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4 Ito Jufe 















no. -7 

, xcii. 


tlgriraagc of tjjt fife of pan. 

Sltms, xcn. 




Hgrimage of % fife of 

^trics, LXXVII, LXXXIII, xcn. 
1899, 1901, 1904. 


















1899, 1901, 1904. 

<g*tra ems, LXXVII, LXXXIII, xcn. 




PREFACE ... ... vii* 



ROMANCE OF THE ROSE ... ... ... ... ix* 



TO ONE ANOTHER ... ... ... ... ... Xvil* 

iv. LYDGATE'S METRE ... ... ... ... ... xxxi* 

v. LYDGATE'S LANGUAGE AND STYLE ... ... ... xli* 

VI. LYDGATE AND BUNYAN ... ... ... ... liii* 






AFTERWORDS (OF 1905 BY DR. FURNIVALL) ... ... ... xiil 

TEXT 1-666 

NOTES 667 

GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 695 

INDEX... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 725 




THE text of Lydgate's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, published 
in 1899, was edited by Dr. Furnivall, having been copied by the late 
Mr. William Wood, partly side-noted by Mr. J. Meadows Cowper, 
and more or less revised by the late Mr: G. JS". Currie, M. A. Lond. 
In 1903 I undertook to write Introduction, Notes and Glossary to 
the poem, and now submit my work, with some diffidence, to the 
Members of the E. E. T. S. 

I have thought it unnecessary to add anything to what has been 
already written upon the life and character of Lydgate, or to treat of 
the subject of his grammar. My principal aim in the Introduction 
has rather been to discuss the relation of the poem to its original, to 
indicate the character of that original, and to consider the question 
of Bunyan's suggested debt to Lydgate. It has seemed desirable to 
offer a few notes concerning Lydgate's Metre, Language and Style, 
although on these subjects I can hardly hope to supplement materially 
the researches of previous editors. 

The Bibliography is not intended to be exhaustive, my main 
object in drawing it up having merely been to give the completes t 
possible list of MSS. and old printed books existing in France and 
England. I have, however, mentioned all the known MSS. of De 
Guileville's second recension, from which Lydgate's poem was trans- 
lated. For the information in the Bibliography I am indebted to 
Professor Stiirzinger's edition of De Guileville's first recension, to 
Dr. Aldis Wright's edition of the Camb. MS. Ff. 5.30, and to the 
list in The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, supplemented 
by my own investigations at the British Museum and the Bodleian 

The Table of Contents has been adapted and enlarged from that 
given in Yerard's edition. 

Owing to the extreme length of the poem, I have felt it necessary 
to exercise a strict moderation in writing the notes, and have there- 
fore aimed at little more than the clearing up of the more obscure 

viii* Preface. 

allusions, a task in which, I regret to say, I have not always been 

It only remains for me to express my sincere thanks to those 
who have assisted me in the work : to Dr. Skeat, Dr. Murray, 
the Kev. H. Parkinson, Dom John Chapman, O.S.B., Dr. Furnivall 
and Lord Aldenham for help in the Notes, to the last two for 
various criticisms and suggestions ; to Mr. Madan and Mr. Stanley 
Jones for aid in identifying MSS. ; to Miss Batty, of Oxford, for 
clerical assistance, and to my friend and former tutor, Miss Margaret 
L. Lee, whose candid criticism and ready help have at once impelled 
and encouraged me in the execution of my task. 


77, Banbury Road, Oxford, 
Dec. 1904. 




IN the colophon to the first version of the Pelerinage de la 
Vie Humaine De Guileville tells us that his poem was founded upon 
the Romance of the Rose. 

" Chi fine li romans du moisne 
Du pelerinage de vie humaine, 
Qui est pour le bon pelerin 
Qui en che monde tel chemin 
Veult tenir qui voise a bon aport 
Et quil ait clu ciel le deport, 
Prins sur le roman de la rose 
Ou lart damours est toute enclose. 
Pries pour celui qui le fist, 
Qui la fait faire, et qui lescripst." 

If we only consider the fact that the Romance of the Rose is an 
allegory on the art of love, and that the Pelerinage is an allegory of 
man's spiritual journey from birth to death, the relation between 
the two does not appear to be very close ; but although the subjects 
and general aims of the two poems are very different, there are 
some striking correspondences, both of plan, manner and detail. 

The Romance of the Rose is too well known for more than a 
very brief sketch of its general plan to be necessary. 

The first part, by Guillaume de Lorris, is a straightforward and 
simple allegory, in which are described the efforts of a lover to gain 
his beloved, symbolized by a rosebud. The other characters, who 
help or hinder the lover, are all allegorical and bear such names as 
Love, Idleness, Mirth, Largesse, Danger, Jealousy, Malebouche and 
the like. Besides these, certain evil qualities are described, which 
are supposed to be painted upon the outside of the wall of the 
garden in which the Eose is to be found. Among these we may 
notice Hate, Covetousness, Avarice, Envy. 

The spirit of this part of the poem is the spirit of the mediaeval 

x* Introduction, i. De Guileville and the Romance of the Rose. 

Courts of Love. It is, indeed, just what the author calls it in his 
introduction : 

" li Eommanz de la Rose 
Ou 1'art d' Amors est tote enclose." (11. 37-8.) 

It is of love and the art of love that Guillaume de Lorris writes ; 
and the connection between this part of the poem and De Guileville's 
Pelerinage can only be traced in so far as both are in allegorical 
form, both describe personified abstractions, and both make use of 
similar details of description and allegorical conventions. A few 
specimens of these latter may be given. 

In the description of Idleness, G. de Lorris tells us that 

" por garder que ses mains blanches 
Ne halaissent, ot uns blans gans." (11. 565-6.) 

and in De Guileville's first version we read that Idleness 

"un gant 

Tenoit dont se aloit jouant, 
Entour son doi le demenoit, 
Et le tournoit et retournoit." 

(Sturzinger, 6525-28.) 

Reason, in the R. de la R. is spoken of in the following terms : 

" La dame de la haulte garde 
Qui de sa tour aval regarde, 
C'est raison ainsi appellee, 
Or est de sa tour devallee 
Et tout droit vers moi est venue," 

while by De Guileville we are told 

" Tantost vers eus une pucelle 
Descendit d'une tournelle, 
Raison apeler se faisoit." (Sturzinger, 573-5.) 

In the account of Envy in the R. de la R. we read : 

" que s'ele cognoissoit 
Tot le plus prodome qui soit 
Ne dea mer, ne dela mer, 
Si le vorroit ele blasmer." (11. 269-72.) 

With this may be compared the confession of Envy's daughter 
Detraction in the Pelerinage : 

11 Je nuis qui sont de sainte vie, 
Comme a ceuz qui ne le sont mie. 
Se Saint Jehan en terre estoit, 
Encor de mon glaive il aroit." 

(Stiirzinger, 8669-72.) 

Introduction, i. De Guileville and the Romance of the Ecse. xi* 

There are other correspondences of a similar character, one or 
two of which have been indicated in the notes ; but when we have 
made the most of the allegorical form, and of such similarities of 
detail, we must feel that, if this were all that De Guileville owed to 
the authors of the Romance of the Rose, a comparison of the two 
poems need not detain us long. 

But this was far from all. 

In his second recension De Guileville, in the person of the 
Pilgrim, says to Venus : 

" Pour quoy, dis ie, reputes tien 
Le rommant qu'as dit, que scay bien 
Qui le fist, et comment ot nom." (Ver. f. 51.) 

These lines are interpreted by Lydgate as meaning that De 
Guileville knew the author personally, in which case the man he 
knew must, of course, have been Jean de Meun, not Guillaume de 
Lorris, who is supposed to have died in 1240, long before De 
Guileville was born. 

Jean de Meun himself died about 1320 when De Guileville was 
some twenty-five years of age. Thus the acquaintance of the two 
must needs have covered a period of De Guileville's life when he 
would be most open to influences, and most likely to be affected by 
the character and conversation of such a man of the world as the 
witty, daring and satirical Jean de Meun. 

No doubt he had read and studied Jean de Meun's continuation 
of Guillaume de Lorris's romance. Perhaps the author himself had 
read it to him, and they had discussed together the many questions 
in religion, sociology and science with which the poem deals. 

Jean de Meun was a reformer and a democrat, an outspoken 
opponent of the abuses to be found in Church and Society, a man 
of philosophical mind and practical energy. He was as far as 
possible removed from the romantic, chivalrous, courtly character 
of Guillaume de Lorris; and though he adopted the framework 
of his predecessor's poem he filled it up with all the varied 
detail of an encyclopaedic erudition, piling up, one upon another, 
discussions on alchemy, astrology, and the operations of Nature, on 
economical and social problems, on religion and hypocrisy, on the 
duty of mankind, on communistic ideas, on prodigality, the Age 
of Gold, jealous husbands, Youth and Age, friendship, and many 
another topic, interspersing all with examples and illustrations 
drawn from classical tales and recent history. It is in this connec- 

xii* Introduction. I. De Guileville and the Romance of the Rose. 

tion, above all, that we trace his influence upon De Guileville. We 
caii hardly fail to conclude that the latter adopted from the R. de 
la R. not merely the allegorical framework, the figures of Idleness, 
Youth, Fortune, Eeason, Avarice and the rest, and certain details 
of description, but also the pose and manner of the man of mis- 
cellaneous information and liberal opinions, and that it was in 
imitation of Jean de Meun that he included in his poem discussions 
and attacks on matters covering the widest range astrology and 
incantations, Nature, abases in religious orders, social science, usury, 
fashions in dress illustrating them as occasion and his education 
served, with examples from the Scriptures, from the Jives of saints, 
or from current fables and romances. 

Of course we must not press the parallel too far. "We do not 
find in the Pelerinage the same force and talent that we recognize 
in the R. de la R. even though De Guileville is not lacking in 
energy or effectiveness when he attacks those religious abuses which 
personal experience had brought to his knowledge, or treats of the 
occupations and social questions with which he must have been 
familiar in his youth. Nor can we be blind to a very marked 
difference in the points of view of the two men. De Guileville, 
after all, was a monk, a man under authority, with all the reverence 
of such a man for the teaching of his superiors. His views on some 
theological points such as progressive revelation and the spiritual 
character of future retribution and reward were liberal and 
advanced in tone, but, for all that, he was capable of flights, such as 
that on the putting of men's eyes into their ears, which would have 
excited the independent-minded Jean Clopinol to an unholy mirth. 
On the other hand, the passage in which De Guileville blames the 
evil-speaking of his predecessor proves that Jean de Meun's tone 
was often far from congenial to him. Yet in their common love 
of miscellaneous information and in their opposition, according to 
their lights, to some of the abuses of the day, their minds clearly 
held some kinship, a kinship which, in spite of many differences, 
is not obscurely indicated in the literary form and occasional tone 
of the poem we are now considering. 


THE Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine has appeared under many 
forms, as reference to the list of MSS. will show. 

The three French versions are The first and second recensions 

Introduction. II. Different versions of the Poem, xiii* 

of De Guileville, and the prose transcription made at the request of 
Jehanne de Laval, Queen of Naples, by Jean Gallopes, dean of the 
church of St. Louis de la Saulsoye. 

There were also several English versions, the first recension of 
De Guileville's poem having apparently been translated into English 
prose more than once. Of these versions the MS. in St. John's 
College, Cambridge, is northern in dialect, and differs considerably 
from the MS. in the University Library, edited for the Eoxburghe 
Club by Dr. Aldis Wright. The other prose MSS. have not yet 
been collated, but in a note written in the catalogue of the Laud 
collection, the opinion is expressed that Laud 740 also differs from 
the Koxburghe edition, an opinion in which a collation of a few 
passages enables me to concur. 

A condensed English prose version, a copy of which exists in 
the University Library, Cambridge (Ff. 6. 30), was circulated in 
the seventeenth century, and Dr. Wright thinks it possible that this 
version may have been seen by Bunyan. 

The most important of the English versions is, of course, the 
verse translation by Lydgate, which represents De Guileville's second 
recension. It is in 24,832 lines as compared with the 18,123 lines 
of the Erench (Petit' s edition). With the exception of Lydgate's 
Prologue, 184 lines in length, the note on the fanciful derivation 
of Glaive, the illustration from Aristotle's Elenchus, two or three 
other passages indicated in the margin as Verba Translatoris and 
the tribute to Chaucer (p. 527) which are due to Lydgate alone, this 
excess of between 7000 and 8000 lines is not produced by important 
additions to the matter, but by amplification in the wording, by the 
introduction of details and explanations, and by the use of certain 
literary devices which will be indicated more fully in the chapter 
on Language and Style. 

Several passages of the original French have been given for 
purposes of comparison in. Vols. I. and II. It will be as well how- 
ever to quote other passages here, alongside the English, in order to 
render comparison more convenient. 

A typical passage is that in which the heavenly Jerusalem is 
described, in 36 lines in the French, in 45 by Lydgate. 

En Ian que iay dit par deuant, The seyde yer (ho lyst take kepe 

Auis me fut en mon dormant, I was avysed in my slepe 

Que daler iestoye excite Excyted eke, and that a-noon, 

En iherusalem la cite, To lerusalem for to goon. 

La ou estoit tout mon couraige. Gretly meved in my corage 

xiv* Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem. 

Dy faire le pelerinaige 
Fichie du tout entierement 
La cause estoit et mouuement 
Pource que la cite veoie 
En ung beau miroer quauoye, 

Qui de loing la representoit 
Dedens luy, et la me monstroit. 

II nest nulle cite si belle, 

Ne qui de rien lui soit pareille ; 

Masson en fut seulement dieu, 

Nul autre ne feroit tel lieu. 

Car Jes chemins et les alees, 
Dor fin estoient toutes paues, 

En hault assis son funderaent 

Estoit, et son massonnement 
De vives pierres fait estoit, 
Et hault mur entour la clooit, 

Dessus lesquelz anges estoient 

Qui tout temps le guet y faisoient 

Et gardoient tres bien que lentree 

Nullement fut abandonnee, 

Fors au pelerins seulement 

Qui y venoient deuotement. 

Leans auoit moult de mansions, 

De lieux et dabitacions ; 

Illec estoit toute Hesse 

Et toute ioye sans tristesse. 

La pour men passer briefuement 

Auoit chascun communement 
De tons biens plus que demander 
Jamais ne pourroit ne penser. 

ffor to do my pilgrimage 
And ther-to steryd inwardly. 
And to tell the cause why 
"Was, ffor me thouht I hadde a syht 
With-Inne a merour large & bryht, 
Off that hevenly ffayr cite 
"Wych representede unto me 
Ther-of holy the manere 
With Inne the glas ful bryht & cler 
And werrayly, as thouhte me 
yt excellyde of bewte 
Al other in comparyson ; 
ffor God hym self was the masown, 
wych mad yt iayr, at ys devys. 
ffor werkman was ther noon so wys, 
yt to conceyve in his entent ; 
ffor al the wayes & paament 
Wer ypavyd all off gold. 
And in the sawter yt ys told, 
How the ffyrst ffundacyon, 
On hyllys off devocyon 
The masounry wrought ful clene, 
Of quyke stonys bryht and schene 
"Wyth a closour rovnd a-bowte 
Off' enmyes, ther was no dowte 
ffor Aungelles the wach y-kepte 
The wych, day nor nyht ne slepte, 
Kepyng so strongly the entre 
That no wyht kam in that cyte 
But pylgrimes, day nor nyht, 
That thyder wentyn evene ryht. 
And ther were meny mansyovns 
Placys, and habytacyovns ; 
And ther was also al gladnesse, 
Ioye with-outen hewynesse. 
And pleynly, who that hadde grace 
ffor to entren in that place, 
ffond, onto hys pleasavnce 
Off Ioye al maner suffysavnce 
That eny herte kan devyse. 

To give a few more examples. Deguileville's Prologue in Yerard's 
edition consists of 103 lines. In Lydgate it is 123 lines. The 
first 18 lines of Verard, corresponding to the first 25 of Lydgate, 
deal with the subject of dreams. There is no diversity of matter 
in the two versions, but Lydgate's rendering is rather a paraphrase 
of Deguileville than a translation, as the following extract will 

" Souuentes foys il aduient bien, 
Quant on a soge quelque rien, 
Quon y pense sur lesueiller ; 
Et sil ne souuient au premier 
De tout le songe proprement, 
Bien aduient que son y entent 

Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem. xv* 

Quapres a plain il en souuient. 
Et tout a memoire reuient, 
Au leuer on est sonimeilleux 
Et sont les sens si pareceux 
Que son songe point on nentent 
Si non en groz sommierement ; 
Mais quant on sest bien aduise 
Et on ya apres pense, 
Lors en souuient il plus a plain 
Mais qu'on nactende au lendemain, 
Car trop actendre le feroit 
Oblier et nen souuiendroit." 

The description of Spring in the French, which will be given 
later, is 22 lines long, while in Lydgate it occupies 47 lines, but this 
is rather an unusual amplification. Certain lines, such as 11. 3456- 
3461, have no counterpart in .the French original, the revivifying 
power of Spring is described with much greater detail, while the 
reference to Solomon which in the French! only takes up two lines, 
occupies 11. 3486-3492 in Lydgate. With reference to this passage 
it must be remembered, however, that phrases descriptive of Spring 
were the current coin of the fourteenth and early fifteenth century 
poets, and that no writer of that age could control his pen when 
he came to write on this subject. Youth's description of herself 
occupies 52 lines in the French and 80 in Lydgate. The middle 
portion of this description from 1. 11151 to 1. 11177 keeps fairly 
close to the French, though it is in parts slightly amplified; and in 
others slightly compressed, but the first ten French lines are repre- 
sented by 17 English (11. 11133-11150), which, while they contain 
the same idea, contain also various developments and alterations 
of expression as well as inversions of order : 

11133-34 " Jeunesse iay nom la legiere, 

1 1 1 40 / ^ a gi^ eresse > ^ a coursiere, 
\ La sauterelle, la saillant, 

11144 Qui tout dangier ne prise ung gant. 

11142 Je vois, ie viens, ie saulx, ie vole, 

11146 Jesperlingue, tourne et carolle, 

11147 Je trepe et cours et danse et bale 
Et si vois a la Yitefale ; 

11141 Je luyte et saulx fossez pieds ioincts 

11150 Et iecte la pierre au plus loings." (foi. xim, back.) 

As nearly as I can make out, the lines whose numbers I have 
given correspond to the French, but there still remain eight lines in 


xvi* Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem. 

the English which have no French equivalent, and add a touch or 
two to the character of Youth, such as : 

" And I kan wynse ageyn the prykke. 
As wylde coltys in Arras, 
Or as bayard out off the tras, 
Tyl I a lassh haue off the whyppe." 

The account of the games played by Youth is very much 
amplified in the English. Deguileville mentions only seven sports. 

" Ung esteuf me faust pour iouer 
Efc une croce pour soler, 
Autre croce nauray ie mye, 
Si ce nest past trop grant folie, 
Car tenir ie ne men pourroye 
De voletcr, ne me Voulroye ; 
Et encor ne suis ie pas soule 
De maler iouer a la boule, 
Daler quiller, daler biller 
Et de iouer au mareiller." 

In Lydgate's 18 corresponding lines (11181-98), however, there 
are seventeen different kinds of game or amusement mentioned, 
Including fishing, hunting, card games, and the reading of fables. 

We must not forget, however, that sometimes Lydgate omits 
details which are given by De Guileville, or only touches upon points 
which De Guileville deals with at some length. A good example 
of this is the description of the various fashions in dress due to 
Pride. . In Lydgate this only takes up six lines (11. 14081-14086). 

" I ffond up fyrst, devyses newe, 
Rayes of many soridry hewe ; 
Off short, off long, I ffond the guyse ; 
Now streight, now large, I kan devyse, 
That men sholde, for syngulerte 
Beholde and lokyn upon me." 

In Verard's version this runs as follows : 

"Nouvelletez se font par moy; 
A mon sens seullement ie croy. 
Je fais chaperons pourfiletz, Pride makes 

T\ j. j t i embroidered 

De soye et dor entrelacez, hats and caps, 

Chapeaulx, huppes, coquuz loquuz, 

A marmousez platz ou crestuz, 

Estroictes cottes par les flans, coats. 

Manches a panonceaulx pendans ; 

A blanc surcot fais rouge manche, 

A col et a poictrine blanche 

Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xvii* 

Robe tres bien escoletee very long or 

Pour mieulx veue estre et regardee ; garments, 11 

Vestemens trop cours ou trop longs. and very 

r,, , lar & e r very 

Irop grans, trop petiz chaperons, small hoods, 

Les houzeaulx petiz et estroiz ; girdle?* 

Du si grans quon en feroit trois ; 

Graile ceincture ou large trop 

Dont se parent voire li clop. with which 

the halt, 

JLe boiteux et esparueigne, the blind, 

Borgne, bossu, et meshaingne ; otherS-tpples 

Telz choses fais pource que vueil sei ve" them " 

Que chascun ait vers moy son oeil." (foi. iv.) 

Some further details as to the development of the French 
original will be given in the chapter on Lydgate's Language and 
Style, but for the present these examples will be enough to show 
the manner in which he carried out his translation. 



We may now turn to the question as to how the second recension 
of De Guileville's poem is related to the first. 

For the purposes of this comparison I have made use of 
Stiirzinger's edition of the first version (Roxb. Club), and Yerard's 
edition of the second, published in Paris in 1511. 

The main features distinguishing the second version from the 
first may be placed in four categories. 

A. The actual additions of arguments, episodes, characters, or 
other elements. 

B. The amplification and elaboration of passages or ideas. 

C. The absence of certain details mentioned in the first version. 

D. Differences in the sequence of episodes which occur in both 
versions, and certain differences of detail. 

A. The principal additions are as follows : 

1. The discourse on dreams in the Prologue (Lydgate, 1. 185-209), 
the description of the loss and re-writing of the poem (227-273), and 
the envoy to the poem (274-302). 

In the second French the Prologue takes up 94 lines, but in the 
first version it only occupies 34 lines as follows : 

" A ceuz de ceste region 
Qui point n'i ont de mansion 
Ains y sont tous com dit Saint Pol, 
Riche, povre, sage et fol, 

xviii* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

Solent roys, soient roynes, 

Pelerins et pelerines, 

Une vision veul nuncier 

Qui en dormant m'avint 1'autrier. 

En veillant avoie leu, 

Coiisidere et bien veu 

Le biau roumans de la Rose. 

Bien croi quc ce fu la chose 

Qui plus m'esnmt a ce songier 

Que ci apres vous vueil nuncier. 

Or (i) vieugnent pres et se arroutent 

Toute gent et bien escoutent, 

Ne soit nul et ne soit nule 

Qui arriere point recule ; 

Avant se doivent touz bouter, 

Touz asseoir et escouter. 

Grans et petits la vision 

Touclie sans point de excepcion. 

En francoise toute mise 1'ai 

A ce que 1'entendent li lai. 

La pourra chascun aprendre 

La quel voie on doit prendre, 

La quel guerpir et delessier. 

C'est chose qui a bien mestier 

A ceuz qui pelerinage 

Eont en cest monde sauvage. 

Or entendez la vision 

Qui m'avint en religion 

A 1'abbaye de Chaalit, 

Si com jestoie en mon lit." (Stiirzinger r s ed.) 

2. The description of the pains of the martyrs who desired to 
enter Jerusalem, and of the manner in which they must enter 
(Ver. fol. ii, back; Lyd. 11. 365-466). 

3. The discussion on baptism and original sin (Yer. fol. iv, back, 
f. ; Lyd. 967-1290), the mention of the Pilgrim's godfather 
Guyllyam and of the black bird that escapes from the Pilgrim's 
breast (Yer. fol. vi, back; Lyd. 1291-1344). 

4. The Story on the Peril of Cursing (Yer. x, back ; Lyd. 

5. The passage containing the Pilgrim's assertion that some who 
have no subjects yet bear the sword, and Reason's explanation 
concerning the delegation of power (Yer. xii; Lyd. 3072-3230). 

6. The Testament of Jesus Christ, containing the bequest of 
His Soul and Body ; of His Mother to St. John, together with the> 

Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another, xix* 

virtue of Perseverance ; of His Blood and Wounds for Salvation, 
and of His Word and Laws (Ver. xvii, back ; Lyd. 4782-4869). 

This is all absent from the first version which only contains the 
bequest of peace. 

7. The dialogue between Grace Dieu and the Pilgrim concerning 
the five senses and the transfer of eyes to ears (Ver. xxii, f. ; Lyd. 

8. Three Latin poems on the Articles of the Creed (Ver. xxiv. 
f. ; Lyd. pp. 185-190), on God in Trinity (Ver. xxvii, back, f. ; 
Lyd. pp. 194-199), and on the Virgin Mary (Ver. xxix, back, f. ; 
Lyd. pp. 199-201). 

9. The explanation of why no armour for the legs is given to the 
Pilgrim (Ver. xxxiv; Lyd. 11. 8073-8100). 

10. The gift of the stones and sling of David to the Pilgrim, and 
the meaning of the stones (Ver. xxxv, f. ; Lyd. 8423-8686). 

11. The discourse of Moral Virtue, who shows the Pilgrim the 
gate and posterns and speaks of virtues and their attendant vices 
(Ver. xlv, back, f. ; Lyd. 11737-11954). 

1 2. A long passage, containing the interview of the Pilgrim with 
Mortification of the Body, and the vision of the Wheel of Lust, 
with an account of the movements of the planets (Ver. xlvi, f. ; 
Lyd. 11955-12673). 

13. The Pilgrim's conversation with Venus concerning the 
Romance of the Rose (Ver. li, f. ; Lyd. 13200-13292), and the 
episode of the Stranger maltreated by Venus (Ver. Hi, back ; Lyd. 

14. The Prayer to the Virgin (Ver. Ixiii, back, f. ; Lyd. pp. 
437-456). This prayer, which in Verard's edition is given in Latin, 
replaces a short prayer to God which takes up 26 lines in Stiirzinger. 

15. Necromancy and her Messenger and the discussion between 
the Pilgrim and the Messenger concerning the invocation of spirits 
(Ver. Ixxii, back, f . ; Lyd. 18471-18924). 

16. In Stiirzinger, the five perils in the sea, Cyrtes, Charybdis, 
Scilla, Bythalassus, and Sirena, are described in 11. 11887-11970. In 
Verard and Lydgate all these are personified, and we find long 
accounts, with many incidents, details and arguments, of Fortune 
and her Wheel, representing Charybdis (Ver. Ixxvi, back, f . ; Lyd. 
19423-19676): of Astrology and her scholars, representing Cyrtes 
(Ver. Ixxx, f. ; Lyd. 19989-20810) : of Sorcery, with her face Phy- 
siognomy and her hand Chiromancy, who represents Bythalassus 

xx* Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

(Ver. Ixxxiv, back, f. ; Lyd. 21047-21312) : of Conspiracy and her 
hounds, representing Scilla (Ver. Ixxxvi, f . ; Lyd. 21328-21458): 
and of Worldly Gladness, with his revolving tower, who represents 
Sirena (Ver. Ixxxvi, back, f . ; Lyd. 21473-21670). These are 
followed by a lamentation and prayer of the Pilgrim (Ver. Ixxxvii, 
back; Lyd. 21671-21716). 

17. The character of Impatient Poverty (Ver. xciii, f. ; Lyd. 

18. The assault of Envy and her daughters on the convent, the 
Pilgrim's lamentation after the attack, the attempt of Ovid to 
comfort him, the Pilgrim's complaint, in the form of an acrostic on 
his name, and the return and proclamation of the King (Ver. xcv, 
f. ; Lyd. 23037-23359). This passage, however, includes the 
incident of the horse Good Eenown (Ver. xcv; Lyd. 23067-23150), 
which occurs in the first version on the occasion of the first fight of 
the Pilgrim with Envy and her daughters (Stiirz. 1. 8685, f.). 

19. The Pilgrim's visit to convents, where he sees many abuses 
(Ver. xcviii, f. ; Lyd. 11. 23360-23996). 

20. The character of Apostasy (Ver. ci, f. ; Lyd. 24002-24126). 

21. The coming of Prayer and Alms to show the Pilgrim the 
way to Jerusalem (Ver. civ, back, f. ; Lyd. 24558-24700), which 
passage includes the story of the King who only reigned for one year. 

22. Besides these passages, the dove of Grace Dieu, which at 
various times brings comfort or help to the Pilgrim, is found only 
in the second recension. 

B. The amplification and elaboration of incidents and ideas is 
very marked throughout the whole poem, although we do occasionally 
find passages which are almost identical in the two Erench versions. 
It would, of course, be impossible to mention every passage that has 
been enlarged, but I have drawn up a list of some of the principal 
ones, and have also made a few extracts from the two Erench 
versions in order to give a general idea of the relation of the second 
recension to the first in those passages where no serious alterations 
or extensions have been made. Such a passage is the one on Spring, 
which I will give in parallel columns, with figures indicating the 
relation of the second recension to Lydgate's paraphrase. 

1st Version 2nd Version 

(Stiirzinger) (Verard) 

1567-1580 Lydgate 

Nouvelles choses faiz venir Nouvelles choses faiz venir 3449 

Et les viez choses departir Et vielles choses departir 3450 

Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxi*" 

1st Version 

La terre de mes robes est 
Et en printemps tous jours la vest 

Aux arbres donne vestemens 
Centre 1'este et paremens 
Puis si les refaiz despouillier 
Contre 1'iver pour eus tailler 
Autres robes et cotelles 
A ce semblant tout(es) nouvelles 
N(i) a bruyere ne geneste 
N'autre arbricel que ne (re)veste. 

Onques ne vesti Salemon 
Tel robe com vest tin buysson. 

2nd Version 

(Verard) Lydgate 

La terre de mes robes est 1 3451 
Paree en printemps, ie la vest H3452) 
Demy party d'herbe florie J 3455 
De rouge, de vert, de soucye 3454 
Et de toutes belles couleurs 3453 
Quon peut trouver en belles fleurs 
Aux arbres donne paremens 
Et contre leste Vestemens 
Puis si les refais despoiller 
Contre liuer pour les tailler 
Autres robes autres cotelles 
Telles comme deuant nouuelles 
II nest bruyere ne geneste ^ 
Nabriceau que ie ne reueste I 3475- 
De mes robes bien floretees f 3485 
Et tres gaiemeut desguiseesj 
Onques ne vestit Salomon \3486- 
Tel robe que fait ung boisson/3492 


I 3468- 

The description of the Heavenly Jerusalem, taken from Verard, 
has already been given (p. xiii*), and it may be interesting to compare 
with it the description in the first version : 

" Avis m'ert si com dormoie 
Que je pelerin estoie 
Qui d'aler estoie excite 
En Jherusalem la cite. 
En Tin mirour, ce me sembloit, 
Qui sanz mesure grans estoit 
Celle cite aparceue 
Avoie de loing et veue. 
Mont me sembloit de grant atour 
Celle cite ens et entour, 
Les chemins et les alees 
D'or en estoient pavees, 
En haut assis son fondement 
Estoit et son maconnement 
De vives pierres fait estoit 
Et haut mur entour la clooit. 
Mont i avoit de mansions, 
De liens et d'abitacions. 
La estoit toute leece, 
Toute joie sans tristece. 
Illuec, pour passer m'en brief ment, 
Avoit chascun generaument 
De tout bien plus que demander 
Jamais ne sceust ne penser." (11. 35-58.) 

We may now turn to the more important amplifications, which 
are fairly numerous. Among the chief of these are : 

xxii* Introduction, ill. delation of two Versions to one another. 

1. The extension of the incident of the marriage of two Pilgrims. 
In the first French this only occupies 17 lines (802-818), but the 
second French and Lydgate relate at some length the approach of the 
two, their request to the official, and his advice to them, the whole 
incident taking up 11. 1905-1979 in Lydgate, and 40 lines in 
Yerard (fol. viii, back). 

2. The complaint of the Pilgrim because Grace Dieu is given to 
others. In Stiirzinger this only consists of a few words : 

" Quant celle parole je ouy 
Courroucie fu et esbahy. 
En disant * ha las ! ' que feray 
S'ainsi Grace Dieu perdue ay 1 
Donnee 1'a ce cornuaus 
A ces nouviaus officiaus 
Asses miex amasse estre mort 
Que point m'en eust fait tel tort." 

(11. 1021-1028.) 

In Lydgate this is expanded into 38 lines, which contain the 
expression of the Pilgrim's first astonishment, his fear that no one 
would now give him a scrip and staff, and his address to Grace Dieu 
(11. 2296-2332). In Verard the passage contains the same elements, 
but only consists of 20 lines (fol. x). 

3. The passage about the blood-drops on the scrip is much 
extended, especially that part in which Grace Dieu laments that 
now-a-days there are none to put themselves in jeopardy for the 
faith, although there are some who boast that they are ready to do 
so. This passage is represented in Stiirzinger by a few lines : 

" Et bien te di que, se nouvelles 
Fussent les gouttes, a bien belles 
Les tenisses, mais lone tens a 
Que de son sane nul n'i semn. 
Les saigmes si sont passees." (11. 3635-3639.) 

In the second French this passage is 40 lines in length. It is 
given here as a good example of the way in which De Guileville 
.amplified his first recension, as well as for purposes of comparison 
with Lydgate. 

" Ceste escharpe est de verd couleur, 
Car tout ainsi que la verdeur 
Reconforte lueil et la veue AS green 

-r,. , . , . , , comforts the 

li,t lesioyst mOUlt et lague eye, so faith 

Aussi fait f oy bon pelerin ; 
Car ia ne sera en chemin 

Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxiii^ 

Se bien regarde sa verdeur 

Quen luy nait plus forte vigueur. 

Mesmement car elle est semee 

De sang tres vermeil et goutee, 

Et ny a goute si petite 

Qui trop mieulx dune marguerite 

Ne vaille et qui plus precieuse 

Ne soit et trop plus vertueuse. 

Tres grant vigueur verdeur luy donne ; 

Le sang esineut at achoisonne 

De prendre cueur et faire ainsi 

Que les glorieulx martirs, qui 

Trop mieulx amerent a respendre 

Leur sang pour leur foy fort deffendre, 

Quaucunement leur feust ostee 

Pour sa vertu quauoient goustee. 

Cest pour te dormer exemplaire 

Que se tu trouues qui soustraire, 

La te vueille point ne oster 

Auant occire et decouper 

Te laisses plus tost que ten voyes 

Descharpey, car trop y perdroies. 

Bien scay que pieca les saignees 

Sen font en alees et passees, 

Car cherubin, com me tu vis, 

A son glaiue ou fourreau remis. 

Nul ne se veult plus opposer 

Aux tirans, pour la foy garder. 

Bien dient les aucuns quilz yront 

Quant leur ventre remply bien ont 

Et iurcnt et se font croiser, 

Mais quant ce vient a lexploicter 

Nest rien si froit, tout est perdu, 

Plus ne deuroit tel estre creu." 

(Ver. fol. xxiii, back.) 

4. Sloth's two ropes, Sloth and Negligence, and her five cords 
1. Hope of Long Life, 2. Eoolish Fear, 3. Shame, 4. Hypocrisy, 5. 
Despair are described in Lydgate in a passage extending from 
1. 13857 to 1. 13948. In Verard (fol. liii, back, 1) a similar de- 
scription is given, but in Stiirzinger only three cords are mentioned 
and described, viz. Negligence, Laschete or Fetardie (11. 7208-7210), 
and Desperation (1. 7230.) 

5. In the description of Avarice's hand, Treachery, there are 
various developments. Putting aside those due merely to extra 
wordiness, the most important is the short passage on the baptism of 
dead children and the trickery to which the priest resorts, which 

The scrip is 
spotted with 
drops of 
blood, which 
are more 
precious than 

The green 
gives vigour. 
The blood 
incites the 
Pilgrim to 
do as did 
the glorious 
martyrs who 
died 'for their 

and gives him 
an example 
that he should 
suffer himself 
to be killed 
rather than 
try to escape 
by giving up 
the scrip of 

lets martyrs 
enter heaven 
Now none 
will oppose 
tyrants for 
faith's sake. 

People pre- 
tend to be 
but will not 
act as such. 

xxiv* Introduction, in. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

has no counterpart in Stiirzinger. The account of this practice, how- 
ever, has not been translated by Lydgate. The whole description 
of the hand, which takes up 70 lines in Stiirzinger (9905-9974), 
extends to 92 lines in Yerard, and to just over 100 in Lydgate. 

This list contains some of the most important enlargements of the 
first version, but there are, of course, many other passages which 
bear a similar character. 

C. Passages and details which are present in Stiirzinger, but 
which are absent or much shorter in the second French and in 
Lydgate. The number of these is not very large. We may mention 
first : 

1. Nature's assertion that she is necessary to Grace Dieu 
and Grace Dieu's answer. This precedes Nature's submission in 
Stiirzinger, so we might expect to find it after 1. 3935 in Lydgate. 
However, Nature's argument is altogether absent, both from the 
second French and from Lydgate, though part of Grace Dieu's 
answer is absorbed into her long speech about her power, which 
extends from p. 97 to p. 104, in the English poem. 

A few lines of Nature's argument may be quoted : 

" Conime ne puet ouvrer, 
Ne maison bonne edefier. 
Le charpentier sans sa congnie, 
Tout aussi ne devez vous mie 
Nulle chose sans moi faire 
Se vous ne voulez mefaire." 

(Stiirzinger, 1877-1881.) 

2. The complaint of the Pilgrim that his staff is not tipped with 
iron and Grace Dieu's answer : 

" Toutevoies me deplaisoit 
Du bourdon, que ferre n'estoit. 
Dame, dis je a Grace Dieu, 
Je ne me puis tenir, par Dieu. 
Que ne vous die mon pense 
De ce bourdon qu'il n'est pas ferre ; 
Bien m'en desplaist, se sachiez vous, 
Pour autres que voi ferrez tons ; 
Si me dites, se vous voulez, 
Pour quoi tel baillie le m 'avez ! " 

(Stiirzinger, 3753-3762.) 

To this Grace Dieu answers that the pommels will hold him up, 
and that a staff with an iron point is heavier and is liable to stick 
fast in marshy places. The Pilgrim replies that he needs it for 

Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxv* 

defence, and Grace Dieu tells him that the staff is to lean on, not to 
fight with, and that she will give him armour for defence. 

3. " Tel Continence ainsi doublee 

D'aucuns Gaaignepains est nommee, 
Quar par li est gaignie le pain 
Par qui rempli est cuer humain ; 
Et ce fu figure piec'a 
Ou pain que David demanda, 
Quar Achimelech ottroier 
ISTe lui vout onques ne baillier 
Devant quil scent que engantez 
Des Gaignepains fust et armez." 

(Sttirzinger, 4213-4222.) 

This passage, which comes in the account of the Gloves of 
Continence, has nothing corresponding to it in the second French 
and in Lydgate. 

There are several other differences in the two accounts of the 
armour. For instance, the description of the girdle has less detail 
in Verard and Lydgate, and the Pilgrim's unwillingness to have the 
scabbard and girdle is not mentioned. 

4. The refusal of the Pilgrim to wear armour, and Grace Dieu's 
rebuke and explanation of the difference between his case and that 
of David (Stiirzinger, pp. 140-147). All the latter part of this is 
absent from Verard and from Lyd gate's version, in which Grace 
Dieu consents to allow the Pilgrim to use the stones and sling of 
David, instead of wearing armour all the time. 

5. In the argument between Eeason and Rude Entendement, 
Reason scorns the latter and tells him : 

" Je tenoie une opinion 
Que n'est pas un moi et mon non, 
Quar de mon non se puet parer 
Chascun larron qui va embler ; 
Et pour ce' aussi de vous cuidoie 
Quar pas apris en cor n'avoie 
Que vous et Rude Entendement 
Fussiez tout un conjointement ; 
Mais or voi bien, sans soupecon, 
Qu'estes un sans distinction. 
Vos exemples le m'ont apris 
Et vos dis qui sont si soultis ; 
Par vos paroles proprement 
Sai qu'estes Rude Entendement. 

xx vi* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

Plus arguer vous ne pouez 
Q.ue seulement ainsi nommez 
Soiez, quar par existence 
Ce estes sans point de difference." 

(Sturzinger, 5365-5382.) 

This jeer is not represented in Verard and in Lydgate, although, 
in the course of the conversation Reason addresses Rude Entende- 
ment in a sarcastic manner, but in different terms. (Lyd. 10713- 

6. In Sturzinger (6694-6735) there is a short conversation between 
the Pilgrim and his body, in which the latter advises him not to 
listen to Labour's counsel to take the right-hand path, but to choose 
instead the path of Idleness, and answers the Pilgrim's objections by 
telling him that the dividing hedge will easily be passed when he 
wishes. In Verard and Lydgate it is Youth, not Body, who turns 
the Pilgrim aside (Ver. xliv, back; Lyd. 11549-11574), the Pilgrim 
makes no objections, and nothing is said about getting through the 

7. Body's Counsel is discussed by Idleness and the Pilgrim (Stur- 
zinger, 6769-6826). This conversation is also absent from Verard and 

8. Grace Dieu rebukes the Pilgrim for listening to Idleness and 
for going on the wrong side of the hedge (Sturzinger, 6905-6992). 
In Verard and Lydgate the interview of the Pilgrim with Idleness 
is followed by the long episodes of Moral Virtue and Mortification 
of the Body, and the rebuke is absent. 

9. The short prayer made by the Pilgrim after the attack of 
Tribulation, which begins : 

" Merci, dis je, douz createur ! 
En ma tristece, en ma douleur, 
Defaillant ne me soiez rnie ! 
Se par Jeunece ai ma vie 
Une piece use folement." (Stiirzinger, 12283, f.) 

is absent from Lydgate, and is replaced by the prayer according to 
St. Bernard. In Verard's edition this is given in full, in Latin, but 
in Petit's it is abbreviated. 

10. In Sturzinger (12623-12632) the Pilgrim is struck by the 
Porter, Eear of God, on entering the monastery, in order that he 
may find 

" equipollence 
De la haie de Penitance." (Sturzinger, 12607-8.) 

Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxvii* 

as Grace Dieu has promised him. In Verard and Lydgate the Porter 
lets him in freely, on hearing that his intent " Is to do servyse to the 
Kyng." (Lyd. 22178.) 

Lydgate does not translate the last lines of the poem, in which 
the poet describes how he wakes from his dream, and begs his 
readers to correct anything they may find amiss in his work. This 
passage, however, is present in De Guileville's second version, and 
is printed by Dr. Furnivall at the end of Lydgate's poem. 

D. Under this head are included differences in the sequence of 
episodes and differences of detail. 

1. The Pilgrim's protests against wearing armour precede the 
giving of the armour in the second version (Ver. xxx, back ; Lyd. 
7237-7248 and 7267-7270). In Stiirzinger there are no objections 

2. Grace Dieu's rebuke to' the Pilgrim for refusing to wear armour 
occurs in Stiirzinger before the coming of the armour-bearer, Memory, 
and before the actual removal of the armour (p. 142). In the second 
version the rebuke is inserted in two places, just before the Pilgrim 
casts off the armour (Ver. xxxiv, back, f.; Lyd. 8283-8296), and 
after the coming of Memory (Ver. xxxvi, back ; Lyd. pp. 246-247). 
There is, however, considerable difference of detail in the different 
versions, and, in fact, that passage in Lydgate in which Grace Dieu. 
accuses the Pilgrim of umnanliness and cowardice has no exact 
counterpart in Stiirzinger, and is much shorter in Verard. 

3. In the first version the armour-bearer, Memory, is given to the 
Pilgrim immediately after Grace Dieu's rebuke to him for removing 
his armour (Stiirzinger, p. 149f.), but in the second Grace Dieu first 
brings him. the stones and sling of David, and only then presents 
Memory to him (Ver. xxxvi; Lyd. p. 242). 

4. In Verard and Lydgate these episodes are followed by a long 
conversation between Grace Dieu and the Pilgrim on Body and Soul 
and their mutual enmity, and by the release of the Pilgrim from his 
body for a season (Ver. xxxvii f. ; Lyd. pp. 248-281). In Sturzinger 
(p. 179) this conversation takes place between the Pilgrim and 
Eeason, and, moreover, the whole episode is placed after the meeting 
with Rude Entendement, instead of just before, as in the second 

5. After leaving Eude Entendement, the meeting with Youth 
follows in the second version (Ver. xliii ; Lyd. pp. 303-307), after 
which comes the episode of the two paths divided by the hedge of 

xxviii* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

Penitence. In Stiirzinger (p. 203 f.) this episode follows on the dis- 
course about Body and Soul, and Youth is not introduced until much 
later (p. 368 f.), just after the description of Satan the hunter, and 
before the enumeration of the five perils in the sea. 

There are some other slight differences in this part, for instance, 
in the second version it is Youth that makes the Pilgrim turn towards 
the wrong path, while in the first it is Body. Also, in the second, 
Idleness tells him that Penance planted the hedge (Ver. xlv ; Lyd. 
11. 11689-11723), whereas in Stiirzinger (p. 217) Grace Dieu tells 
him this, after he has started on the wrong path. 

6. The episode of the horse, Good Kenown, has already been 
referred to. In the first version it forms a part of the passage 
describing the first attack of Envy (Sturziuger, p. 270), in the second 
of the passage describing the attack of Envy on the monastery (Ver. 
xcvf.; Lyd. pp. 616-617). 

7. In Stiirzinger the threats of Wrath (p. 273-278) are followed by 
Memory's rebuke to the Pilgrim for not wearing his armour, and by 
the coming of Avarice (p. 282 f.), while in the second version 
Memory's rebuke is absent and Wrath's attack is followed by the 
coming of Tribulation (Ver. Ixiif.; Lyd. pp. 425-436), by St. 
Bernard's Prayer, and then by the meeting with Avarice (Ver. 
Ixviif.; Lyd. pp. 460-493). 

8. In Stiirzinger (pp. 318 f.), after the episode of Avarice, the 
Pilgrim is attacked by Gluttony and Venus, and robbed of his staff. 
He laments, and Grace Dieu appears to him in a cloud and restores it to 
him, afterwards giving him a "scripture " which contains an ABC 
poem to the Virgin. In the second version Gluttony and Venus 
attack him much earlier, immediately before the coming of Sloth, 
and after the vision of the Wheel of Sensuality (Ver. xlix, back f . ; 
Lyd. pp. 346-367). There is no loss of the staff, and the A B C 
comes between the incident of Fortune and her Wheel and the appear- 
ance of Astronomy-Astrology (Ver. Ixxviii f.; Lyd. pp. 526-533). 

9. Following on the ABC comes the bath of Repentance in 
Stiirzinger (p. 351 f.). In the second version this comes after the 
appearance of the Ship of Grace Dieu (Ver. Ixxxviii, back f. ; Lyd. 
pp. 582-585). 

10. Next come in Stiirzinger (p. 357 f.) the description of the sea 
of the world and of the hunter Satan, the appearance of Heresy and 
Grace Dieu's explanation of the meaning of the sea of the world and 
the hunter. (In Verard and Lydgate Satan himself gives this explan- 

Introduction, in. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxix* 

ation.) In the second version, after the interview with Avarice, we 
find the episode of the Messenger of Necromancy (absent from Stiir- 
zinger), the appearance of Heresy, the description of the sea of the 
world, of the Hunter and of Fortune's Wheel, the Pilgrim's lament 
and the ABC. (Ver. Ixxii-lxxix, back ; Lyd. pp. 494-533.) 

11. As before said, the episode of Youth is inserted at p. 368 f. 
in Stiirzinger, and is followed by the enumeration of the five perils in 
the sea (pp. 371-374). In Ver. (Ixxx-lxxxvii, back) and Lydgate 
(pp. 534-578) we find the descriptions of four of the perils, that 
of Fortune, or Charybdis, having already been given. 

12. Next in Stiirzinger (pp. 374-380) comes Tribulation, and a 
short prayer of the Pilgrim to God. In the second version Tribu- 
lation, and St. Bernard's Prayer, replacing the short prayer, come 
between Wrath and Avarice (Ver. Ivii-lxvi ; Lyd. pp. 425-458). 

13. Tribulation's departure is followed in Stiirzinger (p. 388 f.) by 
the arrival of the Ship of Grace Dieu. This conies in the second ver- 
sion after the peril of the Syren or Worldly Gladness, and is combined 
with the episode of the Bath of Penitence (Ver. Ixxxviii-lxxxix, 
back; Lyd. pp. 579-590). 

14. Here, once more, the two versions begin to run more closely 

The Pilgrim enters the monastery and meets various ladies, who 
are described, though their number and the order in which they are 
introduced differs a little. In Stiirzinger we read of Obedience, 
Decepline, Voluntaire, Povrete, Chastite, Lecon, Abstenence, 
Oroison and Latria, and in Lydgate and Verard of Lesson, Hagio- 
graphy, Obedience, Abstinence, Willing Poverty, Impatient Poverty, 
Chastity, Prayer and Latria. 

After this there are in the second recension certain episodes 
which are absent from the first, but such as exist in both versions 
follow the same order, with the exception of the incident of the horse, 
Good Eenown. 

These four categories include most of the important differences 
between the two versions and many of the minor ones ; and we may 
judge from the list that De Guileville did not spare trouble in rewrit- 
ing his poem. As will be noticed, the interpolations of new matter 
are scattered with tolerable regularity throughout the poem, but 
variations in the sequence of events are practically absent from the 
first third, while they become more and more numerous as the 
narrative progresses, until, after the middle of the book has been 

xxx* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another. 

passed, hardly three episodes will be found coming in the same 
order in the two versions. It is a matter for doubt whether De 
Guileville always improved his poem by his rearrangements and 
additions. We admit that the introduction of Impatient Poverty 
adds point to the picture of Wilful Poverty, and certainly it is better 
that Youth should appear at an early stage of the narrative than 
three-quarters of the way through, as in the first version. The addi- 
tions to the Testament of Jesus Christ are appropriate, and the per- 
sonification of the Perils in the sea certainly adds interest to that 
part of the allegory. The coming of Prayer and Alms to act as 
messengers for the Pilgrim is a good touch, and the five stones of 
David, Memory of Christ's Death, of Mary, of Heaven's bliss, of 
Hell-fire and Holy Writ, which are the sole defences of the Pilgrim 
who neglects to wear the armour of Righteousness, supply a want. 

