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Full text of "Picture studies; studies of one hundred five of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration"

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COPYRIGHT DEPOSm 



PICTURE STUDIES 



Studies of one hundred five of the World's 

Famous Pictures best adapted for use in the 

schools and for schoolroom decoration 



BY 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent of Nebraska 

AND 

ORLIN H. VENNER 
Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University 



Chicago and Lincoln 
The University Publishing Company 
Copyrighted, 1917 



hJsio 
• Fib 



OCT -4 1917 

©GI.A473828 



CONTENTS 



10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 

32. 

33. 
34. 
35. 

36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 



Age of Innocence, The 

Along the Lane Near Laren 

Angels' Heads 

Angelus, The 

Ann Hathaway's Cottage 

An Old Monarch 

Arrival of the Shepherds, The 

Aurora 

Avenue, The (Middelharnis) 

Baby Stuart 

Beethoven, Ludwig Van 

Boy and Rabbit, A 

Boyhood of Lincoln 

Brightness of the Sea 

Brittany Sheep 

Bryant, William Cullen 

By the River 

Calling the Ferryman 

Can't You Talk 

Challenge, The 

Cherubs, The 

Children of the Shell, The 

Christ and the Rich Young 

Ruler 
Christ in the Temple 
Christ at Twelve 
Close of Day, The 
Close of a Long Day 
Cove in the Woodland, A 
Dance of the Nymphs 
Day's Decline 
Distinguished Member of the 

Humane Society, A 
Doctor, The 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 
Family Cares 
Feeding Her Birds 
Fields at Midday 
First Step, The 
Gathering Storm, The 
Girl with the Apple, The 
Gleaners, The 
Good Shepherd, The 
Good Shepherd, The 
Halt at the Oasis, A 
Helping Hand, A 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 
Horse Fair, The 
Horse Shoer, The 
Hosea 

Infant Samuel, The 
Joan of Arc 

Knitting Shepherdess, The 
Lake, The 



Sir Joshua Reynolds 
Anton Mauve 
Sir Joshua Reynolds 
Jean Francois Millet 
Wilfred Ball 
Rosa Bonheur 
Henri Lerolle 
Guido Reni 
Minderhout Hobbema 
Antoine Van Dyck 

Sir Henry Raeburn 
Eastman Johnson 
M. Kurzwelly 
Rosa Bonheur 

Henri Lerolle 

Daniel Ridgway Knight 

G. A. Holmes 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 

Raphael Sanzio 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo 

Heinrich Hofmann 
Heinrich Hofmann 
Heinrich Hofmann 
Emile Louis Adan 
J. M. Ortner 

Eugene Loues Charpentier 
Jean Baptiste Camille Corot 
Anton Mauve 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 
Sir Luke Fildes 

E. C. Barnes 

Jean Francois Millet 

Heinrich Schmidt 

Jean Baptiste Camille Corot 

Herman Rudisuhli 

Jean Baptiste Greuze 

Jean Francois Millet 

Bernhard Plockhorst 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo 

Adolph Schreyer 

Emile Renouf 

Rosa Bonheur 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 

John Singer Sargent 

Sir Joshua Reynolds 

Bastien LePage 

Jean Francois Millet 

Jean Baptiste Camille Corot 



53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 

57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 

81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 

94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 

98. 
99. 

100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 



Last Supper, The Leonardo Da Vinci 

Leaving the Hills Joseph Farquharson 

Lincoln, Abraham 

Little Children of the Sea 

Little Fishers 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 

Lost Sheep, The Alfred U. Soord 

Lowell, James Russell 

Madam LeBrun and Daughter Madam LeBrun 



Joseph Israels 

Bernardus Johannes Blommers 



Madonna 

Madonna and Child 

Madonna and Child 

Madonna Di San Sisto 

Madonna Delia Sedia 

Monarch of the Glen, The 

Morning 

Mountain Pasture, The 

Mozart, Wolfgang 

Noble Charger, A 

Pharaoh's Horses 

Pilgrim Exiles 

Pilgrims Going to Church 

Priscilla and John Alden 

Queen Louise 

Reading from Homer 

Return to the Farm 

Road Thru the Woods 

St. Anthony and the Christ 

Child 
St. Cecilia 
Saved 

Shakespeare, William 
Shepherd Boy, The 
Shepherd and His Flock 
Shepherdess and Sheep 
Sir Galahad 
Song of the Lark, The 
Sower, The 
Spirit of '76 
Spring 

Stratford-On-Avon 
Suffer Little Children to Come 

Unto Me 
Sunbeams 
Tennyson, Alfred 
Thoroughbreds 
Three Members of a Temper- 
ance Society 
Victor of the Glen, The 
Washington Crossing the 

Delaware 
Washington, George 
Washington, Martha 
Webster, Daniel 
Whittier, John Greenleaf 
Wilson, Woodrow 
Windmill, The 



Cuno Von Bodenhausen 

Antonio Allegri Da Correggio 

Robert Ferruzzi 

Raphael Sanzio 

Raphael Sanzio 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 

Jules Dupre 

Bahieu 

Rosa Bonheur 
John Frederick Herring 
George H. Boughton 
George H. Boughton 
Alfred Fredericks 
Gustav Richter 
Laurenz Alma-Tadema 
Constant Troyon 
Joseph Farquharson 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo 

Naujok 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 



Jean Francois Millet 
The Rosa Bonheur 
Henri Lerolle 
George Frederick Watts 
Jules Breton 
Jean Francois Millet 
Archibald M. Willard 
Jean Baptiste Camille Corot 



Bernhard Plockhorst 
M. Kurzwelly 

Heywood Hardy 

John Frederick Herring 
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 

Emanuel Leutze 
Gilbert Stuart 
Gilbert Stuart 



Jacob Van Ruysdael 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE AGE OF INNOCENCE 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, (1723-1792) was born in the 
beautiful county of Devonshire, England. His father 
was a clergyman and his mother was the daughter of a 
clergyman. When Sir Joshua was yet a child, his parents 
decided that he should be educated for a druggist. 

One Sunday, as he sat in church he sketched a picture 
of the minister on his thumb nail and afterwards trans- 
ferred it in oil to canvas. This convinced his hitherto 
reluctant father that he should give his consent to the 
boy to enter into his chosen field, and he reluctantly 
apprenticed the boy to Hudson, a great London painter. 
The boy was apprenticed for four years, but at the end of 
two years he returned to his native home, Plympton, 
England. It was said that Hudson realized the ability 
of Reynolds and, because of fear in having a rival in Rey- 
nolds, discharged him. 

Reynolds traveled abroad extensively but the place 
where he found most joy and satisfaction was in Italy 
with the great masters in art. In Venice he conceived 
his ideal in coloring, but not his method. This great 
artist was said to be one of the seven greatest colorists 
of all time, yet he won this distinction by hard work. 

After three years of travel, observation, study and toil 
in Italy he returned to London, determined to "survive 
or perish" in his art. During his second year he had 
a hundred twenty dukes, duchesses, members of parlia- 
ment, and society beauties sit for him. In one year he 
had a hundred fifty sit for him, among them the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards George III. 



THE AGE OF INNOCENCE 

The joy of being called "father" was not the good 
fortune of Sir Joshua Reynolds, but he loved children 
dearly. He invited them to his studio, played with them 
in their plays and spent many happy hours with them. 



Reynolds never painted the picture of a child until he 
had won its confidence, until he was sure it trusted him. 
Then he could get its natural childish expressions. 

This child was "Offy" his niece who sat for so many 
of his pictures. What an attractive background Reynolds 
has given us for this, the most beautiful of all his child 
pictures. 

The child seems to be interested in something as she 
folds her dimpled hands against her breast while her little 
pink toes are just creeping from beneath her skirts. Does 
her face not reveal the fact that she is happy? She is 
probably just resting from a romp with her great, true 
friend, and he no doubt is talking to her and while she 
turns her head to listen he is sketching her. 

Altho this little girl lived nearly two hundred years 
ago does she not remind you of your baby sister at home, 
or of some other little girl whom you know? Her hair is 
dressed much the same and her face is just as thoughtful. 
She must be sitting on the ground under some friendly 
trees. The sky, so full of vaporlike clouds, indicates 
peace and quiet. This is said to be the most perfect 
child picture ever painted by any artist. 



EXERCISES 

1. What kind of pictures did Reynolds paint? 

2. How can you account for his ability to paint children's pictures? 

3. Who were his studies? 

4. What do you think are the chief characteristics of the child 
portrayed in "The Age of Innocence"? 

5. Why does the picture appeal to all classes of people? 



So I will say that I believe there are two virtues much 
needed in modern life, if it is ever to become sweet; and 
I am quite sure that they are absolutely necessary in the 
sowing the seed of an art which is to be made by the people 
and for the people, as a happiness to the maker and the user. 
These virtues are honesty, and simplicity of life. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




ALONG THE LANE NEAR LAREN 

ANTON MAUVE 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



ANTON MAUVE 

Anton Mauve (1838-1888) was born at Zaandam, 
Holland. He ranks among the most famous of Dutch 
painters of the modern school. He gave all of his atten- 
tion to painting peasants and landscapes of Holland. 
Strange as it may seem, he had appreciation in England 
and America before his countrymen recognized his wonder- 
ful genius. He won medals in Philadelphia, Antwerp, 
Vienna and Paris. The largest collections of his pictures 
are found in America, especially in private collections in 
Saint Louis. It has been said that no other painter has 
so faithfully caught the spirit of Dutch scenery. 



ALONG THE LANE NEAR LAREN 

The refined sunset scenes, the flocks of sheep, and the 
hazy atmosphere of Mauve's pictures make us easily 
recognize them as works of this artist. He saw the poetic 
side of labor, just as Millet saw the dramatic side of the 
toiler's life. Mauve is to Holland what Millet is to 
France. 

This picture presents a typical landscape in Holland. 
Across the stretch of flat country, windmills are seen far 
in the distance. A shepherd leads a flock of sheep along 
a road in the direction of a great copse that appears 
almost black against the unclouded sky. On either side 
of the road is green pasture land. Some of the sheep 
have strayed from the flock to nibble the grass. 

Mauve has painted many beautiful sheep and other 
animal pictures, which are thoroly realistic and simple. 
This beautiful painting is one of his very best. Notice 
the birch trees in the distance so graceful and inviting 
especially on a summer day. The sheep are wending 
their way homeward down the lane and past the birch 
trees, where they will rest. In the morning they go forth 
to seek pasture and in the evening they return weary with 
the day's task. The shepherd's life is just as uneventful 



He loves his sheep and does not weary of his daily toil. 
Over the whole scene, the artist seems to have spread a 
hazy, transparent-like veil, giving rare beauty and charm 
to the picture. 

This picture offers an example of simplicity and of the 
artist's power to suggest much thru broad painting. 
The picture has no object in the immediate foreground, 
the objects of chief interest being placed in the middle 
ground and in the background. The monotony of the 
level landscape is broken by the shapely trunks of six 
small trees resembling birches, and by the heavy copse. 
Contrast is secured by painting deep "patches" of shadow 
here and there across the greensward. Aside from the 
presence of the shepherd and his flock, Mauve imparts 
the human touch by the roadway with the deep prints of 
travel. Hence the words of the title, "Near Laren," 
Laren being a small village in Holland. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Anton Mauve. 

2. In what respect may we compare Mauve and Millet? 

3. How did Mauve portray labor? 

4. Describe this picture. 

5. What shows the author's simplicity of arrangement? 

6. Describe the setting of this picture. 

7. What in this picture pleases you most? 



The most important part of painting is to know what 
is most beautiful in nature, and most proper for that art; 
that which is the most beautiful is the most noble subject. 

— Dryden 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




ANGELS' HEADS 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. Th^> University Publishing Company 



SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, (1723-1792) was born in the 
beautiful county of Devonshire, England. His father 
was a clergyman and his mother was the daughter of a 
clergyman. When Sir Joshua was yet a child, his parents 
decided that he should be educated for a druggist. 

One Sunday, as he sat in church, he sketched a picture 
of the minister on his thumb nail and afterwards trans- 
ferred it in oil to canvas. This convinced his hitherto 
reluctant father that he should give his consent to the 
boy to enter his chosen field, and he reluctantly appren- 
ticed the boy to Hudson, a great London painter. The boy 
was apprenticed for four years, but at the end of two years 
he returned to his native home, Plympton, England. 
It is said that Hudson realized the ability of Reynolds 
and, because of fear in having a rival in Reynolds, dis- 
charged him. 

Reynolds traveled abroad extensively but the place 
where he found most joy and satisfaction was in Italy with 
the great masters in art. In Venice he conceived his 
ideal in coloring, but not his method. This great artist 
was said to be one of the seven great colorists of all time, 
yet he won this distinction only by hard work. 

After three years of travel, observation, study and toil 
in Italy he returned to London, determined to "survive 
or perish" in his art. During his second year he had a 
hundred twenty dukes, duchesses, members of parliament, 
and society beauties sit for him. In one year he had a 
hundred fifty sit for him, among them the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards George III. 



ANGELS' HEADS 

Sir Joshua Reynolds knew the secret of bringing out 
childish expression because he naturally loved children. 
What could be more angelic than the face of a little child? 
How that face changes with the various moods into which 
it falls as a result of its environment. 



Jesus referred to children as reflections of the angels of 
Heaven. This may be the reason, why Reynolds repre- 
sented little Frances Gordon as an angel. She was a 
frequent visitor at his studio and when her parents asked 
him to paint her picture he surprised and pleased them 
by painting these five views in as many positions, repre- 
senting angels. He represented Frances as looking right 
at him, as discovering some strange new object, as puzzled 
about something she could not understand, and twice as 
happily, cheerily singing. Each face was painted when 
Frances least expected it and thus represents all the 
sweet, innocent childish spirit in the most natural setting. 

How proud little Frances Gordon's parents must have 
been to have this great artist represent her true to their 
own interpretation of her sweet childish face. Ten years 
after this picture was painted (1831) Frances died and her 
mother gave the picture to the English National Gallery. 
Other pictures by this artist are: Simplicity; Strawberry 
Girl; Master Bunburg; Age of Innocence. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Joshua Reynolds. 

2. Why was he particularly strong in painting child pictures? 

3. Who was Frances Gordon? 

4. How did he come to paint her picture? 

5. Describe each childish mood as you feel it is depicted by 
Reynolds in these faces. Which one is happy, which thought- 
ful, which surprised, which puzzled? 

6. What are some of his other pictures? 

7. What do you like best about these "Angels' Heads"? 



None more admires, the painters magic skill 
Who shows me that which I shall never see. 

— Cowper 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE ANGELUS 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 

Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the "peasant painter of France." As a boy, 
he lived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in 
the fields. When he could no longer repress his desire 
to become an artist he went away to study. When he 
returned, he was a great painter, but still remained a 
true peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio 
in the village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived 
the peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated, and reaped 
and Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at 
their labor or converse with the woodcutters, the char- 
coal burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, he 
was at least able to gain some food for his little ones from 
his garden, and he could have near him his brother 
artists Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appre- 
ciated his efforts and to whom his artistic message was 
not spoken in vain. 

Here he studied and painted the peasant life. Into 
his pictures he put not only the things he saw around him 
every day, but also many things he remembered since the 
days of his youth. His paintings had an inner meaning 
that could be brought out by none but the one who has 
lived the life. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that 
in his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that 
there is a good bond between man and nature, and that 
a picture to be a true interpretation must harmonize the 
one with the other. In all of his later pictures, therefore, 
the landscape and the figures seem to be in perfect har- 
mony. 

Millet has been able to show us in his pictures very 
nearly what time of day it is. In the "Sower" we have 



the evening twilight; in "The Gleaners," the burning 
noonday; in "The Angelus" the glow of the setting sun; 
in "Woman Sewing," the glimmering lamplight. The 
figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor graceful, 
but they show great expression and goodness of char- 
acter and look as if they were really a part of their sur- 
roundings. This was the life of which, in the fullness 
of his heart, he said: "The peasant subjects suit my 
temperament best, for I must confess that the human 
side of life is what touches me most." 

He died without having been appreciated. He planted 
artistic seed for others to reap a harvest. He was the 
sower; we are the gleaners. We have lived to see three 
nations striving in friendly rivalry to secure his master- 
pieces. 

THE ANGELUS 

In this picture the early twilight of an autumn day 
has overtaken two peasants at the close of a hard day's 
work in the field. They are digging potatoes. The field 
is a long way from the village, but in the still night air, 
sounds are carried far across the plain. Suddenly the 
bell of the village peals forth. The man stops digging 
and plunges his fork into the earth and the woman hastily 
rises from her stooping posture. The Angelus bell is 
ringing and it calls them to prayer. Three times each 
day, at sunrise, at midday, and at sunset, this bell reminds 
the world of the birth of Christ. The atmosphere of 
prayer pervades the picture. The woman stands with 
bowed head and 'hands clasped over her breast. Her 
husband has bared his head and holds his hat before him. 
We often see pictures of real life in which labor is 
lightened by love, but here we see labor glorified by rever- 
ence and devotion. 

The clumsy shoes, the coarse, home-made garments 
of both the man and the woman, the rough brown fields, 
and the lowering skies are all things that Millet delighted 
in portraying, for it is typical of the life he himself had 
lived and loved. 



Hard labor is shown in every line of the homely figures. 
Devoid of all pleasures, as their lives seem to be, they 
are glad for a chance to stand for a short time in the 
descending night to offer thanks for hands with which 
to labor, and hearts with which to love. 

EXERCISES 

1. Tell the story of Millet's life. 

2. Why was Millet called "The Peasant Painter of France"? 

3. What have the persons in the picture been doing? 

4. What tells you the kind of persons they are? 

5. What is shown of them by what they are now doing? 

6. Describe fully the picture. 

7. What impression does one get upon first looking at "The 
Angelus"? 

8. What do you like best about the picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




ANN HATHA WAY'S COTTAGE 

WILFRED BALL 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



WILFRED BALL 

Wilfred Ball is an English painter known especially for 
his fine water colors and etchings. He was educated 
in the Grammar School at Hackney, England. He began 
his career as a public accountant in London, but was 
drawn incidentally into a study of art, a study he pur- 
sued with zest at the Heatherley School, London. At 
the Paris Exposition in 1900, he was awarded a bronze 
medal for his etching. His most popular painting is 
that of "Ann Hathaway 's Cottage," done in oil. 



ANN HATHAWAY'S COTTAGE 

The picture, "Ann Hathaway's Cottage," is of peculiar 
historical interest, owing to the fact that Ann Hathaway 
was the wife of the great English dramatist, William 
Shakespeare. The cottage, which is spoken of in certain 
legal papers as a "farm-house," is in Shotterly, a hamlet 
of Stratford, and not far from the home of Shakespeare. 

This picture is a reproduction of an oil painting by the 
artist Ball. It is intended to carry out the idea of the 
"farm-house," showing the comfort of a quiet home in 
the country. It is not a lonely place, for other cottages 
are nearby, and people may be seen upon the well-traveled 
public road that leads past the cottage. 

The cottage, as the main feature of the picture, first 
attracts attention with its queer thatched roof, and the 
three large chimneys. We can see the vines, the small 
windows with the little panes of glass, the wooden strips 
across the plaster of the outside walls, and the odd attic 
windows near the eaves. About the cottage we next 
observe the grounds containing large oaks and evergreens, 
a hedge of shrubbery, a stone wall, a fence, and a wooden 
gate. 

The light in the picture comes from a direction to 
enhance the beauty of the scene. We "enter the picture " 
from the right, directly opposite the old-fashioned open 



gate to "Ann Hathaway's Cottage." The trees and 
shrubbery just coming into leaf, the abundant green grass, 
the flowers and the bright blue sky, all suggest a day in 
early spring. 



EXERCISES 

1. What historical interest centers about this picture? 

2. Where is this "cottage" located? 

3. What is this "cottage" made to represent? 

4. Describe the picture. 

5. What prevents this from being a lonely scene? 

6. What general feeling comes to one as he studies the picture? 

7. What do you like best about the scene? 



The enemy of art is the enemy of nature. Art is nothing 
but the highest sagacity and exertion of human nature; 
and what nature will he honor who honors not the human. 

— Lavater 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




AN OLD MONARCH 

ROSA BONHEUR 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



ROSA BONHEUR 

In the quiet old town of Bordeaux, on the west coast 
of France, was born, October 22, 1822, one of the world's 
most famous artists, Rosa Bonheur. Her father was an 
artist. Her mother was a musician. Rosa's waking 
hours were spent in playing with the cats and dogs. 
She loved every animal that came along, no matter how 
wretched it might be. 

When her father moved to Paris, little Rosa became 
very homesick for the familiar scenes in her quiet old 
home in Bordeaux. There was a school for boys nearby, 
and the master, seeing the loneliness of the little girl, 
asked her father to send her with her brothers to his school. 
The boys became very fond of her, for she entered into 
their sports as readily and with as much spirit as one of 
their own number. 

In 1835, Rosa's mother died, leaving the father to care 
for four small children. The family now had to be 
separated. Juliette, .Rosa's sister, was sent to a friend 
of the mother in Bordeaux; the boys to one boarding 
school; and Rosa to another. She, at least did not feel 
happy with this change. She had always lived a free, 
unrestrained life, and to thus be held within the bonds 
of school life was too much for the child. She made a 
dash for freedom, so transgressing on the rules of the 
school that the authorities of the institution gave her 
up in despair and she went joyously home to her father. 

Rosa's father was so busy with the giving of his lessons 
that he had not time to instruct his little daughter. She 
was free to amuse herself as she wished, which she did by 
drawing and painting. One day, upon returning home 
to his studio, he was surprised to find that she had sketched 
a very lovely bunch of cherries. After that he took time 
to give her lessons, and she progressed so rapidly that she 
was soon able to give lessons herself. She was advancing 
so well that she took to copying famous masterpieces in 
the Louvre, and these copies were so well done that she 
received good prices for them in the market places. 



In 1847 Rosa Bonheur received her first prize, a gold 
medal of the third class, presented in the king's name. 
One of her best works, "Oxen Plowing," was painted 
for the Salon exhibit of 1849. Rosa's father was gradual- 
ly failing in health at this time, but when this picture was 
finished, he rallied sufficiently to go out and see it. A 
few days later he died, satisfied that his daughter had 
more than fulfilled the dreams of success that he had at 
one time hoped himself to achieve. 

After her return to Paris, she withdrew to the village 
of By, in the very heart of the grand old forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Here at By, Rosa purchased a rambling old house 
where she kept a menagerie consisting of birds of all 
kinds, and animals, both wild and domestic. Here she 
lived the life of a peasant, rising early, and retiring at the 
setting of the sun, eating the simplest of food and painting 
to her hearts content. 



AN OLD MONARCH 

This picture is one of the artist's best pictures of wild 
animal life. The details of the picture are worked out 
with the utmost care. Notice the finely set eyes, the 
ferocious mouth and nose, the shaggy mane telling of 
strength, and the general air of alertness and superiority. 
The lion is familiarly known as the king of beasts, and the 
artist has here represented him as worthy of the title. 



EXERCISES 

1. What appeals to you most in this picture? 

2. Does it seem strange to you that a woman should delight in 
painting ferocious animals? Why? 

3. What type of woman was this artist? Tell all you can of her 
life. 

4. Tell the story of Rosa Bonheur and of this picture as it appeals 
to you. 

5. Name other pictures painted by Rosa Bonheur. 



There's no way of getting good Art, I repeat, but one 
— at once the simplest and most difficult — namely, to 
enjoy it. Examine the history of nations, and you will 
find this great fact clear and unmistakable on the front 
of it — that good Art has only been produced by nations 
who rejoiced in it; fed themselves with it, as if it were 
bread; basked in it, as if it were sunshine; shouted at 
the sight of it; danced with the delight of it; quarreled 
for it; fought for it; starved for it; did, in fact, precisely 
the opposite with it of what we want to do with it — 
they made it to keep, and we to sell. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHEPHERDS 

HENRI LEROLLE 



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HENRI LEROLLE 

Very little can be learned of the life of this painter 
who is a modern French artist, born in Paris. 

His works are mostly those of nature, and all his works 
show the influence of other painters of that same period. 
He paints landscapes, interiors of buildings, and of late, 
scenes from peasant life. His pictures, altho not con- 
sidered extraordinary, are pleasing to the eye. Lerolle 
has many admirers in America. His figures in outdoor 
scenes are placed in a clear, luminous atmosphere, filled 
with reflected light. 

Lerolle had a fortune of his own and was thus able to 
pursue his studies without being hampered by poverty. 

Lerolle's best known paintings are: By the River; 
The Nativity; The Shepherdess; The Arrival of the 
Shepherds. 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHEPHERDS 

And there were in the same country Shepherds abiding 
in the field, keeping watch over their flocks by night. 
And lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them and the 
glory of the Lord shone round about them : and they were 
sore afraid. And the Angel said unto them, "Fear not, 
for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which 
shall be to all people. 

For unto you is born this day, in the city of David, 
a Saviour which is Christ the Lord, And this shall be a 
sign unto you; ye shall find the babe wrapped in swad- 
dling clothes, lying in a manger; and suddenly there was 
with the Angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising 
God and saying "Glory to God in the highest, and on 
earth peace, good will toward men." — Luke 2, 8-14. 

Thus we read the story of the birth of Jesus of Naza- 
reth in the humble stall of Bethlehem. It is very sweet 
and tender and impresses the lowly circumstances of 
the birth of Him who was to become the Prince of Peace. 



The shepherds saw this star and the angel told them 
where to find the Child. Then the shepherds wrapped 
their cloaks about them and hastened to Bethlehem. 
This picture represents their arrival. It also reminds 
us of the sacred season of Christmas, the time of giving 
to one another in commemoration of the greatest Gift 
in the world. It is a season of promise because of the 
wonderful blessing showered upon us in this glorious 
country of ours. 



EXERCISES 

1. Of what nationality is Lerolle? 

2. Of what do most of his works consist? 

3. Which is the principal group in this picture? 

4. What feeling is expressed by that group? 

5. What is the center of interest in the picture? 

6. Where is the strong light? Why? 

7. What seems to be the attitude of the Shepherds? 

8. Why do they not draw near to the Christ Child? 

9. Why is the donkey in the picture? 

10. What other interesting details are given? 

11. What do you like best in the picture? 



All nature is but art unknown to thee; 

All chance, direction which thou can'st not see 

All discord harmony not understood; 

All partial evil, universal good; 

And spirit of pride in erring Reasons spite 

One truth is clear, whate'er is is right I admire. 

— Pope 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




AURORA 

GUIDO RENI 



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GUIDO RENI 

Guido Reni was born at Bologna, November 4, 1575, 
and died there August 18, 1642. He was a son of Daniele 
Reni, a musician. His first studies were taken under 
Denys Calvaert, and he afterwards studied under Carracci. 
For a time he was the favorite pupil of Lodovico by whom 
he was dismissed because of jealousy. After painting 
for a time in Bologna, he, with his fellow pupil Fran- 
cesco Albani, went to Rome. There Cardinal Borghese 
gave Guido an order for "The Crucifixion of St. Peter" 
on condition that it should be done "after the manner of 
Caravaggio," leading Bolognese painter of the day. After 
twenty years in Rome, he returned to Bologna. Later 
he was induced to open his study in Rome. There 
he painted the famous "Aurora." 

Among his many other famous paintings are: Christ 
on the Cross; Sampson Victorious; Death of Cleopatra; 
Rebecca at the Well; Atalanta's Race; David and 
Goliath. 

AURORA 

In this picture, the sun is represented by Helios who 
sits in his golden chariot. Each day he drives his pranc- 
ing steeds across the heavens and back again to his palace. 
There is strength in his determined features and in that 
firm hand which directs with such perfect ease, the path 
of these dancing, prancing horses. Just above and in 
front of him is Cupid, or the morning star, who goes 
forth to herald his approach. Around Helios' chariot 
we can see several beautiful figures draped in graceful 
robes. These are the hours. They follow him all day 
long stepping so lightly that their feet scarcely touch the 
clouds. Their faces show that it is with a spirit of joy 
and delight that they accompany him who seems so 
grand and glorious in their midst. Notice that the hours 
in the foreground are the happiest of all. They 
are the morning hours, probably, and are just starting 
out fresh rested for the day's journey. Those in the 



background are the afternoon hours. One looks back at 
Helios as if to remind him that she is weary. 

But of all the Gods and Goddesses in our Fairyland, 
none are so much loved as the beautiful Aurora. See 
her as she goes forward clad in soft draperies. It is her 
duty to rouse the sleeping world. She glides out of her 
palace, wakens the God of Day, and then goes on to the 
palace of the sleeping hours. The steeds come forth, and 
harnessed to the golden chariot by the hours, away they 
go on their journey. As if by magic the birds waken, 
the eastern sky lights up, the dew laden flowers and plants 
lift their heads, and the morning breezes begin to blow. 

When Helios and his mysterious company return to 
their palaces the light of day goes out and night settles 
over all. 

Cardinal Seipio Borghese commissioned Guido Reni 
to decorate the garden pavilion of his palace on the site 
of the Baths of Constantine. This pavilion is located at 
the end of a beautiful garden planted with magnolias, 
and consists of three halls on the ground or first floor. 
This picture is painted upon the ceiling of the central 
hall. A large mirror has been placed below it so that 
visitors may see the picture with ease by looking into 
the mirror on the floor. The colors are as bright as if 
the picture were painted only yesterday. 



EXERCISES 

1. What does this picture represent? 

2. Who is the sun-god? What indicates that he is strong and 
firm? 

3. What does Cupid do? 

4. Describe the hours. What do they do? Which hours are 
happy? Which are weary? Why? 

5. Who is the fairest Goddess of our Fairyland? 

6. Tell what changes take place as she makes her journey. 

7. Where does this company go when we have night? 

8. Who painted this picture? Where is it? 

9. What do you like best about the picture? 



From the mingled strength of shade and light 

A new creation rises to my sight. 

Such heav'nly figures from his pencil flow 

So warm with light his blended colors glow 
The glowing portraits, fresh from life, they bring 
Home to our hearts the truth from which they spring. 

— Byron 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER . 

Assistant State Superintendent. Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE AVENUE (MIDDELHARNIS) 

MINDERHOUT HOBBEMA 



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MINDERHOUT HOBBEMA 

Minderhout Hobbema belongs to the Dutch school of 
art. He was born in 1638 at Amsterdam, where he spent 
his entire life. 

He was unimaginative. He had few of the dreams 
and inspirations which most artists have. He was very 
practical and invariably painted just what lay before him. 
He did not paint a great many pictures, his earliest one 
bearing the date of 1650, while his last but one is dated 
1670. His last picture was "The Avenue of Middel- 
harnis," which was made in 1689. 

Hobbema's master, Jacob van Ruysdael, was one of 
the most noted of Dutch painters. While Hobbema cer- 
tainly displayed less poetic feeling and genius than did 
his master, yet it is thought that his effects were truer 
and his colors more brilliant. 

Hobbema's art was decidedly neglected in his own 
country, so nearly all of his works have been carried to 
England where they have found their way into private 
collections. Some of them have been brought to America. 

Hobbema died at Amsterdam on December 14, 1709. 
His noted paintings are: Avenue of Middelharnis; The 
Water Mill; Wooded Landscape; The Wooded Road; 
Showery Weather. 

THE AVENUE OF MIDDELHARNIS 

This picture is considered Hobbema's masterpiece. 
Undoubtedly the chief attraction is the avenue at the 
center of the picture. We see two rows of tall, peculiarly 
shaped trees, which are very straight and well-trimmed, 
having only a small tuft of leafy branches at the top. 
They skirt the sides of a rather rutted road, and seem to 
rear themselves almost to the sky. As we follow their 
great length, we are attracted to the dull, leaden, but 
nevertheless beautiful, sky. The very shape and color 
of the clouds lend a touch of grandeur to the scene. 



As we look down the avenue, we can distinguish several 
figures. The foremost are a man and his dog, while 
further in the distance we see three other figures. This 
causes us to think that the avenue may be a thorofare 
leading from the village in the back of the picture. 

Studying the painting more closely, we see a collection 
of low houses, almost overshadowed by a towering castle 
in the foreground, overlooking the open country to the 
left. These comprise the village. On the right side of 
the picture, detached from the others, we notice a low 
thatched cottage, in front of which stand two figures. 

We also see a well-kept garden of small trees which 
are trimmed in a manner similar to those of the avenue. 
A small canal is seen in the foreground. 

This picture now hangs in the National Gallery, 
London. 

EXERCISES 

1. Of what nationality was Hobbema? 

2. Name some of the characteristics which distinguished him 
from other artists. Under whom did he study? 

3. How long a time was it between the last two pictures he 
painted? 

4. How was his art treated in Holland? 

5. Where were his paintings received? 

6. What can you say about the popularity of this picture? 

7. What attracts your attention first on looking at this painting? 

8. Describe the trees; the road; the sky. 

9. Compare the trees of the avenue with those on each side. 

10. How many persons do you see? Tell what each is doing. 

11. In what country do you think this is? Why? 

12. Describe the picture as it now appears to you. 

13. Why do you think so many persons have liked this picture? 



The one thing that marks the true artist is a clear 
perception, and a firm, bold hand, in distinction from that 
imperfect mental vision and uncertain touch which gives 
us the feeble pictures and the lumpy statues of the mere 
artisans on canvas or in stone. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




BABY STUART 

ANTOINE VAN DYCK 



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ANTOINE VAN DYCK 

Antoine Van Dyck, the celebrated Flemish artist, was 
born in Antwerp, in 1599. His father was a merchant, 
and his mother, who died when her son was only eight 
years old, was noted for her beautiful embroidery. The 
son early showed a remarkable talent for art. At fifteen 
years of age he entered the studio of the great Rubens. 
Here he made rapid progress, and had the honor of being 
admitted to the "Guild of Painters" in Antwerp when he 
was only nineteen years of age. 

It was in England that Van Dyck had his greatest 
successes. Many of his masterpieces are owned there 
today. Van Dyck was considered the most brilliant of 
all of Rubens' pupils. So thoroly has Van Dyck acquired 
Rubens' touch of the brush, that it is frequently diffi- 
cult to decide whether certain pictures produced in these 
years are the work of the master or of the pupil. It 
has been said that Rubens became very jealous of Van 
Dyck's ability; but when they finally parted, they were 
the best of friends. 

The last nine years of Van Dyck's life were passed in 
England, where the family of Charles I and the brilliant 
group of persons forming his court, were the subjects of 
a final series of portraits. In fact, the men in Van Dyck's 
pictures are all noblemen, the women all great ladies, 
and the children, all princes and princesses. 

BABY STUART 

This famous painting of "Baby Stuart" is taken from 
a group picture of the children of Charles I, King of 
England. Baby Stuart's name, at the time of the 
painting of the picture, was James, Duke of York. On 
the death of his brother, Charles II, in 1685, he became 
King of England. 

What a dear little fellow he is! See his big round 
eyes, his soft red lips, and plump rosy cheeks and neck. 
He looks at something away off that seems to be very 
interesting to him. 



What rich beautiful clothes he has! They are surely 
suited to the baby of a king and queen. The dress is 
of lovely soft silk, the cuffs of lace, rich and rare, and a 
dainty cap covers his round little head. 

Altho Baby Stuart looks so sweet and innocent in his 
baby picture, he was a bad king, so that in three years 
he had to give up his crown, and flee to France. 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Van Dyck born? 

2. When and under whom did he begin his study of art? 

3. What honor was bestowed upon him at an early age? 

4. Of what class of people did the artist paint portraits? 

5. In what country did he achieve the greatest success? 

6. Tell of the relations between Rubens and Van Dyck? 

7. Who was "Baby Stuart" at the time this portrait was painted? 

8. What kind of a king was "Baby Stuart"? What finally 
became of him? 

9. Describe the baby's face. His dress. 

10. How old do you think he is? 

11. Tell about any babies you know about the same' age. 
X2. Why do you think this picture is so well liked? 



We're made so that we love 

First when we see them painted, things we have passed 

Perhaps a hundred times, nor cared to see; 

And so they are better, painted — better to us, 

Which is the same thing. 

— Robert Browning 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 



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LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 

Ludwig van Beethoven, the great German musical 
composer, was born at Bonn in December of 1770. In 
early days, his people lived near Louvain, Belgium. His 
father was a musician and singer, and his mother was 
Magdalena Laym. Both father and mother were un- 
distinguished. The father had shiftless habits that later 
assumed forms of viciousness. Into this home of poverty 
young Beethoven was born. 

The father early discovering that his son had wonderful 
talent, and deciding to make the most of it, set the boy 
to hard musical study, especially the violin, before young 
Beethoven was five years old. The boy made such won- 
derful progress that, at the age of nine, his father could 
no longer teach him. The boy was not allowed much 
formal schooling outside of music, and because of this 
fact it has been a matter wondered at that the musician 
developed such breadth and depth in his intellectual 
and moral life. 

But Beethoven was an indomitable worker and con- 
sequently announced to the world his motto, "Give only 
your best." It was said that Beethoven could never 
understand why any one should do anything that did 
not represent the man at his best. The boy had many 
trials as his talent developed, but his most sorrowful 
disappointment was that of deafness, which was largely 
due to improper treatment and lack of care when he was 
young. He was able to go on with his work as a com- 
poser, but he missed the conversation of friends, nor 
could he have the pleasure of hearing his own wonderful 
compositions performed. His father died, and Beethoven 
assumed the care of the family, at all times showing the 
tenderest devotion toward his mother. 

Beethoven had a loving disposition, and a most affec- 
tionate nature which had been starved when he was 
young. He sympathized with all men, and encouraged 
them. His mind entitles him to rank among the greatest 
geniuses that have ever lived. His mental, moral and 



intellectual balance is little short of marvelous. He is 
called the greatest artist and musician that the world 
ever produced. The great composer died March 26, 
1827, during a fierce thunderstorm. The final tribute 
to him is that he revealed in the highest degree the 
truthfulness and self-control of a noble soul. His great 
compositions are ranked as unsurpassable and some- 
what unique in the realm of art. 

The idea of the portrait by Vogel, the German por- 
trait painter, is to express the sensitive nature, the great 
intellect, the patient suffering, and the mighty will power 
of the great soul Beethoven who triumphed in his attempt 
to make the most of his talent in spite of fearful physical 
handicaps. 



EXERCISES 

1. Where and when was Beethoven born? 

2. What had he to overcome? 

3. At what age did he begin his study of music? 

4. Why had he probably so little formal schooling? 

5. What was his standard of work? 

6. What was his greatest handicap? 

7. What shows that he was a dutiful son? 

8. Describe his nature and disposition. 

9. What was his rank as composer and artist? 

10. What does the picture seem to convey ,to the beholder? 

11. What to you is the lesson of Beethoven's life? 



The highest problem of every art is, by means of appear- 
ances, to produce the illusion of a loftier reality. 

. — Goethe 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




A BOY AND RABBIT 

SIR HENRY RAEBURN 



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SIR HENRY RAEBURN 

Henry Raeburn was born March 4, 1756, at Stock- 
bridge, Edinburgh, in Scotland. His parents died soon 
after his birth and he was left in the care of an elder 
brother, who sent the lad to Heriot's Hospital where he 
received the fundamentals of a good education. It be- 
came necessary, however, for him to leave school at 
the age of fifteen, when he was apprenticed to a gold- 
smith. During his spare moments, he studied and 
painted. At first he attempted only miniatures, but later 
began to work in oil. At the age of twenty he was re- 
ceiving so many orders for portraits that he quit his 
apprenticeship to give all his time to painting. Two 
years later, he married a wealthy widow with two daugh- 
ters. It was the son of one of his step-daughters who 
is represented in "A Boy and Rabbit." 

