\ STUDIA IN /
4 Ito Jufe
JOHN LYDGATE, A.D. 1426,
FROM THE FRENCH OF
GUILLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE, A.D. 1330, 1355.
WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, GLOSSARY AND INDEXES
KATHAKINE B. LOCOCK,
ASSOCIATE OF KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.
PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY
BY KEGAN PAUL, TEENCH, TRUBNEE & CO., LIMITED,
DKYDEN HOUSE, 43, GEKRARD STREET, SOHO, W
RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BUNGAY.
tlgriraagc of tjjt fife of pan.
BERLIN : ASHER & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN.
NEW YORK: C. SCRIBNER & CO.; LEYPOLDT & HOLT.
PHILADELPHIA: J. B. LIPP1NCOTT & CO.
Hgrimage of % fife of
^trics, LXXVII, LXXXIII, xcn.
1899, 1901, 1904.
BERLIN: ASHER & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN.
NEW YORK : C. SCRIBNER & CO. ; LEYPOLDT & HOLT.
PHILADELPHIA : J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
JOHN LYDGATE, A.D. 1426,
FROM THE FRENCH OF
GUILLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE, A.D. 1330, 1355.
THE TEXT EDITED BY
F. J. FURNIVALL, M.A. CAMBRIDGE,
HON. DR. PHIL. BERLIN ; HON. D. LITT. OXFORD ;
FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY.
WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, GLOSSARY AND INDEXES
KATHAEINE B. LOCOCK,
ASSOCIATE OF KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.
PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY
BY KEGAN PAUL, TEENCH, TEUBNEE & CO., LIMITED,
DRYDEN HOUSE, 43, GERRARD STREET, SOHO, W.
1899, 1901, 1904.
<g*tra ems, LXXVII, LXXXIII, xcn.
RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BUNGAY.
PREFACE ... ... vii*
I. THE RELATION OF DE GUILEVILLE'S POEM TO THE
ROMANCE OF THE ROSE ... ... ... ... ix*
II. THE DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THE POEM ... ... xii*
III. THE RELATION OF DE GUILEVILLE'S TWO VERSIONS
TO ONE ANOTHER ... ... ... ... ... Xvil*
iv. LYDGATE'S METRE ... ... ... ... ... xxxi*
v. LYDGATE'S LANGUAGE AND STYLE ... ... ... xli*
VI. LYDGATE AND BUNYAN ... ... ... ... liii*
BIBLIOGRAPHY ,. Ixiii*
THE MSS. OP LYDGATE'S POEM Ixvii*
GUILLAUME DE GUILEVILLE 1XX*
TABLE OF CONTENTS IxXlii*
FOREWORDS (OF 1899 BY DR. FURNIVALL) V
AFTERWORDS (OF 1905 BY DR. FURNIVALL) ... ... ... xiil
GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 695
INDEX... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 725
INDEX OF NAMES 735
THE text of Lydgate's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, published
in 1899, was edited by Dr. Furnivall, having been copied by the late
Mr. William Wood, partly side-noted by Mr. J. Meadows Cowper,
and more or less revised by the late Mr: G. JS". Currie, M. A. Lond.
In 1903 I undertook to write Introduction, Notes and Glossary to
the poem, and now submit my work, with some diffidence, to the
Members of the E. E. T. S.
I have thought it unnecessary to add anything to what has been
already written upon the life and character of Lydgate, or to treat of
the subject of his grammar. My principal aim in the Introduction
has rather been to discuss the relation of the poem to its original, to
indicate the character of that original, and to consider the question
of Bunyan's suggested debt to Lydgate. It has seemed desirable to
offer a few notes concerning Lydgate's Metre, Language and Style,
although on these subjects I can hardly hope to supplement materially
the researches of previous editors.
The Bibliography is not intended to be exhaustive, my main
object in drawing it up having merely been to give the completes t
possible list of MSS. and old printed books existing in France and
England. I have, however, mentioned all the known MSS. of De
Guileville's second recension, from which Lydgate's poem was trans-
lated. For the information in the Bibliography I am indebted to
Professor Stiirzinger's edition of De Guileville's first recension, to
Dr. Aldis Wright's edition of the Camb. MS. Ff. 5.30, and to the
list in The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, supplemented
by my own investigations at the British Museum and the Bodleian
The Table of Contents has been adapted and enlarged from that
given in Yerard's edition.
Owing to the extreme length of the poem, I have felt it necessary
to exercise a strict moderation in writing the notes, and have there-
fore aimed at little more than the clearing up of the more obscure
allusions, a task in which, I regret to say, I have not always been
It only remains for me to express my sincere thanks to those
who have assisted me in the work : to Dr. Skeat, Dr. Murray,
the Kev. H. Parkinson, Dom John Chapman, O.S.B., Dr. Furnivall
and Lord Aldenham for help in the Notes, to the last two for
various criticisms and suggestions ; to Mr. Madan and Mr. Stanley
Jones for aid in identifying MSS. ; to Miss Batty, of Oxford, for
clerical assistance, and to my friend and former tutor, Miss Margaret
L. Lee, whose candid criticism and ready help have at once impelled
and encouraged me in the execution of my task.
KATHARINE B. LOCOCK.
77, Banbury Road, Oxford,
I. THE RELATION OF DE GUILEVILLE'S POEM TO THE ROMANCE
OF THE ROSE.
IN the colophon to the first version of the Pelerinage de la
Vie Humaine De Guileville tells us that his poem was founded upon
the Romance of the Rose.
" Chi fine li romans du moisne
Du pelerinage de vie humaine,
Qui est pour le bon pelerin
Qui en che monde tel chemin
Veult tenir qui voise a bon aport
Et quil ait clu ciel le deport,
Prins sur le roman de la rose
Ou lart damours est toute enclose.
Pries pour celui qui le fist,
Qui la fait faire, et qui lescripst."
If we only consider the fact that the Romance of the Rose is an
allegory on the art of love, and that the Pelerinage is an allegory of
man's spiritual journey from birth to death, the relation between
the two does not appear to be very close ; but although the subjects
and general aims of the two poems are very different, there are
some striking correspondences, both of plan, manner and detail.
The Romance of the Rose is too well known for more than a
very brief sketch of its general plan to be necessary.
The first part, by Guillaume de Lorris, is a straightforward and
simple allegory, in which are described the efforts of a lover to gain
his beloved, symbolized by a rosebud. The other characters, who
help or hinder the lover, are all allegorical and bear such names as
Love, Idleness, Mirth, Largesse, Danger, Jealousy, Malebouche and
the like. Besides these, certain evil qualities are described, which
are supposed to be painted upon the outside of the wall of the
garden in which the Eose is to be found. Among these we may
notice Hate, Covetousness, Avarice, Envy.
The spirit of this part of the poem is the spirit of the mediaeval
x* Introduction, i. De Guileville and the Romance of the Rose.
Courts of Love. It is, indeed, just what the author calls it in his
" li Eommanz de la Rose
Ou 1'art d' Amors est tote enclose." (11. 37-8.)
It is of love and the art of love that Guillaume de Lorris writes ;
and the connection between this part of the poem and De Guileville's
Pelerinage can only be traced in so far as both are in allegorical
form, both describe personified abstractions, and both make use of
similar details of description and allegorical conventions. A few
specimens of these latter may be given.
In the description of Idleness, G. de Lorris tells us that
" por garder que ses mains blanches
Ne halaissent, ot uns blans gans." (11. 565-6.)
and in De Guileville's first version we read that Idleness
Tenoit dont se aloit jouant,
Entour son doi le demenoit,
Et le tournoit et retournoit."
Reason, in the R. de la R. is spoken of in the following terms :
" La dame de la haulte garde
Qui de sa tour aval regarde,
C'est raison ainsi appellee,
Or est de sa tour devallee
Et tout droit vers moi est venue,"
while by De Guileville we are told
" Tantost vers eus une pucelle
Descendit d'une tournelle,
Raison apeler se faisoit." (Sturzinger, 573-5.)
In the account of Envy in the R. de la R. we read :
" que s'ele cognoissoit
Tot le plus prodome qui soit
Ne dea mer, ne dela mer,
Si le vorroit ele blasmer." (11. 269-72.)
With this may be compared the confession of Envy's daughter
Detraction in the Pelerinage :
11 Je nuis qui sont de sainte vie,
Comme a ceuz qui ne le sont mie.
Se Saint Jehan en terre estoit,
Encor de mon glaive il aroit."
Introduction, i. De Guileville and the Romance of the Ecse. xi*
There are other correspondences of a similar character, one or
two of which have been indicated in the notes ; but when we have
made the most of the allegorical form, and of such similarities of
detail, we must feel that, if this were all that De Guileville owed to
the authors of the Romance of the Rose, a comparison of the two
poems need not detain us long.
But this was far from all.
In his second recension De Guileville, in the person of the
Pilgrim, says to Venus :
" Pour quoy, dis ie, reputes tien
Le rommant qu'as dit, que scay bien
Qui le fist, et comment ot nom." (Ver. f. 51.)
These lines are interpreted by Lydgate as meaning that De
Guileville knew the author personally, in which case the man he
knew must, of course, have been Jean de Meun, not Guillaume de
Lorris, who is supposed to have died in 1240, long before De
Guileville was born.
Jean de Meun himself died about 1320 when De Guileville was
some twenty-five years of age. Thus the acquaintance of the two
must needs have covered a period of De Guileville's life when he
would be most open to influences, and most likely to be affected by
the character and conversation of such a man of the world as the
witty, daring and satirical Jean de Meun.
No doubt he had read and studied Jean de Meun's continuation
of Guillaume de Lorris's romance. Perhaps the author himself had
read it to him, and they had discussed together the many questions
in religion, sociology and science with which the poem deals.
Jean de Meun was a reformer and a democrat, an outspoken
opponent of the abuses to be found in Church and Society, a man
of philosophical mind and practical energy. He was as far as
possible removed from the romantic, chivalrous, courtly character
of Guillaume de Lorris; and though he adopted the framework
of his predecessor's poem he filled it up with all the varied
detail of an encyclopaedic erudition, piling up, one upon another,
discussions on alchemy, astrology, and the operations of Nature, on
economical and social problems, on religion and hypocrisy, on the
duty of mankind, on communistic ideas, on prodigality, the Age
of Gold, jealous husbands, Youth and Age, friendship, and many
another topic, interspersing all with examples and illustrations
drawn from classical tales and recent history. It is in this connec-
xii* Introduction. I. De Guileville and the Romance of the Rose.
tion, above all, that we trace his influence upon De Guileville. We
caii hardly fail to conclude that the latter adopted from the R. de
la R. not merely the allegorical framework, the figures of Idleness,
Youth, Fortune, Eeason, Avarice and the rest, and certain details
of description, but also the pose and manner of the man of mis-
cellaneous information and liberal opinions, and that it was in
imitation of Jean de Meun that he included in his poem discussions
and attacks on matters covering the widest range astrology and
incantations, Nature, abases in religious orders, social science, usury,
fashions in dress illustrating them as occasion and his education
served, with examples from the Scriptures, from the Jives of saints,
or from current fables and romances.
Of course we must not press the parallel too far. "We do not
find in the Pelerinage the same force and talent that we recognize
in the R. de la R. even though De Guileville is not lacking in
energy or effectiveness when he attacks those religious abuses which
personal experience had brought to his knowledge, or treats of the
occupations and social questions with which he must have been
familiar in his youth. Nor can we be blind to a very marked
difference in the points of view of the two men. De Guileville,
after all, was a monk, a man under authority, with all the reverence
of such a man for the teaching of his superiors. His views on some
theological points such as progressive revelation and the spiritual
character of future retribution and reward were liberal and
advanced in tone, but, for all that, he was capable of flights, such as
that on the putting of men's eyes into their ears, which would have
excited the independent-minded Jean Clopinol to an unholy mirth.
On the other hand, the passage in which De Guileville blames the
evil-speaking of his predecessor proves that Jean de Meun's tone
was often far from congenial to him. Yet in their common love
of miscellaneous information and in their opposition, according to
their lights, to some of the abuses of the day, their minds clearly
held some kinship, a kinship which, in spite of many differences,
is not obscurely indicated in the literary form and occasional tone
of the poem we are now considering.
II. THE DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THE POEM.
THE Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine has appeared under many
forms, as reference to the list of MSS. will show.
The three French versions are The first and second recensions
Introduction. II. Different versions of the Poem, xiii*
of De Guileville, and the prose transcription made at the request of
Jehanne de Laval, Queen of Naples, by Jean Gallopes, dean of the
church of St. Louis de la Saulsoye.
There were also several English versions, the first recension of
De Guileville's poem having apparently been translated into English
prose more than once. Of these versions the MS. in St. John's
College, Cambridge, is northern in dialect, and differs considerably
from the MS. in the University Library, edited for the Eoxburghe
Club by Dr. Aldis Wright. The other prose MSS. have not yet
been collated, but in a note written in the catalogue of the Laud
collection, the opinion is expressed that Laud 740 also differs from
the Koxburghe edition, an opinion in which a collation of a few
passages enables me to concur.
A condensed English prose version, a copy of which exists in
the University Library, Cambridge (Ff. 6. 30), was circulated in
the seventeenth century, and Dr. Wright thinks it possible that this
version may have been seen by Bunyan.
The most important of the English versions is, of course, the
verse translation by Lydgate, which represents De Guileville's second
recension. It is in 24,832 lines as compared with the 18,123 lines
of the Erench (Petit' s edition). With the exception of Lydgate's
Prologue, 184 lines in length, the note on the fanciful derivation
of Glaive, the illustration from Aristotle's Elenchus, two or three
other passages indicated in the margin as Verba Translatoris and
the tribute to Chaucer (p. 527) which are due to Lydgate alone, this
excess of between 7000 and 8000 lines is not produced by important
additions to the matter, but by amplification in the wording, by the
introduction of details and explanations, and by the use of certain
literary devices which will be indicated more fully in the chapter
on Language and Style.
Several passages of the original French have been given for
purposes of comparison in. Vols. I. and II. It will be as well how-
ever to quote other passages here, alongside the English, in order to
render comparison more convenient.
A typical passage is that in which the heavenly Jerusalem is
described, in 36 lines in the French, in 45 by Lydgate.
En Ian que iay dit par deuant, The seyde yer (ho lyst take kepe
Auis me fut en mon dormant, I was avysed in my slepe
Que daler iestoye excite Excyted eke, and that a-noon,
En iherusalem la cite, To lerusalem for to goon.
La ou estoit tout mon couraige. Gretly meved in my corage
xiv* Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem.
Dy faire le pelerinaige
Fichie du tout entierement
La cause estoit et mouuement
Pource que la cite veoie
En ung beau miroer quauoye,
Qui de loing la representoit
Dedens luy, et la me monstroit.
II nest nulle cite si belle,
Ne qui de rien lui soit pareille ;
Masson en fut seulement dieu,
Nul autre ne feroit tel lieu.
Car Jes chemins et les alees,
Dor fin estoient toutes paues,
En hault assis son funderaent
Estoit, et son massonnement
De vives pierres fait estoit,
Et hault mur entour la clooit,
Dessus lesquelz anges estoient
Qui tout temps le guet y faisoient
Et gardoient tres bien que lentree
Nullement fut abandonnee,
Fors au pelerins seulement
Qui y venoient deuotement.
Leans auoit moult de mansions,
De lieux et dabitacions ;
Illec estoit toute Hesse
Et toute ioye sans tristesse.
La pour men passer briefuement
Auoit chascun communement
De tons biens plus que demander
Jamais ne pourroit ne penser.
ffor to do my pilgrimage
And ther-to steryd inwardly.
And to tell the cause why
"Was, ffor me thouht I hadde a syht
With-Inne a merour large & bryht,
Off that hevenly ffayr cite
"Wych representede unto me
Ther-of holy the manere
With Inne the glas ful bryht & cler
And werrayly, as thouhte me
yt excellyde of bewte
Al other in comparyson ;
ffor God hym self was the masown,
wych mad yt iayr, at ys devys.
ffor werkman was ther noon so wys,
yt to conceyve in his entent ;
ffor al the wayes & paament
Wer ypavyd all off gold.
And in the sawter yt ys told,
How the ffyrst ffundacyon,
On hyllys off devocyon
The masounry wrought ful clene,
Of quyke stonys bryht and schene
"Wyth a closour rovnd a-bowte
Off' enmyes, ther was no dowte
ffor Aungelles the wach y-kepte
The wych, day nor nyht ne slepte,
Kepyng so strongly the entre
That no wyht kam in that cyte
But pylgrimes, day nor nyht,
That thyder wentyn evene ryht.
And ther were meny mansyovns
Placys, and habytacyovns ;
And ther was also al gladnesse,
Ioye with-outen hewynesse.
And pleynly, who that hadde grace
ffor to entren in that place,
ffond, onto hys pleasavnce
Off Ioye al maner suffysavnce
That eny herte kan devyse.
To give a few more examples. Deguileville's Prologue in Yerard's
edition consists of 103 lines. In Lydgate it is 123 lines. The
first 18 lines of Verard, corresponding to the first 25 of Lydgate,
deal with the subject of dreams. There is no diversity of matter
in the two versions, but Lydgate's rendering is rather a paraphrase
of Deguileville than a translation, as the following extract will
" Souuentes foys il aduient bien,
Quant on a soge quelque rien,
Quon y pense sur lesueiller ;
Et sil ne souuient au premier
De tout le songe proprement,
Bien aduient que son y entent
Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem. xv*
Quapres a plain il en souuient.
Et tout a memoire reuient,
Au leuer on est sonimeilleux
Et sont les sens si pareceux
Que son songe point on nentent
Si non en groz sommierement ;
Mais quant on sest bien aduise
Et on ya apres pense,
Lors en souuient il plus a plain
Mais qu'on nactende au lendemain,
Car trop actendre le feroit
Oblier et nen souuiendroit."
The description of Spring in the French, which will be given
later, is 22 lines long, while in Lydgate it occupies 47 lines, but this
is rather an unusual amplification. Certain lines, such as 11. 3456-
3461, have no counterpart in .the French original, the revivifying
power of Spring is described with much greater detail, while the
reference to Solomon which in the French! only takes up two lines,
occupies 11. 3486-3492 in Lydgate. With reference to this passage
it must be remembered, however, that phrases descriptive of Spring
were the current coin of the fourteenth and early fifteenth century
poets, and that no writer of that age could control his pen when
he came to write on this subject. Youth's description of herself
occupies 52 lines in the French and 80 in Lydgate. The middle
portion of this description from 1. 11151 to 1. 11177 keeps fairly
close to the French, though it is in parts slightly amplified; and in
others slightly compressed, but the first ten French lines are repre-
sented by 17 English (11. 11133-11150), which, while they contain
the same idea, contain also various developments and alterations
of expression as well as inversions of order :
11133-34 " Jeunesse iay nom la legiere,
1 1 1 40 / ^ a gi^ eresse > ^ a coursiere,
\ La sauterelle, la saillant,
11144 Qui tout dangier ne prise ung gant.
11142 Je vois, ie viens, ie saulx, ie vole,
11146 Jesperlingue, tourne et carolle,
11147 Je trepe et cours et danse et bale
Et si vois a la Yitefale ;
11141 Je luyte et saulx fossez pieds ioincts
11150 Et iecte la pierre au plus loings." (foi. xim, back.)
As nearly as I can make out, the lines whose numbers I have
given correspond to the French, but there still remain eight lines in
xvi* Introduction, n. Different versions of the Poem.
the English which have no French equivalent, and add a touch or
two to the character of Youth, such as :
" And I kan wynse ageyn the prykke.
As wylde coltys in Arras,
Or as bayard out off the tras,
Tyl I a lassh haue off the whyppe."
The account of the games played by Youth is very much
amplified in the English. Deguileville mentions only seven sports.
" Ung esteuf me faust pour iouer
Efc une croce pour soler,
Autre croce nauray ie mye,
Si ce nest past trop grant folie,
Car tenir ie ne men pourroye
De voletcr, ne me Voulroye ;
Et encor ne suis ie pas soule
De maler iouer a la boule,
Daler quiller, daler biller
Et de iouer au mareiller."
In Lydgate's 18 corresponding lines (11181-98), however, there
are seventeen different kinds of game or amusement mentioned,
Including fishing, hunting, card games, and the reading of fables.
We must not forget, however, that sometimes Lydgate omits
details which are given by De Guileville, or only touches upon points
which De Guileville deals with at some length. A good example
of this is the description of the various fashions in dress due to
Pride. . In Lydgate this only takes up six lines (11. 14081-14086).
" I ffond up fyrst, devyses newe,
Rayes of many soridry hewe ;
Off short, off long, I ffond the guyse ;
Now streight, now large, I kan devyse,
That men sholde, for syngulerte
Beholde and lokyn upon me."
In Verard's version this runs as follows :
"Nouvelletez se font par moy;
A mon sens seullement ie croy.
Je fais chaperons pourfiletz, Pride makes
T\ j. j t i embroidered
De soye et dor entrelacez, hats and caps,
Chapeaulx, huppes, coquuz loquuz,
A marmousez platz ou crestuz,
Estroictes cottes par les flans, coats.
Manches a panonceaulx pendans ;
A blanc surcot fais rouge manche,
A col et a poictrine blanche
Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xvii*
Robe tres bien escoletee very long or
Pour mieulx veue estre et regardee ; garments, 11
Vestemens trop cours ou trop longs. and very
r,, , lar & e r very
Irop grans, trop petiz chaperons, small hoods,
Les houzeaulx petiz et estroiz ; girdle?*
Du si grans quon en feroit trois ;
Graile ceincture ou large trop
Dont se parent voire li clop. with which
JLe boiteux et esparueigne, the blind,
Borgne, bossu, et meshaingne ; otherS-tpples
Telz choses fais pource que vueil sei ve" them "
Que chascun ait vers moy son oeil." (foi. iv.)
Some further details as to the development of the French
original will be given in the chapter on Lydgate's Language and
Style, but for the present these examples will be enough to show
the manner in which he carried out his translation.
III. THE RELATION OF DE GUILEVILLE'S TWO VERSIONS TO
We may now turn to the question as to how the second recension
of De Guileville's poem is related to the first.
For the purposes of this comparison I have made use of
Stiirzinger's edition of the first version (Roxb. Club), and Yerard's
edition of the second, published in Paris in 1511.
The main features distinguishing the second version from the
first may be placed in four categories.
A. The actual additions of arguments, episodes, characters, or
B. The amplification and elaboration of passages or ideas.
C. The absence of certain details mentioned in the first version.
D. Differences in the sequence of episodes which occur in both
versions, and certain differences of detail.
A. The principal additions are as follows :
1. The discourse on dreams in the Prologue (Lydgate, 1. 185-209),
the description of the loss and re-writing of the poem (227-273), and
the envoy to the poem (274-302).
In the second French the Prologue takes up 94 lines, but in the
first version it only occupies 34 lines as follows :
" A ceuz de ceste region
Qui point n'i ont de mansion
Ains y sont tous com dit Saint Pol,
Riche, povre, sage et fol,
xviii* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another.
Solent roys, soient roynes,
Pelerins et pelerines,
Une vision veul nuncier
Qui en dormant m'avint 1'autrier.
En veillant avoie leu,
Coiisidere et bien veu
Le biau roumans de la Rose.
Bien croi quc ce fu la chose
Qui plus m'esnmt a ce songier
Que ci apres vous vueil nuncier.
Or (i) vieugnent pres et se arroutent
Toute gent et bien escoutent,
Ne soit nul et ne soit nule
Qui arriere point recule ;
Avant se doivent touz bouter,
Touz asseoir et escouter.
Grans et petits la vision
Touclie sans point de excepcion.
En francoise toute mise 1'ai
A ce que 1'entendent li lai.
La pourra chascun aprendre
La quel voie on doit prendre,
La quel guerpir et delessier.
C'est chose qui a bien mestier
A ceuz qui pelerinage
Eont en cest monde sauvage.
Or entendez la vision
Qui m'avint en religion
A 1'abbaye de Chaalit,
Si com jestoie en mon lit." (Stiirzinger r s ed.)
2. The description of the pains of the martyrs who desired to
enter Jerusalem, and of the manner in which they must enter
(Ver. fol. ii, back; Lyd. 11. 365-466).
3. The discussion on baptism and original sin (Yer. fol. iv, back,
f. ; Lyd. 967-1290), the mention of the Pilgrim's godfather
Guyllyam and of the black bird that escapes from the Pilgrim's
breast (Yer. fol. vi, back; Lyd. 1291-1344).
4. The Story on the Peril of Cursing (Yer. x, back ; Lyd.
5. The passage containing the Pilgrim's assertion that some who
have no subjects yet bear the sword, and Reason's explanation
concerning the delegation of power (Yer. xii; Lyd. 3072-3230).
6. The Testament of Jesus Christ, containing the bequest of
His Soul and Body ; of His Mother to St. John, together with the>
Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another, xix*
virtue of Perseverance ; of His Blood and Wounds for Salvation,
and of His Word and Laws (Ver. xvii, back ; Lyd. 4782-4869).
This is all absent from the first version which only contains the
bequest of peace.
7. The dialogue between Grace Dieu and the Pilgrim concerning
the five senses and the transfer of eyes to ears (Ver. xxii, f. ; Lyd.
8. Three Latin poems on the Articles of the Creed (Ver. xxiv.
f. ; Lyd. pp. 185-190), on God in Trinity (Ver. xxvii, back, f. ;
Lyd. pp. 194-199), and on the Virgin Mary (Ver. xxix, back, f. ;
Lyd. pp. 199-201).
9. The explanation of why no armour for the legs is given to the
Pilgrim (Ver. xxxiv; Lyd. 11. 8073-8100).
10. The gift of the stones and sling of David to the Pilgrim, and
the meaning of the stones (Ver. xxxv, f. ; Lyd. 8423-8686).
11. The discourse of Moral Virtue, who shows the Pilgrim the
gate and posterns and speaks of virtues and their attendant vices
(Ver. xlv, back, f. ; Lyd. 11737-11954).
1 2. A long passage, containing the interview of the Pilgrim with
Mortification of the Body, and the vision of the Wheel of Lust,
with an account of the movements of the planets (Ver. xlvi, f. ;
13. The Pilgrim's conversation with Venus concerning the
Romance of the Rose (Ver. li, f. ; Lyd. 13200-13292), and the
episode of the Stranger maltreated by Venus (Ver. Hi, back ; Lyd.
14. The Prayer to the Virgin (Ver. Ixiii, back, f. ; Lyd. pp.
437-456). This prayer, which in Verard's edition is given in Latin,
replaces a short prayer to God which takes up 26 lines in Stiirzinger.
15. Necromancy and her Messenger and the discussion between
the Pilgrim and the Messenger concerning the invocation of spirits
(Ver. Ixxii, back, f . ; Lyd. 18471-18924).
16. In Stiirzinger, the five perils in the sea, Cyrtes, Charybdis,
Scilla, Bythalassus, and Sirena, are described in 11. 11887-11970. In
Verard and Lydgate all these are personified, and we find long
accounts, with many incidents, details and arguments, of Fortune
and her Wheel, representing Charybdis (Ver. Ixxvi, back, f . ; Lyd.
19423-19676): of Astrology and her scholars, representing Cyrtes
(Ver. Ixxx, f. ; Lyd. 19989-20810) : of Sorcery, with her face Phy-
siognomy and her hand Chiromancy, who represents Bythalassus
xx* Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another.
(Ver. Ixxxiv, back, f. ; Lyd. 21047-21312) : of Conspiracy and her
hounds, representing Scilla (Ver. Ixxxvi, f . ; Lyd. 21328-21458):
and of Worldly Gladness, with his revolving tower, who represents
Sirena (Ver. Ixxxvi, back, f . ; Lyd. 21473-21670). These are
followed by a lamentation and prayer of the Pilgrim (Ver. Ixxxvii,
back; Lyd. 21671-21716).
17. The character of Impatient Poverty (Ver. xciii, f. ; Lyd.
18. The assault of Envy and her daughters on the convent, the
Pilgrim's lamentation after the attack, the attempt of Ovid to
comfort him, the Pilgrim's complaint, in the form of an acrostic on
his name, and the return and proclamation of the King (Ver. xcv,
f. ; Lyd. 23037-23359). This passage, however, includes the
incident of the horse Good Eenown (Ver. xcv; Lyd. 23067-23150),
which occurs in the first version on the occasion of the first fight of
the Pilgrim with Envy and her daughters (Stiirz. 1. 8685, f.).
19. The Pilgrim's visit to convents, where he sees many abuses
(Ver. xcviii, f. ; Lyd. 11. 23360-23996).
20. The character of Apostasy (Ver. ci, f. ; Lyd. 24002-24126).
21. The coming of Prayer and Alms to show the Pilgrim the
way to Jerusalem (Ver. civ, back, f. ; Lyd. 24558-24700), which
passage includes the story of the King who only reigned for one year.
22. Besides these passages, the dove of Grace Dieu, which at
various times brings comfort or help to the Pilgrim, is found only
in the second recension.
B. The amplification and elaboration of incidents and ideas is
very marked throughout the whole poem, although we do occasionally
find passages which are almost identical in the two Erench versions.
It would, of course, be impossible to mention every passage that has
been enlarged, but I have drawn up a list of some of the principal
ones, and have also made a few extracts from the two Erench
versions in order to give a general idea of the relation of the second
recension to the first in those passages where no serious alterations
or extensions have been made. Such a passage is the one on Spring,
which I will give in parallel columns, with figures indicating the
relation of the second recension to Lydgate's paraphrase.
1st Version 2nd Version
Nouvelles choses faiz venir Nouvelles choses faiz venir 3449
Et les viez choses departir Et vielles choses departir 3450
Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxi*"
La terre de mes robes est
Et en printemps tous jours la vest
Aux arbres donne vestemens
Centre 1'este et paremens
Puis si les refaiz despouillier
Contre 1'iver pour eus tailler
Autres robes et cotelles
A ce semblant tout(es) nouvelles
N(i) a bruyere ne geneste
N'autre arbricel que ne (re)veste.
Onques ne vesti Salemon
Tel robe com vest tin buysson.
La terre de mes robes est 1 3451
Paree en printemps, ie la vest H3452)
Demy party d'herbe florie J 3455
De rouge, de vert, de soucye 3454
Et de toutes belles couleurs 3453
Quon peut trouver en belles fleurs
Aux arbres donne paremens
Et contre leste Vestemens
Puis si les refais despoiller
Contre liuer pour les tailler
Autres robes autres cotelles
Telles comme deuant nouuelles
II nest bruyere ne geneste ^
Nabriceau que ie ne reueste I 3475-
De mes robes bien floretees f 3485
Et tres gaiemeut desguiseesj
Onques ne vestit Salomon \3486-
Tel robe que fait ung boisson/3492
The description of the Heavenly Jerusalem, taken from Verard,
has already been given (p. xiii*), and it may be interesting to compare
with it the description in the first version :
" Avis m'ert si com dormoie
Que je pelerin estoie
Qui d'aler estoie excite
En Jherusalem la cite.
En Tin mirour, ce me sembloit,
Qui sanz mesure grans estoit
Celle cite aparceue
Avoie de loing et veue.
Mont me sembloit de grant atour
Celle cite ens et entour,
Les chemins et les alees
D'or en estoient pavees,
En haut assis son fondement
Estoit et son maconnement
De vives pierres fait estoit
Et haut mur entour la clooit.
Mont i avoit de mansions,
De liens et d'abitacions.
La estoit toute leece,
Toute joie sans tristece.
Illuec, pour passer m'en brief ment,
Avoit chascun generaument
De tout bien plus que demander
Jamais ne sceust ne penser." (11. 35-58.)
We may now turn to the more important amplifications, which
are fairly numerous. Among the chief of these are :
xxii* Introduction, ill. delation of two Versions to one another.
1. The extension of the incident of the marriage of two Pilgrims.
In the first French this only occupies 17 lines (802-818), but the
second French and Lydgate relate at some length the approach of the
two, their request to the official, and his advice to them, the whole
incident taking up 11. 1905-1979 in Lydgate, and 40 lines in
Yerard (fol. viii, back).
2. The complaint of the Pilgrim because Grace Dieu is given to
others. In Stiirzinger this only consists of a few words :
" Quant celle parole je ouy
Courroucie fu et esbahy.
En disant * ha las ! ' que feray
S'ainsi Grace Dieu perdue ay 1
Donnee 1'a ce cornuaus
A ces nouviaus officiaus
Asses miex amasse estre mort
Que point m'en eust fait tel tort."
In Lydgate this is expanded into 38 lines, which contain the
expression of the Pilgrim's first astonishment, his fear that no one
would now give him a scrip and staff, and his address to Grace Dieu
(11. 2296-2332). In Verard the passage contains the same elements,
but only consists of 20 lines (fol. x).
3. The passage about the blood-drops on the scrip is much
extended, especially that part in which Grace Dieu laments that
now-a-days there are none to put themselves in jeopardy for the
faith, although there are some who boast that they are ready to do
so. This passage is represented in Stiirzinger by a few lines :
" Et bien te di que, se nouvelles
Fussent les gouttes, a bien belles
Les tenisses, mais lone tens a
Que de son sane nul n'i semn.
Les saigmes si sont passees." (11. 3635-3639.)
In the second French this passage is 40 lines in length. It is
given here as a good example of the way in which De Guileville
.amplified his first recension, as well as for purposes of comparison
" Ceste escharpe est de verd couleur,
Car tout ainsi que la verdeur
Reconforte lueil et la veue AS green
-r,. , . , . , , comforts the
li,t lesioyst mOUlt et lague eye, so faith
Aussi fait f oy bon pelerin ;
Car ia ne sera en chemin
Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxiii^
Se bien regarde sa verdeur
Quen luy nait plus forte vigueur.
Mesmement car elle est semee
De sang tres vermeil et goutee,
Et ny a goute si petite
Qui trop mieulx dune marguerite
Ne vaille et qui plus precieuse
Ne soit et trop plus vertueuse.
Tres grant vigueur verdeur luy donne ;
Le sang esineut at achoisonne
De prendre cueur et faire ainsi
Que les glorieulx martirs, qui
Trop mieulx amerent a respendre
Leur sang pour leur foy fort deffendre,
Quaucunement leur feust ostee
Pour sa vertu quauoient goustee.
Cest pour te dormer exemplaire
Que se tu trouues qui soustraire,
La te vueille point ne oster
Auant occire et decouper
Te laisses plus tost que ten voyes
Descharpey, car trop y perdroies.
Bien scay que pieca les saignees
Sen font en alees et passees,
Car cherubin, com me tu vis,
A son glaiue ou fourreau remis.
Nul ne se veult plus opposer
Aux tirans, pour la foy garder.
Bien dient les aucuns quilz yront
Quant leur ventre remply bien ont
Et iurcnt et se font croiser,
Mais quant ce vient a lexploicter
Nest rien si froit, tout est perdu,
Plus ne deuroit tel estre creu."
(Ver. fol. xxiii, back.)
4. Sloth's two ropes, Sloth and Negligence, and her five cords
1. Hope of Long Life, 2. Eoolish Fear, 3. Shame, 4. Hypocrisy, 5.
Despair are described in Lydgate in a passage extending from
1. 13857 to 1. 13948. In Verard (fol. liii, back, 1) a similar de-
scription is given, but in Stiirzinger only three cords are mentioned
and described, viz. Negligence, Laschete or Fetardie (11. 7208-7210),
and Desperation (1. 7230.)
5. In the description of Avarice's hand, Treachery, there are
various developments. Putting aside those due merely to extra
wordiness, the most important is the short passage on the baptism of
dead children and the trickery to which the priest resorts, which
The scrip is
do as did
died 'for their
and gives him
that he should
to be killed
try to escape
by giving up
the scrip of
tend to be
but will not
act as such.
xxiv* Introduction, in. Relation of two Versions to one another.
has no counterpart in Stiirzinger. The account of this practice, how-
ever, has not been translated by Lydgate. The whole description
of the hand, which takes up 70 lines in Stiirzinger (9905-9974),
extends to 92 lines in Yerard, and to just over 100 in Lydgate.
This list contains some of the most important enlargements of the
first version, but there are, of course, many other passages which
bear a similar character.
C. Passages and details which are present in Stiirzinger, but
which are absent or much shorter in the second French and in
Lydgate. The number of these is not very large. We may mention
1. Nature's assertion that she is necessary to Grace Dieu
and Grace Dieu's answer. This precedes Nature's submission in
Stiirzinger, so we might expect to find it after 1. 3935 in Lydgate.
However, Nature's argument is altogether absent, both from the
second French and from Lydgate, though part of Grace Dieu's
answer is absorbed into her long speech about her power, which
extends from p. 97 to p. 104, in the English poem.
A few lines of Nature's argument may be quoted :
" Conime ne puet ouvrer,
Ne maison bonne edefier.
Le charpentier sans sa congnie,
Tout aussi ne devez vous mie
Nulle chose sans moi faire
Se vous ne voulez mefaire."
2. The complaint of the Pilgrim that his staff is not tipped with
iron and Grace Dieu's answer :
" Toutevoies me deplaisoit
Du bourdon, que ferre n'estoit.
Dame, dis je a Grace Dieu,
Je ne me puis tenir, par Dieu.
Que ne vous die mon pense
De ce bourdon qu'il n'est pas ferre ;
Bien m'en desplaist, se sachiez vous,
Pour autres que voi ferrez tons ;
Si me dites, se vous voulez,
Pour quoi tel baillie le m 'avez ! "
To this Grace Dieu answers that the pommels will hold him up,
and that a staff with an iron point is heavier and is liable to stick
fast in marshy places. The Pilgrim replies that he needs it for
Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxv*
defence, and Grace Dieu tells him that the staff is to lean on, not to
fight with, and that she will give him armour for defence.
3. " Tel Continence ainsi doublee
D'aucuns Gaaignepains est nommee,
Quar par li est gaignie le pain
Par qui rempli est cuer humain ;
Et ce fu figure piec'a
Ou pain que David demanda,
Quar Achimelech ottroier
ISTe lui vout onques ne baillier
Devant quil scent que engantez
Des Gaignepains fust et armez."
This passage, which comes in the account of the Gloves of
Continence, has nothing corresponding to it in the second French
and in Lydgate.
There are several other differences in the two accounts of the
armour. For instance, the description of the girdle has less detail
in Verard and Lydgate, and the Pilgrim's unwillingness to have the
scabbard and girdle is not mentioned.
4. The refusal of the Pilgrim to wear armour, and Grace Dieu's
rebuke and explanation of the difference between his case and that
of David (Stiirzinger, pp. 140-147). All the latter part of this is
absent from Verard and from Lyd gate's version, in which Grace
Dieu consents to allow the Pilgrim to use the stones and sling of
David, instead of wearing armour all the time.
5. In the argument between Eeason and Rude Entendement,
Reason scorns the latter and tells him :
" Je tenoie une opinion
Que n'est pas un moi et mon non,
Quar de mon non se puet parer
Chascun larron qui va embler ;
Et pour ce' aussi de vous cuidoie
Quar pas apris en cor n'avoie
Que vous et Rude Entendement
Fussiez tout un conjointement ;
Mais or voi bien, sans soupecon,
Qu'estes un sans distinction.
Vos exemples le m'ont apris
Et vos dis qui sont si soultis ;
Par vos paroles proprement
Sai qu'estes Rude Entendement.
xx vi* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another.
Plus arguer vous ne pouez
Q.ue seulement ainsi nommez
Soiez, quar par existence
Ce estes sans point de difference."
This jeer is not represented in Verard and in Lydgate, although,
in the course of the conversation Reason addresses Rude Entende-
ment in a sarcastic manner, but in different terms. (Lyd. 10713-
6. In Sturzinger (6694-6735) there is a short conversation between
the Pilgrim and his body, in which the latter advises him not to
listen to Labour's counsel to take the right-hand path, but to choose
instead the path of Idleness, and answers the Pilgrim's objections by
telling him that the dividing hedge will easily be passed when he
wishes. In Verard and Lydgate it is Youth, not Body, who turns
the Pilgrim aside (Ver. xliv, back; Lyd. 11549-11574), the Pilgrim
makes no objections, and nothing is said about getting through the
7. Body's Counsel is discussed by Idleness and the Pilgrim (Stur-
zinger, 6769-6826). This conversation is also absent from Verard and
8. Grace Dieu rebukes the Pilgrim for listening to Idleness and
for going on the wrong side of the hedge (Sturzinger, 6905-6992).
In Verard and Lydgate the interview of the Pilgrim with Idleness
is followed by the long episodes of Moral Virtue and Mortification
of the Body, and the rebuke is absent.
9. The short prayer made by the Pilgrim after the attack of
Tribulation, which begins :
" Merci, dis je, douz createur !
En ma tristece, en ma douleur,
Defaillant ne me soiez rnie !
Se par Jeunece ai ma vie
Une piece use folement." (Stiirzinger, 12283, f.)
is absent from Lydgate, and is replaced by the prayer according to
St. Bernard. In Verard's edition this is given in full, in Latin, but
in Petit's it is abbreviated.
10. In Sturzinger (12623-12632) the Pilgrim is struck by the
Porter, Eear of God, on entering the monastery, in order that he
De la haie de Penitance." (Sturzinger, 12607-8.)
Introduction, ill. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxvii*
as Grace Dieu has promised him. In Verard and Lydgate the Porter
lets him in freely, on hearing that his intent " Is to do servyse to the
Kyng." (Lyd. 22178.)
Lydgate does not translate the last lines of the poem, in which
the poet describes how he wakes from his dream, and begs his
readers to correct anything they may find amiss in his work. This
passage, however, is present in De Guileville's second version, and
is printed by Dr. Furnivall at the end of Lydgate's poem.
D. Under this head are included differences in the sequence of
episodes and differences of detail.
1. The Pilgrim's protests against wearing armour precede the
giving of the armour in the second version (Ver. xxx, back ; Lyd.
7237-7248 and 7267-7270). In Stiirzinger there are no objections
2. Grace Dieu's rebuke to' the Pilgrim for refusing to wear armour
occurs in Stiirzinger before the coming of the armour-bearer, Memory,
and before the actual removal of the armour (p. 142). In the second
version the rebuke is inserted in two places, just before the Pilgrim
casts off the armour (Ver. xxxiv, back, f.; Lyd. 8283-8296), and
after the coming of Memory (Ver. xxxvi, back ; Lyd. pp. 246-247).
There is, however, considerable difference of detail in the different
versions, and, in fact, that passage in Lydgate in which Grace Dieu.
accuses the Pilgrim of umnanliness and cowardice has no exact
counterpart in Stiirzinger, and is much shorter in Verard.
3. In the first version the armour-bearer, Memory, is given to the
Pilgrim immediately after Grace Dieu's rebuke to him for removing
his armour (Stiirzinger, p. 149f.), but in the second Grace Dieu first
brings him. the stones and sling of David, and only then presents
Memory to him (Ver. xxxvi; Lyd. p. 242).
4. In Verard and Lydgate these episodes are followed by a long
conversation between Grace Dieu and the Pilgrim on Body and Soul
and their mutual enmity, and by the release of the Pilgrim from his
body for a season (Ver. xxxvii f. ; Lyd. pp. 248-281). In Sturzinger
(p. 179) this conversation takes place between the Pilgrim and
Eeason, and, moreover, the whole episode is placed after the meeting
with Rude Entendement, instead of just before, as in the second
5. After leaving Eude Entendement, the meeting with Youth
follows in the second version (Ver. xliii ; Lyd. pp. 303-307), after
which comes the episode of the two paths divided by the hedge of
xxviii* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another.
Penitence. In Stiirzinger (p. 203 f.) this episode follows on the dis-
course about Body and Soul, and Youth is not introduced until much
later (p. 368 f.), just after the description of Satan the hunter, and
before the enumeration of the five perils in the sea.
There are some other slight differences in this part, for instance,
in the second version it is Youth that makes the Pilgrim turn towards
the wrong path, while in the first it is Body. Also, in the second,
Idleness tells him that Penance planted the hedge (Ver. xlv ; Lyd.
11. 11689-11723), whereas in Stiirzinger (p. 217) Grace Dieu tells
him this, after he has started on the wrong path.
6. The episode of the horse, Good Kenown, has already been
referred to. In the first version it forms a part of the passage
describing the first attack of Envy (Sturziuger, p. 270), in the second
of the passage describing the attack of Envy on the monastery (Ver.
xcvf.; Lyd. pp. 616-617).
7. In Stiirzinger the threats of Wrath (p. 273-278) are followed by
Memory's rebuke to the Pilgrim for not wearing his armour, and by
the coming of Avarice (p. 282 f.), while in the second version
Memory's rebuke is absent and Wrath's attack is followed by the
coming of Tribulation (Ver. Ixiif.; Lyd. pp. 425-436), by St.
Bernard's Prayer, and then by the meeting with Avarice (Ver.
Ixviif.; Lyd. pp. 460-493).
8. In Stiirzinger (pp. 318 f.), after the episode of Avarice, the
Pilgrim is attacked by Gluttony and Venus, and robbed of his staff.
He laments, and Grace Dieu appears to him in a cloud and restores it to
him, afterwards giving him a "scripture " which contains an ABC
poem to the Virgin. In the second version Gluttony and Venus
attack him much earlier, immediately before the coming of Sloth,
and after the vision of the Wheel of Sensuality (Ver. xlix, back f . ;
Lyd. pp. 346-367). There is no loss of the staff, and the A B C
comes between the incident of Fortune and her Wheel and the appear-
ance of Astronomy-Astrology (Ver. Ixxviii f.; Lyd. pp. 526-533).
9. Following on the ABC comes the bath of Repentance in
Stiirzinger (p. 351 f.). In the second version this comes after the
appearance of the Ship of Grace Dieu (Ver. Ixxxviii, back f. ; Lyd.
10. Next come in Stiirzinger (p. 357 f.) the description of the sea
of the world and of the hunter Satan, the appearance of Heresy and
Grace Dieu's explanation of the meaning of the sea of the world and
the hunter. (In Verard and Lydgate Satan himself gives this explan-
Introduction, in. Relation of two Versions to one another, xxix*
ation.) In the second version, after the interview with Avarice, we
find the episode of the Messenger of Necromancy (absent from Stiir-
zinger), the appearance of Heresy, the description of the sea of the
world, of the Hunter and of Fortune's Wheel, the Pilgrim's lament
and the ABC. (Ver. Ixxii-lxxix, back ; Lyd. pp. 494-533.)
11. As before said, the episode of Youth is inserted at p. 368 f.
in Stiirzinger, and is followed by the enumeration of the five perils in
the sea (pp. 371-374). In Ver. (Ixxx-lxxxvii, back) and Lydgate
(pp. 534-578) we find the descriptions of four of the perils, that
of Fortune, or Charybdis, having already been given.
