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Full text of "The pilgrimage of the life of man"


\ STUDIA IN 



THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



tf % fife 0f $|lan. 



Suits, LXXXIII. 
1901. 



BERLIN : ASHER & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN. 

NEW YORK: C. SCRIBNER & CO.; LEYPOLDT & HOLT. 

PHILADELPHIA : J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 



ENGLISHT BY 

JOHN LYDGATE, A.D. 1426, 

FROM THE FRENCH OF 

GUILLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE, A.D. 1335. 



EDITED FROM 3 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY MSS. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 

COTTON, VITELLIUS, C xiii (VELLUM, IMPERFECT), 
COTTON, TIBERIUS, A vii (VELLUM, A FRAGMENT), AND 

STOWE 952 (PAPER, COMPLETED BY JOHN STOWE, 
ABOUT 1600 A.D.) 

BY 

F. J. FURNIVALL, M.A. CAMBRIDGE, 

HON. DR. PHIL. BERLIN, HON. D.LITT. OXFORD, 
FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY. 



PART II. 



LONDON : 
PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY 

BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co. 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING-CROSS ROAD, W.C. 
, 1901 



E5 

ho. 77 



pt.2 



TO 
THK MEMOUY OF OLD 

3obn Stowe, 

THE ELIZABETHAN TAILOR, 

WHO LOVED MS8. AND ANTIQUITY; 

AND TO WHOSE COPY THE COMPLETENESS 

OF THE FOLLOWING TEXT IS DUE. 



(gttra Series, Lxxxm. 

RICHAKD CLAY 4 SONS, LIMITED, LONJ>ON * BUNGAY. 



/ ask Grace Dicu for a Cart to carry my Armour. 241 

And that thow err, neueradel." 

The pylgrym : The PUO*- 

" Alias," quod I. " what may thys be, J &* 1 f9"h 

for turning 

That, off my foly nycete, 8688 !*", 

I am be-kome an Erde 1 man, [> i>erde St.] 

And noon other crafft ne kan, 

A rud shepperde, thorgh my folye, 

And ha for-sake chyualrye, 8692 

Armys that longen to a knyht, 

Ther-off cowplaynynge day & nyht. 

And syker, so I may ryht wel, 

Whan I consydre euerydel 86 96 

Hou dauyd (who lyst takew kep) tiio'pavui 

J v * was first a 

Was fyrst an Erde, 2 & kepte 3 shep ; ["herdest. 3 kept St.] shepherd, 

But, thorgh hys manly gouernauwce, 

Hym-sylff affter he dyde avauwce 8700 and then a 

m -I , i j. i mighty king. 

To be callyd a myghty kyng, 
Thorgh hys vertuous lyuyng, 
And \vyth al thys, a famous knyht. 

Wherfor, I pray yow anoou ryht, 8704 i ask for a 

Lyk your hest, doth your deuer 
To ordeyne me a sorner, 

Myn barneys ther-in for to karye ; to carry my 

And her-vp-on that ye nat tarye, [stowe, leaf 155] 8708 
But in al hast that ye me spede, 
That whan yt falleth 4 I ha nede, [* ffuyiietiie st.] 
Myn armure be nat fer me ffro, 
Whaw that I ha nede ther-to." 8712 

Grace dieu : grace Die>, 

Quod grace dieu anoon to me, aTrva'iT 6 

' Thow hast abydynge ay wyt/t the gk,> 

A seruant and a chaii?berere, [leaf i.se, bk.] 

Wych in soth, (as thow shalt lere,) 8716 

Lesyth hyr tyme, & doth ryht nouht, 
A Damyselle : 5 lat hyr be soulit, r 5 stowe] 

To trusse thyn barneys euerydel. 

ffor yiff hyr lyst, she kan ryht wel 8720 who ran pai-k 

/T i ss i- L \ : "" 1 c ' an ' y " iy 

(1 naue oli hyre no maner doute,) irms. 

Trusse, and bern yt ek a-boute, 

And folwe the owher 6 so thou go ; [<" wiier St.] 

PILGRIMAGE. K 



242 Grace Dieu shows me a Servant with Eyes at her lack; 

Grace pieu. ' And by my couwsayl, lat her so, 8724 

Syth that she kan do hyr deuer, 
Bo the be thy seruant & somer.' 

The Pilgrim. fllQ pylgrym I 

i say i Ma dame," (to speke feythfully.) 

haven't a 

servant. i ha noon sywch WT/t/i me," quod I. 8728 

Grace Dieu GfaC6 dlBU ! 

' Certys,' quod she, ' thou hast swych on ; 
I shal hyr shewe to the a-noon, 
uids me look Yiff in thy sylff ther be no lak : 

Looke be-hynden at thy bak !' [Stowe, leaf 155, back] 8732 

The Pilgrim. The pylgiym \ 

i do o, And so I dyde, lyk as she 

The same tyme comaurcdyd me, 
and see a Be-held bak ward, & saw 1 sywch on : [' saw om. St.] 

woman 

Wheroff astonyd I was a-noon, 8736 

And fyl in-to a ful gret doute, 

Be-cause, whan I be-lield aboute, 
without eyes, I sawh that eyen hadde she noon, 

Ne 2 mor than hath a stole or ston ; [ 2 NO St.] 8740 

Wych was to me a thyng hydous ; 
lyke a mon- She sempte, a best monstruows, 

stnms beast. 

Outward, by hyr co?jtenau?zce. 

But tho I hadde a rerae??tbraurcce 8744 

Ho\v Grace dieu hadde don to me 
Touchynge myw eyen, \vyih wych I se, 
Wyth them to make me se the bet, 
In myn erys wha?i they wer set, 8748 

By hyr oune puruyaunce ; 
Wher-oflf havyng a reme?)tbraunce, 
[leaf 137] I gan consydre & loke wel 

Hyr shap & maner euerydel. 8752 

nut on look- Tvl at the laste, I dyde fynde 

ing turther, J 

i see her eyes In hyr haterel, fer be-hynde, 

are set J 

behind her. Tweyiio Eyen ff nl cler & bryht ; 

Wych was to me a wonder syht. 8756 

And on thys thyng gretly mtisynge, 
To grace dieu my-sylff tournynge, 
Sodeynly I tho abraydc 1 , 
And, astonyd, to hyre I sayde : 8760 



ivho is a Treasurer of Knowledge and Experience. 24 3 

The pylgiym : 1 PC. has this heading 4 lines higher.] The Pilgrim. 

"Ma dame," quod I, ("yiff ye lyst lere,) [stowe, leaf ise] iteiiGnu-e 

' v J J J Uieuthat 

I ha founde a chauwberere, 

Me suyng at my bak be-hynde, 

Off whom I hadde to-forn no mynde 8764 

Nor no maner remewbrauwce ; 

And syker, I ha no gret plesawice 

Off hyr offyce nor hyr seruise ; 

Cause why, I shal devyse : 8768 

Me semeth she ys vngracyous, 

Counterfeet & monstruous : 

And as me semeth in my syht, i doubt if 

this monster 

She ne kan nat, halff a-ryht, 8772 "an truss and 

keep my 

Wt/t/i me trussen myw armure, armour. 

Nouther kepe myn harneys sure." 

Grace dieu. : Orace Difu 

1 Certys,' quod Grace dieu ryht tlio, 
' I wot my sylff yt ys nat so : 8776 

She kan hem trusse most trewly, assures me 

she I'un, 

And beren 2 also sykerly. [ 2 beren St., bern c.] 

Wherfor, in thyn oppynyouw, 

Tyl thow haue occas'iouw 8780 

Or som cause, dyspreyse hyr nouht ; 

ffor whan the trouthe ys clerly souht, 

Thow shalt knowe wol that she 

Ys ful necessarye to the, 8784 

Yiff thow lyst maken 3 prOliydence [ 3 maken St., makem C.] [leaf 137, bk.] 

Off any koiuzyng or scyence, and can also 

teach me. 

Yt to concevue wyt/j-oute' lak, 

' By cause hyr Eyen stonden bak, 8788 Her eyes 

J being in her 

Yt ys a sygne (as thow shalt lere) b , ack > . 

show she is a 

That she is a tresourere Exp^rieTR'ef 

Off konnyng & of sciencys, [stowe, leaf ise, back] 

And off all Experyencys 8792 

That be commyttyd to hyr garde ; 

Yiff thow kowne a-ryht rewarde, 

Thyngis passyd, thow shalt fyndo "'I 10 kac i' s 

J thuiLCS l>:ist 

Schc kepeth hem closyd in hyr mynde, 8796 ta bar mind.' 

Sore shet wyt/t lok & keye, 
That they go nat lyhtly awey. 



244 Her name is Memory. To her I entrust my Armour. 



Past tilings 
she knows, 



but not future 
ones. 



Her name is 
Memory. 



The Pilgrim, 



[leaf 138] 



Tho' I doubt 
lier fitness, 



I commit my 
armour to 
Memory's 
charge. 



' Al 1 thynges off antyquyte, [> Aiie st.] 

Storyes that auctoryaed 2 be, [ z auntorysed st.] 8800 

And thywges digne off Reme??ibraurace, 
And al the olde gouernaunce 
Wych a-for thys hath 3 be do, phast.] 

She kan devyse, no whyht so, 8804 

Fresshly renewyd in hyr thouht. 

' And yet, to-forn, she seth ryht nouht, 
Nor a-parceyueth no mane?* thyng 
OfE that shal folvve in hyr seyyng, 
Off wysdam, Armys, nor vyctorye. 
And hyr name ys " memory e " ; 
And so thow shalt off Ryght hyr calle 
Her-affter-ward, what euer falle. 
And wherso that 4 thou wake or slepe, 
Tak hyr thyw armure for to kepe ; 
And she wyl make no dauwger, 
But the to serue, & 5 don hyr deuer." 

The pylgrym to memoyre. 
Than quod I to thys chaimberere : 
"Wych that* han your eyen clere, P 
Only be-hynde (yifF yt be souht) 
& to-forn ne se ryht nouht, 
ffor off thynges that passyd be, 

Ys your Charge 7 for to Se; 17 Charge only St. Stowe, leaf 157] 

And I to-forn shal taken hede : 

But I stonde in a mane?- drede, 

In what wyse ye shal sustene 

To remembre, (thus I mene,) 

Or so gret a charge to bere, 

Off thynges out off mynde feere, 8 

Hem to reporte, wyt/i-oute blame 

But, for ye han so good a name, 

And, to bere, 9 ben ek couenable, 

Strong also & seruysable ; 

To yow thys armure I conmytte, 

Out off your garde that they nat flytte." 
[Illai/k in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And she tooke 10 [hem] fill lowly [ 10 tooko st., took c.] 

In-to hyr kepyng fynally, 8836 



8808 



8812 

[nimt om. st.] 



8816 



You who)] 



8820 



8824 



[ myn fleer St.] 8828 



t beere St.] 



8832 



8840 says I am 

now ready to] 
go on ray 
journey. 



[>oonSt.] 8844 
[ * om. St.] 



8848 



except for the 
bread, 



[leaf 138, bk . ] 



8852 



[St. & C.] 



Moses gives me Bread for my Journey to Jerusalem. 245 

And in hyr tresour vp hew layde. 
And Grace dieu tha?i to me sayde : 

Grace dieu : grace meu. 

Quod she a-noon, ' tak hed her-to ! 
Now artow redy for to go 
As a pylgrym on thy lournee 
To lerusaleem the cyte ; 
Redy in al (yt ys no drede), 
Save off o 1 thyng thow hast nede, 
Only off bred, 2 (wytft-oute more,) 
Ther-wyth thy skryppe to astore : 
Off wych bred 2 I ha the told. 

' But I the rede, be nat to bold 
To take noon (in no degre,) 
W?/t/i-outen lycence or conge 
Off the ladyes (in substauwce) [stowe, leaf 157, back] 
Wych ha that bred in gouernamice. 
And alderfyrst : thow ek observe, 
That thow ko?me yt wel dysserve, 
And thy sylff, aforn to make 
To be worthy yt to take 
Off the ladyes, benygne off cherys, 
Wych ther be set ffor awmenerys : 
Wit/i-oute hem, put the nat in pres.' 

Thanne wente I to 3 Moyses, 
Hy?>i be-souhte, to my good sped, 
ffor to youe 4 me off that bred. 
And he me gaff yt ful goodly : 
And in my skryppe, a-noon I 
Putte that bred most off vertu. 
Thanwe to me spak Grace dieu : 

Grace dieu: 

Quod Grace dieu to me tho blythe, 
' By my counsayl, offte sythe 
Lok ther-to that thow tak hede 
Whan thow shalt eiyn off thys bred, 
Thy syluew gostly to dysporte, 
And thyn herte to recouwforte, 
Therby tarme thy sylff ryht wel, 
Let than in Iron or in stel ; 



which I am 
to make my- 
8856 self worthy 
to take. 



[vn-toSt.] 8860 The PUprim. 
I go to Moses. 
[ yeve St.] 



8864 



[C. & St.] 



He gives me 
bread freely, 
?nd Ip.it it 
in my sknp. 



'8868 says that 



8872 



when I ent 

tins litviiil, I 
shall In- 
armed. 



246 As I wont touch tny Armour, &race Dieu calls me Coic-ard. 



Grace Dieu 



reproaches 
me 



for not daring 
to wear my 
armour. 

[leaf 139] 



They are not 
good war- 
riors, who 
hang their 
shield* upon 
the wall. 



They pretend 



they'd slay 

linns. 



Imt have 
their arms 
in a curt 
behind em. 



' Therby to han experyence 

ffor to make resistence 8876 

Ageyn al thy mortal ffon. 

' But herkene vn-to me A-noon : 
Conceyue (for conclusions) 

Yt ys a gret 1 confus'ioun paffuiiest. stowe, leaf iss] 8880 
To the (yiff thow lyst to lere,) 
That she wych ys thy chauwberere 
Sholde, affter the, thyn arrays here ; 
And thow thy-sylff darst hem nat were, 8884 

Nor vjyih thy fynger touche he??i nouht, 
Swych dred & fer ys in thy thouht, 
Thow braydest on a koward knyht, 
Keseniblynge hem that dar nat ffyht : 8888 

I holde hem nat goode werryours, 
Manly knyhtes, nor conquerours, 
That hange her sheldys vp on 2 the wal, [ vp on c., on st.] 
To make a mowstre in specyal, 8892 

Outward by, as by apparence, 
ffor to shewe the excellence 
Off ther rychesse by fressh array ; 
And ther bodyes, nyht nor day, 8896 

Nor them sylff, dar nat a-vauce 
To handle 8 nouther swerd nor launce ; P T Ta 1 n 'J{j^ 6 J '' 
But outward shewyn ffressh pey?*tures 
Off dyuers bestys and ffygures, 8900 

Lyk to manly champyouws, 
As they wolden si en lyouws 
In dyffence off ther contre. 

And yet, par oas, yt may so be, 8904 

Ther bodyes strongely 4 tassure, [ 4 strongeiy st., strongly c.] 
They stuffe her somerys vtyih armure, 
Wych ay hem folweth at the bak, 

That in shewyng ther be no lak ; 8908 

And for al that, (who taketh hede) 
And yt kome vn-to the nede, 

(I mene, as off a mortal werre,) [sto-ve, leaf us, hack] 8911 
They wolde he? sylff holde 5 afferre, [ 5 holde st., om. c.] 
To preue her manhood & hyr myght. 
' But I holde hym a manly knyght, 



The way to Jerusalem is full of foes. I should go armd. 247 



The manly 
knight 
bears his 
armour on 
his back, 



especially 
when deadly 
war is going 
on. 



The way to 
Jerusalem 
is beset with 
enemies, 



' Wych off hys harneys (fer & ner) 

Ys hym syluew. the somer, 8916 

And bereth hys armure on hys bak, 

On liys Enmyes to take wrak ; 

And in hys harneys, day & nyht 

Ys fourcde redy, lyk a knyht, 8920 [leaf 139, bk.] 

Off prouydence hy?Ji sylfE to kepe, 

And ther-in, day and nyht doth slepe, 

lledy to sende hyw vryth hys hond, 

Namly, whan he ys in a lond 8924 

Wher the werre ys ay mortal, 

' And truste \vel in especyal, 
That the land & the contre 

Toward Jerusalem the cyte, 8928 

Thow mayst nat passe yt, fer nor ner, 
Wr/t/i-oute pe?*eil & gvet daunger. 
Yt ys ay ful off Enneniyes, 

Off brygaiwtys, & fals espyes, 8932 

And off ffomen fful despytous. 

' And in thys passage perillous, 
Me semeth (in no maner wyse,) 

That yt may to the suffyse, 893G 

Thy stonys platly, nor thy staff slynge, 
(Wych vryth the that thow dost brynge), 
But yiff thow do thy deuer, 

To haue vft/th the thy Somer, 8940 

To ber thy armys on thy bak, 
Bet than in bowgys or cloth sak. 

' Yt 1 wer a gret derysioun ['Andytst. stowe, leaf 159] 
To the, and gret conftisiom?, 8944 

Yiff tliy chauibrere sholde he??? brynge, 
And thow, for lak off fforseyynge, 
Stoode thy syllff disconsolaat, 

Dysarmyd, nakyd, & chek-maat, 8948 

Consydred 2 that thy chaw?iberere [ 2 connydrc St.] 
Ys lasse off myght & off powere 
Than thow thy-sylff[e] sholdest be, 
Yiff thow be gouernyd by equyte.' 8952 

The pylgrym : 
" Certeys ye seyn rylit wel at al. 



againstwliom 
your stones 
and staff will 
not suffice ; 



and it would 
be a great 
derision to 
you 



to be found 
unarmed mid 
check-mute. 



248 Tko' I ivas too fat, I am now jit, lut have no Servant. 

The piigHm. " But I wolde in esfecyal 
[leaf 140] Wyten how yt myghte be, 

Or whehr the faute 1 \ver in me, [' the defaute st.] 8956 
The cause 2 platly of thys cas, pstowe] 

That I so sone dysarmyd was ; 

i ask why i And why I myghte' nat endure 

could not 

anno r ur the The hevynesse off my;i armure." 8960 



annour 

Grace Ditn GiaCC 

' Hastow,' qiwd she, ' no Remewbraiwce, * 

How I the tolde, 3 in substatwce, [ 3 toiae st., told c.] 

says i was Thow wer to fat, and to lykynge, 

To gret and large (as by semynge,) 8964 

The to putte in a venture 
So hevy armure to endure 1 ' 

The Pilgrim. The pylgrym : 

" I wel remewbre," 4 so ye sayde, [* Remembre me st.] 
And thys defautys on me ye layde ; 8968 

And yet ye sayde to me no wrong; [stowe, leaf 159, back] 

i sny i now But now I ffele mv sylff mor strong 

leel stronger. ' 

To ben armyd, on 5 good entente, [ 5 in st.] 

Yiff so be that ye assente." 8972 

Grace Dieu. GraCC 



Grace Dieu ' Wostow what thow art ? ' qwod she : 

whether rm ' Yiff thow be On, declare to 6 me ; [ to am. st.] 

Yiff thow be double outher tweyne, 

Tel me A-noon & nat ne feyne. 8976 

Lat ther be no varyau?ice 

or have a Whcr tllOW haUC 7 gOUgJ'naunce [ 7 hast the St.] 

man too. 

Off any mane/- other wyht 

Than off thy sylff : tel on now ryht.' 8980 

The Pilgrim. Xh.6 pylgrym '. 

" Ma dame," quod I. " yiff ye lyst se, 
Off thys thyng ye axe me, 

(Yiff ye lyst pleynly to 8 cowcerne,) [toom.st.] 
i any i have I haue no mo for to gouerne 8984 

no one but _ . . 

myself. But mysylft, nor to comauwde. 

[leaf no, bk.] I haue merveyl off your demauwde ; [c. &st.] 

What ye mene, off this qucstyoxui ,, 

AV//t//-outc a declaracyowj." ,, 8988 

Grace dieu: 



Grace Dieu says my Servant is now my Master. 249 

' Yiff vn-to me good audyence, Grace pieu^ 

And also do thy dyllygence Gi ;f < Dieu 

J J J tells me that 

Terkne 1 a-noon what I shal say ; [' TO herken St.] 

And thy sylff shalt nat seyw nay ; 8992 

But I shal preue the contrayre, 

That thou hast an aduersavre, [stowe, icafico] i have an 

adversary, 

And On ek off thy moste foot), 

Whom that thow off yore agon 8996 one formerly 

under my 

Hast yhad in gouernaunce, control,. 

And dost ful bysy attewdaunce 

ffor to cherysshe day & nyght, 

"W//t/fc al thy power, and thy myght ; 9000 

A daye's, for to fede hy??i offte, but now 

fosterd by me 

And a nyht, to leyn hjm soffte ; with luxuries. 

Wyt7< metys most delycyous, 

And, \\yth deyntes outragons, 2 [* outrageous St.] 9004 

Thow dost ful besy attendance 

To ffostren hy?i to hys plesaunce. 

' What-euere cost ther-on be spent, 
Thow takest noon heed in thyw entent, 9008 

But al hys lustys to obeye. 

' And yet I dar afferme & seye, 
He was ordeyned for to be HO was or- 

diiiiied to be 

Soget & seruamtt vn-to the, 9012 my servant, 

And tabyde in thy servyse. 

' But now ys tournyd al that guyse, 
Pleynly, yiff thow lyst to se ; 

ffor lie hath now the souereynte, 9016 

Lordshepe & domynaciou?t, 
That ffyrst was in subiecc'ioim. 
And to cocludew, at word, 

Thow art soget, & he ys lord ; 9020 [leaf ui] 

And yet he was dely vered the, [c. & st.] ^ \l" 

Thy seruaunt euere to ha be ; 
But he ys now thy most enmy, >""' m y , 

J J ' ercatest foe 

And doth hys power outterly, 9024 

Euey-e in on, the to werreye, 

And day & nyght to dysobeye, 

And for thy lustys ay to varyc, 

Yn-to the to be contrarye, [stowe, io:r 100, back] 9028 



250 Grace Dieu describes how I pamper my Foe (niy Body). 

grace Dieu. ' Nat-w?/t7<-stondynge the dyllygence, 

The costys & the gret expense 

That thow dost hywi for t plese, 

And hys Gredynesse tapese : 9032 

NOW he ia Thow beyst 1 hym many fressh loAvel, pbyeststj 

pampered 

by you. And sparest nat off thy catel 

To beyn 2 hym knyue's & tablettys, [byenst.] 

Eyche gyrdelys & corsettys, 9036 

YOU buy Clothes off sylk & off skarlet, 

him silks and . . 

pearls. Embrawdyd, & wym perlys 3 ffret : ppeiiesst.] 

Al hys desyrs thow pursues, 

Somwhyle to lede hym to the stewes, 9040 

YOU bathe To wasshe & bathe hym tendyrly, 

him, J J ' 

ia;- him on And to leyii hym soff telv 

feutherbeds, * ' 

On ff ether beddys, mad ful wel, 

ffor to slepe hys vndermel ; 9044 

And afterward to kembe hys lied : 
ami give him Wt/t7i wynes also, whyt & red, 

Wj/th nialuesyn & ypocras, 

Thow dost to hym ful gret so 1 as, 9048 

And art mor bysy hym to queme 

Than thy-sylff, I dar wel deme. 
YOU wait As a norysshe on 4 hyr enfauwt. [* noryse / to St.] 

on him like 

a nurse. Thow art eugre attendaurat 9052 

To ffostren hym, lyk hys delyt, 
[leaf ui, bk.j And to serue hys appetyt ; 

And shortly, whan thow hast al do, 
And yet he Thow hast noon so mortal ffo ; 9056 

is yonr dead- 
liest foe fp or the, to trayshe 5 vfykh al hys myht, [' traysshen St.] 

He lyth a waytynge day & nyht ; 
And hys ffamylyaryte 

Ys ful noyous vn-to the. 9060 

ffor Enmy noon ys so perillous, 
So dredful, nor contagyous, 

unearth. In al the 6 ertlie, fer nor ner, [ 6 the St., on. c. stowe, icafiei] 
As an enmy ffamylyer, Famiiiaris immious st., om. c. 9064 

NOT SO gretly to be drad 7 U dradde . . sadde St.] 

Off ffolkys that be wyse & sad. 7 

' And yiff thow lyst to lern off me, 
Tak good lied ; for thys ys he [St. & c.] 9068 



I ask ivho my Foe is, that I may kill him and cut Mm up. 251 



' Wych wolde nat suffre the to lere, 

Noon Armys nor noon barneys were, 

The to dyffende fro thyn enmyes, 

Brygauwtys and other false espyes ; . [C. &st.] 9072 

And shortly (yiff I shal nat tarye) 

He ys thy gretest aduersarye 

That thow hast, & most to drede : 

Be war therfor, & talc bet hede.' 9076 

The pylgrym : 

" Ma dame," quod I, " yiff ye lyst se, 
I merveylle what he sholde be, 
He that ye accuse and blame, 

And put on hyw so gret dyffame, 9080 

How that he sholde, day & nyht, 
Be bysy (as ffer as he hath myght) 
To traisshe 1 me, as a fals tractour, [' traysshe St.] 
And to my Avorshype & honour 9084 

Don any derogaciouw 
By swych cowpassyd fals traisoun. 

" I pray yow for to tellen me 

What maner whyht he 2 sholde be. [ a that he St.] 9088 
Telleth me ek whar he was born, 
And warneth me off hy?/i to-forn ; 
Telleth hys name & hys fygure, 

That I may my sylff assure 9092 

Ageyn hys mortal Enmy te, [stowe, leaf 101, bk.] 

That I myghte avengyd be. 
And, by my trouthe, a-noon I shal 
Dysmewbren hy? on pecys smal, 9096 

Quyk on the Erthe, what-eue?-e he be, 
And ye hys name tellen me. 
And yet thys vengauwce, in no wyse 
Myghte nat ynowh suffyse, 9100 

Thogh al quyk (to my? entente) 
I dysmembrede hy? ther he wente." 

Grace dieu : 

' Certys,' <\uod she, ' thow seyst ryht wel : 
But, & thow wylt wyten eue?ydel, 9104 

And conceyve ek in thy thoulit, 
Xe wer thy-sylff, he wer ryht nouht, 



He stopt 
your wearing 
armour. 



He is your 
greatest 

enemy. 



The Pilfirim. 



I wonder who 

this Ibe is, 



who's alwnys 
tryhiK to de- 
base me. 



[leaf 142] 



I ask what 
ig his name, 



so Hint I 
mny at once' 
out, him into 
little bits. 



252 Grace Dieu will journey with me, and describe my Foe. 






Your foe is 
a oompoond 



corruption. 



Grace Dieu 

w!th j me," ey 
[leaf H2, bk.] 



who my foe 



The Pilgrim. 



I'm very 
ptaMdw* 

Grace Dieu 

is ir,iiiiK' 

with me, 



and will de- 

Bcril)C my foe 

to me. 



' Nor, w?/t7j-oute the, certeyw, 

He ne wer nat but in veyn ; 9108 

ffor ffolkys, nouther yong nor olde, 

Sholde nat on hy??i be-holde, 

But haue hyw in despyt, certeyu, 

In repreff, & in gret desdeyn, 9112 

(Ne wer thy sylff, I the ensure,) 

ffor but a lyknesse off ordure, 

And a statue off slyym 1 vnclene, C 1 siymest.] 

* 

(Vnderstond wel what I mene,) 9116 

Donge & putrefacciourc, 

A Kareyn off corrupoyoura : 

Thow shalt yt fynde (in wordys fewe,) 

As openly I shal the shewe, 9120 

Whan thow gy?mest thy passage. 

And, for thyra owne avauratage, 

I W yi go W yt/i the off enteiit, 9123 

And, holdyilg OUr 2 parlemeilt, ['oureSt. Stowe, leal 102] 
, T , , . 

Thow & I, to-gydre yttere, 
What that he ys, I shal the lere.' 

y e pilgrime 3 [ s In Stowe's hand. The Pylh'ryme St.] 

" Go we," quod I / " I am wel payd 

Off al that euere ye ha sayd ; 9128 

But specyaly I vow requere 

; T J J 
That ye & I may qon yfere, 

J ^ 

And departe 4 nat our way ; [ 4 depart St.] 

And that ye wyl me goodly say 

(Lyk to your oppynyouw) 

The maner & condic'iovw 

Off myw. enmy, & off me, 

"VVhil that we 5 to-gydre be, 

No whyht but ye & I yfere, 

Excepte that my chaiu/tberere 

Wyt/i me haveth 6 myw armure; [berethst.] 

And my syluen mor tassure, 

That in hyre ther 7 be no lak ; u ther ther c., thcr st.] 

Me folweth alway at the bak." 

Grace Dieu. 8 c st., om. c.] 

Quo/I grace dieu, ' ffor to declare 
Thy? Enmy plcynly, & nat spare, 9144 



9132 



[ 5 we St., ye c.] 9136 



9140 



She describes him : he is Worms-meat. I am his slave. 253 



Grace Diett 



says my Foe 
is loathsome, 



hrod from 
worms, 



anil shall rot 
and return lo 

thrill. 



' He ys foul & ek terry ble 1 L 1 to on-yWe st.] 

Lothsom also, & (Xlyble, 

Off condycyoun ful dyuers, 

Right contrayre & peruers ; 2 [" pan-ers st.] 9148 

Was engendryd (I dar assure) 

And brouht forth, as 3 by nature, [ 3 asst., om.c.] 

Off woormys that in erthe krepe, 

And lyggen in the soil ful depe. 9152 

He ys a worme, & shal also [stowe, leaf 102, back] 

Be wormys mete ; tak hed her-to ! 

Off wormys (in especyal) 

He took hys orygynal; 9156 [leaf us] 

And in-to wormys he shal tourne, 

And wyth wormys ek soiourne ; 

In the erthe 4 putrefye ; [* the Erthe st., thertiie c.] 

And wormys shal hy??i ek defye, 91 GO 

Torne hym to foul corrupcyoun : 

Swych ys hys condycioun. 

'And nat for-thy (tak hed & se,) 

Euery nyht he lyth \\ytfi the 9164 

A-bedde ; and truste ek trewly, 5 [ 5 Trueiy St.] 

Ye parte 6 neuere company. [ departest.] 

And vn-to the yt ys gret shame, 

And a mane?- off dyffame 91G8 

To the, & gret conf usioun ; 
Affter hys replecyoun, 
He may nat purge hym on no syde 
But thow hym lede, & be hys guyde; 9172 

In chaujubre, goyng to pryvee, 
Hys chau?ttberleyn thow mustest be : 
Wz/tTi-oute the (yt stondeth so) 

That he sotlily may no-thyng do : 9176 

Thow art hys pyler & hys potent ; 
And ellys he were Inpotent, 
Blynde, & lame donteles, 7 [ 7 douties st.] 

Deff, and also specheles, 9180 

And off no roputac'iou/i, 
Ne wer thy supportac'ioim. 

' And yet to spoke in general, 
He lean to the no thank at al : 9184 



And yet lie 
lies nightly 
in bed with 
me. 



I shamelessly 



RO to the 
]>rivy with 
him. 



Without DM 

he'd be blind, 
lame, ileuf, 
and dumb. 



254 / mustn't slay my Foe, but must correct him l>y Penance. 

' Hys fro ward conuersacyouw 
Ys off swych condyciouu.' 

The Pllfirim. Y e pilgrime. 1 C 1 In Stowe's hand. The Pylgryme St., leaf 163] 

" Ma dame," quod I, " al that ye seyn, 

I vnderstonde yt wel certeyn ; 9188 

But I merveylle ful gretly 
[leaf 1*8, bk.] That ye lyst nat to me pleynly 
i beg Grace Make ful relacvoun. 

Dieu t ex- 
plain clearly And clerly demowstraciowi, 9192 

who my foe 

i8 Wyt7i toknys bothew hih & lowe, 

Attonys that I myghte hy?H knowe ; 

ffor thanue, nouther nyht nor day 

Ther sholde be makyd no delay, 9196 

WytA-oute respyt or pyte 
ttmt i may But that I sholde a-vengyd be 

kill him. Ot/ 

(Wyt/i-oute support or favour) 

By cruel deth, on that traytour." 9200 

Grace Dieu GraCG DieU. 2 [ St., om. C.] 

says be must " Nat-wwt/^-stondynce hys offence, 

not be slain, 

but chastised, fo slen hy?tt thow hast no lycence ; 
That may be suffryd in no wyse. 

But thow mayst hy??i wel c hasty se/ 9204 

And correcte' by due 3 peyne, i 3 dew St.] 

an.i kept And f ro vycys hy?/i restreyne. 

from vices. J J J 

And, whan that he doth forfete. 

As a mayster thow shalt hy??t beto, 9208 

And correcte hy? by travaylle, 
Nat as a tyraunt by battaylle, 
By cruel Rygour nor vengauwce, 
But reforme hy??i by penaunce, 9212 

At-wyxe the yok off loue & drede. 
ffor (yiff thow lyst to taken hede,) 
He must do Penaunce ys hys cheff maystresse, [stowe, leaf ics, back] 

Hym to chastyse & to redresse : 9216 

She shal, off al dyffaute & blame, 

Refreynen hy^u, & make hy?/i tame, 

Off dyscreciourc wel a-vysed. 

And whan she hath hy?w wel clrstyscd, 9220 

She shal (as thow shalt vnderstond,) 

Make hy? redy to thyn hond, 



My Foe is my Body and Flesh, and is to be kept under. 255 

As A seruavwt, the to serue, men. 

Lyk a sergavwt, to obserue 9224 

Lowly, What thoW byst 1 hy?tt do, C 1 byddest St.] [leaf 144] 

i ii e Your foe 

And nat sey nay, nor go ther-lro, mus t be your 

But be at thy comaumlement.! 9227 

' Thys sholdest thow, off 2 good entent, [' offst.,on. c.] 
(Lyk vn-to an holsom leche,) 
Rather desyre, than any vvreche. 
Ifor (yiff thow look w//t/< Eyen cler,) 
He stondeth nat vnder daurager 9232 

Off dethe to the, no maner wyse ; 
ffor thow art bounde to deuyse YOU must 

look to Ins 

Hys goostly elthe 3 & wel-ffare; [ heitnest.] health; 

And oner thys, nat for to spare, 9236 

(Wherso that he wake or slepe) 

ffrom al pereyl 4 hym to kepe, [*peryiiest.] 

Wherso that thow be dul or ffressh ; 

ffor thys, thy Body & thy fflessh, 9240 for he u your 

J ' J J J own body 

He that I mene, the sylue 5 same, [ 5 seive St.] and fleah. 

Off hym I kan noon other name." 

The Pylgryme. 6 f 6 st., <m. c.] The pilgrim. 

"Ma dame," quod I, " what may thys be 1 ? 
Whether drome I, other 7 ellys ye 1 ['orst.] 9244 

ffor (as fer as I kan espye,) 

I merveylle off your fantasye, i wonder at 

Or by what weye ye wolde gon. [stowe, leaf 101] 

Ys nat my body & I al on 1 9248 n<i i R k if 

my body mid 

I trowe yis ; & ellys wonder, x ar>n>t lie - 

Or how myhte we be assonder? 

Ys he a-nother than am 1 1 

I pray yow, tel me ffeythfully, 9252 

(And me declareth the sothnesse 8 [ 8 sothfastnesse st.] 

W?/t7i-outen any dowbylnesse,) 

What that ye mene verrayly ; 

fFor her ys no whyht but ye & I, 9256 

Except only my chawnberere, 

Wych that folweth us 9 ryht here. [ 9 v$ St.] 

" A-noon to me doth sygnefye, [leaf ut.bk.] 

Wher yt be trouth or fayrye 9260 

nn 1111 Alv " " llc 

lhat we shold beu on or tweyne : or two? 



25G If I were in a cosy place, would I stay there ? I would. 



Grace Dieu 
asks 



if I were in a 
place full of 
ease ami 
solace, sur- 
rounded with 
all good 
things, 



would I stay 
or depart ? 



The Pilgrim. 



I say 



I would 
remain. 



Grace Dieu 
[leaf 1 1,'iJ 



nsksif I'd 
give up my 
pilgrimage 
fur rest. 



92G4 

nnd t!UC " 



9268 



9272 



9276 



9280 



" Tel on a noon, & doth nat ffeyne." 

Grace Dieu. 1 [st.,om.c.] 

Quod Grace dieu : ' out off my mouth 
Wente neuere north nor south, 
Est, nor west, no lesyng,* L ^l^nua] 
Illusyoun, nor fals dremyng. 
But I axe a questyouu : 
Answers ther-to by good resoun : 
' Yitf thow were now in a place 
fful off merthe & off solace, 
Wyth mete & drynke, at good ese, 
And wyth al thys, the to plese, 
Haddyst thy comaundementys 
Off hallys, chauwbrys, & gaye Tentys, 
Soffte beddys, dysport & play, 
And euery thyng vn-to thy pay, 
Havyng no lak vp-on no syde ; [stowe, leaf lei, back] 
Yiff thow myghtest ther abyde 
At thy choys ffrely alway, 
Woldestow gladly parte a-way, 
Or ellys stylle 8 abyde there ? p styiie Eiiys st.] 

Tel on boldly, & ha no if ere.' 

Y e pilgrim 4 [* In Stowe's hand. The Pylgryme St.] 

" Ma dame," quod I, " dysplese yow nouht ; 

I sey ryht as lyth in my thouht : 

Myn hertys ese for to swe, 

I wolde abyde (& uat remowe,) 

ffor my esc, euere in on, 

leather tha?i thenys 5 for to gon ; p then* St.] 9288 

ffor yt ys profy table tabyde 6 [ 6 to abyde st.] 

Wher that a man, on euery syde 

ilyndeth vn-to hys plesaunce 

Soiour, 7 w//t/i-oute varyaurice.' p sokour st.] 9292 

Grace Dieu. 8 [8st.,o.c.] 

' Ys that verrayly,' (\iiod she, 
' Soth that thow hast sayd to me 1 
I vnderstonde, by thy language, 

Thow woldest leue thy pylgrymage, 9296 

And platly settyu hyt a-syde, 
Only for resto, & ther a-byde.' 



9284 



Grace Dieu reproves my ivillingness to stay in comfort. 257 

The Pylgryme. 1 [> st., om. c.] Thpngr;m. 

" Ma dame,"quod I, " for my dysport, 
"\Vher I fond 2 ese & counfort, pFondeist.] 9300 

I wolde abyde a whyle there, [stowe, leaf IGSJ i say IM stay 

& while* 

Tyl I sawh tyme & good leyser." 

dieil. 3 P In Stowe's hand. Grace Dieu St.] Grace Diea, 



To me she sayde a-noon ryht than : reproaches 

' wrechche ! o thow vnhappy man ! 93,04 o wretch; 

Tak hed, & be mor ententyff, \m\\\\ 

How here, in thys mortal lyff, 

Thogh that a man renne euermore, 

He may neuere hast hym to sore 9308 

To kome to tymely to that place. 

' I putte caas, that he ha space if youconid 

go on daily, 

fforth to procede, day be day, 

At good leyser vp-on hys way. 9312 

Her-vp-on I axe the, 

Yiff thow haddyst lyberte, 

loye, merthe, & al solace, 

Woldestow fro thylke place, 9316 would you 

stop there ? 

Yiff thow haddyst fre chois at wylle 
Kemewen, or a-byde sty lie 1 ' 

Y e pilgrime 4 [* In Stowe's hand. The Pylgryme St.] TTie Pilgrim. 

" Alias ! " qz^od I, " what may I seyn 1 

I kan nat wel answere a-geyn. 9320 

But o thyng I wot ryht wel ; 

The cyrcuwstancys eue?*ydel i say, Yes; 

Consydryd vp-on eue?y syde, 

Par cas, rather I 5 sholde abyde, [ 5 rather than i St.] 9324 fleafH5,bk.] 

Than ben to hasty to precede, 

Tyl I sawh I muste nede unless i was 

_ , , obliged to 

Goon forth Oft neceSSy te : [Stowe, leaf 1C5, back] move. 

In caas thaw wolde I haste me." 9328 

Grace Dieu : grace PI 

Quod Grace dieu tharane vn-to me : 

' By thyn answere, I do wel se teiu me 

That thyn entencyoiw ys trouble, 
And thy wyl ys also double ; 9332 >y > i8 ., 

J J (loiihle and] 

Thy inward thouht ek varyable, 
Thy purpos dyuej-s & vnstable, 

PILGIUMAGB. S 



258 Grracc Dieu accuses me of being double-minded, two-willd. 



She iy, one 
day I'll go, 



anotlier I'll 
stay. 



The Pilgrim. 
I agree. 



She'll prove 
me double- 
minded. 



[leaf HO] 



The Pilgrim. 

I usk her 
what I really 
am. 



' Consydryd vp-on outlier syde, 

How som whyle thoAV wylt abyde, 9336 

And a-nother tyme also, 

Thow art in wyl 1 forth for to go; [' wyiiest.] 

Now in travaylle, now in reste, 

And offte thow thywkest, for the beste, 9340 

Sty lie in a place to soiourne ; 

And sodeynly thy wyl 2 doth tourne, pwyttest.] 

ffor to holde thy passage ; 

Thy purpos double off vysage, 9344 

Constreyned by a dyuers lawe, 

Now forth, & now y t doth wyt/t-drawe ; 

Selde or neuere off O 3 thouht ; poo St.] 9347 

The toon wyle, & the 4 tother nouht." [ 4 wyiie the St.] 

The pylgrym : 

" Ma dame," quod I, " lyk as ye seyn, 
fful trewe I ffele yt, in certeyn." 

Grace dieu : 

Thaw qiwd she ; " lat nat the greue [stowe, leaf iec] 
Vp-on thy wordys ; thogh I preue, 9352 

And thogh I make an Argument, 
That thow art double in thyn entent, 
Alway nat on, 5 in certeyne, [ s oon st.] 

But partyd ofte in-to tweyne. 9356 

ffor yt ys knowe, off yore agon, 
That two wyllys be nat on, 
Wych be seueryd in o thouht, 

And off entent acorde nouht. 9360 

ffor, how myghte they accorde, 

Whan they drawe nat by o 6 corde 1 [ fi they nat he / off oo St.] 
Thys knoweth euej-y maner whyht, 
That hath off Resou?* any syht" 9364 

The pylgrym : 

" Ma dame," quod I / " I yow be-seche, 
Clerly 7 that ye wyl me teche U ciereiy St.] 

What that I am ; wych seyn that I 
Am nat the same that my body. 9368 

What am I thawne ] thys wolde I se, 
Yiff ye lyst enfourmen me : 
Tlier wcr no thyng to me so leff, 



Self-knowledge the best. Man is tJie Image of God. 259 

" As knowe her-off A trewe preff." 9372 

Grace dieu : Qrace pieu 

Quod grace dieu : ' yt semeth wel, 
Thow hast nat lernyd eue/'ydel 

Tliyngys nouther hih nor lovve, 9375 

Syth thy sylff thow 1 kanst nat knowe ; p om. St.] tells me i 

don't know 

The wych, a-boue al other thyng [stowe, leaf 106, back] myself. 

Ys the beste 2 knowelychyng [ 3 best St.] 

That man may han in thys 3 lyff here. p thys St.] 

' And, yiff thow lyst platly lere, 9380 

To knowe thy sylff ys bet knowyng "g^^jK,. ** 
Than to be Emperour outher kyng, SS^SZ^T %% M 

Or for to knOWen al SCyeilCeS, t tenorate St. and riches. 

Practykes, & expe?yer>ces ; 9384 

Or to han al the rychesse 

Off thys world 1 (in sothfastnesse), 

Or the tresour euerydel, 

But syth thow knowest nat rylit wel 9388 

Thy sylff, as thow sholdest kuowe, 

(Wyth cyrcu?nstaucys hih & lowe,) 

Me semeth (as in myn avys,) 

Taxe and lerne, 4 thow art wys. [* TO axe and lem St.] 9392 [leaf 146, bk.] 

And I shal telle the feythfully 

In thys matere, trewely, 5 [ 5 trewiy c., St.] 

What that I fele in myw entent 

Shortly, as in sentement : 9396 

1 The Body, fyrst, (be nat in doute,) Apart from 

Off wych 6 I spak closyd w//t/t-owte, [ 6 the winch St.] 
Whan yt ys fro the segregat, 

Dysseueryd & separat, 9400 

Thanne off the, (I dar wel seyn 
And afferme yt in certeyn) 
Off god thow art the portrature, y are the 

image of 

Thymage 7 also, and ffygure ; p Theymagest.] 9404 God. 

And 8 off nouht (yiff thow kanst so) I 8 And nat st.] 

He ffounnede & he made the, 

(That lord 9 ffyrst, in thy creauwcc,) [ 9 Lordest.] 

To hys owue resemblau?zce 9408 

And ymage, wych off lyknesse 

Most dygnc, & worthy off noblcssi^, [stowo, u-afic7j 



260 / am the son of God, not of Thomas DeGuillevylle. 

Grace Dieu. ' A prent 1 (to Spekc off dygnyte) [ Apparent St.] 

He myghte nat ha set on 2 the p sette in st.] 9412 

Mor worthy, nor mor notable, 

Than to hym sylff 3 resemblable. [ 3 seiven St.] 

God pave you He gaff to the, off liys goodnesse, 

Cler syht off Kesouw, & ffayrnesse, 4 [* Fayrenesse St.] 941 G 

And off nature to be mor lyht 

Than any ffoul that ffleth in flyht, 

And neuere to deyen, ek wyt/t-al, 
and made you ffor he made the Immortal, 9420 

immortal. 

Permanent, & euere 5 stable. pekest.] 

And tadwellyd 6 Immutable, [ 6 to have dweiiyd St.] 
Yiff thow nat haddyst, off entent, 
fforfetyd hys comauwdement ; 9424 

Than haddystoAV, thorgh thy Benoun, 
Excellyd in co??^parysour^ : 
Cowparysouw myghte noon ha be 

Deaf u7] To thy noblesse & dygnete, 9428 

Off hewene nor Erthe, in certeyn, 
!N"or (to declare & speke in pleyn,) 
Bryd, nor other creature, 

Except off angelys the nature. 9432 

God u your God ys thy ffader, (tak hed her-to) 

father. 

YOU are God's And, thow art hys sone also, 

son, 

Most excellynge off kynrede 

That eue7-e was (wyt/i-oute drede), 9436 

Most noble, & off grettest style ; 
and not the ffor off Thomas de guillevyle 

son of * 

Thomas de Thow art nat sone on that party 

Guilleville, J 

I dar afferme, & seyn trewly, 9440 

"Who-euere gruchche, or make stryff [stowe, leaf 107, back] 

That he nat hadde, in al hys lyff, 

To seke, in al hys nacyouw, 

No sone off swych condycyauw, 9444. 

Douhter nouther (yt ys no fable,) 

Off kynrede" so notable. [ 7 kynrede St.] 

from wimse But, off Engendrure bodyly, 
your body. Thow haddest off hy??& thy body, 9448 

Wych kam off hym by nature : 

The wych body (I kan assure 8 ) [ 8 dar Ensure st.] 



Tho man's Body is foul, his Soul springs from God. 261 



1 Ys to the (tak bed her-to,) 
Thyw Eumy & thy grettest foo, 

' On that party (yiff thow lyst se,) 
Eoos fyrst the grete Enmyte ; 
Nature hath yt so ordeyned ; 
But yt thorgh vertu be restreyned. 
For the ffrut (what-euere yt be) 
Bereth the tarage off the tre 
That yt kam fro (I dar assure) ; 
tfor yt were ageyn nature, 
A Thorn to bern a Fygge soote ; 
The bud hath tarage 1 off the rooto, [' Fr. te> 
Lyk as an appyl or a pere, 
Thogh yt be born, neue/-e so fere, 
Yt savoureth (whan that al ys do,) 
Off the Tre that yt kam fro. 

' And semblably haue in mynde, 

Manys body, as be kynde, 9468 

As off hyw sylff (be wel certeyn), 
May ber no ffrut but foul & veyn 
Ordure & 2 corrupci'ouw, P and ffouii St.] 

Slym & putrefaccioun. 9472 

' But yiff thy gynnyng be wel souht, [stowe, leaf ics] 
Off swych fylthe thow kome 3 nouht : 

ff or fyrst, in thy creaci'OUfi [ J swyche ffylthe . . kam St.] 



Your body is 
your greatest 
foe. 



As the tree is, 
so is its fruit. 



9452 



945G 



9460 



9464 [leaf 147, bk.] 



Mali's body 
0:111 bear only 
foul fruit. 



But you arc 



Thow haddyst no producc'iouto 
(Yiff I shal declaren al) 
Off no man that was mortal. 
Thy makynge may nat be ameadyd, 
ffor off god thou art descended ; 
And pleynly (yiff thou vnderstondys,) 
God made neuere w#t/t hys hondys 
Her in erthe (what sholdc I feyne 4 ) 
Off mankynde mo than tweyne ; 
Vii-to wyche (wytTi-oute wheer) 
He co??imyttede hys power, 
And gaff to hem an exau?playre, 
Other, lyk hem, to make fay re, 
Lyk thexamples in 5 general, 
To hyw reseruynge in specyal 



9476 



9480 



[* ffeync St.] 



9484 



9488 



[ 5 the Ensainplis St.] 



descended 
from God. 



He oreute<l 2 
of mankind, 
ami 1'inpow- 
erd them to 
(rente others' 
bodies, 



but roai-rvd 
to llimaelf 



262 God set your Soul in your Body, that you might subdue it. 



Grace Dieu. 



the creation 
of spirits. 



He put you, 
your Houl, 



to dwell 
awhile in 
your body, 



[leaf 148] 

to try you, 
and see how 
you'd behave. 



Between you 
and your body 
there is con- 
tinual war- 
fare. 



If you force 
it down, 



it'll not dare 
rebel against 
you. 



' Off spyrytys (in conclusion?*) 
Thordynawjce & the ffasown, 
Off wych he wolde (as hy skyl) 
Noon other medle, by hys wyl. 

' And her-vp-on (yiff thow lyst se,) 
The same lord, he made the 
Off hys goodnesse, for thy prowh ; 
And in the 1 body wher thow art now 
He the putte (as I dar telle), 
Ther a whyle for to dwelle, 
And ther tabyde (thys, the cheff) 
For tassaye the by preff ; 
And by thy port 2 also dyscerne 
How thow 3 sholdest the gouerne 
Prudently, both fer & ner ; 
And yiff thow dydest thy dever 
To 4 dyffende thy party, [* For to St.] 
Yiff lie 5 wolde holde chauwpartye 
Ageyn[y]s the in any wyse. 
ffor, (as I shal to the devyse,) 
Atwyxe 6 yow (yt ys no faylle) 
Ther ys werre & strong bataylle, 
And contynuelly ther shal be, 
But so falle, thow yelde the, 
And putte the in subiecciouTi 
Thorgh hys fals collusi'ouw, 
By hys deceyt & flaterye 7 
Evere to haue the maystrye 
Over the (in cdnclus'iouw) 
Whyl he hath domynacioun. 

' But yiff that thow (as yt ys ryht,) 
Dyscouwfyte hy?>t by verray niyghte, 
And by force ber hywt dou?i 
Lyk a myglity champyoim, 
Than shal-tow (bothe fer & ner,) 
Over hyw ban ful power, 
That he shal neuere, for no quarelle, 
Ageyn[y]s the, dor rebel le, 
To Interupte thy?i entente. 

' And trewly, but thy sylff assente 



9492 



9496 



tliey St.] 



9500 



[* part St.] 
[3 thow am. St.] 9504: 



[Stowe, leaf 168, back] 
[5 he St., ye C.] 9508 



[ Atwix St.] 



9512 



9516 



[_' Flaterye St., flatry C.] 



9520 



9524 



9528 



Your Body ever seeks to betray you to your Foes. 263 



' He shal neuere be so bold, 

The to wytftstonde, as I ha told. 9532 

' He ys Dalyda, thow art Sampson/* ; 
Tho\v art strong (as by resouw), 
Sturdy on thy feet to stonde : 

Suffre liym nat, the to \vyth -stonde, 9536 

Nor over the to han l maystrye [' imue the St.] 

ffor no glosyng nor flatrye. 2 [ J fflaterye St.] 

' And yiff thou take hed 3 ther-to, [simiest.] 
She ne 4 kan nat ellys do ; [natst.] 9540 

But w?/t7< flatrye 5 & deceyt, [ 5 fflaterye st.] 

Nyht & day lyn in a-wayt, 
And swych wach on the doth make, 
To make thyn enmyes the to take 9544 

At mescheff, whan they may the fynde. 
And yiff thow wylt, sche 6 shal the bynde. Vfaf^fa 
Sher thy;* heer whyl thow dost slope, #*<.] 
But thow ko?me thy-cylnen kepe. 9548 

And overmor, I the ensure, 
Thy cousayl al she 7 Avyl dyscure, Fhest.,c.] 

And thy secretys euerichon, 

To phylystees that be thy ffoon. 9552 

Other frenshepe, truste 8 me, t 8 trust vn-to st.] 

She 9 hath pleynly noon to the. [ 9 HeC.,st.] 

' Now ches, & to my speche entendc, 
How thow wylt thy syllf dyflende ; 9556 

Be nat to thy confus'ioim 
Ueceyued as whylom was Sampsou.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Ma dame," to grace dieu quod I, 
" I merveylle ful gretely ; 10 [ J0 greteiy st., gretiy c.j 9560 
fl'or pleynly (as yt 11 doth me seme) [ yt st., o. c.] 
Outlier I slepe or 12 I dreme [' outher St.] 

That ye, a-mong your wordys alle, 
Lyst a ' Spyryt' me to calle, 9564 

\Vych wyt/t my body do abyde, 
Wher-so that I go or ryde ; 
And seyw, I am to 13 cler seyng ; [ |3 sost.] 

And me scmeth I se no thyng. 9568 

Aiid ek I take good hed hcr-to, 



Your body 
is Delilah, 
them art 
Sampson. 



[leaf 148, bk.] 



It watches 
day ami night 
to give you 
over to your 
foes, 



and will dis- 
close your 
scnvts to the 
Philistines. 




I wonder at 
Grace Dieu's 
calling me u 
Spirit, 



2G4 Grace Dicu likens Soul and Body to the Sun and Clouds. 



The Pilrtrhn. 

and saying 
that my Body 
is as blind 
as a stone, 
[leaf 149] 



I ask her to 
explain all 
this. 



Grace Dieit. 

She says : 
The HUH is 
sometimes 
bright, 



and some- 
times under 
a cloud. 



What causes 
day when 
the sun is 
hid? 



I say, Pue- 
bus, 



whose light 
shines even 
thro clouds. 



[leafUD.bk.] 



9576 



9580 



" How ye afferme, & seyn also, 

That my body, wych seth so wel, [Stowe, leaf IGD, back] 

How that he seth neueradel, 9572 

But ys as 1 blynd as ys a 2 ston. [> om. st. *as eny St.] 

And your wordys euerychon 

Ben so vnkouth & 3 merveyllous, [ 3 and so St.] 

And to my wyt so dauwgerous, 

That they faren, whan I hem here, 

As a flee were in myw Ere ; 

I am astonyd so outterly. 

I pray you tel me mor clerly, 

That I may wyte (by som niene) 

Off al thys thyng, what that 4 ye mene." [*tuat om. st.] 

Grace dieu: 

' Tak hed,' quod she, ' yiff thow korane, 
And se somwhyle how the so/me, 
Wykh hys bemys bright & clere, 
Most ffressh in hys mydday spere, 
The same tyme, vnder a cloude, 
Offtii sythe he doth hym schrowude, 
That men may nat be-holde & se 
The bryhtenesse 5 off hys bewte. [ s bryiitnesse c.] 
Wher-vp-on, I the comaunde 
To answere to thys demauwde : 
Whan the sowne ys closyd so 
That hys clernesse ys ago, 

Tel on, & 6 Answere, yiff thow may, [ 6 Teiie on St.] 
Off what thyng causyd ys the day.' 

The pylgrym: 
" To telle' shortly in a clause : 
Off day, ther ys noon other cause [Stowe, leaf 170] 
But phebus, as I kan espye. 
Thogh hys bemys, vnder skye 
Ben hyd, yet yt ys no doute, 
Al the lyht that sheweth oute, 
Ys ycausyd eueyydel 
Off the sowne (who loke wel) ; 
Thorgh a skye hys lyht doth passe, 
To shewe yt forth in euery place. 
And shortly ellys (yt ys no nay) 



9584 



9588 



9592 



9596 



9600 



The Sun is the Soul; the Body is tlie Cloiul darkening it. 265 
" ~W?/t/i-oute hys lylit, ther wer no day." 9608 without the 

J J J sun there 

Grace dieu : were " <li| y- 



Orace Dieu 



/-\ 7 r* . i i 

Quod Grace dieu : ' answere me ; 

ask* how 1 

How maystow parceyue or se, cu " f? 6 the 

r j sun thro a 

Or in any wyse espye doud - 

Hys bryhte bemys thorgh a skyeT 9612 

The pylgrym: 



" Ryht so," quod I. " as thorgh a verre, Men see his 

J beams afar, 

Men sen hys bemys shyne a-ferre, they see 

J J fire through 

Or as mew sen off fPyr the lyht, a lantern. 

Thorgh a lanterne cler & bryht." 9616 

Grace dieu : Graee Dieu - 

Quod Grace dieu a-noon to me : The sun 

means the 

' What thow hast sayd, tak lied,' quod she, ? OU J 8l ;iV^ 

' ' in the Boity. 

' And vnderstond ffyrst in thy syht, 

By the S07me that shyneth bryht, 9620 

Thy soule cler, in especyal, 

W//t/i-Inne thy body wych ys mortal. 

Off thys mater we hatie an honde, [stowe, leaf no, back] 

Ther-bj r thy soule I vnderstonde. 9624 

' Thy body (yiff thow kanst espye) T1)e bo^y is 

Vs dyrk, as ys a clowdy skye ; ck)Ud y 8k y> 

And lyk also (who kan dyscerne) 
To a smoky, blak lanterne. 9628 

And nat for-thy (I dar expresse) nd yt th 

' Soiirsbri 

Men may sen, thorgh the bryhtnesse i' 

Off the soule (yt ys no doute), 

And the clernesse, for wyt/-oute. 9632 

Clerkys recorde yt in ther skolys ; 

And other wene, that be but ffolys, 

In ther foltyssh fals demyng, 

That al the cler enlwmynyng 9636 

Wher-off that pore skye (lo,) 1 [> skyioostj 

Wher-wyth the sowle ys shrowdyd so, 

Eclypsyd off hys fayr bryhtnesse. 

