Skip to main content

Full text of "Piece goods manual : Fabrics described; textile, knit goods, weaving terms, etc., explained ; with notes on the classification of samples"

See other formats


NEW BEDFORD 
TEXTILE INSTITUTE 



REFERENCE 
LIBRARY . . 



VOLUME ^O 3377 



/^^ / -y^^. /^c 



LIBRARY 



^NSSACHt,^^^ 




2895 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL, 



PIECE GOODS 
MANUAL. 



FABRI(!S DESCRIBED; TEXTILE, KNIT GOODS, 
WEAVING TERMS, ETC., EXPLAINED; WITH 
NOTES ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLES. 



Compiled and Illustrated, as an Aid to Members of the 
Chinese Maritime Customs Service, 



A. E. BLANCO, 

Second Assistant, A, Chinese Maritime Customs. 



SHANGHAI: 
STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

INSPECTORATE GENERAL OF CUSTOMS. 
1917. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/piecegoodsmanualOOblan 



/3G 



PREFACE 



The following pages represent an attempt to compile, 
primarily for the benefit of members of the Chinese Maritime 
Customs Service, descriptions of cotton, woollen, and other 
fabrics, their weaves and finishes, etc., together with other 
information concerning terms currently used in the piece goods 
trade which are likely to be met with in invoices, applications, 
or contracts. 

This manual does not embrace all textiles known to the trade, 
but it does cover all those enumerated in the "Revised Import 
Tarifl:'for the Trade of China," as well as many others. As far as 
possible the commonly accepted trade name has been used. It 
should, however, be borne in mind that many fabrics are known 
in the trade by a variety of names, so that one branch of the trade 
may not recognise a name applied to the same fabric by another 
branch. 

The descriptions have been built up from information 
obtained first hand from practical weavers, manufacturers, whole- 
sale and retail merchants, buyers, etc., as well as from personal 
visits to mills in the Manchester and Huddersfield districts, and 
from standard works on weaving. To Mr. G. W. Shaw, of Botham 
Hall, Huddersfield, I am indebted for introductions to the 
principal manufacturers in that district, enabling me to go through 
such mills as those of Mr. A. Whitwam and Messrs. Godfrey 
Sykes, where every phase of manufacture from raw material 
to finished goods was shown and explained with characteristic 
Yorkshire thoroughness. I am indebted for either information 
or actual samples, or both, to : — 

Mr. A. F. H. Baldwin, American Commercial Attach^, 

London. 
John Bright & Bros., Limited, Rochdale. 
Mr. A. J. Brook, Huddersfield. 



( vi ) 

Mr. C. W. Bann, Deputy Appraiser, New York. 

Mr. F. Chitham, Director, Selfridge & Co., Limited, 

London. 
Mr. W. E. Dale-Shaw, Huddersfield. 
Drey, Simpson, & Co., Limited, Stockport. 
" Dry Goods Economist," New York. 
W. <fe C. Dunlop, Bradford. 
Fisher & Co., Huddersfield. 
Mr. W. R. Gandell, Board of Trade, London. 
Horrockses, Crewdson, & Co., Limited, Preston. 
W. C Humphreys & Co., London. 
Mr. A. F. Kendrick, Board of Education, London. 
The London Chamber of Commerce. 
McCaw Allan & Co., Lurgan. 
Selfridge & Co., Limited, London. 
Mr. A. Sutton, Piece Goods Expert, Board of Trade, 

London. 
Tanner Bros., Greenfield. 
Mr. F. Walker, Huddersfield. 
William Watson & Co., London. 
Alfred Young & Co., Limited, London. 

The Board of Trade (through their Piece Goods Expert, 
Mr. A. Sutton), John Bright & Bros., Limited, and Selfridge &, Co., 
Limited, realising the value of classified information concerning 
descriptions of piece goods, have very kindly supplied me with 
ranges of samples. 

The following works have been consulted, and their con- 
tents have materially assisted me. I take the opportunity of 
acknowledging my indebtedness to their authors, as well as to 
those of any other works consulted but which may have been 
omitted from this list : — 

"Analysis of Woven Fabrics," by A. F. Barker and E. 
Midgley. 

Bennett's "(glossary of Fabrics." 

"Cotton," by R. J. Peake. 

"Cotton Goods in China," by Ralph M. Odell, U.S. Com- 
mercial Agent. 

"How to Buy and Judge Materials," by H. B. Heylin . 



( vii ) 

House of Representatives Document No. 643 (Report 

of Tariff Board on Schedule i of the Tariff Law). 
"Silk," by L. Hooper. 
" Textiles," by William H. Dooley. 
"Textiles," by Paul H. Nystrom, Ph.D. 
" The Cotton Weaver's Handbook," by H. B. Heylin. 
The Cotton Year Book. 

" The Draper's Dictionary," by S. William Beck. 
The Wool Year Book. 
"Wool," by J. A. Hunter. 

I wish specially to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. A. 
Sutton, Piece Goods Expert to the Board of Trade, London, for 
having perused the manuscript of the " Piece Goods Manual " 
and for the painstaking manner in which he pointed out where 
modifications were advisable. His suggestions have enabled me 
to revise definitions so as to make them agree with accepted trade 
interpretations. 

A. E. BLANCO. 
London, 191 5-1 6. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plain Weave ... ... ... ... ... ... Figure i. 

Three-end Twill Weave ... ... 

Four-end Twill Weave ... 

Four-end Weft Twill Weave 

Two-and-two Twill Weave ... ... ... ... „ 5. 

Irregular Twill Weave ... ... ...... „ 6. 

Five-«end Warp Sateen Weave ... 

Five-end Weft Sateen Weave 

Simple Plain Gauze Weave ... ... ... ... „ 9. 

Weft-pile Weave ... ... ... „ 10. 




B B 



Figure 1. 



PLAIN WEAVE. 



A. Weft threads. 

B. Warp threads. 

Figure i shows the simplest manner of interlacing warp and 
weft threads. This style of weave is called plain, calico, or "one- 
over and one-under " weave. 




THREE-END TWILL WEAVE. 



This figure illustrates the interlacing of warp (shaded) and 
weft (white) threads, so as to produce a regular "three-end twill" 
weave. It also shows the direction of twill. In this figure the 
warp threads are shown interlaced with the weft threads in three 
distinct positions. There is a distinct predominance of warp threads 
thrown to the surface by this style of interlacing, and a fabric 
woven on this system would be " warp-faced." This weave 
is called a two-warp and one-weft regular twill, also Regatta and 
Galatea weave. 




FOUR-END TWILL WEAVE. 



This figure illustrates a four-end, three-warp and one-weft, 
regular twill, also known as a Florentine twill, or a " three-up and 
one-down twill." The twill produced by this style of interlacing 
is well marked. The warp (shaded) predominates, and for this 
reason a cloth woven on this system of interlacing would be 
termed "warp-faced," or warp twill. 




FOUR-END WEFT TWILL WEAVE. 



This figure, in which the weft threads predominate on the 
surface, illustrates a four-end, one-warp and three-weft, regular 
weft twill, in which three-quarters of the weft threads are thrown 
to the surface and the remaining quarter is warp. It is the 
reverse of Figure 3. 




Figure 5. 



TWO-AND-TWO TWILL WEAVE. 



This figure illustrates a four-end, two-warp and two-weft, 
regular twill. Neither warp nor weft predominates on the surface. 
This style of twill is known as Harvard twill. 




IRREGULAR TWILL WEAVE. 



This figure illustrates a broken or irregular twill, also known 
as a broken Harvard or Stockinette weave. 




FIVE-END WARP SATEEN WEAVE. 

This figure illustrates the method of interlacing warp (shaded) 
and weft threads so as to produce a five-end warp sateen, or satin 
twill. This weave, in which the warp predominates on the surface, 
is reversed in Figure 8. 




FIVE-END WEFT SATEEN WEAVE. 



This figure illustrates a five-end weft sateen. Sateen weaves 
are virtually a form of broken or rearranged twill. The weft 
sateen weave, represented by this figure, shows weft predominating 
on the face : it is practically the reverse of the weave shown by 
i'igure 7. 



B 




FlQUBE 9. 



SIMPLE PLAIN GAUZE WEAVE. 

In this figure A are threads known as crossing threads and 
are typical of gauze weave ; they are binding threads holding B 
(weft threads) and C (warp threads) firmly together. It will be 
noticed that B and C do not interlace to form a plain weave. If 
crossing threads A were removed, no fabric would remain. These 
crossing threads in this figure are shown as always passing over 
the weft threads B and always under the warp threads C. This 
style of weave, when combined with a few "plain-weave" picks, 
produces Leno. 



^ 



■^ 




im^^^^m^^M j^wmMmM 



Figure 10. 



WEFT-PILE WEAVE. 

In this figure A is a weft-pile pick or flushing thread ; B is a 
backing or ground cloth pick ; the dots show cross section of 
warp threads- It will be seen that the ground^ picks B, together 
with the warp threads (shown cut through), form the foundation 
fabric. Pile thread A is shown bound into the fabric by the 
second, eighth, and fourteenth warp thread. Pile threads are 
cut after leaving the loom at a point indicated by the arrows ; the 
pile produced is then sheared level and suitably finished. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Actual. — The terms "actual" and "nominal" are used in 
the trade to indicate (i) that the width should be taken as stated 
or (2) that a certain amount of allowance should be made. 
" Actual " implies that the width is not less than stated. " Nomi- 
nal " means that the width of the cloth may vary as much as half 
an inch below width given on contract. 

Agaric. — A cotton fabric of loop yarn construction, having 
a surface somewhat similar to a fine Tm-kish Towelling. 

Albatross. — A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted 
filling of open texture and fancy weaves. When the name is 
applied to a cotton fabric it is used to designate a plain-woven 
all-cotton fabric, soft, fine, and free from ornamentations, made in 
imitation of the worsted fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy 
surface, is generally sold in white, black, or solid colours, being 
used instead of Bunting for flags. Not often used for printing, for 
which purpose it is not well adapted. 

Alhambra Quilt. — An all-cotton counterpane woven with a 
coarse waste weft known as Candlewick. A loosely woven 
coloured warp yarn is used for the figuring and a grey "sticking" 
warp for securing the weft in position. 

Alpaca. — This name is given to a fabric woven with a cotton 
warp and an alpaca wool weft. The fabric is classed as a lustre 
fabric, this being due to the predominance of the lustrous weft. 
Generally plain woven with a simple one-over and one-under 
weave, Alpaca is, when solid coloured, a cross-dyed fabric, i.e., 
one in which the cotton warp yarns were dyed prior to weaving 
and the piece of fabric piece-dyed after leaving the loom. Similar 
to Lustre Orleans, Mohair Brilliantine, and Mohair Sicilian, which 
are typical lustre fabrics. 

Alpaca Wool is the fleece of the Peruvian sheep, which 
is a species of llama. The staple is of good length and soft, but 
is not quite as lustrous as mohair. The natural colours are 
white, black, brown, and fawn. 

1 



2 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Alpacianos. — Nothing seems to be recorded in any modern 
book dealing with textiles or in any technical dictionary concern- 
ing any fabric known by the name of Alpacianos. The name, 
however, appears in the Revised Import Tariff for the trade of 
China, from which it Avould appear to be an all-cotton fabric, 
piece-dyed after leaving the loom, probably averaging between 
28 and 31 inches in width and about 25 yards in length. The 
name is probably of South American origin. 

American Sheetings. — A rather coarse make of plain- 
woven grey cloth, woven from coarse yarns (about 20's counts), 48 
threads of warp and the same number of weft picks to the inch, 
and generally woven with " twist way " weft. Another name for 
this material is Cabot. Average width, 36 inches; length, 40 
yards per piece. Weight varies. The use of the name Sheeting, 
as applied to this class of material, is now firmly established but 
incorrect, Sheetings originally being a two-and-two twill fabric 
having a width of as much as 120 inches. 

Angola,. — This name is used to designate a plain or twill 
weave fabric having a cotton warp and a weft made from cotton 
and wool scribbled together prior to being spun. The proportion 
of wool to cotton varies. This scribbled wool and cotton yarn, or 
Angola Wool as it is called, generally contains about 20 per cent. 
of cotton and 80 per cent, of wool. 

Angola Yarn or Wool. — A yarn spun from a mixture of 
80 per cent, wool and 20 per cent, cotton. 

Angora. — Angora is the name of a species of goat which 
yields a wool commercially known as Mohair. This kind of wool 
enters largely into the classes of goods known as Astrakhan, 
Crepon, Plushes, Brilliantine, Zibelines, fine Cashmeres, and other 
fabrics usually sold as all wool. It enters into the manufacture of 
very high-grade fabrics in combination with silk. More lustrous 
than wool, it has not, however, the warmth-retaining properties of 
the latter. 

Angora Goat. — A species of goat originally bred in Asia 
Minor, producing Mohair fibre. From the long silky hair of this 
goat was made Turkish Yarn or Camel Yarn. The name Camel 
Yarn has led to mistakes ; it has no reference to the camel, but is 
derived from the Arabic word chamal, fine. 

Animalised Cotton. — To increase the affinity of cotton for 
dye-stufi's and at the same time increase its lustre, cotton is 
sometimes treated with solutions of wool, silk, or gelatine in such 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 3 

a manner that when the solvent has evaporated the coated 
surface remains sufl&ciently pliable not to crack under normal 
conditions. » 

Armure. — A weave which produces a fine pebbled surface. 

Artificial Silk. — In the making of artificial silk, cellulose 
prepared from wood or cotton is turned into a nitro-cellulose by- 
treatment with nitric acid. This nitro-cellulose is made liquid 
by dissolving it in ether and alcohol, then forced under pressure 
through very fine tubes, or forced through holes of about i/25cth 
of an inch pierced in a platinum plate, in the form of very fine 
threads, from which the ether and alcohol evaporate readily, leaving 
the nitro-cellulose as a fine lustrous fibre. Artificial silk is often 
used in the ornamentation of figured fabrics. It bears a very 
deceptive resemblance to true silk, but the individual fibres are 
coarser and burn very quickly, without the typical smell of true 
silk and without the hard bubble of ash. Its value is about a 
third of that of the best silk, but as an offset to this must be 
taken its higher specific gravity. If of equal thickness, the length 
of thread, weight for weight, is only from half to two-thirds that 
of real silk. 

Astrakhan. — A fabric having a curly, wavy surface resem- 
bling Astrakhan fleece. There are three varieties of this kind of 
fabric, each produced on a different principle: (i) on the weft 
principle, in which, owing to shrinkage of the ground texture, the 
pile weft is thrown up and forms a curly loop; (2) on the warp 
texture principle, in which a thick curly warp yarn is brought 
over wires to form the necessary loops; and (3) the cheapest 
form, as a knitted fabric. 

Astrakhan varies as regards the size of the loop which goes to 
make the curl. The lustre yarn that is used is curlefl before 
use, the curl being fixed by heat. The ground texture is cotton. 
Width varies from 48 to 50 inches; weight from 19 to 36 ounces 
per yard of the 50-inch wide material. The heavier grades run 
35 to 40 yards per piece, the lighter grades from 50 to 55 yards. 
Generally met with in solid black or a grey produced by blending 
black and white fibres, also in solid white. Astrakhans have 
gerfferally an uncut pile, but are sometimes finished with part of 
the loop curls cut, say, 50 per cent., which gives the fabric the 
appearance of woolly fur with complete curls at intervals. 

Back Cloth. — An unbleached, reinforcing, all-cotton cloth, 
plain woven, used in printing fabrics to support the fabric which is 
being printed. 



4 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Backed Cloth. — To add weight to certain single texture 
fabrics, extra threads running either in the direction of the warp, 
i.e., lengthways of the piece, or weftways across the piece, are 
stitched on to the back of the f^,bric. Fabrics having such extra 
threads stitched on to them are called Backed Cloths. 

Baffetas. — Plain-woven cloth, bleached or dyed blue. 

Baize. — A coarse, harsh, loosely woven woollen fabric of 
plain weave, having a long nap on both sides like flannel. Baize 
is generally dyed in bright colours and is known under the name 
Bayetas. Average width 66 to 67 inches, length 30 to 45 yards 
per piece. 

Balbrig'^an. — Named after the town of Balbriggan, Ireland. 
First applied, in 1845, to full-fashioned hosiery made from un- 
bleached cotton. About i860 the term was applied to knit under- 
wear of the same material. It was originally used only on 
high-class goods, but now covers everything in light-weight flat 
underwear made of yarn stained to the shade of Egyptian cotton. 

Bale of Cotton. — The standard bale of cotton, according to 
the usage of the trade in England and America and generally 
accepted elsewhere, weighs 500 pounds. The following is the 
average weight and density of cotton bales : — 

Density 
Weight, per Cubic Foot. 

Egyptian about 700 S). 34 Bb. 

American .... ,, 500 ,, 24 ,, 

East Indian .... ,, 400 „ 30 „ 

Brazilian .... „ 250 „ 20 „ 

Baline. — A coarse canvas, mostly made of better grades of 
jute, flax, and hemp, used for upholstery purposes, interlinings, 
tailoring purposes, etc. 

Balzarine Brocades, Dyed. — The cotton variety of this 

class of fabric would be an all-cotton fabric having a gauze w^ve 
and net-like appearance which had been embellished by the 
addition of certain figures or designs woven into the fabric either 
by means of combination of the warp and weft threads or by 
means of an additional thread or threads. But Lappet or Swivel 
figured Balzarines would not be considered Brocades in the true 
sense, as such style of figuring is not brocaded. Dyed Balzarine 
Brocades are piece-dyed after leaving the loom. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 5 

Balzarines. — Very few books of reference make mention of 
this kind of fabric. Of " uncertain origin," this name is said to have 
been given to "a light-weight mixed fabric of cotton and wool for 
women's dresses commonly used for summer gowns before the 
introduction of barege (or barrege)." Barege was, for, the name 
seems to have fallen into disuse, "an open fabric resembling 
gauze, but more open in texture and stouter in thread. It was 
made of various materials but is best known as made of silk warp 
and worsted weft. It was first employed as ornament for the 
head, especially for sacred ceremonies, as baptism and marriage." 
It would appear, therefore, from the above that Balzarines — of the 
cotton variety— would be a gauze weave or net-like fabric woven 
from cotton warp and cotton weft. They may have been either 
bleached, dyed, printed, or brocaded. The exact difference 
between Balzarines and other gauze fabrics does not appear in any 
modern works dealing with textiles. The fabric probably approxi- 
mates 30 inches in width and from 28 to 30 yards in length per 
piece. Unless specially designated as such, Balzarines are free 
from brocaded ornamentation ; but from the fact that they are 
found associated with Lenos, they may, like these, have some 
plain weave combined with the main gauze structure — probably 
running in stripes lengthways of the piece. 

Bandaniia is a term applied to materials that have been 
dyed in a somewhat unusual manner, the cloth being tied in knots 
prior to being dipped into the dye-stuff. A peculiar clouded effect 
is produced, as the dye-stuff does not reach the knotted parts 
equally with the rest of the surface. This term is met with most 
frequently in connexion with a large handkerchief, of which great 
quantities \^re imported into India for sale to the natives. 

Barr^. — A striped or barred design, woven or printed, 
running from selvedge to selvedge. 

Basket Cloth. — A plain-woven all-cotton fabric woven with 
two or more warp threads grouped together without twisting and 
woven as a unit of matt weave. 

Batiste. — A fabric of French origin; the term has come to 
mean commercially a light, sheer cloth, made of fine quality of 
yarns and woven with a plain weave. A light fabric, with a Swiss 
finish, in distinction from a Nainsook, and usually wider and 
heavier than the latter fabric. In 32-inch widths and up a line of 
Batistes runs 14 to 16 square yards to the pound. There are 
bleached and unbleached cotton Batistes, also linen and coloured 
Batistes. The cotton are largely ecru, and the linen are most 



6 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

commonly in the grey. There is a gradual variation in qualities 
ranging from a comparatively coarse to a very fine Batiste. 
There are also wool Batistes. 

Bayadere. — Applied to fabrics in which the stripe, whether 
woven or printed, runs crosswise, that is, from selvedge to selvedge. 

BayetaS. — The Spanish for Baize, which is a coarse, harsh, 
loosely woven woollen fabric having a long nap on both sides like 
flannel. Bayetas are generally dyed in bright colours and have 
an average width of 66 to 67 inches and a length of 30 to 45 
yards per piece. 

Beavers. — A heavy cloth manufactured of fine wool with a 
finish on face made to imitate the appearance of the beaver's fur. 
When the surface is made with a long and dense nap this fabric 
becomes known as Fur Beaver. 

Beaverteen. — A heavy, twill-weave, all-cotton fabric of the 
fustian or uncut pile variety, usually dyed in shades of grey or tan 
and generally used for garments having to withstand rough wear. 

Bedford Cords. — Fabrics having cords or ribs running in 
the direction of the length of the cloth, produced by interweaving 
the weft, in plain or twill order, with alternate groups of warp 
threads. The ribs may be emphasised by the addition of wadding 
or stuffing warp threads. Bedford Cords may be woven as either 
an all-cotton, all-wool, or wool and cotton fabric. The ribs of 
Bedford Cords are but slightly separated from each ot|ier. Cotton 
Bedford Cords closely resemble a wide-welt Pique. See Welt. 

Beig'e. — A dress fabric, generally twilled weave, made of 
yarns spun from wool which has been dyed in the stock prior to 
being spun, mostly met with in greys, browns, and mottled or 
mixed effects. In America the term is used to designate a dress 
fabric of fine texture woven from yarns in which two threads of 
ditt'erent colours are twisted together or wherein printed yarns are 
employed. 

Bengal Stripes. — An all-cotton plain-woven fabric of the 
striped (jiingham variety. Warp yarns partially white, balance 
dyed indigo blue. 

Bengaline. — A silk fabric having thick threads or cords at 
intervaJH, from selvedge to selvedge. Frequently the cord is of 
wool, covered with silk in the process of weaving, or cotton and 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 7 

silk are combined together to produce this kind of material. 
When made of all cotton and known as a cotton Bengaline, it is 
generally mercerised. The warp yarn is often of two-ply. Ben- 
galine has much the appearance of Poplin. 

Silk or part-silk Bengalines are often treated to an embossing 
process, which method presses a figure upon the fabric very 
similar in appearance to a Jacquard woven effect. A common 
name for Reps, also similar to Poplin, but generally of a heavier 
corded appearance with the cord running transversely across the 
face of the fabric. 

Binding Cloth. — A muslin dyed and stamped or embossed, 
used to cover books by bookbinders. 

Bleached. — This term is used to designate either raw cotton, 
cotton yarn, or more often cotton fabrics which have been 
rendered white. The most generally used agent for bleaching is 
chloride of lime. The process of bleaching varies according to 
whether the fibres being bleached are in the loose, the yarn, or 
the woven state. Prior to being bleached fabrics are said to be in 
the "grey"; after bleaching they are said to be "white." 

Bleached Domestics. — A term commonly used referring 
to the cheaper grades of bleached cotton cloths, either plain or 
twilled. 

Bombazine. — Bombazine is the name given to a twilled 
fabric of which the warp is of silk and the filling is worsted. 

Book-fold Muslin. — A trade designation meaning muslin 
put up in 24-yard lengths, folded in such a way as to open book- 
wise from the centre, the various folds resembling the leaves of a 
book. 

Botany. — A term applied to worsted yarns made from 
Botany wool. It is considered the finest of all worsted yarns 
and is used for making fine fabrics of close texture. The name 
Botany is commonly used to designate a fine grade of Australian 
wool. 

Boucle. — Having knots, loops, or curls on the surface ; usually 
employed for cloakings. Imitation Astrakhan is a type of the kind 
of fabric coming under the heading Boucle. 

Bourette. — A rough-siu-faced effect produced by introducing 
luijipy, knotted yarns at intervals in the weaving. 



8 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Broadcloth. — Broadcloth is a soft, closely woven material 
made with an all-wool warp and filling having a satin finish. The 
beauty of Broadcloth depends on its even, nappy, lustrous surface. 
The three main points that go towards fixing its value are the 
quality of the wool used, the uniformity of the nap, and the per- 
fection of finish. It is most often twill woven, double plain, but 
it is also met with in a plain weave. 

Brocade. — The ordinary cotton Brocade is a figured fabric 
of single texture. More elaborate Brocades, used for dress and 
upholstery purposes, may have several wefts, in which case the 
cloth is one-sided, the warp forming the ground on the face, and 
the wefts appearing only where required to produce figure. Soft- 
spun wefts are often used in Brocades and similar kinds of cloths, 
the better to fill and throw up the figure used in their orna- 
mentation. It is a term commonly applied to fabrics of different 
weaves or combinations of weaves in which the design appearing 
on the surface of the fabric is of a fancy figured or floral effect, 
usually of elaborate design; also used as an adjective to denote 
"woven figured." 

Brocatelle. — The real Brocatelle is a rich upholstery fabric, 
which has a raised figure of silk warp and weft interwoven in 
satin order, on a ground formed by a linen weft and a special 
binder warp. The name is also applied to quilts having a coarse 
white weft and two colours of warp, which latter change places 
for figuring purposes. 



Broch6. — The French term for Brocade. Elaborate figures 
woven on the surface of the fabric. 



Brown Sheeting. — This term is the equivalent of "plain 
grey cloths " and covers all weights of cotton goods in the grey or 
unfinished condition. 



Brown Shirting. — The term is restricted usually to mean 
such grey cotton cloths as have a width of 40 inches or less from 
selvedge to selvedge. 

Bugis. — This name is given to a fine make of cotton 
sarong having only one side decorated with a border design. 
It is used by sewing two pieces together plain edge to plain 
edge, thus converting it into a sarong with both edges orna- 
mented. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 9 

" Bump " Yarns. — Cotton yarns of coarse numbers below 3's, 
used for weft purposes in coiuiterpanes and other coarse fabrics, 
are termed "Bump" Yarns. Sometimes the term CandJewick is 
used for very coarse counts. The counts in the case of " Bump " 
Yarns are denoted by the number of yards weighing i ounce. 

This kind of weft is extensively used for coarse and heavy 
goods, such as bagging, Alhambra quilts, etc. 

Example. — A yarn weighing 60 yards to the ounce would be 
termed 6o's " Bump." 

Bunting. — A plain, loose, even-thread weave of Mohair wool 
or worsted, used mostly for making flags. Bunting, which is a 
material having to be dyed, is made of wool and not cotton or 
other vegetable fibre for the reason that wool has a greater 
affinity for dye-stuffs than cotton and retains them better. There 
is, however, a cotton fabric woven from low-count yarns, generally 
known as either Butter Muslin or Cheese Cloth, which is some- 
times called Bunting. 

BurlapS.^A plain-woven, coarse, and heavy fabric made from 
jute, flax, or hemp, used for wrappings, upholstery, etc. 

Butcher's Linen. — A coarse, heavy, plain-weave linen. 

Cabled Yarns. — Cabled Yarns are produced by folding to- 
gether " t^o-fold " threads. Under the heading " Folded Yarn " 
it will be seen that when two single threads of 6o's count yarn are 
twisted together they produce a two-fold 6o's, written thus : 2/60. 
When three such two-fold yarns are twisted together they produce 
a six-fold 6o's thread. Sewing cottons, known in the trade as 
Spool Cotton, are good examples of Cabled Yarns. 

Cabot. — A Levant term for a i-ather coarse make of plain 
grey cloth, woven from coarse yarns (about 20's counts) ; 48 warp 
threads and the same number of picks to the inch. 

Lancashire-made Cabots are usually heavily sized. Consider- 
able quantities of this cloth are made in South Carolina mills in 
36-inch width and shipped to China under the name of American 
Sheetings. 

Calico. — This name is used to designate most plain-woven 
cotton fabrics which have simple designs printed on their face in 
either one or more colours. Calicoes are usually in two colours, 
that is, one colour for the ground and the other for the figure or 
design. The ground colour is generally effected by piece-dyeing 
the fabric in some solid colour. After the cloth is dyed the design 



lO PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

is printed on tlie cloth. Being cheap fabrics, Calicoes are generally 
given a " cheap common dye " — by this is meant that the colours 
are not fjist and will run or fade when washed. The printing of 
Calicoes is done by the aid of a machine whose main feature is a 
revolving cylinder on which the design has been stamped or cut 
out. Such machines are capable of printing several colours in 
one design. Calico is woven with a plain one-over and one-under 
weave. As a textile term it is applied to cheaper grades of plain 
cotton cloth, and the name is rightly applied when such cloths 
are printed. In the Manchester district and in Great Britain 
generally the term Calico is used only to designate a plain grey 
or white shirting or sheeting free from any ornamentation. 

Camel's Hair. — A loosely woven fabric of long-fibre wool. 
The term in its original sense is used to describe the soft downy 
fibre from the haunches and under parts of the camel. 

Camlets (Woollen). — An all-wool plain-woven fabric free 
from any ornamentation of weave produced either by combination 
of weave or extra warp or weft threads. It is invariably woven 
with the plain one-over and one-under weave from worsted yarns, 
which make the fabric somewhat lustrous. In width averaging 
30 to 31 inches and in length 60 to 61 j^ards. Camlets are only 
divisible into two kinds, Dutch and English. The former variety 
appears to be no longer made, and one manufacturer states that 
practically 99 per cent, of the Camlets imported into China are 
of the English variety. Not unlike an Alpaca in feel, though 
somewhat less lustrous, Camlets may be compared to a very fine 
wool Bunting. 

Camlets, Dutch (Woollen). — This heading apparently 
covers a type of material which has almost disappeared from the 
market. Originally a rough cloth made from camel's hair, it was 
known as either Camlet or Camelot. A somewhat ancient descrip- 
tion is "a rough fabric composed of wool and cotton, or hair and 
silk with a wavy or variegated surface." A firm of manufacturers 
in Bradford, written to for information under this heading, writes 
as follows: "This is a very ancient heading, and Camlets now are 
only made in this country, and although there are about three 
qualities shipped to China, practically speaking, 99 per cent, are 
in the quality of the sample shown." The sample in question 
shows the fabric to be a plain, all-wool, fairly loosely plain-woven 
fabric dyed a bright vermilion. Both warp and weft are of 
worsted yarn and hence it is a somewhat lustrous fabric ; in width it 
averages between 30 and 31 inches, in length from 60 to 61 yards, 
and its average value during the 10 years 1904-14 was 40.S. ^d. 
per piece. Camlet somewhat resembles a fine Bunting and has a 
harsh handle ; somewhat stilli it has the feel of an Alpaca fabric. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. II 

Camlets, English (Woollen). — This fabric is described 
under Camlets, Dutch. A typical sample of English-made 
Woollen Camlets showed the fabric to be a plain, all-wool, fairly 
loosely plain-woven fabric dyed a bright vermilion. Both warp 
and weft are of worsted yarn, and hence it is a somewhat lustrous 
fabric, averaging 30 to 31 inches in width and 60 to 61 yards in 
length. Average value of the quality generally imported into 
China was for the 10 years 1904-14 40s. ^d. per piece. Some- 
what harsh of handle, it resembles a fine Bunting with the stiff 
feel of an Alpaca. 

The earliest mention of English Camlets is to be found in 
Camden's "Brittania," 1610, where, speaking of Coventry, it is 
said : " Its wealth, arising in the last age from the woollen and 
camblet manufacture, made it the only mart of this part." In the 
next century those of Brussels are said to exceed all other Camlets 
for beauty and quality, those of England being reputed second. 

Ganiche. — Name given to a curled wool fabric showing the 
effect of the coat of the caniche, or French poodle. 

Cd'nton Flannel. — This term is used to designate an 
all-cotton flannel, first made for and exported to Canton. Canton 
Flannel will be found more fully described under " Cotton 
Flannel." It is a narrow heavy fabric, twill woven, showing 
twill on one side and having a long, soft, raised nap on the other. 
Woven as a four-shaft twill for winter weights and as a three- 
shaft twill for the summer weight. Width from 27 to 30 inches. 
Canton Flannel is taken direct from the loom, measured, napped, 
and folded, and packed for shipment. The yarn used to make 
this class of cloth is spun from low-grade cotton of from three- 
fourths to I inch in length of staple, generally dyed in bright 
colours. 

Canvas. — Canvas is a coarse plain-weave fabric woven from 
yarn which is hard twisted. It is often woven from folded yarn, 
and this may readily be seen in what is known as embroidery 
canvas. Canvas used for sails is generally a stout strong-built 
cloth woven with "double warp coarse flax yarns." A term 
applied to heavy, plain, unbleached, dyed or yarn-dyed fabric, of 
different grades or weights properly made of ply yarns, although 
the term more frequently applies to fabrics of such similar 
appearance made without or partially of ply yarn. Various sorts 
of Canvases are known in different trades, such as Embroidery 
Canvas, Duck, Dress Canvas, Mercerised Canvas, etc. Dress 
fabrics, the principal part of which are of such a construction, are 
still termed Canvas in the distributing trade when they contain 
stripes or fancy effects of other weaves. 



12 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Carbonising". — All-wool cloths and even raw wool very often 
contain a certain amount of vegetable matter, siich as burrs, the 
chemical composition of which is similar to that of cotton, and as 
it is at times very desirable to extract this vegetable matter, the 
cloth or fibre is for this purpose subjected to a process known as 
carbonising. The material is passed through a bath containing 
sulphuric acid of a suitable strength and temperature. Upon 
drying, the acid concentrates upon the vegetable matter, convert- 
ing it into hydrocellulose, which, being in the form of a powder, 
is easily removed, while the wool, not being acted upon by the 
acid to any considerable extent, remains intact. This system 
would be employed to test the percentage of cotton in any union 
fabric : by carefully weighing the sample prior to treatment and 
again after all the vegetable matter had been carbonised the 
proportion of cotton to wool can readily be ascertained. 

Casement Cloth. — A plain-woven fabric used for casement 
window curtains and usually white or cream-coloured. Casement 
Cloth is made from either mohair, alpaca, or cotton. The cotton 
variety is made from high-class yarns, well woven, and is 
mercerised before bleaching or dyeing. 

Cashmere. — A cloth made from the hair of the Cashmere 
goat. The face of the fabric is twilled, the twills or diagonal lines 
being uneven and irregular owing to the unevenness of the yarn. 
Cashmere was originally made from hand-spun yarn. In the 
knitted goods trade the word Cashmere, when applied to hosiery 
or underwear, means goods made of fine worsted yarns spun from 
Saxony or other soft wools. 

Cashmere has been described as being a lightly woven woollen 
fabric of twilled construction and soft finish, having the twill on 
the "right" side, i.e., on the face of the fabric. It is sometimes 
woven with a cotton warp and fine Botany wool weft. An 
all-cotton variety, woven in the same way as the true Cashmere, 
is also met with : it is known as Cotton Cashmere. 

Cashmere Double. — A Cashmere cloth having as a dis- 
tinctive feature a twill face and a Poplin-corded efi^ect on the 
reverse. 

Cashmere Wool is the fine, extremely soft, grey or white 
fur of the Cashmere goat, which is bred in Tibet. There are two 
kinds of fibre obtained : one, which is really the outer covering, 
consisting of long tufts of hair, beneath which is found the other, 
the true Cashmere Wool of commerce, a soft downy wool of 
brownish grey tint having a fine silky fibre. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 1 3 

Castor. — A heavy cloth, manufactured of fine wool with a 
finish on the face made to imitate the fur of the beaver. This 
cloth difl^ers from Beaver Cloth only in its weight, Castor cloth 
being lighter than Beaver. 