On the whole, however, the additions and alterations tend towards 
tediousness and confusion. The long Latin poems on the articles of 
the Creed, on God in Trinity and on the Virgin Mary, are an inter- 
ruption to the narrative, as are also the long prayer which De Guile- 
ville has adapted from the writings of St. Bernard, and the verses 
in alternate French and Latin lines which set forth De Guileville's 
name in an acrostic. Possibly the inserted discussions on original 
sin, free will, the senses, influence of the stars, etc., appealed to the 
public for which De Guileville wrote ; and even to the reader of the 
present-day parts of them are by no means uninteresting. But these 
discussions are woefully long, and seriously interfere with the unity 
of the narrative. 

The additions to the later part of the allegory, viz. the attack 
of Envy on the convent, the visits the Pilgrim pays to other 
monasteries, and the abuses he sees there, evidently reflect some 
personal experience of the author's. The latter episode is specially 
interesting as showing that the monastic abuses, of which we hear so 
much in England at this period, were evidently not confined to that 
country. Despite its interest, however, it is a very evident insertion, 
and has not much to do with the general allegory. 

Not much fault can be found with the episode of Necromancy's 
messenger. Necromancy was a burning question of the day, and 
involved a real temptation to many people, and the introduction of 
this figure has no other effect upon the course of the narrative than 
to add to it so many more pages. But the appearance of Moral 
Virtue with her gate and two posterns, the episode of Mortification of 

in. Relation of the two Versions. . iv. Lydgatets Metre. 

the Body, and the vision of the Wheel of Sensuality are different. 
The Pilgrim, having definitely entered upon the road to the Heavenly 
City, having been armed, having overcome Rude Entendement by 
means of Eeason, and having been led by Youth to take the path of 
Idleness rather than that of Labour, is at once confronted by grave 
moral questions. Moral Virtue, as opposed to the recklessness and 
thoughtlessness of Youth, asserts herself, and this awaking to con- 
sciousness of the more serious side of the Pilgrim's character is at once- 
followed by new temptations and new conflicts, Lust 'fighting on the 
side of Youth and Idleness, and Mortification 'of the Body on the side 
of Moral Virtue and Labour. The extra emphasis thus laid on the 
choice that the Pilgrim has to make is certainly desirable, and adds 
to the interest of this portion of the work. But as usual the addi- 
tions are far too long and discursive. The introduction , of Moral 
Virtue and her gates is most clumsily managed, and one gets into a 
hopeless maze among all the different paths that are mentioned. We 
are told that the main gate of Moral Virtue is set across the path of 
Idleness (Lyd. 11732-11744), whereas not long after we find that the 
Pilgrim is on the other side of the hedge, and that Youth takes him 
on her back and flies with him over the hedge back to the path of 
Idleness (12729-12734). Yet we are not told in the interval that 
he has passed from Idleness to Labour, but only that he has begun 
to consider which of Moral Virtue's posterns (against which she had 
been warning him) he shall pass through (11951-11957). The 
vision of the Wheel of Sensuality is also a somewhat clumsy 

Speaking generally, we may say that De Guileville's first 
recension reads more closely, and forms a better artistic whole 
than the second version, but that some of the later additions distinctly 
add to the interest of the poem, though not invariably to its excel- 
lence as an allegory. 


Before discussing the metre of the Pilgrimage it is necessary to 
consider in some detail the question of Lydgate's treatment of 
final e. 

Roughly speaking, we may say that he follows the same general 
rules as Chaucer. 

(1) Final e is sounded before a consonant when it is the remnant 
of a grammatical inflection or of a stronger vowel. 


xxxii* Introduction, iv. Lydgate's Metre. 

835 " Lo, her ys al : avyse the." 
2950 "They muste ffaylle bothe two." 
19002 " An hunte stoode with his home." 

(2) It is sounded in many Romance words, as in French verse. 

115 "I mene the book Pilgrimage de Mounde." 
808 " Humble, benigne, & debonayre." 

19 "Fortune is ladye with her double face." 

4500 " And verray iuste confess'ioun." 

(3) Final e, that would, according to the foregoing rules, be 
pronounced, is silent when immediately followed by a vowel. 

4529 " I make hem faste, preye and wake." 

(4) It is silent before h in such slightly stressed words as hem, 
hyr, han, hath, etc., but is otherwise pronounced before h. 

57 " To holde hys cours as ledeth hym the streem." 
1519 " Softe handle the soor to seke." 

(5) It is generally silent in the personal pronouns youre, hyre, 
etc., from want of stress. 

46 "That yowre lyff her ys but a pylgrimage." 
To the foregoing rules we may add these others : 

(6) Lydgate very commonly does not sound the final e when it 
immediately precedes the caesura. On this point, however, he allows 
himself considerable freedom. 

14 "That kam with loye / departeth ay with sorwe." 
72 "Wherefore I rede / lat euery whyht a-mend." 
22 " And off al loye / that ys transytorye." 
63 " Ytakyn inne / so as they dysserve." 

(7) Final e preceded and followed by a dental is generally not 

822 " With-oute that I thy guyde be." 
1840 " That kepte the entre and the paas." 
11080 " Me sempte thys may den off folye." 

(8) Polysyllables often, though not always, lose final e, but most 
of the examples of this are doubtful, as usually some other law also 
comes into operation. Ten Brink says that the sounding is optional, 
and it seems to be the case that it rarely takes place when the 
preceding syllable is weak. 

12348 "To the heuene callyd mobyle." 
I will now analyze Lydgate's usage with regard to final e in the 

Introduction. IV. Lydgates Metre. xxxiii* 

italicized words of the following passage, indicating in each case by 
which of the preceding rules it is influenced. 

806 " And by thys dowe / wych thow dost se, 

807 Wych I here / with wynges fayre, 

808 Humble, benigne, / & debonayre, 

809 I am tookenyd, / who lyst seke, 

810 With hyr goodly eyen rneke. 

811 And so thow shalt me call in dede 

812 Whan thow hast on-to me nede, 

813 And that shall be full ofte sythe 

814 That I may my power kythe 

815 Telpe the in thy pilgrymage. 

816 ffor fynaly in thy vyage 

817 As thow gost to that cyte, 

818 Thow shalt hawe offte aduersyte .... 

821 Wych thow mayst nat in no degre 

822 Passe nor endure vfiih-oute me, 

823 Nor that cyte never atteyne 

824 (Thogh thow euer do thy peyne,) 

825 With-<wfe that I thy guyde be." 

In dowe (1. 806) the e is not organic and is therefore not pronounced. 
In various other passages we find dowli written instead of dowe. 

In bere (807), though according to rule 1 the e would be 
sounded, it is mute because it immediately precedes the caesura. 

Humble (808) has the e sounded according to rule 2. 

benigne (808). The e is mute before a following vowel. 

offte (813) is the plural form of an adjective vowel, the e is 
therefore sounded according to rule 1. 

Telpe (815). The e representing the Infin. ending is sounded 
according to rule 1. 

offte (818). The e is silent before a vowel. 

endure (822). The e is mute before the caesura. 

With-oute (822). The e is sounded before a consonant according 
to rule 1. 

cyte (823). The e is accented in French. 

With-oute (825). The next word is that, and the e is elided 
between two dentals. 

guyde (825). Sounded according to rule 2. 

There remains one word passe in 1. 822, which falls under none 
of these rules, and for the mute e in which no reason can be adduced. 

In the first seventy lines of the poem the greater number of the 
final e's follow the above rules. There are, however, a few lines in 
which the reasons for sounding or non-sounding seem doubtful. 

xxxiv* Introduction. IV. Lydgate s Metre. 

7 " Nor the tresovre / wych that ye possede." 

The sounding of the e (it is neither written nor pronounced in 
1. 17) must be explained by the liberty that Lydgate allows himself 
before the caesura, or by the fact that tresovre is a polysyllable with 
the accent on the second syllable. 

11 " Whan folk lest werie / and noon hede ne take." 

This certainly seems to be the most natural way of reading the 
line, and we must put down the sounding of the e in wene before a 
vowel to the fact that it occurs at the caesura. The final e in hede is 
only added to show length and therefore it is properly mute. 
15 " An thyng ywonne / with loye and gladnesse." 

Properly speaking, the e in loyc should be mute before and, and 
it seems to be sounded here for metrical reasons only. The e in 
ywonne is silent, according to ten Brink's rule that final e is not 
sounded in strong participles of short-syllabled verbs, when the n is 
lost. The observance of this rule seems to be common both to 
Chaucer and Lydgate. 

25 " And hyr sugre [ys] vnder-spreynt wyth galle." 

We should not sound the e in sugre if we considered only rule 4. 
It is best to read the line as one with missing auftakt, unless this is 
a case of caesura licence. 

From these examples we may draw the conclusion that though 
Lydgate generally followed the same rules as Chaucer he allowed 
himself more liberty. Especially was this the case with regard to 
polysyllabic words, in which he was accustomed to sound or elide 
the final e according to the requirements of the metre, irrespective of 
other consideration. When a final e preceded the caesura he allowed 
himself an equal amount of liberty, and when it occurred in this 
position would frequently sound an e that, according to other rules, 
should have been silent, or omit to sound one which we should have 
expected him to pronounce. 

The freedom he allowed himself in these respects was occasionally 
extended to other words in other positions, and we thus see the be- 
ginning of the N.E. pronunciation more clearly indicated in Lydgate 
than in Chaucer. 

We may now turn to the question of metre. 

The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man is written in rimed, octo- 
syllabic couplets, the measure employed being iambic. Lydgate's 
Prologue, however 184 lines in length is written in decasyllabic 

Introduction. IV. Lydgatds Metre. xxxv* 

The various types of Lydgate's 5 : beat iambic line have been given 
by Schick, and 1 have nothing to add to his conclusions. Of the 
general features of his verse a few examples may be given. 
Lydgate employed alliteration freely. 

2551 " JSTouther salue, That soor to sownde." 
3350 " Sturdyly she sette a syde." 
3352 " Brennyng bryht as any glede." 
40 " Peplys to putte in subieccyon." 
3596 " Off boundys & off botaylle." 

3711 " Unto the wylde swyn savage, 

3712 Wych that renneth in hys rage." 

But though these alliterative lines are fairly numerous they are 
employed with considerable self-restraint. For instance, in the 
' Testament of Jesus Christ' (11. 47735029) there are but 33 alliter- 
ative lines. In the description of Youth (11. 1106811212) there 
are but 22. Therefore the alliteration in Lydgate's verse never 
becomes burdensome, but rather tends to give it a little of the variety 
that it so much needs. 

Elision is common and is responsible for what constitutes a very 
marked feature of this text, viz. the habit of combining the pre- 
position to with the next word when it begins with a vowel or 
unstressed h. 

Examples are : 

1019 " Talyved euere, thys no lesyng." 
1766 " Lyk tamyglity champyoun." 
1967 " So tenduren al your lyff." 
2385 "In ta pulpet that ther stood." 
6302 " Taparceyve, in thys matere." 
6996 "Andta/?0ywfeytffetysly." 
6999 "In travers wyse, yt teribrasse" 

The, this, that and there are often combined with the following 
word in the same way. 

127 "In thenpryses wych he hath undertake." 
75 S3 " Tliassaut off brygauntys nyht & day." 
7758 " Tharmure of thyn handys tweyne." 
10869 " Thenchesoun & mutaciouns." 
2701 " TJiys to seyne, in your werkyng." 
3053 " Thys he that haueth pleyn power." 
2496-7 " And thus departyd ys your land 
In double party (thys no doute)." 

xxxvi* Introduction, iv. Lydgates Metre. 

Sometimes this combination injures the metre, and restoring the 
to would mend jit. This is the case in 11. 1766 and 2385 given 
above, and also in 1. 7778 : 

" Tarme a man in chastyte." 

It may be noticed that in the 1403 lines of the Temple of Glas 
there are but five examples of this characteristic. 

449 " I shal, baspectes of my benygne face, 

450 Make him teschewe euere synne & vice." 
517 " Ki^st so bensaumple, for wele or for wo." 
660 "For whan J>at hope were likli me tauaunce." 
827 " But f is theffecte of my mater fiiialle." 

We may imagine that this was a habit likely to increase with use, 
and in fixing the relative chronology of Lydgate's works it might be 
worth while to pay some attention to this point. 

Cases of elision, not indicated by the spelling, and of syncope are 
also fairly common : 

189 "Tyl effte agayn yt com(y)th to mynde." 
344 " That thyder wentyn ev(e)ne ryht." 
359 "As any ffyr, evene at the gate." 
483 " By vertu of crystys gret suffraunce." 
2724 " Yiif ye list to have knowelichyng." 
3114 "Tliorgh nat(u)rel Inclynaciouns." 
3813 "Or fostre your sedys blosme or greyn." 
10851 "The word(y)s that thow dost specefye." 
The caesura in the octosyllabic verse is occasionally very varied. 
Its regular place is after the fourth syllable and second accent, but 
in the first few lines of the Prologue we find it falling with quite a 
pleasing irregularity. 

" Full offte hyt happeth / in certeyn 
Of dremys-/ the wych that men ha seyn 
I nightys-/ after, whan they wake, 
fful lytel heed / there-of they take 
Tyl effte agayn / yt comyth to mynde 
That they / the veray trouthe fynde, 
euery thyng / they saw to-forn 
ffor / of remembraunce the thorn 
Pryketh here myndes / with hys poynt." 

This passage perhaps contains greater irregularities than most, 
though some of them are only apparent and are due to the fact that 
the line is acephalous. But throughout the poem it may be noticed 

Introduction. IV. Lydgate's Metre. xxxvii*" 

that Lydgatd often places the caesura in the middle of a foot, so that 
the number of syllables on each side of the pause is odd although 
the number of accents may be correct. 

In his Introduction to the Temple of Glas Schick points out 
that the rime " is, in general, pure and skilfully handled/' and that 
" the principles followed by Lydgate are much the same as those of 
Chaucer." He then proceeds to point out some peculiarities, to which 
I may add a few from the present text. 

I have found no example of -ye riming with -y in the first 4000 
lines of the poem. 

As both Schick and Sieper point out, Lydgate shares with 
Chaucer an indifference as to whether sounds are close or open. 
Thus in 1. 233 we find brode (O.E. brad) riming with stood (O.E. 

Words are occasionally rimed irrespective of length. In 11. 231-2 
wrote rimes with not ( = ne wot), and in 1. 2615 dele rimes with ivel. 
This last example however is rather an uncertain one, as in the 
expression never-a-dele, dele often lost its length through want of 
stress and was written del. So it is possible that Lydgate may have 
pronounced it short. 

The riming of a word with itself or with another word of similar 
spelling occasionally takes place. 

^L.poynt . . . poynt 1581-2; beheld . . . held 1395-6 ; ivyse 
. . . wyse 2523-4 ; yseyn . . . seyn 3291-2. 

The infrequency of double rimes may be noticed. In the portion 
of the text that I have examined for this purpose I have found that 
(putting aside those formed by final e) they are of the most ordinary 
character and confined to a small range of words. Thus we find 
such rimes as morwe . . . sorwe, (jlorye . . . tmnsytorye, double 
. . . trouble, vydorye . . . transytorye, neuere ... dysseuere re- 
peated fairly often, and occasionally come across less obvious ones, 
such as boundys . . . founde ys 3337-8, but much more frequently 
the rime is confined to the last syllable, and sometimes even when 
that syllable is a weak one. 

Ex. dever . . . power 3558-9 ; ffelonye . . . malencolye 1561-2. 

In such rimes as -Typing . . . gadryng 1269-70 the accent was 
probably on the last syllable. 

At intervals we come on rimes like borne . . . to-forn 1207-8 ; 
pray . . . seye 1214-5; kepe . . . shep 2159-60; bed . . . drede 
1697-8; crowne . . . doun 1997-8; sprynge . . . werkyng 2924-5 ; 

xxxviii* Introduction, iv. Lydgate s Metre. 

.skyle . . wyl 2689-00. Some of these may perhaps be put down 
to the copyist, but when all allowances are made we cannot help 
looking upon the frequency with which they occur as sonie proof of 
the extent to which Lydgate allowed himself to drop sonant e when 
convenient. Skyle . . . wyl is a specially good example, since the 
word skyle occurs also at 11. 2694- and 2741, and in both these lines 
it is essential' that the e- should be sounded. In 1. 2681 it is found 
again, before the caesura, with- the e mute. 

Lydgate is not strict in his use of the octosyllabic line, and 
.several distinct types can be found. 

According to Sieper these are : - 

(a) The normal line of 8 syllables and 4 accents (usually 

(b) The headless line of 7 syllables (which is often partially or 
wholly trochaic in metre). I 

(c) The 7-syllabled line in which the first thesis after the caesura 
is wanting. 

The passage descriptive of the heavenly Jerusalem displays much 
variety in the line, so it may be well to analyze it as regards its metre. 
LI, 309-11 are regular. 

312 "To Jerusalem / for to goon " 

can be read as regular if lerusale'ni be accented on the first and 
penultimate syllables. As Lydgate allowed himself some licence in 
the accentuation of names this is perhaps possible. 

Otherwise the line must be, read as acephalous with elision in 


313 *< Gfre.tlJ;. meved,/ in my corage " 

must be regarded ag an acephalous line, with extra weak syllable 
before the caesura, unless we can suppose .that the e in the -ed of 
meved was syncopated. 

314 " ffor to do / my pylgrymage," 

316 " And to tell / the cause why ". 

are both acephalous and belong to type B. , . . . 

317 " Was, ffor me thouht I hadde a syht " <' 
"belongs to type A, but may perhaps be read with an inverted first 

, 319 " Off that hevenly 7 ffayr cjte "i 1 
i an acephalous line- with resolution '-of the two syllables of Tieven. 

Introduction. IV. Lydgatc's Metre. xxxix* 

321 Also belongs to B. 

324 " Yt excellyde / off bewte " 

may be read as ^above accented or with syncopation of tlie y and 
sounding of the final e of excell(y)de. In either case it belongs to 
type B. 

326 " ffor God hym selff / was the 1 mfisGwn " - 

belongs to type A, but with exceptional inversion of the first foot in 
the caesura. Inversion of the first foot of the line is more common 
and occurs in 

329 " yt t5 cSnceyve / in hys entent" 
as well as in 346 and 348. 

330 to 334 belong alternately to types A and B. 
335 " Thg masSunry / wrought fill clene" 

is an example of type C, what Schick calls "the peculiarly 
Lydgatian type, in which the thesis is wanting in the caesura, so that 
two accented syllables clash together." 

340 " The* wych / day nor nyht ne slcpte " 

is another example of the same, but is rather exceptional because of 
the position of the caesura. 

341 " Kepyng so strongly / the entre " 

belongs to type A, and contains an example of the accentuation of 
the ending of the present participle, unless we read it with a trochaic 
first foot. Sieper however considers that the accentuation of the 
-ing may almost be regarded, as a rule, with present participles. 
This line also contains an example of unnatural accentuation on the. 

344 belongs to .type A with syncopation in ev(e)ne. 

351 " ffond, / onto hys pleasaunce " 

does not at once conform to any of the types. We may perhaps say 
that it is acephalous, with a light syllable missing before the caesura. 

354 " And yet tlie entre on swych wyse." 

Accented in this way this is a regular line of type A. We may 
notice however that in 1. 341, cited above, the 'accent is on the 
second syllable of entre, and this is also the case in 1. 430. 

" To whom thentre was not ffSrbdre." 

Therefore it is possible that 354 should be read as an example of 
type C. 

"And yet the entre / on swych wyse." 

In 1. 1840 however the accent seems to be entre. 

xl* Introduction, iv. Lydgate's Metre. 

358 " Havyng a swerd, fflawmyng as cler," 

depends for its accentuation on the question of the accentuation of 
present participles. To my ears it reads best when accentuated as 
alternate trochees and iambs, but this may not have been so with 

359 " As any ffyr,/ gvene at the 1 gate " 
belongs to type A with elision. 

360 " Aiid who that wold / erly of late " 

must surely have, like 1. 326, inversion of the first foot of the 

363 NQ bet helpe, / ne bet refut " 

must probably be explained in the same way as 1. 313. 

The remaining lines of the passage are regular examples of types 
A and B. 

Other examples of type C are : 

3979 Aiid MoysSs ek / dynSd hadde." 
3981 " Hg made A-noon / thys, the cheff." 

Lines with redundant syllables are rare, but 1. 2159 may be taken as 
such, unless we prefer to read it as a decasyllabic line. 

" Your shepperde, / that taketh of yow kepe." 

There are also, of course, a few lines which cannot be assigned to 
either of the types, such as : 

1504 " With-outen eny flatrye." 
2034 " Al the whyl that I dvvelle," 

and perhaps 1. 351, cited above, but they are wonderfully few in 
number. Altogether, Lydgate's own words in the Troy Boole: 

1 ' And trouthe of metre I sette also a-syde ; 
For of that art I hadde as tho no guyde 
Me to reduce, whan I went a-wronge : 
I toke none hede nouther of short nor longe " 

are rather more severe than the case demands, and many lines, 
apparent] y irregular, may be normalized by syncopation, elision or 
by the uncertainty of word-accent common to both Chaucer and 
Lydgate. For a discussion on this last point I will refer the reader 
to the Introduction of Reason and Sensuality, in which the whole 
question of Lydgate's metre is treated with much detail. 

Introduction, v. Lydgate' s Language and Style. xli* 


In his tribute to Chaucer on p. 527 of the Pilgrimage Lydgate 
speaks of him as 

" my mayster Chaucer .... 
That was the ffyrste in any age 
That amendede our langage " 

affording thus an interesting proof that even as soon after his death 
as 1426 the writers of the period had a clear recognition of the debt 
that the English literary language owed to Chaucer. 

Lydgate was one of those who were most influenced in this 
respect, and indeed, as Schick points out, he was even more modern 
in language than Chaucer himself. In phonology and inflexion, it 
is true, there is little difference between them, but Lydgate dropped 
many old English words which were retained by Chaucer and are 
now obsolete, and used instead words of Romance or classical origin 
which may be easily understood by us even if we do not actually 
use them. Both Chaucer and Lydgate belonged to the East Mid- 
land district, and, as we know, the dialect of this district was much 
more cosmopolitan than that of the others, both on account of its 
intermediate position and because of the fact that it was the dialect 
of London, and therefore more open to foreign influences than the 
dialects of more provincial districts. 

An intimate acquaintance with French was, of course, at this 
time common among all men with any pretensions to education, but 
both Chaucer and Lydgate travelled in France, and there is even a 
tradition, which Schick however discredits, that Lydgate was 
educated in Paris. However this may be, it is practically certain, 
as Schick points out in his chapter on the chronology of Lydgate's 
writings, that Lydgate was in Paris about 1426, that is to say, about 
the time when the Pilgrimage was begun. 

These things being so, we are not surprised that the Pilgrimage 
should contain a very large proportion of French words, especially 
when we consider two other points, firstly, that it was a translation 
from the French, and therefore its author would naturally tend to 
use words of French rather than of Teutonic origin ; and secondly, 
that it was largely concerned with questions of ecclesiastical interest* 
which, owing to the general use of Latin in matters of Church and 
Religion, would tend to increase the number of words of classical 
origin used by the author. That these last two considerations are 

xlii* Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style. 

of considerable weight \vill be more evident if we study Chaucer's 
own translations from the French. 

The deduction from the accompanying table, in which is shown 
the proportion of foreign words in passages chosen from the 
Pilgrimage and from various portions of Chaucer's writings, seems 
to be that in Lydgate the number of Romance or classical words is 
nearly 1 in 5, while in Chaucer it is about 1 in 8. The passages 
chosen from Chaucer are various in character and drawn from his 
original works ; those from the Pilgrimage have been selected so as 
to cover a considerable variety of subjects in order that the influence 
of subject on vocabulary might be minimized. 

7301-7350 . 



Decasyll. 354 
Octosyll. 279 








Cant. Tales. Prol 
Decasyll. 361 

Knight's Tale. 

Decasyll. 349 
Nonne Priestess Tale. 

Decasyll. 370 
Nous of Fame. 
Octosyll. 280 

Book of the, Duchess. 
Octosyll. 316 

Fr. or class, words. 








But if we take a poem translated by Chaucer from the ' French, 
the result is different. Thus in the first five verses of the ABC 
Prayer to the Virgin there are 306 words, 62 of which are of 
Romance origin, a proportion of about 1-in 5, as in the Pilgrimage, 

Introduction, v. Lydgate s Language and Style, xliii* 

while in the first 300 words of the translation from Boethius the 
proportion is 1 in 6. 

On the other hand, in Lydgate's Temple of Glas, which is not a 
translation from the French, the proportion of French words in the 
first 50 lines is only about 1 in 8, and in the first 6 verses of the 
Complaint to Venus in the same poem the proportion is about 
1 in 7. 

From these examples we may draw the conclusion that the great 
preponderance of words of Romance origin in the Pilgrimage is 
largely due to the fact that it is a translation from the French. 
But while we make allowances for this fact in comparing Lydgate 
and Chaucer, we must, admit that even in those cases where the 
proportion of French words is not very different, the number of 
concrete words of Teutonic origin used by Lydgate is much smaller 
than is the case with Chaucer, while those used are, with com- 
paratively few exceptions, such as may be easily understood even by 
the reader who has not studied the early forms of his native tongue. 

Lydgate is, in fact, very easy to read, though there are a certain 
number of words employed by him which we seek for in vain in the 
works of Chaucer or his other English contemporaries. Some of these 
are Latinisms lifted bodily from any text he might be engaged in 
translating or paraphrasing. Such are porrect (448/16709) and 
procelle (456/16995), both occurring in his adaptation of St. 
Bernard's Homily. Certain other forms, such as swyd 350/12882, 
'trrdk 569/21339, anc ^ towelled 597/22356, are possibly scribal errors, 
but there remain a few, such as lessellys 306/11191, botevaunt 
492/18427, devaunt 492/18428, stoupaille (for stoppel) 646/24110,. 
treygobet 317/11623, and turneys 146/5569, which, as far as I can 
discover, seem to be peculiar to him. Skouren also (106/4011) i& 
used in an unusual sense. 

The question of Lydgate's grammar and inflexions has been so- 
thoroughly treated already that I do not propose to enter upon it, 
but will pass on to the question of his literary style. 

With regard to this he was himself as modest as other writers 
were laudatory. 

" On makyng I ha no suffysaunce " 
he says in the prologue to the Pilgrimage, and again : 

" I am bareyn of all eloquence. 
Therfor I pray, what so that be seyde, 
Off geutyllesse not to be evel apayde 

xliv* Introduction. V. Lydgates Language and Style. 

And my rudnesse helpyn to excuse, 

ffor in metre I ha with me no muse : 

Noon of the nyne that on Parnase duelle, 

Nor she that ys the lady of the welle, 

Calliope, be syde cytheron, 

Gaff to my penne, plente nor f uson 

Of hyr licovr, whan thys work was begonne. 

Nor I drank no-wer of the sugeryd tonne 

Off lubiter, couchyd in his celer, 

So strange I fonde to me hys boteler 

Off poetys icallyd Ganymede. 

But to my labour now I woll me spede, 
Prayng ech reder me to reconforte, 
Benignely my rudenesse to supporte." 

Other examples are given by Schick in his chapter on the style of 
the Temple of Glas, and on reading his works one cannot escape 
from the conviction that Lydgate was justified in his modesty. 

Some of the principal points to be noted in considering Lydgate's 
style are his immense prolixity and love of circumlocutions, and of 
conventional phrases. He is entirely deficient in that essential 
mark of the stylist the knowledge when to stop. In fact, he sees 
no reason for stopping at all. His words, his lines flow forth in a 
steady stream at a steady pace. They come apparently with little 
difficulty, and when difficulties do arise they may always be met by 
the reduplication of a sentence in slightly different form or by the 
interpolation of some conventional phrase. 

These conventional phrases, very frequent in all of Lydgate's 
works, abound in the Pilgrimage to a ridiculous extent. Here are 
a few examples of them : 

3541 Nor grucche (in myn oppynyoun) 
3765 As a chamberere (in sothnese) 
4303 And on thys werm (yiff ye lyst se) 
4553 And sothly (yiff I shal nat feyne) 
4564 And told the cause (yiff ye be wys) 
4567 And sette me ek (yt ys no fable) 
6115 Consydred how (in sothfastnesse) 
6123 As she that ys (shortly to fyne) 
6947 Yet, by ther chymyng (in substaunce) 
19413 f. Many a perel (I 3011 ensure) 

And many a straunge aventure. 
19417 And many a tempeste (in certeyn) 
15439 f. Thys secounde cours (yt ys no dred) 
Doth gret good unto hyr bed. 

Introduction. V. Lydgates Language and Style. xlv* 

These expletive phrases put in to fill up a line or for the 
sake of rime, make up no inconsiderable proportion of some 
passages. Opening the book almost at random I find that in the 
hundred lines between 13200 and 13300 there are no fewer than 
22 lines finished in this manner. 

13207 (yiff thou lyst se) 13217 (in conclusioun) 

13219 (when al ys do) 13223 (yiff thow kanst se) 

13225 (yt ys no doute) 13229 (yt ys no dred) 

13237 (who kan ffele) 13239 (yt ys no nay) 

13241 (who haue a syht) 13257 (as to myn entent) 

13260 (as ye shal here) 13265 (by couenaunt) 

13268 (and lyst nat spare) 13268 (yt ys no lye) 
13276 (as ye may se) 13279 (who kan se) 

13283 (est and south) 13285 (who that touche) 

13289 (voyde of al flavour) 13293 (who taketh hed ther-to) 
13399 (yt ys no drede) 13300 (in verray dede) 

In the hundred lines between 15650 and 15750 there are 19 of 
these phrases; between 17700 and 17800 there are 16; between 
20370-20470 there are 14; indeed it is hardly possible to open 
a page without finding two or three and often many more. It is 
not necessary to expatiate on the poverty of the verse which has 
to be eked out by such devices, for, as a study of any of the above- 
mentioned passages will show, not one in ten of these phrases has 
any real connection with the subject-matter of the lines, or throws 
any further light upon what the writer is saying. No, they are 
padding pure and simple, usually inserted for the sake of rime, or 
to piece out an idea which will not naturally extend to the length 
of a couplet. 

In most cases these phrases occupy the second half of a line. 
More rarely, but yet very often, one is found covering a whole line, 
as in the following examples : 

13232 f. But to declare the trouthe pleyn, 

He dyde nat so, no thyng at al, 

In straunge felclys, for he yt stal, 

(Al be yt by fful gret lak) 

He put al in hys owne sak. 
2005 (Lyk as I shal yow de'vyse, 
2901 (As clerkys wel reherse kan). 
3073 (Yiff ye lyst to here me). 
3171 (Who that kan tlie trouthe seke). 

xlvi* Jntroduction. v. Lydgate's Language and Style. 

3203 (To seyn shortly, and nat tarye) ' 

3235 (As I be-held tho douteles) 

3539 (To speken in especyal). 

Very occasionally the expletive phrase occurs in the first half of 
the line. I have only been able to discover three examples of this 
in Part I. of the Pilgrimage, viz. : 

6474 f. Lokyng, with wych men do se, 

Unto the Eye ys porter 

(As thow well wost) and massager. 
7199 f. The tyme ys good and couenable, 

(As I ha sayd), and acceptable. 
8344 f. But Grace Dieu was nat wel plesyed 

(Shortly) of my gouernaunce. 

Examples of these inanities might be multiplied indefinitely, and 
it will be enough to note that the greater proportion of them may 
be arranged in five classes. 

(1) Those which make some appeal to or assertion of the good 
judgment and intelligence of either the reader or of the poet himself. 

As thow well wost, 6476; who so understonde kan, 4158; 
who kan se, 13279; who can discerne, 20711 ; who lyst to se, 
20618; to thyn entent, 9759; yiff ye lyst to wyte, 219; who can 
conceyue, 18683 ; by cler inspeccioun, 15013; as to myn entent, 
13257; off entencioun, 15745; by good avys, 20097; yiff they be 
wys, 12095 ; who consydreth al, 11331; who lyst taken kep, 8697 ; 
who lyst 'token her-wyth-al, 20119; who loketh al, 20133; who 
loke wel, 21922; yiff thow konn? espye, 13302; yiff yt be souht, 
12436; to myn oppynyoun, 17301; me semeth so, 17303. 

(2) Phrases that are strongly affirmative or confirmative of some 
preceding point. Such are: yt ys no nay, 10809 ; yt ys no drede, 
12117; yt ys no doute, 12209; I the ensure, 12217; wythoute 
doute, 12238; wythoute gesse, 11443; off verray soth, And off no 
lape, 21135; in certyn, 12223; douteles, 21883; I dar undertake, 
21903; of verray ryght, 2556;, yiff I shal not lye, 3333; in soth- 
nesse, 3925; yt ys no fayl, 4015; be wel certeyn, 5395; yt ys no 
fable, 2158; yt ys no jape, 12119; and many other similar expres- 
sions. To these also may be added phrases like the following : 

9286 I wolde abyde (& not remewe). 
21583 In thylke dyrke ffyr (nat bryht). 
21723 I sawh a croos stonde (and nat flytte). 

(3) Those that contain reference to authority, such as : 

Introduction. V. Lydgate's Language and Style. xlvii*" 

444 f. ffor, by record off Seyn Matthew, 
The hevene (as by hys sentence,) 
Wonnen is by vyolence. 
621 As the phylisofre seyth. 
2901 As clerkys wel reherse kan. 
14447 As the byble kan wel tel. 
14453 In hooly wryt, as yt ys ryff. 
21885 the byble seyth apert. 
13635 as I ha told. 
12043 thus seyth he. 
11457 As clerkys wryte that be sad. 

9968 As I kan reporte. 
18355 As clerkys teche. 

(4) Such expressions as ' in substaunce,' 21871; 'for to dyftyne/ 
17537; 'at a word/ 21591 ; ' to rehersyn euery del,' 21913; ' fynally/ 
21595; 'shortely to specefye,' 21621; 'for short conclusioun,' 20931; 
1 shortly to telle,' 17403; 'in conclusioun/ 15703; 'thus I begynne/ 
11441; 'in wordysfewe/9119; ' wythoute more,' 20941 which have 
reference to the form in which the poet puts his assertions, and to 
the progress of his work. 

(5) Certain adverbial expressions of place or time which are 
meant to give additional weight and detail to the circumstance 
mentioned by the poet. 

6507 f. The Messagerys (erly and late) 

Conveye yt by the same gate, 
9899 f. Eetrussen hym, and ek recharge 

(Bothe in streyth & ek in large.) 
12027 f. To kepe me bothe ft'er and ner) 

ffrom al pereyl and all daunger. 
12079 f. myn enmyes many tyme, 

(Bothe at eue and ek at prime.) 
21988 f. Nauffragus iful long I-be, 

And suffred (bothe este and weste) 

Many perel and greet tempeste. 

Besides these there are a certain number of phrases which can 
hardly be classed, and which appear to be inserted quite irrelevantly, 
such as 'lych myn entent/ 17749; 'wythoute grace,' 17754; 'in 
especyal/ 17177; < off entente/ 17405; 'in sentence/ 14431. 

The question of the reduplication of expressions has been treated 
at some length by Sieper, but as this is a very marked characteristic 
of the Pilgrimage I may give a few more examples here. 


xlviii* Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style. 

Examples of the reduplication of an idea by the employment of 
synonymous or almost synonymous adjectives, adverbs or nouns will 
be found on nearly every page. For instance : 

1324 After the custom and usaunce 
1421 f. And Receyvede ther by Ryht 

Yertu, force & gostly myght. 
1551 f. Debonayre and mercyable, 

Soffte, goodly, and tretable. 
1584 For punyshynge and Correccioun. 

1646 Thogh thyn hornys be sharp & kene, 

1647 Was humble, meke, & debonayre, 
1687 Portreye or peynte 

1752 f. And longe held her pocessyon 

Lordshepe ek & gouernaunce. 
1780 Maugre hys myght & his powste. 
1823 Whan thow fyndest or dost espye. 
1844 Kepte the fredam and fraunchyse 
2012 Ben yclyped and yshaue 
2058 Proud of your port, & ek ellat. 
1540 f. For they mynystre ther oynement 

To boystously, & no thing soffte. 

But Lydgate is not content with merely reduplicating epithets 
or single words in this manner, for very frequently we find whole 
sentences repeated, with some difference in wording but practically 
none in idea. 

5 f. ffor shortly here yovre poscessyon 

ys yove to yow but for a schort sesoun 

Nor the tresovre wych that ye possede 

Ys but thyng lent ho so kan take hede. 
14 f. That kam wyth loye departeth aye wyth sorwe; 

And thyng .y wonne wyth loye and gladnesse, 

Ay dysseuereth wyth wo and bevynesse. 
2135 f. Thys worldys veyn pleysaunce 

Wych ys so f ul off varyaunce, 

So ful of chang and dovbylnesse. 
2529 f. Yiff he be proud or obstynat, 

Dysobeyynge or ellaat, 

Hys trespace to amende 

And ne lyst nat to entende 

To be redressed by nieeknesse, 

And, thorgh pryde or Frowardnesse, 

Wyl take no correccion. 

Introduction, v. Lydgate's Language, and Style, xlix* 

2579 f. Of wych thyng he wex al sad 

And in hys herte no thyng glad. 
3771 f. The boundys constreyue your party; 

But, for al that, I go frely 

Wher that me lyst, at lyberte : 

They bounde yow, & no thyng me ; 

Close yow out, that ye nat passe ; 

But I go fre in euery place. 

We may also notice a few examples of the reduplication of an 
idea produced by a negative statement following an affirmative one. 
Such are 11. 9286, 21583 and 21723 quoted on p. xlvi* as well as 
1. 14917: 

" Yt maketh me glad, and nothyng dul." 

Without multiplying examples, which would only be tedious, I 
may point out that in some cases the parallelism persists throughout 
quite long passages. For instance, in the passage on page 68 on the 
punishment of the proud, from which a few lines have been quoted, 
nearly every sentence is reduplicated, and much the same is the 
.case with the description of Fortune in the Prologue. 

Sieper has pointed out that " wide indeed though the gulf is 
which separates his vapid verse, betraying in every line the traces 
of decadence, from the inimitable creations of Israel's golden youth, 
Lydgate is, in point of fact, not so far removed from a mere 
parallelism such as meets us in the poetry of the Hebrews," and if 
-we compare witli some of the examples given above the following 
verses from the 18th Psalm, it will be evident that as far as technical 
construction goes there is a strong resemblance between Lydgate's 
parallelisms and those of the Psalmist. 

" He rode upon the cherubims, and did fly : 
He came flying upon the wings of the wind. 
He made darkness his secret place : 
His pavilion round about him with dark water, 
And thick clouds to cover him." 
. . . He sent out his arrows, and scattered them : 
He cast forth lightnings, and destroyed them." 
"... With the holy thou shalt be holy : 

And with a perfect man thou shalt be perfect." 
Remnants of parallelism are also found in some of the Old 
English poems, arising, it is supposed, from the same cause that 
produced it among the Hebrews, viz. the construction of poems in 

1* Introduction, v. Lydgate 8 Language and Style, 

strophe and antistrophe for the voices of alternating choirs. YTe 
have not much reason however for thinking that Lydgate was 
influenced by Old English poetry in his choice of this style. It is 
more likely that he observed its use in the Psalms, with which, as 
a monk, he must have been very familiar. In any case, it is a 
construction which would appeal greatly to any one with such an 
extensive vocabulary and such a love of prolixity and diffuseness 
as Lydgate, and, as Sieper points out, it was with him "a principle 
of art consciously employed and systematically carried through." 

In fact, all through the poem Lydgate gives one the impression 
that he is striving with all his might to express himself with the 
utmost effectiveness combined with the utmost truth, but that as 
he has no infallible command of the " mot juste " and lacks the 
art to 'represent the whole by depicting only the essential lines, he 
seeks to attain his end by the employment of conscientious and 
laborious detail and by a free use of epithet and paraphrase. Other 
characteristics of his verse are the great length of his sentences and 
the freedom with which he employs the parenthesis. The result of 
this is that he often loses sight of the main current of his idea and 
produces a passage which is a mere conglomeration of sentences and 
phrases, without a shape or centre, and sometimes united by a faulty 
syntactical construction. He often gives the impression that he is 
afraid of forgetting some point that has struck him, and so writes it 
down directly it comes into his mind, careless whether or no it 
interferes with the course of his sentence. His verse is still further 
complicated by the use of the various devices of which examples 
have already been given, and the general impression we gather as 
we read is that it is not so much composed as strung together. We 
must remember, however, that in this poem at least De Guileville as 
well as Lydgate must bear the responsibility for some of the defects. 
The general construction, the monotonous manner of introducing 
the characters, the insertion of long arguments and descriptions are 
primarily due to him, as are even some of the expletive phrases and 
repetitions. Take for instance these lines : 

" Quant dieu, dist elle, adam, ton pere, 
Eut cree et eue, ta mere, 
II leur fist si grant courtoisie, 
Et leur donna tele franchise 
Quilz pouoient viure san languir, 
Sans necessite de niourir : 

Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style. li* 

Et tel grace leur octroya, 

Que rectitude leur donna, 

Et clroiz les fist en liberte 

Et franchise de volente 

Pour bien garder en eulx droicture 

Selon justice par mesure, 

En tel mauiere qne le corps 

Obeissoit a son ame lors ; 

Et si rendoient subiection 

Les forces basses a raison. 

Ce quest bas a ce que dessus, 

Les moines dignes aux dignes plus." (Petit, fol. iv.) 

This passage, represented in Lydgate by 11. 1011-1037, contains, 
as we may see, fully as many parallelisms as Lydgate was accustomed 
to employ, although we cannot deny that in some cases Lydgate 
would take one single idea of De Guileville's and express it under 
two or three forms. 

" Car, a leur dieu ilz desobeircnt, 
Et perdirent lauctorite 

De quoy dessus ie tay parle ; " (fol. iv. back.) 
In Lydgate we find (11. 1055-1061) : 

" But whan they gan to God trespace, 
They lost flier fredam and ther grace, 
Lyff also, and liberte 
And hooly ther auctoryte, 
Off wych tliou hast herd me seye." 
Again \ve read in the French : 

" Mais a quelle fin ien vendroie 

Encor pas bien pense nauoye." (fol. x.) 
Lydgate represents this by : 

" This fantasy e fyl in my tlioulit ; 
But, Got wot, I wyste nouht, 
Nor Jmewe ful lytel (at the leste) 
What was the ffyn of my requeste, 
Nor took but lytel heed ther-to." (2813-17.) 

In these extracts I have italicized those portions that have no 
exact counterpart in the French. 

There is not much to be said for the style of the Pilgrimage, but 
the little that there is it would be ungracious to omit. We must 
therefore observe that iu a few passages Lydgate really seems to take 
considerable pleasure in what he is describing and expresses his . 
feelings with some vigour, freshness and poetic feeling. The best 
examples of this are the description of the heavenly Jerusalem 

Hi* Introduction, v. Lydgate's Language and Style. 

(11. 323-53), the account of Youth (11. 11133-11212), and especially 
the passage on the revivifying power of Nature (11. 3434-3523). 

The whole question of Lydgate's style has been treated with so 
much detail and so many examples in the Introduction to Reason 
and Sensuality that it seems unnecessary to expatiate further upon 
its peculiarities. I will therefore conclude this study by giving one 
more parallel passage which illustrates in a marked degree many of 
the characteristics referred to above, especially Lydgate's love of 
amplification, explanation, and parallelism. 

; And fyrst thow shalt wel understond 
That by falsnes of this bond 
most horryble and odyous 
was brought fyrst in-to christis hous 
the false vyce of symonye 
and by his feyned trecherye, 
by his sleyte, and by his ~gyn, 
at the dove he cam not in ; 
but at some travas, lych a theffe, 
wher he dothe full gret myschefe ; 
for wher so evar he dothe aproche 
with this staife he can a-croche 
the herts of folks by covetyse 
and ordeynythe in full cursyd wyse 
sheppards to kepe christis shepe 
whiche of theyr offyse toke no kepe. 
An herdmau is [y]sayd, in dede, 
only for he shuld[e] fede 
his shepe with spyrituall doctryn ; 
but they draw by an othar lyn : 
they may be callyd, for ther werkynge, 
pastours only of fedynge, 
They fede them selff with haboundaunce, 
and let ther shepe go to myschaunce ; 
I trow it is full well ysene, 
them selfe be fatt, ther shepe be lene 
I trow, the most[e] part of all, 
men shuld them rather wolv[e]s call 
than trwe herd[e]s ; yong and old 
they come to robb[e] christis fold ; 
they shuld ther shepe from wolv[e]s 

were ; 

the wool, the mylke, away they bere. 
I can not se wher-of they serue, 
that lat ther shepe at mescheie starue, 
and put them selffe in gret defame. 
And they would eke make lame 
grace dieu of cursydnesse, 
lyke as I shall a-non exprese, 
from the trone of hir mageste 
by $:yfte of temporalite : 
his fals office I can well tell : 

C'est une main qui iutroduit 
En la maison cle iesu christ 

Par faulses broches et pertius 
Les larrons sans entrer par 1'huis 

Et quant dedans les a tirez 
Et a son croc acrochetez 

Du mesme croc croches leur faiz. 
Et pasteurs de brebis les faiz 

Pasteurs dis ie / mais ceulx ce font 
Qui se paissent et qui taut font 

Que mieulx les doit en loups claiuer 
Que pasteurs douailles nommer 

Ceulx sont qui veulent eslochier 
Grace de dieu et descrochier 

Du throsne de sa maieste 
Par dons de temporalite 

Une foiz sen font acheteurs 
Et lautre foiz in sont vendeurs 

(Ver. fol.-lxx. back,] 

he can now by en, he can now sell, 

By boundys of collusyon 

and all comythe in by syr symon. 

(11. 17965-99.) 

Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. liii* 


An edition of Bunyan's works, edited by Dr. George Offor and 
published in 1853, contains, as an appendix, a defence of Bunyan's 
originality, upon which doubts had been thrown by various authors, 
some of them of high repute. 

Dr. Dibdin in Typographical Antiquities, speaking of the 
Pilgrimage of the Soul, says: "This extraordinary production, 
rather than Bernard's Isle of Man, laid the foundation of John 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress" Dr. Adam Clarke, as he states in a 
postscript to a Life of Bunyan, considered that either Bernard's Isle 
of Man, or Spencer's Faery Queen, "if not both, gave birth to the 
Pilgrim's Progress. 1 ' Mr. Montgomery thought that the print and 
verses called The Pilgrim in Witney's Emblems suggested th'e idea 
of the book. Mr. Chambers, of Edinburgh, considered that Bunyan 
could not have been ignorant of Gavin Douglas's Palace of Honour. 
D'Israeli, in his Amenities of Literature, made the tentative sug- 
gestion that there was some connection between Bunyan's masterpiece 
and Piers Plowman. 

These ideas are briefly and in most cases effectively disposed of 
by Dr. Offor, who (after his study and analysis of these and many 
other allegorical works) had come to the sincere conclusion that not 
a sentence in the Pilgrim's Progress could be proved to have any 
other origin than the Bible or Bunyan's own mind. 

Amongst the allegories cited by him we find the Pilgrimage of 
the Life of Man, of which he gives a somewhat insufficient analysis. 
No one had so far asserted that Bunyan owed any debt to this 
particular work ; but only a few years after Offer's edition of the 
Pilgrim's Progress was published just such a suggestion appeared. 

In 1858 was published by Basil Montagu Pickering The Ancient 
Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, entitled le Pelerinage de I'Homme, 
compared with the Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan. 

This book was compiled from notes collected by the late Mr. 
Nathaniel Hill, and contained a comparison of various passages from 
Bunyan and from the second version of De Guileville's poem, as well 
as an appendix consisting of long extracts from Lydgate's version 
and a prose synopsis of many parts not thus quoted. 

Nathaniel Hill's argument takes the following course. He first 
points out the prevalence of allegorical writing for more than three 
centuries before Bunyan, and then indicates the sources from which 

liv* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

De Guileville and Bunyan "drew and embellished their com- 
positions," viz. the Bible, chivalrous literature, and the traditional 
literature of the people, such as ballads, chap-books, and the popular 
romances of Guy of Warwick, etc. 

After a dissertation on the great extent to which writers of 
genius have made use of already existing literary material, Nathaniel 
Hill goes on to bring forward evidences of the popularity of De 
Guileville's Dream in England, such as Chaucer's translation of the 
ABC poem to the Virgin, his imitation of the final passage in the 
Book of the Duchess, and the numerous translations of it which exist, 
both in prose and verse. 

He gives a list of these versions, among which he includes, 
however, several MSS. and one printed edition of the Pilgrimage of 
the Soul. To these I have not had access, but most probably they 
are translations of the second portion of De Guileville's great poem, 
that of the pilgrimage " de lame separee du corps." 

Next, ' ' in order still further to show the concurrence at least 
of ideas, if not of diction between De Guileville and Bunyan " 
Hill quotes a large number of passages from the French of De 
Guileville and from Banyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and concludes with 
various extracts from other poets such as Langiand, Walter Mapes, 
Hampole, Dunbar and Hawes by means of which he designs to 
illustrate some traditional forms of expression common in the 14th 
and 15th centuries, and also used by Bunyan. 

The general trend of his argument is, of course, to show that 
Bunyan was acquainted with De Guileville's Pilgrimage and was 
influenced by it to a considerable extent in writing his Pilgrim's 
Progress. As his editors point out, " The late Mr. Nathaniel Hill 
intended to have made the following Papers the groundwork of a 
larger publication on the Pilgrim's Progress of Bunyan, in which 
he proposed showing that Bunyan had been indebted, for many 
portions of his story, to some of the early mediaeval Eomances." 

His death prevented the carrying out of this design ; but as it 
was 011 De Guileville's poem that Mr. Hill's views were principally 
founded, this is the less to be regretted. 

The question now to be considered is how far Mr. Hill proved 
his case, and how far Bunyan appears really to have been influenced 
by mediaeval writers, and especially by De Guileville. 

That there are undoubted correspondences between the two 
pilgrimages may be at once admitted. 

Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Iv* 

Each is in the similitude of a dream and describes the journey of 
a pilgrim to the Celestial City. In each case a heavenly guide to 
point out the way, to rebuke or to encourage, is given to the pilgrim ; 
in Christian's case Evangelist, in De Guileville's Grace Dieu. Each 
pilgrim also receives a mark of consecration, though De Guileville is 
" crossyd " at his baptism, and Christian's mark in his forehead is 
not given him until he stands before the Cross of Christ. Each is 
beset in his path by difficulties and adversaries. Christian meets 
with Worldly Wiseman, Apollyon, Vanity Eair and its inhabitants, 
Demas who tempts him to turn aside for money, Giant Despair who 
catches him as he wanders in By-Path meadow, the Elatterer, 
Atheist and Ignorance. In De Guileville we get figures cor- 
responding to all or nearly all of these. Beside Ignorance we may 
place Eude Entendenient. Eor Apollyon we have Satan the Hunter, 
for Demas, Avarice with her golden idol. Giant Despair catches the 
pilgrim who seeks easy going in a by-path, the cord of Desperation is 
ready for him who is overcome by Sloth. 

For Vanity Eair we have the Sea of the World ; and for Envy, 
Superstition, Lord Casual Delight, Lord Desire-of- Vain-Glory, Mr. 
Malice, Mr. Love-Lust and the others we find Envy, Astrology, 
Fortune, Conspiracy and Worldly Gladness, who possess between 
them nearly all the amiable characteristics Bunyan has personified in 
his description of the inhabitants of Vanity Fair. 

Instead of Worldly Wiseman we have Reason and Nature, who 
resent the doings of Grace Dieu as Worldly Wiseman scorns the 
counsel of Evangelist. 

The house of Grace Dieu in which the Pilgrim sees the wonders 
of the ointments, the sword and keys and the sacramental change, 
and hears the explanations of these things from Reason and Grace 
Dieu, is represented in Bunyan by the Interpreter's House, in which 
Christian is taught many profitable things ; and the " chaumbre ful 
secree " into which Grace Dieu leads the Pilgrim to receive his 
armour stands, perhaps for the House Beautiful in which Christian 
is similarly endowed. The meaning of the armour is the same in 
each narrative, and it even seems to me that I can perceive some 
concurrence of idea in the fact that Grace Dieu suffers the Pilgrim 
to go unarmed, save for sling and stone, while Faithful also passes on 
his pilgrimage without visiting the House Beautiful or receiving the 

There are other correspondences of a more or less doubtful 

Ivi* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

character. The wicket-gate, placed by Bunyan at the beginning of the 
path, is mentioned by De Guileville as the actual entry to the Celestial 
City, while either Moral Virtue's gate or the river of baptism cor- 
responds more nearly to Bunyan's wicket. (Nathaniel Hill compares 
this river with the Slough of Despond.) 

Christian and Faithful receive certificates on starting, which are 
to be given in at the gate of the city when they arrive. De 
Guile ville's Pilgrim is presented with a scrip and staff " wych al 
pilgrymes ouhte to have," and which they leave outside the gate on 

Christian receives a roll of promise after the sight of Christ's 
Cross has freed him from his burden. De Guile ville's Pilgrim also 
receives rolls at various times for his instruction or comfort, such as 
the poems on the Creed and the Trinity, and the bill of Grace Dieu 
containing the ABC, which is brought to him after he is cast off 
by Fortune. In more close correspondence with Christian's roll, 
however, is the Testament of Christ in which the gift of peace is 
bequeathed to man. 

But, close though some of these resemblances may seem to be, 
the differences, and especially the implicit ones, are far more striking. 
Thus, though both Christian and De Guileville's Pilgrim j are moved 
by powerful impulses to go on pilgrimage, the manner of the incite- 
ment is sharply contrasted, since in Christian's case the moving 
cause is fear of judgment, while in De Guileville's it is the vision 
of celestial happiness. 

It must be noticed, however, that as Christian walks with 
Pliable towards the wicket-gate, he discourses to him concerning the 
Heavenly Kingdom in terms which bear some resemblance to those 
of De Guileville's vision. (Lyd. 345-438.) 

"There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlasting 
life to be given us, that we may inhabit that kingdom for ever. . . . 
There are crowns of glory to be given us ; and garments that will 
make us shine like the sun in the firmament of heaven. . . . There 
shall be no more crying nor sorrow ; for He that is owner of the 
place will wipe all tears from our eyes. . . . There we shall be 
with seraphims and cherubims, creatures that will dazzle your eyes 
to look on them. There also you shall meet with thousands and ten 
thousands that have gone before us to that place. None of them 
are hurtful, but loving and holy, every one walking in the sight of 
God, and standing in his presence with acceptance for ever. In a 

Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Ivii* 

word, there we shall see the elders with their golden crowns ; there 
we shall see the holy virgins with their golden harps ; there we 
shall see men that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames, 
eaten of beasts, drowned in the seas, for the love that they bore to 
the Lord of the place, all well, and clothed with immortality as with 
a garment." 

Very marked is the difference between the ways in which the 
two Pilgrims are freed from the burden of sin. To begin with, 
Christian is conscious of the burden ; its presence is terrible to him 
and he seeks earnestly to be rid of it. De Guile ville's Pilgrim has 
apparently no sense of sin : 

" What nedyth yt to wasshe me, 
Or bathe, Avhen yt ys no nede ; 
ffor I am clene washe in dede 
ffrom al felth and unclennesse." (11. 970-973.) 

and even after Grace Dieu's long explanation of the doctrine of 
original sin, he does not appear to be inwardly convicted so much as. 
convinced of the hopelessness of rebelling against authority : 

" Tharme me sempte yt was but veyn, 
More for me to speke a-geyn, 
Or make replycacioun 
Ageynys her oppynyoun." (11. 1291-1294.) 

The Pilgrim is freed from this original sin by the washing of 
baptism, but Christian bears his burden long after he has entered 
upon the strait path, nor does he leave it in the Interpreter's House 
(which, as above said, may be taken to correspond to the Church, 
or house of Grace Dieu), but only before the Cross of Christ. 

There is, however, a passage further on in the Pilgrimage, in 
which the Pilgrim admits his inability to return to innocence through 
his own efforts, and is directed by Grace Dieu to look for help to 
the four parts of Christ's Cross (12441-12673), which may be com- 
pared with the loosing of Christian's burden before the Cross. 

Another point of difference is that De Guileville's allegory is a 
pilgrimage of the life of man, and follows the Pilgrim from birth to 
death (see 11. 643-651 and 1. 975) though the device by which an 
infant is made to discuss the doctrine of original sin seems somewhat 
lacking in even allegorical fitness, while the Pilgrim's Progress 
only begins when Christian is first awakened to the sense of sin, 
and deals purely with his spiritual experiences. The Pilgrimage 
also is chiefly concerned with spiritual experiences, but when we 

Iviii* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

reacli the part at which the Pilgrim enters the monastery, the 
allegory frequently fails, and we are treated to long descriptions 
which, though symbolical in a way, are yet distinct deviations from 
the original path of the allegory, and represent rather objective 
occurrences than the personal experiences of the soul. 

But the greatest difference of all consists in the fact that De 
Guile ville's poem is to a great degree an exposition and enforcement 
of the chief doctrines of the Eoman Church, and the experiences 
through which the Pilgrim passes are such as would best throw into 
relief the powers and prerogatives of that Church. Thus all the 
preparation which the Pilgrim receives for his journey is Church 
preparation. He is baptized, he is instructed in the Sacraments, and 
in the points of priestly dominion, he is taught (by the extraordinary 
episode of the placing of his eyes in his ears) to rely upon authority 
only, he is warned against too great reliance on reason, he is presented 
with the 

" articles off our creaunce, .... 
The wych wer mad (with-oute stryff) 

(6911-69H) In hooly cherche prymytyff." 

And then, finally , when he has passed through the various incidents 
of his progress, and with stained conscience cries to God for help, it 
is to penance and the discipline of the Church, as exercised in 
monasteries, that Grace Dieu bids him resort in order to defend 

(22111) " Ageyne the ffende and alle his myght." 

We see therefore that the spirit pervading the Pilgrimage of the 
Life of Man is, in spite of many resemblances of detail, very 
different from that which animates the Pilgrim's Progress. This, 
however, would not in itself be enough to prove that Bony an was 
not influenced by the older* work, for we might well suppose that 
if he were acquainted with the allegory he might adopt the general 
idea and such details as pleased him, and throw them into a form 
accordant with his Puritan theology, while rejecting all those parts 
which were an offence to him. 

But there are other arguments against this theory. 

First we may notice that Bunyan is not at all likely to have had 
any acquaintane with the Pilgrimage. Lyd gate's poem had never 
been printed, only three copies of it are known, and therefore its 
circulation must have been comparatively small ; nor can we suppose 
that Bunyan, an unlearned man of low rank, would be likely to 

Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. lix* 

have access to such a manuscript, or that he would be able to read 
it even if he had come across it. 1 

We have what seems to be a fairly trustworthy record of the 
meagreness of Bunyan's library. He was put to school as a boy 
and taught to read and write, " the which I also attained, according 
to the rate of other poor men's children, though to my shame I con- 
fess I did soon lose that I had learned even almost utterly, and 
that long before the Lord did work his gracious work of conver- 
sion upon my soul." 

We see, from this passage, that Bunyan cannot have read much 
prior to his conversion. Serious books we know he avoided, 
for he tells us that " when I have seen some read in those books 
that concerned Christian piety, it would be, as it were, a prison 
to me." 

Books of a more worldly type were perhaps occasionally read by 
him if we may take as embodying personal experience the passage 
in Sighs from Hell where a lost sinner confesses to Abraham the 
manner in which he treated the Scriptures. "The Scriptures,"' 
thought I, " what are they ? . . . . Give me a ballad, a news-book, 
George on Horseback, or Bevis of Southampton." But it is not 
likely that such books were a great temptation to him, or we should 
surely have had detailed reference to them, along with the other 
temptations of his youth, in Grace Abounding. 

It is expressly recorded that at his marriage his wife brought 
him two books, The Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven and the 
Practice of Piety, and that these he sometimes read. Foxe's Book 
of Martyrs was one of his most cherished possessions, and Luther's 
Commentary on Galatians, which he happened to come across in a 
time of conflict and darkness, drew from him the testimony that he 
preferred it before all the books that eve he had seen, excepting the 
Holy Bible, as most fit for a wounded conscience. 

So far, then, as we can gather from existing records these few 
books, together with the Bible, formed his library. Of course it 
is possible that there may have been others, but it is unprofitable to 
speculate on the point since in one Book alone the Bible supple- 

1 It is however true, as has been before noted, that a condensed English 

Erose version of De Guileville's poem, a copy of which is found in St. John's 
ibrary, Cambridge, existed in the seventeenth century ; and though it is not 
very likely that Bunyan saw even this, it is possible that the story may have 
been told to him by one who had done so. 

Ix* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

mented by Banyan's own experience, we may trace all the influences 
necessary for the production of the Pilgrim's Progress. 

As the numerous marginal references show, the very passage on 
the Heavenly Jerusalem, which has been compared above with 
Lydgate's description of the same, is drawn in almost every par- 
ticular, and sometimes word for word, from the Bible. Christian's 
armour is the armour of God described in Ephesians vi. 11-17. The 
fight with Apollyon is an amplification of the text " Resist the devil 
and he will flee from you" (James iv. 7). The description of the 
Valley of the Shadow of Death is drawn from various passages in the 
Psalms and in Job ; the origin of the idea of Vanity Fair is indicated by 
many references, to the kingdoms of this world shown to our Lord 
by the Tempter (Matt. iv. 8 ; Luke iv. 5, 6, 7); to the necessity for 
passing through the temptations of the world (1 Cor. v. 10); to the 
lamentations over the vanity of transitory things in Ecclesiastes. 
All through the book the language of the Bible is employed ; the 
figures and symbols used are those drawn from Holy Writ; the 
doctrines insisted upon are supported by scriptural reference after 

And what of the general course of the allegory and the per- 
sonages represented in it] In almost every point it may be 
brought into line with Banyan's own experiences. The course of 
his early religious life his first awakening, his attempts to attain 
righteousness by the deeds of the law, his despair when he dis- 
covered the shallowness of this reformation, the instruction he 
received from the Baptist minister, Mr. Gifford are all faithfully 
reflected in the experiences of Christian as he travels towards the 
wicket-gate, in his acceptance of the arguments of Worldly Wiseman, 
in his struggles in the Slough of Despond, in the character and 
words of Evangelist. 

It was a sermon on the love of Christ which opened the wicket- 
gate to Bunyan's soul, and revealed to him the mind of that One 
who was "willing with all his heart" to let him in. In the 
character and house of the Interpreter we may trace again the 
figure of Mr. Gifford and the religious assembly over which he 
presided ; in the terrible picture of the Valley of the Shadow of 
Death we may follow the experience of those months of conflict 
during which Bunyan was so tormented by spiritual tempta- 
tions and by the influence of his early sins, that nothing but the 
grace of God can have preserved the balance of his reason. It 

Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Ixi* 

was at this point that lie came upon Luther's Commentary on 
Gcdatians; and, as Dr. Cheever points out, this may be " the original 
of just that beautiful incident recorded in the progress of Christian 
through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, where, when Christian 
had travelled in this disconsolate condition some considerable time, 
he thought he heard the voice of a man as going before him, saying, 
' Though I walk through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I will 
fear no ill, for Thou art with me.' This, doubtless, was Luther's 
voice ; and by it Bunyan perceived that some others who feared God 
might be in this valley as well as himself, and that God was with 

]S"or can we fail to trace in the other personages of the allegory 
a resemblance to many he must have met, especially in such 
characters as Pliable, Talkative, Little Faith, Worldly Wiseman, 
and the Judge and Jury in Vanity Fair, all of them types likely to be 
produced by the political and religious conditions which prevailed at 
the time when the Pilgrim's Progress was written. 

It is unnecessary to pursue this line of argument further, and I 
will conclude with Bunyan's own testimony to the originality of his 

" The Bible and the Concordance," he says in one place,, '* are 
my only library in my writings, and I never fished in other men's 

Again, in the poetical preface to the Holy War, writing to defend 
himself against the assertion that the Pilgrim's Progress was not 
his, he says : 

" It came from mine own heart, so to my head, 
And thence into my fingers trickled ; 
Then to my pen, from whence immediately 
On paper I did dribble it daintily. 
Manner and matter, too, was all mine own, 
Kor was it unto any mortal known 
Till I had done it ; nor did any then 
By books, by wits, by tongues, or hand, or pen, 
Add five words to it, or wrote half a line 
Thereof ; the whole, and every whit, is mine." 

In The Author's Apology for his BooJc prefixed to the Pilgrim's 
Progress there is further evidence to the same effect. This apology 
contains Bunyan's reasons for writing in the allegorical style, a style 
which he defends by reference to the symbols and parables of Holy 

Ixii* Introduction. VI. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

Writ, and lie gives also an account of the inception and beginning 
of the Pilgrim's Progress. 

" When at the first I took my pen in hand 
Thus for to write, I did not understand 
That I at all should make a little book 
In such a mode ; nay, I had undertook 
To make another, which when almost clone, 
Before I was aware, I thus begun. 

And thus it was : I, writing of the way 

And race of saints in this our gospel-day, 

Fell suddenly into an allegory 

About their journey and the way to glory, 

In more than twenty things, which I set down ; 

This done, I twenty more had in my crown ; 

And they began again to multiply, 

Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly. 

Nay then, thought I, if that you breed so fast, 

I'll put you by yourselves, lest you at last 

Should prove ad inftnitum, and eat out 

The book that I already am about." 

These extracts make it evident that Bunyan (even though further 
on he declares that for the practice of using figures and similitudes 
he has 

" Examples, too, and that from them that have 
God better pleased by their words or ways 
Than any man that breatheth now-a-days,") 

was certainly not aware of being affected by any external influences. 
Of course it is possible that there may have been literary influences 
at work of which he was not conscious, and that the idea of the 
dream, the journey from this world to the next, and perhaps a few 
minor details may have been due to such. But it has been pointed 
out that there is no necessity to resort to the theory, nor are the 
correspondences between Lydgate's Pilgrimage and Bunyan's 
Pilgrim's Progress sufficiently unmistakable to counterbalance the 
improbability of the assumption that the younger writer should 
ever have come across the work of the elder. 

Ixiii 1 




PARIS. Bibl. Nat. MS. Fonds. franc. Nos. 376, 823, 824, 1139, 1647, 
1818, and many others. A complete list is given in the Roxburghe 
edition of Deguileville's first recension (Stiirzinger). 
LONDON. Brit. Mus. Add. 22937. Vellum. Les trois pelerinages, 

about 1450. 
Add. 25594. Vellum, 14th cent. Includes Pelerinage de la Vie 

Humaine and Pelerinage de Fame. Both imperfect. 
Harley, 4399. Vellum, 15th cent. Pelerinage de la Vie humaine. 
Lib. of Lord Aldenham. The three Pilgrimages. 
Lib. of A. H. Huth, Esq. The three Pilgrimages. 
ASHBURNHAM PLACE. Lib. of Earl of Ash. 

Coll. Barrois, 488. The first and second Pilgrimages. 
Coll. Barrois, 74. The first Pilgrimage. 
CHELTENHAM. Lib. of late Sir T. Phillipps. 3655. The first Pilgrimage. 


PARIS. Bibl. Nat. . frc. 377, 825, 829, 1138, 12466. 
Bibl. de V Arsenal, 3646. 
Bibl. de VInstitut, 20. 

ST. PETERSBURG. Bibl. Imperiale. F. xiv, No. 11. 
HAIGH HALL. Lib. of Earl of Crawford. Fr. 4. 

LOND. Brit. Mus. The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, by Lydgate, 
englished from the second recension of Deguileville's Pelerinage. 
Three MSS. exist, viz. 
15 cent. Cotton Coll. Vitellius C. xm. The Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 

Vellum, imperfect at the beginning. 

14 cent. Cotton Coll. Tiberius A 7. The Pilgrim. Vellum, imperfect. 

Pilgrimage of the world, by commandement of the Earle of Salisbury, 

1426. Alluded to by Thomas Speght, in his list of Lydgate's works 

at the end of his Siege of Thebes. Fol. 394 in Chaucer's Workes, 

1598, ed. Speght. 

This must be the Stowe MS. 952, as Speght says it is " in the custodie 
of" John Stowe. 


Ixiv* Introduction. Bibliography. 


PABIS. Imp. Lib. Nos. 1137, 1646. Le livre du pelerinage de vie 
humaine. Jean Gallopes. 

Ditto, in Lord Aldenham's Library. According to the armorial bearings 
therein, this copy belonged to Rene de Laval, cousin of Jeanne de 
Laval, third wife of King Rene of Naples. 
OXFORD. Bodl. The Pilgrimage of Man. (Laud Misc. 740.) 

Univ. Coll. and Corpus Christi. (These last two MSS. have not yet 

been collated, but are believed to be both of the same version.) 
CAMBRIDGE. University Library. (Ff. 5. 30). Pilgrimage of the Lyf of 
the Manhode. About 1430, On vellum. An almost literal transla- 
tion of Deguileville's first recension. 

Univ. Lib. (Ff. 6. 30.) The Pilgrime, or the Pilgrimage of Man in 
this World. Wherin y e Authour doth plainly & truly sett forth y e 
wretchednes of mans life in this World, without Grace, our sole 
Protectour. Written in y 6 yeare of X*, 1331. 

Colophon. "Written according to y* first copy. The originall being in 
St John's College in Oxford (now in Bodleian), and thither given by 
Will Laud, Archt>p. of Canterbury, who had it of Will. Baspoole, 
who before he gave to y 6 Archfcp. the originall, did copy it out. By 
which it was verbatim written by Walter Parker, 1645, and fr5 
thence transcribed by G. G. 1649. And fro thence by W. A. 1655." 

St. John's College. (G. 21.) Northern dialect. 

Magdalene College. MS. Pepys 2258. Same title as Ff. 6. 30. Univ. Lib. 
The colophon runs : " Heere ends the Romance of the Monke which 
he wrote of the Pilgrimage of the life of the manhoode, which he 
made for the good pilgrims of this world that they may know such 
way as may bring them to ye joyes of Heaven. Pray for him yt 
made it & gratis 1 writt it for the love of good Christians in the 
yeare one thousand three hundred thirty & one." 

Folio, illustrated with coloured drawings. 
GLASGOW. Hunterian Museum. Q. 2. 25. 


OXFORD. Le romant des trois pelerinaiges. Paris. B. and J. Petit. 
Printed by B. Rembolt. Douce, D. subt. 58. 4. Also in Brit. Mtis. 
and in the Library of Mr. Alfred Huth. 

Le pelerinage de Fhomme. Nouvellemet imprime a pan's. Le qua- 
triesme iour dauril mil cinq cens et onze deuat Pasques Pour anthoine 
Verard demourant en la dicte Ville. (Douce, G. 285.) (Also in 
Brit. Mus.) 

Le pelerin de vie hurnaine tres utile et proffitable pour cognoistre 
soyrnesmes. Known to be by Jean Gallopes, though he does not 
give his name. This version was made by order of " Dame Jehane 
de Laual royne de Iherusalem et de Secille, duchesse daniou et de 
Bar contesse de Prouence." Printed at Lyon by Claude Nourry in 
1504. (Douce, P. 339.) 

Delft Edition. " Die is dat boeck vanden pelgrim welck boeck nuttich 
ende profitelick is alien kersten menschen te leren den wech welcken 
wech men sculdich is te ghaen ofte laten, die haer pelgrimagie 
doen moeten in deser warelt tot de ewighe leuen." (Douce, 46.) 

1 Should this be gart caused, as in another copy ? 

Introduction. Bibliography. Lxv* 

Colophon. " Hier eyndt dat boeck vanden pelgrym. En is gheprincte 
Delf in Hollant. By mi heynrick Eckert van Homberch, Intiaer ons 
heeren M.cccc vin. den vutsten dach van april." The Royal Library 
at the Hague contains another edition of this book, printed at 
Haarlem, similar to the Delft edition in illustrations and text, except 
that a few words, relating how the author awoke from his dream, 
are added at the end, and that there are some variations in spelling. 

" The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guilleville, entitled Le Pelerinage 
de 1'Homme, compared with the Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan, 
edited by notes collected by the late Mr. Nathaniel Hill," 1858. 

A modern prose Translation (that is, Abstract) of ... The Pylgrimage 
of Man. Lond. 1859. Isabella K. Oust. 

Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode. Ed. by W. Aldis Wright. 
Roxburghe Club publication 1869. (From the MS. Ff. 5. 30, in the 
University Library, Cambridge.) 

Le Pelerinage de vie humaine. Ed. by J. J. Stiirzinger, Roxburghe 
Club, 1893. First recension. 

" The Peregrination of Mannes Lyfe," enumerated by Skelton as among 
his prose works. Warton (Hist, of Eng. Poetry, III, 163, ed. 1824) 
thinks this may have been a translation "from the French, perhaps 
of Guillaume, prior of Chaulis," (Not extant.) 

On the fly-leaf of Verard's edition is the following MS. note : " This 
Romance had been printed in the Castilian language as early as 
1480 under the following title' El peregrinage de la vida humana 
compuesto por Fray Guillelmo de Gralleville Abad de Senlis, 
traduzido en volgar Castillano por Fray Vincentio Mazuello en 
Tolosa por Henrique Aleman, 1480, in folio. V. Marchand, hist, de 
1'imprimerie.' " 

The book in Queen's College Library, Oxford, called in the catalogue 
"The booke of the pilgrymage of Man. (Translated into English 
metre, by an anonymous writer, from a prose version by William 
Hendred, Prior of Leominster, of the French work of Guillaume 
de Guillerville.) London, Richard Faques (about 1525 ?)" is not a 
translation of the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, but is quite a different 

As above noted, the second recension of Deguileville's poem, which 
is the version afterwards put into English by Lydgate, exists in 
England in MS. in Lord Crawford's Library, and in print in the 
Brit. Mus., in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and in the library of 
Mr. Alfred Huth. In both the Brit, Mus. and the Bodleian we find 
two editions. 

(1) Le romant des trois Pelerinaiges. Le premier pelerinaige est de 
1'homme durat quest en vie, 

Le second de lame separee du corps. 

Le tiers est de nostreseignr iesus en forme de monotesseron : cest a 
sauoir les quatre euagiles mise en une : et le tout magistralenient 
cointemet et si utilemet pour le salut de lame quon ne pourront 
mieulx dire ne escrire, fait et compose p 2 frere guillaume de deguile- 
vilie en son vitrat moyne de chaaliz de lordre de cisteaux. 

This edition was printed in Paris by B. Rembolt for Bartholde and 
Jehan Petit. It bears no date, but is ascribed by Stiirzinger to 
about the year 1500. 

(2) Le pelerinage de 1'homme. nouelleinet imprime a paris. Le qua- 
triesine iour da mil mil cinq .cens et onze deuat Pasques. Pour 

Ixvi* Introduction. Bibliography. 

anthoine Verard demourant en ladicte Ville Et a le roy nostre sire 
donne an dit Verard lettres de priuilege et terme de trois ans pour 
Vendre et distribuer ses ditz liures afBn desire rembourse de sea 
fraiz et mises et deffend le dit seigneur a tous libraires / imprimeurs 
et autres de ce royaulme de imprimer ce present liure iusques apres 
trois ans du iour de la date cy dessus mise sur peine de confiscation 
des ditz liures. This edition (which contains only the first of the 
three pilgrimages) is slightly different from that of B. and J. Petit. 
The differences, in most cases, are verbal variations not affecting the 
sense, though in a few places the wording of as many as four or 
five lines is distinct. The prose prayer according to St. Bernard is 
present in Verard, but in Petit is replaced by about a page of De 
Guile ville's verse. 

The other differences are editorial. Verard contains a table of contents 
according to the chapters, Petit has an alphabetical table. Each 
contains a Prologue du Correcteur, identical as to the earlier verses. 
In the last verse, however, there is a variation, according as the 
publication of the book had to be ascribed to Bertholde (Petit) 
or to Anthoine Verard, and Petit's Prologue contains two extra 
verses, which explain that the Jerusalem spoken of in the poem is 
the Celestial Jerusalem, and that the contents of the book must be 
understood "rnoralement et non pas literalement." 



Cotton. Vitellius C. 13. Brit. Mus. Vellum. Folio. 

THIS MS. belonged to the collection of Sir R. Cotton, and was injured 
in the fire at his library. It has been burnt and torn at the top, with the 
result that the script in this part of the pages is frequently illegible. 
Otherwise, however, it is in good condition, and, with the exception of 
fol. 1, the ink has kept its colour well. 

The script, which is fifteenth century in character, is small, neat and 

The MS. is written in black ink, without illustrations, ornamental 
capitals or decoration, although spaces for illustrations have been left. 
Red ink has been used to touch up the initial letters of the lines as far as 
fol. 155, and red ink headings and phrases are to be found, but in some 
parts they are written in black, as are also the occasional sidenotes. Here 
and there the headings have been omitted, and have been put in by 
another and later hand. 

Portions of the cover and fly-leaves remain. The fly-leaf at the end is 
scribbled over in various hands on one side, and on the reverse is a note : 
" Our Ladye's A. B. C. 50 leafes from the end." In the MS., however, 
the A. B. C. does not appear, though there is a blank left for it. 

The MS. consists of 311 folios, including fly-leaves, and contains about 
21,600 lines of Lydgate's poem, about 3,200 lines being missing. The 
principal gaps occur after fol. 253, between the lines 

"I holde thys false pardownerys" (1. 17901), and 
"And fro my whel when they are falle" (1. 19551). 

The next considerable gap comes at fol. 286, between the lines 

"Ma dame then anoon quod I" (1. 21949), and 
"How euerych dede in his degre" (1. 23367), 

and after fol. 241 

"That they resowne no maner thyng" (1. 16080), to 
" Wych by the ground ful lowe lay " (1. 17062), 

which passage includes th.e whole of the prayer according to St. 

Cott. Tiberius A. 7. Brit. Mus. Vellum. Quarto. 

The volume in which this Lydgate MS. is found contains also some 
Latin Chronicles and Poems. The fragment of Lydgate's poem begins at 
p. 39 of the volume with the conversation between the Pilgrim and 
Avarice, at 1. 18313, "May into heven have none entre," and consists of 
rather less than 4000 lines. 

The first page is much stained, and at intervals throughout the MS. 
there are portions scorched or injured by the use of galls, but in most 
cases the injury is not enough to render the script illegible. At fol. 98 of 

Ixviii* Introduction. The MSS. 

the volume, however, the work of the fire becomes more evident, and as 
we go on we find that the MS. becomes illegible in the midst of the 
conversation between the Pilgrim and Obedience, and ends with fol. 106 
of the volume. After fol. 62 some leaves are missing after the catch- 
words, "Or what answere" (1. 19712), until "Thys tooknys nor thys 
bowys grene" (1. 20416), and also after fol. 64, from "And in this world 
(bothe fer & ner) " (1. 20557), to "That god wolde helpe me on my weye" 
(1. 20812). The fragment ends with 1. 23676, "Arid the fatte away thei 

The MS., which is on vellum, is beautifully written in a neat and very 
legible fifteenth-century hand, and is illustrated with fifty-three coloured 
drawings. It is also decorated on several pages with tail-pieces of a 
floral design, enclosing catch-words intended to secure the sequence of 
the sheets. 

The MS. is written in black ink, proper names, some notable phrases, 
and the few sidenotes being in red. The capitals are in red and blue, 
with elaborate red flourishes, which in some cases extend nearly the whole 
length of the page. 

The illustrations, although grotesque, are not lacking in a rude impres- 
siveness, and the figures often have considerable vigour of action and 
expression, in spite of the imperfections of the drawing. 

The illustrations represent the following subjects : 

(1) Avarice and Death showing their boxes. 

(2) The martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 

(3) Avarice and Youth. 

(4) The Pilgrim and the Messenger of Necromancy. 

(5) The pavilion of Necromancy. 

(6) The Messenger demonstrates how spirits are raised. 
The Duke of Frieseland refuses to be baptized. 
Necromancy, the Messenger and the Pilgrim. 
Heresy calls to the Pilgrim. 

Heresy trying to reshape the Pilgrim's scrip. 

Satan and Heresy trying to catch the Pilgrim in nets. 

Satan and Heresy casting nets into the sea. 

Satan fishing for Pilgrims in the sea. 

A hermit, deceived by Satan, kills his own father. 

Satan the hunter lamenting. 

The Pilgrim swimming in the sea. 

The Pilgrim cast on Fortune's Wheel. 

Fortune on her Wheel. 

A carpenter kneeling before an idol in the house of Idolatry. 

An altar-piece of Christ, Apostles, Prophets and Martyrs. 

The Pilgrim caught by Sorcery. 

(22) The school of Satan, in which Sorcery learnt. 

(23) The Pilgrim, on an island, is attacked by Conspiracy. 

(24) Two kings, and the treacherous soldiers of one surrendering to the 


25) The Pilgrim on an island in the sea. 

26) The Pilgrim and the flaming tower. 

(30 The Pilgrim lamenting on his island. 

(31) The ship of Religion comes to the Pilgrim. 

(32) Grace Dieu descends from the ship to meet the Pilgrim. 

Worldly Gladness, a bird-man, flying to the Pilgrim. 
The worldly joys of love and gambling. 
Worldly Gladness casts the Pilgrim into the sea. 

Introduction. The MSS. Ixix* 

(33) Grace Dieu descends from the ship to meet the Pilgrim. 

(34) Grace Dieu shows the Pilgrim the bath of Repentance. 

(35) The Pilgrim in the bath of Repentance. 

(36) Grace Dieu shows the Pilgrim four monasteries. 

(37) The Pilgrim before the porter of the monastery of Citeaux. 

(38) The refectory at Citeaux. 

(39) The Pilgrim meets Lady Lesson in the monastery. 

(40) Hagiography shows her books to the Pilgrim. 

(41) Hagiography shows her mirrors to the Pilgrim. 

(42) A king being deceived by flatterers. 

(43) The Pilgrim looking in the mirror of Conscience. 

(44) The Pilgrim with Obedience and Abstinence. 

(45) The dead serving the living at table in the monastery. 

(46) Chastity making beds. Wilful Poverty singing. 

(47) Wilful Poverty speaking to the Pilgrim. 

(48) W T ilful Poverty shows Impatient Poverty to the Pilgrim. 

(49) The Pilgrim and Dame Chastity with her mailed hands. 

(50) The Pilgrim and Prayer. 

(51) The Pilgrim, Prayer and two skeletons, 

(52) The Pilgrim finds the handmaid Latria, blowing a horn. 

(53) Abusion with her mason's rule and spoon. (This illustration is not 
correctly placed in the MS.) 

Stowe 952. Brit. Mus. Paper. Quarto. 

This MS. belonged to John Stowe, the Elizabethan tailor and collector 
of MSS. and antiquities, and consists of 379 folios in which are contained 
the whole of Lydgate's poem. The passage from 1. 16081 to I. 17062, 
including the prayer of St. Bernard, is found only in this MS. as is also the 
case with 11. 17901-18312. Up to fol. 304 the Stowe MS. is written in a 
late fifteenth-century hand, but the remainder of the poem, beginning at 
1. 17198,' 'She held also a gret ballaunce," has been copied by Stowe 
himself from another MS. 

At fol, 3 occurs the following note in Stowe's writing : " pilgrimage 
de monde, y e pilgrimage of y e world, translated out of Frenche into 
Englyshe by John Lydgate, monke of bery at y e comandement of y e earle 
of Salisbery." 

Following this is a note in another hand : "Thomas Montacute, E. of 
Sa : in the tyme of H. 6. He was slayne at the siege of Orleans by a 
bullet of stone, shot from the enemy e's fort as he was looking out at a 
windowe from a high Tower that overlookd the cittye. He dyed 3 dayes 
after his wounding, being the 3 of Novemb. 1428 7 H. 6. His bodye was 
brought into England & buryed in the Abbey of Bristleham or Brickham 
in Berkshire." 

On p. 1 is the name W. Browne, which may possibly indicate that the 
MS. was originally the property of the author of Britannia's Pastorals. 

The hand in which the first two-thirds of the MS. are written is much 
less compact and neat than that of either Vitell. c. XIII or Tib. A. VII, 
as the scribe has made much use of flourished capitals and long tails to his 
letters. It is, however, legible for this style of writing. 



OF the author of the Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine practically nothing is 
known besides what can bo gathered from the poem. From this we learn 
that Deguileville was a monk of the Abbey of Chalis, in Valois, near Senlis, 
founded by St. Louis, and that he wrote there in the years 1330-31 a poem 
recording a vision which he had had. 

" Pourtant le dye car une foiz 
L'an mil trois ces dix & trois foiz 
Ung songe vy bien merueilleux 
Lequel ainsi com sommeilleux 
J'eseriptz a mon reueillement." (Ver. fol. i. back.) 

In the commission of Reason against Rude Entendement the date 1331 
is mentioned. 

This first recension of the poem was stolen from him before he 
had been able to put it into final shape, and after the MS. was stolen it 
was copied, and copies of the unauthorised version were dispersed through- 
out France. Displeased at this, Deguileville undertook the immense task 
of rewriting the poem and issuing the new version to all those places in 
which copies of the first recension were to be found. This second version 
was not made until twenty-five or twenty-six years after the first, as we 
learn from the envoy to his dream : 

" Et si soyes loyal messaige 
De trestout mon pelerinaige 
Disant a tous comment mauint 
Passe a des ans vingt cinq 
Du monastere de chaliz 
Qui fut funde par sainct loys." (fol. ii.) 

In Lydgate's version (1. 304) "syx and twenty yer" is the time men- 

Besides the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, De Guileville wrote also 
the Pelerinage de VAme, containing an account of the judgment of the 
soul, and its passage through Purgatory, and the Pelerinage de Jesus crist. 

We learn from the first recension of the first pilgrimage that De Guile- 
ville was thirty-six years of age at the time that it was written. 1 He must 
therefore have been born about 1294 or 1295. The date of his death is not 
known, but in the prologue to the Pelerinage de Jesus crist there is a men- 
tion of the date "Lan mil trois cens cinquante huit," which proves that he 
must at least have passed the age of sixty-four. 

The name of the poet's father was Thomas de guillevyle. 

1 "Thou hast nourished him (the body) .... A gret while it is that thou 
bigunne and neuere sithe stindedest Thouh j seide 36^' winter j failede j trowe 
but litel." (Camb.) 

Guillaume de Guileville. lxxi< 

" God is thy ffader tak lied her to 
And thow art hys sone also 

ttbr of Thomas de guillevyle 
Thow art not sone on that party." 

(MS. Cott. VitelL C XIII, fol. 147.) 

He was called William after his godfather : 

" Guyllyam ffor-sothly he hyhte 
Hys surname I nat ne knew." (Lydgate, 1. 1308-9.) 

and he had as his patron saint St. William of Chalis, " the abbot of 
Chalyt, thy good patroun seint William." 

De Visch speaks of him as a Parisian by birth and as monk and prior 
of Chalis. Jean Galoppes, the author of the prose version of the Pilgrim- 
age, also speaks of him as " Guillaume prieur de 1'abbaye de Chaaliz." 

De Guileville remained in the abbey of Chalis for thirty-nine years : 

" for taccounte the terme entier 
the space of XXXIX yere 
I was bound of volunte." (1. 23029-31.) 

From these dates we may gather that he was born in 1294, entered the 
monastery at the age of twenty-two in 1316, wrote the first version of 
his poem at the age of thirty-six in 1330, and the second version in 1355, 
after he had been thirty-nine years a monk. 

Meyer says " I'auteur tirait son surnom de Digulleville, commune de 
1'arrondissement de Cherbourg, canton de Beaumont-Hague." The only 
other fact of Deguileville's life that seems clear is that he was acquainted 
with Jean de Meun (b. 1250, d. 1322 c.), the author of the second part of 
the Romance of the Rose : 

" I knowe that man fful wel 
With every maner cycumstaunce, 
Wych that made that Romaunce." 

(Lydgate, p. 358-9, 11. 13214-16.) 


Lydgate's Prologue, stating that he began to translate De Guile- 

ville's work in 1426, at the command of Lord Salisbury ... 1-5 
The Prologue of the Author, who complains that his book was 

taken from him before it was corrected 6-9 

How the Author sees in a mirror a vision of the Holy City of the 

celestial Jerusalem, and those who enter therein, and the 

manner of their entering, by which he is moved to go on 

pilgrimage 9-18 

How the Author, in seeking for the Pilgrim's scrip and bordoun 

(staff), finds Grace Dieu, who teaches him how he should 

govern himself, and promises to help him 18-22 

How Grace Dieu leads the Author, who wishes to be a Pilgrim, 

into her house ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

The Pilgrim comes to the river of baptism, and Grace Dieu 

explains to him the doctrine of Original Sin and the necessity 

of being baptized 23-34 

The Pilgrim is washed in baptism by Grace Dieu, assisted by an 

Advocate and an Official ... ... ... ... ... 35-36 

The Pilgrim sees in the house of Grace Dieu a vicar (Moses) 

who confirms him ... ... ... ... ... ... 37-38 

The ointments for the use of Pilgrims ... ... ... ... 38-39 

Reason declares to the Vicar and the Official what is the use of the 

ointments ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 39-42 

The reason why Moses is horned, and how he should treat sinners 42-51 
Two Pilgrims, a man and a woman, join together in the house of 

Grace Dieu to make their pilgrimage ... ... ... ... 51-53 

How the Pilgrim sees that several are made by Moses officers of 

his house ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Reason tells the officers how they should conduct themselves ... 54-58 
Moses appoints minor officers ... ... ... ... ... 58-60 

Moses gives sword, keys, and Grace Dieu to the officers ,.. ... 61 

Grace Dieu explains to the Pilgrim that she is the common help 

of all Pilgrims 62-63 

Reason declares to the officers why the sword and keys are given 

to them 64-75 

The Pilgrim asks Moses to give him the sword and the keys, but 

only receives partial power over them. The reason 75-86 

The Pilgrim sees that Moses, by the aid of Grace Dieu, transforms 

the bread and wine of his dinner into flesh and blood, giving 

power to his officials to do likewise ... ... ... ... 86-88 


Table of Contents. 

The Pilgrim hears Nature revile Grace Dieu, because she inter- 
feres with her ordinances by changing bread and wine 
into flesh and blood ^ 89-96 

Grace Dieu explains that Nature is subject to her will ... 97-105 

The Pilgrim sees Penance with her broom Confession, her 
hammer Contention, and her rod Satisfaction, with which 
she reforms men ... ... ... ... ... ... 106-122 

Charity explains her office to the Pilgrim, and reads the Testa- 
ment of Jesus Christ ... ... ... ... ... ... 122-133 

The Pilgrims receive the Sacrament ... ... ... ... 134-136 

Grace Dieu teaches the Pilgrim concerning the change of bread 
and wine into flesh and blood, and explains how Charity 
and Sapience made the bread ... ... ... ... 136-145 

Aristotle, sent by Nature, argues with Sapience because one part 

of the loaf of the Eucharist has the virtue of the whole ... 145-147 

Sapience tells Aristotle that she did not teach him all her arts, 

and confutes his arguments , 147-162 

Grace Dieu instructs the Pilgrim concerning his five senses. 

She then shows him the scrip and the bordoun, declaring 

what the scrip signifies 162-184 

Grace Dieu gives the Pilgrim a Latin writing, which contains 

the Credo at length 184-190 

How Grace Dieu teaches the Pilgrim what the bordoun and its 

pommels mean 190-194 

Grace Dieu gives the Pilgrim two Latin poems on GOD in 

Trinity and the Virgin Mary 194-201 

Grace Dieu gives scrip and bordoun to the pilgrim 201 

Grace Dieu wishes to arm the Pilgrim, and shows him her 

armour 202-228 

The Pilgrim arms himself with the armour of Grace Dieu, but 

cannot endure nor wear it 228-232 

Grace Dieu gives to the Pilgrim the five stones with which 
David slew Goliath, and suffers his arms to be carried by 
his chamberer, who is the memory of past times 233-244 

Grace Dieu blames the Pilgrim for refusing to wear armour. 
She tells him his body is a foe, to be subdued, and explains 
the difference between body and soul ... ... ... 245-282 

Grace Dieu withdraws from the Pilgrim's sight, and he finds in 

his path Rude Entendement, who hinders him ... ... 282-285 

Reason displays her commission from Grace Dieu, and delivers 

the Pilgrim from Rude Entendement 285-301 

The Pilgrim finds in his path Youth, who is feathered about the 

feet and is playing with a ball. She goes with him ... 302-307 

The Pilgrim finds at a parting of the ways Labour and Idle- 
ness, and asks the way 307-308 

Labour advises him to take the right-hand path, and discourses 

about social differences 309-315 

Idleness tells him to take the left-hand path 315-320 

Table of Contents. Ixxv* 


The Pilgrim speaks to Moral Vertue, who tells him to take the 

right-hand path, and to beware of turning aside 320-326 

The Pilgrim finds in his path a spirit, who is speaking to his 

crucified body ... 326-331 

Grace Dieu explains how the body hinders the soul, and points 

the Pilgrim to the Cross of Christ for help 332-344 

The Pilgrim is led by Youth into the wrong path 344-346 

The Pilgrim is assailed on his way by Gluttony. The con- 
versation which he has with her ... ... ... ... 346-355 

The Pilgrim is assailed by Venus, who describes her doings ... 355-365 

Gluttony and Venus bind and ill-treat the Pilgrim and another 366-370 

How the Pilgrim is caught and bound by Sloth, and of the con- 
versation that they hold together 371-378 

The Pilgrim meets Pride riding on an ugly old woman. She 

describes her lineage, character and instruments ... ... 378-394 

Pride's servant Flattery 395-398 

The Pilgrim meets Envy and her two daughters. The lineage 

and characteristics of Envy, and her conversation ... 398-403 

Envy's daughter Treason 403-410 

Envy's daughter Detraction ... 410-417 

The Pilgrim fights with Envy and her daughters ... ... 417-418 

The Pilgrim is assailed by Wrath, and defends himself with his 

sword 418-425 

Tribulation aad her two Commissions from Adonay and Satan. 
She casts the Pilgrim to the ground and beats him at her 
will. They converse together 425-436 

The Pilgrim in his great trouble makes his prayer to our Lady, 
according to the counsel of St. Bernard, and Tribulation 
leaves him ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 437-458 

The Pilgrim finds Avarice, who has six hands and a hump and 
an idol on her head, and asks her the meaning of these 
things 459-462 

Avarice shows the Pilgrim how she is the ruin of churches and 

kings 463-467 

The meaning of the six hands and of the deformity of Avarice 468-490 

Of Avarice's idol 491-492 

How the Pilgrim escapes from Avarice and finds a Messenger 
who wishes to lead him to the pavilion of his mistress 
Necromancy, and of the conversation they hold together 
about invocations ... ... ... ... ... ... 493-505 

The Pilgrim meets Heresy, who wishes him to re-model his 

scrip ... 505-507 

The Pilgrim finds Satan in the form of a Hunter, who is spread- 
ing nets and lines upon the sea and the land. Their 
conversation concerning the sea and the people swimming 
in it ... 507-517 


Table of Contents. 


The Pilgrim, trusting in his staff, begins to swim in the sea, but 

is cast up on Fortune's wheel 518-525 

The Pilgrim, being in great peril in the sea, makes a prayer to 
the Virgin Mary, the stanzas of which commence accord- 
ing to the letters of the alphabet 525-533 

The Pilgrim finds on an island Astronomy and Astrology, who 

argue with him about the influence of the stars 534-550 

The four disciples of Astrology, especially Geomancy 551-554 

The Pilgrim re-enters the sea and swims to another island, 
where he finds Idolatry and sees a churl worshipping an 
image , 555-561 

The Pilgrim, being on an island, is seized by Sorcery or Bithal- 

assus, who tells fortunes by the hand and face 561-568 

The Pilgrim, being on a rock, is assailed by the Enchantress 

Conspiracy and her dogs 569-572 

The Pilgrim sees in a trance a revolving tower, in which is 
Syren, or worldly gladness, who tells him the meaning of 
the tower, and casts him into the sea, whence he escapes by 
the aid of Youth 573-577 

Grace Dieu brings a ship to the Pilgrim, who is lamenting his 

fate on a desert island 578-581 

Grace Dieu causes the Pilgrim to wash in the cistern of the tears 

of repentance 582-587 

Grace Dieu causes the Pilgrim to enter the ship, in which are 

several castles 588-590 

The Pilgrim chooses, in the ship of Grace Dieu, the castle of 
Citeaux, and comes before the Porter, Dread of GOD, in 
order to enter it 590-592 

The Pilgrim finds in the cloister of Cfteaux Lesson and Hagio- 

graphy 593-G02 

The Pilgrim meets Obedience with her File Discipline, and 

Abstinence, with her Gorger Sobriety 603-604 

In the house of Citeaux the Pilgrim sees Chastity, Poverty, and 

Impatient Poverty, and converses with them 605-608 

The Pilgrim finds in the Monastery Prayer, with her box and 

targe, acting as messenger to Heaven 609-612 

The handmaid Latria, who keeps the Castle 612-613 

Obedience binds the feet and hands of the Pilgrim 614-615 

Detraction, Treason, and Envy break into the Castle, and 

wickedly torment and beat the Pilgrim ... ... ... 615-618 

The Pilgrim complains of the evil done to him by Detraction, 
Treason, and Envy, but refuses to curse them as Ovid bids 

him 619-621 

An Acrostic on the name of Giiillaume de Deguileville ... 621-623 

The King orders the arrest of the Pilgrim's foes 624-626 

The Pilgrim visits religious orders. Grace Dieu shows him an 
ill-conditioned Convent with Abusion at its head, and tells 
him what shall be the fate of such houses . 626-640 

Table of Contents. Ixxvii* 


Purveyance shows the Pilgrim where she puts the goods of her 

Abbey, and how they are wasted 640-643 

The Pilgrim meets Apostasy 643-646 

Old Age and Sickness warn the Pilgrim of the approach of 

Death 646-651 

Mercy comforts the Pilgrim, being sick ... ... ... ... 652-G58 

The Messengers, Prayer and Alms. The Pilgrim chooses Prayer 

as his messenger to Paradise 658-661 

Death assails the Pilgrim, and causes him to render up his 

spirit 662-665 




"LADIES first" is a good rule, so my Forewords of 1899 to 
Part I, together with these Afterwords, had better follow Miss 
Locock's Introduction, etc. 

Two mistakes on p. vi have to be corrected. 

1. It is only iu MSS. of the 2nd version of De Guileville that the 
British Museum is deficient: of prints it has both Petit's (?1500) 
and Verard's (1511) of the 3 pilgrimages, man, the soul, and Jesus 
Christ. 2. For 'husband's' in the last line of note 3, read 'father's.' 
No conclusive evidence has yet been produced that Thomas Chaucer 
was Geoffrey's son. 

To the top list on p. xi of to run into its next vowel-beginning 
word, add 

tadwellyd, 260/9422, to have dwelt. 

tassaye, 262/9502, to assay, try. 

tassaylle, 276/10,059, to assail. 

Compare (make) maryue, 270/9802, me arrive. 

With regard to the supposed omission in the prose tract on the 
Virgin as the Consolation of Afflicted Hearts, p. 447, the original 
Latin in Verard's edition of 'Le pelerinage de Ihomme,' Fueillet, 
Ixv, col. 1 at foot, shows that nothing is left out. Lydgate's words at 
the foot of p. 446 and on p. 447, english and paraphrase this Latin : 

" Et ideo tibi possum dicere illud Hieremie xiiii 1 : * Spes mea tu / 
in die afflictionis.' Et hec est prima cowsolatio mea, que est mentis 
spes oppresse percipio ad oculum. Tu secuwda consolatio mea est, 
quia cum desinat [coL 2] mundus esse, non desinis in seculum, Tu 
es. Si visione stelle maris oculum mundi clauclente nocturne super- 
cilio galidewt nauigantes in mari / non solum quia mica?is et rutillans 
apparet, sed etiam quia semper fixa existens, errawtes ipsos diriget, & 
ntmquam te?idit ad occasum ; multomagis ego, in mari hoc magno et 
spacioso 2 positus, in mari utiqwe vbi sunt reptilia quorum non est 

1 That is, xvii. 17: 'Non sis tu mihi formidiiii, spes mea tu in die 
afflictionis.' 2 spaciosa, Verard. 

xiv Afterwords. Lydgcdes Poetic, Worth. 

numerus in marl, vbi circumquaqwe vndis tribulationum impetu et 
perflatu spiritus procellarum concutitur cordis mei / gaudete & con- 
solari debeo, turn cognosce et scio te esse signum directum veniendi 
ad salutis portum, dum percipio te verissimam stellam maris. Stel- 
lam, iuquam, a stando dictam. ..." 