At the age of twenty-nine, Raeburn had so increased 
in his power and ambition as a portrait painter, that he 
decided to go to Rome. On his way he stopped at the 
studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who did much to encourage 
him. Raeburn remained in Rome for two years, where 
he studied the works of the old masters. Upon his 
return to Edinburgh, he opened a studio of his own. In 
1808, a mercantile firm in which he had an interest, 
failed, leaving the artist entirely bankrupt. He then 
decided to move to London where he might regain his 
fortune. Jealous portrait-painters, fearing Raeburn's 
rivalry, advised him to return to Edinburgh as a wider 
field. The simple, honest man believed this, so he 
returned to his home. 

Feeling that Raeburn was now safely out of the way, 
the Academy bestowed honors upon him. In 1814 he 
was made an Associate of the Academy and the following 
year, a full member. 

His greatest honor, however, was yet to come. In 
1822, King George IV, visiting Edinburgh, and charmed, 
not only by the painter's art, but by his gentlemanly 
bearing and dignity as well, knighted him. The follow- 



ing year the king desired a portrait by Raeburn. The 
artist, however, had just started it when he was taken 
suddenly ill, dying July 8, 1823. 

The striking feature of Raeburn's art is that it is all 
his own. He copied no one. He followed no set rules. 
His supreme gift was that of painting not only material 
things, but character. 

A BOY AND RABBIT 

The sweet, delicate face of the lad in the picture 
reflects a gentle spirit within, and we feel no fear that 
the rabbit will not be tenderly cared for while he is with 
his little master. Even now, the little animal is con- 
tentedly munching some greens with which he has been 
provided, and nestles calmly within the circle of the 
boy's arm. 

The youth's quaint dress, the long trousers, white 
stockings, frilled waist thrown open to reveal a white 
throat, and the hat set so boyishly on the fine head, add 
to the charm of a lovely scene. It is a picture that we 
like to look at — for it holds so much of all that is delight- 
fully childish and innocent — and is so freefrom all worldly 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Raeburn. 

2. Where and by whose aid did he receive his first education? 

3. Under whom did he study? 

4. How long did he remain in Rome? 

5. What did he do upon his return? 

6. Tell of the influence of his visit to Rome. 

7. How did he attempt to regain his wealth? 

8. With what opposition was he met? 

9. What honors were bestowed on him? 

10. Who is the boy in this picture? 

11. What is he doing? 

12. What is the rabbit doing? 

13. Do you think the lad is kind to his pet? 

14. Describe the boy's clothing. Is it like that worn today? 

15. What do you like best about this picture? 



Art is the child of Nature; yes, 
Her darling child in whom we trace 
The features of the mother's face, 
Her aspect and her attitude. 

— Longfellow 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




BOYHOOD OF LINCOLN 

EASTMAN JOHNSON 



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EASTMAN JOHNSON 

This artist is one of the modern American painters. 
He was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824. His first work, 
begun at an early age, was in black and white. He 
painted in Washington and in Boston devoting most 
of his time to portraits. 

From 1849 to 1856 he studied at Rome, The Hague, 
and Dusseldorf. Upon his return he met his first success 
after presenting his picture "Old Kentucky Home." 
His paintings of New England life have brought him 
much popularity and many of his portraits have become 
standard portraits. He died in 1906 at his home in 
New York City. 



BOYHOOD OF LINCOLN 

The story of Abraham Lincoln's boyhood, so well 
portrayed here, is a familiar one. It is best described 
by his step-mother, who was a broad-minded woman, 
kind to the sad-faced youth to whom she was known as 
"Mother," and whom she helped in every way possible. 
She says, "Abe read diligently. He read every book 
he could lay his hands on; and when he came across a 
passage that struck him, he would write it down on 
boards, if he had no paper, and keep it there until he did 
get paper. Then he would rewrite it, look at it, repeat it. 
He had a copy book, a kind of scrap book in which he 
put down all things, and thus preserved them." 

Lincoln, himself, declares that all told he had less than 
a year of work in the public schools; yet he became the 
chief ruler of his nation. His genius developed in this 
barren room of a rude cabin with rough, unfinished walls, 
uncouth furniture, and light furnished only by the glowing 
fireplace. 

The list of books available to him as a boy was a short 
one: Robinson Crusoe; Aesop's Fables; Pilgrims' 
Progress; Weems's Life of Washington; and a His- 



tory of the United States. He worked all day splitting 
rails or hoeing corn, yet no day's toil was so hard and no 
hours too long for him to cause him to deny himself 
the pleasure of this peep into a world as yetjanknown to 
him. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Eastman Johnson. 

2. What brought him his greatest popularity? 

3. Tell something of Abraham Lincoln as a boy. 

4. Tell of Lincoln's early home. 

5. Describe the room here shown. 

6. What is the young Lincoln doing? 

7. What time of day is it? 

8. From what does he receive his light? 

9. What is here shown of Lincoln tells of the kind of man he is 
likely to become? 

10. What traits of Lincoln's character do you most admire? 



We speak of profane arts; but there are none properly 
such; every art is holy in itself; it is the son of Eternal 
Light. 

The study of art possesses the great and peculiar charm, 
that it is absolutely unconnected with the struggles and 
contests of ordinary life. By private interests, by political 
questions, men are deeply divided and set at variance, 
but beyond and above all such party strifes they are 
attracted and united by a taste of the beautiful in art. 

— Guizot 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




BRIGHTNESS OF THE SEA 

M. KURZWELLY 



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M. KURZWELLY 

M. Kurzwelly is a noted landscape painter who now lives 
in Berlin. His "Sunbeams" and "Brightness of the Sea" 
have attracted very favorable comment. He now spends 
his time painting in Berlin. 

BRIGHTNESS OF THE SEA 

A distinguished painter once said that he could scarcely 
hope to sell a landscape that was not one-half water. 
"Brightness of the Sea," by Kurzwelly, is a study 
that fully satisfies this demand for a picture that is a 
combination of land and water. 

We shall imagine that it is the beginning of a new day 
with its array of silvery splendor. The mellow light of 
the sun shining upon the sea thru a rift of cloud, casts soft 
reflections upon the trees and heather on the sloping sea- 
shore. A group of shadowy trees by contrast render more 
conspicuous the objects in the middle ground of the 
picture. The sea is gently ruffled by the breeze, and 
the waves are rolling about the rocks near the shore. 

That the seashore here is a favorite haunt is suggested 
from the fact that a well-worn pathway leads thru the 
foreground to the sea. The artist wished to suggest that 
many other people, doubtless, have been accustomed to 
enjoy this lovely landscape with its broad outlook of the 
sea. i «■ 

Why should this picture be called, "Brightness of the 
Sea" when more than one-half of the painting is a view 
of the land? Here the painter has shown fine skill. 
Altho we do not see so much of the ocean, yet the strong 
point of light on the surface first attracts our attention. 
Then the entire picture, the clouds included, also receives, 
light from the reflection of the sunlight on the water. 

The foreground to the left is rendered especially pleas- 
ing by the broad masses of purplish heather, leading the 
beholder immediately to associate the scene with Scot- 
land. This picture, justly a favorite, has been designated 
as the kind of picture that one cares "to live with." 



EXERCISES 

1. What tells you the time of day? 

2. What tells that the artist has not pictured a lonely spot? 

3. Where is probably the scene of the picture? 

4. How does the picture get its name, since so much of it is land? 

5. Why has this been termed a picture "to live with"? 

6. What do you like best about this picture? 

7. Account for the popular demand for "water in a landscape." 



The appreciation of Art is a rich source of happiness. 
— Pres. Chas. W. Eliot 



PICTURE^ STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




BRITTANY SHEEP 

ROSA BONHEUR 



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ROSA BONHEUR 

In the quiet old town of Bordeaux, on the west coast 
of France, was born, October 22, 1822, one of the world's 
most famous artists, Rosa Bonheur. Her father was 
an artist. Her mother was a musician. Rosa's waking 
hours were spent in playing with the cats and dogs. She 
loved every animal that came along, no matter how 
wretched it might be. 

When her father moved to Paris, little Rosa became 
very homesick for the familiar scenes in her quiet old 
home in Bordeaux. There was a school for boys near-by, 
and the master, seeing the loneliness of the little girl, 
asked her father to send her with her brothers to his 
school. The boys became very fond of her, for she entered 
into their sports as readily and with as much spirit as one 
of their own number. 

In 1835, Rosa's mother died, leaving the father to care 
for four small children. The family now had to be 
separated. Juliette, Rosa's sister, was sent to a friend 
of the mother in Bordeaux; the boys to one boarding 
school; and Rosa to another. She, at least, did not feel 
happy with this change. She had always lived a free, 
unrestrained life, and to thus be held within the bonds 
of school life was too much for the child. She made a 
dash for freedom, so transgressing on the rules of the 
school that the authorities of the institution gave her up 
in despair and she went joyously home to her father. 

Rosa's father was so busy with the giving of his lessons 
that he had not time to instruct his little daughter. She 
was free to amuse herself as she wished, which she did by 
drawing and painting. One day, upon returning home 
to his studio, he was surprised to find that she had sketched 
a very lovely bunch of cherries. After that he took time to 
give her lessons, and she progressed so rapidly that she 
was soon able to give lessons herself. She was advanc- 
ing so well that she took to copying famous masterpieces 
in the Louvre, and these copies were so well done that she 
received good prices for them in the market places. 



In 1847 Rosa Bonheur received her first prize, a gold 
medal of the third class, presented in the king's name. 
One of her best works, "Oxen Plowing," was painted 
for the Salon exhibit of 1849. Rosa's father was gradual- 
ly failing in health at this time, but when this picture 
was finished, he rallied sufficiently to go out and see it. 
A few days later he died, satisfied that his daughter had 
more than fulfilled the dreams of success that he had at 
one time hoped himself to achieve. 

After her return to Paris, she withdrew to the village 
of By, in the very heart of the grand old forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Here at By, Rosa purchased a rambling old house 
where she kept a menagerie consisting of birds of all kinds, 
and animals, both wild and domestic. Here she lived 
the life of a peasant, rising early, and retiring at the set- 
ting of the sun, eating the simplest of food and painting 
to her heart's content. 



BRITTANY SHEEP 

Can you think of a more quiet, peaceful scene than 
this? How true to life these sheep appear! One can 
almost fancy that they are alive. They have probably 
been out all morning and are taking a rest, for when the 
leader starts all follow. Rosa Bonheur has painted them 
in so many positions, each characteristic of sheep we have 
seen. With what accuracy has she painted those nearest 
us! Nor did she forget the faithful old dog upon whom 
the owner of these sheep absolutely depends. The dog 
knows well how to take care of them and they are safe in 
his care. See how he sits lazily, half asleep; but let a 
sound or a footstep of strange animals or persons be 
heard and he will be wide-awake and on duty. The entire 
scene is one of rest, of peace, of security, a typical pastoral 
scene of rare beauty and charm. 



EXERCISES 

1. Who painted "Brittany Sheep?" 

2. Tell something of the life of the artist. 

3. Who guards these sheep? Do you think he can be trusted? 

4. Describe the picture. 

5. What in the picture is the center of our attention? 

6. What tells you of the time'of day? 

7. What is the mood of the picture? 

8. Why do you think the picture is so greatly admired by every- 
one? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT 



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WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT 

William Cullen Bryant was born of Puritan ancestry 
in Cummington, Mass., November 3, 1794. 

It is said that when he was sixteen months old he knew 
his a, b, c's both forwards and backwards. When he 
was three years old he started to school and learned to 
read well. When he was twelve he showed such marked 
ability that his parents decided he should be educated. 
He was sent to live with his uncle for the purpose of study- 
ing Latin. In eight months he had learned enough Latin 
to enter the sophomore class in Williams College. Next 
he studied with Rev. Hollock, who bore the record of 
being a past master at training young men for college. 
When he had been with Rev. Hollock two months he could 
read the Greek testament as well as if it had been English. 

At a very early age, Bryant began to write poems 
that were published in the country papers. Before he 
was ten, he had written the book of Job in verse for his 
grandfather, who prized it very highly. 

At this early age he had decided that he would be a poet 
and was most enthusiastic over all poetry he could find. 
He was a lover of nature; he admired the beauty of a 
winter sunrise from his window, the glories of the autumn, 
the spring with its birds and flowers, and even the 
approaching storm. 

Bryant entered a law office. He neglected his poetry 
and applied his energy to his new profession. On one 
occasion, his father found Thanatopsis in the drawer 
of young Bryant's desk and took it to Boston for publica- 
tion. As a result it appeared in the North American 
Review, in September, 1817. Some one has said, "There 
was no mistaking the quality of the verses. The stamp 
of genius was on every line. No such verses had been 
made in America before." These verses were written 
before Bryant was eighteen years of age, but when they 
appeared, his reputation was established. 

Bryant became more and more dissatisfied with leading 



the life of a lawyer and decided that if it was his lot to 
starve he would go to New York and "starve peace- 
ably and quietly." There he worked on the Evening 
Post for many years, becoming one of the leading journal- 
ists of the country. 

For more than fifty years, he was actively engaged as 
a writer and speaker in the shaping of American ideals. 
He died June 12, 1878, mourned by leaders in every land. 

This portrait represents Bryant as he was best known. 
He was a striking figure with long, white hair, keen eyes, 
over-hanging eyebrows, and the general appearance of 
a great patriarch who retained the elastic step and fine 
spirit of youth. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Bryant. 

2. What signs of greatness did he show in childhood? 

3. Tell of his work as a lawyer. 

4. What established his reputation as a literary man? 

5. In what way was he a leader in American life? 

6. Describe Bryant as he was best known. 

7. What does this portrait tell of him as man and leader? 



This is her picture as she was; 

It seems a thing to wonder on, 
As though mine image in the glass 

Should tarry when myself am gone. 

— Rosseter 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




BY THE RIVER 

HENRI LEROLLE 



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HENRI LEROLLE 

Very little can be learned of the life of this painter who 
is a modern French artist, born in Paris. 

His works are mostly those of nature, and all his works 
show the influence of other painters of that same period. 
He paints landscapes, interiors of buildings, and of late, 
scenes from peasant life. His pictures, altho not 
considered extraordinary, are pleasing to the eye. Le- 
rolle has many admirers in America. His figures in out- 
door scenes are placed in a clear, luminous atmosphere 
filled with reflected light. 

Lerolle had a fortune of his own and was thus able to 
pursue his studies without being hampered by poverty. 

Lerolle's best known paintings are: By the River; The 
Nativity; The Shepherdess; The Arrival of the Shep- 
herds. 



BY THE RIVER 

In "By the River" we see two peasant women return- 
ing from their work. We wish the mother with her baby 
might stay at home to care for her children. What be- 
comes of this baby while its mother is working. We 
cannot tell whether she works all day in the fields or in 
somebody's home. As she holds the baby to her breast, 
we feel that she loves it as dearly as does the mother who 
can give all of her time and attention to her children. 
This mother looks happy as does the peasant woman at 
her side with the sack on her shoulder. This sack may 
contain something for the evening meal for when these 
peasant women return from the hard day's work, they 
must prepare the evening meal. 

We imagine that they are glad to be so near the end of 
their journey. They are looking forward and may be 
enjoying a beautiful sunset or perhaps they are going to 
meet some friends whom they are glad to see. 

In the background we see a man leading two cows. 
The entire scene is quiet and restful; the trees, the river 



banks, the river, all harmonize so completely. The lights 
and shades of the pictures are so arranged as to produce a 
fascinating lighting effect and to make this picture of 
real brightness even on a dull day. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Lerolle. 

2. What do you think these women have been doing? 

3. Describe the picture. 

4. What tells whether these women are coming from, not going 
to work? 

5. What tells you the time of day? 

6. What objects in the picture occupy the center of our attention? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



It is the glory and good of Art 
That Art remains the one way possible 
Of speaking truth, — to mouths like mine, at least 
Immortal art! Where'er the rounded sky 
Bends o'er the cradle where thy children lie, 
Their home is earth, their herald every tongue. 

— Holmes 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska . 




CALLING THE FERRYMAN 

DANIEL RIDGWAY KNIGHT 



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DANIEL RIDGWAY KNIGHT 

This artist was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
and is still living. He exhibits at Paris Salon, and at 
the National Academy Studio at Poissy, France. All 
of his works illustrate every-day life and manners. He 
was a pupil of the E'cole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1872; 
of Gleyre, and of Meissonier in 1876. He painted 
The Veteran, 1870; Strolling in the Garden, 1874; Noon- 
day Rest, 1884; Chatterboxes, 1887. 

CALLING THE FERRYMAN 

In this picture we see two peasant maidens probably 
of France. How strong and healthy they look! They 
seem to be hard-working girls as may be seen by^ their 
large, muscular arms and sturdy bodies. That they are 
very poor is shown in the patched garments. They are 
no doubt happy in spite of poverty for theirs is a free 
out-of-door life in the fields where the women work as 
well as the men. 

The one has her hand raised to her lips as if to make 
the sound carry further. The other is beckoning with 
the hand. Who is it they are calling? It is the ferry- 
man with his boat on the other side of the river. We can 
scarcely distinguish him as he stands on the bank amid 
the trees and shrubs. 

Far in the distance we can see dim outlines of one or two 
houses. Perhaps there is a village across the stream and 
the girls wish to cross the river in order to get to it. 
Altogether this is a very pleasing picture and the longer 
we look at it, the more beauty we can find. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Knight. 

2. Why is the picture called, "Calling the Ferryman"? 

3. To what class of people do these girls apparently belong? 
How can you tell? 

4. What time of year is it? What time of day? 

5. Why are the girls carrying baskets? 

6. How are they calling the ferryman? Why do you think they 
are calling him? 

7. Where is the ferryman? 

8. Describe the dress of these girls. 

9. What do you like best about the picture? 



Painting is silent poetry, and poetry is painting with 
the gift of speech. — Simonides 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




CANT YOU TALK 

G. A. HOLMES 



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G. A. HOLMES 

Altho Mr. Holmes has painted some most charm- 
ing child and animal pictures, we know very little of his 
life. He was a very obscure English artist but we do not 
know when he lived. He seemed to have a love for 
children and animals in happy association. "Can't You 
Talk" is one of his best pictures. Another which seems 
to appeal to everyone who sees it is the little girl having 
two big puppies in a cheese-box while a cat is looking 
over her shoulder as if he wishes he might be in the box, 
too. The name of this picture is, "Which Do You Like?," 
referring to the two puppies. His main idea seems to 
be to express the close bond of sympathy which exists 
between child and animal life. In his pictures, children 
and animals are companions and seem to understand 
each other perfectly. 

While Mr. Holmes won no personal fame for himself, 
he has certainly left us some very rare examples of the 
sympathy and affection children and animals have for 
each other. 

CANT YOU TALK 

What could be more innocent and child-like than the 
baby in this picture as he looks up at his companion, 
the dog, with such perfect trust. To him, the dog is 
human. He talks to the dog and when the dog does 
not reply, we think he is asking him the question, "Can't 
You Talk," and eagerly awaiting a reply. No doubt 
the dog does talk to him and we believe each understands 
the language of the other. 

The kitten peeping in at the door seems to be listen- 
ing too, for he is a friend of the baby and the dog, and is 
waiting for his turn; or perhaps he is getting ready to 
tease the dog as kitties often do. 

Do you have a dog or a cat? Perhaps you have both, 
but best of all, perhaps you have a dear little baby brother 
or sister, who loves to play with you and your dog and 
kitty. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell briefly what is known of the life of Holmes. 

2. What pictures did he paint? 

3. What do you see in the picture, "Can't You Talk"? 

4. Why does this baby think the dog can talk? 

5. Do you think the dog understands what the baby says? 

6. What do you think the kitty is going to do? 

7. Do you have a dog? A kitty? A baby brother or sister? 

8. Tell some stories about your pets at home. 

9. What animals do you like best? Why? 



The painter who is content with the praise of the world 
in respect to what does not satisfy himself is not an artist, 
but an artisan ; for though his reward be only praise, his 
pay is that of a mechanic, — for his time, and not for his 
art. 

— Allston 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE CHALLENGE 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



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SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was born in the outskirts of 
London on March 7, 1802. His father, an artist, took 
a deep interest in his son's artistic tendencies, which be- 
gan to show at a very early age. Some of the lad's 
youthful studies are preserved at South Kensington 
Museum, London, and, from the notes they bear, indicate 
that they were made when the artist was only five or six 
years old. 

While living in the place of his birth, Landseer spent 
many days in the open fields, sketching the sheep, the 
cows and the horses. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at 
the age of fourteen. At a very early age he had begun to 
show a preference for the dog above all other animals, so 
at the Academy he was known as "the little dog-boy." 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of Land- 
seer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became the 
Court Artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood upon the artist, and from that time 
on he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate in the Academy in 1826. In 1831, 
he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he was 
offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused on 
account of his failing health. He died October 1, 1873. 



THE CHALLENGE 

One does not look upon "The Challenge," by Landseer, 
the great English painter of animals, without an immediate 
realization that it is unusual. The setting of the picture 
is quite as interesting as the central figure. The clear 
winter sky with its constellations of stars that shine like 
points of light, the long range of ice-clad mountains 
beyond the stream which constitutes the chief feature 
of the middle ground of the picture, the foreground with 
two large pine trunks that have probably drifted in by 
flood, the black rocks, and the long stretch of snow across 
the foreground is in itself a charming picture. 

The great stag that forms the chief object of interest 
in the foreground stands in a defiant attitude on the bank 
of the stream and sounds a challenge to his enemy that 
may be seen swimming toward him. We understand 
that the inevitable result will be a death struggle. The 
figure of the "Challenging" stag stands outlined against 
the background like a great silhouette. 

This picture reveals Landseer's interest in details. In 
the first place, very few artists would attempt to paint 
stars and their reflections in the water, much less attempt 
the painting of constellations as Landseer has done. An 
astronomer might name directions by reading the con- 
stellations in this picture. The topography of the nearest 
mountain is also carefully indicated. The forest along 
the stream with its tree tops frost laden like tufts of 
cotton is equally effective. We notice also the shadow 
of the deer in the snow, the footmarks, the hair on the 
stag, the eye, the muscles and the ribs, for the animal 
during the long snowy season has been close pressed for 
food. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell how Landseer rose to fame as a painter of animals. 

2. What honors came to him? 

3. Describe the setting of this picture. 

4. What tells of the coming death struggle? 

5. How has the artist emphasized details in the picture? 

6. How does this picture get its name? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE CHERUBS 

RAPHAEL SANZIO 



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RAPHAEL SANZIO 

Raphael Sanzio was born in Urbino, a little city located 
among the Apennine Mountains in Italy. His father 
was Giovanni Sanzio, a reputable painter and writer. 
Urbino contained a ducal palace, where Raphael and his 
father were ever welcome visitors. It is thought that 
these visits did much in arousing the lad's artistic sense. 

Little is known of Raphael's childhood. His mother 
died when he was eight years old, and his father married 
again shortly. When the little boy was eleven years old 
his father also died, leaving him to the care of his step- 
mother and an uncle who was a priest, who utterly neg- 
lected Raphael. Finally, a brother of Raphael's own 
mother came to the rescue and decided that the boy 
should be placed in the care of a good painter of Perugia, 
Italy. Pietro Perugino was chosen, and for nine years, 
Raphael was his devoted pupil. At the end of that time, 
when the young painter was only seventeen years old, he 
began to paint his own first works in various churches. 

In 1504, when he was twenty-one years of age, Raphael 
returned to Urbino where he painted a short time. But 
he had heard of the wonderful art of Da Vinca and 
Michael Angelo at Florence and was desirous of going 
there. The Duchess of Sora, who lived in Urbino, had 
taken an interest in the young artist and wrote a letter 
of introduction to Pietro Soderini, a Gonfaloniere of 
Florence, which means that he was the chief officer of 
one of the sixteen corporations of art in that city. With 
this letter, he went to Florence, where he was received 
with open arms by citizens and artists alike. 

He remained in Florence four years, where some of 
his finest works were produced. We next hear of him in 
Perugia, where he engaged upon his first fresco in a 
monastery. In the autumn of 1508, Raphael received 
the greatest commission of his career, which, in itself, 
was work enough to occupy a lifetime. He was sum- 
moned to Rome by Pope Julius II, to contribute his share, 
in company with many artists, to the decoration of the 



Palace of the Vatican. He hastened to obey, and, at 
the age of twenty-five set to work upon the labor which 
was to occupy him the remainder of his life. 

Raphael's reputation as a painter was now fully estab- 
lished. Everywhere he was received with honor and 
deference. While the work at the Vatican was progress- 
ing, Raphael was engaged in various other ways. He 
was appointed by the Pope to decorate the interior of 
St. Peter's, the Metropolitan church of the Romans. 
He was also invested with the power to purchase ancient 
statuary of any kind which he might think the city 
should possess. 

About a year before his death, Raphael painted that 
loveliest of Madonna pictures, and probably the most 
famous of all his paintings, "The Sistine Madonna." 
The following year while working upon his famous canvas, 
"The Transfiguration," Raphael became ill and because 
of his weakened condition, caused by overwork, died 
within a few days. He was born on Good Friday and he 
died on Good Friday, just thirty-seven years later. 
Raphael's motto was, "We must not represent things 
as they are, but as they should be." 

CHERUBS 

Raphael has given us many interesting pictures but 
none that appeal to all classes of people, probably, so 
much as does "The Sistine Madonna." 

This beautiful painting has a separate room in the 
Dresden Art Gallery in Germany. People come here 
and with uncovered, bowed heads, gaze for hours, then 
go away and return again and again. 

At the feet of the beautiful mother and babe are two 
young cherubs. There are several opinions as to how 
these cherubs came to be a part of the picture. Some 
say they were two hungry little street waifs, anxiously 
gazing into a baker's window at some loaves of fresh 
bread, when Raphael sketched them for his picture. 



Others say they were two little hungry waifs who stood 
watching Raphael paint this picture and that he hastily 
sketched them, adding the wings later, as we see them. 
These little angelic faces seem to complete the picture 
"The Sistine Madonna" and they make this charming 
little picture which we know as "Cherubs." 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell the story of Raphael's early life. 

2. What great work was given him at the age of twenty-five? 

3. Tell of the circumstances of his death. 

4. Of what larger picture is "Cherubs" a part? 

5. Tell something of the larger picture. 

6. How is the presence of the "Cherubs" in the larger picture 
accounted for? 

7. What do you like most about the "Cherubs"? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE CHILDREN OF THE SHELL 

BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 



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BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born in Seville, 
Spain, in 1618. His father, a merchant by trade, was so 
poor that he was allowed to occupy his house free from 
rent. Almost the first we know of the boy's early child- 
hood is that his parents had both died before he was 
eleven years old. Murillo then went to live with an aunt 
and uncle, who, seeing his artistic ability, made him an 
apprentice to another uncle, Juan del Castillo, who was 
an artist of ordinary ability. In 1640, Castillo moved 
to Cadiz, leaving young Murillo to fight his own artistic 
battles. 

Without money, without even a very ordinary reputa- 
tion as an artist, where should he turn? There was only 
one place where he could satisfy his desire to paint and 
that was at that studio which was free to all and where 
so many struggling young artists spent the greater part 
of their time, the public market place, where he painted 
pictures of artistically grouped fruits and vegetables, and 
even of little beggar boys who crowded around him as he 
painted. 

After a time he went on foot to Madrid where he worked 
under his former fellow-townsman Velazquez, who was 
then court painter to Philip IV, and at the height of 
his success. When he returned to Seville, the commission 
to decorate the inside of the Franciscan convent was 
given him. After he had completed his work in the 
Franciscan convent, his position in the world of art was 
established. As the years went on, he was much in 
demand as a decorator of churches and convents. 

He was commissioned to such important work as 
decorating the All Saints' Chapel and the church and 
hospital of the Holy Charity. When he was sixty-two 
years old, he went to Cadiz to decorate the interior of 
the Capuchin convent. While working here he fell from 
a high scaffolding injuring himself so seriously that he was 
forced to discontinue. He died quietly in the year 1682, 
at his birthplace in Seville. 



THE CHILDREN OF THE SHELL 

Murilio is often spoken of as having two styles of 
paintings, the one, clear, vigorous and full of color; the 
other, misty, dreamy and tender. ''The Children of the 
Shell" is an example of the latter style. 

The subjects of this painting are the little Christ Child 
and young St. John. The Christ Child is in the act of 
giving his companion a drink of water from a shell; and 
St. John, with a "girdle of skins about his loins," and his 
ever-present bannered cross over one shoulder, kneels 
to receive it. 

The beauty of the picture lies perhaps in the repre- 
sentation of the divine love and tenderness of the Christ 
Child, which is symbolic of his whole life, and which is 
a divine example of helpful giving, of thoughtfulness. 
The little lamb lying at his Master's feet, and seemingly 
gazing so devotedly into his face, further adds to the per- 
fect love, dependence, and tenderness here portrayed. 
Angel faces hovering in the clouds above gaze down upon 
the little scene and rest like a benediction above the 
sweet, innocent forms of "The Children of the Shell." 

The painting has been called "the most beautiful 
picture of children in the world, in which childlike love- 
liness can no further go." 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell briefly the story of Murillo's life. 

2. What are some of his best pictures? 

3. What do you think is symbolized by this picture? 

4. Who are the characters here? 

5. What is St. John carrying? 

6. What is the Christ Child doing? 

7. Describe the expression of the Christ Child's face. 

8. What do you see in the foreground? 

9. Describe the attitude of the lamb. 

10. What do you see in the background? 

11. Look up and tell all you can about St. John, or John the 
Baptist, as he is later known. 

12. What has been said about this picture? 

13. What do you like best about the picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




CHRIST AND THE RICH RULER 

HEINRICH HOFMANN 



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HEINRICH HOFMANN 

Heinrich Hofmann, who was born at Darmstadt in 
1824, has spent a large part of his life as a teacher of 
painting in the Dresden Art Academy. He paints 
religious pictures and an occasional historical subject. 
Besides "The Rich Young Ruler," Hofmann has painted 
"Christ in Gethsemane," "Christ before the Doctors," 
and "Christ Knocking at the Door." He paints pictures 
that appeal to the masses, especially those who are 
Christians. 



CHRIST AND THE RICH YOUNG RULER 

"Christ and the Rich Young Ruler" by Heinrich 
Hofmann, like most of the pictures by this popular 
artist, is an illustration of a familiar passage in the Bible, 
found in Luke 18:18-24. 

"And a certain ruler asked him, saying, 'Good Master, 
what shall I do to be saved?' And Jesus said unto him, 
'Why callest thou me good? None is good save one, and 
that is God. Thou knowest the commandments, Do 
not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not 
bear false witness, Honor thy father and thy mother.' 
And he said, 'All these I have kept from my youth 
up.' Now when Jesus heard these things, he said unto 
him, 'Yet lackest thou one thing: Sell all thou hast and 
distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have treasure 
in heaven; and come, follow me.' And when he heard 
this he was very sorrowful, for he was very rich. And 
when Jesus saw that he was sorrowful he said, 'How 
hardly shall they that have riches enter into the Kingdom 
of God!'" 

One is first attracted to the central figure of Christ 
in a simple robe, but with exceptionally beautiful hands. 
The other figure that attracts immediate attention is that 
of the rich young ruler in the rich apparel of the wealthy 
Jew. The eye next fixes upon the two figures at the 



extreme left of the picture. One is the figure of a crippled 
man; the other is the figure of a woman. The look of 
despair on the woman's face, and the helpless attitude 
of the cripple are powerfully depicted. We are led to 
believe that they have come to listen to the teachings of 
Christ. The face of the handsome young Jew is clouded 
with the look of sorrow and bitter disappointment as 
Christ points out to him the way of life. The face of 
the Christ is a wonderful study. Hofmann and Tissot, 
the French religious painter, have painted the Christ, 
the most satisfactorily of all modern painters. As we 
study the details of the picture we are impressed by the 
wonderful handling of the lights and shadows, by the 
splendid grouping and the proportion and balance of the 
picture. A pleasing landscape with a few clouds touched 
by the golden light is suggested to the left of the picture. 
The thatched porch, the massive stones of the simple 
architecture are interesting details. Christ has prob- 
ably been teaching before a table on which the Jew 
places his hand. As our gaze returns to the face of Christ, 
we notice about the head the three beams of light sug- 
gesting a cross. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Hofmann. 

2. What Bible story does this picture interpret? 

3. Who are the two leading persons in the picture? 

4. What point in the story is here represented? 

5. What in the picture shows how the words of Jesus are received? 

6. Can you cite another instance where a picture has modified 
the course of conduct? 

7. What in this picture and its story do you like best? 



Those devoted men who have upheld the standard of 
truth and beauty amongst us, and whose pictures, painted 
amidst difficulties that none but a painter can know, 
show qualities of mind unsurpassed in any age — these 
great men have but a narrow circle that can understand 
their works, and are utterly unknown to the great mass 
of people: civilization is so much against them, that they 
cannot move the people. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE 

HEINRICH HOFMANN 



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HEINRICH HOFMANN 

Very little is known of the life of this artist who was 
born in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1824. His masters 
were Theodore Hildebrandt and Schadow at Dusseldorf. 
He also studied at the Antwerp Academy. At the age 
of thirty he visited in Italy and was much influenced by 
the beauty of Italian art. A little later he practiced his 
art in different German cities and finally, in 1862, settled 
in Dresden, where he became a professor of art at the 
Dresden Academy. He died in 1902. His subjects are 
drawn entirely from his knowledge of literature and 
mythology. He has produced some pictures which are 
renowned the world over for their beauty and truth. 

Others of his most noted pictures are: Christ's Sermon 
on Lake Gennesaret; Christ and the Rich Young Ruler; 
Christ's Sermon on the Lake; The Nativity; and the 
Flight into Egypt. 

CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE 

Every year the Feast of the Passover was celebrated 
in Jerusalem and all the Jews went thither. When Jesus 
was twelve years old he went for the first time with Mary 
and Joseph. He witnessed the ceremony of the feast 
and went to the services in the Temple. 

When the time came to depart, all was confusion. 
The people left the city in great masses. As each family 
group came to its own crossing they would drop out and 
leave the others. As Mary and Joseph progressed toward 
Bethlehem, they noticed that their boy was not with them. 
Perchance he was coming with some of his kinfolk and 
would join them when darkness began to fall. But night 
came on and the boy did not appear. Becoming frightened 
they turned and hurried back to the city of Jerusalem. 
Mary weeping and Joseph reproving himself severely. 
"Am I not the man," he cried, "whom God trusted to 
care for the Child? Unfaithful! Unfaithful!" For three 
days they went from door to door asking the same ques- 



tion: "Have you seen our Jesus"? and always receiving 
the same reply. At the end of the third day when they 
were nearly exhausted they finally found the boy Jesus 
in conference with the learned doctors. 

Mary beckoned to her son and when he came, she 
said, "My son, why have you done this? For three days 
we have searched for you, sorrowing." The Child put- 
ting his hand on his mother's said, "But why did you 
search for me? Did you not know that I should be in 
my Father's House"? 

Hofmann's interpretation of this beautiful story, seems 
filled with divine inspiration. The central figure is, 
of course, the young boy whose purity shines out from the 
face and from the snow white garment which he wears. 
His large trustful eyes are filled with the wonder of what 
he is learning and with the knowledge which he is impart- 
ing. One hand rests lightly on a desk at his side, while 
the other points to the book which is held by one of 
the doctors. 

Around Jesus stand the learned men. One face 
expresses grave, attentive interest; another shows eager- 
ness to protest; another is full of marvel at the young 
boy's learning; a fourth has a stern look, while the last 
bears an expression of curiosity and perhaps contempt. 

But why do they listen to a youth like this — these 
learned sages to whom nothing can be new? 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Hofmann born? 

2. Tell briefly the story of his life. 

3. From what are his subjects taken? 

4. What are some of his most noted paintings? 

5. Tell the story of "Christ in the Temple." 

6. Describe the face of the child. Do you like his face? Why'i 

7. Describe his position. 

8. Describe the look on the face of each of the doctors. 

9. Why do they listen to Jesus? 



Now nature is not at variance with art, nor art with 
nature; they being both the servants of his providence. 
Art is the perfection of nature. Were the world now as 
it was the sixth day, there were yet a chaos. Nature 
hath made one world, and art another. In brief, all 
things are artificial; for nature is the art of God. 

— Sir Thomas Browne 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




CHRIST AT TWELVE 

HEINRICH HOFMANN 



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HEINRICH HOFMANN 

Very little is known of the life of this artist who was 
born in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1824. His masters 
were Theodore Hildebrandt and Schadow at Dusseldorf. 
He also studied at the Antwerp Academy. At the age 
of thirty he visited in Italy and was much influenced by 
the beauty of Italian art. A little later he practiced his 
art in different German cities and finally, in 1862, settled 
in Dresden, where he became a professor of art at the 
Dresden Academy. He died in 1902. His subjects are 
drawn entirely from his knowledge of literature and myth- 
ology. He has produced some pictures which are re- 
nowned the world over for their beauty and truth. 

Others of his most noted pictures are: Christ's Sermon 
on Lake Gennesaret; Christ and the Rich Young Ruler; 
Christ's Sermon on the Lake; The Nativity; and the 
Flight into Egypt. 



CHRIST AT TWELVE 

This picture, "Christ at Twelve, " is a detail taken from 
perhaps Hofmann's most popular picture, "Christ in the 
Temple." By detail we mean that the "Christ Head" 
was taken from this picture and reproduced in this 
marvelous way. 

The picture portrays great strength of character. 
The face is strong, noble, true, just, and kind but firm. 
It is a face we love to study, and we love to think of what 
ideals and principles this boy of twelve had. Even now 
he inspires, gives strength and confidence, and as the 
years come he will grow in strength and influence. Notice 
the radiance shining from the face of this wonderful boy. 
He has a mission in life and a message for humanity. His 
dark eyes glow with the light of love, and with the revela- 
tion of the truth that shall endure forever. 

The influence of this picture is tremendous and far- 
reaching. We can all catch its wonderful spirit. 



EXERCISES 

1. Who painted "Christ at Twelve"? 

2. From what famous picture is this head a detail? . 

3. What do we mean by a detail? 

4. Why should this head be singled out from all others in the 
picture? 

5. Whatis therethatyou especially likeaboutthis picture, "Christ 
at Twelve"? 

6. What must be the ideals of a boy with such a strong face? 

7. What other pictures did Hofmann paint? 

8. Where are most of this great artist's paintings? 

9. Tell what else you know of the life of the artist. 



The conscious utterance of thought, by speech or 
action, to any end, is art. — Emerson 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE CLOSE OF DAY 

EMILE LOUIS ADAN 



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EMILE LOUIS ADAN 

This artist was born in Paris, March 26, 1839, and 
belongs to the French School of Art, having studied under 
Picot and Cabanel. He lived during the most productive 
period of French art and came under the spell which 
seemed to hold all who lived and worked in the charmed 
forest, Fontainebleau. He received two medals, one of 
the third class in 1875 and one of the second class in 1882. 
He was a favorite portrait painter with particular Amer- 
can visitors in Bans, many of whom gladly engaged his 
services. He exhibited his paintings at the Salon during 
the three years, 1875-7. The most important paintings 
exhibited were: Last Day of Sale; The Arrival at the 
Chateau; The Dancing Lesson; Room at Fontainebleau; 
Autumn Evening; End of the Journey; The Close of Day. 