12. Next in Stiirzinger (pp. 374-380) comes Tribulation, and a
short prayer of the Pilgrim to God. In the second version Tribu-
lation, and St. Bernard's Prayer, replacing the short prayer, come
between Wrath and Avarice (Ver. Ivii-lxvi ; Lyd. pp. 425-458).
13. Tribulation's departure is followed in Stiirzinger (p. 388 f.) by
the arrival of the Ship of Grace Dieu. This conies in the second ver-
sion after the peril of the Syren or Worldly Gladness, and is combined
with the episode of the Bath of Penitence (Ver. Ixxxviii-lxxxix,
back; Lyd. pp. 579-590).
14. Here, once more, the two versions begin to run more closely
The Pilgrim enters the monastery and meets various ladies, who
are described, though their number and the order in which they are
introduced differs a little. In Stiirzinger we read of Obedience,
Decepline, Voluntaire, Povrete, Chastite, Lecon, Abstenence,
Oroison and Latria, and in Lydgate and Verard of Lesson, Hagio-
graphy, Obedience, Abstinence, Willing Poverty, Impatient Poverty,
Chastity, Prayer and Latria.
After this there are in the second recension certain episodes
which are absent from the first, but such as exist in both versions
follow the same order, with the exception of the incident of the horse,
These four categories include most of the important differences
between the two versions and many of the minor ones ; and we may
judge from the list that De Guileville did not spare trouble in rewrit-
ing his poem. As will be noticed, the interpolations of new matter
are scattered with tolerable regularity throughout the poem, but
variations in the sequence of events are practically absent from the
first third, while they become more and more numerous as the
narrative progresses, until, after the middle of the book has been
xxx* Introduction, m. Relation of two Versions to one another.
passed, hardly three episodes will be found coming in the same
order in the two versions. It is a matter for doubt whether De
Guileville always improved his poem by his rearrangements and
additions. We admit that the introduction of Impatient Poverty
adds point to the picture of Wilful Poverty, and certainly it is better
that Youth should appear at an early stage of the narrative than
three-quarters of the way through, as in the first version. The addi-
tions to the Testament of Jesus Christ are appropriate, and the per-
sonification of the Perils in the sea certainly adds interest to that
part of the allegory. The coming of Prayer and Alms to act as
messengers for the Pilgrim is a good touch, and the five stones of
David, Memory of Christ's Death, of Mary, of Heaven's bliss, of
Hell-fire and Holy Writ, which are the sole defences of the Pilgrim
who neglects to wear the armour of Righteousness, supply a want.
On the whole, however, the additions and alterations tend towards
tediousness and confusion. The long Latin poems on the articles of
the Creed, on God in Trinity and on the Virgin Mary, are an inter-
ruption to the narrative, as are also the long prayer which De Guile-
ville has adapted from the writings of St. Bernard, and the verses
in alternate French and Latin lines which set forth De Guileville's
name in an acrostic. Possibly the inserted discussions on original
sin, free will, the senses, influence of the stars, etc., appealed to the
public for which De Guileville wrote ; and even to the reader of the
present-day parts of them are by no means uninteresting. But these
discussions are woefully long, and seriously interfere with the unity
of the narrative.
The additions to the later part of the allegory, viz. the attack
of Envy on the convent, the visits the Pilgrim pays to other
monasteries, and the abuses he sees there, evidently reflect some
personal experience of the author's. The latter episode is specially
interesting as showing that the monastic abuses, of which we hear so
much in England at this period, were evidently not confined to that
country. Despite its interest, however, it is a very evident insertion,
and has not much to do with the general allegory.
Not much fault can be found with the episode of Necromancy's
messenger. Necromancy was a burning question of the day, and
involved a real temptation to many people, and the introduction of
this figure has no other effect upon the course of the narrative than
to add to it so many more pages. But the appearance of Moral
Virtue with her gate and two posterns, the episode of Mortification of
in. Relation of the two Versions. . iv. Lydgatets Metre.
the Body, and the vision of the Wheel of Sensuality are different.
The Pilgrim, having definitely entered upon the road to the Heavenly
City, having been armed, having overcome Rude Entendement by
means of Eeason, and having been led by Youth to take the path of
Idleness rather than that of Labour, is at once confronted by grave
moral questions. Moral Virtue, as opposed to the recklessness and
thoughtlessness of Youth, asserts herself, and this awaking to con-
sciousness of the more serious side of the Pilgrim's character is at once-
followed by new temptations and new conflicts, Lust 'fighting on the
side of Youth and Idleness, and Mortification 'of the Body on the side
of Moral Virtue and Labour. The extra emphasis thus laid on the
choice that the Pilgrim has to make is certainly desirable, and adds
to the interest of this portion of the work. But as usual the addi-
tions are far too long and discursive. The introduction , of Moral
Virtue and her gates is most clumsily managed, and one gets into a
hopeless maze among all the different paths that are mentioned. We
are told that the main gate of Moral Virtue is set across the path of
Idleness (Lyd. 11732-11744), whereas not long after we find that the
Pilgrim is on the other side of the hedge, and that Youth takes him
on her back and flies with him over the hedge back to the path of
Idleness (12729-12734). Yet we are not told in the interval that
he has passed from Idleness to Labour, but only that he has begun
to consider which of Moral Virtue's posterns (against which she had
been warning him) he shall pass through (11951-11957). The
vision of the Wheel of Sensuality is also a somewhat clumsy
Speaking generally, we may say that De Guileville's first
recension reads more closely, and forms a better artistic whole
than the second version, but that some of the later additions distinctly
add to the interest of the poem, though not invariably to its excel-
lence as an allegory.
IV. LYDGATE'S METRE.
Before discussing the metre of the Pilgrimage it is necessary to
consider in some detail the question of Lydgate's treatment of
Roughly speaking, we may say that he follows the same general
rules as Chaucer.
(1) Final e is sounded before a consonant when it is the remnant
of a grammatical inflection or of a stronger vowel.
xxxii* Introduction, iv. Lydgate's Metre.
835 " Lo, her ys al : avyse the."
2950 "They muste ffaylle bothe two."
19002 " An hunte stoode with his home."
(2) It is sounded in many Romance words, as in French verse.
115 "I mene the book Pilgrimage de Mounde."
808 " Humble, benigne, & debonayre."
19 "Fortune is ladye with her double face."
4500 " And verray iuste confess'ioun."
(3) Final e, that would, according to the foregoing rules, be
pronounced, is silent when immediately followed by a vowel.
4529 " I make hem faste, preye and wake."
(4) It is silent before h in such slightly stressed words as hem,
hyr, han, hath, etc., but is otherwise pronounced before h.
57 " To holde hys cours as ledeth hym the streem."
1519 " Softe handle the soor to seke."
(5) It is generally silent in the personal pronouns youre, hyre,
etc., from want of stress.
46 "That yowre lyff her ys but a pylgrimage."
To the foregoing rules we may add these others :
(6) Lydgate very commonly does not sound the final e when it
immediately precedes the caesura. On this point, however, he allows
himself considerable freedom.
14 "That kam with loye / departeth ay with sorwe."
72 "Wherefore I rede / lat euery whyht a-mend."
22 " And off al loye / that ys transytorye."
63 " Ytakyn inne / so as they dysserve."
(7) Final e preceded and followed by a dental is generally not
822 " With-oute that I thy guyde be."
1840 " That kepte the entre and the paas."
11080 " Me sempte thys may den off folye."
(8) Polysyllables often, though not always, lose final e, but most
of the examples of this are doubtful, as usually some other law also
comes into operation. Ten Brink says that the sounding is optional,
and it seems to be the case that it rarely takes place when the
preceding syllable is weak.
12348 "To the heuene callyd mobyle."
I will now analyze Lydgate's usage with regard to final e in the
Introduction. IV. Lydgates Metre. xxxiii*
italicized words of the following passage, indicating in each case by
which of the preceding rules it is influenced.
806 " And by thys dowe / wych thow dost se,
807 Wych I here / with wynges fayre,
808 Humble, benigne, / & debonayre,
809 I am tookenyd, / who lyst seke,
810 With hyr goodly eyen rneke.
811 And so thow shalt me call in dede
812 Whan thow hast on-to me nede,
813 And that shall be full ofte sythe
814 That I may my power kythe
815 Telpe the in thy pilgrymage.
816 ffor fynaly in thy vyage
817 As thow gost to that cyte,
818 Thow shalt hawe offte aduersyte ....
821 Wych thow mayst nat in no degre
822 Passe nor endure vfiih-oute me,
823 Nor that cyte never atteyne
824 (Thogh thow euer do thy peyne,)
825 With-<wfe that I thy guyde be."
In dowe (1. 806) the e is not organic and is therefore not pronounced.
In various other passages we find dowli written instead of dowe.
In bere (807), though according to rule 1 the e would be
sounded, it is mute because it immediately precedes the caesura.
Humble (808) has the e sounded according to rule 2.
benigne (808). The e is mute before a following vowel.
offte (813) is the plural form of an adjective vowel, the e is
therefore sounded according to rule 1.
Telpe (815). The e representing the Infin. ending is sounded
according to rule 1.
offte (818). The e is silent before a vowel.
endure (822). The e is mute before the caesura.
With-oute (822). The e is sounded before a consonant according
to rule 1.
cyte (823). The e is accented in French.
With-oute (825). The next word is that, and the e is elided
between two dentals.
guyde (825). Sounded according to rule 2.
There remains one word passe in 1. 822, which falls under none
of these rules, and for the mute e in which no reason can be adduced.
In the first seventy lines of the poem the greater number of the
final e's follow the above rules. There are, however, a few lines in
which the reasons for sounding or non-sounding seem doubtful.
xxxiv* Introduction. IV. Lydgate s Metre.
7 " Nor the tresovre / wych that ye possede."
The sounding of the e (it is neither written nor pronounced in
1. 17) must be explained by the liberty that Lydgate allows himself
before the caesura, or by the fact that tresovre is a polysyllable with
the accent on the second syllable.
11 " Whan folk lest werie / and noon hede ne take."
This certainly seems to be the most natural way of reading the
line, and we must put down the sounding of the e in wene before a
vowel to the fact that it occurs at the caesura. The final e in hede is
only added to show length and therefore it is properly mute.
15 " An thyng ywonne / with loye and gladnesse."
Properly speaking, the e in loyc should be mute before and, and
it seems to be sounded here for metrical reasons only. The e in
ywonne is silent, according to ten Brink's rule that final e is not
sounded in strong participles of short-syllabled verbs, when the n is
lost. The observance of this rule seems to be common both to
Chaucer and Lydgate.
25 " And hyr sugre [ys] vnder-spreynt wyth galle."
We should not sound the e in sugre if we considered only rule 4.
It is best to read the line as one with missing auftakt, unless this is
a case of caesura licence.
From these examples we may draw the conclusion that though
Lydgate generally followed the same rules as Chaucer he allowed
himself more liberty. Especially was this the case with regard to
polysyllabic words, in which he was accustomed to sound or elide
the final e according to the requirements of the metre, irrespective of
other consideration. When a final e preceded the caesura he allowed
himself an equal amount of liberty, and when it occurred in this
position would frequently sound an e that, according to other rules,
should have been silent, or omit to sound one which we should have
expected him to pronounce.
The freedom he allowed himself in these respects was occasionally
extended to other words in other positions, and we thus see the be-
ginning of the N.E. pronunciation more clearly indicated in Lydgate
than in Chaucer.
We may now turn to the question of metre.
The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man is written in rimed, octo-
syllabic couplets, the measure employed being iambic. Lydgate's
Prologue, however 184 lines in length is written in decasyllabic
Introduction. IV. Lydgatds Metre. xxxv*
The various types of Lydgate's 5 : beat iambic line have been given
by Schick, and 1 have nothing to add to his conclusions. Of the
general features of his verse a few examples may be given.
Lydgate employed alliteration freely.
2551 " JSTouther salue, That soor to sownde."
3350 " Sturdyly she sette a syde."
3352 " Brennyng bryht as any glede."
40 " Peplys to putte in subieccyon."
3596 " Off boundys & off botaylle."
3711 " Unto the wylde swyn savage,
3712 Wych that renneth in hys rage."
But though these alliterative lines are fairly numerous they are
employed with considerable self-restraint. For instance, in the
' Testament of Jesus Christ' (11. 47735029) there are but 33 alliter-
ative lines. In the description of Youth (11. 1106811212) there
are but 22. Therefore the alliteration in Lydgate's verse never
becomes burdensome, but rather tends to give it a little of the variety
that it so much needs.
Elision is common and is responsible for what constitutes a very
marked feature of this text, viz. the habit of combining the pre-
position to with the next word when it begins with a vowel or
Examples are :
1019 " Talyved euere, thys no lesyng."
1766 " Lyk tamyglity champyoun."
1967 " So tenduren al your lyff."
2385 "In ta pulpet that ther stood."
6302 " Taparceyve, in thys matere."
6999 "In travers wyse, yt teribrasse"
The, this, that and there are often combined with the following
word in the same way.
127 "In thenpryses wych he hath undertake."
75 S3 " Tliassaut off brygauntys nyht & day."
7758 " Tharmure of thyn handys tweyne."
10869 " Thenchesoun & mutaciouns."
2701 " TJiys to seyne, in your werkyng."
3053 " Thys he that haueth pleyn power."
2496-7 " And thus departyd ys your land
In double party (thys no doute)."
xxxvi* Introduction, iv. Lydgates Metre.
Sometimes this combination injures the metre, and restoring the
to would mend jit. This is the case in 11. 1766 and 2385 given
above, and also in 1. 7778 :
" Tarme a man in chastyte."
It may be noticed that in the 1403 lines of the Temple of Glas
there are but five examples of this characteristic.
449 " I shal, baspectes of my benygne face,
450 Make him teschewe euere synne & vice."
517 " Ki^st so bensaumple, for wele or for wo."
660 "For whan J>at hope were likli me tauaunce."
827 " But f is theffecte of my mater fiiialle."
We may imagine that this was a habit likely to increase with use,
and in fixing the relative chronology of Lydgate's works it might be
worth while to pay some attention to this point.
Cases of elision, not indicated by the spelling, and of syncope are
also fairly common :
189 "Tyl effte agayn yt com(y)th to mynde."
344 " That thyder wentyn ev(e)ne ryht."
359 "As any ffyr, evene at the gate."
483 " By vertu of crystys gret suffraunce."
2724 " Yiif ye list to have knowelichyng."
3114 "Tliorgh nat(u)rel Inclynaciouns."
3813 "Or fostre your sedys blosme or greyn."
10851 "The word(y)s that thow dost specefye."
The caesura in the octosyllabic verse is occasionally very varied.
Its regular place is after the fourth syllable and second accent, but
in the first few lines of the Prologue we find it falling with quite a
" Full offte hyt happeth / in certeyn
Of dremys-/ the wych that men ha seyn
I nightys-/ after, whan they wake,
fful lytel heed / there-of they take
Tyl effte agayn / yt comyth to mynde
That they / the veray trouthe fynde,
euery thyng / they saw to-forn
ffor / of remembraunce the thorn
Pryketh here myndes / with hys poynt."
This passage perhaps contains greater irregularities than most,
though some of them are only apparent and are due to the fact that
the line is acephalous. But throughout the poem it may be noticed
Introduction. IV. Lydgate's Metre. xxxvii*"
that Lydgatd often places the caesura in the middle of a foot, so that
the number of syllables on each side of the pause is odd although
the number of accents may be correct.
In his Introduction to the Temple of Glas Schick points out
that the rime " is, in general, pure and skilfully handled/' and that
" the principles followed by Lydgate are much the same as those of
Chaucer." He then proceeds to point out some peculiarities, to which
I may add a few from the present text.
I have found no example of -ye riming with -y in the first 4000
lines of the poem.
As both Schick and Sieper point out, Lydgate shares with
Chaucer an indifference as to whether sounds are close or open.
Thus in 1. 233 we find brode (O.E. brad) riming with stood (O.E.
Words are occasionally rimed irrespective of length. In 11. 231-2
wrote rimes with not ( = ne wot), and in 1. 2615 dele rimes with ivel.
This last example however is rather an uncertain one, as in the
expression never-a-dele, dele often lost its length through want of
stress and was written del. So it is possible that Lydgate may have
pronounced it short.
The riming of a word with itself or with another word of similar
spelling occasionally takes place.
^L.poynt . . . poynt 1581-2; beheld . . . held 1395-6 ; ivyse
. . . wyse 2523-4 ; yseyn . . . seyn 3291-2.
The infrequency of double rimes may be noticed. In the portion
of the text that I have examined for this purpose I have found that
(putting aside those formed by final e) they are of the most ordinary
character and confined to a small range of words. Thus we find
such rimes as morwe . . . sorwe, (jlorye . . . tmnsytorye, double
. . . trouble, vydorye . . . transytorye, neuere ... dysseuere re-
peated fairly often, and occasionally come across less obvious ones,
such as boundys . . . founde ys 3337-8, but much more frequently
the rime is confined to the last syllable, and sometimes even when
that syllable is a weak one.
Ex. dever . . . power 3558-9 ; ffelonye . . . malencolye 1561-2.
In such rimes as -Typing . . . gadryng 1269-70 the accent was
probably on the last syllable.
At intervals we come on rimes like borne . . . to-forn 1207-8 ;
pray . . . seye 1214-5; kepe . . . shep 2159-60; bed . . . drede
1697-8; crowne . . . doun 1997-8; sprynge . . . werkyng 2924-5 ;
xxxviii* Introduction, iv. Lydgate s Metre.
.skyle . . wyl 2689-00. Some of these may perhaps be put down
to the copyist, but when all allowances are made we cannot help
looking upon the frequency with which they occur as sonie proof of
the extent to which Lydgate allowed himself to drop sonant e when
convenient. Skyle . . . wyl is a specially good example, since the
word skyle occurs also at 11. 2694- and 2741, and in both these lines
it is essential' that the e- should be sounded. In 1. 2681 it is found
again, before the caesura, with- the e mute.
Lydgate is not strict in his use of the octosyllabic line, and
.several distinct types can be found.
According to Sieper these are : -
(a) The normal line of 8 syllables and 4 accents (usually
(b) The headless line of 7 syllables (which is often partially or
wholly trochaic in metre). I
(c) The 7-syllabled line in which the first thesis after the caesura
The passage descriptive of the heavenly Jerusalem displays much
variety in the line, so it may be well to analyze it as regards its metre.
LI, 309-11 are regular.
312 "To Jerusalem / for to goon "
can be read as regular if lerusale'ni be accented on the first and
penultimate syllables. As Lydgate allowed himself some licence in
the accentuation of names this is perhaps possible.
Otherwise the line must be, read as acephalous with elision in
313 *< Gfre.tlJ;. meved,/ in my corage "
must be regarded ag an acephalous line, with extra weak syllable
before the caesura, unless we can suppose .that the e in the -ed of
meved was syncopated.
314 " ffor to do / my pylgrymage,"
316 " And to tell / the cause why ".
are both acephalous and belong to type B. , . . .
317 " Was, ffor me thouht I hadde a syht " <'
"belongs to type A, but may perhaps be read with an inverted first
, 319 " Off that hevenly 7 ffayr cjte "i 1
i an acephalous line- with resolution '-of the two syllables of Tieven.
Introduction. IV. Lydgatc's Metre. xxxix*
321 Also belongs to B.
324 " Yt excellyde / off bewte "
may be read as ^above accented or with syncopation of tlie y and
sounding of the final e of excell(y)de. In either case it belongs to
326 " ffor God hym selff / was the 1 mfisGwn " -
belongs to type A, but with exceptional inversion of the first foot in
the caesura. Inversion of the first foot of the line is more common
and occurs in
329 " yt t5 cSnceyve / in hys entent"
as well as in 346 and 348.
330 to 334 belong alternately to types A and B.
335 " Thg masSunry / wrought fill clene"
is an example of type C, what Schick calls "the peculiarly
Lydgatian type, in which the thesis is wanting in the caesura, so that
two accented syllables clash together."
340 " The* wych / day nor nyht ne slcpte "
is another example of the same, but is rather exceptional because of
the position of the caesura.
341 " Kepyng so strongly / the entre "
belongs to type A, and contains an example of the accentuation of
the ending of the present participle, unless we read it with a trochaic
first foot. Sieper however considers that the accentuation of the
-ing may almost be regarded, as a rule, with present participles.
This line also contains an example of unnatural accentuation on the.
344 belongs to .type A with syncopation in ev(e)ne.
351 " ffond, / onto hys pleasaunce "
does not at once conform to any of the types. We may perhaps say
that it is acephalous, with a light syllable missing before the caesura.
354 " And yet tlie entre on swych wyse."
Accented in this way this is a regular line of type A. We may
notice however that in 1. 341, cited above, the 'accent is on the
second syllable of entre, and this is also the case in 1. 430.
" To whom thentre was not ffSrbdre."
Therefore it is possible that 354 should be read as an example of
"And yet the entre / on swych wyse."
In 1. 1840 however the accent seems to be entre.
xl* Introduction, iv. Lydgate's Metre.
358 " Havyng a swerd, fflawmyng as cler,"
depends for its accentuation on the question of the accentuation of
present participles. To my ears it reads best when accentuated as
alternate trochees and iambs, but this may not have been so with
359 " As any ffyr,/ gvene at the 1 gate "
belongs to type A with elision.
360 " Aiid who that wold / erly of late "
must surely have, like 1. 326, inversion of the first foot of the
363 NQ bet helpe, / ne bet refut "
must probably be explained in the same way as 1. 313.
The remaining lines of the passage are regular examples of types
A and B.
Other examples of type C are :
3979 Aiid MoysSs ek / dynSd hadde."
3981 " Hg made A-noon / thys, the cheff."
Lines with redundant syllables are rare, but 1. 2159 may be taken as
such, unless we prefer to read it as a decasyllabic line.
" Your shepperde, / that taketh of yow kepe."
There are also, of course, a few lines which cannot be assigned to
either of the types, such as :
1504 " With-outen eny flatrye."
2034 " Al the whyl that I dvvelle,"
and perhaps 1. 351, cited above, but they are wonderfully few in
number. Altogether, Lydgate's own words in the Troy Boole:
1 ' And trouthe of metre I sette also a-syde ;
For of that art I hadde as tho no guyde
Me to reduce, whan I went a-wronge :
I toke none hede nouther of short nor longe "
are rather more severe than the case demands, and many lines,
apparent] y irregular, may be normalized by syncopation, elision or
by the uncertainty of word-accent common to both Chaucer and
Lydgate. For a discussion on this last point I will refer the reader
to the Introduction of Reason and Sensuality, in which the whole
question of Lydgate's metre is treated with much detail.
Introduction, v. Lydgate' s Language and Style. xli*
V. LYDGATE'S LANGUAGE AND STYLE.
In his tribute to Chaucer on p. 527 of the Pilgrimage Lydgate
speaks of him as
" my mayster Chaucer ....
That was the ffyrste in any age
That amendede our langage "
affording thus an interesting proof that even as soon after his death
as 1426 the writers of the period had a clear recognition of the debt
that the English literary language owed to Chaucer.
Lydgate was one of those who were most influenced in this
respect, and indeed, as Schick points out, he was even more modern
in language than Chaucer himself. In phonology and inflexion, it
is true, there is little difference between them, but Lydgate dropped
many old English words which were retained by Chaucer and are
now obsolete, and used instead words of Romance or classical origin
which may be easily understood by us even if we do not actually
use them. Both Chaucer and Lydgate belonged to the East Mid-
land district, and, as we know, the dialect of this district was much
more cosmopolitan than that of the others, both on account of its
intermediate position and because of the fact that it was the dialect
of London, and therefore more open to foreign influences than the
dialects of more provincial districts.
An intimate acquaintance with French was, of course, at this
time common among all men with any pretensions to education, but
both Chaucer and Lydgate travelled in France, and there is even a
tradition, which Schick however discredits, that Lydgate was
educated in Paris. However this may be, it is practically certain,
as Schick points out in his chapter on the chronology of Lydgate's
writings, that Lydgate was in Paris about 1426, that is to say, about
the time when the Pilgrimage was begun.
These things being so, we are not surprised that the Pilgrimage
should contain a very large proportion of French words, especially
when we consider two other points, firstly, that it was a translation
from the French, and therefore its author would naturally tend to
use words of French rather than of Teutonic origin ; and secondly,
that it was largely concerned with questions of ecclesiastical interest*
which, owing to the general use of Latin in matters of Church and
Religion, would tend to increase the number of words of classical
origin used by the author. That these last two considerations are
xlii* Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style.
of considerable weight \vill be more evident if we study Chaucer's
own translations from the French.
The deduction from the accompanying table, in which is shown
the proportion of foreign words in passages chosen from the
Pilgrimage and from various portions of Chaucer's writings, seems
to be that in Lydgate the number of Romance or classical words is
nearly 1 in 5, while in Chaucer it is about 1 in 8. The passages
chosen from Chaucer are various in character and drawn from his
original works ; those from the Pilgrimage have been selected so as
to cover a considerable variety of subjects in order that the influence
of subject on vocabulary might be minimized.
Cant. Tales. Prol
Nonne Priestess Tale.
Nous of Fame.
Book of the, Duchess.
Fr. or class, words.
But if we take a poem translated by Chaucer from the ' French,
the result is different. Thus in the first five verses of the ABC
Prayer to the Virgin there are 306 words, 62 of which are of
Romance origin, a proportion of about 1-in 5, as in the Pilgrimage,
Introduction, v. Lydgate s Language and Style, xliii*
while in the first 300 words of the translation from Boethius the
proportion is 1 in 6.
On the other hand, in Lydgate's Temple of Glas, which is not a
translation from the French, the proportion of French words in the
first 50 lines is only about 1 in 8, and in the first 6 verses of the
Complaint to Venus in the same poem the proportion is about
1 in 7.
From these examples we may draw the conclusion that the great
preponderance of words of Romance origin in the Pilgrimage is
largely due to the fact that it is a translation from the French.
But while we make allowances for this fact in comparing Lydgate
and Chaucer, we must, admit that even in those cases where the
proportion of French words is not very different, the number of
concrete words of Teutonic origin used by Lydgate is much smaller
than is the case with Chaucer, while those used are, with com-
paratively few exceptions, such as may be easily understood even by
the reader who has not studied the early forms of his native tongue.
Lydgate is, in fact, very easy to read, though there are a certain
number of words employed by him which we seek for in vain in the
works of Chaucer or his other English contemporaries. Some of these
are Latinisms lifted bodily from any text he might be engaged in
translating or paraphrasing. Such are porrect (448/16709) and
procelle (456/16995), both occurring in his adaptation of St.
Bernard's Homily. Certain other forms, such as swyd 350/12882,
'trrdk 569/21339, anc ^ towelled 597/22356, are possibly scribal errors,
but there remain a few, such as lessellys 306/11191, botevaunt
492/18427, devaunt 492/18428, stoupaille (for stoppel) 646/24110,.
treygobet 317/11623, and turneys 146/5569, which, as far as I can
discover, seem to be peculiar to him. Skouren also (106/4011) i&
used in an unusual sense.
The question of Lydgate's grammar and inflexions has been so-
thoroughly treated already that I do not propose to enter upon it,
but will pass on to the question of his literary style.
With regard to this he was himself as modest as other writers
" On makyng I ha no suffysaunce "
he says in the prologue to the Pilgrimage, and again :
" I am bareyn of all eloquence.
Therfor I pray, what so that be seyde,
Off geutyllesse not to be evel apayde
xliv* Introduction. V. Lydgates Language and Style.
And my rudnesse helpyn to excuse,
ffor in metre I ha with me no muse :
Noon of the nyne that on Parnase duelle,
Nor she that ys the lady of the welle,
Calliope, be syde cytheron,
Gaff to my penne, plente nor f uson
Of hyr licovr, whan thys work was begonne.
Nor I drank no-wer of the sugeryd tonne
Off lubiter, couchyd in his celer,
So strange I fonde to me hys boteler
Off poetys icallyd Ganymede.
But to my labour now I woll me spede,
Prayng ech reder me to reconforte,
Benignely my rudenesse to supporte."
Other examples are given by Schick in his chapter on the style of
the Temple of Glas, and on reading his works one cannot escape
from the conviction that Lydgate was justified in his modesty.
Some of the principal points to be noted in considering Lydgate's
style are his immense prolixity and love of circumlocutions, and of
conventional phrases. He is entirely deficient in that essential
mark of the stylist the knowledge when to stop. In fact, he sees
no reason for stopping at all. His words, his lines flow forth in a
steady stream at a steady pace. They come apparently with little
difficulty, and when difficulties do arise they may always be met by
the reduplication of a sentence in slightly different form or by the
interpolation of some conventional phrase.
These conventional phrases, very frequent in all of Lydgate's
works, abound in the Pilgrimage to a ridiculous extent. Here are
a few examples of them :
3541 Nor grucche (in myn oppynyoun)
3765 As a chamberere (in sothnese)
4303 And on thys werm (yiff ye lyst se)
4553 And sothly (yiff I shal nat feyne)
4564 And told the cause (yiff ye be wys)
4567 And sette me ek (yt ys no fable)
6115 Consydred how (in sothfastnesse)
6123 As she that ys (shortly to fyne)
6947 Yet, by ther chymyng (in substaunce)
19413 f. Many a perel (I 3011 ensure)
And many a straunge aventure.
19417 And many a tempeste (in certeyn)
15439 f. Thys secounde cours (yt ys no dred)
Doth gret good unto hyr bed.
Introduction. V. Lydgates Language and Style. xlv*
These expletive phrases put in to fill up a line or for the
sake of rime, make up no inconsiderable proportion of some
passages. Opening the book almost at random I find that in the
hundred lines between 13200 and 13300 there are no fewer than
22 lines finished in this manner.
13207 (yiff thou lyst se) 13217 (in conclusioun)
13219 (when al ys do) 13223 (yiff thow kanst se)
13225 (yt ys no doute) 13229 (yt ys no dred)
13237 (who kan ffele) 13239 (yt ys no nay)
13241 (who haue a syht) 13257 (as to myn entent)
13260 (as ye shal here) 13265 (by couenaunt)
13268 (and lyst nat spare) 13268 (yt ys no lye)
13276 (as ye may se) 13279 (who kan se)
13283 (est and south) 13285 (who that touche)
13289 (voyde of al flavour) 13293 (who taketh hed ther-to)
13399 (yt ys no drede) 13300 (in verray dede)
In the hundred lines between 15650 and 15750 there are 19 of
these phrases; between 17700 and 17800 there are 16; between
20370-20470 there are 14; indeed it is hardly possible to open
a page without finding two or three and often many more. It is
not necessary to expatiate on the poverty of the verse which has
to be eked out by such devices, for, as a study of any of the above-
mentioned passages will show, not one in ten of these phrases has
any real connection with the subject-matter of the lines, or throws
any further light upon what the writer is saying. No, they are
padding pure and simple, usually inserted for the sake of rime, or
to piece out an idea which will not naturally extend to the length
of a couplet.
In most cases these phrases occupy the second half of a line.
More rarely, but yet very often, one is found covering a whole line,
as in the following examples :
13232 f. But to declare the trouthe pleyn,
He dyde nat so, no thyng at al,
In straunge felclys, for he yt stal,
(Al be yt by fful gret lak)
He put al in hys owne sak.
2005 (Lyk as I shal yow de'vyse,
2901 (As clerkys wel reherse kan).
3073 (Yiff ye lyst to here me).
3171 (Who that kan tlie trouthe seke).
xlvi* Jntroduction. v. Lydgate's Language and Style.
3203 (To seyn shortly, and nat tarye) '
3235 (As I be-held tho douteles)
3539 (To speken in especyal).
Very occasionally the expletive phrase occurs in the first half of
the line. I have only been able to discover three examples of this
in Part I. of the Pilgrimage, viz. :
6474 f. Lokyng, with wych men do se,
Unto the Eye ys porter
(As thow well wost) and massager.
7199 f. The tyme ys good and couenable,
(As I ha sayd), and acceptable.
8344 f. But Grace Dieu was nat wel plesyed
(Shortly) of my gouernaunce.
Examples of these inanities might be multiplied indefinitely, and
it will be enough to note that the greater proportion of them may
be arranged in five classes.
(1) Those which make some appeal to or assertion of the good
judgment and intelligence of either the reader or of the poet himself.
As thow well wost, 6476; who so understonde kan, 4158;
who kan se, 13279; who can discerne, 20711 ; who lyst to se,
20618; to thyn entent, 9759; yiff ye lyst to wyte, 219; who can
conceyue, 18683 ; by cler inspeccioun, 15013; as to myn entent,
13257; off entencioun, 15745; by good avys, 20097; yiff they be
wys, 12095 ; who consydreth al, 11331; who lyst taken kep, 8697 ;
who lyst 'token her-wyth-al, 20119; who loketh al, 20133; who
loke wel, 21922; yiff thow konn? espye, 13302; yiff yt be souht,
12436; to myn oppynyoun, 17301; me semeth so, 17303.
(2) Phrases that are strongly affirmative or confirmative of some
preceding point. Such are: yt ys no nay, 10809 ; yt ys no drede,
12117; yt ys no doute, 12209; I the ensure, 12217; wythoute
doute, 12238; wythoute gesse, 11443; off verray soth, And off no
lape, 21135; in certyn, 12223; douteles, 21883; I dar undertake,
21903; of verray ryght, 2556;, yiff I shal not lye, 3333; in soth-
nesse, 3925; yt ys no fayl, 4015; be wel certeyn, 5395; yt ys no
fable, 2158; yt ys no jape, 12119; and many other similar expres-
sions. To these also may be added phrases like the following :
9286 I wolde abyde (& not remewe).
21583 In thylke dyrke ffyr (nat bryht).
21723 I sawh a croos stonde (and nat flytte).
(3) Those that contain reference to authority, such as :
Introduction. V. Lydgate's Language and Style. xlvii*"
444 f. ffor, by record off Seyn Matthew,
The hevene (as by hys sentence,)
Wonnen is by vyolence.
621 As the phylisofre seyth.
2901 As clerkys wel reherse kan.
14447 As the byble kan wel tel.
14453 In hooly wryt, as yt ys ryff.
21885 the byble seyth apert.
13635 as I ha told.
12043 thus seyth he.
11457 As clerkys wryte that be sad.
9968 As I kan reporte.
18355 As clerkys teche.
(4) Such expressions as ' in substaunce,' 21871; 'for to dyftyne/
17537; 'at a word/ 21591 ; ' to rehersyn euery del,' 21913; ' fynally/
21595; 'shortely to specefye,' 21621; 'for short conclusioun,' 20931;
1 shortly to telle,' 17403; 'in conclusioun/ 15703; 'thus I begynne/
11441; 'in wordysfewe/9119; ' wythoute more,' 20941 which have
reference to the form in which the poet puts his assertions, and to
the progress of his work.
(5) Certain adverbial expressions of place or time which are
meant to give additional weight and detail to the circumstance
mentioned by the poet.
6507 f. The Messagerys (erly and late)
Conveye yt by the same gate,
9899 f. Eetrussen hym, and ek recharge
(Bothe in streyth & ek in large.)
12027 f. To kepe me bothe ft'er and ner)
ffrom al pereyl and all daunger.
12079 f. myn enmyes many tyme,
(Bothe at eue and ek at prime.)
21988 f. Nauffragus iful long I-be,
And suffred (bothe este and weste)
Many perel and greet tempeste.
Besides these there are a certain number of phrases which can
hardly be classed, and which appear to be inserted quite irrelevantly,
such as 'lych myn entent/ 17749; 'wythoute grace,' 17754; 'in
especyal/ 17177; < off entente/ 17405; 'in sentence/ 14431.
The question of the reduplication of expressions has been treated
at some length by Sieper, but as this is a very marked characteristic
of the Pilgrimage I may give a few more examples here.
xlviii* Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style.
Examples of the reduplication of an idea by the employment of
synonymous or almost synonymous adjectives, adverbs or nouns will
be found on nearly every page. For instance :
1324 After the custom and usaunce
1421 f. And Receyvede ther by Ryht
Yertu, force & gostly myght.
1551 f. Debonayre and mercyable,
Soffte, goodly, and tretable.
1584 For punyshynge and Correccioun.
1646 Thogh thyn hornys be sharp & kene,
1647 Was humble, meke, & debonayre,
1687 Portreye or peynte
1752 f. And longe held her pocessyon
Lordshepe ek & gouernaunce.
1780 Maugre hys myght & his powste.
1823 Whan thow fyndest or dost espye.
1844 Kepte the fredam and fraunchyse
2012 Ben yclyped and yshaue
2058 Proud of your port, & ek ellat.
1540 f. For they mynystre ther oynement
To boystously, & no thing soffte.
But Lydgate is not content with merely reduplicating epithets
or single words in this manner, for very frequently we find whole
sentences repeated, with some difference in wording but practically
none in idea.
5 f. ffor shortly here yovre poscessyon
ys yove to yow but for a schort sesoun
Nor the tresovre wych that ye possede
Ys but thyng lent ho so kan take hede.
14 f. That kam wyth loye departeth aye wyth sorwe;
And thyng .y wonne wyth loye and gladnesse,
Ay dysseuereth wyth wo and bevynesse.
2135 f. Thys worldys veyn pleysaunce
Wych ys so f ul off varyaunce,
So ful of chang and dovbylnesse.
2529 f. Yiff he be proud or obstynat,
Dysobeyynge or ellaat,
Hys trespace to amende
And ne lyst nat to entende
To be redressed by nieeknesse,
And, thorgh pryde or Frowardnesse,
Wyl take no correccion.
Introduction, v. Lydgate's Language, and Style, xlix*
2579 f. Of wych thyng he wex al sad
And in hys herte no thyng glad.
3771 f. The boundys constreyue your party;
But, for al that, I go frely
Wher that me lyst, at lyberte :
They bounde yow, & no thyng me ;
Close yow out, that ye nat passe ;
But I go fre in euery place.
We may also notice a few examples of the reduplication of an
idea produced by a negative statement following an affirmative one.
Such are 11. 9286, 21583 and 21723 quoted on p. xlvi* as well as
" Yt maketh me glad, and nothyng dul."
Without multiplying examples, which would only be tedious, I
may point out that in some cases the parallelism persists throughout
quite long passages. For instance, in the passage on page 68 on the
punishment of the proud, from which a few lines have been quoted,
nearly every sentence is reduplicated, and much the same is the
.case with the description of Fortune in the Prologue.
Sieper has pointed out that " wide indeed though the gulf is
which separates his vapid verse, betraying in every line the traces
of decadence, from the inimitable creations of Israel's golden youth,
Lydgate is, in point of fact, not so far removed from a mere
parallelism such as meets us in the poetry of the Hebrews," and if
-we compare witli some of the examples given above the following
verses from the 18th Psalm, it will be evident that as far as technical
construction goes there is a strong resemblance between Lydgate's
parallelisms and those of the Psalmist.
" He rode upon the cherubims, and did fly :
He came flying upon the wings of the wind.
He made darkness his secret place :
His pavilion round about him with dark water,
And thick clouds to cover him."
. . . He sent out his arrows, and scattered them :
He cast forth lightnings, and destroyed them."
"... With the holy thou shalt be holy :
And with a perfect man thou shalt be perfect."
Remnants of parallelism are also found in some of the Old
English poems, arising, it is supposed, from the same cause that
produced it among the Hebrews, viz. the construction of poems in
1* Introduction, v. Lydgate 8 Language and Style,
strophe and antistrophe for the voices of alternating choirs. YTe
have not much reason however for thinking that Lydgate was
influenced by Old English poetry in his choice of this style. It is
more likely that he observed its use in the Psalms, with which, as
a monk, he must have been very familiar. In any case, it is a
construction which would appeal greatly to any one with such an
extensive vocabulary and such a love of prolixity and diffuseness
as Lydgate, and, as Sieper points out, it was with him "a principle
of art consciously employed and systematically carried through."
In fact, all through the poem Lydgate gives one the impression
that he is striving with all his might to express himself with the
utmost effectiveness combined with the utmost truth, but that as
he has no infallible command of the " mot juste " and lacks the
art to 'represent the whole by depicting only the essential lines, he
seeks to attain his end by the employment of conscientious and
laborious detail and by a free use of epithet and paraphrase. Other
characteristics of his verse are the great length of his sentences and
the freedom with which he employs the parenthesis. The result of
this is that he often loses sight of the main current of his idea and
produces a passage which is a mere conglomeration of sentences and
phrases, without a shape or centre, and sometimes united by a faulty
syntactical construction. He often gives the impression that he is
afraid of forgetting some point that has struck him, and so writes it
down directly it comes into his mind, careless whether or no it
interferes with the course of his sentence. His verse is still further
complicated by the use of the various devices of which examples
have already been given, and the general impression we gather as
we read is that it is not so much composed as strung together. We
must remember, however, that in this poem at least De Guileville as
well as Lydgate must bear the responsibility for some of the defects.
The general construction, the monotonous manner of introducing
the characters, the insertion of long arguments and descriptions are
primarily due to him, as are even some of the expletive phrases and
repetitions. Take for instance these lines :
" Quant dieu, dist elle, adam, ton pere,
Eut cree et eue, ta mere,
II leur fist si grant courtoisie,
Et leur donna tele franchise
Quilz pouoient viure san languir,
Sans necessite de niourir :
Introduction, v. Lydgates Language and Style. li*
Et tel grace leur octroya,
Que rectitude leur donna,
Et clroiz les fist en liberte
Et franchise de volente
Pour bien garder en eulx droicture
Selon justice par mesure,
En tel mauiere qne le corps
Obeissoit a son ame lors ;
Et si rendoient subiection
Les forces basses a raison.
Ce quest bas a ce que dessus,
Les moines dignes aux dignes plus." (Petit, fol. iv.)
This passage, represented in Lydgate by 11. 1011-1037, contains,
as we may see, fully as many parallelisms as Lydgate was accustomed
to employ, although we cannot deny that in some cases Lydgate
would take one single idea of De Guileville's and express it under
two or three forms.
" Car, a leur dieu ilz desobeircnt,
Et perdirent lauctorite
De quoy dessus ie tay parle ; " (fol. iv. back.)
In Lydgate we find (11. 1055-1061) :
" But whan they gan to God trespace,
They lost flier fredam and ther grace,
Lyff also, and liberte
And hooly ther auctoryte,
Off wych tliou hast herd me seye."
Again \ve read in the French :
" Mais a quelle fin ien vendroie
Encor pas bien pense nauoye." (fol. x.)
Lydgate represents this by :
" This fantasy e fyl in my tlioulit ;
But, Got wot, I wyste nouht,
Nor Jmewe ful lytel (at the leste)
What was the ffyn of my requeste,
Nor took but lytel heed ther-to." (2813-17.)
In these extracts I have italicized those portions that have no
exact counterpart in the French.
There is not much to be said for the style of the Pilgrimage, but
the little that there is it would be ungracious to omit. We must
therefore observe that iu a few passages Lydgate really seems to take
considerable pleasure in what he is describing and expresses his .
feelings with some vigour, freshness and poetic feeling. The best
examples of this are the description of the heavenly Jerusalem
Hi* Introduction, v. Lydgate's Language and Style.
(11. 323-53), the account of Youth (11. 11133-11212), and especially
the passage on the revivifying power of Nature (11. 3434-3523).
The whole question of Lydgate's style has been treated with so
much detail and so many examples in the Introduction to Reason
and Sensuality that it seems unnecessary to expatiate further upon
its peculiarities. I will therefore conclude this study by giving one
more parallel passage which illustrates in a marked degree many of
the characteristics referred to above, especially Lydgate's love of
amplification, explanation, and parallelism.
; And fyrst thow shalt wel understond
That by falsnes of this bond
most horryble and odyous
was brought fyrst in-to christis hous
the false vyce of symonye
and by his feyned trecherye,
by his sleyte, and by his ~gyn,
at the dove he cam not in ;
but at some travas, lych a theffe,
wher he dothe full gret myschefe ;
for wher so evar he dothe aproche
with this staife he can a-croche
the herts of folks by covetyse
and ordeynythe in full cursyd wyse
sheppards to kepe christis shepe
whiche of theyr offyse toke no kepe.
An herdmau is [y]sayd, in dede,
only for he shuld[e] fede
his shepe with spyrituall doctryn ;
but they draw by an othar lyn :
they may be callyd, for ther werkynge,
pastours only of fedynge,
They fede them selff with haboundaunce,
and let ther shepe go to myschaunce ;
I trow it is full well ysene,
them selfe be fatt, ther shepe be lene
I trow, the most[e] part of all,
men shuld them rather wolv[e]s call
than trwe herd[e]s ; yong and old
they come to robb[e] christis fold ;
they shuld ther shepe from wolv[e]s
the wool, the mylke, away they bere.
I can not se wher-of they serue,
that lat ther shepe at mescheie starue,
and put them selffe in gret defame.
And they would eke make lame
grace dieu of cursydnesse,
lyke as I shall a-non exprese,
from the trone of hir mageste
by $:yfte of temporalite :
his fals office I can well tell :
C'est une main qui iutroduit
En la maison cle iesu christ
Par faulses broches et pertius
Les larrons sans entrer par 1'huis
Et quant dedans les a tirez
Et a son croc acrochetez
Du mesme croc croches leur faiz.
Et pasteurs de brebis les faiz
Pasteurs dis ie / mais ceulx ce font
Qui se paissent et qui taut font
Que mieulx les doit en loups claiuer
Que pasteurs douailles nommer
Ceulx sont qui veulent eslochier
Grace de dieu et descrochier
Du throsne de sa maieste
Par dons de temporalite
Une foiz sen font acheteurs
Et lautre foiz in sont vendeurs
(Ver. fol.-lxx. back,]
he can now by en, he can now sell,
By boundys of collusyon
and all comythe in by syr symon.
Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. liii*
VI. LYDGATE AND BUNYAN.
An edition of Bunyan's works, edited by Dr. George Offor and
published in 1853, contains, as an appendix, a defence of Bunyan's
originality, upon which doubts had been thrown by various authors,
some of them of high repute.
Dr. Dibdin in Typographical Antiquities, speaking of the
Pilgrimage of the Soul, says: "This extraordinary production,
rather than Bernard's Isle of Man, laid the foundation of John
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress" Dr. Adam Clarke, as he states in a
postscript to a Life of Bunyan, considered that either Bernard's Isle
of Man, or Spencer's Faery Queen, "if not both, gave birth to the
Pilgrim's Progress. 1 ' Mr. Montgomery thought that the print and
verses called The Pilgrim in Witney's Emblems suggested th'e idea
of the book. Mr. Chambers, of Edinburgh, considered that Bunyan
could not have been ignorant of Gavin Douglas's Palace of Honour.
D'Israeli, in his Amenities of Literature, made the tentative sug-
gestion that there was some connection between Bunyan's masterpiece
and Piers Plowman.
