dea. Nathan K. Lewis, took his place. Qn 
his retirement from office the town passed a vote thanking him " for 
the able and impartial manner in which he had discharged the duties 
of said office for the term of forty-one years." 

254 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

i , Hopkinton City is the name given to a small village in the central 
part of the town, a short distance from the Connecticut border. 
When it was first laid out great were the expectations of its future 
importance. In the days of stage-coaches, as the New London and 
Providence turnpike passed through it, some business was brought 
to the place, and here was located one of the " wayside inns." But 
the new methods of traveling by railroad left it stranded high and 
dry, out of reach and sight of the current of modern commercialinter- 
course. Among the other small villages in the town are Laureldale, 
Locustville, Bethel, Woodville, Rockville, and Centreville. 

Many of the people of Hopkinton, like their neighbors of West- 
erly, are Sabbatarians, and there are in the town four churches of 
the Seventh-day Baptist denomination. There are, besides, a Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, a Second Advent, and two First-day Baptist 
churches, and two Friends' meeting-houses. In 1828 public schools 
were first established, and from that time until the present, good pro- 
gress has been made in the erection of suitable school buildings, and 
in general educational growth. A printing ofiice was established 
Nov. I, 1866, in the village of Hope Valley, by Mr. L. W. A. Cole, 
and in 1876 the same gentleman started a newspaper under the name 
of the Wood Rive7' Advertiser. 

" The first settlers of Hopkinton, puritanical though they were in 
many things, had their amusements. Muster or training days were 
special seasons of amusement and recreation, at which business was 
generally suspended, and both old and young went to see the 
' trainers,' to hear the fife and the drum, and to feast on molasses 
candy and gingerbread. General or regimental and brigade train- 
ings would call together a large portion of the population from miles 
around. On these occasions all, with scarcely an exception, imbibed 
freely of cider, rum and cherry brandy, until story-telling and social 
hilarity became general. Temperance consisted in not getting 
drunk, but a little boozy. Stated holidays were special seasons of 
merry-making. In addition to these, the young people would have 
huskings, bush-cuts, quiltings, spinning-bees and apple-cuts. At all 
these there was some work and a good deal of fun, much of story- 
telling, of love-making, singing and joking." 

Before the spread of intelligence had become general, many 
superstitious notions prevailed. One of the most common of these 
was a belief in witches and wizards. Tradition tells of two noted 
diviners who resided in Hopkinton. One was an old woman named 



Granny Mott, who lived in Hopkinton while it was still a part of 
Westerly. While on a hunting expedition, one of her neighbors 
was much troubled by a flock of heath-hens, one of which would 
flv close to him, but which he was unable to shoot. At last he cut a 

A Bit of Hope Valley, Hopkinton. 

silver button from his coat, and with it loaded his gun and shot the 
bird. Shortly after. Granny Mott was reported to be sick, and soon 
died, and as her daughter would not allow any one to assist in pre- 
paring the body for burial, it was at once surmised that the bird the 
sportsman had shot with the silver button had been the old woman in 
disguise. The other " uncanny" personage was a " little old negro 
man, jet black," who was supposed to have bewitched a young lady 
whose father would not allow him to fiddle at the marriage of her 
sister. The result of this refusal was that the 3^oung lady became 
subject to fits, which could only be alleviated by fiddling, and her 
father was obliged to engage a fiddler by the month, as the spasms 
occurred every evening. She was ultimately partially cured by the 
prayers of a man from Connecticut. Several peculiar religious sects 
have at times been found in Hopkinton. Toward the close of the last 
century a few Shakers were living here. Some years after, however, 
another sect, called Beldenites, arose. Those in Hopkinton, from one 
of their preachers, were called Morseites ; in their meetings they 
went through a ridiculous performance of dancing, leaping, shouting 
and hooting. They also practiced what they called the '' Holy 
Kiss," and were accused of great looseness in their manner of life. 
After a few years the sect died out. 



ESTERLY. — Centuries ago, before the white man 
had thought of seeking a home in these distant lands, 
when the broad Atlantic rolled its surf against a shore 
whose trackless forests, extending far inland, were the 
abodes of savage Indians and prowling wild beasts, 
Misquamicut, as the southern shore of Rhode Island 
was called, was the home of the aboriginal tribe of 
the Niantics. Their territory extended from Wecapaug 
in Charlestown to the Connecticut River, and reached 
back twenty or thirty miles from the coast. Their kings were the 
celebrated Ninigrets. When the first white settlers came hither the 
tribe was divided into the Eastern and the Western Niantics, the 
Eastern section holding Misquamicut and the Western having their 
home in Connecticut. 

The history of the Niantics is interwoven with that of all of the 
present towns of Westerly, Charlestown, Richmond, and Hopkinton, 
which constituted the original tract of Misquamicut, which after its 
settlement by Europeans was called Westerly ; and although the 
reservation upon which the remnant of the tribe lives is in Charles- 
town, it is as well, perhaps, that their story should be told as part of 
the portion which retains the name of Westerly. 

According to tradition, the Niantics were comparatively mild in 
their manners, and disposed to live peaceably with the surrounding 



tribes. But the Pequots, who were not only cruel but also grasping, 
cast covetous e3'es upon their fair possessions, and descended upon 
them from the head waters of the Hudson with such slaughter that 
the tribe was almost destroyed. The Eastern Niantics were glad to 
place themselves under the protection of the Narragansetts, an 
ancient and powerful tribe, which occupied almost the whole of the 

A View on Bioad Street, Westerly. 

western part of Rhode Island. Now that the Niantics had become 
tributary to them, their sway extended to the ocean on the south and 
to the Pawcatuck or " Narragansett River " on the west. Historians 
always speak of the two tribes under the common name of the Nar- 
ragansetts, although the remnant of the tw'O is largely Niantic, and 
dw^ells upon Niantic land, and although at the death of the Narra- 
gansett sachem, Canonchet, his sceptre passed into the hands of 
Ninigret, who with his descendants ruled the tribes until the death of 
George, the last of the Ninigrets. 

The Ninigret who held sway when the first whites came to these 


258 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

shores, was a chief of great military reputation, haughty and spirited, 
but honorable in his dealings with the whites. In the year 1664, he 
was at war with the Montauks, who lived at the eastern end of Long 
Island, and whose king was the notable Wyandan.ce. The latter 
was represented by his sachem, Ascassassatic. Of him and his 
opponent, Roger Williams says : " The former is proud and foolish, 
the latter proud and fierce." Victory perched on Ninigret's banner. 
The Connecticut settlers with some arrogance declared that they had 
taken the Montauks under their protection, and demanded peace in 
their behalf. Ninigret's answer to this demand was, '* The Long 
Island Indians began the war, killed one of my sachem's sons, and 
sixty men. If your governor's son were killed, and several men, 
would you ask counsel of another nation how and when to right 
yourself ? " Incensed at this scornful reply, they straightway sent 
forces, horse and foot, against Ninigret, who, however, entrenched 
himself in a swamp, and the troops were fain to acknowledge them- 
selves outwitted and to return. This swamp, is doubtless the cedar 
swamp, near Burden's Pond, Westerly. 

The feud between the two tribes continued in all its bitterness. 
At length each, without the knowledge of the other, determined to 
make an onslaught which should be final. It so happened that they 
fixed upon the same night for the purpose. It was a clear moonlight 
night. The Niantics starting out, saw the canoes of the Montauk 
warriors approaching their shores swiftly and silently. Immediately 
they fell back, and themselves unseen, awaited the landing of the 
enemy. As they were forming into line, the Niantics descended 
upon them like a tempest, and dealt destruction among them until 
there was scarcely a remnant of the invading host left. This 
slaughter took place near Watch Hill. Not content with this suc- 
cess, Ninigret embarked for Montauk, where Wyandance, weakened 
by the loss of his warriors and taken by surprise, fell an easy prey, 
and the strength of the Montauks was forever broken. 

Ninigret remained a pagan all his life. Indeed, the practice of 
many of the whites went but little way to commend their preaching. 
When asked to favor the spread of Christianity among the Indians, 
he replied that it would be better to confine its preaching to the 
English until they brought forth some good fruits. One of his des- 
cendants, however, known as " King Tom," became a Christian, 
and during his reign an Indian church was established. The last of 
the Ninigrets was George, who was reigning during the American 

Westerly. 259 

Revolution. By his untimely death at the age of twenty-two, the 
dynasty came to an end. Since this event the tribe has been ruled 
by a president or governor, elected annually, assisted by a council 
of four. Ever since the year 1707 they have been under the juris- 
diction of the State. They are allowed their own government, but 
it must harmonize with that of Rhode Island. The tribe has dwindled 
away to a very small number, and has lost most of its characteristics 
through intercourse with the whites. At present there is not a pure- 
blooded Indian among them. 

The first Europeans who visited the shores of Misquamicut were 
Dutch traders, who came hither in search of furs. They made no 
settlement, they did not even set up any trading-houses, but came 
up the rivers and inlets and made exchanges with the Indians. 
Adrian Block, the Dutch navigator, explored the coast in his little 
vessel, the " Restless," in the year 1614, and the Dutch geographer, 
DeLast, sketched it in 1616, from the journal kept by Captain Block. 
The outline of the coast has changed quite materially since this first 
map of it was sketched. What is now Qiidnocontaug Pond, was 
formerly a harbor, open to the ocean, but which has since been cut 
otV from the ocean by the filling up of its mouth during heavy gales. 

Tradition and poetry, neither of which can be relied upon in mat- 
ters of history, have preserved an account of the first colonists of 
Westerly. With that disregard of strict accuracy which character- 
izes them, they have both overlooked the date of the event which 
they commemorate. But it was probably somewhere near the year 
1630. In those days there came to Newport, then a hamlet, a 
young man by the name of John Babcock, who entered the employ 
of Thomas Lawton. Mr. Lawton had a daughter Mary, and the 
two young people fell in love with each other. Mary's father refused 
his consent to their marriage, but they, nothing daunted, determined 
to marry without it, which they accordingly did. So far the story 
is commonplace enough. The romance of it is found in their 
journey — or voyage, rather — to the mainland, to escape the wrath 
of the angry father. They embarked in a small boat and sailed past 
Point Judith, out upon the stormy Atlantic. Turning westward, they 
skirted the coast until, having passed Watch Hill, they came to the 
mouth of the Pawcatuck. They sailed up the river as far as Pawca- 
tuck Rock. Here they landed, and were cordially welcomed by Nin- 
igret, and here founded the first home of white men in this wilder- 
ness. Such is the tradition sacredly preserved among the early fam- 

26o Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ilies of the town, dearer to them, no doubt, than the strictest truth 
would be, if it were possible to know it. 

The first really historic white men w^ho ever penetrated the 
primeval forest of the town, were the heroes who marched through it 
to the aid of their brethren and the discomfiture of the terrible 
Pequots, in the year 1637. They came with Capt. John Mason as 
their leader from the shores of the Narragansett, halted over night at 
Ninigret's Fort, and persuaded him, although he had determined to 
preserve a neutral position, to send some of his warriors against the 
Pequots. When they reached the Pawcatuck, they rested and 
refreshed themselves at the ford, and then pursued their march into 
the enemy's country, to aid in what proved to be a w^ar of extermina- 
tion upon the Pequots. 

A rehable date meets us at 1660. In this year Misquamicut 
became the property of a company organized in Newport for its pur- 
chase. The principles of the Rhode Island colonies forbade that 
land should be acquired from the Indians in any other way. Efforts 
had been made as early as 1658, to obtain a deed of this tract. In 
1660 the purchase was made of Sosoa, a renegade Pequot, who, for 
conspicuous services rendered to the Rhode Island tribes in one of 
their many fierce battles, was rewarded by Miantonomi and Ninigret 
with the title-deeds of Misquamicut. Some doubt was felt as to the 
legality of Sosoa's claim and consequent right to make the transfer, 
which was set at rest by a document signed by Wawaloam, widow of 
Miantonomi, confirming his claim. The company forming the other 
party to the transaction consisted of William Vaughan, Robert Stan- 
ton, John Fairfield, Hugh Mosher, and James Longbottom. They 
organized a colony the next year, which was incorporated as a town 
in 1669, although it then contained but thirty white families. The 
town was called Westerly, from its position. A portion of it was 
erected into a new township in 1738, under the name of Charlestown. 
In 1757 another portion was set oft' and called Hopkinton. In the 
year 1747 Charlestown was divided, the new township thus formed 
receiving the name of Richmond. 

In the year 1740 there occurred a remarkable religious move- 
ment, known as the "Great Awakening." Its influence extended 
throughout the settlements of the land, but was especially felt in New 
England. In Westerly it produced great results, leading to the for- 
mation of no less than five rehgious societies within the limits of the 
original town. Previous to this revival the Sabbatarians had held 

Westerly. 261 

regular services, and a missionary had been sent by the New England 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, to preach to the Indians 
and such English as chose to attend upon his ministrations. As he 
was, in his own words, '* a moral religious person, but awfully in 
the dark as to the way of salvation," it is fair to infer that his mis- 
sionary efforts were not specially productive of good. The revival 
owed its immediate origin to the eloquent preaching of George 
Whitefield. He had spent three days in Newport, preaching and 
praying for a land waiting and longing for spiritual relief. When 
the awakening came it spread like wildhre over the hind. It was 
viewed with disfavor by the churches already established, which, 
indeed, were sore shaken and torn by it. The Sabbatarians or 
Seventh Day Baptists were, by their own showing, especially opposed 
to it, and spoke scornfully of it as the "New Light Stir." It pro- 
duced a particularly happy effect among the Indians of Westerly, 
bringing many of them out of pagan darkness into the light of the 
Gospel. ''The movement resulted in the separation of scores of 
churches from the standing order, and in the general renovation of 
the State churches themselves. In fact, the revival was the blow 
that, in its consequences, led to the separation of Church and State, 
and resolved the Presbyterians into Congregationalists. And how 
much the American Revolution owes to the Great Awakening, as a 
preparation, both in spirit and principles, might well engage a chap- 
ter of our national history. ... If the old churches of 
Massachusetts had cordially accepted the New Light diffused by the 
Spirit, through the testimony of Whitefield, Tennent, Backus and 
the Separatists, they would have been spared the pain and loss that 
finally came upon them, through their half-way covenants, in the 
apostasy of multitudes in the bosom of the churches and societies, 
who, under the plea of liberalism, went over to the ranks of Unitari- 
anism, and rent the churches and societies, and bore away from them 
much of their invested property." (The passage just quoted is from 
the Rev. F. Denison's History of Weslerlv .) 

The coast of Westerly is a very dangerous one, being partly 
sand and partly rock. Watch Hill Point runs far out into the ocean, 
and with its out-lying reefs has been the scene of many a dreadful dis- 
aster. Napatree and Sandy points are a continuation of this prom- 
ontory. They curve around, enclosing a portion of the sound called 
Little Narragansett Bay. Watch Hill, looks down upon the scene 
of many a bygone event. Its elevation makes it a good point of 

262 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

lookout. From it, Ninigret watched the Pequot canoes stealthily 
approaching for his destruction, and at its foot is the old battle-ground, 
where he and his warriors descended upon them, surprised in their 
turn, and vanquished them. During the dreadful French and Indian 
wars, a watch-tower stood here and a signal station, the signal being 
fire by night and smoke by day. The tower was renewed during 
the Revolution, and from it the coast guardsmen kept watch for the 
coming of British vessels. The neck which connects Napatree Point 
with the mainland was then so broad that it contained a swamp and a 
pond, and was so well wooded that it would have been easy for an 
enemy to land there unseen. A story which the incredulous might 
look upon as a "yarn," is told of this vicinity, celebrating the exploit 
of an old negro man named Vester. He was of huge stature and 
proportionate strength. It is said that he could lift a tierce of 
molasses. He was in the habit of swimming off to the Spindle at 
low tide and fishing until the returning flood drove him off, when he 
would swim ashore with the products of his labor. One day he was 
captured by a party of British foragers, who took him to Fisher's Island 
and compelled him to work as a slave. He, however; had no mind 
to waste his strength in slavery, when by a proper exertion of it, he 
might recover his freedom. One evening, at ebb-tide, he plunged 
into the waters of the sound, swam out to the current, turned over 
upon his back and floated until opposite Watch Hill, where he resumed 
his swimming, and so reached the shore and regained his liberty. 

From this same promontory, the awe-struck gazers watched the 
ghostly burning of the phantom Palatine. On its shores tradition 
tells that some of Captain Kidd's ill-gained riches were buried. But 
treasures far surpassing any of the pirate-king lie at the bottom of 
the ocean that washes its base, where many a good ship has gone 
down with its freight of precious lives. Some. of these have gone to 
wreck in storm and darkness, some in broad day and smooth waters. 
" In 1850 a brig and a schooner bound eastward on a calm morning 
were swept by the tide upon a reef west of the light, and were lost." 
The story of the ill-starred " Metis," which was wrecked here in 1872, 
is too fresh to need more than a passing allusion. A lighthouse was 
erected upon Watch Hill in the year 1802. Its first keeper was Mr. 
Jonathan Nash, who guarded the light for twenty-seven years. In 
May, 1806, a vote of the town transferred the jurisdiction of Watch 
Hill Point and light to the general government at Washington. 
There is a good beach upon the shore, and this, with its fresh breezes 



from the ocean, has 
earned for it a line 
reputation as a sum- 
mer sea-side resort. 

The inhabitants of 
Westerly have found 
in its rugged and un- 
sitj^htlv rocks a mine 
of wealth far exceed- 
ing any foreign treas- 
ure which their wild- 
est ima<;inin<j^s could 
picture as hidden in 
caves and recesses 
with mysterious cere- 
monies, and under 
the cover of dark- 
ness. There is no 


jjranite in the coun- ? 
try, if indeed there is ^ 
in the world, which 5 
in fineness of grain, | 
beauty of coloring, ' 
susceptibility to pol- 
ish, and strength of 
resistance to the de- 
stroying power of 
time and the natural 
elements, surpasses 
that quarried in 
Westerly. Its "crush- 
ing power" far ex- 
ceeds that of other 
granites, for while 
they vary from six 
thousand to thirteen 
thousand pounds to a 
square inch, this will 
not be acted upon b\' 
less than nineteen 

264 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

thousand pounds. There are seven quarries of granite in thie town, 
and the varieties produced are the white, red, blue, and maculated 
or mottled. Their fame has spread abroad in all directions, and 
" Westerly granite " is as familiar a phrase as ever " Carrara marble " 
was. It has in a great measure superseded marble, which although 
very much more easily chiseled, is wanting in the enduring qualities 
of the former. The block which is Rhode Island's contribution to 
the national monument at Washington was taken from the Westerly 

The first of these, which is also the largest and whose products 
are considered the most valuable, was discovered in 1845, by Mr. 
Orlando Smith. Certain boulders and rubble stones upon the sur- 
face caused him to suspect the existence of valuable stone beneath. 
Mr. Smith bought the farm containing these indications, which was 
formerly the property of Dr. Joshua Babcock. He opened a quarry 
at the top of Rhodes' Hill, between the old Babcock house and the 
site of the old Hill Church. This was in 1847. Since his death, a 
few years ago, it has been worked in the interest of his estate by a 
firm called the Smith Granite Company. The monument erected to 
Roger Williams, at Roger Williams Park, Providence, was cut by 
this company from granite obtained from their quarry. 

In 1866 Mr. George Ledward opened a second quarry, which 
proved, however, to be a continuation of the first. It is operated 
under the name of the Rhode Island Granite Works, the head- 
quarters for business being at Hartford, with the New England Gran- 
ite Works. Immense quantities of the stone have been quarried here 
for building, monumental, and ornamental purposes. Perhaps the 
most famous work of this company is the " Antietam Soldier," for 
the battle-field of Antietam. It was cut from a single block which, 
when lifted from its bed weighed sixty tons, but which was reduced 
by cutting to half of that weight. The figure was designed by Carl 
Conrads, and with its pedestal measures forty-five feet in height. It 
represents a Union soldier of the Rebellion, standing at parade rest. 

Half a mile north of the second quarry, a vein of red granite, 
much prized for building purposes, is worked. On Vincent Hill 
there is a deposit of blue and white granite, with here and there a 
vein of red. East of these two, in the line of the railroad, are two 
quarries which produce line building material. The seventh is situ- 
ated on Cormorant Hill. The stone which it yields is of a very fine 



quality, but lyiug as it does mainly in thin strata, it is used for curb- 
ing, flag-ging, and such other purposes as require thin stones. 

There is also in the town a small quarry of soapstone, which is 
not worked at present. The aborigines pri/ed this quarry liighly, 

Congregationa) Chufch, Westerly. 

and obtained material from it for such rude implements as they could 

In the list of noted men whom Westerly holds in grateful remem- 
brance should be especially mentioned the two Wards, father and son, 
of Revolutionary times, and the Dixons, father and son, of our own 
day. The elder Ward was the son of Governor Ward of New- 
port. He removed to Westerly when he was about twenty. He 
was three times chosen governor of the colony. In the exciting times 
which ushered in the Revolution, his pen did good service in inciting 
the colonists to resist the aggressions of England. In 1774 he was 
chosen as colleague of Stephen Hopkins to represent Rhode Island 
in the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia. He was re-elected 
to the position the next year, and while in discharge of his duty died 
at Philadelphia, March 25, 1776. 

Samuel Ward, his son, was born in Westerl3Mn 1756. He fought 
in the Revolutionary War, having risen to the rank of captain when 
he was nineteen 3'ears old. He joined in the siege of Boston, and 
accompanied General Arnold in tiie expedition against Q^iebec. 
He was taken prisoner, but was soon after exchanged. He helped 
defend Rhode Island under Generals Greene, Lafayette, and Sullivan. 
He commanded a regiment here, and received a commission as lieu- 

266 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

tenant-colonel. Afterwards he joined Washington's army in New 
Jersey. At the close of the war he became a merchant. He died 
at Jamaica, Long Island, in the year 1832. 

No name upon the public records of Westerly is more familiar, 
not only to the tow^n itself, but also to the whole State, than that of 
Nathan Fellows Dixon, a name borne by a father and son whose 
public careers were very similar. Both were leading lawyers ; both 
represented their town in the General Assembly of the State, one for 
seventeen and the other for eighteen years, and both sat in the councils 
of the Nation at Washington, the one as a Senator and the other as a 
Representative. Their names will always be held in proud esteem 
by the town and State they served so long and faithfully. 

Westerly is one of the most thriving and enterprising towns in 
the State. Here are located many cotton and woolen factories, 
machine-shops, and manufacturing establishments of various kinds. 
It is also a business centre and a depot of supplies for the manufacto- 
ries throughout the surrounding country. 

The principal cotton-factories are those of the Moss Manufactur- 
ing Company, situated on Mechanic Street; and the establishment 
of B. B. & R. Knight, at White Rock village, about a mile above, on 
the Pawcatuck River. Among the companies and firms in the town 
engaged in the woolen manufacture are the Phenix Woolen Com- 
pany, the Stillman Manufacturing Company, the Westerly Woolen 
Company, Latimer Stillman & Co., and at Stillmanville, O. M. 
Stillman & Co. 

There are several machine-shops, where excellent work is done. 
Among these are the establishments of Cottrell & Babcock, iron- 
founders and manufacturers of printing-presses ; T. V. & V. C. 
Stillman, makers of wood-working machinery ; andN. A. Woodward 
& Co., transacting a general machine business. 

During the last decade, Watch Hill, the extreme southwestern 
point of Rhode Island, has become a noted summer resort. It is 
about live miles from the town of Westerly, from which place it is 
easily reached by steamer or carriage. A number of well-appointed 
and elegant hotels are here located. The largest is the Larkin 
House, D. F. Larkin & Co., proprietors, with accommodations for 
260 guests. Watch Hill House, with ample room for many guests, 
is the oldest hotel. Besides these are the Atlantic House, the 
Plympton House, the Ocean House, the Narragansett House, and 
the Bay View House. 

Charlestown and Richmond. 267 

The present town of Ciiarli:stown', which until the year 1738 
was a part of Westerly, comprises the extreme eastern portion of the 
territory which was formerly the home of the ancient and powerful 
tribe of the Niantics. Here, upon Fort Neck, was Ninigret's Fort, 
the historic resting-place of Capt. John Mason and his little band 
of white men, when on their long and dreary march into the Pequot 
country, they halted for one night. Sitting around their council fires 
with the Niantic braves, he persuaded Ninigret to send a band of 
his warriors with him against their ancient enemy. Not far from the 
site of this old fort stands the mansion now owned by Mr. James N. 
Kenyon. It was built by that one of the Ninigrets known as " King 
Tom." Under the influence of the Gospel, he became civilized and 
christianized, and, wishing to live like other civilized men, had this 
house built for his use. The plan of it was brought from England. 

Coronation Rock, in the vicinity, was the scene of the coronation 
of his sister Esther, who succeeded him. This event having taken 
place since the white man settled here, the account of it has been 
transmitted to us. The tribes of which she was the head, although fast 
fading away, still held to the customs of their ancestors, and the cor- 
onation was attended with as much pomp and circumstance as their 
enfeebled condition was able to compass. Esther, escorted by about 
twenty Indian soldiers carrying guns, marched to Coronation Rock, 
where the council of her braves waited to receive her. Surrounded 
by them and by all her subjects, who had assembled to witness the 
pageant, she stood upon the rock, in the sight of the multitude, and 
those nearest to the royal blood placed upon her head the crown. 
It was made of cloth, covered with blue and white peage. (" Peage 
w^as the coin used among the Indians, in the manufacture of which 
the Narragansetts excelled. It was more commonly called " wam- 
pumpeage," or simply " wampum," and was strung upon cord and 
reckoned by the fathom. The w^ord " peage," seems to be precisely 
the Latin ^^peagv" or ^^pcdag-c," from ^^pcs,'' a foot. This latter 
was a toll exacted from foot passengers for their safe conduct. The 
resemblance of the two words is suggestive of that often-recurring 
question of the common origin of the human race."*) As the crown 
rested upon Esther's head, the Indians fired a salute and cheered. 
They then escorted her to her home with great dignity and ceremony, 
and upon leaving her, again saluted her with the firing of guns. Her 
son George, who succeeded her, was the last sovereign who reigned 
over the Niantics, or Narragansetts, as they have been called ever 

268 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

since they placed themselves under the pi^otection of the latter after 
the invasion of their country by the Pequots. The feeble remnant 
of the two tribes whose united sway extended over the whole west- 
ern part of Rhode Island, now occupy a small reservation in the 
centre of Charlestown. They are in a certain way under the juris- 
diction of the State, although they have a government of their own. 
The following extract from a report which appeared in the Provi- 
dence yourual oi Oct. 17, 1866, gives a clear idea of their condition, 
powers and privileges : 

"In 1707 the colonial authorides procured from the chief sachem 
of the Narragansetts, a title deed of all the lands belonging to the 
tribe within the colonial jurisdiction, excepting and reserving a tract 
situate in what is now the town of Charlestown, and by that deed 
the Indians were prohibited from making any further grants of their 
lands without the consent of the General Assembly. The Indians 
contend that the provisions of this grant constituted a treaty between 
the colony and the tribe, and that by the terms to be implied from 
the treaty, the colony bound itself, and consequently the State is now 
bound to preserve to them their tribal jurisdiction, and the right to 
improve and occupy their lands. Whatever may be the true con- 
strucdon of this grant, we cannot believe that it will be seriously con- 
tended that the colony bound itself, or that there is any just pre- 
tence for saying that the State is bound, to preserve to the tribe 
a jurisdiction foreign to and independent of the State ; or that it is 
bound to extend to the members of the tribe any peculiar or special 
privileges not enjoyed by all the inhabitants of the State. 

