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'5 7^/4 






Reproducted by 

in the 
U.S. of America 

Micro Photo Division 
Bell & Howell Company 
Cleveland 12, Ohio 


* w Tut- 

-'I Ml? liii** 





Tbk ori^pnal purpose of the Editor on undertaking the present 
Tersion of the Foe Koue Ki» was to famish the text of the 
Chinese Author with only so much of the commentaiy as was 
indispensibfe for its easy comprehension. But on reconsidering 
the suhject, and reflectuig how greatly the value of the work 
would be inqpaired by the contemplated omissions, he determined 
to publish the notes of the learned French Editors not only entire, 
but with such additions and corrections as the critical labours of 
Wilson, Lassen, and others, as well as his own research, should 
enable him to supply. The reader will find accordingly, that 
with the escoeption of a slight attempt at condensation in the earlier 
chapters, and a very few unimportant omissions elsewhere, the 
whole of the notes of MM. Remusat, Klaproth, and Landresse . 
hare been preserved ; while the additional matter amounts to not 
less than fifty or sixty pages. 

This great extennon of his original pUn compels the Editor to 
lesenre for the present an introductoiy chapter on Buddhism for 
which ha had collected ample materials. He trusts however that 
the work in its present state will be found useful to the antiqua* 
rian, and iy>t devoid of interest to the general reader. His chief 
object was to promote and assist the labours of such asare engaged 
j K in exploring the ancient monuments of India, to many of whom 
the original edition is not easily accessible ; and he cannot avoid 
remarking how greatly the same object might be promoted could 
we obtain through the instrumentality of our oountiymen in China 
vmioiia of other Chine^ authors who treat of the histoiy and 
geography of India ; and eq^ceiaUy of sodb as» Uke Fa hian, ] 





thmii^ Soang yim and HoeT ling^ hxn aetoallj Tisitcd diis 
coantrf and iceorded the refolts of their traTds. Bndk wofka 
are doahdeaa proeundile with the utmost fkeilitjr in creij part of 
China, and their transhtion into English might be effected with 
the same ease at any of our Anglo-Chinese Schoobor Colleges, as 
thdit of a Persian or Urdu Manuscript in Calcutta. 

The Editor regrets that many typographical errors haje escaped 
correction as the sheets passed through the press. These are for 
the most part of no great importance ; but there are a* few in the 
subjoined list which the Reader is requested to correct with hi^ 
pen. •/ 


• 1 



J... . 





1 i 

• 1,1 , 







































10, line 30, for •' Note 22,*' read ** XoU 19.** 
1 If/or of King read of the King, 
24,/or like M fMid like. 

9, far Youfeou tki read Yanfeou thL 
27$ for Long (Agama) read Loag Agamm. 
2^9 for Fou lam no, read Fou Ira nm. 
10, for tourt read towers. 
16y/or (Siaa read JUa. 

S,for thet tribe read the tribe. 

5, for Aiok» read Ajatasatnu 
14, for then read theio. 
lasi ii»e bai one, for aottth«wett rciii eonlh eiet^ 

4,/or edentification read ideatififatiOM. 
deiefooi aoie^ 
first BoCcb/or 6 miles read 16 miles. 
d5b/or a05 B. C. rMMT 280 B. C. 

4,/r so«tli*wcst read so«tfa*CMt. 








Departure from Cbliang'AB.— Hie Loung BIoBDUiiifl.<»Wetteni Tfiii«<— > 
Soeth Uaii.— North Lian.— Than hoiung.— The Desert of Sand. 

Fa HIAN,' when in the olden time at Chhang^an,' was dis- 
tressed to observe the Precepts and the Theological Works' on 
the point of being lost, and already disfigured hj lacnnse. For 
this reason, in the second jear Houng ski,* distinguished by 
the cyclical characters Ki keu, he set forth with Hoel kin^p 
Tao ehimg^ Hoel ying^ Ho^ wei^ and sundry others,* to search in 
India for the Laws and the Precepts of Religion. 

They departed from Chhang'an, and having crossed the 
Loiiiig* Mountains, arrived at the kingdom of Ekian Jtomei,'' 
where they sojourned. This sojourn* ended, they proceeded on- 
ward, and arrived at the kingdom of Neou than.^ They^iass* 
ed the mountains Tang leou,'* and reached the military station 
of Ckang y." 

The country of CAang y was at that time the theatre of 
great disturbances, which rendered travelling impracticable. 
The king of CAang y, out of interest amd affection, retain* 
ed thie travdkrs, and proved himself their benefactor.** It 
was then that they fell in with CAi yoa, UoaUmn, Sei^ «A«o, 
Pmo ym, Seng IdngJ^ and several others. Delighted to find 



themtelres united to these bj identi^ of purpose^ tliej dwelt 
together; md when the term of their sojourn was eoine» they set 
forth onee more^ and arriTed at Thun houang. At this phee are » | 

Tast entrenchments which may extend 80 U from £a!^ to West, 
and 40 U from North to South. They halted Lt;«o one month and 
some days. Then Fa hian and fire others set out again in the 
suite of sundry amhassadors separating from Pao yuk and his 
companions. The Goremor of Thun houang^^^ Li kao, furnished 
them with the necessary means of crossing the Rirer of Sand/* 

There are Evil Spirits'* in this River of Sand, and such 
scorching winds, that whoso encountereth the.n 'lies, and none 
e9cape. Neither birds are seen in the air, nor quadrupeds on :| 

the ground. On every side as for as the eye can reach, if you . "4 
seek for the proper place to cross, there is no other mark to I 

distinguish it than the skeletons of those who have perished | 

there ; these alone serve to indicate the route ! I 

They travelled there seventeen days, and the distance pass« | 

ed ere they reached the kingdom of Shen shen may be estimated } 

at 1500 li. *' I 


(1) Skp fa kUm t that U^ " Maiiifettation of the Lav of Shy" (Sakja) ; j 
a name adopted inecncipllanee with the practice of Cbineie Buddhista, who, i 
upon entering c rrligioua career, laj aside their family name, and, in token ,--i 
of renewed life, adopt another of moral or religions flignifie^nee.* Fm Ai«» it ; 
the abridged form of hit name generally employed by onr piVsnm, who in J 
the course of his nsrratwe iuTariably speaks of himself in the third person. R. j 

(2) Ckhang'oA (ptrpttual r^j^ott) ; the name of the pro? iuce now known _^ 
by that of Si* an, in Shen tt.-^R. ^^ 

(3) 7*Ae PrteepU and the Theological Worke. — In the original XtM, * ; 
Ttang Hi signifies precepts ; Uang, a collection. The body of the theologi« 

ral works is in genen^l called Swag tsang, the three collections, or rather !1 

the three receptaeUt (in Sanscrit the three Pilaka) ; and this cipression ^ 

applies eqaally to the doctrine set forth in them. The three parU of this J 

triple collection are the King, or sacred books, the Preeepte^ and the /)•#• y 

tounee (Lam) ; in Sanscrit Sutrm, Vindya, Abhidharma,f^K, n 

• M^«iiMeii(A0iiiigMiM»;bookCCXXVI.page4etseq. 

t Fan y ming i ; book IV. ■ j 


For a flOBimary of die contents of the greit eoUeetion of Btnddhm Theo« 
logy here cdiBRed to, we are indehted to the Ute M. dome de Korue, 
whoee eneljieeof the AA-^ynr were pvbliehed in the Joonalof the AtUlie 
Sedety, VoL I. pp. 1 end S74, endm the Ariatic Rcseerchee, Vol. XX. The 
Tibetan worde Kak^gpmr (H'qQ QgX hkak-h^ywr), mgnifj • translation 
of commandment,* these works betnf versions of Indian originals most 
likdj compiled in the first insUnce in Pali or Magadhi, bat Tery soon after 
systenaatised and perpetuated in Sanscrit, the classical langnage of all Indian 
theology. (See Hodgson, Jonm. As. Soc. Vol. VI. p. 682.) This great 
compilation, consisting of a hundred Tolnmes, was translated into Tibetan 
betwixt the serenth and the thirteenth centuries of our era, but principally 
daring the ninth. It consists of seren grand di? isions, which are indeed so 
many distinct works ; namely, Is^— Dm/ vd (Sans. Fiffeye), " Discipline,'* 
In 13 Yolames. 2d — Sker ek*kiu (Sans. PraJny^pAramiid)^ "Transcen*. 
denUl wisdom," in 21 Vols. 3d— Pile/ ek'kem (Smbb. BuddhM'tmim Samga)^ 
•• Bauddha community," hi 6 Vols. 4th^Dkon s/ks (Sans. JKe/naAn/e), 
<* Gems heaped up," fai 6 Vols. 5th— 2lo-«f/ (Sans. SM/ren/e), '• Aphorisms 
or tracts," in 30 Vols. Cih^Ngimg-iit (Sans. iS^rodne), " DeliYeranoe from 
pain," fai 2 Vols. 7th— ^y«l (Sans. 7hii/re), ** Mysticsl doctrine or charms," 
in 22 Vob. 

The entire collection is sometimes spoken of under the title of D^-no/^ 
turn (Ssns. Tri pitaka)^ the *' three t essds or repositories ;" namely, 1st, 
/hi/ M (Sans. Vinaya), treating principally of education or discipline ; 2d, 
D9 (Sans. Sutra)^ the fundamental principles or aphorisms of the Bauddha 
laith ; and 3d, d, ilo#-»on-/Ni (Sans. Ahhidkarma)^ the Discourses. 

We learn from the text of the rineyo, as well as firom other sources, that 
these works were, in the first instance, compiled by the immediate disciples 
of S^a, under whose authority the " first convocation on religion" wis' 
held at Riyagriha shortly after the dendse of Buddha, to fix and perpetaate 
the doctrine of the fidth as orally propounded by its author. (As. Res. 
Vol. XX. p. 42.) The Ahkidktamm was compiled on this occasion by 
Kdfyapa; the So/r*, by Ananda; and the Fineye, by UpdlS. In the 
oowse of a hundred years from the date of this conYoeatioD, so many here- 
sies and schisms hsd arisen among the priesthood, especially at Vaisali, 
that it was deemed necessary to assemble another Conndl in the reign 
of Asoka. to determine the canon of Scriptnre once more. At this •« second 
convocation" aeren hundred priests assisted; and the edition prodneed 
under their anspioei was detignated ^JimAffmB^frng dafptur-BtJ^d^fm ; 
''that hoe been very dearly cxpnased by the aeven hnndrad.** (Ceoesa 
da Kfirik Afl. Bm. VoL XX. pb M.) Lsetly, about im 






of KaaUU (Ibid, f. S97.) for « fwtlMr mWoa of IkM leriplsM. Il 
wai ftwB tUt Mrd editifiBt aoeoidiBg to MM. BwMitf and I^^ 
TibeCaavtniMwaimadfl. JHiv^dueihmMrMiii^irt^iuBwiikfnmH^Hm, 
p. ft79 s and Zdiwekriftjmr di§ KuUe im MvrfmhmdM, VoL IIL p, lft7.) 

la the PaU Bnildliirtiaa AmuJf the tiniM aod drauBttnon of tlwM g 

eonvoeatioas ara dUrerently atated. Sae Ttamov, J. A. 8. ToL VI. 
' p. 50S ; and the 3d and tvbaeqaeiit diapten of tlie iUiMmuap ia which 
an faitcfeitiBg aeeonat ia givea of the hereiiea that led to these Widona of 

For fertiier infonnatioa oa this aabject, the cwiooa reader ia referred to 
the worka abo? e qiioCed« and to the ample illaitratioa afforded ia the Mb* 
aeqveat notea of the pretent Yolnme.— J. W. L. 

(4) Boung ff At.— The name ^plied to the years of the reiga of Tm Aen f . 
a prince of the later Tktim djnastjr« who reigned in 8Mem H towards the end 
of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth eentorj.* 11ie/r«/ year Hnm§ 
«At corresponds with the cyclical year Ki Aot , (399 A. D.) There ia thna | 
a contradietion in the narrative of Fa hian in making the cyclical year Ki I 
Am and the second year Hommg 9ki th date of hia depa^nre. If thia A 
arise not from a mere error of the text, the snpposition is not' improbable [1 
that the petty princea of Tibetan origia, who ia those times of troahle and | I 
distraction reigned oa the firoatiers of the empire« were aot very careful of i J 
observiag the aidties of the Clmiese calendar, aad acted the' commence* 1 1 
Bieat of the poliHeal year oa the first day of the ctlrottoattMl year. Fa f i 
hiaa might thaa leaYC CkUmg'm towarda the dose of A. D. 399, whea the ' \ 
aame of the years Hating mJU had been re*adjasted, althongh th^ miglit still ^ 
reckoa the cyclical year JTi Jk4u.—R« . ^ 

(5) ^oet kingf Too tkimg, Boa gingt Hoti wei and iunfrg e/Aew; > 
—It was the commoa practice of Bnddhist prieita to assodate theoMdiea ia 1 J 
compaaies for the performaace of pilgrinugea from towa to to^, aad from ^i 
temple to temple ; from India to China, and from China to India. Th. foar ^^''^ 
names here redted are adoptire ones of rdigioas dgnificance i Noti king^ ^m 
' Splendour of Intelligence ;' 7m jAim^, ' Ornament of the Doctrine ;' 
Moei giug^ * Eminent Perspicacity.'— R. 

(6) Tke Lomng lfoim/aiii«.— These hills are ntuated in the western part 
of Skemrit N. W. of the district of TAftVea, andeast of the riter Tknmg. 
They are distinguished u the grieat and the little Lotmg* la recent Chi- 
nese maps this name is found in latitode 35® N. and 10® W. from Pekin.— R. 

(7) Tki Kingdom qf Khwn koutif was ntituatcd beyond the Loung 

• UUloire dn Hum ; VoL I. p. Ifi2. 




MoaoUin. Khmu tomei it the naoie of a petty prince of the race of the 
Sian pi, appertaining to the dynasty of the western Tksiu or of Loun^ at, 
who reigned in the western parU of SAm ti, at the end of the fourth and 
the beginning of the fifth century.* KAiau kouei ascended the throne A. D. 
388.— R. i 

(8) S(fj9um f in the text kia tto, to $tay in nmmer g bat the expression 

must be taken in a more general sense, aa a halt or temporary rest merely^ | 

and not as a summer sojourn. The expression oocuri frequently in Fa hian 

with this import. — R. ; 

(9) TMe kingdom 9/ JVran than. — ^This too, ia the name of a prince and 
not of a country.f Neou ikon ascended the throne of Ho at, to the west of 
the Yellow river, ao late as the year /in yin of the Cyde (A. D. 402) s which 
would lead ua to infer that Fa hiin and his companions had met with great 
detention in advancing even this short distance upon their journey. — R. 

(10) As Fa hian proceeded from Si ning to JTan eileoa, he must neces- 
sarily haTe crossed the great chain of mountains covered with perpetual 
anow, which separates the districts of Kan cheou and Liang cheou from the 
great valley of the river called Ov/an mwiran by the Mongols, and Hounug 
•iomi or To thnung ho by the Chinese. This lof^y chain waa anciently called 
Kki iian »hon. At present its most elevated summit, which consists of a 
colossal glacier, b named in Tibetan by the neighbouring Mongols, Amigt 
fong gmr oolo, or the ** graadfuther's mountain, white with snow."— Kl. 

(11) Chang y, hodie Kan cheou, was, at the period of Fa hian's transit, 
under the dominion of the dynasty of the northern ZJong, The disturb- 
ance to which Fa hian alludes, and which for a time prevented hb progress, 
arose from the incesaan wars waged by these petty states against each other, 
which eventually led to their extinction. The kingbf Kaii cheou then reiguiiig 
was either ToMaii mVi, who died in A. D. 401, or his successor Jdemg 
oan, who succeeded in A. D. 402. ^ It ia a matter of regret that Fa hian 
does not mention his benefactor's name, which would have fixed the date 
of his passage through Kan cheou with precision.— R. 

(12) Benrfaeior* — In the originnl text ion yoaet, a Chinese word of San- 
scrit origin, such as the Buddhists frequently introduce. Tom or Ian nm 
(Sant, dAuiJ, alma, or gifta preacnted with a reli^ioua feeling, one of the ten 
means of salvation (pAramiu) ; gomoi, a Chinese syllable signiljring to aur* 
mount, to pass over or beyond ; implying ** thai ha who pnctaoea be n eficcn co, 
passes the sea of poverty."§^R. 

• Hiiimrodo* Hunt ; Vol. 1. p. 20a Li l«i iki «m ; book XLIV. p. 18 v. 
t Called J., iknn by Deguigoeo, //iil. dttiimHt; XoL L p. 196. Uu'iki 
SM;bookXUV.p.ia • 

I H,$UHrodoiUiuu:ytiL1.9.m. 

i bmn umngfomni kok XXXllL p.S6 v. «t alibi. 

B 3 

6 PILGRI)IA6S or FA BfAlf. 

(13) GUfmi. HtH Mm, Se»§»km9. Pmm jrmi. «M/M«f «i( •/A«rvr'«Q 
■MMt of raligiou lifnUicuicv m befofVt nd MMninf tiM MtjM^ of Pirn- 
denee t— llie Rcmt? • of PenpioMity s— Hm Ubim of Um Mooks ; ibe Plrod* 
ow (dif iat) Ckmdt { Um Splendor of tiie CIcrgy.^-lL 

(14) Tkum kouMmgr-^% plaee of great miliUiy importaaoe frooi the tince 
of the Hm to thoee of tbe Tkan^ dynacty. Under tiM fifo pcttj dynMtiea 
which flttceeeded the TAei^, it bore the name of Ska eAcoii, or the 7\Hni ^ 
8and9, whidi it retained tUl the timet of the Ming dynaatj. The prcacnt 
town of Ska €h€9u ia litnated ftre or atx leagnea more eaaterly* on^tlie right * 
hank of the nver SirgMzin foi.^Kl. -^ 

U ktn took thia kingdom from the petty dynasty of the Sarikprm iJamf^ 
and ett»bli*hed an independent principality, under the name of tho WtMtem 
JJanp, assuming the title, not of king, hat simply of prince (Kouii|).^R. 

(15) Tk€ Rher of Sand ;--in the text Ska Ae. The deseriptii|ja giTcu by 
ear traveller of tbe Great Desert is very correct, and eoincidea ^^scly with 
that of Marco Polo, except that Fa hian ezaggentca its extent, which cannot 
he more, betwixt fika tht^m and the Lake of Lab, than 110 leagues, or 1100 
lit instead of 1500. Possibly, however, the establishments visited by the J 
pilgrims were not in those days immediately on the Lake of Lob, but more . ;i 
to the westward, on the riven of Khaidon and Yarkand daria.-— !(• I | 

(16) Eril 5/nWI«.-— Not less credulous on this subject waa Marco Polo, { I 
who records and adopts the same superstition. *' It is asserted aa a well k 1 
known fkct, sava he, that this desert ia the abode of eril spirits, whibh amuae lA 
fravellera to their destruction with most extraordlnarj illusions, if during |.j 
the da? time any persons remain behind on the road, whf ther overtaken by i a 
s1#ep, or detained hj their natural occasions, until the caravan has passed a ' tl 
hill, or is no longer in sight, they unexpectedly hear thf mselves called by In 
thHr names in a tone of voice to which they are accustomed ; supposing the '1 
call to proceed from their companions, they are led away by it from the M 
direct road, and not knowing in wh»t direction to advance, are left to perish. 
* * <s <s Marvellous indeed and almost paning btUrf are the stories of 
these spirits of the desert, which are said at times to fill the air with tbe 
sounds of all kinds of musical instruments, and also of drums, tknd of the 
cU«h of arms, obliging the travellers to close their line of eiarcb and to pro« ^^ J 
ceed ii! more compact order.*' 3farsden*s Marea Pe/o, f 159. It is not 
improbable after all that these sounds may really exist, and be r^ferrible to 
natural rau«es. See Sir A. Bumes, on the Reg Rawdn, J. A. S. Vol. VII. 
p 324.— J. W. L. 




The Kingdom of Shot tbeii. — On lum. — Km cbhaog. 

The kiDgdom of Shen then* is a rugged and very unequal 
countiy. Its soil is poor and sterile. The manners of iu iuha« 
bitants and their dress are coarse, and simiUr to those of the 
land of Han.* The only difference consbts in the use of felt 
and stuffs. 

The king of this country honoreth the Law.' There may be 
in his dominions some four thousand ecclesisstics. all deToted to 
the study of the les9 iratulaiion.^ The laity* in all these 
kingdoms, as well as the S&a aien»* all observe the Law of 
India,* with differences partaking more or less of coarseness or 
of refinement. 

Henceforward, all the kingdoms that yon traverse in jour- 
neying towards the west, resemble this iu a greater or less de- 
I gree, save that each hath its peculiar barbarous tongue ;' but all 
j the clergy apply themselves to the study of the books of India 
and the language of India.* 

Fahian and the rest sojourned here one month and some days, 
then setting forth agam, and travelling fifteen days in a north- 
westerly direction, they reached the kingdom of On i.** The 
ecclesiastics of the kingdom of Ou i are also about four 
thousand in number, and all of the less traHslaiion. They are, 
as to the Law, exact and well ordered. The Sha mem of the 
land ofThsin'* who arrive in this country are not prepared for 
the customs of these ecclesiastics. Fa hian, being provided with 
a passport, proceeded to the encampment of Kwnff sum, who 
then reigned, and who detained him two months and some days. 
He then retiumed to FSao ynn and the rest. They all found that 
the inhabitants of the kingdom Ou i, were by do means intent 
upon the practice of the rites and of justice, and evinced but 


small hospitolitj to strangers. For thu reason CAi jr««» JSToei 
ii«ii, and JTbel wei, returned straightway to tbe country of Kmo 
€hhmmff,^inih the purpose of soliciting assistance for (heir jonr- 
nej. Fa hian and the othershad obtained a patent; XamM^wm 
had famished them with profisions; and thcj were thus in 
condition to set out at once» and advance in a south-westerly 

The country which they trarerted is desert and uninhabited. 
The difficulty of crossing tbe rivers was extreme. Nothing in 
the world can be compared with tbe fatigue they had to endure. 
AAer a journey of one month and fixe days they succeeded in 
reaching Yu Man. 


J3 . (1) Tke Uugdpm iff SAem #il<».— This toantrj, at ftnt naned Lt9U itat, 

U situated in tlM neiglabowrliood of the Laka of Lob : It is aandy and acerile, 

i and iu govcnuncnt never acquired much iafluenee. The name of l^m Imn 

^ ^ ^ was changed for that of SUm §km in tbe first eentory before Christ. (See 

y '^ Degnignes, Hittohn de§ Ifrnt, torn. II. p. x.) R. 

(2) Tke Lamd ^ Umm s that is. Chins ; so calkd alter the djn.i«tj of 
llan, the remembrance of whoM pctrer is influential to tliis daj. A Chinese 
is still called Han Jim, and the Chinese language Han <m, although the /fen 
have ceased to reign these sixteen hundred jears. R. 

(3) TJk€ Law, i. e. the law of Foe, Buddhism. 

(4) Fbttr IkftUMOHd ece/mat/ic« a// ^ the /cm frmj|e/ien.— The ccclesi« 
tics, or monks, are here d e n o m i nated bj the term us»«llj applied to the 
BuddUist priests, ^<»f » In Sanscrit ^M^e (united, joined by a common 

Tbe Sanpn are distinguished according to their moral characteristics, 
into four orders : 1st, 7*Aose ttho meeotnplisk jtiktict, that is the Buddhaa 






the/*oil«;yM/Aeil (llunorablcsofthe Age) the Botlhisattwat, thePraiyrka ^^ 
Buddlias, the Sbrawakas, &e. whose virtue transcends the hiw iteclf, snd 
who sutmonnting every obstacle accomplith their own deliverance (mukti). 
2nd, Tbe erifinary Sangat ^f ike age: that is, men uhp shave tLeir 
beards and heads, who dress thenudvcs with the tiu %ha {^ kind of cspe 
worn by Buddhist priots) who embrace monastic life and its obligations, 
snd observe the precepts and the proliibitions of Buddha. Sdly, Tho 
dumh'9heep Sanga§, Va gamg aemgg those dull and stupid characters who are 
• Jawit.Aiimi. VoL VII. p. 267. 



unab]9 to comprehend the dbtinetiott betwixt the oommUsion tnd the non- 
comniistioa of the (ondaniental fins, (ninrder, tlielt, foniication, lying) and 
who when gnilty of crimes of less enormitj nske no show of repentance. 
4th» and last. The thamtlen Smrngn^ who having embraced monastic Uie» 
nnsempnionslj infringe the precepts and obserranoes enjoined npon them, 
and devoid of all shame and chastity, are indifferent even to the bitter 
fmits of their wickedness in ages to come.* 

The Istff frtnt/o/m and the grtai trmufmiiom are expressions of such 
frequent reevrenoe in the narrative of Fa hian» that it is well to explain j 

tlieir import once for all. T« ekinft in Chinese, means tlie great re* j- 

rolmiimt s Sima eking , the iiiiie retoMivm. Cking signifies it-anilutiom, *■ N j 

p€uttt§€/rom one piaet to toMther^ revoMion, eireum/erenet s and also ;') 

the metfivm of transport, as a ecr, or ridimg Morse. Its exact Sanscrit j 

equivalent is fciM, the significations of whtdh are identical-f Bat each 
of these acquires, with reference to the doctrines of Buddhism, a character- 


istic and peculiar significance. Thej are mjitical expressions indicating ^ 

that influence which the individual soul can and should exercise upon itadf 
in order to effect its transference to a superior condition. As this action, 
or influence, and its results are of different kinds or dq^rees ; so they are dis« f 

.inpdd^l m» tiM. th.^, T »>,. pA^in Chin«. ««<.,. i. M<»c»l ^^ 

Mgum) ; and aeeording as his efforts are directed to the attainment of great- 
er or less perfection, the Sanga betongs to the Irse, tho meen, or the grnti 

Ttie veil jcif/vm, which is eommon to all the irauMiontt is the contempIa« 
tiun of the fomrrtolitim^ namely, pein, rtumiont death, and theifoc/rtae ;t 
and that of the tw^ee eemeetematiotu.i Bjr this means man is transported 
beyond the boundarj of the three worids and the circle of birth and death. || 
Strictly speaking, there is but one translation, that of Buddha, the practice 
of which is enjoined upon all living beiQgs, that thej may escape from the 
troablrd ocean of birth and death and land on the ether ehere, namely, that 
of the mheotmie.^ Buddha would at oneo have spread abroad the knowledge 
of the Law, and taught oMnUnd the entA^msleflon; but he found it iadis- 
pcasiUeto adapt hit instractioos to the various (acuities of those who receive 
them, and hence arose the differsnt Kle«v, oir means of transport. We may 
inthe fira place disHnguish the tianslattoi of dUeiptee or •mttlen, (Shimg 

* Ti Casjig s&i /mm Irie^, Book V. 
t Wilson% Seas. l>fS&M. h. V. 
/'^^JR' ^'*'^^'^''^'^'^*^ ^^vla^^viiB ••vtralwaya. See 

i MUi XXII. 
f See KmweemJemru.AumL Vol. VILp.29L 
I am M« &jaf Jin 2 *^— "^ * 



Ma / ia 8aBwrit.SliriTtk«), and that of ^lifted umd€nimMtf^(rmmm kUt 
ia SaMcrtt, PrmfyOm BmMka.yf To tlwM miut br added a tiura» that of tha 
B9dkUmitwt»9 who are baioga far asore nearly approo^inf |e abaohrti 
pcrfBction. Agaist there it another claaiUleation nndar fira dUTerant headi, 
to wit ; 1 tt. tha tranilation of Jfen / 2nd, that of GodSv ; 3rd, tjkaC of 8kri. 
traiat.or ht^rmn; 4th,that of Pmljreila Iln<f4»af»ordi8tneti^itdlisenoeas 
&th, that of BodAi^liwM ;t or a Uttia differently, let. tha baa r^io, or 
tnuuUtion of men and Goda s 2nd, that of tha 8Armwka» ;'^3rd, that of 
the Pratyeim Bmddha$ ; 4th, that of Boikitatiwmt ; 5th, that of Bmddkn 
or the grcmt tnmiliiiiQU, Makm YiHU,% Tha triple diriaion howcter ia tha 
niost nsoal and that which moat frequently oocura in ordinary Boddhitt 

It ia to the Trj |raaa that the donhle metaphor ia applied of tha ikrtt ttrt 
and the thrtt tmimaU awimming a riTer. Hie ear ia to be taken here aa 
the emblem of that whidk mdramees hp raaa/rta/, or that whiefa servea aa a 
f ehtde ; and the idea ia eonneeted with that attached to JUia, and the mcana 
by which man may eaeape from the world, and enter upon ntrMfiaa. To the 
III at car ia yoked a thetp^ an animal whiefa in flight netcr Ipoka back to 
otisenre whether it be fuUoired by the reat of the fluek. And ^na it repre* 
sent a the Shriwakatt a elasa of men who eeek to eaeape from the three 
world* by the obserration of the four realitiea ; bnt who occnpied lolely with 
their own aalvation, pay no regard to that of other men. The aecond car ia 
drawn by detr ; aniuiali which can look back npon the herd that follow 
them. Thia ia typical of the Prai^eia Buddhoi, who, by their knowledge 
of the twelve NiddnaSf}^ effect their own emancipation from the circle of the 
three worlds, and at the aame time neglect not the aalta-'ion of other men. 
Tlie third car ia drawn by an cur, which typiflea the Bot?Ai<a//iM» of tlie 
doctrine of the three PiiakoM, (see note^. Chap. XVI ) #ho praetiea the 
•iz means of salvation, and aeek the emancipation of othara Without regard 
to themselves, aa the ox endurca with patience whatever bartben ia impoaed 
npon him.5 

Tha three animala awimming a river, are the ttephmt, the Aorae, and the 
hare. The river ia emblematical of pmr§ rtasoms the three elaasca above 
noted, the Shr&vakaa. the Pratyeka Buddhaa, and the Bodhiaattwaa, 
equally emerge from the three worlda, and bear teatimony to pare 
reasoi ; but their facnltiea and their dignity vary in extent. Thoa 

* See NouvtoH Jourm. Atiat. Vol. VII. p. 2G0. 

t iha sf«« king tou ; book I. 71hia« toi iu km0 yi tsi eku ; book VII. p. 3. 

t I'm Iuh pan king »ou ; hook X\I1. p. 17. v. ^ 

j lioa yan, ki ekimg kiao i ; book XXlI. p. 16. 

:q tu ktfua king ,' book JX. 


when tn depliint, a hone, tnd m hare cross a river together, thej each 
sink to greater or less depths in the stream : the elepAani, teaching the 
bottom, resembles the BodhUattwa^ practising the six means of salvation, 
and benefitting all creatures by ten thousand Yirtnous actions ; suppressing 
the errors of sight and of thought, the eflects of custom and of passion, and 
making manifest the doctrine {bodhi). The Aerse sinking deep, but not reach- 
ing the bottom of the stream, is the Praiyekat who by the means aforesaid, 
suppresses the errors of sight and thought, as well as the effects of prejudice 
and passion, and manifests the nature of the tme tacuum without attaining to 
absolute purity. The third is the Aare, which floating on the surface of the 
stream without the power of penetrating deep, typifies the Shr6waka, who 
practises the four realities, and suppresses the errors of thought and sight, 
without being able to emancipate himself entirely from the influence of passion 
and prejudice.* 

A complete exposition of all thst is understood by the observdnces of 
these Tarious classes would be nothing short of a trestise of Bud« 
dhisBS, and would far exceed the limits of a note ; suflice it that these modes 
of tfwutuiion sre so many probationary steps by which men are led to a 
higher or a lower grade in the psychological hierarchy extending from 
inferior beings to the absolute. The Un tran»laHtm consists in the obser« 
▼ance of the precepts and the rites cf religion. The fire precepts and the 
ten rirtnes are the vekiculum of this trantUUiont by which men and Gods 
escape the four eri7 yrade§, namely, the condition of if sure, that of demons, 
that of brutes, and that of bell, remahiing still, bowcTer, in the whiripodi 
of transmigration. In the mean trauioHom three orders of persons effect 
their emancipation from the drde of the three worlds^ either by Us* 
truing to the oral instructions of Buddha (SAnfveAot), or in medita- 
ting upon individual vicissitudes «<nd the true roid of the soul {Pratyeka 
Bmddkat)^ or by the help of the ten means of 'salvation which draw all men 
along with them beyond the drde of the three worlds (AuMtte/fwot). 
Lastly, in the grtMi frmiflellon the understanding, arrived at its highest 
point of perfiKtion, eondaets all living beings to the eonditlon of Bnddha.t 
Explabod aeeordinf to Enropean notioni, the Uu imulatimi consists in 
morality and oxtemal religions obeemmco i the «Mn, in traditional er 
spontWMMM psydM>1ogiesl arrangoflsents ; and the fftnl irmulmiiou in an 
abstraee, raiBedy aad highly mystieal theology • 

• Tkimm Isi am him i, and Fe hmm kimmm «i, quoted in A§ San Umng /•mu; 
t Hm yea : the chapter upon Tie One B£9$UUi0m, quoted in the Sia tumg 

/■MiihMhkka^i& _ ,. _ 



12 nLOUMAOC.or tA hiam. 


It Mj b« itiiday eoMelfdi thtl BaddUrt Mtiou wo«14 att^a to kifhci 
or loww degvMiMi the IrsMlilfM aedo as their diepoa itio ae wight ho more 
or hm eootemplatiro, or their iatdleetoal oooditioa more or Icee reftaed. • 
Thoae to the aarth of the Hiaa^lajaii ruigo preferredt aceardiaf^to the 
Chincee, the Irst trmuhawm^ that ia BMnls and mytholagj. aa aaoet oaa. 

' mteBtwtththdmoBiadie and warlike habitat while the aofter peopk of the 
■oath, def oted to fpeailatiTe rererica mder the inflnenee of a moii genial 
climate, generally aapifcd to the higher atndj of the grt&t inuitUUimt^ 
and tonght lo propagate ita doctriaea amongit the neighbooring naCiont.* 
We that tee liow the BMmka of any mo n as te ry might detote themaeWes 
at option to the itndy of cither, and may eomprehend how the Bnddhitts dii • 
tinguiabed tlicir uered worka into those which contained the moat exalted 
and refined dogmas of their theology, and those of mere aMraltty and 
symbolical myths. Hence the nine kinds of Boolcs (^n/ra, G<y«, baikdp 
JiikoMmt Jmiak9, * Adbhmtmdkarmm^ Udmrn^ Vmiyulim, V^ikdrmm)^ were 
dtrided into two classes ; those appertaining to the freat and th-'^a to the 

. /cts trsnslation. Finally, thia eiplaiaa the distinction f agnely alluded to 
by prerions writers, of a popalar and an esoteric doctrine in Bnddhi^, both 
ettribnted to SIk ja Mnni bimse*f.t We shall hereafter hare oceano^ to re- 
cur to this snlject. R. 

(5) The lal/y,-»in Clunese 8oA ji»f common people. This wor^ ocenrs 
already in Uie pveceding sentencey bat its religions application in this place is 
evident from its antithesis to Skm men, Samaaeaaa. R. 

(6) Skm men,— the Chinese tranaeription of the Sanscrit word Srimmmut 
in its Pali from Sdmmui. The meaning of the word, according to jDhinese 
authors is, one tvAo rerlraMa kk tkougM, or ene tvAo Hrhet and tairmhu 
himieV't According to others it ia the common name of Buddhists or here* 
tics. The ancients knew the term and transcribed it with exactness.! 

The Shm men are characterised by the following denominaUons :— 1st, 
Shinf tM Shm men / those who accomplish the doctrine, that is to say, ia 
eight of Buddha embrace a religiona life, attain to the extinction of all cnpi. 
dity, the dimipation of ignorance and of all other imperfections, and so work 
ont the principlea of the doctrine. 2d, Skoue /no Shm men / those wh<^ having 
obtained for themselres its adrantagea, are in a condition to promulgate the 

• Chi tim tun, book XXXIII. 

t See Marini, Belatian du nyaumt ds Tunqum ; p. 197. Georvri, Alph. Tibet. 
223, 6iC, Gtuhiehti dtr ctt MongoUen, p. 1& 356.$ Huut ; Vol. II. 
p. 2-24. Hodgson, Trantaet. Any. At. Soe. Vol. II. p. 2M. 

X Klanroth, Atiatie Journal, new series ; Vol. VI, p. 263. 5sa CM«g /a torn, 
book XVI. p. 7 V. and XXXlll. p. 24 el patB. 

§ Stmbo, Lij. XV. Porphyr. d§ AMn, &c. 



trne Law, and to indaee oihen to enter vpon tlie patli of Baddha. Sd* 
ITooJ iw Ska flMCA, thoie who oterthrow the Law J» j infringing ita prineiplet* 
practiiing all manner of wickedoeia, and boasting of eondueiing ikemteitfm 
SrmAtHOHicailjft when thcj do qnito the rercne. 4th, Ho iao Skm men; thoae 
who reriTe the doctrine, or who are the living doeiritu / inasmnch aa havinf 
eztingoiahed desire, dissipated ignorance, and practised all manner of good 
deeds, thej aggrandise the established law and sobdoe their senses bj know- 
ledge ONii;iia).«—R. 

** SAosMi, is a word of the Sanscrit language, aigniffing compassionate 
feeling ; that is to say, to feel compassion for those who walk in the wrong 
way, to look benerolently on the world, to feci nniversal charity, and to 
renorate all creatures. This word means also, to obsenre one'sself with 
the otmost diligence, or to endeavoor to attain Nihility."— Xamt qfikeSkM* 
wums, irmulatedj^om ike Ckinese fty AeiMiuDm.--J. W. L, • 

(7) Tke law ^f lmdia,^^^Tkiau eku fa Tkitm eku, ia the ordinary name 
of India in Chinese books. It is written with a character which if most likely 

an abbreviation of /ii, and should therefore be read Tkimt lam, which is ono ^V 
form of the many names Skin lom, Hiam lean, Sim Ikeom, Ybmam lorn, Yim I 
ivm^ all transcriptions more or less altered of Sim /Aeon, Sinde, Hind, Hin* 
dfi, wluch according to the Chinese, signify the moon.f^R* 

The word TAIen eiln, designating India, ia quoted for the first time ia 
Chinese annala in the 8th year of the rei^n of the emperor Nimg li, of the 
Han dynasty ; corresponding with 65 B. C. This name b found neither la 
the AlMf, nor in any work anterior to that period.— -KL 

(8) A kMrkmrouM Umguage; — in the text Ae« jrn. This expression ia 
usually applied to the language of the Tartars and other partially civilised 
people. Fahian'a remark would lead one to beliere that the people who 
inhabit the country to the west of the Lake of Lob, belonged to separate 
races, having each peculiar idioms, without reference to the Indian tongue 
wbieh religion had introduced faito these countries. These languages, must 
have been the Tibetan, the Turkish, and certain Getie and other unknown 
dialects. It is doubtful whether at that period any Moogul nation had ad- 
Taaced in this direction.— R. 

(9) TAe *eoAf ^Imdim mmd ike Urngmmge ^/Mfie/— ia all probability the 
Sanscrit. We are ignorant whether in those times the woikaof the Buddhisto 
were written in FklL Hie latter idiom b well distinguished Irom the Saa. 
eerie by dUflcrenoea of which the nature of the Chinese knguaga did not per- 
arittber^reaentatioaiathetraaaeripC Wearaledto.inler thmfantlait 

•Ymhim mH Urn, quoted in tha 

San fieng /a ssu» Book XVL p. 7. 




the ita* 1nt««« WM inaif ercatly «h« SMMCrIt or «h« Ml. Then it 1 
tetlicr to lidi0?« tint the booU whkk lh« CUmm oliCdMd 
puts of Indk wm ia Stmefit* thoMlirom tho Math, In Pftli* Vk 1 
■todied th* laafoage to enable klm to nndentandend copjthe nered^^torkt* 
throvt no light npon this point, tlthongh he Tidted to many monaiterke 
Ihnn the north of India to Ceylon.— R. 

Ai the religion of Sftkya, nnllke that of Brihnundinit wae one of eonfenion, 
and not of ezda^Bt and as It waa propagated with ardonr bj Ita firander and 
hii immediate disdplctt it neeesaariljr foUowa that the Ungoage In whieh thej 
addretied the mnltitude most haTO been that best nndentood by the latter. 
Waa it then the Sanserit ? At the time of penning the foregoing note, the 
lamented Remnsat was neeessarily ignorant of James Prin8ep*s apleadid dit« 
eoreries, which satisfaeCorHy establish the fact that the most aneient epigra* 
phic monuments in all parts of India, from Girinar In Gozerat to Dhauli 
in Cuttack, are Bnddhist In substance, and Pali in langnage. The inlerenee 
from thb is irresistible, and teareely needs confirmation from other sonrees, 
that the P&li, (the piesent and the traditional sacred tongne of Baddhbm,) 
was the popular langnage of that faith in its earliest ages, and was anciently 
spoken, or at least nnderstood, throogfaont all India. This conclusion is further 
borne out by the internal eridence of the language itself, which, ao filr being 
rade and nnculti? ated aa prejudices imbibed from bWLhmanical aonrees led 
Earopean scholars to suppose, (and amongst others the aceomplbhed Cole* 
brooke, ace As. Res. Vol. VII. p. 199) appears to have attained a very 
high degree of refinement, eren so far back as the time of S&kya Munf 
himself. But upon this subject, I cannot do better than quote the opinion 
of that most competent authority, the Hon. Mr. Tumour, who thus 
sums up a short historical and critical notice of the P&li : ** The foregoing 
obicnrations, coupled with the historical data, to which I ahalLno\^apply 
mjielf, will senre, I trust, to prove that the Pal{ or Magadhi language had 
attained the refinement it now possesses, at the time of Gotamo Buddha's 
advent. No nnprqudiced person, more especially a Enropean who has 
goue through the ordinary course of a classical tuition^ can coniult the 
translation of the Balaw&taro, without recognizing in that elementary work, 
the rudiments of a precise and classically defined language, bearing no incon* 
aiderable resemblance, as to its grammatical arrangement, to the Latin ; nor 
without indeed admitting tbat little more is required than a copioua and 
critical dictionary^ to render the acquisition of that rich, refined, ai(d poeti- 
cal langnage the Pali, as facile aa the attainment of Latio." ( JfoAevonn : 
Jntrod. p xxvii.) 

The Buddhists of Cejlon are apt, howerer. to claim for their Tenerated 
* Pian i iiau, page 3. 


Pali both freaier amiiquiiy and higher r^/hemeni than tb» Sanscrit ; and 
*' in anpport of this belief/' saya Mr. Tnrnov, " thej adduee Tarioas argii« 
mcnts which, in their jadgment, ara quite oondiuiTe. Thej obsenre that 
the very word * Pali' sijpiifies original, text, regnlartty ; and there ia 
acarceljr a Baddhiat F£li scholar in Ceylon, who in the disenssion of this 
question will not qnote, with an air of triumph, thdr farorite Terse,— ff« 
Mffkadii mula bkaid, tuurdy/^dde kappikd, krahmdnS ehauuiidldpd, S^m^ 
Mddkdekdpi bkitar^: • Tkef i$ a Unguage which ia the root (of all lamm 
guagetj : men mtf brdhmamt ai ihe commemeement of ihe ereaiiom, who 
had never before heard nor ntiered a hmman aeeeni, and epen ihe Snpreme 
Bmddhae, epoke Us ii iff MagadhL* This verse is a qaotation from Kach- 
chayan^'a grammar, the oldest referred to in the F&K Uteratnre of Ceylon." 
(Ibid^ p. ziii.) 

The aaperior antiquity of the PaU has been maintained with great inge- 
Buity of argument by Lient«CoL Sylces, " On tlie Religious, Moral, and 
Political stete of ancient India,*' (J. R. A. S. VoL VI.) but we must beware 
of adopting his opimons, which are adverse to those of every Sanscrit 
scholar of eminence, and are especially untenable, rince the publication of 
the Behistun inscriptions by Major Rawlinson, in which we have monu- 
mental eridence of the high antiquity of a language clearly derived from ^ 
the Sanscrit.— J. R. A. S. Vol. X. ' 

The P£1C continues to this day to be the sacred language of religion in 
all Buddhist countries, at least in those south of the Htmiil«vas. Even in 
China, according to Mr« Gutzlaff, that tongue is employed in the daily service 
of th? temples ; although Medhurst^ perhaps erroneously, states it to be the 
Sanscrit ; a language which, eicept in a very corrupted form, the organs of 
Jhe Chinese are wholly unable to pronounce. (Cliaa, He Siaie and Pro* 
specie; page 206.)-^. W. L. 

(10) OkI/— the barbarians of On/ the Ouigours.—R. 

In a letter recently received from my friend Capt. Alexander Cunning* 
ham, now in command of the Expedition to Chineae Tartary, that gentle- 
man identifies the country of the Oni^evrt with the Seriea of classical 
«uthon, and givea several reasons for so doing. ** The first of these is , saya 
Capt. C, that the road leading to Sericn lay over the K om e dan mountains, 
at iheeourte of the thrue. Thb nanae atill existed in A. D. 640, when 
Hiaan thaaag visited India; for ha mentions KtamlMaon tha northera 
beak of the Qsust along with Po mi Is, cr Funery and Po lu la, or Bolor. 
The Mit it that tha Essedones (metgnm fene^ as Ptolemy calla them), deriva 
dMir aama hem tha Gallia word Eeeeda^ a chariot, or wagoa. Now tha 
paopla of tha aoaatry arond BetKbdik were callad by tha Chinoiajrie 


16 PILGftlMXOX or M HIAH, 

fiei— f ftwi JS»cA#9« Ugb-whadcd wMgm^ (fMmt'«rigte«f mmA/) 
Theie ptopte edl tb—wlm Omifwn, wte avt tiM OwyMfW of Um jtee of 
tlietnpMorJattfai«aiid the I^i y tyt f or H r gyi i j^ f of Ptok»y, wMdi*y iy 
•ifcly change to Owryeifef • the 0«ifoen» vbo* as their Chhiew appclleties 
of Kio tohang, (wagonen,) intimatea, were the lane aa the E m J ony . The 
Sera netropoUa matt bate been BctUhaUk, the capital of the Oaigoon. The 
Pkitarae rirer of Pfiaj, miiat aiaaply be the Ai/erjai, or the riter Tartni, 
that ia tlie anitcd atreaau of the Kaahgar, Yarhand« aod Khotm ritcn.". 
See also Wilsoo, Arimim AnHpm, pp. 212, 213.«-J. W. L. 

(U) The Land qf 7A«<ii.— By thia Daane the whole of China ia dcaig- 
natfd ; it ia alio the nante of a dynasty of the third century be^ire oar 
era, the first luown to Western nations, who thenee derired tlie t arions 
denominntiora of Sin«, ed^M, China, Cliinistan. But in the tinie of oor 
3 irateUer, a nnnber of petty dynasties eatablished in Shen si, revited the 

name of TMm in tltat country, where it originated. Fa hian hating set ont 
from Shen si, without dofibt alludra to these dynastiea when he area to 
these Cliinese moohs tlie name of monka of 7*ik«tn.^IL ^ 

Although Fa hian eridently alludes to China proper upon this occasiont 
yet it must be remembered that the namea 7%ttn, TAft, CAiii, Tsm, Sftm 
'^ . were applied to other Countries long prior to the dynasty of Thsin, which 

oeeupicd the throne of China from B. C. 245 to 208. This is a point of 
great importance to beep in aind ; for Kkproth and, after him, CoU^Sykea 
. (J. R. A. S. ToL Yl. p. 435) infer from tbe mention of the Ckina9 in the 
Laws of ^lenu (Chapter X. t. 44) that the date of that work waa sulisequent 
to the Thsin dynasty. Lassen baa learnedly discussed this subject in the 
Zeii^ekriftfit die kumde det MorgenlamdefpYoL II. p. 30—33 (a tolume, 
I regret to say, misting from our shelf es^ \ and has shown that the word 
Tktin is not necessarily derir ed lirom tbe dynasty of that name, but waa 
applied to tarioua states about tbe time of tbe Emperor Wou Wang, 
B. C. 1 122. In the Ramiyana the CAhuu are associated with the nations in« 
habiting the neighbourhood of KaahmCr. (SeeTroyer Eiqmisit dm JTecAmir, 
affixed to his edition of the Raja Taringini, p. 322, note 10.) Wilson fVUkmu 
FurmHa, p. 376, note 18.) in tim'-icating of the antiquity of Menu and the 
Ramilyana, aupposes the word Ciinm to be a modem interpolation! But 
Lassen's researchea seem rery r.tisfactorily to establish the integrity of the 
text ; and so demolish at a blow ril theoriea built upon the supposed anachron. 
ism.— J. W. L. ^ 

(12) iCso ehh&ng. — ^The c>uitry of the Ouigours, corresponding pretty 
accurately to the aite of the prcaent town of the Tur£ui, began to bear thia 
designation under the Wn,* that is about tbe third century.— R. 
• n>it hUn thomng kka9. Book CCCXXKVI. p. 13, v. 



The Kingdom of Ya tliiaB. 

Happy and flomisliiiig is the kingdom of Tu Mam.^ The in- 
habitants live in the midst of great abondanee. All, without 
exception, honor the Law, and it is the Law that ensures them the 
felidtj thqr enjoy. Several times ten thousand ecclesiastics are 
redconed amongst them, many of whom are deroted toihd great 
rteolmium^ All take their repast in common. The people of /; 

the country determine their abode according to the stars. Before 
the gate of every house they erect little towers.* The smallest 
of these may be about two toises in hdght. They erect monas- 
teriei^ of a square form, where strangers are hospitably entertained, 
and find every thing requisite for their comfort. 

The kmgof this country lodged Fa hian and his compamons in 
% Semg Ida lan.^ TIm Seng ida lam u etiikd Kim ma ii.* It is a 
temple of the great tramdaium^ containing three thousand ecde* 
siastics. These take their meals in common on a ngnal struck.* 
On entering the refectory their countenances are grave and se* 
date. They sit, each according to his rank, in order and in si- 
lence. Th^ make no noise with their cups or their platters. 
Theft pure persons speak not to each other during meals, but 
signalise with their fingers. 

//oef iiJiy, Too eking^ and Hoei tka^ departed in advance and 
directed their steps to the kingdom of Kie ehka^ Fa hian and the 
vest, who were anxious to witness the Procession of Images^ re- 
mained behind for three months and some days. There are in 
this kingdom fourteen great Seng Ma iam, and it is impossible to 
leekoo the number of smaller ones«^ On the first day of the fourth 
a* they sweep, and water all the streets of the town, and thqr 
( and set in order the roads and the squares. Th^ spread 
tapcsHy and hangbgi befinw the gate of the city. All is 


18 Algrixaos op pa riait. 

meotedaad magiufieeiitly ammged, ThtkiDg^ Iht^iiieeD, and 
many elegant ladies are alationed at this place. The nonks of 
Kiu mm iit heing those deroted to the study of the^riM/ irantit^ 
tiom^ are most honored by the king, and take, therefore, the lead in 
the Procession of Images. At the distance of three or four At from 
the town is constructed a four-wheeled car for the Images,' about 
three toises** in height, in the form of a moveable pavilion, adorned 
with the seven precious things, with hsngings, and curtains, and 
coverlets of silk. The Image" is placed in the middle ; on either 
«de are two PAausa;** while around and behind are the images 
of the Gods. All are o^rved in silver and in gold, with precious 
stones suspended in the air. When the Image is one hiindred 
paces from the gate, the king despoils him of his diadem, 
dresses in new garments* and advancing barefoot, and holding in 
his hands perfumes and flowers, issues from the town accompa- 
nied by his retinue to march in front of the Image. He pro« 
strates himself at its feet, and adores it, scattering flomers and 
burning incense. At the moment when the Image enters the 
town, the ladies and Ihe young damsels in the pavilion above the 
gate, scatter from sil sides a profusion of every variety of flowers, 
so that the car is completely concealed with them. k 

There are different kinds of cars for each ceremonial, and each 
Seny iia Ian enacts the Procession of Images on a particuUr day. 
This ceremony commences on the 1st daj of the 4th moiotu, and 
the Procession of the Images is concluded on the 14th day, when 
the king and his ladies return to the palace. 

Ac seven or eight /i west from the town there u a Settg ib'4 
Ian, called the New Ttmpie of ihe King. Eighty yeai^ were 
occupied in building it, and the reigns of three kings were' requir- 
ed to complete it. It may be twenty-five toises** in height. There 
are to be seen many ornaments and sculptures on plates of gold 
and of silver. The most precious materials were brought tether 
for the construction of the tower. A chapel, dedicated to Yoe^ has 
since been erected, and elqiusitely adorned ; the beams, the pil- 
lars, the* folding doors, the lattices, all are overlaid with plates of 



gold. Cells for the ecclesiastics are constructed separately, so ( 

beaotiful and so highly decorated, that words fail to describe 
them. The princes of the six kingdoms situated to the east of 
the chain of monntuns/* scud thither as oblations every thing 
precious in their possession, and alms so abundantly, that but a 
portion only is called into requisition. 

(1) ne kingdom ^ Yu Mtaii.— This if the town of Khotan, one of tiiose 
in Tmrtaiy which adopted the religion of BadUhm and obserred ita ritea with 
the greatest magnificence. The name of thia town ia not derived from the 
Mongol word KhoUn (a town), aa waa long svppoMd ; bat from two San- 

akrit worda, as I have elaewhere shown, Aon Siana, signifying the breast ^ ^ 

(mamma) of the earth. Many namea and ezpressiona borrowed from Sanscrit, ^ 

and nataralised by religion, begin to show themselves alread/.^R. 

(2) Tke greai irmulaiiom. See note 4, chapter II. 

(H) Smali tcwin. — The Chinese term here translated tower, corresponds 
with the Sanskrit word tikupa,* signifying iumulms : bat in the language of 
the Baddhiata, thia term ia applied to bnildinga of seven, nine, and even f^ 

thirteen storiea, erected on apota where the relica of aainta or of goda were ^'v 

• deposited. Snch towera are frequently mentioned in the courae of hia nar* 
rative by Fa hian. Other aecounta, itinerariea, and legends, make frequent 
allnsioa to similar towera. Their dimensions vary greatly ; those here 
spoken of were but two Chinese toiaea high, or 6.120 metrea (about 20 ft.) 
Many far amaller onea, miniature modela of these, are also mentioned, and 
-were perhapa used for the purposes of private devotion. On the other 
hand, a tower la apoken of in GandhiLra, 700 Chinese feet high, or 216 
metres, twice the height of the Pinnacle of the Invalids at Paria.— R. 

(4) JtfM«t/erfea,^in the original Stngfimg, ** a house for the ceeleiias- 
tica." Other ezpressiona are more common. See neat note. — ^R. 

(&) Stmg kim ten.— Thia word, borrowed from the Sanakrit, appeara here 
Ibr the firat time, and muat be explained. Chineae authora explain it to ^- 
meaa gmritmt^ or gmritm ^f MMtwlt or gmrien rf ike eomsnnuf jr.f Gmrdtm 
impliea habltatioa ia the language of Bnddhism. tRm Ian ia also used by 
abbraviatioa i but It eaanot aaean the gmrim rf §e9irml, whatever the 
dietionaiy of Khang hi asay aasert to the eoatrary. I have aabasitted these 
tranecriptiona and InterpretatloM to M. B. Bumouf, who piopoees the re- 
■tontiea of tfanf Us ikn by the Sanscrit word ^ngd gdnm the Aenst V '^ 

•XkmmgkiTmmimmmiymb. Tkk,nfL%XXIL 

20 PIIAftlMAOB or 9JL HUH. 

■bod««rttojnMiilJlMi,^thrtlaor Bvdaiia indtlMtatgMi tela at mm 
tempto Md BOMftM7, la Suaeilt VMrmi Md the part of th« yiUdiiiff 
wliere oljaett of wonblp an ezpoMd to tbo adontioa of tho Aiithfld* is 
dciMMnfaifod a CkmUj^m* Tha TlbaUaa aaU their noaaiterica dOm^pm. A 
dateriptloB of thaM laaiplaa nay ba fo«nd In tha work of Oaovfl^t aad lapia- 
aMtatioM of thcai la tha plataa anaaiad to Mr. Hodgtoa's Maaioir.)«R. 
WUiM* whoaa aothority oa toeh a aabject is of great wcightt mggeati* 
(J, R. A. 8« Vol. V. p. 110] other and mora probable atpaologlea ^ StH^ 
kirn iMf la tha Saaierit words Sam^oym, or SamMkyalagm / dhpa alf pif jiof 
habltatloa or raeeptaele t aa4 Smgm, a oonmoaity, or 5a«JIAjf«, aaaa^r t or 
StmgaMirti i which Chlneaa orgaat woold proooaaoa wth^a. To Jodfo from 
the analogy of aoiiad, tha first of these appears tha most plausible ct jmolog j. 

(6) Kim ma H.— Evidently a Ssaserit word | perhaps GAosatl, from Ga* a 
Mw. This is the original aame of the river Goomty (G6mati) In Oade.-— R« 

(7) A tifnmi ffmeJfr^— In the text Kkiam ehJkout; meaning either a plate 
of iMtal, stone, or wood, which emits a sonnd on being, sttndc, aad tliu 
senres to snmmon an assembly.— R. 

Wooden bells are used to this day In China. Neamana ** vislmd tha 
Hoe Chang monastery at Canton when anotlier Enropean wished fo try 
the effects of this wooden roller. Tha Chinem Cletroni however, ifecom. 
mended tha gentleman by all means to avoid It, lest It might bring all the 
priests of the monastery Into tha refectory.'* Caitckitm rf Me ^nnmma, 
p. 105. Wooden bells with dapper? are elsewhere described by the tame 
author. Porphyry (Lib. IV.) spemlcs of the Samaneans (SiyMMuiiO regulating 
their actions by the sound of a belt— J. W. L. 

(8) ^oei /atf /~one of the compsniona of Fa hian, whose name, n^t eaa* 
merated before, signifies hnUUlgtnt Peitelraiton.^^K. 

(9) Tk9 ewmiry of SRi tkka. See noto 7, Chapter V. 

(10) TAe Ut dmy ^fttU /ourik mooa.— If, as Is not Improbable, Pa bhm 
reckons after the Chinese calendar, thia ceremony must have begun oa tho 
4th June, and continued to the 18th. — R. 

Or if Fa hian be aupposed to have adopted the Indian calendar, it began 
on the Jtrnt ^ ik» moem ^f Anar t a matter of some little Importance, 
as will be seen by and bye. At the time cf our traveller'a passage through 
India the jear commenced In tha month of Chaitnu (Prinscp'a Tsbiea, 2d 
part, p. 18.)— J. W. L. 

' • Kang hi Ttem tUm ; vide him, f Alpk. nbit. paga 407. 

t Trauu tt. A. S. Vol. II. pp. 245, 2S7. J 




(U) TTkree ioitet, about 9.180 m. or aboat 30 Eagluh feet in height. 
The cars used ia India at the present time haTO, according to tho testimony 
of traf eUersy fully this elcTation.— R. 

(12) The Image,'^¥9. hian does not particularise the divinity whoso 
image «as paraded on this occasion ; most probably it wo that of a Bud- 
dha; but we have not sui&cient informatioa on the state of Buddhism at 
Khotan in the fifth Century to enable us to decide whether this object of 
worship was a terrestrial Baddha* like Sakya Muni» or divine one, like 
Amitabha ; or in short, whether it was Buooha par eioellence. Tlie drcum* 
stance to be spoken of in the next note, renders the last supposition the 
more probable, in as much o Kim mn ii was n monastery of the great revo- 
lotion. — R. 

(13) Two Phvm to.— The principal image had on each side those of two 
Phm ta or Bodhi$mUwa9, Taking this account literally, it would appear 
that the God wo accompanied by two inferior divinities, perhaps Bodhisat- 
two ; but it is more probable that Buddha had on each hand the two acolytes 
of the Supreme Triad, Dhtarma and Swga,* Others of the abundant triads 
of Buddhism may also be adduced, o the three Bodhisattwu, Afaa/MH, 
V^jripani and PtLdmapctU; or else AmiMhaf Saiga wnmi, and Miutreyat 

ftc The gods whose images were placed at n greater distance from the v^ 

principal figure, are called T^ian in the text ; these are the Devo* of tho 
Hindus, the Lk€ of Tibet, the Ttfgri of the Mongols ; such o Indra^ 
Brmkwui, nod other divinities of the Brahmanical pantheon, far inferior in 
the system of the Buddhist, to the pure or purified Intelligences, the 
Buddhu, Bodhisattwo, &e.— R. 

Hie reader cannot fail to be struck with the very close resemblance be- 
twixt the Bauddha pRHsession here described and that of Jagannath, of which 
ladeed it requires no great stretch of the imagination to suppose it to bo the 
model and prototype. The tune of the year at which the ceremony took 
place, corresponds, o wo have seen above, very closely with that of tho 
Rath Jatr£, and tho duration of the festival was about tho same. The 
principal imago with its supporters on either hand, seema the very ooonter- 
pnrt of Jogana^th, Balarim and Snbhadr£ $ and when we further bear 
in mind that the lamona temple' at PiirC is lupposod to stand on tho 
site of an ancient Buddhist Chaityat that tho annual festival ia neeom- 
ponied by thai ringnlar anomalyt the aimien«ion^o/lMflefortho time 
bdnf t and laatlyt that the imago oontaina tho nfpoad rHiet ^ Krishna^— 
n fatnro oatinly abhonranl firom Hind^iii, but eminently dMnetorisiio of 

*8co ihtplttM aooospinyiBg Miw Hodgton's Memoir. Tfunt. JL 4. &« 

22 wnownuam or wa biam. 

iMd it! origiB i» tka obMmMi of tka lati« fidtkp-J. W. U 

(14) 7VM#y./Mltl00t,tboiitr6.MOactiw;AUttblcMChMth(l^^ 
•r th« PtanthMB at Pkris.— R. 

AlMmt 250 Eb|^ tttL AUboi^ the gmt die «ttrib«l«d to Umm 
■wMtwfat aod Sikt^mi maj hvm aa air of angsendoo* jet tha good 
faith of oar rimpk-miBdad pOgriai maat aot ba lightly lapagaad «po« 
theia groanda. Tha ramaina of Buddhiit ttnutaiaa vidbla to thia dajt go 
lar to aoolinB Fa hfan'a atatemeBta. Tha height of tha Rmmwtih Itefote 
io CeyloBt originany 270 feat, waa ttill 189 feet when visitad hy Major 
Forbaihil828;thatofthaif5Aaya^'ia240faet; aad that of the /aila. 
ummardmmjfm (originally 315 feet high) tha aama. (Sea Knighton, an /Aa 
JKataa qf Ammrmdkmpurm. im Ct^lmg J. A. 8. VoL XVI. p. 213.)^ 
J. W. L. 

(15) 7^ eMn ^f oMimfatnf.— Tha moantaiaa hero apohcn of are tha 
TVoaa^ limf^ or tha Onion Moantaina. to (he wast of Khotan, a dudn which 
aroieing in a noi|h and louth difaetioB, rcjoina the maia of tha Himalaya. 
It will ba laeB farther on that Fa hian givea a name eqoiTalent to that of 
Himalaya, to Tarioua rangea ordinarily bearing diiTerent denominatioBa. Aa 
to tha lia kingdoms aitnated to tha east of tha diain, the princea of which 
sent to tha new temph ^f th» hm§ magnificent offeringSf Fa hian dopgnatea 
them in no precisa manner; bat withoat donbt Bhm tJkem, Ou Aon, and 
JSaa thhamf^ eoontriea ha had traTcrsedt and in whidi Baddhism was 
eaublishad, were throe of them ; tha remaining thraa wen probably sitaated 
between tha Desert and tha Onion Monntahis.*— R. 


Kiagdom of tha Tsen hon—Tsoong liuf BMantaias.— Kingdom of Ya boat. 

After tbe fourth moon, the eeremonj of the Phwestkm of 
Imagea being eondnded, Seng skao set oat ahme in the giiite of 
a btrhari&n priest' proceeding to Ki pin.* F« hian and the 
rest proceeded towards the kingdom of Tseu ib/ Thej travelled 
for twentj-fire dajs, and at the end of that time arrived (a that 
• IFsn Aiaa fJbaaag Uaa» Book CCCXXX VL p. 6. 

■•-•-•». J 


kingdom. The kmg is finnly attached to the faith.* There 
are in this conntij about one thousand ccdesiastics^ for the 
most part adherents of the great tratuHatitm, The traTellers 
scjonmed there fifteen days, and then proceeded southward ; and 
haring marched four days, entered the Tmnmg limg^ mountains^ 
and arriTcd at the kingdom of JkJbd^* where thcj halted. Hav- 
ing refreshed themsdres, thej resumed their jonmey, and in 
twentj-five di^ they reached the kingdom of fte ckka, where 
thej r^ned Hoel king and the others. 


(1) A b€rhmritm prUH^^Tf Jim it a ijiioojneor Tm uf; aaam* 
glivca to th« Mcttfiaat of Lam Uem indof tbo doctrine of 31io, or Suprmie 
ilMMM. I know not why M. B—ntat hat tranakted this word* a burba- 
run priest.— KL 

On allowing the original diaractfra to a Ciuneae friend* ko wnheaitatinglj 
apbdned tkeaa to aaean a jvrietl, (" padre/') and not a trmveller^ o MM. 
Klaproth and Landreiae wonld ratker interpret them. See the last note to 
Ckaptcr XL.— J. W. U 

' (2) £i j»n«— Copkenef or tke eoontiy watered bj the Cophea. Eenncll 
CBppoaed the attaeat of (ke Indet« ao named by tke ancients, to be identi- 
cd witk tke Cbwamir/ SainUCrotz kelietea it rather to be the 3itrkawMr. 
TkesjilabloCowisprobably a leauiant of tke ancient appeUation. Kipim^ 
wkidi Ckincse antkon eonfoond witk Caskaaere,* and wkick Dcgoigne kas 
taken for Samareaad, mpposina tke Utter to be identical witk Kttpickmk^ 
oarresponda witk tke eoontry of Gkinek and Candakar. It it celebrated 
in Cbinese Geognpky* and appears to kave been a floariaking teat of Bed* 

Tke G4mtd^ (not CmmmU^ liaee at Jhartkdi^. in tke eoontry of Gkis- 
■d^ to tke aoatk af Sirelkai and rana at tnX towards tke eoatk-wcat, b«t 
aoea tvniaf to the aoitfk, pnrmee tket oonrae towards DtrntmH^ wkere it 
aaeeifaB tke rifer Mummg€ and tke Xsndsar, wkidi kat ita sonrce in tke 
■eighbefkoodofTlrwn. Ikcnca tke Goasal proceeda oattcriy ta Siraifigkn, 
wkereititjoiaadbytkeZMt; a ilverncarly at large o tke Gumal itself » 
(iathaaBoantaiaiiafJCn^cattofBvraerl. mad raaningto a district 
itgiiae Ha BMM. A Utde to tke cast of fiiraagka, tke GAaal 
I tke chain af tke SnUaaan aaaantaina, patttt befera Bi^ihti, aad fertl. 

• Pisa i lien. Book UU. 

24 mjawnuom or ta nun. 

It dffkt ttp in tte dcAto of Pnsov* tad iU iMd b mpp!M with water Wy i* 
. the niay te«toii« when it iijo^ ^^ right of the Indu to tho toath out 
of tho towB of Pafaarpoiir.— Kl. 

Tho Cophea of tho aaeieata it not, at Rcnadl aad tho Fraaoh Bditora 
tappote* the Gteal, aa IntoaBiderablo aioaotaiB ttreaai, diy tU the year 
except at the teaeoa of the periodical raiai* The Cahnl River is the oaly 
oae that cocrespoada with the aeeoaata i^ven of tlie Cophea bj tlie liidtori. 
aat of Alexander, perticalarlf Arriaa» who deicribet it ae falliag i;ito the 
Indat in the coantry of Penlselaotie aad carryinf alonf with it the tribatarj 
waten of the Malantas, Sautaa, aad Ganeaa. (Indica IV. 11.) §oaM of 
these naaies will be ideatified Hereafter from tlie narrattTe of oar j^ilgtim 
and the Itineraiy of Hioan tshang. 

' It will be seen firom the text that tlicre were two rentes to the ooantrj 
watered by the Cophen ; Sei^ tkao most probably took the westeriy or more 
direct one ; while Fa hian and the rest proceeded to the same eoanlry by 
the more circaitons roate of the Indns aad Pesliawar. Why this separa* 
tion took place is not stated, nor does it appear tliat Seng shso erer after 
rqoiocd the little band. He was oae of those whom our pilgrim OYCrtook 
at Chmig y.— J. W. L. 

(3) Tuu As.— This eoaatry is placed by Fa hisn at the distaaee of days march from Kbottn ; bat the direction is not stated. On 
oonsidering the rente which oar trar ellers would in all probability follow, 
and the positions they afterwards attained, I have traced this portion of 
their joarney soath- westerly from Khotan. Cliincse Geogrsphers idenitily the 
nsme of J%eu ko, which seems to signify the " aaioat of font," with that 
of Cku kin phQf or Cku iiu pAaa, words apparently derired from the 
Sanskrit. In the absence of other information I sball here transcribe the 
details touching this subject, fouad in the Chinese oollections.* 

** The eonntry of TVea ko has been known tinoe the time of the^tter 
Han,* (3d centary). It formerly constituted a single kingdom with that 
of Si ye C^wtittm nigki"Jf but at present the two states hare indepen- 
dent kings. The residence of the king of Tseuho is called the VaUep qf 
Kian ; it is 1000 It (100 leagues) from Sou l^aad Khachgar ; and contains 
350 families and 4000 sol(liers.t 

•' Under the Wei of the north, in the third year JTiay mfay (502) in the 13th 
moon, there came tribute from the eountrj of Cku Jtiu pktm, lliis country 
is to the west of /a ikian (Khotan). Its inhabitants life in the midst of 

• Pimn i tian. Book LX. 

t Xotiet of n'titeru Coumtrm, quoted in the Pica i tian, p. 1. 


mounUins. There are earn tnd plenty of wild fmiU. The whole popnUtion 
ohsenret the Lew of Foe. The langnage is the tame es that of Khotan. 
This sUte is snhject to the Ke /Ae (Gets). Another trihnte came in the 4tb 
year, Y9wn§pkmg (511) 9th moon.* 

" The Cku kiu pkOf called also CAiu iim pktm, sent tribute in the years 
Worn i€ (618—626) ; this is the country designated 7Ve« Ao, under the Ilan 
dynasty. T]here are four countries, known since the time of the Han, 
which are united to it, namely. Si ye, Pkou li, Y nmt, and Te jo» 
It is exactly 1000 U west from Khotan, and 300 li north of the TMOunj 
Uung mountains. On the west it is coterminous with the country of Kk9 
pkan iko; to the north at the dutance of 900 U is the frontier of Sou h 
(Kashgar). To the south at 3000 /i, is the Kingdom of Women. It contains 
2000 soldiers. The law of Feo« thou is held in honou*. The charactera 
used are those of the brahmans.t-*R. 

The position of the kiogdom Ttiem Ae is determined in the last edition of 
the ret thnng p ikoung eki (Section 419). It is the present canton of 
Kouke jrer (blue scarped bank) situated to the south of Yerkiyang, 70* 40^ 
E. of Paris, and 37* 30' N. Lat. on the right bank of the river Kcrm iom 
which runs noriherly and falls into the TUx ak, or Tiugsa ik •iiemy, a right 
affluent of the Ytrkigang ieria. This canton being distant fiTC degrees of 
longitude west from Khotan, and the roads being indirect, it* is not sur- 
priring that Fa hian should occupy twenty-five days upon the journey. The 
kingdom of Cku kiu pko extends from IngMekoTt or Yangki kUtar, in the 
present territory of Kashgar, to Youl urlk, in that of Yerkiyang. It is 
therefore identical with 7Ve« As. — Kl. 

(4) Firmlp atiueked fo refi^ion.— The author employs a peculiar expres- 
aion, borrowed from the ascetic Tocabulary of his faith ; iting Mm, signify. 
log properly, ^ortt towards puriip, progrut in sukiU. or koly tkingt ; ia 
Sanskrit vtrye. It is one of the ten means of attaining absolute perfection, 
or in the language of Buddhism, of uiiaimng tki otker skore. I hsTC had 
•eeasion before to apeak of this means or p4ramiid% (see in particular Joumut 
AamHgut, torn. VII. p. 250). Further details will be found in the Com* 
meuiuire ntr l§ VoeukuMre PemiugktU, by M. E. Bnmouf and myself.^R. 

(5) Tk» Tm9uu§ Umgutmmium.'^Vrt have already seen (Chap. III. note 
17) that this chain of hills,detachedliromthegreataaaB of the Himalaya, 
runs, aeoording to Chinese Geographers, in a direetioa nearly due north. Fa 
Juan spe^s here no doubt of some branch detadied Irom the great eastern 

* £«/#•/ lAe Emperor Sioumn wm» Ci auoted in PWrn i timg 11. LX. b. I t. 
t Iltw.«/ircilffniCMijarMf quoted m the i'MnifMm.B. 2. 

} homo. Jour, ilsialif M» Vol. VII. p. 25 v. 


range. 0«r trat^len on, kftffais TVfti ko,M\ in w)th HdUrhsviiv {JT^end* 
cd fo«r dajt in n tontlwrly dlncUoa. They were fiftj«ftve dnytincwing 
it I andof Umm thirtj were tpeot in nMrdUBg towards the west. In ^ verj 
midst of these nonntains they fonnd* as wiU he teen (brther on, a Cagdoa 
ljrieeAil«.^R. ^ 

(6) me km§imm ^ Yu Aecf .— This word is apparenUj the tinnscriptaoa 
of some local name i fnrther we know nothinf ,* nor is tiM ooontry onr tn^eU 
lers deseribe sttflidently Inown to ftimish us with the means of compa* 
risen.— R. 

In a subscqnent note (7 of Chapter V.) M. Klaproth cndearonrs to 
ideutiff Ym kon with Lsdakh, bnt not very satisfactorily; for if Tmm ko be 
identical with JTonie |r«r it cannot be Ie« than 250 miles direct distance 
frow Ladakb, rendering it thos impomible tiiat oar pilgrims shonkl re^h the 
latter place in the short space of fonr days.— J. W. L. 


The luttgdom of Kie chha. 
The king of Kie ekka celebrates the ptM eke yme Me.' Pen 
eke yue ue signifies in Chinese the great quinquetmitd aeaeiMy. 
At the time of this assepubly die Sha men are invited from all 
directions. They gather hke the donds^ with pouip and granty. 
At the place where the clergy sit are suspended hangings, fiags» 
and canopies. A throne is prepared and adorned with lotus 
flowers of silver and of gold* and elegant seats are arranged below 
it. Thither the king and his officers repair to perform their 
devotions according to the I^w. This ceremony lasts one month, 
or two» or three; and generally takes place in springtime.* 
When the king rises from the assembly, he exhorts his ministers 
to perform their devotions in turn. Some occupy onio day 
in this duty» some two, and some three or five. When aU have 
finished their devotions, the king distributes' the horse wliich 
he rides, his saddle mid his bridle, the horses of the principal 
officers of his kingdom and of other |)ersons of distinction, as well 
• Pi*m i tiuH, Uoi»k LXm. j 2 an«l Hook LIV. 




as all kinds of woollen stuflTs and precious things, and all that 
the Sha men may require. All the officers bind themselves by 
TOWS, and distribute alms; they then redeem from the eccle- 
siastics all these donations. 

This coontry is cold and mountainous. No other grain but 
com arrives at maturity. As soon as the clergy have receired 
their annual provbion of grain, the weather, however fine before, 
becomes cloudy ; the king is accustomed, therefore, to ordain that 
these shall not receive their annual provision till the harvest 
arrive at maturity. 

There is in this kingdom a vase into which Foe spat ; it is of 
stone^ and of the same colour as Foe*8 begging pot.* There is 
also a tooth of Foe,* and in honor of this tooth the people of the 
country have erected a tower. There are more than a thousand 
ecclesiastics, all attached to the study of the less reroluiion. 

To the east of these mountains the natives dress in coarse 
habiliments, simiLur to those of the land of Thsin, except the 
difference of stuffs of wool and of felt. The Sha men con- 
formably to the Law, make use of wheels^* the efficacy of which 
is not to be described. 

This kingdom is m the midst of the mountains Tswuff Hng.^ 
On advanring to the south of these inonntains, the plants and 
fmita become quite different ; there are but three plants, — the 
bamboo, the pomegranate, and the sugar-cane, — that resemble 
those of China. 


(1) Pm ekepw us. This word it-evideatlj of Sanskrit origia, and 
BONIS, aeeordiof to oar uthor. iks fresi fuimfuemmst oitCMl/jr. It it a 
eonpooad of (he Saaakrit radieal jtsmekm, fivo [aad jmi/f » ra-aDion, asflem<* 
biy. Kl.]— R. 

To tUa etymology Profaaaor Wilaoa objeeta tbat fmkii b nerer aaed to 
deaoto aa aaaeaaUy or BMoliag of mea ; and he auggesta pmt€ks^9mrtkm, aa 
tbo prabaUo reading ; jNmeAa, five, and MrtAa, a year. Tlie difficulty with 
regaid to tUa rcaloratiea ia, tkat jpae aivdoes not appeara very likriy tran. 
script of mrskm / peribapa a bmmv prabaUe Sanaerit etymon ki ayn* a word 
D 2 


employed to ligidiy cithar a jcar or tba age of a man. Tboa ibi wOmvf 
laliitatkNi or bleaiiiif of a brahmaa of tbo preaaot day ia ipfraniW, * ^^ > 
himdred yeara.' Tho conuBcnUtor on tho Ragho Yanta in eiplaiiatioii of a 
patiage ie tbe teit, ^^^rnSUr «itfl%» fitinif AajnwAo jihimy^ dbserteo 
KITTH ^ ^^CW. Sai^yu vai yuruta. Hcneo p&nehajfutka would be ** ive 

Aa to the fr§mi pu$tfmeimiai €»$imbip here apoken of it, it wai moat pro* 
baUljT the very rellgioaa fettlr al ordained for perpetoal obterranee in lua owo 
doaniniona by the emperor AaoKA, and extended by hia inflnenee to* neif h* 
boarinf oonntriea. In hia third ediet, he aaya*-** Tbva a|to1co the hraven* 
belofed liing Piyadasit By no after the twelfth year of ny anoi|itaBent, 
this eommandment is made ! Everywhere in the eonqnered prorincea 
among the faithfnl, whether my own anbjeeta or foreigners, qfier nery Jiv 
yeart, let there be a pablie hniniliation for this exjpress object, yea for tho 
confirmation of Tirtne and the snppression of disgraceful acts. Gpod and 
proper is dotifol service to fnother and father;— towarda friends and kins* 
fulk, towards brihmana and srimans, exeellcnt is charity t prodigality and 
malicious slander are not good. All this the leader of tho eongitsation 
shall iucnlcate to the assembly with appropriate explanation and example." 
(Jonmal As. Soe. Vol. VII. p. 250.) In tbe original of the foregojng tho 

words signifybg every five years wel^'J^ U*drb A rCrb 1»«»^*«« 

ptmehatu vattiu ; worda which might also very well form the original of the 
awkward Chinese transcription ia onr text.— J. W. L. 

(2) I believe that this passage should be translated, '• either t^ first 
month, or the second, or the third, but generally in spring." — Kl. 

(3) DisiriMUn, a/Mt.— Tlie traveller hero employs the eomecratcd 
word pou «Ai, equivalent to the Sanscrit term ddma. This is the firtt of the 
ten pdromiia or means of salvation. See above, Ch. 1, note 12, and Ch. IV. 
note 4.— R. 

(I) Tk0 pof ^/be.— The alma pot is one of the characteristic ntenaila of 
a religions mendicant. That nsed by Sakya MnnI daring his terrestrial 
existence, l)ecame a very precions relie. It will be spoken of egain^ Chap 
XII.— R. 

(5) A tootk 9f Fq%. — ^The teeth of Foe are amongst the moat eelsbrated 
reliques of Buddhism. The history of this religion preservea maoy licta 
connected with those precions mnains of the body of Sikya Mnni.— R. 

(6) Wk—U, — In the text eAAoaan, a circular and revolving object, and 
not /mm, {(thukra in Sanscrit, \Gwl«t in Tibetan, and knriw in Mongal.) 


Tht puttge mftj be differently underttood, bat it probably refera to |»r«jr. 
ta^r wkeeU, or cylinders to which pnycn are affixed, and which are made 
to revolve with the ntmost practicable rapidity, to obtain for the devotee 
at every revelation, the aame merit as the recital of the prayer. A de* 
scription of this practice may be foand in acconnts of travellers who have 
visited Tartary.^ The idea of a wAetf, or of eiretUar rtvotuiiom, ia moreover, 
one of those which recnr most frequently in the metaphorical langaage of 
Buddhism. We have already seen that this is the proper meaning of the 
mystical expression ydtui (Chap. II. note 4.) The wkeei is one of the eight 
symbols {viiara^oM in Sanscrit ; tuiitman imkU^ in Mongol) observed in Bod* 
dhist temples.t It is the symbol of snprenie power in the hands of those mon« 
arehs wiio are held to have exercised nniversal dominion, and who are for this 
reason termed Chakmnrtit or iumer§ ^tke wketit it is the emblem of the 
trrnntmigrmtUm ^mmlif which, like a ctrde, is withont beginning or end. It 
is also the emblem of preaching ; and to annonnce that a Boddha has began to 

. preach the doctrine, it is said that he has began to ium ike wkeeiofike Zew. 
Lastly, the different branches of a doctrine, or the different eystems cm* 
braced by those who adopt them, receive also the name of wkeei ; thos, 
ike preeepie ff ike wkeet ffike euperior iaw^ ^ike mkeel ^ ike middle 
imm^ emirfikmi ^ike u^fnier law. This expression, when it occnrs in the 
narrativ« of Fa hia«i, refers most probably to the ose aiprepinf wkeelt, which 
appear at present to be pecnliar'to the BaddhisU of the northern coantriee. 
I hav« foond no mention of them in any Indian booke that have fallen 
nnder my notice ; which jastifies the remark made by Fa hian in the pas* 
sage that has elicited this note.— R. 

These ingenions and ^esdetit Instromcnts are still osed in the eoantriet 
where Fa hian first saw them, and their eonstniction seems to have attained 
very great perfection* ** On a stream fidling into the rivnlet,*' says Moor- 
croft, '* was a small stone building, wluch at first appeared to be a water 
mm ; bat which proved to be a reUgkme tjfliuier^ carved and painted, and 
imrmed remmd kp ike eurreui,*' (Travda in the Himalayan Provinces, VoU 
I. p. 234.) —J. W. L. 

- (7) The poeitloa of Kie ekkm^ or according to vulgar pronundationt 
JM ekkMf OiKH ekkm, is the more difficult to determine, inasmuck 
as the name is not to be found in any Chinese author known in Europe. 
M. Bemusat thought that in this name he recognised that of Kashmir ; but 
thin eountry is not so cold as Kie chha according to Fa hian*a description. 

• Pallss. Vol I. p. 568. Klaprpth, lUue im den KaiilMita. Vol. 1. 1^ 181, &e^ 
t PoIImI Sewmdimgem k'uL Kmekrkkiem, VoL II. p. 168. ib. Bsi. XVf. 

B 3 




It pradaett, aeMffdiat to Mooicfoft,wlMit»bMley,b«dnrlMtttMillc^aMi9b 
TCfctablfft, puiMm and ricos tlie last «f whicht M most cvltivatod, aHqr be 
regarded at the priacipal eereal of the eonotrjr* Beildee, to reaeh l^afr 
from Thu Ae» or JTeiiie Ykr^ Fa hiaa most baTocroeaed the epper braack 
of the lodea, which flowi fton Tibett and at present bean the Baae pi 8im§ 
ekm^ or 8im^ dxlmg Khtmpm. and Is moch oiore eansUerable than that ohicbt 
ooming from the Borth» takes Its rise at the soathem base of theimmeose fla* 
cier, Pvutkti hkgr^ and U called the KkAmth river. la all the m^mitaio. 
ous regions of eentral AsiSt the roads which lead across glaciers^ cf which 
avoid them bf detonrs, remain almost always the same ; rendering it ihns 
probable that the route followed by onr trareller, is no other than that which 
still leads from Khotan and Yerkiyang to western Tibet. This ronU ascends 
^ the npper part of the Tirx ^ to iU sonree, passes the defile of K^ri |oroN«, 

to the south of which it fbllows the conrse of the ArAerndSsa* a feeder of the 
SAayuk, and then the coarse of the latter to Leh, or Ladakh. From this 
town the traveller proceeds to Baltistan, keeping to the north of tlfc Tibe- 
^ tan branch of the Indus, and we shall see that he only passes the Kimeh 

much further. Fa hian on leaving Tsen ko, or Koukt yur, must tlienfore 
have followed a southerly direction, the AVro son, to its smreeS in the 
Tsoung ling mountains. Thence having first turned to the south-east to 
reach and ascend the THi ib^ he must have followed the course of the 
Khamdan and the Shayuk to Ladakh, which appears to be his kingdom of 
Ym Aoei. From Fa hoH he marched twenty-five days, doubtless i^ a wes« 
terly direction, to JTie thkm. We must look therefore for this country in 
Baltistan, which is the HUle otjtfi Tibet ; or in its neighbourhood.^KL 

Were M. Klaproth'a assumption correct, that there is but ope psse 
towards northern India across this mountain range, and that it proceeds 
via Ladakh, we should be driven to suspect some error in the Cliin^ nar* 
rative which allows but four daya for the journey from Ttea Ao to Ym Aeef. 
But such Is not the case ; it is well known that there are more direct routes 
towards India from Kuuii yor^ and by one of these we may reasonably 
infer that our travellers would approach India in pie'ierence to that viA 
Ladakh, which would lead them so greatly out of their way. In the absence 
of fuller details we may never be able to determine this portion of Fa hian's 
course with certainty ; but we may conjectere Yu Aee'i to lie in a aoutherly 
or south-westeriy direction from A'eaAe jrer. 

As to Kit cAAe, it wers vsia to attempt its identification with Kashmir, as 
this would lead our travellers a yet more unnecessary detour to the ^tward, 
altogether incompatible with their subsequent course. JTAe-cAAj^-irw/, or 
JTAa-cAAa/, is indeed the Tibetan name of Kashmir, (Csoma d^ Koros, 


Oeogr&pk. Skeiek qf Ttbel, J. A. 8. toL I. p. 122) ; and Kmtek, or Ka/eAi 
•imply, b that applied to the same countrjhj the Bhotect and Kunawareea. 
' See •• Notes on Moorcroft'a and Gerard's traYeb/' by Capt* J. D. Cuo- 
iringham, who proceeds to obserre^*' Mr. Vigne enlarges on the frequent 
occ nrre nee of the word JTefA; bat withont giTinf it the many geogra* 
phical positions he does, and even k§ omiU some, it is probaM thai m 
tribe qf Hat nome eiief poueuHl ike whole eoune ^f the Indmtt if indeed the 
word has not a more general meaning, and a wider application.*' (Journal 
Asiatie Society, Vol. XIII. p. 229.) The emperor Baber, also, mentions 
a people, named Kash, inhabiting the same locality, and suggests this word 
a« the etymology of Kashmir. It is by no means improbable that in 
these we hsYC the original of Kie ehha ; a aupposition w:hich the eoncnrrenee 
of situation (somewhere near Skardo) seems in some degree to confirm. 

Are the people inhnbiting this country the Khaeae of Menu, (B. X. st 
44, when they are mentioned immediately after the Darmdae ;) and the Khm» 
eiree, Khatikae, oe JTAeteilaf, of the Vishnu Purana? (Alison's transla- 
tion, page 195.) Troyer {SequUee dm Kechmir, pago 324) eadeavours to 
identify these people with the C«fl of Pliny, whose podtion aa described by 
that writer, corresponds YCry well with tha supposed sitoation of Kie ehhrn, 
— itef tmOmdii imdue, mamtium eerwU eiremmdaiee H se/i/Mfinitat.— 


Bog Mouatains^Perpetual snow.— Northern India.— The kingdom of 
Tho ly.— Colossus of Mi le Phou la. 

From the oountiy of Kie ekha, yon adrance towards the west 
in approaching India of the North. It takes one month to cross 
the Tmnmg ling moontains. On those mountains there b snow 
both in summer and in wint^. There aie also irenomous dragons 
which dart their poison if thcj happen to miss their prcj.* The 
wind, the rain, the snow, the flying sand, and the rolled pebbles 
oppose such obstmetions to travellers, that ont of ten thousand 
that Tenture there^ scarce one escapes ! The natires of those 
parts are d esign a te d ARm t^ ikt Smrng MmMtmmB.* 



On croMng this duiin yoo arrife iiK|nclta of the North.' Im- 
mediately on entering the boondariea of this rq;ion» you find the 
kingdom of Tho /y/ where neaily sU the eedesiastics «e of the 
/etf irtuuiatum. 

There was formerly mthis kingdom a XoiUra/ whohy an effort 
of supematoral power/ transported a sculptor to the heafen 
Teou sAom/ to study the stature and the features of iKfi It P^ m/ 
and to make on hit retnm, an effigy of liim carved in wood. The 
artist ascended three successive times to contemplate th|it per- 
sonage, and afterwards executed a statue eight toiscs* hi^h» the 
foot of which was eight cubits'* long. On festival days tluslitatue 
is always effulgent with light ; the kings of the country ardently 
render all homage to it. It still exists in the same locality." 


(I) In the original the punge signifies, ss 1 nadeistaad it, ** Thcrs sra 
also vcnomons dragons, who if discontent spit their Tenom.'* He^|)h»hBblj 
alludes to the t apoors and poisonous exhalations which infest the vsUejs of 
the Uimfiaym and the mouaUins of Tibet.»KL 

• (2) Jlfe« ^ iJU amowjf ^OKn/eliit.^We recognise in this name that of 
the mountains of the Indian Caucasus, cot ercd with perpetual sn9w ; in 
&Dscrit Himilaya. The remainder of the Chinese text is oonfns^, and , 
perhaps corrupted ; it is literaUy t Occurrentium his «rumnis, dedes 
mille, aon unus scnratnr. latins terrx homines nomine Tocantur niveo* 
rum montium homines. The diilicuUy arises from the repetition of the 
wordjia (homines.)— R. 

I think that the character yu, (to meet, fall in with, renoontre) belongs 
to the preceding sentence, apd refers to the wind, rain, anow, the fijii^ sand, 
and the rolling atones, which the travellers/e// i« wiik / the meaning then 
would be» ** These obstacles» though innumerable, are none to the people 
of the country : and these people are called the people ^fike Suowp Ifeim* 
letiit."— KL 

(3) Indui qfike KorM.— The country called India of the North, Pe ikimm 
cAu, hy the Buddhists and the Chinese Geographers who succeeded them, 
waa not eompriied in the present limits of Hindoatan ; the name applies to 
the countries situated to the N. E. of the Indus, south of the Hindu Koih 

ifrmffmmmmmmmmm u t i i ^p"»" w*'» turiii m'vm mmvmm^'^mi^'^^^^'^fi^^iH^^fFf^M 



in the eastern part of the country now calleil Afghanistan. India of the 

north contains besides Tho l\f (Darada ?), Utljfm9, Gandkara^ and other 

countries to be named further on.— R. 

(4) Tko If. — ^Tbis little country is elsewhere wholly unknown. — R. 

M. Remasat has conjecturally identified it with Darada, as will be seen 

in the preceding note ; upon what grounds, except its situation, I know not* 

The itinerary of Uiuan Thsang throws no light upon the subject. Professor 

Wilson, however, seems to concur in Remusat's identification, whiph, he 

says, " is better founded than perhaps he is aware ; for Chilas or Dardu, 

the capital of the Dard country, is situated among the mountains where the 

Indus enters the main range." — J. W. L. 

(&) La koM.'-^Lo kam, or more exactly A to kam, is the Chinese tran« 

script of the Sanskrit word Arhan, venerable. A to htm signifies, according 

to the Chinese, " he who is no more subject to birth, or who has no need 

of study {worn ten/, wou kioj." The Arhan is one who has himself arrived (^ 

at perfection, and who knows how to direct others to it.* He is ten million 

times superior to the Anigkmi ; and a million times inferior to a Proifeka 

Buddha, according to the scale of merit applied to the different classes of 

saints ; a scale attributed to Sakya Muni himself.f The Arhans play a very ^ 

conspicuous part in the fiuddhie legenda. The Tibetans e»ll them giVot* ^^ 

MoMt and reckon eighteen principal ones, who figure also in Chinese my* 

thology. Sixteen others are also described, to whom they give the epithet 

fTM/, and who reside in different islands of the terrestrial world.t The 

Arhan here spoken of is caUed Mo ihian ii kio, (in Pali ModkydmiikaJ 

according to the report of Hiuan Thsang. See sequel. Chap. YIII.^-R. 

(6) euperaaiurat /iowm*,— literally •• ike mjteieni oirenfth of ih§ Oods.** 

The perfect knowledge of the verities of Buddhism obtains for the saints of 

this religion ten kinds of power. Ist, They know the thoughts of others. 

2d, They possess the pure and piercing tight of the eyet ^ Aeuren ; t e. they 

behold deariy, know without difficulty or obscurity, whatever occurs in th« 

nniTerse. 3d, They know the past and the present. 4th, They know the 

nnintcrrupted suooesaion, without beginning and without end, of the Kotpmo 

or mundane ages, present and future.. &th. They possea the delicacy of tho 

fieri e/AesMu, that is, they hear clearly and distinctly without obstacle or 

•iect, tvery voice and every sound uttered in the three worlds and the ten 

parte of the universe, and discern their origin without diiBeulty. 6lh, They 

urn neit restricted to corporeal conditions, but can assnsse at will tho fonsa 

best adapted for the aooompliahment of their pnrpoaet. 7th« They diatln. 

• Hodgson, T. R. A. 8. VoL II. p. 24& 

I Fm tkotioamtlii omi otkumg Hmg, pBi 4, & 

I F<s c*n fti, qnoted in Sea Usuf /« Ml, B. XLV. p. 17. 


gviik vftk MkMf mids ol JmAj m rnXwAj imp€it« wImUmt mw m 
diHwC. acKTtef kfttn the kMvledge of fonM ; luovfaig tha fom h 
▼M«ity,tlMycuiaMWMalllonM| uid'kBOviiigtfaitTMaityklbni. lUf 
cu araihikto malerial bodicp. 9th, Tlwy poiMii the kMvkds^ el all 
the Ltw. 10th, Thej pottcM the teieiiee of eoBtempUtioii.* ^ 

AmoBget the tea grad diMipUe of Sttja Mvai, the sixth, aamed Jfec 
Mai Ifen, aeqvirad the greateit aaonat of tnperaatwal power. The lesl 
•hone by the exact obieratioii of the precepte, or the node ia vhleh thef 
preached the doctriiie, or expounded tpiritml thinga.t 

Sepematval power is called Hddi kkwAilfmm hj the Moogirie. Saaaef 
SetMo reports serend instances of its possession.— R. 

(7) The Bttnm Tnm fAeK.«-This word, nsnallj transcribed TVen 
tf ev, or more correctly TVov sen /Ae, represents the Sanskrit word IWAi/e, 
and aignifies the akode ^Jer* I^ ^ o»0 ^ <^ paradisaical saa n s i o n s raised 
above the material world, and termed in Sansluit MMMmc. TWAi/e is 
the fonrth of theae ssandona comprised in the wwrid ^f duir€»t according 
to the BBOft general dassification. and the third of the JT^sie eecAere of the 
BttddhisU of Nepanl. As Mr. Hodgson, in his Skeieh ^fBuidkUm^ gires n 
more ample aceonnt of these mansions, I snbstitnte il for the reouinder of 
M. Remnsat's note. It is instmctiTe aa showing the intimate eoimection 
between Br&bmanism and Buddhism, as well as giving n general idee of 
Buddhist cosmogony. 

'* W;th respect to the ssansions (BhwwMt») of the universe, it is related 
that the highest is called ApMkmBkwmmm; and this is the abode of Xdi 
Buddha. And below it, aceordingto some accounts, there ere ten, and 
sccording to others, thirteen JIAnvesae, named PrmmMUdp VimMt IVsMi. 
Jlerl, Arehiakmail, Smdhj^i, Ahkimukhi, ndrrngmmd, AeAmlA, SdMrnrntU 
pkanmm-megkd, SummU prubhA^ Nirmpmmd, Jmpdmawati, These thirteen 
BkmtanaM are the woric of A'di Buddkm ; they are the /MAiM/iM-JUhi. 
iMMet ; and whoever is n faithful follower of Buddha, will be translated to 
one of these mansions after death* 

Below the thirteen BodkiMmtwa JIAaiMnee, are eighteen Bhmvtm^^ called 
collectively, Bupfa Vaekmrm* Tliese are subject to Buahma', and are 
named individually, BrmaM KipUtd, Brmkmdpdrdkiid, Brakmd prmkddyd, 
Mtikd BrmkmMd, Paratabka, AfrmrndadhU. Abhdtwmrd. Pmnin^-mhkd, 
Smbhs^Kuhnd, Anubkrukd^ Pdmpm^praamvd^ Vrik^-pkuld, Armmfi-Smtwd^ 
AAriAdt Apajfd, SmdrUAd, Smdar$mid, and SmmdJtkd. Pious worshippers of 
Brahoai ahall go to one of these eighteen Bhuvanas after death. 

* //m yaN king, quoted in the San tsmmgfn ton. Book XXXVIIT. p. 18 v. 
t FuH y ming i, ibiU. B. XLI. p. 12 v. 



Anil below the eighteen mansiont of Brahma, are nx othe ra, subject to 
Ti8HNi7% called eoUec^t ei f Kdnta^Vmehartit and lepantely as follows: CAc 
imr-Mdkd^rdjm-Kayika, Traytutrhud, Tutkiti, rami, Nirmdnataiu Farm* 
mirwuU'Viaavarih And whoTcrer worships Yishna with pure heart shall go 
to one of these. And below the ux hkuvamiu of Vishnn, are the three Bhu* 
vanas of Mahabb'ya, called generally Anipym Vkckardf and particularly 
at follows : AUk6gd»Nitya*ymim6paffd, ViJnyd'jfminijMgdt AHnekaya-yai* 
wSprngd; and these are the heaTcns designed for pions Sita MarpU. Below 
the mansions enumerated, are Indra Bkuvana, Ymmm Bkuvama, Sufym Bku* . 
wtmm, and CiUmdrm Bkuvamm ; together, with the manstons of the fixed stan, 
of the planets, and varions others, which oocapy the space down to the Agmi 
Bkuratuif also called AfftU^k^nd. And below Agni'\uMd is VoffU'hmd ; 
and below Vayu-kund is Priikvi, or the Earth ; and on the Earth are the 
aetea dwiptu, Jawakm^dwipa, &c and seven hdgttraM or Seas, and eight Pttr» "< 

•efof or moantains, Sum/rmpttrmtiaf &c. And below PrithTi is Jaim^imndf 
or the world of waters ; and the earth is on the waten as a boat. And 
below Jala^kond are seven Patilas, as Dharmi, &c. ; six of them are the 
abodes of the Dmtjftu ; and the serenth is Nttrakat consisting of eight sepa« 
rate abodes ; and these eight compose the hell of sinnen ; and from the 
eighteen Bkuvama* of Brahma, down to the eight chamben of iV«raAe,all 
is the work of Manju'sri. Manjiisri is by the BauddkuM esteemed the great 
aichitect, who constructs the mansions of the world by Aoi Buddha's 
eommand, as Padma-P£ni by his command creates all animate things.'' 
Tnasaetions Roy. As. Soc. Vol. II. pp. 233, 234.— J. W. L. 

(8) MiU phou ae, is the Chinese transcription of Maitreya Bodhisattwa. 
Jtfi /!r is the abbraviated and very corrupt pronunciation of MmHrepa^ n 
Sanscrit word, signifying, aeoording to the Chinese, the ^en qfgoodmmtp or 
•/ terndtrntu. This personage, who is to succeed Sakya Muni in the cha- 
racter of terrestrial Buddha, was under the name of Affi /e, a disciple of 
the latter. Othen assert that be was bom in heaven at the epoch of Sakya*s 
entering the religious career, that is to say, at the period when the duration 
of huoMH lile was 100 years. Since then he has remained in the character 
of Bodhisattwn in TWAi/e, and will continue there till the time of his 
• advent in that of Buddha. This adfent, according to n prediction delirered 
by Sakyn to his disciples in the town of ^At imi, will take place at a very 
rcBBote period when the duration of shall extend to eighty-four 
thousand yean; that ia to aay, after the Upse of five thousand six hundred 
and iofenty millions of years.* The name of the town in which he shall 
be betSf thai of the prince his lather, and that of the princess his mether, 
• Mfmm C ft Uf t dk i , a IV. ^ 32. 


VyS&kya. Hit fatlicr win he auica 4^kMiyhi m j U» 
■mUmt AsMCfMit. TiMUtterwIIlbetlMmortloTdyperaMhilliewoffU, 
inth apt Uketht flower i4«i« and bmUiTOdi^t of fuidU Bjrdtrtja, 

like SttTi. wtU be born from bb moCher't rigbt tide. Tben tbe fodi, 
iDbabitentt of IVubita. will brmk forth into ringings* fte. Mdttcyt wiU 
fife eigbty.roer tbonnuid jetrt, end the hw wbicb be thaU etUbliib will 
htfethe tame dnrttioe after bit jMVtMiWMC. — ^R. 
(9)^I?'^A| /elMf ,— ebout 80 EogliBb feet. 

(10) Biffhi €Mt9 ; aboinl 10 or 12 feet. 

(11) // $iiii exiflt. — ^Fa hiao bere tpeakt at one wbo bad teen tbit 
eolonal itatne. We shall in the following (^pter fee to what em be refera 
itt erection.— R. ' 


The Hit cr Sin tbeoe. 

Thcj followed this moantain chain in a aoath-westerlf diieeCion 
for fifteen days. The road b extremely difficult and faiigoing, 
abonuding in ohftadea and dangeroos steeps* In those hilb are to 
be seen mural precipices of rock eight thousand feet in height. 
On approaching them the sight becomes confused ; and should 
the foot of the trareller slip in passbg those places, noUiing in 
the world could save him.* 

At the foot of thesf hills is a rirer named the Sin iheaa.* 
The ancients hare jperforated the rocks to open a passage, and * 
haTC cut ladders of seren hundred steps. When you have passed 
these ladders you cross the rirer by (a bridge of) suspended 
ropes. The banks of the stream are about four score paces 
apart. Neither Chanj kAian nor Kan yng^ under the dynasty of 

• 5Aiii i IMN, D. LXX Vlll. p. 3. 




CHAPTER Til. 37 

the llaiiy ever reached this point m their tniTels, of which an 
accoant is given hy the Interpreters* of the Cabinet of Foreign 

The ecclesiastics asked Fa hian if one might know when the 
Law of Foe began to spread in the £ast f Hian replied to them ; 
** I learnt from the people of that oountrj, and they all assured 
me» that according to the most ancient traditions^ it was after the 
erection of the statne of Mi le Phau m that the Sha mesL 
of 'India passed this river, carrying with them the sacred books 
and the collection of the Precepts." The statue was erected 
three hundred years after the Ni koumt of Foe, which by calcula-* if^ 
tion of the years, corresponds with the time otPhing w«mg^^ of 
the family of Cktou. We may, therefore, affirm that the Great 
Doctrine began to be propagated and extended at the Ume of the / 

erection of this statue. Without the assistance of this great 
master Mi /e, who could have continued the labours of Shy kirn 
and reduced his laws to practice f Who had been able to diffuse 
the knowledge of Uie Three Precious Ones,* and make it penetrate 
* even to the inhabitants of the world's extremity, teaching them 
to know with certainty the origin of the mysterious revolution ? 
This b no result of human endeavour. Ndr was such the dream 
^Mimg H,^ of the dynasty of the Han. 


0) Nothmg tmUd jam Aim.-^TIus dMeriptioa of the eiearpmeiits in tlie 
lofty diaia of the HinaUym perfeetly oorrespoods with the aoeosoti of 
■MMfarn trevcUcn, who 4;OrTobormte this recital of the difBcolties vliich render 
the poieago equUy painfbl and perilooi; tho peaked roeka, the atejpa cut in 
their pradpitooa aidea, the dudaa OK te eded acrooa vallc|a, and tho anapca- 

(8) The fifor fiim f4«ov.— Thia word aigniiiea, aeeordin; to Chineae 
JalerpnitBrioiii the Xioir ^ Tniimom^ (or wMch gerwet Jhr jm**^). Ac« 
oecdiof to Beddhiat eoaaaognphy, it laaoca from the aovth of the Lake A 
I lAe, paaaas thiwgh the Moath of the loMea clfiphant, teraa OMS (aoaM 


tt J •eim tiMet) rand tli« lake, wa tbowe H^eeds to aiMlHVit ilidf feU 
tlM fca of tht ■Mth^wett.* 

We lean frooi thlt eooMpapb j, that tomr rircn, ataitiiif hnm tka aaaae 
point, flow in oppodte direetioiis : Itt, the J7«nf Me or J/cif • (G^gca) the 
aane of which ligiiilief in Sanaerit, ceaie /raw #il# etUttmi AM^Miee, he. 
eanae it tehea ita aovree ia an derated region. It ianiea liroei the caatem 
aide of the lake A mow lAe, ao iiaaMd froa* a Saaaerit word (eeemukle) 
aigiufying«jr«ai|i#yVe8i tmatmlt. Thialakeia aitvatedto the caatof the Moon- 
taia of Ferftunea, and north of the great Snowy Range ; it ia eight hoadred 
li in circumference, and ita banka are adorned with gold, ailvcr, glaaa, crya- 
tal, copper, iron, &e. The Gaagea iaanea from the month of aa oiCof ailver, 
and ctrcnmicribing the lalce once, diaehargea itaelf into the aea of the aonth* 
east. 2d, The Simihiom, (Sind) of which we now apeak. Sd, The A ikaom 
(Vaeh, 0x9$ or /Men), the Sanacrit name of which aignifica tlieiwfe ttremm; 
it iaanea on the weat side of the lake A ncen Me, from tlie moc^h of a hone 
of gbss, or of aapphire, cndrdea the lake once, and diaehargea itaelf into the 
aea of the north-west. 4th, The Bi le, from n Sanscrit word, (f</e) which ' 
aignifiea cold; it issues on the northern part of the lake, from tUe throat of 
a lion of PHq it Jtim (tphaUH^ rock crystal} encirdea the lake once, and 
throws itself into the sea of the north*east.*'t Fal]as,t following the Mongo* 
lian ooamography, Ertmudjin tooU. namea theae rirera, the Gaa^, Skiidm, 
Baktchou (Waksbou, Ozua,) and Aipara, B. Bergmann,$ quoting the aame 
work, namea them the Qamg; Siddm, Bcrkho and Bakiehip or Skida, 
Father Horace namea them after the Tibetana, mGea-h^it, Sindkoup 
PakieAAom, and Sid0, || — R. 

The iake A Heou tka, or Anawad^U, ia the JKairenAnule of the Hindna, 
and Mapam dalai of the Mandchu- Chinese mapa made under Ktrmg hi and 
Khiam hung * * * . M. E. Burnouf suggests another exp1anatici|i of the 
word A neou ikm. In PalC the lake ia named Aumntaitm, which can be ao 
other than the Sanscrit word Amwm Upttt that ia, *' not brightened, or 
warmed (by the aunbeams) :*' aa explanation that accorda well with the 
opinion entertained of lake Rfifanhrada.^Kl. 

(3) Chang khiam and JTon gng, — Chang kblan, a Chinepe general who 
lived in tbe reign of Wou ti of the Han dynasty, conducted ia the year A. D. 
122, the first memorable ^xpeditioa of his nation into Central Asia. He waa 

* Chang A knu king, quoted in the San ttang /« ton, Book XVIII. p. 21. v. 

i *>ammliMg4n, Vol. II. p 37. 

6 A'omai/isrX« Streifereien, Vol. III. p. 196. 

^ Alpli^b. Ttiftt. p. i8(>. 

mvimm •^^•f^'i^ffPMIPl 


srat as ambaittKlor to tbe Vite /i, but wax deUiaeil by the Hioun§ nom and 
kept a prisoner for ten years by those people. Durinj; his residence among 
them, he obtaioed an eztensire knowledge of the countries lying to the vest 
of China. HaTing effected his escape, he travelled many days westward as far 
as Ta wtm (Fsrgliana). Thence he passed on to Kkamg kin (Sogdiana), and 
the conntries of the Yne ti and the Dahse. To avoid on his return the obsta- 
dea that had before detained him, he passed by the mountains through the 
country of the Khiang (Tibet) ; but eren thus he did not escape a second 
capture by 'Jie Uiommg nou / a circumstance, by the way, which shows that 
eren then Tibet was exposed to the incursions of the northern tribes. 
Escaping again, he succeeded in reaching China, after an absence of 13 
years, with no more than two out of the hundred followers with whom he 
set out. The countries visited by him in person were Ta wan, the country 
of the great Yue ti, that of the Ta hia (Dahc) and Khmmg km, or Sogdiara. 
But besides these he had collected information of five or six other great 
states situated in their neighbourhood, of which he thus reported to the em- 
peror on his return. ** When in the country of the Ta hia," he observes, " / 
remarked the bamboos of Khiomng and the fabrics of 8hu. I asked whence 
these objects had been procured. The Ta hia replied, our merehants trade 
with the country of Skin ion (Sind) Skim iou is to the south-east of the 
T« Aur, distant several thousand /I. The manners and dress of the inhabi- 
tants resemble those of the Ta kia s but their country b low, hot and humid. 
The people akake war mounted upon elephants. Their country extends to 
tbe sea. According to my calculation the country of the Tc Am is twelve 
hundred ii to the south-west of China : and since Skim iou is several thou- 
sand U to the south-east of the 7^ Ate, and many articles from ^An ar« 
found there this eountry should not be very far dbtant from Sku» On ihia 
aeeonnt I wished to pass by the eountry of the Kkimmg i but in seeking to 
avoid the dangers which threatened me amongst those people, I proceeded 
somewhat too far to the north, and was captured by the Htommg non. It 
vrould howerer be easy to issue by the eountry of 8km, and yon would not be 
cii<osed to the attacks of brigands.*" 

The emperor having learnt that these people formed powerful nations, 
and highly esteemed the merehandise of China, sanctioned the project of 
Chang khian, and dispatched several envoys in differsnt directiona from 
fihik Theseibuid the roads ckieed to the north by then and the 7W/ 
and lo the tonth 4^e«i and the JTewen mimg ,' tribes abandoned to a predatory 
life. Many of the Chinese oadssaries were killed, so' that tbe pfvjeeted 
iateraonrse never look plaee. A few however, auoeseded in reaching the 
kifyiess of Tkim, 1200 II to the west, to whidi the mswhandiis §nm Shu 
B 2 


«at eo«f«yea. It wm tli«g fai ■ crtJiblUi n InlweMrat ^Hk tb» 
Dab* tbsl the ChineM obtaliidl tlidr liMwlcds« of Mm UagdMi of JlUmi. 

Chang kbin wm afterwardi advancdi to m loipoftMit oflieei b«it btfiag 

Iblkd la an txpediUoa againit Um Atewif mm (B. C. 125} ba iMmd tba 

penalty of dcatb» commnted by fpcdal grara, to tba aatfana loai of ranb. H« 

did not enit, boverery to pabUth aincb nialU Infotvatlon ivganlfaif tbt 

countriet and people wcat of Cblnot ai aadi poneiaed great faiteictt for bla 

conntiymeni wbo affected aapremaej over Central ibnu* I bate tbovgbt It 

risbt to enter upon tbeae d^talla beeanie tbey refer to tbe earlSeat diaooveiy of 

ladia by tbe Cbinete, No mention wbaterer U made of tbis eonntry, ^rcflono 

to tbit era. In any Chinese work witb wbleb we are acquainted. Tbe otber 

- general, JTen jfi^, was sent fai tbe year 97 A. D. as for as tbe borders of tbo 

Western, tbat is, the Caspian sea, witb inslmetions to enhjeet the^Roaun 

Empire. Tbe information he derived from TTae eAi, (Tadjiks) and the Jin 

? izn, regarding tbe vast CKteat of tbis sea. And the time it would require to 

. ^ cross it, (three months with a fair wind, two years with an unfavoorable one) 

Induced him to abandon tbe expedition and return. f 

It is evident from the foregotng that Fa hian had no exact idea of tbo 
^ distance or tbe direction traversed by either of these generals.— R. * 

(4) 7^ Imieryrtttrg,^'! have introduced a slight correction In tble 
psssage. Kieom pi, is the nsme of a kind of interpreters attached to the Timm 
thou koue^ or bureau for the affairs of the fore'gn nations recently suhjccted 
lo the Han dynasty * It is to the reports of these employ^ that mneh 
of the geosrapUic and ethncgrapbie iufurmation of foreign countries ia 
due.— R. 

I think that M. Abel Remusat Is mistaken in bis correction of thb pas- 
sage, which should bo translated, ** Tbe two banVs of the river are at least 
80 paces asunder ; there are nine stations (where yon psss it ) It is related 
that neither Ckang khiun, nor Kan pnp, reached this point."— Kl. 

(:>) Pking wang of tkt i/ynes/y a/* CA^ov.^Uere we have a Ikct of tbo 
ntmott importance in the history of Buddliism, determining tbe e|>ocb when 
this religion spread beyond tbe Indus, into the eastern countries of AsUia 
Into Tartary, and as far as China. It has been usual to ftx the date of 
Its introduction into the last mentioned country in the year 61 A. D. and 
to ascribe it to an erent to be noticed in a subsequent note. But tbis 
was, in fact, merely the date of its official adoptiun ; for it was then that tbo 

* Life ttfChmng khium in tlie History of the Ilan, Thtian han «/iihi, D. L\U 

**'t>/.ii/, II.IAXXVIII.p.(J, 
*lhiJ,\}. .\.\.\.p.7.v. 

s minn s . III' i -»Mn i m i ij ii i i ij ^iiiiiii i wwpppmipnwwwy'^wwiff^ 




wonhip of BaddlM wm, aecording to utiieatie bUtoruuif , admitted to the 

capital and profeised with pablie flolemaitiei. Bat there are iioUted facta 

of which the MeoMiriala are iaddenUllj preeenred, which attcit that Bod* 

dhisB had aeverthelesa peactrated into Tariova proTiacea at ao earlier 

periodt and had established itself mostentatioosl j, without eadtinf obsenra* 

lion. It is even probable that thia religion waa preached in Tcrj early 

tianea, and that the destmction of the books under Ski k»umtfiU of the 

Thandjaastyv was the eanse of its decadeaee |* aad it hi related that in the 

twenty-ninth or thirtieth year of the tdgn of that prince, a Sa m a ne a n 

froBi the west, nauMd Ski Uftmg^ came to Hian yang* (• town near 8i an 

fon, in Shensi) with eighteen other coclesiastics, briogiag the sacred booka 

in Sanscrit. They presented themselves at conrt i bat the emperor, sh o cked 

at their astraordinary customs, put them into prison. On that, Li tag 

and hb eompaniona began to recite tho Mmkd frmjum p4ramHdtm brilliant 

light filled the entire prison, and immediately after, a genius of the eolour 

of gold, and sixteen feet in height, armed with a dub, broke open the gatea ^ 

and liberated the prisoners. The Emperor was alarmed, and rcpentbghia 

treatment of them, dismisied them with great honor.f 

Towards the year 122 B. C. the campaign of the general Ham ihimfin§ 
against tho Hhung non, brought the Chinese to a country named JSTieen 
#Ae«, situated beyond the mountaina of Yarkand. The king of that conn* 
try offered sacriitoe to a goldea statue of a man. This sUtue was captured 
and oouTeyed to the Emperor in 121 B. C.t Yan 8S4 kon observes that it 
was auide of gold to represent the prince of the celestial geail, and that It 
la the moda of the statues of Foe now la use. The Emperor deeming It 
sacred, deposited it hi tho jNi/ace qftweei Bftimf. It was more than one 
toise high. Ko sac rf fic ea were offered to it, perfnmea only were burnt 
ha its honor.f It Is thus adds he, that the worship of Foe began to bo 
introdnced. Chang khian, on Us return from hie embassj to Ta hia, re* 
oounting what he had Icamt of neighbouring nations, speaks of 4^AJn Ira, or 
India, and the worship of Feralilen.1 Under 'Ai d (2 years B. &) a savant 
named Thshi king, rsceivod from an envoy oftheFnt fi, naased /Ifwi ibken, 
I Buddhist works. China at this tfane, to adopt tho exprassite of tho 
I of the WdE, understood this doetrine, but believed It not.f lUa 
iaaB that lean find ngardinf the introduction of Bnddhkm faloChlnn 

* ITsaAiMCAMmf UUa/B.CCXXVLp.8. 

t F«f/«lcNilAflngpM«,qnolediathe£kMiiliaa,B.I.IX.pwfi^ 

1 TftMm Am «*M,Tileof H'm O. 

\ frrtdb«,netieeofthe8oeUofS&f Uaandloalwn. 

1 JUnlfisn,B.XIX.^7. 




ffflor to tlMjMr61A.D.,wliidik th* epoch miUj MMpM |br tM 
cfwC W« tlMJlpivMBtlfkani fwtbvdeteOtortlMpwtMaela^bytlM 
Empaior IHh tl ift eomitctioB wkh this nibject. ^ 

At to the Uitory of this ieUgiM» which the Chfawie «Muia fa thtir 
eurlieet apcditioiis ceUhB«hed ia the north of Tibet end fa BudUvie, Fa 
hiaa ie the author who has pictenrcd for «■ the meet predee aad fater* 
cstiag tnditkiii. Aooordiag to him, the Boddhiett of the Indns aseetted 
that thnr religion had been spread beyond that river l^ the laboais of tlie 
Samaneaws of India, at the time of the erection of tlie colossal statne of 
Maitrcya Bodhisattwa, and that diis ercnt took place three "hnndred 
years after the nirraaa of Sekya, in tlie reign of PUm§ treaf , of tlie 
dynasty of Cheon. Now Phing waag began to reign fa the year 7{0 B. C 
and died fa 720. This fiwt, en passant, woold establish the death 0/ Sttya, 
acoordmg to oar author, 300 years before the erection of the stittne, L a. 
fa the year 1020 B. C. or a little Uter. Now, without enterfag upon 
|he diacusiOn of the various dates assigaed by the Baddlusts to this event, 
BO Important to them, 1 may observe that the calculation meet generally 
adopted by the Chinese places the birth of Sakya fa the year 1027, 'or 
1029 B. C. aod hit death fa 950.^ The date adopted by other Ckfaeso 
authors well informed fa Buddhist tradidons,t diifers yet more from the 
chroaology of Fa hian, since it fdaees the birth of Sakya, fa the noith year 
of Chonang Wai^, (688 B. C.)» which brings down his death to 6Q9., liuora 
than a century subsequent to the date amigned to the erection of the ttatue. 
\re may here remark on the expressions fa the text, that they show that fa 
the opiaion of Fa hian, Maitreya was not a mere mythological peonage 
restricted to Tushita, but that li^ influence was effectual o^ earth fa promot- 
ing the objccta of S&kya's missica and fa propagatiag his docMfae to 
the ends of the worid. This passage must be compared with tfie other 
traditions, which fa. the advent of a personage of the order of Bodl^isattwas 
three centuries after Sakya, as a kfad of reformer, or contfauer of Buddhist 
predication, and a compilec of the sacred books, and which speak of him as 
engaged fa thia work fa the western part of India. The colossal statue of 
the Bodhisattwa will be spoken of fa the eccouat of Vdysna by Hiooan 
thsaag.— R. 

(0) TAe ku9wUd§9 ^f ijk§ Tkrm Prtehut Oaer ;— that Is to say, of the 
Dri rmtmm, or BrnddMrn, Dhmmtm aad Samgrn. I have elsewhere collected 
many illustrations of this triad amongst the Buddhistf \X <« these I wHl now 

« Uetangn Anmiiq^, Vo|. I. pp. 115*117. 
t bhU i timn, B. LIX. pp. 1--3. 



idd liie foUowiog earioas passage from a Mnhammadan aathor : — " When 
the Tibetans make oatb, they invoice the Kdndjm wum (dJTon miekkof 
mntm,) that is to say, the triple God ; Kmmdja meaning God« and 99mm, three. 
They assert howerer that there is hat one God, and the other two are his 
prophet and his word, and that the combination of these three in the oath 
refers to but one God. There is moreover a great resemblance between the 
Lamas of Tibet and the monks of Christian nstionst &c."* Bnddhist tn- 
TcsDers, when they would assert of a people or a prince that they practise 
the Samanean religion, amply remark that they are deeply attached to the 
tAree preeioUM eaer. The dogma of the three preeiome enev is with them the 
foondation of the doctrine ; a point which once admitted, involves all others 
with It. Not to believe In the ikree preeiome omee is an unpardonablo 
sin. It would be difficnlt to nnderstand these passages in the strict sense in 
which the words Bndikm, the Law^ and the Clergy^ are generally accepted. 
It IS evident that a Supreme Triad is spoken of, whose intelligence is manifest 
by speech and separate personality. Without entering here upon a mttsphysical 
or theulogical difcnssion, which has found place elsewhere, I shall repeat an 
anecdote with which a Chinese book printed m Japan furnishes me. In the 
fifteenth year of the reign of a prince of Sin n, (Sin lo in Corea) named Fd 
Mmf wom^p ike king, promoter of the Law, 528 A . D. the religion of Foe be- 
gan to spread in this country. Formerly in the reign of No kki wtmg, a Sama- 
nean named Me ilov teen arrived from JTae iS, (Corea proper) at the town of 
lekem nc. He excavated a grot for his dwelling. The Emperor of China, 
of the dynasty of the Liang, sent a present to the prince of Sim rv, consist- 
ing of all manner of perfumes ; but of these neither the prince nor his sub* 
jects recognised the use or even the names. Horn item instructed them. 
** These substances, said he, are designed to be burnt ; the exquisite odour 
whiA they emit extends to the sanctified spirits ; and amongst those desig- 
nated sanctified spirits, there are none above the three preeioue enet ; the first 
is called foe tkotthm second 2%a mo; the third ^ea^ tim. If yon make your 
invoeations In bombg these perfumes. Divine Intelligence will not fail to 
respond. At that moment the danghter of the king fell side They directed 
Hen teem to bum the perfumes and repeat the formulae. The prineess was 
Ibffthwith restored. The king was delighted, and mnnifieently rewarded thn 

I will add, as the opportunity offers, thai the images, the books, and 
the worship of Foe were introdoced into Corea In the second year of thn 
Unf Simekim tti(372); that the art of writing was intfodneed into A 

• jrir Itsat aiiaA, J. R. A. 8. Vol. VIL »i 302. 
t Ji^pMSM facycLf . B. XUL p. 10. 

44 . PIliOftlMAOX OP PA BIAIf. 

M (oMdiw fart ol Com) fe tte twaitj-aiiith j«r af th* !«%■ af tfte 
iMtMMp (3(74) Md tint a IbrdgA ccdcriartio. MMd JTa fa am AtMl, 
cama fhtfa Trin (CUaa) to the ia»a eovBtfj ia the teath jaar of U^ 
•Am«, (384) i the kmf want oat befara hia.led him ta hia |i^ ml 
ahawadhioithagreatasthoBor. It waa thca that Baddhian was catabUahad 
ia P^ taL The fbUowiaf year thay bcgaa a temple to Foe apoa Bloaal 
Haa^ aad tea paiaoBS there emhraeed the aaoaastie life, 

I aaj aothiof of the catobliahmeat of Baddhiua la Japaa. TUaiagh, la hia 
AnMrnli ^f ih» JkSrU^ aad M. Klaproth la the aaaotatloaa he haa added to 
that work, will ao doubt give erery aeeetiary eIaeid«tiea,-*R. 

(7) rJI#drcMi^>fla^/l.^lfl^f II, oftheUaadyaaityt had a diaaaii 
he beheld a auui of the coloar of gold, aad of lofty atatara. aad hariag hia 
head aarrooaded by a lamiaooa halo» aoaring abofe his palaee. He ooasalted 
his eourtiera oa the sabject of his dreaan. Tbey replied. *' la the wcatem 
coaatries there waa a spirit aamed Foe.'' Tlie Emperor therefore agjpoiated 
a high offieer aaaied Tlumi jra, aad a scholar aamcd TluiM§ Unf, to pro* 
eeed with saadry others to Hiadoataa, aad gather iaformatioa touchiag the 
doctrioe of Foe ; to draw, paiat or depict the FtQm thou (Umples aad idols) 
aad to collect the precepta. Thsai yo applied to the Samaaeans, aad re- 
taraed with two of them, J/a iemg aad Ckom /a /aa to Xo yaap. It 
waa thea that the Ceatral Kiagdom begaa to possess Samaaeaas aad to 
obierre the geaailexioas, A priace of CAea, aamed Ymg was the first to 
embrace the aew rcligioa. Yag also procured the book of Foe ia forty-two 
chapters, and the images of S4kja. Miag ti caused paiatiags of religioaa 
' aubjeets to be made, aad plaped them in the ' Tower of Purity.' The sacred 
book was deposited ia a atoae building aear the tower of Xoa/ aad aa ia 
returning to Xe paay, Thsai ya bad placed thta book oa a white Itorse, a 
Bioaastery wu coastructed, called the ' TempU of iJkt Wkiit Huni* Ma 
teog aad Fa laa passed their lives ia this BBoaaatcry.— R. 


Kingdom of Oa chaagw— Priat of the loot of Foe. 

On passing this mtf 70a are in the kingdom of On ekanj^.* 
The kingdom of On ekang forms the extreme northern portion of 
India. Here thej actnallj speak the kngnage of Central Ifidia.* 



Central India is denominated the Kingdom of ike Middle, The ' 

dresses of the people and their manner of liring are also similar 

to those of the Kingdom of the Middle. The law of Foe is 

held in the highest rcTerence. At all the places where the 

eccleaastics halted were Seng kia Ian. There are about ^rt 

hundred Seng kia Ian, all devoted to the studj of the leu iransla" 

iion^ If anj stranger, or Pi kieou* arrive^ thej leceire him with 

eagerness and entertain him three days. After these three days 

they warn him to seek for another hospitium. 

. 'When tradition tells of the travels of Foe, in the north of 

ludb, it is of thii kingdom that it speaks. Foe hera left the J 

impression of his foot. The dimensions of this impression vmiy ae« :l 

cording to the thoughU of those who contemplate it.* It lemams : ; 

to this day. The stone upon which his clothes were dried in 

the sun/ and the place where the wicked dragons wera converted, ^ I 

equally remain. The stone is one toise in height, two Unses . I 

square, and flat on one side. 

Three ecclesiastics. Hod king, Tao ching^ and Hod tha, set 
out in advance to the kingdom of Na kie,* whera is the shadow 
of Foe.* Fa hian and the othen tarried a time in thu kingdom ; ' 
and when the term of their sojourn had elapsed, they descended ^ '. 

towards the south, into the kingdom of 5if ko to,'* ^ 


(1) Tk€ kmgdom ^ Ov eAi«a^.— This omme ticniflef m fmrdem ; in San- 

•erit Vdjfimmt the eovntry was to named became the park of a km§ ^f the 

wketi (Ckmknamrii r^ja) was formerly Uieic. Fa biiin is Uie first Cbintsa 

bf wboB it is spolwn of s aeeording to Us orthograitliy, the nama is Om 

ektm§ i 8omif jnn writet'it Om ekkMrng, and Hionaa thsang On ckomg an. 

Tha last ascntjoaed traveller prraervct two other spelllnge. On ecn tkkmmg 

and On dUn. That whid^ ha haa hiaueU adopted ia the Met oact trana. 

eription tha Chinese admito of, Ondjiba, the ieh or ^ abnoal dwnjs bafaif 

anbetifntfid Ibr tha soft dental hi tha transcription of Indies worda. 

Thaoanntryor Udjdnaia vcryaelehratad ioBnddhistannala; bntk U . 

pel fremtravriknof tfibcraad slsMthal the CUacst derive ihcir kMw* 


Vdjim ctpecbny in ftOt» (18, ft21» aad 642, A. D. TW iMplMka cibu 
CM0or thif coutrj !■ A. 0« 401 or 402» wbea Tinted hj rkyM^owMt 
Im dMbCdl/« alM ia tiM jMr A. D. 642, wboi its kiBf aMicii^ • letter 
to Um Empaior of Chiaa. If wo vdy opon kfcods. It wait tpTobooa 
kaoira by the aeaMof Udj^aa la the tiae of SOya Maal ; bat we eve aot 
yet ia e poiidoB to eaeUe ae to edopt, or etea to dieeaie tadi tr e J iti o ae , 

Ma toaea lia placet thie Idagdom to the ceit of Kaadahar, eadthcee 
locates the BrUhoMaa, whc j he dengaates HeJIrti mmmt§ tie trUtt e/ler- 
Imrimma. Thie coaatry cooU not lie far removed from Attodi or Ftehawar; 
bat the aame is ao loagcr foaad emoag tiM geographical deaomfaiafloae 
ofthatadfhboarhood; aoris there aay resembliag it eoMMif the eneieat 
naaics of places ia aosTthera aad wcstera ladle, cxtncted from the Paraaas 
by IVUford, or aoMmg those eztrscted by Ward from the MdrUmdefm 
FmrAuu Tliis remsrk auy be estcaded to the rest of oar itiacrary ; too 
aiaay refolatioas h'^vo overtaraed the lastitBtioas of India to admit of oar 
tracing the names of places of more than foartcea centaries s^o upon 
aiodcni Biaps. The Hiadns hare no Idea of the critical labours, b;|^ means 
of which, in China as well as in EnropCa eoncurrent evidence is brought 
together as the groandwork of ancient geography ; and amongst learned 
Europeans, whom the study of Sanscrit has placed in a po«itioa to sapply 
such materials, but a very smsll aumber have beea attracted to researches so 
dry, thorny, and distastefuL The geography of the POrinas by Wilford, has 
not been sufficiently followed up ; it would nevertheless be most interesting 
to extend the investigation* and correct the errora of that laborious but too 
systematising writer. The perusal of those ancient compotitkms the Rami* 
jana, Mahabharata, and other |ioems, such as the Jf^Ae dutm, undertaken 
fur the express purpose of despoiling tliem of their geographical information, 
would be a genume service to learning. We justly admire in these works their 
graceful pictures and elegant descriptive ; but these beauties, however admira* 
blc, are the objects of exclusive interest only to superficial undentandings. A 
few fugitive notes adapted to chronological purposes, or to e*ucidate the an* 
cieni Geography of India, would have infinitely more value in the estimatkm 
of the learned. There are some hsppy attempts In this wsy of late yeari ; but 
these do not grapple with the entire subject. Henoe the determinftion of 
the phiees spoken of by Fk hUn has been a laborious work i and would 
have been impracticable In the time of Deguignes. 

[Before the resder proceed to the sequel of M. Remusat'a highly in- 
teresting note, it may be as well to apprise him that here begins thO grand 
geographical error of the learned French commentators, who conduct oar 


CHAPTER viir. 47 

pilgrim at far west at Kandahar, while hit actual route extended no further 
than the neighbourhood of Jellalabad. This error will be sufficiently appa- 
rent as we progress $ meanwhile the insertion of the following obienrations 
of Professor Wilson* on Ov cAanj^, will not be deemed inappropriate. ** It 
is not correct to say that its name (Ov ehatigi) is not traceable in Sanscrit 
authorities ; and it is rather remarkable that we find the name in what may 
be considered rather its Temacnlar than its classical form. We hare not 
Udyana, but mjiana* the On ekmng na of the later Chinese trsTeller. Ujjana 
is named in the Mahabh£rat, in the Tana Panra (Vol. I. p. 585), as one of 
the Tirthas, or holy places, of the north, and its mention follows close upon 
that of Kishmir, from which therefore its contigoity may be inferred. We 
have therefore the Sanscrit Tcrification of its name and site, and this confirms 
its position on the upper part of the Indus, possibly on either bank, extend- 
ing westward towards Cabul, and eastward towards Kashmir. Chinese 
authority, also, is not wanting for such a position, for Ma iwam Hit, as 
quoted by Remuiat, states that it lies east of Kian tho /o, and in the Itinerary 
of Hioaan thsang, JTian tk» lo is bounded on the east by the Indus. He 
places Ou chang 600 U to the north of Kiam iho /o. In accounts extracted 
by M. Remusat, from Chinese Geographical eompilationi, Ou ekamg is 
eridently confounded with Kashmir ; the description of its mountains, its 
▼alleys, its fnesU, its fertility, its irrigation, its rice, its lakes tenanted by 
dragons, the Nagas of the R&ja Tarangini and the Kashmirian chronicles, 
and the character of its people as ingenious and gentle, but cowardly and 
crafty, as still perfectly applicable to Kashmir. At a later period, however, 
the Chinese knew Kashmir, by its own name ; Kim aJU «« lo, is its appella- 
tion in the itinerary of Hiouan thsang. It is easy to understand, however, 
thia aeeming eonlnsion. Kashmir had at Tarious times h political boundary 
considerably exceeding its natural limits. At different periods, therefore, 
different districts, tueh as Ujjinat were or were not considered to be por- 
tions of Kashmir."-^. R. A. S. VoL VII. pp. 115, 116. The identification 
ia here eomplete ; name and situation both concur in proving the Oh cAeaf 
of Fa hian to be the Ujji^ina of Indian Literature ; a country situated on the 
ImIus, fmmediatdy west of Kashmir.-^. W.~ L.] 