Gellulair Cloth. — A plain Leno fabric having an open cellular 
structure, which is specially suited for shirtings and underwear. 
Cellular Cloth is also found with stripes of different weave, though 
still a form of Leno weave to the rest of the fabric. 

Ceylon or Ceylon Flannel. — A coloured striped cloth 

woven with a cotton and wool mixture weft. The warp threads 
which form the stripes are dyed in the yarn prior to weaving. 

Challis. — The name is given to a light-weight plain or 
figured material made either of cotton or wool or a mixture of 
both. An all-wool Challis has, when plain woven, the appearance 
of a Muslin Delaine. Usually printed. 

Chambray. — Chambray is a staple fabric of many years, 
standing, being next in line of the cotton goods after the better 
grades of Gingham. It is a light-weight single cloth fabric, 
always woven with a plain weave and a white selvedge. It is 
woven from warp and weft which may be either all cotton, cotton 
and silk, or all silk : it has an average width of 27 or 30 inches 
and weighs 2 to 3^ ounces per finished yard. When made as an 
all-cotton fabric it is finished in the same way as a Gingham. 

Charmeuse. — A light-weight satin having a high natural 
lustre. 

Checks. — Fabrics having rectangular patterns formed by 
crossing the threads of a striped warp with weft threads of the 
same order. " Mock " Checks are produced by combining weave 
effects. 

When Checks are woven without a highly variegated colour- 
ing they are known as Ginghams. 

Cheese Cloth. — A very open and lightly constructed thin 
cotton fabric of light weight and low-count yarns, woven with a 
plain weave, weighing from q to 12 yards to the pound. Cheese 
Cloth is often used for Bunting, by which name it is sometimes 
known. The Cheese Cloth used for wrapping round cheese and 
butter after they have been pressed is a bleached cloth. 



14 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Cheviot. — Most stout woollen fabrics which have a rough or 
shaggy face are described as Cheviots, which has become a term 
denoting more a class of goods than a particular fabric. It has a 
slightly felted, short, even nap on the face, and is often made of 
"pulled wool," which is the wool taken from the pelts of dead 
sheep. 

Mungo, shoddy, and a fair percentage of cotton enter into the 
composition of the yarn from which it is made. Irrespective of 
the quality of the yarn used, however, Cheviots are finished either 
with a " rough " or a close finish. The weave may either be plain 
or twill. 

Chiffon. — A sheer silk tissue of plain weave and soft finish. 
The word is often used to indicate light weight and soft finish, as 
Chiffon Velvet. 

Chinchilla. — A fabric made of fine wool, having a surface 
composed of small tufts closely united. The name is Spanish for 
a fur-bearing animal of the mink species, and the fabric is an 
imitation of the fur. 

Chin^. — Warp-printed : a fabric wherein the design, being 
printed on the warps, appears somewhat faintly and in indefinite 
outline. The weft is not printed, but is generally in the white. 
Some varieties, occasionally met with, have a coloured weft. This 
class of fabric is also known as a Shadow Cretonne, when the 
designs are of the variety generally used in Cretonne fabrics. 

Chintz. — When this name is applied to a fabric other than a 
printed Chintz it is used to designate a woven Chintz, which is a 
fabric on the warp threads of which, before being woven into 
cloth, various coloured designs have been printed. Many silk 
ribbons are Chintz woven. Where the colours seem to have run 
in the pattei'n the name Chene is sometimes used. Warp-printed 
Chintz is also known as Shadow Cretonne, from the softness of the 
design due to the white weft blurring the sharpness of the design 
printed on the warp. 

Clip Spots. — Figured Muslins ornamented by small de- 
tached figures of extra warp or weft, the floating material between 
the spots bemg afterwards clipped or sheared off. 

Coated Cotton Cloths. — This name is given to a cloth 
having one or both surfaces coated with paint, varnish, pigments, 
or other substances. Examples of coated cloths are Tracing 
Clotli, P>ookbinder's Cloth, Imitation Vellum, Oilcloths, and Oilskins. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 1 5 

Collarette. — A wide knitted neckband used on men's under- 
shirts in lieu of binding. 

Coloured. — This term, when applied to textile fabrics, is 
used to show that the fabric which is designated as " coloured " 
has been dyed in the yarn and not dyed subsequently to having 
been woven, i.e., it has been woven from coloured yarns. 

Coloured Crimp Cloth. — Like all other fabrics that are 
designated as " coloured," Coloured Crimp Cloth is dyed in the 
yarn and not piece-dyed. Coloured Crimp Cloth is essentially a 
Crimp Cloth which has been woven from previously dyed yarn; 
apart from this difference it answers the description given under 
Crimp Cloth, Plain or Crimps. 

Coloured Lists. — All serges, etc., that are dyed in the wool 
or yarn, as against those dyed in the piece, have coloured lists or 
edging. The word "list" is another name for selvedge. 

Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns. — The most im- 
portant coloured woollen and worsted yarns are : (a.) Mixtures, 
{b.) Melanges, (c.) Marls, and {d.) Twists. 

(a.) Mixtures. — A mixture yarn is one composed of fibres of 
two or more colours which have been thoroughly blended. In 
woollens the wool is dyed after scouring and the mixing accom,- 
plished during the carding process. 

(6.) Melange. — This is a fine mixtui-e yarn produced from a 
top-printed sliver. The result is obtained by printing at regular 
intervals the required colours on the top of the sliver. The mixing 
of the fibres and colours is brought about during the drawing and 
spinning processes. As a rule only long fibres such as Mohair 
are subjected to this method of treatment. In these yarns, on 
many fibres two or more colours may be clearly seen under the 
microscope. 

(c.) Marls. — A term sometimes applied to three-fold twist 
yarns, but more correctly applied *to a yarn which is between a 
twist and the mixture yarn. It is produced by combing two or 
more slivers of different colour in the later drawing operations, 
and in consequence the colours are not so thoroughly blended as 
in the case of mixture yarns. 

{d.) Tivists. — This class of yarn is produced by simply twisting 
or folding together two or more yarns of different colours. 

Corduroy. — Corduroy, like many other low-gi-ade cotton 
fabrics woven with a pile weave, such as Cotton Velvets, Vel- 
veteens, Moleskins, is really a Fustian. The pile surface of 



1 6 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Corduroys does not cover the surface of the fabric uniformly, as 
in the case of Velveteens, for instance, but runs in straight lines 
or ribs, which may be of dififerent sizes and have round or flat tops. 
When a Coi-dturoy has a twill back it is known as a " Genoa " 
backed Corduroy ; when, as in the lighter makes, the back shows 
a plain weave it is known as " Tabby " backed. 

Corduroy is a cotton fabric with the ribs running lengthways 
of the piece. The pile is a weft pile. Corduroys are made in 
many varieties— known as Fine Reed, Eight Shafts, Thicksets, 
Constitution, Cables, etc. Constitution and Cables have broad 
floats or races which are some distance apart. The term Corduroy, 
when applied to hosiery, is used to designate stockings which are 
commonly known as two-and-two rib, or two ribs alternating on 
face and back of children's stockings. 

Ootel^. — A ribbed weave in flat, rather wide effect. 

Cotton. — Cotton is the most used of all vegetable fibres for 
the manufacture of textiles. Length and fineness of individual 
fibres go towards making quality; shortness and coarseness of 
fibre make for low qualities. 

The chief classes of cotton are known as Sea Island, Egyptian, 
American, Brazilian, Peruvian, East Indian, the first mentioned 
being the highest and the last the lowest quality. Qualities are 
designated in each class as follows : — 

1. Fair. 5. Low Middling. 

2. Middling Fair. 6. Good Ordinary. 

3. Good Middling. 7. Ordinary. 

4. Middling. 

East Indian type of cotton fibres measure on an average but half 
an inch, as compared with 2 inches in Sea Island type. 

Cotton Duck. — Duck being a fabric which is sometimes 
woven in linen, to refer to it simply as Duck might be misleading ; 
hence, although when used by itself the term Duck is generally 
recognised to mean a cotton fabric, to differentiate between the 
two the word Cotton or Linen is used. This fabric is described 
under "Duck." 

Cotton Flannel. ^ — As the name implies, Cotton Flannel is a 
material woven in cotton in imitation of the real all-wool flannel. 
It is either a plain or a twill woven fabric which has had the weft 
on one or both sides of the fabric "raised" or "napped." This 
is done by passing the fabric, whilst it is tightly stretched, over a 
revolving cylinder, the surface of which is covered with small steel 
hooks or teasels ; these, scratching as they do the surface of the 
fabric, tear up very slightly the short fibres and cover the fabric 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 1/ 

with a "nap," which is afterwards cut do^n uniformly. Cotton 
Flannel was first made for the Canton market. Cotton Flannels 
may be either " single raised " or " double raised " ; in the first 
only one side of the fabric is raised, in the second both sides are 
raised. Whilst Cotton Flannel clearly shows that the fabric is a 
cotton one, the term Flannelette does not necessarily mean that it 
is a purely cotton fabric identical with Cotton Flannel. Flannelette 
may contain wool, even if only in very small percentage, but by 
trade usage the name is used to designate only an all-cotton 
fabric. 

Cotton Plush. — The term Plush being a generic term 
applied to cut-pile fabrics having the pile deeper than ordinary 
Velvet, Velveteen, etc., it follows that Cotton Plush is essentially 
a cotton-pile fabric with a somewhat deeper pile than Velveteen. 
Cotton Plushes may be woven with either plain or twill back, 
the plain-backed variety being known as a " Genoa " Plush and 
the twill-backed variety as a " Tabby " Plush. 

Cotton Yarn Measures.— 

54 inches ^ i thread (or circumference of wrap reel). 
4,320 ,, =80 threads = i lea. 
30,240 ,, = 560 „ = 7 lea = I hank. 
I hank = 840 yards. 
I bundle is usually 10 Bb. in weight. 
The French system of numbering Cotton Yarns is as 
follows : — 

1,000 metres weighing 500 grammes ==; No. I's. 
1,000 „ ,, 250 ,, = No. 2's. 

1,000 „ „ 50 „ = No. lo's. 

1,000 ,, „ 25 „ = No. 2o's. 

The count is therefore arrived at by dividing the number of 
metres reeled by twice the number of grammes they weigh. 

Counts. — The size of yarn is technically called the "count," 
and it is based upon the number of hanks, "cuts," or "runs" of a 
given length which are required to weigh i pound. The standard 
length of the hank varies according to the nature of the yarn. 
Cotton Yarn measures 840 yards per hank; Worsted Yarn 
measures 560 yards per hank ; Woollen Yarn measures 256 or 300 
yards per "cut," "run," or hank, according to district; Linen 
measures 300 yards per lea ; and Spun Silk, 840 yards per hank. 
The number of such "cuts," "runs," hanks, or leas required to 
weigh I pound avoirdupois equal the number of the count. When 
Woollen Yarn is in gala cuts of 300 yards the number of such 
cuts required to weigh 24 ounces equal the count : this becomes 
equivalent to the number of 200 yards required to weigh i pound. 



l8 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Coutil. — French for Drill. A strong thi-ee-thread twill 
cloth with herring-bone stripes dyed drab or French grey and 
used for corset-making. 

Covert. — A wool or worsted cloth, usually in fine twill 
weave, in small mixture effect. There are various grades of 
Coverts and they all have as a distinctive feature neutral tones of 
colour. The real Covert cloth is always made from double and 
twist warp yarns and single fillings. The weave is such that the 
filling yarn does not show on the face of the cloth, therefore 
almost any shade similar in general tone to the warp may be used 
as filling. Cheap grades are made as a piece-dyed union mixture 
containing up to 30 per cent, cotton. They are also known as 
Venetian Coverts when they have a pronounced whipcord efl^'ect. 
The weave is a sateen weave of the warp-face variety. 

Crabbing". — One of the many processes through which cloth 
goes from the time it leaves the loom on its way to being turned 
out as a finished fabric. The object of crabbing is to fix or set 
the cloth at the width it has to be as a finished fabric. The 
actual operation of crabbing consists of running the cloth at a 
tension on to a steaming or boiling roller. The axle or core of the 
I'oller is hollow^ and perforated ; the cloth having been tightly 
wound round, steam is forced through the perforations and right 
through the mass of tightly wound cloth. The superheated 
steani sets the cloth. 

Crape Cloth, Plain. — Plain Crape Cloth is an all-cotton 
fabric, plain woven from hard-twisted cotton yarns and is free 
from any woven or printed ornamentation. The nature of the 
hard-twisted yarn is such that it readily shrinks or curls in length 
when not kept at a high tension ; this, together with subsequent 
finishing operations, causes a considerable contraction to take 
place, resulting in an uneven crinkled surface, which is the 
chief characteristic of Crape. The crinkled surface in true Crape 
is obtained in several ways: (i) by combination of materials; 
(2) by weave combination; (3) by combination of (i) and (2); 
(4) by mechanical arrangements during weaving; (5) by subjecting 
fabrics specially constructed to a special chemical process during 
finishing. -The cheaper grades of Crape have the crinkled etl'ect 
produced by suitably prepared rollers through which the cloth is 
passed, and the crinkled effect in cotton Crapes is not always the 
result of true Crape weaving, which relies on the irregularity of 
the interweaving of threads to produce the Crape eti'ect. In 
width Crape seldom exceeds 30 inches, but is made up in pieces 
of varying length. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL, I9 

The name is also applied to a thin, transparent, " crisp " or 
crumpled silk material, usually black, which is used in mourning, 
as well as to a sort of thin worsted material of which the dress of 
the clergy is sometimes made. 

Crash. — A coarse plain-weave linen material in which the 
unevenness of the weft yarns gives a rough surface to the cloth. 
There are various grades of Crash, of which the coarser and more 
irregular kinds are used for towelling,^ whilst the finer are dress 
materials. Some Crash fabrics are woven from waste cotton. 

Cravenette. — A waterproofing process applied to fabrics 
made of silk, wool, or cotton. Not a fabric. 

Crepe de Chine. — A sheer silk having a minute crape 
eff'ect in the weave. The name in its correct acceptance applies 
to an all-silk fabric, but there are also cotton and silk mixed 
fabrics which bear this name, and at times even all-cotton fabrics 
have been so designated — by the retailer, at least. All the materials 
which are known by this name are of comparatively light weight. 
In practically all these fabrics the lustre is imparted by the warp 
yarns, which are Ukely to be of better silk than the filling. The 
fining yarns are twisted harder than for ordinary cloth. The hard 
twisting of any yarn will so curl up the fibres that they will not 
lie parallel and so will not reflect light and give lustre. All-silk 
Crepe de Chine fabrics have a width of about 40 inches, whilst 
all-cotton and cotton and silk mixtures average 27 inches in width. 
The all-cotton variety is most often simply designated as Crepe. 

Crepe Meteor. — A lustrous silk Crepe. 

Crepoline. — A fabric of a warp rib character in which the 
regular order of the weave is so broken as to give a " rib crape " 
eff'ect. 

Cr^pon. — A dress fabric of silk or wool in which the design 
is produced by using yarns having a different degree of stretch, so 
that portions of the fabric are crisped, crinkled, or apparently 
blistered, either irregularly or in set designs. 

Cretonne.— This fabric is essentially a printed cotton fabric 
woven either with a plain twill satin or oatmeal weave. The weft 
is generally made from waste and is not very regular. Cretonnes, 
being used mainly for curtains, hangings, or furniture coverings, 
are generally printed with large, bold, and highly coloured designs. 
It is woven with a bleached or grey cotton warp and filling in 
widths ranging from 25 to 36 inches, and for curtains in widths 



20 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

up to 50 inches. Their main feature is their large bright-coloured 
floral designs, and their value depends to a great extent upon the 
artistic merits of these designs. Sometimes a fancy weave or 
small brocaded effect may occur in this class of fabric, but it 
is seldom met with, and it is not representative of the true 
Cretonne fabric. Flax also is said to be used in the manufacture 
of certain grades of Cretonnes, without, however, taking them out 
of the class to which Cretonne fabrics belong. 

Crimp Cloth, Plain, or Crimps. — Crimps are plain-woven 
all-cotton fabrics which have as their distinctive feature " cockled " 
striped effects. These "crimped" or "cockled" stripes are pro- 
duced by dividing the warp threads into two separate "beams," 
one of which is under greater tension than the other ; that is to 
say, the warp threads from one of the beams will be tight 
and the others slack. These slack threads in the process of 
weaving are "taken up" more rapidly and form the "crimped" 
stripes. Crimps may also be produced by subjecting fabrics 
specially constructed to a special chemical process during finish- 
ing, or by passing the material through suitable rollers which 
will stretch the material in some places more than in others 
and thus artificially produce the "cockled" stripe. Crimps ai-e 
made up in widths seldom exceeding 30 inches ; the length of 
pieces, however, may vary considerabl}'. It is also known as 
Seersucker or Crinkle. 

Crinkle, or Seersucker, — Names given to striped fabrics 
of the Crimp type. Seersucker originally meant a silk fabric. 

Cross-dyed. — Cross-dyed goods may be described as fabrics 
woven with black or coloured cotton warps and wool or worsted 
fillings and afterwards dyed in the piece. This process is resorted 
to because the warp and filling of a fabric woven with a cotton 
warp and a wool filling, and then piece-dyed, would not become 
identical in colour, as cotton and wool have not the same 
attraction for dye. Cross-dyeing is generally used in mohair, 
alpaca, and lustre fabrics, and the principal cloths in this 
classification are cotton warp figured Melroses, Florentines, Glaces, 
Brilliantines, Lustres, Alpacas, and Mohairs. See Union Cloth. 

Crossover. — This name is given to fabrics having stripes, 
of either colour or weave efi'ect, extending across the width of the 
cloth from selvedge to selvedge. 

Cut Goods. — Underwear made of either ribl)e(l or flat webbing 
knitted into long rolls and cuL to the proper lengths and sections 
for garments, after which the various pai'ts are sewed together. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 21 

Cuttling". — Plaiting cloth in folds ; used in the same sense 
as lapping and folding, as opposed to rolling into bolts. 

Damask. — The name Damask is technically applied to 
cei'tain classes of fabrics richly decorated with figures of foliage, 
fruits, scrolls, and other ornamental patterns, usually of a large 
and elaborate character. The weaves usually employed are twills 
(mostly satin twills), and the figures in the fabric are made by 
alternately exchanging warp for weft surface or vice versa. The 
materials employed vary according to the purpose to which the 
fabrics are to be applied. In the manufacture of upholstery cloth 
for hangings and furniture covering, silk or worsted is used ; while 
for table covers, towels, napkins, etc., linen is generally employed, 
except in the cheapest grades, when cotton is the material used. 
Damask was originally applied only to silken fabrics whose designs 
were very elaborately woven in colours and often with either gold 
or silver threads. Although in the majority of Damask fabrics 
nothing but satin twill weaves are employed (principally five and 
eight shaft), very good efi^ects are obtained by combining other 
weaves with satin twills. Where Damasks are made all of one 
colour, as in white linen table covers, the effect is given by the 
threads lying at right angles to each other ; the light falling upon 
them brings the pattern in bold relief and makes it easily visible. 

Damasse. — Applied to fabrics having a rich woven design. 
Similar to Damask. 

Delaine. — A term applied to plain-woven materials made " of 
wool." The term probably originated in France and was applied 
there to all plain-woven fabrics of. light weight made of wool. As 
used at present, the term may be combined with another name, 
and then purely designates the nature of the material used in 
the manufacture of the fabric, such as in Muslin Delaine. 

Denim. — A stout cotton warp-faced twill cloth, generally 
woven as a four-end twill. The warp is dyed either blue or brown 
before weaving, whilst the weft is grey ; they are both of coarse 
counts. Denim, being a warp-faced material, has the warp on the 
surface ; and as the warp is made of coloured yarns, the cloth 
when woven shows a solid coloured surface. The back of the 
fabric shows the bulk of the weft threads, and these, being in the 
grey, give the back of the cloth a distinctive lighter colour than 
the face of the cloth. Like all warp-faced twill weave, the back 
of the cloth shows a plain-weave effect. Denims have generally a 
white edging forming the selvedge ; they range from medium to 
heavy weight and are largely used in the manufacture of work- 
men's overalls. 



22 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Derby Rib. — Applied to hosiery having six ribs on the face 
alternating with three on the back. 

Diag'Onal. — This name is applied to plain or figured twills of 
bold character and originates in the twill effect, which, in relation 
to the length of the fabric, runs in a diagonal direction. This 
twill effect is produced by raising warp threads in groups in a 
progTessive order, the filling thus making them stand out in ridges 
or heavy twill. 

Diaper. — This term as applied to fabrics is used to describe 
two distinct styles, the first of which consists of a small diamond 
weave, while the second and true Diaper has rectangular figures 
or dice interwoven on the Damask principle. In cotton fabrics it 
is confined to diced or diamond reversible patterns on a small 
scale. The weave is produced by the interchanging of warp and 
weft. In linen fabrics, also, it is used to produce diced, diamond, 
and bird's-eye patterns, and also small reversible Damask 
patterns. In some districts the names Dorneck and Diced are 
used instead of Diaper. 

Dimity. — A fine cotton fabric, plain or printed, having a 
cord design running lengthways of the piece. The figures are often 
arranged in alternate stripes and appear as if embossed, this effect 
being due to the coarse weft "flushes." A cheaper kind is 
sometimes made by arranging a reversed woven stripe of warp- 
face and weft-face twill on a plain ground texture. 

Discharge Printing. — In what is known as the "dis- 
charge " style of printing, the cloth is first impregnated throughout 
its whole substance by being either vat-dyed or pad-dyed ; then 
the cloth is dried, but the colour is not fixed. It is next passed 
through the printing machine, and chemicals having the property 
of preventing the development are printed on it, either alone or 
in combination with other colouring matters. The gi'ound colour 
is then developed by steaming, and the printed pattern, white or 
coloured, is obtained upon a coloured ground. 

Dobbie, or Dobby. — This name is used to describe a type 
of loom used for the production of certain classes of figured fabrics 
which have a great many points of similarity with fabrics produced 
by means of a Jacquard loom. The distinctive feature of a 
Doljby loom is the series of lattices into which pegs are inserted, 
which control the lifting of heald shafts in their proper order, so 
as to form the shed, the heald shafts being pulled down again by 
means of springs after having been lifted up to form a shed. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 23 

Domestics. — This term is used in the textile producing 
districts of Great Britain to denote a class of medium and heavy 
weight grey cloths, plain or twill woven, the better qualities of 
which are not exported but used for home or domestic con- 
sumption. 

Domet, — A strong, heavy, twill-woven cotton fabric resem- 
bling Canton or Cotton Flannel, having a raised or napped 
surface on both sides of the fabric. Domet may be either in the 
grey or white and is a plain fabric. 

Double Cloth Weave.— Where two single cloths are so 
woven that they are combined together and make but one, it 
becomes known as a Double Cloth and is the result of double-cloth 
weaving. 

Double Cloth is woven either to obtain two well-defined and 
finished faces or to allow of a heavy material being made with a 
good quality face and with the back made up of a cloth composed 
of inferior material. This style of weaving is resorted to when 
the object is to produce certain kinds of bulky or heavy over- 
coating. 

Double Sole, Heel, and Toe means an extra thread 
added to hosiery at points mentioned. Strictly speaking, " double" 
appUes only to single-thread goods. 

Double Warps. — The name double warp is used to designate 
various kinds of fabrics of good quality in which the warp threads 
consist of two-fold yarn. Not to be mistaken as designating 
two-ply or double-weave fabrics. 

Drap d'Et^. — Allied to Cashmere in weave, but heavier. 

Dresden. — A small unobtrusive design in pastel colourings. 

Drills. — Drills are strong, heavy, warp-faced fabrics woven 
from yarns of good quality with a three (two warp and one weft), 
four (three warp and one weft), or five (four warp and one weft) end 
twill weave. When so woven they are known as Florentine Drills, 
of which the khaki Drill so often met with in the Colonies is a good 
example. Drills are also woven with a warp sateen weave which 
have — as the twill effect is done away with — a smooth surface. 

Drills may be either linen or cotton fabrics, grey or white, 
bleached or dyed, printed or striped. They average 40 yards in 
length per piece and vary in Aveight from under 10 to i2f pounds 



24 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

or over per piece and 31 inches in width. The name is from the 
Latin trilex, of three threads, and is applied to a "three-thread 
twilled cloth." Cotton Drill is a medium weight single cloth 
weighing from 4 to 6 ounces and composed of all-cotton yarns, 
warp, and filling, and is generally woven as a three-end twill- 
weave fabric. 

Drillette. — This is a cotton fabric, finer and lighter in make 
than the ordinary cotton Drill. Drillette of 30-inch width is 
imported into Colonial markets, where it is largely used for 
linings and pocketing. 

Duchesse. — A satin fabric having the back woven in flat 
twills, with a smooth surface. 

Duck. — Duck is a heavy single-cloth cotton fabric made of 
coarse two-ply yarn of plain weave. Lighter than Canvas, Duck 
is woven on the same principle as Canvas. Duck on leaving the 
loom is finished by washing and sizing, drying and pressing ; this 
gives the finished material a peculiar, hard, stiff feel. There are 
linen Ducks, but they are specially designated as Linen Ducks, 
the term Duck being used to denote the cotton variety. 

Better qualities of Duck, such as are used for tropical suitings, 
are woven with a two-and-two matt dice or Hopsack weave. The 
term "two-and-two " means that two weft threads pass alternately 
under and over two warp threads, exactly as if a plain weave had 
been doubled and the weave worked with two threads instead of 
one ; the plain weave is often termed a one-and-one weave. See 
Cotton Duck. 

Dung'aree. — A stout cotton warp-faced twill cloth woven as 
a four-end twill from coarse-count warp and weft. The only 
difference between this fabric and a Denim is that in the latter 
the weft is grey, whereas in a Dungaree both the warp and the 
weft have been dyed prior to weaving. Dungaree, being a warp- 
faced material, has the warp on the surface, and as both warp and 
weft are dyed yarns, the cloth, when woven, shows a solid coloured 
surface. 

Duplex Prints. — Fabrics which have one set of patterns 
printed on the face of the cloth and another different pattern or 
design printed on the reverse side are generally styled Duplex 
Prints. They differ from fabrics which have been printed in 
colour on one face, but in such a manner that the printed 
pattern has soaked through and shows — though less sharply — 
on the back of the fabric. The Duplex Print is the result of 
two distinct printing operations, first on one side, then on the 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 2$ 

other side, of a fabric. This being the essential condition for 
a Duplex Print, it follows that the two patterns need not be 
different. Fabrics printed on one side only, but in such a way 
that the design shows equally or nearly so on both sides, are 
not Duplex Prints. 

Dyeing. — -This term is used to describe the colouring of 
materials to enhance their value and appearance. There are five 
methods of producing colour in the fabric : — ■ 

1. Raw material dyeing. 4. Mixed dyeing. 

2. Yarn dyeing. 5- Piece dyeing. 

3. Cross dyeing. 

Unless the process is specially mentioned when a fabric is spoken 
of as "dyed," it can bs taken that what is meant is that the 
fabric was "piece-dyed," i.e., dyed in the piece after being taken 
off the loom. A dyed fabric is one which has been impregnated 
with some colouring matter and this irrespective of the means 
adopted to so impregnate it. Whether the fabric once woven has 
been allowed to^ 

1°. Remain in a dye vat soaking up dye, or 

2". Whether it has been drawn through a series of troughs 

containing dye (Continuous or Pad-dyeing process) 

with a view to its absorbing the dye — 

is immaterial. Where both sides of a fabric are equally coloured, 

and where a fabric shows that there has been thorough saturation, 

that fabric is said to be dyed. 

Dyed and Printed. — This term is used to designate any 
fabric which has been first impregnated with colouring matter 
either by being vat-dyed or pad-dyed, and which in addition has 
been ornamented by having certain designs impressed on the 
surface of the fabric in either one or more colours. This is known 
as direct printing. Fabrics may be dyed and printed by various 
styles of printing, such as " Discharge," which consists of printing 
chemicals upon dyed fabrics in designs, the chemicals causing the 
dye to come out wherever applied, leaving the printed design 
either white or in a different colour from that of the dyed 
ground. "Resist" or "Reserve" style of printing is a process 
used to obtain white figures on a coloured ground. In this process 
the designs are printed in substances that are impervious to the 
dye into which the cloth is subsequently placed. The cloth is dyed, 
but all parts covered by the resist agent remain white. 

Dyed Alpacianos. — This fabric is found grouped in the 
Revised Import Tariff for the Trade of China under "Dyed 
Cottons." 



26 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Alpacianos, as the name of a fabric, seems to have fallen into 
disuse and is probably a very old name. Dyed Alpacianos would 
appear to be an all-cotton fabric piece-dyed after leaving the 
loom, probably averaging between 28 and 31 inches in width 
and about 25 yards in length per piece. 

The particular weave of Alpacianos is not described in any 
modern book of reference dealino; with textiles. Names of fabrics 
vary, come into fashion, and die out. Few connected with 
modern textile industries could describe, say, fabrics such as 
"Durant," "Tammy," or "Everlasting Webster," yet not so very 
long ago there were fabrics currently sold under these names. 

Dyed Balzarines. — The cotton variety of this somewhat 
ancient fabric was an all-cotton light-weight open fabric resembling- 
gauze, approximating 30 inches in width and 30 yards in length 
per piece, piece-dyed in solid colours after leaving the loom. See 
Balzarines. 

Dyed Cambrics. — Real Cambric is essentially a plain-woven 
linen fabric of light weight and soft finish, but the kind of 
Cambric most often met with is a cotton fabric of similar weave. 
Dyed Cotton Cambrics are piece-dyed after leaving the loom and, 
like White Cambrics, are generally finished with a smooth glazed 
surface. The differentiation between Cotton Cambrics and Muslins 
is somewhat difficult, as the term Cambric is often applied to what 
are in reality Muslins. 

Dyed Corduroys (Cotton). — The term is used to describe 
a pile-weave ribbed cotton fabric which has been coloured in the 
piece with a view to enhance its value and appearance. 

Dyed Cotton LastingS. — This fabric is a plain all-cotton 
twill or kindred weave material firmly woven from hard-twisted 
yarns and piece-dyed after weaving. Lastings enter largely into 
the manufacture of uppers for boots and shoes. 

Dyed Cotton Spanish Stripes. — A plain-woven all-cotton 

fabric woven with a plain weave, having both surfaces raised, 
giving the fabric the general appearance of Flannelette ; being a 
dyed fabric, it is piece-dyed after leaving the loom. As a dis- 
tinctive feature, Spanish .Stripes have a list or edge of different 
colour to the main body of the fabric. The warp threads are finer 
and harder twisted than the filling threads, which are soft and full 
to facilitate the raising during the process of finishing. In width 
this fabric may vary between 28 and 64 inches, and in length it 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 2/ 

averages 25 yards. A similar fabric woven from dyed yarns 
would be a coloured woven fabric and would not belong to the 
dyed cotton variety. 

Dyed Crimp Cloth. — An all-cotton fabric having the 
distinctive " cockled " striped effect of Crimp Cloth. This cockled 
effect is produced by greater tension in some of the warp threads 
than in others. Dyed Crimp Cloth is piece-dyed after leaving the 
loom and is distinguishable from coloured woven Crimp Cloth, 
which is woven from coloured yarns. This material seldom 
exceeds 30 inches in width, the length per piece varies. 

Dyed Drills. — A heavy twill-woven all-cotton fabric, the 
weave of which is desci'ibed under "Drills," which has been dyed 
in the piece, i.e., impregnated with a uniform colour over its whole 
surface. 

Dyed Figured Cottons. — Under this heading may be 
grouped all such fabrics which (a) are made of all cotton, {b) are 
figured by having any design, large or small, woven or embossed, 
on their surface, (c) are dyed in any colour, and (d) ai-e not other- 
wise enumerated. The fabrics coming under this heading include 
both fabrics which have not been subjected to any special process 
of finishing and those which have been so treated, irrespective of 
the style of finish. The ribs or reps of such fabrics, which are 
known as "Reps" or "Ribs," do not in themselves constitute 
figures. Printing produces a style of ornamentation which does 
not rightly belong to this class of goods, in which it must only be 
the result of weaving or embossing. 

Dyed Figured Cotton Italians.— This name is used to 

designate an all-cotton fabric having the characteristic even, 
close, smooth surface of the plain Italian Cloth, but which, in 
addition, has had its surface ornamented with any figures, floral 
or geometrical effects, etc., this figuring having been produced 
either by means of extra threads, or by combining the warp and 
weft threads, or by having the pattern or outline of the design 
impressed, stamped, or embossed in the fabric, which, as it is a 
"dyed" fabric, has been coloured after leaving the loom. 

Dyed Figured Cotton LastingS.— This fabric is essentially 
an all-cotton twill or kindred weave material firmly woven from 
hard-twisted yarn, which has been figured or ornamented in the 
weaving by the introduction of a small floral or geometrical 
design. The fabric, being a "dyed fabric," is piece-dyed. Like 
Plain LastingS, this material enters largely into the manufacture 
of uppers for boots and shoes. 



28 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Dyed Figured Cotton Reps. — This name is used to desig- 
nate an all-cotton material which is primarily a Hep fabric. It 
combines the prominent reps or ribs running transversely across 
the face of the cloth, which is the distinctive feature of a Plain Rep 
fabric, with certain small figures, floral or geometrical eft'ects, etc., 
which are introduced for the purpose of ornamentation. This 
figuring may be produced either by means of extra threads on the 
surface of the cloth, by the mode of interlacing the warp and the 
weft threads on the surface of the cloth, or by having the pattern 
or outline of the design impressed or stamped in the fabric, which, 
as it is a dyed fabric, has been coloured after leaving the loom. 
This kind of material averages 32 inches in width and 32 yards in 
length per piece. 

Dyed Figured Ribs. — This name is used to designate a fabric 
which is primarily a rib material having the characteristic rep or 
rib running from selvedge to selvedge, or, in some cases, length- 
ways of the fabric, but which, in addition, has had its surface 
ornamented with any figures, floral or geometrical designs. This 
ornamentation constitutes the figuring and is produced either by 
means of extra threads or by having the pattern or outline of the 
design impressed, stamped, or embossed in the fabric, which, as it 
is a dyed fabric, has been coloured after leaving the loom. A 
Dyed Figured Cotton Rib would be an all-cotton material with 
an average width of 32 inches and averaging 32 yards to the 
piece. 

Dyed Fustians. — Fustians embrace two classes of finished 
goods, some of which are characterised in finishes by a nap raised 
on the fabric, such as Moleskins, Beaverteens, etc. The other 
class comprises cut pile fabrics, variously known in the trade by 
distinctive names, such as Velveteen and Corduroy. Fustians are 
essentially all-cotton fabrics. Dyed Fustians are piece-dyed fabrics 
and not woven from coloured yarns. 