" The tribe elect their own officers, and are governed by their own 
laws, which embrace their customs and usages as they are gathered 
from tradition. Their council is of annual elecdon, and, subject to 
an undefined supervising power resdng with the General Assembly, 
is the arbiter of all their aflairs. About two thousand acres of their 
tribal lands are Iield by individual members of the tribe as their sep- 
arate estate. Their dUes were derived originally from the tribe, and 
rest upon tradition. The council grant the dUes. Their mode 
of grant is interesdng. The council go with the grantee upon the lot 
proposed to be granted. After the lot is marked out and bounded, , 
the council cut a rod and place it upon the bare head of the grantee, 
and then, while he is upon the land and under the rod, they admin- 
ister to him a solemn oath of allegiance to the tribal authority. This 
mode of investiture of dtle bears considerable analogy to the old 

Charlestown and Richmond. 


common-law livrrv of siczoi, c\\u\ 

if this Indian custom antedates the 

landing of the Pilgrims, it might 

be suggested that there is a possi- 
bility that there was a community 

of origin in the two modes of grant. 

The individual lands of the tribe 

cannot be alienated without the 

consent of the General Assembly ; 

they descend to the heir upon the 

decease of the holder, subject, 

however, to the right of occupancy 

in the next of kin who remains with 

the tribe, the possession, however, 

to be restored to the heir when he 

returns to the tribal jurisdiction ; 

but should the owner die in debt 

to the tribe, the council let or im- 
prove the lands, or sell the wood 

from them to pay the debts due to 

the tribe, and when these are paid, 

they surrender the lands to the heir or the holder entitled to possess 

them. The tribe maintain their poor, and support public worship : 
and the State supports their school. The tribe numbers fifty-eight 
males and seventy-five females ; in all, 133. They own in all about 
3,000 acres of land in the centre of the town of Charlestown." 

The " public worship" referred to in the above report, dates from 
1750. The Great Revival numbered among its converts several 
Indians. At first they \vorshiped with the Presbyterians, but 
becoming dissatisfied with the ceremonials of that body, withdrew, 
and under the leadership of Samuel Nlles, an "Indian exhorter," 
formed a new society. The faith which these simple red men exhib- 
ited is beautifully illustrated by an incident related upon good author- 
ity by the Rev. F. Denison : 

" In a time of severe drought, when their gardens and fields were 
withering and dying, the devout who had faith in prayer, made an 
appointment and met in their meeting-house to pray for rain. With 
one heart they united in their humble, earnest, trusting petitions. No 
sooner had they commenced praying than a Httle cloud, the size of 
an apron, was seen in the southwest, that steadily drew near and 

Christ Church, Westerly. 

270 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

increased in volume, till it came over the settlement and poured down 
its water on the thirsty earth. Said one of the praying Indians, ' We 
had a glorious shower, and went home dripping and praising God.'" 

The house which the society occupied from the middle of the 
last century was replaced in i860 by the stone one of the present 
time. The church began its career as a New-Light Baptist, but it 
has been shaken by many winds of doctrine. It has been described 
as being at present " a Free-Will Baptist Church in a weak condi- 
don, agitated by Advent doctrines, and conspicuous chiefly for its 
annual mass-meetings in August, after an old Indian custom." 

Of Indian burying-grounds several exist within the original limits 
of the town of Westerly. Many of them are small and obscure, and 
only to be traced by relics occasionally turned up by the plow. The 
royal burying-ground, known to be the most ancient, is situated in 
Charlestown, about a mile north of Cross' Mills. Undoubtedly the 
imaginadon which could picture the dead warrior as roaming over 
the happy hundng-grounds with his dog and his gun, would also 
suggest that his body would rest more peacefully in a pleasant spot 
than on a barren and stony hill-side, far from all pleasant sights and 
sounds. Whether it was their materialisdc ideas of death and the 
hereafter or not which influenced them in the selection of this ground, 
they chose a picturesque place for their purpose. On a plateau ele- 
vated some fifteen feet above the surrounding high lands, with a 
pretty sheet of water at the south, and overlooking the sea, lie the 
remains of the kings, queens, and other members of the royal family 
of the Narragansetts. Their resdng-places are marked by mounds, 
which are identified only by tradition. 

In the year 1859 ^ P^^'^Y visited this ancient cemetery and opened 
a grave, which proved to be that of a sachem. The body had been 
enclosed in a coffin made of two logs, split, and kept in shape by 
heavy bands of iron. At one end was a brass kettle and at the other 
an iron one. Various smaller relics were found and exhibited as 
curiosides. Some of the tribe, indignant at this act of vandalism, 
arraigned the guilty persons, but upon trial before an enlightened 
court of their peers, they were honorably acquitted. Encouraged by 
this judgment, others committed like acts, and many relics were 
obtained in a manner, which, if pracdced upon our own dead, would 
fill every one with horror at its profanity. 

The burial-place of the Ninigrets is at Fort Neck, and is of more 
recent date than this of the Narragansetts. 



Seventh-Day Baptist Cni-rcr,, Woslerly. 

Of Indian relics which 
one may legitimately see, 
one remains upon the 
land owned by Mr. Oliver 
D. Clarke. It is a sta- 
tionary mortar, of which 
several are to be found 
in the adjoining town of 
Richmond. This is the 
largest in the vicinity, 
and is hollowed out of a 
boulder weighing about 
two tons, on the margin 
of Charlestown Pond. It 
measures three feet in 
diameter and is tifteen 
inches deep. As its name 
signifies, it was used by 
the aboricjines for crush- 
ing corn and seeds. 

In the early days of this settlement planters held great estates. 
"The great estate of the Champlins " consisted of 2,000 acres. Of 
Joseph Stanton it is recorded that he " owned a lordship in Charles- 
town." lie was descended from Thomas Stanton, the Indian inter- 
preter, who, a generadon earlier, had a trading house upon the 
Pawcatuck, where he received furs from the Indians. A Narragan- 
sett princess had been captured by the Manisses in one of their 
inter-tribal wars, and carried ofl' to their home on the island which 
then bore their name, but which is now known as Block Island. The 
number of fathoms of wampum which they demanded for her ransom 
was so great that her people could not obtain it among themselves. 
They therefore applied to Mr. Stanton, who had become rich by 
his trade in furs, and who had great quantises of it. Mr. Stanton 
gave his assistance promptly, and the princess was restored to her 
people. In gratitude to Mr. Stanton for his aid at this crisis, the 
Indian authorities gave him this tract of land. Mis third son, Joseph, 
setded upon it. From him descended the Rhode Island branch of 
the Stanton family. He was one of the first United States Senators 
under the Constitution, and sat in the upper house of Congress from 
1790 to 1793. He afterwards represented the town in the national 
assembly from 1801 until 1807. 

272 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

The Rev. Dr. McSparran, whose name is very familiar to read- 
ers of the early church history of Rhode Island, was sent as a mis- 
sionary into the Narragansett country by the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel, in the year 1721. The centre of his extensive 
parish was at South Kingstown. In his volume, America Dis- 
sected, which he wrote just before his second visit to England, he 
says, " By my excursions and out labors, a church is built twenty- 
five miles to the westward of me, but not now under my care." This 
was the first Episcopal Church in Charlestown, and stood upon 
ground given by George Ninigret, "Chief Sachem and Prince" of 
the Indians of that region, " for the benefit of the Church of England 
in Charlestown and Westerly." The deed conveys a tract of land 
forty acres in extent, in consideration of the sum of five shillings. 
The existence of this church was of short duration. 

Until the year 1747, Charlestown extended as far north as the 
southern boundary of Exeter. In that year all that part of the for- 
mer town which lay north of the Pawcatuck River was erected into 
a new township and received the name of Richmond. The tradition 
of a terrible Indian battle which took place at the dividing line of 
these two towns has been handed down with the greatest care, but it 
possesses all the vagueness which must accompany such a mode of 
transmission. Neither the date nor anything like full particulars of 
the event are known. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that the affair 
really happened. The exact spot is still pointed out where the san- 
guinary contest took place, near Shannock Ford, now Shannock 
Mills. Nothing except the fact of a fight is certainly known, 
although it is reasonable to adopt the commonly received supposition 
that it grew out of a dispute concerning the right to fish at that point. 
Even at the present day, the plow occasionally brings to light the 
bones and warlike implements of the slaughtered hosts. 

Shannock " is an Indian name, and means ' squirrel.'" It is applied 
not only to the ford and tails, but also to the hills in the southeastern 
part of the town, in whose primitive forests large numbers of squirrels 
made their home. During the "hard winter" of 1740-41, a great 
many of these little creatures were found dead, having perished from 

Charlestown is not to be regarded as a manufacturing town ; 
many of its citizens, however, and much of its capital are interested 
in cotton and woolen mills in Richmond, which contains several man- 
ufacturing villages. Of these, Carolina Mills, named in honor of 

Charlestown and Richmond. 


the wife of its founder, Mr. R. G. Hazard, possesses some interest 
because of the fact that at the time of the Rebellion, or soon after, a 
college or school for freedmen existed here for a short time. 

The Dixon House, Westerly. 

The early records of Richmond show that its inhabitants took 
prompt measures to bear their share of the danger and expense which 
fell upon the colonies during the disastrous French and Indian wars. 
They do not, however, appear to have shown any undue haste in 

Watch Hill Light. 

proffering their assistance in the struggle for independence, although 
it is but just to say that when they did cast in their lot with the 
patriots thev did it heartily. Their first record in support of the 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

war bears date of June 4, 1776, more than a 3'ear after the first blood 
was shed at Lexington, and just one month before the adoption of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

At the close of the Revolution, when the present Constitution of 
the United States was submitted to the colonies for approval or rejec- 
tion, Rhode Island was the last one to give in her adherence to it. 
In the town of Richmond, the discussion over its adoption resulted in. 
a vote of sixty-eight to one against it. The brave man who dared to 
make a stand against such an overwhelming majority was Jonathan 
jNIaxson. It is a satisfaction to know that he lived to see the decision 
reversed, and Rhode Island take her place "last" — it would be 
pleasant to feel that the rest of the quotation was equally applicable, 
but every one knows that it is also the least — among the sisterhood 
of States. 

An Indian Burial-Ground, Charlestown. 



^AITIGGONSIK, 24 July, 1679 {iit vulgo.) 

I, "I, Roger Wjlljams of Providence in ye Nahig- 
gonsik bay in N. Engl, being (by God's mersie) ye 
£SJ first beginner of ye mother Towne of Providence and 
of ye Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Planta- 
tions being now neere to Foure Score years of age. 
Yet (by God's mersie) of sound understanding and 
memorie ; doe humbly and faithfully declare yt Mr. 
Richard Smith Sen., who for his conscience to God 
left faire Possessions in Gloster Shire and adventured 
with his Relations and Estate to N. Engl, and was a 
most acceptable Inhabitant and prime leading man in Taunton in 
Plymouth Colony. For his conscience sake (many differences aris- 
ing) he left Taunton and came to ye Nahiggonsik Country where by 
God's mersie and ye fave of ye Nahiggonsik Sachems he broke ye 
Ice (at his great Charge and Hazards) and put up in ye thickest of 
ye Barbarians ye first English House amongst them. 

II. " I humbly testifie yt about forty years (from this date) he 
kept Possession Comming and going himselfe children and servants 
and he had quiet Possession of his Howsing, Lands and medow, and 
there in his own house with much serenity of soule and comfort he 
yielded up his spirit to God ye Father of Spirits in Peace." 

Thus the great founder of Rhode Island " as leaving this country 

276 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

and this world," gave his testimony in favor of Richard Smith's title 
to his lands in the Narragansett Country. Never a claim to land in 
New England was involved in greater uncertainty than this. The 
fight for its possession lasted long after Roger Williams had been 
placed in his grave. All the surrounding colonies became gradually 
involved in it, and for a while the country was erected into an inde- 
pendent jurisdiction under the name of King's Province, until judg- 
ment could be had from the Royal Court of Great Britain. The 
decree which finally confirmed it to Rhode Island, has by some wri- 
ters been supposed to have saved that little colony from being entirely 
absorbed by Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

The Indians, as well as the white men, realized that the land was 
well worth fighting for. Many were the traditions of long-continued, 
wars and bloody conflicts his Indian neighbors had to tell, when 
Richard Smith settled at Wickford in the year of our Lord 1639. A 
few of these traditions have been handed down even to our own times. 
Some of them have been narrated in the pages of this book, but by 
far the greater portion perished with those whose ancestors had par- 
ticipated in the encounters they related. Of the last great combat in 
the Narragansett Country, a well-authenticated account has been pre- 
served. It was fought, not between two tribes of savages, but be- 
tween the savages on the one side and the English on the other ; and 
yet the atrocity which crowned the success of the victorious party is 
much more horrible than any that was commemorated in the vague 
traditions of the heathen aborigines. 

On the nineteenth day of December, 1675, six months after 
Philip's War had begun its course of devastation, a large body of Nar- 
ragansett Indians were resting in fancied security within the walls of 
their great stronghold. The fortress was situated on some rising 
ground in the centre of a dense swamp in what is now the town of 
South Kingstown. The position would have been deemed an unusu- 
ally strong one, even by those deeply skilled in the art of civilized 
warfare. To the Indians, accustomed only to the hastily-contrived 
refuges of colonial days, it seemed impregnable. An impenetrable 
hedge surrounded it ; it was fortified by palisade and breast-work 
constructed with unusual art, and its one narrow entrance was entirely 
commanded by the loop-holes of a neighboring block-house. Five 
hundred wigwams there were within its walls. Into them almost all 
the grain and the other provisions the tribe had laid up for the winter 
had been carried. Thus the ordinarily thin walls had been made 

North and South Kingstown, 


The Court Hou.. 

thick enough not only to furnish a perfect protection from the 
piercing winter winds, but to be bullet-proof as well. Not alone 
was the fort thronged with warriors. The wigwams were filled with 
old men, with w^omen and with children, w^ho had flocked into the 
place as to the one stronghold their white enemies could not pos- 
sibly capture. 

The force that was to attempt its reduction was made up of troops 
from Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut ; in all, thirteen com- 
panies of infantry and one troop of cavalry. Governor Winslow, of 
Plymouth, was its commander. Some Rhode Island soldiers accom- 
panied the expedition as volunteers, but Rhode Island, as a colony, 
was allowed no part in the war. " To the confederated Puritans, 
heathens and heretics were classed together as beneath the regard of 
Christian fellowship." 

The English troops reached the borders of the swamp at about 
one o'clock in the afternoon, fatigued and disheartened by a long 
march of fifteen miles over a very rough countr3% through deep drifts 
of snow. A renegade Indian w\as found to conduct them to the one 
entrance to the fort. At the first attempt to cross the narrow bridge, 
so murderous a fire was poured out from the block-house that six 
captains and a very large number of the soldiers sank before it. But 

278 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

with the death of their comrades, weariness for a time fled away 
from the limbs of the survivors, and an insane desire for vengeance 
took possession of every heart. " Over the mangled corpses of their 
comrades, the desperate assai-lants climbed the logs and breastworks 
to effect an entrance. The struggle on either side was one for life. 
Whichever party triumphed, there was no hope of quarter to the 
vanquished. Christian and savage fought alike with the fury of 
fiends, and the sanctity of a New England Sabbath was broken by 
the yells of conflict, the roar of musketry, the clash of steel, and all 
the demoniac passions which make a battle-ground an earthly hell. 
It was the great conflict of New England. A century was to roll by 
before the sons of the Puritans were again to witness upon their own 
soil so fierce a struggle." 

For three hours the Indians held their assailants in check. At 
one time, indeed, it seemed likely that they would succeed in beating 
them back. All at once the exulting warriors were stricken down 
by a withering fire poured upon them from behind. Some of the 
Connecticut troops, crossing over the frozen trenches, had succeeded 
in breaking through the barricades when there were none to oppose 
them, and had entered the fort. 

After that the fight was quickly turned into a massacre. The 
Indians with desperate valor continued to wage the combat, but their 
powder was long since exhausted, and even their stock of arrows 
began to fail them. At last the torch of an infuriated soldier was 
applied to one of the wigwams. Despitp the earnest protest of 
Capt. Benjamin Church, whose humane spirit revolted at the need- 
less cruelty, and whose military forecast plainly discerned the exceed- 
ing folly of the act, a hundred others were immediately set on fire, and 
the doom of the Narragansetts was sealed. When the curtain of 
night was mercifully drawn over the scene the fort was only a smoul- 
dering ruin, the sickening stench from hundreds of half-consumed 
corpses marked where its wigwams had been. Almost all of the 
women and children perished amid those terrible flames. Only the 
more active of the Indians escaped to the neighboring swamp, and 
there, in the bitter cold of the night which followed, many of them 
lay down to die from the combined effects of exposure and of weari- 

In October, 1674, just before King Philip's War, and a generation 
after Richard Smith had taken up his abode within its borders. King's 
Townc was incorporated. It thus became the seventh town in the 

North and South Kingstown. 


colony of Rhode Island, altiiough in point of fact it was probably 
the third settlement. In 1679 the incorporation was reallirmed. Dur- 
ing the years of the " usurpation " of Sir Edmund Andros, the name 
King's Towne was changed to Rochester, but with his deposition 
the old name was resumed. In 1722 the town was divided into 
North and South Kingstown, the act of the Legislature providing 
that North Kingstown should be considered the elder town. 

The Congregational Church, Peacedale. 

Four years later the title to the Narragansett Country, which had 
been so long held in dispute, was finally confirmed by the king to 
Rhode Island, and from that time forward, until the breaking out of 
the Revolutionary War, prosperity attended the fortunes of its 

The tract of country Richard Smith secured from the Indians 
was almost nine miles long by three miles wide, large enough, one 
would suppose, to comfort him for the loss of the " faire posses- 
sions " he had left in his native Gloster Shire. A considerable portion 
of this land was not at first sqld outright, but was simply leased — 
for a thousand years. Before the lease had been a long time in 
force Mr. Smith was prudent enough to secure a cjuit-claim deed to 
the territory it covered. 

Like the first settler in -the fair King's Province, his successors of 
a century later were also men of great wealth and large landed pos- 
sessions. Farms of fifteen hundred acres were verv common. The 

28o Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ordinary farms contained three hundred acres. " They were im- 
proved by slaves and laboring Indians. The slaves and horses were 
about equal in number." Douglass, in a summary, printed in 1760, 
says of the Rhode Island Colony : " It is noted for its dairies, whence 
the best of cheese made in any part of New England, is called 
abroad Rhode Island cheese. The most considerable farms are in 
the Narragansett Country. Their highest dairy of one farm, com- 
nnmibus annis, milks about one hundred and ten cows, cuts two 
hundred loads of hay, makes about thirteen thousand pounds of 
cheese, besides butter, and sells oft' considerable in calves and fatted 

Very charming is the account that Updike, in his Narragansett 
Church, gives of those halcyon days : " Ancient Narragansett was 
distinguished for its frank and generous hospitahty. Strangers and 
travehng gentlemen were always received and entertained as guests. 
If not acquainted with some family, they were introduced by letter, 
and an acquaintance with one family of respectability was an intro- 
duction to all their friends. Public houses for the entertainment of 
strangers were rare." The landed aristocracy showed a proper 
sense of the value of educadon. For the instruction of their children 
the very best tutors possible were employed. In the families of 
AlHson, the learned Irish clergyman, of Dr. McSparran, of Wick- 
ford, and of Dr. Checkley, the minister at Providence (and an Ox- 
ford graduate), many of the sons of Narragansett were educated. 
"Festivity was the natural outcome of a hfe of wealth and leisure. 
Excursions to Hartford, to luxuriate on bloated salmon, were the 
annual indulgencies of May. Pace races on the beach, for the prize 
of a silver tankard, and roasts of shelled and scaled fish were the social 
indulgencies of summer. When autumn arrived the corn-huskingies- 
ttvals commenced. Large numbers would be gathered of both sexes ; 
expensive entertainments prepared, and after the repast the recreation 
of dancing commenced . . . the gentlemen in their scarlet cloaks 
and swords, with laced ruffles over their hands, hair turned back 
from the forehead and curled and frizzled, clubbed or queued behind, 
highly powdered and pomatumed, small-clothes, silk stockings, and 
shoes ornamented with brilliant buckles ; and ladies dressed in brocade, 
cushioned head-dresses, and high-heeled shoes, performed the formal 
minuet, with its thirty-six different positions and changes ... At 
Christmas commenced the Holy days. The work of the season was 
completed and done up, and the twelve days were generally devoted 

North and South Kingstown. 


to festive associations. Every gentleman of estate had his circle of 
connections, friends, and acquaintances, and they were invited from 
one plantation to another. Every member of the fi^mily had his 
particular horse and servant, and they rarely rode unattended by their 

A Bit of Wickford. 

servant, to open i^ates and to take charge of the horse. Carriages 
were unknown . . . The fox-chase, with hounds and horns, 
fishing and fowling, were objects of enchanting recreation. Such 
were the amusements, pastimes, festivities and galas of Ancient Nar- 

A very easy life the slaves of Narragansett led in those days. 
They assumed among themselves the power and the rank of their mas- 
ters, and many of their amusements were borrowed from the domi- 
nant race. Every year, on the third Saturday in June, they elected a 
governor, and the electioneering expenses were comparatively more 
expensive than those of the gubernatorial elections in Rhode Island 
of to-day are supposed to be. The masters of the respective candi- 
dates paid all the election expenses. It is told of the late E. R. 
Potter that after one of these elections he summoned his servant, the 
governor for that year, to him and announced that one of the two 
must give up politics or both would be ruined. On election-day the 
horses upon the plantations were all surrendered to the use of the 
colored servants. The election proper commenced at ten o'clock, 
though, of course, many weeks before had been devoted to election- 
eering {farmatccring, i. e., parlia-menteering, the negroes called it.) 
At that time tables would be spread and loaded with various refresh- 
ments. Of these viands all the friends of the candidates were 

282 Picturesque Rhode Islajs'd. 

invited to partake, and at one o'clock the vote was taken. The friends 
of the respective candidates were ranged in two lines under the direc- 
tion of a chief marshal, and no one was allowed to change sides 
until the vote was counted. Then the marshal announced the result, 
and proclaimed the victor governor for the 3^ear. A " treat," as ex- 
tensive as the means of the master permitted, followed the election. 
As the number of slaves decreased these elections became more and 
more rare. About the year 1800 they ceased to be held. 

A century and a half ago a very considerable trade was carried 
on between the planters of the King's Province and those of the 
West India Islands. Great numbers of a famous breed of horses, 
the " Narragansett Pacers," were exported at that time. Dr. 
McSparran, in his America Dissected, termed these horses " the 
best in the world." " I have often," said he, " rode fifty, nay, sixty 
miles a day, even here in New England, where the roads are rough, 
stony and uneven." In another place he writes : " I have seen 
some of them pace a mile in little more than two minutes, a good 
deal less than three." The motion of these horses is described as 
differing from all others, in that " the back-bone moved through the 
air in a straight line, without inclining the rider from side to side 
as the common racker or pacer of the present day." The pacers 
were of great power and endurance, although small in size, like the 
mustangs of the western plains. They could easily perform journeys 
of one hundred miles in a day, if .properly cared for. Like the 
mustangs, they were of Spanish origin, having been introduced into 
Rhode Island from Andalusia. By the Narragansett planters they 
were raised in great numbers for the Cuban market. One gentleman 
raised about a hundred each year upon his estate, and often sent in 
one season two cargoes of them to the West Indies. The breed is 
now extinct. Before the Revolution, the pacers became so much 
sought after in Cuba, that all the better animals were shipped thither. 
Thus it happened that when the war broke out only inferior horses 
were left upon the farms. During the war a taste sprang up for 
trotting-horses. Most of the great landed proprietors were ruined 
by the contest, and no care was afterward taken to restore the pacer 
to the place he had once held in the popular esteem. 

The Dr. McSparran whose name has been several times men- 
tioned in this chapter, was an Irishman, born of Scotch parents in 
the County of Derry. He came to America in June, 17 18, as a 
licentiate of the Presbytery in Scodand. Shortly after his arrival in 

North and South Kingstown. 283 

Boston he went to Bristol to visit one of his relatives who was re- 
siding in that town. The pulpit of the Bristol church (Bristol was 
then a town of Massachusetts, and its church was of the '"standing 
order") was vacant at the time, and in it the young Irisiiman was 
invited to preach upon the Sunday following. His wonderful oratory 
made such an impression upon his hearers that he was shortly after- 
ward invited to settle in the town as its pastor. This invitation 
having been accepted, a dav was set apart for his ordination. Mr. 
McSparran was not destined to become the pastor of the Bristol 
church. Although he liad been in America but a short time, he 
had yet managed to draw upon himself the implacable hatred of the 
Rev. Dr. Mather, of Boston. No sooner had he accepted the call to 
Bristol, than Dr. Mather wrote to the people, "by no means to 
settle him." Very soon the air of the little town was full of the most 
scandalous reports concerning the pastor-elect. 

Never since that time have the people of Bristol been so bitterly 
stirred up. Mr.- McSparran bravely faced his accusers, and soon 
showed that he was innocent of the charges brought against him. 
A second day was set apart for his ordination, and a second time Dr. 
Mather interfered to prevent it. The ferment was greater than 
before, and its result is a curious commentary upon the times. Tiie 
young minister offered to go to Ireland to procure a confirmation of 
his credentials, the genuineness of which had been called in ques- 
tion. He went, but he never come back to the Congregational 
Church. Somewhat less than a year from that time he was admitted 
to the priesthood by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and on the 23d 
of October, 1720, he was commissioned by the " Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," its missionary "to Nar- 
ragansett in New England, who is to officiate as opportunity shall 
offer, at Bristol, Freetown, Swansey, and Little Compton, where 
there are many people, members of the Church of England, destitute 
of a minister." 

The life of Dr. McSparran in Narragansett furnished the best pos- 
sible answer to the accusations that had been brought against him 
in Bristol. Long and useful it was, and its years of usefu-lness were 
entirely blameless. Never in the slightest degree was the good name 
of the missionary seared by any breath of scandal. With his change 
in religious belief he had taken away from Dr. Mather the power to 
influence his career in America, and the stern old partisan from that 
time forward troubled him no more. Mr. McSparran continued from 

284 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

1721 until his death in 1757 to be the missionary of the " Propaga- 
tion Society," and the rector of St. Paul's Church, Narragansett. 
In 1 73 1 he received the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology from 
the University of Oxford, an honor more unusual in those days than 
at present. In 1868, by authority of the diocese of Rhode Island, a 
monument was erected to his memory in the old church-yard of 
North Kingstown. His portrait is still preserved in the cabinet of 
the Rhode Island Historical Society. 

The old church in which Dr. McSparran officiated for so many 
years was, in 1800, removed from the spot upon which it was erected 
(in 1707), and carried to Wickford, then a large and prosperous 
village. In 1847 it had become unfit for further use, and was conse- 
quently abandoned. Battered by the storms of more than a century 
and a half, and shorn of its olden comeliness, it is yet standing, the 
oldest Episcopal church in New England. Sometimes, in the plea- 
sant days of summer, the doors of the old building are opened, and 
the people of the parish again assemble to worship within it ; but the 
quaint structure, with its old-fashioned arrangement of pulpit, pews, 
and gallery, belongs to the past and not to the present, and it seems 
almost a desecration to expose the aged walls, that are hallowed by 
so many precious associations, to the carelessly-curious gaze of a 
nineteenth century congregation. 