THE CLOSE OF DAY 

Adan, who was born twenty-five years later than 
Millet, might yet be called his contemporary, for they 
were painting at about the same time. In another way, 
also, they might be compared, for they both painted 
pictures of peasants, altho Millet devoted his whole time 
to this work, and Adan chose other subjects also. 

Down a rough, lonely country road we see a weary 
peasant plodding homeward. We are struck by the 
strong lines of his body clad in the coarsest of home-made 
clothing. The broad-brimmed hat, the loose, sagging 
vest, the coarse, serviceable trousers, the protecting 
apron, and the clumsy, ill-formed shoes are the typical 
dress of the toiling peasant. His tools, which are borne 
over one shoulder, have also the appearance of being 
home made. 

Unlike Millet's pictures, Adan has introduced into this 
one, some beautiful scenery. On the left we see a broad 
expanse of lovely green fields with a heavy line of low- 
lying trees in the distance. On the right, the central 
figure is the immense trunk of a gnarled old tree, which 



seems to have broken off at some earlier stage of its 
existence and which is now sending out slender green 
shoots from its top and sides. The tree stands by a 
quietly flowing stream, and other trees, as well, are 
casting delicate shadows over the water. 

In the foreground we see what appears to be a stone 
bridge with a small village beyond. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Adan. 

2. Name some of his paintings which were exhibited in the Salon. 

3. Why is this picture called "The Close of Day"? 

4. Describe the peasant and his tools. 

5. Describe the old tree. 

6. What time of year do you think it is? 

7. What in the picture shows the time of day? 

8. What do you like best about the picture? 



Dead he is not, but departed, — for the artist never dies. 

— Longfellow 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




CLOSE OF A LONG DAY 

J. M. ORTNER 



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CLOSE OF A LONG DAY 

The "Close of a Long Day," by Ortner, is a favorite 
scene in a Dutch homestead. The artist has here 
represented a plain, sweet, patient mother with her tired 
child in her arms. 

A really good picture is always well named as is illus- 
trated here. The artist suggests the close of day by the 
sleeping child, evidently tired of play; by the absence of 
a bright fire in the fireplace; by the wraps across the back 
of the chair; by the cat at his meal; by the waning light; 
and by the indistinct shadows. Again there is about 
the house a general suggestion of restfulness and quiet 
that comes with nightfall. 

We notice the simple interior of the humble home, but 
there is a strong suggestion of cleanliness, cheerfulness, 
neatness and order. The furniture is plain and the 
decorations are simple. Two small pictures and one or 
two pieces of family silver may be seen, as well as the 
weights of the old Dutch clock. A great tankard is on 
the shelf to the right. Notice also the kettle in the fire 
place. Altho the floor is mainly of wood, there are 
square tiles immediately in front of the fireplace. At- 
tention is sure to be attracted to the white cat at its 
evening meal. A Dutch footstool also claims attention. 

As in all good pictures, the object of greatest interest 
in this picture, namely, the mother, does not occupy the 
center of the picture. But the picture exists primarily 
for the mother and the child. The mother as shown by 
her dress and head adornment is not of the lower peasant 
class. She and her child are simply but most comfort- 
ably clad. Nothing in this picture speaks of poverty. 
We should call the mother's face, with its kindness and 
sweetness, beautiful. The clinging affection of the sleep- 
ing child is well shown. 



EXERCISES 

1. What in the picture tells that this is the close of day? 

2. What are the most striking articles in the room? 

3. What things make us think of a Dutch interior? 

4. What is the most pleasing thing in the portrayal of the mother? 

5. What tells whether or not this is a home of poverty? 

6. What does the attitude of the sleeping child tell you? 

7. What is the best thought you get from this picture? 



From the mingled strength of shade and light 

A new creation rises to my sight. 

Such heav'nly figures from his pencil flow 

So warm with light his blended colors glow 
The glowing portraits, fresh from life, they bring 
Home to our hearts the truth from which they spring. 

— Byron 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




A COVE IN THE WOODLAND 

EUGENE LOUES CHARPENTIER 



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EUGENE LOUES CHARPENTIER 

Eugene Loues Charpentier (1811-1894) was born in 
Paris. He was a pupil of Gerard and Cogniet. He was 
made professor of designing at Versailles in 1876 and 
held this position six years. He won many medals for 
his original ideas and the personal touch which seemed 
to be evident in all of his pictures. In 1831 he exhibited 
his first picture "Bivouac of Cuirassiers" in the Salon. 
He was a painter of battle pictures in panoramic style 
and paid attention to the minutest detail. For this 
reason he was known as a military and genre painter. 

Among his best productions are: The Bivouac of 
Cuirassiers; The Hunter's Asking the Way; Break of a 
Dutch Dyke; Halt of the French Army on Great St. 
Bernard; Duke of Orleans in the Trenches. These 
originals are all found in the gallery at Versailles. The 
Siege of Toulon; A Soldier's Alms; The Ford Sharp- 
shooters; Washington's Tent; French Cavalry in 1870; 
Wellington in Spain. 

A COVE IN THE WOODLAND 

What could be more fascinating than the woodland 
scene which Charpentier has depicted here? One can 
almost feel the quiet of the scene and the soft, hazy 
atmosphere. It is a place where one might take a book 
and read for hours undisturbed except by the flutter of 
wings of birds or the quiet, soothing rippling of the water. 

No wonder the artist has given us such a beautiful 
picture. One with his love of nature could sit here and 
visit with a joy that knows no bounds. One like him 
who could transfer the beauties of nature to canvas must 
have taken delight in portraying this particular exhibit 
of nature. 

We see the brilliant and varied red and brown colorings 
of the leaves on the trees and the beautiful tints in the 
sky, so true to an autumn day. The boat is evidently 
there for the pleasure of those who enjoy this little turn 
in the stream which the artist has so appropriately 
named, "A Cove in the Woodland." 



EXERCISES 

1. Give a brief sketch of the life of Charpentier. 

2. What "stood out" in all of Charpentier's pictures? 

3. Have you ever lived in a wooded country? Have you ever 
traveled in a wooded country? 

4. What in this scene is similar to beauty spots you have seen? 

5. What tells the time of year? 

6. Describe this picture as it appeals to you, telling as far as 
possible, just what you see in it. 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



Art is consummate when it seems to be nature. 

— Longinus 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




DANCE OF THE NYMPHS 

COROT 



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JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 

Corot was born in Paris on July 29, 1796. His father 
was a poor shop-keeper of peasant descent, who sold 
ribbons and laces. 

At the age of ten, Corot was sent to a boarding school 
at Rouen. After he returned to Paris, his father bought 
a country house on the outskirts of the city. Here the 
boy would sit half the night, gazing out thru his window 
at the sky, the water, and the fantastic shadows cast 
by the great trees. He himself states that these early 
impressions gave a bent to his whole career. 

At an early age he was made apprentice in a cloth-shop, 
where he worked for eight years. Finally, however, he 
gained courage enough to state his ambition to his father. 
He was met with no particular remonstrance but was 
warned that he would receive only enough money to keep 
him from starving. Corot gladly agreed. to these terms 
and began his new work immediately. 

After the death of his first master, Michallon, Corot 
entered the Paris studio of Victor Bertin. In 1827, he 
made his first exhibition at the Salon, but it was not until 
nineteen years later that his reward came. At the close 
of the Salon exhibition in 1846, at which he exhibited his 
painting entitled, "The Forest of Fontainebleau," he 
received, in his fiftieth year, the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor, the highest honor that can be bestowed upon an 
artist. 

He was unselfish to the utmost degree and was always 
ready with his purse to help the needy. When asked 
concerning his lifetime generosity he said, "It is my tem- 
perament and my pleasure. I can earn money again so 
quickly — just by painting a little branch. Charity always 
brings me in more than it costs for I can work better 
with a heart at ease." 

It is interesting to know that Corot spent his summers 
at Barbizon and in the Forest of Fontainebleau which he 
dearly loved. This is the place where at the same time, 
Millet, his contemporary, in poverty studied the life of 
the toiling peasants and painted his famous pictures. 



On February 23, 1875, Corot passed away murmuring 
of beautiful landscapes and of the happy hours he had 
spent with nature. 



DANCE OF THE NYMPHS 

What could be more cheery and full of the gay, joyous 
spirit of a beautiful morning in spring than the scene 
Corot has given us in the "Dance of the Nymphs"? 

One can almost hear the birds sing, the leaves rustle, 
and the brook ripple. One can almost see the sparkling 
dewdrops each of which glitters like a diamond; the 
woods exquisitely beautiful in their foliage; and the 
flowers blooming by the wayside. The Nymphs seem 
to be gayly dancing, ushering in the beautiful dawn. 

Notice the lights and shades dancing hither and thither, 
giving a touch of light here and there among the trees, 
and varying the colorings in the sky. 

Have you lived in the country? Then you have had 
the experience which Corot has portrayed in this picture. 
A gloriously beautiful morning in the country, nothing 
less, nothing more. Do you see this beauty all about 
you? It is there as truly as it was when Corot wandered 
thru the woods by the roadside. 



EXERCISES 

1. How did the impressions of early life affect Corot's work? 

2. What traits of Corot's character are brought out in his 
paintings? 

3. What season of the year is represented in " Dance of the 
Nymphs"? 

4. What signs of this season do you find? 

5. What signs of the time of day do you find? 

6. What meaning do you find in the picture? 



That thing which I understand by real art is the expres- 
sion by man of his pleasure in labour. I do not believe he 
can be happy in his labour without expressing that 
happiness; and especially is this so when he is at work at 
anything in which he specially excels. A most kind gift 
is this of nature, since all men, nay, it seems all things, too, 
must labour; so that not only does the dog take pleasure 
in hunting, and the horse in running, and the bird in 
flying, but so natural does the idea seem to us, that we 
imagine to ourselves that the earth and the very elements 
rejoice in doing their appointed work; and the poets have 
told us of the spring meadows smiling, of the exultation 
of the fire, of the countless laughter of the sea. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



H53 97 




DAY'S DECLINE 

ANTON MAUVE 



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ANTON MAUVE 

Anton Mauve was born in Zaandam, Holland, in 1838, 
and died in 1888. Almost all of the great artists have 
been strongly opposed by their parents in youth. Mauve 
was one of these. In his youth, he longed to go forth 
to sketch the woods, the flowers, the fields, the animals, 
and all nature. Before he was fifteen years of age, he 
would steal away to sketch pictures of nature. He 
celebrated his fifteenth birthday by making a sketch of 
the cows in the pasture. Later his parents reluctantly 
gave their consent for him to study with Van Os, the 
great teacher at Amsterdam. He became a very suc- 
cessful painter and his talent was recognized early in his 
career. America and other countries recognized his ability 
as an artist long before his own countrymen in Holland 
realized it. Because Mauve loved the peasant life, he found 
an abundance of material in his own country. He loved 
the old mills, the dikes, the toilers in the field. In fact, he 
loved all the rustic scenes of his country and he gave us 
delightfully fascinating illustrations of them. Some of his 
best pictures are: Pastures in Holland; Landscape with 
Sheep; Landscape with Cows; Seaweed Gatherers; The 
Wood Cutters; Forester's Team. 



DAY'S DECLINE 

Influenced as he was by those two great nature painters, 
Maris, the painter of landscapes, and Millet, of humanity, 
we cannot but expect a picture of this kind from Mauve. 

All day the flock, guided by the faithful old shepherd 
and his dog, has been out on sunny slopes and in wooded 
glens obtaining food for the day. Now, as the dusk is 
beginning to fall, the sheep are glad to go trudging home- 
ward to their night's rest. The plodding shepherd, too, 
and his ever present friend, the old sheep dog, are bend- 
ing willing footsteps toward home and rest. Day after 
day these same events take place — the morning walk 
when, rested and eager, the sheep turn their heads 



toward the pasture. Then the noonday rest when all, 
shepherd, dog and flock find a cool shady spot in some 
secluded nook off some sunny hillside; and lastly, "Home- 
ward Bound. " Why should the old shepherd be unhappy 
or weary? It is the life he has always known, and he is 
contented. 

One lamb must be exhausted or it may be injured in 
some way for we notice the shepherd carries it under his 
arm. If we look far off in the distance we can see the sea. 
It must be the autumn season, for the leaves are falling. 
We can imagine the leaves that are left are red and yellow 
and brown and that the grass is getting short. The 
picture brings a thought of peace and rest; for it is at the 
close of day and the journey is almost over. 



EXERCISES 

1. How did Mauve celebrate his fifteenth birthday? 

2. Who first recognized Mauve's talent? 

3. Sketch briefly the life of Mauve. 

4. Name some of his best paintings. 

5. What shows where this scene is laid? What shows the season? 

6. What time of day is it? 

7. Why do you think the shepherd carries one of the sheep? 

8. What do you like best about this picture? 



Thus then the Man the voice of Nature spake 
"Go from the creatures thy instructions take; 
Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield; 
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field ; 
Thy art of building from the bee receive; 
Learn of the mole to plow, the worm to weave; 
Learn of the little nautilus to sail, 
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale. 

—Pope 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




A DISTINGUISHED MEMBER OF THE 
HUMANE SOCIETY 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



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SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was born in the outskirts 
of London, on March 7, 1802. His father, an artist, took 
a deep interest in his son's artistic tendencies, which be- 
gan to show at a very early age. Some of the lad's youth- 
ful studies are preserved at South Kensington Museum, 
London, and, from the notes they bear, indicate that they 
were made when the artist was only five or six years old. 

While living in the place of his birth, Landseer spent 
many days in the open fields, sketching the sheep, the 
cows and the horses. When he had finished a sketch, 
his father would criticise this work, and if he thought 
his young son had not done his best, he would send him 
back to better it. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at the 
age of fourteen. The Landseer family was in such cir- 
cumstances that no thought need be given to time or 
expense of his study. At a very early age he had begun 
to show a preference for the dog above all other animals, 
so at the academy he was known as "the little dog-boy." 
For a time, it became the fashion among people of wealth 
to have Landseer paint pictures of their favorite dogs. 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. It 
was related that he was somewhat of a trial to the Scotch 
attendants who accompanied him on his annual deer hunt 
in Scotland. It sometimes happened that just as he would 
have a magnificent chance to take the life of a deer, he 
would thrust his gun into the hands of one of his attend- 
ants, take out his sketch book and pencil and proceed to 
make a study of the animal instead of destroying its life. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of Land- 
seer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became the 



Court Artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood on the artist, and from that time on 
he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate of the Academy in 1825. In 
1831, he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he 
was offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused 
on account of his failing health. He died October 1, 1873. 



A DISTINGUISHED MEMBER OF THE HUMANE 
SOCIETY 

The form, coloring and pose, and the fidelity to nature 
displayed in all the wonderful pictures of animals, espe- 
cially of dogs, painted by the artist, Sir Edwin Henry Land- 
seer, are perfect. He possessed, in a remarkable degree, 
the faculty of making his animals express in feature the 
subject of the pictures. The dog in the painting, a 
superb Newfoundland, displays the dignity, docility, and 
intelligence for which the breed is famous, combined 
with noble strength. He is represented as crouched by 
the water, in which some of his life-saving efforts may have 
been made. 

EXERCISES 

1. How did Landseer's father's occupation affect the son's career? 

2. What was the beginning of his career as an artist? 

3. To what was Landseer's success due? 

4. Why does the artist call the picture "A Distinguished Member 
of the Humane Society"? 

5. What are the chief characteristics of the dog as he appears 
here? 

6. What in this painting especially appeals to you? 

7. Why do you think this picture is such a favorite? 



You whose hands make those things that should be 
works of art, you must be all artists, and good artists, 
too, before the public at large can take real interest in such 
things; and when you have become so, I promise you that 
you shall lead the fashion; fashion shall follow your 
hands obediently enough. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE DOCTOR 

SIR LUKE FILDES 



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SIRjLUKE FILDES 

Sir Luke Fildes was born in Liverpool in 1844 and is still 
living. His education as an artist was obtained in the 
South Kensington Schools and in the Royal Academy. 
He not only painted portraits, but illustrated for maga- 
zines as well. His first oil painting was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1872. It is called "Fair, Quiet, and 
Sweet Rest." 

This artist won success mostly thru painting the 
life of London's poor, which he did by actually studying 
conditions in the slums of that great city. Strangely in 
contrast with these pictures are his gay Venetian street 
scenes, so highly colored, expressing the happy, care free 
life of Venice. 

Fildes' later work has consisted mostly of portraits, 
including several of the nobility, such as those of King 
Edward VII, Queen Alexandria, and King George. 

In 1887 he was elected to the Royal Academy and was 
knighted by the King in 1906, whence his title "Sir." 
He is one of the active leaders among the artists of 
London. 

THE DOCTOR 

The rude interior of an humble cottage is the scene of 
this picture. A little child, the pride and delight of the 
home, is ill. The old family doctor has been called for 
counsel. How many similar scenes has he witnessed? 
Yet his face is grave and full of care. This is probably 
the turning point for better or for worse and the doctor 
is waiting quietly and watching intently over the little 
life that is battling for existence. 

Our hearts go out in sympathy to the grief-stricken 
mother, who is trying to quiet her sobs as she sits at the 
table with her head pillowed on her arm. The stalwart 
husband, tho probably just as deeply grief-stricken, 
tries to comfort her as he stands calmly waiting. 

Yes, it is an humble home, but we find just as much 



devotion as in a palace. Here the hearts, which once 
were gladdened by the sound of the childish voice and 
the patter of little feet, are now bowed down by weight of 
woe. 



EXERCISES 

1. Give a brief summary of Fildes' life. 

2. Thru painting what kind of pictures did Fildes' success 
come to him? 

3. What has his later work consisted of? 

4. Describe the attitude of the doctor; of the mother; of the 
father. 

5. What tells you that this is a critical moment? 

6. Describe the interior of the room. 

7. Why do you think this picture is called "The Doctor" instead 
of the "Sick Child"? 

8. What do you like best about this picture? 



We can live without pictures, but not so well. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VEMNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




RALPH WALDO EMERSON 



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RALPH WALDO EMERSON 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, the "Sage of Concord," was' 
born in Boston, May 25, 1803. He came from a line of 
scholars and clergymen, distinguished for integrity and 
strength of character. Emerson was graduated from 
Harvard University in 1821. He joined the ranks of the 
clergy. In 1832, after the death of his wife and the failure 
of his health, Emerson went to Europe, where the great 
event of his life came in his meeting with Carlyle. He 
returned to America in 1834, and settled in Concord in 
the "Old Manse," where he spent the rest of his life. 

Like that of most scholars, Emerson's life was serene 
and uneventful. He was a prominent citizen, a kind 
neighbor, and a loyal friend. He held several public offices 
in his home town, but he was a modest, unassuming man, 
who loved the quiet of his study and the comfort of his 
home. He was accordingly surprised when distinguished 
people from all over the world, attracted by his writings, 
began to visit him. It has been said that there is no 
scholar in any civilized land who is not at least partially 
acquainted with Emerson. His writings, and a few of his 
poems, are known to every American school boy. In 1867 
Emerson gave to the world his last message in "Ter- 
minus." He died in 1882 and was laid to rest in Sleepy 
Hollow Cemetery, Concord. 

The "Sage of Concord" has been described as highly 
intellectual, living in the realm of noble thought, gifted 
with a sweet and gentle spirit, possessed of pure and lofty 
motives, and unsurpassed frankness, sanity, and kindness. 
He looked as if he had schooled himself so that he might 
exhibit to the world all the graces of true manhood. 
Every aspiration was one of growth, and all his struggle 
was toward the attainment of divine truth for uplifting 
humanity. 

The picture of Emerson is the favorite representation 
of the "Sage of Concord" as the exponent of "sweetness 
and light." There is an expression of gentleness in the 
countenance, and of intellectuality combined with tender- 



ness, firm-set purpose and though tfulness and meditation. 
One writer has said that it is impossible for young people 
to live in the presence of such a picture day by day with- 
out a feeling of intellectual and moral exaltation. 



EXERCISES 

1. What things in the early environment of Emerson were most 
favorable toward the development of the scholar? 

2. After his return from Europe in 1834, where did he live? 

3. Describe Emerson as a citizen. 

4. Why was he surprised at his recognition by world thinkers? 

5. What does this tell of him? 

6. What gave him the name, "Sage of Concord"? 

7. Name Emerson's most pronounced traits as indicated in the 
picture. 



The one thing that marks the true artist is a clear 
perception, and a firm, bold hand, in distinction from that 
imperfect mental vision and uncertain touch which gives 
us the feeble pictures and the lumpy statues of the mere 
artisans on canvas or in stone. 

-Oliver Wendell Holmes 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




FAMILY CARES 

E. C. BARNES 



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E. C. BARNES 

E. C. Barnes is a nineteenth century English artist 
who has painted many groups of persons and animals. 
He has exhibited his paintings at the Royal Academy and 
in other London galleries. His "Family Cares" is his 
most popular painting. 



FAMILY CARES 

All the world pays homage to a little child because of 
its frankness, purity, and innocence. When the Great 
Teacher wished to settle a dispute among his contentious 
disciples, He brought into their midst a little child and 
told them that he who would be greatest must first 
become as a little child. 

It is morning, as may be seen by the bit of blue sky 
visible thru the hall window to the right. The little girl 
descending the broad hall stairs enters upon her activities 
for the new day. We can imagine that she is going toward 
the family living room. She carries her kitten in one hand, 
and, with the other hand, she grasps her sleeping robe which 
contains in its folds a toy ark. A pup is climbing up the 
stairs to greet his little mistress. On the carpet of the 
stairs is seen the little girl's shoes and her stockings. Per- 
haps the pup has carried these articles away from the 
nursery. All of these constitute the "family cares" of 
the dear little girl. 

There is a suggestion of comfort, but not of luxury, 
about the scene as indicated by the great stairway, 
tastefully carpeted; the toys of the child, and her pets; 
and, above all, about the happy, joyful appearance of 
the blue-eyed girl with tangled, yellow locks. The face 
and form of the little child gradually absorb all of our 
attention. She is the complete embodiment of a sweet 
sympathetic, appreciative, and sunny nature. She is also 
the embodiment of perfect health and physical comfort. 

While the term "family cares" in connection with the 



small interests of the child is likely to provoke a smile, still 
there is a deeper meaning in the picture, for the life of the 
little child has infinite possibilities for good and evil. 
The development of the mind and heart of the child be- 
comes the real "family care." 



EXERCISES 

1. What in the picture tells you the time of day? 

2. Tell how many cares this little child has? 

3. Why are her cares called "family cares?" 

4. What tells you something of the kind of child she is? 

5. What kind of person do you think she will be when grown? 



That thing which I understand by real art is the expres- 
sion by man of his pleasure in labour. I do not believe he 
can be happy in his labour without expressing that 
happiness; and especially is this so when he is at work at 
anything in which he specially excels. A most kind gift 
is this of nature, since all men, nay, it seems all things, too, 
must labour; so that not only does the dog take pleasure 
in hunting, and the horse in running, and the bird in 
flying, but so natural does the idea seem to us, that we 
imagine to ourselves that the earth and the very elements 
rejoice in doing their appointed work; and the poets have 
told us of the spring meadows smiling, of the exultation 
of the fire, of the countless laughter of the sea. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




FEEDING HER BIRDS 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



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JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the "peasant painter of France." As a boy, he 
lived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in 
the fields. When he could no longer repress his desire 
to become an artist he went away to study. When he 
returned, he was a great painter, but still remained a true 
peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio in the 
village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived the 
peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated, and reaped, and 
Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at their 
labor or converse with the woodcutters, the charcoal 
burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, he 
was at least able to get food for his little ones from his 
garden, and he could have near him his brother artists 
Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appreciated his 
efforts and to whom his artistic message was not spoken 
in vain. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that 
in his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that there 
is a good bond between man and nature, and that a picture 
to be a true interpretation must harmonize the one with the 
other. In all of his later pictures, therefore, the landscape 
and the figures seem to be in perfect harmony. 

The figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor grace- 
ful, but they show great expression and goodness of 
character and look as if they were really a part of their 
surroundings. This was the life of which, in the fullness 
of his heart, he said: "The peasant subjects suit my 
temperament best, for I must confess that the human 
side of life is what touches me most." 

He died without having been appreciated. Three 
nations are now striving in friendly rivalry to secure his 
masterpieces. 



FEEDING HER BIRDS 

In this painting, Millet has given us the picture of the 
door-yard of a French village home. The children have 
been playing with their toys which you can see are crudely 
made. The doll seems to have been made of wood and 
is wrapped in a hood and blanket while the cart is a board 
set on clumsy wheels. You will notice that the children 
are dressed very plainly in long aprons and wooden shoes. 
Now the mother has called to them from the doorway 
where she was standing with a bowl in her hand and the 
children drop their playthings and seat themselves on the 
doorstep. The girls have allowed their little brother to 
sit between them and the mother is giving the first taste 
to him. Over in the garden you can see their father 
working. 

Notice closely the attitude of the mother, the attitude 
of the smallest child, and the expectant expressions on 
the faces of the other children. The whole scene reminds 
one of the picture presented when the mother bird feeds 
her expectant young ones in the nest. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Millet. 

2. What kind of scenes did he love best to paint? 

3. What is the scene of this picture? 

4. Describe the toys you see in the picture? 

5. What kind of shoes do the children wear? 

6. What have they on their heads? 

7. What is the .mother doing? The children? 

8. Why do you think the artist named this picture, "Feeding Her 
Birds"? 

9. What do you like best about the picture? 



Popular art will make our streets as beautiful as the 
woods, as elevating as the mountain-sides; it will be a 
pleasure and a rest, and not a weight upon the spirits to 
come from the open country into a town; every man's 
house will be fair and decent, soothing to his mind and 
helpful to his work; all the works of man that we live 
amongst and handle will be in harmony with nature, will 
be reasonable and beautiful; yet all will be simple and 
inspiriting, not childish nor enervating; for as nothing 
of beauty and splendour that man's mind and hand may 
compass shall be wanting from our public buildings, so 
in no private dwelling will there be any signs of waste, 
pomp, or insolence, and every man will have his share of 
the best. — William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




FIELDS AT MIDDAY 

HEINRICH SCHMIDT 



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HEINRICH SCHMIDT 

Heinrich Schmidt was born in Saarbriick, Prussia, 
about the year 1740 and died in the year 1821. He 
painted for the most part scenes interpreting historical 
facts or pictures based largely upon historical narrative. 
He studied in Italy and spent most of his time at Naples. 



FIELDS AT MIDDAY 

"Fields at Midday," by Schmidt, affords a most strik- 
ing illustration of the power of the artist to portray a 
certain aspect of nature. An artist may express move- 
ment, silence, struggle, repose, dignity, grandeur, or what- 
ever he may choose. Schmidt has represented the extreme 
calm of a sultry summer day. 

In order to convey this impression of the calm of a 
summer noonday, the artist has represented the filmy 
birch or buttonwood and foliage in the foreground as 
unmoved by any breath of air. The idea of noon is also 
conveyed thru the short shadows, falling almost beneath 
the trees. Again, the lights on the tree trunks are very 
distinct, due to the intense light of midday. The 
clouds have few heavy shadows, and the bright, even 
blue of the sky behind the clouds further emphasizes the 
fact of noonday. Also, there is no traffic on the otherwise 
well-traveled road, nor do we see animals or people in 
the fields. 

This example of the cultivated landscape reminds one 
of Hobbema's "The Avenue of Trees." The human 
touch, so greatly enjoyed by the artist, Schmidt, is 
afforded by the traveled road, the carefully kept trees, 
and the stone shed to the left. 

The arrangement of the parts of the picture is unusually 
simple, but most effective, the entire picture being taken 
in by the eye at first glance. The number of curved 
lines is remarkable, there being few, if any, straight lines 
in the picture. The artist has suggested much, but he 
has not confused the beholder, with a mass of details. 



Another remarkable fact about the picture is that it has 
a distinct center, details becoming fewer toward the edge 
of the canvas, and all the lines pointing toward a center. 
This artist rarely, if ever, "crowds" his canvas. 



EXERCISES 

1. What in the picture tells you it is midday? 

2. What shows that the day is calm? 

3. Compare this picture with Hobbema's "The Avenue of Trees. 

4. What human touch is shown in this picture? 

5. What shows the simplicity of the picture? 

6. What do you like best about the picture? 



Modern landscape painters have looked at nature with 
totally different eyes, seeking not for what is easiest to 
imitate, but for what is most important to tell. Reject- 
ing at once all ideal of bona fide imitation, they think only 
of conveying the impression of nature into the mind of the 
spectator. — John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska' 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 



THE FIRST STEP 

JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 



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JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 

Corot was born in Paris on July 26, 1796. His father 
was a poor shop-keeper of peasant descent, who sold 
ribbons and laces. At the age of ten, Corot was sent 
to a boarding school at Rouen. After he returned to 
Paris, his father bought a country house on the out- 
skirts of the city. Here the boy would sit half the night, 
gazing out thru his window at the sky, the water, 
and the fantastic shadows cast by the great trees. 

At an early age he was made apprentice in a cloth-shop, 
where he worked for eight years. Finally, however, he 
gained courage enough to state his ambition to his father. 
He was met with no particular remonstrance but was 
warned that he would receive only enough money to keep 
him from starving. Corot gladly agreed to these terms 
and began his new work immediately. 

After the death of his first master, Michallon, Corot 
entered the Paris studio of Victor Bertin. In 1827, he 
made his first exhibition at the Salon, but it was not 
until nineteen years later that his reward came. At the 
close of the Salon exhibition in 1846, at which he exhibited 
his painting entitled, "The Forest of Fontainebleau, " 
he received, in his fiftieth year, the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor, the highest honor that can be bestowed on an 
artist. 

He was unselfish to the utmost degree and was always 
ready with his purse to help the needy. When asked 
concerning his lifetime generosity he said, "It is my 
temperament and pleasure. I can earn money again so 
quickly, just by painting a little branch. Charity always 
brings to me more than it costs me for I can work better 
with a heart at ease." 

It is interesting to know that Corot spent his summers 
at Barbizon and in the Forest of Fontainebleau which 
he dearly loved. On February 23, 1875, Corot passed 
away murmuring of beautiful landscapes and of happy 
hours he had spent with nature. 



THE FIRST STEP 

"The First Step" is a good example of Corot's interest 
in scenes portraying spring. The canvas is completely 
rilled with the great waving masses of green except for a 
vista thru the center, revealing a great patch of blue sky, 
the purple hills, and a small lake reflecting the pure blue 
of the sky. A large tree trunk sweeps thru the center of 
the vista, and a "cropped" willow with long whip-like 
branches almost fills the left half of the picture. Here 
and there are shrubs, and flowers in blossom. Underneath 
the willow is a mother teaching her child to take its first 
steps upon the greensward. The mother and child attract 
attention, altho they constitute but a very small part of 
the scene. The helpless babe, the tender mother love, and 
the need of guidance, all are suggested by the two figures 

Corot did not care for scenes devoid of human interest. 
For this reason, he painted people, animals or nymphs 
as a part of his pictures. He did not paint grief, but 
the joy of the springtime, suggesting life and love. Corot 
once said that he painted shimmering leaves, blossoming 
flowers, and happy people because he wished to express 
the joy of living. 

Corot knew how to suggest much while sacrificing de- 
tails. In this respect, he is a great master, for he succeeds 
in conveying to the beholder something of the impression 
that he had, which after all, is the test of great painting. 
Corot does not paint leaves, he paints masses of foliage; 
he does not paint twigs, he suggests them; he does not 
paint grass; he gives an impression of the soft, cool green- 
sward. Corot's pictures have been called the "best 
friends to live with." They are cheerful, wholesome, 
and human. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the story of Corot's life. 

2. What are some of the secrets of his greatness as a painter of 
landscapes? 

3. Show how "The First Step" reveals the spirit of Springtime. 

4. How does the picture get its name? 

5. Describe the picture. 

6. What forms the center of interest of the picture? 

7. Why have his pictures been called "the best friends to live 
with"? 

8. What in this picture do you like best? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
' University Place, Nebraska 



THE GATHERING STORM 

HERMANN RUDISUHLI 



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THE GATHERING STORM 

"The Gathering Storm," by Rudisuhli, is a fine example 
of the picture that is intended to convey an idea of 
motion. This distinguished modern painter enjoys por- 
traying the effects of wind and the movements of the 
storm clouds. 

The main idea of the approach of a storm is perfectly 
realized by the artist. The swaying evergreens to the 
right, the darkness of certain clouds, and the sagging 
fold of the distant clouds to the left suggest storm and 
rain. The unusual light on the grassy fields where the 
sun shines from between the darkening clouds is an un- 
usual feature. The calm of the water, reflecting the 
shadows of the swaying evergreens, is in striking con- 
trast to the movement in the sky and among the trees. 
The approach of the storm is further indicated by the 
absence of men or animals in the picture. 

To many the real beauty of the picture will be found 
in the group of mighty oak trees in the foreground, stand- 
ing out like giant sentinels, apparently unmoved by the 
approaching storm. There is a suggestion of grandeur 
and strength in the trees that would be difficult of rep- 
resentation by most other modern artists. The great 
group of oaks forms the center with everything else sub- 
ordinate. The picture would be spoiled if we had but the 
one large tree directly in the middle of the canvas, so the 
artist has painted other trees extending outward from the 
main tree. 

In "The Gathering Storm," the canvas is not crowded. 
The central object of attention occupies the most im- 
portant place, while most of the important lines lead 
from the outside to the middle of the canvas. 



EXERCISES 

1. What has the painter here portrayed? 

2. How does the artist give an impression of the force of wind? 

3. What forms the center of the picture? 

4. What is admirable about the trees in the foreground? 

5. How has the artist centered the attention of the beholder? 

6. What do you like best about this picture? 



Those devoted men who have upheld the standard of 
truth and beauty amongst us, and whose pictures, painted 
amidst difficulties that none but a painter can know, 
show qualities of mind unsurpassed in any age — these 
great men have but a narrow circle that can understand 
their works, and are utterly unknown to the great mass 
of people: civilization is so much against them, that they 
cannot move the people. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE GIRL WITH THE APPLE 

JEAN BAPTISTE GREUZE 



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JEAN BAPTISTE GREUZE 

Jean Baptiste Greuze was born August 21, 1725, in 
the little town of Tournus, in Burgundy, France. His 
father was a tiler, who desired that his son should become 
an architect. In spite of threats and punishments on 
the part of his father, the lad persisted in sketching. One 
day he presented his father with a pen sketch of the head 
of St. John; the victory was won. The father sent him 
to Lyons to the studio of Gromdon. 

At the age of twenty, Greuze returned to Paris. Like 
many, many other artists, he was here to have his full 
measure of discouragements. His work was too crude, 
too mechanical to find favor at the Academy. For ten 
years he labored incessantly for the smallest recognition. 
At last, at the age of thirty, thru the friendship of 
two well known artists, he was enabled to make an 
exhibit of one picture in the Academy in 1755. 

At about that time, Greuze was induced to make a 
trip to Italy to further broaden his knowledge. After a 
stay of two years in Italy, which country after all had 
little influence on his art, he returned to Paris. In 1755, 
just before his departure for Rome, Greuze was elected 
to membership in the Royal Academy. It was not, how- 
ever, until after the French Revolution in 1804 that 
Greuze rose to the zenith of his popularity. For a time 
he was supremely happy, but his happiness was marred 
by an unappreciative wife who had no respect for her 
husband's ability and who squandered his income. At 
last he died in poverty and distress on March 21, 1805. 
His wealth was gone, his friends were gone. Only two 
persons followed the casket to a lonely grave. 

His best paintings are: Innocence Holding Two 
Pigeons; The Father's Curse; The Dead Bird; The 
Girl with the Apple; The Two Sisters; The Broken 
Pitcher; The Milkmaid. 



THE GIRL WITH THE APPLE 

Greuze's pictures of maidens have often been criticized 
as being too precise — too ideal, as not being real enough. 
But what could more nearly approach the true repre- 
sentation of real childhood than this lovely picture of 
"The Girl with the Apple." 

A dreamy little maiden, she is. Her eyes, whose depths 
are so full of childish wonder and innocence, are gazing 
absently into space. Her lips, so tender and delicate, are 
slightly parted. The soft locks curl lingeringly about 
the sweet, bewitching child-face. 

Is she thinking with childish pleasure, about her posses- 
sion, the apple? No, her little mind is far away from that. 
Her thoughts are dream-thoughts. We cannot know what 
they are, but we have visions of heavenly hosts not far 
away, fluttering about, bringing pure innocent dreams 
to a little child. 

EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Greuze. 

2. What did the father wish his son to become? 

3. Tell how the lad finally came to study art. 

4. What difficulties did he have to gain recognition? 

5. What marred his happiness and increased his distress? 

6. Describe the picture, "The Girl with the Apple." 

7. What tells you whether or not the girl is thinking of the apple? 

8. What do you think are her thoughts? 

9. What do you like best about this picture? 

10. Tell of any pictures you have seen in real life which remind 
you of this. 



To feel beauty is a better thing than to understand 
how we come to feel it. To have imagination and taste, 
to love the best, to be carried by the contemplation of 
nature to a vivid faith in the ideal, all this is more, a 
great deal more, than any science can hope to be. The 
poets and philosophers who express this aesthetic experi- 
ence and stimulate the same function in us by their 
example do a greater service to mankind and deserve 
higher honor that the discoverers of historical truth. 

— George Santayana 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE GLEANERS 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



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JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the "peasant painter of France." As a boy, he 
lived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in the 
fields. When he could no longer repress his desire to 
become an artist, he went away to study. When he 
returned, he was a great painter, but still remained a true 
peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio in the 
village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived the 
peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated, and reaped, and 
Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at their 
labor or converse with the woodcutters, the charcoal 
burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, he 
was at least able to get food for his little ones from his 
garden, and he could have near him his brother artists 
Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appreciated his 
efforts and to whom his artistic message was not spoken in 
vain. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that 
in his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that there 
is a good bond between man and nature, and that a picture 
to be a true interpretation must harmonize the one with 
the other. In all of his later pictures, therefore, the 
landscape and the figures seem to be in perfect harmony. 

The figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor grace- 
ful, but they show great expression and goodness of char- 
acter and look as if they were really a part of their sur- 
roundings. This was the life of which, in the fullness of 
his heart, he said: "The peasant subjects suit my tem- 
perament best, for I must confess that the human side of 
life is what touches me most." 

He died without having been appreciated. Three 
nations are now striving in friendly rivalry to secure his 
masterpieces. 



THE GLEANERS 

The burning noon-day sun of a busy harvest day is 
pouring down on the laborers. The field has been shorn 
of its golden grain and now the men and women, many, 
many of them, are busy piling it up in huge stacks. 
How joyously they must work as they view the results 
of their labor, for they now have a plentiful harvest. 

What a contrast to the three women in the foreground 
who seem to have just appeared on the scene! They 
are the gleaners, and are taking advantage of the privilege 
which always belongs to the poor, of entering the field 
after the reapers have finished their work, to gather any 
stray spear of grain that may have escaped the notice of 
those who have gone before. 