We see by the account of Fa hian that Buddlusm was established in the 
4th century in the eastern part of Afghanistan on the right bank of the Indna 
in a country now known by the naase of Kafristan* or the country of idola- 
ten; far thia is incontestibly the country of Udy^na, whateverasay have been 
Ha ttlaal towwda the west. We learn elsewhere* that the saaM religion 

• F'mn i litm, dctcription of 0« dhoag, p. 6b 




flMfWMa tk«« fa tk« Mvmtli eestwj aMMf^h I 
•r 4adiM ; that oT Mf« tim fbwtea h«adfcd MMMtwiM ciis^ t^ 
formartliMa. umnl hi4 fiOlMiiBtorviBti tlMt MSBfaf Ctei 
iMdfOMfeddwvlMfVinidtluittlioMwlio lavMiiMd had loat tU < 
mdcwtamling of the wared booka. thaia ftictt, pi aacn n e d la baoka wttttea 
prerioaa ta the iataaiaii aT the Mahammaitaiw, aia canriatail with tiba 
tcttlaiony attbaeqaestly bana by tha lattar. and may avca aer?a'la aiplaia 
it. Several beta eoBBcetad with tha kiagdomarUd7daa,aadkMma to tha 
Chineie dariag the dywMtiea of the Borthera WdaadtibaThaag, will be 
fooad in the foUowinf aztract froai the JCm ilia ik&m aAaa, Fmm i iimm. 
Cliap. LXIII. pp. !• IS. ' 

•• In the third year nif MM^, of the leiKB of A'aaa «m« ii\ oftibadynaa- 
ty of tha Borthem Wa (502 A. D.) ambaaiadora from tha khigaoMofOa 
eaang broi^t tribate. 

««Thii kiagdoBiii totiba aoath of 6ta aU ( Ai aMm) « on ita north U tha 
chain of the Onion Moantaiaas an the aoath. it bordera with India. Tha 
Brahnana arOt among foragnerat looked upon aa the aaperior caate. Tha 
Brihmana are veraed in tlie acicnee of the hcavena and in tha eafealatian of 
lacky and nnlncky day a. The kiaga do nothing withoat eonsalting their 

'* This country contains many fincata and predacea fraits. Water is led 
for the irrigation of 6clds. Tim soil is fertile, and prodaeea fiee and wheat 
in abandance. There are many followers of Foe. The temples and tiba 
towers are higlily adorned and ssagnifioent. When two partiea b*v« * ^- 
pute tliey submit thcmielTes to tha ordeal of drags; he wlio is in the wrong, 
ezperieaees violeat pain ; bnt he wlio b in the right suffers no inoonTcnience. 
The punishment df death is not inflicted by their law ; criminals who 
BMrit tills punishment are aimply banished to the 8. W. of the mountains of 
' imi9Uige»ee/ where is the mountain 7*an the, on which a temple has 
been eonstmeted ; food is conreycd to them by the help of asses, which go 
and return of themseWcs without the necessity of any guidance. 

** The history of the monatteries reporta the jonraey of two natives of 
Tkmm komang (Skm ektouj named Soumg ytrit f se and Uoei acn^v who 
proceeded to the western laadsk This kingdom is bounded on the north by 
the Onion moantains, and on the south by India. The climate is temperate. 
The country is several thousand H in extent, well peopled, and rich in pro« 
ductioas. There is an isolated little hill, near a river whose watera are 
black, and the isle of the genii. The plains are very fertile. This is the 
dwelling place of Pi h »hi mi, where Sm tko abandoned his body. (This 
passage is mutilated ; at all evenU nniatelligible.) 

CHAPTER Vtll. 49 

" Altlumgh in fonnar tines their nuuinen were far from perfect, neTerthe- 
lew, following the example of the kingt the people had made tome advance 
in parity; they obienred tbefattfl» lited on TegetaUei, and honored Foe 
morning and night : they beat the drum, tonuded the conch, played on 
the gaitar, the flute, and other wind instruments ; and it was not till hidf 
the day had been so employed that they engaged in the affairs of the state. 
They never punished criminals with death, but exposed them on a barren 
momitain and there left them to seek their own means ofsustenan'w. When 
any matter was involred in doubt, they appealed to drugs, and decided upon 
the evidence of these. 

'* The soil is good and fertile ; the inhabitants live amidst abundance. All 
the cereals flourish there ; and the five principal fruits, as well as many others, 
come to perfection. At night you hear the noise of bells which fills the ^ / 

air (literally, the world) on all sides. The richness of the soil gives birth to 
•ztraordinary flowers, which succeed in tniamer as well as in winter. The 
priests collect these as offerings to Foe. 

** Hie king beholding the arrival of Sonng yun, as envoy of the great 
kingdom of Wei, to salute him, and having received his credentials, asked 
Soung ynn, if he were a native of the country where the sun rises ? ** To " , 

the east of our country," replied Soung ynn, " there is a vast sea, from the 
bosom of which the sun rises ; such is the will of the Jom /m." (Tatha- 
giu). The king again asked, *' Does that country abound in holy per- ^/ 

eonaget ?" Sonng yun then spoke of Cheou kommg^ Cbi|/kc<nf, CkMumg /m«, 
Loo <sf» s pointed out their virtues ; discoursed of the mountain Phemg Um, 
of tlie gate of silver, the hall of gold, and the genii and the immortals who 
inhabit there ; he next came to the skilful astrologers and the diviners, to the 
physicians and the magicians ; treating of all these things separately and in 
order. When he had done, the king observed^*' If it be as yon say, then is 
yonr'a the country of Foe, and we should daring the whole term of our 
lives, honour iU inhabitanU." 

" *' Soung ynn and Hod seng then issued lirom the town in search of trsees 
of the doctrine of the Jou /«. To the cast of the river is the place whero 
Foe dried hie germests. When the Jon Ui wst travelling in the kingdom 
of On Chang, keoonverted the king of the dragons. The latter, in his lago, 
laiied a violent tempest.. The S€mg Mm H of Foe was wet through and • 
Ihfou^ with tiba lain. When the storm was passed. Foe, aeated at the foot 
oTtlwfodcdffiadhis dteeJl4i(aspedeiof oapawom by Buddhist priesU 
•iortibaebo«lden)intibaiMi. Althoog^ sBanyyeata hava akpeadslnea 
4ia happMBd« the spots and markings an aa dear aaSf quite lueeBt. Ton 
■MMtoNNlythadiBtiaettiioeSthattka vary sU^htcat impinriQni of tiba 

■ F 



••At tiMphMvhenfbf Ml.«««aat«tthfttwlMrahle| 
dried, lh«y Ut« flrietad tovMiB to ttnrt M A MWMrul «r thcM evpti. 

at its fida ii a laanpla eoauiaiaf 6ftj aecletiastiea. Tba Irint irf tN dragoaa 
f^naaUf performed Biiradee. Tlie kiof of the coawtrj, to oopdliata 
hiM, eaet iiilo the taak gold, and pearis, and preeioaa atonae, wrkkk the 
king of the dragOne caaaed u» be Qaeted, and oonmunded Iha a^nka 
to gather «p again. The clothing and the food of the aenrantt of^tha taaipla 
are nippUcd b j the dragpaa. The inhabitanU calt it the tntpU ^ km^ ^ 

^ •* To the north of the town, diatant 18 if. there U a printer the fbot of 

Jonlai; thejhato arecled a atone tower toendoee it. The phmin the 
rock wheretheiBipiatiioola,ieeaiaaa if the print of Che foot had been nude 
in elay. lu measnre ia not deteraiinata ; it ia aometiBBea large and •ometloMa 

j aaalL There are at praaent attached to the temiile seventy cccleaiaaUcai 

To tlie MMUh of tiM tower twenty paces, there is a spring issaing Ikom a 
rock. Foe having purified himself, diewed the branch of a willow, and 
^ planted it in the groand : it haa become a great tree, which Um barbariana call 

PAon lean. 

>** To the terth of the town is the temple of TAa 1%, where ther^ era msny 
worshippers of Foe, Ti*a Fconthon (pyramid or obelisk aiploaing the 
9MrkML or reliea of BudUba) ia grand and lofty, bat the cclla for the monke 
are very contracted. There are sixty gilt statoes aronnd the templjp. Etery 
year tbe king holda a great asaembly in this temples eU the San^i^eana in 
the kingdom assemble like douds. Soang yon and Hoei aeng b«hcld thcae 
mendicants and admired their mannera, their orderly conduct, and their piona 
austeritiee ; and gave up to them a male end a female slave to make wine- 
offerings and to sweep the temple. 
W *■ To the aouth-cast of tbe town, at the disUnce of eight days' joamey ia» 

the plaee among the mountains where Foe atiandoned his body to | famiahad 
tiger. It is a tary steep mountain, with praetpieea, aevems. and peaks that 
enter the douda. Tha tree of happiaesa, Kulpm dam, and the m'nshroom, 
Xlap eAI, grow there in great plenty. The springs in the forest, and tha 
agreeable aftiatura »f flowera delight tha eye. Sonng ynn and Horn aei^ 
gave Bsoney to eraet a statna In the Peoa thou iu front of the asonntein, 
and engraved npon the rock an inseription ia the li aharaeter. reealling tho 
great actions of tha Wet dynasty. On this moanUia ia tha Umpla af Ma 
fwntt^d paid, containing more than three hundred mouka. 

CBAFTSR Till. . 51 

" To the Mtttli of the town rojal, at tiM distaneeof 500 li, is tht pUet 
when Fo<, beiiif U the cosntry of i/« kieou «ted m portioA of hii skin for 
popor md ooo of hit honet for n poncil. The king A ftom, orccCed a tower 
hi that place ; it ia ten #Aa|F high. At the pUee where the hone waa re* 
■Mved, the marrow fell opon the atooe, and yo« aee the eolor of the greaae 
aod the oilj apot as if it were qaile receat ! 

«• Five haadred ti to the sooth of the royal citj is the hiU Skm tki, or 
ff feed Mtflfff.* tiMre are sweet tpriags and delieums frnits, of which 
BWBtioa ia iMde ia the legend. The IkilU and the TaUejs are pleasingly 
diversifted; aad the treeaon the ■Moatains preserve their green foliage 
daring winter. The rich Tcgetation, th« delightfal temperature, the spriog 
in its Uoom, tlM batterdies like fluttering flowers, prodnce an ei^lsite 
whole. In thia scdactive abode, ao far from his own eonntry, Sonng ynn c^ t 

was agitated by a thousand Taryiag thoughts, and felt his heart throb with 
the eaotiona of olden tiases. He remained there a aaonth, seeking from the 
Brdhssana charms to appease him. 

*' To the aouth-east of thia mountain ia a stone houae, called ih§ Prinee'f , 
having two chambers. Ten pacea in front of the Prinoe'ahoute there is a 
aqaare atone on which it ia said the Prince was accustossed to ait. The 
king, A fion, caused a tower to he bailt to consecrate the reoicmbranco of 
the CMt. To tbesooth of the tower one H is the place where the cottage of ^ 

" In descending the mountain, at flf^y pacea to the north-east, ia the place 
where the Prince and the Princen walked round a tree without separating, 
and where the Brdhmana flogged them so that their blood ran to the ground, 
Thia trae ezisto still, and preserves the drops of blood with which it waa 
vvetorsd. There is a spring of w^ter there. 

**To the westof the house three H is the pUce where the king of Heaven, 
(Indm) changed hiasself into a lion and eat upon the road coacealing Jlcn 
jfWk The tracea of his hair, of his tail, and his daws eiist to this day ; as 
alao the place where A cAeen f Ae AAen, and his disciple ofltered food to their 
purente. In these various plsoes there are towers to prseerve the m e mo r y 
of these events. 

«* in the BBOuntains are the beds of Ave hundred endent Arhans. They 
am placed In rowa from north to sooth, and on the spot where the Arhana 
sat foeing each other. At the aeeoad raw there are. a great temple where 
two hnndrsd asonks rsside, and the spring of water at which the Prince drank. 
To theaovtii the temple ia alwnya eurroundsd by a grsat number of asses i 
— mm looki uftsrthom,und Ihoy go of theusseivee whetu they wUI. Thoygo 
In the mi w ia g, and nt aeon they out. Theae arespiiiliwko 


- 1 



g«wi the tow. at rowpiiiioaed bj tlit hnaorUl IT* jite. TiMra w« lbr« 
Mrij iB tUt UmjUm a iB«« aiir^vho waa fai Ow habit of throvi^ oiU 
thaaahaa»whidib7tha«morthaeifthttpirits,haatiractoaiabl»aalf. !■• 
waaibl J hia akia ahriTclIad «p and Ua bo^a aaparatadL Tha launartal ITo 
/»Aa, anaeacdad bias in tha fooetioii of aarrying away tha aihaa. Tha klag 
raited a taoaple to Wo pk; in wbidi ia hU inAaga aoveied with leavea of gold* 

" Near a little defile la a tentple otPAo Mae, bailt hj Vt cAtf, ai^ eoatafai* 
iag eighty eecleaiaatica. It ia aaid that the Arhaa Ye aha freqaaiitly Went theia 
BBaking offeringa of winOt and aweepiog, and gatheriag wood. Ofdfaiary rmb* 
dieanU cannot renudn hi thit temple. We, Sananeana of tha great Wei 
dynasty, had the gl<iry to come thua far ; but we retomed, not!, daring to 

** The third year Vommf pkin§, (SIO) at the ninth moon, tha eonntry of Oh 
cAoii^ lent tribnte. In the fourth year, in the third moon, and in tha tenth 
BBOon, there came another tribnte from the aame eonntry. The fame thing 
took place in ihe seventh intercalary moon of the first year Clin Aaa« of Hiao 
ming ti (518) and in the fifth moon of the second year Ckimf kvtumg (521). 

'• Under the dynasty of the rAaii^,in the sixteenth year CAiii^ ibaan (642) 
there came ambassadors from On cliang. There is no ntention of this in the 
life of Tai aemi^ ; bnt we read the following in the notice of the Western 
Lauda ! '* Ou thka, also called On ekttt^ na, and On eAan^, is in t|ie extreme 
sonth of India (an evident mistake for extreme north, as will be seen farther • 
on.) It is five fhousaud H in length. It borders on the east, with the eonntry 
of Phott lia (Pouront) distant 500/1. To the west, at fonr hnndred li, ia KM 
pin ((^i^hene ) Monntains and valleys alternate with each other. * They pro- 
duce gold, iron, grapes, and the odorifrrons plant jw kin. Rice comes to 
maturity there at the end of a vear. Tha inhabitants are weak, frandnlent, 
and much addicted to superstition and magic. They do not award capital 
pnnishment in this country ; criminals who deierTe this penalty are banish* 
ed to desert monntains. When any doubts arise as to the guilt of the sap« 
posed criminal, these are dissipated by the administration of a medicinal 
drink, which distinguishes truth from falsehood. There are five towns ; the 
king dwells in that named Sh^m ateiiy p€ li, or otherwise called J/e*^ kie H. 
To the north-east is the rivolet Tkm H /o .• titis it the ancient country of On 
ektn§. In the sisceenth year Ckhimg komttn (6 12) the king 7*Aa nM tn lAa 
po $i€, sent ambassadora bearing emmpkor. An imperial rescript convey- 
ed to him the aatisfaction produced by bis condact.** 

We may observe that in passing the mountaina to the north of the Pko la 
ton /on, and proceeding 600 H you reach the tribe of Ou chang. * The 7%aa 
fun yeaea A'eait then reporU the letter of Tkm mom to km ste .—- *' The most 



honourable fOTereign, endowed with goodaetf and virtue, who reignt at 
once over the middle and the high, asoenda the preciovs eh«riot of heaTen* 
diaaipatet all darkneia, and like the Lord Indra, ia able to anbdne the king 
of the A «M0« lo ( Ainra). Tonr slave repoica at the root of yonr boontiea, and 
aa if he had obtained the livlof atock of Indra, salntea yonr most honoorable 
person and offers yon camphor." The emperor waa flattered by homafe 
from so distant a land, and canaed a benevolent answer to be scaled with 

Aeeordinf to the Notiet of Wttitm CotmMn under ike dynoiiy rf ihm 
Tkmm§^ the conatry of Ov cAan^, was not more than five hundred /t in eir* 
cumference. It la filled with mountaina and valleys, succeeding each 
other, and streams and lakca connected at tlieir sources. Cereala are sown 
there but seldom arrive at perfection. There are plenty of grapes, but 
few sngarcanes. The soU produces iron and gold, and b soluble for the 
jm kim. Hie forests are extremely dense ; and flowers and fruits are abun- 
dant. The climate is temperate, and wind and rain alternate regularly. 
The inhabitanU are timid and cunning ; they love atudy, and transgress not 
the Law. Astrology is their habitual occupation. Their clothea are of 
whiu wool, aod few possess garmenU of any olher kind. Their langnagOa 
although different, resembles that of In iom, aa do their written character, 
their ceremonies, and their usagea. They greatly honor the law of Foe, and 
their worship belongs to the gremi tramstaiitm. On the river Sou phofa. 
$Qu tkaUf there were formerly fourteen hundred ITte /en, (monasteries) 
many have already fallen into ruin. In former times there were eighteen 
thousand ecclesiastics, but now their number baa greatly fallen off. All 
atudy the ^rfol fraiu/afton and yield themselves up to contemplation. They 
delight ia the study of their scriptures, but understand not the occult sense 
thereof. The precepts are carried out in practice, and the conduct of the 
BBonka is pure. They observe the ceremonica, and the formulseof incantatioa 
are In use among theia. We learn from tradition that there are five sects 
among them ; the first b that of Amu (ailcnce of the bw) the second, that 
of Huum a (eonveraloa of the world) ; the third, that of JTm ionon^, or 
Kuifmpm imbibed light) the fourth that of SAoueiikii ycov; and the 
fifth, that of Tm cAetm^, or the multitude. At least ten templca are inhabit* 
Od pelUasell by the heretiea. The towna are Ibur or twt innumber. Tho 
king Uvea prindpally la Mem§ Aie II, a town of aiztoen or aeventeea H ia 
circamfercoce. The population b very aaaseroai* To the east of the 
towa of Ifeag km li b n gicat ffoa tovjw, (if ajpo, tnmulna, saoaad of earth) 
where n great anmher of diviao woadora pceseat themaalven.' Whea Foe 
waaattva ho iastallcd ha thb place tho bsaMrtal Jin j9, kl^of J^iL 
F 3 



<Tlii0w«HaiciU«8tfaiCiaam,^cM«,iltocMHM.) Ttrattlwliabt^ 4i ^ 
(laouMfaitlMlcit) ^ 

[Lmmb (^Ar €h§€kieki§ 49r,Grifeki9dkem mmd iiuMt^kitekm JRM^, 
p«SO 144) lutt giYCA at the prolMlito rartoratimi of Jim M M. (odled 
Mtm0 k»li,hf Hiwui tliniic) in the SuMcrit wor4 Mmmgrnlm, ' IbrUuMte/ 

—J. w. L.] yi 

•• To the Borth-eiil of the tewB of JTm^ Me If. lome S50ort60 ii, jM ~ 

reach • greet Boutehi ted arrive at the foantafai of the dragoa AfUh» 
which ie the eoaree of the river Sen pko/a mo /Aea. The wettre diride la 
raaaiBf towards the ioath-weat. Samnier aad winter the cold b great ; k 
■BOWS morahig and eveniag. lo the midst of snow aad rain ther^ is a light 
of rarioos colors which shines on all sidea. 

** The dragon A po h /e, was horn while Kim Mktpko Fbe was amoag men. ' ^j 

He here the name of Ktmf iki, and being profoandly skilled in magic, he 
prevented, by his incantations, the formation of rain-storms by the drsgons. 
The natives of the country confided in him, and offered him the svperabahd- 
ance of their harvests ; they were very grateful, and cherishing the remcm- 
hrance of this benefit, set apart, each hooae, one bushel of grain as an 
ob*ation. Some years sftcrwsrds, it to happened that they Auled in this 
duty. Keng Ichi, wrath at this, resolved to become a venomous dragon, lie 
raised a tempest of wind and run, wliich dettrojed the harvests, and which 
when he ordained it to cease, became this lagoon, and the fount of the dra* 
gon, whence flows a white water that destroys the fruits of the earth. SAp 
kia jou lei, full of compassion for man, and governing the ege, was touched 
with pity for the inhabitants of this country, who were exposed only to this 
single misfortune. He csused a spirit to descend for the conversion of this 
furious dragon ; he took a diamond sceptre in his hand aud struck the side 
of the mountain. The kieg of the dragons was terror-struck sn^ mede his 
submission. He listened to the doctrine of Foe, purified his heart, and 
believed the law. Jom Un immediately interilicteU his injuring the harvesu 
thenceforward. The dragon replied, ** All those wlio eat, reckbn oa the 
fields of man ; this day I receive your holy instruction ; yet I fear Chat I ran 
with difficulty secure myself against want. 1 entreat that every twelfth year 
one harvest he abandoned to me." The Jou lai had compassion upon him 
and granted it. It is thus that once in twelve years there is a disaster of 
the white water. 

'* To the south-west of the river of A p9 lo /•, about ^fi U, there is a print 
of the foot of the Jon lai upon a large stone. The sise of it varies according 
to the fortune or the strength of beholders. It is an impression of his foot 
after hehsd subdued the dragon. Men of subsequent times gathered together 


•tones in this place for the erection of a temple. From hr and near thej go 
thither to offer flowers and perfomes. In dcseendinf towards the river ahont 
30 U, there is a stone where Jon lai washed his ganneata ; the marks of 
his kirn sAff, are as distinct as if thej had hern engraved. 

"To the south of the town of Memf kit it, distant four /i, are the • 

mountain, and the vallej of Hi /o. The river mns towards the west and 
turns back again to the east. Flowers and rare fruits are carried along by the 
stream. The banks are steep, and the hills are separated by deep vallrys, 
into which torrents precipitate themselves. Travellers sometimes hear 
amongst them the sound of voioes, or cries, snd that of musical instruments. 
The rocks are squared like a bed, as if they had been wrought by the hand. 
They streteh oat and prolong themselves, following each other in succession. 
These valleya and escarpments are the place where Foe, having listened to the JJ 

half of a poem, made the sscrifice of his person and his life. * 

** To the south of the town of Meng kie li, about two hundred li, is the ) i 

monastery of the Ma ka/m no, (vanM, Sanscrit ; the great forest.) It is the ' 

place where the Jou lai performed the labours of i*Ao« sa, and was sumamed 
the king of Fo ikm tka (%. Fam word which in Chinese signifies unittrMoi gjfi.J 
Flying from his enemies, and abandoning his kingdom he arrived at this 
plsee. He fell in vrith a poor brahman who besought him for alms ; having 
lost his kingdom and his rank, and having nothing therefore to bestow, he -r 

directed that himself should be bound and delivered to the kiag of hia 
enemies, in order that the price given for him should serve for alma. i 

** On descending from the hills 34 it north* west of the monastery of Jle ka ^'«» 

/€ nm, you come to the kia Ian of Mo jm. (This word signifies in Chinese, 
fern.) lliere is a sthupa there two hundred feet high. Behind it on a 
large square stone, is the mark of the foot of the Jou lai. Foe having stamped 
upon this stone, made the light keom eki shine from it aad illumine the 
aaonastery Ma km fa naght related the adventures of his own birth in favour 
of Bsen and Gods. At the foot of the sthupa there is a stone coloured white 
and yellow ; it always emite a greasy juice. In the times when Foe enacted 
the part of PIkau at« in order that they nught understand tlic doctrine in 
this plneot he broke one of his bones wherewith to indite the sacred hooka. 

** Bitty or seventy /i to the west of the monastery of JTo jw there is a Sthupa 
•reeted by tho king tTeii jfeoii. U was there that the Jou lait praetistug the 
■ctionsof PAeiii«,reeeivedthfetitleofthfekuif of iW|i< iUe. (Thisi^en 
word signiiea la Chinese la ^ite; elsewhere. £AI jn, ia used for brevity.) 
He had prayod to Foo, aad it waa aetnally ia thia place that he h a cke d hia 
mm body to dclivor it to the sparrow hawk inatcad of tibo p^eoa. 

••IWo haadred li to the aorth of the pinee called •/•^'^/'f^a/ 1^ 




Ma« to tfM litslM AIM «< !• «ii#« Md arrife at th* MOMMtfrj 6« m aM 
H. (Tltt»wwdBicttUlesiACIiiaeM»t]ieM«diflM^I4#MfyMl.) nmb 
a flAigM tbort Mora thaa d^tj ftet high. It wm in this.|daM that Jm 
lii. when fonMrlj Indrm, net a crowd of ■tarviag and diii^Md paopU. 
Tha phjgidaM eovid do notfaiag for them ; aad thote who diad of hwifar o« 
the roadt followed aaeh other ia aamtamtptad loecettioa. ladra, fall of 
coBpaMum for them, changed hie form into that of a haga li^rpent. Ha 
aommonad tha eorpara from the ttreama and the valleyi ; hearing him« theta 
all joyoaily b^gan to flee aad to ran. Ha eared the famiihed tfd the akk. 

*' Not far, if the great athapa of ^o« oia. This ia the pbwa when the 
Joa lai, when Indra, oat of compassion for tha infected, dui^ged himself 
into the aerpent Sqm ma. Of all those who eat of it, there was jMit one that 
was not relieved. 

•• On the edge of the rocks north of the stream Shan ■ i fo #ile, there is a 
athapa. The sick who go there are cured and gnarantccd against many mala, 
dies. The /e« /«, being formerly the king of the peacocks, came hither 
with his flock. Urged by heat and thrist, they searched for wiber, bnt no 
where found it. Hie king of the peacocks with one peek of his beak, struck 
the rock sad caused water to issue, which immediately formed a lake. 
Those who drink of it are cared of their, ailings. On the rock t|iere is still 
the impress of a peacock's foot. . k ! 

•• To the south-west of Memg kU it, sixty or seventy H, to the east of tha ^ * 

great river, there is a stbupa about sixty feet high, raised by the king of the , ^ 

High Army. In former times, the Jou Ui, when on the eve of entering upon 
extinction, thus addressed all people : *' After my nirvana, the king of tba 
High Army, of the kingdom of Om ekmng na, shall divide a portion of my 
leliqaes among all princes, to establish equality.'* When the kiag of tlie >. 

High Army was come, a consultotion was held upon their value. Then | -i 

the celestials and the crowd repeated the words of the prediction, aad 
the command of the /on Imi, They divided the reliques. and each carried 
away his share to his own kiogdom ; and in honor of them they erected | i 

this stbupa. On the bank of the great river there is a larj^e stone of I \ 

the form of an clephaat. Formerly the king of the High Army placed the ' I ^ 
rcliques on a large white elephant, and reached this place on his return. ^ I 

The elephant fell there and died ; he was changed iato stone. At this plaiSe, j 

they have constructed a stbupa. 

«* Forty or fifty It from Afea^ kie U, across the great river, yon come to. the 
athupa LoH hi tm kia. (This word signifies rtd in Chinese : it is tha San- 
scrit word /oAi/aia.) It is more than fifty feet high, and was erected by the 
king Wqu ^eoM. Formerly the Jou bu, when Pbou sa, became, king of a 





grrat kingdont ander the title 7Vm lU (' power of goodneis/) In tliis 
pUoe he piereed his body and extracted the blood to feed five yo §km 
(Sanserit. Yak$hu, demons, who according to Hinds mythology* are specially 
attached to the God of riches, and inTCsted with Che care of gardens and 

** To the north-esst of the town of Meng kit /i, 30 /i, yon come to a stone 
Sthnpa named Ko pom to, (a word signifying * unique wondrr') ; it is 40 feet 
high. In old time the Jon lai disconrsed here npon the law in behalf of men 
and Gods, and opened the way to them. After he had departed, the crowd, 
afflicted at his departnre, honored him by offering flowers ai i perfumes 
withont intermption. 

** To the west of the sfooe sthnpa, on passing the great river, there is a 
temple containing an image of A fom Um eki H the /a h Pkou ««. (This j 

wnrd signifies in Chinese, ' contemplating him who ezuts of himself;* it is a 
Chinese transcript of the Sanscrit words Avaiokiietwwrm Bodkitmiiwm ; that 
Is the BodhUaiiw^t ike matter who contemplmtet with /ore.) 

*' To the north-west of the sUtae of Phou m eomtemptating the keiny who 
txUtt ^Mmieff, at the disUnce of 140 or 150 A*, yon come to the monn« 
taia £ms pk9 Ion, On the summit of tliis mountain is the dragon's tank, 
which is more than 30 ti in cirenmferenoe. The water is pure, and forms 
• transpsrent sheet lilie a clear mirror. .^ 

*' To the north-east of l/eny kie K, yon pass the mountains and traverse the 
Talleys, and ascend again the fim tou. Tlie road is perilous and steep ; the 
hills an lofty, the valleys deep and obscure. Yon walk along ropes, or on i^^^ 

bridges of iron chains, or upon timbers, or on bridges constructed of spars 
joined together. You scramble thus more than 1000 /I, and arrive at the 
•treavlet Tka to lu It is here you find the ancient capital of On chanp na* 
Much gold and the perfume yv Aim is brought from it. In the stream Tka 
U Is, near to • great monastery; there is a statue of the beneficent 
Bodhisattwa, sculptured in wood ; it is of the colour of gold, splendid and 
■Mjestie, and more than one hundred feet high. It was constructed by the' 
Arfaaa, Mo tkiam ti kia. He completed it after he had himself thrice beheld 
1^ marvellous perfections. Since the erection of this sUtue the lew has 
•picad considerably to the east. To the east of this point, travendhg the 
hills and the Talleya , ascending the Sin ton, crossing flying bridges, logs of 
limber, pteeipioea, and asarshes, and proceeding in all 500 K, you oome to 
tibo cowitrj oiPotouto (limit of northern India.)— R. 

Fa torn to ia mo doubt the Chiane transmpdon of Bolor i an identiflea- 
tion happayoonflraMd by Capt. ii Canniaghani, who writes (J. A. S Val. 
XTIl.pp.97,»fl.) ••Ihavoalsobcflaforlanatooaoaghtoi 



f&bitt 0f Mwb faHavMt nd faBfiOfftaM* fai tib« t m m pm t Aw m g do g^ fkf W tte 
t» the B»rtkw«d of Kafhmfr I whidi li ilM UUntil^irtiott «r tfM 
eoutiy «r BolM*. ^vitk fte pmmt Balti or Uttte TibaL TIm 
Bdlor BowitaiM hav« oempied n •■Mftafai poaitioa fai Mr maft for a«oa. 
■lacnibla period* wldeli I am bow able to dcftoe with pfoeidoii*^ Thmf ore 
in feet that chela of moontaioa called Mastak, which fonoa the MttiHni 
booodary of the district of BaltL AeMiogat the Darda who apeek the SUoa 
laagoase, Baa^lj. in Haaoia, Gilgit. Chilaa, Darel, Kohli, ai^ Mac, aU \ 

lyiof atoog the ladoa, Balti la koowa only by the oame of PmM9^ What \ 

rmdera thia identificataoo bmhv atrikiog and coai|>lcte ia the aMBtien by { 

Hioao thaaag in A. D. 610, that the kingdoai of i»e few la, •« prodnead | 

Bioeh gold ;" a prodoctioB for which Bald or FiOolo k atiU celebrated, ai<d ^t 

which prodoeea aioch of iU rerenoe/'— J. W. L. 

(2) Cfmirmi ibJie.— ApparcBUy JfedA^ detm, or the ndddle regftoii. It 
la reoMrkable that aeeording to Fa hiaa, they BMide «ae of the very langBafo 
of Mid-Iodia, In OndyaBa. Hie original eiprcaaioB la aiBgnlar, *• They 
OBiploy altogether the Ungnage of Ccntna India/*— R. 

1 think it ahonld be tranalated, Jimemf^t Ihtgfut imdUt l^tdia, or •* thoa 
far eitends the language of lilid- India." — Kt 

(3) 7^ Ctmirmt Kingdom ; in the teit CAoump Ae«e. Thia ia praeiaaiy 
the czprrauon nsed to designate China ; and . care ia reqnircd In leadiBg ^ * 
Bnddltist narraiiTca, to avoid confonnding paasagca referring to China, 
with those intended to apply to Mathnra, Magadha, and other kingdoasa of 
central India. Tliia aaistake cannot occnr in the work of Fa hian, who 
always speaks of hb Batit e land as that of ihe Han. Thsin, Ac. dynaatiaa. 
—See Botca on Chap. XVI. 

(4) Lt99 /rwnfla/ien.— See notea to Chap. II. 

(5) Pi Jtkieom. Chinese transcript of the Sanscrit word kkik$ku aModi. 
caat, as Fi Aki§om ni b iU feminine fonn kkiAMkmmi. Thb terse b 
honorable, aa applied to those who beg their anbsistcnce fipaa notiree 
of devotion end homility. Those who have devoted themselrea to thb 
kind of life, have to practise twelve kinds of obkcrvancee* naacd /A«e« 
lAe, from a Sacscrit word which signifies /e shako OBe'e-se{^ beeaaae theae 
obsrrvaoeea help to dean away the dnst and the fonlncss of vice. The 
awndicant ahonld shnn all cansee of difttnrbance ; eschew vain omaascBta ; 
destroy in the heart the germs of cupidity ; avoid pride, and In pnri^ing 
hb life, search for snprease reason, recti t ude, and trnth, I^be twelve 
observaoces whidi are reeomaseBded to them with thb view, hav£ refereBce 
to the foar aetiona or mannera of being, named Wei fi fgrmoiip, or ikmt 
which ikomid hod^mofrmwtlfjt namely, to walk, to stand, to sit, and to lit 

CBArrBK Tin. 59 

imm m , Thm MUrnmimg m cxtraetrdi froa m book apodallf tMliB^ vpoa tho 
twif liliwn— €■■, a^ qrtitled SAt m/ IAcm lAo M^ .• 

IjI,— TTw ■iHifirwr dMwJddwdl m • plMowludi to m toi>. (fof«h»,> 
ttat to t« Mj a trmtqwi pUee^ m pt&ee ff nyt t, Tkto to Uie ■win oC 
■■BJilit dtottboaoo of spirit, of acaping /A* 4mI of dcrfiv, of dcotraytof 
fo ercr all Cho caoaes of revollt nd of obCaiaiBf oopmM fCMoa, ftc 

Had.— It to wyurita that he d»ay bcghto lalwtoteace fia Fag, jpwrfajirfli^ 
J)i)inofdertaoatwcatohaipiaity. Tha BModtoaat shovia aeeqit aa ana'a 
■witi t iaa. Ha dwald beg tha aoartolMMat aaeeanry for tW tapport of hto 
■ a rrri o l bodj aad tho aeeoaipltobBcat of hto aMMal dbittoa. Ha oagb: to 
■acwgaiwi ao diictaaea m dba food olttajaad, whathor it ba food or bad; aar 
ta fod fcwnCawat if it ba falucd Uai. bat alwaja to calttoa^ tba aqaaaiautsr 
af a pcfwct ipinta 

3rA— la brggiag ba iboeld taka bto raak (inPai, Fdf A^aalar*; wicbaat 
bai^f a ttr a cte d by oavaary Meats ; withoat disd«ia for any one, aad wiibaat 
ariactiaa bctaist rich and poor; with poticnee shoald ba take bto nak. 
4<yL— Tba Beadieaat wba aeeapias biaMelf witb good works sh a al d tins 
■Ittoaiacbtaabtaiaaaa BMal; it to taa aiacb to auika aa cariy 
t(bf«akfoit)aadaawaad(aftcraiidday.) U I da aat retraaA aaa of 
, I shall lasa tha aMrit of half a day . aad my spirit wfll aat ba catiraly 
davaied ta rsaooa/' Ha thsrefora araida asaltiplidty af aMato, and adopts 
tha castooi af anktog bat aaa f^^* pimiJtmJ. 

M*.— Tha food vhtoh tha acadtoaat obtaias shaU be divided fatothiea 
partioaa; aaa porttoa sImU ba girca toaay pcraoa aboai ba shall see saffer* 
iog fosas haager; the seeaad he shall aaaray to a desert aad qatot spat, aad 
thcva plaee it beaesth a stone for the bitds aad tha beasts. Iftheaeadt. 
caat fon in with aa periaa ia want, hi aiast not on that arconat hiasslf 
aat aO tha feed ha hsa laestved, bat tao-thirds anly. By thto sMsaa bto 
bady win ba lighter and better disposed, bto digesiion qnidwr aad leas 
He aan then wHhaat iacoavaaienee apply bisBaeif to gaad warka. 
lana eats with avidity, the botrcto and the belly enlacga, and the laspirn- 
1; ns lb ia g to wamm hgaf io n s to the p ta gwa s of icsaon. Thto 
oellad sa Baaef rif ilafa/aiwoddisllinla 
fdh^lha jriaa of fridta, hoMj aad other thtofs of tha sanM Und. ai^ 
osortahotahinbytW nBial^torariddiy. If ha drink of theea hb 



60 piLGmiMAOB or rA hiait. 

vaih and cicn tWm sad buiIm of tb«M ptiebed gmnaasU anljr ftr ipvalfe* 
Ita fkwi «oU* md t» eofcr hit MkadnoM. Ntwmd fcandw w a w t i n gif 
riM !• tiba derira «r rriiirth t tUj diftwb the rwMoniiif • aad lh«y 1^ 
•taf at tf a at fabaaff* 

8IA^--3Vairil<wr<AatOraiilythiaadKHa8. Thaaa varda import thai tha 
aaadieaat ahoald coBla«t hbaia*^ with tiba Mi tJla, of nina, aT tafai^ or 
of 6fa pieaei. Ha baa few dctirea anditaaailj ntitAed. Ha daairaa ncithar 
to have too Mocfa ttor too little raiment. Ho equftlly etchewa maa dratted 
io white* who have •nmeroiit drettst, and thote heratiet who, from a tpirit 
of BMrtifteation« go entirelf naked, In deftanoe of all modetty t eaeh eitream 
it oontrarj to reaion. The three Tettmentt hold the proper medium* More- 
orar. the word kirn mAm tignifict of di9er» eoUun^ beeaote of the pieoca 
whidi form the Tcttmcnt of the ftnt, tecond and third order. 

9M.— fffltditfatla, or tkt dwtUinf mtmid tomia, obtaint for the mendieant 

jatt ideat of the three thingt whieh form the prime gate of the la|r of Foe; 

* imatakiUip, or the brief doration of bodice which, eompoeed of ftre deflteaUv 

Ktnm to their originalt and era destroyed; paim^ which opprestct the 

^ body from the moment of birth till that of death ; and aacaify, tinea 

> body it borrowed, formed by the rennion of Um fonr elementt. apl anbjeet 

to dettmction. Tliv it in fact the obtemtion made apon thit inbject by 

Sakya Mani himself , who opened by it the road to sapreme wisdom. By 

dwelling among tombt the mendicant beboldt the eibibiilon of death and of 

faneralt. The ttench and the cormption, the Impnritiea of every description, 

the funeral pyres, the birds of prey, awaken in him the thought of intta- 

bility, and hasten hit progrets in gooduett. 

IQik.—VrUiAamuiikm, or being teated under a tree. The men^cant who 
hath not attained wisdom amid the tombt, should go end nteditate beneath a 
tree ; then let him leek for witdom, at did Buddha, who aeoomplished under 
a tree, the priucipal arentt of hit life ; who wat thera bom, who thera com* 
pleted the doctrine, thera turned the wheel of the law, and finally thera 
attained hie partairadaa. This is an effect of destiny. We learik besidea 
that other Buddhaa similarly placed themselves ; and the irte ia ao oon« 
neeted with these aaprama opentiona that the word kodAi, equiUy asaaaa 
the free and the doeirim^. 

IIIA.— To tit on the ground, d&kfmmMMH^ ia an additional adeantaga 
for the mendicant. Seated beneath a tree to aa to be half eororad by itt ahada, 
he cnjoyt the cool air. Zt ia true that he it ezpoeed to rain and moittarov 
that the droppiaga of birda toil him, and that ho it exposed to the bita of 
venomous beaata ; bnt he alto abandona himtelf to meditation ; aeated on tho 
earth, hb spirit is reereata ; the moon, in shining on him, teemt to ilkmine hit 
tpirit ; and ha that gains the power of mora eatUy entering the extatiettata. 



CBAFTSm Till,. 61 

\2ik.^NM9kadMiim t to be teatod. not recanbent. The tittiaf pottwe !■ 
that best beeomiof • meadicant ; his uigeatioii aad hit rcapiration an nora 
caiy, and he that nnore readily attains wisdom. Vices invade those who 
abandon themsdTes to idlcnessv and snrprise them at disadvantage. Walk- 
ing and standing set the heart in motion, and the mfaid is at rest. The 
mendicant shoold take his lest seated, and shonld not aUow his loins to 
tonch the grovnd." 

It appears to me that the foregoing eztraet from n work eonieerated to 
the haUU of Bnddhist mendieants, woold supply the raider with more eor* 
reet ideas of the sect than the repetition of what traTeHers have said vpoB 
the subject. The observances inculcated in the 8th paragraph may be 
noted ee directly opposed to the manners of the dl^emAemff, or gymnoso* 
phiite.— R. 

(6) Tk§ di mtmthmM ^ HUi iatpntHom eery.— Hie teit sayit soaieliaMf 
lsfl!f « §ameiimm akorii ikis dtpemdt ttpon ike ikomgkit efmtm. This pesssge 
might be soppoeed corrupted, if the same fancifol idea were not expressed 
fai yet BBore precise tenu by other Buddhist pilgrims who sew the same 
ofajjeetfaiUdy&na.— R. 

(7) The eieme where kie tUikee were dHedL— This event ie detailed 
more fhUy by Setmg pnn.— R. 

(8) Nm ife.— This is the Chmese transcription of Na^erm (a town), es we 
are enabled to affirm with certainty from the mote eorrset orthography of 
the saaae nasse by Hiuan thsang; namely. Km H lo Jke. Lassen (Zmr Oee» 
ekiekie, ftc pp. 1^, 147} identifies thu with the NAyi^ of Ptolemy, and 
esf abl ithes its position very satiiiaetorilyin the immediate Beighbonrliood of 
JeUallabad. See notce to Chap. lUIL— J. W. U 

(9) I^eiAeJeiet^Jbe.— Regarding this prodigy, one of the most absurd 
mentioned hi Buddhist legends, see notes of Chap. XIII«— R. 

(10) Fa hian in proceedin g to the aonth, traversed the eonntry of Udydnn 
for n distsnce which he has omitted to reeord, but which, to judge from tibe 
sequslft must have been very considerable. It meet not be Ibrgottsn that he 
reasained to the west of the Sind. in countries ususlly eomprdiended in 
Fsrria, but which then fanned pert of India* and which are, in fi«t,intnnne« 
fiats betwixt both, and distinct from eseh by the character of their populn. 
tisn as well as thsir geographical poeitieiu It waa thsM tiMt he fauad u 

See nest Chentar, Mie Lf-^. W. L. 






TtekwfdMi«rS«tolib . 

EqpnDjr flourbhiiig It the law of Foe in the UiicdoBi eTAi 

i0i:* In femier timei^ Shj/theedestial emperor, piit thePhou 

nf to the test. He dumged himself into a hawk miH, a dote.* 

[The Fhoa sa] tore his flesh to redeem the dore. After Foe had 

^\ aeeomplished the faiw, he passed hj this plaee with his dis* 

^ dples^ and said to them *' Behold the pboe where formerly I 

J tore my flesh to redeem the doTe T' The people of the eoontiy 

karat in tlus way of that adrentore^ and erected on the spot a 

tower enridied with ornaments of gold and of silver. 



(1) tUHm^drnm ^9m A« lo.^Tlie font of this warn w^NOd mm to 
MftBbliihltoladiuoriflsibtttUbelfewlierawlionyvBlnMwm.^ AU that is 
faMwrn of tks eovstry lo oiled is that it liet to the aovth of Udjiae, awl 
Ave dajt* jouniey to Uio wcet of the Gandhum of Fk hiao. The fUrakwa 
adveotnro here rcoorded wamj enable «• to recover Its Saaaerit naaM ; hot 
there caa be no doabt thtt the latter has long disappeared in the oonntiy 
ttself mder PeralaB and M. Hammadan iaSaenee.— R. 

In the Seeel, fidMiT, Bvmi, of the Ayin Akbarf, and of oor Modem 
nape we have the restoration of Ai As i9, the vallej of the SmmMhu of 
the ancicnts» the Suvmitu of the'HindQs, and the ^en j»Ae /« sen fen of 
Blim&n tkumf'9 itinerary. The bonndsries of this kingdom at the tisM 
of Fa hian's transit cannot now be determined. Wilson (J. R. A. S. 
Vol. y. p. 116) remarks that in the time of Baber the kingdom of Sw&t or 
Snv£t extended on both sides of the Indus.— J. W. L. 

(2) 8kft fAf cf/ft/la/ «mji«ror.— Indra is thns designated in Chinese 
Bnddhistical works when his nanm, A fAo /e^ b not itself transcribed.* He 

• San Umngfm sm. Book XLVL p. 11. 





b also adled Ti tAjf. the Lord of the Gods* and 8kp H kotum h^ (apparenU 
ly 8kmimman^,) wUcb tigniliet in Sanaeril ih^powetfia kim^ ^ik« G^.« 
We haw fees thataeeofding to thooider of Bnddlust diTiaitiea, Indrabthe 
Lord of the TVmptuirinikmt or the abodo of the thiity-tliraa Goda^ the asoond 
ia aic en di ng of the BhuTaaaa fai the world of deaire. In Tibetan he ia de* 
rignated dVtmg-pot Lord, and haa many other denominationa which are 
aaerelj epitheta. In Mongoliaii he ia called Ooratuida, and thia name, con- 
pled with the cirramatance of the thirty-three Coda of whom he ia diieft 
waa with Mr. Schoudt, the oceaaion of a cnriona compariaon with Hormoad 
and the thirty-two Amihaapanda* It ia diiiieiilt to object to thia analiigy, 
and yet more ao to explain it, aeeiDg that the Mongolian nomendatnre ia ita 
only gronnd, not a trace of anch analogy being fonnd among the HIndva, 
who BBora than any other people of Aaia were likely to inilnence, or to be 
inlineaced by, the FBniana.^R. 

(3) J>Ae« Ml ; — Bodhisattwa. What ia here mid of Sdkya Mani, refera to 
a previonacxiaCence, in which he had attained the rank of Bodhiiattwa only. 
Peraonagca of thia order are distingnished during life by their extreme good- 
aeaa, by uaiTeraal benerolence, and by n aelf-abandonment whieh impda 
them to aaerifice themaelvea for the benefit of all other creatnrea, aa in the 
pffcaent inatance.— -R. 

. (4) He irtmrformtd kiwuelf M9m kamk emf « dSaetw— Thia denble ^ 

traniformation ia by no meana inconaiatent with Bnddhiatieal notiona. The 
Coda and the aainti eoald aaanne aeveral forma at once, or eoald create 
aevcral aimnltaneona appearancea of them ; and thia ia what the Chineae 
opraaafon aignifiea.— R. 

The legend hen ennded to, aa well aa tiioie of the atarfing tiger, of the 
braaking of hia bone for a pen and the ahedding of hia blood for ink, &c., 
bdoQp to an anterior eiiatenceof Sttya, 'MmmeaannOily diatoat agea ago,*' 
and may be fonad in the Q#s;N* B ^ (Eibaiipff bfon), an elegant editioB 
of which in Tibetan and German waa pnbliahed at St. Peterbaigh in 1843, 
by M. I. J. Schmidt. In that work, howerer, the doable tranaformation 
mentioned in the test ia not alluded to i bat Yiawakarma peraonatea the 
dote and Indra the hawk. Profeaaor Wilaonf aeeau to think that the 
legend ia derived from BrahaUuucal aonrcea; and atatea that it ia told at 
aome length in the Fenc Penw of the Mah£bh£iata of k«g Uafaara, whoae 
ehaiity waaaimilaily teated by Indra, on whidi oceaaion the dove waa per* 
I by Agni, the God of ire. The ^iritof telagendappeantoma, 
r, to be theronghly Baddhiat-*J. W. L. 

• San Utmgfktm^ B. XXXHI. p^ 4. 
t y««nMlJ^yel ilf. Am. VeL V. p. IM^ 

« 2 

64 mjomnuam of fa huw. 


TiM kta^dM of KUm th9 wvL 


jbtjs on Uie void, and amfcd at the kingdom of JHUmm tka weij j 
Here feigned Fm 4' the son €tA yn.' In the times when Foe was 
Piiioii M^* he gsTO his ejes in alms m this eonntfj. Herein like 
manner, they have erected a great tower with oniaments of gold 
andnlTer. Amongst the inhahitants of thb kingdomvmany are 
devoted to the study of the leti translaiunu 


(1) The kiasdoB of ia<MlA0«ci.«-We are tempted totting I 

MBui of the proviaee of OmidkiM, necatly iatiodeeedfai oar suips.* Bat r : 

te opinion of a Chinete mthor who vidtod then oooatrioe lab^jqaeatly to ^J 

fkhioBy aod who hat eadesTOOied to netiiy the errors of hit pra^eemonia '^ 

tnnterihingGeognphiotliiaaMt, woaldletdvttooontiderthitasaoornip. ^ 

tioB of the wen known name n<m«Ao/0. Now thit bttcritevi^tlythe ^ 

Gandari of Strabo rf the GoiOifim of the ParCnat.t the JToMUer of Hat. \ 

oahnan Geognqphen, tnd hat SnaDy attadiod itself to a edebrAed town. ^J 

The leoBOte weitem petition of thit town matt not be held at an exeeption ^ 

to an ineontetdble tjnonyme* Many witneaaea, aniongtt whon^ we mnat -J 

plaee the Chineae Geogftpera of the djnaaty of the TkMa§, teatiff that f? 

before the Mvhamnadan inTaakm the Gandhiraa formed a p ower fu l and ^ 

cxtenaire atate to the weat of the Indoa. We posaeaa in the Chiine odUee* J 

tiona, a detailed deaeription of thia atate* two eentnriea potterior to the Foe j 

koae U. Many moat important Baddhial traditiona had earrencj^ at thia % 

period among the Gandhiraa and neighbonring email ttatea ; aome of them ^l 

refer to the acta of Foe, in lAe Hmewimke wm /le<fJliit//we, that ia, aa ;3 

haa been obaenred before, at one of the perioda of hia hittory wh(ch mytho* !-^ 

logy plaoaa antceedent to hia real life.— R. I /J 

• Pottingcr'a Tmrera in Belnchirtan. f lib. XV. /^ 

X Ward, Vol. I. p. II. ?f- 



Tbifl idflitificMtioii of Kian M« wei, witli the Gacdbara of the Hmdm it 
•o dcHibt convct ; hat 8u kQ tQ, be the country watered, hj the Ptenjkorm 
or Sowat river. Fa htan't emHcrtf nnire nmst have taken him in an oppo* 
•ite direction from Xtmimkur, The position of the GmmdiUirMf is by no 
means diffcnlt of determinjition. In the Fojrw Pmrdma, the Smikm is stat* . 
ed to iow throvgh the Dtnrmdat, Ktunurmt, Gmulkirm^ TmwMmmtt tfe, 
(Wilford. Am. Reg. VoL VIIL p. 331). •• The GmtdtHHt of Strabo, fays 
^Wilson (JTitf. ff ActAinir). wUch fnminhet an approiimation to the GmutmH 
of if erodotns, is placed nearer even to the Indns than the mndcm city of 
Candahar ; he obaerres it is watered by the Ckotuyet which falls into the 
C9pkeme9 : he has also a Gmtdarf§, which he places between the HjfdrmoHa 
(Ravi) and tlie Hydnpit (Beyah), and consequently towards the eastern 
part of the Punjab. Ptolemy only notices the first position, bringinf it 
rather mnre to the west, unless as Salmasins eonjeetarca, his SumMima bo 
the Cfktmf9 of Strabo, and malting the Indus the eastern boundary of the 
Ommdfi: Mkier Smmtium et Imdmm sunt OmdmH :*' a definition which \ 

corresponds with our pilgrim's position f cry well. 

For further information on this sniijeet the reader may consult Wilson* 
^rtsmi ila/if ue, and the admirable dissertation of Lassen Zur GnMckiM 
dtr Onetk. wmT Imiotkytk. KSmift, p. 143.- J. W. L. ^ 

(2) Ft t.— This appears to be a significant name ; meaning crfentton ff f^^ 
Or Ism. It may be a translation of the Sanscrit naase Dkurma mmfAatie, <^ 
which was borne by several Indian princes. According to thb tradition, the ^ 
son of the king of Magadha, reigned in the countiy of Gaadhirn. This his- * . 
lorical point might be settled by the examination of Sanscrit works, which, ^ 
judging from eztraeto quoted by Wilton,'* might furnish other proofs of some 
ooanesion betwixt Magadba and Gandhira at an eariy period of Indian 
history.— R. 

Wilson has observed that the name Diarmm VmrddJUmm no wheiu ocrnra 
in the catalogues of Indian princes. — J. W. L. 

(3) 4 jm.— This Ung is more frequently designated ITeu ftu Hb San. 
acfU nnmo ia more accurately transcribed A sAon kia (Atoka, sorrowless.) 
Uowasthegrsat-grandsonof kingPaycJU,or/>fnjroso/o (Bfmbdsftm.) 
of wham mors will be saU heccafter, and flourished a century subsequent to 
Ihoainrfinnof SfikyuMnnU In MongoUmi he k called JCtaaJbrny oivf<,t 
• «Uffi of the SHM signification, which however Mr. Sdunidt has failed to 

As the iMndationorneariyallthenllgiousodifieaainaMient 
iiantlribuMtotyssofMuigB,nndnCviu4tote llfi yuwnftsr the 

* iUm iZafa&cm, piefiMC, ^ It. 
t fi m rt bi ffii i 4w O^Aimg^ p. Ifi« 

O 3 

66 wnjornxuAom op pa hian. 

•irtiH^ te 9tk fw of te RcfHMj IChmv A«,* 83S a C^ ii«lf^ 

qfMhroidm of tli9 ■tmort iaportwet I aad tt il k ffMUM «p^ 

to tha firfgii of Aiokftt to wbldi freqaeal nhnmBt will be ««!• fai te oi m 

of thb Mmtifo, «o ihall htfo oenaioo to reev aaoio ttai opee to tko 

liifloiyortUtmoMrdi. Wo may purtienliriy Mtiee whrt Hiown ThsMf 

n^oTUafaiUidcMriptioBofMafodluu-rR. i ^j 

ThoBCBtionorthooooof AsokA.ooli«fiiif loigBodfaitliis UngdoMioo ^ 

oireomfltaBoe of gioot inpoitoneo to ladum Uttory. Tbo Rt0m TtHm^imi 
(Book I. iL !• p.) mcDtioiii oo jl«ote u king of Kailimir t Vol |o no port 
of (ko flight oeeooBt tbero glTM of bin do wo difoern ooj di^auDitnot 
calcidotod to identify bin witb tbe Aaoka of MagMlba, laio tbat of bb oo». 
veraioB to Boddhiwi, He is deieribed at tbe gfCit*gnuidfon of Bmhadf 
ooB of tbe poteniel onele of S^ekinart, , no notice it tatwn of either CAon- 
dr^fuptm or BimhMrm* Yet tbe imprcttion on onr pilfrim't mind it 
oridnitly that the Atoka whote ton formerly ruled in thb kiagdoili, waa the 
Ihmoot patron of Boddbitm in Magadba. Hid it been otberwito bo woold 
acareel; bare Introdneed en allntion oo irrelerant and vninterettipg at thb 
would then be. Ptrofr tier Wilton (HUiorg t^f Ka»kmW^ Km. Ret. VoL XV. 
p. 20) teemt inclined to treat iIm Aioka of Kalhana. at an ideal pertonage. 
It will bo obterved that Fa bitn tpcaka of tiM ton of Aioka otfy (named 
Jmhku in tbe Riga Tbrtiipjiu) at having reigned in JCien fie 'freii, and not 
Atoka binuelf. That tbe latter bad great power and influenoe in GemUbfrw* 
we have good etidenee in bb fifth Edict at trandatcd by Jamct Printep» «n 
which be appoints minittert of religbn to that eonntry. (J. A. S. Vd. VII. 
p. 258.) Without bebg able to tolve the difficnltiet of tbe cate» hialorical 
aod critical, I incline to think that oar CUoeie aiitboritiet can hardly be 
wrong on tndi a point. Atoka bimtelf, according to the Mabavantt, reigned 
in Ujiain previont to bb acoettion to tbe throne of Magadba.— J. ^. L. 

(4) In tMe /leie wAen Foe wu9 Pkou m,— that b, in one of thote ttatea of 
oxbtence wUdi we recf^gniae at anterior to hit hbtorical exbtenee, in which 
$akya Mani had already attained tbe bighett point of moral and intellcctoal 
perfection, and aeqnired tbe rank of Bodhbattwa. Thb portio^ of the 
legend being bnt little known, and forming at it were the inlreAieltry 
jcene of the life of Baddha, I proceed to give an ezlnet from a oemon 
preached by Sakya Mnni, in tbe kingdom of Kapib, in tbe chaf^ of the 
S&kya family, under a tree of the tpeciet upagrodAa (feut wligioim), at 
whbb wcfc pretent, twelf e hundred and fifty great mendieantt all of tbe rank 
of Arhant, five hundred femtle mendieantt, an infinite number of Up4Mik€ 
aud UiMMikl (faithful of either tcx) of brahmaot ; the four kingt of Heaven, 
• II tt ^A kxo loftH ii€M gakfotm-Ha Utn^, li. I. p. 17 v. 


the kiqg of Tnytstrintlia (Indrs). Yama* the goda of T^ishiU, tlie god 
Nimalothi, the fod Pbo lo ni mi, Bnhma, and the godfi alio of Aganbh- 
ta, with the prineea of the Nagaa, of the Assraa, of the Kia lieoo lo» of the 
Chia tho lo, of the Ma hieoa le» &e. ; and, the king Pe taing, the king 
Wo« Bon, the king Won yonan, the king Kan km tiing, and nine hnndred 
thoonnd grandeea and magiatimtea of the kingdom of Kapila, who were 
an n mcmble d to do honor to 8£kya, in hie rceently reeogniaed rank of Bed- 
dha. Jfotemen Menlien, oneof thefavoriU diadpkaof Sikyatwaa he 
whodidtedtheaeeoontofthe anteeedent fortnnea of the Utter deliYered the 
loOowing diaeottfie, of which I limit myaelf to the tranaeription of the aaoat 
prominent cifcnautaneea only.* ** My real life haa extended o?er innn« 
muabl a ira(jpat. I waa at firrt bat an ordinary man, aearehing for the 
doctrine of Boddha^- My aonl reeeiYod a material form in paming by the 
ftre waya. Wlien one body waa destroyed, I obtained another. The nnm- 
ber of my Urtba and deatha can only be compared with the number of 
planta and tiees in the entire nnivene. The bodice I haTC pometaed can»it 
be reckoned. That period of time which compriaea the beginning and tlw 
end of heaven and earth, is called a Kmlpms and I cannot myielf relate the 
reaewab and the dettractiona of bcaYcn and earth that I have witnessed. 
The cansea of painlnl eoMtiona are earthly pa ssi o n s. I waa a long time 
tfiMting on, aod as it were immersed in the ocean of dcsiree ; bat I stroYO 
to trace these to their scarce : soch was the object of my efforts, and thna 
1 sncceeded. AncienUy, in the time of the Boddlia Timf kmamf (" light of 
the vase," Dipankara) there waa a holy king named Temg 9km§ {** abandance 
of lamps") who reigned in the coaairy of Tki Ae 'iMt. Ub sabjecU were 
iiYoared with great longerity, and lived in the exercise of piety and justice. 
Their land was fcrtib, and they enjoyed profound peace. It waa then that 
the prince Tem§ kommug was bom ; a prince endowed with peerless Ueal* 
ties. The holy king, who loved him, perceiving the approach of old age, 
wonld haro resigned to him the kingdom ; but the prince yblded in favor of 
hb younger brother, embraced a rcligitfua life, founded the Semancan doc- 
trine, and became Buddha. He traveraed the whob world at the brad of u 
band of numberbse dbciplee. When he returned to the kingdom of Thi ho 
*weh to eoBVcrthb fsatily and Urn graudeeeof the country, the Utter wero 
alarmed at the multitude of hb followera, and wero about to oppoee hb 
p rogra m by a groat army. The Bnddha, by aseans of the six aupematural 
Ibcultba he enjoyedy penetrated their design, raised a strong and lofty 
man* and thcu a aacond, and wndawd thero waUa trunaparaat at ^aas, ao 
that ais hundrod aisd twenty thousand bhikshna, all equal to Buddhaa, 

. ♦ Fmn the ftmu hAng fm Im fctaig,%peted iu«in I tienjlask LXXVIL pbt. 




nw wi i Skn mf J k tH— , TheUaf mw UiOTVori tiMBdMlMVitadofvd* 

aad pw p a r a H oai nw — <e for • mlgbtj fattifil for hb iew | >tiwi, fbrllM 

•|MMof 40 II tlie roads wflfft a«4e imooCh« and watartd wkh p wfti — d 

water; and toate and pfviUimt wera areetodt all adorned witli gold and 

silvar and praeiona atones. The king advaneed to nast tlia Boddlia« and 

the latter commanded tbe bhikshns to acknowledge the honors he^reoeited* 

Whilst this was enacting, i.iers was a yonng JRm cM scholar (BrrihmachaH) 

named ' Spotless liglTt :' from his yonth npward he had given ingestions of 

superior inteUigenoe. His sonl was alreadj opened to the most nn know. 

ledge. Retired among»t forests and monntains, he led a pnre life, given np 

to contemplation, studying the seriptares ; and there wss nothing tbst be did 

not tWooghly understand. He bed cimverted nuuny, and among the rest, a 

Brahmarhari named Pon Ui iAo, who senred in a great temple, nhere through. 

out the year he performed ceremonies and sacrifice. The band of his dis* 

ciples, amounting to eighty thousand, brought him at the end of the ycar^ 

gold of the Dakshin, silrer, precious stones, chariots, horses, sh«ep, rich 

dresses, stuffs, elegant shoes, canopies enriched with pearls, s^ves of v^ 

bram (for the nse of the mendicants) and ewers. The most able and 

the most intelligent are entitled to all these treasures. Seven days had 

not elapsed ere the young Bodhisattwa entered this company. He preached P 

seven days and seven nights. His audience was enraptured, and more then £^ 

all their chief, who wished to present the Bodhiiattwa with a virtuous girl ; * ' r 

but the Bodhisattwa would accept nothing but an umbrella, a staff, a ewer, 

aome shoes, and a thousand pieces of money. He restored all the rest 

to the master, who desired, at any rate, to share it with him ; but the Bodhi. 

sattwa still refused ; and when on parting from his disciples, distnbuted. to 

each a piece of money. Proceeding on his journey he csnie to a land the 

inhabitanU of which seemed joyously miikiag preparations on all sides 

for festivals. He enquired the cause of these festivals/ and was inform. 

ed that Ting kouang was coming to recnve the homage of the peoiile* Tbe 

young Bodhisattwa leapt for joy on learning the advent of the Bud Jha, and 

asked what homage they were to pay him ? *' Nothing but offerings of 1 

flowers, they replied ; perfumes, woollen stuffs, and flags." He hastened to 

tbe town ; but the king had forbidden the sale of flowers for seven days to 

reserve enough for the ceremonies ! The Bodhisattwa fdt deeply mortified 

at this dissppolntment ; but the Buddha penetrated the int«ntionaof the 

young man. A girl happened to pass with a pitcher full of flowers : the \ / J 

Buddha illumined it with a ray of light ; the pitcher became transparent as 

glass, and the Bodhisattwa, having bought the flowen, went ailay do. 

lightrd. U4 


"The BmUlha arrivedy an ijiiBcme ■raltitvde acccmpanyinf him aad 
.forainig aroiuMl him many tho«iMnd timet a handled rowt. The BodhisaU 
twa itrove to approach and Matter his lioircrs, hat waa anable. The Buddha, 
pcrerif mg hia eflbrta caoa^ a great namber of men of cUj to arise from the 
earth and af»bt him in penetrating the throng. The Bodhisattwa then 
threw forward five flowcra, which remained aaapended in the w^f and formed a 
canopj Mfenty /I in cirmmferenee. Two other llowert fiied themteWea on 
the f houldera of the Baddha, aa if thej had there taken root. The delighted 
Bodhisattwa spread hia hair npon the gronnd and entreated the holj person- 
age to tread a|Hm it. After sondry oomplimenta aad fresh solieitationa, the 
Baddha complied. There then issued from his smiling lips two rap of light 
of different hoea, which aeparating at the distance of seren feet, thrice enetr- 
cled his person ; one of these then illumined the three thousand millions 
of worMs without omitting one, and returned to the rertex (of the saint) ; the 
other penetrated to the eighteen infernal regions and for a moment suspend- 
ed the tortures of the damned. The disciplea asked the Buddha, to explain 
the reason of that smile. •* You see this young man, he replied ; the 
Honorable of the 'Age announces to jon, that the purity h* has stri^eB to 
attain during an infinite number of kalpas, in subjecting hia heart, sur- 
mounting fate, and expelling hia passions, hath obtained for him, from the 
present time, that supreme void which results from the accumulation of vlr- 
tnest and which shall accomplish his desires.'* Then turning to the young man, 
' In a hundred kalpas, continued the Buddha, thou ahalt become Buddha ; 
thou Shalt be called SMg kia iren, (the pious, the humane). The name of the 
kalpa in which thou ahalt appear shall be Pko tAo, (wise) ; the worUi ahall be 
called SAm /ou. Thy father shall be Fe Mny, thy mother Mm jre, thy wife 
JCiean i, thy son £e. Thy companion shall be Anmn^ thy right hand diadplo 
Sh9 ii/o€, they left JfmAm men kimn //an. Thou shalt instruct the men of the 
Hvt great worlds ; thou shalt save the ten parte, in all respects like myself." 
Thereupon Bodhisattwa Mf Piona, whom this announcement OTerwhelmed 
with joy, loat the faculty of thought and fell into an extasy ; white hu body 
at the same moment waa raised in the air and conUnued suspended at the 
height of fifty-six feet from the earth. He then came down and prostrated 
himaelf at the foot of the Buddha. He thenceforth became a Samanean, and 
when the Buddha preached the Uw, Bodhisattwa the Fiona assisted. When 
Ting konng attained nirWhia, thia Buddha reerlYed the precepU and maintained 
the law in an ita purity. He never cnaaed the practiee of goodness, huasn. 
■Ity, charity, and all the virtuea. When he died, he waa lebosn in IVnhiln i 
b«t aa be over longed lo save theee whoceotinned in blindneaa and d a rk ness, 
heteceirfedinthe fiim of the JCI^ tam^ lAe H^ftN^* (ChnkiBvaiti) |Af 

70 riLGStMAGK or VA HtAN, 

# wy frtr vA« wmikt/ymf.* Re wm tbeofwaer of tiie mtoi tiCMsra^ cadb mwc 
praeioM th«i tlie other s the goMca wlieel» tlie divine peerle, the perliBct. 
wife (of Jeiper), tlie •n.accoBipli«lied miaiitcr, m weU diedpUiiMl mrmj, tbo 
Bune of a parple bone bedceked with pearls, tad the eqnaHy fti^eed tail oC 
a white elephant.*' See XVIL 12. 

•« The age of man was at that tine, eigfaty-foor thoaiand years, lie had 
in his palaeeeigbty-foar thousand wiTes. A thonsand sons were bom to hiss* 

* all so brave and virtuoas that each was eqoal to a tlioosaitd (ordinary men). 
The holy king reigned with the ntmost wisdom, and eaosed virtn^ to floarish* 
He established peace throushout the nnivene. Wind and rain ennie at the 
fit moment fur ripening the crops ; and whoever cat of the UUer experi- 
enced no sickness. Tlieir savour was as a sweet dew, and easured perfect 
health. There were but seven infirmities or imperfections ; cold, heat, hung- 
er, thirst, the two natural necescities, and the cravings of the spirit. When 
the holy king^ad fulfilled hb time, he ascended to the bearen of Brahma and 
became Brahma. The duration of the life of a Brahma, is two r^enerationa 
of the world, or two thonsand six hundred and eighty-eiglit millions of years. 
In heaven, he was Indrt. The life of an Tndra, is a thonsand years, of which 

* each day is equal to one hundred of our years ; or thirty-six millions fixe 
hundred thonsaad years. Upon earth he was a holy king. These vici«si« 
tndes occurred thirty*six times ; when again he experienced a desire to save 
men, and at an appropriate time, became once more Bodhisattwa. In sub- 
jection to pain he passrd three Ammtya of kalpas (three hundred quad- 
rillion times sixteen million eight hundred thousand years). A| the end of 
this time he longed to display his commiseration for all suiTerers, and to turn 
the wheel in favor of all liring beings. He abandoned his body to a hungry 
tiger, and passed nine kalpas devoted to the greatest eiforta. in the 
ninety-one kalpas remaining (from the tloie of the Buddha, Ting kouang) 
he applied himself to the study of reason and virtue ; introduced himself to 
the thoughts of Buddha, practised the six means of salvntion, apd united in 
his heart the truth of alms (daiia), the observation of the precepts (Sfla), the 
salutary confusion (Kshanti), and holy activity (vfrya), with transcendental 
knowledge, (prajn^) and subtlety (upaya). He accustomed himself to treat all 
living beings irith the tenderness he would manifest to a new -bom babe. Lastly, 
lie acquired sU the virtues of a Buddha ; so that having in the course of those 
kalpss traversed the ten earths (or stations for unification)t with this endea« 
vor, he found himself arrived at that point in his existcnoe calle4 ekmnckikm, 
when the soul has but one more obstacle to surmount in the attainment of 

* UemnertHT qui muircke en vMnt, i« the original of this absurd cxpfrssioil. 
i Voctthulairi peitUigUHU, Sect. Xi. 


rapreme intelligenee. His merit being then eomplete, and the immense 
circle of divine prudence having been entirely traversed, it remained for him 
to drsoend and become Boddha. 

** He prescribed to himself in the heaven Toshita four svbjects i ' fYmtem- 
platkm ; the coontry where be shoold b« bom, the parents from whom be (f 
in the teiLt) should receive birth, and all that was reqobitefor the instmction 
and the conversion he projected. I knew beforehand (continued Sikja, 
■peaking henceforward in the third person) that it was the king Pe inng that 
should be my father in the present age. Kieou it •km ii, had two daughters* 
who were then bathing in a tank, in the ladies' garden. The Bodhisattwa 
stretched forth his hand and said, " Behold the mother that shall bear me in 
the age." When the time of my birth was come ihere were five hundred Fan 
chi, all enjoying the five supernatural faculties, who passed Hying over the 
vralls of the palace without the ability to penetrate them. Struck with as- 
tonishment they said to each other s '* our divine fiiculties enable us to pass 
through walls; how is it that we cannot penetrate these ?" the master of the 
Brahmaeharis replied ; " See you these two damsels ? One of them shall give 
birth to the great men, possessor of the thirty-two laitkama (corporeal beau- 
ties) and the other shall nurse this same great man. Thu divine and formi- 
dable being is about to deprive us of our supernatural faculties." This 
news spread rapidly through the universe. The king Pe himg, transported 
vrith joy and longing that the emptror who walkBfging should be born in his 
house, sought the young girl in marriage ; and came to receive, her as his 
bride. The pious Bodhisattwa, mounted upon a white elephant, approached 
his mother's womb, and selected for his birth the eighth day of the fourth 
moon. The matron having bathed and perfumed herself, vras reposing, when 
she beheld in a dream a white elephant shedding light throughout the .uni- 
verse. A concert of vocal and io»trumental music was heard, fiowers were 
scattered, and perfumes burnt. When the cortege, which traversed the at- 
Bsosphere, approached above her, all suddenly disappeared. She awoke 
alarmed, and when the king asked the cause of her alarm, she narrated the 
circumstances of her dream. The king, disquieted in his turn, consulted 
the augurs, and irss re-assured. ** This dream," said they, " is the forerunner 
of your happiness, oh king ! it announces that a holy spirit hath entered the 
womb (of the princess). Of this dream she shall conceive, and the son she 
shall give birth to shall be in your house (as prince) the tmperwr tkmt wmiks 
Jiging, iunuug tke tekeeig and out of your house (i« ^ *• •" ascetic) he 
shall study the Law* become Buddha, and deUver th^ ten parts of the world. 
The king was enraptured with this assurance ; the asatron eiperienee ita 
nlalary Muenee oo mind and body. The prinoetofthepsUy neighbouring 

72 miOMM AOB or ri riah. 

, lewniNf tluAthe king's wife iMd eoMrifvd. cmm to pcjr her hiwiie ; 
CMh of tlwn iMTOOgbt trilmte of gold, of tilvir, of pcw1i« of pioeioot dotli, 
of flowers, end of perf«o|ss ; expressed their respeet,siid iaroked i thoossad 
blessings. The mstron extended tier hand and dedined their gflts with dti* 
lity. After tlie mstnm's eonoe|>iion tlie Gods presented her with the most 
savoary viands ; a sabtle vapor nourished her, sapereeding the neofrssit j of all 
reeonne to the rojsl kitchea. At tlie end of the tenth month the body of 
tlie prince being entirely formed, on the 8th day of the fourth moon, the 
matron went forth, pasted through the throng, and placed herKlf beneath a 
tree. The flowers expended, and a brilliant star appeared.** 

Here I interrupt the legend at the point where this holy personage begins 
an existence, during which he attained the rank of Buddha. Many particulars 
of his latter career will be found in subsequent notes ; but we may here 
remark that the name of Bodhitmttwmt is still applied to Sikya in relating tlie 
adventures of his terrestrial life previous to the time of his attaining Buddlia- 
hood ; that is, up to hU thirtieth yesr (lee XII. 2.)— R. 

(5) This proof of the charity of Buddha is spoken of la the other i 
tives.— R« 


The kingdom of Chu sba shi lo.— The starving Tiger. ^ 

At the distance of seren days* journey to the east of KUm iko 
wei, there is a kingdom named CAh Mh$ shi lo. The word sig- 
nifies in Chinese the Severed Head} Foe^ while he was Fham, 
jsr/ bestowed his head' in alms at this place; and hence they 
gave this name to the country. 

Further to the east you arrire at the spot where Foe aban- 
doned his lM>dy to a starving tiger.* In these two places they 
have erected great towers, cinbellished with all maimer of pre- 
cious things. The kings of those countries, the grandees, and 
the |ieople, all vie with each other in the performance of their 
devotions at this place ; they never intermit the scattering of 
flowers and the burning of {lerfumes. These towers, and the 


Other two spoken of above, are called by the people of the coun- 
try the Four Great Towers.* 


(1) CMuth0 tki h, apiwrently ehyutariru^ t Sanscrit word, having pretty 
nearly the signification indicated by Fa hian : the sibilant replacing the dental 
of the second syllable In the Chinese transcription. We have already seen 
this snbstltntion, and will meet with It again. It is not to be wondered at that 
a denomination founded npon snch an adventure shonld disappear with 
Buddhism^ itself from the locality. Oar information does not enable us to 
determine the position of this eonntry with exactness ; it should be not far 
from Sorawak and the present district of Sarawan.^R. 

The place here named Cku thtt ski h by Fa hian is evidently identical 
with that called Ten eha »hi h in the itinerary of Hiooan thsang, where 
the mention of a monastery of the aimt g\fi ^f ikt knid placet this point 
beyond all doubt. The latter name at once recalls the Toiltilattle of the 
Pnranaa and the Tmxita of the ancients. Taksha and Pnshkara were sona 
of Bharata, according to the VUknu Pur&ma (Wilson's Translation, p. S85,) 
and are stated in the Viyu to have been sovereigns of Gandkmrm residing at 
7*eiaAast7e and PughimrmrmiL The situation of Ckm gka tki /a, seven days 
jonmcy eastward from Kiam Ma ipej, corresponds very well with the position 
of Maaikyala. That village ^now so celebrated for iu tope) Is sitoated on 
the ridns of a veiy ancient town, which from Its extent and position, and 
the abundance of ancient coins found In the neighbourhood, may with mach 
probabilitr be assumed^ to have been the Taxila of the Greek historians. 
For further information on the subfect of Manikyala and its relics, the 
reader is referred to the Journal of the Asiatic Society for 1834.— J. W. L. 

(2) frk«HFl9t9ta$Pkom$mg(SttX.A.) 

(3) ifu Am4 m a/Mt.— This circumstance, as well aa that of the mlmu* 
$mnf of hit eyett before alluded to, is found among the legends eoUectcd 
by Uiouan Thsang .— R. 

(4) Aktmdamtd kit k9dp f# « t f arvtn^ f^.— (See Chap.X. note 4.) 
Formerly Buddha, when prinee, under the name of Sm tko ^Sattrntt) was 
walking tmong the hills ; he beheld a tiger perishing of hunger, and cast hia 
own person before It to save ita life.*— >R. 

(5) Tk9f&wr§rHit t^wert^'-Ao wit, that of Sn Ac f e, where the Bodhisattwn 
mened the dove at theexpenwof hit own flesh ; that of GnMUdrv, or of the 
afansghri^ of Ua eyes ; and te two epoken of iA the prtiiat chapter.— 4L 

• San cmng/n mi, a XXX VUL p. 1 n. 

74 PtLOftu 


TW Knfdom of Fm leo« tlMk— Tht fot of Fm. 

- Proeeeding to the toath foar days* jminiejr from tbe kii^on 
of jrioii iJko W€ip ypa arrive at the kingclom of Foe letm jAa." In 
days of old, Foe^ when passing through this eountrj with his dis- 
ciples» addressed A nao* and said — ** After my pom ni kaman^* 
there shall be a king named Ki ni iba/ who shall raise a tower 
on thu spot**' Accordingly, the king iVt kia haring appeared 
in the world, betook to travelling ; and as he passed throngh 
this countiy. Shy, the celestial emperor/ sought to awaken a 
thought within him. lie produced a young cow-herd erecting 
a tower on the road. The king asked him, **What doest 
thou?'* He replied, '* I am building a tower to Poe.** The 
king praised him highly, and caused a tower to be erected over 
that of the young cow-herd. This tower is mote than forty 
toises* high, and is adorned with all manner of precious things ; 
all who behold it and the temple, admire tlieir beauty and 
magnificence, to which nothing can be conifiared. Fame reports 
this tower superior to all the others of Yan /eou ihij When 
the king's tower was completed, the smaller towec appeared to 
the south of the large one, about three feet high. 

The pot of Foe* is in this kingdom. In former times the 
king of the Yue /i* raised a powerful army and uivaded this 
country. He longed to possess the pot of Foe. \7hen he 
had subjected the kingdom, the king of the Yue ii, who was 
firmly attached to the Law of Foe, endeavoured to seize the pot 
and carry it away. For this purpose he commanded^sacrifices to 
be made, and when he had sacrificed to the tAree precious 
onee^** he brought a large elephant richly caparisoned^ and phured 
the pot upon the elephant. But the elephant fell to* the earth. 


unable to adrance. lie then constracted a four-wheeled car» and 
placed thereon the pot, and eight elephants were joked to draw 
it ; but these were unable to move a step. The king then knew 
that the destiny of the pot" was not yet fulfilled. He experienced 
deep mortification ; nevertheless he caused a tower and a Sem kia 
lam** to be erected on this spot. lie led a garrison to protect it, 
and caused all manner of ceremonies to be performed. There may 
be in that place about seven hundred ecclesiastics. A little before 
mid-day, the ecclesiastics bring the pot forth from its retreat, and 
clad in white garments, pay it all manner of honour. They then 
dine* and ulien evening is come, they bum perfumes, and after- 
wards return home. The pot may contain about two bushels.'* 
It is of A mixed colour, in which black predominates ; it is well 
formed on all four sides, about two lines thick, bright and 
polished. Poor people come and, with a few flowers, fill it ; whilst 
rich people bringing flowers as an offering, are unable to fill it with 
a hundred, a thousand, yea, ten thousand great measures.** 

Only Pao ynn and Lenj^ kiAg paid their devotions at the pot of 
Foe ; they then returned. Hoel king^ Hoei ika^ and Tao eking had 
set out in advance to the kingdom of Xa kie to worship there the 
Shadow and the Tooth of Foe, as also the bone of his skull. 
Hod king having fallen sick, Tao cliing remained to attend him, 
and Hoei tha returned alone to the kingdom of Foe leou sha. 
When he rejoined his companions, Hoei tha, Pao yun and Seng 
king returned forthwith to the country of Thsin. Hod king was 
delighted in an extraordinary manner with the temple of the pot 
of Foe. Fa Uian alone proceeded to the plaoe of the tkaU-bona 
of Foe. 


(1) Tk9 kimfdtm rf Fte Ifoti tAc.— There It tcsrM room to doabt that 
tUt is the moa aaeinit raeord of the dmio Bdoehi, oader a form most 
p i o h o bly bonowed from tha SaaMrit. The towa of Pm /«o« c/U, which 
Hiowa Thmnf plaom lotha Mmth-oartoT dudhte, aad that of #h« fco« 
ate, which was iahahitod hy tho Kw II, seam to lacdlthaiM 


76 VILOfttMAGK or FA BtAlf. 

tioB. I hadtatfa tt Cnt to rteogvbe Um Bdadilt, fai the emmtij of fW 
Imm «ft«, and thought that the Bune might be a comiptios of t^t of Sartor 
Fart / hat the geographieAl and religiooi oontidenitiona mvohedlii the aobject 
of #be i^u $km and Fm /aa aAa* forbid thta OMJectora.* It la atngiilar eooagh 
that we dioiild find thia word in a Chinese narrative of the 5th eratury ; and 
atiU more ao to learn from tnch a soaroe, particulara of the religiooa obaer- 
Taaeea of the people not found elaewhere. The moat magnifieent tower in 
all J^mkudwiprnt that is of Indian architectare fai the entire continenty 
waa conttraeted by the Ateleou $ka, in honor of Baddha ; an^ ia that tower 
waa preserved his begging pot, an indis|)cnsible and diaracteHstie utensil of 
the Buddhist reeluse. The poasec aou of such a treasure drew upon the 
country an invasion of the Vue U or Getttf of whom Fa hian prcaervea 
thia tradition accompanied by fabuloua details. Chinese Geographers are, 
moreover, unanimous on the subject of the domination exercised by the Getse 
in these countries, and we shall by. and bye see their name mixed up with 
a tradition relative to the aame begging pot of Foe, noted by our traveller 
during bis sojovm in Ceylon.— R. 

Lassen (Zur Gt$ehickte, Sfc. p. 145) haa aatisfaetorily restored the tmo 
reading of Foe hu sAa, (or as it ia more correctly transcribed by Hioaaa 
thsaog i'oM Ion $ha pou loO in PmnuhapArm ; a reading so obvious that the 
acquiescence of MM. Klaproth and Landresse in Remusat'a identification of 
Foe iom ehtt with BHuehi, ia quite unaccountable. The situation of Foe iom 
«A«, must have in the neighbourhood of Peahilwar, if indeed it be not the 
aame ; an inference which the similarity of name would seem in some degree 
to justify, although Muhammadan historiana ascribe the present name to 
AklMir, who imposed it with reference to the frontier situation of the town. 
Certain it is there ara many splendid monuments of Buddhism in the iamo. 
diate vicinity. ** In the gorge of the Khyber Pass, says Dr. Gerard, which 
penetrates the country from Peshawar, atands a most ma^ificent edifice 
equal or exceeding that of Manikyalay and if I am not mistaken then are 
othen.*' These remaina aufficiently prove that Foe Ion eMm, waa an emi- 
nently Buddhist country, such as it is here described by Fa hian. See alao 
Bumes, J. A. S. Vol. II. p. 308 ; and Wilson Ariana Aniiqua, p. 56, ei »ef . 
—J. W. L. 

(2) A nan,— frequently A nan the (Anendm) the meaning of which is ex. 
plaioed to be gledntoe, jubilation ;f one of the favorite di«ciplea of Sakya 
Muni 9 and one of those most frequently mentioned in the legends. Ue 

• Piam i tiam, B. LXIfl. p. 15. 

t San tMngfa mu, B. \X\I.p. 10 tersa. 


CHAPTER Xlf. 77 

WM ileencd tlie most learned (/o iwii)* and the beat Tened in the doe* 
trinea of the three itMff (Pilaila), that ia, the aacred hooka, the precepU, 
and the diaconraea. When Bnddha had aeeomplished the law, the king 
Homfim (Amiiodam) hia nncle, lent a meaiage to hia elder brother, king 
Pe Uing (Suklodtma) that a aon had been bom to him. Pe taing, enrap. 
tnrrd at the newa, obsenred to the ambasaadora, " Since it iaa aon, we moat 
gtTe him the name of /ojr (Anandt),** Thu prince anb8e<inentlj attached 
himielf to Sakya Mnni, when the latter embraced a religiona life. 

A notice of the life of Ananda, informa na that he wu a Kahetriyat 
natiTe of the feicm of ik€ kingM (Rajagriha) and aon of the king Pe fui. 
Tliia laat point ia at variance with the precediog text whidi makea Ananda 
aon of king Amitodana. After the nart&na of hia cousin, Ananda proceed- 
ed to the banka of the Gangea. Fire hundred Arhana, c*escended through 
the air; amongst them were Skm^ na ko titeut and Mo iikimt he knew 
that all theae peraonagea were reeepiaelet (aciaea) qf ike preai lata, and he 
called them to him. " Formerly," he aud to them, •« the TathagaU confided 
to the great Kaahyspa, the treaanre of Me «y«f of ike irue imw. When the 
kttei entered into eitasy, he transferred it to me ; and I, who am on the 
eve of extinction, am about to tranamit it to you. listen to the following 

There exists a law which I am about to confide to you. 

And that law is non-existence (the absolute >• 

It ia essential to disdoguish theae two things. 

And understand the law of that which is not nihility. 

The Arfaan then raised himself in the air, and after undergoing eighteen 
transfonoataona, allowed himself to be borne away by the breexe, and extin- 
guished himself anddenly, ainking into etm mt (extasy). They divided hia 
reliquea, (aertra) and erected towera to hia honor. Thia happened in the 
time of / wmsf of Cheon (894-879 B. C.)t 

A chronological calculaUoo asay be deduced from these data. Sttya waa 
thirty yeara of age, when he acoompliahed the law near the town of Bena* 
rea it and it waa at thia epodi that Ananda wu bora. Mah4 Kaayapa, the 
fiiat anceeiaor of Sikya Muni, in the capacity of patriareh, withdrew to the 
UU Knkntapeda to await the advent of Maitreym in the fifkh year of 
HIm wangof the Cheou, 90S B. C forty-ftve jeara alUr the Nirvfina» when 

* Fmm t auag I, quoted in the San fsaag /a fsu, B. XII. p. 13 ; Jepumm Emeff 


t 9n tAaai iktm kmljim ««, Book IX. p. 6. v. 
I Or nnher RaiMni».-J. W. L. 

■ 3 



Ammi/L wm 94 j9Wi oUL Hum Imif ke aardwd hit AowtloM of pitil* 
arch, it sot ■■mted t Imt in ordtr to mtka iib death fyBehnmiM •?«• with 
the fint jeer of the nifii of /tMiy, Iw mit have lived om hmdrad aod 
ilYO yaara. Thia ia sot iflapoiaKble; atill theio ia the aaora leaaofi to doobt 
the &et afaiee all the Bnddhlat writefs whoae worka we have aeeeia to leave 
va in ignorance of the data npon which thej eatablish anch ayiidiioniaBui 
hctween the eaH j eventa of Baddhiam and the ancient hiatory of China* 
The aalijoined b a brief recapitnlation of theae» from the Chineae work quot- 
ed above* 

Birth of S&kja 0— 24th of Chao wang, B. C. 1029 

Embracca a KligMva life, •••••• 19— 43d mO 

AeoompliBheathelaw.Anandabom, SO— 3d 999 

Entera Nirvana, 79— 52d of Moa wang •.. 9&0 

Mah^Kaayapadiea, 124— 5th of Biao wang, 905 

Anandadiea In the reign of I wang,..*. 894*879 

Other Chiaeae works ftimiah calcnlations attended with similar nncertaintj. 
Japanese Chronologj placea the death of Kasjapa, ia 905 B. C. and that 
of Ananda in the eleventh year of Li wang, 8C8, when he most have been a 
hundred and thirty yeara old.*— R. 

See my notea 4, Chapter XXVI, and 1, Chapter XXXII*— J. W. U 

(3) Pen m Aenen;— nl Aetfen, or extinction, may be reeogniaed withont 
difficulty u the transcription of the Sanscrit word Nirvdnm. Bn^ the word 
la often preceded in Chineae hooka by the ayllable pmn ; and Ihis oeeura 
always when the expression refers, not to annihilation or extasy ih general, 
bnt to the passage from real and relative life to the state of ab^rptton aa 
effected by a Buddha* Ni kouan is the state to which aainta aspire ; pmn ni I 

AoMen, is the act by which they attain it. Adopting thia explanation, Bf * 
Bnmonf, thinks that these words may be the transcription of j^ ntramio 
which in Sanscrit are employed In the same sense and upon sloular oeca* 
aiona.— >R« 

The words of the text are ngopam ni komam kitou. The wordjien, or \ 

rather |io«en, signifies, according to Chineae dictionariea, to irmunmri 9m^§* \ 

9t\ffnm oMplae^ to another. It would thus appear not to be the tran* J 

acription of a Sanscrit word In the passage quoted, of which the sense aeema 
auffidently clear, being, '* after that I was transported into Ni Jkouan (n/r- 
Mfoa)." The Son taangfa son, (Book XXXIX* folio 24 evrio) nevertheless 
mentiona that the worda Pan ni pkon^ ia a Sanscrit expression,'meaning in 
Cliinese mjf Ion, that ia, '* the passage into a slate of absorption." — Kl, || 

(4 ) Ki ni tin, or abbreviated as lower down, Ni kio .-—the same prince who, l' 

* Wo kan kx6 too fen nen gakfoum no Uou, p. 16. 

CHAPTER Xtl. 79 

according to Hioumm thiang^ rrigned four hnndreil years after the NirTina 
of the Tathigata, anU whom he naoBes A'ia »i <e kia, Thia nnat be the 
Kmmikm of SanangsetMn, whom this Mongolian writer places three handred 
years after the Ninrana of Buddhit, and whom he designates as the liing of 
Gatchon, with the epithet, pn'ace ^wurcg, ttitower ^ckarily, iemeJSetmi,* 
— R. 

Tills is no doubt the Kanishka of the LaiiU VUiira ; the monarch in 
whose rrign, 400 years after the uirtdma, the third revision of the Buddhist 
scriptures was completed. It is eitremely probable that this prince is 
identical notwithstanding a chronological di«crepance» with the KaniAhka of 
tlie Rtja Tarimginif in which he and his immediate predecessors are spok- 
en of as eminent Buddhi»ts. " During the long reign of these kings, the 
country of Kashmir was for the greater part of the time in tlie liamls of the 
Bauddhas, whose strength was augmented by their wandering habiu. One 
hundred and fifty years had then elapsed since the emancipation of the 
blessed Sakya Sinha from this perishable world." R«ja Taringini, B. 1. 
si. 171, 172. Hiouan thsang confirms the chronology of the Laliia Vi»larm» 
It does not follow however that the territories of Kashmir extended to Foe 
leou sha at this time ; for Fa hian simply s|ieaka of Kanishka as travelling 
through that country ; very possibly on a pilgrimage to the consecrated 
•pots which attracted himself some centuries later.— J. W. L. 

(5) 5ily;— Indra. 

(6) Fbrf jr folre* » —about 400 English feet. For an arcount of a yet loftier 
Hkwpt, in the same country, see Chap. III. 3, and the Siocount of Gandha- 
n by Hiouan thsang. — R. 

(7) Van/tQM Iki. — Tub is a corruption oiJambu dtripa, sometimes more 
correctly rendered the. Mthmd of Skem p9u, Buddhist cosmogony, like 
that of the brahmans, divides the earth into four great Dttiprng^ or conii- 
bents (islands) disiiosed around Sumeru. These continents are named,-— 

1. /be y« fAei, or fbe pko iki, (Purvavidcha ?) to the east of Sumem. 
This wocU signifies a kndjf ttkiek MrgMHsfU, because the extent of this con* 
tinent exceeds that of the southern one. It ia also transUtcd ortftn, or 
icfiwuMf, because thr sun rises in that country; This continent is narrow 
towards the cast, and broad towards the west, having the form of a half 
moon. The faeea of the InbabiUnU are also fashionfti like a half moon. 
Their sUture is eight cubits, of eight inches each ; and they live two 
hundred and fifty years. 

[This word ia property u synonymc of TitfeAc, orieBtal.—>Kl.] 

• CfckukU Jkr Ou*MiMtgt>Um, p. 10. 


/«Mte to the MMM of ft tree. *• In wcttcni lands Mwiv ^ n trw caltod 
JmiKi # ftt its foot M ft riTcr» and at the bottom of tbto river to anrHcrona 
■and."* TMs eontUitnt to to the aoath of SMOMm s it U narrow to tbo aonth 
and broad towards tba north, of tha form of the b<»dy of a chariot % its extent 
to seven thousand yojaaaa. The faers of the inhabicanu are of the saaM sliapo 
as the continent. The greater nnmber of them are three and a lialf eabita 
high, and sonte so much aa fonr eobiu. The doratioa of their life to one 
hvndred years, bnt many Jo not attain thi« age. 

[Other Chinese anthora say that Jami»n diri|*a signifies l|e Huiem tt/e 

3. JCin >• »f (G6dhanya.) This Sanscrit word signifies ire«/M of Ten, 
hccansc it is in oxen that the riches of tlie country coiiaiat. Il lies west of 
Snmern. Its form U that uf the full moon ; its diameter ei);ht thonsand 
yojaaaa. The faces of its inhabitants resemble the full moon. Their 
stature is siiieen cubits, and they li«e five hundred years. 

4. I'm tan pue (Utimrm kmrn). This Sanscrit word aignifies the ' Lmmd 
^coMfnerore/ beeauae ita inhabitants have subjected the thi^ other con- 

[Tlie Chinese text says that the word Yn tan yue signifies in Chinese, 
** The most elevated place, because this country is more elrvkted thsn the 
three other CAeeu, or divisions of the world.'* The version of M. RemuMt, 
** Land of Com|uerors," &c. to incorrect ; besides «##«rv in Sanscrit signifies 
pre-eminent, or raised, and A'vm is the name of a tribe. — Kl.] 

To the north is Sunacru. This continent to square like a tauk ; its sue 
to ten thousand yojrinas. The faces of its inhabitants are of the form of the 
contiaent. They are thirty-two cubits high, and live a thtmMnd years. 
There to no such thing as premature death among them.t 

The names of these four continents in Tibetan and Mongol are— 


• I. Char gFi Lus pag dwip. 1. Dorona Oolanidsi beyrton dip. 

2. Jambu dwip, or Jambu gling. 2. Jambu dwip. 

3. Nottb gii BaKug bdjod dwip. 3. Ourouna Ulier ediektchi dip. 

4. Bdja gra misnan dwip. 4. Moh duhtou dip. 

Jambu dwip evidently represents Indto in thi« CMmography, together 
with what other parts of the old continent were known to the lluidns. I 
shall hereafter have oci*asion to ex|dain who mere the Kim^i •/ tke ITAeel 
(Chakravarti rrfja) or universal monarchs. During the intevTal of the 

* I'tin y mittg t, quoted in the Sam tmng fu •••«. Ilook \X. p. 8. 
t t/iuM^ a A<i«i, quoted m tlic bttn t$itHg /a w«, 11. W 111. p. 17. 


doninion which thcM kings eiereiicd over om or other of the greet iilee 
of which I em ebomt to tpeek, Jemho dwCpa wee diridea emong foor greet 
lorde : 1. To the eett, the kiuf mf «ie», eo celled hecaoio of the Test popn- 
letionof thoee parte. The netives were refined in their manners s they 
cnltiveted hnmenity. jntiiee, and ecience ; the country wu pleasant a^d 
agreeable. 2. To the sonth, f Ae k%m$ ^ HepkmHh. This eonntry is hoi 
and moist, snitable for elephants, end heuee ite name. The inhabttenU are 
violent and ferodons, addicted to magic end the occult sciences ; bat they 
aro capable aleo of pnrifying the heart, and, by casting off the trammels of 
the world, of cnwneipating themseUes from tbe ricissitvdes of life and deeth. 
3. To the west, /Ae iiu^ ^ jirfctooe ikimg9. This eonntry eitends to the 
sea, which prodaces plenty of pearls and prrciont things and thus gives rise 
to the name. The inhabitante ere ignorant elike of the rites and of social 
dtttice, and hold nothing in esUem but riches. 4. To the north, lAe king of 
Aereeff. This lend is cold and hard, adapted to the nurture of horses. Thn 
Inhabitants are bold end cruel, capable of enduring dangers and death.* — R. 

I bdieve that thb refers to the four chiefs who divided the empire of 
India, after the dismemberment of the ancient royalty of Delhi, and whom 
tradition names Ntrtpaii, chief of men ; C^/^pe/i, chief of elephanU ; CAAe- 
trapmii, chief of the umbrella ; AMkwapaii, chief of horses.— E. Bumouf. 

(8) Tke begging poi ^f /b.— The pot is one of the six indispensiblee of . 

a religioue mendicant. It is with the pot that he asks elms, and it is in it {/ 

that he holds his food. lU form Is that of a small fiat vessel, nerrow at the j ^ 

top and broader at the bottom. Its material should be common and low- 
priced, like clay or iron i and it should conUin a bushel and a half at least, 
and not mere than three baihels. A figure of one may be seen in the little 
deasentery Japanese Eacyclopcdia.t That represented in the great Ency- 
clopedia is too much ornamented, end represents the State vese of some 
rich oouTcnt in Jspan. The pot and the garmenti of Foe are looked upon 
as prsdoas reliquee, which should be preserved with religious solieitnde 
and passed from hand to hand, so that the Chinese expression i jio, (vesU 
asent end pot) have beeoBse synonymous with this asodo of transmissioa.t 
It le prstsnded that the pot and the garments of Foo were hronght to 
China, fai the &th century, by Bodhidhanna, the last of the Buddhist 
patriarchs bora fai HindusUmf We shall see In the eourse of the preeent 
■amiho, Bsany other fbda eonneeted with the pot of Buddha. The 

* Fm yenen tkmlim,i,t* tkgftmt •tm 
be San aeag/a mm. Book XVI. p. ll v. 
t lfom«eaglftM»lMii,BookXl.p.& 
I Kkmmg H lira lien, nd verb Pe. 

pesrii in iJbe fsndm e/lAe lav, qnolcU in 


82 PltORIMAQB or FA RtAir. 

CUmm wmd f (pot) U m dbridgaMiit of IIm 8 «Me ri t fHh, (p<tni>. 
The MttMhoM hum foroMd of it tlitir wmd btdiwU TW PwniMi 


(9) 7^ M|f ^ih€ Fm M.— IV Fm tM, yM eAI, w m M. 
roth thinVt, the word iboiiia be imd tbe Fm II, or Feiilfl. ue one of Um 
moflt celebrated nationt of leeieBt Tmrtary. Aeeording to the ChiMee* 
they orifioally VeA a muiderhif life in the eoootry Ijiug hd^eeo nmm 
Aecnf (She cheoo) and the Khi liaa Mowiteine. A war waged aguiiflt them 
In theeeeood center; before Christ by their northem oeighboon, the 
Hioaiif noa, eompeiled then te fly towards the west. They eatablidMd 
thenteWet in TVansozania beyond Perghene ; end luiTing orereooie the Tn 
hit, halted on the northern bank of the Wn (Ozoa). tabjeeting i^ the rime 
time the Amzu. who in thpie times had no snprrme ehief. They ooevpied 
at the time when Chang khian was among them as ambassador (See Chap. 
VII. nore 4) ft^^ towns, tlte names of wliicfa it le not easy to recogni s e, 
owing to the penary of geogra|>bical information connected with that conn* 
try at the epoch in qeettion. These towns were H% me, capital of the 
tribe of /fieon ml ; Skowumg mi, occnpied by a tribe of the same jiaose ; Horn 
fteo, sabjcct to a prince of Kfmei ukoutng ;• Po eieo, inhabited ^y a tribe of 
the Hi itm, and JTeo/eii (Cabul) where dwelt a tribe so named. The town 
of X.ea sAi, is quoted as the residence of their king. In the first century of 
oor era tlie prince of tlie Kouei shonang snbjected tbe other fonr statee, 
became very powerfnl, asastered the conntries of the An ssa, of Cabal, of 
Han the (Kandahar), of Ki pin (Cophene). Ilia snccessor yet farther in* 
creasrd in power and possessed himself of India. The kings of the Yne tl 
continued their authority in these countries up to the third century. Their 
incursions into India era spoken of CTcn to the fifth century, and the situa- 
tions of tUeir settlements pointed out. Pko /o (Balkh) to the west, Gan* 
dhara to the north, and five kingdoms to the south of the latter, recognised 
their authority. It was the merchants of this nation that iustructed the 
Chinese in the art of making gla»s from melted flint. A branch of the Yne 
ti, which remained behind at the period of their emigration, inhabited the 
N. B. of Little Tibet, under tbe name of the Little Yue tt Another branch, 
bearing the sanw name, but very dittinct, 'detached itself at a subsequent 
period (in the fifth century) from the bulk of the nation, and occupied tho 
town of Mm i^au aka, situated to the 8. W. of Pko le, (Balkh),^and which 
must be the Pa lorn «Ac, of Hiouan thsang, (ace Chap. XII.), or the conn* 
try of the BeluchSs. It is reported that at ten H distance from this town 
• Jud«9n, Bmnm. DkU p. 3G2. 

CHAPTER Xllt. 83 

there wai a tower dedicated to Foe, which was three hmidred sod fifty paces 
ia ctreuaifereiioe and eighty toi«cs high. From the date of the erection of 
this gigantic tower, ealled the iawer ^ftt kundred foitet , to the eightli year of 
the W^u timp (550 A. D.) eight hundred and forty-two years were reckon* 
od ; which gives 292 B. C. as the date of its erection, and consequently at 
mm epoch previous to the emigration of the Yue ti. 

There can be no doubt that the Vue ti were one of those nations of upper 
Asia, who settled in Batriana and conquered the eastern provinces of Persist 
SBodem Afgbanbtan, Beloochi»tan and the western parts of India. Their 
■■me, of which traces exist among all these nations, leads us to the opinion 
that they are of the Gothic stem, notwithstanding their oriental origin. It 
is not a little remarkable to find this race so attached to the religion of 
Buddha aa the fact here narrated by Fa hian, and other circumstances to 
be noted hereafter, would evince. — R. 

(10) Tk§ three prtcioHM oum.— See Chap. YII. note 6.-11. 

(11) Tke dtetmf ^f the ^/.— The word Kiien, which I translate deetim^. 
s^ifies perhaps not that which has been irrevocably filed beforehand by a 
Ireo and infinitely powerful being, but the inevitable concaUnation of all 
cwueand aUeifect. As to the fiite of the pot of Buddha, ere shall see a 
curious tradition on thia subject in Fa hian's narrative connected With 
Ccykm.— R. 

(12) 8em§ kirn fok— See Chap. III. note 5.— R. 

(13) 7Vc tosAeli.— The /sen or bushel, contains ten ponnda of rice or 
140 onneea of our ordinary weight (French). — R. 

(U) Qrmi «esMr«f.^ife«, the decuple of a bushcL-^R. 


Kingdom of ^^n kie.— Town of Hi lo.~Skull-bone of Foe.— Tooth of Fee- 
Staff of Foe^Mantle of Foc-^hMhnr of Fcc^ 

TnTdliDg westward the space of sixteen yeoM yaii/ jou arrire 
at the irootier of the kingdom of Aa JUe*and the town of iSTt fo.* 
In thia pkoe ia the ehapel of the aknU-bone Foe. It ia gilded 
an oner and covered with the moat cosily otnamenta.* The 



king of the comiliy antertains the grMteit FCMntkMi ibr the 
booe ; and in the dread lest an j one tboold pnrloiii it, hat choaoi 
dght ebiefs of the principal families of his kingdom, each of whom 
has a seal which he sets on the gate of the chapel. Ear|f in the 
morning the whole eight proceed to Tcrifj the seals, and then 
open the gate. When it b opened, thej wash their hands in 
perfumed water, take up the skoli-hone of Foe^ and hear it 
out of the chapel to a throne provided with a lonnd stone 
table and all kinds of precious thbgs. The table of stbne which 
is below, and the bell-glass which covers it are equalljradomed 
with pearls and fine gems. The bone is of a yellowish white 
colour; it is four inches in circumference, and has an 
eminence on the upper part. Every day at sunrise the attendants 
of the chapel ascend an elevated pavilion, beat great drums, 
sound the conch, and strike the copper cymbals. As soon as 
the king hears these, he repairs to the chapel, where he performs 
his devotions, offering flowers and perfumes. This service con« 
eluded, each, according to his rank, places the relique on his 
'head* and goes away. You enter by the eastern gate and go out 
by the western. The king adopts this practice every morning, 
and it is only afler he has paid his devotions and completed 
the ceremony of adoration, that he engages in the affairs of the 
state. The grandees and the principal officers begin with the 
same act of adoration before engaging in their private affairs. It 
is the same every day, and this particular duty admits of no 
intermission or abatement of zeal. When all have finished their 
devotions, the skull-bone is taken back again to the chajpd. 
There are towers of deiiterance* adorned with all manner of 
precious things, some open, the others shut, and abont five feel 
high. To supply these, there are constantly every morning, 
dealers in flowers and perfumes before the gate of the cha* 
pel, that such as wish to perform their devotions may buy of 
every variety. The kings of neighbouring countries are. likewise 
in the habit of deputing persons to perform the cereiQonies of 
worship in their name. The site occupied by the chapel is forty 



paces square. Were the hearens to fall down and the earth 
to open ap» this spot woald nerer he remoredl 

From this pUice^ proceeding northward one yeou yarn, jon 
arriTC at the capital of the kingdom of Na Jh>. It was here 
that the Pkou m bought with silrer monej flowers where- 
with to do homage to Tinff kouan FoeJ' In this town there is a 
tower erected over a tooth of Foe.* Thej perform the same cere- 
monies there as in honor of the sknll-bone. 

At the distance of one yeou yan to the north-east of the town, , 
at the entrance of a Tallej, is the staff of Foe.* In this pUice also 
is a chapel erected, and are similar ceremonies performed. The 
staff is surmounted with a bull's head in sandalwood ; it is 
about six or seren toises long. It is placed withina wooden tuhe^ 
whence a hundred, or even a thousand men, could not with- 
draw it. 

Entering the Tallej, and proceeding four days* journey towards 
the west, jon arrire at the chapel of the Seng kia ti of Foe,** < > \ 

where the ceremonies of adoration are performed. When there 
is great drought in the kingdom, the inhabitants proceed together, 
draw forth the Seng kia ii, and adore it. The heavens then 
shower down rain in abundance. 

To the south of the town, about half a yeau yan^ there is a stone 
bttOding backed bj a mountain and facing the south-west It was 
here that Foe left his shadow.'* When yon contemplate it at the 
^stance often paces, it is as if you saw the reritable person of Foe 
himself, of the colour of gold, with all its characteristic beauties, 
and resplendent with light. The nearer yon approach the famter 
the ahadow becomes. It is a representation perfectly resembling 
the reality. The kings of all countries have aent painters to copy 
it, but none hare succeeded. The people of the country hare a 
tradition according to which a thousand Foea will efcntnall/ 
leave their shadows here. 

At about a hundred steps to the west of the shadow. Foe^ 
while in the world, cut hia hair and hia naib ; and in concert 
with hia ffiscipica erected n tower seven or eight toiaea'* higli» 


to lerfe n a nodd for all towers to bo erected themfter. It 
suMtts to this daj. Near it is a monastety in wbidi m aboat 
seven hundred eedesiasties. In this place is the tower i^ the Xo 
han and the iV e4i foe,* where have dwelt a thousand (of those 
sanctified personages.) 


(l) n§ 9ff ff Hjt ff€9m jNm.— ne length of the jpmii jfsa, or ftjmm 
' of IadU» b eftioiatod it 4 kiw, tlitt b 4|. 5, or cfto 9 EngUak mOcs. 
The employment of tUt meMnre« foreign to Chinn* thowt th^ Fn Uea 
cdopCed IniUan estuutlone of distnnee. From the eorretpondenoe of many 
of thcte mentioned by him with the ectnal dietuMce npon ou* mape. it 
wonld appear thht he faithfnlly dellYered the eatimationa of geographcn 
or of traveUen in India daring the 5th eentnry. Nefertfadeee, the 
greater part of hb distaneea whether espreeeed In /<, or in ■Mrehea* or in 
pojtnmit eppear somewhat too great, and eren exaggerated. The ajneoeitiee 
of the roads, and the Tariatlons of the standard of measure may in some 
^ degree acconnt for too htgh*an estimate. On some oeeasions lie was misled 

by false and almoet fabniovs reporu ; bat thb b only when he speaks of 
places which he had not himself visited, or of distaneea wliieh'be was not 
himself in a condition to verify s and hb errore of thb kind are of less 
consequence. We are inclined to adopt aa the mean value of the y^fe»e, of 
the Foe koue ki, the least of thoee mentioned by Wilson ; that b 4| Englbh 
miles, or 15 to a degree, as appUcable with exactnem to the meet cekbrated 
localitice, the synonymy of which will hereafter appear incontes*|f»b. 

I may here adjoin some literary and hbtorieal observations, ^b asetii* 
cal term b written in Chinese, jreen jren, jreen tiam, or pa thtn nn, 
the threefold transcript of y^ene, and is translated meerare, pea/, or 
efe/ien. The Kr tea* ascribes iu orighi to the stationa establi^ied by the 
iHaps qftke wheel (CkmJtratmrii r^m) when they visited the different parts of 
their dominions. " They are," says a Chinese writer, ** the relays of the 
pott in that country." And the writer estimates the yojan at 40 /• in the 
times of the TVia.f The translators of Buddhbt works distingiaish three 
kinds of yojan according to the Tte eki iem tun ;X the §remi pojmm of 80 U^ 
wliich b used In the measurement of level countries, where thd absence of 
mountains and rivers renders the road easy ; the meen yt^'anc of 60 U, when 

• &m tiene fm sm. Book XIII. p. 5. 

t Youan kLu U^i Aaa. Book CCCX VI. n. 6. 

X Fmn y mimg i, quoted io the 5si» Hung fm <i»a.— «M. 



riTert ftttd nouataiiifl oppose tome difficolttet to the tn? eller, ftnd the liiiU 
^«ma of 40 /t, adapted to those oonntrics where the mountains are precipit* 
one and the riTera very deep. For the Indian ? aluation of the yo/eiie, the 
reader may eonmlt Wilson (Sanscrit Dictionary) and the Ayin Akhari ; and for 
that dednoed firom the distances given by Fa hian what haa been said aboTC. It 
may be inferred that onr traTcUer obtained the distances he sets down from the 
months of thenatifes, or perhaps from some Indian geographical work which 
he had within reach. In either case an apprczimate determination only can 
be expectedt snificient for the historical geograph j of a coontry almost entirely 
nnknown. We may further obserfc that Fa hian begins to use this measure 
hi the country of Na kitf having employed the Chinese ii throughout the 
previous portions of hie journey. This is another of those, facts which attest 
the predoBsinance of the language and customs of Hindustan beyond the 
pccsent limiU of that country towards the north and north-west.— R. 

(2) Tk§ HmgiiQm ^f Ka ii€. — ^The position of this country is not easy of 
deterBsinatioBy as well from the few points of comparison as because Fa 
hisB and Hiouang thsang followed different rontea to reach it. The 
fenner arrifed there after n journey of sixteen jr^enet to the west of the 
Beluchi country: the second goes vii Cabul, after crossing n great 
rirer, which must be one of the afllocnta of the Indus, and thence 
proceeds westerly to the country of the Gandharas. We cannot, howoTcr f 
be §u from the truth in placing iVe kief to the east of the present Ghasni 
and Kandahar. But confining our attention here to the names only, that 
of M tie, written M kie U Ao, by Hiouan thsang, is written Na kirn /o ho, 
by the two Chinese traTcllers Soung yun, and Hoei sang. A legend is 
gtven in the 9j jm ^j, which may eiplain its origin. The kingdom of A*« 
kh Is Ao, sent tribute to China in A. D. 628. It wu then a dependence of 
khatof JHojiitAe. 

As China had, under the dynasty of the Thang, political intercourse with 
the kingdom of Ais He, the latter must have had an eiistcnce of some dura» 
tioa. We learn that at the period In question it was not subject to one 
priaee, but was divided among several tribes, each of which had ita own 
chlsf ; the ordinary condition of Scinde, Beldchistan, and Afghanistan. The 
couBtiy was rugged, unequal, soooped mto valleys, and surrounded by moun* 
tains. This deseriptioa applies equally to all parts of that country. Final* 
r ly, fivahundrad If to the south.east, bring us back to the country of Gati- 

! ikinu This indication, though vague, places M Aie in the centre of 

Afghaajstan, and the town of Hi Is mast he sitasted oa the eonfiaes of that 
id Feniak Tha saaaber of herauta theca had graady diminished, 
faUglaaailnctaraahad laUaaiandBB. Sky kia (8akya) la his 

nLO&iMAOs or fa hiaw. 
•f BodUMtwa^ kad kft tMM of kit pMi^t tlM^II IM 


try.— R. 

IlMTOtmMrib«LMm't Indaow ciitl^w of tUt porlkm fl#Mrpa. 
grlm'irovtet— ^ 

£_ •» jy^ tit Mm rfitoea y^finM nwlward <f FW Iw •*•, (PteA a in u ). Iti 
BUM it BMvt eorraecl J trvBMribed NmH h k^bf HioMa tli^uif » wh» 
spptiNielicd it from Xm j»A« or Lunghaa, cro«iaf tlM gfett (or CaM) 
Rif«r, from whi^ it WM distant a bondrad H, or aonewhrt mora tliaa ivo 
gcognphiod mUct. M Ao /o Ao Uj la tho vdley of tho rivw Hi to, aboot 
a mHe Irom tba capital of tlie 'tuna mbWi and doaa to a hill likeiriaa caDad 
Bi io. 

•• Tha latter rircr^on the aooth tfdaof the Cabal, can ba no other than tha 
86rkhhid, and on tUi tappoaition wo mvit teareb for iV<i io la Aa in Bala- 
bagh. The Buddbiat remaina aald to be in the neighbonrbood of tba Hi h^ 
are identical with tboae on the Sdrkbrud from Balabagb to JellaUbad. 

" In the riTer Hi io, I tbink I reeogniae the Air of D'AnTiIla andHennall'a 
maps, at the conflaenee of wbieb with the Nilab tba town of Nafara mnat 
baYe stood % oaly there la another Mlir to be aeeonntad for, which In other 
narratiTea la aald to flow past CabnL If then Hi /• be the Chineaa traa- 
acription of Hir, Na Ae io ko seems as certainly tliat of Nagara. 

'• This leads as back to the Nagmrm of Ptolemy, which was naqneatkmably 
|o the south of tha Kameh river. Now the obvioas similarity of aamea 
leaves little room to doabt tlut hia Nagara waa no other than Na Aa 
/o Aa. Hb Artoarior mast be Identical with the Pamabapani of tho 
Cbineae travellers. • * • « • NaAie was in tha year 628 anbjeettotha 
kingdom otKiapio ihe, on the Garbend, and was the boundary belwiyt Gan- 
dblra and western Cabnlistan. This town was aizteen yojanaa 4)*tant from 
the capital of the Gandbiras, or accordiDg to othera, 500 ii north«west from 
thence over the hills ; say twenty»five geographical milea. The distance from 
the Siirkhriid to Jellalabad is, according to Tieffenthaler, tweaty-fbur milea • 
and the capital of Gaadb&ra could not have been moch more easterly than 
Jellalabad. The route of Hiouan tbsang, however, waa not by the river, hat 
across the bills, an I therefore mOre direct. ( 

"To verify the geography of weatem Cabnlistan, are must ^|egtB with 
Hiouan thsang's entrance Into the country from tha northward. Ho 
proceeds from Bamian eastwards over the snowy bills, then over the Black 
Mountains to ATia pi tAe. The distance ia not given ; but aa the town 
of Kia pi tAe waa alao in tha monntaias. It la probable that it lay in tha 
neit valley east of Bamian, where a pam leada to the valley of tha 
Garbend, aa described by Baber. I refer to Bumea'a corrected map. Two 


liviidrad ii to the Borth of the ctpitel era the Greet Snowy Movnteiat aad 
the Hindm Kofh, eo that it cannot be Cabal, ae Bf • Landreaie mppotea. It 
was, fai €32, ao independent Sute* to which aeveral neishbonring eonntriea 
belonged, at we see was the ease with Na kie. Here was the old kingdom of 
the Gandharas, not indeed of the Indians, bnt of the Scythians, who tt a later 
period took postession of the Indian Gandhim. Ptolemy has a town named 
JTe^tae two and a half degreea to the north of Kobmrm, aad Pliny, when enn* 
merating the eonntries to the west of the Indus, observes, ** a prozimis Indo "^ 
gentibns montana Capissme habnit Ctq^iumm nrbem, qnam dirait Cyms. This 
le withont donbt the Kim pi »ke, of the Chinese." (Lassen, Zmr GetcHekU 
der GrieekUckm umJ Imd9»kyihi§ehm K§mf9, pp. 147— 150.)— J. W. L. 

(3) Tk€ iottm qf Hi lo.— Thb town was not the ea|»iUl of the kingdom 
of Na kie, bnt was situated thirty if to the sonth-east of the capiUl, and 
appears to haTc been partienlarly remarkable for the number of reliques of 
Buddha which it possessed.— R. 

(4) AU serfs ^ preeiomt omenten/ff. — More literally, the seven preei9ua 
iking9, an expression frequently employed in an indeterminate sense, d^ 
miimm pn imd^miiQ, The designation of <Ae seven jn^vetene /Ain^s ie very 
varions t the following are two eeries of them, with deuils whieh appear ^ 
cnrious enough. 1st. 50n /« le, (SuTama) tlie Sanscrit word for gokL '^ 
According to the A tki iom /nn, gold ie drawn from mountains, stones, 
sand, and red copper. It has four properties ; it never changes its color | 
It alters not % nothing prevents it resuming iu form (sense of the text 
doubtfol) I and it makes man opulent. 2d. A l—pm (riipya) the Sanscrit 
name of silver. According to the same work, silver Is eatracted from melt* 
«d stones ; it is commonly called white fid. It has the four properties of 
gold. 3d. lieen /I, the Sanscrit word for a blue stone. The JTeaen kim§ 
sen, or '* Expimmmii9m ^fike Bmoi of CKmiempimihu,'' calls it also /et Kevm 
U ff, which signifies, noi fmrt a name given In con s equ en ce of its being 
found in the western eonntrice mntfmr from Benares. 

[It Is without doubt the Sanscrit word VtSdwya^ or lapis laxuli. Vtdtarmf 
which stgnifies nof /or. Is the name of the mountain where it ie fowid.—E. 

The blue or green eolour of tbb predons substanee cannot be changed by 
•ay other matter. lU lustre and hardness are unrivalled in the world. 4th« 
I PAo Ji, otherwiee ^e pko ii kirn, (tpkmikiJtm, epatb) U the Senaerit namo 

of JAonifV, or rock crystaL lU transparence and lustre are unique in the 
wofUL 3th. JfeenjiAole He fa jiAe; thb Sanscrit wofddesignatee a pneU 
owenbttenea of a Una or white eolour s ite form ia that of awheel, witha 
MO«pandnya. (I think tUe Mit be a spedet of aMMwita.} lul 

90 wwQmxMAom of fa biav. 

ABdbmlyorcdflwcMMHtotegmtljfainfMglteAAvtiy. Mu Jfo 
l»M«ir.«rH>te^«itoMor alxdleolm, wUto Mdrad, raMiblii«a« 
braia of a]MiM» wkene^ ill (ChiaoM) ntmm mm mm^ «firf f§rHjmm. It 
Biay UpolitlMdt Hid mtf4* iato YtiM i and Imbm its ▼•!«•. 7tli« Fmtmmh 
kirn (padmarlga)^ a Sauerit word t%nif jing a rtd ffm (nort conccdy 
M/oiir 4f /Ae fMlwRto). TiM Jbt #i Am (•• I>iwowM on Um land of paddha") 
•ayatliatitbthaprodQeaof radiuecta. Tha Tk cA< #e« fa« tayat tbat it 
MatCoiiafoinidiBtlMbelljorafidk,aiidi]itbebraiaoraaerpeii|. Ite tad 
eolor ia cxtrcanalf bright aad l«straoa» mhUk eaoaaa it to ba aoyght aftar. 
lFMdmMr4gm la tba Sanacrit for nibj.— KL] 

The aaeond aeriaa ia emopoaad aeloaivdy of prcckma atonaa. ^. F9 h 
99 (Saaaerit prMUm, BcngaU pmldj coral. Tba 7b tki la« hm calla it tbo 
Ircf ^ff«a-«/ont, Thay fay that ia tho aaa of tha aooth-waat, diataat 7 or 
8 /i» (thia la an a? idaat error,— fperhapa it ahoald be 7 or 8 thontaad K) 
thera la a ooni iaia, the foaadation of wldch la a atoae apon which ^a aab* 
ataaca growa. Tho coral la detached froaa it with Iron neta. 2d. A 
cAjf ate itie pho (mama fiarhkm /) or amber. It ia of a red coloar fad traai* 
pareat. 3d. Ma nl or ate at (ataai) a word which tignifica ap6iina, and 
deaignatea a pearl. Thia aabatanee ia briUiaat aad para, free from ipot and 
atata. It la on thia accoant that the Kaaa Ho ckkw (Meanal of the Pra- 
tyAa Baddhaa) calla it alio Jom I (eou/onmobie /a ike Jenree Sr Mem* 
iiemt) s the wealth one deairea to poaeeta, Ycetmenta, food, la abort, all 
neoeaaary thiaga are to be procared by meaaa of thia preciona thing, eai|/br. 
mmbljf vriih oaaV deriree; and hence ita aame. 4th. Ckim aAea kia; thia 
Saaaerit word deaigaatcf a preciona atoae of a red coloar. According to 
tha hiatory of the weatern ooantriea, there ia a tree named Ckifi ekou kirn 
(kimemka, Bmlem fremdof) the llowera of which are red and aa large aa the 
hand. The aabatanee to which thia name ia alio git en ia of the aame coloar 
with theae llowera. ftth. Skg kU pi iing kia. Thia Saaaerit word aigaiftea a 
coNf Mfror, one thmi exeeU, becauae thia aabatanee aarpaaiea all other pred* 
Otti atoaea la the world. 6th. Jib /o kiapko fmarmkotm, emerald^. The 
Ta tki /aa /aa aamea thaa a precioaa atoae of a greco colour. It cornea 
from the beak of a bird with golden wingi, and la a charm againit all aort of 
poiiona. 7th. Pa eke ie (e^tfra), or the diamond. Thia aabatanee la bom • 
In gold ; iU color ia limilar to that of the amethyat 1 it ia incormptiblo and 
lafaiibla, extremely hard aad aharp, aad capable of cutting jade. - 
. For aarea other predoai thiaga appertaining to the monarch of the caith. 
See Chap. X. note 4.— R. 

(b) Plaeee ike relique am kie Aaa^d— Thia phnaa la obacare ia the text 
tad may be varioaily traoilatcd. Tkim§ ikeS aigaiftca te earrf fa ike kead, 



uA iUi wkiek iff hmme m ike fUmd, at the ImttOD on the bonnet which die. 
^^m^imhmm nuk tttd thoio who enjoj inch diitinetion. Tnm H ngniliefl 
per oniineni.— R. 

(€) T^eft i/ife/tMrmee.— This word iower, in Senscrit j/Aitjni, eppliet 
not merely to great religiona bnlldingt, bnt likewise to those miniatiire 
•tractnres which ere the model of the former on e redoeed scale. Sereral 
kinds are diilingnished by different names ; soeh as wikmpa, ia pko (emU 
■ence)f fi^m ik^n (aeerms), son lAceti pko (prcdons tower), Icon «<o« pko t 
hnt many of these denominatioDS are derived from the Sanscrit radical 
Mmpa^ and their varions significations seem altogether arbitrary. Them 
little stmctnres are built of stone or brick, in the form of a tower without 
c^itaL They are of one, two, three, or fonr stories, for the 9rmmkm» or 
anditors of Bnddha of the first fonr ranks. The pi pkM% Mo, are consecrated 
to the reliqnes of Bnddha anterior to his entering npon nirt £na. Those 
of the Praty^ka Bnddbas hate eleren stories i those of Bnddha thirteen, 
to show that he had passed the twelTO nidla-vet , or conditions of relatiTC 
oialenee ; bnt no stories are obsertable on those erected to ordinary mendi* 
osnU, or rirtnons persons.* 
According to the J^k komm wtm ii«, towers or stkupmt were never 
erected over the tombe of either monks or laymen ; bnt 
simple stones, which by tl^r form symbolise the Ikit 
dements, ether, air, fire, water, and earth, and conse* 
qnently the hnman body which is componnded of these. 
These too are called sthnpa by analogy. The annexed 
cnt may gite some idea of the figure assigned to each 

Tho lowest, or the earth, is rectangular. Water, immediately aborc, 
ocenpiesa drdo; fire, a triangle; air, n crescent; and ether n smaller 
oecuminated drde. Instead of Chinese names, Sanscrit letters, being tho 
ahbveviatioa of the Sanscrit nasse of each element, are inscribed on these 
difleteni parts of tho sthu|*at thus kkm^ ether; Ae, air; rm, fire; ro, 
water; «, earth (?)• On joining thereto a fifth syllable, mo- or m for 
kmmki§9t or iktigkif we have the names of the six elements, and a formula 
of iBBSMnso ttteuj. Another s|ieciea of tower is qpoken of, called o fool- 
mi &ikt^ .-t and n Ibrmuk which haa the power lo enswo against the thrao 
•va waya (hen, the eonditioo of brutes, and that of demona). Many honsi 
of H; h«l dda Ibrmnln Is not found in tho saofod toxti ; tt la an inventte of 
t tissea sad of nnknown origin. 

len, «»Mid hi tho Japnaiit C|dopodin» Book XIX. ». 14. 


• AvsUnoolea 
t gihipoAonai 

M vnuoKixAoa of fa bian. 

TlM iMMPt ^Mttmnrnf tpolcM of Vj F« biia, w««U a ype w !• Into 
beM Mtow dten» aai^iladl lo vtwiv* offctiiii* of flovtn «ii y f i fai i. 
TIm nord iMiMnnMt dgnUtettht /m/ aMnM(p«liM of th« tool, itt raUuni 
lo original pcrfiwtiM » iA ChiMM Km< f Ami ,* in SmmotU fl^ 

.(7) 3W *•«*«/ Jh#^— The odventnro to which ollniioB ii heio mdo. ii 
gifon in detail/ Chap. X. noto 4. Wo aae that tho eonntry of Tki ilo«e7, 
where tho fkther of thia ancient Bnddha reigned, mnst be aitnated in tho 
oaatem part of Ptenia; to that, while reienring to Sftya hinaelf tho 
local traditigna of northern and central Imlia, the Bnddhiata did not hesi- 
tate to transport the acene of tho mythological deeda of their sainU beyond 
the liaiu of Hindnttan, to conntriea which they designate * Indlla of tho 
North/ and where their religion Ycry probably did not penetrate till an ago 
very recent when compared with that of it<i origin.— R. 

(8) A t99th rfFo9. — k reliqne of this aatare has already been mentioned 
in Chapter V. and others will yet come before ns, particniarly in'^onr pil* 
grim's aceonnt of Ceylon. An obserration to be made in the following note, 
and which ia equally applicable to the tooth here spoken of, wonld indnoe 
ns to suppose that these precions remains appertainied to another personage 
than the historical Buddha, Salcya j^luni ; possibly to Tim§ kmum§ Fo€^ 
spoken of in note 7. The Oooth here mentioned had disappeared before tho 
Journey of Hionan thsang, two hundred and twenty- seven years subsequent 
to that of Fa hian.— R. 

(9) Tk9$taf e/^be.— the $Ujr, like the ^Wf JmI , is an eesentisl attri. 
bote of the Buddhbt mendicant. lu Sanscrit nam« is U ki le ; In Chineeo 
it is called ^ ekmng (tin sUff), M cAenf . f/eAenf , tAi'nf ehmmp} the sUff 
of prudence, of virtue, fie Mkimf »/«/; because of the noise occasioned by 
the rings with which it is ornamented ; in Manchou it ia called thmldomri. 
There is a * Book e/fie 8itf,* (8y cAenf Um^) in which Buddha is' made to 
say to his disciple Kisyapa, •« Tin is the lightest (among the metals) ; tho 
staff ia at once a support, and a preservative eg ainU vice, by the help of 
which escape is effected from the boundary of the three worlds?' Tho 
staff of Kasyapa Buddha had a head with two openinga, in which were ftzed 
sii rings. That of S&kya Buddha had four openings and twelve rings. 
The modem ibiildeiiH has nine. Wliat is said here of the dimensicns of 
the staff of Foe, that it waa of six or seven Chinese toises (18 to 21 netres) 
would prove, unless there be soa&e error in the text, that our anther ipeaka 
of the staff, not of Sikya, but of one of those Bnddhas who were bom at 
an epoch when the life of man waa of prodigious length and his stature colos- 
sal. For example, Kisyapa waa bom in the age arhen the life of man ex- 
tended to twenty thousand yeaca, and his stature was sixteen toiics (48m« 



80) ; Tipasyl* born in tbe tinM when men lived eighty tbonnnd years, wes 
•ixty jcjanat higli, and the glory encircting hit head, one handrrd and 
twenty. It mnst have lieen to flome giant of thia order that a ttaff of 
eighteen or twenty metres belonged.— R. 

(10) TkMtemg kirn li •f Foe. — Seng kirn K, or more oorreetly Sra/ Mi li, 
is the Chinese transcription of Stmghdiu BvHdhbt ascetics have three 
kinds of dresses. 1st. The Seng kia /I. so ealled from a Sanscrit word sig« 
nifying Johud or dfmhhd^ becaoie it is made of pieces cnt and nnited toge* 
Iher again. Tbe I eking fa 9$e states that the Sanscrit word ffemg kirn ii 
ngnilies a doubled drets ; bat the Smiam lim tee assares ns that the names of 
the three garments can not be very eiactly translated ; that the great gar* 
Ment b named Tjui son? i, becanic of the number of pieces of which it b 
compo s ed. As to its use, it b called, * a dress to enter tbe palace of kings,* 
or * a dress for a public pbce,' because it b worn on the occasion of presch- 
iof the law in palaces, as well of begging fai the cross-ways. The 8a pke 
fe Am, distinguishes three sorts of JkU dreee ; the lower, which oonsisti 
•f nine, eleven, or thirteen pieces ; the middle, which is of fifteen, seven* 
teen and nineteen pieces ; and the upper, which has twenty-one, twenty-three» 
or twenty-ftve. 2d. Tu ie ie eeng (uiiereeemghatl) ; a Sanscrit word signify* 
ing the Ufper garwteni, emrieuii it consists of seven pieces. The Simtm 
ttm 9§e calb thb garment of seven pieces the dreee qf ike wdddie orders and 
■eeording to ita style, * ike dreee fir going ie ike eeeemkigm* It is worn on 
the occasioB of eeremonies, prayers, festivab, and preaching. 3d. An Mo 
Aeei ; thb Sanscrit word means an inner vesture, used in sleep and worn next 
the body. The same work caUs it tbe neiker gmrwtenit and sUtes that It b 
eompooed of five pieees. Its use b defined to be * a garment formed of 
■tvcral pieees worn in-doors by those who practise the law.* Its Sanscrit 
■aaae b en/emi&eAe.— R. 

(11) Hie ekadew.'^Tbh singular reliqoe was also seen by Hionan 
ttsang, and as we cannot question its existence, must be neconnted for as 
tte cffeet of sosae optiesl eontrivanee, dexterously used lo deeeive these 
■npe r stitious pilgrims. The charaeteristie beautiea here spoken of are the 
tidrty*two IslsAene, of the vbible and transfigured body of Buddha. 
Hiouan thsang explains the occasion on which the Tathigata left hb shadow 
fa thb pbce, and eeidirms the prediction that all the Ski iemm {Lek^geei* 
km, Uimet t' ium ^f ike «ft, Bmddkae) of the p erie d ^f eegee^ or the prssent 
^dofvmnld biitato in thb respect the exampb of Sttya Mnnid— R. 

(M) Sceen f eigki leisM^Betwixt 70 and 80 Eagibh feet. 
(U) ne^oAflimMriAt/VeAiybc.— WohavoalraadyaeeBthat£oAe»» 
fAhkm^ bthotruseriptieBofAihiB|«idthatthbS«f 


■crillvm dMligatJtm om of te superior oidm m iim mtSm U piaU m 
pvriMl faUdligeBeM. Ike dcfm iauMdittU j bdow Umm is te l> dU 
yW, or Pjf dU ite l», the une of which b interpvetod iimfh, or cwjHMt 
■n/clN^fac*, wad npnmnU the SuMcrit term Prmt^ekm Bmddkm^ tyr n fa er 
iTifllMtf IhuUic. WithMt eateriiiK upoa the alnoet infinite distinctioM 
which Bnddhiits have cstabliihed in the diffemt dcgrcce of petfection et 
whidi it is posiihle te arriTe hy eontcmpUtioo and the eierase of virtoe^ 
lihsllhcrs transcribe a pemge from a ssered book which will explain A« 
rank of the l^atjciu Bnddhas in the Bnddhist hierarchy. 