The story of the "Unfortunate Hannah Robinson" was one very 
famihar to the people of Narragansett half a century ago. She was 
the most celebrated beauty of her day ; as gende and as accomplished 
as she was beautiful, her praises were daily upon the lips of all who 
knew her. A young gentleman of Newport with whom she had 
been acquainted from childhood, and who was in every way worthy of 
her love, became greatly attached to her. His affection was recip- 
rocated, but from some unknown reason the father of the young lady 
refused his consent to their marriage. Mr. Robinson was harsh, and 
stern, and unyielding. When he had once made up his mind respect- 
ing his course of conduct neither entreaties nor arguments could 
move him from it in the slightest degree. He adopted the most vio- 
lent and unreasonable measures to prevent the, to him, hateful union. 
The conduct of his daughter was " constantly subjected to the strict- 
est scrutiny ; if she walked her movements were watched ; if she 
rode a servant was ordered to be in constant attendance ; if a visit 
was contemplated, he immediately suspected it was only a pretence 
for an arranged interview ; and even after departure, if the most 

North and South Kingstown. 


ss-ST'^— =^^ 

The Site of the Old Swamp Fort, South Kingstown. 

trilling circumstance gave color to the suspicion, he would immedi- 
ately pursue and compel her to return. In one instance she left home 
to visit her aunt at New London ; her father soon afterwards dis- 
covered from his windows a vessel leaving Newport and taking a 
course for the same place. Although the vessel and the persons on 
board were entirely unknown to him, his jealousies were immediately 
aroused, coni'ecturing it was Mr. Simons, intending to fulfd an ar- 
rangement previously made. He hastened to New London, arrived 
a few hours only after his daughter, and insisted upon her immediate 

The obstacles Mr. Robinson threw in the way of the lovers only 
served to strengthen their attachment for each other. His daughter, 
though entirely unlike him in other respects, yet showed his steady 
determination in this, the great crisis of her life. Her maternal uncle, 
sympathizing with her in her misfortunes, and knowing well that her 
resolution could not be broken down by any measures of her father, 
however tyrannical they might be, contrived at his house meetings 
between the young lady and Mr. Simons. These interviews were 
fraught with exceeding peril. For such was Mr. Robinson's ungov- 
ernable temper, thai he would undoubtedly have killed the man to 

286 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

whom his daughter was so deeply attached, had he discovered them 

At last the unhappy maiden, seeing no prospect of ever reconcil- 
ing her father to her marriage, consented to make arrangements for 
an elopement. " Having obtained her fathers consent to visit her 
Aunt Updike, near Wickford, she left home, accompanied by the 
servant who usually attended her. On arriving at the gate that led 
to her aunt's house, Mr. Simons was in waiting with a carriage, as 
had been previously arranged, and, disregarding the expostulations 
of the servent, who feared for his own safety should he return with- 
out her, she entered the carriage, and that evening they were 
married in Providence. The intelligence of the elopement, when 
communicated to Mr. Robinson by the servant, roused all the fury 
of his ire. He offered a reward for their apprehension, but no dis- 
covery could be made. Every friend and relative became accessory 
to their concealment. Even the name of the clergyman who per- 
formed the nuptial ceremony could never be ascertained." 

"But the anticipated happiness of the beautiful and ill-fated lady 
was destined to be short lived. The severity with which she had 
been treated, the unkind and harassing perplexities she had endured, 
had so materially affected her health and preyed upon her constitu- 
tion, that in a few short months the fairest of her sex exhibited evi- 
dent symptoms of a speedy decHne. At the urgent solicitations of her 
mother, Mr. Robinson finally permitted the daughter once more to 
return ; but it was too late : the ceaseless vigils of a mother's love 
could not restore her ; and in a few short weeks, this beautiful and 
unfortunate woman — the victim of a father's relentless obstinacy — 
expired in the arms of her husband." 

An English embassador, about to leave his native country upon a 
foreign journey, called one day at the ,studio of the famous painter, 
Benjamin West. " I am going abroad," said he, "and wish to have 
my portrait painted — what artist would you recommend?" 

"Where are you going?" asked Mr. West. "To the United 
States," was the answer. "Then, sir," said Mr. West, with great 
emphasis, "you will find there the best portrait painter in the world, 
and his name is Gilbert Stuart." 

Gilbert Charles Stuart was born in what is now North Kingstown, 
in a gambrel-roofed house, not far from the head of Pettiquamscutt 
River. His father, Gilbert Stuart, was a Scotchman, brought over 
from Glasgow by Dr. Moffat, to build a snuff-mill upon his mill 

North and South Kingstown. 


stream. The mill which the fiither built was th_e first of its kind in 
New England, and was a very profitable investment tor its owner. Gil- 
bert Charles Stuart was the younsrest child of the Scotch millwright. 
Ilis middle name, Charles, was due to the Jacobite principles of his 
sire. Stuart never used it after he had grown to manhood. He was 
about thirteen years old when he began to display his artistic talents. 
Cosmo Alexander, a Scotch gendeman who was ostensibly a painter, 
but was surmised to have come to America upon a political mission. 

Hazard's Castle, Narragansett Pier. 

was his first instructor. With Mr. Alexander young Stuart made a 
tour of the Southern Colonies, and also went to Scotland. He after- 
ward studied for a time in London with Benjamin West, the great 
historical painter of the day. The earlier years of his life as an 
artist were years of struggle, but after all his genius was not long in 
making itself felt. 

When he had achieved a wonderful reputation, and was living in 
a style of unusual splendor in Great Britain, lie suddenly refused 
any new engagements in England, and came back to his native 
country. " His great ambidon was to paint Washington ; it overcame 
all other entreades, and seems to have been the great object of his 
mind." One of his best portraits of the great President hangs to-day 
in the State House at Newport. 

288 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Mr. Stuart was not only a wonderful artist, but a man of varied 
accomplishments, and of remarkable conversational powers. When 
he first went to London, his unusual musical abilities secured for him 
the position of organist in one of the churches, and the means of pur- 
suing his studies as a painter. The anecdotes that have been pre- 
sented respecting him would fill many pages. 

" He was traveling in England in a stage-coach with some gen- 
tlemen who were strangers to him, but all were sociable and lively. 
The party stopped to dine at an inn, and after dinner, the conversa- 
tion being animated and various, Stuart became conspicuous in it, 
not only for his wit and humor, but for his correct judgment, rapid 
thought, and apt phrases. The curiosity of his companions was 
aroused, and with Yankee-like inquisitiveness, they desired to know 
who and what he was. 

Mr. Stuart, with a grave face and in a serious tone of voice, rephed 
that he sometimes dressed gentlemen's and ladies' hair. " Oh ! 3^ou 
are a hairdresser, then," returned one of the company, with a some- 
what derogatory stare. "What ! do I look like a barber?" demanded 
the incognito artist, sternly. " I beg your pardon, sir," replied the 
subdued cockney ; " but I inferred it from what you said. If I mis- 
took you, may I take the hberty to inquire what you are, then?" 

" Why, sometimes I brush a gentleman's coat or hat, and adjust 
his cravat." "Oh ! you are a valet, then, to some nobleman." " A 
valet!" retorted Stuart, with mock indignation; "indeed, sir, I am 
not. I am not a servant. To be sure I make coats and waistcoats 
for gentlemen." "Ah! you are a tailor !" "Tailor! do you take 
me for a tailor? I'll assure you I never handled a goose, other than 
a roasted one." 

By this time the joke was beginning to be fully appreciated, and 
the whole company were in a roar of laughter. " What in the world 
are you, then?" demanded another gentleman, taking up the office of 
interlocutor. " I will tell you," said Stuart, with great apparent sin- 
cerity ; " be assured all I have told you is strictly true. I dress hair, 
brush hats and coats, adjust cravats, and make coats, waistcoats and 
breeches, and likewise boots and shoes, at your service.'" " Oho, a 
boot and shoe maker, after all," contemptuously returned the ques- 
tioner. "Guess again, gentlemen," continued Stuart, good humor- 
edly. "I never handled boot or shoe but for my own feet or legs; 
yet all I have told you is true." " We may as well give up guessing ; 
it is of no use." 

North and Sorni Kincjstown. 


ite, Narrapansett Pier. 

The fun-loving 
painter, checking his 
own laughter, which 
was on the point of 
bursting forth, and 
stimulatincr a fresh 
flow of spirits by a 
huge pinch of snull". 
said, gravely, as if 
bringing the matter 
to a satisfactory con- 
clusion, " Now, gen- 
tlemen, I will not 
play the fool with 
you any longer, but 
will tell you, upon 
mv honor as a gen- 
tleman, my bona fdc 
profession. I get my 

bread by making faces." He then screwed up his countenance and 
twisted his features in a manner the most skillful clown might have 
envied. When the loud peals of laughter had subsided, the com- 
pany with one accord declared that they " had all the while sus- 
pected that the gentleman belonged to the theatre ;" '' they all knew 
he must be a comedian by profession." But when Stuart informed 
them that he never was on the stage, and very rarely inside of a 
play-house, their chagrin and astonishment equaled their previous 

•' Gentlemen," said Stuart to his companions, as he was about to 
leave them, "you will find all I have said in regard to my various 
employments is comprised in these few words : I am a portrait painter. 
If you will call upon me at York Buildings, London, I shall be ready 
and willing to brush you a coat or hat, dress your hair a la modc^ 
supply you, if in need, with a wig of any fashion or dimensions, 
accommodate you with boots or shoes, give you ruffles or cravats, and 
make faces for you." 

While taking a parting glass at the inn, he was asked in what 
part of England he was born. He told them he was not born in 
England, Scotland, Ireland, or Wales. "Where, then?" persisted 
the English Yankees. " I was born in Narragansett," replied 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Bathing Scene, Narragansett Pier 

Stuart. "And 
where is that? " 
" Six miles from 
Pottawoom, and ten 
from Poppasquash, 
and about four miles 
west of Conanicut, 
and not far from the 
spot where the fam- 
ous battle with the 
warlike Pequots was 
fought," was the in- 
stant reply. " In 
what part of the East Indies is that, sir? " inquired a pompous Eng- 
lishman. " East Indies, my dear sir I It is in the State of Rhode 
Island, between Massachusetts and the Connecticut River." And 
with this novel lesson in geograph3s Gilbert Stuart took leave of 
his traveling companions. 

Narragansett Pier, in the town of South Kingstown, has within a 
few years become a noted summer resort. Tourists sometimes call 
it " a city of hotels." Many of its buildings are large and commodi- 
ous structures, furnished with " all the modern conveniences," and 
placed in positions chosen for their " prospect far and wide over the 
sea." These are some of the leading hotels, and the number of 
guests each will accommodate : The Atwood House, James A. 
Tucker, proprietor, 150 guests;, the Revere House, James H. 
Rodman, 125 guests : Adantic House, Abijah Browning, 100 guests ; 
Massasoit House, N. G. Burr, 150 guests; Elmwood House, 
F. P. W. Tefft, 125 guests; Metatoxet House, J. H. Caswell, 100 
guests; Narragansett House, E. S. Taylor, 50 guests. Besides 
these are the Mount Hope House, the Condnental Hotel, the 
Mathewson House, the Delevan House, the Hotel Columbus, the 
Tower Hill House, the Ocean House, the Sea View House, the 
Congdon House, and the Whalley House. 

Jamestown. — In the days before any Europeans had settled 
upon the shores of Narragansett Bay, Canonicus, the great sachem 
of the Narragansetts, had his royal residence on the island of Conan- 
icut. He ruled over all the tribes from the borders of Connecticut to 
Cape Cod, and was " a wise and peaceful prince, aiming to advance 




his race in the arts of civilized life, even before any contact with the 
English had made them acquainted with the means and appliances 
of civilization. When conquest had secured his kingdom, war was 
laid aside ; commerce and manufactures — limited and rude to be sure 
— were encouraged, and the Narragansetts became rich as well as 
strong, spreading the knowledge of their language and the customs of 
their tribe over a region of more than six hundred miles in extent." 
In his dominions the settlers of Rhode Island found a refuge from the 
oppression of their own countrymen. By the Indian chief they 
were always treated with kindness, and from him they received many 
grants of land. The jealousy engendered among the other colonies 
by his treatment of tiiese " exiles for conscience sake,"" was a princi- 

Narragansett Pier. 

pal cause of the subsequent misfortunes of his family and nation. 
He died in June, 1647. 

When Aquidneck was purchased from the Indians, only theg-rass 
upon the neighboring islands was conveyed in the deed ; the lau(i 
still remained the property of the Indian tribe. In January, 1654-5, 
the town of Portsmouth appointed a committee to treat with New- 
port as to the joint purchase of the islands. Two years later Conan- 
icut Island was purchased from the Indians by William Coddington 
and Benedict Arnold, Jr. In a short time others became associated 
with these as proprietors, and sturdy farmers, many of whose descen- 
dants still occupy the land, established their homes upon the island. 

November 4, 1678, Conanicut was incorporated as a township 
under the name of Jamestown, so called in honor of King James I. 
The commission William Coddington obtained from the English Par- 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Indian Rock, Narragansett Pier. 

liament in 165 1 gave 
him authority "to 
govern the islands of 
Rhode Island and 
Conanicut during his 
life." Towards the 
close of King Philip's 
War, when the Indi- 
ans were becoming 
disheartened, many 
of them went to 
Conanicut and deliv- 
ered themselves up 
to the Rhode Island 
authorities. In 1704 the whole island was surveyed. Highways 
were laid out upon it, and the boundaries of the farms were more 
carefully defined than had been possible under the rude system of 
surveving which had prevailed before that time. 

Conanicut is at the mouth of Narragansett Bay. It lies between 
the island of Rhode Island and the townships of North and South 
Kingstown on the main land. It is nine miles in length by about two 
m breadth, and is divided into two unequal parts by Mackerel Cove. 
The southern portion, which is much smaller than the other, was 
thought to resemble a beaver, and from that fancy its northern point 
was called Beaver Head, and its southern Beaver Tail. The light- 
house on this last named point was first established in 1749. The 
physical features of Conanicut are similar to those of the adjacent 
main land. Owing to the limited extent of the island, there are no 
streams to furnish water-power, consequently in early days there 
were no attempts at manufactures. Power for the working of grist- 
mills has been obtained by means of wind-mills. The principal 
occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture. Sheep-farming^ is car- 
ried on to some extent. 

In the Revolutionary War the inhabitants suffered greatly. Dur- 
ing the years of the British occupation of Newport they were contin- 
ually exposed to the ravages of the English forces. Some continental 
troops were stationed for a time upon the island. By reason of their 
batteries they became so annoying to the enemy's vessels in the bay, 
that it became absolutely necessary to dislodge them. " A British 
fore- landed on Conanicut at the east ferry, and crossing the island. 



burned all the dwel- 
lings near the road, 
twelve in number, 
besides barns, plun- 
dering the inhabitants, 
and carrying off a 
quantity of live stock." 
After this raid many 
of the inhabitants tied 
to the main land, and 
did not return inUil 
the restoration of 
peace. In June, 1775, 
a packet was detained 
by the British frigate 
"Rose," and the de- h-^,t uun^p^n^, 

mand of the colonial 

authorities for its restoration was not only disregarded, but the ves- 
sel was converted into a tender for the frigate. Capt. Abraham 
Whipple, in command of a war sloop in the service of the colony, 
captured this tender after a sharp fight. The action occurred off 
the Conanicut shore, and is said to have been the first naval fight 
of the Revolutionary War. 

Ferries were early established between Conanicut and the main 
land on one side and the island of Rhode Island on the other. In 
the vear 1700 they were both in operation, and in succeeding years 
additional accommodations were from time to time provided for the 
increasing travel. The colony purchased all the ferries in 1748, but 
two years afterwards ordered them to be sold at public auction. In 
1872 the steam ferry now in operation was established between 

Newport and Jamestown. 
The "west ferry," from 
Conanicut to South Kings- 
town, is run only as pas- 
sengers and business re- 
quire. At the east landing 
is a little hamlet ; from it 
the principal thoroughfare 
of the island extends to the 
west landing. Near the 

Point Judith. 

294 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

east landing once stood a brick building that was occasionally used 
for a dancing-hall. A terrible accident prevented the last dance 
arranged to take place within its walls. Just at nightfall the party 
of gay young people left Newport in a sail-boat. The wind was 
rising at the time, but they paid no heed to it. When they were still 
at a considerable distance from the landing a tremendous gale was 
sweeping over the waters. A great wave swamped the boat, and 
all on board were drowned. Into the hall that was to have resounded 
with the tread of their flying feet, slowly the pitying islanders bore 
the dripping corpses. No more parties were afterwards held 
within the building. 

Jamestown also includes Dutch and Gould Islands. These are 
both quite small. The first is situated about midway between Conan- 
icut and the main land ; its area is about three hundred acres. 
Before settlements were made at Providence or Newport it was used 
as a trading-station by the Dutch. It was purchased from the Indians 
in 1658, and for many years was a common pasturage for sheep and 
cattle. In 1864 it came into the possession of the United States gov- 
ernment. At that time the erection of extensive batteries designed to 
command the entrance to the bay were begun. The fortifications 
have not yet been completed. During the War of the Rebellion it 
was the rendezvous of the Fourteenth Regiment, Rhode Island Heavy 
Artillery. Dutch Island Harbor is one of the best havens of refuge 
on the New England coast. Hundreds of vessels flee to it each month 
for shelter. Gould Island, on the east side of Conanicut, is about 
one hundred acres in extent, and is the property of the New York 
Yacht Club. 

Of late years Conanicut Island has begun to assume some impor- 
tance as a summer resort. Near the east ferry-landing many summer 
residences have been built, and considerable land in its neighbor- 
hood has been laid out in lots suitable for building purposes. A tract 
of more than five hundred acres of land in the northern part of the 
island, now known as Conanicut Park, was purchased in 1873 by 
the Conanicut Park Association, The grounds have been tastefully 
laid out. During the summer the steamers of the Continental Steam- 
boat Company and the boat that runs from Wickford, touch at the 
park on their passages to and from Newport. From this park many 
beautiful views of the bay are obtained. 

The following notice is taken from the Providence Daily Tribune 
of Jan. 10, 1857 : "James Howland, the last of the Rhode Island 

Block Island. 


Block Island Light 

slaves, died at the 
residence of John 
Howland, James- 
town, R. I., on the 
3d inst., at the ripe 
old affe of one hun- 
dred years. He had 
always been a faith- 
ful servant in the 
Howland family. Up 
to the time of liis 
death he retained all 
his faculties unim- 
paired, and on the 
night of Jan. 2 at- 
tended to his usual duties about the house. On the morning of the 
3d he rose, dressed himself, and was about to ascend the stairs from 
his chamber, when he fainted, and expired in a few moments." 

The first religious services held on Conanicut were conducted by 
members of the Society of Friends. Atone time the Qi.iakers were 
very numerous. At present the houses of worship on the island are 
one Friends' meeting-house, two Baptist meeting-houses, and one Epis- 
copal chapel. This last is an outlying mission of one of the New- 
port churches. 

" Circled by waters that never freeze, 
Beaten by billows and swept by breeze, 
Lieththe Island of Manisses." 

Block Island, by which unromantic name the " Island of Man- 
isses " is know^n to us, lies thirty miles southwest of Newport, and 
twelve miles from the nearest main land, a solitary island exposed to 
the full fury of the storms which sweep the Atlantic. Its general 
shape is that of a triangle, its greatest length being from northwest 
to southeast. There are three very noticeable features about tliis 
island, — its absolute destitution of forest trees, its hills, and its 
ponds. " Lonely and windshorn, woodforsaken," — that is just the 
impression which one receives upon seeing it, an impression which 
is not in the least affected by the few frAiit and siiade trees around 
the cottages near the landing, all of which may be seen at a single 
glance. It is customary to say in explanation of this barrenness, 
that trees will not grow here on account of the bleak winds from the 

296 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

ocean. But Verrazani, who first reported the existence of the 
island in 1524, explicitly states that it was " covered with trees." 
The Rev. Samuel Niles, in an account of a sea-fight which took 
place off its shore in 1689, more than one hundred and fifty years 
later, says that the artillery echoed from the woods on shore. Besides 
these statements, there is ample historical evidence that for years 
after its first settlement, there was an abundance of timber upon the 
island. Of course, some of it was used for fuel and for building pur- 
poses, but there has never been any adequate explanation of the total 
extinction of the primeval forest. In 1874, the oldest inhabitants 
had no personal knowledge of the previous existence of forest trees 
upon the island. 

Verrazani reported that the island was "full of hills." Of its 
remarkable surface, the Rev. S. T. Livermore gives the following 
graphic description. " No person ever saw the surface of the ocean 
more uneven than is the land of Block Island, excepdng those who 
witnessed the flood in the days of Noah. . . . Imagine several 
tidal waves moving in nearly the same direction, from west to east, 
each rising about one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the 
sea, and their bases nearly touching each other ; and on the tops, 
sides and intervals of these, ' chop waves ' in every conceivable 
shape and position, covering completely the tidal waves ; and when 
the reader has done this, he has an outline of the view under the 
observer's eye who stands in a good light upon Beacon Hill." 

Nestled among these hills are numberless ponds, varying in size 
from the little ones in which the farmers' geese and ducks swim, to 
the " Great Pond" which covers a thousand acres. It is on the west 
side of the island and is separated from the sea by a narrow strip of 
land. It is fresh, although undoubtedly fed by the sea, which, ac- 
cording to Lord Bacon, "passing or straining through the sands 
leaveth its saltness." The highest and most beautiful of all the ponds 
is " Sands' Pond." It is situated more than one hundred feet above 
the sea, whose nearest point is more than a mile distant. The inter- 
est excited by its natural beauty is enhanced by the mysterious man- 
ner in which it is fed. No streams of any account flow into it, and 
yet, although having but few feet of average depth, it is never dry. 
The nature of the soil forbids the suggesdon that it is fed from the 
higher land at the southeast, and there are no signs of volcanic ori- 
gin. Its waters are very clear, and fish are to be found in them. 
The whole number of ponds on the island which do not become dry 
once in ten years is not less than a hundred. 

Block Island. 297 

The aborigines of the ishind were the Manisses, who, notwith- 
standing their " soft-flowing'' name, were a particularly warlike and 
turbulent tribe. They were constantly at odds with the neighboring 
tribes on the main land and Long Island. An incident of one of their 
wars with the Mohegans illustrates their ferocity and utter want of 
all soft feelings. They were on their way to the country of the Mo- 
hegans, some forty miles away. When but a short distance from 
their own shores, the moonlight revealed to them the canoes of the 
Moheo-ans, on their silent way to the shores of Manisses. Hastily 
turning back, they escaped unseen, and landing, hauled up their 
canoes on the shore, and concealed themselves until the enemy had 
landed. Hastening down to the shore, they waylaid the latter, stove 
their canoes into pieces, and drove them to the opposite side ot the 
island, until they came to some clifls which overhung a perpendicu- 
lar height of nearly two hundred feet. Here, penned in with the 
pitiless sea before, and the still more pitiless enemy behind, without 
shelter, food, or water, they all perished miserably. 

That the Manisses did not make themselves particularly trouble- 
some to the first settlers, whom they far outnumbered and whom they 
could easily have destroyed at one fell swoop, was probably owing 
to the fact that at almost their first intercourse with the English, they 
were taught to stand in wholesome fear of the firearms, which, even 
when few in number, had proved so much more destructive than the 
multitude of their own arrows. In the year 1636, Captain Oldham, 
of Boston, visited the island on a friendly trading voyage. The 
contents of his boat tempted the cupidity of the natives, who deter- 
mined to get possession of them. " Having laid the plot, into the boat 
they came to trade, as they pretended ; watching their opportunities, 
knocked him on the head and martyred him most barbarously." 
When this became known in Boston, Governor Vane sent a hundred 
men under Capt. John Endicott, Captain Underbill and others, to 
mete out justice to them. They killed several of the Manisses, 
burned a good deal of property, and " peaseably departed," carrying 
with them such spoils as "well wrought mats" and "delightful 
baskets." This expedition only punished the islanders. It by no 
means conquered them. A second attack, by a company com- 
manded by Israel Stoughton, so far reduced them that Miantonomi, 
grand sachem of the Narragansetts, to whom the Manisses were 
Tributary, acknowledged the claim of Massachusetts to the island by 
right of conquest. In 1658 it was transferred to John Endicott, 

298 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Richard Bellingham, Daniel Denison, and William Hawthorne, who 
in 1660 sold it to a company of sixteen men. In the year 1672 it was 
incorporated as a town of Rhode Island, under the name of New 
Shoreham, a name which has not wholly succeeded in displacing 
that of its sturdy Dutch explorer, Adrian Block. 

During the terrible French and Indian Wars, as also during the 
Revolution, its exposed condition laid it open to constant attacks and 
depredations. The inhabitants could expect but little aid from the 
settlers on the main land, who had all they could do to defend them- 
selves. But they fought their own battles bravely, and kept up stout 
hearts to the end. When the War of 181 2 broke out, Block Island 
was proclaimed neutral. So well was this proclamation respected by 
the English, that the island did not suffer at all during the war. 
These were, in fact, halcyon days for the islanders, for not only 
were they exempt from military duty and taxes, but they also found 
a ready market for their produce on the English men-of-war which 
frequently anchored off their shores. 

For the last twenty years the " Isle of the Manisses " has been 
steadily rising into prominence as a summer resort. Since the erec- 
tion of the government break-water, and the more frequent trips of 
steamboats consequent thereupon, several excellent hotels have been 
built, and the island has each season been crowded with summer 
visitors. The principal hotels are the Ocean View Hotel, Nicholas 
Ball, proprietor (accommodations for 350 guests), and the Spring 
House, B. B. Mitchell, proprietor (150 guests) ; among the other 
hotels are the Highland House ; the United States Hotel ; the Con- 
necticut House ; the Woonsocket House ; the Central Hotel ; the 
Bellevue House, and the Sea Side House. 

Of the traditions which hang about this island, none is more fas- 
cinating, and at the same time more unreliable in its details, than that 
of the " Palatine." The versions of it are numerous, but the one most 
commonly received is that which Whittier has used as the foun- 
dation of his poem, the "Wreck of the Palatine." According to this 
version, the " Palatine," a Dutch trading-vessel, lured by false lights 
from her course, was driven ashore near Sandy Point during the 
equinoctial. The wreckers descended upon her, and after barba- 
rously murdering all on board, despoiled her, set her on fire, and 
watched her burn to the water's edge. Retributi6n soon overtook 
them, however, in the shape of a phantom ship which from time to 
time blazed up and burned itself out before their frightened gaze. 

Block Island. 


This tradition places the early inhabi- 
tants in a very repulsive light, and 
the historian of the island has been at 
great pains to compare the different 
forms which it takes, and to sift all 
the attainable evidence in order to 
vindicate them from its unjust asper- 
sions. The result of his researches 
is as follows : 

About one hundred and thirty 
years ago, the Dutch trading-vessel 
" Palatine "was either cast ashore, or 
else anchored here. She put ashore 
several sick and dying passengers. 
Most of these died, and were buried 
on the land now owned by Mr. Jere- z 
miah C. Rose, where the "Palatine ^ 
graves" are still to be seen. The ves- I 
sel was neither wrecked nor burned, I 
but in due time sailed away to other „ 
shores, and, according to the records 5- 
of the Dutch Trading Company, was s- 
WTecked years after, in 1784, in the ^ 
Bay of Bengal. Among the passen- 
gers left on the island was a low-bred 
woman called Kattern. She recov- 
ered and married a negro. She en- 
joyed the reputation of a witch and 
fortune-teller. Ignorant and vindic- 
tive, she gained considerable ascen- 
denc}' over others by fostering their 
superstitious fears. It is to her that 
the story of the burning of the " Pala- 
tine " is to be traced, she having taken 
this childish way of revenging herself 
upon its captain for leaving her upon 
this foreign shore. Undoubtedly the 
phenomenon which came to be known 
as the "Palatine Light" gave color to the story, ^fhat such a light 
has been seen is too well established to admit of doubt. Whether it 

300 Picturesque Rhode Island. 

suggested the tradition, or whether the tradition already in existence 
gained credence because of the light, no one can say. But it is 
quite certain that an unexplained light has been seen at various 
times off Sandy Point, where the vessel is said to have gone ashore, 
and been seen, not only by the islanders, but by credible witnesses 
on the main land. A suggestion that it is caused by an inflammable 
gas rising through the water, is the nearest approach to an explana- 
tion of its origin which has ever been attempted. Dr. Aaron C. 
Willey, in a letter to Dr. Samuel Mitchell, of New York City, gives 
a detailed account of this remarkable apparition, which he witnessed 
twice during a residence of several years upon the island. His 
residence was six miles from the shore, and shut in from it by 
high land. The sight was so familiar to the dwellers upon the shore, 
that they never thought of notifying those inland of its appearance. 
These are the reasons why he saw it but twice. He says : 

"■This curious irradiative rises from the ocean near the northern 
point of the island. Its appearance is nothing diflerent from a blaze 
of tire. Whether it actually touches the water or only hovers over 
it is uncertain, for I am informed that no person has been near 
enough to decide accurately. It beams with various magnitudes, and 
appears to bear no more analogy to the ignis faiuus than it does to 
the aurora borealis. Sometimes it is small, resembling the light 
through a distant window, at others expanding to the highness of a ship 
with all her canvas spread. When large, it displays a pyramidical 
form, or three constant streams. In the latter case the three streams 
are somewhat blended together at the bottom, but separate and dis- 
tinct at the top, while the middle one rises higher than the other two. 
It may have the same appearance when small, but owing to distance 
and surrounding vapors cannot be clearly perceived. The light often 
seems to be in a constant state of insulation, descending by degrees 
until it becomes invisible, or resembles a lurid point, then shining 
anew, sometimes with a sudden blaze, at others b}^ a gradual increas- 
ment to its former size. Often the instability regards the lustre only, 
becoming less and less bright until it disappears, or nothing but a pale 
outline can be discerned of its full size, then returning to its former 
splendor in the manner related. The duration of its greatest and 
least state of illumination is not commonly more than two or three 
minutes. This inconstancy, however, does not appear in every in- 

" After the radiance seems to be totally extinct it does not always 

Block Island. 


return in the same place, but is not unfrequently seen shining at some 
considerable distance from where it disappeared. In this transfer of 
locality it seems to have no certain line of direction. When most 
expanded tliis blaze is generally wavering like the llame of a torch ; 
at one time it appears stationary, at another progressive. It is seen 
at all seasons of the year, and for the most part in the calm weather 
which precedes an easterly or southerly storm. It has, however, 
been noticed during a severe northwestern gale, and when no storm 
immediately followed. Its continuance is somedmes but transient, 
and it has been known to appear several nights in succession. 