And ne were the gret dyrknesse 9640 But for the 

body 

Off thys skye (who loke a-ryht), [leafisoj 

r r i i i. u i_ i i i t lu> Soul could 

Ihe sowle sholde han so cler a syht see from K^I 

At o look, fro the oryent 

To sen in-to the Occident. 9G44 



266 The So-id's eyes pierce farther wlwii freed from tlte Body. 

Grace PI fit. ' ffor off the body (trustc me) 

The Eyen, no verray eyen be, 

But lyk to glas, (I dar wel seyn), 

Wher-thorgh the clere soule ys seyn, 9648 

And outward (\vyth hys bemys bryht) 

Yiveth tber-to clernesse and lyht. 
Tiie soul has ff or the sowle, (who taketh hede.) 

no need of 

bodily eyes. Qff bodyly eyen hath no nede, 9G52 

No mor than, in semblable caas, 
The bryhte sowne hath off the glas, 
Nouther byforn, noutlier be-hynde. [suwe, leaf 171] 
' And conceyue also in thy mynde, 96. r )6 

xiie spiritual That Eyen wych ben espyrytual, 

eyes pierce , 

farther Wyth-oute spectacle or ffenestral, 

Sen off hem syllf mor parfytly, 

fferther perce, & mor clerly, 96GO 

when they Tha?i whan 1 the bodyly dyrknesse. [ wium that St.] 

are free from 



darkness'* 

ffor gostly Eyen sen wel the bet, 

Whan yt ys so they be nat let 9664 

"NVy/tA bodyly Eyen that ben outward, 

And han to no-thyng ther reward, 

But to thynges off veynglorye, 

Tliat be passynge & transytorye, 96G8 

Dyrked w?/t/< a worldly skye. 

Tho Tobias And whvlom blyildU 2 Was Tobve [* Wyiule St., blynd t 1 .] 

wax blind 

in his bodily off bodyly eyen, as w/yt/i-oute ; 

But inwardly (yt ys no doute) 9672 

He was nat blynded off hys syht, 

But hadde hys eyun cler & bryht ; 
ins mind's I mene, the Eyen off hys mynde : / 

even taught 

hison, ffor by tho Eyen (as I ffynde) 9676 

Oaf i5o, bk.] He tauhte hys sone, & clerly tolde 

The weye that he sholde holde 

In hys passage', & nouht erre. 
and were Hvs Even wer cler as any sterre, 9680 

clear us a , J 

star. Off hys mynde, wych made hyw se ; 

And ellys yt myghte neuere ha be, 
Off hys inward inspeccyoiw. t 3 if>'n-''.> st., witit instmccion 

J i J ,,i Hiari/tn.] 

To yove him swych instruccyouM 3 9684 



The Soul sees. The Body is blind. The Soul works the Wits. 267 



' How he sholde hym goueme, 

Wyt/i-oute the siht 1 wych ys eterne, [stowe, leaf m, back] 
I mene, the siht 1 spyrytual, [> sights St.] 

Wych ys gostly & eternal. 9688 

' That syhte, 1 hy age wasteth nouht ; 
And (yiff the trouthe be wel souht,) 
Thy bodyly eyen (truste 2 me,) [ trust St.] 

"SY/yt/i hem thow mayst no thyng yse. 9692 

The soule seth al by cler lookyng, 
And the body seth nothyng ; 
Blynd w//t/<-Innen & w>yt/*-oute. 

And ner the soule, (yt ys 110 doute,) 9696 

Seyhg cler he shold ha noon, 
Na mor than hath the 3 colde ston. past.] 

' And as yt ys tovvchyng syht, 

Evene so (who looke a-ryht) 9700 

Yt ys off al thy wyttys fyue ; 
ffor who seyth nay, or gey7i 4 yt stryue, [* ageyn St.] 
Euerych off hem, in sentement, 

Ys but a mane? 1 instrument, 9704 

The wych, touchyng ther werkyng, 
Off the they receyve euery thyng ; 
ffor, wyt/f-outen helpe off the, 

They no thyng here, they no thyng se, 9708 

Xor no thyng thay may reporte. 
And yiff thow dyst 5 hem nat supporte, [ 5 dydestst.] 
And sustenyst wyth thy myghte, 9711 

Eryng, 6 Smellyng, Touch & Syht, [ Heryng stj 
Tliy body wer nat euevydel 
IJut a verray foul dongel, 
Impotent, and feble also, 
Gather to inevyn or to go.' 9716 

The pylgrym: 

" Thanne, w//t/< your supportacioiu^, [stowe, leafn^j 
I axe off you thys questyou/i ; 
And ffryst off aH I thus begynne : 
'How may the sowle that ys w/yt//-innc, 9720 

ler the body that ys w#t/i-oute ? ' 
To me assoylleth fyrst thys doute ; 
ffor yt semeth mor Keson, 



Grace Dieu. 



The spiritual 
sight wastes 
nut l>y age. 



Tlie Soul sees 
all. 



The body is 
blind within 
and without. 



So, each of 
your Five 
Wits 



is an instru- 
ment thro 
which you 
and your Soul 
work. 



Without the 
Soul 



[leaf ir. 



the Hotly is 
impotent and 
feeble. 

The Pilgrim 



How may the 
soul within 
In-ill- the bo.ly 
without ? 



268 Grace Dieu explains the relation of Soul and Body. 

The pilgrim. " (As to my oppynyou?z,) 9724 

surely the The body outward (thus I niene) 

thiii',' (soul) 

within is Sholde the soule inward sustene. 

lx>nie up by 

the body Yiff ye grante to speke at large, 9727 

without. 

Thyng that conteneth, berth 1 the charge, [ l bereth St.] 

And bereth vp al, to myw entent : 

And thyng, wyt/t-Inne that ys content, 

That thyng ys born, as semeth me. 

And her-vp-on I wolde se, 9732 

Syth that ye ben prudent & wys, 

A good answere, by your avys." 

Grace Dieu. Grace dleU ', 

1 Vp-on thy questiouw to conclude 
say s NO. An answore, as by symylytude : 9736 

Conceyue fyrst in thyra entent, 

Thy clothyng & thy vestyment. 
TaVe your Contene thy boady 2 euerydel p Body st.] 

clothes out- * 

skteyour "Wvt/i-Innen : yiff thow loke wel, 9740 

body. * * 

Thy body closyd ys wyt/i-Inne ; 

And but yiff thow fro resouM twynne, 

Thow wylt nat geyn-seyn vn-to me, 

clothes'^ the Thow beryst thy clothys, & they nat the, 9744 

not the' And fully ben in thy depoos ; 

clothes you. J J 

And yet thow art wyt/i-Inne hem cloos ; [stowc, leaf 172, bk.] 

And, (yiff thow clerly kanst dyscerne,) 
[ieafi5i,bk.] At thy lust dost hem gouerne ; 9748 

And (to seyn shortly in substauwce,) 

Thow hast off hem the goueniaunce.' 
Th Pilgrim. Tj^g pylgrym : 

" And ys yt lyk, ma dame," <\uod I, 

" In al, off me & my body ? " 9752 

Grace Die*. GfaC6 dlCU '. 

' To yive the 3 mor cler evydence, p the the st.] 

I putte a maner dyfference ; 
Leff the chaff, & tak the corn : 
The soul The sowle bereth, & ys born. 9756 

bears, and is 

borne, it ffor ffyrst, the sovvle pryncypally 

sustains the r J J L J 

body- Susteneth & bereth the body ; 

And parcel-lyk 4 (to thy n entent) [* poeiie i y ke St.] 

The body bereth by accident 9760 



How the Soul rules the Body, tlio the Body contains it. 269 



Grace Dieu. 

And tho the 
Body bears 
the Soul, 

its ]>owen< 
return to the 
Soul. 



9776 



[* ledethe . . too & too St., 
letleht . . two & two C.] 

9780 



' The sowle, but her-on reporte, 

The myghte, the vertu, ay resorte 

Off the body, in certeyn, 

Evere vn-to the sowle ageyn. 9764 

' And evydence her-on to make : 
Thow mayst a cler exaumple take, 
Yiff thow eue?-e dydest 1 se [ dycwest euere St.] 

Any shyp a-myd 2 the see, [* sinppe / in St.] 9768 

(Shortly declaryng, at a 3 word,) poo St.] 

The maryner w?/t//-Inne the bord 
Ledeth the shyp, (tak hed her-to,) 
And ys \iyrn sylff ylad also. [stowe, learns] 9772 

Tak here Exaumple, & be wel sad, 
But he yt ladde, he 4 wer nat lad. [yt St.] 

' Semblably, by exaumple cler, 
Thy sawle ys cheff maryner, 
Ledere & governeresse 
Off thy body, in sothnesse : 
She ledeth 5 hym ay too & too, 
And ys hyr syllf ylad also, 
ffor, at hyr lust & hyr talent, 
She, by hyr owne fre assent, 
Ledeth the body, as yt ys skyl. 

ffor the body, but by hyr wyl, 9784 [leaf 152] 

Hath no power, (yt ys no drede) 
No syde, the sowle for to lede. 

' Arid therfor, do thy besy peyne, 
Havyngo the body in thy demeyne, 9788 

To lede hym so, & he ek the, 
In thys dredful worldly see, 
fful off wyndys & Tempest, 

And wawes boyllynge Est & west, 9792 

That, by assent, here 6 in your live, [ here St., her c.] 
At goode hauene ye may aryvc, 
And at good port, wha?z cruel deth 
Schal make hyw yelden vp the breth.' 9796 

The pylgrym: 
" Ma dame, sothly, I do lere, 
By your wordys that I here, 
To forthre me, & nat to tarye. 



The mariner 
leads the 
ship, 
tho he is 
borne by it ; 



so the Soul 
governs the 
Body, 



tho she is 
in it. 



Strive, there- 
fore, 



so to guide 
your Body 



that you may 
reach the 
Haven when 
you die. 



Tlie Pi'gnm. 



270 As my Body has darkend my Spirit, she will disembody me. 



The Pilurim. 



I ask Grace 
Dieu to take 
off my heavy 
body, 



that I may 
have more 
knowledge of 




my body has 
closed my 
spiritual eyes. 



She will take 
me out of it. 



" Yt wer to me rylit necessarye, [ That st., om. c.] 9800 

1 That off your grace ye wolde blyue, [stowe, leaf 173, back] 

Out off my shyp make maryue ; 2 [ to make me aryue St.] 

I mene thus, ma dame, that yo 

Wolde in al haste dyspoylle me 9804 

Off my body, wych ys greuous, 

Hevy, gret, & ponderous, 

That f myghte off hy? a-noon ryht 

Haue kuovvelychyng & ek a 3 syht pekest] 9808 

Mor cler, to make me vnderstonde 

The mater that we haue an 4 honde, [i St.] 

To sen \\yrn, how he ys cowpassyd, 9811 

Wych hath so offte to me 5 trespassyd ; ^ % l^* 1 -- 

And yet he wyl nat, for myw ese, 

Hys Eancour a-geyns me appese. 

' But yet I pray yow feythfully, 

To don your deuer ffynally, 9816 

That I may sen hyw (& nat ellys), 
Wher he be swych as ye me tellys ; 
ffor I nat vnderstond ywys, 
What ye ha sayd, nor what he ys." 9820 

Grace dieu: 

' I may ryht wel be-leve,' quod she, 
' Thys thyng so vnkouth & secre, 
That thow art dyrkyd in thy syht, 
Yt to cousydre & sen 6 a-ryht. 
And the cause why thow art let 
Ys, for thy body hath so shet 
Thy gostly Eyen (in substaurace) 
W//t/t a clowde off ygnorauwce, 
And dyrked w//t/i a mysty skye, 
That thow mayst nat wel espye 
The secrenesse, 7 yong nor Old. 
And as to-forn I ha the told, 
Other obstacle ys ther noon 
But thy body, blynd as a ston ; 8 [ 8 as stoon St.] 

He dyrketh so thy?i Inward syht. 
But for thy sake, a-noon ryht 9836 

I schal assayen & provyde, 
Thy body for to leyri asyde, 



["seen St.] 9824 



9828 



[Stowe, leaf 174] 
F secretenesse St.] 9832 



Mi/ Body falls from me, and I fly into the Air. 271 

' flro the 1 take yt, yiff 2 I kan, ['thetost. y iffthatst.] Grace Difu. 
That thow mayst cocey ve than 9840 But only for 

J a time. 

Off hywi hooly the gouenuuwce, 

And what he ys, as in substaunce. 

But thow mustest, iu certeyn, i must then 

he put back 

Affter, sone, resorte ageyn 9844 in my Body 

To thyn olde d welly ng place, 

Tyl that deth, a certeyw space, 

Schall the dyspoylle, and make twynne 3 [' a twynne St.] 

ffro the body that thow art Inne.' 9848 

The Pylgryme: 4 [ st., om . c.] The pilgrim, 

And Grace dieu a-noon me took, 
(I not, wher that 5 I slepte or wook,) [* whether st.] 
& made (for short conclus'iowz,) 

My body for to falle a-douw. 9852 My body fail* 

And affter that, a-noon ryht and i'am 

carried into 

Me sempte that I took my flyht, the air. 

And was ravisshed in-to. the hayr, [leaf iss] 

A place delytable & ffayr. 9856 

[Blank in MS. far an Illumination.] 
And me thouht ek, in my syht, [stowe, leaf m, back] i seem to 

become light, 

I was nat hevy, but verray lyht, nd see 

J J clearly. 

And my beholdyng was so cler, 

That I sawh bothe fer & ner, 9860 

Hih & lowe, & oueral. 

And I was ryht glad vryth-al ; 

Al was wel, to my plesaurace, 

Save a maner dysplesauwce 9864 

I hadde off thync, in certevn, i feel sad 

that I must 

That I muste go dwelle agevn tr haok t() 

J my Body. 

Wytft-InJie my body, wych that lay 

Lyk an hevy lompe off clay ; 9868 

Wych to me was no forthryng, 

But.perturbaunce, & gret lettyng, 

Thyder to resorte off neAve. 

Tho wyst I wel that al was trewe 9872 

That grace dieu hade seyd to me. 

And thawne I wen to for to se i i <)ok t it, 

Wher the body slepte or nouht. 
And whan I hadde longe souht, 9876 



272 I see that my Body is my greatest Foe. 



The Pilgrim. 



and feel its 
pulse. 



My body is 
dead. 



I defy it. 
Grace Dieu 



[leaf 153, bk.] 

bids me 
recognise 
that my I'oc, 
my Body, 
would not let 
me bear arms 
against my 
enemies. 



But I must go 
iut u it again. 



The Pilfirim. 



I think now 
that my iinn- 
our is light. 



1 Grace Difi. 



ptost.] 



Tastyd hys pows * in certeyne, [ l tried ins pulse] 

And gropyd euery nerff & veyne, 

And fond in hym no breth at al, 

But ded & cold as a ston wal. 9880 

And whan I dyde al thys espye, 

Hys gouernau?ice I gan defye. 

Grace dieu: 

Tho'grace dieu spak vn-to me, 
' Lifft vy thyn Eyen, beholde & se, 

Yiff thow kowne now clerly ; 2 [* kan . . Clerelye St.] 

Knowe in erthe thy gret enmy, [stowe, leaf 175] 

He that wolde nat suff re the here 

Noon Armys, nor noon harneys were, 

Causynge, thow myghtest nat endure, 

Vp-on thy bak to bere Armure, 

The to dyffende fro thyw Enmyes, 

ffro brygauratys & false espyes, 

Wych the 3 werreyen euermore. 

Off hym, I ha the told be fore, 

That yt ouhte ynowh suffise ; 

Yet, as I shal to the devyse, 

Thow mayst nat chesyn, in certeyn, 

Wyt7i-Innen hy? to entre Ageyn, 

Retrussen hym, & ek recharge 

(Bothe in streyth 4 & ek in large) 

Bern hyw wyt/i the in thy vyage, 

Whyder thow gost on pylgrymage.' 

The pylgrym: 
" Ma dame, myn entenc'iouw 

Was now, & my deuociiouw, 990i 

Off newe to haue Armyd me, 
Assayed yiff yt wolde ha be, 
That I myghte ha bor Armure, 

My sylff the bettre to assure ; 9908 

ffor, as now, to my semyng, 
They be nat hevy, no maner thyng, 
Nor lyk the cdnceyt off my thouht ; 
They weye 5 but a thyng off uouht." [ 5 -ey St.] 9912 

Grace dieu: 
'Certys,' quod she, 'no moi-'they doth; [stowe, leaf 175, bk.] 



9884 



9888 



9892 



9896 



[ + streight* St.] 9900 



/ re-enter my senseless Body and feel my Joy is gone. 273 



' And therfore thow seyst ful soth. 

But thow shalt vnderstonde me 

YifE thow dyst now armen the, 9916 

And woldest now a-noon begywne 

In the poynt that thou art Inne, 

Thy meryte to reknen al, 

Nor thy deceit, ne wer but smal ; 9920 

ffor thyw Armure thow must vse, 

And feythfully yt nat refuse, 

Whan thow art entryd (thys the chef?,) 

Thy body that lyth now blynd & deff, 9924 

Doom also, and insensyble, 

Wych muste wyth the be penyble, 

Sustene also, & be suffrable. 

ffor he wyl also be partable 9928 

Off thy merytes & guerdouns, 

As he was off thy pass'iouws : 

Your decertys shal be al on. 

"Wherfore, enhaste the a-noon, 9932 

In-to hym for to retourne, 

Ther a whyle to soiourne 

Wyih hym, as thow hast don toforn. 

And, that your tyme be nat lorn, 9936 

Than off assent & wyl entere, 

Wyl he 1 be to-gydre yffere, pyest.] 

Enarme yow, & make yow strong 

ffor to wyt/istondyn euery wrong.' 9940 

And whan she hadde al to me sayd, 
"Wher 2 1 was wel or evele a-payd, p whether St.] 
I sawh ther was noon other geyn ; 
I was retrussyd, & a-geyn 9944 

WytA the body that I kam fro ; 
And certey?ily me thouhte tho, [stowe, leaf 176] 

I was nakyd, and al bare 

Off al my loye & my wel-fare ; 9948 

ffor al was gon in moment. 

And tho I hadde agey Talent 
(Me sempte yt myghte nat be forbore) 
To loue, as I dide affore ; 9952 

& holy vn-to hys entente, 

PILGRIMAGE. T 



[leaf 151] 



says I must 
use my arm- 
our when I 
re-enter my 
body, now 
senseless. 



My body 
will share 
my merits. 



I must hasten 
to enter it 
again. 



The Pi! prim. 



I am clothed 
again in my 
body, 



and feol that 
all my joy is 
gone. 



274 / weep and sorrmv, for now I am bound to my Body, 



The Pilgrim. 
[leaf 154, bk.] 



I begin to 
weep and 
sigh. 



Grace Dieu 
says 



tears belong 
to women 
only. 



The Pilgrim. 



I tell her that 
all my mirth 
has gone. 



I, who could 
fly in the sky, 



am now cast 
down 



and bound by 
iny body. 



Me thouhte I gan a-noon assente, 
ffully tokeyen hys plesauwce. 

Thus aparceyvnge my woful chaurcce, 9956 

Clerly sawh wyt/t-Inne me, 
That I sholde deceyved be, 
Lyk as I was off yore agon. 

And tho I gan to wepe a-noon, 9960 

Sifie & sorwe, & seyn "alias ! 
What shal I don now in thys cas 1 
Or to what party in certeyne 
Shal I drawen off thys tweyne ? " 9964 

Grace dieu: 

Qtiod grace dieu, ' what may thys be ? 
Why wepystow ? what eyleth the, 
So thy syluen to dyscounforte ? 
ffor trewly (as I kan reporte,) 9968 

"Wo-nvnrr Rr tonrlr-A rpvvQ arrmp Tiirpissirmm est in liomine pru- 

W epyng & tenare teiys grene, de l nte> remedium in roris // 
Only to wowmew appartene, Seneca /~ st - leaf 176 > <"" c - 
Whan sodeyraly they falle in rage, 
And nat to men off strong corage.' 9972 

The pylgrym: 

" Certys," quod I / " I may wel wepe ; [St., leaf ne, back] 
ffor, (yiff ye lyst to takew kepe,) 
My loye, my myrthe & my plesauwce, 
Myn El the, & al 1 my suffysaunce, [' heithe and, St.] 9976 
Sodeynly me han forsake. 
I may cowpleyne, & sorwe make, 
ffor, whylom, aboue the skye 

I was wont to fle 2 ful hihe, [* flye St.] 9980 

And hadde also ful glad repayre 
Wyth bryddys fleyng in the hayr, 3 [ Eyre St.] 

In my most lusty fressh sesouw ; 

But now I am avaylyd doww, 9984 

I fynde (by gret aduersyte) 
Al that ys contrayre vn-to me. 
I am venquisshed, I am bor doun, 
My vertu (in conclusi'ou?*) 9988 

Hath lost hys myht, hys excellence ; 
ffor now, ther ys no resystence 
On my party (as yt ys founde) ; 






/ am chaind like an Ape. Why is my Body so strong ? 275 



" ffor, off the body, wher I am boiwde, 9992 

Ys hool my force, & al my myght, 

(Wych ys ageyn al skyle & rylit,) 

And buryed quyk, (yt stondeth so,) 

I Am in erthe, wher-euere I go ; 9996 

(Thys verray Ernest, & no Tape,) 

Cheyned, ryht as ys An Ape, 

Vn-to a clog, 1 & must yt swe, [' the ciogge St.] 

And fro thenys may nat remewe ; 10000 

ffor my body, gret & large, 

Ys the Clog that me doth charge, 

Wych letteth, vtyth hys grete wheyhte, 

That I may nat flen an hyhte 2 ; [stowe, leaf 177] 10004 

ffor euere, vryili hys mortal lawe, [ 2 heyght* St.] 

Douw to therthe lie doth me drawe. 

" I trowe (shortly in sentence) 

The word ywrete in sapyence 10008 

Was whilom seyd off me ywys, 
Who kan take hed ; and yt ys thys : 
' A body corrupt (vt vs no nav) Corpus ?", od . corram ^ v r' A - 

j c \j j j i fjravat Ammam. bapiencie. 

Greveth the soule 3 nyht & day, * Capita. St., am . c.] 

Kepeth hyra in captyvyte ; p body c., St.] 10013 

Yt may nat gon at lyberte, 

Nouther wakynge nor a-slepe ; ' 

ffor wych, certys, I may wel wepe, 10016 

And seyn ' alias,' & sory be, 

Off my grete adue?-syte." 

Grace dieu: 

' Thare haue in mynde, for any slouthe, 
That vn-to the I tolde trouthe.' 10020 

The pylgrym: 

" Your wordys alle I do aduerte, 
& thanke you \\i/ih al myw herte. 
Off hem I am ryht wel apayd ; 

ffor al that euere ye han sayd 10024 

Ys verray soth, & no lesyng, 

" But I be-seche yow off thyng, 
Yiff I durste you compelle, 

word that ye lyst me telle : 10028 

What ys the cause (declareth why,) [stowe, leaf 177, back] 



[leaf 155] 



I am buried 
alive, 



and cbaind 
like an Ape 
to a Clog, 



my Body 
prevents my 
flying. 



I believe, 
with the Book 
of Wisdom, 



that a corrupt 
Body grieves 
the Soul. 



So I may well 
weep. 



Gracs Dieu. 



The Pilgrim. 



I thank 
Grace Dieu 
tor what she 
has told me, 



[leaf 155, bk.] 



and ask her 



276 The Body is bold on his own Dunghill, and must le suMued. 



why I'm not 
as strong as 
my body. 



says my body 
isn't stronger 
than I am. 



But lie's in 
his own 
country, 



and every one 
is bold on his 
own dunghill. 



What I have 
to do is to 
attack him, 



play him at 
chess, 



[leaf 156] 

and check- 
mate him ; 



keep him 
low by absti- 
nence, 



" That he ys mor strong than I ; 

Or why am I not (telleth me), 

As strong or myghty as ys he?" 10032 

Grace dieU '. 1 [ l St., ce Dieu in Stowe't hand, in margin in C.] 

' Yiff the roote he wel out souht, 

Strengere than thow, that ys he nouht. 

But her-vp-on now herkne me : 

Thow mayst nat, in no degre, 10036 

Hym venquisshe (in co?jclus'ioiw), 

Oppressyn hym, & here hym douw 

So myghtyly in hys centre, 

As thow sholdest, yiff that he 10040 

Hadde hys conuersaciouw 

Wher thow hast domynaci'oun. 

' In hys contre he doth now dwelle. 
Therfor shortly, I the telle, 10044 

He hath the gretter avauwtage ; 
And yt ys sayd off ffolkys Sage, 
And a prouerhe wryte off old, 

How that euery whyht ys hold 10048 

Vy-on hys owne (erly & late), 
At the dongel at hys gate ; 
Strong to make resystence. 

& men sen hy experyence, 10052 

Ech man mor myghty off hys hond, 
Whan he ys in hys owne lond : 
Thys doth hym trustee, & he hold. 

' But for al thys that I ha told, 10056 

Tak hed in no maner wyse, [stowe, leaf ITS] 

Ne let nat, for no cowardyse, 
Hym tasaaylle ffer nor ner ; 

ffor yiff thow kowne, at the cheker, 10060 

Thy drawhtys drawe, & wel pleye, 
Make hym lowly to oheye 
Vp-on hys dongel, in hys estat, 

Ther, to hym to seyn ' chek maat ; ' 10064 

Thys maat shal he, thorgh thy puissaunce, 
To holde hym vnder gouernauwce. 
And lyst that he do noon offence, 
Kepe hym lowe wv/t/i ahstynence, 10068 









The Body is to be brought under. The Sandhill and Ant. 277 
' Voyde hym fro replecyouw, Grace pteu. 



And governs hy??^ so, by Kesouw, g vern 

by reason ; 

Off mete and drynk, only that he 

Ne do no superfluyte. 10072 

Lat hym lytel Ete or drynke ; 

Mak hym labour & ek swynke ; make him 

Lytel slepe, & gret wakyng ; 

Dyscyplynes 1 & ek betyng, C 1 Dyssypiyned St.] 10076 

Yiff to hym in many wyse. 

' And thus thow shalt hym best chastyse : 
Devout wepyng w?/t/t orisouws, 

And hooly medytacyouws, 10080 

Wyth Instrumentys off penaunce, 
Shal off thy cause do vengauwce, 
Best iustefye 2 thy party ; I 2 lustyse St.] 

And they shal make the fynally 10084 

(Wyt/i-oute contradictions) 
To haue hym in subiecciou>& ; 
And, for thyw encres off glorye, 
Yiue the renouw & vyttorye 10088 

Whyl thow SO dost, nygllt & day, [Stowe, leaf 178> back] 

And he shal neuere dor 3 seyn nay. pdarst.] 

' And to fforther thyw entent, 
Lat vs tweyne, by assent, 10092 she takes me 

to a hill of 

Gon vn-to an hyl off sond, <* 

Wych stant her al-most at the hond : 4 [ 4 at honde St.] 
A soffte pas, lat vs go walke.' 

Verba Peregrin! 5 : [ 5 St. in margin, om.C.] The Pilgrim. 

And as we wente & gon 6 talke, [6gonest.] 10096 

A sondy 7 hyl she gan me shewe ; U sodeyn st.] 
And thus she sayde, on wordys fewe : 

[Grace Dieu]: orac* pie*. 

1 Leifte vp thyw eye a-noon,' quod she, 
' And ffyrst off al, be-holde & se 10100 deaf isc, bk.] 

HOW that an Ampte. a best smal, .i. Formica. St., om. C. andshowsme 

an ant 



herte, body, myght & al, 
To nouht elles doth entende, 

But on thys hylle 8 vp tascende, p hyiie St., hyi c.] 10104 ^"jf^.j 
And, in hyr paas & clymbyng soffte, sheisonni 

swept down, 

She ys bor dou?<, & let ful offte 



278 The Ant, often swept down, reaches the top of the Sandhill. 



Grace Dieu. 



and can't get 
to t In- top of 
the bill. 



The sand is 



so dry and 
small that it 
carries her 
down. 



But she 
climbs up 



[leaf 157] 
The Pilgrim. 



and at last 
reaches the 
top, and rests 
there. 



Grace Dieu. 



This is a pat- 
tern of your 
body and you. 



' Wyth powdry sondys out off nouwbre, 

Wych hyr passage so encoumbre, 10108 

And hyr desyre 1 ek restreyne, [> desires St.] 

That she may nat fully atteyne 

The hyest party off the hyl, 

ffor she ys let ageyw hyr wyl. 10112 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And thogh she peyne hyr nyht & day, 
Evere the soond lyth in hyr way, 
Overwhelmeth, & bereth hyr dourc, 
Contrayre to hyr entenci'oun, 10116 

Yt ys so sotyl, drye & smal, 
And wonder brotyl ek w?/t/*-al, 
That, by reuoluci'ouw, [Stowe, leaf 179] 

Yt rebateth & bereth douw 10120 

Thys lytel beste that I off telle. 

' But for al that, she wyl nat dwelle 
In the vale cast douw lowe, 

Ther tabyden any throwe ; 10124 

But hyre afforceth a-noon ryht 
To remouwte wijih al hyr myght, 
Hyr sylff aff orcynge, newe & newe, 
Euere hyr labour to renewe, 10128 

(Lyk a myghty champyoun) 
Thogh she wer offte avalyd douw.' 

But at the laste, thorgh hyr labour, 
I sawh hyr, lyk a conquerour, 10132 

Wyth hyr travaylle renewyd offte 
Gete vp on the hyl a-loff te ; 
And ne wolde neuere lete 

Tyl yt was cowqueryd in quyete ; 10136 

And tha?zne off ryht, as for hyr 2 beste [ 2 the St.] 
Vp-on the cop 3 she dydfe reste. pcoppest.] 

Grace DieU 4 : [* St., in Stowe't hand in C.] 

Quod grace dieu tho vn-to me : 

' Her, thow mayst beholde & se 10140 

(Yiff thow lyst to loke a-ryht) 

The forcys (platly) & the myght 

Bothe off thy body & off the ; 

And in 5 a pleyn Exaumple se [ 5 in c., om. St.] 10144 



Do like the Ant : when your Body keeps you down, resist it. 279 



' Off thampte, wych ys doura [i]falle 

Among the brotyl sondys alle. 

Yiff he, at euery fallyng douw, 10147 

Hadde lost hys myght & hys renouw [stowe, leaf 179, back] 

ffor to recure the hylle a-geyn, 

Tha/zne al hys labour were in weyn ; 

But, for on 1 dysconfyture r^ASt. No<a St., om. c.] 

He wyl nat cessyn to recure 10152 

That he hath lost, (as by hys wyl,) 

Tyl he be hih"e vp on the hyl. 

' And yiff thow clerly vnderstond, 
Thy body ys the hyl off sond, 10156 

The wyche, 2 thorgh hys brotylnesse, 3 [ a whiche St., wych c.] 
And powdrys of vnstabylnesse, [ 3 Brotylnesse St.] 
Ys redy (off entenciouw,) 

Evere to make the falle doun, 10160 

And to dyrken (off entent,) 
Tlie eye off thyw entendeme?it 
To kepe the in the vale lowe. 

'And whan he may espye or knowe 10164 

That thow, in any maner wyse, 
Woldest on the hyl aryse, 

Wyt/i sondry 4 reuoluciouws [*sondyst.j 

Off dyuers temptaci'ourts 10168 

He travayleth (thys, no tale) 
Lowe to holde the, in the vale, 
Wyih hys sturdy vyolence, 

But thow make resistence 10172 

Be tyme's & at prime face 
Whara he begynneth to manace. 

' And to wy t/istonde hys f elle 5 niyghte, V- ffoui st.] 
At the gy/inyng thow must be lyhte, 10176 

Mawgre hym, \fyih herte & wyl, 
ffor to gete vp on the hyl ; 
And thy lourne nat to tarye, 

Ther ys no bettre exau??plarye 10180 

Than thampte (yiff thow tak hede) 
Vp-ward the hyl thy sylff to spede.' tstowe, leaf iso] 

' Remewibre, in thy?i entencyoiw 
The precept off kyng salomouw, 10184 



Grace Diett. 




Now your 
body is the 
hill of sand 



which dark- 
ens your un- 
derstanding. 

[leaf 157, bk.] 

When it sees 
you want to 
climb up, 



it tempts you 
to keep down, 



unless you 
resist at once, 



and iri't up 
the hill. 



The nut is 
your best ex- 
ample. 



Komomber 
I lu> pi-rcvi'l 
ol Kini; 
Solomon 



280 Solomon lade folk imitate the Ant. Avoid Sloth. 

Grace piev. ' Wych, in hys book of sapyence, 
who com- Cornauwdede (shortly in sentence) 

manded men 

to go to the And bad 1 men taken bed ber-to, [>badenst.] 

To the Ampte ffor to go, 10188 

and to avoid Tavoyde slouthe, cheff noryce 

Sloth, the J J 

mother of And moder vn-to euery vyce. 

all vices. 

' Salomoun. vnderstood & ffond 

The pereyl off thys hyl off sond 10192 

In hys tyme, & ek ther-to, 

The nature off the Ampte also ; 

Ther-off, 2 whaw he wrot in hys book, pwher-offst.] 

& good bed also he took 10196 

To thampte in sothfastnesse, 

Wha?i he bad voyde al ydelnesse. 
Beware of ' Be war, therfore, off sleuthe, I rede 

And euere 3 among, tak good heede pst. &c.] 10200 
[leaf iss] Off hys sleyhty false 4 whyles, pffaisst.] 

sloth's tricks, Off hys tieynes & hys guyles. 

Voyde hy?7i fro the by the roote ; 

Kep hyw lowehe 5 vnder foote ; [ 5 lowhe / ay st.] 10204 

Hys powdry sondys, trede hem doun, 

of tem S ta and8 ^ e son( tys ff a l Temptacyouw, 

tions. (Whos noumbre no man may acou^ite.) 

Wych wyl nat suffre the to mourete 10208 

Vp on the hyl, to reste a-loffte, 

They wyl 6 lette the so offte, [wyiiest.] 

Or thow mayst ha ful vyctorye. 

' And haue alway in memory e, 10212 

Your body Thys sondy hyl ys thy body, Exposicton. St., m. c. 

prevents your ' J J J J J > 

*rtue in Wych letteth the (as most Enemy,) 

That thow mayst nat in vertu ryse. [stowe, leaf iso, back] 

' But alderfyrst thow must despyse 10216 

Slouthe, as I shal the lere ; 
Than by ese thow shalt co?zquere, 
Wyth Thampte, (in certeyw space) 
To clymbe aboue the hyl by grace. 10220 

' And haue alway wel in mynde, 
That thow shalt thyw enemy ffynde 

It is a slug, Slowh 7 & ful off slogaidye, [7 Slowthe St.] 

and lies long ' ' 

in bed. Longe a bcdde for to lye, 10224 



/ am never to trust or obey my Body, which is my Foe. 281 

' Slombrynge eucre, & neclygent, Grace Dieu. 

And contrayre to thyw entent, 

Ay awaytynge (lyk as espye) 

To brynge the in lupartye. 10228 

Truste hym nat ! ne, 1 for no chauwce, P nor St.] Don't trust 

J ' your body ; 

Have in hym noon affyauwce 

ffor no ffavour nor flatrye ; 2 [* Fiaterye St.] 

ffor I dar pleynly certefye, 10232 

Yiff thow obeye hym nyh 3 or ferre, pnygHst.] never obey it; 

Than he wyl be-gynne a werre 

A-geyn[y]s the, most peryllous, 

Most dredful & contagyous, 10236 

(Be yt be nyhte, outher be day) 

To disturble on thy way, [ieafi58,bk.] 

Wytft al hys power he wyl ffonde. 

And thus thow may st wel vnderstonde, 10240 n is your 

mortal 

To knowe & wyte fynally enemy. 

"Who ys thy mortal ennemy. 

' Now go thy way, for y t stant so, NOW go on 

That I mot nedys fro the go ; 10244 y 

I may no lengre, on thy weye 
Ledyn the, nor mor cowveye. 
I haue abyden longe ynowh : [stowe, leafisi] 

I nmste, ffro the, gon hewnys nougfi; 10248 i must leave 

ffor a gret while (to thjn entent) 
I haue holde a parlement 

Wyth the, & her-to ben thy guyde. Grace Dien 

ffarwel ! for I may nat abyde.' 10252 tarew^n. 

The Pylgryxne. 4 [* stowe, om . cj T he pn g ri m . 

" Ma dame," quod I a-noon right 5 tho, [ 5 st. om. right] 
" Certys, yiff ye go me fro, i declare i 

... am lost it she 

I am but lost; recure 6 ys noon, [ 6 Recover st.] goes. 

Al so sone as ye ar gon." 10256 

Grace DieU. 7 C 7 St., om. C.] Grace Dieu 

Qttod grace Dieu, ' I wot that wel ; 
But I wyl that thow knowe, & ffel, 
What I shal 8 seyw the in substaimce. [ shall? i st.] 

Som folk ha fey th, & gret ffyaUWCe 9 [ and Affyaunce St.] bidsmenot, 

In dyuers ffrendys ; & off gret trust, 10261 folk, trust m 

Sette their hope & hertys lust 



I am not to 

trust in her. 

If I offend, 
[leaf 159] 

she will not 
sustain me. 



282 Grace Dieu's Stone of Invisibility. She leaves me. 

Grace Dieii. ' As they sholde hem neue?- ffaylle, 

Wych offte ful lytel may avaylle. 10264 

They wene ful offte, in ther degre, 

By hew for to supportyd be, 

Yiff they hadde, in any place, 

Outher offendyd or do trespace. 10268 

' But towchyng thys, I wyl thovv se, 
Her-in ne truste 1 nat in me, [> Her-inne / ne trust st.] 
Yiff thow off ende, nor do nat wel, 
I wyl sustene the neueradel, 10272 

Nor SUppOrte the nat ywyS, 2 P St. transposes these lines.] 

To ffyn thow sholdest don amys, 2 [stowe, leaf isi, back] 

Nor ber the vp agen[y]s ryht. 

For off ttijn eye, nor off thy syht, 10276 

I wyl no tyme be seyn off the, 

But whan yt lyketh vn-to me, 

And whaw yt ys to my plesauwce, 

Vp-on thy goode gouernauwce, 10280 

Than, whan me lyst, I kome a-noon. 

' ffor, I haue a certeyw ston 
"Wherthorgh (trewe as any byble,) 
I kan me makyn invysible 10284 

Whan that me lyst, a-noon ryht, 
And hyden me out off thy siht, 
And shrowden me, bothe Est & west, 
Whan thow wenyst to han me best, 10288 

fful ffer Ifro the, in aventure : 
And therfor, thus in 8 me assure, p i st.] 

Wha?i thow dost 4 wel, I am present; [+ dost c., o>. st ] 
And yiff thow erre in thyw eutent, 10292 

ffarwel, a-noon I am ago. 

And now I muste 5 parte also, pmnstst.] 

(Wherso thow 6 be glad or lyht,) [ 6 that thow St.] 
As for a while out off thy siht.' 1029G 

And ryght a-noon, as she hath sayd. 
God wot, I was ful evele apayd 
Off hyr departynge ; in myra herte 
Yt made me ful sore smerte ; 10300 

Me lyst nat lawhe neueradel, 
ffor me lykcde no thyng wel 



She has a 
stone which 
makes her 
invisible. 



When I do 
well, she'll 
be with me : 
when ill, 
she's off. 



The Pifffrim. 

Grace Dieu 
leaves me, 
to my sorrow. 



/ call Memory, with my Armmtr, and meet a big Churl. 283 



The Pilgrim. 



I proceed 
on my 
pilgrimage. 



[leaf 159, bk.] 



Memory 
brings my 
armour, 



which was 



Hyr departyng nor absence ; 

They dyde to me so gret offence. 10304 

& yet for-thy, yt ys no nay, 
fforth I wente vp-on my way [Stowe,ieafi82] 

Wych that I afor be-gan. 

And in my mynde a-noon yt ran, 10308 

To calle memoyre 1 vn-to me, pMemoryest.] 

That she sholde redy be 

Tawayte vn-to 2 me, & don hyr cure ponst.] 

To brynge ruyw harneys & armure ; 10312 

And bad she sholde for-gete hem nouht : 
And affter me she hath he?rc brouht, 
So as I had lyst in my way, 

I fylle in any sodeyw ffray ; 10316 

And trew[e]ly (yt ys no drede) 
I hadde off hem inly gret nede ; 
ffor I fond gret Encoimbremeritys ; 
By peryllous weyes & by wentys 10320 

I hadde had 3 gret aduersyte, p had hadde St.] 

And off te also in perel be, often of great 

Hadde nat myw harneys & armure 

Don to me ful gret socour. 10324 b.eip tome. 

Yet offte, thorgh my slouthe, alias, 
I stood in many peryllous caas ; 
But yiff I hadde wel armyd be, 

I hadde nat (in no degre) 10328 

Suffryd so myche, yt ys no nay. 

But tho beffyl vp-on my way, 
As I wente a paas forth pleyn, 

I mette a cherl, a gret vyleyn, 10332 

"VVych in the way a-gayn me wente, 
Wyt/i hys browhes 4 fersly bente : [* Browyu St.] 
Hys look, hys cher, al for the wrak, 
And a gret staff on hys bak, 10336 

Clobbyd, & boystous ffor to se, 
& was yhewe 5 out off A tre ['y-hewyd St.] 

Callyd in ffrench A cornowler. 6 [stowe, leaf isz, back] 

And whan thys cherl gan neyhen ner, [ Cornowber stj 
As yt sempte, by hys passage, 10341 

He wente uat on 7 pylgymage, U went not / on inn stj 



I meet a 
Churl, a great 

villain, 



with a big 
cherry-tree 
stuff. (Cor- 
itoiller.) 
(Cornillier : 
m. The long 
cherrie, wild 
cherrie, or 
Cornill tree. 
1611. Cot- 
grave.) 



284 The Churl asks who I am, and why I dare go ly this place. 



The Churl 



[leaf 160] 



enquires 
whit her I am 
bound. 



The Pilgrim. 



I fear lie'H 
attack me, 



Deaf 160, bk.] 

but I answer 

flainly that 
am going on 
pilgrimage, 



and I beg 
him not to 
stop me. 



reproaches 
me tor break- 
ing the king's 
orders. 



Nor was no pylgry? in certeyn. 

But whan we mette, thus he gan sey/i : 10344 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination. ,] 

TVio tM-irlo flViofl 1 [> Later in margin. 'The rewd clmrle' in 
T1 - Stowe's hand. ' The llwde Cherl ' St.] 

' What may thys be 1 ' quod he a-noon ; 

' Whyder shal thys pylgrym gon ? 

To what cost ys hys vyage ? 

Or whyther 2 goth he on pylgrymage? [ whedir St.] 10348 

ffor he semeth (yt ys no nay) 

To ben a pylgrym, by hys array. 

But he get no bettre grace, 

Or he passe out of thys place ; 10352 

He shal ffyrst (in c6nclusiou?i) 

Answere to 3 my questions. ' pvn-tost.] 

Wheroff I wex 4 abaysshed tho, [* wexide st.] 
Whan I herde hym spekyn so: 10356 

I dradde, by hys fers vysage, 
That he, in hys sodeyw rage, 
By hys lookys & hys chere 

As he gan a-prochen nere, 10360 

That he wolde assayllen me : 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

The Pylgrym. 5 [ 5 st., <. c.] [stowe, leafiss] 
But, lowly, in 6 my degre [ 6 thus in st.] 

I axede 7 hym what he wold ; paskydest.] 

And platly vn-to hym I tolde, 10364 

(As me sempte no thyug amys,) 
I axede no-thyng that was hys. 
I seyde, ' I wente on pylgrimage ; 

Prayynge hyw that my passage 10368 

He sholde nat lette in no degre, 
Syth the weye was large & ffre.' 

The Rwde Vyleyil. 8 [ 8 St-, 'rude vyleyn ' in margin, C.] 

Thys boystous, sturdy, ffers vyleyn, 

To me answerde thus ageyn, 10372 

(Off whom to-forn I ha yow told) 

' How artow hardy ; how artow bold, 

ffor to go for-by thys place, 

The la we and statutys for to passe, 9 ppacest.j 10376 

Or t$ do swych dysplesauxce 



/ begin to quake, but Lady Reason takes my part. 285 



[* brynge St.] 10383 

Nichil tuleritis in viam, neqi/e 
virgam neqwe peram. Luce 
9 Capitulo, (3 versu). 



' Ageyn 1 the kyngys ordynaimce ; [' Agyns St.] 

Or to vsurpe by vyolence 

A-geyn the precept & dyffence 10380 

Off the kyng, wych yore agora 

Bad pylgrymes euerychon, 

Nat bern, 2 off no presumpcioun, 

Nouther skryppe nor bordoun 1 

And thow, off foly gouernauwce, 

Dost ageyn hys ordynau/zce ; 

And thow hast (sothly 3 for to seyne,) [stowe, leaf iss, back] 

Offendyd hym in bothe tweyne. [ 3 shortly St.] 10388 

Wherevp-on, answere to me, 

How thow durstest hardy be 

ffor to don so gret offence 

Ageyri hys royal excellence ! ' 10392 

And trewly, in thys sodeyw caas 
I gret[e]ly astonyd was, 
And, for fer, be-gan to quake, 

What Answere I sholde make 10396 

Vn-to hys vnkouthe opposaylle, 
Wych for my party myghte avaylle. 

And whyl I stood astonyd so, 

At my bak I sawh riht tho 10400 

Kome, for my protecciioim, 
A lady that callyd was Resouw, 
Wych cryede lowde vn-to me, 

And bad ' I sholde in no degre, 1 10404 

In no wyse, answere ageyn, 
ffor my part, to that vyleyn ; 
ffor she was, by commauwdement 
Off Grace dieu, vn-to me sent, 10408 

ffor my party to speke & plete, 
And answere hym in al hys heete, 
To hym that stood thus in my way.' 

And she ne made no delay 10412 

Thys lady Resourc, but abrayde, 4 [ 4 obreyde St.] 
And to the cherl right thus she sayde : 

ReSOne. 5 [ 5 In Stowe'a hand. 'Resonn' St.] 

' Sey, thow cherl,' a-noon quod she, 

' What ys thy charge 1 ? declare me ! 10416 



The Churl. 

I have 
offended 
axainst the 
king's ordi- 
nance, by 
having scrip 
and staff. 



The Pilgrim. 



I am afraid 
how to an- 
swer. 



[leaf 161] 



Reason comes 
to my aid, 



sent by Grace 
Dieu, 



and answers 
for me. 



Reaton. 



286 Reason rebukes the Churl. He asks for her Commission. 



reproves the 

Churl. 

She tells the 

Churl he 

looks like a 

Reaper or 

Mower, 

or a false 
Spy, 



and she de- 
mands his 
name, 
and why he 
has that big 
Staff on his 
back. 



Cleafl61,bk.] 



The Churl 



supposes 
Reason is 
some May- 
oress. 



The Chnrl 
demands her 
name. 



' Thow semyst froward & pervers, [stowe, leaf ist] 

Off thy port, strauwge & dyvers. 

Thow semyst (as I kan devyse,) 

A repman, for thyw vnkouth guyse, 10420 

Or A mowhere wy th thy l sythe ; [' the St.] 

Or, to dyscryve the now blythe, 

I trowe thow art som ffals espye ; 

But the trouthe nat denye ; 10424 

Tel me thy name ; spare nouht ! 

And tel me wher thow hast ek souht 

The boystous staff vp-on thy bak, 

Wher-in I ffynde ful gret lak ; 10428 

ffor yt ys nat accordynge, 

But ff reward, pleynly, in semywge, 

As fer as I reherse kan, 

To euery wel gouernyd man.' 10432 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Thys cherl, lenyng vpon 2 hys staff, ponst.] 

To resouw, thys answere he gaff : 3 P yaffe St.] 

The Cherl. 4 [*st.,'cherr <*<, c.] 

Thys cherl, by maner off dysdeyne, 
Vn-to resotm thus gan seyne : 10436 

' I trowe,' quod he, ' by lyklynesse 5 P lyknesse St.] 
Thow art chose som mayresse, 
Or wexe off newe so fortunat 

To be som lady off gret estat ; 10440 

But, for al thy presunicioiw 

I WOlde S6 6 thy CO??imyssioU7Z, [ Fayn wolde I se St. (If. 181, bk.)] 

(ffor al thy port & strange guise, 7 ) 10443 

Thy ffredam also, & ff rauwchyse ; 7 [ 7 st. transposes these lines.] 
Lyst affterward thow falle in blame. 
Shewe hem to me, & tel thy name ; 
ffor, by noon other mene weye, 

I wyl no thyng vn-to the seye, 10448 

Nor the answere, truste 8 me, [ 8 trust on St.] 

To lete hy?n gon at lyberte.' 

[Resoun] 

Thanne, 9 resou?i, nat to hasty, p Than St.] 

But by leyser ful prudently 10452 

Toward hy??i castynge hyr look, 



Grace Dieu's Commission to Reason. 287 

' Out off a Coffyn a lettre took ; Reaton. 

To hyw sayde, & spak but lowe, 

I wyl that thow my power knowo : 10456 she shows 

J * him her 

Haue her ther-off inspeccyouw, commission. 

And se her my commyssiouw. 

And whan thow hast y t rad & seyn, Deaf 162] 

Thow shalt wel knowen, in certeyn, 10460 

Why I am kome, wyt/i-oute blame, 

My power also, & my name.' 

The Vyleyn. 1 C 1 St., ' vyleyn in margin, C.] The Churl 

Quod he, wych koude no curteysye, 

' I koude neuere yet 2 clergy e. pyittnost.] 10464 says he can't 

J J read : 

And yiff thy power shal be wyst, ? he must read 

Ked yt thy sylff, yiff that the lyst.' 

And she yt radde w?/t/t good wylle : ne pugrtm. 

The cherl was coy & stood ful stylle. 10468 



And whatt that he hyr power seth, [stowe, leafiss] while she 

J does so, the 

Grupchynge, he grunte wyth hys teth, c ' iurl grinds 

Hys grete malys for to kythe, **"* &ans 

And shook hys berd fful offte sythe ; 10472 bles - 

Gan to groyne mor & more, 

And off despyt to gruchche sore, 

Whan she hath maad, 3 ope & cler, p made St.] 

Al theffect off hyr power, 10476 

ffro poynt to poynt, vp-on a rowe. 

And yiff ye lyst pleyrcly to knowe, 
Loo, her, by declaraci'ouw, 
Hyr power & co??imyssunm : 10480 

The Comision of Reason. 4 ^"j^S^^f** graces. 
' Grace dieu, by whos goueraau?zce, Reason's 

power and 

By whos myght & whos puissauwce, fro'mGrace 1 

Kynges in euery regi'ouw, Dieu> 

Prynces & lordys off renoun, 10484 

Ben gouernyd in ther estatys, 

(Bothe Temporal, & ek prelatys,) 

To Our cosyn, 3 dame Resou?z, [ 5 Commyssioun St.] 

Off fame worthy, & off renouw, 10488 

Who??i al our court doth magnefye 

As to the nexte off our allye, 

Elthe, G loye, & contyuuance, [ 6 Heitho st.] 



288 Reason is to summon the Churl, Rude Entendement. 
Grace DUu's ' Worsliepe, & long perseuerauwce, 10492 

Commitsion . 

to Reason. Wyth power, by our ccwimyssioiw, 
[leaf 162, bk.] For to don execucyoure, 

ShfMstopro- JJedreS, & amendement, 1 [> St. transposes the8e lines.] 

Off fawtys wych in our parlement 1 [stowe, leaf iss, back] 
Be compleynyd on, day by day, 10497 

Off pylgrymes wych passen by the way, 
Voyde off guile & al deceyt, 

How on 2 ly th falsly in a-wayt, poonst.] 10500 

Hem to dysturble, robbe & reue, 
And in her passage hem to greue ; 
against a ^ cherl ff reward & daiwgerous, 

Churl, called 

tendeme n nt, Off cher & P ort malycyous, 10504 

And ay pervers in hys entent, 
Whose name ys ' rud Entendemewt ' 
Wych lyth awaytyng, by gret mescheff, 
By hihe 3 weyes, lyk a theff ; [Miyest.] 10508 

Day & nyht, gret wach doth make, 

who robs pit- Cely pylgrymes for to take, 

grims of their , , / 

scrips and To robbe hew (oil entencyouft) 

staves, 

Off ther skryppys, & bordoure, 10512 

And stuff 4 that they han vryth hem lad. [stuffest.] 
' And thys cherl, to be mor drad, 5 [ 5 ladde . . dradde St.] 
And supportyd on ech syde, 
ancUias Hath ytake a maas off pryde, 10516 

a Mace of " 

Pride, A staff off ffals extorci'ouw, 

Callyd by Rebellious 

(Trewly for to specefye) 
the staff of ' The staff off obstynacye,' 10520 

Obstinacy, 

GrauTztyd off pryde, by assent, 
Vn-to rud Entendement. 

' And thus thys .iii. 6 ccmfederat, [ thre St.] 

Causen a ful 7 gret debaat p foulest.] 10524 

and annoys And a perillous mortal stryff 

pilgrims. . , _ 

To pylgrymes in thys present lytt, 
Ther weyes, when they ha w?/t/i-set. 8 [ 8 sette . . mette St.] 
'And trewly now, thys iii 9 be met, 8 [thes thre St.] 
I kan no bet 10 amendement, [ 10 better St.] [stowe, leaf ise] 

Reason is to 

[leaf 163] But that Rud Entendement 10530 

summon this -r> j . 

cimri. Be somownyd to appere, 



Reason is to try, and do vengeance on Rude Entendement. 289 



' By som maner off y cere 10532 

Off youres, ageyn a certeyre day, 
Wyt/i-oute prolongyng or dellay.' 

And her-vp-on, by mauwdement, 
"We haue youe a comauwdement 10536 

That thys cherl hyra nat excuse, 
Nor your maundement nat refuse, 
But kome to stonde at lugement, 
A day assygned co?wpetent. 10540 

' And to don execuciourc, 

Lych 1 to your coramyssiouw, pLykeSt. seei-ioeei.] 
Vp-on thys cherl, for hys trespace. 
Letteth nat, nor doth no grace, 10544 

But yow auengeth on that wrechche, 
Lyk as your power forth doth strechche. 
ffor in thys caas most necessarye, 
We make yow our commyssarye, 10548 

On our hyhalue, wyt/i al your myght, 
To executen & to don ryht 
Wher ye sen that most ys nede. 

'Lo her ys al, taketh good heede 10552 

To vnderstonden your power. 
The daate couwtyd, a thowsand yer, 
Thre hundryd over, thrytty & on, 2 [ 2 oon . . agoon St.] 
Wryte & asselyd nat yore agon, 2 10556 

And sent by ful commyssi'ouw, 
Vn-to thys lady dame Kesouw.' 

The wyche, whaw she hadde rad, 3 
Off contenaurcce demewr & saad 3 
She abrayde by good avysement [stowe, leaf ise, back] 
And sayde to Eud Entendement 

Rescmn : 4 [* st., om. c.] 

' By euydence, notable & cler, 

Thow hast,' quod she, 'herd my power : 10564 

I ha declaryd yt vn-to the. 
Now gyff answere ageyn to me ! 

Rude Intendement : 5 [ 5 In Stowe's hand. Entendement St.] 

' And what artow,' a-noon quod he, 
' Touchyng thy power, lat me se ! ' 10568 

Rescmn : 6 [ st., om. c.] 

PILGRIMAGE. U 



Grace Dien'n 
Committion 
to Reason. 



She is to do 
execution on 
Rude En- 
tendement, 



10559 

[ Radde . . Sadde, St.] 



as the Com- 
missary of 
Grace Dieu. 



The commis- 
sion is of the 
year 1331. 



bids Rude 

Entendement 

answer. 

[leaf 163, bk.] 



Rude En- 
tetiflement 



asks who she 
its. 



290 Rude Entendement says Reason steals folk's Corn. 



says 



' Lady Rea- 
son.' 



She chaff's 
him. 



Rude En- 
tentleuient 



says Reason's 
name is de- 
famed. 



So he asks 
to know her 
power and 
might. 



Rude En- 
teiidement 

[leaf 16i] 



accuses Rea- 
son of steal- 
ing folk's 

in. M! at the 
mill. 



' Hastow nat herd me Ead 1 yt al, [> redde St.] 

And told ek in especyal, 

Eecord by my coramyss'iouTe, 

That I am callyd ' dame Eesouw ' ? 10572 

I trowe thy wyt ys fer the fro ; 

Or I deme yt stondeth so 

Thow louest somwher paramours, 

Or besy art 2 to maken tours p thow art st.i 10576 

Or castellys, by gret devys, 

Therby to getera the A prys." 

Rude Entendement : 8 pst.,om.c.] 

' I haue,' quod he, ' vp & dou?i 

Herknyd thy commyssiouw, 10580 

And vnderstonde yt eue?ydel ; 
And therby I se f ul wel [stowe, leaf is?] 

That thy name ys ek ' Eesouw.' 

' But a replicaci'ouw 10584 

I wyl make vp-on thy name, 
"Wych ys hyndred by dyffame ; 
fEor that name sykerly 

Ys dyffamyd ful gretly ; 10588 

Wherfore I myghte nat for-bere 
ffor to axe what thow were, 
To knowe thy power & thy myght : 
Me sempte her-in I hadde ryht.' 10592 

Resoun : 4 [* st, om. c.j 

' Seystow,' quod she, ' that my name 
Ys a name off dyffame 
Or dysclaimdrycl 1 lat me se 
How or where that myghte be.' 10596 

Rude Enf endement : 5 p st., <H. c.] 

' Certys,' quod he, 'yiff thow lyst here, 
The place wel I shal the lere ; 
I wyl nat spare, but platly telle : 

Thow art dyffamyd at the melle, 6 10600 

And disclaundryd off ffals mesour, 
By robberye off mele & flour 

6 Ration est au mmtlin: Pro. (Belike because Grist is taken 
in, and delivered out, by measure.) Cotgrave, 1611. 
Unison, (sailor's) ration. ' Jlatio, mesure.' D'Aruis. 



Reason admits that a false Mill-Measure is cald Reason. 291 



' The peple present, them be-forn, 

Stelynge ther greyn & ek ther corn.' 10604 

ReSOn : 1 C 1 In Stowe's hand. Resoun St.] 

' Eecord off ff olkys that be sage, [stowe, leaf 187, back] 

' Sclawzdere ys no vasselage ; ' 

And phylosofres ek expresse, 

' To sclauwdere, ys no worthy nesse, 10608 

Nor dyffames, forth to telle.' 

' And as touchy ng off the melle, 
Thow myghtest ther peraventure 
Seen & be-holden A mesure 10612 

Wych (by folkys oppynyouw,) 
Bereth the name off ' Resowz.' 

And wyle 2 that folkys so yt calle, [* while St.] 10615 
To shrowde hys falshede, & tapalle, 3 C 3 to paiie St.] 
But 4 for al that, (yt ys no drede, [* But, om. st.] 
Who that wysly taketh hede,) 
Thogh yt bere name off Resouw, 
Yt ys but fals decepci'ouw, 10620 

Vnder a colour off ffals laude, 
ffor to hyden deceyt & fraude. 

4 A-T\vyxe a name, & existence, 

Men mvt 5 sette a dyfference ; [smowest.] 10624 

ffor vnder name off sothfastnesse, 
Offte ys wrouht ful gret falsnesse ; 
And vnder honest couerture, 

Offte ys hyd ful gret ordure. 10628 

In many a place yt ys ek seyn, 
That pompe, pryde, and fals dysdeyn, 
Courtyned 6 Avyt/i, humylyte, [ 6 contyned St.] 