Study each of the three figures in the foreground. 
Their positions, and the toilsome reaching after each 
separate straw, tell of the nature of their work. 



EXERCISES 

1. Who painted "The Gleaners"? 

2. Tell all you can about Millet's life. 

3. How did his early life affect his art? 

4. What characteristic is peculiar to all of Millet's pictures? 

5. Why was he called "the peasant painter of France"? 

6. What time of day is pictured in "The Gleaners"? 

7. Who are the gleaners? 

8. Describe the picture. 

9. Describe the dress of the peasant women. 

10. What here shows us the nature of the work of these gleaners? 

11. What do you like best about the picture? 



To study one good master till you understand him will 
teach you more than a superficial acquaintance with a 
thousand; power of criticism does not consist in knowing 
the names or the manner of many painters, but in dis- 
cerning the excellence of a few. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

BERNARD PLOCKHORST 



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BERNARD PLOCKHORST 

Bernard Piockhorst was born in Brunswick, March 2, 
1825. He first studied under Piloty in Munich and later 
under Couture in Paris. He traveled widely studying 
the works of the best artists and searching for subjects 
for his art. He visited the art galleries in Holland, 
Belgium, France, and Italy. He was especially charmed 
with the scenes in and around Venice. On his return, 
he lived for a time in Leipsic, then in Berlin. For three 
years, 1866 to 1869, he was a professor in the Weimar 
Art School. 

Piockhorst excelled in portrait painting, but left many 
excellent historical and religious works among which are: 
The Exposure of Moses; The Finding of Moses; Mater 
Dolorosa; Resurrection; Christ's Walk to Emmaus; 
Gift from Heaven; Guardian Angel. 



THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

"I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd giveth 
his life for his sheep. 

"But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose 
own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth 
the sheep, and fleeth; and the wolf catcheth them, and 
scattereth them, and scattereth the sheep. 

"The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and 
careth not for the sheep. 

"I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am 
known of mine. 

"As the father knoweth me, even so I know the Father; 
and I lay down my life for the sheep. * * * * My sheep 
hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me; 
and I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never 
perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand." 
—John 10, 11-15; 27-28. 

How beautifully Piockhorst has portrayed for us the 
character of Jesus, who is represented here as a shepherd, 



bearing the usual crook and followed closely by his flock. 
Well the sheep know who will care for them, who will 
see that all are in the fold at nightfall, and whose voice 
they know and obey. 

The kindly gaze of the Shepherd is bent upon a lamb, 
weary from the wandering, which is nestling within the 
tender and secure embrace of his master. 

An older sheep, perhaps the mother of the lamb in her 
master's arms, is walking close by his side, bearing an 
almost human expression of understanding and devotion 
in her upward gaze. Other sheep are pressing closely 
behind the master knowing that he will guide them aright. 
But if one should go astray, the master will search until 
it is found and brought safely back to the fold; for he 
has said, "What man of you having a hundred sheep, if 
he lose one of them doth not leave the ninety and nine in 
the wilderness and go after that which was lost until he 
find it? And when he has found it, he layeth it on his 
shoulders rejoicing. And when he cometh home he calleth 
together his friends and neighbors saying unto them, 
'Rejoice with me for I have found my sheep which was 
lost'."— Luke 15, 4-6. 

EXERCISES 

1. From what book was the quotation in the first part of this 
story taken? What part? 

2. Who painted this picture? 

3. What character is represented in this picture? 
4 . What is a shepherd's crook? 

5. Why does the Master carry one sheep? 

6. Does the mother of the weak lamb show her appreciation to 
her Master for his kindness? 

7. Why do the sheep know they are being guided right? 

8. What do you think is the central thought of this picture? 



The most important part of painting is to know what 
is most beautiful in nature, and most proper for that art; 
that which is the most beautiful is the most noble subject. 

— Dryden 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

1 




THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 



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BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born in Seville, 
Spain, in 1618. His father, a merchant by trade, was so 
poor that he was allowed to occupy his house free from 
rent. Almost the first we know of the boy's early child- 
hood is that his parents had both died before he was 
eleven years old. Murillo then went to live with an 
aunt and uncle, who, seeing his artistic ability, made him 
an apprentice to another uncle, Juan del Castillo, who was 
an artist of ordinary ability. It is thought that Murillo 
learned little here beside the mixing of paints and the 
blending of colors. In 1640, Castillo moved to Cadiz, 
leaving young Murillo to fight his own artistic battles. 

Without money, without even a very ordinary reputa- 
tion as an artist, where should he turn? There was only 
one place where he could satisfy his desire to paint and 
that was at that studio which was free to all and where 
so many struggling young artists spent the greater part of 
their time, the public market place, where he painted 
pictures of artistically grouped fruits and vegetables, 
and even of the little beggar boys who crowded around 
him while he painted. 

At this time, Murillo's pictures were merely showy 
sketches, full of gorgeous colors. His only patrons were 
the frequenters of the market place to whom these gay 
tones especially appealed. 

After a time he went on foot to Madrid where he worked 
under his former fellow-townsman Velazquez, who was 
then court painter to Philip IV, and at the height of 
his success. Murillo was welcomed by the great painter 
and was introduced to a number of influential artists of 
the time. He spent his time in studying the art collections 
of the Royal Court and in copying many pictures in 
Madrid. He made such rapid progress that Velazquez 
urged him to go to Rome for further study. However, 
Murillo longed to return to his own beautiful Seville and 
did not desire further foreign travel. When he reached 
Seville the commission to decorate the inside of the Fran- 



ciscan convent was given him. After he had completed 
his work in the Franciscan convent, Murillo's position 
in the world of art was established. As the years went 
on, he was much in demand as a decorator of churches 
and convents. 

Murillo was commissioned to such important work as 
decorating the All Saints' Chapel and the church and 
hospital of the Holy Charity. When he was sixty-two 
years old, he went to Cadiz to decorate the interior of 
the Capuchin convent. While working here he fell from 
a high scaffolding injuring himself so seriously that he 
was forced to discontinue. He died quietly in the year 
1682, at his birthplace in Seville. 



THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

The Good Shepherd is here represented by the Christ 
Child seated on a rock with His left hand resting on the 
back of a sheep, and His right hand holding the shepherd's 
crook. He is clad in a tunic and a sheepskin garment 
after the fashion of shepherds of that day. 

In the face of the Child we see a look of divine tender- 
ness as He gazes afar off into infinity. His is a large 
responsibility, a shepherd guiding his flock. The eyes 
so full of thoughtfulness and the grave expression of the 
face lead us to believe that He sees a vision of the future. 
He is no longer, then, to guard and direct His little flock 
of sheep. He must soon be prepared to do a great work 
in the world, that of guiding His human flock, of being 
the perfect example before men. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Murillo. 

2. To what school of art does he belong? 

3. Tell of the important tasks he was given to do. 

4. In what kind of painting did he excel? 

5. Describe this picture? 

6. Who is "The Good Shepherd"? 

7. Why do you think he is here spoken of as a shepherd? 

8. What about him seems to you to be especially attractive? 

9. What do you like best about this picture? 

10. Why do you think the picture is so greatly loved by children 
everywhere? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



BBSS- 



Hi 




A HALT AT THE OASIS 

ADOLPH SCHREYER 



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ADOLPH SCHREYER 

Adolph Schreyer was born in Germany. His parents 
were so wealthy that he could study, travel and see sights 
that helped him to make beautiful pictures without 
having to suffer from poverty as so many artists have had 
to do. 

He was one of the very ablest painters of Arabian 
horses. He loved horses so much that he put them into 
nearly every picture he painted. In the riding school of 
his own city, and while he was in the army, he studied 
the form, color and every action of the horse carefully, so 
that when we look at one of his pictures and then close our 
eyes, we seem to have seen real life. 

Schreyer traveled in all the principal countries of Europe 
and visited Algeria and Egypt. Loving horses as he did, 
he could not fail to be captivated by the noble, far-famed 
Arabian breed which is so beautiful. 

He won medals at Paris, Vienna and Brussels; in 
1864 he became a member of the Rotterdam and Antwerp 
Academies. His work is extremely popular in the United 
States and many of his works are owned in this country. 

A HALT AT THE OASIS 

In this picture we have a typical Arabian scene. These 
Arabs have been traveling across the dangerous desert — 
dangerous because of the lack of water and because it is 
infested with hostile tribes — and have now stopped to rest 
awhile by the oasis. 

What a delightful place this must be after traveling 
in the hot sun and burning sands of the vast desert! 
See the dark masses of trees in the background, the cling- 
ing vines, the soft green grass beside the clean, sparkling 
stream, and the well itself, full to the brim of life-giving 
water, out of which one of the horses is just ready to 
take a drink. 



These people could not have traveled on the desert if 
it were not for these oases that are found here and there, 
where they can stop for water and rest in the cool shade. 

The horses in this picture are splendid examples of the 
typical Arabian horse, especially the noble white charger. 
See how his head is thrown back, his nostrils dilated — 
as thohe were scenting danger afar off. 

The men are enjoying their rest after traveling in the 
hot sun. How strong their dark faces look. Notice the 
long pipe in the hand of the one nearest the front of the 
picture, and the peculiar weapons lying on the ground 
beside him. 

They will probably rest awhile, and after filling their 
canteens, will continue their wearisome journey across 
the hot, shining sand. 



EXERCISES 

1. Where was Adolph Schreyer born? 

2. What did he paint best of all? What helped him in this? 

3. Where did Schreyer travel? 

4. Name some honors that were bestowed upon him. 

5. Describe this picture. 

6. From what country are these people? How do the people 
dress in that country? 

7. What kind of horses are these? Which one do you like best? 
Why? 

8. What do you think the white horse is looking for? 

9. What do you like best about this picture? 



In no circumstances whatever can man be comfortable 
without art. The butterfly is independent of art, though 
it is only in sunshine that it can be happy. The beasts 
of the field can roam about by day, and couch by night 
on the cold earth, without danger to health or sense of 
misfortune. But man is miserable and speedily lost so 
soon as he is removed from the precincts of human art, 
without his shoes, without his clothes, without his dog 
and his gun, without an inn or a cottage to shelter him 
by night. Nature is worse to him than a stepmother, — 
he can not love her; she is a desolate and howling wilder- 
ness. He is not a child of nature like a hare. She does 
not provide him a banquet and a bed upon every little 
knoll, every green spot of earth. She persecutes him to 
death if he does not return to that sphere of art to which 
he belongs, and out of which she will show him no mercy.. 

— Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




A HELPING HAND 

EMILE RENOUF 



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EMILE RENOUF 

Emile Renouf was born in Paris, June 23, 1845. He 
spent most of his life painting French scenes of landscapes, 
marine views and scenes from every-day life. He was 
a worthy pupil of the leading Parisian artists of his day 
among whom were Boulanger, Jules Le Leovre, and Car- 
olus-Duran. In 1880, he won the second class Medal in 
an exhibit at Paris. The first class Medal was awarded 
to him in Munich in 1883. In 1886 he visited America 
where he found subjects for some of his most beautiful 
paintings. The Helping Hand is the one picture by which 
he is generally remembered. 



A HELPING HAND 

In this picture we see a little French peasant girl, 
very much interested in helping her grandfather to row 
the boat. Her home is in one of the fishing settlements 
off the coast of France. In reality the heavy oar is 
entirely too heavy for her tiny little hands but she feels 
that she is helping and is, in her own little way. Her 
proud and loving grandfather is evidently humoring her, 
even assuring her that she is helping him. She feels that 
the boat can never reach the shore if she does not assist 
in rowing it. Her grandfather is a fisherman and spends 
many hours on the water and Louis likes to go with him. 

Among other pictures painted by this artist are: After 
the Storm; The Brooklyn Bridge; Last Repaid; After 
a Gust of Wind; The Pilot; Sunset; Adrift. 



EXERCISES 

1. Who is this little girl in the picture? Where does she live? 

2. Who is the man you see in the boat? 

3. How is the little girl helping the man? 

4. How is the little grandaughter showing a helping hand? 

5. Describe the picture as you see it. 

6. What story does it tell you? 

7. Why is this picture so well liked? 



The temple of art is built of words. Painting and 
sculpture and music are but the blazon of its windows, 
borrowing all their significance from the light and sugges- 
tion only of the temple's uses. -Holland 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

1ST 




OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES 



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OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES 

Successful American man of letters, poet, scientist, 
humorist, college professor, and general friend was Oliver 
Wendell Holmes. He was born at Cambridge, Mass., 
August 29, 1809. He was prepared for college in Andover 
Academy, then went to Harvard from which he graduated 
with the famous class of 1829. He immediately entered 
the Harvard law school, but soon abandoned law for 
medicine. It was in 1830 while he was a young law student 
that he published his poem, " Old Ironsides, " in the Boston 
Advertiser as a protest against the proposed destruction 
of the old frigate Constitution. After three years in the 
Harvard Medical School and three years in Europe, he 
returned to Boston to practice medicine. The same 
year, his first volume of poems appeared. Altho he 
was Professor of Anatomy at Dartmouth for two years, 
and for thirty-five years Parkman Professor of Anatomy 
in Harvard Medical School, his fame rests chiefly upon 
his literary output. 

His writings in the Atlantic Monthly soon made his 
fame nation wide, and attracted the attention of literary 
men and women in Europe. His "Autocrat of the Break- 
fast Table," "The Professor at the Breakfast Table," and 
the "Poet at the Breakfast Table," were original, spiced 
with sparkling wit, and yet true to the life of the day. 
He also wrote many songs, poems and satirical essays. 
His death occurred in Boston, October 7, 1894. 

Holmes was small in stature, slight, and attractive in 
personal appearance. He was genial and kind, ready to 
talk with the humblest child, and always quick to answer 
personally the letters his many children friends wrote him. 
On one occasion, he even sawed a shell in two in order 
to explain to a little child friend the meaning of "The 
Chambered Nautilus." He was one of the best conver- 
sationalists of his day, and his companionship was sought 
alike by learned men and little children. This portrait 
reveals him as he was, genial, friendly, keen, with a hint 
of humor in his eye and with keen, balanced mind, a 



thinker, philosopher, and friend who gave himself freely 
to his fellowmen. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell of the early training of Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

2. What profession did he choose? 

3. When and why did he write "Old Ironsides"? 

4. Sketch briefly his professional life. 

5. Tell of his literary career. 

6. From a study of his portrait, what kind of man do you think 
he was? 

7. What to you is most interesting in what he wrote? 



All nature is but art unknown to thee; 

All chance, direction which thou can'st not see 

All discord, harmony not understood ; 

All partial evil, universal good; 

And spirit of pride in erring Reasons spite 

One truth is clear, whate'er is is right I admire. 

— Pope 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE HORSE FAIR 

ROSA BONHEUR 



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ROSA BONHEUR 

In the quiet old town of Bordeaux, on the west coast of 
France, was born, October 22, 1822, one of the world's 
most famous artists, Rosa Bonheur. Her father was an 
artist. Her mother was a musician. Rosa's waking 
hours were spent in playing with the cats and dogs. 
She loved every animal that came along, no matter how 
wretched it might be. 

When her father moved to Paris little Rosa became 
very homesick for the familiar scenes in her quiet old 
home in Bordeaux. There was a school for boys near- 
by, and the master, seeing the loneliness of the little girl, 
asked her father to send her with her brothers to his 
school. The boys became very fond of her, for she 
entered into their sports as readily and with as much 
spirit as one of their own number. 

In 1835, Rosa's mother died, leaving the father to care 
for four small children. The family now had to be 
separated. Juliette, Rosa's sister, was sent to a friend 
of the mother in Bordeaux; the boys to one boarding 
school; and Rosa to another. Rosa, at least, did not 
feel happy with this change. She had always lived a 
free, unrestrained life, and to thus be held within the 
bonds of school life was too much for the child. She 
made a dash for freedom, so transgressing on the rules 
of the school that the authorities of the institution gave 
her up in despair and she went joyously home to her father. 

Rosa's father was so busy with the giving of his lessons 
that he had no time to instruct his little daughter. She 
was free to amuse herself as she wished, which she did 
by drawing and painting. One day, upon returning 
home to his studio, he was surprised to find that she had 
sketched a very lovely bunch of cherries. After that he 
took time to give her lessons, and she progressed so rapidly 
that she was soon able to give lessons herself. She was 
advancing so well that she took to copying famous master- 
pieces in the Louvre, and these copies were so well done 
that she received good prices for them in the market places. 



In 1847 Rosa Bonheur received her first prize, a gold 
medal of the third class, presented in the king's name. 
One of her best works, "Oxen Plowing," was painted 
for the Salon exhibit of 1849. 

After her return to Paris, she withdrew to the village 
of By, in the very heart of the grand old forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Here at By, Rosa purchased a rambling old house 
where she kept a menagerie consisting of birds of all 
kinds, and animals, both wild and domestic. Here she 
lived the life of a peasant, rising early, and retiring at 
the setting of the sun, eating the simplest of food and 
painting to her heart's content. 

In 1893 she had bestowed upon her the greatest honor 
which can come to an artist, that of becoming an officer 
in the "Legion of Honor." The Cross of the Legion of 
Honor was pinned on her by Empress Eugenie, wife of 
Napoleon III. She died on May 25, 1899. 



THE HORSE FAIR 

Rosa Bonheur was never content to let her last picture 
remain the best. The great success of her "Oxen Plow- 
ing" created in her the desire to do something better. 
With this in mind she set to work planning her great 
picture "The Horse Fair," which was destined to become 
the most famous horse picture known. 

Did she sit down before her canvas and proceed to 
sketch horses in every conceivable attitude? No. She 
spent just one and one-half years in preparation before 
she felt ready to make her picture. 

Her friends placed their finest horses at her disposal 
to use as models, but this was not sufficient. She visited 
the horse markets where she studied all sorts of beautiful 
animals and sketched them in every imaginable position. 
To avoid the rude remarks made about her for entering 
the horse markets, she donned the attire of a man and 
then went about her work quietly and persistently. 

Her horses were to be two-thirds life size. For that 



reason an immense canvas was required, and the artist 
had to continually use a ladder as she worked. This 
great piece of art was completed in 1853, and was then 
ready for the Salon. The admiration which this paint- 
ing received, was beyond that ever received by any other 
modern picture. 

After the picture had been exhibited, Rosa Bonheur 
received the rare honor of exhibiting any pictures in the 
future without previous examination — an honor which 
rarely comes even to a great artist. 

Later the painting was exhibited at Ghent. The 
artist was offered 40,000 francs by Mr. Gambert, a picture 
dealer, and the offer was accepted. Finally it was bought 
by a wealthy man in New York who paid 300,000 francs 
for it, and it now hangs in the Metropolitan Art Museum. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Rosa Bonheur. 

2. What honors were bestowed upon her? 

3. Where did Rosa make her home in her later life? 

4. How did Rosa Bonheur prepare for the painting of "The 
Horse Fair"? 

5. Tell about the size of the painting. 

6. When was it completed? Where first exhibited? Where 
next? How received? 

7. To whom and for how much did Rosa sell this picture? To 
whom and for how much was it next sold? 

8. Where is this picture now? 

9. Describe "The Horse Fair." 

10. What do you like best about the picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE HORSE SHOER 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
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SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was born in the outskirts 
of London, on March 7, 1802. His feitiher, an artist, 
took a deep interest in his son's artistic tendencies, which 
began to show at a very early age. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at 
the age of fourteen. At a very early age he had begun 
to show a preference for the dog above all other animals, 
so at the Academy he was known as "the little dog-boy." 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of Land- 
seer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became 
the Court Artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred 
the honor of knighthood upon the artist, and from that 
time on, he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate of the Academy in 1826. In 
1831, he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he 
was offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused 
on account of failing health. He died October 1, 1873. 

THE HORSE SHOER 

Longfellow's "The Village Blacksmith" brings to our 
minds a true picture. Landseer's "The Horse Shoer" 
is a poem on the canvas. The two men offer us the 
same message, the one by means of the pen and the other 
with the brush. 



There is a pretty story connected with this picture 
which illustrates the intelligence of animals and the 
comradeship which may exist between man and his dumb 
friends. Betty was a beautiful young mare belonging 
to a wealthy friend of Mr. Landseer. She was spirited 
and very independent. It early became her desire never 
to be hitched to a post or in the barn. She thus acquired 
the habit of wandering about at will. Perhaps the most 
remarkable thing she did was to trot down to the country 
blacksmith shop whenever she needed new shoes. Here 
she would stand until the work was finished when she 
would go back to her stall. 

It was upon one of these occasions that Mr. Landseer 
chose to portray the charming scene we have in "Shoe- 
ing The Bay Mare." 

The keynote of the picture is not found in the glossy 
coat of the mare nor in the other animals, nor even in 
"The Village Blacksmith," but it is found in the act of 
labor, upon which all the figures in the pictures are con- 
centrating their attention. Betty's noble head is turned 
to watch the performance. The impudent little donkey, 
which offers such a contrast to Betty's queenly appear- 
ance, fixes its eyes intently upon the process of shoeing. 
Laura, the bloodhound, is just as interested as anyone. 



EXERCISES 

1. Give a brief sketch of the life of Landseer. 

2. Name some of his characteristics as a painter. 

3. In what respects is Landseer's picture, "The Horse Shoer," 
like the poem, "The Village Blacksmith"? 

4. Tell the story connected with the picture. 

5. What is the center of interest in this picture? 

6. How does the artist bring out the "keynote" or message of 
the picture? 



The highest problem of every art is, by means of appear- 
ances, to produce the illusion of a loftier reality. 

— Goethe 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 
TTTW 

X 



HOSEA 

JOHN SINGER SARGENT 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



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JOHN SINGER SARGENT 

John Singer Sargent was born of American parents in 
1856, in Florence, Italy. He was a student in the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in Florence and studied under Duran 
in Paris. His first exhibition at the Salon consisting of 
three pictures, when he was twenty-one years of age, 
created favorable comment. 

After visiting in Spain, he went to London which has 
since been his home. He has made many visits to the 
United States. In 1890, he received a commission to 
decorate a hall in the Boston Public Library. The theme 
which he chose was the Pageant of Religions, repre- 
senting the different periods in the development of the 
religion of the Jews. These decorations are regarded as 
rare masterpieces, and are the cause of thousands annually 
visiting the Boston Library. 

In 1897, Sargent attained the highest rank of an artist, 
when he was made an officer of the Legion of Honor. 
He belongs to many art societies. He received gold 
medals at many of the international exhibitions, and 
was awarded the grand prize at the St. Louis Exposition 
in 1904. 

Sargent's portraits interpret character truthfully. His 
men are strong, and virile; his women are exquisitely 
beautiful, yet not overdrawn; his children are tender and 
charming. Among his noted paintings are: The Girl 
with a Rose; Hall of the Four Children; Carnation Lily; 
Hosea; many portraits, among them that of Washington. 

HOSEA 

The story of the prophets finds its beginning in the 
story of Israel's deliverance from bondage. After years 
of suffering from plague and disease, we find the perse- 
cuted children of Israel at last on the other side of the 
Red Sea, free from their hated masters, the Egyptians. 

At last they reached the Promised Land beyond the 
river Jordan. Under the leadership of Moses, they grew 
in strength and number and were living in peace and 



happiness. Soon the children of Israel turned their faces 
from the Lord. Prophets were sent to them who, by 
warnings and predictions, would deliver them. But 
one after another the prophets were compelled to turn 
away in anguish for the children of Israel would not hear 
them. 

One by one they passed; Isaiah, that mighty one; 
Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Jeremiah who saw the 
city destroyed; Elijah, that stern old prophet whom 
God endowed with the power to perform miracles — but all 
to no avail; Ezekiel, who brought a message of hope; 
Daniel, Joel, sent to furnish an arm of strength to the 
people who found it so easy to fall before temptation. 

When a certain hall in the Boston Library, the hall now 
known as Sargent's Hall, was to be decorated, no more 
appropriate design could be chosen than the figures of 
these grand old prophets. In the great arched ceiling is 
portrayed in a mighty procession, — the oppression, deliv- 
erance and downfall of Israel. 

The frieze of the prophets is arranged in panels. In 
the central panel over the door are the chief prophets — 
Moses, Joshua and Elijah. Moses stands in the center 
holding his tablets of stone, upon which are written 
God's ten commandments. 

A peculiar and intensely interesting arrangement marks 
the group of which Hosea is a figure. There are the 
Prophets of Despair and the Prophets of Hope. There 
are four figures in each group. Among the Prophets of 
Despair are three bowed down by woe and grief. The 
awfulness of their despair is hard to look upon and we 
would soon turn away were it not for the fourth figure 
in the group. He stands hopeful, courageous, tranquil. 
What a contrast to his grief -stricken comrades! He is 
so calm, so peaceful, so strong in his faith in his people, so 
firmly hopeful that right will conquer wrong. He wears 
a long, clinging white garment surrounding his whole 
body and draping in about his strong face emphasizing 
the purity of his character. He is, indeed, the Prophet 
of Hope. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell briefly of the life of Sargent. 

2. How is he connected with American art? 

3. Where does he now live and work? 

4. What honors have been bestowed on him? 

5. How is Sargent's Hall in the Boston Public Library decorated; 

6. Describe this picture. 

7. What does his white robe denote? 

8. What in this picture impresses you most? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE INFANT SAMUEL 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



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Chicago and Lincoln 

Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, (1723-1792) was born in the 
beautiful county of Devonshire, England. His father 
was a clergyman and his mother was the daughter of a 
clergyman. When Sir Joshua was yet a child, his parents 
decided that he should be educated for a druggist. 

One Sunday, as he sat in church, he sketched a picture 
of the minister on his thumb nail and afterwards trans- 
ferred it in oil to canvas. This convinced his hitherto 
reluctant father that he should give his consent to the 
boy to enter his chosen field, and he reluctantly appren- 
ticed the boy to Hudson, a great London painter. The 
boy was apprenticed for four years, but at the end of two 
years he returned to his native home, Plympton, England. 
It is said that Hudson realized the ability of Reynolds 
and, because of fear in having a rival in Reynolds, dis- 
charged him. 

Reynolds traveled abroad extensively but the place 
where he found most joy and satsifaction was in Italy 
with the great masters in art. In Venice he conceived 
his ideal in coloring, but not his method. This great 
arl ist was said to be one of the seven great colorists of all 
time, yet he won this distinction only by hard work. 

After three years of travel, observation, study and toil 
in Italy he returned to London, determined to "survive 
or perish" in his art. During his second year he had a 
hundred twenty dukes, duchesses, members of parlia- 
ment, and society beauties sit for him. In one year he 
had a hundred fifty sit for him, among them the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards George III. 



THE INFANT SAMUEL 

"The Infant Samuel," by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is 
universally admired. The picture has its origin in the 
familiar Bible story which represents the young Samuel 
in a worshipful attitude answering the voice of God: 
"Speak, for thy servant heareth." I Samuel 3:10. But 



the picture has a meaning, even tho the beholder is 
unfamiliar with the Bible story, and that meaning has to 
do with the sweet and simple trust of a little child. The 
picture also appeals to many a mother with reminiscences 
of "Now I lay me." 

The beautiful face of the child, filled with mingled 
childish wonder and reverence is sure to appeal to all 
The simple, white slip worn by the child, the clasped 
hands, the beautiful eyes, the delicately modeled nose, 
the wealth of hair, and the sweet lips, enhance the beauty 
of the picture. No other artist ever painted the lips and 
nose of a child quite so perfectly as did Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

2. What position does Reynolds hold among English painters? 

3. What shows that he was very popular in his own day? 

4. Upon what Bible story is this picture based? 

5. Describe the picture in detail. 

6. What meaning has this picture to you? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



There is no limit to the good which is effected by plac- 
ing good pictures before ourselves. — Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




JOAN OF ARC 

BASTIEN LEPAGE 



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studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



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Chicago and Lincoln 

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BASTIEN LEPAGE 

Lepage was born in Damvillars, France, in 1848 and 
died in 1884. When a boy, he lived near the home of 
Joan of Arc. He was a pupil of Cabanel, with whom he 
remained until 1870. Lepage earned his living for many 
years by working for illustrated papers. His first success 
was a picture of his grandfather. This he painted in 
1874. From this time his reputation was established. 

Lepage was probably never excelled by any one in his 
perfectly passionate love of nature. To him, the woods, 
the skies, the fields and flowers were a joy and a satisfac- 
tion. Lepage ranks as one among the first of recent 
painters. 



JOAN OF ARC 

During the Middle Ages there was almost constant 
warfare because of conflicting claims to the-thrones of 
France and England. In 1338, King Edward II of 
England began a war known in history as "The Hundred 
Years' War." Near the close of this war, when France 
was ready to surrender, and when the English troops were 
besieging the last stronghold of France, the city of Orleans, 
the French became desperate. They were discouraged; 
the soldiers were deserting; they longed for a man with 
the ability to organize their troops to save Orleans. 

Out in the country near Orleans there lived a peasant 
maid, Joan of Arc, who herded her father's sheep. For 
a long time she had been praying that her country might 
be saved. On a beautiful day in summer as she sat at 
her wheel spinning there appeared a strange, mysterious 
light over the garden where she was working. A heavenly 
glow seemed to be everywhere. Suddenly, she heard 
voices and they bade her, "Go to the aid of the king and 
restore his kingdom." "But," Joan replied, "I know 
not how to ride or lead men to arms. " " Go, " they called 
again, "Go and the Lord be with you." 



After much hesitation the young king gave her permis- 
sion to lead the armies of France. She was clad in pure 
white and rode a coal black charger. Her presence 
inspired more than 200,000 loyal soldiers of France. She 
led them on to the very walls of the enemy with such 
wild enthusiasm that the English fled and France was 
saved. 

Later she led the French to victory in a battle at 
Patay and assisted in the coronation of Charles VII at 
Rheims. Two years later she was captured by the 
English and burned at the stake as a witch. 

This picture is different from any other artist's picture 
of Joan of Arc. Lepage lived near her home when he 
was a boy and was thoroly in sympathy with the 
lives of the people there. He has represented her as a 
peasant girl. He made a visit to Domremy, where she 
was born. He saw her house with all its surroundings 
and with a vivid imagination of the peasant girl in the 
midst of these surroundings he wove the story into this 
picture. What an angelic expression her face gives forth 
as she seems to listen! Her thoughts are wrought with 
fear as she tries to answer the call. At first she hesitates, 
then she seems to understand that her country needs 
her, that she has indeed been called to lead her people 
out of bondage to victory and freedom. Her eyes seem 
to be gazing far out into space and her whole attitude is 
one of trust and submission and obedience to her country's 
call. 

Notice the spinning wheel, the saintly faces, the beauti- 
ful flowers. The artist painted this picture as he stood 
in the garden whence she was called. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Lepage. 

2. What was the "Hundred Years' War"? 

3. Who was Joan of Arc? 

4. Tell the story of "Her Country's Call." 

5. What moment in her life is represented in this picture? 

6. What opportunity had this artist to make this picture true to 
life? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE KNITTING SHEPHERDESS 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



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JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the ''peasant painter of France." As a boy, he 
lived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in the 
fields. When he could no longer repress his desire to 
become an artist, he went away to study. When he re- 
turned, he was a great painter, but still remained a true 
peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio in the 
village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived the 
peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated, and reaped, and 
Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at their 
labor or converse with the woodcutters, the charcoal 
burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, he 
was at least able to get food for his little ones from his 
garden, and he could have near him his brother artists 
Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appreciated his 
efforts and to whom his artistic message was not spoken 
in vain. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that in 
his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that 
there is a good bond between man and nature, and that 
a picture to be a true interpretation must harmonize the 
one with the other. 

The figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor grace- 
ful, but they show great expression and goodness of 
character and look as if they were really a part of their 
surroundings. 

He died without having been appreciated. Three 
nations are now striving in friendly rivalry to secure his 
masterpieces. 



THE KNITTING SHEPHERDESS 

Here is a picture of the shepherdess knitting while 
her flock is grazing in the meadow. Tho she is not 
singing with her lips, her heart is singing softly as 
she knits, and her hands keep time to the dream music. 
She has been out with her flock since early morning and 
all the while she has been busy with her knitting. She 
can knit perfectly well now as she follows her sheep about. 

The little shepherdess has an assistant, too, who shares 
the responsibility of her tasks. He is the small black 
dog, and if one of the sheep is tempted to stray from his 
companions he quickly bounds after the runaway and 
drives it back to the flock. Now nightfall comes and 
it is time to lead the flock back to the sheep fold. The 
shepherdess leads the way, and the dog remains at the 
rear. 

The shepherdess wears a hood and cape for the air is 
growing cold. She knows all the sheep by name and 
they follow her as she goes before them. They must 
cross the plain where in the distance we can see the men 
loading hay. The sheep keep nibbling as they go and 
the shepherdess takes time to stop and rest now and then, 
propping her staff in front of her while she picks up a 
stitch dropped in her knitting. There is a sense of per- 
fect stillness in the air, as the calm silence of the fields. 

Notice how the earth seems to stretch far away until 
at last it seems to meet the sky. Other pictures painted 
by this artist are: The Sower; The Angelus; The Glean- 
ers; Feeding Her Birds; The First Step. 



Exercises 

1. Who painted "The Knitting Shepherdess"? 

2. Tell all you can of Millet's life. 

3. What is the shepherdess doing? 

4. Do you think it is difficult for her to watch her sheep and 
knit at the same time? 

5. What tells you how long she has had her sheep out? 

6. What time of day do you think it is? Why? 

7. How does her faithful dog help her? 

8. What impressions do you get from the picture? 

9. Why do you think so many persons like this picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



ifc.4iii 



£"»*iii© 



THE LAKE 

JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 



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JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 

Corot was born in Paris on July 26, 1796. His father 
was a poor shop-keeper of peasant descent, who sold 
ribbons and laces. At the age of ten, Corot was sent to a 
boarding school at Rouen. After he returned to Paris, 
his father bought a country house on the outskirts of the 
city. Here the boy would sit half the night, gazing out 
thru his window at the sky, the water, and the fantastic 
shadows cast by the great trees. 

At an early age Corot was made apprentice in a cloth- 
shop, where he worked for eight years. Finally, how- 
ever, he gained courage enough to state his ambition to 
his father. He was met with no particular remonstrance 
but was warned that he would receive only enough money 
to keep him from starving. Corot gladly agreed to these 
terms and began his new work immediately. 

After the death of his first master, Michallon, Corot 
entered the Paris studio of Victor Bertin. In 1827, he 
made his first exhibition at the Salon. At the close of 
the Salon exhibition in 1846, at which he exhibited his 
painting entitled, "The Forest of Fontainebleau," he 
received, in his fiftieth year, the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor, the highest honor that can be bestowed upon an 
artist. 

He was unselfish to the utmost degree and was always 
ready with his purse to help the needy. When asked 
concerning his lifetime generosity he said, "It is my tem- 
perament and my pleasure. I can earn money again so 
quickly, just by painting a little branch. Charity always 
brings me in more than it costs me for I can work better 
with a heart at ease." 

It is interesting to know that Corot spent his summers 
at Barbizon and in the Forest of Fontainebleau which he 
dearly loved. This is the place where at the same time, 
Millet, his contemporary in poverty studied the life of 
the toiling peasants and painted his famous pictures. 
On February 23, 1875, Corot passed away murmuring 



of beautiful landscapes and of the happy hours he had 
spent with nature. 

THE LAKE 

To Corot, the most perfect hour of the day was the one 
just before sunrise. Then, using his own words, "At 
three in the morning, one does not see much at first, every- 
thing is scented, everything trembles, with the first 
breeze of dawn. When the sun is clear it has not yet 
torn away the mist, behind which are hidden the hills 
of the horizon. At the first ray of the sun, the little 
flowers seem to awake joyously and the leaves shiver in 
the morning breeze. In the trees the invisible birds are 
chirping. It seems to be the flowers offering up their 
prayers. The sun has risen. Everything is brilliant, 
everything is in full purple light. The flowers hold up 
their heads and the birds fly hither and thither. The 
mist rises and reveals the land plated with silver, and 
nature in masses all fresh and fragrant." 

But in this picture, Corot has not given us the dim 
uncertainty of early dawn. The sun in all its glory is 
high in the brilliant sky. It sends bright little rays 
down thru the trees and casts a silvery sheen over 
the shimmering lake which stretches far off into the 
dim distance. 

The trees, Corot's chief conception of beauty, are full 
of dainty, trembling leaves. The long slender trunks 
reach up their beckoning arms to the sky. 

Two cows are silhouetted against the whiteness of the 
lake. 

The herder, resting on his staff, watches his contented 
charges. This is the artist's idea of peace, of quiet, this 
undisturbed little nook in an isolated spot of the forest. 
We can now understand how Corot's spirit with such 
tender regard for all nature remained true, pure, sweet 
and joyful. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Corot. 

2. What evidence of the artist's power to portray nature is there 
in "The Lake"? 

3. What time of day is pictured? 

4. What details bring out the time of day? 

5. What traits of Corot's character are brought out in his 
paintings? 

6. What in this picture most appeals to you? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE LAST SUPPER 

LEONARDO DA VINCI 



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LEONARDO DA VINCI 

Leonardo was born in 1452 in the castle Vinci, in 
Italy. He was called Leonardo Da Vinci because he 
lived in this castle. 

He was one of the most gifted of children. Altho 
he showed in early life a tendency to paint, he was talented 
in many other things. He was a writer; a musician; an 
inventor; could model in clay; and could design roads, 
bridges, canals and fortresses. 

Leonardo's heart, however, was in his chosen art. He 
loved to sketch and was often seen in the street sketch- 
ing interesting faces. He frequently invited peasants 
to his home. After telling them interesting stories until 
he had them in a happy mood, he would sketch their 
pictures. 

When his father found that his son had such artistic 
ability, he sent him to Florence to study with Verrocchio. 
After the son had been with Verrocchio a number of 
years, the story goes that Verrocchio was in a hurry to 
finish a picture and asked Leonardo to paint in one of the 
angel heads. When Verrocchio found that Leonardo had 
done the best work in the picture he was so angry that he 
burned his brushes and palette and declared he would 
never paint again. 

After a while the Duke of Milan made Leonardo a 
member of his court. Leonardo established an art 
academy in Milan and it was here, by order of the duke, 
that he painted his masterpiece, "The Last Supper," on 
the walls of the refectory of a Dominican convent. 
Leonardo painted in all about two hundred fifty pictures. 



THE LAST SUPPER 

"Now when even was come, he was sitting at meat 
with the twelve disciples; and as they were eating, he 
said, 'Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray 
me.' And they were exceedingly sorrowful, and began to 



say unto him every one, 'Is it I, Lord?' And he answered 
and said, 'He that dipped his hand with me in the dish, 
the same shall betray me.' And Judas, who betrayed him, 
answered and said, 'Is it I, Rabbi?' He saith unto him, 
'Thou hast said.'"— Mat. 26: 20-23, 25. 

On the night of the Passover, Jesus and his disciples 
ate together in a small upper room in Jerusalem. In this 
picture he is breaking the bread of the farewell feast with 
his disciples. Why is this company so sad? Why do 
they all start and seem so excited? He has just said, 
"One of you shall betray me." Can you not fancy, 
from the action of each that they are asking, "Master, 
is it I?" 

There is no doubt as to which one of the number Da 
Vinci intended to represent the traitor. In this picture 
Judas is feigning surprise by gesture and expression and 
fear by the way in which he grasps the bag of money in 
his right hand. 