" This blaze actually emits luminous rays. A gentleman whose 
house is situated near the sea, informs me that he has known it to illu- 
minate considerably the w^alls of his room through the windows. 
This happens only when the light is witliin half a mile of the shore, 
for it is often seen blazing at six or seven miles distant, and strangers 
suppose it to be a vessel on fire.'' 

That this phenomenon has no connection with the ship "Palatine," 
except in the distempered and easily inflamed imaginations of the 
ignorant and superstitious, no one would have the hardihood to 
doubt. And yet, who is there that willingly, even under the pres- 
sure of the most reasonable of reasons, casts aside his belief in the 
traditions endeared to him by age and constant repetition ? Let us 
still seem to believe that the Palatine Light is the Palatine Light, 
although in our inmost consciousness we are well assured that it is 


' Nor looks nor tones a doubt lictray. 
It is known to us all,' they quietly say 
\\'<', tor), have seen it in our day.' " 


Abbott's Run, 137. 

Aldrich Jas., of Scituate, 166. 

Ancient Narragansett, 280. 

Angell's Tavern in Scituate, 170. 

Angell Thomas, 186. 

Apponaug, 235. 

Arnolds of Woonsocket, 141. 

Arnold, Collector of E. Greenwich, 240. 

Aspinwall William, 61. 

Awashonks, the Squaw Sachem, 66. 

Barker Isaac, 59. 

Barrington, 98. 

Barton Major William, 63. 

Baulston William, 61. 
Beale Richard, 159. 

Berkeley Dean, 28, 55. 

Blackstone Rev. William, 25, 135. 

Block Adrian, 21. 

Block Island, 295. 

Brenton Family The, 23, 24, 34, 35. 

Bristol, 77. 

British Occupation of Newport, 45. 

Brooks' Pasture 96. 

Browns The of Providence, 122, 225. 

Brown University, 224. 

Bull Henry, 24, 61. 

Burges Tristam, 107. 

Burrill James, 154. 

Burrillville, 153. 

Burton Stephen, 85. 

Buttonwood Beach, 235. 

Byfield Nathaniel, 85. 

Cabot Sebastian, 18. 

Canonicus, 290. 

Carbuncle Hill, 238. 

Carder Richard, 61. 

Carolina Mills, 272. 

Carr Capt. Caleb, 98. 

Central Falls, 131. 

Channing William Ellery, 42. 

Charlestown, 267. 

Church Capt. Benjamin, 66. 

Clams and Clam-bakes, 105. 

Clarke John, 24, 61. 

Clarke Jeremy, 24. 

Coddington William, 24, 25, 33, 61 

Coggeshall John, 24, 61. 

Cold Winter (of 1779-80), 205. 

Collins Henry of Newport, 42. 

Commerce of Bristol, 90. 

Commerce of Providence, 210. 

Comstock Samuel, Woonsocket, 141. 

Conanicut Island, 291. 

Coronation Rock, 267. 

Cotton Manufactures, Development 
and Growth, 120, 125. 

Coventry, 238. 

Cranston, 173. 

Crowne John, the Poet, 85. 

Cumberland, 135. 

Diman Prof. J. L., Oration, 65. 

Dixons of Westerly, 265. 

Dorr War The, 161. 

Drowne Solomon, 164. 

Dutch Island, 294. 

Dyre William, 24, 61. 

Early Fashions, Amusements, etc., 203. 

East Greenwich, 239. 

Easton Nicholas, 23, 24. 

East Providence, 104. 

Education in Bristol, 86. 

Exeter, 249. 

Factory Villages and Operatives, 126. 

Fairfield John, 260. 

First Baptist Church, Providence, 206. 

First Coach in Providence, 204. 

First Cong. Church, Providence, 225. 

Forger's Cave, 155. 

Foster, 163. 

Foster Theodore, 164. 

" Four Chimney House " at Hammer- 
smith, 34. 

Freeborne William, 61. 

French at Newport, 46. 

Freshet at Woonsocket, 142. 

Fruit Hill, 132. 

" Gaspee " The Capture of the, 233. 

Gaspee Point, 176. 

Glocester, 158. 

Gorton Samuel, 227. 

Gosnold Barthol'jmew, 20. 

Grace Church, Providence, 225. 

Gray Edward, 72. 

Great Awakening, The, 260. 



Great Estates, 279. 

(Ireat Swamp Fight, 276. 

Greene Nathaniel, 233, 239. 

Harris Edward, 144. 

Harris Gideon, of Scituate, 166. 

Harris Dr. Stephen, 236. 

Harris William, 1S6, 194. 

Harrison Peter, the Architect, 42, 43. 

Hazard, T., 23, 24. 

Helme Lieut. William, 75. 

Hessian Soldiers, 45. 

•' Hessian Storm " The, 46. 

Holden Randall, 61. 

Honeyman Rev. Mr., 28. 

Hopkins Commodore Esek, 168, 210. 

Hopkins Governor Stephen, 168. 

HoPKiNTON, 253. 

Howard Family of Foster, 164. 

Hutchinson Pxlward, 61. 

Hutchinson William, 6f. 

Indian Burying-Grounds and Relics, 

270, 271. 
Jamestown, 290. 
Jenks Family of Pawtucket, 11 1. 
Jews of Newport, 31. 
Jewish Cemetery at Newport, 32. 
Johnston, 170. 

King Charles Bird, 42. 

King Philip's War, 81. 

Lechmere Nicholas, 159. 

Lee Rev. Jesse, 226. 

Leif Ericson, 18, 77. 

Lewis Family of Hopkinton, 253. 

Lillibridge James. 250. 

Lincoln, 133. 

Little Compton, 66. 

Longbottom James, 260. 

Long Wharf at Newport, 28. 

Lonsdale, 132. 

'' Macdonough," Bristol Privateer. 98. 

Malbone Godfrey, 39. 

Manisses Indian Tribe, 297. 

Manisses Island of, 295. 

Manning Dr. James, 206, 223. 

Mason Captain John, 260. 

Massasoiet, 80, 93. 

Massasoiet's Spring, 92. 

Mathewson John, 166. 

Maxson Jonathan, 274. 

McSparran Dr. James, 282. 

Methodists in Providence, 226. 

Miantonomi, 190. 


Miles Rev. John, 99, 102. 

Mosher Hugh, 260. 

Mount Hope, 77. 

Murray James, 250. 

Narragansett Dairies, 280. 

Narragansett Indians, 268. 

Narragansett Pacers, 2S2. 

Narragansett Pier, 290. 

Nayatt Point, 103. 

Newport, 23. 

Newport l-!elles in last Century, 49. 

Newport Literary Club, 41. 

Newport Scenery, 52. 

New Shoreham, 295. 

Niantic Indians, 256. 

Nichols John, 159. 

"Nine Men's Misery," 140. 

Ninigrets The, 257. 

Nooseneck Valley, 248. 

North and South Kingstown, 275. 

North Providence, 119, 132. 

North Smithfield, 152. 

Northmen The, 18, 77. 

Northmen's Rock The, 79. 

Oakland Beach, 235. 

Ocean Cottage, 104. 

Old Factory at Pawtucket, 123. 

Old Forge at Woonsocket, 142. 

Oldham Captain of Boston, 297. 

Old Stone Mill at Newport, 54. 

Old Watson House at Barrington, 102. 

Oliver, Nathaniel, 85. 

Orchards, 25, 137. 

Palatine Light, 299. 

Palatine, Wreck of the, 298. 

Pawtucket, hi. 

Pawtucket Bridges, 131. 

Pawtucket W^lter Works, 132. 

Paw'tucket Falls, 114, 117, 118. 

Pawtuxet, 176. 

Peage, 267. 

Philip of Pokanoket, 80. 

Pierce's Fight, 113. 

Pigot Galley Capture of, 75. 

Pirates, 29, 37. 

Pocasset, 72. 

Porter John, 6. 

Portsmouth, 60. 

Potter Simeon of Bristol, 234. 

Prescott Capture of, 62. 

Prospect Terrace, 222. 

Providence, 179. 

Providence Water Works, 177. 

Quakers in R. I., 195, 245, 295. 

Queen Esther, 267. 


Picturesque Rhode Island. 

Quonocontaug Pond, 259. 

Redwood Abraham, 41. 

Redwood Library, 41. 

Restoration Procession The, 35. 

Rhode Island Coal, 66. 

Rhodes Zachariah, 164. 


Riveira Abraham, 32. 

Riveira J. R., 31. 

Robinson Unfortunate Hannah, 284. 

Rochambeau, French General, 28, 48. 

Rocky Point, 234. 

Roger Williams Park, 208. 

Roman Catholic Church, 226. 

Salsbury Edward of Burrillville, 156. 

Sam Patch, 119. 

Sanford John, 61. 

Savage Thomas, 61. 

Sayles W. F., 225. 

Saylesville, 132. 

SciTUATE, 165. 

Scrivens James, 246. 

September Gale of 18 15, 30, 209. 

Shan nock Ford, 272. 

Shawomet, 227. • 

Shay's Rebellion, 160. 

Shearman Philip, 61. 

Silver Spring, 104. 

Slater H. N., 225. 

Slater Samuel, 122. 
Slave Pens, 30. 

Slaves and Slave Elections, 281, 295. 

Slave Trade, 88. 

Smith John of Burrillville, 156. 

Smith John of Providence, 186. 

Smithfield, 149. 

Smith Richard Narragansett, 275, 279. 

Snorri Thorfinnson, 18. 

Spragues of Cranston, 174. 

Squantum, 104. 

Stage Coaches, 216. 

Stanton Family of Charlestown, 271. 

Stanton Robert, 260. 

State Farm The, 176. 

Steamboats, 215. 

St. John's Church, Providence, 225. 

St. Paul's Church, Narragansett, 284. 

Stuart Gilbert Charles, 43, 286. 

Superstitions, etc., 254. 

Swansea " Ranks," 99. 

Talbot Major Silas, 75. 

Thames Street, Newport, 25. 

Thornton Elisha, 147. 

Thorfinn Karlsefni, 78. 

Tiverton, 72. 

Tory Exiles at Glocester, 159. 

Touro, the Jewish Family, 32. 

Tourtellotte Abram, 158. 

Transit of Venus, 205. 

Traveling Conveniences, 204. 

Trinity Church, Newport, 43. 

Tyrker, 78. 

Universalist Church, Providence, 226. 

Upton's Pottery, East Greenwich, 241. 

"Vacant Land Tract," 246. 

Vaughn William, 164, 260. 

Verin Joshua, 186. 

Vernon Thomas, 159. 

Verrazani, 19. 

Vester, the Negro Swimmer, 262. 

" Vinland, the Good," 18. 

Visits to Massasoiet, 94. 

Walker John, 61. 

Walley John, 85. 

Wallum Lake, 154. 

Wanton Family of. Newport, 36. 

Ward Family in Westerly, 265. 

Warren, 92. 

Warren Ship-yards and Ships, 98. 

Warwick, 227. 

Washington Bridge, 107. 

Washington at Newport, 28. 

Watch Hill. 261. 

Watson Family of Barrington, 102. 

Weetamoe. Queen of Pocasset, 72. 

Westcott Robert, 164. 

Westerly, 256. 

Westerly Granite, 263. 

West Greenwich, 247. 

Whale Fishery, 97, 217. 

Whalley Theophilus, 248. 

Whipple Capt. Abraham, 293. 

Wickes Francis, 186. 

Wickford, 276. 

Wilbore Samuel, 61. 

Wilkesbarre Pier, no. 

Wilkinson Jemima, 243. 

Wilkinson Joseph of Scituate, 167. 

Wilkinson Family, Pawtucket, 115, 123. 

Willett Captain Thomas, 99, 100. 

Williams Miss Betsey, 208. 

Williams Roger, 24, 179. 

Wind-mills of Portsmouth, 65. 

Woodley Rev. R. D., 226. 

Woonasquatucket Reservoirs, 150, 

WooNSOCKET, 141. 

Woonsocket Churches, 146. 

"Yankee," Bristol Privateer, 88. 


; - : KHOllJEISIwIIM^ 

Rice, Starkweather & Co., 


*^c PRGYIDEJVICE.+^.-H.,** 

-^SUP^ifiisTTaigiRs m4 ©itLiBS. S^ 

Offer for sale a large and well-selected stock of 

Cliemicals, Druss, Byef oofls, Dye-Stf s, Glie. 


' • «^ \ -^ a 


Ji. V . 

And respectfully solicit the patronage of buyers who want first-class goods at cheap prices. 

Calico Printers, Bleachers, Fancy Dyers, Cotton, Woolen, Silk, Paper, Leather and Soap 
Manufacturers, Jewelers and Painters, 

In this vicinity, can have their orders for supplies in the above line filled promptly, thus saving the 
trouble and cost of ordering from a distance. 



For House, Carriage and Car Builders ; and are Agents for 

Peter Cooper's Refined Neats Foot Oil, 

The only real Substitute for Sperm Oil that has ever been found. 

Rice, Starkweather & Co, 



iM^tr§iim^§ ii2^£BjE s^s c^v imoSE mjL,iii2 d. 



I. To furnish thoroug-h and complete instruction 
in every branch of a Practical Business Education. 

II. To interest and encourag-e the students, and 
iirge them to high attainments in Business Schol- 
arship, Character, and Practice. 

III. The excellent discipline of the Institution 
secures the punctuality, industry, and rapid pro- 
gress of the students. 

IV. To afford Liadies equal advantages tvith 
Oentleiueu in all departments of Business Educa- 

V. The Class-System is avoided as far as possible. 
Thus, each student receives all the advantages of 


private instruction, and will not be kept back in 
his course by others of less ability and application. 
YI. To supplement the work of the public 
schools and colleges with a complete course of 
Business Instruction. 

VII. That this Institution has the confidence of 
the business community, and that its graduates are 
in constant demand. 

VIII. That our elegant rooms, thoroughly 
lighted and ventilated, complete with every ap- 
liliance for giving practical instruction, the large 
corps of thorough and experienced teachers, make 
this college superior to any similar institution in 
New England. 


Students may enter at any time. Circulars Free, by calling on or atldressiug 

T. B. Stowell, Principal^ 

Hoppin Homestead Building, 283 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 



k)^ BasiitE 

Our Specialty— First-Class Work. 




Demonstrated over t2 Competitors at the New England Fair, Sept., 1880. 

These eleg-iint groods are now ready for Doinestio and Exjiort Trade, in all styles and sizes, and are 
eiiuipped with the Patent Reflex Coal Ciratc, tlie Patent Reflex Double €heck, 

Masiic Kinillint; Dnuiper, Doulile Widtli I'ulislied l'kl<{'es. Automatic and . 

ONcillatini; Oven 8lielf , New .Tlodel To^vel Dryer and Actli 

^iiCter, with other important patente<l speeialtie.s, ineliiding- 

the Patent CJIaws Oven Door 

and llent Indicator. 



^ • : FOR THE . \ -^ 

^'? MODEL RANGE r^f 

Also, Founders of the Most Approved Patterns of 






Inoludiug the Celebrated NEW HARVARD and 3IODEL. PARLORS, 

And respectfully solicit the attention of Ruyers, both at home and abroad, to their TIIIRTV YEARS' 

Honorable and Successful nuinag-eineiit, and assure them tliat they will find all our goods 

fully up to our acknowledtfcd hifrh standard, ami offered at favorable prices. 

Our productions will be found especially adapte<l 

for Export Trade. 



And 113 Blackstone Street, Boston. 

Spicers & Peckham, Stove Founders. 









Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing Cotton Goods, Shafting, 

Gearing, and 


Have an extensive assortment of Gear, Pulley, Machinery and 
other Patterns, from which they are prepared to furnish Castings. 

Particular attention paid to the manufacture of Cotton, Paper, 
and Husk 


For Calendering either Cotton, Paper, or Silk Goods. 

A large assortment of Gear, Pulley and Machinery Patterns of various kinds. 
Catalogues of Gears and Pulleys furnished upon application. 

J. S. ANTHONY, Agent. 

















London Braces, 






Abdom inal 


Physicians' Cases, 




Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, Druggists' Sundries and Jewelers' Supplies. 

Straiton & Storm's Popular New York Cigars. Fine Chemicals a Specialty. 


(Prescriptions compounded only by experienced (Registered 'Pharmacists. 

54 AND 58 Weybosset Street. 48 North Main Street, 




;^ ]BII^IEJ&^§ in ^J&HJE^^^ d^ HffODE I S li^ JZ D 

Granger Foundry £ Machine Co. 








Mangles, Drying Machines, Tentering Machines, Hydraulic Presses, Etc., 

Cor. Gaspee and Francis Streets, 


^ ^ 

m"- BIISI«B« Sii IR^ j& 



Franklin Mutual Fire Ins. Co, 


No. 12 South Main, corner College Street, 


A. B. Dike, Resolved Waterman, Scott W. Mowry, Charles F. Mason, 

Benj. B. Adams, Thomas Brown, A. E. Burnside, Matthew W. Ingraham, 

Edward A. Greene, Wm. H. Chandler, Lewis Dexter, R. H. I. Goddard, 

Geo. C. Nightingale, Francis M. Smith, Amos M. Bowen, Chas. D.Owen, 

Eugene W. Mason. 

This Company insures Dwelling-Houses and Household Furniture 

only. Also, insures against loss or damage by Lightning. 

Dividends paid at expiration of Policies. 

4" 4> 

*. *- 



Manufacturers of Patent 

Friction Clutch Pulleys, 


p^vfiwDEDBy ^m\ «jro,. Compactness'' an«l " ^Veil-Studied Details." -Judges' Award, Cen- 
'"mATfej tenuial, IS76. Medal, Paris Exposition, 187S. 




^ ■ '. * 

fcv BUSINESS in^ERESrS . RHODE 1 81.3 12 D. 

Mason. Chapin 

& Co..^ ^ 

33 ^o 37 Canal Street, - Providence, R, 



Safe to Burn and Odorless. 

New York Dye-Wood Extract and Chemical Co.'s 


Solid and Liquid Form. 




Adams' Elbeuf Fulling Soap. Adams' M. C. Scouring Soap. 



Madder, Indigo, Blue Vitriol, Sumac, Tin Crystals, Gambier, 
Cochineal, Soda Ash, Sal Soda, Bleaching Powders. 
For sale at lowest market prices. 





3<^>^BII§II2E^§ 112 g£RE S ^^ e^ RHQBE 1 8 L H 12 D . 

Clarence H. Carpenter, 





Yard formerly occupied by ALBERT DAILEY & COMPANY. 


Connected with all Railroads. Can ship by Water 

or Rail. Orders by Telephone 

promptly executed. 

— * 

^ _ ij, 

i iz»»OH*:aitigpz?i'^ 

j^ BUSIHi>S« ID^JEHES^S >t5?^BHD2)E IS lUR 12 © . 

in^OOI^Z^OIE^J^TEnD, 1836. 


Foundry and Machine Company 

PB0¥IB11C1, 1. L, 

■is^f *^e *tf 

Cotton Machinery, Shafting 




Common Top Flat, Foss & Pevey, and Roller Cards, 

Railways, Drawing Frames, Ring Spinning Frames for 

Warp and Filling. 

Mules, Spoolers, Twisters, Reels, Quillers, Ball 

Winders, Etc. 

>!fPIi^N? FOR CGTT0N MIIiIi3.> 







G^ofd^3ifver Refiner^ 


AND Manufacturing Chemist, 

29131 PAGE ST., 






RH05)i> rSL^DB. 

-»^ Established, 1867.*^ 

Rhode Island Horse Shoe Company, 


Horse, Mule and Snow Shoes 



Office at Providence, R. I.—^:-^— Works at Valley Falls, R. I. 












Also, Sawed Wood and Kindlings, 



^tci'vbd-^ 330 ^bbtj, ciiib 184 ^Dijcr St"<^eet.v, 'J^o uibe-Hce. 
















\^omiiiU4iALiU Jffle 




Providence. R. I.' 








Braiding Machine Co. 

89 Aborn Street, 
Providence, R. I. 

A. S. HOOD, Supt. 


B. B. EDMANDS, Agt. 

General Machinists. 

Our Specialty being the Manufacture 



Of which we have a full line of Patterns for all the various classes of Machines, viz. :^ 

Machines for making Flat Braids of sizes running from 3 to 109 strands, and 
Round Braids from 8 to 96 strands, 

Hercules Braiders, Packing Braiders, Whip Braiders, Coir Matting Braiders, and 

Braiders for Covering Telegraph Wire. Also, Singeing Machines, 

Polders or tappers, Quillers for Looms, Etc., Ktc. Also, 

constantly on hand and for sale, 

Including, with all the separate parts of a Braiding: Machine, 

BOBBINS, Carriers, Tension Weights, Etc., etc. 



Made to measure from the Very Choicest Brands of Imported Stock. 

No Nailed or Second-Class Work. 

Jg^All work Hand-sewed, 'giving^ a flexibility wliicli insures tlie wearer ease and comfort, and gives a stjde and 
durability that cannot be obtained any other way. 

Fit aad' WQ^kwssisshipi msgajpassg^* 

179 Broad Street, 

Providence, R. I. 








'Wm. H. Haskell & Co., 














^7jM■^^tG ITjafe ^'«.'^'^tfJ^?vv-« 'f ^-^i-'|'^TI•S■'I'--^J':^'p.^»'^'.v.''^^■.^■ 

fev^ BU^IEE 




Charles A. Warland, 


Coinniissioner for the Contmon= 
iveaWi of Massaclmsetis. 

Pawtucket, R. I. 

Geo, Mason & Bros, 

Afitmifiittiiitrs of 

:mohair, aijPaca, luster cotton, 



From No. 9 to 8o. 




ruoM Xo. ~<i to (iO. 

Mill, 115 Pine St., 





Coffins .^Caskets, 

Black "Walnut, Cloth Covered, Rosewood 
and Imitation. 

Boxes, Robes, Plates, Handles, Etc. 

Preservers furnished if wanted. Chairs to let 
ut Funerals. 

Hearse and Carriages Furnished at Short 
Notice. Teleplione Coniie<'tion. 






ENGINES t irQin 2 tQ SlQ Eqssq 
PQWQr> The best in tbei 


For /ire and other jnirposes. 
Also (/eneral 3farJiinery. 

Pawtucket, R. I. 


— * 



A Prnwim^Mei imMiitmM&Mi 


G^ajette and wfiromcfe^ 

Established November 12, 1825. 

Among the "Institutions" of the Town of Pawtucket (the largest community with a 
town government in the United States), and one that has helped its growth, prosperity and 
fame In no small degree, is its only newspaper, the 


which has had a continuous existence since its publication was begun, over fifty-five years ago. 
In many respects it is the leading weekly journal of Rhode Island. Its editorials are marked 
by a vigor and scholarship that have won the highest encomiums on all sides. Its local news, 
poetry and miscellaneous selections are prepared and selected with great care, always bearing 
in mind the desirability of such matter as shall promote and sustain the reputation of the 
sheet as 

A First-class Family Newspaper. 

Its type is large, its columns of ample dimensions, its mechanical appearance unexcep- 
tionable, and it is sent to any address, free of charge to subscribers, for $2. .50 a year, 
or $2.25 if paid in advance. Those who desire to put a first-class weekly newspaper in their 
families, cannot do better than to subscribe for the Paivtucket Gazette and Chronicle, 


John S. Sibley. 


Charles a. Lee. 


In connection with their newspaper establishment, Messrs. Sibley & Lee have one of the 
largest and best-arranged Job Printing Offices in New England, where they are prepared to 
do any kind of printing. 


Call or send for Samples. Our reputation for Fancy Printing is second to none. 

Office in Manchester Block. 

29 nv^ILL STK.EET. 



flN business; IDg£RES^^c?-.-HHOi3E ISL7IR D 








No. 94 Main Street, 


'^'^^^RY PUBV.\^' 



Iiif<inn;itic)ii obtaliiccl tliriiugh our ullici- entitles 
us to commissions. 

Information in relation to property ofVered which 
ninv effect the sale thereof, obtained diri'clly or inJi- 
reclly throu>;h our office, or the introiluction of a 
customer to the owner entitles to commission in case 
of sale. 


l'roi)erty once placed on our list, will be consid- 
ered on sale at the price stated, until notified by the 
owner lo the contrary. 

The sellers of property are looked to for the 

For exchan>);in^ property full commissions are 
charjreable to both i)arties. 


Sale or exchanffc of town or city property, on 
!?5,<xx) and upwards value, i per cent. 

On less than $5,<X)0 and over if 2,500, ij^ per cent. 

On less than $2,500, J,\^ per cent. 

Provided, however, that no sale will be negotiated 
for less than Sicocj. 

Perscmal Property sales, 5 to 10 per cent. 

Appraisinjj Property at oflice, $5.c». 

Appraising; Property recpiirini; personal inspec- 
tion, ;f5.oo to $10.00, acconliiit; to value of property. 

All property placed in f)ur hands for sale, whether 
verbally or in any other way, will be subject to the 
forefjoinj; Rules aiul Kates, from w'hich there will 
be no deviation, except it be stated in writing- at 
the tinieof placinjj the same on 01 r list. 


No. 94 Main St., Pawtucket, R. I. 




k)>^BU^IBE^§ IR^EHES^^ o BHOBE ISL3BD. 'i 



Perry's Champion Harness Oil, 



Cylinder, Machine, Spindle, Sewing Machine, and Lubricating Oils of all kinds. Dealers 
in Castor, Sperm, Lard, Paraffine and Neats Foot Oils. 

Exchange St., Pawtucket, R. I. 


J". S. "W^HIITE, 

Iron Founder i& lYIachinisf, 

Machinery Castings, Shafting, Hangers, Pulleys, Steam and Water Pipe, Gilding 

Furnaces, Mufflers, Forges, Clay, Fire Brick, Etc. Machinery of all 

kinds Promptly Repaired. Pattern-Book mailed to 

any address on application. 


J@M M. MPEM€EM, Ami 


Manufacturer of every kind of 

$otton Twines and Tfti"scids 

Used by Print Works and Bleacheries. 

'fhread f or the RAYER & LINCOLN and DINSMORE MACHINES a specialty. Machine 
Thread on Wooden Cones always on hand. Single and Twisted 
Yarns, from No. 10 to 30. 