7 Assenden to grete 7 dygnyte; p ' st. (c burnt)] 10632 
But feyned symplesse, out off doute, 
At the laste yt breketh oute. 

' Ech vyco ek (in conclusi'ouw) 

Haueth thys condycyoun, 10636 

To shewen out an exaumplayre [stowe, leafiss] 

Off vertu, wych that ys contrayre 
To hym by fals apparence, 

To yive a mancr evydence 10640 

To blynde the peplys, by shewyng 



Riule En- 
tendement. 



Beaton 



says this is 
mere slander. 



No doubt you 

may see at a 

mill, 

a Measure 

cald Reason, 



meant to con- 
ceal a miller's 
rascality ; 



but you must 
distinguish 
between a 
name and the 
thing it 
names. 



Pride is often 
curtaind by 
Humility. 



[leafNU.bk.] 



Every vice 
hides itself 
under nn p- 
parent virtue. 



292 Reason asserts her Worth. The Churl denies it. 



But tho" 
Vices some- 
times have 
the name of 
Virtue, 
pure Virtue 
shines clear. 



And 1 1m a 
false mill- 
ineasure is 
cald ' Reason,' 



I, Reason, 
am not to 
blame, 



but am 
worthy of 
honour. 

For Reason 
cannot err. 



[leaf 165] 
Virtue 
shrouds not 
itself. 

I am Reason. 

Rude En- 
tfndement 



gays, Do you 
think me a 
Fool? 



I know what 
is what, 



' Off that they ffayllen in beyng, 

That men sholden off he?tt deme 10643 

They wer swych 1 lyk as they seme c 1 Outward were simche st.] 
Outward, as by ther feyned cher. 

' But vertu, that stondeth euere cler, 
Wyth coue?'ture off no veyn laude, 
Ys nat dyffacyd by no ffraude ; 10648 

And thogh that vyces, by fals ffame, 
Off vertu som tyme haue A name, 
Cler 2 vertu (who so loke wel) pcierest.] 

Therby ys spottyd neueradel, 10652 

But shyneth clerere & mor bryht, 
That falsnesse may nat cloude hys lyht ; 
But in hys bryhtnesse doth endure. 

' And thogh that I, off fals mesure 10656 

(To shrowde yt by decepcyoun,) 
Am I-callyd ther Kesourc 
At the Melle, by fals diffame, 

My sylff ther-off am nat to blame ; 10660 

But rather sholde, (in many wyse,) 
Off prudent folkys that be wyse, 
Keceyve worshepe & hihe renoiiw, 
Lych my name, callyd Resoim. 10664 

' ffor Resouw, platly. nyhe nor ferre, 
By no falsnesse may nat erre. 

The name off vertu helpeth nouht 10667 

Vertu voyde out off the thouht; [stowe, leaf m, back] 
And vertu wyl hym-sylff nat shrowde 
~Wyt?i dyrknesse off no mysty cloude, 
But shewe hy w-sylff fforth openly : 
My name ys Kesoura, & swych am I.' 10672 

Rude Illtendiment : 3 C 3 I" Stowe's hand. Entendement St.] 

' Syker,' qtwd rude Entendement, 

' Wenystow I be so blent 

That I knowe no maner thyng 

Off thy sotyl Argwyng ] 10676 

' I knowe kanvas, I knowe sylk, 
I knowe the flye dreynt in the my Ik, 
I knowe A mesour, fful & halff, 
I knowe the kowh & ok the kalff, / 10680 



Rude Entendement declares Reason did steal the Corn. 293 



10684 



[i alle oone St.] 10688 
[* om. St.] 



10692 



10696 



[Stowe, leaf 189] 



[SMylleStJ 10700 



' Affter that men by name hem calle, 
And dyfference off bestys alle. 

' I knowe the name off thys & that, 
I knowe an houred, I knowe a caat, 
And off bothe I knowe how, 
That nouther off hem ys calff nor kow 
I knowe ther namys euerychon : 
Ther namys & they ben al on. 1 
And 2 I dar seyn w?/t/i-oute blame, 
Gladly euere, affter the name 
ffolweth the condiciouw. 

' Wherfor 1 sey thow art Kesoim 
And how resouw ys ek thy name, 
A name sclaiwdryd by dyffame ; 
And as I told the her-to-forn, 
' Syth that Resouw stal the corn, 
Than was the corn stolew by the : ' 
Yt may noon other wyse be, 
But euene lyk as I the telle, 
That al the water off the melle 3 
(Wych maketh yt tourne rouwd aboute,) 
May nat suffyse (yt ys no doute) 
To wasshe away the gret dyffame, 
Nor the disclaiwdre off thy name. 
Thow mayst, by fals collusiouw, 
ffynde an excusacioim 
To putte yt fro the euerydel ; 
But her-vp-on, trust me ryht wel r 
tfor sotylte, nor no queyrctyse, 
I vnderstonde noon other wyse 
Touchyng thy name, nor neuer shal, 
Than I ha told : lo, her ys al ! ' 

Resown : 4 
' By thy wordys, yt doth sue, 
fful sotylly thow kanst argue ; 
And thy premysses for to make, 
fful ffayre exaumples thow kanst take, 107 1G 

By SOtyl declaraciOUWS Ratio loquitwr yronice. St. 

To preue thy conclusi'ouws, 
Thy/i entent to bryngen Inne. 



Rude En- 
tendement. 



and that dog 
and cat are 
not cow and 
calf. 



Things are 
what their 
names say 
they are. 



You are 

Keason, 



and you stole 
the Corn. 



All the mill- 
water can't 
wash the dis- 
grace off your 
name. 



10704 [leaf 165, bk.] 

You may 
make what 
excuses you 
like, 

10708 



10712 



[*St., OOT.C.] 



but I sny 
you stole the 
Corn. 



ironically 
praises the 
Churl's argu- 
ment, 



294 Reason, asks why fiude Entendement robs Pilgrims. 



and asks him 
if his name is 
not Rude Kn- 
tendeuient. 



Rudt En- 
tendement 



says that 
though men 
call him so, 
he is not such 
as they 
think; 



they are ruder 
than he. 



[leaf 166] 



Rtaton. 



Reason asks 
why he lies 
in wait to rob 
pilgrims of 



their staffs 
and scrips, 



and why he 
thug offends 
Grace Dieu. 



' Yt were fill hard off the to \vy wne, 
Or to getyrc avauwtage ; 
Thow art so prudewt & so sage, 
And dost in wysdaw so excelle. 

' But I pray the for to telle, 
What ys thy name, Est or west, 
By wych thow art knowe best : 
As I conceyue in my entent, 
Artow nat rude EntendSment 1 ' 

Rude Entendement : * 
Quod rudentendement 2 ryht tho, 
' Thogh that men me calle so 
By my name, (what so they mene,) 
I am nat swych lyk as they wene ; 
ffor yt may pleywly so befalle, 
That somme off hem that so me calle, 
Yiff they consydre by & by, 
They be m6r Eud 3 thaw am I, 
And mor ek insuffycyent 
Off konnyng, as by lugement.' 

Rescmn : l 

Qttod resouw tharaie, ful sad off cher, 
' Touchyng that thow hast sayd 4 her, 
Yt doth ynowh to me suffyse ; 
But, I merveille in what wyse, 
Why or wharfore, so by deceyt 
That thow lyggest in a-wayt 
Vp-on the weyes (yt ys no faylle) 
Pylgrymes only to assaylle, 
In cytes, borwes, & in touns, 
ffor to reue hew ther bordouws ; 
Her skryppes ek to take away, 
As they walke by the way. 

' Tel on platly, & nat spare ; 
But thy power ffyrst declare, 
How thow art bold, & hast no ryht 
So toffendyn in the siht 
Off grace dieu, (as I ha sayd,) 
Wych ys, sothly, evele apayd, 
And taketh grctly in greuauwce 



10720 



10724 



[Stowe, leaf 189, back] 

10728 

[i St., om. C.] 
[ 2 Rude Entendeinent St.] 



10732 



[ Rude St.] 10736 



[*seydeSt.] 10740 



10744 



10748 



10752 



[Stowe, leaf 190] 



10756 



Because God orderd him to' Reason shows this is alterd. 295 



[ A k c., and St.] 10768 



[* St., 



. c.] 



' The maner ofB thy goue?*naunce.' 

Rude Entendement : * pst.,oi.c.] 

' Yiff thow wylt a whyle dwelle, 
The cause pley?zly I shal telle. 10760 

In the gospel, yt ys rad 2 

How the kyng hyw. syluew bad, 2 [* radde . . badde St.] 
' No man to bern 3 out off hys tou, [* bewm St.] 
Nouther skryppe nor bordoun.' 10764 

And platly, for to kepe hys lawe, 
I wyl nat feyne nor wyt/i-drawe, 
But, off hool entenc'iourc, 
Be-reue skryppe & ek 4 bordou?i 
ffro pylgrymes, wher they passe : 
They gete off me noon other grace.' 

Resoun : 5 

' Touchynge thyn oppynyouw 
Off -the skryppe & the bordourc, 
(Yiff yt be clerly coraprehendyd,) 
Thogh they somtyme wer dyffendyd, 
That dyffence ys now wyt/i-drawe, 
And they be suffryd by the lawe, 
That pylgrymes (nyh & ferre) 
In pylgry mages may hem bere, 
Hem to sustene in ther walkyng ; 
ffor noon vnworshepe to a kyng, 
Thogh somwhyle, syth b.6 hath myghte, 
Chau7^ge hys lawes off verray ryht. 

' And cause off chauwgyng (in certeyn) 
Off thys lawe I shal the seyn : 
Who that hath Achevyd wel 
Hys pylgrymage, euerydel, 
Yt nedeth hym nat 6 (who kan se) 
Longer a pylgrym for to be. 10788 

Therfor (tak good hed to thys !) 
A man no lenger pylgrym ys, 
Than he hath skryppe & bordouw ; 
ffor bothen (in conclusi'oun) 10792 

Ne serue to noon avauntage, 
Whan men ha don ther pylgrymage. 
7 'And Cryst Ihesw / ys Terme and Fyne / [?-' St., om. c.] 



Rttde En- 
ttndement 



refers her to 
the King's 
command in 
the gospel, 



and says he 
won't stop 
taking Pil- 
grims scrips 
and staves. 



10772 



10776 



10779 

[Stowe, leaf 190, back] 



10784 



[ s nat hym St.] 



[leaf 106, bk.] 



says the 
Gospel prohi- 
bition \s now 
withdrawn, 
and pilgrims 
may carry 
staves to help 
them in walk- 
ing. 



Pilgrims are 
so only while 
they have 
crip and 
staff. 



296 Reason shows that Christ bade Pilgrims bear Scrip & Staff. 



Reaton. 

Christ is the 
goal of every 
Pilgrim's 
pilgrimage. 



When the 
Apostles 
reacht Him, 



[leaf 167] 



He at first 
forbade them 
to take scrip 
or staff. 



But before 
He died, 



He modified 
the com- 
mand, 



see the gospel 
of St. Luke, 
ii. 3, 

and told 
them to take 
satchel, 
scrip and 
staff, 



' Wheder / that euery / goode Pylgryme / 10796 

Tendytfr / in. his pylgrymage / 7 

And who that hath swych avaimtage 

To kome to hyra, he may sey wel 

That he hath endyd eue?ydel 10800 

Hys pylgrymage, & fiaylleth nouht 

To kome to that that he hath souht. 1 [ l bought st.] 

Thus thapostles, On by on, 

Kome to hym euerychon), 10804 

Travayllynge nyht & day : 

As parfyt pylgrymes in ther way, 

By choys & by ellecci'ourc 

And also by vocaciioure 10808 

They kam to hy??i, (yt ys no nay) 

And thawne to hem 2 he gan say, [ hem St., hym c.] 

Bad hem, ' in cy te nor in toww, 

Nouther ber skryppe nor bordoiw.' 10812 

And they, in euery maner thyng, [stowe, leaf 191] 

Lowly obeyde hys byddyng. 

' But to-forn he sholde deye, 

That precept he gan modef ye 10816 

To hys dysciples, (as I rede,) 
ffor he sawh they sholde ha nede, 
Affter hys deth, whan he wer gon ; 
Therfor he bad hem euerychon, 10820 

Vn-to her protecciouw 
To haue a skryppe & a bordourc. 

Inlr tViA rmsr>plp-r 

.e gospeier, 



and He'd give 
them food. 



l hoftet saccalnm, tollat, similiterf 

& peraw f Luce> t capit ^ 
Wher the text ys pleyn & cler : [fsiwcetst.] 10824 

He byddeth (who kan loke wel) 
* That who that haveth a sachel, 3 p Sageiie St.] 
Lat hym (to hys dyffenciouw,) 

Take a skryppe & a bordouw, 10828 

And a staff vp-on to reste, 
ffor ye shal fynde yt for the beste ; 
Swych thynges ben vn-to yow due, 
Affter me yiff ye shal sue, 10832 

And folwen my gouernauwce ; 
And ye shal hauew suffysauwce 
Off brede, 4 wherso that ye be, [* brede St., bred c.] 



Rude Entendement disputes this. Reason re-affirms it. 297 

' Tyl tyme that ye kome to me, 10836 Beaton. 

In your nede yow to releue.' 

' Wher-vp-on I may wel preue, Therefore 

it is at all 

That y t ys at alle tymes M"l es v^rmis- 

J J sible to pil- 

Permyssyble to pylgrymes 10840 8[ ru ' a ^ benr 

To bern A skryppe & ek a staff; . Bta "- 

ffor ther mayster, lycence hew gaff; 
Kecord the byble, yiff yt be souht. 

' Wherfor, medle the ryht nouht 10844 so don't stop 

pilgrims. 

Tarest 1 pylgrymes by vyolence, [' TO im Rest St., leaf 191, back] oafw.bk.] 

ffor they han ther-to lycence, 

Mawgre thy malys & thy myghte ; 

ffor ther conge shal off ryht 10848 Their leave 

lusts till their 

Laste to hem in ther vyage, cu'ls'" 11 * 8 

Tyl they ha don her pylgrymage.' 

Rude Entendement: 2 [*st.,o.c.] SSS^'t 

' The wordys that thow dost specefye, 

Ar but wordys off mokarye ; 10852 "ay NO. 

ffor yiff so stood, thys myghty kyng alien? HU* 

Hadde dyffendyd any thyng 
That he hadde ordeyned or ysayd, 
Off the textys 3 that thow hast lay d, piutisst.] 10856 
They sholde ha be 4 (who lyst to look.) [ be c., om. St.] He'd have 

/ \ v '/ struck 6ni out 

Yracyd clene out off the book, of the book - 

Lych vn-to hys ordynauwce, 

W?/t7i-oute any vary au wee.' 10860 

ReSOUTl^ : *t s St., om.C.} Beaton 

' That ys nat so,' a-noon quod she, disputes this: 

' ffor, off ryht & equyte, 

Ech 6 thyng (ohortly for to ryme,) [ 6 Echo St.] things have 

their time, 

Muste duely 7 haue hys tyme : U Most dueiiy st.] 10864 

I dar afferme that yt ys soth, 

What men seyn, or what mew doth ; 

Consydred 8 wel, by cler seyug, [ 8 consyderyng St.] 

The Trewe cause off euery thyng, 10868 

Thenchesouw & mutaci'ouTzs, and then 

change. 

The dedys & narraciouns 

Off alle thyng, (who loke wel) ; [stowe, leaf 192] 

And cause also why the gospel 10872 The gospel 

* is more 

Ys mor plesynge to the siht P leasi "if lo 



298 How Obstinacy ruind Natal and Pharaoh. 



Reaton. 

those who 
understand 
aright, than 
to others. 



[leaf 168] 



Rudu En- 
temlement. 



Rude KM- 
teMdement 
declares that 
Reason takes 
no heed of 
truth. 



bids Rude 

KlltiTl'lrllli'Tlt 

lay down his 
Staff of Oh- 
Btinacy. 



Nabal and 
Pharaoh 



' To folk that vnderstonde a-ryht 

Than to swych, wych in ther thouht 

Vnderstonde ther-off ryht nouht ; 10876 

Euene lyk (& thus I mene) 

As in A medwe ffressh & grene, 

Wher as folkys do repayre, 

The mor that ther be flourys fayre, 10880 

Lusty, soote, & fressh off hewe, 

Spredynge a-brood vryth bawme newe, 

ffolkys, the mo 1 (I dar endyte) ['merest.] 

To loke ther-on hem-sylff delyte.' 10884 

Rude Entendement 2 : P st., on, c.] 

Thy s cherl, boystous 3 in hys entent, p boystous c., om. St.] 
Callyd ' Eud Entendement,' 
ffroward in hys oppynyouw, 

Abrayde a-non vn-to Resoun. 10888 

Quod he felly, to ben a-wreke, 
' Yt ar but fantasmes that ye speke ; 
ffor, pleynly, as thynketh me, 

' ff alsnesse,' ye namen now bewte. 10892 

Off trouthe also (yt ys no drede,) 
Ye lyst take no maner hede. 
Do her-vp-on what euer ye kan, 
ffor I wyl holde that I be-gan.' 10896 

Resouw 4 : [* st., om. c.] 

' Certys,' quod Resoun, ' a-noon ryht tho, [stowe, if. 194, bkj 
Thow ne shalt no thyng do so ; 
But (for short conclusions) 

Thow shalt ley thy staff a-donn ; 10900 

Thow hast lenyd ther-on to longe, 1 
Thorgh oppynyouws ffals & wronge \) 
And folyly, affter thy lust, 

Ther-in to myche 5 set thy trust, [ 5 inne to muche st.] 10904 
ffor by thys staffe' 6 (lyst to me,) [taffe st., staff c.] 
In the byble as thow mayst se, 
Nabaal & kyng PharaouTZ 

Wer brouht vn-to confusi'ourz : 10908 

They lynede 7 so longe vp-on that staff p 
Wych that pryde vn-to hem gaff, 
The staff callyd ' obstynacye,' 



Eude Untcndement stopt the Jeivsfrom turning Christians. 299 



[leaf 168, hk.] 

came to grief 

through 

obstinacy. 



' That, thorgh ther pompous surquedye, 10912 Reaon 

Ther owne deth (for lak off grace,) 

They dyde wylfully purchace ; 

ffor they were pompous & Ellat, 

And in ther hertys indurat, 10916 

Ek obstynat in ther entent, 

Only for Rud Entendement ; 

Was to her grete dysavayl, 

Xhe pryncypal off ther coimsayl. 1092fr 

' ffor thys cherl, ffroward & ffel, 
Made hem for to be rebel, 
And voyden (shortly in sentence) 
The vertu off obedience ; 10924 

Ek ouermor (as thow shalt se,) 
Yiff Hud Entendement nadde be, 
The lewes (in conclusions) 

Hadde lefft 1 ther oppynyouw, p letrte St.] 10928 

And ther heresyes wyth-drawe, [stowe, leaf m] 

And tournyd hem to crystys la we ; 
And, in ther cowversioun, 

Take the skryppe & the bordourc, 10932 

And lyk pylgrymes hem gouernyd, 
And ful clerly ek dyscernyd, 
Wych now he dyrked vnder skye, 
Only for ther obstynacye. 10936 

' That staff, I rede the to ley doun, 
And leff thy Eude oppynyoura ; 
And leue ther-on no mor at al, 
Lyst at the laste thow haue a ffal.' 10940 

Rud Entendement: 

Qtiod Rud entendement to 2 Eesoun : pvntost.] 
' Thy proverbys, nor thy sermouw, 
Kor al that euere thow dost me rede, 
I take ther-off no maner hede, 10944 

ffor al thy peynted wordys swete, 
My staff in soth I wyl nat lete ; 
But as me thynketh for the beste, 
Ther-vp-on I wyl me reste, 10948 

Wher-euere I walke by the weye, 
And in ryht nouht to the obcye, 



But for Rude 

Entende- 

uieut, 

tlit Jtfir* 



would have 
turnd Chris- 
tians, 



and become 
Pilgrim*. 



Rude En- 
tendement 



refuses to 
be guided 
by Beason, 



and deflen 
her power. 



300 Reason lids me disregard Rude Entendennent. 



[leaf 169] 
Reanon 



summons 
Rude Kntcn- 
detnent to the 
Assizes at 
Doomsday. 



The Pilgrim. 



Reason bids 
me go on my 
way, 



As Rude En- 
temUmient's 
liead is hard- 
er than stone, 



and nil re.. son 
is lost, on 
him, 



' Holden niyw owne, as yt ys ryht, 

Mawgre thy power & thy myght.' 10952 

Resoim : 

Quod Eesouw ; ' thanne I se ful wel, 
And aparceyue 1 euerydel, [' appercey vc yt st.] 

By thy wordys Eude & pleyn, [stow*, leaf 193, back] 
That yt were to me but veyn, 10956 

Mor to talke off thys matere 
To the, wych that lyst nat here, 2 piwestj 

Nor accorde to my?? Entent ; 

But, at the grete lugement 10960 

Wher tassyses 3 shal be holde, p Thassyses st.] 

Al couert falsenesse to vnfolde, 
I somowne the, ther tappere, 

To Answere iu thys matere ! 10964 

Looke thow be ther, thylke day r 
WytTz-oute prolongyng or delay.' 

Affter al thys, (as ye shal se,) 

Eesourc kam ageyn to me, 10968 

And bad me go forth on my way, 
And ha no dred, 4 nyht nor day [ drede st.} 

Off thys Hud Enteiidement ; 

(Resoun.) 

'ffor fynally, (in sentement,) 10972 

W?/t7i-inne aij hevy styth off stel, 
A ffethre sholde entre as wel 
As any doctryne (yt ys no dred) 
Sholde entre in-to hys hed. 10976 

' ffor thys Eud entendement 
Ys vfyih Eudnesse so yblent, 
That dyamawnt, I trowe, ys noon, 
Nor noon other maner ston 10980 

So indurat, to mollefye, 
As he ; for ffals obstynacye 
Hath blendyd 5 hym by hyr decyt, p biyndede st.] 
That wher he cachcheth a conceyt, 10984 

Ther-vp-on he wyl ay holde, 
ffor all the skyles that I tolde ; 
Nor resouw that I koude seyn, [stowe, leaf 194] 

Al was but lost, and sayd in veyn ; 10988 






/ beg Reason to be my Guide to Jerusalem. 301 

' In hys Rudnesse he kepte hym cloos, [leafiso, bk.] 

And wyl nat chau??gen hys purpos. 



' Wherfor go forth, & ha no drede, i am there- 

fore not to 
!Nor tak off hym no maner hede ; 10992 heed him, 

But hold thy weye 1 forth as blyue : [ way St.] but to go 

forth on my 

ffor, w?/tfr a cherl to stonde & stryue, journey 



Yt wolde nat hut lyte avaylle : 

Lat hy?n -wyth hys wyndes saylle, 10996 

ffrowardly ageyn the strem, 

"VVhil thow gost to lerusaleem. to _ Jerusalem 

without fear 

Be off hy??i no thyng afferd, of Rude En- 

' teuclement. 

Thogh he shake on the hys herd ; 11000 

Lat hy??i gruchche, & mowhes make, 

And his Chyn vp-on the shake, 

Wexe ek pale for envye 

And on hys staff 'obstynacye' 11004 

Lat hym reste, & stonde stylle : 

Hold thow thy way / ay forth at wylle I'// 

The pylgrym. Thepugnm. 

" Ma dame," (\uod I, " yt stondeth so, 
I wot nat what ys hest to do, 11008 

But ye, off your benygnyte, 
Lyst for to conveye me 
And ben my guyde vp-on the way, i aic Reason 

to I* my 

Me to goueme nyht & day, 11012 guide, 

Tyl I kome to that cyte 

Wych I caste for to se. 

ffor, w?/t7i-oute' yow, certeyn 

My labour ys nat but in veyn : [stowe, leaf 101, back] 11016 

Yt ys so pe?-yllous a passage, as the pas- 

That I shal ffynde in my vyage dangerous. 

Many anoyes, mo than on, 

I kan nat rekne hem eue?ychon; 11020 

Pcreilles that on 2 the weye lye; [ J inst.] 

But yiif I hadde cowpanye 

Off yow, yt wokle ynowh suffyse . 

Me to supporte in many wyse." 11024 

Reanon. 



Quod Resouw tha?me a-noon to me, [leaf no] 

' fful wel I myghte gon wyt// the, 



302 I go on my way, and meet a Damsel fcatherd like a Dove. 



She says she 
coiUd go, 



but clouds 
would rise, 



and I should 
lose sight of 
her. 



She will be 
with me 
while I am 
in the right 
way: 

otherwise, 
not. 



When I want 
her, she'll be 
with me. 



11028 



[i vnkoutlie St.] 11032 



The Pilgrim. 



I proceed on 
my way, 



' And nat departe out off thy siht 

Al the whyle that thow gost ryht, 

And holdest forth the evene way ; 

But offte sithe (yt ys no nay) 

Ther shal a-twen vs (who espyes,) 

Aryse two fful vnkouth 1 skyes, 

Wonder blak off ther colours, 

Off smoky myste's & vapours, 

That somwhyle, off dyrknesse 

And off the owgly ffoul thyknesse, 11036 

Off sondry chaunges that shal be, 

Thow shalt lese the syht off me. 

'And somtyme, ful glad off chere, 
Thow shalt se me ffressh & cler, 11040 

Affter the weye that thow dost holde, 
Lyk to-forn, as I the tolde. 
ffor thow holdest the weye ryht, 
Thow shalt se me cler & bryht. 11044 

' And fynally, yiff thow go wrong, 
I wyl me hyden (euere among,) [stowe, leaf 195] 

Out off thy syht, & shrowden me 
That thow shalt me nowher se. 11048 

'Wherfor, off me whan thow hast nede, 
Sek me no ferther (as I rede) 
Her nor ther, vp-on no syde, 

But wher thy syluen dost abyde. 11052 

Yiff thow me seke ther due'ly, 
Thow shalt me fyndera ay redy. 

' Now, on thy lourne, forth the spede 
Syth to tarye thow hast no nede.' 11056 

[* In Stowe's hand.] 



[ sadde . . . badde St.] 
[* me St., om. C.] 

11060 



11064 



Off hyre answere I wex al sad, 3 
Yet forth I wente, a* she me bad, 3 
Eemewynge me 4 fro that place, 
Me recomaundynge to hyr grace ; 
And prayde god ful Enterly 
[leaf 170, bk.] Me to conveye sykerly, 

Wyt/j-outen any dysturbaunce, 
And me to sauen fro myschaunce, 
To be my guyde, & wysshen me 



The Fcatherd, Dove-like Damsel is playing at ball. 303 

ffor to kome to the cyte The p;i g rim. 

Whyder to gon, tho I me caste. 

And forth I wente wonder faste, 11068 

"NVf/t/i my bordou?i in my hond ; 

And in the weye a-noon I fond dam^f 6 ' * 

A damysele off queynte array, 

Wych me mette vp-on the way. 11072 

And lyke a dowue (as thoughts me)' t 1 "Jftn^j" tlie *S*^ Hto 
She was ffetheryd for to fle ; 

And On her leggVS bothe two. [Stowe, leaf IDS, back] on both her 

legs. 

Lyk a dowve she was also, 11076 

And endownyd soffte & ffayr, 

Smothe as 2 gossomer in the hayr. [* as a St.] 

And trewly (as I koude espye) 

Me sempte thys mayden off ffolye, 11080 

Now her, now ther, ageyw a wal she is piy 

7 " ing at ball. 

That she pleyede at the bal, 
Rewnynge alway vp & doiw. 

And thanne I hadde affecci'oure 11084 

To wyten pleynly & enquere 
Hyr name, and what she dyde there. 

[Blank in MS. and in St. for an Illumination.'] 

The pylgrym: 
" Damysele," a-noon quod I, 
" I merreylle ful gretly 3 pgreteiyst.] 11088 i ask her 

why her legs 

Off your ffethres ffressh & shene, we featherd, 

What they tokne or what they mene ; 

And that ye ben endowned so 

Vp-on your loggys bothe two ; 11092 

ffor, syth tyme that I was born, 

I sawhe neuere her-to-fforn 

Noon y ffetheryd, saufflly 4 only ye : [auffst.] 

ffor, by lyknesse, ye may fle 11096 

Whaw that ye lyst, hih & lowe ; 

And ffayn ther-fore, I wolde knowe, 

(Yiff ye lyst to specefye) 

What your ffetherys sygnefye ; 11100 

And your endownyng, vp & dou, [stowe, leaf i%] 

I wolde ther-off ha som resoun ; 

And or ye any ferthcr go, 



304 The Featherd Girl's name is Youth, and she is skittish. 



and what her 
name is. 
The Featherd 
Girl, Youth. 



The Pilgrim. 



I tell her 
she's worth 



The Featherd 
Girl. Youth, 

says she does 
no harm to 
the prudent. 



[leaf 171, bk.] 



Slie i* called 
'Youth. 1 



She winces 
like a wild 
colt, 



11107 

, dede C.] 



11116 



11120 



Your name I wolde wyte also." 11104 

The ffetherede: 

' Certys,' quod she, ' whan thow dost knowe 
The cause pleynly (hih & lowe) 
Wheroff I serue, sothly in dede 
Thow shalt off nie han ful gret drede.' 1 [' drede st 

The pylgrym: 

" Ye ben trewly (as semeth me) 
So ffressh and vnkouth for to se, 
Se lusty ek off port & chere, 

That no man myghte bey ft 2 to dere, pbyenst.] 11112 
Off yow to han possessions : 
And me semeth off resouw, 
(By lyklynesse, as I kan ffel,) 
A man myghte nat loue to wel 
Your persone, by lyklyhede. 
And as touchynge any drede 
That men sholde han off you, certeyn, 
Me semeth swych dred wer but in veyn." 

The ffetherede : 

' Thow seyst fful soth, & ryght trewly : 
"Who me vseth prudently, 
And nat outrageth in no wyse, 
But hyw gou^rneth lyk the wyse, 
Swych, fro pereyl may wel eskape. 
And trust her-on, (yt ys no jape,) 
My gouernauwce (who kan espye), 
Ther-in ys fourede no ffolye ; 
And yet off custom, at the laste, 
In grete 3 pereyll, ffolk I caste, [ grete St., gret c.] 
(As yt ys fful offte seyn) 
And longe or they may ryse ageyn. 

' And my name ys ek fful kouthe, 
ffor I am ycallyd ' youthe ' ; 
I passe bothe thorgh thywne & thykke, 
And I kan wynse ageyn the prykke, 
As wylde coltys in Arras, 
Or as bayard out off the tras, 
Tyl I a lassh haue off the whyppe ; 
ffor now" I renne, & now I skyppe, 11140 



11124 

[Stowe, leaf 1%, back] 

11128 



11132 



11136 



Youth trips, sings, climbs trees, and amitses herself. 305 



11H3 

[ Alle daungerys St.] 



11148 



' And now I lepe louy pe 1 ; C 1 merry foot.] 

Now I sterte, & now I ffle. 

Selde abydyng in thouht, 

Al dauregerous 2 I sette at nouht, 

Wyth wyldenesse I go to scole ; 

Now I sprynge, now I carole ; 

I tryppe, I crye, synge & dauwce, 

And euere ful off varyauwce, 

And fBul selde abyde in On. 

I wrastle, & I caste the ston ; 

I breke bothen hegge & wal, 

And clymbe trees 3 oueral p trees St., tres c.] 1 1 152 

In gardyns wher the ffrut ys good. 

And who that euere be wroth or wood, 

I ne take no maner hede. 

' Sestow nat wel, in verray dede, 11156 

By my ffethrys cler & bryht, 
Vp-on my ffeet, how I am lyht, 
And as swyfft (sothly to tel) [stowe,ieafi7] 

As why lorn was Asael. 2 Reguw 2 capituio, st.,om.c. 11160 
But the byble doth vs lere 
He bouhte hys swyfftnesse al to dere ; 
And ofEte sythes, out off nou??zbre, 
To gret swyfftnesse doth encoumbre, 11164 

As olde storyes telle kaan ; 

ffor bet ys yt, on wyseman 4 [ yt y . . wyse St., wys c.] 
Slowh off ffoote, wyth prudence, 
Than ffoure other (in sentence) 11168 

Lyht off ffoote, vfyih hyr ffolye, 
Wych hem sylue?i kan nat guye, 
Nor by wysdom kan nat werche, 

' Wherffor somtyme holy cherche 11172 

Whylom made an ordynauwce, 
That no man sholde ha gouemauwce 
In hys bowndys (yt ys no drede) 
But yiff he hadde ff eet off led, 11176 

In gret sadnesse to endure. 

' But off al thys I do no cure ; 
I wyl be ffethryd, & go ffle, 
And among, go sporte me ; 11180 

PILGRIMAGE. X 



starts and 
runs. 



trips, sings, 
dances, and 
is always 
changing. 



She climbs 
trees and 
steals fruit. 



She is as fleet 
as Asahel. 



[leaf 172] 

But one slow 
wise man is 
better than 
four fast fools. 



In spite of 
Holy Church, 



Youth means 
to amuse her- 
self. 



306 Youth plays Hockey, Dice & Merils, & reads Romances. 

Mit routh 'Pleye at the cloos, among, I shal, 
plays hockey, And somwhyle Rennyn at the bal 

Wyth a Staff mad lyk an hook ; 

Arid I wyl han a kampyng crook ; 1 1184 

ffor I desyre, in my depos, 

ffor to han noon other croos. 

' And among, I wyl nat spare 
hunts, fishes, To hunte for Inert, ffor buk & hare ; 11188 

Somtyme ffysshe, & cachche ffowlys, 

And somtyrae pleyen at the bowlys ; 
shoots at Among, shetyn 1 at bessellys, [' shetcn st] 

plays at And affter pleyn 2 at the merellys, [stowe, leaf w, back] 

merits (with - T , , i i iiinn 

pawns), Now at the dees, m my yong age, [pieyenst.] 11193 

at dice and 

hazard, Bothe at hassard & passage ; 

Now at the ches, now at the tablys, 
reads only Rede no storyes but on ff ably s, 11196 

On thyng that ys nat worth a lek ; 
plays at Pleye at the keyles & the q uek : 

ninepins and ' 

quickboard, bomwhyle my wyttys I applye 

hears songs, To here song & menstralcye, 1 1 200 

And pleye on dyuers Instrumentys : 

And the ffyn of myn entent ys 
[leaf 172, bk.] To folwe the lust off my corage, 
and is joiiy. And to spende my yonge age 11204 

In merthe only, & in solace, 

ffolwe my lustys in ech place ; 
Her only de- Ther-to hooly I me enclyne, 
sure.'an'iishe Bather than to han doctryne 11208 

despises her 

parents' Off ffader, moder, thogh they be wyse, 

teaching. J 

Al ther techyng I despyse ; 

And in no thyng ys set my cure, 

But my lustys to procure.' 11212 

The pugrim. The pylgrym : 

"Trewly," quod I a-noon ryht tho, 

' ' Wolde god y t stoode so 

That ye wer mevyd, & that a-noon, 

To passe the way that I shal gon." 11216 

nisi Youth. Yowthe : 

' "Whyder-ward (tel on, lat se,) 

Wyltow holde?z thy lourne 1 ' 



Youth goes with me. We see a Damsel playing with a Glove. 307 



The pylgrym ' [stowe, leaf ws] 

" To Jerusalem, the ryhte way 
I wyl holde, yiff that I may." 11220 

Yowthe : 

Quod yowthe, ' ther ys no mor to seye ; 
A whyle I wyl the conveye.' 

The pylgrym: 
" Kan ye teche me a-noon 
The ryhte way how I shal gon ? " 11224 

Yowthe : 

' ffor soth,' quod yowthe, ' nat ryht wel, 
But we shal faylle neueradel ; 
ffor we shal ffynde wel certeyn 

Som whyht that shal the trouthe seyw, 11228 

And the ryhte weye vs lere.' 

And whyl that we spak thus yffere, 
So as yowthe gan me conveye, 

Me thouthe I sawh a fforkyd weye 11232 

Partyng at an heg on tweyne, 
Thykke and thornyssh in certeyne ; 
And hadde nat the heg ybe, 
The same way, as sempte me, 
By the which" I sholde ha gon, ,, 

Hadde in sothnesse ben but on ; 
But the heg wych stood atwen, 

Departyd yt (men myghte sen), [stowe, leaf 198, back] 11240 
And the passage ek devyde : 
The ton was set on the ryht syde ; 
The tother path (I gan be-holde) 
On the lefft party gon holde. 11244 

And on the lefft hand I sawh a-noon 
A damysele sy tte on a ston ; 
Hyr on 1 hand on hyr brest was layd, C 1 oon St.] 
And in the tother (as I abrayd) 11248 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

She held a gloue VantOUwly, 2 [* Glove wantonly St., glove v . . C.] 

And tournyd yt fful ffetysly 

Aboute hyr ffyngres vp & doun. 

And shortly in conclusioun, 11252 

By maner off hyr gouernau?zce 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask Miss 
Youth the 
way to Jeru- 
salem. 
Mitt Youth. 

She says we 
shall find 
some one to 
tell it us. 



The Pilgrim. 



We come to a 
forkt way, 



[StandC.] 11236 Pea' I"] 



one path 
going to the 
right, 

and the other 
to the left. 

We take the 
left road, and 
meet a damsel 
Bitting on a 
stone, 



fingering a 
glove. 



308 We see a Net-Maker (Ldbmir^ making and undoing nets. 



The Pilgrim. 



This Damsel 
looks lazy. 



At her right 
hand sits a 
Net-maker 

(LABOUR), 



[leaf 173, bk.] 



who makes 
and unmakes 
a net. 



Of him I ask 
the way to 
Jerusalem, 

Nit-Maker, 
Labour. 



The Pilgrim. 



and say I 
want to cross 
the great sea. 



I sawh, & by hyr cowtenaimce, 

A womman (as by lyklynesse) 

But off lytel bysynesse, 11256 

By hyr labour, ouht to wynne : 

Hyr lyst nat carde nouther spymie, 

Nor, to getyn hyr dyspence, 

Do no maner dyllygence. 1 p off dyUygence st.] 11260 

On whos ryht hand I sawh on sytte 
Sobyrly, & lyst nat fflytte, 
But kept hywi covert in the shade ; 
And olde nattys ageyn he made, 11264 

Wych, ffor no labour wolde spare, 
But besy was hem to repare ; 
And off hyw thus stood the caas. 

fful gretly I astonyd was, 11268 

Thynkynge hys labour was in 2 veyn ; p in St., hole c.] 
He made, & hem vnmade ageyn ; [Stowe, leaf 199] 
Wher-in me sempte a ful gret lak : 
And ffyrst off al, to hym I spak : 11272 

The pylgrym: 

" My ffrend," quod I, " a-noon ryht here 
I pray the that thow wost me lore 
The beste weye, & most certeyne, 
Off thys ilke weyes tweyne 11276 

Wych that lyen a-for my fface ; 
ffor neuere yet I dyde pace 
By noon off hem, in al my lyff ; 
Wherffor tel me (& mak no stryff) 1 1280 

Wych ys the beste & most certeyn." 

The Natte-makere : 
The natte-makere answerde ageyn : 
' Whyder castestow (in thy syht) 
ffor to holde thy weye ryht ? ' 1 1284 

The pylgrym: 

" Syker," qiiod I, "now herkne me 
I wolde passe the grete se, 
And oversaylle the salte strem, 

To kome vn-to Jerusalem ; 11288 

Off wych cyte, told longe aforn, 
The bysshop was off mayde born." 






The Net-Maker says Miss Idleness sends Pilgrims wrong. 309 



The Natte-makere : 

' Trewly, syr, \vykh your grace, [Stowe, leaf 199, backj 

I sytte no thyng in thys place 11292 

ffor to teche men the weye ; 

Nor, pylgrymes to conveye, 

Yt ys no parcel off my charge ; 

But off thys tweyne weyes large, 11296 

As ffolk reporte in many lond, 

That the weye on the lefft hond, 

Wher-as the damysele doth sytte, 

(And ne lyst nat for to fflytte,) 11300 

Ys a passage ful pe?-yllous, 

And to pylgrymes encombrous. 

And thys damysele queywte, 

Off malys doth neuere feynte 11304 

To calle pylgrymes nyht & day, 

To make hem go the same way, 

Wher they do gret pej-eyl ffele, 

Be they armyd neuere so wel. 11308 

' But, trewly, by myw avys, 
Swych pylgrymes as be wys, 
They that ben in vertu strong, 

Shal lete the way that ly[e]th wrong, 11312 

And tracen in hyr pylgrymage 
On the ryht hand in ther vyage ; 
The wych, fful many on hath take, 
And affterward hath yt for-sake, 11316 

Brooke thorgh the hegg by vyolence, 
And ther-in don fful gret offence ; 
Toward the lefft path tournyd bak, 
Tyl they ha fallyn on the wrak 11320 

Off ffalse guydes : by the lore 
Off me, her-off thow gest 1 no more : [' gest St.] 
Wherso that thow wynwe or lese, 
Off thys two weyes thow mayst chese. 1 11324 

The pylgrym ./ [stowe, leafaooj 

" Syre, I pray the off o thyng : 
Touchyng thy labour in 2 werchyng, [ and St.] 
Tel me the cause (in certeyn) 
Why makestow, & vndost ageyn 11328 



Net-Maker, 
Labour, 



says it's not 
his business 
to tell folk 
the way : 



but the left 
road is very 
dangerous, 



[leaf 174] 



and the 
quaint Dam- 
sel (Idleness's 
daughter) al- 
ways tries to 
make Pil- 
grims go that 
way. 



But he ad- 
vises me, 
DeQuilleville, 



to take the 
right-hand 
path, tho 
many have 



I can choose 
one of the 
two. 

Th Pilgrim. 



310 Net-Maker Labour says Difference of Hanks must exist. 

The pilgrim. " Thy werk so offte sythe a day ? 

The semeth trewly (I may say), 

Ther-in (who consydreth al,) 

Thy wyt ys verray dul & smal, 11332 

(As to myw oppynyouw) 

Ydel, thyw occupacioura : 

Yiveth to me an evydence 

To yive to the no credence 11336 

To no thyng that thow hast me sayd ; 
[leaf HI, bk.] And though" that thow be euele apayd, [St. and c.] 

I shal seyn trouthe, as semeth me : 

i ask why the Yt wer merveyl thow sholdest the 1 ptheest.] 11340 

Net-Maker 

makes and go symple a crant on the to take, 

unmakes his " x 

nets, To make nattys, & vnmake ; 

The wyche 2 crafft (whan al ys souht) [ a which* St., wych c.] 
Ys so pore, yt. wynneth nouht." 11344 

Net-Maker, The nat-makere : 

- ' Touchyng my crafft, wych I vse, 

and am told 

To the I may me thus excuse : 
Thogh yt be symple, & pore off name, 
Therfor thow sholdest me nat blame : 11348 

that each one Swych as I kan, swych I acheue : 

must work 

according to Thys, no cause me to repreue, 

his powers. ' * 

.Nor to rebuke off no ffolye. 

' Yiff ye aduerten prudently, 11352 

Everyman Euery man hath nat a fibrge, [Stowe, leaf ZOO, bk.] 

gold crowns Crownys off gold, in for to forge ; 

NOT ffolkys alle, 3 yong nor old, p aiie St., aiu c.] 

Kan nat the crafft to chauwge gold; 11356 

Nor alle may nat be lowelerys : 

Ech crafft hath hys offycerys : 

Nor alle ffolk may nat noblys telle ; 
or sell rubies. Nor alle ffolk may nat Eubyes selle ; 11360 

ffor kownyng thawne wer off no prys, 

Yiff ech man were alyche wys. 

' Lerne ek off me, thys sentence, 
There must Ther muste be a dyfference 11364 

be diversity 

(Pleynly yiff thow lyst to knowe,) 

of ranks and Off EstatyS hih & lowe, 
crafts. i <v m 

And oft crafftys ek also. 



Let each do well. Cart & Plough bear up Church & State. 311 



' And tak also good heed herto, 11368 

Yiff all ffolk in a Regioiw 

Hadden On 1 occupacioim C'oonst.] 

In the Rychest crafft of alle, 

Deme thawne what sholde falle : 11372 

Thawne al ylyche (yiff thow tok 2 hed) p take St.] 

The ffoot as good as ys the hed ; 

A knaue also, by hys werkyng, 

Sholde ben Egal wyt/t the 3 kyng ; p a st.] 1 1376 

The wych (who wysly kan espye,) 

Ne wer no maner polycye, 

But rather a confus'iouw 

In euery mane?' Regi'oiw. 11380 

1 Wherfor, in Townys & cytes, 
Lat men lyuen lyk her degres : 
Wyse ffolk that kan dyscerne, 

Lat hem by wysdam so governe 11384 

That no man ne haue no wrong ; 
And swych as myghty ben, & strong, 
VTyth myghte lat hem the lond dyffende ; [Stowe, leaf 201] 



Net-3faker, 
Labour. 



[leaf 175] 
Otherwise the 
foot were as 
good as the 
head, 

a knave equal 
to the king. 



Let wise men 
govern by 
wisdom, 



11392 



11395 



And clerkys to ther studye entende ; 

And labourerys, lat hew werche ; 

And spyrytual ffolk off the cherche, 

Lat ther occupac'ioim 

Ben in contewplaci'oim, 

In deuocioiw & prayere ; 

Voyde he??* ffrcwi offyce seculer ; 

Lat hem go lyue lyk ther bond ; 

And swyche 4 ffolk as tyle the lond, [* swyche St., swych c.] 

Lat hem do trewly ther labour, 

Bothe in drouht & ek in shour ; 

ffor trewly (yiff I rekne shal) 

Carte & plowh, they ber vp al 

The clergye & the cheualrye. 

' And overmor, ffor my partye, 
Thogh my crafft (in co?clusioim) 
Be off no reputaci'ouw, 
Swych as I kan, swych I ha wrouht ; 
And therfore rebuke me nouht ; 
ffor crafftys vsyd in pouerte 



11388 clerks study, 



[NotaSt. later.] 11400 



11404 



labourers 
work, 



churchmen 

Sray, and not 
o secular 
duties. 



Let land- 
tillers work 
in drought 
and rain, 



for Cart and 
Plough bear 

up Clergy and 
Chivalry. 



312 As Rust dulls a Sword, so Idleness, ly Vice, ruins the Soul. 



Net-Maker, 
Labour. 

Poor crafts 
are needful. 

[leaf 175, bk.] 



The net is 
made and un- 
made to avoid 
idleness. 



If Labour 
knew other 
trades, he'd 
work at em, 
and not undo 
his net 



As a sword 
sometimes 
rusts, 



Tht Pilgrim. 



Net-Maker, 
Labour. 



BO men rust 
and go wrong 



thro idleness. 



The rust of 
vice destroys 
the bright- 
ness of virtue. 



' May nat alle refusyd be : 
Crafftys poore be necessarye ; 
And ffor me, lyst the nat to tarye, 
Euery crafft (& thus I mene) 
Mut gouerne other, & sustene, 
So yt be don w?/t7&-oute slouthe, 
And due'ly ywrouht in trouthe ; 
And thus thow shalt my wordys take. 
And thogh that I make & vnmake, 
Blame me nat, ffor (in sothnesse) 
I do yt to voyden ydelnesse. 

' And yiff I, lyk thyw oppynyou?i, 
Koude other occupaci'ouw, 
I wolde yt done, be wel certeyn, 
And nat vnmake thys natte ageyn, 
ffor wych thow dost repreue me. 
And her, thyng I axe off the : 
What ys the cause (ffer or ner) 
That a swerd burnysshed cler, 
Somwhyle rusteth, as thow mayst se, 
Leseth hys bryhtnesse & bewte ] ' 

The pylgrym: 

" Touchyng thyw askyng, in certeyn, 
Me to answere, yt wer but weyn ; 
Thow hast thy sylff (who kan ffel,) 
The cause ytold, pleynly & wel." 

The Natte-makere : 
' So as a swerd (I dar expresse,) 
Yffadyd ys off hys bryhtnesse, 
And off hys clernesse ek also, 
Whan men take noon hed ther-to, 
But rusteth & ffareth al amys, 
Eyght so a man that ydel ys, 
& kan hyw sylff nat occupye, 
(By resemblauwce thow mayst espye,) 
In-to hys 1 sowle (thus I be-gynne) 
The rust off vyces or off synne 
Doth a-way (wyt/i-oute gesse) 



11408 



11412 



11415 

Non (facile capitar a di- 
abolo, qui bono vacat ex- 
/ 



11420 

[Stowe, leaf 201, back] 



11424 



11428 



11432 



11436 



11440 



[i In thy St.] 



Off alle 2 vertu the clernesse; 
But excercysc (in sentence) 



p alle St., al C.] 11444 



How the World despises the Poor, and holds the Rich wise. 313 



11456 

sadde . . . cladde St.] 



1 And contynual dyllygence, 
Born vp vftfih vertuous labour, 
Ys bet than any ffoorbysshour 
Ageyn the rust off ydelnesse, 
Off vertu to gyue perfyt clernesse.' 

The pylgrym: cstowe, leaf 202] 

"Now, gentyl ffrend," a-noon quod I, 
" Tel me thy name trew[e]ly, 
Wych art so wys off answerynge : 
Tel on, & mak no mor taryynge." 

The Natte-makere : 
' To telle the trouthe verrayly, 
Yt befalleth comourcly 
(As clerkys wryte, that be sad, 1 ) 
"Whaw a man ys ffebly clad, 1 
And outward hath noon apparence, 
Phylysophres (in ther sentence) 
And Ek poetys that wer wys, 
They seyn swych on ys off no prys 
Nor off no reputaci'ouw 
Affter the worldys oppynyouw. 
And thys comouwly the language 
That thylke ffolkys be most sage, 
And wysest holden (in certeyn), 
That be ffressh, & wel beseyn, 
And kan make hem syluew gay 
Wyth ryche fforewrys & array, 
And devyses most vnkouth, 
Swych ffolk, in euery mawhys 2 mouth, 
Be wysest holde in thys world here. 

' And ouermor, as ye shal lere, 
Thogh a man wer neuere so wys, 
And hadde lernyd at Parys, 
Thys thryrty yer at scole be 
In that noble vnyuersyte, 
And hadde ful experyence 
Off euery wysdom & scyence, 
& koude exponere euery doute, 
And wer but porely clad wyt/t-oute, 
Men wolde dcrae most comouwly [St. & c.] 



11448 



11452 



11460 



11464 



11468 



Net-Maker, 
Labour.* 

[leaf 176] 
Work is the 
best remedy 
for the ills of 
Idleness. 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask the 
Net-Maker 
bis name. 



Net-Maker, 
Labour, 



says that 



when a man 
is poorly clad, 
he is little 
esteenid; 



11476 



[Stowe, leaf 202, back] 11480 



but if he has 
rich furs and 
dress, 



he's held 
wise. 



Though a 
man had 
studied at 
Paris for 
thirty years, 



and could 
clear every 
doubt, 



if he were 
poorly clad 
[leaf 176, bk.] 



314 Philosophy left the Universities. Labour supports the State. 



Net-Maker, 
Labour, 

he would 
be accounted 
a fool. 



Philosophy 
has left the 
universities 
and lives in 
cities with 
welldrest 
folk. 



Farewell 
Knowledge, 
if he has a 
bad coat ! 



I don't 
wonder that 
you think 
me unwise, 



' because my 
clothes are 
torn. 



' And yet, 
without me, 
Adam and 
his offspring 
had not been. 



or Noah. 



' I sustain the 
whole state. 



[leaf 177] 



* That hys wysdom wer ffoly, [st.&c.] 11484 

And that he \ver a fool at al 

By oypynyoim general : 

So they reherse in ther sentence ; 

ffor wysdom now, & sapyence, 11488 

Practyk off phylosofye, [St. & c.] 

Off arsmetryk & gemetrye, 

Off Astronomye & musyk, 

And experyence off physyk, 11492 

Ys ffled now fro vnyuersytes, 

And dwelleth in borwes & cytes 

Wyih folk that wel arrayed be 

At the eye, as men may se. 11496 

' And ffarwel kormyng, now euery day, 
Wher ther ys no ffressh array ! 
Wyt/i-oute array, konnyng, farwel ! 
Wherfor I merveylle neueradel 11500 

Thogh thow me settyst at no prys, 
Nor thogh thow boldest me nat wys, 
By cause my ray ys al to-rent. 

And yet, by good avysement, 11504 

Yiff thow loke wel aboute, 
I am he (yt ys no doute,) 
Who so lyst to taken hed,) 

That yiue to alle 1 folk ther bred, [ aiie St., aiu c.] 1 1508 
Or shortly (ellys for to seye) Nota. Nota. st. (later). 
They sholde ellys for hunger deye, 
Ne were 2 I & my werchyng ; ? were St., wer c.] 
Ye, bothe adam & hys off-spryng. [stowe, leaf 203] 11512 
Hadde I nat be, (yt ys no ffaylle,) 
What myghte the gret shyp avaylle 
Off Noe (in conclusi'ouw) 
Nor al hys generaciouw ? 11516 

' And, ffor to speke in general, 
I sustene & her vp al, 
& yt ys I, ech hour & space, 

That makth the tyme shortly pace 11520 

W?/t/i-oute anoy or perturbaurcce ; 
ffor I am he, by remewbraurice, 
Syth adam the Appyl heet, [c. & st.] 



Labour shows me the right road. Idleness a pretty Girl. 315 
' Wych wwt/i labour & wvt/i swet [c.&st.] 11524 Net-Maker, 

TT - A- S Lal """'- 

Haue youe ftoode & pasture , 1>ye alwa . g 

To euery levyng creature, $ * to 

Bothe to best & ek to man, ma "' 

Syth 1 ty me that the world be-gan psyththest.] 11528 since the 

* world began. 

Wher-off I am no thyng to blame. 

And my verray ryhte name My name is 

J J ' Labour and 

Ys (wyt/i-oute mor sarnion) occupation.' 

" Labour & Occupaciouw." [tfota st. later} 11532 

' I rechche nat, wha?i al ys do, 
Wych thow me calle off bothe two ; 
And folkys alle that stonde in grace, 
By me vn-to the cyte pace 11536 I've told you 

the right (and 

The ryhte way wyt/i-oute lak. nghtnand) 

And for that ffyrst to me thow spak, 

The ryhte way, 2 the* to lere, [ weye, 316/11,596] 

Off thy a two weyes that ben here, 11540 

And I ha told the myn avys, 

Now ches the beste, syth thow art wys.' bert 96 the 

The pylgrym: 

And thaTi a-noon, as ye shal here, [stowe, leaf zos, back] 
Whyl we spak togydre yffere, 11544 

My body (for hys gret plesaunce) 
Gat hym wyt7i youthe acqueyntauwce, 
& bothe, voyded off dyscord, 
"Wher 3 yfalle off on accord. [* Were St.] 11548 

" And Yowthe (off wych aforn I sayde) 
Vn-to me thus gan abrayde : 
' Yt wer syttynge (as semeth me) ^Us Youth : 

J J < \ / tells me to 

And accordynge to thy degre, 11552 

To gon and getyn aqueywtauwce, 

And, to haue som dalyauwce, 

The bet thy sylff ffor to provyde 

Wyth hyr that syt on the lefft syde, 11556 

Thylke damysele, I mene, [c.&st.] [leafm.bk.] 

go instead to 

Whicn ys so goodly on to sene, ,, the pretty 

Damsel, Miss 

And to hyr doctryne yiue som feyth. Idle h es fVt 

And thow mayst sen how that she leyth 11560 

Vnder hyr armole, hyr on hond ; 
And (yiff thow kanst wel vnderstond) 



316 / ask pretty Miss Idleness the way to Jerusalem. 



who has a 
Glove in one 
hand. 



She'll teach 
me the way 
better than 
the Net-mak- 
er, Labour. 



The Pilgrim. 

So I (of 
course) go 
and salute 
pretty Mi as 
Idleness, 



and ask her 
the way to 

Jerusalem. 



3fis Idlenexs 



says, 



[leaf 178] 



' This is the 
king's high- 
way, 



easy and 
smooth, 



' In the tother bond (parde) 

A Gloue she halt, as thow mayst se. 11564 

Go to hyre, & do thy cure ; 

And I trowe, off aventure, 

She wyl the teche, & pleynly seyn 

The weye wych ys most certeyn, 11568 

Bet than thys cherl that sytteth here, 

Swart and owgly off hys chere, 

Wych ys a verray tormentour 

To putte ffolkys to labour, 11572 

And may to the no thyng avaylle, 

But vexyn the wyt/i gret travaylle.' 

And by hys consayl (off entente) 
Vu-to hyre a-noon I wente ; 11576 

And ffyrst, as me thouhte yt due, [stowe, leaf 201] 
I gan hyr goodly to salue. 
And she, devoyde off al dysdeyne, 
Mekly saluede me ageyn. 11580 

And alderfyrst (shortly to seye) 
Humblely I gan hyr preye 
That she wolde, off coortesysye, 

Govorne me also, & guye, 11584 

Teche me, & sey nat nay, 
In my vyage the ryhte way, 
By wych pylgrymes euerychon 
To lerusalem wer wont to gon." 11588 

The damysele: 

' Certys,' quod she, off cher benygne^ 
' I ne knowe noon other sygne 
Nor other tookne, in thys passage, 
Off ffolk that gon on pylgrymage ; 11592 

But I knowe (be wel certeyn) 
Yiff I shal the trouthe seyn, 
On hors, on foote, in general, 

Thys the weye most royal, 1159G 

Callyd the kynge's hihe 1 weye. [' high* St., iuh c.] 
And her-wyt^-al, I dar wel seye 
Yt ys most esy off passage 

To ffolkys old & yong off age, 11600 

Smothe & pleyn, (yt ys no nay,) 



She shows me the Highway to Pleasure, Revels and Games. 317 



11604 



p luyt st.] 



' And most yvsyd nyht & day ; 

And by thys ylke same weye, 

Gladly ffolkys I conveye, 

Swych as loue paramours, 

To ward the voode, to gadre fflours, 

Soote rosys & vyolettys, 11607 

Ther-off to make hem chapePettys, p chapel- st., chapi- c.] 

And other fflourys to her plesaimce. [stowe, leaf 204, back] 

' And in thys weye I teche hem dauwce ; 
And also, ffor ther lady sake, 
Endyte lettrys, & songys make 
Vp-on the glade somerys dayes, 
Balladys, Roundelays, vyrelayes. 
I teche hem ek, (lyk ther ententys,) 
To pleye on sondry Instrumentys, 
On harpe, lut, 2 & on gyterne, 
And to revelle at tav^rne, 
Wyth al 3 merthe & mellodye, 
On rebube 4 and on symphony e; puebubest.] 11620 
To spende al the day in ffablys, 
Pleye at the ches, pley at the tablys, 
At treygobet 5 & tregetrye, p and at Treygobett st.] 
In karyyng & in logolory : 11624 

And to al swych maner play, 
Thys the verray ryhte way.' 

The pylgrym: 
" Trew[e]ly, to my plesaunce, 

ffor your noble dalyaunce 11628 

I wolde (off good entenci'ourc) 
Knowe your condycyouw ; 
Youre Name also, yiff that ye 
Lyst goodly to telle hem me." 