In this wonderful picture, Christ as the central figure 
reigns supreme. Da Vinci was dissatisfied with the face 
of Christ. He said, "Twice, thrice, and many more 
times have I tried to express the face of my Saviour, but 
at last I realize I shall not see His face this side of eter- 
nity." 

EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Leonardo Da Vinci. 

2. Where and for whom did he paint "The Last Supper"? 

3. What scene does this picture portray? 

4. Why is it not difficult to point out the traitor in this picture? 

5. Who is the central figure in the picture? 

6. What to you are the most charming features of this picture? 

7. Why do you think this picture is regarded as one of the finest 
of the world's paintings? 



Cultivate an interest in pictures. It is a part of educa- 
tion always within your reach. 

— Sir Joshua Reynolds 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




LEAVING THE HILLS 

JOSEPH FARQUHARSON 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



JOSEPH FARQUHARSON 

Joseph Farquharson is the son of Francis Farquhar- 
son and is one of the most industrious of present-day 
English art exhibitors. In 1900, he was made an associate 
of the Royal Academy, a recognition won thru his success 
as a landscape painter, He married Violet Evelyn in 
1914 and has since lived in England. He has had not- 
able exhibits at the Royal Academy, The Royal Institute 
of Painters in Oils, and The Art Gallery, Liverpool. 



LEAVING THE HILLS 

"Leaving the Hills," by Farquharson, is a popular 
study of sheep in a pleasing landscape setting. In fact, 
the landscape settings are beautiful studies in themselves, 
regardless of the fact that Farquharson uses landscape 
in the nature of an accessory. 

This picture represents a shepherd driving a flock of 
sheep. We are first attracted to the sheep, then to the 
wonderful atmospheric effects with the blue hills, fading 
in the distance. The landscape is made up entirely of 
hills and slopes covered with grass and ferns, but there are 
no trees. A wide roadway occupies the main part of the 
foreground. The sheep occupy the middle ground as they 
move directly toward the beholder. The figure of the 
shepherd stands out quite distinctly thru the strange 
mellow light. The entire scene is enveloped in a soft 
haziness that is the main charm of the picture. The 
sheep stand out against the long purplish shadows directly 
in front of them. 

Wonderful economy of attention is secured by the 
grouping and arrangement. There is nothing to attract 
interest from the line group that forms the center of the 
canvas. 

The sheep are painted with care in detail. The artist 
has succeeded in giving one the impression of the brisk, 
onward movement of the flock. Two or three of the 



sheep lower their heads to crop the ferns and grass as they 
move forward. The leader of the flock marches a few 
feet in advance of his companions. 



EXERCISES 

1. What use has the artist here made of landscape? 

2. What time of day do you think is here shown? 

3. Describe fully the background of the picture. 

4. What is unusual about the grouping? 

5. What in this picture holds the center of attention? 

6. What do you think is the most charming thing about this 
picture? 

7. Why are sheep favorite subjects with many painters? 



To study one good master till you understand him will 
teach you more than a superficial acquaintance with a 
thousand; power of criticism does not consist in knowing 
the names or the manner of many painters, but in dis- 
cerning the excellence of a few. 

—John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN 



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ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809. His 
ancestors had lived in Kentucky when, and near the place 
where, Daniel Boone was fighting the Indians. It was 
from these pioneer people that Lincoln came. His life 
was one of hardships. When he was seven years of age 
his mother died. She had not only been his teacher but 
she had impressed upon his mind, that love of truth and 
justice, that perfect integrity and reverence for God for 
which he was noted thruout his life. 

Some one has said of his mother, "She was a woman 
of deep religious feeling, of the most exemplary character, 
and most tenderly and affectionately devoted to her 
family. Her home indicated a love for beauty, excep- 
tional in the wild settlement in which she lived. Hers 
was a strong, self-reliant spirit, which commanded the 
love and respect of the rugged people among whom she 
dwelt." 

Abraham was named for his grandfather, who was killed 
by the Indians while he and his three sons, Josiah, Thomas, 
and Mordecai were clearing some land which was to be 
their home. 

Lincoln had a thirst for learning which was not satisfied 
by going a few weeks to school in the winter after all the 
work had been done. Altogether he went to school less 
than twelve months. He hungered for an education and 
by real effort succeeded in getting a sufficient amount to 
enable him later to conduct the affairs of the nation. He 
read incessantly. He read every book within a radius of 
fifty miles. He very rarely had paper or books to write 
down his favorite passages but wrote them on boards and 
kept them until he got paper. Whenever he heard of a 
book he would walk miles to borrow it. Once he borrowed 
"Weem's Life of Washington" from a Mr. Crawford. 
He always read late into the night, then placed the book 
between the logs of the cabin so it would be near when day- 
light came. This time it rained and wet the book thru 
and thru. Mr. Crawford required Lincoln to pull corn for 



three days to pay for it, but mutilated as. it was it be- 
longed to him and he loved it. He also read Aesop's 
Fables, Pilgrim's Progress, and the lives of Benjamin 
Franklin and Henry Clay. He knew the Bible very well 
and often quoted from it. 

When only a boy Lincoln heard that Breckinridge, a 
noted lawyer, was to make a plea for the defense in a 
murder trial at Booneville. He admired Breckinridge so 
much that he. walked fifteen miles and back every day 
during the trial to hear him, and he decided then to be a 
lawyer. 

Lincoln split rails, worked in a grocery store and on a 
flat boat, grubbed trees, in fact, did every kind of manual 
labor. 

This picture shows Lincoln as he grew to be, the great 
president, emancipator of the slaves, and big-hearted, 
far-sighted leader and statesman. 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Lincoln born? 

2. How old was he when his mother died? 

3. How did his mother influence his life? 

4. How did Lincoln get his education? 

5. How long did he attend school? 

6. What books especially did he read? 

7. From a study of this picture what kind of man do you think 
Lincoln was? 



None more admires, the painters magic skill 
Who shows me that which I shall never see. 

— Cowper 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



5193 






. 



LITTLE CHILDREN OF THE SEA 

JOSEPH ISRAELS 



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JOSEPH ISRAELS 

Joseph Israels (1824-1911) was born in Groningen in 
northern Holland. He was a Hebrew of the "tribe of 
Benjamin," a devout Jew, trained in the Talmud as a 
Rabbi. He was master of the literature of the law and of 
the prophets. His first attempt at oil painting was when 
he was fourteen years of age. It represented a Calabrian 
Brigand and was copied from a picture of Jan Kruseman 
with whom he afterwards studied. His father was very 
anxious for Joseph to enter the commercial world and 
secured him a position as clerk but he soon saw that his 
son was artistically inclined and sent him to Amsterdam. 
Here, the son studied for two years. When he was nine- 
teen years of age he went to Paris. Later he returned 
to Amsterdam and painted historical pictures which were 
not really satisfactory. He had not found his real call- 
ing. He was so disappointed that he fell ill and while 
he was recovering he went out near Haarlem. There 
in the little primitive village of Zandvoort he found him- 
self. He loved to paint scenes of the wonderful endurance 
of the fishermen around this place. After this he de- 
voted himself to the painting of Dutch peasants and their 
children and became to Holland much what Millet was 
to France. 

Israels had the power to paint the heart of a little 
child completely. He painted into his pictures the real- 
istic idea of toil, hunger, old age, labor, desire, strength, 
dignity of labor, and youth. In fact, he painted humanity 
as it appealed to him and we, too, feel his every emotion 
as we look at his pictures. His pictures are a part of his 
own personality, his character. 

Friends who watched Israels paint said he seemed to 
ever be uttering the one prayer, "Open thou my eyes 
and I will behold wondrous things out of the law." He 
has left many paintings that show his loyalty to the 
law, to love itself. Some of his pictures are: Returning 
Home; The Shipwrecked Mariner; A Son of the People. 
He died in 1911. 



LITTLE CHILDREN OF THE SEA 

Any one who knows Joseph Israels might know he 
painted this picture. It is full of child-life and child- 
inclination. One can almost see and feel the waters 
glitter and ripple and splash. One can almost hear the 
shouts of laughter and joy that burst forth as either 
of them finds another pretty pebble or as their little boat 
seems about to tip over. 

What a fine experience these children are having! 
We think it is a hot summer day and the mother has 
given them permission to go out in the water and wade 
and play, if they are very careful of the baby. Notice 
how the baby clings closely for fear it may fall. The one 
caring for and protecting the baby watches the other 
children with most intense interest. 

This scene is probably laid in Holland for that was 
where Israels did his best work. 

EXERCISES 

1. Tell the story of the life of Israels. 

2. With whom did he study in Amsterdam? 

3. What pictures did he paint best? Why do you think he 
painted these best? 

4. Have you ever had the experience of wading in water like this? 

5. Where is this scene probably laid? 

6. Describe the picture. 

7. What tells you whether or not these children are happy? 

8. What do you like best about the picture? 



By viewing nature, nature's handmaid, art, 

Makes mighty things from small beginnings grow 

This fishes first to shipping did impart 

Their tails the rudder, and their heads the prow. 

— Dryden 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




LITTLE FISHERS 

BERNARDUS JOHANNES BLOMMERS 



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BERNARDUS JOHANNES BLOMMERS 

Bernardus Johannes Blommers was born in Scheven- 
ingen, which is situated among the sand dunes bordering 
the North Sea. During the lad's boyhood it was the 
typical little Dutch fishing village, inhabited by the 
humble fishermen and their families — a little spot away 
from the rest of the world. Recently, however, it has 
been changed into a health and pleasure resort. 

His father was a lithographer and wished his son to 
follow his trade. But this work did not appeal to the 
boy whose fingers were tingling for a brush. Just at 
this time, one of the noted artists of his period, Maris, 
made it possible for the lad's wish to be fulfilled. He 
was sent to the Academy at The Hague, and when his 
studies here were completed, he took up his abode in 
his old home. In this homely little fishing hamlet, 
Blommers found beauty and charm in the people, pictur- 
esqueness in the lowly cottages, and that which approaches 
grandeur in the tossing waves. 

After the successful introduction of his pictures into 
America, Blommer's success seemed assured. He won 
medals at The Hague, Amsterdam, Munich, Brussels 
and Paris, and diplomas at Antwerp, Amsterdam, Chicago 
and Brussels. On one occasion, his fellow-artists in 
Holland gave a festival in his honor, covering several 
days. They presented him with a portfolio containing 
one painting from each of those present. Blommers is 
still living and working at his chosen profession. 

LITTLE FISHERS 

The sea here pictured is far, wide, uninterrupted, 
majestic and calm. It is the spacious home of the 
"Little Fishers" who have lived by it all their lives and 
to whom it is as playfellow and friend. To them it 
speaks a comforting language when they are near, and 
it keeps calling and calling to them when they are far 
away. For some it may hold a sorrow and yet they love 
its waters that come lapping over their feet. 



These little figures we see here are representatives of 
the humble peasants of Scheveningen. How happy they 
seem as they pull a miniature fishing tug out into the 
foaming waters. They laugh in roguish glee as the waves 
splash up on their legs and clothing. All their young 
lives they have been accustomed to seeing fathers and 
brothers go out to sea — some of them perhaps, never to 
return. Soon the time will come when they, too, must 
set out in a real boat to battle with real waves as fishers 
of the sea. 

"Hence in a season of calm weather, 

Though inland far we be, 

Our souls have sight of that immortal sea 

Which brought us hither; 

Can in a moment travel thither 

And see the children sport upon the shore 

And hear the mighty waters rolling evermore." 

— William Wordsworth 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch the life of Blommers. 

2. How did Blommers come to begin his study? 

3. Why did he go back to his native home? 

4. What, especially, did he like to paint? 

5. To what is his success said to be due? 

6. Where is the scene of "Little Fishers" laid? 

7. What are these children doing? 

8. What tells you whether or not they are happy; 

9. Describe the picture. 

10. What does this picture tell you? 



There is no limit to the good which is effected by plac- 
ing good pictures before ourselves. — Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW 



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HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW 

Longfellow was born at Portland, Maine, February 
27, 1807. His boyhood days were spent at his birth- 
place. At the age of fifteen he entered Bowdoin College 
at Brunswick, twenty -five miles from Portland. He 
graduated with honors in 1825, at the age of 18. He 
then entered the law office of his father, but he soon 
left the profession to accept an offer as professor of 
foreign languages, in Bowdoin College. To fit himself 
for this work, he traveled three years and a half in Eng- 
land, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Holland. Upon 
his return he remained in Bowdoin College for six years. 
In 1831 he married Miss Mary Story Potter, who died 
four years later while with her husband on his second 
voyage to Europe. Upon his return from the second 
voyage, he took up his residence at Cambridge, the home 
of Harvard University, where he filled the chair of modern 
languages. 

In 1843, Longfellow married Miss Frances Elizabeth 
Appleton, and they made their home in the old Craigie 
house, a relic of Revolutionary days and a former resi- 
dence of George Washington. This continued to be the 
poet's residence the greater part of the remainder of his 
life. It was in 1847 that he published his poem "Evange- 
line, A Tale of Acadie" which is considered his greatest 
work. In 1854 he resigned his professorship at Harvard. 
Shortly afterward appeared the poem "Hiawatha." 
Four years later he published "The Courtship of Miles 
Standish." In 1863, he published "Tales of a Wayside 
Inn" and in 1865 "Household Poems" which contain 
some of his most charming verses, among them" The 
Children's Hour." He continued to write almost till 
the last — publishing poems in magazines from time to 
time. In January, 1882, he wrote his last poem, his death 
occurring March 24th of the same year. 

A friend paid this tribute to the poet: "A man in 
intellect and courage, yet without conceit or bravado; 
a woman in sensibility and tenderness, yet without 



shrinking or weakness; a saint in purity of life and 
devotion of heart, yet without asceticism or religiosity; 
a knight-errant in hatred of wrong and contempt of 
baseness, yet without selfrighteousness; a prince in dignity 
and courtesy, yet without formality or condescension; 
a poet in thought and feeling, yet without jealousy or 
affectation; a scholar in tastes and habits, yet without 
aloofness or bookishness; a dutiful son, a loving husband, 
a judicious father, a trusty friend, a useful citizen and 
an enthusiastic patroit — he united in his strong, trans- 
parent humanity almost every virtue under heaven. 
A thoroly healthy, well balanced, harmonious nature, 
accepting life as it came, with all its joys and sorrows 
and living it beautifully and hopefully, without canker 
and without uncharity. No man ever lived more com- 
pletely in the light than did Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow." 



EXERCISES 

1. Give a sketch of Longfellow's life. 

2. Name three of his works. 

3. What traits of character do you find revealed in the portrait 
of Longfellow? 

4. How are these traits brought out in his poems? 

5. What are the chief characteristics of his works? 

6. Why is Longfellow such a favorite with children? 

7. What do you think was the best thing he wrote? 



Cultivate an interest in pictures. It is a part of educa- 
tion always within your reach. 

— Sir Joshua Reynolds 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 



THE LOST SHEEP 

ALFRED U. SOORD 



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THE LOST SHEEP 

Jesus in a parable (Luke 15:4) asked, "What man of 
you, having a hundred sheep, and having lost one of them, 
doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and 
go after that which is lost, until he find it?" 

Musicians and painters have been inspired by the 
parable. Ira D. Sankey, sweet singer for the evangelist, 
Moody, wrote: 

There were ninety and nine that safely lay 

In the shelter of the fold; 

But one was out on the hills away, 

Far off from the gates of gold. 

"The Lost Sheep" by Soord, is likewise based upon 
the familiar parable. 

Two objects in this picture attract immediate attention, 
the lost sheep and the Good Shepherd. The dreadful 
peril of the lost sheep causes us to shudder. The sheep 
has lost its way, has slipped down the steep side of the 
ravine, and has lodged upon the jutting rocks. The 
great depth to which the sheep might yet fall is indicated 
by the purplish haze of the glen, while an even more 
dreadful fate awaits the helpless creature as seen by the 
soaring mountain eagles eager to pounce upon their prey. 

The fate of the lost sheep is soon lost sight of in the 
realization that its rescue is at hand thru the Good 
Shepherd. No path has been found too steep, no pass too 
difficult and no danger too great for the Rescuer. The 
Shepherd carries the shepherd's crook, the symbol of 
guidance for ignorant and erring ones, and he wears the 
shepherd's outer coat of thick serviceable cloth. A halo 
of golden light shines about his head. Thorn and bramble 
cling to his garments. Nail-prints may be seen in his 
hands, and a crown of thorns on his head. 

That the rescue is timely is shown by the sunset and 
the gathering clouds. The sheep looks up in its help- 
lessness and suffering and seems to bleat in thankful- 
ness to the Good Shepherd. The picture is one never to 



be forgotten because of its powerful central thought por- 
trayed with such telling simplicity. 



EXERCISES 

1. What is the source of the artist's inspiration? 

2. What are the two objects in this picture that first attract 
attention? 

3. How is the danger to the helpless sheep shown? 

4. Why is it particularly fitting that this is an evening and not 
a morning scene? 

5. What is here shown concerning the Good Shepherd? 

6. What things make this picture rise above the ordinary work 
of art? 

7. What do you like best about this picture? 



We're made so that we love 

First when we see them painted, things we have passed 

Perhaps a hundred times, nor cared to see; 

And so they are better, painted — better to us, 

Which is the same thing. 

— Robert Browning 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL 



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JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL 

James Russell Lowell was a poet, essayist and diplo- 
matist. He was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
February 22, 1819. His early education was obtained 
at home under the instruction of his mother who read to 
him poems, romances and ballads. He also wandered 
thru field and forest, becoming intimate with nature. 
He entered Harvard at the age of sixteen, graduating 
three years later. His chief honor in school was that 
of being asked to write the class graduation poem. 

Upon leaving college, Lowell was at a loss as to what 
profession to follow. He considered business, medicine, 
the ministry and law, but finally decided to follow the 
last named vocation, altho caring little for it except as 
a means of livelihood. 

In 1840 he became engaged to Miss Maria White, 
whose poetic nature and enthusiasm inspired him to 
write more than ever before. In 1841 he published a 
volume of poems called "A Year's Life," and tho still 
maintaining his law office, he devoted most of his energies 
to establishing a magazine called "The Pioneer." But its 
life was very short, for at the end of the third issue it 
proved a failure. 

Upon his marriage in 1845, Lowell and his wife spent 
the winter and spring in Philadelphia, where Lowell was 
engaged as editorial writer on "The Pennsylvania Free- 
man," a journal devoted to the cause of anti-slavery. 
In spite of many sorrows and home troubles, Lowell 
continued to write fervently in connection with anti- 
slavery publications. He also, at this time, gave to the 
world some of his best works, "Columbus," "The Vision 
of Sir Launfal," "Bigelow Papers." The last named 
brought more fame to Lowell than did any preceding work, 
for it was a satirical discussion of the political situation 
of that day. 

In 1850, closely following the death of Lowell's mother 
and on account of his wife's illness, the family went to 
Italy, but returned in November, 1852. Upon his return 



Lowell published some sketches concerning his journey, 
called "Fireside Travels." His wife died in 1853. 

Two years later, Lowell was induced to deliver some 
lectures on English poets, before the Lowell Institute 
in Boston. This gave him a new standing in the eyes of 
the community, and for this reason he was elected to 
the professorship of Modern Languages at Bowdoin, upon 
the retirement of Longfellow. He spent one year abroad, 
studying the German, Spanish, Italian and French 
languages. In the summer of 1856 he entered upon his 
duties, maintaining his position for twenty years. In that 
same year he married Miss Frances Dunlap, who had 
been caring for his one child, Mabel. 

In the autumn of 1857 Lowell was appointed by 
President Hayes to be minister to Spain. Three years 
later he became American minister to England and 
remained there for five years. At the end of that time 
he retired, spending the remaining three years of his 
life in arranging his poems and essays which were pub- 
lished in ten volumes in 1890. He died at Elmwood on 
August 12, 1891, after several months of illness. 

Lowell was loved and admired for his brilliant humor, 
his quick but accurate judgment, his literary refinement, 
and his criticism of all that was evil and unjust. 

EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Lowell born? 

2. Tell about his early education. 

3. How old was he when he entered Harvard University? 

4. What honor was bestowed upon him at graduation? 

5. What professions did he consider and what profession did he 
finally decide upon? 

6. Tell of the various publications he was connected with. Name 
some of his best productions. 

7. Tell of his trips abroad. What appointment was given him by 
President Hayes? 

8. After studying the life and portrait of Lowell, give your im- 
pression of him. Which of his poems do you like best? Why? 



The appreciation of Art is a rich source of happiness. 
— Pres. Chas. W. Eliot 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MADAM LEBRUN AND DAUGHTER 

MADAME LEBRUN 



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MADAM LEBRUN AND DAUGHTER 

This picture was painted by Madam LeBrun and is 
a picture of herself and her daughter. 

Madam LeBrun's life is as interesting as her face is 
charming. Her parents were poor but happy and their 
home life was very beautiful. Her mother was a beautiful 
woman and a good Christian. Elise, as they called her 
at home, was in a convent from the time she was six 
until she was eleven when she was brought home on account 
of poor health. Her father died when she was thirteen. 
After his death nothing seemed to comfort her but her 
painting. 

Her mother made a very unfortunate second marriage 
with a man who was not ambitious and yet who desired 
to appear well-to-do. He compelled Elise to give him 
all her earnings. Later, at the age of twenty, Elise 
married an artist, LeBrun, whom she did not love. Le- 
Brun was a gambler. Again she was forced to give up 
all her earnings. She even gave lessons to increase the 
revenue with which her husband speculated. Her little 
daughter was her one joy and consolation. This picture 
hangs in the Louvre, Paris. 

Madam LeBrun painted portraits for distinguished 
people. She was made a member of Academies in ten 
different countries. She was still painting at the age of 
eighty. When she died she left six hundred sixty two 
portraits, two hundred landscapes and fifteen historical 
pictures. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell all you can about the life of Madam LeBrun. 

2. What does the attitude of this mother and child suggest to 
you? 

3. What does this picture tell of the mother? Of the child? 

4. Why do you think this picture is regarded as a great work 
of art? 

5. What do you like best about the picture? 



If it is by the love of that which your work represents, 
if, being a landscape painter, it is love of trees and hills 
that moves you, if being a figure painter, it is the love of 
human beauty and human soul that moves you, if being 
a flower or animal painter, it is love and wonder and 
delight in petal and in limb that move you, then the 
Spirit is upon you, and the earth is yours, and the fullness 
thereof. — Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 



Assistant State Supe 



Lincoln, Nebraska 




MADONNA 

CUNO VON BODENHAUSEN 



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CUNO VON BODENHAUSEN 

Bodenhausen is a modern German artist. His brush 
has been freely employed in setting forth scriptural and 
allegorical scenes, many of which have become familiar 
by means of popular reproductions. Born in Germany, 
in 1852, and thoroly trained in the history of art, his 
mind turned naturally to the old masters. Tho one of 
the younger German artists, he has achieved real fame 
in his field of work. 

MOTHER AND CHILD 

By far the best known of this artist's works is this 
picture of "Mother and Child," or the Bodenhausen 
Madonna. It is one of the most successful efforts of 
modern artists. 

We see a young mother and her little child, both 
expressing purity and love. See how tenderly the 
Madonna, with love written on every line of her sweet 
young face, clasps her baby to her bosom, and with what 
confidence he leans against her, sure of protection in her 
arms. The motherly instinct of the Madonna and the 
trust of the child are marked very plainly in this picture. 

Madonna is an Italian word meaning My Lady, which 
was used in olden times in addressing all women, but the 
word Signora has been substituted, and is now used 
instead of Madonna, which has gradually come to be 
used in speaking of the Virgin Mary. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Bodenhausen. 

2. What does the word Madonna mean? 

3. What do you see in the mother's face? In the child's face? 

4. Describe the mother as she appears here. 

5. What do you notice about the child? 

6. What do you like best about the picture? 

7. Why do you think it is such a favorite? 



From the mingled strength of shade and light 

A new creation rises to my sight. 

Such heav'nly figures from his pencil flow 

So warm with light his blended colors glow 
The glowing portraits, fresh from life, they bring 
Home to our hearts the truth from which they spring. 

— Byron 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MADONNA AND CHILD 

ANTONIO ALLEGRI DA CORREGGIO 



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ANTONIO ALLEGRI DA CORREGGIO 

Antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, about 
the year 1494. According to the custom of the times 
he is commonly called Correggio after the town of his 
birth. His father was a spice merchant, well able to give 
his son a good education. Correggio's first taste of real 
art came when he went to dwell in the artistic courts of 
Lord Correggio of his native city. Later he spent much 
time in the studio of an uncle where he studied the 
anatomy of the human body, as well. This study helped 
him greatly when he began to paint physical forms. 

Correggio's first picture of any importance is the 
"Madonna of St. Francis, " completed when he was twenty 
years old. His real work began at that time. He re- 
ceived a commission to decorate a chamber of the St. 
Paolo Convent at Parma. In 1520 he began another 
important work, that of painting the dome of St. John's 
Church at Parma. His success was now assured and six 
years later he was selected to decorate the dome of the 
Cathedral at Parma. Only when he began his oil paint- 
ings, however, did he really come into his own. His 
most notable pictures are: Madonna of St. Sebastian; 
Madonna of the Cup; Holy Night; and Marriage 
of St. Catherine. But Correggio did not spend all his 
hours painting sacred subjects. He illustrated a great 
many allegorical and mythical scenes. 

Correggio died in 1534 just as he was about to begin 
work on another fresco. 



MADONNA AND CHILD 

"There were in the same country shepherds abiding 
in the fields, keeping watch over their flocks by night. 
And lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them and the 
glory of the Lord shown around them, and they were sore 
afraid. And the angel said unto them, 'Unto you is born 
this day in the City of David a Saviour which is Christ 
the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you. , You shall 



find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a 
manger.' And suddenly there was with the angel a 
multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying, 
'Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace and good 
will toward men'." Luke 2: 8-14. 

Anxiously the shepherds debated about the vision 
which they saw and the heaven-born songs they heard. 
Then fearfully but joyfully, they left their flocks and 
hurried across the hills to the place where the Christ 
Child lay. Ushered in by the angel choir, they entered 
silently and worshipfully into the presence of the King. 

In that humblest of cradles, a lowly manger in a de- 
serted stable, lies the little Child with the arms of his 
fond mother about him. The mother and Child seem 
fairly illumined by a brilliant, glowing, white light which 
surrounds them with such a glory that it is with difficulty 
that the shepherds can look upon the scene. One shep- 
herdess finds it necessary to shade her eyes from the 
glorious light. A second is entranced as she gazes up- 
ward at the angel host. The old shepherd leans on his 
crook as he looks with awe and adoration at the wonder- 
ful beauty of the scene. 

This picture was completed in 1530 and still hangs in 
the Dresden Art Gallery. It is said that when the 
darkness of night begins to fall all other pictures of the 
Gallery become an indistinct blur, but "Holy Night" 
remains distinctly illumined by the radiant light which 
hovers over mother and Child. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell in your own words the characteristics of Correggio as a 
man. 

2. What is the artist's real name? How did he receive the name 
by which he is known to us? 

3. Tell briefly the principal events of his life. 

4. Tell the story of the first Christmas night. 

5. What attracts us to the central figures in the picture? 

6. When was this picture completed? 

7. Where is it now? 

8. What do you like most about this picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




MADONNA AND CHILD 

ROBERT FERRUZZI 



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ROBERT FERRUZZI 

Robert Ferruzzi was born in 1854, in Siberico, a province 
of Austria. He spent much time in the study of the old 
masters of Italy with the hope that he might gain in- 
spiration from their great skill and devotion. His great 
art consists in his wonderful ability to depict soul in the 
face of a typical "child of the streets." 



MADONNA AND CHILD 

This "Madonna and Child" which is a favorite Ma- 
donna picture, especially with men and boys, is very 
unusual in that there is no visible suggestion of the "mother 
divine." The old masters represented the Virgin and the 
Young Christ with some visible outward token of the 
divinity such as the halo, the sceptre, the crown, or 
lilies. 

This picture has been erroneously named "The Ragged 
Madonna," from the supposition that the scarf over the 
mother's head is torn, while in reality the "torn spots" 
are but inwoven figures in the drapery. 

The sweet young face of the mother first attracts 
attention. It is a face of great beauty, and is endowed 
with additional charm thru its trustfulness and confidence. 
There is also a suggestion of motherly pride. Ferruzzi's 
portrayal of an innocent, trusting child has never been 
surpassed. 

The mother stands against the plastered wall of some 
dwelling. The great simplicity of the background leaves 
the figure of mother and child to stand out in bold relief. 
The consistency of the picture is further enhanced by 
the simple dress of the mother and child, thus carrying 
out the idea of the "Madonna of the Street." 



EXERCISES 

1. Who was Ferruzzi? 

2. What constitutes the greatness of his art? 

3. By whom is this picture best liked? 

4. What is the mistake in calling this "The Ragged Madonna"? 

5. What is most pleasing about the Madonna? 

6. What is shown of the child? 

7. What shows that the artist has been consistent in his portrayal 
of the "Madonna of the Street"? 



To feel beauty is a better thing than to understand 
how we come to feel it. To have imagination and taste, 
to love the best, to be carried by the contemplation of 
nature to a vivid faith in the ideal, all this is more, a 
great deal more, than any science can hope to be. The 
poets and philosophers who express this aesthetic experi- 
ence and stimulate the same function in us by their 
example do a greater service to mankind and deserve 
higher honor that the discoverers of historical truth. 

— George Santayana 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MADONNA DI SAN SISTO 

RAPHAEL SANZIO 



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RAPHAEL SANZIO 

Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) was born in Urbino, Italy, 
a little city in the Apennine Mountains. His father, 
Giovanni Sanzio, was a reputable painter and writer. 
Little is known of Raphael's childhood. His mother died 
when he was eight years old. His father died three years 
later, leaving the young Raphael in charge of a stepmother 
and an uncle, who utterly neglected him. Finally, an 
uncle on the mother's side placed him under Pietro 
Perugino of Perugia with whom he studied diligently for 
nine years. 

In 1504, when he was twenty-one years old, Raphael 
returned to Urbino where he worked for a time, then went 
to Florence, to study the art of Da Vinci and Michael 
Angelo. He remained in Florence four years, producing 
some of his finest works. In 1508, he was summoned to 
Rome by Pope Julius II, to help decorate the Palace of 
the Vatican. While this work was in progress, he was 
appointed by the Pope to decorate the interior of St. 
Peter's, and invested with the power to purchase any 
ancient statuary which he thought the city should possess. 

A year before his death he painted the "Sistine Ma- 
donna," the most famous of his paintings. While work- 
ing on "The Transfiguration" a year later he suddenly 
became ill and died from the strain caused by overwork. 
Altho he had lived but thirty-seven years, he lived an 
exemplary life and preserved in his art the world's most 
beautiful ideals of Christianity. 



SISTINE MADONNA 

Raphael has surpassed all efforts of either poet or 
painter in the "Sistine Madonna." The mother, clothed 
in a glorious blue, symbolic of heavenly love, truth, and 
purity seems to come forward, floating on clouds, holding 
the child in her arms. In her face and form and move- 
ment we recognize the purity, the charm and the dignity 
which we feel the Mother of Christ should possess. 



She wears a robe and a mantle of white. The robe is 
purple in color in the folds and becomes rose in the light. 
It is trimmed with gold embroidery on the sleeve, girdled 
below the breast and reveals the neck and top of the 
shoulders. The mantle falls in artistic folds over the 
lower part of the body, outlining the form and movement 
of the lower limbs and disclosing the bare feet which seem 
to complete the grace and charm of the beautiful Ma- 
donna. 

On the right of the Madonna is St. Sixtus. He is 
gazing upward into the face of the child as he offers a 
fervent prayer while his every movement, respectful and 
dignified, is an act of love and confidence. He is point- 
ing to the observer as if to include all as worshipers of 
the Holy Child. St. Barbara, on the left of the Ma- 
donna, young and beautiful, is looking down as if to 
connect heaven and earth. Her attitude is one of trust 
and humility while her face and figure represent beauty 
and grace. The two little angel faces in the foreground 
were probably the faces of two children who often came 
to watch Raphael paint. 

The Christ Child is really the central figure. In this 
picture, Raphael has given us a different expression on the 
face of the child from all others. His eyes seem to be 
looking far into the future. The eyes of the mother are 
also serious. No doubt, she, too, was permitted to 
look into the future. 

This is the last of Raphael's Madonnas. It was painted 
in a moment of inspired genius, the reward of a life well 
spent in the search of truth, for the ideal, for perfection 
in art, especially, the Madonna in art. This picture 
hangs in Dresden gallery in a room of its own where it 
has been admired by thousands and where visitors never 
speak above a whisper. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of the artist. 

2. Describe the mother as she appears to you. 

3. Who are the other figures in the picture? 

4. Who are the angel faces? 

5. What is really the central figure in the picture? 

6. Where is'this picture today? 

7. How does it affect the people who stand before it? Why? 

8. What thought is brought out in the picture? 

9. What do you like best about the picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MADONNA DELLA SEDIA 

RAPHAEL SANZIO 



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RAPHAEL SANZIO 

Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) was born in Urbino, Italy, 
a little city in the Apennine Mountains. His father, 
Giovanni Sanzio, was a reputable painter and writer. 
Little is known of Raphael's childhood. His mother 
died when he was eight years old. His father died three 
years later, leaving the young Raphael in charge of a 
stepmother and an uncle, who utterly neglected him. 
Finally, an uncle on the mother's side placed him under 
Pietro Perugino of Perugia with whom he studied dili- 
gently for nine years. 

In 1504, when he was twenty one-years old, Raphael 
returned to Urbino where he worked for a time, then 
went to Florence, to study the art of Da Vinci and Michael 
Angelo. He remained in Florence four years, producing 
some of his finest works. In 1508, he was summoned to 
Rome by Pope Julius II, to help decorate the Palace of 
the Vatican. While this work was in progress, he was 
appointed by the Pope to decorate the interior of St. 
Peter's, and invested with the power to purchase any 
ancient statuary which he thought the city should possess. 

A year before his death he painted "The Sistine Ma- 
donna, " the most famous of his paintings. While working 
on "The Transfiguration" a year later, he suddenly be- 
came ill and died from the strain caused by overwork. 
Altho he had lived but thirty-seven years, he lived an 
exemplary life and preserved in his art the world's most 
beautiful ideals of Christianity. 



THE MADONNA OF THE CHAIR 

The word Madonna is an Italian name meaning "My 
Lady." The word has gradually come to be applied to 
the Virgin Mary. 

In this picture, the Virgin is seated in a chair and holds 
her child in her arms. Her head is laid tenderly against 
the child's and she looks out of the picture with a tranquil, 



happy sense of mother love. The child has the round, 
chubby limbs of the normal, healthy infant, but he has 
a sublime expression on his face, which Raphael and other 
artists have sought to show in the child Jesus, to make the 
difference between him and ordinary children. 

The third figure of the picture is St. John, the Baptist. 
In his face is an expression of dumb worship as he clasps 
his hands and gazes ardently up at the child. He carries 
a little reed cross which is always seen in the pictures of 
St. John. 

Around each of the heads is seen a very faint circle, 
called a nimbus or halo. This is the way in which the 
old painters distinguished the sacred persons. It is a 
sign that such figures are the embodiment of something 
beyond the artist's power to portray. 

The artist has succeeded in making the picture pleasing 
to the eye, by having made it perfectly round. If one 
studies it attentively, he will see that all lines are curved 
and flowing within the circle. Thus there are no sharp, 
harsh lines, and everything tends to make a harmonious 
whole. 

There is a pretty story connected with this picture 
which says that Raphael was out walking at the quiet 
end of day, and came upon a little family group like the 
one portrayed in "The Madonna of the Chair." It was 
so beautiful, and appealed to Raphael's artistic sense so 
strongly, that he rapidly sketched it on the head of a 
cask. Thus the circular form of the picture is accounted 
for. 

Among many other pictures painted by Raphael are: 
The Holy Family; The Liberation of Peter; St. Cecilia; 
The Transfiguration; The Sistine Madonna. 



EXERCISES 

1. Who painted this picture? When and where was he born? 

2. Under whom did he first study? 

3. Where did he first make his home? Where did he go later? 

4. What are the universal characteristics of Raphael's paintings? 

5. To what have these pictures been compared? Why? 

6. What besides painting pictures did Raphael do? 

7. What is the meaning of the word Madonna? 

8. Who are the figures in this picture? 

9. What distinguishes the child Jesus from the other child? 
10. Tell the story that is told about the painting of this picture. 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE MONARCH OF THE GLEN 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



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SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was born in the outskirts 
of London, on March 7, 1802. His father, an artist, 
took a deep interest in his son's artistic tendencies, which 
began to show at a very early age. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at the 
age of fourteen. At a very early age he had begun to 
show a preference for the dog above all other animals, 
so at the academy he was known as "the little dog-boy." 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of 
Landseer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became 
the Court Artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood on the artist, and from that time on 
he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate of the Academy in 1825. In 
1831, he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he 
was offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused 
on account of his failing health. He died October 1, 1873. 

THE MONARCH OF THE GLEN 

This picture is one of Landseer's finest and most 
popular works because it is so simple and so majestic. 
As is usual in this artist's paintings, there is one central 
figure. In this case, it is the noble Monarch of the Glen. 
And that is indeed what he appears to be. The fearless 



lift of the head, the straight gaze from the great eyes, 
the very pose of the body, all make one feel that he has 
rightfully earned the title. Possibly this animal, as he 
stands here in tense expectancy, has no reason to believe 
that his kingdom is not really his own and that he may 
not always be wild and free and powerful. 

There is only a mere suggestion of mountain scenery, 
which, in proportion to the size of the stag, gives the 
picture great distance and space. 

The name of this picture was not given to it by Land- 
seer. But below his painting he placed these lines taken 
from the "Legends of Glenarchay." 

"When first the daystar's clear, cool light, 

Chasing night's shadows gray, 

With silver touched each rocky height 

That girdled wild Glen-Strae 

Uprose the Monarch of the Glen, 

Majestic from his lair, 

Surveyed the scene with piercing ken, 

And snuffed the fragrant air." 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Landseer. 

2. What is meant by the word "Monarch"? 

3. Why is it a good name for this picture? 

4. Upon what occasion and where do you think this picture was 
painted? 

5. Compare the foreground with the background. 

6. What kind of flowers do you think these are? 
7i What do you like best about this picture? 



Such is the strength of art, rough things to shape 
And of rude commons rich enclosures make. 

— James Howell 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MORNING 

JULES DUPRE 



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JULES DUPRE 

Jules Dupre was born in Nantes, France, in 1812. He 
is one of the famous little group who at one time or another 
made their home at Barbizon on the edge of the Forest 
of Fontainebleau. 

Dupre's first art lessons were received in his father's 
porcelain works where he started his career by painting 
scenes on clock faces. Later he was sent to work in his 
uncle's porcelain shop in the same town, Sevres, a small 
village ten miles from Paris. The boy stayed here only 
a short time, however. The next we know of him, he is 
in Paris, where he met an old friend of the porcelain 
factory, Nicholas-Louis Cabat, afterwards a somewhat 
famous landscape painter. 