BUS I R E ^ § I P ^ E RE S o S 

E1S'X*.A.]BXjZ8XZEI]3, 1800. 


J. 0. DRAPER & COm 


Snqlidh Biq Soap, 


Nottingham gurd goap, 


Palm Oil, Bleaching, Fulling and Scouring Soaps, 


Also Manufacturers of all kinds of Family and Toilet Soaps. Orders 
by mail or express will receive prompt attention. 

J.O. Draper & Co., 






Established 1865, by PAYNE & MATHEWSON. 



]TIachiiii!iits, ami ISiiiliIer.« of the Iniprovetl IJpi-ight Spoolers, to spool from cop, skein or bobbin. 

Also, 1>oubliiig Wpoolei-8, to double two, tliree or more threads into one. Pat. Cone 

Wiiniers, for hosiery manufacturers, winds from con, skein, or bobbin. Uprialit 

QiiillerN, quills from oop, skein or bobbin. Rius, Dresser, Spooler and Reel 

i^piiiiiles. Cop Skewers, 'Warp Spools, Spooler Ouiales, Bolsters 

and Steps, made and repaired at short notice. 

G. W, Payne, 
G. M. Fanning. 

Shop, 24 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I. 

p. E. Thayer & Co., 

(Successors to Thayer Brothers,) 

Manufacturers and Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

— "^m. 





34 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I. 





^BllSlffE SS IR^f^^ S ^S - ilHOBE ISLHBD. 

D. D. SWEET & CO., 

Manufacturers ol" ami Dealers in 

Windows, Doors, Blinds, 


I nside Finish, Stair Kails, Balusters, Newel 
Posts, Slate Mantels, Ktc. 

15 EDDY, Corner >Voicester Street, 

And 4<) Broad Street, Pawtiieket, H. I. 

Watch Maker and Jeweler, 

And DcmIci- in 
Fine M'nl«-li<>>i, C'lorkw, .l<-\i 
t'Iry, 0|>rr]i>4alnMMeM, Mpec- 
tnclrit kikI Kye-4iilnHHes. 

Wjiti'lies ("arel'nilv Hei)air('fl, 

.ilsii Kiljusted tu Hunt. Cold, Isncli- 

^l>ni^i|n, HMir-S[>rin(f.«. nnd po.-itioii. 

All Woik Fully Wunui\li;d. 

1 7 :mii.t^ strkkt, 

I'lmlnckrl. K. I. 

Charles E. Chickering's 

General Teaming and Jobbing. 

llouaeliold Fiiriiilure Removed and Pnrliea 


13 Norlh Union St., cor. Summer. 

■*i-ovid«-iice Oiliee. Karker, ChndMey iL Co.'s, 
'■i'i uikI '^'1 \l'e!»tiiiiiiMli-r $mreet. 




Coal, Lumber, Brick, Lime and Cement. 

DOORS AND BLINDS. Also. Manufacturers of GUTTERS, 

)1. K. SMITH. 

.1. T. COriliKLI.. 

■ > — > » <■ 






Every Description of CARD BOARD, 








Dealer in 

Of every description, 

Harnesses, Robes, Whips and 
Rubber Goods. 

No. 21 High St., Pawtucket, R. I 

Agent for the Harper Combination Gear. 



Boors, SasUlMs, 


Also, Proprietors of 







Ne^velM and BracketH 
of all kin<ls, on hand and made to order. 

Planing, Sawing, Jig-Sawing, Etc., 


Georg-e Gelinas. George D. Chappell. 




-Dealer in- 

-Va ^V/«^>^ 



Orders for Tuning Pponnptly attended, to. 

Spencer Building, Pawtucket, R. I. 

(established, 1S73.) 


-manufacturers of- 


Coffin Studs, Escutcheons, 




(Successor to I. F. Crocker & Son,) Dealer in 

Factory Supplies, Agricultural Implements, 
Tools, Stoves, Tin and Wooden 
Ware, Pocket Cut- 
lery, Etc. 





FOR $1.00 A DOZEN, 

Best Work in the State for the money. 







^;^.i.^^^.;^^^^..e.t.-— ..^.^^^l'-IlL. 


Established, 1847. 




3Batent liacc Kcathcr, gatent pcker geather, 

Hame String Leather, Loom Straps, Pickers, 
Belt Leather, Etc. 


Nos. 22, 24 and 26 Pleasant Street, 

►^PAWTUCKET, R. L-i^^ 






\cci.:>oM o 


f IS8I. 

H otel A quidneck, 


This elegant and popular house, so long known to the public, will reopen 
May I St, and remain open the year round. It has been thoroughly renovated 
and refurnished from top to bottom, illuminated throughout with gas, steam 
has been introduced and applied to the sleeping apartments, making it one 
to be desired by the traveling public. Its location is A, No. i, the rooms 
are large and airy, and tastefully furnished. 

The Proprietor, well known as a public caterer, will have 
every department under his immediate supervision, and will be 
unsparing in his efforts to please the most exacting guest. 
For terms, address 


Hotel Aquidneck, 

4 Newport, R. I. 






IKiilcr ill Chuicc 

House-Furnishing Goods, 




Woo<lon Ware, Willow Ware, (rorkory. 
Tin Ware, Ktc. 

Tin Kooliiig ami HcpairiiiK- of sill kinds 
done at sliDrt notice. 

95 and 97 Thames Street, 
Newport, R. I. 

{^^Sole Agent lor Eddy Uelrif^erators", Hccbu 
Rans-es and l{ci)air<.-'".ft 

Kstablished, isr>}). 


100 Thames Street, 

Would call the c^lx'iiiil attciilioii of tin- citizens an<l 
\isitorsof Newport to the 

Ladies'* Misses' Fine Shoes, 

Franidin Bakery 


Newport, R. I. 

Families Supplied 

In any part of the City, with 

Of all Varieties, 

Cakes, Pies, Crackers, Etc. 

FroMi tlic nianiilacloiy ol I>«-nrborii A." «lin«, 

These goods were intrudiieed in tlie .Season of '79, 
and as they have ki^ en universal satisfaetion to 
those usiDfr them, and ffclinff the \itmost eonfidciicc 
in the durable, v'omfortahlf, and tittiii},'- unalitics 
of the woods, he will continue the sale of thcin lor 
the Season of 'X\. assurinj? all who want tine, perfect 
tilting shoes at low prices, that they can lie accom- 
modated at his store. For Gent's tine {joods. a full 
line from t he eclebrated ' "r^w Maini/tidiny of IJos- 
ton, tofrether with a general assortment of goods 
from the best manufactories in the eoniitry. 

Opposite Covell's BIcck. 
Xi- wroKT, K.I. 

JOHN M. SliJAN, Agl. 

Swinburne, Peckham 0[ C 




Hardware, Lime, brick, 
cement, etc.. 

145 Thames St. and PedLham's Wharf. 

U.S(J, MAM 1 AC Tl' 1(1'. UN Ol 


Anil all ItiiiilH of .1IoiiI<Iiiikm. iil I'iniiiufc 

.Tlill niKl Miinh WorkM, on I'eclt- 

iinin'n Whiirf, 

Newport, R. I. 





Gardiner B. Reynolds 

< & CO., )^ 


Wholesale and Retail Dealers in the 
best varieties of 


•S\WWV""~" — " — 

English and American Cannel. 

Hickory, Oak i Pine Wood 

For Grates and Fire-places. Also, 


Best Goods and Prompt Delivery. 



%^ \Caskets 


And everything in 
the line on hand, 
with all atten- 
tion paid to or- 
ders at once. 


xi'BH pti'B aoqi^aj 
's8iqBi noisuaixa 


'Sims HOlHVd 

'sxas HaaMVHO 

"Greeae, tie Halter," 


Newport, R, I., 

Dealer in Men's 

Furnishing Goods. 

Upon his tree 
You can always see 
The latest style 
Of H-A-T. 

John Alderson, 

Fi-esh Importations of 

Elegant Suitings. 

Latest Styles of Domestic Woolens. 

Skillful and experienced workmen employed. 
Our suits are made in the most thorough manner. 
Prices rang-e from $35. OO upwards. Perfect fit 
and workmanship guaranteed. Ladies' Cloaksi 
Ulsters and Walking-Coats a specialty. Liveries 
of every description. 


Moonns, over 

210 & 212 Thames Street^ 

Newport^ R. I. 


No Trouble to Show Goods. 





:n^ Basii^ESS in^EiUES^S 


Washington Square, Newport, R. I. 

fiM ' ^ 

fl,ffl,fli na mri la 

Location unsurpassed. In its apnointnicnts it is adininililv ;ula|)ti<I to iiRct tlio iciiuircnicnti ot" the public. 
Thoroughly renovated and refurnislica. Steam has heen adilid to tlie slec|iini;-apartimiits as an additional luxury. 
Its present management is securing a world-wide reputation, and its L,'^ciilliiii;mlv iimpriitur is unsparing in his 
efforts to merit the full approbation of its numerous patrons. I-'or terms, address 

E. V. WESTCOTT, Proprietor. 

William C. Langley, 

BrapFr f^ bailor, 

.\iifl Dealer in 

Men's Furnishing Goods. 

4^ivil, 4^iHtary, ^^aval and -^l^ivcrii 
tailoring in all itA |^ranchcA. 

The and best stfick of eloths in the city to 
select from. 

New Goods Constantly Arriving. 

104 and 106 Thames Street^ 
Newport, R. I. 

The Newport Gas Light Co. 

Dealers in 

^Sias Fixtures §^ 

A N I ) 



Contractors for Heating Buildings 

Hv Stka.m ok Hot W'a'jeh. 

Estimates and advice in regard to Heating and 
Ventilation furnished without e.xpense. The IJronz- 
ing, Ueflnishingand Polishing Department is eijuipped 
with the best machinery and facilities for doing all 
work promjitly, and in the best manner. 

Office, 113 THAMES STREET, 

WM. A. STEDMAN, Treas. 





OF 1881. - 

OcESN House 

]^EWP@1W, ^. I. 

0^enjune Smenf/tj-J'iflh 


J, G. Weaver & Sons, 





New York Correspondents : 
Messrs. Homer Mokgan and K. 11. Ludlow & Co. 
Boston Correspondent : 
Samuel Parkman Blake, Jr. 

JOHN/. JUDSON, Civil Engineeii, 


Firm of FRANK B. PORTER & CO.. Newport, R. I. 


0) Y ^ 




Bellevue Avenue, near Kay Street, 

Newport, r. i. 

Furnished and Unfurnished Cot- 
tages by the Season or Year. 


t -L _L I 




J^ljricitltitrHl ; mjjkmenis, 



Newport Agency for Champion & Wood's 

Mowers, Lane's Hay Rake, and 

Mudgett Hay-Tedder, 

Full line of MEH iSE, 

Repairing of Lawn-Mowers. Agricultural Implements. Rubber 
Hose and Clothes Wringers a specialty. 

^qIq AgQot ior NiewpQirt 


GEO. A. Weaver, 






Jhamt.', .St, ■ J'mpoH, S!. <J. 



Gents' Fine Furnishing Goods, 

Ladies' and Misses' Sacques and Cloaks. 


I'ine Shirts to order; Tennis, Bicycle, iind Boating Shirts 
Ciiuchnien's Furnishlng^s, and Oil and Rubber Clothinsj. 




In all the latest and dill'crent styles. Ladies attended at 
their residences. Shampof>inii a speeialtv. 

for Private Theatricals. 

lei I'oii iKirle I'"raiii;ais. 


117 Thames Street, Newport- R. I. 

House-Furnistiing Hardware, 


and Ranges, Table and Pocket Cutlery, Encaustic 

Tile, Fishing and Sporting Tackle, Powder 

and Shot, Yacht, Boat and Ship Chandlery, Cordage and 

Twines, Bunting and Flags, Manufacturers' Agent 

lor Machine-made Netting, Plymouth Cord- 
age, I-afiin & Rand Powder, Stevens' Upward Filter, 
Gold's Heaters' Furnaces. 




Sanitary Engineers, 

Give special attention to the ventilation of house drainage. 
Smith's Syphon Jet Water Closets (from California*, 
the very best yet produced, can be seen in oper- 
ation at our store, 

6 Mill Street, ^^^i"-^ 


■IJoui^e and -^Jign -Igainter. 

Glazing, Gilding, Marbling and Paper Hanging, Grain- 
ing in Oak, Black Walnut, Chestnut, Et(!. 

No. 6 Broadway, Newport, R. I. 

Particular attention paid to Whiting or Tinting Ceilings 
or Walls in Oil or Water Colors. All orders promptly at- 
tended to with neatness and dispatch, and at reasonable 

Pf ill fetnte ^$tnt mti 



Furnished Cottages for Rent. Cottages, Farms and Building- 
Lots in Newport and Vicinity for Sale. 





c c V at:jrt: a dc vE u C CctA u .■ 



Watchmaker f Jeweler, 

No. 149 THAMES ST., NEWPORT, S,. I. 

All kinds of Ucpairing- doiu- in the \>e?t iiuiniier. 

l^^IiOtifi' j-eai-s of experience in tiielarg-est 
mentsof Europe and this country, I claim as suflficient 
experience in my favor. 



Doors, Sashes, Blinds, 


A Fine Slock of 

Lattice, Fence Capping', Stair Rails, always on hand. 

Sawing and J'laning of eveiy dcscri]iti(in. 



Smith Bos-wortii, Pklkg S. Boswokth, Edward T. Bosvvorth, 

Charles F, Frasch 


Newport, R. I. 




litre I ailoring, 

^-m, 10 PELHAM STREET,-!^^ 



Newpi>1{t, K. I. 

Xj:h3:e3 :B:FLon7X3::E3Xi.s, 


Fresh, Salt ami Smoked Fish, 

Oysters, Clams, Lobsters and Quahaugs. 

Wni. 11, Lee. Ciinncctedby 'role])honc. T.J. Lee, 2d. 


Dealer in Newspapers 1 Periodicals, Stationery, 

Blank J{o(dvs, Playing' Cards, Toy-Books, Stereoscopes, 
Stereoscopic Views, Etc. Box Stationery a speeialtJ^ 


Office of publication of the Nezvport Historical Magazine. 

c-a)^3 cis'-i t^V."(5^5r3 '^^j ^ 6-G)^c^«^ '^^ *<>>j u^J:» .-oi-j'i 

Families Supplied -with Fresh Vegetables everj' morn- 
ing. Cess-pools emptied at reasonable rates. 



Right Hand Side of State House, 



p. O. Box, 473. No Liijuor Sold on the Premises. 



Near Kay St., - Newport, R. I., 

Where first-class teams, both single and double, can be had 
at short notice and reasonable prices. 

oislTTORSE-SHOEING done in the most neat and approved 
'^lill.manner. Also, Carriage Work and General 
Jobbing in Blacksmithing done 
with neatness and dispatch. 


No. 7 West Broadway, Newport, R. I. 

Washington Square, Newport, R. I. 

Edward Otto, 

Fine Tailoring, 



cc \aivTvadc:ix\CUi\n. 

gp:orc;k gratrix. 
Saddle. Harness, and Trunk Manufacturer, 

IN HKOAI)\\.\^ , lO THAN KKS' BI.OfK, 
Newport, K. 1. 

Hepiiiriiifr llMfiii's^i-^ iiml 'rriinks ii Spccialt>. — 


^IGjcalcr in »:Papcr ^^-^tock and ^J^ctalA. 

Wdolcii Kai;s ;iii(l H.ittli's dfovorv ilescription. 

12 Ferry Wliarf, - Newport, l{. I. 

All Onlii- l*n.inj)tly Atl.iKK'd to. 

Geo. N. LiNEHAM. 

♦ Surgeon 


Sick or I,aiiu> Horses IJouidetl or attended at Owners' 
StaliU's. Colts broken, Ilol'scs Trained. 



(SiKitssor to Is:i;ic Lawtoii,) 

Dealer in Fresh. Salt, and Smoked Fish 

Of all kinds. 0\>-tirs, Clams, Lobsters, 
and' (^laluniijs. 

13 Long Wharf, - Newport, R. I. 

T-R-cqi.!)tcrcd : Pharmacist. 

Puic Drugs, Fine 'r.>il(.-l Rciiuisites, Soaps, Brushes, 
and PerfuMu-ry in threat variety. 

36 and 38 Broadway, Newport, R. I. 



Ag-i'iit lor the 

Allan, Cunard, Guion, Inman, and Hambufg 

Mail Steainsliip.s. 

Cabin and Stceia!,''e Pa-^sa^e Tickets to and from 
Liverpool, Viieenstown, (Jalway, Hamburg', Bremen, 
Paris. Kte. Information regarding the lines will lie 
cheerfully given. 

26 Kinsley's Wharf, Newport, R. I. 

Done in the nicsl luiit and rart In! niannir h\- 


No. 7 Farewell Street, Newport, R. I. 

(,)uarter-Craeks, Thrust-(."orns. and all of the 
foot treatccl carefully and i)roinptly. 

Park Place Stables. 

Wii'crtr and '^^oanliug ^tablc.**. 

Particular Attention Paid to Transient Horses. 

Cor. Spring and Touro Sts., near State House. 
Newport, R. I. 


Meats, Poultry, Game, Hams,' Tongues, Lard, Etc. 

hruil and \'ei;elaliks in lluir Season. 

42 Broadway, - Newport, R. i. 

Goods delivered to any part of the City free of Charge. 

KS r.'VIiLiSHKD, iSio. 


No. 43 Bridi^e .Stieet, Ne\> port, R. I. 


Wholesale Dealer in and Shipper of FISH, 

r.ohsters, Etc. Bait of all kinds in their Season. 

Also, Pleasure Boats to Let. 




Jobbing of all kinds a specialty. Orders can be left 

at iy2 Thames Street. 

Kvsiileiice, 44 Elui Sii-eet. P. O. J?o.\, lOi. 


Manufacturers of garryalb, juggled, 

Light Or<lerAVagons, Top and Express Wagons. 
All work \\'arranted. Special attention paid to Repairing. 
Cor. Npi-iii;; niid .Nlicrniiiii fits,, IVcwiiorl, K. 1. 

A. M. HOLM, 



I^ABIL llAMiPhlOTiHlH ^ H&MH.) 


Office, 2 Westminster, 


Corner of Dyer Street. 

The business of this tirm 


established by Eaki, Cahi'k.ntkr in iSjj, and it liys maintained the reputation for fair 
prices and prompt service earned by its founder. 


Dyspeptic Remedy 

and Piiritter of the 

Blood. Operating' 


Pain or Sickness 

of the stomach. 
Always Safe. 


Dr. Seth Arnold's Cough Killer. 

A Sure, Safe, and Speedy remedy for Colds, Coughs, and all 




That afflict the human family. It has cured inany zvho have been pronounced 

by eminent physicians to have seated CONSUM'TTION and to 

be past all hope. 

We warrant the above to give satisfaction, or to refund the money, to parties strictly 
following directions. Price, 25 cts., 50 cts., and $ 1.00 per bottle. 

Dr. Seth Arnold's Eye- Water, or Rose Compound, 

For Recent or Chronic Inflammation of the Eyes. 











// relieves Infantile pains and all 
spasmodic affections of the stomach 
and bowels. (Recom^mended by w,ulti= 
iudes of Mothers and Nurses who 
have extensively used it. 

^rice, 25 ^^-S- P^'^ bottle. 

Tlirne MefliciiieH are all conipoiiiidrd and 

put up M-ith great care, and ^vilh 

iinrnryiii}; uuiforiiiily, niid 

from the purcHt and bent 

drugs iu the market, 

by the 



At their Laboratory, Woonsocket, R. I. 






' ^ T TT T -TTurr ■» •» 


UK. SI. I ]i M, Mil,!) S UKSIDKNCi;. 



»— '• 







3<'^Y^-i*i^e:i F-7.'N?^^h.nL4^w^i<^'.i^'i^A^WA,'-v^^^ 


WM. 1TIA!90!V. 




Cotton Yarns i Twilled Goods, 


^11 Uos. Yarn, from J\/o. 6 to bo, Single or Tivisted. 


Office, 27 Custom House Street, Providence, R. L 


Dealer in 


Hollow Ware, and Sheet Zinc. 

Manufacturer of 

Copper, Sheet 

Iron, and 

Tin Ware, 

295 Broad St., Providence, R. I. 

General Job Worlc done to order at Short Notice. 


Manufacturer of 


Cloth, Soap, Candle, Boot, Shoe, and 
IMediciiie Boxes, 

City Planing Mills, 


All vork luaryantid to ffive satisfaction, and 
OKI- pritcs low as the lov'est. 

Ladies' and Gentlemen's Fine Boots and Shoes, 

Of every desirable style, made to measure from the very Choicest Brands of hnported Stork. 


4^ All work Hand-sewed, giving' a ilexibility which insures the- wearer ease and comfort, and jjives a style 
and dnrability that cannot he obtained any other way. 


179 Broad St, J. S. BAGLEY,Mil«nc«.Ai: 










Healiiiji^ and Cooking Stoves of the most approved patterns, Refrigerators, 
('hildren's Carriages, Tin, >Vooden, and Japanned AVare. 

Kitchen Furnishing Goods. 

An unequaled ass )rti"nent of First-Class Goons. 
TIN ROOFING and work in Copper, Tin and Sheet Iron, at Satisfactory Prices. 


Formerly James Famks, then Fames & Root, and now 

HENRY T. ROOT, - 144 Westminster Street, Providence, R, 1. 

Charles F. Taylor, 



Cop Tube 


00 LD >rEr>AL. 


5 Custom House Street, - Providence, R. I. 

I mil prcpiircd to fiirnisli my I'litciit Miichim- Paper Cop Tubes for Mulos of all inukfs, iiicluiiing tlic 

Fniiiklin Foiniilr,\-, Hill, Slnsoii, .Janu's S. Mrown, Sharp & itoberts, Uiildi'ford, Lowi'll, Kail lUAt-r, 

Smith ami Uriiit'shiir;*- Mules of American .Manufacture ; and the Piatt Urothors. Parr, Curtis 

\- Madcly, 'J'aylor, Lan>f & Co., Win. HiKKins& Sons, and Dobsrm & Hiirlow Mules 

of Enjflish manufacture, and other sizes to order. 

A OOIiD MEDAIi was awarded those Tubes at the E.xhibltlon of the Massachusetts CImtitable 

Mechanic Association in IHO'j, and for the opinion of practical manufacturers 1 refer to the following-; 

Lonsdale Company, 

Providence, U. I. 

Merrimack Manura(;turln(i: Co., 

Lowell, Mass. 

A. & W. Sprag-ue .Manufg 


" " 

Mas.-taohusetts Cotton Mills, 

" " 

Manyille (.'ompany, 

" " 

Appli'ton (.'ompaiiv. 

" " 

Wauregan Mills, 

" " 

Auioskeag ManufacturiiiK Co., 

Manchester, N. H. 

Harmony Mills, 

Cohoes, N. y. 

Lockwooii Company, 

Waterville, Me. 

I'tica Steam Cotton Mills, 

Utica, N. Y. 

Peppcrell .Mills, 

Biddetord, Me. 

Lyinan Mills, 

Holyoke, Mass. 

Brownsville Manufacturing Co., 

Brownsville, Tenn. 








Blank Book Manufactory, 








Or Made to any Desired Pattern. 






H. M. Coombs. N. J. Smith. 



..<*>. J^ 





; ^., ^<', S5?"-' 

X O 


<5: O 

fn C-i 

t .^^ 





^ 3 
»3 ^ 

O O 

-U 3 

5 = 

-.» CD 




2 2 

























^ Ml 



"' %J' 




gBllMB ES^-I^ 




S ' ? ' a) 


I^if^rfFn Si^Fnsils. 




Boynton Improved Gas-Tight Furnaces I Eddy's Standard Refrigerators. 

Manufacturers of COPPER, TIN and SHEET-IRON GOODS. Plumbing and 

Plumbers' Materials. Particular attention given 

to Metal Roofing. 

Nos. 129 & 131 Broad Street, 

(Opposite Narragansett Hotel,) 





Brown & Sharpe Mf'g, Co,, 


Manufacturers of Fine Machinery, Sewing Machines, 

Patented Articles, Universal and Plain Milling- Machines, Grinding, Screw and Tapping Machines. Screw 

Finishing and Polishing Machines, Reels, Assortcrs, Scales and Testers for Koving and Yarn, 

lor Cotton and Woolen Manufacturers' use. Patent Cutters for Gear Wheels, and 

for Taps, Reamers, Twist Drills, Irregularly Formed Sewing Machine 

and Gun Parts, Milling and Screw Slotting Cutters. 

PATTERN AND WORKING GEARS Made or Gut. INDEX PLATES Made or Drilled to Order. 

Darling. Brown & Sharpe, 





Patent Hardened Cast Steel Try Squares, the American Standard Wire Gauge, Bevel Protractors, 
Hardened T Squares and Bevels, Centre Gauges. 

Steel. German Silver, and Boxwood Triangular Scales, Vernier Calipers, Caliper Scjuares and Rules, Plumb 
Bobs, Paper Drawing Scales, "Willis" Odontographs, Steel Straight Edges and T Square Blades. 






Nicholson File Company 

' tfiNi W^ e<^ c^ ;^ "a-^is tS3 ^aJj ttgb z^ ' c<s^ :^ ' * 


Filers Tools, Butchers' Steels, 

Etc., Etc. 




2^ BUS I n E S S ; I P ^ ME8 o --• ■ RjBaJDE^S L^ 






p: S 

£ n 













o a 

CO : p 





■* n 

' I 

=■ ei 

s « 

? 3 

o n 

■•* o 

J * 

CD c 

-^ n 

■^ p^ 

Z B 

«« & 

m T 

3 p^ 

(B 3- 

3 n 

? a 

;: n" 

3 P4i 







3 " 

CD I/) 













an/eei an 



Ro, 31 Weybosset Street. 


mmaf t 





No. 575 High Street, 


^-!-5 ♦» 5^- 


Marble and Granite Work Constantly on Hand. 


THE Lowest Prices. 


I. p. EDDY, 

-255- 7^X7X11^7 QT^ 'BURROWS' 

HIGH ST., ,; J_-/1_j1 N 1 lO 1 ,i BLOCK. 

Cor. High and Dean Streets, Proyidence, U. I. 



Blank Book Manufacturers and Lithographic Printers, 

21 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 





!# BH^IEE^S S II? ^JEJXE S ^S ^ KHODE I^ ILJl 12 1) 






« i> ? ~^~^ ' t"» ) ■ k i *- 


Ofl&ce and Salesroom, 11 Maiden Lane, New York; Factory, 104 Eddy St., Providence, B. I. 

Sole Manufacturers of the 

Patent Stiffened 

Watc ft Seises* 

The Best and Most Durable, 

And the Cheapest 


For the Money, 

All genuine Watch Cases of our manufacture have " G. W. Ladd's Patent, June ii, 1S67," stamped 
upon the side band, underneath the glass bezel. 


Key and Stem-winding, Hunting and Open-face, in Flat, Bevel, Mansard and Oval Shapes, adapted to the various 
American-made movements, in 8, lo, 14, 16 and jS sizes. Send for full Descriptive Circular to the 


Dealers can obtain them of the Wholesale Watch and Je\velry Houses, or their Traveling Agents throughout the United 

States and British Provinces. 






i»^3fJlSt :^->tsKg^J 

















• v' 






One of the Largest, Best Appointed, Most Elegant, and Comfortable 

Hotels in New England, for either Transient or Permanent Guests, 

AND the only First-Class Hotel in Providence. 




(^LEEN INSrRANCK CO.. Liverpool. 
UNION' INSI'KANCP: CO, California. 




Poliri«-» >vritlfii for lirr VfiirM on biiMiiia-HH, buililiiiVH, <lMrliiiiy;n mid t'lii-iiitiii-f. 

French, Mackenzie & Co. 


tfJ If If Wh ^7^ HB <<! 


Providence, R. I. 