"We eaU the/M /ml/», thoM fruiu to which the Bin tka wmm, the ««t 
file Jles, the il ae ilem, the ills Aon, and the i*jreAi>b# bear witness ; isiplj* 
faig that these five classes of men in psssing through the wprld. detnot tarrj 
for the entire snppieisiott of their sMMral imperfections before directing theis 
souls towards the great pvrification, aad calling the frviti of the (tree) 
iodkit or reason." 

*Mst. The/rtf/mtl if that of the sool whose retam lasts eighty thonisBd 
Upss ; it is obtained by the 8iu f Ao tras, (^irof^^Mnme). Their nsme im* 
ports that they eoaie hjjiowmf i that is, that they haTO etcapcd irom iSbm 
general stream (of worldly beings) and hsYe attained the stream pf sainta. 
They haYO cat the three knots (which bind the body to the three worlds) psss. 
cd the three inferior conditions (that of asaras, of brat? s, and of the damned) 
and after baring been bom sfven times among gods and men, ddircred from 
an pain, they enter vpon ntnMMO, or attain kodki of the BMMt cxafted kind^ 
abore which there is nothing. 

2d. «' The ueondfrmii is that of the soai whose retnmlasU sixty thoasaad 
kalpas. It b obtained by the &e f Ao Ann {SmiridijiAmM). Thdr nasse 
signifies m pomf mid eoausf , because after they are bom onee among bmb 
and onee among the gods, they obtain the minima that makes perfect. They 
hare suppressed the six classes of errors attached to the actions of the senses 
and tlie desires which these originate ; and after being re-bom once among the 
gods or among men, they are ddirered from all pain, and pass sixty thousand i 

kalpas in ntro^iM, to obtain erentaally supreme bodAi, 

3d. ««The ihirdfiuU b thatof the soul whose return lasts forty thousand 
kalpss. It sppertalns to the 4 no JIan (Amdgimik) \ personsgss whose 
Bsmes signify that they ' eeme no more,' that U, that they are not agsia . 
bom in the worid of desifes. They ere emsncipated from the fiVe inferior 
bonds snd the necessity of re-birth, so that after forty thousand kalpas, they 
obtain supreme AodAI. 

4th. •« The>bvWiiyhn^ b that of the eoul whoee retum lasts twenty thou, 
sand kalpas. It b the lot of the Arktma^ who baring suppressed all the 



fatperfeedoM which m produeed bk Um three worldt, of desirei, of anger, of 
hatred aad of ^KBonuioet afler tweaij thoosaiid kalpas, obtain iopfeaie *ttf At* 

ftth. **The Jffik fmii ii that of the tool whoie fetom laata tea thooMiid 
halpaa. It behmge to the Pjr eki/oe {Praifeka BtuUkmt), who obtain 
r tea thoosaad halpaa, the anprcme bodhi they hare aerited by the 
lof the ifliperfeetiona which ariie f rom the derirea of the three 
worlda* of nfe» of hatred, aad of igaoraaoe."* 

It woold thaa appear that there b no ezpreaied differoiee betweea the 
deavta of the PhitjAa Baddhaa aad the Arhana* Aaother paiaage ta the 
eaawbooh piaeeethe Fratyflta Baddhaa ia an fatenaediate rtatioa betwixt the 
Sr a a aA oa aad the B» ikUmi imms by reliReace to their progreaa m kaowledge 
aad the adeaee which eonaiata ta coatemplatiaf the aaiaterrapted taceeeiioa 
of the twdte aldnef , or eonditioBa of iadiTidaal exiateaee, k raeogaiaiaf 
their eontiaaoaa ooaeateaaiioa, and coaaeqaeatly the aareality of what ia 
called birth and death, fai dcatioyuf the errora of thoa|^ aad viaioa, aad 
OMcadiag to te trae oaaditloa of thioga, which b Taeaity. Mcreaaiple 
ciplaBBthwM icgaHlBf the Pkatyfta Boddhea wiU be feoad hareefter.— R, 


Lmle Soowy Meantainir-Kiiigdom of Lo i«— Kiofdeni of Po aa.~Rivcr 8ia 

In the second moon of the winter,' Fa hian and the rest passed 
to the soaih of the Little Snowy Mwmtains.^ The snow gathers 
ia these hiUs as well m summer as in winter* On their northern 
aide the cold is exoessiTe, and its sererity is soch Ihat one b almost 
Ihnen. Onlj Hod king^ howerer, was nnahle to endure its 
rigour, and became unfit to proceed* A white foam issued 
liom his month* He said to Fa hian—** It is impossiUe that 
I should snniTel Proceed at once; it must not be that we 
dl perish hefo.** Aad thereupon he expired t Fa hian had 

• SBrretfB«#ft^fW VinMae,irip&ealMV,q«eledhithe5aBCiaiif /tf jMi, 
• XXlLp.9i 

96 mamjuAom of fa num. * 

comforted Urn rnOk all maiuier of eoosohtkm t ho wqpl ftr 
him, and logietted Utterly thai their eommoa picgeet had 
proved ao eoatrikry to destiny } bat miable to help' it» ho 
gathered hb maaining atrength, and proceeding to the south of 
the diain,' artiTed in the kingdom of Lo t .* 

There are in this oonntiy three thoosand ecclesiastics belong- 
ing both to the^re«# and to the Icm iramslaium. They halted 
and sojoomed there ; and when this sojonm was ended* they pro- 
ceeded to the south, and after a ten days* march leaehed tiie king* 
dom of Po lui.* ^ 

In this kingdom also there are three thousand ecdesiastics* all 
attached to the les$ iratulaiiom. Thence going to the east three 
days' journey, you pass again the riTcr SU iheou,* on bqth sides 
of which is a smooth and level conntiy. 


(1) ne ttfrnd flioM ^ wmier.^ir this date b tct down •ceordinf te 
the Chinew adradtft tlM spring cumnencinf with tlie new modn ncamt 
the day apoo which the taa enters the !&• of Aqnarics, the iec«{iMl moon 
of winter hiki b^on two months before, thst is to say, on the ftth December, 
omitting icdnetions. It is rather surprising that onr pilgrims should under* 
take a journey across these snow-eoTcred monntains at surh a sc^hon ; nor 
is there any room for wonder at tlie accident that occ urr e d to one of their 

(2) n€ LiiiU Amwsf Jiro«a/«lM.«»These can bo no other than the range 
which bears at present the name of the Suieimam^kok^ in Afghanis^n. The 
denomination of the ' little mountains of snow' has no doubt reference to that 
of the HimHojfu, following the meaning in the Sanscrit tongue then employed I 
in those countries. It frequently occurs in the narratiTC of Hiouan thsang.-^R. 

(3) 7b /At son/A qf f At cAeln.— Apparently in the district of Gandbira, 
where the mountains leaTC, as far as the Indus, a space free to the occupa- 
tion of the petty states of £• I, and Pono, and whidi Fa hian trafcrsed in 
the space of thirteen days. — R. 

(4) Tk9 kimfdvm nf Xo I.— A country otherwise wholly nnkuown. Fa 
Uan mentions no dreumstance which would enable us to restore this geogrn- 
phical name.— R. 

Fh>fessor WUsoa luggesti that this msy refer to LoAlto, a name found 
in the Mah&bhfinta as thU of a country, as is alio that of XoAo, the appd* 



laUoB of ft people in the north of India, astocUted with the Kambojas and 
others in the lame locality aod sabdaed by Aijiinm. The principal tribes of the 
Afghans betwixt the Saldmini Hills and the Indus are known collectiToly 
•s the Lokania ; and in them professor W. thinks we hsTO ^Aat of the 
Hinda geographers and the J> t of the Chinese.* Capt. A. Cnnningbam 
identifies £• t with the modern RoA, or Bokit another name for Afghanis* 
taii.t Roh is stated in Persian anthors to be the original seat of the Af« 
ghans and to hare extended in length from Scwad and Bijore to the towa 
of Sni in the dominions of Bukharast.^ The word signifies in their Ub« 
gnage MeKn/emeiit. Whateier may be the tme restoration of X# i, there 
can be no doubt that this kingdom was situated immediately south of the 
Sftf^ Koh.— J. W. L. 

(5) Tk€ kimfdom iffP9 nc^Eqnally unknown.— R. 

Capt. A. CnnniBgham has identified the Pe« nu of our pilgrim with 
Bmntf which is situated exactly three marches ^est of the InduSf as Fa hian 
states.—!. W. L. 

(6) Tki river Sim lAeow.^^ee Chap. Til. n. 2. The circumstance 
noted by Fa hian that the country on both banks of the riTcr was lerclf 
Aows that he speaks of the lower or the middle Indus.' We huTe seen that 
this fiYor should bo crossed by our trsTellers about Bukker. The sequel of 
their itinerary wili immediaffly confirm this supposition.— R. 


The kingdom of Pi chhn. 

On crosiing the riTer you arrive nt a kingdom named Pi ekka.^ 
The doetrine of Foe b there honored and flourishing* both in 
the fjratem of the^vvaf and in that of the feet irtmsiaiiom. The 
inhabitants weie greatly touched to see among them trarellers* 
from the hnd of TAHn, and Uiey thus addrsssed us: "How 
became the people of the extremities of the earth acquainted 


tlbid:VoL VU.p.243. 

X Slewait, UiMU^f Btrnfi, p. 137. 

98 riLGmncAOB op pa hiait. 

with sanctified life and the pnctiee of reason? and how eome they 
thus ftr in qnest of the Law of Foe T* Thej gate us ererj thing 
necessary for onr comfort, and treated na eonformaUy ijfith the 
prescriptions of the Law. 


/ (1) if kimfdmm mtmied Pi eAU.— We maj md Pf IAm; Imt I bdieve 
y we ihottld lubftitute ekJkaf or ereo #JIm, for ikw ; aad tlien ^o ihaU 
htrt e iUghtly abernait trBnteripCUm of the name which tt tt i^tvsl to 
look for io that neighbourhood, whether we imagine it employed in Ha Pluiian 
form in the dialeeta of the eonntry {Pamjih\ or in ito Sanaerit (P^neA^n). 
The poiition of tlie eonntiy admita of no doabt tliat diia ia the lame that 
Fa hian picked up, and any ditcnnion upon the point wovld he anper* 
llttoiia.— R. 

If Fa hian and hia eompaaiona had paaied the Indoa at Mkktr^ or PmHr, 
they could not hare entered the Panj&b, a eonntiy much farther to tho 
north. It deriTea ita name from the ^W9 great ri? en, Behat or Jyhun, . 
■ Chenab, Ravi, BeyAh, and Sntledge, which traYerae it, and fall into the 
Indna more than fifty Icagnea aboTO Bokker. Fa hian therefore entered 
Sinde and not the Pknjab.—KL 

The rectification of Fa hian'a route removea M. Klaproth'a dUBeulty. 
Moreof er had Fa hian paased through the inliotpitable deiert aa he mnat 
had he crotied the Indna at Bulcker, he would icareely lia? e failed to record 
the diflicaltiea and priTaUona of auch a journey, nor would he have de« 
aeribed the country aa abounding in imall atreaoM and watercouraea.-* 
J. W. L. 

(2) TVevel/ert.— In tlie text men ^ the ro«A TUa expreanon aigni. 
fies traTcUen, and not prie&tt ^Tee, aa in Chap. lY. n. l.-*KL 



Xingdem of Mo theon lo.— RiTer of Pen na. 

Proceeding thence towards the south-eas^ thej trarelled at 
least eighty y«oac yon.' They passed a great nomber of temples, 
in which there lived ecclesiastics amounting to many tens of 




ihoasands.* After pAssing all those places thej came to a 
kingdom ; this kbgdom is named Mo tkeou lo.* They followed 
also (the eoorse oQ the rirer Pou na.^ On the right and on the 
left of this river there are twenty Setty kia lam^ which may 
contain three thousand ecclesiastics. The law of Foe begins again 
Co be had in honor here.* 

As soon as you leare the sands* and the river to the west, 
all the kings of the different kingdoms of India are firmly at* 
tached to the law of Foe, and when they render homage to the 
ascetics they first take off their tiaras.* They and the princes of 
their families, and their oJSiicers, present these with food with 
their own hands. When they have so presented them with food, 
they spread a carpet on the ground, and sit in their presence on 
a bench. In the presence of the clergy they would not dare to 
recline upon a couch. This custom, which these kings obsenre in 
token of respect, began at the time of Foe*s sojourn in the world, J 

and has been continued erer since to the present time.* - 

The country to the south of this is called the Kingdom of the 
Middle. In the Kingdom of the 2^Iiddle the cold and the heat 
are temperate and moderate each other : there is neither frost 
nor snow. The people live in abundance and in happiness. 
They know neither registers of the population,* nor magistrates, 
nor laws. Those who cultivate the lauds of the king alone 
gather the produce. When any wish to depart, they depart ; 
when they wish to stay, they stay. To goTcm them the 
kings require not the apparatus of (painful) punishments. If any 
one be guilty of a crime, he b simply mulcted in money, and 
in this they are guided by the lightness or the gravity of his 
offence. Even when by relapse a malefactor commits a crime, 
th^ restrict themselves to cutting off his right hand without 
doing him any further harm. The ministers of the kmg 
and those %ho assist to the right and to the left, all receive 
emoluments and pensions. The inhabitants of that country kill 
Ml living bebg; they drink no wine, and eat neither garlic nor 
aaons.* We must acept only the Ckem dUUi/o/" the name 
K 2 


CAtfn Ma h ngnifies kaie/mL These hajt dweDingi pepinte 
fiomotbermeiu When thej enter a town or a market thcj 
strike upon a pieee of wood to mske themseWes known f at this 
ugnsl sU the iobabitants aT<»d them, and seenre themselfes 
agabst contact. In this country they keep neither swbe nor 
cocks. They sell no liTing animsls ; there are in the marketa 
neither shambles nor wine shops. For money they nse shells.'* 
The Chen ehha to alone go to the chase, and sell meat. 

After the pan ni houan^* of Foe, the kings, the grandees 
and the heads of families erected chapels for the clergy ; they 
furnished them with proTuions, and'made them grants of lands 
and houses, and gardens and orchards, with husbandmen and 
cattle to cultivate them. The deeds of these donations are en- 
graved upon iron,'* and no subsequent princes are at liberty to 
interfere with' them in the slightest degree. This custom has 
been perpetuated to the present day without interruption. The 
ecclesiastics who reside in this country have houses to dwell in, 
beds and mattrasses to sleep upon, wherewithal to eat and drink, 
clothes, and in short every tiling that they require, so that they ' 
lack nothing. It is the same every where. The priests are con* 
stantly engaged in good works and in acts of rirtue. They ap« 
ply also to the study of the Sacred Books, and to contemplation. 
Wlien foreign ecclesiastics arrive the elders meet and conduct 
them, carrying by turns their clothes and their potsJ* They 
bring them water to wash their feet, oil to anoint them, and an 
extraordinary collation.** After they have rested awhile, they 
are asked the number and the order of the sacrifices they have to 
perform ; and on arriving at the dwelling, they are left t6 repose, 
after being provided with every thing necessary for them accord* 
ing to the law. 

The places where the pilgrims halted are the tower of She li 
foe,^^ the towers otMou Han*^ and A nan, and the towers of the ^ 
pi than,** of the Precepts,** and of the Sacred Books." After they 
had enjoyed repose for one month, all the people who hoped for 
happiness, exhorted them to betake again to their pious duties. 



Thej piepaied an eztraordinaiy eollation,** when all the clergy held 
a great assembly and discoursed npon the Law. This conference 
ended, they proceeded to the tower of She li foe to make an ob* 
lationof all sorts of perfumes, and there kept the lamps burning 
the entire night. She lifoe^ was a br&hman who came to Foe 
in order to embrace ascetic life. The same may be said of 
the great JUom /mw and the great Kia ehe. The Pi khieou ni" 
pay their devotions principally at the tower of Jt nan, because it 
was A nan who prayed the Honorable of the Age^ that he would 
grant to women the liberty of embracing ascetic life.** There 
is also a (prescribed) order in which the Sha mi^ fulfil their re« 
ligions duties. Those who have a master of the Apt than, pay 
their homage to the ^ pi than ; those who have a master of the 
.Precepts, honor the Precepts. Every year there is a service of 
this kind, and all of these have their day. The devotees of the 
Ma ho yan*^ pay their homage to Phan jo pho lo «mV* to Wen 
ehu ue /i,** to Konan M tJi,** &c. 

The pilgrims received the presents which it is cnstomaiy to make 
at the end of the year." The elders, the officials, the br4hmana 
and others presented them with dresses of different kinds, and 
all things essential to. Samaneans, and which are offered in alms 
to the clergy. The pilgrims themselves in like manner presented 
alms. The rites and the ceremonies which that holy band'* 
perform have thus continued without intemaptioa since the Ni 

After passing the river Sin iheon in going towards Southern 
India^therearefortyorfifty thousand /i^ to the Sea of the South. 
There are cveiy where plains, where one sees neither great 
nor great rivers^ but merely streamlcU and water- 


(1) Mmt $emr$ y«Mi fflM.<— ProA the point where oar pilfrioM 
the lades to Mathan ue eight in g nm ef a gnat cMe | whisk g&fes Ian 
I lo a <faiee.^R. 
K 3 


(2) Bmemi tmm ^ tkmmmmiM.'^hM fk kUa cnten «pos ■» dcUib tmm 
garding these Moekst end does aol appcer to hate visited their ■ottuteriee, 
we BMy Infer that thej did not beloof to tlM Semancen retigioA, bnt were 
vcr^ prtobebly attached to the brahmanieal worship. Without sOnM snch 
supposiHon. it b not easj to eiplain how these pilgrinif who yavcrsed 
India pnrposly to Yisit temples where thej eoald heeome acqvsinted with 
the minntiK of the'r faith, and who in other parts of their jonmej/deseribe 
almost topographically sndi objects as merited their pkms regard* shonld 
have met with none sudi in all this spaeeof one hnndred and twenty leegnee. 
This inference will be eonfirmcd in note ft.-^R. 

(3) U9 ikeom le.— and in the narraUte of Uionaa thsang Ms f Ae« to, is 
the most exact Chinese transcription that can be made of the word Ifis- 

It is still a town In the proTinee of Agra, eo the right bank of the Jnmna. 
It is celebrated among the Hindus as the birth-plaoe and earliest sojonm 
of Krithna, on which aceonnt it is a place of freqnent pilgrimage amongst. 

(4) The riwer Pen n«.~This name b greatly changed^ bnt the position 
prcclndes mbtaking the Jnmna, or Ymmmma^ on the tight bank of which b 
situated the town of Afe/Anre.— R. 

It may be the transcription of the last two syllables of /sAanc, a proYinei- 
al name of the Junuuu— J. W. L. 

(5) BesUu rngrnim U U MM m ilenetif*.— The Chinese text b susceptible 
of sereral interpretations ; the meet natural appears to be, * the law of Foe 
reviTcs;' but this refival may bo understood In two ^nscst asVeferriag 
either to time or to space. We may suppose that after baring been oerseeut* 
cd or neglected, the religion of Buddha began, at the tioM of Fa hiA's risit, 
to find a greater number of adherents { or that after baring trarersed eoun* 
tries where Buddhism prevailed, then other eountries where brihmanism 
predominated, the traveller found the former religion once more flourishing 
in the country of Mathur&, at which he had arrired. The latter explanation 
appears to me the more probable ; for Fa hiaa expressly tells uS that the 
obicnrance of the ceremonies of Buddhism, and the privileges of its adhe- ~ 
rents had continued without interruption since the nirrina i*f Sal^a Muni* 
We have just remarked (note 2) that the tract of country passed orer by 
our pilgrim since leaving the Indus was most probably inhabited by Hindus 
of the brahmanieal sect, since he, whose quest wm for objecU associated with 
hu own frith, had not found matter for a ringle observation, but passed 
over with so few words the space of eighty yojaaas. — R. 

(6) The seniff.— -The great salt desert east of the Indus, and which must 
* be crossed on proceeding direct from that river to central India. — R. 


(7) Their iianu ;— in the text, eeletiUi or diriue etip : that if « the ornm- 
MCBt for a king's head, a tiara, diadem, or crown. 

(8) To ihtprttemi Iteie.— This passage is Tcry remarkable ; it shows ns 
that in the fifth oentnry Baddhism had lost notbiag of its svperiority over 
brahmanism, and that it had enjoyed thb snperioritj sioee the time of Sikya 
Moni, L e. the 10th century before Christ, according to Chinese chronolo- 
gy. Subsequent traTcUers, though animated with the same spirit as Fa hian, 
confess on the other hand that the Samanean religion began to show, ia 
sundry places, symptoms of decline. Temples had fallen to ruin, cele- 
brated reliques had- disappeared, the number of ecclesiastics had diminished 
in scTcral monasteries, and those who yet remained were mingled with the 
heretics, or brahmans. The history of Indian Buddhism receives immense 
iUastration from the comparison of these passages, which establish OMMt 
important points in the chronology of these religions.— R* 

(9) Rtffuier$ qf |»o/9»/«/ion.— These registers are used in China to fix 
the poll-tax ; hence our author reckons it among the adfaataget enjoyed by 
tkft Hindus that they had no census amongst them. 

(10) Oariick or enieiu. — ^Wine, garlick, and onlone, are of the number 
of things from which Baddhists are, nocording to the fifth piueept, to abefaini 
The five precepts are— 

I 1st. Not to kill any tiring being. 

i 2nd. Not to steal, 

r 3rd. Kot to commit adultery. 

I 4th. Not to lie. 

i5th. Not to drink wine. 
These ^we precepts answer to the five corresponding virtuet ^^^umaaity, 
prudence, justice, sincerity, and urbanity.* 
Three others are added to these, making eight ; 
: €th. Not to sit on a large bed, or a Urge or lofty seat. 

7th. Not to wear fiowers or ribbons on your dress. 
8th« Not to become fond of songs, dances, comedies.f 
The two following are likewise enumerated, completing the number of ten. 
9th. Not to wear on the arms omamenta of gold or of stiver. 
10th. Not to eat after noon. 

Sudi are the precepts which the aspirant to the rank of Samanean should 
obaervo. They are called ' /At fen frteepU qf ike meeeiiee/X There is 
another enumeration which extends the number to two hundred andi&fty, 
cidled emfiekmit beeause they euflioe Ibr the luU and perleet exercise of 
nllgioui liCi* Tbqr «in distributed ia the Ibllowing manner :«- 

•Ssertieag/lss«,ll.XXIII.p.7v. titoC. I JM,B.VILp.l6v. 


10>l nxjommiGs op fa biah. 

111. KdM agdMl Fit fo I (m^iI•tioi^ 

tdU KdM afftiail •Mf Mi jiA* afti «i«| Uib SmmciU word 
* nrfii ^ #4« ^«iif« ;' beeniM wImmw iBfriofcs theae praeepto b as mm 
whohmAhtm MM«iMitod| Us bod j aw lifw» bol bo |i aofortMcM loaL. 
Tbirteea artidei* 
3d. lodeteniiiioto rakoi two ortidoa, 

Tbe iofraetioo of ibcM actidco it oatiouted dtber ooeoffdiag to PAo la I, 
or Sen^ Hm pk9 mJU aJIOt or FAo jr lAi (aae below), ood bcaea tbaj aro 
aaSd to be iudetenBioate. 

4tb. Rolca reUtive to iVi ao MAi and Fk^fMi tbirty artieko. Tbo 
Sanaerit word JVi m Ml, aifoUlea to oftoaifaw.- tbe toraa ia appfiad to tbo 
love of ficbca and ' to iic(ligeBeo, wbicb lead to onwUliBgoeaa to joio tbo 
bodyoftbe^oii^oa. Tbat of PAo y Mi aignlfiea f o yb/l, intiaBa^ tbat if 
one doca not oftomfaw (tbe knro of ricbea, &e.) be/bilt into ball, 
5tb. Rnlca rdatito to PAo y Mi\ ninetj artidea. 

6tb. llttlea reUU? e to PAo la lAI lAt aAo am, foor articka. Tbia word 
aignifica to • rtptmt imprnemf ^f wmt lu,' Aceording to tbe Sf»g lU Um^ 
wbatcTer fanlta bavo been oommittcd abonld bo acknowledged in open aa* 
aembly. Hence tbia denomination. 

7tb. Rnlea prcacrtbed for tbe atndiea of nendicanta. A bnndred artidea. 
8tb. Haifa for atiding contro? eraiea ; ae? en artidea. Tbeae two bondicd 
and fifty rnlea are enjobed for obaenrance by nonka and aaendicanta.* 
* (11) T%t CAem ekka h, — ^Tbera ia no difficulty in reoogniting fai tbia 
transcription tbo Sanaerit word CkamddUt tbo aecond ayllable of wbicb io 
dtcred by tbe anbatitntion of o palatid for « dental* aa wo boTc bad oecaaion 
to obaerre before in tbe repreaentation of Sanscrit worda by Cbineae cbarae- 
tcrs. Tbe Bnddbista seem to bave partaken tbe contempt witb wbicb tbe 
brabmana regarded tbo Glondtflaa, *tbe loweat of mortala,' aa ^enn cba« 
ractcriaea tbem.t Wilaon ezplaina tbia word to mean kairfml, aa^ tbe Foo 
koue ki. Tbe Cbineae pretend tbat it tignifiea « buieJktr, also unt^m tiprnm, 
because indiTiduda wbo eierdsc tbe Tocation of butcber and perfbnn otber 
wicked acta are compelled wben tbey go abroad to liug a bell or bold up n 
piece of bamboo* tbat tbey may be readily recognised. Tbere are fiTO daasea 
of persona from wbom ecdeaiaatica ongbt to be careful to avoid aeeking 
alma: 1st. Singera and eomediana, wbo tbink of nought but jeating and 
merriment* and wbo disturb eontemplation. 2d. Women of bad cbaracter. 
wbose conduct b impure and wbose reputation b bad* wbo are abandoned to 
libcrtinage, and wbo abut tbe good way. 3d. Dcalera in wine s for wine Icada 
• San tiangfa ton B. VII. p. 15. f Menu* Chap. X. 12* 16. 

- I 


to all Tice* cicesiet, and crimes. 4Ui. Kingi, because their palaees are fall 
•f eoortierB and attendants who interdict access, and whom it is necessary 
to avoid offendinf . 5th. Finally dm /Ao io, or Ckem ekhm to, {Chmddlas,) 
that is batchers who delight in killing and tormenting Itviog beings, and 
who in destroying sensibility, destroy Tirtne and good inclinations. — R. 

It Is known that the Chandalas pass for tha mixed descendants of Sadras 
with females of the br&hman caste. — Kl.* 

The following aocoant of the origin of the Chandalas, is from a Bormese 
work, the Dkammuttkai, a Baddhiit edition of the Laws of Mrna, recently 
pablished at Maulmain. " In former times, before the god (Gandama) ap- 
peared, a most wicked yoong brahman killed his wife ; and at the lime of the 
mwder his fellow br^mans eonsulted together and agreed on, that this 
youg brahaun had committed a crime which no one else had committed, 
and what they shonld do with him ; so having shaved his head, they tamed 
him ont of society, and caused him to be called Ttandala, and from that the 
namdaUi class became a distinct one for the most wicked incorrigible brah* 

lo the same work we find the following statement of the " nine kinds of 
brihmans. IsL Those who live on alms in the jangle, who do not take 
wives, or aocnmalate property, called brahtmm-49m»rte • 2d. Tliose who toke 
wives, bat live oo alms, called brohmmmak ; 3d. The class from which kinga 
are taken, called kkat-U-fat 4th. Those who snpport themselves by trade, 
and do not take alms, called da fa g ath. Those who sopport their famOiea 
by sfricaltare and who do not receive alms, beika ; 6th. lliose of pore 
dcseent, ptk^bJd^ta; 7th. Those who are of loose habits, ba^ra^dwa-za ; 
8ih. Those who have broken the mles of their caste, degraded men, who 
have been tamed oat of the society of brahmans. called Uam*da»ta ; 9th. 
Those who have left their families and snbjected themselves to privations, 
ta^f ai k t t. Under these nine classes, asany are indnded i the Bonnan, 
te Knla, the Talien brahman, the Kalay and the Hindn briUimfai," fte.^ It 
ia corioos to observe how generally the brihmans are spoken of by the Chi* 
Mae and other Ibreigners aa a nation or tribe and not aa the priestly order. 
A bfikmtm Ba dd k U i, however Incongrooos tha terasa now appear, b an ez« 
p w mion that oceors oftener than onoa, and aonnda not leaa atrange than 
tha TWmislBlf^nMn In the foregoing passage.— J. W. L. 

(IS) 8kdiM,r^M. Bemnsat had translated this passage, • SMUamd lf€fV 
aadhaaddannoto, •« I translato It aooording to tht cofioetion of tha i'te 

•As. Res. Vol. I. 

t XMsHflMiAat, tiaadnldl by D. Riehaidson, £iq. p. laOi 


106 nixsmncAQs op pa bia9« 

lilM. TiNlatortlMfWiMt AiscviacBUycrvoMOM. TIn ^jlidb him 
■pokcA of •!« the tfffrmm MMMf« (dMrriei) which m viod as ewrait m^mj 
la Ib^a.'* NefcrthdeM there b not aay differcaee hetwen the feit ef th« 
PJeiil IJM, end that of the .Pbe 4Mie If ; they hoth impoct, «<to carry en 
eoaaaefce I to make eae of ahelli." The term P«7 eAAI« le eai^leyed to 
detignate thoie ihdU employed as money, which aie deicrihed faithe 
great Japancie Encydopedia aa '^ahdla with denticnlatloiis reaemblini^ 
the teeth of ftthes."^KI. 

(13) Tk9 ptm ai Aeeea rf JVe.— This eipicirioa has been esplaiaed 
already. Chap. XII. note 3. We gather from the traditlona here picici f c d 
by Fa hian, that Buddhism bad m>t inffered fai Ccntrai India from the riralrj 
of brihmaniem, for fonrteen centories after ita Inftitntion.— R. 

(1 1) Bngrmtd up9m Iron.— I>ecds eooTeying grants of land (f rsn/Ae) 
to Baddhist templet, are the most ordinary subject of inscriptions fonnd la 
ladia. Sush in particular are thos' translated by Mr. Wilkins \* that which 
M. Bamonf baa pablished, and many of tboie in the collection of Col* 
Mackenzie. These grants are engraTcd upon copper or tome other BQetal.-*>R. 

(15) Their dre$9e» amd tkeir jwto.^That it their entire baggage.t— R. 

(16) Am ejrtraordUuuTjf ce//a/isa.^Liter8lly *ea «iMeefeaeA)Sr kroik»* 
What the Bnddhittt call /ime fai reference to meals, is thus explained: 
the time ^f ike Cede is the early morning, the boor cboten by the Gods 
to take their repatt. TAe iimt ^f the lets Is noon, the hour telected 
by the Buddhas, psst« pretent, snd to come for their refection. ^ Tke /isie 
^ bmiet is evening, when animals feed. Tk§ time of ike gemU is'aight, da* 
ring which good and evil spirits eat.t Thns all meals taken after mid-day 
are wueoitmabte for ecclesiastics, and all who obterve the preoepta rigoroatly 
abttain from soch. Thote however who are tick obterve no dittinction, bnt 
eat when they pleate.f Breakfatt is called among eeelesisttics Cil«l» 
{mMiutmet,) and sapper, Fet eki, (niMcetonsft/eaeit.) Baddha baa rccom* 
mended all his ditciples to obterve the kirn fo. that it, the weniMe (time), 
and to avoid the ^e« mo jrt, or /«/«« (Tet eki,) The pretent entesjone^/S» 
eeileiiom seems to have been given to onr travellers on aeeonnt of the fktignee 
they had nndergone s bat the same expression occnrs sgaia farther oa, hi a 
pastage which aeemt more diflicnlt of explanation.— R. 

(17) Ske ti/oe, whom they likewite name 8ke tttteu; la the former 

the latt t; liable it the Chinete tranteription of the Indian ter^dnation of the 

original name, Sdnpmtrm^ which tignifies the sea ^ lie JtutiSai er«»e» so 

• Ai, Reu Vol. 1. 

t See Chap. XI 1. note 8. 

t Sam ttamgfu laa B. XIX. p. 4 V. 

i Jap. Encyc B. C V. p. 1&. 





called beetiiM the eyet of bit mother resembled those of that bird.* He 
was one of the principal disciples of Sikya Moni, and the one who excelled 
in Prtffmd, or dipime kMwMgt, in which he was instmcted by AtsIo* 
kiteswara. — R. 

(18) JtfiNi /!«»•<— Another disciple of Sdkya, reckoned amongst the most 
eonsidcrable. He is distingoiebed by the epithet frtaU His title is 7^«n 
cAty cqniTalent to ^ryc.<— R« 

(19) A pi ihm, or more correctly, A pi thti mo (Abhidarma), is the name 
given to the last of the three classes in which the sacred books are arranged, 
which contun the discourses, or conTcrsation. These three classes are call* 
«d the ' Mree eomprekemnvu t' in Chinese, Sen Itev i ^ Mongolian, Goiir* 
hm mimmi «ete,t and in Tibetan, uDemod gsonm. The words employed 
in these several languages, signify a M#e, or rteepiMcie, and are equivalent to 
the Sanscrit Piimkm, or Kiu she (kocha)4 This name is given them becanso 
they eon/eta, ineluie^ embraet, the vaiiona religions works mentioned in 
the three following classes : 

IsL Sieou iko Is (Sutra), These are the principles or aphorisms which 
constitute the basis of the doctrine, the anthentie and invariable texts (in 
Chinese Jtimg) i in Tibetan this sense of immobility b rendered h^jronr. Theso 
] testa indttde, c&ovr, the doctrine of the Bnddhaas Mow, the duties, or 

I frcnltics of aUUving beings. 

2d* Pi mn' jrt (Fiimjni). Thia word aignifiet , precepts, rules, laws, or 
Ofdonnanees, or literally good potemmemi, such as should overrule the bad 
^^uJities of living beings, as worldly laws serve to restrain laults, whether 
■ore or less serious. The Tibetan word AKah, expresses this meaning, and 
united to the Tibetan title of the sacred books, forma the compound bA*eA« 
hGjrenr, which is the title of the most eelebrated collection commonly ' 
caUed 6eM(r'e«r. The Precepts are called in the sanie collection hDut bm, 
leoAt ff eomnrHont of ekamgimg evil to good ; in Mandchon Wemiboure no 
awna, and in Mongolian, D^rinai. 

[M. Csoma pe Koros explains hKtUkAkGpwr to mean trmutmiiom ^f couu 
mtmdmtmU because theae works were translated from the Indian originals 
Into Tibetan. See page 3.]— J. W. L. 

ZAmApk ikmmn (Abhidarma). This word signiftes diseoune, converse* 

tifltt} these are, according to a Beddhist vork (the ill ij« ten), treatises in 

i^iehtbymcansofquestiona and anawera, n deliberate ^akc may he asado 

tht dtfifoit procedures indicated by the law. Hm Abhidhar. 

• &m tteng/a M a XU. p. 13. 
t Ci i ri b irA i y ifsr Mt JlMftfot, pp. 
I &a imnf /• M B. VUI. p. S. 

pp. 41-46. 

108 VfLOStlfAOK OF FA BtAK. 

■kM«f« calbdlRTilwtuTfltetmibiijMiorttefHMif^lMM'lMrj bkMwai* 

Tlie worlui 0f these tbiw daiMi «• divided into two fpedsi, M tiw3rjM4p« 
pen to eppertdtt to the srfMl or the litft /rmtlf/lea. Amoof the Aif»«t of 
thefTMl/nnilelJeoefe qeoted the ffee jreii, end other leered teste which 
treet only of BodMf or hUOiigemf eoMtteetf l« IJIe wwM ^f ike Imp, 
teecfaing end ezpoandiag the good eetione of tlie Bodhieettwee of the IfeAd 
jreed, end mekinf manifest the fruits of moral coodoet. The Tiaayae 
l>eloiigiiig to the same frem/e/ieo ere like Uie fkm kampf fBrmwtaJMim^ tkt 
thread ^ Brekmm)^ booke in whieh the lews ere recorded es observed hf 
the Bodhisittwas of tU5 fteei UwuUAinm, Lastlj, amongst Ihe JMidkarmee 
of the same class are cited tiie KAi tie Imm (DUeeuree to gke bira^ tefitUk) 
and other controversial works upon the conduct of Bodliisattwas vt tlio 

Among the sntras of the feit trmmeMiem «ure dtcd the Afttma, and other 
sacred works, in which the nature of tlie veritable Toid (spirit) and repose 
or annihilation (eztacy) are treated of to explain the practi^ of the 
Sraeakas and Prmtyekae, and its fruits. Agemm is a Sanscrit word signi« 
fying peerhit. Among the Fineyet are included the mirr /er the fomr 
§eeiiotu fue/en ieuj that b to say, for the conduct of mendicants, msle and 
female, for the oitervatien qf the prtcepte, and for the ertineihn ^dhputee^ 
The discourses entitled kin ike {hechm, that which embreeei, eei^amet in 
Chinese tiomffj are cited as belonging to the class of Abhidarmas of the left 
tremtlmtien ; they enlarge upon the conduct and merits of the Sravakas^ 
Pratyekas, and Buddbas. 

Another work, after defining the word Ttamf (thmt whieh eentmime 
or imetudei e lew end em imrneme n^ifleenee), distinguishee fiVe of these. 
1st. The Seu te leu, (Sutram) or Sieou to /o, immuUble doctriie to whieh 
all at once conform in the ten worlds, and of which not e tittle changes in the 
three times. 2d. The Pin net ye (Vinaya) or rules. 3d. The A pi the mo 
(Abhidarma), or diicourses. 4th. Pee je phe le uti te {Pr^lne peremite^ 
tke errivel en tke ether there ky knewtedye.) Men far separated from 
knowledge and detained within the drcle of life end death, are designated 
as being on thii shore ; the Bodhisattwas who practise the prejne, and 
attain nirvana, are on the other ehore. Aoeording to the sacred books that 
being endowed with sensibility who applies himself to the truer and solid 
science of the 3iehd yene, emancipates himself from the condition of te(f: 
and the subtilties by which he attains this object constitute the Prejnm 
peremite, &th. The h ni (Dkdreni) that is to say, wket one tehee, ineoee* 
tion, myterione fommle. It means also that which, when a man cannot 


vnderttaBd or obierre tlie intnt, lerret for hii Rsol<^tioii tad diminishet 
Che weight of committed iui« procures delireraiiee sooner or bter^ »ad coo« 
doels to mniok cqusllj the ignorant and the enlightened man* 

In general the Prajna paramitas and the Dharanis are not reckoned 
among the sacred books known by the title Sam itumg^ or lAe Tkrt9 CoUee* 
iimu. This expression frequently occors, and is found in the title of the 
work from which the principal part of these explanations is dcriTcd, nsmely, 
the Smh ttmtff/k sen, literally the num^rs ^Ae lawo/ike tkrtt rteeptMelu t 
because the substance of the sacred books is there distributed according to 
the subdiTisions ascribed to each psychological notion. This title might be 
in Sanscrit 7W yiimka dkmrmm 9amkkym. Many other and more particular 
f\ft^iii^ Ai^m of these religious works will be found in the notes referring 
10 those passages in which our Buddhist trafellers speak of such as they had 
collected in their tra? els. 

The custom of erecting towers for presenring the original of a sacred 
book, as well as for depositing a relique, or perpetuating the remembrance of 
some prodigy, is etUblished by the pasiage which giTCS rise to this note. 
There wero at Mathuri the tower of the AbkidarmM, that of the FiNsyof , 
and that of the Smtroi.^K. 

(20) Tk€ Preeejilt.— That is the FtiMyef. There are three kinds of 
precepts. 1st, The Pi m (Vioaya) ; this word signifies Aonnm rc^'sien. It 
is applied to that which is capable of regulating the desires, anger, ignorance* 
and other imperfections. It expresses the ideas of moderation and snbw 
mission ; because by the help of these precepts we msy temper and restrain 
the ikre§ €cUi that is, thoie of the body, the mouth, and the will ; and 
gorem and sufajagate aU erii propensities. 2d. Ski to (ShOa), that which 
•tnya or restraina (evil), and ronders capable (of good) ; or simply pnhibU 
ii9u^ that which anppresses the ricious acU of the body, the mouth, and the 
wUL 3d. PMo h tki fmom «Ae (Para adhi muh^ka) or deUTcrance, be- 
cense these preoepU remoTO the bonds of wicked incliaation, and render 
y>*« Bsaster of himielf .— B- 

(21) Tka peered Boole.— The word Hof in Chinese signifies that which is 
imMHakU i it ooot^s the idea of constant doctrine, ' roTealed text.' £? ery 
^ ^ introduced into China haa borrowed this term from the school of the 
Ulantt, who apply it only to the works compiled by Confudus. The Bud* 
dhiilsoppiy it particnlariy to the ^n/rsf, because acoordug to the explanns. 
liMi^Tcm in one of these books, they 'constitute Uw and arc inTuriable.' 
Thty CI* eonformed to in the len wcrldr and arc unchanged by the Mnt liaiciu 
The tsBVcridaaicthcoccf the Bnddhas» the Bodhisattwac, thcFkntyckn 

the SiBfckac the gcde, wtm^mum. imm» tf dmyc^ (^rc 

110 nimauAau of m auir. 

pnmtdp ttid tte Mu««— R. 

tipwlca, wbich tot veeat wmflirt o«t of plaoe. It k aol mtf to 

wdcntttid wbyosr tratdlM, iavltod by dmoai pcrMM toMOM their 
Mligimn eiweiaeftiboald pf«pw« themwlves for atlwologialcMTcmM bj 
aa tafraetioB of tte c^ioiMd obMrroMM of thdr profeMioB, Mdi ^ 
ncilt at othor thaa ooDTontoal boon. Tho paM*go oppcon to icqoiffo 
coneetioB ; bot it is tbo Muooiaeo^ of tboeopicttbot I hoTO Mem to.— B. 
(23) Tk0 Pi MiMO al,^tbo femiAioe of Pi kkitw iBAiJtikmm0. After 
Sikya hid aeoomplished the lew, hb emit IfeAe j»Ae tktpkt H {J^^h^rtg^ 
putl) Tmmi lee (the friend of religion), eoogbt pemiMion to embneo reliciooo 
life and etndy tbe doetrine. Sdlcya wo onwIUing to conient to Uiii, wbea 
Anaada preised him to permit iu Boddha replied, ** Be carefnLf do noC 

permit females to enter npon my law and bceooM Soanneana ; when there 
are bbotb daoghten than sons in any family, yon know that that family lalla to 
min and can never regain ita splendor." Ananda renewed liia importnmty, 
when Bnddha ezponnded to him what have been called the eJyA/ rttfteifia 
proeedurt$. ** If they can obterre theee," added he, •• I consenf that they 
sbonld become ascetica." The following are tbe tifkt rmpHi/ml pfeedwrm 
impofed npon women by Baddha : 

laL A female atcetie, thoagh a hnndred yean of age, owee rrepect to n 
monk, though he be in the very fint year of his profession. 

2d. A fensale ascetic shoold maairest respect towards mendicnnta, and 
never insalt or ealamniate them. 

3d. If a BBonk happen to commit a tkt, tho female ascetic sjionld not 
commend him I bntif n lemaleascetiesin, and heer the praises of a monk« 
she should tarn, in self-examination, to hersdf. 

4th. Slie should receive the precepts from a Saoga, or from aoaM ftwilirrnf 
of eaemplsry virtue, to whom she should apply for that purpose. 

5th. If she hsve sinned and feel herself unworthy to coatione in tho 
society of mendicants, she should humble herself, confess her fiinlt, and put 
away pride and negligence. 

6th. She should receive during half a month the instruetione of the Sen* 
ga, and should apply twice each month to a mendicant of dtstinguishod 
virtue for such instruction as sUU promote her progress in the doctrine. 

7th. She should, during the three summer months, abttoin fromrcpooa 
and atuch herself night and day to mendicants ; inquiring of them roncera. 
ing the meaaing of the law, and increasing her knowledge with a view to 
. its prsctical application. 


itk. After the three tmnmer monthe hate e1apied» from the 15th day 
«f the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7th, she ihould foUow meadicants to 
improve henelf hj the example of others, and if she commit any dB» sho 
should repent and confess before all.* 

The eight crimes by which female ascetics prore that they have abandoned 
the precepts, and shonld therefore themselves be abandoned by the world, 
as ont of the pale of the law of Bnddha, are these : 1st. Taking away the 
life of any living being, as aU snch beings ding to their body and existence ; 
cansing them pain and torturing them, instead of showing compassion for 
them. 2d. Stealing that which belongs to snother ; abandoning one's-sdf t» 
avarice; taking instead of giving, dd. Committing impurities. The 
feasale ascetic who knows not how to defend herself by the rites and pro* 
tcct herself by the precepts, conceives desire, and soils the pnrity wUch 
■honld preside over her condoct. 4th. Lying, concesling the trnth, and 
deceiving others by crafty vrords. 5th. Permitting eon/ccI; this is said of 
a female ascetic who sllows herself to touch the person of a man, which 
originiics impure desires. 6th. The eigkig committing any of the eight fol- 
lowing acts : taking a man by the hands from any improper desire, touching 
his ctothes, going with him to any retired place, sitting and conversing with 
him there, walking there with him, leadng against each other, and making 
criminal assignations. 7th« Cottrimg or eoneemlimsfs that is, when in the 
assembly where the precepts are expounded and the bw observed, the female 
ascetic conctclt the sins of others, and is unwilling to disclose her own. 8th. 
FUkiw%m§ or resting tgiou; that is, not performing service in common at tho 
great assembly of the Saogas, and following some private society. 

(24) 7^ /foKom^iis ^ /Ac ilye.— This is one of the ten surnames given 
to human Bnddhas, and of course to Sakya Muni among the rest. ▲ 
Buddha, by the sublime science (Phjni) and tho other perfeetioni ho has 
attained to, extinguishes desire, anger, ignorance, and every other imperfec* 
tioa,— tha sorrows of life, as well as those of death, and obtains an intelli* 
gence transcending that of all others. Gods and men, all the srints, as well 
in tha world as beyond it, recognise and honor him as the Vmtntbh* This 
is the meaning of the Sanscrit surname JMufpmikm; tha Tibetan trandatioa 
•r whiA is nl2/i^ rlcn ^1 g/so »o.t— R. 

(25) According to tha Japaneee chronology, entitled, Wm Urn two to/en 
aen^«4^oi0i.aa iMif, preserved in the Bibliothequa dn Bd, fiA^ii >bt and 

I Mn, embfaoad Monastio lift in 995 B. C. Aceocding to tha tamo 

» Pea • miag y, ^nolad in tha Ssa tomg/b SNS B. XXXIL p. 17. 
reaBli.>Pilagl.8acl.LNabll« . . ^^ 

/V UNION >^> 


^>^^H^ yQ«^ 

112 momiMAOS or fa bum, 

fa97SB.aaiidia970cQtMtod bia BWter to gfful to i 
left oCbeeovdBf Meetiei.-*KL 

(26)Tlie&lflMl.— TbiaSs theaMMgivcm totlM diidplMor 
oTdMidVoos praAnioB. Itk mdaraabytwo words, wUeb ligniiy to 
«tolJlc or cosyoMtMNilc # to eomjMU8iommi9 tho raffBriagi of all living bciogo 
aod to afford thcaa aaaittanoa.* The mora rvgolar form of tbo word ia aft« 
liwMUh Mo, bot it ia BM>re osoally cmplojcd in tbo abridged form 8km 
mdm Tbo 8km ml moat obaerro tbo ton precepta,t ood wbcn tbej Iwto io* 
odTod tbo ' 99ificU»i fneepU,* tbat ia tbo two bondre J and fifty, tbay aro 
icpntod Mikikm$, Differant namca aro given to tbo Sba mia aeoordiag to 
ogo. Vnm aeron to twelve or tbirteen, tbey are ealled * kumttn ^raaent /' 
from fiwrtea to nineteen, « jMcn/lor dUeipte* ^f Mt lew/ from twenty and 
vpwarda tbey obtain a name or. tido.t Tbey most tben anppresa all evil 
indinationa, and praetiae every virtoe, wben tbey merit tbo title of 8km mi, 
tbat ia 8km mt, aa atriotly defined. Tbo word 8kM, wbicb meana dladple 
in Afand tkom, ia apparently derived from tbo Cbineao 8km mi. Feauloo 
bear tbo name of 8km wU nl, or more eiaetly 8k0 ii w»m It kirn, ^bicb os« 
preasea tbeir effoita to advance in tbo doctrinea of Baddba. Tbo ' antbor of 
tbe tranalation of tbo ndea of tbo 8km ml, bo made a aingnlar miatako ia 
taking tbe latter word aa tbo eqoivalent of Sba men (Sroaumo) even in tb* 
title page of bia work (Co/ceAiam ^ /At ^Aomont.)— R. 

(27) Mm Aa jron,- — tbo traaacription of tbo Sanacrit word, Makd^imm, 
tbo prfol tnaulmHrnm* Tbo dergy of tbo $reat trmulMiim are teraaod 
limkdgAM dnm ; tboao of tbe /cat, JifoiaAa dna (dcUvered goda.)— R. 

(2a)PAo»iojrAo l9 mC— an imperfect tranacription of tl^o Sanacrit 
prajnd ptfraoii/o, tbo act of attainiog /.la oMer tAort by acicnco. PArmmiim 
ia one of tbe ten meana of final deliverance. Tbo aeveral religiooa books ia 
wbicb tbia divine adenoe ia incnleated aro called Frqjmm pmrmmiim, Tbeao 
ore ascribed to Mm^uiri Awaiakiietwmra (leo n-st note.)— R« 

(29) Wem tku ait li,— in Sanacrit Manjoari. Tbo Cbineao pretend tbat 
tbero aro tbreo modea of writing and interpredng tbia name ; *" lat. IFca 
cku $$€ H, * marvelloaa virtoo i' tbo being wkom tbey ao designate being en* 
dowed witb admirable, aabile infinitely varied, and innnmerabla merita. 2d. 
Jfan tku 9k€ U, * adnirablo bead or ebief/ becanae by bia wondrqna, anbtle, 
and infinite merite be b above all tbo Bodbimttwaa. 3d. Jifon eiln «Aa H, 
• admirable benediction,' (a formnU of praise, adoration, or a ba^py omen) 

• Sn Utmgfm mm, B. VIL p. 16 v. 

t See nolo 10. 

I See note 1. Chop. I. 

CBAPTBS zn. 113 

bj retfOB 0f thow nae BMrits Ui Btme it the Vappictt of MupicM.^ 
B«t there ii reeeon to enppote thet in trenscribiBg in different Chinew 
the saaw Sanierit word« thej have, as if often the coe, eonght Ibr 
and aDonone, and fortaitooa coincidences and plaja of worda whi^ 
the tine etjoMlogy does not sanction. Maajasri signifies in Sanscrit the hap|iy 
Sfit and Sri b the czpresnon nsed in blessing gods and saints. The sasM 
penonage la alio called Mamjm gk^ka, "the happy sonnd/ .'the happy 
ireftee.' The Tibetana name him h/^^'em dF>aaf • He is t!it asythological 

He fennerij animated the great golden tortoise before the beginning of 
the nrnTcrse* whose fonndations rest npon that tortoise i and he will at some 
fotme period agam appear hi the worid as iU gOTerDor.$ He is the great 
]>cmionigoe» the Vuwmharmm, the architect who, bj the orders of the an* 
. prcsBe Baddha, erected the different mansions, as well celestial at infernal, 

whlA oenstitnte a t»tsene.§ 

TUa wonld be qvite safficient to explain the theological part assigned to 

Hanjasri, were my present object to give a sketdi of the Baddhist paatheon ; 

bnt the cxtracta from Chinese books which are necessary to explain and dn* 

I cidate thia d i sc n ssion will show how entirely philosophieal ideas are denat* 

tnraliaed In mythology and lost sight of by legendary aathors. 
I *' Bnddha, (Sakya Mnai) traversed one day the BMuntains Kki cAc Men, 

P ' In the eonatry Xe jmc kJki, (Riijagriha) with an immense mallitnde of BMn« 

I dicsnts,eonsistiagof 1230 Miilfiln and 32,000 Bodhisattwas. The Honor. 

I ableofthe Age was encompassed by an InfiTiite assemblage of his adherents, 

Iwirlrsning by handieda and by thonsaads. In the assembly was then seated 
n sen f^ Ite God9 (Devapntra) named Tti sAan /«a in {ImqmUii e*Myvfna 
fMtttfiimnm aeet vel eajr fntef^ frtteepiit eAfeyvsas) who rising fitom 
hie aeat, and performing a long gennllexion and joining together hia 
hands, addressed the Honorable of the Age and saidi "Where is the preeent 
of Haqnsri ?" The whole assembly, all thoee who compoee the 
that Is the male asendicanta and the fesMle, the UpasikA and 
the Upeyl, ee also the gods, the nagas, the good and aril genii, Brahma, 
India, and the irar kinga of the goda, longed ardentty to beer the weadrona 
ismmnnimtlnn of the TeritaMe aaaater and to reeeife his eiposltiona of the. 
replied, that towarda the eaat, at tlw distance of tsn. 

Bnddhie wodde Crorn this, that ia to a^, tsn thonesad tUMs 

* &m Isnv/a SMI, B. XL p. 8. ▼. 

f ocnrselerii flMim xlMUMMfy* 

I SammbofV A MtfriMftsr Kfldhridbl, VoL IL p. Mb 

§awdgmm*$r ■ --^ ■ • 

114 nuomiMAOB ow wa hiah. 

the fpMt oT th« vwU t# vkkk «iteii4ad dM kappf faifacacM of th* ] 
iaf oC A Baddin, tbcra wm a world mmcd Pm tki^ (pradow Aonilj^pOT. 
btpi lUlMf •) when a Bvddha aamod P«» img J^m Ui (prHi99i tmrrnkm^ 
Jkikigmtm) a pm and highly exalted intelUgoiee, even then pratflhed 
the doetrinai «id that Maajaari waa there liatenlaf to the inatroetiona of the 
(real maater of all Bodhiaattwaa» who taught them to ettiasate thdr ia^par* 
feetiona.'* The aon of the goda onee aaore addretaed Buddha i *'I woeld» 
oh flBightj aaiot I that hy an act of year power and goodneea yo« woald 
caose Maajaarl to appear here, that he auy initroct lu in the aieana hy 
which he expooada the doctrine of the sacred hooka, and enlig ht^na with 
ao lotely a light whatever diffleolty ia met with in them o to excel 
all the Srafakaa and the Pratycka Baddhaa. When Manjoari preaches the 
great law erery denon la anbjogated, every error that may deceive man ia 
diadpated, and there li not a herctio bat retnma to hia daty. Already, Oh 
Tathligata I all exalt anpreme troth ; if yoor initmctiona be fortifi^ by hie 
holy teaching, the daration to tlie tme law will be extended. Never Ium the 
Tathigata been aatbted by an auxiliary ao vened in the Prqfnd, to endowed 
with high facnltlea, ao able to a pread abroad and publish the doctrine, aa 
ManjnsrL" According to the wish of the son of ibe gods, TVf sAtOi Um !»• 
the Honorable of the Age, caused to flash from the down betwixt hia eychrowa 
a ray of light which illumined the three thousand millions of univeraca and 
fiuddhic worlda, and mado the tonr of tea thousand of those worlds, shed« 
diag a brilliant light over the world, Fmo iki. The Bodbisattwas of that 
Bttddhic world asked of their Buddha whence earae this light, and what 
might be the cause of the pr^gy ? The TathiLgata Pao Ing repli^, *« To* 
wards the west, after parsing ten thousand isAme of Buddhaa there ia 
a world ealled the world of |»atience (Savaloka) % its Buddha ia called too 
Tathagata, eapahle 9/ foadmta (S4ky«), a pure intelligence airived at the 
aupremaey of truth. At this instant he is preaching the law. A ray haa 
emanated from the interval of hb eyebrows, and in illuminating tea thon* 
aand Buddhie worlda it hss reached even thia il<Ame." ** And what may 
be the wish of this LoJtajytUkm V* replied the Bodhisattwaa. «' Hundreda 
of thousands and millions without number of Bodhiaattwo are wsembled 
with this Buddha," replied the Buddha, «• HiXh the Indra and the ^ivhma of 
the world, and the four tribea ; and all ardently desire that Manjuyri would 
be pleaaed to show himself to them and expound the law. They have hai* 
parted their deaire to the Buddha, who by this ray of light haa engaged 
Maiquari to go. And thou," continued the Tathigata Pao ing, addressing 
Manjuari, " go to the world where the Tathigata, e^paiU ^feoAiesr,awaita 
theoi and where iaaumerable Bodhisattwaa sigh for thy preien^." " I 


too/' replied MaBJiitri« ** hvrt recogniied the nunealovs ny/' And 
tfaeicnpoa lie paid homage to the Buddha Pm ing, and aeeompaiiied by 
tea thoosand BodhisattwaSt passed three tines to his right, and, stretch- 
lag forth his arms like a Taloroas general, disappeared svddenly froas the 
Jtgkmm Poo ^L In less than no time he fonad himself In the land of /o* 
f icnee ; and sostaining himself unseen in space, he let fall a shower of celes« 
tial flowers upon the assembly, reaching to their knees. Astonished at this 
prodigy, they all asked of Boddha what meant this bil of flowers ? Buddha 
advised his relations and those about him that it was Manjnsri who thus 
ngnified his advent with 10,000 Bodhisattwas, In conformity with his orders, 
and who from mid-air, rained down flowers in honor of his dignity. «' Oh, 
how we long,'* ezclaiined the assembly t *'to behold Manjusri and the 
Bodhisattwas ! What unutterable happiness to gaxe upon that Teritable 
master!" They had not finished speaking era Manjusri and the Bodhisat- 
twas showed themseWes and were prostrate at the feet of Buddha. They 
circmnambulated him aeren times, and by the supernatural power with 
which they were endowed, they caused large nymphmas to blow, on which 
they seated themseUes. Then the son of the Gods, Tri skmm /in tn, said 
to Buddha that he deured from Manjnsri such explanations regarding 
holy instnction aa were necesiary to assist the uncertain progress of the as- 
aembly. " Explain your thoughts,*' said Buddha, *' and your questions shall 
be reaolved." Then the son of the gods propounded a series of questions, 
which Manjusri amply satisfied, on the perfections of the Buddha whom be 
had just left, on the principle of truth, on the progress of religious mendi- 
cants, 00 the nature of the soul, and so forth." This theological conference 
is exceedingly curious, inasmuch as it touc-ies upon the most recondite 
dogmas of Bu d d h is m , the exposition of which is referred to an exalted Bud- 
dha, and placed In the mouth of diTine wisdom itself. But It embraced 
matter of great obscurity, and as it extends to twenty-eight pages, I must 
rcserro It to a future occasion. — ^R. 

(30) Knmm M •».<— Another personage of Budchist mythology, less 
celebrated, but better known than Manjusri. Under the form here seen hia 
■sme signifies In Chinese eo» comitmpUnu Hteulum ; but this la a transla« 
tioB of the Sanscrit AvmhJtiietwarm, which, although generally admitted in 
Chinay rests npoo n BBistake indicated by M. Klaproth.* The first authors 
who tmscribed this name la their language, have taken the final uwmrm for 
f n— A The traeCUnese Interpretation la Komm imi htS, tht 
r hri. They givo to thb mythological persoaage ahoetef nsmei, 
Ioa«KrithtlsaaiedPodb«jpda<,thobearsrof thooymphmai loTlbolM 
• VmmimJmnmlAMiqm. Vol. VIL ». 19a 

116 VlftOftlllAOS OF FA BUH. 

tiy«i rm fJRIff ^Vlam§ iMAtaf t fai Moagol JBrfitov Mmmm hMmHm. - 

Is tlM B«ddhiflt ijstem for Um cspodtte of wUck «• art Udkbted to Mr. 

Hodlgioa, FtdnifU istlio BodIiisokw«» or actito prodoetofl^ Ibwtk 

hotfoaly IMdka Amitabha» Um creator of the preaeat world» or at koit of 

ita aniaatad iahabitaata ; fortho oraatioB of tboaMtarial world panes for 

the work of Mai^airl* Aeeordiag to another wftlUm, Padaiap^uBl. iIm odettial 

progaaj of the di? iaa Bnddha of the preaenl world, ho ia thia qvalitj co* 

tared mpoa his AmctioDi tinea the death of the terreatrial Buddha S4kya 

Mnnit at hit tnbttitate, charged with tlie perpetntl gaardUanthip and prapa« 

gatioaofthoBoddhitt faith reriTed bj Sttya. It St forthit ^aton that 

he it not liadted to a aingle appearance, o the Boddhai, bat he tabautt 

al&ott withoat interraption to a ta c c ct t io n of birtht, which are to Ittt till 

the adfcnt of Maitreja, the fatare Baddha. It it farther beUeVed that ha 

it iacamate in the Dtlti Laoia, and that he will appear in the chtracter of 

Baddha for the tboatandth part of the pretent age of the world. Tibetithit 

choten Und ; he it the Ikthcr of itt inhabitantt, and the celebrated fcrmnla, 

Om wuuU p^dmm Aoai, it one of hit blesnngt.* The tyttem to which thia 

aceoant of the part plajed bj ATalokiteiwara belongi, reqairet confinnation 

in tarioat pointt ; and for eianple, it doet not ap|iear whether^ it b to the 

order of philotophie ideat, or to the date of mjtht that we are to refer the 

tappotition that in arti? iag at the perfeetioa of Bnddhahoodp a Tathlgtta 

createt in the world of manifettiont, a tort of ftttx {Ahftmu) of himtelf who 

it a Baddha of contemplation {Buidka dkymu) and that of tach it bom a 

Bodhitattwa like at ATtlokitetwara. I ahtll not at pretent enter upon thia 

theological labyrinth, bat following the plan peiaeribed to m jaelf I thall tran* 

tcribe a few Chinete Icgendt regarding the penonage tpoken of by Fa hian. ' 

'* In former timet, ten qnadr'lion timet a handred quadrilliont of Kal- 

pat ago (the ktt Kalpa contistt of 16,800,000 yeart, and the great hero 

tpoken of it a thoniand and three hundred and forty-fonr milUont of yeara) 

in a world named Sham ihi lam, and in a Kalpa named the we// kfpi (i. a. 

the preeeptt well obterred,) there wat a holy king Chakrtf arti, named IToai 

tst»9 nian, who reigned orer the four qoartert of the world. It wat then 

that the Tathilgata Poo iUMf{Rmtnagarbha) appeared in the world. Tho 

king had a thoaiand tont, the eldest of whom wat named i*e» J|iaen faen* 

ora/of movent .- animiaha?) and the tecond Nimo^ Hit minitter. Pee Aat, 

(Ratnikara) wat the lather of the Tathagata Poo tumg. Thia minitter 

exhorted the king, hit tont, their relati? et and alliet, at alio an infinito 

namber of men and godt, to give their thonghtt to BodAi (Baddhic perfec« 

tioo), to that all might attain in the ten parU of the nnirerte the rank of 

• Skim i fiaa, B. XC VIII. p. 34. 


para intelligeiices. Tha minister. Poo A«, it th* Sikya Tatb^U of Um 
pratent time. Then the king and kit thoosand tont paid homage to the 
Tatklgata, and attaching themscWes to that Buddha, embraced religiooi life 
and ealtirated the doctrine. Boddha changed the name of the king to Worn 
Hamg ikrimf Mng {immetum purity; Amita^ndhi ?)* and as8i?;ncd him the 
dignity of Bnddha, with the title IFott lianftkeau (Amitabha) in the western 
world of the ^11 10 (in Sanscrit, SukhaYati, ike abode ^trtmqmiijo^.) Thtm 
the eldest son, Foil Altfcn, thns addressed the Buddha : •* Honorable of the 
Age ! my good dispositions, my contemplations and my tows, all tend towards 
the practice of the doctrine of the svpreme Bodki, The erils which afflict all 
beings, the terrors of which they are the prey and which di? ert them from the 
right path, their fmintothe abode of darkness, the endless agony that torments 
them without hope of deliTCiy or protection, cavse them to inYoke my name 
and my power. Bnt their sufferings, patent to my eelestial ken, and sensible 
to my cars, and which I cannot aller iate, disturb me so as to impede mj 
progreu towards pure intelligence. Honorable of the Age ! permit me to 
icnew a tow which I baTc heretofore made in behalf of all those beings. The 
holy king ChakraTarti has now become Buddha in the world of linmqmii 
/if, wider the title of VToii iian^ tAeoii fjmiiabkm). When, after an infi- 
Bite immber of Kalpas, he shall hare aeoomplished his work of Buddha, he 
will enter the jnm nl ibttan, and the law will be strictly obsenred. During 
this time I must fulfil the lot of Bodhisattwa ; if I could accomplish the work 
•f Buddha from the first night on which his immediate law shall be extinct, 
oa the next night I shall attain Buddbahood." Then the Buddha, Peo 
Umgf amignnig him the function he aspired to, replied ; *' Excellent young 
■an I Thou hast reflected on men and gods, and the three bad conditiona 
(the! of brutes, of demons, and of the damned), and touched with perfect 
compamioB, tbo« wouldst destroy the sufferings and the imperfections of 
all beings. Thou wouldst that all should be admitted to the abode of 3Wii« 
fail /sf ; and for that reason I award you the title of Komm sAi tn (AtsIo* 
kileswura,OM/engilflietXonl). Whilst thou sbalt excercise the functions of 
Bodhimtwn there shall be hundreds of thousands of ITeii Immg (i. «. fire 
fuintillions) of millions of Ka fion ika (L e. billions) of beings who shall owo 
tnthee their dcliTeranee from pain. Then shalt work the great work of Buddha 
■ndmmeeedtho Buddha iron IfeayaAceii (Amitabha) under the title of the 
Tkthigata, £mi^ tf ikt UUI$.ruplmintwUhikMU§ki^ftdM mtrUs (T. 
lAip ktmmt§ wum§ kQmm§ §§ aAcn wmk§Jmi itiV' Hm seeond of the prin« 
oei pr sisn t ed himielf betoiu the Buddha, and exp res s ed a desifu of snoeeed* 
ing JCNHm In, and of baTing the aasae kingdom and the lasae personal beantj. 
Xhn Bnddhn assigned him the quality of Bnddhut with tk< title of the T)ith4« 

118 mjOMltAOB OW WA BIA9. 

fSkm €km dUm pm ^kmii wtmf J9m Im), H« Aoi procedMi •fSicd* 
le^ yeof MBrtstko«lMrtdcriradtotak0tlMgi«tlmBhr«ffw(aadcrtk7 

pratoetfoo) I anigtt tiMie tliM titk, nd tho* sh4t be n cyu dU 0^ 4*^^ 
MmUHkimm prdpim. te who hiw aeqairad tmI power | it k the t)^ of a 
Bodliitilwa). The thovsuid eoiis ef the hfaif tU ceae in like MOUMr to 
make their leqecit to the Bvddhe, who gruted them ell the reek of 

The fiNcgoiBf legend. It wiU he eeen, le oppoeed to the notion thet AmU 
tehhe Is e DhyenI Bnddhe, end Avafekiteiwere e Dhyeni Bodhleattwni k 
eeems eontrarj alee le the opinion which eonncete these two perMo^es with 
the hnman Bnddha Sikysi the first in the charaeter of n edeetlal x^dianee 
or reflex (JBf /enj), and the second as an emanation from himself, dt wHI 
he seen how diflicnlt it b to form any jest coneeption of the theologieal 
abttractions of Buddhism, if to appreciate them we were compelled to pene- 
trate the veil of legends snd allegories by whidi they are concealed. 

For reasons which It were tedions to transcribe here, ATsIokiteBwam it 
generally rep r es e n t e d with elcTcn heads and eight arms ; sometiaBCs he is 
described a hsTlng a thonsand eyes and n thonssnd arms, and ^n^gni'rHI 
JTsnen sJUTIn tn/A fAe lAoMf end eyes oad lAons end A«»d!r. As representing^ 
In mythdlogiml arraegeeMnts, the prodnetiTe facolty of supreme Intelligence, 
Afalokltcswara Is represented witk some of the attributes of d fessale 
difinity.* The sweetnem and beauty of his limtures,— barring the eight arms 
and deven heads,— would admit of his being taken for a goddess. Hence suny 
authora have been deeeiTed into the belief that Foksm, (PAon se, BodhisaU 
wa) was a feaude diTinity, a Cybele, and hare embelUahed this er]rar with 
absurd ezplanatioBS. What is very singular, the Chinese thesBselves heve fallen 
into Uie same mistake; PMom se, b feminine alike in their popular religkm and 
their common language. The ornaments of the Fkm se are similar^ those 
worn by the women of F^ranoe ; and the pictured idols, or those of metal or 
of porcelain, called i*Ao« se, bear unmistakeable diaracteristica of the sex to 
which, according to vulgar apprdicnsion, they belong. Some mytl^ologista 
who have drawn their inlbnnation from eorrept sources, have not hesitsted. 
to repeat the most absurd fiibles upon this subject, totslly nt vsriaiice with 
the spirit of the Buddhist creed. A notice of this kind of JTeneil sAt in, 
is found in a Uttle mythological work of no authority, the title oC which 
would lead one to expect a treatise on the three doctrines, but which ^ontafam 
a num of mere mutilated notioDa gathered here and there from writings of 
BO weight, and reunited under the Influence of that Ignorant syncretism whick 

CBAPTsa xni. 119 

pKdomiBatet amongst the lowctt popnUee of China. According to tUf 
aathor, JTonoa im PAw m ia no other than the third daughter of the king 
CAomf of ThBon (who reigiied in the aizth century B. C. in the preaent 
pcovinee of J7en ionen^). Thia princeia named Ifieo aAen, (adoiirahlf good) 
■Mrited divine honora bj her Tirtne, her filial pietj and her devotion to the 
JSroaomMf ^ tA§ Af€, trt or aix hundred yean before her naaae waa erea 
haowB In the country ahe inhabited I* Her father, acoordiog to thia abanrd 
Unditioiiv erected a atatne to lier honor under the naoM of the mo»i coM/ot* 
9immUPhom 9m,{Ttipei Pkou ae). Thb aUtue waa hdd fai honor under 
the dynaatiea of Han, Thsang, Soung, and Yuan ; waa destroyed by the Red 
Gqpt under the Ming dynasty; and re-eatablished by publie anthority in the 
years «teum (A. D. 1426.35). 

(39) Tk€ IM9 bnd.'^Thib S«nga-4he Chufdi--the FaitfiluL— R. 

(40) Tk€ nl Aauen t//be.— WhstOYcr be the opinion entertahied of the 
date of Sttyaa death, U ia eztiemely ressarkable thai a Buddhiat of the ftth 
oentuiy of our era should maintain tlie pre-eminence of hb religion in Cen* 
tial India, in the 8th and 9th centuries B. C, and the nnfaiUrmpted prU 
irliegaa grsated by the kinge of the country to the SasMueana up to hb own 

The auprsasacy of the brihaaana muat therefore bo referred to other 
It b a queatioA of thehigheat hbtorical importanee*— R. 

(41) fwriif ^J{fi9 ik^mtmd IL^Iho U employed in the vague mnmdt^ 
tMB of long dlifancfs wna very abort. The leqgth of .the Malabar ooasT 

I of the Indus b not therefore greaay eiaggerated — B. 


Kingdom of Senr km shi. 

Pfoeecdii^ theoee in a south easterly dirtction 70a leach a king- 
don called 8em^ Jtia MJ This is the plaee where Foe^ having 
ascended into die hesTen of Tmo it,* and for three months presdied 
in behalf of his mother/ le-descended to the earth, \nien 
Foe ascended to the hea? en of Tao fi. he so empbyed hia 
snpeffnatoral powers* that his disdplcs knew nothing of it 

I2# riLORncAOB of fa huk. 

Sefcndajs neve jet wntiog (of die time fiiedlbr liiiietorQ,) 

when tbcee made use of their dinnefaenltiee.* jf suilta^^fffaowis 

endowed with the sight of the Gods,^ p e r ce i v e d e&r offtheSgowsiv 

able of ike Age^ and said to that Tenerable personage^ the gitst 

Mim Umm^ - Q% enquire of the Honorable of the Jgej'* Mea 

Ham then proceeded to prostrate himself and wwship the foot (of 

Bnddha) and addressed the question that had been suggested* 

When he had spoken. Foe said to Mem lian; ^ |n seren dsjs 

hence I shall descend to Toufeoa thi!*^ Mou Han returned, and 

on his return the great kings of eight kingdoms, their tssssIs 

and their people, who for a long time burnt with ansdety to behold 

Foe again, assembled like clouds in the kingdom (otSeng Ina ehi) 

to await there the Honorable of the Jge. Then said therfemale 

mendicant Jeoif pho W* to herself— *' This day the kings and 

the people await with adoration the advent of Foe ; how shall 

I, who am a woman, obtain the first sight of him T' She then 

availed herself of the divine faculty to transform herself into 

the My king turning the wheel i^ and she was by much the first 

to render homage to Foe. 

Foe descended from the heaven of Tao IL At the moment 
of descent he formed a triple ladder of precious steps. Foe de« 
scended on the middle ladder, adorned with the seven precious 
things.* The king of the Gods, faa,'* prepared also a ladder of 
silver i he was on the right side, holding in his hand a white 
chowry** and accompanying (Foe). The Lord Shy** constructed 
a ladder of burnished gold ; he was on the left side, holding in his 
hand a parasol enriched with the seven precious tlungs and ae« 
companying (Foe). An innumerable throng of Gods'* followed 
Foe whilst he descended. When he had descended, the three 
ladders disappeared under the ground, and nothing of them 
remained vbible but the seven steps. Long after, the lung A 
y^oic" desired to behold the foundation of them, and sent people 
to dig down to the base. These reached a yellow spring, without 
being able to penetrate to the foundation. The king felt sensible 
of a great increase of his faith and veneration. He caused there- 


fore acbapel tobe rmsed over the steps» and upon the middle one 
erected a full length statue (of Foe), six toises high.** Behind the 
chapel was erected a pillar thirty cubits high/* and thereon was 
placed a lion. Within the pillar on the four sides were images of 
Foe. The interior and the exterior were polished and resplendent 
as crystal There were heterodox philosophers" who contested with 
the SAa men the right of sojourn here. The Sha men submitted 
to a condition, and entered into a mutual convention. *' If, said 
they, this place ought to be the abode of the Sha men, let a super- 
natural testimony proclaim it.*' They had no sooner finished this 
speech than the lion on the summit of the pillar uttered a loud 
roar." On witnessing this testimony the heretics were overwhelm* 
•ed with fear, and submitting their hearts to Foe, received the 
divine sustenance.*' During three months their bodies exhaled a 
heavenly fragrance very different from that common to the men 
of the age ;** and as they performed there their ablutions, men 
afterwards erected in that place a bathing-house ; this bath 
exists still. A tower was also erected in the place where the 
religious mendicant Teou pho lo rendered the first homage to 
Foe. At the time when Foe was in the world, they built. a 
town on the spot where he cut his hair and his nails ;** on that 
where the three former Foes^* sat wich Shy kia wen ;** in the 
places where he had journeyed, and where images of Foe were 
erected ; every where have they constructed towers which remain 
to this day. At the place where the Lord 5Ay, and the kmg of 
the Gods, Fan, descended with Foe, they have likewise erected a 
tower. In these places there may be a thousand devotees, both 
male and female^ who dwell together and eat in company, those 
of the greal intermingled with those who study the /est tnmsia- 

In the dwelling place of the ecdenastics a dragon** with white 
ears was their benefactor. It is he who confers fertility and 
abundance on the country by causing gentle showers to fidl upon 
the fields and securing ihem against all calamirtea. It is he 
who pfoanea repose to the ecdesiastics^ and these in giatiftade 


for bit bencfreCieM ham cfceted t chapd with §m deofv lo plaet 
him iiu Thcj pieptre abo iUr/jiy food for the dfi^oii and pKj 
him homage. The derg^ dioose ererjr daj in their aaaembl j 
three pereons to dine in the chapel of the dragon. Their ataj 
heing ended, the dragon aasomea the form oft little aei;^ with 
two ears bordered with white. When the ecdeaJMtics pereehre 
him.thcj present him with sream in a copper Testel* The dragon 
descends from die throne and comes to the floor of the alcove, 
wrhere he walks abont with an air of enqnirj. After going the 
round he disappears. He comes ont once ererj year. Thia 
kingdom is fertile, and abundant in all kmds of produce. The 
people are numerous and rich ; and bejond comparison happier 
than any other. The inhabitants of all other countries ffil not to 
repur thither and recetre whaterer may be requisite for them. 

To the north of the temple, fifty yeau yant,'^ there is a temple 
named the Limit or Boundary of Fire!^ Boundary of Fire is 
the name of an eril spirit. Foe conrertcd this eril spirit, and 
men of subsequent times have built a chapel in the place and 
made a gift of it to the ^ /o han. He (Foe) washed hjs handa 
with water of which some drops fell to the earth; yon may see 
them still there ; it were in rain to sweep the place; tiicy would 
ever restore themseWcs, and they nerer dry up. There is also 
a tower of Foe in this place which a good spirit is in the habit 
of sweepmg and watering so that there is no need of human 
labor A perrerse king said, *' Seeing that thou canst ao this, I 
shall assemble a large army to dwell in this place : canst thoa 
carry away in the same manner the filth and the ordure that will 
accumulator' The spirit raised a great wind which carried 
away and purified all. There are a hundred little towers in this 
place ; but one might pass the whole day countbg them, and 
(yet) not know the number of them exactly. If th^y wish to 
know the number with predsion, they place a man by the side of 
each tower, and afterwards count thes<» men : but there are some, 
times more and sometfanes fewer; so that it is impossible to have 
an exact statement of them. 


There is a Seng Ida lan^* vilaclk maj conUm tiz or Mftn 
handrfd monks. It is hero that a Pi eki fo^ took his foocL 
The spot of the ni kouan is as hurge as the wheel of a ear. 
Other spots produce grass. This alone prodoces none. The 
same may be said of the place where thej dried their dresses ; it 
prodoces no grass. The seams of the garments are marked npon 
the gnmnd, and exist to this day as they did of old. 


(1) Seitp kirn ffAt.— There em be la doabt that Stmg Um til, or Semg kim 
eAe, ie the Chincie tranieriptioo of the SMutkauMM or ^cmAeife, of PuJI 
books. HioMO thMiif , who vUted the temple where the Udder of Buddha 
wet prceerred, le weU at tfaoee erected to hie oompinkHis Brihms aad IndrSt 
uuMS the eottiitry ITJe pi /ile / and that eiUblnhee ito ideatity with ^Mf 
kim tAJ. The position of this pkee with refereaee to Methura end Kaaonj. 
depends therefore apon the eonearrent testimony of Hiouan theaog sad Fa 
Uaa, and corresponds with that of the present Farnil(abad.«-R. 

Captain Alesander Cnanlagham has liad to good Ibrtaae to iadentify the 
adaal reasains of this capital, and to trace the jet aaeiUnct worship of the 
dnfoa moBtioned by oar pilgrim. •• This capital/' says Capt. C. " still cs* 
isUin the village of Samkassa, sitaated on the north or left bank of the Kali 
aadf, three ^narters of akos from Aghat Serai, twdre koe from Farakhabad. 
aadtwenty.fiTc kos from Kaaoi^. The Tillage consists of only SO or 60 
honscSf on a high gronad which has once been a fort t bat all aroand it for 
a dienitof six sules there is a sneeession of high mined monads of brick 
and earth wUch are said to be the walls of the old city. My mnnshi's ex- 
pression of wonder, after hatring visited these rains, * Kmw^ «e Serd Ay,' 
**it is even larger than Kanoij,'' will convey sosse notion of their great ex* 
lent.'' After deserJbtag some modem temples sarmoaatiag the aadent 
monads of debris and some ffagments of Bnddhist scnlptare, Capt. C. pro« 
csedss— ^'ChMO by to the sonthward is the most faiterestfaig pobt ia these 
mins. ItisasamUmoandof minedbridtdedicstadtotheworsUpof the 
Mfa. Nothing whatever is ereded there | bat whenever idn is desired 
the people proceed to the spot and pmy for it. The period of ennasl wor* 
eUp, however, is the actath of ByaCkh, Jast before the eommeneemcnt of 

\ laiasv when the villifs wossen go there in preesssion sad asako 
lef makwhkhtheyponreatapoathe^pol. This is no doabt the 
ideHiieddr8gen(19^} which Vk hian mentioas aa a p pea ri ng onet a year, 
temwheeslbfoarths pseple ef 8cs« Ua sU ebtsinsd pespitiens rains sad 



It bMttiatavtitiaf thwStotiwttabkwiaiMrCdii^ 
wmASptat BeariylbvtMi caitwki tadm Uf^to A.D.400, 
wbiaktho<«|i aottpfoUbly aot Om period ^T itoorfgiByjet ttSlMbtodljr 
nvit be doee to the tine ef Ite engnftvre upon Bnddhba.*' 

Capt. C. tliea reoordi a tnditUm of the destractioii of this capitalfai 
SamT«t 1240 (A. D. 1183) by lUje Jejadundra of Kanovj. wb0 at the is- 
itigatkm of the brihaumfl, marched against it and ploughed it vp |nto Ude» 
OB the borden of wldch the largo brieka are piled hi djkea to the picient 
day. Theae old traditiona and aothentie datea are of infiait^ value is 
iUuitratiog the BMdieral hiatorj of India. 

Saaliafja ia aientioaed ia the Ra^ylna and ia one of the holj citiea 
daiaicd by the Hfaidaa.— J. W. L. 

(2) 2b lAe kHOftm rf Tee /I,— the TM^mMnikm^ or kemttmqfiJU thirty* 
Mret, that ia the habitatioB of Indra and the thirty.twogoda dependent on 
hiai. It ocenpiea the aeoond place in the inferior world, called the ITerld •/ 
deHre§t aa of covae it doea of the twcnty.eight anperiapoacd heavtoa which 
conititate a «JitMr«f.* The ezpreation in the text ia aynonymooa therefore 
with the aeoond heaven to which Buddha ia aaid to have aic e n d yd. Theae 
thirty-two goda were ai many men who in preceding agea had merited by virtn- 
oua acts regeneratioB in thti place with divine attribBtea.t The dnration of 
their life ia fixed at 1000 yeara, every day of which ia equal to lOO of our 
yeara, which amount to thirty*dx milliona of yeara. At the end of thia 
period they die,.and an bom. again in a auperior or an inferior conditioB, 
according aa they may have advanced or receded in moral merit. It ia thua 
that we meet in Buddhist legenda with peraonagea who have been Indraa or 
Brahmaa, or aome other dhrinity, whoae name doea not indicate a fixed and 
definite condition, whidi when once acquired ia forever attached^ the aame 
individual, but a transitory atate at which all may arrive in their turn. 

According to Tibetan cosmography, the town inhabited by the thirty-two 
goda, ia of a aquara form ; ita circuit ia 10,000 dP§j^ ikiad^ or 40 Roman 
milea ; the walla of pure gold are 2§ dPnj^ iksad or 10 milea hkh. (Somo 
error here.— J. W. L.) The palace ia aitoated in the midat of the town, and 
ia 1000 dP€j^ tkMmd in circumference. At the fbur anglea are ddidoue 
gardena, in each of which ia an elephant with aix trunka and a red head, 
leading a herd of a million animala of the same apedca. These goda have 
wivea who bear them aona, who are concdved, bom, and full-grown in the 
fame moment. Their atature ia 250 Dom j»«, or quadraple cubits. 

Accordiog to b Buddhiat work, the summit of Su meru ia Uw dwelling 

* Jwmul Aiiatiqui, torn VII. p. 314. 
t sen Uamgfa imc. B. XLVII. p. 26. v. 


plice of the godi ; and tbere to the town aimed Stoi Alciiy or fMi/jr §ppt§r* 
mmett m mlkh abides Isdra.— R« 

(3) Hfnour ^ Ait moi;kcr.—iraiU flieye, or the Zedfy, u the to eaUed 
hf the Baddhtots, danghter of JTIfmi il aile ii^ and wife of the king Suddko 
drnrn, died aerea days after the birth of Sakya ; bat Im oonnderatioB of the 
■lerit of haring bone in lier womb the great Idaster of the Godi, alie waa 
bora again in rrayetlrMtAe, and there reeeifed among the goda. One of 
the duties which the Tathlgata had to perform waa to preach the law to hto 
mother. Thus then after be had aeoompltohed the doetrine, he thought of 
nothing BBore than of the goodness of that mother who had cherished him 
(in her womb) i but besides the depth of hto affection he was bound bj en- 
gagement to return to sare hto lather and hto mother. It was on thto 
aeeonnt that he desired to presch on her behalf and obtain her deU¥erance« 
and for thto purpose that he ascended to the hesTcn TVayct iHnsAe.— R. 

(4) Hi$ Mupemaiurai >9ieail/ier.— We hare already seen supernatural 
power ascribed to the Buddhtot saints.* The ezpresnon in the text to the 
saaM that to applied to the focaltiea otBrikmaektarii in the treatise formerly 
quoted ;t and instead of the ten p9went six fuuUiu only are reckoned. 
What was formerly adTanced on that aubject, may he compared with the 
following explanation taken from another religious treatise :«- 

•' Skim (spiritual, supernatural, diTine) to predieated of the soul or of the 
thoughts of the gods; Tkaumg (penetrataony intelligenee) of int^ligent 
aatnie. That which enablea one to penetratey und see after the Baanner of 
the gods, to caUed Shim iJummgJ^X 

1st. Tk9 divim/i lye •— Thus to named the faculty of beholdbg all beings, 
lifing or dead, who belong to the six conditions, that ia, of gods, of men, 
of flfuret, of hungry demons, of brutes, and of the daasacd ; of seeing the 
sorrows and the joys of all these beings of whatever Und they be, and in all 
the worlds, without obstade or impediment. 

2ndly. !%• A'sms ear,— enabke the possessor to hear every word, whether 
of aorrow or of joy, uttered by the beinga of the aix conditions, and all 
sounds and noises of whstever Und, and in whatever place they be. 

3rd. KmmMtg€ nfih^ ikomgkU qf elilcrr.— The fteulty of knowing what 
to pasdH^tt the bottom of the heart of aU the creatuet of the six oondi- 

4th. Tk9 lneirM^4^«rit/cnee^— Thtototim focultyof kaowiogevwry 
thii« conaeeted with oae'a owa oristeane, vd^ther at the diatHMeof oae^ 



t imfUHmg. quoted m the Ssu Uamgfm siu, B. XXVI. a. 7. r. 

f A Ami i«u li, qaeied ia tha&» nesf > SMS B« XXVL ^ it 

K 3 

126 nLomiiiAOx or pa hiak. 

tw», 9if IhiM gnentSoai* or % biadrad, a tliovHukUor In. tlM«iwd{ i 
•• that of aU and CMb of the beingt of the dz condittas Md aC thair I 

« 5th. 7toladyal«ttt^By,thbiamantthepow«rof paMiaf>odilf by 
iUght OTcr Mai and mawitaina withoat eipcriniemg impadJawti disappew* 
isf from thb world, and ro-appcariagia another, and the raveiae i of ftacommf 
great or email, aad flnallj of ehaaging the form of the body at wi]|« 

, 6th. Tk9§mi^ih9drvfpim^, (Sdllatkmit lknb),*>11iia eingiilar ezprce* 
lion d c ri g na tee the cmn of tight and of thoaght in the three wodds. By 
the errors of tight are nndentood the divisioni or dittinetiont wBich arite 
Ifom the connexion of the r^oi of the mind (mens) with the dmt of the 
law ; and by the errort of the thoaght, the detiree and aifectillna which* 
spring from the eonneaion of the /vt reo#f of the eye, the ear, the nose, 
the tongue and the body, with the /se dmtU of color, eoand, smell, taste 
and toach. The Arhsns, deUrered from the errors of tight and of thoaght, 
obtain snpematanl frcaltics, nnca they are no longer tabjeet tq. birth or 
life in the three woilds.*«-R. 

(5) Tkeir dipiiuftemiiief, or the SMjieiemi 9trtmgih tf gods.'^Stt what 
has been isid of the sapemataral IhcuUies, Chap. VI. note 6. 

(6) A no li««— one of the ten great disciples of Sskys, and renowned for 
his penetrating sight. He had the divtae rye. His name is nuirs^ correctly 
written A na /t« Me, aad signifies in Ssnslcrit umexiin^tkMbie, He was 
so named, becanse, baring practised charity, he had merited re-birth anmn|p 
men and gods, and wuximguuAMe happiness. He was coasin of Baddhaf 
aad second son of the liing Hon fan ; and he embraced religious life in tbe 
suite of Sakya.— R. 

(7) Sigiki nfthM Oede.— See chapter YI. note C— R. 

(8) The HvMtMe^ ike ^ye.-*In Sanscrit Lokej^eitAm: See Chap. 
XVI. note 21.— R. 

(9) 3fott liaa, is the same as Mteu ki^m lump in Saaskrit Ifaa^ireAi-yana, 
the sixth of the ten great disciples of Sakya. — R. 

(10) rm/eou lAI,— Jambudwipa. (See note 7, Chsp. XII.) 

(11) Team pko la, perhaps a transcription of the Sanskrit UipaUi, lotus, 
bine nymphma. There is no mention of this incident cither in the ^ $m 
ehit w hi sny other of the Chinese legends in our poisetsion.«-R. 

(12). 2^ koi^ kmg iwmmf ike tpArel.— This is the Chiaese transcript of 
the Ssnskrit MekdCkakropartii RSjd, a title implying " nnirersal monardft." 
The present is an appropriate occasion to explain thb pompoas t^, which 
is nowhere oompletely defined, not ercn in the History of Sanamg Seiten* 

• Gmt Upem, CyeUf. B. XIX. p. 8. 
t &n uaiig fa tea, B. ULl. p. 13. 


The H^lff Km§ ^f ike Wketi Is he who reigns 0¥er the four ooiitmentt» 
(fee Chap. XII. n. 7.) He enjoji, four tpeeial adTtnUget, deeorated with 
the name of Tirtiiei : laL He ia extremdj rich, possessing n great abnnd* 
•nee of treasnre» fields, dwellings, slares of both sexes, pearls and prccions 
■tones, elephants and horses ; none nnder heaten in this respeet equalling 
him. 2ndlj. His beanty is nnriraUed. 3rl j. He is never sick, and enjoys 
perpetval eemplaeenej. 4thlj. His life is prolonged beyond that of other 
men* Wlien he goes forth he is followed and gnarded by fonr kinds of 
troops ; those mounted on elephants, those on horsesi those in chariots, and 
infantry dad in cuirass and hdmet. 

The age of man, according to the Buddhists, is subject to a ridssitude of 
increase and diminution, the complete rerolntion of which constitutes a »mali 
kmlptu The greatest increase of human life is to 84,000 years. When this 
has lasted one hundred years, human life diminishes by one year, and so on 
in the same proportion, one year in erery hundred, until it is reduced to ten 
years s and this is called the Kalpa, Or cycle, qf dimiuutiem. Then after the 
lapse of one hundred years, it increases by one year ; or according to others 
lAe sen /ttft fo fwlct the «^e tfftke father^ for if the latter have lived ten 
yean the former will live twenty. This period is cdled the Kalpm qfpr^* 
l9m$9iiiQm» The prolongation goes on till the age of 84,000 years is attain- 
ed, when there appears a Kim§ ^the Golden Wkeel, who is bom in a royd 
CusOy and obtains supreme dignity on succeeding his father and being 
baptised in tlie water of the four oceans. For fifteen days he bathes in 
perfumed water, and fasts ; he then ascends an derated tower surrounded 
by his ministers and courtiers. Suddenly there appears a golden whed in 
the cast, shedding a brilliant light and adrandng to tlie place where the king 
is standing. If the king would proceed towards the east, the wheel turns 
in that direction, and tlie king accompanied by his troops follows. Before 
the whed are four genii who serre aa guides. Whererer it stops, there does 
the king in like manner. The same thing takes place in the direction of 
the south, the west, and the north ; wherever the whed leads, the kbg follows ; 
and where it hdts, he does the same. In tlie four continents he directs the 
people tofdtow the ten right ways, that ia to say, not to kill, not to steal, not 
to cossmit adultery, not to lie, not to be douUe-toagued, not to cdumniate, 
■ot to speak with daboffute lefinement, not to abandon one'a-sdf to lusta, 
■ot to entestahi anger and hatred, and not to have imasodrst looka. He ia 
caOed ih»kim9^ik99MmwkeA9rikMh^ku^UnM§U»wUa^uA 
he poesessei the lefCB predoos things, ds t— 

. let. nflrunsafw^lAeOeMm IfXee i>-*-Thii whed hu n thmuand iiye 
/(or spekce) ; itf diaiMUr isoM folM and fm liNl (4m. 270 • 10 14 BHliih 


h^wmOf). ItsamaaaMMiMia^ptmdttiacadMMdvllkl 
€nM«rt% db8Ui« graa ipkiidov t h b the woffk of Imvvdf aititti. Mi 
iffUMfMdkdIif tttytUsff ia tiMvoria. Tto hmomv^ wkoattalMitb 
ciUkd the MRr ii^r «*• CMM IJU wJMil to Ao^ beetue ftoM ^ 
«f his fwiiif it, tiM whed twM tad tnfemt th« vahrene aemdhiK to 
the tho«f hti •€ the Uqg; 

ted. T%9 i^HMKn ^Oe IPailf glytoil, BMeed •!■• the Hut en—fefa. 
The kiag ef the wheel haviiif omm fai the voraiaf to hie peleee, there eed. 
deal J eppeen to hi« a dephaat* the hod j of which it eatird j white aad the 
head of Tarfoae ooloan i he has dz teeth of the eoUmr of the sen^ precioae 
thiags. He is ao powerfal that he eaa travene the air ; aad whca the hiaf 
has aiooated hiai eaa BMke the tear of the aaiTorse, settiagoatia theMora* 
iagaad retaraiag bj e?adBg> withoat ezperieodBg paia or fati|)ae. If he 
croes a ri¥er» the water is aot egttated« aor does it evea nolstea his leel. 
(We here see the leasoa why the kiags of Ultra-Iadia keep white elephaats 
fa their stabks, aad essaaM the title of «JLertf ^ IA# IFftsle JB/qrUal/ 
this title beiag syaoaoaioos with ' sofcreiga of the world/> 

3nL Tk9 Pwrpie Hontf aamcd also 9irom§ mmd n^rtd wtad.*-This horse 
Is of a aiized tiat of led aad blue. The klag having coaie to his palaee, 
earlj la the moraiag, a poiple horse snddenlj appeals before hioi. Hie 
hair is straag with peaiis, which iall off whca he is washed or eombed aad 
are lastaatly fcpiodaoed smto bcaatiftd aad brilliaat thaa before, Whea he 
neighs he is heard at the diitaaee of a yojaaa. He has streagth safieicat 
to fij ; and whea the kiag rioaata to traverse the world, he sets oat Ir the 
Bioraiag aad retaras by aight wtthoat ezperieacing aay Iktigae. Every 
graia of dast whieh his feet toaeh is ooaverted iato gold« 

4th. The Ih'slae Pesrlr, ealled also, einidf qfkiddem li^ A/.— These pearls 
present theiMelves to the blag's sight la the saaie ataaacr as the preeediag 
objccU. Their ooloar and water are perfect withoat spot or blemish ; saa^ 
peadcd ia the air dariag aight they ealigbtea both great aad liftle states $ 
and withia aad withoat they emit light eqaal to the full day. 

ftth. Tbe Irramre o/ ik€ Jnper Girl, otherwise called, fmr* mpd adenra. 
kh wiue. Her body le warm ia winter and cool in summer ; from all He 
pores there czhsles the perfnme of sandal wood, as from her month that of 
the blue lotas. Her speech is sweet, her gait is dignified; whatever aba 
cats b dissipated aad cvaporatce ; nor b she eabjeet to say of the lmp«» 
rides of other womea. 

6th. The Hsder ^ Wniitk^ otherwise 9^ wm/M, or the diseler ^trwm^ 
tarcv. Whca the kiag of the wheel desiree to possess the seven kinds of 
wealth, the msgistrate in charge of the mines and trcasaree, terns to tha 


tuthf and the earth prodaoet the iCTcn precious thing! ; or to the water* 
the momtuas. and the stonet, and thcM eqnaDj prodace them. The work 
eBtitnled A§amut^ adds that the fanctionary who oeenpics this charge is 
aeder the inflnenee of great prosperitj, and that he is able to peredYe tree, 
sues hidden is the earth, whether having an owner or not. If they hare 
•ne, he watches for their presenration ; if not, he assumes them for hit 
master's use. 

7th. The Geneni/ ^fih» Armjf, called also Me tp0iie$$ eye, or the e^eer 
tkmrgtd with ike eommand ^f t\t lroo/#. When the king of the wheel 
requires the four kinds of troops to the numher of a thoufiand or ten then* 
sand, or even an efenijre (an innumerable amount), he has but to turn 
his ejes, and thej are at once marshalled In perfect order. The book 
A§mmm adds, " this officer is able and prudent, brave and intrepid, and eon* 
suflunate in the stratagems of war. He presents himself singly and ad« 
dresses the king i * Lord I if yon have enemies to combat be not uneasy. 

. If you desire the four kinds of troops, men on elephants, or in war* 
chariots, or cavalry, or infantry, I will place them at your disp<»saL' "* 
When Siddmrtkm (Saky4 Mnni) came into this world he exhibited, accord* 

. Ing to the judgment of aitrologers, the rigns of the happiest of altemativei 

t in Us physiognomy. '^If this prince remain at home (thai is eontfaiue 
t Uc) he wm become, said they, a holy khig of the wheel, and lord of the 
fiwr continents; for the kings of the whed possessed, as this prince did* 
the ikiHy-iw hetmiim (IdtwMpm) / If he leave hie home (that is embrace 

' rdigious life), continued they, let him despise dignity of royalty In seek* 
kig the doctrine ; he wiU infaUibly become Buddha, and receive the &t]e of 

The book entidcd £en^ CAgamm) speaks only of the king ^tke Coldm 
ITIefl, owner of the treasures above enumerated ; but eccording to the JOrn 
ek€ imp (eppamtly a portion of the Abhidhanna) there are four klaga de* 
cented with the sign of the whed X 

let* The kimy qfike /ren irSketl. He appears In the time when the age of 

man, after having reached its term of estreaso brevity (10 years), retwha 

by sneeesrive angmentatlona to 20,000 years. He reigns only over his 

shfle eenthem eentinent, or Jambudwipa. If any one resist his beaeft* 

, tiM king displays his powoTy compds submiwinii, and esta* 

pb ss t ian c is of the ten good ways. 

U^Thf^Hmg^iAeC^nHr fFAsel, wiU eppear when the duratta of Ufo 

'ie4t,000yMrB. Bo niee liro coatlaeirti* the taelsn, or Jb In IM, and the 

f FerpsnhSvOf^VtMokV.pbS. 

130 FIMRIlf AGS or FA HIAH, 

•mitlMni,«r Jaiibdlw^ H« «o«*Mli UMdf « tht fcnMr, and by Ui 
powif Md vifftat, OMfwtt an Umm who bat* itn^ lirom tiM go^ way. 

Sd. Tha Jtimf ^ 09 tfOwr WJUa. Ha Bukaa Ida appaanaaa^hcB Oo 
lUliofBHUiaxtcBdata 60^000 jaan. HagoTcma tluca contiBaa^ to wit* 
tboaaabof«MBMd,aaacba wcsten»or JTtiijftal* If aao^gat tba kiag • 
daau thara ba aay wbo rcM hia iailaaneia, ha aatjagatea thaa aadi io-aitab« 
liahea b j force tha obferranaa of virtoa. 

4th. Tha im§ ^f ik§ Ooidtm WAeO. Gofarna tha foor coatineati, aa wo 
hara aaaa abofe.— R. 

Tha eiplaaatiatt ban and feraiarl j (laa Chap. V. oota 6) givao of tiM 
aignificancr of whacla aa riablamaHc of tamporal and q^ritaai doBBiaioBy will 
loadily aeeonal ibr tha fraqaaal o c c tw aca of thia ajoibol opoii .aadoit 
Baddhift cofaia, of which many bava bean figwad in tha Jaonl. Aa. Soo» 
VoL IVm and abawheie. la VoL XYL of tha aaaM worl(, p. 748» CapC 
J. D. Cunningbaai haa gnran a ihatch fiOBB tha acalptuaa at Bhiba of a 
man kaceliof in adoration before a wheel eapportad upon a pillar.^and bmmI 
likdy typifying tha Banddha laith, or parhapa Boddha bimaelf, who4e dcaig* 
noted Chakkmo9iH in Pali hooka. (Sea Mahawanao, Gloeeary). 

The rdigiona aa wall aa temporal meeningi attached to the wliael ara com* 
mon, bowafer, to tha Hbidn aa well aa the Banddha faith. Thaa Mean 
(Chap. XII. Sloka 124) eomparea tranamigration,«that fandaa^ental and 
nadiipoted dogma of all Indian theology— to the whed of a car s ^d in tho 
Fitilan Pwmm wa mmk^^^* Tha mark of Tiihna'a diicna ia visifila on tho 
hand of one who ii bora to be a nniverMl emperor, one whose power ia in. 
Tiacible cfca by the goda." (fPUion'a TVantla/ian, p. 101). I^a noU to 
this pasMge Pirofetsor ^ifllaon gif ea the following explanation of tha term 
ChakraTartti ; '*obo who abidea ia» or rnlea ofcr an extcnaiTa territory 
called a Chakfa."-J. W. L. 

(13) 7^ aearapracteaf liUiBft. (Sea above* Chap. XIIL note 4.) 

(14) The klM§ ^fiht Oadtf Fan. Twenty yeara have olapaad auee I firrt 
explained thia Chineae word.* The Miationariea never interpfMed Fan* 
which Degvgnea always tagnely renders iiidtan, and to which ho Ipd appar* 
antly attached the aignification of pn^ara. The word Fan, then, ia in . 
Chinese the eqnivalent of Brakwut, and b farther need to designat^ tha Sea* 
acrit langnage and character, aa well aa hooka written in that language. Ita 
trne etymology ia for the first tiaso indicated in my observationa on tho 
memoira af Degnignea. It was obtained from a aniqao passage i^ a Bnd- 
dhist work ; for thia word ia nerer employed hot in ita abridged form, whick 
renders it not earily recognisable. An ia the contractioa of Fkm lea mo, 

* A*0Mr. /aar. A$. Ian. VII, p. 298. 

CB AFTER XTtt. 131 

the tnnscripttoii of llr«iliii«. Tlie neaniBg of tke word to fsctni^l fr^m 
denrtt or jmre. 

Brahmm is» ia the Bnddhtot lyttem, the lirat of the twenty- i^ods hiTuif 
feactioBf to czeretoe and protectioii to bestow on other beings. He hat 
the title of king. His person and hto sool are alike re|)lete with perfect 
majesty and pnrity, untainted with any imperfection. He to a strict obser* 
▼er of the preoepts, illnmtnated and qnsU6ed to gorem the band of secon- 
dary Brahmas. It to he who In the 1^ AetM kmg to called the Lord of ike 
Sn^tokm^ the great Brshma, who gorems the grand chilioeosn, that to the 
greatest of the three aggregations of nniTcrses, containing a thovsand aul« 
Hon of sons, of Snmemst and qnadmple continents sach as wo behold.* 

In other arrangements of the Buddhist pantheon, Brahma to represented 
in a more or less elevated position. He ocenpies, either himself, or by hto 
snbjeets and ministers, the three hea? ens of the first contemplation in the 
world of forms (Rupj^m taekara) that to to say the seventh, the eight, and 
the ninth hearea in ascending mount Snmeru. In the seventh to the troop 
or army of Brahma (BrakKu^aripmiyi) ; the mhiisters of Brahma (BrmkmM" 
pwkUm) are in the cigth, and the ninth ia the abode of the great Brahma 
(linki hrmkmana) himself. According to this account Brahma must bo 
very hr from being the supreme Lord of the Ormnd CliltoceMi, since the 
lUth eAI/ieeoMi, to enclosed by the heavens of the second contemplatioB 
vrith wl&ich it to connected, and thto leaser chiliocosm, to comprised a thou- 
sand times under the heaven of the fourth eontemplation, wUch eovers the 
grand chiliocosm. The Smtiokm has a meaning yet more vast, seeing that 
under tlua denomination are united aQ the parts of the three worlds, to wit, 
the world of desires, the eighteen heavens of the world of forms, belonging 
to the first, the second, the third, and the fourth eontemplatioa ; and the 
world of bdngs without forms. 

The Buddhists of Nepal, reckon thirteen heavens hi the vrorU of forma 
subject to Brahma,t the names of ffsur of which cipressly denote thto dqpen- 
dcBce. A elete from the Raja kanda, amodem work composed in Nep£l from 
TCspeetablo authorittos, would toad us to beUevo that Padma-pdni (Avalokite- 
•vara) pradueed Brahma to ereate, Yishmi to preserve, and Mahte, to 
destroy. Another work, mora andent, amerta that the aun and the asoon 
wura pradaead from the eyea of Avalokiteewara, Mahddevalirooa htoforshead, 
Brahm from the interval of Us ahouUen, Vtohaa froos hto dmst, Saraewati 
ftumhtola8th,Tdyu firam hto month, Mthvl firam hto iaet, and Taruaa 

• ntonshMim, HkteffyoflhaGod^oted intho&ntmnf /•ssu.B.JU.VL 
Uadf8en,T!rmis.B9. Jstol.SM. VoL ILpwUS. 



tnmVm amt .AfbrtiM arMtSon of thM difioiOci It it tothsr tbiM 
thai AvaloUtctwan thus addiwed tliem i •'Be tlum BnluBa.Lofd o( 
iRrfjuHf ■■, ud <wrt« > and tho«, Yiahao, b« thon I^ord of the B4m§w»m^ 
•ndpicterTei uA Haheia,be thou Lord of the T^mme^vimi, and dcttroj. 
Aeeording to Samjna Mitraiiaday aa aaeetie of Caihaierey the three Indiaa 
divlailica woe bom ender the sane drcninitaiicet, hot from the kpdjof the 
avprane Pr^nm (diviiie thought). 

We casUy paredve that the origin here aaslgned to Brahma, helonga to 
the BrahaMBieo-Boddhie ajaeretism of Ne|i£l, llrat ciplaiiied to «a by Mr. 
Hodpon. The Boddhista, whoie worka we haTO in Chineie^ in so way 
admit the creatite fonctlon of BFBhBBa« and even qvote the idea of aodi aa 
one of the fiOlaeiea to^ght by the Leretica. 

Tboie who adhere to the doetrinea of the Vedaa BBaintaie th^t the God 
KMjan begot the four laauliea (Brtiunanay Khaetriyaa, Yaisyaat and Sn* 
dras) i that from hit navel was prodneed a great nympbma, and^that from 
thia nymphca waa prodneed Brahma, anmamed the Grmnd »ir^, aa being 
the great father of all beinga. Brahma poneaaed the power of creating all 
beiDgty animate or inanimate. They hence deem thia deity eteml, arnqne, 
the canae of all thinge, even of Jfirvdae, that ia* of the abs^qte atate in 
which nature ia conceived to eiift anterior to the formation of the nniveraOv 
and of the birth of individnab aa well aa of the relationa which link theie to 
each other. We ahall by and bye give fnrth'sr detaila conceming theae 
heterodox opiniona. 

According to Boddhiit coamography, the goda of the band of Brahmn 
inhabit the firat heaven of the first contemplation in the world of forms, are 
875 dom pUf or qnadmple cnbita, in height, and live one half of 9^ revolntioa 
of the world ; the miniaten of Brahma in the heaven immediately above are 
1000 dom pa high, and live three-foortht of a revolution ; and the great 
Brahmaa in the third heaven of the firat contemplation are 1125 dem jm ia 
atatttre, and live an entire revolution, that b to say, a period of 1,344,000,000 
ycara, or according to another calculation, six times the entire cydc of the 
nine agea of man, which makea the number of yeara much more consider. 
able,* and scarcely to becxpreased in figurea. Elsewhere the life of 
Brahma ia stated at 60 amaller Kalpaa, or 1,008,000,000 yeankf 

The Tibetana have rendered the name of Brahma in their tongue by the 

word Tkfng$ |M, the aignification of Which impliea the notion of purity 

attached by Buddhiata to the original word. The Tartara replace it by 

£«roiui, which is apparently formed from Itwrwn (Avem), and haa been 

transferred from one of the persons of the irimurii to the othcr.-<-R. 

•Alphab, Tibet, ^471. 

t 6a» liaa^ fa t<m, U. X VIU. p. 1 1. 


(IS) A ekowry,'^An inttniment employed in Buddhiit eeremoniet and 
fonned of a handle and a toft of hair from a deer's or a bcar'a tail, or of red 
«lk. Tliaft which contempIatiYC aacetics hold in the hand is of a white eolor ; 
a fignre of it may he aeen in the Japaneie Encyclopedia* B. XIX. p. 12.— R. 

(17) A throng ^f Godi.^Tho word godi ia applied in Baddhiin» to 
d e ai g na t e thoie heings snperior to man who inhabit the devated rcgiona of 
the world of detire, as well as the world of forms and that of incorporeal 
beings: hot this word mnst not be taken in the aense attached to it in western 
mytliology. The gods of Bnddhism are imperfect beings, limited alike in 
power and in the dnration of their existence, amongst whom it is not mere- 
ly possible for men to be re-bom by the practice of Tirtne, bat whom they 
amy even sarpass by attaining the qnality of pnrified Intelligence (Baddh» 
or Bodhisattwa), and thus emancipating themselTea from the tids&tades of 
birth in the three worlds. Their Sanscrit name is D€M. The Tibetana 
call them Lak» The Cliinese, hsYing no word in their language applicable 
to tlie idea of an incorporeal and dinne being, designate them by that which 
signifies ileevm,— TAion. After their example, the Mongola denominate 
them TMgrif and the Manchoos Abka, both signifying the same thing. 

The gods era distinguished into fonr dasses ; Tke gods ^ftko worlds or 
the yarngs who, thongh dwelling among men, era under celestial infloenoe. 
The §od9 kg hirth ; these are those beings who by the observance of the 
preeepta and the practice of virtue, or by theezerciae of contemplationt have 
Bseritcd rebirth amongst the gods of the three worlds ; it is these that are 
spoken of on the present occasion. The gods o/puriig, or the men of the two 
irmulmiiomot that ia to say, the 8r&ookoM and the Praigekm Brnddkas who by 
devoting thensselves to the contemplation of vacnity (spirit), anppress the 
errors of sense and thought* andattain n high degree of purity. The gods q^ 
Jmsiiee are the Bodliisattwas, who by the ten kinds of moral perfectioB have 
fuUSUed the entire law of deliverance.* The eight classes of living beings 
snpcrior to aasn are, beginning with the least exalted, the Mtokorogost or 
tenostiial drsgona s the Kmmarmst or homed genii and mnsieiana of Indrm ; 
the GamdmSf goUen-winged birda; the Aswrms; the Geadlftersct, other 
m nsiciani of Indra; the KOaUt; the A'l^^ct or dragona* nnd the JDaect or 
goda. Theae last are celcatial beings, who enjoy a high degree of felicity, 
whose bodiea are pure and vsaplendent, and who deserve to be honored with 
wneqnalled vcneralioB. They are the asoat elevated in the Jho cenrfitfenr , 
(fodaimcB* the damned, proioSf and bmtea) very anperior (tOBMn) % very 
f wmj nspeetahb* They ind in theamalvea the aonicea of their own 

• redbilMlb«,aXXU,andthaBiil(^lftt^iradNe,XXI,qMl«iinthe 
Ran tMMf /• asn, & XVI, p. 6 a. 

134 nidOBiicAOB or fa hi aw. 

hi |iphn M> mMi»9 •PPPw> their wbhm. TImm ■!» tte . . 

idTaataswor UMpmcbtnetwof Ui«irfMrmcrHfk TMrco\ewb4». 
teribdt at wUtet liiakttlBg the irarity of their aeCiootihmet the «Mtepl^ 
•ppliea to them ooaneetoA with this color, tnd with the «rMl,lA whidi dine, 
tion it U mqppoeed to pndomiDato.* Their nomher It fery greet V hot they 
hoTO for ddeff^ Bnhme, the Lord of the greet'chOioooeM, end lodre, prinee 
of the thirty^two fods of SoeienLf 

Fonnerly there were reckoned bat eizteen prindpel godi, of whom theie 
were imegee, and of whom cech hed his peeolier infloenee end dominion. 
Sobseqvently, four were added ; the Stm, becevse he dissipetce daikness i the 
Jfeen, becaose slie illamiaes tlie night t So kUi, king of the dragonst becanio 
he oonceals the treesore of tlie law, (see note 27) end Km wm /o. beeense 
he reigns in darkness. Ve most give some accoont of these gods of the 
Boddhie Pantheon according to Cliinese mytliography. i 

Isl. The iinf 9/ ike Oods^ Fku or J^ len mo. (See note 14.) 

2d. Tk9 kimg o/Hemnmt Indrm. See Chap. IX, note 2. 

3d. Pi tka men, or the ffimrhut. This god is so called becanae the Cmao 
of his glory is spread abroad in dl parts. He is the king of the gods of tlm 
•north, dwelUog half way np the monntain Snmem, on the fonrth story of 
this monntain, on the northern side, by the wall of ciystaL He comoMnds 
innnmerable myriads of ITiitAet or valorons genii, and the north ie nnder 
his protection. The Mongols call him Biemmt Ufti, 

4th. 77ii fAcoM Isl /Ao, or 7^ fo lo /Ao, the pr9ieei9r ^ Mc it^fdbme, 
or the pacijieutwr e/ /Ac peopU, This god, whose power is propitious to* 
wards terrestrial kingdoms, is king of the eastern part of the Uearens. Ho 
dwells half way np Samero, on the fonrth stage, facing the east, by the 
wall of gold. He commands the GamdAarwu or musicians of Indra, and 
the FK<feaiMf, or demons who preside orer fercrs. The eesi is snbiccc' to 
his dominion, and for the people of those parts he obtains pesce and repoee. 
In Mongol, Ortekilwg ietkoukteku 

5th. Pi /eon U ehm, or Pi lieou U, whose name signifies ^TM/nfft oii f m e n / > 
e</, to express how his power, his majesty, and his rirtnes increaie and 
canse those 'of others to increase also. This god dwcUs in the snnra 
story of Sumera, as the foregoing, but on the sonthem ndf , and by tho 
sapphire wall {lieou iij. He commands the JTAeon pkan /Ao (JTMrnAAon- 
da /), and other genii and demons in number infinite. He presides over tho 
sonth. The Mongols call him Utmmieki itareltou, 

0th. Pi lieim po cha, or Pi iieou pko cAo, whose nasae la explained ia 

• Yumn kie king iio iou ehhee, B. XXIII. p. 20 vene, 

t >an i ming y, B. II, quoted in the Sam Umrngfa mm, B. XXIII. p. 13 cerm. 


two wajt : mijced Im^iMr^e, becanse he cm speak ia rrery tongue ; ^nti 
tjfttf became hit ejet an hr greater than those of meo. This god iohabita 
the aame region aa the foregoing, hot on the weit aide of Sumeni, and hy the 
ailyer walL He comaaanda the demons named Pi »k§ eke {VUaehu) and 
faurameraUe troops of dragons and other demons. ' He protects the wtst^ 
He is the 8mm houiou nidouieu of the Mongols. 

These four laat named gods are called the gods of the Hearen. They are 
the ministry of Indra. Thej are also denominated the proieetQ^ ^f ike 
wQrUt in conformity with the part they are called npon to plaj.^* 

7th. Sim kang mi lis, that is to say in Chinese,—' the god who holds in 
his hand the diamond mace' {Vejra pAU) and who knows thoreughly all the 
•ctions and all the proceedings of the Tathiigatas. There was in ancient 
times a king who had n thonsand and two sons. The first thoosand all 
attained the rank of Bnddhas, and their erery thought waa directed to tho 
perfection of the doctrine. Bnt the two yonngeat acknowledged it not. One 
of them madethia tow ; " If my thonsand brothers necomplish the law, may 
I become a demon to attack and annoy them I" The other on the contra* 
ijv aonght to become a warrior that he might defend them. It was this 
last who became KSm kemg or V^ra pimi. He commanda the ttt hondred 
r#«Aa(Yakahas) and other genii, who are all great Bodhisattwas. He dwells 
with them on tho summit of the most elevated asonntaina, and they are 
aU protecton of the law of the thousand Buddhas of tho Kalpa of aages, 
that is of the preaent age. 

8th. J£i I f Jl«e« Is {Makm JtkwarmJ The Great Zerd, or aa aome under* 
stand it, tho Mejettie Imieiiigenee. Some gire him three eyes, as being the 
Moet venerable Lord of the three worlda. The 7b« kimg H, says on this 
anijeet :— " The god of the worid of forms has three eyes and eight arms. 
Bo ia mounted upon n white on, and holds in his handa n white bruah. He 
fa endowed with great atrength and as^esty. Ho dwella in tho place of tho 
Bodhisattwaa and ean reckon the number of ida-dreps that fall ia n grand 
fhiliocosm. Ho govcma n grand chilioooim» aad there is aoao more worthy 
of honor ia the three worlda. 

9th. Tke§rmi Oemerml 8a tki^ or 8m eki aiew muu This word rignifies 
i lfaici f, r iyiia . ThoeoIIeetioaofllUmnif, or fecmu]m,ooatalnan passage 
ia wUeh U is stated that tho mother of the demoQi had Utfoo SOBS rthe first 
Miaed ITei eke wen, tim seeond tim Omeral &r dU» tad the yonagest Jfonl 
fmiket oadthaft those wore ndequato to protaet allthobefaiga la all tho 
It tanmovoaU tteironon aadvieik Th^ dwell «a the 

IT 2 

136 woBmnuaM of fa hiait. 

iarlathtilr. BMk«llkMibMflTiliniaradofiMnattMh0dtoki«» 
•aatwcBtj-dght 4tpaBd«Bt oitei of 4cmMs«^ geaB. Wh^ntm $hm 
uend doetriM b pffoaMOittod, tUtber ^cy iMstn to pratoel to pfwdMra* 
to gvwd UifiB lirom erilt «i4 keep tlwB is peaee. Tliej finrov t|icB is tte 
triple icfioia of tbt body, the BMVth* and the iplrit ; andaf aO muncr of 
Bweet MTOon* nd nbtilaouiiatioos to penetrate the poiea of tbeir bodiea f 
Uir epeedi and doqacnoe to adorn tlieir montlis ; and aetifitjrt cooiage, and 
penetration to fortiQf tkeir splrita. They caoae those alao^wbo liaar the law 
to leeeife the h^pineia that bdongs to aaenaad fodat and apeedily to ohtais 
h0dki* 8vch an the good offieea thej perform in lewarding virtne and 
poniahing Tiee. 

10th. neOiTMrfZXfeaiMr, aoeanedbeeaueofUalofljiateUigeneeand 
profcnnd penetratkm. He dwella la the aaoat predpitoos parte of the aMvn* 
taint, or in carema and the depth of the foicsts. In the placei where he 
dwelli, he haa alwaja the head high, a single foot, dght arma and a hand* 
aome figure. He holda e bow, arrows, a sword, a laaoe, a long dab, and 
an iron wheel. Indra and the other goda hold hiss in honor an4 celebrate 
his praises* He ia profidcd with a power of ^scemment whieh nothing 
can reriit ; and ander all eircamstanoes he protects the world ; eomingto tiM 
help of all beinga and dJiTasing the doctrine of Baddha, withoi^^ wearying, 
by reason of his intelligence and happy gifts. By the light he* JUffaset at 
religxoos meetiaga he ia the aioet propitioas of all the gods* 

11th. The GodqfViriMtip or of MeriU, so named in the book of the 
Kirvdmrn aad in the collection of the Dharanis ; and in the JToiiea^ miuff 
liing aad ffe eMph^ csUed (htjini im wugettpt promoier qf etr/aeat «cf#, 
grtaig^d ^meriit. It ia in hun that the Tathigata JTra tilea eiUe mdnf 
(light ^ ikegoldem mmmiaim) deposited the seeds of all the Tirtaea friiid^ 
obtained for him all aorta of blessings. His figare aad exterior are admirable. 
He diifttses virtne and happiness among all beings. He dwells in a magni- 
ficent garddi called the ' Fwrilion of gold.' He snpplies those who pro- 
daim the Law with dl that ia reqnisito for them, and ddights in heaping 
apon them all the gifta of virtae aad of kaowledge. 

12th. Tk$ Gememlf God ^ihe ITei, or ITei le {VOoi). Thia last word 
dgnifiestfifcearMeef eeicaee. TheXia^ wS^mUo sUtes that thiagod, 
named ITft, aad aaraaaied XAaea, ia oae of the generala aabject to the king 
of the gods of thesoath (Fi Uom Uthm^-'-^wtt § 5). Thero are thas thirty, 
two generala ander the orders of the foar kings of the gods, and the prcaeat 
ia the first of them. He ia endowed with great intolligenoe, and early knew 
how to emaaeipate himsdf from the jiesires of the senses ; he adopted a pare 
and brihmaaic (fwm hirngj coadnety aad consecrated himself to virginity aad 


deeds of nnoeritj. Instead of the pleasures of the gods, he receired the ia« 
- alractions of Baddha. He defends lelifion from without and protects tho 
three contments (jMrnhudwIpM^ Vid^ka^ Ooyini) to the great benefit of all 
Uviag beings whom he converts and soocoors in crowds. Thus wheaercr a 
Kim Im (temple) is erected, his statne is there placed for adoration, in con- 
sideration of the glorious protection he affords to religion. 

13th. The genins called Bartk fif Soiidiiy. Solidity is the quality of that 
which is indestm^ble, of that which cannot bo broken, as the diamond. 
Hm word Sarik denotes that this genins has merits profitable to the world, • 
and that he maj be compared to the great earth which sustains all, proda« 
dng trees, plants, grain, and all precions things. He keeps and protects all 
places where the doctrine is diffosed ; he bears npon his head the teachers . 
of the Law, caosing them to perceiTo the safour of a sweet dew, and ang- 
meating the strength of their bodies. In the H Umm^ ita^ , Foe says to the 
genins of the Earth ; *< All the lands of Jambndwipa reoeiTo protection 
from thee. All that the earth produces is furnished in abundance. Thou 
piotectest the doctrine of Buddha. In the age, and out of the age, thy merits 
an equally great." 

14th. Tk€ gemitu rf ike Bodki tree, or ofMeUiffeiw9f constantly watches 
the places where the Tathigatas accomplish the doctrine, and hence his 
Basse. He thus speaks of Umself ; " I think constantly of Buddha ; I enjoy 
the sight of the HonorakU rf tk§ Ag€ ; I tow nerer to separate from the 
sua of Buddha." He shows moreoTcr his power and Lis attention in follow- 
ing him in his most minute and subtle acts ; he protects all liTing beings and 
insures them corporeal benefits ; and hence the sacred books aro replete with 
his praises, and celebrate his immense deserts. 

l&th. The Goddeu wmiker qf ike demotu. This goddess had a thonssnd 
SOBS. The youngest, named A* no«, whom she cherished most tenderly, was 
in the habit of derouring the chUdren of men. Foe converted this Ai nou 
and hid him under his pot. Hie mother sought him in heaven and among 
HMU, but ia vain. She submitted herself (to Foe) ; and Foe removing tho 
pot, lustoied her son. These thonssnd children became the kings of tho 
4pmirtTt of whom they conunsnd several legions of ten thousand each. 
Theiu m fivu hundred in heaven ever occupied in s ed u ci ng and tormenting 
the gods : and fivo hnadrod in tho world in a similar asanner engaged ia 
■rft^r^ the poopto. Foe gave (the molhcr of the dessOns) the five pra- 
cepCs to bih^f her back to the good law ; she became ^ro f y nno , (aeo 
■aqnaO and dweila kite temples of Foe. Those who havo no children 
htf to ^btaia .thoa. . Those wfaoara sick pray to her and are fj 
It^hsalth. Aftv Aohi4fMsifodttwpneeplifiwiFot, ahosM- 
H 3 

138 mORllKlAS 0# M HIAN. 

l«Dg«r to #ABd •(•!■•( dUMT gods OT sett* 

letli. Jtf)ill«M|Mcd]odflw«a«offdtMi%idflM»/yMW^J9(^ 
y«i),beemMlUtbodyeniBdtiMrb«]MredT6dBorMakoiaof. tUtgod 
•ver preetdw tbt «n Mdthffoiooii* H« protoeto tktkfaigdoaw udtlM 
peoptot oiA deUTM^ tlMm from the ftuy oCivw and othtr ctUml^, I* 
the book of tbo great god Ha H dU, tl^ro to a pliraaa of great c^eaej»— 
*' An ! mmHeM ea jw Aa {Omf wt&Heki mMi) ; wlioe|er poaeanea tkto 
formiila to prepared for all; a eapemataral power to aaenred htoir^Bd upon 
that ha nay rdy. 

17th. T%9 8m ^fikt Q§d$ wk9dw9aim ih^ptdme* ^tk€ •§»• Tbto god. 
whUat yet In the bmtdi qfetfae (L o. In the world), praetiaed charity; dbeenr- 
ad the preeepta, cultiTated Tirtvat and honoured Bnddha. By th^ BMana 
ha merited birth among the goda, Hto pakea-walU ara adorned with tlia 
nott predona thinga^ while Hto whirlwiada perpetually harry it along 
withont permitting it to halt a moment* It rerolf ea drenlariy af ona half 
the height of Samem, and cnlightena tlia fonr eontinenta. Whei^t to add- 
day in jMtbmdwipii, the ann begina to eat in Vid/Aa and to rise In Oftith 
whitot at Uiitarakurm it to midmght. It to thna that ona ann cnlightena 
foor contincati, drivea away night from them, diteipatet darfc^eie. and 
promotes the mitnrity of all thinga. Thto la the lame god that to^dciignat* 
cd in the JPii Am img, Bon ^ftk§ Gods ^Frwhw UgM. 

18th. The 9an ^tM§ Ood» qftke PmUtee <ifik€ Moon. The god so named 
obtained the same adTaatagcs aa the preccdiog, by the practloa of similar 
▼irtnes. Hto palace to aimilariy adoraed with prcdons things and wheetod 
aronnd Samara, by 6Ta wliirlwinds, so aa to illumina the fonr eontinenta. 
The fall and the. new moon occor In the followiog mode. At the oommence* 
ment of the whiio moon (the appositioa) the snn to before ;-— at that of tho 
^Iccit moon (tlie coDJnnctlon), the ann to behind. According aa tlia reflex of 
the sen is hidden, or apparent, it to new and fall moon ; thto is wliat to 
named the sun's approach; and when the reflex of the snn to di^sinishingy 
then is the moon's dtolc on the wane. Now the moon'a light pobra awaat 
and secret inflaences upon all beiaga ; she iUnmea the night. Ucr aervlaaa 
sneceed those rendered by the sun. Thto to the same god that to designated 
in the Fa Am Ma^, •son^tko god$ of ike Mlliani moon,* 

19th. So ko to (Sigora), that to to say the §oli sea (ocean) ; a name traaa- 

Ifetcd atoo king rf ike dropom^ Ha to the serenth of the hundred and 

sefcnty.sercn kings of the dragons who dwell in the salt sei. to to tha 

only ona now mcnttoned, because of hto haf ing attained the rSiik of thn 

• Voeok.fentmiL out XI. 


cnited BocllaiMttwai, And dwelling in Uio ten euthMf* tlut is to Mjr 
haviag pened through the ten degrees that lead the saints to this kind of 
pcrfectioa. Be shows himself nnder the figors of a dragon, and makes his 
abode in the salt sea. "When rain is abont to fall it ia he that beforehand 
spnadsont the elonds and watohes that it be eqaallj distribnted. He follows . 
the assemblies of Foe* proteeto his law and his people, and thos lumielf ac^ 
quiras great merit. His palace, adorned with the seren preeioos things, 
differs in no respect from that of the gods. 

20th. Fm mo Is, whose name signifies ' double Hn^/ or according to 
olhciSt *mmgme king s' doable king, bccaose this king and his jovnger dttor 
aio sovereigns of hdl ; naiqiie king, bccavse he has sole charge of that which 
eoncerns men, whilst bis yoonger sister has the care of what appertains to 
wosMO. His nsBBO is alio translated as ikai which aUmys $tr\fe, becanse 
he puta an end to the disputations of sinners. It Ss maintained that a Bo. 
dhisattwa assumed this form for the benefit of liring beings. The Ckinp/a 
nien king contains a gaiha addressed to men, bj Ykn men Is, in these 
feroM : ** Yon have received the bodj of a man, bnt yon cultivate not the 
doctrine ; this b as it were to enter a treasury and to come out empty hand« 
ed ! What avails to utter cries for the pains you endure, when jou but suf- 
fer the recompense of your own acts ?" Tl&e Book of Kings says : ** The 
king Ken (ym me Is) will in future tines become Buddha, and will be 
called Phou wtm§ J9u ls«, the Tathagata UiUwergai King. So eicellent will 
be the effect of the transformation of this Bodhisattwa."* His present name 
is Km mo, or Ke me, n transcription of the Sanscrit K«sm. This deity is 
named in Tibetan gCAm o/cAt, in Mandchou Ilmomn khnn, and in Mongol 
MrHJk khaJtnm, 

Besides the twenty gods hers enumerated, there are many others who have 
no mythological part to play, or who simply occupy sundry celestial bmui* 
oioBS. Such are the thirty-two gods, the companions of Indra, who dwell 
with him on the summit of Sumeru, and from whom the region they occupy 
ie denominated TVqrnsfrte/ile, or the Aeeoen tifihe ihirig^Urst. These are 
thirty«three personages who having combined together ia performing good 
works, merited legeneration in this place. They occapy as ssany palaces, 
dispoosd by oighte, at each of the four ang^s of Snaseni; and tiie Lord 
of Heaven, Indra, has his ia the centre. The naoMS of these gode of 
Tr^fn$MmtkM araankaowai but India waa their chief al tho tisMof tho 

They aamo eleo re mo, ia Saascrit KisM (aot the rmaa of Ben) and ia 
Tknh Iraf, h€ wAo UnmUnJirmm tsar,' oria * Chinese, Aiyyy 
• Am teag/a isa, B. XLVI.9. Ui 

140 niil^BIlIAGB OF FA HIAK. 

HMf / bMnn te iMMnaa J rfH* ••A plqr*) A cod, wk* by tiM < 
of ehvitj«idtiMpieeepCi» ittalBed to aeellinee trm b^wd thrt of the 
tUrty^Uuve.* B« wm rawarded bj traniliitioa to tiie lUrd hotwof the 
woffid of dcrint. Tboi eonio the gods of TVtJiJte or the * km rn m ^n^fMmti, 
kmawhif^f* aad the other heaTens eiemdiny «p to thoie of the Br<h* 
nas, end of the great king Brahma, the lint bom at the beginoiiig of ererj 
halpa, and the ilrrt to die at the end. LaiUx, the lume of fodStia bestowed 
on all the bdngs who inhalHt the other heaf enly mansions, which added to 
those of which I hSTe already spoken, amonnt to twenty-eighl. T^e Tibe. 
tans BUtttttely detail their stature, the dnratioB of their lives, and other, 
drenmstanees eoneeming them i but the Chinese are much lesa particnlar.t 

However snperior the gods may be to other hnmsn passions, there is one 
from which they are by no means cntirdy exempt ; those at least, of the 
inCBrior msnsions. Those who inhabit the two terrestrial mansions on the 
flanks and summit of Somen, that ia the kings of the cardinal pmnta and 
the tkirtjf'ikn§t are not strangers to the distinction of sex, and cohabit ** m 
ik€ Muuur rf ik€ e^e." The gods of Yima propagate by mere enAraoe ; 
those of Toshita by touching the hands. Those of the heaven of « ike j9y 
^conrersten' have such limited desires that they confine themselves to the 
interehsnge of smiles. Lastly, the gods of the sixth heaven, ' where tke^ 
temteri otkere, experience scarce any feeling of concupiscence ; mutual looks 
are the only expressions of desire that they direct to each other, and this is 
sttlficient for their propagation, t 

In the world of forms the eighteen heavenly mansions are likewise 
inhabited by gods of different ranka. At the '/rt/ eomiemphtiion' are the 
Brahmas, or the people of the Brahmas, aubjects of the great king Brahma 
pure, free from stain and desire; the ministers of Brahms, or hie 
companions ; the great king Brahma, also called SiJtki. | Purity is the attri« 
bttte of these three classes of gods. At the * seeoJMf eemtemplmion* there 
are also three heavens, the inhabitants of which are characterised by /i/A/, 
feeble in the first, Immenie in the second, and occupying the place of voice 
in the third. The classes of gods of the ' third eoniemptaiiom' enjoy, in 
similar degrees, a purity of thought which procures them happiness that la 
heavenly, ineffable, immense, universaL All these gods inhabit space, and 
rest upon the douds. Higher up we oosse to the gods of the * fourth eon. 
iemplaiiou,' separated into nine different heavens. The lowest of ihese is 

* Imkiaiu ti /mm. 

t Giorgi, il/|»a6. Ti&rlaaeM. p. 483. 

t SuH ttmngfa um, B. XXU. p. 22. 
§ Tkianfii ue kiae i tty ehu ; a work not 1 
ut quoted in the Sun tiangfa tou, B. XXII 

, ^ t belonging to the Sacred Collection, 

but quoted m the Sun iwngfa m^, B. XXII. p. 22. 


termed ' tlmtdhn* became tlie gods who inhibit it hare no need of the 
svpport which dondi lend to the inferior gods. The hesTen immedittel j 
above it that of ' happy Ufi.* Kest in aicendinf eomes that of * frtttt re* 
wturdt;* that of * no re/Uetiomf* i. e. where the goda dnring the whole term 
of their lirea are exempt from the labour of thought ; that of ' no fatigne^* 
where the goda have attained the Umita of thought; pureintelligencea without 
anpport, without localitj, free, exempt from trouble ; that of the goda who 
aee admirablj all the worlda diffuied through apace ; that of the goda to 
whom all ia preient and manifest, without obitacle or leatrietiofi ; and lastly 
AgkmUiki€$ or the heaven of those goda who hare attained the extreme 
limit of the tenuity of matter. An attempt haa been made, aa will be readily 
seen, to graduate the perfectiona of these eighteen classes of gods, by heaping 
oo them ideu of purity* of light, of penetration, of repose, and of subtlety ; 
but with very imperfect sneoesa ; for there are many repetitions and in* 
coherendea in thia ela8si6cation, in which moreover varioua authors differ. 
Some place the heaven of the supremo lord JMUtwarm emmem, above 

In the wofld of immaterial beiaga there are agdn four elasaes of goda; 
those who, wearied with the bonda of corporeal aubstance. reaide in vacuity, 
or the immatnrial ; those who havo no place (tubUrmttm) save hnowledge, 
afaice even void is too gross for them ; the gods who have no place; and last 
of an, those gods, at the head of imaaaterial beings, who have the attributee 
neither of the non-thinking goda without locality, nor those appertaining to 
tiw goda of whom knowledge ia theaole locality tf a deiinitJon too absurd for 
me to aeek to dear it up in this place. It maat be borne in mind that the 
fov^goinf long dassification indudea neither Bodhisattwaa or Buddhas, whose 
Bsoral and intellectual perfections are inftnitdy above those of all the gods 
of the varioua ordera. 