Dyed Imitation Turkey Reds. — The fabric of which this 

class of goods is an imitation is generally a twill-faced all-cotton 
cloth piece-dyed with a cochineal dye, which is fast to light and 
washing. The Dyed Imitation Turkey Red is similar in construc- 
tion of fabric, but depends for its colouring upon a chemical or 
synthetic dye which, while it resembles cochineal, has not the 
same qualities of fastness. 

Dyed Imitation Turkey Reds are piece-dyed fabrics averaging 
in width 32 inches and in length 25 yards per piece. Fabrics 
coming under this heading are invariably plain, i.e., unornamented 
either through weave combination, printing, or embossing. 



PtECE GOODS MANUAL. 29 

Dyed in the Piece or Piece-dyed. — These terms virtually 

explain themselves. When a fabric is impregnated with a unifoirm 
colour over its whole surface it is said to be dyed in the piece or 
piece-dyed. 

Piece-dyeing is open to produce cloud spots, stains, etc., 
which woulcl not appear if the yarn had been dyed previously to 
being woven, for in that case even if the yarn had in parts got 
stained it would not show as a clearly defined stain in the fabric 
once woven. Piece-dyed fabrics may sometimes be distinguished 
from yarn-dyed fabrics by unravelling threads of each kind. In 
the case of yarn-dyed fabrics, the dyestufF has penetrated through 
the yarn, while in the case of piece-dyed fabrics the dye-stufl" has 
not the same chance of penetrating yarn as completely. The 
term "dyed in the grey" {aee tmder Union Cloth) has a similar 
meaning to " dyed in the piece " or " piece-dyed." 

Dyed Lawns are plain-woven light-weight cotton fabrics 
of soft finish which have been piece-dyed, i.e., impregnated with a 
uniform colour over their whole surface after leaving the loom. 
They vary in weight from i|'to 2^^ ounces per square yard and in 
width from 27 to 46 inches. They answer to descriptions of 
White Lawns (which see), and difler from them only in regard to 
the fact that they are piece-dyed. 

Dyed LenOS. — This fabric or class of fabric is an all-cotton 
material woven with a gauze and Leno weave and subsequently 
piece-dyed. The description of Leno fabrics given in a United 
States Government publication reads : " A term frequently used 
where various weaves or combination of weaves also have warp 
threads crossing over one or more warp threads instead of lying 
parallel to one another throughout the fabric. The warp threads 
which thus appear in a zig-zag way either on the surface or closely 
interwoven in the fabric, are, in addition to interlacing with the 
filling threads, also crossing their neighbouring warp threads that 
continue in a parallel line with the selvedges." 

Leno fabrics generally show stripe eff"ects, the exception to 
this being the All-over Leno, which resembles in weave the 
ordinaiy Cellular Cloth. 

Dyed Leno Brocade. — This term is used to designate a 
fabric woven in the Leno style, that is to say, in a combination of 
"gauze weaving" and any other style of weave, and the term 
Brocade shows that it is a figured fabric having a figure chiefly 
constructed by weft threads floating on the surface of the ma- 
terial. As in this class of fabric the threads are not dyed prior to 
weaving, the term "dyed " shows that the material has been dyed 
after it has left the loom. /See also Lenos. 



30 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Dyed Muslins. — Dyed Muslin is an all-cotton fabric of light 
weight, plain woven, which has been piece-dyed, i.e., impregnated 
with a uniform colour over its whole surface. There is a difficulty 
in describing Muslins, for the term Muslin, according to one 
Government publication, is "a generic term for thin plain-woven 
cotton cloth. The name, however, is frequently used in conjunc- 
tion with such names as dotted, fanc}'^, figured, spot, check, Swiss, 
etc., which in each case would denote some combination weave, or as 
containing stripes or checks, but the fabric still preserving a light 
weight." From this, however, it seems clear that a Muslin is 
a plain non-figured fabric of light weight. 

Dyed Plain Cottons. — Under this heading may be grouped 
all such fabrics which {a) are made of all cotton, (6) have a 
surface which has not been ornamented by the introduction of 
any small figures, floral or geometrical designs, whether produced 
by means of extra threads or by the mode of interlacing the warp 
and weft threads on the surface of the cloth or by having the 
pattern or outline of the design impressed or stamped in the 
fabric, (c) are dyed in any colour, and (d) are not otherwise 
enumerated. The fabrics coming imder this heading include both 
fabrics which have not been subjected to any special process of 
finishing and those which have been so treated, irrespective of the 
style of finish. 

Dyed Plain Cotton Italians. — The fabric answering to 

this, description is primarily an all-cotton Italian Cloth whose 
surface does not show any ornamentation pi'oduced either by 
weaving, printing, embossing, or any other process. The fact 
that the fabric has been specially finished, to improve its appear- 
ance, by being mercerised, schreinered, gassed, silk or electric 
finished, does not alter its nature of a "plain" cloth. The fabric, 
being a "dyed" fabric, is one which has been coloured after 
leaving the loom. As Italian Cloths are generally woven from a 
black warp and grey weft and, after weaving, dyed in the piece, 
they are really " cross-dyed." 

Dyed Real Turkey Reds. — Turkey Eeds are a class of 
staples whose salient distinctive feature is the fact that the dye 
used in their manufacture is cochineal dye. Real Turkey Reds 
are absolutely fast dyed, the coloiu" will not run when washed, 
and it will not appreciably fade when exposed to the action of the 
sun. 

Turkey Reds are piece-dyed, that is to say, the cotton fabric 
is woven, generally a twill-faced cloth, and the pjece is dyed. It 
is not woven of yarn previously dyed. There does exist a yarn 
dyed with turkey red; this, however, is principally used for 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 3 1 

weaving in to the ends of pieces of White Shirting or Sheeting 
certain distinguishing red weft threads, markings that are placed 
there by the manufacturer of the grey goods (i) to facihtate 
recognition of his goods when they come back from the bleacher, 
(2) to denominate quality of goods by acting as a distinctive 
mark, (3) to prevent the piece being cut at either end and the 
part cut ofi" stolen whilst at the bleachers. This yarn is also used 
for markings which are to withstand washing without running. 
The cost of dyeing the grey or white fabric into a Turkey Red is 
often greater than the original value of the fabric. 

Dyed Reps are fabrics which have as a predominant feature 
a rep or rib running transversely across the face of the cloth from 
selvedge to selvedge and which have been piece-dyed after leaving 
the loom. Even without the term "dyed" being used the term 
Rep by itself would generally be used to designate a dyed plain 
cotton fabric of the Rep variety. For particulars of weave, see 
under Rep. 

Dyed Ribs. — Fabrics which are either warp or weft ribbed, 
i.e., having ribs running either from selvedge to selvedge as in 
warp ribs, or lengthways of the material as in weft ribs, and 
which have been piece-dyed after leavmg the loom. For par- 
ticulars of distinctive weave, see under Warp Ribs and Weft Ribs. 

Dyed Sheetings. — It would appear that when a true Cot- 
ton Sheeting fabric has been dyed it is no longer known as a 
"Sheeting," and this is supported by the remark under the head- 
ing Sheetings which appears in a United States Government 
publication to the effect that "should a Sheeting be dyed or 
printed, it is never sold as Sheeting, but under some other 
name." A Dyed Sheeting would, of course, be a stout all-cotton 
fabric answering to the description of a Bolton Sheeting, woven 
from coarse yarns, as a four-shaft two-and-two twill, and measuring 
in width up to 120 inches; but the fabric most likely to be described 
as a Dyed Sheeting is the narrower variety, which is most often 
plain woven, measuring 36 inches by 40 to 80 yards, and slightly 
heavier than Shirtings of the same measurements which, subse- 
quent to weaving, has been piece-dyed. 

Dyed Shirtings. — The term in its narrower sense is used 
to designate what is virtually an all-cotton clotb, woven with 
a plain weave and having the warp and weft approximately equal 
in number of threads and counts, which has been coloured by 
being piece-dyed after weaving. The actual fabric, apart from 
the dyeing, is that of a Grey Shirting or Grey Sheeting, which are 
more fully described under their respective headings. 



32 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Dyed T-Cloths. — Piece-dyed all-cotton plain-woven fabric, 
woven from low-quality yarns, generally put up in 24-yard lengths. 

Dyed Velvet Cords (Cotton). — This fabric differs from 

Dyed Velveteen Cords only as regards the length of the pile, 
which is longer or deeper in Dyed Velvet Cords than in Dyed 
Velveteen Cords. The ditl'erence between this fabric and Cordu- 
roys is that Corduroys have perfect half-round regular pile ribs, 
separated by a dividing line between each stripe or pile rib, 
showing both warp and filling threads, whilst Velvet Cords have 
no such dividing line. 

Dyed Velveteen Cords (Cotton).— Like the plain Vel- 
veteen, this fabric is essentially an all-cotton pile fabric in which 
the distinguishing eftect is formed by the points of the fibres in. 
the filling yarns, termed the pile, being presented to the vision, 
and not the sides of the yarns as in the majority of cases. The 
cords are produced by a process of cutting away the pile so as to 
form raised cord-like corrugations running lengthways of the piece. 
Being a dyed fabric, it is coloured uniformly all over the piece in 
some solid colour. It difi^ers from Dyed Velvet Cords only as 
regards the length of pile, which in the Velveteen variet}'^ is 
shorter. The difference between this class of material and a 
Corduroy is that Corduroy has a dividing line between each stripe 
or cord of pile, showing both warp and filling threads, whilst 
Velveteen Cords have no such dividing line. 

Embossed Velvet (Cotton), — The term Cotton Velvet is 
generally recognised in the manufacturing and distributing trade 
to be a misnomer, and the material or fabric which would appear 
to come under this classification is in reality an Embossed Velve- 
teen, which see. 

Embossed Velveteen (Cotton). — This term is used to 

designate an all -cotton pile- weave fabric generally woven as a 
weft-pile weave, the pile surface, consisting of threads or fibres 
in the filling yarn which forms the pile, standing up at right 
angles to the back of the fabric. The distinctive feature of this 
class of fabric is the embossed design or pattern, which is essen- 
tially an indented ornamentation produced by pressure and heat. 
The embossing machine for giving an indented ornamentation 
to Velvet or Velveteen and other fabrics has engraved copper 
rollers, which are heated by enclosed red-hot ii-ons or series of 
gas jets when operating on dampened goods. The engraved rollers 
have designs in intaglio, which confer a cameo ornamentation 
upon the fabric being embossed. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL, 33 

Embroideries. — When applied to woven fabrics this name 
is used to designate a fine plain-woven cloth made from fine yarns 
and used for embroidery purposes. Generally a linen fabric. 

End. — When the word " end " is used in connexion with 
weaving it signifies the warp threads, while each filling or weft 
thread is called a " pick." When used to designate a class of twill- 
weaving such as "a five-end twill," it refers to the total number 
of warp and weft threads in the twill pattern ; thus, " a five-end 
twill " designates the interlacing of four warp and one weft. 
Under "Twill Weave" will be found the generally recognised ways 
of arranging the order of interweaving. 

English Foot. — A stocking having two seams in the foot, 
one on each side of the sole. 

Eolienne. — A sheer silk and wool material. Also in silk and 
cotton. 

Eponge. — A French term for Sponge Cloth. 

Equestrienne Tights. — Tight-fitting knitted drawers for 
women's use, made of ribbed cloth, either with or without feet. 

Etamine. — French name for Bolting or Sifting Cloth, 
generally made of silk yarn and used for the purpose of sifting 
flour. The term is used in America to designate mesh or net 
weaves. 

Etamine, though often made of silk, is found also in wool, 
cotton, linen, etc. Plain weave and open-work structure are its 
salient features. It is equally used for sifting powdered solids and 
filtering liquids. 

Extract is a comprehensive term used to indicate a special 
class of fibres which have been obtained by " pulling " or beating 
to pieces material which may have been milled or unmilled, but 
which was partly composed of cotton, this cotton being got rid 
of or destroyed by the treatment which is known as carbonising. 

Extracted. — Goods in which the pattern has been printed, 
first applying the design with a material which, after dyeing, 
permits the colour, as it affects the design, to be washed out or 
" extracted." 

FaCOnn^. — Having a figure or design raised on the surface. 

Faille.— A soft flat-ribbed silk. 
3 



34 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Fancies. — Fancy is a term used to designate those fabrics 
which are not woven in the same way year after year, but which 
show variations in weave, colour, or both colour and weave. 
The principal Fancies of the dress goods variety are Brocades, 
Cuspettes, Meliores, Hopsacking, Stripes, Checks, Plaids, Melanges, 
and Mixtures. 



FentS. — When a full-sized piece of cloth is found to be 
imperfectly woven in parts or damaged through stains, etc., and 
unsaleable as a whole piece, it is cut up into short lengths ; these 
short lengths are called "fents." The name also is applied to 
short lengths cut from piece ends and is equivalent to the term 
"remnant." The value of fents is much less per yard than for 
similar cloth in the full piece. 

Figured. — When used with reference to textiles the term 
"figured" means that for the purpose of ornamentation certain 
extra threads — known as figuring threads — have been introduced 
on the surface of a plain ground structure or on other ground 
structural weaves, and afterwards allowed to lie loosely or "float" 
underneath the ground cloth structure. When the extra threads 
introduced run lengthways in the piece the figured fabric produced 
is known as an " extra warp " figured cloth. When, similarly, the 
figured effect is obtained by the introduction of extra threads 
running across the face of the material, the figured fabric produced 
is known as an "extra weft" figured cloth. The most elaborate 
eftects, however, are produced by means of the extra warp effects. 
A cloth may be figured without the addition of any extra warp or 
weft thread but by combination of weave. 

Figured Muslin. — When an ordinary plain-weave fabric of 
the Muslin variety has been ornamented by means of combination 
of weave or an extra thread, whilst still retaining the characteristic 
light weight, etc., of the true Muslin fabric, it is known as a 
Figured Muslin. Unless special!}'' designated, a Figured Muslin 
would be an all-cotton fabric. 



Figure Weaving. — When complicated and elaborate de- 
signs are required the cloth must be woven with the aid of a 
.lacquard, which is an apparatus for automatically selecting warp 
threads and manipulating them to facilitate the passage of the 
filling. This style of weave produces figured effects on the face of 
the fabric and is generally used to produce patterns of great 
width. Such figured and elaborate designs are classed under the 
natne of .Jacquards. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 35 

Filled Cotton Cloth. — This form of cloth has the interstices 
between the threads filled with glue, china clay, white lead, chalk, 
plaster of paris, glauber salts, glucose, or other filling substances. 

Filling. — This term is given to the process of adding weight 
to a fabric by subjecting it to an operation, whereby it will 
have been made to absorb certain chemicals or substances. The 
principal filling agents are zinc chloride, magnesium sulphate, 
magnesium chloride, glue, gelatine, dextrine, starch, and water 
glass (alkali silicate). The term " filling " is also used to designate 
the material used in weighting the' fabric and has the same value 
as "loading" or "weighting." 

When the word " filling " is used in connexion with weaving 
it always signifies the weft threads, each of which is also called a 
" pick." 

Flannel (Woollen). — The true Woollen Flannel should be an 
all-wool fabric, into the making of which no fibres other than wool 
enter. Woven with either a plain or twill weave. Flannel is a 
soft-finished material, which, in the better grades, should be of a 
non-shrinking character. When a very small percentage of cotton 
is found in so-called all-wool Flannel, it is sometimes due to cotton 
having remained in the machines used for the carding of the wool 
prior to making it into yarn. In some countries as much as 
I per cent, of cotton is allowed in an all-wool Flannel. When a 
higher percentage is found the fabric is no longer considered an 
all-wool Flannel. When cotton is made to form part of Flannel 
it is scribbled or carded with the wool to increase the strength of 
the thread and improve its spinning properties. Such yarns are 
known as Carded Unions and when woven will produce a Woollen 
Flannel, which is distinct from an all-wool Flannel. Inasmuch 
as the term " woollen " is commonly used in opposition to " all- 
wool," and that it is recognised in England that wastes, shoddy, 
and blends of material other than wool are referred to as 
"woollen," the term Woollen Flannel is applicable to a fabric 
that is not an all-wool material. 

Flannelette. — Like Cotton Flannel, this fabric is woven 
from soft mule-spun yarn, which is more suitable for a raised 
material than a ring-spun yarn. Flannelette may be either plain 
or twill woven and may be either piece-dyed or woven with 
coloured warp and weft yarns to form either stripes or checks. 

Flannelette is a cloth produced to imitate Flannel and has, 
owing to its raised surface, a " woolly " feel. By being subjected 
to a special treatment, Flannelette can be rendered " fireproof " ; 
if untreated, it is a highly inflammable material. The better 
qualities of Flannelette are distinguished from the lower grades 



36 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

by the former being more closely woven in the warp, and the 
raised nap is shorter in the better grades. Flannelettes are 
sometimes printed, in which case they would be more correctly 
described as "Printed Flannelettes," the ordinary Flannelette of 
commerce not being as a rule "printed." Whereas in certain 
countries it is not legal to sell as "pure wool Flannel" a material 
containing cotton, there is nothing to prevent a manufacturer from 
selling as Flannelette a material in whose composition a certain 
amount of wool may enter. Unlike Cotton Flannel, which from 
its very name shows that the material is of cotton, and by 
inference cotton only, the term Flannelette may not always 
designate an all-cotton material, although by general acceptance 
in the trade Flannelette should be an all-cotton fabric. 

Flat Underwear, — Goods knitted in plain stitch. 

Fleece-lined. — Applied to a variety of heavy-weight under- 
garments knitted with three threads — namely, face yarn, backing 
yarn, and a third thread of yarn tying the face and back 
together. The heavy nap or fleece is produced by running the 
cloth through wire rolls, called brushers. The term "fleece-lined" 
is often misapplied to ordinary single-thread underwear which 
has been run through the brushing machine for the purpose 
of raising a light nap on the inner surface. 

Floconn^. — Having small flakes, in white or colour. 

Florentine Drills. — When a Drill is woven with a twill 
weave it is known as a Florentine Drill, to distinguish it from 
Satin Drill, which is woven with a warp-faced sateen weave. 

Folded Yarn. — Folded Yarn is produced by twisting to- 
gether two or more single yarns. When two single threads are 
twisted together the Folded Yarn produced would be called a 
"two-fold." If the single yarn used in producing the "two-fold" 
yarn was of 40's count (that is to say, of yarn of which it took 
40 hanks of 840 yards to weigh i pound), the "two-fold" yarn 
produced would really become equivalent to 20's count (that 
is to say, it would take 20 hanks to weigh i pound); how- 
ever, it would not be referred to as being a 20's count, but 
as a two-fold forties and designated 2/40's. All Folded Yarns 
are designated by two sets of figures separated by a line, which 
shows on one side the number of threads folded together and 
on the other the "coimt" of the single threads thus folded 
together. By dividing the number of tlie single threads into the 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 37 

counts the actual number of hanks of the Folded Yarn per pound 

is ascertained thus : — 

Two-fold 40's, written 2/40 = 20 folded hanks per pound. 

Three-fold 30's, ,, 3/30 = 10 „ , ,, „ „ 

Three-fold 6o's, ,, 3/60 = 20 „ ,, ,, „ 

Four-fold 6o's, ,, 4/60 = 15 ,, „ „ ,, 

Four-fold i2o's, ,, 4/120 = 30 „ ,, „ ,, 

All Folded Yarn is not composed of single threads of the 
same count. Where such Folded Yarns are met with, and 
when it is desired to ascertain the number of hanks of such 
Folded Yarn per pound, the simplest way to proceed is to 
take the highest count and divide it first by itself and the 
other counts in succession, then divide the sum of the various 
quotients into the highest count, and the answer will be hanks 
per pound : — 

30 ^ 30 = I 

30 ^ 20=r l| 

2-1 ) 30 

12 Answer. 

In folding yarn part of the length of the original threads 
folded is taken up in the twist ; hence, when folded, they will no 
longer measure the regulation 840 yards per hank, but slightly 
under. 

Foulard. — A soft twilled silk, usually printed. 

French Foot. — A hosiery term meaning having only one 
seam, and that in the centre of the sole. 

Full Regular (sometimes called Looped). — A term applied 
to hosiery or underwear in which the seams have been connected 
by hand knitting. 

Full-fashioned. — A term used to designate hosiery knitted 
in a flat web, which is shaped by the machine so as to fit the foot, 
leg, or body. The webs, or sections, are sewn together to form 
hosiery, underwear, etc. 

Fustian. — This name is given to designate low grades of 
cotton fabrics woven with a pile weave, such as Cotton Velvets, 
Velveteens, Corduroys, Moleskins, Cordings, etc. Fustian is also 
applied to such fabrics when they are made in a combination of 
cotton and flax or other vegetable fibre. It is more used as a 



38 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

generic term designating a class of fabi'ics than to designate one 
particular kind of fabric. One class of Fustians has a raised 
"nap" on one or both sides, and includes Cantoons or Diagonals, 
which have a pronounced weft twill on the face side and are used 
for riding breeches. 

Galatea. — A cotton fabric having coloured stripes; the 
weave is usually a three-shaft, but sometimes a four-shaft, warp 
twill weave. The stripes may be either simply coloured, whilst 
retaining the twill weave, or they may be plain woven as well as 
coloured. This material is often used for washing uniforms for 
nurses and hospital attendants. The weave of Galatea is similar 
to that of Jean, Nankeen, or Regatta Twill. 

Gau^e. — Applied to the number of meshes or wales to the 
inch in underwear or hosiery. For example, a i6-gauge fabric 
will have i6 wales or ribs to the inch. 

Gauze Weave, — In gauze weaving all the warp threads are 
not parallel to each othei', but are made to intertwist more or less 
amongst themselves. This style of weaving produces light, open 
fabrics allowing the introduction of many lace-like combinations. 
The warp is double, one set being the usual or ground warp and 
the other the "douping," or warp that intertwines itself on the 
ground warp. Gauze weaving produces fabrics which are peculiar 
for their openness, lightness, and strength. When gauze is com- 
bined with plain weaving it is styled " Leno." 

Ging'ham. — Gingham is an all-cotton fabric, always woven 
with a plain weave — a yarn-dyed cotton cloth in stripes or checks. 
It is woven in various grades, having from 50 to 76 ends per inch 
in the reed and of i/26's to i/40's cotton yarn in both warp and 
weft. It" is a washing fabric made in both checks and plaid 
patterns, into which a great variety of colour combinations are 
introduced. Ginghams are made with from two colour warp and 
filling to eight colour in warp and six in filling. During the 
finishing process the loom-state fabric is sewed end on piece to 
piece until a continuous length of cloth of several hundred yards 
is obtained (this is done to facilitate handling). It is damped by 
a sprinkler to make it more readily take up the starch size with 
which it is liberally treated. One variety of Gingham known as 
Madras Gingham is distinctly a Shirting fabric. Ginghams, when 
having a highly variegated colouring, are described as Checks. 

Glac^. — Originally applied to a fabric having a glossy, lus- 
trous surface. Now often applied to "shot" silks, that is, plain 
weaves wherein the warp and filling are of different colours. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 39 

Granite. — A weave in which the yarns are so twisted as to 
create a pebbled surface. 

Grenadine. — A somewhat elastic term used to describe an 
openwork, diaphanous material of silk, wool, or cotton. 

Grey, in the Grey, or Grey Cloth. — These terms are used 

to designate fabrics that are in the loom state and that have been 
woven from yarn that was neither bleached nor dyed. A Grey 
Shirting would no longer be called a Grey Shirting after it had 
been bleached. In the woollen industry the term "grey" is applied 
to the web in its loom state previous to its being put through the 
various necessary processes to make it into a finished cloth. 

Grey Drills. — Grey Cotton Drills are all-cotton medium and 
heavy weight single cloths woven from unbleached yarns as a 
three-shaft twill (two warp and one weft) which have not been 
bleached, dyed, or printed from the time they left the loom. 
Varying in weight according to quality, they are, however, gene- 
rally put up in pieces measuring 3 1 inches in width by 40 yards 
in length. They are more fully described under Drills. 

The Pepperell Drill is a Grey Drill of superior quality made 
from high-class yarns and exceedingly well woven. 

Grey Jeans. — This name is given to an all-cotton fabric 
woven as a three-shaft twill having either (a) each weft thread 
passing over one and under two warp threads, or (b) each weft 
thread passing over two and under one warp thread, the warp and 
weft intersections traversing one thread and one pick further from 
their respective positions each time a pick of weft is inserted. 

When woven as a warp-faced twill fabric from strong yarns, 
the cloth is often called a Drill, and is used for suitings, boot 
linings, corseting, etc ; when woven from lighter yarns as a 
medium-weight weft-faced twill fabric, the cloth is largely used for 
linings. In width it varies from 28 and under to 31 or more 
inches and in length from 30 to 40 yards per piece. A " Grey " 
Jean is a Jean in the loom state, i.e., which has not been bleached 
by being treated with bleaching powders, etc. 

Grey Sheeting. — There are two distinct varieties of Grey 
Sheeting. The first kind is used for bed sheeting and is a stout 
cotton cloth woven from coarse yarns, usually in a four-shaft two- 
and-two twill weave, and having a width of as much as 120 inches. 
The weave of this material being a twill weave having an equal 
number of warp and weft threads to the inch, the twill lines or 
diagonal produced will be at an angle of 45 degrees to a line drawn 
across the width of the material. This diagonal eff'ect is produced 



40 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

by the warp and weft intersections traversing one thread and one 
pick further from their respective positions each time a pick or 
weft is inserted. This kind of Sheeting is known as Bolton 
Sheeting, which is a grey material, i.e., unbleached. In length 
the piece may measure up to 80 yards. The second kind of 
Sheeting is Waste SheSting, made from waste and condenser wefts, 
i.e., wefts made from certain waste cotton which accumulates 
during the process of spinning yarn. This waste is treated by 
special machinery, which prepares it and spins it into a full, level, 
and soft yarn, which is used for weft in the weaving of Sheetings. 
Waste Sheetings are woven like Bolton Sheeting, with the excep- 
tion of the lower qualities, which are often plain or calico woven. 
The lower grades of Grey Sheeting are often simply grey Calico 
cloths of about 36 inches in width and resembling very closely 
Grey Shirtings, the only difference being that they are slightly 
heavier in the yarn than the ordinary Grey Shirting. Grey 
Sheeting is generally made up into pieces of from 40 to 80 yards 
in length and varying in weight according to count of yarn used. 

Grey Shirting. — A Grey Shirting is an unbleached cotton 
cloth woven with a plain weave and having the warp and weft 
approximately equal in number of threads and counts ; the fabric 
has a plain, even surface, which, when the threads are evenly spaced, 
is said to be well "covered." Grey Shirting, a staple import into 
the Eastern markets, is made up in pieces measuring from 36 to 
40 yards in length, a width of from 36 to 45 inches, and weighing 
from 7 to 1 1 pounds and over per piece, according to the count of 
the yarn and the amount of size used. This class of fabric has the 
warp threads heavily sized. The exact difference between Gi-ey 
Shirtings and certain grades of Grey Sheetings is at times non- 
apparent. Again, a Grey Shirting may be termed a Calico, which 
in the trade has become a general term used to designate practi- 
cally any cotton cloth coarser than Muslin. 

'Grey T-Cloths. — All-cotton plain-woven unbleached fabric 
of low quality and heavily sized yarns nearly always put up in 
24-yard lengths. The name is said to be derived from the mark 
T of the original exporters. 

Grosgrain. — A silk fabric having a small ribbed effect from 
selvedge to selvedge. When the rib runs lengthways the fabric is 
known as a Millerayes. 

Habit Cloth (Woollen). — An all-wool cloth similar to 
Mediiun, Broad, and Kussian Cloth. Average width, 54 to 74 inches. 
In the better grades it is a high-priced fabric generally used for 
riding habits. Met with in dark shades of green or else in black. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 4I 

Habutai. — A plain-weave silk, of smooth and even textiu-e, 
originally made in Japan on hand looms. 

Hair-cord Muslin. — A plain-weave fabric having stripes or 
checks formed by coarse threads, which stand out in a clearly 
defined manner. 

Hand Looms and Power Looms. — The difference between 

these two kinds of looms lies in the fact that in the former 
(hand loom) the weaving is the result of the loom being worked 
and controlled by hand and foot, whereas in the power loom, 
whether belt driven or driven by electric motor, the power 
transmitted to the loom works all the essential parts, which 
are : — 

1. Warp beam. 4. Reed or beater-in. 

2. Heddles. 5. Cloth roll. 

3. Shuttle. 

When a power loom has been suitably tuned up, i.e., timed so that 
the various movements necessary for the forming of the " shed " 
and the passing of the shuttle and the beating-in occur in the 
right sequence and at a correct interval of time, the weaver (who, 
in the case of power looms, is oftener called the overlooker) only 
has to attend to the broken warp threads or replenishing of the 
weft shuttle. With a hand loom the weaver controls the heddles 
which form the shed, throws the shuttle carrying the weft thread 
through the shed, and as fast as each filling thread is interlaced 
with the warp beats it in close to the previous one by means of a 
reed which is pulled by hand towards, and recedes from, the cloth 
after each passage of the shuttle. This is done to make the cloth 
firm. The movement of the reed in the hand-power loom (or, 
more correctly, in the hand and foot power loom) being controlled 
by the weaver and not mechanically, accounts for irregularity in 
firmness of weave not found in fabrics woven on a power loom. 

Handle, — This term is used either as a "wool term" in 
connexion with wool or as a general textile term in connexion 
with fabrics. As a wool term it refers or designates all the 
attributes which determine quality, i.e., softness, fineness, length, 
and elasticity — noticeable when wool is judged by the feel. Easier 
to define than to acquire, " handle " also enters into the judging of 
woven fabrics. It is then used to denote the hardness, harshness, 
softness, smoothness, etc., which similarly are factors of quality 
and which are often best appreciated by the sense of touch. 

Harvard Shirting.— This style of Shirting is generally 
recognised by its broken twill effect, which may be combined with 



42 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

plain stripes, small diamond patterns, etc., woven from dyed 
yarns. The salient feature of Harvard Shirtings is the above 
effect in different colours. The ground weave is generally a 
two-and-two twill. 

Henrietta. — A soft, lustrous, twilled fabric of wool ; similar 
to a Cashmere, but finer and lighter. 

Herring-bone. — A binding often used in facing the neck 
and front opening of undershirts. Also applied to the stitching 
which is made to cover the edge of the split sole in hosier3^ Used 
in connexion with textiles, it is applied to striped effects produced 
by alternating a left-hand and a right-hand twill-weave stripe. 

Hessian. — A strong, coarse, plain-woven packing or wrap- 
ping cloth made from jute or hemp yarns. A standard make 
of this material weighs io| ounces to the yard, is 40 inches wide, 
and averages 13 shots per inch. 

Hog, or Hoggett Wool, is another name for lambs' wool ; 
it is the product of the first clipping of the young sheep and can 
be distinguished by the fact that its ends are pointed, whereas 
subsequent clippings yield wether wool with blunt and thickened 
ends. 

Honeycomb. — This designates a style of weave and not an 
actual fabric. Marked ridges and hollows, which cause the surface 
of the fabric to resemble that of a honeycomb, are the salient 
characteristics of this style of weave. The term is also applied 
to leno weaA^es when consecutive crossing ends cross in opposite 
directions. 

Huckaback. — This name designates a class of weave mainly 
used in the weaving of towels or Towelling, which combines a 
small design with a plain ground. The short floats of warp and 
weft and the plain ground of these weaves give a rough surface 
combined with a firm structure. The small design entering into 
this class of weave varies, but is always a geometrical design and 
not floral. 

Imitation Rabbit Skin. — Generally an all-cotton pile- 
weave fabric having a long pile, which has not the same 
amovmt of lustre as either a silk or mohair pile^ being duller 
ill appearance. This kind of fabric may be distinguished from 
a silk or mohair pile material by the fact that its pile will 
crush more readily than either. Its pile will not spring back 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 43 

into place readily, more especially when the pile is long. Gener- 
ally 48 to 50 inches wide and 60 yards long, it is shipped 
on frames, on which it is fastened by a series of hooks. 
These hooks hold the material hj the selvedges, which are 
made specially strong. Two 60-yard frames are generally packed 
in one box or case. 

IngTSlill. — A term for knitted goods applied to raw material 
or yarn dyed before knitting. 

Irishes.— This generic name is applied to linen fabrics, 
which are a speciality of Ireland. Irishes have been imitated 
in cotton, and when such a fabric is met with it should be 
designated as a Cotton Irish. The term Irishes would cover such 
fabrics as Irish Cambric, Irish Duck, and Irish Linen. 

Irish Cambric. — This fabric, Uke all true Cambrics, is an 
all-linen fabric, plain woven, without a selvedge. It has been 
imitated in cotton, and the name is now currently used to 
designate an all-cotton plain-woven fabric finer than lawn, in 
which the warp yarn is often of a different thickness from that 
used for the filling and is finished with a smooth glazed surface. 

Italian Cloth. — A plain cloth generally made of standard 
materials, i.e., fine Botany weft and a cotton warp. Italian cloth 
is usually a weft-faced fabric. Like all fabrics woven with a 
weft-faced satin weave, the weft or filling threads are practically 
all on the surface of the cloth, producing an even, close, smooth 
surface capable of reflecting light to the best advantage. Italian 
cloth is generally cross-dyed, that is to say, woven from a 
black warp and grey weft, afterwards dyed in the piece. It 
may be woven either as an all-cotton, a cotton and worsted, 
a cotton and wool, or a cotton and mohair fabric. Its chief 
characteristic is its smooth, glossy, silky appearance obtained 
by various processes of finishing given to the cloth after it 
is woven. AH finishes have the same tendency and purpose, 
which is to improve the appearance and enhance the value of 
the cloth. Whilst Italian Cloth may be either plain, figured, 
embossed, printed, etc., or a combination of these varieties, the 
name is applied to a " plain dyed cotton fabric." 

Italian Cloth, Figured, Cotton Warp and Wool 

Weft. — This fabric, in addition to the characteristics of the 
plain Italian Cloth woven from cotton warp and wool weft, 
has had its surface ornamented by the introduction of figures 
or floral or geometrical designs produced either by combination 



44 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

of weave or by means of certain extra threads known as "figuring 
threads." These figures may be produced by means of either 
extra warp or extra weft threads. In this class of material, 
where the weft is wool, the extra figuring thread is generally 
a weft thread. The figuring thread, after having served the 
purpose of ornamenting the face of the cloth, is allowed to lie 
loosely or " float " underneath the ground cloth structure. Where 
the figuring is produced by combination of weave no such floating 
threads appear. 

Italian Cloth, Plain, Cotton Warp and Wool Weft.— 

Under the heading "Italian Cloth" it will be seen that such a 
fabric is essentially a weft-faced satin-weave material having 
practically the whole of the weft or filling threads on the surface. 
When it is woven from a wool weft and a cotton warp the material 
shows the face of the cloth as a wool face, the main bulk of 
the cotton warp showing on the back of the fabric. When woven 
with cotton warp and wool weft, Italian Cloth still retains the 
characteristic smooth surface of all weft-faced satin-weave fabrics. 
Very simple tests by burning will show the nature of both warp 
and weft, and this class of fabric illustrates clearly, by contrast 
between the two sets of threads, the nature of weft-faced satin or 
kindred weave fabrics. Such Italians are generally cross-dyed, i.e., 
woven with dyed warp and grey w^eft, and then piece-dyed. 