For 1. 16945, etc., the poem on pages 454-5, Verard's edition, 
Fueillet, Ixvi back, col. 1, has : 

"Ergo beafa miseros, quorum te clausa beauit, Ecce quomodo te 
iura te vendicare possum, esse refugium meum, Hieremie .xvi. [19] 
' fortitude mea 1 et robur meum [et refugium raeum] in die tribula- 
tionis,' Et in hoc consistit quarta cowsolatio mea, quia ius exigit, et 
necesse esse michi hoc patulum Meum. Et sic te vendico esse illam 
per quam credo consolari, cum dico ' Tu es refugium meum.' 2 
Secundo tibi fatur expresse a quo scio me fugari A tribulatione. 
[16983 L.] Si dicere vellem quod voluntate spontanea ad te venis- 
sem, quod deuotione non coacta ad te fugissem, vere et in me veritas 
nulla esset, et oculos tue circumspectionis latere numqwaw posset." . . 

Supposing that the Latin tract printed by Yerard was a copy of 
that in the MS. which Lydgate used, he has treated it with great 
freedom, adding to it in many places, and shortening it in others. 
The French lines that are substituted for it in Petit's edition which 
I promist, in the note on p. 624 of the text, to print here, have already 
been printed by Miss Locock on p. 684. 

In mitigation of the general opinion as to the poorness of 
Lydgate's verse, Prof. Churton Collins urges that credit should 
be given him for some beautiful lines one out of more than a 
hundred poor stanzas in his Testament, and in other works where 
he describes the spring and outward nature. The Testament stanza 
is the 118th and last : 

" Tarry no longer toward thy heritage ; 

Haste on thy way, & be of right good chere ; 
Go each day onward on thy pilgrimage ; 

Think how short time thou shalt abiden here ! 
Thy place is built above the starres clere, 

No earthly palace wrought so stately-wise ; 
Come on my friend, my brother, most entere ! 
For thee I gave my blood in sacrifise." 

Minor Poems (1840), p. 261 (modernised & emended). 

1 meo, Verard. 

2 Tu es refugium meum a tribulatione. Ps. xxxi. 7. Fortitude mea et 
refugium meum es tu. Ps. xxx. 4. Firmamentum meum et refugium meum es 
tu. Ps. Ixx. 3. 

Afterwords. Lydgate s Poetic Worth. xv 

The poet Gray's praise of him should also be rememberd. See 
" Some Remarks on the Poems of John Lydgate " in Gray's Works, 
Aldine edition, 1858, v. 292, etc., or i. 387-409, etc., ed. Gosse, 

p. 397. " To return to Lydgate. I do not pretend to set him on 
a level with his master, Chaucer, but he certainly comes the nearest 
to him of any contemporary writer that I am acquainted with. 
His choice of expression, and the smoothness of his verse, far surpass 
both Gower and Occleve" p]. 

Gray then cites five stanzas on the condemnation to death of 
Canace for incest with her brother Macareus, including her appeal 
for their child : 

But welaway ! most angelik of face, 

Our childe, young in his pure innocence, 

Shall, agayn right, suffer death's violence, 
Tender of limhes, God wote, full guilteless, 
The goodly faire, that lieth here speechless. 

A mouth he has, but wordis hath he none \ 

Cannot complaine, alas ! for none outrage, 
Nor grutcheth not, but lies here all alone, 
Still as a lambe, most meke of his visage. 
What heart of stele could do to him damage, 
Or suffer him dye, beholding the manere 
And looke benigne of his tweine eyen clere 1 

Falle of Princes, Bk. I, fol. 39. 

After other remarks on Lydgate's pathos, Gray allows " that in 
images of horror, 'and in a certain terrible greatness, our author comes 
far behind Chaucer . . yet is there frequently a stiller kind of majesty 
both in his thought and expression, which makes one of his principal 
beauties. The following instance of it (I think) approaches even to 
sublimity : 

God hath a thousand handes to chastyse, 

A thousand darte's of punic'ion, 
A thousand bowes made in uncowthe wyse, 
A thousand arblastes bent in his doungeon, 
Orderid each one for castigaci'on ; 

But where he fyndes mekenes and r^pentaunce, 

Mercy is mistresse of his ordinaunce." Ib., Bk. I, fol. 6. 

One is glad to hear pleas in Lydgate's favour, and to allow that 
here and there a nugget of ore is found in his acres of clay, but his 
average work is decidedly below Gower' s, and none of his poems of 

xvi Afterwords. Lydyates Poetic Worth. 

the length of Hoccleve's 'Mother of God' is equal to that. 1 He 
cannot keep on the wing. If he does get a few lines right, now 
and then, he generally spoils em by setting wrong ones near em : 

The remembrance of every famous knight 

Ground considred built on righteousness, 
Raiz out each quarrel that is not built on right. 

Withoute truth, what vaileth high noblesse 1 
Laurear of martirs, founded on holynesse: 

White was made red, their triumphs to disclose ; 
The white lily was their chaste clennesse ; 

Their bloody sufferance was no summer rose. 

L.'s Minor Poems (1840), p. 26, modernised. 

1 Prof. W. P. Ker agrees in this. 



2/30. Chaunteplure. This is the name of a thirteenth-century French 
poem, addressed to those who sing in this world and will weep in the 
next. Hence the name is applied to any alternation or mixture of joy and 
sorrow. Cf. Chaucer, Anelida and Arcite, 320 : 

" I fare as doth the song of Chaunte-pleure, 
For now I pleyne, & now I pleye." 

4/122. My lord of Salisbury. See note in the description of the Stowe 
MS. There is an illumination in the Harl. MS. 4826, representing "Lyd- 
gate presenting his booke called J>e Pilgrime unto J>e Earle of Salisbury." 
Underneath the drawing is written "Thomas Montacute Earle of Salis- 
bury." The earl is represented as a young man clothed in armour. This 
Thomas de Montacute, born 1388, was summoned to Parliament as Earl of 
Salisbury in 1409, but not fully restored to his father's rights (which had 
been forfeited through treason) till 1421. He engaged actively in the 
French wars, being the most famous and skilful captain on the English 
side, and noted for his courtesy, liberality, and bravery. His death at the 
siege of Orleans in 1428 was much lamented, and greatly affected the 
course of the war. 

6/173. Oalliope^be syde cytheron. Calliope was the muse who presided 
over eloquence and heroic poetry; Citheron, a mountain of Boeotia, sacred 
to the Muses and named after king Cithaeron. In the Secrees of Old 
PhUisoffres the seeker after wisdom expresses his desire 
" To taste the licour of Cytheroes tonne." 

6/176-7. The sugryd tonne Off Inbiter. This is the nectar of the gods, 
which was served by a beautiful Phrygian youth called Ganymede, who 
was carried up to Heaven by Jupiter to take Hebe's place as cupbearer. 

9/307. In the Abbey of Chalys. The Cistercian abbey of Chalis, Chaalit, 
Chaslis or Chailly in the diocese of Senlis was founded by St. Louis, in the 
twelfth century. According to the prologue of the monk who corrected 
the undated Paris version of De Guileville's second recension, Chalis was 
an offshoot of the abbey of Pontigny, "chaliz de pontigny fille." 

10/355. strongly kept ffor coming in. ffor = against. For this meaning 
of for cf. Piers Plowman, Passus VI, 9 : 

" ' Somme shal sowe \>Q sakke,' quod Piers, ' for shedyng of >e whete';" 
and Sir Thopas, 1. 150 : 

" And over that an habergeoun 
For percinge of his herte." 

12/444. By record of Seyn Matthew. Matt. xi. 12 : " The kingdom of 
heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force." 

12/447. Crysostom recordeth ek also. It is not to Chrysostom but to St. 
Jerome that this saying should be ascribed, as has been pointed out to me 
by Dom John Chapman, O.S.B. 

'The passage comes from St. Jerome, Comm. in Matt. ii. 11, on Matt. xi. 
12 : " Grandis enim est violentia, in terra nos esse generates et coelorum 
sedem quaerere, possidere per virtutem quod non tenuimus per naturam." 


668 Notes. Pages 15-49, lines 535-1852. 

The quotation in the margin, however, is not from St. Jerome direct, 
but from the Glossa Ordinaria of Walafrid Strabo. 

15/535- Qrete noumbre ofthys lacobins. Jacobins was a name applied 
to the Dominican monks of France from the fact that their chief Paris 
monastery was that of St. Jaques (Jacobus) 

The name of canons was applied to ecclesiastical officers attached to 
cathedrals or churches. They were divided into two orders, canons 
regular and canons secular. The latter lived in the world ; the former in 
communities and under some rule, though their discipline was usually less 
severe than that of regular monks. The rule of St. Augustine was that 
usually observed by the canons. The Augustinians included, besides the 
canons, those other monastic fraternities which followed the rule deduced 
from the writings of St. Augustine. The chief of these were the Begging 
Hermits or Austin Friars, and the Dominicans. 

The Mendicant orders were those communities which, having taken 
vows of poverty, supported themselves by begging. They included the 
Dominicans, Franciscans, the Austin Friars and the Carmelites. 

16/574. 12 aree's ofhumylyte. The reference is to the twelve monas- 
teries founded by St. Benedict (Greg. Dial. II. 3). The number of monks 
in each of these was restricted to twelve. 

24/912. And yet somme ha entryd in. In the Cambridge prose this 
passage is more precise : " Heere is the firste passage of alle goode 
pilgrimages ther is noon oother wey bi noon oother place, saue onliche bi 
cherubyn ; Therforth hauen somme passed, and in here owen blood han 
wasshen hem." 

37/1387. A sygne of Tav wych ther stood. The implement of cruci- 
fixion used by the Romans varied in form. Malefactors were sometimes 
impaled upon or nailed to an upright stake. At other times a cross-piece 
for the arms was affixed to the upright, sometimes obliquely, in which 
case the cross was called crux decussata, sometimes at right angles below 
the top, when it was called crux immissa, and sometimes at right angles 
across the top, when it was called crux commissa. It is of course the latter 
to which the name of Tau, the Greek T, was given, and though never so 
common as the crux immissa the Tau form of cross is not infrequently 
found in mediaeval art. 

37/1402. The prophete whylom wrot. / Ezechyel. " And He called to 
the man clothed with linen, which had the writer's inkhorn by his side ; 
and the Lord said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the 
midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that 
sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst 
thereof." Ezekiel ix. 3, 4. 

See Bishop Andrewes' Sermons (Luke xvii. 32). " This reward (Ezek. 
x. 4) is for those whose foreheads are marked with a Tau." 

45/1683. In Elenchis thow mayst rede. Elenchus was the name of a 
treatise by Aristotle concerning sophistry and fallacious arguments. 

49/1839-40. Seyn Thomas That kept the entre & the paas. The refer- 
ence is to Thomas a Becket and his sturdy maintenance of the rights, 
privileges and prosperty of the Church against King Henry II. and his 

49/1852. Seynt Ambrose in the same case. St. Ambrose was bishop of 
Milan in the fourth century, and was specially remarkable for the energy 
and firmness with which he defended the faith, discipline and integrity of 
the Christian Church. The incident referred to in the text is as follows: 
The Arians, headed by the Emperor Valentinian II. and his mother, 

Notes. Pages 55-98, lines 2079-3696. 669 

demanded the use of two churches in the city for their own worship. 
Ambrose refused, the Arians tried to seize the churches by force, and 
when Ambrose was requested to restore peace by submission to the 
emperor's will, he replied : " If you demand my patrimony, which is 
devoted to the poor, take it ; if you demand my person I am ready to 
submit; carry me to prison or to death, I will not resist ; but I will never 
betray the Church of Christ. I will not call upon the people to succour 
me ; I will die at the foot of the altar sooner than desert it." 

55/2079. Venus thenys doth me chase. See the pseudo-Chaucer 
Eomaunt of the Rose, 1. 5135 : 

" Thus taught and preched hath Resoun, 
But Love spilte hir sermoun, 
That was so imped in my thought 
That hir doctrine I sette at nought." 

65/2449. For thys word Glayve. Aldis Wright gives this note : 
" Isidore of Seville, in the 18th book of his Origines, chap, vi, says of the 
etymology of gladius, " Proprie autem appellatur gladius, quia gulam 
dividit, id est cervicem desecat." 

66/2458. Thys lanuence recordeth so. The reference is to the Catholicon 
seu universale vocabularium ac summa grammatices of F. Johannis Genu- 
ensis. The quotation in the margin of the text is from this vocabulary. 

92/3449. I make alday thynges newe. The worst poets of this period 
became poetical in speaking of Spring, and Lydgate is no exception to the 
rule, for though he only uses the common images which formed the stock 
in trade of all his contemporaries, yet his delight in the subject is so 
evident that we cannot help being carried away by it. With this passage 
however we may compare the description of Spring in Reson at\d 
Sensuallyte, which shows us that, true as Lydgate's enjoyment of the 
season was, he did not know more than one way of expressing it : 
" This is the lusty seson newe, 
Which every thing causeth renewe, 
And reioyseth in his kynde, 
Commonly, as men may fynde, 
In these herbes white and rede, 
Which springen in the grene mede, 
Norysshed with the sonne shene, 
So that all the soyl is grene, 
Al ouersprad with sondry floures, 
With bawme dewed, and soote shoures, . . . 
And euery bough, braunch, and tre 
Clad newe in grene, men may se, 
By kyndely disposicion 
Ech to bere fruyt in ther seflon. . . . 
And Zepherus, the wynde moost soote, 
Enspired bothe croope and roote 
Of herbes and of floures newe 
That they wern alway fresh of hewe." (1. 101 f.) 
95/3589. Off on callyd Architeclyn. The name should be Architriclin, 
" the master of the feast," and is written so in Camb. From Gk. />%' 
chief, and rpiK\ivos, a couch for reclining on at supper, and hence a 
dining-room. The Greek word was preserved in the Latin translation of 
St. John, and was taken to be a proper name. 

98/3696. Boundys and botaylle. Botaylle seems to be a variant of 
buttal = a bound or boundary. Other forms are buttel, buttelle, buttle, 

670 Notes. Pages 101-125, lines 3795-4773. 

butle. 1577 Test. 12 Patriarchs (1604) 85. " 1 have not ... removed the 
bounds and buttles of lands." (N. E. D.) Cf. the modern abut, used in 
describing boundaries in a legal conveyance. 

101/3795. The mevyng of the hevene And the planetys alle seuene. 
According to the Ptolomaic system of Astronomy the earth was encircled 
by seven spheres named after the principal planet of each, the Moon, 
Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Beyond these was 
the sphere of the Fixed Stars, which was supposed to make one revolution 
in twenty-four hours. To account for various irregularities in the 
heavenly motions two extra spheres were added in the Middle Ages viz. 
the Crystalline and the Primum mobile or "first moved," which was 
supposed to communicate its movement to all the inferior spheres. 

101/3823. The paynim Arystotyles. See Aristotle, De generatione ani- 
malium, II. 3. 4 ; where we are told that the sun's heat, and that secreted 
in the bodies of animals, are of the same nature, and form the essential 

101/3836. Skyes dyrke & donne. Cf. Life of our Lady : 
" I fynde also that the skyes donne 
Whiche of custome curteyne so the nyght, 
The same tyme with a sodayn light 
Enchaced were that it wexid al light." 
Cf. also Temple of Glas, 2/30-31 : 

" Til at(te) last certein skyes doune 

With wind Ichaced, haue her cours Iwent." 

106/4OII. To skouren chyldern and chastyse. The ordinary meaning 
of scour is to cleanse, from Lat. excurdre, to take great care of (Skeat's 
Concise Diet.). But in this passage it evidently stands for scourge, and is 
from Lat. excoriare, to flay off. 

115/4354. Dyvers yatys mo than on. See Nehemiah iii. 14 and 26, 
where the dung-gate and the water-gate are mentioned. Psal. cvii. 16: 
" He hath broken the gates of brass." Math. xvi. 18 : " The gates of hell 
shall not prevail against it." Gen. xxviii. 17: "This is the gate of 
heaven." Acts xii. 10 : " They came to the iron gate which opened." 

118/4487. A child an hundryd wynter old. The quotation is incorrect. 
The passage from Isaiah runs as follows : 

"There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that 
nath not rilled his days : for the child shall die an hundred years old ; but 
the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed." Isaiah Ixv. 20. 
121/4613. Maunde, in this sentence, stands for the supper at which 
Christ gave to His disciples the "new commandment" "to love one 
another." The word maunde is the M.E. form of Lat. mandatumj 
meaning a command or charge. (See Skeat's Concise Dictionary.) 

123/4675. Seyn Martyn. Saint Martin, while yet a catechumen, was 
one day riding when he met a half naked, shivering beggar. Touched 
with compassion he cut his cloak in two with his sword and gave half to 
the beggar. The same night he had a dream in which Christ appeared to 
him wearing the cloak and saying to the angels : " My servant Martin, 
though yet unbaptized, hath done this.." 

125/4773. The Testament of Cryst Ihesus. We may compare this 
Testament with that of Piers the Plowman in Langland's vision (Passus 
VI, 1. 88 et seq.), which begins : 

" He shal haue my soule J?at best hath yserued it, 
And fro fende it defende for so I bileue." 

Notes. Pages 129-169, lines 4962-6442. 671 

Dr. Skeat tells us that, according to Whitaker, the committal of the 
soul to God alone, and not also to the Virgin and saints, was held to be 
heretical at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

129. P. A. X. "One clause of this will or testament bequeathes to 
mankind Pax Triplex ' triple tranquillity.' The three things signified by 
the three initial letters, at the three corners of a right-angled triangle, 
formed by the stem and one limb of a Latin cross are X, the initial of 
XptffTJs, l Christ ' ; A, of Anima, ' the soul ' ; P, of Proximus, our * neigh- 
boar.' When these three are properly disposed towards each other, 
there is a firmly-established peace of mind ; since they indicate the whole 
duty of man's life, viz. his love to God and his neighbour." N. Hill in 
the Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville. 

130/4962. Synderesis. This word appears to be made up of Gk. <rw, 
meaning with or together, and dialpeans division or separation, and if 
so would probably stand for that faculty of man which discriminates. 
In the Pylgremage of the Sowle Sinderesis is called the Worm of Con- 
science, and is represented in the woodcut in Verard's edition ae a woman 
with a serpent's head-. Sathanas calls it " thou foule Synderesys," and it is 
described as " wonder hydous to loke upon, and of ful cruel semblaunt." 
It says of itself, " In al places I am byleued of trouthe. I knowe wel 
apertly all thy thoughtys, thy dedes and thy wordes." 

146/5569. The proper meaning of turneys is given by Roquefort as 
pont-levis, or drawbridge. 

161/6148. With yow to holden chaumpartye. Ghaumpartye comes 
from French champ parti, and means equality or division of power. See 
Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1091 : 

" Ne may with Venus holde champartye." 

" Lydgate seems to have known the word only from this phrase of 
Chaucer's, which he misunderstood and took as meaning, 'to hold rivalry 
or contest, to hold the field against, to resist.' " 

In English Law champerty, campi-partiti, is a bargain with a 
plaintiff or defendant campum partire, to divide the land or other matter 
sued for if he prevail at law; the champertor being bound to carry on the 
party's suit at his own expense. (See Blackstone. Bk. 4, chap. 10, p. 134. 
Ed. 1825.) 

169/6442. The wyttysfive. We should say "the five senses" Wits 
however was commonly used with the meaning of senses. Cf. Every- 
man, in which Five Wits refuses to accompany the hero to the grave. 
In The World and the Child, Dods. I, p. 273, Age says : 
"Of the five wits I would have knowing. 
Pret. Forsooth, sir, hearing, seeing, and smelling, 
The remenant tasting and feeling : 
These being the five wits bodily." 

We may compare with these five gates the five described in 
Banyan's Holy War : 

" The famous town of Mansoul had five gates, in at which to come, 
out at which to go, and these were made likewise answerable to the 
walls, to wit, impregnable, and such as -could never be opened nor 
forced but by the will and leave of those within. The names of the 
gates were these : Ear-gate, Eye-gate, Mouth-gate, Nose-gate, and Feel- 

We still use the word wit, in the sense of the text, in such an expres- 
sion as "He has lost his wits." 

672 Notes. Pages 174-192, lines 6640-7105. 

174/664O. How lie to helle ys descended. The belief in the descent of 
Christ into hell during the period between His death and resurrection was 
founded upon 1 St. Peter iii. 19, " He went and preached unto the spirits 
in prison," and upon the apocryphal gospel of St. Nicodemus. 

It was a popular subject in mediaeval art and poetry. One of the 
finest of Fra Angelico's frescoes in San Marco deals with this tradition, 
and Dante refers to it in the fourth canto of the Inferno, 11. 52 f. : 

"lo era nuovo in questo stato, 
Quando ci vidi venire un Possente, 
Con segno di vittoria incoronato. 
Trasseci 1'ombra del primo Parente 
D'Abel suo figlio, e quella di Noe . . . 
Ed altri molti ; e fecegli beati." 

It was one of the stock incidents in miracle plays, and forms the 
subject of the earliest extant English Miracle, The Harrowing of Hell. 
This play begins with a conversation between Dominus and Satan, of 
which the following lines form a part : 

Dominus. " Adam, thou hast dere aboht, 

That thou levedest me noht ; 

Adam, thou havest aboht sore 

And I nil suffre that na more : 

I shal the bringe of helle pine 

And, with the, alle mine." 
Satan. " Who is that ich here thore 

I him rede speke na more." .... 
Dominus. " Wost thou never, what ich am ? 

Almost the thridde winter is gan, 

That thou havest fonded me 

For to know[en] what I be ; 

Sinne found thou never nan 

In me, as in other man ; 

And thou shalt wite well to-day 

That mine will I have awei, 

Whan thou bilevest al thin one, 

Than miht thou grete & grone." 

180/6875. Somme wer callyd Arryens. The Arian heresy arose from 
the opinions of Arius concerning the Trinity and the nature of Christ, 
whom he declared to be different in substance from the Father, to have 
been created by Him before the world, and hence to be inferior to Him. 

The Pelagian teaching was a reaction against Manichseism and 
Fatalism. Its principal points were the denial of original sin ; the 
possibility of living without sin ; and the sufficiency of free-will and the 
knowledge of the law for salvation. 

192/7105. The Gharbouncle. The carbuncle or ruby seems to have 
been a favourite stone with Lydgate. In the Secrees of Old Philiso/res 
we also find references to its supposed power of shining in the dark : 
" As a charbouncle ageyn dirknesse of nyght ; " (1. 444) 
u Rubyes that yeve so cleer a light 
On hooly shrynes in the dirk nyght." (11. 552-3) 

In Barth. Angl. xvi. 26, the following note is found : " Carbunculus 
is a precious stone and shyneth as fyre whose shynynge is not over- 
come by night. It shyneth in derke places and it semeth as hit were a 

Notes. Pages 203-216, lines 7259-7730. 673 

In the .R. de la R. the carbuncle worn by Richesse is described in the 
following terms : 

" Une escharbouclc ou cercle assise, 
Et la pierre si clere estoit 
Que, maintenant qu'il anuitoit, 
L'en s'en veist bien au besoing 
Conduire d'une Hue loiiig." (11. 1106-10) 

203/7259. Ther saw I helmys & haberiouns. The armour of a 
mediseval knight was both complicated and cumbrous, and often con- 
sisted of many more articles than those mentioned in the text. 

Beneath the armour was worn the gambison, a thickly padded tunic, 
intended to keep the mail from bruising the body. Jt was usually 
quilted, and hence was often called the purpoint. 

The habergeon or byrnie was, as the name implies, a protection for 
the neck and breast. In this case it was probably made of chain-mail. 
(1. 7576), but sometimes it consisted of leather or some strong material 
sewn with over-lapping rings. In Sir Gawayne & the Orene Knty we 
are told that 

" pe brawden bryne of bry^t stel ryngej, 

Vmbe-weued )>at wy^, upon wlonk stuffe." 
The helmet given to the Pilgrim was needful 
" For to make resistance 
At Nase, at Ere, & at the Syht." 

Helmets of many shapes existed at this period. Some of these were 
hoods of chain-mail, with loose flaps, which could, when required, be 
fastened across the lower part of the face. These, however, left the eyes 
and nose exposed, so the Pilgrim's helmet was possibly one of the steel 
barrel-shaped ones which covered the whole head, or, more probably, a 
steel casque with movable vizor. (Cf. 11. 7642-48.) 

The gorger or armour for the throat is said in 1. 7628 to be made 
of plate. In 1. 7700, however, we read : 

"Thys Armure hath a double maylle." 

The gorger of mail was more properly called a cama7, and usually 
consisted of a shaped curtain of mail, which was attached to the helmet 
and fell down over the neck and upper part of the body. 

The gloves (11. 7628 f.) of this period were usually made of steel plates, 
rather than of the ring-mail or studded leather common at an earlier 
date. They often consisted merely of gauntlets, articulated at the wrist, 
with steel plates attached, which covered the backs of the hands but left 
the palms free. In some engravings, however, we see gloves with 
elaborate articulated steel fingers. 

The girdle, worn round the hips, was usually much ornamented 
and fastened in front with a buckle of varying form. It supported the 
sword which was generally cross-hilted, and was enclosed in a scabbard 
of leather, often studded with metal. In the text we are told that the 
Pilgrim's scabbardj 

" Ys makyd off A skyn mortal." (1. 7940) 

The shield generally used at this time was short, and often triangular 
in shape. The Pilgrim wore no armour on his legs. These would 
ordinarily have been covered with greaves for the legs and cuisses for 
the thighs. Frequently only the fronts of the legs were thus protected. 

216/7730. Seyn Wylliam of Chalys. St. William of Chalis was G-uil- 
laume de Donjeon, at one time abbot of Fontaine-jean. He became 

674 Notes. Pages 219-238, lines 7839-8602. 

abbot of Chalis in 1187, was made Archbishop of Bourges in 1200, and 
died in 1209. He was canonized by Honorius III. in 1218. 

He took the habit of a monk in the order of Grammont, but after- 
wards passed over to the Cistercian order and entered the abbey of 

219/7839. The swerd of goode Oger. The feats of Ogier the Dane are 
told in many metrical romances, the longest of which is called Les 
Enfances d'Ogier le Danois, by Adenez, herald to Henry III., Duke of 
Brabant. Ogier seems to have been a real man, living in the time of 
Charlemagne. He was supposed to be the son of a king of Denmark, 
but falling into the power of Charlemagne as a hostage, he became one 
of his knights and went through many adventures. 

His swords were called Curtana and Sauvagine. They took the 
smith Munifican three years each to make. 

The sword of Roland was a famous weapon called Durendal, with 
which he is said to have cloven a rock in the valley of Roncesvalles and 
to have made a fissure 300 feet deep. According to one legend he threw 
it, before his death, into a poisoned stream, where it still remains. 
Oliver's sword was called Hautedaire or Glorious. With it he hacked 
to pieces nine swords made by the smiths Munifican, Ansias and Galas, 
eacn of which had taken three years in the making. 

220/7882. As seyn Benyth dyde of old. The asceticism of St. Benedict 
of Nursia is well known. There is a story that while yet a boy he 
retired to Subiaco and lived there as a hermit, and the place is still 
shown where he is said to have rolled in thorn-bushes to overcome 
sensual temptation. 

227/8i5o. Venus ys sayd off venerye. Lydgate was fond of seeking for 
fanciful derivations of the name Venus. In Reason and Sensuality we 
find two more : 

"Venus is said of venquisshing, 
For she venquyssheth everythyng." (120/45OI-2.) 

" Aftir ethymologie 
Venue, by exposicion 
Is seyde of venym & poysovne." (89/3386-88.) 

234/8433. Martews. Dr. Furnivall gives the following note : 
" Et cinq pierres i met petites 
Du rivage de mer eslites, 
Dont puceles as martiaus geuent, 
Quant beles et rondent les treuent." 
Roman de la Rose, 21767-70, IV. 320 Bibl. Elzev. 

Jouer aux marteaux, signifiat lancer des petits cailloux ronds en 1'air 
pour les recevoir dans 1'une et 1'autre main, en les faisant choquer. C'est 
un jeu analogue h notre jeu d'osselets : ib. v. 216-7. 

Osselets. The game termed Cockall or Hucklebones. 1611. Cotgrave. 

238/86o2. Albeston. This is a corruption of asbestos, which by its 
derivation means unquenchable. There is perhaps some confusion with 
albus and stone. 

See also the note to p. 66, 11. 539, etc., of the Temple of Glas, in which 
Dr. Schick gives the following references to Albeston. " For in a 
temple of Venus was made a candylsticke ; on whyche was a lantern so 
brennynge that it rnyght not be quenched wyth tempeste nother with 
reyne." (Bartholomseus, De Proprietatibus Rerum } xvi, ii.) 

Notes. Pages 247-306, lines 8923-11181. 675 

"Isidore sayth in his xvi booke, that in a certaine temple of Venus 
there was made and hoong up such a Candlesticke wherin was a light 
burning on that wise, that no tempest nor storm could put it out, & he 
beleueth that this candlesticke had somewhat of Albeston beset within." 
(John Maplet, A greene Forest, fol. 2.) 

In the Compleynt at the end of the Temple of Glas the following 
lines occur (p. 66, 11. 537-552) : 

" Myn hete is so violent 

Wherwyth myn pitous herte is brent, 

That may ben likkenyd to a ston, 

Which is I-callyd albiston, 

That onys whan it hath caught feer, 

Ther may no man the flaumbe steer, 

That it wel brenne aftir euere, 

And neuere from the fer disseuere, 

So they acordyn of nature. 

And for this ston may longe endure, 

In fer to brenne fayr & bryght, 

As sterrys in the wyntyr nyght. 

I fynde, in Venus oratorye, 

In hir worshepe & memorye 

Was made a laumpe of this ston, 

To brenne a-fore here, euere in on." 

247/8923. Sende. In Stowe we find fende = defend. 

261/9458. Tarage. See note to 1. 3812 of Eeson and Sensuallyte. 
The meaning seems here to be quality or kind. 

266/9670. And whylom blinde was Tobye. See Tobit ii. 10 and chap. 
iv, in which the blinding of Tobit is described, and his counsels to his 
son are given. 

279/ioi84. The precept offkyng salomoun. This precept is, of course, 
in the book of Proverbs (vi. 6), not in Wisdom, as Lydgate seems to imply. 

295/10763. No man to bern. See Matt. x. 9, 10 : " Provide neither 
gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip for your journey, 
neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves." 

297/io864. The author shows here more wisdom than many biblical 
commentators, who, by refusing to recognize the principle of progressive 
revelation, involve themselves in many unnecessary difficulties. 

304/11137. .4s wilde coltys in Arras. Dr. Skeat suggests that instead 
of Arras we should read harras or haras, meaning a stud of horses. 

305/1 1 141. And now I lepe louy pe. 

" And now I leap with merry foot." 

Camb., however, has " joynpee," and in Verard's edition of Deguile- 
ville's second recension we read "pieds joincts." 

305/1 1 160. As whylom was Asael. 2 Sam. ii. 18-23: " Asahel was as 
light of foot as a wild roe. And Asahel pursued after Abner ; and in 
going he turned not aside to the right hand nor to the left from follow- 
ing Abner. . . . And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn thee aside from 
following me: wherefore should I smite thee to the ground? . . . 
Howbeit he refused to turn aside : wherefore Abner with the hinder end 
of the spear smote him under the fifth rib, that the spear came out 
behind him." 

306/11181, etc. Pleye at the cloos, etc. In the statutes of Ed. IV. (17 

676 Notes. Page 306, lines 11181-11198. 

Ed. IV. cap. 3), and in 18 and 20 Hen. VIII., the game of closh or cloish 
is mentioned and prohibited. According to J. Strutt (The Sports and 
Pastimes of the People of England) it was a game much like ninepins. 

It seems to have been Dutch in origin. Flem. and Du. Idos = bowl 
(for playing). Kilian has klos : globus, sphsera; klos-beytel = flagellum. 
Plantin has klos = une boule ; klos-porte = une porte a bonier, anneau de 
fer a passer la boule ; klos bane = pare & bouler ; klossen-bouler = jouer & 
la boule par travers un anneau de fer. From this we ma} T gather that 
the klos was struck through the klos-porte with the klos-beytel. 

The next game (11. 11182-3) seems to be hockey, but the nature of 
the kampyng-crook mentioned in the following line is not quite clear. 
Taken by itself one would think it meant hockey-stick, but in 1. 11183 
" a staff mad lyk an hook," which must surely be a hockey-stick, has 
already been mentioned. 

The game of camp-ball was a game much like foot-ball, though the 
ball was thrown, not kicked, but no staff or crook seems to have been 
used in it. The vb. camp also means to contend in athletic contests. The 
N.E.D. gives the following example: 1774-6, J. Bryant, Mythol : "In 
our island the exhibition of those manly sports in vogue among country 
people is called camping: and the enclosures for that purpose, where 
they wrestle and contend, are called camping closes." Kampyng crook 
might therefore stand for some kind of a staff used in athletic contests. 
One of the definitions of crook in the N. E. D. is " a barbed spear," but it 
can hardly have that meaning in this place, as the crook mentioned does 
not seem to be a warlike weapon. 

Dr. Skeat suggest that bessellys may stand for baissel(le) from Fr. baisser, 
to lower, and refers to the term "knock-em-down" as applied to a skittle. 
Shetyn at bessellys may thus mean to play or shoot at skittles. I have, 
however, since seen in Halliwell and the N. E. D. bercel, meaning a mark 
to shoot at, an archer's butt. In the Prompt. Part;., pp. 32, 56, this word 
appears under five different forms, bercel, berseel, bertel, byrselle, bersell. 
Of. Pilg. 1. 15305, where Lydgate writes mosselles for De Guileville's 

Merelles was another name for nine men's morrice. This game is 
played with nine pieces a side, on a board marked with points and inter- 
secting lines. The aim of each player is to place three of his men in a 
row, which gives him the right of removing one of his opponent's pieces. 
The game is won by the player who succeeds in reducing his opponent's 
pieces to two. 

Hazard and passage were both games of dice. In hazard the chances 
were complicated by many arbitrary rules. "There were two kinds: 
French hazard, in which the players staked against the bank, and English, 
or chicken hazard, in which they staked against each other." 

" Passage is a game at dice, to be played at but by two, and it is per- 
formed with three dice. The caster throws continually till he hath thrown 
dubblets under ten, and then he is out and loseth, or dubblets above ten, 
and then he passeth and wins." Gompleat Gamester, 1680, p. 119. 

The game of tables is the same as backgammon. 

Keyles was the original form of the modern game of ninepins. It was 
played in various ways and with an uncertain number of pins, which, 
according to ancient engravings, were placed in a single row and knocked 
down by throwing a club at them. 

Quek or quickboard was, with many other games, forbidden in the reign 
of Edward IV. The N. E. D. says it was ' A chequer or chess-board, some 
game played on this,' and cites from Riley, Lond. Mem. 395, with the 

Notes. Pages 311-313, lines 11382-11476. 677 

date 1376 : " A pair of tables, on the outside of which was painted a 
chequer-board that is called a 'quek.'" 

The passage describing Youth and her games runs as follows in the 
first French version, and is almost word for word the same in the second : 
Jeunece sui, la legiere (Et) pour ce piec'a sainte eglise 

La giberresse et coursiere Ordena que ne fust mise 

La sauterelle, la saillant Personne pour li gouverner 

Que tout dangier ne prise un gant Qui n'eust pies de plonc pour aler 
Je vois, je vieng, sail et vole. Si ques de ce (je) sui privee, 

Je espringale, je karole, Tant com serai (ain) si duvee. 

Je trepe et queur (et) dance et bale Un estuef me faut pour jouer 
Et vois a la huitefale, Et une croce a souler ; 

Je luite et sail fossez piez joins Autre croce ne rne faut mie. 

Et gete la pierre au plus loins Se (je) 1'ai, ce sera folie, 

Et nulle fois (je) ne m'esmaie Mes piez tenir ne se pourront 

De trespasser mur (et) ou haie. De voleter ne ne vourront ; 

Se des pornmes a mes voisins Encor ne sui (je) pas saoule 

Veul avoir, tost en leurs gardins De jouer au gieu de (la) boule, 

Sui saillie et sur i pommier D'aler quillier, d'aler billier 

Sui tost rampee et de legier. Et de jouer au mereillier, 

Pour nient (je) ne sui pas duvee D'ouir chancons et instrumens 
Mes pies ne si emplumee. Et querre mes esbatemens. 

Mee piez me porte ou je veul. En ma pelote jour et nuit 

Eles ont, tu le vois a 1'ueil. Ai plus soulas et plus deduit 

Asael jadis les porta Qa'en quanque me dit mon pere 

Men chierement les compara Ne (en quan)que m'enseigne ma 

(Trop) grant legierete n'est mie Je la tourne et la manie, [mere. 

Souvent bonne a la vie. (Je) m'en gene, c'est rne'studie. 

Miex vaut i saige a pies pesans Soing n'ai fors que de moi jouer 

Que quatre folz or piez volans. Et de mes soulas procurer. 

(Stiirzinger, 11803-55.) 

311/11382. Lat men lyuen lyk her degres. This passage bears a marked 
general resemblance to Passus VI. of Piers Plowman, in which Piers 
insists that all men should work in their several ways for the general good 
of the community : 

1 Bi crist,' quod a knyjte \>Q ' he kenneth us j?e best, 
Ac on \>Q teme trewly tau^te was I neuere. 
Ac kenne me/ quod J?e kny^te and, bi cryst, I wil assaye ; 
' Bi seynt Poule,' quod Perkyn ' '^e profre yow so faire, 
pat I shal swynke and swete and sowe for us bothe. 
And oj^er laboures do for Jn loue al my lyf-tyrne, 
In couenaunt >at J?ow kepe holi kirke and myselue 
Fro wastours and fro wykked men )?at )?is worlde struyeth." 

(11. 22-29.) 

313/H476. In that noble universyte. The university of Paris was one 
in which the speculative rather than the practical side of learning was 
encouraged. It arose from a movement carried out by teachers on the He 
de la Cite", who taught under the licence of the chancellor of the cathedral, 
and of whom Abelard was one of the greatest. It was around this 
community of teachers that the university grew up, and between 1150- 
1170 came formally into existence, though its statutes were not compiled 
until 1208. 

It became the model of Oxford and Cambridge as well as of most of 
the universities of central Europe. 

678 Notes. Pages 314-317, lines 11503-11623. 

314/11503. ray. Raye (from Lat. radius) was striped cloth, often 
spoken of as cloth of raye. Lydgate mentions it in his London Lyckpenny : 
" In Westminster Hall I found out one 
Which went in a long gown of raye." 

It was commonly worn by the legal profession, but was not confined 
to them. A Royal MS. 15. E. 4, has drawings of a country woman and a 
husbandman wearing clothes with stripes running round the body. 

In a political song of the time of Ed. II. a change of fashion in the 
direction of the stripes is mentioned : 

" A newe taille of squierie is nu in everi town ; 
The raye is turned overthuert that sholde stonde adoun ; 
Hii ben degised as turmentours that comen from clerkes plei." 

317/n6i4. Balladys, Roundelayes, vycelayes. The ballade is a poem, 
usually consisting of three seven-lined stanzas and an envoy, which is 
sometimes of seven and sometimes of four lines. Each stanza, as well as 
the envoy, ends in a refrain. Three rimes only are employed. 

A roundelay might be either a dance or a song. The latter consists of 
thirteen verses on two rimes. Lines 1 and 2 are repeated at 11. 6 and 7 
and 11 and 12, while 1. 3 is repeated at 1. 13. The rimes run ABB ABAB 

A virelay is an ancient French poem, composed of short lines on two 
rimes. The essential point of a mrelay is the repetition of the same rimes 
in different order. (See Dr. Skeat's note on Hoccleve's Rhymes and 
Chaucer's Virelays, inserted in the E. E. T. S. Hoccleve's Works, iii.) 

317/11623. At treygobet & tregetrye. The passage in Verard's edition, 
describing the diversions of Idleness, runs as follows : 
Par luy ie meyne gens au bois Dont long le parlement seroit 

Cueillir fleurs, violettes et nois, Qui toutes dire les voulroit, 

En esbatement, en deduit, Et la leur fois ie veoir danseurs, 

En lieu de ioye et de delict ; Jeux de basteaulx et de iougleurs, 

Et la leur faiz oyr chansons, Jeux de tables et d'eschiquiers, 

Rondeaulx, balades et doulx sons De boulles et de mereilliers, 
De herpes et simphonies, De cartes ieux de triclrerie, 

Et plusieurs autres melodies Et de inainte autre muserie. 

(Ver. fol. xlv.) 

According to Halliwell treygobet is "an old game at dice." Dr. Skeat 
points out that the word is evidently composed of trey, tray, meaning 
"three," and the Eng. go bet (as in Chaucer's Book of the Duchesse, 136), 
meaning " go more quickly," " hurry up." Perhaps, in this case, go bet 
might be taken literally (cp. N. E. I). " to go one better "). In any case, 
the word probably represents some call or exclamation connected with 
the game. 

In the Frere and Boy (1617) III. 73, we read : 

"Ye hath made me daunce, maugre my hede, 
Amonge the thornes, hey go bet. } ' 

Tregetrye means juggling, mumming, conjuring. Chaucer's Franklin's 
Tale contains (11. 413-20) a description of some of the doings of tregetours. 

Karyyng. I have been unable to find any example of this word in 
an appropriate sense. Can it be connected with Fr. carriere, meaning a 
race? Cotgrave gives, "A Careere, on horse-back, and (more generally) 
any exercise or place for exercise on horse-back ; as, a horse-race, or a 
place for horses to run in, and, their course, running, or full speed 

Notes. Pages 318-336, lines 11665-12370. 679 

318/11665. Wernays take. In Stowe we find wormes. The parallel 
passage in Camb. runs as follows : "And sum time j make wormes come 
in the hondes for to digge in hem to tile hem and to ere hern with oute 
any sowinge." 

321/11768. fforeyn. According to Godefroy, forain = du dehors, 
exte>ieur, ecarte". "Avoit este ordene que a la venue ou entree du dit 
palais nul ne s'arrestast devant la dite porte, mais passast oultre chacim a 
cheval, et s'espandissent parmi les rues foraines, afin de y avoir moins de 
prcsse." (Or. Chron. de Fr. Charl. V., lx. P. Paris.) 

332 et seq. The editor of Reson and Sensuallyte, in his note on 637 ff. 
compares this discourse in the Pilgrimage with the mystical speculations 
of Alanus ab Insulis, concerning the two opposite rotations of the 
firmament, the account in Reson and Sensuallyte being founded on 
these speculations. 

Alanus takes the opposite rotations of the celestial bodies to signify 
the contest between the spiritual and sensual parts of man. 

332/12257. Of hym orygynal begynnyng. Other passages, containing 
the same idea will be found beginning at 1. 12301 and 1. 12377. Cf. also 
1. 847-50 and 1. 1245-1277 of Reson and Sensuallyte and Prof. Sieper's 
note on the first of these passages. 

335/I233O. Ay toward the oryent. Barth, De Prop. Rerum, Lib. xix, 
cap. 22. "All the planets move by double moving; by their own kind 
moving out of the west into the east, against the moving of the firmament; 
and by other moving out of the east into the west, and that by ravishing 
of the firmament. By violence of the firmament they are ravished every 
day out of the east into the west. And by their kindly moving, by the 
which they labour to move against the firmament, some of them fulfil their 
course in shorter time, and some in longer time." 

336/12338. Gelum Mobile. See note to 101/3795. 

336/12356, etc. In the Epicicles, etc. Barth. De Prop. Rerum, Lib. 
xix, cap. 22. "The first moving of a planet is made in its own circle 
that is called Eccentric, and it is called so, for the earth is not the middle 
thereof, as it is the middle of the circle that is called Zodiac. Epicycle is 
a little circle that a planet describeth, and goeth about therein by the 
moving of its body, and the body of the planet goeth about the round- 
ness thereof Also in these circles the manner moving of planets 

is full wisely found of astronomers, that are called Direct, Stationary, and 
Retrograde Motion. Forth-right moving is' in the over part of the circle 
that is called Epicycle, backward is in the nether part, and stinting and 
abiding or hoving is in the middle." 

336/12370. Syth Mycrocosme men the calle. (See also 421/15638 and 
567/21 168.) Microcosm in Gk. = little world. Ancient philosophers 
considered the world to be a living creature, and man, being looked upon 
as a world in miniature they supposed that the movements of man and 
the world corresponded, and that the fate of man could be made out by 
observing the movements of the stars. 

In Appendix IV to the E. E. T. S. edition of the Secrees of Old Phili- 
soffres this idea is expanded : 

" Oolde philosofris put in remernbraunce 
fat in man is founde grete myracle, 
namyd pe lytulle worlde by autores allegaunce . . . 
... He is hardy as a lyon, dredfulle as ]>e hare, 
Large as ]?e cok, and as a hound couetous, 
harde as a herte in forest which doth fare ; 

680 Notes. Pages 348-354, lines 12830-13031. 

Buxum as ]) e tyrtylle, as lionesse dispitous, 
Simple as pe lambe, lyke ]?e foxe malicious . . . 
. . . Note this processe in ]>e audith countable 
Of j>e remembraunce, and knowe redelie 
J>at in beeste nor thyng vegetable 
No thyng may be vniversally, 
But if it be founde naturally 
In mannes nature ; wherfor of oon accorde 
Olde philesofris callidy hym ]>e lytelle worlde." 

348/12830. Romney, clarre, ypocras. Eomney was a sort of Spanish 
wine, dark in colour, strong and thick. 

Hippocras was a wine, usually red, medicated with sugar and spice. 
It was called by apothecaries vinum Hippocraticum after Hippocrates, 
the celebrated Greek physician. The following is a recipe for Hippocras : 
"Take of cinamon 2 oz., of ginger an oz., of grains a quarter of 
an oz. : punne (pound) them grosse, & put them into a pottle of good 
claret or white wine with half a pound of sugar ; let all steep together, 
a night at the least, close covered in." 1589. Haven of Health. 

Clarre was wine mixed with honey and spices. It obtained its name 
from the fact that it was strained to make it clear. 

Malvesyn was malmsey, a corruption of O.F. malvoisie, from Malvasia, 
a town in Greece. It was a strong, sweet wine. 

Osey. Dr. Skeat has a note on this wine in his edition of Piers 
Plowman. He says that it seems to have been a sweet straw-coloured 
wine, and considers that the name is a corruption of Alsace, which in 
the Romance of Partenay is written Ausoy. The wine however is said 
by Hackluyt to come from Portugal. 

349/12853. Mokadour. Cotgrave gives as the gloss of bavarette, 
"A bib, moket or rnocketer, to put before the bosome of a child." 
Fairholt quotes from the Coventry Mysteries : 

" Goo horn, lytyl babe, and sytt on thi moder's lappe, 
And put a mokador aforn thi breast ; 
And pray thi modyr to fede the with pappe." 

The word sometimes means handkerchief (Halliwell), and in this 
sense seems to be the same as muckinder, a handkerchief which was 
generally worn affixed to the girdle. See Fairholt's Costume in England 

349/12857. Bel, Of whom that speaketh Danyel. The history of 
Daniel and Bel is found in the Apocryphal book of Bel and the Dragon. 
The comparison of Gluttony to Bel, " the ydole that devourede all," is 
not however sustained by the story, which sets forth how Daniel proved 
to the king that the sacrifices, which Bel was supposed to devour, were 
really consumed by the priests and their friends. 

354/13031. Lyk a botore. See Batman vppon Bartholome, his Booke 
De Proprietatibus Eerum, Bk. xii, ch. 28, ed. 1582, p. 186-7 : 

" Of the Miredromble. 

The Miredromble is called Macrocalus, and is a bird that maketh 
noyse in the Winter, and hath small chins in his iawes, in which hee 
taketh first meate, and then sendeth it to the second wombe ; For he 
hath two wombes : in that one onelye hee taketh meate, and in that 
other onely he seetheth and defieth. But the first is taken instead of the 
crop of the throat, as Isidore saith. In Greeke Onacrocalus is called a 
Birde with a long bill : and there be two manner kindes : One is a water 
foule, and that other a foule of desart; and he that dwelleth in Water is 

Notes. Pages 360-394, lines 13269-14605. 681 

a bird of great gluttonye, and putteth the bill downe into the water, and 
maketh a great noise, and is eniraie namely (specially) to Eeles, and the 
pray that hee taketh, he swalloweth sodinly, & sendeth it into his 
wornbe. And then he cheweth and moueth his iawes, as he held meate 
in his mouth." . . . [Batman : " Onocrotalus is as bigge as a Swan, 
which, putting his head into the water, brayeth like an asse."] 
In Verard's edition the lines run as follows : 

" Pour neant nay pas comme ung butor 
Deux ventres, car butordement 
Je parle a chascun lourdement." (fol. 1, bk.) 
For the history of the word botore, see the N. E. D. 
860/13269. Malebouche. Malebouche, Danger and Shame were the 
guardians of the Rose-tree in the Romance of the Rose : 
" And yet of Daunger cometh no blame, 
In reward of my daughter Shame, 
Which hath the roses in hir warde, 
As she that may be no musarde. 
And Wikked-Tunge is with these two 
That surfrith no man thider go ; 
For er a thing be do he shal . . . 
Seye thing that never was doon ne wrought ; 
So moche treson is in his male." (11. 3252-63, Skeat's eel.) 
Jean de Meun says also that Wikked-Tunge kept the fourth gate 

"with soudiours of Normandye." (1. 4234.) 
and speaks in another place of the hinder gate : 
" That Wikked-Tunge hath in keping, 

With his Normans, fulle of jangling." (11. 5851-52.) 
367/13539- bonche sore. "To bounche or pusshe one; he buncheth 
me & beateth me ; il me pousse." Palsgrave. Compare Piers Plowman, 
Prol. 74 : 

" He bonched hem with his breuet & blered here eyes." 
375/13857-8. "Be no ropys mad at Clervaws 

ffor they wer maked at Nervaivs." 

Camb. has : " Thei ben not cordes of cleernans (for cleeruaus) but 
thei were made of synewes al blak and twyned and out of my wombe 

In Petit's edition these lines run : 

" Ne sont pas cordes de clervaulx 
Ains furent faictes a noirvaulx." 