The duration of the Uvea of the gods is proportioned to thdr rank in the 
mythologicd hierarchy here expounded. An Indra, king of the gods of 
8«mcni« Uvea 36,000,000 years. A great king Brahnsa equala in longevity 
n grand levdntion of the worU, 1,344,000,000 yeara. A god of the '/miurik 
t mt i t mpt M iim* (eeeay I Jirmm ikdmgkt) sees five hundred audi revolutions t 
and an Inhabitant of the last heaven of tiie Ineorpoceal world, dghty thoa« 
asadof thMS. Father Hofuoe and Deahanterajea have pnbliahed these various 
longevltyt upon whiA any further remark la unaeoessary. Wo 
I that thia k^ dwutloa of BCi to iiguMl tin 

« r«M».pMtafi.$.L1II.p.A. 

t San imnr A mm & XISIL^^ 96. 


y ri f tkH to wUdk ■• dmwtedc or piitatloa it attadwA i fbi, bj «if of 
cnnplt, tiM tod wk* paHM ilf« luuidfed retolatioBi of te world * wUhma 
ikmi§hi* ilia lib iMetioB,Blw ono impriMned faiice»aid k (^Bf tUi 
period dcpriwod of tbe odvaBtafo of Mdi^ BoddhiMt and of hctrhf rdigioB 
pietdwd I boMO mmf heredco* wbo lutTO praetiMd TirCoOp ait rebora la tUi 

AstiMgodi aiooabjoct to tbo vidnitiide of birtb tad deitb liko odnr 
bdagtyohlioagb estending tbroogb tfaoM imiBMiM periods, 10 tbe^ 
of decej wbicb aaDonoee to tbem ai moro or lese aear tbe approocb of tbeir 
cad. Tbejoeaie to deli^ la Jojooi ioagt, mad tbe tbudag ligbt of tbeir 
bodiet beeoaMt Ibeble oroiUacL la tbdr ordiaary atato a perfiuaed oQf 
ainiilar to tbat of tbe lotiiSy proteeta tbeir dieal fit»A tbe ooatact of frater s bat 
aa tbdr gloiy deduiea, water b^giaa to moistea tbdr dua, aad tbej art ao 
loagcr dry oa eaieixbig from tbe batb ; aad wbereaa aotbiag Ibnperlj ataid 
tbeir ttepe or retarded tiie ezeeatioa of tbeir wisbea, tbej bow ^perieaeo 
obatmctioBS aad eflabarrafsmeata. Tbeir aigbt, wbicb ezteaded witboat 
obitade tluroogb a fraad eJUffoeofM. la eafcebled aad begiaa to wipk. Tlicae 
are tbe fife letia^ dfat of tbe deeay of tbdr facnltieas tbera are fifo {icat 
oaea wbicb iadieate tbe approacb of deatb. Tbe goda are ordiaarQj dad la 
a Ugbt robe wdgUag aix eila (tbedhi ia eqod to tea fraias of aullet}, aad 
beaee tbej are aaaied ekufi; tbia robe ia dwaja spmee aad brlUiaBt witb 
tbe lattre of aewaen ; bat wbea tbeir bappiaesa ia oa tbe waae aad^tbelr Ufoa 
aboat to cad, tbeir robea aoU of tbeaudTea ; aad tbia ia oae of tbe {rcat 
tymptoBia of decay aBnoa; tbe goda. Tbe j wear oa tbeir beada corooala of 
flowers, or predoaa atoaca, fieatbera aad craameata of variooa Uads ; tlieio 
flowers witber aad dry ap« Tbeir bodies fonaed of ao pare aad sabtle a 
Blatter, begia to allow trsBspiratioa aad bamoara to escape. Tbe perfamea 
of iaeipressible aweetaess wbidi tbey ezbaled, are aow diaoged to fetid 
▼apora. Tbey tbeiasdres cease to ddigbt ia tbeir orddoed abode ia spite 
of all tbe pleasores accamalated tbere. 

Tbcre are fire acts, or rales of coadact, wbidi obtaia for aiaa tb^ priTdego 
of r^eaeratioa aaiOBg tbe goda ; aad all Uviog beings aiay practise tbeso 
acts : 1st. To bave a oompassioBato beart, to kill ao lifiBg bcidr, to take 
pity oa all, aad procare tbem reat: 2d. To follow wiadoai, to abstaia firoas 
takiag the gooda of otbera, to perform doia, to aroid avarice, to bdp tbe 
aeedy t 3d. To be pare, to be gaOtless of seasaality, to keqp tbe precepta, 
to hat t 4tb. To be dacere, to deodfe ao oae, to avoid tbe foar daa of tbe 
moatb Oy^f aflected laagaage, daplidty, cdasuiy). to flatter aoae : Stb. A 

* HVt Md f* thmtM king, ebapier I. P« nm. or tbe Eiffbt UBfortunate Ciream* 
sUBCCs, quoted ia San Umngfa im, B. XXIL pw 34. 

CHAPTER XTir. 143 

man who bonon tht good law and walki finnlj in the brahmanical way, 
diinka no liqaon wluch intoxicate and distnrb the nndentandiog.* 

There are fif o aigni which indicate that a man ia abont to be bom among 
the godfl : let. A Ttrid light anrronnds his bodj» and as this is naked, the 
aool thus reflects, *' Provided ikmi tk§ other $od» wUmete noi Mjf mmditg** 
Bat at the same moment he appears to others dad, though in reality naked. 
2d. He oonedTCS extraordinary thoughts by diicoTering the things tliat are in 
heaTsn; andon percdving in the woods and the celestial gardens things which 
he had nerer before acen, he looks at them and examines them on all sides. 
3d. He is struck with confusion at tlie appearance of tlie heaf only damsels, 
and dares not at the sight of their beauty look them in the fiiee. 4th. He is 
tempted to approach the other gods whom he sees ; he ponders, he doubts, 
he hesiutes what he should do. 5th. When he would raise hhaself in 
space, fears OTeroome him ; he rises not high \ he removes not fer ; he eoests 
along the walls, or supports himself upon the earth.t— R. 

(18) Tkeking Ajfeout Asoka ; see Chap. X. note 3. 

(19) Six toieett about sixty English feet. 

(20) Tkirijf embiie.^'Tho measure spoken of is the Ckeom or cubit. lu 
length is Tsrioualy estimated. Sometimes at two cMI, (0.610 met.) Some- 
times at one ekki and two Uun (0.4575 met.) Four ekeou make one Aoimf 
(bow) and three hundred koun^ make one /i. Accofdiog to this calculation 
the U would be 549 or erea 732 metres.^— R. 

[The French metre is equal to 39.37 English inches, as determined by 

(21) Heterodox j»AtlMe>pAtfrt.«— Such are frequently spoken of in Bud* 
dhist books, and we must in general understand them to be br4hmans, 
though sometimes it may be that other oriental sects also are alluded to 
under this denomination. Their discutsions with the Samancans are fire* 
quently aUaded to in narrattres of the lires of S4kya Muni and his suoees* 
socs. The namtlTes of Soung yen and Hiuan thsang establish the adfan* 
tage the brihmans had obtained over their eneestors in the 6th aad 7th 
eentwies, and the eorrsspondhig decline of Buddhism in the central, western, 
and northern regions ef Hindustan. We shall make no lelbrsnee here to the 
doctrines of the heretics exespthMsmn^M they relate totheeariier timea 
of Buddhism. 

Then are mdKoned six prindpel heresiardie, whoee depraved hearts, 

te tnM deeliine. 

piovefse views, aad mistaken jn4gment» disaffected to t 

* Faaa t dheng dbe Cmh Si wen ftiaf.B. XXII. p. 13. atrsa^ 
t Ctog/en&idbinitng, B^XXXIX. qnoled in the & 

Saa tsaag fii son, B. 


W««htCNtiiciTCr. TU eo — MB W gi H rf all ttw fci i i ri w k K|irw4 f 
JD« jil lb (th« yttlWv, b 8i9Mfit r^rifa) I Wt th«7 are difidfld fato b^^ 
■ad tfidr propagatioA gaiit liae to liz prindpal ones : 

laL An ta Mite cik. /ta fas im^ was tht titk of tUa teafardk, tlw 
traailati(««rwUiAbBOt givou JBs «A« (Klijapa) waa tiM aawi of kia 
moClMr, aad bacaaaa that of tha finfl J. Tbaherctjoftiiia buui cooaiated 
itt tha rtpvdiatSon of all law ; ho neogniaed natihar prinoa nor aol^jaet ; 
liitlMrBoraoai hooaatjof heait, nor dlial pietj. Ho caDadityhrwaBd 
ooitf (tf/Acr). Fbrm, aeeording to thia heretie, breaka dowa whatmr b in 
tha world of dciiraa; Fot^, whaterer ia in tiiaworidaf fonaa. Void io 
thorefora tho sopraaM ftot* tbo bciof abovo all beloga. 

U. UtkiMtt kim$k9lu MoJtimHQaSuuent,n»m9id€m»rtaimimm)U 
tha title of thia Btaa, Kiu$k» IT, tho Bkcaaiag of which la aot glT^, la tho 
aane of his nother. Ho folielj iafened that tho eril and tho good espcrf* 
eaeed bj liTing beiaga. arose, aot firoai aatcrior acta, hat of theaiielfca. 
Thia opioioa of the spoataaeity of tUaga la aa error which oaeliidca tho 
saeoatsioa of caaaea* 

3d. 8ktm eAe Iff jn la ekt^ 8kmm ekt yt (Saajaja) ligaifiaa rado ^lariot 
aad ia the title of thia heretic. Pi h eki {Vmarmgijf aea afMt,7-ia tlie 
aaaie of hia aiother. Uia heiesj ooasists ia thiakbg that it is aot aeoeo- 
aary to feek the doctriae {kodJU) ia the soared boolu, aa the saaio will bo 
obtained of itielf whoa the aanber of Kalpaa of birth aad death have been 
exhaosted. He thought alao that alter eight/ thoosaad Kalpaa tho doc- 
triae woald be obtaiaed aataraU j. 

itk. AkAHoJUu«$k€ikin pk^h. ^ JIJU* /o Aiat «Ao, waa the title of 
this heresiardi, the ezplaoattoa of which ia aot girea. Hia saniaaie« Kkm 
pko h (£ioiMa) aigaifiea ' e^ne gmnmemU.* His error ooasis t ed ia sap* 
posiag that destiay aiight be ooatroUed,— that happincaa might be ob* 
taincd, for eiample, iadepeadeatlj of caaaea ia aa aaterior eiiitenco ; that 
the doctrine ooasisted ia wcariag coarse ganaeata, tcartag oat the hair« 
ozposing the aostrils to smoke, aad the body to heat oa five aidea (the fear 
aidca of the body, aad hariag fire beaidea oa the head) ; ia sobaiittiag ia 
short to all aianner of mortificadonat ia the hope that haviag ia the preseat 
life experieaced all aorta of aaflcring, eteraal happiaen wonld be obtaiaed 
ia a fntnre existence. 

5th. JTm /a it«o« lAo Ha cJb'a pos. JRo la Iscoa lAe, tho title of thia 
heretic, signifiea ' Ch§9t ^ojt.' JTm tkim pea, * Shmrn Mmut/ waa h|f lamilj 
aame. Hia error, aot well defiaed, ooasists ia asserting, that of the laws, 
some are aoeeasibte to the aaderstaading, aad othera are not ao. 

6tii. Ni kiun tko Jo ihi inn. Ni kum lAo signifiea ' exempt /rwm leaA/ 


ud is a very eommoii title of heretiei. He derired from hie mother the 
■■meof/ofikittheiisiiificationof which it not known. This heretic asiert- ' 
ed that crimes and ¥irtaes« happiness and miserft were fixed hj fete; 
that as snbjeet to these we cannot aroid them ; and that the practioo 
of the doctrine can in no wise asnst ns. In this notioo his heresy 

The ideas adopted b j the heretics on certain points of the law, are called 
vtnsf, that is, particular ways of scdni^, — ^hypotheses,— enunciated opinions. 
They take, in Tarions doctrines, false things for true ones, and TCrities for 
errors; they entangle men with ezplanationt, and sednce them Irom right 
reason. There are seren 9iew9 of this kind. The first consists in speakiag ill 
of the law, in attacking it without proof, in treating as erroneous the senti* 
ment of retribution for good or ctU acts, and the doctriae of the origin of tho 
sis senses and the six sensible qualities ; to refer them, for iostance, to the god 
Brdhma or to atoms. The second is the * viev^aie,' which makes the party 
a sort of lord and master, existing of his own power, and constituting 
MS (egotism or indiridualitj), in ignorance that person is nothing more than 
the Tain and transient union of the fifosAsmfAa.f The ' oteis ^ jMiye* 
fM/ dmraiiom/ contemns the finctuation of the person and the bodyt 
ss also the doctrine that all external beiogs, whoerer they be, are, without 
exception, subject to destruction, and rtiwm to €xiineiiou* Those who admit 
the ' war ^ termination' know not that the laws (of nature) are naturally 
spiritual, eternal, indestructible ; they erroneously deem them subject to n 
term, and liilsely condnde that after death the body is not snbjeet to re-birth. 
The fifth elev is called prMe^/omm/wr/nm, or eittenit eaptioi it conrists in 
despising the Tcritable precepts laid down by the Tath&gatas, and in follow* 
ing other wicked precepts by which men distinguish and separate tliem* 
selves from others to adrance therein : as for exsmple, where one per* 
susdcs himself that he had been in a former existence, an ox or a dog, and 
restricts himself to feed on grass or impure objects ; this is called following 
the *prtcfpt ^ the ox or tfsf.' In truth, small merit is acquired thus, 
although some persusde themselTCS that it is sufficient. They thus lead n 
disorderiy lifo, and negleet the observance of the true concatenation of 
things. By the sixth atcts, called /iruetmmm /mrtum, des^ag the same 
concatenation, as well as the/mllf which are rightly expected from actions* 
they turn cscdlent resolutions into a Uamahk conduct, and striin to' 
obtain the merit of mortification by exposing theauslTfli naked In tiw 

• TkoioniUwkimg;CM§etimtfth§l)lmmnit, Fan « miaf L mmlad in tht 
telM«g>t#«' #--of^ 


146 nuRinAQx or fa ftiAir. 

ffgon^rcoUtr to th« hwl of Are nd of tlM m, (siMJ th« /^ 4mIi) 
biMffoiiV tbMMdfCtwIth MlMt» aad ikepiBf «po« thora jr plaatt i tad 
tiie trUiBg MCffil derived fron Umw Mti« thcjciaggctBtobjalUMpOTnno 
don thit Chen b Moe laperior. LeeUj, the eevcatli eicv, cdlcd thai « «f 
d^iiM/ eoBiifti ia hctltatiag aBOiif eU thete epinione^ whether of indU 
▼idoAlity, or Bon-indiTidulitj ; eternal dnratum, or aoii-etenial dwatieB; 
ffitboot the power of mahiag up the aiind to cither of theee claaiee of 

We are daewhere attiired that heterodox opii^ona do do! exceed feor hi 
BWDber ; bat the eJewt are annovneed fai ao almoit enif matic flMuier. The 
pertinae of the ajetCB of nimibcre (s^mJtkpm) admit only tmam aaBOBgat 
canaea and cffeetBa and not dhnrwrn* Thoie of the opposite system see 
nothing among these bat diwemm. Those of the Xe «• pAe (Rishabna) 
admit cqaally umum and di9er9um.f In the absence of dvddationsv it ie 
diiBciilt to say whether logic or cosmogony is here referred to. V 

The bereties are equally divided npon the identity of eye and the ^r9 
{BHndkm): some think that eye and the 6ve (SiaudU) eqnaUy exist. 
others that neither do. Othera again, to escape the preceding errors, believe 
that eye and the five 8ka$u[hm both do and do not exist, thos falling into n 
manifest contradUction. The last, to avoid this contradiction, assert by n 
kind of play of words, that <ye and the five SkandAm are neither exiatent 
nor non*existent,^ a difficulty which orthodox Buddhism can alone explain 
away. The heretica again deny the duration of <ye; aome think that the 
4yo of preceding generatione ia the aame as that of the present one, without 
interruption, and so &11 into the error of perpetuity. Othera think that the 
ego of now began in the present generation and not in foregoing onca ; they 
therefore believe it not eternal, and so fall into the hypothesis of btermption. 
Others think that eye ia eternal and that the body ia not ao ; bat ia thin 
way the body is set aside, and ia no part of ego. Thia therefore la an eno* 
neons notion. Lastly, others have remarked that the body being eotepouad 
(dfMTtnm) ie not eternal ; and that ego not beiag compound, cannot bo 
etemaL But in tUia manner also, there can be no <ye without the bpdy.f 

In eeveral legenda concerning Silsya Muni, aome controversies are men- 
tioned which that personage and hla disciples held with the partisana off 
ninety*iive aects : but we learn that thia number waa reduced to eleven, 
whose doctrinee, books and discipline were diffused throughout the eaat. 
They are pointed out aa follows : 1st. The sectaiies of the domne of 

* Smn ttmngfa mm, B. XXX. p. 2, V. 
t /6iJMi, X VII. i>. 26, verso. 
% Idem, a XVIII. 



when {(ttmkkjfm) ; to called cither bcee«ie tliej diaeovie ia the fint plaee 
•f Biinibctv, or becaase raliocinatioii b^aU (procaeda bj) nvmbar ; or be- 
oaaaa tbey treal of numbera and anaka theae tbair atiidj* Thej teaeb that 
darkneaa begata inteUigenea, and that, «p to apiritnal fyo, there are twenty, 
five priaeiplca or realitiea ; lat* obaenrityt or primordial natnrat (natom par 
aa;) 2d. The principle of kaowledga or inUlUgence (Attfdfta); 3d. Tho 
thought of <yo (eonadenca) ; 4th, 5th, 6th. 7th, 8th, tiiefiTO anbtile things, 
or ookmr, aonnd, odonr, aatonr, and taetiUtj. 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13tb, 
the five great (beinga), earth, water, fire, air, and ethers 14th, Iftth, 16th 
17th, 18th, the firo roots of knonledge, the eye, the ear, the nofe, the 
toagne, and the body ; 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, the five rooU of action, the 
atKMth, the hand, the foot, the Autdaaaent, the nrcthrms 24, the co^diapoainf 
root of the heart, or mmt, eompoied of five alementa and eompleting with ten 
preceding the eleven roots ; 25, the apiritnal <f a, or the knowledge that has 
iu seat ia the eighth vttens. The heretica believe that the apiritnal ego ia ablo 
to beget the lawa, that it ia eternal, indeatractible, and that it lathe niraibn.* 

The diaeovery of theae twenty-fivo prindplea is aacribed to Kim pi U 
{Km^tm or the Tawny). Tlioie who adopt hia opiniona, devote thenudvet 
to eoB lca »p l atSon ; they pretend to posaesa divine intdligenee, and to be ablo 
to oome to the knowledge of what has happened during oighty thouand 
Kalpaa. As fbr what happened before theae Kalpaa, they know nothing 
aboot It, and hence name It oUemiig, whence arises natuo, then nnder* 
standing, then the Intellectnal <ye, the aapreme prindplo. They nrrango 
theae 25 prlndpka nnder nine diviaiona ; but In reality they make the fint 
twenty-fonr prindplea originate from the twenty*fi(th, the apiritnal 4yo, 
which they eonaider the Lord, ever faitelligent and enlightened, eternal, !■• 
daitnMtabie, embradnf and Inclnding all the lawa, by c o n s e q nsnco vniqne, 
the canae of all beinga, and of mirwdmm Itself. 

2d. The seetarlea of the Wei cAi (VaUheaika), a Sanscrit word slgniljfing 
'irtfto«lJi^pirJar,"tMMeiilttc/or.' TUa man appeaiod In tiie worid 800 
years befors Buddha. The people of hia time hid thessidvea daring tlio 
daytime in the BMnntahu and Burahea to avoid noise and distraelions. At 
Bight they saw and heard vrcU, and eamo forth to beg. In thia they rescm« 
hied the owla, and were hence named the ewl-Aerwilfe. ITat dU had the fivw 
frodtiaa (aeo above p. 125); he composed ten tiases ten thoisand verses la 
testfanony of 5etfU, and then joyously enterad nirsdao. Ho put forward 
the air fMsmlistmerAf let. 8nbatance,whlch is t^body of te km 
Cof u s tT s ) upon which quality and action are supported % Sd.Tlrtuo,or 
fualiCyi ad. ActieB,uee, oremployBMnt. 4th. The frual Miv* ^^^ >• 
• 5an tMUff /a MM, B. XLVU. p^ 28. 
o 2 

148 mOEllUOS'OF FA HIAlf* 

«lHd fe MHMa IVMMHMt, ^pdlCf nd MtiMi, OT these Oiw I 

la tMr «altj. ftck. TIm f i w iw tad the Jifirml} at fcr 
■pK tiM ttttk eoMMend witk rcferam to cwtlw--«Ui fa the c^^ 
with ntefBoe to water, tlifa fa the difitmtt and eo on with water, ftie^ 
. air^te. «th. I^iito or aggregation i bj whkh U eadentood theivio* of 
ali the lawe (ef oatofe). For eicaiplillcatioB,--a hird fa flying in 
•oddenlj he arriTee at the braneh of a tree ; he itopt there. It fa f he i 
of the lawe (of natnre) in the anion of which etabiUty eontfati. 

3d. Sedarfae who eover themeelrei with aihee (Vtbh^U) s theie i 
that tiie eizih god of tiie worid of dctirea, Inomrm, created all things. 

4th. The secteriee of the Vcdas inugine that NMyana, (he wheee 
strength fa comperabfa to n leek b j reason of the strong articnhtioa of hfa 
BMmbers) created the fonr families; that from hU mouth were created 
the Brihmans, from hfa arms the Kshetriyas, from hfa thighs the Vaisjaa 
and from hfa feet tlie Shadras. 

5th. The partisans of the ila eMa (ilMls, egg, fitranyefarlAe of Indina 
mythology) i these admit a first principfa, or end of the past. They bcbere 
that ia the beginning of the world there were Test waters. Then was pro* 
dnced tiie great Ai^ ekkm, which had the form of a fowl's egg. It divided 
into two psrts or sections ; the npper prodneed the hearcn ; the lower, the 
eartli. Betwfat these was prodneed a god, Brahma, who had theiiower oC 
creating all beings without exception, animate and inanimate. They eon- 
eider Bral^na as the lord and creator. By another error they beueve him 

6th. The eeetarice who admit of Ifaie, that fa to say, who beliere that 
beings are bom of time, renmrk that plants, trees and other Tegetables have 
one time for the prodactioa of flowers, anotlier for that of fruits ; tha^ tliere fa 
a tisse to make use of them s that sometimes there fa en ezpeniion, sometimee 
a contraction, so that a branch of a tree fa at one time covered with flowere, 
at another It fa dried up. They hence infer that time exfats, altlmugh it be 
a thing invisibfa end infinitely subtle. 

7th. The eeetarice who recognise ia tptiee the priacipfa of all thinge. 
Space or extensloa doth, aceording to them, beget all things,— men, the 
heaven aad tiie earth ; and after their extinction, thcee return toN>riginal 

8th. The £e« Hm pt (Laokika), so celled from a word signifying « cea- 

/•rmakU wiik ik€ mgw/ bdieve that form, thought, and other fawe (of ne. 

ture) ere infinitely subtle prindplee i and that these are produced from the 

fonr great beings (the dessenU) ; that the subtle may b^et the groiito ; and 

• Sn imngfa am, B. XVII. p. 76, vene. 

CHAma xTii. 149 

tiMit the grosser beinp of the woittnt are perithabl*, but diat mbtile caviet 
an mdestractible. 

9tb. Tbe Metaiieia *9iromg qfwtoutkp' are tboM wbo admit cMer aa 
tbe principle of aU tbings; tbej beUere tbat etber begeU air; tbtt air 
brgeCa firs; fire^beat; beat* wateri water, iee; wbidi aolidified beoonee 
cartb. Tbe eartb begeU fit e diverae iorU of grain ; tbeie prodaee life» 
wbicb wben deatroyedt ia redoeed to etber* 

lOtb. Tbe aect of tboie wbo beHere tbat bappineaa or miaery follows tbe 
actioaa of oMn ; and tbat tbcre are ponisbment and reward enttable to tbe 
actiona perfonned dnriaf life. If aaj one obaerre tbe preoepta and practife 
virtoOv tlM aafferinga of tbe aoul and bodf wbicb be nnderfoes, efface ante^ 
rior acta t and wben tbeae are destroyed, snfferinga also cease and nvifimm ia 
attained. Aaterior acts are tberefore, aooordinf to tbeae sectaries, tbe 

* lltb. Tbe seetariea wbo admit of no eeaae, bat maintain tbat crerj tbiuf 
bappens of itself s wbo believe tbat beinga are neitber pfM nor jrenen, tbat is, 
neitber dependent mpmrte pn'eH, nor linked m pmrie pottenorii tbat all is 
prodoeed and destroyed of its own spontaneity.* We bate aeen (note 14) 
tbat nine different opinions upon tbe origin and prodnction of tbe world 
baTC been declared betcrodoz by tbe Buddbists. Tbe beretics, say tbcyt 
nnderstand not tbat tbe lawa of nature bave bad no beginning and will bam 
no end. Wben cavses and effecta are combined and concatenated, tbey 
cmneooily call tbis birth g wben canses and effecta are disonited and iao- 
lated, tbey (alsely denominate tbia cr/«nc/ion. Birtb and extinction foUow 
destiny (are ita effects), and are not in tmtb tbe realitiee of natnre. Bntt 
following tbebr pecnliar eaprioes, some bave tbongbt tbat tbat wbicb prodnces 
birtb is a distinct creature, wbo bad tbe power to form tbe worid and all 
beiogs. Tbere are, aa respects tbis matter, nine 'yblie etewe* (erroneovs 
bypotbeses) ; 1st. Tbere are beretica wbo beUcTC tbat all beings are bom of 
iimts aa trees bave a tinse to bear flowers, and a tiose not to bear tben. 
Time tberefore exercises an action ; it etpands and it contracts. It eaaset 
tbe brancb of n tree, aoeordiag to tbe aeaaon, to clotbe itself witb leaves, or 
to witber. Xlase, altboogb ao snbtle ai»d impereeptiblo a snbatanee, man!* 
festo iu existence by iU action npon flowers, freits, and otber objecto of tbe 
aaaM kind. Time tberefore ia to be taken as an eternal being, tbe sole 
canse of all beings» even of n in w foe . 2d. Tbe partiaans of ^peet anppoee 
tbat tbe fov parU of space, namely, tbe eaat, tbe weat, tbe nortb and tbe 
t are able fee prodaee asen, tbe beaven, end tbe eartbi and tbat after 
, all tbcseiotani In ^peet/ etber, tbe nnivefae«4dl,ie49Mea» Space 

ia tbat bf wbieb BMA and aU beiags Uv« nnd die I BocbiH It iadafMiMit of 
• San Cmag/e ssn, B. XUIL fb M. 
o 3 


tliat if the Mit attflMMted pwtklMof 4«tt» hev« bcoi Md bj te p«tU 
MM of iM Ite y» (« «Mtformbte witk the i«0 M bcfrttiH fc»ff ^^ 
ud tbt oUwr Uivt. ThejMj thit thtaoit Mb(l« ptfticki of thafovr 
gTMl (belDgt), that it «ht elemeatf , ara altmal, and c^iabla of cafdidcrioc 
thegfooerbdiigai that althoagh their fona ho cxaeedhiglj aabtlc* tha niK 
«#aaetoroiaf/«r itiU cxlstti and that whila tiiagrottar tabttaaeetof tho 
world afo chngcabla, thdr eaaie* eieeadingl j nbtle, ii anchangaaW % they 
hanea wdataia that theia rabtla daments aia the iiiiiqiia» ofeenud. being, &e. 
4th. Xik€r or ea^pfir tpmett ia aoneiderad by tha eectarlea detiga^ed «fraaf 
^mnUk {9nftrUt) as tha eania of aU befaigi; for thej mmj, of ether ia 
begotten air ^ of air, fire s of fire, heat ; of heat» water ; of witer, iee ; 
of indaratediee, earth; of earth, the fire kiadaof gnda; of theM.Ufesaad 
Bfe, on it! termination, retama to amptj epaee. In the opinion of theM 
therefoi«, ether ia the eternal, nniqae befaig, fte. ftth. The aectfries whb 
twifarm U Me a^e adialK the «etd of tha elamenta, that ia of earth, water, 
lire, and air, as being saflicient to cania all things ; thej bcfieva that all 
the beings in the nniTersa are bom of the foar dements, and on their de- 
stmetion, return to these. For example, in the body (literally fie ruoi 9f 
tAe hodjf), the solid part oarresponds with earth ; the hnmid part, with 
water s the warmth^ with 6re ; tha mobile part (or mobility), with air. 
From this wa may infer that tha body, and all beings, differ in no respect 
from tiia four elements, thas the utd of the four elements is. aeeording to 
these sectaries, the aniqna, eternal being, ate. €th. Tha spiriimgi^I, or that 
whidi heretics caU tha kmrntUOf of ike eigkik 9Uem$. JTia jrf /a and hia 
sectaries teaeh« as wa haw already seen, thst the principle of the twenty- 
five reaUtiea, or tha obscnra priadple, prodaces intelligence ; that of mtelli« 
gence is bom the thonght af /; that tha thought of / begets color, sound, 
smell, taste, and toacfa, or the five atoms ; that of the fife atossa are bom 
tha fire dements, earth, water, fire, air, and ether ; that of the Htc dements 
are bora the eleren roeft , tha eye, tha nose, the tongue, the body« the meat, 
the haadt the foot, tha month, the intestind orifice, and the nreth^ which, 
with tha spiritud /, make twenty>five priaelples, the first-twenty foar 'of 
whidi are bom of the spiritad /, and depend upon it as upon a master. 
They look upon this spiritud / as etemd, intelligent, enlightened, and 
qaieseent. In it reside eternity and indestructibility ; it includes and embracca 
all the laws (of nature). They acoordingly regard it as unique Wing, fte. 
7th. Tha psrtissns of the Vedaa recognise the ejreff/en/ aaagalffAer, ar 
Xrfr^ana, tAi atat I oxeaknt •md tk€ nmi aJr/erfoat ^f ike Ood^t ha Who 
begot the four femilics or castes. From his navel issued a great lotas, aad 






•f lUf Iotas wat bom the fod Bralmiat who poneued tho power of ereetiiig 
■n thiagfl. The etWortoM fod is, eoeordiny to thie •jftcoit taperior to 
Bfahaa, and it it he who it regarded bj thete leetariea at tlie uniqiiey eter* 
■al beiagt fte. 8th. The wonhippen of the Lenf (/<Jli9«r«),or the gOTemor of ^ 

the three thoaaaad worlds, lending ia the heaToa called il^Amtfil/£ Theae / 

aeetariea rwb themaelTea orer with aahett aa do alio the brihrnasa in general; 
who regard thia god aa the cante of aU things. They attribute to hiaa fovr 
^Irtaca (gnaa) ; aabstance, or sabatantial reality* ubiquity, eternity, and 
the power of oeating all the laws (of oatore). They assert also that thia 
god haa three bodies t the Ml^qflAe lew, signifying that his Mbstance is \ | 

cteraal, nniTersaUy diffosed, and co-eztensire with empty space, and haTing 
the power of oeating all thinga ; the Aedfjr thai dUpotu, bccanse superior to 
foraM ; the Aedy qf Ireat^braui/ione, because he eouTerts in the six conditions 
all the beings whose form be assumes. 9th. The partisana of Mah4 Brahma.* 
Nine other poinU are enumerated upon which the heretics are at lault in 
regard to form, relation, cause, effect, sight, nature, conca t enation (dcatiny), 
action, conduct ; 'and which have been expounded by the Tathagataa to the 
vary intelUgent Bodhiaattwa in the congreg a tion of Lanka, to spare all subse* 
quent agea the danger of misUke on thia subject. There are twenty kinds 
of error respecting the nature of nircmie.* 1st. The death of the body when 
it la destroyed, and when respiration ceases and goea out like a lamp, is so 
called. 2d. Those who deem jpccc to be the priaM being, name the 
destraction and return of the uniTcrse to its origin, ntretfae. 3d. Hmm 
whobdiefecap to produce, prolong, and destroy life, and to give birth to 
all tUngs, called the air atreiai. 4th. The heretical followera of the Fedat 
believe, aa we hate aeea, that a kitua aroee from the navel of NMyana, from 
whidi sprang the prince and lather of the gods, Brahssa, who gave birth to 
all beinga, aaiaaate and inanimate, which issued from his month ; aa also all 
the great landa, the theatiu of happiness, virtue, and the precepta, where 
are preacnted in offering flowers and planta, and victimaauch aa hogs, sheep, 
eases, horses, fte. Birth ia su^ landa ia called by them atra^ae. 5th.The 
hevcticaof / sAe ae, and their diflereat oflseU, asaert that the veaerablo 
mastsr/sAe aa U iavisibla. aad filla aU space ; aad that he can of what la 
invisible aad fondesa, eoastitnto all beiags, aaiaaate and m aniamte, and all 
tUngs without cneptioB. They call him therefore nfrurfae. flth. The 
hawticithat go about aakod thfadc thai the dear aad dlstiaet perception of 
antUagsin thdr dliswatnsodes of bdagia airedae. 7th. The partJaaaa 
of ^sM asBHt that the aaionar eombiaatien of te earth, watarpiia^ 


«BiUgtBt«r«idaMl%Mtt thtf wliMillMnbM«iid^tlMraiillMi4iif«. 

rioAiMitlwttUidiipMtiMii alrv^M. itlu Tbm fc«P>tfai wfc» -■■rtifjf 

tlNbodj nuMtibMtiM Md of thtf bodjMdof tiM hippluM it aiflift 

ti^, M. TbMO vlio piMt llMmMlfw ia dcpeadmet «p«i wm, W- 


of who« fPBfo bom godtt noBt dnv^Wv bivdt* m w«U m all tkt bdagi pio* 

iooid fiNMH cggt. Mrpantit loorpiong , Hiot* &o. And that ho wbo ndor- 

•toads tUs b in af r oA i o . lOth. Tho loetarict who givo thoaiiclM «p to 

bodilj liortMoiHoai (rigNutfj, think that tias aad happlaota hav^ aa aad I 

aadthatvirtaohaaoMolflOiaadthatthiaUatrff^a. llth. Tho Motarioa 

aanodof tho jnra ojro, boUoYO that paodoaa havo their Uialt; they attach 

themfehrcothoreforo to pradoaeodMnf^ao), which is their atrotfaa. lSth.Tho 

ioetarioeofJtficrAoliboliovo that their BMstcr,Atfri(yaa«, hath Midi '^Itia 

I who nado aU thiagti I am tho betag of aU bcbgt ; I crotted a^ worlda. 

AU oaimata aad iaaaimata boiagt are bom of om ; and whea thej^retam U 

tmHktrpl&n (jMroltv), that ie cailod tUnimi." 13th. The parta^ of Ni 

Aian Iimi wmj that there were bom in tho firrt place a bmIo and a feoMlo* 

aad that liroai tho aaion of these are prodneed all tlungi, aaiaMto aad iaani- 

Biate ; and wlaea the latter separate and retam oa their de*tmctioa fe aa- 

oliUr jOeor, that is nirpimm. 14th. The sectaries of «cn# *im (S^khya) 

adoiit the twentj-flYO priadples sa beiaf the caase of aatnre ^ of all 

beiags, aad thej csU thto airt^sd. 15th. The seeUrice of ifa i tAcoa Is 

( AfoAd ItktNorm) saj that it wsa ia trath Brahsaa who produced ^Irdjaaa, 

who is the oaaso. That which thcf call BreAaia aad A^dntfyaaa ire sovor« 

ciga gods aad lords, tho caase of birth aad of czUoction ; aU things are 

bom of the lordf aad are ezttagaished of the lord, who is therefore airadaa. 

16th. Those seetariee who admit of no caase, say that it is neither caase aor 

effect that prodneed all beiags s that there is aeither pars caase nor impam 

caase I that the thorns of a prickly plant aad the coloars of the peacock are 

the work of ao one, bat eiist of theauelves aabegottca of any caaao. 17th. 

The partisaas of flaie say that tiaie ripeas all the elements, forms all beiagSf 

aad disperses them. It is said hi the books of these heretics tbst thoagh 

straek with a haadrsd arrows if yonr time has aot coom, yoa csnnot die ; 

bat if yoar tisso ham ooaie, oontact with the slightest plaat will destroy 

yon forthwith. AU tUags are prodaced by tiase, amtared by tiase. aad ex* 

tingabhed by time. 18th. Tho sectaries of mefsr beUoYO that wafer is the 

priaciple of aU thiagsi that tt formed tho hesYoa aad the earth, aad all 

beiags, animate aad inaaioMte ; that it caa make and destroy ; and 'they call 

it airedjM. 19th. The partisaas of tho €lk€r system think ether the caasa 

Ca AFTER ZTII. 153 j 

Md tot prindple of all thiogt ; that of ether is horn air, and then other 
eleawnti in a«ceetiioo» at already BBcationed. The earth begeti all kiodi of 
aeeds and medicinal herhs after their kinds, amongst which are grains con* < 

dndve to life, which after being nonrished, retttms at last to ether. 20tb. f 

Tho sectaries who believe in the An ekkm (AmM) think that there were / 

oiiginallj no snn, no moon, no stars, no earth, no ether. There was bnt a ( •'. 

vast water. The great Am ckkm waa there prodaoed of the form of a hen's '. ; 

egg, of the eolonr of gold; when it arriTcd at maturity, it separated in two \ , 

parts, between which Brahma waa bom, aa seen sbove. When anioMte or ' ! 

'Inanimate beings are dissipated afl;d lost in Me other pitee, this is caUed 

Independently of the erroneous opinions whidi they profess on points of 
doctrine, there are obserrances which the heretics deem requisite to assure ^ 

them resl merit. Six kinds of mortification are reckoned aariong the heretics : 
1st. They refuse to eat and drink, and endure for a long time hunger and 
thirst, Tainly persuading themselTcs that they thus acquire a title to 
nward. 2d. They plunge Into rery cold streams. 3d. They bum them« 
sdres on difTerent parts of their bodies, or breathe burning vapors by the 
nostrils. 4th. They remain perpetually seated, naked, and exposed to cold 
and heat. 5th. They select cemeteries and funeral groves for their dwell- 
ing.placcs, and bind themselves to perpetual silence. 6th. Some pretend 
that in anterior existences they were oxen or dogs, and observe therefore what 
are called the freetptt ^ /Ae a» or cTo^, that is, they browse on the grass. 
and drink foul water in the hope of re-birth hi heaven.t 

There are five kinds of doubts to whidi heretics are prone, named f Ae/»t 
emt ikam§ki9 (eogitationum prKcisiones). 1st. They doubt about Foe, and 
reason thns ; " Is Foe great ? is he Fou Isn n«, or every other that is great ?" 
Which aasonnts to blssphemy and the destruction of the good prindplea 
(roots) of the Noughts. These heretics believe that all the laws have ao 
ciistenee,like vacuity, and are subject neither to birth nor cxthiction. 2d. They 
doubt about the law, and inquire whether the law of Foeor thatof the V^daa 
be the better? thoV^das (iset lie), the title of whidi signifies diteonresf ^ 
erisnet, an compositions replete with the false sdenos of the hersties. 9d. 
Thsy hava doubts eonoeming the Smkf (Sanga), not knowing whether the 
disciples of Foe or those of Fom Isn mm dessrvo the p r efeienca. Henea 
they hsiieva not in the Three Firscious (Ones), BmddAm, m erma s nd Jisiyo » 
aU thm la elsewhere dedared to bo an nnpardoBabla sfai» stupid mU 

paled iallie«s« ifMg A fMi, a XLVL p. ax 
t Sen tMOf /asHS o« XXVU. p. 12. veisa. 

ir^rloeifiaecUaf; KTipftan Ung; 

154' mjafLtuAQM or pa RiAit. 

nivtoiAtlMir pcffvtnllj Miet* Bsl ialhsl 
oU vlio •!« witlMiilnettted* Md ftlfol piclj, but vlio aboMd !■ Um • 
of aU ctlMCt wUdi apoM Um to' raCritatiMt, m bI Clirif ( 
cntafai to lUl faito tte evil 'eiNiditioM (we abote), ee the 
eertaia to fblhiv tlN Mbttanee. Tbb is eM ef thoee cttoMt lieai 
there fa Be delivery^ with however mech dcdie It nef heatleM|tfed. 4th« 
They doaVt the pcecepli i Inetead of having perfect ceoMcaee^ the pie» 
eqptst thcj aik theoMelvea if it were not neie aiefU to adheie to tlie pfae* 
tiee called that ef « f Ae Aai ead f iU tffly / which eoniiata fa aapportiag one^a • 
aelf en a tingle leg like a hen* or of feeding npon foal alhnent like a dog t 
or In otiier aniteritica which leqniie the mraneiation of good mannen. &th. 
They donbt the trath of the Ptecepta, that b they hesitate b^wfart tho 
Precepts of Foe and thoee of Fon laa na.* 

Aceording tothe aceonnt of Seng chao, master iDf the law, the herelica 
aialtiplied eight handred jeara after Foe entered nirv&w s they estahlished 
violent aecte and wicked doetrineai repressed troth, and distni^ aonnd 
jadgment. It waa then that Devm BodAlfel/aNi, disciple of Xoai^ cAew 
fNagm kr4ehmmj eompoeed the work enUtled Pe/nn, (the hfuidrcddia. 
coarses) dcfcndfaig tmth and doang the road to error.f 

Long as the foregoing note isay appear, the reader wQl not deesi It too 
aiBch so when he considera that in showing as what the Bnddhi^s held to 
be heterodox opinions, it places as in a better condition to deddeNipon what 
they held to be orthodoxy. It fa a roand*abo«t bnt certain wty of ftuda- 
Mcntally nnderstanduig a doctrine to oontrast the latter with all that ite 
partisans hold to be erroneoas in other creeds. Lastly, amongst all pastagea 
ia Chiacse authors relative to what the Baddhiste denoaUnate here«ie8, I 
have met with none that iraa particalarly applicable to tho*Are wor* 
shippers of Persia, of whom it wonld appear that <»rtaia legends written fa 
Mongolian make mention ander the naoM of Thrso.— R. 
. (22) A hud rear.— This prodigy is very faamns, and is apparently 
alloded to ia n book which I have Iband several times qObted ander 
the title of Fk fuk§ Aeaea^ •»• Isra Acen Alnf , that is to say, apparently 
the Sanscrit words IfeJIa aei>a/yo SimAtoMiuUdi. There waa a Bodhisattwa 
whose name, Simkamddmmddi^ * r9tarin§ ^ iki Hon/ eppears to* refer to a 
similar cireamstonce.— R. 

(23) JH9UU tatlraence;— >aa ascetic phrase, signifying appareatly oaa« 

templation, or meditation | applied to the asoet aabliuM perfectioaa of the 

nnderstanding.— R. 

* Chhimg tkif /mm, quoted in the Smn Ummgfm avM. D. XXIV. p. 9. vcriio. 

t Sum CMiig /« MM, Charier of the Smn Imm, «r lArvt diMmirMt, D. IX. p. 15. 


(24) T^wun^ike mge ;— • designatioii ued to dtttiDgvish ordinary men 
from the MioU of different ranks who haTO deli? ered themieWct from cor* 
poreal bonds, and aisared themself cs againat human infirmitiea.— R. 

(25) au kmir mnd ki$ aotlr. — Compare the acooont of Hinoan thaang, in 
hia deeeriptioo of Ap^djf^, of ^e« lev Mn um^ and of Km pi tkmumg mm* Tbo 
hair, nails, and teeth of the Baddhas, BodhiMttwaa, and other sainta, are the 
folica BBOSt ordinarily kpoken of, and orer whieh tIAigMff were erected.— R. 

(26) ThM ikre9 Fq€9 ^f ih» pni fiaicr/— that ia, Karknchanda, Kanakn 
Mnni, and Kasjapa. — :IL 

(27) Shf Um wen, or 8kf JHm «mii,-4he cneAtre/, or omemeii/ ^ ike 
Utue rf SdJtfm t for Sakja ia the family, and not the perMnal name of the 
last Bnddha, and ia need in the latter senie by way of abbreviation only. 

There waa a Tcry ancient Bnddha of the name of S^jre in the time called 
lAe ikrM ntmkjfm. when onr Bnddha began the period of hia existence, 
was then named Fm kommmf muuf, * the very Inmiaoaa.' Thia appHcation 
of the saase nasM to two or more peraonages haa been bnt little attended to. 
Thna we have two Amitabhas, two Sakya Mnni*a, two ATatokiteawarast 

(28) A dirvfon.— The Chinese word Lonng corresponds with the Indian 
term Nrngm, The Idea of a labnlona being analogoua to reptilea, bnt endowed 
with the bcnlty of flight, is much more ancient in China than the Boddhist 
ffdigion* It wonld be cnrions to ascertain if this idea had not been taken 
Ikooa India from the highest antiquity, and whether Lnmg ia not a comip- 
tienoftheSanaerit2V;qrs. The reference here ia not to the part that dragona 
play lathe national mythology of the Chineae, bnt to that aasigned them In 
the COilca of the Bnddhiata. 

There are eight daaaes of intelligent beings to whom the doetrinea bo« 
I by the Bnddhaa may be profitable, and may aeenre nltimato dell- 
thcse are the eight daaaes who are represented as attitiding In 
(like the ahrabe of a thicket), npon the prea^inga end the aaaem. 
bUea of the aalnto of the Mnt IrantMienff, that Is to say, of the Sravakas 
the Kldlna Bnddhaa, end the Bodhisattwnas let, the goda (Dteet) ; 2d, the 
dn«Ma (Lemif, 3ri^); 3d. the FecAc (FeitAee)/ 4th, the JTen Me pAo 
lCmihmrm9)g 3th,theil Mimmh (AMWfm) 1 6th,theJCMi Isew Is (Garwnet) » 
7lh» the JDe ae Is (Ommiw)/ 8th, the Jfc Aeew i^ ite ( JfiaAef^nt). 

I shailhave Qneeifen in the eeqnelof theeenetea to lecnr to the diflereni 
ckMi of genu I Bt ptesenft I ahall restikt myadf to the eoosidcrBllon of the 
, wte,M we tee, oeenpyn place nnMngat bei^a anperier to asan and 
tiieaon. They are, tay the Bnddhlats, Intelligent nnimala, la 
^ VOf l>teMci* (£to«v Me A^)t tiM • Baa V Awil ObiNb' 

IM wajamnumm op pa riait* 

tidM, Md CMr kiiigi JflrigMted w pnlMton of tte kv of B 
loiatiWMB, — »toM'^d«a* ■ewty.ttfqi Magi of thod wgtot . 1W 
wvialli itMnod^Mli; « Iho nit tco' (8<gan) ; hob Iho aiadoaitk 
ofthotwMtjrgodttaBd btho sott powerfU 4nK0B*kiii|^. Ik M bowko 
wbca tte BodUnttwM raido fai Iho tea oorths (or gradoi of wiAcaCioa) 
•ppcMi with hie drtgon^bodj aboto IIn oeoaa. Whca H raiat, it to ba vh« 
■proadU (oTcr tho skies) tlio Hiielc doads so ■• to oasnro tho most ad. 
Ysatsfeoas raia Ibr alL He eoastaatlj atteads tho assemblice of Baddha i 
defends tho lav, |irotecte tho people, and thas aeqaircs for hloMelf great 
merits. His palsoe is adoraed with tho sevea pieeioas thlags, had pro* 
seats tho same msgaifieeace as those of tho gods. It is la this palseo that 
tho dragons oomplUd tho work eslled BUp€mkim§, or ' tk§ LMMtV^Imm^/ 
froBi tho discoarses of Msnjasri aad Aaaada ; aad it is there that the BodhI* 
sattwa, Iflfym Hekumm saw It when he penetrated the pslsoe of tho drsgons. 
This book was dlYlded into three parte, or Yolames ; the saperlor, tho aiean, 
and tho inferior. Tho inferior ooateiaed a baadred thoasaad gdth£s, dls« 
tribated into fortj^ght classes. M^m Hekumm retaiaed then la his meao- 
ry, and pabliahed them to the world. There, too, ara presenrod boolu of 
BBanroIloas eiteat, seeing that one among them ooatains as many fdiUt ao 
there ara atoms la ten great chiliocosms, aad as bmbj sectioas as then ara 
atOBU ia tho foar maadane oontiaciite.t 

Drsgons ara produced in fear differaat ways t from an egg, from tho 
womb, from hamidity, and by transformatioB, aeeording as they dweU to 
the east, tho soath, tho west, or tho aorth of tho tree Clo «Ae mo If (herd 
of deer). Their palaces ara adoraed with the seven predous things. Tlioy 
enjoy, as do other creatares saperior to man, the fecolty of transformation^ 
aaYing on five partiealar occasioas, when it is not permitted them to ooneoal 
their form ; ntmely, at their birth, at their death, at the time of their ascr. 
riment, when they ara angry, and when .asleep. It is narrated on thia snb* 
jeet that at the time when Baddha was with tho Sangas in tho garden JTy 
k^m /o«, thora was n king of tho dragons of tlie sea, who, endaod with hamaa 
form, eaaao and asked to embrace religioas life. Tho Bbikshas, ignorant 
that they wera dealing with a dragon, raceiYcd him aeeordiug to his reqaest. 
The dragon-monk withdrew te yield hiasaelfnp to oontemplation $ bat tho 
dragons ara of a dall stapid disposition ; he beeame drowsy, and having 
lost the facalty of disgaisiag himself, his body entirely filled tho apartment. 

• F«N y aiiiig i, B. II. Cliapt. ' •/ 1&« eigki rlaitis.' 

t Htfito ya* Jdug s#«, or HiMory Of the Cods, qaoled in the Ssa tmmg fm ssa, 
B.XLVl.p. lOv. 

CHAPnft zvn* 157 

TheBlukihaswiM dwdfc iHlh Um, baving fctaned toUielioasa, wen leiied 
villi terror OB bcfaoUingliia. TiMf vttmd load crict to tuuMA thdr 
coiponlono, md thm awakcacd thodngooy who muMd tho ftgwo of abU- 
loba^ciUiawitkUfkgtcropMdiBtboottitadeoCBodiUtio^ TkodiMp* 
peuinee of tho dngooy and tho mtoratioB of tho oMNik icoowod tho temr 
•f thoanemblyt which ImBodiatdj reported tho affair to Boddha. •• TUo 
ifBOt,**Madhe»««aBUB,b«takiiigorthodragoM." Ho then aommoiiod 
Ua, pleaded tho law in hie bdialf,difoeted his retwm to the palaoo of tho 
diafons, and feibado tho bhikehna over to adait a dragon to monattie life. 
TUa gave Baddha ooeasion to oplain the fifo ciionnstanoes appercyning to 
thodertlajofthia dan of beings.* Tho dragons are tho kings of seslj animals 
and of those cslled inseets. Tbof can conceal theaudfos, or shino with n 
brfniaat ligMf and assnaM n laigcr or a snaller statue ; bntthej ara sniqect 
to thrao seonigee which tonnont their eiiilenos. Tbef dread tho seofching 
[ homing ssnds, which consnoBO thdr skin and detb and oeeasioB 
I tho BMstfiTdypsia in their bones. Tbof aro liable to latt in tho addst of 
lesBpests* whidi occasion then to lose tho ornaaento which esibdliih their 
gsrsMnts* and strip them naked, drcnasstanoss inftnitdy annojing to then. 
Lostl j» th^ dread that, wfaao thcj aro disporting tVo Gomde, enter tho 
pelsce and csny away the newly bom dragons, open wUdi ho IMs. 

Wo dmU sso in tho coarse of this nantifo aunj fiibaloaa adfentano, in 
which dragons of dther an figaro ;— end shall then take oeeasion to foear 

(29) iV^y r^'ons .^aboat 2 to 300 miles. 

(30) Xlai«^/r«.— tnthetezt Adiiay. The gieat distance hero inda- 
cstod, if it is not errenooBS, carries as to tho northemboandariesoC India, or 
ofon to Tibet, ia the direction of tho mnuccs of the Gaqgee. 

Thero ie doobtlcm in the name of the onl genias, • JBemufaiy ^ jliv/ 
on aOadon to some legend that has hitherto OMapod oar lesearah, and per* 
bepe some tradition of a TdcaniccraptioB ; orit may refer to theraml springs 
mA OS aro fband in tho Hiaulaja. Father d' Andrada, speaking of the 
t of iro, ropeats a lablo reliBrring to a hot spring in the ssnm ooan- 
A coantry munod ^pm jfo is mentioned in tho onamerotioa of the 
Brtrieo of India. 4pniti«w,orthogodofiro^roddiBgnt4fn<* 
psra, is rockoned asMiV tho difinitiea of NcpeL$ 

131) «oaf die tek—Baddhiit temple I see Chqp. IIL Mt» i. 

• &• Cmog/o tio. B. XXUL p. 23. 

t JII«fimi09aFo»ao,qaemdby Wai<d,oJiwi/lft<Bta.4/ lft«fliMKV«l> 

I Jfinie BemmdUi, ToL X VL pb d66b note 37. 

158 viLOKncAOs of wx BiAir/ 

(tt) /y cMA'-^'WbhaTO alrMdy Mea t&tti BUMd*ada^ 
mnraUghrtakiBf^BrnddhistUaiiehf. TteStaMrit«ipi«taiMiitAn«. 
iydtmJMdkmi fh« Mit PMAtftc Bmidkmt theMof^oUui FrtOif^UU. 
M. Sdkmidt hMBOl reeofsiied thii last fonsp but haa siOisfiad kiaailf with 
trinifrfliing tlw wwd without tiadagiti orfgfau ItiaappuoitlyfiraBithaMi 
form.jNicAtte, that thaChincM hafa transcribad the word Py eAi/ bat thia 
> pretcBti a dUBealtj t tha transktora atiert tiiat tha /m word antira, it Pjr 
cAI if a la, which woold giTO a fom wholly anknowii in Stnierit, PrmtyeiMrm, 
and does oot oonaspond with tha anslyiis mada bj tha Chinese of tha 
Ssnserit word. Howetar it be, when the anthors of the Chinese trana- 
UttonSf instead of eoafining themselYas to the transcription of tha word* 
cndeaTovr to fire its atcanios, thej render it in three different ways, whidi 
lead to Uia supposition of soma eqniToqae in the Sanscrit radiesL They 
assert that Pjr eAi/oe dgaifics Vu&n kh, * complete intelligence ;' Fipa ki^f 
* intelligenoe prodaced by d^iny* (or tha concatenation of causes) aad Tbii 
MiOt * isolated, or distinct iatelligenee.' This triple translation mutt arise 
froai soflae equivocsl atesninf in Sanscrit s tha last is the only one .which 
completely coincides with the well known sense of Pratyekm. 

Koweter this be, the place occapied by the Pratyeka Boddhaa in the 
hierarchy of saints is fixed with precision in Buddhist works. There are 
fire /ruii9 which, set those who hara gathered them on the way lo tha 
aaprema Bodki s and namea are glTca to the Tarioas degrees of pe^ection 
indicated by these fire fruito. The lowest of these Is that of tha^ 8r^4^ 
patma, who haa still 80,000 kslpas to pass ere ha be completely emanci- 
pated from the iaflueace of error and passion. AboTc these, are in tha 
ascending scale, tha SttkriidgmuA, the AH&gimi, and the Arktm* Abov« 
these are the Prmtyekm^Buddkmi, who have gathered the fifth fruit. These 
hsTC for erer renounced the errors of the three worlds, lusts, anger, hatred, 
and igaorsnce { and when they shall hsTc passed through 10,000 Kalpas, 
will obtain the first degree, aboTc whidi is none other.^ Buddha himself 
has said ; " A hundred wicked men are not worth one virtuous 6ne ; a 
thousand Tirtuous men are not worth one obserrer of the five precepts rf tea 
thousand obserrers of the fire precepts are not worth one 6akridiffimt ; ten . 
million Sakridagamfs, are not worth one Anigind; one hundred millions of 
Anagdmfs are not worth one Arhan: a thousand millions of Arhans, are 
sot worth one Pratyeka BuddAm." ^ But he adds, ** Ten thousand iipiUiona 
of Pjratyeka Buddhas are not equal to one of the Buddhas of thi three 
times, that Is the past, the present, and the future ; and a hundred times ten 

* Book of the great Kindtm, quoted in the Sam tsang fa eea, B. XXII. p. 3 ▼• 
t See XVI. n. 20. 


^ontaad mUlioni of Baddhas are not equal to tbo being freoil from 
Ibonght, locality, action, and manifcsUtion.*' 

The Kmh kio, hj tlie contemplation of tho twdf e Fmm (NidAuu) 
emancipate! himself from <yo and tho other erroiB ; knowa and €ompre« 
kenda tho tmo eofif (apintnal anbatanoe) and the nature of NirwAtM. He ia 
Ana carried beTond the girdle of the three worlda; it ia hia Vdnm or me- 
dhua of translation into nirtdna ; and aa the Kwrn (the twelre degrees of 
Indif idnal destiny) hare plaee in him, he ia on thia acconnt named rwm 
dse,— which appears to aaean Nidama^Buddka. 

The 7Wi Ho mike their appearance in agea destitate of Bnddhu. The j 
are aolitary and deroted to the contemplation of thinga and their Ticisst« 
tndee ; and being without master, it ia of their own understanding that they 
attain the comprehenston of the Ycritable yoM i hence their name 7b« Mi9 
(* isolated intelligence'), apparently Pratyeka-Buddha. Men -who hafo 
attained this rank can effect their own sal? ation only ; they are not per* 
■itted to experienoe those grand emotions of compassion which are of ser- 
vice to all liTing beinga without exception, and which are peculiar to tho 
Bodhiaattwaa. Such are the bounda to which the Ton kio are restricted* 
•nd by which they are disabled from becoming Buddhaa (immediately).* 

The Ton kh and the Kmm ki§ are asentioned concurrently in the same 
paasage,t which aeema to prove that the Buddhista of China at leaatv hare 
established some distinction betwixt the Nidann-Buddhaa and the Pratye« 
kft-Buddhas, n distinction not altogether jnstilied in the passage itself. 

There are two kmds of 7bn kh : those who form eleffet arkirdii that 
ii to aay, who after the manner of deer, take up with their own kind, and 
look back to aee if any follow them ; they are nanmd in Sanscrit Vwrfgm* 
dkiri. The others think of nought but. their own salvntion, indulging no 
thought about that of other asen. They are eompared to an animal with 
but one horn {Kki Im in Chinese), and are named in eonaequenee Kkad" 
§mn$diidttipM, * P^atyckaa resembling n unicorn.'^ 

The contemplation of tho twelve Nidimm^ which forma the ocenpation of 
the Yuan Uo, ia u subject much man dittcult to dear up. It would bo 
intereathig to detennino how the snocesskm of tiieee twdvo causes and 
tho apirit to lay hold upon Iho * Toritablo void,' or spiritual 
I { but I can find on thia anfageet but one passage, wU that ooneaiT. 
od in alaaoet enigmatie terms. The Yuan Uo aeea that if eidjm (igMranee) 
» to /firvfamrmMMi (old ^a and deeth) Md that thne an pindneed tho 

• &m fasag/e sMh B. XX. p. 2S. 

t IcBig yen JUiif, B. VL quoted in &m laaag/«S9U. 

g 4r hinen ft^ quoted in the Ssa Ucag/o SMI, B. XLVIIL pus. 


IM nLAmnumi of wa hiait. 

BtflMMIt tlMttktallMliM«r<ifU!^«MMi«elit» 

tlMrbiithMrtotli,«rht eomprahndi tibitt wUeli it boI nbjaelt* birtk 
«r dcatk, tbal if t^Mtj. iplritul Mtw«.* The perfcctta to «Udi th« 
T«M Uo sttilai ttdr czMDptkm Ihm tiM ildMitiidM of Itf^ 
their ftodtj of bccmal^f mm or gods, mdcr thiem wortl^ of oaontioB, 
and tliej ue tlMrdimro uooBg the dglit dasici of bdngi ia honor of whooo 
towcrt m oreetod. Thoo di^ donct oro tho Boddhaot Bodldnttwaiv 
Afffaaas, Awtglmfa, SthridiglBils, SroOpoBBat. aod tho ChdorofOftf Uogi. 
(M. Rcmont aeooM to hoTo oadtted tho Pratjeka Baddhaa.— J. W. L.) 

From tho foregoiaf caplaaatioaa the word Bmddkm wUdi catcra into tho 
term Prtiijfkm Bmiikm^ cannot mielead at at to the trae podtioa of theto 
l^ertOBtsct, who are vary ftr from heiag dttied amdnstt ' abtolate^iatcHi- 
gencet.' It wat therefoio a grieroat error of M. Schmidt, when lie taid thtt 
•• Baddhist hookt itako a great differeaoe amoag tho Tarioiit Baddhat, not 
■lerely with referenee to their taaetitf, hat to their aetiritj in the talTttion 
of linng heiagi {*' and then oomprited in thit data tho Srarakaa and tha 
Pratydui Baddhat^f Hut eonfoiion ia hy no metaa dcared away^hj tlm 
dittiactioBi whidi follow ; aad otliert» we iluJl tee, lutf o yet to bo ettaUiihed 
between tho Bnddhat and Pr»tyekat, teparated fai tho hierardij of aaintt bj 
the Bodhitattwat, who are inlinitdj abofo tho latter, thoagh ttill far ipferivr 
to the foroBer.—- R. 

(33) Tki ip9i ^tk€ naoaan.— Hie plaea where tha P^atyoka-Qaddha, 
of whom he tpoke, catered airrina, that it to tay died.— E. 

(34) incrc iU dried kii e/o/iUf^— Compare Chap. YIII. note 7. 


Town of Ki jeo i^Rivcr Hcng.— Foiett of Ho li. 

Fa hian halted at tha temple' of the dragon and remamed there 

aome time. His aojonm ended, he tarned towarda theaoath*' 

eaat ; andhafing traTelled aeren yeoM yon, he came to th^ town 

of Kijao u' Thia town tonehea the riyer JSTciiy.' Theie are two 

Sen^ kia lam entirelj deroted to the ttadj of the /ett /nma* 


• Fa Amo himg, B. IL Chapter ' mi ctmfaritamt drmwm fr§m plaalfl/ 
t l/«6tr «iMf « Granditftrta da Buddhaumuu 

CHAPTER XVni. 161 

' To the west of tliis town, about six or scTcn li, and on the 
northern bank of the river Hen^, is a place where Foe preached 
in.behalf of his disciples. Tradition sajt that in this pUce he 
discoursed upon instability* and upon pain ;* upon the comparison 
of the body to a bubble of water/ and upon some other similar 
subjects. In this place thej haTO erected a tower, which 
subsists stnU 

Crossing the Henff, and proceeding southward thre6 yetm yan* * 
jon come to a forest^ named Ho lu Foe there preached the la w.y ^ 

Tbcj hare erected 44|ps whercTcr he passed, or walked, or saL ^itt^^y*^ ^ 


(1) TkM Imjile.— inChineie, Tnm§ tie, * pare or holy kovie.' Tbit 
■sme isstven to tho 9€m§ JtU imm, becaiue tkote vAo rttirmin ikeit ikomgkitp 
than ii the Stmaneaas, dwell in tbem. T efe are five Tnmj^ tAe more cele« 
brated than all others, of wbich mention will be made in the sabieqent 
hapten, when the word itaeir will be farther contidcred. — R. 

(2) Ki j— i*.»This name, which the Chinese do not interpret, is identi* 
eel with that of A/e kei eke in the narrative of Hiaan thaang. — R. 

It is the transcription of the Sanscrit name of the town of Kanoiij, or 
rather ^plflfm* Kmtyttkutia^ which signifies the ** honch-backed girl.'* 
This etymologj refers to a legend according to which the hundred danghtert 
of the king KmMomMhkm^ who reigned tbere, were rendered honch-backed 
beeaase thej woold not sabmit to his lawless desires. Kan jakvbja is the 
isaM town which Ptolemy* calls K«ro{i{«i, and which In our times bears 
thenaow of Kanoij. It is sitoated on the right benk of the Ganges, in Let. 
N. 27* 4' and Long. E. 79.&*. The name of this town is sometjaaes written 
Kanaiji hi the Sanscrit books of the middle ages. The Chinese Boddhist 
works teaadate Kan jakabja by Kkim mim ckJUrngp or * the town of immek* 
UtHi imtueU.* In this town, say they, therewaa forsMrly the « ileroMl 
^fikt^rmiirtti* he owaed ainety-aiae woBMOf who beeaase in theeaaso 
iaeh*bedMdg heaee the aaose. Foe deeesnded hen from the 
I Too U (Tc^rMtrinsha), where be had piaached tha law. on which 
talowcrwaseraelsd ia the piaee» the ifthaaMag the gmllswm 
of Baddha.--Kl. 



163 PII^ItllCAOB OF FA HIAlf* 

(8) f%tiMrJKMy^Wtlnf«tM^(Cl^Vn.S)tlMtteCUM^anw 
tk«Ga««J7f^rorJ7f^f M^MdtkitttiMSaBteiittttyMBof wM^iImm 
words •nllM trUMriptt ligiiUiM aeoofdiagto them ' €9m9fr9m rAfAcitai^F 
MCMfiM,' beatvM this riYcr Hownd from an elevated pbee, that !•» I^mi the 
•UBmltoC the Snowy MovBtabis. We need not repeat hen whit bub^ea laid 
Oft theavbject of the eoureea of the Oangee. There ie a nyaiph whopreiidee 
over thia river and been ita aame : she had BO Boae and yet dietiagaiihA sadls 
vefy vrelL This peeoltarity is qaoted to prove that when aoy great ocgaB 
of aense ie wanting, the reet asay aopply its place. Thna Anmrpikm ia 
asentioned, aa having been deprived of liia eyes, yet seeing none the less 
whatever eiists in a triple chilioeosift as readily iuk ^n may distingnish n 
Irnit placed in your band ; also the Naga Fa nan tM (Vaninda), who heard 
without the aid of ears ; JTtaa /an pm ike (Kavanpate), who rBBdna|ed like 
an oz and ceased not to disoeni flavonrsj of the genins of empty space 
(Snnyati) who, though without body* waa sensible to external bodies ; and 
of Maha Kisyapa, who had no necessity for mem to understand all the lawe 
of the univcrse.*»R. 

(4) InttMliif, — In the text the non-^vraftOK, the ne»*f/erm7y; in 
Sanscrit ciudfyaai ; one of the fundamental conditiona of relative existence ; 
or in Baddhist parlance, one of the four realities acknowledged br SIkya 
Muni. This subject wUl be treated in the notes to Chapter XXII.-*fR. 

(5) Fcm.-*One of the four.realities recognised by Sikya ; in l^anacrit 

(6) A hnhhU ^ water.<^Siky. affirmed that the human body, formed by 
the union of the five elements, possessed no more stability than a bubble. But 
thia observation was made by him in his promenadee around the town of 
KtpHavistu. Re appareiktiy resumes thia subject, aa well aa the two^reced* 
ing ones, in hb sermons preached near the town of Kanouj.-^R. 

* L§mg yaa king, chad in Smn ttang fm mm, B. XXVIII. 




Kiogdom of S* ehi. 

Thence proceeding ten yeeu yan towards the sonth-west, jou 
come to the great kingdom of Sha ehi. On issuing from the town 
of Ska eki by the southern gate« yon find to the east of the road 
the phux where Foe bit a branch of the nettle-tree^ and planted 
it in the earth. This .branch put forth and grew to the height of , 
seven feet, and nerer after increased or diminished. The hereti- 
cal br&hmansy excited by envy and jealousy, cut it, or tore it up, 
to cast it away; but it always sprang up again in the same place 
as before. 

There are also in this place four stations of Foe, where they 
erected towers which are extant to this day. 


(1) rc» jftMi jr«» •*— abovt foortoen leagnet.— R. 

(2) Tk€ fma kingdom ^8km ehi, — ^According to the route of Fa hUo, this 
kiogdoa miut be pliced on the Goomty, in the territory of Lecknow.— Kl. 

There is e dUBcoltj in this part of Fa hian't route which can be explained 
eiway only on the anppotttion of a miiprint in the French edition or an error 
in the original Chinese. Ten foJMuu to the ioutk'Witi would be a retro- 
grade moYemcnt on the part of our pQgrim ; and wonld moreoTer be incom* 
palihle with his snbseqneat eoarM. Professor Wilson,* haa saggcsied 
Cawnpore, lying sonth-east of Kanonj, aa the probable position of Skm eki, 
and has traced onr pUgrini'a ronte accordingly on his sketch-map. Bnt, as 
we ass in Chapter XX, the next jonmey of eight yojanaa mmM from SJkm 
tki brings onr pilgrim to She wet {Srdpostt^ in the kiogdom of Kin $m /• 
f JMMfa, Onde) { and hence I asake no doubt wo shoold read nerlA*«ef I in 
the test, instead of nutk^wui. Still the d i fi enltie s aie by no means soIy- 
td by this esplaaaUoa i for if , aa we shall see presently, She wei was some- 
where in the ndghbonrhood Fyabad or Onde, we mnst snppose some error 
in the ir^— »s^ of the distance passed by onr tmwdler, or asake the p^fmtm 
of nMMd length tnsdt the present ooeiaieo* Unfertnnalely the itinsrafy 
of Blo«M thnng teows no Ug|t upon the •nkjeel^'-J. W. L. 

IM momiuAom of fa HtAii* 


KiBgdeaitrKMittto. TmmmUShmwn. T— >!• of Chi hiw. T««aof 
Tm wci. ^ 

Tbraee i^qceeding tooUi to the distance of eight y€om frnt^^jtm 
•rrtfeel the kingdom pf JTinm /o/«nd the tosmof Sh^weL' 
The popoktioii of this town is Feiy beonsiderable ; thcj only 
reckon abont two hundred families (or houses.) It is theje that 
the king Pko ue tui^ resided. Tliey are there extremely attached 
to the Law ; and within the enclosure of the temple» at the spot 
where was the wall of the old man Sim iha*s^ well; at the spot 
where the wicked genius Yng kiu^ obtained the doctrine ; and at 
the spot of the pan ni Aeican,* where the body was burnt, ipen of 
after ages hare built towers, which remain to this day. Th^ here^ 
tieal br&hmans* of the town« excited by feelings of jealousy, desired 
to destroy these ; but the heaTcn's thundered and the lightning 
flashed, so that they could not approach to OTcrtum them. * 

On issuing from the town by the southern gate, at tweke 
hundred paces to the east of the road, you find the temple Which 
the patriarch Sim tha caused to be erected. The gate of this 
temple faces the east. There are two paTilions* and two stone 
pillars. On the pillar to the left side is executed the figu^ of a 
wheel ;** on that to the right side is placed that of an ox. Tlie 
reservoirs are filled with the purest water, and the gror^ are 
formed of bushy trees ; the rarest flowers grow there in abun« • 
dance and charm the sight by their lively hues. There, too, is 
the temple called Chi houan.^ 

Foe having ascended to the hearen Tao ^i,'* remained there 
ninety days preaching the law in favour of his mother. The 
king Pho Mie no experienced a vivid desire to behold Foe again. 
He accordingly caused the head of an ox to be carved of 
sandal wood, by way pf representing an image of Foe, and 



placed it in the spot where Foe sat. When on his letnm Foe 
entered the temple, the statue rose and approached to meet him. 
Foe said, *' Betnnif and he seated ; after mjpim ni houam thou 
shalt he the model for imitation by the four dasses/'" The statue 
returned and sat down. It was the first of all the statues of 
Foe» and that which men of subsequent times hare copied. 
Then Foe transported himself into a small temple constructed on 
the south side, different from that of the statue^ and situated at 
twen^ paces distance. 

The temple of Chihouanhnd originalljr seven stories. The 
kings and the people of rarious countries were full of Teneration 
for this phce and came hither to celebrate the festitals. Cano- 
pies and streamers were hung up, flowers were scattered, per- 
fumes burnt. Lanterns supplied the place of daj, and even in 
daytime were never extinguished. A rat having taken into its 
uouUi the wick of one of these lanterns, set fire to the flags and 
the drapevy of the pavilions; and the seven stories of the temple 
were utteriy consumed. The lungs and the people experienced 
profound sorrow at this event. They thought that the image of 
sandal wood had been burnt ; but fiyt or six days after, on open- 
ing the little eastern temple,'* they suddenly beheld the ancient 
image! They reconstructed the temple, and when they had 
eompleted the second story, they installed'* the statue in its for- 
mer pkce. 

On arriving at the temple of CJU hauan. Fa hian and Tao 
dung reflected that in this place the Honorable of ike Agt had 
passed twea^-five years'* in austerities ! By their side was amuU 
titode of people animated with the same thoughts, who had tra- 
versed many rqjions, some to return to thdr own conntiy, others 
to dperience the instabili^ of life.'' That day on seeing the 
place where Foe no longer was^'* their hearts experienced a live- 
ly emotion. Other eedesiasties addressmg Fa hian and Tao 
diini^ ^Fkomwhat conntiyeome youf'thcy asked. ^Wo 
lunroeoBiefiwmthelaBdofJEhM,'' replied the former. Thoeedo- 
hthenieplied, and sighing, observed^ *<Howaiarv«IloaaI 

166 wojamiMAam op fa hiaw. 

that mm from tbe extremity of the world are enabled to come 
in ieaith of tbe law even to this phuxP' Then thej apoke 
amongst themselTes» **We other masters and iJo «Aai^/'* 
said thcj, «* since we succeeded each other, have never before 
seen the priests of Han** come hither/* 

To the north-west of the temple^ distant fonr /t, there is a thicket 
called the IFood of ike Recovered Eyee. In former times there 
were fi^t hundred blind persons, who, coming to the temple, so- 
journed in this place. Foe preached the law in their behalf, and 
thejr all recovered their sight. These blind men, transported 
with joy, planted their staves in the ground and performed an 
act of devotion, turning their faces aside. Their staves took root 
and grew. The people of that age out of respect, dare4 not cnt 
them, and they formed this grove, called for this n^ason the 
Wood of the Recovered Eyee. The clergy of the temple of Chi 
houan frequently repair after meals to sit in this grove and 
abandon themselves to meditaUon* 

To the north-east of the temple of Chi houan, at the distance 
of six or seven /i, the mother of Fi ehe hhiu*^ caused a temple to 
be built, and invited Foe and the ascetics thither. Thb place is 
in strict dependence upon the temple of Chi houan. The town 
has two gates, one facing the east, the other the north. There is 
the garden that the patriarch Sim tha caused to be made after 
having paid money to buy it.*^ The temple is situated in the 
midst, on the very spot where Foe stayed, and for a l^ng time 
preached the Law for the salvation of man. At the places where 
he passed, or where he sat, every where they have erected 
towers, and all these places have appropriate names ; such as that 
where Sun to li accused Foe of murder." 

On coming out of the temple of Chi houan by the eastern 
portal, and prdcecding northerly, at the distance of seventy paces 
to the west of the road you come to the place where Foe for- 
merly disputed with the adherenU of ninety-six heretical sects.** 
The kings of the country, the grandees, the magistrates, and the 
people, were all heaped up like clouds, and listening intently. At 


this moment a heretical girl named Chen ehe mo na^ urged bj a 
feeling of jealousj, gathered up her garments in suchwise over her 
belly as to make her appear pregnant, and in the presence of the 
whole assembly, she reproached Foe with haying infringed ^the 
Law.** Then the king of the gods, Shy, hsmng transformed 
himself into a white rat, came and gnawed the cincture she had 
around her loins; so that the garments fell to the earth; the 
earth opened, and this woman fell liring into hell ! Thiao tha^^ 
who with his Tenemous nails sought to tear Foe, fell likewise 
liTing into hell ! These places were known and marked by men 
of subsequent times. In the place where the dbpute (with the 
heretics) took place, they have raised a temple. This temple is 
about six toises'* high ; frithin it is a statue of Foe seated. 

To the east of the road is a chapel** of the gpds appertaining to 
the heretics, and named Covered by the Shadow. It is in front of 
the chapel built upon the site of the dispute, and the two chapels 
are thus opponte to each other on either side of the road. This 
last is also about six toises high. Here is the reason why it is 
called Covered by the Shadow : When the sun is in the west the 
temple of the honorable of the Ag^ covers with its shadow the 
temple of the gods belonging to the heretics ; but when the sun is 
in the east, the shadow of the latter temple deflects to the north 
and never falls on the temple of Foe. The heretics had a custom 
of sending people to watch the chapel of their gods, to sweep it, 
water it, bum perfumes, and light the lanterns for the performance 
of their worship ; but the next morning all the lanterns were found 
transported to the temple of Foe. The br&hmans,** full of resent* 
ment said, *' TheSA« men take our lanterns to use them in the wor- 
ship they perform to Foe ; why do we not resist them T' The 
brihmans then set themselves to watch by night ; but they saw the 
gods and the gemi whom they worshipped themselves cany away 
the lantemsb thiiea endrde the temple, worship Foe* and 
' aoddenly disappear. The brfthmans thus learnt to appreciate 
the gicatnesa of Fo^ and abandoning their families^ entered upon 

168 WUMKnUOM ov va bxait. 

TndkioB idaftMtluit at a tinM Botiemole frooitldt tfoi^ 
ibtn were arooad the temple of Cii Aeiuni niiieCf -dglift An^f 
lur !(■»» an pioTided irith apartments for the eeeleuas]^ and 
wUchwere emptjr in bnt one place. In the Kingdom of the 
Middle** there are nine^^^ix kinds of sectaries who 411 recog- 
nise the present world,** ereiy sect has its disciplesb4rho are 
nnmeroos ; thej beg their subsistence bnt thej canj no beg- 
gar^s pot" •Thej seek happiness^ moreoTcrt in waste places, 
and in the highways, and establish in those sitnationi honses' 
for the supplj of traTcllers with shelter, beds, and wl^rewithal 
to eat and drink. Men who have embraced religions life lodge 
there eqoall j going and coming : bnt the time daring which they 
are thus harboured is not the same (as in the monasteries). Thiao 
/Atf has also sectaries who stiU subsist ; these honor the three Foes 
of the past time ;** Shy Ka wenfoe^ alone thsy honor not. 

To the south-west of the town of She wd, at the distance of 
four /t, the king Xt«o|f Iff^ cndeaToured to attack the kingdom of 
She iV The Honorable of the Age phu^ himself on the road, 
and at the place where he stood thej hare erected a tower. 

At %!^j li west of the town you come to a little torn named 
Tou toet /* it is the birth-place of the Foe Kid she.** At the place 
where the father and son held an interyiew*^ as also at the place 
of the pan ni hauan,^* towers hsTC been erected. In like 
manner they haTC raised a great tower for the ;$^efi**ofthe 
entire body of the Jouial^^ Kia ehe» 


(1) Sigki ife^m y«M— aboat 11 leagvet and a fifth.— R. 

(2) Kiu MM l9.<— Thii kiogdoa, eallcd bj the aame aame bj Hinaa thaaag, 
U easily reeogniaed aa K^nla« or Oade, one of the most eelebnited eona- 
tries in primitiTe Boddhisa. It la both ioiportant aadeatj todetenBinaitn 
position, whidi will enable aa to fix preeeding etationa» and establnh n aolid 
basis for the anbseqnent march of onr pilgrima throngh a conntij which it 
is eztremelj interesting to reeognise. The map of India fonnd ia^the great 
Japanese Enejelopcdia.? and reproduced in French bj M. Kl^proth (aeo 


. CHAFTBR XX. 169 

filate) giret lepiiratelj the two Mines JTim #« h and She wei^ making 
then thus two dutioct kinsdoms, betwixt which is placed Kitiyi Is. Now, 
Fa htan ite-nnites Kim, m h and Sk9 wei into one kingdom, making Skt vet 
the capital oiKiu m la. As lie had traTelled through the oonntry his testimo« 
ny is entitled to higher credit than that of the noknown geographer who 
eompUed the materials for the map just mentioned. Kim m /• is the Kosala 
of Sanscrit books, the celebrated kingdom of Rama, whose capital was 
Aff9dh$m, The position of this conntry is therefore one of those best asoer« 
tained in tlie itinerary of Shy fa hian, since it results from an incontrstible 
synooyme and coincides with both the foregoing and the snbseqnent march 
of tbe.traTeller, thtt is to say from Mathura and Kanonj to Plitoa. We 
might sappose thuf the name K6<aia eitended to other countries of India 
seeing that in the Chinese map Kitto ae /e is placed to the weat of Benares, 
south of Kusambi and Mathuri, and stated to be a kingdom dz thousand 
H in drcnmferenoe. Farther stiU, a country named Kin /«c /•,<— >(appa* 
rently a transcri|ition of the same Sanscrit word Kosala) may be seen to the 

% north- west of 0« eA« jrea nu (Ujjain). It is this conntry that Hiuan thsang 

I places in western India, and the capital of which he names Pi /o mm la. It 

ij must be Guz^rat. 

f Ma touan lin quotes a history of Kim art /o,— jtln 9M Is cAeuan, com« 

posed anonymously ; but he gives no deUils on the subject. 

7 A difficulty attending this identity of JCi^a/a and 5Ae wei (admitted by Fa 

hlan and rrjected by Hioan thsang) will be discussed in the next note.— R. 
(3) SAe VM.— The name of this town is translated by I'Wii^ fe,' ' abun* 
dant or flourishing virtue,' and also by Wem Nw, * celebrated productions ;' 
because this town excels all others on the reputation of its production. 
Ilinan thsang assures us that the name of thia town is corrnpted, and that it 
shuuld be pronounced 8hp tofm ty ti (Srivasti). 

The town of She wei was commended for four proprtttea worthy of re* 
mark. It contained all kinds of riches and precious things, so that no other 
kingdom could compare with it. The five kinda of deslrea (corrsaponding 
to the Ave senses) were there more vivid than elsewhere. No other eoun* 
try prsaented auch abundance. Nowhere were the people in a better eondi- 
tion to atudy the doctrine and obtain final deliverance.* 

But what is naaarkabk, Hiuan thsang describes KdsaU and Sravaati 
•rpontely. whiln Fa hian asakes the latter the capital eity of the former. ' 
Hiuan thsang after tearing Fl so kia reached Sravaati, and pamsd thence to 
KapOavastn. It waa later, after having traversed Kalinga, that he camo 
f KdsaU, whence he reached the country of Andkrm^ which eomspondt 
* Fmm y Ming'tk B. Ill, Art. kingdom* 




widb M a w TJiHiu Itliltet«MftoM9tlwltheMHMKtek«M«pplM 
iwthe lia«or HiMBtlMiiiv to apwtor Indiavhioli Pbklw M«cr ?MtoA 
na «r vhieh lit doM MC tpcO. Th« datoiU too givoi te the ^ l» c*l» 
icgardiag (hit ooootiy, have mo oonvspoodcneo whatofcr wiHi thnfm givcm 
bj tlM osthor of Ibo F^ 1m# JU. TIicj rcftsr oiclvfif dj to tho fifmMmg 
of tKe tUiftMoth pstrlardi NIga Kotbona, prindpally in tho aoothora eowi« 
triaa of India, eight hnndrca yaara after Sakya. On the other hitod, tho 
aeeaea in the life of Sikja which Fa hiaa plaoea in lUeala and She wei, (for 
with him these names are synonynuNiSt) are Ihoee of whieh Hinanlthiang 
indicates Skp la ySi «y /i as the aite. The ktter oovntrj is therefore tho 
Kdaala of the Fl€ tom€ ki. But it is allowable to snppose that tho teeoMiry 
of the poverfol empire the fonndation of which the Brdhroanical writers 
ascribe to Rama« was perpetuated in other regions of India, and etpeciaUj m 
that of which the name Kusala is preaerred in the «< to eAt.— R. 

(4) FMo «M ae.;— This name is uniformly given in Buddhist works to tho 
prinee of K6«ai« who was contemporary with S&kya. It is translated * vie* 
torions or triumphant army/ Hiuan thsang declares it to be oorrupted* 
and restores it to Po /e si no cki fe, tran«lating it in the same manner. Tho 
Sanscrit form is Prasenijit. This prine<i shortly after ascending the^thronop 
sought in marriage from the kins ^ Kapila, a priocem of the race of ftkp 
cAonnf . or SAdlye #nlo. A feasala slare of Ma ha nan having given birth 
to a daughter of czquisite bc^auty, the latter was sent to tho king PnSoiajit, 
who hud by her a son named Xicon H, of whom we shall speak by and bye* 
Ma ha nan was the son of king /fe«/m. and courin of Sikya« 

Sanang Sctaen naflsaa the prince who in the time of Buddha reigned over 
Kdsala in the town of VmUdii^ Smiitkam in Mongol, and aaya thst he was 
the SOB of the king Arigkonm (EJtuJtieki, I suspect thero is some error m 
this ."vcital, at least as r^girds the town of Vaisili, which could not at that 
tiBM have been induded in the kingdom of ICdsala. The iranalator of Sanang 
offers no elucidation of any part of tho teat of kia author which refers to 
the history of ancient India, but confines himself to transcribing^withont 
esplalning the names of Indian princes translated into Mongol.— R. 

(&) ^t« Mo.— Tbia name is also corrupted arcording to Hiuan thsang, 
who restores its orthography, Sw tkm fe, and translates it by 'mslf 
ftn'af / It must be the SamcrU Suddid. The Utle of CUu0 dU given him. 
designates indifferently superiority of age or of rank 2 ho ia therefore the 
tged, the pMtrurekf the eA#Vt the grtai. Thua Suditi was in leslity one of 
the grandees or nunitters of Prssenlijit. Pioua and enlightcd, knowing both 
how to amam wealth and how to eipend it ; generous towarda and help- 
ful to the needy, to orphaag, and londy men, he deservedly obtained the fair 

CUArTKR XX. 171 

tarikame of Ky koM ton (largitor erga orphuMM ct derelictos). It wts 
be who errcTeil to Btttldha tho temple of Cki Aoium, of wbich ncntion will 
be maJe lover down, end whieb obtaiaed for that spot the name of Kp 
leu /en jfOMS, ' the tardea of the benefactor of orpbana.' llioaa tbaaag 
aaw tbe rains of ibia miniiter's pa]aoe m tbe 7tb centnry.— R. 

(6) n§ wicked femmi Tn§ Aint,— elsewhere named Tng kin me la»a word 
aignifjinf 9 * be wbo ezbibiu dreiaea, or ornamenta.* Another audignant 
being wbo waa the aeonrge of tbe kingdom and town of 8hp io fm ty H 
(Sravaati) ia indicated by tbe same name. He killed people and carried off 
their cafia and beads to bedeck himself wiib. llioan tbaang repcata a legend 
lespeeting this mullgnant spirit, fonnd in tbe 9i In eAi, ebaptcr on 8hp It 

fm jy fi.— R. 

(7) l*en na Aenen .-—the death of eminent peraonsges in BaddUsm.— R. 

(8) Or it Bsay be translated *• the western pavilion with two stone pil* 
Bars.'*— R, 

(9) Strnkmrnmiemi A«rrf Irt .— (boee attached to tbe Bribmanlcal worabip 
and the doetrinaa of tbe Vcdaa.— R. 

(10) A wAcel.— Tbe wbeel is a famaiar emblem of tbe Bnddbisto, cxprstsivn 
of tbe aneeeasive ptaaage of the aoni in tbe circle of variooa fonna of cxist- 
cnee; the power of tbe CbakraTartti kings oter tbe whole babiuhle earth s 
and the prcaehing of tbe Bvddbas, as weH as tbe good effeeta of the prayers 
end fasvoeationa repeated with tbe help of a cbapleL In the absenee of 
explanation we cannot determine tbe aseaning of the wbeel placed on the 
•nnunit of a pillar, aa at tbe temple of J^tn.—R, 

(11) Tk9 lempU e/ CJU Aenen.-Thia ia one of the moat cd^ratrd edi* 
ieea of Bnddbiam ; lU name Is changed by Pa bian, bnt other Saman c an 
writers spell it Cki f Ae, and ezpUin it to mean * victory/ Hiaan thsang, 
wbo affeeia great accnracy fas tbe transcription of naaiea, dcelarea that Ck^ 
Me ia abo eorrnpt, and writea the weed G»i le, or 9ki le. He conAnu 
alao the ioterpfetalkon of bia predecessorst an thai we Bay hifer with cer* 
tafarty thaltbia temple waa called in Sanserit^in, Jeta, that is, to 'the 
temple of the vietorions, or the trinmpbant.' Tbe Chinese fnrthsr add to 
thia name the word Jin, n forest ; which ia the einet eqnlvaknt of the Sen. 
acrit ietavana, i j m^^, ao freqnenily oeenrring fas Slngaleie hooka* It 
nppeairatiuittkianaaMof * vietorlona* waa that of the heir appaicttt to tbe 
khq^dom, to whom belonged the garden in which the temple waa eracted ; 
and aa Sndat4 defrayed tbe cost of iU erection, theediftee and the onrronnd^ 
faif grennd weiwealled indifferantlythn^ temple flC Jeta,' Mid the^gmden 

. of the bsnafaatar of erphana,'^ 




172 viui 

9^*tammoiamwfMf.* Tb»ietrMioChcfiwer«tluittettegMrdcfi«r.AM»f 

arf«l9«r£«i ji<iii.iiitlwtowmorK«pOi| tiMtvkieb vat Mlt simni tb* 

bn1uoftli«NillMilii]il«fadhfi|tlMitortlied«cr-iMr1cBeirBcini««; tliat 

of Kmmm4 » elmi «r lUJa Grilui that of the « ilMail{Ai/ toira;' and baUf 

that of the town of Kashina. There U a book baring the iit!e oft Fm im 

H§ thm mm§ Aoo Mif • or < the aaeiod boob of the luunes and titlct of the 

eight graat'diTfaie tovera.* Aeeordmg to this book, if any oae bj great faith 

aad the impobaoa of a wdl difeeted heart, bathl a tower or a ten^ and 

there ettabliab the eenmioiiiet and wordiip, lie wU! obtain rebirth among 

the goda. There are apon thb earth and in the heaTena a great namber of ij 

tovcfBthat haTe been ereeted for tlie Smrirm of Bnddha. Bat the eight' 

towers hero apoken of were ereeted on the aitea wliere tlie T«tliigata ' d9» 

§emded In AcrM/ and wliere he aeeompliahed many iaportant acU of hia 

terreatrial eareer. 

We ahall aee in the aeqnel of Fa hian'a narratit a, how mnch importance 
he attached to a viait to the temple of JeU, one of the moet celebrated of 
those esiatiog at that tinm. Many pamagea in the aacred books are s«ii- 
peaed to have been reveakd by Bnddha while he was In the town of Sr&vasti 
(Slie wn) and fai the temple of Jeta.— R. 

SraTAStit at we team lirom the analysis of the several portions JTe^-fynrp 
by the late Csoma de R5r&e, was one of the principal seenes oTSttyaa 
ministrathms and a fkller eiaminatioii of that volnminoos work wonld 
donbtlcss tnpply all the partienlars an briefly hinted at in the present chiqp- 
ter by Fa hian. The drenmstanoe of the erection of a huge itiigiona 
establishment in a grove cnUed the IVtnees Oreee {Mm wmem) by a rich 
honsdmUcr of Sri#a«ti (.Vnjfen ye«f, Tik.) Is .mentioned in the Lmiiim 
•bum. Thither the fonnder Invited Sikya. who with his disripl^ passed 
twcnty-three years and proponndrd the grmter part of the Smtrmi in that 
place. See de Koroe's varion* notires of the A'eA-fytcr in the twentieth 
VolofthoiliJeliermereAM.— J. W. L. . 

(12) Tk€ kemmm ^ Tee il / i. e. JVapmiirimBAm.* 

(13) Tke f&ur «KafffCt.^In the text »m jwu, elsewhere called ^se mtt, 
the fonr herds, that is to say, 1st. The Pi Jtku»m (Bhikshn). those -mendi. 
cants or monks who profew to obtain thrir sustenance by ahns. They iff 
e^eoe, to anstain their intdlectnal life, and Mow, to support their visible 
body. 2d. The BkU9kmni or female nicndicamts. ;id, Ibe 1 eon ^Ae so 
(Upasika). This word signifies purt, and signifies that tho^ who bear it 

• Chap. XVll.aolfr2. 



remain in tlieir liomcs, that b lead a lay life, obaerfe tlie five precepts and 
TnainN't* a pare character. The name U alio explained to SMaa * men who 
approximate datj,' to cxpreia that in aeeompliahing the preeepta they 
prepare themielTea to receiTe the law of the Boddhas. 4th. Feeti pk^ I 
(Upajt) pore lay women.*— R. 

' (14) TJU iittie eeffcm lemjrle.— I adopt here the reading of the Pie» I 
titm, that of the F^ Aenc U being faulty in thia plaoe.<»1L 

(15) buititUd tk€ ele/ne.-— A lacona in the text ie here enpplied from 
thei'tcnJ/Mm.— R. 

(16) 7Veniy-/vf yMr».<»Thia period of t«enty-fi?e yeara of proofb 
b indicated nowhere hat in thia place. Sikya passed fife yean in the 
descrta before attaining absolute perfection. He became Buddha, in hia 
thirtieth year, and lived afterwarda forty-nine occupied in preaching hia 
doctrine. Probably some period of penance in an anterior exiitence when 
Bodhisattwa ia here referred to. — R. 

We leam from a preceding note that according to the Laiiim ettfere 
Sakya dwelt twenty-three yeara at Sr£vastl. It may be to thia residence 
that Fa hian allndea, with a slight error regarding ita duration.— J. W. L. . 

(17) TIU mUmbiUi^ rf /{Ar.— In Saascrit eni/jfcat. It ia one of the 
oonditiona of relative existence that it cannot last, but ia anbject to change. 
Thia expression is somewhat pompona to be employed on so simple a re- 
flexion. Ferhaps it la borrowed from aome passage in the sacred books.— R* 

(18) Whtn /be no Umgtr wm§:^^ phrase of much energy in the text* 
and literally, • tfeetn^ /At /lece void ^ /be.'— R. 

(19) Ho aileii^.— Thia expression, much used in China* has nerer been 
properly explained. The ordinary dictionariea render it 'jrrietf qf Foe^ 
AeftM.' It b foreign to the Chinese language aad belongs to that of Khoten« 
in which it represenU the Sanscrit word Upnikm (Tiom pko te, K«e«/Ae 
•Ajf AJe, On pko §o kim). The Chinese intrepret it w^/wria^ robort ne/i , mi 
M nlpsn/ef ; also aa puritHau dbc/ortt, and oJUio proxiwU ; which is further 
explained by aaying that these are men who by thdr purity approach the 
state necessary for the reeep^on of the doctrine of Foe. It b elsewlKre 
rendered by wtmgUM dottrimi damsiif or tmrnfUiri dttrimm proxiwtL 
UpMtm meana aimply •fniVuT in n religioas senae, and b the genend 
name of the BnddhisU of Ceylon and Pkgn. But thb word awre particm- 
laily dedgnatea the laice, aa wo have seen aborey note 13. To what haa 
been aalA about the Ibnr Buddhist cbiiea I win add that ettm are abo dbtln. 

,eNUedtho*tf«*ennNillifo4m'(3:ijycAe«nf). Of these seven, flvo 
I to belong to the Bonaatk order, or, aa it b oxpreiisd In Bud- 
dUsI wwfcs, to htvo Ic^ IMr AeoMf , and two ni 

• r«ny«lugi,B.VILArt.«ofdbcipbi.' 


174 niiOmniAOS or fa hiaii. 

•lAtwi^tlMtfa f aiyttotdbf bylMi^ Tto Mowtaf itwWt I bet* 
§mnd fmMw^ jUm dawiflcrtiwi t 

aH!m41i7tfipIut«Uc^iBftv»i«ipteCi m— bif wl%iwM — ndiAnU xit 
is eolt aaa flolbte, nvUng thw tbe liflipUflitf of ihdr o^^ 
laagwfe indkating tabBlitkNi mi4 hamilily ; It it cracpiBg* tmd cxiaidt oa 
all ridM, enUtBiitie of their vnoeMiaf labowi forth* aiavatSoBor mms 
iu pertaM diffoM itaelf far^ivftt as the odenr of the doetriae ij aprrad 
ahroad bj the aunple of theae nca i It hat ewadTe propeiticat t^Qriag 
the power of BMBdicanta to tabdoo viae aad panloii ; it tania aot aaidc 
from the aan** raja, thva imagiag their condoct la keepiag their eyea crer 
ftzed apon the aaa of Baddha. 

2d. The Ft kkeom at, or Pi Uom ai, female BM&dlcaata. Theae, aeeord* 
Sag to the 7^ eki /tni, have a vast aamber of datiee to perfena, for which 
they poeieet leee aptitade thaa tlie Ft AAAeea, and heoee aia placed neit 
after theai. 

3d. The 8M& aU, or SAp U oie U /• iia, vhoae aaaM exprceiea their 
abatiacBce from the affectiona which eally the age, and that they leee and 
aaccoor all Uving creatarea. As tbej ere bat beginniDg to eater apon the lav of 
Foe, they still possess many aiTectioas of which it is neeesssry that they 
should diveet thesMclves to the end that they abstain from evil end do that 
which is right. 

4th. The Skm mi mi or SAp HwfH its, * a diiigemi mUt pmin»Ukin§ 
treaiaa / to indicate the snUile attention and efforts of women C|^crcising 
the law of Foe. 

5ch. The 8k}f tkm aM aa, or wosscn stadying the law. The Uin§ «•« 
eAAee ssjs, ** The Bkp tkm mi have three studies to parsue t 1st. The prin. 
ciplesyor bases (of the law), that is the prohibitioas to kill, to steal, to com- 
mit impurities, and to lie. 2d. The six laws, which forbid poiiuting the 
thought, the body, the touch ; stealing the smallest sum (quatre dcniers) 
from aay one, taking the life of living creatures, eommitUng petty deceptions, 
eating at forbiUdea hours, and drinking wine. 3d. They stady the practice 
and thus come to understand £be principles which grest XI (female sseetics) 
caght to observe. 
~ Cth. The Keea pko te, formeriy On pko — kim. (Upasika) see abqve. 

7th. The FeeapAe f, or * very pare women.' 

It will be seen from all tiieee passages that far from designating the bonaea 
or priests of Foe, the word No thmtg in the langusga of Khotcn, and its 
equivalent Upasika, is properly applied to lay Buddhists, who observe the 
precepts of religion and lead a regular and blameleu life. This titl^ exactly 




corretponas with that of V^irm A'tUtfrn fooad by Mr. Hodgson in tlie 
Boddhist books of Nepd.— R. 

(20) Pri€ii9 ^JSTm,— that is Chinese ascetics.— >R. 

(21) TM€ MofAcr qf Pi $k€ Ml«.— Hioan thsang Tcry bricflj aUndes to 
the invitation addressed to Bnddha by the mother of Pi iAc Jtkiut bat adds 
no pafticnlars.— R. 

(23) Of muarder, — Thb aeeosation belongs to what Baddhists call the 
nine irikuUtiami ^I'W. •* Foe narrated that fomierly in the town of Pko 
/• Mu (Benares) there were • comedisn named TMmf jfm, and an aban* 
doncd woman named Zen rimmg, TTkring yen invited this woman to go ont 
of the town with him in a car. Arrived at a garden planted with trees, they 
were diverting themselves together, while a Pp ckijoe was in the same place 
performing aets of piety and stodying the doctrine. Thiiog yan awaited till 
the Pif tkifie had proceeded to the town to b^ his meal, when he killed 
Zen sienf and bnried her in tho teat of the Py chi foe. He aocnsed tUcPy 
chi foe. When the latter was brought to the place of pnnisbment, Thsiag 
yan beholding him, was toadied with remorse and said, * For what I have 
done, I shoald be panished.' He confessed his crime and was pat to death 
by the king. This TMmg yen, said Foe, was myself, and Zea neny was 
Smm f ii» In conscqaenee of this crime I have andeigone infinite suiTer- 
ing daring an infinite namber of tboaiinds of years, and even now that I 
am become Bnddha, there remaia snfferiags for me in conseqacnce of the 
anjast accasation borne agafaist me by Smm io /i."^— Kt 

(24) JVta(y-«ur MertiiaU seelt.— The 9mt fsaay/s tea redcoasbat ninety- 
fivcf and redaces them yet farther to deven prindple ones. (See Chapter 
XVIL aota 20.) 

(25) Hnimf h^mged tk§ lew.— Hioan thsang repeats this adventure 
with sli|^t variations of detaiL The brihman damsd who accased Foe of 
having sinned with her was named CAia eAAa, Chha 9km, er CAcn «Ae. Foe 
afterwards explained to his disdples how he became eiposed to this calamay. 
••In very aadent times,*' said ha, ••there was aBaddbaaamed TVinsAfny 
/•« In, (the very vietorioas TathagatA). la thaialigioas sssembly gathered 
aroaad him, thcra were two Bhikshas, one named TTen sAl^y (• without 
victory') and the other GUaaf Aeaan ('ever joyous'). There was at that 
tisse fci thadty of Benares a grandee named To at, (*great lova*) whose 
wilii was named fiA«iAe«m(« fair decdver*). The two mendicanU firequent- 
ad tUa hoasa when thay laeeived abaadaal afans. TTen sAiay, who had 

bonds of the worid, never rdaaad in the idigioas datlotof hie 
isbatCSUaaf Aenan on the other hmidt still detained In anar aad 
Ssnlmag/afia.B.XXXIILKtt* tfi.XUILp.t4 

176 nLOKiMAOB or fa mAir. 

(wQvAy) <■■ < ■, cmU Ml iwbt gltiMC wij to MgtigaMO te hb rtligiow 
cxoeiaet. TlNMeMPOWvitUaUMafediaf flCmvir «MAi 
■pfMd a ftlw rtpoit that the fatereoarM betwaea ITaa «AJaf 
Ammbi wm dietatcd by aMia ttadcr eoaiidcratioaa thaa tkoM af the law aad 
of rdigloa. Now, eoatiaacd Poe» Um jQlaaf kmum of that liaM 4rat aa 
other thaa aiytelf i aad thii 8ke^ Aeaaa, of whan I spetk, wee fdeattcil 
with CMin ekktu The ealamay which I tpreed abroad regerdlBf Wba ihlaf 
jaetlj eabjceted no to verioas hiade af paalshaieat; ead etea aow that I 
am yiived et Ba d d h e h ood, there jet laaieiae for no thia aafferiaf to ca* 
dare. At the BMBMat whea I was preeehiag the law ia behalf of licretice, 
ia the prtieaee of ■Madleaata* ead kiaga, aad aabjeeta, a daauel ea^ aad* 
dealy before aie^ haTiag a pot aatpeaded before her belly, ead iaterrapted 
me with theie opprobrioaa tenae : ** SaaiaaeeB,'* aaid ahe« ** why do yoa aol 
look to the baalaete of year owa hoaae, rather thaa diaeoaree thaa on that of 
other people ? thoa thinkeat of thfaie owa ceae elooe, ead troableat aot thy* 
eelf ahoat aiy aorrowas thoa that wert with no ia HaM agoae, eai auulcat 
BO pregaaat. I saat a aumth heaeehave batter for aiy child t are to pro* 
carlag it !*' At theae worda aU the eaaeaibly haag their heada aad jlnaaiaed 
aileat. Bat SAy tki Aeaea ui (ladra) hat Sag traoafonaed hiaiadf faito a 
rat, paaied aader the garaMnta of the daaBael, aad gaawiag the atriag 
which aaapeaded the pot, eaaaed it to fall to the groaad to the greet aatia* 
liMtioB of the eaaeaibly.»« 

Hiaaa thnag beheld the pH through which thie cetanaiatria fcU liviag 
latohelLf Thiaiaeaothcr eieaiple of the eight tribahUioaa to which Shkya 
Maai, area after attaiaiag the raok of Baddha, waa aaljjceted ia eipiatioa 
af the aba eonaiitted ia former ezieteaeea, aad for which aotwithitaadfaig 
p awiihmeat a prolooged dariag myriada of agea, he waa atill aalijeet to a 
remaaat of peaaaee. S4kya Maai ezpoooded these tribalatioBa to his foU 
lowere with the view of eoiasatiag them ia the practice of good dceda, aiace 
etea a TathigaUt alter hat lag eceomplished the doctriae, ettiaguished ell 
the ilia to which the ooaditioa of asaa ia aabject, and acquired tea (hoaaaad 
kiada of happlaase,— ooald aot diteat hiaiself of oertafai siaa eomiaitted ia 
forcgoiag Kalpae.-^R. 

(26) Tkio M, or, aeeordiag to more regular orthography, Tki jrAe ikm 
lea, or TIU jrAo ikm iMo^ ;(DeTedetU), a SaascrU word the czplaoatioa af 
which ia girea, ia cwo waye; * cdeatlal warmth, or the gift of the goda.' 
Thia laat iatorpratatioa, givea by Hiaaa thaaag, ia the oaly true c4e. The 
eaase aathor aiakee thlapersooege the aoaof the kiag ifea/ea (Amitodaaa.) 

* T« eki tMi tin, B. IX. aad Himg kki kimg Uag , quoted ia Sea Umug ft sea, 
B. X\Xlll.p.3&. 
t I'mmicmn.B.LXXV. 


CHltfT wtiitn, mko do sot appear well inroraied, make btm to be Che son 
of tW biag Pe /«• (Pbotodana). In dtlMr caae I>CTkdatU waa Che covaia 
gcnna of Sakya Maai. On aO handa it basiced that be waa the moat 
{•vetcmte caeaB^ of the foandcr of tbia religion. Several noCleea of bb 
implnrahk hatred atay be fonad in tl^ae rdaiiona. Ilinaa tbaang narrates 
in detail the adventwe here apokca of. and fai whid l>eYadattn having mb- 
bed bia natia with a poiaonona aabatance came froaa alar with the intention 
mi canaing the death of Baddba, while fidgaiag to pojr biaa boBaage.^R. 

(27) SiM f oifif.— Aboat 69 feet. 

(28) A ektpel mf the §Qd9.^li b not eaay to fiad appropriate eqaivalento 
lor the tenaa employed by the Chiaeae, to desigaite the baitdiags eooae* 
cnAed to their wonbip a ccord ia g to their seope, importaaeet aad dcatia%- 
tion. The temple of Jeta« of whid ao magaificeat aa aeeoaat baa beea 
givcat ia aaawd 7Wa/ aAe. Aeeordiag to the $kf ktrnptm^* a TnM§ aAe 
b a apot where thoae who bad maateted their thoagbta (the Boddbaa) 
baltad. The word aigaiftea the • abode of tabtlety.' Five priadpb edifi. 
m of tbb deaoadaatioB are recboaed : 1st. Tbs Icaqplr ^ tJk* kemffmetar 
tfofj^aaftbantbjSadatSvOOthesiteoftbegardeaof tbopriaeeof JeU, 
aadotberwfaoaaaMdtbeTVngrle^/els. 2d. 7^ Icaqplr ^ fAe Fa/f art 
JTiaa/om; of wbiaiBMrawinhespobcBhcmftcr. U.Tk»Umpl§^ th* 
wiMT ^ Af^t which wiU also bo again notioed la sabseqaeat chapters. 
A^rUUmfUmf ikeifmAm fo, offered toBaddhaby a woauB of that 
■aaM. fttb. The 2>m/lff ^ lAe AnoMi ^andm faiths aMaataia A"^' eile 
kUm^ othcrwiae naawd the garden of Kim Isa /Ao. Pa biai* givea tho saaM 
naaw to many other less celebrated temples constraeted in pbcss wbcro 

• Bat the word which oar sntbor here makes aae of to deaigaate a BrabaM- 
aical tcmpis b 9m. to wbbh bo aaites the word ikimm^-^^kimm Me, « temple 
of the gods,' to deaigaate the dSwma. objecto of Brabmaabal woraUp» bat 
ladaecd ia the Baamneaa ayatcm to a very aabordiaate poaition -in Saaacrit 
Jkmilmifm. Hiaaa tbaang alwaya employe the word ia the aaam acaae.— R. 

(29) Tke hmmmrmhU s/ thm if^v.— Saaa. UkmJpMm^K. 

(M) Tkm ^lOaMai.— There b freqaeat aMntion of the brChaaans fai the 
Irg is d iqr aoesnnU of tho carBsr tisKS of B a ddhia m. A very ancient work, 
tbs JCs UmfUm k^^wpmOumt the few caatea fai ibofeUowbif teramt 
•^ They febsly snt>poae timt wo (tho fenuly of naddhs) an bam of Brahma, 
andgivo nssBibb soeonnttho anmsme of •chshiianof Biabau.' Tbs 
bribmana pcatend that they were bom from ibe month of BrabaM ; the Skm 
a M. (lUutryaa) Cram bb aatels the Fi sAe, (Vaiayat) fewn bb arsMi and 

•' GtmmUi^wf bSk^; «aaltdmlhe£aolM«g/«aa«,]I.XXXVI.p.6w v. 

]78 pfusmMAOB or fa niak. 

iU ifktm iMo^aSmanm) tnm hbfecC On tkU mommI Uivy M ar^ 
tlir«Mlf<n M Ant te rank, birt wn Indy Mi m. Th« wwd »• It amm 
(BnhMMMO «lgmAM *«m ikmi ««/Atfil ia jNvlfjp/ 8«m «• biffs, otlwn 
tmbrioe tdiglmH life i mm! laeoeedl caeh other fron gener«tii» to g we ritf oB^ 
Biakfaif tfatfir iMMincv tlw itvdy of Um dortriae. Tbey oOl thnMelvcs the 
•ffdMote of Bralimat tlaeiir BmaM cniMt from Omv kccpinf tlw dpetriM, 
and pffCMrrliif parity. Tha name* i^Aa /i /I tigniftaa JUrtf« ^ /Aa /fMt ; 
tbaj ara ia trath tbe poM CM ar i of tbe great aooatriet oftha world, aad ara 
of rcfal raee. Tha Pi 4A«» or 7W «A«, aia tha Merehantt; and tii^ ^Aaaii 
Aa, or fiAaa lAa It, are tbe leboorere.*' 

We tee froai the hUtory of the Baddhkt petrfaieht, that the dittlnetioa 
of cettee in no way interfered with the edection of the ehieft af retigion. 
6<ky« Maui wee a Kihatrya ; Maha Kaeyape, hb eneeeewr^ wee a brihaum 8 
€ikmmg mm km eieen, the third |iatriareh, who wee inveeted wlih thie dignity 
only eighty yean after the nirrioa of Baddha, wee a TaUya ; and fue aae* 
cenor, Ym^m phm kkUmm tm^ who enceeeiled foity-fonr yeen later* wee n 
Sadra.* Thaiia eonformity with the deetriaee of Boddhiaai, morel Merit 
alone wee kept In view in edeeting thoie to whom the trtnnainioH* of the 
doetrine wee eoniBittcd« withont eny referenee to the dietinetion of carte. 

The word briheien ie mot need in deddedly iU pert in Boddhlk worka 
nalev conjoined with the epithet Wmi lee, heretic, heterodox ; hot eecnn. • 
tione of jeelonsly and ill*wiU egeiaet thie ceite are Tcry comBon, end eneh 
a ill be fonnd oeeeeionelly in the wqnd of Shy f« liien's nerretire.— R. 

(31) 7%€ Kimfdmai oftkm IfuWc.— Central India, or JIfadilya il^ta, coat. 
prifiag tbe eonntrice of Methnra, K^eala, Kapila, Megedha, &e.— R. 

(32) Tk§ pmemi woM.^Thu phraM appeara to Mgnify that the heretica 
rettrict tbemielres to epeeking of tbe datiee of men in the present life* 
withont connecting it, by the doetrine of mrtempsyehoiii, with antc^wr peri- 
ods of existence which mnst have lieen |Mis«ed throagh.— >R. 

(33) No AiyyiMf |ie/.— This U an esseatiel distinction of Baddhist BMn- 
dicente, with whom tbe liegging pot is en indis|)ensible attribnte. (Sea 
chap. XII— note 3.)— IL 

(34) TJkm tkrem fece ^ ikm pmH /JeM.— Tbe first three Bnddlies of the 
present ege, celled the • Kalpa of the wise:' namely, JTcen /con ««• (Kra- 
knchchands), JTcen ne Aen ami mi (Kaneke Mani) end ATte «Ae (Klsjapa)* 
These will be spoken of la detail hereafter. The timee of their respective 
appeerance ssay be seen in the tebia I have given, Joemal des Sevens for 
1831, p. 723.-R. 

* Sec llie irreat EoeyclopMlie Sam ik»mi tlum Wi, edited by Dr, JVamg kkL 
Section um tk§ mffuin pf mitm, B. IX. p. 4, v. 


(35) 9kp kirn wen : Sakya ManL^lt U enrioiu to note thb indieatioii of 
a Mct among the Buddhists who aeknovledged the Buddhas of anterior ages* 
bnl Rjeeted the Buddha of the present, the sole real type after whom, ac« 
oordmg to general belief, these imaginary personages were created by an 
afterthought, and referred to mythological times* II would be extremely 
interesting to lesm what were the religious opinions of D^radatta, the cousin, 
riral, and peraeentor of Sakya. This passageis of importance aa it seems to 
favour the optnkm that^he dogma of the plurslity of Buddhas, and of their 
■u PCHMJ fe manifestations, was eooeununt with tho foundation of Buddhism 
ttselL— R. 

(36) 7«eMif £<•«/{•— ThUu the transcription of a Sanscrit word whkh 
signifies a trans)iarent stone of a blue colour, and is extended to mean glass. 
Uiaan thsang names this prince Pp ten /tf kim, and mentions another cor- 
rupt orthograply, Py /icos U. When PAtfenajit ascended the throne of 
K6flala, he asked in marrisge a princess of the country of Kapila end of the 
race of Sakya (Shy ehoung, Sikym temem.) One of the slaves of MaUU 
naada, son of Amitodana, and cousin of Sakya Muni, had a daughter of perfect 
beauty. She was offered to Prasenajit, who married her, and had by her a 
aon, the prince lieou li. At the age of 18 this prince proceeded with the 
Brshssachari Hao khon to the house of Mahinanda. There had been 
erected in the kingdom of Kapila a hall of conference to which the Talhagstha 

i waa invited to receivo the homage of his sectaries. The prince lieon U 

' hariag entered his hall, ascended the Lion»throne (Singhlbana). On be* 

holding thistho diildren of S&kys were transported with rage. **Thissoa 
9t a slave,*' they ezdaimed, *• dares to enter and be seated here !*' He then 
went out and said to the brshamchari Ham kk— : •• The children of Sakya 
have Bsortally affronted me: remind me of this insult when I ascend the 
throoel'* And so when afterwards the prince Lieou li becasse king, Hao 
khon reminded him of thissutter. Lieou li coDeeted together his troops 
and proceeded to attack the chiUrea of Sakya. Sakya Muni took part in 
tUa evuat which threatened the tribe from which he sprung. I here trsn- 
scribe the cxpfamation of it to hU disciples i U b a further example of those 
rfmlinfsi to which warn are subject in expiathm of sins oonunitted in anterior 
oiirtenflBS. and inm whidi Buddha himself was not exempt, as wn hevu 
nUusdyseen. The following are the worda used by SlUcya in explafaiing to the 
BUkshus the CBUsei of thn adventwu ef Ueou tt with thn childrm of Sakya. 
••Vsfj aneisnily/' said he, •« there was near the town of roj^ene, a village 
inhdbited by ishsffmsn j a fomine ocenrvsd, and as tlmrs was on one side of 
the viUega n tank abounding in fiah, the people went thither to estch these 
forfood. Among the fish there was one named yb«(*baU of wheatO. the 


•tlwr H dU (kOMar^ ilandcvtr). vlw c wic ilf ml ifwfwit (apdMl Om 
Mimum).^ AttlwnMtiaMalittiebttrwlw«ua«asiiiffUiii^oa.t]ie 
•a^eorclielnk wttcbiag tlMfrbkiagoT tlM fi^ttookaitidk andtft^ 
miUm iMsa. WcU. the inhabitMiU of the town of Lm jfMt u^ mv. tU 
chiUUca«r Sftjai tbe fiili /m. U Um kinf £JM« il ; the tUh /^ «U b Um 
Brahmeehari Hee kboe { end the little boy; myielf. See by what trafai of 
creoU the dettinj of the hisg Ueo« U hae eeeeed the deithiclioa of the 
raceofS&kje.''^— R. 

(37) Tke kimfiam «fttk€ f.-*The ieqvd of the namtive thowi that the 
eoantry hefe ipokea of b that inhabited by the children of Sft ja» that ic, by 
the tribe to which the fomuler of the Budilhie relision bdongld, hinielf 
ramaned Sik^rn Mumi, • the aMxtie of the nm of Sikya,' Sdiye Simkm, 

• the Lion of S&kya/ ttc i for «e most not forget that Sdkya b^the name 
of a nee, and not of a man, althongh we habitnally use It to dciignate thia 
Buddha, ton of Saddhodana. The denomination ^Ac i here gi«^ to the 
kingdom of the children of Sikya mn«t be one of those applied to Kapib ; 
but its etymology is hitherto nnknowiu— IL 

(38) 7V« wfi.— I know not the Sanscrit form of thb name, bat the 
following note will show that it was not in the eonntry of KdMla that tho 
Baddha Kasyapa wee snppotsd to have been bom.— R. 

(39) F»€ Am «Ac,— that b, KiUyspa Baddha, Thb nasse Kasjapa, bor- 
rowed from brihman aatiqnity, b sppUed by the Samaneans to one of 
their Baddbas, who immedbtely preceded Sftya Moai ; it is interpreted 

* mhikm^ Hfkif* also, * iwioise/ The first eiplanation b bnt a play on the 
words, KiKjapa being In fact translatable ' Splemdartm kiietu wet ^StarkemB i* 
because the brilliant light which emanated from his body cclipM' all other 
lighu. It b rendered by the Moogob GertI tmkiieki (Schnldt). Many 
legends and mythological particulars are narrated of the life of the Buddha 
Kiayapa. According to the * CAreae/oyiecl atrtef 9/ ik€ predeeetaan ^ 
Brnddka^ the third Buddha, KAsyapa, appeared in the ninth little Kalpu. 
of the present age, in the time of the decrease, when the life of man was re- 
duced to twenty thousand years ; that b to aay, nearly two million yeara 
ago. According to the * /oay if^eme/f he was of the race of br^hmans, of 
the family of Kasyapa. His father'a name was Fan ie C airtme ^JBreAate,* 
BrmAmm »iia /), hb mother's rae'i cAa (opulent). He dwelt in the city of 
Benares, aad seated beneath a mpmgradkm (ftua miiem)^ he preached tho 
law to an assembly of which he conrerted twenty thousand men. The two 

• See Ummgfm u»m. B. XXXIII. p. 24. ▼. 

t F«r iMm tMtrn^ ki, qnoU-d io the Sum ii»mg fa mm, B. X Vill. p. 1*2. 

X Quoted III iIh: SUin • turn, B. LXXVll. 


•piriU Uiil astiiled lum (^eniipedet) were Tki tAt tnd FAo !o f»A«; lie wbd 
•ocmbled his troops was 8k9n/mm item. I am unable to ^plaia the wtmabkg 
of the terau gemU jMifer , extreitum toUif^re i there are fimilar ones in each 
of the BOtiees of the six Bnddhas anterior to S&kya Mvni. 

Aeeording to the book entitled • Ptoeedoies of the Tath^ptas,'? if the 
foTMnlK are properly repeated, Kisyapa Baddha matatains hiouelf in speoev 
and estends bis proteetion to aU livinf beings, assuring them against aU 
aicbncsi, all misfortnne, and the Inf uenee of eril spirits. Here ara the 
IbrmnlB to which I add their restoied SeMeril forms. 

1. Nan won Foe tho ye. Nemo Boddhaya. 

S. Nan won Tha my ye. Namo Dharmiya. 

3. Nan won Seiig kia ye. Namo Sangiya. 

4. Nan won Kia she pho Tho kia to ye na. Namo Kasyapaya. 

5. An I Om ! 

6. Ho lo, ho k», ho lo, ho lo. Hsra, hara, hanu 

7. Ho» hov ho. Ho, ho, ho. 

8. Nan won Kia she pho ye. ' Namo Kasyspdya« 

9. A lo ban ti. Arhate. 

1#. San miao San foe tho ye. Samyaksambaddhays. 

11. Sychnhoshi. 

12. Matolopotho. 

13. Son pho ho. SiraUi. 

When the Bnddha had finished the rereUtiott of these' formalc, he ad« 
dressed the bodUsattwa Akisagarbha and said : «*ExocUcnt yonng manl 
these formnlsB have been redted by Bnddhu in number equal to thirty* 
three times the grains of the sands of the Ganges : thou shovldst eoUece 
them and redte them» practising good works. Oh Akasagarbha ! if theri 
bo any victnons asaa or Tirtuons wosaan who by day and night, and In the 
these tiaMs, ihan repeat these formulsr, ho shaU behold the Bnddhasina 
dwnm, and be ddhrered from all the impediasenU arising from the aeU of 

TheinfocatioDofKasyapagiTeninthe • Prmlm ^ iht 8ti9tm Bmddku,^ 
ieeonoehred fas the followhig terms: ««Iadoffe Klsyaptt the lord of the 
worid« fho moot aosllent nnd most eminent ssge, bom fas Benares, of a 
CmeOy of Brahaeane reverenced by prinees; the lifo of his illustrious body 
oniniud twenty tho u s a nd yean, and the waters of the three worlds were 
Med up by the Imnp of that divine wiedom mMk ho acqniiud beneeth the 
itne." Wo may obeerve that this Sanscrit pessi«e»H'Mi«Kte 
I with fho Chinese vereiou of tho le«f Jigtmm^ Is oontrary to 
• Queled in the Mia i lien, & UX VII. 

18f vnoBntAGK ov a aiAir. 

te fr9M Bonmit ia tht MrtlMni put of tiM aittrifll of 0«4«, 
. Xho bo^ Mtiflfld /M AoiMm>V 9mmikmi,wKf tkat tho kodj of 
Uiyapa «m rizteea toisM bigh» and tbo glor^ rovad bit k^ tmmmtf 
yojttun. Aoodidiof to nMCher work (Cht A jtmo cAai lte}» tte Boddha 
UsjapalMviaf praidiodopoB tfao Mood books, in ono anoablj tvontf 
tboonad bbiktboi obtalaod tho dignity of Ariuuu 

Tbi KSaj If cAowwi liy Imi roekons lUsTipa Boddbo u Ibo tbird Hoaor* 
■Ue of tbo Kalpo of tages, tbat is tba tbird Baddba of tba present age^^R. 

(40) Am lalcrfjfw.— Tbis most bo a coneeerated pbrass, for it is agaiA 
fonad lower down on tba oocasion of tbo Bnddha Krakncbchanda, Aa 
Sikya Mani bad an intenriew witb bis fktber Saddliodaaat an ftteoipt baa 
no dovbt bean mada to iautata tliis particolar of b>s life and rcplrodnoa it in 
tbat of tba pretended predeeessors of tbo bistorieal Bnddba. — R. 

(42) SAeUx— tbo Sanscrit word Siurira, transUted by tbo CUnese, tba 

* konet ff tJk€ te4f /— R. 

(43) Tk^ Jam US, tbat is tba Tatbagata, be wbose advent baa actaaUy 
bappened, aeeording to tba meaning of tbe Cbinese and Twtar Icnna wbicb 
answer to tba Sanserit word ; and more exactly according to tba analysia of 
tbis last, and to tbe Bnddbie doctrine, tbe * tAut gone,' wbo baa definitely 
quitted relatiTo to enter upon absolate existence, or nirr£na. It it translated 
in Tibetan Ite V<» gtAept jia, in Mancbon lf«fo« iIrtM«,in Moifgol rafon/« 
gUmt irmUmu It is tbe first of the ten bonorable namea aitigned to tbo 
Boddhas. It is naderstood in tbree diSerent senses according a^ it is appU* 
od to tbe tbree states of tbe Buddha (tbe tbree bodies), to bis sUte of law 
(Dhannakiya), to bis glorious manifestation in the world of ^ideaa (Sam* 
bb;^k&ya), and to bis bodUy transformation (Nirmanak&ya). j^ Buddha ia 
TatkdgMikm in tbe second sense, beeanse the first principle, the essence of 
things, is mnj/t/nde, idemtiig (with intelligence, an idea oonemed by H) 
and ha baa come to amimilate to perfbct intelligence.* He i^ Taikigmim 
in the third sense, Inasmuch as borne along by the real nature of 
SimiiiMe (identity of intelligent nature), be has com* to the state of perfect 
inteUigence.t — R* * 

Tbe word TblA^^alo In Senaerit means tbe same aa De hjim in Tibetaa ; 

* ke who kM fona im ih§ muauur ^fJkis prtdSeeeatart.'— Kl. 

For a further elucidation of tba aMuung of the word TatUgatm, tbe ion. 
der may consult Mr. Hodgson's article, Emnpe&m SpeemUiiomf an Budd* 
AiJm, /. A^ 8, ToL 3, p. 384, from which I quote the following passago. 

^ Chman fm luM lutu 
t ChimgthilmHm 

CHAVTsm xzf. 183 

** Tht word MkdgMU is rtaoced to ito ckmeoU and explained in three wtyt < 
^lit, ikmt §mu9 whieb neani gone in raeh a manner that he (the Mkd^MiM) 
will nefer appear again ; births having been closed bj the attainment of per* 
fwtioo. 2nd« Miwfof or Maitud, which is to saj, (cessation of births) 
obtained* degree hf degrect in the manner described in the Bavddha Scrip* 
tores* and bj obserrance of the precepts therein laid down. 3d, Mnt ^ont, 
that is, gone as it (birth) came— the p jrrhonic interpretation of those who 
hold thai donbt is thb end, as it is the beginning, of wisdom s and that ikmi 
which canses birth caoses likewise the nltioMte cessation of them, whether 
that * inal doae' be consdoos isunortality, or virtnal nothingness. Ihna 
tiM epithet tmikigaim^ so far from UManfaig come (aircnn), and impljfavlBear* 
Mtion, signifies the direct contrary, or * gone fmr over't and anniwmfes Iho 
Impossibilitf of faicamation} and this aeeofding to all schools, ioeptioBl» 
thtistiff, and athfisti fti ^ 

To ttb I maj add the bterprstatbn of the word as given by vases in Us 
^■ictionarj s--^«ir^1«ir. A GiM orBiiditto/ ir^^ 
JK^ k n ow n , nbtaiiMd.^-^, W. L. 


Town of Na pi kia.^Birth-placvof Keen leov thnn foe and of Keen nn ban 


Ph)eeeding twelTe yeov yon touth-east of the town of SSht 
wei, yoa come to a city named Na pi ita.* It ia tbe birth- 
place of Kemt Uou thnmfoe.^ There alaoareScn^ Ataikii in the 
placca where the fiUher and the aonhddan interfiew/ and on the 
aite of the jMw m kmum are erected towers. 

Proceeding thence less than a yeon yon towards the sootht 
yon come to a dty which is the spot where JTcoii na kmi taeou 
m/b^ leceiTed hirth. There too have they erected towers on 
«he ^loi where the ftther and the son held an mterfieWt and on 
that of the ,f«i m Ammni. 

XM fiLGicncAOK or fa sfAir. 

. - " NOTES. 

(1) iVk jrf Afa.«.TUt pla00 it 1 
^ WUfOAiadiieMfa^ Itepoiitimioir Ali jrf Mi, obtervM that with' itfr* 
^to Itenenedmg atwill Mtht pncedii^ roiitt, il dMmId be to tlie 
iiorA «f Gonkbpvrs b«t at our pilgrim JownMjvd la a MiM.««l«r|jr 
jOicetioB fiPMi AiU »«7(FfBtb«d, or Omit), Itwetet wra pralnbte tiw^ 
KapiUalajtothAimtliortlMtloini. Nor wai tfaii mppotttion be aft ill 
Inwwiirtfiit with tlio •obieqvcat coww of Fa hiaii to K^pUttwrnttm, Xa» am, 
4v-» aa waahall aea farther on.— J. W. L, 

(2) JTlM* iMii lAffo yhf .— The aaae of one of the Baddhaa aateiior to 
Sakja MmU. It U aouetlnea apelt JTcoii leeti e aa, a eoiiaptioB of the 
Santerit Krakodichaiida^— and ii interpreted • ikMi wAiek 9k9M ke Mer. 
rmpitd or w]^nuis* refening to Tioea and pasnona which ^<niU be ao 
annihilated that no traee of theai auiy remahiu The Mongola render the 
name OrfciUlfiif I thdtkUki. Thia Boddha waa bora hi the nhtfh kalpa 
of the prcteat ejcle, when the liliB of man waa redneed to sixt j thoaaand 
yeara, and therefore fire million nine hundred and ninety-two thoaaand 
eight handred yeara ago** The book entitled ' the Long Ag|UBa,' bringa 
him down to the time when aMU liTcd only forty thoaaand' yeara* that 
if t two miUiona of yeara nearer na. Aocording to the aame work he waa 
a brttmaa of the famfly of Kiiyapa; hit father waa naped JA te, 
and hit mother Skm eki. He dwelt In the town AmA9 (• peace and ooo* 
cord'), and preached the law aeated under a tree SAi ii thm {nrkkmf aemeim 
atrJM), and in a tingle atiembly effected the lalfation of forty thootand aaea. 
Uia ' apiritnal lapporta* were 8m ui and Pi Uou ; hit guardian,' the anpreme 
conqueror SAem Ho iiem (Son of Good InteUigenoe). 

Thebookof tha'Ftooeediagaof the Tatbagatat' teacheathi^ when good 
we la made ef the prayert and formnlat, the Buddha Kraknchchanda retaina 
himtelf In tptoe, estending hit protection to all lifing crcatnret, expelling 
aifiknfM and all aunner of erll. at alto demons. To thit end^the following 
lormnla It repeated : (I omit thit as it it nearly identical with t|ie foregoing, 
p. 181, the word KraknchehanOa being tubtUtntcd for lUsyapa.— J. W. I^) 

Then aaid the Boddha Kraknchchanda to the Bodhitattwa ^UMagarhha: 
" Excellent youth I thete dAiiwaft (inTocationt) are each at the Krakndi* 
chanda Baddhat, haTing the tame name (at I), In number equal to the aaada 
of the Ganget, u also the Boddhaa of the three timet, hare taught, and of 

* f*(f t y mwg i, Book I« 

CHAPTsm XXI. 185 

vbich they hiTe procUimcd the eiBeacy. If men keep theie dlfiM fomivUtr 
thej nay he able, eroi in the kit kalpa of f atore tine, to ettabliih firmly the 
wocship of the three predou (ones), and give birth to the Teritable faiUu 
As for the bhikahna, the bhi]uhunia» the vpaaikaat the vpayia, who ahall 
conatantly recite and obaerve tliemy they shall eipel from their Tiaible 
bodies aU kinds of mskdies and ailinga." 