Jaconet. — There are two varieties of Jaconets, both of which, 
however, are all-cotton fabrics. One is a hard-finished fabric 
similar in weight to Victoria Lawn, having a smooth, lustrous. 
Cambric finish. The other is a soft-finished material which can 
hardly be distinguished from a heavy soft-finished Nainsook. 
Jaconet is a plain-woven fabric which has been variously described 
as a "thin, soft Muslin," or as a "plain-woven cotton fabric lightly 
constructed, composed of light yarns." Bleached, dyed, or printed 
in the grey piece length, similar to Mulls, Nainsooks, Cambrics, 
etc. It is also spelt Jaconettes. 

Jacquards is a loose term applied to elaborate designed 
fabrics produced by means of a machine called a Jacquard, the 
distinctive feature of which is an apparatus for automatically 
selecting warp threads and moving them independently of each 
other. Jacquards are the produce of what is termed figure 
weaving, in which complicated figures are woven into the fabric. 

Jaeger. — This name is used to designate the products of a 
certain manufacturer whose material is described as being an 
"all-wool" material, (ienerally applied to underwear and fabrics 
into whose composition camel wool is said to enter largely. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 45 

Jedill. — A Jean is an all-cotton fabric woven as a three-shaft 
twill similar to a Dungaree. Good-quality .Jeans, woven from 
coloured warp, are often used as sailors' collars and for children's 
clothing. Woven in the grey as a weft-faced twill and subse- 
quently dyed, they are used for lining cloths. The weave of a 
Jean fabric, which is its salient characteristic, is described under 
" Grey Jeans," which is the kind of Jean most often met with. 

Jeanette. — A three-shaft weft twill fabric having warp and 
weft threads about equally proportioned in number and thickness. 

The name "Jeanette backed" is applied to certain pile fabrics 
that have a three-end twill back. 

Applied to a cotton material, it would correspond to a Jean 
type fabric not as stoutly woven as a Jean. One authority, 
however, claims that it is "a similar fabric to the Jean in which 
the warp predominates." 

Jouy. — Printings in small floral effects on silk or cotton, 
similar to Pompadour designs. Named after a Frenchman who 
established a plant for such work during the reign of Louis XV. 

Kerseymere. — Seldom met with under this name. Kersey- 
mere is a fine woollen cloth of a serge-like character, woven with 
a three-shaft weft-faced twill weave. 

Khaiki. — A Japanese silk of plain weave, not so fine as 
Habutai. 

Khaki. — A colour resembling that of the ground. This word 
is derived from the Hindustani word for " earth." A term applied 
to a special shade of brown or greenish brown largely employed in 
soldiers' uniforms. 

Ladies' Cloth. — A dress fabric of plain weave, similar to a 
Flannel in construction, but with a high-finished surface, which 
gives the fabric a Broadcloth effect. 

Lappet Weave. — Lappet weaving is used to produce on a 
light fabric small designs which have the appearance of having 
been embroidered upon the fabric, such as the detached spots in 
dotted Swiss, or narrow and continuous figures running more or 
less in stripes. This form of weaving is used mainly on plain and 
gauze fabrics, and the figures are practically stitched into the 
fabric by means of needles in a special sliding frame. The yarn 
which produces the figured design is an extra warp thread known 



46 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

as a "whip yarn." Lappet weaving produces the design on one 
side only of the fabric, and this feature will enable this style of 
weave to be recognised from other processes, such as Swiss Em- 
broidery. The loose threads existing between the figures when 
the goods leave the loom are usually cut away, leaving a some- 
what imperfect figure or spot with a bit of the figuring thread 
protruding at either extreme edge of the figure or spot. Lappet- 
figured fabrics are not Brocades. 

LastingS. — A plain twill or kindred w^eave fabric firmly 
woven from hard-twisted wool or cotton yarns. Smooth in appear- 
ance but having a somewhat hard handle. Lasting is a fine, 
durable, generally piece-dyed, material, of which there are several 
varieties, such as the Printed and the Figured. It is sometimes 
employed in the making of uppers for boots and shoes. 

Leas. — A term used to denote the count of linen yarn, each 
lea being a measure of length equal to 300 yards. When used 
with reference to cotton yarn, it is a measure of length equal to 
4,320 inches, or 120 yards. See under Cotton Yarn Measures. 

Leather Cloth. — This name is given to a cloth which is 
known in the Bradford district as a Melton. It is a union cloth 
woven from cotton warp and woollen weft having the warp 
threads running in pairs or, as it is called, in "sisters." 
Generally measuring from 50 to 56 inches in width and weighing 
from 20 to 24 ounces per yard, it is finished with a bright, smooth 
face. The system of interlacing of warp and weft is not apparent 
either on the face or back of the cloth. By pulling away one 
or two weft threads it is easy to see that the warp threads are 
of cotton and that they are in pairs. Leather cloth is free 
from any figuring and is generally dyed in dark colours. 

Leno. — Where a fabric is woven with a combination of gauze 
weaving and a few plain picks it is said to be a Leno. It is 
a term now currently used to designate all classes of light fabrics 
into which the gauze weave (in which kind of weaving all the 
warp threads do not run parallel or at right angles to the weft 
but are more or less twisted round each other) is introduced in 
combination with any other kind of weave. Lenos may have 
either an "all-over eti'ect" or "stripes." The introduction in 
Lenos of the gauze weave tends to strengthen a material which 
from its very nature can only be but light. Lenos may show, 
in addition to the "all-over effect," an extra weft figure or spot. 
Whilst all these would be known as I.enos, their more correct 
designation would be Figured i.,enos, or Extra Weft Spot Figured 
Lenos. The term is now loosely used, and sometimes a " lace " 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 47 

stripe Muslin will be called a Leno. The crossing threads used 
in the true or " net " Lenos are often of two or three fold yarn. 
The common so-called lace curtains are Lenos. The common 
varieties of Lenos are extensively used for the purpose of mosquito 
nets. 

Liberty. — A light-weight silk having a satin finish. A trade 
name applied to a satin-finish silk of light weight now generally 
applied to such silks, although not the original " Liberty." 

Linen Yarn. — When the count of linen yarn is given, it 
is denoted by "leas." Each lea is a measure of 300 yards, and 
10 leas =: I hank and 20 hanks = i bundle. It will be seen that 
as the " counts " increase, the weight per bundle decreases. 

Lingerie. — This comprehensive term embraces ladies' and 
children's undergarments, such as skirts, undershirts, etc., infant's 
long and short dresses, stockings, chemises, night-robes, drawers, 
corset covers, etc. 

Lining. — A cloth usually made from cotton warp and 
cotton, alpaca, or Botany weft, according to the type of cloth 
required, generally woven with a sateen weave. Italian Cloth is 
a typical example of lining cloth. The name denotes a class 
of fabrics rather than a given fabric. 

Lisle Thread. — Yams made of long-staple cotton, somewhat 
tightly twisted and having a smooth surface produced by passing 
the yarn over gas jets. 

Loading Worsted and Woollens.— When the natural 

weight of any fabric is artificially increased, it is subjected to a 
treatment called "filling," "loading," or "weighting." Wool 
fabrics, by reason of their great hygroscopic properties, are 
usually weighted by being impregnated with hygroscopic sub- 
stances, such as magnesium chloride. Other agents employed 
for filling worsted and woollen goods are zinc chloride, dextrine, 
starch, and water glass (alkali silicate). 

Zinc chloi'ide is a most useful loading agent on account of 
it possessing great hygroscopic properties. When a wool fabric 
has passed through solutions containing this agent the chloride 
is absorbed and permanently retained in the form of moisture, 
and a slippery handle or feel is imparted. 

Longcloth. — This name is used to designate a fine cotton 
fabric, either plain or twill woven, of superior quality, made 
from a fine grade of cotton yarn of medium twist. 



4.8 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

The fabric is used for infants' long dresses, from which it 
derives its name, also for lingerie. Longcloth to some extent 
resembles Batiste, fine Muslin, India Linen, and Cambric. It is, 
however, distinguished from these fabrics by the closeness of its 
weave. It has, when finished, a very good white appearance, due 
to the closeness of the weave and the soft twist of the yarn. The 
surface is rendered smooth by undergoing a " gassing " process. 

Long Ells (Woollen). — This name is given to an all-wool 
twill-weave fabric woven with a worsted warp and a woollen weft, 
averaging in width from 28 to 30 inches and having a length of 
24 yards to the piece. Calendered, finished, and often dyed a 
bright vermilion. Long Ells averaged in value during the 10 
years 1904-14 about 17s. per piece. They are not met with in a 
large range of qualities, the most usual type answering to the 
above description. 

Long Stick. — This term is used to describe a yard of 36I 
inches in length. The abbreviated manner of writing this term 
on documents referring to textiles is LS. It is only used in 
connexion with textile fabrics and in opposition to "short 
stick," a yard of 36 inches. One authority states that "the yard 
is generously reckoned at 37 inches by manufacturers in the 
United Kingdom." This statement, however, should be taken 
with reserve, although in the woollen trade it seems to be a 
common practice. In addition to this extra i inch per yard, a 
quarter of a yard in every 10 is generally allowed, so that a nomi- 
nal 40-yard piece would actually measure 40 yards -f- 40 inches 
-1- 1 yard = 42 yards 4 inches. The long stick measure is only 
used in the woollen trade. 

Louisine. — A silk fabric having an uneven surface like that 
of an Armure, but finer in efibct. 

Lustre Dress Fabrics. — This class of union fabric, when 
woven with a fast black dyed cotton warp and a worsted mohair 
weft, is representative of union fabrics in general, and the treat- 
ment of this material when in its grey state applies to the majority 
of union fabrics. The warp is generally a 2/80's, i.e., a strong yarn, 
and the weft, say, a i/14's. The warp being dyed prior to weav- 
ing, there only remains the weft to be dyed after the unfinished 
cloth leaves the loom. This is called cross-dyeing. The grey 
cloth, in its loom state, possesses a visible appearance of non- 
lustrous cotton. This appearance is changed and replaced by the 
lustre effect through the process of "crabbing," or drawing out 
the material in the direction of the cotton warp. The warp 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 49 

threads when drawn straight virtually throw the lustrous weft to 
the surface, whilst they themselves become embedded out of sight 
in the cloth. Orleans, Mohair Brilliantine, and Mohair Sicilian are 
fabrics which come under this heading. 

Maco. — Applied to hosiery or underwear made from pure 
Egyptian undyed cotton. 

Madapolams are all-cotton plain-weave bleached Shirtings 
or Calico cloths. 

Madras. — A light-weight cotton fabric or a cotton and silk 
mixture sold in widths varying from 27 to 32 inches, usually 
made from dyed yarns. Extensively used to designate light-weight 
shirting materials as used for men's shirts, the term is equally 
applied to similar weight fabrics printed in simple designs fre- 
quently elaborated in weaving by stripes or figures woven on a 
dobby loom. In the distributing trade, comprising various sub- 
divisions of the trade, the names Madras, Gingham, Madras 
Gingham, Zephyr, etc., are so closely allied as to be impossible 
of separation. The original intent of these several designations 
has apparently been completely lost. Madras may either be woven 
as a plain or twill or kindred weave fabric. Whilst this name is 
primarily applied to an all-cotton fabric, it is also used to designate 
a cotton and silk mixture, when it is sometimes described as a Silk 
Gingham. The salient characteristic of Madras is the plain white 
and fancy coloured narrow stripes running in the direction of 
the warp. 

Madras Gingham. — This name is applied to all-cotton 
fabrics made in part or to a considerable extent of dyed yarns of 
various colours, woven into stripes or checks woven either plain or 
fancy or with a combination of two or more weaves, and of a weight 
distinctly suitable for a shirting material in countries lying in the 
temperate zone. In the United States the introduction of a leno 
or satin stripe for the purpose of elaboration or ornamentation 
does not change the trade designation of such Gingham. Madras 
Gingham may be woven either plain, diamond, gauze and leno 
weave, or a combination of these weaves. See Madras. 

Madras Handkerchiefs. — Plain-woven coloured cloths, 
with large bold checks. The yarns are dyed with a loose top, and 
the cloth is treated with acids, which cause the colours to bleed or 
run and give an imitation of block printing. 

Maline. — A fine silk net of gauze-like texture. Practically 
the same as Tulle. 



so PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Market Descriptions of Standard Cloth.— Certain stan- 
dard cloths are known on the market by an expression such as 
"36 — 76, ig X 22, 32/36. This stated at length means that the 
cloth is 36 inches wide, 76 yards long, and contains 19 "ends" 
(or warp threads) and 22 "picks" (or weft threads) per quarter 
inch, whilst the twist (or warp) is 32's and the weft 36's— all being 
actual, not nominal, particulars. 

Marl. — A term applied to a particular kind of coloured 
two-fold or single yarn. In the former (the two-fold) one or 
both threads making the two-fold yarn are spun from two 
rovings of different colours, causing the single thread to have 
a twist-like appearance ; or the process may be begun earlier, 
by the two colours being run together in the thick roving, thus 
producing a twist-like effect in the smaller roving immediately 
preceding the spinning. These single twist-looking threads are 
usually folded with a solid colour, frequently black. If folded 
with each other they are called Double Marls ; a single-yarn 
Marl is this yarn without the folding. 

Marquisette. — A sheer plain-weave fabric of silk or cotton, 
having a mesh more open than that of Voile. 

Matelasse. — A heavy compound-weave figured cloth, having 
a raised pattern, as if quilted or wadded. 

Matt Weave. — Similar to a plain or one-over-one weave, 
with this difference, that instead of lifting one thread at a time 
two are lifted over two. It might be described as a double 
plain weave. This style of weave is noticeable in some varieties 
of embroidery canvas. 

Medium Cloth (Woollen). — This is an all-wool fabric, plain 
woven from a wool weft and wool warp. In width it varies from 
54 to 74 inches and in length from 19 to 36 yards per piece. 
The average value of this fabric per yard for the period 1904 
to 19 14 was 4.S. T,d. 

This fabric approximates to, and by some is said to be identical 
with, Broad, Habit, and Russian Cloth. 

Melange. — The French word for "mixture." Name given 
to a yarn produced from printed tops. This class of yarn can be 
distinguished from Mixture Yarn in that many fibres have more 
than one colour upon them. In Mixture Yarn each fibre would 
only have one colour. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 5 1 

Melton. — Stout, smooth woollen cloth, similar to Broadcloth, 
but heavier. A heavily milled woollen in which the fibres have 
been raised, then the piece cut bare to obtain the typical Melton. 
Both light and heavy Meltons are made with cotton warp and 
woollen weft. 



Mercerised Cotton. — Cotton fibre roughly resembles a 
tube which, being hollow and collapsed on itself, presents an 
uneven, twisted, tape-like appearance with a good many surface 
markings. 

By chemical treatment (mercerising) with caustic soda, and 
the application of tension at the right period of the treatment, 
remarkable changes in the structure and appearance of the cotton 
fibre are produced. It is made to swell, to become more trans- 
parent, to lose its twisted tube-like appearance, and to become 
more lustrous, translucent, and elastic. Mercerised cotton gives 
an impression of silk to the naked eye, its microscopic appearance 
being changed, the fibre having swelled out and assumed a 
rounded rod-like appearance which, whilst resembling silk, still 
differs from silk by the absence of the characteristic swellings 
so distinctive to silk. 

The mercerising process improves the dyeing properties of 
cotton. The most effective mercerisation is obtained with Egyptian 
cotton. 



Mercerising.— The object of this very important operation 
in the manufacture of cotton goods, yarn, or cloth is to give them 
lustre, making them resemble silk, the use of which they have 
replaced in many instances. The process, which takes its name 
from the inventor (Mercer), consists of passing the yarn or cloth, 
preferably bleached or partially bleached, through a concentrated 
solution of caustic soda, which causes the straightening of the 
cotton fibres, and would also cause it to shrink considerably 
were it not for the fact that the material being treated is kept 
under tension, which prevents the shrinking. To this tension 
more than anything else is the lustre imparted due. Mercerising 
is only applicable to vegetable fibres. Animal fibres dissolve in 
caustic soda. The caustic soda solution is only allowed to react 
on the fibre for about two minutes, when it is washed out by 
abundant application of fresh water. See Mercerised Cotton. 

Merino. — Applied to hosiery or underwear made of part 
cotton and part wool mixed together. {Note. — The word "merino" 
on a box label is often misleading, as it frequently happens that 
goods so called are composed wholly of cotton.) 



52 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Mesh Underwear. — All knit underwear cloth is mesh in 
varying degree, but the common application of the term means a 
woven or knitted fabric having a net-like appearance. 

Messaline. — A light-weight satin of fine quality. 

Mixture Yarn. — This class of yarn is spun from fibres 
which have previously, and separately, been dyed various colours. 
The fibres are then mixed together to produce the desired mixture 
tone and spun in the usual way. This class of yarn difters from 
Melange Yarn, which is composed of fibres upon which more than 
one colour has been printed. 

Mock Leno. — Mock or imitation Lenos are ordinary woven 
cloths, that is, the warp threads do not cross each other, the open 
efiFect being less pronounced than in the real Leno, resulting in a 
fabric which is not as strong as the real or true Leno. 

Mock Seam. — Applied to stockings made with cut leg and 
fashioned foot. 

Mohair is a lustrous wool obtained from the Angora goat. 
The hair is often pure white, fine, wavy, and of good length, being 
the most lustrous of the wool or hair class fibres. It is extensively 
used in the manufacture of Plushes and lustrous dress fabrics. 
The name Mohair is used to designate a lustrous fabric made 
from this class of material. 

Mohair Beaver Plush. — This fabric is a pile-weave material 
having a long lustrous mohair pile and a cotton back. The mohair 
pile is genei-ally a " fast " pile in the sense that it is firmly held to 
the back. The pile is not as lustrous as a silk pile or even a good 
mercerised cotton pile, but it will not crush as readily as the 
latter. Generally measures from 48 to 50 inches in width and 
60 yards in length. To prevent crushing of the pile, this matei'ial 
is shipped on an iron frame, on which it is fastened by a series of 
hooks which hold the material by the selvedges. Generally 
packed two frames to the box or case. The backs of mohair 
pile fabrics show a certain amount of loose pile fibres which 
have worked through during the process of weaving. This is 
not found in either silk or cotton pile fabrics. 

Mohair Brilliantine. — A typical lustre dress fabric, plain 
woven, free from ornamentation, cotton warp and mohair weft; 
width, 30 to 31 inches; length, 30 to 35 yards per piece. Finer 
in weave appearance than Lustre Orleans, with a fairly extensive 
range of qualities, like most lustre fabrics, it is cross-dyed. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 53 

Mohair Coney Seal. — A long mohair-pile fabric, dyed black, 
in widths of from 48 to 50 inches. The pile of this fabric is 
mohair, the foundation cloth all cotton. Harsher to the touch than 
a silk-pile fabric. Mohair Coney Seal has, as a distinctive feature, 
a fuzzy appearance at the back due to the fact that certain of the 
pile fibres appear to have worked through. If a similar fabric 
were dyed brown instead of black, it would be known as a Mohair 
Beaver Plush. If a similar fabric were dyed black and the surface 
chemically bleached till the dye was all out, producing a pile dyed 
two-thirds black and the surface third white, it would be known 
as a Silver Seal or Chinchilla Plush. 



Mohair Sicilian. — Similar in construction of weave and 
components to a Mohair Brilliantine and differing from this only by 
the relative coarseness of threads. Sicilian is three times as 
coarse as Brilliantine, presenting a surface in which the warp and 
weft inrersections are clearly shown, whereas the Brilliantine, 
being so much finer woven, does not show these so clearly, 
presenting as it does a smoother surface. The weft threads in 
Sicilian are comparatively much coarser than the warp, whereas in 
Brilliantine this difference is not so apparent. In width Sicilian 
measures up to 54 inches and in length from 30 to 35 yards per 
piece. 

Moir6. — A watered design applied to silks by pressure 
between engraved rollers, or by the more common process of 
pressing two fabrics together. See Watering. 

Moleskin. — An all-cotton Fustian, made extra strong by 
crowding the number of picks to the inch, napped before dyeing 
and put to the same uses as a strong Corduroy. 

Mottles. — A variety of Velveteen or Velveteen Cord woven 
with a pile surface showing a distinct combination of yarn-dyed 
pile threads. Generally found with a pile combining black and 
white weft-pile threads ; Mottles are yarn-dyed fabrics. 

Mousseline de Soie. — A sheer soft fabric of silk, similar to 
Chiffon, but of more open weave. 

Mule-twist Yarn. — Mule-twist yarn can be spun up to the 
finest counts; it is softer and more elastic than ring-twist yarn; 
it will take up more " size " than ring-twist and, generally speak- 
ing, is more regular in construction. 



54 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Mull. — A thin plain fabric usually bleached or dyed, charac- 
terised by a soft finish, used for dress wear. Various prefixes, 
such as Swiss, India, and Silk, are used in conjunction with Mull. 
Silk Mull is made of cotton warp and silk filling, and generally of 
higher count, finished either dyed or printed. The Swiss and 
India Mulls are fine, soft, bleached cotton fabrics; Silk Mull is 
in point of texture twice as fine as some grades of Cotton Mull. 
Cotton Mull is a plain fabric free from any ornamental features or 
fancy weaves, depending for its beauty or attractiveness entirely 
on the finish. When coarse-grade Mull, intended not for dress 
wear but for decorative purposes, is made, it is woven coarser than 
the dress fabric, stiffened in the finishing, and commonly known 
as Starched Mull. It is 30 inches wide, and has 36 picks and 40 
ends per inch. Cotton Mull is generally woven from bleached 
yarns and not bleached in the piece. 

MungO and Shoddy are wool products or wool fibres which 
have previously passed through the process of manufacture. 

Before either Mungo or Shoddy is produced, the rags; tailors' 
clippings, pattern-room clippings, or samples from which they are 
made have to be dusted, sorted, and ground. The last process tears 
thread from thread and fibre from fibre, leaving the Mungo or 
Shoddy ready to be once more made up into a yarn. The name is 
applied to textiles made up wholly or in great part from Mungo 
or Shoddy. 

There actually exists a technical difference between Mungo 
and Shoddy, due to the class of fabric from which they are made. 
Mungo is the product of all types of cloths which have been 
subjected to the milling process. Shoddy is the product of un- 
milled fabrics, such as flannels, stockings, wraps, etc. Mungo is 
usually shorter and finer in fibre than Shoddy, because, in the first 
place, milled cloths are nearly always made from the shorter kinds 
of wool; secondly, because the fibres of a milled cloth are very 
difficult to separate from one another and break in the process of 
pulling. 

Both Mungo and Shoddy are rather more comprehensive 
terms than names for any special type of material ; both classes 
have a number of special divisions with difi'erent names. 

Nainsook.— Nainsook is a light cotton fabric of plain weave 
which has a very soft finish. It may be distinguished from fine 
Lawns, fine Batiste, and fine Cambric from the fact that it has 
not as firm a construction nor as much body, and for that reason 
is not capable of retaining as much finishing material, the result 
being that when finished it has a very soft feel when handled. In 
width it ranges from 28 to 32 inches and in length from 20 to 60 
yards per piece. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 55 

Nankeen. — The original Nankeen fabric was produced in 
China and was a plain-weave cotton fabric woven on a hand loom 
from a cotton yarn which had a natural yellow-coloured tinge. 
The name is now given to a cotton cloth produced in Lancashire, 
woven as a three-shaft twill and dyed a yellowish drab and other 
colours, often used for corset-making. 

There is a mass of evidence to show that true Nankeen is a 
class of cloth having as a salient characteristic an inherent peculiar 
colour which is natural and due to its being woven from cotton of 
a yellow-brownish tint. The following extracts bear on this point. 

"The statement that this stuff was made from a cotton of 
brownish yellow tint was for a long time discredited, but it is 
now certain that the yellow preserves the colour of the cotton 
composing it rather than acquires it by any process of dyeing " 
(S. William Beck : " Textile Fabrics : Their History and Applica- 
tions " ). 

Sir George Staunton, who travelled with Lord Macartney's 
Embassy through the province of Kiangnan, to which province the 
Nankeen cotton is peculiar, distinctly states that the cotton is 
naturally "of the same yellow tinge which it preserves when spun 
and woven into cloth" ("Embassy to China," by Sir George 
Staunton). 

Sir George Thomas Staunton (son of the above) has translated 
an extract from a Chinese herbal on the character, cultiire, and 
uses of the annual herbaceous cotton plant, in which the plant 
producing "dusky yellow cotton" of a very fine quality is 
mentioned as one of the varieties ( " Narratives of the Chinese 
Enfibassy to the Khan of the Tartars " ). 

Van Braam, who travelled in China with a Dutch Embassy 
and who had been commissioned by European merchants to 
request that the Nankeens for their markets might be dyed 
a deeper colour than those last received, says : " La toile de 
Nanking, qu'on fabrique fort loin du lieu du meme nom, est faite 
d'un coton roussdtre : la couleur de la toile de Nanking est 
done naturelle, et point sujette a palir" ("Voyage de I'Ambassade 
de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales Hollandaises vers I'Empereur 
de la Chine " ). 

"Each family (at Woosung) appears to cultivate a small 
portion of ground with cotton, which I here saw of a light yellow 
colour. The Nankeen cloth made from that requires no dye" 
( " Voyage of the Ship Amherst to the North-east Coast of China, 
I S3 2," published by order of the House of Commons). 

Other authors refer to a Nankeen-coloured cotton grown in 
India and state that the original Nankeen fabric was produced in 
Nanking, in China, and was woven from a natural-coloured yellow 
cotton. As produced in Lancashire the cloth is a closely woven 



56 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

three-shaft twill, dyed yellowish drab and other colours and used 
for stay and corset making and for pocketing. 

An American Government publication (House of Repre- 
sentatives Document No. 643 : Report of the Tariff Board on 
Schedule i of the Tariff Law) gives the general description of 
Nankeens as known in the distributing trade as : " Distinguished 
by their peculiar yellowish brown colour, natural to the colour of 
the cotton of which made." 

From the above it would seem clear that true Nankeen is a 
plain native cotton cloth woven on a native hand loom from un- 
bleached and undyed yarn spun from cotton of a yellowish or 
yellow-brownish natural colour. The weave of Nankeen is a plain 
one-over and one-under shirting weave, such being the type of 
weave most readily produced on a native hand loom. The finished 
fabric is marketed in its loom state. 

True Nankeen is therefore devoid of any ornamentation or 
figuring produced by weave or subsequent printing, embossing, 
dyeing, or stencilling. The width of Nankeen has apparently been 
always recognised as not exceeding 20 inches. 

The name Nankeen in China was originally used to describe 
native hand-loom cloths of the above variety only, but as new and 
slightly different makes of native cloth appeared on the market 
the practice grew of including them under this heading, until 
gradually the term was used to describe not only the true 
Nankeen but a whole group of native cloths answering to the 
following description : all-cotton cloths not exceeding 20 inches 
in width, woven on a hand loom with a one-over and one-under 
shirting weave from cotton yarn which has not been previously 
dyed or mercerised, and including cloths of the above variety 
which have either been bleached, piece-dyed in solid greyish or 
blue colour, or woven from yarn previously dyed in greyish or blue 
colour, and including hand-loom-woven grey or bleached cotton 
cloths not exceeding 20 inches wide which have been ornamented 
by the introduction in the weave of a yarn-dyed blue stripe or 
yarn-dyed blue checkered design. 

This loose application of the term continued until the 2nd 
May 191 7, when the Chinese Maritime Customs, in their Notifica- 
tion No. 876 (Shanghai, 2nd May 191 7) laid down an authoritative 
definition of this class of piece goods reading as follows : — 

1. The cloth must be of plain shirting weave, woven on a 

hand loom of the old style; it must not exceed 20 
inches (English) in width. 

2. The " count " of the yarn (whether Chinese or foreign) 

from which the cloth is made must not exceed 20's. 
The yarn must be single in both warp and weft; it 
must not be "gassed." 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 57 

3. The cloth may be of the natural colour, i.e., undyed, or it 
may be bleached or dyed in the yarn. It must not be 
dyed in the piece. 

Chinese Cotton Cloth that does not fulfil the above conditions 

will not be treated as Nankeen. 

Noils are the rejected fibres from the process of combing 
the different wools and hairs prior to making them up into yarn. 
The primary object of combing is to sort or separate the long 
from the short fibres. 

Ombr^. — Having graduated stripes in colour effect which 
shade from light to dark. 

Opera Hose. — Women's stockings of extra length ordinarily 
measuring 34 inches. 

Organzine. — This name is given to a hard and strong 
finished silk thread which has been given a great deal of twist 
in the throwing. Organzine is used for warps, as strength and 
regularity are needed in warp threads so that they may bear 
the strain and friction of weaving. When silk is thrown with 
less twist, and is therefore softer and more or less flossy, it is 
known as Tram and is used for the weft in weaving. 

Orleans. — This fabric, also known as a Lustre Orleans, is 
one of the many varieties of lustre dress fabrics met with and 
described elsewhere. Woven with cotton warp and lustre weft, 
free from ornamentation, it is a simple one-over and one-under 
plain-weave fabric. Average width, 30 to 31 inches; length, 
30 yards ; price in normal times averaging, for the usual type, as 
low as 8|(i. per yard. 

In fineness of appearance it lies midway between a Mohair 
Brilliantine, which is of finer weave, and a Mohair Sicilian, which 
is of similar weave, coarser, but more lustrous in appearance. 

Ottoman. — A silk or cotton weave having thick ribs at 
various intervals. Originally, the thick cord ran crossways. 
When the cord runs lengthways the fabric is often known as 
an Ottoman Cord. 

This material is also called a Persian Cord, which is a cloth 
made from worsted or cotton warp and worsted weft employing 
the plain weave, but with the warp threads working in twos, thus 
giving a rib effect. 

Outsize. — When used as a knitted goods term it is applied 
to women's stockings made in extra widths. 



58 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Oxford. — Originally a wool fabric in dark grey and white 
mixtures. Of late years heavy cotton and linen fabrics have been 
known by this name. 

Oxford Shirting. — This fabric is an all-cotton fabric woven 
with a plain-weave ground and ornamented by the introduction of 
broken twill or fancy twill weave. It is woven with white and 
coloured yarns, which go to make the pattern or design — which in 
the main takes the form of stripes — of broken twill weave 
running lengthways of the material. Where the design is pro- 
duced by printing, the material would not be an Oxford Shirting, 
but would more correctly be classed as an " imitation " or 
"printed" Oxford. 

Oxford Shirting has been described as "a matt weave of 
coloured yarns, forming small checked eiTects or basket effects." 
As the name shows, it is extensively used in the making of shirts 
and ranges in quality from a low-grade to a high-quality fabric. 

Padded Back Linings. — When a fabric is printed black 
on one side, or backed, to prevent the printed pattern on the face 
of the cloth from showing through, it is known as a Padded Back 
Lining. A natural back lining is a solid-coloured lining printed 
on one side only. This class of fabric is generally woven from 
all-cotton yarns, but may include fabrics which contain wool, silk, 
or other fibres. 

Pad-dyeing. — Fabrics are generally piece-dyed after leaving 
the loom by being immersed in a bath of dye or colouring material. 
With a view to quickening more than actually cheapening the 
process of dyeing, "pad-dyeing" was evolved. This roughly 
consists in threading the cloth to be dyed into a machine the 
main features of which are dye baths and rubber rollers. The 
cloth is made to pass over rollers, dip into a dye bath and pass 
through rollers which squeeze out the superfluous dye, allowing 
same to fall back into the dye bowl or bath. In "pad-dyeing" 
the cloth may pass as often as six times through the dye liquor 
before it enters the first set of squeezers, and it may be given as 
many as four more passes through the liquor before the second set 
of squeezers are gone through ; this, according to experts, gives 
" thorough saturation to any and all goods difficult to penetrate." 
Jt is generally recognised that any degree of saturation can be 
attained by the process of pad-dyeing, and cloth may be run 
through a machine at the rate of some 275 yards per minute 
and yet be well saturated. In a description of a pad-dyeing 
machine the nature of the operation performed by this machine 
is called "dyeing" and not "printing." The only difierence 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 59 

therefore between piece-dyeing in a vat and in a pad-dyeing 
machine is that in the one instance the cloth is made to circulate 
in a dye bath or through a series of dye baths instead of being 
allowed to remain still in a dye vat until impregnated. The 
object aimed at and attained, i.e., the saturation of the cloth with 
a dye or colouring liquor, is identical. 

All fabrics showing thorough saturation of ground colour {i.e., 
where both sides of the fabric are equally dyed) are considered as 
dyed whether they have been dyed by vat-dyeing or pad-dyeing. 

Panne. — A light-weight Velvet with " laid " or flattened 
pile. Applied to a range of satin-faced Velvets or silk fabrics 
which show a high lustre, which is produced by pressure. The 
word panne is French for Plush. 

Panung. — The nether garment of the Siamese. Made from 
cloth of the Papoon style or from woven or printed Checks. 
Papoon is a plain-woven cloth having warp and weft of different 
colours. It is also woven in two-and-two checking. 

Panama Canvas. — An all-cotton plain matt weave fabric, 
similar to Basket Cloth, but woven from dyed yarns. 

Papoon. — An all-cotton fabric woven from coloured yarns, 
the warp being of a different colour to the weft or filling threads. 
Exported to Siam, where it is extensively used for panungs. 

Paramatta. — A thin union fabric woven as a three-shaft 
weft-faced twill from cotton warp and Botany worsted weft, used 
extensively for the manufacture of waterproof articles. 

Pastel. — Applied to tones of any colour when exceptionally 
pale. 

Pastille. — A round or oval spot. 

Peau de Cygne. — A closely woven silk having a lustrous 
but uneven surface. 

Peau de Sole. — A closely woven silk having a somewhat 
uneven satin-like surface. Literally, "skin of silk." A variety of 
heavy, soft-finished, plain-coloured dress silk woven with a pattern 
of fine close ribs extending weftways of the fabric. The best 
grades are reversible, being similarly finished on both sides ; lower 
grades are finished on one side only. The weave is an eight-shaft 
satin with one point added on the right or left, imparting to the 
fabric a somewhat grainy appearance. 



6o PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Pekine, or Pekin Stripes. — A colour design in stripes of 

equal width and with equal space between. 

Pepperell Drill. — The very superior qualities of Drills, 
woven from the highest quality yarns, are distinguishable by their 
carefully woven appearance and known as Pepperell Drills. 

Percale. — A plain-weave cotton fabric of fine or medium 
count, used for shirtings, dresses, linings, etc. Percale is usually 
printed on one side with geometrical figures, generally black, al- 
though other colours are sometimes used. The fabric is bleached 
before printing and has an entire lack of gloss, differing from 
Percaline, which has a very glossy finish. It is often printed in 
stripes and, when so printed, is known as Percale Stripes. 

Percaline. — A highly finished and dressed light-weight Per- 
cale, piece-dyed in solid colours and not printed. Percaline is an 
all-cotton, plain, closely woven fabric, generally met with in shades 
of blue, green, black, brown, and tan. Highly calendered and 
glossed. 

Persian Cord. — A worsted or cotton warp and worsted weft 
fabric woven with a plain weave, but with the warp threads 
working in twos, thus giving a rib effect. Also called Ottoman. 