In Paris, Dupre had a singularly hard struggle against 
poverty. He lived in a garret and sold his pictures for 
only a fraction of their worth. Just as matters were at 
their worst, help came in the form of a strange gentleman, 
who had admired and purchased one of Dupre's pictures, 
which was displayed in a secondhand shop. The noble- 
man, for such he was, called on Dupre and asked to see 
more of his pictures. So astonished was Dupre at this 
sudden interest in his artistic attempts, that he hurriedly 
offered any of his pictures at twenty francs each. The 
nobleman purchased the entire lot, and even obtained 
new purchasers for Dupre's pictures. 

At the age of nineteen, Dupre made his first exhibit 
at the Salon. His pictures, meeting with the approval 
of the critics, brought him several medals. At the age 
of twenty-two, he met and became fast friends with 
Rousseau. So attached did these artists become that 
they eventually decided to live together. 

Dupre was awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor 
at the Salon of 1849. Rousseau was given a medal of the 
first class at the same time, and this fact was the cause 
of the disruption of their friendship, Rousseau being 
extremely jealous of his friend's success. 

When the war between France and Germany broke out, 



Dupre departed to the coast of Normandy where he spent 
some time in painting marine scenes. Leaving Nor- 
mandy, he went to the Oise, a river in Northern France, 
where he painted river scenery. From there he departed 
for Barbizon where he spent the remainder of his days, 
dying October 7, 1889. 

Dupre's most noted paintings are: Morning; Cattle 
in a Pool; The Oak; Landscape; The Old Oak; Return 
of the Flock; Return from the Field. 



MORNING 

A misty, gray sky, a gleam of quiet, blue water, the 
thick, green foliage of trees and grass, and two deer 
taking an early drink, make up the charming picture 
which the artist has called "Morning." He has chosen 
to make his picture in soft, dull greens, blues, and 
browns, with a blending of delicate gray in the sky and 
the distant mountain. The same touch of gray appears 
again in the bare rocks which out-crop from the thick 
grass in the foreground. Here and there we see a touch 
of bright, vivid brown which leads us to believe that the 
artist is portraying early autumn and indicates it by a few 
leaves which have been touched by the first frost. 

Notice that, while one deer is drinking,the other is hold- 
ing his head up. It is thought to be a habit among most 
wild animals not all to drink at the same time. One, at 
least, is usually the guard, ready to give the signal in case 
of danger. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the early life of Dupre. 

2. How was his poverty eventually relieved? 

3. With whom did he become good friends at an early age? Tell 
of their friendship. Of their final separation. 

4. What is there about this picture that makes you think it may 
rightfully be called "Morning"? 

5. Name the different things you see in the picture. 

6. What in the picture tells you the time of year? 

7. What tells you of the kind of spot here pictured? 

8. What do you like best about this picture? 



PICTiURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE MOUNTAIN PASTURE 

BAHIEU 



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J. G. BAHIEU 

J. G. Bahieu was a noted French landscape painter who 
lived in the nineteenth century. He was a prominent 
exhibitor of his art works at the Paris Salons. His art 
works show an originality, and an independence not 
usually shown in even the later landscape painters. 



THE MOUNTAIN PASTURE 

"The Mountain Pasture," by Bahieu, is a pleasing 
picture of a shepherdess tending her flock among the 
rocks upon a mountain slope. Such scenes picturing 
quiet work have always been popular. Sheep as the 
object of the shepherd's care have furnished much in- 
spiration to painters. 

The entire suggestion of the scene is that of early spring, 
as indicated by the lightness of the foliage, the patches 
of green grass, and the softness of the' sky enveloped in 
haziness. The spot is sheltered from the chilling breeze 
and warmed by the mild sunshine. 

The sheep that form the central feature of the picture 
claim most attention. The shepherdess leans against 
the trunk of a tree. The attention of the sheep is attract- 
ed to something at the right of the picture. The artist 
has shown much care in detail. Notice particularly how 
he has painted the coats of wool. 

This picture is enjoyed because it carries with it a 
suggestion of patient care, guidance and protection. The 
animals stay near the shepherdess because they have 
learned to look to her for protection. 



EXERCISES 

1. To what in the picture is your attention first drawn? 

2. What in the picture tells the time of year? 

3. What do the great rocks in the background tell you? 

4. What seems to you to be the mood of the picture? 

5. Why are scenes picturing quiet work popular? 



Art is the child of Nature; yes, 
Her darling child in whom we trace 
The features of the mother's face, 
Her aspect and her attitude. 

— Longfellow 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




WOLFGANG MOZART 

L. VOGEL 



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PORTRAIT OF MOZART 

Wolfgang Mozart, (1756-1791), the great German 
musical composer, was a child of remarkable promise. 
At the age of two he was a student of the violin, at three 
a performer on the harpsichord, at four a composer of small 
pieces, at five a performer before the University of Salz- 
burg, and at the age of six, he with his sister was taken 
for a concert tour in which young Mozart played before 
most of the kings and queens of Europe. Wherever he 
went, his cheerful disposition and his wonderful talent 
won friends for him among kings and princes, but young 
Mozart was unaffected by the attentions of nobility. 

At the age of fourteen, Mozart was an accomplished 
musician and composer. In 1769, the Pope made him 
a member of the order of the Golden Spur. In 1770, 
Mozart gave to the world his first opera. Then followed 
various musical successes. Altho doomed to financial 
disappointment in almost every undertaking, the great 
composer continued to produce one great composition after 
another. In fact, his capacity for work, and his ability as 
a composer seemed to have no limit. To write intelli- 
gently of his works would tax the ability of the greatest 
musical critics, for he attempted great things to match 
his giant conceptions. 

The child of rare promise was destined to become a 
man who tasted freely of the cup of bitterness. He 
entered the world in poverty, and he never had the means 
to enable him to live in comfort as he deserved. He pro- 
duced great works praised for their merit, but they yielded 
him small financial returns. His first love affair ended 
in sorrow. His most powerful and influential friend, the 
Archbishop of Salzburg died, only to be succeeded by a man 
who treated the great Mozart with unspeakable contempt. 
To add to his sorrow, jealous rivals plotted Mozart's 
ruin. He died December 5, 1791, of typhus fever, altho 
the great musician was under the impression that he had 
been poisoned. He was carried to a pauper's grave. As 
the funeral took place in a severe rainstorm, Mozart's 



three most intimate friends deserted his body and left him 
to be buried by strangers. 

Mozart's hopefulness in the midst of severe disappoint- 
ment was pathetic. But his bravery was heroic. Un- 
complaining of fate or fortune, he patiently wrought to 
the end of his career. He once said that if it had not 
been for his devotion to his work, he would have been 
driven crazy. Strange to say, he never lost the spirit of 
youth, nor the hope that some day his work would be 
appreciated for its true worth. 

No story of Mozart's life is complete without mention 
of his beautiful spirit of devotion to his parents. His 
love for his mother was such that he never fully recovered 
from her sad death, while the attitude toward his father 
may be expressed in his own words, "Next to God is my 
father." 

The portrait of Mozart is a successful attempt at 
suggesting Mozart's sensitive nature, the keen intellect, 
the hopefulness, the spirit of youth, and a certain sense of 
the sorrow and disappointment of his life. 



EXERCISES 

1. What shows that Mozart was a precocious child? 

2. How was he affected by royal favor? 

3. What rank does he hold as a composer? 

4. What were some of his greatest disappointments? 

5. To what extent was he a hopeful man? 

6. Tell of his devotion to his father and mother. 

7. What of his character does this portrait seem to interpret? 



We're made so that we love 

First when we see them painted, things we have passed 

Perhaps a hundred times, nor cared to see; 

And so they are better, painted — better to us, 

Which is the same thing. 

— Robert Browning 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




A NOBLE CHARGER 

ROSA BONHEUR 



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ROSA BONHEUR 

In the quiet old town of Bordeaux, on the west coast 
of France, was born, October 22, 1822, one of the world's 
most famous artists, Rosa Bonheur. Her father was 
an artist. Her mother was a musician. Rosa's waking 
hours were spent in playing with the cats and dogs. She 
loved every animal that came along, no matter how 
wretched it might be. 

When her father moved to Paris, little Rosa became very 
homesick for the familiar scenes in her quiet old home in 
Bordeaux. There was a school for boys near by, and the 
master, seeing the loneliness of the little girl, asked her 
father to send her with her brothers to his school. The 
boys became very fond of her, for she entered into their 
sports as readily and with as much spirit as one of their 
own number. 

In 1835, Rosa's mother died, leaving the father to care 
for four small children. The family now had to be 
separated. Juliette, Rosa's sister, was sent to a friend 
of the mother in Bordeaux; the boys to one boarding 
school; and Rosa to another. Rosa, at least, did not 
feel happy with this change. She had always lived a free, 
unrestrained life, and to thus be held within the bonds of 
school life was too much for the child. She made a dash 
for freedom, so transgressing on the rules of the school 
that the authorities of the institution gave her up in 
despair and she went joyously home to her father. 

Rosa's father was so busy with the giving of his lessons 
that he had no time to instruct his little daughter. She 
was free to amuse herself as she wished, which she did 
by drawing and painting. One day, upon returning 
home to his studio, he was surprised to find that she had 
sketched a very lovely bunch of cherries. After that he 
took time to give her lessons, and she progressed so rapidly 
that she was soon able to give lessons herself. She was 
advancing so well that she took to copying famous 
masterpieces in the Louvre, and these copies were so well 
done that she received good prices for them in the market 
places. 



When she was eighteen years old, Rosa went to 
Auvergne, which, in the very heart of France, lacks 
nothing of wild, rugged beauty. The wide range of form 
and coloring so delighted the girl that she never grew 
tired of gazing at the scenes before her. In 1848 she 
presented paintings in the Salon which were taken from 
her sketches at Auvergne. This year there was an 
exhibition which attracted a great deal of attention con- 
sisting, as it did, of paintings of Rosa Bonheur, her father, 
two brothers and sister Juliette. 

In 1847 Rosa Bonheur received her first prize, a gold 
medal of the third class, presented in the King's name. 
One of her best works, "Oxen Plowing," was painted 
for the Salon exhibit of 1849. 

After her return to Paris, she withdrew to the village 
of By, in the very heart of the grand old forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Here at By, Rosa purchased a rambling old house 
where she kept a menagerie consisting of birds of all kinds, 
and animals, both wild and domestic. Here she lived the 
life of a peasant, rising early, and retiring at the setting 
of the sun, eating the simplest of food and painting to 
her heart's content. 



A NOBLE CHARGER 

This picture is all that its name implies. The artist 
here shows her familiarity with the details which go to 
make the head of a noble horse. The arched neck, the 
gentle, keen, intelligent eye, the fine forehead, and the 
general determined expression, combine to make us feel 
that this horse can be depended on in any emergency. 



EXERCISES 

1. A horse used in battle is called a charger. Have you seen 
pictures of officers in battle on horseback? 

2. Tell the story of the life of Rosa Bonheur, the artist who 
painted this picture. 

3. Tell the story of noble horses you have known. Tell what 
you think might be a story of this horse. 

4. Tell the story of "Black Beauty." 

5. What impresses you most in this picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




PHARAOH'S HORSES 

JOHN FREDERICK HERRING 



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JOHN FREDERICK HERRING 

John Frederick Herring (1755-1865) was for several 
years the driver of a stage-coach. When he became a 
painter, he was known as the "artist coachman." He 
made many studies of fine horses, sparing no pains to 
learn to portray them truthfully. He is the greatest 
master in portraying the movement of horses, next to 
Rosa Bonheur. So popular did his work become that 
George IV and Queen Victoria had him paint portraits 
of their favorite animals. 



PHARAOH'S HORSES 

This picture is based upon an incident narrated in the 
Bible. We are told in the Bible (Exodus XIV) that when 
the children of Israel, under the guidance of Moses, were 
fleeing from the Egyptians, the Lord was with the 
Israelites. The Egyptians, led by Pharaoh, the king, 
pursued them to return them into bondage. The 
Israelites were overtaken at the Red Sea, and they cried 
to Moses in their anguish. The Lord then commanded 
Moses to raise his rod and stretch out his hand over the 
sea so that the sea should be parted and the children of 
Israel should pass over on dry ground. When the host 
of Pharaoh tried to cross in pursuit in the same manner, 
the sea closed over them and in the morning, the Israelites 
beheld the shore strewn with the dead Egyptians, their 
horses and their chariots. 

Perhaps no other picture has been so popular or so 
frequently reproduced, as this picture of the three fine 
horses designated as "Pharaoh's Horses." The spirited 
animals with flowing manes suggest thorobreds of fine 
Arabian stock, and are the very embodiment of animal 
intelligence and graceful movement. 

The distended nostrils, the great veins, the look of fear, 
the wild leaping and struggling are due to the fact that the 
great wide sea is about to overcome the helpless animals. 



The horse to the right is rilled with fear at some object 
evidently floating in the water before him. The middle 
horse of the group shows marked impatience at being 
"crowded." Herring has suggested the overwhelming 
strength of the sea by the oncoming waves in the distance. 
The driver of these noble animals has been lost and they 
have, perhaps, become disengaged from the royal chariot 
for they are represented as the imperial favorites. 

The prevailing impression of the beholder is one of 
pity for these noble animals overwhelmed by the hungry 
sea. The vast expanse of the sea, and the darkening sky 
enhance this idea of helplessness. The picture has been 
called one of the world's most exalted conceptions of 
poetry combined with the portrayal of animal life. 

A circular canvas is unusual among paintings. We 
notice that the picture darkens about the edge so as to 
throw the three heads into strong relief. The drawing 
is good and the handling of light and shadow very effec- 
tive. Every detail, such as the eyes and the flowing mane, 
is rendered with the utmost fidelity. The suggested 
movement of the horses against the rising storm is an 
element of unusual strength. 



EXERCISES 

1. What place has this picture held among popular composition? 

2. How did the artist acquire his great knowledge of horses? 

3. What suggests that these horses are thorobreds? 

4. Read and tell the story which inspired the painting. 

5. Point out the details which reveal the true situation. 

6. What is your feeling as you now know what the artist has 
tried to picture? 

7. What do you like best about this picture? 



Popular art will make our streets as beautiful as the 
woods, as elevating as the mountain-sides; it will be a 
pleasure and a rest, and not a weight upon the spirits to 
come from the open country into a town; every man's 
house will be fair and decent, soothing to his mind and 
helpful to his work; all the works of man that we live 
amongst and handle will be in harmony with nature, will 
be reasonable and beautiful; yet all will be simple and 
inspiriting, not childish nor enervating; for as nothing 
of beauty and splendour that man's mind and hand may 
compass shall be wanting from our public buildings, so 
in no private dwelling will there be any signs of waste, 
pomp, or insolence, and every man will have his share of 
the best. — William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




PILGRIM EXILES 

GEORGE H. BOUGHTON 



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GEORGE H. BOUGHTON 

George H. Boughton was born in Norwich, England, 
in 1834, but came to America with his parents when he 
was only two years old. He began to draw almost as 
soon as he was able to hold a pencil. He did not draw 
any one line of subjects. To use his own words, "I 
drew every mortal thing that came under my notice." 

By this sketching in his early life, he was able to earn 
enough money to take him to England where his talent 
developed readily. On his return he painted, "Winter 
Twilight, " and when this picture was accepted by the 
New York National Academy of Design, his career as a 
famous painter began. 

Boughton, like many other artists, loved best of all 
to picture humanity, and to this end he devoted himself 
to the study of human life. 

The artist's especial delight was in the portraying 
of Puritan life. What can be more charming than his 
"John Alden and Priscilla, " and what can arouse our 
sympathy more than does "Landing of the Pilgrims"? 

Altho Boughton studied art in England, his style 
is decidedly American, and he has painted English sub- 
jects in a manner that shows all the truth and grace of 
American skill. 

Boughton went to Paris in 1860 and finally in 1861 
took up his residence in London. In 1896 he became a 
member of the Royal Academy. 



PILGRIM EXILES 

This painting represents three figures, on a bluff above 
the shore, as they watch the ship "Mayflower" sail from 
sight. Yes, they are indeed Pilgrim exiles, wanderers 
in the new country where danger and hardships lurk on 
every side. Who can but sympathize with these people 
in their loneliness. With the passing of the Mayflower 
there is a dull ache in their' hearts at the separation from 



the past, yet we see resignation and determination to 
be brave to the last. We know that when the ship has 
passed from sight and nothing but the endless expanse 
of water remains, they will turn back bravely to their 
new homes and new work with thoughts of the future. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of the artist. 

2. How many figures do you see in this picture? 

3. What are they watching? 

4. Tell the story of the Mayflower. 

5. In what country are these people? 

6. Why did they come here? 

7. What do you think their feelings are at this moment? 

8. Since they suffered so much in England, why do you think 
they should feel thus at the departure of the ship? 

9. What lies before them? 

10. Describe the dress of the women of this period. Of the men. 

11. Who are these people? Where did they come from originally? 



It is the glory and good of Art 
That Art remains the one way possible 
Of speaking truth, — to mouths like mine, at least 
Immortal art! Where'er the rounded sky 
Bends o'er the cradle where thy children lie, 
Their home is earth, their herald every tongue. 

— Holmes 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




PILGRIMS GOING TO CHURCH 

GEORGE H. BOUGHTON 



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GEORGE H. BOUGHTON 

George H. Boughton was born in Norwich, England, 
in 1834, but came to America with his parents when he 
was only two years old. He began to draw almost as soon 
as he was able to hold a pencil. He did not draw any 
one line of subjects. To use his own words, "I drew 
every mortal thing that came under my notice." 

By this sketching in his early life, he was able to earn 
enough money to take him to England where his 
talent developed readily. On his return he painted 
"Winter Twilight," and when this picture was accepted 
by the New York National Academy of Design, his 
career as a famous painter began. 

Boughton, like many other artists, loved best of all 
to picture humanity, and to this end he devoted himself 
to the study of human life. 

The artist's especial delight was in the portraying 
of Puritan life. What can be more charming than his 
"John Alden and Priscilla, " and what can arouse our 
sympathy more than does "Landing of the Pilgrims." 

Altho Boughton studied art in England, his style 
is decidedly American, and he has painted English sub- 
jects in a manner that shows all the truth and grace of 
American skill. 

Boughton went to Paris in 1860 and finally in 1861 
took up his residence in London. In 1896 he became a 
member of the Royal Academy. 



PILGRIMS GOING TO CHURCH 

History tells that while the Virginia settlers were pass- 
ing their first year in the New World, a number of men 
and women in England, who were beginning to worship 
God in a manner not allowed by the laws of that time, 
and had been harshly treated, fled to Holland where they 
might worship as they pleased. 

They were glad for this refuge; but if they and their 
children were to stay there, they would forget their native 



land and their native tongue. As they did not wish this 
to happen they decided to find a place where they could 
worship as they pleased, and retain the manners and 
customs of their native land. 

Consequently their faces turned toward the new country 
of America. Soon one hundred strong men and women 
set sail in the little ship, The Mayflower. After many 
difficulties, they finally discovered a beautiful little harbor 
where they founded the colony of Plymouth. 

The hardships of that first bleak New England winter 
were most severe. Before spring half of the colonists 
died, but the brave strong men, such as we see in this 
picture, guided by wisdom from above, protected the 
women and children against the enemy who skulked in the 
forest, cared for the sick, and made friends with the red 
men. 

This picture is typical of the early days when the 
Pilgrim Fathers first came to the new country. It por- 
trays the religious fervor and enthusiasm of these exiles — 
they are going on an errand of peace, yet are prepared 
for war. The guards — two in front and two behind — 
seem a slight protection for the women and children whom 
they are escorting thru the snows. Their strong 
rugged faces show their determined characters, and we 
are sure of the response any lurking enemy would meet 
in case of attack. 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Bough ton born? 

2. To which country did he move while still very young? 

3. What did he say concerning his talent? 

4. When and how did fame come to him? 

5. What did this artist like to portray best of all? 

6. Tell the story of the Pilgrims. 

7. Point out and describe three different types of people in this 
picture. 

8. Where are these people going? How did they regard their 
religion? 

9. Why are the men in front and at the rear of the party carry- 
ing guns? 

10. Name two enemies that these brave Pilgrims had to contend 
with? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




PRISCILLA AND JOHN ALDEN 

ALFRED FREDERICKS 



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ALFRED FREDERICKS 

Alfred Fredericks is an Englishman by birth, but he has 
chosen to make America his home. In fact, he is often 
classified as an "American painter." Originally he was 
a scene painter. His scenes are almost all dramatic in 
character, with an occasional historical scene. 



PRISCILLA AND JOHN ALDEN 

The picture of Priscilla and John Alden is of much 
historical and literary interest, because both were among 
the Mayflower Pilgrims, and because Longfellow has 
told their story in his "Courtship of Miles Standish." 
When the Mayflower stopped at Southampton, England, 
John Alden, a strong, handsome, brave young man was 
taken aboard as a cooper for the company. Priscilla 
Mullins was left an orphan during the first winter in the 
new land by the death of both parents. She was a beauti- 
ful girl, gifted with all the graces of sweet and gentle 
womanhood. John and bluff old Captain Miles Standish 
began to look upon her with eyes of love. Soon the 
Captain sent young Alden to court Priscilla for him. 
His wooing for the Captain was unsuccessful. The artist 
here represents the Puritan maiden in the act of saying 
"Why don't you speak for yourself, John?" Young 
Alden had never fully realized until this moment how 
devotedly he loved the gentle maiden. 

Priscilla in her Puritan dress is charming. Her beauti- 
ful face shows that she has seen much sorrow. The 
artist has added a distinctly feminine touch in the flower 
held by Priscilla. John Alden is a handsome youth, his 
semi-military dress suggesting the officer. Both Pris- 
cilla and John are clad in the typical Puritan garb. At- 
tention is attracted to the capes and the peculiar head- 
dress of each. 

The scene is laid on a typical New England seashore. 
Sedges grow here and there in the sand, and the waves 



roll in long swelling curves toward the beach. In the 1 * 
distance are seen the white sails of the Mayflower. 
Priscilla and John Alden stand upon the white sand of 
the shore back of the sedges and grasses. The limitless 
expanse of the ocean and the dreariness of the shore, sug- 
gest the need of a greater degree of trust and confidence 
on the part of the two brave young people. 

The conception of the artist is one of rare charm. It 
breathes the spirit of pure and exalted love and also carries 
with it a suggestion of mutual strength and confidence. 
In this land of loneliness, these brave young people need 
each other. This is their thought as the Mayflower fades 
from sight. 

This picture cannot be appreciated fully by one who 
does not understand the story of the Pilgrims. The 
Colonization Period of American history should be freely 
studied when such a picture is to be interpreted. 



EXERCISES 

1. What historical and literary interest attaches itself to this 
picture? 

2. Give the history of Priscilla and John Alden. 

3. What particular moment in their lives is here shown? 

4. What impresses one about the face and bearing of Priscilla? 

5. What is the feeling of the beholder toward John Alden? 

6. What forms the background of this scene? 

7. What in the surroundings has probably drawn the young people 
to each other? 

8. What is the meaning of the picture to you? 

9. Tell briefly the story of the Pilgrims. 



Even when painting does appear to have been pursued 
for pleasure only, if ever you find it rise to any noble 
level, you will also find that a stern search after truth 
has been at the root of its nobleness. You may fancy, 
perhaps, that Titian, Veronese, and Tintoret were painters 
for the sake of pleasure only ; but in reality they were the 
only painters who ever sought entirely to master, and who 
did entirely master, the truths of light and shade as 
associated with colour, in the noblest of all physical 
created things, the human form. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




QUEEN LOUISE 

GUSTAV RICHTER 



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GUSTAV RICHTER 

Gustav Richter was born in Berlin, August 31, 1823, 
where he died at the age of sixty-one. His work consisted 
largely of historical paintings and portraits. He was 
a pupil under Eduard Holbein at the Berlin Academy 
where he later served as professor of art. He also studied 
under Cogniet in Paris. He was a frequent visitor to 
France and Italy. He also visited Egypt and the Crimea 
where he found rich material for use in his historical 
paintings. He was honored by membership in many 
leading art societies and was given medals by the lead- 
ing art academies of the world. Among his leading 
paintings are: Baldur; Walkyries;Walhally; Building of 
the Pyramids; Egyptian Girl; Egyptian Dancers; and 
many portraits of noted persons. 



QUEEN LOUISE 

In order to appreciate the loveliness of this portrait, 
we should know something of the life of "Fair Queen 
Louise." She was the princess of Mecklenburg, Strelitz. 
Her father was Duke Karl Ludwig of Hanover. Her 
mother died when Louise was only seven years old, leav- 
ing the children to the care of a grandmother. 

Louise had the advantage of travel, accompanying her 
grandmother on many journeys and meeting people of 
rank and genius. She also visited the poor and lowly 
making no distinction in rank but giving of her tender 
sympathy and kindness wherever she went. 

At the age of seventeen, she met the crown prince of 
Prussia and married him on the 24th of April, 1793. 
Five years later, with the death of Frederick William II, 
King of Prussia, Louise became queen of Prussia. In a 
short time political difficulties arose, forcing Prussia into 
war with Napoleon. There were two battles, one at Jena 
and another at Auerstadt, in both of which Napoleon 
was victorious. Louise was near Jena at the time of the 



battle and was forced to flee to Berlin where she had left 
her two sons. 

Hearing that Napoleon was entering Berlin in triumph, 
she, with her children, again fled, this time to Konigsberg. 
While here she became ill under the intense nervous 
strain. Hearing again that the French were in pursuit, 
she hurried, tho ill, to Memel. Recovering suffi- 
ciently, she turned back to Tilsit; and there met her bitter 
enemy, Napoleon. She tried to influence him in behalf 
of her loved country but to no avail. In the latter part of 
June, 1810, she went back to her old childhood home in 
Strelitz, where surrounded by her father, grandmother, 
husband and children, she passed her last days. In many 
homes today may be found a picture of this lovely 
example of true and simple womanhood. 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Richter born? 

2. Tell briefly of his life and work. 

3. Of what country was Louise queen? 

4. Tell what she did for her country. 

5. Looking at this picture, what kind of a woman would you 
judge Queen Louise to be? 

6. Why do you think this picture is kept in so many homes? 

7. What do you like best about it? 



Greatness in Art is not a teachable nor gainable thing, 
but the expression of the mind of a God-made great man; 
that teach, or preach, or labor as you will, everlasting 
difference is set between one man's capacity and another's; 
and that this God-given supremacy is the priceless thing, 
always just as rare in the world at one time as another. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




READING FROM HOMER 

LAURENZ ALMA-TADEMA 



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LAURENZ ALMA-TADEMA 

Laurenz Alma-Tad ema was born in Friesland, Holland, 
on January 8, 1836. At the age of four he showed such 
a talent for art that he was given drawing lessons. At 
the age of five he pointed out errors in his master's work, 
mistakes which the latter was forced to admit. 

His first education was received in the Gymnasium of 
Leuwarden, where he made a special study of Egyptian 
and Roman antiquities. In 1852, he became a student 
in the Academy of Fine Arts at Antwerp. Soon after this 
he set up a studio in Antwerp. In order to help his 
struggling young pupil, Leys, Tadema's master in Ant- 
werp, purposely misdirected the cab-driver of Mr. Gam- 
bert, most influential picture dealer in the city, and the 
dealer was stopped at the door of the young artist. After 
the dealer had discovered the deceit, he was too kind- 
hearted to drive away, so entered the studio. To his 
utter surprise, he found here just what he wanted, and 
ordered two dozen pictures similar to "Coming out of 
Church," which had recently been finished. 

In 1870, Alma-Tadema took up his residence in London 
which remained his home until his death, June, 1912. 
During his career, the artist was honored by receiving a 
great many medals. In 1864 he was given a medal from 
the Paris Salon; three years later he won a second class 
medal at The Universal Exposition, and in 1873 he be- 
came an officer of the Legion of Honor in France. Three 
years later he was elected Member of the Royal Academy. 



READING FROM HOMER 

In this painting we see plainly the influence of Alma- 
Tadema's early devotion to the study of Roman art. 
The "Reading from Homer" is considered his masterpiece. 
The scene of this painting is laid on the Isle of Lesbos, an 
island in the Aegean Sea. There are two central figures, 
Sappho and her lover, Phaon. They are lounging in 



a secluded nook of a great temple and are listening to an 
eloquent rendition of lines from Homer's poems. The 
reader is seated on a marble bench at the right of the 
picture. The expression of intensity which his face wears, 
indicates that he is striving to please and interest his 
listeners. 

Sappho was a poetess who lived in the early age of 
Greek literature. She was born at Lesbos about 600 
B. C. and was considered among the most beautiful and 
talented of Greek women. 

Phaon, so the legend goes, was a misshapen old boatman 
at Mitylene. He is said to have borne Venus across the 
sea without payment, and for this act was rewarded with 
a box of ointment. This ointment made him youthful 
and handsome. Sappho straightway fell in love with him. 
But he disregarded her attentions. Becoming despondent 
over this state of affairs, Sappho cast herself into the sea. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Alma-Tadema. 

2. Name the most important honors bestowed upon the artist 
during his career. 

3. Where is the setting of this scene? 

4. Who are the central figures? 

5. Where is this group seemingly located? 

6. What is the reader doing? 

7. Who are the other two figures? 

8. Who was Sappho? Phaon? 

9. What do you like best about .the picture? 



Even when painting does appear to have been pursued 
for pleasure only, if ever you find it rise to any noble 
level, you will also find that a stern search after truth 
has been at the root of its nobleness. You may fancy, 
perhaps, that Titian, Veronese, and Tintoret were painters 
for the sake of pleasure only; but in reality they were the 
only painters who ever sought entirely to master, and who 
did entirely master, the truths of light and shade as 
associated with colour, in the noblest of all physical 
created things, the human form. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE IISTUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




RETURN TO THE FARM 

CONSTANT TROYON 



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CONSTANT TROYON 

Constant Troyon (1810-1865), was one of a group of 
artists who spent much time in the old Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. He, like Dupre and Diaz, received his early 
training in art in the porcelain factory at his birthplace, 
Sevres, France. Possibly his first teacher was a man by 
the name of Riocruz, who was skilled in painting repre- 
sentations of flowers on porcelain. He, at least, instructed 
the lad in the mixing and blending of paints. 

At the age of twenty, Troyon started out for himself. 
At this time he met a landscape artist, Roqueplan, from 
whom he learned the principles of landscape painting. 
This, together with the ideas he received from Dupre 
and Diaz, was the extent of his education in art. At the 
age of twenty-four, we find the young artist established 
in a studio of his own in Paris. He made an exhibit of 
landscapes at the next Salon where his pictures met with 
favorable comment. It was during his sojourn in Paris 
that he established his friendship with Millet, Corot, 
Rousseau, and others of the Barbizon Group. 

Up to the age of forty, Troyon had spent his entire time 
on landscapes. At that time, influenced by Paul Potter, 
he began to paint animal scenes. He met with remark- 
able success at once. It is rather surprising to know that 
all the honors which were bestowed upon him, were won, 
not with his famous animal pictures, but with his land- 
scapes. 

It has been said of Troyon in comparison with other 
animal painters, "Paul Potter could paint cow hide and 
cow anatomy, but Troyon could and did paint cow life. 
Albert Cuyp painted a cow's skeleton — the rack of bones, 
but Troyon painted cow character." 



RETURN TO THE FARM 

As the background for this picture, we have a soft, 
hazy, gray sky, against which the tall luxurious trees stand 
out in rich, dark relief. Down the rough country road 



come the cattle on their return to the farm. Perhaps 
they have been in a pasture some distance away, and 
are now returning in the late afternoon to be milked and 
to receive their evening meal. 

Some of the cows have become thirsty and have stopped 
at a nearby pond before passing on. The two cows in the 
road, however, are coming steadily on. Perhaps one of 
them is the leader, or bell-cow. 

To the right of the picture come the docile sheep, their 
trustful innocent faces set steadily toward home. In 
front of the herd leaps the joyful dog. His duties are 
not as pressing as might appear, for he is rejoicing over 
the performance of his daily duty, that of bringing home 
the cattle and sheep. 

In the rear is a donkey, the blackness of whose coat is 
in sharp contrast with the whiteness of the cows and 
sheep. So truly is this scene portrayed, that we feel in 
a moment the herd will pass around the corner and we will 
have nothing left but the gray empty road. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Troy on. 

2. Describe the trees; the sky; the road. 

3. Name the kinds of animals found here. 

4. What are the cattle to the left of the picture doing? 

5. Describe the cows in the road. 

6. Describe the sheep. 

7. What do you like best about this picture? 



Modern landscape painters have looked at nature with . 
totally different eyes, seeking not for what is easiest to 
imitate, but for what is most important to tell. Reject- 
ing at once all ideal of bona fide imitation, they think only 
of conveying the impression of nature into the mind of the 
spectator. — John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




ROAD THRU THE WOODS 

JOSEPH FARQUHARSON 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



JOSEPH FARQUHARSON 

Joseph Farquharson is the son of Francis Farquhar- 
son and is one of the most industrious of present-day 
English art exhibitors. In 1900, he was made an as- 
sociate of the Royal Academy, a recognition won thru 
his success as a landscape painter. He married Violet 
Evelyn in 1914 and has since lived in England. He has 
had notable exhibits at the Royal Academy, The Royal 
Institute of Painters in Oils, and The Art Gallery, Liver- 
pool. 



ROAD THRU THE WOODS 

One cannot study such a picture as Farquharson's 
"Road thru the Woods" without being impressed with 
the restfulness of the scene. It is the story of the day's 
work rewarded with the peacefulness of the eventide. 
The story of the faithful shepherd has appealed alike to 
poet and painter. 

The central feature of the picture is a flock of sheep 
driven along a broad roadway, which leads directly thru 
the foreground. On either side of the road is seen the 
forest. The shepherd and his dog appear in the back- 
ground. From the left a pathway leads thru an opening 
in a stone wall, the gate way of which is composed of old- 
fashioned bars. 

The scene suggests an evening in early autumn. Not 
all the leaves have fallen and there are still a few patches 
of tender, green grass which attracts several of the sheep. 
There is a mellow golden light in the sky, suggesting a 
sunset in the haze. of an early autumn evening. Here 
and there are scattered the early fallen leaves. 

The forest setting forms a pleasing picture in itself. 
The trees with their gnarled trunks and tangled branches 
suggest that they have been wind-swept, owing to their 
position on a slight eminence, with the open plain back 
of them toward the sunset. The trees cast long shadows, 
which are in strong contrast to a few lines of bright light 



from the sunset. To secure the great softness, suggesting 
haziness, the artist has avoided stiffness or crispness of 
outline, and great definiteness of shadow. There are no 
clouds, there being different shades of color to represent 
the sky. Objects in the distance are painted with faint, 
indistinct touches. Detail has been sacrificed to secure 
general effect. 



EXERCISES 

1. What is the first impression one gets of this picture? 

2. What season of the year is suggested? 

3. Describe the forest setting. 

4. What things give the human touch to this picture? 

5. Point out the different features that make the picture. 

6. How has the artist secured the effect of softness, of haziness? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



There is no limit to the good which is effected by plac- 
ing good pictures before ourselves. — Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




ST. ANTHONY AND THE CHRIST CHILD 

BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 

Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 

Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born in Seville, 
Spain, in 1618. His father, a merchant by trade, was so 
poor that he was allowed to occupy his house free from 
rent. Almost the first we know of the boy's early child- 
hood is that his parents had both died before he was eleven 
years old. Murillo then went to live with an aunt and 
uncle, who, seeing his artistic ability, made him an 
apprentice to another uncle, Juan del Castillo,who was an 
artist of ordinary ability. It is thought that Murillo learned 
little here beside the mixing of paints and the blending of 
colors. In 1640, Castillo moved to Cadiz, leaving young 
Murillo to fight his own artistic battles. 

Without money, without even a very ordinary reputa- 
tion as an artist, where should he turn? There was only 
one place where he could satisfy his desire to paint and 
that was at that studio which was free to all and where 
so many struggling young artists spent the greater part of 
their time, the public market place, where he painted 
pictures of artistically grouped fruits and vegetables, 
and of little beggar boys who crowded around to watch 
him paint. 

After a time he went on foot to Madrid where he worked 
under his former fellow-townsman Velazquez, who was 
then court painter to Philip IV, and at the height of his 
success. Murillo was welcomed by the great painter 
and was introduced to a number of influential artists of 
the time. When he returned to Seville the commission 
to decorate the inside of the Franciscan convent was given 
him. After he had completed his work in the Franciscan 
convent, Murillo 's position in the world of art was estab- 
lished. As the years went on, he was much in demand as 
a decorator of churches and convents. 

Murillo was commissioned to such important work as 
decorating the All Saints' Chapel and the church and 
hospital of the Holy Charity. When he was sixty-two 
years old, he went to Cadiz to decorate the interior of 
the Capuchin convent. While working here he fell from 



a high scaffolding" injuring himself so seriously' that he 
was forced to discontinue. He died quietly in the year 
1682, at his birthplace in Seville. 



ST. ANTHONY AND THE CHRIST CHILD 

St. Anthony of Padua was the son of noble, Godfear- 
ing parents, and was born at Lisbon in 1195. The 
thirty-six years of his life were spent in self-sacrifice, 
prayer and suffering for the sake of others. Tradition 
has it that as a blessing upon his purity and goodness, 
the Christ Child, attended by cherubs, appeared to St. 
Anthony. It is this legend that Murillo has so beauti- 
fully illustrated for us. Notice the look of divine love and 
joy on the face of the good saint as he tenderly holds the 
little child, Jesus, lovingly against his cheek. 

The heavens seem full of angel faces, while on the 
ground are two cherubs, one holding a book and the other 
a bunch of lilies, attributes of St. Anthony. This is a 
picture of Murillo's imagination, yet can we not get a 
certain inspiration from it, a feeling that we have looked 
upon a heavenly vision, the divine blessing which is the 
reward of the pure in heart? 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Murillo. 

2. In what kind of painting did he excel? 

3. Tell the legend of St. Anthony. 

4. What great reward came to him? 

5. Describe this picture. 

6. What is shown by the background of the picture? 

7. What in the picture impresses you most? 

S. Why do you think so many persons like this picture 1 ] 



Believe me, if we want art to begin at home, as it must, 
we must clear our houses of troublesome superfluities that 
are forever in our way; conventional comforts that are 
no real comforts, and do but make work for servants and 
doctors: if you want a golden rule that will fit everybody, 
this is it: 

Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be 
useful, or believe to be beautiful. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




ST. CECILIA 

NAUJOK 



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ST. CECILIA 

St. Cecilia, by Naujok, has been designated as the 
musicians' picture. In the legend of St. Cecilia the story 
goes that she was a noble Roman girl whose parents were 
Christians and who, tho it might cost her her life, 
took a vow to devote her life to heavenly things. She 
excelled in music, but she played and sang only sacred 
selections. Even the angels came down to listen to her 
sweet music and to join with her in song. No musical 
instrument of the time seemed to satisfy her, so she in- 
vented the pipe organ and consecrated it to the service 
of God. So wonderfully did she play, that mysterious 
flowers of rare beauty fell, as if from angel hands, upon 
the keyboard of the organ. 

At sixteen, she was married to a young non-christian 
nobleman, who, thru her influence, became a Christian. 
Together they went about doing good. Altho her 
husband was put to death for his faith, and she herself 
was cruelly tortured, she continued to convert many to 
Christianity. Finally she died from cruel torture, sing- 
ing the sweet hymns of her faith. 