383/14 1 80. The castel of landown. Possibly to be identified with 
Chateau Landon, formerly the chief town of Gatinais, which was taken 
by the English in 1436 and rescued by the French the following year. 
(See Notes and Queries, Ser. VII, vol. ix, p. 177.) I cannot however 
establish any connection between this place and the idea of scorn and 

385/14224. That the cyte of Babiloun. Daniel iv. 30: "The king 
spake, and said, Is this not this great Babylon, that I have built for the 
house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of 
my majesty ? " 

386/14224. A Reuene. See ^Esop's fable of the Fox and the Crow. 
394/14605. And as the fox. This story is to be found in the Roman du 
Renart. "Si coume Renart manja le poisson aus charretiers." 

682 Notes. Page 395-410, lines 14654-15226. 

395/14654. My song bo hem is "placebo" To sing "placebo" meant 
" to flatter." The expression is used in this sense in Chaucer's Somnour's 
Tale, 1. 366 : 

" Beth war therefor with lordes how ye pleye. 
Singeth Placebo, and I shal, if I can, 
But if it be unto a povre man. 
To a povre man men sholde hise vyces telle 
But nat to a lord, thogh he sholde go to helle." 

397/I472O. The unycorn. The reference in this passage is probably to 
some traditional mode of hunting the unicorn. One way of using the 
mirror in hunting is described by Bartholomseus Anglicus in his description 
of the tiger in De Prop. Rerum, Lib. xviii, cap. civ. " He that will bear 
away the whelps, leaveth in the way great mirrors, and the mother fol- 
loweth and findeth the mirrors in the way, and looketh on them and seeth 
her own shadow and image therein, and weeneth that she seeth her chil- 
dren therein, and is long occupied therefore to deliver her children out of 
the glass, and so the hunter hath time and space for to scape, and so she 
is beguiled with] her own shadow, and she followeth no farther after the 
hunter to deliver her children." (B. Steele's edition.) 
In Julius Ccesar, Act II. sc. i. we are told 

" That unicorns may be betray'd with trees, 
And bears with glasses, elephants with holes, 
Lions with toils, and men with flatterers." 

There were various traditions about the untameable fierceness of the 
unicorn. Gower refers to one in the Mirour de Vhomme, 1563-1569: 
" Del unicorn ce dist Solyn, 
N'il poet danter aucun engin, 
Mais moert ainz qu'on le poet danter, 
Tant ad le cuer gross et ferin." 

Topsell also, in his History of Four-footed Beasts, bears testimony to 
the fierceness and wildness of the unicorn, but adds that a young virgin 
has an irresistible attraction for him, so that in her presence he would 
become gentle and tame, and might easily be captured by the hunters. 
402/14920. ffor taslayn Kyng Davyd. See 1 Samuel xviii. 6-11. 
406/15078. Tryphon. See Maccabees xii. 39, xiii. 1-34. Tryphon, 
having placed Antiochus upon the throne of Asia, afterwards plotted to 
depose him. He was opposed by Jonathan Maccabseus, and fearing him, 
he met him deceitfully with gifts and good words and enticed him to 
enter the town of Ptolomais, where he slew his men and kept Jonathan a 
prisoner. Then Simon Maccabseus rose up to deliver his brother, and 
Tryphon treated with him, promising to release Jonathan if money and 
hostages were* given. These were sent by Simon, but still Tryphon did 
not let Jonathan go, and presently slew him. 

After this he killed Antiochus and made himself king in his stead, and 
" brought a great calamity upon the land." 

410/15226. St. Nicholas. The story here referred to is that of one of 
the most startling miracles of St. Nicholas of Myra. 

A certain innkeeper was accustomed, in a time of scarcity, to steal 
children, and serve up their flesh to his guests. On one occasion St. 
Nicholas came to his inn, and the host placed before him part of the bodies 
of three boys, whom he had kidnapped, murdered and salted in a tub. 
Nicholas, however, at once perceived the nature of the food placed before 
him, and going to the tub he made over it the sign of the cross, where- 
upon the three children rose up whole and sound. 

Notes. Pages 413-421, lines 15338-15G66. 683 

The life and miracles of St. Nicholas are recounted at length in Mrs. 
Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. 

413/15338. Tryacle. This word, which has been fully explained by 
Morley in his Lib. of Eng. Lit., p. 21, comes from theriaca, the name of a 
medicine, supposed to be capable of preventing or curing the effects of 
poison, compounded by Andromachus, physician to Nero. Modern treacle 
is a corruption of it. The word is frequently found in writers of this 
period. Cf. Piers Plowman, I. 146 : 

" Loue is triacle of heuene." 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales (Skeat), C 314-17: 

" By corpus bones ! but I have triacle . . . 

Myn herte is lost for pitee of this mayde." 

413/15352. I make mortrews & colys. Mortrewes was a kind of soup 
made either of meat or fish and other ingredients, stamped and crushed in 
a mortar. See Skeat's note to Chaucer's Prologue, 1. 384. 

Colys (Fr. coleis) was also a kind of broth. Mrs. Glass (1767) uses 
this word in the form cullis, as do modern cookery-books. 

416/15459. For thogh in helle wer seyn lohn. These lines, as well as 
11. 21218-21222 on p. 566, bear a striking correspondence to the words of 
Marlowe and Milton on the same subject, and show that the materialistic 
view of the future life was not the only one prevalent in the Middle Ages. 
Milton's words put into the mouth of Satan are well known : 
" The mind is its own place, and in itself 

Can make a heav'n of hell, a hell of heav'n." Bk. I. 254-5. 
" Which way I fly is hell; my self am hell." Bk. IV. 75. 

"the more I see 

Pleasures about me, so much more I feel 
Torment within me, as from the hateful siege 
Of contraries ; all good to me becomes 
Bane, and in heav'n much worse would be my state." 

Bk. IX. 119-23. 
Perhaps less familiar are Marlowe's lines : 

Faustus. " How comes it then that you are out of hell ? " 
Mephis. " Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it ; 
Think'st thou that I who saw the face of God 
And tasted the eternal joys of heaven 
Am not tormented with ten thousand hells 
In being deprived of this ? " (Sc. iii.) 

Mephis. " Hell hath no limits, nor is circumscribed 
In one self place; for where we are is hell, 
And where hell is, there must we ever be ; 
And, to conclude, when all the world dissolves, 
And every creature shall be purified 
All places shall be hell that is not Heaven." (Sc. v.) 
420/15608. For I have 'carmen et ve.' See Dr. Aldis Wright's note in 
the Koxburghe Club edition of Camb., p. 220, in which he points out that 
the Laud MS. has curamen in ve, and that Petit has carmen en ve. Camb. 
has " sorwe & waylinge," which gives the sense we should expect. If we 
take curamen to mean the same as cura, we get the same meaning as in 
Camb. Ve stands for vce (adv.). 

421/15666. ludicum maketh mencioun. Judges ix. 15: "And the 
bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then 
come and put your trust in my shadow : and if not, let fire come out of 
the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.'' 


684 Notes. Pages 428-437, lines 15944-16256. 

428/15944. Adonay. Adonai was a Hebrew name for the Almighty, 
being the plural form of Adon = Lord. It was used by the Jews instead 
of Jehovah, for fear of breaking the third commandment by the direct 
mention of the most Holy One. 

435/i6i95. Theophilus. This Theophilus was a legendary bishop of 
Adana in Cilicia. He was deposed from his office through slander, and 
in order to be reinstated, sold himself to the devil. On his repentance and 
prayer, however, the Virgin Mary came to his assistance, and, taking the 
bond he had signed from the devil, restored it to Theophilus. See also p. 

437/16256. That I radde onys off seynt Bernard. In Verard's edition 
there follows a prose Latin treatise or prayer which was translated into 
English by Lydgate. In Petit's edition, however, the prose is absent and 
we find, instead, the following lines, Foeillet, Ivii. col. 2 : 
Et que me vint a remembrance Gil qui du cueur t'inuoquera 

D'une parolle que iadis En toutes affaire(s) qu' aura, 

J'auoie veu et leu es escripz Se tu ne lui es gracieuse 

Sainct Benard, qui ainsi disoit : Doulce et misericordieuse, 

Qu'a trestous les griefz qu'on auoit, Pour ce, mere du souurain iuge, 
On deuoit son refuge faire 
A la dame tout debonnaire, 
Mere de Dieu, Vierge Marie, 
Qui, a bien aider, ne fault mye 
A ceulx qui s'enfuyent et s'en vont 
A elle / a tous besoings qu'ilz ont. 
A lui done, de cueur fiz mon pry, 
Et d'elle ie fiz mon refuy, 
De mon pouoir la collaudant, 
Et ce que s'ensuit lui disant : 

ORoyne de misericorde, 
De paix, de doulceur et concorde, 
Apres, de mes maulx, le deluge, 

Je m'en viens ill toy, & refuge 

En ma tres grant necessite, 

Selon que i'en suis excite 

Par sainct Bernard, mon devot pere, 1 

Qui me dit, ' que ie te requiere 

En tout ce que i'auray mestier 

Et besoing, sans rien excepter. 

Se les vens de temptation 

(Dit il) ou tribulation 

T'assaillent / regarde 1'estelle. 

Et appelle Marie la belle. 

Se d'orgueil ou d'ambition, 

D'enuie ou de detraction 

Tu es infeste / n'oblie mye 

De tantost inuoquer Marie. 

Se paresce / ire / ou auarice, 

Luxure, ou quelconque autre vice 

Hurte la nef de ta pensee, 

A celle qui onques lassee 

Ne fut, de benefices faire, 

La doulce Marie debonnaire. 

T'en fuy / et la prie qu'elle ait soing 

Humblement viens a mon refuge. 

Aide moy, dame de pitie, 

En ceste grand aduersite 

Ou tu me vois du tout perdu, 

Se par toy ne suis secouru I ' 

Et, se tu dis que n'ay mery 

Enuers toy d'obtenir mercy, 

Ne iamais pardon recouurer, 

Par ce que tousiours retourner 

J'ay voulu, a ma vie damn^e C 57 /*] 

Encores tousiours empire^, 

Sans point me vouloir tenir quoy, 

Helas, dame! ce poise moy. 

Bien sauez que presentement 

Ay bon vouloir d'amendement: 

Auec ce / tant one ne mesfiz 

Enuers vous n'enuers vostre filz, 

Comme fist iadis Theofile ; 

Car se i'ay fait des maulx cent mille, 

Toutesfois n'ay ie pas nye 

Vostre bonte / ne renye 

Le doulx lesus, ainsi qu'il fist 

Pardon, apres vous en requist, 

Et doulcement luy pardonnastes, 

Et vers vostre filz impetrastes 

Pour luy grace et reunion, 

Et pleniere remission, 

' Dame, pas pis ne me ferez, 

Et grace vous m'ympetrerez 

Maintenant, et toute mon aage 

De faire mon pelerinage 

Si bien et conuenablement, 

Qu' auecques vous, finablement, 

Et auec vostre benoist filz, 

Puisse regner en paradis.' 

1 back. 

Notes. Pages 447-463, lines 16652-17271. 685 

De t'aider a ce grant besoing. A Insi comme i'eu fait mon pry, 

Se, par multiplication, A La fauresse qui m'eut oy, 

Ou par reiteration, Me dist, puis que mis ie n'auoye 

De tes peches es inuolue Jus mon bourdon, et quis auoye 

De tous poinctz / et enuelope Refuge bon et suffisant, 

En trop dure obstination, Qu' elle se cesseroit a tant. 

Et es en desperation 51 ' J G su i s (distelle) tout ainsi n-i- 

De iamais point ne t'amender, Que le vent, qui inaine & 1'abry, Jjja- 

Ne a bonne vie retourner, Et destoume les fueilles cheues, "A" 

Hue toy, plorant, deuarit Marie, Ou les rachasse vers les nues. 

Et qu'elle t'ayde / la supplie, A refuge t'ay fait aler, 

Lui disant, par bonne fiance, Et deuers les nues regarder, 

Bon amour et bonne esperance, Qui es vne fueille seichee, 

Ce que la deuot sainct Benard Et deiectee et desuoye'e 

Lui disoit en vne autre part : En cestuy chemin maleureux, 

' Cele et nye ta misericorde, Ouw'est pas(dontmeschief est) seulz. 

(Disoit il), dame de concorde 

447/16652. Ad oculum. The apparent gap, referred to on p. 447, 
appears not to exist, as the contents of the next passage in Verard are 

much the same as in Lydgate. The next sentence in Ver. begins; "Tu 

secunda consolatio mea est." Possibly some copyist put the Latin 
catchword by mistake. 

447/i6668. To declyn by medyacion. Mediation is an astrological 
term, meaning either (1) mid-day, or (2) the moment of the culmination of 
a star. 

448/16713. Cum beato Petro. See St. Matt. xiv. 28. 

450/16784. Thylke Tree which that Danyel spak off. Dan. iv. 10-12: 
" I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height there- 
of was great. . . . The leaves thereof were fair, and the fruit thereof 
much, and in it was meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under 
it, and the fowls of heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was 
fed of it." 

451/i68o8. Walkyn as a man deiect with Nabugodonoser. Dan. iv. 33 : 
" The same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar : and he 
was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet 
with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were grown like eagles' feathers, and 
his nails like birds' claws." 

451/16825. Oure ferme fader. Ferme or forme, meaning first, was one 
of the few remnants in M.E. of the old superlative in -ma, of which we still 
have traces in uttermost, innermost, etc. The O.E. word was forma, 
Goth, fruma. In N.E. we have foremost, which is really a double 

456/17017. In Tribulacione inuocasti me. Psal. Ixxxi. 7: "Thou 
calledst in trouble, and I delivered thee." 

462/17243-4. The maner ek off thy mawmet, Shape lyk a marmoset. 
Mawmet is a corruption of Mahomet, and came to stand for anything 
worshipped idolatrously. 

O.F. Marmoset comes from L. Lat. marmoretum, a grotesque figure, 
orig. a small marble figure adorning a fountain. 

463/17269-71. An abbey wych .... 

Wasfoundyd besyden a cheker. 

" Fr. eschiquier. This word is thus explained by Roquefort: ' Lieu on 
s'assembloient les commissaires que le Roi, les Princes souverains ou 

686 Notes. Pages 468-484, lines 17474-18103. 

grands vassaux envoyoient dans leurs domaines. Dans la province de 
Normandie cette cour etoit permanentre, et en 1250 on y portoit appel des 
sentences des bailiffs.' See also Du Gauge's Glossary, sub voc. ' Scaca- 
rium.' The word is introduced here as being radically connected with 
the game of 'eschecs' or 'chess' which is described, and the reader will 
at once recognize in it the origin of our Court of Exchequer" (Ancient 
Poem of Guillaume de G-uileville, Note, p. xxxv.) 

468/17474. For I resemble unto that hound. See ^Esop's fable of The 
Dog in the Manger. 

479/17902. I will not spekyn of nofrerys. See note to 16/535. 
479/17914. Processionerys. This word is written pocessionerys in the 
MS. Possessioners were, according to Mr. Wright, "the regular orders 
of monks, who possessed landed property and enjoyed rich revenues." 
Dr. Skeat thinks that in some cases the word may have been applied to 
beneficed clergy. 

480/17940. Symon Magus & G-yosy. For Simon Magus see Acts viii. 
By Gyosy is to be understood Gehazi (2 Kings v. 20-27). 

480/17973. travas. I have been unable to find the word in this form. 
It probably stands either for (1) travesse = a pass: "The fabricke was a 
mo mtaine with two descents and severed with two travesses " (Masque 
of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inne, 1612); or for (2) travers = a barrier, 
a sliding door or movable screen. "A travers slided away." Masque at 
Ashley Oastle, Marston. 

481/17987. They feed themselves with haboundaunce. We may com- 
pare with this passage Milton's indictment of the clergy in Lycidas, in 
which he brings against them the very same accusations as werefnade by 
Lydgate in this poem. Cf. also Piers Plowman, Prol. 83-99, where 
Langland gives aa account of the clergy who forgot that they had received 
their tonsure : 

" in tokne 

And signe J?at }?ei sholden shryuen here paroschienes, 
Prechen and prey for hem and the pore fede," 

and went instead tj London to seek for sinecure offices with rich emolu- 
ments attached to them. 

483/r 8088. And whan that I am an drapere. In Piers Plowman, V. 
209, Avarice resorts to the drapers to learn how to cheat : 

" Thanne drowe I me amonges draperes my donet to lerne 
To drawe J?e lyser alonge J?e lenger it semed ; 
Amonge f?e riche rayes I renglred a lessoun, 
To broche hem with a paknedle and plaited hem togyderes, 
And put hem in a presse and pynned hem J?erinne, 
Tyl ten prdes or twelue hadde tolled out )>rettene." 

484/i8iO3. I walke abouten with pardons. Cf. with this passage 
Chaucer's Prologue, ]. 692 f., and the Prologue to the Pardoner's Tale, 1. 
335 f., as annotated in Morris and Skeat's editions. 

In the second French version there is an interesting addition to tin's 
list of wonders in the shape of an account of the practice of baptizing 
dead children : 

" Aucuneffois faiz baptisez 
Daucuns petiz enfans mors nez. 
Dessus lautier ie les faiz mectre 
Qui ressemble tout massis estre, 
Mais il est tout creux par dedens ; 

Notes. Pages 484-494, lines 18130-18488. C87 

Et par certains soubzterremens 
Des charbons ardans ie soubzmectz 
Et laultier eschaufer ie faiz, 
Qui a lenfant doime chaleur. 
Et puis ie monstre que vigueur 
II ya et dy quil est vivant 
la soit ce quil soit tout puant 
Et tel puant ie Ie baptise. 
Et par ainsi a moi iatise 
Or et argent a ma prebende. 
Qui chose est horrible et horrende 
De baptizer une charoigne." (Ver. fol. Ixxi.) 

484/i8i30. fret-ful = freightfull, fully loaded, fret = the fraught or 
freight of a ship. (Cotgrave.) 

489/18308. Of colore adust. Adust comes from Lat. adustus, pp. of 
adurere, to burn, scorch. The term was much used in medicine and was 
applied to a supposed state of the body which included dryness, heat, 
thirst, and a burnt colour of the blood. See exs. in N. E. D. 

492/18414. In colys to roste Seynt Laurence. The story of St. Laurenc e 
is told at length in Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. The epi- 
sode referred to in the text is as follows. When Sixtus II. was condemned 
to death he commanded his deacon Laurence to distribute the church 
treasures to the poor, in order that they might not fall into the hands of 
the tyrannical prefect of Rome. This Laurence did, and when the prefect 
demanded the treasure, he gathered together all the sick and poor of the 
city, and presenting them to the prefect, said : " Behold, here are the 
treasures of Christ's Church." In revenge for this the prefect caused 
Laurence to be stretched on a gridiron above a furnace. 
492/18427-8 : At merels & the botevaunt 

At hasard & at the devaunt. 

For merels and hasard see note to 306/1 1181, etc. I have not, so far, 
been able to identify botevaunt and devaunt. The passage in Verard runs 
as follows : 

" Et que ien pers souuant ma cote 
A mains ieux qui fontMenyez 
Aux mereles, quartes et dez 
Et que ien vois a val la rue 
Comme ung oblayer toute ntie." 

Dr. Skeat points out that O.F. devant means "in front of, ahead of," 
and suggests that devaunt is a game, gained by him who is devant, or " in 
front of the rest." From the context and the French original we may 
assume that it was a game of cards or dice. 

Dr. Skeat thinks also that botevaunt looks like bot-devaunt, compounded 
of bot, a butt, a thing to aim at, and devant, in front of. If this is so, it 
may have been one of the many varieties of the game of skittles. 

The " early mention of cards, sixty years before the date of their 
introduction into France, (was) supposed to be an interpolation of Pierre 
Virgin, in retouching the poem of De Guileville; but . . . they are 
mentioned in the Stadtbuch of Augsburg, in 1275. . . . The invention, 
therefore, cannot be ascribed to the French in 1390, as Mezerai asserts." 
(Pilg. of Man, 1859, p. 34.) 

494/18488. ffrenche nor Latyn he spak noon. This is probably an 
allusion to the fact that the knowledge of magical arts came from the 
East, and their principal exponents were found among the Arabians. 

G88 Notes. Pages 496-503, lines 18586-18835. 

496/18586. I make a cercle large and round. For an account of the 
process of incantation and invocation of spirits see Secrees of Old Phili- 
soffres, note to p. 16, 1. 495. The pentangle mentioned in this description, 
within which it was necessary to stand, was a pentagon inside a circle, 
and not the " endless knot " or five-pointed star of Sir Gawayne and the 
Grene Knight. 

500/18735. -As whylom was Kyng Salamoun, etc. Solomon was said 
to be the king of the jinns and fairies, and to be able to command them 
to do anything he chose. Amongst other works he employed the genii 
in building the Temple. According to the rabbis he had a signet-ring 
which revealed to him all he wished to know, and gave him power over 
the inhabitants of the unseen world. 

Virgil. Tales of his magical powers grew up during the Middle Ages 
(not from any contemporary records), and were very widely dispersed. 
Amongst other stories there is one that, finding the devil in a bottle, he 
undertook to release him after learning all his arts, and that he first 
employed his magical power in the creation of a perfect woman. Some 
critics consider these tales to be of popular and Neapolitan, others of 
literary origin. 

For Albalart we should read Abelard, the name being printed Abe- 
leard in Verard's edition. But for this, I should have taken the reference 
to be to Albertus Magnus, since the rationalistic views of Abelard seem 
very far opposed to any spiritualistic and magical practices. His unortho- 
doxy and scepticism, however, being misunderstood, probably gave rise 
to tales of his propensity for necromancy. 

Cyprian was a magician of Antioch, a learned man, deeply versed in 
astrology and necromancy, and of great power to raise demons. To this 
man there resorted a certain youth, who desired to win the love of a 
Christian girl called Justina, who, however, had devoted herself to 
chastity and the service of God. Cyprian undertook to help the youth, 
but on seeing Justina he fell so deeply in love with her that he deter- 
mined to win her for himself, and employed all his arts to that end. 
Justina, however, resisted him, and by her purity and steadfastness so 
worked upon the mind of Cyprian (who found that not even his familiar 
demon had power over her) that he himself became a Christian, and 
finally suffered martyrdom with her in the Diocletian persecution. 

(See Butler's Lives of the Saints, and Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and 
Legendary Art.) In the Secrees of Old Philisoffres, 1187-90, Lydgate 
again refers to Cyprian. 

502/18792. Duke of Fryse. This story is told of the Frankish mis- 
sionary, St. Wulfran, and a certain King Radbod. Radbod, having been 
deeply touched by Wulfran's teaching, consented to become a Christian. 
At the last moment, however, just as lie was about to receive the sacra- 
ment of baptism, he inquired of Wulfran what had been the fate, after 
death, of all his ancestors who had died in a state of heathenism. Wulfran 
promptly replied that they were undoubtedly damned, whereupon Rad- 
bod, declaring that if that were so he would be damned with them, refused 
to be baptized, and relapsed into heathenism. 

(See Lives and Legends of English Bishops, Kings, etc., Mrs. Arthur 

503/18835. And is in heuene stelliffyed. This is a commou expression. 
Cf. Temple of Glas, 6/135-6 : 

" She was magnified 
With lubiter to bein IstePified." 

Notes. Pages 506-527, lines 18972-19755. 689 

Cf. also Chaucer's Hous of Fame, 1001-8 : 

" How goddes gonne stellifye 
Brid, fish, beste, or him or here 
As the Raven, or either Bere .... 
How alle these arn set in hevene." 

506/18972. The greete counceyle at Nycene. The great Council of 
Nicea was summoned by the Emperor Constantine, A.D. 325, in order to 
settle the questions raised by the Arian heresy. St. Augustine was one 
of the greatest opponents of heresy, and was especially engaged in the 
refutation of the errors of the Pelagians and th% Donatists. 

511/19163. Ortigometra. This is supposed to be the landrail or corn- 
crake, which belongs to a group of birds fitted for progress on either 
land or in water, and with wings not very well adapted to long flights. 

515/19288. And to an hereinyte in desert. I have been unable to 
identify this tale. Stones of the wiles of the devil were, however, very 
common, and Dom John Chapman, O.S.B., has called my attention to one 
in Cassian, Coll. ii. 7: "De monacho qui, deceptus a diabolo, voluit 
filiam suum immolare." In this story, the devil appears to the monk as 
an angel of light, and leads him to believe that it would be pleasing to 
God if he were to sacrifice his son to Him. 

517/19368. ha.roiv. Crier haro ou harol sur = to cry out upon, or to 
make a hue and cry after. According to the ancient opinion this cry was 
used in Normandy by those who were wronged, as if to implore the aid of 
Duke Rol, but modern etymologists throw doubt upon this derivation. 
Diez suggests O.H.G. hara = here. 

" Clamcur de haro = a claim of those who are in possession of land 
which others seek to put them from." 

In Gilbert Parker's The Battle of the Strong, the scene of which is 
laid in Jersey, the heroine says before the magistrates: " Haro ! Harol 
Monsieur le Prince, on me fait tort ! " No prince was present, but this 
was the formula. 

517/19386. Ryght as dyde Julyan. The emperor Julian was brought 
up as a Christian, but afterwards became a pagan. There is a legend 
that he made a compact with Mercury to sell his soul to paganism in 
return for the promise of the Imperial crown. He devoted much of his 
energy to an attempt to discredit the Christian prophecies and to restore 
paganism. He wrote a book against the truth of Christianity, and is said 
to have indulged in divinations and secret arts, whence he came to be 
regarded as a powerful necromancer, who had sold himself to the devil. 

527/19755. My mayster Chaucer. Ten Brink considers that Chaucer's 
translation of De Guifeville's ABC belonged to about the same period 
as his version of the legend of St. Cecilia. He points out that Chaucer's 
A B C is rather an imitation than a translation of De Guileville's. 
" The stanza of the original, which consisted of twelve short lines of very 
involved rhyme, was changed by Chaucer into the more dignified and 
serious form of a stanza of eight decasyllabic lines. The imitation is also 
rather free in things of greater importance ; the French stanza most 
frequently sketches out the thought in a general way, while the corre- 
sponding English stanza gives it more exhaustively, or enlarges upon it ; 
in other cases when the parallel stanzas have the same contents, there are 
often deviations in the arrangement of the thoughts." 

Two stanzas of De Guileville's Poem are given for purposes of 

690 Notes. Pages 533-539, lines 19953-20182. 

A toy du monde le refui Bien voy que par toy confortes 

Vierge glorieuse, m'en fui Sera mes cuers desconfortes. 

Tout confus, ne puis miex faire , Quer tu es de salu porte. 
A toy me tien, a toy m'apuy Si je suis mal tresportez 

Relieve moy, abatu suy : Par vii larrons, pechies mortez 

Vaincu m'a mon aversaire. Et erre par voie torte, 

Puis qu'en toy ont tous repaire Esperance me conforte 
Bien me doy vers toys retraire Qui a toy hui me raporte 
Avant que j'aie plus d'annuy. A ce que soie deportez 

N'est pas luite necessaire Ma povre arine je t'aporte : 

A moy, se tu debonnayre, Sauve la : ne vaut que morte 

Ne me sequeurs comme a autrui. En li sont tous biens avortez. 

533/19953. And eek that Longiris his herte pighte. Longius, usually 
called Longinus, was the Rorn;in soldier who pierced the heart of our 
Saviour. He is said to have been afterwards converted to Christianity, 
and to have suffered martyrdom. The spear with which he delivered the 
blow is said in the Romance of King Arthur to have fallen into the posses- 
sion of Joseph of Arimathea, who brought it to England. There is also a 
tradition that it is preserved among the treasures of St. Peter's at Rome. 

533/19967. Zacharie yow clepeth \>z opene welle. Probably a reference 
to Zechariah xiii. 1. 

535/20040. The noble wyse Tholomee. In this passage Claudius Ptole- 
mseus, the chief exponent of the system of astronomy which was called 
after him, and which continued in universal acceptation until the sixteenth 
century, is confused with one of the kings of Egypt of the same name. 
Claudius Ptolemy was himself a native of Egypt, and flourished in 
Alexandria about the middle of the second century A.D. His Centyloge, 
mentioned in 1. 20615, is a \vork called Centiloquium, from the fact of its 
containing a hundred aphorisms on astrological subjects. 

538/20152. And as the doctour seynt Austyn. In Verard's edition, the 
sidenote to this passage gives the reference Lib. V. De Civitate, cap. vi. 
This chapter, however, which is upon the difference in the sexes of twins, 
and the resulting differences in their future lives, is really an argument 
against the influence of the stars. St. Augustine says plainly : 

" The mind of man is not subject unto any of these phases of the stars ; 
those artists, now desiring to bind our acts unto this that we see them 
free from, do shew us plainly that the effects of the stars have not power 
so much as upon our bodies . . ." 

" What fonder affection can there be than to say that that figure of 
Heaven which was one in the conception of them both had not power to 
keep the sister from differing in sex from her brother, with whom she had 
one constellation, and yet that the figure of heaven which ruled at their 
nativity had power to make her differ so far from him in her virgin's 

It is rather difficult to see how De Guileville could have so far mis- 
understood St. Augustine's meaning, if Verard's sidenote really gives the 
proper reference. 

539/20182. The Stocyenes. De Civitate, Lib. V. cap. viii. " Of their 
opinion that give not the name of Fate the position of the stars, but unto 
the dependance of causes upon the will of God" seems to be the ground 
of these lines, and of the assertion concerning the opinion of Homer on 
this point. 

"Homer's verses, translated into Latin by Tully, are as these are: 
' Tales sunt hominum mentes qualis pater ipse 
lupiter auctifferas lustravit lumine terras.' 

Notes. Pages 539-570, lines 20185-21359. 691 

' We would not bring poetic sentences for confirmation of this ques- 
tion, but because that Tully saith, that the Stoics, standing for the power 
of Fate, use to quote this place of Homer, we now alledge them, not as 
his opinion, but as theirs, who by these verses of Fate shewed in their 
disputations what they thought of Fate, because they call upon Jove, 
whom they held to be that great God, upon whose directions these causes 
did depend.' " 

539/20185. Mathesis. This is the Greek paO-no-is, meaning "learning." 
The word was very commonly employed in the Middle Ages, and eventu- 
ally carne to be personified. 

545/20416. Thys tooknys nor thys bowys grene. Cf. the proverb, 
" Good wine needs no bush.'' The custom of indicating a public-house 
by a bush or bough, hung outside, was Roman, and there was a Latin 
proverb : " Vino vendibili hedera non opus est." In France a peasant 
who wishes to sell his vineyard places a green bush over his door. 

549/20595. ffor whan cryst, in swych A cas. See St. John ix. 1-3. 
549/2o6o8. And davyd seyth. See Psalm xix. 1, 2. 
500/20615. And in hys Centyloge. See note to 535/20040. 

552/20698. Pyromancye, etc. See the explanations of these modes of 
divination in the notes to p. 16 of the Secrees of Old Philisoffres. See also 
The Assembly of Gods, notes to p. 26/867-870. 

552/20714. The myghty man Neptanabus. The name should be 
Nectanabus. He was the reputed father of Alexander the Great. 

According to the legend, Nectanabus, a king of Egypt, foresaw, through 
his magic, that he should be overcome by his enemies, and this befalling, 
he fled to Macedon. There seeing the queen Olimpias, wife of Philip, he 
fell in love with her, and by means of a dream, induced by magic, brought 
her to believe that she was destined to be the paramour of a god. Having 
deceived her thus, he was able, through his magic arts, to take advantage 
of her delusion, and the outcome of this union was a son, who afterwards 
became Alexander the Great. The story is told at length in Gower'a 
Confessio Amantis, Bk. VI. 

555/2o8oo. Gyrces. For Cyrces we should read Syrtes, meaning quick- 
sands, or sandbanks. The name is specially applied to two sandbanks 
on the north coast of Africa. 

56 1/2 1060. Bykhalassus. Can this be a miswriting (both in the French 
and English versions; for Di-thalassos? The latter word means either 
(1) divided into two seas, or (2) between two seas, where two seas meet, 
as off a headland ; used for the meeting of currents in the Syrtes. 

The second sense agrees well with the context. 

566/21222. That is hys hevene & nothyng ellys. See note to p. 416/ 

567/21268. Ytffyl thus of Ypocras. This story of Philemon (or Pole- 
mon) and Hippocrates is also given, with extra details, in the Secrees of 
Old Philisoffres (11. 2479-2520). As the editor of that text points out in 
the notes, the story is really told of Zopyrus and Socrates. "Polemon 
was the only writer on physiognomy known to the Arabs, and Sodrates is 
not very different in its Arabic form from Hippocrates, who was far 
better known." 

570/21359. I chace at hem that ther-in Eowe. "To row" here means 
" to swim." We may compare Beowulf, 1. 512 : 

G92 Notes. Pages 573-617, lines 21508-23107. 

" p& git on sund reon, 
peer git eagor-stream earmura pehton." 
"Then you swam in the sea 

Where you covered the ocean-stream with your arms." 
573/21508. pawnys = palms of the hands. "But it is such safe 
travelling in Spain that one may carry gold in the pawn of his hand." 
HowelVs Letters (Nares). 

576/21583. In thylke dyrke fyr (nat bryht). We may compare with 
this line Cyuewulf s idea of the appearance of the flames of hell. 
" fconne call j?reo on efen nimefc 
Won fyres wselm wide tosomne 
Se swearta lig." Christ, Pt. III. 11. 963-5. 
" When the pallid surge of fire, the swarthy flame 
Shall seize all those three things, at once, alike, 
And far and wide." Gollancz's trans. 

585/21932. Wrappyd. This seems to stand for rapt, ravished or 
carried away. Cf. Ferrex and Porrex: 

" His noble limmes in such proportion cast 

As would have wrapt a sillie woman's thought." 

It cannot be taken in its ordinary sense, since the next line contradicts 
it. Possibly, however, it might be metathesis of warpyd, cast. 

590/22095. The Cystews. The order of the Cistercians was founded 
towards the end of the eleventh century by Robert, Abbot of Moleme, in 
Burgundy. He endeavoured to restore the exact observance of the rule 
of St. Benedict in his monastery, but failing, retired with twenty monks 
to Cfteaux, near Chalons, where he founded the first monastery of the 
Cistercian order. 

The order of Clugni was the first branch of the Benedictine order. It 
was founded in 910, by Abbot Bernon at Clugni, on the Garonne. The 
Cluniac monasteries were remarkable for the severity of their discipline. 

The Carthusians were founded in 1080 by a certain Bruno, professor of 
Philosophy at Paris. The first monastery was built at Chartreux near 
Grenoble. Strict seclusion and almost perpetual silence were distinguish- 
ing points in the discipline of the order. 

Fratres Minores was the name applied in humility by St. Francis of 
Assisi to the order of monks instituted by him, better known as the 

Preaching Friars was another name for the Dominicans, who had 
received special authority from the pope to preach. At first the work of 
preaching was not permitted to friars. 

597/22356. Towched. Can this stand for to-sched, meaning " divided, 
separated," from M.E. to-schseden? Stowe has couched, which makes 
good sense. 

598/22417. Somme callen hir Placebo. See note to p. 395/14654. 
615/23030. The space of xxxix yere. This is one of the indications 
from which we are enabled to gain some knowledge concerning the life of 
De Guileville. The following account, of the entrance of Envy into the 
monastery, is probably the reflection of some actual experience of the 

617/23107. frolage. Neither Godefroy nor Littre give this word. It 
seems however to be connected with froler, the ordinary sense of which 
is to touch lightly. Littre says, "(Berry.) froler, battre, e"triller ; freler, 
meme sens ; genev. f router, norm, freuler. D'apres Diez, froler est pour 

Notes. Pages 620-660, lines 23249-24653. , 693 

frotler, dim. de frotter. On pourrait croire aussi qu'il est pour /rosier, de 

620/23249. Terra sibifruges. Ovid. Ibis. 107-8: 

" Terra tibi fruges, amnis tibi deneget undas 
Deneget adflatus ventus et aura suos," etc. 
Verard quotes sixteen lines. 

683/23618. The Prophete JEzechiel. Ezekiel xvi. 49 : " Behold, tin's was 
the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance 
of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the 
hand of the poor and needy." 

686/23701. took of Egypt the Tresour. See Gen. xi. 2 and xii. 35. 

637/23773. In Egipt whilom. See Gen. xli. 

645/24093. Seyn Poule hym-silfe saith. See Acts xxvii. 31. 

655/24443. wylk is nothyng dies. See Arist. Hist. Animalium, B. vii. 
iii. 2. 

658/24620. As Barlam telleth of a kyng. This story is also found in 
the Talmud, where we are told that a certain rich man released a slave 
and sent him forth with a ship of merchandise to seek his fortune. The 
slave was wrecked upon an island and lost all he had, but the people of 
the island received him with acclamations and made him their king. 

The slave, amazed and dazzled, could not understand the reason of 
his good fortune, but on inquiring of those around him he was told that 
the island was inhabited by spirits who had prayed to God that He 
would send them yearly a man to rule over them. This prayer had been 
granted, but each king was permitted to reign for one year only, and at 
the end of that time was stripped of all and conveyed to a desolate unin- 
habited island. Former kings had been content to enjoy their year of 
power without considering the future, but he, if he were wise, would send 
workmen to the island, to till the ground and erect houses, in order that 
when the time came for his removal thither he might find a fertile and 
inhabited place ready to receive him. 

The slave, wiser than his predecessors, followed this advice, and upon 
the expiration of his year of power, entered upon a new kingdom, in 
which he might henceforth dwell in security and enjoyment. 

The story was known to De Guileville in the romance of Barlaam and 
Josaphat, which was one of the richest storehouses of legend of the 
Middle Ages. It is told in a Greek book, long ascribed to John of 
Damascus. M. H. Zotenberg, however, holds the opinion, in which 
Gaston Paris concurs, that it was composed a hundred years earlier, in 
the first half of the seventh century, by a monk of the convent of St. Saba. 
The story of Barlaam and Josaphat is supposed to be a Christianized 
version of the life of Buddha. Barlaam was a Christian hermit, who, in 
the third or fourth century, converted an Indian prince called Josaphat, 
and as a means to his end made use of a large number of ancient folk- 
tales and fables, which he interpreted spiritually. 

The romance was translated into nearly every European language 
during the Middle Ages. For a full account of it see Poemes et legend'es 
du Moyen Age by Gaston Paris, and Barlaam and Josaphat, English 
Lives of the Buddha, by Joseph Jacobs. 

660/24653. As whylom dede seynt Lowys. The prayers and fastings, 
the alms, and compassion of St. Lewis, "his mercy meynt with ryghtwes- 
nesse" may be illustrated by many incidents and habits of his life. 
Amongst the religious or charitable monuments erected by him were the 

694 Notes. Page 660, line 24653. 

abbey of Royaumont, on the building of which he sometimes worked with 
his own hands, several hospitals, the two monasteries of Franciscans and 
Dominicans in Paris, and many churches and chapels. 

He was accustomed to indulge in many of the practices of asceticism, 
such as the wearing of hair-cloth, the use of the discipline, and strict con- 
trol of his appetites; but he never allowed these practices to become 
obtrusive or to interfere with the proper execution of his royal duties. 

Towards the poor he displayed always great compassion, " often 
serving them at table, washing their feet, and visiting them in the 
hospitals" (Butlers Lives of the Saints). "He protected the poor from 
the oppressions of the great, and would not suffer his own brothers to 
pass the limits of law and equity." Ho led two crusades, both of which, 
however, proved disastrous to his armies, and died himself in 1270, of the 
pestilence which attacked his second expedition at Tunis. 



a, adj. all, 179/68 3 8. 

a, prep, on ; a syde, on her side, 89/ 


a, vb. have, 7/253. 
abaisshed, abaysshed, pp. abashed, 

61/2296, 76/2858, 173/6593, 284/ 


abaye, adv. at bay, 618/23143. 
abrayde, vb. (1) speak, 20/739, 106/ 

4025; pret. spoke, 28/878, 161/ 

6143. (2) cry out, 208/7415; 

pret. cried out, 228/8223, 242/ 

8759. (3) upbraid, 89/3365. 
abusyon, n. deception, 102/3852. 
abyggen, vb. pay for, 492/18440. 
abyt, abyte, vb. abides, endures, 2/43, 

171/6532, 626/23358. 
accorde, vb. agree, 208/7424, 213/ 

7602, 240/8663 ; pp. agreed, 217/ 

acroche, vb. lay hold of, 414/15392, 


adawed, pp. awakened, 7/226. 
adewhen, vb. bedew, 237/8551. 
aduersyte, n. adversity, 123/4832. 
aduerte, aduerten, vb. consider, 96/ 

3603, 107/4033, 142/5437. 
adust, adj. burning, 489/18308. See 

aermancy, n. aeromancy, divination 

by means of the winds, 552/ 

afferd, afferyd, adj. afraid, 64/2403, 

affere, afferre, adv. afar, 211/7534, 

afforce, vb. strengthen, 212/7566; 

pres. afforceth, 278/10125. 
affray, n. (1) fear, 46/1712, 111/ 

4202. (2) attack, 204/7269. 
affte that, conj. according as, 159/ 

affye, vb. confide, 391/14470, 558/ 

aforen, aforn, adv. before, 69/2582, 

74/2759, etc. 

afowndryd, pp. foundered, 374/ 

after, affter, prep, according to, 74/ 

2780, 118/4477, 236/8505, etc. 
agaas, n. magpie or jay, 389/14415. 
ageyn, P re P- against, 88/3325, 94/ 

3527, 127/4837. 

aggreggyng,n. increasing. 112/4240. 
agilt, pp. offended, deceived, A B 0, 

ago, agon, pp. gone, 224/8o47, 136/ 

5184, etc. 

agrysed,|>p. horrified, 11/411. 
aiourne, vb. imp. cite, summon, ABC, 

a-knowe, 1 acknowledge, 11 9/4516; 

to ben a-knowe, to acknowledge, 

albe, conj. albeit, 22/826 ; al be yt 

so, although, 145/5556. 
albeston, n. asbestos, 238/86O2. See 

alday, adv. always, 82/3074, 92/ 

alder, of all, AB (7, 530/19874; alder- 

fyrst, first of all, 71/2657; alder- 

hyest, highest of all, 129/4922; 

alderlast, last of all, 228/8114. 
alengthe, adv. along, at full length, 


algate, conj. since, 327/1 201 8. 
algatys, adv. always, 155/5893, 204/ 

allegement, n. remission, relief, 108/ 

4095, 121/4602, 596/22334. 
allegge, vb. alleviate, 71/2663; alleg- 

geth, 611/22877. 
almesse, n. alms, 119/4524. 
alowe, adv. low, below, 192/7130. 
also, conj. as, 168/6415. 
amat, amaat, adj. dismayed, amazed, 

34/1297, 647^/24159. 
amende, vb. give satisfaction, 224/ 

amendement, n. reparation, 147/ 




amendyng, n. amendment, 46/1718. 
amenuse, vb. diminish, 686/23686; 

pr.part. amenusyng, 688/23613. 
amrnonycyon, n. admonition, 71/ 


among, adv. at times, 306/1 1181. 
ampte, n. ant, 277/ioioi, 280/ioi88. 
ancille, n. hand-maiden, ABC, 531/ 

and, conj. if, 72/2671, 117/4464, etc.; 

and if, except, 188/5072. 
annethe, adv. hardly, 179/6842. See 


annoy, n. annoyance, 229/8231. 
anoon, adv. immediately ; annoon 

ryght, immediately, 106/3992. 
answeryng, pr.part. corresponding, 

anulle, vb. destroy, do away with, 


apallen, vb. enfeeble, 94/3528. 

aparcevcd, j?p. perceived, 188/5269. 

apayd, appayyd, pp. pleased, satis- 
fied, 76/2840, 80/3004, 155/5896, 

apayre, apeyre,^. spoil, become less, 
21/786, 340/12496; pp. apeyred, 


apechyd, pp. impeached, 160/6114. 
apertly, adv. openly, 586/20072. 
apparayllede, pp. apparelled, 232/ 


appartene, vb. belong, 274/9970. 
appelle, vb. challenge, 860/13290. 
apryved, adj. approved, 146/5603. 
armole, n. armhole, armpit, 315/ 

armure, n. armour, 202/7229, 212/ 

7598, 230/8269, etc. 
armvrer, n. armourer, 211/7547. 
arretten, vb. account, ascribe, 449/ 


arrew, inter j. 847/12767. 
arsmetryk, n. arithmetic, 314/1 1490. 
arwe, n. arrow, 212/7573, 214/7653. 
arwh, adj. cowardly, 490/18364. 
as, conj. than, 78/2914, etc.; as if, 

ascrye, vb. call upon, 860/13291 ; 

pp. askryed, challenged, accused, 


askawnce, adv. aside, 166/6333. 
assautys, n. assaults, 204/728 1, 21 1/ 

assay, n. trial, 239/8642, 427/15871. 

assaye, vb. undertake, try, 62/2323, 

71/2637, 167/6 35 i. 
assent, n. opinion, accord, 134/5 101. 
asseth, n. satisfaction (Fr. assez), 

assoyl, vb. solve, explain, 157/5997 ; 

imper. 267/9722. 

assoylle, absolve, 69/2586. 
assurance, n. pledge, 52/1944. 
assure, vb. rely, 2/29. 
asterte, vb. escape, 852/12964. 
astonyd, pp. astonished, 242/8736. 
a.t,prep. in or to, 314/1 1496 ; at two, 

in two, 67/2504. 
atame, vb. broach, enter upon, 480/ 

17945, 645/24081. 
a-thynke, vb. displease, 94/3532. 
avale, vb. drop down, 885/14245; 

pp. cast down, 274/9984, 278/ 

avaunce, vb. advance, 82/3078, 128/ 


avaunt, n. boast, 318/ 11661. 
avauntage, n. advantage, 130/5OOI, 

149/5681, etc. 

avaunte, vb. boast, 55/2046. 
avayl, n. advantage, 96/3631. 
avaylleth, vb. pres. avails, 222/7988. 
avayting, pr. p. awaiting, 126/4808. 
aventure, n. chance, 160/6no, 217/ 


aventyng, n. vent, 887/14332. 
avout(e)rye, n. adultery, 864/13433. 
avowe, vb. acknowledge, permit, 


avys, n. (1) consideration, 72/2709, 
97/3663. (2) judgment, 100/3768, 
239/8644. (3) opinion, 158/5852. 
(4) understanding, 168/6038, 167/ 

avyse, vb. advise, 148/5634 ; pp. in- 
formed, 146/5575. 

avyse, adj. discreet, well-informed, 

avysely, adv. advisedly, 99/3750. 

avysement, n. discretion, considera- 
tion, 66/2447, 168/6035. 

avysyon, n. vision, 16/586, 17/635, 

awayt, adv. in wait, watching, 10/ 

awhapyd, pp. astonished, 172/6542, 


awhter, n. altar, 86/3230^. 
awmaylle, n. enamel, 19/690. 



awmener, n. almoner, 106/3983 ; pi. 

awmenerys, 245/8858. 
awntre, vb. adventure, 576/2 1610. 
awreke, pp. avenged, 89/3329, ISO/ 


awstynys, n. Augustinians, 16/536. 
awys, n. 71/2642. See avys. 
axe, vb. ask, 101/3802, 154/5862, 

120/4570; pp. yaxyd, 190/7048. 
ay, n. egg, 88/3312, 888/14361. 

See ey. 

baas, adj. low, 402/14898. 
bacyn, n. beacon, 286/8491. 
bakke, n. bat, 420/15618. 
balke, n. to make a balke, to 

blunder, mistake, fail, 168/6384. 
bandoun, n. power, disposal, juris- 
diction, 72/2688, 177/6753, 514/ 


baret, n. strife, 220/7913, 486/18192. 
barmfel, n. leather apron, 425/1 5828, 

batayll, n. battle, 212/7561, 218/ 

7832, etc. 
baudrek, n. baldrick, girdle, 647/ 


bawm, n. balm, 92/3460, 298/io882. 
bayard, n. (bay) liorse, 804/11138. 
beere, n. bear, 286/8495. 
beffyl, vb. pret. befell, 288/10330. 
befull, adj. should be lefull, lawful, 

behest, n. promise, 1 19/451 8, '369/ 

behihte, behyhte, vb. pret. promised, 

168/6206, 232/8373 ; pp. behyht, 

behight, 166/6334, 587/22OI2 ; 

subjunc. behote, 587/21998; pr. 

p. byhotynge, 687/21979. 
be-iape, vb. beguile, 871/13688. 
beleve, n. creed, 894/14604. 
belwys, bylwes, n. bellows, 379/ 

13990, 886/14284. 
ben, vb. pres. pi. are, 88/3306. 
bere hem so on hande, deceive 

them, 600/22469. 
bereth me an hand, flatters me, 387/ 


bern, vb. bear, 28/1031, 166/6322. 
berthene, n. burden, 869/13248. 
beseke, vb. beseech, 162/6172. 
beseyn, pp. dressed, provided, 21/ 

besmys, n. brooms, rods, 819/11713. 

bessellys, n. 306/1 1191. See Note, 
best, n. beast, 91/3429, 242/8742. 
besyde, besyden, adv. aside, 114/ 

4334, 4341. 
bet, adj. better, 61/2282, 116/4377, 

bewte, n. beauty, 181/6897, 218/ 

beyn, vb. buy, 286/8523, 260/9035 ; 

pr. sg. 2. beyst, 260/9033. 
bit, vb. pres. ind. bids, 666/24489. 
blent, pp. blinded, 66/2428, 138/ 

5253, 292/10674- 
blyue, adv. quickly, 94/3546, 126/ 

4813, etc.; as blyue, immediately, 

bobbaunce, n. ostentation, 387/ 

14307, 889/14403. 
bocchyd, pp. swollen, 489/18328. 
boch, n. hump, swelling, 489/18297 ; 

pi bochches, 237/8565. 
boden, pp. commanded, 600/18712. 
bolde, vb. embolden, 80/2983. 
bole, n. bull, 864/13029. 
bolle, pp. inflated, 878/13982. 
bollyng, n. swelling, 108/4074. 
bombardys, n. instruments like bas- 
soons, 886/14303. 
bonche, vb. strike, knock about, 367/ 


bonche, n. bunch, hump, 489/18294. 
booden, pp. bidden, 97/3672. 
bordoun, n. pilgrim's staff, 17/6 12 

et passim. 
borgh, n. borough, 143/5456; pi. 

borwes, 294/10747. 
botaylle, n. limits, boundary, 98/ 

3696. See Note, 
bote, n. remedy, 322/1 1814, 654/ 

botevaunt, n. a game, 492/18427. 