The damysele: 

' Yiff thow wylt abyde a throwe, 

My name and al, 6 thow shalt wel knowe : [ 6 aiie St., on. wei.] 
I am a poopet, 7 in sothnesse, u Poepet st.] 

Douhter to Dame Ydelnesse, 11636 

Set her, 8 by hyr ordynau/zce. ['here St.] [stowe, leaf 205] 
And al my joye & my plesaunce 
Ys, by hyr wyl that her 8 me sette, 



Missldlenett. 

' and I guide 
lovers along 
it to gather 
flowers, 



' and teach 
em to dance, 

11612 'make songs, 



11616 ''play music, 



[Stowe, leaf 204, back] 

[st.&c.] 11632 



' revel at the 
tavern, 



' and play 
at back-gam- 
mon and 
juggling.' 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask her who 
she is. 



[leaf 178, bk.] 



The Damsel 
says she is 



the daughter 
of Idleness. 



318 Idleness only combs her hair, reads Romances, & does Folly. 



thinks only 
of her gloves 
fitting well, 
of combing 
her hair, 



and reading 
romances. 



She cherishes 
folks' bodies 
in folly, 



makes em 
play the Gal- 
lant merrily, 



[leaf 179] 



and dresses 
them gaily. 



The road to 

Pleasure is 

broad and 

easy; 

that to Duty 

narrow and 

hard. 



' My glovys streythly on to sette : 1 1640 

I take off no-thyng elle's hed, 

But, offte a day, kombe mjn hed, 

Prye ech hour in a merour, 

God wot, that ys most my labour, 11644 

Wake a nyhtys, slepe a day, [c. & St.] 

And specyally the haly day 

I study e among (thys the caas) 

In Elenches off ff alias, 11648 

Out to ffynde thynges newe, 

To make ffablys seme trewe ; 

And, above al other thynges, 

On romauwcys ffondyd on lesynges, 11652 

Ther-in ys my studye most. 

' And I am ek, in euery cost, 
Paramour to thy body, 

Yt to cherysshe in al ffolye. 11656 

And wherso that thow slepe or wake, 
Labour, I make the forsake ; 
And by my wyl (ek in certeyne) 
Thow shalt dure 1 no maner peyne, c 1 endure St.] 11660 
But lyon, 2 sewen, & make a-vauwt, p lyen St.] 
And muryely pleyen the Galawnt. 

' I make ff oik, vp-on ther hed, 

To were chaplettys off whyht & red, 11664 

Pyke her naylles, wernays take, 
And al travaylle to forsake, 
Studye ffor to ffynde off newe, [stowe, leaf 205, back] 
Devyses mad off many an hewe, 11668 

ffolk to make hew ffressh & gay, 
And hem dysguyse in ther array : 
Thys myn offys, yer by yere. 

' Now ches a-noon, whyl thow art here, 11672 

"Wyche weye 3 thow wylt take ; p which* way St.] 
And wherso that thow slepe or wake, 
Thow shalt lerne a thyng off me : 
Thys same weye wych thow dost se, 11676 

Ys large & pleyn, esy to pace ; 
The tother, streiht, & hard to trace, 
And ff ewe ffolkys go thcr-by : 



Idleness tells me how sharply Penance's thorny rods prick. 319 

4 Thys, mor plesauwt & redy. 11680 jfinioimeu, 

Now, syth thow hast dyscreci'oun 

Mak thy sylff Elleccyouw.' choose! 

The pylgrym: The pt'onm. 

" Trew[e]ly," quod I a-noon, 

" Thys two weyes wer but on, 1 [loonst.] 11684 

Ne wer only (as ye may sen) 
Thys ylke heegg that stant betwen. 
Wherfor I pray that ye nat lette, i ask who set 

J up the hedge 

To telle who the heggg her sette." 11688 dividing the 

two paths. 

Ydelnesse : ins* mentis 



1 Touchyng thys heg that stondeth here, says the 

Yt was maad (yiff thow lyst lere,) tween was set 

Off a gret turmenteresse Tormentress, 

Wych doth to ffolk fful gret dystresse ; 11692 

And she maketh pylgrymes alle, [stowe, leaf 206] 

Penytence, hyr sylff to calle. Penance 36 r 

Who hath wytA hyre Aqueyntauwce, 

Muste endure gret penauwce : 11696 

Hatfful she ys off cher & fface 

To alle that by thys weye pace, 

I mene, the weye that I am Inne ; 

But who that lyst ffro me to twynne, 11700 

And the tother weye take, [st.&c.] peamo.bk.] 

I dar pleynly vndertake, And ail who 

r J J 



go 

On leg, on ffoot, on too & hele, ,, w i u , 

with sharp 

He shal fful sharpe thornys ffele, 11704 th 8 - 

Gret prykyng, I the ensure, 
And sharp, wyt/i-outere al mesure, 
ffor they be sharpe, & no-thyng soffte. 

' And thys lady kometh fful off te 11708 

(I mene thys lady dame Penauwce 8 Dame 

x J J . Penance 

~Wyth whom I ha noon acqueyntauwce) ; 

To thys heg she kometh al day, 

Maketh yerdvs, & coth hyr way, 11712 daily makes 

J J ' J J ' rods and 

Besmys also, 2 sotyl & queynte. p also St., alle c.] brooms of the 

And day nor nyht she doth nat ffeynte 

To make ay newe in hyr werkynge, 

Instrumentys ffor chastysynge 11716 to chastise 

Off synne, by gret ordynawzce, 



sin. 



320 Idkness tells me to take the left road, Moral Virtue the right. 



Ifitsldlenen. 

Folk don't 
like this 
Dame Pen- 
ance. 



Tie Pilgrim. 



I mean to 
take the right 
Pth, 



but Miss 
Youth per- 
suades me 

to take the 
left. 



[leaf 180] 



Then I meet 
a lady stand- 
ing at a gate ; 



her name 
is Moral 

Virtue, 



and she bids 
me take the 
right path, 

thro' her 
gate. 



I see two 

postern 

gates, 



looking dan- 
gerous. 

So I leave 
both, 



' Thys same lady, Dame Penauwce ; [c. & St.] 

And in hyr occupac'iouw 

ffolk haue but smal affecci'ouw. 11720 

I ha the tolde off hyre to-fforn, 

Off instrumentys that she hath born), 

Off Bysme, off hamer, off thywges mo.' 

And thanne I thouhte I wolde go 11724 

By the path & by the weye cstowe, leaf zoe, back] 
By wych the man gan me conveye, 
That made the nattys in certeyn, 
Vnmade & made hem effte ageyn. 11728 

And, lyk as tauhte me my guyde, 
I drewh toward the ryhte 1 syde P right* St., ryht c.] 
And in that weye lyst nat tarye ; 
But youthe a-noon, to me contrary e, 11732 

fful besy was me ffor ta let 2 ; p to litte St.] 

Seyde the tother way was bet, 
More 3 hawntyd, the passage, p More St., Mor c.] 

Off ffolk that gon on pylgrymage. 11736 

And fforth the same weye I helde, 
Tyl that a-fforn me I be-held, 4 c* beheide St.] 

Eeysed on hihte, a lytel wal, 

Two posternys & a gate smal 5 ; p smal St., final c.] 11740 
And mid the gaate a lady stood, 
That was bothe ffayr & good, 
(I pray god, ffayre 6 mot hyr ff alle ! [ ffayre St.] 
And vertu moral mere hyr calle. 11744 

And she A-noon, off hyr goodnesse, 
Off bouwte and off gentyllesse, 
(As she that lyst to be my guyde,) 
Bad, I sholde on the tother syde 11748 

Declyne nouther to nor ffro, 
But by the same gate go 
Wher as she stoode, 7 lyue ryht, p stoode St., stood c.] 

And I conceyvede in my syht, 11752 

And fful clerly gan dyscerne 
On owther party a posterne, 
And sawh that they were e"ncoumbrous 
To passe by, & daungerous : 11756 

Bothe I leffte (as was niy ffaate), 






[oral Virtue tells me to take the Right-hand Road. 321 



And lyne ryht vn-to the gaate 
The weye I held, by hyr byddynge, [stowe, leaf 207] 
Wher as she stood hyr sylff lenyng. 1 1 760 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

The pylgrym: 

And lyst she ffouwde in me som lak, 
Vn-to hyre ryht thus I spak : 

" Ma dame," qwod I / "I stonde in wher 1 [> wiierest.] 
Touchynge thys weyes that ben her; 11764 

I not off hem wych I shal holde." 

And she to me fful goodly tolde 
And specyally gan charge me, 
The fforeyn 2 posternys ffor to ffle; p stowe] 11768 

[Vertu Moral] 

' And do thy power and thy myght 
To holde the weye that goth ryht, 
The weye (I mene) ryht as lyiie, 

Wher I stonde, & nat declyne 11772 

On nouther party, nyht nor day, 
Also ffer fforth as thow may.' 

She sayd ek, as I vnderstood, 

That 'he ys an archer good 11776 

Wych ffaylleth nat hy??i-sylff taquyte, 
Ahvay the marke ffor to smyte ; 
And no man blamen hym ne may, 
Thogh he hytte yt nat alway : 
So he do trewly hys deuer, 
Wyth hys arme to smyte yt net 
In al hys beste ffeythfful wyse, 
Yt doth ynowh to hym suffyse 
That in hys drawyng he nat ffeyne. 
And therfor do thy besy peyne 
Aforn, thy sylff so to provyde, 
Teschewe the weyes that gon asydo 
Hold the myd, in especyal. 

' ffor I am callyd ' vertu moral, 
Polytyk, & general ' ; 

And myw offyce her-wyt/i-al 11792 

I contene (as clerkys shevves) 
Al 3 the pathys to goode thewes, [ 3 Ami ai st. 1 

PILGRIMAGE, Y 



The Pilgrim. 



11780 



11784 

[Stowe, leaf 207, back] 
[C. & St.] 



I ask Moral 
Virtue which 
way I shall 
take. 



[leaf 180, bk.] 
Moral Virtue 

says I must 
keep the right 
roatl, where 
she stands, 



and not turn 
out of it. 



As an archer 
can't always 
hit his mark, 



and is not to 
1 '< blamed 



if he does his 
best, 



so I must go 
straight, 



and keep the 
middle path. 



My teacher's 
name is 
Virtue, Moral, 
Politic, and 
General. 

She shows 
the paths to 
goodness. 



322 How am I to avoid Vices, that eat like Cankerworms ? 



Moral Virtue 

wishes to 

get rid of her 
extremities, 



[leaf 181] 

\yhich work 
like the can- 
kenvorm 



By the ex- 
tremities, the 
posterns, 



Pilgrims 

must not go, 
if they want 
to gel to 
Jerusalem. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask how 
I'm to avoid 
ranker-like 
vices. 



The ryhte way, & ther degres ; 

' And yet I haue extremytes 11796 

(Who kan looke on ech a syde,) 

The wych I wolde fro me devyde, 

As fferfforth as I kan or may 

Severyn "hem, and caste a-way, 11800 

ffor cause they be vycyous 

In my syht, & ryht greuous. 

' ffor thyse extremytees, in soth, 
ffarn ryht as a kanker doth, 11804 

I mene the werm (who lyst se) 
That ffreteth the herte off a tre, 
And, wv/t/t hys ffret & wyt/i hys rage, 
Doth to tymber gret damage. 11808 

Yiff thylke werm (yt ys no nay) 
Be nat the rather kut away 
And dysseveryd ffrom hys place, 

The tre so sore he wyl manace 11812 

Vp to the croppe 1 fro the roote, [ croppe St., crop c.] 
That affterward ther ys no bote, 
As mew may sen in many tres. 

' And semblaly thextremytes 11816 

The posternys that be fforeyne, 
Wych that ben in nouwbre tweyne, 
I haue he?n fro me put a-way 

W?/t/A-OUte ffauor Or 2 delay, [ 2 or eny Stowe, leaf 208] 1 1 820 

Off entent that, in thys place, 

Pylgrymes noon shal by he?n pace, 

That wyl ouer the grete see 11823 

To Jerusalem the cyte; tu^^e^cHnTs^a'aeTx- 

ffor yiff they wente by that passage, p r r a Jvcr6/2rw d [iv!] S z' 

Yt wer pereyl & gret damage.' st>> om ' c ' 

The pylgrym: 

" Ma dame, \vyih your reuerence, 
I wolde se som evydence, 11828 

Yiff yt wer possyble, me to knowe 
By som exauwple (hih~ or lowe,) 
How thys vyces (som or alle,) 
Lyk to kanker, ye hew calle." 11832 

Vertu moral: 



Moral Virtue shows how Virtues have attendant Vices. 323 



Vices are like 
cankers, 
at the ex- 
tremities of 
Virtues. 



[leaf 181, bk.] 
Force is a 
cardinal 
virtue, with 
two vices, 



and Fool- 
hardiness. 



' Semblably as dyuers tres, 

Kankres han in ther degres, 

Kyht so vertues (douteles) 

Han dyuers extremytes, 11836 

Kankres at outlier ende, 

That ffrete on hem wherso they wende. 

' Lo, her, Exauwple in especyal ! 
fforee ys a vertu Cardynal, 11840 

The wych hath a kanker double, 
On outlier party hy?/i to trowble, 
To dystroye hym nyht & day 

Yiff they ne be nat kut a- way 11844 

Wonder peryllous to deuyse ; 

The ton ys callyd ' Cowardyse ' J [Stowe, leaf 208, back] Cowardice 

The tother (yiff I shal expresse) 

Ycallyd ys ' Foolhardynesse,' 11848 

Wych \\yih fforee may nat abyde, 

They be so ffer set out asyde, 

ffer ffro fforee at two posternys. 

But fforee so wysly hy??& gouemys 11852 

That he hath no thyng a-doo 

Wyth noon of thys werrnys two ; 

ffor in myd place (as I yOW tolde) In medio eonsistit virtus. 

fforee, off custom doth hym holde. 11856 

' A-nother exawnple ye may se 
Touchynge Lyberalyte, 
Wych hath also (who kan dyscerne) 
Set ffer ffrom hy??i at a posterne 
The ffalse werm off covey tyse, 
Wych ys ycallyd Auaryse. 

' The tother Kanker (who lyst se) 
Ys callyd Prodygalyte ; 
And a-twen thys wermys tweyne, 
Mydde l place (ffor mor certeyne) [' Mydde St., Myd c.] 
Halt hym Lyberalyte. 

Go, red Ethikes, wher thow shalt se 11868 

(Whan-so-euere that thow ha space) 
Vertu set ay in myd 2 place, pmyddc St.] 

Wher as they most clerly shyne, 
And many kankres wych on he-//* myne. 11872 



11860 



Force is in 
the middle 
place. 

Liberality 
also has two 
vices, 



Avarice and 



11864 Prodigality. 



Rend Aris- 
totle's Kthlcs, 
and you'll 
find Virtue 
set in the 
middle. 



324 / confess that I have gone ly two wrong roads. 



Uorairirtiie. 

Good pil- 
grims must 
go the middle 
way, 



and avoid 
side gutes. 
[leaf 182] 



They must 
follow Virtue 
in their 
youth. 



I, DeGuille- 
ville, confess 
that I have 
gone wrong. 



Moral Virtue 

doesn't won- 
der at it, for 
all roads fork, 



and even 
Ueometrinns 



11880 



11884 



11888 



11892 



' But goode pylgrymes that ha grace, 
Alway by the myddys pace ; 

Exauwple 1 off whom b[y] nyht & day [ 1 Bexaupiest.,o.by] 
Hold alway the mene way. 1187G 

Lat moral vertu be thy guyde 
ffle posternys that stonde a side, 

By whos pereyl (who taketh hede) [c. & St.] [stowe, leaf 209] 
Many a pylgrym hath be ded. 

' And whyl that youthe (herkne me,) 
ffressh and lusty abyt wv/t/i the, 
Yi&. the to vertu ech hour and space ; 
ffor, whan youthe a-way doth pace 
W?/t7(-oute vertu (truste me,) 
Yt ys ful hard (who that kan se,) 
Vertu to wynne, whara youthe ys gon. 
Who that in youthe lyst lerne noon, 
ffor custoom take in tendre age, 
(As seyn thys olde ffolkys sage,) 
Wyt/i-oute 2 labour (thys no nay,) p out St., o. c.] 
Ys ful hard to parte away.' 

The pylgrym. 

"Ma dame," quod I, "so mot I the, 
I wende sykerly ta be 
In the ryhte weye ywys ; 
But, certys, I ha gon amys, 
ffor I ha chose (and thus yt stood) ^ 
Two euele weye's ffor on good : 
I not what yt may sygnefye, 
That I thus erre thorgh my ffolye." 

Vertu moral: 
' Ha no merveyl in thy siht ; 
flor ther ys weye noon so ryht 
That yt ne fforketh out asyde 
By many pathys that yt devyde, 
Wych cause ffolkys euere among, 
fful offte sythi-s to go wrong. 

' And many on that thow dost sen, 
Ys nat ther-for A Geometryen 
Wv/t/<-In a compas (ha thys in mynde) 
Thogh he ko?me out the centre fynde ; 



11896 



11900 



11904 

[Stowe, leaf 209, back] 



11908 



Moral Virtue lids me pray to find the right way, & Truth. 325 



Moral Virtue 



' ffor verrayly (who kan devyse) 

Yt ys fouwde out but in l wyse ; [> in on St.] 11912 

Yet ffolkys ffaylle dyuersly 

To ffynde yt out by geometry. 

An Archer eke, in thymie and thykke, [stowe, leaf 200, back] [leaf isa, bk.] 



can't find the 
right way by 
geometry. 



[st.&c.] 11916 



, 



11920 



11924 



11928 



11932 



Faylleth somtyme off the prykke. 

H Wherfore, to ffynde the ryhte weye, 

Yt ys good, to god to preye. 

Yet in prayere, bothe day & night, 

The weye goth nat alway ryht, 

ffor, bothe in psalmys & in vers 

Ther ben pathys fful dyuers, 

And also ek in Orysouws, 

Out forkyd by entenci'ouns j 

As thus : who that kan aduerte : 

The mouth dyuerseth ffro the herte ; 

But herte and mouth be bothen on : 

By dyuers pathys, in soth, they gon ; 

And, (pleynly ffor to specefye,) 

So?mne preye, by ypocrysye, 

Off the peple to be seyn, 

And ther prayer ys but in veyn ; 

So?nme also preye ffor Rychesse, 

To wynne worshepe & noblesse, 

Tave 2 encres & in worldly glorye, 

And, ffor thynges transytorye, 

Worldly honour ffor to wynne, 

Prayer ek mad 3 in dedly synne, 

ffor cruelte or ffor vengauwce, 

Or, to brynge men to meschauwce 

Swych prayer hath no deuocyou?z ; 

Yt ys nat worth a smal botouw, 

' Al thyse ar 4 pathys fforkyd wrong [* Aiie thes am St.] 
To make pylgrymes eueramong 11944 

To gon Amys in ther passage. 

' And syth 5 thow gost on pylgrymage, [ 5 ytn St., wych c.] 
Evere enquere, nyht and day, ^ t 'bM v iwimfe"vIp^6 d *i6] 
Tyl thow ha fou?*de the ryhte way ; 11948 

Lat, in thyn askyng, be no slouthe [ 6 semitis (rightly} St.] 
Tyl thow be brouht vn-to the trouthe.' 



[*C., St. To have] 



Therefore 
pray. 



Paths are 
very diverse. 



11936 



eke made. Stowe, leaf 210] 



11940 



Heart and 
Mouth go 
ditrereNt 
ways. 



Some pray to 
be seen of 
men. 



or for money 



or worldly 
honour. 



Such prayer 
isn't worth a 
button. 



I, IteGuille- 
ville, must 
enuuire night 
ana day, till 
I find the 
right wa}-. 



326 J talk with the Spirit of Mortification of the Body. 



Thefilgrim. 



[leaf 188] 



I see a body 

St IVtrl it OU 

the cross, 



and a spirit 
speaking to 
it* 



The Pilgrim. 

I ak (In- 
spirit wliy 
he's there. 



3Inrtiflcalion 
of the Body 

says lie U a 
pilgrim, 



iiinl liis Body 
brought him 
into the 
wrong way ; 
[leaf 183, bk.] 



And so I gan to hyre doctryne 

My?i erys besyly enclyne, 11952 

fful wel avysyng me ryht tho, 
By wych postern e I sholde go. 

And whyl I gan be-thynke me, 

To-for my fface I dyde se 11956 

A body vp on a cross dystreyned, 
And, as me thouhte, gretly peyned, 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination^ 
To-fforn, a syde, and at the bak. 

And to the body a spyryt spak, 11960 

The body crossyd lyk a roode, 
The spyryt in the weye stood ; 
The body ek (as thouhte me,) 

Myd the hegh, hong on a tre, 11964 

Hys wyttys crossyd, as ye shal here, 
Mouth, handys, Eye & Ere; [stowe, leaf 210, back] 
The nase also, for smellyng, 

Was crossyd ek, to my semyng. 11968 

And 1 on the spyryt my look I layde, C 1 And St., An c.] 
And to hy?ft ryht thus I sayde : 

The pyl m: 

" I pray, the, ffrend, tel me A -noon, 
Or we any ferther gon, 11972 

What causeth the to stonden here : 
I am abaysshyd off thy chere, 
But thow (lyk myn affecciouw) 
Make a declarac'ioutt," 11976 

Mortyfycaciou?i off the body : 
( I am a pylgrym (soth to seye,) 
That wolde ha take the same weye 
fful yore agon, ne haddo be 

Thys lord that hangeth vp on the tre : 11980 

nro the weye on the tother syde 
He brouhte me, and was my guyde ; 
Me made (ther ys no mor to seye,) 
Vn-to hys lust ffully tobeye, 11984 

And Tacomplysshe hys byddyng 
Wyt/i-oute gruchchyng in eue?y thyng. 

' But trowly in thys passage 



By Jidp of Dame Peiiance, the Spirit conquerd the Body. 327 



' I hadde ffounde gret damage, 11988 

Hadde nat the grace off god ybe ; 

And therfor, ffor tavenge me, 

I ha the maner wel devysed, 1 [ avysed St.] 

Wherby that he ys her chastysed, 11992 

Wytfi ffauour and the gouernavmce 

Off a lady callyd Penaurece, [stowe, leaf 211] 

Wych, wyt/f hyr hamer (as thow mayst se,) 

Smot the nayles in-to the tre, 11996 

Euene as I bad hyr do. 

' And thanne A-noon he was ago : 
In-to thys heg he took the weye, 
And thus I made hym to obeye jj 12000 

To my plesaunce in euery thyng, 
So that no mater off wyusyng 
Ys ffouwde in hym in fflessh nor bon, 
(To seke hys mewbrys euerychon,) 12004 

Gruchchyng, nor rebelli'oiw, 
Nor no contradicci'oun.' 

The pylgrym: 

Thanne in the sylue same place 

He gan A-noon to tourne hys face, 12008 

And sayde (as ye shal here and se) 
To the body vp on the Tre : 

Mortyfycacioure off the body : 
' Hastow wel herd what I ha sayd 1 
Tel on ! artow nat wel apayd 12012 

Me tobeye wylf ully 

(As Resouw axeth skylfully) [St., o. c.] 

Whan so that me lyst comau?ide 1 
Answere anoon to my demaunde ! ' 12016 

The body answereth: 
' Certys,' (\uod the body tho, 
' Algate now yt standeth so, 

I mUSte, off 2 neCCSSyte [ 3 off verrey, Stow o, leat^ll, bm'k] 

Yow obeye, mawgre me. 12020 

But yiff I myghte (thys no lape,) 

ffiom your bou^dys wel eskape, 

In no thyng (shortly ffor to seyc,) 

To yow I woldc no mor obeye.' 1 2021 




by help of 

'Lady 

Penance,' 



and entirely 
subdued it. 



The Pilgrim. 



Mortification 
of the Boily 

asks the Body 
if it will obey 
him. 



The Botly OH 
the Cross 



says it can't 
help itself; 



if it could, 
it wouldn't 
obey. 



328 The Body must be suldued till it obeys tlie Spirit gladly. 



The Spirit 

declares the 
body 



shall remain 
on the cross 
till it is meek 
and humble, 



and shall 
follow with a 
cross on its 
back, 



like Christ, 
who com- 
plained not. 



[leaf 184, bk.] 
The Pilftrim. 



I ask why 
the Body is 
so bound ! 



Mortification 
of the Body 

says he was 
granted a 
castle, on first 
coming to 
the country, 



The spyryt: 

Thaw quod the spyryt, ' syth yt ys so, 

I shal the telle what I wyl do : 

To kepe me (bothe ffer & ner) 

ffrom al peryl & al daimger 12028 

That thow woldest don to me : 

Thow shalt be stylle vp on thys Tre 

Tyl thow, by ffeythful obeysauwce, 

Be mek & humble to my plesaiwce. 12032 

' Yet shallow nat ay her abyde ; 
ffor I shal gon, & be thy guyde ; 
And thow shalt (wyt/t-oute lak) 

Wyth a croos vp-on thy bak, 12036 

Wyth spyryt off humylyte, 
ffolwe, & bern yt affter me, 
Off hool entent, in 1 al vertu, [' and St.] 

That thow mayst swen cryst ihesu, 12040 

Wych in hys gospel byt & seyth, 
(To whom men musten yiven ffeyth,) 
' He ys nat worthy (thus seyth he) 
Nor hable for to ffolwe me, 12044 

The wych, vp on hys shuldere, 
Lyst, off dysdeyw, no croos to 2 bere.' [* to om. st.] 
He bar yt ffyrst Inym sylff, certeyn, 
Wyt/t-oute gruchchyng or dysdeyn 12048 

To shewe exauwple & sygne also, [Stowe, leaf 212] 
That affter hym we sholde go 
Crossyd off entenc'iouw, 
Kemewbrynge on hys passiouw.' 12052 

The pylgrym to the spyryt: 
To the spyryt tho quod I : 
" Tel and declare ffeythfully, 
What nedede yt so many place 

To crossen hyt in hed & ffaee ? 1 2056 

I pray the, teche me A-noon, 
Or we any fferther gon." 

Mortyfycaciou/j off the body : 
' Yiff thow kanst vnderstonde wel, 
To' me was youe?z a castel 12060 

Wha/i I kam ffyrst to thys contre, 






WemustbartJie Windoivs (Senses) of our Body against Vices. 329 
' Off entent I sholde be Mortification. 

. of the Body. 

Eue/'e ther-m, & nat gon oute, 

Te kepe me sur 1 ffro euery doute [ sure St.] 12064 

Whyl that I a pylgrym were, 

That enmy noon me sholde dere 

By noon assaut, vp-on no syde, 

Yiff I koude wysly provyde 12068 an a defence 

against his 

nor my syltt on 2 euery part pin St.] enemies; 

ffro shot off quarel, or cast off dart, 

Or ffro shetyng off croos bowes, 

Outher at wyketys or wywdowys 12072 hut he left 

-ITl ppi O /-\ 111 n ' S w'lMloWS 

Ylefft 3 Open reklesly, p vieffte st.] open, 

Off neclygence or ffooly, 

And be nat dyffencyd wel [stowe, leaf 212, back] 12075 

Wyth barrys off yren nor off stel, Finest" st!,. c. 

Nor yclosyd by good devys, 

Overthwertyd \vyth no latys ; 

ffor wych, myw Enmyes many tyme, and ins foes 

/-r i 11 ' f\r,n wounded him 

(Bothe at eve and ek at prime) 12080 thru them. 

Whan they open haue hem ffouwde, 
They han me hurt wyth many a wonde, 
The wych fful sore doth me greue. 

' But, off entent me to releue, 12084 

I haue ordeyned (by gret avys) NOW he has 

-P, ~, 01, the windows 

Barrys oft yren & latys, barred and 

The ffenestrallys to Amende 

In cross wyse, me to dyffende. 12088 [leafiss] 
' And ech pylgrym. in thys world here, And every 

TT n i . , Pilgrim must 

Uadae nede ftor to lere bar the win- 

dows of his 

The fenestrall//s off hys body, boi 'J r ' 

ffor to crosse hem myghtyly, 12092 

And hem to kepe in surete. 

' And no dyffence so good maybe, 
As in croos 4 wyse (yiff they be wys) [* a croos St.] 
To close 5 ther wyndowes \vyth latys, [ 5 st. closes c.] 12096 
In remewbrau/jce (ffor ther goode) in remem- 

branceof 

Oft hym that heng vp on A roode. Christ, 

' And, to dyffende vs ffro dau^ger 

12100 and make a 
Kannei 1 of the 
Cross. 



Lat vs maken a baner 

Off the croos, ffor our dyffence 



330 How Mortification marks his 5 Senses with the mark Tau. 



Mortification 
of the Body. 



Out of our 
body's win- 
dows we 
must lian<? 
Banners of 
the Cross. 



As shown in 
Ezekiel ix. 
87, 



all that had 
the mark Tau 
on their fore- 
heads escaped 
death. 



[leaf 185, bk.] 
So I, Mortifi- 
cation, have 
my windows, 
my five sens- 
es, marked 
with Tau, 



to keep out 
my foes. 



And my 
name is Mor- 
tification, 

Chastising, 
Oppression 
or Taming of 
the Flesh. 



' Ageyn the dredf ul vyolence 
And assaut off our enmyes. 

'And at ech wyket, ffor Espyes 12104 

At ffenestrall?/s & at cornerys, 
Lat be hangen out banerys 
Off the croos, and put hem oute, 

Our Enmyes to sette in doute; 12108 

ffor yt ys a kouthe thyng, [stowe, leaf 21:!] 

Men drede the baner off a kyng ; 
As yt ys ffyguryd wonder wel 

In the book off Ezechyel, 12112 

The .ix. capytle (who taketh hede), ix s vavituta. 
Wher openly ye may rede 
That, by the tookne off Tav, Me;noraHdwst.,o.c. 
The sygne was off so gret vertu, 12116 

That they that hadde yt (yt ys no drede) 
Wel enprented in ther fforhed, 
By the vertu (yt ys no jape) 

ffro the deth they dyde Eskape : 12120 

They wer dyffencyd by thylke sygne, 
That no whyht inyghte ageyw 1 hem malygue. [' gcyn stj 

' And, ffor to kepe thys castel, 

I forge te neueradel 1212-1 

To be mor myghty by vertu, 
To marke my wy7idowes w?yt/< Tav, 
The wyndowes off my wyttys ffyue, 
Ageyn my ffoomew ffor to stryue, 12128 

That my ffoomen spyrytual 
Entre nat by no ffenestrall. 

' Now, as thow lyst me to comaiwde, 
I haue answeryd to thy demauwde ; 12132 

And my name (in conclusiouw) 
Ys callyd Mortificacioura \ 
Off tlie fflessh, or chastysyng^ 
Oppression, or ellys dawntyng. 12136 

' Ches now, off thys namys alle, 
By wych that thow wylt me calle ; 
And god I praye, wyt/j al myn herte, 
To grau;te me I may adue/'te, 121-10 

ffor wysdom or ffor ffolye, 



/ iveep, and reproach my Body for having injured me. 331 



12152 



Euere that I may yt mortefye.' [stowe, leaf 213, back] 

Thawwe he made no mor delay, 

But wente fforth vp-on hys way; 12144 

The body affter hyw gan gon, 
And bar hys croos alway in on, 
And was with" hym ay Crucyffyed?. [St., c. ha a blank nne.] 

And whan I hadde al thys espyed, 12148 

[Ulank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
In myn herte I was fuii wo, 
That I myghte nat do so 
As off hem I do reporte ; 
And gretly gan me dyscomforte ; 

The pylgrym dysconfortyd. 
And, ffor thys vnkouth wof ul caas, 
fful offte sythe I seyde ' alias ' 
Vn-to my sylff, in cowpleyny?ige, 
Wepte, and gan myw hondys wrynge ; 
And, in my dedly mortal wo, 
Vn-to my sylff I seyde tho : 
" Al that thow wendyst ha be toward, 
Ys but a passage that goth bakward. 
Thow gost nat as thow sholdest do." [c. & St.] 12161 

And to my body I seyde also : 
" Alias ! why naddestow ybe 
Crucefyed vp on a tre 1 
Crossyd thy-syllf also be-tymes, 
To ha go fforth \fyili pylgrymes 
On pylgrymage ? alias the whyle ! I 
Thy grete slouthe wyl me be-guyle, ' 
And don to me fful gret offence 
Thorgh thy grete neclygence, 
"VVych, yiff I hadde aforn espyed, 
Thow sholdest ha be crucefyed 
C\Y//t//-oute mercy or pyte) ' sto ^J.* a ^ 
Vn-to the deth vp-on A tre, 
And born a croos vp-on thy bak." 

And whyl that I thus to hy/M spak, 
Constreyned vfyih fful gret dystresse, 
Myd off al myn hevynesse, 
Sodeynly (as ye shal here) 



12156 



In via Dei non pro- 
gredi, regredi &c c' 

litr[\M\\it>t. St., om.C. 



12164 



12168 



12172 

putting the next line 



12176 



The Pilgrim. 

' Mortifica- 
tion ' departs. 



I am jfrently 
discom- 
forted ; 



I weep, and 
wring my 
hands, 



[leaf 186] 



and reproach 
my body, 



whose sloth 
has beguild 
me. 



Had I known 
this sooner, 
I'd have 
crucified my 
body. 



332 Gh'ace Dicu bids me subdue my Flesh. I see a Wheel. 



Then Grace 
Dieu appears. 



She says that 
he goes right 
who subdues 
his flesh, 



[leaf 186, bk.] 



and does 
]>enance with 
the cross on 
his buck ; 



Th Pilgrim. 

while I am 
slow to pro- 
ceed. 



My excuse is 
that I'm too 
weak tn bear 
the cross. 



The Piff/rim. 

I see a Wheel 
in the way, 
which 



Graff Dim. 



T <jawh draff* rHmi ftnnpTP Apparuit gratia del [Ad Titum 

sawn trrace aieu appere, 2o Ctlpitulo , (versu xi) st-] 
The wych, in ful goodly wyse 12181 

Bad me that I sholde aryse ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Sayde to me, off hyr grace, 

1 Her ys noon abydyng place 12184 

ffor to soiourne (yt ys no drede) ; 
And also (yiff thow lyst take hede,) 
Thow hast clerly had a syht 

That thys pylgrym goth most right, 12188 

And moste dydd? hym-sylff avaiwce [c. & St.] 

Thet on hys fflesshe tooke vengauwce, 

I mene hym (yiff thow ha mynde) 

The wych vp-on hys bak behynde 12192 

Bar hys croos, to do penauwce. 

But thow, in al thy gouernaunce, 
Art verray slowh, 1 as I wel knowe, [' siowth* St.] 
That syttest at the erthe lowe, 12196 

And lyst no fferther fforth to gon.' 

To whom I answerde 2 a-noon, [ 2 answer* St.] 

Sayde, in al myw hevynesse, 

That yt was ffor ffebylnesse, 12200 

" I was nat off my wyl at large, 
Nor strong to ber so gret a charge [stowe, leaf 2is, back] 
As the pylgryw off whom we spak, 
Wych bar hys croos vp-on hys bak." 12204 

Grace dieu: 

' Lefft 3 vp thyn eye, & looke wel ! p Lyffi St.] 

Sestow nat,' quod she, ' a whel 
Large and round, & off gret myght ? ' 

And I a-noon lefft vp my syht, 12208 

And sawh a whel (yt ys no doute) 
By vyolence tourne aboute 
Contynuelly to-ffor my fface, 
Myd the weye I sholde pace. 12212 

The pylgrym: 

And I answerde, touchyng thys whel, 
" Ma dame," quod I, " I se yt wel." 

Grace dieu : 

' Wel ,' quod she, ' than tak good hed 






Within this Wheel is another, both revolving. 333 

' In fforthryng off thyw owne spede. 12216 Grace DJU 

Thys whel ys (I the ensure) SK,*,d 

A lyknesse and A ff ygure, "eT Ple l 

And pleynly (yiff I shal nat tarye) 

Vn-to the an exauwplarye, 12220 

The to gouerne in thy vyage, to guide me 

Yiff thow wylt in thy pylgrymage grimage. 

Be wel exspleyted 1 (in certeyn), [' expieyted St.] [leaf 197] 

And ellys thy lahour ys in veyn, 12224 

Lesynge thy travayH euerydel. 

' Tak hed,' (ytiod she, 'how in thys whel in the wheel 

Ther ys wyt/i-inne (yiff thow kanst se) [stowe, leaf 215] 

A-nother off lasse quawtyte, 12228 is another 

smaller one, 

Tornynge contrayre (by hys syyt) 

To- ward the party opposyyt; Vertut partem oppoitam. st.,o.c. 

And off tyrnber, wrouht fful clene, with four 

wooden 

Hath .ini. spookys yt to sustene, 12232 spokes set on 

a big axle, 

Set vp-on an Extre large, 

Off the sweygh to bere the charge.' 

And sothly (as I koude espye) 

Hadde nat ben A Boterflye 12236 

Ther-on tournyng round aboute, 
I wolde ha dempte (w//t/i-oute doute) 
Tournynx ech w?/t7i-Innen other. each turning 

J " within the 

That yt hadde be noon other 12240 other, 

But the same sylue whel B "V h , ns E ? e - 

clnel saw in 

Wych whylom Ezechyel i li i5yi7 i x"'io 

Sawh in hys avys'iouw, 

As hooly wryt maketh menciouw. 12244 

The pylgrym : The puari>. 

And off thys whel (pleynly to lere), i ask her to 

J \f J J tell me more 

Off Grace dieu I gan enquere, whed tlie 

That she wolde (in conclusion??,) 

Make a declaraci'ouw. 12248 

Grace dieu : Grace Diflt - 

Quod grace dieu to me Anoon, she reminds 

me that I 

' Yiff thow reme??ibre, nat yore agon, the 8 ima d e 'Jf 

How thow off god (I the ensure) 

Art thymage and creature.' 12252 

The pylgrym: 



334 The Whwl signifies Lust, The Body hinders the Spirit. 



As I had my 
beginning 
from God, 



I must re- 
turn to Him, 



like a planet 
returns to 
its starting 
place. 



The Pilgrim. " Cei'tyS," qilOcl I, " in SubstaUTOCe, [Stowe, leaf 215, back] 

I lia thys \vel ill remewbraiwce." 
Grace bieu. Grace dieu : 
[leaf is?, bk.] < Conceyue,' quod she, ' thaw, in thy syht, 

Yt muste ffolue, off verray ryht, 12256 

Syth thow haddest, in allo 1 thyng, [ aiie St., ail c.] 

Off liym orygynal begynnyng, 

And were off hyw (yiff yt be souht) 

In eue?y party maad & wrouht, 12260 

To hym, off verray ryht certeyn, 

Thow must resorte & tourne ageyn, ~i 

As by mevyng natural, 

Ageyn to thyn orygynal. 12264 

' Tak exau??iple pleyn & cler : 
As by mevyng circular 

In hys tournyng by corapasse 2 [ 2 compace St.] 

Ageyn resorte th to hys place 12268 

That he kam ffro whan he be-gan, 
How ffer aboute that he ran ; 
And Trewly, in no mocyowi 

Ys noon so gret perfecc'iovw 12272 

As off a spyryt hym to releue, 
Ageyn the body ffor to meue ; 
The wych (who loke verrayly) 

Ys to the spyryt most enmy ; 12276 

Wych eue?-e ys bysy, day be day, 
To taryen hym vp-on hys 3 way, [ 3 his St., thys c.j 
And (I dar wel afferme thys) 

Meketh hyra offte to gon amys. 12280 

And thogh thow go nat alway wel 
Yet dyscouraforte the neue/'adel ; 
Tak euere hed, yong and old, [stowc, leaf 210] 

Off thoxaumple I ha the told j 1 2284 

Vp-on wych, yiff thow wylt dwelle, 
Mor clerly I shal the telle. 

' Thys sayde whel (who kan espye) 
That I off spak, doth sygnefye 12288 

Lust off the body, in hys mevyng, 
Wych clerkys calle (in ther wrytyng 
And name yt) Sensualytc ; 



The Spirit 
moves 
against the 
Uody, 



which strives 
to delay it. 



The Wheel 
signifies Lust 
of the body, 



Sensuality, 



The Spirit is delayd by the Body, as Planets ly Retardations. 335 

' The wych wyl nat brydled be, 12292 [leaf iss] 

But ffroward euere in hys entent, Orace Difu - 

Mevyng toward the occyclcnt, 

Evere in on, bothe day & nyht, 12295 

W?/t/i swych a swegh 1 & swych a myght p sweyghte St.] 

That, wher the spyryt gruchche or moume, which drags 

He maketh hym offte to retourne back when it 

__ , . . moves to the 

vV yih hy w ageyn by vyolence, East. 

Mawgre al hys resystence, 12300 

Al-thogh the spyryt (in hys entent) 

Meueth toward the oryent, 

Wych thenys kara. & yiff he sholde 

Thyder ageyn, fful ffayn he wolde : 12304 The spirit 

m -i ji -r-< L 11. .o .1 alway travels 

loward the Est, in alle 2 thyng, p alia St., ai cj 

He travaylleth in hys mevyng 

Wych (be 3 my red) shal neuere tarye, p by st.] 

But labour, & be contrarye 12308 contrary to 

To the mevyng off the body, 

And contynue vertuously 

Bexau??iple (as I dyde specefye 

To the,) off the boterflye, 12312 like the 

Wych ay ffro the Occident whiehoow 

rp . / . - fro n Wert 

Toumeth toward the orient, to East. 

In hys labour hym to quyte, 

Tyl he by vertu, lyte and lyte, [stowe, leaf 210, back] 12316 

So longe ageyn the whel doth go, 

Tyl the marke that he kam ffro, 

Wyth gret labour he may atteyne. 

' And evene lych (in certeyne) 12320 

The planetys alle seuene The seven 

TT . , . . , . , planets, mov- 

Holde her coura in the 4 heuene, [* in to stj ing in the 

_ . heavens, 

Wych trewly, in ther mevynges, 

Han fful many gret lettynges 12324 nredeiaya by 

-r, , retardations 

By sondry retardaciouws, 

And be contrayre mocyou7is, 

Or they may (yt ys no doute) 

Ther cyrcuyt go round aboute; 12328 [leaf iss, bk.j 

And yet ther wyl and ther entent in their 

efforts to 

Ys ay to-ward the oryent 

ffro when they kam, (yt ys no fable) ; 



336 Of ' Coelum mobile,' Epicycles, Eccentrics, Erratics. 



Grace Dieu. 

return to the 
same point 
from which 
they set out. 
The Planets 
try to go 
East, 



but 'Ccelum 
mobile,' the 
heaven, 
draws them 
to the West. 



In the Epi- 
cycles they 
retrograde, 

and BO they 

become 

stationary 



in the Ec- 
centrics, 
are cald Er- 
ratics, 

and take long 
to complete 
their course. 

And as these 
heavenly 
bodies are 
retarded, 



[leaf 180] 



even so the 

Silgrim is 
elayd and 
hinderd in 
his course, 

cince he \ 
Microcosm. 



' And thyderward they be mcveable, 12332 

To thylke poynt to kome ageyn, 

ffro wych they meuede ffyrst certeyn. 

Off ther cours, thys thentent ; 

But the heuene and the ffyrmament 12336 

Wych clerkys calle (yiff ye lyst se) 

In latyn Celuw mobile, 

Contrayre ffro the Oryent, 

Draweth hem to the Occident 12340 

Wyth hys sweygh" 1 (yt ys no nay,) [' sweyghu St.] 

And taryeth hem mor in A day 

Than they be mevyng cyrculer 

May recuryn in A 2 yer paiieast.] 12344 

Toward the Est in ther mevyng. 

' And yet they haue mor lettyng, 
(Who the verray trouthe wyste,) 

ffor, Avhan they travaylle to resyste 12348 

To the heuene callyd ' mobyle,' 
In the Epicicles whan they be, [stowe, leaf 217] 
They make hem retrogradyent, 

And cause hem in the ffyrmament 12352 

Ther tabyde stacionarye, 
Out off ther cours ordynarye, 
And sette hem in the excentrykes, 
Wher thay be callyd Erratykes. 12356 

Retournyng nat (shortly to ryme,) 
But by processe off long tyme. 

' And sythe, thys bodyes celestyal, 
In ther mevyng natural, 12360 

Ben let thus in ther 3 mooyouws, [ s lette . . her St.] 
And han swych retardacyou/ts 
To ben hyndred in ther labour, 

Or they may han ful recour 12364 

To the place they kam ffyrst fro ; 
Merveylle nat thogh yt be so 
That thow be let in thy vyage, 

And Encoumbryd, in thy passage, 12368 

Off Retardac'iouws that falle, 
Syth ' Mycroeosme,' men the calle ; 
And microcosme ys a word 



Resistance to Sensuality, and Perseverance, win Heaven. 337 

Wych clerkys calle ' the lasse world.' 12372 Grace Dim. 

And in thy way, haue in raynde ; the Less 

Epicicles thow shalt ffynde, 
' Off Infortunyes fful dyuers, 

Off sodeyn caas, fful peruers ; 12376 

ffor thy lyff (yt ys no doute,) u *?*\ l lke 

Ys lyk a cercle that goth aboute, 
Rourad and swyfft as any thouht, 
Wych in hys course ne cesset 1 nouht [ l cessethe st.] 12380 
Yiff he go ryht, and wel compace 
Tyl he koine to hys restyng place, us resting- 

J J J * place is in 

Wych ys in god, yiff he wel 2 go pwyiust.] 12383 God: 

Hys owne place wych he kam ffro. [Stowe, leaf 217, bk.] 

But yet, in al hys mocyoura, 

He hath noon Exempc'iouw ; 

ffor Epicicles (who hath reward) !t p 18 *' 9 .. 

epicycles that 

Make the offte go bakward 12388 |X|?* ) ' 

In thy cours, the to tarye, 

And to make th& stacyonarye, 

Excentryked, day be day, 

To make the gon out off the way 12392 making it go 

westward, 

Westward, vn-to the Occident : <* t the 

east. 

Whan thow sholdest gon to 3 thoryent, [ 3 gon to c., go st.] 
fful offte sythe thow gost abak. 

' And the planetys that I off spak, 12396 The Planets 

show you that 

Also ek the Boterflye, Ksuaf 

Vn-to the Exemplefye 

To don thy labour, and nat ffeyne, 

And myghtyly thy sylff to peyne 12400 [leaf 189, bkj 

In thy mevyng, that thow nat be 

Ylet by sensualyte, 

Wych on thy way doth gret greuauwce, 

But yiff thow haue perseueraunce. 12404 and will ims 

J perseverance, 

' Yet in thy cours be alway strong : 
By processe off tyme long, 
Thow shalt retourne ageyw by grace y u Bha11 

J J c return to 

Vn-to thyre owne due place, 12408 rest in God. 

Eeste in god, and ther abyde. 

' Thogh that thow be set asyde, 
Thyder to atteyne soone, 

PILGRIMAGE. Z 



338 The Revolutions of the Sun & Planets an example to man. 



Grace Dieu. ' Tak exau??iple by the moone, 12412 

T Al ee ample How he ys let ek in hys way, 

of the Moon. * J ' 

Somtyme the space off A day; 

But by hys labour (in certeyn) 

He recureth yt ageyn, 12416 

Sothly wtt/i-Inne A moneth space 

To resorte to 1 hys place. [vntost.] 

' And yiff thow lyst tak hed her-to, [stowe, leaf nsj 
The some recureth ek also, 12420 

By his mevyng cyrculer, 
Loos off a day wzt/t-Inne A yer. 

' Satourne, that syt so hyh and ffer, 



The moon 
returns to 
his place in 
a month. 



The sun, 



Saturn, 
Jupiter. 



12424 



[ paeyently St.] 



all run 
their natural 
course. 



And the planete lubyter, 

They take pacyenly 2 alway ; 

Thogh they be let sow tyrae a day, 

They dysconforte hew neueradel, 

ffor they recure ageyn fful wel 

(By pacyence and abydyng) 

Al that they suffre in ther mevyng 

Ther naturel cours (I yow 3 ensure) 

Pacyently they muste endure ; 

Yt nolde avaylle hem to be wroth ; 

ffor Satourn, aboute hys cours he goth 

In Thrytty yer, and lasse nouht ; 

And lubiter (yiff yt be souht), 

By hys mevyng cyrculer, 

Hys cours parformeth in xij yer j 

They muste ha ther-to so gret 4 space 

Or they resorte to ther place.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Ma dame, wj't/i your grace and pes, 
To me yt semeth douteles, 
My labour may me nat avaylle ; 
I do but lese my travaylle : 
and may not Los off a day, lyk as ye seen, 

recover one _ 

day in thirty I may nat recure ageyn : 

years. 

I vnderstonde, ffer nor ner, 

Almost the space off thrytty yer. 1 2448 

Alias ! I am to ffer be-hynde : [stowe, leaf 218, back] 
What conforte tluwne 5 sholde I ffynde, ['thanst.] 



Saturn re- 
volves in 
thirty years, 



[leaf 190] 

Jupiter in 
twelve. 



The Pilgrim. 

I lament 
that I am so 
far behind, 



12428 



[> you St., am. C.] 

12432 



12436 



[ therto grete St.] 

12440 



12444 



Sensuality, A man may sin mortally in a Moment. 339 



" So gret 1 labour to endure, 
My place ageyn ffor to recure. 
Thogh day be day (in certeyne) 
I dyde dyllygence and peyne 
ffor to resorte, yt wyl nat be ; 
The cours off sensualyte, 
To my desyr ys so ff reward, 
To make me to go bakward, 
That by reuoluci'ouw 
My tyme I lese, and my sesoun ; 
ffor, the mor I me constreyne 
To do my labour and my peyne, 
The mor to me she ys contrayre, 
In my lourne me to tarye ; 
And trewly I kan nat espye 
What al thys doth sygnefye." 

Grace dieu: 

Quod grace dieu fful sobyrly, 
' I speke nat off a 2 day only, 
But in an hour (yiff thow kanst se) 
Yt may happe so to be, 
How that A man in A moment 
May slen hjm sylff, off entent 
Or casuely, on se or lond, 
Lese a merabre, ffoot or hond, 
"VVych he shal, peraventure, 
In thrytty yer, nat recure 
Ageyn, so myghte hew the cas, 
To refourme yt as yt was. 

' And semblably to be-guyrane, 
Yiff thow ha don a dedly synne. 
Wheroff the strook the soule sleyth, 
And offte ys cause off cruel deth ; 
ffor swerd ya noon, nor spere, founde, 
So peryllous to mayme and wonde 
As dedly synne, (to reknew al,) 
The wych ycallyd ys ' mortal ', 
Be-cause hys hurtys ffynally 
Ben in effect verray dedly. 

' And yiff thow sle thy-syluew so 



P grete St.] 



The Pi/prim. 



12452 



12456 Sensuality 

ever drags me 
back. 



12460 



12464 



Orace Dieu. 



ponst.] 12468 



[C. & St.] 



A man may 

kill self in 
12472 a moment. 

[leaf 190, bk.] 



12476 



12480 If a man sins 

mortally, 
[Stowe, leaf 219] 



12484 



12488 



340 Christ's Sufferings are Salvation to the Penitent. 



and cannot 
recover in 30 
>rears, 



he should not 
despair. 



Jesus suffered 
death to save 
men. 



His passion 
secures sal- 
vation 

[leaf 191] 

to the peni- 
tent. 



The Pilgrim. 



These ex- 
amples are 
unsuited to 
my case. 



The planets 
have their 
set times, 

and must 
return to 
their first 
position. 



' Wiih dedly synne, as somme do, 

And myghtest nat in Thrytty yer 

Ben hool and sownd, but stonde in wher 12492 

Touchyng thy sauaci'oun, 

Yet, as to myra oppynyoim, 

Thow sholdest nat thy sylff dyspeyre, 

Thy mortal syknesse to apeyre, 12496 

Nor thy syluew dysconforte, 

But inwardly the Eeconforte, 

And specialy in thyng 

Thanke ihesu, that blyssyd kyng 12500 

Lyst suffre dethe 1 ffor thy sake, p detu c., dethe St.] 

Thy deedly wondys, hool to make ; 

WitVoute whos dethe, 1 1 ensure, 

Thow myghtest nat to lyff recure, 12504 

Nor, thy grete loos (certeyn), 

"Wtt/i-oute hys dethe x wywne ageyn ; 

ffor hys hooly passi'oiw 

Ys salue and fful sauac'ioura 12508 

To ffolk that haven in constau?zce 2 p inconstauce St.] 

Off her synne's re"pentaurace ; 

ffor penauwce ys so vertuous 

And acceptable to cry st ihesus, 12512 

That who that doth yt hertyly, 

Off hys synnes hath remedy.' 

The pylgrym: 

To grace dieu quod I ryht tho, [stowe, leaf 219, back] 
" Ma dame, in soth yt stondeth so, 12516 

Your exaumples by rehersaylle 
May to me fful lyte avaylle, 
ffor they be nat (who looke wel) 
Vn-to purpos neueradel. 12520 

" ffor the planetys hifi in heuene, 
In ther mevyng, alle seuene, 
How so they in her cours be let, 
Yet ther Termys ben yset, 12524 

And ther bouwdys, (in certeyn,) 
What tyme they shal resorte ageyn, 
By terme and 3 lymytaciou/z, p and by St.] 

WM-oute any transgressi'ouw ; 12528 






/ urge that my Sins prevent my return to Innocence. 341 



" Off ther tyme they may nat erre, the puyrim 

As yt ys set, nyh nor fferre, 

But that they shal, at certeyn space, 

Ketourne to her due place, 12532 

At ther tyme, whan-euere yt be. 

"But yt stant nat so vrith me, 
~No thyng at al, off my retour ; 

And cause why, ffor my Errour 12536 

Hath no lymytac'iouws ; 
ffor I, thorgh my transgressi'ouws, 
So long 1 tyme ther-in soiourne, [ longest.] 

That I shal neuere ageyn Eetourne 12540 

To entre the place that I kam ffro. 

" Touchynge the boterflye also, 
Therby, to myw oppynyouw, 

I ha noon informac'iouw 12544 

As off hys mevyng on the whel ; 
ffor, at hys lust, (who loke wel) 
He may go slowh, he may go lyht, [stowe, leaf 320] 
He hath .iiij. wynges ffor the fflyht; 12548 has 4 wings, 

And whan he seth yt may avaylle, 
He may chese, in hys travaylle, 
At hys lust, abyde and reste 

By good leyser, ffor the 2 besto : [*his stj 13552 

Al thys consydred prudently, 
I dar wel seyn, so may nat I." 

Grace dieu: 

' Myn examples, trewly,' qttod she, 
' May to purpos taken be, 12556 

Yiff thow aduerte wel ther-to ; 
ffor, set thys cas, that yt be so 
That thys planetys, in her mevyng, 
May nat erre no maner thyng, 12560 

Nouther ffaylle, but in certeyn 
To ther places retourne ageyn 
ffro whenys they kam, On and alle ; 
Yet sowme off hem, I sey, may ffalle 12564 

As yt be-ffyl, the trouthe wyst, 
Whan seyn lohan the ewangclyst 
Sawh, among the sterrys alle, 



I'.ul , thru in > 



transgres- 
sions, 



I shall never 
return to 
innocence. 



[leaf 191, bk.] 

The butterfly 
on the wheel 



and ran 
settle \vherg 
he likes. 



I can't. 

Grace Dieu 
says that, 



even if the 
planets must 
return to 
their places, 



some may 
fall, 



ns St. John 
saw one full 



342 Tho Lucifer fall for ever, Repentance will restore me. 



Grace Dieu. 



from heaven 
to earth. 



This Star 
was called 
' Absinth,' 
Wormwood 
(Rev. viii. 10, 
11), 



signifying 
1 Lucifer/ 



[leaf 192] 



He shall 
never return 
again to his 
first position. 



But tho you 
fall from the 
Firmament 
of Faith, 



yet, if you 
repent, 



' How On ffrom heuene dyde ffalle 12568 

Lyk a brond off ffyr \vith levene 

Donn to the Erthe ffro the heuene ; 

The wyche sterre, I dar wel seyn, 

Retournede neuere yet ageyn 12572 

Thyder ffro whens he dyde ffalle ; 

And ' Absinthium ' men hyra calle, 

Be cause he doth sygnefye, 

Thorgh hys pryde and ffals envye, 12576 

The bryhte auwgel that ffel so ffer, [stowe, leaf 2-20, back] 

I mene the Auwgel Lucyfer 

ffro the heuene in-to dyrknesse ; 

And he hath ek mor bytternesse 12580 

Than any woormood growyng here. 

And, Trewly, yiff thow lyst lere, 

That he whylom (thus stood the caas,) 

Bryhter than any sterre was : 12584 

Truste me wel, and be certeyn 

That he shal neuere Eetourne ageyn 

To the place that he kam ffro. 

' But off the, yt stant nat so ; 12588 

And ffyrst, by thys exau?ple layd 
To conferme that I ha sayd : 
Thogh thow a-mong, in thyn extent, 12591 

ffalle doure ffro the ffyrmament A Firmamento Fidei St., om.C. 

Off verray ffeyth, dou?i ffro so fer 

With the Angel lucyfer, 

And thy ffal and thy soiourn 

Were wit/i-oute mor retourn, 12596 

That thow sholdest ay and euere 

In thyn errour so perseuere, 

And woldest nat thy sylff avauwce, 

The tamende 1 by repentau^ce, [' St., tamememie c.] 12600 

Thaw, thorgh thyw erroure and ffolye, 

Thow stoode in gret 2 lupartye pgretest.] 

To kome ageyn to thyra degre. 

' But yiff thow woldest amende the, Noa St., om. c. 
And off herte and hool entente 12605 

Resorte ageyn, and the repente 
Off al that euere thow hast mysdo, 






I must rest oil the Wlied, and climb aloft up its Spokes. 343 

' Thow sholdest neuere haue erryd so, 12608 Grace meu. 

But that thow sholdest (truste me) you simii 

C i i j -L bereceivd 

fiul wel ageyn recey ved be ; again. 

And vfith al thys, only by grace, [stowe, leaf 221] Yousimiibe 

Eestoryd to thy ffyrste place : 12612 your first 

place, 

Ther-to thow sholdest ha no let, 

Thy terme, thy 1 boundys, ben so set, [landst.] 

And markys ffor thy savacyouw 

Only by crystys passi'oiw : 12616 

Truste me wel, and thus yt ys, [leaf 102, bk.j 

They wyl nat suffre the gon Amys, 

Whyl thow the boldest by resou?* ami not go 

Wyth-Inne thy lymytaciouw, 12620 

Nat to Erryn, nyh 2 nor ffer ; p i>yht c., nyghe st.] 

But so ne may nat lucyfer, Lucifer must 

11 ever remain 

ffor he muste abyde and dwelle i eii- 

"Wit/i-oute Eetourne, styH in helle ; 12624 

He may haue noon other graunt. 