The painting by Naujok represents St. Cecilia as trans- 
ported with holy rapture. One hand is lifted from the 
keyboard of the organ as the flowers fall upon her musical 
fingers. She does not see the cherubim, but she gazes 
upon some wonderful vision never seen by other eyes. 

St. Cecilia symbolizes the hidden power of music. Her 
rich full nature endowed with the ability to appreciate 
all that can appeal to the individual thru the avenues 
of sight, feeling and hearing, is indicated by the concep- 
tion of the artist. St. Cecilia is clothed in rich gar- 
ments; she wears royal jewels, while her pure soul is 
indicated by the sign of the cross worn on her bosom. 
The visible evidence of sainthood is the aureole, or crown 
of light, above her head. We note, also, how much the 
beauty of the picture is enhanced by the simple back- 
ground which allows the wonderful face of St. Cecilia 
to stand out in all its beauty. The face of the maiden 



bespeaks a pure soul, great refinement, and wealth of 
intellect. 

The picture may very justly be regarded as a triumph 
of the artist's skill at combining the richest sentiment 
of music, literature and art. 



EXERCISES 

1. How widely is this picture known? 

2. Who was St. Cecilia? 

3. Tell the legends you know concerning her. 

4. Upon what story is this picture based? 

5. Describe the picture by Naujok. 

6. How has the artist shown the rich full nature of St. Cecilia? 

7. Why is the picture called "the musicians' picture"? 

8. What do you like best about the picture? 



To give people pleasure in the things they must perforce 
use, that is one great office of decoration; to give people 
pleasure in the things they must perforce make, that is 
the other use of it. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




SAVED 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was born in the outskirts 
of London, on March 7, 1802. His father, an artist, took 
a deep interest in his son's artistic tendencies, which be- 
gan to show at a very early age. Some of the lad's youth- 
ful studies are preserved at South Kensington Museum, 
London, and, from the notes they bear, indicate that they 
were made when the artist was only five or six years old. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at the 
age of fourteen. The Landseer family was in such cir- 
cumstances that no thought need be given to time or 
expense of his study. At a very early age he had begun 
to show a preference for the dog above all other animals, 
so at the Academy he was known as" the little dog-boy." 
For a time, it became the fashion among people of wealth 
to have Landseer paint pictures of their favorite dogs. 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of Land- 
seer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became the 
Court Artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood upon the artist, and from that time 
on, he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate of the Academy in 1826. In 1831, 
he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he was 
offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused on 
account of his failing health. He died October 1, 1873. 



SAVED 

Here the artist has portrayed for us more than just a 
dog. He has shown the trustworthiness and almost 
human understanding of animals. The center of attrac- 
tion in this picture is the great noble dog, who has saved 
the little girl from drowning. Possibly the most notice- 
able feature is his eyes. See in them the look of devotion, 
of determination, of patience. Can we doubt the intelli- 
gence of dumb beasts? His mouth is open and his tongue 
is lolling out as tho he were panting from extreme 
exertion. His great body is resting on the stones, but 
notice how carefully he holds the little child on his paws to 
keep the rough surface from bruising her. 

The dashing waves, which are so near, the little child 
who lies so still with closed eyes, and the protecting 
attitude of the dog tell us plainly what has just happened. 
The dark sea, the weird positions of the flying sea gulls, 
and the heavy rolling clouds add to the intensity of the 
picture and give it fathomless space and distance. 

The most noted pictures by Landseer are: Monarch 
of the Glen; The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner; A Dis- 
tinguished Member of the Humane Society; Stag at 
Bay; A Jack in Office; Shoeing the Bay Mare; Dignity and 
Impudence; King Charles' Spaniels; The Two Dogs; The 
Sick Monkey; A Highland Breakfast; Low Life — High 
Life; Suspense; and a Portrait of Landseer by himself. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Landseer. 

2. Why is this picture so named? 

3. Tell in your own words what you think has taken place. 

4. Where do you think this scene is laid? 

5. What is the dog waiting for? 

6. What do you see in the far distance on both the left and the 
right of the picture? 

7. What kind of a dog is this? 

8. What do you think is the best thing about this picture? 



Simplicity of life, begetting simplicity of taste, that is, 
a love for sweet and lofty things, is of all matters most 
necessary for the birth of the new and better art we crave 
for; simplicity everywhere, in the palace as well as in the 
cottage. — William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in Strat- 
ford-on-Avon. His parents were highly respectable 
people, but they were not distinguished for any unusual 
attainments. Into the home of John and Mary Shakes- 
peare was born the child who was destined as a man to 
hold the highest place in the realm of the English drama, 
for the world places William Shakespeare in the same 
rank as the Greek Euripides, or Aeschylus, or the Roman 
Seneca. 

Shakespeare possessed a world mind of such breadth 
and vision that he conceived of questions that are of 
interest to all people of all ages. "Hamlet," his greatest 
play, has been classed as one of the finest masterpieces 
of the world. All of Shakespeare's plays treat of great 
fundamental questions pertaining to human conduct. 
He saw the serious side of life and portrayed it in his great 
tragedies. "Hamlet" treats of the struggle between 
conscience and duty; "Macbeth," of the sin of an un- 
worthy ambition; "Julius Caesar," of the tragedy of 
misplaced confidence; "King Lear," of the duty of 
children to parents, and the duty of parents to children; 
and "Romeo and Juliet," of the wastefulness of neighbor- 
hood quarrels. These great tragedies touch the human 
heart because they deal with questions that men and 
nations must face. 

Shakespeare not only saw the sorrow of life, but he 
also recognized the value of laughter in the social scale 
No other dramatist has written greater comedies. Much 
Ado About Nothing; The Taming of the Shrew; The 
Winter's Tale; Twelfth Night; As you Like It; The 
Merchant of Venice or The Comedy of Errors instruct 
as well as provoke laughter. They have been played for 
several hundred years and they still please intelligent 
people. 

In his immortal "Sonnets," Shakespeare sang of love 
in an elevated style that affords enjoyment to all cultured 
people. He is universally considered the greatest writer 
of the sonnet in English. 



Shakespeare is the peculiar heritage of the English- 
speaking race. His plays should be familiar to every 
student, and his very name should call forth a feeling akin 
to reverence. A man who could sing of love with such 
tenderness, or depict the sorrows of life so sympathetically 
and truthfully, or present laughter with such wholesome- 
ness, must have had a great heart, and a feeling of kinship 
with all sincere and honest people. He possessed a great 
intellect, a warm human heart, and breadth of sympathy 
that seems more than human. 

Shakespeare was interested in so many different things, 
and in such a variety of human types that his great genius 
has been a subject of wonder. This picture of Shakes- 
peare is a favorite because of the fact that it emphasizes 
no one trait in particular, but suggests the highly in- 
tellectual man, thoughtful, reserved, and kind. This is 
undoubtedly the finest idea of the great Shakespeare. 



EXERCISES 

1. What is Shakespeare's rank among world dramatists? 

2. What was the character of his mind? 

3. Name some of his great dramas that treat of world problems? 

4. What is his greatest play? 

5. In what way did he picture the sorrows of life? 

6. How did he show his interest in laughter? 

7. Of what do the "Sonnets" treat? 

8. Why should English-speaking people have a close acquaint- 
ance with him? 

9. From this portrait, what kind of man do you think he was? 



Popular art will make our streets as beautiful as the 
woods, as elevating as the mountain-sides; it will be a 
pleasure and a rest, and not a weight upon the spirits to 
come from the open country into a town; every man's 
house will be fair and decent, soothing to his mind and 
helpful to his work; all the works of man that we live 
amongst and handle will be in harmony with nature, will 
be reasonable and beautiful; yet all will be simple and 
inspiriting, not childish nor enervating; for as nothing 
of beauty and splendour that man's mind and hand may 
compass shall be wanting from our public buildings, so 
in no private dwelling will there be any signs of waste, 
pomp, or insolence, and every man will have his share of 
the best. — William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE SHEPHERD BOY 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the "peasant painter of France." As a boy, he 
iived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in the 
fields. When he could no longer repress his desire to 
become an artist, he went away to study. When he 
returned, he was a great painter, but still remained a true 
peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio in the 
village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived the 
peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated and reaped, and 
Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at their 
labor or converse with the woodcutters, the charcoal 
burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, 
he was at least able to get food for his little ones from his 
garden, and he could have near him his brother artists 
Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appreciated 
his efforts and to whom his artistic message was not spoken 
in vain. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that 
in his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that 
there is a good bond between man and nature, and that 
a picture to be a true interpretation must harmonize the 
one with the other. In all of his later pictures, therefore, 
the landscape and the figures seem to be in perfect har- 
mony. 

The figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor 
graceful, but they show great expression and goodness of 
character and look as if they were really a part of their 
surroundings. This was the life of which, in the fullness 
of his heart, he said: "The peasant subjects suit my 
temperament best, for I must confess that the human side 
of life is what touches me most." 

He died without having been appreciated. Three 



nations are now striving in friendly rivalry to secure his 
masterpieces. 



THE SHEPHERD BOY 

"The Shepherd Boy" is one of Millet's best examples 
of his simple method of presenting his message. Its 
simple composition is characteristic of Millet, for he chose 
to tell his story on an uncrowded canvas and with one 
or two peasant characters. In "The Shepherd Boy," 
a stretch of meadow land, a flock of sheep, the blue sky, 
and the shepherd boy leaning on his staff constitute all 
the pictorial elements. 

The shepherd boy is the object of chief interest. He 
wears the comfortable shepherd's cloak, for it is a cool 
spring morning, the large hat of the peasant, and wooden 
shoes. His face appears in shadow, for Millet was not 
interested in any phases of portrait painting. The shep- 
herd boy is strong, independent looking and trustworthy. 
He watches so unusually large a flock, hence his air of 
proprietorship and confidence. He is evidently satisfied 
with his work. 

The sheep fill the entire background of the picture as 
they graze contentedly about the meadow. The backs of 
the sheep are touched with a bright golden light for it 
is morning, and there are no clouds. The artist has 
painted his sheep broadly, being satisfied merely to suggest 
details. 



EXERCISES 

1. What was the central idea of all Millet's pictures? 

2. Why was Millet so greatly interested in peasant life? 

3. What tells us how much he was appreciated before his death? 

4. What are the chief objects in this picture? 

5. Describe the shepherd as here portrayed. The sheep. 

6. What central idea do you get from the picture? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



The highest problem of every art is, by means of appear- 
ances, to produce the illusion of a loftier reality. 

— Goethe 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 

ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE SHEPHERD AND HIS FLOCK 

ROSA BONHEUR 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copy.ighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company, 



ROSA BONHEUR 

In the quiet old town of Bordeaux, on the west coast 
of France, was born, October 22, 1822, one of the world's 
most famous artists, Rosa Bonheur. Her father was an 
artist. Her mother was a musician. Rosa's waking hours 
were spent in playing with the cats and dogs. She 
loved every animal that came along, no matter how 
wretched it might be. 

When the family moved to Paris, little Rosa became 
very homesick for the familiar scenes in her quiet old 
home in Bordeaux. There was a school for boys near-by, 
and the master, seeing the loneliness of the little girl, 
asked her father to send her with her brothers to his 
school. The boys became very fond of her, for she 
entered into their sports as readily and with as much 
spirit as one of their own number. 

In 1838, Rosa's mother died, leaving the father to 
care for four small children. The family now had to 
be separated. Juliette, Rosa's sister, was sent to a friend 
of the mother in Bordeaux; the boys to one boarding 
school ; and Rosa to another. Rosa, at least, did not feel 
happy with this change. She had always lived a free, 
unrestrained life, and to thus be held within the bonds 
of school life was too much for the child. She made a dash 
for freedom so transgressing on the rules of the school, 
that the authorities of the institution gave her up in 
despair and she went joyously home to her father. 

Rosa's father was so busy with the giving of his lessons 
that he had no time to instruct his little daughter. She 
was free to amuse herself as she wished, which she did 
by drawing and painting. One day, upon returning 
home to his studio, he was surprised to find that she had 
sketched a very lovely bunch of cherries. After that he 
took time to give her lessons, and she progressed so rapidly 
that she was soon able to give lessons herself. She was 
advancing so well that she took to copying famous 
masterpieces in the Louvre, and these copies were so well 
done that she received good prices for them in the market 
places. 



In 1847, Rosa Bonheur received her first prize, a gold 
medal of the third class, presented in the king's name. 
One of her best works, "Oxen Plowing," was painted for 
the Salon exhibit in 1849. 

After her return to Paris, she withdrew to the village 
of By, in the very heart of the grand old forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Here at By, Rosa purchased a rambling old house 
where she kept a menagerie consisting of birds of all 
kinds, and animals, both wild and domestic. Here she 
lived the life of a peasant, rising early and retiring at 
the setting of the sun, eating the simplest of food and 
painting to her heart's content. 



THE SHEPHERD AND HIS FLOCK 

"The Shepherd and His Flock" by Rosa Bonheur is 
one of rare beauty, meeting every standard of good com- 
position, beauty of coloring, and charm of sentiment. 
Almost in the center of the picture sits a shepherd, sur- 
rounded by his flock. The land is a rough mountain slope 
with fire-swept and wind-shaken snags of trees and great 
barren rocks jutting from the patches of green soil. 
Like a great frill across the background is seen a chain 
of rugged mountains, enveloped in mists and snow. The 
shepherd from his hand feeds the "bell-sheep" of the flock, 
while the other sheep wistfully seek the same attention. 
The shepherd is dressed in the shepherd's suit consisting 
of cap, jacket, knee trousers, leggings and wooden shoes. 

The most interesting object, the shepherd, forms the 
chief center of interest, while the sheep surrounding the 
shepherd are the objects of secondary interest. All 
objects fade away from the center of the picture in a most 
unusual manner. The drawing is perfect, and the effect 
of a hazy distance most wonderfully wrought. 

There is an element of loneliness and a suggestion of 
want that becomes almost pathetic. The clinging atti- 
tude of the dumb animals is characteristic of Rosa 
Bonheur. Into the picture is painted the idea of patient 



love, obedience, helplessness, and willingness to follow. 
The extreme helplessness and dependence of the sheep is 
emphasized by the cold mountains and by the lonely 
and unsheltered spot. The awakening of the world at 
the touch of springtime has never been more artistically 
pictured. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Rosa Bonheur. 

2. What two things may be said to make this picture a good 
picture? 

3. What are the most interesting objects in the picture? 

4. How is the picture made to appeal to us? 

5. What story does the picture tell you? 

6. What do you like best about. the picture? 

7. Tell of any other pictures you know that were painted by 
Rosa Bonheur. 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




SHEPHERDESS AND SHEEP 

HENRI LEROLLE 



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HENRI LEROLLE 

Very little can be learned of the life of this painter who 
is a modern French artist, born in Paris. 

His works are mostly those of nature, arid all of his 
works show the influence of other painters of his time. 
He paints landscapes, interiors of buildings, and of late, 
scenes from peasant life. His pictures, altho not 
'considered extraordinary, are pleasing to the eye. Lerolle 
has many admirers iri America. His figures in outdoor 
scenes are placed in a clear, luminous atmosphere, filled 
with reflected light. 

Lerolle had a fortune of his own and was thus able to 
pursue his studies without being hampered with poverty. 

Lerolle's best known paintings are: By the River; 
Nativity; Shepherdess and Sheep. 



SHEPHERDESS AND SHEEP 

One of the best of the compositions of Henri Lerolle 
is "Shepherdess and Sheep." Here we have a peaceful, gen- 
tle scene, full of light and rest. Stillness and repose are 
suggested by the slowly-moving, graceful woman, the 
lambs so intent on their cropping of the grass, the quiet 
pools reflecting the tall, smooth trees. Nevertheless, 
there is no idleness pictured here. The shepherdess has 
probably worked all her life as she is working now; the 
man in the distance is plowing with his oxen; the sheep 
are busy getting their breakfast, and even the trees are 
not idle as they struggle upward. 

The central figure of this picture seems to be the 
strong, healthy girl, the shepherdess of this flock. Lerolle 
shows that she is poor by the coarse elothing, that she 
is beautiful by the fine lines of her graceful figure, and 
that she is loving by the way in which she extends her 
hand in a gentle gesture toward one of her charges. We 
are led to feel that she is the supreme figure in the picture, 
everything else is subordinate. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Lerolle. 

2. What do you see in this picture? 

•3. Describe the clothing, form and attitude of the central figure. 

4. With what is the man in the distance plowing? 

f5. What tells you the time of year? The time of day? 

f 6. What in the picture do you like best? 



He only can be truly said to be educated in Art to whom 
all his work is only a feeble sign of glories which he can- 
not convey, and a feeble means of measuring, with ever- 
enlarging admiration, the great and untraversable gulf 
which God has set between the great and the common 
intelligence of mankind: and all the triumphs of Art 
which man can commonly achieve are only truly crowned 
by pure delight in natural scenes themselves, and by the 
sacred and self-forgetful veneration which can be nobly 
abashed, and tremblingly exalted, in the presence of a 
human spirit greater than his own. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




SIR GALAHAD * 

GEORGE FREDERICK WATTS 



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GEORGE FREDERICK WATTS 

George Frederick Watts was born in London in 1818 
and died in 1904. Unlike many artists whose lives we 
have studied, he met with the greatest encouragement 
and sympathy from his father, in his chosen work. Also, 
unlike most artists, he was almost entirely self-taught. 
At the age of nineteen, he had exhibited many pictures at 
Academy exhibitions, and from this time on, made great 
headway with his art. In 1843 he went to Italy where 
he studied Venetian Art for four years. Upon his return 
he painted portraits of the most noted men of the time. 
These portraits are regarded as masterpieces. 

Most of his works are symbolical, illustrating some 
legend or myth. His pictures are so pure and lovely that 
we cannot seem to comprehend the depth of meaning that 
is portrayed. We can gaze and gaze at them and seem 
fascinated by their beauty, but words fail to express what 
we see there. 



SIR GALAHAD 

Sir Galahad was one of the knights of King Arthur's 
Round Table. He has just taken his vow and is about 
to start on the search for the Holy Grail. The Holy 
Grail was supposed by some to be the cup out of which 
Christ drank at the Last Supper, by others to be the cup 
in which the blood of Christ was caught as he suffered 
on the cross. Legends tell us that the Grail had dis- 
appeared and that no one but a Knight whose life was 
pure could ever hope to find it. It was a favorite pas- 
time of the Knights of old to go in search of the Holy 
Grail. Read the story as told in Lowell's "The Vision 
of Sir Launfal," and Mary Blackwell Sterling's "Story 
of the Holy Grail." 

Notice that this young man is in full armor. He has 
thrown back his helmet, giving us a view of his innocent 
face. He looks thoughtful and seems to be either medi- 
tating or else in prayer. His face shows a beautiful 



character. He seems to realize the magnitude of his 
quest and that he must necessarily meet and overcome 
Sin before he returns, or return empty handed. He must 
overcome selfishness. He must forget himself in adminis- 
tering loving service to others. His faithful horse seems 
anxious to start on the journey, but he is in no hurry. He 
is anxious fully to comprehend the importance of his 
search and to have confidence that he is able to come into 
contact with evil and battle with it successfully. 

While the Grail, in search of which Sir Galahad started, 
was symbolized by this cup, in reality, it was the search 
for true wisdom and goodness of character. This can- 
not be attained except by forgetting self and striving to 
help others. Those who succeed are the strong in courage 
and love and the pure in heart. Tennyson represented 
Sir Galahad as being a type of this character. We know 
that Sir Galahad succeeded in finding the Holy Grail 
because of his noble character. 



EXERCISES 

1. Where was George Frederick Watts born? 

2. How did he learn to paint? 

3. With what do his pictures mostly deal? 

4. Who was Sir Galahad? 

5. What was the legend of the Holy Grail? 

6. Describe this picture. 

7. What in this picture tells you whether or not Sir Galahad is 
likely to succeed in his search? 

8. What do you like best about the picture? 



Hard features every bungler can command : 
To draw true beauty shows a master's hand. 

— Dry den 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE SONG OF THE LARK 

JULES BRETON 



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JULES ADOLPHE BRETON 

Jules Adolphe Breton (1827-1906) was born at Cour- 
rieres, France. He was educated at St. Omer and Donai 
and trained as a painter under Felix Devigne, at Ghent. 
His earliest paintings were based upon stories from the 
French Revolution, but he became dissatisfied with these 
and took up painting of peasant life, which he treated 
in a most poetic manner. He was a good technician 
except in his later work, but as an original thinker, as a 
pictorial poet, he does not show the intensity of some other 
painters of peasant life. 

He received many medals for his work, among 
them, a medal of honor at the Salon of 1872. In 1896 
he was made a member of the French Institute and was 
appointed a Commander of the Legion of Honor in 1889. 

Breton especially excels in his pictures of the laboring 
people, such as: The Gleaners; The Song of the Lark; 
The Recall of the Gleaners; The Weeders; and The 
Gypsies. 



THE SONG OF THE LARK 

There is no artist whose pictures of fresh, vigorous out- 
of-door life in the country have more charms than Jules 
Breton's. What could be more eloquent than the little 
scene shown here? It is called "The Song of the Lark" 
and the joyous expression of the face of the peasant girl, 
and her parted lips as she gazes up into the sky, tell us 
that the bird must be pouring out his exquisite song of 
praise to the morning sun and to the Maker of all this 
glory. Behind the hamlet at the edge of the field you 
see the rising sun and you know that a busy day is just 
beginning for the girl who comes with her sickle to the 
field. How strong and hearty she looks! Out-of-door 
life has kept her strong and cheerful and appreciative of 
the beautiful in nature. The general expression of the 
picture is one of strength and joyousness. The look of 
strength is very marked. It is shown in the girl's sturdy 



figure, the very character of the rough ground with its 
well defined shadows, and the bird soaring so high in 
the air that we say it soars to the sun. 

This picture is now in the Art Institute, Chicago. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Breton. 

2. Why is this picture called "The Song of the Lark"? 

3. Where is the lark? 

4. From the picture, what is told you of the girl? 

5. In what country do you think this scene is laid? 

6. To what class of people does this girl belong? Why? 

7. What tells you what her work is? 

8. Why do you think this girl loves her work? 

9. What time of year is it? What time of day? 

10. What do you see in the distance? 

11. What other artist have you studied that paints pictures of 
peasants? 

12. What do you like best about "The Song of the Lark"? 



One picture in the thousand, perhaps, ought to live in 
the applause of mankind, from generation to generation 
until the colors fade and blacken out of sight or the canvas 
rot entirely away. 

— Hawthorne 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE SOWER 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 



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JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 

Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875) was born in Nor- 
mandy, France, of hardy peasant stock, and is familiarly 
known as the "peasant painter of France." As a boy, he 
lived a rugged out-of-door life, helping his father in the 
fields. When he could no longer repress his desire to 
become an artist he went away to study. When he re- 
turned, he was a great painter, but still remained a true 
peasant at heart. He set up his home and studio in the 
village of Barbizon, not far from Paris. Here lived the 
peasants who plowed, sowed, cultivated, and reaped, and 
Millet delighted to wander out and sketch them at their 
labor or converse with the woodcutters, the charcoal 
burners, or the fagot gatherers. 

Millet's home in Paris had been one of poverty, dis- 
couragement and sadness. Oftentimes he did not know 
where his next meal was coming from. In Barbizon, he 
was at least able to get food for his little ones from his 
garden, and he could have near him his brother artists 
Dupre, Rousseau, Corot and Barye, who appreciated his 
efforts and to whom his artistic message was not spoken 
in vain. 

Millet was so full of sympathy with human life, that 
in his first pictures very little attention was given to the 
landscape; but later he was educated to the fact that there 
is a good bond between man and nature, and that a picture 
to be a true interpretation must harmonize the one with 
the other. In all of his later pictures, therefore, the 
landscape and the figures seem to be in perfect harmony. 

The figures in his pictures are neither artistic nor grace- 
ful, but they show great expression and goodness of 
character and look as if they were really a part of their 
surroundings. This was the life of which, in the fullness 
of his heart, he said: "The peasant subjects suit my tem- 
perament best, for I must confess that the human side 
of life is what touches me most." 

He died without having been appreciated. Three 
nations are now striving in friendly rivalry to secure his 
masterpieces. 



THE SOWER 

It is twilight, and because of the gathering shadows 
which are gradually closing down over the scene, we can 
scarcely distinguish the features of the figure in the picture. 
Only the outline of the weary, trudging body is visible 
against the higher background. 

Every line of the figure, the position of the foot just 
ready to take another stride, the wide swing of the arm 
in the act of casting the grain, the grasp of the bag, the 
firm-set lips, all show a stern determination; for the 
sowing of the seed is an important matter of life and death 
to the French peasant. 

Often before beginning the sowing, the peasant throws 
up a handful of grain in such a way as to form a cross, 
offering a prayer for a blessing on the seed. On the har- 
vest depend the lives of himself and his family. There- 
fore he is under a grave responsibility. He must choose 
the right kind of weather and the best of seed. He must 
sow it neither too lavishly nor too sparingly. Is it small 
wonder that he takes his task so seriously? 

Some of the other pictures painted by Millet are: 
The Sheep Shearers; The Gleaners; The Angelus; The 
Shepherdess with Her Flock. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Millet. 

2. What did the great masters of that time think of Millet's work? 

3. How do Millet's later pictures differ from those painted in 
the early part of his life? 

4. Where does the Sower live? To what class of people does he 
belong? 

5. What has he in his bag? 

6. What is he doing? 

7. What do you see in the distance? What kind of a plow is the 
man using? 

8. What time of year is it? How can you tell? 

9. What do you like best about the picture? 



Those devoted men who have upheld the standard of 
truth and beauty amongst us, and whose pictures, painted 
amidst difficulties that none but a painter can know, 
show qualities of mind unsurpassed in any age — these 
great men have but a narrow circle that can understand 
their works, and are utterly unknown to the great mass 
of people: civilization is so much against them, that they 
cannot move the people. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



i<r ?Hg 



SPIRIT OF 76 

ARCHIBALD M. WILLARD 



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ARCHIBALD M. WILLARD 

Had it not been for a Fourth of July celebration in 
Cleveland, Ohio, perhaps the subject of our sketch would 
have been unknown to us. Mr. Willard was a carriage 
painter in Cleveland, Ohio, in the early seventies. Be- 
sides this he painted pictures and had them lithographed 
and helped to support his family by selling them. 

One day he met a friend on the street who asked him 
to paint a Fourth of July picture. He consented gladly 
and the picture attracted so much attention that it was 
sent to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 
1876. It appealed to the hearts of the great mass of 
people who attended the exposition, and won for Willard 
the recognition that he deserved. Willard ceased to be 
a carriage painter and devoted his time to painting 
pictures. This picture, however, was his masterpiece. 
It seemed to inspire the people with patriotic pride in 
their country and won the hearts of the people. 

Artists have criticized this picture very severely from 
the standpoint of technique, but it will always stir the 
hearts of the American people. It belongs to the city 
of Marblehead, Massachusetts, having been presented to 
them by General Devereaux at the close of the Exposition 



SPIRIT OF '76 

The spirit of true patriotism lights up the faces we see 
in this picture. The picture brings to us a comparison 
of our own times with those experienced by our forefathers 
of the Revolution. 

We imagine the central figure, the old man, has left 
the plow and, with that stern determination to serve his 
country which marks the people of those days, marches 
forth "to do or die." Notice his clear, firm eye, which 
seems to be gazing ahead, defying danger; his animated 
face; and his whole body, which seems to be thrilled with 
suppressed emotion. 



The fifer, inspired by his desire to answer his country's 
call, defies danger; and, forgetful of himself, sends forth 
the strains of music which give zeal and inspiration and 
which urge on the shattered file of colonial troops drawn 
up in the rear to strike for freedom. One can easily 
imagine that these three are father, son, and grandson. 

The boy watches the old man who is their leader. He, 
too, has caught the spirit of the times and fears no danger. 
"Music hath charms" and in times of war, patriotic 
music "stirs the hearts of men." This boy beats his drum 
and keeps time for the company, thinking only of his duty, 
while the soldier carrying the stars and stripes waves 
his hat and cheers for his country. A dying soldier 
exhibits his love for his country by cheering his company 
as they pass by. Determination and. defiance character- 
ized the spirit of our forefathers when they entered the 
war of the revolution. This is the kind of people who 
gave to us a free country and who died that their country 
might be free. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Willard. 

2. What was his occupation? 

3. How did he come to paint "Spirit of '76"? 

4. What important event was taking place in 1776? 

5. Describe this picture as it appeals to you. 

6. What do we owe these people who left their plows and entered 
the Revolution? 

7. Tell something of the spirit of those times, as shown by this 
picture. 

8. Point out the most striking things about the picture. 



Painting with all its technicalities, difficulties, and 
peculiar ends, is nothing but a noble and expressive 
language, invaluable as the vehicle of thought, but by 
itself nothing. — Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




SPRING 

JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 



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JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE COROT 

Corot was born in Paris on July 26, 1796. His father 
was a poor shop-keeper of peasant descent, who sold 
ribbons and laces. At the age of ten, Corot was sent to 
a boarding school at Rouen. After he returned to Paris, 
his father bought a country house on the outskirts of the 
city. Here the boy would sit half the night, gazing out 
thru his window at the sky, the water, and the fantastic 
shadows cast by the great trees. 

At an early age he was made apprentice in a cloth-shop, 
where he worked for eight years. Finally, however, he 
gained courage enough to state his ambition to his father. 
He was met with no particular remonstrance but was 
warned that he would receive only enough money to 
keep him from starving. Corot gladly agreed to these 
terms and began his new work immediately. 

After the death of his first master, Michallon, Corot 
entered the Paris studio of Victor Bertin. In 1827, he 
made his first exhibition at the Salon, but it was not un- 
until nineteen years later that his reward came. At the 
close of the Salon exhibition in 1846, at which he exhibited 
his painting entitled, "The Forest of Fontainebleau," 
he received, in his fiftieth year, the Cross of the Legion 
of Honor, the highest honor that can be bestowed upon 
an artist. 

He was unselfish to the utmost degree and was always 
ready with his purse to help the needy. When asked 
concerning his lifetime generosity he said, "It is my tem- 
perament and my pleasure. I can earn money again so 
quickly, just by painting a little branch. Charity always 
brings me in more than it costs me for I can work better 
with a heart at easq." 

It is interesting to know that Corot spent his summers 
at Barbizon and in the Forest of Fontainebleau, which he 
dearly loved. This is the place where at the same time, 
Millet, his contemporary in poverty studied the life 
of the toiling peasants and painted his famous pictures. 

On February 23, 1875, Corot passed away murmuring 



of beautiful landscapes and of the happy hours he had 
spent with nature. 



SPRING 

Upon the first glance at this poet-artist's picture of 
Spring, we are inclined to ask, "Can this be real, this 
dreamy, misty vision of delicate leaves and gleaming 
waters?" But we see a maiden reaching for some attrac- 
tive leaves of a silvery birch, and two little children are 
there, too, one gathering flowers at the foot of the tree, 
the other reaching up her arms to the sky from sheer joy. 
This is Spring in all her loveliness. 

Here as never before, we realize the artist's power to 
truly portray nature at her best. Corot was a master 
painter, a singer, a poet. Can we not seem to feel all 
three of these gifts as we gaze at the lovely scene before 
us? Its shimmering delicacy seems to be a work of the 
soul rather than of the hand. There is not one harsh 
note in this whole artistic creation, for Corot, the happy 
tender poet of the brush, saw only the good in nature 
and man alike. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell the story of Corot's early life. 

2. What traits of Corot's character are brought out in his 
paintings? 

3. How does Corot show his power to portray nature in his 
picture, "Spring"? 

4. What signs of spring do you find in the picture? 

5. What force are the figures in the picture? 

6. In what way may this picture be compared with a poem? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



The enemy of art is the enemy of nature. Art is nothing 
but the highest sagacity and exertion of human nature; 
and what nature will he honor who honors not the human. 

— Lavater 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




STRATFORD-ON-AVON 



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STRATFORD-ON-AVON 

The beautiful scene before us presents a view of Strat- 
ford-on-Avon. There is a general atmosphere of com- 
munity pride and reverence for the memories of the im- 
mortal Shakespeare. We notice the well paved streets, 
the grassy lawns and green fields, the great elms, and 
the carefully kept shrubbery on the banks of the Avon. 
But the beautiful curving expanse of water is an object 
of rare beauty. It is said that more than thirty thousand 
pilgrims go to Stratford each year to visit the birthplace 
of William Shakespeare who was born in the "Shakes- 
peare House," April 23, 1564. 

The great church spire, which is the central object of 
architectural interest in the picture, is that of the Church 
of the Holy Trinity, the burial place of the Bard of Avon. 
Inside of this church is a marble bust of Shakespeare, 
below which is a large flat stone bearing the well-known 
inscription : 

"Good Friend, for Jesus' sake forbear 

To dig the dust enclosed here. 

Blest be the man that spares these stones, 

Curst be he that moves my bones." 
For three centuries this epitaph has guarded the resting 
place of the great dramatist. 

Stratford is famous for its other historical landmarks. 
Not far from Stratford is the famous Ann Hathaway's 
cottage where the wife of Shakespeare lived in her youth. 
But aside from the church, the object of greatest interest 
is the house where Shakespeare was born. The house, 
which has not become national property, has undergone 
several changes since the days of Shakespeare, but the 
framework, floors, and most of the interior walls remain 
as they were in the poet's youth. Another house of great 
interest is the half-timbered Harvard House, restored by 
Marie Corelli and presented in 1909 to Harvard Uni- 
versity by Edward Morris. It bears the date 1596. 
This house is now used as a clubhouse for American 
visitors to the Shakespeare home. 



The charm of this picture grows with familiarity. The 
soft, fleecy cloud that lingers like a halo above the scene, 
the line of the hills in the soft haze of the distance, the 
general suggestion of dignity, civic pride and prosperity, 
make the picture one of lasting charm. 



EXERCISES 

1. What gives fame to Stratford? 

2. What interest centers about the Church of the Holy Trinity? 

3. How is one likely to be impressed by the fact that many people 
annually visit Shakespeare's tomb? 

4. Name some other objects of interest in Stratford. 

5. What constitutes the unusual charm of this picture? 



Art quickens nature; care will make a face; 
Neglected beauty perisheth apace. 

— Herrick 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




SUFFER LITTLE CHILDREN TO COME 
UNTO ME 

BERNHARD PLOCKHORST 



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BERNHARD PLOCKHORST 

Bernhard Plockhorst was born in Brunswick, March 
2, 1825. He first studied under Piloty in Munich and 
later under Couture in Paris. He traveled widely study- 
ing the works of the best artists and searching for sub- 
jects for his art. He visited the art galleries in Holland, 
Belgium, France, and Italy. He was especially charmed 
with the scenes in and around Venice. On his return, 
he lived for a time in Leipsic, then in Berlin. For three 
years, 1866 to 1869, he was a professor in the Weimar 
Art School. 

Plockhorst excelled in portrait painting, but left many 
excellent historical and religious works among which are: 
The Exposure of Moses; The Finding of Moses; Mater 
Dolorosa; Resurrection; Christ's Walk to Emmaus; Gift 
from Heaven; Guardian Angel. 



SUFFER LITTLE CHILDREN TO COME UNTO ME 

One day as Jesus was about to enter the city, the women 
of the place who had heard of His coming sent ahead of 
Him, gathered together and brought out their children 
for Him to bless. 

Jesus was very weary from His journey and when 
His disciples saw so many people waiting for Him they 
rebuked them and asked them not to trouble the Master. 
However, Jesus rebuked His disciples for wishing to send 
the children away and said, "Suffer the little children 
to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the 
Kingdom of Heaven. Verily I say unto you, whoso- 
ever shall not receive the Kingdom of God as a little 
child, shall in no wise enter therein." Then He took 
the children up in His arms and blessed them. 

This picture represents this particular entry of Jesus 
into the city. In the center Christ sits on the stone 
curbing of the fountain. He is dressed simply and His 
pure white mantle falls in picturesque folds upon the 
stones at His side. The little one in His arms clings to 



Him lovingly, and the others nearby are eager for the 
touch of His hand and the blessing of His sweet voice. 
From far and near they come, sure of the welcome which 
never fails. 

In the foreground sits a dark-haired young mother, 
who is listening with bent head and interested face to 
the story of her little son, encircled by her arm. He is 
pointing with his hand, filled with lilies of the valley, 
toward the Saviour. He has evidently felt the pressure 
of the heavenly hand and is filled with the happiness of 
the blessing received. On the right, is a shepherd who 
has guided his flock to the fountain. 



OF SUCH IS THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN 

I think when I read that sweet story of old 

When Jesus was here among men, 

How He called little children as lambs to His fold, 

I should like to have been with Him then. 

I wish that His hands had been placed on my head, 

That His arm had been thrown around me, 

That I might have seen His kind look when He said 

"Let the little ones come unto Me." 

In that beautiful place He has gone to prepare 

For all who are washed and forgiven, 

Many dear children shall be with Him there, 

For "Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." 

But thousands and thousands who wander and fall 

Never heard of that heavenly home; 

I wish they could know there is room for them all 

And that Jesus has bid them to come. 

I long for the joy of that glorious time 

The sweetest, the brightest, the best, 

When the dear children of every clime 

Shall crowd to His arms and be blest. 

— Jermima Thompson Luke. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell something of the life of Plockhorst. 

2. What kind of pictures did he love to paint? 

3. Who forms the center of the picture? 

4. How is Jesus dressed and what does He seem to be doing? 

5. What does He say as He blesses the children? 

6. Describe the mother and child in the foreground. What 
does the child hold in his hand? What is he probably telling 
his mother? 

7. Who are the men in the background? 

8. What do you suppose these men are doing there? 

9. Why did Jesus' disciples not want the women to bring their 
children to Him? 

10. What do you like best about this picture? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 



5413 




SUNBEAMS 

M. KURZWELLY 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
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schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
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Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



M. KURZWELLY 

M. Kurzwelly is a noted landscape painter who now 
lives in Berlin. His "Sunbeams" and "Brightness of the 
Sea" have attracted very favorable comment. He now 
spends his time painting in Berlin. 



SUNBEAMS 

"Sunbeams," by Kurzwelly, is a restful scene, portray- 
ing a quiet village nestled at the foot of a slope toward the 
sea, and shrouded in the mellow light of departing day. 
There is a long stretch of sea, beyond which hangs a wide 
cloud which veils the sun. The horizon line more than 
one-half of the way across the picture is made up of a long 
narrow stretch of land, suggesting an island. The village 
calls to mind a fishing village, for several boats are seen 
along the beach toward which the waves of the sea are 
gently rolling. There are two "clumps" of trees, one 
on the right, and one on the left. A line of blue smoke curls 
from the chimney of the house in the foreground. Notice 
about the chimney the protection for the thatched roof. 
We seem to stand upon an eminence in the foreground 
and gaze beyond the village and across the sea to the 
bright spot of light above which hangs a long underlying 
rift of clouds. 