Pick. — When the word "pick" is used in connexion with 
weaving, it always signifies the filling or weft threads, while each 
warp thread is called an " end " or a " thread." Picks run across 
the width of the fabric. 

Piece Goods. — A usual trade reference for fabrics which are 
woven in lengths suitable for retail sale by linear measure. 

Pile Fabrics. — Materials of silk or cotton wherein the surface 
is woven with raised loops, which are afterwards cut, forming a 
raised "pile." They include Plushes, Velvets, Velveteens, and 
Corduroys. 

The threads that go towards making the pile are special 
threads independent of the warp and weft threads necessary to 
make a fabric that will hold together. 

If the raised loops are left imcut, as more frequently is the 
case with warp piles, the fabric is spoken of as "Terry." If cut, 
as is sometimes the case with warp piles, and usually the case with 
weft piles, the fabric is spoken of as " cut-pile." 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 6 1 

A generic name, used more in the elementary distributing 
trade, covering the classes of goods known amongst retailers 
and consumers as Velveteen, Corduroy, Turkish Towelling, 
Plush, etc. 

Pile Weave. — Numerous varieties of cloth woven with a 
pile surface, such as Plush, Velvet, Velveteen, Silk Seals, Pony 
Skin, Beaver, Chinchilla Plush, and Carpeting of various kinds, are 
produced by this style of weave. The distinctive feature of this 
weave is that the surface consists of threads standing closely 
together like bristles in a brush. These threads appear either as 
threads sheared off smooth, so as to form a uniform or even surface, 
as in the case of Velvet, or may appear in the form of loops, as in 
the case of Towelling. The threads forming the pile are fixed to 
the back in a more or less firm manner and are known as "loose" 
or "fast" pile : the former takes the form of the letter [J and the 
latter of the letter ^V. The loose pile may be driven out of the 
material by pressure, as there are not the same binding threads 
holding it as in the fast pile, or, again, they may be drawn out 
through the back of the material by relatively little scratching 
with, say, the edge of a paper-knife. The fast pile cannot be so 
withdrawn, as one of the warp threads passes in each of the two 
surface depressions as well as under the centre bend of the \/\^, 
thus firmly binding it to the cloth. All other conditions being 
equal, a fast-pile material would be the better and more expensive 
of the two, and for upholstery or where there is much wear the 
" fast " pile is essential. Pile-weave materials are shipped on iron 
frames of about 60 yards, the material being hooked on to the 
frame by the selvedge so as to prevent the crushing of the pile. 
For export two frames are boxed together, separated by a wood 
partition. 

Pique. — A stout cotton fabric having as a distinguishing 
feature wide or fine welts, running " lengthways in the piece " and 
extending side by side from selvedge to selvedge. It is woven 
in the unbleached state and bleached before being placed on the 
market. It is also made in part of dyed yarns, forming ornamental 
stripes. It is sometimes referred to as Welts or Bedford Cords. 
This fabric is described in the English market as a fabric having 
"transverse ribs or welts, produced by stitching tightly weighted 
warp threads thi-ough a fine plain-woven cloth which has its warp 
lightly tensioned. The ribs or welts are sometimes emphasised by 
the introduction of wadding weft. In America this material is 
sometimes described as "P.K." 

P.K. — An American way of writing Piqu6. This abbreviated 
designation of the word is limited to America and seldom met with 
on English invoices. 



62 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Plain. — As a weaving term the word "plain" is used to 
designate the simplest weave, in which the weft thread passes 
under one and over one warp thread. This system of inter- 
lacing produces a "plain" or "one-over and one-under" or 
"shirting " weave. The term is also used to denote that a fabric 
is not figured, i.e., that it is free of ornamentation produced by 
either extra threads or combination of weaves. 

Plain Velvet (Cotton). — An all-cotton pile fabric, which is 
more often known under the name of Velveteen. There would 
appear, however, to be a diflference between the two fabrics, which 
lies only in the length of the pile, the pile of Velvet being if any- 
thing a little longer than that of Velveteen and shorter than that 
of Plush. This fabric may, like Velveteen, be either of a weft or 
warp pile weave, which is more fully described under "Velveteen." 
Being plain, it is free from any ornamentation produced by print- 
ing, embossing, or combination of weave, and of uniform colour 
throughout the width and length of the material. 

Plain Velveteen (Cotton). — This fabric, like all true 
Velveteens, is an all-cotton pile fabric which has not been 
ornamented or figured in any way, either by being printed or 
embossed or by combination of weave, and would be of uniform 
colour throughout the width and length of the material. 

Plain (or Homespun) Weave. — Plain cloth is the simplest 

cloth that can be woven. In this weave one series of threads 
(filling or weft) crosses another series (warp) at right angles, 
passing over one and under one in regular order, thus forming a 
simple interlacement of the threads. This weave is used in the 
production of Muslin, Gingham, Broadcloth, Taffetas, etc. 

Checks are produced in plain weaving by the use of bands of 
coloured warp and coloured filling. This weave produces a strong 
and firm cloth. It is also called calico or tabby weave, and referred 
to as a " one-over and one-under " weave. 

Plated. — An American term used in connexion with goods 
having the face of one material and the back of another ; for 
instance, a garment having a wool face and cotton back is " plated." 
The face may also be of one colour and the back of another, both 
of the same material. 

Pliss^. — French for pleated; applied to fabrics which have 
as a distinctive feature a narrow lengthways fold like the pleats 
of a closed fan. Also known as Tucks. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL, 63 

Plumetis. — A sheer cotton fabric ornamented with tufts at 
intervals. A Figured Muslin or Lawn of high quality and price 
which shows on its face dots or small sprigs of flowers which 
closely imitate real hand embroidery. These designs are the 
result of swivel figuring. This fabric is also known as Plumety. 

Plush. — As a distinctive fabric Plush would appear to be a 
pile fabric having a fairly long pile woven on the same principle 
as Velvet, but composed of wool, mohair, or mixed fibres, and 
sometimes from a silk pile and cotton back. Used as an adjective, 
the word " plush " would mean woven with a pile somewhat longer 
than Velvet. It is generally used in conjunction with a prefix 
showing the nature of the materials from which the pile is made. 

It is generally recognised that Plushes and Velvets are so 
generally part cotton that a Silk Plush should be considered as 
having a cotton back unless it is definitely stated that it is " silk 
backed." This practice is recognised by manufacturing, wholesale, 
and retail branches of the trade and is accepted by such authorities 
as Paul H. Nystrom and recorded in his book, "Textiles." 

Plush of Silk mixed with other Fibres.— This class of 

material includes all pile fabrics which, in the first instance, 
answer to the description of Plush, i.e., have their pile longer 
than that of Velvet, and the pile of which, whilst being partly of 
silk, contains other animal fibres such as wool or mohair and 
which may contain even vegetable fibres such as cotton. In 
Plushes belonging to the above class the nature of the back or 
foundation cloth may vary, but in the great majority of cases 
they would be found to be of cotton. Where it is clearly 
stipulated that they are " Plushes of silk mixed with other 
fibres and having cotton backs," the foundation cloth must not 
contain warp or weft threads wholly or in part composed of any 
material other than cotton. 

Plush Velveteen. — A plain all-cotton pile fabric, either 
weft or warp pile, but generally the former, which differs from 
Velveteen only in the length of the pile. As the name Velveteen 
stands for "an all-cotton fabric," it would be as correct to describe 
a Plush Velveteen as "an all-cotton Plush" or as a "long-piled 
Velveteen." The terms Plush and Velveteen are explained 
elsewhere. 

Pointille. — Having a design in small dots. 

Pompadour. — A term used to describe small floral designs 
in silk fabrics. 



64 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Poncho Cloth. — This name is apparently more used to 
describe a class of fabric than a particular and distinctive 
material. Used presumably in the manufacture of Ponchos, 
which are blanket-shaped garments having a slit in the centre 
through which the head is passed, and extensively used in Mexico. 
Poncho Cloth was originally a fine all-wool fabric. 

Poncho Cloth is now described as a union cloth, i.e., composed 
of two materials, such as wool and cotton, otherwise than by 
blending. It is also similar to what is known as Leather Cloth, 
produced in the Morley district, which is heavier than the boiled 
and teazled goods known in that district as " Unions." True 
Poncho Cloth is a union cloth woven with cotton warp and woollen 
weft, measuring from 72 to 74 inches wide and having a distinctive 
I -inch hair list at each selvedge. It resembles but is lighter in 
weight than a Union or Leather Cloth, averages from 16 to 20 
ounces per yard, and is given a high finish on the face. In the 
Bradford district such a cloth would be known and sold as a 
" Melton " unless shipped as a Poncho Cloth at the request of the 
buyer. 

Pongee. — A fine plain-woven cotton fabric, mercerised, 
dyed, and schreinered, having a soft handle or feel like the real 
Silk Pongee of which it is an imitation. Pongees are met with 
having stripes produced by coloured warp threads. The fabric 
has a lustrous silky appearance. Average width, 28 inches. The 
ground colour of Pongees is most often of a shade similar to real 
Silk Pongee. 

Pony Skin. — As a textile term, it is used to describe a pile 
fabric which is made to imitate the true Russian Pony Skin fur. 
Always dyed a solid black, this fabric has a mohair pile which 
has been laid and fixed by heat. The density of the pile and 
the lustre are the best guides to value. Like many imitation fur 
fabrics, it came into the market owing to the vogue of the real 
fur it imitates. Average width, 48 to 50 inches ; length, 30 to 33 
yards per piece. 

Poplin. — A fabric having a silk warp and a wool weft, with 
a corded surface. Goods in which a similar effect is produced, but 
made in all silk, all wool, or cotton, are also called Poplins. 

It is a warp-ribbed fabric with a plain weave and was 
originally made with a fine silk warp and a comparatively thick 
gassed worsted weft which gave the ribbed effect, with the silk 
warp threads thrown to the surface and completely hiding the 
worsted weft. It is similar to, but generally softer finished than, 
Repp or Rep. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 6$ 

Printed. — This term, when used with reference to textiles, 
indicates that the fabric has been submitted to a process whereby 
certain designs, either simple or complex, have been impressed on 
the surface of the fabric in either one or more colours. Calico is 
perhaps the most typical of printed fabrics. The printing of 
fabrics is generally done by the aid of a machine, its main feature 
being a revolving cylinder on which the design has been stamped 
or cut out. The cloth in passing through the machine comes in 
contact with the impression cylinder. The cylinder revolving in 
a colour trough takes up the colour and leaves the impression of 
the design on the cloth. When fabrics are printed by hand from 
blocks, the design never joins so perfectly that it cannot be 
detected, and, if looked for, certain marks will be found that are 
used as " guides " to show the operator where the next impression 
with the block is to be made. Roller-printed designs, being con- 
tinuous, show no such marks or irregularities. 

A recent process known as the " Lithographic " or transfer 
process has been introduced, and it is a modified form of block 
printing, an engraved stone being used as for lithographic work. 

A fabric that is printed will not show continuous coloured 
threads, but threads coloured in places and not in others ; whereas 
in fabrics having the pattern woven the coloured threads are con- 
tinuous. 

An "indigo print" is distinguished from a regular print by 
having a printed figure on a solid indigo blue ground, whereas the 
ground of an ordinary print-cloth pattern is white or of a light 
colour. An indigo-print pattern is obtained either by indigo 
block printing, indigo discharge printing, or indigo resist 
printing. 

Printed Balzarines. — The general structure and appear- 
ance of Balzarines is given under that heading. The cotton 
variety would be an all-cotton fabric having a gauze weave and 
net-like appearance. The printed variety would consist of similar 
fabrics which had been subjected to a process whereby certain 
simple or complex designs had been impressed upon the surface of 
the fabric in either one or more colours. The fabric would 
approximate 30 inches in width and probably from 28 to 30 yards 
in length per piece. 

Printed Calico. — This fabric is described under "Calico." 

Printed Cambrics. — As the name shows. Printed Cambrics 
are Cambrics which have been submitted to a process whereby 
certain simple or complex designs in either one or more colours 
have been impressed on their surface. 



66 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Cambric being a ligbt-weight, soft-finish, plain-weave fabric of 
linen or cotton, the term Printed Cambric is therefore applicable 
to either a linen or cotton fabric. The more correct designation 
would be either Printed Linen Cambric or Printed Cotton Cam- 
bric. The majority of Cambrics met with are Cotton Cambrics, 
and, unless specially designated, a Printed Cambric would be a 
cotton fabric. Whereas in the plain white a Cambric is finer than 
a Lawn, Printed Cambrics, on the other hand, are coarser than 
Lawns. 



Printed Chintzes. — This fabric is essentially a multi- 
coloured printed cotton fabric. It is the style of printing and 
the large bright and gay coloured patterns of flowers and other 
subjects used for ornamentation of the fabric that are the distinc- 
tive features of this material, which is mainly used for curtains 
and furniture coverings. Chintz is but a plain-woven fabric 
elaborately ornamented with designs by means of the printing 
machine. After printing, the fabric is passed through a calender 
press, the rolls of which are well heated and tightly set, which 
gives the glazed finish which the fabric in most cases possesses. 

Printed Cotton DrilL — A strong all-cotton warp-faced or 
warp sateen faced fabric which, after leaving the loom, has been 
suitably prepared for and subjected to a process whereby certain 
ornamentation in the form of simple or complex designs in 
either one or more colours has been impressed on its surface. 
For particulars of weave, see Drills ; Florentine Drills ; Satin 
Drill. 



Printed Cotton Italians. — This name is given to an all- 
cotton fabric woven generally with a weft-faced satin weave having 
an even, close, smooth surface, upon which — for the purpose of 
ornamentation and to enhance the value of the fabric — certain 
simple or complex designs in either one or more colours have 
been impressed. Whilst the name of this fabric does not indicate 
whether it is a grey, white, or dyed one, nevertheless, as an Italian 
Cloth itself is a dyed cotton fabric, so a Printed Cotton Italian is 
a dyed and printed cotton fabric. 

Printed Cotton LastingS. — This fabric is essentially a 
plain all-cotton twill or kindred weave fabric firmly woven from 
hard-twisted yarns, piece-dyed after leaving the loom, and sub- 
sequently subjected to a pi-inting process whereby certain designs, 
whether simple or complex, are impressed upon the surface of the 
clotli in either one or more colours. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 6/ 

Printed Crapes. — Any all-cotton Crape Cloth, which has 
been ornamented by having certain designs or patterns impressed 
upon its surface in one or more colours, is termed a Printed Crape. 
The crinkled appearance — which is the distinctive feature of Crape 
Cloth — remains unchanged in the Printed Crape. The various 
methods of obtaining this crinkled effect is given under "Crape 
Cloth, Plain." 



Printed Crimp Cloth. — Any all-cotton Crimp Cloth which 
has been ornamented by having certain designs or patterns 
impressed upon its surface in one or more colours is known as a 
Printed Crimp. The " cockled " stripes — which are the distinctive 
featiu-e of Crimp Cloth — remain unchanged in the Printed Crimps. 
The method of obtaining these "cockled" stripes is given under 
"Crimp Cloth, Plain." 

Printed Furnitures. — This name, like many others used 
with reference to textiles, denotes more a class of goods than any 
given fabric. Chintz, Cretonne, and any other printed cotton 
fabrics which enter into the manufacture of chair or sofa coverings, 
curtains, hassocks, screens, etc., may be termed Printed Furnitures. 
This name, however, seems to be unknown to both manufacturer 
and distributor, and it is not in use in any of the many branches 
of commerce concerned with textile fabrics. As a generic term it 
has its value ; but if it was ever used as the name of any given 
fabric, it is so used no longer. 

Printed Lawns. — As the name shows. Printed Lawns are 
Lawns which have been submitted to a process whereby certain 
simple or complex designs in either one or more colours have been 
impressed on their surface. Lawn being a light-weight, soft- 
finished, plain-weave fabric woven from cotton yarns varying from 
i/40's to i/ioo's or from a linen yarn, the term Printed Lawn is 
therefore applicable to either a cotton or linen fabric. The more 
correct designation would be either Printed Cotton Lawn or Printed 
Linen Lawn. The majority of Lawns met with are Cotton Lawns, 
and unless specially designated, a Printed Lawn would be a cotton 
fabric. Whereas a plain White Lawn is coarser than a White 
Cambric, a Printed Lawn, on the other hand, is finer than a 
Printed Cambric. It varies in width from 27 to 45 inches. 

Printed Leno. — When a Leno has been submitted to a 
process whereby certain simple or complex designs in either one 
or more colours have been impressed on its face, it is then known 
as a Printed Leno. 



68 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Printed Muslin, — As the name shows, Printed Muslins are 
Muslins which have been submitted to a process whereby certain 
simple or complex designs in either one or more colours have been 
impressed on their siurface. Muslin, like Lawn and Cambric, is an 
open, plain-weave, light-weight, soft-finished cotton fabric. The 
better qualities of Muslin may be recognised by their evenness of 
weave and fineness of yarn, whilst in the lower grades occasional 
warp or weft threads will be irregular, having the appearance of 
being thicker in some parts than in others. 

Printed Reps. — As the name indicates, this class of fabric 
is essentially of rep construction, i.e., having as a predominant 
feature a rep or rib running transversely across the face of the 
cloth, which is described in detail under " Rep." When a cloth or 
fabric of rep construction has had its face ornamented by having 
certain designs or patterns impressed on it in either one or more 
colours, it is known as a Printed Rep. This class of fabric is 
generally met with as an all-cotton fabric, and unless specially 
designated, the material so described would be a printed plain (in 
the sense of not figured) cotton fabric. 

Printed Sateens. — These are essentially light-weight cotton 
fabrics finished to imitate Silk Satin, and the common Italian Cloth 
is a sateen fabric. The ornamentation of Printed Sateens is the 
result of a printing process whereby certain designs are impressed 
on the surface in contradistinction to Coloured Sateens, in which 
the ornamentation is produced by combination of coloured warp 
and filling threads. See also Sateens ; Satin. 

Printed Satinets. — An imitation of the true Satin in mer- 
cerised cotton or other yarns which has been printed after leaving 
the loom. The four-shaft satin weave, which does not fulfil the 
conditions of the real Satin as regards order of intersections, is 
known as a satinet weave and is the basis of this class of fabric. 
Similar to Sateen, but somewhat lighter in weight. 

Printed Sheetings. — This name is given to an all-cotton 
fabric woven either as a four-shaft two-and-two twill or with a 
plain weave, as in the case of low-grade sheetings, in which waste 
and condenser wefts are used. The actiial fabric is woven as 
described under "Grey Sheeting," then "singed," "bleached," 
and " calendered " to prepare it for the process of printing, which 
consists of impressing on the face of the material certain designs 
in either one or more colours. This term is very seldom met with 
in the trade and is considered a misnomer. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 69 

Printed Shirtings. — Printed Shirtings are essentially an 
all-cotton fabric woven with a plain weave, having the warp and 
weft approximately of the same count, which have had their 
surface ornamented by being submitted to a process whereby 
certain simple or complex designs in either one or more colours 
have been impressed upon them. Printed Shirtings, like all other 
cotton fabrics, undergo a process of "singeing," "bleaching," and 
" calendering " prior to being printed. The first process removes 
the surface hairs, which form a sort of nap to the si|jrface of the 
cloth, which if allowed to remain would interfere with the uniform 
application of the coloiu-s, and the other two processes further 
prepare the fabric for printing. 

Printed T-Cloth. — This fabric is an all-cotton plain-woven 
fabric, generally woven from poor-quality yarn, which, after leaving 
the loom, has been bleached and printed. This fabric answers the 
description of a Printed Calico and would by many be known under 
that name. Beyond the actual manufacturer, the jobber or 
exporter, and those merchants in such markets as Manchester and 
China where the term is currently used, few even in the textile 
business would know the value of the term T-Cloth. 



Printed Turkey Reds. — Fabrics designated as Printed 
Turkey Reds are essentially all-cotton fabrics of good quality dyed 
turkey red (see Dyed Pv,eal Turkey Reds) and subsequently oi-na- 
mented by having certain designs impressed on their surface in 
either one or more colours. They are usually plain woven or of 
small twill weave. 



Printed Twills. — This term is applied to all cotton fabrics 
of twill weave, having the diagonal efi^ect or twill running across 
the face of the fabric, which subsequent to being woven have 
been ornamented by having certain designs, either simple 
or complex, impressed on their surface in either one or more 
coloiirs. 



Printed Velvet (Cotton).— Like a Plain Cotton Velvet, 
this fabric is virtually a Velveteen, i.e., an all-cotton pile fabric, 
which has been ornamented by having certain designs or patterns 
impressed on its face in either one or more colours. 

Printed Velveteen (Cotton).— This fabric, like all true 

Velveteens, is an all-cotton pile fabric which has been ornamented 
by having certain designs, whether simple or complex, impressed 
on its surface in either one or more colours. 



yo PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Printers. — Plain-woven cotton cloths either exported plain 
or more often used for printing. Burnley Printers, or " Lumps," 
are usually 32 inches wide by 116 yards in length and 16 square, 
i.e., 16 ends and 16 picks to the quarter inch. Glossop or 
Cheshire Printers are about 36 inches by 50 yards and average 
19 ends and 22 picks to the quarter inch. Printers are generally 
well woven from pure yarns of good quality. A variety woven 
from low-grade yarns is also manufactured. 

Pure Silk Plush. — A pile fabric, not often met with woven 
entirely from silk, i.e., having both pile face and back warp 
threads of silk. Woven as a Velvet but with a somewhat longer 
pile. Most branches of the trade consider a Pure Silk Plush to be 
a fabric having an all-silk pile, irrespective of whether the founda- 
tion fabric is silk or not. 

Paul H. Nystrom, in his book, "Textiles," states that Velvets 
and Plushes are so generally part cotton that a Silk Velvet or a 
Silk Plush should be considered as having a cotton back unless it 
is definitely stated that it is "silk backed." The term "pure silk" 
when applied to a plush qualifies the pile of the fabric and not 
the fabric as a whole ; it does not mean that the fabric is composed 
entirely of silk. 

Pure Silk Velvet. — An all-silk pile fabric, not often met 
with woven entirely from silk, similar to an all-silk Plush, from 
which it differs only in length of pile. The pile of Velvet is 
shorter than that of Plush. A Pure Silk Velvet is generally 
understood to be a pile fabric having an all-silk pile, irrespective 
of the nature of the foundation fabric. Velvets are so generally 
part cotton that a Silk Velvet should be considered as having a 
cotton back unless it is definitely stated that it is "silk backed." 
"Silk," or "pure silk," refers to the pile and the pile only, in 
the general acceptance of the trade, and not to the fabric as a 
whole ; it does not mean a fabric composed entirely of silk. 

Raised Back Cloths. — Fabrics requiring a "raised back" 
are usually warp faced and weft backed. By constructing the cloth 
in this manner, the raising machine, in the subsequent processes, 
partially disintegrates the weft fibres and gives that soft and 
woolly feel which one is accustomed to in such cloths as Swans- 
down, Cotton Trouserings, and some classes of fabrics used for 
dressing-gowns, pyjamas, etc. 

Raised Cotton Cloth. — Any material woven in all cotton 
and having either one or both sides "raised" or "napped" would 
be a Raised Cotton Cloth. The " raising " or " napping " of the 
cloth is a process which the fabric is put through with the view. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 7 1 

of giving it a soft "woolly" feel. By passing the fabric, whilst 
it is tightly stretched, over a revolving cylinder which has its 
surface covered with small steel hooks or teasels, the surface of 
the fabric is scratched and the short fibres of the yarn used in 
the weaving are opened up and raised, resulting in a nap covering 
the whole of the surface. Raised Cotton Cloths allow of the use 
of coarse inferior yarns and are better looking than had they not 
been raised. The raising hides defects of weave and produces a 
warmer, better-looking cloth than could be produced by any other 
process at the price. Raised Cloths, like certain Flannelettes, are 
sometimes chemically rendered " fireproof." 

Ramie, Rhea, China Grass. — A fibre obtained from a 
plant of the nettle family which grows in India and China. The 
fibre is strong and lustrous and lends itself to the weaving of 
various materials, especially underclothing, and it is used also 
in the manufacture of incandescent gas mantles. 

The diameter of ramie and china grass fibres is from two to 
three times that of flax. Ramie and china grass are not absolutely 
identical, the latter containing 78 per cent, of cellulose as compared 
with 66 per cent, in ramie. When spun into threads they produce 
a lustrous eS'ect. Effects resembling silk-woven textures are 
produced with the finest yarns, and when dyed in delicate shades 
they give a brilliancy comparable with silk. 

Ratine. — A wool material similar to a Chinchilla, but having 
smaller tufts with wider spacings between. This material is al- 
ways plain woven and is of comparatively recent creation; it can 
be described as a very rough surface dress fabric, properly in part 
of wool, but now also made entirely of cotton. The characteristic 
rough surface is caused by the use of special fancy weft threads 
which are composed of two or more different siae yarns so twisted 
together as to produce knob efl^ects at intervals in the thread. A 
more expensive fabric is made of filling threads composed of 
braided yarns. The trade now applies the name to imitation 
eff'ects produced by terry weaves, Turkish Towelling fabrics, 
boucle and bourette effects. 

Raye. — This is the French term for " striped " and is applied 
to patterns running longitudinally with the warp in textile fabrics, 
produced by employing a special weave or two or more colours of 
warp specially arranged. 

Reed and Pick are terms applied in the cotton industry 
to the number of threads in a given space — usually \ inch or 
I inch — in the warp and weft respectively. These terms are 



J2 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

not generally employed, however, in all textile districts ; the term 
" make " or " ends and picks per inch " is applied to worsted 
cloths, whilst "sett" and "shots" are used with the same meaning 
in the linen industry. 

The word "counts," which refers to the number or thickness 
of yarn, is sometimes erroneously used in this connexion, probably 
owing to the fact that the expression "counts to the i-inch glass" 
is also used in reference to reed and pick. 

Rembrandt Rib. — Applied to women's stockings having 
groups of five drop-stitches, separated by i inch of plain knitting 
running the full length. 

Rep. — The name Rep is used to designate certain fabrics 
that have as a predominant feature a rep or rib running trans- 
versely across the face of the cloth. The term may also be applied 
to the actual weft rib which appears in the material. 

Reps are what is known as warp-ribbed fabrics, ^'.e., fabrics 
with the rib or rep running weftways, and for that reason may be 
considered the opposite of cords. The term " warp-ribbed " might 
at first sight appear to designate a rib running warpways, that is 
to say, in the longitudinal direction of the cloth, whereas a warp 
rib is a warp surface weave in which, owing to the thickness of the 
weft picks or to the grouping of a number of weft picks together, 
the warp threads are made to bend round them, and being thus 
thrown to the surface produce a ribbed appearance across the 
piece. Reps, unless specially designated, are dyed plain cotton 
fabrics with an average width of 32 inches and a length of 32 yards 
per piece. 

Resist or Reserve' Printing. — This style of printing is a 

process used to obtain white figures on a coloured ground by means 
of printing the designs in substances that are impervious to the dye 
into which the cloth so printed is subsequently placed. The cloth 
is dyed, but all parts of it which were covered by the resist agent 
remain white. 

Reversible Cretonnes. — The salient features of Cretonnes 
are the bold type of highly coloured designs with which the fabric 
is ornamented through printing. The weave employed for this 
style of fabric is either plain, twill, satin, or oatmeal weave ; the 
width of the material varies from 25 to 50 inches. Sometimes, 
though rarely, a small brocaded eft'ect of fancy weave is intro- 
duced. Reversible Cretonnes difl'er from ordinary Cretonnes in 
that they are printed on both sides of the fabric. A recent 
variety of Reversible Cretonne, called a Shadow Cretonne, is 
purely a warp-printed fabric, sometimes containing yarn-dyed 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 73 

threads. A Cretonne printed with the same design on face and 
back would be known as a Reversible Cretonne, whilst the same 
fabric printed with one pattern on the face and a different pattern 
on the back would be known as a Duplex Printed Cretonne. 

Rib. — The name given to any kind of cord effect or to a 
weave in which either, owing to the interlacing or to the yarns 
used, warp or weft is the stronger and remains comparatively 
straight while the weaker does all the bending. Thus, in warp 
ribs the weft is the stronger and causes the warp to bend and 
form a warp surface rib running from selvedge to selvedge, while 
in weft ribs the warp is the stronger and develops a weft surface 
rib running lengthways of the piece. 

Rib Crape Effect. — This term is used to designate the 
effect produced by breaking up the regular order of weave so as to 
produce a warp-rib effect on a fabric which is of the Crape variety, 
the crape weave being distinguishable by the interlacing of warp 
and weft in a more or less mixed or indiscriminate order, so as to 
produce an appearance of a finely broken character. Rib crape 
effect is found in fabrics known as Crepoline. 

Richelieu Rib. — Applied to women's plain stockings having 
a single drop-stitch at intervals of three-quarters of a.n inch 
running the full length of the stocking. 

Right and Wrong Side of Fabrics.— In certain goods it 
is difficult to tell the right from the wrong side. In plain 
worsteds the diagonal ought always to run from right to left, that 
being the right side. In all textiles which are not reversible, but 
are similar on both sides, the right side can be detected by the 
quantity of down, which is less on the right side than the wrong 
side. To determine this it is often necessary to hold the cloth 
under examination to the light. When both sides are well fin- 
ished, but with different patterns, it is the neater of the two which 
is generally the right side. In a comprehensive way, shaving and 
neatness indicate the right side. 

Ring-spun Yarn. — Ring-spun cotton yarn is generally a 
harder spun thread than mule-twist, which is more fibrous and 
more elastic. Ring-spun yarn will not take up as much "size" as 
the more fibrous and softer spun thread of the mule. 

Ring-spun yarn is rounder than a mule-spun thread. Ring- 
spinning differs from mule-spinning in this essential : the former 
is spun on the " continuous system " upon spindles that are fixed, 
whereas in mule-spinning the spindles are mounted on a carriage 



74 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

which moves backwards and forwards for a distance of some 
5 feet. When the spindles reach their greatest distance the rolls 
producing the yarn are automatically stopped, and the thread that 
has been spun during the outward move of the carriage is wound 
on the spindles while the carriage is being moved back toward 
the rolls. 

Robes. — A name given to printed twill cotton fabrics made 
from 64-square printing cloth. Originally made for use as wraps, 
they were made in Cashmere effects. Now, although made 
in large bright-coloured furniture coverings, curtains, etc., they 
still retain the name Eobes when made from 64-square printing 
cloth. 

Russian Cloth (Woollen). — An all-wool fabric, plain woven 
from a wool weft and wool warp, the weave being a plain one-over 
and one-under weave. Owing to the finish of the cloth, the weave 
is non-apparent. It varies in width from 54 to 74 inches and in 
length from 19 to 36 yards. It does not differ materially from 
Broad, Medium, and Habit Cloth. Average value for period 1904 
to 1 9 14, 4s. 3(i. per yard. 

Russian Prints. — This class of fabric does not differ 
materially from any other print. They originate in Odessa, 
whence they come by steamer to Chinese ports or to Vladivostock, 
from which points the majority are brought overland into Man- 
churia. Many of the designs on Russian Prints are similar to 
those on American prints. Measuring 24/25 or 26 inches wide, 
88 by 68 or 88 by 64 ends and picks, and 30 yards per piece, 
they are generally packed 30, 40, and sometimes 60 pieces to a 
bale. On the whole, Russian Prints are not a high-grade material. 

Samples and their Classification, — Unless some definite 

system, which provides means for ready reference to any of the 
individual samples forming part of the collection, is adopted from 
the very start, sample collections are of comparatively small 
value. The successive pasting into a book of samples which 
represent fabrics of different materials, different weaves, and 
different finishes — and under the heading "finishes" would be 
included dyeing, printing, embossing, etc. — is of no great value, 
for it becomes impossible after a time to readily turn up any 
given sample. Even with an index to the collection so formed 
it is only possible to turn up a sample of material the name of 
which is known. A person wishing to turn up in such a collection 
a sample of a certain type of fabric the name of which he did not 
know at the time could not do so, and the more specimens or 
samples were added to the collection the more difficult it would 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



75 



become to turn up a given sample, and the value of the collection 
would lessen instead of increase. 

If fabrics are divided into 17 headings representing the main 
divisions into which they may be classed, and each division or 
section is subdivided into numbered sub-sections, the task becomes 
simpler, and there results therefrom a series of key-numbered 
collections each containing samples of fabrics of a similar type 
but of varying quality and value. Each collection (or sub-section) 
becomes known by a combination of two numbers, one of which is 
the main division or section number and the other the number 
of that particular sub-section. These numbers precede the name 
of the division and the name of the subdivision. 

The 1 7 main divisions or groups, together with their respective 
subdivisions, which will in practice be found to be ample are as 
follow : — 



Section Number. 




Sob-section Number. 




' I. 


Shirtings and Sheetings. 




2. 


Drills and Jeans. 


I. Grey Cottons - 


3- 


Shirtings and Sheetings, Na- 
tive. 




4- 


Drills and Jeans, Native. 




I 5- 


Not specially enumerated. 




' I. 


Plain. 




2. 
3- 


Plain (with finish). 
Brocades. 


2. White Cottons - 


4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 


Brocades (with finish). 
Striped or Spotted Shirting. 
Striped or Spotted Shirting 




(with finish). 
Crimps and Crapes. 
Crimps and Crapes (with 

finisih). 
Lenos. 




[10. 


Not specially enumerated. 



3. Printed Cottons ■< 



1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Furnitures. 

4. Crapes. 

5. Crimps. 

6. Muslins, Lawns, and Cambrics. 

7. Lenos and Balzarines. 

8. Duplex or Reversible. 

9. Blue and White 5'-Cloth. 
10. Not specially enumerated. 



76 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Section NaMBER. 



Sub-section Number. 



4. Dyed Plain Cottons . 



5. Dyed Figured Cottons. 



6. Raised Cottons. 



7. Coloured Woven {i.e., yarn- 
dyed) Cottons 



8. Dyed and Printed Cottons ^ 



1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Crimps. 

4. Crimps (with finish). 

5. Drills, Twills, and Jeans. 

6. Lawns, Muslins,and Cambrics. 

7. Hongkong-dyed. 

8. Lenos and Balzarines. 

9. Native. 

10. Native (with finish). 

VII. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Figured. 

2. Figured (with finish). 

3. Native. 

4. Native (with finish). 

5. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Dyed. 

3. Printed. 

4. Duplex Printed. 

5. Dyed and Printed. 

6. Dyed and Duplex Printed. 

7. Yarn-dyed. 

8. Figured White. 

9. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Figured. 

4. Figured (with finish), 

5. Crimps. 

6. Crimps (with finish). 

7. Plain Native. 

8. Plain Native (with finish). 

9. Figured Native. 

10. Figured Native (with finish). 

11. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Crimps. 

4. Crimps (with finish). 

5. Figured. 

6. Figured (with finish). 

7. Native. 

8. Not specially enumerated. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 7/ 

Section Number. Sdb-section Number. 



9. Velvets and Velveteens 
(Cotton) 



10. Plushes and Velvets. 



r I. 
2. 

3- 
4. 

5- 
6. 