These ideas are briefly and in most cases effectively disposed of
by Dr. Offor, who (after his study and analysis of these and many
other allegorical works) had come to the sincere conclusion that not
a sentence in the Pilgrim's Progress could be proved to have any
other origin than the Bible or Bunyan's own mind.
Amongst the allegories cited by him we find the Pilgrimage of
the Life of Man, of which he gives a somewhat insufficient analysis.
No one had so far asserted that Bunyan owed any debt to this
particular work ; but only a few years after Offer's edition of the
Pilgrim's Progress was published just such a suggestion appeared.
In 1858 was published by Basil Montagu Pickering The Ancient
Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, entitled le Pelerinage de I'Homme,
compared with the Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan.
This book was compiled from notes collected by the late Mr.
Nathaniel Hill, and contained a comparison of various passages from
Bunyan and from the second version of De Guileville's poem, as well
as an appendix consisting of long extracts from Lydgate's version
and a prose synopsis of many parts not thus quoted.
Nathaniel Hill's argument takes the following course. He first
points out the prevalence of allegorical writing for more than three
centuries before Bunyan, and then indicates the sources from which
liv* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan.
De Guileville and Bunyan "drew and embellished their com-
positions," viz. the Bible, chivalrous literature, and the traditional
literature of the people, such as ballads, chap-books, and the popular
romances of Guy of Warwick, etc.
After a dissertation on the great extent to which writers of
genius have made use of already existing literary material, Nathaniel
Hill goes on to bring forward evidences of the popularity of De
Guileville's Dream in England, such as Chaucer's translation of the
ABC poem to the Virgin, his imitation of the final passage in the
Book of the Duchess, and the numerous translations of it which exist,
both in prose and verse.
He gives a list of these versions, among which he includes,
however, several MSS. and one printed edition of the Pilgrimage of
the Soul. To these I have not had access, but most probably they
are translations of the second portion of De Guileville's great poem,
that of the pilgrimage " de lame separee du corps."
Next, ' ' in order still further to show the concurrence at least
of ideas, if not of diction between De Guileville and Bunyan "
Hill quotes a large number of passages from the French of De
Guileville and from Banyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and concludes with
various extracts from other poets such as Langiand, Walter Mapes,
Hampole, Dunbar and Hawes by means of which he designs to
illustrate some traditional forms of expression common in the 14th
and 15th centuries, and also used by Bunyan.
The general trend of his argument is, of course, to show that
Bunyan was acquainted with De Guileville's Pilgrimage and was
influenced by it to a considerable extent in writing his Pilgrim's
Progress. As his editors point out, " The late Mr. Nathaniel Hill
intended to have made the following Papers the groundwork of a
larger publication on the Pilgrim's Progress of Bunyan, in which
he proposed showing that Bunyan had been indebted, for many
portions of his story, to some of the early mediaeval Eomances."
His death prevented the carrying out of this design ; but as it
was 011 De Guileville's poem that Mr. Hill's views were principally
founded, this is the less to be regretted.
The question now to be considered is how far Mr. Hill proved
his case, and how far Bunyan appears really to have been influenced
by mediaeval writers, and especially by De Guileville.
That there are undoubted correspondences between the two
pilgrimages may be at once admitted.
Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Iv*
Each is in the similitude of a dream and describes the journey of
a pilgrim to the Celestial City. In each case a heavenly guide to
point out the way, to rebuke or to encourage, is given to the pilgrim ;
in Christian's case Evangelist, in De Guileville's Grace Dieu. Each
pilgrim also receives a mark of consecration, though De Guileville is
" crossyd " at his baptism, and Christian's mark in his forehead is
not given him until he stands before the Cross of Christ. Each is
beset in his path by difficulties and adversaries. Christian meets
with Worldly Wiseman, Apollyon, Vanity Eair and its inhabitants,
Demas who tempts him to turn aside for money, Giant Despair who
catches him as he wanders in By-Path meadow, the Elatterer,
Atheist and Ignorance. In De Guileville we get figures cor-
responding to all or nearly all of these. Beside Ignorance we may
place Eude Entendenient. Eor Apollyon we have Satan the Hunter,
for Demas, Avarice with her golden idol. Giant Despair catches the
pilgrim who seeks easy going in a by-path, the cord of Desperation is
ready for him who is overcome by Sloth.
For Vanity Eair we have the Sea of the World ; and for Envy,
Superstition, Lord Casual Delight, Lord Desire-of- Vain-Glory, Mr.
Malice, Mr. Love-Lust and the others we find Envy, Astrology,
Fortune, Conspiracy and Worldly Gladness, who possess between
them nearly all the amiable characteristics Bunyan has personified in
his description of the inhabitants of Vanity Fair.
Instead of Worldly Wiseman we have Reason and Nature, who
resent the doings of Grace Dieu as Worldly Wiseman scorns the
counsel of Evangelist.
The house of Grace Dieu in which the Pilgrim sees the wonders
of the ointments, the sword and keys and the sacramental change,
and hears the explanations of these things from Reason and Grace
Dieu, is represented in Bunyan by the Interpreter's House, in which
Christian is taught many profitable things ; and the " chaumbre ful
secree " into which Grace Dieu leads the Pilgrim to receive his
armour stands, perhaps for the House Beautiful in which Christian
is similarly endowed. The meaning of the armour is the same in
each narrative, and it even seems to me that I can perceive some
concurrence of idea in the fact that Grace Dieu suffers the Pilgrim
to go unarmed, save for sling and stone, while Faithful also passes on
his pilgrimage without visiting the House Beautiful or receiving the
There are other correspondences of a more or less doubtful
Ivi* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan.
character. The wicket-gate, placed by Bunyan at the beginning of the
path, is mentioned by De Guileville as the actual entry to the Celestial
City, while either Moral Virtue's gate or the river of baptism cor-
responds more nearly to Bunyan's wicket. (Nathaniel Hill compares
this river with the Slough of Despond.)
Christian and Faithful receive certificates on starting, which are
to be given in at the gate of the city when they arrive. De
Guile ville's Pilgrim is presented with a scrip and staff " wych al
pilgrymes ouhte to have," and which they leave outside the gate on
Christian receives a roll of promise after the sight of Christ's
Cross has freed him from his burden. De Guile ville's Pilgrim also
receives rolls at various times for his instruction or comfort, such as
the poems on the Creed and the Trinity, and the bill of Grace Dieu
containing the ABC, which is brought to him after he is cast off
by Fortune. In more close correspondence with Christian's roll,
however, is the Testament of Christ in which the gift of peace is
bequeathed to man.
But, close though some of these resemblances may seem to be,
the differences, and especially the implicit ones, are far more striking.
Thus, though both Christian and De Guileville's Pilgrim j are moved
by powerful impulses to go on pilgrimage, the manner of the incite-
ment is sharply contrasted, since in Christian's case the moving
cause is fear of judgment, while in De Guileville's it is the vision
of celestial happiness.
It must be noticed, however, that as Christian walks with
Pliable towards the wicket-gate, he discourses to him concerning the
Heavenly Kingdom in terms which bear some resemblance to those
of De Guileville's vision. (Lyd. 345-438.)
"There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlasting
life to be given us, that we may inhabit that kingdom for ever. . . .
There are crowns of glory to be given us ; and garments that will
make us shine like the sun in the firmament of heaven. . . . There
shall be no more crying nor sorrow ; for He that is owner of the
place will wipe all tears from our eyes. . . . There we shall be
with seraphims and cherubims, creatures that will dazzle your eyes
to look on them. There also you shall meet with thousands and ten
thousands that have gone before us to that place. None of them
are hurtful, but loving and holy, every one walking in the sight of
God, and standing in his presence with acceptance for ever. In a
Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Ivii*
word, there we shall see the elders with their golden crowns ; there
we shall see the holy virgins with their golden harps ; there we
shall see men that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames,
eaten of beasts, drowned in the seas, for the love that they bore to
the Lord of the place, all well, and clothed with immortality as with
Very marked is the difference between the ways in which the
two Pilgrims are freed from the burden of sin. To begin with,
Christian is conscious of the burden ; its presence is terrible to him
and he seeks earnestly to be rid of it. De Guile ville's Pilgrim has
apparently no sense of sin :
" What nedyth yt to wasshe me,
Or bathe, Avhen yt ys no nede ;
ffor I am clene washe in dede
ffrom al felth and unclennesse." (11. 970-973.)
and even after Grace Dieu's long explanation of the doctrine of
original sin, he does not appear to be inwardly convicted so much as.
convinced of the hopelessness of rebelling against authority :
" Tharme me sempte yt was but veyn,
More for me to speke a-geyn,
Or make replycacioun
Ageynys her oppynyoun." (11. 1291-1294.)
The Pilgrim is freed from this original sin by the washing of
baptism, but Christian bears his burden long after he has entered
upon the strait path, nor does he leave it in the Interpreter's House
(which, as above said, may be taken to correspond to the Church,
or house of Grace Dieu), but only before the Cross of Christ.
There is, however, a passage further on in the Pilgrimage, in
which the Pilgrim admits his inability to return to innocence through
his own efforts, and is directed by Grace Dieu to look for help to
the four parts of Christ's Cross (12441-12673), which may be com-
pared with the loosing of Christian's burden before the Cross.
Another point of difference is that De Guileville's allegory is a
pilgrimage of the life of man, and follows the Pilgrim from birth to
death (see 11. 643-651 and 1. 975) though the device by which an
infant is made to discuss the doctrine of original sin seems somewhat
lacking in even allegorical fitness, while the Pilgrim's Progress
only begins when Christian is first awakened to the sense of sin,
and deals purely with his spiritual experiences. The Pilgrimage
also is chiefly concerned with spiritual experiences, but when we
Iviii* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan.
reacli the part at which the Pilgrim enters the monastery, the
allegory frequently fails, and we are treated to long descriptions
which, though symbolical in a way, are yet distinct deviations from
the original path of the allegory, and represent rather objective
occurrences than the personal experiences of the soul.
But the greatest difference of all consists in the fact that De
Guile ville's poem is to a great degree an exposition and enforcement
of the chief doctrines of the Eoman Church, and the experiences
through which the Pilgrim passes are such as would best throw into
relief the powers and prerogatives of that Church. Thus all the
preparation which the Pilgrim receives for his journey is Church
preparation. He is baptized, he is instructed in the Sacraments, and
in the points of priestly dominion, he is taught (by the extraordinary
episode of the placing of his eyes in his ears) to rely upon authority
only, he is warned against too great reliance on reason, he is presented
" articles off our creaunce, ....
The wych wer mad (with-oute stryff)
(6911-69H) In hooly cherche prymytyff."
And then, finally , when he has passed through the various incidents
of his progress, and with stained conscience cries to God for help, it
is to penance and the discipline of the Church, as exercised in
monasteries, that Grace Dieu bids him resort in order to defend
(22111) " Ageyne the ffende and alle his myght."
We see therefore that the spirit pervading the Pilgrimage of the
Life of Man is, in spite of many resemblances of detail, very
different from that which animates the Pilgrim's Progress. This,
however, would not in itself be enough to prove that Bony an was
not influenced by the older* work, for we might well suppose that
if he were acquainted with the allegory he might adopt the general
idea and such details as pleased him, and throw them into a form
accordant with his Puritan theology, while rejecting all those parts
which were an offence to him.
But there are other arguments against this theory.
First we may notice that Bunyan is not at all likely to have had
any acquaintane with the Pilgrimage. Lyd gate's poem had never
been printed, only three copies of it are known, and therefore its
circulation must have been comparatively small ; nor can we suppose
that Bunyan, an unlearned man of low rank, would be likely to
Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. lix*
have access to such a manuscript, or that he would be able to read
it even if he had come across it. 1
We have what seems to be a fairly trustworthy record of the
meagreness of Bunyan's library. He was put to school as a boy
and taught to read and write, " the which I also attained, according
to the rate of other poor men's children, though to my shame I con-
fess I did soon lose that I had learned even almost utterly, and
that long before the Lord did work his gracious work of conver-
sion upon my soul."
We see, from this passage, that Bunyan cannot have read much
prior to his conversion. Serious books we know he avoided,
for he tells us that " when I have seen some read in those books
that concerned Christian piety, it would be, as it were, a prison
Books of a more worldly type were perhaps occasionally read by
him if we may take as embodying personal experience the passage
in Sighs from Hell where a lost sinner confesses to Abraham the
manner in which he treated the Scriptures. "The Scriptures,"'
thought I, " what are they ? . . . . Give me a ballad, a news-book,
George on Horseback, or Bevis of Southampton." But it is not
likely that such books were a great temptation to him, or we should
surely have had detailed reference to them, along with the other
temptations of his youth, in Grace Abounding.
It is expressly recorded that at his marriage his wife brought
him two books, The Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven and the
Practice of Piety, and that these he sometimes read. Foxe's Book
of Martyrs was one of his most cherished possessions, and Luther's
Commentary on Galatians, which he happened to come across in a
time of conflict and darkness, drew from him the testimony that he
preferred it before all the books that eve he had seen, excepting the
Holy Bible, as most fit for a wounded conscience.
So far, then, as we can gather from existing records these few
books, together with the Bible, formed his library. Of course it
is possible that there may have been others, but it is unprofitable to
speculate on the point since in one Book alone the Bible supple-
1 It is however true, as has been before noted, that a condensed English
Erose version of De Guileville's poem, a copy of which is found in St. John's
ibrary, Cambridge, existed in the seventeenth century ; and though it is not
very likely that Bunyan saw even this, it is possible that the story may have
been told to him by one who had done so.
Ix* Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan.
mented by Banyan's own experience, we may trace all the influences
necessary for the production of the Pilgrim's Progress.
As the numerous marginal references show, the very passage on
the Heavenly Jerusalem, which has been compared above with
Lydgate's description of the same, is drawn in almost every par-
ticular, and sometimes word for word, from the Bible. Christian's
armour is the armour of God described in Ephesians vi. 11-17. The
fight with Apollyon is an amplification of the text " Resist the devil
and he will flee from you" (James iv. 7). The description of the
Valley of the Shadow of Death is drawn from various passages in the
Psalms and in Job ; the origin of the idea of Vanity Fair is indicated by
many references, to the kingdoms of this world shown to our Lord
by the Tempter (Matt. iv. 8 ; Luke iv. 5, 6, 7); to the necessity for
passing through the temptations of the world (1 Cor. v. 10); to the
lamentations over the vanity of transitory things in Ecclesiastes.
All through the book the language of the Bible is employed ; the
figures and symbols used are those drawn from Holy Writ; the
doctrines insisted upon are supported by scriptural reference after
And what of the general course of the allegory and the per-
sonages represented in it] In almost every point it may be
brought into line with Banyan's own experiences. The course of
his early religious life his first awakening, his attempts to attain
righteousness by the deeds of the law, his despair when he dis-
covered the shallowness of this reformation, the instruction he
received from the Baptist minister, Mr. Gifford are all faithfully
reflected in the experiences of Christian as he travels towards the
wicket-gate, in his acceptance of the arguments of Worldly Wiseman,
in his struggles in the Slough of Despond, in the character and
words of Evangelist.
It was a sermon on the love of Christ which opened the wicket-
gate to Bunyan's soul, and revealed to him the mind of that One
who was "willing with all his heart" to let him in. In the
character and house of the Interpreter we may trace again the
figure of Mr. Gifford and the religious assembly over which he
presided ; in the terrible picture of the Valley of the Shadow of
Death we may follow the experience of those months of conflict
during which Bunyan was so tormented by spiritual tempta-
tions and by the influence of his early sins, that nothing but the
grace of God can have preserved the balance of his reason. It
Introduction, vi. Lydgate and Bunyan. Ixi*
was at this point that lie came upon Luther's Commentary on
Gcdatians; and, as Dr. Cheever points out, this may be " the original
of just that beautiful incident recorded in the progress of Christian
through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, where, when Christian
had travelled in this disconsolate condition some considerable time,
he thought he heard the voice of a man as going before him, saying,
' Though I walk through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I will
fear no ill, for Thou art with me.' This, doubtless, was Luther's
voice ; and by it Bunyan perceived that some others who feared God
might be in this valley as well as himself, and that God was with
]S"or can we fail to trace in the other personages of the allegory
a resemblance to many he must have met, especially in such
characters as Pliable, Talkative, Little Faith, Worldly Wiseman,
and the Judge and Jury in Vanity Fair, all of them types likely to be
produced by the political and religious conditions which prevailed at
the time when the Pilgrim's Progress was written.
It is unnecessary to pursue this line of argument further, and I
will conclude with Bunyan's own testimony to the originality of his
" The Bible and the Concordance," he says in one place,, '* are
my only library in my writings, and I never fished in other men's
Again, in the poetical preface to the Holy War, writing to defend
himself against the assertion that the Pilgrim's Progress was not
his, he says :
" It came from mine own heart, so to my head,
And thence into my fingers trickled ;
Then to my pen, from whence immediately
On paper I did dribble it daintily.
Manner and matter, too, was all mine own,
Kor was it unto any mortal known
Till I had done it ; nor did any then
By books, by wits, by tongues, or hand, or pen,
Add five words to it, or wrote half a line
Thereof ; the whole, and every whit, is mine."
In The Author's Apology for his BooJc prefixed to the Pilgrim's
Progress there is further evidence to the same effect. This apology
contains Bunyan's reasons for writing in the allegorical style, a style
which he defends by reference to the symbols and parables of Holy
Ixii* Introduction. VI. Lydgate and Bunyan.
Writ, and lie gives also an account of the inception and beginning
of the Pilgrim's Progress.
" When at the first I took my pen in hand
Thus for to write, I did not understand
That I at all should make a little book
In such a mode ; nay, I had undertook
To make another, which when almost clone,
Before I was aware, I thus begun.
And thus it was : I, writing of the way
And race of saints in this our gospel-day,
Fell suddenly into an allegory
About their journey and the way to glory,
In more than twenty things, which I set down ;
This done, I twenty more had in my crown ;
And they began again to multiply,
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly.
Nay then, thought I, if that you breed so fast,
I'll put you by yourselves, lest you at last
Should prove ad inftnitum, and eat out
The book that I already am about."
These extracts make it evident that Bunyan (even though further
on he declares that for the practice of using figures and similitudes
" Examples, too, and that from them that have
God better pleased by their words or ways
Than any man that breatheth now-a-days,")
was certainly not aware of being affected by any external influences.
Of course it is possible that there may have been literary influences
at work of which he was not conscious, and that the idea of the
dream, the journey from this world to the next, and perhaps a few
minor details may have been due to such. But it has been pointed
out that there is no necessity to resort to the theory, nor are the
correspondences between Lydgate's Pilgrimage and Bunyan's
Pilgrim's Progress sufficiently unmistakable to counterbalance the
improbability of the assumption that the younger writer should
ever have come across the work of the elder.
FIRST RECENSION OF DEGUILEVILLE'S " PELERINAGE DE
PARIS. Bibl. Nat. MS. Fonds. franc. Nos. 376, 823, 824, 1139, 1647,
1818, and many others. A complete list is given in the Roxburghe
edition of Deguileville's first recension (Stiirzinger).
LONDON. Brit. Mus. Add. 22937. Vellum. Les trois pelerinages,
Add. 25594. Vellum, 14th cent. Includes Pelerinage de la Vie
Humaine and Pelerinage de Fame. Both imperfect.
Harley, 4399. Vellum, 15th cent. Pelerinage de la Vie humaine.
Lib. of Lord Aldenham. The three Pilgrimages.
Lib. of A. H. Huth, Esq. The three Pilgrimages.
ASHBURNHAM PLACE. Lib. of Earl of Ash.
Coll. Barrois, 488. The first and second Pilgrimages.
Coll. Barrois, 74. The first Pilgrimage.
CHELTENHAM. Lib. of late Sir T. Phillipps. 3655. The first Pilgrimage.
SECOND RECENSION OF DEGUILEVILLE'S " PELERINAGE."
PARIS. Bibl. Nat. . frc. 377, 825, 829, 1138, 12466.
Bibl. de V Arsenal, 3646.
Bibl. de VInstitut, 20.
ST. PETERSBURG. Bibl. Imperiale. F. xiv, No. 11.
HAIGH HALL. Lib. of Earl of Crawford. Fr. 4.
LOND. Brit. Mus. The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, by Lydgate,
englished from the second recension of Deguileville's Pelerinage.
Three MSS. exist, viz.
15 cent. Cotton Coll. Vitellius C. xm. The Pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Vellum, imperfect at the beginning.
14 cent. Cotton Coll. Tiberius A 7. The Pilgrim. Vellum, imperfect.
Pilgrimage of the world, by commandement of the Earle of Salisbury,
1426. Alluded to by Thomas Speght, in his list of Lydgate's works
at the end of his Siege of Thebes. Fol. 394 in Chaucer's Workes,
1598, ed. Speght.
This must be the Stowe MS. 952, as Speght says it is " in the custodie
of" John Stowe.
Ixiv* Introduction. Bibliography.
PABIS. Imp. Lib. Nos. 1137, 1646. Le livre du pelerinage de vie
humaine. Jean Gallopes.
Ditto, in Lord Aldenham's Library. According to the armorial bearings
therein, this copy belonged to Rene de Laval, cousin of Jeanne de
Laval, third wife of King Rene of Naples.
OXFORD. Bodl. The Pilgrimage of Man. (Laud Misc. 740.)
Univ. Coll. and Corpus Christi. (These last two MSS. have not yet
been collated, but are believed to be both of the same version.)
CAMBRIDGE. University Library. (Ff. 5. 30). Pilgrimage of the Lyf of
the Manhode. About 1430, On vellum. An almost literal transla-
tion of Deguileville's first recension.
Univ. Lib. (Ff. 6. 30.) The Pilgrime, or the Pilgrimage of Man in
this World. Wherin y e Authour doth plainly & truly sett forth y e
wretchednes of mans life in this World, without Grace, our sole
Protectour. Written in y 6 yeare of X*, 1331.
Colophon. "Written according to y* first copy. The originall being in
St John's College in Oxford (now in Bodleian), and thither given by
Will Laud, Archt>p. of Canterbury, who had it of Will. Baspoole,
who before he gave to y 6 Archfcp. the originall, did copy it out. By
which it was verbatim written by Walter Parker, 1645, and fr5
thence transcribed by G. G. 1649. And fro thence by W. A. 1655."
St. John's College. (G. 21.) Northern dialect.
Magdalene College. MS. Pepys 2258. Same title as Ff. 6. 30. Univ. Lib.
The colophon runs : " Heere ends the Romance of the Monke which
he wrote of the Pilgrimage of the life of the manhoode, which he
made for the good pilgrims of this world that they may know such
way as may bring them to ye joyes of Heaven. Pray for him yt
made it & gratis 1 writt it for the love of good Christians in the
yeare one thousand three hundred thirty & one."
Folio, illustrated with coloured drawings.
GLASGOW. Hunterian Museum. Q. 2. 25.
OXFORD. Le romant des trois pelerinaiges. Paris. B. and J. Petit.
Printed by B. Rembolt. Douce, D. subt. 58. 4. Also in Brit. Mtis.
and in the Library of Mr. Alfred Huth.
Le pelerinage de Fhomme. Nouvellemet imprime a pan's. Le qua-
triesme iour dauril mil cinq cens et onze deuat Pasques Pour anthoine
Verard demourant en la dicte Ville. (Douce, G. 285.) (Also in
Le pelerin de vie hurnaine tres utile et proffitable pour cognoistre
soyrnesmes. Known to be by Jean Gallopes, though he does not
give his name. This version was made by order of " Dame Jehane
de Laual royne de Iherusalem et de Secille, duchesse daniou et de
Bar contesse de Prouence." Printed at Lyon by Claude Nourry in
1504. (Douce, P. 339.)
Delft Edition. " Die is dat boeck vanden pelgrim welck boeck nuttich
ende profitelick is alien kersten menschen te leren den wech welcken
wech men sculdich is te ghaen ofte laten, die haer pelgrimagie
doen moeten in deser warelt tot de ewighe leuen." (Douce, 46.)
1 Should this be gart caused, as in another copy ?
Introduction. Bibliography. Lxv*
Colophon. " Hier eyndt dat boeck vanden pelgrym. En is gheprincte
Delf in Hollant. By mi heynrick Eckert van Homberch, Intiaer ons
heeren M.cccc vin. den vutsten dach van april." The Royal Library
at the Hague contains another edition of this book, printed at
Haarlem, similar to the Delft edition in illustrations and text, except
that a few words, relating how the author awoke from his dream,
are added at the end, and that there are some variations in spelling.
" The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guilleville, entitled Le Pelerinage
de 1'Homme, compared with the Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan,
edited by notes collected by the late Mr. Nathaniel Hill," 1858.
A modern prose Translation (that is, Abstract) of ... The Pylgrimage
of Man. Lond. 1859. Isabella K. Oust.
Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode. Ed. by W. Aldis Wright.
Roxburghe Club publication 1869. (From the MS. Ff. 5. 30, in the
University Library, Cambridge.)
Le Pelerinage de vie humaine. Ed. by J. J. Stiirzinger, Roxburghe
Club, 1893. First recension.
" The Peregrination of Mannes Lyfe," enumerated by Skelton as among
his prose works. Warton (Hist, of Eng. Poetry, III, 163, ed. 1824)
thinks this may have been a translation "from the French, perhaps
of Guillaume, prior of Chaulis," (Not extant.)
On the fly-leaf of Verard's edition is the following MS. note : " This
Romance had been printed in the Castilian language as early as
1480 under the following title' El peregrinage de la vida humana
compuesto por Fray Guillelmo de Gralleville Abad de Senlis,
traduzido en volgar Castillano por Fray Vincentio Mazuello en
Tolosa por Henrique Aleman, 1480, in folio. V. Marchand, hist, de
The book in Queen's College Library, Oxford, called in the catalogue
"The booke of the pilgrymage of Man. (Translated into English
metre, by an anonymous writer, from a prose version by William
Hendred, Prior of Leominster, of the French work of Guillaume
de Guillerville.) London, Richard Faques (about 1525 ?)" is not a
translation of the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, but is quite a different
As above noted, the second recension of Deguileville's poem, which
is the version afterwards put into English by Lydgate, exists in
England in MS. in Lord Crawford's Library, and in print in the
Brit. Mus., in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and in the library of
Mr. Alfred Huth. In both the Brit, Mus. and the Bodleian we find
(1) Le romant des trois Pelerinaiges. Le premier pelerinaige est de
1'homme durat quest en vie,
Le second de lame separee du corps.
Le tiers est de nostreseignr iesus en forme de monotesseron : cest a
sauoir les quatre euagiles mise en une : et le tout magistralenient
cointemet et si utilemet pour le salut de lame quon ne pourront
mieulx dire ne escrire, fait et compose p 2 frere guillaume de deguile-
vilie en son vitrat moyne de chaaliz de lordre de cisteaux.
This edition was printed in Paris by B. Rembolt for Bartholde and
Jehan Petit. It bears no date, but is ascribed by Stiirzinger to
about the year 1500.
(2) Le pelerinage de 1'homme. nouelleinet imprime a paris. Le qua-
triesine iour da mil mil cinq .cens et onze deuat Pasques. Pour
Ixvi* Introduction. Bibliography.
anthoine Verard demourant en ladicte Ville Et a le roy nostre sire
donne an dit Verard lettres de priuilege et terme de trois ans pour
Vendre et distribuer ses ditz liures afBn desire rembourse de sea
fraiz et mises et deffend le dit seigneur a tous libraires / imprimeurs
et autres de ce royaulme de imprimer ce present liure iusques apres
trois ans du iour de la date cy dessus mise sur peine de confiscation
des ditz liures. This edition (which contains only the first of the
three pilgrimages) is slightly different from that of B. and J. Petit.
The differences, in most cases, are verbal variations not affecting the
sense, though in a few places the wording of as many as four or
five lines is distinct. The prose prayer according to St. Bernard is
present in Verard, but in Petit is replaced by about a page of De
Guile ville's verse.
The other differences are editorial. Verard contains a table of contents
according to the chapters, Petit has an alphabetical table. Each
contains a Prologue du Correcteur, identical as to the earlier verses.
In the last verse, however, there is a variation, according as the
publication of the book had to be ascribed to Bertholde (Petit)
or to Anthoine Verard, and Petit's Prologue contains two extra
verses, which explain that the Jerusalem spoken of in the poem is
the Celestial Jerusalem, and that the contents of the book must be
understood "rnoralement et non pas literalement."
THE MSS. OF LYDGATE'S POEM.
Cotton. Vitellius C. 13. Brit. Mus. Vellum. Folio.
THIS MS. belonged to the collection of Sir R. Cotton, and was injured
in the fire at his library. It has been burnt and torn at the top, with the
result that the script in this part of the pages is frequently illegible.
Otherwise, however, it is in good condition, and, with the exception of
fol. 1, the ink has kept its colour well.
The script, which is fifteenth century in character, is small, neat and
The MS. is written in black ink, without illustrations, ornamental
capitals or decoration, although spaces for illustrations have been left.
Red ink has been used to touch up the initial letters of the lines as far as
fol. 155, and red ink headings and phrases are to be found, but in some
parts they are written in black, as are also the occasional sidenotes. Here
and there the headings have been omitted, and have been put in by
another and later hand.
Portions of the cover and fly-leaves remain. The fly-leaf at the end is
scribbled over in various hands on one side, and on the reverse is a note :
" Our Ladye's A. B. C. 50 leafes from the end." In the MS., however,
the A. B. C. does not appear, though there is a blank left for it.
The MS. consists of 311 folios, including fly-leaves, and contains about
21,600 lines of Lydgate's poem, about 3,200 lines being missing. The
principal gaps occur after fol. 253, between the lines
"I holde thys false pardownerys" (1. 17901), and
"And fro my whel when they are falle" (1. 19551).
The next considerable gap comes at fol. 286, between the lines
"Ma dame then anoon quod I" (1. 21949), and
"How euerych dede in his degre" (1. 23367),
and after fol. 241
"That they resowne no maner thyng" (1. 16080), to
" Wych by the ground ful lowe lay " (1. 17062),
which passage includes th.e whole of the prayer according to St.
Cott. Tiberius A. 7. Brit. Mus. Vellum. Quarto.
The volume in which this Lydgate MS. is found contains also some
Latin Chronicles and Poems. The fragment of Lydgate's poem begins at
p. 39 of the volume with the conversation between the Pilgrim and
Avarice, at 1. 18313, "May into heven have none entre," and consists of
rather less than 4000 lines.
The first page is much stained, and at intervals throughout the MS.
there are portions scorched or injured by the use of galls, but in most
cases the injury is not enough to render the script illegible. At fol. 98 of
Ixviii* Introduction. The MSS.
the volume, however, the work of the fire becomes more evident, and as
we go on we find that the MS. becomes illegible in the midst of the
conversation between the Pilgrim and Obedience, and ends with fol. 106
of the volume. After fol. 62 some leaves are missing after the catch-
words, "Or what answere" (1. 19712), until "Thys tooknys nor thys
bowys grene" (1. 20416), and also after fol. 64, from "And in this world
(bothe fer & ner) " (1. 20557), to "That god wolde helpe me on my weye"
(1. 20812). The fragment ends with 1. 23676, "Arid the fatte away thei
The MS., which is on vellum, is beautifully written in a neat and very
legible fifteenth-century hand, and is illustrated with fifty-three coloured
drawings. It is also decorated on several pages with tail-pieces of a
floral design, enclosing catch-words intended to secure the sequence of
The MS. is written in black ink, proper names, some notable phrases,
and the few sidenotes being in red. The capitals are in red and blue,
with elaborate red flourishes, which in some cases extend nearly the whole
length of the page.
The illustrations, although grotesque, are not lacking in a rude impres-
siveness, and the figures often have considerable vigour of action and
expression, in spite of the imperfections of the drawing.
The illustrations represent the following subjects :
(1) Avarice and Death showing their boxes.
(2) The martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
(3) Avarice and Youth.
(4) The Pilgrim and the Messenger of Necromancy.
(5) The pavilion of Necromancy.
(6) The Messenger demonstrates how spirits are raised.
The Duke of Frieseland refuses to be baptized.
Necromancy, the Messenger and the Pilgrim.
Heresy calls to the Pilgrim.
Heresy trying to reshape the Pilgrim's scrip.
Satan and Heresy trying to catch the Pilgrim in nets.
Satan and Heresy casting nets into the sea.
Satan fishing for Pilgrims in the sea.
A hermit, deceived by Satan, kills his own father.
Satan the hunter lamenting.
The Pilgrim swimming in the sea.
The Pilgrim cast on Fortune's Wheel.
Fortune on her Wheel.
A carpenter kneeling before an idol in the house of Idolatry.
An altar-piece of Christ, Apostles, Prophets and Martyrs.
The Pilgrim caught by Sorcery.
(22) The school of Satan, in which Sorcery learnt.
(23) The Pilgrim, on an island, is attacked by Conspiracy.
(24) Two kings, and the treacherous soldiers of one surrendering to the
25) The Pilgrim on an island in the sea.
26) The Pilgrim and the flaming tower.
(30 The Pilgrim lamenting on his island.
(31) The ship of Religion comes to the Pilgrim.
(32) Grace Dieu descends from the ship to meet the Pilgrim.
Worldly Gladness, a bird-man, flying to the Pilgrim.
The worldly joys of love and gambling.
Worldly Gladness casts the Pilgrim into the sea.
Introduction. The MSS. Ixix*
(33) Grace Dieu descends from the ship to meet the Pilgrim.
(34) Grace Dieu shows the Pilgrim the bath of Repentance.
(35) The Pilgrim in the bath of Repentance.
(36) Grace Dieu shows the Pilgrim four monasteries.
(37) The Pilgrim before the porter of the monastery of Citeaux.
(38) The refectory at Citeaux.
(39) The Pilgrim meets Lady Lesson in the monastery.
(40) Hagiography shows her books to the Pilgrim.
(41) Hagiography shows her mirrors to the Pilgrim.
(42) A king being deceived by flatterers.
(43) The Pilgrim looking in the mirror of Conscience.
(44) The Pilgrim with Obedience and Abstinence.
(45) The dead serving the living at table in the monastery.
(46) Chastity making beds. Wilful Poverty singing.
(47) Wilful Poverty speaking to the Pilgrim.
(48) W T ilful Poverty shows Impatient Poverty to the Pilgrim.
(49) The Pilgrim and Dame Chastity with her mailed hands.
(50) The Pilgrim and Prayer.
(51) The Pilgrim, Prayer and two skeletons,
(52) The Pilgrim finds the handmaid Latria, blowing a horn.
(53) Abusion with her mason's rule and spoon. (This illustration is not
correctly placed in the MS.)
Stowe 952. Brit. Mus. Paper. Quarto.
This MS. belonged to John Stowe, the Elizabethan tailor and collector
of MSS. and antiquities, and consists of 379 folios in which are contained
the whole of Lydgate's poem. The passage from 1. 16081 to I. 17062,
including the prayer of St. Bernard, is found only in this MS. as is also the
case with 11. 17901-18312. Up to fol. 304 the Stowe MS. is written in a
late fifteenth-century hand, but the remainder of the poem, beginning at
1. 17198,' 'She held also a gret ballaunce," has been copied by Stowe
himself from another MS.
At fol, 3 occurs the following note in Stowe's writing : " pilgrimage
de monde, y e pilgrimage of y e world, translated out of Frenche into
Englyshe by John Lydgate, monke of bery at y e comandement of y e earle
Following this is a note in another hand : "Thomas Montacute, E. of
Sa : in the tyme of H. 6. He was slayne at the siege of Orleans by a
bullet of stone, shot from the enemy e's fort as he was looking out at a
windowe from a high Tower that overlookd the cittye. He dyed 3 dayes
after his wounding, being the 3 of Novemb. 1428 7 H. 6. His bodye was
brought into England & buryed in the Abbey of Bristleham or Brickham
On p. 1 is the name W. Browne, which may possibly indicate that the
MS. was originally the property of the author of Britannia's Pastorals.
The hand in which the first two-thirds of the MS. are written is much
less compact and neat than that of either Vitell. c. XIII or Tib. A. VII,
as the scribe has made much use of flourished capitals and long tails to his
letters. It is, however, legible for this style of writing.
GUILLAUME DE GUILEVILLE.
OF the author of the Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine practically nothing is
known besides what can bo gathered from the poem. From this we learn
that Deguileville was a monk of the Abbey of Chalis, in Valois, near Senlis,
founded by St. Louis, and that he wrote there in the years 1330-31 a poem
recording a vision which he had had.
" Pourtant le dye car une foiz
L'an mil trois ces dix & trois foiz
Ung songe vy bien merueilleux
Lequel ainsi com sommeilleux
J'eseriptz a mon reueillement." (Ver. fol. i. back.)
In the commission of Reason against Rude Entendement the date 1331
This first recension of the poem was stolen from him before he
had been able to put it into final shape, and after the MS. was stolen it
was copied, and copies of the unauthorised version were dispersed through-
out France. Displeased at this, Deguileville undertook the immense task
of rewriting the poem and issuing the new version to all those places in
which copies of the first recension were to be found. This second version
was not made until twenty-five or twenty-six years after the first, as we
learn from the envoy to his dream :
" Et si soyes loyal messaige
De trestout mon pelerinaige
Disant a tous comment mauint
Passe a des ans vingt cinq
Du monastere de chaliz
Qui fut funde par sainct loys." (fol. ii.)
In Lydgate's version (1. 304) "syx and twenty yer" is the time men-
Besides the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, De Guileville wrote also
the Pelerinage de VAme, containing an account of the judgment of the
soul, and its passage through Purgatory, and the Pelerinage de Jesus crist.
We learn from the first recension of the first pilgrimage that De Guile-
ville was thirty-six years of age at the time that it was written. 1 He must
therefore have been born about 1294 or 1295. The date of his death is not
known, but in the prologue to the Pelerinage de Jesus crist there is a men-
tion of the date "Lan mil trois cens cinquante huit," which proves that he
must at least have passed the age of sixty-four.
The name of the poet's father was Thomas de guillevyle.
1 "Thou hast nourished him (the body) .... A gret while it is that thou
bigunne and neuere sithe stindedest Thouh j seide 36^' winter j failede j trowe
but litel." (Camb.)
Guillaume de Guileville. lxxi<
" God is thy ffader tak lied her to
And thow art hys sone also
ttbr of Thomas de guillevyle
Thow art not sone on that party."
(MS. Cott. VitelL C XIII, fol. 147.)
He was called William after his godfather :
" Guyllyam ffor-sothly he hyhte
Hys surname I nat ne knew." (Lydgate, 1. 1308-9.)
and he had as his patron saint St. William of Chalis, " the abbot of
Chalyt, thy good patroun seint William."
De Visch speaks of him as a Parisian by birth and as monk and prior
of Chalis. Jean Galoppes, the author of the prose version of the Pilgrim-
age, also speaks of him as " Guillaume prieur de 1'abbaye de Chaaliz."
De Guileville remained in the abbey of Chalis for thirty-nine years :
" for taccounte the terme entier
the space of XXXIX yere
I was bound of volunte." (1. 23029-31.)
From these dates we may gather that he was born in 1294, entered the
monastery at the age of twenty-two in 1316, wrote the first version of
his poem at the age of thirty-six in 1330, and the second version in 1355,
after he had been thirty-nine years a monk.
Meyer says " I'auteur tirait son surnom de Digulleville, commune de
1'arrondissement de Cherbourg, canton de Beaumont-Hague." The only
other fact of Deguileville's life that seems clear is that he was acquainted
with Jean de Meun (b. 1250, d. 1322 c.), the author of the second part of
the Romance of the Rose :
" I knowe that man fful wel
With every maner cycumstaunce,
Wych that made that Romaunce."
(Lydgate, p. 358-9, 11. 13214-16.)
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Lydgate's Prologue, stating that he began to translate De Guile-
ville's work in 1426, at the command of Lord Salisbury ... 1-5
The Prologue of the Author, who complains that his book was
taken from him before it was corrected 6-9
How the Author sees in a mirror a vision of the Holy City of the
celestial Jerusalem, and those who enter therein, and the
manner of their entering, by which he is moved to go on
How the Author, in seeking for the Pilgrim's scrip and bordoun
(staff), finds Grace Dieu, who teaches him how he should
govern himself, and promises to help him 18-22
How Grace Dieu leads the Author, who wishes to be a Pilgrim,
into her house ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23
The Pilgrim comes to the river of baptism, and Grace Dieu
explains to him the doctrine of Original Sin and the necessity
of being baptized 23-34
The Pilgrim is washed in baptism by Grace Dieu, assisted by an
Advocate and an Official ... ... ... ... ... 35-36
The Pilgrim sees in the house of Grace Dieu a vicar (Moses)
who confirms him ... ... ... ... ... ... 37-38
The ointments for the use of Pilgrims ... ... ... ... 38-39
Reason declares to the Vicar and the Official what is the use of the
ointments ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 39-42
The reason why Moses is horned, and how he should treat sinners 42-51
Two Pilgrims, a man and a woman, join together in the house of
Grace Dieu to make their pilgrimage ... ... ... ... 51-53
How the Pilgrim sees that several are made by Moses officers of
his house ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53
Reason tells the officers how they should conduct themselves ... 54-58
Moses appoints minor officers ... ... ... ... ... 58-60
Moses gives sword, keys, and Grace Dieu to the officers ,.. ... 61
Grace Dieu explains to the Pilgrim that she is the common help
of all Pilgrims 62-63
Reason declares to the officers why the sword and keys are given
to them 64-75
The Pilgrim asks Moses to give him the sword and the keys, but
only receives partial power over them. The reason 75-86
The Pilgrim sees that Moses, by the aid of Grace Dieu, transforms
the bread and wine of his dinner into flesh and blood, giving
power to his officials to do likewise ... ... ... ... 86-88
Table of Contents.
The Pilgrim hears Nature revile Grace Dieu, because she inter-
feres with her ordinances by changing bread and wine
into flesh and blood ^ 89-96
Grace Dieu explains that Nature is subject to her will ... 97-105
The Pilgrim sees Penance with her broom Confession, her
hammer Contention, and her rod Satisfaction, with which
she reforms men ... ... ... ... ... ... 106-122
Charity explains her office to the Pilgrim, and reads the Testa-
ment of Jesus Christ ... ... ... ... ... ... 122-133
The Pilgrims receive the Sacrament ... ... ... ... 134-136
Grace Dieu teaches the Pilgrim concerning the change of bread
and wine into flesh and blood, and explains how Charity
and Sapience made the bread ... ... ... ... 136-145
Aristotle, sent by Nature, argues with Sapience because one part
of the loaf of the Eucharist has the virtue of the whole ... 145-147
Sapience tells Aristotle that she did not teach him all her arts,
and confutes his arguments , 147-162
Grace Dieu instructs the Pilgrim concerning his five senses.
She then shows him the scrip and the bordoun, declaring
what the scrip signifies 162-184
Grace Dieu gives the Pilgrim a Latin writing, which contains
the Credo at length 184-190
How Grace Dieu teaches the Pilgrim what the bordoun and its
pommels mean 190-194
Grace Dieu gives the Pilgrim two Latin poems on GOD in
Trinity and the Virgin Mary 194-201
Grace Dieu gives scrip and bordoun to the pilgrim 201
Grace Dieu wishes to arm the Pilgrim, and shows him her
The Pilgrim arms himself with the armour of Grace Dieu, but
cannot endure nor wear it 228-232
Grace Dieu gives to the Pilgrim the five stones with which
David slew Goliath, and suffers his arms to be carried by
his chamberer, who is the memory of past times 233-244
Grace Dieu blames the Pilgrim for refusing to wear armour.
She tells him his body is a foe, to be subdued, and explains
the difference between body and soul ... ... ... 245-282
Grace Dieu withdraws from the Pilgrim's sight, and he finds in
his path Rude Entendement, who hinders him ... ... 282-285
Reason displays her commission from Grace Dieu, and delivers
the Pilgrim from Rude Entendement 285-301
The Pilgrim finds in his path Youth, who is feathered about the
feet and is playing with a ball. She goes with him ... 302-307
The Pilgrim finds at a parting of the ways Labour and Idle-
ness, and asks the way 307-308
Labour advises him to take the right-hand path, and discourses
about social differences 309-315
Idleness tells him to take the left-hand path 315-320
Table of Contents. Ixxv*
The Pilgrim speaks to Moral Vertue, who tells him to take the
right-hand path, and to beware of turning aside 320-326
The Pilgrim finds in his path a spirit, who is speaking to his
crucified body ... 326-331
Grace Dieu explains how the body hinders the soul, and points
the Pilgrim to the Cross of Christ for help 332-344
The Pilgrim is led by Youth into the wrong path 344-346
The Pilgrim is assailed on his way by Gluttony. The con-
versation which he has with her ... ... ... ... 346-355
The Pilgrim is assailed by Venus, who describes her doings ... 355-365
Gluttony and Venus bind and ill-treat the Pilgrim and another 366-370
How the Pilgrim is caught and bound by Sloth, and of the con-
versation that they hold together 371-378
The Pilgrim meets Pride riding on an ugly old woman. She
describes her lineage, character and instruments ... ... 378-394
Pride's servant Flattery 395-398
The Pilgrim meets Envy and her two daughters. The lineage
and characteristics of Envy, and her conversation ... 398-403
Envy's daughter Treason 403-410
Envy's daughter Detraction ... 410-417
The Pilgrim fights with Envy and her daughters ... ... 417-418
The Pilgrim is assailed by Wrath, and defends himself with his
Tribulation aad her two Commissions from Adonay and Satan.
She casts the Pilgrim to the ground and beats him at her
will. They converse together 425-436
The Pilgrim in his great trouble makes his prayer to our Lady,
according to the counsel of St. Bernard, and Tribulation
leaves him ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 437-458
The Pilgrim finds Avarice, who has six hands and a hump and
an idol on her head, and asks her the meaning of these
Avarice shows the Pilgrim how she is the ruin of churches and
The meaning of the six hands and of the deformity of Avarice 468-490
Of Avarice's idol 491-492
How the Pilgrim escapes from Avarice and finds a Messenger
who wishes to lead him to the pavilion of his mistress
Necromancy, and of the conversation they hold together
about invocations ... ... ... ... ... ... 493-505
The Pilgrim meets Heresy, who wishes him to re-model his
scrip ... 505-507
The Pilgrim finds Satan in the form of a Hunter, who is spread-
ing nets and lines upon the sea and the land. Their
conversation concerning the sea and the people swimming
in it ... 507-517
Table of Contents.