See Note. 

botore, n. bittern, 864/13031. 
bowgys, n. bags (O.Fr. boulge, 

bouge), 247/8942. 
boyst, n. box, 143/5466, 899/14792. 
boystous, adj. rough, churlish, 89/ 

3331, 208/7436. 

brayd, n. throw, twist, 661/24325. 
braydest, vb. pr. resemblest, 246/ 

brenne, vb. burn, 607/18984 ; pp. 

brent, 96/3574, 108/3900, 121/ 

brennyng, n. burning, 78/2723. 



brcste, vb. burst, 428/1 5930. 
brestyng, n. bursting, 887/14331. 
bresures, n. bruises, 619/23210. 
broche, vb. hasten, spur, 368/13007. 
broche, n. spear, spine of hedgehog, 


bromys, n. brooms, 92/3475. 
brond, n. sword, 227/8i55 ; pi. 

brondys, 227/8 1 80. 
bronstoon, n. sulphur, 422/15676. 
brood, adj. broad, 127/4845. 
brooke, adj. broken, 460/1 7160. 
brose, vb. bruise, 107/4o66. 
brotyl, adj. brittle, 278/ion 8, 279/ 

brotylnesse, n. brittleness, 279/ 


brustlys, n. bristles, 868/13594. 
bry hours, n. beggars, 478/17885. 
bryd, n. bird, 88/3313, 260/9431. 
brygaunt, n. robber, brigand, 8/70 ; 

pi. brigauntys, 204/7274. 
brygge, n. bridge, 409/15185. 
burdon, n. pilgrim's staff, 172/6575. 

See bordoun. 
but, conj. except, 77/2893, 108/4096, 

etc. ; but yiff, except, J55/59OI. 
by and by, adv. one by one, bit by 

bit, 4/146, 93/3495, 122/4653. 
bydde, vb. pray, beseech, 555/ 


byggere, n. buyer, 476/17787. 
byggyng, n. buying, 482/1 8020. 
bysine, n. besom, broom, 106/4014, 

byst, vb. pr. ind. 2. biddest, 255/ 

9225; pr. 3. byt, commands, bids, 

168/6410, 358/12041. 
byth, vb. pr. pi. are, 180/4943. 

caas, n. case, 86/3222, 175/6677; 
par caas, (1) suppose, by 
chance, 151/5763. (2) for example, 
perhaps, 1 60/6 1 08. 

caffe, n. chaff (of corn), 34/1278. 

calle, n. caul, web, net, 514/19269 ; 

pi. callys, 596/22339. 
illyn, vb. call, 

callyn, vb. call, 461/17202. 
callyoun, n. pebble, 418/15552, 425/ 


carence, n. lack, 80/1144. 
cast aforn, vb. foresee, 214/7640. 
caste, vb. purpose, 301/IIOI4; 

castestow, dost thou purpose, 


cast hyr, vb. pret. set herself, 

purposed, 40/1500, 148/5447. 
catel, n. property, 250/9034. 
celerys, n. cellars, 206/7330. 
cely, adj. innocent, 288/10510, 439/ 


cene, n. (Holy) Supper, 121/4616. 
centyloge, n. 550/2o6i6. See Note, 
cerche, vb. search, 117/4444; P r - P> 

cerchyng, 18/663 ; pp. cerchyd, 

certys, adv. certainly, 88/3302, 153/ 


chalenge, vb. claim, 441/16433. 
chamberere, chaumberere, n. serv- 
ant, 98/3748, 100/3765, 104/3922. 
char, n. chariot, 627/23401. 
charge, n. (1) charge, task, 85/ 

3196, 143/5470. (2) load, 208/ 

charge, vb. charge, burden, 74/2781, 

275/10002, 67/2519. 
chasteleyne, n. chatelaine, 608/ 

chaumbre, n. chamber, room, 106/ 


chaumpartye, champartye, n. re- 
sistance, competition, contest, 

161/6148, 228/8193, 647/24174. 

See Note. 

chaunceler, n. chancellor 120/4580. 
chaunteplure, n. song and weeping, 

2/30. See Note, 
chauntpartye, n. 262/9508. See 


cheff, this the, above all, 188/506 1. 
chek maat, pp. check-mate, 172/ 

6541, 234/8440. 

cheker, n. chess-board, 468/17271. 
cher, chere, n. cheer, countenance, 

appearance, manner, 1/23, 89/ 

3331, 145/5543. 
cherte, cheerte, n. love, dearness, 

charity, 123/47O2, 601/22530. 
cherysshynge, adj. nourishing, 121 / 


ches, n. jess, 872/13739. 
chese, chesyn, vb. choose, 65/2431, 


cheventayne, n. chieftain, 881/14074. 
chevysaunce, n. bargain, profit, 

487/i82 34 . 
chose, n. chosen flock, elect, 12/ 

clamb, vb. pret. climbed, 69/2566. 



clarre, n. a wine, 348/12830. See 


clepd, pp. called, 161/6 126. 
cler, adv. clearly, 87/3289. 
clere, adj. bright, 175/6685. 
clergie, n. clerkship, learning, 287/ 


clobbyd, adj. clubbed, 288/10337. 
cloos, pp. (1) closed, 169/6447. 

(2) enclosed, 168/6212, 222/7985. 
cloos, n. closh, a game, 306/1 1181. 

See Note, 
closour, closure, n. enclosure, 9/337, 

cloystrer, n. cloisteral monk, 594/ 


clyket, n. catch, latch, 862/12967. 
coarte, coharte, vb. coerce, worry, 

48/1782, 667/24545. 
coffyn, n. box, 287/10454, 593/22223. 
cokyl, n. shell, 287/8547. 
collusions, n. prevarications, 180/ 


colverhows, n. dove-cot, 448/16509. 
colys, coolys, n. broth, 418/15352, 

colyt, n. acolyte (Palsgrave: 'Collet, 

the seconde order, acolite'), 58/ 

comensal, n. habitual guest, table 

companion, 601/22529. 
commytted, pp. sent out, 86/3205. 
compace, n. stratagem, 406/15043. 
compasse, vb. measure, encompass, 

157/5976, 183/7000. 
complyn, n. compline, the last 

service of the day in monasteries, 

comwne, adj. common, general or 

universal, 68/2365, 171/6527. 
comwne, vb. commune, 171/6528. 
concerne, vb. regard, 248/8983. 
conceyue, vb. understand, 170/6460. 
conduite, vb. guide, 46/1732. 
condygnely, adv. worthily, 130/ 

conge, n. leave, permission, 163/ 

6197, 245/8850,^297/10848. 
coniunt, pp. conjoined, 149/5682. 
coniurysoun, n. conjuration, 498/ 

consnyl, counsayl, n. counsel, 96/ 

3602, 217/7763. 
constaunce, n. constancy, firmness, 



consuetude, n. custom, 610/22858. 
contagyous, adj. foul, noxious, 367/ 

13532, 668/21308. 
conterplete, vb. plead against, 147/ 

contrariouste, n. contrariousness, 


contraryouste, n. accident, impedi- 
ment, 7/230, 398/14742. 
contrayre, adj. contrary, 78/2710, 


contre, n. country, 176/6702. 
contune, vb. continue, 170/6486; 

pp. contunyd, 4/125. 
couuersacion, n. course of life, 276/ 

conveyed, pp. accompanied, 134/ 


conyecte, vb. conjecture, 496/18593. 
coorbyd, corbyd, pp. bowed, 374/ 

13825, 460/17167. 
cop, coppe, n. summit, 278/10138, 


coquynerye, n. roguery, 477/17827. 
corage, n. heart, 9/313, 806/11203. 
coragous, adj. courageous, 219/7844. 
cordeler, n. a machine for rope- 
making (N. E. D.), a rope-maker, 

cornemose, n. bagpipe, 889/14410; 

pi. cornemusys, 886/14303. 
cornowler, n. cherry-tree (Fr. cor- 

nillier), 288/10339. 
corour, n. courier, 660/24262. 
coryously, adv. by sequence, 239/ 


cost, n. side, 86/1341, 124/4741. 
costeyynge, pres. p. going by the 

side, 346/12749. 
couenable, covenable, becoming, 

proper, fit, 67/2490, 244/8831, 


couert, pp. covered, 114/4347. 
couertly, adv. covertly, secretly, 

counfortable, adj. comfortable, 237/ 


coupable, adj. guilty, 82/3061. 
courtyne, n. a small courtyard, 232/ 


courtyned, pp. curtained, 291/10631. 
coy, adj. quiet, retiring, 287/10468, 

crampysshynge, adj. cramping, 374/ 


z z 



creaunce, n. belief, 181/6900, 6911, 

6924, 259/9407. 
credence, n. belief, 140/5336. 
crepawd, n. toad, 421/15652. 
crepyl, n. cripple, 461/I72H. 
eriaunce, n. belief, 536/19851. 
crochet, n. crook, 482/1 8015. See 


crokke, n. pitcher, 890/14460. 
croos, n. cross, 180/6852. 
croppe, n. top of a tree, 322/1 1813, 


crowde, n. riddle, 380/14265. 
curat, n. care-taker, guardian, 85/ 


cure, n. care, solicitude, 56/21 18; 
care, 85/3190; set no cure, care 
not, 124/4718; dyde hys besy 
cure, did his best, 162/6155. 

cure, vb. cover, 59/2224 > PP- cured, 

curteisye, n. courtesy, 152/5803. 

curteys, adj. courteous, 87/3268. 

curteysly, adv. courteously, 106/ 
3997, 4017. 

curyouste, n. fastidiousness, nicety, 

cusyner, n. cook, 416/15443. 

cyromancye, n. chiromancy or divi- 
nation by the hand, 564/2 1157. 

cyvyle, adj. civil law, 428/15916. 

dallyawne, dalyaunce, n. converse, 
sport, 14/520, 215/7709. 

dampnable, adj. to be condemned, 

damyselle, n. maiden, 241/871 8. 

daren, vb. lurk, 408/1 5160. 

dareyne, vb. (to) settle by battle, ISO/ 

daunger, n. power, 255/9232. 

dawntyng, n. taming, 330/12136. 

debonayre, adj. usually gentle, cour- 
teous, gracious, 107/4044. 

deceyuable, adj. deceitful, 235/8490. 

deceyvaunce, n. deceit, 236/8498. 

declyn, n. declination, 92/3447. 

declyne, vb. turn aside, deviate, 131/ 

dede, adj. dead, 92/3468. 
dediedest, vb. pret. didst dedicate, 

deere, dere, vb. injure, 65/2433, 123/ 

4668 ; snbj. 184/7oi6. 
dees, n. dice, 306/1 1 193. 

defie, vb. digest, (cause to) decay, 
253/9i6o; pp. defyed, 350/12908. 

degre, n. degree, 73/2725. 

deiect, pp. cast down, 451/1 6808. 

delyt, n. delight, 137/52O7, 154/ 

dely table, adj. delightful, 271/9856. 

deme, demen, demene, demyn, vb. 
judge, condemn, 65/2423,86/3241, 
149/5694, 222/7987; pret. dempte, 
333/12238; pp. demyd, 168/6412; 
pres. p. demynge, 74/2776. 

demeur, adj. demure, 145/5543. 

demeyue, domain, n. possession, 
dominion, 80/2977, 355/13077. 

dent, n. stroke. Thonder denf , clap 
of thunder, 889/14400. 

departe, vb. divide, 67/2504, 223/ 
8009 ; pp. departyd, divided, 
scattered, 67/2496, 144/5516. 

departyng, n. separation, 53/1971. 

departysoun, n. departure, 503/ 

depeynt, pp. painted, 556/20843. 

depoos, depos, n.. deposit, stock, 
268/9745, 806/11185. 

dere, vb. injure, 510/19124. 

descry ve, vb. describe, 116/4389, 

despyt, n. scorn, contempt, con- 
tumely, 122/466o, 209/7465 ; 
cause of scorn, 102/3855. 

despytous, adj. spiteful, 247/8932. 

desteyne, vb. stain, 92/3473. 

determyne, vb. end, 655/20827. 

devaunt, n. a game, 492/18428. See 

dever, deuer, n. duty, 47/1774, 93 / 
3508, 242/8725. 

devoyded, pp. cleared away, 
emptied, 101/3831, 110/4163; 
pres. devoydeth, does away, 133/ 

devys, n. opinion, 106/4020; plan, 

devyse, vb. tell, explain, set forth, 
present, declare, devise, relate, 
arrange, design, 62/2322, 76/2828, 
94/3520, 110/4170, 152/5816, 157/ 
5996, 179/6826, 202/7220. 

deye, deyen, vb. die, 118/4298, 221/ 


deyete, n. deity, 84/3138. 

deynous, deyngnows, adj. disdain- 
ful, 131/5000, 420/15594. 



differre, vb. put away, 667/24538. 

disci aund re, n. disgrace, 298/10704. 

discresse, vb. diminish, 688/23610. 

distourble, vb. disturb, trouble, 204/ 
7270; pp. dystourbled, 626/19725. 

distruyen, vb. destroy, 668/24374; 
pp. distruyed, 689/23858. 

do, n. doe, 225/8 100. 

do, don, done, vb. do, cause, make, 
124/4716, 92/3460, 129/4909, 138/ 
5264; pres. doth, 168/6409. be to 
do, ought to be done, 7/262. ye 
. . . ha do, ye have done, 146/ 
5574. have a-do, 210/7516, 218/ 
7811. they do no for, they pay 
no attention, 171/6524. I dyde 
upon, I put on, 208/74 10 ^ m P' 
pi doth, 241/8705 ; dyst, dist, 
pret. didst, 111/4209, 112/4231. 
dystow, didst thou, 111/4211. 

dongel, n. dung-hill, 267/9714, 276/ 

donne, adj. dun, 101/3830. 

doole, n. grief, 620/23223. 

doom, n. judgment, 168/6416, 172/ 
6555 ; & doomys, 170/6497. 

dor, doore, vb. dare, 262/9528, 277/ 
10090, 608/22589. 

dortour, dortoure, n. dormitory, 592/ 
22191, 606/22658. 

dotous, adj. doubtful, 166/6307, 370/ 

doubylnesse, n. duplicity, 67/2137. 

doute, n. problem, fear, 101/3802, 

doute, vb. fear, 68/2558; pret. dout- 
ede, feared, expected, 145/5532; 
thow doutest, thou didst wonder, 

dowhe, dowe, n. dove, 878/13964, 

drad, p. dreaded, feared, 68/2549; 
pret. 179/6838. _ 

drauht, n. behaviour, treatment of 
others, 46/1720. 

drawlyng, n. slavering, 849/12853. 

dred, drede, n. doubt, 79/2972, 142/ 


dredful, dredefful, adj. stern, causing 
dread to others, 44/1667, 490/ 

dresse, vb. cause, prepare, direct, 
108/3889, 442/16462; wield, 114/ 
4332; arrange, place, set, 129/ 
4910, 188/6994, 208/7236. 

dreynt, pp. drenched, drowned, 292/ 

10678; ydreynt, 349/12843. 
duete, n. duty, 81/3045, 181/6920. 
dure, vb. endure, 288/8410. 
duresse, n. severity, 220/7889, 470/ 

dwelle, vb. hesitate, delay, 88/3327 ; 

wait, 106/4005 ; consider, 158/ 

6033; abide, 180/6859. 
dyde vpon, vb. pret. sg. put on, 208/ 

dyfface, vb. deface, injure, 81/1184; 

pret. dyffaced, 82/1205. 
dyffaute, n. fault, 69/2590; pi. dyf- 

fautes, 145/5549. 

dyffence, n. prohibition, 296/10775. 
dyffendyd,p. forbidden, 296/10774, 

dygne, digne, adj. worthy, 107/ 

4049, 244/88oi. 

dyhte, vb. pret. prepared, 418/15360. 
dymes, n. tithes, 49/i8i8, 642/23967. 
dyrk, dyrke, adj. dark, 99/3742, 101/ 

dvrked, pp. darkened, become dark, 

dyrknesse, n. darkness, 186/5186, 

168/6390, 192/7io6,7ii8. 
dysavayl, n. disadvantage, 299/ 

dysclaundered, pp. disgraced, 290/ 


dyscure, vb. discover, publish, 263/ 
9550; pp. dy soured, 7/233. 

dysesse, n. disease, discomfort, 62/ 
2326, 168/6194. 

dysfourme, vb. deform, 166/6342. 

dysguesyly, adv. hideously, strange- 
ly, 465/17342. 

dysguyse, adj. strange, monstrous, 

dysioynt, n. perplexity, dilemma, 
232/8357, 8379, 367/13527. 

dysobeisaunce, n. disobedience, 30/ 

dysparple, vb. scatter, 886/14298. 

dyspence, n. outlay, expence, 308/ 

dyspleasaunce, ??. discomfort, dis- 
pleasure, 229/8231, 282/8378. 

dysport, n. pleasure, joy, 108/3897. 

dyspoyllen, vb. strip, 14/499. 

dyspurveyed, pp. unprovided, de- 
prived of, 55/2049. dispurveyed, 



dysseuereth, vb. pres. departs, l/i6. 

dystresse, vb. distrain, 472/17655. 

dystreyne, vb. strain, afflict, 427, 

dystreyned,#p. stretched, 326/1 1957, 

dysusance, n. disuse, want of cus- 
tom, 229/8262. 

dyswarre, adv. unaware, 450/16765. 

dyuertycle, n. by-path, wayside 
shelter (N. E. D.), 439/16351. 

echon, each one, 82/3085, 84/3159, 

86/3183, etc. 
efft, adv. again, 86/3221. 
egal, adj. just, 67/2491 ; equal, 147/ 

5612, 219/7842. 
egge, n. edge, 64/2410, 71/2664; pi. 

eggys, 66/2475. 
ek, eke, conj. also, 70/26 12, 75/2807, 

etc. ; ek also, also, 78/2933. 
Elenchus, Elenchis, logical refuta- 
tion (see Note), 45/1671, 1683, 

318/11648; gen. Elenchorum, 45/ 

ellaat, ellat, adj. presumptuous, 

elated, 55/2058, 68/2530, 299/ 


elm, n. helmet, 218/7608. 
elthe, n. health, well-being, 46/1718, 

embrawded, pp. embroidered, 250/ 


emerawd, n. emerald, 239/86 1 6. 
emerlyoun, n. merlin hawk, 372/ 


empechementys, n. hindrances, 22/ 
820, 204/7276. 

einplastres, n. plasters, 648/24211. 

ernpryse, n. enterprise, 686/21965. 

enbrace, vb. clasp, encompass, 208/ 
7414, 235/8475 ; PP- enbracyd, 

enchace, n. drive away, 112/4232. 

encombre, vb. obstruct, 602/18809. 

encombrous, adj. troublesome, hin- 
dering, 309/11302, 320/11755. 

encomerous, adj. cumbersome, 489 / 


encress, n. increase, 116/4381. 
endeles,ad!v. endlessly, without end, 


endyte, vb. point out, 80/2980. 
engluyd, pp. ensnared, 664/21142. 
engyn, n. skill, wit, 94/3553, 140/ 


enherytour, n. inheritor, 47/1771. 
enlwrnyne, vb. give light, 192/7107. 
enoynted, pp. anointed, 36/1349. 
enqueryn, vb. inquire, 66/2470. 
enspyre, vb. put forth, 92/3459. 
ensure, vb. pres. assure, 86/3189, 

entame, vb. injure, cut open, ABC, 


entaylle, n. fashion, 668/20937. 
entencioun, n. purpose, understand- 
ing, 53/1983, 172/6576. 
entend, vb. pres. look steadfastly, 

entende, vb. to be intent, 68/2532, 


entendement, n. discretion, under- 
standing, 64/2413, 138/5254. 
entent, entente, n. intention, under- 
standing, rnirid, 69/2564, 86/3225, 
108/4092, 121/46oi, etc. If I made 
to your entent, if I pretended, 146/ 
enter, entere, adj. entire, 74/2762, 

117/4465, etc. 

enterly, adv. entirely, 87/3273. 
entre, n. entry, 214/7668. 
envye, n. inclination, 354/13050. 
envyroun, adv. round about, 176/ 

6700, 6703. 
er, n. ear, 88/3316; erys, pi. 164/ 


erdys, n. herdsmen, 240/8684- 
eryng, n. hearing, 166/6304, 172/ 


esches, n. chess-men, 463/17274. 
specyal, adj. private, particular, 
104/3932 ; in especyal, adv. 
secretly, 146/5526, 160/5738. 
esperaunce, n. hope, 191/7071. 
espye, vb. perceive, 142/5429. 
estatys, n. classes of people, 1/26. 
etyk, n. ethics, 354/13054. 
etyn, vb. eat, 87/3283 ; pp. etyn, 162/ 

euerych, adj. every, 84/3161 ; each 

one, 136/5177. 
euerychon, n. every one, 63/2367, 

uerydel, adv. altogether, every part, 

73/2740, 75/27Q6, etc. 
evene lych, adv. in similar manner, 


evene upryht, adv. straight, 175/ 



ewrous, adj. happy (heureux), 107/ 
4052, 539/20177. 

ex, n. axe, 102/3857. 

exaumplere, exaumplayre, n. ex- 
ample, 128/4901, 179/6821. 

except, pp. reserved, 67/2495. 

excyted, pp.. impelled, 8/296. 

expleyten, vb. execute, perform, 61 1/ 

exspleyted, pp. assisted, 838/12223. 

expone, vb. expound, 107/4040. 

exposicioun, exposycioun, n. ex- 
planation, 114/4310, 4328. 

extre, n. axletree, 388/12233. 

ey, n. egg, 143/5467, 880/14032. 

eyne, n. eyes, 78/2897. 

eyred, pp. laid (of an egg), 380/ 
14027, 14033. 

eysel, n. vinegar, 408/14937. 

fallaas, n. deception, fallacy, 45/ 

1670, 151/5753. 
falleth, vb. pres. sg. happens, 24 1/ 

8710; pi. falle, 214/7639. 
falshed, pp. deceived, 167/5999. 
farderye, n. painting one's face 

(Jig. dissimulation), 868/13372. 
fason, ffasoun, n. fashion, 102/3866, 

184/7022, 208/7423. 
faulssemblant, fawssemblaunt, adj. 

false-seeming, 868/13202, 394/ 

faute, tfuiite, n. fault, 128/4876, 208/ 

7433 ; pi fawtys, 288/10496. 
fawchon, n. falchion, 418/15551. 
fayl, faylle, ffaylle, n. doubt, 106/ 

fayn, adv. gladly, 164/6234. 
fayrye, n. enchantment, 266/9260. 
faytours, n. begging impostors, 485/ 

fel, felle, adj. cruel, fierce, 68/2547, 

97/3640, 127/4842. 
fel, vb. feel, 168/6404. 
fele, adj. many, 107/4045. 
fellon, n. whitlow, ulcer or boil, 489/ 

18305 ; pi ffelouns, 287/8565. 
felly, adv. fiercely, 298/10889, 347/ 


fellyn, vb. subj. should fall, 68/2360. 
felth, felthe, n. filth, dirt, 26/973, 

110/4173 ; pi felthes, 107/4065. 
felyn, vb. feel, 126/4810. 
fendys, n. fiends, 126/4790. 
fere, adj. far, 260/9464. 

ferme fader, n. first father, 451 / 


fermerye, n. infirmary, 692/22194. 
fette, vb. fetch, 68/2354, 126/4749 ? 

pret. 173/6582. 

feyne, vb. feign, deceive, 120/4553. 
feynte, adj. feigned, pretended, 45/ 


feynte, vb. pretend, 884/14189. 
feyntyse, n. faintness, 288/8414. 
ffaat, adj. fat, 208/7429. 
ffaccioun, n. fashion, 176/6687. 
ffaillede, vb.pret. was without, lacked, 

needed, 17/635 '> P r - P- ffayllyng, 

ffardel, n. burden, 74/2768 ; pi. 

fardellys, 74/2755. 
ffarn, vb. pres. pi act, work, 322/ 


ffarsyd, adj. stuffed, 418/15363. 
ffayrenesse, n. gentleness, 46/1712. 
ffenestral, n. window, 266/9658 ; 

pi ffenestrallys, 829/12087. 
ffers, n. queen (at chess), 468/17278. 
ffethris, n. feathers, 207/7371. 
fletysly, adv. neatly, daintily, 183/ 

6996, 807/11250. 

ffleyen, vb. put to flight, 376/13891. 
fflewmatyk, adj. phlegmatic, 42 1/ 


ffloutys, n. flutes, 887/14304. 
ffoltysshe, adj. foolish, 169/6422 ; 

fooltyssh, 214/7661. 
ffond, vb. pret. found, 217/7796. 
ffond, vb. pret. established, 38 1/ 

14081, 14083. 
ffonde, vb. try, 281/10239. 
ffoorbysshour, n. furbisher, 313/ 


fforewrys, n. coverings, 818/11470. 
fforeyn, adj. alien, 28/1033; outer, 

321/ii768,322/ii8i7. See Note, 
ff orpossyd, pp. tossed up and down, 


fforwelkyd,>p, withered, 457/i7o6i. 
ffoul-hardy, adj. foolhardy, 66/2419. 
ffovlys, n. fowls, birds, 98/3513. 
ffreelte, n. frailty, 217/7777, 232/ 


ffrette, vb. interlace, fret, 607/19006; 
pp. ffret, decorated, 266/9038 ; 

strengthened, 688/22042. 
ffryst, first, 267/9719. 
ffwet, n. track, scent (Fr. feute), 




ft'yaunce, n. trust, 281/ 10260. 
ffy cliche, vb. fix, stick, 46/1733. 
flagelle, n. scourge, 632/23596. 
flawe, pp. flayed, 11/379. 
flawme, n. flame, 72/2720. 
flawmy, adj. flaming, 288/8586. 
flen, vb. flay, 68/2163, 2174. 
flen, vb. fly, 93/3513, 276/10004 ; 

pr. p. fleyng, 274/9982. 
flour, n. flower, 92/3455, 96/3585 ; 

flour delys, lily, 148/5654.' 
flourettys, n. small flowers, 148/ 

flytte, vb. remove, 81/3030, 308/ 

foisoun, n. abundance, 114/4346 ; 

foyson, 69/2594, 109/2126. 
folwe, folwen, vb. follow, 166/5908, 

227/8i68; pret. folwede, 82/3067. 
foly, adj. foolish, 241/8688, 285/ 

folyly, adv. foolishly, 80/2983, 104/ 

fon, tfon, n. foes, 224/8054, 240/ 


fooly, n. foolishness, 214/7649. 
for, ffor, against, 10/355, 224/8o65 ; 

because, 114/4343; of, 211/7553; 

from, 451/16824. 
forbarre, vb. deprive, shut out, 95/ 

3559 ; P res - forbarreth, 68/2358. 
forbern, vb. forbear, 98/3676; pret. 

fforbar, 12/419. 
forboor, pp. forborne, suffered, 95/ 

forbore, pp. forbidden, stopped, 12/ 

force, n. (give no force, care not,) 

forcloudyd, pp. clouded over, 136/ 


forfete, n. offence, 264/9207. 
forgetyn, pp. forgotten, 70/2602. 
Formere, n. Creator, 88/3099. 
forour, n. fur, 894/14590. 
forth, adv. henceforward, 54/2O28. 
forthre, forthren, vb. further, help, 

28/844, 177/6740. 
forthryng, fortheryng, n. furthering, 

help, 23/847, 147/5632. 
forthy, adv. therefore, 86/3180, 236 

8494 ; nat forthy, nevertheless, 

fortunyd, pp. favoured, given good 

luck to, 4/126. 

? oryete, pp. forgotten, 62/2335. 
foryetelnesse, foryetylnesse, n. for- 

getfulness, 6/207, 114/434- 
? osse caue, n. hollow, 468/17266. 
? oster, n. forester, 226/8143. 
'ounde, vb. endeavour, 204/7284. 
fowre, adj. four, 188/5251. 
franchyse, fraunchyse, ffraunchyse, 

n. right, privilege, 89/3340, 90/ 

3372, 104/3929. 
fraunchysen, vb. enfranchise, 128/ 

fre, adj. noble, 87/3268, 174/6623, 

fressh, adj. brave, 286/8510. 
fret-full, freight full, 484/i8i3o. 

See Note. 
fret, vb. devour, irritate, 94/3533 ; 

pres. sg. ffreteth, 322/u8o6; pres. 

pi. frete, 328/11838; pr. p. fret- 

ynge, devouring, 118/4276. 
f retyng, adj. biting, irritating, 1 1 ^87. 
fretynge, n. biting, 92/3471. 
freytour, n. refectory, 692/22192; 

ffreyterward, 603/226i2. 
frolage, n. 617/23107. See Note, 
fulfil, vb. accomplish, 61/1924. 
fulfylleth, vb. pres. fills, 206/7329. 
fulsomnesse, n. fulness, satisfaction, 


fumous, adj. puffed up, 179/6848. 
fygure, n. symbol, 48/1787. 
fyl, fylle, vb. pret, fell, 76/2813, 216/ 

7738 ; pret. subj. sg. 288/10316. 
fyll, vb. pret. befell, happened, 69/ 

2562, 76/2830. 
fyn, ffyn, fyne, n. end, conclusion, 

fyne, ffyne, vb. end, conclude, cease, 

102/3839, 220/7913. 
fythes, n. filths, 117/4464. See 


gadre, vb. gather, 69/2564, 111 / 
4192; pret. gadrede, 109/4136; 
pp. gadyrd, 112/4263. 

gadryng, n. gathering, 110/4167. 

gaff, vb. pret. gave, 68/2552, 132/ 
5048. See geue. 

gambisoun, gambesoun, n. doublet: 
A quilted coat worn under arm- 
our, 206/7294, 7302. 

game, n. plan, 139/5296. 

gan, aux. vb. did, 76/2828, 122/4642, 



ganne, gan, gorme, vb. pret. began, 
132/5039, 180/6870, 582/2 1 8 12, 
132/5039; pp. gonne, 353/12990. 

garnement, n. garment, 265/7311, 

garnerys, n. garners, 206/7329. 

gaste, vb. terrify, 376/13909. 

geannt, n. giant, 23 1/8320, 234/8439, 

gedre, vb. gather, 634/23663. 

generacyon, n. generation, 101/ 
3828 ; pi. generaciouns, 101/3818. 

gent(e)rye, n. courtesy, 151/5768. 

gentyllesse, n. kindly thought, 151/ 

Geomancye, n. divination by lines or 

figures, 553/20736. 
gea, n. jess, 614/23017. 
P<B8t,b.j>rat gettest, 161/6ii8, 309/ 

geue, vb. give, 127/4841 ; gaff } pret. 

68/2552, etc. 

jeue, conj. if, 496/18567, etc.; un- 
less, 587/21991. 

gilt, pp. sinned against, 655/24469. 
glayve, n. sword, 65/2449, 66/2461. 
glede, n. fiery coal, 86/2991, 89/ 

3352, 416/15464. 

glood, vb. pret. glided, 398/14772. 
glose, vb. pres, interpret, 536/2Oo86. 
glose, n. pretence, 80/2991, 355/ 


glosyng, n. deceit, 263/9538. 
glouys, m. gloves, 216/7755, 217/ 


gnew, vb. pret. gnawed, 399/14806. 
gon, vb. go, 121/4594, 132/5047, 141/ 

5370; subj. thow go, 212/7593; 

ben ago, be gone, 164/6234 ; they 

ha be gonne, they have gone, 121/ 


gonne, vb. pret. pi. See ganne. 
gonne, n. gun, 214/7676; pi. gonnys, 


goodly, adv. kindly, 35/1302. 
goolet, golet, n. gullet, 349/12864, 


gorge, n. throat, 347/12768. 
gorger, n. gorget, throat armour, 

213/76o8,228/82o8; gorgetys.Z. 


gospeler, n. evangelist, 296/10823. 
gotows, adj. gouty, 374/13822. 
gownde, ?i. purulent matter, 239/ 


gouernance, governaunce,n. govern- 
ment, governance, rule, 82/3077, 
84/3170, 156/5939. 

gouernaunce, n. demeanour, be- 
haviour, 90/3370, 107/4031, 232/ 


gouernaylle, n. rudder, 374/13795. 
gracyouse, adj. gracious, beautiful, 

grameryens, n. grammarians, 68/ 

graue, pp. engraved, 174/6627, 182/ 


graunge, n. granary, 142/5410. 
graunt, n. grant, gift, 4/no. 
gre by gre, step by step, 16/577. 
gree, gre, n. favour, goodwill ; take 

at gree, receive with goodwill, 

607/22742, 614/23012. 
greevys, n. greaves, leg-armour, 


greff, n. grief, 229/8230. 
greff, vb. imp. grieve, 229/8225- 
gres, n. grease, hih off gres, very 

fat, 571/21427. 

gretter, adj. greater, 147/5609, 
grevaunce, n. grievance, injury, 145/ 


greyn, n. grain, corn, 34/128 1, 205/ 

groos, n. in groos, as a whole, 111/ 

gropyd/pp. handled, felt, 272/9878. 

groundyd, pp. based, grounded, 23/ 

groven, vb. grow, 94/3516. 

groyne, vb. grunt, 287/10473; pp. 
groynynge, 468/17476. 

grucche, gruchen, vb. grudge, com- 
plain, 79/2969, 162/6159; grucche, 
pres. sg. 1. 94/3541 ; gruccheth, 
pres. sg. 3.; grucche, subj. pres. 
54/2027, 130/4962; grucchede, 
pret. 96/3606, 207/7382; gruche- 
het, imp. 102/3849; grucchyng, 
pr.p. 124/4719, 214/7662. 

grynt, vb.pres. sg. grinds, 875/13835. 

grypyng? pr. p. grasping, gripping, 

guerdoun, n. guerdon, reward, 175/ 

6679, 210/7498. 
guye, vb. guide, 305/1 1170, 31 6/ 

gnyse, n. manner, 94/3519, 249 / 




gyderesse, n. guide, 192/7117, 
gyn, n. snare, contrivance, 480/ 


gynne, vb. begin, 96/3622. 
gynning, n. origin, 79/2945, 131/ 

gyterne, n. guitar, 317/1 1617. 

ha, vb. to have, 132/5014; pres. 2. 

hastow, hast thou, 166/5934; subj. 
pres., ha, 220/7878. 
haberioun, n. habergeon, armour for 

breast, 210/7519, 228/82O6; pi. 

haberiouns, 203/7259. 
hable, adj. fit, able, 14/497, 133/5070, 

habondaunce, n. abundance, 128/ 

4876, 144/5507. 
hal, n. awl, 390/14459; pi. hallys, 


hals, n. neck, 537/2oii8. 
halt, halte, n. larne person, 629/ 

23481, 632/23598. 
halt, vb. pres. holds, l/i8, 81/3049; 

pres. 2. 153/5851, 168/6037; pp. 

holde, held, counted, 226/8i28. 
haluendel, n. half, 619/19474, 634/ 


halwyd, adj. hallowed, 446/16570. 
hamryd, pp. hammered, 207/7385. 
hardy, adj. bold, 84/3137. 
hardyd, pp. hardened, 206/7345. 
hardyly, adv. boldly, 82/3088. 
hardynesse, n. boldness, 96/3628, 

harneys, n. armour, 203/7255, 213/ 


harow ! interj. 617/19368. See Note, 
haryng, n. herrings, 394/14613. 
hasteler, n. one who roasts meat, 


haterel, n. neck, 241/8754. 
hault, adj. high, 402/14898. 
haunte, vb. practise, 220/7898, 471/ 

17592 ; hawntyd, pp. frequented, 


hayr, n. heir, 26/989. 
hayr, heyr, n. air, 175/6676, 92/ 

heet, vb. pret. he ate, 70/2597. See 

heg, heegg, heggg, hegh, n. hedge, 

307/ii233,319/ii686, ii688,346/ 

helm, n. helmet, 218/7625. 

hem, pron. them, 124/4704, 126/ 

heng, vb. pret. sg. hung, 140/5344, 

207/738o; pret. pi hengen, 181/ 

6919 ; pp. hengyd, 228/82 16. 
hente, vb. pret. seized, 394/14614. 
hepys, n. heaps, 116/4348. 
her, n. hair, 138/5281. 
her, prep, here, 160/6o86. 
her, pron. their, 178/68o8, 1 79/6850, 

herbergage, n. lodging, 221/7934, 

herberwe, vb. harbour, shelter, 123/ 

4682, 592/22198. 
hereyne, n. spider, 235/8488; hy- 

rayne, 238/8470. 

herkynd, pp. listened to, 161/6142. 
hertly peyne, n. pain of his heart, 


heryn, vb. to hear, 106/4004. 
hest, n. promise, 241/8705. 
het, n. heat, 384/14214. 
hete, n. 147/5598. 
hetyn, vb. to eat, 121/4599 ; pp. 

hetyn, 70/2607; hete, 135/51 68; 

pret. heet, he eat, 70/2597. 
hevene, heuene, hewene, n. heaven, 

260/9429, 550/2o6i3, 20626. 
hevese, n. eaves, 449/16755. 
hihte, vb. pass, are called, 74/2777 ; 

hyght, is called, 698/22408. 
hoi, hool, adj. whole, 99/3747, 177/ 


holde, adj. old, 362/13363. 
holde, pp. held, counted, 226/8 128. 

See halt, 
holy, hooly, adv. wholly, entirely, 

87/3272, 175/6684, etc. 
hoole, n. whole, 147/5612. 
hoole, n. hole, 117/4445. 
hooly, adj. holy, 118/4485, 179/ 


hoore, adj. hoary, 368/13594. 
hope, adj. open, 127/4841. 
horlege, n. clock, 182/6933. 
hostage, n. entertainment, 61 1/ 

howe, vb. pres. ought, 444/16545, 

606/22676; pres. sg. 2. howesr, 

oughtest, 181/6920. 
hows, n. house, 163/5840, 160/ 

huchche, n. hutch, chest, 173/6581, 




huissher, n. usher, 76/2809 ; pi. 

hussherys, 68/21 86. 
hunte, n. hunter, 226/8143; pi" 

huntys, 889/14412; hontys, 388/ 

14368. ' 
huiiteresse, n. huntress, 226/8130, 

hurtle, vb. push, clash, 44/1641, 398/ 

14748 ; pr. p. hurtling, 47/1777. 
huske, husk, n. chaff, 34/1263, 

huskyd, pp. husked, enclosed in a 

husk, 34/1263. 
hussherys. See huissher. 
hy, adj. high, 86/3192. 
hydous, adj. hideous, 242/8741. 
hye, vb. hasten, 618/19433. 
hyhte, vb. pret. promised, 62/2309. 
hyr, pron. dat. to her, 241/872O. 
hyrayne, n. See hereyne. 
hyryn, vb. hear, 366/13085. 

iakkys, n. jackets, 204/7262. 
iape, n. jest, 226/8 1 1 1, 306/1 1 126. 
ibaysshed, pp. abashed, 23/863. 
importable, inportable, adj. un- 
bearable, 354/13054, 442/16487, 


in, prep, on, 231/8303. 
indurat, pp. hardened, 108/4070, 

110/4167, 299/I09I6. 
inrlue, vb. influence, 664/20772. 
inly, adv. internally, 36/1360. 
inobedyent, adj. disobedient, 220/ 

locunde, adj. joyful, merry, 190/ 


logolory, n. jugglery, 317/1 1624. 
lourne, lournee, n. journey, 177/ 

6744, 229/8233 5 ta sk, day's work, 

louy pe, joyfully (lit. merry foot), 

305/1 1 141. See Note. 
lowel, n. jewel, 128/4884, 164/6238, 

etc. ; pi. lowellys, 176/6725. 
irous, adj. angry, wrathful, 89/3348, 

luge, n. judge, 171/6533, 172/6550. 
Itigement, n. judgment, 176/6492. 
lupartye, n. jeopardy, 179/6843, 

lurediccyon, n. jurisdiction, 79/ 

iustesyed, pp. judged, punished, 43/ 


kachche, vb. catch, 225/8 107. 
kam, vb. pret. came, 188/5278. 
kampyng crook, 306/11184. See 

kan, vb. pres. know, knows, 66/2442, 

kanoun, n. canon or ecclesiastical 

law, 428/15916. 
karecte, n. sign, token, 499/18704 ; 

pi. karectys, n. signs, characters, 

kareyn, n. carcass, corpse, 252/9u8, 


karyyng, n. 317/1 1624. See Note, 
kauth, vb. subj. should catch, 377/ 

kembe, vb. comb, 260/9045 ; pp. 

ykempt, 861/13320. 
kene, adj. severe, 212/7581 ; sharp, 

kenetys, ??. hounds (O.Fr. chenet), 

kep, kepe, n. heed, care, 74/2763, 

78/2912, 109/4135, 232/8369. 
kerue, vb. carve, 64/2410, 80/2979; 

pres. pi. kerue, 66/2476. 
keyles, n. skittles, 806/11198. See 

knet, vb. pret. pi. knotted, 80/2997 ; 

pp. knet, knotted, bound, knitted, 

joined, 159/6042, 188/7002, 175/ 

6672 ; pp. yknet, knit together, 

knowlychynge, n. knowledge, 125/ 

4766, 188/5259, 171/6540. 
knyhtly, adv. in a knightly manner, 

komerous, adj. cumbersome, 208/ 

konne, vb. know, 121/4605 ; pres. 

sg.2. canst, 141/5399; pres. pi. 

214/7675. See kan. 
konnyng, n. knowledge, skill, cun- 
ning, 72/2702, 143/5461, 168/6015. 
konnyngherys, n. rabbit warrens, 

koude, kovvde, vb. could, sg. 136/ 

5188, 172/6546; pi. 135/5147, 

165/6286 ; knew, understood, 150/ 

5711, 287/10463. 
kouthe, adj. known, 880/12109. 
kroket, n. hook, crook, ^ 461/1 7205. 

See crochet, 
kusshewys, n. armour for the legs, 




kydes, n. goats, wicked folk, 3/ 

kynd, kynde, n. Nature, 2/52, 95/ 

3593, 102/3859, 191/7092. 
kyndely, adj. natural, 647/20511. 
kythe, vb. make known, 48/1798, 


lace, n. cord, 8/269. $ ee l as * 
ladde, vb. pret. led, sg. 164/6236; 

pi. 140/5350. See lat. 
lade, pp. laden, 20/729. 
lak, n. need, fault, 79/2964, 647/ 

24145; gift, offering(?), 389/ 

14393; reproach, 395/14633. 
lappe, n. border, hem, 498/18468. 
large; At large, free, 332/i22oo. 
large, adv. liberally, 106/3984. 
largesse, n. liberality, bounty, 119/ 

4523, 121/4614, 136/5174. 
las, n. lace, line, pi. laas, 610/19100, 

lasse, adj. less, smaller, 106/4019, 

176/6718, etc. 
last, pp. lasted ; ta last, to have 

lasted, 28/1050. 
lasyngrye, n. flattery, 477/17830. 

See losengerye. 
lat, vb. pres. leads, 177/6762. See 

laude, n. praise, 291/io62i, 292/ 


launche, vb. lance, 490/18357. 
laurer, n. laurel, 210/7485, 7495, 


lavendere, n. laundress, 110/4151. 
lavlyhede, n. lowliness, humility, 

lawhe, lawhen, vb. laugh, 282/1 0301, 

369/13616; imper. 209/7471; pret. 

lowh, 467/17426. 

lawynge, adj. laughing, 620/19484. 
leche, n. doctor, 71/2665, 233/8398; 

pi. lechys, 71/2666. 
lecle, vb. take, carry, 116/4374, 231/ 

leeff, leff, willing, dear, 90/3369, 

268/9371 ; for left or loth, 52/ 

lefft, vb. imp. lift, 139/5318, 164/ 

6241 ; pres. sg. 1. leffte, 22/8o2. 
lefful, adj. lawful, 451/1 6804. 
leggest, vb. pres. 2. allegest, 631; 

lek, n. leek, 111/4198. 

emerys, n. limehounds, hounds led 

in a leash, 672/21444. 
enger, adj. comp. longer, 88/3327, 

202/7222, etc. 
lent, adj. slow, 666/24446. 
lenton, n. Spring, Lent, 616/23055. 
-4ere, vb. tell, 20/758 ; speak, tell, 190/ 

7040; learn, 75/2792, 81/3019, 

94/3538, 111/4191. etc -; im P- 

lere, 209/7473. 
les, n. leash of hounds (three dogs in 

one leash was the usual number), 

lese, vb. to lose, 131/5OII, 286/8499; 

pres. sg. leseth, 104/3928, 241 / 

8717; pp. lorn, 273/9936. 
lestene, vb. to listen, hear, 216/7746, 


lesyng, n. losing, 106/3968. 
lesyng, n. lying, 266/9265. 
lete, vb. cease, leave, relinquish, 

278/10135, 299/10946. 
lette, vb. delay, hinder, 166/6309, 

203/7240, 230/8292 ; imp. let, 

delay, 288/3401 ; pres. sg. lettyth, 

88/3115 ; pret. sg. 106/4027 ; pret. 

sg. 2. lettyst, didst delay or 

abstain, 112/4234 ; pp. ylet, 337/ 

12402 ; pp. let, 266/9664 ; imp. 

letteth, 289/10544. 
letter, after the, adv. literally, 4/145. 
lettrure, n. literature, learning, 184/ 

7031, 560/2 1010. 

lettuaryes, n. electuaries, 648/24209. 
lettynges, n. hindrances, 386/12324. 
leue, vb. believe, 181/6925. 
leuere. adv. rather, 868/13176, 468/ 

levene, n. lightning, 342/12569, 385/ 

levyn, leve, vb. believe, 464/17337, 


levys, n. leaves, 92/3478. 
lewk, adj. tepid, 686/21907. 
ley to here, vb. imp. pay attention, 


leyd, pp. alleged, set, 164/5885. 
leyn, vb. lay, leyn the bordys, lay 

the table for a meal, 59/2224 ; 

made it leyn vp, caused it to be 

laid up, 142/5410. 
leyser, n. leisure, 97/3656 ; by 

leyser, at leisure, 98/3495, 136/ 

longeth, vb. pres. sg. bolongs, 168/ 



6411,171/6512; lorigen, 

501/3797; pret. sg. longede, 166/ 

6339; appertained, 172/6551; sub. 

pres. longe, 170/6498. 
loodmanage, n. pilotage, 874/13801. 
lore, n. teaching, 1 69/6049, 213/ 


loone, n. loan, 476/17738. 
loos, n. praise, 882/14114. 
lorn, pp. lost, 193/7137, 273/9936. 
losengars, n. flatterers, 485/1 8 161. 
losengerye, n. flattery, 699/22432. 
loth, adj. unwilling, 62/1942, 90/ 

3369; hateful, 164/626:, 656/ 


loute, vb. bend down, 20/731. 
lowh, vb. pret. laughed, 467/17426. 
louyd, pp. loved, 107/4042. 
lust, n. pleasure, desire, 78/2917, 

180/6870, 240/866, etc. 
lust, vb. pret. pleased, desired, AB 

0, 688/19962. 

lustyhede, n. delight, 218/7799. 
lycence, n. leave, 43/i6i2. 
lych, lyche, lyk, conj. 14/508, 26/ 

961, 86/1350, 47/1759; P^p. 2/ 

6 1 ; conj. or prep. 2/47, 17/628, 

73/2744, etc. 
lydene, n. speech, language, 36/ 


lye, n. solution, 688/21855. 
lyfflode, n. livelihood, 694/22239. 
lyffree, n. livery, 98/3491. 
lyft,j>p. left, 89/3335. 
lygge, vb.pres. sg. 1. lie, 118/4491 ; 

pres. sg. 3. lyth, 161/5766 ; pres. 

pi. lyggen, f 24/4707 ; pr. p. lyg- 

gyn-e, 204/7277, 218/7798. 
lyk. See lych. 
lykerousnesse, n. gluttony, 34 7/ 

12796, 354/13039. 
lyketh, vb. pres. sg. lyketh me, it 

pleases me, 108/3892 ; pret. sg. 

me lykede, it pleased me, 228/ 


lyn, vb. lie, 268/9542. 
lyne, adj. linen, 87/1400. 
lyne, n. line ; lyne right, in a'straight 

line, 62/2311. 

lyppart, n. leopard, 888/14154. 
lyst, vb. imp. desire, 68/2532, 72/ 

2671 ; pres. pleases, 81/3019, 86/ 

3217 ; p)-es. pi. please, desire, 82/ 

3086; pres. subj. 72/2671, 241/ 


lyst, conj. lest, for fear, 69/2229, 

114/4337, etc. 

lystres, n. lectors, lawyers, 69/2196. 
lyte, n. ? , 846/12727. 
lyte, little, 107/4043, 166/6273, 205/ 

7300, etp. 
lyth. See Hgge. 
lyvelode, n. livelihood, 479/17915. 