Thia ia the inToeaiion of Kraknchclianda aa giTcn ia the Sapim BmddJkm 
9i9inz *'I adore Krriwchchanda, Lord of the Manis, the nneqnalled 
Sngata* the sonree of perfectioot bom at Ktbemavati of a family of br£h- 
mana reverenced by the kinga t the life of thia treasnre of eioellence was 
forty thonsand yean } and he obtained at the foot of the SirUka tree the 
atate of Jainendra with the arma of the knowledge which annihilates the three 
worlds.**— R. 

(4) Ae» ae Aeii meow m ^b«»— otherwise JTs nc JUs meeii nl^ or Kim mm 
ktm nieen nl, in Sanicrit Knmkm Mumi. The word is hiterpreted 'gotdem 
fnlffiulff/' Ktmmim signifying gold, and marking the estemal Instre of the 
perwnsge i wadMmni the absence ia sednded life of all obstade to repose.* 
Others translate the word * Ooldm Amekoritt,* beeanse thia Bnddha had 
a body of the colovr of gold.t The Mongols name him AUmm tkidmkickuX 
He was bora in the world at the time when hnman life was rtdoeed to forty 
thonsand years, that ia to say, three millions seven hnndred and fonrteea 
thonsand one hnndred years sgo. This personsge waa a brdhman of the 
fomily of KUyapas his father was named Tm U (great virtae) and hit 
mother Shm 9hm§ (very victorions). He lived ia the towa of Vtrp^pmrt, 
aad nndcr the tree called On Ismi /Ae Is mea (UdmrnUrm^ /em» ghmiermim) 
held an aasembly where he preached thia law and eonveited thirty thonsand 
iBca. His * spiritual supports/! were SAm pktm ac aad Fe !• tea, hb 
gaardiaa was ^gmii^ ^f ike muUiUmie, <oa ^ Irsa^atl ceacowl.* Oftha 
■saning of thess mystical eipressions I am ignorant. 

Aeooiding to the book of the * Proeednres of the Tkthlgatas/ wheatha 
aia properly ledted, Kanaka Maai Bnddha snstaina hunaelf ia 
Ha titsads his proteetioa to all liviag ersatansy apds all maladies^ 
aad drhttmrqrili evil qpirita. It ia with ttb paiposa that ha dslivarad 
ttafoOawiag iBfacatioas. (Nearly Identical with thoae giv«B ia poga Ml, 
JOa aa Ml msaea bdag sabatitated for JBa sAe jpAe.«-^. W. L.) 
katlH iaished tha attsfaaca of thsM 

• Fcav«t>rl,4noledbthaSHilMaf/asfa»B*XXVnLp.lft . 
t radB tfa Um, qnoled as above. 
Neft - 


Schmidt, NejmsarSapmic 8eisia,p.aOfc 

ISt FlUmfllAOK OF FA Vf AN. 

Xttiaa M«a aUfMca llMi BodhlMttwa AlUb^trbto nd nM t 
70«B( wm i If A nan or a WMfum Mdoired with trirtw iBflcnntlj icpcit 
ihew Acrvnl (iaYocitiottB) and obwrvc the«, all maladiaa ahaU W vnaov. 
cd and cored*** 

The tf^ilfl AuUla ^i^irm,^ eonfalBa the fbOowhic iovoealioB to Kaoakm 
Mml: *<I adore Kaaaka Mmii/aage and lagitlator. freed fimi the hUad. 
aeee of araadane iIfaidoBe» who waa honi in the city of ^o^AMMialfy of 
a raee of hrOimaDi honored hj hinge. Hie reaplcndcnt per^ dialed 
tidrty thooaaad yeark * Gcncrone aa the monntain of precione etonee. ho 
obtained Bnddhehood nnder the tree mdmrnkMrm.'* 

The Jom k9tumfi§Hm mikim^ aenirea na that the height of Xanaha 
Idnni, waa twcnity^iTO yojanae, and that of hie anreola thirty ; and that the 
light emanating from hia hody eitended forty yojanae. 

Krahnehdianda, Kanaka Mani, and K^yape, are denominated the Bnd- 
dhat of the put tine. They are the flrtt three of the thonmnd Bnddhaa* 
who are to appear In the preeent Kalpa, called the Kmlpm qf Migm: Sdkya 
MnnI la the fonrth. Or, nniting with tliete the three Baddhaa whq appeared 
in the preeodiag agee, Vipaayi. Sikhi, and Viawabhn, there are a^^ per* 
aonagee of thia rank liabitnally named together aa the aeren Bnddhae ; bnt 
no anffident rcaeon haa been given for thia asaodation of the laat three 
Bnddhea of the anterior with the ftret foor of the preeent Kalpa. Mr. 
Schmidt, thinka that *' the firat three are not named in Bnddhic^ worka s" 
(•' indem findet man In Bttddhajaehen Buehem die drd ereten nidit go* 
nannt.")t An error which ariaea from thia, that in boolM whidi have no 
Tcfcfcnee to any bat the preeent age, they begin the aeriee of Bnddliaa with 
the lint of that Kalpa, Kraknehchanda, withont aacending to en anterior 
period. Bnt the very work which thia aavant haa trandated negativee hb 
own obaerration ; for Sanang Setaen mentiona Sikhi and Fltwa^Att. 

Mr. Hodgaon thinka that we cennot doabt the hiatorical cziate^ of the 
di Baddhaa anterior to Sikya ManI ^t while Mr. Wilaon on the other 
hand thinka thdr red exiatenee very qacitionable.§ To jndge thie auttor 
merdy from tho fd»n]o«a acconn t a of them that have reedied na, acre nood 
be no donbt npoB the anbjeet. Another point well worthy of oonaidefatioa 
la the ancoeidon of the foor Bnddhaa and thdr diatribation In the fonr 
yngaa. •* It ki wdl worthy of lemark/' aaya Mr. Hodgion, '* that according 
to the moat authentio andent acriptnrca, the ancceaaioii of the aetcn Bod* 

« Afiat. Rea. Vd. XVI. p. 454. 
t Notea on Saaang Setaen, p. 306L 
I Al.Ret.XVI.^44^ 

GHAPnem xxi. 187 

dhas fills tlie e&tife dofatton of time : Um two first being referred to tlie 
Bmtympmfmi the ne&t two to the trUmg the sueceeding to the dwipw : 
Sakya sad the Intvre Baddhs being Lords of the present ^ge." This is a 
BWUimsBicsl notion Inocnlmted upon Bnddhism bj the inhabitsnis of Nepal, 
and not to be fennd in original works* where the snoeession of Bnddhaa is 
exhibited in a very different manner. Without repeating hers what I hsTt 
said cisewhent the following Uble will recall the principal featwrss of this 
fintastie ^roMlogy, which sppears subject to no variailoB aasoDg BnduUsft 

Kslpa of 997 Anonymons Baddhas. 

Wonders. Vipasyi, 998th Bnddha. 

1000 Bnddhas. SikU, 999th do. 

Viswabha, 1000th and last Bnddha of that age. 

Kalpa of sages 1 Kraknehchanda, 1st Buddha of this period, 

(tbo present sge). Kanaka Moni, 2d do. 

1000 Bnddhas. Kasjapa, 3d do. 

SikyaMnni, 4th do. 

Maitreya» 5th (Intnre). 

995 fatnre Bnddhas. — R. 

The IbUowing obsenrations on this highly cnrioos and important subject 
by the late Honorable Mr. Tumour are so ik propos^ that no apology is 
neeesssiy for their introduction in this place. "It is an important point 
connected with the Buddhiatical creed, says Mr. Tumour, which (as far as I 
ana aware) has not been noticed by any other writer, that the ancient history, 
as well as the scheme of the religious Buddhists, are both represented to 
have been exclusively developed by revelation. Between the manifestation 
of one Bnddha and the advent of his successor two periods are represented 
to intervene— the first is eaDed the Buddhantaro or Buddhot*pado, being 
tho interval between the manifestation of one Bnddha and tho epoch when 
his rdiglon beeomev sxtincti The a^ in which we now liv^ the Bnddhot* 
pfido of GotassO. His reli^on was destined to endure 5000 years, of whidi 
2380 have now psssed away (A. D. 1837} since his death, and 2620 are yet 
to eoBM. The second is tho . AbuddhoUp4do, or the term between the 
opodM when the reUgioa revnsled by one Bnddha becomes extinct and 
aMiherBnddho iqppesn, and nvivesyby revelation, the doctrines of the 
B^ddhisrirsl luth. It wonU not be prscticaUe, within the limits which 
I MSthsre prescribe for myssif» to enter into an elnridalieaeif the pwpoa. 
lloea Abnddhdtpddo, or to describe tho changes whieh 
I is stated to midergo dnring that tenia. Mto tt to say, that 

188 nuosniMis of fa HiAir. 

4«iH tlMtp«tM» Mt0alf 4am tliAMU|g|«i cf mtk pwm«M] 
b t w i iartiaety Iwt tht iceoQsetlon aad rceoffd of aD praetaiiH^ •!« 
altokMt TkcM MbJMte an aplaiaed in iririoM portfoM of t^^tahat. 
HQfa^Wtia too great daCaU to adoiltor vy^aotiag tkoatpan^ iatUa 

BytUtliNtnateflctloB, oUnltalionbaabaeBpNiarnMato tht mpMm 
aatioaiowkkiitfao BaddMttical craad has iaTolTad aU tlM hiatorieal data 
eoBtiiBcd in ila Htaratwo, aatcrior to tha adrant of Gotaiao, wlola in Ao 
Hinda litorataio tbera apjwara to ba no aiieh limitatioB i inaamiich aa Pro* 
feaaor Wilaoii la Ua aasljda of tha Parioaa, from which (axeepting tho 
Baja Tan^fiai) the Hinda historical dato ara ebieflj obtainad, prorea that 
thmo woikf ara, compara^fdy, of modem data. Hie distiagoitlung duu 
lacteriiCleit then, between the Hinda and Bvddhiitieal historical daU appear 
to consist in these paiticolara }— tliat the mystification of Hiadk daU ia 
protracted to a period ao modem that no part of them is anthentic, ia ro« 
ferenee to dironologj ; and that their fabuloos character Is exposed bj every 
gkam of light thrown on Asiatic liistory, by the liistorics of othd^ eonntries, 
and more especially by the writers who flourished, respectiTcly, at the 
periods of, and shortly after, the Macedonian and Mahomedan conqoesta i 
while the mystification of the Baddhistical data ceased a century at leaat 
prior to B. C. 588, when prince Siddhato attained Bnddhahood, in tho 
diaracter of 66tamo Bnddho. Aeeordiag to the Baddhistical creed, there- 
fore, sH remote historieal data, whether sacred or profime, anterior to G6. 
tama's advent, ara based ^ his revelation. Iliey are involved ia absardity 
aa nnbevaded aa the mystification In which Hinda literatare la envo« 

A firm belief la the predeeessors of Baddha most have been gOMrsI at a 
▼ery early period ; and it is not a little coriooa to observe that at the time of 
fk hian'a tranrit, the heretical followers of Devadatta ** honored the three Foea 
of the put tinse," that is, Kralrachchanda, Kanaka Monl, and Kasyapa ; 
bat placed no ffith In S£kya Sinh, to whose impostores aloae tiMee owed 
their mythological ezistence.-»J. VT. Is, ' 




• TewBofKd'wcilo'wei.—TiieKuig'irieM.— Birth of Foe. 

Thenee proceeding easterly one yeau yan* yon come to the 
town of Kei *wei lo *wei.* In this town there are neither kbg 
nor people ; it is literally a vast solitude. There are only eccle- 
siasticsy and some tens of houses of inhabitants. This b the site 
of the andent palace of the king Pe tdng^* and it is here that 
they made a representation of the Prince and mother, taken at 
the moment when the Prince seated on a white elephant entered 
the womb of the latter/ 

At the place where the Prince issued from the town by the 
eutem gate ; at that where, at the sight of a nek man/ he caused 
his dbariot to turn and retraced his way ; ererywhere they haTC 
erected towers. At the place where A t* contemplated the Prince ; 
at that where Nan iho and others struck the elephant ; in that 
wheie they drew the bow/ the arrow of which proceeding to the 
south-west entered the ground at the distance of thirty It, and 
canae a spring of water to issue (arranged by men of aftertimes 
in the form of wells from which drinking water b supplied to 
traTeDers) ; at that where Foe, after baring obtamed the doctrine/ 
came back to Tint the king hb father ; at that where the fire 
hundred sons of the Shdkya»* embraced monastic life and paid 
homage to Jeoic pho U;^^ at the place where the earth trembled 
in aiz ways/' at the place where Foe preached in farour of the 
gods^ the kings of whom so guarded the gates thereof that the 
king hb fiither could not approach the assenibly ; aft the place 
where Ta '«i Uio gaye a 8e»g Im W* in alms to Foc^ who was 
eeatediaangtfaecastunderaiVi Imi/Mi'' tree, which cxisto stiO; 
in the plaee where the king Lietm U destroyed the fiunfly of the 
Sbikyaiip'* which had first attained the rank of Sim lile Mmi*^ 

190 rfLGmiMAOB or wa vtam. 

(ia an thpte phflet) they hasf erected toirat wkidi ■lOl nmutu 
Tbtheiiordi-fastof ihttomn,Mt the dittence of eerefellj; b 
the Bojal FieUL Here is the phee where the Princ^ wider 
a tre^ watdied the kbourersJ* To the east of the town ^Itj 
ii ia the Bojral Garden;'* this garden hears the name of Xtm 
wd»f. The Ladif^ haring entered the tank to hathe, came ont 
therefrom bj the northern gate ; she proceeded twenty atepa^ 
took in her hand the branch of a tree, and tanung to ^e east 
gifo birth to the Prince. FaUen to the ground, the Prince made 
scren steps* Two kings of the dragons washed his body.** On 
the site of this ablution thej hare made a well; and it is at this 
well, as also at the tank where the waslung took places that the 
ecdesiaaties are in the habit of drawing the water they drink* 
There are, for all the Foes, four places determbed from all 
eternity ; the first is that where they accomplish the doctrine ;** the 
second, that where they turn the wheel of the law ; the third* 
where they preach the law/' where they hold discussions, and 
subdue the heretics;" the fourth where they re-descend from the 
heaTcn of Tao /t,'* whither thqr ascend to preach ^he law 
in faTor of their mother.** The other places are those of sundry 
manifestations called forth by dreumstancet . The kingdom of 
Kia *wa io *wei is a great solitude ; the people are scattered, and 
white elephante and lions are to be apprehended on the roads, 
so that one may not trarel there without precaution. 

Trarelling fiTC yeou pan towards the east from the place 
where Foe was bom, yon come to the kingdom of Lan ma. 


(1) Om |f^m«.<^ About OM Ictfve and a third. 

(S) Kim 'iM?!* 'v«7.--.It mort oertainlj be by ui error of the fnm tket 
the third fjDable of tbik lume bos been Mppteieed in the WmAUm ikmmf 
kMm, vlierewe read JCte WM 'iM7;afinltreeerring daewbere. Tb^ Mesfola 
write KmkiUk, aad the aetbor of the TMrikk kkmUpth, cO ^ ^ JT^ptteaf. 
The gieater Bomber of Cbiaese BoddUat writera loader it JTIo piUt womm 
bj aUatake laCerpiotiof the word kemeflMmtg otbera, bmio exactly, lewar. 


Tht tisnUiciitioB of Um word KmpiUwatiu cumot be ■ matter of doubt, liaoe 
wo poeseM the Tibetan tranalation NX* ^^*^§ 9cra'iy«t g'ji (the 
deep yellow ion) or ^X*2(§'^s;* 8er a'iyei g'Areiv (the town of the 
deep yellow). 8er t'lyol aignifiet deep yellow or tawny, HpUm in 
Sanaerit. It waa alio the name of the eelebrated hermit ^^P9 KmpUet, 
who gare the fonnders of the kingdom of KapiU the ground npon whieh 
they ereeted their town, aa will he aeen in note 9 of thia chapter. Tho 
anther who apella thia word most correctly ia Hioan tbaang ; he rendera it 
JStptto fm M Ion,* the exact tranicription of KapUmeutm^ or Ktpilm* 
W0iiku of Pali worka. The BnrmeM write the word KapiUnai / the Siameao 
KMmUwmiUm or KMlapett s the Singhalese, Kimbauivi g and the Nepaleao 

The kingdom of Kapila ia mentioned by Mm Umam lim nnder the name 
€i Kmpi It. In the article /nffie, he aays : «' In the 5th of the years 
, Tuam kiMf in the reign of the emperor Wen ti of the Sonng (428 A. D.), 
Tu el, king of Kim pi li in Thian ehn, aent an ambatsy to tlM emperor. It 
•onveyed a letter and presents consisting of diamond rings, bridle-ringa 
•f gold, and rare animala, amongst which were a red and a white parroqnet. 
Under the emperor Ming #1 of the same dynaaty, the aecond of the years 
T^let eki (A* D. 466) Kim pi ii again aent an ambassador to China bearing 

The Lp imkitiu also mentions an embassy lirom the king of Kim pi ii 
in the year 428 of onr era, addmg that the letter to the emperor was eon- 
cetfed altogether in the atyle of the sermons of Buddha.^ 

The editors of the great geographical colleetion entitled Pimm i lien, 
■peaking of Kim piim/memu fen, aay that the name waa formerly written 
orroneonaly MOm pi le tvfi , and that thia oonntry waa aitoated on the frontier 
•f Mid«Indln ; bnt they appear to have remained in donbt whether the Kim 
wmiU 'met of 9ia hian, and the ffle pi to/e ten Ion of Hinan thsang, were 
identicals ao thai after baring inaertedin ita appropriate pUce the qnota* 
tion from the ^be ione H leferring lo the former name, they hnrt referred 
eleswhers the chapter of the 9ipm cAt, npplieable lo the aecond. Bntthen 
they haft omitted tolnnaeribo thia chapters an omiaaiea asoel nnlbrtnnate 
farna, aa we era thns deprived of sundry points of oomparisott oflho nimoel 
ispoitancetethedneidationof IheportiosefFn hlan'sMRatlvonl pio-j 

ml before us. 

.■ ■ * 

• Fisn I CJM. B. LXXV. 

t See ITm ftkn timmg Uet, B. CCCXXXVIIL«. I& and Pian t lien, B. 
LX VU. ait. ft. Notice of the kingdom of Kin pi Ii, p. 1 1 trim firmn the UiMery 

I I« lai U ««» B. XLV I. p. SAk 

192 FILGmiMAOB or FA MUM* 

.IMitf«fhatI«wthttottopoial««tlte «mr«r Uni 
Ml tkat Sttftt lC«d WM %oni in ir«f«iilto» or 8o«tk Bdw 
I »jpp«idid to tht Fi«mIi tnadntloa of M r. WOmii's • AMtet t^lAfw JftiJ. 
MM iMdN/ iMVted ia tha N9Bfa» Joanud AtiatlqM for ISsi, p. 103, 
I obi6rvBd»<*II k Mt vwy •HT to ladiMto with pioeUte t^ alto of 
Kt^ylUnmiiMf or KifpUig^* Aeeordiog to Chiaeao aooomits, ll wo«l4 
appear that tliia town waa aitoated to the Bortli of India, to tbo tammtrj of 
AjodUaorOodo. • • ^ AU oar idaaa of tlio oowitry of 84|qra Stotoi 
load «B to aaaich for it tetkar to tha Dortb, ia the coanUf at praaaat 
Banad Omif, and aadaatty Appdk^m.'* 

AeoordiBf to tha KtJk f par, or great ooUaetion of Baddhiit wo^ traaa- 
latad into Tibetan, the town of KtpiU or KtqMMiiu, waa aitoated to Kd- 
aala, or tha Oade of oar tioiea* At the tioM of Sakya'a birth tl^ greater 
part of eentral India waa aubject to the Idnga of Mmfrndka^ and for tliia 
itaaoB tiM eonntrf of Kdaala in wliich Kapila. waa iitnated« waa ^onaidered 
aa belongtog to Magadlia, to which it waa proliably tribnUry. At fU erenta, 
Magadha waa the eeeno of the earlieat labonra of Sikya Mnni, and there ia 
leaa wonder that many BuddhiaU hare referred the birth of their legislator 
toKagadhaalao.* ^ 

The Tibetana aaiert tha^ Kapila waa near to Meant Kalias, (a denoasina* jj 

lien which most here attend to the whole Uiaaalayaa dudn) and npon tha 
river BMd^irmiM, which ia the npper Ganges, or on the JlaAtai, which ia not 
to be eonfonnded with that known at present by the saase name, one of the 
attnenta of the Gandak* KapUa mnst asoreorer be doea to the frontier of 
Nepal, sinea according to BaddlUst legends, when the Sakyaa wer^ expelled 
from their own country, they retired to the fonner place. The Chinese ciwo« 
Bology of the Bnddhistpatriarcha places it indeed to the sonth-west of Nepal,t 
and according to another Buddhist narrati? e the country of Benares, waa 
aitnatedtothesonthof thatofXsa'iatilewM^ j:tcpt loiaplaiSed totho 
Chinese asap of Hindoatan, given to the Japancae Encyclopedia, to the 
north of Benarea, and the kingdom 9iA pv fJto (Ayodhya) of Kmt rAaafOM 
and JEtaa Mm U (Kdsala). Thua, aa far aa we can gather firom a asap confn- 
aedly compiled from the notiona of Chiaeaa traTellers, Kapila ahould be nortk 
of Benares, north*east of that part of the province of Onde which con* 
atitated thaktogdom of Rdmai and thua far iU poaitioa Sa confimwd by 
the narrative of Fa hiaa. From Kanonj onr anthor travelled eouth-eeat to 
rca^ Kdaalas be panned the aaoM direction, then that of cast to arrive at 

• J. A. S. Vol. I. p. 7. 

Japaa. Eneyetop hmm. B. LX! V, p. 27. 
X Yuam km k^i, B. CCXVI. p. 6. 


K«pi]a. Accordias to thii indicttion and thit of the JTdl ghyur quoted 
abore, this town ilioald be litiuted on the bankfof the river Rohini, or 
Roheia. which flowi rrom the moanUins of Nepal, anites with the Mahiaada, 
and falls into the Rapti below the present town of Gorackpore. Thai wf 
nay eondder the birth-place of Baddha as a well ascerUined point. 

In his EuMjf en Buddhitm, Mr. Hodgson says that KaptlaTastn wu situat- 
•d near to Omgi Sdgar. The following particolars regarding the latter 
■aneare from Wilson's Dictionary : " UTJIT the ocean. To bathe the boaes 
of Sagara's 60,000 sons, the Ganges is said to haTe been led by Bhagfratha, 
bis grcat-greatgrandson. to the ocean, at a place now called Gangi S£gar.'' 
^Kl. (The story is given at length in the Viikm^i Furdma^ WUson'a traaaU* 
tion. p. 377— 379.— J. W. L ) 

The exact posiUon of Kapilavastu is one of the desiderata in the geography 
<ir ancient India, which may possibly yet be ascertained by local enqniries, 
assisted by the roate of oar pilgrim, and the ineidenUl notices to be fonnd 
in Tibetan and Pali books. According to the DuUva, it wu situated near 
JTatltfy on the Bkapiraiki, or as elsewhere stated, on the BMni riTcr.* 
Professor Wilson in his acconat of the Foe kne ki, obserres, * that Kapila* 
▼astn most have been sitoated to the eastward, somewhera near the hills 
f(e]iarating Nepal from Gorakhpnr, it being described as situated on the 
Roiuni, a aaovntain stream which is one of the feeders of the RaptL The 
Itineraries of Fa hian and Hionan thsang show that the position was accu- 
rately described, and that Kapila or KapiUrastu, the birth-place of Sakya, 
was situated north of Gorakhpur, near where the branches of the Rapt! ^ 
iasue from the hilla."t 

Thb does not appear to me so clear however. That portion of Hiouan 
thsang's Ittaerary referring to Kapilavastu b unfortunately omitted in the 
oopy of the PUm i turn accessible to the learned French editors ; and if we 
trace Fa htan'a course from SAe wet or Fyxabad, we shall ind that the 
dirwtlonia south-easteriy ; which, making every allowanee for the Ioomi 
and general way in which the bearings are enunciated, would bring us to the 
aouth, and certainly not to the north, of Gorakhpur. This would place 
Kapilavastu on the banks of the Gogra, or even on the Gaagei. That it was 
aituated on the bank of a navigable atream» wo have the authority of tho 
Rijavala, whatever that be worth.^ In the aamo work wu havu tho IbOow* 
&g tnditkmof the foundation of that dty, whieh wouU Iei4 «• to iufbr^ 

r tSee Wilson, Absiraet of the Dal^su, J. X 5. VoL L ^ 7. 
t Uphom,&mdaMifilit.Mbe/Cif(an,VoLILp.l77. 


tktit ill iito vtft Mdb of aaA mC very far.ffwi BcMras. •« Upoa litiiiif 
tUs. in Umt felloviiif peopb left tbe oovatrj m4 accoapntod the few 
priBees}.vis.ttedanght)Bror the nid kUg with their ettcaattiU and pro. 
pertj, 1000 Binblen. brihmfaM, rieli mea, and eeferal tlMmsmd« of Mcr. 
chaatos and on the int da j tbe whole conpony proeccded on their nwRh 
aa C» aa a mUe, on the aeeond day they aurehed eight milca* ai^ on the 
third day they oBaiched tweWe nilca, pnming their auureh in the wildcrneaa, 
and on one aide of the etty called Bareaeaa (Bcnarea) ; and there the prineea 
took eonacili and qwke amongst themteltca. aaving, ** if no take a town 
not bclongtag to ua by force, it will (greatly tami«h our fanw/'and ao thoy 
determined to bnild a new town. One of tbe aaid priacea remained theio 
with the maltitnde to clear tbe wildemcsa, and when the otl^ra went 
throngh the wildcrne«s in acarch of a good place to make a tbwn, they 
fonnd a hermit called Caplbwaatoo, at tbe foot of a bogaha tree, in 
froni of a lake, which heruiit bad devoted himself to piety and religioo. 
He asked the princes what they iaqnired for ? and the princes plated to 
him that which they searched fur ; then tbe hermit advised them to place 
their dty where his own hermitage stood, and also he gave them en* 
eonragement by reciting to them a good account of the. said ground, say. 
tag, that when tbe foxes happened to run after the bares, aa aoon^^ tb^3«^ 
hares came to that hermitage they uaed to turn about and run after the foxes* 
and in like manner the does after the tigers, &c. ; likewise, that any person 
or persons who should live in this plaee^ would, aljrays be in great favour with 
tbe gods and brabmaa. and also jte able to vaaquish their enemies in*linio 
of war ; therefore that this ground would be tbe most proper for their pur- 
pose; and also the .hermit requested the princes, after they made tbe dty, 
to call it by hia own name, Capilawastoo ; then according to the adyioe given 
by tbe hermit* the four princes built tbe city, and gave it tbe name of CspU 
lawastoo pura." 

In the extracts from tbe Alihmiaiki, called tbe MadmmtikmwUisii^t on tho 
Bnddhawanso, given by tbe Honorable Mr. Turnour in tbe Joummt Aaimtie 
SoeUt^t Vol. VII. p. 791, we read that Sakya at the requisition of bisrebu 
tivea aad disciples, proceeded from Rn^^gmknt on a visit to KapiUwmitku^ 
and that by travelling at tbe rate of one yojana daily be reached the la^ city 
in two BMmths ; thus makin£^tbe disUnce sbty yojanaa. Mr. TuTpour esti. 
matea the yojana at sixteen English miles ; but this is manifestly ^ exrea* 
iive valuation. Judging from the distances given by our pilgrbn m Mn. 
gadbs, tbe yo/ano of that part of bis route could not greatly exceed 4 ndlca 
(see Capt. Kittoe,On lAe roa/e o/ Fm kiam ihr^mgk Bektnr, /. A. 9. Vol. 
XVI. p. 954,) while bi other parts of bis itinerary tbe yojana must represent 



double that disUnce, or eTen more. If we lake 4 miles as the arerage 
equivalent of the jc^snti in Magadha, the dtntanee of KapiUvastu from Raja* 
griha will be ahoat 240 ; and dedoettng one-fifth or one*>sixth for the ainao- 
aities of the nmte. we shall have the direct distance 190 or 200 miles. Thia 
wovld coincide well enough with Fa hian's account, and make the site of 
KapilaTasta on the Gogra sooth or sooth- wc«t of Gorakhpnr : a poeitioii 
vhidi wiU be further confirmed by tracing onr pilgrim's course retrogressive* 
If from Pki f Ae H. See mj note on the kicality of that town. Chap. XXV. 
vhen the present 8ab|eet will be resi^med. — J. W. L. 
. (3) Tie Auif Pe lim^.^Thb waa the name of Sikya Muni's father; it 
aignifics in Chinese wktie mmd pure. He is sometinaes named mm§ fm 
, at •ike kimg tsAo Miff jmre Jh^d.' It is the traaslation of the Saa* . 

I subjoin the genealogy of the house of Sakya Mont The Chinese a 
PaKnamesaralnitaliea, the latter preceded by a P; the TUietw nad Me 
got aivia remaa lettera, the latter being distinguished by aa M. 

Tm tken temp trang. 
1 9ZU we ttPeaf • 
IVsM Is /Ae tree/. 
JTAtM Is wanf» 
Ni/teu /• tee*/. 

Szm int kie wmug, 
(F. SinhaUmm ITeAeW. 

Sengghe h'ghram. 
M. Oghadjetou arsalan). 

<P. 8mddk6dmmM, 
2as d,Bang ma, 
M. Arighoa ido. 


Ptfmn tree/. 
P. SmklodtMm^ 
Tus d,kur, 
M. Tsagha ide- 

Houfam wMgm 
P. Amii6dttnmt 
Bre'wo sas, 
M. Tangsouk 

P. Dkiiidmui, 
b,Douah r,'ui zas, 
M. Rachiyaa Ide* 


-^ r— 

Ntm TkUm 
/Ae la. 





9i ikm to, ia Saaeerit SiddULrU, !■ the priaea who, haidng obtained the 
raak afBaddha, waiealled Slikya Muni. Tha CUaeie portaoa of theabava 
taUaia takeacUetly from the Zeal eAeaiaalAMi lAea Ae«f , B. IX. p. 2. 

(4) ib lAeiaaaiA ^ kh JlalAfr.«-Whea Sakya Maal, yet a Bodhitalhra 
• 2 

196 ' n^GnncAOs ov va' riak. 

la the fcMVMTyHUtetWwabovl tobeooM iMUMte iafte iraiAcf Ifv 
mChar JfoMflM^, tpomof Hm king Snddh^ma, be aonted AwUtv 
ckpbaat with tiz tMks and •Btered tiM body of hit nolhir Sa tlMfbrmof • 
iYeeolMradpeaeil of light. Thia white elcphmt bcm the aamt J ^J mvmUm, 
that it to tajy the BfiUu imjt .^-Kt 

laadditimito the Chiaete fflettntioB of the incMmtioB ef SOja Maul 
^pied from the origiaal, I giTo oae takea from a fiae pieee of H^a eealp. 
tore hi the Atiatie Sodety't naaeam, to thow the differeaee of atjle adopted 
bytheartiitaofthetetwoBatioatiahaadliiigthe taaie tabjeel.Aj. W. U 

(5) Ai a§ 9i§ki p/m ^dt Mea.— Aeoording to the great Jtpaneae Eacj* 
c:lo]>cdia aad other Icgeada wliidi I haTO had it ia nj power to^ooaaalt. It 
vat ia istniag aot bf tlie eastern, bat bj the toathera gate, that S9 ika^ 
(in Saotcrit SmUAc, or Smrwirika Siddkm^ « he who prodncc8:;'talvatioa*> 
U\\ hi with the tieic aiaa. The l^end of the life of S£kya Maai, while h* 
waa yet a Bodhitattwa, atatea the laaM thing. 

Siddha, while yet ia hit pateraal home, waa ever tad aad thooghtfaL T» 
divert hit atteatioa, hit father aiarried him to the prfaMeaa JTifOii i (Kaehi- 
nl) daaghter of Sknm ki» (Save bnddlu) kiag of 8m pkn /oe (Saprabad* 
dba). This alliaaee, howefer, did aot rettofe traaqaillity to that tool of hia 
BOB. He WM married to otiier wit ea of esqiuaite beaaty ; oae named * AU 
jNfWJM* (Sanraitati) and the other, * feer Jojfeat,' (Sadananda). ;Thcie threa 
wirea of Siddha had each twenty thonaaad damtela ia their acnrice, all 
beantifoly formed, aad lofdy aa the nympha of heavea. The khig, hia father* 
addretdng JTieoa I aad the others, aaid to them \ «* The prinoe hath aov 
sixty thoBsaad womea to entertain htm with their masie and tc^tend apoa 
him ; ia he happy and joyous ?" They anawered 1dm ; *' The prince is frona 
mora till e?e oeeupied with aabtle stadies aad the doctrine \ he dreaatt 
neither of desire nor of joy." The king, downcast at this news, sammoned 
his ministers to eonsult anew. He atated to them how the pjftina he had 
takea ia behalf of the prince were throwa away ; that neither Wealth nor 
beaaty eonld attract him from his pvrsnits ; ao pleasare delighted him. *■ la 
thia then what A i bath said ?" he added. The Mhiisters replied ; «• Siaco 
sixty thoasaad damaela and all the pleasures of the world delight him not, 
let him travel to atady go? erameat, aad divert hia thoughta from tho 
doctriae." Thereupoa the king comnwnded that the prince ahonld travel 
to obserre. The prince said to himself—** I have been long secluded ia tha 
midst of my palace, and I long to go abroad and inform myself of that 
which occnpiet my thonghts." The king issued a mandate throegboat 
his kingdom, that wherever the prince should go, the roada and the straeta 
should be swept and watered, that perfumts ihould be burnt, and tapetuiea 


•^a tugs ttid auMpics b«Bg "P« The order waiciecatcd; dl wm pnriflcd 
wmd adoiMd. The priBee, attended kj a thouand ebariott and a tbovsand 
koiaeaieB, went forth from tlie town by the eaitem gate. Then a god 
of the daee of Sntrae, aancd Mn iki Ae fe, to confirm the prince the 
choice of a idigions career, and to help him in emancipating himaeir from 
dcrifceinflanMd liho three poiwnona firet in the ten parti, ahowcicd down 
the water of the law to exttngttifh these empoisoned flamee. Heacoordbgl^ 
transfenrnd hunaelf into an aged man, and sat down hy the roadside ; bia 
heed whites Us teeth fallen away; his sldnllaocid and his face wrinkled ; his 
flesh dried np I his beck bent; the articaUtions of his frame prominent; tho 
^es wateiy; his nostrils ranning ; his breathing short and difficnU { his skm 
darkcnsd { his head and hands trembling ; his frame and membeii emaciated 
mid shaky I defommd and naked, he exhibited Ussself set np in this place, 
noprmesssked, «<Whois thisman?" *• He is an old sssn," replied th» 
attendants. •• And what is an old man ?" agafai asksd the prince. **ltis 
one who hath Ufod many yesrs, whose orgsns are worn ovt, wbose form is 
chnged, whoee colour hath faded, whoee resplraticn is feeble^ whose strength 
is eihsnsfed He no longer digests what he eete. His joints become worn 
•nil if he wonld lie down or sit, he cannot do so withont the assistance of 
others* His eyee are dim, his ears dnll. In tnming ronnd, he Ibrgets all. 
If he speak, it is to complain or sMram. This is what we call an old man I" 
no distressed prinee replied: ''If man,bybeiogboraiB tho world, asthns 
cJipseed to the wretcfaednem of old sge, none bnt fools wonld desire to bo 
eol What satisfiwtion is there in it ? Beinp that are bom in springtioM, 
drynpandwHberin antnaui and winter ! Old ege cobms Kko a Ughtniog. 
ieshs whst is there that shonld attach ns to the body f" And ho nttered 
thofeOowingfeOo/ **Byold ege the colonr becomee fiided and losee its 
the sUb rdazes, and the beck becomes bent i death approaches 
ns. In old sge the body changes and may be compared to 
an dd chariot. Tho law can expel this battsnem. Oar whole strength 
shonld be applied to stady the mesns of snIgectiBg onr desiree. Whoa 
the dsfsead the idghts era ended, wo shonM bo diligent and reeolate. In* 
stability is the reality of the worid. If every Ibcnlty be not applied to it, 
woftU inlodarfcnees. Stady most light tho lamp of the spirits let ns of 
onisdfis ehoooe and foOow knowledge and avoid every nadeennees. CoSi* 
tnotnofanpnrity. Take tho torch, end csMBhw the worid and the doctriao.'* 
I than tnmsd his chariot and went book. His sorrow hidreased 
IS and tho pdn ho oiporieBCod In tUnUnf th^ all withont ox* 
avi snkjeet to Ola grevioo misfortno. depiivod him of mmf 
Tho hhif adMd of the allndttiti whviffm Hm ptteM ite hod 
t 3 

198 ' nusmtiiAOx or'M'HiAir* 

^■t jmiUmbA fcgiiicmniwilwJioqpiAlyiitiiadI? tk&ft 
tlMt«»fte mdlM IttdfUkaiAwldlMiaged bmb, tte ilglit^^f vhM w 
•fflietcd Uiit Ami mC being able to ojej any pleMnrv, 1m tetwaeatetlM 
pelaeey and d b tr ciic d biauelf witb tbe tboosht of loagerltj. 

«*Sbortly. after be would again go fortb. Tbe king canMd p«bBah< 
tbrongbont tbe kfaigdom that the prince would again go abread, and feibnde 
that any fonl or indeeent object abenld be fonnd on tbe roods. - Tbe-piinee 
then aaeendedbii chariot and iwned by tbe aontb gate of tbo town. Tbe* 
god eonnterfeited a aiek anan and stood by tbe way-side. His body waa 
caadated and bis belly swollen np. His skin ydlow and Cprered. Ho 
covgbed andi groaned. He bad pains in all bia jointa. Vhrtn bis nino 
oriftces issned a bloody liquid. His eyes distfangnisbed no eolows. His 
ears beard no soond^. His breathing was short. His ba&ds and feel 
Btragglcd with enpty space. He called lus ISitber and bis asothcry and clai« 
grieTonily to bis wife and bis son. Tbe prince demanded, VHj^o h this ?" 
Tbe attendants replied, «• It is a sick man/' Tbe prince again asked, *' And 
what is a iick man V ** Man, they replied, is formed of the f([rttr dcBMnts,- 
earth, water, fire, and air. Erery element hath a hundred andtme asaladiea' 
that follow each other aaccetsirely. When the four hundred and feuf^ 
maladies are produced together, an extreme cold, an extreme Iteat, an extreaaa- 
hunger, an extreme aatiety, an extreme thirst, and extreme ouencliing are 
experienced; all tioMa being disturbed, the vicissitude of sieepifkud waking 
is lost ; and it b thus that he bath got thia sickness." The |rinee sighed*, 
and ssid i " I sm in the ridieat and most prosperons condition^ such as the 
world honors. Meat and drink abound for my mouth. I can yield myself np 
to my caprices, and iHien no longer able to exercise my understanding upon 
myself, I shall ttXL sick too. What difference will there then he betwixt tbia 
asan and me ?" He then pronounced thia githi : " How Ml a thbg ia 
the body t It is formed of four elements and hath nine impure and die* 
gostiag orifices. It is subject to tbe torments of old sge ijnd sickness { 
eren when bom again among the gods it is subject to instability. Bom. 
among men, it is scouiged with dis e ases. I regard the body as a drop oC 
rain ! What aatisfoetion is there in the world ?*' Then the prince returned 
to bis palace, pondering bow without exception all are snbje^ to grierons 
misfortune. The king enquired of the attendants bow the prinpe felt bhnself 
during the promenade ? They replied that having fallen in with a sick man, 
the sight would long deprive tbe prince of all happiness. 
. " Shortly afterwards, he would go forth sgain. The king issued nn. 
edict to the effect that when tbe prince should go abroad, the iround sbovUI 
be cleared and no impurity ihould come near his ro**te. Heiiiued by tbi^ 


wmUn gate off tbe town. The god transffonned himiicll ia a corpse wbieb • 
thej were eanyiag ovt of the town. The rebtifet of the dcoeaaed followed 
the ^r^ide aohbing and weeping » eomplalning to heaven off their lots and 
•tcml acparation. The prinoe asked,*' What is this?'* They leplied,. 
•* It ia a eorpae/' The fformer again asked* ** And what ia that ?'* The 

> lepUed, ** It ia the end. The aonl hath departed. The ffow 
I are nowabont to dissipate. The sensitife aonl and the spirit, 
beipg no longer in eqailibrnun, the air passes awaj and entirdj ceases, the 
ire ia ertingnished, and the body beeomca cold. Air hating departed first, 
and afterwards fire, the sonl and the vnderstanding disappear. The mem*, 
bera elongate and stiffen. There ia nothing more to recognise. At the 
end off ten daya the flesh decaya, the Uood flows, the belly swells, pntri- 
fics, and becomes iBtid; there b nothing thereto take. The body b fillcdi 
with woma which deronr it. The ncrrea and the Teins are destroyed by 
putrdkctaon ; the articnbtiona are diqointed and the bonea dupersed. The* 
aknU goca one way, the spine, the ribs, the arms, the legs, the ffcet and 
banda, each another. The birds that fly, the beasts that walk, assemble 
to deronr them. Gods, dragons, demons, genii, emperors and kings, 
people, the poor, the rich, the nobb, the pkbeian,— none are exempt 
fpoaa thb calamity." The prince gate a long sigh, and said in Terse,. 
**When I contemplate old age, sickness and death, I groan over hnmaa« 
4iffe and ita instability 1 It b even so in my own person. Thb body b n^ 
pcrishabb thing; bnt the sonl hath no fform. Under the fidse semblancot 
off death, it b re-bom I Its crimes and its good works are not disperacd.. 
It b not a singb generation that comprises iu beginning or its end. Ita* 
deration b prolonged by ignorance and lost. • It b thence that it obtained 
glkff aad joy. Thongb the body die, the sonl perisheth not.. It b not 
ether, it b not in the sea, it entereth not into monntains and rocks. 
Then b no place in the world where thereb exemption Crom death.'* There*' 
npQB the prince tnmed hb chariot and proceeded back to the palace, pon* 
dcffing sadly how all living beinga are sobject to old age, sickness, and death. 
He waa so distressed that he cat none. The king enqnired iff the prince 
had beca cheertnl dnring hb cxcnrsion. They answcfcd that he fell in. 
with n Inncnl and hath Imd np sadnesa ffor aevcral yeaiB. 

Alittkwhib,andagahihedcsiredto go abroad, andhb beantilel eha. 
riot boned by the northern gate. Tlie god ag^ tiapsfbraMd hlssselff and 
bocasae n Sassanean. He had the coatome off the Uw, canned n bsfginK. 
fot, and walked aCool, considering caieffnlly and net caadng. hb look% 
aside. The prince eiifnired, «*Who b thatnusi?'* They'anawcnd,««A 

!•'' ^^AndwhalbataMBcaB?" <*8t«iBcauar«thMewhopffaetke 


tiM dUolffaM m4 ^tlMpr hMMi,tiMirwif«t,Mi4tWf ddUfM. IWr 
iMMMt all tmim tetowi tlMj Mppmi th* ris sffMOMM; tkff •b- 
Mfff« 'th« ptteapU, nA by q«i0t»d«, iMviiig attiiiMdttfaBpliatj orbMrt, 
cztii^vUi an faapwity. Ha tliat piaetiaea tiaplkity af iMart, b^daoa- 
■loated .^IrAaa. Tha ilrtoi itthetraanMa. Soaada andcolafacaaBot 
aaU biai. Raak canaat piavaU with Um. Hr ia isMMvaUa aa. Om^ 
wrtk. Ha ia daltvarad from afflicCioa and paia. lAdag ar dead, haia 
anaatar af . liiBittIf/' Tha priaea asclaiaad, •• Row aseaHaat I t)Mf«iaii» 
btppiiiMt lika thial" Ha thaa pronaanaad a Gdikm. ilgBilTiaf, ••Ok 
griflfl ha wha poMevca tUa Ufo of afliedoa ia aalijeet to tha paiat of old 
age, af nckiMtay and af daath. Tha loal ratami to tha toad oC aia and 
dpcriaaoca all maaaar of paiafol agitatlona. Nerarthdcta it 'may eztiii- 
gttiih all avflla ; birth, old aga, liekoesa, aad daath ara drivaa aw^y ; enter 
BO mora upoa tba cirela of tha alEwtioBa and obtain eternal idVation by 
eztiaetion." Tharaupoii tha prinea caoaed hia ehariot to ba taraad, and 
went back lo aad that ba waa naable to cat. - Iha king anqalred of hii at- 
tendanta* •• Tha Priaoe hath ban onea mora abroad ; ara hia tfiiriti aaofa 
chcarfal ?*' Tha attaadante anawered— •• On tha road he met a Sbnanaaa, 
wha hat xadottblad hit tadneia and hia contemplatiTe diapoaitioa* JQe thinka 
naithar of aMat nor of drink/' At tbia tha king became ▼fa>leatly enrtfed, 
and railing hia handa, imota hiaaaelf. Ha renewed the interdietiip against 
■tadying tha doctrine, and commanded thai if the prince again weftt abroad, 
rtary oaa of evil angnry whom ha ihonld fidl in with ahanld ba pvnisbcd 
or pnt to death. He then conToked hia miniatera, and comnmndelthem to 
deliberate on tha beet meena of preventiag tha prince from going fcrth in 
qnest of the doctrine."* These then ara what thi BaddhisU caU the Jour 
rtmiiUei recognised by Sikja Moni, when ittniag from the gatea of tha 
town s namely, old aft, aiehun, dMA, and tha final lUtfala/ion of tha 
a/aait a/ ike tedf/.— KL 

(6) /a ik§pUc€8 wUre A <.— >Tha Tha tan, celled by Chiaese anthora 
^ j, is in Sanscrit HM^* ttg^mtwi, or tha aaaetle who leada an aastere life* 
It is ander thia name thai there ia mention of hia iisit to tha iaiant Bnddha 
in aTery cnriona inscription in tha Magah langnage, foond in a cava near 

A it orTapaavi Mnoi. ia, according to Georgi, called TVaiy ''*"^ f'<^ P^ 

(• tha gieafc man whoiacta accordbig to tha doctrine') in Tibeta^ worka. 

(Thia aged hermit ia described in a legend which is scarce worth repetition 

here, aa baring recogniaad tha Urth of Bnddha by anper aatnral signa, and 

• Skint tmn,B.hXX. ^ 

t ii*. RefmrrWi, U. p. 383. 


proceeded by flight ftom a dtsUnt solitude to the Royal palace. He there 
beholds the child, tad described all the bodily perfections which were svp* 
posed to have distingvished the Buddha. The legend is estracted from thfl 
ekim i iimm, B. LXXVIII. pp. 17^19 v.-^. W. L. 

(7) Drew the tev.— The Japanese Chronology places this CYeat in the 
Tear Koud hai, which is the 60th of the XXXVth cycle, or 1018 B C. 

On the oeeasien of the marriage of Siddhdrim with the princess Kieom l» 
the king Pe Mng directed Yieou tko to intimate to the prince that he must 
publicly eihibit his rare talents. *' Yeou iko haTlng receifcd this order* 
proceeded to intimate to the prince that tha king wishing to hare immediate 
proof of the prince's knowledge of the rites and of music, he must forthirith 
proceed to the theatre. The prince then proceeded with Yeou ik9 (Udi)^ 
Nem tko (Nanda.) Udm file (Deradatto), A SMm (Ananda), and others to 
tha number of 500, baring in their hands all the necessary utensils for the 
litesy instruments of music, and the requisites for the practice of archery* 
As they were about to issue from the town, there stood an elephant before 
die gate* The powerful Thiao th4 happened to be in advance, and seeing 
tha dephaat on the road, struck him a blow with his fist, so that the 
dcphant fcU down stone dead in an instant. Nan tho immediately drew 
him aside out of the way. The prince, who followed* asked of his attendanU 
•• Who has killed this dephant without an object ?" They replied •• Thiao 
thi killed him." •• Who drew him aside ?" •• Nan tho." The Bodhisattwa, 
endowed with a compassionate heart, dragged the dephant and raised him 
up outside the town* The elephant was raised from death and restored to 
life as before. Thiao th£ baring arrired at the theatre attacked the atb* 
Ictes; not one eftheseoould resist him. All the most famous wrestlers were 
overthrown and put to shame. The king enquired of his attendants* 
•* Who is this conqueror ?" They replied, TAieo ihd. The king then sdd 
to Nau tho» ** Thou and Thiao tha must wrestle together." Nan tho baring 
reedved the command, dosed with Thiao thi and handled him so that he 
became quite insensible. He recovered by degrees on bdag sprinkled with 
water. The king again asked who was the conqueror, and was informed 
that Nan tho waa he. The king then oommanded Nan tho to wrestle with 
the prince I but Ksa tho replied, •• Hy dder brother is like mount Sumerut 
and I bat a grain of mustard seed ; I am not hia match," and withdrew* 
«icudag himsdi. Neat eame the trid of archery* First an iron target 
was placed at the distaaee of 10 li* and so on to seven targets* The 
Aafis of die Bsost renowned archers went do further than the first targeL 
TUao tha having diawn, shot beyond it and reached the second. Nan tho 
^wpasscd tUa* and pierced through the third. The other arefaen bdaf 

2<^ VtLOMlfAGV OF FA HUK. •• < 

wiaVtetotlMOlMf^,ilie|iriBMVrolwaUtlMlMiirtof Umm «lw IumI ilKit 
befoff* lii« ; MtoM was cqval to liit ttrmstb. TIm khif llm i^ to Uh 
•ttcadants, *• My Mwcttora poncsMJ a bow wblcb b now in tbo tenple of 
tWgodti go, bring U." ' Tb<y went to fetcb tbo bow, wbicb ra^iind two 
men to cnnry. No mm in tbatMtenbly eould liftH. 1¥ben |)m prince 
flbol with it, the twang of the itring waa heard forty H. Tbe^t bow 
htarled the abaft ao aa to pata thnMgh tbeaeteo targeta. ' He alMt again, and 
the anow liaving peased the targett piereed Um earth and cansed a spring 
of water to gnsh forth. At the third tliot 1m piereed the aeren tpgeta and 
reached the BMMiataina of the iroii girdle. The whole aatemblySrondered 
at tliia nnlMaid of prodigy. AU who had eouMto partalw in the tporU 
were orereoBM, and retamed eonfovnded. There waa still the. m»f ^ 
Sirwuf Jtf^m, who came laat of all. Hia atrenglh was extreaw : nothing in 
the whole world conld anrpaaa hb conrage and ferocity. He pretended tbat 
Thiao tha and Nan tlM were no natebes for him, and thai he wonld only 
mcesnre hb atrcngth with the priaee. All who had lieen conqne^ longed 
for aoBM one to nvcnge them i they leapt for joy, and laid to the King 
of Strong Men, ** Prince, as yonr strength b incomparable in the world, 
come and prove it, and bear'olT the vbtory.'* Themselres, highly delight- 
cd, followed to aasbt in hia engageasent with the prince. Thbo tba and 
Nan tho animated the courage of the btter, and wonld theoMelTca have tSr»t 
combattcdthe King of Strong Men, but they 8idd,**Tlii« is ^t haman' 
strength ; it b tliat of the demon of death. If thon triamph not, Qb prince,* 
what disgrace will be yonrs!'* The king learning thb, deemed the prince 
too young, and from habitual sadneaa, too delicate. All who caiAe to assbt 
at the light, apoke of the asonMnt aa eonae when the prince waa to be vui- 
qaiabed. The King of Strong Men stamped the earth with hb foot, and 
boldly raised kb arms and alretchcd forward hia bands.' He advanced to 
seise tbe prince ; bat in that instance the latter canght him and threw him 
to tbe groand. The earth trembled. The entire assembly dbpersed, more 
confoanded than before, and suddenly disappeared. The prince having thus 
obtained complete vktory, tbe bcUs were rang, the dranss beaten, and 
amidst vocal and lastramental masie he moanted his horse and retamed to 
the pabce."*— R. 

(8) Wkere /W Mmimed iht ibcf rtne.— The Japanese chronology, entitled 
ITc Am Ame /e /en aen fmkf ean— no Isen placea thb event in the year 
Aenei wei, wbbh b the 20th of the XXVII. cycle, corre«pondifig with the 
4 th of the reign of Mon wang of the dynasty of the Chou, and -998 B. C. 
Baddha was then in hb twenty-ninth year. Tlie Mongol history of tianany 
• bhhi i Ham, U. LX.VVII. pp. *2I -*2:). v. 

niAPTRR XXII. 203 

Setttm stale* that ** in the year Piny of tlie Ape, Baddlia attained kit twenty- 
mnth year, and being lirforc the Iraly holy tower, Im, of hit own free will 
cmlNBoed the eccletiattic condition.*'* 

The Fm ynmn ekm /in tayt ; *• The pUce where the Tath^gaU (Jon lai) ob- 
tained the doctrine, it in the kingdom of Ifo JHe tko (Magadha) under a Pk»m 
iki tree (Dodkit lUiukimm tc&ndent)^ where a tower haa been erected.— Kl. 

(9) Fhe kwndred tomt of ike Suijfmg. — i|li|||, Sakya, b the name of 
that tribe or family of Sakya Mnni, bckmging to the Kshatria catte. Ac 
cording to Bnddhitt traditions, thlt race deacenda from /iitraiai, n prince 
•f the aolar line and founder of the royal raee of Ayodhya, or Oode. The 
■ame however doei not api*ear in the genealogical lists of llindoi, aa that 
cither of a tribe or of a people. M. Ksoma de Korus hat given the following 
catract on this tnbjcct from the 2Cth Vol. of that division of the Kdk gkywr 
•amed mOa.f ** They aoeordiagly met, and elected one for their matter and 
proprietor of their kindt, and for the arbitrator of their controversiet, saying 
to him ; " Come, animal being, pnnbb from among nt those that are to be 
punished, and reward those with a gill that merit to be remunerated ; from all 
the products of our lands we will pay you a certain rate, accordingly to a 
rule.** Aftcrwanis on both sides, they did aceordiuglj. Since he waa carried 
(or honoured) by a great multitude of auimal beingSv he waa called 
«rq*crvtl'qX*XT iUaa^-JMt bter-Mi/ Sanscrit, Mmki Smmmmimp 
" Honoured by many." 

Ce»/cm«ff / At the time of MmJkd SeMMa/e* man |raa calfed by this aame, 
•• Animal being." ' ? 

[The following live leuTea (from 171— >175} are occupied with an enume- 
futioii of the descendants of Mara SAWf ata down to Karka (li*1X*'24^} 
aX PelelB (^'Q^l^ Gm-hdUn^ the harbour.) He had two sons, Gotama 
and BaARADBWAJA (T. rBTe-eu-eiken.) The former took the religioua 
character* hut Os/eme bong afterwarda aeeused of the murder of a harh>t« 
wan nnjusUy impaled at FelaiB, and the latter succeeded to hb lather. He 
dying without isBue» the two sons of Gotama faiherit, who were bom in a 
prastcr-natural manner ; from the dieusastaaces of their birth, they and their 
dtsesndanfs afueslled liy several names i as, Wi'^TI'^^ r«n.lsf-e,J^ .- 
(«. Ai^ifusa,) q*«r*^^4; 1^J^««**««^ («• Surya Vinsa.) Gautama, 
ftiT ;^'«J *•*«• MiM^, («. Ukhwaku,) One oC tho 

> GmkiAuSermt Mmt^atem, ^ 13. 

204 moEiif AGS ov va biait. 

two bfotlMft dlM wIthMt iMM^tlie •llMriciKaf «Ba<rllMi mmmoTIbbr- 

*' To Mm Mieeecdt bit aoo* wboM dMeeodaots (mm hoadrad) oftcnrards 
raeectthrdy rdgn at To/di (^ *Q^^) OraubAlw. Tlie lail of whom wu 
g*Xir*^C;*l^ QS'q^'gV*^': Il»liwdc« Vinidhaka,(or Vidai^ka.) He 

hM fom toot. »rx.*ir^Q-«IV?, ^^% 9^*^'^ibQS<99 «Hl/ic;'«i5. 
ZI'^S'l. After tbe death of hia ftnl wifa* ha narriaa apfai. Ha obtaiaa 
tha dang htcr of a king, andar the eonaiOoii thai ha ihall giva the throaa to 
the ton that ihaU be boro of that prinoett. By the eoDtriTanaa of the chief 
officeiay to make room for the joong prineato toeeeMioD, the king orUers 
the ezpalsion of hia foar mmu. 

** Tbej taking their own sistera with then, and accom|ianied bj a great mnl. 
titnde, leave Ppimim (^ *Q^^), go towarda tha Himalaja, aadVeaching the 
bankofthaHAa^iniMi river (VQ|*^4*^C%*$) Mttie there, not far front 

the hmrmitaga of Capila the RUki (^C;'^c;*^rX*2fQ*?'^4N), end Ura 
in hate made of the branchea of trees. Tbej live there on hnating ; and 
lomcdmei they visit tlie hermitage of Capila the Rbhi. He observing them 
to look very Ul, asks them why they were so pale* They tell hip how moch 
they snlTer on aceonnt of their restraint or cootineaee. He advises tliem to 
leave their own uterine sisters, and to tike themselves (to wife) aaeh ss are 
not bom of the same mother with them. O great Rishi ! said the princes. 
Is it convenient for as to do this ? Yes, Sirs, answered the R^thi, baaUhrd 
princes may act in this way. Therefore, taking for a rale the advice of the 
Rislu, thejT do accordingly, and cohabit with their non-nterina sisters, and 
have msny children by them. The noise of them befaig inoanvenieat to th^ 
Rishi In his meditation, he wishes to change hia habitation. Bat they btf< 
him to remun in kia own place, and to design for them any mhar gronnd* 
He therefore marks them ont the place where they shonld bnUd a town : 
since tie ground was given to them by Capila, they eslled the new dry 
CapihtattM. They maliiply there exceedingly. The goda seeing their great 
number, show them anotl^r place for their aettlcment. They^^uild there a 
town, and call It by the name of ^^*17V4 i^e^^bslan, (shown by a god.) 

** Remembering the cause of their banishment, they make it a law, that no 
one of them hereafter shall marry a second wife of the same tribe, but that 
he ahall be contented with one wife. 

**At PoMm (iQQl^) the king iKanwAKU VimvoRAKA, recollecting 
that he had four sons, asks hia ofScers, what has become of them. They tell 
him, how for some offence His Majesty had espelled them, and how tbi^y 


M letflcd in tlie leiglibovlMMd of tiie liimdimpm. and thai Uiey bave Uken 
thdr ovn aisten for ibdr wifca, and bave been mnch mnltipUed. The kias» 
beiniT nnch aupriaed on hearing thu* czelaiaa aeferal tioMa : SMdkfm A 
««iay«/ Iiit|NMd*ile! bitpoanblel (or O daring 1 O dariqc !) 1^^*SJ 
jnftaiT-jM, aad tbia U the origin of the iSAtf^yn name. 

*• Aftertbe death oriKaRWAKvVimuDHAKA, ^*X.4|*^C;q«Q^C|^*^. 

^14 9t Foidm, ancceeda bb yonnger ion fiOT $^* ^^% Wmi-snd dgkm, 
(he that derifca to reign). On hia dying withont ehDdrctt» the banUhed princra 
■neeearivdy inherit. Ibe three fint have no iaaoe ; theaon of ^C;*«)5q'^^ 
94%n the fourth prinee» is, Gtey-h/e^, Bj^N'Q^'l. HU aon ia S*W 
Hia deteendanta to the nomber of 55,000 baTO reigned at Ct^ilmtwtt: [An 
. cnnaBerOioo of the prinees who reigned at Pe/ele after InaBWAKU foOowa, 
which la indentieal with the fiat In Sanskrit avthoritiea ; the namea being 
tianilated into Tibetan aooording to their literal meauing ; as jfiar Afeila <5iam« 
l afe, Afeay^et b^ar-ra, greatly hononred, &c"] 

'* Heie ends the narration of Moncalyaxa. Sha'kta approTea and re* 
cwnnimda It to the priesta.*' 

We are indebted to M. E. Bomonf, for the subjoined extract firoas the 
Mahhvansa* or History of the great family, a work of more than twelre 
thouaand alokaa. In the Kli language. It contama a history of the royal 
laattly from which Sikya aprung,— an exposition of bia doctrine and wor- 
ahip«— «nd a liat of such Indian and Ceylonese aovereigna aa have most 
rfectailly eontributed to propagate the religion of which be ia the rceog* 
■iaed head. Thia paaaage la in perfeet conformity with the eitract from 
Oe Kik fkjfwr given above, afnd with the genealogy of SakyaMuni aa detail- 
ad in Chinese worka. 

(I here aabstitute Mr. Tunour'a English vclrsioB, for that given in Latin 
by M. Bucnouf.— J. W. L.) 

** There were eighty-two thousand so? eieigns, the sona and lineal do* 
a re m i s nt s of Mug Sibaasafo,— the laat of these waa Jayaaeao. These were 
cekbrated ia the capital of Kapillawatthu, as Sakya Unga. 

Urn grmt king, Sihahanu waa the aon of Jayaa^no. The daughter of 
Jayaaeao waa named Yasddaiu. In tha dty of Oewadaho them waa u 
Safcya ruler aaased Dewadaho. Uato him two childfeo» Anjaao and Kach. 
cftAnu.w«ubofa. TUa Kachdina beeaam the queen of king Sihahaaa. 

Ta thoMtyu Anjaao the afofcaaldYaaddarii beeameqaeca. ToAai«M 
erabetat M&yi aad Paj^lpaU; aad twta loaa of the Sakya 

296 PII.GS1XA4X' or FA -HIAK. 

IW SdMiHM ive MM amdl Urn iamiUuu iMra >tinij Kii<A^iwa, 
Pbotadito, IfciHfrfdw, (OfcHtit6dMw) mi4 A»it6aM» j AmIU ttd Piuiiite; 
tboMtve,tlNM tiMw Totte 8<k7« SappubdUOio, Airfte beoipt fiMa. 
SabbaddakvAAIUumA Devadatta wm ter dbprbf • 

Mi j£ m4 FiMptU botk aqMllj beeuM th* co«Mtte oT 8>ddli6J«w. 
ptm YAM%vtMmMM was Um aoa of tha Blahtnja SmWlWtdmB pad Miylu 
ThM tha gml dif Im Mg« watt ia a diieet line, d ea c ca dad frw^tlM Maha 
Samaiabo face,Uwpiiiiiacla af all wiyal dyimlica,''* 

(10) A n^m ph9 Up^Upmtt in SaaacrU.) It 4g«ifiaa*<i9wHai(; AmuT/ and 
aeeording tooClwn,*Atirilaitaltoiil«iitf ^reifraai.' It ia ttii aaaM of 
tha aiath aT Uie ten gnat diadplea aT Foe. White tha latCar tma priaca 
Yeaa pbo U waa aaliialy dafotad to hia paraon, aad bad apacialeharge of 
bia affuia. After aaibradac BMmaatte life, be obferred tlie ^leeepta and 
waa a nodal to alL On that account ha la called •Mt>li'«laAMr»tre^fAe 
jrrceqilff.'— KL 

(11) TrmMed Ai air afayt.— Refeieaea ia bare aaade to the gieat earth* 
qaake whicb happened at the Urth of Foe, and which waa felt in ail the 
JCiJIeaict of the three thoaaand grand chiliocoama* The BnddUaU admita aiz 
■BOBMnta In an earthqnaSce t the beginning of the motion, the angmentation 
of ita intenaity, the orerflowiDg of the watery the trae qnaking, the noiae 
it occaaiona, and the vibration which followa.t 

The Baddhitta aiaert that there are eight cauaca of earthqaakca : 
let. They are pcodoced by watcr,ftre and air. According lb the aaered 
booka, Jaaabndwfp ia 21,000 yojanaa in length froaa north to aoath ; from 
caat to west 7,000 ; and ita thickneaa 68,000 yojanaa. BenuTlh the earth 
to the depth of 40,000 yojanaa ia water % beneath the water fire to the depth 
of 87,000 y«janaa. Beneath the fire there b a bed of air, or wind, €8,000 
yojanaa thick. Beneath thia air, there ia a wheel of ate^ in the centre of 
which are the Mtrhrm (reliqaea) of all the peat Bndidhaa. tf there be a great 
wind, it agitatea the fire s the fire, the water % and the water cotamanicatea 
the motion to the earth. And thia. ia the earthqnake oecaaioaed by water, 
fire, and ur. 

2d. Earthqaakea are occaaioned by the entrance of the Bodhiaattwaa into 
the womba of thdr motheri. When the Bodhiaattwaa, about to be Incar- 
nate to become Baddbaa, dcicend from tlie hcaTcn TWAifa, a(d proceed to 
eieoapy anpematnrally the womba of their motliera, there happen great 

* Jir«AaiMai«,traBstatedbyTanMMir,|i.9. 

t litfiui yea lung fm «•«, quoted ia Smn Um»g /« smi, B. XXVII. p. 24. 


Sil. Eartliqaakefl bappca when Bodhisattwas isfae from the vouhi of 
their molhen. 

4th. Earthqvakes happen when Bodhisattwaa accompUih the law. The 
Bodhinttwaa haYing quitted their homea to embraee aaonaatic life, and haT- 
iBf atndied reaaon, beeome that pure inteUigenoe without mperior, naaaed a 
JBmddJkm heirngs the earth then qnalcea with great violence. 

5th. When the Bnddhaa enter nirTina, there are alao great earthqnahea. 

6th. There are earthqnakea when the hkikthmB or rdigiona mendicanta 
dcnre to avail themaelrea of their anpematnrallacnltiea. The lacnd hooka 
•tale that tiiere are hhikahna endowed with great anpematnral powera, and 
ahle to effect different kinda of metaoMMrphoaea. They can dtfide a aingio 
body into n hnndred thonaand othert, and can agafai rednoe theae to n 
afa^leones fly throvgh apace without ohatmetion from hill or rock ; plrnigo 
into water.; aad penetrate the earth. In all inch caaea there are great 

7th. Th^ earth alao qnakea when the goda qnit their primitiTe form and 
b ecB w na maatera o^ heaven {Tkimm din). Tlie aacred hooka atate that there 
are goda who have great anpematnral and infinite virtae. When their lilo 
la ended they are rebon ai — w h ere, and by the vurtne and power of Baddhoy 
they qait their previaaa Ibna and beooaM lndra<7V a Ap) or Biahm ( Am 

8th. When there ia a fambe, or a great war aboat to happen ; for then 
the life of Uvingbeinga, or their happineaa meat end; ahice they fight and 
aipoee theaaadveato tlie aword.*— Kl. 

■ (12) T^eateaqfaaenpiteli^ffenf ii«li,lnSan8eritSaBglnUi,iBtha 
aMntla or cowl of Baddhiat aacetiea. (See page 93, note 10.) 

(13) M Aeen Umg the Chiaeae tranaeription of the Saaacrit «|^f Njw* 
frd»a, icaa iadicaw— KL 

(14) DeHnped ilUJmmlp q^^aiyw.*— See noU 36, Chap. XX. 
(U)riltr«nitq/'«iySMewen,inSanaeritq||)i|m,ScMipaaBat itiathe 

■aaaeof thofint daaaof theSr£vakaa,or hearen of Baddha. Itmcaae, 
aecetdfaig to the Chiaeae, «< thoae who are leeared againat the carreat (of 
thaiaxefwofldlybeiaga).** It b however tranaUCad in Tibetan r,OJUMM 
Aewioof At Ma (thoea who enter every wheia)«-*XL 
(1<) ITafeAcd lie Uenrartw— When tte pilaaa Siddhaitowaa retamiac 
I towaida tlM faar gatea of the towB» •• OM of Ua felhcr^a 
I to ahowhiaithoopeffationiof agfkaltaia»ta difeirtUa 
riiidfi«Mthoth«i^aaof thodoetiiaa. ABawMrofagiiQaltafaliB]^ 

• naiivy^'bttJbfag,qaeledaatha&aliaag/oeea,B»XLI.p»96L 

208. piLGsniAOK or vahiak. 

ipfvviMT, plovglM. Ma«ly«vfwcl»«itifqairfl»t M^ tte'i^^ 
«laalt. aeeomiMiiicd bj ivferior offieera, pfocwdcd to a CcM m4 begvi to 
worik Tlie priMeMt wider a/MHitrw mdwitdMdtlMik iBdiggfais 
the aoa they tuMdvp tome worms. The god ilTea lAf ib !•• by b norrl 
meUmorpheeitt cteied the ox who went along raieiiif the lod^tp make them 
fall back again; a erow came to peek and cal them np. Thopod farther 
nuide a toad appear, that looght o«t and swallowed them i then a serpent 
with tortnona folds casw firom a hole and deronred the toad. A peacock 
stooped in his flight and pecked the serpent ; a falcon nest s^sed and de- 
vourpd the peaeock ; finally a.mltnre fell npon the faleon and eat it np. 
The BodhiiiatfVra seeing all these beings mntnally deronring each otlier, felt 
hi:* compassionate heart mof ed, and nnder the tree where he was seated^ 
attained the iirst degree of contemplation. The sun was shining in fall 
splendor ; the tree cnnred its branches to shadow the person of the Bcdhisat. 
twa. The king, pondering how in his palace the prince had nerer yet espe- 
rteneed toy sorrow, enqnired of his attendants how he was ? '* He is eren 
now, replied they, nnder the tree /amfo, his whole heart fixed In contem* 
plation." <• I will immediately see him/' letnmed the king ; •« my thoughts 
are tronbled ; for if he yields himself np to contemplation, how different 
will that be to hit sojoara la the piUace !" The king called for his beanti. 
fU chariot, and proceeded to the prince. In approaching the latter, whoso 
body was resplend^t with dirine Instre, he behehl him protected by the 
cured branehea of the tree. He alighted firom his horse, sainted him, and 
returned with his snite. He had not yet reached the gatea of the dty when 
Innnmerable thousands baring presented perfomes, the astrologers proclaim • 
cd the praiiea of the bdng whote life must hare been immense^ The king 
enquired the cause of these acclamations ; the BrahmacharSa responded, 
** To-morrow, oh great king, at the rising of the mn, the acfcn precious 
things will be dellrered to you. Good fortune and felicity will make you 
the holy king I*' At this moment the prince returned to the palace, ever 
ezdnsirely occupied with thoughts of the doctrine and its purity, which 
required him to abandon lay life and retire to the woods! and asoun. 
tains, there to search deeply into lubtle things and to practise contempla- 
Uon."— Kl.* 

(17) lle«rv Me name ^f Ltm mny.— In Chinese Bnddhist works the 
name of the garden Is transcribed Lnnf mtf nt snd Lmm pi mi. |t is explain, 
ed by Kiat f Ao cAAu, L e. • the pbuw exUtent of itself without obstacle or 
hindrance.' I And the sanse term eiplahied also Pho h thi amn cAAo, in 
Sanscrit ^<t(l|lit ^» Pmridki m4Hka, that is to say, * txlrtm» fUrmmi 
• Chuiu i liaa, B. L\N Vll. p. *28. 


hemiiiude/ Kim M^profierly ngalfica 'tobdp anyone to ftToid miffor* 
tnae/ This garden is alao called ITet mi. See p.— Kl. 

(18) Tk9 £«4r.— In Chinese /Iw /in; Um tille generally givea to tte 
■oCbernfBnddha.— KK 

(19) 2We Mm99^ik9if99tuwnh9d iUf lei^.— The following legend 
gifea an neeonatofthe deUfery of Hahft Bttyi and the birth of Sttyn 

««liahd V&y4 went forth to walks ahe paned throngh mnmtndeaoC 
people and aeated heradf beneath a tree. (This was an iliete, Jbncttn 
mmktu) The flowers began to blow and a brilliant star appealed. Tho' 
Xodjp supporting hcrsdf by a braneb of tbe tree bronght forth the child 
iroBi her right side. At birth the chfld fell to the gronnd and walked seven 
etepes thenstopt, snd raising ite hand, <*In the heaTcn and below tho 
heaven/' said he, "there is none honorable but I. All is bitterness in tho 
three worids, and it is I that shall sweeten this bitterness.*' 

AtthisBMaBentthehearenaandthe earth tieabled violently, and all the 
Kdunaa in the three great chiliocoinis wers illnminated by n brilliant light. 
India, Brahau, the fonrUnga of heaven, with all their aaite and their snb- 
ject gods, the dragons, the genii, the Yakshaa, tho Gandharvas, tho Asnras, 
cane together to encirde and proteet tho new-born. Two brother-kings 
of tho dragons, one named Kim Is, the other Ken kim Is, cansed a ahower 
of water to fill on him, warm on the left ride and cool on the right. Indm 
nd Brahma held ■ celestial robe in which they wrapped him. Theheavenn 
ahow er ed down odorilcrons flowersi the sonnd of mnsical Instranents was 
heard ; and every variety of perfame was shed in profasion, filllig the snr- 

Tho Xodjf , holding the prinee In her anna, asc en ded n diariol drawn by 
I and ornamented with stresmers and drapery ; and accompanied by 
I retamed to the palace. On hearing of the birth of the prince the 
kbf evinced great tokens of eatisiiMtion (literally, he leapt for joy), and went 
ibrth to BBcet him followed by a great company of asagistrates, snbjects, brah* 
anchaifs, off cars, grandees, ssinisiera and adUicrs. Aa soon as the horses 
of thekhigtonehed the gronnd with their feet, five hnndred treasnrcs dis« 
played theaudves, and an ocean of good deeda was prodnoed to the hifinite 
advantageof thoago. Tho assemblage having arrived, die brahaucharia 
and tho astrdogera gave vent to thdr acclamationa, and with one acoerd 
hdled tho prince hy tho name of A Ite (SMdle,hkmed). Whenthekinc 
bchddIndrB,Brdna,the feerkiagaof heeiens^ all the geda, the 
and the gcnB eecepyfaig theentke apneas hia heart wan atreckwlth 
sd wltibeet bdng sMdhle of Ity he dissseentad fiesa his I 

210 mjoniMAoi or . va hi ah. 

d^, M^ tiMiv «it byU^waytide the tMipk af« |Min vlifM all tte 
WMid adond. Tht VrahiBadiarfa and tiw aitrologcft wiOi om voiee pro* 
peiedllialthepriaeeahoakl beeaniedto dobonageto.thaitatnBaf that 
feaiaa. Th^tookUa iatfaairanw aad bora lOai t» tha tcn|^ ; bat all 
tha gcagiiHBifidiately proatiated thamtdTca btlbra hiai. Thn t% bnauOi. 
charfs and Hhe aitrologen praooaacad tba prinea to be a fcmaa* a bcmg 
traly tzadlant* iiaca ba:eiefciicd aacb aathorily etcr tba giodi aad genii. 
Every ana tbeRfpragave Urn tbe title of god of goda (Dfr&Hd^va). AU 
tbea retaned to tbe palace. 

Tha goda caaaed thirty-two ttgaa or preugea oC.thia cveat to appear, 
lit. Tha earth ihook with a great aarthqaake. 2d. The roada and the 
atreeta vera made elean of thenMelvea,.aiid foal placet exhaled perfanea. 
3d. Withered trace within the boandariet of the kingdom were covered 
with Icavca and floweni. 4th. Gaidena ipontaneontly proiaccd rare 
flowera and delieiona fhdtB. 5th. Dry landa prodaced great lotnaei cqaal 
in tise to the whcela of a chariot. 6th. Treaaarea bnried in the earth 
apontaaeoatly displayed thanaeWea. 7th. The precioaa atonca and other 
raritiet of theae treaaarea ahona with extraordiaary brilliancy. 8th. Veat- 
menta and bed-clotMng locked np in boxea were drawn forthi and die. 
played. . 9th. Streama and water-conraea acqaired a higher ^degree of 
llapidily and transparence. lOth. The wind ceased* elonds an^ foga dis- 
pened, and the aky became pure and serene, lith. The sky on all sidea 
ahad an odoriferons dew. 12th. Tha divine pcail of the fUl aaoofwai loa. 
pended in the hall of the palace. 13th. The wax topers of the palace were 
no longer required. 14th. The lan, moon, stars, and planeto 'stood atill. 
15th. Shooting stara appeared and assisted at the birth of the prince. 
i6th. The gods and Brahma extended a predoas canopy above'ihe palace. 
17th. The genii of the eight parte of the world came presentiag predons 
things. 18th. A hnadred kinda of heavenly and aavonry aaeate oiFcr^ 
themsdves spontaneovdy (to the prince). 19th. Ten thoamnd preciona 
vases wen foond sasjpended and filled with a sweet dew. 20th. The goda 
and the genii condacted the chariot of the dew vrith the seven predoas things. 
21it. Five hnndred white dephante, spontaneoady canght in the neta, 
wera foaad in front of the palace. 22nd. Five hundred white lions issued 
from the snowy mountains, and appeared bound at the gate of the town. 
23rd. The nyaphaof heaven appeared upon the shoulders of the musidaiia. 
24th. Tbe danghtera of the kings of the dragons endrded the palace. 
S5th. Ten thousand celesttd virgina appeared on the walls of the palace 
holding chowriei of peacocki' tails intltcir hands. 26th. Hcav«aly virgina 


boMiAf in their band ttrnt filled with perfamn ranged tbemtelvea in 
apace. 27th. Celeitial Bnisiciana deicended and began together a hanno« 
■ions concert* 28th. The torments of bell were impended. 29th. Venc* 
Mons inaects hid themaelves, and birds of liappy omen sang, flapping thdr 
wings. SOtlu Sweetness and gentleness in a asoment replaced the harsh 
mmd satage sentiments of fisliennen and hnnters. 31st. All the pregnant 
women in the kingdom gave birth to boys. The deaf, the blind, the dnmb, 
the paralytic, the lepnros, men in short affected with all hinds of maladies, 
were radically cored. 32nd. Tho anchorites of the woods came forth, and, 
bowing down, offered adoration.* 

- Am inscription in the Magah langnsge engraved on a silver plate fonnd ia 
a cave near Chittagong, and pnbliahed in the second Vol. of the Asiatio 
Researches, gives an acconnt of the birth of Bnddha la nearly the same 

In the varions Bnddhiit works written in Chinese, and reconnting the birth 
of Foe, which I hare had an opportunity of referring to, hia first words art 
varionily reported ; according to the Ni jnm kmg^ he add, ** Anumgst gods 
and asen, sad asnras, I am tho aioit venerable." A great Bnddhist coUec- 
tioB pablished in China nnder the dynasty of tho Ming, and of which I 
me fragments, gives a representation of his Urth and baptism, and 
F him ssy, '< In heaven and under heaven, I am the sole venerable one." 
The Skjf kUip— reports these words otherwise >— " Among all gods and all 
MCB, I am the most venerable and the saost exalted." Lastly, die /bt siaaf 
tk&m ««i, of which the latest edition vras published In Japan, 1796, givca 
these words: ** Within the four cardinal poiata, the scnith and the aadir, I 
aloae am most vcaerablo." 

The fw ad Q AUmiimk BiUUUuH aiakef him say : 

*• God hafh seat me as a prophet until other prophets shsU cobm."— Kl. 

(20) IFlsfo lAcy acfmpiuked tk§ d^cirimtf that Is to say, where from 
Bodhisattwn they bceame Buddha TathlgaU, or accomplished. As for tho 
Buddha Sikya Mual, ho attaiaed thia digaity la a gardea la tho kingdom of 
Jfo Ml flo (Magadha) upoa the beak of tho rivtr Mllea, (Chbgwse aathon 
I their igaonaci of the meaning of thiaaame). The niat was seated 
rtwP§iki trees CUcai re^r<eM) and thoro b i came jmrt JMItfffucc 
la this plaet b tiMtod ths seesad of tht eight holy laiws.t 

• Am • tmn, B. LXX VII. p. 16-17. 
t *Mia liflf M Uag , quetid ia tho tea 

imar A sea, B. XXX1U.> 6. w. 


Ita ilvir JH Htm «1mm boika w«ra Itr tU yoMi tk« tfctilw aC flMUri- 
Um iQvUeb 8lkj«Mml vhib jda IMUnttwa Mteattod to otJot to 
■tUte BdUDwlMod, fa CilM to tiM ittowirj of HtoM tlmnc IWiSMeikM 
and M iMm cAai M» (Ptm I lim, B. LT. SS), and to MoBiri works, 
MimjafBt Nmmdt t mu TImm « all tnaaeriplioM of Hm SM^toit term 
iftmvmB SiUmtktnm. (to PkU Mr«i|foMM;, whidi rigniftM mfpito/t tf 
ffftr^ tfao H§khiim§m It fa tbo bum of a coB ri da r a Vfa torfait, wbieh 
flows firooi tbo tootk-wott, and whlek wilttof witk anothor, immnA tlM 
Motona, fonns tbo Pbolco. As tbo Pbolgo, nanod Amanat to vu oMpa, 
baa a toagcr ooona tbaa tbo Mobana, it aaaj bo logardad as tbe appor 
portfan of tbo Pbolgo. lu aoorca Ifas to tbo wooded bUU of tbo dfatrict 
of Tori to tbo proftooa of Ramgbor, to aboot 23-40 N. L. 

(21) Tk lom ik§ wktfi rf ik9 Xiotp,— Tbfa fa an allq^rfal ozprontoa 
fasplytos tbat a Boddba baa began to praacb tbo doctrino. Tbe Fm ymtm 
tkm Urn aajs,— *«Tbo pfaoa wbere tbo TatbigaU turned tbo wWl of tbo 
tow fa not wcU detorsitoed, Aeeordfaif to aooM it was to tbo retreat of 
sUenoa s aeeordl^g to otbers to tbo Deer-Psrk (near to» and noHb-east of 
Benares) ; or to tbo beaTens'snd otbor pfacea*"— KL 

(22) Wkif lifay oaerlAreit lAe Aert/iet.— Wo bavo already eipoanded 
(Cb. XVII. note 21), tbo doctrines of bcterodox phlkMopbors in tbe times 
of Sakja ManL It was at Benares tbat tbe Utter sustatood ihs greater 
part of disenssions witb tbese doctors, wbo, named Tart to tbo BodilbUt 
books of tlM Mongofa, were tbo sworn enemies of tbo doctrine ti Buddha* 
At tbo time of Sikja's reformation, tbo sectaries of Si? a felt tbeauelTes too 
weak to ctmbat it i but tbo ancfa of Sikya, pladng bimaelf at cke bead of 
tbe Terif adopted their creed and sought to totrOduee it to tbe courU of tbo 
petty princes of India. Hoping to otertbrow S&kya Muni, bo summoned 
tbo sii principal doctors of the Ten to oppose Lfa nephew, at a great ban* 
quet at whfab all the princes were assembled : but tbey all groui^ed before 
lifa supreme understsnding. The flfteen kings who were present upon thi, 
occarion, met together cr eiy day4rom the first to tbo fifteenth of the first 
month s and tbe six doctors of the TVrt strove at these meetings to vsnqoisb 
Buddha by the instrumentality of magic Vnmored by fear| tbo fatter 
triumphed over them to a most glorious manner, by the force of «bfa reason- 
tog, and bfa divine and supernatural power; so that at tbe end of tho 
fifteen days, tbe leader of bfa adversaries was constrained to prostrate him- 
self before him and worship him. AU those present rose up, and followed 
tho example. By thfalast victory bfa lame and bfa doctrino were diffosed 
throughout Indfa ; and to mcBsory of the event bfa foUoweis stiO cdebrato 
the first fifteen days of each ycar.^Kl« 


(S3) n mnki /• Me Hmm, Tm H. (See eb. XVII. note 2.) 
(24) TV ^rtmeh ike Lam im kekmV't/kh wniAtr. (See chap. XVII. 

The IfoBgol historian, Samng Setiea, thm nanatct how 8akja preached 
OB hdiair of hit oiother : •' Sti daya after the birth of tho priace royal 
Kkmrn^mk itrnta^i kmtagkekieki (in Sanskrit, Sanrirtha Siddha, he ''who 
cftecta the aalvatioa of all/') his mother MaUl May£ entered nirt <iia. He 
obtained in the year Tlm§ of the tiger, tho rank of Boddha ; and aU years 
after in the year TSm§ of the nas, lookh^^ one day with the eyes of diTino 
faMpiratioB, he beheld his sMther Maha Mdyd nader a aew lacamatioa ia 
the nfioa of the tUrty.two iegrL launodiately he raised hioMelf thither 
iofeide her lathe wnyof diviae saactity, aad rcauuaod there ahMty daya 


KingdoBi of Lan mOb— The Dragon's tankw— Adtenlnre of the King A yn with 
the king of the dragons^— Elephanto perCMning the serf ice prescribed by the 

Learing the place where Foe was born, and proceeding easterly 
^xt ytfOM yaaty' yon come to a kingdom called Lan mo^ The 
king of this country having obtained a fragment of the she /•* of 
Foe» built a tower called the iower of Lan mo.* By the side of 
this tower there is a tank, and in the tank a dragon who continu* 
ally watches the tower. AVhen the king A yic* went forth from 
the ag^ he wished to break the dght towers to make eighty»four 
thousand others. Hehadalready broken down seven towers and 
was conaing with the same purpose to this» when the dragon ap- 
peared, and conductbg kbg^l yn to his palace, showed him the 
things used in the cdebration of worship. Then said he to the 
Idai^ "If by thy oblations thou canit excell this, thou mayst 
dcstevy (the tower), and I shall not prevent thee/' The king 
A yti acknowledged that the objects appertainii^ to the ceiebra- 
tion were Ml those of the age, and returned. 

214 niAmiMAOS of pa hian. 

In tUt atcffOe tnd lolitary phcethen am novum to nreep 
and to water; bat yon may there tee eontinnany heeda of de- 
pbanta wbich take water in their tmnks to water the gronnd, and 
which, collecting all sorts of flowers and perfnmes^ perform the 
service of the tower. There were Too jm* from varioi^ countries 
who had come to perform their dcrotions at thb to#er. They 
OMt the elephants^ and orereome with terror, concealed them« 
sdres among the trees whence they witnessed the deniiants per« 
forming the dnty aceordmg tothe Law. The Too <fe were great- 
ly affected to obserre how, though there was no one ipattend to 
Uie service of the tower, it was nerertheless kept watered and 
swept. The Too ue thereupon abandoned their grand precepts, 
and returning became Ska mn. Of themseWes they plucked up 
the grass and the trees, lerelled the ground, and kcpj; the place 
neat and dean. They exerted themsdres to convert the king 
and induce him to found an establishment of ecclesiastics, as well 
as* to erect a temple. There b at present there a habitation 
of ccdesiastics. This happened not long ago^ and thidition has 
transmitted it to the present time. There are always Ska mi 
who administer at the tomple. 

Proceeding thence easterly three yeaa yam,^ you come to the 
phwe where the prince sait away his chariot and ^tted his 
white horse.* Here too have they built a tower. 


(1) Fiv€ pt€m jfmt» about tU sad a half Fksndi leagocs. 

(2) A imyJ — i iM w i f rf Lam mo.— Hinan thaaag, whoin tlietot part of tba 
ae? eath cantary iridted tbia country, caUa It Lam mo, writiaf tlM latter 
syllable with a different diaracter from tbat employod by Ik biaa. He also 
foond it dMert, and givea neaiiy tbe aaane aeeonnt of it aa oar traTeller. 
Wo most seek for Lmma somewbera to tbo north or aoith-oast of the 
preaeat town of Gorabhporo, and to tbo aontb of tbo Ulla which aeparate 
Nepd from tbo kingdom of Onde. Tbo latter ia eelebratod aa tbo oonntry 
of JbnM, of wboie name Lam mo may poatibly bo tbe Cblneae tanteriptioa ; 
aefertbelem tbe two towni named Rampfir, ntnated near where tbe Gnndak 
enters Bengal from Nepal, appear to mo too reaBote IromLtho JloAt in or 
JteAtni to be f aken for the Xm mo of Pa blan.— Kl. 

CHAPTBR xziir. 215 

* Ztm mo appears to om identical vrith the Ramasamo of the Pali Asiiab 
tad the Mahawamo. It was ooe of the eight cities or kiDgdonaaaaoFifwhidi 
the rcliq[MS of SikpL wers distribated; aod was thooolj oae of theM» as 
will be seca fnm the solijoiiied estracts, from which theM reliqecs were not 
remofedby Asoka ; dreamstaiiees whidi pieciaelj eonespoiid with the details 
allodedto bj Fa hiaa. Alter narratuif the paiticalars of the |tartitkm of 
Boddha*sieliq«es» the Annals proceed I **TherrUiinesof theETs(Bttddho> 
consist of d|^ diommUs seten domnd aro oljeeta of worriiip ia/sMtediw(pe» 
and one ileaea of the idiqaes of the snpraaie perrooace the Nifas worship 
^RimMfim:** Agafai— ^Uhe RMwuigmmitm Konii^mit bnilt a MvjMaft 
JSaaiififiHO over the eorporeal rolics of Bhagawaaaad celebrated a festival/^ 
The BMatioB of the Nagas wordiippuig theae relies at Riuaagioao Is saother 

circamsfaace confirming this ideatifieaUon. 

la the Mahawanso we read : "Ihe pro-eminent priest, the then Maha- 
Kaisapo, being cadowed with the foresight of dif inatioa, ia order that ho 
might be prepared for the eztensif e reqnisition which wonld be made at a 
fataro period bj the monarch Dhammas^ko for relics, (by application) to 
kiag Ajitasatta, ceased a great ensbrinement of relics to be celebrated with 
every sacred solomnity , in the neighbonrbood of Rajagaba ; aad he traasferred 
tha other serea doaas of relics (thither) ; bat being cognisant of tlie wish of 
the dinae tBacfaer (Boddho), he did aot reaioTe the doaa deposited at R£- 

** The moaareh Dhammlsdko seeing this great shrine of relics, resolred 
OB the distribatioa of the eighth doaa also. Whea the day had beea fixed 
for enshrining thcM relics fai the greet thapa (at Papphapara, lemoviog them 
from Raasagaam), on that occasioa the sanctified miaisten of religioa prohi* 
biled DhamBias6ko. The said thapa whiefa stood at lUmagwao oa the 
beak of the Gaages, by the action of the carreat (ia falfilment of Bnddha's 
jpndietioB} wu destroyed. The casket containing the rdic being drifted 
into the oeeaa, statioaed itself on the poiat when the stresm (of the 
Gaages) spread ia two opposite directions on eacoaateriag the oceaa, oa 
a bed of gems dsssliag by the brilliaapy of their raya» &c.*' 

FromtheforegoiaglhavoUttledoabtof the Jdeatity of Bamagaaio aad 
Ua BMv aad that histead of lookiag for tha site of the latter to the north of 
Qofaekpore* as Professor WUson saggests, that it mast bo refancd to tha 
H faidaed of tha Geoget (a aaasa firaqaeatly applied to aay laiga 
a) hot pertape of thaGegra«or soma other afilaealof tha Gaines. 
I may add thai Amnao fa meatioaed ia tha PaU AaaaU as tha aamo of 
«M aC tha pdiM aC SOcya befafo hU adaptfatt of ascetic life.-a. W. L. 


. (3) A fr t v mm i ^.l*f*t m-^gJU li fa tlw SiMerKWj iMm. wlitrK 
ywfriy'dfiiini cir j itt fl , and Imboo Hm rdiqwt «f BMd^i nid other 
My peiiOBqpn. Tha Moi«ob tnueribe the word ««rfo. ^th«bodka 
ortheB«ddhaf9«h«BthMeap|itaria th« thne worUU, hdoB^ onlyfaiap. 
pcaraMB to wwtiwi or mattar, their oMtarial remaiaa form bo portion 
of thair imnatarial and ataraal asaenea. Aoeording lo a paanfa of the 
Urnkd^inm nmrmmfMkkdam (tii Mongol Aittm ^ercOt trandated bj M. 
Sdmidt, ff an/eAlmftflan, dcalroaa of bainc hiitraetai; npon thia point, thua 
•ddiaaaad «dlyn JIM; ** Moat glorionaly aocomplkhed one ! if aeeord. 
iagtowhatthefonrpfpeadingBoddhaa have Uvght, the moaieloriovtly ae« 
oampliihed one hath already attained ninrdna before a aarfra b« left in the 
world, why aay than the Smtraa,''when Buddha entera ninriaa the nLrira 
which ha IcaTea in the world are venerated by goda and men with remem- 
brance and religioaa eonfidenoe ? by the Teneration and ardent deYOtion with 
which men and fod« have regarded the i£rira of former Dnddhaa, inconceiv- 
able merita hare been aoqnired. How does thia qnadrate with' the aasertion 
that theie are not Teritable reliqaea ? WonlJ the moat gloriuasly accom- 
pliahed Buddha deign to explain thia contradiction, and unlpld the truth 
of thia matter ?'* Ihe moat gloriously accomplished one then replied to 
Rontchiraketon and the othen present, sajing, '* The doctrine diat the most 
gloriously aooomplished in entering nirvana leare Urirm to the world, must 
be taken aa provisionary (that is, intended for those who are not as yet en- 
lightened) ; for, oh son of Ulostrioua descent! the Bodhisattwas Maba. 
sattwaa teach that the truly Samaneans and the completely accomplished 
Buddbaa beeoma already indubitably and perfectly nirvana by the ten follow - 
iog qualitiea, &e.'* Ilenoa wa infer from theaa words of SiOcya Muni that 
the sanctity of the sarfra waa iatendcd only for the people.— Kl. 

(4) The Uwtr ^flmm mo»— This tower ia not oompriicd among the eight 
divine towers apoken of in note 1 1 , Chap. XX.— Kl. 

(5) ITIen Iht kim^ A y«.— This is A$9kM, king of Magadhi^ great grand- 
aon of Btmbas&ra, and grandson of Ajatasatm, in the eight year of whose 
reign Siddharta became Buddha. Aaoka doariahed a hundred years subse- 
quent to the nirvana of Sakya. The Japaneae chronological work, IKa kan 
kw9 io/en nen faJt^oan-na /son fixca the oonatruetion of the 81,000 towers 
buUt by A y» king of IndU (Zen ZtA), in the year of the X^tXI cjde cor- 
responding with 833 B. C. 

The kings of Magadha had waged long ware againat those of ^«y«. a 
eountry situated near Bauglcpora on tlw lower Gangaa. A short time be- 
fore the birth of Sikya Muni, the kmga of Magadha bccam^ tributary to 
those, and continued io till the reign of Maha Padma {Ptufuui ehenbo, in 

CHAPTBR xxnu 2X7 

Tibetan, <«tliesrettlotu*')* BimbadLn or yimlMi£r«, wm of MaU Padma, 
moeeeded tlia latter, and bore the gamame of SrenUm. It waa he who cn- 
cottfased hia fkther to retitt thepajment of tribute. In the war that foUoir. 
od be killed the king of Anga and added hia eoantrj to that of hU own 
liunily. AtthetimeofthebirthofSacjaherealdedatRaiasriha.* 

TheMoogolhirteryof Sanaof Setiea containa the fbUowiag liat of the 
predeeenoraef Aaokat kingofMagadha; bnt their namea appear tobetrana- 
btod fioaa the Sanaerit. To leeogniae them I haT0 given the tranalation 
•f their nanMa, aa It waa bj thia BMana that I arrived at the original. 

ra^Zoailee (the Great Lotna). Thia U tiie ITeJU Purine /all JVcnif«, 
«r Nanda the maater of the great lotva, of Uie Bb^vat Pnrnnay and the 
Padwim leJUnAo of Tibetan booka. 

Taeltaet djironlen (the Exalted Heart). He waa eontemporary with 
SOyn Mud and resided at Viriuiasi (Bmcnt). Thia prince ia omitted in 
tfce liat of the Bhigarat Porlna. Aceordhig to Hindm anthora Mmb» the 
Great Lotne, waa killed b j the Brahman CAeani^jfe, who placed Cktmdrm^ 
fupUf of the Maarya fitmHj, npon the throne. Tibetan booka lirom which 
estraeta are given bjM.CiomndeKoHia, make BlaOMiCrn or Vmhuirm 
nneeeed Ua Other Fudau Tchenbo (the Gfeat Lotna). 

IMM Storm (the Fkedons Moon). Thia U aimOrmg^tm. the moon- 
protected, the Chandagntto of the Mah£wansa. 

Mayitiri mut$oUm9dmM$d»ukiM {MirgitWm^ <who condncU himadf 
calmly'). The Bb^vatn namea thia KUtg rdiinlm(«aqaeona ecMnce'), 
and tiie MaUlwanao BkMmUf fcMence of the drop of water'). The Chi. 
■eae call him Fkhi§ tAe and Pte jpo «el»y whidi la their tranicription of 

AntiUm (the Lion). TUa King ia the Aj^tasatm of Sanioit books. In 
the eiflith year of hia reign Sddhlrtn became Bnddha. Ajdtaaatm reigned 
tidrty«two years. 

Arkmk itrgMou (the ten-seated). This I take to be the Dasaratha (ten 
Aariota) of the Bhigavata. This book makea him aecond snocessor of 
Aaoka* and not hia predecessor. 

QMudn^ Omgkii KammM^Um (the king of the law who ia withont 
aorrow). TUa fa Asoka (fm Chinese A jm) who reigned one hvndred and 
ten years after the Nlrvina of 8<k|nMnnL Hinanthsa^ tranaevibea Ua 
. aanMifta«enHe.t-KL 

PMeasor Wlfaon (Aiiann AntiqMv p. 322) aeema disposed to identify the 
ily of the Chineae with the AMm of the Bactrian ooina. He remarka 
AmihiBnMinArianfan lattm fa A^m^tth ^m^ thepin thfa cast waa 
•X4.S.Y^l,9.% tffan<lMn,B.LXV»p.lU 


919 mMMMUACm O* TA^mtAX. 

I ^ (A ckMft vUdk dM Mnr fa M 
lMlt},aiidtiMl^«itaini«iMHiBamMM. «« TIm B«adlU«l^ «ys Pk^ 
rWilMii,MMdMcmlo identiiy him (iC y«) with Aiol»t ^nadbM cf 
wU UftA^ thMtfora, fai tlM tUffd cwterj B.s.C^«id«r 
wliMitfa liiUta llwtlMMeM dghtj tbwiitnd woiiiBurtil tovm in 
«ario«i paita «r India. rUt wm eerUialj aot the Asm oT tiM coIm, V«t 
tlMfV Mj h«f« bcoi MPM coateiM ciUwr in te InditioM pidwd vp ^ 
tb« ClimcMt or fai Che ■aaaer ia which thtj have bcM tnaffcntd to Erno. 
peaa ]ih«CC>*" '^ ><«• ^ >m oxtromcty faoprohablo thot o mlstako 
of this hind ngardiog m hmom oprinet ts Aaohaco«ld.bc»adohja 
BvddhisI prieit ia the ofo of Po hiaa, when poniUy the Tory aeme of Aaca 
had eeaeed to be fomcmbcred* The aore eorrcet traatcripttoaof theaaoM 
hf Hioaaa thMBf icmofcs aU doabt apon the ideatitj of ^ f a, IFoapa, or 

The phraM •" went ibr^h ftoa the ece*' (lofftil da tiflcie) I take to aMa^ 
«« abaadoned hcfctieal opiaieae aad adopted Baddhi»»."-^. W.L. 

(6) TleretMrr Tkeift. It ie veiy reauafcablo thai fai the oopzae of Ua 
MRative,Fi hiaa riwald eo oftea epcak of the Tao aravholahtetiBBa 
tsiited not Merely iactalral Asia, bat alao ia ladia. liwoald^ftoai thii 
appear that the doetriaes of that philoMphical aehool weia alfcady diffaaed 
throaghoat the eoaatriea litaated to the weat and the eoath-weal of CUna. 
We have already aeea (Chap. XXlI. Note 6,) that the Tao am it i anivcil 
atKapQaatthebiithofSftyaManlaaddrewhiahoraaeope* TheTboaeai 
are named ia Tibetaa T^9^*Tqf^ Urn H mmd S|!SC;*^C;*({ pmrn^ nrmm^ 
jM (Sectariea of the mystical croia, ia Saatcrit tiMiiae). Thdr doctriaa 
named iq^Vfii^lV* Baa ^M l«tit, wu the endentieUgien of Tibet, whick 
prevailed aatU the geaenaiatiodactioa of Baddhitmia the 9th oratwy. It 
atin baa a namber of profcMora ia KkmmpU or Lower Tibet. They havo 
eereralworkaespoBadlBf their doetiiaes, called by the Ifoagole B9mk9Mm 
nam. B|^4*XI1V Cftca nefta wna their foaader. 

(8) Stfut away \iM chtarioi mmd fuUM f At wlUi9 Aaree.— In the Maga 
inieriptioaqaoted above, it ia8aid»««S&1cyaqaittedhia palace having vritk 
him bat one aervaat and a hone; he cniaied the Gaagea aad arrived at Balm 
Kill, where, after havfaif c om manded hie aervaat to leave Um mad. to lead 
•way hia bone, he laid a^de hia armoar." Ihia drcamataace of Baddha ' 
having crosaed the Gaagea to arrive aft that place, ia coatradictcd by tha 
Chiaeae traatlartona of Bnddhiit werba. Baddha arrived there from tha 
palace of hia fiitheraitBatcdia the towa of Kapila, aad did not proceed till 
afterwarda to the hiagdom of Megadha which lay aoath of the Gaagea. Tha 

CHAmm XXIII. 219 

place called Ba/« ITe/S ia this inwriptioii is ■•med iC MOM Me in Chlncie 
Beddhirt urerte ; in P^ At nn mmt m , 

tbe foUowinf Is the legeod that p itssf t ei this pissage in the life of the 
Bodhiasttvrat ** Siddhirte hsviiif attsined Ids auMteeiith year en the 7th- 
daj of the 4th mooii« suule a vow to leave Ids hone ; and the Ibllewing night 
a hrilliant star appeared and all the gods in spsee exhorted the prinee to 
issae teth. At the sasie time JTisen i had tve dreams which esnsed her to 
inken in great alaras. The prinee enquiring the eanse of her terror, she 
replied: '* I have seen in n dream monat Snment topple downi the fnU 
■oonlalltotheearthitheli^ofmyjewelstobesnddealyqaenchedi the 
knot of mj hair to he loosened; and some one that offered me Tiolenee ! 
This is wliat has alarmed bm and censed me to awaken.'* The Bodhisattwm 
leiectod that these Ave dreaoM referred to himself, and on the point of 
issafaig from the palace he ssid to Xicen I, *• Snaseni shsU not fall; the 
moon ehaU continne to lighten ns ; the hrilllsney of yonr pearls shall not 
be eatingetdifd ; the knot of year hair shall not be looiened ; nor shall any 
otBer yon violenee. Sleep in peaceand disterb notyourself on these grounds.'* 
The gods then intimated to the prinee that he mist depart s bnt fearing that 
he woeldloiter or be detainedt they summoned On fu men (the spirit of 
satiety) to enter the palace. Whilst all the inmates were asleep, iVkn K Ae 
Is trsufbrmed all the chambers of the palace into tombe and jn«en I and 
the rest into corpses whose bones weie scattered, whose sknlls where carried 
to vaiions places, whose entrails were putrid end green and fetid, and 
whose blood was extravaaafted and mingled with pus. The prince beholding 
the halls of Uie pelace converted into tombs, and amongst these, birds of prey 
and foxes and wolvee, birds thatfly and beasts that walk;seeingthnt all exIsU 
once is but illusion, change, dream, talk ; aeeiag how all retuma to inanity, 
to which one must be mad to become attached, summoned his squire, end 
dirseted him forthwith to saddle his horse. The squire observed that the 
day had not yet dawned, •• Wherefore such haste to ssddle the horse ?" The 
princeieplied to the squire bythUGMithit ««Itske ddight in the worid 
. no longer, squire; detain me net! Let me folftl my priasal vow and osmu- 
eipalemyadf from the sorvows of the three worlds." Then went the squire 
tn saddle the sleed I but the steed, prandnf, prevented hie appreadu He 
Itothoprlneeendeaid, *«ThehorMcennotnowbessddlsd.'* The 
i went thither himself end gently petting the horse with hie 
these veneet •«Tbo« hast long been in life and in death f 
now thy labours an about to eeeae. JKen Me (the horse'e name), only beer 
■MMraftandwhsnIh8vnebtafawdthelaw,IshdlMtfot|elthee.'' Then 
<wnflm horse saddled, JBen tte rdtosled within kJaulf, *Ih«wi bilf 
V 2 

220 riLOBnuira ov fa huh. 

UriteatgVMiidlvilkttjrteoft tooNNtaMin vMch 
idthoal.' But tar spirits vMlndBadbii fell MM to pitfwt^ni I 
iflftlMfVMndL TtewovUdMhont MigktbiitUsv«lMBig|itteheird 
alivi Wl tlMfodt M^itpened tiMiovidtbiitit wMlfltliat^Me. Tbt 
prince lh«i aonatod liit boney and proeeeded on Us JonnMyl Raviq^ 
reached tbagitta of the t«im«tlM gode, the drefOBe, the genii, India, Brah* 
augend the fear Unge eT hearen eeeemUed to goide him to the wUdctaeek 
The gaardien epirit of the gatee appeared, and praetraCing himiielf hefoif ' 
Mm, e^d, ««TheUBgdoaior JCie'iMrfo 'iMtisthe aoct tauUhing and 
' happj in the world; why qnitk?'* The eon of the king leplied with thie 
fdikds «« Birth and deeth are of long eontfaraanees the eonl ^tafcle tiia 
live pathi. If mj primal Towe are ftdfilkd, I shall open the gi^ of nir« 
adae.*' The gates of the town tlien opened qientaneoaaly; Iw^^saad, and 
went away lilce one II jiag* 

He proceeded nnder the eyce of the gods for tlie distance of Ibnr hnndrcd 
and eighty ii^ and arrived at the Idngdom of ift nen mo. There tlm prince 
alighted from his hone, threw off liis precioas vestarcs, his oraaawntSf end 
his tisra, and pladi^ them npon Am lilr, ««Take baelc,he laid to Ua 
attendant, take back my hone to tlie palace, and tliank on my part tbm 
great king and his officers." ** I wonld follow thee, esdaimed JRea Me>« 
to famish tliee with what may be requisite. I can not retamidones for tf 
then leavest thy horse end goest into the moantaias, many shall^be the wHd 
ammals foand there, tigen, and wolvce, and lione. Who beside AtXL pro* 
vide thee with food end drink, with water and boiled meat, end i^dMtever ia 
aeeesssry for repose? Howshtlt thoa procnre all there? I most follow, 
I mast accompany thee." Xtea lAe then aude a long geaaflssioni tha 
lean flowed from his eyes ; he Ussed the feet (of the prince). He no longer 
. drank ; he no longer cropped the grass ; he wept, he grosned, 1m hesitated 
to leave the prince. The latter addressed him a new $i$ki; <*Tlie body, 
ssid he, is snbject to disesse. The vital energies weakened by o1{l age stak 
into decrepitnde and death. The qniek and the deed cannot avoid sepa* 
ration. Wherefai then consuts the happinem of the world ?" Deeply afllicU 
cd| and weeping, Kmm tht then did homage et the princes foet; and foras* 
ing hb resolntion, that gentle etced retomed. He had not reachc4 the royal 
town when at the distance of forty U he uttered a dolorona groan. Tha 
soand echoed throagh the kingdom, and every one eaddned, **n» prince 
retnms to wsintain the state." The people poured forth to meet him ; bat 
they beheld the horw, led by the groom, retnndng empty I iCtcea <, oa 
seeing this, hastened from the palace to embrace the horse, weeping and 
. laneating her misfortune. The king witnessing the distress of JCieea i and 


of tlM tvvoffcen of Om iaterior, mtniiied hiatelfand said, ««Mj worn 
conralts Im tme tuXmnJ* Bvt all Um people of tbe kingdom, having bo* 
bdd Um aoRov of the king and of KUam <, ozperienoed the »oat Uvelj 
ajHpothy. JKmvI dwdt onthethonghtof herloasnightanddaj. The 
Uig having maunoned hia oflicen aaidtothem, *• M j eldcat eon haalelt 
me to dwell aaaong the raonntains ; let five of yon by inns proeeed and 
pioteel him, vatduqg with the ntmoat care whatefor may eome to paii."^ 

The Chinese and Jnpaneae chronology ^m ten Jhso le fm mm fm^mm 
no IMS, places the tight of Siddh£rUfrom his paternal hoose In Iho year 
FAeJ, the 12th of the XXVIUth eyde t that u la the year 1006 befim 
itfen.— KL 



The Tower of the ChareoaL— Town of Kin i na kie.— River Hi liaa, 

Thenoe proc*?eding foar y^otf yan to the eastward, you come 
to the Tower of the CkareoalJ There is there also a eeny kia Ian. 

Going thenoe again to the east the distance of twelTC yeon 
jfoii, yon come to the town of ITiii t na ihe.* It is to the north 
of this town betwixt two trees* on the bank of the riyer Hi iian^ 
that the lUueirUme of the Age, his (ace turned to the norths 
entered mi kouan.* There, where Siu po^ long after obtained the 
law, and where they adored for scTen days* in his golden coffin 
the lUuitrioMe of ike Age s there where the hero thai heare iho 
diamomd eeepir^ let go the golden pesUe, and where the eight 
Ungs divided the ehe Hs^ in aU these pUices they established 
jcM|^ kirn fan, whidi exist to thb day. 

In thb town the population is scattered and not numeioas. 
There are but ecdesiastics and iamilies of the commonalty. 

Tbenceproceeduig south-west the distance of twenty yeofliifM^ 
jfoaaee the spot where aU the Xi cMt** wished to follow Foo 

- . •PimilMn.B.LXV.^lU 

V 3 * 

229; piMsmntMB of pa aiAir. 

iKfkta ht CBicred iit kmmm^ but were not pemitad hj him i tli» 
place where tbcj detained Foe and would not lethim go; that 
where Foe prepared a ytrj deep JSiA that eoold not K» created ; 
thephee where Foe inferred a happy omen from V* begging 
pot ;** and that where he sent back his family to raise a stone 
piUar upon which there was an inscription.'* 


(1) l%t VuMT ^ik§ €aercM/.— Aeoeidiif to Hm mamOf of Bimum 
thsaar 9 tbbtOfwerwMi^eie thai thirty eJUs^ or CMMSttoiaet Ugh. Uwm^ 
■itoatediaelbrator Isdiaa fig-trcet and covered the apot vhm tho hody 
of Foe WM horaty and where the earth was iatermiogled nitl^ aahea and 
chareoaL In the Km Un attached to thia tover the throaee of the foor 
prccediog Bsddhas were to be acea.— Kl. 

The tower here apdkeo of is mentioned in the IMtm Fifldrs, where after 
deaeribing the efcaaation of the Boddha and the distribation of hb rdiqnea 
among eight different tribes, the narratiTe proceeds to state that the am or 
iressd in whidi the r^ca were arst deposited was afterwards glTcn to the 
brahman who acted as mediator between the different parties. " He took 
with him this vessel to hb own city, called the city of Bafvoting Nylmpd, 
and bailt a ehaitya, and paid all sorts of respecU to the relies ef ChoasdAn. 
4Uf and in honor of them estabUshed a great festivat Afterwards n yonng 
bflhmaa .called Njfmgfdhmt requested the champions of JTnrJM that thej 
would cede to him the stAet or cea/« of the fire on whieh the JUad body of 
Chomdlnd^ was bnmed. Having obtained liis request, he built in the 
village of Xyifredia trees a Chutja called that •/ Ike CetiUs and paying 
all sorts of reverence and worship to them, he established a great fSestivsl in 
bonor of them. Tliere were now in J^wnhudwifm ten Cbaityas of tlie relica 
of Chomdindis ; eight were styled those of the remains of Air ledfy ; one 
that of the Urn or FmiW and one that of the Coal$."^ We have no men. 
tion in Fabian of the tower of the Um. The brihoMn wbe erected the 
tower over the Um is called D6iid in the Pali annalsi and the villago 
of the Tbvcr qf Me OMi!f , l'i>^ileleveae.— J. W. L. 

(2) The town of Kim I a« lie.— >Hioan thsang transcribes SBore correctly 
the name of this town Kim $Ai mm iU Is, (jiffTinrC, JTnMn^ere), whiek 
aignifies the * loira qf thegrmu J(k««' (Pee ejfnnur^idn). This aeeords , 
perfectly with the Tibetan translation. rTio miekcpk grwff^ '< the towa 

« C9oms d« Koros, Ai Rrt. XX. 316, 317. 


cf fhft eieeUcnt plant" M. Cioma de Kfiioi, who qmtei the Utter u the > 
aune employed In the Kakgkymrt plaeee the town hi qmeitioB in the dUtrict 
of Kamrvp in A«am ;* hat the nemtlret of Fe hiaa and Uiooan thsanf 
wiU not admit of a locality ao far eaat. Keainagar meat have heen aitaated 
en theeaatem hank of the rlTer Gnndnk. Wherever it naj have heen, it 
eannet have heaa &r Irom the kingdom of Magadha.->K1. 

The aeene of S4kya'a apotheoaia ia emmeonaly placed in Aaaam by TShe* 
tan anthora. Ptofeaaor WHaoa haa with ranch plaaaibility aeggcatcd Kmiim, 
on the road hetwixt Bctdahand Gorakhpdr, aa the modem repreaentative of 
the ancient town; an idcntilicationeoBntenanced by the exiatence of certain 
evidently Bnddhiat remaiaa in ita ncighbonrhood, aa well aa by the corre- 
apondcnce of ita poaition with the Chincae narrative. The lemaiBa are thna 
dcacribed by M. liaton rf->'< Shonld a traveller happen to encamp at Koala, 
a viUage aitnatcd abont ft koa from the Chapra bonndary of the Gorakhpur 
diatrict, and on the toed joining the two atationa» it may ao happen that hta 
eye may alight on a pyramidal«looking monnd of bricka abdnt half a mile 
S. W. of the Terai, over which apreada a magnificent banyan tree. ShooU he 
be of an inqoiaitive tnm« hia natural enqniriee will bct what ia it, and who 
haa the lame of being ita bnilder ? He will be bforaMd that it once belong, 
ed to Jfolo ku^nrt a aomewhat leu rained bride pyramid with other brick 
monnda abont three quartera of a mile to the weat of the olject that fint 
canght Ua obacrvation, will probably he pofaited ont aa Mate Knaiir'a fort ; 
and if it ahonld be observed that onr traveller'a cnrioaity ia thna excited, he 
wiUbetold thatMaUKnavr himadf liea petrified at bnt a abort diatance 
from hia former abode. A walk of abont a oonple of forlonga fiom the mini 
called the fort, will bring onr traveller to the side of a ooloasal alto-rdievo 
of very respectable exccntion,snrronndcd by mndi carved work, many of the 
fignrea of which are well designed and ent, though othera of them are ofaa 
exaggerated and ontr^ character ; bnt the featnreaof almoat all of the imagea, 
aa well aa those of the principal idol, have been deatroycd with an nnaparing 
hand, and with a care worthy of a better canae.*^ The anther then proceeda 
f d e s crib e theae mntilated ac n lptnrea and the local irorship atillpaid to them i 
aadadds,««TkaditioBrdateathatJf«f«XaunK,on the arrival of a Mnaalmda 
army to attadc hia fort, feeliqg nnable to cope with the force arrayed againat 
hiaa,eanaed his foasUy and dependents to descend faito a well, and he Umadf 
I a atone, lay down on the month of it to eeaceal it firoai hia 
I that ao disgrace ahonld befol the dijeetaof Uai 
ties." Frinacp, to whom dfnwh^ of theae objecta were aeni, 
OfM decidedly Bnddhisit one being a sUtne of Sdkya i and 

224 riuiAntAQS of fa^ hian. 

n.*t WilMAMlMVi lMmmrtlMp«pdtfMdiBf»«a«taapfiM8.»a^ 
•ppifai the tt iMTWil— f tlw priiw Mid pfopjid Sftym Sidha. B«ltUt 
•MripliMi cMhtrAy te aditfttod, at tb* tem ^rtect fa acfcr ippBeA to 
Sikja after kfa eatraaeo vpoa veliglovs life s aad whea iaed» Hie eipieMba 
U, Ibeliefe,njep«tfm9aBdiiotk«aar. 1 Udiiie lo tUak the atory of tbe 
MvaalatiB foray may have eoBM hiatorieal fovndation, aad that with the 
•aval additimi of aeccaaory foblot it aopeneded the older l^cnda vhSeh 
theee remdne CBibodied. The site aad the legend ere wdl worthy of a bmxo 
perticalar traminatieii with paitlcelar refereace to their taradaed eeaaecthm 
with that fait aeene- ia the life of 8<kya. In the BMeatiaw oor dedaioo 
apon thfa ideatiftcatioa mait be antpendcdt as there are difficvltiea atteadiDf 
it which ere aot very eeaOy explained. For iaftaaoet Hiovaa thtaag, as 
will be seea ia aote 4, atatea that Kosinagara waa oa the eastm side of the 
Oaadak, while the aiodera Knsfa liee aaany aiQea to the west of that river. 
I am not withoat hopes that this poiat will be cleared ap by the reeesrdica 
of ay friend Capt. Kittoe» who in aktter jnst received mcntioas the die- 
covery of the rafais of aa ezteasive towa to the aorth of Bettiah« co a aiiti a g 
of BMHiads, &e. aad a jpillertsJM oa hueripHom. There are laina also aear 
the Gandak. These may be the site of Kasiaagara, alihoagh tiie aeme aaay 
have migrated, aa aot aafreqaeatly happens, to another locality.— J. W. L. 

(3) BeiwUi iw trtn.'^ln CUacse Ss la. ia Saaserit Siim (fifterea 

(4) TAe JKacr Hi Htm^^Hi iimt appears to mm aadovbtedly the San- 
aerit word f^^^i^ Airaiqpa, goUL la aacieat Baddhie worl^ irrittea ia 
Chinese, thfa river fa called Ski ltd ae/i ti^ ^T^ift, fiveraaMll, expfaia- 
ed to meaa, Aeniif gold. Hloaa Thsang indeed names thfa river A eki t^fm 
a, which he explains * anparallcled in the world/ and assurea as that the 
ancient orthography of the name, A U U pko /I, fa faulty. It ia, as I have 
a^ above the Gandak. In the ^ aieay Ikon 'aret, which fa a eollectioa 
of images refative to Baddhism, pabllshed ia Japaa, thfa river fa called i*Ao 
li ike.— KL 

la the Hi lum of oar pilgrim the JKreaaeieat of the Greeka? The idea- 
tlfieation of thfa river hid occasioned mach discnssioa among the leamed, 
aa forming for a long time the priadpal clement in determining the positioa 
of Falibothrd. We haTO now however ao much better data for jtn^^^g tha 
latUr point that the former has become of comparatively littfa ^nseqneaoe, 
and the problem fa reversed, namely to identify the river from ^ the well aa* 
certsSned position of the town. 



. Sir W. JooM wtt the lint to laggcit the identity of the S6ii and the 
Brannoiioesy diiefly I beliere from the epithet Hhranj^abUku hdng ep« 
plied to tiM former river in Saoicrit hooks. The seme hypothesis wu 
adopted hy Wilford and others. The prieeipal dlfienlty attending this edenH- 
fiestion is the distance of the S6a firom Palibothra whidi aecording to Megas- 
thenesy as ^poted hy Arrian was sitoated near tlie conflncnoe of tliat stream 
with tho Ganges t purjfimff tk wikv *UUww ttnu UtiXXtAfiaBpu mi\ffo/&cn|r 
«v Hi llfmrUtv 7$, Urn, of vvpifiaikal tUt t«5tc *Eptanffi^ worm/tmi mu r^m 
Tiff f m. This objection haa been eombatted with learning and ingennity by 
Mr. Ravenseroftt who in an able artide in tlM Jonmal of tlie Asiatic Society 
YoL XIV. p. 137, endcaTonrs to prore tliat n former bed of the S6a ran 
Merer to Patna than the present eonrse of thatrivcr. Itwonld exceed the 
space I can aiTord to enter at length npon this question ; hnt the reader will 
And Mr. R.'a interesting paper wdl worthy of pemsaL He condedcs from 
ncarefnlinTestigationofthencighbonringcenntry that the S6n» or one of its 
principal branches disembogned at Baliip«r» n few mika weat of Fktna, and 
thns in soobo measnre Kmores the difficalty arising from present course of 
thatrifer. Mr. R.'s rrasoning wonld be sniliciently satisfactory were it not for 
the nanie girea hy onr pilgrim to the Gandak (At /ten. the Chineee transcrip* 
lion of JSTtrmfo), and that given in PiU Baddhistieal works* HirmmmmaiUfm^ 
which seem to give this river eqnal daims, tf jrmo/a^^jeelljr, to be Identilied 
with the Ersnnoboaa, while ita position is nnexceptioneble. This coDJee- 
tne is not new however ; for I find on referring to Schmieder's edition of 
. Arrian pnbliihed in the last century, that Mannert had snggested the same 
ideatiftcation : non procol n Patnis minm veteris nrbis repertm snnt cnl 
■onen P«f«l/«f<r« vol P«fWt>ii/ni, et h«c qnidem nrbs Palimbothra (Pali« 
bottrat Pislibotrm) vetemm esse vidstor, « « « Hoc sdlamobsUt« ah Arri- 
ano Erannoboam voeari me^iim Jiuwhnm, qoi ibi non invenitor ; eed erro- 
iwa in Arriano esse arbitrator Blannert, vel ease hiteUigendiim Jhnimm 
OmubUt/' <io. After all the qvcstion is ssors enriovs than important, and 
■o fbct of any conseqnence is dependent npon its solntion^— J. W. L. 

Thesceneof Sdkyn Moni's death is thns described by Hinan thsang t at 
ttt distance of three or fonr if to tho north-west of Urn town (Xtn sAi mm. 
Mt la) yon arose tiw liver iCcAile/o IS. Near the western bank there ia 
n iwest of «o la trees. These trees are napedes of Aetf/ their berk ia of 
a grawiih wUftav and thdr leavee are very glceqr* Tf^nr very fine once are 
to ho aesa plaaled togetimr on tiM spot where the /en Ah (Tatii^gatha) died, 
laagrsetohapdereeted in that plaee is a raprsseatatiea of theairvdaaof 
thoJoaUu Hkfime k taraedto thoaartii aad hath tiwappeaitaoe of 
MoarhyisatowarhailtbytiM Uog^pa (Aaoka), Tha 

239" PIMSmtMAOB Ot tA atAM. 

lUgk. B^fawtU Umm fa > pBlar of < lw w iwcto d fai— u^ 
loT tiMtelkof Uie/Ni lt?,«i ivUdifa iMvibei tktiwM, 
thai, ««B«dAm «ca4 dghCf ywra, MtMd alrviMi at MUbii^ tto 
Utk di7 «r the MOB of Bidlkli (#W «A# AAte) i" tiMA fa tto IM dqr flf tiM 
lUviBMith. Thara are tMM Mthora who M J that Baddha aslarad airvl*: 
aaataadirfghtmitha8thdayortheBOoaorKlrtlka(jnfafalfMa) wUah 
waaU ha tha 8th day of tha Bfarth Boott. Aa forthayaarofhfaidrvCaa, 
aaeoimta diffar. Saaoa auka tt 1200 Tcara afOf othaia BMfa thaa 1900» 
athcfi agafai bmco than ISOO. Thaia are aoaM too that aaracf aa that thfa 
avaat oocwfod ahoal 900 yean ago, and that om thoataad are aot yat fal* 
ffifadrioea."* HfaMnthniicwRita about tha year 640 A. D« ThaaaealM. 
latioBa thotlbra plaea thfa creat ia 500, 660, 800, and even 360 B. a 
. Ita Chiaaia fagend gifca hy Dethaatcrayea, glTca the fouoviaf aae«i«at 
af the death oC Foe t ** Foe bdag aefenty-^ne yean of age, after eooTorafaif 
with hfa dbdpkaaad theaaeembly aaone deU?eriiig hfa testament, hid down 
OB hfa fight ride, hfa bade tamed towerda the eett, hfa fbee 0^ the wcet, hfa 
head toward! the MTth, and hfa feet to the aoath, andbecaaie eitfaet. At 
the aaaM aaaneat anay miradea oeearred I the aaa and the aijaoa fait thcfa 
lighti the iahabitanta of the heaveas groaaad aad eadainaed i ^ Oh griotova 
afeatl by what fatality hath the aaa of wfadom beeooBO eatiaet I Moat all 
ladeed loee their good and traa panat, and the heavena be depri?ed of tlM 
oljeet of thdr veaeratioB I'' The whofa atierably was melted la teen. The 
bodyof Foe was pfaeed apoB a litter, bat whea they wen aboat to cany it 
to the pile, they wen BBabfa to lift it, wheBOBO amongst them eaUedoBtln 
thaattitadeofpnyer, ««OFoe!thoBdoet eqaalfae(orideBt^j) aUthlaga, 
admitting bo dfatinedoa aaM>ng them ; thoa aukest eqaalty liappy both bbcb 
and the deniseas of heaTen.*' Wheahe had thaa spokea tl^ litter rfaing 
Ugh of it8 0WBaooord,eBtersdthetowBof JHa «Af by the wekten gito aad 
fasaed by the eastern tagaiaeatend by the eoathern end r^issaed by tha 
portheni gate. It theo made Mf ea timn the einait of the town, the voieo 
of Foe being aadibfa from the liner. All of the iahabitanta^gathered at tin 
lanenl eeremony, all in tears i and a week lia?iag thas passfsd they eanied 
the body of Foe on a magaificent litter, washed it with perf wed water, and 
wrapped ia rieh eonriags; thea replacing it on its original litter, they povr. 
od apon it perfaamd oils. A lofty pifa wn pnpared of odonferoaa wood* 
apoB whidi the litter was deposited i 6n wn applied to the pile, bat It 
ittddcBly beesme oztiBgafahed. At thfa prodigy the whefa esnmbly wept 
bitterly, and awaited UU some holy personage ahonld eomo'to ftafah the 
• Pimmi lfa«,.B. LXXV. p. I ». sad 2. 


cereoMBy. At MMm at tnchbad arrived, Um litter opcMd tpontaaecMuly aad 
ditdoted Um ieet of Foe eneiieled with m tlMMtiiid imja. Agein tliey appli. 
ed the toffdiet to the pUe; bat atUl the fife took Mt. That holy penonage 
IhcB exphioed that the litter coold not be eoBtemed bj the file of the thiee 
erorlda, and heoeep a fortiori, not by anterial fire. He had aearedy apokea 
vhcB the pert file of fixed eoiitempUtioo(S«iiiifl/ in Samerit tanAfiU) 
iaiaiiiglfOBi the cheat of Foe thfoegh the Budtt of the Utter, fafiamed the 
pile, mWA at the end of aerea daya waa vhoUy ceowunad. The fire being 
estingniihed, the Utter appeared entire withont even the ealioo and the rich 
eovcriagt with whidi the body waa envdopcd bebg in any degree bjwed.*' 

Dr.SidwId baa pnbUthed in hit ^rvMee tf« /igMn, a redaeed eopy of a 
fltlebratad image repreaenting the nirvina of Foe, preaerved in the temple 
«f Too Ink ai (Tonag fon laa) at Miyaho. It waa eiecnted by the eelebrat. 
od Japaneaepabter, anwilmlfov. S&kya Mnni ia there rqprcaented in hie 
frlet ia tlifal dreat, placed vpen a catalalqne, betwixt the two holy trcer, 
with hia head lecUned apon a lotoa flower. He it tanonndcd by a nnner- 
•na gronp of iMnand antmalt, amoQg whom a general aadnenpervailt; 
grief it expwttcd in aU their conntcnancca. The apoatlea and diadplea 
awionnd aMWt immediatdy the bier of their amtter, and are reeogniied by 
J thdr thavcn heada. The Bodhitattwaa have the fonna and fignrta of women, 

nnd the geda appear with their ordinary attribatea.— KL 

▲a the learned Frcndi commentatore have tnppUed to few partiealan of 
SflEya'a death and crematioB, no donbt from the want of the original tow- 
cia of hilbrmation ainee made available, the iaiertionof thcae in the pie- 
eent plaee may add intemt to thia pert of onr j^lgrim'a narrative and be 
not nnweleome to tnch of my readera at have not the nq(airite workt of 
lefertnoe at hand. Fall dctailt of that eventt are preaerved in the body of 
Baddhiit teriptare, and partienlariy in the LtJiim Vkiwrm^ of which M. 
Cioma do KorSa hat given an abttntct in the ^tiaf tc getaartto. Vol. XX ; 
hot the meet faiterttting aooonnt la that taken by the HononreUe Mr. Tkr* 
near from the PwrmikhinMntutiwn of the jfeiAfaafo in the J%Aantlayo 
of the tfnIfqnIaAo, from which piiacipeUy I drew the firilowing particniara. 

The iUaeii whidi oventnaUy terminated the eanierof Sikya overtook 
hfai while holding wwe at Jtofa,gmna»o, a viUy nearVaitaU. Thenar- 
lativo preeaeda to itato that ho atiU retained the faUpetBMiien of hitmen* 
tBltealtiea,and iwuMBed aranndhim hit ditdplei,betri«g iV 
the trid with fertitado and BMJntaiaing hia opiniona ani 
ini^ard totfaotnadtofy aatmof thoatattaraof thia fife, fkom thia 
drkiati (ahhh apptare to hwo betn adiafihem) ho partjatty wcoware haw 
•mife ^hto to.dt IV in hb pnlpii tia to pmdi ^POB n Yadalgr «f «lifM<* 

S28 wnj^wauAam ov va biaii • 

faitMi myw fVaiwlL He then «n^blMtiU Hit tote pom flfof 
BiddlMbjUafcwBinedow ■tttibatet. to praloag Ut 
idfedj IT 4ify MCmtod then to wUle MJovBlnia cvtiiB M^ 
be Ducst UMBsit wUckbtUcbattjaatTainlL Miro (deadi) iirter* 
peeet Ue hflweaee end prafente Anaade firom eonprdwndiiif the apodtioa 
Mtdebf the Beddhe. tlioagli twice repeated. Anaada retiree diaeoaetrted 
aad eeatehiauelf at the foot eCe tree. He had hardly depeited when tte 
iaapiooa MIro epprea chca Baddhe aad eatreata hioi to realiae hie /erCeil 
MMfiethea. Boddha repUee that hia jNB^aaidiiiji wffl Uke p^ce ia thioe 
aoathf, aad aaaoeaeea hie reaignatioB of aU eoaaectioB with thfa traaaitorj 
itato of eiiatfiioe fat the fitDowiag hyaaa i ** Hafiag TolaBtarily OYereoaae 
hia deaire fbr.thia life, the Moai haa toachaafed to rdiB9iiia& all that is 
traaaitory, eoaoeeted cither with hia haaun or hiadiTiae caieaee, eaitiBg hia. 
^»«»f^ frOBi hiaetlike a ^ietorioaa combataat who diveata hiauelf of 
araioar/' Oa hia atteriag thia aaaoaaeemeat the earth qaakca, aad Aaaada 
haateaa to Baddlia to leara the caaae of the pheBoaeaaoB. The latter ez- 
pUiaa the eaaaea of eartliqaakca* (ea already detailed ia a fbregoiBf aote) 
aad iaforais Aaaada of the iatenrlew he liad with Mirb fonaerlyi aa well ea 
OB that day. The Saf /ea thea proeeeda i 

*< Oa thia eiplaaatioB heiag afforded, the vcaerahle Aaaado thaa addreaeed 
Bhagawa : ** Lord Bhagawa. Toadiaafe to lire • it^ff f for the welfiire off 
aealtitadeat for the hapi^aeaa of aialtitadca, oat of coaipaaaioa for the world* 
aad for the welfiure aad happfaieea of the dAvd aa well aa imb s O Sageto, 
lite for a 4^990." ** Eaoagh Aaaado, iaiportaae not Tath<gato, Aaaado» 
the tiaee ia bow peat for aiaUag thia eatreety of TathCgato. Aaaado,how. 
ever, aiade the eame eatieaty a aeeoad aad a third tiaM ; (aad Baddho aaid) 
Aaaado.doetthoBbelieTeiatheBaddhohoodofTatUgato?'* ••Yea, lord." 
«' Thea, Aaaado, why doet thoa bow erea to a third tiaie aflict Tathi. 
gate with aaaTailiag iaiportaaity ?" *• Lord, liroBt thjaalf have I heard, 
aad hy thjeelf have 1 beea taaght, aayiag : Aaaado, to wliOBaeoerer ia folly 
▼ooeheafed the aaaetifieatioa of the foar JdkyMd ahoald he deaire it, he 
awy liTe a Hfp^t or aay pert of a kMppo / aad aato Tathigato aleo ia 
Toeehaafedthoeefoar/dll^MW." ««Doat thoa, Aaaado, hcliefetherehi?" 
««YeB, lord." ''Thea, ABaado,iB that caae, the aegleet ead thefoalt 
ia thiae— for it oec a rred aot to thee, whea that rerelatioa waa aiade by 
Tathigato, ia the auiat aoleaui ead pablie BMaaer (at the CMtpdia ek/ii^), 
to comprehead tlie eaane, ead to iaeplore of Tathlgato, aayiag i Bhagawi, 
voachaafe to lire for a ktgn^f for the welfare of aialtitadee, for the hap. 
piocea of the di^wd aa well aa aiea s O, Sagato, live for a Ae/ipe. What 
doet thou BOW, Aaaado, etiU innportoiiD Tathigato ? Tathigato hu rejected 

CRAVTBR XXtV. . 229 

tkf prafor twice : co«M be grant H on tlie tUrd appliettioB ? la tUe 
Matter^ Aniado, noet amredly, both tbe neglect and tbe fenlt it tbioe." 