II. Silk Piece Goods. 



[ 2. Silk and Cotton Fabrics 



ics . . . . j 



13. Woollen and Cotton Mix- 



tures 



14. Woollen Fabrics. 



Plain. 

Printed or Embossed. 

Embroidered. 

Dyed Cords and Corduroys. 

Undyed Moleskins. 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain Pure Silk. 

Figured or Embossed. 

Silk Seal (with cotton back). 

Silk with cotton back. 

Silk mixed with other fibrous 

materials (with cotton 

back). 
All-cotton Plush (including 

with finish). 
Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Figured. 
Plain Native. 
Figured Native. 
Ribbons (all silk and mix- 
tures). 
Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Figured. 

Plain. 

Figured. 

Poncho Cloth. 

Spanish Stripes. 

Union Cloth. 

Plain Lustres. 

Figured Lustres. 

Not specially enumerated. 

Habit, Medium, Russiaui and 

Broad Cloth. 
Bunting. 
Camlets, Dutch. 
Camlets, English. 
Flannel. 

Eastings (all kinds). 
Spanish Stripes. 
Long Ells. 
Not specially enumerated. 



yS PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Section Nombeb. Sob-section Number. 



Plain. 
Figured. 

Plain and Figured. 



15. Linen and Linen Unions ... j 

16. Hemp and Hemp Mixtures -^ ' ^ , , 

^ ^ [2. Yarn-dyed 

17. Miscellaneous. 

Whether the loose-leaf system with folders to contain the samples 
is used or whether they are entered into special books is a matter 
for the individual, but the loose-leaf or card-index system with 
folder is infinitely preferable, admitting of the removal of any 
given sample for reference or comparison. The index to such a 
collection of samples would be alphabetical (even though not 
absolutely so), and if a- sample of Italian (of the plain variety) 
were added to the collection, it would be added under section 4, 
Dyed Plain Cottons. If the sample of Italian thus added to the 
collection was the fifth sample of Dyed Plain Cottons (with finish), 
it would appear in the index to the sample collection under I and 
would be entered as follows : — 

T.-,,.„ „, -ni.^^Tr. Section Sub-section Sample 

JNAMB OF JJABRIC. -.y -kt -kt 

Number. Number. Number. 

Italian 4 2 c; 



A sample of Bunting, on the other hand, would be filed under 
section 14, sub-section 2 ; and if it were the thirty -first sample 
filed under that sub-section, it would be indexed under the 
letter B as Bunting, 14 : 2 : 31. 

This decimal system of numbering and classifying samples 
lends itself to a refinement of subdivision unattainable in any other. 

Generally speaking, samples, unless accompanied by certain 
descriptive information, are of little value, and care should be 
taken to describe briefly any salient feature connected with the 
fabric. This information may concern either the trade-mark, the 
importer, the value, or the date when the sample was entered into 
the collection, and brief particulars of the shipment of which it is a 
sample. This kind of information is of material value where the 
sample concerns a class, style, or quality of fabric not hitherto 
met with. With a comparatively small amount of trouble it 
would be possible to get together very valuable collections of 
samples. And if the individual would but give a little time and 
thought to the question of textile samples, and but a tithe of 
the time devoted to any hobby he may have, he will be amply 
repaid by the added knowledge he will acquire. All samples 
should be of uniform size (7 inches by 4 inches will be found 
a very useful size) and should invariably be in duplicate— one 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 79 

to use in obtaining all particulars necessary for classification 
and the other for the actual sample collection. Weave structure, 
nature of yarns, etc., may be studied and tests for components 
made and recorded. 

Nothing will give a better idea of relative values of fabrics 
than knowledge of components, style of weave, etc. This, of 
course, does not apply to extrinsic values, i.e., values due to 
fashion, exclusive designs, or proprietary articles. There is 
nothing to go by in such cases better than market values ; but 
in the plainer staples knowledge of construction, finish, etc., 
means ability to classify fabrics and estimate their approximate 
relative values. 

Provisions for an index to sample collection have been made 
at the end of this book, enabling the ready adoption of the system 
now advocated. 

Sateens. — This material is a light-weight cotton fabric 
finished to imitate Silk Satin. In weaving Cotton Sateens the 
same style of weave is adopted as in weaving Silk Satin, the object 
aimed at being an even, close, smooth surface and one capable of 
reflecting light to the best advantage. In a " warp sateen " weave 
the warp only appears on the surface, the filling or weft threads 
being eflectually and completely hidden by the warp threads. In 
passing over the filling the warps do not interweave at regul^ir, 
but at irregular, intervals— thus they may pass over five, eight, 
ten, twelve, or sixteen, then under one and over eight more, and 
so on. Sateens average 30 inches wide and from 30 to 60 yards 
in length per piece. 

Sateens are woven on the same principle as Italians. The 
common Sateen cloth is produced on a "five threads and picks" 
system. Sateens are woven either as " Warp Sateen " or " Weft 
Sateen"; the peculiarities of these weaves are given under those 
headings. 

Satin. — A term applied to silk goods woven on the same 
principle as Sateens, either Warp Sateens or Weft Sateens. In 
weaving most silk fabrics the warp and weft, or filling, are made 
to intersect each other every alternate time (as in plain weaving) or 
every third or fourth time in regular order (as in ordipary or plain 
twill weaving). In weaving Satin the same style of weave is 
adopted as in weaving Cotton Sateens, the object aimed at being 
an even, close, smooth surface and one capable of reflecting light 
to the best advantage. In a warp-weave Satin the warp only ap- 
pears on the surface, the filling or weft threads being effectually 
and completely hidden. In passing over the filling the warps do 
not interweave at regular intervals; thus, they may pass over five, 



8o PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

eight, ten, twelve, or sixteen, then under one and over eight more, 
and so on. Common Satin is what is technically known as an 
eight-leaf twill, the order in which the filling thread rises being 
once in eight times. The filling in the better qualities of Satin is 
of silk, whilst in the lower gi-ades of this fabric cotton is generally 
used for the filling. Rich Satins may be woven on almost any 
number from five to twenty leaf twills. Satin at the time of leav- 
ing the loom has a somewhat flossy and rough surface — this is 
removed by passing the fabric over heated metal cylinders, which 
destroy the minute fibrous ends and increase the brilliance of the 
silk. Black Satins are often woven with a selvedge which is of a 
diflferent colour to the piece. 

Satin Drill. — When a Drill is woven with a warp-faced 
sateen weave it is known as a Satin Drill, to distinguish it from a 
Drill woven with a twill weave, which is known as a Florentine 
Drill. 

Satin Weave. — In weaving a satin design the filling thread 
is made to pass under one and over eight, ten, twelve, or a greater 
or lesser number of warp threads, and the order in which this is 
done is irregular. The filling by this process is thus placed 
practically all on the face of the cloth, and this style of weave is 
sometimes called a filling-face satin weave. By reversing the 
process and bringing practically all the warp to the surface or face 
of the cloth a warp-face satin is produced. Cloth produced by 
this system of weave has a close, smooth surface reflecting light to 
a high degree and giving it the appearance of Satin Cloth, a fabric 
which is best described as a cloth made of silk woven with a satin 
weave. 

Satinet or Satinette. — An imitation of the true or Silk 
Satin woven from mercerised cotton or other yarns. It is similar 
to Sateen, but somewhat lighter in weight. The term is used to 
describe the four-shaft satin weave, which does not fulfil the 
conditions of the real Satin as regards the order of intersection of 
warp and weft. 

Schreiner Finish. — This, like all other special finishes, is 
the result of a process through which a fabric is passed with the 
view of rendering its face more lustrous, i.e., capable of better 
reflecting light and hence having a more silky appearance. A 
Schreiner finish is given to a woven cloth by means of a specially 
engraved steel roller. This roller is engraved with minute lines 
running parallel to each other. When this roller has been 
suitably heated and set with the right amount of pressure the 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 8 1 

cloth is run between it and a plain backing roller. The engraved 
roller which conies in contact with the cloth impresses on it 
minute lines, which can readily be distinguished by means of a 
counting-glass. 

In America a Schreiner finish is often known as a " milled " 
finish. 

Scribbled. — When any two or more kinds of fibres have been 
thoroughly mixed together prior to being spun into a thread they 
are said to be "scribbled." 

Seamless. — Applied to hosiery knitted in one piece on a 
circular machine, leaving an opening at the toe to be looped 
together. The shaping of the leg, heel, and toe is done by 
steaming and then diying on boards of proper form. 

Seamless Bag's. — All-cotton bags woven on looms which 
automatically measure the length of what is practically a tubular 
cloth required for each bag. What are virtually two cloths are 
" condensed " and woven together to form the bag bottom. In 
forming the body of the bag the loom weaves two fabrics, one 
over the other, and in weaving the bottom these are combined 
into one. 

Selvedge. — The edge of any piece of woven fabric. The 
term is synonymous with "list." The warp threads which go 
towards the weaving of selvedges are in some cases made of a 
stronger material than that used for the bulk of the fabric. 
Folded yarns are often used for this purpose, because during the 
process of weaving single selvedge yarns are liable to break out 
oftener than any other, generally on account of the pulling action 
of the weft thread in the shuttle as it is " picked " aci-oss. This 
is more particularly the case with cottons. Selvedges are that 
part of the fabric by which it is held out in a stretched position in 
many of the stages of finishing. In the textile trade generally it 
is often stated that "a good selvedge shows a good cloth." 
Velvets and Velveteens that are mounted on iron frames, to which 
they are attached by means of series of hooks penetrating the 
selvedges, have these selvedges reinforced by stronger warp 
threads. 

Selvedges, or lists, of a colour diff'erent but of a materia] 
similar to that of the bulk of the fabric denote that the fabric has 
been woven of dyed yarns and that it has not been piece-dyed. 
Obviously, if piece-dyed, the selvedge would be of the same colour 
as the bulk of the fabric. Distinctive styles of selvedges have given 
rise to special names of fabrics, such as Spanish Stripes. The 
actual quality of a fabric cannot be always told by the selvedge, 



82 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

but other conditions being equal, it then becomes a good guide 
to quality. A silk selvedge thread or threads, or the initials 
of the manufacturer in silk, appearing on the selvedge of an 
all-wool fabric generally denotes a superior quality of fabric. The 
following, from a %vork dealing with cotton fabrics, shows the 
generally accepted value of selvedges as an indication of quality : 
" Advertising has educated the retail dealers and consumers to the 
fact that cotton warp goods with a white selvedge, the ground 
being of colour, are more to be depended upon not to ci'ock 
than similar cloths of solid colour." 

Serge (Cotton). — An all-cotton fabric woven with a decided 
twill and having a special finish imitating wool; usually printed 
with hair-line stripes to imitate woven efl^ects. 

Shadow Cretonne. — A fabric of comparatively recent 
creation having as a distinctive feature the design printed on 
the warp threads. The filling is generally white, but is 
sometimes yarn-dyed to a shade approximating the general tone 
of the large floral decorations which are generally used in this 
class of fabric. The warp threads take the colouring matter 
in such a way that when woven the design or pattern appears 
equally on both sides of the fabric in somewhat blurred and 
softened tones. From the fact that the fabric is reversible, i.e., 
shows a design on both sides, it has sometimes been called a 
Reversible Cretonne, but the true Reversible Cretonne is the 
result of printing on a woven fabric and not on the warp threads 
only prior to weaving. The blurred effect, resembling that of 
a fabric which might have run in the washing, is at times intensi- 
fied by the introduction here and there of yarn-dyed warp threads 
of solid colour. They are not always an all-cotton fabric ; flax 
enters sometimes into their composition. 

Shantung". — The real Shantung is a Chinese silk fabric of 
the Pongee class. This fabric has now been imitated in cotton 
yarns suitably finished. The yarns used in imitation Shantung 
are spun with thick soft places at irregular intervals in the yarn ; 
this irregularity is more noticeable in the filling yarns. 

Sheeting. — A light or medium weight plain-woven all-cotton 
fabric woven from coarse or medium yarns. The name applies to 
both bleached and unbleached cloth. Under the heading "Grey 
Sheeting" will be found a description of the two distinct varieties 
of fabric known as Sheeting. In the trade it would appear that, 
should a Sheeting be dyed or printed, it is never sold as a 
Sheeting, but under some other name. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. S3 

Shirting's. — A generic term applied to any material original- 
ly and usually employed for the making of shirts and covering such 
varieties as Grey, Harvard, Oxford, Zephyr, Sateen, Grandelle, 
etc. The term Shirting, if used by itself, would in most instances 
be used with reference to the Grey Shirting so largely exported 
from England and America. This Grey Shirting is a plain-woven 
cloth of low-quality and heavily sized yarns which has not been 
bleached. 

Short Stick. — This term implies a yard of precisely 
36 inches, in opposition to the term "long stick," which is by 
trade custom a yard of 36^ inches in length. 

Shot. — A weaving term having the same value as "pick.'" 
When a fabric is described as having so many " shots " to the inch 
it means that there are so many weft threads to the inch. When 
used to describe a colour efi'ect in fabrics, it applies to fabrics 
which are woven with different coloured warp and weft, and 
which, according to the way they are held when looked at, appear 
to change in colour. 

Sicilienne. — A Mohair of heavy weight. 

Silence Cloth. — A heavy all-cotton backed fabric, used to 
cover the table under the linen cloth, to withstand heat or to 
prevent damage to the finish of the table. Made in widths from 
54 to 64 inches. The fabric is a double fabric, reversible, and 
made from coarse yarns; it is also known as Table Felting. 

Silesia. — A cotton fabric woven with a twill or sateen weave, 
usually printed in stripes and highly finished. The high finish 
found in this class of fabric is often a " Beetle " finish imparted to 
the fabric after weaving by subjecting it to a rapid succession 
of elastic blows from a series of hammers whilst the fabric is 
wound upon a cast-iron beam. Generally woven as a three-shaft 
twill from single 30's to 40's in warp and filling so as to produce 
a 45-degree right-hand twill. Siiesia is essentially a tailoring- 
fabric used for linings. A variety of yarn-dyed striped Silesia is 
also on the market. 

Silk Beaver. — Silk Beaver is a pile fabric woven so as to 
imitate the prepared fur of the beaver. Like many other fabrics 
of this style the pile is all silk and the foundation cloth or back 
is all cotton. This fabric appears to be dyed invariably a rich 
brown, and this differentiates it from such similar fabrics as Silk 
Seal, which are dyed black. The quality of Silk Beaver depends 



84 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

upon the depth and closeness of pile. If looked at from behind, 
the pile threads will distinctly show as small shiny spots where 
they are bound into the back. The closer these little silk dots 
are to each other the heavier the pile and the better the quality. 
The value prior to 19 14 ranged from 5s. to 12s. per yard but has 
since increased. The pile may have a length of as much as half 
an inch in the best grades. Generally framed in lengths of from 
30 to T,^ yards. As this is bulky material when framed, the 
landed cost in the East is greatly increased. Average width, 
48 to 50 inches. 



Silk Gingham. — This class of fabric is similar to Gingham, 
Madras, Madras Gingham, Zephyr, etc., except that the fabric 
contains more or less silk in the filling. It sometimes happens 
that through inadvertence such material is found described simply 
as a Gingham, hence the presence of silk should be looked for in 
goods so described. 



Silk Mull. — Like Mull, this fabric is a plain-woven, soft- 
finished material, but is made from cotton warp and silk filling 
and is generally finished undyed. Silk Mull is finer in texture 
than Cotton Mull. The silk filling used in this fabric is raw silk, 
viz., tram silk. 

f 
Silk Pongee. — A light-weight fabric made of the silk pro- 
duced by wild silkworms that feed on oak leaves. 

Pongee is a soft, unbleached, washable silk, shipped from 
China to Europe in large quantities, where it is bleached, dyed, 
and ornamented in various styles of designs. The name is also 
applied to a variety of dress goods made in Europe woven with a 
wild-silk warp and a fine worsted weft. This material is of 
comparatively recent make and is made mostly with narrow 
stripes, produced by the insertion of certain yarn-dyed threads. 

Silk Seal (Cotton Back). — This is an imitation fur fabric 
made in a range of quaUty, length, and closeness of pile. In this 
fabric the pile only is of silk, the foundation cloth being all 
cotton. 

Silk Seal might be mistaken for Silk Beaver if not judged 
from the point of view of colour. Silk Seal is black, Silk Beaver 
is brown. There is a variety of this fabric known as a Fancy Silk 
Seal, similar in construction and component's but having stamped 
in outline by means of rollers a design resembling the irregular 
scales on a crocodile's skin. Along the lines demarcating these 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 85 

scales the pile has been crushed and fixed down by heat. This 
fabric is not a true Silk Seal. Quality in this, as in other pile 
fabrics, depends on the closeness and depth of the pile. There is a 
possibility of mistaking Silk Seal with cotton back for a Silk Plush 
•with cotton back, but generally the pile of Plush is shorter than 
that of Silk Seal. Average width, 48 to 50 inches. 



Silk Yarns. — There are two distinct classes of silk yarns, 
i.e., (a.) pure, or net, silk and (6.) spun silk. 

(a.) Net Silk Yarns. — These are constructed from fibres reeled 
straight from the cocoon, and in the case of organzine (or warp) 
yarns three to eight fibres are lightly twisted together ; subse- 
quently, two or more of these compound threads ("singles'' as 
they are termed) are folded together to form the silk yarn em- 
ployed as warp. Weft yarns, known as tram silk, are made from 
two or more strands, each made from three to twelve cocoon fibres, 
which have not undergone any preliminary twisting, so that tram 
silk is much straighter, softer, and more lustrous than organzine. 

(b.) Waste and Spun Silk Yarns. — The fibre is obtained from 
" pierced " cocoons, i.e., cocoons through which the silk moth has 
forced a way at the time of emerging from same, also from " wild " 
cocoons. The low qualities are short-fibred and are only suitable 
for weft yarns, while the longer drafts produce higher quality 
yarns well suited for warp. 

Counts of spun silk are based upon two distinct systems of 
numbering. In the French system the number is based on the 
singles, by metres per kilogramme ; two and three cord yarns have 
one-half, one-third, etc., the length the numbers indicate thus : — 

No. 100 singles has 100,000 metres per kilogramme. 
„ 2/100 „ 50,000 „ „ 

» 3/100 „ 33^333 

The other and more general system is the English. The hank 
is 840 yards and the number of the hanks in i pound avoirdupois is 
the count of the yarn. It is based on the finished yarn, and singles 
and two and three cord yarns of the same number have all the 
same number of yards per pound. Thus : — 

No. 50 singles has 42,000 yards per pound. 
„ 50/2 „ 42,000 „ „ 

„ 50/3 » 42,000 „ „ 

Sliver. — A continuous strand of cotton or other fibre in' a 
loose, imtwisted condition, ready for the further process of slubbing 
or roving, preparatory to being spun. 



86 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Spanish Stripes, Cotton. — A plain-woven all-cotton fabric, 
sometimes woven from dyed yarns, but oftenest met with as a 
piece-dyed material woven with a simple one-over and one-under 
weave. The selvedge is often woven with black warp threads to the 
width of about i inch. The filling weft threads are soft and full, the 
warp threads are much finer and hard-twisted. The surface is raised 
and the general appearance of the fabric is similar to Flannelette. 
Often met with in bright vermilion. Average width, 56 inches; 
length, 25 yards per piece; and value (nominal), ']d. per yard. 



Spanish Stripes, Woollen. — Essentially an all-wool fabric, 
free from any ornamentation of weave, printing, or embossing, this 
class of fabric is woven with a plain one-over and one-under weave. 
Soft of handle, Spanish Stripes are generally dyed bright red and 
have as a distinguishing feature a selvedge of coarser warp threads 
from li to 2 inches in width, some of which are dyed, prior to 
weaving, a different colour (generally black) to the rest of the 
warp threads or weft filling threads. These coloured warp threads 
go towards making generally three separate coloured stripes in the 
selvedge and have given rise to the name of this particular fabric. 
In width measuring up to 62 inches and with a length of 29 to 30 
yards per piece. Woollen Spanish Stripes are met with in a 
limited range of quality and the average price of same taken over 
the period 1904 to 19 14 was is. 8|-o?. per yard. 

Spanish Stripes, Wool and Cotton.— This class of fabric, 

being a mixture and not a union fabric, answers to the description 
of a Woollen Spanish Stripe but difters from it in that it is woven 
from yarns which are composed of a mixture of wool and cotton. 
The " handle " is very nearly that of an all-wool fabric, the average 
width some 62 inches, and the length per piece 29 to 30 yards. 
The distinctive selvedge of this class of fabric is maintained in the 
wool and cotton variety. 



Split Foot. — Refers to black or coloured hosiery having a 
white or unbleached sole. 



Sponge Cloth. — 'A fine cotton or wool fabric having a surface 
resembling that of a small sponge. 



Spun Silk. — Applied to a low grade of silk used in the 
cheaper lines of , silk hosiery. It is made from floss, injured 
cocoons, husks, and waste from reeling, and bears the same relation 
to silk as cotton waste to cotton or shoddy to wool. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. ^7 

Staples. — Staples is a term used to designate those fabrics 
which are woven in the same way year after year, varying only 
in the colouring given to them, which may change in accordance 
with the demands of fashion and of the buyer. 

The principal dress goods staples are Brilliantines, Sicilians, 
Mohairs, Imperial Serges, Storm Serges, Cheviots, Panamas, Ba- 
tistes, Taffetas, Voile, Muslins, Nun's Veiling, Cashmere, and 
Shepherd's Checks. 

Surah. — A light, soft, twilled silk. 

Swansdown. — Like Cotton Flannel and Flannelette, Swans- 
down is a fabric made of cotton with a "raised" or napped" 
surface. Being raised but on the back of the cloth, it is "single 
raised " : heavy and closely woven Swansdown is a typical raised 
cotton cloth. The weave is on the satin-weave principle. 

Swiss Embroidery. — This process of ornamentation closely 
resembles lappet spots, but, unlike lappet spots, they are in 
reality the result of a subsequent process of weaving. The 
essential difference in the manner of attaching the thread which is 
used for the figuring to the cloth can readily be seen. In Swiss 
Embroidery there is an equal amount of floating thread used to 
form the spot on the face of the cloth and on the back, thus 
producing what may be termed a solid spot on both sides and 
therefore reversible. 

Swivel Figures. — High-class fabrics are often ornamented 
with swivel spots and figures, which are easily distinguished from 
the lappet or extra warp figures. In this style the figure is 
interwoven with extra weft by small shuttles into the ground 
cloth structure. Each figure is produced by an independent weft 
thread quite distinct from the weft pick forming the ground 
structure or body of the fabric. The figure threads are well 
bound into the cloth, the bulk of the material being on the 
surface. Where no figure is required in the space between, the 
shuttles remain idle in the loom, and the single thread from each 
shuttle joining the swivel figures is often cut away. Often used 
where a silk figure or a mercerised cotton figure is required on a 
cotton or worsted ground. 

Tapestry. — A yarn-dyed figured fabric composed of two sets 
of warp and weft threads, woven on a Jacquard loom. 

T-Cloth. — An all-cotton plain-woven fabric, usually woven 
from low-quality yarns, generally sold in the grey or unbleached 



88 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

state. Most of the :r-Cloth imported into China is a heavily 
sized cheap grey cloth, usually 30 to 32 inches wide, 24 yards 
per piece, with a woven coloured heading somewhat similar to the 
heading in Grey Shirtings. Some 2-Cloth is imported measuring 
36 inches wide by 24 or 40 yards per piece. These Grey J'-Cloths 
are generally packed 50 to 75 pieces per bale. Bleached ^'-Cloths, 
31 and 36 inches wide, are also imported in small quantities. 
These are generally packed in cases of 50 pieces. The fabric 
derives its name from the mark T under which it was first exported. 
I'-Cloth is also known as " Mexican." 



Teasels, or Teazels. — Thistleheads with curved bracts, used 
in cloth raising. 

Terry Cloth.— A weave in looped effect. A Velvet in 
which the loops have not been cut. Frequently applied to cotton 
fabrics of the order of Agaric and Sponge Cloth. See Turkish 
Towelling. 

Tests by Burning". — Yarns or fibres of different origin burn 
in different manner. Cotton, linen, ramie, rhea, china grass, etc., 
ignite and burn readily with a bright smokeless and odourless 
flame, leaving but a small amount of ash, this being the charac- 
teristic of vegetable fibres. Animal fibres, on the other hand, are 
slower to ignite, the appearance of the flame is lifeless, and the 
fibres burn more slowly than vegetable fibres. Wool, when burnt, 
emits a disagreeable odour, and the residue or ash takes the form 
of a bead or knob. Silk burns in the same way as wool when it is 
free of " weighting." When artificially weighted, silk may have 
its weight increased to almost any desired extent — from 80 to 200 
per cent, increase in weight can be obtained without creating 
suspicion. When such weighted silk is burnt, instead of forming 
itself into small black beads or knobs, it burns leaving a distinct 
ash, which retains somewhat the shape of the original material. 
Artificial or cellulose silk burns readily and in burning does not 
give off any odour. 

Test for Artificial Silk. — The burning test should in most 
cases be sufficient to distinguish artificial from true silk, but if a 
chemical test is necessary, by immersing the suspect sample in 
a caustic potash solution it will be seen that artificial silk turns 
yellow, whereas true silk does not change colour. Artificial silk, 
which is a nitro-cellulose, burns very rapidly, leaving practically 
no ash whatever. A simple way of recognising artificial silk is 
by testing the threads under moisture. Unravel a few threads of 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 89 

the suspected fabric and place them in the mouth and masticate 
them thoroughly. Artificial silk readily softens under this 
operation and breaks up into minute particles, and when pulled 
between the fingers shows no thread, but mei'ely a mass of 
cellulose or pulp. Natural silk, no matter how thoroughly 
masticated, will retain its fibrous strength. 



Tests for Linen. — Linen, like cotton, burns when a light is 
applied, leaving a white ash. Linen yarns are more irregular in 
their thickness longitudinally than cotton thread taken from 
similar woven fabrics. This diS'erence makes the detection of 
linen in a woven cloth comparatively easy. The fibres are 
straighter, longer, and stronger when separated in the thread than 
cotton. The threads often snap sharp and clear when breaking 
them in the fingers. The oil test for linen is based upon the 
property which linen has of more readily absorbing oil than cotton 
does. When a linen and cotton mixture fabric which has been 
freed from dressing by washing and boiling is dipped in oil and 
then held up to the light it will be seen that the linen fibres look 
transparent, whereas the cotton remains more nearly opaque. This 
is due to the linen having absorbed the oil more readily than the 
cotton. All the cotton contained in a linen and cotton fabric can 
be readily dissolved by dipping the fabric in a concentrated 
sulphuric acid bath for one or two minutes. The sample is first 
freed of dressing. After washing and drying a sample so tested 
the linen fibre only will remain. 



Test for Mercerised Cotton. — Prepare a solution made 

by dissolving i^ ounces of iodide of potassium in 5 ounces of 
watei-, then add to this solution ^ ounce of iodine, and mix with 
another solution made by dissolving 7| ounces of zinc chloride 
in 3 ounces of water. The test is applied as follows : take the 
suspect sample and free it from any dressing or sizing by soaking 
it in water; then, after freeing the sample from any superfluous 
water, place it in some of the prepared solution for three minutes, 
and then rinse the sample in water. Should the cotton tested 
have been mercerised it will appear of a deep blue colour. On 
washing with water the blue colour fades very slowly and needs 
long washing, whereas ordinary cotton rapidly becomes white 
on washing. Even dyed piece goods will show the deep blue 
reaction, which is the result of the testing solution acting upon 
the caustic soda used in the process of mercerisation. When 
making this test it is best to treat a " known " unmercerised 
cotton at the same time as the suspect sample so as to have a 
basis for comparison. 



90 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Tests for Silk. — K a silk and wool mixture or union fabric 
is boiled in strong hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes, it will be 
found that the wool merely swells, whilst the silk acted upon by 
the acid completely dissolves. By careful weighing before and 
after the test it becomes a matter of simple calculation to arrive 
at the percentage of silk present in the fabric. 

Test for Wool. — If a fabric suspected of containing wool 
and cotton or other vegetable fibre is boiled for 15 minutes in a 
solution made by dissolving either i ounce of caustic soda or caustic 
potash in a pint of water it will be found that all the wool will be 
destroyed and only the vegetable fibres remain. This test, which 
is based upon the well-known fact that caustic soda dissolves wool, 
may be used to ascertain the percentage of wool in a cloth if the 
sample tested is thoroughly washed, dried, and weighed before the 
test is applied. After testing and drying, the loss in weight 
represents the amount of wool which was present and destroyed 
during the test. This test may be reversed and the cotton 
destroyed by treating the sample with an 80 per cent, sulphuric 
acid solution. This, however, is a longer test, necessitating the 
sample being kept in the sulphuric acid solution for about 10 or 
1 2 hours. Prior to drying and weighing the sample should be well 
washed in alcohol. 

Textile Fibres. — The principal fibres which enter into the 
construction of textiles can be divided into the following six 
classes : — 

Vegetable. — Cotton, flax, ramie, rhea, china grass, jute, hemp, 
kapok, and marine fibre. 

Modification of Vegetable. — Mercerised cotton, artificial silk, 
animalised cotton, artificial wool, paper yarn. 

Animal. — Sheep's wool, mohair, cashmere, camel hair, alpaca, 
vicuna, llama, guanaco, rabbit hair, horsehair, cow and 
calf hair. 

Animal Secretions. — Silk and wild silk. 

Mineral. — Asbestos. 

Metallic. — Gold, silver, and other wires, metal-coated fibres. 

Thickset. — One of the many varieties of Fustian, which 
comprise Corduroys, Velveteens, Moleskins, Thickset, etc. 

Thread. — In general, a twisted strand of cotton, flax, wool, 
silk, etc., spun out to considerable length is called thread. In a 
specific sense, thread is a compound cord consisting of two or more 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL 9 1 

yarns firmly united together by twisting. Thread made of silk is 
technically known as sewing thread ; that made of flax is known 
as linen thread ; while cotton thread intended for sewing is 
commonly called spool cotton. These distinctions are generally 
observed by the trade. 



Three-quarter Hose. — A variety of ribbed-top stockings 
made for children and reaching nearly to the knees. 



Ticks, or Ticking". — Ticking is a single cloth of either 
medium or heavy weight woven from cotton yarns of from 14's 
to 22's in warp and filling or from yarns which would give the 
same weight material, such as i8's warp and 20's filling. Usually 
woven with two-over-one or three-over-one twill weave. Ticking 
belongs to the class of stiff, hard-faced cotton fabrics. This 
feature is due to the warp-faced twill weave. These goods are 
made usually in two coloured warp patterns, dark blue and white 
and red and white. One feature which is worthy of mention in 
regard to Ticking and other similar lines is that they are to-day 
being stock-dyed in increasing quantities. This method consists 
of dyeing the cotton or bleaching it, as the case may be, in 
the raw state and then carding, drawing, and spinning just as if a 
grey fabric were to be made. Stock-dyeing results in the dye 
affecting the fibres which form the very centre of a yarn, and for 
this reason is a better process than dyeing the finished yarn. 
Brushed, sheared, sized, and calendered Ticking is either packed 
lapped or rolled into bolts. 



Tire Cloth. — A fabric made from strong slackly folded 
yarns of good-quality cotton used in the lining of tires. The 
warp threads are very closely set, so as best to withstand strain. 
The weft threads are very openly set, so as to prevent undue 
pressure on the warp threads, which should lie straight and so 
avoid friction or cutting which might arise from the action of the 
inflated inner tube and the tire whilst in use. The yarn used in 
this type of cloth is usually made from 30's to 34's count, doubled 
II or 12 fold, necessitating great care in the subsequent twisting 
to ensure evenness of strength and elasticity, which in this class 
of cloth is essential. Tire fabrics, as used in the manufacture of 
automobile and bicycle tires, are made from long-staple Sea Island 
cotton, the yarn being combed and of a comparatively coarse 
number, usually 8's to 40's, and from single yarn to 12-ply. A 
wide range of weights is found in these fabrics, varying from 3 to 
20 ounces per square yard. This fabric forms the base of the 
finished rubber tire. 



92 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Tram. — A thrown silk thread taking its name from the 
French trame, meaning weft, softer and more flossy and having 
less twist than organzine. It is generally used for weft, which, 
as it bears little strain in weaving, need not be as strong as the 
warp, but should be soft and bulky, so that when beaten in 
successive threads will lie close together and fill up the inter- 
stices of the web. 

Tram and organzine are, with the exception of spun waste 
silk, the only kinds of silk thread used for weaving — varying, 
however, in quality of silk, amount of twist, and in size. 

Trunk Length. — Applied to women's hosiery midway 
between ordinary and opera length, usually widened gradually 
above the knee. 



Tubular Cloth. — The most commonly met with examples 
of Tubular Cloths are the ordinary pillow slip, tubular lampwick, 
tapes, etc., which are in common use. 



Tulle. — A plain, fine silk net. Practically the same as 
Maline. 



Turkish Towelling. — Essentially Terry Cloth woven as 
an all-cotton fabric having as a salient feature an uncut 
loop-pile surface. Sold by the linear yard for the making of 
bath robes, etc. Woven unbleached or with some coloured 
yarns for bordering effect and subsequently bleached, the 
coloured yarns used resisting bleaching. Otherwise woven in 
sizes suitable for cutting into lengths, which are then sold as 
Turkish Towels. 



Tussore, or Tussah. — The wild silk from which Shantung 
and Pongee are made. Applied to these fabrics when heavily and 
coarsely woven. 



Tweed. — Pv.ough, unfinished fabric of soft, open, and flexible 
texture, woven on a plain weave from wool or cotton and wool, 
usually of yarn of two or more shades. Originally the product of 
the weavers on the banks of the River Tweed. The face of the 
cloth presents an unfinished appearance rather than a sharp and 
clearly defined pattern. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 93 

Twill Weave. — A twill weave is a weave that produces 
diagonal lines across the cloth. In this class of weave the filling 
threads pass over one and under two, or over one and under 
three, four, five, or six, or over two or three and under one, 
two, three, or four, or over four and under four, three, six, etc. 
Where there are the same number of warp and filling threads 
to the inch, twill lines will form an angle of 45 degrees ; if the 
warp threads are closer together than the filling threads, the 
twilled lines produced will approach more the horizontal. Twill 
weaving permits the introduction of more material into the cloth 
than a plain weave and produces, therefore, a closer and heavier 
fabric. A twill effect in a material is also called a diagonal, 
from the direction it has in relation to the length of the cloth. 
This diagonal effect is continually produced by the warp and weft 
intersections traversing one thread and one pick further from 
their respective positions each time a pick of weft is inserted. 
Twill weaves may be divided into four common classes : (i) regular, 
(2) broken, (3) fancy, (4) figured. 

Regular Twills. — A regular twill is referred to as a twill of so 
many " ends " or " shafts "; by this is meant a twill which contains 
a number of warp and weft threads which, added together, equal 
the number of "ends." Thus a five-end twill can either have 
{a) four warps and one weft, (6) three warps and two wefts, or 
(c) two warps and three wefts — this form of twill will be seen to 
be a reverse weave to (6). 