The Pilgrim, trusting in his staff, begins to swim in the sea, but
is cast up on Fortune's wheel 518-525
The Pilgrim, being in great peril in the sea, makes a prayer to
the Virgin Mary, the stanzas of which commence accord-
ing to the letters of the alphabet 525-533
The Pilgrim finds on an island Astronomy and Astrology, who
argue with him about the influence of the stars 534-550
The four disciples of Astrology, especially Geomancy 551-554
The Pilgrim re-enters the sea and swims to another island,
where he finds Idolatry and sees a churl worshipping an
image , 555-561
The Pilgrim, being on an island, is seized by Sorcery or Bithal-
assus, who tells fortunes by the hand and face 561-568
The Pilgrim, being on a rock, is assailed by the Enchantress
Conspiracy and her dogs 569-572
The Pilgrim sees in a trance a revolving tower, in which is
Syren, or worldly gladness, who tells him the meaning of
the tower, and casts him into the sea, whence he escapes by
the aid of Youth 573-577
Grace Dieu brings a ship to the Pilgrim, who is lamenting his
fate on a desert island 578-581
Grace Dieu causes the Pilgrim to wash in the cistern of the tears
of repentance 582-587
Grace Dieu causes the Pilgrim to enter the ship, in which are
several castles 588-590
The Pilgrim chooses, in the ship of Grace Dieu, the castle of
Citeaux, and comes before the Porter, Dread of GOD, in
order to enter it 590-592
The Pilgrim finds in the cloister of Cfteaux Lesson and Hagio-
The Pilgrim meets Obedience with her File Discipline, and
Abstinence, with her Gorger Sobriety 603-604
In the house of Citeaux the Pilgrim sees Chastity, Poverty, and
Impatient Poverty, and converses with them 605-608
The Pilgrim finds in the Monastery Prayer, with her box and
targe, acting as messenger to Heaven 609-612
The handmaid Latria, who keeps the Castle 612-613
Obedience binds the feet and hands of the Pilgrim 614-615
Detraction, Treason, and Envy break into the Castle, and
wickedly torment and beat the Pilgrim ... ... ... 615-618
The Pilgrim complains of the evil done to him by Detraction,
Treason, and Envy, but refuses to curse them as Ovid bids
An Acrostic on the name of Giiillaume de Deguileville ... 621-623
The King orders the arrest of the Pilgrim's foes 624-626
The Pilgrim visits religious orders. Grace Dieu shows him an
ill-conditioned Convent with Abusion at its head, and tells
him what shall be the fate of such houses . 626-640
Table of Contents. Ixxvii*
Purveyance shows the Pilgrim where she puts the goods of her
Abbey, and how they are wasted 640-643
The Pilgrim meets Apostasy 643-646
Old Age and Sickness warn the Pilgrim of the approach of
Mercy comforts the Pilgrim, being sick ... ... ... ... 652-G58
The Messengers, Prayer and Alms. The Pilgrim chooses Prayer
as his messenger to Paradise 658-661
Death assails the Pilgrim, and causes him to render up his
BY F. J. FURNIVALL.
"LADIES first" is a good rule, so my Forewords of 1899 to
Part I, together with these Afterwords, had better follow Miss
Locock's Introduction, etc.
Two mistakes on p. vi have to be corrected.
1. It is only iu MSS. of the 2nd version of De Guileville that the
British Museum is deficient: of prints it has both Petit's (?1500)
and Verard's (1511) of the 3 pilgrimages, man, the soul, and Jesus
Christ. 2. For 'husband's' in the last line of note 3, read 'father's.'
No conclusive evidence has yet been produced that Thomas Chaucer
was Geoffrey's son.
To the top list on p. xi of to run into its next vowel-beginning
tadwellyd, 260/9422, to have dwelt.
tassaye, 262/9502, to assay, try.
tassaylle, 276/10,059, to assail.
Compare (make) maryue, 270/9802, me arrive.
With regard to the supposed omission in the prose tract on the
Virgin as the Consolation of Afflicted Hearts, p. 447, the original
Latin in Verard's edition of 'Le pelerinage de Ihomme,' Fueillet,
Ixv, col. 1 at foot, shows that nothing is left out. Lydgate's words at
the foot of p. 446 and on p. 447, english and paraphrase this Latin :
" Et ideo tibi possum dicere illud Hieremie xiiii 1 : * Spes mea tu /
in die afflictionis.' Et hec est prima cowsolatio mea, que est mentis
spes oppresse percipio ad oculum. Tu secuwda consolatio mea est,
quia cum desinat [coL 2] mundus esse, non desinis in seculum, Tu
es. Si visione stelle maris oculum mundi clauclente nocturne super-
cilio galidewt nauigantes in mari / non solum quia mica?is et rutillans
apparet, sed etiam quia semper fixa existens, errawtes ipsos diriget, &
ntmquam te?idit ad occasum ; multomagis ego, in mari hoc magno et
spacioso 2 positus, in mari utiqwe vbi sunt reptilia quorum non est
1 That is, xvii. 17: 'Non sis tu mihi formidiiii, spes mea tu in die
afflictionis.' 2 spaciosa, Verard.
xiv Afterwords. Lydgcdes Poetic, Worth.
numerus in marl, vbi circumquaqwe vndis tribulationum impetu et
perflatu spiritus procellarum concutitur cordis mei / gaudete & con-
solari debeo, turn cognosce et scio te esse signum directum veniendi
ad salutis portum, dum percipio te verissimam stellam maris. Stel-
lam, iuquam, a stando dictam. ..."
For 1. 16945, etc., the poem on pages 454-5, Verard's edition,
Fueillet, Ixvi back, col. 1, has :
"Ergo beafa miseros, quorum te clausa beauit, Ecce quomodo te
iura te vendicare possum, esse refugium meum, Hieremie .xvi. 
' fortitude mea 1 et robur meum [et refugium raeum] in die tribula-
tionis,' Et in hoc consistit quarta cowsolatio mea, quia ius exigit, et
necesse esse michi hoc patulum Meum. Et sic te vendico esse illam
per quam credo consolari, cum dico ' Tu es refugium meum.' 2
Secundo tibi fatur expresse a quo scio me fugari A tribulatione.
[16983 L.] Si dicere vellem quod voluntate spontanea ad te venis-
sem, quod deuotione non coacta ad te fugissem, vere et in me veritas
nulla esset, et oculos tue circumspectionis latere numqwaw posset." . .
Supposing that the Latin tract printed by Yerard was a copy of
that in the MS. which Lydgate used, he has treated it with great
freedom, adding to it in many places, and shortening it in others.
The French lines that are substituted for it in Petit's edition which
I promist, in the note on p. 624 of the text, to print here, have already
been printed by Miss Locock on p. 684.
In mitigation of the general opinion as to the poorness of
Lydgate's verse, Prof. Churton Collins urges that credit should
be given him for some beautiful lines one out of more than a
hundred poor stanzas in his Testament, and in other works where
he describes the spring and outward nature. The Testament stanza
is the 118th and last :
" Tarry no longer toward thy heritage ;
Haste on thy way, & be of right good chere ;
Go each day onward on thy pilgrimage ;
Think how short time thou shalt abiden here !
Thy place is built above the starres clere,
No earthly palace wrought so stately-wise ;
Come on my friend, my brother, most entere !
For thee I gave my blood in sacrifise."
Minor Poems (1840), p. 261 (modernised & emended).
1 meo, Verard.
2 Tu es refugium meum a tribulatione. Ps. xxxi. 7. Fortitude mea et
refugium meum es tu. Ps. xxx. 4. Firmamentum meum et refugium meum es
tu. Ps. Ixx. 3.
Afterwords. Lydgate s Poetic Worth. xv
The poet Gray's praise of him should also be rememberd. See
" Some Remarks on the Poems of John Lydgate " in Gray's Works,
Aldine edition, 1858, v. 292, etc., or i. 387-409, etc., ed. Gosse,
p. 397. " To return to Lydgate. I do not pretend to set him on
a level with his master, Chaucer, but he certainly comes the nearest
to him of any contemporary writer that I am acquainted with.
His choice of expression, and the smoothness of his verse, far surpass
both Gower and Occleve" p].
Gray then cites five stanzas on the condemnation to death of
Canace for incest with her brother Macareus, including her appeal
for their child :
But welaway ! most angelik of face,
Our childe, young in his pure innocence,
Shall, agayn right, suffer death's violence,
Tender of limhes, God wote, full guilteless,
The goodly faire, that lieth here speechless.
A mouth he has, but wordis hath he none \
Cannot complaine, alas ! for none outrage,
Nor grutcheth not, but lies here all alone,
Still as a lambe, most meke of his visage.
What heart of stele could do to him damage,
Or suffer him dye, beholding the manere
And looke benigne of his tweine eyen clere 1
Falle of Princes, Bk. I, fol. 39.
After other remarks on Lydgate's pathos, Gray allows " that in
images of horror, 'and in a certain terrible greatness, our author comes
far behind Chaucer . . yet is there frequently a stiller kind of majesty
both in his thought and expression, which makes one of his principal
beauties. The following instance of it (I think) approaches even to
God hath a thousand handes to chastyse,
A thousand darte's of punic'ion,
A thousand bowes made in uncowthe wyse,
A thousand arblastes bent in his doungeon,
Orderid each one for castigaci'on ;
But where he fyndes mekenes and r^pentaunce,
Mercy is mistresse of his ordinaunce." Ib., Bk. I, fol. 6.
One is glad to hear pleas in Lydgate's favour, and to allow that
here and there a nugget of ore is found in his acres of clay, but his
average work is decidedly below Gower' s, and none of his poems of
xvi Afterwords. Lydyates Poetic Worth.
the length of Hoccleve's 'Mother of God' is equal to that. 1 He
cannot keep on the wing. If he does get a few lines right, now
and then, he generally spoils em by setting wrong ones near em :
The remembrance of every famous knight
Ground considred built on righteousness,
Raiz out each quarrel that is not built on right.
Withoute truth, what vaileth high noblesse 1
Laurear of martirs, founded on holynesse:
White was made red, their triumphs to disclose ;
The white lily was their chaste clennesse ;
Their bloody sufferance was no summer rose.
L.'s Minor Poems (1840), p. 26, modernised.
1 Prof. W. P. Ker agrees in this.
2/30. Chaunteplure. This is the name of a thirteenth-century French
poem, addressed to those who sing in this world and will weep in the
next. Hence the name is applied to any alternation or mixture of joy and
sorrow. Cf. Chaucer, Anelida and Arcite, 320 :
" I fare as doth the song of Chaunte-pleure,
For now I pleyne, & now I pleye."
4/122. My lord of Salisbury. See note in the description of the Stowe
MS. There is an illumination in the Harl. MS. 4826, representing "Lyd-
gate presenting his booke called J>e Pilgrime unto J>e Earle of Salisbury."
Underneath the drawing is written "Thomas Montacute Earle of Salis-
bury." The earl is represented as a young man clothed in armour. This
Thomas de Montacute, born 1388, was summoned to Parliament as Earl of
Salisbury in 1409, but not fully restored to his father's rights (which had
been forfeited through treason) till 1421. He engaged actively in the
French wars, being the most famous and skilful captain on the English
side, and noted for his courtesy, liberality, and bravery. His death at the
siege of Orleans in 1428 was much lamented, and greatly affected the
course of the war.
6/173. Oalliope^be syde cytheron. Calliope was the muse who presided
over eloquence and heroic poetry; Citheron, a mountain of Boeotia, sacred
to the Muses and named after king Cithaeron. In the Secrees of Old
PhUisoffres the seeker after wisdom expresses his desire
" To taste the licour of Cytheroes tonne."
6/176-7. The sugryd tonne Off Inbiter. This is the nectar of the gods,
which was served by a beautiful Phrygian youth called Ganymede, who
was carried up to Heaven by Jupiter to take Hebe's place as cupbearer.
9/307. In the Abbey of Chalys. The Cistercian abbey of Chalis, Chaalit,
Chaslis or Chailly in the diocese of Senlis was founded by St. Louis, in the
twelfth century. According to the prologue of the monk who corrected
the undated Paris version of De Guileville's second recension, Chalis was
an offshoot of the abbey of Pontigny, "chaliz de pontigny fille."
10/355. strongly kept ffor coming in. ffor = against. For this meaning
of for cf. Piers Plowman, Passus VI, 9 :
" ' Somme shal sowe \>Q sakke,' quod Piers, ' for shedyng of >e whete';"
and Sir Thopas, 1. 150 :
" And over that an habergeoun
For percinge of his herte."
12/444. By record of Seyn Matthew. Matt. xi. 12 : " The kingdom of
heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force."
12/447. Crysostom recordeth ek also. It is not to Chrysostom but to St.
Jerome that this saying should be ascribed, as has been pointed out to me
by Dom John Chapman, O.S.B.
'The passage comes from St. Jerome, Comm. in Matt. ii. 11, on Matt. xi.
12 : " Grandis enim est violentia, in terra nos esse generates et coelorum
sedem quaerere, possidere per virtutem quod non tenuimus per naturam."
PILGRIMAGE. X X
668 Notes. Pages 15-49, lines 535-1852.
The quotation in the margin, however, is not from St. Jerome direct,
but from the Glossa Ordinaria of Walafrid Strabo.
15/535- Qrete noumbre ofthys lacobins. Jacobins was a name applied
to the Dominican monks of France from the fact that their chief Paris
monastery was that of St. Jaques (Jacobus)
The name of canons was applied to ecclesiastical officers attached to
cathedrals or churches. They were divided into two orders, canons
regular and canons secular. The latter lived in the world ; the former in
communities and under some rule, though their discipline was usually less
severe than that of regular monks. The rule of St. Augustine was that
usually observed by the canons. The Augustinians included, besides the
canons, those other monastic fraternities which followed the rule deduced
from the writings of St. Augustine. The chief of these were the Begging
Hermits or Austin Friars, and the Dominicans.
The Mendicant orders were those communities which, having taken
vows of poverty, supported themselves by begging. They included the
Dominicans, Franciscans, the Austin Friars and the Carmelites.
16/574. 12 aree's ofhumylyte. The reference is to the twelve monas-
teries founded by St. Benedict (Greg. Dial. II. 3). The number of monks
in each of these was restricted to twelve.
24/912. And yet somme ha entryd in. In the Cambridge prose this
passage is more precise : " Heere is the firste passage of alle goode
pilgrimages ther is noon oother wey bi noon oother place, saue onliche bi
cherubyn ; Therforth hauen somme passed, and in here owen blood han
37/1387. A sygne of Tav wych ther stood. The implement of cruci-
fixion used by the Romans varied in form. Malefactors were sometimes
impaled upon or nailed to an upright stake. At other times a cross-piece
for the arms was affixed to the upright, sometimes obliquely, in which
case the cross was called crux decussata, sometimes at right angles below
the top, when it was called crux immissa, and sometimes at right angles
across the top, when it was called crux commissa. It is of course the latter
to which the name of Tau, the Greek T, was given, and though never so
common as the crux immissa the Tau form of cross is not infrequently
found in mediaeval art.
37/1402. The prophete whylom wrot. / Ezechyel. " And He called to
the man clothed with linen, which had the writer's inkhorn by his side ;
and the Lord said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the
midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that
sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst
thereof." Ezekiel ix. 3, 4.
See Bishop Andrewes' Sermons (Luke xvii. 32). " This reward (Ezek.
x. 4) is for those whose foreheads are marked with a Tau."
45/1683. In Elenchis thow mayst rede. Elenchus was the name of a
treatise by Aristotle concerning sophistry and fallacious arguments.
49/1839-40. Seyn Thomas That kept the entre & the paas. The refer-
ence is to Thomas a Becket and his sturdy maintenance of the rights,
privileges and prosperty of the Church against King Henry II. and his
49/1852. Seynt Ambrose in the same case. St. Ambrose was bishop of
Milan in the fourth century, and was specially remarkable for the energy
and firmness with which he defended the faith, discipline and integrity of
the Christian Church. The incident referred to in the text is as follows:
The Arians, headed by the Emperor Valentinian II. and his mother,
Notes. Pages 55-98, lines 2079-3696. 669
demanded the use of two churches in the city for their own worship.
Ambrose refused, the Arians tried to seize the churches by force, and
when Ambrose was requested to restore peace by submission to the
emperor's will, he replied : " If you demand my patrimony, which is
devoted to the poor, take it ; if you demand my person I am ready to
submit; carry me to prison or to death, I will not resist ; but I will never
betray the Church of Christ. I will not call upon the people to succour
me ; I will die at the foot of the altar sooner than desert it."
55/2079. Venus thenys doth me chase. See the pseudo-Chaucer
Eomaunt of the Rose, 1. 5135 :
" Thus taught and preched hath Resoun,
But Love spilte hir sermoun,
That was so imped in my thought
That hir doctrine I sette at nought."
65/2449. For thys word Glayve. Aldis Wright gives this note :
" Isidore of Seville, in the 18th book of his Origines, chap, vi, says of the
etymology of gladius, " Proprie autem appellatur gladius, quia gulam
dividit, id est cervicem desecat."
66/2458. Thys lanuence recordeth so. The reference is to the Catholicon
seu universale vocabularium ac summa grammatices of F. Johannis Genu-
ensis. The quotation in the margin of the text is from this vocabulary.
92/3449. I make alday thynges newe. The worst poets of this period
became poetical in speaking of Spring, and Lydgate is no exception to the
rule, for though he only uses the common images which formed the stock
in trade of all his contemporaries, yet his delight in the subject is so
evident that we cannot help being carried away by it. With this passage
however we may compare the description of Spring in Reson at\d
Sensuallyte, which shows us that, true as Lydgate's enjoyment of the
season was, he did not know more than one way of expressing it :
" This is the lusty seson newe,
Which every thing causeth renewe,
And reioyseth in his kynde,
Commonly, as men may fynde,
In these herbes white and rede,
Which springen in the grene mede,
Norysshed with the sonne shene,
So that all the soyl is grene,
Al ouersprad with sondry floures,
With bawme dewed, and soote shoures, . . .
And euery bough, braunch, and tre
Clad newe in grene, men may se,
By kyndely disposicion
Ech to bere fruyt in ther seflon. . . .
And Zepherus, the wynde moost soote,
Enspired bothe croope and roote
Of herbes and of floures newe
That they wern alway fresh of hewe." (1. 101 f.)
95/3589. Off on callyd Architeclyn. The name should be Architriclin,
" the master of the feast," and is written so in Camb. From Gk. />%'
chief, and rpiK\ivos, a couch for reclining on at supper, and hence a
dining-room. The Greek word was preserved in the Latin translation of
St. John, and was taken to be a proper name.
98/3696. Boundys and botaylle. Botaylle seems to be a variant of
buttal = a bound or boundary. Other forms are buttel, buttelle, buttle,
670 Notes. Pages 101-125, lines 3795-4773.
butle. 1577 Test. 12 Patriarchs (1604) 85. " 1 have not ... removed the
bounds and buttles of lands." (N. E. D.) Cf. the modern abut, used in
describing boundaries in a legal conveyance.
101/3795. The mevyng of the hevene And the planetys alle seuene.
According to the Ptolomaic system of Astronomy the earth was encircled
by seven spheres named after the principal planet of each, the Moon,
Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Beyond these was
the sphere of the Fixed Stars, which was supposed to make one revolution
in twenty-four hours. To account for various irregularities in the
heavenly motions two extra spheres were added in the Middle Ages viz.
the Crystalline and the Primum mobile or "first moved," which was
supposed to communicate its movement to all the inferior spheres.
101/3823. The paynim Arystotyles. See Aristotle, De generatione ani-
malium, II. 3. 4 ; where we are told that the sun's heat, and that secreted
in the bodies of animals, are of the same nature, and form the essential
101/3836. Skyes dyrke & donne. Cf. Life of our Lady :
" I fynde also that the skyes donne
Whiche of custome curteyne so the nyght,
The same tyme with a sodayn light
Enchaced were that it wexid al light."
Cf. also Temple of Glas, 2/30-31 :
" Til at(te) last certein skyes doune
With wind Ichaced, haue her cours Iwent."
106/4OII. To skouren chyldern and chastyse. The ordinary meaning
of scour is to cleanse, from Lat. excurdre, to take great care of (Skeat's
Concise Diet.). But in this passage it evidently stands for scourge, and is
from Lat. excoriare, to flay off.
115/4354. Dyvers yatys mo than on. See Nehemiah iii. 14 and 26,
where the dung-gate and the water-gate are mentioned. Psal. cvii. 16:
" He hath broken the gates of brass." Math. xvi. 18 : " The gates of hell
shall not prevail against it." Gen. xxviii. 17: "This is the gate of
heaven." Acts xii. 10 : " They came to the iron gate which opened."
118/4487. A child an hundryd wynter old. The quotation is incorrect.
The passage from Isaiah runs as follows :
"There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that
nath not rilled his days : for the child shall die an hundred years old ; but
the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed." Isaiah Ixv. 20.
121/4613. Maunde, in this sentence, stands for the supper at which
Christ gave to His disciples the "new commandment" "to love one
another." The word maunde is the M.E. form of Lat. mandatumj
meaning a command or charge. (See Skeat's Concise Dictionary.)
123/4675. Seyn Martyn. Saint Martin, while yet a catechumen, was
one day riding when he met a half naked, shivering beggar. Touched
with compassion he cut his cloak in two with his sword and gave half to
the beggar. The same night he had a dream in which Christ appeared to
him wearing the cloak and saying to the angels : " My servant Martin,
though yet unbaptized, hath done this.."
125/4773. The Testament of Cryst Ihesus. We may compare this
Testament with that of Piers the Plowman in Langland's vision (Passus
VI, 1. 88 et seq.), which begins :
" He shal haue my soule J?at best hath yserued it,
And fro fende it defende for so I bileue."
Notes. Pages 129-169, lines 4962-6442. 671
Dr. Skeat tells us that, according to Whitaker, the committal of the
soul to God alone, and not also to the Virgin and saints, was held to be
heretical at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
129. P. A. X. "One clause of this will or testament bequeathes to
mankind Pax Triplex ' triple tranquillity.' The three things signified by
the three initial letters, at the three corners of a right-angled triangle,
formed by the stem and one limb of a Latin cross are X, the initial of
XptffTJs, l Christ ' ; A, of Anima, ' the soul ' ; P, of Proximus, our * neigh-
boar.' When these three are properly disposed towards each other,
there is a firmly-established peace of mind ; since they indicate the whole
duty of man's life, viz. his love to God and his neighbour." N. Hill in
the Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville.
130/4962. Synderesis. This word appears to be made up of Gk. <rw,
meaning with or together, and dialpeans division or separation, and if
so would probably stand for that faculty of man which discriminates.
In the Pylgremage of the Sowle Sinderesis is called the Worm of Con-
science, and is represented in the woodcut in Verard's edition ae a woman
with a serpent's head-. Sathanas calls it " thou foule Synderesys," and it is
described as " wonder hydous to loke upon, and of ful cruel semblaunt."
It says of itself, " In al places I am byleued of trouthe. I knowe wel
apertly all thy thoughtys, thy dedes and thy wordes."
146/5569. The proper meaning of turneys is given by Roquefort as
pont-levis, or drawbridge.
161/6148. With yow to holden chaumpartye. Ghaumpartye comes
from French champ parti, and means equality or division of power. See
Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1091 :
" Ne may with Venus holde champartye."
" Lydgate seems to have known the word only from this phrase of
Chaucer's, which he misunderstood and took as meaning, 'to hold rivalry
or contest, to hold the field against, to resist.' "
In English Law champerty, campi-partiti, is a bargain with a
plaintiff or defendant campum partire, to divide the land or other matter
sued for if he prevail at law; the champertor being bound to carry on the
party's suit at his own expense. (See Blackstone. Bk. 4, chap. 10, p. 134.
169/6442. The wyttysfive. We should say "the five senses" Wits
however was commonly used with the meaning of senses. Cf. Every-
man, in which Five Wits refuses to accompany the hero to the grave.
In The World and the Child, Dods. I, p. 273, Age says :
"Of the five wits I would have knowing.
Pret. Forsooth, sir, hearing, seeing, and smelling,
The remenant tasting and feeling :
These being the five wits bodily."
We may compare with these five gates the five described in
Banyan's Holy War :
" The famous town of Mansoul had five gates, in at which to come,
out at which to go, and these were made likewise answerable to the
walls, to wit, impregnable, and such as -could never be opened nor
forced but by the will and leave of those within. The names of the
gates were these : Ear-gate, Eye-gate, Mouth-gate, Nose-gate, and Feel-
We still use the word wit, in the sense of the text, in such an expres-
sion as "He has lost his wits."
672 Notes. Pages 174-192, lines 6640-7105.
174/664O. How lie to helle ys descended. The belief in the descent of
Christ into hell during the period between His death and resurrection was
founded upon 1 St. Peter iii. 19, " He went and preached unto the spirits
in prison," and upon the apocryphal gospel of St. Nicodemus.
It was a popular subject in mediaeval art and poetry. One of the
finest of Fra Angelico's frescoes in San Marco deals with this tradition,
and Dante refers to it in the fourth canto of the Inferno, 11. 52 f. :
"lo era nuovo in questo stato,
Quando ci vidi venire un Possente,
Con segno di vittoria incoronato.
Trasseci 1'ombra del primo Parente
D'Abel suo figlio, e quella di Noe . . .
Ed altri molti ; e fecegli beati."
It was one of the stock incidents in miracle plays, and forms the
subject of the earliest extant English Miracle, The Harrowing of Hell.
This play begins with a conversation between Dominus and Satan, of
which the following lines form a part :
Dominus. " Adam, thou hast dere aboht,
That thou levedest me noht ;
Adam, thou havest aboht sore
And I nil suffre that na more :
I shal the bringe of helle pine
And, with the, alle mine."
Satan. " Who is that ich here thore
I him rede speke na more." ....
Dominus. " Wost thou never, what ich am ?
Almost the thridde winter is gan,
That thou havest fonded me
For to know[en] what I be ;
Sinne found thou never nan
In me, as in other man ;
And thou shalt wite well to-day
That mine will I have awei,
Whan thou bilevest al thin one,
Than miht thou grete & grone."
180/6875. Somme wer callyd Arryens. The Arian heresy arose from
the opinions of Arius concerning the Trinity and the nature of Christ,
whom he declared to be different in substance from the Father, to have
been created by Him before the world, and hence to be inferior to Him.
The Pelagian teaching was a reaction against Manichseism and
Fatalism. Its principal points were the denial of original sin ; the
possibility of living without sin ; and the sufficiency of free-will and the
knowledge of the law for salvation.
192/7105. The Gharbouncle. The carbuncle or ruby seems to have
been a favourite stone with Lydgate. In the Secrees of Old Philiso/res
we also find references to its supposed power of shining in the dark :
" As a charbouncle ageyn dirknesse of nyght ; " (1. 444)
u Rubyes that yeve so cleer a light
On hooly shrynes in the dirk nyght." (11. 552-3)
In Barth. Angl. xvi. 26, the following note is found : " Carbunculus
is a precious stone and shyneth as fyre whose shynynge is not over-
come by night. It shyneth in derke places and it semeth as hit were a
Notes. Pages 203-216, lines 7259-7730. 673
In the .R. de la R. the carbuncle worn by Richesse is described in the
following terms :
" Une escharbouclc ou cercle assise,
Et la pierre si clere estoit
Que, maintenant qu'il anuitoit,
L'en s'en veist bien au besoing
Conduire d'une Hue loiiig." (11. 1106-10)
203/7259. Ther saw I helmys & haberiouns. The armour of a
mediseval knight was both complicated and cumbrous, and often con-
sisted of many more articles than those mentioned in the text.
Beneath the armour was worn the gambison, a thickly padded tunic,
intended to keep the mail from bruising the body. Jt was usually
quilted, and hence was often called the purpoint.
The habergeon or byrnie was, as the name implies, a protection for
the neck and breast. In this case it was probably made of chain-mail.
(1. 7576), but sometimes it consisted of leather or some strong material
sewn with over-lapping rings. In Sir Gawayne & the Orene Knty we
are told that
" pe brawden bryne of bry^t stel ryngej,
Vmbe-weued )>at wy^, upon wlonk stuffe."
The helmet given to the Pilgrim was needful
" For to make resistance
At Nase, at Ere, & at the Syht."
Helmets of many shapes existed at this period. Some of these were
hoods of chain-mail, with loose flaps, which could, when required, be
fastened across the lower part of the face. These, however, left the eyes
and nose exposed, so the Pilgrim's helmet was possibly one of the steel
barrel-shaped ones which covered the whole head, or, more probably, a
steel casque with movable vizor. (Cf. 11. 7642-48.)
The gorger or armour for the throat is said in 1. 7628 to be made
of plate. In 1. 7700, however, we read :
"Thys Armure hath a double maylle."
The gorger of mail was more properly called a cama7, and usually
consisted of a shaped curtain of mail, which was attached to the helmet
and fell down over the neck and upper part of the body.
The gloves (11. 7628 f.) of this period were usually made of steel plates,
rather than of the ring-mail or studded leather common at an earlier
date. They often consisted merely of gauntlets, articulated at the wrist,
with steel plates attached, which covered the backs of the hands but left
the palms free. In some engravings, however, we see gloves with
elaborate articulated steel fingers.
The girdle, worn round the hips, was usually much ornamented
and fastened in front with a buckle of varying form. It supported the
sword which was generally cross-hilted, and was enclosed in a scabbard
of leather, often studded with metal. In the text we are told that the
" Ys makyd off A skyn mortal." (1. 7940)
The shield generally used at this time was short, and often triangular
in shape. The Pilgrim wore no armour on his legs. These would
ordinarily have been covered with greaves for the legs and cuisses for
the thighs. Frequently only the fronts of the legs were thus protected.
216/7730. Seyn Wylliam of Chalys. St. William of Chalis was G-uil-
laume de Donjeon, at one time abbot of Fontaine-jean. He became
674 Notes. Pages 219-238, lines 7839-8602.
abbot of Chalis in 1187, was made Archbishop of Bourges in 1200, and
died in 1209. He was canonized by Honorius III. in 1218.
He took the habit of a monk in the order of Grammont, but after-
wards passed over to the Cistercian order and entered the abbey of
219/7839. The swerd of goode Oger. The feats of Ogier the Dane are
told in many metrical romances, the longest of which is called Les
Enfances d'Ogier le Danois, by Adenez, herald to Henry III., Duke of
Brabant. Ogier seems to have been a real man, living in the time of
Charlemagne. He was supposed to be the son of a king of Denmark,
but falling into the power of Charlemagne as a hostage, he became one
of his knights and went through many adventures.
His swords were called Curtana and Sauvagine. They took the
smith Munifican three years each to make.
The sword of Roland was a famous weapon called Durendal, with
which he is said to have cloven a rock in the valley of Roncesvalles and
to have made a fissure 300 feet deep. According to one legend he threw
it, before his death, into a poisoned stream, where it still remains.
Oliver's sword was called Hautedaire or Glorious. With it he hacked
to pieces nine swords made by the smiths Munifican, Ansias and Galas,
eacn of which had taken three years in the making.
220/7882. As seyn Benyth dyde of old. The asceticism of St. Benedict
of Nursia is well known. There is a story that while yet a boy he
retired to Subiaco and lived there as a hermit, and the place is still
shown where he is said to have rolled in thorn-bushes to overcome
227/8i5o. Venus ys sayd off venerye. Lydgate was fond of seeking for
fanciful derivations of the name Venus. In Reason and Sensuality we
find two more :
"Venus is said of venquisshing,
For she venquyssheth everythyng." (120/45OI-2.)
" Aftir ethymologie
Venue, by exposicion
Is seyde of venym & poysovne." (89/3386-88.)
234/8433. Martews. Dr. Furnivall gives the following note :
" Et cinq pierres i met petites
Du rivage de mer eslites,
Dont puceles as martiaus geuent,
Quant beles et rondent les treuent."
Roman de la Rose, 21767-70, IV. 320 Bibl. Elzev.
Jouer aux marteaux, signifiat lancer des petits cailloux ronds en 1'air
pour les recevoir dans 1'une et 1'autre main, en les faisant choquer. C'est
un jeu analogue h notre jeu d'osselets : ib. v. 216-7.
Osselets. The game termed Cockall or Hucklebones. 1611. Cotgrave.
238/86o2. Albeston. This is a corruption of asbestos, which by its
derivation means unquenchable. There is perhaps some confusion with
albus and stone.
See also the note to p. 66, 11. 539, etc., of the Temple of Glas, in which
Dr. Schick gives the following references to Albeston. " For in a
temple of Venus was made a candylsticke ; on whyche was a lantern so
brennynge that it rnyght not be quenched wyth tempeste nother with
reyne." (Bartholomseus, De Proprietatibus Rerum } xvi, ii.)
Notes. Pages 247-306, lines 8923-11181. 675
"Isidore sayth in his xvi booke, that in a certaine temple of Venus
there was made and hoong up such a Candlesticke wherin was a light
burning on that wise, that no tempest nor storm could put it out, & he
beleueth that this candlesticke had somewhat of Albeston beset within."
(John Maplet, A greene Forest, fol. 2.)
In the Compleynt at the end of the Temple of Glas the following
lines occur (p. 66, 11. 537-552) :
" Myn hete is so violent
Wherwyth myn pitous herte is brent,
That may ben likkenyd to a ston,
Which is I-callyd albiston,
That onys whan it hath caught feer,
Ther may no man the flaumbe steer,
That it wel brenne aftir euere,
And neuere from the fer disseuere,
So they acordyn of nature.
And for this ston may longe endure,
In fer to brenne fayr & bryght,
As sterrys in the wyntyr nyght.
I fynde, in Venus oratorye,
In hir worshepe & memorye
Was made a laumpe of this ston,
To brenne a-fore here, euere in on."
247/8923. Sende. In Stowe we find fende = defend.
261/9458. Tarage. See note to 1. 3812 of Eeson and Sensuallyte.
The meaning seems here to be quality or kind.
266/9670. And whylom blinde was Tobye. See Tobit ii. 10 and chap.
iv, in which the blinding of Tobit is described, and his counsels to his
son are given.
279/ioi84. The precept offkyng salomoun. This precept is, of course,
in the book of Proverbs (vi. 6), not in Wisdom, as Lydgate seems to imply.
295/10763. No man to bern. See Matt. x. 9, 10 : " Provide neither
gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip for your journey,
neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves."
297/io864. The author shows here more wisdom than many biblical
commentators, who, by refusing to recognize the principle of progressive
revelation, involve themselves in many unnecessary difficulties.
304/11137. .4s wilde coltys in Arras. Dr. Skeat suggests that instead
of Arras we should read harras or haras, meaning a stud of horses.
305/1 1 141. And now I lepe louy pe.
" And now I leap with merry foot."
Camb., however, has " joynpee," and in Verard's edition of Deguile-
ville's second recension we read "pieds joincts."
305/1 1 160. As whylom was Asael. 2 Sam. ii. 18-23: " Asahel was as
light of foot as a wild roe. And Asahel pursued after Abner ; and in
going he turned not aside to the right hand nor to the left from follow-
ing Abner. . . . And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn thee aside from
following me: wherefore should I smite thee to the ground? . . .
Howbeit he refused to turn aside : wherefore Abner with the hinder end
of the spear smote him under the fifth rib, that the spear came out
306/11181, etc. Pleye at the cloos, etc. In the statutes of Ed. IV. (17
676 Notes. Page 306, lines 11181-11198.
Ed. IV. cap. 3), and in 18 and 20 Hen. VIII., the game of closh or cloish
is mentioned and prohibited. According to J. Strutt (The Sports and
Pastimes of the People of England) it was a game much like ninepins.
It seems to have been Dutch in origin. Flem. and Du. Idos = bowl
(for playing). Kilian has klos : globus, sphsera; klos-beytel = flagellum.
Plantin has klos = une boule ; klos-porte = une porte a bonier, anneau de
fer a passer la boule ; klos bane = pare & bouler ; klossen-bouler = jouer &
la boule par travers un anneau de fer. From this we ma} T gather that
the klos was struck through the klos-porte with the klos-beytel.
The next game (11. 11182-3) seems to be hockey, but the nature of
the kampyng-crook mentioned in the following line is not quite clear.
Taken by itself one would think it meant hockey-stick, but in 1. 11183
" a staff mad lyk an hook," which must surely be a hockey-stick, has
already been mentioned.
The game of camp-ball was a game much like foot-ball, though the
ball was thrown, not kicked, but no staff or crook seems to have been
used in it. The vb. camp also means to contend in athletic contests. The
N.E.D. gives the following example: 1774-6, J. Bryant, Mythol : "In
our island the exhibition of those manly sports in vogue among country
people is called camping: and the enclosures for that purpose, where
they wrestle and contend, are called camping closes." Kampyng crook
might therefore stand for some kind of a staff used in athletic contests.
One of the definitions of crook in the N. E. D. is " a barbed spear," but it
can hardly have that meaning in this place, as the crook mentioned does
not seem to be a warlike weapon.
Dr. Skeat suggest that bessellys may stand for baissel(le) from Fr. baisser,
to lower, and refers to the term "knock-em-down" as applied to a skittle.
Shetyn at bessellys may thus mean to play or shoot at skittles. I have,
however, since seen in Halliwell and the N. E. D. bercel, meaning a mark
to shoot at, an archer's butt. In the Prompt. Part;., pp. 32, 56, this word
appears under five different forms, bercel, berseel, bertel, byrselle, bersell.
Of. Pilg. 1. 15305, where Lydgate writes mosselles for De Guileville's
Merelles was another name for nine men's morrice. This game is
played with nine pieces a side, on a board marked with points and inter-
secting lines. The aim of each player is to place three of his men in a
row, which gives him the right of removing one of his opponent's pieces.
The game is won by the player who succeeds in reducing his opponent's
pieces to two.
Hazard and passage were both games of dice. In hazard the chances
were complicated by many arbitrary rules. "There were two kinds:
French hazard, in which the players staked against the bank, and English,
or chicken hazard, in which they staked against each other."
" Passage is a game at dice, to be played at but by two, and it is per-
formed with three dice. The caster throws continually till he hath thrown
dubblets under ten, and then he is out and loseth, or dubblets above ten,
and then he passeth and wins." Gompleat Gamester, 1680, p. 119.
The game of tables is the same as backgammon.
Keyles was the original form of the modern game of ninepins. It was
played in various ways and with an uncertain number of pins, which,
according to ancient engravings, were placed in a single row and knocked
down by throwing a club at them.
Quek or quickboard was, with many other games, forbidden in the reign
of Edward IV. The N. E. D. says it was ' A chequer or chess-board, some
game played on this,' and cites from Riley, Lond. Mem. 395, with the
Notes. Pages 311-313, lines 11382-11476. 677
date 1376 : " A pair of tables, on the outside of which was painted a
chequer-board that is called a 'quek.'"
The passage describing Youth and her games runs as follows in the
first French version, and is almost word for word the same in the second :
Jeunece sui, la legiere (Et) pour ce piec'a sainte eglise
La giberresse et coursiere Ordena que ne fust mise
La sauterelle, la saillant Personne pour li gouverner
Que tout dangier ne prise un gant Qui n'eust pies de plonc pour aler
Je vois, je vieng, sail et vole. Si ques de ce (je) sui privee,
Je espringale, je karole, Tant com serai (ain) si duvee.
Je trepe et queur (et) dance et bale Un estuef me faut pour jouer
Et vois a la huitefale, Et une croce a souler ;
Je luite et sail fossez piez joins Autre croce ne rne faut mie.
Et gete la pierre au plus loins Se (je) 1'ai, ce sera folie,
Et nulle fois (je) ne m'esmaie Mes piez tenir ne se pourront
De trespasser mur (et) ou haie. De voleter ne ne vourront ;
Se des pornmes a mes voisins Encor ne sui (je) pas saoule
Veul avoir, tost en leurs gardins De jouer au gieu de (la) boule,
Sui saillie et sur i pommier D'aler quillier, d'aler billier
Sui tost rampee et de legier. Et de jouer au mereillier,
Pour nient (je) ne sui pas duvee D'ouir chancons et instrumens
Mes pies ne si emplumee. Et querre mes esbatemens.
Mee piez me porte ou je veul. En ma pelote jour et nuit
Eles ont, tu le vois a 1'ueil. Ai plus soulas et plus deduit
Asael jadis les porta Qa'en quanque me dit mon pere
Men chierement les compara Ne (en quan)que m'enseigne ma
(Trop) grant legierete n'est mie Je la tourne et la manie, [mere.
Souvent bonne a la vie. (Je) m'en gene, c'est rne'studie.
Miex vaut i saige a pies pesans Soing n'ai fors que de moi jouer
Que quatre folz or piez volans. Et de mes soulas procurer.
311/11382. Lat men lyuen lyk her degres. This passage bears a marked
general resemblance to Passus VI. of Piers Plowman, in which Piers
insists that all men should work in their several ways for the general good
of the community :
1 Bi crist,' quod a knyjte \>Q ' he kenneth us j?e best,
Ac on \>Q teme trewly tau^te was I neuere.
Ac kenne me/ quod J?e kny^te and, bi cryst, I wil assaye ;
' Bi seynt Poule,' quod Perkyn ' '^e profre yow so faire,
pat I shal swynke and swete and sowe for us bothe.
And oj^er laboures do for Jn loue al my lyf-tyrne,
In couenaunt >at J?ow kepe holi kirke and myselue
Fro wastours and fro wykked men )?at )?is worlde struyeth."
313/H476. In that noble universyte. The university of Paris was one
in which the speculative rather than the practical side of learning was
encouraged. It arose from a movement carried out by teachers on the He
de la Cite", who taught under the licence of the chancellor of the cathedral,
and of whom Abelard was one of the greatest. It was around this
community of teachers that the university grew up, and between 1150-
1170 came formally into existence, though its statutes were not compiled
It became the model of Oxford and Cambridge as well as of most of
the universities of central Europe.
678 Notes. Pages 314-317, lines 11503-11623.
314/11503. ray. Raye (from Lat. radius) was striped cloth, often
spoken of as cloth of raye. Lydgate mentions it in his London Lyckpenny :
" In Westminster Hall I found out one
Which went in a long gown of raye."
It was commonly worn by the legal profession, but was not confined
to them. A Royal MS. 15. E. 4, has drawings of a country woman and a
husbandman wearing clothes with stripes running round the body.
In a political song of the time of Ed. II. a change of fashion in the
direction of the stripes is mentioned :
" A newe taille of squierie is nu in everi town ;
The raye is turned overthuert that sholde stonde adoun ;
Hii ben degised as turmentours that comen from clerkes plei."
317/n6i4. Balladys, Roundelayes, vycelayes. The ballade is a poem,
usually consisting of three seven-lined stanzas and an envoy, which is
sometimes of seven and sometimes of four lines. Each stanza, as well as
the envoy, ends in a refrain. Three rimes only are employed.
A roundelay might be either a dance or a song. The latter consists of
thirteen verses on two rimes. Lines 1 and 2 are repeated at 11. 6 and 7
and 11 and 12, while 1. 3 is repeated at 1. 13. The rimes run ABB ABAB
A virelay is an ancient French poem, composed of short lines on two
rimes. The essential point of a mrelay is the repetition of the same rimes
in different order. (See Dr. Skeat's note on Hoccleve's Rhymes and
Chaucer's Virelays, inserted in the E. E. T. S. Hoccleve's Works, iii.)
317/11623. At treygobet & tregetrye. The passage in Verard's edition,
describing the diversions of Idleness, runs as follows :
Par luy ie meyne gens au bois Dont long le parlement seroit
Cueillir fleurs, violettes et nois, Qui toutes dire les voulroit,
En esbatement, en deduit, Et la leur fois ie veoir danseurs,
En lieu de ioye et de delict ; Jeux de basteaulx et de iougleurs,
Et la leur faiz oyr chansons, Jeux de tables et d'eschiquiers,
Rondeaulx, balades et doulx sons De boulles et de mereilliers,
De herpes et simphonies, De cartes ieux de triclrerie,
Et plusieurs autres melodies Et de inainte autre muserie.
(Ver. fol. xlv.)
According to Halliwell treygobet is "an old game at dice." Dr. Skeat
points out that the word is evidently composed of trey, tray, meaning
"three," and the Eng. go bet (as in Chaucer's Book of the Duchesse, 136),
meaning " go more quickly," " hurry up." Perhaps, in this case, go bet
might be taken literally (cp. N. E. I). " to go one better "). In any case,
the word probably represents some call or exclamation connected with
In the Frere and Boy (1617) III. 73, we read :
"Ye hath made me daunce, maugre my hede,
Amonge the thornes, hey go bet. } '
Tregetrye means juggling, mumming, conjuring. Chaucer's Franklin's
Tale contains (11. 413-20) a description of some of the doings of tregetours.
Karyyng. I have been unable to find any example of this word in
an appropriate sense. Can it be connected with Fr. carriere, meaning a
race? Cotgrave gives, "A Careere, on horse-back, and (more generally)
any exercise or place for exercise on horse-back ; as, a horse-race, or a
place for horses to run in, and, their course, running, or full speed
Notes. Pages 318-336, lines 11665-12370. 679
318/11665. Wernays take. In Stowe we find wormes. The parallel
passage in Camb. runs as follows : "And sum time j make wormes come
in the hondes for to digge in hem to tile hem and to ere hern with oute
321/11768. fforeyn. According to Godefroy, forain = du dehors,
exte>ieur, ecarte". "Avoit este ordene que a la venue ou entree du dit
palais nul ne s'arrestast devant la dite porte, mais passast oultre chacim a
cheval, et s'espandissent parmi les rues foraines, afin de y avoir moins de
prcsse." (Or. Chron. de Fr. Charl. V., lx. P. Paris.)
332 et seq. The editor of Reson and Sensuallyte, in his note on 637 ff.
compares this discourse in the Pilgrimage with the mystical speculations
of Alanus ab Insulis, concerning the two opposite rotations of the
firmament, the account in Reson and Sensuallyte being founded on
Alanus takes the opposite rotations of the celestial bodies to signify
the contest between the spiritual and sensual parts of man.
332/12257. Of hym orygynal begynnyng. Other passages, containing
the same idea will be found beginning at 1. 12301 and 1. 12377. Cf. also
1. 847-50 and 1. 1245-1277 of Reson and Sensuallyte and Prof. Sieper's
note on the first of these passages.
335/I233O. Ay toward the oryent. Barth, De Prop. Rerum, Lib. xix,
cap. 22. "All the planets move by double moving; by their own kind
moving out of the west into the east, against the moving of the firmament;
and by other moving out of the east into the west, and that by ravishing
of the firmament. By violence of the firmament they are ravished every
day out of the east into the west. And by their kindly moving, by the
which they labour to move against the firmament, some of them fulfil their
course in shorter time, and some in longer time."
336/12338. Gelum Mobile. See note to 101/3795.