And thys Exauwiple ys suffysauwt 

Off the planetys told off me, 

In thy passage tenformew the. 12628 

' And fferther-more, the to guye A to the 

b J Uutterfly 

Totichynge also the boterflye, 

Off wych Exauwple, in thyn Avys, 

Thow settyst ther-off but lytel prys 12632 

But yiff thy wyt, off Eesoun seth, 

The .iiij. wynges wit/i wych he ffleth, with 4 wing, 

And hys ffeet ek (tak bed ther-to) 

Make hyw on the whel to go 12636 Iie rests 

the wheel, 

At leyser, hy?ji sylff to spede. aml is can-led 

By wych exau?nple (as I rede) 

Thow shalt hy?u folwe in sondry wyse ; 

And ffyrst off all*?, the avyse 12640 

How thys whel hath (yt ys no doute.) concerning 

J 'f the wheel 

.iiij. 3 spokys strechchyd oute, [ 3 Foure st.] 

Vp-on wych, ffor thy beste, 

Thow mayst Wel thyw syluC7l reste, [Stowe, leaf 221, back] you can rest 

And by ese, soffte and soffte 12643 andciimb 

aloft. 

Clymben tyl thow kome aloffte. 

' Thys spokys .iiij. 4 off most vertu [ Foure st.] 



344 Fin to look to the 4 parts of Christ's Cross. Miss Youth. 



Grace Dieu. 

These 4 
spokes are 
in Christ's 
cross. 



[leaf 193] 

Ezekiel saw a 
Wheel 
(ix. 14) 



' Ben in the croos off cryst ihesu, 12648 

The wyche 1 ben yset fful wel E 1 wych c., wiuche St.] 
Wit/i-Inne in the myddel whel, 
Off wyche, wtt/i hys eyen bryhte, 
Ezechiel hadde a syhte : 12652 

Hys prophesye doth vs lere, 
To hyra a whel ther dyde appere, 
Wych hym thouhte (in sondry placys) 

with 4 faces, By semyng hadde .iiij. 2 ffacys, [* Foure St.] 12656 

ffor to shewyn in ffygure 
Auctorysed by scrypture 
(Yiff thow lyst to haue in mywde) 
.iiij. 3 helpys thow mayst fynde p Foure St.] 12660 

In crystys cros, (yifE thow take hede,) 
In thy lourne the to spede ; 

Wych .iiij. shal the 4 Solace, [* Foure the shalle St.] 

Make the to thy ffyrste place 12664 

ffor to retourne the weye ryht. 

' As longe as thow hast a syht 
To .iiij. 5 partyes off crystis cros, p Foure St.] 

Ne drede the neuere off no los, 12668 

Nor off hyndryng in thy vyage. 
And looke, in thy pylgrymage, 
Wher-so-euere thow repayre, 

Ther-off to take thyw exauwplayre, 12672 

ffor thow mayst no bettre do.' 

And whan she hadde sayd me so, 
Thys Grace dieu, affter a-noon, 

ffarwel, fro me, she was a-gon 12676 

Al sodeynly out off my syht. [Stowe, leaf 222] 

But tharcne, off cher fful glad and lyht, 

Youthe 

And with hyr ffresshe ffethrys ffayre, 
Youthe gan to me repayre, 12680 

And to me sayde in hyr manere : 
' Thow art a ff ool ! what dostow here 1 
Tak good hed to my sentence ! 

Thow art mad, to yive credence, 12684 

To leue and herknen euerytale 
Or syngyng off the nyhtyngale ; 



typifying 
4 helps in 
Christ's cross 

to aid you 
on your 
journey. 



As long as 
you look to 
the 4 parts 
of the Cross, 
you'll get on. 



The Pilgrim. 



Grace Dieu 
departs. 



3fist Youth. 



Youth ' tells 
me I'm a fool, 
and mad to 
believe every 
tale I bear. 



Miss Youth persuades me to climb up on her lack. 345 



12696 

Vicina est hpsib?< adoles- 
cenia, & variorum cupidita- 
tum feruore salens. . . 
Ambrosius. St., om. C. 



1 ' Ther-in ys no melody, 

Whos song ys euere ' Occy, occy,' 12688 

"VVych ys to seyne, whan she hath do, 

" Go sle thy sylff ! " she meneth so. 

Leff al thys thyng, and go with me ; 

ffor, thys weye wych thow dost se, -12692 

Ys penyble and e"ncombrous, 

Dredful also, and envyous ; 

Thy myght, thy power,' ben ago ; 

Thy body ys wery ek also ; 

The weye wyl make the to tarye, 

ffor yt ys ffroward and contrarye, 

And ffer also ffro thyn entente ; 

And I ther-to wyl nat assente. 12700 

' And in fforthryng ek off the 
I wyl nat go, but I wyl ffle ; 
ffor thow and I shal han repayr, 
Nat on the ground, But in the hayr, 12704 

Wher thow shalt fynde no maner lak ; 
ffor I wyl trusse the on my bak, [stowe, tear 222, back] 
Ber the fforth (yt shal nat ffaylle) 
That thow shalt fele no trawaylle 12708 

In thy vyage, but ful soffte 
I shal ber the hih" a-loffte, 
That thow mayst sen aboute Botmd, 
The se, the heyr, and al the ground ; 12712 

And al that euere ffolkys do, 
Thow shalt be-holde and sen also.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Yst in thy power, answere me, 
Thus to ber me, awl to ffle 1 " 12716 

Youthe : 

' Ther-to I haue suffysauTzce, 
So yt be to thy plesauwce ; 
And that thow shalt knowe agon, 
Skyp on my bak, and lat vs gon, 12720 

And in effect thow shalt wel se 
How that I shal helpyn the.' 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

And I, wj't/i-oute mor abood, 



Mi Youth. 

[ If. 193, bk.] 
The Nightin- 
gale's song 
' occy ' means 
only go and 
kill yourself. 



Youth tries to 
dissuade me 
from my 
journey, 



and to abide 
with her. 



She will fly 
up in the air, 



and take me 
on her back, 



so that I can 
see all things. 



The Pilgrim. 



bids me skip 
on her back. 



[leaf 194] 



346 Youth flies aloft with me and drops me. I meet Gluttony. 



The Pilgrim. 



So I climb 
up on it. 



Miss Youth 
bears me 
aloft, 



over the high. 



to a path 
large and 
wide, 



where she 
throws me 
dowu. 



[leaf 191, bk.] 

I meet a 
hideous old 
hag, 



holding a 
big bag in 
her teeth. 



Clamb on hyr bak \vher-as she stood. 12724 

To hyre yt was no grevauwce ; 

ffor, as lyhtly (in substauwce) 

I was take vp in-to lyte, 12727 

As a chykne oft' 1 a kyte, psimideoffst.] [stowe, leaf 223] 

Al sodeynly, or I was war ; 

And on hyr bak, fforth she me bar 

Vn-to the hegh, and was my guyde 

Stretth 2 vn-to the tother syde. p streght* St.] 12732 

And to that weye she hath me born) 

Wych that I hadde lefft to-forn, 

And held to me ful wel forward ; 3 p ffrowarde St.] 

But grot encombraiwce affterward 12736 

Ther-off ys ffallen vn-to me, 

And fful gret aduersyte, 

Wych I shal telly n in substauwce, 

As they kome to reme??ibrauwce. 12740 

Whan I was passyd the hegh alias, 
ffynally thys was the caas : 
Yowthe me brouht (and thus yt stood,) 
In-to a weye large and brood, 12744 

And sayde she wolde, off al that day, 
No ferther ber me on my way. 
And so, wher yt were 4 sour or soote, [* were st., om. c.] 
She trew 5 me doun. I wente on foote [ 5 threwe c.] 
Ay be that hegh, douw costeyynge. 12749 

"And, wi't/i-oute long 6 taryynge, [ longest.] 
In the weye that she me sette, 

An Olde 7 wekke a-noon I mette, u oide st., oid c.] 12752 
Hydous and owgly off hyr look ; 
And off hyr shap, good hed I took ; 
Hyr Eyen royllynge in hyr hed, 

Hyr fface colouryd was lyk 8 led, [ s lyk was to st.] 12756 
Hyr noose heng douw to hyr chyn, 
Hyr mouth fful large, and ek ther-in 
With hyr teth (as I beheld,) 

A fful large sak she held ; 12760 

Ther-in a tonge she held also, 
And Eampawntly she gan to go [stowe, leaf 223, back] 
Vn-to mo-ward, off cruelte, 



Gluttony is mistress of Epicureans, whose God is their Belly. 347 

Lych as she wolde ha stranglyd me ; 12764 The pugrim. 

[7 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Gan hyr handys to me strecche, 
And felly sayde ' Anew, 1 thow wrechche ! c 1 Arrow st.] 
Thow skapyst nat : ' she swor, seyn 2 george, [* seynt St.] 
She wolde me stranglyn by the Gorge : 12768 The old hag 

Thus yt sempte, as hy hyr cher ; strangle me. 

And I hadde-on no gorger 
In my dyffence, but drowh abak, 
And vn-to hyre ryht thus I spak : 12772 

The pylgrym: 






" What artow," a-noon quod I, i ask her 

why she's so 

" That komyst so dyspytously, pitefiii. 

Thow Olde wekke, 3 'with meschauwce, p vekke St.] 
ffroward oif look and contynaunce ; 12776 

and al that euere I se on the, 
fful gretly dyspleseth me." 

Glotonye : Gi*ttony. 

f I am,' quod she, ' as thow shalt lere, [leaf 195] 

Off Epicuris chyldre dere, 12780 she says she 

is the mother 

Verray moder and maystresse, and mistress 

J J _*, of the follow- 

And off that sorte gouCTTiereSse : ersofEpi- 

curua, 

I goue;*ne hem, (thus stant the cas,) 

Who that euere her ffader was.' 12784 

The pylgrym: [stowe, leaf 221] 

"fful ffayn," quod I / "I wolde se 
What Epicuriens sholdii be." 

Glotonye : 

' They be (ffor short conclusioun) 

A sect off thys condiciouw, 12788 nsectwhfeb 

Wych holde, and lerne thys off me, happiness 

mi r iv i consists in 

That pe?iyt ffelycyte indulging 

v *v * ill, J i .. yourappetite. 

Ys, that a man lyk hys delyt, 

ffolwe alway hys appetyt ; 12792 

Ther Sak, ther wombe, (I vndertake.) Their godis 

r^ffl ^1 A A 4-i 1 1 their belly. 

Oa liem ther goddys they do make ; 1 

Ther loye and al ther bysynesse 

Ys only set in lykerousnesse ; 12796 

ffor, thys Sect alway most thywkes They think 

J most of meat 

On dyue?-s metys and on drynkes : 



348 The hag Gluttony describes her greedy drinking & eating. 



Gluttony. 



The Epicu- 
reans 



enjoy only 
superfluity 

and indulg- 
ence. 



[leaf 193, bk.] 



Gluttony. 



The old hag's 
name is 
' Gluttony .' 

She drinks 
more than 
she needs, 



and stuff* her 
belly with as 
much as :; 
in. MI could 
live by, 



.jellies, pot- 
ages, 



ypocras, 
malmsy, etc. 

She dances 
and drinks 
all night. 

She is also 
cald ' Gastri- 
margia" 
(Greek for 
gluttony'}. 



12804 



12808 



' To thys Sect yt ys endwed, 12799 

With rost 1 somwhyle, and with stewyd, 

To be seruyd, and metys bake, 

Now to ffrye, now steykes make, 

And many other soteltes. 

And dyuers ffourcdyn out deywtes ; 

ffor al thys sect, I the ensure, 

Be nat content that nature [stowe] 

Yservyd be with suffysauwce ; 

But ther loye and ther plesau?zce 

Stant in 2 superfluyte ; [ J aiie / in St.] 

And hooly ther ffelycyte 

(Affter ther oppynyouw) [stowe, leaf 224, back] 

Ys in delectacyoun.' 12812 

The pylgrym: 
" What ys thy name ? tel on," quod I. 

Glotonye : 

And she Answerd redyly, 
' To sey trouthe, and nat to lye, 

My name in soth ys ' Glotonye.' 12816 

My sak, I ffelle vp to the brynke, 
And neuere I spare ffor to drynke, 
fful offte whan I ha no nede ; 

And I allone (yt ys no drede) 1 2820 

fful offte sythe, off 3 lykerousnesse, [Must.] 

ffylle my pauwche, off gredynesse, 
Wtt/t as myche (trew(e)ly) 

As .iij. men rnyghte lyue by, 12824 

Swyche as hauerc indygence ; 
ffor, in Eyot and dyspence, 
In wast, in reuel and outrages, 

Spent in gelees 4 and potages, [* Geeies St.] 12828 

And dyuers drynkes ffor solas, 
Eomney, clarre, 5 ypocras, [ 5 ciarre and st.] 

In malvesyn, and in Osey, 

The longe nyht I daunce and plcy, 12832 

And cesse nat to drynke alway ; 
Go to bedde whan yt ys day ; 
And somme* clerkys a-mong alle, 
' Castriniargia ' 6 me calle.' [scastrymagiast.] 12836 



Gluttony sivallmvs mussels whole, and eats till sJie's sick 349 



12844 



12848 



12852 



The Pylgrym: 

" Declare me, and nat ne ffeyne, 
What ' castrimargia ' * ys to seyne." [ Castrimagia St.] 

Glotonye : [stowe, leaf 225] 

' " Castrimargia," 2 ys plouwgyn doura p Castrimagia St.] 
Off mussellys by submerciouw ; 12840 

Wyth-oute chawyng, douw they lauwche, 
Devouryd hool in-to the pawnche ; 
And ther they be so depe ydreynt, 
In the mawe to-gydre meynt, 
That my sak, by submercioun, 
Ys offte tournyd vp so douw. 
Whan yt ys fful and overleyn, 
Yt goth out by the gorge ageyn ; 
Over bord, al goth to wrak ; 
And thus I voyde among my sak ; 
The Tempest draweth douw the sayl. 

' I make tracys, as doth a snayl, 
With drawlyng 3 on my mokadour, 
And efft ageyn do my labour 
(As an vngry 4 wolff, certeyn,) 
ff or to ffylle my pook 5 ageyn. 

' I may resemble wel to Bel, 
Off whom that speketh Danyel, 
The ydole that devourede al : 
My bely round, and no thyng smal, 
And wt't/i my nose long and round, 
I trace affter, as doth an hound, 
To ffynde the ff wet 6 wher mete ys good ; c 6 ffwt St.] 
And, by the goolet off myn hood 12864 

The beste 7 goth ; yiff that I may, [' best St.] 

Thys lyff I lete nyht and day.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Yet off a 8 thyng I pray the, [Stowe, leaf 225, back] [SoneSt.] 

That thow woldest tellyn me : 12868 

Yiff thow the ffyllest (in thyw avys) 

Off metys that ben off lytel prys,/^ 

As off benys or browne 9 bred, / [ brovne St., brown c.] 

(Rome ther any in thyrc hed,) 12872 

Thy?? appetyt for to staiiHche, 



[ 3 drawyng St.] 

[* hungry St.] 
[ pawnche St.] 12856 



12860 



The Pilffrim. 



Gluttony. 

Gastrimargia 
(or Gluttony) 
means swal- 
lowing mus- 
sels unchewd. 



[leaf 196] 

When Glut- 
tony's belly 
is overloaded, 
she sicks its 
contents up. 



She makes 
slimy tracks 
on her hand- 
kerchief, 



and tries to 
re-fill her 
belly. 

Sheresembles 
Bel, of which 
Daniel spoke. 



With her nose 
she trucks the 
scent of good 
meals. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask her if 

she eats 
beans and 
brown bread. 



350 Gluttony is Greediness. Gluttony wants a long Gidlet. 



Gluttony 

gorges gross 
food as well 
as delicate. 



[Ieafl96,bk.] 

Men may do 
excess and 
superfluity 
with bean 
bread. 



Gluttony 
consists in 
greediness. 



The Pilffrim. 



I ask what 
Taste is. 



Gluttony. 



Taste is the 
mouth of my 
3-inch gullet. 



I wish it 
was as long 
as a crane's 
neck, 



that I might 
fill it with 
mussels and 
fried collops, 



12876 



12880 



12884 



[ Thy c., They St.] 

12888 



" Swych harde metys in thy pawnche ? " 

Glotonye : 

Quod she, ' thow shalt ful wel espye, 
The custom ys off glotonye, 
As wel (yiff I shal expresse,) 
In grete metys to don excesse, 
(Who the trouthe wel espyes,) 
As wel as in delycacyes ; 
ffor men as wel may doun outrages 
With bene bred and swyd 1 potage, 
Excesse and superfluyte, 
Als wel as in curyouste : 
The mete nat causeth the excesse, 
But the ffretyng gredynesse, : . 
They 2 maketh only the Glotouw, 
And nat the mete in no sesoun : 
Tast, that ys the pryncypal, 
And lust ther-off, that causeth al.' No v " c ^ 8e GregS.*' ln 

The pylgrm: 

Than quod 1 / " I pray the, 
What thyng ys ' Tast ' ? declare me." 12892 

Glotonye : [Stowe, leaf 226] 

' Yiff I to the declare shal, 

Therby inward passeth al ; 

And ther-in ek myn appetyt 

Hath specially al hys delyt ; 1 2896 

Yt ys the mouth off my sachel, 

Wherby passeth euerydel ; 

By that golet, large and strong, 

Off mesour nat .iij. 3 Enche long ; [ three St.] 12900 

I wolde, ffor delectaciouw, 

That yt were (off hys ffacoun,) 

Long as ys a kranys nekke ; 

Tharane I nolde off nothyng wrekke, 12904 

But only (yiff I shal telle) 

With fatte mussellys yt to ffelle, 

With lard, and collopys wel yf ryed ; 

How hard they were to be defyed, 12908 

I wolde ther wer ffou?zde no lak 

In the stuffyng off my sak, 






Gluttony s greedy Eyes. The deadly Tongue in her Mouth. 351 



' Wycli that hath a double mouth, 

To receyue north and sowth, 12912 

Al deyntes that may be fouwde ; 

ffatte mussellys large and Rounde, 

I threste hew in fful lykerously. 

' And yet myn Eyen be mor gredy, 12916 

Mor desyrous to do gret wast 
Than ys my sak outher my tast : 
To ther desyre, in no wyse 

Nothyng may ynowh suffyse ; 12920 

Myw Eyen, thorgh none suffysauwce, 
Don to my stomak gret grevauwce, 
Mor peryllous than swyrd or knyfif, 
ffor to shorte a manhys 1 lyff; pmanysst.] 12924 

And ffynally, (who that kan se,) [stowe, leaf 226, back] 
Excesse and superfluyte 
Slen mo men, nyh and ffere, 
Than outher swerd, dagger or spere.' 12928 

The pylgrym: 

" Syth excesse and swych outrage 
Don to the so gret damage, 
Off mussellys smale and grete, 

Why lystow vrith hem surfeete, 12932 

Syth thow concludest (in sentence) 
In surfet ys gret pestylence ] " 

Glotonye : 

1 Wtt/i-Inne my mouth (as thow shalt lore,) 
I bere A touch, (yiff thow wylt here,) 12936 

A Touch off gret infecci'oun 
The wyche, 2 by corrupc'iouw, p wych c., whiche St.] 
Wher that euere he haue repeyr, 
He infecteth al the heyr, 12940 

And sleth mo ffolk by vyolence 
Thaw any other pestylence. 

' That touch, by touchyng redyly, 
Ys mad so sharpe and so gredy 12944 

By touch off metys delycat, 
Tha?me he to Eesowi obstynat, 

Mut, wit/i hys touch, touchyra som whyht, [Sto-D, leaf 227] 
Or ellys wolde he, a-noon ryht, 12948 



Gluttony. 



[leaf 197] 



Gluttony's 
eyes are still 
more greedy 
than her 
mouth and 
taste. 



Excess slays 
more men 
than sword, 



spear. 

The Pilgrim. 



I ask her why 
she stuff's her- 
self with 
mussels. 



Gluttony 

says she has 
a Touch in 
her mouth. 



that infects 
the air and 
slays more 
folk than the 
Plague does. 

This Touch 
is made so 
greedy by 
delicate 
meats 



that it must 
touch some 
one. 
[IcaflUT.bk.] 



352 Gluttony's Tongue talks evil, and shames its owner. 



Taste, or 
Touch, seeks 
only its own 
gratification. ' 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask the 
name of this 
Touch. 

Gluttony 



a cursed 
neighbour, 



the Tongue 
that talks 
villainy 



when it has 
drunk strong 
wines. 



The Pilgrim. 



Gluttony. 
[leaf 198] 



' Wexyn wod, 1 or by outrage [ l aK<re<j/rowobc.,wooaest.] 

Sodeynly ffalle in-to a rage, 

The to 2 touche, as yt ys due ; p too St.] 

The tother touch ay doth hy??i sue ; 12952 

And semblably, (who lyst to se,) 

Ryht thus ffareth tast by me, 

Wych lytel rechchet 8 off my profyt, p Rechcheth* St.] 

So that he haue hys owne delyt.' 12956 

The pylgrym: 

" Ma dame," quod I, " what euere ffalle, 
What shal I thys Touch ycalle 1 " 

Glotonye : 

' Thow shalt calle hyra, ffer and ner, 
The ffleynge massager, 12960 

Off wynge's swyft, wych wyl nat dwelle, 
Euery thyng out for to telle : ^S 
Al that euere ys in the herte, j^ J 
Ther shal no thyng besyde asterte ; 
And most, a-mong thys ffolkys alle, 
A shrewde neihbour, mew hym calle ; 
Or a clyket fful mortal, 
Wych opneth and vncloseth al. [stowe, leaf 227, back] 

' And hys condiciou?& ek ys thys, 
Gladly euere to seyn Amys ; 
And most he doth hym sylff applye 
ffor to speke vyllenye, 12972 

And ther-vp-on tabyde longe. 
Whan he hath dronke wynes stronge, 
And with deyntes ffeld hys sak, 
Thanne al thyng goth to wrak, 12976 

What he touchet, I ensure, 
So ffer he goth out off mesure.' 

The pylgrym: 

" What ar they, off her tongys large, 
That wit/z wyn hem overcharge?" 12980 

Glotonye : 

* Ther-in ys most hys appetyt, 
And ther-in he hath most delyt. 
By hym I am out off mesure 
Brouht, that I may nat endure ; 12984 



Ecclesia8tici 28 - 
12964 



12967 



Drunkenness robs a man of his Wits, & makes him yuarrd. 353 



' Offt by hyw I ffalle in blame, 

In gret dyshonour and dyffame ; 

ffbr he me gaff (who loke wel) 

Thys sak also, and thys phonel 

Wyth wych my wynes I vp towne. 

And whan that I haue onys gowne [stowe, leaf 228] 

To kwnon vp, (as thow mayst se,) 

I take ther-off so gret plente, 

Swych habouwdauwce and swych foysouw, 

That I lese wyt and resouw, 

Dyscreciouw, wysda?n and mynde, 

That I kan no weye 1 ffynde 

To gon vn-to myn owne hous, 

Mad and dronke, as ys A mous. 

' Than spek I nat but Eibaudye, 
Outrage and gret vyllenye ; 
I haue noon other Elloquence ; 
ffor thaw I do no reuerence, 
Nouther to god, (in no manere,) 
Nor to hys owne moder dere ; 
ffor yiff I shal the trouthe expresse, 
Whan I am ffalle in dronkenesse, 2 P^ 
My tonge thaw I gyrane to 3 broche, [ 3 to c., om. st.] 
That, yiff Kesouw wolde aproche, 
I bydde hyra shortly (thys no nay,) 
To take hys leue, and gon hys way. 
And also in my dronkenesse 
I sey the same to Ryhtwysnesse ; 
ffor thogh prudence and equyte, 
Sapyence And veryte, 
Hadden \viih me tho to done, 
They sholde be put abak fful sone. 

'Wit/i sobyrnesse, nor attemprauwce, 
I wyl haue noon acqueyntauwce : 
They be no thyng off myn allye ; 
I haue off hem but moquerye ; [stowe, leaf 228, back] 
ffor, wher dronkenesse ys guyde, 
Ech vertu ys set asyde ; 
And whan wit/i wyn ful ys myw horn, 
I am ff ers as an vnycorn ; 

PILGRIMAGE. A 



12988 



12992 



way St.] 12996 



13000 



13004 



13008 



13012 



13016 



13020 



13024 

A 



Gluttony. 

It brings its 
owner into 
dishonour. 



Excess in 
wine causes 
loss of 
reason. 



of discretion, 
iind wisdom; 



it begets 
ribaldry, and 



irreverence 
to (toil and 
the Virgin. 



It sends off 



righteous- 
ness, equity, 
and truth ; 



[leaf 198, bk.] 



mocks at 
temperance, 



354 The Glutton's 2 Bellies, Drunkenness and Greediness. 



Gluttony. 

and quarrels 
with every 
on?. 



The Glutton 
has 'I bellies, 
like a Bittern, 

The Pilgrim. 



Gluttony. 



which arc of 
the kin of 
Venus. 



Excess breeds 
Lechery. 



The 1st belly 
is Drunken- 
ness; the 2nd, 
Greediness. 



Both stuff 
themselves 
full 



[leaf 199] 



to the brink. 



They cause 
lechery. 



' ff or, thaw bothe, in wrong and ryht, 
I wyl stryue with euery whyht, 
Tak vp quarellys, and dyffame, 
Sette on euery whyht a blame, 
And, lyk a bole, (yt ys no dred,) 
Myw Eyen Eollyn in myw hed ; 
Lyk a bo tore, 1 I haue also 
Two wombys wharc I haue A-do.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Expowne me, and nat ffeyne, 
Hastow verrayly wombys tweyne?" 

Glotonye : 

' Trewly,' quod glotonye to me, 
' I haue tweyne, as thow mayst se, 
Wych ben ful nyh (who kan espye,) 
Off the kynrede and allye 
Off Venus ; ffor lykerousnesse 
Off welfare, and gret excesse, 
Engendre and cause naturelly" 
fflesshly lust and lechery. 

* And the ffyrst off thys kynrede 
Ys callyd (who that taketh hede) 
Off som ffolkys ' Dronkenesse,' 
And the tother ' Gredynesse ' 
Off sondry metys and deyntes ; 
And bothe two, in ther degres, 
Wyl ther placys occupy e, 
Drynke and ete by envye. 
Evere ther glotons appetyt 
Ys so ful off ffals delyt, 
So grecly and so vnstauwchable, 
Ther Etyk ys so importable ; 
Now I ete, and now I drynke ; 
Tyl I be ful vp to the brynke, 
I do alway my besy peyne. 
And trew(e)ly thys wombys tweyne, 
Wych al devoure, and neuere slake, 
Make Venus to a-wake 
Out off hyr slep, (lyk as I sayde,) 
And causeth hyre fful offte abrayde. 



13028 



[! The Bittern was supposed to 
have two stomachs.] 

13032 






13036 



13040 



[Stowe, leaf 229] 13044 



13048 



13052 



13056 



13060 



/ see old Venus, Jier face niaskt, riding a wild sow. 355 



Gluttony. 



Venus is 
tackt to the 
Glutton's tail. 







' And for that I am glotonye, 

I dar trewly specefye 13064 

How Venus (yt ys no ffayl) 
Euere me sueth at the tayl ; 
We departe seld or neuere, 

ffor we be to-gydre euere ; 13068 

She wyl nat parte, yiff she may. 

* And whom that I, be riyht or day, 
Areste, or make to abyde, 

Wher-so that he go or ryde, 13072 

I brynge hym off entencioure 
To ben vnder subiectiouw [stowe, leaf 229, back] 

Off Venus ; for she and I 

Confedryd ben so trew[e]ly, 13076 

That ffolkys vnder my demeyne, 
Swych as be lacyd in my cheyne, 
Or sesyd, (ther ys no mor to seye,) 
Vn-to hyre they niuste obeye.' 13080 

The pylgrym: 

" I praye, declare a-noon to me, 
"What thyng thys Venus sholde be." 

Glotonye : 
Qtiod glotonye, ' wit/i-oute glose, 

Thow shalt off hyre (I suppose) 13084 [leaf 199, bk.] 

Hyryn tydynges A-noon ryht, 
Off hyr power and off 1 hyr myght; ['offe., om.st.] 
And thanne, yiff thow wylt enquere, 
What she ys, she wyl the lere.' 13088 

And, whyl I stood 2 musynge thus, [* stoode St.] 
I sawh a-noon wher that Venus j 
Kam rydynge on a swyn savage, 

And in hyr hand, a ffals vysageC 13092 

I sawh hyr bern, fful brood and large, 
To-fforn hyr Eyen, lyk A targe. 
And thys Venus trew(e)ly 

Was Arrayed queyntely; \ 13096 

ffor hyr clothys and hyr array [stowc, leafaso] 

Defoulyd wern wt't/i donge and clay, 
ffor wych (in euery mane/' place) 
She gan shroude and hyde hyr face 13100 



All gluttons 
must obey 
her. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask who 
Venus is. 



Gluttony. 



TJie Pilgrim. 

Venus ap- 
pears on a 
wild boar 



bearing a 
targe or mask 
before her 
face. 



Her clothes 
are foul with 
dung and 
clay. 



356 Venus sends a dart into my heart. Slie hates Virginity. 



The Pilfrrim. 



Venus smites 
me with a 
dart, 



thru my eye, 
to the heart. 



[leaf 200] 



The Pilgrim. 



Dame Venus 
says 



fthe's a foe to 
Virginity, 



who, if she 
had not 
taken refuse 
in religion, 



Vnder hyr hood, so couertly 

That no man ne 1 myghte espy [' ne St., om. c.] 

[7 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
The maner off hyr gouernaimce 

Outward by hyr cowtenaiwce, 13104 

ffor hyr fface was nat bare ; 
And, to me-ward as she gan ffare, 
~With a sharp dart wych she bar 
She smette me, or I was war, 13108 

(Longe or I koude aduerte,) 
Thorgh the Eye vn-to the herte. 
My Elm was lefft behywde, alias ! 
My^fiace bare (thys was the cas) ; 13112 

Ageyn Venus vyolence, 
I hadde as tho no bet dyffence. 

The pylgrym: 

" 0, thow Olde ! what hastow do, 
Vnwarly me to smy te so ? " 13116 

Olde venus: 

' Reporte off me, and sey ryht thus, [stowe, leaf 230, back] 
That I am callyd Dame venus. 
My dwellyng and my manciouw 
(To me Ordeyned off Resou) 
Ys in the Eeynys most certeyn, 
Ther wyl no clerk ageyns thys seyn ;- 
I chace a-way al chastyte, 
And, werray 2 vyrgynyte : 
Vyrgynyte, whylom off ryht, 
To the Auwgellys cler and bryht 
Was suster, and ther nexte allye 
But now (yiff I shal nat lye 
Touchyng parfyt vyrgynyte,) 
/ \Vher that euere she may me se, 
She halt hyr nose, and wol 3 be go, [*woidst.] 
Vp-on hyre I stynke so ; 13132 

To hyre I am so gret Enmy, 

That, but 4 she hadde ffynally [* That but st. But that c.] 
ffled ffor hyr savacyou?* 
Whylom in-to Relig'iouw, 13136 

She hadde (wit/i-OUte mor refut.) Grauew inimicum sortita 

V '/ cat castitas, cui no solu 



13120 



[* werreye St.] 13124 



13128 



Virgin must stay at home. Why Venite hates Virginity. 357 



Experto, creile, Episeopim, 
loquor corawj deo, now mew- 



disse repen, de quorum 

Ca8l , non ,, suspieabar 

qztoci Ambrosij vel leroniuii 

impudica turpitudine. 

l.ic AugustiiKM. St.,o).C. 

L i by c ., timrghe my st.] 






i, anddedeby my 1 pursuit S te K 7i^4iel 8 n 
Wher the castel ys so strong, 
That I may do to hyre no wronge, 
!N"or the fforteresse wynne, Not st. 
As longe as she halt hyr wi't/i-Inne ; 
But yiff so be (yt ys no doute) 
That she go a-brood wM-oute L * du ^ w c f 08 t,Z"ow e M\b"ni/ w rd 
At large, and haue hyr lyberte, 13145 

As Dina wente for to se 
Wowmen off that reg'ioun, 

(As holy wryt maketh menciouw) GenesU 32 capituio, St., om. c. 
lacobys douhter (thys the cas) 13149 

And she a-noon dyffoulyd was, [stowe, 
And the slauwdre gret arose, H [ c st v 

Be-cause she kepte hyr sylff nat 4 cloos. [* nat c., in St.] 

' Ek I ne haue noon avau?ztage 13153 

ffor to harme nor do damage 
Nat the valu off An Oystre ^ 

Whyl chastyte kepeth hys cloystre, 13156 

And goth nat out in no maner, 
Than ffarvel 5 al my power.' [? ffarweiie st.] 

The pylgrym: 

" Tel on a-noon, and nat ne ffeyne, 
What ys thoffence off thys tweyne, 13160 

Off maydenhed or chastyte ? 
What wrong han 6 they don to the, [hauest.] 
That thow hew hatest in thy thouht 1 
Declare in hast, and tarye nouht." 13164 

Venus : 

' ffyrst, vndcrstonde and herkne mo, 
That neuere yet Vyrgynyte 
Wolde in no place abyde, 

But I wer out, and set asyde : 13168 

To hyre I am abhomynable, 
Contraryous and dyffamsible ; 
I stynke on hyre, wher enere she be. [stowe, leaf 231, back] 

' And ek hyr suster Chastyte, 13172 

Wher euere that she me espy, 
She ffleth hyr way, and cryeth " ffy \ " 
ffor wher yt thowhe, 7 or olle>- ffrose, L 7 n>a'i 



Old renut. 



would bave 
been slain. 



If Virginity 
go abroad, 



[leaf 200, bk.] 

as Dinah 

(Jacob's 

daughter) 

went, 

( Geaesit 

xxxiv. 1, 2),' 

she will come 
to harm. 



While Clias- 
tit y keeps in 
its cloister, 
Venus has no 
power. 



The Piliirtm. 

I ask, what 
wrong, Vir- 
ginity and 
Chastity have 
done to 
Venus. 



1. Virginity 



thinks Venus 
is abomin- 
able, 
and stinks. 



2. Chastity 
always rtees 
from Venus, 
and says Fy '. 



358 Venus has malignd Chastity in the ' Romance of the Hose.' 



Old Venus. 



Chastity 
made Joseph 
flee from 
Potiphar's 
wife, 
[leaf 200] 



and will 
never touch 
Venus. 



So Venus has 
therefore to 
slander 
Chastity, 



as she does in 
her Romance 
of the Roie, 



where Chas- 
tity is eald 
False-Sem- 
blaut. 



The Pilgrim. 

I tell Venus 
that she has 
no right to 
call the Ro- 
mance of the 
Rose hers. 



I know its 
author (G. de 
Loris). 



' Leuere she hadde hyr mantel lese, 13176 

Thaw abyden in the place 
Wher that she may se my fface. 

' She made Joseph, by gret 1 stryff. Genest* 39 capituio. 

losenb, relicto pallio, 

ffl en ff ro Putyffarys wyff, c 1 grete St.] ffugit. St., om. c. 

Lefft hys mantel, and also 13181 

A-noon ffrom hyre he was a-go ; 

ffor chastyte (by oppynyoura,) 

Haueth thys condyciouw, 13184 

That she sauff ne wyl nat vouche, 

In no wyse me to touche. 

' And whan that I hyr maner se, 
That yt wyl noon other be, 13188 

Than I am besy, be dyffame, 
ffor to putte on hyre a blame, 
By som sclauwdre ffalsly ffovwde, 
Hyr goode name to corcfounde, 13192 

By swych ffolk (shortly to telle) 
That ar wont vtith me to dwelle, 
And tabyden in myn hous, 

Off condiciouTi vycyous, 13196 

That ar glad ay to myssaye, 
And chastyte ffor to werraye, 
As yt sheweth (wit7i-oute glose) 

In my Komaimce off the Eose ; "^S^hSR** 1 13200 
Make hyr name to bere appallyd, [stowe, leaf 232] 
And Faulssemblant to be callyd : 
In that book by my notary e, 13203 

Wych to hyr name ys ffuH 2 contrarye. [ 2 St., om. c.] 
And cause why that I do thus 
Geyn chastyte fful vertuous, 
Ys ffynally (yiff thow lyst se), 
She wyl no queyntauwce han wztA me.' 13208 

The pylgrym: 

" Wherfor seystow in any wyse, 
And wrongfully lyst to devyse 
Mong thyw Errours, on and alle, 

Thys Bomamzce thyn to calle? 13212 

Thy part ther-off ys nene? - adel ; 
ffor I knowe that maw Iful wel 



Jean de Meun grafted non-Love things into the Romance. 359 






" Wiih euery maner cyrcu?staunce, 

Wych. that made that Roinaunce." 13216 

Venus : 

' Thys Romaunce (in cdnclusiouw), 
I may calle yt off Resouw 
Myn owne book, (whaw al ys do.) 
And I my sylff made yt also ; 13220 

And yiff that thow consydre wel, 
Gynnynge, ende, and euerydel, 1 [ Eucrydei St., euerdei c.j 
He speketh ther (yiff thow kanst se) 
Off nateilya-butjoff me, 13224 

Except only (yt ys no doute) 
My clerk, my skryveyn, racede oute 
Off strange ffeldys as I be-held, 

And sewh yt in A-nother field, 13228 

ffolkys wenynge (yt ys no dred) 
That he hadde sowhe 2 the same sed [sewest.j 
Vp-on hys owne lond eerteyn. 

' But to declare the trouthe pleynj 13232 

He dyde nat so, no thyng at al, 
In strauwge feldys, for he yt stal, 
(Al be yt so by fful gret lak,) 

He put al in hys owne sak 13236 

Be-cause only (who kan ffele) 
He caste the trouthe to cowcele ; 
Off surquedye, (yt ys no nay,) 

Wolde ha born yt with hym away, 13240 

Al be, sothly, (who haue a syht) 
He hadde ther-to no manor ryht ; 

' But affterward he was ascryed 

By a normauTzd, and espyed, 13244 

Wych loude cryede, awl made A sou/*, 
Yt was no ryht nor no Resou 
Off other ffolkys gadryng 

To make hys berthene by stelyng. 13248 

But for al that, forth he wente, 
Nouht abaysshed in hys entente, 
But boldely, or I was war, 

fforth with \iyrn hys stelthe he bar, 13252 

Ympyd yt in / in my romawice, 



The Pilgrim. 



says the Ro- 
mance of the 
Rose is tiers, 



for she is the 
subject of it, 
from begin- 
ning to end, 



tho' Jean de 
Meun strayd 
into other 
subjects 



deceitfully. 



But he was 
found out 
and denounst 
by a Norman. 



This .lean de 
Meun grafted 
his non-Love 

[leaf 202] 

material into 
Vcnus's Ro- 
mance, 



360 



Jean de Meun was exposed by a Norman. 



to her great 
displeasure. 



Rut Jean de 
Meun was 
found out by 
a Norman, 
which made 
him hate 
Normandy. 



Male bouche 
therefore tied 
from Nor- 
mandy, 



and lied about 
monks, &c. 



The Pilgrim. 



I tell old 
Venus 



[leaf 202, bk.] 
that Jean de 
Meun is 
rightly called 
'Male 
bouche ; ' 



1 Wych was to me gret dysplesaurece ; 

ffor my wyl was, that he no thyng [stowe, leaf 2333 

Sholde ha set in hys wxytyng, 13256 

No thyng (as to myn entent,) 

But yt wer to me pertynent, 

Or accordynge to my matere, 

Or at the leste (as ye shal here), 13260 

That he hadde set in 1 no mor [ l sette inne St.] 

But that was off hys owne stor : 

He was askryed off hys ffolye 

Off On yborn in Normawndye ; 13264 

ffor wych, neuer affter (by couenauwt) 

He louede neue?-e no Normauwd : 

The Romamice kan yt wel declare, 

In wych he wrot (and lyst nat spare,) 13268 

That Male-bouche (yt ys no lye) 

ffledde ffyrst out off Normawndye ; 

Wher-off he made a strong lesyng, 

Lyede also in hys wrytyng, 13272 

Off relygious, euele 2 to speke, pweiest.] 

And vp-on hem to ben a-wreke, 

To my ffauour (as ye may se) 

Be-cause I piirsue chastyte.' 13276 

The pylgrym: 

" Than may I ryht wel certeyn 
Afferme, that thow and thy skryveyn 
Ben replevysshed (who kan se) 

Off malys and inyquyte ; 13280 

ffor who-so, thogh he wer my brother, [stowe, leaf 2.-J8, back] 
Wyl gladly seyn evel off A-nother 
I may off hym seyn (Est and south,) 
That he haueth no good mouth ; 13284 

ffor -with hys tonge (who that touche,) 
He may be callyd ' Male bouche.' 
Wherfor trewly thy skryveyn 

Hihte 3 'Male bouche,' I dar wel seyn, pHathest.] 13288 
Whan he (voyde off al flavour) 
Gan appelle hys neyhbour, 
Only for he dyde hym ascrye, 
To seyn the trouthe, and lyst nat lye. 13292 



Old Vemis says I cannot escape her Dart. She is ugly. 361 






" And thow (who taketh hed ther-to) 
Hast a wykked mouth also, 
Wych, off thyri Inyquyte, 

Hast lyed vp-on Chastyte, 13296 

To make goode ffolk hyr haate, 
And ageyn hyr to debate." 

Venus : 

' Thow seyst soth, (yt ys no drede,) 
But thow shalt wyte (in verray dede) 13300 

My condiciouw ys to lye ; 
And pleynly, (yiff thow ko?me espye) 
Be ryht wel war alway off me ; 
With lyyng I shal deceyue the.' 13304 

The pylgrym: 

" Tel on to me the cause why ; [stowe, leaf 234] 

Why hastow smet me vnwarly ? " 

Venus : 

' What trowestow for to go ffre 

Whyl that I am so nyfc by the ? 13308 

Kay, nay ! that may nat be-falle. 
Thow knowest nat thassautys alle 
Off my werk, nor the manere, 

But by processe thow shalt lere; 13312 

Wherso-eue/'e that I assay lie, 
Off my pray I wyl nat ffaylle ; 
And wher I hurte wztft my darte, 
Yt ys ful hard ffor 1 to departe pttomestj 13316 
Wit/t-outen harm ffro my daiwger, 
Whom-eue?-e I marke, ffer or ner, 
I dar yt swern (in verray sothe) 
By myw hed ykempt so smothe.' 13320 

The pylgrym: 

" Syth thow art kempt so sotylly 
And arrayed so ffresshely, 2 [ a m-essheiy St., irresshiy c.] 
As thow sayst in thyw language, 

Why hydestow thy vysage 13324 

That I may nat clerly yt 3 se? p yt om. St.] 

ffor som deceyt I trowe yt be." 

VenUS 4 : [ In Stowe's hand, Venus St.] [Stowe, lc;if 231, back] 

' Wher-euere that I repayr, 



The Pilgrim. 




Old Yenut 



She will 
deceive me 
by lying. 
[Cap. iii. 47, 
prose] 

The Pilgrim. 



Old Venus 



says I shall 
learn the 
reason of her 
attack on me. 



I cannot 
escape her 
dart. 



[leaf 203] 
The Pilgrim. 



I ask her \vliy 
she hides her 
face. 




362 The hideous Face and Iwrrihh Haunts of Old Venus. 



Because she 
isn't fair. 



She has gay 
gowns but 
wrinkled 
cheeks, and 
is hideous. 



Her face ia 
hidden, be- 
cause she is 
not fair, 
and fre- 
quents dark 
places. 



[Cap. iv. 48, 

prose.] 
She rides a 
bad-temperd 
horse. 

[leaf 203, bk.] 

She lives in 
horrible 
places like a 
sow, 



in dung and 
clay. 



She is foul, 



and therefore 
wears a 
mask, 



' Truste wel, I am nat ffayr ; 13328 

And yiff I hadde gret fayrnesse, 

I wolde nat hyde yt in dyrknesse. 

And thogh that I be kempt 1 ryht wel, [> kept St.] 

Yt ne sueth neueradel 13332 

That I am ffayr, for in array, 

Thogh that I be queynte and gay, ~ ; 

I am ryht foul for to beholde ; 

My chekys Eympled and ryht Olde, 13336 

And ful hydous, (yt ys no nay) 

And mor horryble thaw I dar say. 

' And ther-for be ryht wel certeyn, 
I hyde me that I be nat seyn, 13340 

And holde me euere in placys dyrke, | 
Go by cornerys that be myrke ; 
And I ne haue no mane?- syth 2 [ J syghtst.] 

At mydday whaw the sowne ys bryht 
In hys spere ful hih aloffte ; 
And I me putte in pereil offte, 
Yiff thow knewe my passages, 
Placys off my gret outrages 
Wych I vse, truste me, 
Ther-off thow w oldest astonyd be : 

' I Ryde vp-on A cursyd hors, 
I trowe nowher be no wors ; 
ffor placys that be most peryllous, 
Most horryble and hydous, 
Most dredful and most vnsure, 
Ther I logge, off nature : 
Thys my custom, day be day, 
As a sowhe, in donge and clay, j 
Ther ys my lust most to dwelle ; 
I am mor ffoul than I kan telle : 
Ryht foul I am in abstracto : 
But yet mor ffoul in Concrete 
I am holde, a thowsand ffold ; 
And, therfor, as I ha told, 
I ber thys wonderful peynture, 13365 

Thys ffalse vysagij, thys ffigure,\ 
Off cntent, in euery place, 



13344 



13348 



13352 



[Stowe, leaf 235] 



13356 



13360 

Concretum deo concuruit, Sitb- 
iectum cum accidente // Ab- 
stractum est illttd quod ab- 
strahitKr a sitbieeto, vt albedo 



cretum est respec 
St., om. C. 



ab albo, qftia con- 
tu albedinis. 



Old Venus paints Tier face. She looks out for Pilgrims. 363 



P ffrowneys St.] 






P Fourme St.] 






' ffor to shrowde ther-wit7* my fface, 
And my ffeturys ffor to hyde, 
That men espyen in no syde 
My scornyng nor my mokerye, 
In ff rench ycallyd ' Farderye ' 
And in ynglyssh, off old wrytyng, 
Ys ynamyd ek ' poppyng ' 
"VVych, whan ffolkys ffaH in age, 
Maketh Ryvelys in the vysage, 
And large ffrowneys 1 I ensure. 

' And, also, ageyn nature, 
I make ffolkys ffor to deme 
By crafft outward, my sylff to seme 
ffayrere than eue?'e that I was, 
To looke in merour or in glas. 

' Also my condici'oura 
Ys to walkyn vp and douw, 
JSTow in towne, now in the field ; [stowe, leaf 235, back] 
In place I abyde seld, 
But yt be by swych a fortune 2 
Wher my lust I may parfourme ; 
I mene, placys off dyffame, 
Wych, to reherse, ys gret shame ; 
Wher-off my clerk, off whom I tolde, 
Hath yseyd lyk as he wolde, 
Spekynge ful outragously, 
And gaff Exaumple ffynally 
ffor to spoke off dyshoneste, 
Off entent (as thow mayst se) 
Out off my slep me to awake, 3 
In a-wayt, I sholdij take 
Pylgrymes that walke by the way, 
Hem tareste, and make affray, 
Off fforce douw hem bowe hyr chyne, 
And tobeye my doctryne. 

' He wende I hadde ben a-slepe ; 
But the weyes I do kepe 
Xyht and day, (yt ys no les ;) 
And I am nat rekkeles, 
But hem areste in euery place, 



13368 



13372 



13376 



to hide her 
hideous face, 



smearing it 
with white 
lead, ceruse, 



or 'popping,' 

which makes 
wrinkles in 
it. 



13380 



13384 



13388 



Venus is al- 
ways on the 
move, 

in town or 
country, 



in places of 
ill repute. 



[leaf 204] 



13392 



13396 

P to wake C., tawake St.] 



13400 



She's ever on 
the watch to 
take in Pil- 
grims, 



13404 



wllflVVtT 

they go. 



None escape 
her save by 
flight. 



The Pilgrim. 




[Stowe, leaf 236] 



364 Venus' s Officers : Eape, Incest, Adultery, Sodomy. 

' Wlier-so-euere that they pace ; 
Ther skapeth noon, day nor nyht, 
But yiff yt be only by fflyht ; 
I may nat ffaylle, ffer nor ner, 
Yiff myw offycerys done ther dever.' 

The pylgrym: 
Thanne quod I / " I pray the 
Lat me sen hem, what they be ; 
But I leue, in myn entent, 
That they be nat her present." 

Venus : 

' ffor sothe, I haue hem her with me, 
But I wil nat shewe hem the ; 
Yet neuertheles, yiff thow wylt dwelle, 
The namys off hem I shal telle : 
The ffyrste callyd ys ' raptus,' 
The tother ' stupruw,' And next, ' Incestus,' 
The ffourthe, ' Adulteriuw,' 
The ffyffthe, ' Fornicaceouw.' 

'Raptus ffor^soth (by descry vyng,) 
Ys ycallyd ' Ravysshyng 
Off woramen ' (who so taketh hede), 
A Synne gretly for to drede. 

' And stuprum (wtt/i-oute wene,) 
Ys off maydenys that be clene. 

' ' Incestus ' ys a synne in dede, 
A man to taken hys kynrede. 

' The ffourthe ys ' avout[e]rye ' 
Witii wyves by ffoul lecherye. 

' Another ther ys, wych for me 
Shal nat here rehersyd be, 
Nor told, in no maner wyse, 
"Wych houeth 2 ynowh to suffyse ; 
And yt shal nat ffor me be wyst, 
Vnderstond yt as ye 3 lyst. 

1 Ech by hy??i sylff ys vycyous, 
And to vse, ff ul perillous ; 
I wyl nat telle hem out at al. 
But to swych (in especyal) 
As dwelle wt't/i me, youg and old, 



13408 



13412 



13416 



13420 



The names of 
her officers 
are 



Raptus, 
[leaf 204, bk.] 

ravishing 
women ; 



Stuprum, 
rape of 
Virgins ; 

Incestus, 
of one's kin ; 



Adulterium, 
with wives ; 



Sodomy shall 
not be named. 



13424 



[1 in St.] 



These are 
dangerous 
to practice. 



13428 



13432 



13436 

[* hawethe St.] 
[Stowe, leaf 236, back] 

['the St.] 13440 



13444 



Venus threatens me. Gluttony, a Bawd, sells live Flesh. 365 



c And be wit/j-holde in myn housliold ; 
Yet I dar make descripci'ouw ; 
They be ffoul ofE condiciouw, 
Off shap, off ffourme, I the ensure, 
And ryht lothsom off ffygure. 

' With hem I marke many On, 
Pylgrymes that by the weye l gon ; 
The 2 may skapen on no syde. 

' And be ek war, yiff thow abyde, 
A-mong other, I shal the sniyte, 
In abydyng yiff thow delyte ; 
Or thow must be in thy ffleyng, 
Swyfft as A tygre in rennyng, 
But, ffor al that, I dar say, 
I shal nat fayllen off my pray, 
ffor al thy fflyht. whyl glotonye 
Hath power the ffor to guye, 
Al koninieth to my subiecci'ouw, 
Wher she hath domynaciouw.' 

The pylgrym: 

" I may yive credence wel her-to, 
ffor glotonye me tolde so, 
That thow or she, selde or neuere, 
Lyst a-sonder to dysseuere. 
But, as ffer as I kan lere, 
Ye ben to-gydre ay yffere : 
She causeth ffyrst, in substauwce, 
That I off the haue acqueyntauwce." 

Tharaie glotonye fful redyly 
Answerde, that was faste by, 

Glotonye : 

' Yiff thow me calle, in sothnesse, 
Lyk as I am, A Bocheresse, 
Or in ffrench (who loke wel) 
I am callyd a ' Makerel,' 
Whos offyce (to specefye,) 
Ys in ynglysshe ' bauderye ; ' 
And lerne, (ffor conclus'iou?t,) 
That ys verrayly my surnou? ; 
ffor, (the soth yiff I shal telle,) 



Old Ventu 



13448 



[i way St.] 13452 
[ 2 They St.] 



13456 



13460 



13464 



[Stowe, leaf 237] 



13476 



marks Pil- 
grims by 
these Officers 
of hers, 



and will smite 
me too unless 
I flee. 



13468 



13472 



[leaf 205] 

She is leagued 
with Glut- 
tony. 



The Pilgrim. 
I believe this, 



as Gluttony 
first told me 
of Venus. 



Gluttony. 

Gluttony nays 
she is a 
Butcheress, 



whose trade 
is liuwdry : 



3G6 Gluttony and Venus bind me hand and foot, like a Calf. 



Gluttony. 



she sells live 
flesh, 



and gets 
twice as much 
for it as any 
other Butcher 
does. 



[leaf 205, bk.] 



Gluttony is 
no fish, tho' 
she's cald a 
Miickerel. 
[A hee Baud, 
Maquereau. 
A she Baud, 
Mnquerelle. 
Sherwood.] 



says they 
have me. 



The Pilgrim. 

Gluttony 
seizes me by 
the throat. 



She and 
Venus bind 
me hand and 
foot 



' Quyk flessh I vse for to selle ; 13484 

And yet (who vnderstondeth me) 

I ha lernyd wel to sle 

Mo bestys (in conclusions) 

Than .iij. 1 Bbcherys in som toim. [Uiu-ee St.] 13488 

But what fflessh euere that I selle, 

Mor money at the stalle I telle, 

Double (yiff I shal sey 2 soth,) [ i sey the St.] 

Than any other bocher doth ; [stowe, leaf 237, back] 13492 

ffor wych, my name t[o] expj'esse 3 [ 3 texpresse c. st.j 

Thow mayst me calle a ' bocheresse ' 

Or a bawde, and no thyng lye, 

That selleth fflessh by bauderye. 13496 

' I am no ffyssh (who loke wel) 

Thogh I be callyd A ' makereL' 

Wych in ffrauwce ys a name 

Off gret 4 sclauwdre and diffame ; [* grete St., gret c.j 13500 

And I shal lerne the, parcel 

Off my crafft to knowe somdel : 

I haue abyde in soth to longe, 

Thogh my powerys be wonder stronge.' 13504 

Venus : 5 [Blank in MS.] p st., o>. c.] 

' Sothly,' quod Venus, ' thow seyst wel ; 

But ne dred the neueradel, 

ifor, by the wordys that thow hast told, 

We" han <5n hym fful good 6 hold, i? goode st.] 13508 

Wych shal tourne to no Tape ; 

ffor he may nat our handys skape, 

Nor, out off our dauwger gon.' 

The Pilgrim: 

And by the throte thawne anoon 13512 

Glotonye held me so ffaste, 
To grouwde almost that she me caste. 
And Venus gan to neyen ner, 

And, fful dredf ul off hyr cher, 1 35 1 G 

Gan ley to hand, me to cowfourade. 
And they han me so sore bounde, [stowe, leaf ws] 
Hand and ffoot, and leggys to, 

I myghte nat meue, to nor 7 ffro ; [ 7 ne St.] 13520 

That I dar afferme (and seyn, 



They tie me to the tail of Venus 's sow, and leat & rob me. 367 



13536 



Who hadde al the manor seyn,) 

I was lyk (he myghte ha told) 

Tacalff l wych sholde ha be sold [' TO a calf] 13524 

In som market ffaste by, 

On stallys in the bochery. 

In swych dysioynt they ladde me, 
Myn Eyen cloos, I myghte nat se ; 13528 

And for they wolde nat off me ffayl, 
They bond me to a swyne's tayl, 
I mene, the swyn off dame Venus, 
fful dredfful and fful contagyous, 13532 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
The wyche 2 (by fful mortal lawe) p wycu c., which* st.] 
At hys tayl gan me to drawe, 
And to brynge me vp on the wrak, 
Thys ylke two that I off spak, 
Venus, and ek Glotonye, 
To shewe on me ther tyrantrye, 
Gan bete on me, and bonche sore. 

And affter thys, they dyde more 
They Eobbede me off my treasour ; 
And ffor that I ffond no socour 
A-geyn ther myght, (as I ha told,) 
Bothe my syluer and my gold ; 
And nakyd they wolde ha spoyled me, 
Nadde sothly thyng be : 3 [ 3 y-be St.] 

They sawh on komen ffaste by, 
Vnwar, \fiih a gret company 
And pleynly (as I koude deme,) 
A pylgrym he dyde seme, 
And a gret lord (yt ys no nay) 
By lyklyhed off hys array. 13552 

Venus : 4 [Blank in MS.] [* st., om. c.] 

Quod Venus thawne, ' by my wylle, 
Lat hym lyn a whyle stylle, 
Tyl we may, ffrom al daunger, 
Spoyllen hym at bet leyser. 13556 

' Her kometh on, me semeth now, 
Wych ys mor lykly ffor 5 our prow, [ 5 to st.] 

AVlumi we tweyne wyl nat ffaylle 



like a calf, 



and fasten 
me to the tail 
of Venus's 
swine, 
[leaf 206] 



which drags 
me about, 



while Venus 
and Gluttony 
beat me 



13540 



[Stowe, leaf 238, back] 

13544 



13548 



and rob me 



of all my 
money. 



But some one 
com eg in 
sight, witli a 
great com- 
pany. 



tells Gluttony 
to let me lie, 



368 The Sow drags me thwt the mud. The Ne'iceomer is beaten. 



while they 
assail the 
Newcomer. 

The Pilgrim. 

[leaf 206, bk.] 
Venus and 
Gluttony 
leave me, 
and the BOW 
draws me 
through the 
mud. 



Venus and 
Gluttony 
attack the 
Newcomer, 
a great lord ; 



beat him, 



pull him to 
the ground, 
blindfold 
him, 



stretch him 
on the bare 
hide of a 

sampler, 



and bind him 
fast. 



[leaf 207] 



* ffor to spoyllen and assaylle ; 13560 

We wyl vs bothe putte in pres.' 

[The Pilgrim:] 

And whyl they leffte me thus in pes, 
I koude make no declyn ; 

So euere in On the cruel swyn 13564 

Me drowh out off the hihe way 
Among the donge, among the clay, 
At hys tayl, me to confou/ide, 
To wych I was so sore bouwde. 13568 

And whil I lay thus in dystresse, [stowe, leaf asg] 
A-noon I gan myw Eyen dresse 
To be-holde how thylke tweyne 

"Wer dyllygent, and dyde her peyne, 13572 

The lord tassaylle, that I off spak ; 
And made hym fyrst, fro horse bak,' 
Maugre hys myght, to lyhte doure ; 
ffor, mercy nor remyssyouw 13576 

Ther was noon, on no party ; 
They hym beete fful cruelly ; 
And by the throte they hyw took, 
And pullyd hyw so that he shook, 13580 

Leyde hym lowe douw to grouwde ; 
And hys Eyen so they bouwde, 
That he loste 1 look and syht, [Uoostst.] 