Irooiii t^i^fierst 

r.i:.\ I m:K i!, 





39 Woybosset S<., Providonro, R. I. 





The Great House-Furnishing Depot 


Their Palatial Store is filled to repletion with all the articles necessary to house-keepers, at 



500 ROLLS. 500 ROLLS. 

Body and Tapestry Brussels. Extra Supers. C-Plys, Ingrains and Hemps, at lowest living prices. 

■^i^ar tor t Furititur s^«^ 

In Hair-Cloth, Rep, Raw Silk, Plush and Terry, at prices from $35.00 to $350.00. 

Chaiber Furniture. 

In Black Walnut, Mahog-any. Ash, Chestnut. Also, 

our own Painted Chainlier Sets at priues from 

$,20.00 to $150.00. 

Kitchen Furniture. 

Everything the House-keeper needs. 

Math J ^mrmmge^S Mmkj Qmi'FmgeM! 

The finest assortment Providence has ever seen. Your choice from $6.00 to $4:0.00. 


The celebrated PALACE and QUEEN are superior to all for their peculiar cooling' and preserving qualities 
Everything at Hard Pan Prices for CASH, or on their Liberal System of CREDIT, 


Broad and Eddy Streets, Providence, R. I. 



'- ■ - - -^ff-'^|-~'^"^'^^y-'™5 




Fletcher Manufacturing Co. 





STOVE WICKS, all sizes, in Stock and to Order. 




SPECIAL WICKS /^'^^ '"*'*""*"'■ GLACE, PLAIN, 

^:^^ Braids and Bobbins. 


From No. 5 to 60, in Skeins or on Spools. 

Harness and Seine Twines, Wrapping Twines, Braided and 
Twisted Spindle Banding. 

If Complaints are made of the Burning Qualities of any 
"Petroleum Oils,'' try the 

Fletcher Manufacturing Co., 

Sole Manufacturers of the "NEW ACME" Wick. 





X^Wl^lTtE^^^ IB^U^^^B o BHOjDE I SJuJl 12 D 


Gold and Silver Refiner, 


74 Clifford Street, Providence, H. I. 

Fine Gold, Silver and Copper 


') ^*V'J ^^v.. 

Gold and Silver Coin for the Trade. 



Manchester & Hudson 


MASONS' Building Materials 


Pressed, Moulded and Common Brick. 

American and Scotch Fire Brick in all Qualities. 
















North River Blue Stone. 






Chimney Caps, Chimney Tops, Wind Guards, Oven Tile, Land Plaster, Marble Dust, Etc., Etc. 

Kstiinates furnished on any Avork connet'ted witli our l>, 
and satisfaction guaranteed. 

Offices, 354 EDDY, and 35 WEYBOSSET STREETS, 

Wharf and Yards, foot of Elm Street, 



The Leading Orp of the World 









Is the Only Upright Piano-forte ever used as a Solo 
Instrument in public concerts by eminent artists. 

Made from the best materials and 


168 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 




Fire^Marine Insurance. 


Providence Washington 


CASH CAPITAL, 400,000.00 

J. H. DeWolf, President. J. B. BRANCH, Secretary, 

George E. Bixby, isst secretary. 


Wm. S. Slater, Resolved Waterman, Howland Hazard, J. 11. DeWolke, \Vm. Grosvenor, Jr., 

W.M.Ames, IIenkv J. Steere, Chas. E. Paine, Hknrv L. 1'arso.ns, F. W. Carpenter, 

R. I. Gammell, E. Philip Mason, Royal C. Taft, Elgene W. Mason, 

John S. Palmer, Daniel Day. 

Providence, R. 1. 






Daily Excursions! Summer Time-Table ! 

Rocky Point, Conanicut ParkiMewport. 

Commencing Monday, June 27th, 


Crystal Wave, for Rocky Point, Conanicut Park and Newport, at 8.55 A.JM. 

DayStar, " " " ' |y-XX .. 

C^^ W^l^to^'lSy I&rc^nanicut PaVk-^ 

Day Star, for Rocky Point only, at. 4.W 

Bay Queen, for Rocky Point, Conanicut Park and Newport, at o.OO 


Bay Quepn, for Conanicut Park, Rocky Point and Providence, at 7.00 A.M. 

&ystaiwave, ;; ;; :: : ,, ., ";••;■■:■.■ :"■.■.■.•.■.■.■.;■::.:::::;;.::;; lioo P.M. 

Daybtar. ^^ ^, ., .i ,; ,, , or, i. 

Crystal Wave, " *•"*" 


, at 8.30A.M. i DayStar,at 2.00 P. M. 

Bay Queen, 
Bay Queen, at. 


Day Star, at 5.00 

Crystal Wave, at 5.30 

Crystal Wave, at 12.30 P. 


Leave Providence at 9-00 A. M., 10.00 A. M., 11.00 A. M., 13.10 P. M., 1.05 P. M., 3.00 P. M., 3.00 P. M., 4.00 P. M., 

side for Providence and intermediate landing-s at 7.50 A. M. 


Providence to Rocky Point and retm-n ... ._. 40 cts. 

Children over 4 and under 13 years, 3o cts. 

Providence to Conanicut Park and return 60 cts. 

Providence to Newport and return — •■■■•••;,; ;; • ■ ; '^ ^^^' 

^ Children over 4 and under 13 years, 50 cts. 

Newport to Rocky Point and return. 40 cts- 

*^ Children over 4 and under 15 years, 25 cts. 


Providence to Rocky Point 2.^ cts. 

Conanicut Park tn t 

" -Newport o^ + ' 

Newport to Rocky Point -^ cts. 


To Field's Point, Ocean Cottage and Silver Spring 20 cts. 

To Riverside and Bullock's Point «q m ^ 

30 Passage Tickets, 10 Round Trips to Rocky Point. :»d.w 

3Q " "10 " Prudence or Conanicut Park o.UO 

20 " "10 " Newport 6.00 


4^ " 5 " Field's Point, Ocean Cottage and Silver Spring 80 cts. 

•' " 5 " Riverside or Bullock's Point — 1-00 

I^^ No Intoxicating Drinks sold on the Boats or Grounds. Special arrangements for Sabbath Schools, 
Societies, Military Organizations, Moonlight Excursions, or Special Charter can be made upon application to 

N. F. HALIiETT, Superintendent, 

At the Office, Dyer, Foot of Hay Street. 








Siluer piatci Parcilanci) ^ooh, 

Gas Fixtures and Kerosene Goods, Etc., Etc. 

n ^''^■j 

Special attention given to Furnishing Hotels, Restaurants and Boarding-Houses. 

Aiajoricci Ware in Vartetj|* 




W, 6, DINNER SETS, "i::iL. 126 PIECES FOR $10. 

'I'hc liirK-t'St set of I'KUhKCT Croi'kcry ever olI'iTcil in Xow KiijflHiul. 

The very best quality of Three Dollar Plated Knives, and a large store full of 
desirable goods, which I offer at the lowest prices. 


176 and 178 Westminster Street, Corner Union. 










q P5 

g 02 w = 

>^ 125 S " 

^^ 'T' i-H fl-, 


*^ ^ 5 

t;^ ^ 9 
fVi pq c5 

O 03 02 

H 03 03 

W W g 

<J g S 

W rt S 

fM <j P 

p n 

34 O 

^ o 






o W 

>> g 


O . 

-i^ ^ 

2 M 

^ o 
~ o 

1' S 

to O 

H a 







¥5 i«l 3€ 


X I li If il IS.- ia ^ tJE ffi QE 


This magnificent Hotel, with facil- 
ities for the accommodation of 
Three Hundred Guests, 
will Re-open 

-{Js^^ FOB TMK ^E 

It is surrounded by a Piazza 500 feet long and 12 feet wide, and is illuminated Uiroughout witli gas. Each room 
is supplied with hot and cold water. Billiard-Rooms and Bowling Alleys are among other attractions. A fine bath- 
ing Beach lies in close proximity, connected with the hotel by concrete walks. The Beach is unsurpassed as a prom- 
enade, and the advance and receding of the boisterous waves from the mighty deep on the calm, level land, when 
viewed from the Blufts, presents a scene which one never tires of gazing at. 

This hotel directly faces the open sea. The rooms are large and airy, commanding a fine view of the broad 
Atlantic, which stretches out as far as the eye can reach, to where the sea and sky seem to meet. Watch Ilill is easy of 
access from Boston and New Vork, being within a few hours ride of either. For terms, etc., address 

D. F. LARKIN & CO., 

Watch Hill P. 0., R. I. 




Your attention is called to the accommodations and advantages afforded to Winter boarders by the Larkin Housb, 
situated on the St. John's River, Palatka, Florida, which will be open about December 15, iSSi, for the reception of 
guests in pursuit of an equable climate, combined with the recreations of fishing, gunning, boating, etc. Persons of 
delicate health, seeking the protection of a mild and steady temperature, where the thirmometer seldom falls below 
60 degrees, will find our House the largest and finest on the St. John's River. It is south of Jacksonville and St. Au- 
gustine, and has room fi>r two hundred and fifty persons, and is arranged with all the modern conveniences. 

For further particulars, address 


D. F. LARKIN, of Larkin House, w*tch h.ll r i 




Old Colony Steamboat Company. 

The Magnificent Steamers of this Line, the 


are now on the route for the season of 1881. During the past winter they have undergone the usual 
thorough overhauling, and are now fitted with every requirement for the convenience, comfort, and 
safety of passengers. 

Leave Newport for New York daily, week days, at 8.45 P. M. Sundays, at 
9.45 P. M., or on arrival of boat from Fall River. 

JvQwport l^tne* 

On Monday, June 20, the Steamers 


Commanded hy careful and experienced officers, will commence their trips for the summer season, 
between New York and Newport. Tliese vessels have undergone a thorough overhauling, and extensive 
repairs and improvements have been made, greatly increasing their attractions. It is the determination 
of the management to make this a strictly first-dass line, and nothing will be spared which will add to the 
comfort and convenience of patrons. It will be run for the accommodation of travel to and from the 
summer resorts and important points local to the Old Colony R. R. (there will be no Boston connection), 
and is especially designed for the better accommodation of the Newport travel. Double the number of 
stale-rooms heretofore assigned to Newport have been allotted for the present season. 

Steamers leave Newport daily (Sundays excepted), at 8.00 P. M. 
Leave New York, from Pier 28 North River, at 6.00 P. M. 

State-rooms and Tickets for both of above lines can be secured at the New York and 
Boston Dispatch Kxpress Co.'s Office, Newport Gas Light Co.'s Building, 109 Thames 
Street. Tickets sold and Baggage Checked through to Philadelphia, Baltimore and 

J. R. KBNDRICK, Supt. 

J. A. JORDAN, Agent, Newport. 









of 1881 

Tliis delightful house li;is one of the finest locations on the Island, giving the most commanding and pleasing 
views. Arraiigcd for tlie accommodation of lOo guests. Easily accessible to the landing and bathing beach, and also 
to the boating and tishing grounds. It is well lighted and ventilated. The rooms are cosy and particidarly adapted 
to the convenience of guests. Its immediate surroundings afford every comfort and luxury. From its superior loca- 
tion it is one of tlie most famous Hotels on the Island. The gentlemanly proprietor is well known as a caterer to the 
public, and his table will always be supplied with the delicacies of the season to add to its attractions. Tourists 
will do well to visit this resi>rt. Ke-opcns June 15, iSSi. For further information aildress the proprietor, 

ABIJAH BROWNING, Narragansett Pier, B. I. 


This Hotel is pleasantly located at Narragansett i-'ier, R. I., being fifty feet above, and only live hundred feet from 

tlie Sea. Nearly every room 


And all are well furnished. It is within convenient distance from the Post Office and Bathing ISeach. The Surf 
Bathing of Narragansett Pier is unsurpassed on the Atlantic Coast. Guests will receive every attention to make their 
stay at the MASSASOIT pleasant and agreeable. Those desiring rooms for the season should apply early. 

N. G. BURR, Superintendent. 



iil#t§» 4WW 41881.1- 

Southern Hotel, 

H. W. GREENE, Proprietor, 

Narragansett Pier, R. I. 


This Hotel is the finest located of any on the Bay. It 
directly faces the open sea. Its view from the piazza pre- 
sents a scene of grandeur that beggars description. The 
rooms are airy, and command a fine view of the broad At- 
lantic; the Beach is the finest in the country, and is unsur- 
passed as a promenade. The House has been newly 
painted, thoroughly renovated, re-furnished from top to 
bottom, and it is the intention of its Manajjer to rank this 
Hotel on the list as, "A No. 1." Its immediate surround- 
ings afford every comfort and luxury to pleasure -seekers. 
Here Boating, Bathing, and Fishing abound. Well 
knowing the demands made by the public for a hotel the 
year round, the proprietor takes the liberty to inform the 
Guests and Patrons that he will be unsparing in his efforts 
to merit their fullest approbation. The table will be sup- 
plied at all times with a variety of the best the market 
affords. For terms, address 

Southern Hotel, 

H. W. GREENE, Proprietor. 
A Good Livery Connected with the House. 

Geo. H. Spicer, 

eC^pfekt®!^ ^Wlt K. U. 

New and Second-Hand Carriages 

Al^vay8 on Hand, for Sale or 

Painting, Repairing , Etc, 


Narragansett Pier R. R. 

Connecting at KINGSTON with the New York, Provi- 
dence, and Boston Railroad, and at NARRAGAN- 
SETT PIER with Steamer H. S. Caswell 

Summer Arrangement, 

Beginning JUNE 27, 1881. 

Leave Providence for Narragansett Pier 6.45 and 9.40 A. 
M., 2 05, 4.00, 7.10 and 7.35 P. M. 

Return leave Narragansett Pier 7.15 and 11.00 A. M., 
2-oS. i-iS ^nd 6.50 P. M. 

Leave Boston for Narragansett Pier at 8.00 A. M., i.oo, 
2.00, 5.30 P. M. 

Return leave Narragansett Pier at 7.15 and 11.00 A. M., 
2.05, 5.3s and 6.50 P. M. 

Leave New London for Narragansett Pier at 6.25 and 
10.20 A. M.,, 4.55 and 6.10 P. M. 

Return leave Narragansett Pier at 7.15 and 9.50 A. M., 
2.05 and 4.10 P. M. 

Leave New York for Narragansett Pier via Shore Line at 
S.oo and S.05 A. M., i.oo and 2.00 P. M. via Stonington 
Line at 5.00 P. M. 

Return leave Narragansett Pier via Shore Line at 9.50 A. 
M., 2.45 and 2.05 P. M. via Stonington Line at 7.30 and 
*8.oo P. M. * Sundays only. 

G. T. LANPHEAR, Supt. 




Via Narragansett Pier, 



Leaves NEWPORT at T.-SO A. M. and 1.00 P. M.; pas- 
sengers arriving at NEW YORK at l.SS and 7.45 P. M. 

Passengers leave NEW YORK (Grand Central Depot) 
at 8.05 A. M. and 1.00 P. M. ; arriving at NEWPORT 
at 4.15 and 7.40 P. M. 


Newport and Narragansett Pier. 

Leaves NEWPORT at 7.30 A. M., 1.00 and 5.30 P. M. 
Leaves NARRAGANSETT PIER 9.30 A. M., and 
3.20 and 6.40 P. M. 

REGULAR FARE, 50 cts. 
ROUND TRIP, - 75 cts. 

J. C. TUCKER, Jr., Agent. 





I'ndcr the iiiaiiasrtineiitof its iircscnt owner and proprietor, 
E. S.Taylor. It commands an unbroken view of the Ocean, 
and is within a few rods of the Beach. Since its erection 
it has underjrone vast improvements. Mr. Taylor needs no 
comments of the press to phice him on the list as an un. 
rivaled hotel caterer. The table will maintain its former 
reputation, and be supplied with all the delicacies of the 
season. The Pier is well known to possess properties 
highly recommended by physicians for invalids. The 
Narragansett will reopen for the season of iSSi, June 
15. All communications should be addressed to 

E. S. TAYLOR, Proprietor, 

Narragansett Pier, B. T. 


F. P. W. TEFFT, Prop., 

Having leased the above house, I would inform the pub- 
lic th.1t I shall open for the season of iSSi, June 22. Its 
present management will be under the supervision of 
Mr. F. P. \V. Tkfft, late of the Atlantic. Havinsi 
severed my connection with Mr. Browning, after eleven 
years as a public caterer, I feel contident in oflcring to the 
numerous patrons of shore resorts a place that will merit 
their fullest approbation. The house has been thoroughly 
cleansed and renovated, and the manager will guarantee 
for its excellence, standing second to none at the Pier; 
its grounds are adorned with beautiful, shady trees, from 
which it derives its name; its appointments are for the 
accommodation of 100 guests and it is in close proximity to 
tlie beach. Particular attention will be given to the 
cuisine, and nothing will be left undone that would please 
the most exacting guest. For terms, address 

F. P. W. TEFFT, Prop., 
Narragansett Pier, R. I. 




This imposing structure, which, by its late improve- 
ments is rendered one of the most desirable hotels at the 
Pier, will reopen for the season of iSSi, June lath. In 
1S54, its present owner and proprietor, J. H. Rodman, well 
knowing the requirements of tlie public, erected this build- 
ing and opened its doors to the pleasure-seekers of New 
England, and has since then maintained a reputation 
well worthy of the public approbation. Its commanding 
location, combined with many noteworthy improvements, 
commends this widely-known house totliose seeking first- 
class quarters for tlie summer. Description and prices of 
rooms cliei-rtully given by addressing 


Sole Owner and Proprietor, Revere House, 
Narrasansett Pier, R. I. 


Having made improvements the past winter, this house 
will open its fifteenth season on Monday, June 13, 1S81. 

This popular ht>use is retired from Main Street, on which 
it is situated, having an elegant lawn in front. The jiurest 
water, spacious and well-ventilated rooms, together with 
pleasant drives in the vicinity, ofl'er attractions to the 
seeker after health and pleasure that cannot be suri)assed. 

The table will be supplied with the best the market af- 
fords. My terms are moderate. 

The climate here is superior to that of Newport, and 
cannot be surpassed in New England. The beach, tvhich 
is not equaltd in the United States, might with propriety 
be termed the principal attraction. At no time does the 
surf become dangerous, and there is no uiuUrtow, as the 
beach is well protected by outlying headlands, tlius making 
it quite free from the dangerous undertow so prevalent at 
many of our popular bathing resorts. 

James Thomas, who has been with me as clerk and 
steward for the past eleven years, will be with me again as 
Clerk. All applications should be addressed to 

Hetatozet House, Narragansett Pier, £. I. 

Two Cottages to let (urni>licd about 120 yards frmn my hotel. 






This House, having' been improved and 
enlarged to twice its former size, is now 
capable of accommoiiating' from one hun- 
dred and fifty to two hundred guests. The 
sleeping- apartments are large and airj-, and 
the view cannot be excelled at the Pier. 
Every effort on the part of the Proprietor 
and employes will be made to make the 
House attractive and home-like. Will open 
its 15th season JTUIVE SO, 1881. 

The Beach for Bathing and Driving is 
uneciualed on the Atlantic coast— a good 
surf and always safe. Sailing, Fishing, 
Shooting, and the drives over the country 
are attractive. Hot and cold Salt Water 
Baths are among the added attractions at 
the Beach at Narragansett. Termn Reason- 
ahlr. All applications promptly responded 
to. J. A. TUCKEK, Prop'r. 



fSuccessor to Westerly Carriage Co.,1 


Especial attention given to jftrst-class CUSTOM Work. 
Remember the place, IBo. 16 HIGH ST, WESTERLY, R. I. 



Westerly, - R. I. 

We sell all the leading Organs and Pianos at lowest 
figures, and are Special Agents for the J. K Blake, Chick- 
ering, Knabe, Geo. Woods, and Weber Pianos; New 
England, Geo. Woods, and Smith American Organs. 

Sheet Music, Music Books, Stationery, Brackets, 
Pictures, Croquet, and Ba'se-Ball Supplies. 

Cornice and Room Mouldings. Our Picture Framing 
Department is by far the most complete in this section. 
Frames cheaper than ever. 


Dealer in Fine Coach and Single Harness, 

West Broad St., Westerly, K. I. 

Dealer in Cement Pipe, Coal, Wood, Hay, 

,)iid .S7/-,77!'. E..F. Cars Phosphate and Storkhridge 


Blain Street, Westerly, R. I. 


#'tiMi© ^hslaf mplefg, 









'ygr'-yi -."^Ti 

iUt.:nUal:.fc«* ihsi3*!> >!k:»^ 




Boot, Shoe and Corset 

No. 9 Calender St., Providence, R.l. 

F. S. THAYER & CO., 

Dining -Rooms. 

Weddings and Parties Supplied with Cake, Ice 
Cream, Etc., Etc. 

JVos. 171 and J7:j 3/ a in Street, 

BfM |B.ooins, 

275 High street, - Providence, R. I. 

/■: S TAB LI SHE IJ, /S6j. 


Made on Patent Plate. 

S. S. White's Teeth, 

Chemically Pure Cias used for extracting 
teeth without pain. 


Keeps the Horse's Hack 
' Cool, 

Manufactured by 


— AND — 

Prevents Chafling. 


Arc maclc in all st> Ics ami colors of biiiiliiiy^s. for ('oncli, (^oiipc, ICx|>r<-HN, llciivy or 'I'rack Ilai-nciia, 

and tor the Micccliintr and|ilat<-. 
For Niilt; Ity all ■■'irMl-f 'laMM llariiCNM ITIakrrH niifi .lobbfrn of Nn<l<ll<>ry. 

Buttonwood Beach Hotel ! 

'I'liis Hotel, lotitf known to the public as a fa\'oiit(,', 
will reopen June O, ISSl. 

Its api)oiiitnients are for the accommodation of 
about 90 (guests. Its location is very desirable to those 
wishing a (luiet and retired place. The rooms are latRc 
and in suites, richly and tastefully furnished. The cin- 
xini: of the house is eiiual to any in the country. The 
surf for bathinjf here is always moderate, and the 
rooms command a delightful view. The- I'roprictor, 
well known as a i)Ublic cati;rer, will be unsparing in liis 
efforts to merit the full approbation of its uumuruus 
patrons. For terms, a<idress, 

SAMUEL D. SPINK, Proprietor, 

Biiitoiruiood Biiick Hotel, Warwick, R. /. 



WM. H. BILLINGTON, Prop'r., 

('or. Ocean Ave. ami Kxelianu:e Place, 




Top and Kxpress \>'agoiis, etc. 

Kepairing' and all kinds of IllacksmithiniLC done with 

neatness and dispatch. 
ITIrclinnic, cor. IVchI Broad Ml.,AVciitcrly, R. I. 




This popular " Home in the Ocean," enlarged and improved to meet the demand of its extended patronage is 
situated upon a beautiful green bluff, over one hundred feet above the surf. It is fanned continually by Tresh 
breezes from the Atlantic, and commands a magnificent view of OCEAN SCENERY from three sides. " 

The house is lighted with gas, furnished with bath-rooms, has perfect drainage, large airy rooms, runnino- water 
on each floor, steam laundry, good livery, regular physician, dailv mails. " 

Every room in the Hotel, including Parlors, Reception-Rooms, etc., connected with the Office with the latest 
system of Electric Bells, and Haltzer's Indicator. 

The Table and Service will be kept at the Highest Standard. 

Supplies. Fresh fruits and meats received daily from the best markets; the chickens, ego-s, milk and 
vegetables will be furnished from the Ocean View farm. 

Drinking Water. A new spring has recently been discovered near the hotel, which will be amply sufficient 
to supply the whole house with delicious drinking -water. 

Library. A choice library has been placed in the bazar of the hotel for the accommodation of guests. 
Ocean View Cottage. A large and beautiful double cottage has been built for families who desire the privacy 
and quiet of their own homes. 

The cottage is situated on high ground, a short distance northwest of the Ocean View, and commands a fine 
vieiv of the ocean and harbor. It contains nineteen elegant rooms (t\vo parlors and seventeen sleeping-rooms), and 
has broad piazzas extending on three sides of the building. 

The whole building is lighted with gas, is supplied with running water, and, in short, has all the improvements 
which are necessary for convenience and comfort. 

The cottage is connected with the hotel by telephone. 

Sub-Marine Cable. A sub-marine cable (an item of great interest to business men) has been laid, connecting 
the island with the mainland. Transmitting office near the hotel. Send for circular. 

0. S. MARDEN, Manager. 







This Hotel (situated close to the beach) has recently come umicrthe manajjenicntof the Ocean View Hotel, and will 
he run in connection with it; where those who may desire a more quiet or less expensive summer home, and at the same 
time be privileged with the social enjoyments of tlie larger house, can be pleasantly and agreeably entertained. 

The Peqj.'OT was built in 1S79, and is located only a short distance from the Ocean View, near the steamboat 
landing and bathing beach. The rooms are pleasant, newly lurnished, and nearly all of them have a fine ocean view; 
the parlors attractive, the dining-hall cool and comfortiible, the table excellent, and the service throughout prompt and 
efficient. Offices of the PEquor and Ocean \'iew arc connected by telephone. Send for Circular. 

O. S. HARDEN. Manager. 

NICHOLAS BALL, Proprietor. 


Cor. Broad and Main Streets, Pawtucket, R. I. 

Pleasantly sitiiiited. Flrst-cliiss in all its iippKiiitmi'iits. I^cry iittt'iitioii given to the wants and com- 
fort of its guests. Tables well supplied with the the market affords. 

3VLH.. J". Xj. l\Xor'-A-I=LXj-A.3MI>, X^ro^D., 

Late uf the Rollstone Hotel, Fitiliburg, Mass. 

Special Rates to Troupes and Commercial Travelers. 

SEASON OF 1881. 


The Celebrated Spring from which it derives its name, supplies the House, and possesses properties, as a tonic, 
highly recommended for invalids. Here the weak may seek and find rest. The rooms are neat and tastefully fur- 
nished. The proprietor, well-known to tin- jMililii-, will be iin-pariiiu of lii>. ctlo!!'- to nu-rit the approval of its guests. 
The Heach offers iiulucements for BATHING, BOATING AND FISHING. 

F„„ TKUMs a,..„:kss, g g MITCHELL, Jr., 

ProprJrtov Sj>i'fnf/ ironsc, - - BLOCK ISLAND, h\ I. 





Wm. Russell, Jr., 


Anti -Bilious Pills. 


Camphorated Ice 


Special Attention 

Paid to Dispensing 

■DecLlei^ VTX 





913, 915 and 921 Eddy Street, Providence, R. I. 



Sole Agent!* t'oi- 


For the State of Rhode iMlniKl. 

Office, No. 12 Market Square, 

Resideiu-e, Carter Street, P. O. I5ox, 769. 

PH0¥IDINCE; b, l 

Malei-ini!) ITIanufactiiretl by / 
IVe^v Enslaiid Felt Roofiug C'o. \ 


The New York Carpet Beating and Steam Cleansing Co., 

106 HOSPITAL STREET, near Point, 

the Carpets are thoroughly steamed, which results in g-iving them a deeidedly bright and new appearance. 
Thirdly, the Carpets are dried by a hot cylinder — thus the renovating and restoring the carpet to its original 

condition is assured. .....= ^i, ^ c.^ n <. /i „ 

We positively have in our possession the Only Machine in the State that Steams Carpets, and we 
also have the Only Machine in this Scction''that will Wash and Scour woolen and rag carpets without 
ripping or in.iuring the colors. 

T. F. COLLINS, Prop. 

P. S. Orders may be left by Telephone at Mr. Charles Peterson's News Depot, Butler Exchange. 





'^^ySrr^Hr iil'M*'- >t^* 


New«York^» Furnishing*:^ house, 

. .?|z=II .>.f 3=|<. > 

Arnold, Buker & Miller, 



Furniture, Carpets. Feathers, Mattresses, Curtains, Furnaces, Stoves, Cutlery. Crockery, 

Glass Tin, Japan, iron and Wooden Wares, Etc. Also, Manufacturers of 

Tin and Sheet Iron Ware. Furniture neatly repaired. 

Also, Agents for 


254 and 256 Hig-h St., cor. Summer, Providence, R. I. 