Maas, n. mace, 211/7533. 

mad, vb. pret. made, 186/5181, 181 / 

6913; pp. makyd, 112/4258. 
magnyfycence, n. power of doing 

great things, 148/5471. 
make, vb. cause, 81/3024; pret. sg. 

made, caused, 106/3981. 
makerel, n. procuress, 866/13478. 
makyng, n. writing poetry, 6/149 > 

composition, 6/165. 
maister. See mayster. 
malencolye, n. melancholy, 103/ 

malencolyous, adj. melancholy, 97/ 


mallade, adj. ill, 696/22336. 
maluesyn, n. malmsey wine, 250/ 

9047, 348/12831. 

malys, n. malice, 99/3733, 180/6890. 
manace, n. menace, 219/786o; pi. 

manacys, 2/65. 
maner, n. kind of, 77/288 1, 80/2988, 

manhys, n. gen. man's, 71/2667, 

140/5363, etc. 

manly, adv. boldly, 60/1885. 
mansioun, n. dwelling, habitation, 

47/1751, 66/2077, Be- 
rnard rerys, n. murderers, 204/7277. 
margaryte, n. pearl, 178/6793, 237/ 


marke, vb.pres. sign, 1 82/5028. 
marke, vb. go, sail, 687/21993. 
marmoset, n. an image, a grotesque 

figure, 669/20954. See Note, 
martews, n. a game, 284/8433. See 


mary, n. marrow, 649/24216. 
maryue, vb. me arrive, 270/98o2. 
masaylle, vb. assail me, 167/6366. 
masown, n. builder, 9/326. 
masownry, n. building, 28/859. 
massager, n. messenger, 170/6462, 

171/6526; pi. massagerys, 169/ 

6452 ; messagerys, 171/6507. 
massages, n. messages, 169/6458. 



inaunde, n. 121/4613. See Note. 
maundement, n. command, 289/ 

I0 535- 

mawgre, in spite of, 279/ioi77, 297/ 

mawmet, n. Mahomet, idol, 461/ 

mayster, maister, n. master, 108/ 
4107, 150/5726, 162/6154, etc. 

maystresse, n. mistress, 91/3437, 
94/3786, 104/3926, 118/4475, etc. 

maystry, rnaystrye, mystrye, n. 
mastery, 95/3580, 219/7852, 221/ 
7921 ; pi. maystryes, 90/3380, 

mede, n. reward, 150/5715, 217/ 
7776, 7792. 

rnedle, vb. mingle, 44/1643. 

medwe, n. meadow, 92/3457. 

medyacion, n. 447/i6668. See Note. 

meke, vb. humble, 162/6i7i. 

mekerye, mokerye, n. mockery, pre- 
tence, 49/1834, 146/5571. 

melle, n. mill, 142/5422, 290/io6oo. 

membrys, n. limbs, disciples, fol- 
lowers, 12/422, 427. 

memoyre, n. memory, 288/10309. 

mencyoun, n. memory, 288/8607. 

mendycauntys, n. mendicants, beg- 
ging Friars, 15/541. 

mene, n. medium, mediator, inter- 
mediary, 88/3120, 128/4867, 193/ 
7145, 7148; pi. menys, means, 

mene, adj. middle, 324/1 1876, 659/ 

rnenstre, n. minster, cathedral, 146/ 

menynge, n. intention, 518/19231. 

inercerye, n. merchandise, 563/ 

mercy able, adj. merciful, 488/16302. 

merellys, merels, n. nine men's 
morrice, 806/11192, 492/18427. 
See Note. 

merkede, vb. pret. marked, 58/1995. 

merour, merrour, morour, myrour, 
n. mirror, 157/5990, 176/6699, 
6709, 191/7085, etc. 

mervayl, merveil, merveyl, mer- 
ueylle, n. marvel, wonder, 106/ 
4016, 146/5596, 165/6279, 167/ 
6376 ; pi. merveilles, 148/5644. 

merveille, merveylle, vb. wonder, 
marvel, 135/5162, 178/6586. 

merveillous, merveyllous, adj. mar- 
vellous, 87/3259, 160/6i 12, 206/ 
7361, etc. 

meschaunce, n. mischance, misfor- 
tune, 127/4857 ; injury, 215/7677; 
pi. rneschauncys, 204/7276. 

mescheff, n. mischief, misfortune, 
126/7150, 206/7357, 229/8229; pi. 
meschevys, 214/7640. 

meselry, n. leprosy, 65/7440. 

mesour, n. measurement, 98/3698. 

mesour, mesure, n. moderation, 43/ 
1598, 215/77o8; by mesure, with 
deliberation, 97/3637. 

messagerys. See massager. 

mes arable, adj. moderate, 396/ 

met, pp. measured, 98/3698. 

meue, mevyn, vb. move, 187/5244, 
267/97io; pp. mevyd, 306/1 12 15 ; 
pret. meuede, 886/12334. 

mevyng, n. movement, 90/3387, 101/ 
3795 ; pi. meuynges, 88/3102. 

meyne, meynee, n. retinue, house- 
hold, 78/2919,211/7523, etc. 

meyrit, pp. mingled, 1/24, 2/48, 127 / 

misericorde, n. mercy, 529/19815. 

rno, adv. more, 115/4354, 1 62/6190, 
173/6597, etc. 

moder, modre, n. mother, 108/3911, 
123/4671 ; gen. modern, 237/ 

mokadour, n. bib or handkerchief, 
349/12853. See Note. 

mokerye. See mekerye. 

mollefye, vb. soften, 288/3399. 

monstruous, montruows, adj. mons- 
trous, deformed, 166/6269, 242/ 

moosy-heryd, adj. covered with hair 
like down, 371/13704. 

moralyte, n. moral, 8/85, 4/136, 42/ 

monnall, n. a cancer, gangrene or 

sore, 485/i8i42. 
morour. See merour. 
mortal, adj. death-causing, deadly, 

10/368, 11/407,226/8130. 
mortrews, n. stews or broth, 41 3/ 

15352. See Note, 
moste, adj. greatest, 249/8995. 
mostest, vb.pres. sg. 2. must, 20/750. 

See mot. 
mot, vb. pres. sg. 1. 112/4260; pres. 



sg. 2. mostest, 20/750; pres. sg. 3. 

mot, mote, 86/3200, 104/3930, 1 12/ 

4241, 155/59o6, etc.; 2. 

mot, 68/2527; pres. pi. 3. mvt, 

291/10624 ; imper. sg. 2. mote, 69/ 

2574; 2. mot, 111/42O2. 
motet, n. a musical composition,386/ 

mowh, vb.pres. sg. 1. may, 146/5584; 

pr. pi. mowe, 72/2684. 
mowhes, n. grimaces, 301/1 1001. 
mowlyd, pp. made mouldy, 477/ 


mowstre, n. show, 246/8892. 
mowyng, n. grimacing, 408/14939. 
mussellys, mosselles, n. morsels 

(O.Fr. morceaulx), 350/1 2906, 


musys, . music, 387/14304. 
mutacion, n. change, 87/3280, 94/ 

3542, 103/3888. 
mvt, 291/10624. See mot. 
myche, adv. much, 120/4557, 130/ 

4964, 135/5164; myche thyng, 

many things, or a great thing, 

my d, prep, between, 114/4317 ; myd 

off, amidst, 128/4680. 
mynde, n. memory, 236/8519, 238/ 

myne, vb. consume, prey upon, 113/ 

4282, 323/ii872, 421/15650. 
mynystracyoun, n. administration, 

mynystre, vb. pres. pi. administer, 

apply, 41/1540. 
myrke, adj. dark, 362/13342. 
mys, adj. amiss, 71/2639; astray, 

mystrye. See maystrye. 

nadde, vb. pret. had it not, 97/3667. 
namel, n. enamel, 175/6686, 458/ 


namly, adv. especially, 65/2418. 
napry, n. table cloths, 59/2225. 
n art (ne art), vb. pres. 2. art not, 


narwh, adj. narrow, 459/17143. 
nase, n. nose, 215/768i. See noose, 
nauffragus, pp. ship-wrecked, 587/ 

neclygence, n. negligence, 130/4939, 

iieclygent, adj. negligent, 144/5509. 

neihebour. See neyhbour. 

nere (ne were), vb. pret. were not, 


nerff, n. nerve, sinew, 11/397. 
nesshe, vb. make tender,, 44/163. 
nesshe, adj. soft, 108/4073, 4106, 

neuer a del, neuere a del, neuer a 

dele, not at all, by no means, 62/ 

2318, 63/2372, 70/2615, etc. 
nevene,^. name, 115/4361, 128/4887. 
neye, vb. approach, 63/2359. 
neyhbour, neihebour, neyhebour, n. 

neighbour, 130/4972, 132/5014, 

217/7859, etc. 
neyhen, vb. approach, 133/5079, 142/ 

nolde (ne wolde), vb.pret. would not, 

none certeyn, n. uncertainty, 646/ 

noose, n. nose, 31/1176, 1182. See 


noryce, norysshe, n. nurse, 123/ 
. 4681,250/9051. 
not, vb. pres. sg. 1. know not (ne 

wot), 95/3566, 271/9850, etc. 
nouche, n. an ouch, brooch, 19/688. 
nouht, adv. not, 99/3728, 11 1/41 88. 
noumbre, n. number, 105/3988, 217/ 


noumbryd, pp. numbered, 115/4380. 
nouther, prep, neither, 64/2417, 9 1/ 

3414, etc. 
nownpowere, n. weakness, 520/ 

noyous, adj. hurtful, 214/7662, 250/ 

nycely, adv. foolishly, 97/3660. 

o, card. num. one, 86/3243, 131/4979, 

183/6971, etc. See on. 
occupye, vb. use, 46/1722 ; hold, 

occysion, n. slaughter, 10/373, 400/ 

odyble, adj. hateful, 1 10/4162, 135/ 

5129, 253/9H6. 
off, prep, from, 269/9763. 
on, prep, in, 111/4197, 202/7233, etc. 
on, card. num. one, 92/3446, 115/ 

4354,^120/4571, etc.; on by on, 

individually 56/2o8o ; alway in 

on, always in one way, 112/4252. 
onys, adv. once, 150/57 10, 211/7544. 



oonyng, n. union, 175/666o. 
ope, vb. open, 40/1515. 
opposaylle, n. opposition, 286/10397. 
oppose, vb. imper. question, 403/ 


opposyt, n. opposite side, 61/1911. 
or, conj. before, 66/2448, 202/7214, 


ordeyne, vb. appoint, 241/8706. 
ordure, n. dirt, filth (Jig. sin), 25/ 

919, 31/1 1 80, 32/1242. 
ornede, adj. horned, 88/3317. 
ortigometra, n. corn-crake, or land- 
rail, 611/19163. 

orysouns, n. prayers, 326/11923. 
osey, n. a wine, 348/12831. See 


other, conj. or, 36/1300. 
ouer al wher, adv. everywhere, 


ouht, n. aught, 97/3649. 
oune, adj. own, 222/7962. 
outhe, vb. pres. ought, 90/3378. 
outher, owther, adj. and conj. either, 

66/2471, 101/3812, 217/7795, etc. 
outrage, n. insolence, conceit, 97/ 

3642, 209/7445- 

outragous, adj. excessive, 249/9004. 
outraunce, n. extremity, 426/15806. 
outterly, adv. utterly, 106/3959, 108/ 


outward, adv. outside, 27/999. 
overgon, vb. surpass, 166/5914. 
overthwertyd, pp. crossed, 329/ 


owher, adv. wherever, 241/8723. 
oynemente, n. anointing, ointment, 


paament, n. pavement, 9/330. 
pace, .vb. go, pass away, 1/2O. 
palle, vb. lose spirit, 540/2O2i6. 
palmer, n. pilgrim, 2/66. 
paner, n. basket, 661/21050. 
pans, panns, n. pence, 473/17672, 

pantener, n. keeper of the pantry, 

panter, n. snare, 371/13682 ; pi. 

panterys, 406/15035. 
papyllardie, n. religious hypocrisy, 


parage, n. kindred, 388/14348. 
paramentys, n. clothing, 92/3466, 


paramour, paramoire, n. lover, 149/ 

5698, 54/2025. 
parcel, n. part, 240/8656. 
parcel, adv. partly, 232/8346. 
parde, inter j. pardieu, 166/6279. 
parfyt, adj. perfect, 121/4601, 223/ 

parlernent, n. talk, conversation, 

debate, 40/1491, 106/3977. 
parlom, n. plummet, 592/221 66. 
parmanable,uj. durable, 029/23467. 
partable, adj. capable of sharing, 


parte, vb. divide, share, 1 24/4706. 
party, n. side, part, 68/2538, 9 1/ 

3419, 155/5912, etc. 
partyd, pp. divided, distributed, 

11/382, 121/46ii. 
partyng, n. distribution, 106/3990. 
parysee, n. a coin (see note, p. 471), 

pas, paas, n. pass, crossing, path, 

25/931, 233/10331. 
passage, n. (a game), 306/11194. 

See Note, 
passage, n. entrance, 12/434 ; ford, 

23/875 J crossing, 44/1658. 
passen, passe, vb. pass over, cross, 

evade, 24/898, 284/10376. 
passioun, n. passion, suffering, 

124/4731, 229/8247. 
passyngly, adv. surpassingly, 19/ 


pasteler, n. pastry-cook, 142/5442. 
pasture, n. nourishment, food, 140/ 

5356, 159/6076. 
patentes, n. patents, open letters, 


patroun, n. pattern, 128/4900. 
pavys, n. shields, 204/7264. 
pawnys, n. palms, 573/2 1508. See 

pay, n. pleasure, satisfaction, 62/ 

2328, 143/54 49 , 266/9276. 
payd, pp. pleased, satisfied, 26/967, 


pel we, n. pillow, 376/13853. 
pencellys, n. small flags, 12/436. 
pendant, n. hanging end of girdle, 


pendant, n. slope, 378/13977. 
penyble, adj. painful, 174/6634. 
peplys, n. peoples, nations, 2/40, 

perch, n. pole, 203/7255. 



perdurable, adj. everlasting, 237/ 

perse, vb. pierce, penetrate, 609/ 


pertinent, adj. belonging, 208/7257. 
pes, n. peace, 88/3318, 125/4764. 
peyne, n. trouble, endeavour, 116/ 

4409, 123/4678. 

peyntures, n. paintings, 246/8899. 
peys, n. weight, 228/822O. 
peysen, peyse, vb. weigh, 68/2528, 


phane, n. vane, 887/14324. 
phetele, n. fiddle, 678/21502. 
phonel, n. funnel, 368/12988. 
pighte, vb. pret. (ABC), pierced, 


platly, adv. plainly, frankly, flatly, 
merely, 48/1597, 49/1830, 166/ 
platte, plat, n. flat (of a sword), 71 / 

2668, 72/2685. 

plauynge, pres. pi. playing, 19/698. 
pleasaunce, n. pleasure, pleasant- 
ness, 73/2731, 107/4053, etc. 
plete, vb. plead, 127/4846. 
pleyn, adj. full, 86/3210, 112/4249. 
pleyne, vb. complain, 108/3909, 
167/6354; pret. pleynede, 102/ 

pleynly, adv. fully, 87/3278. 
plye, vb. bend, 221/7922. 
plye, adj. supple, 288/8400. 
pocessede, vb. to possess, 29/1091. 

See possede. 

pocessyowner, n. possessor, 47/1773. 
pocok, n. peacock, 887/14326. 
podagre, with gout in the feet, 

poitevyneresse, n. (see note, p. 471) 

pomel, poomel, n. pummel, boss, 
knob, 176/6698; 193/7U6, 494/ 
18519; pi. pomellys, 193/7162. 
pontifex, n. bridge-maker (Jig 

priest), 46/1740. 
pook, n. sack, 249/12856. 
poopet, n. doll, baby, 817/11635. 
popping, n. softening or painting 
868/13374. 'Pappen, to make 
soft.' Stratmann. 
porayle, n. poor people, 600/22472. 
porrect, pp. extended, 448/16709. 
port, n. behaviour, carriage, 36 
1363, 107/4043, 218/78oo. 

>ose, vb. put a parallel case, 31/ 


possede, vb. possess, 1/7, 79/2971. 
)otent, n. power, 268/9177. 
)otente, n. tipped staff, 461/1 7211. 
>ours, n. purse, 284/8445. 
>ovre, adj. poor, 219/7846. 
)owerte, n. poverty, 181/5004. 
)ows, n. pulse (O.Fr. pous), 272/ 

Dowstee, pouste", n. ability, 78/2920, 

430/i5 9 88,498/i8658. 
poytevyn, n. a coin (value \ 

farthing), 471/17614. 
practykes, n. practices, 269/9384. 
preflF, n. case, proof, 186/5157, 137/ 

5215, 166/5932. 
prelacy e, n. spiritual government, 

44/i66i, 46/1728. 
prent, n. print, 260/9411. 
prentys, n. apprentice, pupil, 150/ 

5728, 5737. 
pres, n. crowd, 106/3997 ; putte 

in pres, trouble myself, 91/3433, 

133/5055, 227/8i66. 
preven, preue, vb. prove, 146/5565, 

148/5665, 246/8913; pret. sg. 

preveth, 101/3826 : pp. prevyd, 


procelle, n. tempest, 466/16995. 
processionerys, n. mistake for 

pocessionerys, 479/17914. See 

procuracionn, n. power of attorney, 


procuratoure, n. deputy, 611/22890. 
profyte, vb. provide, 62/2337, 63/ 


promyssioun, n. promise, 687/23800. 
prouyned, pp. pruned, 7/244. 
provynours, n. propagators, 8/277. 
prowh, prow, n. advantage, 20/753, 

213/7623, 367/13558. 
prykke, n. spiked point, 42/1587, 

prykyng, pr. p. tormenting, 206/ 

pryme, n. the first quarter of the 
artificial day, 6 A.M. to 9, 111/ 

4216, 59/2231. 
pryme fface, prime face, n. first 

sight, 209/7453, 279/10173. 
pryme temps, n. Spring, 92/3455. 
prys, n. praise, estimation, 84/3149, 

107/4049 ; prize, 289/8638. 



pryve, vb. 32/n88. See preven. 
pryvyte, n. mystery, secret, 165/ 

6287 ; secrecy, 169/6456. 
puissciunce, n. power, 211/7537, 

punycyoun, n. punishment, 175/ 


purchace, vb. procure, 112/4231. 
purpos, to purpos, for instance, 

69/2561, 221/7955. 
purpoynt, n. a padded garment to 

wear under armour, 206/7232, 


puruyaunce, n. providence, provi- 
sion, 242/8749. 

puryd, adj. purified, 142/5417. 
pyk, n. pike-staff, 43/1599; point 

of staff, 46/1733. 
pyled, adj. bald, 371/13703. 
pyler, n. pillar, 124/4734. 
pynh-ouns, n. pincers, 426/15827. 
pystel, n. epistle, 177/6759. 

quarel, n. bolt, 212/7573, 224/8o65, 

quarel, quarll, n. quarrel, 150/572O, 

quek, n. quickboard, 306/11198. 

See Note. 

queme, vb. comfort, 250/9049. 
quethe, vb. bequeath, 126/4794, 

queynte, queynt, pp. quenched, 

13/483, 298/86o6. 
queynte, adj. elegant, knowing, 

clever,neat, 303/1 1071, 309/1 1303, 


queyntyse, n. wisdom, 293/10709. 
quite, adv. quit, rid, 484/1 8 109. 
quod, vb. pret. said, 62/2325, 155/ 

5895, etc. 

quyk, n. living, 174/6651, 251/9097. 
quyke, adj. living, 9/336. 
quyt, adj. white, 68/2345. 
quyte, vb. requite, 336/12315. 
quytte, pp. requited, 600/18724. 

racede oute, vb. pret. sg. rooted out, 

radd, rad, pp. read, 127/4859, 132/ 

503 1 . 

raffr, n. beam, 646/2041 1. 
raffte, vb. pret. deprived, 516/19316. 

raft, pp. deprived, 229/8235. 
rage, adj. angry, 73/2735, 439/16367. 

rakel, adj. rash, hasty, 93/3496. 
rape, n. haste, hurry, 373/13781, 410/ 

rathe, adv. early, soon, lately, 25/ 

946, 170/6473. 
rathest, adv. soonest, l/i8, 524/ 

rauhte, vb. pret. reached, handed, 

fetched, 160/5734, 184/7019. 
raunsoun, n. ransom, 127/4829, 207/ 

ray, n. striped cloth, 314/11503; 

pi. rayes, 381/14082. Raye, 

from Lat. radius, Fr. raie, a 

stripe. The name was commonly 

applied to striped cloth. Lydgate 

in 'London Lyckpeny ' speaks of 

" a long gown of raye." See Note. 
rebateth, vb. pres. sg. beats down, 


rebube, n. violin, 317/1 1620. 
rechchf, vb. care, 80/3000; pr. sg. 

recchet, cares, 99/3728 ; pret. 

rouble, 370/13650. 
reche, adj. rich, 19/687, 691. 
reconforte, vb. comfort, 178/6778 ; 

pr. sg. recounforteth, comforts, 


recour, n. recourse, 336/12364. 
recure, n. recovery, 281/10255. 
recure, vb. get, climb, 1 6/602, 279/ 

recure, vb. cure, 68/2556, 124/4717 ; 

pp. recuryd, cured, 121/4597. 
recure, rectiryn, vb. recover, 279/ 

10152, 336/12344. 
red, n. advice, counsel, 103/3883, 

red, rede, adj. reed, 634/19994, 


rede, vb. advise, 191/7079, 210/7503. 
refreyne, vb. bridle, restrain, 202/ 

7208, 216/7736. 
refuse, vb. reject, 119/4534. 
refut, n. refuge, 127/4841, 366/13137. 
regencie, n. rule, government, 219/ 


reke, vb. rake, 111/4194. 
rekkeles, adj. heedless, 96/3614. 
releff, n. residue, remainder, 105/ 

3982, 121/4598, 133/5076. 
religious, n. folk bound by vows, 

remeue, remewe, remewen, vb. 

remove, 90/3376, 117/4446, 167/ 



6350, 257/9318; pr.p.remowyng, 

remewynge, 167/6372, 802/11059. 
remyssaylles, n. remnants, 45 1/ 

renneth, vb. pr. sg. runs, 98/3712 ; 

pr. pi. renne, 109/4125 ; pp. ronne, 


renomyd, adj. renowned, 157/5965. 
rentyng, n. annual tribute, 69/2591. 
repayre,n. resort, 36/1 359, 175/667 5. 
replevysshed, pp. replenished, 135/ 


replicacioun, n. reply, 290/10584. 
repman, n. reaper, 286/10420. 
repreff, n. reproof, 209/7468. 
repreuable, adj. reprehensible, 

156/5 9 2 9 . 
repreve, vb. reprove, 98/3691, 152/ 

5811 ; pp. repreuyed, 153/5836. 
rescus, n. rescue, 227/8 1 60. 
resembled, pp. compared, 99/3731. 
resemblaunce, n. appearance, 143/ 

5481, 144/5503. 
resorte, vb. return, 339/12455, 342/ 

12606 ; retire, 418/15522. 
respyt, n. relief, 206/7334. 
respyt, n. respect, 215/77o8. 
resseytie, ^6. receive, 121/4600. 
restreyned, pp. withheld, 86/3221. 
retour, n. return, 21/794, 46/1716. 
retrussen, vb, repack, 272/9899. 
reue, vb. deprive, 294/10748 ; pres. 

sg. reueth, 236/8494. 
reward, n. notice, regard, glance, 

27/1000, 91/3430, 106/4003, 70/ 

2608, 266/9666. 
rewarde, vb. regard, look at, 21/ 

791, 243/8794- 
rewme, n. kingdom, 73/2743, 238/ 

8579 ; pi. rewmys, 435/i62ii. 
reynys, n. loins, 202/7207. 
romney, n. a wine, 348/12830. 

See Note. 

ronnge, vb. gnaw, nibble, 404/1 5010. 
roo, n. roe, 226/8099. 
rooff, vb. pret. sg. tore, broke, 

109/4H8, 403/14944. 
roote, adj. rotten, 393/14547. 
rouhte. See rechehe. 
rowe, vb. swim, 570/21359. 
rowe, adv. roughly, 388/14157. 
rowh, adj. rough, 460/ 17168. 
rowne, vb. whisper, 565/18934. 
royne, vb. pare, clip, 471/1 7600. 
rudnesse, n. want of skill, rough- 

ness, rough handling, 5/169, 40/ 

rychesse, n. riches, richness, 19/7o6, 

ryff, adj. openly known, 375/13839, 


rygour, n. severity, 43/i6i6, 1627. 
ryhtwysnesse, ryghtwysnesse, n. 

righteousness, 119/4542, 218/ 

7836, 221/7918. 

rympled, pp. wrinkled, 862/13336. 
rypyng, n - ripening, 84/1269. 
ryve, vb. burst, break, 187/5233. 
ryvelede, adj. wrinkled, 872/13719 ; 

pp. ryvelyd, 462/17237. 
ryvelys, n. wrinkles, 868/13376. 
j n. rites, 86/3250. 

sad, sadde, adj. grave, sober, 

discreet, 107/4043, 185/5153, 

250/ 9 o66. 

sadnesse, n. steadiness, 806/11177. 
salue, n. ointment, 3/68, 68/2551. 
salue, vb. salute, 145/5542, 31 6/ 

11578; pret. sg. saluede, 316/ 


sanz per, without equal, 881/14087. 
sarmoun, n. sermon, 64/2388, 141/ 

5385, etc. 
sauif-conduite, n. safe-conduct, 4/ 


sauffly, prep, except, 808/11095. 
saue, vb. cure or anoint, salve, 216/ 

7719 ; pres. sg. saueth, 287/8564. 
savacioun, n. salvation, 108/3904, 

215/7691, etc. 
saw, n. (a prophet's) saying, 42/ 

sawdyours, sowdyours, n. soldiers, 

sawle, sawlee, n. satisfaction (of 

appetite), fill, 70/2607; 184/5874, 


sawter, n. Psalter, 9/332,456/17017. 
sawtrye, n. psaltery, 612/22945. 
sawtys, n. salts, 420/15632. 
sawyng, n. sowing, 206/7350. 
saylling, n. assault, 648/24206. 
scalys, n. ladders, 15/566. 
sche, pron. she, 169/6435. 
schent. See shent. 
schrowude, vb. shroud, 264/9588. 
schulye, vb. subj. should, 496/18362. 
scolys, n. schools, 118/4475. See 




scyence, n. knowledge, 72/2697. 
se, n. seat, 66/2250, 668/20919. 
secre, adj. secret, 107/4056, 203/ 

7251, etc. 
secrely, adv. secretly, 162/5782, 


seke, adj. sick, 124/4707. 
selde, adv. seldom, 268/9347. 
semblable, adj. similar, 82/3062, 

102/3868, 266/9653. 
semest, vb. pres. sg. thinkest, 153/ 

5835 ; pret. sempte, seemed, 87/ 

3267, 186/5187. 
sen, vb. see, 88/3306, 127/4824, 166/ 

6318 ; pres. sg. 2. sestow, seest 

thou, 68/2350, 73/2739; pres. sg. 

3. seth, 168/6467 ; pres. pi. sen, 

67/2511; pres. subj. seye, 149/ 

5704, 104/3924; pret. saugh, 640/ 

23908; pp. seyn, 101/3809, etc. 
sentement, n. in sentemente, in 

effect, 80/1132, 167/6357. 
sentence, n. meaning, decision, 

opinion, 140/5335, 166/5894, 157/ 

5968 ; in sentence, in effect, 47/ 

1761, 88/3109, 146/5622. 
senys, n. synods, 181/6892. 
sermon, n. discourse, 11/403. 
setyn, vb. pret. pi. sat, 121/4612. 
seuerel, adj. private, separate, 63/ 


seueryd, pp. separated, distin- 
guished, 64/2032. 
sewen, vb. follow, 318/1 1661. 
seyne, seyn, vb. say, 72/2701, 85/ 

3203, 168/6027 ; pres. sg. 1. seyn, 

98/3700; pres. sg. 2. seyst, 157/ 

5975 ; pr. p. seyng, 188/7008. 
seynt, adj. singed, 871/13703. 
seyntys, n. saints, 1 7 5/666 1, 179/ 

seyyng, seyng, n. seeing, 244/88o8, 

267/ 9 6 97 . 
shallys. n. shells, conches, trumpets, 

sharpe, n. edge (of sword), 71/2635, 

shede, vb. pour, shed, 110/4177; 

pret. shadde, 140/5349 ; pp. shad, 


sheldys, n. shields, 224/8038, 8049. 
shene, adj. bright, fair, 101/3832, 

237/8547, etc. 
shent, pp. destroyed, 81/3036, 102/ 


shepe, n. ship, 28/876. 

sherd, n. shard, 111/4199 ; pi. 

sherdys, 111/4197. 
shern, vb. shear, 68/2167. 
sherpe, shyrpe, shryppe, skryppe, 

n. pilgrim's scrip, wallet or pouch, 

17/6i2, 163/6220, 6225, 172/6575, 

231/8319, etc. 
shette, shit, vb. shut, 73/2746, 82/ 

3084, 479/17922 ; pp. shet, I46/ 

shetyn, shetyng, pr. p. shooting, 

shewellys, n. scarecrow, 876/13889. 
shope, shop, vb. pret. prepared, 86/ 

3237, 460/17175. 
shour, n. shower, 92/3476, 214/ 

shrewdnesse, n. wickedness, corrup- 

tion, 240/8656. 
shrewede, shrewde, adj. shrewish, 

malicious, cursed, 214/7674, 563/ 


shryppe. See sherpe. 
shust, vb. pres. 2. shouldest, 179/ 


shyrpe. See sherpe. 
siyyng, pr. p. complaining, 36/ 

skallyd, adj. scalled, scabbed, 396/ 


skape, vb. escape, 226/8 112. 
skarmussh, n. skirmish, 218/7832. 
skauberk, skawberk, n. scabbard, 

76/2845, 81/3025, 222/7972, etc. 
skole, n. school, 77/2873. $ ee scolys. 
skouren, vb. scourge (Lat. excoriare), 


skryppe. See sherpe. 
skryppen, vb. pres. pi. put on the 

pilgrim's scrip, 171/6515. 
skryveyn, n. scrivener, scribe, 359/ 

13226, 860/13278. 
skyes, n. clouds, 802/11032. 
skyle, skyl, skylle, n. reason, 54; 

2022, 105/3975, 168/6023, 227/ 

8175, etc. 

skylful, adj. reasonable, 28/1030. 
slayt, n. contrivance, 488/18078. 
slen, vb. slay, 889/12472; pres. sg. 

sleth, 215/7712, 288/8594 ; pres. 

subj. sle, 339/12489; pp. yslawe, 

sleythe, n. sleight, deceit, 48/i8i5, 




sloos, n. sloughs, bogs, 868/13597. 
slouthe, n. sloth, 114/4340. 
slowh, vb. pret. sg. slew, 92/3481. 
slyde, vb. slip, l/i8. 
slydre, vb. slide, slip, 193/7 161 ; 

pres. slydre, 192/7119. 
smerte, adj. painful, bitter, 109/ 

4132, 119/4533. 
smerte, vb. smart, 214/7667. 
smet, vb. pret. sg. 1. smote, 109/ 


socour, n. help, 101/3811, 192/71 18. 
sodeyn, adj. sudden, 226/8m. 
sodeynly, adv. suddenly, 82/3092. 
soffte, adj. gentle, 41/1552. 
soffte, adv. softly, gently, 40/1519, 

soget, sogett, n. subject, 79/2954, 

81/3027 ; pi. sogectys, sogettys, 

sogetys, 66/2484, 71/2656, 219/ 

soiour, n. sojourn, stay, 2/42, 256/ 

soiourned, pp. stayed, sojourned, 


som del, adv. somewhat, 77/2871. 
somer, n. packhorse, 236/8300, 231/ 

8334, 241/8706 ; pi. somerys, 246/ 

soud, n. sand, 277/10093 ; pi. sondys, 

sonde, n. sending, visitation, 435/ 

sool, adv. sole, alone, 7/255, 369/ 


soor, n. sore, 40/1519, 68/2557. 
soote, adv. sweetly, 2/3459. 
soote, adj. sweet, 261/9461. 
sore, adv. closely, 74/2759, 243/ 


sorwe, vb. sorrow, 108/4076. 
sorwen, sorwe, n. sorrow, 96/3604, 

109/4134, etc. 
sotel, 102/3871. See sotyl. 
soth, n. truth, 77/2885, 89/3347, etc. 
sothfastly, adv. truly, 212/7570. 
sothfastnesse, n. truth, 116/4159, 

sothly, adv. truly, 61/2290, 157/ 

sothnesse, n. truth, 100/3765, 168/ 

6389; in sothenesse, earnestly, 


sottyd, pp. besotted, 97/3650. 
sotyl, sotyle, sotylle, adj. subtle, 

fine, 143/5455, 149/5674, 151/ 
sotylly, adv. subtly, 143/5479, 144/ 

sotyllyte, n. subtlety, cleverness, 


soundyd, pp. cured,. 41/1550. 
souper, n. supper, 121/4609. 
souple, adj. supple, 108/4073. 
sout, pp. sought, 151/5754. 
sowbpowaylle, sowpewaille, vb. 

pres. support (cf. suppowelle, D. 

Arth. 2815), 99/3740, 651/24312. 
sowcelerere, n. undercellarer, 594/ 


sowe, pp. sown, 141/5394. 
sowketh, vb. pres. sucketh, 470/ 


sown, n. sound, 181/6923, 182/6958. 
sownde, vb. cure, 68/2551. 
sowne, vb. sound, 396/14691 ; subj. 

pres. sg. 188/6982. 
sownynge, n. sounding, ringing, 


sowpewaille, n. support, 651/24312. 
speed, sped, n. success, 139/5316, 

spence, n. provision-room, 615/ 

spere, n. sphere, 102/3843, 264/ 


splayng, splayynge, pres. pi. spread- 
ing, stretching, 19/697, 495/18522. 
spores, n. spurs, 879/13993. 
sprad, vb. pret. sg. shed, 286/8521. 
spreynt, pp. sprinkled, 178/6592, 


squyre, n. square, 129/4906, 4907. 
stablete, n. stability, 52/1934. 
stant, stent, vb. pres. sg. stands, 83/ 

3124, 130/4956, 179/6835; p*- 

sg. 1. stonde, 116/4407; pres. sg. 

3. stondeth, 98/3687; pres. pi. 

stonden, 90/3368. 
stelleffyed, pp. made like a star, 

503/i8835 ; set with stars, 565/ 

21174. See Note, 
stelthe, n. loot, 359/13252. 
sterne, adj. strong, 2/55. 
sterue, vb. die, 415/15438; pret. 

starff, 8/98. 

steryd, pp. stirred, 9/315. 
stonde, stonden, stondeth. See 

stondyng, n. standing, 120/4575. 



stonken, pp. stung, pierced, 655/ 

stoor, n. store, 287/8563. 

stoupaille, n. stoppage (Fr. estoupail, 
bouchon), 646/24110. 

stowndemel, stoundemel, adv. mo- 
ment by moment, l/io, 612/19179. 

strawh, n. straw, 49/1837. 

streiht, streilite, streith, adj. narrow, 
difficult, 10/366, 131/5007, 208/ 

streihtnesse, n. narrowness, 131/ 


strengere, adj. stronger, 229/826o. 
streyhtly, adv. closely, 140/5347, 

streyne, vb. restrain, distress, press 

hardly, 202/7207,486/16248; pres. 

sg. streyneth, constrains, 229/ 

8257; pp. streyned, 202/7234. 
strowh, n. straw, 84/1278. 
styh, stytli, n. anvil, 206/7297, 209/ 

7478, 800/10973. 
stynte, vb. stop, 892/14521 ; pret. 

sg. ceased, 147/5624. 
subieccion, n. subjection, 28/1031, 


subvencions, n. rates, 49/i8i8. 
sue, swe, swen, vb. follow, 126/4767, 

148/5661, 266/9285, 828/12040; 

pr. p. suyng, 248/8763 ; pp. 

sewyd, 593/22226. 
suerne, vb. sv/ear, 62/1964. 
suffraunce, n. suffering, 127/4824, 

207/7384, 210/7486, etc. 
suffysaunce, n. sufficiency, 68/2003, 

186/5140, 230/8286, etc. 
suffysen, suffyse, vb. suffice, 90/3378, 

186/5206, 161/61 17; sutfy- 

sede, 180/6864. 
suit, n. pursuit, 880/14057, 404/ 


sur, adj. safe, sure, 26/949, 211/7553. 
surance, n. assurance, 626/23359. 
surcote, n. over-dress, 18/682. 
surete, n. safety, 206/7314. 
surgyens, n. surgeons, 41/1535. 
surmounte, vb. subj. pres. sg. over- 
come, exceed, 46/1715. 
surples, n. surplus, excess, 6/156. 
surplusage, n. excess, 209/7446. 
surquedy, n. arrogance, 80/2988, 

102/3857, 299/10912. 
suryd, pp. assured, made safe, 217/ 


sut, n. suit, 127/4842. 

suying. See sue. 

swen, 64/2389. See sue. 

swerd, n. sword, 218/7609, 222/7982, 

sweygh, swegh, n. movement, 333/ 

12234, 335/12296. 
swolwh, n. whirlpool, 488/16293, 


swowne, vb. swoon, 126/4816. 
swych, such, 74/2785, 127/4834, etc. 
swyd, adj. 860/12882. (Stowe has 


swynge, vb. imp. strike, 114/4316. 
swynke, vb. toil, 277/10074. 
syde, No syde, anywhere, 269/ 

syker, surely, 16 1/6 129, 166/6266, 

sykerly, surely, 70/2633 ; securely, 

sykerneese, n. security, 184/7009, 


sylue, adj. same, 90/3396. 
syluen, sylue, n. self, 262/7225, 217/ 


synderesis, 180/4962. See Note. 
synguler, adj. single, private, 

unique, 68/2348, 882/14138. 
synwes, n. sinews, 288/8399. 
syt, vb. pres. sg. sits, 128/4890, 21 1/ 

syt, Nat ne syt, it is not suitable, 


syth, n. sight, 44/1663, 70/2629. 
sythe, syth, prep, since, 62/2315, 

102/3850, etc. 
sythe, n. time, 11 1/421 8 ; pi. sythes, 

126/4816 ; sythe go ful long, a 

very long time ago, 64/2391. 
syttyng, syttynge, adj. fit, suitable, 

becoming, 88/1250, 114/4322, 


n - sight, seeing, 229/8235. 

ta, to a, 75/2819. 

tabellyoun, tabellioun, n. scrivener, 

182/5020, 5027. 
tabler, n. chess- or draught-board, 


tablettys, n. tablets, 260/9035. 
taboureth, vb. pres. sg. drums, 387/ 


tadwellyd, vb. to have dwelt, 260/ 



tafforce, taforce, vb. to strengthen, 

178/68oo, 217/7769. 
take, vb. commit, give, 126/4743 ; 

pres. sg. 1. give, 127/4834; pret. 

took, 405/I5O22 ; pp. taken, take, 

given, committed, 80/2995, 127/ 

4933 ; take, taken, 174/6636 ; 

tak, impev. 244/88 14. 
taknyht, to a knight, 282/8361. 
tal, talle, to all, 198/7149, 204/7266. 
tale, n. telle of hem but lytel tale, 

take but little account of them, 

talent, n. appetite, desire, 75/2805, 

86/3246, 269/9781. 
talwh, n. tallow, 486/16217. 
talyved, vb. to have lived, 27/1019. 
tamyghty, to a mighty, 47/1766. 
tapalle, vb, to cloak, cover, 291/ 

taparceyve, vb: to perceive, 165/ 


tapese, vb. to appease, 168/6193. 
tapoynte, vb. to arrange, 188/6996. 
taquyte, vb. to acquit, to discharge, 

tarage, n. kind, nature, quality, 

261/9458, 9462. See Note, 
targe, n. target, shield, 223/8o22, 


taryen, vb. delay, 884/12278. 
tashet, vb. to have shut, 148/5465. 
tassaye, vb. to try, 262/9502. 
tastyd, pp. touched, felt (O.Fr. 

taster), 272/9877. 
Tav, n. the letter T. The sign of 

the Cross, 87/1387, 1406, 330/ 

12115. See Note. 
tavale, vb. to let fall, 110/4171. 
tavaunce, vb. to advance, 121/4624. 
tave, vb. to have, 162/6169, 21 8/ 

tavoyde, tavoyden, vb. to drive out 

or away, to clear away, to avoid, 

41/1562, 47/1757, 116/4410, 128/ 

4866; to free, 205/7304, 218/7625. 
taxe, vb. to ask, 259/9392. 
tay Madges, n. taxes, impositions, 


teht, n. teeth, 118/4274. 
tellyn, vb. tell, 141/5382 ; pres. sg. 

2. tellys, 182/6935. 
telpe, vb. to help, 22/815. 
temperalte, n. temporal possessions, 


temprure, n. due proportion, 630/ 

tenbraeen, vb. to bind,, clasp, 227/ 

8154; tenbrasse, to embrace, 183/ 


tenchose, vb. to ehoose out, 47/1758. 
tenduren, vb. to endure, continue, 

tene, n. vexation, injury, 98/3676, 

126/4802 ; pi. tenys, 128/4869. 
tene, vb. irritate, 95/3595. 
tenoynte, vb. to anoint, 89/1472. 
tenquere, vb. to inquire, 77/2865. 
teuchyng, prep, concerning, as to, 


thampte, n. the ant, 279/ioi45, 


thamyral, n. the admiral, 488/16103. 
than, thanne, conj. then, 111/4211, 

180/6853, etc. 
thapostel, n. the apostle (Paul), 

182/6950; gen. pi. thapostolys, 

thar, vb. pres. needs, A B (7, 530/ 

tharrnure, n. the armour, 217/7758, 


tharneys, n. the armour, 218/7601. 
thassaut, n. the assault, 212/7583. 
that, conj. lest, 659/24617. 
that, pron. that which, what, 1/14, 

the, vb. prosper (O.E. j?eon), 310/ 


then, adv. and conj. than, 88/3307. 
thenchesoun, n. the occasion, 297/ 

thenpryses, n.. the enterprises, 4/ 


thentryng, n. the entrance, 61/2276. 
ther, adv. where, 148/5460, 220/ 

7899, etc. 
ther, as adv. there where, 164/6247, 


ther-to, adv. also, 87/3288. 
thewes, n. manners, customs, vir- 
tues, 321/11794, 566/21229. 
tho, conj. then, 61/2297, 201/7193, 

thoffycyal, n. the officer, 59/221 6, 


thouhte me. See thynketh. 
throwe, n. space of time, 278/ioi24, 

thrust, n. thirst, 68/2355. 



thrydde, adj. third, 1 73/66 10. 
thylke, pron. that, 107/4056, 111/ 

42 1 5, etc. ; pi. thylke, those, these, 

135/5136, 176/6732, 188/6975. 
thynketh, vb. pres. it seems, me 

thynketh, it seems to me, 164/ 

6260, 167/6367 ; pret. thouhte 

me, it seemed to me, 106/3987. 
thys, pron. these, 118/4474, 156/ 

5958 ; this is, that is, 72/2701, 

81/3053, 140/5359, etc.; there is, 


to, prep. 50/1871. 
to, n. the one, 620/19481. See 


to, prep, according to, 155/5898. 
to-brak, vb. pret. sg. broke to pieces, 

108/4103 ; pp. to-brook, 145/ 

to-brast, vb. pret. pi. burst in pieces, 

to-forn, adv. beforehand, 70/2628, 

71/2636; to-forn or, before, 78/ 

2902 ; pi. to-for, before, 113/4307. 
togydre, adv. together, 109/4138, 

tokeyen, vb. 274/9955. Should be 

' tobeyen, to obey.' 
tokne, vb. pres. pi. betoken, typify, 

75/2797 ; pp. tookenyd, 22/809. 
tonnen up, vb. to broach a cask, 

or to fill a cask ?, 353/12991. 
took, tok, vb.pret. sg. gave, 76/2841, 

205/7294, 228/8207. 
tookne, n. token, 130/4941, 151/ 

5773 ; pi. tooknys, 129/4928. 
toon, ton, n. (the) one, 57/2127, 

79/2947, etc. 
to-rent, vb. pres. sg. rends in pieces, 


tormentrye, n. torture, torment, 10/ 
368, 174/6628. 

tornen, torne, tournen, tourne, vb. 
turn, 68/2537, 72/2684, 2690, 
2706; pret. sg. 1. tornede, 88/ 
3296 ; pp. tornyd, 87/3262, 104/ 
3915 ; pr.p. tornyng, 92/3470. 

tortyl, n. turtle-dove, 449/16756. 

tother, thother, n. (the) other, 67/ 
2500, 95/3583, etc. 

tour, n. tower, 89/3343. 

tourneys, n. a coin (see note, p. 
471), 473/17664. 

towched, pp. divided, ? 597/22356. 
See Note. 

tractour, n. traitor, 251/9083. 
traisoun, n. treason, 251/9o86. 
travas, n. 480/17973. See Note, 
travaylle, vb. pres. subj. pi. labour, 

travers wyse, adv. cross- ways, 183/ 


trawaylle, n. labour, 345/1 2708. 
trayshe, traisshe, vb. betray, 250/ 

9057, 251/9083. 
tregetour, n. juggler, 396/14682, 

479/i78 9 7. 

tregetrye, n. jugglery, 317/11623. 
trentals, n. thirty masses for the 

dead, 642/23970. 
tretable, adj. tractable, mild, kind, 


treygobet, n. 317/1 1623. See Note, 
treyne, n. snare, 227/8 15 3, 235/ 


trone, n. throne, 60/2251. 
trowe, vb. pres. sg. 1. believe, trust, 

107/4035 ; pres. sg. 2. trowest, 

153/5838 ; pr. p. trowynge, 89 / 

3354, 166/6315. 
trusse, trussen, vb. pack, bind, 231/ 

8303, 241/8719, 243/8773, 345/ 


trussellys, n. bundles, 74/2755. 
trustly, acfo. truly, 400/14831. 
trwauntys, n. truants, 121/4587. 
tryacle, n. liniment, 3/68, 216/7719, 

413/15338. See Note, 
tryed out, pp. tested, 98/3698, 207/ 


tryst, n. confidence, 602/22554. 
tryst, adj. sad, 18/662, 233/8382. 
tuel, n. pipe, tube, 554/20766. 
tunshetten, vb. to open, 82/3084 ; 

unshette, 82/3088. 
turneys, n. turret?, 146/5569. See 

tweyne, adj. two, 142/5424; 148/ 

5645, etc.; bothe tweyne, both, 

twynne, vb. separate, 110/4i66,268/ 

twynnyng, n. twining, doubling, 


tyssu, n. ribbon, 18/683. 
tytles, n. claims, 49/1826. 

umbrage, n. shadow, 596/223 10. 
underfongyn, underfonge, vb. re- 
ceive, 120/4548, 125/4756. 



undermel, n. morning rest, siesta, 

undernemen, vb. blame, 98/3691 ; 

pr. p. undernemynge, 442/16461. 
underspreynt,#p. underspread, 1/25. 
understonde, pp. understood, ISO/ 


undyht, adj. disordered, 419/15573. 
unf raunchysed, adj. in bondage, 1/4. 
ungoodly, adv. wrongly, 106/3952. 
unhable, adj. unfit, 188/5075, 134/ 


unhese, n. discomfort, 229/8228. 
unkonnynge, n. ignorance, 19/719. 
unkouth, unkouthe, adj. unknown, 

strange, 87/3285, 166/6287, 264/ 

9575, etc. 
unkyndely, adv. unnaturally, 94/ 


unleful, adj. unlawful, 391/14497. 
unnethe, adv. with difficulty, hardly, 

168/5856. See annethe. 
unresownable, adj. irrational, 55/ 

unshette, vb. open, 82/3088, 173/ 

unwar, adv. without warning, I/ 


unwarly, adv. unawares, 214/7641. 
unwemmed, ad,j. unspotted, ABC, 

unworshepe, n. dishonour, 96/3586, 


unwyt, n. ignorance, 64/2015. 
vsaunce, n. habit, 268/7242. 

vakynge, adv. waking, 166/6336. 
vallyable, adj. available, 46/1679. 
varyance, n. change, 91/3441. 
vayllable, adj. available, helpful, 


vaylle, vb. avail, 221/7937. 
vekke, wekke, n. old woman, 346/ 

vonery, venerye, n. hunting, 139/ 

5287, 227/8150. 

vengable, adj. vengeful, 70/2632. 
vengyd, pp. avenged, 144/5524. 
vergows, n. verjuice, 420/15630. 
verray, adj. true, genuine, 54/2036, 

134/5095, etc. 
verre, n. glass, 266/9613. 
vertu, n. virtue, strength, 61/2285. 
vertuous, adj. beneficial, powerful, 

40/1514, 178/6796. 

vertuously, adv. virtually, in effect,' 


vestement, n. clothing, 142/5420. 
victoire, n. victory, 218/7821. 
vocat, n. advocate, 127/4846. 
volunte, n. will, 166/6331, 179/68 19. 
voode, n. wood, 317/1 1606. 
voyde, adj. destitute, 1/4, 186/5135. 
voyde, voyden, vb. drive out, expel, 

clear away, 66/2072, 116/4371 ; 

pres. sg. voydeth, 239/862O; pp. 

voyded, 97/3671. 
voyded, adj. emptied, 162/6175. 
vyage, n. voyage, 121/4604, 235/ 

vyker, n. representative, 87/1393 ; 

pi. vykerys, 89/1473. 
vy-on, misprint for upon, 276/10049. 
vyrelaye, n. a species of short poem. 