Bnddbo tbea reainds Anando toT tbe Tarioaa pheee* all wbidi be nametg 
wberebebadnuidetbie revelation tobimbeforet and finaUy telle bun that 
bnvfav wnonnced tbat be ie to die in tbreeasontbe tbatdeatiny cennoi be 
attend. Tbey neit repair to tbe Km^igmrm edifiee, and Baddho ddiTeia a 
aokmn cbaige to tbe pricstbood, wbieb be eondndee witb tbeae wocde : 

«<Bblkkbna» I am now addreeiing jon (for tbe laat tiaM) : transitorf 
tbingeareperiibable; wilbont piocraatinalioB, qniltfy yoondvee (fbr m'** 
Anea). At no diatant period nnto Tatbagato jMriniMmea will be Toneb. 
ealed. VltUn tbree nMotbe firon tUe daj« by deatb Tatbagato will realiie 

*' Tbna apoke Bbagawd, and bating ao deliTcred bimaeirt tbe diYine teacber 
of bappy advent again spoke saying t My age baa atUb^d tbe foUest mate- 
rity : tbe reasnant of my existence is sboit : I sball depart, aeparating (my- 
eelO from yon^ and baving earned tbe salvation of my own («//«) soul. 
Bbikkbne. nnramittingly embnnig yonr mmda witb laitb» lead tbe life of tbe 
figbteona} and keeping yonr tbovgbU nnder entire anbjection, carefvlly 
watcb over tbe aspirations of year minds. Wboever st e a df ast l y adheres to 
the tenets of this dkmmm^t escaping the eternity of tranamlgntioo, will 
m^ieve tbe etttacUoa of misery.*' 

Neat day Buddha eaten Vaisali, and disconnes on sandry sabjects. 
Theace be proceeds to Bhlgaasgaroa and delivera to tbe priesthood bis 
diseoarses, called Fed/#a Smiimu, ia which he incakates moderatioa apon 
hie aadieaee aad tbe propriety of examining dispassioBately and with refer* 
anee to bis leJJMye and «al/e {pinagm^ safre) any new doctrine set forth, 
aad to adopt or rrject it accordingly. 

Ho then visits Pmwm, tarrying ia the iliateapene or mango grove, belong- 
ing le e goldsmith called Chando who waits on Baddho, and iavites him 
as the WAmU coartesaa had done, to a repast the next day at bis bonse in 
the dty of Pimi. Oa reaching the goldsmith's boase Baddho thas ad- 
drsssed him : Chaado, if aay pork is to be dressed by thee, with it oaly 
eerve am : serve to tbe priests from aay other food or provision thoa amyest 
bava prepared* Chaado baving replied : Lord, be it so : Bbsgawd again 
caUa bns, aad saya, Chando, if any of tbe pork prepared by thee sboald bo 
left, bary it in a bole— for Chaado, I see aot aay one in this aniversot 
the^fc iabshited by dewoe, asaroa aad brahaMe, witb their bests of asoctics, 
bwbmsBS, dewoe and nmn, exeepting TatUlgato, who woald digest it, if be 
fie tbe seme. Chaado eeeerdiagly barim the remaaaU of tbe pork. •• 

HsviH gretiicd, edited, aad cmnfsfttfd bis boit. Baddha de^arU tot 

230 viLomiMAGK or ta at ait. 

htm Urn rrdUetod cffKli «f Um pork* Hsfiag rwctedt dw qywW— 
giOf«flr«Cte tiwt€B the liutlMrbttikof Um Hinmnawttti jm ff|f«r» in m 
irerj dtWUtetad ■tote, ht^4fliiict Anaiide to picpuna hb bed bctwen the 
8iim tnth en which he laje bimielf down (Uke a lieim^rs 4k» LmKtm 
Viitarm) widi his heed tened to the Berth. Flowcie ere epo nf aaceily 
•howcred doim hj the traei epoa him ; aed the eir is ftlkd with hoita ef 
iMMtmrdncfhealr ring with eslcttlal ssoaiepaiid seatterinf Bomtn and 
ineeese. Beddha poiato out these sapcnataral rceog;iiitieiie ef hi^ Boddha. 
^ hood, aad cojoins npon Aaaada tlie stedfast obaenranee of dAeroie es vful* 
ly aeeeptable to him. Snndrj iajanetlons are glTon hf Boddlia to liis fid« 
lowers; and amongst otben that his body shonld be bant with all the 
hoBoiB of a CMakUwiH Rija, whi^ he thes deseribes : •« They y^ e new 
doth romid tlie corpse ; luving wound it with e new doth, they eadote it 
in a layer of floss cotton ; Imving cncdtfed it in e layer of flon cotton, they 
bind that with another new doth. Haring in this manner endosed a Ckmk* 
kawMiii Hya's corpse, in Ave handred doable layen (of cotton and doth) 
and deposited it in a metal* oil-diddron, and covered it with another 
simiUr Tessd, and hating formed a faneral pile with every descHplion of 
frsgrsnt combnstibles, they consmne the body of a Gkmktmtaiti rija ; and 
for a QhrnUnrMiii raja they ^nild the Mvpo at a spot where four prindpal 
roads meet. It is in this manner, Anaado, they treat the corpse of a Ckak- 
kammUi raja. Whatever the form obeerved in regard to the ^rpse of a 
CkmkkmwMtii rija miy be, it is pro|.er, Anando, that the same fo^ shonld 
be observed in regard to the corpse of Tith£gato." 

Ananda then cntreato the Baddha thathe wonld not icalise his piRairvsna 
at Kusinsn, which was an insignificant and ^nmc il town, bat at one of the chief 
dties, ChMmpd, R4fMfiMkdm, Siwtiiki, SdUidm, KSumki. or BMmui. Bndl 
dha forbids the mention of soch a proposition, anddirecto him to smmsMm the 
Mails princes of Knsinam to witnem the ptarinirvamm of the Tatliagato to be 
realised in the last watch of that night. These being assembled and tntrodne- 
ed, " Bhagavi then thns addressed the bdoved Anando : Anande, can there 
be, or has there been any precept of mine, not imparted onto tliee by Satth£ 
(the divine teacher) } No, Ssttlii there can hare been none. If there be 
none sodi, Ansndo, be it nnderstood that whatever dAemaie or wik/fyo mej 
have been propoanded or established by me for thee, the ssme, after my 
demise, is to stand in the stead of the diviae teacher nnto thee. • Anaado, 
although the bhilddras ere now in the habit of sddressiog cadi other (India* 
criminatdy) with the eppdlation dwtuot after my death this practice meat 
• The At(hMiuLtha requires this word to be rendered gold. 


ko loader prcrail among joa. By a leiiior bhikkba, a joiiior bbikkha 
oaght to be addretaed by tbe a|vpellatioB 4wf^ preceded eitber by bia 
faBUy or penooal iiaaie« By a jmnior bbikkba an elder bbikkbv oof bt to 
be addreaied hkmai (lord), or 4^umi (venerable). Let no veU-diipoaed 
priettboodr^ectanyoT my precepttt wbeCber tbey be trivial or important. 
AnandOp after my deatb, let tbe irBtoedbidb penalty be awarded to tbe 
bbikkbn Cbbnnno. 

*' Lord, wbat la tbe Brtikmtitmd^ t AnaadOy wbatever any bbikkbn auy 
have deriredy tbat Cbbnnno baa been advocatinf t it ia not proper tbat bo 
abonld be apokca to» eiborted by» or eommmwd witb, by the bbikkbna. 

••Bhasawi tben thni addreaied tbe bbikkbna : Bbikkbna, abonld tbera 
ever nnto any one bbikkbn be any donbt or ineomprdiendbiUty aa regarda 
eitber BmUto, JMaaiaie, Smigk^f Jfeffo,t or F«l9Mdi,inq;Bire (at once) : 
do not reproaA yonraalvca bereafter laying, altbongk SatUUL waa perMmally 
prcacnt to na, we loat tbe opportnaity of making oar inqniry peraonally of 
bim. On bebg tbna addreaied tbe bbikkbna remmned aiknt. Bbagaw& aiau* 
tally eiborted tbemaaeeond andatbird tioMi and tbo bbikkbna itOl ra-» 

•• Bbagawi again eiborted tbcm laying t Bbikkbna, if it be oat of profoand 
re v aieu c e for tbe Sattbi tbat yeabitain from inquring directly from bim ;— 
bbikkbna, let one confidbg prieat make tbe inqniry tbroagb anotber in wboaa 
bo confidea. Even on being tbna conjored tbe bbikkbna remained ailent. 

''Tbereapon tbe venerable Anando tbna addreaied Bhagawd: Lord, tbb 
k miracaloaa : Lord, tbii ii wonderfnl: I place implicit coaiidence in tbia 
congregation of bbikkbna s not even anto one bbikkbn la tbera any donbt 
or Incomprebeniibility In regard eitber to Buddko, Dkawum^^ Samgio, 
Mm§§9 or P&iipadm. Anando, it ia tby laitb tbat impela tbee to aaake tbIa 
dedaratioa s tbe omniidcnce of Tatbigato la in tbe aaiM auuuMr conidoaa, 
tbat not oven onto one bbikkbn la tbere any donbt or incomprebenaiblUty 
in regard to Buddk9, Mmwum^, ^m^Ao, MMggp or PmUjmM. Anando, 
mnong tbeae five bnndred bbikkbna, oven tbo lait one, baa attained tbe 
^ol^NBmo,— tbe grace that reaenea bim from bell, and tbe wnctification 
tbat realiaca nrabatbood. 

•< Bbagawd then addreaied tbe bbikkbaa mying I Bbikkbna, I am aborting 
yon (far tbe Alt time), traniitory thb^ am periihabta : witboat procraa* 

• Tbia lent nnpliia perfrntaqnalky, and aain tbaetderef < 
bUkkbnmmt be Mnier to another, anappeUatien nnplyinf oqaality applied by 
ninmarto a lenier P p a ma i pe dd ii d iw e ap e ufn l and iwavermt.* 

t Jiaggoii the rand that landi to nittdndii, and pafipaidiatbi Giiof i 
Mwma ifcat ongbt 10 bo obawvad en that rand. 
X 2 


^MlUy yMNdm (for BibUdb). Ttot ««• llM M iradb W 

ftMi tU trUAMb iMteemt abmrted ia llM Mcoiia AbAii 
ffMUMtacwd/AAMte,ht teemt abMrbed In dw thM /Mm6i|| 
ffM Um tUi^/AinAhlMteemtabMfflMdbClMlbwtliifAteiiii 
ftwi tiM Ibwth /Mm6i,Im became ibtiirbcd fa the iHtimi»tk4ffmfHwm , 
pminff IrM Hm ^l^ifiun«Mf«l£M», ht teemt abMcbedl in the immU: 
MmcAtfyelAMB; peitiBf fkom the iw'mi rfwcJUyelifiiea, he bece»etteerhed 
in the aJ^htHtn4y9iin€n ; peitiBf from the eMidUM^afimm, hehceame 
abeorbed hi the iirtieie«erfiiefew^e/Am», ami pemteg fiom the f^Mfea- 
•imumuum^fatimtmf he became abeorbed hi the oamMmMyMealrWlea. 

'* Hie venerable Anando then thni Inqnired of the venerable Annmdho i 
Lord, baa Bhagawd expfaned ? No, ifipn«e Anando, Bhaga^ haa not ci> 
piredt beSa abaorbed hi the wUm^mdwaikm^. 

** From thia tr^iijrtlenirMtten, Bnddho atep by step deaeends again to 
the firttiJUaee, and again riaea to the lonrth JJbbee. In the (iansitfaNi 
between the fonrth and fifth JAdnen, Bhagawd eiplied. 

We may oflslt the efibeta prodnead on the eekatial and tenmtrial beiaga 
by thia event t and pam en to the cremation of the body. Anand^ having 
annoonced the death of Bnddha to the Kntmarbina and called npon them 
to perform thdr allotted dvtieflt the •«lfe//lenf, thblfetfien yontha,the 
Jfel/tcn damtelt, and Mailitm wivea— afflicted, diieonsolate, and oppremed 
with grief,— fome wept with diahevelled bairi aome bewailed with'nplillcd 
arm*— eome dropt aa if felled, and others reeled to and fro, eiclalmJng i 
Too aoon baa Bbagawd died : too aoon has Sogato died : too soon has 
the JK^jfC closed on the world. 

** Therenpon the XiuladWen Mimiii&iu issnad this command to their aMn s 
collect then in Kmtimdrm garlands of flowers, and procnre every description 
of musical instruments. Accordingly the iTntiadWen MMUmif tahiag with 
them garlands of flowers, every description of mntlcal faistmments, and flvo 
hundred purs of doths — wherever the I>ei0e//eao sd/d grove of the 
afel/ienf night be, there they approached the corpse of Bhagawd. Havbg 
approached the corpee of Bhagawa— with dancing and vocal and !nstnunen« 
tal music, and with odorifcroua garhusds,— performing the prescribed ofliccs, 
and rendering (every mark of) reverence, respect and submimi^o, they 
employed themsdvcs that day In suspending doth-drapcriea, anft erecting 
tented paviliona. 

'•Thia thought then occurred to the Xiitmdnan Jf el/ient .— The time k 
altogether Ininflicicnt to bum the corpse of Bhsgawi to-day : we <eiU per* 


form tl»« cremation of Bhagawil to-morrow. The KuthUirUm MMimu^ 
witli danoBg, and Tocal aad initnmeiital maiic» mmI odoriferoat flowers 
performed tlie preieribed offiect to tlie corpie of Bhagawi, rercrentlj, i«« 
ipeetfelly mid anbmiaaif ely t mpeiidiBg doth draperiea and erecting tented 
paviliona, and in thia manner thej paaied the second daj alio* They in 
Kkc manner ocenpied themaelYCi, thn third, the fourth, the fifth and the 

'* Then on the seventh day thIa thought oeenned to the KmimdrUm 
MmiUmM .— -HaYing» nnto tlie corpie of Bhagaw£,— with dancing and Tocal 
and instnuMntal mosic, and with aweet-scented flowers,— performed the 
pfcseribed oftces, with reverence, reipect end inhmiaiioo t taking it ont of 
the aoathcm gate to the aonthward of the city^— and by the snbnrb (keep- 
ing to) the onfeMde to the sonthwsrd of the dty, we will perform the crema- 
tion of the body of Bhagawd. 

•• InstanUy eight JTs/ficn chieftafais, bathing from head (to foot), and doth- 
ing themaelvcs in new raiment, laid, we will bear the corpse of Bhsgawfi. 
They, however, fidled in thdr eflbrt to lift it. The JTMoiarMn Ifc/lieat 
Chen thna inqnired of the vencrabls Anmmdbo : Lord Anvnadho, whence, 
sad from wliat canse. Is it that these eight Jfetfisn chieftains, who pnrified 
from head (to foot), and dad in new rainient, add : we will bear the corpie 
of Bhagawd— Imvo fonnd themadves nneqod to the eflbrt of raising it ?— 
W^§eiikiam»t your intentions and the intentions of the dApoid sre different* 
Whst,thcn,lord. is the intention of the ^Mm/iT/ IFoft //Aaent, yonr hiten* 
tion is tUs : we will carry the corpie of Bhagawd with dandng, and vocal 
and initmmentd mnsic, end deoorsted with sweet-scented garlands, perform- 
ing every requisite office reverently, respectfully, and lubmisdvdy, through 
the southern gate to the southward of the city, and through the ouUklrts, 
keeping to the suburb on the southward of the town, will perform the cre- 
mation of Bhagawd. But H^dMl/Alsuff, the intention of the ^iMldia thia I 
«e, with oelestid dance aa well aa heavenly Tocd and iaatmmentd music, 
^fflffffM with odoriferous garlands, csrrying the body of Bbsgawi— per- 
teidng every preieribed oflke thereto, reverently, respectfully and i 
dvdy— through the northern gate to the northward of the dty, 
the town by the northern gat0,aad by the cntrd gato, convejing it Into 
the middle of the dty, sad d^urtlQg out of the csstem gste to the esstward 
of the town, thmut in the osnmation hall, (HkinletaMttsmfo) of the 
• wm perform the cfonation of the body of Bhigawd. Lord, 
r ho the intsntioA of the iMssI^ be tt soesdod to. 

•«Ind8Bay, ovary plsosin JTtiidiwfwhiA WMnfu<qptaekordiit,ilth 
Bd nhbidi beesaw omnd koM-dosp with thi cdBitial flovw I 

SS4 FtMimraAGB or wa biah. 

•Bdtibe d^HKti MWfXL lithe KwdifiHm MMmmf mtrflmg 1^ €&r^ oi 
t wifli cdotU nd Innua 4rae0» as vdl w vMd aad imUwMM iUi 
e» and wMI odoriferovi gtrluids, perfenniBg etcry rfiq|«isH*'ollce, with 
remcnee, icepeeC and aabolirioa ; and eonvayiog H tkroi^ tfta aortlMni 
gate to tbe Boitliward of Um city, and eateriag thioagli tlw i^ddla gato to 
thecntra •rtha totm,* a&d departing thnrngh tlie eaatcni -^ate to. the 
caatward ef the totm, departed the eorpte of fihagawA there in the eoffooa- 

••The JTMleertailfelMeattheBthw iaqafaodof theveBefableABaiido: 
HoWyloidABaado, ahooldwedispoaeofthoeorpteof Bhagaw^? ITetff. 
OJenf, it ia proper that it ihoald ha treated in the lane aaiuier that the 
eoqiM of a GMkmfmtii rffa ia treated. Aad in what BuuiBer, lord Anando, 
ahoold the corpee of a CAciiotM/li rija he treated ? 

** Aaando liera repeata the eiplaiiatioo that he himaelf had reedfed froai 

** Therenpott the JTafteeriia MtiliUmt gave thia order to tlieir people : 
Fdlowa, eoUeet for aaJfeltenitioaie fleet eotton; aad then th^ JTuftaMtM 
MmlUtaa wovnd the oorpee of Bhagawd with a new doth ; hating wouad it 
with a new eloth, thej corerad it with a lajer of floia oottoB ; having coTcr- 
ed it with a layer of float eottoB, they again wovnd it with a Bew«eloth ; and 
in thia manner . having wonnd the hody of Bliagawd with the ftve handred 
' pdra of dothi (whidi they had hroaght), and depoiited it ia a atetd ^il. 
vettd, covering it with another anetd oil-vettel, they piaeed the hody of 
Bhagawd oo the ftmeralpile. 

•' At that tiflM the venerable KaiMrpo waa oo hb road fkoni Fdwd to Jriim. 
drtf, attended hy a great prleatly retinae, eondtting of Ave hdndied bhil[- 
hhoa : and while the tdd vcnerd>le Mahftatiapo waa aeated af tbe foot of 
a tretv having digreaied from the roed, a eertaia individnalt who wta oa hit 
way from Kntmiri to Pdwd, paitedt having in hit potteadon tome wundira 
ilowert. The venerable Mahdkattapo obierved liim at he wat ' joanwying 
im, at a dittance; and havbg recognised him» he that accoited htm : Awmao^ 
art then acgatinted with oar Sttthd? Yet, ilawfo, I waa aeqnaintcd with 
him : the tdd aicetie G6tamd died tevea dayt ago» and it it from that tpot 
that thete wuaMri flowcrt were obtdned by me. Thereapon aiMmg tbe 
bhikkhot who were there (with Mahiikattapo), tome who had i^t attained 
the tanctiiieation of anhathood, wept with nplifted armtf— aome dropt at 

• The AilhaktiM nolieet that while the corpee wat ia the city, the princess 
IkUllaki, the widow of Bandbulo, tbe lale Mmlliam eommaader-in-Gluef, mvcst«d 
tbe eoriMe with her late hutband't officid InugiM cdkd mmhaUti, which jewels 
had renamed nnuicd from the tame of hit death. 


if felled, and others reeled abont tajing ; Too mmmi liu Bhagavi died : too 
■oon Uaa Sogato died^too toon hat the JSjre been closed on the world. Bat 
bbikkbos who had attained arahathood, collectedly and oomposedly snboiitted 
tbenadfcs, saying: Transitory things are perishable: how can we in this 
world obtain it' (permanency). 

- •• In that congregaUon, there was at that tine one Subhaddho,* who had 
been ordained in hia okl age. The said Snbhaddho who had been ordained 
In hia dotage, thni addressed those bhikkhns : AwmwOf enough I weep not ; 
bewail not t we are happily rid of that ascetic, (nnder whoss) we were kept 
in sttbjeetion (by being told), this is permissible nnto yon— that is not per- 
missible nnto yon«-now, whatever we may desire, that we can do ; and that 
which we do not desire, that we can leave mndone. 

** Therenpon the venerable Mahakassapo thns addressed the bhikkhns : 
Enongh Ammto^ weep not, bewail not t why I has it not been emphatically 
dedaied by Bhagawd himself, saying : even nmidest every commnnity of 
happy and contented persons, variona destmctive and changeable imoes come 
to pass ? AwmtOf how can we in this world realise it (|iermanency). It is 
not merely by saying of any thing that is bom or otherwise produced, which 
by its perishable natnra b transitory, most assnredly it perishes not,— that 
it win come to pam. 

•* At thia instant (at JTnstiMCrd, Ibnr Mtiiiimm chieftains, having purified 
thcBBselves from head (to foot), and clothed themselves in new raiment, 
sidd :— We will apply the torch to the funeral pilef of Bhagawi— but were 
not able to Ignite it. Therenpon the JTiiftndni UmUimM thus inquired of 
the venerable Annrudho : Lord Anumdho, whence, and from what cause, is 
it, that these four MailUm chieftains who are purified firom head (to foot), 
and arrayed in new garasents, and who have said: we will set fire to the 
. funeral pile of Bhsgawfi, have not been able to ignite it ? Becanse, fTnief • 
iUtaUt the intention of the d^we/d b different. Lord, what then b the wbh 
otthmdAMidr fTdMl/Alent, the venerable Mahdkamapo, attended by a great 
sacerdotal retinue, consisting of five hundred bhikkhns, b now on hb way 
fpomiVipd to XMrnfirdiandaslongas Mah&kassapo shall not have bowed 
down, with uplifted hands, at the feet of Bhagawd, so h»g will the funeral 
pile of Bhagawfiicibl ignition. Lord, whatever be the dcsjgn of the Msnl^ 

•^Theieafter, whevevcr the eoranatiott hall of the Jfniricne might be la 
J fa i f n drrf , thither the venerable Mshftssispo repaired to the finend pito of 

• Hh history is given at seme length, in dafievsnl pevtisns ef the JllftuAetU-* 
he had been a barber in the viUagn Aimmd. 
t Thefuasmlpaewareoaipesedefsai|dal-weod,indw«120cnbilihigh. 


BhagmHL Om anf f ing tiwro, to adguliaf lih nhm m to Iwft mm |lM«ld«r 

ktfam, tWw Umm, rMHid tbt pil«, he opoied (the pik) at the fMfc ; mmI 
re««re«tiaU]r Wwed down hit hei4 at the feel af BhagawL The afercsaid 
five haadrcd priefte, alsa» adjastfaif theif robes ea at to leave ane jihoalder 
bare, and with deeped haa^ haviag p e ff fa r aae d the jiadSeMAIada, perambu- 
latioB, thriee reand the pUe, likewiae, tavetentieUy bowed down at the feet 
oTBhacaiKL WhOa the veoenble Mahikeaiapo aad thcee five hundred 
bhlkhhoa were In the eet of bowiog dowa in adoration, the faner^ pile of 
Bhagawft epooteaeonaly Igailed. 

•« It thoacane to paie ia regard to the eorpM of the Bhagawi who wae eon. 
saned by ftres neither hie aarfeee ahint nor hia lleih, nor hii nervei, nor hie 
maMles deposited any ashes or soot j none (of those ports) of h« eorpM 
remained (naeoasamed). In the same manner that aeither bnttcvnor oil» 
which is eonsnmed by lire, leaves either aahce or eoot— so It ceme to pass in 
regard to the corpse of the Blisgawft who was eonsnmed-— neither his sarfeoe 
shin, nor his nnder skin, nor his fleth, nor his nerves, nor his maaeles left 
eay residnary eshes or soot : none (of tlu>se snbstances) of his eorporeal 
remains was left naeonsnmed. All tlie doths, composing the five hundred 
peirs of doths, were consumed. At the instant that the iaUmd and ezUr- 
nd parts of the corpse of Bhsgawd were absorbed, streanks of water ponriog 
down from the skies, ceased (the flames oQ Bbagawa's funeral pile to be 
extinguished : the flame was tlins extinguished by the down pour on the top 
of ihe fonera! pile of Bhagawi. The Kutimirw JitUiumt also helped to 
extinguish the faneral pile by sprinkling every kind of scented wat^. 

** Hie jrnstadrten MMUm» then forming a tielioe work with lancee, and 
fendng the plsce round with their bows (transferred) the remdns of Bhaga. 
wi to the assembly hall* (within the town) t and for seven days, with dane« 
Ing and vocal and tnstrumentd music, and with garlands of frsgrant flowers, 
rendeted every mark of retpeet, reverence, devotion end submisuon. 

•• The Mmfmdka r^a Ajatasatto, the Wedfkum descendant, beard that Bha. 
gaw&hadattoinedperint^^MCaat Kunndrds thereupon the add jyi^e JiUr 
monarch Ajatasatto, the HVcC^AIaa, sent an embassy unto the JTatMerten 
MiUiimiu, with this message > Bhagawi was a katti jo ; and I am also a kat- 
tiyo. I am likewise worthy of possessing a portion of the corporeal remaina 
of Bhagawi. I will also erect a Mm^io over the remains of Bhagawi, and 
cdebrato a festivaL 

* The AiUmkmM gives a detailed aeeooat of ^be procession whieh traasferrcd 
theboMS of Uuddho, still eontdned in the meUl vessel in which he was burnt, 
from the coronalioo hdl to the bouse of asseotbly. 


*• The LiekekkmnQf WMli, m bciag ako of the kattiyo race : tbe SAk^ 
d jiMtty of K^i^iaw^llkmpurm, u tbe reUUoni oC Daddho ; the Aiteye of 
AUmUfpi. M of the kattiyo tribe ; tbe kattiya dyoaity of ir«JMr^4M0, as of 
tlMkattiyo tribe; the brahnaaatof in/Merfa|M, at bcinK of the bnhmam 
tribe; the Mmllimu of lVir4, as being of the hatUyo tribe ^-aU Uy claim 
to a portion of the relict of Bhagaw& in preeiaely the aane terms as the 
message sent by Aj&tasattn. 

M On belQg thvs aadicsscd, tbe Mtllimu of KunmM thus replied to the 
■ssemMy of emissaries : Bhaga«£ died within oar territory : we will not give 
yon any portion of his corporeal relics. On thb answer being delifered,* 
the brahman DM thus spoke to the assembly of emissaries : Belovedp listen 
to this one obserfation I am about to addrem to yon s Oar Bvddbo was of 
aaMMtpadliecharscter: it Si improper to raise a contest at the moment of 
the corporeal dissolution of so cxeelknt a being. Bdofodt let all of ns. 
wHliogly, cordially and nnanimonsly» dUTide the rdics into eight portions: 
Many nations are ooBTcrted into the B^t (Bnddho)— let ikupi therefore bt 
citcnsifely boilt in dUferent regions. They answered : Well, brahmaa, do 
thea thyself carefnUydlride the rdics of Bhagaw£ into eight equal portions. 
Replying; be it to^ bcbTcd ;— the brOunan JMa^ according to the request 
ofthatMsemblytCarefUly dividing the relics of Bhagaw£ into eight equal 
pofticBSt thus addressed that concourse of emissaries : My friends, give me 
thlBtaR«JU«,(the vessel with which the relia were ■sessured,) and I wiU 
erect n/A4w to that tan^Adnd- and they gave that Anm^JUii to the brah- 

•• The MfriMfl of PijiirAelliMM hetrd that Bhagaw£ had died at J^^ 
nd thereupon the UMmu of Pifphmtiwa»» sent an embassy to the MMU 
miM of iTMtHdrtff saying: Bbagawi was • kattiyo ; we are kattiyi, and are 
also worthy of a portion of the corporesl relics of Bhagawa : we will erect a 
/A^PO over the relics of Bhagaw&, and celebrate a festivaL They answered : 
there b BO fortion of the relics of Bhagaw£ left: the relics of Bhagawa have 
besa divided: tske from hence the charcoal of the fnneral pile; and they 
neeorfingly did take away chareoaL 

«« 11m Jtf4«tf*c mooardi Ajitasattn, the ir<tf^Uea, boat a 144m at i^^^ 
foAmioverthefdicBorBhagirar^andcdcbratedafcsavaL The ITMIicn 
XMcUmrlbnitta ik^ at ITMIiovcrthereliciof Bhsgasr^ and cdt* 

the fourcaaiae teeth— the ti 
rgrowiagon it, which gave 

lie. The rest of the bones wei_ 

The sawUeat atosM wars reduced lo the eiae of 
ateamwcrBofthesiieof half a grain of rice; and 
ne of halfa grain of OMirfa seed. 
4attdft4tt. • -^ 

* The unmjttred bones were the Mkiwing ; the four caaiae teeth— the two 
cellar benee tbe frontal bone, with a long hair growing on it, which gave to 
that relic the appellation ofthereaAiM or hair rdie. The rest of the bones were 

that relic the appellation of the n 
partially iajaredby the fire* 1 
martardeeed; themiddliBg ato 
the laffgur aiama were of the aim 

238 mjORiM AGS or m buh, 

KafUmMiikm •vcrtib vdiet of Bhi««wi and nkbratoda fcsUvd. The 
AUdt^n^ Mkfma Mil a M^^ at AUmHppf oftr tht rdica dT Bhagawil 
aad cdaWated a ietAniL The R6mmfmmi4m KdmHfmu Iwill a <Ai^ at 
M m mpi ww over the eorpeical relict of Bhagawi, and ceUbrat^ a festival. 
The HVf/Jletfijptei hrahiaaiia beUt a M^pe at HV/fActft/e evet the eorpo* 
real lelics of BhagawA, and celebrated a feativaL The Pimi^m M^Hmma 
beilt a lA^^ at Piwi over the relica of Bhagavli* aad celebrated a festival 
Tbm KmriadrUm Mmliiaiu ba3t a M^^ at KtuimM over the eorporsel relica 
of Bhsgaw£» aad celebreted a CestivaL The brahnsaa Ma^ b«ili;a tkft^ for 
the iumkkdM .* and the PippUUwmrUm If erJent built a ik^ ai Pifpkm. 
IsiMHie over the chareoal, aad celebrated a festival. That there were eight 
ikiipo over the corporeal relica ; a ninth over the kumhkint f nd a tenth 
over the chsreoeU This is the origin of this asatter, (the erection of 
Mtf/ot.)— J. W. L. 

(9) Ti€r§ iscrt Sim j»e.«— This naow Is also written ^i« jiAe Me le. Hiaan 
thsang renders It ^e« p9 file h (In Sanscrit WSt%* SnhkMdrm), and translates 
In Chinese 5ACII Aien, that Is, « lAe g—dwft.* Hewasa master of these 
brihmsns, and attained the age of one bondrsd and twenty years. He was 
contemporary with Anas aad the other dlsdples of Sikya Mnai whose doc- 
trine he adopted^^Xl. 

(11) Tht hero ^f /Ae ditm§mi seqi/rt.»That Is to say, the Bodhlsattwa, 
Vtjr&pdmi, so called becanse he holds In his hand a kfaid of scntre of die- 
mond, or a thanderbdlt. 

The name of this BodUsattwa k translated in Tibetan Pkp^mk ne rdor 
TdsU, wLMfA Ml riis idihi that Is, « he who holds In his hand the diamond 
seeptre/ Hie Mongols often dlsftgere the naase, writing It Vtchir bani, 
which they prononnce Oiekir lenl* Pallas and Georgl have given a figure 
of thU divinity. 

Hinaa thsang baa given the aame Bodhlsattwa the title of yhe hero of 
the hidden trace of the geaios of the diamond sceptre/ When^ saw that 
Foe was abont to die, he exclaimed In grief, •< The Jla Isf is abont to leave 
ns to enter the great nirvina { he will no longer Improve, he wOl no longer 
protect as. The poisoned shaft hath entered deep, the flaase of sorrow 
riseth np !" He then threw down his diamond sceptre, (the golden pestle 
of Fa hian) and in despair rolled himself in the dnst{ then risi4g np fell of 
grief and compauion he ezelaimed, ** In the vast ocean of birth aad of 
death who shall be oar boat and onr oar ? In the darhnets of a long 
night, who shall be onr lamp and onr match ?"* 

• Pittm J 1MB, B. LXX VII. art. 7. p. 3-4. 


Vajrtpibi it the leeood of the five Dkgmit or eelettial BodhiuHwt. 

(12) Wktrt tkt tight Umgt divided hU «A« H.— In the lenmd part of 
the iVt |Mii king we letdp that whea SJU[ja Mont had acooaapliahed Ua 
CUc pU (crematioa) in the Tillage of Kin $ki, all the neighbowbg atatea 
raiaedanniea to contend for hia fl«rmi» or reliqvea. There waa then • 
br^flMa who divided theae reliqmea into eight parte, in order that the eight 
Ungdoma anight eadi erect a tower in lionor of them. 

let. The Championa of the town of Kin $ki had a portion of the Mn're ; 
they erected a tower in the midat of their country and there made oiferinga. 

Sd. The Laity (in Sanacrit Vpanktt^ in Chineae Lg $tmg) of the kingdom 
of Ph% kiam U pkt, obtained a pert of theae reliqnea, with wluch they ra« 
Uimed to their conntry and there erected a tower in Tcaeration of tliem. 

3d. The Kin leom /• of the kingdom of the Siu Ha nmpkv^ the aame. 

4th. The Kahatryaa of the kingdom of ^ It eAt, the aame. 

Sih. The Br£hmana of the kingdom of Phi neon, the aame. 
• 6th. The LI chhe of the kingdom of Ml /i(FAi«A«iO» the aame. 

7th. The Sikyaa of the kingdom of CA« lo Ajfl fe, the aame. 

8th. The king ^eiletiU of the kingdom of JfeAMlAe* the aame.^'—Kl. 

(14) ITAcrtf lAe Li ehke witked h ftttow Fm.— Mr. Abel Kemnaat bad 
tranakted thia paasagOt " At the place where the Chn chhe li wiahed to 
follow Foe in hb pan ni honan ;'' bat the Inhabitanta of the town of Pki 
9ke H (Vaiaili) are here apoken of. Theae Ibnned a repnUic, and called 
themaelTea in Sanacrit Liekekiwi^^Li eAAe, in the Chmeae tranacrip. 
tlon. Urn aame exprcmion ia likewiae fonnd in the Ni pom Mmg, Heon fm, 
inhere thia diriaion of the reliqnea ia apokea of. The aaaBO of Vaiaili ia 
abridged PkiHt ««AndaUthe JUeAeAtwIof that town had their ahaieof 
tho reliqnea. aa well aa the laiea of Kim ehi, the CkJkm H ii (Kahatriyaa) of 
il te cAe, and the PAo la mat (br^hmana) of PAi nton.— KL. 

(15) F9i inferred m Aappg 9mm fnm Ait po/.— In the • Abridgment of 
tho doctrine of Boddha Gantama.' written in Singaleae and pnbliahed by 
Bfr. Upham^weread; •« He (Boddha) waa aeated near the riter iVSrni|r«r« 
when he dirided the rice into ibrty-nine balla, wUch he ate. He then 
thiww the golden pot into tho itream, reflecting that if it ahonid float againat 
tho eamnt. tie ahonld nltimately attain Bnddbahood* Iho mirado indeed 
neearred, and ho proeeeded enwarde with renewed ardoor."—ia. 

(16) TodetaaaUthcae etenU in tho lid of Sakya MnnI wonM reqnire 
that we ihonld have aoeeaa to hie oompleto biograpbyy whSeh ia not ataila* 

• ifi pen ting tfiin /an, qool«l in the Smm («wf /b a^ij 6. XXXL p. ^Sb 

840 ntoMMAOB oy va biait. 

80fMlpiIlmfc«f«bMadiMavmAiBCliiiM|ghbMfflModU Blr^HodlpM 
hat 4g«i«< ana d0ieribed*thtt at Mathia betwixt Bettiah and tha Ganddu 
AnotlMr oiataatBadlila tetha aaaa diitriet, and a tUid aaar Bakra on 
tlMhighroad toHijipora. None ol tlicae kowem ia tiw pUlar deaarUiad 
by onr pOgriai and Uionan thnnf. aa thej were all eieeted by Aaoba and are 
Inaoribed vitb an edict of that prinea-i «nlcia« Indeed* we anppoae with Pro* 
fesaor VOaon that Hlonan thiaqg taw that of Mathia« bat waa BBialarormcd 
aa to the pmrport of the Inaeription \ a anppoaition which doea not appear to 
BM ftry probable. Tte pillar allnded to in the text haa, therefore* yet to 
be diaeotered.— J. W. L. 


Kiagden ef PU afaa E-Tower of half of the body ef A nan.-<2aijfen ef the 
woman An pho k^PUee where Foe ealerad wnrina.— Tower o( the bows 
aad depooled araM.— A aan enlieatelh not Foe to remain in the wc^ld.— Col- 
leeiion ef the nela and the pieeepla of Foe. 

Theiiee proeeeding five yeon yim' to the east, yon eome to the 
kingdom of PM ske /i." Here are a great forest and a chapel of 
two stories ; it was one of the stations of Foe, and here you see 
the Toteer o/kal/of ike body of A nan.* There lived formerly 
in this town a woman named Ah pho fo/ who ereeted a tower to 
Foe ; and still to the south of the town^ distant three lu and west* 
ward of the road, you see the garden ipihich this woman gave to 
Foe^ and which b one of the stations of the latter.* When Foe 
was on the eve of entering ni houan, he with his disciples 
issued from the town of PAi «Ae it by the western gate, and turn- 
ing round to the right/ and casting hb eyes upon the town of PAf 
ake iit he prophesied to liis disciples, saying, ** It is here that the 
last of my acts will take place.*'* Men of after times have there 
erected a tower. 

Three /i to the north-west of the town there is a tower named that 
of the bowi and deposiied arms. What gave rise to the name is 
• PuM i tinn, B. LXIW art. 9. p. 3. 


fliis ; It happened that on the Vank of the river JSifJi^/ one of the 
inferior wives of the king was delivered of a hall of flesh. The 
principal wife of the king observed, ''That which thou hast 
brought into the world b a ugn of evil angoij.*' They put it 
into a wooden cofifer, and cast it into the river Heng ; the coffer 
followed the course of the stream. There was a king^ who looking 
about observed the coffer on the surface of the water ; he opened 
it, and beheld a thousand little children extremely well formed. 
The king took them and brought them up. Afterwards, be« 
Gommg great, thqr waxed strong and valiant, and none whom they 
attacked could withstand them, but were obliged to succumb* 
They came to attack the kingdom of the king their father. The 
latter was terrified. The inferior wife asked him the cause of 
his dejection. He answered, "The king of such a country has 
a thousand sons exceedmgly valiant, and without their equals ; 
they are coming to attack my kingdom, and this is the cause of 
my sadness." The young woman replied, "Grieve not, but 
construct a lody pavilion to the eastward of the town ; and when 
the enemies come, you shall place me on the pavilion, and I under- 
take to resbt them.'* The king did as she said ; and when the 
enemies were come, the young woman, placed in the pavilion, thus 
addressed them ; " You are my children,'* said she ; " why come 
you thus to rebel and to make war upon us T* '* Who art thou," 
replied the enemies, " who callest thyself our mother f* Then 
the young woman replied, "If you believe me not, stretch 
towards me your mouths !*' Then pressing with her hands her 
two breasts, she caused to issue from each five hundred jets of 
milk, which fell into the mouths of her thousand sons. These 
enemies acknowledging then that she was their mother, deposited 
their bows and their arms» and the two kings, in consideration of 
thb event, obtained each the dignity of Pg cki foef The two 
towers ofthesePycAtybe exist to this day. The HmuNruU^ One* 
of^/ier Agt% who have accomplished the law, have declared to 
their disciples that it was here that the Uifm% and ike wrtme were 
depaeiied i men of sabseqiient timea having kamt HiM, erected n 

213 m»mnuBm or va ruit. 

tower in dus plaee, and lieiiee its name. The thootiiid ehndim 
are the fhonsand Feet of the Spo^ ^Me S^t^9.^ Foe flndtog 
himself at the tower of the bourn md depotited wrrni^ warned A 
nam, tajring to hiniy **In three months henee I must enter m 
kouan.** The kmg of the demons disturbed A nan and prerent* 
ed him from entreating Foe to remain in the age.'* 

At three or fonr li fW>m tins phce there is a tower. A hnn* 
dred years after Foe had entered ni kouan a mendicant of 
Pi she li coUected aU his aets and ereij thmg referring to the 
ten forbidden tUngs of the law, accompanjing them jrith the 
Terjr words of Foe. It is thus that at a more recent period, n 
convocation of arhans and mendicants, who maintained the pre* 
cepts and were all doctors, seren hnndred ecclesiastics in alt 
examined anew the treasure of the Laws." Subseqnent people 
hate erected a tower at this place, which still exists. 


(1) JSf* jpieii jrcM.^TircBty or ft? e and tvnty aoiflet. 

(2) Th« Uagdoa ef Pki ««# K. This to Um ChiocM traieriptioa of 
the Mm« of the fonnerlj fomow town of VMitdii, wiofv I la Mi Ve$dii 
•nd VuMtipm pmHi te Tibetan ^ffC; VXl*^!^* r«iift hm ifUm. Tbe Mongols 
liavo pmenred the Suiaerit name Fetid/i Mf Umwi, * the towa <^ Vmnii . ' 
ItiacelehimtedaatheretideBceofSakjaMiiiiiandCheiceneof bh preach. 
ing. He cane thither on the ioTiUtion of the LiekekiHs, the iohahitanU of 
Vaisall,who had a republican GoTemmeat, and were very wealth j. HtMn 
ikiamf tiiited V«sili ; he traaaeribca the naoieFW aJle if, aod taja that the 
eonntry appertaias to Mid-India. He makea it 5000 U fai drenmCRvnce, and 
laya that the toil ia fertile, prodacing fruite, flowera, and graaaea. It pro. 
dncea aaanj An wen la and Ifaoii eke frnita. Tbe eonntry ia ricl|, the tern, 
peratnre pleaaant and snljeet to few viciatltndea. Tbe nanncra .of the 
people are gentle; and the people themieWea content with their &appy cir. 
ouaatancea. As to their creed, it ia a medley of the falae and trie. More 
than a hnndred Kim Urn (nonastcrics) are in mhia. There ranuui^bat three 
or .ftTO, in whidi there are bnt very few religiona diaciplca t theae haTO aboat 
ten chapels, Uto mingled with the heretica, and appear in fact scarcely 
different from then. The town of Fet «Ae It is at present fallen to ruin. 


Tbe mdent mOlt are 60 to 70 /i in dreamferenee, and the fort (Kouki 
cAJiMf , town of the paUee) 4 or 5. It ia no longer inhabited.*— KI« 

The aite of Phi tile U (the Vwaii of the Hindu, the Witali of Pili 
bookat and tbe Ytmg9pm tkmm of the Tibetana) ia caaiif identified froaa the 
namtiTe of onr traveller. It will be aeen that thia city waa fonr yojanu 
diatant froaa the Gangea and on the eaatem bank of the Gandak. Preciiely 
in thia locality, betwixt the towna of Sinhiya and Bakra are to be found 
large monnda, brick rebbiah, and other nnmiaUkeable endence of the former 
caiatenoe of a large dty on the apoC Theie have been described in the 
JwmuLl ^AmUOo eocieiyt Vol. IV. p. 128 by Mr. J. Stephenson, who also 
■wntiona the renuurkable pillar alluded to in n former note. " Thia auperb 
monument ia the only remaina of former grandeur that haa escaped the 
ravageaoftime,owingtotheaoUdityof iUatrueture. The smooth polish- 
«d ahaft la an immense solid block of sbmU grained reddiah coloured saod- 
•tone, surmounted by a singular and beautiiul sculptured capital, on which 
leatanaquare tabular Uock, aupporting a well aculptured lion in a sitting 
posture of the same materiaL Thia pillar seeaas to have no pedestal, though 
Crmn the soft and alluTial nature of the ground on which' it atanda, it ia 
reasonable to suppose that it must have aunk and buried itself deep in the 
■oiL • • * • Tbe numerous magnificent (though old) tanka amounting 
Co about 50 in number large and small, strengthen the general opinion that 
thia place la the ate of a large city, at a remote period inhabited by a nu« 
■Bcroua and cifilixed wealthy people.'* I think there need be little doubt 
that thia waa the aite of Feiaelf , so long supposed to be Allahabad, and one 
ttf the moat famoua of S«kya*a atationa, or placea of sojourn and religious 
inatructioa. It ia well worthy of a non thorough Investigation* It waa 
Crom theae mine that the firat atatue of Buddha with the celebrated 
iaseription *' FeiUcrsM keim prtthUva/* &e. waa found. 

Starting from Phi ahe U na n wdl aacertained point and retracing our 
pilgrim*B atqpa according to his own distance, and bearings, we shall havo 
Ua route firom 6k€ vat and the approziasate poaitiona of JCq^tlaocf /«, Xen 
!«•• and inai< confirmed. The length of hia yojana In Magadha will be 
feoBdhowever not greatly to ezeeed 4 aaOea aa will he further proved by 
UadiataBceafaiaouthBehar. On the aubject of the length of the yojana^ 
the following obeervatioBa by Wilferd are not iaappoaite. After quoting 
WmfB aeeount of the diatanee of P&libothri ftom the eonfiuenee of the 
JaBsaeandtheGanfea,lwreasarka*'thalMegastheBe8 aayathe Ugh waya 
lmlma^wm% m ea sui ed» and that at the end of n eerlein iiulia» mMrmre 
(^IchliMtMaMdbnl U said to be equal to f m afMBe) thiie «u « e^^ 
^ Fissiikn,B.LXIV*ait.A.pba. 


244 ni^RiMAOx OF ri hi Air. 

jHwrtetttC i t ft iw WBrtdU No iMbm vmim mmviii If thk bst 
tteMhMBforMCmo^iiedAfforybiirlo ay^MM. TUtkWHlnda 
•tatate Aff^aod equl to 1*227 BritiA mikf. It li «m4 to tiib daj by 
attroDOBim and bj tha inbabitaata of tbe Ftajab, bcaos it ia Wrj often 
cdlad tba Frn^M JTat « thns tbe dittaiiea horn Labor to Mmlt<a ia rackoa • 
ed to tbia daj 145 Pm^M, or 90 commoo K99. •• AHmtie XtiHtrekef^ 
VoL V. p. 274. It ia not a little remarkable tbat tbe lengtb of tbe yejmo 
in tba nortb-weet of lodia u determiQed by Capt. Ales. Cnmingbam; from 
oar pilg;rim'a diataaeet, nanely witbin a fraetioa of 7 anilea* beafi preeiicly 
tbe tane proportion to tbe Magadbl jfq/enoi determined from tba tame sonree, 
aa tbe Panjabi doce to tbe eommon Kroa. Tbe learned Colebrooke* makea 
tba Stmdard JTrat eqnil to 2^ Englisb miles nearly* and tbe eompntcd 
JTrof balf tbat, or l^tb.— J. W. L. 

(3) Oae U{f tke body •/ A nen.— We iball tea in tbe next diapter bow 
tbe wrir% of A nen were dispoied of.-^KL * 

(4) A woaian named Am pka /e.— Hinan tbsang writea tbia name Am 
Men le.~Kl. 

F^fetior WOflOB eonjeetarea tbii boly woman to be tbo Akayiot tbe 
Hindu, wbo lired at Vaiiali at tbe time of Bama'e Tisit; bnt I make no 
doabt tbe it tbe Awtbapdli of tbe Pali Bdddhiatieal Annale, and tbe if mra. 
tiyea^.aM of tba Kah^gywr^ described in tbe latter work aa a celebrated 
barlot of Km^f-jMi-eAen (VmUmliJ* Tbe story of ber amoara witb Vimba- 
sira is given in tbe DhZ-m ; wberf also sbe is described as ^terttinlng 
Sikya witb great splendoor inJier grore or garden near Vaisali. As tbe 
whole cirenmstanee ia interesting from tbe light it throws upon ancient 
Indian maaners, I shall give it in detail as narrated in the F&li annals. 
** Tbe eovrtesan Ambapdli baring heard that Bbagaw£n had arrived at W4. 
s&li and wu sojoomiog in her garden Ambap^iiwano, equipping a saperb 
vehicle for herself, and magnificent eonveyanoes (for her snite). Setting oat 
from W^i£li, proceeded U* the garden, using those conveyances u far as they 
eoold be used ; and the rest of the way, descending from the vehicle, she 
proceeded on foot, and waited on Bhagaw&n.' Having approached and bow- 
ed down to him, she took her scat on one side of him, Bha||aw£n theu 
addressed the eonrtesan Amhepili^ who was thus seated by his side, a dis- 
course upon dAaaime. He confirmed her faith, comforted her, and made 
her steadfMStly confide (therein). She who had been thus coafifmed ia her 
faith, comforted, and made steadfastly to eonfide (therein), addressed Bha« 
gawin, saying { Lord Bhagaw^ ! vouchsafe to accept the rep4st I shall 
prepare for thee, u well as thy disciples, to-morrow. Bhagaw£n, b j his silence 
• Au Bti. vol. V. p. 105. 


eoBseiited to •eeept the taoM. The eourtenii Amiapdii Uiereby vniler* 
•tuding that th« inYitation wis acoepted bj B«d<lbo» rising from her watt - 
and perfonaing the prndaikkimam (waHdag retpeetfally roanfl him) thrioe« 
departed." Oa her retarn, eontinoes the translator, she meets the rnlera 
of Wei£U, lepiaring to itat^e/M/iiMaOv gorgedoslj apparelled, and in superb 
cqnipagcs. Her saile compel them to make way for her, and she declines 
acceding to'their eaiveaty to resign to them the honor of entertaining Bnd« 
dha the next daj ; and Bhagawia himself, thoagh aoUetted bj these chiefs, 
adheres to his promise made to the coortcsan. He attends aeoordinglj, and 
he and his disciples are senred bj her own hands. Alter the repast, she 
takes her seat egain beside him, and Implores him to accept the Amb^pdii 
garden as- an offeriag to himself and his disciples. The offering is accept- 
ed ; and be preaches another sermon at her boose. 

There seems to ha? a been no derogation to his dignity in being entertain- 
ed by persona of Ambapali'a calling and character ; for S&kya appears on 
other occasions to have been stnulsriy finowodby the Thais or Aspasiaof tho 
town in which he happened to sojonm. 

Ur. Tamonr quotes a passage from the 2Ua of tho MahaYanso, which 
would lead us to enfier thai there waa an office, called Ckiff ^f ike CQurietwut 
inslitated at W^s&U. '' Upon a certain occasion, the Lichchawl rajas con* 
suited together, and came to the resolution, that It would be prejudicial to 
their capital, if they did not keep up the office of •• NaggarasubhinI tharan- 
taran," (diief of courtesans, or of the beauties of the town). Under this 
impression they appointed to that office a lady of unexceptionable rank. One 
of these rsjaa reeeiving her Into his own palace, &c"— There is mentioii 
made In M. de Coriie' analyais of the Ifdo of a pious woman named Na^mrm 
mmtamhikm, who presented aUmp to Sakya; no further details are gtTcn 
Rgaiding her In the short abstract of M. de C, but we asight infer from 
her name thai she Is another example of asiasilar oflkiaL 

The dassiesl reader will not fail to recall many passagas, particularly in 
tho dfaBBatie literatnre of the aadenta, which Indicate an analogous coodi* 
Hon of society In Gieece and Rome. On this subject Pkofessor Wilson V^ 

the fbUowing Interesting leamrks: *'Tho defeetlTe education of 
the lirtnoM portion of the sex and their consequent unlntersating ehancter, 
held out UB IndaoeHseat to tho nnprindpled members botii of Greek 
aikl Blnln ioeiety, lonar a chas of Csmales, who should supply thoae 
wUdi lundorad homo cheeriess. And should gifo to msn hetmra* 
Ionia, and^ asaodatsa in Intellsrtnal as weU as in 
AoovtMnof thiaelaaB inqpiiod no abhononees aho 
V Ikw her faifaqr to tho Ufa sho protesadt wUdi 


24& HMitnuoB or va uum, \ 


gneUkf hm aeeoaplithmmttt and aot rafriqwBtly digidMI bj her ?ir« 
tnct* Her dtoegard oif loeUl rettraiat was not tlie Tolwitaiy bteaeh of 
BMWilf aoeialt or icUglova prcee pta I it ivas tlM boaiaaaa of her adveation to I 

minister to pleasare, and in the iaperfoet sjstem of the Greeks, wie eooi. 
mitted Uttlo or no tretpasa against the institntea of the national creed, or 
the nuumera of sodetj* Th^ Hindu principlca were more rigid, and not i 

vnlf waa want of chastity in a female a capital breach of aoeial and religU I 

otts obligatioiis, but the aisoctatioa of men with profesied i^tons was \ 

eqnal nolation of decomn, and, intolTing a departure from tlie pnrity of 
caste, waa considered a tirtnal degradation from ranlc insod'sty ; ia practice 
howerer, greater latitude seemed to have been obtenred, and in the Mricbch* 
kati, a brahmant a man of Cunily and repute, incure apparently no dis- 
credit from his lore for a conrtetan i a still more carions feature is, that 
his passion lor such an object aeema to excite no sensation in* bis family 
nor uneasinesi in his wife ; and Uie nurse presents his child to his mistress, 
as to its mother ; and his wife besides interchanging civility (a little cold- 
ly, perhaps, but not compuIsiTdy) finishes by calling her sister, and 
acquiescing therefore in her legal union with her lord. It must be'acknow* 
ledged that the poet has managed his story with great dexterity, and the . 

interest with which he has invested his heroine pre? cuts manncra so retolt. i 

iog to our notions, from being obtrusiTcly oflensive. No srt was necessary, ( 

in the estimation of a Hindu writer, to provide his hero with a w^e or two, 
more or less ; and the acquisition of an additional bride ia the ordinary cata- 
strophe of the lighter dramas." It requires no very intimate acquaintance 
with Hindu manners to trace the influence of this loose morality in tlie 
} resent day.-^. W. L. 

(5) One qf ike iiatiomi ^ Foe, 1. a. one of the plaoea where he had 
|;r<ached the law to his disciples.—- Kl. 

(6) J^mimg round io ike rt^Af .—-The expression here employed by our 
learned pilgrim has perhaps more significance than at first appear^ Accord- 
ing to a whimsical notion of Buddhists, all Baddhas, aa well as Chakkra« 
vartti rajahs, are peculiarly formed in the neck, having a single bone in* 
stead of the usual cervical vertebrae. Hence they are unable to look uide 
without turning the entire body after the manner of dephanta. On this 
account, the farewell look here spoken of by Fa l&ian, is elsewhere denomi- 
nated the ** EitphMi^iook ai raiM/i." In the Pali Buddhistrcal Annals 
we sre told, that when Sakya wished, on the night of his escape from hia 
father's palace, to cast a farewell glanee at Kapilavastu, the spot on which 
his horse stood, turned half round, ** like a potter's wheel,*' doubtless In con* 
»i<!crat:on of the inflexibility of neck of which we now speak.—- J. W. L. 


(7) Theie teem to hare been some doubt about the czaet metmng of 
tUe tenteuoe in the originaL M. Bemunt, tramktet it. •• This ie the 
plaee to which I ihell icturn m long tame beoee." The tertioa in the test 
ie by M. Kleproth. 

(8) Tkt river ^en^.— The Chineie tnnicription of Gangik— the Ganges. 
Hinan thMng wiites it Kkin^ iHo.— Kl. 

(9) The rauk of /> eki >W,— L e. Pratyeka Buddha. (See Chap. XIII. 
Bote 13.)— KL 

. (10) Tke epoch e/Safte.^ln Chinese, If urn kieg in Sanscrit «npv«l, 
Bkmirekmlpmt * the en of Tirtuous sages.' According to the cot mogony of 
the Buddhists, the mundane systems succeed each in perpetual renewtls and 
destructions, haTuig their origin at the second Dhy&ns, in the kalpa or 
tpech ^ihe fimmdaiimu The sueeessiTe formation of the Tmrious regiona 
of the worid occupies an iutermedimU kmlpm^ or the twentieth pert of the 
kmlf ^ike/oumdation. It is only on the completion of all these forma- 
tiona from the regions of the gods to the surfisce of the earth, and u far as 
mount Sumeru, that they become peopled by beings who proceed from the 
third region of the eecond Dhyana, which is also the most elcTsted. This 
population continuee during nineteen intermediate kalpas, till the origin . 
of the infernal regiona and the time when the life of man is reduced from 
innummble years to 80,(M)0. Then begins the second period, which is the 
kmipa ^ kabiiaiiom or of eiMbiiUy, During this kalpa, u thousand Bud* 
dhaa must appear to renew by turns the Buddhic doctrine, aod for this 
leeson it is designated the BkadrmMprnt or kalpm pf Hriwnie eagu* The 
Unt intermediate kalpe lasts till the age of man is reduced from 80,000 
years to 10 s then follows the second intermediate kalpa, in which the age 
of man reaeoends to 80,000 jeers ; and so for serenteen such rerolutions, 
urUch then complete the greet kalpa. 

The kalpa in which we lire is the Bkadrakmipm, w iaipa of the ▼irtnons 
■ages. A list of all the thousand Buddhaa of this kalpa, who have 
already appeared, has been printed in China, in Sanscrit, Tibetan, Mend* 
chn, Mongolian, and Chinese. A similar list may be found in the Maha* 
yana Sutra, BktutrmkmtpimgfOt which has beea translated into Mongol. Mr. 
J. J. Schmidt, has extracted from these two works the list of the thousand 
Bnddhas in Sanscrit. (Udier Die Tausead Buddhas, rsad at the Academy 
of St. Petersbuigh, 10 Oct. 1832).— KL 

(1 1) TV reaiifia m the i^^— -Hinan thsaag thus reports this eYcnt accord* 
lag to the legend. *« Hard by the garden of ^n mea Is, there is a tower 
ewctod hi the place where Foe announced his Nirrana. Foe being here, 
asidto^aMh ^'HotiMthaa frthoBMd the primal cause of the four tpedci 



of MpOTHitaffil propcrtiM (ia SuMerIt ^rf%) auj ■—■i» n «te Kd|»« 
im tte world. Now I Imto aeeoBplblied this ogo| Im# nodi longor 
•hooU IiooMtelathoworldr' Thrico didiM npcoft the fooote; boft 
▲ MB aaswoiod oot» for the heofODlj Men bad darkened hie oodcrstaBdiBg. 
A BaB tfaoB loao from hie aeat and proceeded lo tlie foiett to Meditate in 
■ileBce. The priBce of th^ M&raa thea approached Foe» and said ; ^ The /» 
ltd hath been loH ^ the world I He hath eoBTcrted asd sated as ninj as 
thero he graiBs of saad iB the dast. Now the Buddha hath attaibed sneh 
sdTSBced age as aiakes it well for him to eater Birr^Ba.^ The Vepetable of 
tlie Age thea took a little carth« and pUdag itoa theaailof his fiager, uked 
tlie 3I£ra9 ** b thero Biofo earth oa all the terrestrial snrface thaa oa aiy 
liager ?" The Miva rqilicd, '« Thero is mon earth oa tlie terrestrial ear. 
foce." Thea said Baddha : ** The aamber of beings vliom I hare coBTert« 
ed and sared, is as the little esrth apoa B17 finger t wliile the abeoBTertcd 
anastboBisssof the whole eartlu Nerertbdess, ia three noaths beaco 
I shall eater airriaa." Hie prince of the Miras baTing heard this went 
awaj satisfied* and withdrew to bis ordinary abode. 

A nan being in tlie forest droamt tliat be beheld a groat tree, whoee wide 
spread brandies, wen corered with a beantifol thidc foliage* offering a 
pleasant shade. Saddealj a frightful storm aroect uprooted thai tree, and 
scattered it la frsgmeats. A aaa thea thonght, *f Is the Veaerible of the 
Age about to eater Nirvana? My heart foara it !" He tbei^went and 
enquired of Foe, «bo answered, *' Already have I warned thee of it, but 
thou wert darkened by the M&ra. The king of the Maras hath bat aow 
left me, aad to him haro I promised sooa to eater Birrfiaa. Qiehold the 
parport of thy dreeai.''* 

The inT» ^^* ^ Chiaese Ifo, ia TSbetsa X(S^ ^^**^» ^ Mongol 
Simnom or Shiwrnom, in Mandchu^W, aro powerfol demons, who dwell in 
the heuTen Par^nMitmrni avriUi (• that eierdses a power orer the meta- 
morpboies produced by others'). This heaven is placed immediately 
bdow that of the first Dby&na 1 and is the fourth above the Trayastrinsa, 
or thirty-three inhabited by Indro and the genii, subject to his authority. 
The Maras reign orer all the six heavens of the world of desires. The 
cbirf of the >Uru is named Mara in Sanscrit, aad Jtfe weii^ ia Chiaese. 
Ho is the Kmmm or god of pleasuro of the Hindus. The M&ras aro the ro. 
doubted eaemies of Buddha and bis doctrine, which prindpally aimed at the 
eonquest of sensudity by every possible effort, and they employ % variety of 
pernicious mesnsto provent mankind from following that dodlrine. To 
this end they usume human forms, and appear in the world as bnetie phi- 
« F'mm i Ciee, D. LXVL art.9. p.& 


hMopban, iediieen» and tjranti. Sikym Moni Umielf iiiffered grtaHj 
from tlidr perteeatioB, aod liii uncle Devadrntta, who longbt to oouiteraet 
bim in crerj wuf. is regarded as an emanatioa of the M&ras. The life of 
the king of these demons is eqnal to about ten tboosand millions of years t 
Ibr one tboosand six bnndred of these make one daj of bis life, and be Urea 
eighteen tboosand of aach years. He beara the title of the * All powerM 
Happy One.* In spite of all their opposition to Bnddha and bis doctrine* 
the M&raa are not after aU his tme enemies s an4 in acting as they do, 
they bat augment the glory and eioellenee of his doctrine.-— KL 

(12) Ssammed anew /^ irtawrt ^f ike ixrwi.— According to the Mon* 
golisB History of Saaang Setaen, the first oompilation of the sayings and 
doetrinea of Bnddha waa made in the time of Aferyejtro, (Bimbas£r&) king 
of Magtdha. At that en, the three ehiefa of the clergy, Ananda, Chikbola 
Akcbi, Kasyapa, and five bnndred Arbans, assembled together at Fimels* 
jtrnm^i In ieimdi, and collected the aayinga of Bnddha relatiYO to the primary 
principles of bia doctrine, the four great troths* 

A bnndred and ten years after thai of the ninrina, when GkmaUmf 
emfhei nom-«n kka§hmi (Asoka) waa master of the gifts of religion, serea 
bnndred Arbans aasembled in the great town of Vmslli, and nnder the pre- 
aidence of the monk TtgSldem mnourUkian, collected hia saying relatiTO lo 
the principal mean of the doctrine, the nullity of all eziatenoe. This king 
iadnded in the collection of the words and imagea of the Glorious One, a . 
vaal number of objecta fitted for spiritual edification. 

Three hundred years after that, following the Nirvana of Sakya Munl» 
when Kaaika, king of OeidiM (or OmiekO was master of the gifts of reli- 
gion, it happened that an emanation of Xiamen (M&ra), named M&ha deta, 
became a derotee in the convent of JtOarndkarm, in the kingdom of GatekUm 
jramoffmur, and mixed up unnatural transformations (RiddJti KkomkUfkmi) 
with rsligioo. For this reason five hundred Dodhisattwas, five hundred 
Arbana, Itw hundred FsndiU, assembled under the presidence of Viekmrn 
milre, and collected Buddba*a dicta concerning the ultimate principle of the 
doctrine, which waa their final completion. This last obUectlon consists prin- 
dpsJIy of the Dktaranie or formulse of conjuration, &e* 

The Shastcr CUrkoim kereglekeki, transUted mto Mongol i and quoted in 
the notea of M.8Aaridt,eootaina the following notice of the dicta and doe- 
trinea of Buddbas -TU fiiat collection was made in the sumaser of Ibo 
year IbOowinf tiMtbi which Buddha entered nirT4na,at tiio bead oftiM 
liver Jteld, where Ananda and Itwt bnndrsd Ariiana oollcetad hia firal aay- 
i^B. The oeUection of infeennediate aayinga was Bsade one hundred and ten 
|1HB dlff tbt'KirWuM» lAcn aUfii^ eaf M AitUNmi ilAm, of tiM king- 

350 piuomiMAOB OP pa^ biait* 

4M«rAgted«^lMr,wif MtHroTftligloM. It wag mJ» by AwmmrHk»a». 
ilmdiWollitr AriyoMt wkoe«llMtoa tM lirtmMdiite fiwdt of 

^•Tliret livMrsd yean aflar Um entry of B«ddli» vpon alrfisa. at tha 
tloM when Kaiiika was BMtter of tha gifta af faUgion, ftra hudiad BodhU 
tattwas and ftta handiad Arhaaa* aaaenbled aadar the pfaaUanea of FZtA. 
mmiirm im tha ooavaBt of Jalaadri, la tha kli^dooi of KashiMri (Kaahni(r) 
andaoUaetadthalaatworaaofBaadha. AtthiaapoebaUthaaa;|nfa of Bad. 
dha were eoUeeted ia booki, and they adopted as his trna and {nfiillible doe<i 
trine fonr great seotiona whidi eontain eighteen snbdivisiofli. The first 
great seetlon is eompos e d of seten* the eeeond of threot theiidrd also of 
threat «m1 tlie Ibarth of ftve of theae aab^tvisions.*^ 

The three compilers of these books after the death of Bnddha were ^aan- 
.dk« UfMii and Kmifftg^m. ** A nan, says the F9U fa Msanp jm p?ia» ih'jif , 
signifies jMlmiiom in Ssnserit. He was the son of the king Hwfim wamg. 
He was bom on the Tery day tliat Baddha attained tha si^ren^e degree of 
fntelligenee. As on this oeeasion tha whole kingdoas was in a kate of joy. 
oosnesst A nan'recdTsd^this name* He followed Bnddha, embraced the life 
of an anchorite, and obtained the rank of Arhan* He is the fint among 
those * who had kewrd otaeA/ and was therefore in the better position to 
compile the tressvre of the law. After the death of tha Tsthiigata, he and 
3Isajasii conToked a great assembly in the * irom»girt momUaim^ and other 
placea where they collected the treasnre of the Sutra** Vprn^i^ signifies in 
Sanscrit, ' horn fy nuiamarpkoaU t* bat the word is alio explained to mean 

* ntptriar head,* becanse it waa he who best reed? ed the precepts ; and as 
he best nnderstood events, he assembled, after the death of the Xbthigata, 
fLtt hundred pioaa persons in the emvem afiht Pi pko h (the tree of Pko 
#0 snd with them compiled the Vmayat. Kasyapa ugnifieaHn Sanscrit 

* imbibed splendor/ It is said that his body was shining and reaplendent, 
and had the property of reflecting other objeeta. Alter the death of the 
Tath&gata, he conToked a great assembly in the cavern of Pi pko fe, and in 
other places where he compiled the AHUdkamuu.* Hinan thsaag statea 
that the sagea eagaged in preparing the compilation called ffht itamf, or 
the Three Tkeasnrcs, collected at first a handred thonsand Sioipa^t or donble 
verses of the ^^alrst of Sdkya Mnni, then a handred thonsand Sloioi of the 
Vimofoi, and lastly a hundred thousand Shkoi of the AhJddkmrma$ ; in all 
three hundred tboasand Slokas, containing aix million six hundred thou* 
»and words. 1^—ICL 

• Son Uougfm tou, B. XI. p. 7. 
t Picn i tiuu, B. LIII. p. 10* 



CoBBoenee of tht five ri? en.— NirvMM of A ou.— His dduh ia tht middle of 

At the disUmoe of four yeou yan* yoa come to the Con/uenee 
of the five rivers.* A nan, proceeding from the kingdom Mo kie 
towirds Phi eke U* with the intention of entering iit houan 
the gods informed the king A eke tA<^ of the drcnmstance. 
The latter, full of diligence, marched after him at the head of all 
his troops and arrived on the banks of the riTcr/ All the Li 
ckke of Pki eke U having learnt the arrival of A nan, came also 
to the interview* All having arrived at the river, A nan reflect- 
ed and considered, that if he should proceed in advanced die aili 
would await him ; if he should retrace his steps he would have 
the Li ekke following his footsteps. In his indignation he bomt 
himself in the middle of the stream; the flame of the eon wu^ 
consumed his body and he entered at AoMOJi. His body was divided 
into two parts, and one part was carried to each sUe of the river, . 
so that the two kings* had each a hslf of the «^ li of his body. 
They returned with these and erected towers.* 


(1) I'bar yfoii feat.— eboati^Bulet. // 

(2) 2!Ueoi;^it<nef^liU/MrtMrf.-*Fs]ueaeroiiedtlie£^^^ 

d£ki befora orrifiag §t Pki 9ke H, or VMuiii, as that toim wae litaatcd 
icvcfallilotliecaitor therlrer. Frooi VaikaU ho followed the kit bank 
of the Gaadikf to its eoaflaonoe with the Ganfoe near the preeent town of 
Uaj jpoie, and north of Fktna. Soferal rhrera fkU into the Ganges betwixt 
this place and the Sone, eo that It ia probable the adsbbonrhood bora la 
iMBcr tiaes te aoM of the^be ffiseri.— KL 

(9) FfmnMo»ieimMfd9FMa€li^'''^nMi€vmohom^bttVin^d»m9i 
Slofndha, vtaated en the aeath ef the Ga«cH,.aad cmssd that lifer en hie 

252 mAmniAOB of fa huk. 

wiftoTibfif. tooitar bMUm, sort pralMUy at tte mm plm wUrt 
IMaha kid deputed tte wotU^KL 

(4) /i|/brMd IJk ily il eJk tAI.--1U, «r nthOTil eic M^ 
eripdmi of a SMacrit word which aigiiillflt^ «*«*i^^«f to tha l|«t aeetioQ of 
tht Si pkm M^, • iU wAtf »«f«lt fM# iUAwr/ or « t»Ao MdtatW mumin.' 
Hioaathnac writw the bum of thb prlnee ^ leu #• jtiUltafo«» and ai. 
acrta that the aftdcDl orthography, it eAtftJU,beorra|il and abridged. The 
Sanaerit word ia^mnnC^O^ who begeto not hatted). Be iraa a king of 
Magadha. who reigned about 8C8 yeara before our era t for it la to that year 
that Chineie and Japaneie Chronology tefera the death of A liui or Anaftda, 
namdyv in the SOth of the XXXth leiagenary eyele, and the 11th of king 
Li W9m§ of China, Ananda ainat have lived therefore 130 yean, u be was 
bora in the year when Sikya Muni obtained Boddhahood, that ia 998 of oar 
era.— KL 

It ia inpoaatUe hi the preaent atate of our knowledge to aeeonnt tatisfae. 
torily for the great discrepanej between tlie dironology of the Chincae, and 
IVana-Himalayan Bnddhiata and that of the Bnnneae, Singhalese and Sia- 
meie ; hot it ia not diiBcvlt to ahow that the former fnraahea anfficient 
nateriala for Its own eomplete refittatlon. In the first plade ; all autho- 
ritiea eoncnr in referring the death of Sikya, to the reign of JJmtaiatm. 
Now aeeording to the dironology of the Vdyu and Jfe/jye '^Purdmoi, this 
prince flourished about 243» or aeeording to the VUhnu Purina (in which 
the reigna of the Saisunaga princea are made to aTerage 36 years), about 
280 years before Chmndr^gupta s and aa the latter waa a contemporary of 
Seleueus Nicator* who reigned fh>m 310 to 303 B. C. we have but to add 
three centuriea to the above numbera to determine approiinii^y the era of 
Sikya'a death. If we adopt the dironology of the Vi$u and Maisya, the 
result will very closely ooinddewith the Burmese and Cejlonese date of 
that event, namely 544 B. C. In the second plaee, the northera authori^ 
ties aver that the second revision of the seriptuiea took place 110 years 
after the death of Sakya, in the rdgn of Aaoka. But the w^ ascertained 
era of thia prince (about the middle of the third century before Christ) is 
violently inconsistent with Chinese and Tibetan chronologies, which fix the 
Nirv4na rcspectivdy In 949 and 882 B. C. On the whole the balance of 
evidence and probability ia greatly In favour of the Burmeae and Singhalese 
determination of this epoch ; and I think there need be no hesitation in 
affirming that Sakja flourished towarda the eloae of the seveath and in the 
earlier part of the sixth centur j before Christ. The events spoken of in the 
text must have occurred towards the dose of the sixth century.— >J. W. L. 

(5) On the banki ^Me rtrer;— >the Ganges par excellence. 


(6) TkiJUma ^hk mm mm.— Th« bodies of the Buddliat, Bodhisattwit* 
ttad other taactified penoMgei m, aeeordinc lo the Buddhist BOtioiis« heU 
to be ineoBbmttiblebyBatiinaiiro, beii^consomable only by that of ^mf^ 
8am£dhi« tnoseribed fai Chinese SamwuSs that is to sej, the fin of pco- 
fooad nligloiu meditntion* whieh Issnes ftosi the body of the defnack, end 
oonsnoMS it, in order to reprodoee it ia all the beanty with whid^ U was 
odomedinlife.*— KL 

(7) TAtf Art Auytd— It wonld appear that thengb the inhabita&ta of 
ValsiUhada fepnbQean goremnient, they had aerertheless nkhif. The 
twoUafsofonrteitara^eileaJUof Magadha, aind the chief, whoefer ho 
was, of the £j eM#, or Udicfaawf of ValailL— KL 

(8) Amd kmUi lsiMr«.P-One of these towers, ooataiaiag a BMisty of 
Che leliqaes of Aaaada, has already beea meatioaed as bdomiaf to thli 

lofTaisilL— KL 


KiDgdom of Mo lue thiw-Towa of Pa liaa fon^Monnt Khi ehe kia.-Moantain 
raised by the Genii.— AnoiverMry festival of the birth of Fee^Hospitals.— 
Print of the feet of Fee.— Inseriptionw-Town of Ni Ii« 

Crosnng the mer and proceeding southward one yeou yan,* 
you arrive at the kingdom of Mo kie iki,* and the town of Pa 
iUm ftm^ Thb was the capital of king A yu. The pakces of 
the king within the town hare walls, the stones of which were 
put together by the genii. The scdptores and the ctnred work 
whidi adorn the windows, are snch as cannot be equalled in the 
present age; thcj still exist. 

The joonger brother of the king A yic,* having obtuned the 
doctrinal degree of Arhan, dwelt constantly in the noontams 
Kkieke Am/ where he delighted himself in leisure and repose. 
The king^ who revered him. beseeched him to come and perform 
divineworship inhbpahm; but the prince pleased with his 
tnmquil abode among the monntam% refused to accept the invi- 
• See Chap. XXIV. nets 4. ^ »7. 


tatioD. Tjiie lung then said to bis younger brotl^: ^'Only 
aeoept my inntation and I aliall caoso a mountain to. be raUed 
foryon in the midst of the town/' The king canaed meaf and drink 
, to be hcought, and called the jgenii, and said to them :-««<Aecept» 
all of yoa» my inTitation for to-morrow ; but yon ma^t not seat 
yoorselTes at table till each hath made me a present.'* Ij^extdayall 
tbe genii brought, each on^ a large stone four or Art paces square. 
When the assembly was orer, he charged the genii to construct 
a great mountain of stone* and to erect at the foot of the moun- 
tain with fire great square stones, a stone*house, three dkanp 
long» two wide^ and about 1 chang high. There was then a 
br^man of the Gretit Tratulatian, named Lo that tnc pho mi, 
who dwelt in that town ; he was enlightened and full of wisdom; 
there was nothing that he did not fundamentally nndci^tand ; he 
maintained himself in perfect purity. The king conferred upon 
him all manner of honours, obeyed him as a master, and when 
he went to consult him, dared not to sit in his presence. The 
king in token of his respect and regard, took him by the hand ; 
but after he had done so, the brihman immediately washed him* 
self. For more than fifty years the eyes of the kingdom and its 
confidence were placed upon this single man. He extended and 
spread abroad the Law of Foe, so that the heretics could not 
resist its prcTalence. 

The body of the ecclesiastics founded rery lofty and Tcry 
beautiful Mo ho yan Sen kio Ian* near the towers of king 
A yu. There are also temples of the Leu T^antiaHotf^ inhabited 
by altogether six or seren himdred ecclesiastics. There are 
also to be seen colleges admirably built in a serere and majestic 
style. SAa M^n of lofty Tirtue, from the four quarters of the 
globe, and students in quest of instruction in philosophy, all 
repair to these temples. The masters of the sons of Brahmans 
are called also fFen eku siu /i.' In this countiy, the Sha men of 
exalted virtue are of the Great Translation ,• the Pi kheiw follow , 
their example and obey them; and those that dwell in the teng 
kia Ian ere all of the Kingdom of the Middle.* 


The towns and cities of tlus kingdom are great ; the people 
rich, fond of discussion, hut compassionate and jnst in all their 
dealings. Eveiy year in celebration of the eighth daj of the 
moon Jfao/ they prepare four-wheeled cars on which they erect 
bamboo stages, supported by spears, so that they form a pil- 
lar two ehanff high, having the appearance of a tower. They 
cover it with a carpet of white felt, upon which they place the 
images of all the celestial divinities, which they decorate with 
gold and silver and coloured glass. Above they spread an 
awning of embroidered work; at the four comers are little 
chapels, having each a Buddha seated, with Boddhisattwas 
standing beside him. There may be about twenty cars, all 
differing from each other in their ornament and importance. 
On this day all the streets are thronged with the assembled 
population. Theatrical representations are exhibited, gymnastic 
sporty and concerts of music. The br^mans come to visit 
Foe; the Buddhas arrive in the town according to their order, 
and halt at the resting places. At nightfiJl they every where 
fight lanterns in the places where they perform gymnastic 
sports^ and where concerts are g^ven in honor of the ftte. 
People repair thither from all the provinces, and the delegates 
whon the chiefs of the kingdoms maintain in the town, have 
cadi established there a MediekU'^mtMe ^f kappineu and nr^ 
hie.*^ The poor, the orphans, the lam^ in short all the sick of \y 
the provinces repair ta these houses, where they recdve all that 
is necessaiy for their wants. Physidans examine their com* 
plamts ; they are supplied with meat and drink- according to 
expedience, and medicmes are administered to them. Everything 
contributes to soothe them : those that are cured go away of 
themselves. The king A yn, having destroyed seven towers 
creeled eighty-four thousand others. The great tower which 
lie first erected tt about three li south of the town. Before this 
town is the print of the feet of Foe;" thqr have there erected a 
temple^ the gate of wUeh is tnmed to the tower, and facet the 
To the soQlIi of the tower there it a pillar about four or 

256 ntAftlMAflS OP PA RUK» 

iittkm^lafinmokttoottWDdntUut thiee elbiy high ; upon 
this jSSkg is an inscription to this effect t—'*11i0 king ^ jm gare 
fan/wMlAi to the priesthood of the four parts; he redeemed it 
from them nidi divers and this three ttmes." At tme or foor 
hundred paces to the north of this tower, the king A j^ formerly 
built the town Ni li\'* In the centre there is a piUsr of stone, 
also three ekang high, upon the summit of which Is placed a 
lion. Upon this pillar is an inscription which rehearses the 
foundation of the town of Ni li, the reason for building it, and 
the year, the daj, and the month. 


(1) Tk§ 9pM§ ^mu yMti jMm.— About 4 buIm. 

(2) Tk€ Hm^iom ^ Mo kU /At.— TIm name of this kisfdom it tnuuerib- 
cd by other CUineM rathon. Mo Hm IJto, tod Mo kio tko; ^U Mogodha^ 
or Sooth Bchtr, titntted tooth of tho Gtoget. Ft hitn Is the Ant Chineie 
tathor who attket montkm of this kingdooi, which In A. D, 64 7» tent ta 
cmbtsty to tht enporor Tin Itooiif of tho dyotitj of tho Tlfof • Accord* 
ittg to the teoooat of wottera ooontrica ■nnand to the l^tory of this 
dynasty, it tppertaiood to Mid*Iodit, tod was a hundred thouiand U in 
circwBforenee. Tht toil la fertilo and prodoeet different kinds of grain, 
amoopt othen a Ttriety of rico, called the ' Heo ^grtot /e//(t«* The king 
resides In the town of Jftn eke tie iopom It, called also Kim ttnoio pko /o, 
and town of Po to Hinif which eitendt on the north as f«r as the river 
Kimy kia (Gtnget). 

The MCBkoIr npon the western eonntriet onder tlio great Thtng dynuty 
also calls It the kingdom of Jfo Ho Mo, and gives It likewise one hundred 
thousand /i in dreoit. It adds that there were few large t^wns, hot many 
villages and hamlets. The emperor JTae /totmf of tho sanie dynasty, who 
reigned betwist A. D. 650 and 083, dispatched as ambassador to the king, 
dom of Magadlia Wong jraon ihoo, who erected a monnment with an in- 
scription in the temple Mokophomtki, At a later period the emperor 
7> iiotmf (780-804) presented a bell with an inscription to the temple of 
Xo Ira ikd. This Is the last mention of Magadha In Chinew history.* 

According to the last section of the Nij^hon king. Mo kia iko, or Maga- 
dha, signifies In Sanscrit ' cjreeti qfgoodneio.' — Kl. 
• Piom i (Ola, B. LX V. p. 8 MrM. 


TIm Nm Urn IJto mentioned ia the foregoiBg note b the NiUmd€ of the 
Mi Buddhistaeel aiiiiaU« lituted at one yojena distent from Raj^grihe. 
Sec note C» Chap. XXVIII.— J. W. L. 

(3) Tkt imtm rf Pm Usm /ok,— the eedent tmucHptioa of Palibothre* 
ao cddwited ia daineal hiatorj. Hivan thsang aaaftea it Pko tm li Uu 
cUMfythat iatoaay* the town of the Son of the (tree) Pho tali. We 
ahaU aee lower doim the orif in of thia namey which in Sanaerit (m4faM<l 
Ktallpntn) haa the aaoM aignification. The Chiaeae translate the latter 
part of the aaaM jwi^ aeav hj the character Iwy having the same meaaing. 
Thtf do the like ia other caaea ; for iastaaoe* they eiprcas the nairs 
fitfr^ppwlrw On Fsli, «ir^«/lO theaon of the Sana or S<ri, hj Sk€ Him, 
aa well aa £ftt ii fnh in which latter case the fom reprcaeaU the Saascrit 
^mirm, or F^ jm/la» aa la the case of Pm iiam /e« of Fla hiaa ; for ia the 
coosBoa dialed the ajUal>l«y^ <• proaooncedybn/. 

Aa for thia traaacriptioa Pm Ummfiu, it coiacidea vemarkaUy with the 
ll aA^gi^ of Anriaa aad Stephea of Bysaace, whilst the trae Sanscrit 
Ofthogiaphy« Pdim^mirm^ which haa ao aasal after the ayU*^^ ^h corre- 
i hatter with the BaXtfi6$pa of Ptolemy aad 8trabo. The iUostrioaa 
haa already saffieieatly ahowa (Mem. of a Map of Hind. p. 49) 
that thia town* which Arriaa calla the greatest ia ladia, aad places ia the 
ceaaftry of the Prasii, at the cmhonchnre of the Erraaohoaa into the Gangest 
waa aitaated la the aeighboarhood of Pataa, hdow the coaflncace of the 
Sam with thet river. The Soae iadeed heara the appellatioa, filf^ i ^mj ^ 
AfifWOFoMte (goldca arm), aad (^l^,H||^| ^ HirmmfmbiAm (rolling goUi) i 
and oao of theae two aaasea haa heea fliaaged by the Gredu iato Bmma* 

The aame PSttafipatra givea to thia town, ngaifiea the • 89m ^ ike trt€ 
PmimiL* The fiiUowiag extract (C40 A. D.) from the • Memoir rtpmrdim^ 
m€ti€rm eommtrUa imAr Me Tkmm^,' thaa aceonata for the origia of the 

•*To the aoath of the river Kkmg kirn (Gaagea) ia the aadeat towa; it 
iaaeveaty li ia dreaaaliBreace i Itaaile iavacaataad coversd with jangle: 
Hiifhnr foaadatioaa aor raiaa are to he aeea. Fonaerly , wiiea the age of 
maa atiU coaslated of laaaaserahle yeara* li bore the aaaM of JDv sea mo 
phm la, that la,* the dty of the palaea of odoroai floweia,' (hi Saaacrit, 
, « iowery loira.') :Tho Royal palaea waa illed with 
lUaaam. Whea Iha age of maa waa ao m«o thaa a 
ly«Bfi,it wascaDodmalali Isa, towa of te Sor of Pho to U. 
foffBMr^wiittt%ftltai>hik ThMwwteR Al 
s 3 


do««4«Hh kftjfiMltittnd imMM^'InovMce. TV Bmber of hii 
dbdptes oMwiM to • thMMiid, w V« be testracua in all tUngi ralatinf 
to dM tdcMCt. Hit diieiptes» goiaf forth one day to pfoacMdo* obfenrod 
OM of thcfar ^Mipomoiu dcjoetod and ■omiwfol ; they askca kim what 
aiBietod hiak Ho replied: *Tho bmmI perfect beaotj and ttrengtht eo 
much admired* aina iaipeded in their progreit; tho arte aeqaire^in ao anany 
, ycara and anontha, are not perfected i thia b that which alBieta »y heart.' 
The other disdplea rallied hiai with pleasantry t 'CooM* ho talka of aoon 
having a oon ; wo moat hare him amrried. Let ns therefore^ naiM two 
amongst na who ihali ho tho lather and mother of tho yonth* and two 
who ahall ho tho fhther and mother of the amiden." They went to aome 
diitanco, aat nader tho tree Po toli (qnrf^) «ad eallod it tho free ^ ike 
MuihmUt ^f ike wmidm* They gathered ripe Irnita, drew limpid water, and 
prepared erery thing for tho nuptial ceremony. Ho who repreiented the 
father of thh damid being latbfied that the time was anspicipaa for tho 
nnion, took np a flowering branch and presented it to tho disciple, Mjing, 
' The momen^ ia propit|oas for yonr naptiala ; bo happy and Ikeparate no 
more.' These words filled tho heart of tho jonth with joy. Towards 
CTcning, when all were about to retnm homot bo, absorbed in amoroos eon- 
templation, wonld remain behind. Tbe other disciples said to him. **What 
wo have been doing, ia a bit of mere pleasantry ; come away with ns ; the 
woods are foil of aavago animala that will tear yon to pieces.! Bat tho 
yonng man left them, and walked towards tho tree. ' When night had spread 
cut her shsdes, a atraage light illnmined the plain ; the repea of a beaatifol 
pavilion, adorned with enrtains, were stretched ont, and every thing pro- 
perly arranged. Suddenly a venerable old man, retting upon a staff, made 
hia appearance, aa also an old woman leading n young damsel. These 
two personagea received him gradonsly s tho way waa filled with people, 
all gaily decked, and aiaging, and playing musical inatruments. The 
old Bsan showed him tho young asaiden and said * Behold ^r newly 
espoused !' Feast and aong and music and rejoicing were kept up for seven 
days. Meanwhile tho other disciples, fearing that their companion had 
been torn by wild beasts, went in search of him. When they saw him they 
entreated him to return ; but ho refused aad followed not.. ' Sometime 
afterwards, he caaBO of hia own accord to the town to viait hia parents, aad 
narrated to them what had happened. All who heard the tale^were asto- 
nished. He conducted his frieiAa to tiie forest, showed them the tree 
covered with flowen, and a great train of servanta and slaves and horses 
coming and going. The old man approached to receive them, and enter- 
tained them with a dinner accompanied with music. Lastly, after that the 


r of the home had •hown them every fitting attCDtioD» these friende 
retwned to the town, end told of what they had seen where?er they went. 
At the end of a year a eon wee born (to the disciple), who then said to his 
wife* ' I wodd BOW retam to asy home s griere not at my dcpartore ; and 
prevcBtit not ; I will come back and abide with yon«* His wife imparted what 
ihe had heard to the old white-headed asan. to whom the disciple then said. 
•In order that man shonld live happOyy it is necessary that he shoald dweU 
in an inhabited place. Let honsea therefore be constmcted and think of 
■onght dee.' AU the serrmiU set Ibrthwith to work and completed the 
task in a few days. This was ' f Ae mteitmi fewn ^ odfi^freiif /mmts/ 
which received of this son, and beeanse it was constraeted by the genii, waa 
called • lie inm ^tktSam ^fAe PAe Id «."• 

Althongh the notions received from Sanscrit works by CoL Wilford with 
Ac assistance of his pandita am not altogether firee from suspicion, I most 
not omit to state here what he says of Patalipntra, and the signification of 
the naaae. Kmikmrn^^urm was, according to the Brihmanda, bvilt by the 
king rasH, grandfather of Blaha Bali (called also Nmtd€. and Mtkm padmm). 
Knsassapwa aignifics the Ctljr rf fwmvn^ and was likewise called the city 
of the Lotns, PodsMoeli. According to tradition its aadcnt site was at 
PAnAMrt, the naoseof which, in the spoken dialecte,has the same significa* 
tioB as Knsanmpnra. The Gangea having altered its conrse, this town was 
grsdnaUy rsasovedto Phalwari,or the present Patna, also called Pataliputra, 
alter the son of one form of 1^9%^ who took the name of Pdimlid^t the 
alsnder goddess. Her son was named PditUipuirMt and the town PiittlU 
fmirm pmnu This etymology of CoL Wilford's is nntenable however, as the 
name of the town b qt^fay it end not q T ufau^ . la another memoir 
Wilford pieces FsteUpntra, or Knsassapnrm, ten Icagvet weet*8onth.west of 
P)itna,t ia which he may bo perfectly jastified.-»KL 

The namtivea of Fh hian and Hiaan thsang leave no room to doubt 
that Pataa is the trae poettion of Pslibothra. Another acooont of the 
mythological origin of thia town ia given by Mr. Ravenshaw, in the Jonr* 
nal of the Asiatic Society fiir Febmary 184$, to which I refer the reader. 
■ The approtiaBate date of the foundation of this town, or of its erection 
into the capital of the empin may, I think, be ascertaued with tolerable 
In the first plye PdiMiifuirm Is no where men tio ne d (as fv as I ' 
n) In theBnddhn ecriptniee, althongh Sikynmnst have frequently 
I In its nei^tenihood, if not over Its actual site, in his various journeys 
tnnnifirombetwiitTaissllandB^sgriha. This negatlvo evidence would bo 
■ ■rf ii l to establish the non eiietsnoe of thia fomoue dty in that age } 

•Pienfiisii,B.Uy.pb9v.andie4. f Jsist.iisi,Vol.IX.p.96.37. 


■id it to«« Miimdl ^ ft pMH«« III llM Ktt BaidkWol Audi feM 
wMdivvlMmthaltwoMiiriitonartiMkbcftfMagiidhft (M^M^Afte- 
iatni)«mtBg«ged fat IIm trwdMi of • ciliU at tbtfiUagoor Ktili»n 
ftdbedc«pMtiMir<Q[;iMf,attiMtiiMwliai Sikya pttMd thit wa^ f or tiM 
hat tiaio an ravto to Koaiaagara. On that oeeaaioii ba prophatied that 
PHtli woold baeoBM a gfoat oity. and piadiated ita daatEvatioft by te» by 
water, and by t r ea cb a r y * It woold Ikrtbar appear that Iba inbabitanta of 
tbia TiHaga aafferad great bardibip and estortioB by bainf tamed oat of 
tbeir bootes for a foitiii^t or a aMatb at a tiiM, to aeeonflutdata the 
offieera and aiesaengera eoDtmoally pasaiiif and repairiiig betwixt Valsali 
aad Bdjagriba. To avoid tbcae opprei^na tbey boih an iaatffalJ^r«nKl» 
or rett-boaae for tba aeeomoBodatioB of traTallerfc AU tbIa qoadratea wall 
witb Hinda aeeoonU ; for bi tba F^w (aaa lVilaoa» VUkwm Parlaa/p. 467») 
CTdlayanMi tba eon of 4iiiaaairup ia atated to bavo bailt KmnuMtpmrmt or 
F&talipatra, **oiitboioatbenaiiglaof tboGangea.*' Thia augbt-fia aboa^ 
two ccntwiea before tba reigm of Cbandrigiipta, giving avpla tinu^ for tba 
dtj to attain tba extent and magnitlcence aacribed to it by Mcgaatbcnea. 

Tbe eonditioo of Fitalipntra in tba aefenCb eentuyt aa dcaeribed in tba 
foregoing note* aaffieiently aceonnU for tba obliCeration of all trace of tbat 
ancient dtybi tbe present day. Nefortbeleas, tbaaarrovndbtgneigbb^nrbood 
■eema well wortby tbe diligent inveat|g«tion of tba antiqaarian.— J. ^T. L. 

(4) nepOBaferlra/Aarqfltii^^jfii.— Hiaantbaangaayabawaa^naaMd 
Jfa JU jNm ik9 /•• tbat la, ' tba great emperor/ and tbtt be waa born of tbo 
lame mother, aa^ jmor^ltala. Jfa JM jran Ma /a ia tba Sanacrit n^ng^ 
Makemdrti, which algnifkea pretty nearly aa gifen aboTe,— *tha greatly 
powerfel,' * tba eovereign.'— KL 

The tanetiHed duffaeter of tbia IfaJUndra, wonld lead na to infer |hat ha 
U ideatieal witb the MMmdo of tbo Ifailaaattfa, the edcbrated apoitla of 
Baddhitm hi Ceybm. Bat fai tbat woric be b stated to be tba eon, aad not 
the brother, of Aaoka, who it will be reaBombered, ia laid to have elain all 
Ills brothers, save one."-»J. W. !«• "^ 

(5) /n ike MOiKki ek§ ili«.«-Thla biU, iitaated bi tba kmgdom of Mega. 
dha, aad forming part of tba chain which traveraea Sonth Behar Cmm the 
8one to Rajmahal, will be mora fnlly described bi Chapter XXIX. It ia 
naaied Ajr 4f lAa fo kiu la, in tbe narrativa of Hinan thaang. Tbia ia the 
transcription of tbe Sansorit 9iZl||^ C^rJdlraJhi/a, « the Peak of tbe Vi^ara.* 
The Chinese translate tbe Bame.2>iM« /aa^/ they call It also JUnp tiUau 
Jknff, or * Peak of the aapematoral Tnltnre.' Tbia ia one of the' placea 
where Sakya Maai longest dwdt and preached. It heart at prcae&t tbe 
name of Giddorc ui onr mapa.— 'KL 


(6) l#«Aoym^ciif Mi lM.^Moiitsteius of thoM oMmki who ttadied 

(7) Ar9 «lM €MUed Wem ekm 9xu IL^Oat of the Chinese tnnieriptioiii 
of Menjnnf • • Boddhist dinnity alreedj spoken of in NoU 29, Chap. XVI. 
It b ilso an honorifie title ^»plied to the most lesrned brihman8.~KL 

(8) AnMU^tke kingdom qf tke middie, that is, mq^. UUhjfdftm^ 
in rai, Majjadte, or Central India. Under thU title is eompriied the entire 
oontiy between KwmkMtrm on the north, AlMmbmd on the sontii, the 
HiMMlm^M to the east, and the VHMjf monntoins to the west ; iodnding 
thcrcfbre tiio prceent piOTinoes of AUshahad, Agra, Delhi, Oade, Behar, 

(9) Tk€tigkik day rfih* mean Jfko— that is tiio fonrUi moon, tiie eha. 
raeter Ifeo being the fonrth of the ten ^gna of the cjde of twdt e« It is 
the anniversary of the birthday of Sakya Muni, andis celebrated to this day 
amongst all Bnddhisto with the greatest solemnity. It bdistingnished in the 
ConrtAhnanaeof Pddn,aa*thoholybirtibdayof^AjfMiirai /m.' Tho 
Mongols call it tho *moon of graee.' The Kafannks celebrate this festival 
from tho 8dl to the 15th of tho first month of avmmer, and eonseqnentiy 
the fonrth of tho year, i. e. in tho middle of the month of May.«->KL 

In my liMrmer note npon the Banddha procelsion at Yu ikimi (see page 
21,) I omitted to mention a very singalar feet which strongly confirms my 
opinion that tho modem procession of Jagann&ih originates in the Bnddhist 
practice described by Fa hian. It b thU, that hi the ordinary native pic* 
tnrea of tho Anatrnm of Vishnn, the nmth awifer, Cff^ff H^ ?f l t ^ ( Anuf* 
dkm cM/ifir), b represented by n figwo of Jmgmmdih or tiie lUik MML 
I have failed to ascertam firom pandits any eiplanation of this. In tho 
FifAan jnmlao, Vishnn b icpiescnted as becoming incarnate in the per* 
aoD of Bnddha, fiir pnrpeeea of Ulnsion i a convenient artifice of the br£h- 
MSBS to dbpose of all diflbnltiee attending the popnlarly admitted sttpema* 
tnrsl charscttr of Sikya i bnt thb doee not oiplain the drenmstance of 
Jagannith being regarded aa typifying the Banddhdvatir. Tho drenssstaneo 
wonld seem to indicate an nnder cnrrent of popnlar tradition whieh had 
enrvived tho Pangea of national religioo and all thoeffortaof the priest* 
hood to suppress it. 

writing tho note above allnded to, I have pemsed sosm admirable 

k tiie intennistnio of Bnddhbm with Hfaidnbm by the Bov. 

Dr. gUvws a n of Bombay, who open gronnda neariy sIsBilar, infen tho Bod* 

dhMtoe%faiof tiMfimtivalof Jaganndtiu* In te same volnmo b a h«gUy 

i i iw iB l h g paper by tiio same ontimr lyea a AmddU^ V^kmm f m anet in tto 

• «ie HW Jlpnmal 1/ lis EifaljMsiis SMKy , VoL VIL pp. 7, «. 


MtriMNi MMlfff • Is OvMnil, Cwtnl !■«■• and Iht OurMlte. tlMt 
Mctafiflt wonhip Tlakm vadw ths bom Pmtimrm^^ m VUiktd, whoai 
tlM7 reeogalte m Hm aialli mr Butddhm vmdrt ndcrtdMi iMfrtvWy Mt for 
the FwpoM of dcMing Mukbd. V«t Ibr tte Bora itttSoul pupoMo' 
iattf«etiBf thMia&dlMdiiif thMi iatUwrnjof Mlfitta. blbiirwrit. 
ivft thcM teetvlM ipcak lUfhtiBgly of the V«das« of the MPkaan. uid of 
Htakki tsptntitioiisi whQt tMr 0101 praeUeet Mam to be eiNBtiallj Bod. 
dhiit. Dr. StetcoMo*a paper wdl merits a caieAd peiviaL Tbe tnbject 
«f Indian qTBeretisma hai acter yet beea ndBcieiitlj itadM 1 and wM It be 
ao we can not bope to attain to anj adtqnate eomprcbenakNi of tbe itrange 
and beteroKeaeona ebaraeter of Hindu anperstltion.— J. W. h. 

(10) lMiciRe«ike«M q^ Upphui mmd Hrliif.^The JMicfoe-AfOMi or 
boapltala bcre attndcd to were Terj probably eatabliahed In conformity witb 
tbe commands of Asoks, tbe second of wbese famons edlots* still eitant 
npon tbe rocka of Dbanll and GIrinary Is tbas translated by tbe late Jamea 
Printcp t ** Every wbere wltbln tbe cooqnered provinces of r^t F(yadasl» 
tbe bcIoTedoftbccods«aawell as In tbcpsrts occnpled by Oc ^tbfalt 
sacb as CAols, Ptdm^ 8miijf€pmirmp and JTtlcliyinlrev and cren as* far as 
TnmbMpmmi (Ccylon)r-and moreover wItUn tbe dostlnlons of Antlocbns 
tbe Greek (of wblcb Antlodbns* generala are tbe mlera)* every wbjne tbe 
beaven-bdoved rija Piyadasl's donble systsm of medical eld la csCftblisb. 
cd I both medlcsl aid fbr mcuy and medical aid for aninmlst tofetber witb 
medicaments of oil sorts wbicb are snitable for men and snitabic for animals. 
And wberever tbere b not (sneb provUion). in allsncb placss tbcyareto 
be prepsred, and to be planted ; both root dniga and bcibs, wbensoever 
tbere Is not (a provluon of tbem)> in all sncb places sball they be deposited 

Tbese Incidental corrsspondencee are of InAnlto valne In conftrmlng tbe 
narrative Of onr pflgrimt aa well aa ftM* tbe snre llgbt tbey tbrow npon anci- 
ent amnners. The reeder wlU no donbt be reminded by the fomgoing 
edict of the singnlar Institntion at Sorat* known by tbe name the .kmpcn 
kufiiaif too often described by Enropeen visitors to require tether notice 
here. The drenmstance did not oseapo tbe observation of Prinsep* who 
boldly, bnt not withont plansiblUty, remarka '* If proper Inqniry were directed 
to this boilding, I dare my It wonld be discoverid to be a living, example 
(tbe only one that has braved twenty centnrl«)» of tbe bnauno eete of Aeoka, 
recorded at no great distance on a rock In Gaserat."— J. W. L. 

(11) ntfjrrinfq^fAc/ctfq^fM.— Hinantbsangaleosaw and difcribcd 
tbese footprints. Tbey were one foot eight Incbee longt end six -inches 
broad. The prints of both feet ezblMtcd tbe lignre of a heel and ten toes. 


Tbcy were nuTOimded with girUndt and speckled fisUei, which ihone 
with greet brilliancy in aerene and clear weather. Formerly, he addi, when 
the Jon Ui bad resoWed npon entering ninrinay and waa npon the point of 
proceeding towards the north to the eity of Kim »ki nm, he looked back npon 
the kingdom of Ife U§ ik^t standing npon this stone* and said to ▲ nan ; 
" For a long time I leaTo the impress of these feet in the kingdom of Mo 
kie tho ; for I am about to enter extinction.** One hnndred years after, 
the * Kim§ wiikomi sorrow,* Asoka, reigned, and eansed a palaee to be erect- 
ed in this place. Ho became eonverted by the help of tho fArtt pneiout* 
oMi, and became n aenrant of the diTinities, as did also tho Icings, his sue* 
cessors. He there established his abode, bnilt there a town, and erected a 
monument oter the footprints which are near the palace, and which he 
et er sealonsly /evered. Snbseqaently the kings of other eonntries endea- 
Tomred actaally to remore this stone : bnt howerer nnmerons the labonrers 
they employed, they were wholly unable to effect their purpose. Not long 
ago (this is written in the first half of the 7th century) the king Ski tktmff 
kimt who persecuted and sought to abolish the law of Buddha, tried also to 
destroy thu stone and its holy impresdons ; but as often as ho effsced tho- 
latter they were renewed in their original eonditioo. Ho then caused tho. 
stone to be thrown into the Kkmg Hm (Ganges) ; bnt the stream of that, 
river reoonveyed it to its ancient site.*— KL 

(18) And tkii ihrM fJm«ff.«->Hiuan tiisang, who Tisited these plaeea 
about two hundred years subsequently, found tho characters of this inscrip- 
tion nearly effaced. He states that ita purport waa * The kim§ mtktmi 
sorrov,* firm in the faith, thriee made a gUt of /omfoAt^o (India) to Oo 
priests of the Uw of Buddha, and thfieo ndoeaaed It with nil his pearls aaA . 
all his trcasaics.t— KL 

It it remarkable that in no— of the inicrfptieaa of this prinee yet dis* 
eofend,ia ho aseatioMa by Us historicel name, iijote, but by that of 
Pi]f^m%i. J. W. L. 

(13) TAe toM qf SiiL^l nowheio find other meotiott of this town/ 
^ bo Ihi reaidcBoe asentiooed in note II^KL 

* PimHitmm.B.lXV.V'U. f iM. 

264 mjomnum or va atAir. 

Mo«BtamtrtlitIioltM4 lUdu-Hankli tT Kala^Ktwtowstr tteAoyal 

ThaiM preceding aoatli-Mtib joa Tcaeh, at the duUnee of 
lune yew ymh the Uith mcmtain of the Udated roek.* ' On iU 
tomiiutiftattoiielNiildipgfaetng the south. Foe beisg tested 
there^ the Uogof heaTcn, Sky,* eanaed the kkm* to be ttrodcby 
the celestial iniiriciaiis» Pan ehe,^ in honor of the Buddha; The 
Lord of Hearen, SAy» qnesdoned him regarJKng the forty-two 
things** drawing each with his finger upon Uie stone : the remains 
of these drawings still exist. In this pUce also there is tistny ha 
Ian. Thence gobg towards the soath-west one ye<m yan, yon 
come to the hamleU of Na lo.* It was here that She Hjfe^ was 
bom. She H foe having returned to this Tiilage, enter^ also 
ni koMon. They there built a tower, which still exists. 

Thence going to the west the distance of one yeau yan, you 
come to the New Town of ike Royal Residence^ This new town 
was built by the king A eke ehi. In the midst there are two 
eeny kia Ian. On leaving by the western gate^ you arrire, at the 
distance of three hundred pace^ at a tower raised by king 
A eke eki, when he obtained a portion of the reliques of Foe : it 
is lofty, grand, beautiful, and majestic. 

LesTing the town on the southern side, and proceeding (our li 
to the south, you enter a Tslley which leads to the Five HilU. 
These fire hills form a girdle like the waUs of a town; it is the 
Ancient Town of ike king Ping ska.* From east to west it may 
extend fire or six /^ and from north to south, seven or eight. 
Here is, the place where Ske li foe and 3foM lian first beheld 
Dpi ;** the place were Ni kian tee made a pit filled with fire, 
and served poisoned food to Foe ;" and that where the b^k ele« 
phant of the lung A eke Mt," having drunk win^ sought to in- 
jure Foe, 

tniumcR xznxi* 265 

Al the iioTih-east angle of the town, the andents erected a 
vhapel Sn the garden where Jnpho lo* invited Foe and twelve 
hnndiedandfiftjofhisdiBcipIes to do them honor; this chapel 

The town iaentirelj desert and uninhabited. 


Bioaa tksang calif thii momitam Fk Mo /o §hi h JHu k; that U, ^ » %( l t^JI^U 
JmifuUagukd ('the cafcm of the lockt of Indnu*) He ttotee that it bath 
deep valleji eboandiag in flowerit woods, and boshj thickets ; its sam- 
ait crowned with two peaks rising strait np.*-»Kl. 

We have now come to a eonntrj so ahondant in Baddliist remains that 
the tei7 nvmber of these owkes it perplexing to determine onr pilgrim's 
rente. Capt. Kittoe. snpposee that the seng kirn lea here referred to it 
Bdiar» near which is an isolated rock now sarmomkted by a Mnbammadan 
ahrincf I beUere that I am myself to blame for having led him into error 
apcB this pointy by omitting to send him« when engsged in these identifications, 
the corresponding portion of Hioan thsang*s itinerary, in whichy as will be 
eeea shore, this hill is denominated Vm tko htkelo Mm k9 (Jndnuitmguhd)^ 
and placed contignons to ITeoK U Ue,— evidently Gitijfk. This establishes 
the length of the yojana in Magadha to be just 4| lailes ; a valae which 
answers very well for the rest of onr pUgrim's jooney throogh that neigh, 
boarhoodw— J. W. L. 

(2) TUiMf ^iUeein,9J^f ••—that is, i|;]V, SmMrm or AdSrv, called also 
WH^Wf ^aArerfrat or X1K<;W» Stkrtd^i a word ca gr wp o n ding with 
the Chinese, Sip f «, or Skf ikUm ii^KL 

(3) Ctundiki kkimio ke s fHKit.VIha khia b a tpedoi of horiaootal 
lyie with seven strings.— >KL 

(4) Tk€ Hentmfy rnvstcMmt Pea eAe.— I nowhere find any elacidatkai 
of the term Pen die.— Q. 

(5) Tk§ firtp-iwo laiivt.— The original diarai^ aignifiea i|f«frt, bat 
•a ladra drew them on the stone, I have tnmslatedlbe word lUmt. Hiaaa 
tkasB^ienotaMro ladd npon tide point s ''To the eoatiior Ibe western 
peak (of ladresilyihs), eays he, thero fa a great stone edifiee oa a prseipieri 

.bataalhigh. In oldea timee, when the Jea U ertaUiriiad hfa 

• Pin t fM«,B. LtV. p.6i. 
f/. J.^Vel.XVI.p.96«. 

2 ▲ 

266. vnAmncAOB or VA xuK* 

«bodiltei%a«Mpmr^B«fiii,8l7(lB4A)4fffr tet^tv^teMU 

fint BaddUil wock tnaibtod fro« Ibt Saaaerit ialo Chfaaw, 1m to tide 
liPMB allvrioa to tUa cimDDataBM.«>KL 

The book here aUnded to wooU appear to oootda llio DogiMtiepf or the 
McCaphyakaof Boddhiaaa. It tmuiatt 9i Jhrtf4w9 SfOrn^ w UUt vfiM' 
iaau* wUeh aio aopp oied to eaabody the whole doetriao of Ihe I^M^rmkie 
V <^ ITorlir, the entire apirit of the Seriptwo and the Law. Boddha, 
aoeording to the work in qaeatkMit haTlng attained the he%ht of hia aiiiaioB, 
having finiihed hia doctrine, and Tanqniahed all hia enemieat aat ia deep 
aUence. ahaorbed ia medita t ion* Hia diMiplea aorronnded hlai ; he reaolred 
thdr donhta and instructed them la the Law. Hoezplainathedati^TirtiKs, 
gifta of the priesthood i dis c nsaea the tea virtaee and the tenTiees of the body 
and the sonl, the aatnra of good aad of wicked people* together with the 
ceiife </ eeatcff, or the c«n«e qf mti ffedt* The work ia moat probably 
apocryphal s or it may be ea abridgment of the 21 YOlomce of the Sketm 
pAyia {Pr^Jnd Pera«i/e}, or discourses which treat of the logicj psycho* 
logy, and metaphysics of the Baddhists, and which are atated to hoTe been 
deliTcred by Sikya 16 years after hia attaiament of Bnddhahood, or ia the 
Slst of his age, on the Gridkrmkmim hill, aear R^agriha. Amoapt his 
numerona auditory waa ladra, aa iatiasated by Fa hiaa ; aad these put a 
question sereral times to Sikya. He givca them ao direct reply, but forms 
such propositions ea lead them to the proper dedsioa. See M. 4e Koros, 
Analytii qftki fiAcr-cAia, Aa. Ree. VoLXX. p. 899. Recurring to the Chinese 
work alluded to by M. Klaproth, it waa translated into CUneee, according 
to M. Neumann, from the Sanscrit by JTm fe mo imng and Ckm/m Urn* The 
celebrated Cftu Aeor CA«/n if aaya, that in thia work the doctrine of Buddha 
!• explained in very eeay intelligiblo language ; but that, generally apeaking, it 
eontainaonly the idle aad fruitless speculatioBa of Xeo Use and CAww^ iue. 
M. Neumann,from whose CsleeAtm ^tkeSkmMmi{mMt correctly Sk€ mi) 
1 gather these particulara, giTce the following specimen of the work:~ 
(Buddha loquitur) ** My religion consists hi thinking the hicf nceivable 
thought ; my religioa eonsista in gohig the impassable way ; my religion cob« 
sists in speaking the iaeffablo word i my religioa eonsista ia practisiag the 
impracticable practioe t"— a aample which the reader will perhape deem 

(6) Tk§ J7«mlelt qflfo la*— Hiaaa thaaag calla thIa place JHa la jitM 
Aie, aadadds that it wae the birthplace of the Tcaerable 8k§ii ti9u. Ha 
• JPieatCieR,B.LV.p.64. 


tto alto, tliAt wliea thit pencmise tatered aSrWAa, a tower wu thera 
cieetad o? cr hii aaliet.*«->KL 

Th* htmkt hen spolmk of is tha AklsMb, or AUnte, of the b&il* 
b^TM" end tfao F&U Bnddhiftical Anaala. In the latter it it itated to bo one 
yvgaaa distant from Blgagriha. It seems to have been a fiiforito resort of 
tiw kamed in those times of liigh debato* a second Academia ; and to haro 
been sometiaMs bestowed by the Idag aa a prise on the most saecessfal dis- 
pntuity or withdrawn fkom the actaal possessor* in the ease of defesty for pre- 
eentadon to his fictor. Seede Korae, .dlM(^ffit ^ the lha*9§. Sakyais 
lerqnentlj mentioned in tlie eeriptnres ss retorting to Kalada for the par- 
pose of disenision or instroetion.— J. W. L. 

(7) SAeli>b«.— SheU foe (in Sanscritt i^ifra^ Saripntra) u one of 
the BMMt fasMms disdples of Bnddha. He was the son of a wtrj learned 
bdihamn. His mother saw in a dream aa extraordinary man holdiag in his 
hand a diamond maoe, with whieh he demolished aU the hills with the ex. 
ceptionof one* before whieh he hvmbled himself. The &ther took this 
draam for a good omen» annonneiiif n aon of great wisdom, who shonld 
dcstiojallliilse doetrine in the world and be the dlsdplo of f Ae aien ^r 
OMoUiMor^— Baddha.-*KL 

(8) JBafsred nirwAuu^Im a Mongolian work translated from the San. 
aerit. and entitled Uligerum daUS. (the Sea of Fvables) we read ; «• When 
Saripntra learnt that Bnddha was bent on entering nirrina. he experienced 
profonadaorrow.andsaidto Umselfs 'It is soon indeed and contrary to 
an g p ecto t ion that tim TatUgatahath resolved npoa entering nirrima: who 
after Urn will be the protector and shield of seals snd of bdngs enTc* 
loped in daifcneu ?*' He then said to Boddha* «« It is impoisible for me 
towitnem theninrlnaof Bnddha." Thrice be repeated these words, when 
Bnddha replied; ••If thon bdiefest thy time come, tiien do tiiy will like 
aU tim KkMiukkim (fa Sanscrit, MrmmdmUyM, Jiieerwef ient) who enter the 
idrvdna of tmqnillity.*' Saripntra baring heard tiiese words of Bnddha, 
•nmgedhisdressi andharinga hundred times walked imind Bnddha, he 
npeatedagrsatanmberof veneslnpraiaeof him. Ho tiien embraced tiie 
imt of tim latter, pboad them tiirioenpon his heed, and joining tim palma 
oThlB hands, said, *• I have been Ibnnd worthy toapproaA the glorionaly 

IBnddha."* Ho tikea worddpped Bnddha, snd proceeded wiOi 

I tiw priest realf, to R^sgriha, his native town, Whenarrived 

,hoaBld toKenii, ««Go fntotimtown, int» tiw snb«bB,«ni to tiw 

loT te kbg, and t« the honeee of tiw high ftmetionarise and of 

iiiglwoilm^nni ttw say to them t •'^Tho JDMUUln Saripntm hath 


268 nijcninuOK op fa bum. 

n«priMtriiill melted the oider of Idi autler, ^ical tolbtplMMiAdU 
citod,aBAthMaclifmdU« mcMgef ••^XMWUte 8n^p«t|« ImHi 
anived !««; if jm nooM vidt Idoi, eoMS wttlMrat debrj.^ Whoi Ob Ub^ 
JJdUutirmf tlM ^tpenten of alms, Iho gfoot dtgnitarieiv Ibt eftooo of tiw 
■myy mad tbo heads of fSualUca heard this annoaneemeat, they JWe' all 
4]kd with aorrow, and with heavy hearta said, •• Ah I what wffllieoBOof 
«a whea tho aeeond head of the hw, the leader of ao aMsy heiags, tto 
Khatakhta Sariputia shall hsTO entered nirrlna !'* Hnrriedly t]% pr»» 
ceeded towards hifli» howing down and saying* ** Khntnkhtn! If thon be- 
comest Blrv£aa« who shaU be onr protector, and that of so auny odier 
beings?" SariiNitra then addressed them tho Ibllowfaig words : «* fanee all 
is perishablst the end of all is death. Aa ye* too, bdoiig to this world of 
torment, ye too, will not vemshi long t death wHl oobm and terailasto your 
career. But as yon all, in conseqnenoe of meritorioos works in a former 
cxutenca, hata had the happiness of being bom la the world with Bnddha, 
and that too in the hnmaa form, do yoa add other aeenmalatita aMpts, and 
accomplish sneh works ss shsll save yon from Sanstou*' Whea Saripatra 
had finished preaching thns to the bystanders the Inezbanstihie law, and had 
comforted thdr spirits with salutary medlcamenU, they bowed down before 
the Khntnkhtn, and each retamed to hb home. After midnight, $aripntm 
sat In a perfectly erect podtioa ; gathered all the Isenltles of his sonl ; 
directed these npoa one point, and entered the first Dkydiuu Thence ha 
entered the second; thence, the third s and from the third, the fourth* From 
the fourth he passed hito the Stnmidhi ^ ike bhikM 9/ heumdUu ^etlutUi 
$pae€;ib€abi!LotkiS9m4dMqfiM€biriAiqfe9mpleiinUkiiUp. Fkwnthis 
Ssaaidhi he entered that of • miiker thmkimp aar aaf tkimkingfs' thea iato 
that of itmtfa/toa ; and lasUy Into KirMba. 

** Whea Khounaonsda, the king of the Gods, lesratof the ainriaa of SI- 
ripntra, he came with sereral hundreds of thousands in hb suite; besring 
fiowerSf perfumes, and other objects meet for sacrifice. They diffused them* 
sdves through the whole space of besTen ; their tears fell like rahi { they 
scattered their flowers so ss to coTcr the earth, saying, ** Oh ! be whose 
wisdom wss aa the depth of the sea, who had passed through all |he gatea 
of knowledge, whose musical speech flowed sweetly as a running stream t 
who was perfect in the fulfilment of every duty, la self^coatemplatioa, la all 
wisdom I the sublime chief of the doctrine, the excellent Khutnkhtu SIrl* 
putra hath too hastily entered nlrrana. Who shall suteeed* the furiously 
accomplished Buddha and Tathiigate, to spread abroad the law ?" All the 
inhabitanti of the town and neighbourhood, at soon as they woe apprised of 


Om nirtint of SMpntia* c«ne bearing much oO, perfuinet, ilowen, and 
oChor Uiingt appropriate for ncrifioe. Tliey wept loudly with accents of 
woe and aorrow, placiog npon tiM gronnd the objecta fit for the sacrifices. 
Kboomonsdat the prince of the sods, tbea commanded Yishvamitra to 
prepare • car of Tarlons predons materials for the body of Siuripatra. When 
the car was finished the corpse of S^putra, was placed thereon in a sitting 
position, and taken forth to a beantifnl plain, all the while the Kigas, the 
Yakshas, the king, the commanders of the army, the oflicers and the whole 
people vttering cries of sorrow. There they raised n pUe of chandana 
(sandal) wood* After moistening it with oil and bntter, they pbce npon it 
the body of S£ripatrm and appUed fire. Then aU bowed down and each 
went to hU home. When the fire waa completely extbgnished, the priest 
Yonti collected from the ashes the srfrlni of his master and conreyed them 
as well as his pot and eoelesisstical dress, to Bnddha. He placed theie 
things at the leet of Buddha, announcing at the same thne the death of his 
master. When Ananda letmt this from the lips of Yonti, he was much 
grieted and said to Buddha, «« Oh Buddha ! the first of our band has enter, 
od nirvana; to whom aowshaU we unbosom ourselTet» and whom shaU wo 
regard as our protecthig sun?" Buddha replied s «• Ananda! although 
Sariputra hath entered nirvana, neither the chaige of your duUes, nor sam£. 
dhi, nor understanding, nor plenary redemption^ nor the prqfnm of plenary 
redemption, nor the nature of occult propertiea hath become eo ; moreoTe r, 
many generations ago Siripntra once became airrAu. because he could not 
endnie to see me enter upon nirf£na."—KL 

(8) Tk€ ntm lewn (/ tJU fV|r«l iTeriimee.— That is tho new '^maiv 
Rijagriha; in Fill Rliiagahat* or royal reddence.* Thia name is transcrib* 
ed in Chinese, Lejftif kM. Asokaleft this towaaad transferred theseat 
of his goTcmment to PitaCputnu-^Kl. 

M. Klaproth forgeto that Piitaliputra was the seat of gofemment lathe 
time of Chandragupta, the grandfather of Asoka. 

That indefatigable antiquary, Capt. M. Kittoe, undeterred by the incle. 
mo n ey of the season, paid a hurried visit to this interesting locality in July 
last, and haa published the results of his inveetifgations hi the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society, YoL XVI. pp. 953*970. Hie paper is of the highcet 
iatcfcst, and leads me ta hope that much moru imnaSas for Urn to discover 
sboald he be abk to revisit the spot aft a more piapitioaa time of the year. 
SpeaUagef tim modcta (or peihape lahould s^lsst aariiaQ mjjagriha; 
Cape Kittee obacrvee,— ^« Aa 

«iiBt8^ ae wdl ae aztoMiva monads of brisks aad nMish t 
of tedtidelta showSU fofBi,a panllakgiaaivUh ; 
2 A3 

270 nMAlXAGS OP FA aiAH, 

vcitwivd BMBtioMd ^ Fi bin, tli«r« csirti a tmilit cdlad the 
Awmm FmumMtWhiAh m dooVt the tower when BvdaiM'9 icfietwen 
plMed ^ A dM lU, BoehMUHi dcteribei tliii lonrkable BM&d vUeh 
want of Idsm pnfMitdl me iBspecdng dMely." If it be wb«t Capt. 
Kittoe eoBJcctaicit indeed wbatefer it be» tbii mooad eeemt wcU jieterring 
of rerj partieolar enmlnetioB.— J. W. !«• 

(9) Tk§ mefMl i9wm ^ Me A<Rf Fiu^ tkm .— The aaeiciit lUyegiiha. 
Hiean tbiaiif wiitea tbia name Kko le eJle Ijr /< ki s a eompted ortbogra- 
phjt but one asder wbieh lUjagriba ia atiU eoDcealed» for Hinaa thtang 
translatei the word * r9jfMt rmidenetf or kouteJ Pm§ tAa ia tbe ^raneerip. 

*'The appearaaee of tbie vallej and tbe bOla ia Tery atrikiiig/' lajt Capt 
Kittoe ; '* ererj peak bas anasM and a imall Jain temple erownlnji it, this 
aectholdlng the whole neigbbonrboodiacred.wliichii very renarkable. * * 
It ii folly two milei or 4 If to tbe site of the old town, which ia now called 
•Htauu Tknr g thie mnit baTO been a very large place when in its glory, and, 
ai dcfcribed, ia skirted by hilli, t^io of which are more conspicnons than the 
rest, and are called respecUTdy, Ratni Giri, BipU Giri, Baibhar Gin, S6iia 
Giri, and Udhaya Giri. To proceed ; first of all ae to the chapel in the north- 
cm hUl, on the left or west side of the pau is a chamber called Sone Bhon- 
dar, of precisely the same shape aa those of BnnOrar. The.-e are sockeU to 
admit of timber roofing on the exterior of the cave, and there have been build, 
ings eitending to some distance in front. It woold be interesting to clear the 
xubbish here. ' There are sereral short inscriptions and some of the shell 
shape ; one baa some resemblance to the Chinese. There are no P&ii let- 
.ters ; bat the caTe baa been aadly ill-nsed by a semindar who tried to blow 
it np with powder many years ago, hoping to find hidden treasore, and a 
large piece of rock bas been broken away at the very spot where we should 
hsTc expected to find an inscription. * * * * To the south of this coTe, 
(near tbe centre of the town ?) is a high tumulus, the rite of a dagope, or 
chaitya, on which is a small Jain temple. From this elevated spo^ a good 
view is to be bad of the vaUey and of tbe pau and plains beyond, looking 
over lUjagriha nearly due north ; to the east the vaUey grows narrower for 
a mUe or so, and thence two vaUeys branch off, one leading to the Gidho&a 
peak, so called from the vultures which perch and bi^Ud there, th^ other to 
Tupobun, where there are hot wells. « * * * Leaving tbe tumulus and 
proceeding aonthwaid, the road winds at the foot of S6nm Giri, close to a 
low ledgeof laterite, forming a terrace aa even as if cut by mubns ; this 
place is called Bheem Sen's Ukhara, or wrettUog-placc. The maby indcn* 


Utioiis wad caTitiM peevliar to ndk formationf* are gappoied by the igno- 
nat to be murkt left by the wititlcn. Contiaoieg to the loathwtrd to* 
wards ITilifv Gtri, the road ie formed in the bare rockt in which occur 
aaaaj abort inscriptioiia ia the ahell patterBy and other cwiovs formi, bat 
moeh worn and apoie o? crgrown with moaa and rubbish. I dcessed this to 
be gieat cariosities, and thiak that if a ckaraace were nade» nore (and 
perfect ones) woald be diseorered. Aboat a qnarter of a mile farther is a 
tamalos ote rgro wa with jnngle, and near it the remdns of some exteadTe 
bnHdiags. This tamahu msj be oae of the towers meatiooed by Fa 
hiaa.'* These resesrches are eztreoMly interesting ; bat we mast aot be 
hssty la oar identigcstioas, ss it Is evideat that mach reaiaias to be ex. 
plored ia this little troddca field. The csTes la psrticalar are dcserriog of 
the most miaato laTCstigatloay for there caa be little doubt that they are 
among the saost aadeatialadiayperhapa takiag preccdea ce efca of those of 
Barabar. The five hills sarroaadmg Rigagriha are named la the P&li Aa- 
aals* GyJkMkmiOf IngiH^ Wtbk^r^^ WtptMop and Patidmwo. Among these 
we assy easily recognise the Fsli forms of BAhhtar Giri snd BipU 
Ciri. in ITe^Aero and WepuUo. It inll be remembered that the ^ef- 
liQNmt cave was In the former (Webhara) hiU, and that the hall of the 
first eonTocation was in front of that cave ; which I owke no doubt is the S^n 
BkmdMT caie described shove. See my note 6 to Chapter XXX.— J. W. L. 
(10) SmfJ^r tk€jir§t iimt Opi.^l take O jrf to be the ssme personage 
ae the bhiksha asmed by HIaaa thsang A Mjr pk9 9kip ( ^ ^fai y , Aswijit, 
•* thst goeth on horse baek.") He narratea how SMpatra OMt thia devotee 
in the towa of lUjagriha, aad that it waa he that lastracted Saripatra la 
the law.— KL 

. (11) Semd Fm wUk p9ii9mid /ood.^Tbh e?eat la thas recorded by 
.Hinaa thsaag: ''At a short dlitaace firom the place wheie 8M§Hfi9 
(Sdripatra) waa lastracted la the law, there is a deep aad wide fosse aloog 
aide of which Is erected a lower. It b there that 8Mp U kkiiw Is ("the 

concealed/ ia Sanscrit ''ttftfWp Strgudkm) in order to i^jaro Foe» 
dif a pH which he filled with fire» aad aerred Urn with poisoned food. This 
Sftp li AUfev fe was atta^ed Um creed of the heretica and waa ever ready for 
auB^ieC He iavlted asaay to a banqnet ia his heasst before the gate of 
which wasadeep pit filled with fire aadealyeQfvwwd over with decayed stick! 
upon whidi he hsd scattered eomo dry earth. Besides tfOs, all the dishee 
wara peieoaed with difiereal kiads of poiseav eo that ench as eecsped desth 
in the fiery pit mi^t frntictfaM to tiM food. Tho lahibltHiti of the 


272 mAaixAOB or fa aiAif. 

toim kaMpfaff tiHSkyll kUM«l» Wrig«4 teplMiM* ImM to tli* 
HoMiiUt«r th« Aft, w|CBl^ iatmfeea IIm lattar not l» plwt yijpNlf te 
ttewajoTduvcr. TheHooonbtoortliiAgtrepUedt **B«BOt «iD0Mf ! 
IIm penott tf a TMI«ita caanol be i^fvad Hhm/^ B% nibtod tfam 
•adwcfcrth. M tte iniCwt of Us tettiiif liNt on tte thrcdwl^ of the 
door* tbi pit ef fivt beeuM changed Into a Unpid pool, dear as a ttinor* 
and eofitcd with tbo floatiBf floiron of tbo lotaa. Wliea 8hf U kliioou to 
witBcaied thia ha via domieaat aod aad s acretthalcaa ha aaid to hia diad- 
plaa, '•By hia art ha haa caeaped tho ftery pit; bat there atiU rafiiiathe 
poiaoced aMata.*' Bet the Honorable of the Age, after baTing partaken of 
theae, eipoonded the adminble law. Shy li kUeon to having liatencd to 
hit diicoarae, aoUdted pardon, confeaaed hia Crimea, and amended hit cott« 
dnct.«— KL 

(12) The black elephant of king il eAe «iU.--HiaaB thaang doea not 
accnae A eke $ki (Ajitamtm) of thia ab ; bnthe atatea thatO^ada^ being 
with thia prince and hia rdativea and frienda, let looee an elephant #hich be 
had intoiicated, hi the hope of iignring thcTathlgatas bnt the lattcf merely 
made a ugnal with hia band, when immediately there caaae forth four liona 
before wbidi the dnmken elephant became qniet and hnmbla.t 

A Mongolian legend of the life of Bnddha, which I hare pnbli^^, re- 
connta thia ndrade in reiy nearly the aame manner. ** Mtadatta, nncle 
of Sakya Mnni, eihilnted hia animoaity anew by bringing to Ua ne|gfaboiir<- 
hood a tame dephant which he had cawed to drink n large qoantity of 
palm-wine till hia thriat waa aaanaged. He filed to the nceoutremcnta of 
thia elephant two aharp aworda, and let looee the intoiicated aniaial npon 
Goodam (Sakya Moni), bdicfing that he wonld Tent hia rage egainat the 
hermit. But the latter merdy raiaed the fkwt fingen of hia hand, when the 
elephant took him for a lion and becaaM qniet."$— Kl. 

(13) iln phe fo.-^Thia ia the aame An ph» io of whom an accoont ia 
gif en in note 4, Chap. XXY. According to the DnZ-ec, die bore a aon to 
Bimbaaara, named in Tibetan Gyile».mi.l(;^f.mfd, or the*' intrepid youth;" 
a circumstance whidi auffidcntly accounta for her poiaeadng a &Mtgarden 
at lUjagriba, aa wdl u one at Yaiaali.— J. W. L. 

• PiMu i tUn, B. LXV. p. 48. 

t PiaH i taoJi. ibid. 

I JiMtmal Ai'Mtique, T. IV. p. 23. 


cJBAFtXft xxne. 273 


Fnkif KU dttK— ThedeaMNi Pluinra diugei hiomlf iolo a Vsltare.— Terror 
eC AMa^—ThmMef die km B«dilbes.*Steiie duowa at Fee bf Thiao tha 
— Falaea'ti 

Eotctiiig the ^allcj and going to the mountains above fifteen li 
to the south-east, yon arriTe at the Peakof iOlt eke.* Thi^ li be- 
Ibie icaching the summit of the mountain you eome to a etTera 
ntnated amongst the rocks and fadng the south. Foe was seated 
there in meditation. At thirty paces to the north-east there is a 
atone grot ; A turn was sitting there in meditatbn. The demon of 
hcsfen. Pit ma/ transformed into a Tultur^ stopped before 
the grot and terrified ^aoa. Foe by his supernatural power, q>en- 
ed the rode, took J nan by the arm with his hand, and re- 
BMved his fear. The trace of the Urd, and the hole through 
whidi Foe protruded hb hand exist still. It is from this dr- 
cnmstance that the hill is called the HUl of ike eaee of ike VuU 
iwre. Beforo theeaye is theplace of the throne ofthefour Bud- 
has.' AH the Arhans. likewise^ had each his cave where they sat 
tomeffitate. Thenumberof these caves is several hundreds. 

Fo^ being in front of the stone houses was passing firom the east 
to the west. Tkiao ika, standing on the steep edge towards the 
north of the mountain, threw down a stone wluch wounded Foe 
OB the toe ^ tins stone sUIl exists. The hall m which Foe taught 
dM doctrine is in ruins ; there aro but the foundations of a brick 
waD remabhqp. Thepeaksof these hilb are regukr and majes- 
tk; they are the loftiest of the fire mountains. 

F!a hian havii^ puidiased in the new town perfiimes, fiowers, 
and eiUamps^ hired two aged Pi ikieau to oondoct hun to the 
grata and to the hill £Udl#. After having made an obktioa 
0f Atpcifipncaandtfae fiowen^ the huapa increased tfaebriUi. 

274 in.emi]iAOft or wa siaii* 

•nee; Gtief tad emodon affeeted Um even to tern s lie teid. 
" Fefmeilf^ iii this veiy place was Foe; here be tn^httl^Aleeii 
Icn;^ jren .* JP« Aum, nntble to behold Foe in lifc^ has ifat mt* 
nessed the tracei of Us sojoanu StiU, it is something tjo hsTo 
recited the Sheau hnjf yon before the car^ and dwelt there one 


(1) ntJ>te*4fJCUdU»--la8ttMerilGM:ifwftti/e.or tbe Itekelthe 
VaUaie. It to ooe of IImms Ulb titaatod alMnU S5* N. Ut. it Ih^ ao^^ 
of theDalUtorudB«iw«li lifcn. Ths erigUi of its aama ws Ijpni from 
tbi kgesd giTW fai the teit bj Ft hita. Otlier Bnddbtot writ^ afinn 
howcfw tfiat it reocifet its mne from its resemblaBes to a Toltm.^ ''The 
TitUigati, aajt Hioaa tbiaiif , whea be had attained the age of ftftf years, 
dwelt mveb ia thto moaataia aad theie preadied tlie admirable law^Kl. 