336/12356, etc. In the Epicicles, etc. Barth. De Prop. Rerum, Lib.
xix, cap. 22. "The first moving of a planet is made in its own circle
that is called Eccentric, and it is called so, for the earth is not the middle
thereof, as it is the middle of the circle that is called Zodiac. Epicycle is
a little circle that a planet describeth, and goeth about therein by the
moving of its body, and the body of the planet goeth about the round-
ness thereof Also in these circles the manner moving of planets
is full wisely found of astronomers, that are called Direct, Stationary, and
Retrograde Motion. Forth-right moving is' in the over part of the circle
that is called Epicycle, backward is in the nether part, and stinting and
abiding or hoving is in the middle."
336/12370. Syth Mycrocosme men the calle. (See also 421/15638 and
567/21 168.) Microcosm in Gk. = little world. Ancient philosophers
considered the world to be a living creature, and man, being looked upon
as a world in miniature they supposed that the movements of man and
the world corresponded, and that the fate of man could be made out by
observing the movements of the stars.
In Appendix IV to the E. E. T. S. edition of the Secrees of Old Phili-
soffres this idea is expanded :
" Oolde philosofris put in remernbraunce
fat in man is founde grete myracle,
namyd pe lytulle worlde by autores allegaunce . . .
... He is hardy as a lyon, dredfulle as ]>e hare,
Large as ]?e cok, and as a hound couetous,
harde as a herte in forest which doth fare ;
680 Notes. Pages 348-354, lines 12830-13031.
Buxum as ]) e tyrtylle, as lionesse dispitous,
Simple as pe lambe, lyke ]?e foxe malicious . . .
. . . Note this processe in ]>e audith countable
Of j>e remembraunce, and knowe redelie
J>at in beeste nor thyng vegetable
No thyng may be vniversally,
But if it be founde naturally
In mannes nature ; wherfor of oon accorde
Olde philesofris callidy hym ]>e lytelle worlde."
348/12830. Romney, clarre, ypocras. Eomney was a sort of Spanish
wine, dark in colour, strong and thick.
Hippocras was a wine, usually red, medicated with sugar and spice.
It was called by apothecaries vinum Hippocraticum after Hippocrates,
the celebrated Greek physician. The following is a recipe for Hippocras :
"Take of cinamon 2 oz., of ginger an oz., of grains a quarter of
an oz. : punne (pound) them grosse, & put them into a pottle of good
claret or white wine with half a pound of sugar ; let all steep together,
a night at the least, close covered in." 1589. Haven of Health.
Clarre was wine mixed with honey and spices. It obtained its name
from the fact that it was strained to make it clear.
Malvesyn was malmsey, a corruption of O.F. malvoisie, from Malvasia,
a town in Greece. It was a strong, sweet wine.
Osey. Dr. Skeat has a note on this wine in his edition of Piers
Plowman. He says that it seems to have been a sweet straw-coloured
wine, and considers that the name is a corruption of Alsace, which in
the Romance of Partenay is written Ausoy. The wine however is said
by Hackluyt to come from Portugal.
349/12853. Mokadour. Cotgrave gives as the gloss of bavarette,
"A bib, moket or rnocketer, to put before the bosome of a child."
Fairholt quotes from the Coventry Mysteries :
" Goo horn, lytyl babe, and sytt on thi moder's lappe,
And put a mokador aforn thi breast ;
And pray thi modyr to fede the with pappe."
The word sometimes means handkerchief (Halliwell), and in this
sense seems to be the same as muckinder, a handkerchief which was
generally worn affixed to the girdle. See Fairholt's Costume in England
349/12857. Bel, Of whom that speaketh Danyel. The history of
Daniel and Bel is found in the Apocryphal book of Bel and the Dragon.
The comparison of Gluttony to Bel, " the ydole that devourede all," is
not however sustained by the story, which sets forth how Daniel proved
to the king that the sacrifices, which Bel was supposed to devour, were
really consumed by the priests and their friends.
354/13031. Lyk a botore. See Batman vppon Bartholome, his Booke
De Proprietatibus Eerum, Bk. xii, ch. 28, ed. 1582, p. 186-7 :
" Of the Miredromble.
The Miredromble is called Macrocalus, and is a bird that maketh
noyse in the Winter, and hath small chins in his iawes, in which hee
taketh first meate, and then sendeth it to the second wombe ; For he
hath two wombes : in that one onelye hee taketh meate, and in that
other onely he seetheth and defieth. But the first is taken instead of the
crop of the throat, as Isidore saith. In Greeke Onacrocalus is called a
Birde with a long bill : and there be two manner kindes : One is a water
foule, and that other a foule of desart; and he that dwelleth in Water is
Notes. Pages 360-394, lines 13269-14605. 681
a bird of great gluttonye, and putteth the bill downe into the water, and
maketh a great noise, and is eniraie namely (specially) to Eeles, and the
pray that hee taketh, he swalloweth sodinly, & sendeth it into his
wornbe. And then he cheweth and moueth his iawes, as he held meate
in his mouth." . . . [Batman : " Onocrotalus is as bigge as a Swan,
which, putting his head into the water, brayeth like an asse."]
In Verard's edition the lines run as follows :
" Pour neant nay pas comme ung butor
Deux ventres, car butordement
Je parle a chascun lourdement." (fol. 1, bk.)
For the history of the word botore, see the N. E. D.
860/13269. Malebouche. Malebouche, Danger and Shame were the
guardians of the Rose-tree in the Romance of the Rose :
" And yet of Daunger cometh no blame,
In reward of my daughter Shame,
Which hath the roses in hir warde,
As she that may be no musarde.
And Wikked-Tunge is with these two
That surfrith no man thider go ;
For er a thing be do he shal . . .
Seye thing that never was doon ne wrought ;
So moche treson is in his male." (11. 3252-63, Skeat's eel.)
Jean de Meun says also that Wikked-Tunge kept the fourth gate
"with soudiours of Normandye." (1. 4234.)
and speaks in another place of the hinder gate :
" That Wikked-Tunge hath in keping,
With his Normans, fulle of jangling." (11. 5851-52.)
367/13539- bonche sore. "To bounche or pusshe one; he buncheth
me & beateth me ; il me pousse." Palsgrave. Compare Piers Plowman,
Prol. 74 :
" He bonched hem with his breuet & blered here eyes."
375/13857-8. "Be no ropys mad at Clervaws
ffor they wer maked at Nervaivs."
Camb. has : " Thei ben not cordes of cleernans (for cleeruaus) but
thei were made of synewes al blak and twyned and out of my wombe
In Petit's edition these lines run :
" Ne sont pas cordes de clervaulx
Ains furent faictes a noirvaulx."
383/14 1 80. The castel of landown. Possibly to be identified with
Chateau Landon, formerly the chief town of Gatinais, which was taken
by the English in 1436 and rescued by the French the following year.
(See Notes and Queries, Ser. VII, vol. ix, p. 177.) I cannot however
establish any connection between this place and the idea of scorn and
385/14224. That the cyte of Babiloun. Daniel iv. 30: "The king
spake, and said, Is this not this great Babylon, that I have built for the
house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of
my majesty ? "
386/14224. A Reuene. See ^Esop's fable of the Fox and the Crow.
394/14605. And as the fox. This story is to be found in the Roman du
Renart. "Si coume Renart manja le poisson aus charretiers."
682 Notes. Page 395-410, lines 14654-15226.
395/14654. My song bo hem is "placebo" To sing "placebo" meant
" to flatter." The expression is used in this sense in Chaucer's Somnour's
Tale, 1. 366 :
" Beth war therefor with lordes how ye pleye.
Singeth Placebo, and I shal, if I can,
But if it be unto a povre man.
To a povre man men sholde hise vyces telle
But nat to a lord, thogh he sholde go to helle."
397/I472O. The unycorn. The reference in this passage is probably to
some traditional mode of hunting the unicorn. One way of using the
mirror in hunting is described by Bartholomseus Anglicus in his description
of the tiger in De Prop. Rerum, Lib. xviii, cap. civ. " He that will bear
away the whelps, leaveth in the way great mirrors, and the mother fol-
loweth and findeth the mirrors in the way, and looketh on them and seeth
her own shadow and image therein, and weeneth that she seeth her chil-
dren therein, and is long occupied therefore to deliver her children out of
the glass, and so the hunter hath time and space for to scape, and so she
is beguiled with] her own shadow, and she followeth no farther after the
hunter to deliver her children." (B. Steele's edition.)
In Julius Ccesar, Act II. sc. i. we are told
" That unicorns may be betray'd with trees,
And bears with glasses, elephants with holes,
Lions with toils, and men with flatterers."
There were various traditions about the untameable fierceness of the
unicorn. Gower refers to one in the Mirour de Vhomme, 1563-1569:
" Del unicorn ce dist Solyn,
N'il poet danter aucun engin,
Mais moert ainz qu'on le poet danter,
Tant ad le cuer gross et ferin."
Topsell also, in his History of Four-footed Beasts, bears testimony to
the fierceness and wildness of the unicorn, but adds that a young virgin
has an irresistible attraction for him, so that in her presence he would
become gentle and tame, and might easily be captured by the hunters.
402/14920. ffor taslayn Kyng Davyd. See 1 Samuel xviii. 6-11.
406/15078. Tryphon. See Maccabees xii. 39, xiii. 1-34. Tryphon,
having placed Antiochus upon the throne of Asia, afterwards plotted to
depose him. He was opposed by Jonathan Maccabseus, and fearing him,
he met him deceitfully with gifts and good words and enticed him to
enter the town of Ptolomais, where he slew his men and kept Jonathan a
prisoner. Then Simon Maccabseus rose up to deliver his brother, and
Tryphon treated with him, promising to release Jonathan if money and
hostages were* given. These were sent by Simon, but still Tryphon did
not let Jonathan go, and presently slew him.
After this he killed Antiochus and made himself king in his stead, and
" brought a great calamity upon the land."
410/15226. St. Nicholas. The story here referred to is that of one of
the most startling miracles of St. Nicholas of Myra.
A certain innkeeper was accustomed, in a time of scarcity, to steal
children, and serve up their flesh to his guests. On one occasion St.
Nicholas came to his inn, and the host placed before him part of the bodies
of three boys, whom he had kidnapped, murdered and salted in a tub.
Nicholas, however, at once perceived the nature of the food placed before
him, and going to the tub he made over it the sign of the cross, where-
upon the three children rose up whole and sound.
Notes. Pages 413-421, lines 15338-15G66. 683
The life and miracles of St. Nicholas are recounted at length in Mrs.
Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art.
413/15338. Tryacle. This word, which has been fully explained by
Morley in his Lib. of Eng. Lit., p. 21, comes from theriaca, the name of a
medicine, supposed to be capable of preventing or curing the effects of
poison, compounded by Andromachus, physician to Nero. Modern treacle
is a corruption of it. The word is frequently found in writers of this
period. Cf. Piers Plowman, I. 146 :
" Loue is triacle of heuene."
Chaucer, Cant. Tales (Skeat), C 314-17:
" By corpus bones ! but I have triacle . . .
Myn herte is lost for pitee of this mayde."
413/15352. I make mortrews & colys. Mortrewes was a kind of soup
made either of meat or fish and other ingredients, stamped and crushed in
a mortar. See Skeat's note to Chaucer's Prologue, 1. 384.
Colys (Fr. coleis) was also a kind of broth. Mrs. Glass (1767) uses
this word in the form cullis, as do modern cookery-books.
416/15459. For thogh in helle wer seyn lohn. These lines, as well as
11. 21218-21222 on p. 566, bear a striking correspondence to the words of
Marlowe and Milton on the same subject, and show that the materialistic
view of the future life was not the only one prevalent in the Middle Ages.
Milton's words put into the mouth of Satan are well known :
" The mind is its own place, and in itself
Can make a heav'n of hell, a hell of heav'n." Bk. I. 254-5.
" Which way I fly is hell; my self am hell." Bk. IV. 75.
"the more I see
Pleasures about me, so much more I feel
Torment within me, as from the hateful siege
Of contraries ; all good to me becomes
Bane, and in heav'n much worse would be my state."
Bk. IX. 119-23.
Perhaps less familiar are Marlowe's lines :
Faustus. " How comes it then that you are out of hell ? "
Mephis. " Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it ;
Think'st thou that I who saw the face of God
And tasted the eternal joys of heaven
Am not tormented with ten thousand hells
In being deprived of this ? " (Sc. iii.)
Mephis. " Hell hath no limits, nor is circumscribed
In one self place; for where we are is hell,
And where hell is, there must we ever be ;
And, to conclude, when all the world dissolves,
And every creature shall be purified
All places shall be hell that is not Heaven." (Sc. v.)
420/15608. For I have 'carmen et ve.' See Dr. Aldis Wright's note in
the Koxburghe Club edition of Camb., p. 220, in which he points out that
the Laud MS. has curamen in ve, and that Petit has carmen en ve. Camb.
has " sorwe & waylinge," which gives the sense we should expect. If we
take curamen to mean the same as cura, we get the same meaning as in
Camb. Ve stands for vce (adv.).
421/15666. ludicum maketh mencioun. Judges ix. 15: "And the
bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then
come and put your trust in my shadow : and if not, let fire come out of
the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.''
PILGRIMAGE. Y Y
684 Notes. Pages 428-437, lines 15944-16256.
428/15944. Adonay. Adonai was a Hebrew name for the Almighty,
being the plural form of Adon = Lord. It was used by the Jews instead
of Jehovah, for fear of breaking the third commandment by the direct
mention of the most Holy One.
435/i6i95. Theophilus. This Theophilus was a legendary bishop of
Adana in Cilicia. He was deposed from his office through slander, and
in order to be reinstated, sold himself to the devil. On his repentance and
prayer, however, the Virgin Mary came to his assistance, and, taking the
bond he had signed from the devil, restored it to Theophilus. See also p.
437/16256. That I radde onys off seynt Bernard. In Verard's edition
there follows a prose Latin treatise or prayer which was translated into
English by Lydgate. In Petit's edition, however, the prose is absent and
we find, instead, the following lines, Foeillet, Ivii. col. 2 :
Et que me vint a remembrance Gil qui du cueur t'inuoquera
D'une parolle que iadis En toutes affaire(s) qu' aura,
J'auoie veu et leu es escripz Se tu ne lui es gracieuse
Sainct Benard, qui ainsi disoit : Doulce et misericordieuse,
Qu'a trestous les griefz qu'on auoit, Pour ce, mere du souurain iuge,
On deuoit son refuge faire
A la dame tout debonnaire,
Mere de Dieu, Vierge Marie,
Qui, a bien aider, ne fault mye
A ceulx qui s'enfuyent et s'en vont
A elle / a tous besoings qu'ilz ont.
A lui done, de cueur fiz mon pry,
Et d'elle ie fiz mon refuy,
De mon pouoir la collaudant,
Et ce que s'ensuit lui disant :
ORoyne de misericorde,
De paix, de doulceur et concorde,
Apres, de mes maulx, le deluge,
Je m'en viens ill toy, & refuge
En ma tres grant necessite,
Selon que i'en suis excite
Par sainct Bernard, mon devot pere, 1
Qui me dit, ' que ie te requiere
En tout ce que i'auray mestier
Et besoing, sans rien excepter.
Se les vens de temptation
(Dit il) ou tribulation
T'assaillent / regarde 1'estelle.
Et appelle Marie la belle.
Se d'orgueil ou d'ambition,
D'enuie ou de detraction
Tu es infeste / n'oblie mye
De tantost inuoquer Marie.
Se paresce / ire / ou auarice,
Luxure, ou quelconque autre vice
Hurte la nef de ta pensee,
A celle qui onques lassee
Ne fut, de benefices faire,
La doulce Marie debonnaire.
T'en fuy / et la prie qu'elle ait soing
Humblement viens a mon refuge.
Aide moy, dame de pitie,
En ceste grand aduersite
Ou tu me vois du tout perdu,
Se par toy ne suis secouru I '
Et, se tu dis que n'ay mery
Enuers toy d'obtenir mercy,
Ne iamais pardon recouurer,
Par ce que tousiours retourner
J'ay voulu, a ma vie damn^e C 57 /*]
Encores tousiours empire^,
Sans point me vouloir tenir quoy,
Helas, dame! ce poise moy.
Bien sauez que presentement
Ay bon vouloir d'amendement:
Auec ce / tant one ne mesfiz
Enuers vous n'enuers vostre filz,
Comme fist iadis Theofile ;
Car se i'ay fait des maulx cent mille,
Toutesfois n'ay ie pas nye
Vostre bonte / ne renye
Le doulx lesus, ainsi qu'il fist
Pardon, apres vous en requist,
Et doulcement luy pardonnastes,
Et vers vostre filz impetrastes
Pour luy grace et reunion,
Et pleniere remission,
' Dame, pas pis ne me ferez,
Et grace vous m'ympetrerez
Maintenant, et toute mon aage
De faire mon pelerinage
Si bien et conuenablement,
Qu' auecques vous, finablement,
Et auec vostre benoist filz,
Puisse regner en paradis.'
Notes. Pages 447-463, lines 16652-17271. 685
De t'aider a ce grant besoing. A Insi comme i'eu fait mon pry,
Se, par multiplication, A La fauresse qui m'eut oy,
Ou par reiteration, Me dist, puis que mis ie n'auoye
De tes peches es inuolue Jus mon bourdon, et quis auoye
De tous poinctz / et enuelope Refuge bon et suffisant,
En trop dure obstination, Qu' elle se cesseroit a tant.
Et es en desperation 51 ' J G su i s (distelle) tout ainsi n-i-
De iamais point ne t'amender, Que le vent, qui inaine & 1'abry, Jjja-
Ne a bonne vie retourner, Et destoume les fueilles cheues, "A"
Hue toy, plorant, deuarit Marie, Ou les rachasse vers les nues.
Et qu'elle t'ayde / la supplie, A refuge t'ay fait aler,
Lui disant, par bonne fiance, Et deuers les nues regarder,
Bon amour et bonne esperance, Qui es vne fueille seichee,
Ce que la deuot sainct Benard Et deiectee et desuoye'e
Lui disoit en vne autre part : En cestuy chemin maleureux,
' Cele et nye ta misericorde, Ouw'est pas(dontmeschief est) seulz.
(Disoit il), dame de concorde
447/16652. Ad oculum. The apparent gap, referred to on p. 447,
appears not to exist, as the contents of the next passage in Verard are
much the same as in Lydgate. The next sentence in Ver. begins; "Tu
secunda consolatio mea est." Possibly some copyist put the Latin
catchword by mistake.
447/i6668. To declyn by medyacion. Mediation is an astrological
term, meaning either (1) mid-day, or (2) the moment of the culmination of
448/16713. Cum beato Petro. See St. Matt. xiv. 28.
450/16784. Thylke Tree which that Danyel spak off. Dan. iv. 10-12:
" I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height there-
of was great. . . . The leaves thereof were fair, and the fruit thereof
much, and in it was meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under
it, and the fowls of heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was
fed of it."
451/i68o8. Walkyn as a man deiect with Nabugodonoser. Dan. iv. 33 :
" The same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar : and he
was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet
with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were grown like eagles' feathers, and
his nails like birds' claws."
451/16825. Oure ferme fader. Ferme or forme, meaning first, was one
of the few remnants in M.E. of the old superlative in -ma, of which we still
have traces in uttermost, innermost, etc. The O.E. word was forma,
Goth, fruma. In N.E. we have foremost, which is really a double
456/17017. In Tribulacione inuocasti me. Psal. Ixxxi. 7: "Thou
calledst in trouble, and I delivered thee."
462/17243-4. The maner ek off thy mawmet, Shape lyk a marmoset.
Mawmet is a corruption of Mahomet, and came to stand for anything
O.F. Marmoset comes from L. Lat. marmoretum, a grotesque figure,
orig. a small marble figure adorning a fountain.
463/17269-71. An abbey wych ....
Wasfoundyd besyden a cheker.
" Fr. eschiquier. This word is thus explained by Roquefort: ' Lieu on
s'assembloient les commissaires que le Roi, les Princes souverains ou
686 Notes. Pages 468-484, lines 17474-18103.
grands vassaux envoyoient dans leurs domaines. Dans la province de
Normandie cette cour etoit permanentre, et en 1250 on y portoit appel des
sentences des bailiffs.' See also Du Gauge's Glossary, sub voc. ' Scaca-
rium.' The word is introduced here as being radically connected with
the game of 'eschecs' or 'chess' which is described, and the reader will
at once recognize in it the origin of our Court of Exchequer" (Ancient
Poem of Guillaume de G-uileville, Note, p. xxxv.)
468/17474. For I resemble unto that hound. See ^Esop's fable of The
Dog in the Manger.
479/17902. I will not spekyn of nofrerys. See note to 16/535.
479/17914. Processionerys. This word is written pocessionerys in the
MS. Possessioners were, according to Mr. Wright, "the regular orders
of monks, who possessed landed property and enjoyed rich revenues."
Dr. Skeat thinks that in some cases the word may have been applied to
480/17940. Symon Magus & G-yosy. For Simon Magus see Acts viii.
By Gyosy is to be understood Gehazi (2 Kings v. 20-27).
480/17973. travas. I have been unable to find the word in this form.
It probably stands either for (1) travesse = a pass: "The fabricke was a
mo mtaine with two descents and severed with two travesses " (Masque
of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inne, 1612); or for (2) travers = a barrier,
a sliding door or movable screen. "A travers slided away." Masque at
Ashley Oastle, Marston.
481/17987. They feed themselves with haboundaunce. We may com-
pare with this passage Milton's indictment of the clergy in Lycidas, in
which he brings against them the very same accusations as werefnade by
Lydgate in this poem. Cf. also Piers Plowman, Prol. 83-99, where
Langland gives aa account of the clergy who forgot that they had received
their tonsure :
" in tokne
And signe J?at }?ei sholden shryuen here paroschienes,
Prechen and prey for hem and the pore fede,"
and went instead tj London to seek for sinecure offices with rich emolu-
ments attached to them.
483/r 8088. And whan that I am an drapere. In Piers Plowman, V.
209, Avarice resorts to the drapers to learn how to cheat :
" Thanne drowe I me amonges draperes my donet to lerne
To drawe J?e lyser alonge J?e lenger it semed ;
Amonge f?e riche rayes I renglred a lessoun,
To broche hem with a paknedle and plaited hem togyderes,
And put hem in a presse and pynned hem J?erinne,
Tyl ten prdes or twelue hadde tolled out )>rettene."
484/i8iO3. I walke abouten with pardons. Cf. with this passage
Chaucer's Prologue, ]. 692 f., and the Prologue to the Pardoner's Tale, 1.
335 f., as annotated in Morris and Skeat's editions.
In the second French version there is an interesting addition to tin's
list of wonders in the shape of an account of the practice of baptizing
dead children :
" Aucuneffois faiz baptisez
Daucuns petiz enfans mors nez.
Dessus lautier ie les faiz mectre
Qui ressemble tout massis estre,
Mais il est tout creux par dedens ;
Notes. Pages 484-494, lines 18130-18488. C87
Et par certains soubzterremens
Des charbons ardans ie soubzmectz
Et laultier eschaufer ie faiz,
Qui a lenfant doime chaleur.
Et puis ie monstre que vigueur
II ya et dy quil est vivant
la soit ce quil soit tout puant
Et tel puant ie Ie baptise.
Et par ainsi a moi iatise
Or et argent a ma prebende.
Qui chose est horrible et horrende
De baptizer une charoigne." (Ver. fol. Ixxi.)
484/i8i30. fret-ful = freightfull, fully loaded, fret = the fraught or
freight of a ship. (Cotgrave.)
489/18308. Of colore adust. Adust comes from Lat. adustus, pp. of
adurere, to burn, scorch. The term was much used in medicine and was
applied to a supposed state of the body which included dryness, heat,
thirst, and a burnt colour of the blood. See exs. in N. E. D.
492/18414. In colys to roste Seynt Laurence. The story of St. Laurenc e
is told at length in Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. The epi-
sode referred to in the text is as follows. When Sixtus II. was condemned
to death he commanded his deacon Laurence to distribute the church
treasures to the poor, in order that they might not fall into the hands of
the tyrannical prefect of Rome. This Laurence did, and when the prefect
demanded the treasure, he gathered together all the sick and poor of the
city, and presenting them to the prefect, said : " Behold, here are the
treasures of Christ's Church." In revenge for this the prefect caused
Laurence to be stretched on a gridiron above a furnace.
492/18427-8 : At merels & the botevaunt
At hasard & at the devaunt.
For merels and hasard see note to 306/1 1181, etc. I have not, so far,
been able to identify botevaunt and devaunt. The passage in Verard runs
as follows :
" Et que ien pers souuant ma cote
A mains ieux qui fontMenyez
Aux mereles, quartes et dez
Et que ien vois a val la rue
Comme ung oblayer toute ntie."
Dr. Skeat points out that O.F. devant means "in front of, ahead of,"
and suggests that devaunt is a game, gained by him who is devant, or " in
front of the rest." From the context and the French original we may
assume that it was a game of cards or dice.
Dr. Skeat thinks also that botevaunt looks like bot-devaunt, compounded
of bot, a butt, a thing to aim at, and devant, in front of. If this is so, it
may have been one of the many varieties of the game of skittles.
The " early mention of cards, sixty years before the date of their
introduction into France, (was) supposed to be an interpolation of Pierre
Virgin, in retouching the poem of De Guileville; but . . . they are
mentioned in the Stadtbuch of Augsburg, in 1275. . . . The invention,
therefore, cannot be ascribed to the French in 1390, as Mezerai asserts."
(Pilg. of Man, 1859, p. 34.)
494/18488. ffrenche nor Latyn he spak noon. This is probably an
allusion to the fact that the knowledge of magical arts came from the
East, and their principal exponents were found among the Arabians.
G88 Notes. Pages 496-503, lines 18586-18835.
496/18586. I make a cercle large and round. For an account of the
process of incantation and invocation of spirits see Secrees of Old Phili-
soffres, note to p. 16, 1. 495. The pentangle mentioned in this description,
within which it was necessary to stand, was a pentagon inside a circle,
and not the " endless knot " or five-pointed star of Sir Gawayne and the
500/18735. -As whylom was Kyng Salamoun, etc. Solomon was said
to be the king of the jinns and fairies, and to be able to command them
to do anything he chose. Amongst other works he employed the genii
in building the Temple. According to the rabbis he had a signet-ring
which revealed to him all he wished to know, and gave him power over
the inhabitants of the unseen world.
Virgil. Tales of his magical powers grew up during the Middle Ages
(not from any contemporary records), and were very widely dispersed.
Amongst other stories there is one that, finding the devil in a bottle, he
undertook to release him after learning all his arts, and that he first
employed his magical power in the creation of a perfect woman. Some
critics consider these tales to be of popular and Neapolitan, others of
For Albalart we should read Abelard, the name being printed Abe-
leard in Verard's edition. But for this, I should have taken the reference
to be to Albertus Magnus, since the rationalistic views of Abelard seem
very far opposed to any spiritualistic and magical practices. His unortho-
doxy and scepticism, however, being misunderstood, probably gave rise
to tales of his propensity for necromancy.
Cyprian was a magician of Antioch, a learned man, deeply versed in
astrology and necromancy, and of great power to raise demons. To this
man there resorted a certain youth, who desired to win the love of a
Christian girl called Justina, who, however, had devoted herself to
chastity and the service of God. Cyprian undertook to help the youth,
but on seeing Justina he fell so deeply in love with her that he deter-
mined to win her for himself, and employed all his arts to that end.
Justina, however, resisted him, and by her purity and steadfastness so
worked upon the mind of Cyprian (who found that not even his familiar
demon had power over her) that he himself became a Christian, and
finally suffered martyrdom with her in the Diocletian persecution.
(See Butler's Lives of the Saints, and Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and
Legendary Art.) In the Secrees of Old Philisoffres, 1187-90, Lydgate
again refers to Cyprian.
502/18792. Duke of Fryse. This story is told of the Frankish mis-
sionary, St. Wulfran, and a certain King Radbod. Radbod, having been
deeply touched by Wulfran's teaching, consented to become a Christian.
At the last moment, however, just as lie was about to receive the sacra-
ment of baptism, he inquired of Wulfran what had been the fate, after
death, of all his ancestors who had died in a state of heathenism. Wulfran
promptly replied that they were undoubtedly damned, whereupon Rad-
bod, declaring that if that were so he would be damned with them, refused
to be baptized, and relapsed into heathenism.
(See Lives and Legends of English Bishops, Kings, etc., Mrs. Arthur
503/18835. And is in heuene stelliffyed. This is a commou expression.
Cf. Temple of Glas, 6/135-6 :
" She was magnified
With lubiter to bein IstePified."
Notes. Pages 506-527, lines 18972-19755. 689
Cf. also Chaucer's Hous of Fame, 1001-8 :
" How goddes gonne stellifye
Brid, fish, beste, or him or here
As the Raven, or either Bere ....
How alle these arn set in hevene."
506/18972. The greete counceyle at Nycene. The great Council of
Nicea was summoned by the Emperor Constantine, A.D. 325, in order to
settle the questions raised by the Arian heresy. St. Augustine was one
of the greatest opponents of heresy, and was especially engaged in the
refutation of the errors of the Pelagians and th% Donatists.
511/19163. Ortigometra. This is supposed to be the landrail or corn-
crake, which belongs to a group of birds fitted for progress on either
land or in water, and with wings not very well adapted to long flights.
515/19288. And to an hereinyte in desert. I have been unable to
identify this tale. Stones of the wiles of the devil were, however, very
common, and Dom John Chapman, O.S.B., has called my attention to one
in Cassian, Coll. ii. 7: "De monacho qui, deceptus a diabolo, voluit
filiam suum immolare." In this story, the devil appears to the monk as
an angel of light, and leads him to believe that it would be pleasing to
God if he were to sacrifice his son to Him.
517/19368. ha.roiv. Crier haro ou harol sur = to cry out upon, or to
make a hue and cry after. According to the ancient opinion this cry was
used in Normandy by those who were wronged, as if to implore the aid of
Duke Rol, but modern etymologists throw doubt upon this derivation.
Diez suggests O.H.G. hara = here.
" Clamcur de haro = a claim of those who are in possession of land
which others seek to put them from."
In Gilbert Parker's The Battle of the Strong, the scene of which is
laid in Jersey, the heroine says before the magistrates: " Haro ! Harol
Monsieur le Prince, on me fait tort ! " No prince was present, but this
was the formula.
517/19386. Ryght as dyde Julyan. The emperor Julian was brought
up as a Christian, but afterwards became a pagan. There is a legend
that he made a compact with Mercury to sell his soul to paganism in
return for the promise of the Imperial crown. He devoted much of his
energy to an attempt to discredit the Christian prophecies and to restore
paganism. He wrote a book against the truth of Christianity, and is said
to have indulged in divinations and secret arts, whence he came to be
regarded as a powerful necromancer, who had sold himself to the devil.
527/19755. My mayster Chaucer. Ten Brink considers that Chaucer's
translation of De Guifeville's ABC belonged to about the same period
as his version of the legend of St. Cecilia. He points out that Chaucer's
A B C is rather an imitation than a translation of De Guileville's.
" The stanza of the original, which consisted of twelve short lines of very
involved rhyme, was changed by Chaucer into the more dignified and
serious form of a stanza of eight decasyllabic lines. The imitation is also
rather free in things of greater importance ; the French stanza most
frequently sketches out the thought in a general way, while the corre-
sponding English stanza gives it more exhaustively, or enlarges upon it ;
in other cases when the parallel stanzas have the same contents, there are
often deviations in the arrangement of the thoughts."
Two stanzas of De Guileville's Poem are given for purposes of
690 Notes. Pages 533-539, lines 19953-20182.
A toy du monde le refui Bien voy que par toy confortes
Vierge glorieuse, m'en fui Sera mes cuers desconfortes.
Tout confus, ne puis miex faire , Quer tu es de salu porte.
A toy me tien, a toy m'apuy Si je suis mal tresportez
Relieve moy, abatu suy : Par vii larrons, pechies mortez
Vaincu m'a mon aversaire. Et erre par voie torte,
Puis qu'en toy ont tous repaire Esperance me conforte
Bien me doy vers toys retraire Qui a toy hui me raporte
Avant que j'aie plus d'annuy. A ce que soie deportez
N'est pas luite necessaire Ma povre arine je t'aporte :
A moy, se tu debonnayre, Sauve la : ne vaut que morte
Ne me sequeurs comme a autrui. En li sont tous biens avortez.
533/19953. And eek that Longiris his herte pighte. Longius, usually
called Longinus, was the Rorn;in soldier who pierced the heart of our
Saviour. He is said to have been afterwards converted to Christianity,
and to have suffered martyrdom. The spear with which he delivered the
blow is said in the Romance of King Arthur to have fallen into the posses-
sion of Joseph of Arimathea, who brought it to England. There is also a
tradition that it is preserved among the treasures of St. Peter's at Rome.
533/19967. Zacharie yow clepeth \>z opene welle. Probably a reference
to Zechariah xiii. 1.
535/20040. The noble wyse Tholomee. In this passage Claudius Ptole-
mseus, the chief exponent of the system of astronomy which was called
after him, and which continued in universal acceptation until the sixteenth
century, is confused with one of the kings of Egypt of the same name.
Claudius Ptolemy was himself a native of Egypt, and flourished in
Alexandria about the middle of the second century A.D. His Centyloge,
mentioned in 1. 20615, is a \vork called Centiloquium, from the fact of its
containing a hundred aphorisms on astrological subjects.
538/20152. And as the doctour seynt Austyn. In Verard's edition, the
sidenote to this passage gives the reference Lib. V. De Civitate, cap. vi.
This chapter, however, which is upon the difference in the sexes of twins,
and the resulting differences in their future lives, is really an argument
against the influence of the stars. St. Augustine says plainly :
" The mind of man is not subject unto any of these phases of the stars ;
those artists, now desiring to bind our acts unto this that we see them
free from, do shew us plainly that the effects of the stars have not power
so much as upon our bodies . . ."
" What fonder affection can there be than to say that that figure of
Heaven which was one in the conception of them both had not power to
keep the sister from differing in sex from her brother, with whom she had
one constellation, and yet that the figure of heaven which ruled at their
nativity had power to make her differ so far from him in her virgin's
It is rather difficult to see how De Guileville could have so far mis-
understood St. Augustine's meaning, if Verard's sidenote really gives the
539/20182. The Stocyenes. De Civitate, Lib. V. cap. viii. " Of their
opinion that give not the name of Fate the position of the stars, but unto
the dependance of causes upon the will of God" seems to be the ground
of these lines, and of the assertion concerning the opinion of Homer on
"Homer's verses, translated into Latin by Tully, are as these are:
' Tales sunt hominum mentes qualis pater ipse
lupiter auctifferas lustravit lumine terras.'
Notes. Pages 539-570, lines 20185-21359. 691
' We would not bring poetic sentences for confirmation of this ques-
tion, but because that Tully saith, that the Stoics, standing for the power
of Fate, use to quote this place of Homer, we now alledge them, not as
his opinion, but as theirs, who by these verses of Fate shewed in their
disputations what they thought of Fate, because they call upon Jove,
whom they held to be that great God, upon whose directions these causes
did depend.' "
539/20185. Mathesis. This is the Greek paO-no-is, meaning "learning."
The word was very commonly employed in the Middle Ages, and eventu-
ally carne to be personified.
545/20416. Thys tooknys nor thys bowys grene. Cf. the proverb,
" Good wine needs no bush.'' The custom of indicating a public-house
by a bush or bough, hung outside, was Roman, and there was a Latin
proverb : " Vino vendibili hedera non opus est." In France a peasant
who wishes to sell his vineyard places a green bush over his door.
549/20595. ffor whan cryst, in swych A cas. See St. John ix. 1-3.
549/2o6o8. And davyd seyth. See Psalm xix. 1, 2.
500/20615. And in hys Centyloge. See note to 535/20040.
552/20698. Pyromancye, etc. See the explanations of these modes of
divination in the notes to p. 16 of the Secrees of Old Philisoffres. See also
The Assembly of Gods, notes to p. 26/867-870.
552/20714. The myghty man Neptanabus. The name should be
Nectanabus. He was the reputed father of Alexander the Great.
According to the legend, Nectanabus, a king of Egypt, foresaw, through
his magic, that he should be overcome by his enemies, and this befalling,
he fled to Macedon. There seeing the queen Olimpias, wife of Philip, he
fell in love with her, and by means of a dream, induced by magic, brought
her to believe that she was destined to be the paramour of a god. Having
deceived her thus, he was able, through his magic arts, to take advantage
of her delusion, and the outcome of this union was a son, who afterwards
became Alexander the Great. The story is told at length in Gower'a
Confessio Amantis, Bk. VI.
555/2o8oo. Gyrces. For Cyrces we should read Syrtes, meaning quick-
sands, or sandbanks. The name is specially applied to two sandbanks
on the north coast of Africa.
56 1/2 1060. Bykhalassus. Can this be a miswriting (both in the French
and English versions; for Di-thalassos? The latter word means either
(1) divided into two seas, or (2) between two seas, where two seas meet,
as off a headland ; used for the meeting of currents in the Syrtes.
The second sense agrees well with the context.
566/21222. That is hys hevene & nothyng ellys. See note to p. 416/
567/21268. Ytffyl thus of Ypocras. This story of Philemon (or Pole-
mon) and Hippocrates is also given, with extra details, in the Secrees of
Old Philisoffres (11. 2479-2520). As the editor of that text points out in
the notes, the story is really told of Zopyrus and Socrates. "Polemon
was the only writer on physiognomy known to the Arabs, and Sodrates is
not very different in its Arabic form from Hippocrates, who was far
570/21359. I chace at hem that ther-in Eowe. "To row" here means
" to swim." We may compare Beowulf, 1. 512 :
G92 Notes. Pages 573-617, lines 21508-23107.
" p& git on sund reon,
peer git eagor-stream earmura pehton."
"Then you swam in the sea
Where you covered the ocean-stream with your arms."
573/21508. pawnys = palms of the hands. "But it is such safe
travelling in Spain that one may carry gold in the pawn of his hand."
HowelVs Letters (Nares).
576/21583. In thylke dyrke fyr (nat bryht). We may compare with
this line Cyuewulf s idea of the appearance of the flames of hell.
" fconne call j?reo on efen nimefc
Won fyres wselm wide tosomne
Se swearta lig." Christ, Pt. III. 11. 963-5.
" When the pallid surge of fire, the swarthy flame
Shall seize all those three things, at once, alike,
And far and wide." Gollancz's trans.
585/21932. Wrappyd. This seems to stand for rapt, ravished or
carried away. Cf. Ferrex and Porrex:
" His noble limmes in such proportion cast
As would have wrapt a sillie woman's thought."
It cannot be taken in its ordinary sense, since the next line contradicts
it. Possibly, however, it might be metathesis of warpyd, cast.
590/22095. The Cystews. The order of the Cistercians was founded
towards the end of the eleventh century by Robert, Abbot of Moleme, in
Burgundy. He endeavoured to restore the exact observance of the rule
of St. Benedict in his monastery, but failing, retired with twenty monks
to Cfteaux, near Chalons, where he founded the first monastery of the
The order of Clugni was the first branch of the Benedictine order. It
was founded in 910, by Abbot Bernon at Clugni, on the Garonne. The
Cluniac monasteries were remarkable for the severity of their discipline.
The Carthusians were founded in 1080 by a certain Bruno, professor of
Philosophy at Paris. The first monastery was built at Chartreux near
Grenoble. Strict seclusion and almost perpetual silence were distinguish-
ing points in the discipline of the order.
Fratres Minores was the name applied in humility by St. Francis of
Assisi to the order of monks instituted by him, better known as the
Preaching Friars was another name for the Dominicans, who had
received special authority from the pope to preach. At first the work of
preaching was not permitted to friars.
597/22356. Towched. Can this stand for to-sched, meaning " divided,
separated," from M.E. to-schseden? Stowe has couched, which makes
598/22417. Somme callen hir Placebo. See note to p. 395/14654.
615/23030. The space of xxxix yere. This is one of the indications
from which we are enabled to gain some knowledge concerning the life of
De Guileville. The following account, of the entrance of Envy into the
monastery, is probably the reflection of some actual experience of the
617/23107. frolage. Neither Godefroy nor Littre give this word. It
seems however to be connected with froler, the ordinary sense of which
is to touch lightly. Littre says, "(Berry.) froler, battre, e"triller ; freler,
meme sens ; genev. f router, norm, freuler. D'apres Diez, froler est pour
Notes. Pages 620-660, lines 23249-24653. , 693
frotler, dim. de frotter. On pourrait croire aussi qu'il est pour /rosier, de
620/23249. Terra sibifruges. Ovid. Ibis. 107-8:
" Terra tibi fruges, amnis tibi deneget undas
Deneget adflatus ventus et aura suos," etc.
Verard quotes sixteen lines.
683/23618. The Prophete JEzechiel. Ezekiel xvi. 49 : " Behold, tin's was
the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance
of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the
hand of the poor and needy."
686/23701. took of Egypt the Tresour. See Gen. xi. 2 and xii. 35.
637/23773. In Egipt whilom. See Gen. xli.
645/24093. Seyn Poule hym-silfe saith. See Acts xxvii. 31.
655/24443. wylk is nothyng dies. See Arist. Hist. Animalium, B. vii.
658/24620. As Barlam telleth of a kyng. This story is also found in
the Talmud, where we are told that a certain rich man released a slave
and sent him forth with a ship of merchandise to seek his fortune. The
slave was wrecked upon an island and lost all he had, but the people of
the island received him with acclamations and made him their king.
The slave, amazed and dazzled, could not understand the reason of
his good fortune, but on inquiring of those around him he was told that
the island was inhabited by spirits who had prayed to God that He
would send them yearly a man to rule over them. This prayer had been
granted, but each king was permitted to reign for one year only, and at
the end of that time was stripped of all and conveyed to a desolate unin-
habited island. Former kings had been content to enjoy their year of
power without considering the future, but he, if he were wise, would send
workmen to the island, to till the ground and erect houses, in order that
when the time came for his removal thither he might find a fertile and
inhabited place ready to receive him.
The slave, wiser than his predecessors, followed this advice, and upon
the expiration of his year of power, entered upon a new kingdom, in
which he might henceforth dwell in security and enjoyment.
The story was known to De Guileville in the romance of Barlaam and
Josaphat, which was one of the richest storehouses of legend of the
Middle Ages. It is told in a Greek book, long ascribed to John of
Damascus. M. H. Zotenberg, however, holds the opinion, in which
Gaston Paris concurs, that it was composed a hundred years earlier, in
the first half of the seventh century, by a monk of the convent of St. Saba.
The story of Barlaam and Josaphat is supposed to be a Christianized
version of the life of Buddha. Barlaam was a Christian hermit, who, in
the third or fourth century, converted an Indian prince called Josaphat,
and as a means to his end made use of a large number of ancient folk-
tales and fables, which he interpreted spiritually.
The romance was translated into nearly every European language
during the Middle Ages. For a full account of it see Poemes et legend'es
du Moyen Age by Gaston Paris, and Barlaam and Josaphat, English
Lives of the Buddha, by Joseph Jacobs.
660/24653. As whylom dede seynt Lowys. The prayers and fastings,
the alms, and compassion of St. Lewis, "his mercy meynt with ryghtwes-
nesse" may be illustrated by many incidents and habits of his life.
Amongst the religious or charitable monuments erected by him were the
694 Notes. Page 660, line 24653.
abbey of Royaumont, on the building of which he sometimes worked with
his own hands, several hospitals, the two monasteries of Franciscans and
Dominicans in Paris, and many churches and chapels.
He was accustomed to indulge in many of the practices of asceticism,
such as the wearing of hair-cloth, the use of the discipline, and strict con-
trol of his appetites; but he never allowed these practices to become
obtrusive or to interfere with the proper execution of his royal duties.