Broken Twills. — A twill efiPect produces a twill line which, 
when the number of warp and weft threads are equal, is at an 
angle of 45 degrees. In a broken twill eft'ect this line, which may 
be compai'ed to the left-hand stroke of a letter V? is combined 
with another twill line running in an opposite direction and which 
is simply a turning or " reversing " of the threads in the regular 
twill weave. Broken twill efiect enters largely into the weave 
design of Harvard Shirting. 

Fancy Twills. — As the term indicates, fancy twills is a style 
of weave which, whilst always retaining the main features and 
essentials of a " regular " twill, has been made fancy by alternating 
the arrangements of the thread and thus producing "elongated 
twills," " corkscrew twills," or " combination twills." The descrip- 
tion of fancy twills could only be attempted by the use of illustra- 
tions and pages of explanations. 

Figtcred Twills. — Figured twills are regular twills with a 
small figure introduced between the diagonal lines. The designs 
introduced are generally small figures produced by plain weave or a 
small diamond-shaped spot made by either the warp or the weft 
threads being brought to the surface and made to form the design. 
The designs are never very elaborate. 



94 PIECE GOODS MAIJUAL. 

Twin Needle. — A double row of interlocked machine stitch- 
ing used for covering raw edges and seams of knit underwear. 

Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth (China).— All Native 

Cotton Cloths, whether woven on a hand or power loom, which 
are not — 

(a.) Nankeen as defined in Customs Notification No. 876 
(sec Nankeen) ; 

(6.) Specially enumerated in the General Tariff of 1858 for 
the Trade of China; or 

(c.) the produce of a Privileged Factory and at the same 
time enumerated in either the General Tariff of 1858 
or the Revised Import Tariff — 

are grouped under the heading " Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth." 
This group comprises :— 

1°. All cotton fabrics woven with a plain, satin, or twill 
weave or a combination of these weaves, in part or 
whole, from yarns, whether single or folded, which 
have been either mercerised, gassed, dyed and mer- 
cerised, or dyed and gassed prior to weaving, whether 
woven in a cloth having a solid colour effect or 
whether woven so as to produce a striped or woven 
figured effect. 

2°. All fabrics woven with a plain, satin, or twill weave or 
a combination of these weaves from grey, white, or 
dyed yarns which subsequent to weaving have been 
mercerised or dyed in the piece. 

3°. Generally all cotton fabrics woven so as to imitate foreign 
yarn-dyed fabrics, whether same are devoid of a raised 
finish or have been raised on either back or face of 
the cloth, irrespective of whether the yarn has or has 
not been mercerised prior to weaving and irrespective 
of whether the cloth has or has not been mercerised 
after leaving the loom. 

The term " Native Cotton Cloth " (China) is applied to hand- 
loom fabrics other than Nankeen, unclassed native cotton cloths 
or fabrics that are specifically enmnerated in the General Tariff 
of 1858 for the Trade of China. The name is given to a group 
of cloths which answer to the following description : — 

i". All hand-loom plain-weave fabrics which do not exceed 
20 inches in width woven from ordinary grey or 
white single cotton yarn which have been piece-dyed 
after leaving the loom, but which have not been either 
mercerised or gassed. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 95 

2°. All hand -loom plain-weave fabrics which do not exceed 
20 inches in width woven from ordinary grey or white 
single cotton yarn which have been either resist, dis- 
charge, or direct printed but which have not been either 
mercerised or gassed after leaving the loom. 

Union Broadcloth. — This fabric, also known under the 
name of Poncho Cloth, is a plain-woven cotton warp and woollen 
weft fabric, woven in the unusual width of 74 inches and averaging 
in length of piece from 36 to 38 yards. The selvedge of this class of 
fabric is distinctive, showing a long unshorn hairy surface. The 
face of the cloth does not show the weave or yarn intersection points, 
as it has a typical Broadcloth finish, but these are distinctly to be 
seen on the back of the fabric. A Union Broadcloth of the above 
description, typical of that generally exported to China, averaged 
in value during the years 1904 to 19 14 about is. 6d. per yard. 

Union Cloth. — As the name implies, Union Cloths are 
woven with warp and weft of different fibres. They are also 
called "mixed cloths," and the union of the two different kinds 
of fibres may be arrived at by intermingling the wool and cotton 
fibres to form the warp or weft of a fabric or, as in most cases, 
each kind of fibre may be confined to separate threads, forming 
part or the whole of the warp or weft. Union Cloths are generally 
"cross-dyed," although they may also be "dyed in the grey." In 
the case of "cross-dyeing," the cotton warp is dyed the desired 
colour and interlaced with a wool weft, which is in a grey or 
undyed condition, and subsequently the weft only is dyed, this 
being possible as the affinity of cotton and wool are different. 
When light colours are desired in the fabric the cotton warp and 
wool weft are woven in a grey or undyed condition, and then both 
are dyed in the fabric : this method is styled " dyeing in the 
grey." In some cases the wool and cotton are treated separately, 
in others union dyes are employed. 

The principal Union Cloths met with are : Brilliantines, 
Glaces, and Sicilians, plain-weave materials with cotton warp and 
mohair weft; Alpacas, plain or twill weave, cotton warp and 
alpaca weft ; Lustres, plain or twill weave, cotton warp and 
lustre or demi-lustre weft; Italians, five-shaft weft, sateen weave, 
cotton warp, fine Botany weft; Cashmeres, 2/1 weft twill weave, 
cotton warp, fine Botany weft; Beatrice Twill, five-end (four weft 
and one warp) twill, cotton warp, demi-lustre weft. All authorities 
do not agree as to what constitutes a Union, the following defini- 
tion having been met with : " Fabrics are union when composed 
of two materials otherwise than by blending." In the Morley 
(Yorkshire) trade a "Union" is a cotton warp cloth of boiled 
and teazled finish superficially resembling Broadcloth. 



96 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Union Yarns. — These yarns, as the name indicates, are the 
product of combining two or more different materials into a yarn, 
generally wool and cotton or wool, and any of the many vegetable 
fibres capable of being spun. 

Union Yarns may be produced by the mixing together of 
the two or more different fibres when they are still in the state 
of loose fibres ; in such a case the cotton fibres act as binders upon 
the rest of the fibres. When the various fibres are thoroughly 
mixed together, the ixiixture obtained is spun : this produces the 
variety known as Carded Union Yarns. Another form of Union 
Yarn is obtained by twisting together two threads of different 
material. Some Union Yarns have the appearance of pure wool 
threads, and only careful scrutiny will reveal the presence of cotton 
fibre ; this type of yarn is known by the name of Angola yarn. 

Union Yarns, being composed of materials that are not 
affected by dyes in the same way, can be recognised when found 
in a so-called wool fabric from ihe fact that the wool in the yarn 
will have taken up the dye, whereas the cotton will not have 
done so to the same extent, but will have retained more or less its 
original colour. 

Velour. — This name is given to a soft, thick, nappy flannel 
used in the making of dressing-gowns, etc., made from either wool 
or cotton or a combination of both. As a cotton fabric, it is of 
the coarse, stiff, pile variety. The name is French for Velvet, 
hence its use in connexion with a pile-surface fabric. As a 
woollen and worsted term, there is a considerable diversity of 
opinion as to the precise cloth designated by the term Velour. 
Some manufacturers would class as Velours any cloth having a 
soft velvety nap, others make finer distinctions, classing one as 
a "face-finished Cashmere," a second as a "Saxony," with Velour 
slightly difterent from either of these. 

Velvet. — This name is given to a pure all-silk pile fabric 
with a pile weave, the distinctive feature of which is that the 
surface consists of silk threads or fibres standing closely together 
like the bristles in a brush. These threads appear as threads 
sheared off" smooth, so as to form a uniform or even surface. 
" All-silk " in this definition of Velvet applies to the pile only, 
for Velvets are so generally woven with a cotton back that a 
Silk Velvet should be considered as having a cotton back unless 
specially designated as "silk backed." 

Velvet Finish. — A finish produced upon woollen fabrics by 
wet-raising in various directions and subsequently cropping the 
pile thus raised level, which leaves the velvet-finished material with 
a fairly dense pile of a velvety appearance. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 97 

Velvet of Silk mixed with other Fibres.— This class 

of fabric includes all pile fabrics which, in the first instance, 
answer to the description of Velvet, i.e., have their pile shorter 
than that of Plush, and the pile of which, whilst being partly of 
silk, contains other animal fibres, such as wool or mohair, or even 
vegetable fibres, such as cotton. Where it is clearly stipulated 
that they are " Velvets of silk mixed with other fibres and having 
cotton backs," the foundation cloth must not contain warp or 
weft threads wholly or in part composed of any material other 
than cotton. 

Velveteen, — This name is given to the class of fabrics that 
in reality are but Cotton Velvets. Like true Velvets, they are 
woven with a pile weave, the distinctive feature of which is that 
the surface consists of threads or fibres standing closely together 
like the bristles in a brush. These threads appear as threads 
sheared off smooth, so as to form a uniform or even siirface. 
Velveteens are generally woven on the weft-pile basis, that is to 
say, that the "pile floats" or "flushings" are produced with 
the weft threads — which are afterwards cut — additional to and on 
a firmly constructed woven ground texture. Weft pile can be 
recognised by removing from the fabric a weft thread, when, 
upon withdrawing this thread, it will be seen that the bits of 
" cut pile " are not looped round it or attached to it but remain 
entangled among the warp threads. Common Velveteen, which 
is "all cotton," will be identified as a weft pile in this manner. 
Velveteens are also known as Velverets or Fustians. Standard 
widths for Velveteens are 19 inches, 22^^ inches, 24^ inches, and 
21^ or 28 inches. 

Venetians. — A wool fabric, closely woven in a fine twill. 
As applied to a cotton fabric, it is used to designate a heavy, 
warp-face. Dress Satin (or Sateen) of strong texture and closely 
woven, dyed in the piece, silky and lustrous in appearance. Light" 
weights would be sold as Sateen or Dress Sateen. Woven with 
about 200 to 250 threads to the square inch, the style of weave in 
itself tends to produce lustre ; this is intensified by calendering 
and sometimes by mercerising the fabric. The weave is of an up- 
right warp twill character, and the name was first applied to a 
dress face woollen cloth ; later, worsted dress Venetians were 
made, and later still the name was applied to an all-cotton fabric 
of similar weave. 

Vesting" (Vestings). — A generic term embracing a wide 
range of fabrics more or less ornamented, used in most countries 
for men's vests, but used in China for either men's or women's outer 
or inner garments. Fabrics of several combination of weaves 



98 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

showing fancy stripes or small checkings, and often coloured to 
the extent of some coloured warp threads appearing here and 
there on the surface and left floating (where not used) on the 
back of the fabric are common in this class of goods. This 
heading covers Welts, Pique, Fancy Pique, etc. 

Vig'Ogne. — The French form of the word " vicuna "; applied 
to a soft woollen dress material. 

Vigoreux. — A worsted material, printed in the yarn so as 
to produce a melange, or mixture, effect in colouring. This differs 
from Beige in that the yarns are printed before being spun, giving 
the finished goods the appearance of having been woven from 
mixed yarns. 

Viyella. — A light cloth, largely made from cotton and wool 
scribbled together. It is similar to Ceylon Flannel and differs 
from it only in name. This fabric is one of many known under 
"trade-marks 'patented ' or 'registered ' names," which are some- 
times sufficiently popular to embrace many different weaves under 
one head. • 

Voile. — This name is used to designate a more or less 
transparent light fabric made generally of cotton. Woven with a 
square mesh produced by plain one-over and one-under weaving. 
Voile averages 55 meshes per inch, with an average width of 42 
inches, and generally in pieces of 60 yards. 

Voile when dyed is piece-dyed and not woven from yarn 
which was dyed previously to being woven. The yarn used in the 
weaving of Voiles is a hard-twisted yarn. 

Woollen Voiles are also woven, the characteristics being 
similar to Cotton Voile, but in weaving Voiles with worsted yarns, 
if the yarn is not very free from loose fibres, the fabric is finished 
by having its face singed or sheared very close, so as to ensure a 
clear-faced material. 

Wadding Pick. — A thick weft thread of low quality in- 
serted often without interlacing between the two fabrics in 
a double cloth and between the two warps in a warp-backed 
structure. This gives weight and solidity to the fabric. The 
wadding pick remains out of sight, and the appearance of the 
fabric is not affected thereljy. 

Wale. — This term has the same meaning as "warp welt," or 
"welt," and is used to describe a fabric having thick raised cords 
at close intervals. 



PIECE GOODS MANUiL. 99 

Warp. — Warp is the name given to that set of threads that 
runs lengthways of a piece of cloth. When the word " end " is 
used in connexion with weaving, it always signifies the warp 
thread, while each filling or weft thread is called a " pick." 

Warp Pile. — Warp pile can be recognised by simply with- 
drawing from the fabric being examined a few "picks," or weft 
threads. If the material is a warp-pile weave, then it will be seen 
that the loose bits of " cut pile " remain entangled or looped and 
adhering to some of the drawn weft threads. This can be easily 
seen if a common Velvet ribbon is experimented with, when, upon 
drawing out the weft threads separately from selvedge to selvedge, 
it will invariably be seen that each alternate weft thread will have 
the loose bits of " cut warp pile " attached. Where the material 
is extra closely woven it is possible for every weft thread that is 
withdrawn to have the loose bits attached in the manner described. 

Warp-pile fabrics include two varieties, the "uncut pile," 
such as Turkish or Terry Towels and Towelling, Brussels Carpets, 
Patent Tapestry Carpets, etc., and " cut pile," like warp-pile 
Plushes, Velvets, ribbons, etc. 

Warp Print. — A fabric wherein the design, being printed 
on the warps prior to weaving, appears somewhat faintly and 
in an indefinite outline. See Chine. 

Warp Ribs.— The term " warp ribs " is used to designate a 
warp-surface weave in which, owing to the thickness of the 
weft threads (or picks) or to the grouping together of a number 
of weft picks, the warp threads are made to bend round them 
and, being thus thrown to the surface of the fabric, produce a 
ribbed appearance running from selvedge to selvedge in which 
the warp threads are on the face of the fabric. Poplin is a 
typical warp-ribbed fabric. 

Warp Sateen. ^ — A common form of Cotton Sateen cloth 
is that woven with a "warp sateen" weave on the five threads 
and picks system, which results in four-fifths of the warp threads 
appearing on the face of the fabric and therefore four-fifths of the 
weft threads appear on the back of the fabric. The object of 
weaving on this principle is to obtain a smooth cloth surface by 
distributing the interlacing points and so destroying the common 
" twilled " effect. A Warp Sateen will be much closer in the 
warp threads than in the weft threads, and therefore stronger in 
that direction. 

Warp Welt. — A fabric having thick raised cords at close 
intervals, as in the case of Bedford Cords and Piques. In cotton 



lOO PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

goods, when the cords run lengthways of the piece, the fabric is 
known as a "warp welt." Sometimes called " wale." 

Warp-faced Cloth. — A fabric which shows on its face a 
greater number of warp threads than "picks," or weft threads. 

Waste and Condenser Wefts. — These are made from 

certain waste cotton which accumulates in certain parts of the 
machinery during the process of spinning yarn. This waste is 
treated by special machinery, which spins it into a full, level, 
and soft yarn, which is used for weft in weaving Sheetings. 

Waste and Flocks. — Cotton mill waste is the by-product 
derived from the cotton in its various processes through the mill. 
Each pound of cotton before it becomes cloth loses on an average 
15 per cent, visible and invisible waste. The visible waste is of 
two kinds, hard and soft ; hard waste, which has been made on 
spinning and subsequent machines, and which bears a slight 
twist ; soft waste, which includes that part of the fibre rejected 
by all machines up to the spinning frame. The invisible waste 
is equal to the amount of evaporation of moisture in the cotton 
during the process of manufacture. Flocks are short fibres 
removed from cloth during the process of napping. 

Waste Cloths. — Cotton fabrics woven from waste yarns, 
generally plain woven and of low grade. The weft thread is 
coarse and is spun from waste or short-fibre cotton. 

Watering. — As a textile term, it is used to designate the 
process whereby certain distinctive effects are produced on the 
face of plain-woven fabrics — especially silks. The process of 
giving a wavy or wave-like appearance in fabrics by either 
passing them through suitably engraved metal rollers which, 
bearing unequally upon the fabric, render the surface unequal, 
making it reflect light differently. The same result is obtained 
by pressing two plain-woven fabrics together, when the coarser 
weft threads of the fabric produce the wave-like indentations 
on the face of the fabric it is pressed against. A fabric is said 
to be "watered" when ornamented by either of the above 
processes. The principle of this operation is that two fabrics of 
precisely similar build, when pressed together, naturally "water" 
each other, owing to the coincidence or non-coincidence of the 
threads or picks causing flatness or ribbedness of a sufficiently 
marked character under conditions of heat and pressure. "To 
tabby" is another expression for "to water," and the adjective 
"tabby," usually referring to a brindled cat, signifies streaked 
with wavy lines. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. lOI 

Weaving". — Every woven piece of cloth is made up of two 
distinct systems of threads, known as the warp and the filling 
(this latter is also known as weft), which are interlaced with each 
other to form a fabric. The warp threads run lengthways of the 
piece of cloth, and the filling, or weft, threads run across from side 
to side. The manner in which the warp and filling interlace with 
each other constitutes the weave. The term "end" in weaving, 
is used to designate the warp thread, while each weft or filling 
thread is called a " pick." The fineness of a cloth is expressed by 
saying that it has so many "ends" and "picks" to the inch. The 
character of the weave offers the best basis for classification of 
woven goods, and nearly all varieties of cloth may be classified 
under the following weaves : — 

Plain weave. Double-cloth weave. 

Twill weave. Pile weave. 

Satin weave. Gauze weave. 

Figure weave. Lappet weave. 

Web. — Web is the name given to a piece of cloth at the 
moment it is taken from the loom and previous to its having 
been treated to produce the special feature of the class of cloth the 
web belongs to. 

Weft. — -When the word " weft " is used in connexion with 
weaving or woven fabrics, it always signifies the filling threads, 
each of which is also called a "pick." Weft threads run across 
the width of the fabric. 

Weft Pile. — Weft pile can be recognised by withdrawing 
from the fabric under examination a few "picks," or weft threads. 
If the material is a weft-pile weave, then it will be seen that the 
loose bits of "cut pile" are not entangled or looped round or 
adhering to the weft thread that has been drawn out, but that 
they remain entangled among the warp threads. 

If, however, a few warp threads are withdrawn separately, it 
will be found that every alternate warp thread, as a rule, will have 
the loose bits of " cut weft pile " attached or looped round. 

Weft Ribs. — The only difference between these and warp 
ribs is that the weft bends and the warp lies straight. The 
term " weft rib " is used to designate a weft surface weave in 
which, owing to the thickness of the warp threads or to the 
grouping together of a number of warp threads, the weft threads 
are made to bend round them and, being thus thrown to the 
surface of the fabric, produce a ribbed appearance with the ribs 
running lengthways, in which the weft threads are on the face of 
the fabric. 



102 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Weft Sateen. — A Weft Sateen is woven on the five threads 
and picks system, which results in four-fifths of the weft threads 
appearing on the surface of the fabric, and therefore four-fifths of 
the warp threads appear on the back of the fabric. The object 
of weaving on this principle is similar to that aimed at when 
weaving a Warp Sateen, that is to say, it is done to obtain a 
smooth cloth surface by distributing the interlacing points and 
so destroying the common " twilled " effect. A Weft Sateen will 
be closer in the weft threads (or picks) than in the warp threads, 
and therefore stronger in that direction. 

Weft-faced Cloth. — A fabric which shows on its face a 
greater number of "picks," or weft threads, than warp threads. 

Weight and Thickness of Woollen Cloths.— The ac- 
cepted standard of weight and thickness of woollen cloth is — 

For Ladies^ Wear : — 

4 ounces per yard represents a " very thin" cloth. 
8 „ „ „ "thin" cloth. 

For Men's Wear : — 

12 ounces per yard represents a "thin," or "tropical," cloth. 

i6 ,, „ „ " thin medium " cloth. 

20 ,, „ „ " medium " cloth. 

30 „ „ „ "thick" cloth. 

40 ,, „ „ " very thick " cloth. 

Naturally, also, the relation of weight to thickness varies with the 
composition of the cloth and the style of make, some "woolly" 
makes of 20 ounces being very thick. 

Weighting. — The process of adding to the natural weight 
of a fabric by making it take up certain chemical or other sub- 
stances. 

Cotton fabrics are generally weighted by subjecting them to 
a process which causes them to absorb either zinc chloride, 
magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, glue, gelatine, starch, 
or alkali silicate. Woollens and worsteds are generally weighted 
with zinc chloride. Silk is generally weighted with muriate of 
tin, and few of the silks on the market are free from weighting. 
Modern methods make it possible to increase the weight of pure 
boiled silk to five or six times its original weight. Hooper, in his 
book on "Silk," states: "It was early found that silk would 
absorb about one-third its own weight of water without feeling 
wet to the touch. The dyer found that it would absorb other 
things besides water, muriate of tin amongst them. As. a matter 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. IO3 

of fact, it may be, and indeed it is, made by the dyer to take up, 
with the dye, so much of that metal that 12 ounces of boiled silk 
can be increased in weight to 80 ounces, and yet look like very 
bright silk." 

The term "weighting" has the same value as "filling" or 
"loading." 

Welt. — The double thick portion or wide hem at top of plain 
hose. 

Whip Thread.— The crossing thread in a gauze fabric. 

Whipcord. — This name is given to hard-twisted worsted 
twills in either solid or mixed colours. The twill or diagonal in 
this class of fabric is well marked and slightly raised, somewhat 
resembling the hard-twisted fibre lash of a whip. 

White. — As a textile term, this word is applied to fabrics 
which are not in their loom state, i.e., in the grey, but which have 
been bleached and rendered white. 

White Brocades. — Under this name would be classed 
bleached fabrics of different weaves or combinations of weave 
in which the design appearing on the surface of the fabric is 
of a fancy, figured, or floral effect, usually of elaborate design. 
Soft spun wefts are generally used in the weaving of Brocades 
and other figured cloths, as they fill and throw up better the 
figure produced than a hard-twist yarn would do. White Brocades 
are all-cotton goods unless otherwise stated. Lappet and swivel 
figured fabrics would not come under the heading " Brocades " ; 
such style of figuring is not brocaded. 

White Cambric. — Cambric is a plain-weave fine linen fabric 
of light weight and soft finish. Cotton Cambric, in which the 
yarn used is of fine cotton, is mostly met with. It is woven 
without a selvedge and generally leaves the loom in pieces of 
120 yards, which are cut to shorter lengths. In plain white, 
a Cambric is finer than a Lawn. Cambric of French origin is 
generally finer in texture than the Manchester Cambric. Cambric 
varies in width from 32 to 46 inches and in length from 12 to 40 
yards per piece. The finer qualities are made from hard-twisted 
cotton. The warp yarn is often of a different thickness to that 
used for the filling, and it is generally finished with a smooth 
glazed surface. The term Cambric is also commonly applied to 
Muslins. White Cambric is a bleached material. 



I04 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

White Drills, or Drilling". — White Drills are, when not 
otherwise specified, all-cotton medium and heavy weight single 
cloths woven as a three-shaft twill (two warp and one weft), which 
have been bleached but not dyed or printed. The better qualities 
of warp-faced sateen-weave Drills are known as Satin Drill, and 
these are extensively exported to the Far East ; their distinctive 
features lie in the closeness of weave, smoothness of surface, and 
finish. 

White Goods. — A generic term covering a great variety of 
bleached fabrics, plain or fancy, covering various weaves or com- 
bination of weaves. 

White Irishes. — The term Irishes originally was applied to 
linen fabrics which were mainly produced in and around Belfast. 
It is now used to describe certain cotton fabrics of plain weave 
similar to white cotton Calico. Generally in pieces 36 inches 
wide and 42 yards long, finished with a heavy starch finish. 

White Italian. — The name White Italian is not generally 
applied to a white cotton fabric woven and finished as an Italian. 
Such a fabric is a White Mercerised Sateen ; however, occasionally 
an invoice covering Coloured Italians will be found to include 
so-called White Italians. In such cases the colour assortment list 
(which generally accompanies, if it does not form part of, the 
invoice) will show the number of white pieces included in the 
shipment. The ordinary Italian is essentially a coloured or piece- 
dyed material, and, as white is not, in the piece goods trade, 
considered to be a colour, a White Italian cannot be considered as 
coming under the classification of Dyed Plain Cottons. 

White Jean. — A White Jean is an all-cotton fabric woven 
as a three-end twill, similar in weave to a Grey Jean, but which 
has been subjected to a process of bleaching to turn it into what 
is known as a " market white " fabric. The process of bleaching 
proper is always preceded by a series of operations that have for 
their object the improving of the surface of the cloth by removing 
loose fibres, motes, and ends of yarn, and by cleaning and singeing 
the surface so as to free it from all "nap." The distinctive weave 
of this fabric is given under "Grey Jeans," which is the class of 
Jean most often met with. 

White Lawn. — Lawn is a plain-weave light-weight cotton 
fabric of soft finish made from yarns varying from 1/40's to 
i/ioo's. Lawn has a soft, smooth feel, which is due to the 
absence of sizing or starching and to the process of brushing and 
calendering, i.e., passing the fabric through heavily weighted 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. I05 

steam-heated rollers. Lawns vary in quality and weight similarly 
to other fabrics, their weight varying between i^ and 2^ ounces 
per yard ; in width they vary from 27 to 46 inches and in 
length from 12 to 42 yards per piece. Lawn in plain white is 
coarser than a Cambric. The yarn used in the weaving of 
Lawn is generally of fine Egyptian cotton. White Lawns are 
also made of linen yarn, and when so made would be called 
Linen Lawn. India Lawn is a calendered fabric, about 12 yards 
to the pound and 28 to 36 inches wide in book-fold or 40 inches 
in long-fold. Victoria Lawn has a very stiff finish. Bishop's 
Lawn is slightly heavier in weight than " Linon " or " India 
Linon," bleached and finished to a bluish tint, and derives its 
name from the style of finish. The same fabric finished differ- 
ently would be known under other names. White Lawn is a 
bleached material. 

White Muslin. — Muslin is a light-weight, open, plain-weave 
cotton fabric made generally of low-count yarns, that is to say, of 
fairly coarse yarn. Muslins, Lawns, and Cambrics are all materials 
which are similar in construction but vary by their quality. Muslin 
being the lowest grade of the three. A very common kind of 
MusUn is known as Butter Muslin or Cheese Cloth. Muslins vary 
in width from 32 to 46 inches and in length from 12 to 40 yards 
per piece. Foundation Muslm, Book Muslin, and Butcher's Mushn 
are varieties of Muslin so dissimilar to the true Muslin that they 
should not be considered as coming under the classification of true 
Muslin, which, whilst it varies considerably, should always answer 
to the description of "a fine, soft, thin, open, plain-woven cotton 
fabric." White Muslin is a bleached material. 

White Sheetings. — A bleached light or medium weight 
plain-woven all-cotton fabric. Under the heading "Grey Sheet- 
ing" will be found a description of the two distinct varieties of 
fabric known as Sheeting. Where such Grey Sheetings have 
been rendered white by being bleached and are no longer in 
their loom state, they are known as White Sheetings. 

White Shirting's. — Essentially a bleached all-cotton fabric 
woven with a plain one-under and one-over weave, having the 
warp and weft threads approximately equal in number of threads 
and counts. It differs from Grey Shirtings only in finish. White 
Shirting having been subjected to a bleaching process after 
leaving the loom, whereas Grey Shirting remains in its loom 
state, i.e., in the same condition as when it was taken off the 
loom. The same remarks as to the similarity between a Grey 
Shirting and a Grey Sheeting applies to White Shirtings and 
White Sheetings. Similarly, a White Shirting may be termed 



I06 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

a White Calico, which is a term used to designate practically 
any cotton cloth coarser than Muslin. Varying in width and 
weight, they are generally put up in pieces of from 36 to 40 
yards. The length marked on the outside of the piece may 
not always correspond to the number of yards in the piece if 
the yard is taken as one of 36 inches. 

White Spotted Shirtings. — Like White Striped Shirtings, 
the ornamentation in this class of fabric would be produced by 
combination of weave and would not be the result of printing or 
be due to the presence of coloured yarns. The essentials of this 
class of fabric are similar to those of White Striped Shirtings, i.e., 
the fabric is all cotton and the ornamentation due to weave and 
weave only. 

White Striped Shirtings. — The fabric which would pro- 
perly come under this classification would be essentially all-cotton 
fabrics containing stripes, produced by a combination of weave 
and not the result of printing or due to the presence of coloured 
yarns. A plain-weave ground may be combined with a sateen- 
weave stripe. Such a fabric would not be called a Fancy Shirting, 
which in the trade is generally understood to be " either printed 
on the woven, bleached fabric, or of fast colours, dyed upon the 
warp, or combination of each." White Striped Shirtings are 
mostly made on a Jacquard loom, and in the white condition 
the woven pattern constitutes the only effect or ornamentation in 
the finished cloth. 

White T-Cloth. — A bleached all-cotton fabric, plain woven 
from low-quality yarns. An ordinary :2'-Cloth which has been 
bleached. Generally sold in lengths of 24 yards and varying in 
width from 32 to 36 inches. The name is said to be derived from 
the mark T of the original exporters. 

White Venetians. — What has been said of White Italians 
holds good mutatis mutandis of White Venetians. Such fabrics 
are in reality White Warp-faced Sateens, and, white not being 
considered a colour, they do not come under the classification of 
Dyed Plain Cottons. 

Widow's Lawn. — A better quality of Lawn made from 
linen, well woven, very clear and even in texture. 

Width. — The practice has grown up in the trade to refer 
to the width of a fabric either as "actual" or "nominal." The 
former term explains itself and means that the width as given is 
actually that of the piece referred to, and that it is not less than 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. ID/ 

stated, "Nominal," on the other hand, is understood to mean 
that the fabric referred to may vary by as much as half an inch 
below the width specified on the contract. 

Window Holland. — A plain-woven all-cotton cloth, stiffened 
after weaving with about one-fifth of its weight in starch or other 
sizing material. It is used as window shades. 

Wolsey. — A proprietary name applied to certain all-wool 
materials, especially underwear. 

■^OOl. — Wool is the soft, curly covering which forms the 
fleecy coat of the sheep and other similar animals, such as the 
goat, alpaca, llama, vicuiia, and camel. 

The chief characteristic of wool is its felting or shrinking 
power. This felting property, from which wool derives its chief 
value and which is its special distinction from hair, depends in 
part upon the kinks in the fibre but mainly upon the scales with 
which the fibre is covered. The process of felting consists in the 
fibres becoming entangled with each other, and the little projecting 
scales hooking into each other and holding the fibres closely 
interlocked. 

The wool of commerce is divided into three great classes : — 

1. Short wool, or clothing wool (also called carding wool), 

seldom exceeds a length of 2 to 4 inches. 

2. Long wool, or combing wool, varying from 4 to 10 inches. 

3. Carpet and knitting wools, which are long, strong, and 

very coarse. 
■ Combing wools take their name from the process of "combing" 
which they undergo when being prepared for spinning into yarn. 
Combing wools are longer than carding wools ; they are also harder 
or more wiry and less inclined to be spiral or kinky. 

Carding wools — made to cross and interlace and interlock 
with one another — are shorter than combing, and, in addition, 
they possess the power of felting (that is to say, of matting 
together in a close, compact mass) to a much greater degree. 

The first and finest clip of wool is called lamb's wool; it is 
taken 'from the young sheep at the age of eight to twelve months 
and, never having been clipped before, it is naturally pointed 
at the end. All subsequent cut fleeces are known as wether wool 
and are less valuable than the first clip. The ends of such wool 
are thick and blunted on account of having been previously cut. 

Wool, unlike cotton, is not capable of being worked into a 
yarn without first being thoroughly cleansed of its impurities. 



I08 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Wool-dyed. — A term applied to fabrics dyed in the loose or 
top form — as distinct from yarn-dyed or piece-dyed. 

Woollen. — This term is used in contradistinction to worsted, 
and implies difference of material and method of manufacture. 
Wastes, shoddy, and blends of material other than wool are 
referred to as "woollen," in opposition to "all wool." 

Woollen and Cotton Flannel. — A fabric answering to the 
description of true Flannel, usually woven with either a plain or 
twill weave, soft finished, but which is made from carded union 
yarn, i.e., yarn composed of wool and cotton in varying proportions 
according to the quality of the material it is intended to produce. 
If a Woollen and Cotton Flannel were described as a Union 
Flannel it would be composed of distinct yarns, some of which 
were all cotton and some all wool. In its broad acceptance 
the term is applicable to any fabric woven partly of wool and 
partly of cotton to resemble true All-wool Flannel. 

Woollen and Cotton Mixtures. — This term is used to 

designate fabrics which are composed of the fibres of wool and 
cotton which have been blended or scribbled together rather 
ihan to fabrics composed of distinct threads which are all-cotton 
and all-wool yarns woven together. A cotton warp and wool 
weft fabric is a union, not a mixture. Mixtures may be 
recognised, when dyed, by a careful examination of the fibres 
constituting the yarn. When such fibres are not of the same 
colour, it will be found' to have been due to the difi:erence of 
afi&nity for the dye between cotton and wool. The burning 
test is not close enough. Carbonising is the surest test that 
can be applied to determine the presence and percentage of cotton 
in any Woollen and Cotton Mixture fabric. 

Woollen Fabric. — The typical woollen is a full-handling 
fabric in which structure and colouring cannot always be defined 
on account of the threads and picks, and even the fibres, having 
become thoroughly intermingled in passing through the operations 
of finishing. Strictly speaking, a woollen fabric should be made 
of fine wool (possibly noils included); but in the English Law 
Courts a definition of "woollen" fabrics as being composed of 
mungo, shoddy, cotton, etc., has been accepted. 

Woollen LastingS, Craped. — A fabric similar in the main 
to a Plain Lasting, but which, owing either to special process of 
weaving, chemical process during finishing, or to the action of 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. lOQ 

suitably engraved rollers through which the material is made 
to pass, has a face finish resembling Crape Cloth, Plain, under 
which heading will be found the distinctive characteristics of Crape 
Cloth. 

Woollen LastingS, Figured. — Like Cotton Lastings, this 
fabric is essentially a plain twill or kindred weave fabric, firmly 
woven from hard-twisted yarns. It is woven from strong wool 
and can be described as a fine, durable fabric of a somewhat hard 
handle, but smooth in appearance and ornamented by the introduc- 
tion of a figure, pattern, or design produced either by means of an 
extra thread or by combination of warp and weft threads. 

Woollen Lastings, Plain. — A plain twill or kindred weave 
fabric firmly woven from hard-twisted yarns. It is woven from 
strong wool and can be described as a fine, durable fabric of a 
somewhat hard handle, smooth in appearance, and free from any 
ornamentation produced either by weaving or printing. Used 
extensively in the manufacture of boot and shoe uppers. 