Hys force, hys power, and hys myght. 13584 

And affter that, thogh he wer strong, 
They gan strechche hym forth along, 
On a barhyde off A Somer, 

Lyk a beste off A bocher, 13588 

Voyde off pyte and off shame. 
And for he was a man off name 
(Semynge, by hys contenauwce,) 

Therfor they tooke mor vengaunce 13592 

Vp-on hym, and bouwde hyw sore ; 
And Venus swyn, with brustlys hoore, 
Drowh hym forth On the bar hyde 
Endelong and ek a-syde, 13596 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
By brookys and by sloos fowle, [stowe, leaf 239, back] 



The Newcomer is ill-treated and rdbd. Nobody helps him. 3G9 



A-mong the clay they hym dyffoule ; 
On hym they were so cruel, 

The bar hyde halp l neueradel ; pimipest.] 13600 

ffbr thys olde wekkys tweyne 
Gan hyra cerche, and ek coiistreyne ; 
In Query place they han hym souht ; 
They took hys good, they leffte hym nouht, 13604 
And to hym dyde gret disesse. 
And to me yt was noon ese 

To beholdyll and to Se * (* St. trantposei these ne.] 

Ther tyranye, ther cruelte ; * 1 3608 

And trew(e)ly 2 yt sat me sore, [ 2 trewiy c., st.] 

That the folk I spak off yore 

Halp nafc hyr lord, but hyw forsook, 

And, noon hed off hym 3 they took, p hym om. st. 13612 

But in hys mescheff lefft hym sool ; 

And lyk as he hadde ben a ffool, 

They scorned hym, and hadde game, 

And gan la when at hys shame ; 13616 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
They halp hym nouht, but leet hym be 
In hys grete aduersyte, 

Markede hym in hys mescheff, [stowe, leaf 2*0] 

Ther he lay bourcden as a theff, 13620 

Scornywge at hys bak behynde. 

And swych iblkys men may fynde 
In many place (yiff yt be souht) ; 
Whan a man ys to mescheff brouht, 13624 

And falle in-to aduersyte, 
iful fewe frendys than hath he ; 
At mescheff, they hym for-sake, 

And but a lape off hym they make, 13628 

Al be yt so, that they beforn 
Wer supported and vp born 
By hys lordshepe, in ther degre. 

"Whan he stood in prosperyte, 13632 

Than they wolde make hem strong, 
To stonde wit/t hym in ryht and wrong, 
Wit/i false behestys (as I ha told,) 
In al hys werkys make hym bold, 13636 

PILGRIMAGE. B B 



The Pilprim. 

He is be- 
fouled in the 
clay and 
sloughs, 



robbed and 
cruelly used ; 



his followers 
leave him, 
withacoru. 



[leaf 207, bk.] 

Men often 
thus forsake 
their friends 
in adversity. 



370 Tho bound, I try to reach the Hedge mi the other side. 



Let no mini 
trust to for- 
tune. 



The pilgrim. That they wolde \vith hym abyde 
ffor lyff or deth, on euery syde ; 
But fynally, whan al ys do, 

I ha wyst lordys deceyved so 13640 

In dyvers centres, mo than on, 
"Whan ther ffrenshepys \ver agon. 
Lat no man trusten on ffortune, 
Wych selde, in on, lyst to centime. 13644 

And thus thys man, brouht to the poynt, 
Stood allone in swych dysioynt, 
And in gret mescheff, as dyde I ; [stowe, leaf 210, back] 
ffor, Venus and Glotony 13648 

In swych mescheff hadde hym brouht, 
That off hys lyff he rouhte nouht, 
ffor hys grete aduersyte. 

But than I gan remewbre me 13652 

As I lay bouwden in the place, 
I wolde assayen ffor to pace 
The hegh, that was so thykke and strong, 
Off wych I tolde, nat go fful long ; 13656 

And for mor ese and sofftenesse, 
I thouhte I wolde my syluew dresse 
To the path on the tother syde ; 

ffor, wher as tho I dyde abyde, 13660 

Me sempte the place peryllous, 
Bothe dredful 1 and dotous. [> Lothe dredefuii St.] 

I gan a-noon to neyhen ner 

To- ward the hegh, and her and ther 13664 

I gan consydren in my mynde, 
Yiff I myghte an hoole ffynde 
To pace by, that wer nat thykke 

fful off thorn ys me to prykke. 13668 

Al thys I gan consydre and se, 
Swych routhe I hadde, and pyte, 
A-mong the sharpe busshys alle, 
That my body sholde falle 13672 

In any dauwger or damage, 
Yiff I passede 2 that passage ; [ 2 passed* St., possede c.] 
Prayde god, for hys pyte, 
ffrom swych harm to saven me; 13676 



I, bound, 
remember 
the hedge, 



and try to 
reach it. 



I draw near 
the hedge, 



[leaf 208] 



which is full 
of thorns, 



and I pray 
to God. 



/ am caught and bound. I see a hideous old Hag, Sloth. 371 



ffor I stood in fful gret drecl, [Stowe, ieaf] 

Lyk a bryd that kan no Red, 

"VVych, in hyr gret mortal ffer, 

Loketh her, and loketh ther, 1 3680 

And for dred begywneth quake, 

Whan she ys in the panter take, 

Or engluyd with bryd-lym, 

Al hyr ffethrys fful off slym, 1 3684 

Or vnwarly, in heth or holt, 

Ys y-slayn with arwe or bolt, 

Whil she ys besy to escape, 

The ffoulere kan hyr so be-Iape. 13688 

Ryght so fferd I, al out off loynt, 
Brouht vn-to the same poynt ; 
But ' who that wyl nat wha?i he may, 
He ys a fool, (yt ys no nay,) 13692 

And he ne shal nat whaw he wolde.' 

ffor whyl I stood and gan be-holde 
Now her now ther, and for ffer shake, 
Vnwarly, by the fleet ytake, 13696 

I was bouwden, and forth lad, 
That for fer I was nyh" mad, 
And knew nat what was best to do ; 
But, amyd off al my wo, 13700 

I sawh a wekke, 1 Old and hydous, c 1 vekke St.] 
Off look and cher ryht monstrous, 
Pyled and seynt as any kaat, [c. & st.] 

And moosy 2 -heryd as a raat. pmosyst.] 13704 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And thys wekke 3 (as I was war) [ 3 vekke st.] [stowe, if. 2*1, bk.] 
Vnder hyr Arm, an Ax she bar, 
Lych a bocher that wyl slen 

Grete bestys, and affter ffleen, 13708 

And sythen put hew to larder. 
Lyk swych a wowman was hyr cher ; 
ffor bestys at ther ffeet be-hynde, 
With a corde she dyde bynde, 13712 

And cordys ek (as I was war) 
Gret plente, on hyr Arm she bar, 
And affter, -with hyr owne hond, 



The Pilgrim. 

I am in great 
fear, 

like a bird 
(Miiiiht with 
lime. 



As I stare 
about, 



I am seizd 
and bound. 



I see an old 
Wekke or 
[leaf 208, bk.] 
Hag, 



with an axe 
under her 
arm, 



and ropes on 
it. 



372 The hag Sloth seizd me because I cald her ' old' 



She binds 
me by the 
feet. 



I ask the 
ugly old 
tiling why 
she attackt 
me unawares. 



The Pilgrim. Strongly by the ffeet me bond ; 13716 

In the knotte ther was no lak ; 
And thawne thus to hyr I spak : 

Pilgrym [In Stowe's hand, pylgrym St.] 

" 0, thow Olde Ryvelede whyht ! 

ffoul and owgly off thy syht ! 13720 

Why artow, off thy cruelte, 

Kome vnwarly thus on me, 

ffals, and a traytour in werkyng, 

And spak no word in thy koiuyng? J3724 

I wot, by tooknes off thy fface, 

Thow kam neuere out off no good place, 

Nor, thogh thow haddest the Reue? % s sworn, 

I wot that thow wer neuer born 13728 

Off no good moder, out off drede. 

And as touchynge thy kynrede, 

Be thyn array (yt semeth wel) [stowe, leaf 212] 

I shold yt preysen neueradel. 13732 

ffle fforth thy way, and cast the bondys 

That thow beryst, out off thyw hondys." 

[Sloth] : 

Quod she, (as in conclusion*) 

' I am no Gerfawk nor fawcouw, 13736 

Nouther sparhawk nor Emerlyouw, 
Nor lyk to thyri oppynyourc ; 
Ches nor bellys, nyfi nor ffere, 

To be bouwde I wyl nat bere ; 13740 

ffor, al ffre, w^tA-oute charge, 
My lust ys for to gon at large. 

Sloiltlie. [In Stowe's hand, slowthe St.] 

'Trust me wel, bothe hih" and lowe, 13743 

By ffeyth that I my ffader howe, 1 i l ffader owe St., trade howe c.] 

Thow shalt nat (whaw al ys do,) 

ffro my dauwger escape so ; 

But thow shalt, for al thy pryde, 

Ben arestyd, and abyde, 13748 

Be cause thow hast ben so bold 

To calle me ' stynkynge and old ; ' 

And causeles thus blamyd me, 

Wych haue in many a place be, 13752 



[leaf 209] 



The Hag 
Sloth. 



Sloth says 
she is no 
falcon, 



but will be 
tree. 



I shall not 
escape her. 



She seize! me 
because I cald 
her old. 



13756 

[Stowe, leaf 242, back] 



olde St., Old C.] 13760 



[ a St., om. C.] 



13768 



St., om. C.] 



Sloth's Master is the Chief Butcher of Hell. 

1 In somer aud in wynter shours, 
In chauwbrys off thys Emperours, 
Off kynges, dukys, (who lyst sek,} 
And off grete bysshopys ek, 
Off abbotys, pryours, and prelatys, 
And many other grete estatys, 
Wych neuer was (to ther semynge) 
Callyd Olde 1 nor stynkynge, 
Wher-off I wyl avenge me ; 
But yiff thow the stronger be, 
Aud mor off power, than am I. 
I shal the venquysshe cruelty.' 

The Pylgrym 2 : 
Than off hyre I gan enquere, 
That she wolde me pleynly lere, 
Awl declare, by short avys, 
Bothe hyr name and hyr offys. 

Slouthe 3 : 

1 The trouthe,' yiff I shal the telle, 
* With a mayster I do dwelle. 
ffel and vnkouth off hys cher, 
And ys off hello cheff Boocher ; 
And \vith thys corde (yt ys no drede) 
Al pylgrymes to hyw I lede, 
As thys Bocherys don a beste. 
Swych as I may in soth aresto, 
I bynde hem by the feet echon ; 
And I ha lad hym many on, 
And yet I hope that I shal, 
And thy sylff in especial ; 
Trustc wel, for haste nor rape, 
Tho\v shalt not fro my dauwger skape. 

' But ffyrst off aH I shal me spede, 
To thylke place the to lede ; 
ffor I am she (my name ys spronge) 
That lye a bedde with ft'olkys yonge, 
And make hew tourne to and ffro ; 
I 4 close her Eyen bothe two, 
I make hew slope, dreme awl slombre, 
Yonge folkys out off noumbre ; 



373 



13772 



13776 



[Stowe, leaf 2*3] 



13780 



13784 



t'An.lSt.] 



She has been 
among kings 
and nobles, 



13764 



and will lie 
avengd on 
me for abus- 
ing her. 



The Pilgrim. 



I enquire 
her name and 
office. 

[feaf209,bk.] 
Sloth. 



Her Master 
is the chief 

lilll c-lli'l- uf 

Hell. 



She leads nil 
pilgrims to 
him, 



and inlcnils 
to lead mi . 



She lies in 
lied with 
ynuiig Iblk, 



anil niakrs 
om nluniln'r 



374 Sloth works ly the Baven's ' eras,' to-morrmv, putting-off. 



makes the 
Mariner sleep 



till his ship 
is wreckt. 



She makes 
brambles 
fjrow in 
gardens. 



[leaf 210] 



She goes by 
the Raven's 
crat (to- 
morrow), 



and puts 

everything 

off. 



Her name is 
Sloth, 



or Idleness, 
or Heaviness, 



' I make the Maryner fful ffast 

Lyn and slepe vnder the mast, 13792 

Tyl hys vessel, by som cost, 

Be ydrownyd and ylost ; 

I breke al hys gouernaylle, 

By costys, wher as he doth say lie ; 13796 

And myd off many strauwge se, 

The wrak ys maad only by me. 

flbr lak, in soth, off governaimce, 

I cause that al goth to meschaimce, 13800 

Ther loodmawage, ther sttuff, ther wynesu 

' I cause also that, in gardynys, 
(Who so lyst to looke aboute,) 

That bremblys, netlys, fful gret route, 13804 

Wexe and encresse round a rowe, 
And many 1 weedy s that be nat sowe ; [ l in many St.] 
And for tamende hem, day be day, 
I putte y t euere in-to delay ; 13808 

ffor I lernede, syth go fful long, [stowe, leaf 243, back] 
The maner off the Rauenys song, 
Wych by delay (thys the cas) 

Ys wont to synge ay ' craas, craas ; ' V 13812 

That song I kepe wel in my thouht, 
Thys lessouw, I forgete yt nouht ; 
My custom ys ek, what I may, 

Al thyng to puttyn in delay ; 13816 

And, myn vsage off Olde 2 daate, p oide St., old c.] 
What I shal done, to don yt late ; 
Wherfor off ryght (to seyn the trouthe) 
My name ys ycallyd ' slouthe ' ; 13820 

ffor I am slowh and encombrows, 
Haltynge also, and Gotows, 
Off my lyme's crampysshyrjge, 

Maymed ek in my goynge, 13824 

Coorbyd, 3 lyk ffolkys that ben Old, p Croobyd St.] 
And afowndryd ay w/t/i cold ; 
On ech whedyr, I putto blame, 

And, ther-fore, Slouthe ys my name, 13828 

Off custom callyd ' Ydelnesse.' 

' Thow mayst mo calle ek ' hevynesse,' 



Sloth's Elijah-Axe. Her Ropes, Sloth and Negligence. 375 

' ffor what thyng cue?* that I se, sioth 

Shortly yt dyspleseth me, 13832 

And, ther-off no tale I telle, 

ffor, I am the same Melle is a MUI that 

That tourneth ay and grynt ryht nouht, doesn't 

Save waste vp-on myn owne thouht ; cA 13836 

Wit/i Envye my sylff I were, # 

And ther-for, thys ax I bere ; 

Off wych Ax the name ys ryff, [stowe,ieaf!4i] Her axe 

' Werynesse off A manhys lyff,' 13840 

As thus, for verray slogardy, 

A man for slouthe ys wery. 

'Thys Ax (the byble Avyl nat lye) [c.&st.] [leaf 210, bk.j 

Made the prophete Helye, 13844 waasancti- 

Whan he ffledde out off Bersabee, prophet 

Elijah 

Twyes slumbre vuder a tre 

Callyd lunypre, 1 wher he slep ; p lunypere St.] when he slept 

under the 

But an Auwgel (or he took kep) 13848 Jjper tree 

(1 Kings xix, 

Pookede hyw, and made hyw ryse. 
' Wyth thys Ax, in the same wyse, 






Clerkys I do ther reste take she makes 

At ther book, whan they sholde wake, 13852 when they 

J should wiike. 

The pelwe to lyn vnder ther hed, 

il'or slouthe hevyere than led, 

And ffor they be soget to me, 13855 

The trow the theroff thow mayst se, [St., line blank in c.] 

Be no ropys mad at Clervaws (cwten-mn 

Abbey, fd. by 

(ffor they wer makyd at Nervaws) sf Bernard.) 

(? Nervieux.) 

The ton off hem (to seye" 2 trouthe) [ 2 sey c., St.] 

By name ys ycallyd ' Slouthe,' 13860 Her ropes are 

J / / called Sloth 

And the tother (in sentence) and Neca- 

gence. 

Ys ynamyd ' Neclygence,' 

Strong to bynden and enbrace, 

And ther hertys for to lace ; 13864 

Wyth wych, throtys, sore I bynde, With tliei)e 

That they ha nouther wyl nor mynde, 

But for neclygence spare, 

To the prest for to declare 13868 i"; *, r,,iu 

jromt; to con- 

Thcr trespace by deuocyoiw ' [stmvo, iit 211, lurk ' ti^ion. 

Lowly in confessiiouii. 



376 Sloth's Rapes : 1. Hope of Long Life ; 2. Foolish Fear ; 



Other 5 cords 
she bears. 



[leaf 211] 

The first, 
Hope of Long 
Life. 



The second, 

Foolish 

Dread, 

which stops 
folk telling 
their sins. 



They're like 
birds fright- 
end by a 
Scarecrow. 



Tliey won't 



13884 



confess their 
lius. 

[leaf 211, bk.] 



' I her ek other cordys ffy ve ; 

And ther namys to descry ue : 13872 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

1 The fyrst ys ' hope off longe 1 lyff ,[ E 1 longe St., long c.] 
Wych in thys world ys now fful ryff, 
That causeth mew, for lak off grace, 
To truste that the" 2 shal ha space p they St.] 13876 

Longe ynowh, to telle ther errour, 
Ther synne ek, to ther confessour. 

' The secunde ys (who lyst take hed,) 
Off clerkys callyd ' ffoly dred,' ' 13880 

Wych, off ffoly, maketh hem spare, 
The trouthe, outward to declare, 
Ther synne's clerly to dyscure. 

' And they be lyk (I dar ensure) 
To bryddys ffleyng in the hayr, 
Wych dar nat haven ther repayr, 
To touche nouther corn nor greyn, 
Be cause only that they ha seyn 13888 

A Shewelys 3 enarmyd in the ffeld p imnge, scarecrow] 
Wiih bowe ay bent, wt't/i spere or sheld, 
To ffleyen hem fro ther pasture, 
Wych ys but A ded ffygure, 
An apparence, and noon harm doth 
The wych resembleth wel (in soth) 
To a prest, in hys estaat, 
A confessour or a curaat, 
Swych as han luredicciioure 
ff or to here confessions ; 
And trewly, what they here or se, 
They muste be mwet and secre, 
Ther tonge may telly out no thyng ; 
ffor they be dowmb in ther spekyng, 
As an ymage wrouht off Tre or ston ; 
Ouht to seyu, power ha they noon ; 
They may here, but no thyng declare ; 
ffor wych, folk sholde no-thyng spare 
To tellyn out ther synnes and offence 
To ther curatys wyth humble reuerence, 
And gaste hem nouht by noon oppynyoura 






13892 



[Stowe, leaf 2 45] 13896 



13900 



13904 



13908 



3. Shame ; 4. Hypocrisy ; 5. Despair. Hell's Hangman. 377 



[! ffructuously St., 
ffrustuously C.] 



' To shewyn pleynly ther conf essi'ouw ; 

ffor goode prestys (who so taketh hed) 

In ther kepyng haven greyn and bred, 13912 

Bred off lyff, sed ek off scyence, 

And goostly ffoode ek off elloquence, 

Hys sogetys fructuously 1 to ffeede 

With doctrine whaw that they ha nede. 13916 

' The thrydde Corde ys ycallyd ' Shame,' 
Causynge A man, he dar nat attame 
To telly n out hys ffautys, nor expresse, 
Only for dred and ffor shamfastnesse. 13920 

' The ffourthe corde callyd ' Papyllardie,' |( 
Wych ys a mane/ 1 off ypocrysie ; 
Wolde ben holden mor hooly thaw he ys, 
Dar nat telle (whan he hath don arays) 13924 

Hys grete ffautys in confessions [stowe, leaf 215, back] 
Lyst hys curat kauth 2 oppynyoim [* kaught* st.] 
Ageyns hy?tt, ffor hys gret offence ; 
Vnder colour off feyned Innocence, 13928 

Kepeth cloos, and doth the trouthe spare, 
Tyl he ffalle in the dewellys snare, 
ffor shamfastnesse in confessiouw. 

' The ffyff te corde ys ' Desperaciouw ' : 13932 
Thys the Corde, pleynly, and the laas, 
Wyth wych whilom hangyd was ludas 
Whan he hadde traysshed cryst ihesu ; 
Wych corde ys ffer ffrom aH vertu, 13936 

Off vyces werst (shortly for to telle) ; 
ffor he that ys hangema/* off helle, 
With the corde off desperaciouw 

Hangeth aH (in conclusiouw) 13940 

ffolk endurat 3 in ther entente, [ 3 indurat St.] 

That dysespeyre, and wyl nat repente, 1 
Keuer in thys world whyl they ben alyve. 

' And w/t/i thys cordys, that be in nouwtbre ffy ve, 
I shal don al my besy peyne, 13945 

Yiff that I may, thy throte to restreyne, 
Hale the fforth, and no longer d\velle 
By the way wych ledeth vn-to hclle.' 13948 

[The Pilgrim]: 



Sloth. 



Her third 
coni is 
Shame. 



The fourth, 
' Hypocrisie, 
or outward 
shew of re- 
ligion, a 
counterfeit- 
ing of zeale 
in religion, 
Pape/urdie.' 
(Cotgrave.) 



The fifth, 
Deapuir, 



with which 
Judas was 
hanged. 



Hell's hang- 
man liangH 
all folk who 
drspair and 
won't repent. 



With the'e 

roju's, Slnili 
'II huul me 
off 



[leaf 212] 



378 Sloth binds me worse. A white Dove frees me. I see Pride. 



The Pilgrim. 



Sloth smites 
me with her 
axe, 



binds me 
wall fresh 

1 'ill. (Is, 



anil begins to 
pull me away. 



But a white 
dove releases 
me, 



and breaks 
my bonds. 



I .see two 

1 >rr>ns, 



[leaf 212, bk.] 

one carrying 
the other 
puffy one 
( Pride 1 on 
her neck. 



One (Pride) 
is like a lion. 



And affter thys, by hyr grete sleylite, 
And hyr Ax that was so gret off wheyhte, 
Lyk a theff And A ffals ffeloun, 
She smot me so that I fyl a-douw ; 13952 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
ffor I ne hadde power nouther myght, [stowe, leaf 246] 
On my fifeet for to stonde vp ryht. 

And affter that, ful sore she me bond 
W<t/4 the cordys that were in hyr hond : 13956 

Over myn throte, ffyrst she gan \\Qin caste, 
And knette hem affter wonder streight and ffaste ; 
And ffro the hegh, by hyr mortal la we, 
Cruelly she gan me for to drawe, 13960 

Wher-off I felte gret anoy and greff, 
Lyk tatfalle 1 in-to gret ruescheff l (to have fallen) to faiie St.] 
And gret dystresse, only nadde be 
A whyht dowhe, wych that I sawh fle 13964 

To- ward hegh, wych my cordys brak, 
And Ellys hadde I sothly go to wrak ; 
But she was sent vn-to me by grace, 
Me to socoure in the same place. 13968 

And whan I sawh that I was vnbou?*de, 
The cordys brak, that wer gret and rouwde, 
Vp on my ffeet I gan me for to dresse ; 
And as I myghte (for verray weiynesse), 13972 

To-ward the hegh I wende ha gon ful ryht ; 
But ther I sawh, fful owgly off ther sylit, 
Two that wern to me ful contrayre, 
And to my purpos gretly aduersayre, 13976 

At the pendant off an hyl douu lowe ; [C. & St.] 
And on off hem (as I koude knowe) ,, 

In my beholdyng (lyk as I was war) f 

Vp-on hyr nekke, she the tother bar; 13980 

And she that was vp-on the bale yborn), [stowe, leaf ate, bk.] 
Was gretly bolle and yswolle aforn, i 
And in hyr hand she bar a staff fful round, * 
Wych whilom Grew on A werray 2 ground. [warryst.] 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And off hyr look (in myu inspeccyoun) 13985 

She was lyk to a ffcrs 



Pride described. SJie lids me yield to her. 



379 



And hornyd ek as an vnycorn ; 

And in hyr hand also she bar an horn, 13988 

And lyk a skryppe (ek afferme I dar) 

A peyre belwys aboute hyr nekke she bar ; 

And she hadde On (as was hyr delyt) 

On hyr shuldres, A mantel large off whyt, 13992 

A peyre off spores poynted (soth to say) 

Lyk the bek off a somer lay, 

Shewyng out that she was maystresse 

Vn-to hyre that was hyr porteresse, 13996 

I mene, tholde 1 that bar hyre on hyr bak, [' the oldest.] 

Whos clothyng was shapyn lyk a sak. 

But she that rood, off whom I 2 tolde, pist. to-fom ic.] 
Maade the tother 3 lede hyr wher she wolde ; 14000 
And she that bar, (ye shal vnderstonde,) [ s = tu- other] 
Held a large merour in hyr bond, 
Hyr owgly ffeturys to beholde ami se. [ 4 to om. St.] 

And than I gan a-noon to 4 remewbre me, 14004 
Seyde, " alias ! what hap haue I, or grace ! 
AH they that I mete in thys place, 
Ben olde, echon, to-forn and ek be-hynde ; [st.&c.] 
I am gretly astonyd in my mynde ; [stowe, leaf 247] 14008 
They wyl me slen, thorgh som dysaventure, 
Or me Outrage, I shal y t nat recure ; " 
ffor she that rood vp-on the olde a-foru, 
I herde a-ffer, how she blew hyr horn,) 14012 

And ffaste gan affter me to ryde, 
To me sayde, as I stood a syde, 

The Olde Pride: 5 pst.,om.c.] 

' Yeld the ! ' quod she in al hast to me, 
Or thow shalt deye ; yt wyl noon other be." 14016 

The Pylgrym: 6 [st.,om.c.j 

" What artow," cpiod I to that olJe ; 
" Wenystow I so sone sholde 
Yelde me, and knowe nat thy name, 
Wttft-oute mor? in soth I wer to blame; 14020 

Tliyn offyce ek, and also thy power, 
Or that [ me yelde prysowner." 

Pride : T U P>'"de St. In StowVs hand C.J 

' Vndentond wel ffyrst, and so, 



The Pilgrim. 



and has spurs 
as sharp as a 
jay's beak. 

She's mis- 
tress of the 
woman who 
carries her, 



and holds a 
large mirror 
in her hand. 



[leaf 213] 

I am in great 
dread, as I 
think they'll 
kill me. 



bid* me 
yield. 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask her 
name and 
office. 



380 Pride was Lucifer's Daughter. She ruind Adam. 



was bred in 
Heaven. 



Her father 
was Lucifer. 



wlio was cast 
down to hell, 



[leaf 213, bk.] 



and she with 
him. 



On earth she 
saw Adam, 



tempted him, 
and made 
him cat the 
fruit, 



for which 
lie was driven 
out of 
Paradise. 



'And wyte yt wel, that I am she 14024 

Off aH Olde sothly the Eldest : 

Whylom, in hevene I hadde a nest ; 

And ther I was Eyred and yleyd, 

And engendryd ek (as yt ys seyd), [stowe, leaf 217, back] 

Thogh yt be hill, and hewnys flier. 14029 

' My ffader was ynamyd Lucyf er ; 
Off bryd ther was neuer (in-to thys day) 
In bussh nor brauwche leyd swych an Ey ; i. Ouu st. 
ffor affter tyme that I Eyred was, 14033 

Wyth thys belwys (trewly thys the caas) 
I blewe ther so horryble a blast, 

That my ffader was a-noon douw cast 14036 

ffroni that hih" hevenly mansions, 
In-to helle cast fful lowe donra : 

To-fforn he was a bryd ful cler and bryht, 14039 

And passyngly ffayr vnto the 1 syght, c 1 to the St., burnt c.] 
Noble, gentyl, and also ek mor cler 
Thaw Phebus ys in hys mydday sper ; 
But now he ys blak, and mor horryble 
Than any deth, also mor terry ble. 14044 

' And shortly ek (in conclusions) 
"With my ffader I was also cast douw, 
In-to thys Erthe dovw ful lowe ; 

And ther I sawh and dyde knowe 14048 

On ymad ful fressh off fface, 
ffor to restore a-geyn my place ; 
The wych, wha?i I dyde espye, 

At liym I hadde gret envye, [ 14052 

And caste that I wolde assay 
ffor to lette hyw off hys way. 
And w^t/i-Inne a lytel throwe, 

I took my belwys, and gan blowe, 14056 

And made on hym so fel a suit, 
I made \\yin Etyn off the frut 
Wych was dyffendyd hy? (certeyn) [stowe, leaf 248] 
Off hys lord, cheff and souereyn ; 1 4060 

Wher-for he was (after my devys,) 
Affter chacyd out off paradys ; 
Ther he loste hys avau/ttage. t 



Pride breeds Discord, War, Blood-shed. She will rule all. 381 



She causes 
discord and 
dissension, 



war and 
battle, 



[leaf2H] 



and incited 
the first 
shedding of 
blood. 






' Thus wrouht I ffyrst in my yong age : 14064 Pride. 

And day be day I ne cessede nouht 
Tyl I hadde gret harmys wrouht ; 
ffor yt am I, both nyh and ferre, 

That make A-mong gret lordys, werre ; 14068 

I cause al dissenci'ouws, 
Dyscord and indygnaciouws, 
And make hem, by ful gret envye, 
Everych other to dyffye ; 14072 

ffor I am leder and maystresse, 
Cheventayne and guyderesse, 
Bothe off werre and off bataylle. 

I make off plate and of maylle 14076 

Many devyses, mo than on ; 
And to rekne hew euerychon, 
Yt wolde dou?z but lytel good. 

' I causede ffyrst, shedyng off blood ; 14080 

I ffond vp fyrst, devyses newe, 
Kaye's off many sondry hewe ; 
Off short, off long, I ffond the guyso ; 
Now streight, now large, I kan devyse, 14084 

That men sholde, for syngulerte, 
Beholde and lokyn vp-on me. 
I wolde be holden ay sanz per, 

And by my syluen synguler ; [stowe, leaf 213, back] 14088 
I wolde also that, off degre, 
Ther wer noon other lyk to me ; 
Yiff any dyde me resemble, 

Myn herte wolde for Ire tremble, 14092 

Eyve atwo almost for tone. 

'What euere I sey, I wyl sustene, 
Be yt wrong or be yt ryht ; 

And I wyl ek, off verray myght, 14096 

Be cheff mayster aboue echon : 
Other doctryne kepe I noon. 

' I hate also, in myn entent, 

Good consayl and avysemcnt, 14100 

And overmor, thus ys yt, 

I preyse noon other mawhys 1 wyt, [' mamiys St.] 
But myn owne, what so be-falle, 



She will be 
held peerless, 



and be every 
one's master. 



She hates 
good counsel 
and advice. 



382 Prides Contempt of others, and love of Flattery. 



Nothing is to 
be dune or 
said, gave by 
her. 



[leaf 2H, ok.] 



She thinks 
alt otlier folk 
Asses. 



But she re- 
fuses praise, 
by way of 
mockery, 
saying it's a 
joke; 



but this is 
only sham 
humility 



to make folk 
flatter her 
more. 



Site leaps for 
.joy on hear- 
ing flattery. 



' ffor that I holde best off alle ; 1 4104 

And me semeth that I kan < 

Mor than any other man ; 

Ther-wit/j I am ek best apayd, 

No thyng ys wel dourc nor wel sayd, 14108 

By noon off hih nor lowh degre, 

But yiff yt be only by me 

Gouernyd al, to my delyt ; 

And ek I wolde ha gret despyt, 14112 

ffor bothe in hopen and in cloos 

I wolde be preysed, and ha the loos ; 

ffor I wolde no maw wer preysed, [c. & st.] 

Worshepyd, nor hys honour reysed, 14116 

But I allone, mor ne lasse; [Stowe, leaf 249] 

ffor I holde ech man an Asse 

Saue I, wych, a-boue ech on, 

Am worthy to haue the prys allone. 14120 

' And sothly yet, whan mew me preyse, 
Or vfith laude myw honour reyse, 
Outward I do yt al denye, 

And sey 'yt ys but mokerye 14124 

That they so lyst my prys avauwce j 
I sey I ha no suffysaunce 
Lyk to her oppynyoura, 

To haue swych coramendaci'ouw : ' 14128 

And al thys thynges I expresse, 
To shewe a maner of meknesse 
Outward, as by apparence, 

Thogh ther be noon in Existence. 14132 

I wit/i-seye hem, and swere soore, 
Off entent that, mor and more 
They sholde myrc honour magnefye 
To-for the peple by flaterye, 1 [' flaterye, flatry c.] 14136 
Taferme off 2 me, bothe fer and ner, [*on st.] 

That my wyt ys synguler. 

* And whan I here ther flatrynges, 
Ther grete bost, ther whystlynges, 14140 

ffor verray loy I hoppe and dauwce, 
I ha ther-in so gret plesauwce, 
That, lyk a bladder, in ech cost 



Pride looks fierce & grand; lut she's mere Bladder & Foam. 383 






' I wex swolle with ther host, 14144 

And thywke my place and my degre [stowe, leaf 219, back] 

Muste grotly enhaurzsyd be, 

And tliynke yt sytteth wel to me 

Tave a cheyre 1 off dygnyte, pchayerst.] 14148 

Lyk as I were a gret pryncesse, 

A lady, or A gret ducbesse, 

Worthy for to were A Crowne. 

' And whaw I se Rourad envyrouwe, 14152 

ffolk me Obeye on euery part, 
I resemble a ffers lyppart ; 

Off port, off 2 cher, I-rous ami ffel, [ s and St.] 

And off my lookys ryht cruel 14156 

I be-holde on hem so rowe, 

And gynne to lefften vp the 3 browe [ 3 gyn . . . my St.] 
Off verray Indygnacioim, 

Off contenauttce lyk a lyou?z, 14160 

As thogh I myghte the skye's b) 7 nd : 
Al ys but smoke, al ys but wynd, v 
Lyk a bladdere that ys blowe, 

Wych, wtt/i-Inne a lytel thro we, 14164 

Pryke yt \\iih a poynt, a-noon, 
And ffarwel, al the wynd ys gon, 
Tliat men ther-off may no thyng se. 

'And lyk as foom amyd the se 14168 

Ys reysed hihe wit/i a wawe, 
And sodeynly ys efft wtt/<-drawe, 
That men sen ther-off ryht nowht, 
Ryght so the wawes off my thouht, 14172 

By pryde reysed hih" a-loffte, 
With vnwar wynd be chauwgyd offte. 

'Ech mawhys ffawtys besyde me, [stowe, leaf 250] 
Saue myw owne, I kan wel se; 14176 

But I parceyue neueradel 
Off no tbyng that they do wel. 

' To alle scornerys, in sothnesse, 

I am lady and maystresse ; 14180 

And off the castel off land own, 
That off scornyng hath cheff renouw, 
By Okie 4 tyme (as rueu may sen) [ oide St., old c.] 



Pride 



likes to sit on 
a Cliair of 
Dignity like 
a Duchess. 



[leaf 215] 

Wlien folk 
obey her, 



she looks like 
a Lion ; 



but it's only 
a bladder i 



prick it, and 
it collapses. 



She sees all 
men's faults, 
not her own ; 

and not their 
good works. 



Of the Castle 
of Lnndon 



384 Pride's Horn of Cruelty, and Bellows of Vain-glory. 

Pride. < I was som tyme crownyd quen. 14184 

she was j$ u t the pj'ophete ysaye, 

crowned J J ' 

queen; Whan he dyclij me espye, 

j" a d . cursed by He cursyde (off ful yore ago,) 

Bothe my crowne and me also. ^^^SS^ 1*188 
[leaf 215, bk.] < My name ys, 'that wyl feynte 

Eue?-e to be nyce and queynte ' ; 

And I am she (yt ys no dred) 
The horn in That ber an horn in my forhed, 14192 

her head de- - 

notes cruelty. Wych ys ycallyd ' Cruelte,' 

To hurte folk aboute me : 

Off verray surquedy and pryde, 

I smyte and wynse on euery syde ; 14196 

Prest nor clerk, I wyl noon spare ; 

And wyth my syluen thus I ffare, 

Mor cruel, in my ffelle rage, 

Than a Boole wylde and savage, 14200 

Wych rent a-douw bothe roote and rynd. 
Her bellows, < j her thys belwes fful off wynd. 

spurs and 

staff, j her thys sporys, I her thys staff, 

Wych that my ffader to me gaff; 14204 

horn, and I here thys horn (who looke wel), 

white mantle. I were also a why t mantel, [Stowe, leaf 250, back] 

To close ther vnder (vp and dourc) 

Al my guyle and my tresouw. 14208 

' ffro tyme long, out off memoyre, 
The bellows is Thys belwes callyd ben ' veyngloyre,' 

Ther-wi't/i to quyke the ffyr ageyn, 

To make ffoolys in certeyn, 14212 

Thogh they be blak as cole or get, 

Off me whan they ha kauht an het, 

To semyn in ther owne syht 

That they in vertu shynew bryht, 14216 

Bryhter than Any other man 

That was syth the world be-gan, 

Or any that they alyve knowe. 
once blown in ' Thys Belwes I made whilom Blowe 14220 

the forge of 

Nphnrnad- In the fforgc, with gret bostyng, 
Off Nabugodonosor the kyng, 
That bostede in hys regiourc 



Vainglory ruins Renown. Fable of the Fox and Raven. 385 



' That the cyte l off Babiloim p citee st.] 14224 

Wyth al 2 hys grete Ryalte, p aii St., om. c.] 

Wyth al 2 hys fforce and hys bewte, 

Was bylt and mad by hym only : 

Thys was hys bost ; and ffynally 

Wit/i thys belwes I made a levene, 

The fflawme touchyde nyh" the heuene, 

But affterward yt gan abate, 

Yt lasteth nat by no long date. 

' And as gret wynd (who lyst to se) 
Smyt al the ffrut douw off A tre, 
Brawnche and bowh, and levys fayre, 
And ther bewte doth apayre, 
Ryght so the wynd off veyn glorye 
Be yt off conquest or vyctdrye, 
Or off what vertu that yt be 
Yt bloweth yt dou?i (as me?i may se), 
Worshep, honour, Renouw, ffame 
Ther ys in bostyng so gret blame, 
ffor bryddes that flen in the hayr, 
And hyest make ther repayr, 
Thys wynd kan maken hem avale, 
Talyhte lowe douw in the vale. 

' Hastow, a-for-tyme, nat herd sayd, 
How for an Exaiuuple ys layd, 
That a Reuene, 3 Or north or souht, 4 
Bar a chose wit/t-Inne hyr mouht* 
As she fley ouer a ffeld ; 
The wyche, 5 wha?i the ffox beheld, 
Thoghte that he wolde yt haue ; 
Sayde, ' Ravene, god yow saue, 
And kepe yow fro al meschannoe ! 
Prayynge yow, for my plesauwce, 
That ye lyst, at my pray ere, 
Wyth your notys fressh and clere 
Syngen som song off gentyllesse, 
And your goodly throte vp dresse, 
Wych ys so fful off melodye 
And off hevenly Armonye ; 
ffor trewly, as I kan dy scenic, 

PILGRIMAGE. C C 



Pride 



14228 



14232 



[Stowe, leaf 251] 

14236 



14240 



14244 



14248 

P Ravene St.] 
[* Southe . . Moutlie St.] 

14251 

[5 which* St., wych C.] 



14256 



[leaf 216] 



burnt theCity 
of iiabylou. 



As wind 
blows the 
fruit off a 
tree, 



so Vainglory 



blows down 
Fame. 



14260 



Fable of the 
Kaven and 
the Fox. 
The Raven 
flew with a 
cheese in her 
beak. 



The Fox begd 
her to sing 



[leaf 210, bk.] 

with her lieu* 
venly voice. 



386 Fable of the Fox and Maven. Flattery spoils all virtues. 

prMe. Ther ys harpe nor gyterne, [stowe, leaf 251, back] 14264 

Syniphonye, nouther crowde, 
Whan ye lyst to synge lowde, 
Ys to me so gracyous, 

So swete, nor melodius 14268 

As ys your song wt't/t notys clere ; 
rue FOX said And I am komen ffor to here, 

he'd come to 

hear her sing Off entent, in-to thys place, 

a motet. 

A lytel motet wit/* your grace.' 14272 

' And whan the Eavene hadde herknyd wel 
The ffoxys speche euerydel, 
As she that koude nat espye 

Hys tresouw nor hys fflaterye, 1 [ nutrye c., St.] 14276 
The Raven ffor to synge she dyde hyr peyne, 

opend her * 

beak, dropt And gan hyr throte for to streyne, 

tl' cheese, 

and the FOX And thcr-wzt/i maade an owgly SOUM. 

made off with 

' Ther whyles the chese fyl a-douM, 14280 

And the ffox, lyk hys entente, 

Took the chese, and forth he wente. 
The Raven And thys deceyt (yiff yt he souht.) 

was deceived J J \J J 

by flattery. Was only by my bylwes wroulit, 14284 

"With false 2 wynd off treclierye, p fab c., St.] 

Thorgh the blast off fflaterye, 1 

The wych, -with hys sugryd galle, 

Euery vertu doth appalle 14288 

And bet yt dou on every syde. 
' Ther-for lat no man abyde 

The wyndes, that ben so peryllous, 

Off thys belwys contagyous ; 14292 

Let every Lat ech man, (in especyal.Y 

man consider v ' 

he U mortal. Consydren that he ys mortal, [ 3 thynke St., tliynk C.] 

And thynke 3 that swych wynd in-dede [stowe, leaf 252] 
Bloweth But on asshes dede, 14296 

That wyl wit/i lytel blast a-ryse, 
[leaf 217] And dysparpyle in many wyse; 
And affter swych dyspers'iouji 
Al goth in-to perdiciomi. 14300 

' Thys belwes ek (yt ys no drede) 
Causeth (who-so taketh hede) 
Bombardys and cornemusys, 



blows flutes 
and musical 
instruments 



that quench 

Virtue's 

light. 



Pride inspires Music. Her Peacock's tail. Her Boasting. 387 

' Thys ffloutys 1 ek, with sotyl musys, [ ffleutys st.] 14304 

And thys shallys 2 loude crye, pohaivysst.] 

And al swych other menstralcye, 

Wit/i ther blastys off bobbaunce, 

Don offte tyme gret grevauwce ; 14308 

ffor, wyth ther wyndes off gret niyght, 

They quenche, off vertu al the lyht ; 

They blowe many a blast in veyn, [ 3 chaffe / fro St.] 

They seuere the chaff fer fro 3 the greyn. 14312 

' Thys wynd also, (as ye shal lere,) 
Whan yt taboureth 4 in rayn Ere, [* tabourethe st.] 
And vfith hys blast hath ther repay r, 
Bereth me An hand that I am ffayr, 
Noble also, and ryht myghty, 
Curteys, wys, and ful worthy, 
Vfiift swyche wyndes cryyng lowd. 
A-noon I gynne wexen proud ; 
But whan ther wynd ys ouergon, 
ffrut ther-off ne kometh noon ; 
Al ys but wynd (yt ys no doute,) [stowe, leaf zni 
Turnynge as offte sythe aboute 
As phane doth, or wheder-cok. 

' And my Tayl, lych a pocok, 
Offte sythe on heihto I reyse, 
Witlt swych wynd, wha/i nierc me preyse. 
And whan I ha swych prys ywonne, 
I swolle, 5 gret as any tonne, [ 5 sweiie St.] 

Lyk to brestyn i'or swollyng ; 6 [ B sweiiynge St.] 

Ne wer I hadde som aventyng 
To make the Avynd fro me twywne, 
Wych ys closyd me with-Inne, 
Me semeth ellys al wer lorn. 

' And, therfore I bere thys horn, 
Wych that callyd ys ' bostyng,' 
Or voyde pownche, 7 by som lesyng. [ 7 pawnche St.] 
And trewly, wit/i my?t hydous blast, 
Alt the bestys I make a-gast, 
Off my centre, for verray clredo, 
Make hewt to lefft vp hyr hed. 

' And off tl : tyme I boste also 



14320 



back] 

14324 



14328 



14332 



14336 



14340 



\\it\\ con- 
tinual flut- 
tery, and 
blowing of 
the bellows, 
she waxes 
proud. 



But all is 
wind, with- 
out fruit. 



Pride sticks 
up her tail 
like a Pea- 
cock. 



[leal 217, bk.] 

She bears the 
Horn of 
lioasting. 



At its noise 
all the lieuats 
quake. 



boasts of 
tilings she 
never did, 

her lineage, 



possession g, 



and acquaint- 
ance. 



When she's 
done any- 
thing not- 
able, 



up goes her 
talc, and slic 
cackles like a 
hen that's 
laid an egg. 



388 Pride's Boasting and Gadding over Tier doings. 

Pride f Off thyng wher neue?' I hadcle a-do, 14344 

My sylff avauwce, off thys and that, 
Off thynges wych I neuer kam at. 

' I boste also off my lynage, 

That I am komc off hih" parage, 14348 

Born in An hous off gret renouw ; 
That I ha gret pocessi'ouw, 
And that I kan ful many a thyng, 
And am aqueynted vtith the kyng. 14352 

'I booste and blowe offte A day, [stowe, leaf 253] 
Whan that I ha take my pray, 
Or whan that I, (lyk myw awys,) 
Ha done a thyng off any prys, 14356 

Achevyd, by my gret labour, 
Thyng resownynge to honour ; 
Consayl ther-off I kan noon make ; 
Vp with my tayl, my ffethrys shake, 14360 

As, whan an henne hath layd an Ay, 
Kakleth affter, al the day ; 
Whan I do wel any thyng, 

I cesse neuere off kakelyng, 14364 

But telle yt forth in euery cost ; 
I blowe myw horn, and make bost ; 
I sey ' Tru / tru,' and blowe my ffame, 
As hontys whan they fynde game. 14368 

Ryht so, Avhaw that I do wel, 
Avauntyng I tell yt euerydel, 
And axe also off surquedy, 

' Hath any man do so, but I, 14372 

Outlier off hih or lowh degre *? ' 

' And, but ech man herkne me, 
(Wher yt to hem be leff or loth,) 

"With hem in soth I am ryht wroth, 14376 

Be yt wrong, or be yt ryght. 
And I wyl here noon other whyht, 
But so be I be herd to-forn, 
Wha?* that euere I blowe myw horn. 14380 

' And thus thow mayst wel knowen how 
She resem- I resemble the Cookkoow, 

hies the 

cuckoo, Wych Vp-011 O 1 lay halt SO long, ['OoSt. (leaf 253, hack)] 



[leaf 218] 



Unless folk 
listen to her, 



she gets 
wroth. 



Pride is fond of Argument and Chatters like a Jay. 389 



which knows 
only one 
song., 



Pride will 
always argue, 



prove white 
black, 



and make 
great noise 
about it. 



Sometimes 
she'll extol 
Fasting 



* And kan synge noon other song. 14384 Pride. 

' And avawntyng (who taketli lied) 
Ys sayd off wynd (yt ys no dred) 
Wych ys voyde off al prudence 

In sliewyng out off hys sentence; 14388 

And on ech tliyng (in hys entent) 
He wyl make an Argument, 

Sustene hys part and make yt strong, 1 14391 

Wher that yt be ryht or wrong, 1 C 1 stronge . . . wronge c.] 
Sette a prys and sette A lak, 
And preue also that whyht ys blak ; 
And who-euere ageyn \\yrn stryne, 
He wyl ffyhte watA hyra blyue, 14396 

And, holdyng hys oppynyourc, 
Make a noyse and a gret souw 
ffor to supporter hys entent, 
Lyk as yt wer a thonder dent. 14400 

' Somtyme he wyl, off surquedye, 
ffastyng, gretly maguefye, 
And prechyn ek (by gret bobbaunce) 
Off abstynencc and off penauwoe; 14404 

And yiff hys pawnche be nat fful, 
Wynd and wordys rud 2 and dul I 3 Rude St.] 

Yssen out fful gret plente, 

To make al f olkys that hy w se, 1 4408 

Vp-on hym to stare and muse 
And to here hys Cornemose 3 : [ 3 Cornemvse St.] 

Swych hornys (who that vnderstoode) 
Ar wont to make noon liuntys goode ; 14412 

Hys hornys he bloweth al the day, [stowe, leaf 254] 
And langleth euere lyk a lay, 

A bryd that callyd ys ' Agaas,' ^SSS^S^Sf^ " 
"Wych. wyl suffren in no caas 14416 

No bryd aboute hyr nest to make, 
Wit/t noyse, she doth \\yrn so a-wake. 

' Thus alle ffolk that here hys bost 
Wyl eschewe (in euery cost) 14420 

Oft' swych a bostour that kan lye, 
The dalyatmce and the companyc. 

' And off my spores, to spccefye Her spurs. 



to make folks 

stare. 

[leaf 218, bk.] 



Slie chatters 
like a Jay or 
Magpie. 



390 



Pride's Spurs of Disobedience and Rebellion. 



Pride. 



Of her Spurs, 



one is called 
Disobedience, 



tlie other 

Rebellion. 



The first 
made Adam 
eat of the 
fruit, 



and take 
Eve's advice. 



The second, 
King Pha- 
raoh wore, 



[leaf 219] 



when he re- 
fused to let 
the people of 
Israel go, 



' What they tookne or signefye, 14424 

Thow shalt wyte (and thow abyde) 

That offte I shape for to ryde, 

And am ful loth, in cold or heet, 

ffor to gon vp-on my ffeet, 14428 

Yiff tliat myw hors be faste by, 1 [ifastiyst.] 

And al myw harneys be redy. 

' On off my spores (in sentence) 

Ys callyd ' Inobedyence ; ' < 14432 

The tother (in conclusions) 
Callyd ys ' Rebellion n.' 

1 The fi'yrste 2 made, (by my sut,) [ 2 flyrst . . . suyt st.] 
Adam to Etyn off the ffrut 14436 

That was forboode to hyw afforn ; 
But thys spore, sharpere thaw thorn), 
Maade hym stedefastly beleue 

The comzsayl and tlie reed of Eue, 14440 

Aforn ytake out off hys syde ; 
Eut to the frut she was hys guyde. 

' The tother spore, hadde also [stowe, leaf sst, back] 



and was by it 
brought to 
confusion. 



Vp-on hys Ele, kyng Pharao, v 
Whylom a kyng off gret renouw, 
And hadde in hys subieccioun 
(As the byble kan wel tel) 
Al the peple off Israel, 
And in thraldam and seruage, 
In hys woodnesse and hys rage 
Wolde nat grauwte hew lyberte 
To gon out off hys contre 
(In hooly wryt, as yt ys ryff) ; 
And, for thys Pharao held stryff 
Ageyn mor myghty thaw he was, 
ffynally (thus stood the caas,) 
By the spore off Itebellyouw 
He was brouht to cowfusiouw. 

' Hard ys to sporne ageyn an hal, 
Or a crokke a-gey?j a wal ; 
Swych wynsyng, thorgh liys foly, 
Ageyn the lord most myghty, 
Made hyw, that he was atteynt, 



14444 



14448 



14452 



14456 



Prides Staff of Obstinacy, on whicli Saul leant. 



391 



Pharaoh was 
a fool to 
strive against 
God. 



But Pride 
made him 
trust in her 
Spur of Re- 
bellion. 



' And myddes off the see ydreynt. 14464 _ Pride. 

' He was a ffool, (yt ys no faylle,) 
The grete mayster for tassaylle, 
That ys lord most souerayne ; 
But pryde tliat tyme held hys reyne, 
Off malys and off 1 surquedye, [' om. c., st.] 

ffor to trustee and affye 
In thys spore that I off spak, 
Tyl he fyl vp-on the wrak. 14472 

'NOW Wyl I Spek en off the Staff [Stowe, leaf 855] Pride's staff, 

"VVych that pryde to me gaff, 

And I, to my protecciouw, 

Bar yt in-stede off a bordouw, 14476 

And ther-vp-on (for my beste) 

Off custoom I lene and reste ; 

And who that wolde yt take a-Avay, 

With hym I wolde make ffray 2 ; p affray St.] 14480 

I wyl lene yt for no techyng 8 pthyngst.] 

ffor no coiwsayl nor no prechyng, 

But, obstynat in my?i entent, 

I voyde resouw and argument; 14484 

ffor with thys staff (who kan eutende) 

Myn offencys I dyifende. 

' ffor thys staff, (in sentement,) 

"NVhylom Kud 4 entendement, [* iu.de st.] 14488 

The cherl, held by rebellion/?, 
Whan he dysputede with llesou/>, 
And eallyd ys ' Obstynacye ', 

On wyche (the byble wyl nat lye) 14492 

Lenede whilom kyng Saul, 
Whan he (off Resoiw rud and dul,) 
Was reprevyd off Samuel, 

A prophete in Ysrael, 14496 

ffor the grete vnleful pray 
That he took vp-on a day 
In Amalech, most liyche thy?/ges, 

As, in the ffyrste book off kynges, 14500 

]\Iakyd ys cler meneyou/i. 

'And I, for my rebellious, 
Hatyd am in many wyse, [stowe, leaf 255, baokj 



to lean on, 



[leaf 219, bk.] 



and defend 
her offences 
with. 

This staff, 
Obstinacy, 
was held by 
Rude Enten- 
dement 
(p. 288 above). 



Saul too leant 
upon it wlien 
reproved by 
Samuel, 



for sparing 
the cattle 
he took from 
Amaluk, 
1 Kings (= 
1 Samuel xv. 
9-33). 



392 Pride keeps Pagans in idolatry, and damns Jews. 



Prirle 



is hated by 
wise folk, and 
drives away 
God's grace. 



She keep* the 
heathen to 
their idol- 
atry, 



[leaf 220] 

and the Jews 
to their 
obstinacy, 



lending em to 
perdition and 
damnation. 



Her mantle, 



fair without, 



(like snow 
over a dung- 
hill,) 



' Off alle folkys that be wyse ; 
And ek, thorgh my Inquyte, 
I am cheff cause, and make me 
Grace dieu ; to-for my fface 
She may byden in no place : 
"YVher-as I am, she diielleth nouht. 

' And ek also (yiff yt be souht) 
I cause paynymes, euerychon, 
ffrom ther Errour they may nat gon, 
Ydolatrye to for-sake, 
And the ffeyth of cryst to take, 
fErom ther errour hem w/t/r-drawe, 
And to kome to cry sty s lawe ; 
They be blynded so by me, 
And Indurat, they may nat se 
To c6nue?*te as they sholde do. 

' And the lewes ek also 
I nyl stynte, nor cesse nouht, 
Tyl off entent I haue hew broulit 
To ther ffynal perdyc'ioure 
And to ther dampnaciuniw : 
I debarre hem from al grace, 
That the hegh they may nat pace ; 
The hegh, I mene, off penawzce, 
Ther-by to kome to repentauwce : 
I sterte aforn "hem (in certeyn) 
And make hem for to tourne ageyn, 
ffor to wynse and dysobeye, 
And to tourne A-nother weye. 

' Ek to the, I wyl nat spare, 
Off my Mantel to declare, 
Wych ys fayr by apparence, 
And haueth ek gret excellence, 
Both off shap and off bewte 
Owtward (who that lyst to se), 
ffor couere (yt ys no doute) 
Al the fowle that ys wyth-oute, 
As Snowh (who that loke wel) 
Maketh whyht a ffoul dongel ; 
And lyk also as fressh pcynture 



14504 



14508 



14512 



14516 



14520 



14524 



14528 






14532 



[Stowe,leaf25G] 



14536 



14540 



Prides Mantle hides her foulness. She's like an Ostrich. 393 

' Maketh fayr a sepulture 14544 pnae. 

On euery party, syde and brynke, covers stink 

of carrion 

WttA-InnS thogh yt ffoule stynke within, 

Off karyen and off roote boonys ; 

So thys mantel (for the noonys) 14548 

Maketh me (in my repayr) 

Outward for to semyw ffayr, and makes 

J her look holy. 

Parfyt, and off gret holynesse. 

' But, yifF Outward my foulnesse 14552 

"VVer open shewed to the syht, 
I sholde be ffoul, and no thyng bryht : 

My mantel overspredeth al; [leaf 220, bk.] 

But who that (in especyal) 14556 

Inwardly knewe herte and thouht, [c. & st.] 

Blowh, and he shal fynde nouht; souffle; si, narien. st.,o.c. 
"Wherfor, by descripcioure, 

I bere the sygnyficaciowi [c.&st] 14560 

In resemblance, and am lych Pride is like 

an oslrich, 

Taffoul 1 callyd an Ostrych, ['To a fowl] 

Off whom the nature euerydel [stowc, leaf 250, back] 
Ys vnderstonde by my mantel. 14564 

'Thys 2 ffoul hath fethres fressh to se, [* Thys St., Thy c.] ^{j^ 8 
ffayre wynges, and may nat ffle, wln'Tbut* 1 

Nor fro the erthe (in hys repayr) cauno ' fl y- 

He may nat score in-to the heyr ; 14568 

Yet men Avolde demy, off resou, 
And wene in thor oppynyouw, 
By dpparence, to ther syht, 

That he Aver liable to the fflylit ; 14572 

But he ffleth nat, whaw al ys do. 

' And by m\n habyt ek also s<> 1>r , id ' 8 

J mantle 

Men myghte deme ther-by in al 

That I were celestyal, 14576 

Goostly and contemplatyff, ;] !'er 

l(M)k spint- 

Parfyt, and hooly off my lyff, ual - 

liable to fllen vp to heuene, 

Her aboue the sterrys seuene ; 14580 

And how my conuersaciouri 

AVer nat in erthe lowe doui ; 

But who tho troullic kaii wel se, 



304 Pride's Mantle of Hypocrisy. The Fox and the Herrings. 



Her mantle's 
name is 
Hypocrisy. 



It's lined 
with foxskin. 



[leaf 221] 



Story of the 
fox roitrniiii; 
himself dead. 



A carter flung 
him into his 
load of 
herrings. 



and the Fox 
ate his fill of 
em and went 
off. 



14592 



[stowe, leaf 257] 



' I nouther kan, nor may nat fle ; 14581 

I her thys mantel but for ffrauilc, 

Off ffolk outward to haue A laude ; 

And the name to specefye, 

Callyd ys 'ypocrysye,' 

Therby outward 1 a prys to wynne. 

' And the forour wych ys wa 
Off fox skynnes euerydel ; 
Al be that, outward, my mantel 
Ys y woven (by gret delyt) 
Off shepys wolle, soffte and whyt, 
I were yt on (soth to seye) 
By fawssemblauHt whaw I preye ; 
And who lyst knowe verrayly, 
Many men vse yt mo than I, 
Wrappe hem ther-in, in ther nedc, 
In hope the bettre for to spede. 

' I covere slouthe vnder meknesse, 
And grete 1 ffelthe vnder fayrnesse ; [' grete St., gret c.] 
Sey (whan rathest I Avyl greuo) 
Sanctificetw in my be-leve; 

' And as the ffox (yt ys no dred) 
Maatle hym oonys as lie wer ded, 
And off fals fraude, (yt ys no nay,) 
Myddes off the way lie lay, 
Ded only by resemblauwce 
Outward, by cher and cowtenauce 
Thus he feynede ful falsly, 
Seynge a carte passe by 
fful off haryng (ther yt wente) ; 
And the cartere vp hy w hente ; 
In-to the carte a-non hywi threwh, 
ffor he in sotli noon other knewh. 
And whyl the carter forth hym leddc, 
On the haryng the fox hyt fedde ; 
He heet hys felle, and wente hys way. 

'And euene lyk, fro day to day, 14620 

Vnder thys mantel I me wrye, [stowe, leaf >:>-, back] 
Wych callyd ys ' ypocrysye,' 
By wych (eiiy, and ek ful laat,) 



14596 



14600 



14604 



14608 



14612 



14616 



The old hag Flattery, who carries Pride on her lack. 395 



[St.&C.] 14628 [leaf 221, bk.] 

If she liiuln't 
her cloak on, 



' I ha be brouht to hill estaat 14624 

fful offte sythe, (as mew may se) 

And reysed vn-to 1 hih" degre. C 1 vppetost.] 