ThepontioBorthtohOltotooweUdei&BedtobeBdstakeat itiiasftfteea 
U soath-east from the irallej leadieg from the aew to the aadeat fil^jagriha* 
What was the length of the 11^ Fk hiaa, ia the nest chapter, states the 
distance of the Bwmh^o ^mrdetu qf Kim Um th» from the north of the town 
to be three handred paces i Hinan thsang caDs tlie same distance 1 /t. 
lUung 300 psees to be eqaal to 250 yards, thto would gite 7 /< to a mile. 
To test thto ; Hinan thsang makea the distance of the Ganges in a north- 
east dirseCioB from JTsoa U kUt (GIriyek) 220 or 230 H. The direct dis- 
tance on Rcnnd's map to 30 miles, whidi gifcs pretty aaetly the same 
▼aloe to the /I, Tto. of 7 to the mile. Ki chhe was therefore abont 2|th 
mike S. £• from the entrance of the Talley, and cannot be identical with 
GudJkh dwrnr, as supposed by Capt. Kittoe, that hill being by far too dto. 
tant to correspond with onr pilgrim's aoeoupt, or with those of other antho- 
riUcs, which represent Gridhraknta as one of the hilto snrronn^ling the 
M monntain-girt city'* lil^e a walL It was Ycry frmons as the place where 
84kya deliYered hto instmetions on the Prt^nd Pdfwmtd, which oecnpy 21 
volnmesoftheB«nddha Scriptures. See my note 5. Chap. XlfVIII.-. 
J. W. L. 

(2) 2!leiicme»ff/r««NaPiUeiM;— thtotoone Of the names of Mdra 
and signiftes aceording to the Mjf kirn jiAeii, * the wtoked s' in Sanscrit, 
fVljir P<»a4i. 

* Fan i Ming y, quoted in 5mm Utngfrn toe, B. XXIV. p. 20 ?• 


HiUB thmg dcUOs this evait in tha fellowiag termi : ** Befora tli« 
•Com dwelHog of Bvddlis. b a flat •tOM ; it it then that A oaii eiperienoed 
the dread of Mlia. The Tcnenbla A naa bdng then absorbed in medita* 
tkm, tbe Idag of Uie M&rai took tbo form of a Tvltare ; and daring a dark 
Bight vnOlamined bj the moooy he tmote the rockt, stretched forth his 
wiagSy and attered frigbtfal cries to terrify the Venerable ; who indeed was 
idsed with inbonnded fetr. The Tathlgsta, tlirongb li!s 0fluii8cienee» per- 
ecived this s and in a Uadmanner strstehed forth liis hand, passed it tliroogh 
the rode, and laid it vpoa the head of A nan* saying gradoosly* * Fear 
BOt, A nan ! it is Mte thns transformed/ A nan took heart* and became 
calm. The marks of the bird are still visible upon the rode* and in the 
deft the hole tiiroogh which passed (the band of Biiddha.")*-.KL 

(3) TkepUee ^ikeikrmu rftk9fQmt ltaddXef,-»that b to my, of S£kja 
Mvni. Kasjapa, KanaU Mnni» and Kraknrhchanda, wbo have already ap- 
peered in the Bhadra Kdpa, or present epodi of the world.— KL 

(4) A sleaff vAieA wotmiM JFbe en Me fee.— TUs eventb the dghth of 
the nine tribnlations to whidi S£kya Moni wss subjected in expiation of 
Cudts ooBunitted in anterior eiistcnces. He thns himsdf explains the 
canaeof this bkrn inflicted by Deradatta ; 'Mb formertimes tberawasin 
the town of £e yne ilAI (Bijagriha) a grandee named fiSv ikmu Hb 
family was opvlent ; he had a son aamed 8iM me tku The fiither Sim f JUm* 
hoTing ended his days* 8iM wMtJd^ who had a younger brother by a differ- 
ent mother* named Sfo jf9 Me* was unwilling to divide Ue property with 
the younger brother. One day betook thb brother by tbe hand, and as* 
eended with him to the summit of JOtdle Mcu; whea arrived on the 
brink of the predpicB he pushed him dowB end cast stones upon him* and thus 
killed tlie younger brother." Foe gave the following expIanatioB to Ski U 
>be; ''The grandee* named Sim lAen* waa the king my fiilher* Ft tkmm^i 
gtmwMtMt wasmysdfs and Sin ye tAe was TV ^ tte le (Devadatta)* 
It wat hi eontequcnet of tUt my former act* that when walkfaig on the edge 
of mountJaieAeililln*m^tteledetadiedBatanefromthe predptoe 
to throw at my head. The genhm of the mountafai diterted the stane* to 
that but a taull comer of it toBdmd the grttttoo of my fool* and oaaaed 

(€) ne^AttBlnyfUB.— IhettaeofBwocfceonlaiaiBgthe inttruetioas 
of ttkya Muni. The n cAI Am explaba ^Aetii Iny fun to dgniiy in 
. •« thbp lAkh an difieutt to dbtbgubh frM eadi olhffwr 

% t Sm tmmgJmim,B.ixXlV.9,VL 

276 fiiOBiiuox-ov rA huit. 


BiBibM fwtaiof ]Qa1mho,«6hi moilM M, «rtht CnMitrfw—Orolof Pin 
iriM to.— 8iMtt.h«M»«rChlw ti^FSnt coltodioa of tte Mfii«t of Foe^ 
CavwB of TUao Ihl^Bbek iloM «r Pi Umm. 

He tlieii iitiied from tbe old town to letnm to tibe new, Pm>- 
ceeding to the north three hundred paees, he saw to tl^ west 
of the road the Bamboo gardenM of Kia Ian tho,* where was 
constructed a chapdt which remains to ihb day ; eceksiastics 
sweep and water it. To the north of the chapel, at the distance 
of two or three 1^ is the SAt mo «Ae lui. 8Ai moske tuli, signi- 
fies in Chinese, the Field of TcmUi where they layihedead.* On 
crossmg the southern mountain and prooeedmg westward three 
hundred paces, there is a stone bnildmg .called the Grot of Fin 
pho lo* Foe, after his meals, habitually sat in this place to 
meditate. Fire or six H more westerly, to the north of the 
mountain and in a shady spot, there is a stone house named 
Chhe tis^ it is the place where, after the nt houon of F^ fire 
hundred Arhans arranged the collection of the sacred books. 
When these sacred books were published, they prepare^ three 
vacant thrones sumptuously adorned ; She li foe was on the left, 
3/otc lian on the right. Amongst those five hundred Arhnns, one 
alone was wanting ; it was A nan, who, when the Great Kia ee* 
ascended the throne, was outside the gate without ability to enter.* 
They have erected in this place a tower, which exists to this day. 
Beyond the mountains there are other caTCS, where the Arhans 
sat and meditated ; and of these there are a great number. 
' Issuing from the andent town and descending three /t fowards 
the north-east, you come to the stone carem of Thiao tha.^ 
Fifty paces ftvther there is a great square bkct stone. There 


WIS fonnerly a Pi AUeou, who in passing np, pondered thus to 
himself: "This body is not huting ; it is subject to pain, roid, 
and exposed to nndeanness/' Considering Uie weariness and 
the relation of hb body, he drew his dagger, and was about to 
destroy himself: then he reflected anew, *'Tke Honorable of the 
Age has established a law' that no one should destroy his own 
life." He reflected agmn; «Be it so." said he; << but I seek dus 
day only to destroy three mortal foea !*' and stabbed himself. 
When he began wounding himself he became Sin iko wan s 
when he had half done, he became A na han; when he had 
completed all, he became Arhan, and truly entered into nt kauan, 


(1) The Bmitee Omtem ^Kiahm Mo.— Hiaan Uuaog itatei thtt this 
gardm wu ntvaUd one ii from the northern gate of the Jfotm/am etVjr. 
la hb time there was a chapel built of bricks upon a itone foondation, the 
gate of which faced the weat. It was a place where the Tathagata often 
dwelt and ezpoonded the doctrine, performed miraelea and led all heinga to 
salfatioa. There was an iaaage of the Tathigata and of manyother Tath£. 
gatas. There was in former times a grandee in thia town whoae name was 
Kim hmih§s he was Terj ridi and distribnted his bonnty to all the hereties 
in hb ' Bamboo Gvrdem* Having howerer seen the Tathlgata and heard 
hb doctrine, he purified himielf by &ith, and ceaied to enjoy the intercourw 
of the band of hereticB who dwelt in the ' Qarim ^BambooiJ Then, be- 
Ibfe the Instructor of gods and men came to occupy the dwelling, the genii 
and demons, to reward Kb Ian tho, espelled the heretics, saying, *' The 
chief Kb Ian tho, would raiiea cbapdto Buddha in the Gardem rfBwmhoots 
leave therefeie, that you may avoid all miidiief." The heretics, thougb 
greatly enraged, were obliged to digest their qileen, and left the garden* 
The cUef erected hb chapel, and when it was complete, hbuelf caaM and 
I Tith^gata to take posienioii oflt.«— KL 
b the ^ViYQ*4QI*8*'Q*9W^$*^4V, (Mr-uMU-iael picf) of the Tibetan scriptures; in Sanacrit, Fcmi- 
neaem JCilnibidabnM.vaUtedin the DhIm to have been pweentii to 
SCkynbyBhnbaaara. It b called ITiMMae In the Hahawanaa ; a cerrup* 
tbn,l picBume, of the Sanscrit name. It was here thai Sttyn < 
SMyb«,or Stedwmi, and IfongalyMU-^. W. L. 

• Pbn i cba, B. LX V. pp. fia, ». 

tTB m^ftiKAOx or fa hiak. 

(S) nf)lilf^lbM«f.— ntwwiSMwotte Mr tofkatflVMripClMof 

(3) Tl«fr«l^mi^l».— NoMoftlii levned cmnMvtalmi mi Pa 
Uitt propoMi Mqrrastormtioii of tliU nane. It Is cIievlMra writte» Fipko 
l»9 and appear! to me verjr plainly tha Chiaeta traaieript of AilMam, in 
Pafi ITeftAart, tha aaaM of tlio hiU Inwhifib wm sitaated tbi SSrttopamii 
ctTO. Sea Bota 9» Chap, XXnil.— J. W. L. 

(4) iflt/aoailottMMaietf Cfttelt.— HiaantluaiifdociBOli^TatfiaBaaio 
of Oik edifiee. bat atatei that it waa dtnatod fivo or eiz H to tho Mpfth-watt 
of tha gaidcB of Bamboos, on the northern sida of tha aBoantain, and in a 
great forait of bamboos. After tha nlnrana of tha Tatliigatay ho pdds, tha 
▼enerabla Malta Usjapa, with nine hundred and mnetj<-nina Arh^^ there 
made the eoUection of the three treasnres.^— Kl. 

(5) 7Ae ffrtai Kim sAe; Maha Kiayapa.— KL 

(G) IFUAoala«i7tl^ fa cn/m--ThadreanistaneeaUndod to is thu detailed 
in the MahsYaasa. After deseribing the erection of the hall af the first 
oonToeation la front of tha SatapannI eare in the ITeiAani moaatidn, tha 
narrotiTa proceeds: '* Tha Idag thos reported to tlie therost *Oartas1cb 
performed/ Those theros then addressed Aaando, the ddight (of an 
aadience). «' Anando, to-morrow b the conTOcation ; on ao^nnt of thy stUl 
being nnder the dominion of haman passions thy presence there is inadmis- 
sible : exert thjself anthont intermisdony and atti^ tha reqaisite qaalifica. 
lion.'* The thero, wlio had been thas enjoined, having anrted a tapema* 
tnral effort, and extricated himself from the dominion of haaaa passions, 
attained the ssnctiAcatbn of *' Arahat'* On the second day ; . Iio second 
monUi of « Wasso/' these disciples assembled hi this splendid hsIL Bo- 
serving for the thero Ansndo, the seat appropriated to him atone, the other 
sanctified priests took their places according to thdr seniority. inTbile 
some of them were in the act of enqairing, " Where b tha thero Anando ?" 
jn order that he might manifest to tha (aslembled) disciples that he had 
attained the saactification of •« Arahat,''— (at that faistant) the4aid thero 
made his appearance, emergfaig from the earth, and passing th^oagh the 
sir (withoat tonching the floor) ; and took hb seat in the palpit specially 
resenred for liim«" 

A mach faller and vary amasing aeooaat of these psfticalars assy be 
foond in Mr. Tarnoar'a axandnatioa of tha Pili Boddhistical Annals ; bat 
this volaose hss already exteaded so mnch beyond the limits I originally 
prescribed, that I cannot offord space to insert it. The reader b referred to 

• Puia i iMia, D. LX V. p. 53 v. 

Otichichu dtr Ou MmtgolieH, p. 312. 


tlM JomrfMil •/ike An^it Soeitif^ Vol. VI, pp. 510, &18. The scene of the 
fint conTOCttkm I hafe, in n foragoing note (9, Chap. XXVIII.}, attempted 
to identify; and I trait that Capt. Kittoe auy agab have an opportvnitj of 
bringmf his great antiquarian leal to bear npon that deeplj intercstiag 
loealit/.-^. W. L. 

(7) Tke flene etnem qf Tkiao lie. Thiao thais the tfameription, aa we 
luTO already seen^ of Dcvadatta. Hiuan thsang plaoea the great stone 
beilding in which this personage yielded htnaelf np to iMditation» at the 
distance of two or three U eaat of the northern gate of the momtain dty to 
the left, in the shadow of the sonthern slope of the hilL 

Detadatta, who was daring life the enemy and perseenterof Bnddha, is 
generally regarded as an incarnation of M&ra (the malifioent spirit). Sach 
incarnations tend only to exalt and to bring oat in all thdr glory tlie Bad« 
dhas and their doctrine. A Mongolian woric translated by M. Schmidt, 
says vpon this subject, ** Men whose spirits an darkened maintain and be- 
lieve that D^vadatta was the antagonist, enemy, and persecntor of Bnddha. 
If daring the five hundred generations that Bnddha TatUlgata followed tho 
path of a Bodhisattwa, the iilnstrions Begda Devadatta proved him with all 
manner of evfl and contradiction ; this was but to fortify the excellence and 
surpassing qualities of the Bodbisattwa. Thus unenlightened men commit 
sin when they hold and teach that Dcvadatta was an enemy and persecutor 
of Bnddha Tithigata, and by such discourse they ghre occarion to thdr own 
I in the three alject conditions (thoee of bratea, demons, and 
I of heD). Zho eccumulated virtues of the iilnstrions Bogda I>«va* 
dattn are jmuienie ; the services he hath rendered to many Bnddhaa extra- 
ordinary, and thus has he contributed to the germ of the root of meri- 
torious works. He belongs moreover to those Mah£sattwas, who have 
truly fafhomeii the means of salvation, and have approached the dignity 
of n Buddha TiUhCgata. Those therefora who regard him with hatred 
nnd aversion, eauso thereby their own iijuiy and their rebirth in the 
tlMo abieet eonditiona.''— Kl. 

(8) A Aww— Thelaw hera alluded to is mentioned in tho Dmhm (VoL V^ 
^ 182 to 239} I when, in consequence of eevoral instances of suiddo aasong 
tka aenks, out of grief and despair at tho ariserisa of human life, S&k|n 
prahibits discoursea upon that sutject, 8o that the prsetice of self4mmo- 
Ibytho Greek historians to the Buddhiats, wm, liko thalof 
r n depuftve froaa orthodox prindplsi.— J. W. L. 

2 B 2 



T«wBofKkif<y— PtMtwUraFoelifadrijr jMfi fai Mil9iiti«v— Fl^at wbefi 
heaeeoaipttilMdllieLftw.— H«it tipoMiltothe attack! •! a dflMO^-Otlier 
My plaeei.— Fotf fitat lowcn ta boaor af Foc« 

Prpeeeding thenoe fouryaoii yoii' to the wesC^ yoa eone to the 
town of Ki0 ye.* This town is also ooYnpletelj desert* Continuing 
twenty li to the south, you come to the phce where mt Phon 
M spent six years in mortifications :' the phce is wooded.^ Thence 
three U to the west, yon come to the phice where Foe descended 
into the water to bathe ; the gods held branches of trees to 
cover him* at his exit from the tank. Two H farther to the 
*north yon come to the pkce where the young women of retired 
families offered Foe rice and milk.* Thence two U to the north 
Foe, seated on a stone under a great tree, and looking to the 
east, eat the rice : the tree and the stone still exist. The stone 
may be nx feet long and the same broad, and two feet high, la 
the Kingdom of the Middle the heat and the cold are so equal 
and temperate, that there are trees which liye scTcnd thousand 
years, yea even ten thousand years. 

- Thence gomg half a yfoti yan to the north-east yon come to 
a stone grot ; the Fhou ea having entered it, and having turned to 
the west, sat with his legs crossed and pondered in his heart : 
" In order that I should accomplish the law, it is necessary tliat 
I should have a divine testimonial." Immediately on ^e stone 
wall the shadow of Foe depicted itself: it appeared three feet high, 
and the weather was clear and brilliant The heaven and the 
earth were much moved, and all the gods in space said j^'* This 
is not the place where the Foes past and to come should 
accomplish the law. At the distance of a little more than half 
a yeoH yan to the south-west, under the tree Pel io* is the place 
where all the Foes past and to come should accomplish )he law." 


The gods, havbg thus spoken, proceeded before him, sang, and 
showed him the way on withdrawing. The Fhou §a rose, and 
when he was at the dbtanoe of thirty paces from the tree' a god 
gave him the ^tum o/kappy mnen ••* the Pkou sa took it, and ad- 
Tanced fifteen paces further. Five hundred blue birds came and 
fluttered three times around him,,and then flew away. The Phou 
M advanced towards the tree Pet io, held out the grass of happy 
omen towards the east, and sat down. Then the king of the 
demon* sent three beautiful g^rls,* who came from the north, to 
tempt him, and himsdf came with the same purpose. The Pkou 
M then struck the ground with his toes and the bands of the 
demon recoiled and dispersed themsekes : the three ^Is were 
transformed into old women. During six years he imposed upon 
himself the greatest mortifications. In all these places people of 
subsequent times have built towers and prepared images which 
ciist to this day. 

Inthephce where Fo^ haring accomplished the kw rested 
seren days to contempkte the tree and obtain the joy of extreme 
eternal beatitude ;— in that where he passed seven days under the 
tree Pei io^ proceeding from the west to the east ;— in that where 
the gods, haTing created the edifice of the seven precious kings, 
waited on Foe seven days ;— in that where the blind dragon* with 
brilliant scales surrounded Foe for seven days ;— in that where 
Foe bemg seated under a tree, Ni kiu liu, and upon a square stone 
the god BHihma'* came to entreat him ;— -in that where the four 
kings of the gods offered him a pot;— in that where the chief 
of five hundred merchants persented him with parched rice and 
hon^ ;-^ that where ha converted Kim 90 md his brethren, 
master and diidples, to the number of a thousand; m all these 
places have they erected towers. At the place where Foe obtain*- 
ed the kw, ihoe are three. mi^ Ua Umg hard by are establish- 
ments finr the clergy, who are there very numeroua. The people 
supply than with abundance, so ih|it thqr hck nothing. The 
preoepta are ng^y followed; the greatest gravity is observed ia 
an tfaor €Qiidnct,«-iB nttiiig 4iow% m lisiiig up^ and in going 
2 b3 

282 nuKDiAOX or fa^ «ak. 

forth* Tilt firar gnat towtn •netod in coBuneBionitio^ of dl 
the My aeto that Foo perfofmed whOe in tbe woild are jjTcsenr- 
cd to thia moment since the nt AoiMni of Foe. These fo4r great 
towers are at the phee where Foe was bom, at the phce where 
be obtained the law, at that where he tomed the wheel of the 
hw, and at that where he entered into ni hmtan.^ 


(1) Aer jftte |Nnf«— Aboat 18 or SO nllcs.— J. W. L. 

(2) Tke iMm of JDe yt«— >iRe |r#» ■ometiaMi KU ini, b tbi tnatcriptiim 
of the Sanscrit WW» ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ is not to be edBfooadedNrith the 
abdcn one of tbe sasM name aitomtcd on the kft bank of die rifer Phnlgo. 
The rains of the andant Gaja* mt present called MuddMm G^yo, are sitnated 
in a vast plain a short distanee west of tha SUmJam or JmA»ml rircr* which 
fonns the upper part of the Phnlao. These mins present aotUas bet 
irrefttlar heajps of bricks and stones, amongst which are hare and there still 
to be detected the foundations of regnlar bnfldings* A vast qnantitj of 
building materials hss been removed from these ruins, which here thus 
become more and more shapeless. The number of stone figures found dis- 
persed within a distance of fifteen or twenty miles around the site, is truly 
astonishing. AU appear howerer to have belonged to a great tesAple and 
its vicinity, and to haTO been tnmsported thence to various places, ^t pre* 
sent there are no Buddhists in tho vicinity of Buddha 6aya«'» 

Hinan thsang states that this town was in a very strong position. He 
found few inhabitants and not mofe than a thousand brihman iamllies de* 
scended from the ancient saints. 

The rains of Buddha Gaya, was visited in February 1833, by the Bur- 
mese ambassador Mengy Maha Chcsu and his suite, on their wav to the 
Upper Frovinces to visit the Governor General. In going over and care- 
frilly examining these ruins, they found an ancient inscription in tho P4U 
character in a half buried ^onditioB, near the Maha bodhi gach, or sacred 
fig-tree, on the temea of the temple. A copy of this inscription was trans- 
mitted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, by whom the following translation 
waa published in their Journal for May 1834 : 

" This is one of the 84,000 shrines erected by Sri Dharm Asoka, ruler 
of the world (Jambudwip), at the end of the year 218 of Buddha's annihi- 
lation, (B. C. 326) upon the holy spot in which Bhagawan (Buddha) bavin; 
tasted milk and honey (mo4Aag»yata). In lapse of time having frd|ea into 
• BmmiUon, Due. •/ HMutUn, VoL I. p. 287. 


a Btate of ditrepair« it wai itbviU by a priest named Naikmabanta. A^ain 
being rained* it wu rcttored by lUja Sado*Mang. After a long intenral 
it wu ones more demoUabed, wben Raja Sempyn»SaUien«tara*Mengi ap« 
pointed bia G&hi« Sri^Dbamma-Rija-Gnna to anperintend tbe building. He 
proceeded to tlie spot witb liis diadple, Sri K^sjapat but tbey were unable 
to complete it altbongb uded in crery way by tbe Rfja. Afterwards Vara* 
daai-Naik-Tbera petitioned tbe Rija to nadertalce it, to wbicb be readily 
•SMntedy commissioning prince (Pyatasing to tlie work, wbo again deputed 
tbe younger Pyusakbeng, and bis minister Ratba, to crou over and repair 
tbe sacred building. It was tbus constructed a iburtb time, and finisbed on 
Friday, tbe lOtb day of Fyadola, In tbe Sakkanj year 667 (A. D. 1305). 
On Sunday tbe Stb day of Tacbbaon-Muagla, 668 (A. D. 1306), it was 
consecrated witb splendid ceremonies and offerings of food, perfumes, ban* 
aers, lamps, and pvija, of tbe lamous ornamented tree called Cs(pe wriMikM t 
and tbe poor (two ?) were treated witb cbarity as tbe Raja's own cbildrca. 
Tbus was completed tbis meritorious act, wbicb will produce eternal reward 
and virtuous fruits. May tbe founders endure in lame, enjoy tbe tranquil- 
lity of Jfirhhtm and become Arakamtm on tbe adTent of Arya Mitri (tbe 
f nture Buddba).'*— KL 

Vtofesior Wilson, in commenting on tbis part of Fa biaa's route, says 
tbat Kim f is Bnddba Gsya. " of course." But if we adopt tbe bearing 
and distance of our traveller,— and I know not on wbat grounds we can re- 
ject tbem,— aotbing can be clearer tban tbat neitber modem Gaya nor Bnd- 
dba Gaya, is tbe place Kere spoken of as tbe scene of Sikya's mortifications. 
It would be idle on my part to speculate upon a point wbicb can be deter- 
mined only by local investigation ; but I may briefly mention tbat tbere are 
eeveial circumstances, besides tbe testimony of Fa bian and Hiuaa tbsang, 
tbat render it extremely probable tbat tbe JTie pe of tbese autbors was con- 
siderably to tbe Bortb of modem Gaya, In tbe iint place, tbe distance 
from Pitaliputra to tbe Bo-tree, is stated in tbe Mabavansa (page 111) to . 
be seven yojsnas only. Kow taking tbe yojana of tbe Mabavansa to be 
equal in lengtb to tbat employed by Fa bian, wbo amkea nine of tbem be* 
tween Pataliputra and Giriyek, tbis would make tbe position of tbe Bo-tree 
concspond very closely witb tbat of Hem €f€gm / and even giving it tbe 
eitiease lengtb assigned It by Alrrander Cunningham froea well determined 
poritieBi bi tbe nortb-west, namely 7 milee» tbe distance would still 6J1 mncb 
sboft of Gaya, even tboug^ no allowance be made lor tbe sbuosities of 
tbeioad. Again s—Capt. Kittoe mentloaa tbat aeooidnig to tradition all 
■d%ieni feremuniei were anciently perfBrssed at RamGayni and Bncbn- 
aaseiTe that many afimHnlasgtpa 0a tbo mm neig^bemrbeod) to be tbe 

284 mMKiMABm of fa bian* 

KwrtfwoiimCwftfcdltiww iIwiIhuii tl» B«n- 
bwcMWOirtvitli piodiglowliibow fai IIm tdU gruilte of Wa^oiainc 
]iiUf» tad IIm MMpieoMt tufloi cf a ivf ntmAf aadcBt tv«B«^ I tUnk 
W9 h«ft groiadi fbr eaqvlriBf wlMther thii may not ba tba Oaja of oar 
jdlcria. Thai tha Hiadaa hara appropriated and lanctilkwl tha liteia rather 
IB fafor of tha eo^{eet«ffO» hdng exaetlj what tiiey hava done ia othar 
Baddhitt localltlaa. Sea alao Priniap'a vanioii of tha Saieriptioni in these 
caTea aad hia laBsarka ttpoa them hi J. A. S. VoL V. p. 657* Theie in- 
•eriptioBa ara tha oldcat I belie?a hitherto diacoTered fai aay eavo' ia India ; 
a cireanMtanca which alao adds aoma weight to the daims of this neighbonr. 
hoodtobathaaitainqnettioB. Bat, I repeat, thia pointcannot^ settled 
by doiet speeolationa ; and I earnestly conunend it to tha attention of such 
as hava loeal opportanitiea of deeiding it— J. W. L. ^ 

(5) «:p<»I tiSr years In aiarl{^ea/jant.— The first of tha tribali^ns that 
S4kya Mani had to nndergo, was to live six entire yeara in mortification and 
privatioasy era ha attained tha higliest degree of sanctity. He thus him. 
self explaina tha esnae of this tribulation t ** There waa fonnerly in the city 
of PAo /a nai (Benares) the son of a brihssan named JSfo Biaa» and the son 
of a potter named JSfe« ki t these two were yonng and comported themselYes 
▼ery affectionately together* Hon hi aaid to Ho asan; "Let as go see 
JTia f Aff Jam tel/' (the Tathlgatha Klsyapa). Ho man replied, " Where 
be the aso of gofaig to see this sharcn-headed monk !*' And thns it stood 
tOl tha third day. Again Hon hi aald, "We might go bat one moment to 
see hfan." Tha othar replied, " Wherefore visit this sharen mopk ? How 
shoald ha have tha doctrine of Baddha?" Thereapoa Hoa Id seixed 
Ho aaan by tha head, and said, " I denra that yoa coma and Sfse the Joa 
lai with me/' Ho man, <iaita Inghtened, said within himself, "'This is no 
trifling matter ; there most bo something good therein. He then faid " Let 
go my head and I will accompany yoa." Arrifed where the Baddba was, 
they sainted the feet of Kia she. Hoa hi said to the Baddha that Ho man 
recognised not tha Three Fredoaa Ones, and bcteeched him to expoand 
them to him, and conrert him. Ho msn on seeing tha Baddha loved him 
and waa filled with joy ; he embraced religioas life and stadied the doctrine. 
Ho man is myself ; Hoa hi is ha who, while I was yet prince, iAdaced me 
to issue forth from the town and embrace religions life, and it w'ss the son 
of a manafactarer of flower vases who gaided me. Nerertbelesa aa I in a 
former birth spoke disparagingly of the Baddha Kim f Ae, I had tc suffer 
the retributive penalty ; what remains of this penalty, I mast now suffer 
when on the point of becoming Buddha, by six years of mortifications. 
• JTiil^e, J. A. S. Vol. XXL p. 402. 


Ai the whole of this chapter ii filled with the adrentiiref of Boddhs* 
whOe yet Bodhifattwa, and daring these six yean of mortifications, I shall 
snbjoin the seqnd of the legend giren in Note 8. Chap. XXIII. end which 
has thrown so much light npon this subject. 

A. ** The prince when on the ere of qaitting eommon life, leapt with 
joy and proceeded in peace. He entered the town ; the people of the eoan« 
try gased on him with delight and nerer seemed wearied with doing so. 
The prince by separating himself from every object of attachment and aifee* 
tion, had remoYcd the root of all passion and pain. 

B. He wished to hare hit head shaTcd ; hat in his haste he had taken 
with him bo instmment for the purpose. Indrm came with a sword in his 
hand ; the gods and the genii recdted the hair. He then resnmed his rontey 
and advanced into the country. The inhabitants followed and watched Urn. 
He then went forth from the kingdom ; and having advancied somewhat, he 
came to the kingdom of Mo kie (Magadha). He entered it by the right^ and 
left it by the left gate. The people of the country, men and women, great 
and small, seeing the prince, adaimed " This must be Indra, or Brahma, or 
soaae celestial genius, or a king of the dragons ;" and they abandoned them, 
selves to joy, not knowing who of these he might be. The prince, who 
knew their thoughts, left the road and sat down beneath a tree. Then 
the king of the country, Pin^ «Ae (Bimbasara), inquired of his ministers, 
** How happens It every thing is so quiet in the kingdom, that not a sound 
or a whisper is to be heard ?" They replied, ** There is a Doctor of Rea- 
son traversing the kingdom, and coming to the court. Wherever he goes, 
he leaves a trace of light, and inspires respect by his mijestic bearing. It 
it a thing not seen In this age. The people of the country, great and small, 
have gone out to see and contemplate him, and even till now none have 
ictumed." The king then went forth with all his officers, and having ap* 
proaehed the Doctor of Reason* he beheld the prince shining with marvel* 
lous light. He asked the lattert " What genius art thou ?" •« I am no 
genius'* replied the prince. •* If thon art not a genius,*' returned the king, 
•* whence art thou and what Is the name of thy family ?" *« I come," repUed 
the prinocy'^from the east of the Perftimed Mountains, from the north of the 
Mountains of tnow; ay Uagdom It named Ida iMt; my father it iV 
ikmm^g and my mother, M9 jfe." King BimUUte replied, •• Are you not 
SiddhartaytiMn?" *• I am he," antwered the prince. Struck with admU 
ntk»,the Ung threw hioMelfathit feet and worshipped him. "Prince* 
whose birth hat been rigoalised by so aaany mirsdes, (said he) whose es« 
tetter pvedaiast by Itt luttre an Immortal, the holy king eaasingthe wheel 
•r OtlMtfeonlfaicati to rtvolve, th« expected tmtm of tbegcnUwhoie 

386 piMKiiiAOS or fa biam. 

vtn nktt^tnm^tm aidil of tbb Umt teti, mimntan hMl tkott 
% taiTwIj (rajal) mk toeooetal tlijMir te tto/nidnof 
llMBMBtdM? 0o«bllcif timi hast an ■dnirabto pvpoM I I w<Ji^ fldn 
Icnait." Thepriaeeiqplkdt ••Vlronwliiit IhavaKen* mnadilthUist 
boChiahciv«iaiidoBCaitli,«rebomb«ttodi«. The nfferiagt tbat attend 
them art old ag«» rickaeii, daath. aad paiiu Thesa canDot be araded. 
The body b bol Iba raeeptada of paina, AiBietkni and foar aio imManaa. 
IfBMnattaina gtoriooa awinwioa, lo ! ha falla into oiccm of prido. knstead 
of tha joja ao aidandy aoagbt for. the wofld b replete with aorrow^ It b 
thb that wearka me, it b forthbthat I woold flj to the movabdns." 
The graadeea and the eldcrareptted ; •• Thb old age, thb ^kneaa. thb death, 
— hafe beaa in the world Ijrom all tiom. Why dbtrem yoanelf by antid- 
patioa?aiidth«8tOff3eet a gloriooa title, and to withdraw to a pkofound 
retmt to mortify year body, what b it hot to eaeoimter aril V' The 
prince repeated thcae verwa : " Aoaordinf to your atyinga, Lorda, I ihonld 
not foreiae evil and be aad : bat were I a king, in becoming old,* tickncta 
wovld aaperrene, and when death eame I moat then hafe a aoooessor. In 
meeting tlib calamity, it were aa if I had no ancceaaor. How then forbid 
my aorrow ? Then are in the world a tender parent, and a pioua son whose 
affection penetratea eren the marrow of hb bonea. At the moment of death 
they cannot ancoeed each other. Aa for thb illatory body, on the day 
Vhen, thoogh eialted in rank, pain reacbea it, the six rebtiTca are at ita 
dde, aa if for a blind man yon shoald light torches. Of what nse were 
these to sadi aa are deprhred of eyeaight ? I have reflected that all acta what. 
ever aie anbject to instability, and moat (all back in error. There b littU 
happincM and mndi sorrow. The body doth not exist of itself, and the 
vrorld, which b all vacnity, cannot be inhabited long. Beings w)uch are 
bora, db. Things which are finbhed, decay. In quiet comcth daf^ger : in 
posseaaion, lorn. All beings are in tnmnlt and coafnsion ; all most return 
to Toid. The aoel b without form ; iu progress b in darkness, and so it 
reachea the calaasity of birth and death. Nor doea it attain these once for 
all t hot ita desirea and affectiona letahi it in the bonds uf ignoranea. It 
plangca into the river of birth and death t and can in no wise acquire the 
comprehension of these. For thb rcaaon would I fly to tha monataina ; all 
my thottghta are turned to the four voida, towarda the aalvation of. purity, 
of repressed Inata, and of extinct anger ; I shall seek to direct my reflecUona 
to that which attaina void and annihilation; and not only thia, bu^ 1 shall 
re^ascend to the aource, I shall return to the beginning. I shall begin to 
issue from the root, and thus I expect to attain the mighty rest." 
The Ung BimUbIra, and the elders, pleased with the explanation than 


giTcn them by tha prince, inferred that he wu one of thote prodigies dettin* 
cd to obteia the doctrine of Baddha«.Mid tnuted to hii taHng them amongtt 

C. The prince kept rilence and pnmed hii way, and oontinnhig lua re- 
lleetioQa» lald, ** Now that I am abont to enter the monntains, of what nae 
to me are theae pfedoaa garments ? It is for snch treasnres as these that 
the ignorant and stnpid men of the world expose themselves to danger." 
He then saw a hnnter pan by* dressed in the garment prescribed by the 
law. The prince joyfolly said to himself, " Behold the genuine dress of a 
mattt the dress of him who* of pity, shall sstc the world. O hunter, why 
hast thou put it on ? If thou wilt exchange it, thou wilt fulfil my desires." 
He then gsTC the huntsman his gold-adorned vesture, and recmved in ex* 
change that conformable to the law, Ckim yiie, and passed on quickly. The 
hunter was delighted, and not less so the Bodhisattwa. The prince put 
on the Ckim yne in lien of his soft and splendid raiment, and looking with 
a pure eye upon his tm^ kia H (religious cowl), entered among the moun« 
tains. Charmed at haring found the garments prescribed by the law, the 
Bodhisattwa shed a light which illumined the mountains and the forests. 
Amongst the 7^e tx», one named A Ian, and another Kia /mi, who had pu« 
led many years in the study and who had sufficed in the four contemplations 
and attained fire supernatural faculties, seeing this light were struck with 
amasement and asked, «' What signifieth this prodigy ?" They went forth to 
investigate, and beholding the prince said, «' Siddharta hath indeed quitted 
Ids home! Welcome SiddharU! Let him sit on this bed ; he shaUhave 
• clear spring and pleasant fruit Let him now eat !" They then added 
in verse, " The Sun*King hath begun to rise ; he is even now above the 
mountain top, and the lij^t of knowledge is seen of all beings. If any be« 
iMdd tiie foee of his image, he shall no more know wearinen ; for his rea* 
ten and his virtue are without peer ; there is nothing equal with which to 
compare them!" Then the Bodhisattwa took up the verse; ** Although ye 
have cultivated the four fixed ideu, your apiriU do not conceive supreme 
intdligentieasoaCPr^M^eitti). The recUtnde of the heart is the root of 
it;it cottsisUaotia thoworsUpof perverM genii, in the observance of 
WIgar things, which may be truly called searching for Brihaui an a long 
Bight. It la thus that ho who kaoweth not reason lalleth by the revolutioB 
ortfaawhedintoBfoaaddesth." Then the Bodhisattwa conceived a rnerd* 
lU tlMttght ; eering how aU bebgs are ealijeet to old age and ignorance, and 
bow they eaanot assure themselves against infirodtleB and the paiaa of death, 
]M desked to effMt their delivcrsaoe la order to reader their thonghta aiagle ; 
nad pvmlttlaff that en, witeal oieeptloo, aboald Mstiia haagsr aad thint. 


Mia nd bMt, ipite a^ iQM, the ptiM Of da and oclw aflieCSm 
tofliJmMd •oft«i(tlMM «vUi)| ftatlly to wiMtbtir Ciooghti ioid giTO 
ritttofeeliagtof Joy. H« eondderdl hoir» te the thioe worUs, tliteo weio 
pelM Md eadeoMv fem uiaahrait. udthe dlMppoliitmeaUorioeicty t uiA 
he longed to eoothe mco mod Icad^bcB to abrtnctioot la ihort to mmify 
their thoaghU aad give birth to the lentiment of proteetioiu Hf yearn- 
cd to tave from the fito eondiUiMu and the eight iUf» thoee beingewho 
chwded with Igaomce aad darkened by ftapidity, dittingviih not tree 
reaion. He longed to effeet their salvation, aad so to arrange that they 
shonld azperlenoe no eontradietion in unifying their thoughts i that they 
shooUl experience the good and not the ill. aad should feel no regret in 
abandoning the eight aetioas of the age, profit, lofs, dettructioa, cx^lUtion, 
praise, injury, grief aad joy, so that they be neither moTed nor disturbed. 
It is this vluch produced the second contemplstion. V 

D. He then set forth again upon his route, and came to the Ttlley* of 
S«e ne. This valley vas level and straight ; there were ssany frait trees of 
diiferent kinds ; every where there were living springs and lakes for ^lution. 
All was pure and serene. There were no spiders, flies, hornets, Wfisps, or 
flees. In this ralley there was a Tiio t2M named ^«e nti. He instruct^ disci- 
pies to the number of five hundred and guided their eonduct. The BoJhi- 
sattws sat down nnJer a So /e tree (^ny or KT^* ^'^ Shorea robusta), 
and for the sake of his intentions asked for the suprsme Mtki ofiansur- 
passed truth. The gods presented him with a sweet dew ; but th^ Bodhi. 
ssttwa would not accept it ; aad he constrained himself to Uke ho more 
daily than a single graia of hemp seed and one of rice to sustain his eaist* 
enoe. He remained seated thus for six years. His body becsme exceed- 
inglyomadated, and his skin adhered to the bones. His original purity, his 
repose, his profound calm, his silence, occupied his whole soul ; bat his 
thoughts tranquilly dwelt upon, 1st. number, 2d. consequence, 3d. jndg« 
ment, 4th. sight, 5th. return, 6th. purity. He expressed his thoughts 
three or four times. He went out by the twelve gates, but without disse- 
minating or communicating his thoughts. His divine faculties became ex- 
cellent. He penetrated and rejected dedres and eviL He entered no more 
into the five cloaks, and experienced no longer the five desires. All evils 
became extinct of themselves. His reflection weighed, distinguished, and 
and illustrated. His thoughts saw without eflbrt. He was as a hero who 
hsth conquered. It was thus that by dint of purity he arrived at the third 

* In the orifirinal Chhouan ; which signifies not merely a wMinUin-tierrent, and 
ia geneml miiHtN; rater, but a valUy watered by a rivulet. 

cnAPTun XXXI. 289 

E. In lraTa«ing heaven, Indra rcfloeled thus, ind laid : " Behold, six 
ttitife years hath the Bodhiiattwa been seated under a tree : his person hath 
beeone exceedingly emaciated. W« mvst now present to this kim^ cMUiing 
€ke wkeei to rewolve, wherewithal to compensate the abstinence of six years." 
He then tnflaenced the two danghters of Ste na in snch wise that they had a 
dream. The worM was completely at an end, and there was on the water a 
flower which had the luttre of the seven precious things. Suddenly the flower 
dried up, and lost its original hue : but there came a man to water it, and it 
was restored as at first. Then began all the flowers that were in the water to 
put forth and grow, and their sprouts covered the water as if they vrould grow 
out of k. The two damsels baring thus dreamed, awakened, and surprised 
ut the prodigy, ran to narrate it to their father. The lather was unable to 
expound it. He consulted all the old men, but none could say what tho 
dream imported. Indra once more descended and transformed himself into a 
BrahmacharC to interpret the dream of the young damsels. " The flower which 
you have seen produced on the water, u the eldeat son of King Pe thsing. 
Behold htm for six years beneath the tree ; his body is extremely emaciated. 
The flower which is dried up, and the man who caused It to revive by water« 
ing it, sigttiff that food must be oiTered him to eat. Tie little flowers, the 
stalks of which would come forth, are the men who live or die in the Ave 
eonditaons." Indra then pronounced the following SfuihM :***' For six years 
he haUa neither reclined nor laid down. He hath not so much as thought of 
hunger or thirst. His efforts have as yet attained nothing, lib body is 
emariatfd : his skin and his bones are in contact. Arm yourself with a re^ 
•pectful spirit, and ofier food to the Bodhisattwa. There shall be great hap. 
piness in the present agc» while the fruit and the reward shall be in subse- 
quent ages." The damsek replied, «• What shall we do to present him with 
food ?" The Brahmachari replied, *• Take y« the miik of ILwt hundred cows, 
and present it to Urn to drink in succession. Every tinw that the milk of 
a cow shall be milked, you shall take the milk of that cow, and use it in the 
preparation of boiled rice. When, in boiling, the rice and milk shall rise 
flrom the vessel* It shall rise filly, sis feet upwards to the left* downwards to 
the fight, to the right above, and to the left below. You shall fill hb pot 
with this rice by Bseana of a Udk, that it be not soacd/' 

F. The two daosseb presented (the boiled rice) to the Bodhisattwa. The 
latter wished first to bathe himself ere he partook of the riee. He proceed. 
ei therefore towards .the running stream, and washed his persoo. When 
iM had finished hU ablutions* he cubm forth firam the water, the gods and 
tkecenilshsltcring him with branches of trees. The y^nng damsels then 
Ftricalfd him with the fioc and milk. When he had calea thereof his stfcngth 
2 c 

4!90 moftiMAGB or fa huit, 

ictwsta* Md, fa • fvwivkp Im vMPcd kdbte iMppiMM to tiM y«^ 
fiyiiif, ««Maf jM ratan i<» th« TWm Hoaoralila OmsI*' ll«vi*| iaidiod 
lOs anllM mihadUa iMndi. riMe4 Ui Mowth, uid wmMI mA^Ui |Mt 
Ib going «raj»h« threw thalMt Into tU iiTer. It lawpdcii agifawt tt< 
cmnl. It bad Ml goMievM II era tkago^lbffBtd a Oinidawkidicuie 
fljiag, and aeiaiag tha pat, boia it at wcU aa the hair» la IIm apat where 
Ikcy hata araeCed a tower in tkeir kawNT, 

G. Tha BadUeaUwa them p r a cae da d aa hia vaalap end whea ahoat to 
pasa the lifer JVi iiaa eMea. he auida a g<tha, eigaifjiag. «« la fa«aigthe 
m iiam, 9kAm (Nibjaa) I aai aMved with aampaesioa for aU mm. Tke 
three aanditioaa and the three poisoned apots* I wiU faawfa theai'teirthej 
weia washed away with w^Ur.'* The BodhisaUwa thca reieclad: •' AU 
igBorant beiaga fall iata darkaeas. I mast lay hoU ao tha eight right things, 
andbytha washuigof watar»lshaUeffieethethrae paisoBcdapota." He 
thea bcgaa to aseead the beak. Blae bird* to the aaaibor af fiveiandrcd, 
flewthriee aiaand tha Bodhisattwa» aad haviag aaag doh»roasly» dcpaited. 

H. Ha i«aiB aet farth, and aa ha passed the Uka af the Uind drnoa, 
thu diagao issaed rejoieiag, naaifestbig his delight at the s%ht af the Bo- 
^hisattwa, and pronaanciag thiapalia. «* Oh what hs|ipiacas ( I behoU 
SiddLirta, who comes to delif er aa I How sliaU wa delay oicriag him tlie 
jnioes af tlie eweet aasarpassad dew ? WImd lia wallut tiia earth ticmhlea 
beneath liis tread. Masical inatniBMnta easit soands af their owa aeoord. 
Heistmly aa tha Baddhas of thaea pmt. On this pofattlforane hata 
Bodoabts. Efeaaow wSl he» as tha saa af Baddha, cnUghtcB allbeiags, 
aad awaken them Cram their slamber !" 

I, He then adraaced a«ca more, and beheld the hiU ifea ito. The caan. 
try waa flat and regalart and on arery aide dear aad delightfaL It'prodaeed 
deHcata and beaatifal planta. Sweet riraleto flowed la abaadanea. Tha 
perlwaa of flowers was ddidoas aad pare. In tha midst there was a lofty 
aad hsadtome tree, all the braachea af whieh were disposed with rsgalarity 
the one aboTO the other : all tha leoTes were adjoined to eaeh other, aad tha 
flowers thickly hicked together as theomassentof thagods. A per^poawasat 
tha top of the tree. It was the king of all tha forest, aad of or^^nal hap. 
piaesa. Thea (Baddha) adraacmg a little, behdd a maa mowing grasa. 
Tha Badhisattwa adcad, •< What b aow thy aama?*' "My aama b « J/a/^^ 
OMC»,'aadlBOweatthe^ramf^Jlaypf aaiai.*' *'If thoagiva OMofthat 
grass, thea shall the tcaparts of tha watld possess a happy oasea." Then 
Ji€pp9 0mm proBonaced thefdOowii:^ g4tha i" •• He hath rqect^he dig- 
nity of Holy Kiog, the scrca trcaanres, tha damsel af jasper for a spoaie. 
beds of gold aad of silver, carpets, broidcred aad many cokrared stoffii, the 


litunUTe voice of iLe liird Am tkmi, the hannony of Uie eight coneords, and 
kis sapcriority over the God Brahma, and now he proridei fainself with 
graa." The Bodhinttwa replied with thia g4tha: «'I have made a tow 
daring an mtmkjfm ; it ia to aave men of the five eonditiou. I now proceed 
to folfil thb vow. It it OB thia accowit that I deaired that the mower of 
graaa ahovid give mo a handful of the graaa, that holding it out towarda the 
king of the trees, worldly thoaghta might be wholly ditperaed. Now mnat 
I carry ont tbeae pvpoies.** The mower then presented him with the grass, 
and apread it npon the groniftd aa had been told him. The Bodhisattwa sat 
down, and rceeiTed the present. The Bodhisattwa performed the three thinga 
neeessary to he seated, and hating come before the tree, said, *' If 1 can 
obtain the doctrine, I shall not etade the three oaths ; my sides shall dry up 
and become immobUe. If it be so tiut I attain eompletn Bnddhahood, and 
obtain the doctrine, erery hoar shall produce ita thought." Thereupon 
the Bodhisattwa sat down, and entered eztasy. He cast away aorrow and 
the idea of joy ; without either sadness or the thoughts of pleasure, his heart 
neither rested npon good, nor directed itself to eriL He was truly in thn 
sMaa. Like a man who bathes^ and, purified, co? era hiasself with whlto 
fdt } without, he was all purity, within, a apotlesa augury* Annihilated fai 
repose, 1m completed without change the four contemplations; and after 
Anishing theae, he obtained determinate thought without abating hia great 
cempaasion ; by hia knowledge and procedurct he penetrated the prinm 
wonders, and comprehended the operation of the fhirty-scren dasaea 
of the doctrine. And what are the thirty-seren classes? They are, 
Urat, tho four etoset of ideaaof the ment/ secondlyy the four interrup« 
tion of the mens; thirdly, the four spiritual sufficiencies ; fourthly, the 
five roots; fifthly, tho five foress; sixthly, the seren intelUgent mens; 
icfenthly tho eight right actions. After the baring rm these over, 
he reeomasenced the void of pain. Extraordinarily without fonut with* 
oat wiah or sfs, he thought of the worid which* by aYariee, lote, 
gluttony, last, falls into the paina of life and death. How few understand 
how to know f hemerlfea, att derivmg thekr origin from tho iwHwmMmMt 
What are theae twelve ? Their origin ia ignorance ; Ignoruaee in action pro- 
doest knowledflet knowledge inaction producea naow and title » titU In 
pradneas tha six entrsneesi the tis ontranees in action pfoduet 
i| desirsfai actionprodnoeB love ; love in aetionprodness empiimn cap* 
lienin action prodnees possession ; possession hi aetioii prodneea birthf 
hirth in action prodneesnid age and death* pain and compassion, eprrow and 
whieh am the pninaortha heart and the instraasent, of gnat 
When the aonl has Men into the vidiiitiide nflili and dsalh» 

292 rnxmiMAGS or pa biait. 

If It WMUttUifai Hit mot iatcmpt lote.uid Mtingvisli tad 
wpprm ff M rf oa and Im. WImm ^ictade concf, tkm It igMM^face ci« 
tiacti IpMnaeii bdag titiacf, Umb it aetlon axtlBcti acCloa bveoailBg 
txtiacty Umb Is kaovledce cstlnett knowledge Maf cstiact, 4wn an 
same and titio aitlacti aamt aad title ezttaet, tbeii are the ilx cntraaocs 
aztiiiet s tiM ill eatraacea aztiaet, then it leaewed pkataie atiact i mewed 
plcataie cstiact, tbcn it detiie astlact % deiire eztiact, then la lote cztioet ; 
love eztlactv caplloa it atiact ; caption cstinct then it po tt e t rion extinct ; 
poiaeatioB extinct, tbcn b birtli extinct ; birth extinct, then are ended old age 
and death, tadnett, conpasiion, pain and aorrow, the aflUcdoat of iw heart 
and all great calamitieti and by thit bmcont to kmm ik» doc/Hae. '^ 

K. The Bodhiiattwa then aaid within Mmielf : «« Now mntt I tubmit to 
the miniitera and detcendantt of the Ifdre,*' lie tlien canted to Ittae froai 
tlkc tpace between hb eyebrowt a ray of light whidi ttrack the palace of the 
M&ra. The Mira, greatly alanned, could not tranqviUixe hb heart ; and 
teeing that the Bodhbattwa wat already beneath the tree, pare, without 
deairet, unremittingly oceapied with tubtib thoughts, and that hi hb heart 
tite venom of the pattiont, and eatbg, and drinking had noattractiont, and 
that he thought no longer of texual pleaturet, he that reflected : ** Thb b 
the aooompilahnent of the doctrine ; truly will there be a great victory 
over aae* Ere yet he become Buddha, I will go aad Uy watte' hb doc- 
trine." The ton of Mara, 8in me Mf, interrupted hb father that : '• The 
Bodhitattwa practitet purity. In the three worida he hath no peer ; of 
himtelf bath he attained purity. The Brahmat and all the godt, by bun- 
dredt of millbnt go to pay him bomtge and to gaze upon him ; it b not 
1dm that men or godt may attack. In dbturbing hb quietude aad givtag 
rite to evil, let himidf dettroy hit own happinest. Oh king of the Mara, 
if you litten to thete rtaioat, call hither the three damteb of Jttper, the 
lirtt named GreetoNt £e*e,the tecond Bwtr Hajfpif, and the third Grtai 
jBjr. Trouble not yourtelf. Oh king, my father; kt tit intennpt the 
penitence of the Bodhitattwa, a matter not important enough to dittarb you. 
Be not catt down, Oh king !" Then the three damteb, whote diarmt were 
exalted by theb cdettbl raiment, approached the Bodhitattwa followed by 
live hundred damteb of jasper. The mutical inttramenta whiiph they 
pUyed upon, their longt, theb lewd language, were all directed to db* 
turb hb ttudy of the doctrine. All three took up the ttrain : " Tliy virtue 
and thy goodnett are tuch, taid they, that the godt venerate and would 
worthip thee : and it b for thb that we come before thee. We arc beauti. 
fal and pure ; our age b in itt flower $ we implore permitiion to tcrve jou, 
and to attend you on the right and on the Utt, in rising in the moibing, and 
in lying down at night." ^ 


Tke beratj and «lte UtndishBenU of tliete damieli prodaceJ no effect 
«poa the loal of the Bodhinttwa ; hj o single vord be trantfonned them 
iato grey-headed old wonen, their teelh fallen out, their tjea Instieleis, 
and their backs so crooked that thej were oompelled to avail theaiaelves of 
the help of iteTes to return to vbenee they eane. The Mlva seeing thisy 
was eiasperated with rage, and coming with hia 1,800,000 demons svr* 
iwnnded the space of thirty-siz yojanas. These demons assmned the shape of 
lions, bears, rhinooeroses, tigers, elephants, oxen, horses, dogs, hogs, and 
•pes. Some were seen with the heads of animala npoa hnman bodies; 
otheia who had the forms of venomous serpents and the heads of stz*ejed 
tortoises. Some had scferal heads, with fangs and crooked daws : they bora 
aaonntaias on their backs, and caused fire, thunder, and lightning to Issuo 
firom their BMMths. They camo from four sides to attack the Bodhisattwa, 
with all manner of arms. But nothing could daunt the courage of the latter, 
wlw came off Tictorioua from all the attacks of his enemies. Fioslly the 
Bodhisattwa having, by his supernatural power, overoosse and subdued the 
Mlira, an the gods, full of joy, descended from heaven and scattered flowers. 
The Bodhimttwa obtained the rank of Buddha under the name of SAjr kirn 
wm /•« hi (S&kya Muni Tathlgata) with the honorifie title of SiiMkktr 
^ mm mki fodir, and lAe oeucra^le Buddkm ^f tA§ c^.— KL 

(4) Co9€rm§ kim off A§ Unud Jrmm th§ MA.— See note 3 letter F. 
Aeeording to lliuaa thsang, Sakya bathed in the river Nl lian chben ; in 
m em ory of which a tower was erected which existed at his day.— Kl. 

(S.) Clferid Foe rice tmd anIA.— In Singalese books only one woman la 
aaaationedashavinf contributed to the sustenanee of Buddha with Bsilk and 
riee. Her name was St^mUtwm (Sujmimt) During a million kalpas she 
had done n vast number of good works, in the hope of having it in her pow- 
er one day or other to present rice and milk to a Buddha. Her wish was 
granted. She waa the daughter of a fililawno (wealthy man) of the country 
of Simammmm aio^pmii, and becamo wifo of the principal SUmmm 9iB&n^ 
Mmi(Benai«a). She offend n goMea pol worth n mUlion mofsn of gold, 
fuU of rice and odlk to Buddha tho very day of his aceomplishment i and 
nflcr that aeeomplishment, havii:^ heard him prea^ aha entered npoa 
dwaal bkssednesa.*— KL 

(ft.) lAMbr ^FHH free.— That la the Benetiaf ftMV^ntU. or 
toddy tmo, hi Saaaerift mW tOa. Aecordiog to tho legend ghua ia aota 
S. D. k waa aoC nadar a Fei la, but aader n iBa li (^IW SO^ that Baddhn 
six ynan hi vartlflcnlioaa. Tho Mongol legend ghua by 1I» 
aaakn Hn lafiaa fig, /M f«il^<aae/ •• Mar thi khig of tma, a 
•Upha«,ToLIIL fi& 


lollf B$Mi, Im Ml wMi Ms kg! ctMMd mA te b ioHobIcw pMUre s 
h« ^aBfifalNd Md Mbi«ctc4 tiM <Jllw»titf (danoM) ind ob Ikt m^nwi 
becMM BdUbBloBpMtlMciluiwtibkfowcetafUlb.'** iBthsaccoaic 
oTHimtteBf Hit UkmriM wider a IMiU tiuH Sttyt M«ni to nidto 
bftTe icilcd Mfwal jwft,— KL 

It wOl be tees ipImb we epne to ClM|iCcr XXXVII. UMt from lh« mode 
•r pcopegatta Meribed t» the Pii It tiee by Fn bias. U eiNild net pointbly 
beloQg lo any ef tepala tribe. Hie aeeoaat IdcntSi&ca it vitbtbe/Sevt 
imdiau Tbia tne boftcn produced from tbe leeds that bave beat dropped by 
birda in tbe aiila of tboBorassos flabeUiformia* wlicre tliey frow» and extend 
tbeir deeeendiiig roots so as in tione to essbraee entirely tiM Pslmyra, except 
its upper parts. " In very old ones tbe top thereof is jost seen issoing from 
tbe tnuk of tbe Banyan itself as if it giew from tbencci whereas it mns 
down throngh its esntre and has ita roots in tlie gnmnd^ tbe Palm being 
oldc8t."t This sight is familiar to aU who have been in Indla.-J. W. L. 

(8) TArsf *fe«l(Ai/|«r<ff.— For fnrtber parUcnlars of Sticya's temptations 
tbe reader may refer to the Aiiatie Reiearcbei, Vol XX. p. 301.~J« W. L. 

(9.) Tkthlmddrmgm with Mllumi «ee/ft.— Hioan thsang names this 
dragon Ifon M /in IJIo.-*KL 

The drsgon,bcre caUed Ifon eM im tbe If adUilrMre of tbe PaU 
Annals. He is said to bsTO protected Baddha daring a thander storm by 
encircling him seren tisMS ; thns forming a dormitory in which* remote for 
all distarbanccy te latter reposed for a week in tbe enjoyment of heaTcaly 
beatitude. See also Noitee^ rf ike Life ^ Sakya, As. Bes. XX. p. 293. 

(10) The circusutaaee here alluded to ia detailed at large in the twenty, 
eighth Tolumeof the Miie, entitled Q|c;iSf*R4 {Hdumge hium). This 
work has been pnbliihed at St. Petersburgh, with a German translstion by 
that eminent orientalist* M. I. J. Schmidt. In the legend m question, Sttya 
b represented ss besitatmg, after his attainment of Buddhahood, whether ho 
should engage in the promulgation of the Law* or, in eonsequence'of the 
hopeless perrersity of maakind, emandpate himself at once by entering 
ninrina. Brahma and the other gods of his mansion are represented as ^treat- 
ing S&kya to enter at once upon tbe good work ; end as reminding hUn of bis 
prodigious efforts in former births to attsin the opportunity he then epjoyed. 
In this way scTcral legends are narrated at length: how countless ages ago, 
when Sikya was JtanoffAiai/aH, a king of Jambudwip, he made a thousand 
holea in his body snd lit as many lamps, or wicks, in them, for the sake of 
the doctrine ;— -bow in another birth, when he was a kii:^ named JUimg Gireli, 
• Ceteh, dn (hi Mongf^kn. f V0igt,U9rU Cat. Suburb. • 


faCy for the Mine objeett haul » thoasiiBd iron spikes drifen into lib body :— *, 
bow coontlen kalpas ago, when he wai Hant^emc, ion and heir of the king 
of Jambvdwipa, he threw himielf into a pit of fire ;~how innumerable age* 
pnttv when at Benaret* asUdpala, he tore his own skin for paper, broke his 
bones for a pen, and need his blood for ink, as the condition of liearing the doe* 
trine ;— and how, at a period nnspeakablj and immeasarably distant, he exist* 
cd as a kingof Jambndwfpa named Shidtki, and was pot to the test by Indra 
and Viihwaknrma, the former assnming the shape of a hawk and chasing 
tke latter la the form of a dove into the arms of the king, who negoeiated 
for its fcscno at the ezpenie of his own flesh. On being reminded of all 
tbcse erents, Sikym's resolution is taken, and he proeeeds to Benares to 
«*t«B the whed of the Law." Schmidt, JDrr ITeuc wuf ilrr TAor, YoU 
II. pp. 3—20. Some of these legends the reader will remember have been 
icforrsd to in the earlier part of this Tolome.*— J. W. L. 

(11) Clfered Aam pareUd rice tmd Aoacy.— Bnddha, says Hioan thsang, 
beng seated with his legs crossed, and having attained the joy of eternal 
beatttnde, lisaed, after seven days* lirom his profound meditations. Two 
BcrdiaBts passing throngh the forest at the time, were warned by the guar- 
diaa genius, who said, '* The prince of the race of the 8&kyas b here, he 
baa obtained the rank of Buddha, his spirit Is absorbed fai osediUtion, and 
during forty nine days he has eaten nothing." The two merchants ap* 
proadied Buddha and offered liim someparclied rice and honey* Buddha 
accepted their presents, but as he had no vessels to contain them, the four 
kings of heaven coming from the cardinal points, brought bhn esch a golden 
pot. Bnddha dedined their acceptance, because vessels of such precious 
material were not suitable to tiie ecclesiastical condition which be had em- 
braced. He refused besides other pots of valuable material, and eventually 
aee^ted one of a very ordiaary kind, &c."— KL 

The story of these merchants is otherwise told in Pali works; butis Aot 
Vorth repeating here.— J. W. L. 

(12) Wkert Ae €W9€ried Kimthemndkii lr«f Area.— These ara the three 
biotbcn of Kla she (Kfoy»P*) who wen converted by SttyaMunii name- 
ly mransJiM JC;i9igM (Kfoy»P«of the quince tree), NM Klsyapa (of the 
iivur)t and O&jfm Kit^fopm (of Gaya). IWse tbiee personages ara not to be 
cwfawnded with Mah4 Kfoyapa (gfoUe) norwith one nassed in Chinese 
Sly 4rJas sAe(fai Sanscrit HaMvafo, the ten^'old strong) who was one of 
tbeftratflvo pcrsoBi eoBvertedby Sakya Muni. Aeooiding tothe Any 
■H^f I the weed Klqrapa sigaifles/aaiiljf ^ lAt ffwaf lerlsise / aecordb^^ to 



■pplM flMMdftf to tiM ft«dy •f rmoa, a mintmlom taKtoh^ nrrjlng • 
diviM taUt €■ in back, nfiUed t»tlieq«eiliMHi«f tlMit virtaow ■|CMt ori, 
■nil Iwaee tiM hmXtj name. H« was aUa la perform tbe aepcriar aeCa of 
tei/o^gtUmiims and therefore they gave him the aaaM of the /ni f^lAe 
AifAaeliMi. Compare Chap. XX. BoCa 99.— Kl. 

(13) Aar free! leiMrt.— That b. at KapOannta, Gays, Beaarta, and 
Kashiagara.— J. W. L. 


A ya beeomci Kiag of the Iron Wheel, and reifw over Yen feaa thi.— He vbiki 
Hell, aad eaaflraen a prima for the paniihment of crimiaale.— Hilary aC a 
Pi khieoa who entered that priion.— The King it eonterted. ! 

The King A yu^ while yet a lad/ was playing npon the foad ; 
he met Sky kia/ott who was going about begging his 8iibs|itenee. 
The hid, greatly pleased, gave a handful of earth to Foe. Foe took 
it, retnmed it to the ground, and passed along. The ^arth in 
return for that made him (A yu) Einy of ike JFkeei oflrcm.^ He 
reigned over Ymm /ecu Mt, and mounted the Iron Wheel. In 
Tisiting Fan feou iki he saw Hell' situated between two monn« 
tains and entirely surrounded with a girdle of iron, wl^ere the 
damned are eonfined. He asked his ministers the meaning of this ; 
they answered that that was the place where the King of tlie 
Demons, Tun /o,* imprisoned the guilty. The King reflec^d and 
said, *' If the King of the Demons hath devised a hell for the 
punishment of the guilty, why should not I, who am the king of 
men, prepare a hell for the punbhment of the guilty T* Then 
addressing his ministera, he asked, ** Who b he that can prepare 
me a hell for the punbhment ,of the guilty t" They replied, 
** None but an extremely mcked man can do so.*** The King 
then sent hb ministers every where in quest of a wick^ man. 
Tliey found on the banks of a river, a black giant, with yellow 
hair and green eyes, talons instead of feet, and the mouth of a 
fish. He whistled the birds and the quadrupeds, and when these 


came, killed lliem with arrows so that not one escaped. When 
they had found this man they returned to the King. The King 
summoned him privately and said to him ; *' Enclose a space with 
a lofly wall, and place within it all manner of flowers and fruits, 
also beautiful Talleys, and lakes pleasing and lovely to look upon, 
alluring men to gaze on them with eagerness. Thou shalt make 
a gate to this prison, and if any come and enter, thou shalt 
seize him forthwith, and shalt punish the guilty according to 
their kinds^ allowing none to escape ; and should I, even, enter, 
slacken not the punishment of the guilty : I make thee prince of 
the hell/' A Pi JtAieau begging his subsistence entered the gate. 
The keeper of the gate was about to punish him as a criminal. 
The terrified Pi kkieon solicited some respite till he had taken 
his repast. Some time after a man entered. The keeper of the 
gate put him into a mortar and pounded him ; a red froth came 
from him. The Pi kkicou having witnessed this, was convinced 
that the body is perishable and subject to misery, empty as a 
water-bubble* or as froth, and became Arhan. When that was 
done, the gaoler put the froth into a pot ; the Pi khieom was 
enraptured. The fire dried up the froth, and when it had cool- 
ed, there arose from it a water-lily. The Pi khieau sat down, 
and the gaoler went to the King to rehearse the marvels that 
had been performed in the )irison. He desired that the king 
should go and behold them. The king replied, <* I have first 
something urgent to do; I caimot go thither now." The gaoler 
replied, ** This is no small matter ; it behoves you, oh king^ to 
come quickly, and that yon postpone other matters.*' The king 
followed him and entered : the Pi kkieou preached to him the 
doctrine. The king obtained the faith, and repented of all the 
wickedness he had hitherto done. From that time he believed 
in and honored the TArte PrteioM 0«c«.' He habitually went to 
the tree Pei i^ to repent hunself of his sins, to chastise himself, 
and subject himself to the eight purifications. The kinjf s irift 
asked whither the king daily lepured to promenade? The 
giandccs replied, that be alwap went to the tree Pei iQ. The 

298 FfLOnnffAfiB OP pa ntAir, 

qncfB awiiled the time wlien ilie king was not tbere, and sent 
pcf^Ie to cat and throw down the tree. When tlie king' retain* 
ed and beheld this, he was so troubled and afflicted that he fell 
to the earth. The nobles bathed his face with water, and after a 
long time he letnroed to his senses. He caused a brick wall to 
be bnOt nmnd the roots of the tree, and these to be watered 
mth a hundred pitchers of cow*s milk. He cast himsdf upon 
ground,and made oath neriT to rise>, again unless the tree wero 
reproduced. Scarcdj had he made this oath, than t^ tree 
began to sprout again from its roots, and from that tim^ to the 
present it has become at least ten ehans^ high ! 


(1) Kim§ A yii. mkih fH m Inf.— The Ugtnd here alloded to may be 
roud in M. Schmidt's Per Wtiie muf der TAor, Vol. II. p. 217. *• Ooee 
apon a time the Yictorioat-Aeeompliihed (Smic js) went ahroed with JTm- 
feiM (Asaada) in qeest oC alms. Several children were diTertiiis them* 
advet hj the road-ride, erecting little bnildioga of earth. One of tjieie saw 
Bttddha afar off; and rcaolved to present him on hia appioach with alms. 
For thia pnrpoae he took a handfol of the earth they were nslof to present 
to Boddhat bnt being Tory tmall, he waa noable to reach flie dish. 
** Stoop down/' exdaimed he to hia companion, ** and getting on thv back, I 
will pnt my offering in the alma«diili.*' " Willingly," replied his companioD ; 
io getting vpon bis shoolders, the former atretehed oat the handftil of earth 
to Boddha, Herevpon Bnddlia lowered the begging pot and leeaiTed the 
earth. Having reoeived it, he transferred it to Knngawo with tl^ com. 
mand ; " Make of thia earth a (flnid) mnd, and besprinkle therewith the 
temple. JTnn^ewe / in as mneb aa tlie temple sliall be sprinkled with tlie 
gift broogbt me by the impnlae of a Imppy spirit, and so accepted by me, 
for thia meritoriona senrice, after the lapse of one handred years from 
my emancipation from pain, shall this little boy, by the name iiAtokm^ 
reign over /cai^ndirljie / and after he sliall Imve established Uie pro^paincnce 
of the Three Jewels throngiMmt all lands, he shall bring the tmrirm to the 
highest hendr, and erect for these at one and the same time, eigbty-fonr 
thottsand 9iknpm throvghont Jambndwip," &e. 

I give this short legend, not somnch in illnstratlon of the test, aa for iU 
assertion that Aaoka was a contemporary of Sakya Mnni ; the wAf instence 
of snch that I at present remember. It would be cvriovs to aseertein if any 


cwiiiteriMit of this legend eiUU in P&IL I fancy not, and strongly snspeet 
that the prewnt it a Trans-himalayan interpolation. M. de Koroi nen- 
iiont tbat in the copy of the Kmk phfur from vhieh he made his analysist 
the lldMM^s li'aMi is stated to have been tnnilated from the Chinese.* The 
ciisteaoe of n Chinese copy wonld aoeonnt for Fa hiaa's fiuniliarity with 
nany of the legends narrated in that work.— J. W. L. 

(2) Kmg rftke Irm IFfteel.— See note 12 Chap. XVII. It is there a- 
plained that the kimgrftht iram^ whttl wonld appear at the tione when the 
life of man, after having attained its limit of brevity (ten years), should re- 
tnm by a sncccssion of increments to twenty thonsand years. Neverthdessy 
in the text quoted in the ^e» itntg/m ten, and which M. Remnsat had 
before him, it is stated that ''According to the 7k thi tou Itm, thoage of 
man augments and decreases in the lesser kalpaa. The life of man is 
first 84,000 years: at the end of every century this term is abridged by on 
year, decreasing thus to 10 years. After remaining thus one hundred years, 
it increases again by one year, till it attains twenty thousand ; and in this 
couneof time appears ike kSmg rfikt hnm vAed," &c. As the Buddha 
8&kya Muni, with whom A yu or Asokn was eontempomry« was bOrn at 
n time when the duration of human lifii was but a hundred years, it is evi- 
dent that the king of the iron wheel did not withhold his appearance in the 
world till this duration extended to twenty thousand years.— Kl. 

(3) H€ UM UHi^^keeoTding to the Buddhist traeU eoUeeted in the 
Ssn Umuffm •em, precisely at the southern extremity of Jambudwfpa, at 
the depth of 500 y^'encsU the abode of king Yanlo; that btho infernal 
icgiens. They are named 7% jro because they are beneath the earth. Some 
of these HcHs are great and some smalL Of the great eight are hot and 
eight cold I of tiie smaller ones, sixteen are situated at the gates of each of 
the great ones, and so disposed that tiie torments successively increase. Hence 
they are named Keen tkten§ ye (hells of traasa^gration and reduplicatioQ). 
An living bdngs ooodcmned to suffering pass through these heUs; and 
when they have passed through their punishment in one they are transCsned 
00 another. The sixteen mansions of hell thus passed an,— 

1st. Iff <te It yo (the heQ of black sand). A hot blast blows over this 
Made aaad, BsaUag it burning hot« and carryfaig it against the akui and 
kenes of the damned, who, thus seoidied, suffer frightful anguish. 

2lid. Jky«U#ifa«-»Ballsofiron,crafluned with burning excrements, shoot 
fawwd and piuas against the damned, who are thus compelled to by held 
ofthenu Thesebumthe bodies andhandaof the daaued, who arathen 
Itoput fhaaa in their months aad swallow them« lo that| Utom the 
* Amii§ Bmmrtlm, vol* zx, pb 460. 


rdl«ttotlMbdl7, tlMn MBotUngthik iiB«t bust. ImmU vlih lios 
beaks pedL iMr flcdif penetntiBg even to tha bonei. 

3fd. ni liiif II |r«.--Tbe Bifauttcn of tUs bdl ttratdi tbe dupad apM 
nd boi iraii, aad is tbcm tbere vitb nOb i MiSiic tbair buidi ud festy 
luid an lomd tbdr bodicawitb fiv* buidred null. 

4tb. JTIa II |r«, tba bdl of bwagar i— Tba doMiis po«r fate tbo HO«tbi 
of tbe damaed mdted oapper t wbkb, dcaeeoding f rom tbo sidkl to tbo bell j» 
cawMs intolerable ancviab. 

Stb. jrollyo^tbobeUoftbifit.— Tbeauaiatonof tbia bell ta|^ baUa of 
fed bot ifMi and place tbeaa in tbo aaoatba of tbo danraed^ tbereby borong 
tbeir lipa and tongoe. 

6tlu Tbnay Jto H yo.— Tbe damned an cast into ealdronavbcro tbej are 
boiled^ end vbcfo tbeir bodiea riae^ and ainkt and ivn ronnd till wboUf 

7tb. 2b lOM^Aoll jro*— Tbo mtoiaten of tbia beUplnnie tbo daaraed 
Into caldrona, aectbo and destroy tbeas, and tben* taking tbem ont witb 
books, east tbon into otber caldrona. 

8tb. 8kff MO U |fO.— Tbe damned are laid npon n largo boi stone $ other 
red hot stones keep tbeir feet and handa strotebedont, bmising their bodies, 
and redoeing their fleah and bonea to a atew. ^ 

9th. Nwmg Atoiiet H fs.— The damned are bathed in blood and pns t 
which they are compelled also to awallow ; their bodiest members, bead, and 
face are smeared with theae, and they are thus oonsamod. 

10th. Xim^ Jlo H jfo.— In this hell there are mighty iires. The dsmned 
take iron measures to messnre out the fire to consosBO their bodies. The 
pain of thdr homing extorts from them groans and loud criea. 

II th. HoH Ao U |fO.— -A river of ashea, 500 jfcen sion long, and as amny 
broad, exhaling pestilential vapours : its surges dash and strike against each 
other with a terrifie noise. Above and below there are iron spikes ; on the 
ahores, forests of swords ; the branches, leaves, flowers, and firuijts, are all 
so BMny awords. The damned are carried along by the current : whether they 
sink or whether they float, the iron points penetrate their bo<Ues, within 
and without, oceaaioning ten thousand pains. If they leave the stream 
and come to the ahore, the swords there wound them, and pafithers and 
wolves devour tbeb living flesh. If they fly, and for shelter dimlf the trees, 
the blades turned downwards Cdl upon them, and those turned upwards 
lacerate their hands. If they support themselves npon their feet, their 
skin and flesh fall to the ground cut in a thoussnd pieces ; tbeir nerves and 
t!ieir veins hang together. A bird witb an iron beak pecks their bead and 
brains. They then retain to the rirer of ashcf, and follow thfircnrrent i- 


b«t whether diTing down or ruing to the •orface, the iron pointi penetrate 
their bodies, teiring the ikin and the flesh. Blood and pas issne from tho 
woonds, and nothing bat the whitened bones remain floating on the sarface. 
A cold wind then blows over and revifes them i and thej pass on to tho 

12th. Till wm ii yo.— The damned are here compelled to hold in their 
hands red hot iron balls; their hands and their feet are thos destrojed ; 
their bodies stand ap blazing. 

13th. rnfim /i jfo.— The ministers if this hell stretch the damned npon 
red hot iron, and with hatchets of the same material, hack their hands and 
feet, their ears, noses, and members, caanng them anheard of tortarea. 

14th. day Isny ii |ro.«— Pknthers and terrifie woWes gnaw and tear the 
damned. Their flesh falls off; the bones are laid bare ; and pas and blood 
ran like a riTcr. 

l&th. JTIimi eAo« ii jfo.— -A violent wind shakes the leaves of the sword« 
tree, and the swords fall npon tiie bodiea of the damned ; whose heads and 
Ueat and members are thas woanded and torn. An iron-beaked bird placks 
oat their eyes. 

16th. Ham pinf ii jfo.— A strong cold wind blows over the bodies of the 
damned and stiffens them ; frost attacka their skin snd bones, and causes 
them to fall down. The pain thereof extorts from them load cries. Now, 
after the close of life, all living bemgs who have committed wickedness fall 
faito these different hells.* 

These are the sixteen lesser hells. The namea of the eight boming hells 
and the eight freesmg ones, which are greater ones, eqaally express the 
nstare of the ponishment to which the damned are sabjected. The eight 
baming hells are. 

1st. Simkg ii yo.«— In this hell, long and sharp talons of iron grow apon 
the hands of living beings, who with inflamed eyes and hearta fall of rage and 
hatred, tear the fleah from each other, rending it in n savage manner. 
They believe themselves now dead ; bat a cold wind passes over them, 
their skinaad flesh are reprodaced, and they revive. In the 8k9 itm thia 
heU is called that of lAe rwwcifoM (ZVi^ At IJ yo.) 

2nd. B€ eftfRy «lyo.— In thiahdl deaMoa Und tha danmed with chaina ' 
of bwnhig irotty and then decapitate or aaw thcBS. Baming chains clasp 
tiMir bodies, eeordi thdr eUat penetralo their flesh, ai^d caldne their bones, 
the manow to flow ool; 'thos inflietiqg nthoosaad tortarea. Thie 
is heoee called thai of Moeft dUine. ( A, black* la a metaphoiical 

• 5m imngA M<S B. XLV. pp. 1»-21^ 
2 p 

302 niiORiiiACiK or fa feiUH. 

3rd. TMf INI H |f9.— Thk htO it alM edM GiMMf ita, BtPt m 
gmt nontdM«f lockywU^ tpMitHMOMlj fkll vpon tbs dundU wboM 
bodj» bona nd flith. are tbas ndoood to a pvlp. Hadm II b ctOed tbt 

4t]i. Xl^« tfM II jro.~-Here Hi* daaaad wTcist Into tut eddioM «ta« 
tlMj m boUedf and, sdrenng horrfbljt «tter food erics. 

Sth. Jk kmowem llyo.-*\niai tba damned bate been latbli aunner 
boiled bj tbe demoatv a wind blowi that canaca them lo fnite. Thej am 
then eonTCjed to fttrnacet where thej am roasted, and soffHr |peh crael 
agonies that they ntter frightful eries; and henee Ita name. 

6th. dee eJly H yo.— Its waUs am of iron. The fire whidi then bnma 
prodnees whiriwinds of flame whieh eoosnme the damned within and withoat, 
and bnrninf their akin and their flesh, and roasting them, cans; them ten 
thovsand tortnrcs : snd hence its name. 

7th. Ta eiUie eAjr li jre.~Tbe waUa of iron, reddened bj fim within and 
without, eonsnme the damned. There are pita foil of flamea and trtf and 
on both sides of these pits are mountains all of fire. The damned am 
taken hold of with Iron pitchforks and tossed into the fire. Their flesh is 
roasted, censing them ten thoussnd tortures ; snd henee the name. 

8th. fTenifrienlijre. — The damned undergo in this heli suflerings witlu 
out intermission. It is the most terrible of all the hells. The appearanee 
(the body) if iktr§ tsiMenl ininrupthms the danmed are there bom and 
there die : when dead, thej are reproduced ; their body experiences no inter* 
ruption, snd hence the name. ■'' 

The eight cold hells are— 

1st. The hell 'O /rev le, or 'O jw« le, in Sanierit Arhtdm. This word 
signifies wrinkle*, because the damned, by the cold to which th^ skin and ' 
flesh are subject, are wrinkled and dmpped. 

2d. The hell Ny /cjr/con U, or Ajr Im« jw« le (in Sanscrit, mrm-kmdm) 
This word signifies in Sanscrit ekimki or eJliyt , becanae theae are espericn* 
oed by the damned there ex posed to the cold. 

3rd. The hell *0 tkm eAe, or ISTo Ae.— These words are not interpreted. 
The damned by reason of the extreme cold cannot mofe their IT^, and can 
therefore only produce this sound. 

4th. The hell 'O po jio, or Hioe Aieo jpe.-*1he damned, by r^aaon of the 
extreme cold, are unabl^ to moTC their tongues, and can only produce tliia 
sound betwixt their lips. * 

5th. The hell 'Boh Aeon.— The damned by reason of the extreme eold 
ran mofc neither tongue nor lips,— but tbe air passing into thrir wcasnnd, 
produces this sound. 


6tlu The hell ¥• pko U (in Sanscrit, Utpkaia)^ or minff pko /e. This 
Saufcrit ivord tignifiet Utu water Ullff bceaoie the damned, bj reason of 
eitreme eoM, have their skin bloirn (expanded) like thia flower. 

7th. The bell P# tw mo, w Ppikewn (in Sanscrit Pttdmut^ and in Pali 
Padmmm)* This Sanscrit word signifies rod /•#«# ; beeanto the damned bj 
reason of ezoesslfe cold, have their flesh plaited and coloured like thia 

8th. The bell Fern lo /jr (in Sanscrit Pandarika). Thia Sanscrit word 
signifies wldte hhUf becanse the damned, from ezcessiTO cold behold their 
flesh detaeh itself and fall away, leafing their naked bonea like this flower. 
It is also named iia ka po ike me (Mahi padma) the great red lotos. The 
•kin and tlie flesh are half opened and similar to this flower.— C. L. 

The dirision of the hella ia aomewhat diflerentlj girea in the DnddhisI 
works of Ceylon. They admit eight principal ones, nnder the name of Nermm 
i«, or Nireftu Aroond each of these are placed fonr smaller hells ; tho 
nnmber of these places of punishment being thns raised to forty. In the 
Vkurmm'-predipeka^ or 7oreA ^ ike Law, n Singalese work interspersed 
with ancient Pali and Sanscrit texts, there is a Sanscrit conplet in which tho 
names of the eight principal hells are thns recapitnlated ; Samjiwmp KUa^ 
mUiwmekM, SamgUie, RJiwranee Mki^ UmkdramrmeaUpikhfi, Prei^ehU 
mitUkihm These eight hells, nentioned in Menu (IV. 88, 89), are named 
Aekim wuAiuirekd.'^Y^. B. 

(4) The km$ ^f the demetUf Ken /o.— Also called Yen «• Is, or Km 
wmhs corresponding with im in Sanscrit.— Kl. 

(&) Ne»e hmi m verjf wieied mam earn do so.— To keep n prison is one 
of the twelTO bad acta reprored by the law, and called *0 lim jri .— C. L. 

(6) A hmhble ^f tMler.— Sikym Muni says in the Stag pan kimps '^Tho 
sen is originally motionless and clear ; but when storms and whirlwinds 
vex itf they produce bubbles of water. To thia may bo compared tho 
nature of the loftiest intelligence, whidi, like the sea is pure, bright, excel- 
lent, till SMnred by the vanities of the heart, which thua render the world 
void and without reality. This Toid and unreal world ia absolutely analog* 
MS to the bubbles of the sea."*— Kl. 

(7) The three preehueemee.'^Fbe, Fa, ^en^, (Buddha, Dharma, Sanga.) 
or the Supreme Triad. The Hea Km Kimp says s ** That which ia called 
Buddha, Dhanna, Sanga, altliough the name expresses their substances, is ia 
tfuA of one sole nature and oonsnbstsuHal, BMUkm signiflcs itUeUipeaeep 

f that Us nature and subetanoe are intelligent and rational, that he 
1 the iMfs, nd that he is neither f oid, nor being. Dharwrn 
• Am imuf /• sen, B. XLV. pp. 19-31. 
2 D 2 



hUm iMT^ortlnl mhkk icgvbteti dtdgmitiiq^ th* law ^Omm ndef 
«xtliietta«wlildi MrTWMtbsratooltbsBatwd TiftMi. ««f « ilgiiiflet 
in C1Ub«m IJk tmir«l «Mtft iadimtiBg tluit tbs «imI1^ 
in two modett ^vt nmtin nnitod/'* 

BcUtifcly, the tkr—fr§cinm mm m dittinel ud diitiniilar. lit 
JtiuMiUi.-wlienh* begin to fnUU the law vttder the Pd IJU (bodhO ti«e,he 
dUplajedabodjofbatiiseileiyf whenhecaaw todiieowne olf the book 
//oeyen, he appeared as the bodj of the honormbleZon tile miu" 2« Tk9 Urns 
that is the great levofaitfont the leaier revotntiont the preeepta, the diaeowiee» 
and the compiUtlona which bare been levealed fai the Uto tiaaes* (The five 
tunet are, that of the ^on yest tbat of the Defr^pmrk (aee Chap. XXXIV.)* 
that of the Fng temg. that of the Pngna, and that of the ntrv^ie.) 3. 
ffmnga : thii detignatea inch aa lia? e reed? ed the doctrine, whp itgnlate 
the caoiet, and gather the fmita i or the SJ^ wen, the renen ite, and 
the Bodhiaattwaa. The Skmg wem^ are thoae who haTO obtabed the 
nnderstanding of doctrine hf the diaconraea of Foe i the Konen Ho are thoae 
who hare obtained tlie aame bj tlie eonaideration.of the twelT^ eoncate* 
nationa i the Bodhlaattwaa are intelUgence with affection. C. L.* 

(8) TAe itf Pei fe.— Hiaan thsang aaw thia tree two centoriea after 
Fa hiao, aa alto the wall bnilt aronnd it by King Aaoka.— KL ^ 

(9) Ten cAmy.^Abont 100 English ftet. 


Hill of the Cock's foot— Sojourn of the great Kia she.«->Ab^ of the Arhane in 

this hat 

Going thence three /• to the sonth. yon eome to a hill caDed 
the CoeJ^# FoQi.' It is here that the Great Kia she 19 actoaDy 
present. He perforated the foot of the hill that he might enter 
it, and prevented any other from entering by the same way. 
At a considerable distance thence, there is a hteral openings in 
which is the entire body of Kia she. The earth ontslje of this 
opening is that OTcr which Kia she washed his hands. yThen the 

• Sam ttaugfa tou, B. IV. p. 24. 


people of that countiy siiffer from headache, they rub themselrea 
with this earth and the pain is removed. In the same hill, to 
the west, is the abode of the Arhans.* The Cleigj of Reason,* 
of all kingdoms and eonntries, come here annually to adore 
Eia she. Those who eome with perplexed minds^ behold in 
the night Arhans who discourse with them, and resolve their 
doubts ; and having done this, disappear forthwith. The woods 
which cover this hill are yery dense and tangled. There are 
many Iioii% tigers, and wolves, so that you journey not without 


(I) Tk€ CbekU Fooi^-^ in Suucrit ^Ji^miE, Knkmtapddm s aeoordiog to 
tbs tnmseriptioa of Hinanthsaiig, JTAiii khiu ckm p0 tko* He adds that this 
haiMalflocaUadin« ioupQiko, or the >bol ^ lAe VenemkU, ^^FQT^- 
He aaya that yoa amve after traTeUing one hundred li from a woody plain to 
the cast of the riter Horn Ao, which appears to be the Sone. He deaeribea 
the luU as very steep and lofty» and crowned with three peaks. The ven- 
erable Great Kia she (Mah£ Kasjapa) dwells there still, for he dared not let 
his nirranabe seen; and hence It Is called the Hill ^ftJk§Flooi qfihe 

Aeeording to the Chinese and Japanese Chronology Wm klUm iw U fm 
■c» fmJtfmmmWi tnh Kia she, the tUrd Bnddha of the present age, retired 
to this monntain Inthe d3d year of the XXIX. cyde of sixty, correspondinf 
with 905 B. C.t— KL 

Tlie identity of names here prodnees a confrulon of persons and dates« 
It Is hnpoitant to bear in mind that the name JRctAt, or Kasyapa, which Is 
that of the Baddha Immediately preceding Sikya, belongs also to several 
personages of Bnddhio legends. It Is that of one of the hcre^archs 
(p. 144); that ef the three principal disciples of 84kya (p. 295) and that of 
one of the five ecclesiastics converted by the latter (Chap. XXXIV, n. 6.) 
Bnt thevcry passage ^poted by IL Klaproth, rciiBrring the retreat of Kasyapn 
infco the moutain of the Cock's Foot to the year 905 B. C snflicently shows 
ttet la hiaa does not here speikef the Baddha KIsyapa, whose leBeshe 
ttlsinhsie mentions as being p i es e r ve d in the Mngdom ef Kosala (Chap. 
ZX). TheKlsyapa hersapokaief csnenlythflnfbce be eaeoC Safcya's 

• Pmmitmm,B.lXV.p.4X 
2 D 3 

306 niXIRIMAOB OP Wk HIAlf. 

aiMi|tetowlMmth8CiiHbet fTMtfwM erdiaaray glfco. HejbtlMinft 
of tboM ImIj penoaaira or patriardii aiMmg wbom was per|petaatdl tlio 
•eeret of tbs mjtteriet diidoied to them hj ihdr dying BUttter. Maj «o 
not in like muner aeeouit for the diterepaney betwixt the Bamt)¥e of o«r 
aothor, who makes Koiala the couitry of KIsyapa BnddbSt mid \hs 0|^»i- 
ons of other writeri who anake Benarea his Urthplaee ?— C. L, 

Were the potltioii of Kim ye known with certainty there woold bo aodifi- 
cnlty in identifying the triple-peaked hill fai qnettioB. Supposing the 
former to be» as I hsTs eonjeetnred, aomewhere in the neighbbwhood of 
Bdm Gsyd, there is a hill set down in Kennel's map of South B^iar, whieh 
corresponds in sitoation with that giren to KmkuUpida both b^ onr author 
and by Hinan tlisang. I inbjoin that portion of the itinerary of the latter 
describing his route eastward from this neighbourhood to Rigagriha, in tho 
hope that it may enable some enquirer on the spot to clear up the diflicul* 
ties of the subject* **To the east of the rirer Ifon ko^ a great forest ; 100 
If, Kukutapddm (the Cock's foot), or Kiu to po Me (Gnrupada). North* 
east of the Cock's Foot, 100 li, mount Fo Mo ykns; thence 30 /i east. 
Si it eki, a forest ; thence 10 li south-west, a great hill ; thenee 60 H east, 
the* capital." The rirer AfoM ko cannot be, as M. Klaproth conjectures, 
the Sone, which is at least thrice too distant to answer Uiuan thsang's 
description ; neither can it be the J/oJIsaa, which joins the !>^Ujan many 
miles too far south to correspond with his subsequent course. The rirer 
named in Rcnnel's map Moorkvr in its upper course, and Liiiit Pompom 
as it approaches the Ganges, answers well as to distance and position. But 
be that as it may ; if we protract the aboTC route from Kmititopida to 
Mjagrihot we shall find the direct bearing and distance of the fbrmer from 
the latter to be about W. S. W. 171 /i, or in round numbers 24 miles ; and 
if we set this off from the well ascertained position of Rajagriha, it will 
very nearly corres|)ond with the hill I mention, but not at all with any to 
the south of modera Gay4. I throw out these conjectures howcTer only for 
the consideration of such as have local opportunities of inrestigating the 
point.— J. W. L. 

(2) The aUde of the ilrAtfnt.— These are supposed to be still in exis. 
tence like their master, the great Kasyapa.~-Ki. 

(3) The Clergy of If e a«o«.— The Tao ne. There are three grand sys- 
tems of religion in China ; that of Confnciua, that of Buddha (Foe), and 
that of Lao tsze. These are called respectlrely, the religion of the Li- 
terati (/oM Aitfo), that of Foe {Shy tiao), and that of the Tao sse (7*«o 
kiao). The last mentioned invariably ascribe the origin of their doc- 
trines to Lao ttze (orXeo isev) who was born in the third }ear of tLe 



enperor Tins wang of the CAeom dynasty, about C04 B. C, and died in 
523. (See StanisU*t Jiilien, Livre diet Jrce««ij>en«et el detPemetf preface 
p. Tii.) *' The doctrine of Lao taen insists npon the suppression of oTcry 
Tclienient desire and of .every passion calenlated to disturb the peace and 
tranquillity of the aouL Aooording to him, it should be the aim of every 
Wiseman to exist withoat pain or sorrow I and in order to atuin that happy 
quietudct he inculcates the banishment of the jMtl from the mind and of all 
Tain and nselesi eoUdtnde about theyiilMnf . To plan cxtensiTe enterprises, 
to agitate one's sdf with the cares essential to success, to abandon one's self 
to the derowing anxieties of ambition and avaricet is, according to ibis 
philoso^ier, to labour less for one's self thsn for posterity. It is madness, 
therefore, to sacrifice personal coBsfort and happiness for the profit of sons 
and nephews. In acting for oursdYcs, Lao tsen recommends Bsoderatioa 
both in our desires and in our eisrts; for ho regards not as desirable any 
good that is obtaiaed by trouble and annoyance.** GroMer, Dtweripiinm 
lie foCSUif, p. &7I. This sect seems to hsTO extended itself irerynpidly; 
we meet with aiany allnsions to it in Fa hiani andlsMy laentioa as an 
instance efanachraaism in Chiaese chronology, that a follower of Lao tsea 
a Tm sse aasaed ^ < ie ssid to have recognised by supematnnl signs the 
birth of BnddUba, whom CUneae historians affirm to have flourished aosM MM 
yean anterior to the founder of the 3Ve sae. Sndi ineonsiitinces snfici* 
entty establish the nneoundnest of this department «f Chinese duonolegy. 
-J. W. L. 


Return to Pa Han foc^Tcmple of the Vast Solitude.— Town of Pho lo nai.— 
Deer-parlu— The first five converts of Foe.— The fcingilom of Keen than bL— 
Temple of Kin nie lo. 

Fa bian, OB ictoniiiig to Ptflumy^ ascended the Heng towards 
the west. After travelling ten yewfi yuiu he came to a temple 
called that of the Fm9t SoUiude.* It is one of the sUtions of Foe. 
There are to this day ecclesiastics there. Following the course 
of the lirer Ileng towards the west for twelve yoMijf am moie^ ho 
cameto the towBof PAo io mmi^ in the kingdom ofiiM tki^ To 


t]ieiiof(Ii-weBtairUietown»attIiedbtaiieeoftenlb7<Ni4^me to 
the temple titoated in the Deer>park of the Immortal s* this Deer* 
park was formerly the station of aPy eki/oej there are constantlj 
deer reposing there. AVhen the Honorableof the Agewas on 
the point of aiDeompIishbg the Uw« the Gods sang in the midst 
of space* ** The son of the king Pe M»g embraced ecclesiastical 
life and studied the doctrine, and in seven dajs he will become 
Foe/* The Fi ehi foe having heard this entered at hwutn / it is 
on this account he called the place the Garden of the plain of the 
Deer of the Immortal. Smce the Honorable of the Age accom- 
plished the law, men of subsequent times have erected a chapel 
in this place. 

Foe being desirous of converting Keou Un amongst the five 
men,* these fnt men said amongst themselves '*For ux years 
past this Sha mem Kin tan^ practises austerities, eats but opt grain 
of hemp seed and one grain of rice daily, and has not ye^ aecom« 
plished the law. How much the less, then, shall those accomplish 
the law who live in the intercourse of the world, abandoned to the 
(pleasures of the) body, the mouth, and the thoughts t To-day, 
when he shall come, let us be careful not to speak to him.** Foe 
having approached, the five men rose and worshipped him. 

At the distance of sixty paces to the north of this places Foe^ 
looking towards the west, sat down and began to turn the wheel 
of the law. He converted iTeou /iV amongst the five men. Twenty 
paces to the north is the place where Foe rehearsed his histoiy to 
3Ii /e.* Fifty paces south, is the place where the dragon J /ojw 
asked Foe, *' After how long a time shall I be delivered from this 
dragon's body?** In all those places they have erected towers, 
amongst which there are two eeug kia Ian inhabited bjr ecdeai* 

Thirteen yew yan to the north-west of the Deer-park, there is 
a kingdom called finm /^lui atiV* Its temple bears the name of 
Kiu see /o." Foe formerly stayed in this place, and on this 
account there are now many ecclesiastics there, the principal part 
of whom are of the Less Translaiioiu Thence eight yeo\t yans to 


the east, is the pbce where Foe converted the e^ geniL There 
too, he had stations, and walked, and sat. In all these places 
thej have erected towers ; and there are monasteries in which 
may be a hundred dergy. 


(1.) H rtiwmin$ H Pm iiamJbe.^^Vai hian when Pa lian foe (P&tali pntrt) 
difeeted hit coane in tlie lint place towards the toath-east to Tiiit the new 
and the ancient town of Rajagriha, the capital of the Kinga of Magadha, as 
also the Peak of the Valtnre. From this monntaiot sitnated to the aonth of 
the present town of Behar, and forming part of the ridge between the rirers 
Dahder and Banonra, he went in a westerly direction, crossed the riTcr 
Ai /«sn (Nilajan or Amanat), and arriTed at KU ye, Bnddha Gaj&. Haring 
▼isited the wonderful and the sacred places which rendered that Ticinity 
famoos as the scene of Sakja Manias ansterities during six consecntiTe years, 
he was about to return to Pataliputra to pursue his journey and embark at 
the mouths of the Ganges for Ceylon, and thence to China. He had not, how« 
erer, Txsited the holy city of Benares and its neighbourhood, equally fiunoni 
in the history of Sakya Muni, as the eountry in which the Honorable of the 
Age had begun his ministry. Fa hian proceeded thither accordingly by the 
Ganges, and.retumed by the same route to Pataliputra. 

The thirty.third sheet of this work, contaming the Budddist legend of the 
origin of the town of Pataliputra had been printed off ere I fell in with an 
interesting brochure published at Leipsig by M. Hermann Brockhans in 
1835, mder the title of ** Fnmdaiion ^ ike town qfPdtalipmir^f md kutorf 
ff CjMtete, in Sanscrit and German. M. Brockhans has extracted these 
two pieces from a collection of historiettes of Somadtn^t of which menu* 
leripto exist fai the Library of the East India Company in London. This 
account of the foundation of Pataliputra, not by a Buddhist, but by a Brah- 
min sectary, differs entirely from that gtren by Hiuan thsang. According 
to it a perMn named Puir&Jkm finds in the Vindhya mountains two sons dis« 
potiBg about their paternal heritage, which consisted of a Tascastaif, and 
a pair of dippers, all possesiiag miraculous properties. By a stratq;em, 
ftCraka becomes possesied of these three objeete, and fUes away with them in 
thaair. These confer on him fi^ilities for asakiaglova to the beaatifalPdIa/s 
and anaUahiiii to carry her off from the palace cf her foOer. HavingarriT* 
edoathobanka of the Ganges, ha there, in compliaaca with the rcq^mat of 
Uabdofcd CM,aad by the miraculous virtae cf his staff, baUt a city, 
ifaikcacrcftheMMeMhccaUiKtalipatnu He becoMS a powctfol 

310 piLGKiiiAOB or rA HUir, 

b.braeoBdU IqUi f«tli8r*ia.U»f« and fovmMtbs «lM»lei 
•s fir as Um M. I am wiwaiiiic to omit thii little Mmtivi, ahhovKh 
not equl in Inlemt to that glYcn by Hivan thsuig.*— KL 

TM !■ tlM l^md to which I have refcnred is page 259. The leader 
»a J find it hi the Jwnud ^f ike AtiMtU Soekiy, ToL XIV. p. 140 or 144. 
— J.W.L. 

(2) A iMQiltaeaMdlAe Vmi AWifMb.~TheSaiiaeritetjMaeftUe imd 
I have been enable to aieertain. The temple epokcn of it that ealled in 
Fall books /npfnf paine rindp/, Am patamm rmmmim^ or Jui ptAtmt, It wae 
situated eif htecn fojanas south of the Banian tree of the continent of Jambn. 
dwipa. All the Bnddhas are supposed to have there begnn tlicir ministry. 
It was formerlj freqneated bj a great nvmber of Magi, or sages, who had 
the power of iljing in the air. It is for this reason, add the F4U books, 
that the temple is named btmpmiatM reauiia bj those who haTO witnessed 

The temple here mentkmed bj Fa hian cannot be the /«t>e/ene» of the 
Fali Annals, whidi describe the latter as an edifice, or large hall, at or near 
Benares, for the aeeommodation of /«i (saints, or dcTOtees). Sakya is stated 
in the BuddAawmuo to haTC departed from the neighbonrho^d o( the iodAi 
tree, on the day of the fall moon of dtaiki (April-May, B. C. 588), saying, 
** Let me repair to BMnasi," and taking his dish and robes he performed a 
jonmey of 18 yojanas. On the road meeting an indlTidoal named UpaJto, 
travelling on his own affairs, he informed him of his attainment of Bnddha* 
hood, and on the evening of the same day reached Ittipmianam BdrdimH. 
The distance here given of 18 yojanas, or a little more for the last day'e 
jonmey, corresponds very well with the actnal distance from Benares to the 
neighbourhood of Gay&, say 130 or 140 miles; taking the yojana at Capt. 
Cunoingham's valuation of 7 miles. — J. W* L. 

(3) 7Ae et/y ofPkohnai ;— that is the famous city of BenarM, called in 

Sanicrit ^i<W\ ^VTT^Ht Or Td4t* The first two of these ire derived, 

according to Indian Lexicographers, from Fere, the best, and eeet , water t 

that is to say, the Gamgea^ on the banks of which this town is seated. It 

would appesir however that the last name is the primitive one, although ita 

derivation be irregular, from Vsrami, a river which runs to the north-east of 

Benares, and throws itself into the Ganges, and An, the name of another 

river to the south of the town. The Varani is the present /lerae, a naaae 

derived from Vri, to choose. The Chinese transcribe Varanasi fAe Is nnl , 

and explain the name in two ways, first, ' Deer-pwrk^* and next, ' ntrroMiilfii 

• See M. Ktaprdk't AW 4 «r Cliap. XX VIL p. 259 French. E. D. 
t Viun i liaM, IS. UV. p. 4 v. ^ 


ly the rivtr:* both of these etymologies appear faulty. Iliaaa thsang, who 
also Tislted this town, names it Pho lo na Me. He describes it as a largo 
capital situated to the west and near the Ganges, being 18 or 19 11 in length 
and fife or six in breadth. The dwellings of the lower orders are Tcry 
nnmerons, the population fery considerable, and the number of honact more 
than ten thousand. There is a great crowd of merchants. The manners of 
the people are gentle and polished. All study with leaL The principal 
part put faith in the heterodox doctrines, and there are but few who honor 
the law of Buddha. The climate is temperate and the soil produces grain 
and fruits ; the trees ha?e an eztraordioary growth, as also grasses and 
plants. There are more than thirty Kia Ian, and about three thousand 
priests and disciples, who all follow the doctrines of the less translation. 
There are about one hundred temples, in which ten thousand heretics wor* 
ship the self-existent God (/«icrcrs). They cut thdr hair, or wear it knotted 
above the head. They go quite naked and cofcr their bodies with ashes. 
Tlie most pious lire in conUnual austerities and seek to abandon life for 
death. To the north of the town is the river PAo h na (Varani) ; on its 
bank, about ten li from the town, is the Kim Ion, of the Deer-park ; there 
are about fifteen hundred priests and disciples, who all pursue the doctrines 
of- the /est trmuiaihn. In the midst of the great enclosure is a temple mora 
than two hundred feet high ; it ia surmounted by a golden arrow. The found* 
•tioiia are built with the stone An mom h H, and the walls are of brick. 
This temple is surrounded by a hundred chapels ; all have arrows, and the 
dirine images are all gilt. In the midst of the temple are the statuea of 
Buddha and of a great number of other T athigatas, sculptured in the stone 
Tkeou tkifm The Images of all are in the attitude of turning the wheel of 
the law (prcadking.)— KL 

(4.) The kingdom qf Kia Mi .• i. e. ^iteO iTett, a name still borne by 
the country and town of Benares, and rignifying retpUndeni.-^KL 

(5) Tk§ Park ^fika dter o/Jmmorial* — ^The site of this deer park is, I 
haTO little doubt, Sam&th, in the neighbourhood of which there ia to this day, 
•s my friend Capt. Kittoe informs me, a rumna for antelopes. It is called 
in Fill JfffMtfjre, * a place set apart for deer,* and was the site, as stated 
above, of the itipaiaaam hall, famous as the scene where Sakya first iwmai 
ika wkeai ^f ika Law. I do not know whether there asay not ho aoaae 
nllnsion to the Py eki fta (Pratyeka BmddAa) in the tens «l>eer of the 
Immortal;' the Pratyekas being typified aa the reader will remember (p. 10) 
by ifsr.— J. W. L. 

(6) Among Me Jho mm.— The * fire men' here aUnded lo are the five 
kkiktkm who atteaded upon Sikya Muni whUe the latter was for lU yean 

312 nLORiMAOx or fa rian. 

iMthstatoof tiMKflaJtfirim. 
him from BigagrihA ia the fbU pavnmioB thai h« WM 4iitiB^ 
Bsddliahood I Init when thsr fiNnd their MMdatod imitnf vadtr tbo MCts* 
■ity of iwlOffiBg hit ttnsfth Vf food, thdr fidth ftiltd them, nd piowwae. 
lag him '* a glatton and a loose aum," they repaired to Bcnarea end led ea 
aicetielire. (Ceoma de Kor5f, iCadf^ ^ lAe Mife, kaTee 192.206). The 
HU Aaaala aapplj the rest of the atory • Oa hia attainmcat of Baddha* 
hood, SSkj^ molTce, fa aehaowledgaieat of their atteatfoaa |o liim for ao 
loBf a period, to preach tho DAaetme fint to these five escetlee ; aad oa 
eaqnirj flada that thej are rssidiag ia the Itipatmum ia the deer«park 
{Migadip; la Saaseiit War, a deer, aad ^1^* aplaee ?) at Beaares. Thither 
he proeeeds. Oa seeiag him approach from a distaoce, the liTe MiMat aiake 
aoBie jeeriag ifemarka vpoa his improved persmial appearance* and i%solTe to 
show him no manner of respect. S&kya howerer penetrates tlieir detliin, 
compassionately prerents them carrying it Into execution, and finally ex. 
poands the Law to them and eonrerts them** This is the legend alluded to 
in the text— J. W. L. 

(7) The Skm mm Kin #ea.— iTta lea is the Chinese traascriptioB of the 
Saaicrit Gaatama, ooe of the nnmeroas snmames of Boddha, and that more 
particularly ased ia India beyond the Ganges, where it has helped to foVm 
the name of tho principal dirinity of the Siamese SamonmJtodom, by the 
addition of the epithet ^omena (^rsmmia), Samanean. All Buddhist nations 
have this name la eqaal honor ; . ia Tibet It ie Geovtmm s bt Mandchou and 
Mongolian Godmm, There la less agreemeat as to its proper sigaificatloa ; 
for each of the aatioas that adore Buddha have upoo this, as well as so many 
other points, such obscure and varjing traditions as it is hardly possible to 
reconcile. Although Chinese boolcs contain nothing satisfactory on ^his head, 
it may be not altogether aseleu to Indicate brielly what they do say. Accord- 
ing to them -SAjr Ha, Is the hononble name of Kin fen. All men know, 
aay they, that /oa M is descended from a Ckm U U (Kshatrya) prince s 
but they do not kaow that Kim imm was formerly a name of Shy<kia. In 
the beginning he had five names, which were indiscriminately gifen him : 
Kiu tan, Kaa ckt (sugar*cane), /jr cAoim^ (descendent of the Sun), 8k» y 
(tranquil abode), and lastly Shjf lie, which is aow-a-dsys akaost W oaly 
remaining one. 

Kiu ion, Is the family name of the da H H kings ; it aigniAcs la Saascrit 
perfeetlp pure, orike Great Vaaqmihtr ^ the earth. At the beginii^ng of the 
present age there waa a king named Ta mae tkeaom Having abaafidoaed his 

• Turnour, Pdtt BuddiUftica/ AnnaU.J. A. 5. VoL VIL p. 815. 


kingdom to his minister, be went to the sage Kin iim to stad/ the doctriae» 
and adopCiDg the name of his master, he called himself the iiUie Kin Ion. 

ne name ^Ajr Hm Is interpreted in a less confused manner. In Sanscrit 
it signifies eapabie ^pietf. Skem yen, the principal wife of the king Ktm 
eAtt had a son named Ckan^ ikeou, and the second wife had fow. 6hem 
jren, to IsTovr her son, indaced the king to banish £rom the kingdom the 
other four children. HsTiag arriTcd at the north of the Snowj Mountains, 
p€i tkimgt who was the fourth of these sons, became a king, boilt a dtf , 
and founded a kingdom which he called She y (tranquil abode). His fathery 
haTing repented of his exile, recalled the son, bnt the latter would not come ; 
when the king sighing, exclaimed, ** my son 9Ajr kirn /" and hence the nasie. 

It is interesting to compare with this redtsl of the same circamstance, the 
extract from the Kah Gynr, bj M. Ksoma de Koros, given in note 9 Chap. 

The Singalese hate two, apparentlj contradictory, aeeovnts of the origin 
of the name Gaatama. According to Cloagh (SinghaL Diet.), S&kya Mont 
was so called becanse on entering npon religions life he followed the in« 
strvctions of the sage G6tama, whom thej suppose to be the same philo« 
sopher to whom the Nyafa system is referred. According to others, Gauta* 
ma is the proper name of the family in which S^U^ya was bom. This Utter 
opinion Is evidently Identical with that entertamed by the Buddhists of 
China. Now these two traditions give rise to the following dii&colties : the 
biographers of Sakya, as far as at present known, do not say positively that 
he leeelved the instructions of Gautama : and even If he had, there is nothing 
to lead us to believe that for this single reason he adopted the title of 
Qmittammt which signifies the Ga«/emid!e. Secondly, the name oi Gautama* 
is that of a deseendaat of the lamtly of Gotama, a famfly which Is one of 
the Brilhmanical Gotras, or stocks. It would not appear that this could be 
Ibat of a member of the warrior caste, as Indian jurisconsults afirm In the 
moat positive manner that the Kikaityat have neither Oolrwt nor tutelary 
aidats. It follows from this that S^Ucyi could not bear a name which at 
onee refers to the warlike tribe to which he belongedp and to the Drihauut 
caste. The ^y way to solve the latter diflieulty is to suppose that the 
sane Gautasia belonged, not to Sakya Muni alone, but to the warrior tribe 
of the Sakyas, as the Chinese suppose. We know indeed that itispermit. 
ed to the Kshatryas to adopt the iamily name of their domestic priest; and 
hcBce, to explain how the Sikyas came to be called Gantaasa, it is sufficient 
to seppese that they had a family priest or spiritual dlieeter, e d es cendant 
of Gotama. This pvely Indian distinction betwixt the Bcihsaaes. who 
hnf« the ri^efdctlgiiatiBg their fiunily by thcMmeeT the sunt etthe 
2 X . 

314 nuiKiicAOK or fa hiak. 

^MA«r it»aiidtlMKdlitrijM»wl» bormr liiig bmm frwi thtiri 
paUMif Mftj bttf* been owlovlMd bj tlie Baddliiste» who do not rteogaiio 
the dMnction of cute to the lane extent as tlw Brihaaai. IgnorMwe of 
thie pccieriptiMi» whidi ie eo iatimatdr blended with Brahnnidad erganin. 
tien» mey heve glf en riie to theee Slaghelete tnditiont. The one m»j hero 
tended to reeoncOe the title of Gmmimmide with the existence of the cdo- 
bnted philoeopher OHoma t the other maj hiTO preferred the tnie tndU 
tion withont comprehcndinf « or at least withont seeklog to cxplaio ft.— E. B. 
. (8) Cvntrifd K€om lim Mtoep Me /re eifH.— -JTeen /in la ^fencralljr 
aitjlcd JTcen ti In Chinese Boddhist worka. The following are the nimea 
of these Atc eelebrated personages* aceording to Chinese books and Moogo- 
lian legends. In which the Saaserit names are translated into Tibetan. 

1st. A Jo iCiae ekkim Ju» In Tibetan Vamf tki Ge di m jra.— ^ Je. sajo 
the Fan y ming I, is a surname wl»ieh signifies kmoitimg ; A'leo eAXm ju ie 
the name of the family i signifying /rt-jf en. In Pali the name l^tranacrib. 
ed 4i^ KomdoHJam. He was of a Brihman family, and had in prcoeding 
states of existence performed the senriee of fire, and hence his family name. 
It belonged to the maternal nncle of Bnddha. 

2d. O pit or Asrajit.— The Fan y ming i translates this word * ear irAot 

MOimft en Acneback^' or * matter nfihe harta* It is rendered in Tibetan 

Ta to!, which signifies * « caparitoned Aene.' O pi waa of the family of 

3d. Fe thi, explained in Chineee as * tkt littlo oagog' In TibeUn Agamg 
jren, or ilimg xan. He was also of the fiunily of Buddha. 

4th. Sky If Kia jre, that ia, • tenfold etromy Katpepa,' In Sanscrit T^C^W- 
VTm^ Dasabala K&syapa, Is also named in Chinese Pkofou. p Tibetan 
Jjony hm. He waa of the family of the maternal nncles of Boddha. The Fam 
If mimy i obserres, that we most not confound him either with Mahi Kasyapa, 
or with the three Kisyapaa, VruwUtm K4$papa, Kadi irdtys^«,W Gepn 

5th. A'een li Mei /sen, or the prince royal Keou /<• called by Fa hian 
Keou iim ; In TibeUn Zany dem. He waa the ddest son of king Horn/am 
vfOHft maternal nncle of Buddha. 

These five personages are called in Singalese books Paewofm lfeildami« 
oaii, or the JIre great prieete. They were Tcry learned BrahmanSt and chief- 
ly expert In preaching. Haiing recognised the charscteristic marks upon 
the person of the last Boddha, to wit, the thirty.two AnuiaJtunUt and tho 
two hundred and sixteen symptoms called Afsy«//eJhmn, they ascertained 
with certainty that he should become Boddha. Then adopted religious life, 
and followed and serred him for the six years that preceded the date of hia 


mttaininf Baddhahood. After hafins lietrd his lint sermons in this condi* 
tkm, tbey entered upon ctemtl glory* 

A Mongolian tract entitled n '* HUiwty ^ft%» orifin of tko four veritht 
9fik9 whole tmw," narrates in the following terms the eonTersion of the 
liTe personages in question : 

" On the fifteenth daj of the last month of spring of the year Brouh^oht 
or ' Me iron cow/ dnring erening twilight, Bnddha terminated his spiritual 
occupations, which consisted in the entire snhjectionof the spirits of Nishant 
({irair, NitAjMomm, hirth) or the Seduciiou ^f hvrth. At midnight ho 
obtained Dyan (l^Ufy Dby£na, Me mot/ pr^finmd modiiaihm) or the kigk^ 
tot defrto qfiko smc/t'/jr ^f tmehoriieo^ and at snnrise he had attained the 
nature of a toritMo a€eompU»kod Buddkm, txiithog rf kimoolf im ou^romo 

The tmly accomplished Bnddha began then to turn the wheel of spiritual 
doctrine and to spread abroad the law, announdng that he had obtained 
victory over the depths of innate misery, that he had destroyed all the tax* 
perfections which oppreu tlie sool, and that he had become Bnddha, the 
lestorer of the world. Many among the people were seised with conster* 
nation and exclaimed, << The king's son hath lost his reason I" Others pre* 
tended that he had quitted the throne and his eonntry to marry a daughter 
of Sakya; but others proclaimed that the king's son had become a Im/jf 
oteompliiked Buddha, 

Tlie Buddha then pronounced the following instructire discourse: "Of 
what nvail is it to present the people with the nectar of spiritual doctrine 
when instruction is wanting ? They have no ears to hear it, and it b use« 
less to explain it." He therefore retired anew into solitude in the country 
of Anki^ where he remained forty-nine days and as many nights to obtain 
a new i>ifWo. As soon aa this was obtained, Etrouh io$ri (Brahma) ap« 
preached him, carrying in his hand n golden wheel with n thousand rays, the 
symbol of spiritnal dominion, and said i ** Tmly thou hast not become 
Bnddha for thine own welfare, hnt for that of all the creatures in the world; 
deign to follow np the work and to spread abroad the doctrine.*' But the 
Bnddhn accepted not tho faiTitation. Hie Mah£ Rqi tegri (great kings of 
epiiito) holding fa their hands the AToimmi f«*il (the eig^t sacrifices) came 
then and said to him ^ «« Master of tenfold strength ! great hero that hast 
vanquished nil the innate seductions of the cnatnre I deeaest thou not fit 
that thonshonldst ndertakothe salvatiMiof an bebgt?'* Thdrieqnest 
was equally rejected. KnaUy nonrmsiisdSs liyH (Indm) hiasself accom* 
pinisd by the thirty*two other Isyrrf, approached Buddha to adoto him»and 
wndewd him nil tho hoior moit far n Bnddhn, WMiwllnj tho ^ot whew ho 



316 itLGkntAOs or ta htait. 

dfitil. n««MMda,UainfiBUikniatb0 2l»Mv<i^iM(tb0 praeiMtf 
•hdl) nid to bias «< Ob tlnm creAtor U th« MeUr «f splritulity. wlw 
like mito apreeiiras mrfiennent, p<vgMt and eleanaett Um crcataie fnm ths 
iniuite wkkedneM is wMch he ilamberf» eoftdewend to let lit 'hnr thy 
majestie tpiritnal iroiee 1*' At this iaTitatioa were pmcnt tbe ire prieitt 
•ad diidplct of the Buddha, to wit Tea^ «AI Go di ni pc. tTm /•(• A'poap 
gem, 1mm§ $Mt aod Znf <toi, who vp to that moneat had been unable to 
fonn a jodgnent of their master. ]>i8eoiirdiig among tbemad?^ of the 
wisdom of Boddba. they said s ** If Geecfem bath become Bvddhe, wo 
most neeessarilf adopt bis t|>lritmd doctrine ; bot if be beTe not yet arriTcd 
Bt the rank of Baddba, why should we worship him?" At the same 
instant ranff M Ce di ni pa, who pereelrcd himself on the ere of reeognl. 
ainf the Buddha, suddenly turned bis eyes towards bim and beheld his body 
ahiaing with the lustre of goM, and encircled by a brilliant halo. Thoroughly 
conrinced by tliis sign, lie aeeomplished the first adoratloB due to the Buddha, 
and thus obtained the right of one day succeeding in bis dignity. The four 
other disciples followed hb example, and similarly adored Buddlia. They 
said to him ; ** Since thou art become the Tcritable Buddha of (be world, 
deign to proceed to V&rinast ; for it is tliere that the throne of a^thonsand 
by*gone Buddbss bath been i and it is there that thou shouldst abide and 
turn the wheel of the doctrine/' Whilst they thus addressed him In prayer, 
they did not quit the posture of adoration ; a new halo surrounded the Bud* 
dha, and his entire body emitted rays of inexpressible splendor. 

Yieldiag to the pressing importunities of bis disciples, Sikya Muni arose 
and proceeded to YMnasi, to adore and Occupy the throne of the thousand 
Buddhas ; be chose for hb principal scat that of the three Boddbas of the 
present age of the world, OriekUomg eidektcki (KraJtmckekmdi), Aitun 
ckidaJtcki (Kanaka Muni) and OerelzMJtehi (Kasyapa). 

In the same year, on the fourth day of the month of mid-sumoMr, 
the Bnddlia receiTcd, as hb first disciples, the fire priests meBfiened 
abore and communicated to them the principles of the four spiritual veritiee. 
The existence of misery b the first i the second b that tbb immenfc misery 
extends its empire every where s final deliverance from tbb misery b tho 
third ; and lastly, the fourth b the Infinite number of obstaclet wh^Bb oppose 
thb deliverance. '* Hence," be added, ** you, who are priests, arp equally 
subject to this misery, of which you should know the immensity; y^ should 
contribute to indicate to othera the road of detiveranee, and you should do all 
that you can to remove all obstructions." 

(9) Mi /e.— See note S^Cbap. VI. 

(10) A'eoa than ml.— Hioan thiang and the Cbino- Japanese map append- 


cd to thii volomct call tliU eonntxj KUo ekang mi g in Saniciit iftupftt 
Kmvsimbu It ii tbe name of tn ancient town titnated in the lower part of 
tLe Doabi and neighbonrhood of Arr«/ ; it b also called Vaitepattmna. 
The name of Kansimb! comes firom its founder, JTirMnR^a (WiUon, Sanscrit 
Diet. p. 255, See. ed.) Hiuan thsang makes this kin^om six thoosand li in 
circuit, and describes it as Tcrj fertile. The climate is cold, the inhabi- 
tants are of a saTage and ferocions character ; thej nererthelcia Iotc stadj, 
and occnpj themselTcs with sdence and the arts. There are about half • 
score of Urn Ism, but in a state of extreme dilapidation ; nor were there 
more than three hnndred priests and disciples ; these follow the doctrines 
of the Less Translation. There are ^ttf chapels belonging to the hereticsy 
who are extremely numerous in that couhtrx. In the town there is a great 
temple more than sixtj feet high, where maj be seen an image of Buddbn 
carted in sandal wood, and fixed high upon the stone. This temple was 
constructed by order of the king On lAojrsM n«, whose name signifies' Jtfinu- 
/ftletfibee.*— Kl. 

M. Bemusat observes thai it may be doubted whether Fa hiaa personally 
visited this kingdom of JTeen tkam mi. He speaks indeed but vaguely of it» 
and instead of his usual expresnon, *' you arrive at such u pUoe,**— >** you 
reach such a town," he contents himself with simply stating ** there is such 
n kingdom." The eireumstances he reports are common to too great a 
number of places to enable us to fix its site with precision* The traveller's 
in dica t io n s serve only to fix it at about 60 miles N. W. of Benares.— C. L. 

(II) JCte sit Is.— Hiuan thsang found the ruins of It in the 80uth«east 
angte of the town itself. He says that the lemplo lecoivod its bmm from 
that of nehief named JTm sit /o(Kusa]n?) who foudtd It. In tho inte- 
rior Is n chapel dedicated to Buddha.* 

^ttt»mtt t» tt0^0kt»^ 


Kingdom of Tha thsen.— The Seng kin Ian Pho lo yuo. 

Two handrcd yeou yen* to the soath, then is a kingdom 
called Tka tksen,^ where there is a «eii^ ktmUm of the former 
FoefMjiiew' They have excavated « great moontsin of roek to 


2 B 3 


constfoet It It cocdsU of five stories; the lowest^ wliic|i hath 
the form of sii elephant, inclades fife hundred stone ^dum- 
hers. The second whieh hath the form of a lion, contains four 
hundred diambers. The third, which hath the form of a horse, 
oontwns three hundred chambers. The fourth, which hath the 
form of an OS, con tuns two hundred chambers. The fifth, which 
has the form of a pigeon, contains one^ hundred chambers. At 
the uppermost stoiy, there is a spring of water which follows 
the circumrolutions of the rock. It encirdes the apartments 
in its descent, performing thus the tour of the edifice' to the 
lowest floor, the apartments of which also it waters, and then 
passes out at the gate. In all the stories there are windows 
pierced through the rock for the admission of the light, so that 
every chamber is perfectly illuminated and there is no dark« 
ness there. At the four comers of the edifice, they haye hewn 
the rock and formed steps for ascending ; at present men ascend 
by means of small ladders to reach a place where formerly a 
man left the print of his foot. Here is the reason why they call 
this temple Pho lo yue. Pho lo yue in Indian signifies 9l pigeon.^ 
In thb temple there are always Arlians who dwell there. The little 
hill is waste and uninhabited ; it is only at a very great distance 
that there are any Tillages. The inhabitants are a perverse race 
who do not recognise the law of Foe. The Samaneans, Brahmans, 
heretics, and all the people of the country have frequently seen 
men come flying to the temple. TThen therefore the Clergy 
of Reason of the other kingdoms would go thither and practice 
the rites, the natives said to them, ** Why come you not flying ?> 
"We have seen ecclesiastics arrive here on the wing!" The 
ecclesiastics answered, ** Our wings are not yet formed." 

The roads of the kingdom of Tha th$en are dangerous, toil- 
some, and not easy to know. Those who desire to proceed thi- 
ther should first psy a certain sum of money to the kiilg of the 
country, who will then appoint people to accompany them and 
show them the way. On their return, each points but the 
wiiy to the others. Fahian was unable to proceed thither, and 



learnt what he has been able to report from the people of the 


(1) Ttco kundred yeou ifMm. — About 270 leagues. 

(2) A kingdom named Thd iknn, that is the ^fq^f Dnkikina (the soath), 
• denominatioa applied to the vast coimtrx called at present the Deccan, 
which IS the Tiilgar prononciation of DdtMhinm.-^lSl. 

(3) A ung kiaUm qf ike farmer Foe Mm tAe.— The Baddha Kasyapa, 
whose religious epoch preceded that ofSakya Moni, is here spoken of. Kas« 
japa is the third of the Tatli£gatas who have appeared in the kalpa in 
which we live. He Is considered therefore to have lived aboat two millions 
of years before Sakja Mnni. (See Chap. XX. note 39.— Kl.) 

(4) Pho Is gue in Indian eignifiee pigeon.^^Pko io gue is not the exact 
transcription of the Sanscrit word ^M^n, P&rmrata ; it Is nearer that of 
^f[eg^t Parabi, which in Mahratta and other dialects signifies roeh pigeon* 
It woold not be easy to determine in what part of the Deocan the monoeterg 
^ the pigeon was situated ; this indication of Fa hian, who did not see 
It himself, la too Tague to enable us to identify It among the numerous ex* 
csTations met with among the hills in India. Nerertheless, the fact of the 
existence of such a monument in the fifth century of our era, b important 
and interesting, and may lead to u modification of the opinion of many 
English saTans who have riiited India, that we are not warranted In ascrib- 
ing any oonsiderable antiquity to these excsTations. The celebrated U. H. 
Wilson, for instance, obsenres, *' A review of the religious re? olutioas of 
the Peninsula would be incomplete without some notice of the numerous 
and celebrated cavern Temples with which it abounds, and its other 
monuments of a religious character. The edllectloas of Colonel Macken- 
lie fttmish no addition to our knowledge of the former ; the subject b 
indeed capable of little except graphic fllustration, and there being 
few drawings or plans of any value relating to them. The omission 
is of little importaace, for the topic has been handled in the Asiatio 
Besearches, and In the transactions of the Bombay Literary Society, 
In the latter particularly by Mr. Erskine, in a manner that leaves nothing 
to desire. To extensive knowledge that writer adds sound judgment, discrl- 
idaative observation, ^stinet eoneeptioBt and perspicuous description, and 
kb aeeoaut of Elephaata, and hb observatioas on the Banddha reasalns in. 
India, sl^uld be stadled atteatlvaly by aU who would iavestigata the hblory 
of the Biad d hai »ad Jaiai. Tbecavtniiageacnl aia <SaiMiaBdirewf* 



dAc. neft are ft few Jain acftvutloM at EUon, b«t mm at ] 
KcMri. Tbara iaM latltfeetorj dM tothadateof aajof thaiaciflKva* 
. tkna, Iwt tbara ia raaaon to think that auny of tkam baar a high aniiqaitj. 
It aaay ba qaartioMbla whathar tfaa Smhu or MmiddJUu took tha laad ia. 
tbeaa 8tnictwaa» but thara li aooaa raaaon to aapposa tha fonaar, ia which 
cata tfaa Satva appropriation beiaf eonsaqnent npon tha downfall of tha 
Banddha faith, Mr. EnkiM obtarraa tha Elq>haaU caraa cannot be raach 
aBMwa than eight eeatorica remote. The BauddkM aecording to a t^aditioa 
pre? ioaaly allnded to, caoia into the Penlntala onlj in the third 6entnry 
after Chrittianit j and their eicaTationa conid not therefore hate beep nade 
earlier than tha iifth or aixth. Tlia Baivn who formed liinilar faTemt, 
were a particular aeet, or that of the /ef tt , aa ia proved by the scnlptnrei, 
the large ear^ringt, the emaciated penitenti and the repetition of the detaila 
oiJ)Mk$km*9 lacrifice, a faTorite story in the Smwa Purdahs, none of which 
are probablj older than the eighth or ninth centnry." Vnerip, Catmlo^me 
qftke MueientU Cotieetiont Vol. I. p. Ixiz. 

The Foe koue ki completelj refutes the hypotheaies of those who affirm 
that the Buddhists made their appearance in India only in the third century 
of oar era : a careful inreatigation of the enfirona of Fatna. Graya, and 
Benares would probably bring to light many of the monuments which Fa 
hian saw, and ^escribed. It is erea probable that the monastery of the 
Pigeon still exists in the rock of the Deccan where it was originally cut« and 
that iu discoirery is resenred for some learned fiDglishman who shall truTerse 
the country in the character of an able enquirer and a practised obserrer. 
— KL 

The description giren by our traveller of these cave temples is by far too 
▼ague to enable us to identify them ; but the existence of such in the Dekhaa 
at this early period is sufficiently established by this important chapter. 
Col. Sjkes in his highly inUresting iVb/e« on Me ReUginuM, Mormlt mmd 
Pclitieai itatt tf Judim, is of opinion that Fa hian alludes to the catea of 
Ellora. " Those who haTC read, says he, my description of the cayea of 
Ellora, may be induced to recognise in these stupendous and magnificent 
works, the originals of Fa hian's monastery and 1500 chambers. Considering 
the constant bias of human nature to enhance the Talue of that in which • 
persooal interest is mixed up, I am surprised the traTcUers from the De« 
khan did not lead Fa hian a little more astray than they appear to hnte 
done. My description of temples aopported by Elephants and Lio^ of • 
temple of three stories (Teen lokh), of windows pierced in the rock, o^ multi- 
tudinous chambers, of the course of rifulets down the mountain ^nd OTcr 
and into the cares of the uninhabited locality, and finally, even the 

CHAPTER xxxru 321 

may be nippoied to hiTe origioated in the ilockt of blue pigeoos which no 
doabt then* as now, inhabited the perforations in the mountains : my de» 
8cription» I repeat, offera to many matten of approiimation to the general 
points of the inflated and distorted accounts giren to Fa hian by the people 
from the Dekhan, that it may fairly be permitted to vs to oon^der that Fn 
hian is describing Ellon. The excavrntioos in Salsette wonld aiTord the neit 
npproiimation, and after these the wonderons labonn at Jnnlr (Jooneer) 
and the Ajanta Ghat, Fa kian's silence with respect to the linga caves at 
EUon, which he would have designated as those of the heretics, offers to 
my mind satisfactory proof that in his day they were not in eiistenee. 
Apparently for the preceding 1000 years there had not been Hindn dynat* 
ties or n Hindn popnlation sniBdently wealthy, powerfnly or nuMrons, to 
baYe prodnced them/'— J. W. L. 
(5) /Ifptflf.— See note 2 of the preceding Chapter. 


Books and Precepts collected by Fa hian.~Preeept8 of the Mo ho seog chhi— 
Pfccepts of the 8a pho to.— The A pi tan. 

Pjrooeeding in an easterly direction from the kingdom otPko lo 
mai, yon retnm to the town of Pa Han foe* Fa hian had from the 
first enquired for the Precepts ; but all the masters of the king- 
doms of India of the North had transmitted these from month to 
mouthy without ever redudng the roliune to writing ;' on this ac- 
count he had come so far and had reached Mid-India. There, in 
a monastery of the Mo ho yan, he obtained a collection of the 
Precepts. This was the collection of the precepts of the Mo 
ho Meng ekki* which from the time when Foe was in the world 
has been followed by the majori^. This book was com- 
municated (to Fa hian) in the temple of CAAikouam.^ As for 
the other eighteen collections^* eadi has its professor who 
maintains it. The great JToirdf* differs not from the smaller^ 
when the tmaOerisnol oonfiinnabk^* But 
Fa hian obtained the most authentic and eopiona^ those whicb 


comprised mott amplj the tnditioii% in a collectioii in which ait 
brooght together the Precepts, forming perhaps teren thcjnsand 
kie;^ these are the collected precepts of the 8a pho #o,* thoie 
obsenred by the ecclesiastics of the knd of Thwi. But all these 
Precepts Imving been transmitted from master to master, by a 
uninterrupted tradition, hare never been committed to writing in 
books.'* There were also in this collection sundry extracto from 
the A pi tan,** forming abont six thousand Kie. There was also 
a copy of the Sacred Hooks'* in two thousand ^ye hundred ^t>, as 
also a copy of the sacred work on the means of attaining Pan 
ni kouamt consisting of about five thousand Kit / and of the A 
pi tan of the Mo ho Mtng chhu 

On this account Fa Man dwelt here three years, studying the 
books and the Fan** language, and copying the precepts. Tao 
ehhing,^^ when he arrived at the Kingdom of the Middle, and be- 
held the law of the Ska men, and all the clei^y grave, decorous, 
and conducting themselves in a manner greatly to be admired, 
reflected, with a sigh, that the inhabitants of the frontiers ^of the 
kingdom of ThMin were deficient in the precepts, and transgress- 
ed their duties ; and said that if hereafler he could become Foe, 
he wished that he might not be re-bom in the country of the 
frontiers ; on this account he remained and returned not. Fa 
hian, whose first desire was that the Precepts should be diffased 
and should penetrate into the land of Han, returned therefore 


(1) Pm /Icm/ot.— Kulipntra. 