The picture takes its name from the corner of the 
greatest light. In fact, the entire picture is lighted from 
the reflection of the sunshine in the sea. In this respect 
we are reminded of another picture by the same painter 
entitled, "Brightness of the Sea." Simplicity is the key- 
note of the picture. The artist has suggested much with 
small attention to detail. The picture to the left of the 
middle ground is made up almost exclusively of curved 
lines, thus emphasizing the fact that we view the scene 
from an eminence. The graceful curves of the masses of 
foliage are also noticeable. 
Altho no people are present, still the artist has con- 



tinued to avoid the appearance of loneliness in the scene. 
We can imagine the effect upon the beholder if the houses 
and the boats were taken out of the scene. Few modern 
artists have succeeded so well in painting light and its 
effects, as has Kurzwelly. His pictures have individuality 
almost as strong as some of the older masters of style such 
as Corot or Turner. For those who like the quiet "human- 
ized" landscapes, nothing better can be found than "Sun- 
beams." 



EXERCISES 

1. What in the picture helps to make this a restful scene? 

2. What keeps this from being a lonely place? 

3. Why has the picture been named "Sunbeams"? 

4. What makes the picture so simple? 

5. How has the artist supplied the human element? 

6. In what does Kurzwelly excel as an artist? 



There's no way of getting good Art, I repeat, but one 
— at once the simplest and most difficult — namely, to 
enjoy it. Examine the history of nations, and you will 
find this great fact clear and unmistakable on the front 
of it — that good Art has only been produced by nations 
who rejoiced in it; fed themselves with it, as if it were 
bread; basked in it, as if it were sunshine; shouted at 
the sight of it; danced with the delight of it; quarreled 
for it; fought for it; starved for it; did, in fact, precisely 
the opposite with it of what we want to do with it — 
they made it to keep, and we to sell. 

— John Ruskin 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




ALFRED TENNYSON 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
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ALFRED TENNYSON 

Alfred Tennyson was born in Lincolnshire, in 1809. 
He was the fourth of twelve children, eight sons and 
four daughters. He came from a family of strong char- 
acters but was of a moody disposition, a trait of the 
father inherited by his children to some extent. His 
father became so melancholy at times that it had a de- 
pressing effect upon the children. He scoffed at the idea 
of his children writing poetry. The two boys, however, 
secretly wrote poems and persuaded their mother to walk 
with them so they could read their poems to her. Tenny- 
son often said "All that there is of good and kind in any 
of us came from her tender heart." 

Alfred was very dark and was frequently taken for a 
foreigner. When he was seven years of age he went to 
Louth School which he loathed. His father had taught 
him some and when he went to school he learned enough 
of the classics to appreciate them. Words charmed him 
and he took particular delight in musical phrases. 

W T hen Alfred was seventeen years of age he and his 
brother wrote a little volume called "Poems by Two 
Brothers." They sold this for twenty francs and had 
to take half pay in books. 

In 1828 Alfred and his brother entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Alfred was very much dissatisfied with his 
school and wrote home that it consisted too much of 
dry facts. He said, "None but dry-headed, calculating, 
angular, little gentlemen can take delight in it." He 
had such a striking personality, such handsome features, 
that he made a very good impression in this school. 
His associates were quite remarkable characters: Sped- 
ding, who edited and re-edited the Life of Bacon; Milnes, 
who afterwards became Lord Houghton; Alford, after- 
wards Dean of Canterbury; Blakesley, afterwards Dean 
of Lincoln; Merivale, afterwards Dean of Ely; and 
Arthur Hallam, one of the great historians. Tennyson 
did not give his Cambridge school credit for having given 
him power but he did give credit to his associates. He 



loved Hallam dearly. They had studied and walked and 
talked and planned together. A great blow came to 
Tennyson in 1833 when Hallam suddenly passed away. 
Tennyson grieved deeply over the loss, and later produced 
the memorable poem, "In Memoriam." 

In 1842 he published two volumes containing a col- 
lection of his earlier poems, of which Carlyle said, "That 
to read it was to feel the pulse of a strong man's heart — 
a right valiant, true, fighting, victorious heart." 

In 1847 he published "The Princess." The year 1850 
seemed to be a memorable one for Tennyson. He was 
married to Emily Sarah S. Ellwood, who sustained and 
encouraged and devoted the rest of her life to him. He 
was also made poet-laureate this year. In 1853 he was 
offered the Rectorship of the University of Edinburgh 
which he refused. In 1855 he was offered the Oxford 
D. C. L. suggested by the Archbishop of Canterbury 
which he accepted. From this time on he and his wife 
visited the poor and sick of the town, cared for their 
farm by mowing weeds, gathering up leaves, collecting 
flowers, studying the birds, took long walks alone or with 
friends. He was a congenial companion for his boys, 
walking and riding and discussing everything under the 
sun with them. During this year Tennyson might be 
found in a high backed chair in the upper story writing 
poems. In 1855 he received a compliment which must 
have been a great encouragement to one who loved his 
work so intensely. The English soldiers at Crimea be- 
came enthusiastic over "The Charge of the Light Bri- 
gade." He immediately had a thousand copies printed 
and sent to them. In 1855, he became an intimate 
friend of the Brownings. They were very fond of him, 
and Mrs. Browning and Mrs. Tennyson became very 
intimate friends. About this time, his poem "Maud" 
had been severely criticized, but with the proceeds of 
this he bought Farringford, his country home, where 
they and their friends were very happy. 

In 1861 the Prince Consort died and Tennyson wrote 
"Dedication to the Idylls" what has long been considered 



the simplest and most complimentary poem ever written. 
As a result of this, Tennyson had his first conference with 
Queen Victoria which resulted in a very intimate friend- 
ship between them. 

He wrote "Enoch Arden" in 1864 and in 1869 he 
wrote "Lucretius," which was published in Macmillan's 
Magazine. These poems were later followed by "Idylls 
of the King." 

On his eightieth birthday he received many letters 
expressing the admiration and love of his friends. After 
reading one he said, " I don't know what I have done to 
make people feel this way unless it is that I have always 
kept my faith in immortality." 

In October 1889, he wrote "Crossing the Bar," one 
of the prettiest poems ever written. He composed this 
poem one day as he was going from Aldworth to Farring- 
ford. His greatest poems are : The Idylls, Maud, 
and In Memoriam. In his last illness he called for a 
copy of Shakespeare and they read some passages to him. 
When the doctor came he said, "Death"?, and when the 
doctor nodded "yes" he said, "That is well." He was 
buried in Westminster Abbey being borne there by twelve 
of the most distinguished men in England. 

EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Tennyson born? 

2. Tell something of his early life. 

3. What were his first published poems? 

4. How do we know that his mother was kind and sympathetic? 

5. Where did he first attend school? Where did he attend 
college? 

6. Who were his best friends? 

7. Who was Carlyle? What did he say of some of Tennyson's 
early poems? 

8. Why was the year 1850 an eventful one? What was Farring- 
ford? 

9. Who were the Brownings? 

10. Name some of Tennyson's best poems. 

11. How did he happen to have his first conference with Queen 
Victoria? 

12. When and where did Tennyson die? What individual was a 
life-long help to him and critic for him? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THOROUGHBREDS 

HEYWOOD HARDY 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
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schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



HEYWOOD HARDY 

Heywood Hardy was born in England, where he still 
lives. He has painted a number of groups of persons 
and animals. His pictures have been exhibited in the 
Royal Academy and at the Grosvenor Art Gallery. 



THOROUGHBREDS 

"Thoroughbreds," by Hardy, is a picture loved by 
children. It represents a charming English girl, offering 
an apple to her favorite riding horse. Two pet dogs look 
up into the face of their mistress and ask for attention. 
The background of the picture is made up entirely of a 
mass of green foliage with just a touch of soft summer sky. 

The grace, refinement, and beauty of the girl; the rare 
intelligence and gentleness of the horse, all carry out the 
idea of exceptional worth, the thought that the artist 
desired to convey in naming the picture "Thoroughbreds." 

Of the three domestic animals, the horse, the sheep 
and the dog, the horse has always appealed most strongly 
to painters and writers. These dumb animals have been 
the friends of man, accompanying him wherever he has 
gone to take up his abode in unknown lands. In Oriental 
countries, especially in Arabia, the horse has been con- 
sidered more useful than either the dog or the sheep. 
The service rendered man by this faithful companion, the 
horse, makes him deserving of the greatest kindness. 
In the picture the horse looks upon the girl with that 
attachment born of kindness. The girl has put on her 
riding suit and is prepared for a long ride into the country. 
We note especially the unusual look of intelligence of this 
horse. Aside from his intelligence, the sleek coat, and 
his fine bearing make him a rival of the girl for attention 
from the beholder. 

The picture is in the nature of a portrait. The stone 
steps to the left of the picture probably lead from the home 
of the girl. We can imagine that the scene is laid on 



some fine old English estate in the days when it was a 
popular pastime for men and women to ride and drive 
blooded horses. 



EXERCISES 

1. What do you see in this picture? 

2. What thought does the artist convey in the word "thoro- 
breds"? 

3. What seems to you to make each of the leading characters a 
"thorobred"? 

4. Describe the setting. 

5. Where is the probable scene of the picture? 

6. Why has the horse been the favorite subject of painters? 

7. Why is the Arab especially devoted to his horse? 

8. What touches do you like best in the picture? 



The most important part of painting is to know what 
is most beautiful in nature, and most proper for that art; 
that which is the most beautiful is the most noble subject. 

— Dryden 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THREE MEMBERS OF A TEMPERANCE 
SOCIETY 

JOHN FREDERICK HERRING 



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JOHN FREDERICK HERRING 

John Frederick Herring was born in Surrey, England, 
in 1795. His father was a London tradesman, born in 
America. Herring's first ambition to paint horses came 
from seeing them in action at the St. Leger races at 
Doncaster, where he had gone in search of employment. 
From this time he was alternately stage driver and painter 
of the animals he loved so well. At last he achieved 
such great success that he devoted his whole time to 
painting, and gained a reputation in his special line second 
to no other in England. Of his many pictures "Pharaoh's 
Horses" is perhaps the most popularly known. He died 
at Tunbridge, Kent, in England, in 1865. 

THREE MEMBERS OF A TEMPERANCE SOCIETY 

This is a picture of three horses quenching their thirst 
in the clear, cool water of the fountain. Notice the 
three different types, each having a beauty of intelligence 
as it is seen in the faces of few animals. The one far- 
thest from us seems intent on satisfying his thirst, but the 
white horse and the one nearest the front of the picture 
have just lifted their heads, with the water dripping from 
their mouths, as if listening to something unseen and 
unheard by us. 

What gentle creatures they are with their great, in- 
telligent eyes, and sleek, shining coats! No doubt they 
are the favorites of a loved and loving master. Per- 
haps some little boy or girl likes to rub their velvety 
noses and feed them bits of bread and lumps of sugar 
which every horse loves. Compare these horses with 
those in Rosa Bonheur's "Horse Fair." 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Herring. 

2. What was his father's occupation? 

3. How did Herring first come to paint horses? 

4. What is his best known picture? 

5. Describe "Three Members of a Temperance Society." 

6. What difference do you see in the expression on the face of 
the white horse and that of the one nearest the front of the 
picture? 

7. What do you think these two horses see before them? 

8. Why do you think this picture is called "Three Members of a 
Temperance Society? " 

9. What do you especially like about this picture? 



A painter may make a better face than ever was, but 
he must do it by a kind of felicity, as a musician that 
maketh an excellent air in music, and not by rule. 

— Bacon 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




THE VICTOR OF THE GLEN 

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
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schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER 

Sir Edwin Landseer was born in the outskirts of London, 
on March 7, 1802. His father, an artist, took a deep interest 
in his son's artistic tendencies, which began to show at a 
very early age. Some of the lad's youthful studies are 
preserved at South Kensington Museum, London, and, 
from the notes they bear, indicate that they were made 
when the artist was only five or six years old. 

This artist showed no fondness for books, so his father, 
believing that his son's artistic ability should be developed 
to the utmost, entered him at the Royal Academy at the 
age of fourteen. At a very early age he had begun to 
show a preference for the dog above all other animals, 
so at the Academy he was known as "the little dog-boy." 

In 1824, he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbotsford, Scotland. So deeply impressed was he by 
the beauty of the scenery and of the animals, that he 
rarely failed to visit Scotland every year after this. 

Queen Victoria, from the time of her accession to the 
throne of England, had been an ardent admirer of Land- 
seer's skill, and one of his chief patrons. He became 
the court artist and was kept busily employed painting 
pictures of pet animals and portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. He also instructed the King and 
Queen in etching. In 1850, Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood upon the artist, and from that time 
on, he was known as Sir Edwin Henry Landseer. 

It is interesting to know of Landseer's progress in the 
Royal Academy. From being an ordinary student, he 
was elected as Associate in the Academy in 1826. In 
1831, he was elected to full membership, and in 1865 he 
was offered the presidency of the Academy, but refused 
on account of his failing health. He died October 1, 
1873. 

THE VICTOR OF THE GLEN 

This picture, known as " The Victor of the Glen, "presents 
Landseer in his most striking characteristic as a portrayer 



of the dramatic side and of the tragedies of the animal 
world. 

The scene here represented is in the Scottish highlands. 
Long stretches of mountain peaks appear in the distance, 
with great clouds breaking away over them as the day 
grows brighter. Three female deer, guarded by the 
favorite male of the herd, are near a spring of mountain 
water where a second male has come to drink, or perhaps 
to offer himself as a rival leader of the herd. The two 
stags have fought until the weaker has fallen mortally 
wounded by the side of the spring. The victor, the chief 
figure in the picture, stands boldly above his fallen rival, 
sounding forth a challenge of victory, that echoes from 
peak to peak. The three does in the background look 
on in mute admiration. The gruesomeness of the tragedy 
is suggested by the mountain eagles gathering in the dis- 
tance for what they know will soon be a feast. The 
wounds of the fallen deer, the broken horn lying on the 
ground, his exhausted but defiant look, add to the dra- 
matic quality of the scene. The struggle is intensified 
by the suggestion of the new day, with the breaking away 
of the clouds, and by the lovely spot, rich with mountain 
grasses and dotted with highland flowers. 



EXERCISES 

1. What tells that Landseer was an unusually talented youth? 

2. What honors did he win? 

3. What is Landseer's manner of picturing animals? 

4. Tell the story of this picture. 

5. What in the picture tells of the nature of the struggle? 

6. What in the picture suggests the time and place of the scene? 

7. What do you like best about the picture? 



To feel beauty is a better thing than to understand 
how we come to feel it. To have imagination and taste, 
to love the best, to be carried by the contemplation of 
nature to a vivid faith in the ideal, all this is more, a 
great deal more, than any science can hope to be. The 
poets and philosophers who express this aesthetic experi- 
ence and stimulate the same function in us by their 
example do a greater service to mankind and deserve 
higher honor that the discoverers of historical truth. 

— George Santayana 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 



4531 


&z 


• - ■ i 


". ^^ 









WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE 

EMANUEL LEUTZE 



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EMANUEL LEUTZE 

Emanuel Leutze was born in Wurtemberg in 1816. 
On account of political discontent, his father, who was 
a German mechanic, left his native land and settled in 
Philadelphia. When he was twenty-five he had obtained 
enough money from the sale of pictures to take him to 
Europe. Leutze went to Dusseldorf, where he soon won 
a reputation as a historical painter. His picture "Colum- 
bus before the Council of Salamanca" was admired so 
much that the Dusseldorf Art Union purchased it. His 
pictures are full of action and dramatic inspiration. 

From Dusseldorf, Leutze went to Italy, then to Ger- 
many, where he married the daughter of a German 
officer. He came to America, where he found great pros- 
pects for an American historical painter. This was 
shortly before the Civil War, and books and pictures 
swayed the mass of people and were eagerly sought for. 

Leutze's artist friends and others, when the time came 
for him to leave for America, gave a banquet in his honor 
as evidence of the high esteem in which he was held. This 
banquet was held in the "Mahlkasten" which was the 
painter's club room, and he was welcomed with the clang 
of a brass band. 

Altho Leutze became a naturalized American citizen, 
he adhered closely to the ideas of his two masters in 
Dusseldorf. Because he was a very busy man with a 
Jarge family to support, his pictures were not as perfect 
as he had the talent to make them. There is a general 
boldness and freedom in his pictures, and had he spent 
the time some artists have spent on their work, he could 
have given his paintings more beauty and dignity. 

In his study he would sit for a long time thinking, then 
perhaps enter into a lively romp with his children and 
dogs, after which he would return, seeming to have 
caught the inspiration, and enter upon his task with a 
"hearty good cheer." 

Among his best pictures are: Landing of the North- 



men; Columbus; John Knox and Mary Stuart; Crom- 
well and his daughters. 

WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE 

In this picture we have the true spirit of bravery, the 
bravery that will face peril without flinching, that will 
forfeit even life itself for one's country. Notice the 
small boat packed with soldiers, the floating pieces of 
ice, the men themselves who are putting forth every 
effort to reach the other shore, and above all, the calm, 
powerful figure at the front end of the boat, in whose face 
and form is seen no sign of shrinking from duty, no nervous 
anxiety, as he stands there among his men with danger 
on every side. This is a typical picture of General Wash- 
ington who crossed the Delaware on Christmas night, 
1776, with a force of less than twenty-five hundred men, 
and marched on Trenton in a furious snow storm. There 
he surprised a body of Hessian soldiers and took a thou- 
sand prisoners and a large quantity of arms and ammuni- 
tion. All this he did with scarcely the loss of a man. It 
was not a bold strike, but a great victory, because it had 
great results. Thousands of patriots had begun to des- 
pair. Now their hearts leaped with joy. It was a 
Christmas long to be remembered. Thus runs the story 
which has come down to us in history of one of the great- 
est of patriots and noblest of men. 

EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Emanuel Leutze. ' 

2. Why did he decide to come to America? 

3. How did his fellow artists honor him when he left Germany? 

4. What general criticism was passed on his pictures? 

5. What is the name of this picture? 

6. What particular reason had Washington for crossing the river 
at night? 

7. What year was this? What time of year was it? 

8. Describe the battle that followed the crossing of the Delaware. 

9. What were the results of this battle? 

10. What was the character of Washington? How is this shown 
in the picture? 

11. How many things in the picture help to tell the story? 

12. What do you like best about the picture? 



The object of Science is knowledge; the object of art 
is works. In art, truth is the means to an end; in 
science it is only an end. — Whewell 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




GEORGE WASHINGTON 

GILBERT STUART 



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GILBERT STUART 

Gilbert Stuart, an American portrait painter, was born 
at Narragansett, Rhode Island, December 3, 1755. At 
the age of thirteen, he painted his first portraits entirely 
without instruction. His first teacher was Cosmo Alex- 
ander who took him to England, and dying, left him in 
poverty and alone to return to America. At the age of 
twenty, Stuart returned to England where he took in- 
struction from Benjamin West. In 1792, he returned 
to America, with the great desire to paint the portrait of 
Washington. With this motive uppermost, he worked 
and painted until his death in 1828. The portraits of 
Washington are the most noted of all Stuart's portraits. 
It was said that Stuart jealously kept his original, selling 
only copies. When he died, the original was sold to the 
Washington Association, and it now hangs beside Stuart's 
Martha Washington in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON 

The commanding figure in American history, George 
Washington, towers high above all other statesmen, save 
Lincoln. He is loved and revered by the whole world as 
a champion of human liberty. When the contest be- 
tween America and the mother-country came, Washington 
was made the leader in America because he was the ablest 
man of his day. It was said of him that, "He was the 
soul of the Revolution. He was security in defeat; 
cheer in despondency, light in darkness, hope in despair, 
the one man in whom all could have confidence. He would 
not stop to thwart the machinations of envy; before the 
effortless might of his character they stole away and 
withered and died." 

We see him as a boy, playing soldier; as a youth making 
journeys in the service of his state, and again as com- 
mander-in-chief of the American forces during the Revolu- 
tion. When the time came to frame the Constitution of 
the United States, he towered above hosts of able, loyal 



statesmen, as Chairman of the Convention. The people 
were hesitating whether to adopt or reject the constitution 
but when they saw the name of "George Washington" 
signed to the document, they knew it was a precious 
document of human liberty. Largely thru his in- 
fluence, the constitution was adopted. When the people 
of the newly established country needed a president, every- 
one, consciously or unconsciously turned to Washington. 
He was elected President of the United States in 1789 
and served eight years. At the close of his administration 
he voluntarily retired to private life. 

In this picture, the most popular portrait of Washing- 
ton, we see the firm, serene face, the tender, kind, in- 
telligent expression, the broad high forehead, the large, 
thoughtful eye. Character is written in every line. 
Poise, leadership, superb intelligence, fine tolerance, 
resistless energy, high conscience, and imperishable 
devotion are all written indelibly in the face of the great 
leader. 



EXERCISES 

1. Sketch briefly the life of Gilbert Stuart. 

2. How does the character of Washington compare with that of 
other statesmen of his day? 

3. Name some of the offices held by him. 

4. How long and when did he serve as president of the United 
States? 

5. Describe the portrait as Stuart has painted it. Why do you 
think the artist kept the original painting himself? 

6. Where is this picture today? 

7. From your knowledge of Washington and from the study of 
this picture, what are some of the characteristics which made 
him great? 



Art is the child of Nature; yes, 
Her darling child in whom we trace 
The features of the mother's face, 
Her aspect and her attitude. 

— Longfellow 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




MARTHA WASHINGTON 

GILBERT STUART 



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THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



GILBERT STUART 

Gilbert Stuart, the most noted portrait painter of the 
time, was born at Narragansett, Rhode Island, in 1755 
His father was a snuff -grinder. At the age of fifteen, the 
lad, entirely self-taught, began to paint portraits. His 
skill and apparent ability attracted the attention of a 
young Scotch artist, Alexander, with whom Stuart went 
to Scotland at the age of seventeen. Two years later he 
returned to America, painting portraits in Newport and 
in Philadelphia. 

In 1775 he went to London where his chief occupation 
was that of organist in a church. In 1778 he entered the 
studio of Benjamin West where he was assistant and 
student. Later he established a studio of his own- 
Returning to America in 1792, he settled down to paint- 
ing portraits which are distributed among the largest 
museums in the country. His reputation as an artist 
comes chiefly from his many portraits of George Washing- 
ton. Shortly after his death in 1828, a collection of two 
hundred fifteen pictures was exhibited at the Boston 
Athenaeum. 

The following portraits are among his most noted ones: 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Martha Washington, George Wash- 
ington, John Jacob Astor, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson* 
John Jay, Edward Everett, and Mrs. Siddons. 



MARTHA WASHINGTON 

Martha Washington, as a young lady, has been described 
as a rustic belle and rosy beauty who helped to grace the 
halls of Governor Dinwiddie's mansion at Williamsburg, 
Virginia, her childhood home. Her education was ob- 
tained in her own home where she was under the super- 
vision of a private governess. 

She was married at a very early age to Colonel Custis- 
For several years, her happiness knew no bounds, but her 
joy was overcome by grief, first in the loss of a son, and 
shortly after by the untimely death of her husband. 



Mrs. Custis was twenty-six years old when she met 
Colonel Washington. Upon their marriage they went to 
Mt. Vernon to make their home. Her new found happi- 
ness received its first blow when she received a letter 
from her husband, written in Philadelphia, June 18, 1775, 
informing her of his appointment by Congress as Com- 
mander-in-chief of the American Army. 

The true womanliness and loving-kindness of Martha 
Washington came to the front at this time as never 
before. During the long tedious years of war when there 
was so much privation and suffering among the soldiers, 
and so many lonely days, she felt it her duty and privilege 
to give of her time and of her stores to the men who were 
fighting for the life of the young country. She would 
spend the winter in her husband's camp with no thought 
of her own discomfort, always thinking of the cheer she 
might bring to the lonely and suffering. Lady Washing- 
ton, as she was universally known, was with her husband 
at Cambridge, at Morristown, and at Valley Forge. 

Washington was scarcely settled in his home at Mt- 
Vernon when he again answered the call of his country 
this time to become its first president. 

Martha Washington as "The First Lady of the Land" 
had a way all her own in conducting the social affairs of 
her station. Her dress was simplicity itself. Placed as 
she was in a position to make a display of worldly goods, 
she chose rather to wear the simplest of gowns, many 
of which were homespun, made by her own servants. 
Yet, in accordance with the wishes of Congress and the 
aristocratic tradition of her own rearing, she observed 
strictly the forms, customs, and ceremonies of foreign 
courts. For eight years she reigned supreme, happy to 
be the wife of the President, but happier still was she at 
the end of that time to go back to her old home near 
the quiet Potomac. 

In 1801, two years after the death of Washington, 
Martha Washington passed away. The following thought 
which she herself expressed is typical of the life she led, 
and accounts, in a measure, for her worth of character: 



"I have learned from experience that the greater part of 
our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions 
and not upon our circumstances. We carry the seeds of 
the one or the other about with us in our minds, wherever 
we go." 

EXERCISES 

1 . Tell the story of Stuart's life. 

2. How did he win his chief distinction? 

3. Name some of his leading portraits. 

4. Where was Martha Washington born? 

5. Tell of her early life and education. 

6. Sketch briefly the chief events of her earlier married life. 

7. How old was she when she met Colonel Washington? 

8. Tell of her early life at Mt. Vernon. 

9. What happened again to cloud her happy life? 

10. What did she do during the war? 

11. What was the motto of her life? 

12. From the picture, what kind of character do you think she 
was? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 



46, 




DANIEL WEBSTER 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 191". The University Publishing Company. 



DANIEL WEBSTER 

Daniel Webster (1782-1852) was born in Salisbury, now 
Franklin, New Hampshire. His father, Ebenezer Web- 
ster, was a distinguished poineer, having built the first 
cabin in Salisbury when there was no other habitation 
between Salisbury and Canada. The elder Webster, 
being especially anxious to school his boys, sent Daniel to 
Phillips Academy and to Dartmouth College from which 
Daniel was graduated in 1801. Young Webster had 
been chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, his college 
town, in 1801. On that occasion he set forth the very 
political principles that made him famous later. 

After graduation, Webster began the study of law, 
but finding himself in need of funds, he accepted a position 
as principal of the Fryeburg Academy, Maine. The 
following year, however, he resumed the study of law. 
In 1804, he went to Boston and completed his law studies 
with Christopher Gore, who later became governor of 
Massachusetts. Webster was admitted to the bar in 
1805 after which he settled down in Portsmouth where 
he rapidly rose to fame. 

With the opening of the War of 1812 came Webster's 
great opportunity to enter upon a political career. He 
became a member of the House of Representatives, and 
Henry Clay, the speaker, appointed him a member of the 
Committee on Foreign Relations of which John C. Cal- 
houn was chairman. For forty years these three men 
dominated American politics. 

Webster's physical endowments as an orator were extra- 
ordinary. He had a wonderful voice, keen piercing 
black eyes, a beetling brow, and great massive shoulders. 
Carlyle after meeting Webster, said : "Not many days ago 
I saw at breakfast the notablest of your notabilities, 
Daniel Webster. He is a magificent specimen. As a 
logician or parliamentary Hercules, one would be in- 
clined to back him at first sight against all the extant 
world. The tanned complexion, that amorphous crag- 
like face; the dull, black eyes under the precipice of brows, 



like dull anthracite furnaces, needing only to be blown; 
the mastiff mouth accurately closed; I have not traced 
so much of silent Berserker rage that I remember in any 
man." 

Webster was prominently connected with important 
affairs and movements, some of which may be enumer- 
ated: (1) In 1820 he was a member of the committee 
called to revise the Constitution of Massachusetts; (2) 
He was a great actor in the tariff agitation of 1828; (3) 
He participated in the great Webster-Hayne debate in 
1829, out of which came his famous utterance, "Liberty 
and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable;" 
(4) He was prominent in the Nullification Agitation in 
1832; (5) His prominence in the Webster-Ashburton 
treaty is known to every student of history; (6) He 
appeared prominently in the Girard Will Case before the 
Supreme Court of the United States; (7) He helped to 
settle the slavery question for Texas; and (8) Thru his 
instrumentality, Kossuth and other Hungarian refugees 
were released from the Turks. He was twice Secretary 
of State. His name was proposed for the Presidency 
but he was never nominated. When he died October 
24, 1852 at his home at Marshfield, Massachusetts, he 
was the most universally mourned next to Washington. 

First of all, this portrait shows intellect, the qualities 
of leadership, and the power of the great orator. We 
note the great forehead, the keen eyes, the beetling 
brows, and the firm-set mouth. There is a suggestion of 
ruggedness and strength. The great orator seems to be 
pondering over some momentous question. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell of the work of Webster's father as an active pioneer. 

2. What was the extent of Webster's schooling? 

3. Tell of his study of law. 

4. With what other great statesmen was he associated for forty 
years? 

5. What was Carlyle's estimate of Webster? 

6. How did Webster help to shape American ideals? 

7. What kind of man does the picture reveal to you? 



PICTURE STUDIES 

ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 

John Greenleaf Whittier was born on a farm near Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 17, 1807. His forefathers 
were Quakers and he was born into the faith, clinging 
all his life to the quaint customs, dress and speech of that 
sect. 

His early education was received in the "district 
school," of which he speaks in "In School Days." Up to 
the time he was fifteen years old, Whittier had read little 
except the Bible, "Pilgrim's Progress," and the weekly 
newspaper. One day his teacher loaned him a copy of 
Burns' poems, which is said to have inspired him to 
attempt to write poetry. When he was nineteen years 
old, his sister sent a specimen of his verse to the "Free 
Press," edited by William Lloyd Garrison. Garrison 
at once became interested in the farmer lad and, over- 
coming the father's remonstrance, sent the boy to Haver- 
hill Academy. 

Whittier was able to attend the academy only until 
he was of age. During his school life he had written 
both prose and poetry for the newspapers. Upon his 
leaving school, he edited the "Manufacturer," a political 
paper, and wrote for the "Philanthropist." But in a 
short time, his father's illness recalled him to his home 
where he spent his time caring for the farm and family. 

In 1866, with the appearance of "Snow-Bound," 
Whittier's reputation became nation wide. A year later 
"The Tent on the Beach" appeared, and from then on he 
devoted his time to writing both poetry and prose. When 
he died in 1892, he had been an active writer for over 
60 years, leaving works that will make his memory, as 
"The Quaker Poet," imperishable. 

Whittier's writings are so real that one sees the pictures 
in the mind's eye as clearly as if the very scene was present. 
The following poem, as part of "Snow-Bound," describes 
the interior of his boyhood home as it always appeared 
in the evening after the chores were done: 



"We piled, with care, our nightly stack 
Of wood against the chimney back, 
The oaken log, green, huge, and thick, 
And on its top the stout hack-stick; 
The knotty fore-stick laid apart, 
And filled between with curious art 
The ragged brush ; then, hovering near, 
We watched the first red blaze appear, 
Heard the sharp crackle, caught the gleam 
On whitewashed wall and sagging beam, 
Until the old, rude-furnished room 
Burst, flower-like, into rosy bloom." 

This home was one of hospitality and good-will. Often 
they entertained from ten to fifty when the Friends had 
meetings. People came for miles and stayed for days. 
At these times they sat around the fireplace telling ghost 
and witch stories until the children were stiff with fright. 
But Whittier did not confine himself to poetry. Prob- 
ably he was one of the strongest influences against slavery 
in America. In 1833 he was a delegate to the National 
Anti-Slavery Convention in Philadelphia. There were 
sixty members present and Whittier was one of the 
secretaries, also one of three to draft their Declaration of 
Independence. 

Whittier's poetry reveals life in all its continuity, and 
unity and the peace that "quiets troubled waters." His 
hymns are sung in every Christian land and have given 
comfort to scores of hungry hearts. He died in 1892 in 
a New Hampshire village. Just forty years had elapsed 
between his "Exiles Departure" and "Snow-Bound." He 
was a contributor to the Altantic Monthly in such poems 
as: The Gift of Tritemius; Skipper Ireson's Ride; Telling 
the Bees; My Psalm; My Playmate; Mountain Pictures; 
and The Eternal Goodness. 



EXERCISES 

1. When and where was Whittier born? 

2. Discuss his description of the home on a winter evening. 

3. Compare Longfellow's advantages with those of Whittier. 

4. Where and when was Whittier's first poem published? 

5. How did Whittier get an opportunity to attend school? . 

6. How have Whittier's poems affected the mass of the people? 

7. From this picture, what kind of man do you think Whittier 
was? 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ORLIN H. VENNER 

Professor of Literature, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Nebraska 




WOODROW WILSON 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred studies 
of the world's famous pictures best adapted for use in the 
schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Seri.s Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company. 



WOODROW WILSON 

Woodrow Wilson affords a splendid illustration of the 
possibilities in the life of the young American who properly 
fits himself for a worthy career. Woodrow Wilson was 
born December 28, 1856, at Staunton, Virginia. He is the 
son of Scotch- Irish parents. His father was a minister in 
the Presbyterian Church. His great career is not the result 
of chance, or the successful outcome of what Americans 
have called a "pull." Young Wilson entered upon the 
life of an earnest and careful student in the public schools 
and finally entered Princeton University. Next he entered 
the University of Virginia. Finally he completed a course 
of study at Johns Hopkins University. Wherever he went, 
Woodrow Wilson attracted attention for his studious 
habits, and for the excellent results of his study. 

Woodrow Wilson was trained to be a lawyer. After 
entering upon the practice of law at Atlanta, Georgia, 
he decided that he was better fitted for an academic 
career. He became Professor of History and Political 
Science at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1888, and 
held the same position at Wesleyan University from 1888 
to 1890. He then became Professor of Jurisprudence 
and Politics at Princeton University from 1890 to 1902. 
He became President of Princeton University in 1902 and 
held that position until 1910, during which time Prince- 
ton's enjoyed great growth and rich endowment. 

Woodrow Wilson was elected Governor of New Jersey 
in 1911 and held that position until 1913. In 1913 the 
highest honor within the reach of any American came 
to him when he was elected President of the United 
States. 

We must not forget that President Wilson takes high 
rank as a writer, his chief contributions to literature 
being: (1) Congressional Government; A Study in 
American Politics, 1905; (2) The State; Elements of 
Historical and Practical Politics, 1899; (3) An American 
History, 1902; and (4) Various Essays in Literature and 
Government. 



No other President of the United States except Lincoln 
ever stood as head of the American people during such 
a crisis as that faced by President Wilson. Lincoln's 
name is immediately associated with the great Civil War, 
and Wilson's name is inseparably linked with "The 
World War" which began in 1914. 

President Wilson is known as one who never makes 
wild or rash statements. He has shown great balance and 
poise, and the gift of a supreme intellect. It has been 
said that he comes nearer meeting Emerson's ideal of 
"man thinking" than has any other President that the 
United States has produced. The conservatism, and 
poise, the superb intellect — "man thinking" is the idea of 
the picture. 



EXERCISES 

1. Describe President Wilson as an illustration of the possibilities 
of the capable young American. 

2. Trace his career as a student. 

3. Why did he give up the practice of law? 

4. Describe President Wilson's work as a teacher. 

5. Of what great University was he the head? 

6. What great government position did President Wilson hold 
prior to the presidency? 

7. Name some of his important writings. 

8. In what respect do the times of Wilson compare with the times 
of Lincoln? 

9. What do you think is shown of Wilson in this picture? 



So I will say that I believe there are two virtues much 
needed in modern life, if it is ever to become sweet; and 
I am quite sure that they are absolutely necessary in the 
sowing the seed of an art which is to be made by the people 
and for the people, as a happiness to the maker and the user. 
These virtues are honesty, and simplicity of life. 

— William Morris 



PICTURE STUDIES 



ALICE FLORER 

Assistant State Superintendent, Lincoln, Nebraska 




THE WINDMILL 

JACOB VAN RUYSDAEL 



This series of Picture Studies includes a hundred 
studies of the world's famous pictures best adapted for 
use in the schools and for schoolroom decoration. 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Chicago and Lincoln 



Series Copyrighted, 1917. The University Publishing Company 



JACOB VAN RUYSDAEL 

This great Dutch landscape painter was born in 
Haarlem, Netherlands, about the year 1628. His father 
was a maker of picture-frames. The lad learned his first 
lesson in art from Salomon van Ruysdael, his uncle. At 
the age of twenty years, the boy was enrolled in the 
Haarlem Guild of St. Luke where he studied art. Several 
years later he took up his permanent residence at Amster- 
dam. While here he was a master and among his pupils 
was Minderhout Hobbema, the painter of "The Avenue 
of Middelharnis." 

His first pictures represent that inborn gift of por- 
traying nature as she is. He lived very close to nature. 
In his boyhood days he loved to roam thru the wooded 
hills and the open country and wander along the sea- 
shore. His inspiration began there and we see in his 
first attempts a minuteness of detail. Later, his works 
improved greatly. He paid less attention to detail work 
and more to the general effect. The sky, at times clear 
and mild, at others, gray and lowering, full of tumbling 
clouds, occupies in some of his pictures the greater portion 
of the canvas. 

This was the time of Ruysdael's life when he should 
have come into his own in the world of art, but the people 
of his native land failed to grasp and to appreciate the 
great artistic message which this nature artist was 
offering them. His tender spirit was hurt; he must find 
some way in which to please. Perhaps if he were to 
follow the lead of another artist he would be met with 
the approval he so longed for. He was induced to imitate 
the manner of Everdingen, the Swedish landscape painter. 
How superior Ruysdael was to Everdingen has since 
been recognized and it has been truthfully said, "In his 
scenes of wild solitude with their plunging cataracts, 
there is a suggestion of great organ music, while Ever- 
dingen's art has only a tinkle of picturesqueness." 

At the age of fifty-two, Ruysdael returned to his native 
city, Haarlem, broken in health and spirit. He was 



finally given refuge in the almshouse of Haarlem where 
he lived only a few months, passing away in 1681, a 
pathetic example of one who, thru his art, had given his 
life for others. 

Among his most noted pictures are: Landscape with 
Waterfall; View on the Rhine near Wyk-By; Ben them 
Castle; A Fresh Breeze; The Swamp; The Beach; A 
Hilly Landscape; View of Haarlem from the Dunes of 
Overveen; A Wooded Landscape with Waterfall; The 
Tempest. 

THE WINDMILL 

Ruysdael's best conception of true art in nature is 
clearly portrayed in his famous masterpiece, "The 
Windmill." The grandeur of this picture is probably 
most emphasized by the wide stretch of massive gray 
clouds which serve as a fine background for the picture. 

There is a certain dignity and grandeur about the old 
mill that towers above everything else and stands, a 
striking silhouette, against the leaden, heavily-shadowed 
sky. A little patch of light-flecked water is seen in the 
foreground. The light gleams give us just a suggestion 
of the sun, which is peeping out for a moment thru 
rolling clouds. 

As is customary in Holland, where the land is so low 
that the country is in danger of being flooded, a break- 
water in the form of a rude, closely built stockade is 
resisting the lapping of the gently flowing river. A tall 
castle with many spires, and a low, rudely thatched 
cottage to the extreme right, lend a note of contrast to 
the scene. The heavy sky, trees tossed by the wind, 
and the deep shadows he loved so well, are typical of 
Ruysdael's melancholy nature, inclined to sadness. 



EXERCISES 

1. Tell briefly of the life of Ruysdael. 

2. What kind of pictures did Ruysdael paint? 

3. Why was this artist "broken in spirit?" 

4. Where is this scene laid? 

5. What does the glinting light on the water tell you? 

6. Where are the deepest shadows in the picture? 

7. What do you see back of the old mill? 

8. What do you see to the right of it? 

9. Describe this picture. 

10. What are one's first impressions as he looks at the picture! 

11. What in this picture do you like best?