' But yiff thys mantel wer asyde, 
Vnder wych I do me hyde, 
Off ffolk (that vnderstonde wel) 

I shold be preysed? neueradel ; [stowe MS.] 

For ffolkys wolden at me chace, [st. & c.] 

Hunte at me in euery place, 14632 

Sette on me ful many a lak. 

' And she that bereth me on hyr bak, 
I shal the maner off hyr telle, 
Yiff thow wylt a whyle dwelle.' 14636 

The Pylgrym asketfi: 2 pst., m.c.] 

Tha?me quod I, or she was war, 
Vn-to the olde that hyr bar : 
" Certys, in myn oppynyouw, 

Off lytel reputaci'ouw, 14640 

Nor off no prys, thow sholdest be, 
Be thyn offyce, (as semeth me,) 
To bern A best so cruel, 
Vp-on thy bak, Irous and fel." 14644 

The Olde Answerde: 3 pst.,om.c.] 

' I am she that ful wel kan [stowe, leaf 258] 

Scorne and mokke many A man ; 
And to myn offyce, yt ys due, 
ffolkys lowly to salue. 14648 

' Lordys that ben off gret estaat, 
On hem I wayte, Erly and late ; 
In wrong and ryght, I kan hem plese, 
And pleynly to ther hertys ese, 14652 

fful gret plesau?ice I kan do ; 
My song to hem ys ' placebo,' 
And they ful wel vp-on me leve, 

I seye 4 nat that sholde hem greue ; [ 4 seye St., sey c.] 14656 
And thogh" they kan me nat espye, 
Vn-to hem I kan wel lye. 

' And my crafft I thus devyse : 

I sey to ffoolys, they be wyse, 14660 

And to folk that ben hasty, 



wise folk 
would hunt 
her out. 



The Pilgrim. 

I tell the 
second person 
who hore 
Pride on her 
back- 

that she's no 
good. 



OM Flutter;!. 

Her descrip- 
tion and 
office. 



To Lords, 



she sin^s 
placebo ; 



slio jilc-asrs 
everyone l>y 
lying. 



396 Flattery lies to folk, and is most welcome at Courts. 



[leal 222] 



tells tyrants 
they are 
pitiful. 



Flattery ' I afferme l boldely C 1 afferme yt St.] 

They be mestirable and ffre, 
And off ther port fFul attempre. 

' I sey also (off tfals en tent,) 
To ffolkys tliat be neclygent, 
That they in vertu be besy ; 
And to tyrauutys, ful boldely 
I afFerme, and sey hem thus, 
That they off herte be pytous ; 
I swere yt, for to make liem sure. 

' And placys ful off old ordure, \ 
I kan strowhe with Rosshys grene, 
That ther ys no ffelthe sene. 
And I kan sette (or folk take hed) 
A Coyffe vp-on a skallyd heed : 
Thys myn offyce, and noon other ; 

' And at the kynge's hous, my brother, 
I am welkomyd off eue?y man, 
So wel to hem I plese kan, 
ffor in that court ys no gestour, 
I yow ensure, nor tregetour, 
That doth to hem so gret plesau?zce 
As I do w't/i my dallyaunce, 
They han in me so gret delyt. 

1 Yet for al that, my?i appetyt 
Ys to deceyue hem, grene and rype ; 
So swetly \vibh my ffloute I pype, 
My song ys swettere, he??2 tagree, 
Tha?i off meremaydenys in the se, 
Wych, wit/i ther notys that they sowne, 
Cause folkys for to drowne 
"With ther soote mellodye. 

' My ryhtii name ys ' Flatrye,' [= Fiaterye] 
Callyd ' cosyn to Tresouw,' 
And by dyssent off lynii dou?j 
Eldest douhter off Falsnesse, 
Cheff noryce off Wykkednesse ; 
And aH thys olde ffolk (certeyn) 
Her-to-fforn that thow hast seyn, 
[icaf2i2,bk.] I cxceptc off hem neuere on, 



At kings' 

I'-Mirts 



no one is BO 
welcome as 
she. 



Her song is 
sweeter than 
tluit of raer- 
inaiiU. 



Her name is 
' Flattery,' 
cousin to 
Treason. 



14664 



14668 



14672 



[Stowe, leaf 258, back] 

14676 



14680 



14684 



14688 



14692 



14696 



14700 



Flattery the Nurse of Pride. The Mirror & the Unicorn. 397 



' I haue hem fostryd eue?-ychon 

"With my mylk, on and alle, 

In tast lyk sugre ; but the galle 14704 

Ys hyd, they may yt nat espye. 

' And, w/t/. my mylk off fflateryo l t 1 fflatrye c. St.] 
I was noryce, ami ek guyde, [stowe, leaf 259] 

In especyal vn-to Pryde, 14708 

Vn-to whom, in sothfastnesse, 
I am verray porteresse. 
And, that in me ther be no lak, 

I bere hyre euere vp-on my bak, 14712 

And ellys she, in sowre and soote, 
She sholde shortly gon on 2 fote.' [* vnder St.] 

The Pylgrym: 3 pst.,om.c.] 

Tha/me quod I, " answere to me ; 
Thylke merour wych I se, 14716 

Wych thow beryst, ther-in to prye, 
Tel on, what yt doth sygnefye ! " 

Flatrye: 4 [st., .c.] 

' Herdestow neuere her-to-forn 

Telly n, how the vnycorn, 14720 

Off hys nature, how that he 
fforgetefch al hys cruelte, 
And no manor harm ne doth, 

Wha that he be-halt (in soth) 14724 

Hys owne hed, and hath a syht 
Ther-off, witfr-Inne a merour bryht 'I ' 

The Pylgrym: 5 pst.,o.c.] 

" I haue herd 6 sayd," quod I, " ryht wel [stowe, leaf 250, back] 
Ther-oft' the mane?- euery del." [ 6 herd st., her c.] 14728 

Flatrye: 7 [7st.,om.c.] 

Tliau quod she, ' I wyl nat spare, 
Off Ecsouw, Pryde to compare 
To the vnycorn (off ryht), 

The wych, \vha?& he hath a syht 14732 

Off hym sylff in A merour, 
And beholdeth the rygour 
Off hys port, he bereth hywi ffayrc, 
And gynneth wexyn debonayre. 14736 

And thys merour (in substauMce) 



was nurse to 
Pride, 



and is lier 
Porteress. 



Slie hears 
' Pride ' upon 
her back. 



T/te Pilgrim. 

I ask Flattery 
what her 
Mirror 
typifies. 



Flattery. 

As the iini- 
corn gives uj) 
liis cruelty 
when he looks 
in a glass, 



F'nftery. 

so, when 
Pride sees 
herself in a 
mirror, 



[leaf 223. 
slio (urns 



398 Flattery 's Mirror of Agreement. The Serpent Envy. 



Flatter ii. 

Her mirror is 
called ' Ac- 
cordance.' 

She always 
agrees with 
Pride, 



who then is 
not fierce, 
and doesn't 
poke with her 
horn. 



Flattery al- 
ways agrees 
with what 
Pride says ; 
and is the 
Echo 

to every one's 
talk, 



whether right 
or wrong. 



The Pilgrim. 

While we are 
talking, 



I see an old 
woman, 



with spears 
in her eyes, 



[leaf 223, bk.] 

gliding on 
the grass like 
a serpent. 



14740 



14744 



14748 



['here St.] 14752 



[Stowe, leaf 2CO] 






' Ys ycallycl ' Accord aiwce,' 
Resownywg ay (be wel certeyn) 
To al that pryde lyst to seyn, 
To holde wyth hym in ech degre, 
Wt't/<-outo, al contraryouste ; 
ffor whyl that folk hys wordys preyse, 
And on heyhte hys honour reyse, 
Al that whyle (in sykernesse) 
Pryde leuetli hys fFersnesse, 
And ellys, lyk an vnycorn, 
He vvolde hurtle w/t/i his horn, 
That no thyng, on se nor londe, 
Sholde hys cruelte wtt/i-stonde. 

' And for thys cause, to my socour, 
I ber 1 with me thys merour, 
ffro hys sawes nat dyscorde ; 
What-euere he seyth, I accorde 
And assente ay wel ther-to. 

' Who vnderstant, I am Echcho 
Among the rokkys wylde and rage, 
Wych answere to euery age : 
To yong and old, what so they seyn, 
I answere the same ageyn, 
In ryght and wrong, to ther menyng, 
And contrarye hem in no thyng.' 

[The Pilgrim:] 

And whyl that I held companye 
And dalyawice with fflatrye, 
Heryng the maner and 2 the guyse P and St., ad c.] 
Off hyr deceyt in many wyse, 
I sawh an old on, ful hydous, 
Off look and cher ryht outragous, 
Off whom ful sore I dradde me ; 
And in hyr Eyen I dyde se 
Tweyne sperys 3 sharp and kene } p sporys St.] 

And she glood vp-on the grene, ' 
(Me sempte, by good avysement) 
On all foure, lyk a serpent, 
Megre and lene, off chore ami look 
And for verray Ire she shook, 



14756 



147GO 



14764 



14768 



14772 



14776 



The Serpent-Hag, Envy, carries two others on her bach 399 



Dreye as a "bast, voyde off blood, 

Hyr fflessh wastyd, (and thus yt stood,) 

Men myghte sen bothe nerffe and bon, 

And hyr loyntes eue/'ychon). 14780 

Other tweyne (I was wel war,) 
I sawh, that on hyr bak she bar, 
Wonder dredful and horryble, 
And to beholde ful terry ble : 14784 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
On off hem (by gret outrage) [stowe, leaf 200, back] 
Veylled was in hyr vysage, 
That men ne sholde hyr face se, 

Nor hyr port in no degre ; 14788 

Hyr lokkys wern ryht End and badde ; 
In hyr ryht hand A knyff she hadde, 
And in hyr lyfFt (as sempte me) 

A boyst wit/t oynemewtys had she ; _ 14792 

But hyr knyff, stel 1 sharp and kene, ['ffuist.j 
Was hyd, that no man myghte yt sen, 
Be-hynde hyr bak ful couertly. 

The tother vekke, that rood on hill, 14796 

Hadde in hyr hand a swerd also, 
And (as I took good hed ther-to) 
Endelong yt was yset, 

fful off Eerys, and y-ffret 14800 

Off swych folkys as wer wood. 
The toon Ende, (thus yt stood,) 
She yt held wit7i-Inne hyr mouth, 
Wych was a thyng ful vnkouth. 1 4804 

And ther-wit/i-al, she, 2 euere in on, p she St., the c.] 
ff aste gnew vp-on a bon ; 

And (bettre hede 3 ek as I took,) p hede St., hed c.] 
She hadde also a long flessh-hook, 14808 

Double-fforkyd at the ende, 
Sharp and krokyd for to rende. 

The Pylgrym: 4 [*st.,om.c.] 

Thys thynges whan I gan beholdo, 
Off the wych aforn I tolde, 14812 

I abrayd vriih al my peyne ; [stowe, leaf 201] 

And off hyre that bar the tweyne 



Tfie Pilgrim. 



Tlie Serpent- 
hag (Envy) 
bore two 
others on her 
back. 



One was 

veiled, 



and held a 
knife in her 
right hand, 



behind her 
back. 



The other 
liau' had a 
sword in her 
hand. 



full of ears, 
[leaf 22 4] 



(and held one 
end in her 
mouth,) 



and a long 
flesh-hook. 



400 False Envy is the daughter of Pride, by Satan. 



The Pi/grim. 

1 ask the hag 
(Envy) the 
names of the 
three. 



Envy. 



The Serpent- 
hag says she 
is 



False Envy,' 
daughter to 
I'l-itU- and 
Satan. 



[leaf 22 1, bk.] 

She has upset 
every fort and 
castle. 



She is the 
beast that 
devoured 
Joseph, 



as Jacob 
thought. 



14824 



14828 



[ J aC.,o). St.] 



Vp-on liyr bak / I gan enquere, 

That she lyst me for to lere, 

And declaren vn-to me 

Wheroff they seruede alle thre, 

And off that owgly cowpanye 

They wolde her namys specefye. 14820 

Envye Answerde : x c 1 stowe, leaf 201. om. c.j 
' I merveylle nat,' y wys, quod- she, 
' Thogh [tliat] thow abaysshed be ; 
fEor the trouthe, yiff I shal seye, 
We wolde make the to deye 
Or thow sholdest yt espye. 

'fEor I am callyd 'Fals Envye,' 
Douhter to Pryde : why lorn I was 
Conceyved wha that Sathanas 
By hys cursyd moder lay, 
Sythe go fEul many a 2 day ; 
And trustly, thogh I be nat ffayr, 
I am hys doubter and hys hayr, 
Who so lyst seke out the lyne. 

'And shortly to determyne, 
Who so that consydre wel, 
Ther ys strengthe nor castel, 
Nouther cyte, borgh" nor touw, 
But that I, by fals tresouw, 
Haue hew tournyd vp so doura 
By slauhtre and gret occis'ioiw. 
And haue her-off the lasse wonder, 
Wluw I devydede hem assonder. 

' I am that beste (who taketh kep) 
That devowrede whilom Joseph, 
fEor whom lacob, in gret peyne, 
Gan to sorwen and co??ipleyne, 
Sayde, in hys mortal rage, 
How a beste most savage 
Hadde hys chyld falsly devowryd, 
Wher-off he myghte nat be socouryd ; 
He fEelte yt at hys herte roote. 

'And vn-to me ys nothyng soote 14852 

(The trouthe yiff I shal expresse,) 



14832 



14836 



[Stowe, leaf 261, back] 



14840 



14844 



14847 

genes/* 27 Capitulo 
Hi'st ia deuorauit 
losep . . . St., om.C. 



Envy delights in other folks' grief. She'll never die. 401 



' But other folkys bytternesse ; 

And whan I so ffolk lene and bare, 

That ys my norysshyng and welffare 

And thus wiih me the game goth : 

Gladdest I am, whan folk ar 1 wroth 

Thr meschdff (I yow ensure) 

Ys my fedyng and pasture ; 

The mylk off other mewhys greff , 

Off my fostryng ys most cheff ; 

And yiff I hadde ther-off plente, 

I sholde be faat 2 in my degre, 

And for I ha nat my?z Entent 

Off plente, therfor, I am shent ; 

I wexe megre, pale and lene, 

Dyscolouryd, off verray tene, 

As I sholde yelde vp the breth ; 

And no thyng so sone me sleth 

At alle tymes, as whan I se 

Other folk in prosperyte ; 

And ther habundauwce in good, 

That dryeth and sowketh vp my blood. 

(The trouthe, yiff I shal yow teche) 

Evene lyk an horse leche. 

'And I dar seyn, (in my?i avys,) 
Yiff that I were in paradys, 
I sholde deye, and nat abyde, 
To beholde, on euery syde, 
The loye and the ffelycyte 
Off hem that ben in that centre ; 
To me yt sholde be grete 3 wrong, 
ffor to duellyn hem among ; 
Yt wolde myw herte assonder rende 
And platly, to the worldys ende, 
I dar wel cowferme and seye, 
I, euvye, shal neuere deye, 
Nor in no cas yelde vp the breth ; 
ffor he that ys ycallyd ' deth,' 
Thorgh-out the worldc, 4 fyually, 
Shal be ded as sone as I. 

' I am that bestc serpentyne, 

PILGRIMAGE. 



Envy. 



[' arn St.] 



14860 



Nothing is 
sweet to her 
but bitterness 
to other folk. 



Theirsorrows 
are her best 
food. 



Pffattst.] 14864 



14868 



[Stowe, leaf 262] 



14872 



14876 



14880 



[leaf 225] 

Nothing so 
grieves tier 
as the pros- 
perity of 
others. 



Were she in 
Paradise, 
she'd die at 
seeing others' 
joy. 



P grete St., gret C.] 

14884 



14888 



Yet ' Envy ' 
shall never 
die nut of the 
world. 



[* worlde St., world C.] 

14892 

D D 



402 The two Spears in the eyes of Envy. One picrst Christ. 



Envy 



is a Serpent 
who hates 
every one. 



She carries 
two spears in 
her eyes ; 



[leaf 225, bk.] 



the one is 
called Wrath 
of other folks' 
Prosperity, 



the other, 
Joy of their 
Adversity. 



With the first 
Saul, angry 
and envious, 
tried to kill 
David. 



14896 



14900 



14904 



14908 



With the 
other, Christ 
wns pierced 
to the heart 
by Longius. 



' Wych, off entent, my sylff enclyne, 

With alle folkys to debaate ; 

And alle ffolkys ek I haate ; 

I loue no thyng (thys the cas) 

Hill nor lowe, hault nor baas, 

In hevene, erthe, nor in the se ; 

I ha despyt off chary te, 

And ek also, in every cost, [stowe, leaf 202, back] 

I werreye the holy gost ; 

And vfiih thys sperys (in certeyne) 

Set wit/t-Inne myw Eyen tweyne, 

I werreye euery maner whyht ; 

I taake noon heed off wrong nor ryht, 

Reward off no man alyue. 

' And the namys to descry ue, 
Off thys sperys that I tolde, [C. & St.] 

Wych that thow dost 1 [in me] beholde : ' 
The Ton ys namyd (Truste me) 
' Wrath the off the prosperyte 
Off other ffolkys me besyde, 
Wher that euer I go or ryde ; ' 
The tother callyd ys off me, , 
' loye off ffolkys aduersyte : '] 
Yt maketh me glad, and nothyng dul ; 
And \vith the ffyrste spere, kyng Saul, 
He afforcede hym-sylff ther-wz'M, 

ffor taslayn 2 kyng Davyd ; [* to ha siayn st.] 1 4920 

Hanger 3 fret on hy?rc so sore, [ 3 Aunger st.] 

Whara he herde the prys was more 
Off Davyd thaw off hyw-sylff , alias ! 
Off envye (and thus yt was) 14924 

He hadde so inly gret dysdeyn, 
So gret despyt (ek in certeyn) 
That he ne myghte (I ensure) 
In hys herte the wo endure. 14928 

1 The tother spere off wych I spak 
Ther-wit/t was taken fful gret wrak, 
ffor ther-wat/i, (who that lyst aduerte,) 
Cryst was percyd to the herte [stowe, leaf 203] 14932 

By the hand off Longius 



14912 



14916 



Envy's eyes slay like the Basilisk's. Her two Daughters. 403 



Envy. 



The Jews' 
scorn paind 
Christ more 
than His 
death did. 



' (As the gospel telleth vs) 
Affter hys grevous passiovw. 

' And yet (as in conclusions) 14936 

Whan he drank Eysel and galle, 
Scornyng off the lewe's alle, 
Ther mowyng and derys'iouw 

"Was to hyw gretter pass'iouw 14940 

In hys suffrytig, or he was ded, 
Than was the sharpe sperys hed, 
Wych, A-mong hys peynes smerte, 
Rooff that lord vn-to the herte. 14944 [leaf 226] 

' And thys sperys bothe two, 
Yplauretyd ben (tak hed her-to) 
Myd off myn herte and off my thouhte, 
And fro me departe nouht ; 14948 

And fro myre eyen (yt ys no doute) 
Thys two sperys kam fyrst oute ; 
And ther (yiff I shal nat feyne) 

They be set lyk homes tweyne, 14952 

And Round aboutere envyroiw 
They envenyme as poysouw. 

' Myn eyen ben off kynde lyk 

The Eyen off a basylyk, 14956 

Wych, wi't/t a sodeyn look, mew sleyth, 
And maketh hem yeldyn vp the breth ; 
And who that dwelleth nyh" by me, 
He deyeth A-noon as I hym se ; 
Ther may no mare hym-sylff for-bere, 
But my two douhtres that I bere. 

' Yiff thow lyst a whyle dwelle, 
At bet leyser they may the telle 
Than may I, (on euery syde) 
Be cause only that they ryde 
Vp-on my bak, at ese and reste ; 
flor they ha leyser at the beste, 
(Who taketh hed) mor than haue I ; 
Therfore oppose hew by and by, 
What I am, bothe fer and ner, 
And they wyl telle the my manor.' 14972 

The Pylgrym : l p st., om. c.] 



14960 



[Stowe, leaf 263, back] 

14964 



14968 



Envy's two 
spears came 
from her 



and shed 
poison round 
her. 



Her eyes slay 
like the eye 
of a basilisk, 



and kill her 
neighbours. 



Only her two 
daughters 
can live with 
them, 



who ride upon 
her back. 



Shi> bids me 

question 

them. 



404 Envy's daughter, Treason, carries out her Mother s malice. 



I ask Envy's 

upper 

Daughter 



The pilgrim. And fyrst off alle, tho I spak 
To hyre that sat vp-on the bak 
Off Envye, formest off alle, 
Bytter off look as any galle, 
As she hadde ben in rage, 
Shrowdyd to-forn al hyr 1 vysage, 



14976 



who she is. 
[leaf 226, bk.] 
Treano n. 



She is called 
' Treason,' 



by whom is 
executed the 
malice and 
venom of 
her mother 
' Envy.' 



She was first 
put to school 



under her 
father, 



who taught 
her Sister to 
pat men's 
flesh. 



Eequerynge hyre nat to spare, 

What she was, for to declare. [st&c.] 14980 

Tresouw Answerde : 2 c 2 st., om . c.] 

Quod she, for short conclusions, [St. & c.] 

' Yiff thow lyst knowe, I am Tresoiu* ; 
And yiff that ffolkys knewen me, 
My fellashepe they wolde ffle, 14984 

Eschewe yt, but he wer a ffool, 
Lete me abyde allone, al sool, 
Off me, so peryllous ys the suit. 

' ffor thorgh me ys execut, 14988 

Off my moder callyd Envye, [stowe, leaf 264] 

Al the malys (who kan espye), 
Hyr wyl, hyr lust, and hyr lykyng, 
And hyr venym in euery thyng. 14992 

And, for hyr-sylff may nat fulfylle 
Al hyr malys at 3 hyr wylle, pandst.] 

Ther-for, off gret Inyquyte, 

ffyrst to scole she sette me, 14996 

Bad, I sholde myn herte caste 
To practyse and lerne faste, 
ffynde a way, by soimne 4 vyce [* somwe st., som c.] 
Tacomplysshen hyr malyce, 15000 

Hyr cursyd fals affecciouw 
To putte in execuc'iouw. 

'And I wyl tellyn (off entente) 

ffyrst wher I to scole wen te ; 15004 

Off wyche 5 scole (thys the caas), p wiiiche st., wych c.] 
Myw owne ffader mayster was ; 
Wych tauhte my sustcr fyrst to frete, 
And the fflessh off mew to ete, 15008 

As yt were, for the noonys, 
Gnawe and Roraige hem to the boonys. 
he me sawh the same whylc, 



Treason's Father gives her a false Face and a Knife. 405 



15016 



' ' Koine ner,' qtiod he, ' for vn-to guyle 
I se (by cler inepeccioun) 

Ys liool thy dysposiciiou ; 

To lerne and practyse in malyce 

And in every other vyce, 

Tliow art off wyt ami komiyng liable 

To be fals and d^ceyvable. 

Be fals inward, and outward sad, 1 [stowe, leaf 201, bacU] 

And ther-off I wyl be glad 1 . [' sadde-ghuiae St.] 15020 

Wherso-euere that we gon. 1 

' And vfith that word he took A-noon 
Vn-to me, by gret corage, 
Out off a Boyst, a fals vysage, 
Took yt me f ul couertly. 
A knyff ek, wych fful prevyly 
I am wont to bere vrith me, 
Hyd, that ffolk ne may yt se. 

' Than my fader gan abrayde, 
And to me ryht thus he sayde, 
' Douhter,' quod he, ' tak good hede 
Yiff the fowlere ay in dede 
Showede hys gynnes and hys snarys 
To thrustelys and to ffelde-ffaarys, 
Hys lymtwygges, hys panterys, 
And hys nettys by reverys, 2 
Bryddes, ffor al hys grete peyne, 
Ther-to wolde neuer atteyne, 
But hem eschewe wt't/i al her myght, 
Beete her wynges, take her fflyht, 15040 

Hys trappes aH, a-noon for-sake ; 
ffor wych, douhter, whan thow wylt make 
Any tresoun or co??ipace, 

Shew outward an humble face ; 15044 

Thogh thyn herte be venymous, 
And off malys outragous, 

(Tak hed her-to, my douhter dere,) [stowe, leaf 205, back, t,.p] 
Outward, alway shew good chore ; [stowe, leaf 201, back, foot] 
And, to hyde thy vyolence, 15049 

T^ooko t.hnw V>P bv ninnroTiPP Nn sunt occtiltaoinres insidie 

.ow ue, uy appai ioe, (]H . im (iue i ilt( . riltj sllll simi i itu . 
Sootyl off port and off manure, 



15012 Trea,on. 



Treason's 
father says 
lier disposi- 
tion is wholly 

[leaf 227] 
to evil. 



15024 



15028 



15032 



[' Kyvcrys St.] 15036 



He gives her 
a false vimige 
and a knife. 



Her father's 
advice and 
exhortation. 



When she 
wants to trick 
folk, 



she is to show 
Koocl rliuur 
outwardly. 



[leaf 227, l)k.] 



406 Treason is to be treacherous like Joab, Judas, Tryphon. 



is to imitate 
the Scorpion, 



look amiable, 

and 8ting folk 
in the back. 



Her father 
gives her 
a box, oint- 
ment. 



a sharp knife, 



and a false 

face. 

With these 4 

things many 

a man has 

perished, 



as Joab slew 
Amasa 
(2 Sam. zz. 
912). 



See also 
Judas who 
betrayed 
Christ; 



and read of 
Tryphon's 
treachery in 
thf Macca- 
bees (xii. 39 
xiii. 1-31)., 



[leaf 228] 



She is to use 
her knife, 



'And plesauwt alway off thy chere. 15052 

' Do as doth the scorpyouw, 
Wych by symulaciouw 
Outward (as by resemblauwce) 

Ys Amyable off contenaimce, 15056 

And at the bak (or folk take hede,) 
With styngyng causeth folk to blede. 

' And ther-for, off entenci'ouw, 

That thow sue hys condiciouw, 15060 

I ha the yoven (off entent) 
A Boyst her, with an oynement. 
Vnder couert, to gyrcne a stryff, 

I ha the taken a sharp 1 knyff, p sharp* St.] 15064 

And also, for mor avauwtage, 
In-to thy hand a fals vysage ; 
And vrith thys .iiij. 2 (who rekne kan) pffourest.] 
Ther hath perysshed many A man ; 15068 

ffor in Regura, ye may se 
That loab (thorgh hys cruelte, 
As yt ys kouthe, ageyn al ryht) 
Slowh Amasa, A 8 worthy knyht. [ the St.] 15072 

' Ek whilom in the same caas 
Stood the traytour callyd ludas, 
Whan he traysshed cryst ihesu 

(That blyssyd Jord, off most vertu) 15076 

To the lewes fful yore agon. [stowe, leaf 265, back] 
And thow mayst Redyn, off tryphon 
The ffals tresouw, many weyes, 
In the book off Machabeyes. 15080 

'And al thys tresouws 4 wrouht off Old, 

Vn-tO the I haue hem told, [ alle his Tresoun St.] 

To thyw offyce, as yt ys due, 

Off entent that thow hem sue ; 15084 

And that thow mayst hem wel reporte, 

Thyw owne moder to couraforte, 

ffor to helpyw hyr ffulfylle 

The surplus off hyr owne wylle, 15088 

And lat thy couert venym byte. 

' Spare nat also to 5 smyte [ 5 for to St.] 

Wyth thys knyff, cloos ami secre, 



Treason is to blind Lords with Flattery, & then kill them. 407 



15096 



15100 



15104 

p fflaterye st., fflatrye c.] 



but smear her 
face with the 
pleasant oint- 
ment, 



and keep her 
poiaou hid. 



She is to blear 
lords' eyes 
with the Oint- 
ment of 
Flattery. 



Kings and 
princes are 
often de- 
ceived by it, 






' Whan thow hast opportunyte ; 15092 Treason. 

And loke that thow be dyllygent, 

Wyth thy plesaiwt vnyment 1 c 1 oynemcnt st.] 

Tenoynte-wyth thy vysage, 

That men sen nat thyra outrage; 

Be war that yt be nat apert ; 

Kep al thy venyw in covert, 

Ellys thow dost nat worth a lek. 

' Shew the outward, ay humble and mek, 
Contrayre to that thow art wit^-Inne, 
Whan any tresoura thow wylt gywne ; 
And looke thow take hed ful offte, 
With thy wordys smothe and soffte, 
And with thy speche off fflaterya, 2 
To blere many a lordys Eye ; 
ffor, with enoyntyng off swych thywges, 
Lordys, prynces, and ek kynges, [stowe, leaf zee] 15108 
Other many dyuers estatys, 
Bothe bysshopys and prelatys, 
Ha ben ther-wit/t deceyved offte. 

' But, for the oynement ys soffte, 15112 

They han echon (in ther entent,) 
Savour in that oynement ; 
They desyre, for ther plesauwce, 

That ffolkys in ther dally aurcce 15116 

Sey no thyng that hem dysplese, 
But al that may be to he? ese, 
Wher-so that yt be ryht or wrong. 

'Ther-for, my doubter, euer among, 15120 

Spare nat Ay to be bold ; 
But that thow (as I ha told) 
In thy speche and thy language, 

With a fflatryng ffals vysage, 15124 

Enoynt hew with thys Oynement. 
And whan thow hast hem ther-w/t/t blent, / 
With tresouw covcryd in thy thouht, 
Smyt with the knyff, and spare nouht, 15128 

With swych malys and cruelte, 
That they may ncue/' recuryd be. 

' And whaw. my ffadcr, gou ful yore, 



for they de- 
sire to liear 
only thinKS 
pleasant. 



She is always 
to be bold 



in greasing 
them with 
her flattery, 



[leaf 228, bk.] 

;mil wlu-n 
she's blinded 
em, 

she's to 

wound um 
deadly. 



408 Treason flatters and stabs; lites and stings to death. 



Treason 

is sent forth 
upon her 
mother's 
back. 



She lias be- 
come a great 
mistress of 
her father's 
lore. 



She can bite 
silently, 



and use both 
ointment and 
knife. 



She is like a 
serpent hid 
by flowers. 



[leaf 229] 

Her sting is 
deadly. 



She lies in 
wait to 
deceive. 






'Hadde in scole tauht me thys loore, 15132 

Than was I leff t vp on A sak. 

HiB vp on my moder bak, 

As thow seat, ther-on to Kyde, 

And she ageyn to be my guyde. 15136 

' And trewly, yiff I shal expresse, 
I am bekome A gret maystresse 
ffro poynt to poynt, as thow mayst se, 
Off that my ffader tauhte me, 15140 

Bothe off speche and language, 
And to shewe a fals vysage 
Whan that me lyst in my?z entent ; 
And also with the oynement 15144 

Off wych I tolde nat longe ago, 
And with the knyff yhyd also 
Vnder my cloke : off fals tresouw 
I ha lernyd my lessouw, 15148 

And reporte yt in my 1 mynde. c 1 my St., <m. c.] 

* I kan byte also be-hynde 
With my sharpe toth fful wel, 

And yet ne berke neueradel. 15152 

I kan Enoynten euery loynt, 
And affter, with my knyve's 2 poynt, ['knymust.] 
Whaw me lyst to make wrak, 

I kan wel smyten at the bak 15156 

With my tresouw ff raudulent ; 
ffor I resemble the serpent, 
Wych, vnder herbys fressh and soote, 
Ys wont to daren by the roote, 15160 

Coueryd with many a lusty fflour. 

' But ther ne may be no socour 
Ageyii my styngyng, in no degre, 
Whan I haue opportunyte. 15164 

And vnder colour, by deceyt, 
I lygge euermor in awayt, 

Simple and coy, off 3 port ful lowe, [ 3 off my St.] 
That men my tresouw may nat knowe, 15168 

Who-so-euere kometh or goth. [stowe, leaf 267] 

' Men ne knowe alway cloth, 4 [ goothe . . . cioothe St.] 
Thogh the colour fresshly shynes ; 



Treason is hidden and artful. Few escape her nets. 409 



1 Nor men ne deme nat 1 alway wynes ; 2 
Thogh they blosme or budde fay re, 
Som wynd or ffrost may yt apayre, 
Or som 3 tempest wzt/t hys rage, 
To-f or the tyme off the ventage : 
By exaumple, ys off te sene, 
Som whilwh ful off levys grene, 
Wych hath ful many werm witft-Inne, 
That fro the herte wyl nat twynne 
Tyl they conswme yt euerydel, 
The trouthe her-off ys prevyd wel, 
And I resemble (who kan se) 
Vn-to the sylue same Tre. 
I am the brygge, the plane 4 also, 
That vnwarly wyl breke atwo 
Whan mew ther-on haw most her tryst ; 
My tresouw neuer toforn ys wyst. 

' To leue on me, yt ys gret ffolye, 
ffor I dar pleynly specefye, 
Tak hed, 5 for yt ys no lape, 
Yt ys ful hard a man tescape, 
Outher by wyt or by resouw, 
ffro my nettys off tresouw, 
As longe as I haue avauwtage 
ffor to bere thys ffals vysage 
With" me 6 euer, off entenciou?&, 
ffor I am callyd dame Tresouw, 
Wych, by 7 the crafft that I wel kan, 
Have be-traysshed many a man, 
What wi't/i fflatrye and -with ffables. 

1 1 pley nouther at ches nor tables ; 
And yiff yt happe (ffer or ner) 
That I pley at the cheker, 
Outher with hih" or lowh estat, 
To he?w ful offte I sey ' chek mat ' 
Wha?j they wene (in ther degre) 
Best assuryd for to be ; 
flor, by sleyhte off my drawyng, 
I ouerkome bo the Rook and kyng ; 
ffro myn Engyn ther skapeth noon. 



15173 



[ 3 sommo St.] 



15176 



Siic is like 
tlie worm in 
the heart of 
a willow ; 



15180 



15184 



[*piankst.] 



15188 



like a plank 
that will 
break. 



Her treason 
is never 
known be- 
forehand. 



[5 hede St.] 



15192 



15196 



[ 6 st.; c. burnt.] 



15200 



15204 



It's hard to 
escape her 
nets. 



[leaf 229, bk.] 



She has be- 
trayed many 
a man. 



When she 
plays at 
chess, 



she mates, 



15208 



and bents 

Hook and 

Kk* 

None escape. 



410 



Treason is to kill me, but is stopt by Detraction. 



says her 
mother 
'Envy' lias 
charged her 
to bring mil 
to her, dead. 



St. Nicholas 
even shall 
not help me, 

though be 
raised three 
clerks from 
the dead. 



The Pilgrim. 

She looks like 
killing me, 
[leaf 220] 



but is 

restrained by 
her sister, 



who is to 
tell me her 
name. 



and then join 
Treason iii 
slaying me. 



' Also, off fful yore agon, 15212 

Thogh thow kanst yt nat espye, 
My moder, that callyd ys Envye, 
Hath had to the in thouht and dede 
Gret emnyte and gret hatrede ; 15216 

Wher-vp-on, she hath to me 
Yove in 1 charg to take the, past.] 

And comauwlyd, by hyr leue, 

Off thy lyff the to be-reue, 15220 

And to don myw hool entente, 
Ded, to hyre, the to 2 presente ; [ to st., om . c.] 

And that thys thyng be do in rape. 

' And therfor thow shalt nat eskape ; 15224 

Thow stondest in so hard a caas 
That the bysshop seyw Nycholas, 
ffro deth ne slial nat helpyrc the, 

That whilom Eeysede clerkys thro 15228 

ffro deth to ly ve (men wry ten so) ; [stowe, leaf aes] 
But he hath no thyng now a-do, 
The to socoure in no degre, 
Ageyn my myght to helpyw the.' 15232 

And with that word (yt ys no ffaylle) 
She be-gan me to assaylle 
fful mortally off look and cher, 

And gan aproche and neyhen ner, 15236 

Made a maner 3 contenaunce pmanereoffst.] 

ffor to smyte by resemblauwce, 
Tyl the tother ffoul and old 

That stood be-syde stout and bold, 15240 

Wit/i-drouli hyr hand, and off fals guyle 
Bad hyre to abyde a whyle : 

Detracciown 4 : c 4 st., om .c.-\ 

'Buster,' quod she, 'be nat hastyff ! 
Lat hyjrc a whyle haue hys lyff, 
And abyde a lyte throwe 
Tyl that he my name knowe ; 
And tharaie ye, and I also, 

Shal assaylle hy??i bothe two 15248 

So mortally, that he shal deyc, 
And eskape no mane? 4 weye. 



in tke marain 



Pride is to see me die. Detraction and Envy hate me. 



411 



[i Were St.] 15252 



15256 



15260 



15264 



[3 St., om. C.] 



15268 



' ffor, but I (in myw entent) 
Wher 1 at hys deth wit/t yow present, 
Myw herte wolde assonder Eyue. 
And ye slial sen (her, as blyue) [stowe, leaf 268, back] 
Our bothen Awnte callyd Pryde, 
Off vyces alle lord and guyde : 
But yiff he were with vs also, 
He sholde deye for verray wo. 
And he hath power most, and myght 
And the cause, off verray ryht 
To hyra parteneth touchyng deth ; 
Ther-for, or any man hyra sleth, 
Lat yt be don bassent 2 off Pryde, p by assent] 

And we shal stonde by hys syde.' 
Traysouw : 3 

Quod traysouw, ' I assente wel 

That we werkyn euerydel 

As ye ha sayd to-forn, and cast ; 

But I wolde ha yt done in hast, 

That in vs ther wer no lak.' 

Than she that sat vp-on the bak, 

Ryght hydous off enspecci'oun, 4 [* inspeccioan St.] 

I mene sothly, Detracc'iouw 

Abrayde, off gret cruelte, 

And sayde thus in hast to me : 
Detracciouw : 5 

1 How artow,' quod she, ' so hardy 

To bern a staff so boldely ? 

I haate stavys euerychon, 

Off pylgrymes, whan they gon [stowe, leaf aeo] 

On pylgrymage wher they wende, 

Whan they be crossyd At the ende. 

In hem I ffynde alway som luk, 

And berke at hem behynde her bak 

Thogh to-forn I be plesauwt, 
And resemble Faulz-semblauwt, 
Wych hateth the and other mo ; 
So doth my moder ek also, 
Whos herte doth for Anger ryve. 

'And whyl that thow art her alyvc [ here St.] 15288 



Detraction. 



Their Aunt, 
or Uncle, 
Pride,' is 
also to be pre- 
sent at my 
death, 



and agree to 
it. 



Treason. 



' Treason ' 
assents. 



[leaf 230, bk.] 
The Pilfirim. 



15272 'Detraction 1 



[5 St., om. C.] 



15276 



15280 



15284 



Detraction. 



hates pil- 
grims with 
staffs, 



and crosses 
at top. 



False-Sem- 
blant and 
Envy hate 
me too. 



412 Detraction is eager to devour me. She likes rotten carrion. 



Detraction 



and Envy will 
eat me ulive. 



No dog is 
greedier to 
eat raw tlesli, 

than Detrac- 
tion is to 
devour me. 



Slie eats 
only stinking 

1110:1*. 



[leaf 231] 



gnawing and 
chewing it. 



The Pilgrim. 



I say that 
as a smith 
can't make an 
axe without 
steel, 



so she can't 
(dander with- 
out cause. 



' We shal the Etyn, fflessli and bon ; 

Other grace thow getyst noon 

Off vs, thogh thow make stryff ; 

ffor thow sawh neuere, in al thy lyfF, 15292 

Nor ne koudest yet espye, 

Houndys in the bocherye 

Mor gredy, rawh flessh to ete, 

Than I am now, the to ffrete ; 15296 

ffor my throte ys al blody, 

Lych a wolff that ys gredy, 

Shep in a folde for to strangle, 

And to devoure hem in som Angle. 15300 

' Stynkynge kareyn, 1 her and ther, [ l kareyns st.] 
Ys my f oode most enter ; 
In hyllys and in valys lowe, 

Lyk a Raven or lyk a crowe, 15304 

On swych mosselles most I thynke, 
And ha best savour whaw they stynke. 
Myn appetyt, yt ys so kene [stowe, leaf 209, back] 

I loue no flessh 2 wha?z. yt ys clene ; ['fflesshe St., tiesshiy c.] 
Yt mvt stynken north ami south, 15309 

Or yt kome wet/i-Inne my mouth ; 
And al the felthe that mere seth, 

Ys fyrst gnawen in my teth, 15312 

And ychawyd vp and douw : 
My mayster tauhte me thys lessouw, 
Whan that I to scole wente, 
To recorde yt in myw entente.' 15316 

The Pylgryme: 3 pst.,om.c.] 

u I trowe thow koudest forge a-ryht 
Yiff thow fouwde day or nyht 
Mater or cause to forge by ; 

But I suppose verrayly, 15320 

No smyth ne may forge wel 
An Ax off yren nor off stel ; 
But yiff he hadde on off the tweyne 
Thogh" he euere dyde hys peyne, 15324 

He sholde nat fynde the rnaner how ; 
No mor (I suppose) ne kanstow." 

Detracciown : 4 [ 



Detraction devours men's good names, & tears them to lits. 413 



' Trewly yiff thow lyst lere, 

I kan ffynde ynowh matere : 15328 

I am so prudent and so wys ; 

Good, I kan tourne in-to malys ; 

Trewe inenyng and goodnesse, 

I chaunge in-to wykkednesse. 15332 

' ffor me, I make ay soin resoiw 
By fals Interpretaciouw, 
What good werk I se men do. 

Wyn in-to water I chaiwge also; 15336 

I tourne ek by collusioura 
Tryacle to venym and poysouw. 
Applys ffayre I kan enpayre, 

Thogh they be bothe good and ffayre ; 15340 

Worshepe I tourne in-to dyffame ; 
On folkys goode, I putte ay blame ; 
Ther goode name, in halle and boure, 
As Eawh fflessh I kan devoure.' 15344 

The Pylgryme: 1 [ist.,oi.c.] 

" Her-vp-on I pray the, 
Thy name that thow telle me." 

Detraccioun : 2 P st., om. c.] 

' To make a short desc? > ipciouw, 

I am callyd ' Detraccioun '; 15348 

Thys the sentence off my lawe : 
With my teth I rende and gnawe. 
Off folkys fflessh, by gret avys, 

I make mortrews and 3 colys [ and eke St.] 15352 

Vn-to my moder callyd Envye. 
Whan she hath any malladye, 
I make hyr sowpe yt vp a-noon, 
Whan I ha grounde both flessh and bon. 1535G 

' She me made gouemeresse 
Off hyr kychene, and maysteresse : 
Ther kometh no mete in hyr syhte 
But yiff that I to-forn yt dyhte ; 153GO 

And hyr thank for to dysserue, 
Off strauTzge mes I kan hyr serue, 
"With flarsyd Erys ITul off poysoura 
Put on A spy to by traysouw. 153G4 



sayts he can 
always find 
material. 

She turns 
goodness to 
malice, 



wine to 
water, 



remedy to 
poison. 
[leaf 230, bk.] 



She devours 
men's good 
name like 
raw flesh. 
The Pilgrim. 



Her name is 
' Detraction.' 



She makes 
broth of 
men's flesh, 

for ' Envy,' 
her mother, 



and sorvos 
her with r:irs 
si ul't with 
poiiton. 



Her office is 
to wound, 



414 Detraction's Tongue is sharp ; her Fleshhook rends fame. 

Detraction. * Swetteie tha/z samoutt outher karp, 
My tonge ys, that spyte sharp 
Wych hath the ofFyce and the charge 
ffor to make a woiwde' large ; 15368 

Yt kerueth sharpe, and mor narwe 
Than any quarel or hookyd arwe, 
Thogh the bo we be stronge bent 

fFro the place that yt ys sent : 15372 

Wyth wych fful many a 1 man ys kut. [' a c., om. st.] 

' And on thys spyte, the Erys be put, 
Off folk that yiven audyence, 

ffor to heryn the sentence 15376 

And thabomynable sown 
Off sklaundre and off detraccioiw, 
ffor to lestene hem fer or ner. 

And thus I Am maad hasteler 15380 

ffor to do my 2 bysynesse, [stowe, leaf 270] 

To serue my moder in hyr syknesse.' [* done my fui St.] 

The Pylgryme : 3 c 3 stowe, leaf 271, om. c.] 

" Wherfor," quod I, " berstow that Crook, 
Dowble-forkyd as a flessh-hook ? " 15384 

Detracciovw : 4 C 4 st., om. c.] 

' Tak hed,' qtiod [s]he, 6 ' and thow shalt se [ 5 1 c., st.] 
How that I werke in my degre : 
ffyrst off aH (yiff thow lyst lere), 

Whan I percyd haue an Ere 15388 

Thorgh-out, and fynde no dyffence, 
Tha?i I do my dyllygence, 
With my flesshhook to a-proche ; 
And ther-wtt/i-al I do acroche, 15392 

Rende away, vfit?i som fals blame, 
The Renoura and the goode name 
Off folke, 6 thogh ther be no preff ; [ 6 ftoike st., ffoik c.] 
ffor I am wers thaw ys a theff, 15396 

Wych day and nyht doth hys labour, 
ffro merz to stelyn ther tresour. 

' But I stele off entenciourc 

Ther goode fame and ther renowz, 15400 

which is Wych (shortly for to specefye) 

worse than 

robbery. Ys wors thaw any roberye. 



[leaf 231] 



by slander 
and detrac- 
tion. 



The Pilgrim. 



Detraction. 



When she 
has pierst 
an ear, 



her fleshhook 
takes away 
good folks' 
name, 



Detraction is a thief, and cooks men's repute as Soup. 415 



Pronwbiorww 22 Ctipitulo 
Melius eat nomou bonum 
UiuiciJB. 



The Pylgryme: 1 [st.,om.c.] 

" Than, record off thyra owne mouth, 
Thow art a theff, both north and souht ; 15404 

ffor a good name (I dar expresse) 
Ys bet than gold or gret rychesse." 

Detraccioun : 2 p st., om. c.] 

' Thow mayst wel seyn yt off Resoura ; 
ffor, as the wyse Salomouw 15408 

In hys provcrbys bereth wytnesse, 
That gold, tresour, and gret Rychesse, 
A good name doth wel al surmounte, pkanst.] 15411 
Who that lyst 3 a-ryht acounte. 

' And her-vp-on I make A preff, 
That ther ys noon so perillous theff 
As he that steleth a- way the flame, 15415 

The renouw, and the goode 4 name [ goode St., good c.] 
Off a man in hys contre, 
Off malys and Inyquyte ; 
ffor swych A thetf (be wel certeyn) 
May yt nat restore ageyn ; 15420 

5 And with-oute Restitution [* * St., om. c.] 

ShaH I neuere ha fful pardon ; 
I shaH be asshamydl sore, 

His goode Name to Restore, 15424 

That I hadde onys sayde certeyn, 
For to Revoke my worde ageyn. 5 
Myn Awnte (I wot ryht wel also) [stowe, leaf 272] 
Wolde nat accorde ther-to.' 15428 

The Pylgrym : 6 [." stowe, leaf 272, om. c.] 

" I wolde wyte what thow dost than, 
Whan thow hast Robbyd thus A man 
Off hys honour and goode 4 ffame : 
What dostow thanne \viih hys name?" 15432 

Detraccioun : 7 C 7 st -. - C 

' I wyl answere to thy demauTide : 
I 8 maake a maner off vyauwde [AndSt.] 

Off that name douteles ; 

And next, affter the fyrste mes, 15436 

Wyth swych A Coolys I hyr serue, 
Ellys she sholde for hunger sterue : 



The Pilgrim. 



I call her a 
Thief, 



for, n Solo- 
mon shows, 



[leaf 232, bk.] 

a g<xxl name 
is above 
richeB, 



and, once 
stolen, 



cnnnot he 
restored. 



The Pilijrim. 




I cook the 
name 

and nerve it 
to my mother 
Knvv us a 
Simp for lu-r 



416 Detraction is worse than Hell, and hurts holy folk. 



Detraction. 



This cheers 
Envy, 



and she 
makes De- 
traction her 
Cook and 
Potager. 

The Pilgrim 



says 'I never 
saw a worse 
Beast than 
you are.' 



Detraction. 



[leaf 238] 

Hell can 
only hurt 
those whom 
it binds, 



and cannot 
injure the 
holy. 



Detraction ' 
hurts the 
present and 
absent, 



pond folk as 
well as bud, 



even St. John, 
were he in 
earth. 



'Thys secouwde cours (yt ys no dred,) 15439 

Doth gret good Vn-to hyr lied J 1 [ l drede . grete goode / . hede St.] 

Whaw she hath sowpyd that potage, 

Off verray custoom and vsage ; 

ffor wycS I am mad 2 ' cusyner/ p mad o. st.] 

And for hyr mouth, ' cheff potager.' ' 15444 

The Pylgryme : 3 P st., om. c.] 

" ffor auht that I espye kan 
Sythe tyme that the world began, 
I sawh never, nor fond or now, [stowe, leaf 272, back] 
A werse best thaw art thow." 15448 

Detracciouw : 4 [ st., om. c.] 

' Al ys trewe that thow dost telle, 
ffor I am wers thaw any helle ; 
ffor trewly helle hath no myght 

To don harm to Any whyht 15452 

But to the ffolk that he hath bouwde. 

' But I kan hurte, and make a wouwde, 
Nat only to folk present, 

But vn-to hem that ben absent. 15456 

Helle ek (as I telle' kan,) 
May damage noon hooly man ; 
ffor thogh in helle wer sey?i lohn), 
Off peyne sholde he ffelyn noon, 15460 

ffor hys parfyt hoolynesse 
Sholde lyhte al ther dyrknesse, 
And quenche also (yt ys no drede) 
The brennynge ek off euery glede. 15464 

' But I kan hurte (truste me,) 
An hundryd myle by-yownde se. 
ffro my wondyng, (thys no iape) 
By absence no man may eskape. 15468 

Afftere, I hurte in absence 
Mor Grevously thaw in presence, 
Goode folk as wel as badde, 
That to-forn good renouw hadde. 15472 

' Trust ek wel (yiff thow lyst knowe) 
Yiff seyw lohn) were in erthe lowe, 
That hadde for hys perfectyouw 
And holynesse, so gret Renoura, 15476 



Detraction's power. I attack her, Envy, and Treason. 417 



' ffor aH hys vertues good and fay re, 

Yet I koude hys name apayre 

By tfals report, and that ful hlyue ; 

ffor ther ys noon so good alyve, 15480 

ISTor neuere was, in-to tliys day, 

But that I koude fynde a way, 

Hys name and hys vertues alle, 

ffor tapeyre hem or apalle, 15484 

By som fals wynd reysed aloff te ; 

And so I haue don ful off te ; 

Swych ys my condiciouw 

Wych callyd am ' Detracciouw." 15488 

The Pylgrym : [Stowe, onleaf273,om.C.] 

And whan L longe lestnyd hadde, 

Gretly in my herte I dradde ; 

And, to w/t/i-stonde hys cruelte, 

I caste for to armen me, 15492 

Lyst that thys thre wolde a-noon, 

By assent vp-oii) me gon, 

Affter that Detracciouw 

Hadde maade an ende off hyr sarmoim, 15496 

Wt't/i-outew any mor abood ; 

ffor they round aboute stood, 

Echon redy me tassaylle [stowe, leaf 273, back] 

Mortally, as by 1 batay lie. [Hnstj 15500 

ffyrst I lookede me be-hynde, 
And gan enqueryw off my my?de, 
To taken me my swerd in haste, 

Or I eny ferther paste ; 15504 

Gaff also to hyro in charge, 
Ifor to taken me my targe ; 
ffor shortly, loyscr hadde I noon, 
Other Armure to done vp-on. 15508 

And, lyk to my comauwlement, 
She took hem me off good entent, 
In hope they sholde me avaylle. 

And I be-gan hew to asaaylle, 15512 

Sette vp-on, to my power. 
And they, malycyous off chcr, 
Seynge I wolde me dyffende 

PILGRIMAGE. K K 



Detraction 

can Must any 
man's reputa- 
tion, however 
good he is. 



[leaf 233, t.k.] 



The Pilgrim. 



I fear attack 
from Knvy, 
Treason and 
Detraction, 
and arm my- 
self, 



take my 
sword and 
shield, 



and assail my 
foes. 



418 A white Dove affrights my Foes. I meet Wrath. 



The Pilgrim. 

But they 
charge me. 



The white 
dove alights 
on my head, 

[leaf 234] 



and frightens 
my enemies. 

They desist, 



threatening 
vengeance 
on me when 
Grace Dieu 
is away. 



The dove 
disappears. 



I meet one 
armed with 
sharp niiil -;, 



like a hedge- 
hog, 



[leaf 234, bk.] 
girt with 
a falchion, 



Gan Att onys on me descende 155 1C 

Lykly tahaue had the bet off me, 

Hadde nat the whyhte dowe be, 

Wych, me to couwforte in my dred, 

Alyhte adouw vp-on myw hed, 15520 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And goodly gan me to couwforte, 
Makyng myn Emnyes to resorte 
ffor verray ffer, and stonde asyde, 
That they durste nat abyde 15524 

But off maalys cryede out, [stowe, leaf 27*] 

And, on me gan make a shout, 
Swoor (I haue yt wel in mynde,) 
Yiff they myghten euere fynde 15528 

Me at large, by any way, 

Whaw. Grace Dieu wer 1 gon away [ J wer St., when c.] 
They wolde (thorgh her cruelte) 
Vp-on me avengyd be. 15532 

And how yt ffyl, I wyl nat spare, 
Vn-to yow for to declare. 
Off me trewly, thus stood the caas : 
Whan that I delyuered was 15536 

Off my dedly mortal foon, 
Yt fyl so, and that a-noon, 
The whyte dowe had take hyr flyght. 
And was agon out off my syht 15540 

Vn-to hyr lady Grace dieu, 
Wych that hath so gret vertu. 

Tharaie off me, thus yt be-fyl. 

As I wente toward an hyl, 15544 

With on I mette, hydous and wykke, 
And al hys body Arm yd thykke 
Wt't/i hallys that wer sharp and kene : 
And as I koude deme and sene, 15548 

Lyk a skyn off an yrchown 
He was arrayed vp and douw, 
Ygyrt \vith a brood f awchon ; [c. & St.] 

In euery hand a callyoun, [? caniou, a flint stone] 15552 

Out off wyche (yt ys no doute) 
The rede fyr gan sparklyn oute ; [stowe, leaf 274, back] 



Wrath describes himself. His delight is in Vengeance. 419 



And yt sempte by hys vysage 

That he was ffallyn in A rage ; 15556 

And in hys mouth A sawe off stel 

He bar, that was endentyd wel 

[7 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
With teth ffyled for to byte ; 

And lyk as thogh he wolde smyte, 15560 

He caste hys look vn-to me-ward. 
And whan I took ther-to Keward, 
Aud off hys port gan haue a syhte, 
I Axede hym what that he hihte. 15564 

Wrathe : X P In Stowe's hand, C, Wraththe St.] 

' Tak thys,' quod he, ' in wordys fewe : 

I am kome for to shewe 

To the (off hoi entenciouw) 

ffully myw occupaciiouw, 15568 

As thow shalt wyte wt't/i-Inne A throwe. 

And yiff thow lyst my name knowe, 

I am the olde, most owgly, 

Skywned rowh and yrchownly ; 15572 

Myn heer vntressyd and vndyht, 

And in Ordre nat kempt A-ryht, 

Douhter to that Eowhe yrchouw 

Wych euere (in hyr entenc'iouw) 15576 

Ys to vertu grettest Enniy ; [stowe, leaf 2753 

With, whos prykkes mortally 

She hath hyr sylff Enarmyd me, 

To shewe outward my cruelte. 

And who-euere to me aproche, 

A-noon I marke liym wz't/i my broche, 

Perce hy?re thorgh, by gret vengauwce : 

ffor thys my loye and most plesauwce, 15584 

Voyde off mercy and al pyte, 

Euere for tavengyd be 

On aH that do me any wrong ; 

ffor off power I am mor strong, 15588 

That god only, off hys suffrauwce, 

Hath in myrc hand yput vengaunce 

And fully execucioxw, 

By lettre and by cowmyss'ioufi : 15592 



The Pilgrim. 



and a steel 
saw in his 
mouth. 



I ask his 
name. 



His name and 
occupation. 



He is (lie 
rough-skind 
son of the 
hedgehog, 



daughter of 
Virtue's 
greatest foe. 



[C.&St.] 15580 [leaf 235] 



He is void 
of mercy and 



and is clothed 
with venge- 
ance nml 
execution. 



420 Wrath' s name is ' Touch me not.' He makes folk bestial. 



is sharper 
than bramble 
or thorn, 



or any hedge. 



His name is 
'Noli me 
tangere,' 



' touch me 
not.' 



He i void of 
all reason, 



[leaf2S5,bk.] 



blinding 
people, 



.iinl making 
them bestial. 



' ffor wych I am (in myn Entcnt) 

Deyngnows and inpacyent, 

Mor sharp (behynden and beforn,) 

Than brembel, or any maner thorn. 15596 

And who that 1 lyst to close hys vynes, [>sost.] 

Or Rouwd abouten hys gardynes 

"With my sharpnesse eloos aboute, 

He sholde ha no maner doute 15GOO 

Off entryng in, nor off no ffon ; 

ffor hegh so sharp ys makyd noon 

So stronge wrouht, nor so myghty, 

That ys drad so myche as I, 

Nor so despytous by to pace. [stowe, leaf 275, 

' My name callyd in ech place 
Ys thys, ' Noli me tangere ' ; 

ffor I haue ' carmen et ve ' ; 15608 

Thys to seyne, (yiff yt be souht) 
Be war that thow touche me noiiht. 
With me I haue (Eve and morwe) 
Lame/z tacioiw, dool and sorwe ; 15612 

ffor I, devoyde off al Resoim, 
Wyl cachche A-noon occasi'oiw 
(Thogh" that ther no cause be) 

A-noon for to avenge me [c. &st.] 15616 

I putte al folk in swych affray. 

' And as a Bakke at mydday 
ffleth, and yet may se no syht 

Thogh that the so?me shynli bryht, 15620 

Ryght so, off malys and off pryde, 
Wherso-euere that I abyde, 
I blynde ffolkys off al Resou7^, 

And, for lak off descreciouw, 2 [ 2 dyscreowjm st.] 15624 
I cause ]\em that they may nat so 
But bestyally in tlier degre. 
I trouble he??i (in especyal) 

That they be verray bestyal ; 1 5628 

I make hem looke pale and megre, 
Yive he?u vergows and vynegre 
To encresse her trouble and 3 wo, pandc., o.st.] 
And yive hem other sawtys mo; 15632 



Wrath makes folk revengeful, and is litter as Wormwood. 421 



' Mor to folkys colleryk 
Than to folkys fflewniatyk. 

' I make also (as I wel kan) [stowe, leaf 270] 

In the ffyrmament off a man 15636 

"Whom that phylosoffres Alle 
' The lasse world ' a mara they callc 
In thcr bookys (so they wryte) ; 

And in that world I kan excyte 15640 

The wyndes off dyssenciouw 
And thondrys off rebellious. 