(2) 7b iprtl'ii^.-^Tliif would prove tliat in tlie aortbeni part of India, 
which the Chinese caU Kwthwn HUm tkiu, cifiUtation and the art of 
writing were not so extenaivdy diif^ued as in Mid.India, litoated on the hanks 
of the Ganfet, and ita affloentt.— Kl« * 

(3) Tile yreeipt9 ^ike Mo |ie iengtkki ;— That if, of the OMnkt of the 
Great ConTOcation who compiled the precepts of Sakja. The Siofaicie tra- 
ditions contain extremely interettini particalars connected with thisfnhject, 
and most he the more carefullj stndied u thej eshihit certain differencee 

?5ijijj|p*, ^l-« *-~. « „0m»mi mp ^ ^ '. ^^*,:KJmm^r' ^^"^^^^r ,iai>;^^: »gO^ * ^ ;%.j^-atf Am ^ ^^^^ ^ 


from the Mongol legends, and mtj on many points serre to modify and 
eomplete the extracts we hare given of these. 

According to these traditions, in the eighth year of AJa$$ai (Ajatasatra), 
three weeks after the death of Baddha» five handred monks, having set oat 
from the town of Cunumutw (KufwrngarM), arrived at thatof Ajfa^rtAc-mit. 
rwrm (R^griha). The king, apprised of their arrival and of their intention of 
promulgating the doctrine, prepared for them in the mount WaiMkara-park" 
waiegt a magnificently adorned dwelling. These monks, with Kasyapa at 
their head, took possession of it and sat down according to their eldership, 
leaving vacant the seat dae to Ananda. The latter having attained the 
rank of Arhan made the same known to the assembly in an extraordinary 
manner; the earth having opened in the middle of the hall, Ananda came 
up from this openiag, and took the seat that had heen reserved for him. 

Then Mahi Kasyapa, addressing the assembly, asked with what portion 
of the doctrine they wonld first engage themselves. They decided on 
the Venmm pitUha (Vinaya pittaka), and Upalistharira was charged to ex. 
poond it. The care of commenting on the Suirm pHUkm^ which contain the 
discourses addressed to men, devolved upon Ananda, who explained all the 
passages upon which he was questioned by K&syapa, and composed the ZNer- 
g€nikdgm (Dirghaniliaya) which contains the sixty-two bana-wara. (Each 
Aoaa-trarc consists of two handred and fifty gaikaa or verses.) The JUeii- 
dimeHik0jfm (Madhyamanikiya) which is a portion of the Smira pitiakm, and 
contains eighty thousand bana-wara, having heen compiled and set in order, 
the first disciple of /lcm««ierrifern'iil-maAa«7VroeiiiraAansey, iras charged 
to prepare it for the remembrance of man. SmumkiemiUpm (Samyuk* 
tanikaya) which is another part of the Suira piiimim, composed of a han- 
dred kamt'trarttt was compiled and divided into two parta nnder the 
editorship of Maha Kasyapa and his disciples. The An09Utrmik4^m 
(Angottaranikaya) containing two thousand bana*wara, and which also 
forms part of the Sulra piitaka, was distributed into two parts, of which 
Anurudda, assisted by his first disciple, nndertook the compilation. 

Next the Alkidluunmm pittrnka^ which contains the daseourses preached to 
the goda, iraa compiled and divided into two ports by the five hundred 
monks; who farther collected in twp dassea, the inferior works, foeh aa the 
SmUimrm^m {Stiirmtipdim) the DUrmmpadepMt te. This coUoetioB of 
praeepta, also prepared by 3Iahi Kasyapa and his five haadnd priestly 
eoaftcreat was eompleted in seven months.* 

A hndrad years after the death of Buddha, the kbag Kaloadka ia^tod 
^oMa KMrnpYMm (9«mMm« Fosa) and other Arhaaa to tte B«Mb« oT 
• St€.tmdHut.Bmk$rfCt^lm; Vol. I. pw)2. 


I kiaaifd, to ft aoBfoentiMi at VUtMk (ValsiU) fai fh« tmfk ftC ir«Au 
Mir* Tlwra 1m iattrrogiled Umoi vpoa the hUmIr rtvnit (SthafinWUU) 
tad tilt Viftftyat and chtiscd thftm to Mt thcw In order I which was aeeon* 
pUthed to bIs OMiitht.* 

In the Uit piaee. the ktof Dhanuaeka hartof asked Jtfbff«ll«jNi//f. 
2TitMMA«»/frrira« and a thonsand other Arhana to auke a new eollectioB 
of the lawa of Bnddha, they asiembled at Pe/ZeAy (P&talipntra) la the 
temple of AteeerwAeaM (AfokMma), and completed thia third colleetion 
to the tiwce of nine months, the 235th year of Bnddha, and the 17th of 
Dharmaaoluu— C. L. 

(4) Tk% tempU ^ Ckkk Aencn.— At fint eight one might Infer from 
thii pailage that the temple here spoken of was to the town of Pa /ien/e#; 
it was howcTcr to the kingdom of Kosala. (See Chap, XX.) It is welt 
to remark here, that for a moment onr traTeller interrapts the narration of 
his jonrney. He is not at the end of its bo kae y^ many fatigues to nnder« 
go, many dangers to eneonnter ; bat the religions purposes which eneonraged 
him to nndertake his long pilgrimage are fnllilled. He has reached the 
country where he can cultivate the eaered tongue, discourse of the precepte 
with enlightened ecclesiastics, meditete upon and collect them. No other 
land oflfers such resources ; he sojourns therefore there, and having to a 
manner settled himself, recapitulates the retulU he hadobteined n]i to that 
moment. India of the North which he first visited, waa to him a land of 
little interest ; a sterile and almost savage country, which he had rapidly 
traversed to reach that holy land, that clasne scene where the monnmente 
and traditions of his religion were preserved totact,— Mid-India. Scarcely haa 
be entered it when he U every where received with tokens of toterestand 
respect by his co-religtonlste, who applaud hla eonrage and his teal, and 
prcM him to satisfy their curiosity. Thenceforward temples and holjf plaeea 
succeed each other at short Intervals, and It was In one of the most magnl* 
ficent of all that he had seen. In the temple of Chhi Aeaen, one of tho 
most celebrated places of the worship of Buddha, that he for the first tlmo 
obtained a copy of the PrccepU.«— C. L. 

(5) Tk9 fifkieem ce//ee/iotte.*»There are two ways of dividing the sacred 
books s either in twelve collections (>eM, classes) which at once contain 
thote of the Gr§Mi and the Lest TraiuMiom t or into eighteen classes, which 
are divided equally between these two doctrines. The nine claues of hooka 
devoted specially to the Great Translation are, the ^aclre, the Gaym^ thn 
Ge/Ad, the Jtikata, the Je/eAa, the AMutmdhmnma, the CVaaa, the Y'e<. 
/a/ya and the rjfdAama. The NMma, the AUdanM, and the Up^dti^ aro 
• iWd.p.43. 

w p num ■ . I i i i i i»j» iBi n i ii . 11 I i m j mmmmmmiifmmmsmm&m 


not inoloded. becauM, njs the Tm eki Uu Im, Ift, ia tlie GreMi IVmuim* 
iimh tlie Mprenekw ii simplj annooneedt wiUioat thenoe dedofiing motiret 
(Fill rram, Nidana); 2dt diaeouraet and iiiitnicU«iia (Ktoii pk9 tieke. 
UpUum) art tvppretied aa vaeleu beeaaaa perfect reaaon alone ia addreaied f 
3d, eternal troth ia alone ahibited witboot the neceMitj of metephora or 
compariaona (PAt Me, Vidu) for ite Oloatration.* 

The laat three worka are, on the contrary, anitcd for the Leaa Traailation, 
which haa not the Vmjtutga, the V^iMmrmtm, nor, tho UtUma. In the Leie 
Tmalation the bw of life and of extinction are alone treated of; there 
ia therefore no iV /e« Ae (Vaipnlja). Aa men of the Lcm Tranalation are 
vnable to becoaae Baddhaa, there ia no Ab kia la (Vjikarana), nor any 
i'etm ik9 mm (Udana), becanae they haTO need to borrow noUf ea in order to 
Bpeak.t The nine daasca of hooka of the Leaa Translation are therefore tlio 
SmtTM^ the G«yef, the iiikmatUf the JiMat^ the AkkmimdAarmUt the ifoa. 
ittiiaa, and the C^e^etet . 

Accordini; to the Baddhiste of Nepal, the original body of the holy scrip- 
tnrea anonnta, when eoa^plete, to 84,000 Tolames, which are desijpiated, 
either coUediTely or aeparately, Siiira and Dkarwim, or by that of BmddArn^ 
rmekna (worda of Bnddha). Sakya Sinha first eoUeeted the doctrines of 
lua predecessors, to which be added thoae pecaliar to hinself. The worda 
7*enire and Pmrina are ordinaril| employed, thongh in a very vagne manner, 
to diatingush the eaoterie and exoteric doctrinea, and it wonld appear that 
they ahoold be applied more particularly to those of the Upmiua and 
Vfikmtmma: thmCmiMas, the Makas, and the Avadanaa wonld appear, 
■oeording to Mr. Hodgson, rather to be anbdinaiona of the Vj^dUranaf 
than distinct dasscs.— C. L. 

(6) Tk€ grtat ATfrnei.— The three KvaA correspond to the ikreepreciotu 
eacf, and in a manner complete the dogma of the triad, the basis of Same- 
nean theology. Jam Ui, when he began to perfbet right intelligence, 
addresaing himself to the chief among hia diadplea, opened to them the pre* 
repte of the three JTeiiei, to qnit enl, to retam to good, and to eatablish 
the root of entranee into reason. The commentary npon the IliNr |f«s kmg 
aajBi ''The iJkraa prtehmtomat are whaterer ia the aoal exeelientaad 
of the beat omen. Theae are the three anpporte by meaaaof which grant 
mattan an to' be diatingniahed, all the roote of the virtnct to be prodaeed* 
the ofOa oT lilb and death to be leaMTod, and the joja oTAI jNm*to hi 
obtained. They ara edled the Mree a/eya or rcslf . 

let. Jtes<tef mpm Bmdikm. Komi has the ajgoitotion oifHrnm, L a. 

• &m tmmgfm m«, B. XXXIII. p. 26 v. 

t re cftj i«n Ian, qaeled ia Ihc same, a XXXI V. p. ax 

2 r 

326 FiLORmAOB OP WA mkn. 

RcttiiH; vpdatlM giMt faitdllge»M of Buddha, jm CMpstlM tli^ la- 
cUmngiwa (that of tht iwordt of Mood, aadof ftro)ta&dft«i jomdrfioailife 
and death ia the three worldt. Hcnee the laerad teit, «* In feetiag vpoa 
Foe, jM nercr bmmo letam to the other spirite whon the herctiet adore." 

2d. KctfJaf 9pm tk§ Xew.^Thia dgniiiea that what Foe hath taid, ia. 
etroetioB or teaching, maj be letin action and ihonld bepraetiiedby all mm. 
8ndi IB the doctrine of andcnt traditioai. To retnrn, la to qnit hedlawiaad 
attadi oiie*8*icir to the trae law. In retting npon what Foe haa toiuht, joa 
are enabled to come forth from the three nncleanneaiei, and are emancipated 
from the erU of birth and death in the three worlds. Hence the lacred text, 
'' He who rests npon the Law is for ever incapable of liiUing or hnrUng.*' 

3d. Re$Hng «jion Me Sea^.^Men of the three rerolntions who leave 
their homes (L e. embrace religions life), are heartily nnited in the law re- 
vealed by Foe, and are hence called Seng* Those who rerolt agaihit sach 
aectaries as follow heretical practices ; those whose hearts are given np to 
the eeclesiajtics of the three rerolations ; those who bclieTC in the comma, 
nion of men of right prsctico and rest npon it ; soch sacceed in cscapnig 
from the three nnclean things, and from the pains of life and death in the 
three worlds. Hence it is written in the holy text, ** He whoretoms to tha 
ecclesiastics and rests npon them, never changes again and cannot rest npon 
men addicted to heresy/'*-*C. L. 

(7) Cuitwm •xpUiru </.— The passage is somewhat obecnre, and ae* 
cording to M. Landresse may mean, ** ikt tomwuntmry esfhina it.** 

(8) iTi'e.— This is the abbreviated Chinese transcription of Gathd Wim, 
verses. — KU 

(9) The toileeied preceph ^ik§ »m ph^ lo.— There are five cUssea of 
precepts which form the treasure of precepts Unght by the Tathlgata, and 
these have been divided In the followhig manner : When the venerable of 
the Age had attained his thirty-eighth yesr and had obtained the law, he 
proceeded to the town. The king having finished his lenten meal, directed 
Raholo to wssh the platter. In doing so the latter carelessly let it fall, and 
thos broke ii Into tf pieces. That very day many kkiiihrn saAl to Foe, 
'* The platter ia broken into five pieces.'* Foe replied ; " In the five 
hundred years immedlating following my death, wicked kkUikui shall divide 
the treasure of the Pi n< (Vinsya) into five classes." It aftenrards ao hop* 
pencd that fire disciples of the rank of Fsen jiAo Mteen /e (perhaps iho 
Ssnicrit ^M*l<» Vpmgtiptm) divided the great treasore of the precepU of 
the Tatbigata according to their own views, in the following msnners : 

• San Ummgfa mm, B. IX. p. 16 v. 

*■ ; * JB'M ' < i>**<q!»?tr:viiiwyi<Wi<pp»e|> 


Itt. Ttm W9U te, or Tarn tmo ikiew lo.— This word signifies tlie dnime- 
Uvm ^f iMtknuf (apparentlj ipStlTt Tsmoghna). Tbis dass is slso called 
tliA ' TVMffirrff rf ike Ismt/ and the " PrtcepU divided mi9 /our perte** 
It is said in the Talejf king s " After mj Ni phan» all say disciples shall 
collect the twelve cUsies of the sacred books ; they shall copy theni« stady 
thcBBv brins theoi to the highest perfection , and shall publish the words 
thereof, which shall be called the Deairuciiom ^dtarkneu. This dass shall 
be that of Tkm wen /e/' The four parts of these precepts are s 1st, the law 
of the Pi kkiewg 2d, the law of the Pi kkteoumis 3d. the bw of those 
who have reedTcd the prohibitions ; and 4th, the law of the departed. 

2d. Smpko lo.^This Sanscrit word signifies ike mm, or the /ree^/t ^ 
ike leeimree (of C^ett*). This dass is likewise called the Drue Lew of ike 
ikree worlde. It is said In the Taiij^ kings "After my Ni phan all my 
disdplea shall collect the twdve classes of the sacred books ; they shall na« 
cessingly study them ; and they shall add explanations and coBmentarics, 
so as entirdy to solvo all dUfienltaes. This dass diall bo that of the ^« 

3d. JTie St JTetrci .— This Ssnserit word signifies * tomiempieiien ^f ike 
deukie ueids* it is the mle of perfect existence. It is said in the To iep 
kimpi ** After my 2<n phan all my disdples shall collect the twdve dasics 
of the sacred books % they shall laj that there is no more EoOt and shall 
thns cast nway their errors as dead carcases. 

4th. Afl ekm je.^This Sanscrit word implies « ikei wkiek ie nof wumifeei 
med emmoi ke pe ree ie ed*' This dass is also called that of ** ikepree^ie 
dieidedimie fee pmrte." It is said in the To itp kinps <' After my M 
phan, all my dbdples shall collect the twelve classes of sacred books. Tho 
aimilttndesofearth, water, fire, air, shall not eiist s there shall he aanght 
hot empty space. This dass shall be that of the Hi sile «t." Tim firm 
parts of these precepts are» 1st. The observances of the ^i kkieomg 2d. 
ThoseoT the Pi kkieouni. 3d. The law of reodved prohibitioas s 4th. 
The ]aw of the departeds 5th. The bw of the monks. 

&Ch.l»il«fikioybiile.—ThMSsaserit word signifies 'ctftr/ It b said 
that in ^ery nmoto antiquity there was an immortel who had sexual eon* 
nesion with n eallL The latter prodnoed n son, and henee the name cu(f 
resMlsod in the Cuidly. In thb dass are discussed the vanity of E«o aa 
well aa the five coUeetaons (form, pereeption by the senses^ idbetien. 
eelbn, and knowledge). ItbseidintfaeanilvMv/ •^AftermyMjOen 
an asy dbdptesshaU eoUeet the twdve classes of the saeradbodka. AU 
•hall piudataitimt thou b hutuM Eooiand theyahallMt tspblmlho 
2 r2 

Z28 nusRfMAGs or pa hiam. 

si«aUtQd« •£ Um f old. lUtMl bccdUdtlMtUMof th«i>A«#Af)>« 
It.*— KL 

(10) IFmv mi emmaOtM /• tvrj/liv— !• CejIoB. Ami lh« ttaM of fh« 
iatrodoctini of BaailUsm in thai idanil ttadcr king Dtfcny FlMtim (236 
yeart after the death oT Boddha) to the tioM of kbf Valas^aitm (643 jrcars 
and 9 sMMithaafter the eaae epoch), the Boddhiat doetrineawere transB&Hted 
only hj tradition and preaehlnf • Bnt at thia time thlrty.aix learned prieata 
takiof connad tofetlier, and being of opinion that in after agea there aught 
ariae prietta of inferior capacity, collected together by the authority ^f the 
kingy fiTc hnndred prieata of recogidaed learning and aanetity s end Ivp^ring 
fttembled at a plaoad called Matnla* began coUecting and tranicribiig the 
aacred booka.t— C. L. 

(11) A pi /en .—A Sanacrit word (Ahhidhmrmm) aigniiying • #A«iPCfr/rte 
Xeir/' it IS one of the three TUm§ or ' riteptmelet,* that ia» one of the 
three daatea of hooka whidi contain the text and the acnae of the lawa. 
(See Chap. XVI. note 82). 

According to anotlier claiidlication of the aacred hooka, there are H^ki 
evmtmtumti which compriae the different kinda ofAtn^, the /ni, the htm 
and the cAeon. King aignifiea leir» « tmuiami tmd MteAen^iny ikmg» 
WliAte? er the salnta hate rolcd, ia called law % that whidi the heretics can 
neither change nor deatroyy ie called coaatant, or ioTariable. Iau i% the 
law ; It ia that which diatingniahea the Ught and the weighty, and withatanda 
ain. Lmm are the diaoonraea which expound the aoat prolbnnd Bican}iig cTf 
the lawa. CA«o» aignifiea tew; it deaignatea prayera and inrocationa. 
Amongat all theae hooka there are different onea for the great and the Irit 
trmuhiiom, §or the Ckimg van (Siiraka) and the reeen Ke (Pratyekn 
Bnddha). Thoae of the CAtnf wm are i let. The ' rtttpUth ^ike kim§^' 
which eoaprtaea tlSe fonr A JUm (Agama). A Um aignifiea ' lAe purler 
Uw/ becanse the law of the age admita of coaapariaon with no other law. 
The fonr A hmm are ; the lonf A Aen (dirgagana), the Mean A Aen (madja- 
migama), the wtixed A Aan (tamynktiigania), and ike eupplememiMy 
A Aen (angottarjgama), which, donbtleaa by miatake, the commenUtor 
in the ^en l«eny/e joti qnotea aa the ftrat. 2d. The reeeptaete ^ike Prr« 
tepU^ in which are conpriaed thoae of the fonr Fern (degreea), namely thoae 
of the F% khevm^ of the Pi Jtkieom »i, of the CAeon Atet (recdted pcohibi. 
tiona) and of the Afi« cAon^ (terminated diaputea) ; the ten 5owi^ (lee* 
tnrea), of Foe'a diadple Yinu pk9 ii and othera. 3d. 7A« reeepimeiee ef 
iki dieeauruif that ia, the Api i4m and othera. 4th. The reeepUeie ef 

• Fan y «iiig i, quoted in the 5a« fieag /« iini, B. XX. p. 17 and icquel. 
t l>Aiim« Vol. II. p. 43. 

i^4«'>*^ -"»»-< 4 ^ t .^<>p> . i .- .< *»1 1 J W l ■!» . »J l ■< l>*l WM t 


^rmyns tlau indodct tlw DhMrami^ to lemove all lickncfi and iToid all 
evil. Dkmrmki is a Samerit word aignifyini; i»voca/iafit or that which will 
proiMte good aad reftraia cril. The four Ttamg are peealiar to the Prat je« 
ka Boddhai. 5th. The rtetptMh rf ike king, in which are eompriaed the 
Mism/m ftm Aee Hmfi the Tafim§ F^ horn yewt end other JCinf . 6ch. The 
reegileclr ^ the jMveiiylr, toch as the A*m Mm iltiif oT the Fho« na, the 
prohlhitioM of the Fn wmtg and others. 7ch. The rtetptutie^ the dU- 
reiirMf , sodi as the 2^ cAjr leu hm^ the 8k]f ty M^, and others. 8di. 
The ree^^Uete ^f ik«fr^f€r$t soch as the Lmfytm cAeoiiy the Tk pet, aad 
other pnjer8.*-*C. L. 

(12) A eofp ^ihe e&tred teeftr.— We have seen thai tUs word applies 
Bore parlicalariy to the Suim. (Chap. XVI. note 24). The CBunera. 
tion whieh Fa hiaa here giYCS of the eoUeetion he had aude ia one of the 
aost iBterestiiif points of his narrative % and the nnaibcr of the QitkM or 
TSises he assigns to each book* proves that auny of these works woo very 
We have tfaovght it right to eater npoa sene spedal dctaOa 
1 with this snbjeet \ hot we most egeia leler to the aoio genecal 
I given hf M. Remnsat, in the notes to Chap. XYL— C L. 

(IS) 21f An Isf^iNift ; L e. the SsnscfiL— KL 

(U)anicMfaf.— The lest of the ttUls bend who eceoMponied onr pa. 
griai fnm Ckktm§ 'on. See Chap. I. 


Kiagdemef Chenpbo.-Kiagdenief Tone ttiL-Fa kian «nharks.-Ue ar. 
rives at the kaagdooa ef lieos. 

FoOowiog the course of the Ganges towards the east the dis- 
tanee of eighteen yaoM yen** yon arrive at the great kingdom 
C%e»>lo/onthe eoothem bank of the stream. In the chapels 
of Foe on onrioate» and in four places where Foe sat, thcjhafo 
aected towers which are apparoitly inhabited bj eodesiastics.* 
Thence procecdmg easterly shoot fifty yeoiiFan,*7on come to the 
I of ro AM fill.* There is the emboochure into the sea.* 
^Bin pan ki«g,«nslad in the Jkn Usagib tie» B» ZXXL p.0 T. 
2 p3 

330 FCLOtlMAGS or TA BIAIf* 

In tUs Ungdom there aro twcntj-fbar ienff Um hm, dl pcopkd 
bj the deigj» and the Ltw of Foe b fionrUhiiig. 

Fa hian dwelt there tiro years, oeeopied in tnmseribing the 
aacred booksand depictmg the images. At this time some mer- 
chants puttmg to sea in large Tcssels, shaped their course'^ tho 
Bonth-west ; and in the beginnmg of winter, the wind beine then 
faTourable, after a nari^on of fourteen nights and as many 
days, he arrired at the Kingdom o/Iaom^ The people of the 
country (bf To mo li H) assert that thb kingdom is about sefen 
hundred yeou yiifi* distant from their^s. It is situated on an 
island ; it is fifty yeou yan* from east to west, and from north to 
south, thirty yeou yan.^ To the right and to the left there are 
small islets to the number of a hundred ; their distance from eadi 
other is in some eases ten /i, in others from twenty to two hun* 
dred li / all are dependent upon the great bland. Many preci- 
ous things and pearls are procured there. There b a dbtrict 
which produces the jewel Mo ni,** and which may be about ten li 
square. The king sends tliither people to protect it, and when 
they hare gathered the jewels he Ukes three pieces out of ereiy 


(1) Bifkiam iTMH JTMW. About 24 leasvet.— Kt 

(2) Tk§ fTHtt kimgdvm ^Ckem jw.— ^pgr CUiHfw or ^ *MwO CAmi* 
^jmrit b the nano of the tneicBt capital of Kkrmm, king of Anga deaa, 
and elder brother, by bia mother, of the Pdndm prineea, being tb^. aon of 
Surya and Kunti before the narriage of the latter with Pdmdm. Ipit town 
for thia reason bore also the name of Karnapurm, and it was sitnated on tho 
site of the present Bhaghnlpore, or at least not far from that pbuJO. Wo 
have seen that the kings of Anga, were for a long time the snaeraina of tbe 
princes of Magadha, bat that the latter emancipated themaelf et ft^ their 
tribntarj condition under the reign of Maha Fkdma, who with hia son Bim* 
bisara OTcrcame the kingdom of Anga and made it a proTiaee of thdr own. 

Hivan thsang places the Iqngdom of CAcn pk9 in Mid-India, andgivea it 
four thousand li in circumference. The capital was protected on the north 
by the Ganges, and waa more than forty U ia circuit. <* Tbe country, be 
adds, ii fertile, the climate warm." In his time there were half a score of 

^ ^*, 


Ata ika, for tbe mod part in n state of dOapidatioB ; and not mora than 
two bnndred aonka. Tlie heretics had about twenty temples.* The name 
Champa is still found on some mapa« preaenred in that of Ckmrnpammgrnr, 
— KL 

(3) /nAaH/ad ly ecdrfiMltet.— >We maj infer from thb eipression 
that Fa hian did not land from the Yesiel. in whidi he descended the 
Gsnges.— KL 

(4) Nt&risfJI/ip jrcon jrrat.— Abont 68 leagues.— Kl. 

• (&) Ai lAe kingdom ^ 7b ma U /i.— Hiuan thaang calls this kingdom 
Ttm aw Ijr 11. " It belongSt says he, to Mid-India : it is fourteen hundred 
U in extent and its capital is ten /I in drcnmference. It is situated on the 
aea ahore, and great traffic b there carried on by land and by water." He 
fonnd there ten Am Isn inhabited by more than a thoussnd monks. The 
heretics had about fifty temples. Hard by the town was a tower erected 
by king Asoka in honor of a throne of the four past Buddhas, and of other 
memorials of their Uycs and acts, of which traces eiisted in the neighbour* 
hood.f Te mo li ii or 2^n me tg it, is the transcription of fimfajit , 
Timrmiipiif which signifies **tpoiied with copper.*' The place which 
foraaerly bore this name is the modem Tamlook* on the right bank of the 
Hnghli (more properly Rnpnarain) not far from Calcutta. The Maharansa 
calla it ThUUiiit corresponding exactly with our author's transcription. 
This country enjoyed, according to the Buddhists, great renown in ancient 
times. At the close of the 5th century before our era, the king Dkormi* 
aeAa, soTercign of all Jambndwfpa, despatched to the king of Ceylon an 
ambassador who embarked at this port. According to the narrathres of 
Fa hian and Uiaan thsang, this town was still of considerable importance in 
the &th and 7th centuries.— Kl. 

It is well lo remark that, according to Wilson, the name of this prerinee 
is Taaaalipti (alliBeted with sorrow) ; whenoe it follows, if this orthography 
bo camel, that there ia no need to ioTcnt the fbrm TimroiipA in order to 
infer fkem it the FOi riMelillt.—E. B. 

(Q Tkt emtrtmee to iho «m .—that is, of the Ganges. This drc nms ta n c e 
laefcsno doubt regarding the situation of th9 country, and we may Inrther 
inisr fkom the account of Fa hian, that tiie Hnghli was in his time one of the 
ffinc^ bran^cs of the Ganges.— KL 

(7) Tie Hefdbm^ifJUsne*— In Chinese, 9m lM«AeM,wUeh it the tfWi* 
lettMertheSanseritfih^fr, ('baring lioMO. Htaan thsang wrilasthe 
•MM My He Is, end says timt the eeoHyii ^wpriaed wiUi tettmile 

• Piani IMM, a LXKV. ait 13* 
t ilid.eii.ia^ 


tawaMIL Hei4dstliiltUtidtfi4wMfMMrlsrcdMtiMl^ VfiNfr/ 
bccAiMof teMsbcr of predmu thhigi U pvodieedL* VMh^ AMk 
wm te CMAd ia tiM notes to th« foUowiaf diapCer.--KL 

(8) AiVMi JhmiirNr yfMi ym.— Abook 930 ktgMi.— Kt 

(9) FVh f€9m fMi.«-68 lMf«M.^Xl. 

(10) Tkirtyf€9iif€m:'^§h€nt forty lofuet. Ai M. 1U««iat fOMitt, 
tbete diftaneet uid thdr proportUmi m ■eeorato ; b«l F« kiaa is dseeivtd 
prcdady as Erstostlmes was in s>^inf greater extent to Ceylon inloogitnde 
than in latitnae. By the little itUndt. gronpcd to the fight and the left, it 
is efldcnt that he means the Maldivet.^C. 1*. ^ 

(11) ne Jewel Jtf(»n<.»ln the originallfeni CAM; eAn prap^y signi. 
lying apMTl, hnt in the general sense to be here taken, aiapel. nf^, 
MmUt in Sanscrit, b a Jtwel, j^redna a/eae ; and eorreaponds in sonw mea* 
sure with the Chinese eJIn. Fbarls sre called mVf mmkid, in the saase 
language I hntapreeioos stone is called the J«ipel ^Jtfeal; pearls norc* 
over sre not here spoken of, bat carbuncles, which are aaid to ^it raya 
of Ught in the night tine. The description of the AfanI given in Bnddhiat 
works is frbohms.— KU ^ 


Psseriplien of the kingdom of LioM.— Prints of the fed of Fee.— Mennstery 
of the Monnlain withoat Fear.— The trse PeT te. The tooth of Foe.— Cersm o 
niw peribrmed in honor ef it.— Chapel of Po thi.— The Samanean The nm 

This kingdom' was origtnilly uninhnbitcd bj man ; onl^ demons, 
genii/ and dragons dwelt there. Nevertheless mcrehants of other 
countries trafficked with them. Vfhtn the season for the traffic 
.came» the genii and the demons appeared not, but set forward thew 
precious commodities marked irith the exact price ; if these smt- 
.ed the merchants, th^paidthe price and took the goods.* As these 
traders went, and came, and sojourned, the inhabitanto of other 
• PMRlfiim, 

m*, ■"# ■ ■n^^Miwm.iwNiiri ttmn^, \t n <i i^Mii 


kingdoms learnt that this coantry was very beautiful ; these also 
came, aud eTentuallj established a great kingdom. 

This countiy is temperate; the vicissitude of winter and 
summer b unknown. The grass and the trees are ever ver- 
dant The sowing of the fields is at the pleasure of the people ; 
there b no (fixed) time for that. 

When Foe arrived in thb country he was desirous of convert- 
ing the wicked dragons/ By the strength of hU divine foot, he 
left the print of one of hb feet to the north of the royal dty, and 
the print of the other on the summit of a mountain.* The two 
traces are at the dbtance of fifteen yeou yanf from each other* 
Over the mark of that to the north of the royal dty» they have 
built a great tower for^ ehonf high. It b embellbhed with 
gold and silver, and the most precious materials are combined to 
form its walls. They have moreover erected a setiff kia Ian, 
called the Mwntain wiihaui Fear,* where are five thousand 
ecclesiastics. They have erected a hall to Foe, with earrings in gold 
and in silver. Amongst all the precious things to be seen there, 
b an image of blue jasper, two chan^ high; its entire body b 
formed of the seven predous things. It sparkles with splendour, 
and b more majestic than can be described. 

Many years had now ebpsed rince Fa kiam left the Land of 
Han :* the people with whom he had mingled were men of foreign 
lands. The hills, the rivers, the plants, the trees,— eveiy thing 
that had met his eyes, was strange to him. And what wis more, 
those who had begun the joum^ with him were now separated 
from him ; some had remained behind, and some had died. Ever 
reflecting on the past,** hb heart was thougthful and dejected. 
Suddenly, while at the ride of thb jasper figure, he bdidd a 
merchant presenting in homage to it a fan of white lute« 
string of the eountiy of Am." Without any one peredving it, 
tins cxdted so great an emotion that the tears flowed and filled 
hb eyes. 

The ancient kings of tlib eountiy sent to the Kingdom of the 
Middk in quest of the seeds of the tite Pel #0." Tbeyphnted 

334 PiLORiiiAOS or fa hiaii. 

thtte doBgside the haUof Foe. When the tree was about twenty 
dUiV* high it leant to the south-east. The kingp fearful that 
it would faD, caused it to be supported by eight or nine ^fflarsi 
which formed an enclosure supporting it. The tre^ in the centre 
of the place where it was propped up» put forth a brane^ which, 
perforating the pillar, descended to the earth, and took root. Its 
size was about four wetV* These pillars, although deft ^ twain, 
and thrown down, haTC not been remoTcd by the people. Beneath 
the tree they have erected a chapel in which there b a seated 
image. The Clergy of Reason habitually and unremittii^ly wor«. 
ship it. ^ 

In the city they haye moreoTcr erected an edifice for a Tooth 
of Foe. It u entirely constructed with the seren predouf things. 
The king purifies himself and abstams from the observance of 
br&hmanical rites. The inhabitants of the city possess faitl^ and re- 
Terence, and are firm in their convictions. From the earliist times 
of this kingdom, they hsTc nerer experienced famme, scarcity, 
calamity, or trouble. The cleigy have in their treasury an infi- 
nity of predons things, and Mo ni beyond price. The king 
having entered into tliis treasury, beheld a jewel Mo nt, and 
immediately felt a desire to carry it away. Three days after he 
made amends. He sent for the clergy, and prostratins himself 
before them, repented. Opening his heart to them, ht said, 
" I desire that you shpuld enact a law, forbidding future kmgs to 
enter your treasury ; at least, until they shall have accomplished 
forty sacrifices in the character of mendicants ; then let it be lawful 
for them to enter.** ^ 

The town is inhabited by many mag^trates and grandees, and 
the merchants Sapho.'* The houses are beautiful, and the 
public edifices well adorned. The streets and the roads are level 
and straight. In all the crossways there are halls built for 
preaching. On the eighth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth day 
of the moon, they erect a lofty pulpit, and a grait multi- 
tude of the four castes assembles to listen to the Law, The natives 
of the country assert that they may have amongst tliem altoge« 

« . jmm \ I " ■» w># ip 'i I ■ " W * i > # ^ i » II II til ^ ■ * * i ' ¥ * i" n m' i Vpfi fci 


ther from fiftj to sixty thousand ecdesiastics, who that all eat in 
common. The king, moreover, has in the town, five or six 
thousand whom he supplies with food in common. When 
these are hungry, each takes his own pot, and goes in quest of 
what he requires. They only take as much as thdr pots will 
contain quite full, and return. 

The tooth of Foe** b commonly exposed to the public in the 
middle of the third moon. Ten days beforehand, the king, 
having sdected a large elephant with great care, sends a preacher, 
who, clad in royal robes and mounted on the elephant, beats a 
drum and calls out, saying, << The Phou m, in the course of three 
A Meng ki,'^ practised mortifications without regard to his person 
or his life. He relinquished the queen his wife ; he tore out his 
eyes to give them to a man ; he cut his own flesh to redeem a pi- 
geon ; he sacrificed his head to present it in alms ; he cast hb body 
to a fambhed tiger, and spared not even the marrow of hb bones.** 
Thus, by such austerities, and by the practice of mortifications for 
the good of all living beings, even thus did he become Foe. During 
the forty nine years that he continued in the world, he preached 
the law, and converted by the doctrine. Those who were un- 
settled, he confirmed ; those who knew not the rules, knew them. 
All liring creatures were thus saved, and he entered into Ni 
kouan ; since his Ni kouan 1497 years** have eUpsed. \nien the 
Eyes of the World were quenched, all living beings experienced 
deep sorrow.** Ten days after thb, the tooth of Foe b conveyed 
to the chapel of the MouHtain without Fear. Every man in the 
kingdom, enHghtened by the doctrine, and anxbus to promote 
hapinness, comes from his quarter, to level the roads, to adorn the 
highways and streets, to scatter all sorts of flowers and perfumes. 
Then, after the chaunts, the king causes to be dbplayed on both 
sides of the road, representations of the five hundred successive 
naniiratations** in whidi the Pkmn Ma assumed different forms ; 
soch aa that of 5«ti ia note, the transformatioii into lightmng^*' that 
oftbokingoftlioelephaat^'*andthatoftbestag-hoist.'' These 
IKgimsb paiated ia virioas coloiifs^ are caiefally exeeiited and ap« 


pear Cving. At last the tooth of Foe b eiirried thiough the 
nidit of the rood* and b adored whererer it passes. Airited at 
the chapel of the Mmmlmm wiihmi Ftmt^ thcj asee^ into 
the hall of Foe ; thej hum there perfumes, making accnmolated 
donds t th^ perform religious acts without intermission night 
and day the whole of the ninety days. The tooth is then con- 
▼ejed back to the chapel in the town. This chapel is t cry ele- 
gant; during the day, they open the gates and perform the 
ceremonies accordmg to the law. 

To the east of the Chapel wilkami Fear there is a hfll on which 
is a chapel named Po ihi^^ where there may be two thousand 
ecclesiastics. Amongst their number u a Samanean of great 
▼irtuCf named Tka mo kin ti, whom the people of the country 
hold in great Teneration. He hath dwelt in a stone house near 
forty years* constantly occupied in charitable acts. He has suc« 
ceeded in domesticating in the same house serpents and rats, 
without either doing injury to the other. 


(1) TAi» kmfi»m.^Thm fabnlooi origin of Cojlon, at dcUiled bj Hiom 
tbMag, it tvideatiy borroweJ from tnulitiona collected la the place Itgelf, 
or draim op from the originals, although differing in aome notable leapccte 
from the aoeonnta of the Singhalese. According to the Chinese traveller^ 
the daughter of a king of soathem India, set oat on a lackj daj, to asany 
the prince, of a neigbbonring coantry. Her escort tied at the sight of a lion, 
leaving her exppsed to his ettaclc. Bat the king of the lions, placing her 
apon hia back, bore her awaj to hia den, aitaated ia a remote part of the 
Bumntains. There he cattght deer for her, and brought her IrniU, and 
furnished all her wants according to the season. For months and years that 
princess lived with him, and erentaallj becoming enceinte, she brought forth 
a son and a daughter, who in form were human, although begotten by a 
being of so different a natare. The son grew apace, and aoon' acquired 
atrength equal to his father. Having attained pubert j, and become sensible 
of his manly virtue, be inquired of hia mother, *' How can a beast of the 
forest be my sire, when my mother is human ? Not being of the same species 
how can they copulate ?" Tbe mother having apprised him of what had 

;^;5|53rv.r^-VM«sir-^' •^■^'^'^ s^9ii:<i;??^>^'K^mtsu M^u \tu n t\m f la i i m iWi 


formerly hippcned,— " Men and beitts» be added, are of nataics mhoU j dti* 
tinet ; let «• iainediatelj tj from this place and retom no more/' *« Be* 
fore ilecing," njoined the mother, ** let as be sure that we can." The son 
then began to follow the lion ; he climbed the monntains with him ; traTened 
the defiles, and examined the passes with care : then one day when his sire 
was far awaj, he took his mother and sister in his arms and reached the 
places of hnman habitation. The mother said ; **Let «s carefully conceal 
onr secrets, and avoid repeating onr history ; for if it become known, men 
will despise vs. Letnsgo hence to the kingdom of my father ; we are in- 
seenre in a land where the religion of the people is different from onr own/' 
The inhabitanU haTing asked them whence they came, they replied, ** We 
are originally of these eonntries ; exiled into far-away parts, children and 
mother, we mntnaUy M each other aad seek onr homes again." The 
people of the country, touched with com|*assion, immediately hastened to 
proride them with whaterer they required. Bfeanwhile the king of the 
lions, returning to his cave, and finding neither his dear son nor daoshter,' 
issued furiously from the depths of the monntains and sought the dwellings 
of men. The earth shook with his roar. He attacked both man and beast, 
destroying every thing that had life. The inhabitanU came out immediately to' 
take and destroy him. They beat the drums, sounded the great conchs, 
and armed wilh cross-bows and speara, formed themselves into bands 
the better to resist the danger. The king commanded them to keep toge* 
dier, and putting himself at their head, they gradually stole through the 
forest and passed the hills. The roaring of the enraged lion struck terror 
into man and beast, wlio fled away in alarm. The king proclaimed that who* 
ever should capture the liOn and so delirer the kingdom from the calamity 
wbidi afllicted it, should be revrarded with all manner of honors and rewards. 
On bearing this proclamation of the king, the son, addressing his mother, 
«aid to her ; ** Our wretchedness is extreme I I know not how to alleviato 
it. I must answer tliis appeal.** " Say not so" replied his mother ; *' though 
this be a savage beast, he is not the less thy fatheri and our misfortunes 
•fu no suflldent reason that you ahould destroy him." Tbe son rejoloed ; 
•« Men and beasto an of different aaturesi what relations of justice can 
exist between them ? Our right is that of reaiatance; what hope can he 
CBtertaui in his breast ?" Thus aaid, he arased himself with a dagger, and 
offend to folfiU the kii^aeommand. A nnaserous band accompanied him. 
lUe lion vras eonddttg fas the forest; not anmn dared to approa^ him. 
AaaooBaa the son appeared the liea /ell upon him and threw him to the 
gramd t when the latter, foU of rsgo and forgetting their vdadonahip, plus- 
cod hii dagger iilo the ]iea*abcUy. The lioBmflbid great anguiihf rem 

338 nijOftiiCAOB or fa mu». 

UMfNMndt wadM.itmpF«Mrviiif UttMte tof« for Usnam if th« 
Uttir hud done kirn Mi^iur. Th* kUigtheaaiked, ••WhoisOdtfttn^ 
if tbcra be Mglit lapariiatwal Ui Uai» we most give kia Om nwafdtt b«t 
pmiik kia alM wfeidj." Th« mo hafiiig Bwrated Ui biitorj, •« Ap- 
pnrch." i^tho kias; '« thy dra wis nTage and eodU kave no paternal af* 
fectioa. Tkc aataia of wild MiiiBilt ii diffiealt to tabdae, tad wkked aeati- 
meati aia CMUy prodacad ia their hearts. To destray that which it aosi* 
oaa to a pcoplOy is a noble action t to take the life of one's fiither is to do 
▼iolenoe to the heart. Refrardsof erery kiad shali honor this aetiooy bat 
exile shall panish the transgrestieQ* Thna shall the law of the ftate be 
rsspeetedy aad the word of the king be free of daplidty." He tken eqaip« 
ped two large vessels« which he loaded with provisioas and neeessarics, and 
vnwQUng that the soa of the lion shoald remain longer in the kingdom ; he 
gave him joang men and joang damsels for his reward^ who set sail in 
diiTerent vessels aecording to their sex. That on which the joang men 
embarked reached the Island of Jewels ; and, as manj predoas th^igs were 
foaad there, there these remained. In the seqael, some merchants baring 
landed on that island, the Inhabitants killed the chief of them, retained 
their witcs and had many children. They elected chtefii to gorem and 
magistrates for the regaUtion of affairs ; they foanded towns, bnilt Tillages, 
end in memory of the daring action of their ancestor, called the kingdom 
they had esUblished by his name. The Tcssel on which the damsels em* 
barked, arrited at the western part of Persia, in a eoantry inhabited by 
genii : those who leaded had childrea by their Intercourse with the genii, 
and esUblished the " Great (keidentai kingdom ^ IToMea." 

The natires of the Kingdom of Lions hare oval faces, dark complexions, 
square chins, and lofty foreheads ; they are robast and bold ; their temper 
U hot aad passionate. How can they, who are the deiceadaats of a savaga 
beast, endnre insult ?'*'— C. L. 

(2) Onl}f demouM mud ^eail.— The greater aamber of trsTellers who havo 
bMU led to InTettigate the religious and historical traditions of Ceylon, 
make, mention of these supematnral beings, with whom the first coIonisU 
from India for a long time struggled ere they obtained quiet possession of 
the entire island. According to the KajaTsli, demons possessed Ceylon 
during 1844 years, namely, from the time of its depopulation consequent 
upon the famous wars betwixt Rama and Ra? ana, to the time when Snkya 
Muni, desirous of establishing his religion in that island, created an ezten* 
sIts fire which destroyed the whole country and compelled the demooa to 
ttt to the ocean and take refuge in the island of YtJtgiri dewinM.f Accord* 

• Plan t fi«it, B. LX VI. p. 1 1. et seq. 

t Vpham, Sacred and liUt, toQki u/ Ceylen, Vol. II. p. 16 and p. 168 et seq. 

^^Iti>ta:^^ i.m my m ■ y • -aw^T-^*- .-¥*i>x»^^ if » i >fc **> ■ i »an#» ii i ii i p i 1 1 i U m ip w i i 


ing to the computatioii of tome authon, this happened when Baddha was 3S 
jean of age ; 588 B. C. and 45 before the Nirvinm,* 

Hhun thsasg repeats, with that pretentions prolixity which is eommon 
with bin, those Bnddliist legends which relate how Seng kia le (Sinbala) 
effeeted the riddance of Ceylon for erer from the demons who had with« 
drawn before the power of Sakya, at the time when he had subjected the rest 
of th«r race. In this narrati?e, which we shall greatly abridge, it is stated 
that formerly in the Isle of Jewels there was an iron town inbahabited by firo 
hvndred Lo tkm women, (Rahshasi), or femsle demons, whose eraftioess 
was equalled by their cruelty. Some merchants haTtng come to the island 
for commercial purposes, the Le eAe, bringing perfumes and playing upon 
various instruments, adTanced to meet them and invite them to enter the 
town for repose and amusement. Seduced by the beauty and conversation 
of these women, the merchants had (sexual) commerce with them, and eacU 
of them brought forth • son. The chief of these strangers was Stnp Jtia, snd 
his son was named Benjf Ale fo. The latter haTiag in a dream had a revela* 
tion of the dangers which threatened him, he and his companions secretly 
gained the seashore, and with the assistance of a celestial steed escaped firom 
the island. The queen of the Lo tka flew in pursuit of Senjf kU lo, and 
endeavoured by her charms andcarreues to seduce him to return : hut, im- 
moveable, 8emg kia /e pronounced curses upon her and menaced her with 
his sword,— saymg, *• Thou art a £o lAe, I am a man ; being of diiferent 
natures, we should never unite ; if we do so, we shall be mutually wretched. 
It must be that your destiny should fulfil itself!" Then the 1.0 tAc pub- 
lidy reproaching Seng kirn le with his conduct and his ingratitude, accused 
him of having abandoned her, rtjected her, and overwhelmed her with male- 
dictions and insults after having taken her to wife and aeeepted her presents. 
The king touched with her complaiaU and blinded by her beauty, protected 
her against Seng kia to, and, despising the cautioat of the latter, took her to 
wife. But in the middle of the night she flew back to the Isle of Jewela 
and returned instanter with five hundred other Lo 9ka, carrying desolation 
and slaughter into the palace of the king. She laid hold of all who were there, 
and glutting themselves with the flesh and blood of sohm, and bearing off 
the carenssea of others, returned to the Isle. Next momfaig, by daylight. 
the magistratea and the courtiers assembled for the royal andience, and 
•watted long the opening of the pelaee gates. Seebg none, and hearing 
» they crossed the threshold, and found in the halls nought but piles of 
I ! Turning away fireaa the sight, they uttered lend criesy and wept in 
fgnonacs of the canss of sack so greats misfortune. Aiiif Me Is sppriatd 
• Trmtt. Iti AsMfy, Vol. lU. p. 6IL 

340 niOfUMAOS or fa biak. 

Ilw« tf tilt wiMltb a^ h«rlNri»mt«< ^vlMi^ kaA Hl»«i^ 
ftraek vitli hU eowige tad wiidoiBy dccCtd bin for king. He UMS^^preptiw 
td Mnat, tad Katiaf collceted troofw emlMrkcd to dciy the povo^ of llw 
^ till. Hof iaf OTCroono theto ho eompolUd them to throw themtclTct 
into the leiy eed tike rerofo la o neighboarinf Ulead i ead thea dettroyed the 
froa towo* Pirctently people from ell tidee flocked to the i«hia4)i *b^ * 
kincdooi wee establUhed whidi boie the aene of the king, ^eajr JKe /e.^ 
, The Singhelciebooki itsto thet it wee Fif'i^e (Vijeye), too of Sinhela, 
who et the heed of levca hoadred warrion, end with the aid of Cttreajp, 
effected the dettnictioQ of the eaperaataral beiegt thet remeieed ia the 
island after the eipeditioa of S&je Muai amongst them.t— C. L. 

(3) 7*A<3P tOQk /Aefeed!t.«-T1ila eeeount exhibits e carioaa enalpgy with 
the well known passage la PKa j« which ascribes the same mode of traffie 
to the Scree s ^huRlaif uUerion ripd mereef |Wi</e» Jmxtd ttHaiiMMU mk 

. (4) Comperted ike wicked tfincfoat.— ^The dragoae end the geaii whidi 
originallj inhabited Ceylon, were called, the former Xe^ee, and the second 
yaJttkmt, in Pall Vltiim. Thelt conrersioa bj Sakye Moni has famished 
Singhalese writers with namerons legends which, with the traditions relatieg 
to r(/«y«, form the heroic ege in the history of Ceylon. Erery thing ie 
anpernataral in these legeads ; the jonmey of Sakya from cential India 
throngh the air, his discnssions with the KeicAee, the miracles he performed 
to cooTince them, and the etreamitaeces attending their final expulsion from 
the island, which cfcr after edhered to the faith of Sakya. Side by side 
with these legends are those referring to Ft/ejfe SinkabiAm, who came 
from Kaliaga, with se? en hnndred men, and oceepied at first bat a limited 
extent of coast. If there be any thing historical in these incoherent and 
often contradictory narratlTes, it is rather In the legends relating to Vijaya 
than in those detailing the pretended jonmey of Sakya. Tliese sereral 
recitals may be consulted in the eompilatioa of Upham. We may remark 
that the account giren of the arriral of Mehinia in Ceylon, and the coarer. 
sion of the king Detemipaeiiuti, would seem to prove that it was only under 
this prince, that is to say, if Ceylonese chronolofy be correct, a^ut the 
fourth century before our ere, that Buddhism was established in' Ceylon. § 
— E. B. 

According to the Chinese, one ceatury after the Nirrlaa, 3fo ki ymiiio 

• Pian i tUtn, B. LXVI. art 4, pp. 13— 16 v. 

t Vpham, Sme. and UuL Bookt •/ Ctjfhti, Vol. I. p. 69. and Vol. II. p. 171, 

** H/i.e. Xai. B. VI. cb. XX! V. 

§ ifoe, and HitU B-m^h ofCeybn, Vol. L p. 84 et fcq. 

j^^»ya.--.«Oiearry-' ^JST^*- ,'<t».-.>r-,^ii»-^ i ii nw^ i < i pr lyi i rn w isi ei i ei iiiH ^ iill ii 


(MalieiidfA), younser brother of king AsoVa, tVaiidoned the world tnd pro* 
eeeded to diffuM the doctrine among the inhabitants of Cejion, These 
changed their castoms and were conrerted to the trae faith* Two centuries 
later, the doctrines of Foe were divided into two classes, denonmated Mo 
kopi Ao /• (Mah&ribara), and the other A po p9 cki ii (Abhayashri).*— 
C. L. 

(&) Tke prmi rf kU feei am tkt Up ^f m meim/aiii.— This moantain, 
from its height and the veneration with which it is regarded, has ever 
attracted the attention of traTcUers, to whom it is known as AdaaCt Pwk. 
At the time of S&kya's third risit to Cejlon» fifteen years sabseqaent to liis 
first, Saman-dcf a RIja came to adore liim, and said, ** Behold, O Bnddlia, 
that' lofty moantain, whose name is Sssmmi Aii/«, bine as a rock of sap- 
phire, its summit concealed in the donds I Many Buddhas hare there left 
their ^«lics, by means of which the memory of their transit through the 
world 'is prescrred among men. Deign to add one jewel to these, and 
leave there the impress of thy foot, which shall be to this isles precious 
blessing." On this Buddha raised himself to the clouds, and hovering above 
the mountain, the latter sprung from its base to receive in the air the im- 
press of the blessed foot, and then fidl back again to the pUoe it oceupiet 
to this day.f 

Buddhists mention a great many prints of this kind ; the veneration these 
receive, scarcely inferior to that paid to Buddha himself, has no doubt eon* 
ted to augment the number. It is quite plain that every country must havo 
its own, and that each sect pretend to honor in it the divinty it adores, or 
the head of the doctrine it has embraced* All therefore do not belong to 
6£kya Muni; indeed the Pali texts recognise but fire genuine ones, named 
Pmtkm prm paikm, * the five divine feet.* Capt. Low has devoted an 
•rtide to this subject in the Transactions of the Boyal Asiatio Society of 
London.— <!. L. 

The Singhalese name thb impression and the mountain on which it czistst 
HtiwmMmeUc Siripada^ or more exactly, 8*mmikda Sripadtt, that is, • the 
eacred foot of the mountain of Samana.* SMmmtm, or Smmmm, is the tutelary- 
God of this mountain. In the Mahavansa this mountain is called SawumU 
kiim pmmtM, and it is very probable that SMaumim Autm is the prissitivo 
form of SisiiMnAete. Valentyn has given a miaute and exact aoeonnk of 
tUflBMntaiaandthe images foind ob the summit of Adam'a Peak, in his 
dee crip tien of Ceylon ; a work of whicb Weston has made extensive nee in 
Me ooespHation of fiinghslcse Ilistocy, This asonntain, aeeoidivg to Yalea- 
^ySf is sitnaledaboni fimrtocAGtnMBmilea ftom Colombo. Its 
• Pka JCMn,B.LXVL t CVtem, Vol. U. pw ». 

2 6 3 

i42 ni«RiMA6x or fa biah. 

.•nteratdNdMljbjMut«rMilfoiidida ftnd to the radr, the Ikki 
or which iorveas ttspe. The mmmk fermt ea eree ef a hDadn^ and 
MjpeoieUileH^aDa aheadfed aadtcii iahfeedth. la theeenbeef 
thitffpaee is aitoae tefta or dght feet lonf aad pfojeetiaf about Hkf ftct 
4roai the eoiL It ii then that devotees imasiae that they iceofO^ the 
priat, tome of SOqra Moni't fiMtt othen of Adem'e. 

The Siaghalete iMHrerer edaiit of only one print on the BMoataia ^eaiea- 
A«le/ a few traditioat oalj attna that Sekja Meal pUeed om of i^is feet 
open SeaMoMs and another apon titit of the Madura. What auiy Iuto 
fiven rise to the traditioa of tlie twofold laspress aientioncd by Fa liiaa 
is tliat the SBoantala Is divided into two sammits, apon one of wliidi is to 
he seen the Sripada | bat the distance of fifteen jrcev jraas wliich aecordia^ 
to ear anthor, separates tliCM footprints, is eertaioly eisfgerated. Lastly, 
as we liave jost liad occanon to see. there is nothing more common amonfst 
Saddhist natioas than the existence of sach prints of thefeetofkakya. 
Evea in Ceyloa it is stated that lie left sach sMmorials in other parts of 
the island, and in particnlar ia the bed of the river Calamy.*— £• B. 

(6) Fifteen yeou jreas.— 60 or 70 English miles. 

(7) J'br/y cAeaf .— A cAei^ is a measure of ten Chinese feet ; apd the 
Chineie foot ia eight lines shorter than onrs. Taking the cAea^ as equal 
to three metres sod rizty ceatimetrcs, the height, of this tower would be 
tweoty-two metres.— >C, L. 

(8) The Jfoaa/ela wiikoui Feear .—in Chinese, IFott V«. Hiasa thsaag 
Oppears not to have known thia bailding ; in fact he does not mention the 
temple of the Teoth vfFQe^ of which we shall speak immediately, nor of 
another smaller temple near it, in the vicinity of the king's palace. Both 
were sumptuously sdomed.'h«-C. L. 

The Sanscrit name of thb Sem^ Ale lea la Ahhetiffvri^ a word which 
mesas exactly ' the mountain of security/ The Mah4vanta and the Raja^ 
latnakari state, that the king Walakanabbaja, or according to the latter 
"work, Deveny PSetissa, cauaed the temple of a heathen named Girrie (doubu 
less Gin) to be destroyed, and ceased to be constructed upon its site twelve 
temples consecrated to Sakya, which eommanicated with each othier ; and in 
the midftt of which was erected an immense rtAere. He then combined hie 
own oame Abkajf with that of Gitit so that the entire monument waa 
Baased Abhaym Gin,t According to the AfeAdraase, this event took place 
about the year 456 of Buddha, or aboat eighty-seven years before c^ur cru» 
Pofsibly the explanation thus given by Singbalcic authorities is somewhat 

• Upham, Vol. I. p. 7. and Vol. 11. p. 22, 23. 
t Fian i tian, D. LXVI. art. 4. p. 17. 
X Vpham, Vol. I. p. 219, Vol. 11. p. 43. 


•triined ; for hj aiding to tKe mM of the word Aihtfrn Giri, wbieh it 
regularly rendered * M^mnUim ^f Sicmriig,* there it no need to have re* 
conne to the hiatory of the priest Girl, and the more to at thit name doet 
not appear twtable for a man. It it at well to note that Fa hiaa nnder* 
ttood thia word in the tente in which we hate jvtt explained it, to that ho 
had more aoenrate information than it to he fonnd in Singhalete legendt* 
»E. B. 

(9) Tkt UMi^Bamt^^Qf OanM, According to the practice of the Chineie, 
their conntry ia detignatcd after the djnattiet which hare ruled it with the 
greatctt glory, e?en after they have loog ceaied to reign. 

(10) RtfUetim^ iipen Me/Ntt/.— in the text, /oeim^ ia^k njfon ikt ikm» 

(11) TkeUnd^ SHbtn.— The name of a celebrated dynasty which it 
ordinarily applied to all Cbina, hat whidi here more particvlarly detig* 
nates the prevince of 8kem $i of which Fa hian wat a natiTe.-— C. L. 

(12) Tki int Pei /o«— In Sanscrit, Bodki, a name giren from the tir* 
cnmtttnce of Onddha having acqnired tapreme intelligende nnder itt tbadow. 
According to Siaghaleie tradition it wasfrom Central India that the hingt 
of Cejlon obtainabranch of thit tree. The RlyaraU tUtet that Mahiodo Kn. 
mlira, ton of Phtrm&soka, one of the tneeetiort of Chandragnpta, drew 
aronnd the right brandi of the Bodhi tree a yellow line, and that he entreat* 
ed the godt that that branch shonld be transported to Cejlon. In an intttnt 
the branch detached itself from the tree at if it had been cnt with a law, 
and riting in the air, it tped to Ceylon, where it wat receiTed in a golden 
Tate and afterwacdt planted in oontecrated ground.* Thit event look place 
in the reign of the Singhalese king Deweny Ptetitsa. Now the year 236 
conetpoodt with onr 307 B. C. if we ad iiit the Singhalete eompntatioB» 
which if I am not mistaken, mntt be redneed by tome Afty yeart to laake 
it lynchronise with other indieationt drawn from Brihmanical aonrcea. A 
paittge from the Rdjammtmttpri provet that the MM wat planted near 
Anandhapnn»that atltitt to which Fa hian leferttand which wat ttUl 
floorithing ia hit time. Mortover the narrativtt of onr traveller la mndi 
Mf« eopioot than the Agdeeli. Aeeording to the JCtAdsme, whii^ nar. 
raitt thefaetttdettUcd intheworkt qnoted, the bfanah of the holy tine 
wateenvejedtoCeykminn leit miraenlovt maBner» that itt oa aihipw-* 

(13) l^M/f tkmi^AhvpXt^O English fott» 
' (14) #bw-ir«<.-*Abont234Baglithinebee. 

: (U) SMfk9 wmdkwikt$^^9€ph» It the Chinwefewaefperhiyea 8ia« 
• IVIem,VeLU.^184. 

344 nLGanuAx or fa hiait. 

glidm cipifMtat b«t ow bbiorietl tad philological 
with Ceyte, ii not m drevmataBtfal at to Mablo «• os tmrj oeonioa to 
rcatorowlth ccrtaiatj neh words and exprctskmt at praiaat tbofludicty 
■Mfo ctpeeUUy what a teeoadarj faiterctt attodm to them at ia thb iiw 
tttnee woald appear to ho the eatt. 

(16) Tk€ t—tk tf /h«.^BQiddhisU feoogniao the aathentielty of aefcnl 
relkt of tbit kind, (tee Chap. V. note 5. and Chap, XIII. note 8 ;) bat 
none b to eelebrttod at that here spoken of, nor haa an j been iubjccC to 
tnch Tariety of fortnne. The Singbalcfo aaoM it tlie DuMm wmJUpue (the 
honorable tooth)* Aecording to their aooonntt, Mahasena, who uoended 
the throne of Ceylon 818 yeart after the death of Bnddha, detpa|ehed an 
ambassador with rich presents to Gukinkm^ king of KtiUmgrn ntU (Kalinga 
d«sa) in the sonth of Bengal, to obtain from him this prtcions reUc, then 
in hit possession. The king of Kalinga consented to yield it np i bat Maha. 
Sana dying in the interfal, it was rcceiTed with the greatest solemnity by his 
son KitrtUtfy aMf ffapama, who bailt a tomple for its reception. Fonrteen 
hundred yeart after the death of Buddha, the Malabars came from the coast 
of CoroBiaadel to the attack of Ceylon, and having seised that counfry, per« 
secuted the faith, and carried oif the sacred tooth to the banks of the 
Ganges (perhaps the Godavery). £ighty.six yeara afterwards, MaJkaim 
iryayalm expelled the MaUbars, and some years subsequently Perainu 
ma^oAii brought back again to. Ceylon the tooth of Buddha. In the latter 
part of the 16th Centuryt the Portugneae carried it off in their tuam, when 
Constantino of Bragansa, refused considerable sums for its redemption, and 
animaffd with religioua seal, publicly reduced it to ashea. Next morning 
howerer the priest of Bnddha found another tooth in the corolla of a lotus, 
in a?ery respect similar : and it ia thia that ia now in the possession of the 
English, and for the restoration of which the lato kiof of Burmah sent two 
embassies to Calcutta. 

On comparing the first of these partieulart with t!ie date discussed aboTC, 
we may infer that our traveller visited Ceylon not long after the king of 
Kalinga had sent thither the tooth of Buddha.— C. L. 

For a very ample account of this celebrated relic and ito fortunes the 
reader nmy refer to the late Hon. Mr. Tumour's account in the Journal of 
the JUiatic Society, VoL VI. p. 8&6, et seq., an account which he concludet 
by mentioning that he had held official custody of the relic tinc^ 1828 ; it 
having been found aecetiary for the tranquillity of the country that tho 
Biitish Government thould retain to precious tn object in ito oiqi posses- 
sion. "During that period," says Mr. Tumour, •' the six-fold cukete in 
which it it enshrined have been twice opened ; once in May I82S, at the 


rrqoetl of the natiTett when a aagnilieent fotival wai celebntedt whidi 
lasted • fortnight ; and once in 1834, to admit of Sir Robert and Lady 
Horton seeing it, on which occasion the scicntifie Austrian traveller, Baroa 
Von Hagel was also present The kejs of the sanetnary are never absent 
froB mj library, excepting 'daring the actual performance of the daily rell* 
gious ceremonies, and at night a military guard is posted at the temple." 
. 1 fear, however, that there are good grounds for believing that this object 
of idle curiosity and miserable superstition, guarded with so much pomp 
and care, has no pretensions whatever to a higher antiquity than the IGth 
century at furthest ; and that we cannot boast with Col. Sykes, that '* this 
celebrated relic, after falling into the hands of the Malabars and POrtuguest 
ia now «^#/y lodged under the lock and key of the English.*' The dreum- 
stances under which it was destroyed, not by order of the Yieeroy, D. Con« 
•tantiao de Braganxa, as stated by M. Landresse,but in direct opposition to 
his wishes, are thus detailed by the Portuguese historian, Diogo de Couto. 
5* As soon as the king of Pegu heard of the capture of Jafaapatam and the 
fcisure of the tooth-relie by the Viceroy, he despatched ambassadors to the 
latter, offering unlimited sums of gold for its redemption, and making pro* 
mises of eternal friendship and alliance in the event of compliance with his 
wishes. The Viceroy consulted his captains and eounsellora, who were 
unanimous in thinking that so magnificent an oifer should not be rejected. 
Meanwhile the rumour of this negoeiation reached the ears of the Arch* 
bishop, D. Caspar, who immediately went to the Viceroy, expostulated 
with him upon a tralBc so dishonoring to God, and forbade him to sell for 
any amount of gold, an object which contributed to tlio perpetuation of 
idolatry among the heathen. The Viceroy was too good a Catholic to act 
upon his own responsibility in opposition to the wishes of the Archbishop i 
but having summoned a council, to which the latter and all the dergy wero 
inrited, he laid before them the urgent necessities of the sUte, which might 
at once be relieved by so splendid a ransom. The subject wras fully discnu- 
ed by the assembly, and it was finally determined that the ransom, were it 
even the whole world, eould not be accepted, as bdng offensive to God." 
The historian mentions by name the whole of the dergy who came to this 
honorable deterasination, and proceeds % **This bebg agreed to, and a reso- 
Intioa bdng drawn out and signed by all present, a copy of whidi may be 
aecn in the record-oflice (i9rf die lomlo), tho Vioeroy ooesmanded tho 
tfcasnicr to bring forth the tooth, and then traasforrsd it to the ArchbidMp. 
Tho latter, in the pcctenee of all, with hie own hands, pnt the tooth into n 
metal nMrtBr,nd having broken it into pieces, cast teliragaiMntaialoachaf. 
ingdish,whiehhothcn CMMdIobo throws, adme, ooda and all, into tho 

346 nuoKniAGx or ta biak. 

mUdto of tilt rim> tlM prnenot of aU tlM peopte, who loolwd M frop tl^ 
wiadom and mooddn. Tte Vieeroj momwod grcaOr at this trmcliMi, 
nyiagtfait tho hMthnhad wteaidty of other ldoIi,wo«Id cvily fcshloii 
another toodi as mhrtitttte for Chat which had heca destroyed, and woold 
pay it tho saaso ▼eneratio^ s while so great asom of aioney woold hM heea 
a sahatsatiat henefit to the sUte mits present need. To soothe the VWeroy, 
and servo as a measorial of U^s erent, tho occlcaiaelici hsd a shield prepsred, 
fasTing In tho centre a paintinf representing himself and the Archhishop 
at a tahle, aronnd which were the other preiates and clergy who Uul heen 
aetnally present on the oeession* snd In the midst a hUsing chaffer { whilo 
the heathen were standing hy holding in their hands hags of money which 
they threw npon the fire, with these Ayo letters, the initial of Conitantino'a 
naase, CCCCC; and nnderneath the worda C»a«/«n/i*iiv« cM ^idint 
ertmtnrit erutmtnMi : implying that Constantino, intent apon heaven,' despis- 
ed woridly treasures," &c. Do Conto, Xte 'Aa/erta da Imdim^ Dec. VII. 
B. 9. Cliap. XVII. On referring to a sahseqdent Tolame of t^ aamo 
history, I find that notwithttandbg its complete destruction as here record* 
ed, tills miracttlona tooth waa sold sobm yean afterirards to the king of 
Pegn, who celebrated its arri? al in his kingdom with extrarsgant festirsla 
snd rtjoicmgs !~J. W. L. 

(17) In iJke cenrtf ^ lAree A iemg Al.— This is the transcription of tho 
Sanscrit MankkyM, which signifies innnmerable and which is the fiij^t of tho 
ten great numbera explained by Foe to Indicate how boundless and inex* 
haustibla are the virtaes of the Boddhas, the acts of the Bodhisattwas, tho 
ocean of their desires, and infinite laws of mundane derelopments^^ Tlio 
Aiomkhjfm Is equiralent to a hundred quadrillions. " Asankhya signifies 
sn Infinite number ; with what propriety speak ye of three An^kkfOi T 
asks the Kim tho /an." ^'Beeauie," it is retorted, *' IToa ion signifies in- 
nmmerabU, and not wiiAamt number^' 

Sikya Muni led the life of a Bodhisattwa during three Atamkh^M. Tho 
first comprises the existence of three score and fifteen thousand Buddlias, 
(or three score and fifteen ages of the world, as a thousand Boddhas must 
appear In every age of the world) from Sakya, snmamed tlie ancteaf , to Ski 
khi Fot (Sikhi Buddha). In his earlier girths Sakya Muni waa a menu* 
facturer of tiles, and was named Ta Jtonamf mtaf • Sakya the eacienl hav* 
ing come to lodge with the tiler, the latter rendered him the triple serrioo 
of preparing him a seat of grass, of enlightening him with a lantern, and 
of giving him to drink. He worshipped Foe, and conceived the wish, if la 

* Hoa yen Jbiag, quoted in tho Saa tiaaf fa sea, B. XUII. p. 1& 

( 1 u ii i wiii i^^ m ^Awmt ^ftmv'w^mmmmmKmmmi^mmmmmii^^mm^^mtmmt 


time to come lie sliould beeome Foe, he tboold bear the name of hit gvest. 
HeDce be b now called Shp kirn wen. 

The lecond Atanikya begina with Ski kki Foe, and preeenta a snecession 
of aeTeoty*aix thonaand Baddbat, np to the advent of Jan teng Foe (Dipan* 
kaim Bnddba). When Jam iem§ Foe waa born, hia body ahone like a lamp ; 
and hence he took thia name on attaining Bnddhahood. Sakja, who waa 
then named Jom iaimg, preaented him with three lotna atalka ; he took off 
the deer akin with which be waa clad and placed it nnder the feet of the 
Buddha to protect them from the mod and apread ont hia hair npon the 
ground. For tbif Jtm iem§ aaid to him, " In ninety-one Kalpu thon ahalt 
beeome Bnddba and ahall be called Shf kirn wemJ' 

Finally the third Ai^niAya embracea the Uvea of aerenty-aeTen thonaand 
Boddbaa from /an iemg Foe to Pipko tki (Vipaayi), the firat of the aeren 
Bnddbaa generally named together, and to whom ioYocationa are coUectiTely 
■ddreaaed.*— C. L. 

(18) He spared moi ike marrow ^ hU komee.'^Tbeoo different acta of 
Sttya Mnni while yet a Bodhiaattwa, hare been detailed elsewhere. See 
particnlarly Chapa. IX. X. XI. 

Fnll particnlara of many of these fabniona CTenta, referred to Sakya*a 
anterior existences, may be fonnd in M. Schmidt'a Weiter tmd TAor, aa I 
have before intimated.*J. W. L. 

(19) 1497 jrtert ha»e e!apted.^Then ia too little agreement between the 
Tariona dates gif en by Fa bian, u well aa too little nniformity in hia man- 
ner of computation to enable na to establish any well determined point of 
departure in hia chronology. NcYcrtheleaa we may aee that be here 
reckona after the Chinese Bnddhic era most generally admitted (950 B. C.) 
which differs by nearly iiwa centuries from that of the Singhalese (543 B. C.) 
and according to which the year of the nirrina would correapond with 410 
A* D.y a date which Is also very certainly that of the abode of our traTcUer 
in Ceykm. A great religiona morement at that tamo agitated the country; 
the atmggle which enaned between Brihmanlam and Bnddhiam, and which 
ended, aomewhat later, in the orerthrow of the latter cult in the landa of ita 
birth, had not yet ezerdaed Ita baneful influence In Ceylon. On the con* 
trary , tUa laland preaented to nnhappy proaalytea» a nfuge from the Intoler- 
aaea of the Brahmana s and u happena In aueh easeay leal rodonbled with 
pevaeention. A learned prioat llrom the contincBl of India, aaased ihuiAk. 
pima, after ha?iag to a gnal eiEtc&t ranwed the teUgton of which he waa a 
Matone partlaaat had haidly left Ceylom to aproad tho dootiine beyoad tho 
Oangea ha Ata^ aad anMng the BnnBana» (Grawibffd^ Easbaa^ to Ava» 

* nianlaitielMeyi,ciiedinlhoAmlianff/aain»B>ULp.Sli 

550 ra^AlMAOK OF FA IlIAK* 


CWH if M^Upi b»kw— CiWMtfioo»f tilt body of a 8 ai aM a i .»P<itMiy <f 


At lefcn /t to the aontk of the town, there is a ehapel called 
Ifo kppikpla,* where three thousand eedesiastics reside. There 
was there a Samanean of exalted Tirtne, one who obsenred the 
precepts with exactitnde, and lired in the greatest purity. The 
people of the country all beliered that he was an Arham. When 
his end was approaching, the king visited him, and in con/brmi- 
tj with the kw, assembled the ecclesiastics and asked thenrif the 
mendicant had obtained the doctrine. They answered, that in 
reality he was an Jrhatu When he was dead, the king, ffsTing 
consolted the rituals and the sacred books, conducted his funeral 
as beseemed an Arhan. To the east of the chapel, at the dis- 
tance of four or fixt /i, they piled up wood upon a space ofabout 
three ehanp, and to the same height ; abore it they placed sandal- 
wood, the essence of aloe-wood, and all sorts of odoriferous 
woods. On the four sides they made steps, and covered the 
whole with a beautiful tissue of very pure white wooL On 
this pQe they raised a bed similar to a funeral car, but without 
loun^ iu. At the instant of the ske wet,,* the king and th| four 
castes of the inhabitants of the country unitedly offered up 
flowers and perfumes. When the car was brought to the place 
of sepulture, the king himself oflfered flowers and pei;|rumes. 
This oblation ended, they placed the car upon the pile which 
was sprinkled all over with storax, and applied fire. Whilst 
it burnt, every one had his heart filled with recollections ; every 
one, having taken off his upper garments, waved from afar a 
kind of parasol of feathers* to assist the sAe weh When the 
Mhe wel was finished, they sought for and collected together the 
bonesy and erected a tcwer over them. Fa hian on his arrival 


fooud not tliis Samanean alive ; he was able only to assist at his 

The king firmly believes in the Law of Foe. As he was desirous 
of building a new chapel for the ecclesiastics^ he began by giving 
these a ^rand entertainment. After they had eaten, he selected 
two fine field*oxen whose horns he ornamented with gold, and . 
silver, and precious things. They made a beautiful plough* of 
gold, and the king himself ploughed the four sides of an arpent / 
and when he had disseized himself of it, he gave them its inha« 
bitants, its families, its fields and its houses. He wrote the deed 
upon iron, importing that now and from generation to generation, 
this property should be transmitted without any one daring to 
alter or to change it. 

Whilst Fa hian was in these parts he heard the Clergy of 
Reason declare from a lofty throne where they read the Sacred 
Books, that the pot of Foe was at first at Phi she it* and that it has 
now been nearly some 1 100 years, at Eian tho wef (Fa hian when 
he heard this discourse knew precisely the number of years, but 
now he has forgotten it). It must return to the kingdom of the 
western Fue fi.' At the end of eleven hundred years it will go to 
the kingdom of Fic ikian,* and will there remain deven hundred 
years. Thence it will go to the kingdom of Khiu f^«e.** \ After 
eleven hundred years it must go anew to the Countr}^ of Han for 
eleven hundred years ; then it will return to the Kingdom of 
LUm». After eleven hundred years it will return to Mid-India* 
From Mid-India it will rise to tlie heaven Teoii tAoicJ' When 
3/1 h pkoM M** shall behold it, he wUl exclaim, sighing, •« The pot 
of Sky liu wen Foe hath comeT' Then, with all the gods, he 
will offer it flowers and perfumes for seven days. The seven 
days expired, the pot will return to Tmn feem iki. The king of 
the sea-dragons will take it to bis dragon*palaoe. When Aft le 
shall be on the eve of completing the law, the pot, divided into 
four (parts), will return to its original place on mount Pkim mi. 
Miie having aeeompUshed the law, the four kings of heaven shall 
aseditato afresh oa Fos^ conlbmaUj to the law of antocedtnt- 
2 ■ 3 

352 piMimniAOB op wa hiait. 

Foes. TIm dMNnaiid Foes of tfieAgeortbe8i8et*'aliaU an 
make use of Uut pot. What the pot shall be no sbok, the 
kw of Foe wffl be inseiittbly ei^tingoished. IHien the hwof 
Foe is extinct^ the age of num shall become agam abort, so thit 
its dufmtioii shall be no morethan from five to ten jean. Bice 
and batter will disappear. Men, become eztremelj wicked, will ami 
themsdres with dabs that shall become swords ; each will attack 
the other, and they shall fight and kill each other. There iball 
be amongst their nomber some so fortunate as to escape, and fl j 
to the mountains. When the destruction of the wicked shall be 
. complete, these men shall come forth and re-app«ar, saying to 
each other, ** They of the olden time liTcd long ; but they com- 
mitted ereiy kind of wickedness and transgressed the law ; and 
therefore hath our life been gradually abridged and reduced to (en 
years. Let us now do that which is right : let us raise cor 
penitent hearts to charity, and coltiTste deeds of humanity and 
justice. Each thus exhibiting faith and justice, the duration of 
our lives will increase and reach to four score thousand years.*' 
When Mi ie shall appear in the world, and shall begin to turn 
the wheel of the doctrine, he shall first conTcrt the disciples 
adhering fiuthfully to the law otSAy kia, men out of their homes/* 
those who shall hsTO received the three JTovel** and the five pre- 
cepts,'* and those who shall have kept the law, and observed the 
worship of the three preeiaue anee. The second and the third 
converted in this order, are the proteg^ of Foe. Fa hian would 
that instant have copied the book which contained this, but the 
people said, ''This is not written ; we know it by oral tradition." 


(1) Cktgtel ^ M0k0pik0 lo.—Tbis !• tlM Santerit word Mmhitikdrm, 
the great temple, or rathtr tlie great aioiiasteiy— for aeeordiag to thO defini- 
nitioB fiTen bj Mr. Upham (Hist, and Doct. of Bnddhisn, p. 19) tihira 
doea not properly mean a temple, bat a habitation of monks with a chapel; 
ealled by the Chineae Smf kim hm. Fa hian has it all to himielf here ; 
Hinatf thsang makes no mention of this bnUdinf . 

(2) At the momeii/ ^ the «A« vei.— She wei is a J'ten word which it is 
imposnble to restore with certainty, either becaoK the transeription is 

I m\mm \\wm\%A m 


formed fai a mauMr loo Irragvlar, or boeaow UbM long ftlle& bto ditoie.« 
Tbt Am Um^/a mm, (B. V. p. 3,) oxplaiBS it bf /em «iU#» to eoBtnmey to 
bum, the act of boning. It amj bo tho tnuiMripUoo of Ibo two tot ijUobtet 
of ^AoMiitto, theofoaotioiiofobodj, Tbo «AtiMi is one of tho>bor •#/»«/• 
iurm, tbot of flro. Tbo othon oro tbat of water, tbat of oartb, and tbaw of 
«MOStS.t— C. L. 

(3) Pmrm^if^ffhUkirt^^U Cejioa Ibo faa-Uko lea?ea of tbe Mmyra 
tree (Beroenif /MeUVkrmii) are to tbie day aeed ae paraeole i and it ia 
peraape to an iakiutioo of tbeee* Ceraed of featbere, tbat ov pilgriaA bero 
aUadee.-^. W. L. 

(4) Tbe eeionooy beio described by Fa blaa ie preoieely tbat adopted by 
Deweaaopiyatieto on foundiog tbe Mtbawlbaro. Tbe details are giYen at 
lengtb in tbe Afteentb Cbapter of tbe Msbawenso, to wbieb work I mnet 
refer tbe reader for many iUostrations of Fa luan's aceonnt of Ceylon* 
wbicb want of space eompeb me to onsit bare.— J. W. L. 

(5.) An mpmi.^A meesose of land eontaing 100 perebes of 18 ft. eacb. 

(6)F<#A«li.-VsitalL (See Cbapt. XXV. note 2.) 

(7) JRmm tk^ tMu— Tbis conntry, nemed alio Kuoi lAo avnd Ktm ik9 ls» 
ia Gandhara (8ee Cbap. X. note).— According to tbe Aceonnt of Western 
Conntriee, it is sitnated to tbe west of Udyina, and was nsmd at Arst l> 
jrAo Is/ toot being enbjected by tbe l> Ma (Getos) it ebenged iU nssM. 
Udy<ne end Kandaber are tbe conntriea of nortbem India wbicb in tbe tisso 
of Fa biaapresenred BMWt of tbe important trsdttions of Bnddbismibnttbeir 
neigbborbood to oecb otber, and tbe demsrcetion eo dtAcnlt to establiab 
aasong ao many petty sUtes alwaya at war witb eacb otberand alternately 
eonqnering and oonqnered, occation eonsetiasea slight discrspsaciee if not in 
tbe site jf tbopartienlar eeenea of Foe's aetionstat lesst in tbe predae deter- 
asinatir'n of tbe kingdoesa to wbicb tb^ belonged. It b tbaa tbat asaay 
asesBorablo drcnmstancee narrated by Fa bian and Hinan tbsang ee bovfaig 
o een r r ed in Udydna, aMy* aeeordingto otber travellera, bate taken place in 
Ksndsbar and viae Torsd, witbont any lair gconad of aeeasing tbasa narra- 
tifea of oontrsdiction to oaeb otber. 

At tbe commenoeasent of tbe fttb oentary two Cbineea.Baddbist monks* 
^ooaf ymi Ise and £M asaf » cease to Gendbara, impoUod by tbo bsbm 
aMdfea wUeb aatnatad Fb bian a oaatwy aarUsr. Tba aarratifo tbey 
hafo given deaarvoa as aondiy aoeonnte to be oompared witb tLat of tbo 
FooXonakL At te timo of thair aifttal tbo oonntry bad been at war 
siitb teKbipin m te tnastiaA of te bovdariaa of tto t^ 

• Fa«enaneAMiiln.oioladiBlboAn«witf/B«NbB«XIX«f«14f* 
tFian7lta.ll.LiZkLafl. — ^'-^ 

• ■fltYfPbti 

S54 mjORntAOx or fa hiak. 

ntkingma«railt7nnl,MigMiiif teBi«rdirMi4 Mm4, a aUbtHtt cr 
te tiM law cf Voa» a worshipper of gwH, aod dopmtoit ontMj oa bii own 
otreagtli and co«n«o. Ro had wfoa bwidrod war tlaplMBtt» OMk BMaBtiiiff 
tea BMO arMod with twordi aad hneet, aad to tha traak of aadi otophaat 
WM aAiad a Mbio to Mnita th« antmj, Tho king eoafUntlj dwelt oa the 
froatiani la the midft of the BMraataiait eo that the people eaffered greatlj, 
and their f«Bulice marmared. Sovng jaa joiaed the cemp to dethrcr the 
fanperial letter. The kiag received it leated. • * • Souag job eaid to 
hia, ** Of BUMmtaios, eoaie are high ead othen low i amoag mren toaie 
ore greet aad othen email t aad to io the world there are eialled men and 
there are hamUe oaee. The Yo tha aad the king of Oa chang both reeei? ed 
the Imperial misiifo with reapect i how hath tho great king alono reeelvcd it 
otherwiae ?" The king replied, ** Were I to tee In penon the great king of 
the Wei, I wonld salaU him ; bat what ia there anrpriaing in that I ahoald 
peraae hia lettera aeated ? When men receive a letter fkom father or mother, 
they r*>ad it aeated ; the Lord of the Wci ia father and mother to me ; and 1 
read hia letter alfo aeated. In thia, what ia there contrary to propriety ?'* 
Yon coald not more blm from thia * • • 

Alter Joarneying fire daya to the wcat, the trarellera reached the place 
where Joa Ul made an alma.gilt of hia head ; in that place there waa a tower 
inhabited by twenty monks. According to Fa hian thia took place in tho 
kingdom of CAm ihm ti l» (Chap. XI.), aitoated aeren daya' ionmey to the 
east of Kian tho wei, which doabtlcas no longer existed u an independent 
kingdom in the time of Sonng ynn'a Jonmey. Three daya farther joarney 
to tha west ia the river 6ou ikamt on the weatcm bank of which ia the place 
where Joa lai, having aasamed the form of the fish. Ma kit! (Makara ?) 
came oat of the river and dnriog twelve jeara fed men on hia flesh. A 
tower was erected in memory of thia event, and the impreeakm of the scales 
of a fish are atiU to be aeen apon a rock. ^ 

Farther west, three day's joamey, yoa come to thb town of #he tka ybw. 
There are boih within and withoot this town, ancient templee for which 
devotees have peealiar veaeration. One if north of the town ie the palace 
of the white elephant. It is a temple dedicated to Foe. It is adorned 
with statues of stone covered with precions omsments t these have many 
heada to each body and are covered with leavea of gold which daszle the 
eyea. Ia froat of the temple is the tree of tho white elephant. Its fiowera 
and leaves roicmble those of the jiiyabe tree ; it beara frait at the close of 
winter. OU men repeat from tradition, that when thia tree shall die, tl*o 
law of Foe will die also. * * • 

At one day's journey farther west is the spot where Jon lal tore oat aa 




eye to present it to a man. (See Chap. X.) A tower and a temple have 
been there erected. On a stone b the impress of the foot of Kia she Foe. 

Continning Ihrther west 8onng ynn arrives at the town of K^m iko to i 
seren ii to the sonth^east of wliich is the /con /on, built by l[ing Kia at ue 
kia, and which mnat be the same edillee which Fa hian places In Beta- 
ehistan. (Fh /eon sAa, that is, PamcA^nra, P€9kmnar.^4. W. L.) 
(Chap. XII.) The legend regarding the .king Kia ni sse kia is related 
in prettj nearly the same terms by these two trsTellers and Hinan thsang,** 
who concurs with 8onng ynn in stating that this temple is in Kandahar. 
Both dwell, npon its magnificence. '* Amongst toe Ffou thou of western 
coontries/' says Sonng ynn, '* this is the first. Wlien they began to 
build it, they used pearls to form the trellis work destined to cover it. But 
some years after, the king, obserring that this tissue of pesrls beiag worth 
more than ten thonsand pieces of gold, feared thst after hia death It might 
be abstracted, and that if the great tower should fall, no one would seek to 
restore it, took down the pearl tissue lattice, and placed it in a copper f ase, 
which he caused to be buried one hundred paces north-west of the tower ; 
and OTer it he planted a tree. This tree is named PAo Ml / Its branches 
spread out on all sides and its foliage shuts out the sight of the sky. Be* 
neath It are four seated statues, each Ave toises high.'' 

Proceeding seren dsys' journey further north, and psssiag a great rlter, 
you arrive at the place where Jou lal released the pigeon. According to 
Fa hian it was in the country called ^e Ao fe that the Bodhisattwa aceom« 
pushed this act of charity. (Chap. IX.) Sonng yan knew not this name, 
which had probably disappeared with the little state to which it belonged. 

On leaving this point, the travellers neglect to note the distances as well 
u the direction of their march. They snive sncoesslvely la the kingdom of 
Km kU h Ao, which b Mentbal with Nm Me, placed by 7b hian aUteen 
yoJaoM west of F^ Isen # Aa. (Chap. XII.) In thtt plaoe was the sknU-bone 
of Foo. It was four Inches In drenmfereneet and of a yeUowlsh*white i 
bebw was a cavity which might receive a nma's thumb, lesembUag a bee's 
hive. In the town b the tempb Khi Ao Ian, where there are thirteen frag* 
■sanU eC the JTia aAa (ssaatla) of Foe. It b probably the chapel of tte 
SmkgkUU mentioned hi the Foo koue kL Then b also the brasa staff of 
Foe, seven eAanf In length (about SI metrss) b b washed with tubes filled 
withwatcr. It b entirely eovered with leaves of gold. The weight of thb 
staff varbsi thosn are ttasea whan b b so heavy that a hundred saen cannot 
ffibabi again« at other tisBes,ttb so light that a singb asan saay carry b 
Inte MMloini mabo the tooth and tha hrir orFbe; theai 
• Fbnilbn,B.LXimait.7,F.U 

5M mmnuBM or pa mum. 


Atjahil»l»lM»ftllMipM«teteMWlite»iite MMtTtei 
•flb«. WWai— iJgggUitihidirliaMiMttyptwrfydliWKaai 

tlw teiki MtUBf BMN k islft tiMi tlw Hmw widL On 
gruAnlljIlwfgwtvMppcwt. It fa c— •#!!» »oit rif l>r tfcfam ia ttw 
world, hfipoalof tlw HoMtlMrafaftiqawvitoMMiwhbbfaftfrlrter 
tb« ImI if Foe. At ft Inuidrad poooi tooth-woH of tbo ooto fa tbo opot 
whofo Foo wMbod hfa dothcti and mm A Borth-oool fa tlw coto oT Mmt 
Um. Totbonortliorthfaaifeba«owitafaiattbofaololwUchfaa greot 
tOBpfa with a F€9m lAon tea toboo bifki There are etiU bcvob othertowere, 
to theeovth of wUeh there fa e etone with as laaeriptfaa said to he aiade bj 
the header Jo« fai hfaiieirt and whfah fa atiU very weU mdentood.* 

On eoaipariaK the abofo with the aarrative of Pa hiaa» It will he eoca 
tfuit they do aot differ froot eeeh other hi aaj eueatiel poiat, aad that the 
foTBor eoatalao ioaM parttmlare of which the other travdler eeeau to have 
heealfaoraat* or to hate aegleeted to leeord* Of thete fa the eerioaa 
traditloa OMribhig to Ukjm Tatbdf atha the faMcriptiea here a iea tl e ae d. 
As to what refere to the pot of Foe, Uioaa thsaag relatca that alter kho 
ainrdna It waa la Aiaa lAe wet, whero It Wee worahipped for eeveral eea* 
taifaei hot that It oahieqaeBtlj peaied fato ▼arioeia UagdoaM, aad waa at 
that tfaM hi Feraia.|— C. L. 

(8) Tk€ mmmm Ym Kv—Ilieee are the great Yae ti, who, diitca to ttM 
weatward, ftrrt by the aortbera Uioaof , aad thea by the Oeeaa, qoitted 
the 1\y^;at where they led a waaderiaf lifot aad becoaiiac BBaatera of Traa- 
aesaafa, foaaded there aa eaiphre, loaf powerfal, aad esteaded their eoa* 
qaeeU to Cabal, Kaadahar, aaa the eoaotciee eliaated ea both haaha of 
the lodaa. 8ee aote 9 to Chap/XII.— C. L. 

(9) TAe kimgimm ^ Yu aiea.^KhoUB. See Chap. III. 

(10) IWe At»^<le« ^ JTAta fA«e.— M. Reaiaaat thoaght that Ihfa ooaatry 
sight he that of Bcihbelik ; auy aot rather JTealdfa, whidi wee OMreof or 
a pert of Beibbalik, be asore particoUrly indicated here ?— C L. 

(11) 2«eir«eeea T^mi eJfaa^TWilifa hi Saaaerit. Itfa the ibaithof 
the lis heaweae eltaated oae abore aoothar aad eonititatiaf the world of 
deeiree. It fa there that beiage arrited at the etaU lauaedfately prseadiag 
that of abeofarte perfectioa, that fa to wy, that of Bodhiaattwa* await the 
■MBieat of their retara to the earth ia the character of Baddhaa.— C. L. 

(12) m hFiam9m^^^UitM9f, Baddha. See aote B, Chop. VL 

* Pfaa j tfaa, B.IJUII.ert*7,p.7. v. 

■^INpaeaBwi ij i i i Hin iai Ntj H ii oi nen ti muu i— *%^—i^ w m \ pi mm^mmmmmmmimtmm^ 


(U) rif #^f t^«^,— Ib Santerit Bteirc il«(pM. It !• the present agt 
in wbicli we live, and one of thoee peiiodt ■ssig'ied for the fonnetkm» eon- 
tlnnaneet end destmetton of the world. It it to Utt 236 millioni of yetn« 
of which 151,200,000 hafe already elapaed, »nd daring which one thon» 
aand Baddhai mntt meoeniTely appear for the lalvatioB all creaturet. There 
hare already appeared bat foor of theae, and the life of man ia on the 
decrease, seehif that fironi 84,000 yean it is redoeed to 100. Calamitiea 
ot different kinds successively overtake all parte of the oniTcrse. When 
the age of man shall hare decreased to 30 years, the rala of heaven ahall 
eease ; the drongat which shall sooceed will prevent the rcprodnstion of 
planta and vegetables ; there will be no more water and an immense nnmber 
of men will die* When the life of man ia farther redoeed to twenty yeara, 
epidemics and all kinds of sickness shall arise, and carry off an iniiaity of 
victims. Finally when the average of life shall be bat 10 years, man shall 
be ^ven vp to strife and war. Trees and plants even shall beeom^ weapons 
in their hands, and be the means of mntoal destraetioB» so that Immense 
iinmbers shall perish thns. Then, aeeording to the trsditloB pr s s e r ve d hf 
Fahiaat Iflle (SHaitrqra) shaU appear ia the efaaracter of Bnddhnto n. 
generate the world; aadte lilii of maa shaU be estMkM onoe mon lo 
80,000 years.-*a I.. 

(14) Mimntt^fikiir Aemit.— This tipnwion', at wo have often ietSi 
faBpUss men who have adopted reUgioos life and who Uvt In eoUtade. 

(1ft) Tkt ikm JTentt; See Chap. XXXVI. note 7. 

(18) Tk§^pr9t9pt$. See Chap. XVI. note 12. 



Departure from the Kingdom of Lions.— Kingdom of Ye pho tL— Lao moantain 
—Town of Thsing eheou.— Return to Chbaag an.— Conclutioa. 

Fa hiaQ sojourned two jears in this kin^om. He there sought 
for and obtained the Tolnme which contains the precepts of Jfs' 9ka 
<f . He obtained the long A kat% and the miscelhneous A kam s 
at length he had a concction of the dtfiTerent Tuu^.^ all of them 
books whidi were wanting in the hmd of Han. When in pos* 
session of these Tolnmes in the fim language^ he placed them 
aboaid a large trading ^rcssel capable of accommodating 

958 • PltfiRlMAQB or PA HIAN* 

tbaii hvo hradrad dim. Attem wat fiutened « fmall Vctiel to 
pvoridA agriott IIm dugera of a set Toyage^ and uijiirjr to the 
laiger oaa. With a faTorable wind the^ proeeedcd eatterij for 
two dayi^ when they were OTertaken bj a hurricane. The ship 
took in water, and the merchants were anxious to board the 
small Tcssel ; but the crew of the latter, fearful of orerloading her, 
cut the cable. The merdiants were extremely alarmed for their 
lives^ and, expecting every moment that the vessel would go to 
the bottom, they took the heariest objects and cast them into 
the sea. Fa hian worked with the crew in pumping out the 
water ; all that was superfluous of his own he, too, threw into 
the sea But he dreaded lest the merchants would cast over 
board his books and his images! His sole resource was then to 
pray Kcuan ski ta,' to allow all the ecclesiastics to return alive to 
the land of Han. ** As for me, said he, I undertook tliis distant 
journey to seek for the Law; I trust to the gods to protect this 
ship and enable me to reach the haven.'* 

The hurricane having lasted thirteen days and thirteen nights, 
they came to the shore of an island ; and when the tide had ebbed, 
havmg discovered the place of the leak, they stopped it up, and 
again put to sea. There are many pirates there, from whom 
when taken there is no escape. The sea was vast, immense, shore- 
less ; neither the east nor the west were known ; the course was re» 
gulated by the sun, the moon, and the stars.* When the weather 
was cloudy or rainy, there was no help but follow the wind. During 
the night when the weather was dark, they saw nothmg but huge 
waves dashing against each other, fire-coloured lightnings, tortoises, 
crocodiles, sea*monsters, and other prodigies. The merchants 
were much troubled, as they knew not whither they were drifting. 
The sea was bottomless, and there was not even a rock at which 
they could stop. When the sky had become serene, they then 
knew to steer easterly, and tliey proceeded afresh on their route ; 
but had they come upon any bidden rock there was no means of 
sariiig their lives. Thus was it with them for ninety days, when 
they arrived m the kingdom of Vepko iki.^ Heretics and BriJi- 



mans are nameroas there, and there the law of Foe b in no wise 

A(ler a sojourn of six months in this kingdom* Fa hian pro* 
ceeded anew with certain merchants in a Urge ressel capahle of 
holding two hundred men. They took with them provisions for 
fifty days. They set sail on the sixteenth day of the fourth 
moon. Fa hian was very happy aboard this vessel They 
proceeded north-east towards Kouang eheou.* At the end of 
about a month they encountered a frightful wind, and violent 
rain. The merchants and the passengers were equally alarmed. 
Fa hian at this juncture prayed with all his heart to Kouan tAi in, 
as did all the ecclesiastics of the land of Han, beseeching the gods 
to succour them and to calm the heavens. l¥hen calm was restor« 
edy the Br6hmans took counsel among themselves, and said, ** It 
is the presence of this Samanean on board that has drawn down 
upon us this calamity ; we must land this mendicant upon the 
shore of some island of the sea. It must not be that for one 
man we be all exposed to such danger.'* The chief benefactor* 
of Fa hian said, ** If you set ashore thb Samanean, I will de- 
nounce you to the king on our arrival in the land of Han. The 
king of the land of Han is himself an adherent of the law of 
Foe ; he reveres mendicants and ecclesiastics.*' The merchants 
hesitating, dared not to set him ashore. Still the sky was very 
threatening ; the pilots mutually lookM at each other, and were 
greatly embarrassed. They had now been seventy days on 
the passage. Provisions and water were exhausted ; they used 
salt water for c joking and they divided the fresh water ; each 
person had two MnpJ' As it was drawing towards iU end, the 
merchanU took counsel together and saidy **The time (cakuUt* 
ed)'for thia long passage may be fifty days to reach K^ummg 
ehmmi now many days have elapsed since that term was pasa* 
ed; our resoarees are expended; it were better for ua to steer 
to the Borth-wcat in quest of land.'* 

In twdve days and aighta thcj arrived at tlie aouth of the 
\ L^ aitoatcd on the oonfinet of GIUciv ^(•^^'V fi»^f 


and finmiA tlicre (ircsh water and TCgetebks. AAcr lo peril* 
om a mrigatioi^ after lo manj fiittgnea and apprehennons for 
•0 many dayi^ when ihtj went ashore and beheld the phnt 
Li Jb tJk$au the^ Torfly beliered thcj were in the knd of Han! 
StiU they saw neither inhahitanU nor traces of nian« and they 
knew not in what pUee they were. Some said that they were 
not yet at Kcmang cheam / others that they had passed it ; none 
knew what to determine upon. They went bto a little boat to 
enter the month of the river, in order te find some one of whom 
to enquire of the place at which they had arrived. They fouud 
two hunters returning home, and directed Fa hian to act as inter- 
preter and interrogate them. Fa hian began by encouraging 
them ; he then asked, ** What people are you?" They answered, 
•* We are adhereute of Foe." He asked agun, ** What went 
ye in quest of in the hills f" They answered us deceitfully, 
'* To-morrow is the 15lh day of the seventh moon ; we sought 
for something to offer in sacrifice to Foe." He asked again 
"What kiogdom is thisT* They answered " It is Tksing eheou,''' 
on the confines of Ckhanj kouam kiun which belongs to the 
family of the Ideou.** The merchante having heard this were 
greatly rejoiced ; they demanded their merchandise immediately, 
and sent some que to Chhang komang. Li yng^ who was governor 
there, and believed in and honored the law of Foe, learning that 
there were Samaneans aboard with books and images, entered a 
boat and came out to the sea ; he then sent people beforehand, to 
the shore, and having received the books and the images, returned 
to the town. The merchante set out for Tang cAeoK." The 
people of Tksing ekeou, who are under the dominion of the 
LieoM, invited Fa hian to remain a winter and a summer. At 
the end of the summer's rest," Fa hian left his masters. He 
longed ardently to see Chhang 'an again ; but that which he had 
at heart being a weighty matter, he halted in the south, where 
the masters published the Sacred Books and the Precepts. 

Fa hian, after leaving Chhang *an,^ was six years in reaching 
the Kingdom of the 3liddle : he sojourned there sis years ; and took 


another three in returning to Thting eheou. The kingdoms 
which he tniTersed aniount to the number of at least thirty. 
After passing the River of Sand in the west, he arrived in India. 
The decency, the gratity, the piety of the clergy are admirable ; 
they cannot be described. The present is a mere summary : not 
haring been hitherto heard by the masters, he casts not his eyes 
retrospectively on details. He crossed the sea, and hath returned 
after having overcome every manner of fatigue, and has enjoyed 
the happiness of receivmg many high and noble fiivors. He has 
been in dangers and has escaped them ; and now therefore he 
puts upon the bambu** what has happened to him, anxious to 
communicate to the wise what he hath seen and heard. 

This year Kya yii, the twelfth of the years / yc'* of the TmU^ 
being the year of the star of longevity, at the end of the sum- 
mer rest they went out to meet Pa hian the traveller.*' On his 
arrival, they detained him to pass the festivals of the winter. 
They discoursed with him ; they interrogated him on his travels. 
His good faith lent confidence to his recitals ; so that what was 
known but imperfectly before, was now better explained. He 
hath set in order the beginning and the end. He himself said, 
" In recapttuhting what I have experienced, my heart is mvolun* 
tarily moved. The sweat that hath flowed in my perils, is not 
the cause of present emotion. Tliis body hath been preserved 
by the sentiments which animated me. It was the end that in-^ 
duced me to hasard my life in countries where there is no cer* 
tainty of iu preservatbn, and to attain that at every risk was the 
object of my hopes.** 

They were touched with these words ; they were touched to be« 
liold such a man : they observed among themselves^ that a veiy 
few had indeed expatriated themselves for the sake of the Doctrine ; 
but no one had ever forgotten self in quest of the law as Fa hiaa 
had done. One must kuow the eonvietion which truth produces, 
otherwise one cannot partake of the seal which produces earnest* 
Beaa. Without meritand without activity nothing is achieved. 
On aceomplisliing aug^t with merit and activity, how shall osebt 
2 I 

S63 numiMAOB op wa buk. 

•haniio— d to oUifioii? To lose wbat it MtMmed— to eiteem 
what ounkind foiget»-*oh ! 


(1) A eoU§emm ^ ik9 JF/Wmtf ^Nraf. ~-Fdr expbaatiMM 9i lh« prt« 
MpU of jm dltf M, Um few A Ami (AgSma) nd viriovt oUicr works ooa* 
prised midar tlw tidt 2V«f (eollMtioii), toe CiMp. XXXTL mIm 10 and 

(2) Kmum M io.— Avatokiteswan* • weU-knows pcfMoift ia Boddhie 
■lytbologj. (See Chap. XVI. note SO.) Fa Uan, la hU distress, iavokcs biai 
u the god whose power is exercised oferanioMtod erealiires, who* acoording 
to the theological sjstess developed by Mr. Hodgson, owe to hiu their 
origin, u the cfcstlon of the different mansions composing the material 
world is considered the work of Maajnjri. Buddhists have consecrated to 
Keium M In one of the ten consecntive days into wUch each month is 
dirided, namely the 24th. On thia day the fonr kings of the gods descend 
among mortals to weigh their good and evil actUuia. By pronoandng the 
Basse JTotMn sAi te PAon ut, all sorrows an estingvished and all virtue 
aonrished and eaUrged.*— C. L. 

(3) Tkiir CQune wot rtgulttitd Ajr /Af tiin, moon, end «/arff.<— This im* 
poYtant passage would lead us to infer that the mariner's compass was 
nnknown, even in China, at the time of Pa hian, who otiierwise would 
aearody have omitted some reference to that instrument in speaking of hia 
perilous situation in this hurricane. Chinese writers refer this invention, 
some to the fsbulous ages of their history, others to the reign of Ckiug 
Wam§ of the CAem dynssty, that ia 1121—1114 B. C. It u ranarkable, 
however, that Marco Polo mskea no mention of the compass, the use of 
which was wholly unknown in Europe at the time of ids travels.— J. W. L. 

(4) A kingdom mamtdVepko fi,— Keee ilvipe.— This b the first mention 
of the Island of Java found in Chinese authors ; but it was not till some 
years after the return of Fa hian that they possessed detaila of its geogra* 
phical portion, of the productions of its soil and the manners of itt inhnbi* 
tants. An embsssy which the king of this country despatclied to the em- 
peror of China in the twelfth year iraen Aie (436) under the dynasty of the 
SQunff, originated that intercourse which, occasional at first and interrupted 
by long intervals, increased towards the middle of the 10th century in con- 
sequence of cstablithments formed there by the Chinese. Those who were 
settled there were called Tamg, from the natLO of the dynasty under which 

* /a yourn elmL Un, quoted in the 5sn ttangfm mm, U. XLII. p 3. 

CH.%FTBII XL* 303 

iKii eoloBitation wm elTccted. It was aboat this time that they adopted tlie 
fora CkepAp to represent tlie name Java ; a tranaeription which preraiM 
for a long tine. Under the dominion of the Mongola, tereral military 
expeditiona were aent againat the Javaneae, whoae country tlicn received the 
name of K9um wm (' aonnd of gourd') which wai giTcn In conaeqnence of the 
reaemblanee obienred between the Toice of the inbabitanta and that of a 
gonrd when atrnek. Laatly, modem annalista and geographert hare appli- 
ed to Java the namea peculiar to other islands and diatricta aitnated in its 
neighbourhood, or dependent npon it. Such ia that of Pew kiM lonng which 
belongs to an iale (tlorjeo ?) aaid to be eight daya sail from CAe ph9 ; aad 
iriee /lean |m, which ia perhapa the province of Sheri hon in the Ule of 
Java itself. The 9«» iuU lew Aoei, quoted in the Japanese Eneyclopcdia» 
aays: ** Pom kim httnf, Tuekepk; and JToiin irc are three diatinet king* 
dome I formerly they eonstitnted but one.* 

The number and variety of ancient monumenta found in Java have led to 
the belief that thia laland waa colonised by diiferent people of the con- 
tinent of Aaia t but the religion, institutions, and literature of Hiadustan 
do not appear to have been generally ditfuMd in thia island till towarda the 
middle of the 9th Century, and it ia only from thia era that any dependence 
can be placed in the traditiona of the Japaneae. All that precedea it ia con* 
fused, obscure, contradictory, and interpolated with the fabulous and heroio 
history of continental India. The sectaries of Buddha, rfpelled by the 
Br&hmana to the extremitiea of Asia and to the adjacent isles, took refuge 
in Java aa they did in Ceylon, Ave, and Siam ; but it ia probable that if 
Buddhism waa not generally diffused there till about thia period, it was at 
•II eventa introduced earlier. It is seen from Fa bian'a account that at the 
beginning of the &th century that religion nnnoered there neither many 
proaelytea, nor important monumenta } BriUimanbm predomlaLted there. 
Aeeording to a description of Java written in Chbeae and which fonaa part of 
the precioua library left by M. Klaproth, we muat assign to the introduction 
of Buddhism la thia island a date much older than Ia usually suppoaed. It 
waa la the reign of the emperor Kwng wen H of the /Ten (from 24 to 57 
A. D.) that the aativea of On /• leu (India) croeeed the aea and went to 
Java. Having beheld the predoue thiaga produced esi thie ielaad, th^ 
•rranged with the inhaMtanta a traflte of oiehaage, and Introduced amoag 
themtheartof bnUdinghoneee, that of writh«. Mid te Law of Bnddhn.t 
In tnrtkhowovery the book froaawhlA wo aatracttheaepertieaiafa, printed 
at Brtatia and oompUed almoet entiioly from Boropeio aowotif ia Mt to 

* Kmeye. Jepen. B. XIV. pp. 10-13. 
f jnee liesn petteeng f«a, pb 56 v. 

2 I 2 


te takM M -Ml k i ffpf J cal avtiMrity. But Hm ^Mtetioa •ftlM mm of 
HwCtiMoplirfMtlMfeidfaMdllMid bMitiilMfhMiGUaewtttodi. How. 
•for impnoboUo tUi date mmj ipfmt^ mad bowovcr eoAtrodieliNrjrto tbo oar. 
ntifo of fkUn aad ■■eoB6raMd bf othor CblMM works* I Imvo doc»cd 
it rigfatloiMortlllMroiBordcrtoottroelthoatleBtioBofwMhaoiiodcttr. 
oos of tattiaf it* ootheoticitj by oonptriMNi with tho IrodltioM protcnrtd 
bf Raffles and Crawford. 

la tbo tOBM work tbo mmm of Jara is traaseribed CUa pm, and tbo 
aatbor states tbat tbis mmm was givoa to tbo eoaatrj by reosoa of tb« 
^aantitj of aiillot {p&miewm itMHemm) wbicb it prodaees. (Tbs Isle 
of Barley of Ptolemy.) He adds tbat tho Tba^ nasBod tbis kiagdosi JTiao 
lifoa p€t witboat knowiag tbe origin of tbis aamo wbieb is pccaliar to 
apartieiilar fecaKty, wbUo doo jw is tbo general aaaieof tbo wholo 
liland.*C. L. 

(5) Tbirardk JTeiia^f eftsoii.— Tbis Is tbe town aaawd Caatoa by Euro, 
pesas, tbe capital of tbo pvovinee of JTsaeaf f oaaf .— C. L. 
- (6) Tkt pHmdpta irafAiefer.— Itt Cbiaese fea yeatt. I eoBcar with 
M. Remasata ia tbe BManiag of tbis word borrowed lironi tbe Aa laagasge* 
■• given in an early part of tbis work. (See Chap. I. note 12.)— C. L. 

(7) 2ko fAraf .— Tbe 9Jdmg is tbe twentieth part of tbe t ill or Cbincfle 
bnshel, and its capaeitj is ealcalated to contain a bnndrcd and tweaty than, 
saad graias of millet.— C. L. 

(8) Xeo.— A moQtttaia ia tho district of Let eAeea /ht, ia 8hmi tommft 
on tbe borders of tbe sea. It is said to bo twenty U in height and to hare 
a cirenmfereace of eighty Ij. It extends thronghont tbe Peniasala, to the 
north of which it sitaated tbo present town oi T^ tm kimmt and is sixty li 
soatb.esst of this town. It is distiagaiihed iato tbe great and the small 
liso f Ann. These two HMnmtalns formerly fomwd bat one. Tbe rirer 
Ff eAa has its rise there.— C. L. 

(9) CUm§ komtmf Man.— Tbe prrsent town of >^ im eileoa, ia the 
departBMat of Lmi cAroayha of the Sktm feaaf , bore ander the Ant dynss* 
ty of tbe S9un$ tho nanw of Skmtkf ko%um§ kiwm^ which was changed by 
the Wei into that of 8ktmg Aeaasf Ataa, and ceased entirely to be ased 
ander tbe Sou.*— C. L. 

(10) TAftaf cilroa.— This is the present town of IM^f cke^/m in the 
Sktm /oaaf •-^. L. 

(11) Vmtf cAeea.— At the period when Fh bian wrote, the r«af eAeow 
comprised all Kum§ nan, a part of Henan and tbe northern angle of 
JQaay ri. At present Ylmtf cAtoa is no more than a departSMnt of tbe 

* Til Uimg y iMuif r&i, D. C VII. p. 7 r. f Ibid, p. 2. 


f roviaee of Kimg «•», wbieh agnin is but a dismeaibeniieiit of tlie eastern 
part of the andent Kimng wm. The present ymm§ eAcoa ii two bviulred /* 
Dorth-eatt of Kimtf nm§/9U (Nankbi) on the gftat eanal. Its position con<- 
sUtvtes it one of thenost eosBinereial towns In China, and the greater part 
of itr immense popnlation consists of traders. f—C* L* 

(12) Ai Me tnd ^f ik9 iwmmer retf.— For, ' tkit 9»j9um itimf eniferf.' 
This mode of speech which frequently recars In Fa hian has been explained 
elsewhere. (Chap. I. note 8.)— C. L. \ 

I think it very probable that the nrmater retl here spoken of, n the 
IF<(i«te, or period of sacred repose of the Buddhists, daring which priests 
were permitted and eren enjoined to abstain from pilgrimages and to devote 
tbemselTCs to stationary religions obaenrances. It began with the full moon 
of July, and ended with that of November, thus Indnding the whole of the 
rainy season. Fa hian mentions this rest elsewhere, and no doubt felt it 
inenmbent upon him to halt at the time enjoined by his religion. In addi« 
tion to what I have observed upon the subject of the festival of Jagaoath 
(pages 21 and 2C1), I may here mention that the Rev. Dr. Stevenson hat 
aaggctt«a,* that the Rath HUi may possibly be the remains of n triumphant 
mtry with which the sages were welcomed on returning from their peregrinn* 
tions to hold the Wasio.— J. W. L. 

(IS) CMrnv en; Otherwise SVmiJkm In Ckm ii, the nattfe country of 
Fa hian.— C. L. 

(14) iff kmUid in Mf senM.— That Is to say at Nanking, where he pub* 
lished the leligious books he had brought with him. TUs was the im. 
portent duty that Fa hian had Imposed upon himself before returning to hie 
native country.«-»C. L. 

(15) 09 kmik pui lymn fAe AemHi.— More eiactly AeeiHi i^feiM 
(cAen py). This eipresslon dcslgnatee the substance, or part of the bembu 
upon which men wrote before the invention of paper, whether thia waa done 
by engraving the characters with a style, or by tracing them with some 
kind of varnish i but It here refere to paper tho invention of which datee 
eeveral centuries before Fk hien. — C« L. 

(16) Tk€ iwffflk ^ih9 yenre /yl.— That Is, 414 A. D., the eighteenth 
year of the rslgn of ^A% ip. The efer ^fkm§fi9Uf (6A«e« 9lm$) Immmvli 
the twelve divisions of tho CUaese ndian ae It was flgured In the tf mea of 
the Han. It oomsponda with tho Belence. end thus indieetea tba tho 
year hid alraadyfMehtd tho tntuainaloquinoi.—C. U 

(17) JliMmliltlMeell^.«.Thtols tiM eoM txpraasta l«t /to, tirHidy 
Med it Omplw Vf. iriMi M. RMwal* had ttMHlated jn^M and wUeh 

• Joum. Royul Aiiilie SoeiHy, Vol VII. p. i, 


ofariM Uta 







i fj: !<■ rjMUL ^jH I J i L aiQ i M H 


A dM thi, 264, V%. 
A gama, 108, 129ff 9S8* 
Age of oMii, 1S7. 
Ahtti, 328, 357. 
Anbaiwli, 244. 
Amrrn tkjong ma, 244* 
Ammanat, river, 220* 
Anitabba, 21. 
Abhajagiri, 328, 342. 
AbUdbanna, 3. 
Ananila, 76. 
A nan tbo, 38. 
An chba, 148. 
A ncov tha, 38. 
Anga, 216. 
An BMm lo, 244. 
An pMO lo, 240, 244, 878* 
An tin, 82. 
A pi tban, 107. 
A po lo lo, 34. 
Arban, 33, 330. 
Aiankbya, 70. 33.'». 
A acttf ki. .H33. 346. 
A tby pbo sbi, 271. 
Aaoka, 28, 63, 66, 216. 
Aanra, 13.1. 
Asvapati, 81. 
Aawi^t, 271,314. 
Avalokatiawara, 113* 
A yn, 296. 2SW. 
Ayodbya, 169. 
A yn tbo, 198. 

Baibhar, 278. 
Babar, 263, 309. 

j^Bwa, 309. 
BcUwbfo, 73, 76. 

Beaarm, 310. 
Berna, 310. 
Bettiab, 240. 
Bb>idr«kfliNi.247, 3&7. 
Bhaglraihf. 2U3. 
Bhikiba, 58. 
Bbiksbanf.58, 110. 
Bbttvana, 34. 
Bithbalik, 336. 
Bimbas&ra, 217. 
Bindhaiilra, 217. 
Bodbi, 11. 
Bodbisattwa, 10. 
Bolor, 13, 38. 
Bonndaryof fire, 122. 
Brahma, 34. 70, 131. 
Bcabmana, 177. 
Brabmanism, 103. 103. 
Brahmaparipatya, 131. . 
Bukker, 98. 
BrabmaebarC, 68. 
Bnddba, 8. 
Boddbai, 160. 
Bttddbagaja, 282. 
BoddbiMn, 33, 42, 102, 106. 

Capiua, 89. 

Ca«tea, 178. 

Ceylon, 330, 336. 


CbBkkawatti, 130. 

Cbakra, 1.10. 

Cbakrararti, 29, 126. 


Cbandala, 104. 

Cbandragnpto, 217. 

Cbang ▼, 1, 3. 

Cbang bonang, 176. 

Cbang kbian, 36, 38. 

Cbaicoai, tower of, 221, 222, 224. 

Cben cbba lo, 99, 104. 

Cken po, 329. 

Cbbang an, 1, 8, 360. 

CbU bomm, 166, 171, 381, 384. 




Chi to, 171. 

Oftplna^ S3. 

Cock's iDol, 801, 3iS. 

Ch« kki plM» t4. 



Dtlider, 274. 

DukdUaa, Sit . 

Dmlada wahaMt. S44, 

Damgunot 29S. 

Dina. 5. 28, 70. 


Dasaratha, 217. 

Deer park, 308, SIO. 

Deva, 133. 

Dera Bodkiiattwa, 134, 

Oava dalU, 201, 278. 

Dhaanatbat, 105. 

Dharaaa, 304. 

Dharmakija, 181. 

Dharmaioka, 324. 

Dliarani, 108, 181, 185. 

Dkamavardbaiia, 63. 

Dbotodaaa, 177. 

Dhoadk, 248. 

Dhjina, 268. 

Dkj^na Bvddha, 118. 

Dipankara, 67. 

DirghlgaoM, 328. 

Doctrine, reviaioB of, 3, t42» 278^ 

DoQliU,t]ieAve, 133.. 

Dovldonri, 92. 

Dvlva, 3. 

Dragoiia,50, 121, 13S. 

EartkqMkei, 208. 
ElemcnU, tko Ave, 
Erranoboaa, 224. 
Esroun tigri, 132. 

Fa, 303. 

Faculties (sttpcmatwal), 123. 

Fa hian, 1, 2, pasiiai. 

Fa i, 64,85. 

Falgo, River, 282. 

Fan, 14, 120. 130, 329, 357. 

Fanhiag (Bnunaaie), 13. 

Fan Ian ma, 130, 134. 

Fan chi, 68. 

Fan chv, 207. 

Farghaaa, 39. 

Fei the, 177. 178. 

Fei the li, 242. 

Fen, the fonr, 328. 

fbo« Ikoa (BdUkn), SO, SO. 
Foe, passim. 
' Foe lo« ska, 74, 73« 
Foe ska fM, 354. 
Foe yn tkai, 79. 
Formlm, 181. 
Fo tkn tba, 33. 
Fon Ian ma, 144, 133. 
Fo« dana, 134. 
FraiU, tbe Ave, 138. 
Fnng te, 169. 

GijapaU, 81. 
Oandaki, 224. 
Oandkara, 64. 
Gandkanra, 133. 
Gaaga Sagar, I9S. 
Gangca, 28, 160. 
Gamda, 133. 
Gatckon, 249. 
Oatka, 12, 325. 
Gantama, 313. 
Gaja, 282. 
Gaya Kisjapa, 293. 
GetB, 76. 
Giddora, 260. 
Gods, 133, 143. 
Godkanya,- 80.. 
Gomel, 23. 
Gomatf, 20. 
Gurupada, 303. 
Grantka, 106. 
Gridkraknta. 268. 
Gondak, 224. 

Han, 7, 8. 

Hantka, 82. 

Hatty paU, 349. 

HcU, 296, 299. 

Heng, 241, 247. 

Heng kte. 38, 160, 18S. 

Heretiarcka, 143. 

Hian tkcon, 13. 


Hi lo. 33, 83. 88, 89. 

Himilaya, 22, 32, 98. 

Hiranya, 224. 

Hirannawatiya, 223, 230. 

Hiranyakakn, 22. 

Ho ikang, 166, 173. 

Ho U, 161. 

Honorable oftke ago, 111« ISO. 

Hon fan, 176. 

Ikswakn, 203. 

■ "m i ntfTirfior ^ yn 

"^i il -i l l U ^ n ^ilit^ 



Imagef, procntitti of» 17» Sl» SM» 

IndU, 13, 79. 

India,CeBtrelr4l, 58. 

India of the North* 4ft. 

Indra, 62. 

Indrasflaguht, 2M. 

In tho lo, 


Iif'*paUiuu 316. 

liwara, 148. 

Iiihafa, 12. 

Jahmia, 102. 
Jaganath, 21. 261. 
Jaitanm wananuBayat 22. 
Jalandb&ra, 249. 
Jaloka, 6C. 
JaUkft. 348. 
JUiog giralif 293. 

Kahnra, 89. 

Kahgyour, 3. 

Kulaa, 192. 

Kalaodaka. 277. 

KalaM>kft, 923. 

Kalpa, 67. 

Kft na hM mmi ai, 188* 

Kan ehcou, ft. 

Kandahar, 4.*, 64. 

Kanaka mnni, 18ft. 

KanashinipaUit 29ft. 

Kanika, 249. 

Kanonj, 161. 

KanUkanam, 219. 


Kanyakubja* 161. 

Kan yof , 36, 38. 

Kao chhnng , 8y 16. 

Kapila, 191. 

KapiUpor, 192. 

KapnaTattn, 191. 

KapiUvatthn, 191. 

KarknehamU, Iftft. 

Xath, 31. 

Kas(, 311. 

Kasyapn, 180. 

Kraaambf, 317. 

Keon Iconthiiii fot, 183. 181. 

Km nnhaB mnm ■§» 183, 18ft. 

Keott thM Bit 308, 316. 

Khaaakaa, 31. 



Kill ehe kUln. 2ft3, 2S7, 273. 279. 

KHq. 21'4. 

Khing kia, 2ft7. 

Kho lo ehe ky 11 hi, 270. 

Khormntdn. 63. 

Khotan, 19. 

Khovtonkbtofi (locarmtiMi), 268. 

Kia Ian, 19. 

Kin Un tho. 276, 277. 

Kit ni ate kia, 79. 

Kian the, 219. 

Kian tho lo. G4. 

Kian tho wei. 64,331. 

Kiaotalo, 169. 

Kia pi the, 88. 

Kia pi lo, 147. 

Kia the foe, 168, 188, 384, 30ft. 

Kia the, 307, 311. 

Kia she mi lo. 47. 

Kia wei lo wei, 189. 190. 

Kia ye, 280, 282. 

Kiechhn,23,26, 29,30. 

Kieon I, 69. 

Kie pi lo fa io« toa, 191. 

Kijaoi, 100. 

Kinnaras, 133. > 

King. 109. '' 

King kia, 2A6. 

Ki ni kia, 75, 78. 

Ki pin. 22, 23, 82. 

Kia ihi na kle, 222. 


Kin ma tl, 17. 

Kia M lo, 16ft. 

Kia ioa no pkoa lo» 

Kia ise lo, 308, 317. 

Kia ye ni, 80. 

Koiala. 168. 

Kosambi, 230. 

Koaan shi ia, lift. 

Kdliei, 321, 32ft. 

Koakeyar, 2ft. 

Koong tan, 7. 

Krakochandu 184. 

Kahatrya, * »2. 

Kdima, 11^. 


Kakatapada, 30ft, 306. 

Kaaamba, 317. 

KaahuM, 178. 

Kaafaiagara, 822. 


Koraiaapafa, 2ft7. 

Kaaaaahha, 161. 






IJ» 274. 

liow. kiivdM of, S9t, S57. 
U cblM. 221, 239. 
LkUavi, 239. 
Lieoa U, 1G8, 1C9, 199. 
Little oMirj awMtrit, 99. 
Lo, 69. 

Loba, 96. 

Lo b», 32, 33, 96, 9X 
Lo i, 93, 96. 
Lokjajycttba, 126. 
Lo iha, 339. 
LouBf monntaiaf, 1, 4« 
Loa kia ye, 148. 
Lovng ihou, 154. 
Loaag ml iii, 172. 
Lomic nan, 173. 
LoyMkhi, 113,269. 
Lui ming, 208. 

MadhyadcM, ft8« 

Magadha, 211. 

MahadeTa.33, 131. 

Ma ha H na, 33. 

Maha Iswara, 132. 

31 aha Katyapa, 78, 906. 

Maha Maya, 123, 209. 

Ma ha moii kian lioo, 679 ^» 

Maha padma, 217. 

Maha prajapati, 112. 

Maha latwa, 

Maha chakkravarti Rajah, 126. 

Maha vana, 33. 

Mahay4iia, 9, 112. 

Mahcndra, 260. 

Mahindo, 260. 

3! a ho yan, 112. 

Mahorarago, 133. 

Ma i iheov lo, 152. 

Maitreya, 33. 


Manggalyatt, 67. 

Manikyala, 73. 

Manjuari, 33, 1 12. 

Mara, 248. 

Margaaera, 217. 

Mathia, 240. 

Maihora, 102. 

Ma ye, 69. 

31ediciBe hoaie. 233, 263. 

Meagkie 11,34. 
Middle, kiiVtai of Um. 99. 

Mo (3I4im), 248. 
Mohana, River, 212. 
Mo ho leBg chhl, 322. ^ 
Mo ho pi ho lo, 330, 332. 
Mo kia tl, 144. 
Mo kietho, 233.236. 
Mokaha dera, 112. 
Moorhar, 306. 
Mongalyiaa, 67. 
Moo Chi Un tho, 293. 
Mov ho, 306. 

Mott liaB, 101, 107, 129, 264. 
Muchalinda, 293. 

Kaga, 153. 

Naga koahnna, 136. 


Na kte, 43. 61, 74, 83, 93, 87, 333. 

Ntlada, 267. 
Kalanda, 237, 267. 
Na Ian tho, 257. 
Na lo, 264, 266. 
Nan tho, 201. 
NapIkU, 183, 184. 
Narapati, 81. 
Narayana, 150. 
Neon than, 1,3. 
Nidana, 325. 
Ni houan, 78. 
Ni kia, 74. 78. 
Ni kian tac, 261. 
Ni kian tho, 144. 
Nilajan River, 212. 
Ni li. 256. 
Nilian, 172,211. 
Ninn4nak4ya, 182. 
Nirvana, 151. 
Nyagrodha, 207. 

Ohtervanoea, tho twelve, 39. 
Om mani padme horn, 116. 
O pi, 271, 314. 
On I, 7, 13. 
Oaigoura, 15. 
On pho to kia. 


0«tt«ln«ra«,8t. * 

PMan pod, 21. 
Hdmm cbcBbo. 21«. 
Pk Uu Imu 253. n7. 
Pblibothn, SM. m. 
Pa kmilM. 7«. 
FuBir, 15. 
Pan dM, 264, 2£S. 
Fui ck« yM ntt 26. 
P«aa«raiif , 2€2. 
Panjab, 98. 
Fui ni iKMia, 78. 

PMlhi, 114. 

Pteaaute, 5. 

Pitfk, deer, 308, 318. 

PkUU. 260. 

PaUliputra, 259. 

Pd to, 281. 293, 333, 343. 

Pelldvp, 324. 

**e Uimg. 69, 189, 195. 

Pbalffo, Rim. 282. 

Phi ilM li, 240, 242, S5K 


Phin* wang, 37, 40. 

Pki aka khiv, 166, 178. 

Phi don, 274. 

Pho lo na, Rivar, 

Pbo lo nai, 307, 310. 

Pholo j«a,3l8. 

Pho Ma no. 165, 170. 


Pho to 11 tMi, 257. 

Phoa la, 17, 21. 

Phnltrarf, 259. 

Pi chha, 97, 98. 

Pi khieon, 45,58. 


PI Mi JO, 107. 

Plog iha, 264. 

Pin pho 10,276. 278. 

Pin po io lo, 217. 

PI pho lo, 276» 278. 


Pifua, 274. 







Fao ran aha poo lo^ 76. 




Plan na. 95. 97. 


Pki^na paramite, 112. 

Pkasnnajit. 170. 


Pneepta. tha tan, 103. 

PKcapta, the anfteianft. 1«8» 104. 

Phvcioni, Iha thma, 37. 41. 


nahkantati, 73. 


Raia«ahan, 230. 209. 
Rajacriha, 113, 160. 
Rajagnna, 132, 
Rania, 169. 
RanagaaM. 215. 
RaaiBO. 215. 
Rath Jatra, 261. 
Rawanhadra. 38. 
Rcalitica, 91. 
Rarolntion, 9. 
Roou. the aix, 
RnanwcUe, 22. 
RapjaYadiarat 131. 

Sagara, 156. 
SakcUn, 230. 
Sakya. 203. 
Sakridagani. 94. 
Sauadhi, 253. 
Samaaa, 12. 
Sambhogakiya, 182. 
Stakaasa, 123. 
San Che ye, 144. 
8anga, 8. 
Sanghatl, 98. 
Smkya, 147. 
San mei, 251. 
San taang, 2. 
San taang fiion« 
8a pho to, 322, 886. 
Sanrvali, 131, 
Saripntra, 267. 
Sarin, 216. 
Sarnath, 311. 
8«tyegnna, 132. 




8«ig kU ti, 8ft, f S. 
SepvltaiM, SftS. 
Serici, 1ft. 
Sewad, 62. 


ShAmi, 174. 


Shachi, 163. 

Shea ahcn, f • 7» 8* 

Shell il. 8, 7. 

8lM wei. 3ft, 16ft. 168. ftftS. 

She U. 168, 180,838. 

She U feng, 41. 

She U foe, 68. 864. 

SheUtsev, 106. 

Si u, 2. 

Shu, 39. 

Shy, 62, 180, 264. 

Shy kit, 68, Iftft. 

ShykUwcn, Iftft. 

Shy lo fa ly ti, 168« 

Siddha, 146. 

Siddharta, 129. 

Sind, 38. 

Sindhii, 38. 

Siahala, 331. 

Siv po, 221, 238. 

Sin theoii, 13, 36, 37. 

Si to, 38. 

Sia tha, 16ft, 170. 

Sieott tho lo, 107. 

Sin tho wan, 94, 188, 887. 

Si ye, 24. 

Sliandha, 14ft. 

Smatlna, 278. 

So ho to, 62, 3ftS. 

Sokielo, 156. 

Suna, River, 22ft. 

Sou plio la sa ton, 68. 

Sramana, 12. 

Sravaka, 10. 

Sravaati, 169, 172. ' 

Srenika, 217. 

Sroto panna, 94, 207. 

Sie tho han. 94. 

Sthnpa, 19, 91. 

Sttbhadra, 238. 

Sudita. 1C9. 

So ho to, 4ft, 62. 

Snasttts, 62. 

Sutra, 3. 

Swaruafati, River, 224. 




Tkkahaiiln, 73. 

TaiMcnnn, 131. 


T^maUttl, 331. 

'Trailuk. 331. 



Tan na» ft. 


Tao tt, 119, 124. 188. 

Tao ase, 214, 818, 386, 

Ti|>a8wi, 800. 

Taihagata, 188. 

Tazila, 73. 

T«i ahe, 178. 

Templea, aix prfaMipai, 178. 

Tcon shon, 33, 34. 

Tera, 818. 

Tha li lo, ft/. 

Tha mo, 43. 

Tha thaen, 317,318. 

ThI an chn, 13. 

ThI an thn, 13. 

Thiao tha, 168, 203, 273, 278. 

ThI ho irei, 67. ' 

Tho lo, ftO. 

Tho ly, 32, 33. 

Ilia la, 16. 

Tha ing yan, 17ft. 

Thnn honan, 2, 6. 

Ting kouang, 67, 8ft, 8S« 

To mo li a. 329. 

Tooth of Foe, 334,344. 

Ton kio, 1&9. 

Ton wei, 168. 

TrantUtion, 7, 9. el paiila. 

Trayaatriniha, 124. 

Tiandala, lOft. 

Taang, 2, 107, 3ft7, 362. 

Taeu ho, 22, 24. 

Taoung ling, 23, 2ft, 27. 

Tuahiu, 31. 

Uda, 201. 
Ujjaaa, 47. - 
Upali, 206. 

Vayn, 131. 
Vajra|»ani, 238. 
Vaipnlya, 12, 324. 


imisx. 373 

VaitaU, 243. Yakslui. 340. 

Vaiiyst 17fl. Y^a, 303. 

VarmiM, 310. Yamiuw, Ritcr, 102. 

Vmnni, 310. yiam, 9. 

VaniM. 131. Yu femi (hit 79. 80. 

Vait toUtQde, 307, SIO. \\ui leoa. 1. 

VcdMt lft3. Yangt p« ciMit, 243. 

Verities, 70. Yan aim lo. 

Venli% 243. Yan lo. 296, 299. , 

VcAoMBta, 93. ' Yava dmljptu 

Viewi,14S. ^ Ycovvan, 86. 

Vijaja,340. Yeim plio lo, 120. 

Vibara, 352. Ye plio U, 337. 

Vinaja, 3, 109. * Ye tka, 3(3. 

Vidura,13l. YiitlMloihlloki«ho»20ft. 

TUtlial,262. Ycjana, 86, 283. 

Vallw«»luUer,273. YoeaU.82. 


Waktkii,38. YMti,39.82,3M. 

WeUMra^ 278. Y« hoei, 2a, 23. 

W«[iU,147. Y«UBy«e,80. 

WeBeiHiiMlltl01tll2»t34. Ya tUaA, 8» 17* 19, 334. 
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