(successors to wood «■ WINSOR ) 


Steam, Gas and Water Fittings 

■**0K KVERY UES<!R11"JI0N.**- 

Steam Heating Apparatus for Public Buildings, Private Dwellings, Etc. 

Steitin, Gas aud Water IMpliiy; In all Its IJiaiH-ht's. IJrass Finishing. 
Steam Gauges Tested and Repaired. 

Agents for Rue's " LITTLE GIANT " Injector. 









Warwick Neck, R. I. 

This Magnificent Hotel will be opened for the second season about June 15, 1881, under the man- 
agement of Elias Hotchkiss, formerly and for ten years proprietor of the St. James Hotel, New York. 
No pains .will be spared to render to his guests every luxury and convenience known. 

This Hotel is the finest located of any on our Bay, and offers attractions that none other affords; it 
presents a scene of grandeur that beggars description. The rooms are airy and command a broad view 
of the Atlantic. 

The Beach is unsurpassed as a promenade. A beautiful lake is in close proximity to the house. 
Bowling Alleys and Billiard Rooms are among its many attractions, and directly face the open sea. 

In the construction of the Hotel the interests of its patrons were at heart, and every department will 
be under the immediate supervision of the proprietor, who will guarantee for its excellence, standing 
second to none in the country. It is easily accessible by boat or rail, and the grounds are adorned by 
grand old oaks, from which the place derives its name. For terms, address 


Proprietor Oakland Beach Hotel, 


Or, until July ist, 37 West Thirty-Seventh St., New York City. 






^i»M'*t>»»j^a |iGg5 Elj^^ 







R. L HULL, - - General Manager. 

THE WESTLAND SAFETY Lamp is the only Lamp in which 

Kerosene Oil can be used with perfect safety, and is adapted 

to all places where artificial light is required. 

Also, Dealers in 

Gas Fixtures. 

Chandeliers, Pendants, 

Brackets, Hall Lights, 

Portable Stands, Etc. 


With best American and French Move- 
ments, all Qualities. 

Kerosene Fixtures. 

Chandeliers, Pendants, 

Brackets, Library Lamps, 

Hall Lights, Etc. 

Stand Lamps. 

In Bronze, Brass, Decorated, Etc. 

Bronzes and Ornaments, 

Polished Brass Goods, 
Sconces, Mirrors, 

Card-Stands, Etc. 


Finest Cut, Engraved and Etched. Also, 

Opal Goods. 

Plain and Decorated. 





fev^ BUSIRE § § 112 ^ JEHE S ^^ .- BHOBE I SL^BB. i 

HoRTON Bros.' 

No. 87 Westminster Street. 










And all Points North. 

l^^ew Yot^Ji:, I*hiladelphia, Balfiniot'e, Washington^ 

And all Points SOUTH. 

^^^ Portland f Bangor ^ and all points in the famous Lake and 

Fishing Regions of Maine and the Provinces. 

'^' Albany f Saratoga^ Niagara Falls, and all points West. 


nAriLl^ri ^/\r\0 su3Ix>ier season. 

Send to O. H. BRIGGS, Providence, R. I., for the New Book of Suiiiuier Exciir^^ions. 

'^"'' 'vZ\Z^TZ'::^2^u. R. W. E. CHAMBERLAm, Snpt . 



Spool Threads, Knitting Cotton, Cords, Braids, Tapes, Jind all kinds of Single 
and Two-ply Yarns, Indigo Blues and Fast Black, for Milling purposes. 


Of Everjr Description. 

No. 75 East Avenue, - Pawtucket, R. I. 

Jt^^All Goods in process insured against loss by tire.=CS 






AltCHIIlX |-. 


Hooin 17. Providen'CK, R. I. 



NO. 'i<» HEiJiOSSEr .STREET, Room ly. 

Providence, K. I. 




\'''. l«4 WE.STAftNSTER STREET, Room ,-. 
Pri.vidcncf, R. 1. 
.'^tirrevor of U'or/:. 




Rdiiin u>. Pnivklcncc, R. I. 




Providence, R. I. 




.Spixial alltntion given to Church 

Providence, R. I. 


ARt im i:c r, 

Providence, 15 . I. 

Elevator, NO. 6 EXCHANGE ST., 

Atlantic Building. Pruvidcnci-, R. I. 




General Afanagcr of tlie N. Y. Crayon Co. for tlie U. S. 

Pictures sold in Europe and in all the principal cities in 

the U. S. Room 3, Iloppin Homestead Building, 

Providence, R. I. 




Providence, K. 1. 

(•*iutl 0*-ugiinccv9. 




Sanitary Inspection a Specialty. Providence, R. I. 


suRVl•:^■()K .\\i) ti\ II. i;\(.ineI';r, 

14 WESTMI.VSTER ST., Merchants Rank Building, 

Room S, Providence, R. I. 

City and Suburban Surveyinfj in all its branches. 

I-itlioj^raphed .Map?-. 


civil. ENGINEER, 
Sanitary Eng'inecrinfr a Specialty. 




Providence, R. I. 


Civil. .\NI) IIS Dlt.M I.IC EN(;iNEER, 


Room No. C. Providence, R. I. 




p rofc-^^ionat -t- ® i r 




Successor 1 7 MA THE WS ON S TREE T, 
To Dr. William B. Dennis. Providence, R. I. 

Office Hours : Hoppin Horhestead Building, 

9 to 12.30 and 2 to 5. Providence, R. I. 

W. W. BRIDGE, D. D. S., 


Providence, R. I. 



L. L. Buckland, D. D. S., 

146 WESTMINSTER ST., Providence, R. I. 

W. p. CHURCH, D. D. S., 

Providence, R. I. 


Everything pertaining to the art of dentistry (both opera- 
tive and mechanical) is executed in the most careful and 
perfect manner at this long established office, 


M. W. & E. P. SMALL, 

Room 19, Brownell Building, 

Providence, R. I. 

Filling Teeth a Specialty. 

;6®" Take tlie Elevator and stop on third floor. 


369 WESTMINSTER ST., Providence, R. I. 

Best Sets of White's Permanent Gum Teeth for $10, and 
Warranted for 3 years. 



19 MANTON AVENUE, Ohieyville Square, 

Olneyville, R. I. 

Open Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. 

H. F. MARSHALL, D. D. S., 

Providence, R. I. 
Office Hours — 9 to i, 2 to j. 

DR. W. B. MEAD, 



Providence, R. I. 

F. N. & F. W. SEABURY, 


35. UNION ST., Rear 0/ Boston Store. 

Special attention given to the manufacture of Artificial 
Teeth on Gold, Platinum, Rubber, and Celluloid Plates. 





Providence, R. I. 

^wifttt^r* nntf ©ttgravcrs un itti>oJ»* 




Providence, K. T. 





Clfli. r, |'i7 I!ii>;id Street. Ri-sidoncc, 19 Chapiii Av< 

rK()\ii)i:N(. i;. 



Cyt^^/c^^-iite^i^ tZ'7^iZ 



Spicialties : Equity and Probate Practice, and 
Com merctal Litigation . 


.Vn OUNE'i .\NU C()L".\Si:i,()K AT LAW, 

Oilicc, No. 04 Norlli Main Street, Room 3, up one flight, 

Opp. First Bai)tlst Church, Providence, R. \. 


liutler Exchange, Providence, R. L 

IHrcljantral Ilraui;(l|t(vmntt. 


.MECIL\NIC-.\L I)l(.\l (.lllS.MAN, 

SI Westminster St., Providence, R. \. 

Designer and Inventor of Special Machinery, and Tools 

or Fixtures. Inventors or others assisted in perfecting and 

putting their ideas in form on paper, on in iron or other 

materials. Patent Drawings and .Slodels made. 

lltrlitral (r-lrctriciiiit. 


.i:W liroad St. 
J/r.c. Leffingv.;ll. 

Utitl C'ttciinrrr. 


Cotton. Mills a Specialty. 91 Westminster St. 



3S Dorrance Street, Providence, R. I. 
Don't Fail to Try our Patent Eye-Glasses. Special Atten- 
tion yiveii to Repairing. 

Oolicitoi-0 of Vatcnto, anli O'.vvcrte. 



U. S. and Foreign Patents. 

A thorough, jiractical, and scientific knowledge of the 
useful arts, and extensive experience, enables us to be of 
great assistance to Manufacturers and Inventors in perfect- 
ing useful improvements. 

Fourth Floor. 

*tti\t\)tv^ of Oinciiit^ anb lllueic. 



Room 14, Iliippin Homestead Building, 
Providence, R. I. 

ire Broad St., Providence, R. I. 
Agent for the Woodward & Brown Piano ; an instru- 
ment superior in volume, quality of tone, and elegance of 


Rooms in Butler Exchange, Providence. 

r $40 per quarter of 20 Lessons, i Lesson per 

TERMS • > ^^■'-■'-■'^ '^^* '"'"''• 

1 .$30 per quarter ot 20 Les.sons, 1 Lesson per 
(. week, ^ hour. 
Special Price for occasional lessons. Use Elevator. 



Hoppin Homestead Building, Room 23, 3rd Floor. 
Residence, No. | 'j | BOWKN S'I\ 

yrtrrinart) Our^roit. 



Graduate of American I'etcrinarj' College, 

Office at A. R. Darling & Co.'s St,nble, 

'i!i4 /!rne/it Street. Residence, '.263 //<«/// Street, 

Connected by Telephone. Providence, R. /. 

Office Hours : 9 to 10 a. m. ; 2 to 3 p. m. 



^nnUinij ^netittttiotts. 


Office, 60 South Main Street, Providence, R. I. 
Capital, $Soo,ooo. 

Officers. — President, William Binney; Vice-President, 
Alex. Farnum ; Secretary, H.J. WuUs. 

Directors.— Alfred Anthony, Amos C. Barstow, Zecha- 
riah Chafee, Christopher Lippitt, Samuel M. Noyes, 
Edward D Pearce, William S. Slater, C. Fiske Harris, 
Royal C. Taft, Amos D. Lockwood, R. H. I. Goddard, 
Henry Howard, G.W. R. Matteson, S S. Sprague, William 
D. Ely, Chas. Morris Smith, Geo. I. Chase, Robert I. Gam- 
mell, William Binney, Wm. B. Weeden. 


Incorporated A. D. 1S19. 

President, - - WILLIAM GODDARD. 

Vice-Presidents, ROYAL C. TAFT, THOMAS P. I. 


William W. Hoppin, 
W^illiam Gammell, 
Henry L. Kendall, 
.Samuel R.Dorrance, 
Charles E. Paine, 
Robert Ives Gammell, 


Robert H. I. Goddard, 
Rufus Waterman, 
Geo. W. R. Matteson, 
Samuel M. Noyes, 
William B. Weeden, 
Lucian Sharpe. 

Officers—Samuel C. Blodget, Treasurer, Wm. A. Hoppin, 
Ass'i Treasurer, Le B. Bradford, Teller. 


Savings Bank, 



Deposits, - - - - $2,000,000 
officers : 

D. G. LITTLEFIELD, . . . . President. 

ROBERT CUSHMAN, - - - Vice-President. 

OLNEY ARNOLD, - - Secretary and Treasurer. 


Mowry Taft, 
H. F. Barrows, 
P. E. Tillinghast, 
Henry B. Metcalf, 
Wm. Newell, 

Joseph E. Dispeau, 
Edwin Jencks, 
George L. Walker, 
Edmund Mason, 
Wm. H. Park. 


From 9 o'clock, A. M. to 4 o'clock, P. M. 

Divide7ids Payable Jait^iary atid yuly. 



[Incorporated, May, iSji.] 
President — Edward A. Greene. Vice-Presidents — 
Robert Knight, Francis W. Carpenter, Chas. Morris Smith. 
Directors — Charles E. Carpenter, Edward P. Taft, Henry 
J. Smith, Daniel Day, George C. Nightingale, John B". 
Anthony, Daniel E. Day, Eugene W. Mason, Andrew 
Comstock, Horatio N. Campbell, Alfred A. Reed, Jr. 
Albert C. Howard, Treasurer and Secretary. 
Gilbert H. Hagan, Assistant Treasurer. 
p'ranklin D. Ford, Clerk. 
Quarters commence on the first days of January, April, 
July and October. Money deposited prex'ious to the third 
Monday of these months will draw interest from the first. 
Dividends, third Mondays in January and July. 
Office Hours from lo A. M. to 2 P. M. 


63 Westminster Street, - - I>rovidence, R. I. 

Jas. S. Phetteplace, Pres. Chris. R . Drnwne. Treas. and Sec. 

Quarters commence first of July, October. January and 
April, and money deposited before the i6th of these months 
commences Interest with the quarter. Dividends, January 
and July. 



Capital $500,000. 

O. A. WASHBURN, Jr., C. H. CHILDS, Jr., 

President. Cashier. 

No. 13 Market Square. 


Cor. Potter and Friendship Sts., Providence. 

4ti" Particular attention paid to Shoeing Driving and 

Trotting Horses. Interfering, Over-reaching 

and Lameness a Specialty. 


Manufacturers of 


Machine and Tool Forgings, Bolts, Rods and Straps for 

Building Bridges, etc., made to order. Jewelers' and 

Silversmiths' Dies, Cutters, Tools, etc., a specialty. 

161 Eddy Street, Providence. 


Corner Orange and Pine Sts., Providence. 

Particular attention given to Interfering and Over-Reach- 
ing Horses. 


By J. A. FOLSOM, Farrier. 

Particular attention given to Balancing and Squaring the 

Action of Green Horses. FORGING a specialty. 
484 Broad Street, - Providence, R. I. 





Tbc •:; 5 tv c c X a I vT r ^ d c -M x\ ( ( c i \ rt . 

GILBERT SISSON, Blacksmith, 
Machinery and Tool Forging, Iron Doors & Shutters, 

Ami all kiiuls nt" Huililiiii; Work. A si.icialty mail.- of 

Jcwclcis' ami Silvi-rsinitlis" Dies, CuUcrs, and TooU. 

Gas- Pipe Toniis Made and Repaired. 

ri Clifford, ror. Po^i,. ProiiJriuf. 

N. D. THURBER, Agent. 


No. 13 Arsenal I-ane, — 

Pkovidknce, K. T. 

iloate to ict. 

Oppo-iii' lOG South Watir Strut, . - Providence, R. I. 

Boat Building and Repairing. Also, the commodious 
Va.:ht "CAMILLA." 
Sailing and Fishing Parties Accommodated. 



Also, Boats of Every Description Bought and 

Iliir> Wh;irl'. 

■ t of" IKniUrson Strict. 

iJootft anb !5hor». 


And Low Prices, 

A I S T I L L M A \ ' S , 

.'$05 I liirli Street, Providence. R. I. 

tU'a^o I'ounlirra anb ftnishcro. 


'il.9 Kddy Street, Providence, K. L 

Brass. Copper, Zinc, and all kinds of Bronze Castings. 

Babbitt and Anti-Friction Metals. 

Cash paid for Old Copper, Brass, I^ead and other Metals. 


Manufacturer of 


Boik? Tube Cleaners, and Portable (iarden Pump--, 

fi'i Elm Street, Providence, R. I. 

i! vol: ere. 

— Deakr in— 


143 Westmin.ster Street, - - Providence, R. I. 

Loans Negotiated. 

Real Estate, Money and Mortgage 

l3uoinc60 anb Ci'hroino li*ari»s, ('*tc. 




I'j Westminster Street, - - Providence, R. I. 



Printers". Engravers' and Photographers' Cards and Card 


II Mi.liuioMil Str.rl, Providcnct-, i:. I. 

^tttlbtitgi itiatcrtalo. 


(Successor to Geo. \V. Hall & Co.,) 



Building Brick, Fire Brick, Fire Clay, Drain Pipe, 


Nos. 6tf and 67 SOUTH WATER STREET, 


J. B. & M. PAINE, 

Dealers in 

B U I L D E R S • H A R D W .\. K E , 

Carpenters' and Masons' Tools, Farmers' Implements, etc. 

193 & 199 Cranston Street, Providence, R. I. 

All orders promptly attended to. 


N'ortliup Window Springs, 

Sweet's Window Springs, 

And Hardware Specialties. 
Manufactured by 
I !> Calender Street, Pro\ i<Unie, R. 1 . 

(i^otton anb yrinto t^rokrr. 




Cotton Bought on Orders in Southern Markets. 

131 Charles Street, Providence. 


(Tarvcntcr* anb itnilbrro. 



No. 80 Orange Street, .... Providence, R. I. 
aS'-Stores and Offices lifted up. Also, all kinds of Jobbing 

nroniptlv attended to. 
All work personally attended to and satisfaction guaranteed. 


N".). a33 Washington Street, . Providente, R. I. 





^i)cv 5 ^ c c \ a i:Tt a dc :•! u C tct\n . 

Ciitpcntff* ittti> ^tttl^ct•e. 




46g=-Stores and Offices fitted up. All kinds of Jobbing- 

and Stair-Building promptly attended to. 



All Kinds of Wooden Vats, Dye-Tubs, Tanks, Wash- 
Trays, Soaking Tubs made to order. 
Jobbing and Fitting up Stores and Offices. 
Estimates given for building-s of every description. 

99 Dorrance Street, 

Providence, R. I. 



135 South Main Street, - - Providence, R. I 

Contracts a specialty, and Particular Attention 

Paid to Jobbing. 


375 Dyer Street, - Providence, R. I. 


All kinds of Jobbing done with neatness and dis- 
patch. Stock furnished when ordered. 



Jobbing of all kinds Promptly Attended to. 

Mechanics Exchange, 33 Weybosset St., 

Providence, R. I. 

Henry F. Mason. Oliver J. Coppell. 



164 Eddy St., Providence, R. I. 

Particular Attention given to Putting up Shafting and 

Other Machinery. 

S^fes Moved to Order at Short Notice. 

Offices, Stores, Jewelry Shops, Etc., Etc., Fitted up in 

the Best Manner at the Lowest Rates. 



First-Class Dwellings a Specialty. 

179 Washington Street, near Dean, Providence, R. I. 

Residence, Webster Ave., Arlington, Cranston, R. I. 

Address, 179 Washington St., Providence, R. I. 



313 Fountain Street, - - Providence, R. I. 

All Orders for Jobbing Promptly Attended to. 

(Catriagc piitnufitcturcr© itnii fttatjeriitld. 

N. C. BRIGGS, Agt., 


530 and 533 High Street, 

Providence, R. I. 

4®°'Carriages of all kinds constantly on hand and for sale. 



199 Washington Street, - - Providence, R. I. 

Repairing done on reasonable terms, and satisfaction 

guaranteed. N. B.— Particular attention to the 

manufacture of bodies for the trade. 




Repairing in all its branches. 

New and Second-Hand Car- 
riages for sale. 

Providence, R. I. 

No. 157 Gaspee Street, 



347, 349 and 351 Fountain Street, Providence, R. I. 
Carriages constantly on hand and made to order. Re- 
pairing in all the various branches done on reasonable 
terms and at short notice. Carriages to be repaired taken 
and returned without extra charge. 


Manufacturers of 


36 Fountain Street, - - - Providence, R. I. 

We make a specialty of Light Phaetons, wliich we 
build to order for $275, and warrant equal to the best 
carriage built in this city. All work done at reasonable 
rates and satisfaction guaranteed. Vour orders are 
respectfully solicited. 


5 Otis Street, rear 139 Canal Street, Providence, R. I. 
Repairing in all its branches promptly attended to. New 
and Second-hand Carriages constantly on hand and for sale. 


Manufacturer of Half Patent, and Patent Concord and 

A X L E S . 

Also, Springs of all descriptions made and repaired. 
105 Orange Street, Providence. 


Manufacturers of 



S. G. DERRY, General Manager, 

Office, 34 Exchange Place, Providence, R. I. 


c c \ a ( vT V i\ d c vfi u 1 1 c i \n .- 

dement lUcUe. 



Oflice, V. W. Mason's Machine Shop, Lalayctte Street. 

Residence, 378 Cranston Street, Providence. 

(Circulatimji fibrary. 

Di;il(.rs ill 



ai3 II iirh Street, - - Provideiui-, 15 . I. 


CriortU JHahcr. 


L A D I E S • C L O A K MAKER , 

Has opened Rooms at Butler Exchanfje, Providence. 

^gj- All orders promptly attended to, and made up in tlie 

best manner and in the latest styles. A Perfect 

Fit Guaranteed. 

Knoni No. 11, Filth Floor. 

(Tommiodion |l!crclt«»nt«. 



And Wholesale Dealers in Country Produce, Fruits, ]?utter, 
Cheese, Effgs, etc. 

No. 55 Dvcr Street. 

©Ottffttioturtt, C-tc. 


Manufacturer of 
The Original Dr. Davis' Pawtucket Candies. 
Try our Caramels, the finest in the city, 6 varieties, fresh 
every day. 
Cut Flowers and Fruits of all kinds in their season. 
I have lately fitted up a nice PARLOR, to serve my cus- 
tomers with the best of Ice Cream, Water Ices, etc. 
397 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 



Bread, Cake and Pastry, Ice Cream and Soda, Cigars 

Tobacco, etc. 

'ilt High Street, 

Providence, R.I. 

Wte ^inhere. 


Maker and Engraver of 



of all kinds. Also, Maker of Ball and Fig 
ured Wires and Gallery Settings 

131 Dorrance St.. cor. Dyer St., 

PKOYlUK.NCi;. U. 1. 



a87 High Street, 

Providence, R. I. 

No. 129 North Main, cor. of Meeting St., 

Prescriptions compounded with care. 



A large assortment of fresh gathered 

Roots, Herbs and Barks. 

I40 and Wa Broad Street, Providence, R. I. 


155 Charles Street. 99 Main Street, 

Providence, R. I. Pawtucket, R. I. 

Sole Proprietor Hepin's English Balsam, Dr. Warren's 
Croup Syrup, Bates' Balsam for Dysentery, and 
" Children's Syrup" for Colds, 




'i'iX Westminster Street, Providence, R. J. 

The careful selection of Pure Drugs and Chemicals, and 
their proper manipulation a specialty. 

None but Registered Pharmacists permitted to compound 


A Fine Assortment of Toilet Articles. 


Manufacturer ol and Dealer in 



DowNtR's Illumi.nating Oil. 

Office and Salesroon\, I7!i Broad Street, Providence, R. I. 
''/ev.'elers' and Colorers' Supplies a Specialty. 

(r-lccttical Oupvltre. 


Manufacturer and Dealer in Telegraph, Electrical and Tele- 
phone Supplies, Batteries, Zincs, Carbons and Connections 
for Coloring, always on hand. Also, State Agent for 
Watts' Mechanical Telephones, the best and cheapest Tel- 
ephone ever presented to the public — no Battery, no Bell — 
warranted to work better than any transmitter. Call and 
examine, and see for yourself, Building^ and carc taken 
of private lines a apec'ialty. 

180 Friendship St., Providence, R. I. 






The •:• 5 pA c va f ^^u^^ ^ c yg u cut Vtt . 

©Icctrtcnl guvvUfft. 


Manufacturer ot Patent Finished Insulated Telegraph Wire, 
Telephone and Klectric Cordage, Magnet Wire, Patent 
Rubber Covered Wire, Burglar Alarm and Annunciator 
Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Elevator, Aerial, and Under- 
ground Cables, etc. 


glgfirs, ^Icachtfft, C5tc. 


>Jo. 14 Sabin Street, Providence, R. I. 


303 Potter's Avenue. Office, 47 Mathewson Street. 

Every description of Dyeing and Cleansing dune in the best 



J. J. STERLING, . - - - Proprietor. 


aaS Broad St., Providence, R. I. 
Garments Cleansed, Dyed, and Repaired. Kid Glovt 
Cleansed and Dyed. 
E. R. & F. P. BABCOCK, - - - Proprietn 

i'xU pianttfactiirrre. 


Manufacturers of an extra grade of Hand-cut Files. These 

Files, being of Superior Temper, will stand the 

Hardest Test of any File in the market. 

Old Files Re-cut and warranted to give entire satisfaction. 


E. B. Snow, Treas. Frank Fenner, Agent. 


Dealers in and Manufacturers of 


3'^ Middle Street, - 'Rear of Adams Express Office 

E. M. Waldron, Supt. 

^t^h Dealtre* 


(Successor to Jolin Mathews & Co.,) 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Fresh and Salt Fish, 


No. 'i3 Exchange Place, Providence, R. 1. 

Families and Parties Supplied with Oysters of First Qiiality, 

at short notice. Live Bait in the Season. Bull(<ck's 

Point Oysters a Specialty. 


Dealer in all kinds of 


119 North Main Street, Providence, R. I. 
Orders called for and delivered. 

^litttortng ©.vtractft* 


Manufacturer of 


Colognes, Perfumery, Etc. 

40 Bridgham Street, - Providence, R. I. 



Greenwich Street, cor. Congress, Providence, R.I. 

Walter McNaughton. 


Furnished at short notice. 

Weddings, Parties and Funerals supplied. 


Cut F"lowers, Bouquets, and Designs for Funerals, Wed- 
dings, etc. New and First-class styles. Prices Low. 
Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, Etc. Gardens Laid 
Out and Kept in Order. 
Greenhouse, No. 630 Broad Street, Providence, R. I. 



Pruning and care of Graperies a Specialty. 
ISO Hope Street, - - Providence, R. I. 


In the way of tirst-class Floral Work notliing can be better 
than that furnished by 
Mr. Charles Wright, No. S Franklin Street. 
In Funeral Designs he prepares most beautiful and appro- 
priate offerings, his extensive facilities enabling 
him to fill all orders promptly. 

f ttrnttwrc SJcaUi'e, Jtlfre. *^ Hylj<»l«rtcr«r«. 



Furniture Repaired and Mattresses Made and Renovated. 

.348 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 

Formerly with Potter, Dennison & Co. 




And Mattress Manufacturer. 

Agent for 

389 Broad Street, 


Providence, R. I. 



Special attention given to 

Making and Laying Plain and Bordered Carpets. 

Window Shades made and put up. 
Hoppin Homestead Building, 

383 Westminster Street, - - Providence, R. I. 

Orders by Telephone promptly attended to. 



T be •:•?>?> cc \a ( vT V ^ d c •: B u 1 1 c i \ u . 

i'urnituvc Zlralrro, lUtVo. »S, |lviiolotcrrro. 

Dciilcr ill 


Also, Furniture l'|>l)()lstcri;<l and Uci)airt-ii. 

IS2 Broad Street, .... Providence, K. I. 



'■iO I loppin Homestead Buildinjj, . - l>rovideni-e. I{ I. 

Rooms Furnished to Order. 



and 'rrininiin<;s. Silk Cords, Pillow Tassels, Gimps, 

F'rinjjes, (jilt Nails, Curtain Rin^js, Draperies, 

Reps, Lace Curtains, Salines, Picture 

Cords, Curtain Loops. 

188 Westminster St., cor. Union, (Room 3,) Providence. 

(Orauitc aui> IHiivlilc Ulorhrr«. 

Manufacturer cifaiid Dealer in 


Tablets, Wash. Howl Slabs, etc. Marble and Marbleized 

Slate Mantels Also, Granite Monuments, Tablets. 

and Curbing. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
444 High Street, - Providence, R. I. 


Manufacturers and Dealers in I'nrcign and Native Granite 


KOCKI>A.M), .Mk. 

C. II. KNOWLTON, Agent. 
Refer to 11. F'airbrother, Pawtucket. 

Providence address, I4(> Westminster Street. 

fiitir (fyooti^ itni> tViiriJvcoocro. 


of every description, by 
40 Westminster Street, - - - Providence, R. L 


Fornurly Mrs. Sahh, 

Hair Combings carefully headed. F'aded Bands Dyed to 

any shade of Brown. • 

48tf Westminster Street, two doors above Music Hall, 
Providence, R. I. 



No. :i:il Westminster, Opposite Hurrill Street, 


lence, l{. 1. 

lint Ant> i3onnrt ilUuchrro. 

B. K. AMES, 


Straw Goods Refinished in all shapes. 
ti'iO Westminster Street, . . - Providence, R. I. 