817/11614. See Note, 
vytaylle, n. food, 177/6750. 

wake, vb. watch, 119/4529. 

wante, vb. subj. pres. sg. lack, 62/ 


wantyng, n. deficiency, 80/1144. 
war, adj. wary, 122/4635. 
wardeyn, n. warden, guardian, 25 / 


wawes, n. waves, 433/16104. 
wayllede, vb. pret. sg. availed, 162/ 

waymentynge, n. lamenting, 108/ 


wede, n. garment, 188/5280. 
wekke, n. See vekke. 
weld, welde, vb. pr. pi. rule, have 

power over, 649/20587,686/23737. 
wel-full, adj. beneficial, 466/16999. 
welkyd, adj. faded, 488/16320. 
wende, vb. go, 188/5070 ; pr. subj. 2. 

wende, 191/7077. 

wene,w. doubt, 82/1189, 160/6089. 
wene, vb. think ; pr. sg. 2. interrog. 

wenystow, 160/5744 ; pret. sg. 

wende, 189/5292, 324/1 1894 ; subj. 

pres. sg. 2. wene, 68/2346 ; imper. 

sg. 2. 166/6329 ; pr. p. wenyng, 

went, wente, n. ford, path, way, 25/ 

937, 288/8587 ; pi. wentys, 283/ 

werche, werkyn, vb. make, work, 

174/6655, 122/4636. 
were, n. See wheer. 



wern, weryn, vb. pret. pi. were. 64/ 

2402, 87/3277. 
wernays, n. mistake for wermes, 

werray, adj. dirty (O.E. warig), 

werre, n. war, 96/3622, 227/8 163 ; 

pi. werrys, 227/8 172. 
werre, vb. make war upon, ABC. 

werreye, vb. make war upon, 96/ 

3627, 180/6879- 

werryours, n. warriors, 246/88?9. 
wexe, wexyn, vb. grow, 96/3583, 
110/4183; pres. sg. wexeth, 206/ 
7339 ; P^t. sg. wex, 61/2296, 69/ 
weyrnentith, vb. pres. sg. laments, 


weyved, pp. removed, 139/5321. 
whan, adv. when, 152/5784, 172/ 


whapyd, pp. astonished, 34/1297. 
whedyr, n. weather, 374/13827. 
wheer, wher, were, n. (fig.} doubt, 

261/9485, 340/12492, 578/21663. 
wher, conj. whether, 111/4222, 112/ 

4230, etc. 
wher, adv. there where, 126/4790, 

143/5447, etc. 

wherso, conj. whether, 69/2560. 
whet, pp. whetted, sharpened, 13/ 


whot, vb. pres. pi. know, 66/2432. 
whyht, wyht, whiht, n. person, 
creature, 63/2354, 2363, 77/2890, 
whyle, n. wile, guile, 48/1815, 21 $ 


whyle, n. time, 4/140. 
whylom, whilom, adv. formerly 

148/5636, 179/6831. 
whyte, vb. (for quit, quite), acquit, 

discharge, 69/2591. 
wikres, n. wickers, osiers, 627/ 

willetful, adj. voluntary, 490/18336 
wisse, vb. direct, ABC, 633/19945 
withseye, withseyn, vb. deny, con 

tradict, 100/3788, 146/5594, 155, 


wlgar, adj. vulgar, 164/5884. 
wond, n. wand, 60/1883. 
wonde, n. wound, 68/2540 ; pi 

wondys, 127/4844. 

wonder, adj. wonderful, 6/216 ; adv. 

vonderly, adv. wonderfully, 35/ 

voninge, n. dwelling, ABC, 532/ 

,vonne, pp. achieved, crossed, 24/ 

wood, wod, adj. mad, 97/3648, 305/ 

woodnesse, n. madness, 215/77o6, 

woormood,n. wormwood, 342/12581. 
worshepable, adj. honourable, 21 6/ 

worshype, n. honour, dignity, 224/ 


worth, adj. worthy, 123/4698. 
wost, vb. pres. sg. 2. wouldest, 308/ 

wostow, vb. pres. interrog. knowest 

thou, 62/2336. 
wot, vb. pres. sg. know, 97/3651, 243/ 

8776, 75/2814 Jjrf. 98/3682. 
wrak, n. vengeance, ruin, destruc- 
tion, 42/1585, 142/5434, 216/7727, 

wrak, n. ? 569/21339. 
wrappyd, j?p. 586/21932. See Note, 
wrastle, vb. wrestle, struggle, 42/ 


wreche, n. vengeance, 266/9230. 
wreke, wroke,pp. avenged, 96/3610, 


wreste, vb. turn (twist), 216/7739. 
wrong, adj. twisted, 624/19656. 
wrye, vb. pres. sg. cover, 394/14621. 
wyket, n. small gate, 13/486; pi. 

wyketys, 12/432. 
wykke, adj. wicked, 418/15545. 
wyl, n. lust, 468/17495. 
wyle, n. trap, snare, 483/1 8057. 
wylfully, adv. voluntarily, 327/ 


wyne, vb. win, 488/18260. 
wynse, vb. kick out, 304/1 1136, 


wynsyng. n. kicking, 390/14461. 
wyse, n. manner, way, 177/6755, 
etc.; another maner wyse, an- 
other kind of way, 68/2524. 
wyssh, vb. pret. washed, 586/21921. 
wysshen,u6. guide, show, 302/1 1065. 
wyten, wyte, vb. know, 118/4492, 
129/4917, etc. ; pres. pi 2. wyte, 



145/5528; pret. sg. 1. 76/2814; 

pp. wyst, 82/3086; pr.p. wytynge, 


wyth, n. wit, 156/5944. 
wyth-set, #p. resisted, 288/10527. 

Y, I, 118/4491, 204/7284. 
yald, vb. pret. pi. yielded, 1 1/406. 
yarmyd, pp. armed, 218/7810. 
yblent, pp. blinded, 800/10978. 
yblynded, pp. blinded, 98/3681. 
ybonchyd, pp. bumped, 489/18299. 
ybounde, pp. bound, 77/286i. 
ycallyd, pp. called, 78/2904, 137/ 


yclypyd, pp. clipped, 54/2OI2. 
ydrawe, vb. draw, 81/3037. 
ydreynt, pp. drowned, 891/14464. 
yelde, yeldyn, vb. yield, 106/3763, 

220/7894; pp. y-yolden, 571/ 

yerde, yerd, n. rod, staff, 50/1883, 

108/3908; pi. yerdys, 118/4474. 
yfere, yffere, adv. together, in com- 
pany, 61/2295, 111/4192, etc. 
yffret, pp. knotted, tied, 16/588. 
yfounde, pp. found, 88/3095. 
ygon,pp. gone, past, 165/6276. 
y grounded, pp. founded, 104/3942. 
yheete, pp. eaten, 179/6849. 
yberyd, pp. ploughed, 141/5398. 
yhold, #p. beholden, 648/24184. 
yhyd, pp. hidden, 107/4058. 
yiveth, giveth, 43/i6i2. 
yknet, pp. knitted, joined, 129/4924. 
ykome, pp. come, 96/3617. 
ylad, pp. led, 269/9772, 9780. 
yle, n. isle, 107/4056. 
yleyd,#p. laid, 142/5415. 
ylke, adj. same, 108/3888, 187/5240. 
ylkede, same ?, 88/3317. 
ymaked, ymakyd, pp. made, 88/ 

3312, 206/7332, 7366. 
ymeynt, pp. mingled, 178/6798, 


y-moselyd, pp. muzzled, 460/17184. 
ympen, vb. graft, 527/19779; ym- 

pjd,pp. 359/13253. 
ynamyd, pp. named, 137/52i8. 
ynde, n. hind, 225/8098. 
ynde, n. indigo, 237/8567. 
ynowh, ynouh, adv. enough, 111/ 

4190, 203/7246, etc. 

yore, adv. long ago, yor agon, long 
ago, 84/3160; yon ful yore, very 
long ago, 149/5690. 

youe, yove, vb. give, 245/8862, 266/ 
9684; yowen, y oven, yove, pp. 61/ 
2301,132/5031,213/7621; yoved, 
pp. given, 652/24360. 

ypavyd,_pp. paved, 9/331. ^ 

ypocras, n. Hippocras, a wme, 250/ 
9047, 348/12830. See Note. 

ypunysshed, pp. punished, 64/2404. 

yput, pp. put, 72/2688. 

y-rad, pp t read, 115/4353. 

yraylle, vb. clothe, arrange, 7/ 2 4^- 

yraylled, vb. pret. sg. ran, rolled, 

yrchown, n. hedgehog, 418/15549. 

yreyne, n. spider, 476/17560. See 

y-rive, vb. pierce, 126/4814. 

yrous, adj. angry, hasty, 78/2715. 

ys, pron. his, 170/6463. 

ysayd, pp. said, 97/3662. 

yse, vb. perceive, 267/9692, 462/ 

ysee, behold, ABC, 580/19843. 

ysene, adj. visible, 142/5413. 

ysett, pp. placed, 79/2953. 

yseyd,pp. said, composed, 5/150. 

yseyn,pp. seen, 88/3291, 225/8o8o. 

yshaue, pp. shaved, 54/2OI2. 

y-shewyd, pp. shown, 152/5795. 

yslawe, pp. slain, 10/361, 548/20542. 

ysquaryd, pp. squared, 214/7672. 

ysswe, vb. issue, 482/18049; pres. 
ysseth, 108/4083 ; pres. pi yssen, 
889/14407 ; yssede, 109/ 
4112, 4122. 

y stole, pp. stolen, 88/3096. 

y take, pp. committed, 57/2122, 73/ 
2721 ; taken, 90/3379. 

ythrysshe, pp. threshed, 142/5412. 

ytokned, pp. betokened, symbol- 
ized, 131/4974. 

ytornyd, ytournyd, pp. turned, 95/ 

y-wrouht, pp. wrought, made, 95/ 

3593, 144/5513. 
ywryte, ywrete, pp. written, 129/ 

4918, 275/ioooS. 
ywys, certainly, truly, 72/268 1, 

yyveth, vb. pres. sg. giveth, 57/2138. 



AARON and Moses, rods of, 95. 

Abbey ruined by Avarice, 463. 

ABC, Chaucer's, 528-533. 

Abstinence and her gorger Sobriety, 

Abusion, the bad head of a Con- 
vent, 628-629, 633-634; her spoon 
and rule, 428-429, 634. 

Acrostic of Deguilleville's name, 

Adam, his disobedience due to pride, 

Adam and Eve, their creation and 
disobedience, 27-29. 

Adonay, his commission to Tribula- 
tion, 429-433. 

Adulation, Hagiography's mirror, 

Aeromancy and her three sisters, 
Piromancy, Hydromancy and Geo- 
mancy, 552-554. 

Age and Sickness warn the Pilgrim 
of the coming of Death, 647-651 ; 
attack the Pilgrim, 651. 

Albeston, the fourth stone of David, 

Alms, the Pilgrim cannot send her 
as messenger, 658-661. 

Ant and Sandhill, comparison of, 

Anvil of Patience, 205, 426. 

Apemenen, Apame, 467. 

Apostasy, 643-646 ; her raven, 643, 

Aristotle, his Elenchis, 45; on gener- 
ation, 101-102 ; sent by Nature 
to reproach Sapience, 145-147 ; 
his maxim that the whole is 
greater than the part, 147 ; is the 
pupil of Science and Sapience, 
148-149; discourses with Sapi- 
ence about great and small, 152- 
160; takes his leave of Sapience, 
161; on transmutation, 655. 
Armour, for pilgrims, 201-227 ; 
shown to Pilgrim by Grace Dieu, 

203-204 ; necessary for the Pil- 
grim, 202, 204; Pilgrim objects 
to it, 203, 208, 229-230; not 
given for legs and feet, 225-228 ; 
Pilgrim puts it on, 228 ; Pilgrim 
takes it off, 231-232 ; carried by 
the damsel Memory, 241-244 ; 
Grace Dieu reproaches the Pil- 
grim for not wearing it, 245-248. 

Articles of the Church, signified 
by the bells of the scrip, 180-183 ; 
poem on, 185-190. 

Asceticism of St. Benet, 220. 

Astrology and Astronomy, the dif- 
ference between them, 534-536. 

Astrology, declares the influence of 
the stars, 537-542, 550 ; the Pil- 

frim answers her, 540, 542-549, 
51; her pupils, 551-555. 

Attemperance, the Pilgrim' s helmet, 

Avarice, her description, 460-461 ; 
her six hands, 460-461, 469-485 ; 
her mawmet or idol, 461, 491-492 ; 
shows the Pilgrim an abbey 
plundered by chessmen, 463 ; 
is the ruin of the Church and 
kings, 464-467 ; deceives a king 
by causing him to forsake liber- 
ality, 465-466 ; her character, 
467-469 ; is bound to her riches, 
469 ; by Ravine despoils pil- 
grims, 469-470 ; by Cutpurse, 
cheats and steals, 470-472 ; by 
Usury oppresses the poor, and 
sells Time and the Sun, 472-476 ; 
by False Semblance advances 
impostors, 477-479 ; by Simony 
disgraces the Church, 480-483 ; 
by Treachery she deceives and 
works sham miracles, 483-485 ; 
her deformities, 486-490. 

Backbiting restrained by Gorger 

of Sobriety, 216. 
Baptism, its necessity explained by 



Grace Dieu, 24-34 ; of the Pil- 
grim, 33-36. 

Baptism, the second, 583. 

Batli of Penitence, 582-585. 

Bells of the scrip mean the Articles 
of the Church, 173-175, 180-185, 

Besom of Penance is Confession, 
114, 117. 

Body, the, should be subdued, 220- 
221, 249, 254, 262-263, 276-286, 
328 ; Pilgrim pampers it, 250 ; 
is the Pilgrim's greatest foe, 249, 
250-251, 261, 272; is the Pil- 
grim's master, 249, 253 ; is evil 
by nature, 252, 253 ; must not 
be slain but corrected, 254-255 ; 
would deceive man, 263 ; is a 
cloud darkening the soul, 264- 
267, 270 ; its relation to the soul. 

Bordoun, its description, 175-176, 
190-194 ; its pommels, 190-194. 

Bread given to the Pilgrim by 
Moses, 245 ; bread and wine of 
Sacrament become Flesh and 
Blood, 87, 137, 140; sufficient for 
all who come, 135-136. 

Bread of Life, made by Charity and 
Sapience, 141-144. 

Buckle of Constancy, 223. 

Burning bush, Nature protests 
against miracle of, 95. 

Bythalassus, or Sorcery, a peril of 
the sea, 561. 

Chalys, the Pilgrim a monk of, 9 ; 

the Abbey founded by St. Lewis, 

9 ; described, 592. 
Champion, story of the, 150. 
Charbuncle of the staff, 192. 
Charibdis, or Fortune, a peril of the 

sea, 523. 
Charity, her character and work, 

122-125 ; caused the crucifixion 

of Christ, 124-125 ; she wrote the 

Testament of Christ, 125; guards 

the table of the Sacrament, 133 ; 

made the Bread of Life, 141-144 ; 

welcomes the Pilgrim to the 

monastery, 593 ; made Miseri- 

corde's rope, 654. 
Chastity, maligned by Venus in 

the Romance of the .Rose, 358 ; 

chatelaine of the monastery, 608- 

609 ; her gloves, called " Double 
Continence," 609. 
Chaucer, his ABC Prayer to the 

Virgin, 527-533. 
Cherry Tree, Story of the, 69-73. 

Cherubin, chief porter of Jerusalem, 
keeps the gate with a sword, 10, 
13 ; those who bear the sword of 
judgment are called this, 72. 

Chiromancy or divination by the 
hand, 564-568, 

Christ Jesus, His Crucifixion due to 
charity, 124-125 ;. His Testament, 
125-132 ; is the higher pommel 
of the bordoun, 191 ; wore the 
gambison of Patience on the 
Cross, 207 ; His death is the first 
stone of David, 236 ; saves men 
by His death, 340 ; pierced by 
Envy's spear, 402-403 ; the milk 
of His mercy, 655-656. 

Church, founded by Grace Dieu, 23 ; 
heresies in the, 180 ; reformed by 
councils, 181 ; Articles of the, 
173-175, 180-183, 185-190; her 
goods, how wasted, 640-643. 

Cistercian order chosen by Pilgrim, 
590; the Porter, Dread of God, 

Ccelurn mobile, 336. 

Commission of Grace Dieu to 
Keason, 287-289; of God to 
Wrath, 419 ; of Tribulation from 
Adonay, 429-433 ; of Tribulation 
from Satan, 433-434. 

Complaint of the Pilgrim over 
his armour, 229-230 ; over the 
encumbrance of his body, 274- 
275, 331; cast off by Fortune, 
525-526; over the perils of 
the sea, 578-579 ; assailed by 
Envy, 619 ; in Latin verse, 621- 

Confession, priests should insist on, 
74, 116-117; hindered by Sloth, 

Confessors, their duties, 74, 376. 

Confirmation, order of, 37-38 ; of 
De Guilleville, 38. 

Conscience, the worm of, 113 ; 
Hagiography's mirror, 600-601. 

Conspiracy or Scylla, 569 ; her 
hounds, 570-572. 

Constancy, the buckle of the Pil- 
grim's girdle, 223. 



Continence, the Pilgrim's gloves, 

Contrition, the true manner of, 110- 
112 ; the hummer of Penance, 

Convent, a, its bad head, 628-629, 
633-634 ; endowed for prayer 
and worship, 630-631, 636; 
prayer and almsgiving neglected, 
630-633; is spoiled on account 
of its evil ways, 635-638; its 
cellarer Purveyance, 640. 

Creed, its articles engraved on the 
bells of the scrip, 173-175, 181- 
182 ; poem on the, 185-190. 

Cross, must be borne by Christ's fol- 
lowers, 328 ; of Christ, 344 ; sign 
of, renders Satan powerless, 516. 

Cursing, is unprofitable and danger- 
ous, 68-70. 

Cutpurse, Avarice's second hand, 
robs secretly and forges, 471. 

Cyprian, 500, 503. 

Cyrces, a peril of the sea, 555. 

David, his sling and stones, 231, 

David and Goliath, 229-230, 231. 

Dead serve the living at meat, 604, 

Death attacks the Pilgrim, 662 ; 
his powers, 663. 

Deguilleville, his dream, 6 ; his 
writing stolen from him, 7 ; he 
writes his dream again, 7-8 ; he 
desires to go on pilgrimage, 17- 
18 ; is baptized, 35-36 ; is con- 
firmed, 38 ; enters the Cistercian 
monastery, 590 ; awakes from 
his dream, 665 ; acrostic of his 
name, 621-623. 

Detraction, wishes to devour the 
Pilgrim, 411-412 ; she steals 
good name and reputation, 413- 
417; her fleshhook, 414; she 
can hurt those who are absent, 
416; attacks the horse Good Re- 
noun, 617-618. 

Discipline, the file of Obedience, 

Disembodiment of the Pilgrim, 270, 

Disputation between Aristotle and 
Sapience concerning the Sacra- 
ment of the Altar, 145-161. 

Disputation between Nature and 
Grace concerning the Sacrament, 

Double nature of the Pilgrim, 255- 
281, 334-335. 

Dove accompanies Grace Dieu, 19 ; 
represents the grace of God, 22 ; 
rescues Pilgrim from Sloth, 378 ; 
frightens the Pilgrim's enemies, 
418 ; rescues the Pilgrim from 
Necromancy, 505 ; brings Pil- 
grim advice from Grace Dieu, 

Dread of God, Porter of the Monas- 
tery, 591. 

Dream, Deguilleville's, 6. 

Dreams, their character, 6. 

Drunkenness, its effects, 353-354. 

Duke of Frieseland, story of, 502. 

Ears, Pilgrim's eyes must be placed 
in, 164-172. 

Elenchus of Aristotle, 45, 318. 

Elijah under the juniper, 375. 

Empty vessels make most sound, 
428, 432. 

Envy, her daughters, 399,403-417 ; 
her works and character, 400- 
402 ; her spears, 402-403. 

Envy and her daughters enter the 
monastery, 615-616 ; by the aid 
of Good Renown the Pilgrim 
tries to escape from, 616; assail 
the Pilgrim, 617-618 ; the king 
orders their arrest, 624-625. 

Epicureans, 347. 

Eyes are the porters of the body, 

Eyes must be placed in the ears, 

Ezekiel, 330, 344. 

Faith in God, Transubstantiation, 

and the Trinity necessary, 182- 

Faith the Pilgrim's scrip, 177 et seq.', 

defended by martyrs, 179. 
False Semblance, Avarice's fourth 

hand, begs shamelessly, 477- 

Flattery, bears Pride on her back, 

379, 395-397 ; deceives all, 395- 

396 ; her mirror, 397-398. 
Flattery, Hagiography's mirror, 




Force is signified by the Habergeon, 
the second armour of the Pilgrim, 

Fox and the raven, fable of, 384- 

Fox and the herrings, fable of, 394. 

Forswearing, Avarice's tongue, cor- 
rupts justice, 486-488. 

Fortune, princess of all transitory 
things, 1-2 ; her double look, 1, 
519 ; her wheel and tree, 518- 
525 ; is uncertain and treacherous, 
1-2, 521-522, 524; her crook, 
523-524 ; her school of magic, 
495-496, 503. 

Fortunes, how predicted, 496. 

Free Will, 435, 551, 567-568. 

French young men's pastimes, 305- 

Gambison of Patience, 205-210. 

Games played by youth, 305-306 ; 
taught by Idleness, 317 ; played 
by Avarice, 492. 

Gate of Moral Virtue, 320. 

Gates of man's body, six, 115-117, 

Geomancy, 553-555. 

Girdle of Perseverance, 223. 

Glaive, meaning of, 65-66. 

Gloves of Continence, 216-218. 

Gluttony, her appearance and char- 
acter, 346-351 ; her tongue, 351- 
352 ; her two stomachs, 354 ; 
with Venus attacks Pilgrim and 
stranger, 365-370. 

Gold is the idol of Avarice, 491-492. 

Goliath, 230, 231, 235, 236. 

Good Renown aids the Pilgrim to 
escape from Envy, 616 ; his four 
feet, 616-617. 

Gorger of Soberness restrains from 
gluttony and backbiting, 215- 

Gospel, how it should be under- 
stood, 297-298. 

Grace Dieu, her appearance and 
attire, 18-19 ; undertakes to help 
the poet and all pilgrims, 20-22 ; 
takes the poet to her house, 1330 
years old, 23 ; explains the neces- 
sity of Baptism, 24-34 ; explains 
original sin, 26-32 ; is the help 
of all pilgrims, 62- 63 ; has power 
over the heavens, 90, 101 ; re- 

proaches Nature, 97-104 ; is 
Nature's mistress, 99-101 ; can 
do miracles at her will, 103-104; 
explains the sacramental change 
to the Pilgrim, 137-162 ; promises 
the Pilgrim the sacrament, scrip 
and staff, 163 ; explains why the 
Pilgrim's eyes must be placed in 
his ears, 164-172 ; disembodies 
the Pilgrim, 270-273 ; her stone 
of invisibility, 282 ; leaves the 
Pilgrim, 282 ; her commission to 
Reason, 287-289 ; explains the 
meaning of the Wheel of Lust, 
332-335, 336-337 ; explains the 
movements of the planets, 335- 
336, 338; warns the Pilgrim 
against discouragement and de- 
spair, 339-344 ; comes to the 
Pilgrim in the ship of Religion, 
580 ; causes the Pilgrim to enter 
the bath of Penitence, 582-585 ; 
reproaches the Pilgrim, 586-587 ; 
spoils a monastery of its goods 
on account of its evil govern- 
ment, 627 et seq.] shows Religious 
Orders to the Pilgrim, 628 et seq.; 
warns the Pilgrim of his end, 

Guyllyam, De Guilleville's sponsor, 

Habergeon of Fortitude, 211-212. 

Hagiography, or Holy Scripture, is 
partly dark and partly light, 594- 
596 ; her mirrors, 596-601. 

Hearing, the only trustworthy sense, 
138-140, 164-166 ; the porter of 
the body, 171. 

Heart of man is small but cannot be 
satisfied, save by a greater thing 
than the world, 153-156. 

Heaven, third stone of David is 
memory of, 237 ; is in a man's 
soul, 566. 

Hedge of Penance divides the paths 
of Idleness and Labour, 307 ; is 
painful, 319 ; Pilgrim crosses it 
on the back of Youth, 346 ; Pil- 
grim tries to get through it, 
but is caught by Sloth, 370-371. 

Hell, Christ descended to, 126, 174; 
fourth stone of David is memory 
of, 238; Lucifer cast down to, 
380 ; cannot hurt the holy, 416. 



Helmet of Attemperance protects 
eyes and ears, 213-215. 

Heresies, 180. 

Heresy formed schismatic sects, 
506 ; wishes to reshape the Pil- 
grim's scrip, 505-507. 

Hermit deceived by Satan, 515. 

Holy Scripture, or Hagiography, 

Holy Writ is fifth stone of David, 

Hope, the Pilgrim's staff, 191. 

Horns of Invocation, 613 ; of Moses, 
37, 42, 49-50 ; of Pride, 379, 384. 

Humility, the scabbard, 221-222. 

Hypocrisy, Pride's mantel, 392-395. 

Idleness, the damsel, at the parting 
of the ways, 307 ; sends pilgrims 
astray, 309 ; teaches people to 
play and revel, 317 ; her charac- 
ter, 318 ; advises the Pilgrim to 
take the left-hand path, 319. 

Idol of Avarice is gold, 461, 491- 
492 ; worshipped by a carpenter, 
555-556, 557-561. 

Idolatry and what the Pilgrim sees 
in her house, 555-561. 

Images, their adoration not idolatry, 

Impatience under correction pro- 
duces hatred, 422-423. 

Invocation of spirits, dispute on, 

Isaac and his sons, 138-139. 

Jacob and Esau, 423. 

Jerusalem, the heavenly, Deguille- 
ville sees it in a vision 9 ; Cherub- 
in guards the gate, 10, 13 ; the 
means of entering it, 10, 12, 14, 
15-22, 24; pilgrims to it suffer 
torments, 10-11. 

Joseph devoured by Envy, 400; 
in Egypt, 637-638. 

Judas, 482. 

Justice corrupted by Avarice, 486- 

Keys, why they are given and how 

they should be used, 74. 
Keys and sword may be used only 

by permission, 81-86. 
King who loved liberality, 465- 


King and his false knights, 570- 

King who only reigned for one year, 

Kings and nobles taught by Avarice, 


Labour a net-maker, at the parting 
of the ways, 308 ; warns Pilgrim 
against Idleness, 309 ; speaks of 
social differences and the func- 
tions of labour, 310-315 ; shows 
the Pilgrim the right path, 315. 

Latria, 612-613 ; keeps the monas- 
tery gate, 613 ; her instruments, 

Lesson, the Pittancer of the monas- 
tery, 594, 601-602. 

Lewis, King, his good deeds, 660. 

Longius, 402. 

Lucifer has no place for repentance, 
342-343 ; cast down from heaven 
by Pride, 380. 

Lying, the haunch of Avarice, 486. 

Magical arts, shown to the Pilgrim 
by Necromancy's messenger, 496- 
497 ; denounced by the Pilgrim, 

Man is the image of God and comes 
from God, 259-262, 334 ; returns 
to God at last, 334, 337 ; is a 
microcosm, 336, 564. 

Marriage, Order of, 51-53. 

Martyrs, their torments, 10-11 ; 
defend faith of Christ, 179 ; none 
have faith now-a-days to be, 179- 
180; wore the purpointof Patience, 

Mary Magdalen softened by contri- 
tion, 109. 

Mary, the Virgin. See Virgin. 

Mawmet, or idol of Avarice, 461, 

Memory contains all things, 156- 
157 ; carries the Pilgrim's armour, 
241-244 ; has her eyes behind, 
242, 243-244. 

Messenger of the king, 625-626. 

Messenger of Necromancy, shows 
the Pilgrim magical arts, 496- 
497 ; argues with the Pilgrim 
about magic, 497-503. 

Messengers to Paradise are Alms 
and Prayer, 658-661. 



Microcosm, man is a, 336, 564-565. 

Miracles ; Nature protests against, 
94-95 ; falsely worked by Ava- 
rice's hand, Treachery, 484-485. 

Mirror of Adulation, 397-398, 598- 
600; of Conscience, 601. 

Misericorde pities and helps all 
sinners, 652-653, 656 ; her cord, 
653-654 ; her milk, 654-656 ; 
leads the Pilgrim to the infirmary, 

Monastery of Chaalis, founded by 
St. Lewis, 9 ; explored by the 
Pilgrim, 592 ; its inhabitants, 

Monks, Orders of, 15, 590 ; their 
duties, 56-58 ; their faults, 627- 

Moral Virtue directs the Pilgrim in 
the right way, 320-324; dis- 
courses on Virtues and Vices, 
322-324 ; bids the Pilgrim pray 
to find the right path, 325. 

Mortification of the body crucifies 
and overcomes the bodv, 326- 

Moses, his appearance, 37 ; asks 
the meaning of his horns and 
goad, 42 ; gives the tonsure, 53 ; 
ordains officers, 58-60 ; gives 
Grace Dieu to the pilgrims, 61 ; 
gives sword and keys to pil- 
grims, 61 ; gives the Pilgrim sword 
and keys sealed up, 76 ; gives 
them unsealed to priests and 
monks, 82-86 ; divides the releff 
among pilgrims, 105 ; gives the 
Sacrament to good and bad, 134- 
135 ; gives the Pilgrim bread, 

Murderers produced by Wrath, 424. 

Music inspired by Pride, 386-387. 

Nature remonstrates with Grace 
Dieu about the Sacramental 
change and miracles, 90-96 
governs all beneath the sun, 91-94; 
she describes Spring, 92 ; re- 
proached by Grace Dieu, 97-104 ; 
her power comes from Grace 
Dieu, 99-104 ; begs Grace Dieu 
to forgive her, 105. 

Necromancy, 504-505 ; her messen- 
ger, his doings and arguments, 

Obedience, her ropes, file and targe, 
603 ; binds the Pilgrim for thirty- 
nine years, 614-615. 

Obstinacy, the staff of Rude En- 
tendement, hardens Jews and 
heathen, 298-299, 391-392. 

Official baptizes De Guilleville, 36 ; 
marries two pilgrims, 51-53. 

Ointments made by the master, 38 ; 
their use, 38-40. 

Orders of Confirmation, 37-38 : last 
Unction, 38-39 ; of Marriage, 51- 
53 ; of Colyt, 58. 

Orders of Monks, 15, 590 ; those 
that break rule, 627-637. 

Original Sin explained by Grace 
Dieu, 26-32. 

Ortigometra, contemplative pil- 

frims compared to the bird, 511- 

Ostrich, Pride is like an, 393. 
Ovid tries to console the Pilgrim, 

Part made equal to whole by Sa- 
pience, 147. 

Patience, the Pilgrim's Gambison, 

Path, Pilgrim takes wrong, 320. 

Paths of Labour and Idleness, two, 
307 et seq. 

Pax given to the world by Christ, 
128 ; the figure of, 129-131. 

Penance, 106 ; her hammer of Con- 
trition, 107-114 ; her besom of 
Confession, 114-117; her rods of 
Satisfaction, 118-120 ; the portress 
of the Sacrament, 120-122, 133 ; 
helps to subdue the body, 254, 
327 ; Pilgrim must return to her, 

Penitence, the bath of, 582-585. 

Perils of the sea, 518, 523, 555, 567, 
573, 578. 

Perseverance, the Pilgrim's girdle, 

Perseverance in resistance to sensu- 
ality leads back to God, 337. 

Pharaoh wore Pride's spur, Rebel- 
lion, 390. 

Philemon and Hypocras, story of, 

Physiognomy, 564. 

Pilgrimage, the poet desires to go 
on, 17-18. 



Pilgrims to Jerusalem are torment- 
ed, 10-12 ; leave their scrips and 
staffs outside Jerusalem, 17 ; swim 
in the sea, 509-513 ; Satan lays 
snares for, 513-514. 

Pilgrymage de Mounde (by G. de G.) 
shows the right way, 3; Lydgate's 
translation of it, 4-5 ; date of 
Lydgate's translation, 5. 

Planets, their movements, 335-336, 

Poem on the Articles of the Church, 
185-190 ; on God in Trinity, 194- 
199 ; on the Virgin Mary, 199- 
201 ; to Mary, in tribulation, 454- 
455 ; Chaucer's A B 0, 528-533 ; 
acrostic on Be Guileville's name, 

Pommels of the staff, 192-194. 

Pope or Vicar appointed by God, 
84-85 ; delegates his power, 85- 

Porter, Fear of God, speaks to the 
Pilgrim, and brings him Orison 
and Almesse, 91. 

Posterns, Moral Virtue advises the 
Pilgrim to avoid them, 320-321, 

Poverty, Impatient, 606-608. 

Poverty, Wilful, her song, 605-606. 

Prayer of St. Bernard, 437-456 ; to 
the Virgin (Chaucer's A B C), 

Prayer necessary for finding the 
right way, 325. 

Prayer the messenger to heaven, 
609-612; her power, 611 ; agrees 
to be the Pilgrim's messenger to 
Paradise, 661. 

Predicamentum ad aliquid, 77-79. 

Prelates and priests, their duties. 

Pride, her description and lineage, 
379-380; deceives Adam, 380; 
her works, 381-384 ; her bellows, 
384-387 ; her horn, 387-389 ; her 
spurs, 389-391; her staff, 391- 
392; her mantle, 392-395; is 
borne by Flattery, 378, 395. 

Priests should insist on Confession, 

Priests who buy and sell spiritual 
gifts, 481-482. 

Property, Avarice's hump, keeps 
men from heaven, 489-490. 

Prologue of Deguilleville, 6-9 ; of 

Lydgate, 1-5. 
Prudence the Pilgrim's target, 223- 

224 ; the targe of Discipline, 603. 
Ptolemy, 535-536, 550. 
Publican and Pharisee, story of, 222. 
Purpoynt. See Gambison. 
Purveyance shows the Pilgrim how 

the Church's goods are wasted, 

Pyromancy, 552. 

Rainbow a sign of concord with 
God, 653. 

Ravine, Avarice's first hand, despoils 
the poor, 470. 

Reason advises priests to be gentle, 
40-42 ; advises Moses how to use 
his horns and goad, 42-50 ; justi- 
fies the tonsure, 54-58 ; tells 
monks their duty, 55-58 ; her 
sermon, 64-75 ; cannot under- 
stand the Sacramental change, 
88 ; rebukes Rude Entendement, 
285-286 ; her commission from 
Grace Dieu against Rude Enten- 
dement, 287-289 ; defends herself 
against the accusations of Rude 
Entendement, 291-292 ; disputes 
with Rude Entendement about 
the scrip and staff, 294-297 ; 
rebukes his obstinacy, 298-300. 

Religion, Grace Dieu's ship, 579- 
580, 588-589 ; small religious ob- 
servances must not be neglected, 

Religious Orders visited by Pilgrim, 
626 et seq. 

Repentance will restore the Pilgrim, 
342-344 ; often caused by sick- 
ness, 649 

Riches bind Avarice, 469 ; clog 
people's feet, 512; love of, leads to 
Satan, 576 ; of the wicked shall 
be given to the virtuous, 638. 

Righteousness, sword of, 218-221. 

Righteousness who helped to forge 
Wrath's saw, 422-423. 

Rods of Moses and Aaron ; their 
magical powers, 95. 

Romance of the Rose, 56, 358-360 ; 
its author culled Malebouche, 360; 
Norman exposes Jean de Meun, 

Rude Entendement, the Pilgrim 



meets, 283-284 ; trys to stop the 
Pilgrim, 284-285; rebuked by 
Keason, 285-286 ; Reason's com- 
mission against, 287-289 ; accuses 
Reason of dishonesty, 290, 293 ; 
disputes with Reason, 294-297; 
confirmed Nabal, Pharaoh and 
the Jews in obstinacy, 298-299; 
is blinded by his folly, 300. 

Sacrament of the Altar, 86-88, 105; 
guarded by Penance, 120-122 ; 
must be taken with Charity, 
133; given to all, 134-135; suf- 
ficient for all who come, 135-136; 
the virtues of the Bread of the, 
158-160; promised to the Pilgrim, 

Sacrament of baptism given to the 
Pilgrim, 4 ; of Confirmation re- 
ceived by the Pilgrim, 6 ; of 
marriage, 7 ; of penance and how 
confession should be made, 33-34. 

Sacramental change not understood 
by Reason, 88 ; explained by 
Grace Dieu, 137-162 ; understood 
through Hearing only, 140 ; not 
taught to Aristotle, 150-152. 

St. Austin, 452-453. 

St. Benedict, his asceticism, 220 ; 
his rule badly kept, 629. 

St. Bernard, his continence, 2 1 7-218 ; 
his prayer to the Virgin Mary, 

St. Cyprian, 500, 503. 

St. John, 126-127, 416-417. 

St. Lawrence, 492. 

St. Lewis, founded monastery of 
Chalys, 9 ; did many good works, 

St. Nicholas, 410. 

St. Peter keeps a gate of Jerusalem, 
14 ; softened by Contrition, 109. 

St. William of Chalys, 216. 

Saints and monastic orders help 
others to enter heaven, 14-15 ; 
to honour the images of saints is 
not idolatry, 559-560. 

Salisbury, Earl of, commands Lyd- 
gate to translate the Pilgrymage 
de Mounde, 4. 

Sapience helps Charity to make the 
Bread of Life, 143-144 ; her two 
schools, 148-150 ; taught Nature 
and Aristotle, 148-149 ; but did 

not teach them about the Sacra- 
ment, 150-152 ; discourses with 
Aristotle about the Sacramental 
change, 151-160 ; explains to 
Aristotle how the great can be 
contained in the small, 152-160. 

Satan, his commission to Tribulation, 
433-434 ; lays nets and snares for 
pilgrims, 507-508,513-514; tells 
the Pilgrim about the sea of the 
World, 510-513 ; his works and 
snares, 513-516 ; by deceit he 
causes a hermit to kill his father, 
515 ; made powerless by the sign 
of the Cross, 516 ; laments, 517 ; 
his school, 563. 

Saul, 391, 402. 

Scabbard of Humility, 221-222. 

Schisms produced by Heresy, 506. 

Schools of Sapience and Satan, 148- 
150, 563. 

Scilla, a peril of the sea, 569, 615- 

Scrip, its colour, 177-179 ; its 
twelve bells, 173-175, 180-183. 

Scrip and staff left outside Jerusa- 
lem by pilgrims, 17 ; promised to 
Pilgrim, 163 ; cannot be seen with 
the eyes, 164 ; described, 173 
et seq. ; given to the Pilgrim, 176- 
183, 201; Rude Entendement 
tries to hinder the Pilgrim from 
carrying them, 285, 295 ; Reason 
shows why they should be borne, 

Sea of the World, 509 ; pilgrims 
swim in it, 509-513 ; troubles 
and perils in the sea, 510, 518, 

Senses. See Wits. 

Sensuality drags the Pilgrim back, 

Ship of Grace Dieu or Religion, 579; 
is bound together by osiers signi- 
fying ceremonies, 588-589 ; con- 
tains castles and monasteries, 580, 

Sickness comes to the Pilgrim, 646- 
647 ; troubles folk and makes 
them repent, 648-649. 

Simony, Avarice's fifth hand, causes 
holy offices to be bought and sold, 

Sin, deadly, 339. 

Sins, contrition for, must be par- 



ticular, 111 ; must be punished 
Sling : the Pilgrim's mouth is his 


Sloth binds the Pilgrim, 371-372 
her master, 373 ; her effects, 373- 
374 ; her ropes, 375-377. 
Small things may contain great 

ones, 153-157. 

Sobriety, the gorger of Abstinence, 

604 ; the gorger for the Pilgrim, 


Solomon, 223-224, 500, 502. 
Song of Wilful Poverty, 605. 
Sorcery, 561 ; her merchandise, 562 ; 
how she lost her soul, 563 ; her 
hand Chiromancy, and face 
Physiognomy, 564-568. 
Soul is in the similitude of God, 259- 
260, 261-263 ; rules the body and 
not the body the soul, 262-270 ; 
is as a sun behind clouds, 264- 
266 ; 'sees without bodily eyes, 
266-267 ; is separated from the 
Pilgrim's body by Grace Dieu, 
270-273; is at enmity with the 
body, 272, 276, 281 ; hindered by 
the body may not see nor mount 
on high, 274-276, 280. 
Spears of envy, 402-403. 
Spirit, called Mortification of the 
body, 326-331 ; of man hindered 
by the body, 335. 
Spirits, invocation of, 497-500. 
Spring, description of, 92. 
Spurs of Pride, Disobedience, and 

Rebellion, 390. 

Stars, their influence, 537-551. 
Sterility destroys the goods of a 

monastery, 639. 

Stones of David, five, 234, 236-239. 
Stories of the Champion, 150 ; the 
cherry tree cursed by a priest, 
69-70 ; of the Duke of Frieseland, 
502 ; the Fox and the Herrings, 
384-385 ; the Fox and the Raven, 
394 ; the Hermit deceived by 
Satan, 515 ; the King and his false 
knights, 570-571 ; the king who 
loved Liberality, 465-466; the 
king who only reigned for one 
year, 659-660; Philemon and 
Hypocras, 567-568; the Publi- 
can and Pharisee, 222. 
Sword of Judgment given to pil- 

grims by Moses, 61 ; the mean- 
ing of Glaive, 65-66 ; proper use 
of, 64-73 ; its name Versatylis, 

Sword and Keys desired by the 
Pilgrim, 75 ; given to him sealed 
up, 76 ; Reason explains why, 
77-86 ; given unsealed to priests 
and monks, 82-86. 

Sword of Righteousness, 218-221. 

Synderesis, 130. 

Syren, a peril of the sea, 573. 

Target of Prudence, 223-224. 

Taste, 350-351. 

Tau, a sign sprinkled with blood, 

Testament of Christ, 125-132. 

Thief, the penitent, 611-612. 

Time sold by Usury, 474-476. 

Tobias, 266. 

Tongue of a drunkard, 351-353. 

Tonsure given by Moses, 53 ; justi- 
fied by Reason, 54, 56-58. 

Tower, Revolving, 573, 575-576. 

Transmutation. See Aristotle. 

Trarisubstantiation. See Sacra- 
mental Change. 

Treachery, Avarice's sixth hand, 
cheats and works sham miracles, 

Treason receives a box, a false 
face, and a knife from her father, 
405-408 ; is flattering, secret, and 
treacherous, 405-409 ; her power, 
408-410; attacks the Pilgrim, 

Tribulation is Heaven's goldsmith, 
426-427, 431 ; her hammer, Perse- 
cution, 427 ; her tongs, Distress, 
427; her apron, Shame, 427-428; 
her Commission from Adonay,429 
-433; her Commission from Satan, 
433-434 ; works for God or Satan 
according to the Pilgrim's behavi- 
our, 435-436 ; smites the Pilgrim, 
436 ; the Pilgrim's prayer to 
Mary against, 437-456 ; turns the 
Pilgrim to God, 457-458. 
Trinity, the, Faith in it is necessary, 
182-183; the doctrine of, 183; 
poem on, 194-199. 

Jnicorn, Pride is like an, 397-398. 
Usury, the third hand of Avarice, 



472-474 ; defined by means of the 
comparison of the wood and 
woodman, 475-477. 

Venus, or Luxury, chases away 
Reason, 55 ; with Cupid lies in 
wait for men, 226-227 ; can only 
be escaped by flight, 227, 330; 
accompanies Gluttony, 355 ; 
smites the Pilgrim, 356 ; can hurt 
cloistered Chastity, 357 ; why she 
and Chastity hate each other, 
357-358 ; Romance of the Rose, is 
her book, 358 : her description, 
355, 362-363; her officers, 364- 
365 ; with Gluttony binds and 
ill-treats the Pilgrim and a 
Stranger, 366-369. 

Vicar. See Moses. 

Virginity hated by Venus, 356-357. 

Virgin Mary, bequeathed to St. 
John, 126; one of the pommels 
of the bordoun, 192-193; is a 
mediator between man and Christ, 
193; poems to, 199-201, 454- 
455 ; second stone of David is 
memory of, 237 ; Chaucer's ABC 
Prayer to her, 527-533; Prayer 
of St. Bernard to the, 437-456. 

Virtue. See Moral Virtue. 

Virtues have their attendant vices, 

Wheel of Fortune, 518-522, 525. 
Wheel of Lust and its meaning, 

Wicket by which Jerusalem is 
entered, 12, 13, 664 ; kept by St. 
Peter, 14. 

Wings to fly into Paradise given to 
pilgrims by saints, 14-15. 

Wits : man deceived by them, 138 ; 
Hearing alone trustworthy, 138- 
140, 164-166 ; are but instruments 
of the soul, 267 ; should be marked 
with the Cross, 329-330. See also 
Gates of the Body. 

Wood and Woodman, example of 
the, 475-477. 

Worldly Gladness, a syren, 573-577. 

Wrath, his description, 418-419 ; 
has a commission from God, 419; 
his character and works, 420-421; 
his two stones, Despite and Strife, 
422 ; his iron, Impatience, 422 ; 
his saw, Hatred, 422-424; his 
falchion with which murderers 
are girded, 424 ; attacks the Pil- 
grim, 425. 

Youth is feathered and lively, 303- 
306 ; her games, 305-306 ; ac- 
companies the Pilgrim, 307 ; 
advises the Pilgrim to follow 
Idleness, 315-316; flies aloft 
with the Pilgrim, 345-346 ; flies 
with him across the hedge of 
Penitence, 346 ; saves the Pilgrim 
from Avarice, 493 ; rescues the 
Pilgrim from the syren, 577 ; 
leaves the Pilgrim, 578. 



AARON, 87/1394,95/3577, 108/3909. 
Abachuch, 177/6765. 
Absinthium, 842/12574. 
Adam, 30/IH2, 890/14436, 432/ 


Adonay, 428/15973. 
Albalart, 600/18737. 
Alysaundre, 662/20715. 
Amalech, 891/14499. 
Amasa, 406/15072. 
Ambrose, St., 42/1852. 
Apemenen, 467/17423. 
Architeclyn, 96/3589, 104/3916. 
Argus, 167/636 1. 
Aristotile, Arystotyles, 45/1 682, 

101/3823, 145/5537, 154/5871, 

161/6143, 666/24442. 
Arras, 804/11137. 
Arryens, 606/18958. 
Asael, 305/1 1 1 60. 
Athenys, 166/5935. 
Augustyn, Awstyn, Seynt, 452/ 

16869, 606/18974, 688/20152. 

Babiloun, 886/14224. 

Barlam, 669/24620. 

Barrabas, 424/15776. 

Bel, 349/12857. 

Benet, Benyth, St., 16/568, 220/7882, 


Bernard, St., 217/7793, 437/i6273. 
Bersabee, 876/13845. 
Breteyne, 627/19754. 

Calliope, the Lady of the Well 
beside Citharon, 6/172-3. 

Cartage, 206/7305. 

Chalys, Seyn Wyllyam of, 21 6/ 

Chartrehous, 690/22097. 

Chaucer, 627/19755. 

Clervaws, 876/13857. 

Clwny, 590/2096. 

Constantyn, 606/18973. 

Crysostom, 12/447. 

Cryst, Cryst Ihesu, 14/505, 121/4609, 

124/4724, 174/6617, 236/8520, et 


Cupide, 226/8135, 227/8170. 
Cypryan, 600/18737, 608/18830. 
Cystews, 690/22095. 

Dalyda, 268/9533. 

Dan, 617/23119. 

Danyel, 849/12858, 450/16784. 

Dauyd, David, 281/8310, 234/8424, 

241/8697, 402/14920. 
Dina, 867/13146. 

Egipciens, 686/23709. 

Egypt, 686/20036, 686/23701. 

Epicuris, 347/i278o. 

Esau, 188/5274, 139/5293, 423/ 


Esdras, 467/17422. 
Eue, 80/1113, 390/14440. 
Ezechyel, Ezechel, 87/1403, 333/ 

12242, 688/22618. 

Fraunce, 627/19758. 
Fraunceys, St., 16/582. 
Fryse, Duke of, 602/18792. 

Gabrielles, 681/19905 (ABO). 
Ganymede, Jupiter's butler, 6/178. 
George, St., 847/12767. 
God, 9/326, 41/1564, 42/1568, et 

Golyas, Golye, Golyat, 230/8268, 

Gregoir, St., 12/424. 
Gyosy, 480/17940, 482/1 80 14. 

Helye, 876/13844. 

Holy Gost, the, 173/66io, 531 / 

19883, 19904 (^C). 
Homer, 689/20190. 

lacob, 139/5295, 400/14845. 
lanuence, 66/2450, 66/2458. 
leremye, 447/1 6649, 464/17314. 
Jerusalem, 8/294, 9/312, 26/742, 

308/11288, etc. 
lesse, 695/22303. 
Tewys, 549/20596. 


Index of Names. 

Ihesu, ihesu cryst, 191/7083, 595/ 

22304, etc. 
Inde, 206/7305. 
loab, 406/15070. 
loachym, 445/1 6604. 
lob, 427/15889. 
Johan, John, St., 126/4807, 341/ 

12566, 416/15459, 549/20604. 
Joseph, 126/4796, 358/13179, 400/ 

14844, 687/23782. 
Isaye, Ysaye, 102/3853, 118/4485, 

Israel, 44/1654, 390/14448. 
lubiter, 6/176, 338/12436. 
ludae, 406/15074, 482/18032. 
lulyan, 517/19386. 

Landown (castle of), 383/i4i8i. 
Laurence, St., 492/18414. 
Longitis, 402/14933, 533/19953 

Lowys, St., 660/24653. 
Lucyfer, 342/12578, 380/14030. 

Machabeyes, 406/15080. 

Mahown, 461/17224. 

Mars, 541/20255 ; Martys, 548/ 

Martyri, St., 123/4674. 

Marye, 125/4773, 437/16287. 

Mathesis, 539/20185, 564/2 1152. 

Mathew, St., 12/444. 

Mawdelayne, 583/21858. 

Mercurye, 91/3432. 

Moyses, 37/1394, 44/1653, 61/2269, 
80/3014, 86/3236, 95/3577, 134/ 
5114, 137/5228, et passim. 

Muses, the, 5/171. 

Nabal, 298/10907. 
Nabugodonosor, 384/14222, 451/ 


Neemye, 115/4368. 
Neptanabus, 552/20714. 
Neptune, 552/2O7I2. 
Nervaws, 375/13858. 
Noe, 314/11515, 587/21994, 644/ 

Nycene, 506/18972. 

Nycholas, St., 410/15226. 

Oger, 219/7839. 

Olyuer, 219/7840. 

Ovydius, 620/23221, etc. 

Paris, 313/H476. 

Pellagyens, 506/18957. 

Peter, St., 14/494, 616/19325, 583/ 

Pharao, Pharaoo, Pharaon, 50/1885, 

90/3582, 298/10907, 390/14444. 
Phebus, 264/9599, 380/14042, 539/ 


Phylemoun, 567/21273, etc - 
Phylystees, 268/9532. 
Poul, Poule, St., 123/4691, 215/7686, 

Putyffarys wife, 358/1 31 80. 

Rebecca, 139/5294. 
Rome, 156/5935. 
Rowland, 219/7840. 

Salomon, Salamoun, Salomoun, 93/ 
3486, 223/8032, 279/ioi84, 415/ 

Sampsoun, 263/9533. 

Samuel, 391/14495. 

Sathan, Sathanas, 400/14828, 424/ 
15766, 433/i6io5, 513/19239. 

Satourne, 338/12423. 

Saul, 391/14493, 402/14918. 

Sodom, 633/23622. 

Stocyenes, 539/2oi82. 

Symon Magus, 480/17940. 

Theophilus, 486/16195, 446/i66i3. 
Tholomee, 635/20040, 660/20617. 
Thomas, St., 49/1839-51. 
Tobye, 266/9670. 
Tryphon, 406/15078. 

Venus, 55/2079, 91/3428, 226/8134, 

230/8273, 354/i3o6o, etc. 
Virgyle, 600/18736. 

Ypocras, 667/21268, 668/21288. 
Ysaak, 188/5274, 139/5288, 5292. 

Zacharie, 683/19967 (ABC}. 
Zebedee, 76/2822. 




OtC 'i * " (: 
APR 3 o teoo