Towards the poor he displayed always great compassion, " often
serving them at table, washing their feet, and visiting them in the
hospitals" (Butlers Lives of the Saints). "He protected the poor from
the oppressions of the great, and would not suffer his own brothers to
pass the limits of law and equity." Ho led two crusades, both of which,
however, proved disastrous to his armies, and died himself in 1270, of the
pestilence which attacked his second expedition at Tunis.
a, adj. all, 179/68 3 8.
a, prep, on ; a syde, on her side, 89/
a, vb. have, 7/253.
abaisshed, abaysshed, pp. abashed,
61/2296, 76/2858, 173/6593, 284/
abaye, adv. at bay, 618/23143.
abrayde, vb. (1) speak, 20/739, 106/
4025; pret. spoke, 28/878, 161/
6143. (2) cry out, 208/7415;
pret. cried out, 228/8223, 242/
8759. (3) upbraid, 89/3365.
abusyon, n. deception, 102/3852.
abyggen, vb. pay for, 492/18440.
abyt, abyte, vb. abides, endures, 2/43,
accorde, vb. agree, 208/7424, 213/
7602, 240/8663 ; pp. agreed, 217/
acroche, vb. lay hold of, 414/15392,
adawed, pp. awakened, 7/226.
adewhen, vb. bedew, 237/8551.
aduersyte, n. adversity, 123/4832.
aduerte, aduerten, vb. consider, 96/
3603, 107/4033, 142/5437.
adust, adj. burning, 489/18308. See
aermancy, n. aeromancy, divination
by means of the winds, 552/
afferd, afferyd, adj. afraid, 64/2403,
affere, afferre, adv. afar, 211/7534,
afforce, vb. strengthen, 212/7566;
pres. afforceth, 278/10125.
affray, n. (1) fear, 46/1712, 111/
4202. (2) attack, 204/7269.
affte that, conj. according as, 159/
affye, vb. confide, 391/14470, 558/
aforen, aforn, adv. before, 69/2582,
afowndryd, pp. foundered, 374/
after, affter, prep, according to, 74/
2780, 118/4477, 236/8505, etc.
agaas, n. magpie or jay, 389/14415.
ageyn, P re P- against, 88/3325, 94/
aggreggyng,n. increasing. 112/4240.
agilt, pp. offended, deceived, A B 0,
ago, agon, pp. gone, 224/8o47, 136/
agrysed,|>p. horrified, 11/411.
aiourne, vb. imp. cite, summon, ABC,
a-knowe, 1 acknowledge, 11 9/4516;
to ben a-knowe, to acknowledge,
albe, conj. albeit, 22/826 ; al be yt
so, although, 145/5556.
albeston, n. asbestos, 238/86O2. See
alday, adv. always, 82/3074, 92/
alder, of all, AB (7, 530/19874; alder-
fyrst, first of all, 71/2657; alder-
hyest, highest of all, 129/4922;
alderlast, last of all, 228/8114.
alengthe, adv. along, at full length,
algate, conj. since, 327/1 201 8.
algatys, adv. always, 155/5893, 204/
allegement, n. remission, relief, 108/
4095, 121/4602, 596/22334.
allegge, vb. alleviate, 71/2663; alleg-
almesse, n. alms, 119/4524.
alowe, adv. low, below, 192/7130.
also, conj. as, 168/6415.
amat, amaat, adj. dismayed, amazed,
amende, vb. give satisfaction, 224/
amendement, n. reparation, 147/
amendyng, n. amendment, 46/1718.
amenuse, vb. diminish, 686/23686;
pr.part. amenusyng, 688/23613.
amrnonycyon, n. admonition, 71/
among, adv. at times, 306/1 1181.
ampte, n. ant, 277/ioioi, 280/ioi88.
ancille, n. hand-maiden, ABC, 531/
and, conj. if, 72/2671, 117/4464, etc.;
and if, except, 188/5072.
annethe, adv. hardly, 179/6842. See
annoy, n. annoyance, 229/8231.
anoon, adv. immediately ; annoon
ryght, immediately, 106/3992.
answeryng, pr.part. corresponding,
anulle, vb. destroy, do away with,
apallen, vb. enfeeble, 94/3528.
aparcevcd, j?p. perceived, 188/5269.
apayd, appayyd, pp. pleased, satis-
fied, 76/2840, 80/3004, 155/5896,
apayre, apeyre,^. spoil, become less,
21/786, 340/12496; pp. apeyred,
apechyd, pp. impeached, 160/6114.
apertly, adv. openly, 586/20072.
apparayllede, pp. apparelled, 232/
appartene, vb. belong, 274/9970.
appelle, vb. challenge, 860/13290.
apryved, adj. approved, 146/5603.
armole, n. armhole, armpit, 315/
armure, n. armour, 202/7229, 212/
7598, 230/8269, etc.
armvrer, n. armourer, 211/7547.
arretten, vb. account, ascribe, 449/
arrew, inter j. 847/12767.
arsmetryk, n. arithmetic, 314/1 1490.
arwe, n. arrow, 212/7573, 214/7653.
arwh, adj. cowardly, 490/18364.
as, conj. than, 78/2914, etc.; as if,
ascrye, vb. call upon, 860/13291 ;
pp. askryed, challenged, accused,
askawnce, adv. aside, 166/6333.
assautys, n. assaults, 204/728 1, 21 1/
assay, n. trial, 239/8642, 427/15871.
assaye, vb. undertake, try, 62/2323,
71/2637, 167/6 35 i.
assent, n. opinion, accord, 134/5 101.
asseth, n. satisfaction (Fr. assez),
assoyl, vb. solve, explain, 157/5997 ;
assoylle, vb.pr.sg. absolve, 69/2586.
assurance, n. pledge, 52/1944.
assure, vb. rely, 2/29.
asterte, vb. escape, 852/12964.
astonyd, pp. astonished, 242/8736.
a.t,prep. in or to, 314/1 1496 ; at two,
in two, 67/2504.
atame, vb. broach, enter upon, 480/
a-thynke, vb. displease, 94/3532.
avale, vb. drop down, 885/14245;
pp. cast down, 274/9984, 278/
avaunce, vb. advance, 82/3078, 128/
avaunt, n. boast, 318/ 11661.
avauntage, n. advantage, 130/5OOI,
avaunte, vb. boast, 55/2046.
avayl, n. advantage, 96/3631.
avaylleth, vb. pres. avails, 222/7988.
avayting, pr. p. awaiting, 126/4808.
aventure, n. chance, 160/6no, 217/
aventyng, n. vent, 887/14332.
avout(e)rye, n. adultery, 864/13433.
avowe, vb. acknowledge, permit,
avys, n. (1) consideration, 72/2709,
97/3663. (2) judgment, 100/3768,
239/8644. (3) opinion, 158/5852.
(4) understanding, 168/6038, 167/
avyse, vb. advise, 148/5634 ; pp. in-
avyse, adj. discreet, well-informed,
avysely, adv. advisedly, 99/3750.
avysement, n. discretion, considera-
tion, 66/2447, 168/6035.
avysyon, n. vision, 16/586, 17/635,
awayt, adv. in wait, watching, 10/
awhapyd, pp. astonished, 172/6542,
awhter, n. altar, 86/3230^.
awmaylle, n. enamel, 19/690.
awmener, n. almoner, 106/3983 ; pi.
awntre, vb. adventure, 576/2 1610.
awreke, pp. avenged, 89/3329, ISO/
awstynys, n. Augustinians, 16/536.
awys, n. 71/2642. See avys.
axe, vb. ask, 101/3802, 154/5862,
120/4570; pp. yaxyd, 190/7048.
ay, n. egg, 88/3312, 888/14361.
baas, adj. low, 402/14898.
bacyn, n. beacon, 286/8491.
bakke, n. bat, 420/15618.
balke, n. to make a balke, to
blunder, mistake, fail, 168/6384.
bandoun, n. power, disposal, juris-
diction, 72/2688, 177/6753, 514/
baret, n. strife, 220/7913, 486/18192.
barmfel, n. leather apron, 425/1 5828,
batayll, n. battle, 212/7561, 218/
baudrek, n. baldrick, girdle, 647/
bawm, n. balm, 92/3460, 298/io882.
bayard, n. (bay) liorse, 804/11138.
beere, n. bear, 286/8495.
beffyl, vb. pret. befell, 288/10330.
befull, adj. should be lefull, lawful,
behest, n. promise, 1 19/451 8, '369/
behihte, behyhte, vb. pret. promised,
168/6206, 232/8373 ; pp. behyht,
behight, 166/6334, 587/22OI2 ;
subjunc. behote, 587/21998; pr.
p. byhotynge, 687/21979.
be-iape, vb. beguile, 871/13688.
beleve, n. creed, 894/14604.
belwys, bylwes, n. bellows, 379/
ben, vb. pres. pi. are, 88/3306.
bere hem so on hande, deceive
bereth me an hand, flatters me, 387/
bern, vb. bear, 28/1031, 166/6322.
berthene, n. burden, 869/13248.
beseke, vb. beseech, 162/6172.
beseyn, pp. dressed, provided, 21/
besmys, n. brooms, rods, 819/11713.
bessellys, n. 306/1 1191. See Note,
best, n. beast, 91/3429, 242/8742.
besyde, besyden, adv. aside, 114/
bet, adj. better, 61/2282, 116/4377,
bewte, n. beauty, 181/6897, 218/
beyn, vb. buy, 286/8523, 260/9035 ;
pr. sg. 2. beyst, 260/9033.
bit, vb. pres. ind. bids, 666/24489.
blent, pp. blinded, 66/2428, 138/
blyue, adv. quickly, 94/3546, 126/
4813, etc.; as blyue, immediately,
bobbaunce, n. ostentation, 387/
bocchyd, pp. swollen, 489/18328.
boch, n. hump, swelling, 489/18297 ;
pi bochches, 237/8565.
boden, pp. commanded, 600/18712.
bolde, vb. embolden, 80/2983.
bole, n. bull, 864/13029.
bolle, pp. inflated, 878/13982.
bollyng, n. swelling, 108/4074.
bombardys, n. instruments like bas-
bonche, vb. strike, knock about, 367/
bonche, n. bunch, hump, 489/18294.
booden, pp. bidden, 97/3672.
bordoun, n. pilgrim's staff, 17/6 12
borgh, n. borough, 143/5456; pi.
botaylle, n. limits, boundary, 98/
3696. See Note,
bote, n. remedy, 322/1 1814, 654/
botevaunt, n. a game, 492/18427.
botore, n. bittern, 864/13031.
bowgys, n. bags (O.Fr. boulge,
boyst, n. box, 143/5466, 899/14792.
boystous, adj. rough, churlish, 89/
brayd, n. throw, twist, 661/24325.
braydest, vb. pr. resemblest, 246/
brenne, vb. burn, 607/18984 ; pp.
brent, 96/3574, 108/3900, 121/
brennyng, n. burning, 78/2723.
brcste, vb. burst, 428/1 5930.
brestyng, n. bursting, 887/14331.
bresures, n. bruises, 619/23210.
broche, vb. hasten, spur, 368/13007.
broche, n. spear, spine of hedgehog,
bromys, n. brooms, 92/3475.
brond, n. sword, 227/8i55 ; pi.
brondys, 227/8 1 80.
bronstoon, n. sulphur, 422/15676.
brood, adj. broad, 127/4845.
brooke, adj. broken, 460/1 7160.
brose, vb. bruise, 107/4o66.
brotyl, adj. brittle, 278/ion 8, 279/
brotylnesse, n. brittleness, 279/
brustlys, n. bristles, 868/13594.
bry hours, n. beggars, 478/17885.
bryd, n. bird, 88/3313, 260/9431.
brygaunt, n. robber, brigand, 8/70 ;
pi. brigauntys, 204/7274.
brygge, n. bridge, 409/15185.
burdon, n. pilgrim's staff, 172/6575.
but, conj. except, 77/2893, 108/4096,
etc. ; but yiff, except, J55/59OI.
by and by, adv. one by one, bit by
bit, 4/146, 93/3495, 122/4653.
bydde, vb. pray, beseech, 555/
byggere, n. buyer, 476/17787.
byggyng, n. buying, 482/1 8020.
bysine, n. besom, broom, 106/4014,
byst, vb. pr. ind. 2. biddest, 255/
9225; pr. 3. byt, commands, bids,
byth, vb. pr. pi. are, 180/4943.
caas, n. case, 86/3222, 175/6677;
par caas, (1) suppose, by
chance, 151/5763. (2) for example,
perhaps, 1 60/6 1 08.
caffe, n. chaff (of corn), 34/1278.
calle, n. caul, web, net, 514/19269 ;
pi. callys, 596/22339.
illyn, vb. call,
callyn, vb. call, 461/17202.
callyoun, n. pebble, 418/15552, 425/
carence, n. lack, 80/1144.
cast aforn, vb. foresee, 214/7640.
caste, vb. purpose, 301/IIOI4;
castestow, dost thou purpose,
cast hyr, vb. pret. set herself,
purposed, 40/1500, 148/5447.
catel, n. property, 250/9034.
celerys, n. cellars, 206/7330.
cely, adj. innocent, 288/10510, 439/
cene, n. (Holy) Supper, 121/4616.
centyloge, n. 550/2o6i6. See Note,
cerche, vb. search, 117/4444; P r - P>
cerchyng, 18/663 ; pp. cerchyd,
certys, adv. certainly, 88/3302, 153/
chalenge, vb. claim, 441/16433.
chamberere, chaumberere, n. serv-
ant, 98/3748, 100/3765, 104/3922.
char, n. chariot, 627/23401.
charge, n. (1) charge, task, 85/
3196, 143/5470. (2) load, 208/
charge, vb. charge, burden, 74/2781,
chasteleyne, n. chatelaine, 608/
chaumbre, n. chamber, room, 106/
chaumpartye, champartye, n. re-
sistance, competition, contest,
161/6148, 228/8193, 647/24174.
chaunceler, n. chancellor 120/4580.
chaunteplure, n. song and weeping,
2/30. See Note,
chauntpartye, n. 262/9508. See
cheff, this the, above all, 188/506 1.
chek maat, pp. check-mate, 172/
cheker, n. chess-board, 468/17271.
cher, chere, n. cheer, countenance,
appearance, manner, 1/23, 89/
cherte, cheerte, n. love, dearness,
charity, 123/47O2, 601/22530.
cherysshynge, adj. nourishing, 121 /
ches, n. jess, 872/13739.
chese, chesyn, vb. choose, 65/2431,
cheventayne, n. chieftain, 881/14074.
chevysaunce, n. bargain, profit,
487/i82 34 .
chose, n. chosen flock, elect, 12/
clamb, vb. pret. climbed, 69/2566.
clarre, n. a wine, 348/12830. See
clepd, pp. called, 161/6 126.
cler, adv. clearly, 87/3289.
clere, adj. bright, 175/6685.
clergie, n. clerkship, learning, 287/
clobbyd, adj. clubbed, 288/10337.
cloos, pp. (1) closed, 169/6447.
(2) enclosed, 168/6212, 222/7985.
cloos, n. closh, a game, 306/1 1181.
closour, closure, n. enclosure, 9/337,
cloystrer, n. cloisteral monk, 594/
clyket, n. catch, latch, 862/12967.
coarte, coharte, vb. coerce, worry,
coffyn, n. box, 287/10454, 593/22223.
cokyl, n. shell, 287/8547.
collusions, n. prevarications, 180/
colverhows, n. dove-cot, 448/16509.
colys, coolys, n. broth, 418/15352,
colyt, n. acolyte (Palsgrave: 'Collet,
the seconde order, acolite'), 58/
comensal, n. habitual guest, table
commytted, pp. sent out, 86/3205.
compace, n. stratagem, 406/15043.
compasse, vb. measure, encompass,
complyn, n. compline, the last
service of the day in monasteries,
comwne, adj. common, general or
universal, 68/2365, 171/6527.
comwne, vb. commune, 171/6528.
concerne, vb. regard, 248/8983.
conceyue, vb. understand, 170/6460.
conduite, vb. guide, 46/1732.
condygnely, adv. worthily, 130/
conge, n. leave, permission, 163/
coniunt, pp. conjoined, 149/5682.
coniurysoun, n. conjuration, 498/
consnyl, counsayl, n. counsel, 96/
constaunce, n. constancy, firmness,
consuetude, n. custom, 610/22858.
contagyous, adj. foul, noxious, 367/
conterplete, vb. plead against, 147/
contrariouste, n. contrariousness,
contraryouste, n. accident, impedi-
ment, 7/230, 398/14742.
contrayre, adj. contrary, 78/2710,
contre, n. country, 176/6702.
contune, vb. continue, 170/6486;
pp. contunyd, 4/125.
couuersacion, n. course of life, 276/
conveyed, pp. accompanied, 134/
conyecte, vb. conjecture, 496/18593.
coorbyd, corbyd, pp. bowed, 374/
cop, coppe, n. summit, 278/10138,
coquynerye, n. roguery, 477/17827.
corage, n. heart, 9/313, 806/11203.
coragous, adj. courageous, 219/7844.
cordeler, n. a machine for rope-
making (N. E. D.), a rope-maker,
cornemose, n. bagpipe, 889/14410;
pi. cornemusys, 886/14303.
cornowler, n. cherry-tree (Fr. cor-
corour, n. courier, 660/24262.
coryously, adv. by sequence, 239/
cost, n. side, 86/1341, 124/4741.
costeyynge, pres. p. going by the
couenable, covenable, becoming,
proper, fit, 67/2490, 244/8831,
couert, pp. covered, 114/4347.
couertly, adv. covertly, secretly,
counfortable, adj. comfortable, 237/
coupable, adj. guilty, 82/3061.
courtyne, n. a small courtyard, 232/
courtyned, pp. curtained, 291/10631.
coy, adj. quiet, retiring, 287/10468,
crampysshynge, adj. cramping, 374/
creaunce, n. belief, 181/6900, 6911,
credence, n. belief, 140/5336.
crepawd, n. toad, 421/15652.
crepyl, n. cripple, 461/I72H.
eriaunce, n. belief, 536/19851.
crochet, n. crook, 482/1 8015. See
crokke, n. pitcher, 890/14460.
croos, n. cross, 180/6852.
croppe, n. top of a tree, 322/1 1813,
crowde, n. riddle, 380/14265.
curat, n. care-taker, guardian, 85/
cure, n. care, solicitude, 56/21 18;
care, 85/3190; set no cure, care
not, 124/4718; dyde hys besy
cure, did his best, 162/6155.
cure, vb. cover, 59/2224 > PP- cured,
curteisye, n. courtesy, 152/5803.
curteys, adj. courteous, 87/3268.
curteysly, adv. courteously, 106/
curyouste, n. fastidiousness, nicety,
cusyner, n. cook, 416/15443.
cyromancye, n. chiromancy or divi-
nation by the hand, 564/2 1157.
cyvyle, adj. civil law, 428/15916.
dallyawne, dalyaunce, n. converse,
sport, 14/520, 215/7709.
dampnable, adj. to be condemned,
damyselle, n. maiden, 241/871 8.
daren, vb. lurk, 408/1 5160.
dareyne, vb. (to) settle by battle, ISO/
daunger, n. power, 255/9232.
dawntyng, n. taming, 330/12136.
debonayre, adj. usually gentle, cour-
teous, gracious, 107/4044.
deceyuable, adj. deceitful, 235/8490.
deceyvaunce, n. deceit, 236/8498.
declyn, n. declination, 92/3447.
declyne, vb. turn aside, deviate, 131/
dede, adj. dead, 92/3468.
dediedest, vb. pret. didst dedicate,
deere, dere, vb. injure, 65/2433, 123/
4668 ; snbj. 184/7oi6.
dees, n. dice, 306/1 1 193.
defie, vb. digest, (cause to) decay,
253/9i6o; pp. defyed, 350/12908.
degre, n. degree, 73/2725.
deiect, pp. cast down, 451/1 6808.
delyt, n. delight, 137/52O7, 154/
dely table, adj. delightful, 271/9856.
deme, demen, demene, demyn, vb.
judge, condemn, 65/2423,86/3241,
149/5694, 222/7987; pret. dempte,
333/12238; pp. demyd, 168/6412;
pres. p. demynge, 74/2776.
demeur, adj. demure, 145/5543.
demeyue, domain, n. possession,
dominion, 80/2977, 355/13077.
dent, n. stroke. Thonder denf , clap
of thunder, 889/14400.
departe, vb. divide, 67/2504, 223/
8009 ; pp. departyd, divided,
scattered, 67/2496, 144/5516.
departyng, n. separation, 53/1971.
departysoun, n. departure, 503/
depeynt, pp. painted, 556/20843.
depoos, depos, n.. deposit, stock,
dere, vb. injure, 510/19124.
descry ve, vb. describe, 116/4389,
despyt, n. scorn, contempt, con-
tumely, 122/466o, 209/7465 ;
cause of scorn, 102/3855.
despytous, adj. spiteful, 247/8932.
desteyne, vb. stain, 92/3473.
determyne, vb. end, 655/20827.
devaunt, n. a game, 492/18428. See
dever, deuer, n. duty, 47/1774, 93 /
devoyded, pp. cleared away,
emptied, 101/3831, 110/4163;
pres. devoydeth, does away, 133/
devys, n. opinion, 106/4020; plan,
devyse, vb. tell, explain, set forth,
present, declare, devise, relate,
arrange, design, 62/2322, 76/2828,
94/3520, 110/4170, 152/5816, 157/
5996, 179/6826, 202/7220.
deye, deyen, vb. die, 118/4298, 221/
deyete, n. deity, 84/3138.
deynous, deyngnows, adj. disdain-
ful, 131/5000, 420/15594.
differre, vb. put away, 667/24538.
disci aund re, n. disgrace, 298/10704.
discresse, vb. diminish, 688/23610.
distourble, vb. disturb, trouble, 204/
7270; pp. dystourbled, 626/19725.
distruyen, vb. destroy, 668/24374;
pp. distruyed, 689/23858.
do, n. doe, 225/8 100.
do, don, done, vb. do, cause, make,
124/4716, 92/3460, 129/4909, 138/
5264; pres. doth, 168/6409. be to
do, ought to be done, 7/262. ye
. . . ha do, ye have done, 146/
5574. have a-do, 210/7516, 218/
7811. they do no for, they pay
no attention, 171/6524. I dyde
upon, I put on, 208/74 10 ^ m P'
pi doth, 241/8705 ; dyst, dist,
pret. didst, 111/4209, 112/4231.
dystow, didst thou, 111/4211.
dongel, n. dung-hill, 267/9714, 276/
donne, adj. dun, 101/3830.
doole, n. grief, 620/23223.
doom, n. judgment, 168/6416, 172/
6555 ; & doomys, 170/6497.
dor, doore, vb. dare, 262/9528, 277/
dortour, dortoure, n. dormitory, 592/
dotous, adj. doubtful, 166/6307, 370/
doubylnesse, n. duplicity, 67/2137.
doute, n. problem, fear, 101/3802,
doute, vb. fear, 68/2558; pret. dout-
ede, feared, expected, 145/5532;
thow doutest, thou didst wonder,
dowhe, dowe, n. dove, 878/13964,
drad, p. dreaded, feared, 68/2549;
pret. 179/6838. _
drauht, n. behaviour, treatment of
drawlyng, n. slavering, 849/12853.
dred, drede, n. doubt, 79/2972, 142/
dredful, dredefful, adj. stern, causing
dread to others, 44/1667, 490/
dresse, vb. cause, prepare, direct,
108/3889, 442/16462; wield, 114/
4332; arrange, place, set, 129/
4910, 188/6994, 208/7236.
dreynt, pp. drenched, drowned, 292/
10678; ydreynt, 349/12843.
duete, n. duty, 81/3045, 181/6920.
dure, vb. endure, 288/8410.
duresse, n. severity, 220/7889, 470/
dwelle, vb. hesitate, delay, 88/3327 ;
wait, 106/4005 ; consider, 158/
6033; abide, 180/6859.
dyde vpon, vb. pret. sg. put on, 208/
dyfface, vb. deface, injure, 81/1184;
pret. dyffaced, 82/1205.
dyffaute, n. fault, 69/2590; pi. dyf-
dyffence, n. prohibition, 296/10775.
dyffendyd,p. forbidden, 296/10774,
dygne, digne, adj. worthy, 107/
dyhte, vb. pret. prepared, 418/15360.
dymes, n. tithes, 49/i8i8, 642/23967.
dyrk, dyrke, adj. dark, 99/3742, 101/
dvrked, pp. darkened, become dark,
dyrknesse, n. darkness, 186/5186,
dysavayl, n. disadvantage, 299/
dysclaundered, pp. disgraced, 290/
dyscure, vb. discover, publish, 263/
9550; pp. dy soured, 7/233.
dysesse, n. disease, discomfort, 62/
dysfourme, vb. deform, 166/6342.
dysguesyly, adv. hideously, strange-
dysguyse, adj. strange, monstrous,
dysioynt, n. perplexity, dilemma,
232/8357, 8379, 367/13527.
dysobeisaunce, n. disobedience, 30/
dysparple, vb. scatter, 886/14298.
dyspence, n. outlay, expence, 308/
dyspleasaunce, ??. discomfort, dis-
pleasure, 229/8231, 282/8378.
dysport, n. pleasure, joy, 108/3897.
dyspoyllen, vb. strip, 14/499.
dyspurveyed, pp. unprovided, de-
prived of, 55/2049. dispurveyed,
dysseuereth, vb. pres. departs, l/i6.
dystresse, vb. distrain, 472/17655.
dystreyne, vb. strain, afflict, 427,
dystreyned,#p. stretched, 326/1 1957,
dysusance, n. disuse, want of cus-
dyswarre, adv. unaware, 450/16765.
dyuertycle, n. by-path, wayside
shelter (N. E. D.), 439/16351.
echon, each one, 82/3085, 84/3159,
efft, adv. again, 86/3221.
egal, adj. just, 67/2491 ; equal, 147/
egge, n. edge, 64/2410, 71/2664; pi.
ek, eke, conj. also, 70/26 12, 75/2807,
etc. ; ek also, also, 78/2933.
Elenchus, Elenchis, logical refuta-
tion (see Note), 45/1671, 1683,
318/11648; gen. Elenchorum, 45/
ellaat, ellat, adj. presumptuous,
elated, 55/2058, 68/2530, 299/
elm, n. helmet, 218/7608.
elthe, n. health, well-being, 46/1718,
embrawded, pp. embroidered, 250/
emerawd, n. emerald, 239/86 1 6.
emerlyoun, n. merlin hawk, 372/
empechementys, n. hindrances, 22/
einplastres, n. plasters, 648/24211.
ernpryse, n. enterprise, 686/21965.
enbrace, vb. clasp, encompass, 208/
7414, 235/8475 ; PP- enbracyd,
enchace, n. drive away, 112/4232.
encombre, vb. obstruct, 602/18809.
encombrous, adj. troublesome, hin-
dering, 309/11302, 320/11755.
encomerous, adj. cumbersome, 489 /
encress, n. increase, 116/4381.
endeles,ad!v. endlessly, without end,
endyte, vb. point out, 80/2980.
engluyd, pp. ensnared, 664/21142.
engyn, n. skill, wit, 94/3553, 140/
enherytour, n. inheritor, 47/1771.
enlwrnyne, vb. give light, 192/7107.
enoynted, pp. anointed, 36/1349.
enqueryn, vb. inquire, 66/2470.
enspyre, vb. put forth, 92/3459.
ensure, vb. pres. assure, 86/3189,
entame, vb. injure, cut open, ABC,
entaylle, n. fashion, 668/20937.
entencioun, n. purpose, understand-
ing, 53/1983, 172/6576.
entend, vb. pres. look steadfastly,
entende, vb. to be intent, 68/2532,
entendement, n. discretion, under-
standing, 64/2413, 138/5254.
entent, entente, n. intention, under-
standing, rnirid, 69/2564, 86/3225,
108/4092, 121/46oi, etc. If I made
to your entent, if I pretended, 146/
enter, entere, adj. entire, 74/2762,
enterly, adv. entirely, 87/3273.
entre, n. entry, 214/7668.
envye, n. inclination, 354/13050.
envyroun, adv. round about, 176/
er, n. ear, 88/3316; erys, pi. 164/
erdys, n. herdsmen, 240/8684-
eryng, n. hearing, 166/6304, 172/
esches, n. chess-men, 463/17274.
specyal, adj. private, particular,
104/3932 ; in especyal, adv.
secretly, 146/5526, 160/5738.
esperaunce, n. hope, 191/7071.
espye, vb. perceive, 142/5429.
estatys, n. classes of people, 1/26.
etyk, n. ethics, 354/13054.
etyn, vb. eat, 87/3283 ; pp. etyn, 162/
euerych, adj. every, 84/3161 ; each
euerychon, n. every one, 63/2367,
uerydel, adv. altogether, every part,
73/2740, 75/27Q6, etc.
evene lych, adv. in similar manner,
evene upryht, adv. straight, 175/
ewrous, adj. happy (heureux), 107/
ex, n. axe, 102/3857.
exaumplere, exaumplayre, n. ex-
ample, 128/4901, 179/6821.
except, pp. reserved, 67/2495.
excyted, pp.. impelled, 8/296.
expleyten, vb. execute, perform, 61 1/
exspleyted, pp. assisted, 838/12223.
expone, vb. expound, 107/4040.
exposicioun, exposycioun, n. ex-
planation, 114/4310, 4328.
extre, n. axletree, 388/12233.
ey, n. egg, 143/5467, 880/14032.
eyne, n. eyes, 78/2897.
eyred, pp. laid (of an egg), 380/
eysel, n. vinegar, 408/14937.
fallaas, n. deception, fallacy, 45/
falleth, vb. pres. sg. happens, 24 1/
8710; pi. falle, 214/7639.
falshed, pp. deceived, 167/5999.
farderye, n. painting one's face
(Jig. dissimulation), 868/13372.
fason, ffasoun, n. fashion, 102/3866,
faulssemblant, fawssemblaunt, adj.
false-seeming, 868/13202, 394/
faute, tfuiite, n. fault, 128/4876, 208/
7433 ; pi fawtys, 288/10496.
fawchon, n. falchion, 418/15551.
fayl, faylle, ffaylle, n. doubt, 106/
fayn, adv. gladly, 164/6234.
fayrye, n. enchantment, 266/9260.
faytours, n. begging impostors, 485/
fel, felle, adj. cruel, fierce, 68/2547,
fel, vb. feel, 168/6404.
fele, adj. many, 107/4045.
fellon, n. whitlow, ulcer or boil, 489/
18305 ; pi ffelouns, 287/8565.
felly, adv. fiercely, 298/10889, 347/
fellyn, vb. subj. should fall, 68/2360.
felth, felthe, n. filth, dirt, 26/973,
110/4173 ; pi felthes, 107/4065.
felyn, vb. feel, 126/4810.
fendys, n. fiends, 126/4790.
fere, adj. far, 260/9464.
ferme fader, n. first father, 451 /
fermerye, n. infirmary, 692/22194.
fette, vb. fetch, 68/2354, 126/4749 ?
feyne, vb. feign, deceive, 120/4553.
feynte, adj. feigned, pretended, 45/
feynte, vb. pretend, 884/14189.
feyntyse, n. faintness, 288/8414.
ffaat, adj. fat, 208/7429.
ffaccioun, n. fashion, 176/6687.
ffaillede, vb.pret. was without, lacked,
needed, 17/635 '> P r - P- ffayllyng,
ffardel, n. burden, 74/2768 ; pi.
ffarn, vb. pres. pi act, work, 322/
ffarsyd, adj. stuffed, 418/15363.
ffayrenesse, n. gentleness, 46/1712.
ffenestral, n. window, 266/9658 ;
pi ffenestrallys, 829/12087.
ffers, n. queen (at chess), 468/17278.
ffethris, n. feathers, 207/7371.
fletysly, adv. neatly, daintily, 183/
ffleyen, vb. put to flight, 376/13891.
fflewmatyk, adj. phlegmatic, 42 1/
ffloutys, n. flutes, 887/14304.
ffoltysshe, adj. foolish, 169/6422 ;
ffond, vb. pret. found, 217/7796.
ffond, vb. pret. established, 38 1/
ffonde, vb. try, 281/10239.
ffoorbysshour, n. furbisher, 313/
fforewrys, n. coverings, 818/11470.
fforeyn, adj. alien, 28/1033; outer,
321/ii768,322/ii8i7. See Note,
ff orpossyd, pp. tossed up and down,
fforwelkyd,>p, withered, 457/i7o6i.
ffoul-hardy, adj. foolhardy, 66/2419.
ffovlys, n. fowls, birds, 98/3513.
ffreelte, n. frailty, 217/7777, 232/
ffrette, vb. interlace, fret, 607/19006;
pp. ffret, decorated, 266/9038 ;
ffryst, first, 267/9719.
ffwet, n. track, scent (Fr. feute),
ft'yaunce, n. trust, 281/ 10260.
ffy cliche, vb. fix, stick, 46/1733.
flagelle, n. scourge, 632/23596.
flawe, pp. flayed, 11/379.
flawme, n. flame, 72/2720.
flawmy, adj. flaming, 288/8586.
flen, vb. flay, 68/2163, 2174.
flen, vb. fly, 93/3513, 276/10004 ;
pr. p. fleyng, 274/9982.
flour, n. flower, 92/3455, 96/3585 ;
flour delys, lily, 148/5654.'
flourettys, n. small flowers, 148/
flytte, vb. remove, 81/3030, 308/
foisoun, n. abundance, 114/4346 ;
foyson, 69/2594, 109/2126.
folwe, folwen, vb. follow, 166/5908,
227/8i68; pret. folwede, 82/3067.
foly, adj. foolish, 241/8688, 285/
folyly, adv. foolishly, 80/2983, 104/
fon, tfon, n. foes, 224/8054, 240/
fooly, n. foolishness, 214/7649.
for, ffor, against, 10/355, 224/8o65 ;
because, 114/4343; of, 211/7553;
forbarre, vb. deprive, shut out, 95/
3559 ; P res - forbarreth, 68/2358.
forbern, vb. forbear, 98/3676; pret.
forboor, pp. forborne, suffered, 95/
forbore, pp. forbidden, stopped, 12/
force, n. (give no force, care not,)
forcloudyd, pp. clouded over, 136/
forfete, n. offence, 264/9207.
forgetyn, pp. forgotten, 70/2602.
Formere, n. Creator, 88/3099.
forour, n. fur, 894/14590.
forth, adv. henceforward, 54/2O28.
forthre, forthren, vb. further, help,
forthryng, fortheryng, n. furthering,
help, 23/847, 147/5632.
forthy, adv. therefore, 86/3180, 236
8494 ; nat forthy, nevertheless,
fortunyd, pp. favoured, given good
luck to, 4/126.
? oryete, pp. forgotten, 62/2335.
foryetelnesse, foryetylnesse, n. for-
getfulness, 6/207, 114/434-
? osse caue, n. hollow, 468/17266.
? oster, n. forester, 226/8143.
'ounde, vb. endeavour, 204/7284.
fowre, adj. four, 188/5251.
franchyse, fraunchyse, ffraunchyse,
n. right, privilege, 89/3340, 90/
fraunchysen, vb. enfranchise, 128/
fre, adj. noble, 87/3268, 174/6623,
fressh, adj. brave, 286/8510.
fret-full, freight full, 484/i8i3o.
fret, vb. devour, irritate, 94/3533 ;
pres. sg. ffreteth, 322/u8o6; pres.
pi. frete, 328/11838; pr. p. fret-
ynge, devouring, 118/4276.
f retyng, adj. biting, irritating, 1 1 ^87.
fretynge, n. biting, 92/3471.
freytour, n. refectory, 692/22192;
frolage, n. 617/23107. See Note,
fulfil, vb. accomplish, 61/1924.
fulfylleth, vb. pres. fills, 206/7329.
fulsomnesse, n. fulness, satisfaction,
fumous, adj. puffed up, 179/6848.
fygure, n. symbol, 48/1787.
fyl, fylle, vb. pret, fell, 76/2813, 216/
7738 ; pret. subj. sg. 288/10316.
fyll, vb. pret. befell, happened, 69/
fyn, ffyn, fyne, n. end, conclusion,
fyne, ffyne, vb. end, conclude, cease,
fythes, n. filths, 117/4464. See
gadre, vb. gather, 69/2564, 111 /
4192; pret. gadrede, 109/4136;
pp. gadyrd, 112/4263.
gadryng, n. gathering, 110/4167.
gaff, vb. pret. gave, 68/2552, 132/
5048. See geue.
gambisoun, gambesoun, n. doublet:
A quilted coat worn under arm-
our, 206/7294, 7302.
game, n. plan, 139/5296.
gan, aux. vb. did, 76/2828, 122/4642,
ganne, gan, gorme, vb. pret. began,
132/5039, 180/6870, 582/2 1 8 12,
132/5039; pp. gonne, 353/12990.
garnement, n. garment, 265/7311,
garnerys, n. garners, 206/7329.
gaste, vb. terrify, 376/13909.
geannt, n. giant, 23 1/8320, 234/8439,
gedre, vb. gather, 634/23663.
generacyon, n. generation, 101/
3828 ; pi. generaciouns, 101/3818.
gent(e)rye, n. courtesy, 151/5768.
gentyllesse, n. kindly thought, 151/
Geomancye, n. divination by lines or
gea, n. jess, 614/23017.
P<B8t,b.j>rat gettest, 161/6ii8, 309/
geue, vb. give, 127/4841 ; gaff } pret.
jeue, conj. if, 496/18567, etc.; un-
gilt, pp. sinned against, 655/24469.
glayve, n. sword, 65/2449, 66/2461.
glede, n. fiery coal, 86/2991, 89/
glood, vb. pret. glided, 398/14772.
glose, vb. pres, interpret, 536/2Oo86.
glose, n. pretence, 80/2991, 355/
glosyng, n. deceit, 263/9538.
glouys, m. gloves, 216/7755, 217/
gnew, vb. pret. gnawed, 399/14806.
gon, vb. go, 121/4594, 132/5047, 141/
5370; subj. thow go, 212/7593;
ben ago, be gone, 164/6234 ; they
ha be gonne, they have gone, 121/
gonne, vb. pret. pi. See ganne.
gonne, n. gun, 214/7676; pi. gonnys,
goodly, adv. kindly, 35/1302.
goolet, golet, n. gullet, 349/12864,
gorge, n. throat, 347/12768.
gorger, n. gorget, throat armour,
gospeler, n. evangelist, 296/10823.
gotows, adj. gouty, 374/13822.
gownde, ?i. purulent matter, 239/
gouernance, governaunce,n. govern-
ment, governance, rule, 82/3077,
gouernaunce, n. demeanour, be-
haviour, 90/3370, 107/4031, 232/
gouernaylle, n. rudder, 374/13795.
gracyouse, adj. gracious, beautiful,
grameryens, n. grammarians, 68/
graue, pp. engraved, 174/6627, 182/
graunge, n. granary, 142/5410.
graunt, n. grant, gift, 4/no.
gre by gre, step by step, 16/577.
gree, gre, n. favour, goodwill ; take
at gree, receive with goodwill,
greevys, n. greaves, leg-armour,
greff, n. grief, 229/8230.
greff, vb. imp. grieve, 229/8225-
gres, n. grease, hih off gres, very
gretter, adj. greater, 147/5609,
grevaunce, n. grievance, injury, 145/
greyn, n. grain, corn, 34/128 1, 205/
groos, n. in groos, as a whole, 111/
gropyd/pp. handled, felt, 272/9878.
groundyd, pp. based, grounded, 23/
groven, vb. grow, 94/3516.
groyne, vb. grunt, 287/10473; pp.
grucche, gruchen, vb. grudge, com-
plain, 79/2969, 162/6159; grucche,
pres. sg. 1. 94/3541 ; gruccheth,
pres. sg. 3.; grucche, subj. pres.
54/2027, 130/4962; grucchede,
pret. 96/3606, 207/7382; gruche-
het, imp. 102/3849; grucchyng,
pr.p. 124/4719, 214/7662.
grynt, vb.pres. sg. grinds, 875/13835.
grypyng? pr. p. grasping, gripping,
guerdoun, n. guerdon, reward, 175/
guye, vb. guide, 305/1 1170, 31 6/
gnyse, n. manner, 94/3519, 249 /
gyderesse, n. guide, 192/7117,
gyn, n. snare, contrivance, 480/
gynne, vb. begin, 96/3622.
gynning, n. origin, 79/2945, 131/
gyterne, n. guitar, 317/1 1617.
ha, vb. to have, 132/5014; pres. 2.
hastow, hast thou, 166/5934; subj.
pres., ha, 220/7878.
haberioun, n. habergeon, armour for
breast, 210/7519, 228/82O6; pi.
hable, adj. fit, able, 14/497, 133/5070,
habondaunce, n. abundance, 128/
hal, n. awl, 390/14459; pi. hallys,
hals, n. neck, 537/2oii8.
halt, halte, n. larne person, 629/
halt, vb. pres. holds, l/i8, 81/3049;
pres. 2. 153/5851, 168/6037; pp.
holde, held, counted, 226/8i28.
haluendel, n. half, 619/19474, 634/
halwyd, adj. hallowed, 446/16570.
hamryd, pp. hammered, 207/7385.
hardy, adj. bold, 84/3137.
hardyd, pp. hardened, 206/7345.
hardyly, adv. boldly, 82/3088.
hardynesse, n. boldness, 96/3628,
harneys, n. armour, 203/7255, 213/
harow ! interj. 617/19368. See Note,
haryng, n. herrings, 394/14613.
hasteler, n. one who roasts meat,
haterel, n. neck, 241/8754.
hault, adj. high, 402/14898.
haunte, vb. practise, 220/7898, 471/
17592 ; hawntyd, pp. frequented,
hayr, n. heir, 26/989.
hayr, heyr, n. air, 175/6676, 92/
heet, vb. pret. he ate, 70/2597. See
heg, heegg, heggg, hegh, n. hedge,
helm, n. helmet, 218/7625.
hem, pron. them, 124/4704, 126/
heng, vb. pret. sg. hung, 140/5344,
207/738o; pret. pi hengen, 181/
6919 ; pp. hengyd, 228/82 16.
hente, vb. pret. seized, 394/14614.
hepys, n. heaps, 116/4348.
her, n. hair, 138/5281.
her, prep, here, 160/6o86.
her, pron. their, 178/68o8, 1 79/6850,
herbergage, n. lodging, 221/7934,
herberwe, vb. harbour, shelter, 123/
hereyne, n. spider, 235/8488; hy-
herkynd, pp. listened to, 161/6142.
hertly peyne, n. pain of his heart,
heryn, vb. to hear, 106/4004.
hest, n. promise, 241/8705.
het, n. heat, 384/14214.
hete, n. 147/5598.
hetyn, vb. to eat, 121/4599 ; pp.
hetyn, 70/2607; hete, 135/51 68;
pret. heet, he eat, 70/2597.
hevene, heuene, hewene, n. heaven,
260/9429, 550/2o6i3, 20626.
hevese, n. eaves, 449/16755.
hihte, vb. pass, are called, 74/2777 ;
hyght, is called, 698/22408.
hoi, hool, adj. whole, 99/3747, 177/
holde, adj. old, 362/13363.
holde, pp. held, counted, 226/8 128.
holy, hooly, adv. wholly, entirely,
87/3272, 175/6684, etc.
hoole, n. whole, 147/5612.
hoole, n. hole, 117/4445.
hooly, adj. holy, 118/4485, 179/
hoore, adj. hoary, 368/13594.
hope, adj. open, 127/4841.
horlege, n. clock, 182/6933.
hostage, n. entertainment, 61 1/
howe, vb. pres. ought, 444/16545,
606/22676; pres. sg. 2. howesr,
hows, n. house, 163/5840, 160/
huchche, n. hutch, chest, 173/6581,
huissher, n. usher, 76/2809 ; pi.
hussherys, 68/21 86.
hunte, n. hunter, 226/8143; pi"
huntys, 889/14412; hontys, 388/
huiiteresse, n. huntress, 226/8130,
hurtle, vb. push, clash, 44/1641, 398/
14748 ; pr. p. hurtling, 47/1777.
huske, husk, n. chaff, 34/1263,
huskyd, pp. husked, enclosed in a
hussherys. See huissher.
hy, adj. high, 86/3192.
hydous, adj. hideous, 242/8741.
hye, vb. hasten, 618/19433.
hyhte, vb. pret. promised, 62/2309.
hyr, pron. dat. to her, 241/872O.
hyrayne, n. See hereyne.
hyryn, vb. hear, 366/13085.
iakkys, n. jackets, 204/7262.
iape, n. jest, 226/8 1 1 1, 306/1 1 126.
ibaysshed, pp. abashed, 23/863.
importable, inportable, adj. un-
bearable, 354/13054, 442/16487,
in, prep, on, 231/8303.
indurat, pp. hardened, 108/4070,
inrlue, vb. influence, 664/20772.
inly, adv. internally, 36/1360.
inobedyent, adj. disobedient, 220/
locunde, adj. joyful, merry, 190/
logolory, n. jugglery, 317/1 1624.
lourne, lournee, n. journey, 177/
6744, 229/8233 5 ta sk, day's work,
louy pe, joyfully (lit. merry foot),
305/1 1 141. See Note.
lowel, n. jewel, 128/4884, 164/6238,
etc. ; pi. lowellys, 176/6725.
irous, adj. angry, wrathful, 89/3348,
luge, n. judge, 171/6533, 172/6550.
Itigement, n. judgment, 176/6492.
lupartye, n. jeopardy, 179/6843,
lurediccyon, n. jurisdiction, 79/
iustesyed, pp. judged, punished, 43/
kachche, vb. catch, 225/8 107.
kam, vb. pret. came, 188/5278.
kampyng crook, 306/11184. See
kan, vb. pres. know, knows, 66/2442,
kanoun, n. canon or ecclesiastical
karecte, n. sign, token, 499/18704 ;
pi. karectys, n. signs, characters,
kareyn, n. carcass, corpse, 252/9u8,
karyyng, n. 317/1 1624. See Note,
kauth, vb. subj. should catch, 377/
kembe, vb. comb, 260/9045 ; pp.
kene, adj. severe, 212/7581 ; sharp,
kenetys, ??. hounds (O.Fr. chenet),
kep, kepe, n. heed, care, 74/2763,
78/2912, 109/4135, 232/8369.
kerue, vb. carve, 64/2410, 80/2979;
pres. pi. kerue, 66/2476.
keyles, n. skittles, 806/11198. See
knet, vb. pret. pi. knotted, 80/2997 ;
pp. knet, knotted, bound, knitted,
joined, 159/6042, 188/7002, 175/
6672 ; pp. yknet, knit together,
knowlychynge, n. knowledge, 125/
4766, 188/5259, 171/6540.
knyhtly, adv. in a knightly manner,
komerous, adj. cumbersome, 208/
konne, vb. know, 121/4605 ; pres.
sg.2. canst, 141/5399; pres. pi.
214/7675. See kan.
konnyng, n. knowledge, skill, cun-
ning, 72/2702, 143/5461, 168/6015.
konnyngherys, n. rabbit warrens,
koude, kovvde, vb. could, sg. 136/
5188, 172/6546; pi. 135/5147,
165/6286 ; knew, understood, 150/
kouthe, adj. known, 880/12109.
kroket, n. hook, crook, ^ 461/1 7205.
kusshewys, n. armour for the legs,
kydes, n. goats, wicked folk, 3/
kynd, kynde, n. Nature, 2/52, 95/
3593, 102/3859, 191/7092.
kyndely, adj. natural, 647/20511.
kythe, vb. make known, 48/1798,
lace, n. cord, 8/269. $ ee l as *
ladde, vb. pret. led, sg. 164/6236;
pi. 140/5350. See lat.
lade, pp. laden, 20/729.
lak, n. need, fault, 79/2964, 647/
24145; gift, offering(?), 389/
14393; reproach, 395/14633.
lappe, n. border, hem, 498/18468.
large; At large, free, 332/i22oo.
large, adv. liberally, 106/3984.
largesse, n. liberality, bounty, 119/
4523, 121/4614, 136/5174.
las, n. lace, line, pi. laas, 610/19100,
lasse, adj. less, smaller, 106/4019,
last, pp. lasted ; ta last, to have
lasyngrye, n. flattery, 477/17830.
lat, vb. pres. leads, 177/6762. See
laude, n. praise, 291/io62i, 292/
launche, vb. lance, 490/18357.
laurer, n. laurel, 210/7485, 7495,
lavendere, n. laundress, 110/4151.
lavlyhede, n. lowliness, humility,
lawhe, lawhen, vb. laugh, 282/1 0301,
369/13616; imper. 209/7471; pret.
lawynge, adj. laughing, 620/19484.
leche, n. doctor, 71/2665, 233/8398;
pi. lechys, 71/2666.
lecle, vb. take, carry, 116/4374, 231/
leeff, leff, willing, dear, 90/3369,
268/9371 ; for left or loth, 52/
lefft, vb. imp. lift, 139/5318, 164/
6241 ; pres. sg. 1. leffte, 22/8o2.
lefful, adj. lawful, 451/1 6804.
leggest, vb. pres. 2. allegest, 631;
lek, n. leek, 111/4198.
emerys, n. limehounds, hounds led
in a leash, 672/21444.
enger, adj. comp. longer, 88/3327,
lent, adj. slow, 666/24446.
lenton, n. Spring, Lent, 616/23055.