199 Westminster Street, Providence. 
The Oldest HAT and BONNET BLIiACHFlR in the 

Ladies' Straw or Felt Hats or Bonnets Bleached or Colored, 

and finished in the latest style. 
Gent's Felt or Straw Hats Cleaned, Dyed and Trimmed. 




1 he largest and most tashionabic assortment of Men's and 
Boys' Hats, at the very lowest prices. 
Sole .\gent for the World-renowned KNOX H.ATS. 
Ui'i Wotniinster Street, Providence, R. I. 




HOPKINS & SK.\RS Proprietors, 

Nos. 6 to 10 Canal Street, and 14 .North Main Street, 
Opposite Horse-Car Depot. One minute'' s walk from Union 

House Never Closed. Lodgings, :;o and 75 cents per day. 
Meals served at all liours, day or night. 

3cc Zlcalers. 


Office and Depot, No. 373 High Street, Providence. 

^nh IManufacturcre. 


Manufacturers of 

No. II Hayniarket Street, - . Providence, R. I. 

^uduratKr 4\0i;ttt«. 


Agent for the 
of New York, 
For Rhode Island, 

OtVuo, S4 North Main Street, Providence, R. I. 

Zfcmclri) itlfro., (Tliaocr*, (T'lioraucro, (T'tr. 


I) I A M ^^-Jy ONUS, 

Manufacturers and Repairers of 


l'^9 Westminster St., Up-stairs, Phenix IhiiUling, 


E. R. Cahoone. W. H. Alexander. H. C.^\^^ittier. 

J. W. GRANT & CO., 

M A N U F A C T V R I N G J E W E L E R S , 
il5 Calender Street, Providence, R. I. 

Specialties : Lockets and Bracelets. 





:■ Tt)C-:-5l>C'J 



Manufacturers of 


AND Patent Buckle Bracelets. 


314 South Main Street, - - - Providence. 

Branch Office, 176 Broadway, - - New York. 
Factory, 336 Eddy Si., Providence, R. I. 


J. W. HENRY & CO., 

Manufacturers of 


No. 34 Calender Street, 

Providence, R. I. 


493 High St., Providence. 

Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, Spectacles, Musical Instrument 

Trimmings, Strings, Etc. A full line of Sevsring 

Machine Needles and Oil. 



Manufacturers of 


Also, the Celebrated American Lever Sleeve-Buttons. 


86 South Main Street, Providence. 
j8®~ Fine Repairing a Specialty. 

103 Orange St., Providence, R. I. 



No. 17C Broadway, - - New York. 

W. H. Williams, Agent. 

Cheap Sets, Drops, Shawl-Pins, Buttons, Studs, Etc. 

Manufacturer of the " Improved Separable Sleeve-Button." 

333 Westminster Street, - Providence, 



At Lowest Prices. 

Factory, 107 Friendship St., Providence, R. I. 

Il^wdere' |i<>bbm0. 


Mamtfacture to Order Any Kind of 


333 Westminster Street, 
Providence, R. I. 



Blow and Stove Pipe. 

Jewelers' Patent Polishing Machines a Specialty. 

Stove Piping and Jobbing of all kinds promptly attended to. 

194 Pine Street, Providence. 

Israel R. Sheldon. Nathan F. Mathewson. 



Lockets a Specialty. 

Ill Summer Street, - Providence, R, I. 




No. 176 Broad Street, corner Page, 

Providence, R. I. 


Made to Measure, 6 for $9. 
The best that can be produced at any price. Bosoms three- 
ply; best Irish Linen. 


94 Friendship Street, - - Providence, R. I. 


Sole Agent for Providence, 

371 Westminster Street. 

Carving and Lettering- neatly done. 


%fiw»\vxs |i«tailer». 



Diamonds, Fine Jewelry, Solid Silver and Plated Ware, 

Wholesale and Retail. 

Watches and Jewelry Repaired. 

No. 341 Westminster Street, - - Providence. 


33 and 35 Beverly Street, 

Branch Offices : 
119, 121 & 270, 273 Westminster Street, 
22 South Main Street, 

43 North Main Street, and 

59 Weybosset Street, 




Watches, Clocks and Jewelry Repaired . 

395 High Street, Providence. 





cc xal-.-Tvadc vfiuticau. 

iumlicr, Jloore, Oaolj, illtnbo, (i*tr. 


Also, Conductors, Mouliliiifjs, Gutters, Shingles, Clap- 
boards, Laths, Pickets, Posts, Etc., 
All kinds of Mill Work done to order. 

'2'i Branch Avenue, Providence. 

GEO. D. L.VXSING. Salesman. 


O Exchange Place, Providence. 


Etc., Etc. 


Manufacturers of and Dealers in 


Mouldings, Brackets, and every description 

of House-finish. 

Planing and Sawing, 

And all kinds of Work done by Machinery. 
430 South Main Street, Providence, R. I. 



Manufacturers of Sash, Doors and Blinds, 
319 and 331 Fountain Street, Providence, R. L 



Lumber Received on Wharf, and Planed at Low Prices. 
Foot of South Street. 

Itliirhiitern, |ltarhtntftt«, ©te. 



Dealer in New and .Secoiulliand Machinery, Steam Enjjine? 

and Boilers, Pumps, Sliaftinjf, Pulleys, Wood and Iron 

Working Macliincry, Steam and Water Guaees, Oil 

Cups, and Engineers' Supplies Generally. 

No. 343 Dyer Street, - Providence, R. I, 

Chase GovernorSi Little Giant Injectors. 


-Manufacturers of 


And Dealers in 


Special Tools and Machinery made to order. 

Dies and Punches a Specialty. 

Circular, Mill, Cross-cut, Buck, Hand, Jig and Band Saws 

carried in stock. 

Machinery Bought on Commission. 

35 Calender Street, - - - Providence, R. I. 



Bought and Sold on Conimission 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers on hand and for sale 

r« ami IH Orange Street, Pnividiiice, R. I. 



.M I L L I N E R Y R O O M S, 

No. 104 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 


MIL L I N E R y\ 

'i90 Westminster Street, Pnnidence, R. I. 

ttt«tC ^\CVt9. 


Dealer in 


383 Westminster St., Hopjiin Homstead Building, Prov. 

Orders for Repairing, Polishing and Tuning attended to. 



Prof. Pai.N'e's Ozonized Medicines are not Patent Medi- 
cines, but Scientific Prescriptions. 
THE LUyJID OZONE is a positive, never-failing cure 
for Catarrh. Testimonials at the Office, 340 
Westminster Street. 
— Also— 
Agency for the Old-established STATE JV ISLAND 
Goods received and delivered free of express. 
340 Westminster Street, a few doors above Grace Church. 

Itichd |)httrr«, (Tnamrlcre %S: ^aV'tiiticro. 


Liciiisid by Unit, J Ni.k.l Co., of N. 1'. 


Hervey Pinkhain, Manager. G. W. Carpenter, Agt. 

J no. L. Draper, Prest. Chas. A. Gamwell, Treas. and Sec. 


M(i>ii//ii</iirirs vj Enam,l,\i i'tiiiiy (Uwjs. Knuiiiilim; 
on H 'ood or Mi-tal. P. O. Pox 44. 

17 Warren .Street, Providence, R. I. 



on Wood and Metal. Pearl Inlaid Work a Specialty. 

No. 386 Fountain Stri'tt, Providence. 

P. J. CONWAV, Supt. 




^bc:v5i> cc x^ (::-^t adc vgu t Utxu. 

mxt 3roii, Plftale, ®tc» 

H. HUNT & BRO., 

Dealers in 


A/so all kinds of Bottles, etc. 

I03 and 105 DoRRANCE St., - Providence, R. I. 

yattttcre, Vituttrre' platcrtal, (C^tc* 


Improved iSSo and iSSi. 


Manufactured and for sale by A. Towne, Proprietor and 






374 High Street, . - . - Providence, R. I. 



Glazing, Graining, and Papering, Polishing of Wood 

particularly attended to. 

No. 33 South Water Street, Providence. 



i5i5= Kalsomining a Specialty, "©ft 

65 and 6/ Summer Street, Providence. 


At the old stand. House and Sign 

Also, Filling the Grain and Polishing Hard Wood. 



Graining, Plain and Decorative Paper Hanging a Specialty. 

Rear 340 Friendship St., June, of Point. House, 10 

Linden St., Providence. 



Glazier, and Paper-Hanger, 



Filling the Grain and Polishing Hard Woods 

Particularly Attended to. 

30 South Water Street Providence. 


Plain and Ornamental 

Sign-Painting, Glazing, Graining, Etc. 

135 South Main Street, Providence. 

Fillino- and Polishing Hard Woods, Whitening and 

Tinting 'of Walls a Specialty. 



Plain Painting in all its Branches. 

Ceilings and Walls Kalsomined, White or Tinted. 

Gilding, Graining, Paper Hanging, Etc. All Kinds of 

Hard Wood Filled and Polished. 

379 Broad Street, Providence. 


No. 344 High Street, Providence. 


Paper Hanging and Graining, Etc. 



Cor. James and South Water Streets, Providence. 

l^-Atfitx Hangings, %\u 


Dealer in 


Fixtures, Cords, Tassels, Knohs, Etc. 

Nos. 495 and 497 High, near Knight St., Providence. 

White Holland Curtains Made and Put Up. 

House Painting, Graining and Glazing done to Order. 


W^holesale and Retail Dealers in 


Curtain Fixtures and Gilt Mouldings. 

357 Westminster Street, Providence. 



159 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 

357 Westminster Street, Providence. 

IHiteter^fft attl» gtucco P<»rlter»» 



Repairing, White7iing and Coloring. 

Constantly on Exhibition a Fine Collection of Centre Pieces. 

No. 8 Gilmore Street, Providence. 



Cornices, Centre Pieces, Brackets, Etc. 
Repairing, Plastering, Whitening and Tinting. 


Manufacturers of Fire Proof Building Material and the 

Improved Beton Coignet Stone Sidewalk. 
Factory and Office, 19 and 31 Washington St., Providence. 






c c \ a I vT V ^ <l <^/''M x\ licl'x u . 

))Itttnbrr0, (5ao llipc fittrr*, (f-tc. 



Liri-nsed Plumber, 

And Dealer in Gas Fixtures, Globes, Etc., 

'i4 Market Square, (What Cheer Buildinff,) Providence 

All work estimated at the lowest rates, and 

orders promptly tilled. 



And Licensed Plumber, 

33 and 35 Peck Street, Providence, K. I. 



F I r T E R S , 





13 Mathewson Street, .... Providence, 

Opposite Grace Church, 

Gas Piping and Plumbing for Pawtuxet Water. 





.Sanitary Ventilation a Specialty. 

Globes, Shades, Gas Burners, Etc., on liaiid. Jobbing 

promptly attended to. 

13 Waterman Street, Providence. 


C O P P E R S M I Til .\ N D P L U M B H K , 
No. 190 Eddy Street, Providence, R. 1. 

All kinds of Copper Work made to order zvith dispateli. 

Plumbing materials of the best quality constantly 

on hand and put up in the best manner. 


4aO Ilitfh Street, Providence, R. I. 
Connections made with Public Sewers and Private Drains. 



Steam, Gas and Water Pipe Fittiiif^, Plumbinji; ami 
General jobbinj;. 

a Post Gflice Court, Providence. 




Manufacturer of and Dealer in Water Fittinfjs. 

78 Wickendcn Street, Providence. 


L I e \i \ ,s E I) p L l; m b e r , 

Gas Piping;, Jf)bbinff, Bronzinj;;, Etc. All work done by 
competent workmen and warranted. 
No. 3 Crawford Street, Providence. 



Dealers in all articles necessary in the plumbing- business. 

Attention paid to putting in Pawtuxet Water. 

83 and 8S Friendship Street, Providence, R. I. 



Dealers in Boilers, Baths, Water Closets, Sinks, 

Basins, Pumps, Etc. 

Estimates made for work at short notice. 

No. 81 High St., Providence. 

ilrintcvo anl« ilubtiohrre. 

J. C. HALL & CO., 

Also, Sole Manufacturers of 


6'.2 W'eybosset Street, - - - Providence, R. I. 


O Book and Job IVPrlnters, 


|Uci» anil ftaritrod Itlnttufnrturiniji (•*<». 

I l-;>tablislK-(l iSvlI 


R i: !•: I ) .\ N 1) II .\ R \ 1 ; s s m .\ k !•: r s , 

.Vnd Dealers in .Mill Supplies. 
X«. 40 Clifford Street, ■ - Providence, R. I. 

.Also. I-all River, .Mass. 



.■JS Eddy .Street, Rear City Hall, - - Providence, R. I. 

Ladies' and Gentlemen's Restaurant. 
I-adies' entrance on Fulton St. 

Everything First- CI a 

II. L. Carter, Phoi'kiktkk. 



c; \ a (tr^r a d c m u ( C c tin . 

^atl Pakcrft, 



Cor. Planet and South Water Sts., Providence, R. I. 

Tents, Awnings and Wagon Covers made to order. 

O/d Canvas Bouffht and Sold. 

§ft»»i«g piacljtne*. 

Unparalleled Success of the 

In the third year of its existance its Sales amounted to 
54,853 Machines. 

No otinr Machhie ever had such a Record of Popularity. 

it is the Lightest Running, Easiest Selling and 

Best Satisfying Machine in 

the world. 

Sole Agency, i240 Westminster St., Providence. 




75 Washington Street, 

Providence, R. I, 


Boarding, Livery & Transient 


No. !jO Mill Street, 

Providence, R. 1. 


No. 71 Pine Street, Providence, R. I. 
Horses and Carriages for Sale. Horses Doctored. 


8 & 10 Spring St., rear of 290 High St., cor. Pond, 

Providence, R. I. 

Carriages at all hours. Horses taken on Livery. 

Horses, Hacks and Carriages, To Let and For Sale. 

§t0tit0, Hitttges, ®tc. 

A large assortment of 


Tin Ware of my own manufacture, oil and gas stoves, 
patent steamless kettles, farmers' tools, and all articles usu- 
ally found in a stove store. Tin roofing, furnace work and 
all kinds of jobbing. Stoves stored. 


No. 397 High Street, Providence, R. I. 




No. 333 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 



First-class work at reasonable prices. 

No. 199 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I. 



No. iJSl Westminster Street, Providence. 
Hoppin Homestead Building. 



Clothes Cleaned and Repaired. 
No. 14 Snow Street, Providence, R. I. 



51 Dorrance St., Room No. 6, 3d floor. Providence, R. I. 

Will cut, make and trim gentlemen's garments 

to order, in good style. 

Also, Ladies' Cloaks, Sacks and Dolmans cut and fitted. 

®ca», ®<»ff«e», Apices, ®tc. 

Established, 1857. 






®in |Hat« anl» ^htti Uron Porkers, 



Jewelers' Patent Polishing Machines and Jobbing 

a specialty. 

Stove Piping, Jewelers' Blow Pipes, and Jobbing of all 

kinds promptly attended to. 

116 Pine Street, cor. Potter, Providence. 



Warcrooms and Residence, 346 High Street, Providence. 

Also connected with telephone. 




cc \a(vTva<lc :Bx\ltcau 


Providence, Pawtucket, and Central Falls. 

Uloolini anJ> Ulilloro Uliirc, (C-tc. 



Paper Bags, Cords, Brushes, Matches, Baskets, Etc. 

Also, Manufacturera of Brooms, 

Xos. 5 and 7 K\chani;c Strict, rn.vidence. 

Uloobrn dtationrrt). 





and wood-turiu'd articles of ahnost every description 

on both hand and machine lathes, in woods do. 

mestic or loreigrn, and plain, polished or enamelled, at 

'i4, '.26 and 'iS Potter Street, Providence, K. I. 

Also, job sawins;: and turiiiiiij at low cash prices. 


lifpair-r of Ev,rYthiiii:^, 
And Manufacturer of Silver-Kluid for Silver Coating, Elec- 
tric Brass Polisher, .Magic Powder for Cle:uiing Silver, 
Batteries for Medical and Family I'se. and Electric Cock- 
roacli Destroyer, Ant, Rat, Moiise, Bed-Bug and Moth 
Poison. 9 ALvTiiEwsoN St., Pkovidence, R.I. 

|Ulii>lr«alr attb llrtail (Oy&trv ilcalcr*i. 

Wli,.ksale and Kitail ncaicrs m 


No. 24 Exchange Place, Providence, R. 1. 

Oysters put up in the best in, inner anti sent to any part 

of the country. 




Plain and Fanry Crackers. 
92 Mill Street, I'awtu.ket, K. I. 

(Tarvft iliiotino Ulorko. 


E. M. ARNOLD, Pkoimuktor. 

Works and Ofhce in Greene's Mill, rear ,56 East Avenue. 

Work done promptly, and satistaition in every 

case ifuarnnteed. 

Carriage !ttanttfarturrr«* 

CARRIAGE M .\ .\ V V A C T O R \ , 

ilorse-Shoeing and Jobbing on Iron and Wood 

promptly attended to. 

A'(-7t' and second-hand Wairons for sale cheap. 

Rear 2!J1 Main Street, . . . Pawtucket, R. I. 

Carriai,',- I'ointivi,', 5S Brond Street. 


ijair (Ooobo, (i*tc. 



a03 Main .Street, Pa-j. tucket, li. I. 
All kinds of Ladies' Hair Wtrk made to order at reasonable 
prices. Hair-dressing, .Switches, Pufls, Etc. Comb- 
ings made into .Switches at ^octs.per ounce. 


fiat anil t?onnrt t?lcarl)rr. 



Ladies' and Gents' Straw or Felt Hats Cleaned, Bleached, 

or Colored, and Finished on Fashionable 

Shapes, ;ind Styles, 

90 111. ,11 SxKtET, - P.VWTUCKET, K. I. 




Perfectlv .Safe, and a Sure and Effectual Reme- 
dy for all AFFECTIO.NS (JF THE EYE. 

Twenty years have been expended in perfecting 
~ invaluable remedy. It soothes and heals all diseases 
ol tlie Eye, and imparts to that delicate organ a quality of 
strength and vigor. Beware of imitations. Ask for Dr. H. 
P. Greene's Celebrated Eye Water. Take no other. 


For I'lirifying and Kenovaling llic Blood and System. 
It is good for Cancer Hmiiors. Scrofula and Salt Rheum. 
It will cure Sore Throats and Lungs, Coughs and Colds, 
regulate the bowels, and destroy worm.s. For FEMALE 
WEAKNES.SES it is unrivaled as a Corrective and Alter- 
ative. Address 

H. P. GREE.NE, 147 Broadway, Pawtucket, R. I. 

yaiiito, ilaintcvo anl« Vapci'-fianofvo* 



No. 48 Broadway, - Pawtucket, R. I. 

All work warranted to" give satisfaction. 


Dealer in 

and H'indoz'.' Glass. 

3!i & 'ZA Cross Street, Central Falls, R. I. 

Painting and Papering a Specialty. 



Grainek, and Paper Hangbr. 

Also, Paper Hangings furnished to order. 
No. 3 Read Street, - - - Pawtucket, R. I. 
Residence, 69 West Ave. 



Dealers in Sash, Blinds and Doors. 

Also, Paper Hangings and Window Shades. 

!J9 and 31 Main Street, Pawtucket, R. I. 



Dealer in 



;t44 Mill Street, Central balls, R. I. 

yiaotrrcro anb Otucco Utorhcro. 

61 Mill Street, . . . Pawtucket, R. I. 

Plain and Ornamental 
Also, Repairing in all its branches. Whitening, Color- 
ing, Tinting and Whitewashing promptly attended to and 
rieatlv done. Mason work in all its depa'rtmcnts promptly 
ilteiuled to. W. W. Elliott. G, N. Hawkins. 


Pawtucket, Central Falls, Woonsocket, Bristol, and East Providence. 



Broad Street, . . Centra/ Falls, R. I. 

Stitttcttcri), |Itt•t^>^trals, ©tc. 

Periodical Depot. H. H. SAGER, 

Dealer in 


No. 3 Mill Street, Pa7vtucket, R. I. 


ROBERT Mcelroy, 


46 Central Street, Over Jones & Davis' Drug Store^ 

Central Falls, R. I. 

Fine Work at the Lowest Possible Prices. 



No. 90 Main Street, .... Pawtucket, R. I. 

S. R. Pierce. Henry A. Pierce. 



Double-Knotted Machine Harness. 
Woonsocket, R. I. 


Manufacturer of 


Picker and Lace Leather. 

Dealer in Manufacturers' Findings Generally. 

Shop rear Fletcher's Building, Woonsocket, R. I. 


LUMBER DEALERS, . . . Woonsocket, R. I. 

Mouldings, Doors, Sash and Blinds, Brick, 

Lime and Cement. 



Manufacturer of Packing Boxes, Cloth Boards, Etc. 

Planing, Sawing, and Jobbing of all kinds. 

ISr North Main Street, Woonsocket, R. I. 




Parlor Furniture, Lounges, Easy Chairs, Etc. 
19 and 31 Broad Street, Paiutucket, R. J. 
Curtains, Lambrequins and Shades made in the latest 
style. Particular attention paid to Repairing in all its 

|)ri>fc«0t«>nal (Cari>e. 

J. r. BLISS, 


Prompt Attention Given to all Calls for Estimates. 

48 Pleasant Street Pazvtucket, R. I. 



And Solicitor of Patents. 

Music Hall Building, . . . Pawtucket, R. I. 


Manufacturers of 


Woonsocket, R. I. 

L. A. Cook, President. F. M. Perkins, Treas. 

Joseph Banigan, Gen'l Agt. W. S. Phillips, Supt. 


Dealer in 

Shingles, .Laths, Pickets, Posts, Doors, Sash, 

Blinds, Lime, Brick, Cement, Etc. 

Foot of Bradford Street, Bristol, R. I. 


Bristol, R. I. Sole Manufacturers of the 
Builders of Steam Vessels, Yachts, Launches, Portable, 
Stationary and Marine Engines, Pumps, Propeller Wheels 
and Safety Valves. 

John B. Herreshoff, President and Treasurer. 


No. 114 Hope Street, . . Bristol, R. I. 



Spencer Building Pawtucket, R. I. 

Sixteen Years in Practice. 

J. R. GOOD ALE, M. D., 

133 Main Street, Pawtucket, R. I. 



And Tumors, and all diseases of the Blood. 
Office Hours from i to 2, 7 to 9. 


31 Warren Avenue, East Providence, R. I. 



\'alley Street, 
Cor. Taunton Ave., Watchemoket, R. I. 






East Greenwich, River Point and Arctic. 


[A Weekly Newspaper, Kstahlislieil in 1S54.J 


Has the largest circulation of any local paper published in 
Kent County. Daniel C. Kenyon, Editor and Publisher, 
East Greenwich, R. I. Issued every Friday. Annual 
subscription, $2.00 in advance. Favorable contracts for 
Quarterly or Yearly advervising. 


Pl:iii> and Orn;inicMU:il 




Dealer in Xewspapei-s, Periodicals, Fancy Goods, Etc. 
Also, Circulating: Library. 


Main Slreit, J.asl Giiinwicli, K. I., 


Ciirriitgi- Makini!, Ripairinir and Poiiitintf in 

all lis liranchfs. 

The Horse-Shoeing Department is in charge of Mr, 

John R. Whitford. 


Dealer in 


Table Boarders by the Day or Week. 

Stiible in Connection with the House. 

Odd Fellows' Hall Building, River Point, K. I. 





Work for all kiiid«of Deformed Feel nntl Short 
£iegM a Specialty. 

River Point, - - Arctic Crossing. 

VIRGIL FISHER x cotton and print-cloths. 

No. 33 Westminster Street. 




H. L. REID, 

Always open to engagements for Furnishing First-class 
Theatres, Opera Houses, .Summer G ird.-ns, etc., 

Permanent Address, 

Providence, r. i. 

Bo.sTON Address, 

Adams House. 

" The type on which the body of this book is printed is from 
the Boston Type Foundry, No. 104 Milk St., Boston." 















1, 3 & 5 EDDY STREET, . .f— i -t-^-^^^ PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



Will enable all who use it to enjoy the g^reatest 
possible luxury in sleeping. 

Light, Strong, and always Elastic and Soft. 







Hy an erpenditurr during ir^^sp" *iJi^^4^ 4^4'^i'^ ▼ 
the past season of over li-^ SJ^«_F^^5^^V^^_F - 

New PaK»eiigcr Elevator, Electric Bells, a perfec •ystem of Sewerage and Ventilation, and every c<inven- 
ience that lu-alth and comfort can suggest. Located 




ENGLAND, and PROVIDENCE AND STONINGTON STATIONS, and connectins directlv by 

HORSE CARS EVERY 5 MINUTES with all the Northern and Eastern Railroads 

and Steamboats, giving Guests every poasible facility and convenience of rapid 

and economical transfer from all points. 


Paucngers to or from all .">oiiM«m or Weftei-v Povits. by either hoat or Hail, Mat Save all 
Cakriaob Fakes. 



Great Mercantile KstabliHhiiientM, KleKimt Shopping. Theatres, 

Post-Offlce, Custom House, and all Places of Amosement, 



The notable character of it* Guests, its Unexceptionable Table, its Broad Halls, and Grand Old 
Parlors, all recommend the United State.s as pofieseing more substantial comforts than any Hotel m 
Boston, and offers to Guests, either permanent or transient, the Largest Variety of Spacious Rooms, 
and the most Liberal Scale of Prices. 


visiting or passin? through the Citv, may secure Rooms with or without MeaU, and will find every 
attention at the ITmted States, tlie nearest flrst-eluss lintel to all the Great Retail 8tore« ; having 
Waiting and Toilet Rooms, Ladies' Package Room, and every convenience. 

fflif- Poisengers to or from all Southern kt Wtsleni /'oinr* by either Hout or Anii MAY SAVE ALL 

Room Only, $1.00, 1.30, and $2.00. | Areordiun to 

" and Board, $2. SO, $3, and $3.30. | Size, Location, and Conveni^nrr, 

Single Meals, 73 cents. [ "'"' nhrt/irr 

Eooms may te engaged with or without board. I ""-"p'''' '-i/ "'"■ <>'■ "•<"•'■ persons. 

Guests will notify the Clerk, on registering, the elus* of a<'eoiiimodulioM required, and thuB avoid all 
possible miBuiiderstun<ling. 

Special Rates will be made for Large Parties or Penuunent Guests. 

t3a~ fJrdert for Jlouins by Mail or Trlrtfraph jirompllt/ alieiuleii to. 


TILLY HAYNES, Proprietor. 



^f>^Ba§II2E^§ IP^J&RES^S er IIHOBE ISlaHBD. 

W © J^m m3^Mj%p WW 1^ ral ^L^IJ'®^ 

OflB.ce and Salesroom, 11 Maiden Lane, New York; Factory, 104 Eddy St., Providence, R. I. 

sole Manufacturers of the ^^^ j^^ g^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Durable. 

^K^^ T >■ /V T^ T^ ^.^•i 'WiPJ' 

y*^ ■■^■.X '^ ■ WM^M ^'\^ ^W And the Cheapest 

Patent Stiffened 



For the Money, 


All genuine Watch Cases of our manufacture have " G. W. Ladd's Patent, June ii, 1S67," stamped 
upon the side band, underneath the glass bezel. 


Key and Stem-winding, Hunting and Open-face, in Flat, Bevel, Mansard and Oval Shapes, adapted to the various 
American-made movements, in S, 10, 14, 16 and iS sizes. Send for full Descriptive Circular to the 


Dealers can obtain them of the Wholesale Watch and Jewelry Houses, or their Traveling Agents throughout the 

United States and British Provinces. 


J. A. & R. A. REID, 

-^1^56 WEYB088ET STREET,'!^ 








Central Location. Perfect Ventilation. 





HANOVER, near Washington Street. 

ij, — * 







Having leased the large Photograph Rooms lately constructed with all 
modern improvements, for the photographic business, am prepared to execute 
all -work with promptness and in a thoroughly first-class manner. 




APK u m\