Woollen Yarn in appearance possesses a fringe-like covering 
which gives it a fuzzy appearance. This is arrived at by using 
shorter wool than in the manufacture of worsted yarn and by 
giving it a twist. This fuzzy appearance distinguishes it from 
worsted yarn, which is a straight yarn in which the component 
fibres lie smoothly and parallel to each other. Woollen yarn 
is particularly suitable for the manufacture of cloths in which 
the colourings require to be blended, the fibres napped, as in 
Tweed, Cheviot, Doeskin, Broadcloth, Beaver, Frieze, Chinchilla, 
Blanket, and Flannel. Woollen yarn may be said to be a thread 
in which all the component fibres are entangled into each other 
and are in all different directions : this results in a yarn which is 
rough in appearance, non-lustrous, and more irregular than worsted 
yarn. It is only in this type of yarn that low-grade materials, 
such as mungo, shoddy, or extract, can be utilised. The fibres 
which constitute a woollen yarn are not as readily separated 
from the body of the yarn or cloth as in the case of worsted. 

In the case of woollen yarn there are numerous systems 
for denoting the count, varying with the locality in which it 
is spun and the character of the product. In the United States 
there are two systems employed, but the one in most general 
use is known as the "American run counts." This is based on 
the number of "runs," each containing i,6oo yards, to the pound. 
Thus, a yarn running 8,000 yards to the pound is called a 
"5-run" yarn, a yarn with 5,200 yards to the pound is equal 
to a "3;|-run." In the vicinity of Philadelphia woollen yarn is 
based on the "cut," each cut consisting of 300 yards, and the 



no PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

count is the number of cuts in a pound. Thus, No. 30 cut 
yarn consists of 9,000 yards to the pound. A similar system 
prevails in England, where 200 yards go to the "cut," and the 
number of " cuts " per pound equals the count. In certain parts 
of England (Yorkshire) 256 yards go to the hank. The count is 
also arrived at on the basis that the number of yards per dram 
equals the count. 

Worsted Diagonal. — The name explains itself and is 
applied to a worsted cloth having as its chief characteristic a 
prominent weave effect running diagonally — from left to right — 
across the face of the cloth. Generally in solid colours and finished 
so as to bring the weave into prominence. 

Worsted LastingS. — A smooth, warp-faced, sateen-weave 
fabric woven from worsted warp and weft, having a plain-weave 
effect on the back of the fabric. Generally piece-dyed black. 
Worsted Lastings average 30 to 31 inches in width and 29 to 
30 yards in length per piece. Met with in three grades of 
quality. Average Bradford price for the best grade was, for 
the 10 years ended 19 14, about 31s. 5c/. per piece. 

Worsted Yarn is a straight yarn, i.e., a yarn produced 
from straight fibres ; it is invaluable in the production of textile 
fabrics in which lustre and uniformity of surface are the chief 
characteristics. They enter into the manufacture of Zephyr, 
Saxony, Serge, Bunting, Rep, etc. Yarn is measured by a 
system of "counts" — the number of yards of yarn to the 
pound. It is put up in hanks of 560 yards each, and the 
number of such hanks that are necessary to weigh i pound 
determines the count, so that if No. 30 yarn is mentioned, it 
is a yarn 30 hanks of which, or 16,800 yards, weigh i pound. 
The main characteristic of worsted yarn is the arrangement of 
the fibres, which are so arranged that they are parallel to each 
other in a longitudinal direction. 

The yarn thus produced is a smooth, lustrous, and level 
yarn, these qualities being absent in woollen yarn. The fibres 
which constitute a worsted yarn are more readily separated 
from the body of the yarn or cloth than in the case of a woollen 
yarn. 

W-Pile. — This term is used to designate a fast pile and 
originates in the form taken by a piece of fast pile when removed 
from the fabric. In a fast-pile fabric the pile cannot be driven 
out through the back of the fabric by pressure applied to the 
pile, owing to the fact that the pile is virtually bound into the 
material and held in place by two threads from the top and one 
from behind. See Pile Weave. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. Ill 

Wright's Underwear, Imitation.— This class of under- 
wear is essentially a knit cotton underwear made from a combina- 
tion of bleached cotton yarn and dyed yarn. The knit fabric is 
raised on the inside. The dyed yarn used in the manufacture of 
this class of underwear is often of a blue or brown colour. 

Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleached, — In its unqualified 

form the term Cotton Yarn is used to describe "single" yarns, 
and Cotton Yarn, Grey or Bleached, is understood to be cotton 
thread and carded yarn, warps or warp yarns, in singles, whether 
in bundles, skeins, or cops, not advanced beyond the condition of 
singles by grouping or twisting two or more single yarns together 
and not advanced beyond the condition of bleached by dyeing, 
colouring, printing, gassing, or mercerising. 

Cotton yarn is subdivided into three groups, — coarse, medium, 
and fine — according to count : — 

No. 2o's count and under = coarse. 
Nos. 2 1's to 40's . . . ^ medium. 
No. 41's and over . . = fine. 

Cotton yarn is sometimes found as a Mercerised Grey Yarn. 
The fact that cotton yarn is in the unbleached state does not 
necessarily mean that it has not been advanced beyond that 
stage ; it may be in the grey and at the same time be mercerised. 
AS'ee" Cabled Yarns" and "Folded Yarn." 

Yarn-dyed. — Yarn-dyed goods are made of yarns that are 
dyed before being woven or yarns spun from wool that has 
previously been dyed. Yarn-dyed may be distinguished from 
piece-dyed fabrics by unravelling the threads of each kind. Yarn- 
dyed fabrics show that the dye-stuff has penetrated through the 
yarn, while in the case of piece-dyed fabrics the dye-stuff has not 
the same chance of penetrating the yarn as completely. 

Zephyrs. — Lightly constructed, coloured, plain-woven cloths, 
well finished, in the pure state, principally woven from fine cotton 
yarns. There are also silk and cotton woven Zephyrs and woollen 
Zephyrs. See Madras. 

Zibeline. — The French name for Sable, used to designate a 
dress or cloaking material having a hairy surface. 



INDEX 

TO 

SAMPLE COLLECTION, 



HEADINGS UNDER WHICH SAMPLES 
ARE CLASSIFIED. 



Section Numbeb. 



Sob-section Number. 



I. Grey Cottons. 



2. White Cottons. 



3. Printed Cottons. 



4. Dyed Plain Cottons . 



1. Shirtings and Sheetings. 

2. Drills and Jeans. 

3. Shirtings and Sheetings, Na- 

tive. 

4. Drills and Jeans, Native. 

5. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Brocades. 

4. Brocades (with finish). 

5. Striped or Spotted Shirting. 

6. Striped or Spotted Shirting 

(with finish). 

7. Crimps and Crapes. 

8. Crimps and Crapes (with 

finish). 

9. Lenos. 

^10. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Furnitures. 

4. Crapes. 

5. Crimps. 

6. Muslins, Lawns, and Cambrics. 

7. Lenos and Balzarines. 

8. Duplex or Reversible. 

9. Blue and White 7-Cloth. 
10. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Plain (with finish). 

3. Crimps. 

4. Crimps (with finish). 

5. Drills, Twills, and Jeans. 

6. Lawns, Musi ins, and Cambrics. 

7. Hongkong-dyed. 

8. Lenos and Balzarines. 

9. Native. 

10. Native (with finish). 

^11. Not specially enumerated. 



II 6 PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 

Section Numbeb. Sub-section Number. 



5. Dyed Figured Cottons. 



6. Raised Cottons , 



7. Coloured Woven {i.e., yarn- 
dyed) Cottons 



8. Dyed and Printed Cottons 



Q. Velvets and 
(Cotton).... 



Velveteens 



10. Plushes and Velvets. 



I. 

2. 

3- 
4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
10. 
II. 

I. 

2. 

3- 

4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

T. 

2. 

3- 

4- 

5- 
6. 



Figured. 

Figured (with finish). 

Native. 

Native (with finish). 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Dyed. 

Printed. 

Duplex Printed. 

Dyed and Printed. 

Dyed and Duplex Printed. 

Yarn-dyed. 

Figured White. 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Plain (with finish). 

Figured. 

Figured (with finish). 

Crimps 

Crimps (with finish). 

Plain Native. 

Plain Native (with finish). 

Figured Native. 

Figured Native (with finish). 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Plain (with finish). 

Crimps. 

Crimps (with finish). 

Figured. 

Figured (with finish). 

Native. 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain. 

Printed or Embossed. 

Embroidered. 

Dyed Cords and Corduroys. 

Undyed Moleskins. 

Not specially enumerated. 

Plain Pure Silk. 
Figured or Embossed. 
Silk Seal (with cotton back). 
Silk with cotton back. 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. II 7 

Section Ndmbeb. Sub-section Numbee. 



10. Plushes and Velvets — cont. 



II. Silk Piece Goods. 



12. Silk and Cotton Fabrics . 



13. Woollen and Cotton Mix- 
tures 



14. Woollen Fabrics. 



1 5. Linen and Linen Unions ...\ 

16. Hemp and Hemp Mixtures \ 

17. Miscellaneous. 



f 5. Silk mixed with other fibrous 
materials (with cotton 
back). 

6. All-cotton Plush (including 

with finish). 

7. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Figured. 

3. Plain Native. 

4. Figured Native. 

5. Ribbons (all silk and mix- 

tures). 

6. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Figured. 

1. Plain. 

2. Figured. 

3. Poncho Cloth. 

4. Spanish Stripes. 

5. Union Cloth. 

6. Plain Lustres. 

7. Figured Lustres. 

8. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Habit, Medium, Russian, and 

Broad Cloth. 

2. Bunting. 

3. Camlets, Dutch. 

4. Camlets, English. 

5. Flannel. 

6. Lastings (all kinds). 

7. Spanish Stripes. 

8. Long Ells. 

9. Not specially enumerated. 

1. Plain. 

2. Figured. 

1. Plain and Figured. 

2. Yarn-dyed. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



Ii8 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 






119 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 




INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



B 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



121 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



123 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



124 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



I2S 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



126 



INDEX to SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name op Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



127 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



128 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



II9 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 




Sample 
No. 



130 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



G 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



H 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



132 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



H 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



SamjDle 
No. 



133 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



134 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



135 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



F^6 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



137 



K 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



138 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



K 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



139 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



140 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Faeric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



141 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



IVI 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



142 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name op Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



M3 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



N 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 




144 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



N 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



10 



145 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



. s 



146 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Sectioa 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



147 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 




J 48 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



149 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 




150 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name or Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



151 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 




152 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLtCTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



153 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric, 




154 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 

No. 



! I 



155 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
sectiou 

No. 




^ 



156 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION, 



Name or Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



'57 



u 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 




158 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



u 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 

No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



159 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 

No. 



1 60 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



i6i 



11 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



w 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



162 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



w 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



163 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



164 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



i6s 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 
No. 




J 66 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



Sub- 
section 

No. 



Sample 
No. 



167 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. 



i68 



INDEX TO SAMPLE COLLECTION. 



Name of Fabric. 



Section 
No. . 



Sub- 
section 
No. 



Sample 
No. 



169 



INDEX. 



INDEX 



A. 



Actual 

Agaric 

Albatross 

Alhambra Quilt 

AH Wool; see Woollen... 



Page. 
... I 
I 
... I 
... 1 
...io8 



All-over Leno ; see Dyed Lenos 29 

Alpaca I 

Alpaca Wool i 

Alpacianos 2 

American Eun Counts ; see 

Woollen Yarn 109 

American Sheetings 2 

Angola 2 

Angola Yam or Wool 2 

Angora 2 

Angora Goat 2 

Animalised Cotton 2 

Armure • 3 

Artificial Silk 3 

Astrakhan 3 

B. 

Back Cloth 3 

Backed Cloth... ... 4 

Baflfetas 4 

Baize 4 

Balbriggan ... 4 

Bale of Cotton ... ... ... 4 

Baline 4 

Balzarine Brocades, Dyed ... 4 

Balzarines 5 

Bandanna 5 

Barre 5 

Basket Cloth ... 5 

Batiste ... 5 

Bayadere ... 6 

Bayetas 6 

Beavers 6 

Beaverteen 6 

Bedford Cords 6 

Beetle Finish ; see Silesia ... 83 

Beige 6 

Bengal Stripes 6 

Bengaline 6 

Binding Cloth 7 



Page, 
Bishop's Lawn ; see White 

Lawn 104 

Bleached 7 

Bleached Domestics 7 

Bolting Cloth ; see Etamine... 33 
Bolton Sheeting; see Grey 

Sheeting 39 

Bombazine 7 

Book Muslin; see WhiteMuslin 105 

Book-fold Muslin 7 

Botany 7 

Boucle 7 

Bourette 7 

Broadcloth 8 

Brocade 8 

Brocades, White ; see White 

Brocades 103 

Brocatelle 8 

Broche 8 

Broken Twill; see Twill Weave 

Brown Sheeting 

Brown Shirting 

Bugis 

"Bump" Yarns 

Bundle ; see Cotton Yarn 

Measures 

Bunting 

Burlaps 

Butcher's Linen 

Butcher's Muslin ; see White 

Muslin .. 



93 



,105 



c. 



Cabled Yarns 9 

Cabot 9 

Cabot ; see American Sheetings 2 

Calico • 9 

Cambric ; see White Cambric 103 
Cambrics, Dyed ; see Dyed 

Cambrics 

Camel's Hair .•■ 

Camlets (Woollen) ... ... 

Camlets, Dutch (Woollen) ... 
Can)lets, English (Woollen)... 

Caniche ... 

Canton Flannel ... • 



26 
10 
10 
10 
II 
II 
II 



174 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Page, 

Canvas Ii 

Carbonising 12 

Carded Union Yarns ; see 

Union Yarns 96 

Carding Wools ; see Wool . . . 107 

Casement Cloth 12 

Cashmere 1 2 

Cashmere Double 12 

Cashmere Wool 12 

Castor 13 

Cellular Cloth 13 

Ceylon or Ceylon Flannel ... 13 

Challis 13 

Chambray 13 

Charmeuse 13 

Checks 13 

Cheese Cloth 13 

Cheviot 14 

Chiffon 14 

China Grass ; see Ramie ...71 

Chinchilla 14 

Chine 14 

Chinese Customs Definition of 

Nankeen; s«e Nankeen ... 55 

Chintz 14 

Classification of Samples ; see 

Samples 74 

Clip- Spots 14 

Coated Cotton Cloths 14 

Collarette 15 

Coloured ... 15 

Coloured Crimp Cloth 15 

Coloured Lists 15 

Coloured Sateens ; see Printed 

Sateens 68 

Coloured Woollen and Worsted 

Yarns 15 

Combination Twill; see Twill 

Weave 93 

Combing Wool ; see Wool ...107 
Continuous or Pad-dyeing 

Process; see Dyeing 25 

Corduroy 15 

Corkscrew Twill ; see Twill 

Weave 93 

Cotele 16 

Cotton 16 

Cotton, Animalised ; see Ani- 

malised ('otton 2 

Cotton J)uck 16 

Cotton Flannel 16 

Cotton l^lush 17 

Cotton Velvet, Plain ; see Plain 

Velvet (Cotton) 62 



Page. 

Cotton Yarn, Coarse, Medium, 
and Fine ; see Yarn, Cotton, 
Grey or Bleached in 

Cotton Yarn, Grey or Bleach- 
ed ; see Yarn, Cotton, Grey 
or Bleached in 



Cotton Yarn Measures 

Counts 

Counts of Spun Silk ; see Silk 

Yarns 

Coutil 

Covert 

Crabbing 

Crape Cloth, Plain 

Crape Weave ; see Crape Cloth, 

Plain 

Crash 

Cravenette 
Crepe de Chine 
Crepe Meteor 
Crepoline 

Crepon 

Cretonne 

Cretonne, Shadow ; see Shadow 

Cretonne 



19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 

82 
Crimp Cloth, Plain, or Crimps 20 

Crinkle, or Seersucker 20 

Cross-dyed ... 20 

Crossover 20 

Cut; see Woollen Yarn ...109 

Cut Goods 20 

Cuttling 21 



D. 

Damask 

Damass^ 

Delaine 

Denim 

Derby Rib ... 

Descriptions of StandardCloth; 
see Market Descriptions of 
StandardCloth 

Diagonal 

Diaper 

Diced ; see Diaper 

Dimity 

Discharge Printing 

Dobbie, or Dobby 

Domestics 

Domet 

Dor neck ; see Diaper 

Double Cloth Weave 



SO 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
22 

23 



INDEX. 



I7S 



23 
23 

60 
23 

39 
24 

104 
24 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 

27 

27 
27 



Double Sole, Heel, and Toe... 23 
Double Warps 23 

Drap d'Ete 

Dresden 

Drill, Pepperell ; see Pep- 

perell Drill 

Drills ... 

Drills, Grey ; see Grey Drills 

Drillefcte 

Drillingr ; see White Drills, or 

Drilling 

Duchesse 

Duck 

Dungaree 

Duplex Prints 

Dyeing 

Dyed and Printed 

Dyed Alpacianos 

Dyed Balzarines 

Dyed Cambrics 

Dved Corduroys (Cotton) .. 

Dyed Cotton Lastings 

Dyed Cotton Spanish Stripes 

Dyed Crimp Cloth 

Dyed Drills 

Dyed Figured Cottons 

Dyed Figured Cotton Italians 27 
Dyed Figured Cotton Lastings 27 
Dyed Figured Cotton Eeps ... 28 

Dyed Figured Ribs 28 

Dyed Fustians 28 

Dyed Imitation Turkey Eeds 28 
Dyed in the Grey ; see Dyed 

in the Piece 29 

Dyed in the Grey ; see Union 

Cloth 95 

Dyed in the Piece, or Piece- 
dyed 29 

Dyed Lawns 29 

Dyed Lenos 29 

Dyed Leno Brocade 29 

Dyed Muslins 30 

Dyed Plain Cottons 30 

Dyed Plain Cottons ; see White 

Italian 104 

Dyed Plain Cotton Italians... 30 
Dyed Real Turkey Reds ... 30 

Dyed Eeps 31 

Dyed Ribs 31 

Dyed Sheetings 31 

Dyed Shirtings 31 

Dyed T-Cloths 32 

Dyed Velvet Cords (Cotton)... 32 
Dyed Velveteen Cords (Cotton) 32 



E. 

Page, 
Elongated Twill; see Twill 

Weave 93 

Embossed Velvet (Cotton) ... 32 
Embossed Velveteen (Cotton) 32 

Embroideries ^3 

End 33 

English Foot 33 

English System of Silk Cords ; 

see Silk Yarns 85 

Eolienne ... ^3 

Eponge 

Equestrienne Tights 

Etamine 

Extract 



Extracted 



• 33 

■ 33 

• 33 

■ 33 



■■ 33 



F. 

Face-finished Cashmere ; see 

Velour 96 

Faconne ^^ 

Faille ... :i:i 

Fancies 34 

Fancy Shirtings ; see White 

Striped Shirtings 106 

Fancy Silk Seal ; see Silk Seal 84 
Fancy Twill ; see Twill Weave 93 
Fast Pile ; see Pile Weave ... 61 

Fents 34 

Figured 34 

Figured Cretonne ; see Cre- 
tonne 19 

Figured Muslin 34 

Figured Twill; see Twill 

Weave 93 

Figure Weaving 34 

Filled Cotton Cloth 35 

FiUing ... 35 

Filling (finishing term) 35 

Flannel (Woollen) 35 

Flannel, Cotton ; see Cotton 

Flannel 16 

Flannelette 35 

Flat Underwear 36 

Fleece-lined 36 

Flocks ; see Waste and Flocks 100 

Floconne 36 

Florentine Drills 36 

Folded Yarn 36 

Foulard 37 



176 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Page. 
Foundation Muslin ; see White 

Muslin 105 

French Cambric ; see White 

Cambric 103 

French Foot 37 

French System of Cotton 

Counts ; see Cotton Yarn 

Measures 17 

French System of Silk Counts ; 

see Silk Yarns 85 

Full Regular 37 

Full-fashioned 37 

Fustian 37 

G. 

Galatea 3^ 

Gauge 38 

Gauze Weave 3^ 

Genoa Plush; see Cotton Plush 1 7 

Gingham 3^ 

Gingham, Madras ; see Madras 

Gingham 49 

Gingham, Silk ; see Silk Ging- 
ham 84 

Glac6 38 

Granite 39 

Grenadine 39 

Grey, in the Grey, or Grey 

Cloth 39 

Grey Drills 39 

Grey Jeans 39 

Grey Sbeetmg 39 

Grey Shirting 40 

Grey T-Cloths 40 

Grosgrain 4° 

H. 

Habit Cloth (Woollen) 40 

Habutai 4^ 

Hair-cord Muslin 41 

Hand Looms and Power Looms 4 1 

Handle 41 

Hank ; see Cotton Yarn Mea- 
sures 17 

Hank; see Counts 17 

Hai'd Waste ; see Waste and 

Flocks 100 

Harvard Shirting 4^ 

Henrietta 42 

Herring-bone 42 

Hessian 42 

Hog, or Hoggett Wool 42 



Honeycomb . . . 
Huckaback . . , 



Page. 

... 42 
... 42 



I. 



see Oxford 



Imitation Oxford ; 

Shirting 58 

Imitation Rabbit Skin 42 

Imitation Wright's Under- 
wear ; see Wright's Under- 
wear, Imitation Ill 

India Lawn ; see White Lawn 104 
India Linon ; see White Lawn' 104 



India Mull ; see Mull 
Indigo Print ; see Printed . . . 

Ingrain 

Irishes 

Irish Cambric 

Italian Cloth 

Italian Cloth, Figured, Cotton 

Warp and Wool Weft 
Italian Cloth, Plain, Cotton 

Warp and Wool Weft ... 

J. 

Jaconet 

Jaconettes ; see Jaconet 

Jacquards 

Jaeger 

Jean 

Jean ; see Galatea 

Jeanette 

Jouy 



Kerseymere 
Khaiki . . . 
Khaki ... 



K. 



L. 



Ladies' Cloth 

Lamb's Wool ; see Wool 

Lappet Weave 

Lastings 

Lawn ; see White Lawn 
Lawns, Dyed; see Dyed Law 

Leas 

Leather Cloth 

Leno 



54 
65 
43 
43 
43 
43 

43 

44 



44 
44 
44 
44 
45 
38 
45 
45 



45 
45 
45 



... 45 
...107 

... 45 
... 46 
...104 
ns 29 
... 46 
... 46 
... 46 



INDEX. 



177 



Page. 
Leno Brocades, Dyed ; see 

Dyed Leno Brocade 29 

Liberty 47 

Linen Cambric ; see White 

Cambric 103 

Linen, Tests for ; see Tests for 

Linen 89 

Linen Thread ; see Thread ... 90 

Linen Yarn 47 

Lingerie 47 

Lining 47 

Linon ; see White Lawn . . . 104 

Lisle Thread 47 

List ; see Selvedge 81 

Loading Worsted and Wool- 
lens 47 

Longcloth 47 

Long Ells (Woollen) 48 

Long Stick 48 

Loom State ; see Grey 39 

Louisine 48 

Lustre Dress Fabrics 48 

Lustre Orleans ; see Orleans... 57 

M. 



Maco ... 


... 49 


Madapolams 


... 49 


Madras 


... 49 


Madras Gingham 


... 49 


Madras Handkerchiefs ... 


... 49 



Make ; see Reed and Pick ... 71 

Maline 49 

Market Descriptions of Stand- 
ard Cloth 50 

Marl 50 

Marquisette 50 

Matelasse 50 

Matt Weave ... 50 

Medium Cloth (Woollen) ' ... 50 

Melange 50 

Melanges (Yarns); see Coloured 

Woollen and Worsted Yarns 1 5 

Melton 51 

Mercerised Cotton 51 

Mercerising 51 

Merino 51 

Mesh Underwear 52 

Messaline 52 

Mexican; see T- Cloth 87 

Milled Finish ; see Schreiner 

Finish 80 

Millerayes ; see Grosgrain ... 40 

Mixed Cloths ; see Union Cloth 95 



Page. 

Mixed Dyeing ; see Cross-dyed 20 

Mixture Yarn 52 

Mixtures (Yarns); see Coloured 

Woollen and Worsted Yarns 15 

Mock Leno 52 

Mock Seam 52 

Mohair 52 

Mohair Beaver Plush 52 

Mohair Brilliantine 52 

Mohair Coney Seal 53 

Mohair Sicilian 53 

Moire 53 

Moleskin 53 

Mottles 53 

Moussehne de Sole 53 

Mule -twist Yarn 53 

Mull 54 

Mungo and Shoddy 54 

Muslin; see White Muslin ...105 

N. 

Nainsook 54 

Nankeen 55 

Nankeen; see Galatea 38 

Nankeen, Chinese Customs 

Definition of 56 

Native Cotton Cloth ; see 

Nankeen 55 

Native Cotton Cloth ; see Un- 

classed Native Cotton Cloth 

(China) 94 

Net Silk Yam ; see Silk Yarns 85 

Noils 57 

Nominal; see Actual i 

o. 



Ombre 


... 57 


Opera Hose 


... 57 


Organzine 


... 57 


Orleans 


... 57 


Ottoman 


... 57 


Outsize 


... 57 


Oxford 


... 58 


Oxford Shirting 


... 58 


P. 




Padded Back Linings ... 


... 58 


Pad-dyeing ... 


... 58 


Panne 


... 59 


Panung 


... 59 


Panama Canvas 


... 59 



12 



178 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Papoon 

Paramatta 

Pastel 

Pastille 

Peau de Cygne 

Peau de Sole 

Pekine, or Pekin Stripe? 

Pepperell Drill 

Pepperell Drill ; see Grey Drill 

Percale 

Percaline 

Persian Cord 

Pick 

Piece Goods 

Pile Fabrics 

Pile Weave ... 

Pique 

"P.K." 

Plain 

Plain Velvet (Cotton) 

Plain Velveteen (Cotton) 
Plain (or Homespun) Weave 

Plated 

Plisse 

Plumetis 

Plumety ; see Plumetis 

Plush 

Plush of Silk mixed with other 

Fibres 

Plush Velveteen 

Pointille 

Pompadour 

Poncho Cloth 

Pongee 

Pony Skin 

Poplin 

Print Cloth ; see Printers 

Printed 

Printed Balzarines 

Printed Calico 

Printed Cambrics 

Printed Chintzes 

Printed Cotton Drill ... 
Printed Cotton Italians... 
Printed Cotton Lastings 

Printed Crapes 

Printed Crimp Cloth ... 
Printed Furnitures 

Printed Lawns 

Printed Leno 

Printed Muslin 

Printed Oxford ; sue Oxford 

Shirtiii)^ 

I'rintcil l{ep.s 



Page. 

59 



59 
59 
59 
59 
59 
6o 
6o 

39 
6o 
6o 
6o 
6o 
6o 
6o 
6i 
6i 
6i 

62 

62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
63 
63 
63 

63 
63 
63 

63 
64 
64 
64 

64 
70 

65 
65 
65 
65 
66 
66 
66 
66 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
68 

5« 
68 



Page. 

Printed Sateens 68 

Printed Satinets 68 

Printed Sheetings 68 

Printed Shirtings 69 

Printed 7'-Cloth 69 

Printed Turkey Reds 69 

Printed Twills 69 

Printed Velvet (Cotton) ... 69 
Printed Velveteen (Cotton) ... 69 
Printed Warp ; see Warp Print 99 

Printers 70 

Pure Silk Plush 70 

Pure Silk Velvet 70 

R. 

Raised Back Cloths 70 

Raised Cotton Cloth 70 

Ramie, Rhea, China Grass ... 71 

Ratine 71 

Rattine ; .«ee Ratine 71 

Rattinet ; see Ratine 71 

Ray(^ 71 

Reed and Pick 71 

Regatta Twill ; see Galatea ... 38 
Regular Twill; see Twill Weave 93 

Rembrandt Rib 72 

Remnant; see Fen ts 34 

Rep 72 

Resist or Reserve Printing ... 72 

Reversible Cretonnes 72 

Rhea; see Ramie 71 

Rib 73 

Rib Crape Effect 73 

Richelieu Rib 73 

Right and Wrong Side of 

Fabrics 73 

Ring-spun Yarn 73 

Robes 74 

Russian Cloth (Woollen) ...74 
Russian Prints 74 



s. 

Samples and their Clu 

tion 

Sateens 

Satin 

Satin Drill 

Satin Weave 

Satinet, or Satinette 
Satin faced Velvet; see I 
Scheriner Finish ... 
Scribbled 



ifica- 

... 74 

... 79 

... 79 

... 80 

... 80 

... 80 

aniie 59 

... 80 

... 81 



INDEX. 



179 



Page. 
Seamless 81 

Seamless Bags 81 

Seersucker ; see Crinkle, or 

Seersucker 20 

Selvedge 81 

Serge (Cotton) 82 

Sett ; see Reed and Pick ... 71 
Sewing Thread ; see I'hread... 90 

Shadow Cretonne 82 

Shantung 82 

Sheeting 82 

Sheetings, American ; see 

American Sheetings 2 

Sheetings, Dyed ; see Dyed 

Sheetings 31 

Sheetings, Grey ; see Grey 

Sheeting 39 

Sheetings, White ; see White 

Sheetings 105 

Shirtings 83 

Shirtings, Dyed ; se,e Dyed 

Shirtings 31 

Shirtings, Grey ; see Grey 

Shirting 40 

Shirtings, White ; see White 

Shirtings 105 

Short Stick 83 

Shot 83 

Shot Silks; see Glace 38 

Sicilienne 83 

Sifting Cloth ; see Etamine ... 33 

Silence Cloth 83 

Silesia 83 

Silk Beaver 83 

Silk Gingham 84 

Silk Mull 84 

Silk Plush ; see Pure SilkPlush 70 

Silk Pongee 84 

Silk Seal (Cotton Back) ...84 
Silk Velvet; see Pure Silk 

Velvet 70 

Silk Yarns 85 

Silver Seal; see Mohair Coney 

Seal 53 

Singles ; see Yarn, Cotton, 

Grey or Bleached 1 1 1 

Sliver 85 

Soft Waste ; see Waste and 

Flocks 100 

Spanish Stripes, Cotton ... 86 
Spanish Stripes, Woollen ... 86 
Spanish Stripes, Wool and 

Cotton 86 

SpUtFoot 86 



Page. 

Sponge Cloth 86 

Spool Cotton ; see 'I hread ... 90 

Spun Silk 86 

Spun-silk Yarns ; see Silk 

Yarns 85 

Standard Cloth ; see Market 

Descriptions of Standard 

Cloth so 

Staples 87 

Stock -dyed ; see Ticks, or 

Ticking 91 

Striped ; see Raye 71 

Surah 87 

Swansdown 87 

Swiss Embroidery 87 

Swiss Mull; see Mull 54 

Swivel Figures 87 

T. 

Tabby; see Watering 100 

Tabby Plush ; see Cotton Plush 1 7 
Table Felting ; see Silence 

Cloth 83 

Tapestry 87 

T-Cloth 87 

T-Cloths, Dyed; see Dyed 

T-Cloths 32 

jP-Cloths, Grey ; see Grey 

2'-Cloths 40 

Teasels, or Teazels 88 

Terry Cloth 88 

Tests by Burning 88 

Test for Artificial Silk 88 

Tests for Linen 89 

Test for Mercerised Cotton ... 89 

Tests for Silk 90 

Test for Wool .90 

Textile Fibres 90 

Thickness of Woollen Cloths ; 

see Weight and Thickness 

of Woollen Cloths 102 

Thickset 90 

Thread 90 

Three-quarter Hose 91 

Ticks, or Ticking 91 

Tire Cloth 91 

Tram 92 

Trunk Length 92 

Tubular Cloth 92 

Tucks; see Plisse 62 

Tulle 92 

Turkey Eeds, Dyed Eeal ; see 

Dyed Eeal Turkey Reds ... 30 



i8o 



PIECE GOODS MANUAL. 



Turkish Towelling... 
Tussore, or Tussah . . 

Tweed 

Twill Weave 

Twin Needle 

Twists ; see Coloured Woollen 
and Worsted Yarns 



Page. 
92 



92 
92 

93 
94 

15 



u. 



Cotton 



Unclassed Native 

Cloth (China) 94 

Union Broadcloth 95 

Union Cloth 95 

Union Flannel ; see Woollen 

and Cotton Flannel 108 

Union Yarns 96 

U-Pile ; see Pile Weave ... 61 



V. 

Velour 

Velveret ; see Velveteen 

Velvet 

Velvet (Cotton), Printed ; see 

Printed Velvet (Cotton) 

Velvet Finish 

Velvet of Silk mi.xed with 

other Fibres 
Velveteen 
Venetian Coverts ; see Covert 
Venetians 
Venetians, White ; see White 

Venetians 
Vesting . . . 
Victoria Lawn ; see W hite 

Lawn . 
Vigogne . 
Vigoreux. 
Viyella . 
Voile . 



96 

97 
96 

69 

96 

97 

97 
18 

97 

106 

97 

104 



w. 



Wadding Pick 
Wale ... 
Warp ... 
Warp Pile 
Warp Print 
Warp Jiibs 
Warp Sateen 
Warp Welt .. 



98 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Page. 

Warp-faced Cloth 109 

Waste and Condenser Wefts 100 

Waste and Flocks 100 

Waste and Spun Silk Yarns 
see Silk Yarns 

Waste Cloths 

Waste Sheeting ; see Grey- 
Sheeting 

Watered ; see Watering 

Watering 

Weaving 

Web 

Weft 

Weft Pile 

Weft Ribs ... 

Weft Sateen 

Weft-faced Cloth 

Weight and Thickness of 
Woollen Cloths 

Weighting 

Welt 

Wether Wool ; see Wool . . 

Whip Thread 

Whipcord 

White 

White Brocades 

White Cambric 

White Drills, or Drillmg .. 

White Goods 

White Irishes 

White Italian 

White Jean 

White Lawn 

White Mercerised Sateen 
see White Italian 

White Mushn 

White Sheetings 

White Shirtings 

White Spotted Shirtings . . 

White Striped Shirtings .. 

White T-Cloth 

White Venetians 

Widow's Lawn 

Width 

Window Holland 

Wolsey 

Wool 

Wool, Alpacii ; see Alpaca 
Wool 

Wool-dyed 

Woollen 

Woollen and Cotton Flannel 108 

Woollen and Cotton Mixtures 108 

Woollen Fabric 108 



INDEX. 



I8l 



Woollen Flannel ; see Flannel 
(Woollen) 

Woollen Lastings, Craped 

Woollen Lastings, Figured 

Woollen Lastings, Plai 

Woollen Yarn 

Worsted Diagonal 

Worsted Lastings 

Worsted Yarn 

W-Pile 

Wright's Underwear, Imita 
tion 



Page. 



35 
1 08 
109 
109 
109 
1 10 
no 
no 
no 

ni 



Y. 

~ Patje. 
Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleach- 
ed ni 

Yarn-dyed ni 



z. 



Zephyrs 
Zibeline 



III 
ni 



H^ 



^1^ 



SOUTHEASTERN MASSACHUSETTS UNIVERSITY 

TS1449.B6 
Piece goods manual 



3 Z']E^ DDD7M ^SS H 



T3 1449 .B6 
Blanco, f-^- ^- 
Piece goods manual 



,'i.-Cr:!iT;'fi<t>il':V.W,viA iv;< \ ■,'': 



ji'<y'-i''':.:-A'^''.^MiPS: 



1ty'M'\,'%'^i'^^i\-^'%%K'A'