-4ere, vb. tell, 20/758 ; speak, tell, 190/
7040; learn, 75/2792, 81/3019,
94/3538, 111/4191. etc -; im P-
les, n. leash of hounds (three dogs in
one leash was the usual number),
lese, vb. to lose, 131/5OII, 286/8499;
pres. sg. leseth, 104/3928, 241 /
8717; pp. lorn, 273/9936.
lestene, vb. to listen, hear, 216/7746,
lesyng, n. losing, 106/3968.
lesyng, n. lying, 266/9265.
lete, vb. cease, leave, relinquish,
lette, vb. delay, hinder, 166/6309,
203/7240, 230/8292 ; imp. let,
delay, 288/3401 ; pres. sg. lettyth,
88/3115 ; pret. sg. 106/4027 ; pret.
sg. 2. lettyst, didst delay or
abstain, 112/4234 ; pp. ylet, 337/
12402 ; pp. let, 266/9664 ; imp.
letter, after the, adv. literally, 4/145.
lettrure, n. literature, learning, 184/
7031, 560/2 1010.
lettuaryes, n. electuaries, 648/24209.
lettynges, n. hindrances, 386/12324.
leue, vb. believe, 181/6925.
leuere. adv. rather, 868/13176, 468/
levene, n. lightning, 342/12569, 385/
levyn, leve, vb. believe, 464/17337,
levys, n. leaves, 92/3478.
lewk, adj. tepid, 686/21907.
ley to here, vb. imp. pay attention,
leyd, pp. alleged, set, 164/5885.
leyn, vb. lay, leyn the bordys, lay
the table for a meal, 59/2224 ;
made it leyn vp, caused it to be
laid up, 142/5410.
leyser, n. leisure, 97/3656 ; by
leyser, at leisure, 98/3495, 136/
longeth, vb. pres. sg. bolongs, 168/
6411,171/6512; pres.pl. lorigen,
501/3797; pret. sg. longede, 166/
6339; appertained, 172/6551; sub.
pres. longe, 170/6498.
loodmanage, n. pilotage, 874/13801.
lore, n. teaching, 1 69/6049, 213/
loone, n. loan, 476/17738.
loos, n. praise, 882/14114.
lorn, pp. lost, 193/7137, 273/9936.
losengars, n. flatterers, 485/1 8 161.
losengerye, n. flattery, 699/22432.
loth, adj. unwilling, 62/1942, 90/
3369; hateful, 164/626:, 656/
loute, vb. bend down, 20/731.
lowh, vb. pret. laughed, 467/17426.
louyd, pp. loved, 107/4042.
lust, n. pleasure, desire, 78/2917,
180/6870, 240/866, etc.
lust, vb. pret. pleased, desired, AB
lustyhede, n. delight, 218/7799.
lycence, n. leave, 43/i6i2.
lych, lyche, lyk, conj. 14/508, 26/
961, 86/1350, 47/1759; P^p. 2/
6 1 ; conj. or prep. 2/47, 17/628,
lydene, n. speech, language, 36/
lye, n. solution, 688/21855.
lyfflode, n. livelihood, 694/22239.
lyffree, n. livery, 98/3491.
lyft,j>p. left, 89/3335.
lygge, vb.pres. sg. 1. lie, 118/4491 ;
pres. sg. 3. lyth, 161/5766 ; pres.
pi. lyggen, f 24/4707 ; pr. p. lyg-
gyn-e, 204/7277, 218/7798.
lyk. See lych.
lykerousnesse, n. gluttony, 34 7/
lyketh, vb. pres. sg. lyketh me, it
pleases me, 108/3892 ; pret. sg.
me lykede, it pleased me, 228/
lyn, vb. lie, 268/9542.
lyne, adj. linen, 87/1400.
lyne, n. line ; lyne right, in a'straight
lyppart, n. leopard, 888/14154.
lyst, vb. imp. desire, 68/2532, 72/
2671 ; pres. pleases, 81/3019, 86/
3217 ; p)-es. pi. please, desire, 82/
3086; pres. subj. 72/2671, 241/
lyst, conj. lest, for fear, 69/2229,
lystres, n. lectors, lawyers, 69/2196.
lyte, n. ? , 846/12727.
lyte, little, 107/4043, 166/6273, 205/
lyth. See Hgge.
lyvelode, n. livelihood, 479/17915.
Maas, n. mace, 211/7533.
mad, vb. pret. made, 186/5181, 181 /
6913; pp. makyd, 112/4258.
magnyfycence, n. power of doing
great things, 148/5471.
make, vb. cause, 81/3024; pret. sg.
made, caused, 106/3981.
makerel, n. procuress, 866/13478.
makyng, n. writing poetry, 6/149 >
maister. See mayster.
malencolye, n. melancholy, 103/
malencolyous, adj. melancholy, 97/
mallade, adj. ill, 696/22336.
maluesyn, n. malmsey wine, 250/
malys, n. malice, 99/3733, 180/6890.
manace, n. menace, 219/786o; pi.
maner, n. kind of, 77/288 1, 80/2988,
manhys, n. gen. man's, 71/2667,
manly, adv. boldly, 60/1885.
mansioun, n. dwelling, habitation,
47/1751, 66/2077, Be-
rnard rerys, n. murderers, 204/7277.
margaryte, n. pearl, 178/6793, 237/
marke, vb.pres. sign, 1 82/5028.
marke, vb. go, sail, 687/21993.
marmoset, n. an image, a grotesque
figure, 669/20954. See Note,
martews, n. a game, 284/8433. See
mary, n. marrow, 649/24216.
maryue, vb. me arrive, 270/98o2.
masaylle, vb. assail me, 167/6366.
masown, n. builder, 9/326.
masownry, n. building, 28/859.
massager, n. messenger, 170/6462,
171/6526; pi. massagerys, 169/
6452 ; messagerys, 171/6507.
massages, n. messages, 169/6458.
inaunde, n. 121/4613. See Note.
maundement, n. command, 289/
mawgre, in spite of, 279/ioi77, 297/
mawmet, n. Mahomet, idol, 461/
mayster, maister, n. master, 108/
4107, 150/5726, 162/6154, etc.
maystresse, n. mistress, 91/3437,
94/3786, 104/3926, 118/4475, etc.
maystry, rnaystrye, mystrye, n.
mastery, 95/3580, 219/7852, 221/
7921 ; pi. maystryes, 90/3380,
mede, n. reward, 150/5715, 217/
rnedle, vb. mingle, 44/1643.
medwe, n. meadow, 92/3457.
medyacion, n. 447/i6668. See Note.
meke, vb. humble, 162/6i7i.
mekerye, mokerye, n. mockery, pre-
tence, 49/1834, 146/5571.
melle, n. mill, 142/5422, 290/io6oo.
membrys, n. limbs, disciples, fol-
lowers, 12/422, 427.
memoyre, n. memory, 288/10309.
mencyoun, n. memory, 288/8607.
mendycauntys, n. mendicants, beg-
ging Friars, 15/541.
mene, n. medium, mediator, inter-
mediary, 88/3120, 128/4867, 193/
7145, 7148; pi. menys, means,
mene, adj. middle, 324/1 1876, 659/
rnenstre, n. minster, cathedral, 146/
menynge, n. intention, 518/19231.
inercerye, n. merchandise, 563/
mercy able, adj. merciful, 488/16302.
merellys, merels, n. nine men's
morrice, 806/11192, 492/18427.
merkede, vb. pret. marked, 58/1995.
merour, merrour, morour, myrour,
n. mirror, 157/5990, 176/6699,
6709, 191/7085, etc.
mervayl, merveil, merveyl, mer-
ueylle, n. marvel, wonder, 106/
4016, 146/5596, 165/6279, 167/
6376 ; pi. merveilles, 148/5644.
merveille, merveylle, vb. wonder,
marvel, 135/5162, 178/6586.
merveillous, merveyllous, adj. mar-
vellous, 87/3259, 160/6i 12, 206/
meschaunce, n. mischance, misfor-
tune, 127/4857 ; injury, 215/7677;
pi. rneschauncys, 204/7276.
mescheff, n. mischief, misfortune,
126/7150, 206/7357, 229/8229; pi.
meselry, n. leprosy, 65/7440.
mesour, n. measurement, 98/3698.
mesour, mesure, n. moderation, 43/
1598, 215/77o8; by mesure, with
messagerys. See massager.
mes arable, adj. moderate, 396/
met, pp. measured, 98/3698.
meue, mevyn, vb. move, 187/5244,
267/97io; pp. mevyd, 306/1 12 15 ;
pret. meuede, 886/12334.
mevyng, n. movement, 90/3387, 101/
3795 ; pi. meuynges, 88/3102.
meyne, meynee, n. retinue, house-
hold, 78/2919,211/7523, etc.
meyrit, pp. mingled, 1/24, 2/48, 127 /
misericorde, n. mercy, 529/19815.
rno, adv. more, 115/4354, 1 62/6190,
moder, modre, n. mother, 108/3911,
123/4671 ; gen. modern, 237/
mokadour, n. bib or handkerchief,
349/12853. See Note.
mokerye. See mekerye.
mollefye, vb. soften, 288/3399.
monstruous, montruows, adj. mons-
trous, deformed, 166/6269, 242/
moosy-heryd, adj. covered with hair
like down, 371/13704.
moralyte, n. moral, 8/85, 4/136, 42/
monnall, n. a cancer, gangrene or
morour. See merour.
mortal, adj. death-causing, deadly,
mortrews, n. stews or broth, 41 3/
15352. See Note,
moste, adj. greatest, 249/8995.
mostest, vb.pres. sg. 2. must, 20/750.
mot, vb. pres. sg. 1. 112/4260; pres.
sg. 2. mostest, 20/750; pres. sg. 3.
mot, mote, 86/3200, 104/3930, 1 12/
4241, 155/59o6, etc.; pres.pl. 2.
mot, 68/2527; pres. pi. 3. mvt,
291/10624 ; imper. sg. 2. mote, 69/
2574; imper.pl. 2. mot, 111/42O2.
motet, n. a musical composition,386/
mowh, vb.pres. sg. 1. may, 146/5584;
pr. pi. mowe, 72/2684.
mowhes, n. grimaces, 301/1 1001.
mowlyd, pp. made mouldy, 477/
mowstre, n. show, 246/8892.
mowyng, n. grimacing, 408/14939.
mussellys, mosselles, n. morsels
(O.Fr. morceaulx), 350/1 2906,
musys, . music, 387/14304.
mutacion, n. change, 87/3280, 94/
mvt, 291/10624. See mot.
myche, adv. much, 120/4557, 130/
4964, 135/5164; myche thyng,
many things, or a great thing,
my d, prep, between, 114/4317 ; myd
off, amidst, 128/4680.
mynde, n. memory, 236/8519, 238/
myne, vb. consume, prey upon, 113/
4282, 323/ii872, 421/15650.
mynystracyoun, n. administration,
mynystre, vb. pres. pi. administer,
myrke, adj. dark, 362/13342.
mys, adj. amiss, 71/2639; astray,
mystrye. See maystrye.
nadde, vb. pret. had it not, 97/3667.
namel, n. enamel, 175/6686, 458/
namly, adv. especially, 65/2418.
napry, n. table cloths, 59/2225.
n art (ne art), vb. pres. 2. art not,
narwh, adj. narrow, 459/17143.
nase, n. nose, 215/768i. See noose,
nauffragus, pp. ship-wrecked, 587/
neclygence, n. negligence, 130/4939,
iieclygent, adj. negligent, 144/5509.
neihebour. See neyhbour.
nere (ne were), vb. pret. were not,
nerff, n. nerve, sinew, 11/397.
nesshe, vb. make tender,, 44/163.
nesshe, adj. soft, 108/4073, 4106,
neuer a del, neuere a del, neuer a
dele, not at all, by no means, 62/
2318, 63/2372, 70/2615, etc.
nevene,^. name, 115/4361, 128/4887.
neye, vb. approach, 63/2359.
neyhbour, neihebour, neyhebour, n.
neighbour, 130/4972, 132/5014,
neyhen, vb. approach, 133/5079, 142/
nolde (ne wolde), vb.pret. would not,
none certeyn, n. uncertainty, 646/
noose, n. nose, 31/1176, 1182. See
noryce, norysshe, n. nurse, 123/
not, vb. pres. sg. 1. know not (ne
wot), 95/3566, 271/9850, etc.
nouche, n. an ouch, brooch, 19/688.
nouht, adv. not, 99/3728, 11 1/41 88.
noumbre, n. number, 105/3988, 217/
noumbryd, pp. numbered, 115/4380.
nouther, prep, neither, 64/2417, 9 1/
nownpowere, n. weakness, 520/
noyous, adj. hurtful, 214/7662, 250/
nycely, adv. foolishly, 97/3660.
o, card. num. one, 86/3243, 131/4979,
183/6971, etc. See on.
occupye, vb. use, 46/1722 ; hold,
occysion, n. slaughter, 10/373, 400/
odyble, adj. hateful, 1 10/4162, 135/
off, prep, from, 269/9763.
on, prep, in, 111/4197, 202/7233, etc.
on, card. num. one, 92/3446, 115/
4354,^120/4571, etc.; on by on,
individually 56/2o8o ; alway in
on, always in one way, 112/4252.
onys, adv. once, 150/57 10, 211/7544.
oonyng, n. union, 175/666o.
ope, vb. open, 40/1515.
opposaylle, n. opposition, 286/10397.
oppose, vb. imper. question, 403/
opposyt, n. opposite side, 61/1911.
or, conj. before, 66/2448, 202/7214,
ordeyne, vb. appoint, 241/8706.
ordure, n. dirt, filth (Jig. sin), 25/
919, 31/1 1 80, 32/1242.
ornede, adj. horned, 88/3317.
ortigometra, n. corn-crake, or land-
orysouns, n. prayers, 326/11923.
osey, n. a wine, 348/12831. See
other, conj. or, 36/1300.
ouer al wher, adv. everywhere,
ouht, n. aught, 97/3649.
oune, adj. own, 222/7962.
outhe, vb. pres. ought, 90/3378.
outher, owther, adj. and conj. either,
66/2471, 101/3812, 217/7795, etc.
outrage, n. insolence, conceit, 97/
outragous, adj. excessive, 249/9004.
outraunce, n. extremity, 426/15806.
outterly, adv. utterly, 106/3959, 108/
outward, adv. outside, 27/999.
overgon, vb. surpass, 166/5914.
overthwertyd, pp. crossed, 329/
owher, adv. wherever, 241/8723.
oynemente, n. anointing, ointment,
paament, n. pavement, 9/330.
pace, .vb. go, pass away, 1/2O.
palle, vb. lose spirit, 540/2O2i6.
palmer, n. pilgrim, 2/66.
paner, n. basket, 661/21050.
pans, panns, n. pence, 473/17672,
pantener, n. keeper of the pantry,
panter, n. snare, 371/13682 ; pi.
papyllardie, n. religious hypocrisy,
parage, n. kindred, 388/14348.
paramentys, n. clothing, 92/3466,
paramour, paramoire, n. lover, 149/
parcel, n. part, 240/8656.
parcel, adv. partly, 232/8346.
parde, inter j. pardieu, 166/6279.
parfyt, adj. perfect, 121/4601, 223/
parlernent, n. talk, conversation,
debate, 40/1491, 106/3977.
parlom, n. plummet, 592/221 66.
parmanable,uj. durable, 029/23467.
partable, adj. capable of sharing,
parte, vb. divide, share, 1 24/4706.
party, n. side, part, 68/2538, 9 1/
3419, 155/5912, etc.
partyd, pp. divided, distributed,
partyng, n. distribution, 106/3990.
parysee, n. a coin (see note, p. 471),
pas, paas, n. pass, crossing, path,
passage, n. (a game), 306/11194.
passage, n. entrance, 12/434 ; ford,
23/875 J crossing, 44/1658.
passen, passe, vb. pass over, cross,
evade, 24/898, 284/10376.
passioun, n. passion, suffering,
passyngly, adv. surpassingly, 19/
pasteler, n. pastry-cook, 142/5442.
pasture, n. nourishment, food, 140/
patentes, n. patents, open letters,
patroun, n. pattern, 128/4900.
pavys, n. shields, 204/7264.
pawnys, n. palms, 573/2 1508. See
pay, n. pleasure, satisfaction, 62/
2328, 143/54 49 , 266/9276.
payd, pp. pleased, satisfied, 26/967,
pel we, n. pillow, 376/13853.
pencellys, n. small flags, 12/436.
pendant, n. hanging end of girdle,
pendant, n. slope, 378/13977.
penyble, adj. painful, 174/6634.
peplys, n. peoples, nations, 2/40,
perch, n. pole, 203/7255.
perdurable, adj. everlasting, 237/
perse, vb. pierce, penetrate, 609/
pertinent, adj. belonging, 208/7257.
pes, n. peace, 88/3318, 125/4764.
peyne, n. trouble, endeavour, 116/
peyntures, n. paintings, 246/8899.
peys, n. weight, 228/822O.
peysen, peyse, vb. weigh, 68/2528,
phane, n. vane, 887/14324.
phetele, n. fiddle, 678/21502.
phonel, n. funnel, 368/12988.
pighte, vb. pret. (ABC), pierced,
platly, adv. plainly, frankly, flatly,
merely, 48/1597, 49/1830, 166/
platte, plat, n. flat (of a sword), 71 /
plauynge, pres. pi. playing, 19/698.
pleasaunce, n. pleasure, pleasant-
ness, 73/2731, 107/4053, etc.
plete, vb. plead, 127/4846.
pleyn, adj. full, 86/3210, 112/4249.
pleyne, vb. complain, 108/3909,
167/6354; pret. pleynede, 102/
pleynly, adv. fully, 87/3278.
plye, vb. bend, 221/7922.
plye, adj. supple, 288/8400.
pocessede, vb. to possess, 29/1091.
pocessyowner, n. possessor, 47/1773.
pocok, n. peacock, 887/14326.
podagre, with gout in the feet,
poitevyneresse, n. (see note, p. 471)
pomel, poomel, n. pummel, boss,
knob, 176/6698; 193/7U6, 494/
18519; pi. pomellys, 193/7162.
pontifex, n. bridge-maker (Jig
pook, n. sack, 249/12856.
poopet, n. doll, baby, 817/11635.
popping, n. softening or painting
868/13374. 'Pappen, to make
porayle, n. poor people, 600/22472.
porrect, pp. extended, 448/16709.
port, n. behaviour, carriage, 36
1363, 107/4043, 218/78oo.
>ose, vb. put a parallel case, 31/
possede, vb. possess, 1/7, 79/2971.
)otent, n. power, 268/9177.
)otente, n. tipped staff, 461/1 7211.
>ours, n. purse, 284/8445.
>ovre, adj. poor, 219/7846.
)owerte, n. poverty, 181/5004.
)ows, n. pulse (O.Fr. pous), 272/
Dowstee, pouste", n. ability, 78/2920,
430/i5 9 88,498/i8658.
poytevyn, n. a coin (value \
practykes, n. practices, 269/9384.
preflF, n. case, proof, 186/5157, 137/
prelacy e, n. spiritual government,
prent, n. print, 260/9411.
prentys, n. apprentice, pupil, 150/
pres, n. crowd, 106/3997 ; putte
in pres, trouble myself, 91/3433,
preven, preue, vb. prove, 146/5565,
148/5665, 246/8913; pret. sg.
preveth, 101/3826 : pp. prevyd,
procelle, n. tempest, 466/16995.
processionerys, n. mistake for
pocessionerys, 479/17914. See
procuracionn, n. power of attorney,
procuratoure, n. deputy, 611/22890.
profyte, vb. provide, 62/2337, 63/
promyssioun, n. promise, 687/23800.
prouyned, pp. pruned, 7/244.
provynours, n. propagators, 8/277.
prowh, prow, n. advantage, 20/753,
prykke, n. spiked point, 42/1587,
prykyng, pr. p. tormenting, 206/
pryme, n. the first quarter of the
artificial day, 6 A.M. to 9, 111/
pryme fface, prime face, n. first
sight, 209/7453, 279/10173.
pryme temps, n. Spring, 92/3455.
prys, n. praise, estimation, 84/3149,
107/4049 ; prize, 289/8638.
pryve, vb. 32/n88. See preven.
pryvyte, n. mystery, secret, 165/
6287 ; secrecy, 169/6456.
puissciunce, n. power, 211/7537,
punycyoun, n. punishment, 175/
purchace, vb. procure, 112/4231.
purpos, to purpos, for instance,
purpoynt, n. a padded garment to
wear under armour, 206/7232,
puruyaunce, n. providence, provi-
puryd, adj. purified, 142/5417.
pyk, n. pike-staff, 43/1599; point
of staff, 46/1733.
pyled, adj. bald, 371/13703.
pyler, n. pillar, 124/4734.
pynh-ouns, n. pincers, 426/15827.
pystel, n. epistle, 177/6759.
quarel, n. bolt, 212/7573, 224/8o65,
quarel, quarll, n. quarrel, 150/572O,
quek, n. quickboard, 306/11198.
queme, vb. comfort, 250/9049.
quethe, vb. bequeath, 126/4794,
queynte, queynt, pp. quenched,
queynte, adj. elegant, knowing,
clever,neat, 303/1 1071, 309/1 1303,
queyntyse, n. wisdom, 293/10709.
quite, adv. quit, rid, 484/1 8 109.
quod, vb. pret. said, 62/2325, 155/
quyk, n. living, 174/6651, 251/9097.
quyke, adj. living, 9/336.
quyt, adj. white, 68/2345.
quyte, vb. requite, 336/12315.
quytte, pp. requited, 600/18724.
racede oute, vb. pret. sg. rooted out,
radd, rad, pp. read, 127/4859, 132/
503 1 .
raffr, n. beam, 646/2041 1.
raffte, vb. pret. deprived, 516/19316.
raft, pp. deprived, 229/8235.
rage, adj. angry, 73/2735, 439/16367.
rakel, adj. rash, hasty, 93/3496.
rape, n. haste, hurry, 373/13781, 410/
rathe, adv. early, soon, lately, 25/
rathest, adv. soonest, l/i8, 524/
rauhte, vb. pret. reached, handed,
fetched, 160/5734, 184/7019.
raunsoun, n. ransom, 127/4829, 207/
ray, n. striped cloth, 314/11503;
pi. rayes, 381/14082. Raye,
from Lat. radius, Fr. raie, a
stripe. The name was commonly
applied to striped cloth. Lydgate
in 'London Lyckpeny ' speaks of
" a long gown of raye." See Note.
rebateth, vb. pres. sg. beats down,
rebube, n. violin, 317/1 1620.
rechchf, vb. care, 80/3000; pr. sg.
recchet, cares, 99/3728 ; pret.
reche, adj. rich, 19/687, 691.
reconforte, vb. comfort, 178/6778 ;
pr. sg. recounforteth, comforts,
recour, n. recourse, 336/12364.
recure, n. recovery, 281/10255.
recure, vb. get, climb, 1 6/602, 279/
recure, vb. cure, 68/2556, 124/4717 ;
pp. recuryd, cured, 121/4597.
recure, rectiryn, vb. recover, 279/
red, n. advice, counsel, 103/3883,
red, rede, adj. reed, 634/19994,
rede, vb. advise, 191/7079, 210/7503.
refreyne, vb. bridle, restrain, 202/
refuse, vb. reject, 119/4534.
refut, n. refuge, 127/4841, 366/13137.
regencie, n. rule, government, 219/
reke, vb. rake, 111/4194.
rekkeles, adj. heedless, 96/3614.
releff, n. residue, remainder, 105/
3982, 121/4598, 133/5076.
religious, n. folk bound by vows,
remeue, remewe, remewen, vb.
remove, 90/3376, 117/4446, 167/
6350, 257/9318; pr.p.remowyng,
remewynge, 167/6372, 802/11059.
remyssaylles, n. remnants, 45 1/
renneth, vb. pr. sg. runs, 98/3712 ;
pr. pi. renne, 109/4125 ; pp. ronne,
renomyd, adj. renowned, 157/5965.
rentyng, n. annual tribute, 69/2591.
repayre,n. resort, 36/1 359, 175/667 5.
replevysshed, pp. replenished, 135/
replicacioun, n. reply, 290/10584.
repman, n. reaper, 286/10420.
repreff, n. reproof, 209/7468.
repreuable, adj. reprehensible,
156/5 9 2 9 .
repreve, vb. reprove, 98/3691, 152/
5811 ; pp. repreuyed, 153/5836.
rescus, n. rescue, 227/8 1 60.
resembled, pp. compared, 99/3731.
resemblaunce, n. appearance, 143/
resorte, vb. return, 339/12455, 342/
12606 ; retire, 418/15522.
respyt, n. relief, 206/7334.
respyt, n. respect, 215/77o8.
resseytie, ^6. receive, 121/4600.
restreyned, pp. withheld, 86/3221.
retour, n. return, 21/794, 46/1716.
retrussen, vb, repack, 272/9899.
reue, vb. deprive, 294/10748 ; pres.
sg. reueth, 236/8494.
reward, n. notice, regard, glance,
27/1000, 91/3430, 106/4003, 70/
rewarde, vb. regard, look at, 21/
rewme, n. kingdom, 73/2743, 238/
8579 ; pi. rewmys, 435/i62ii.
reynys, n. loins, 202/7207.
romney, n. a wine, 348/12830.
ronnge, vb. gnaw, nibble, 404/1 5010.
roo, n. roe, 226/8099.
rooff, vb. pret. sg. tore, broke,
roote, adj. rotten, 393/14547.
rouhte. See rechehe.
rowe, vb. swim, 570/21359.
rowe, adv. roughly, 388/14157.
rowh, adj. rough, 460/ 17168.
rowne, vb. whisper, 565/18934.
royne, vb. pare, clip, 471/1 7600.
rudnesse, n. want of skill, rough-
ness, rough handling, 5/169, 40/
rychesse, n. riches, richness, 19/7o6,
ryff, adj. openly known, 375/13839,
rygour, n. severity, 43/i6i6, 1627.
ryhtwysnesse, ryghtwysnesse, n.
righteousness, 119/4542, 218/
rympled, pp. wrinkled, 862/13336.
rypyng, n - ripening, 84/1269.
ryve, vb. burst, break, 187/5233.
ryvelede, adj. wrinkled, 872/13719 ;
pp. ryvelyd, 462/17237.
ryvelys, n. wrinkles, 868/13376.
j n. rites, 86/3250.
sad, sadde, adj. grave, sober,
discreet, 107/4043, 185/5153,
250/ 9 o66.
sadnesse, n. steadiness, 806/11177.
salue, n. ointment, 3/68, 68/2551.
salue, vb. salute, 145/5542, 31 6/
11578; pret. sg. saluede, 316/
sanz per, without equal, 881/14087.
sarmoun, n. sermon, 64/2388, 141/
sauif-conduite, n. safe-conduct, 4/
sauffly, prep, except, 808/11095.
saue, vb. cure or anoint, salve, 216/
7719 ; pres. sg. saueth, 287/8564.
savacioun, n. salvation, 108/3904,
saw, n. (a prophet's) saying, 42/
sawdyours, sowdyours, n. soldiers,
sawle, sawlee, n. satisfaction (of
appetite), fill, 70/2607; 184/5874,
sawter, n. Psalter, 9/332,456/17017.
sawtrye, n. psaltery, 612/22945.
sawtys, n. salts, 420/15632.
sawyng, n. sowing, 206/7350.
saylling, n. assault, 648/24206.
scalys, n. ladders, 15/566.
sche, pron. she, 169/6435.
schent. See shent.
schrowude, vb. shroud, 264/9588.
schulye, vb. subj. should, 496/18362.
scolys, n. schools, 118/4475. See
scyence, n. knowledge, 72/2697.
se, n. seat, 66/2250, 668/20919.
secre, adj. secret, 107/4056, 203/
secrely, adv. secretly, 162/5782,
seke, adj. sick, 124/4707.
selde, adv. seldom, 268/9347.
semblable, adj. similar, 82/3062,
semest, vb. pres. sg. thinkest, 153/
5835 ; pret. sempte, seemed, 87/
sen, vb. see, 88/3306, 127/4824, 166/
6318 ; pres. sg. 2. sestow, seest
thou, 68/2350, 73/2739; pres. sg.
3. seth, 168/6467 ; pres. pi. sen,
67/2511; pres. subj. seye, 149/
5704, 104/3924; pret. saugh, 640/
23908; pp. seyn, 101/3809, etc.
sentement, n. in sentemente, in
effect, 80/1132, 167/6357.
sentence, n. meaning, decision,
opinion, 140/5335, 166/5894, 157/
5968 ; in sentence, in effect, 47/
1761, 88/3109, 146/5622.
senys, n. synods, 181/6892.
sermon, n. discourse, 11/403.
setyn, vb. pret. pi. sat, 121/4612.
seuerel, adj. private, separate, 63/
seueryd, pp. separated, distin-
sewen, vb. follow, 318/1 1661.
seyne, seyn, vb. say, 72/2701, 85/
3203, 168/6027 ; pres. sg. 1. seyn,
98/3700; pres. sg. 2. seyst, 157/
5975 ; pr. p. seyng, 188/7008.
seynt, adj. singed, 871/13703.
seyntys, n. saints, 1 7 5/666 1, 179/
seyyng, seyng, n. seeing, 244/88o8,
267/ 9 6 97 .
shallys. n. shells, conches, trumpets,
sharpe, n. edge (of sword), 71/2635,
shede, vb. pour, shed, 110/4177;
pret. shadde, 140/5349 ; pp. shad,
sheldys, n. shields, 224/8038, 8049.
shene, adj. bright, fair, 101/3832,
shent, pp. destroyed, 81/3036, 102/
shepe, n. ship, 28/876.
sherd, n. shard, 111/4199 ; pi.
shern, vb. shear, 68/2167.
sherpe, shyrpe, shryppe, skryppe,
n. pilgrim's scrip, wallet or pouch,
17/6i2, 163/6220, 6225, 172/6575,
shette, shit, vb. shut, 73/2746, 82/
3084, 479/17922 ; pp. shet, I46/
shetyn, shetyng, pr. p. shooting,
shewellys, n. scarecrow, 876/13889.
shope, shop, vb. pret. prepared, 86/
shour, n. shower, 92/3476, 214/
shrewdnesse, n. wickedness, corrup-
shrewede, shrewde, adj. shrewish,
malicious, cursed, 214/7674, 563/
shryppe. See sherpe.
shust, vb. pres. 2. shouldest, 179/
shyrpe. See sherpe.
siyyng, pr. p. complaining, 36/
skallyd, adj. scalled, scabbed, 396/
skape, vb. escape, 226/8 112.
skarmussh, n. skirmish, 218/7832.
skauberk, skawberk, n. scabbard,
76/2845, 81/3025, 222/7972, etc.
skole, n. school, 77/2873. $ ee scolys.
skouren, vb. scourge (Lat. excoriare),
skryppe. See sherpe.
skryppen, vb. pres. pi. put on the
pilgrim's scrip, 171/6515.
skryveyn, n. scrivener, scribe, 359/
skyes, n. clouds, 802/11032.
skyle, skyl, skylle, n. reason, 54;
2022, 105/3975, 168/6023, 227/
skylful, adj. reasonable, 28/1030.
slayt, n. contrivance, 488/18078.
slen, vb. slay, 889/12472; pres. sg.
sleth, 215/7712, 288/8594 ; pres.
subj. sle, 339/12489; pp. yslawe,
sleythe, n. sleight, deceit, 48/i8i5,
sloos, n. sloughs, bogs, 868/13597.
slouthe, n. sloth, 114/4340.
slowh, vb. pret. sg. slew, 92/3481.
slyde, vb. slip, l/i8.
slydre, vb. slide, slip, 193/7 161 ;
pres. subj.pl. slydre, 192/7119.
smerte, adj. painful, bitter, 109/
smerte, vb. smart, 214/7667.
smet, vb. pret. sg. 1. smote, 109/
socour, n. help, 101/3811, 192/71 18.
sodeyn, adj. sudden, 226/8m.
sodeynly, adv. suddenly, 82/3092.
soffte, adj. gentle, 41/1552.
soffte, adv. softly, gently, 40/1519,
soget, sogett, n. subject, 79/2954,
81/3027 ; pi. sogectys, sogettys,
sogetys, 66/2484, 71/2656, 219/
soiour, n. sojourn, stay, 2/42, 256/
soiourned, pp. stayed, sojourned,
som del, adv. somewhat, 77/2871.
somer, n. packhorse, 236/8300, 231/
8334, 241/8706 ; pi. somerys, 246/
soud, n. sand, 277/10093 ; pi. sondys,
sonde, n. sending, visitation, 435/
sool, adv. sole, alone, 7/255, 369/
soor, n. sore, 40/1519, 68/2557.
soote, adv. sweetly, 2/3459.
soote, adj. sweet, 261/9461.
sore, adv. closely, 74/2759, 243/
sorwe, vb. sorrow, 108/4076.
sorwen, sorwe, n. sorrow, 96/3604,
sotel, 102/3871. See sotyl.
soth, n. truth, 77/2885, 89/3347, etc.
sothfastly, adv. truly, 212/7570.
sothfastnesse, n. truth, 116/4159,
sothly, adv. truly, 61/2290, 157/
sothnesse, n. truth, 100/3765, 168/
6389; in sothenesse, earnestly,
sottyd, pp. besotted, 97/3650.
sotyl, sotyle, sotylle, adj. subtle,
fine, 143/5455, 149/5674, 151/
sotylly, adv. subtly, 143/5479, 144/
sotyllyte, n. subtlety, cleverness,
soundyd, pp. cured,. 41/1550.
souper, n. supper, 121/4609.
souple, adj. supple, 108/4073.
sout, pp. sought, 151/5754.
sowbpowaylle, sowpewaille, vb.
pres. support (cf. suppowelle, D.
Arth. 2815), 99/3740, 651/24312.
sowcelerere, n. undercellarer, 594/
sowe, pp. sown, 141/5394.
sowketh, vb. pres. sucketh, 470/
sown, n. sound, 181/6923, 182/6958.
sownde, vb. cure, 68/2551.
sowne, vb. sound, 396/14691 ; subj.
pres. sg. 188/6982.
sownynge, n. sounding, ringing,
sowpewaille, n. support, 651/24312.
speed, sped, n. success, 139/5316,
spence, n. provision-room, 615/
spere, n. sphere, 102/3843, 264/
splayng, splayynge, pres. pi. spread-
ing, stretching, 19/697, 495/18522.
spores, n. spurs, 879/13993.
sprad, vb. pret. sg. shed, 286/8521.
spreynt, pp. sprinkled, 178/6592,
squyre, n. square, 129/4906, 4907.
stablete, n. stability, 52/1934.
stant, stent, vb. pres. sg. stands, 83/
3124, 130/4956, 179/6835; p*-
sg. 1. stonde, 116/4407; pres. sg.
3. stondeth, 98/3687; pres. pi.
stelleffyed, pp. made like a star,
503/i8835 ; set with stars, 565/
21174. See Note,
stelthe, n. loot, 359/13252.
sterne, adj. strong, 2/55.
sterue, vb. die, 415/15438; pret.
steryd, pp. stirred, 9/315.
stonde, stonden, stondeth. See
stondyng, n. standing, 120/4575.
stonken, pp. stung, pierced, 655/
stoor, n. store, 287/8563.
stoupaille, n. stoppage (Fr. estoupail,
stowndemel, stoundemel, adv. mo-
ment by moment, l/io, 612/19179.
strawh, n. straw, 49/1837.
streiht, streilite, streith, adj. narrow,
difficult, 10/366, 131/5007, 208/
streihtnesse, n. narrowness, 131/
strengere, adj. stronger, 229/826o.
streyhtly, adv. closely, 140/5347,
streyne, vb. restrain, distress, press
hardly, 202/7207,486/16248; pres.
sg. streyneth, constrains, 229/
8257; pp. streyned, 202/7234.
strowh, n. straw, 84/1278.
styh, stytli, n. anvil, 206/7297, 209/
stynte, vb. stop, 892/14521 ; pret.
sg. ceased, 147/5624.
subieccion, n. subjection, 28/1031,
subvencions, n. rates, 49/i8i8.
sue, swe, swen, vb. follow, 126/4767,
148/5661, 266/9285, 828/12040;
pr. p. suyng, 248/8763 ; pp.
suerne, vb. sv/ear, 62/1964.
suffraunce, n. suffering, 127/4824,
207/7384, 210/7486, etc.
suffysaunce, n. sufficiency, 68/2003,
186/5140, 230/8286, etc.
suffysen, suffyse, vb. suffice, 90/3378,
186/5206, 161/61 17; pret.sg. sutfy-
suit, n. pursuit, 880/14057, 404/
sur, adj. safe, sure, 26/949, 211/7553.
surance, n. assurance, 626/23359.
surcote, n. over-dress, 18/682.
surete, n. safety, 206/7314.
surgyens, n. surgeons, 41/1535.
surmounte, vb. subj. pres. sg. over-
come, exceed, 46/1715.
surples, n. surplus, excess, 6/156.
surplusage, n. excess, 209/7446.
surquedy, n. arrogance, 80/2988,
suryd, pp. assured, made safe, 217/
sut, n. suit, 127/4842.
suying. See sue.
swen, 64/2389. See sue.
swerd, n. sword, 218/7609, 222/7982,
sweygh, swegh, n. movement, 333/
swolwh, n. whirlpool, 488/16293,
swowne, vb. swoon, 126/4816.
swych, such, 74/2785, 127/4834, etc.
swyd, adj. 860/12882. (Stowe has
swynge, vb. imp. strike, 114/4316.
swynke, vb. toil, 277/10074.
syde, No syde, anywhere, 269/
syker, surely, 16 1/6 129, 166/6266,
sykerly, surely, 70/2633 ; securely,
sykerneese, n. security, 184/7009,
sylue, adj. same, 90/3396.
syluen, sylue, n. self, 262/7225, 217/
synderesis, 180/4962. See Note.
synguler, adj. single, private,
unique, 68/2348, 882/14138.
synwes, n. sinews, 288/8399.
syt, vb. pres. sg. sits, 128/4890, 21 1/
syt, Nat ne syt, it is not suitable,
syth, n. sight, 44/1663, 70/2629.
sythe, syth, prep, since, 62/2315,
sythe, n. time, 11 1/421 8 ; pi. sythes,
126/4816 ; sythe go ful long, a
very long time ago, 64/2391.
syttyng, syttynge, adj. fit, suitable,
becoming, 88/1250, 114/4322,
n - sight, seeing, 229/8235.
ta, to a, 75/2819.
tabellyoun, tabellioun, n. scrivener,
tabler, n. chess- or draught-board,
tablettys, n. tablets, 260/9035.
taboureth, vb. pres. sg. drums, 387/
tadwellyd, vb. to have dwelt, 260/
tafforce, taforce, vb. to strengthen,
take, vb. commit, give, 126/4743 ;
pres. sg. 1. give, 127/4834; pret.
took, 405/I5O22 ; pp. taken, take,
given, committed, 80/2995, 127/
4933 ; take, taken, 174/6636 ;
tak, impev. 244/88 14.
taknyht, to a knight, 282/8361.
tal, talle, to all, 198/7149, 204/7266.
tale, n. telle of hem but lytel tale,
take but little account of them,
talent, n. appetite, desire, 75/2805,
talwh, n. tallow, 486/16217.
talyved, vb. to have lived, 27/1019.
tamyghty, to a mighty, 47/1766.
tapalle, vb, to cloak, cover, 291/
taparceyve, vb: to perceive, 165/
tapese, vb. to appease, 168/6193.
tapoynte, vb. to arrange, 188/6996.
taquyte, vb. to acquit, to discharge,
tarage, n. kind, nature, quality,
261/9458, 9462. See Note,
targe, n. target, shield, 223/8o22,
taryen, vb. delay, 884/12278.
tashet, vb. to have shut, 148/5465.
tassaye, vb. to try, 262/9502.
tastyd, pp. touched, felt (O.Fr.
Tav, n. the letter T. The sign of
the Cross, 87/1387, 1406, 330/
12115. See Note.
tavale, vb. to let fall, 110/4171.
tavaunce, vb. to advance, 121/4624.
tave, vb. to have, 162/6169, 21 8/
tavoyde, tavoyden, vb. to drive out
or away, to clear away, to avoid,
41/1562, 47/1757, 116/4410, 128/
4866; to free, 205/7304, 218/7625.
taxe, vb. to ask, 259/9392.
tay Madges, n. taxes, impositions,
teht, n. teeth, 118/4274.
tellyn, vb. tell, 141/5382 ; pres. sg.
2. tellys, 182/6935.
telpe, vb. to help, 22/815.
temperalte, n. temporal possessions,
temprure, n. due proportion, 630/
tenbraeen, vb. to bind,, clasp, 227/
8154; tenbrasse, to embrace, 183/
tenchose, vb. to ehoose out, 47/1758.
tenduren, vb. to endure, continue,
tene, n. vexation, injury, 98/3676,
126/4802 ; pi. tenys, 128/4869.
tene, vb. irritate, 95/3595.
tenoynte, vb. to anoint, 89/1472.
tenquere, vb. to inquire, 77/2865.
teuchyng, prep, concerning, as to,
thampte, n. the ant, 279/ioi45,
thamyral, n. the admiral, 488/16103.
than, thanne, conj. then, 111/4211,
thapostel, n. the apostle (Paul),
182/6950; gen. pi. thapostolys,
thar, vb. pres. needs, A B (7, 530/
tharrnure, n. the armour, 217/7758,
tharneys, n. the armour, 218/7601.
thassaut, n. the assault, 212/7583.
that, conj. lest, 659/24617.
that, pron. that which, what, 1/14,
the, vb. prosper (O.E. j?eon), 310/
then, adv. and conj. than, 88/3307.
thenchesoun, n. the occasion, 297/
thenpryses, n.. the enterprises, 4/
thentryng, n. the entrance, 61/2276.
ther, adv. where, 148/5460, 220/
ther, as adv. there where, 164/6247,
ther-to, adv. also, 87/3288.
thewes, n. manners, customs, vir-
tues, 321/11794, 566/21229.
tho, conj. then, 61/2297, 201/7193,
thoffycyal, n. the officer, 59/221 6,
thouhte me. See thynketh.
throwe, n. space of time, 278/ioi24,
thrust, n. thirst, 68/2355.
thrydde, adj. third, 1 73/66 10.
thylke, pron. that, 107/4056, 111/
42 1 5, etc. ; pi. thylke, those, these,
135/5136, 176/6732, 188/6975.
thynketh, vb. pres. it seems, me
thynketh, it seems to me, 164/
6260, 167/6367 ; pret. thouhte
me, it seemed to me, 106/3987.
thys, pron. these, 118/4474, 156/
5958 ; this is, that is, 72/2701,
81/3053, 140/5359, etc.; there is,
to, prep. 50/1871.
to, n. the one, 620/19481. See
to, prep, according to, 155/5898.
to-brak, vb. pret. sg. broke to pieces,
108/4103 ; pp. to-brook, 145/
to-brast, vb. pret. pi. burst in pieces,
to-forn, adv. beforehand, 70/2628,
71/2636; to-forn or, before, 78/
2902 ; pi. to-for, before, 113/4307.
togydre, adv. together, 109/4138,
tokeyen, vb. 274/9955. Should be
' tobeyen, to obey.'
tokne, vb. pres. pi. betoken, typify,
75/2797 ; pp. tookenyd, 22/809.
tonnen up, vb. to broach a cask,
or to fill a cask ?, 353/12991.
took, tok, vb.pret. sg. gave, 76/2841,
tookne, n. token, 130/4941, 151/
5773 ; pi. tooknys, 129/4928.
toon, ton, n. (the) one, 57/2127,
to-rent, vb. pres. sg. rends in pieces,
tormentrye, n. torture, torment, 10/
tornen, torne, tournen, tourne, vb.
turn, 68/2537, 72/2684, 2690,
2706; pret. sg. 1. tornede, 88/
3296 ; pp. tornyd, 87/3262, 104/
3915 ; pr.p. tornyng, 92/3470.
tortyl, n. turtle-dove, 449/16756.
tother, thother, n. (the) other, 67/
2500, 95/3583, etc.
tour, n. tower, 89/3343.
tourneys, n. a coin (see note, p.
towched, pp. divided, ? 597/22356.
tractour, n. traitor, 251/9083.
traisoun, n. treason, 251/9o86.
travas, n. 480/17973. See Note,
travaylle, vb. pres. subj. pi. labour,
travers wyse, adv. cross- ways, 183/
trawaylle, n. labour, 345/1 2708.
trayshe, traisshe, vb. betray, 250/
tregetour, n. juggler, 396/14682,
479/i78 9 7.
tregetrye, n. jugglery, 317/11623.
trentals, n. thirty masses for the
tretable, adj. tractable, mild, kind,
treygobet, n. 317/1 1623. See Note,
treyne, n. snare, 227/8 15 3, 235/
trone, n. throne, 60/2251.
trowe, vb. pres. sg. 1. believe, trust,
107/4035 ; pres. sg. 2. trowest,
153/5838 ; pr. p. trowynge, 89 /
trusse, trussen, vb. pack, bind, 231/
8303, 241/8719, 243/8773, 345/
trussellys, n. bundles, 74/2755.
trustly, acfo. truly, 400/14831.
trwauntys, n. truants, 121/4587.
tryacle, n. liniment, 3/68, 216/7719,
413/15338. See Note,
tryed out, pp. tested, 98/3698, 207/
tryst, n. confidence, 602/22554.
tryst, adj. sad, 18/662, 233/8382.
tuel, n. pipe, tube, 554/20766.
tunshetten, vb. to open, 82/3084 ;
turneys, n. turret?, 146/5569. See
tweyne, adj. two, 142/5424; 148/
5645, etc.; bothe tweyne, both,
twynne, vb. separate, 110/4i66,268/
twynnyng, n. twining, doubling,
tyssu, n. ribbon, 18/683.
tytles, n. claims, 49/1826.
umbrage, n. shadow, 596/223 10.
underfongyn, underfonge, vb. re-
ceive, 120/4548, 125/4756.
undermel, n. morning rest, siesta,
undernemen, vb. blame, 98/3691 ;
pr. p. undernemynge, 442/16461.
underspreynt,#p. underspread, 1/25.
understonde, pp. understood, ISO/
undyht, adj. disordered, 419/15573.
unf raunchysed, adj. in bondage, 1/4.
ungoodly, adv. wrongly, 106/3952.
unhable, adj. unfit, 188/5075, 134/
unhese, n. discomfort, 229/8228.
unkonnynge, n. ignorance, 19/719.
unkouth, unkouthe, adj. unknown,
strange, 87/3285, 166/6287, 264/
unkyndely, adv. unnaturally, 94/
unleful, adj. unlawful, 391/14497.
unnethe, adv. with difficulty, hardly,
168/5856. See annethe.
unresownable, adj. irrational, 55/
unshette, vb. open, 82/3088, 173/
unwar, adv. without warning, I/
unwarly, adv. unawares, 214/7641.
unwemmed, ad,j. unspotted, ABC,
unworshepe, n. dishonour, 96/3586,
unwyt, n. ignorance, 64/2015.
vsaunce, n. habit, 268/7242.
vakynge, adv. waking, 166/6336.
vallyable, adj. available, 46/1679.
varyance, n. change, 91/3441.
vayllable, adj. available, helpful,
vaylle, vb. avail, 221/7937.
vekke, wekke, n. old woman, 346/
vonery, venerye, n. hunting, 139/
vengable, adj. vengeful, 70/2632.
vengyd, pp. avenged, 144/5524.
vergows, n. verjuice, 420/15630.
verray, adj. true, genuine, 54/2036,
verre, n. glass, 266/9613.
vertu, n. virtue, strength, 61/2285.
vertuous, adj. beneficial, powerful,
vertuously, adv. virtually, in effect,'
vestement, n. clothing, 142/5420.
victoire, n. victory, 218/7821.
vocat, n. advocate, 127/4846.
volunte, n. will, 166/6331, 179/68 19.
voode, n. wood, 317/1 1606.
voyde, adj. destitute, 1/4, 186/5135.
voyde, voyden, vb. drive out, expel,
clear away, 66/2072, 116/4371 ;
pres. sg. voydeth, 239/862O; pp.
voyded, adj. emptied, 162/6175.
vyage, n. voyage, 121/4604, 235/
vyker, n. representative, 87/1393 ;
pi. vykerys, 89/1473.
vy-on, misprint for upon, 276/10049.
vyrelaye, n. a species of short poem.
817/11614. See Note,
vytaylle, n. food, 177/6750.
wake, vb. watch, 119/4529.
wante, vb. subj. pres. sg. lack, 62/
wantyng, n. deficiency, 80/1144.
war, adj. wary, 122/4635.
wardeyn, n. warden, guardian, 25 /
wawes, n. waves, 433/16104.
wayllede, vb. pret. sg. availed, 162/
waymentynge, n. lamenting, 108/
wede, n. garment, 188/5280.
wekke, n. See vekke.
weld, welde, vb. pr. pi. rule, have
power over, 649/20587,686/23737.
wel-full, adj. beneficial, 466/16999.
welkyd, adj. faded, 488/16320.
wende, vb. go, 188/5070 ; pr. subj. 2.
wene,w. doubt, 82/1189, 160/6089.
wene, vb. think ; pr. sg. 2. interrog.
wenystow, 160/5744 ; pret. sg.
wende, 189/5292, 324/1 1894 ; subj.
pres. sg. 2. wene, 68/2346 ; imper.
sg. 2. 166/6329 ; pr. p. wenyng,
went, wente, n. ford, path, way, 25/
937, 288/8587 ; pi. wentys, 283/
werche, werkyn, vb. make, work,
were, n. See wheer.
wern, weryn, vb. pret. pi. were. 64/
wernays, n. mistake for wermes,
werray, adj. dirty (O.E. warig),
werre, n. war, 96/3622, 227/8 163 ;
pi. werrys, 227/8 172.
werre, vb. make war upon, ABC.
werreye, vb. make war upon, 96/
werryours, n. warriors, 246/88?9.
wexe, wexyn, vb. grow, 96/3583,
110/4183; pres. sg. wexeth, 206/
7339 ; P^t. sg. wex, 61/2296, 69/
weyrnentith, vb. pres. sg. laments,
weyved, pp. removed, 139/5321.
whan, adv. when, 152/5784, 172/
whapyd, pp. astonished, 34/1297.
whedyr, n. weather, 374/13827.
wheer, wher, were, n. (fig.} doubt,
261/9485, 340/12492, 578/21663.
wher, conj. whether, 111/4222, 112/
wher, adv. there where, 126/4790,
wherso, conj. whether, 69/2560.
whet, pp. whetted, sharpened, 13/
whot, vb. pres. pi. know, 66/2432.
whyht, wyht, whiht, n. person,
creature, 63/2354, 2363, 77/2890,
whyle, n. wile, guile, 48/1815, 21 $
whyle, n. time, 4/140.
whylom, whilom, adv. formerly
whyte, vb. (for quit, quite), acquit,
wikres, n. wickers, osiers, 627/
willetful, adj. voluntary, 490/18336
wisse, vb. direct, ABC, 633/19945
withseye, withseyn, vb. deny, con
tradict, 100/3788, 146/5594, 155,
wlgar, adj. vulgar, 164/5884.
wond, n. wand, 60/1883.
wonde, n. wound, 68/2540 ; pi
wonder, adj. wonderful, 6/216 ; adv.
vonderly, adv. wonderfully, 35/
voninge, n. dwelling, ABC, 532/
,vonne, pp. achieved, crossed, 24/
wood, wod, adj. mad, 97/3648, 305/
woodnesse, n. madness, 215/77o6,
woormood,n. wormwood, 342/12581.
worshepable, adj. honourable, 21 6/
worshype, n. honour, dignity, 224/
worth, adj. worthy, 123/4698.
wost, vb. pres. sg. 2. wouldest, 308/
wostow, vb. pres. interrog. knowest
wot, vb. pres. sg. know, 97/3651, 243/
8776, 75/2814 Jjrf. 98/3682.
wrak, n. vengeance, ruin, destruc-
tion, 42/1585, 142/5434, 216/7727,
wrak, n. ? 569/21339.
wrappyd, j?p. 586/21932. See Note,
wrastle, vb. wrestle, struggle, 42/
wreche, n. vengeance, 266/9230.
wreke, wroke,pp. avenged, 96/3610,
wreste, vb. turn (twist), 216/7739.
wrong, adj. twisted, 624/19656.
wrye, vb. pres. sg. cover, 394/14621.
wyket, n. small gate, 13/486; pi.
wykke, adj. wicked, 418/15545.
wyl, n. lust, 468/17495.
wyle, n. trap, snare, 483/1 8057.
wylfully, adv. voluntarily, 327/
wyne, vb. win, 488/18260.
wynse, vb. kick out, 304/1 1136,
wynsyng. n. kicking, 390/14461.
wyse, n. manner, way, 177/6755,
etc.; another maner wyse, an-
other kind of way, 68/2524.
wyssh, vb. pret. washed, 586/21921.
wysshen,u6. guide, show, 302/1 1065.
wyten, wyte, vb. know, 118/4492,
129/4917, etc. ; pres. pi 2. wyte,
145/5528; pret. sg. 1. 76/2814;
pp. wyst, 82/3086; pr.p. wytynge,
wyth, n. wit, 156/5944.
wyth-set, #p. resisted, 288/10527.
Y, I, 118/4491, 204/7284.
yald, vb. pret. pi. yielded, 1 1/406.
yarmyd, pp. armed, 218/7810.
yblent, pp. blinded, 800/10978.
yblynded, pp. blinded, 98/3681.
ybonchyd, pp. bumped, 489/18299.
ybounde, pp. bound, 77/286i.
ycallyd, pp. called, 78/2904, 137/
yclypyd, pp. clipped, 54/2OI2.
ydrawe, vb. draw, 81/3037.
ydreynt, pp. drowned, 891/14464.
yelde, yeldyn, vb. yield, 106/3763,
220/7894; pp. y-yolden, 571/
yerde, yerd, n. rod, staff, 50/1883,
108/3908; pi. yerdys, 118/4474.
yfere, yffere, adv. together, in com-
pany, 61/2295, 111/4192, etc.
yffret, pp. knotted, tied, 16/588.
yfounde, pp. found, 88/3095.
ygon,pp. gone, past, 165/6276.
y grounded, pp. founded, 104/3942.
yheete, pp. eaten, 179/6849.
yberyd, pp. ploughed, 141/5398.
yhold, #p. beholden, 648/24184.
yhyd, pp. hidden, 107/4058.
yiveth, vb.pr.sg. giveth, 43/i6i2.
yknet, pp. knitted, joined, 129/4924.
ykome, pp. come, 96/3617.
ylad, pp. led, 269/9772, 9780.
yle, n. isle, 107/4056.
yleyd,#p. laid, 142/5415.
ylke, adj. same, 108/3888, 187/5240.
ylkede, same ?, 88/3317.
ymaked, ymakyd, pp. made, 88/
3312, 206/7332, 7366.
ymeynt, pp. mingled, 178/6798,
y-moselyd, pp. muzzled, 460/17184.
ympen, vb. graft, 527/19779; ym-
ynamyd, pp. named, 137/52i8.
ynde, n. hind, 225/8098.
ynde, n. indigo, 237/8567.
ynowh, ynouh, adv. enough, 111/
4190, 203/7246, etc.
yore, adv. long ago, yor agon, long
ago, 84/3160; yon ful yore, very
long ago, 149/5690.
youe, yove, vb. give, 245/8862, 266/
9684; yowen, y oven, yove, pp. 61/
pp. given, 652/24360.
ypavyd,_pp. paved, 9/331. ^
ypocras, n. Hippocras, a wme, 250/
9047, 348/12830. See Note.
ypunysshed, pp. punished, 64/2404.
yput, pp. put, 72/2688.
y-rad, pp t read, 115/4353.
yraylle, vb. clothe, arrange, 7/ 2 4^-
yraylled, vb. pret. sg. ran, rolled,
yrchown, n. hedgehog, 418/15549.
yreyne, n. spider, 476/17560. See
y-rive, vb. pierce, 126/4814.
yrous, adj. angry, hasty, 78/2715.
ys, pron. his, 170/6463.
ysayd, pp. said, 97/3662.
yse, vb. perceive, 267/9692, 462/
ysee, behold, ABC, 580/19843.
ysene, adj. visible, 142/5413.
ysett, pp. placed, 79/2953.
yseyd,pp. said, composed, 5/150.
yseyn,pp. seen, 88/3291, 225/8o8o.
yshaue, pp. shaved, 54/2OI2.
y-shewyd, pp. shown, 152/5795.
yslawe, pp. slain, 10/361, 548/20542.
ysquaryd, pp. squared, 214/7672.
ysswe, vb. issue, 482/18049; pres.
ysseth, 108/4083 ; pres. pi yssen,
889/14407 ; pret.pl. yssede, 109/
y stole, pp. stolen, 88/3096.
y take, pp. committed, 57/2122, 73/
2721 ; taken, 90/3379.
ythrysshe, pp. threshed, 142/5412.
ytokned, pp. betokened, symbol-
ytornyd, ytournyd, pp. turned, 95/
y-wrouht, pp. wrought, made, 95/
ywryte, ywrete, pp. written, 129/
ywys, certainly, truly, 72/268 1,
yyveth, vb. pres. sg. giveth, 57/2138.
AARON and Moses, rods of, 95.
Abbey ruined by Avarice, 463.
ABC, Chaucer's, 528-533.
Abstinence and her gorger Sobriety,
Abusion, the bad head of a Con-
vent, 628-629, 633-634; her spoon
and rule, 428-429, 634.
Acrostic of Deguilleville's name,
Adam, his disobedience due to pride,
Adam and Eve, their creation and
Adonay, his commission to Tribula-
Adulation, Hagiography's mirror,
Aeromancy and her three sisters,
Piromancy, Hydromancy and Geo-
Age and Sickness warn the Pilgrim
of the coming of Death, 647-651 ;
attack the Pilgrim, 651.
Albeston, the fourth stone of David,
Alms, the Pilgrim cannot send her
as messenger, 658-661.
Ant and Sandhill, comparison of,
Anvil of Patience, 205, 426.
Apemenen, Apame, 467.
Apostasy, 643-646 ; her raven, 643,
Aristotle, his Elenchis, 45; on gener-
ation, 101-102 ; sent by Nature
to reproach Sapience, 145-147 ;
his maxim that the whole is
greater than the part, 147 ; is the
pupil of Science and Sapience,
148-149; discourses with Sapi-
ence about great and small, 152-
160; takes his leave of Sapience,
161; on transmutation, 655.
Armour, for pilgrims, 201-227 ;
shown to Pilgrim by Grace Dieu,
203-204 ; necessary for the Pil-
grim, 202, 204; Pilgrim objects
to it, 203, 208, 229-230; not
given for legs and feet, 225-228 ;
Pilgrim puts it on, 228 ; Pilgrim
takes it off, 231-232 ; carried by
the damsel Memory, 241-244 ;
Grace Dieu reproaches the Pil-
grim for not wearing it, 245-248.
Articles of the Church, signified
by the bells of the scrip, 180-183 ;
poem on, 185-190.
Asceticism of St. Benet, 220.
Astrology and Astronomy, the dif-
ference between them, 534-536.
Astrology, declares the influence of
the stars, 537-542, 550 ; the Pil-
frim answers her, 540, 542-549,
51; her pupils, 551-555.
Attemperance, the Pilgrim' s helmet,
Avarice, her description, 460-461 ;
her six hands, 460-461, 469-485 ;
her mawmet or idol, 461, 491-492 ;
shows the Pilgrim an abbey
plundered by chessmen, 463 ;
is the ruin of the Church and
kings, 464-467 ; deceives a king
by causing him to forsake liber-
ality, 465-466 ; her character,
467-469 ; is bound to her riches,
469 ; by Ravine despoils pil-
grims, 469-470 ; by Cutpurse,
cheats and steals, 470-472 ; by
Usury oppresses the poor, and
sells Time and the Sun, 472-476 ;
by False Semblance advances
impostors, 477-479 ; by Simony
disgraces the Church, 480-483 ;
by Treachery she deceives and
works sham miracles, 483-485 ;
her deformities, 486-490.
Backbiting restrained by Gorger
of Sobriety, 216.
Baptism, its necessity explained by
Grace Dieu, 24-34 ; of the Pil-
Baptism, the second, 583.
Batli of Penitence, 582-585.
Bells of the scrip mean the Articles
of the Church, 173-175, 180-185,
Besom of Penance is Confession,
Body, the, should be subdued, 220-
221, 249, 254, 262-263, 276-286,
328 ; Pilgrim pampers it, 250 ;
is the Pilgrim's greatest foe, 249,
250-251, 261, 272; is the Pil-
grim's master, 249, 253 ; is evil
by nature, 252, 253 ; must not
be slain but corrected, 254-255 ;
would deceive man, 263 ; is a
cloud darkening the soul, 264-
267, 270 ; its relation to the soul.
Bordoun, its description, 175-176,
190-194 ; its pommels, 190-194.
Bread given to the Pilgrim by
Moses, 245 ; bread and wine of
Sacrament become Flesh and
Blood, 87, 137, 140; sufficient for
all who come, 135-136.
Bread of Life, made by Charity and
Buckle of Constancy, 223.
Burning bush, Nature protests
against miracle of, 95.
Bythalassus, or Sorcery, a peril of
the sea, 561.
Chalys, the Pilgrim a monk of, 9 ;
the Abbey founded by St. Lewis,
9 ; described, 592.
Champion, story of the, 150.
Charbuncle of the staff, 192.
Charibdis, or Fortune, a peril of the
Charity, her character and work,
122-125 ; caused the crucifixion
of Christ, 124-125 ; she wrote the
Testament of Christ, 125; guards
the table of the Sacrament, 133 ;
made the Bread of Life, 141-144 ;
welcomes the Pilgrim to the
monastery, 593 ; made Miseri-
corde's rope, 654.
Chastity, maligned by Venus in
the Romance of the .Rose, 358 ;
chatelaine of the monastery, 608-
609 ; her gloves, called " Double
Chaucer, his ABC Prayer to the
Cherry Tree, Story of the, 69-73.
Cherubin, chief porter of Jerusalem,
keeps the gate with a sword, 10,
13 ; those who bear the sword of
judgment are called this, 72.
Chiromancy or divination by the
Christ Jesus, His Crucifixion due to
charity, 124-125 ;. His Testament,
125-132 ; is the higher pommel
of the bordoun, 191 ; wore the
gambison of Patience on the
Cross, 207 ; His death is the first
stone of David, 236 ; saves men
by His death, 340 ; pierced by
Envy's spear, 402-403 ; the milk
of His mercy, 655-656.
Church, founded by Grace Dieu, 23 ;
heresies in the, 180 ; reformed by
councils, 181 ; Articles of the,
173-175, 180-183, 185-190; her
goods, how wasted, 640-643.
Cistercian order chosen by Pilgrim,
590; the Porter, Dread of God,
Ccelurn mobile, 336.
Commission of Grace Dieu to
Keason, 287-289; of God to
Wrath, 419 ; of Tribulation from
Adonay, 429-433 ; of Tribulation
from Satan, 433-434.
Complaint of the Pilgrim over
his armour, 229-230 ; over the
encumbrance of his body, 274-
275, 331; cast off by Fortune,
525-526; over the perils of
the sea, 578-579 ; assailed by
Envy, 619 ; in Latin verse, 621-
Confession, priests should insist on,
74, 116-117; hindered by Sloth,
Confessors, their duties, 74, 376.
Confirmation, order of, 37-38 ; of
De Guilleville, 38.
Conscience, the worm of, 113 ;
Hagiography's mirror, 600-601.
Conspiracy or Scylla, 569 ; her
Constancy, the buckle of the Pil-
grim's girdle, 223.
Continence, the Pilgrim's gloves,
Contrition, the true manner of, 110-
112 ; the hummer of Penance,
Convent, a, its bad head, 628-629,
633-634 ; endowed for prayer
and worship, 630-631, 636;
prayer and almsgiving neglected,
630-633; is spoiled on account
of its evil ways, 635-638; its
cellarer Purveyance, 640.
Creed, its articles engraved on the
bells of the scrip, 173-175, 181-
182 ; poem on the, 185-190.
Cross, must be borne by Christ's fol-
lowers, 328 ; of Christ, 344 ; sign
of, renders Satan powerless, 516.
Cursing, is unprofitable and danger-
Cutpurse, Avarice's second hand,
robs secretly and forges, 471.
Cyprian, 500, 503.
Cyrces, a peril of the sea, 555.
David, his sling and stones, 231,
David and Goliath, 229-230, 231.
Dead serve the living at meat, 604,
Death attacks the Pilgrim, 662 ;
his powers, 663.
Deguilleville, his dream, 6 ; his
writing stolen from him, 7 ; he
writes his dream again, 7-8 ; he
desires to go on pilgrimage, 17-
18 ; is baptized, 35-36 ; is con-
firmed, 38 ; enters the Cistercian
monastery, 590 ; awakes from
his dream, 665 ; acrostic of his
Detraction, wishes to devour the
Pilgrim, 411-412 ; she steals
good name and reputation, 413-
417; her fleshhook, 414; she
can hurt those who are absent,
416; attacks the horse Good Re-
Discipline, the file of Obedience,
Disembodiment of the Pilgrim, 270,
Disputation between Aristotle and
Sapience concerning the Sacra-
ment of the Altar, 145-161.
Disputation between Nature and
Grace concerning the Sacrament,
Double nature of the Pilgrim, 255-
Dove accompanies Grace Dieu, 19 ;
represents the grace of God, 22 ;
rescues Pilgrim from Sloth, 378 ;
frightens the Pilgrim's enemies,
418 ; rescues the Pilgrim from
Necromancy, 505 ; brings Pil-
grim advice from Grace Dieu,
Dread of God, Porter of the Monas-
Dream, Deguilleville's, 6.
Dreams, their character, 6.
Drunkenness, its effects, 353-354.
Duke of Frieseland, story of, 502.
Ears, Pilgrim's eyes must be placed
Elenchus of Aristotle, 45, 318.
Elijah under the juniper, 375.
Empty vessels make most sound,
Envy, her daughters, 399,403-417 ;
her works and character, 400-
402 ; her spears, 402-403.
Envy and her daughters enter the
monastery, 615-616 ; by the aid
of Good Renown the Pilgrim
tries to escape from, 616; assail
the Pilgrim, 617-618 ; the king
orders their arrest, 624-625.
Eyes are the porters of the body,
Eyes must be placed in the ears,
Ezekiel, 330, 344.
Faith in God, Transubstantiation,
and the Trinity necessary, 182-
Faith the Pilgrim's scrip, 177 et seq.',
defended by martyrs, 179.
False Semblance, Avarice's fourth
hand, begs shamelessly, 477-
Flattery, bears Pride on her back,
379, 395-397 ; deceives all, 395-
396 ; her mirror, 397-398.
Flattery, Hagiography's mirror,
Force is signified by the Habergeon,
the second armour of the Pilgrim,
Fox and the raven, fable of, 384-
Fox and the herrings, fable of, 394.
Forswearing, Avarice's tongue, cor-
rupts justice, 486-488.
Fortune, princess of all transitory
things, 1-2 ; her double look, 1,
519 ; her wheel and tree, 518-
525 ; is uncertain and treacherous,
1-2, 521-522, 524; her crook,
523-524 ; her school of magic,
Fortunes, how predicted, 496.
Free Will, 435, 551, 567-568.
French young men's pastimes, 305-
Gambison of Patience, 205-210.
Games played by youth, 305-306 ;
taught by Idleness, 317 ; played
by Avarice, 492.
Gate of Moral Virtue, 320.
Gates of man's body, six, 115-117,
Girdle of Perseverance, 223.
Glaive, meaning of, 65-66.
Gloves of Continence, 216-218.
Gluttony, her appearance and char-
acter, 346-351 ; her tongue, 351-
352 ; her two stomachs, 354 ;
with Venus attacks Pilgrim and
Gold is the idol of Avarice, 491-492.
Goliath, 230, 231, 235, 236.
Good Renown aids the Pilgrim to
escape from Envy, 616 ; his four
Gorger of Soberness restrains from
gluttony and backbiting, 215-
Gospel, how it should be under-
Grace Dieu, her appearance and
attire, 18-19 ; undertakes to help
the poet and all pilgrims, 20-22 ;
takes the poet to her house, 1330
years old, 23 ; explains the neces-
sity of Baptism, 24-34 ; explains
original sin, 26-32 ; is the help
of all pilgrims, 62- 63 ; has power
over the heavens, 90, 101 ; re-
proaches Nature, 97-104 ; is
Nature's mistress, 99-101 ; can
do miracles at her will, 103-104;
explains the sacramental change
to the Pilgrim, 137-162 ; promises
the Pilgrim the sacrament, scrip
and staff, 163 ; explains why the
Pilgrim's eyes must be placed in
his ears, 164-172 ; disembodies
the Pilgrim, 270-273 ; her stone
of invisibility, 282 ; leaves the
Pilgrim, 282 ; her commission to
Reason, 287-289 ; explains the
meaning of the Wheel of Lust,
332-335, 336-337 ; explains the
movements of the planets, 335-
336, 338; warns the Pilgrim
against discouragement and de-
spair, 339-344 ; comes to the
Pilgrim in the ship of Religion,
580 ; causes the Pilgrim to enter
the bath of Penitence, 582-585 ;
reproaches the Pilgrim, 586-587 ;
spoils a monastery of its goods
on account of its evil govern-
ment, 627 et seq.] shows Religious
Orders to the Pilgrim, 628 et seq.;
warns the Pilgrim of his end,
Guyllyam, De Guilleville's sponsor,
Habergeon of Fortitude, 211-212.
Hagiography, or Holy Scripture, is
partly dark and partly light, 594-
596 ; her mirrors, 596-601.
Hearing, the only trustworthy sense,
138-140, 164-166 ; the porter of
the body, 171.
Heart of man is small but cannot be
satisfied, save by a greater thing
than the world, 153-156.
Heaven, third stone of David is
memory of, 237 ; is in a man's
Hedge of Penance divides the paths
of Idleness and Labour, 307 ; is
painful, 319 ; Pilgrim crosses it
on the back of Youth, 346 ; Pil-
grim tries to get through it,
but is caught by Sloth, 370-371.
Hell, Christ descended to, 126, 174;
fourth stone of David is memory
of, 238; Lucifer cast down to,
380 ; cannot hurt the holy, 416.
Helmet of Attemperance protects
eyes and ears, 213-215.
Heresy formed schismatic sects,
506 ; wishes to reshape the Pil-
grim's scrip, 505-507.
Hermit deceived by Satan, 515.
Holy Scripture, or Hagiography,
Holy Writ is fifth stone of David,
Hope, the Pilgrim's staff, 191.
Horns of Invocation, 613 ; of Moses,
37, 42, 49-50 ; of Pride, 379, 384.
Humility, the scabbard, 221-222.
Hypocrisy, Pride's mantel, 392-395.
Idleness, the damsel, at the parting
of the ways, 307 ; sends pilgrims
astray, 309 ; teaches people to
play and revel, 317 ; her charac-
ter, 318 ; advises the Pilgrim to
take the left-hand path, 319.
Idol of Avarice is gold, 461, 491-
492 ; worshipped by a carpenter,
Idolatry and what the Pilgrim sees
in her house, 555-561.
Images, their adoration not idolatry,
Impatience under correction pro-
duces hatred, 422-423.
Invocation of spirits, dispute on,
Isaac and his sons, 138-139.
Jacob and Esau, 423.
Jerusalem, the heavenly, Deguille-
ville sees it in a vision 9 ; Cherub-
in guards the gate, 10, 13 ; the
means of entering it, 10, 12, 14,
15-22, 24; pilgrims to it suffer
Joseph devoured by Envy, 400;
in Egypt, 637-638.
Justice corrupted by Avarice, 486-
Keys, why they are given and how
they should be used, 74.
Keys and sword may be used only
by permission, 81-86.
King who loved liberality, 465-
King and his false knights, 570-
King who only reigned for one year,
Kings and nobles taught by Avarice,
Labour a net-maker, at the parting
of the ways, 308 ; warns Pilgrim
against Idleness, 309 ; speaks of
social differences and the func-
tions of labour, 310-315 ; shows
the Pilgrim the right path, 315.
Latria, 612-613 ; keeps the monas-
tery gate, 613 ; her instruments,
Lesson, the Pittancer of the monas-
tery, 594, 601-602.
Lewis, King, his good deeds, 660.
Lucifer has no place for repentance,
342-343 ; cast down from heaven
by Pride, 380.
Lying, the haunch of Avarice, 486.
Magical arts, shown to the Pilgrim
by Necromancy's messenger, 496-
497 ; denounced by the Pilgrim,
Man is the image of God and comes
from God, 259-262, 334 ; returns
to God at last, 334, 337 ; is a
microcosm, 336, 564.
Marriage, Order of, 51-53.
Martyrs, their torments, 10-11 ;
defend faith of Christ, 179 ; none
have faith now-a-days to be, 179-
180; wore the purpointof Patience,
Mary Magdalen softened by contri-
Mary, the Virgin. See Virgin.
Mawmet, or idol of Avarice, 461,
Memory contains all things, 156-
157 ; carries the Pilgrim's armour,
241-244 ; has her eyes behind,
Messenger of the king, 625-626.
Messenger of Necromancy, shows
the Pilgrim magical arts, 496-
497 ; argues with the Pilgrim
about magic, 497-503.
Messengers to Paradise are Alms
and Prayer, 658-661.
Microcosm, man is a, 336, 564-565.
Miracles ; Nature protests against,
94-95 ; falsely worked by Ava-
rice's hand, Treachery, 484-485.
Mirror of Adulation, 397-398, 598-
600; of Conscience, 601.
Misericorde pities and helps all
sinners, 652-653, 656 ; her cord,
653-654 ; her milk, 654-656 ;
leads the Pilgrim to the infirmary,
Monastery of Chaalis, founded by
St. Lewis, 9 ; explored by the
Pilgrim, 592 ; its inhabitants,
Monks, Orders of, 15, 590 ; their
duties, 56-58 ; their faults, 627-
Moral Virtue directs the Pilgrim in
the right way, 320-324; dis-
courses on Virtues and Vices,
322-324 ; bids the Pilgrim pray
to find the right path, 325.
Mortification of the body crucifies
and overcomes the bodv, 326-
Moses, his appearance, 37 ; asks
the meaning of his horns and
goad, 42 ; gives the tonsure, 53 ;
ordains officers, 58-60 ; gives
Grace Dieu to the pilgrims, 61 ;
gives sword and keys to pil-
grims, 61 ; gives the Pilgrim sword
and keys sealed up, 76 ; gives
them unsealed to priests and
monks, 82-86 ; divides the releff
among pilgrims, 105 ; gives the
Sacrament to good and bad, 134-
135 ; gives the Pilgrim bread,
Murderers produced by Wrath, 424.
Music inspired by Pride, 386-387.
Nature remonstrates with Grace
Dieu about the Sacramental
change and miracles, 90-96
governs all beneath the sun, 91-94;
she describes Spring, 92 ; re-
proached by Grace Dieu, 97-104 ;
her power comes from Grace
Dieu, 99-104 ; begs Grace Dieu
to forgive her, 105.
Necromancy, 504-505 ; her messen-
ger, his doings and arguments,
Obedience, her ropes, file and targe,
603 ; binds the Pilgrim for thirty-
nine years, 614-615.
Obstinacy, the staff of Rude En-
tendement, hardens Jews and
heathen, 298-299, 391-392.
Official baptizes De Guilleville, 36 ;
marries two pilgrims, 51-53.
Ointments made by the master, 38 ;
their use, 38-40.
Orders of Confirmation, 37-38 : last
Unction, 38-39 ; of Marriage, 51-
53 ; of Colyt, 58.
Orders of Monks, 15, 590 ; those
that break rule, 627-637.
Original Sin explained by Grace
Ortigometra, contemplative pil-
frims compared to the bird, 511-
Ostrich, Pride is like an, 393.
Ovid tries to console the Pilgrim,
Part made equal to whole by Sa-
Patience, the Pilgrim's Gambison,
Path, Pilgrim takes wrong, 320.
Paths of Labour and Idleness, two,
307 et seq.
Pax given to the world by Christ,
128 ; the figure of, 129-131.
Penance, 106 ; her hammer of Con-
trition, 107-114 ; her besom of
Confession, 114-117; her rods of
Satisfaction, 118-120 ; the portress
of the Sacrament, 120-122, 133 ;
helps to subdue the body, 254,
327 ; Pilgrim must return to her,
Penitence, the bath of, 582-585.
Perils of the sea, 518, 523, 555, 567,
Perseverance, the Pilgrim's girdle,
Perseverance in resistance to sensu-
ality leads back to God, 337.
Pharaoh wore Pride's spur, Rebel-
Philemon and Hypocras, story of,
Pilgrimage, the poet desires to go
Pilgrims to Jerusalem are torment-
ed, 10-12 ; leave their scrips and
staffs outside Jerusalem, 17 ; swim
in the sea, 509-513 ; Satan lays
snares for, 513-514.
Pilgrymage de Mounde (by G. de G.)
shows the right way, 3; Lydgate's
translation of it, 4-5 ; date of
Lydgate's translation, 5.
Planets, their movements, 335-336,
Poem on the Articles of the Church,
185-190 ; on God in Trinity, 194-
199 ; on the Virgin Mary, 199-
201 ; to Mary, in tribulation, 454-
455 ; Chaucer's A B 0, 528-533 ;
acrostic on Be Guileville's name,
Pommels of the staff, 192-194.
Pope or Vicar appointed by God,
84-85 ; delegates his power, 85-
Porter, Fear of God, speaks to the
Pilgrim, and brings him Orison
and Almesse, 91.
Posterns, Moral Virtue advises the
Pilgrim to avoid them, 320-321,
Poverty, Impatient, 606-608.
Poverty, Wilful, her song, 605-606.
Prayer of St. Bernard, 437-456 ; to
the Virgin (Chaucer's A B C),
Prayer necessary for finding the
right way, 325.
Prayer the messenger to heaven,
609-612; her power, 611 ; agrees
to be the Pilgrim's messenger to
Predicamentum ad aliquid, 77-79.
Prelates and priests, their duties.
Pride, her description and lineage,
379-380; deceives Adam, 380;
her works, 381-384 ; her bellows,
384-387 ; her horn, 387-389 ; her
spurs, 389-391; her staff, 391-
392; her mantle, 392-395; is
borne by Flattery, 378, 395.
Priests should insist on Confession,
Priests who buy and sell spiritual
Property, Avarice's hump, keeps
men from heaven, 489-490.
Prologue of Deguilleville, 6-9 ; of
Prudence the Pilgrim's target, 223-
224 ; the targe of Discipline, 603.
Ptolemy, 535-536, 550.
Publican and Pharisee, story of, 222.
Purpoynt. See Gambison.
Purveyance shows the Pilgrim how
the Church's goods are wasted,
Rainbow a sign of concord with
Ravine, Avarice's first hand, despoils
the poor, 470.
Reason advises priests to be gentle,
40-42 ; advises Moses how to use
his horns and goad, 42-50 ; justi-
fies the tonsure, 54-58 ; tells
monks their duty, 55-58 ; her
sermon, 64-75 ; cannot under-
stand the Sacramental change,
88 ; rebukes Rude Entendement,
285-286 ; her commission from
Grace Dieu against Rude Enten-
dement, 287-289 ; defends herself
against the accusations of Rude
Entendement, 291-292 ; disputes
with Rude Entendement about
the scrip and staff, 294-297 ;
rebukes his obstinacy, 298-300.
Religion, Grace Dieu's ship, 579-
580, 588-589 ; small religious ob-
servances must not be neglected,
Religious Orders visited by Pilgrim,
626 et seq.
Repentance will restore the Pilgrim,
342-344 ; often caused by sick-
Riches bind Avarice, 469 ; clog
people's feet, 512; love of, leads to
Satan, 576 ; of the wicked shall
be given to the virtuous, 638.
Righteousness, sword of, 218-221.
Righteousness who helped to forge
Wrath's saw, 422-423.
Rods of Moses and Aaron ; their
magical powers, 95.
Romance of the Rose, 56, 358-360 ;
its author culled Malebouche, 360;
Norman exposes Jean de Meun,
Rude Entendement, the Pilgrim
meets, 283-284 ; trys to stop the
Pilgrim, 284-285; rebuked by
Keason, 285-286 ; Reason's com-
mission against, 287-289 ; accuses
Reason of dishonesty, 290, 293 ;
disputes with Reason, 294-297;
confirmed Nabal, Pharaoh and
the Jews in obstinacy, 298-299;
is blinded by his folly, 300.
Sacrament of the Altar, 86-88, 105;
guarded by Penance, 120-122 ;
must be taken with Charity,
133; given to all, 134-135; suf-
ficient for all who come, 135-136;
the virtues of the Bread of the,
158-160; promised to the Pilgrim,
Sacrament of baptism given to the
Pilgrim, 4 ; of Confirmation re-
ceived by the Pilgrim, 6 ; of
marriage, 7 ; of penance and how
confession should be made, 33-34.
Sacramental change not understood
by Reason, 88 ; explained by
Grace Dieu, 137-162 ; understood
through Hearing only, 140 ; not
taught to Aristotle, 150-152.
St. Austin, 452-453.
St. Benedict, his asceticism, 220 ;
his rule badly kept, 629.
St. Bernard, his continence, 2 1 7-218 ;
his prayer to the Virgin Mary,
St. Cyprian, 500, 503.
St. John, 126-127, 416-417.
St. Lawrence, 492.
St. Lewis, founded monastery of
Chalys, 9 ; did many good works,
St. Nicholas, 410.
St. Peter keeps a gate of Jerusalem,
14 ; softened by Contrition, 109.
St. William of Chalys, 216.
Saints and monastic orders help
others to enter heaven, 14-15 ;
to honour the images of saints is
not idolatry, 559-560.
Salisbury, Earl of, commands Lyd-
gate to translate the Pilgrymage
de Mounde, 4.
Sapience helps Charity to make the
Bread of Life, 143-144 ; her two
schools, 148-150 ; taught Nature
and Aristotle, 148-149 ; but did
not teach them about the Sacra-
ment, 150-152 ; discourses with
Aristotle about the Sacramental
change, 151-160 ; explains to
Aristotle how the great can be
contained in the small, 152-160.
Satan, his commission to Tribulation,
433-434 ; lays nets and snares for
pilgrims, 507-508,513-514; tells
the Pilgrim about the sea of the
World, 510-513 ; his works and
snares, 513-516 ; by deceit he
causes a hermit to kill his father,
515 ; made powerless by the sign
of the Cross, 516 ; laments, 517 ;
his school, 563.
Saul, 391, 402.
Scabbard of Humility, 221-222.
Schisms produced by Heresy, 506.
Schools of Sapience and Satan, 148-
Scilla, a peril of the sea, 569, 615-
Scrip, its colour, 177-179 ; its
twelve bells, 173-175, 180-183.
Scrip and staff left outside Jerusa-
lem by pilgrims, 17 ; promised to
Pilgrim, 163 ; cannot be seen with
the eyes, 164 ; described, 173
et seq. ; given to the Pilgrim, 176-
183, 201; Rude Entendement
tries to hinder the Pilgrim from
carrying them, 285, 295 ; Reason
shows why they should be borne,
Sea of the World, 509 ; pilgrims
swim in it, 509-513 ; troubles
and perils in the sea, 510, 518,
Senses. See Wits.
Sensuality drags the Pilgrim back,
Ship of Grace Dieu or Religion, 579;
is bound together by osiers signi-
fying ceremonies, 588-589 ; con-
tains castles and monasteries, 580,
Sickness comes to the Pilgrim, 646-
647 ; troubles folk and makes
them repent, 648-649.
Simony, Avarice's fifth hand, causes
holy offices to be bought and sold,
Sin, deadly, 339.
Sins, contrition for, must be par-
ticular, 111 ; must be punished
Sling : the Pilgrim's mouth is his
Sloth binds the Pilgrim, 371-372
her master, 373 ; her effects, 373-
374 ; her ropes, 375-377.
Small things may contain great
Sobriety, the gorger of Abstinence,
604 ; the gorger for the Pilgrim,
Solomon, 223-224, 500, 502.
Song of Wilful Poverty, 605.
Sorcery, 561 ; her merchandise, 562 ;
how she lost her soul, 563 ; her
hand Chiromancy, and face
Soul is in the similitude of God, 259-
260, 261-263 ; rules the body and
not the body the soul, 262-270 ;
is as a sun behind clouds, 264-
266 ; 'sees without bodily eyes,
266-267 ; is separated from the
Pilgrim's body by Grace Dieu,
270-273; is at enmity with the
body, 272, 276, 281 ; hindered by
the body may not see nor mount
on high, 274-276, 280.
Spears of envy, 402-403.
Spirit, called Mortification of the
body, 326-331 ; of man hindered
by the body, 335.
Spirits, invocation of, 497-500.
Spring, description of, 92.
Spurs of Pride, Disobedience, and
Stars, their influence, 537-551.
Sterility destroys the goods of a
Stones of David, five, 234, 236-239.
Stories of the Champion, 150 ; the
cherry tree cursed by a priest,
69-70 ; of the Duke of Frieseland,
502 ; the Fox and the Herrings,
384-385 ; the Fox and the Raven,
394 ; the Hermit deceived by
Satan, 515 ; the King and his false
knights, 570-571 ; the king who
loved Liberality, 465-466; the
king who only reigned for one
year, 659-660; Philemon and
Hypocras, 567-568; the Publi-
can and Pharisee, 222.
Sword of Judgment given to pil-
grims by Moses, 61 ; the mean-
ing of Glaive, 65-66 ; proper use
of, 64-73 ; its name Versatylis,
Sword and Keys desired by the
Pilgrim, 75 ; given to him sealed
up, 76 ; Reason explains why,
77-86 ; given unsealed to priests
and monks, 82-86.
Sword of Righteousness, 218-221.
Syren, a peril of the sea, 573.
Target of Prudence, 223-224.
Tau, a sign sprinkled with blood,
Testament of Christ, 125-132.
Thief, the penitent, 611-612.
Time sold by Usury, 474-476.
Tongue of a drunkard, 351-353.
Tonsure given by Moses, 53 ; justi-
fied by Reason, 54, 56-58.
Tower, Revolving, 573, 575-576.
Transmutation. See Aristotle.
Trarisubstantiation. See Sacra-
Treachery, Avarice's sixth hand,
cheats and works sham miracles,
Treason receives a box, a false
face, and a knife from her father,
405-408 ; is flattering, secret, and
treacherous, 405-409 ; her power,
408-410; attacks the Pilgrim,
Tribulation is Heaven's goldsmith,
426-427, 431 ; her hammer, Perse-
cution, 427 ; her tongs, Distress,
427; her apron, Shame, 427-428;
her Commission from Adonay,429
-433; her Commission from Satan,
433-434 ; works for God or Satan
according to the Pilgrim's behavi-
our, 435-436 ; smites the Pilgrim,
436 ; the Pilgrim's prayer to
Mary against, 437-456 ; turns the
Pilgrim to God, 457-458.
Trinity, the, Faith in it is necessary,
182-183; the doctrine of, 183;
poem on, 194-199.
Jnicorn, Pride is like an, 397-398.
Usury, the third hand of Avarice,
472-474 ; defined by means of the
comparison of the wood and
Venus, or Luxury, chases away
Reason, 55 ; with Cupid lies in
wait for men, 226-227 ; can only
be escaped by flight, 227, 330;
accompanies Gluttony, 355 ;
smites the Pilgrim, 356 ; can hurt
cloistered Chastity, 357 ; why she
and Chastity hate each other,
357-358 ; Romance of the Rose, is
her book, 358 : her description,
355, 362-363; her officers, 364-
365 ; with Gluttony binds and
ill-treats the Pilgrim and a
Vicar. See Moses.
Virginity hated by Venus, 356-357.
Virgin Mary, bequeathed to St.
John, 126; one of the pommels
of the bordoun, 192-193; is a
mediator between man and Christ,
193; poems to, 199-201, 454-
455 ; second stone of David is
memory of, 237 ; Chaucer's ABC
Prayer to her, 527-533; Prayer
of St. Bernard to the, 437-456.
Virtue. See Moral Virtue.
Virtues have their attendant vices,
Wheel of Fortune, 518-522, 525.
Wheel of Lust and its meaning,
Wicket by which Jerusalem is
entered, 12, 13, 664 ; kept by St.
Wings to fly into Paradise given to
pilgrims by saints, 14-15.
Wits : man deceived by them, 138 ;
Hearing alone trustworthy, 138-
140, 164-166 ; are but instruments
of the soul, 267 ; should be marked
with the Cross, 329-330. See also
Gates of the Body.
Wood and Woodman, example of
Worldly Gladness, a syren, 573-577.
Wrath, his description, 418-419 ;
has a commission from God, 419;
his character and works, 420-421;
his two stones, Despite and Strife,
422 ; his iron, Impatience, 422 ;
his saw, Hatred, 422-424; his
falchion with which murderers
are girded, 424 ; attacks the Pil-
Youth is feathered and lively, 303-
306 ; her games, 305-306 ; ac-
companies the Pilgrim, 307 ;
advises the Pilgrim to follow
Idleness, 315-316; flies aloft
with the Pilgrim, 345-346 ; flies
with him across the hedge of
Penitence, 346 ; saves the Pilgrim
from Avarice, 493 ; rescues the
Pilgrim from the syren, 577 ;
leaves the Pilgrim, 578.
INDEX OF NAMES.
AARON, 87/1394,95/3577, 108/3909.
Adam, 30/IH2, 890/14436, 432/
Ambrose, St., 42/1852.
Architeclyn, 96/3589, 104/3916.
Argus, 167/636 1.
Aristotile, Arystotyles, 45/1 682,
101/3823, 145/5537, 154/5871,
Asael, 305/1 1 1 60.
Augustyn, Awstyn, Seynt, 452/
16869, 606/18974, 688/20152.
Benet, Benyth, St., 16/568, 220/7882,
Bernard, St., 217/7793, 437/i6273.
Calliope, the Lady of the Well
beside Citharon, 6/172-3.
Chalys, Seyn Wyllyam of, 21 6/
Cryst, Cryst Ihesu, 14/505, 121/4609,
124/4724, 174/6617, 236/8520, et
Cupide, 226/8135, 227/8170.
Cypryan, 600/18737, 608/18830.
Danyel, 849/12858, 450/16784.
Dauyd, David, 281/8310, 234/8424,
Egypt, 686/20036, 686/23701.
Esau, 188/5274, 139/5293, 423/
Eue, 80/1113, 390/14440.
Ezechyel, Ezechel, 87/1403, 333/
Fraunceys, St., 16/582.
Fryse, Duke of, 602/18792.
Gabrielles, 681/19905 (ABO).
Ganymede, Jupiter's butler, 6/178.
George, St., 847/12767.
God, 9/326, 41/1564, 42/1568, et
Golyas, Golye, Golyat, 230/8268,
Gregoir, St., 12/424.
Gyosy, 480/17940, 482/1 80 14.
Holy Gost, the, 173/66io, 531 /
19883, 19904 (^C).
lacob, 139/5295, 400/14845.
lanuence, 66/2450, 66/2458.
leremye, 447/1 6649, 464/17314.
Jerusalem, 8/294, 9/312, 26/742,
Index of Names.
Ihesu, ihesu cryst, 191/7083, 595/
loachym, 445/1 6604.
Johan, John, St., 126/4807, 341/
12566, 416/15459, 549/20604.
Joseph, 126/4796, 358/13179, 400/
Isaye, Ysaye, 102/3853, 118/4485,
Israel, 44/1654, 390/14448.
lubiter, 6/176, 338/12436.
ludae, 406/15074, 482/18032.
Landown (castle of), 383/i4i8i.
Laurence, St., 492/18414.
Longitis, 402/14933, 533/19953
Lowys, St., 660/24653.
Lucyfer, 342/12578, 380/14030.
Mars, 541/20255 ; Martys, 548/
Martyri, St., 123/4674.
Marye, 125/4773, 437/16287.
Mathesis, 539/20185, 564/2 1152.
Mathew, St., 12/444.
Moyses, 37/1394, 44/1653, 61/2269,
80/3014, 86/3236, 95/3577, 134/
5114, 137/5228, et passim.
Muses, the, 5/171.
Nabugodonosor, 384/14222, 451/
Noe, 314/11515, 587/21994, 644/
Nycholas, St., 410/15226.
Ovydius, 620/23221, etc.
Peter, St., 14/494, 616/19325, 583/
Pharao, Pharaoo, Pharaon, 50/1885,
90/3582, 298/10907, 390/14444.
Phebus, 264/9599, 380/14042, 539/
Phylemoun, 567/21273, etc -
Poul, Poule, St., 123/4691, 215/7686,
Putyffarys wife, 358/1 31 80.
Salomon, Salamoun, Salomoun, 93/
3486, 223/8032, 279/ioi84, 415/
Sathan, Sathanas, 400/14828, 424/
15766, 433/i6io5, 513/19239.
Saul, 391/14493, 402/14918.
Symon Magus, 480/17940.
Theophilus, 486/16195, 446/i66i3.
Tholomee, 635/20040, 660/20617.
Thomas, St., 49/1839-51.
Venus, 55/2079, 91/3428, 226/8134,
230/8273, 354/i3o6o, etc.
Ypocras, 667/21268, 668/21288.
Ysaak, 188/5274, 139/5288, 5292.
Zacharie, 683/19967 (ABC}.
RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED,
BKEAD STREET HILL, E.G., AND
OtC 'i * " (:
APR 3 o teoo