' I dyrke (wtt/i-oute Awysement) 

Ther wyt and ther entendement, 15644 

And clypse also ther Resouu 
(ffor lakkyng off dyscreci'ou/i), 
And cause hew to ben despytous, 
Vengable and maleucolious, 15648 

I am so verray serpentyne. 

' Whan Ire doth my?i herte myne, 
I am so venymows (in soth), 

I bolle as any crepawd doth ; 15652 

I make blast, I bio we and yelpe ; 
I am the by cliche gret -with whelpe, 
That whelpeth kenetys off meschaimce, 
Euere redy to do vengaunce. 15656 

In loue, I kan ha no swetnesse, 
ffor, I haue mor sharpnesse 
Than outlier brambel, bussh or brere. 

' And I am ek (as thow shalt lere) 15660 

"NYlian I am steryd in my blood, 
Mor sowr an/1 bytter tha?i wormood ; 
Ne wer vengauuce, I wer but lorn, 
ffor, I am the sharpe thorn 15664 

Off Wycll (by de.SCr/pciOUn) [Stowe, leaf 276, back] 

Iudicu/ maketh nienci'ouw, K^rodiat,,,- u iwn ,uu,. iiuiic >. 

Offttula. C., uui. M. 

Off wych the ffyr sprang out A-noon, 
And }>rente the cedrys euerychon. 15668 

ffor who ne toncheth, in myn Ire, 
W/t// Anger I renne anoon affyre, 
AVlian any wynd at me dotli bknvr, 
may yt by the smoke knowc. 



In man, the 

lllil'1-lK-OSlll (If 

less world. 



Wratli 
avnikens 



darkens their 
wit, 



and eclipses 
their reauon. 



He iii as 
venomous as 
a toud, 



[leaf i:i] 



and sliarjwr 
than briar or 
bush, 



or than the 
liramMe of 
Jothuin, 



wliich liiirnl 
tin: cTilar* 



lias two hard 

stones, 

to cause fire, 



422 Wrath's stones, Despite and Strife. Sis iron, Impatience. 

wrath < I hurtle thys harde stoonys tweyne, 

Smyte fyr -with al my peyne ; 
Make the sparklys out to gon ; 

And yiff I hadde ynowh bronstoon, 15676 

I sholde (off malys, in my werkyng,) 
Sette affyre al maner thyng 
"WWi-oute mercy or respyt. 

' On off thys stonys ys ' Despyt ' 15680 

YcaUyd / the tother hyhte 'Stryff' : 
Wz't/i wyche tweyne, al my lyff 
I haue, in hih" and lowe estaat, 

Mad folkys offten at debaat ; 15684 

And off thys two, by mortal lawe, 
Whylom forgyd was thys 1 sawe, [myst.] 

The wych, (As thow mayst beholde) 
Wiih-In my sharpe teth I holde ; 15688 

And in the forgyng, ek ther-wit/i 
The hamer Stryff, despyt the Stytfc. 2 [* stythe St., styhhe c.] 

' And the yren (by sentence) 

Callyd was ' Inpacyence' 15692 

Wych was dolven out off helle, 
Wher that blake ffendys dwelle. 
And (yiff thow lyst sen al the caas,) [stowe, leaf 277] 
Thus the sawe endentyd was, 15696 

And al teth set by and by 
Wrouht by me f ul crafftyly. 

' ffyrst (as I shal her expresse,) 

A lady callyd ' Eyghtwysnesse,' 15700 

Smyth and also forgeresse 

[a line blank in C. ; no gap in St.] 
Off al vertues, rekne echon, 

Hyr sylff hem forgeth, on by on ; 15704 

And she hath (in conclusiiouw,) 
A ffyle callyd ' Correcc'iouw ' 
With wych (thogh yt be nat soote) 
She ffyleth synnes to the roote, 15708 

That no Eust (I the ensure) 
May ther kankren nor endure, 
She skoureth yt a-way so clene, 
That noon ordure may be sene. 15712 



Despite 'and 
Strife : ' 



these forged 
the Saw he 
holds in big 
teeth, 



made by the 

hammer 

Strife 

[leaf 236, bk.] 

out of the 
Iron Impa- 
tience, which 
was dug out 
of hell. 



' Righteous- 
ness ' 



with the file 
of ' Correc- 
tion ' 



Wrath's Saw cuts love in two> & divided Jacob and Esau. 423 



15716 



15720 

[i sharp* St., sharp C.] 



15724 



[Stowe, leaf 277, back] 






' And yet she hath assayed offte, 
Wit/i hyr ifyle (no thyng soffte) 
Vp-on my cursyd yren hard, 
Eebel, rusty, and fro ward, 
ffor to do the rust a-way. 
And as she fylede day be day 
Vp-on my yren, rowh and old, 
Ther-off she made (as I ha told) 
Thys sharpe 1 sawe (in verray dede) 
Wych that callyd ys ' Hatrede.' 
And wyth thys sawe (tak hed her- to) 
Ys I-sawhe and kut a two, 
Payfyt loue and vnyte, 
Concord and ffraternyte ; 
Off charyte and allyauwce 
Maad also dysseueraunce ; 
Yt cut a two ech vertu. 

' In lacob and Esav 
Thow mayst sen a pleyn fygure 
Yiff thow rede the scrypture : 
Thys sawhe made hem gon assonder, 
The Ton her, the tother yonder ; 
And longc" 2 tyme assonder were, ["longe St., long c.] 

1 And thys sawhe also I bere 
(As thow sest) her in my mouth 
Wher-euere I go, both Est and south, 
Off entent (be wel certeyu) 
Whan-euere I pray, or sholde seyn 
My pater noster nyht or day, 
Tlianne I sawhe my-sylff a-way 
ffrom the hooly trynyte : 
I preve yt thus, (as thow mayst se,) 
1 pray god (off entenc'iouw) 
Off my synnes to han pardou, 
Evene lyk to my socour 
So 3 I forgyve my neihhebour. 
In my prayere ek I sette, 
That he forgyuii me my dctte 
As I forgyve folk thoffence 
That to me dyde vyolence ; 



ffled this Sav 
night and 
day, 



which severs 
concord and 
fraternity, 



15728 [leaf 237] 



Odenit ergo Esau lacob Pixit-que venient dies 
vt occidaw* lacob. Genam .27. capitulo 



15732 



15736 



15740 



15744 



[3 AS st.] 15748 



as in the case 
of Jacob and 
Esau. 



[Camb. proio, 
cap. oxlix.] 



Wrath bears 
thin Saw 
always, 



and turns 
it a<*ainftt 
himself in 
prayer. 



42 -i Wrath makes Murderers, and slew Apostles and Martyrs, 



Wrath 



never for- 
gives his foes, 
and so his 
prayer fails. 



[Camh. prose, 
cap. cl.J 



[leaf 237, bk.] 



Satim first 
bore Wrath's 
saw. 



His falchion 
makes 
knights of 
his own con- 
dition, 



\J ( 



^ A 



i 



murderers 



like Barab- 
bas. 



Tyrants like- 
wise wore it, 
when they 
slew the 
Apostles and 
Martyrs. 



Kings should 
hunt them 
out. 



' And to conclude, (yiff yt be soulit,) 

I forgyve her-off 1 ryht nouht; E 1 ther off St.] 

Than muste yt folwe (off equyte) 

My prayere ys ageyn[e]s me : 15756 

To- ward my-sylff (by mortal lawe) [stowe, leaf 278] 

Wrongly I tourne tliys ylke sawe 

In the wych ys no profyt, 

Worshepe, honour, but fals delyt, 15760 

But gret damage and harm ful offte. 

' And he that sholde stonde aloff te, 
Holdynge thys sawhe (thys the caas,) 
He ys be-nethe, and stont most baas; 15764 

In signe wheroff, (who lyst knowe,) 
Sathanas, he ys most lowe, 
Wych fyrst off alle bar thys sawe. 

'My fawclioura ek, wha?i I yt drawe, 15768 

Wych that hangeth by my syde 
Ther-wzt/t offte I kan provyde 
To maken (off Entenc'iouw) 

Knyhtys off my condicioun ; 15772 

Swych I mene, in ther degre, 
As thys mordererys be. 
Ther-wyth I gyrde hem euerychon, 
Off wyche Barrabas was On, 15776 

As he that was an homycyde. 

' And looke ek on the tother syde, 
Tyrauwtys wer gyrt wz't/i thys 2 fawchoun [*thest.] 
Wha;z they (\vith ful gret pass'iou?i) 15780 

Slowhe thapostellys ek also, 
And holy martyrs bothe t\vo 
Swych tjTau?jtys, in ther rage, 

Lyk to bestys most savage 15784 

Tournyd were fro ther Resou/t, 
Wors than Beere, boor or lyoun, 
Wych that dwelle in wyldernesse. [stowe, leaf 278, back] 

' And ryhtful kynges, iu sotlmesse, 15788 

Sholde liunte hem out, and at hem cliace, 
AVlier they dwelle in Any place, 
Both beforn and ek behynde, 
Kather thaw outlier liert or hynde. 15792 



Wrath and Tribulation rush to attack me. 



425 



[' my St., thy C.] 



' Ther-for, wzt/i-outc wordys mo, 
Be Avysed what thow wylt do ; 
Yiff thow wylt stonden at dyffence, 
Ageyn me maken resystence 
With thy swerd, and wtt/< thy targe, 
"Wych that ys so brood and large : 
Off hem I haue no mane?- doute, 
Be cause thow art nat wit/j-oute, 
The to dyffende, fro poynt to poynt, 
Clad a-bove w/t/i a purpoynt ; 
And I shal ek (yt ys no drede) 
Haue helpe, yiff yt be nede, 
Ageyns the to do vengaiwce 
The to bryngen to outraurace.' 

The pilgrym : l [' I Stowe's hand. The Pylgrym St.] 

" Be war, touche me nat," quod I ; 

" ffor yiff thow do, (fynally,) 

I am cast, in my 2 dyffence, 

ffor to make resystence 

As longe as me lasteth breth ; 

fful myghtyly vn-to the deth, 

I shal nat spare, (yt ys no faylle)." 

And ffyrst he gan me thus assaylle ; 
Hys callyourcs to-gydre he smoot [stowe, leaf 270] 
Tyl they gan to wexen hoot, 
And ther-wit& he gan loude crye. 
And than at erst I gan espye ; 
ffro the hyl descendyng douw, 
Kam vfiih hym ' Trybulaciotwt,' 
Off stature gret and large 
Wit/j-oute sheld or any targe. 
To mo-ward she gan hyr dresse. 
In hyr hand, (by gret duresse,) 
A gret hamer I beheld ; 
And in the tother hand she held 
A peyre off pynsouns ek ther-wytl 
And A Barmfel off A smyth, 
At hyr brest she hadde vp-bou?dc. 

Tribulacion : 3 [SlnStowe'shaml. Trybulat-ioii St.J 

Quod she to me, ' thow art wel fou/ale. 




15800 



15804 



15808 



15828 



[leaf 238] 



The Pilgrim. 

[Not in 
Camb. prose.] 



I defy Wrath. 



15812 



15816 



15820 



15824 



He knocks 
his rlints to- 
gether, 

and shouts, 
and comes 
against me 
with 'Tribu- 
lation ' 

[In Camb. 
prose iv. 15.] 



arnid with 
a great Ham- 
mer 



and a pair of 
Pinchers. 



426 Tribulation is Heaven's Goldsmith, and makes Crowns. 



^Tribulation 

was sent by 
' Ire,' 



[leaf 238, bk.] 



and doe* 
not fear my 
weapons. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask the use 
of her tools. 



Tribulation 



says that if 
she had an 
anvil she 
would forge 
me a Crown 
of Life. 



She is the 
Goldsmith 
of Heaven, 
and forges 
Crowns of 
Paradise. 



' Thow knowest (I trowe, in thyrc entent) 

That Ire hath me to 1 the sent : [ l vntost.] 15832 

Thys sawe shal me ber record ; 

ffor he and I ben off accord ; 

Mawgre thy myght, thow mvst ley douw 

Her, affor me, thy Bordouw. 15836 

* Thow hast nat On, in thy dyffence, [st. & c.] 
No Gambysoiw 2 off pacyence, p St., c. burnt] 

For off thy targe 2 and off 3 thy swerd p Targe / nor st.] 
I am in no wyse afferd; 15840 

They may no thyng avaylle the, 
ffor to ffyhte ageynes 4 me.' [* ageyns c., st.] 

tllG pilgrym : 5 [ 5 In Stowe's hand. The Pylgryin St.] 

" Touchyng thy name, me lyst nat lere ; 

But off the I wolde enquere, 15844 

Wher-off thy/i Instreumentys thre 

Servyn, that thow beryst -with the." 



[ 6 In Stowe's hand. Trybulacion St.] 

' Myw instrumentys (in wordys ffewe) 

Declare openly, and she we 15848 

(Shortly in conclus'ioura) 

What ys myw occupaciiouw. 

Me wanteth no thyng but a styth, 

But I sholde, lyk a smyth, 15852 

fforge A-noon (wz't/i-oute stryff) 

Vn-to the A crowne off lyff. 

But, for cause (yiff thow ha mynde) 

That thy Styth ys lefft behynde 15856 

Off neclygence, ther thow gost, 

Thow stanst in pereyl to be lost. 

And for thy styth ys now away, 

I shal the smyten, yiff I may ; 15860 

Thaw thow shalt, wt't/i-Inne A trowe, 7 p throwe st.] 

My koraiyng and my crafft wel knowe. 

' I am gold-smy th (in sothnesse) 

Off hevene, and the forgeresse 15864 

Wych in erthe (by gret avys) 
fforge the crownys off paradys ; 
ffor \vith my w hamer, mor and more [stowe, leaf aso] 
I batre the metal wonder sore, 158G8 



Tribulation's Hammer of Persecution & Tongs of Distress. 427 



' ffor to preve wel the metal 
That yt be founde good at al, 
By assay, bothe ffer and ner. 
And in A ffurneys bryht and cler, 
To preve yt good, (as I the tolde) 
With my Toongys I yt holde 
fful offte sythe, and spare yt nouht. 
And whan I ha the trouthe out souht, 
And ffynde that ther be no let, 
Yiff yt be good, I make yt bet. 
Yiff yt be wykke, (truste me,) 
I make yt wors (as ffolk 1 may se). 

' Myw hamer, by descrypcioura, 
Ys callyd ' persecucioiw,' 
Wych doth to ffolk ful gret offence : 
Whaw the doublet off pacyence 
Ys devoyded from her bak, 
Than go, farewel, al goth to wrak ; 
Ther manhood and ther renouw 
Al tourneth to confusi'ouw. 

' lob, whilom by pacyence, 
Hadde yt On in hys dyffence, 
And other seyntys, fer and ner 
Rehersyd in our kalender. 

1 My toonges (as I shal expresse) 
Ben ycallyd ek 'Dystresse,' 
Wych that werkyn to an herte 

fful gret anguissh and gret smerte ; 15896 

And in a pressour off gret peyne [stowe, leaf aso, back] 
They kan ful offte A man dystreyne 
Bothe wit/i-outen and wit/i-Inne, 
As gold ffoyl ybetyn thywne. 
Swych pressyng (who kan espye) 
Causeth, from a ma?ihys Eye, 
The salte terys dystyllc doiw,V 
Mukynge A demonstraciouw, 
And an evydent massage 
Off sorwe in herte and gretu 2 rage [' grete St., gret c.] 

' Thys Barmfel also that I were, 
And a-ffor my brest yt bere, 



betters metal 



15872 [leaf 239] 

tests it iu a 
furnace, 



15876 



[J men St.] 15880 



15884 



15888 



15892 



improves 
good metal, 
and worsens 
bad. 



Her Hammer 
is called ' Per- 
secution,' 



with which 
she over- 
comes 
patience. 



Her tongs are 
Distress, 



and squeeze 
a man as thin 
as gold foil. 



15900 



15904 



[C.&St.] 15908 [leaf 239, bk.] 



428 Tribulation's Apron of Shame. She threatens me. 



Tribulation. 

Her breast- 
apron is Con- 
fusion or 
Shame. 



, 



She will 
smite me on 
the back, 

to fulfil Ire's 
desire ; 



and 1 shall 
burst or 
groan. 



' Empty ves- 
sels make 
most sound.' 



The unvirtu- 
ous have no 
peace when 
persecuted. 



[leaf 240] 



' Callyd ys by ryhtful name [c. & st,] 

' Confusions ' or ellys ' Shame ' ; 

As thus (for to specefye) 

Whan I do swych tonnentrye 15912 

Wiih my bytter peynys strong 

Be yt ryht or ellys wrong 

To don execuc'iouw 

Outher be cyvyle or kanoun ; 15916 

The shame ther-off, and the 1 outrage, [' gretc st.] 

Shewyd ys in the vysage ; 

And most he hath occas'ioun, 

That most hath persecution;*. 15920 

' And I shal preue A-noon by the, 
Yiff thovv koraie ashamyd be. 
I shal assaye for to smyte 

Vp-on thy bak, my sylff taquyte 15924 

ffor to fulffylle the talent [stowe,ieaf28i] 

That Ire hath in hys entent 
Enclosyd by ful mortal lawe. 

ffor whyle that Ire bereth the sawe, 15928 

Thow shalt, by persecuc'iouw, 
Outher breste, or make a soun 
Outward, as by som gruchchyng, 

Or by som noyse in c6??ipleynyng : 15932 

A voyde vessel, pype, or tonne, 
Whan the lycour ys out Ronne, 
Who smyt ther-on / vp / or doun, 
Yt maketh outward a gret soun, 15936 

Mor thaw to-forn, whan yt was ful ; 
And therf<5re, who that ys dul 
And voyde off vertu (douteles) 

By pacyence kan ha no pes, 15940 

Whan he, by trybulac'ioiw, 
Suff reth 2 persecuc'ioun, [ 2 suffrethe my st.] 

Wrong, or any maner wo : 

Adonay me tolde so, 15944 

Whan she me made fyrst a smyth, 
ffor to forge vp-on hyr Styth.' 

the pilrm : 3 [ 3 I Stowc's liainl, C. The Pylgrym St.] 



" Yiff thovv be makyd by offys 



Tribulation's 1st Commission from King Adonijah. 429 



" (As thow seyst) smytli off paradys, 15948 

Mak me no dylac'iou,, [stowe, leaf 2si, back] 

But shewe me thy commyssicnm, 

Thy power also, and thy myght, 

That I may sen hem A-non ryht. 15952 

ffor, but I se hem, trusts me, 

I wyl in no thyng leue the 

Off al that euere thow hast me told." 

And she, out off A box ful old, 15956 

Took out A Commyssionrt, 
And sayde, lyk hyre entenci'oura : 



* 



['In Stowe's hand, C. Trybulac/on St.] 



The Pitprim. 

I ask Tribu- 
lation to show 
me her Com- 
mission. 



' Se thys,' quod she, ' and rede yt wel, 

And looke yt ouer Euerydel, 15960 

And ther-vp-on the wel avyse. 

Yiff that it may nat suffyse, 

I shal the shewe A-nother to, 

Wych I haue wt't/i me also : 15964 

Eed hem bothe, and thow shalt se 

My power and Auctoryte.' 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

the pilgrym : 2 [* In Stowe's haml. Tlie Pylgrym St.] 

And whan they worn vn-to me take, 

A-noon I gan me redy make, 15968 

liedde he? bothe two yffere ; 

And fynally, yiff ye lyst hero, 

And to me yiven Audyence, [St. & c.] 

This was the fyrste, as in sentence. [st.&c.] 15972 

The comisyon & power gyven to tribulation : 3 

' Adonay, the myghty kyng p in stowe's hand. The 

J ' Jo J J is ComytwiouH and Power vc ivu/ 

Wych ys lord off euery thyng, J e af t< 282 r f bulac '" > ^ towe> 

Emperour off Ryghtwysnesse, 

Whos power (in sykernesse) 15976 

ISTeuere eclypsyth off hys lyht, 

But shyneth euere ylyche bryht, 

As he that lord ys off nature, 

And cue/ in On shal so endure, 15980 

As off power and off Rcnouw, 

Elthe to trybulaciourc ! 



She produces 
it. 



Tribulation 



bids mo read 
it. 



She will show 
me a second 
one too. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 2M, bk.] 
Here's the 
first Commis- 
sion. 

Tribulation's 
\>t Commi- 
rion 

from the 
great king, 
Adonay. 



430 



How Prosperity has ruind Spirituality. 



Tribulation' 
lit Commit- 
tion 



& directed 
against 
Prosperity ' 



which hath 
taken castles 
and towns 
from Grace 
Dieu and the 
king, 



[leaf 211] 



and robbed 
treasure, 



specially 
Spiritual 
goods. 



' We haue vnderstonde late, 

Tydynges nat ful old off date, 15984 

How the Stepmoder off vertu, 
And ful enmy to cryst ihesu, 
Wych callyd ys ' Prosperyte,' 

Ageyn al ryht, thorgh hyr powste, 15988 

Hath Our sawdyours 1 assayllod, p Sowdyours St.] 
Set on hem, and nat yfaylled, 
By maner off collus'ioun 

Drawe her hoodys lowe douw [stowe, leaf 232, back] 15992 
Ouer ther face, by swych degre 
That they be blynd, and may nat se, 
(Wych ys ful hard for to recure,) 
And be-rafft hem ther Armure ; 15996 

Only off fals presumpc'iouw, 
Witfo-oute restytuc'iouw, 
Take away ther Garnysouws, 

The castelys also and the Touws 16000 

Wych that longede off equyte 
Vn-to Grace dieu and me. 2 [* to me St.] 

' But now off newe, (yt ys no nay,) 
ffrom vs she hath hem take away, 16004 

Wtt/i-oute forberyng or favour 
Dyspoylled vs off Our tresour, 
And, in our tours strong and Old, 
Vesellys off syluer and off gold, 16008 

Take hem a-way by Tyranye, 
Bextorsi'ouw and 3 roberye ; [ and by st.] 

I rnene most, in especial, 

Ther goodys that were Espyrytual ; 16012 

Swych goostly goodys eue?ychon 
Ben yrobbyd And agon ; 
And thorgh hyr Eavyne and robbyng, 
She hath lefft ful nyh no thyng. 16016 

ffor wych, we lyst no longer tarye, 
But vn-to the, Our secretarye 
And Our sergauwt in thys caas, 

(Wych off custom berst our maas) 16020 

We (wyth al our hool entent,) [Stowe, ieaf283] 

Sende vn-to the A Mauwlement, 



Tribulation chastises the Prosperous, and turns them to God. 431 



' And co?ranytten our power, 

ffor to cerche ffer and ner, 16024 

Hows by hows, wher-euere he be, 

To sekyn out Prosperyte. 

' And that thow, in al wyse 

Be bysy, hy w for to chastyse, J 1 6028 

That he no mor, by no quarelle, 
Be hardy, ageyn vs to rebelle ; 
Holde hym euere so lowe doun, 

Chargyng, by thys commyssi'ouw, 16032 

That alle tho that thow mayst fynde 
(I mene, hem that be mad 1 blynde [> made St.] 
Bassaut off thys Prosperyte) 

Tourne her hoodys, and make hem so ; 16036 

Chastyse he??*, (in thyw entent,) 
And byd hem take avysement, 
ffyrst, her Eyen to vnclose, 

And so her hertys to dyspose, 16040 

ffor to looken vp ful offte 
To the hevene hih" aloffte ; 
And hem syluen mor tassure, [St. & c.] 

Take ageyn ther olde Armure 16044 

Vn-to hem, bothe plate and may lie, ,, 

(Lyst ther enmyes hem assaylle,) 

Wych they ha broke, and lost in veyn ; 
Lat hem reforge hem newe ageyn. 16048 

' Grauwte to swych euerychon, [stowe, leaf ass, back] 
Crownys vrith many A ryche ston, 
I mene, to hem that, off assent, 
Obeye vn-to thy maundement. [st.&c.] 16052 

' And for thys skyle, (in sykernesse,) 
We have maad the Forgeresse 
And Goldsmyth off our hevenly tour, 
ffor to don ay thy labour, 16056 

To al that suffre as Cha?pyons, 
ffor to forge hem ryche crownys, 
Wher-so they suffre, on se or lond, 

' And sese also in-to thy/i hond, 16060 

Solace and play in ech cyte, 
And al swych worldly vanyte, 



Tribulation's 
\it Commis- 
sion. 

This com- 
mand is sent, 



in order to 

chastise 

' Prosperity ' 



and all folk 
whom she has 
blinded, 



so as to make 
them look up 
to Heaven. 

[leaf 241, bk.] 



When they 
do so, they 
are to have 
Crowns. 



Tribulation 
in declared 
Goldsmith of 
the heavenly 
tower, 



to forge 
crowns for 
those who 
suffer. 



432 Tribulation is to try all folk. The obedient arc crownd. 



Trihulation't 
lit Commii- 
tion 

to bury all 
vain amuse- 
ments. 



She is given 
full power to 
do her devoir. 



She is to try 
all folk with 
affliction ; 



and those 
who obey her 
are to be 
crownd in 
Heaven. 



This 1st 
Commission 
wag dated on 
the day Adam 
was driven 
out of Para- 
dise. 



' And loyes that ben transytorye, 

Eevel, and al worldly glorye. 16061 

And \vher thow mayst hew sen or knowe, 

Burye he??i in the Erthe lowe ; 

Oppresse hew with thy sharpe shours, 

ffor they deceyve our sawdyours. 1 [' sowdyours st.] 16068 

' And we the graurate f-ul power 
Duely to don thy dever ; 
To sen our vessellys euerychon, 

Wher that they be voyde or noon, 16072 

fful off good or wykkeduesse, 
To kuowe do thy besynesse. 
Touche hew w/t/t Trybulacioura ; 

And yiff they Gnichche, or make sou??, 16076 

Yt ys a tookne vn-to the 
Off good, that they yvoyded be. 
And yiff thow se by thy touchyng [stowe.ieafasi] 
That they resowne no maner thyng,* 16080 

Hyt ys an opue / Evydence 
Off gruchchyng / ther ys noon Offence ; 
For we Charge the / day by day, 
Cerche hem wel / And make assay. 16084 

' And who off hyh" / or lowh degre 
That loAvly / wyl obey [en] the, 
For hys suffrawnce / and lowlyhede 
He shal be Crownydf / For hys mede 1 6088 

In oure Court / CelestyaH. 
Loo ! off thy power / thys ys AH, 
Charge to done / Execucton, 

And Fyu off oure Co?mnyssion, 16092 

U Yove and wryte / (who lokc wel,) 
Vnder oure owne / pryve sel 
Vp-on the day / (by goode avys) 

Whan Adam / Out off Paradys 16096 

Exyled was / (as thow mayst se) 
With" alle hys hool Posteryte, 

* As the catchwords at the foot of this leaf are "Yt ys an 
open," the next sheet, at least, of the Cotton MS. is missing. 
I therefore copy and print it from the Stowe MS. 952, leaves 
284-301, with its metrical pause-bars. F. 



Tribulation's 2nd Comm., from Satan, to harass Pilgrims. 433 



Znd Commit- 

' 



from Admiral 
Satan, man's 



" We know- 
ing that 
Adonijah's 
servants are 
preparing to 
attack our 
city, 



' For ther was noon / Excepczon. [Stowe MS. only.] 
1T ' And the tother Cowmyssioii 16100 

That I off spak / I shaft the she we ; 

And yt ys thys / In wordys Fewe : 

U Thamyral / off the grete See, 

Fulle off Wawes / (as men may se,) 16104 latest foe. 

Which that callyc* / ys Sathan 

Grettest Enmy / vn-to Man, 

Foo to Adam / and hys Lynage, 

For topresse hem / with hys Raage, 16108 

Kyng of alle / Inyquyte, [Stowe, leaf 2w, back] 

And Tormentour / off Equyte, 

By wronge / and Persecucton, 

Elthe / to Trybulac/own, 16112 

Swych as we / may to hym sende 

For tapeyre / and nat Tamende, 

We haue syttyng / In oure Dongown, 

Knowyng / by clere Relaczown 16116 

That the Sergeauntys / Fynally 

Off the myghty kyng / Adonay 

Ageyn oure power / haue ytake, 

And ther-vp-on / hem Redy make 16120 

With vs / For to haue a-do, 

And wynne the place / that we kam Fro, 

And hem purpose / in that Cyte 

Ther For to / Receyvert be ; 16124 

And, lyke / as myghty Champyowns, 

Made hem Skryppes / and Bordowns, 

Seyn that they / in ther vyage, 

Wyl thedyr goon / On pylgrymage, 16128 

Euerych off hem / In ther degre. 
' Wher-vp-on / we charge the, 

Sende to the / oure Mawndement, 

The yevnge / In Commaundement, 16132 

That thow shalt kepe / the Passage, 

To lette hem / in ther Pylgrymage f 

Espye hem out in euery place, 

Smyte hem / or that thow Manace ; 16136 

Oppresse hem / with thy vyolence 

Abowti lobys Pacyence, [stowe, leaf 285] 

PILG1UMAGE. F F 



and have 
Scrips and 
Staves 



charge thee 



to stop these 
Pilgrims and 
smite them." 



434 Tribulations treatment of me depends on my Conduct. 



Tribulation's 
'ind Commis- 
sion 

from Satan, 



to torture 
pilgrims, 
that they 
may bans 
themselves 
as Juilas did. 



Dated when 
Christ on the 
Cross let the 
thief enter 
Paradise. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask Tribula- 
tion whether 
he means to 
work God's 
and Satan's 
commissions 
equally. 



says that if, 
when I'm 
beaten, 



I t.ike it 
patiently, 



Which tooke away / hys Temperalte, [StoweMs. oniy.i 

He nat gruchchynge / In no degre. 16140 

1T Travaylle / In thyn Entencion 

To Reve hem Skryppe / and Bordon ; 

Atte the herte / do hem sorvve and wo ; 

And witli thy Toonges / pynche hem so 16144 

On euery halff / that thow nat Fayle 

To Eende out Bovel / and Entraylle ; 

As the Bowelles / off ludas, 

Stveyne hem / In the same caas, 16148 

That they / be grete Adversyte 

May hange hem selff / vp on a Tree, 

H And on thys caas / both ferr and ner, 

To the we gra?mte / FuH power, 16152 

As by oure / Co?>imyssiou?z 

Wretyn / In oure derke Dongoim, 

The same tyme / whan Cryst Ih&m 

Vp on the Cros / by hys vertu 1G156 

Grawzted the Theeff / For a grete prys, 

To Entren / In-to Paradys ! ' 

The Pylgrym: 

" And whan I hadde / hem bothe seyn, 
I tooke hem / vn-to hym ageyn, 161GO 

Axede hym / anoon Right tho 
Yiff he wolde / vse hem bothe twoo 
Lyke Frely / In Werkynge, [stowe, leaf 285, back] 

Syth thei Fyn / off ther menynge 16164 

Conclude nat / In oo Sentence ; 
For, as grete ys / the dyfference 
Atwene hem tweyne / by Obstacle, 
As bytwene venym / and Tryacle." 16168 

Trybulacron : 

1 When I ha take / on the the wrak, 
And strongely Forgyd! / on thy Bak, 
Than shaltow / by Elleccwmn 

Ilaue Choys / to which Commyssiown 16172 

Thow wylt the take / and ther abyde. 
For jiff that thow / on yche a syde 
Scyst ryght nought / In thy dyffence, 
But suffrest alle / In Pacyence 16176 



/ am free to let Tribulation send me either to God or Satan. 435 

( With-oute Murmwre / or any Sou??, [StoweMS. only.] Tribulation. 

But off hoole / Entenc'iowi 

When thow Felyst / dool or Smerte, 

Thankest god / with alle thyn herte, 16180 yi i thank 

God for it, 

Than maystow wytte / and Fully knowe 

That my power / hyh" and lowe his P we r 

* over me is 

Is taken / In Gondusioun 5 

Off the Fyrst / Cowmyssiouw. 16184 

IT ' But yiff yt falle / be wel certeyn, 

That thow stry ve / or gruchche ageyn But if i 

In thy sylff / by vyolence 

Arryuest / For Impacyence, 16188 

And besy art / yt to with-stonde, 
Thankest nat god / ek off hys sonde, [stowe, leaf 286] 
But Fyndest / somme Fals Occasyourz 
To lese thy Skryppe / and thy Bordou, 16192 and cast away 

my scrip and 

Castest hem / wylfully a-way, staff, 

As whylom dydd 1 / (yt ys no nay) as Tiieopin- 

By grete mescheef / Theophilus. 

And semblably / yiff thow do thus, 16196 

Than ys my Commyssioutt >" I'm 

Riven over to 

Yove / to thy dampnaci'ourc Satan - 

By the power / off Sathan, 

Which" / For to deceyve Man, 16200 

Travaylleth" ay / to make hym lese. 

IT ' Wher-Fore thow mayst / off bothe chese, i "ve free 

choice. 

And haste ek / Fre EUeccioim, 

Which / off Eche Coj^niyssiouw 16204 

I shaH vse / ageyn [e]s the. 

1f For I ha no Lyberte, 

But evene lyke / as I the Fynde, 

The to Co"nstreyne / or vnbynde, 16208 

Affter thy / Condiciown 

To vsen / Eche Cowmyssi'oim. 

IT My power ys / In alle Rewmys, Tribulation 

Lyke vn-to / the Sonne Bemys, 16212 ifot'sun:' 8 

Shynynge most hoote / the Sommerys day, 

On Foule Erthe / and tendre Clay, 

Hys grete heete / maketh hem anoon it hardens 

To wexe as harde / as eny Stoon. 16216 Cay> 



43 G Tribulation knocks me down, and sorely oppresses me. 



Tribulation. 
it melts wax. 

It works 
according to 
folks' dispo- 
sition. 



The Pi/ffrim. 



Tribulation 
strikes me 
down. 



Ire wants to 
wound me, 
but 



stops him. 



He will pinch 
and batter me 
himself. 



Tribulation 
presses me 
sorely. 



I am helpless. 



1T ' But \vex and Talwh" / yt doth Relente. [Stowe MS. only.] 

And evene thus / In myn Entente, [stowe, leaf zws, back] 

Lyke Folkys / Dysposicioun 

Is myn / Operacfon ; 16220 

And thus vsynge / myn Sergawntry, 

I kan werke / dyuersly ; 

Wher-ffore I rede / be war off me, 

For I anoon / shal smyte the.' 16224 

The Pylgrym: 
And lustly Covenaunt / he held! : 
He smoot me so / that Spere and Sheld! 
Fro me Fyllen / douw to grourade, 
Hys Strokys wertt / so Fel and Rouwde. 16228 

And trewly / For my grete dystresse, 
Ire kaugfite / a grete gladnesse, 
And wolde / to my confus'iouw, 
Ha wounded me / with" hys Fawchomz; 16232 

But Trybulaczon / stoode be syde, 
And badde he shulde / a whyle abyde, 
Medle off hym / as yitt no more ; 
' ffor I shall ffyrst / my sylff, so sore, 16236 

Done on hym / so grete vengauwce, 
So grete anoy / and dystourbance, 
With my Toonges / streyne hym so, 
And batre hym / On the bak ther-to 16240 

With myn hamer / large and longe, 
That hath" an heed / yfforged' stronge, 
To chastyse hym / in swycli mane/'e 
Ther-by that lie / shaH wel lere, 16244 

As be my / Comyssyou N 
That I am / Trybulacwmn.' tstowe, leaf 287] 

And ffelly thus / to Ire he spak, 

And euere batrynge / on my bak, 16248 

With his Toonges / gan me streyne 
That me sempte / ffor the peyne, 
I was pressyd / In a pressour, 

Voyde off helpe / and alle sokour, 16252 

Compleynyng / ffor my grete penauwce, 
Tyl yt ffel / In my Remembrance, 
IT And hadde vnto / a worde Rcwarde 



/ adopt St. Bernard's Prayer to Mary, my Refuge. 437 






That I radde onys / off seynt Bernard, [Stowe MS. 

How, in alle greff / and alle meschauwce, 

In euery mescheff / and penaiwee, 

Helpe and Refuyt / ffor to ffynde, 

That a Man / shulde haue his mynde, 

Off herte also / ffully Repay re 

To hyr / that ffayrest ys off ffayre, 

Which", thurgh / hyr humylyte, 

Was Moder / and a Mayde ffree, 

Whos helpe neuere was behynde 

To hem that lyst / haue hyr in mynde : 

She kan helpe hem / In her Nede 

Best off alle / her lourne spede. 

IT ffor which, / with alle myn herte Entere, 

To her I make / my prayer, 

And sey to hyr / with humble Chere, 

The wordys Avhich" that ffolwen here, 

Which" Seynt Bernard / fful longe ago 

In latyn / wrote hem eke also : 

IT 'Tu es Refugium meum A Tribulacwne.' [PI 



wily.] 
16257 



16260 



16264 



16268 



Tlie Pilgrim. 

Then I recol- 
lect St.. Bern- 
ard's telling I 
folk in trouble 



to go for 
refuse to 
the Virgin 
Mary. 



worshipfuH Maystre Seynt Bernard! taught me, 
that, in alle pereyllee and alle anguysshes, and in euery 
Tribulacton or wordely wrechchednesse, that I sliulde 
fflen ffor Ref uy t vnto the 2 // And that I sliuL V devoutly 
and mekely besekyn and prayen vnto the / The same 
seint Bernard? seyynge thes wordes vnto me / ' Si In- 
surgant venti temptacionm/t / vt \wtet super missus est. 
Yiff the bytter ffelle wyndes off temptaci'on assaylle the, 
yiff thow falle, by any ffroward? aventure, vp-on the 
Contagyous Rokkys of Tribulacion / Beholde the bright 
glade stcrre off the see, and make thyn Invocacz'on and 
thy prayer vnto that blysfull Mayde, oure Lady saynt 
Marye' // And yiif yt Falle that thow be trowblyd' 
in thy Conscience with" multytude off many horryble 
syimes, Confus and ashamyd? with the horryble ifylthe 
ther-off, and ther-vp-on thow drede the off the fferfutt 





And I there- 




fore pray to 




her in words 




englight from 




St. Beruanl's 




Latin Homily 


16272 


ii. n.17, Super 
Missiw e>t: 




Kd. Paris, 




1839, vol. I. 


16274 


Pars altera, 
p. 1684, or 
Vol. II. p. 12, 




ed. Veneiiis, 




17G5, with 


. 


omissions 


' xx]i ' <] 


after ' Marye,' 




1. 16,287 and 




16,2'J7. H. 


ht me, 


Parkinson. 


L euery 


[ l Stowe, leaf 
287, back] 


shulde 


He taught me 




in all dangers 


svoutly 


16278 



16283 



to pray to the 
Star of the 
Sea, 
Our Lady 

St. Mary. 

16288 



'-' Linos 10,27(5-8 are a i[Uot;ilioii from the passage below, 
1. 1G,280-16,:310. II. Parkinson. 



438 Tho I fly to Mary, my sins stop me going whole-heartedly. 



[Stowe MS. 

only.] 
St. Bernard. 



16294 

He said, in 
all troubles, 
call on Mary. 



16298 



While she 
holds thee up, 
them canst 
not fall. 

16303 

[i Stowe, leaf 



16308 

[2 End of 
St. Bernard'] 
So, in any 
tribulation 
I go to Her, 

16312 



16316 

hut I can't 
do so with 
my whole 
heart, 

16320 



16324 

for I'm faded 
and wrinkled 
with sin. 



16328 



sentence off the domys Man // And her-vp-on be- 
gynest to ffallyn in-to the dyrke pytte off Drerynesse, 
vp-on the wofuft swolwfi off Dysespeyr and Desper- 
aci'oiw / 'Cogita Mariam / Leffte vp thyn herte, and 
thenke vp-on Marye ' // In alle pereylles, in alle 
Anguysshes, In alle dotows thynges, Thynke and 
calle vnto Marye // ffor alle the Avhyle thow ffolwest 
vp-on that blysfuH Lady, thow raayst nat goon out off 
thy weye ; whyls thow prayest to hyre, thow mayst nat 
ffalle in despeyr // whiles at thow thenkyst hertly vp- 
on hyre, thow mayst nat Erre // And whiles that she, 
with hyr Mercyable hande holdeth" the vp, thow 
mayst nat falle // And Whiles that she, with the 
benygne gracious shelde l Off hyr proteccton, dyffendeth" 
the / yt nedeth" the nat to drede thyn Enmyes // And 
whiles that she ys thy gracious guyde in thy peryllous 
pylgrymraage off this mortal lyff, thow mayst nat wexe 
wery // ffor, thurgh" hyr Mercyable Conveyynge, thow 
shalt arryven vp at the Agreable havene off euere-last- 
ynge lyff 2 // Therffore, whan that any Tribulacion put 
vp-on me or assaylleth me, To the only, and to no mo, 
I haue my Recours ffor helpe // Whan) any adversyte 
or wrechchydnesse swe vp-on me, In th aH-only I 
ffynde refuyt and Refuge // Bot / 0, alias ! grete mater 
have I to Compleyne ; ffor, but yiff Tribulaczon con- 
streyne, or somme sodeyne aduersyte excyte me and 
pooke vp-on me, I kan neuere, off my ffroward dysposi- 
cioun, haue hertly Recours vnto the // And trewly, ffor 
thys Cause, I may lustly and fuH Coveiiably take vp-on 
me the name off a drye stobyll, or off a welkyd leef, 
that ys ffalle douu ffrom a tree // ffor, semblably so as 
a drye stobyl or a ffadyd leef ffalle to the Erth, and 
neuere ys reysed vp ageyn to the braurcche he kam 
ffro // Right so I, the most wrechchydf Wyght off alle 
synwers, and most dyffadyd? and wylked? with synwe, 
nat- with"- stondyng my grete vnhappy Infortunye which" 
that I lye defoulyd Inne / yitt kan I neuere, tyl I be 
mevyd with somwe anguyssh or aduersyte // bly.sfuH 
lady, I ffle vnto the ; dyvert my passage vn-to the Soc- 
ourable tent off thy grace // But, 0, alias ! as god 

I 



Thou only hope of my Soul! Take me; let me rest in Thee ! 439 



dyffend*, yiff thow puttest me a- way, and Refusest my [Stowe MS. 
komynge, whedir shulde I fferther fflen to ffynde 

! 



sokour or eny helpe ] And yiff the gretnesse off my 
synrces causeden, thurgh my demerytes, that thow 16334 
woldest ffor my defautes pursue me // l Alias! what MB,triQ 
shulde I done // Certys, in the grete bytternesse off my 



sowle, I were lyk to be dyspeyred! off hope // and than what should 

myght I weH seyn vnto the, " Contra ffoliu?, quod (Job M\. 25.) 

vento Rapitwr, ostendis potenciam tua??i, & stipulam 16339 

sitiam [= siccam] prosequeris " // Alias, blyssed! and 

mercyfuH: lady ! sholdest shewyn thy myght and thy 

power ageyn a ffadyd and a welkyd leff, that ys lefft vp 

and Ravysshed! witfi a sodeyn wynde, and sholdest, 16343 

goode Lady, pursuen a Diye stobyl, ffeble and vn- 

myghty, to witfistonde thy power // 0, thow only hope oniyjiope of 

of my Sowle ! thow shalt neuere do so, namly vnto me, reject me not; 

which hane avowed! to ben thy servawnt, and ffletli 16347 

vnto the for socour and helpe // Nor thow, lady, shalt 

nat voyde hym ffro the / whom that Tryl ml acton so sore 

pursueth, to do vengaunce vpon, and he ffletli to the 

ffor helpe, and hath noon other socour nor Dyuertycle 16351 

to Declyne vnto, but only to the // But, benygne 

Lady, off thy grace thow shalt mercyably Receyve hym, hiitmerci- 

and thow shalt swetly and ffauorobly, as a Moder off me . 

Mercy, ffostren hym // ffor thow, Lady, were notably 16355 

ffyrmryd afforn by the Arke of Noe / In-to which" was as Noah did 

J the Dove that 

Receyved! the Cely Dowe. whan he Resorted! ageyn, could find no 

J J land to rest 

in-as-mnch as he koude ffvnde no londe to Rest vp-on ! 

i 

his ffeet // ffor the DredffuH wawes off the sterne 

ffloode hadde so oue?-fflowed! the Erth. Thus, in the 16360 
same wysc, () thow blysfutt lady, thow shalt do to me, 

which haue no place to fflee to but aft-only vnto the : i have no 

' spot to fly to, 

ffor, off thy Custonmable goodnesse and off thy be- *tily 

nygne grace, thow shalt Receyve me, 2 And benygnely [* stwe, leaf 

off thy Mercy, as a Destytuyt and a Desolate pore 

Creature, thow shalt ffostre me in) the soote lappe off 16366 

thy meroyable Mantel // ffor trewly, lady, the Rage 

Floode off worldly Tribulacion kometh so sore vpon), 

that I ha no Recours to Resorte vnto, but only vnto "re*iin-- 

pl:icc but ill 

the / Xor I haue no verray Restynge place, but only in Tliee - 



440 / can come to Christ only thro Thee. Thou art my Refiige. 



[Stowe MS. 
only.] 

16373 

But is not 
Christ 
my Refuge, 
as David says 
(Ps.cxliv. 2)? 



16379 



Truly He is. 
(2 Kiagt xxii. 
2) 

Bat fleeing 
to Thee is 
fleeing to 
Him. 

16385 

[> Ed. Paris, 
1839, vol. I. 
Pars altera, 
Sermo de 
Aquaeductu, 
n. 7, p. 2170: 
a parallel in 
n. 8, p. 2154. 
H. P.] 

16390 

He gives us 
no good save 
by Thy 
hands. 

[* Stowe, leaf 
289, back] 



16395 



Thus, thro 
Thee alone 
can we hope 
for Life, 



16401 



16406 



thou sove- 
reign Refuge 
for all who 
flee to Thee. 



the / And therfore I may fful wel conclude, and say // 
' Tu es Refugiu??* / meuw a Tribulacione / Thow art only 
my Refuyt in euery Tribulacion.' But ys nat also thy 
blyssyd? sonne, my sovereyn Lorde, Cryst Ihmi, my 
Rescus and my Refuyt in euery Tribulacz'on 1 Seyth 
nat Dauid in the sawter book // ' Dominus Firmamen- 
tuw meuw, & Refugiuw meu?, & Liberator meus / 
The lorde ys Firmarnetttuw, my protection, my Refuge 
and my delyuerer in euery Tribulact'on / Vere ipse est 
Refugium meuw, Deus meus / Saluator meus, & spe- 
rabo in eum / Sothly he ys my Refuge, my lorde god / 
my Savyour, And al-only I shall traste and hope in 
hym' // But, blyssed! lady, ffleyng to the ys nat 
ellys but a Recours vnto hym ; And who that shaH 
haue Recours to hym / mvste ffirste off necessyte passyn 
by the ; and by thy blyssed? niedyacourc so atteyne to 
koine to hym // ffor, as the fforsayde holy Doctour 
Seynt Bernard 1 recordeth", 1 'Nichil nos Deus haiere 
voluit quod per tuas manus non transiret' // This to 
seyn, ' the blyssed lorde / hath" so dysposyd! the Orden- 
au??ce off his gracyous gyfftes, that we may ha poces- 
sioura off no goodnesse but yiff yt passe by the honndes 
off that blyssed' 2 Mayden' // And therfore, thow 
mercyable lady, that I may haue helpe off hym in 
euery Tribulacton, ffyrst yt behoveth" me that I resorte 
vnto the; And therfore I may wel seyn, as I ffirst 
seyde // ' Tu es Refugiw?i meuw A Tribulactone ' // And 
I may wel seyn thys ffirst worde / ' Tu / Thow ' ; ffor, 
sauff only Thow, ther ys noon other in whom ys hope 
off vertu and off lyff / And I may say / ' Thow ' / ffor 
Thow art allone, With~-out eiiy other Egal vn-to the, 
ffor-as-much" as thow art syngulerly blyssyd? byfforne alle 
other // And I may say ' Es,' that thow art devoyde, by 
a synguler prerogatyff, ffrom alle vnclenuesse off syune ; 
and so in perfytnesse off vertu Thow shalt perseveren 
and abyden / in-to the worldis ende // And thow mayst 
be call yd Covenably / ' Refugium,' That is to seyn, 
' sovereyne ReiFuyt and Refuge ' ; ffor benygnely Thow 
Receyvest, Swetly ffostryst, and mercyably closest 
vnder thy Mantel off Mercy, alle tho that ffleen to the 



Mary, be mine! Tribulation has driven me to Thee. 441 

ffor socour and helpe // And though" thow be ordeyned? [Stowe MS. 
ffor a Common Reffuge vuto alle syn?iers / yitt enclyne - 



the in especyal to be myn /. ' Myn ' : why so ] Myn, 

Trewly / 'Quia tibi Soli peccaui, & malum Coram te 16414 

ffeci / ffor only vnto the I ha synwycB and tresspassed', BeTiiouspe- 

And to-ffore thyn Eyen Done fful Outragous Offencys ' // for against ' 

Lady, artow my pocessioiw, sythen yt stant so, that haveisimi. 
fful ofte sythe, thurgh" ffals ffauour off prosperyte and 

transytorye off this wrechched! woiide, I ha fforgetyn 16419 

the // Artow or shallow be myn verrey herytage, sythen Thou art my 

inheritance. 

I, woful wrechcn, neuere ne Dydd! no Dygne servyse 

vnto the / Or J Artow yoven to me syngulerly in pro- [^stowe.ieaf 

pyrte? God dyffende But I cleyme in-to my poces- 

sioiui and in-to my propyr herytage // ffor-as-much" as I 16424 

have euere knowen the Custoim?iably to liaue mercy 

vp-on wrechches ; and I am fful wel expert, and ha 

fful experyence off thy beuygne goodnesse, which", in 

aH mescheff and in aH my nedys, I haue euere ffoiwde 

redy vn-to me // wher-off, blyssede lady, with alle my 16429 

herte I thanke the // And ffor as much" as thow hast, Thou hast 

-r> rv 6Ver bee " m y 

nat only at oone tyme, but at alle tymes, be Reffuyt Refuge. 

and synguler Reffuge vnto me / ' Ideo te semper ven- 

dico QSSQ meu??i : Therftbre euere in especyal I chalenge Thou art pc- 

, , cially mine. 

the to be myn. ' Vnde hoc michi ? wheroft, or by 
what Tytle, komytfc this vn-to me, Or off what Doctour, 16435 
Or of what Mayster, have I lernyd to Chalenge so hili a 
Tresour ] ' ' Certe, a Tribulacione / Certys, off Tribula- 
ci'on' / ffor, trewly I dar wel seyn in this eaas, that 
Tribulaci'on was my Maystresse and my Techere ; and 16439 
off hyr I lerned this lessoun, that with-outen aboode or Tribulation 

sent me to 

any taryyng to haue my Resort ffor Socour vn-to the, Tlie e, 
off Entent that thow shuldest syngulerly be my sup- 
porte and Reffuge // But how may yt be in any wyso 16443 
that this shulde longen or apertenen vnto Trybu la- 
c/on // Or what kon^iyng hat Trybulacion, or may in 
eny wyse techen a Man the weye off Elthe] Syth hyr 
Condicton ys rather to brynge a man in-to Drciyucsse ; 16447 
and to Casten hym iu-to the ffroward pathys off dyses- 
peyr and desperoGfton. Trewly, by clere Consyderac/on 

[* Stowe, leaf 

off dyners Reepectys, 2 she techeth both the Ton and 2uo,backj 



442 Thou, Mary, hetying me, I shall defy all Tribulation. 



[Stowe MS. 
only.] 



taught me to 
flee to Thee. 



16455 



If Tribulation 
tries to drive 
me to despair, 

164CO 



I shall say, 
Mary is my 
Jlefuge.' 

16465 



16469 



If he says I 
am too late, 



16474 

my sins are 
too great; 



I shall an- 
swer, 

16478 

[' Stowe, leaf 

291] 

Mary is ever 
ready to grant 
Mercy to all 
who ask it.' 



16483 



If he still 
threatens me, 



16488 

I shall say, 
' Mary is u>y 
help ; 



the tother // But she taught me that I shulde fflen vnto 
the; and she mevede me also that I shulde dyses- 
peyre // But, ffor I sawn" Elthe in the ton, and grete 
distourbawice an[d] trouble in the tother, Therffore, in 
Eschwyng off dyspeyr, I chees, off hool herte, to fflen 
to the ffor sokour and helpe // ffor, ffleyng to the, ys 
savacz'on ; & to dyspeyr / ys deth with'-oute Remyssiouw. 
Thanne, ffrom henwys fforwardf, yiff my Maystresse 
Trybulacion caste hyre to ben but a Stepmoder off niyii 
Elthe and my savact'on, and, sternely Rebukynge and 
vndernemynge me / Mynystre vnto me any mater off 
dysespeyr, To dresse me in-to the dyrke wey of drery- 
nesse, I shaH answere vn-to hyre in my dyffense, and 
seyn as I ffirst sayi?, ' Tu es Kef ugiuro meu-m a Tribu- 
lacz'one ' // And yiff that Tribulacz'on replye ageyns me, 
and be bolde or hardy to axe me why I dyspeyre nat, 
or \vher myn hope Shulde ben, Or who yt ys that may 
be myn helpe in this caas, or my socour in eny wyse, 
I shal boldly answere ageyn, and seyn // blyssed? 
lady, ' That yt ys only Thow.' And yff he contynue 
in hys malys, and labour off ffrowardnesse, to subuerten 
myn hope, and sey ' vnto what ende abydestow / Thow 
art kome to late, Tempus miserendi preterijt / Tyme off 
mercy ys ypassyd? / Quia maior est Iniquitas tua quam 
vt veniam consemaris // ffor thy wykkednesse ys more 
than thow mayst ha mercy off,' I shaH boldely yive 
answere by syllable, and seyn ' Quia Es / ffor thow / 
art,' that ys to seyne, thow abydest ffyx and stable / 
1 Euer in Oon, with-outen Ende, Redy to do Mercy to 
alle that Requeren the // Thane, yiff he, Confus off myn 
Answere, in Thretyug wyse Replye ageyn me, and say 
thes wordes that her Sue / ' Al be yt so that the blyssed* 
Mayde be thy Synguler hope and thy ffuH Trust, & 
euere Endelessly ys redy to do mercy / yitt truste me 
wel, ffor my part, wher-so-euere that thow be, Or to 
what party that thow ffle, I shaH pursue the ' ; Than, 
nat-with-standyng the trouble off his Inportable malys, 
I shaH answere with" a gladde herte ageyn, and seyn, 
that 'thow, blyssed? Mayde / Es Refugiu? meiw/i / Art 
my socour aud Rell'uyt in entry Trybulaci'on : ' wher- 




Tribulation drove me to Thee. Thou art my one Comfort. 443 

vpon, in Conclusicmn, I drede hys manacys nor hys [Sto-weMS. 
Thretys neueradel / And sothly, blyssed? lady, I may - 
wel seyn that thou art ' Reffugum,' Which" ys to i fear not 

" your threats.' 

seyne, a fflyght off hem that be gylty / ffor-as-much as, 

nat only I, but alle tho that be gylty, fflen vnto the 16495 

ffor helpe / Thairoe, yiff that Despej-acton Convyct and Mary! ail 

sinners fly 

confus with, & Trybulacoura axe me by what Mene I to Thee for 
may knowe Thylke sonereyn Reffuge and Reffuyt off 
alle that be gylty, or off whom I was taught, or who 16499 
was my ledere or my guyde to koine to thylke souereyn 
Reffuge / I wylle answere and [seyn] ' A Tribulacfone ' / Tribulation 
ffor Trybulac/on (as I have sayd! to-fforne) was my 
Maystresse and my guyde, and ys Cheff leder and 
governeresse Off my passage / And whan I was slowh 16504 
in my passage, with" hyr vexacion she Constreyned 1 me Thee! '"' 
to fflen to the ffrom hyr fface / Semblably as a.yonge ! from the 
Chylde, whan he hath espyed* the wolff, naturelly ffleth 
vn-to hys Moder. Or as a Cely Dowe, whan she hath 1 Mother, 

or the dove 

espyed! the Sparawk, ffleth horn to hyr Colverhows. to HS nest 

*" j from the 

Evene 1 So, blyssed? lady, ffrom the dredfuH fface of j^: ow " 

Trybulacton / to the" that art Conforteresse off alle [1 2 ^Y4kT f 

Sowles that be seke, I take my fflyght / And th erf ore I 16512 

may euere Recorde my Lessoura, and say, as I ffirst 

sayde, ' Tu es Refugiu??i meum a Tribulacz'one ' / In the 

which" wordes I do tweyne thynges / ffirst, I cleyme off 

Right that thow art verrayly she in whom I truste to 16516 

ffynde Comfort in alle adversyte, whan I sey / ' Tu es 

Refugiura meum ' /. Secondely, I am aknowe Expresly 

ffro whom that I ffle, whan I say / ' A Tribulaci'one ' / 

Thanne, so as I verrayly afferme that thow art only in Tiice alone 

J J ' 1 trust to find 

She in whom I truste ffully to ffynde Comforte Inne /. comfort. 

Goode, blyssede Lady, off thy mercyable grace, dysdeyne 16522 

nat to ben ' Refugiuw meuw In Tribnlacione ' / And 

nat myn only hope, but my fowrfolde hope ; ffor in 

ffoure manure wyse I truste to ffynde in the Comfort 

and Consolac/on // ffor who ys the vcrray liope off Thou art the 

J J ImiMMifliearts 

hertes that ben oppressed*, I parceyve Clerly at tho l^yi^, <'i'i )re t - 
and sey 'Tu' / ffor whan the wrechchyd* werlde sliaH: 16528 
drawe to an ende, and alle shaH ffayle, than thow slialt ThoushMt 

not full them. 

nat ffayle // ffor thanne sliaH synfuH sowles flleu to be 



444 



The First Consolation of Afflicted Hearts: Mary. 



[Stowc MS. 
only.] 



The Firnt 
Convolution 
ofopprett 
Hearts. 

16535 

[i Stowe, leaf 

292] 

This is in 
'i'hee, Mary, 

16539 



16543 



for Tliou art 
my resting- 
place, 

16549 

in whom all 
Binners hope 
for rest. 



16553 

Tho my sins 
are un obsta- 
cle between 
me and Thee, 



16558 



yet I can look 
at Thee thro 



16563 

the windows 
of Holy 
Scripture, 

[ J Stowe, leaf 
292, buck] 

16568 

And sec Thy 
words, 



shadowy d! vmler thy gracyous mantel off mercy : why 1 
ffor thovv art / Refugiuw a Tribulact'one. / 

Here begynneth" the ffirste Consolace'on 
And hope off hertes that ben oppressyd? 
With Eny Trybulacton. / 

ir rhe ffyrste Consolacion that I ffynde, blyssede 
Lady, ys only in the / ffor who ys the verray hope off 
hertes that ben oppressed, but only Thow 1 / ffor, so as 
A Pylgrym or a passagour that kometh" ffro fforeyne 
Cuntres reioyseth" whan he Resorteth" to his restynge 
place, wher he hopeth" in pees and quyete to abyden / 
Moche more I, that am oppressyd* with Afflyccton off 
my troubled! soule, and al besett witli drerynesse, whan 
I leffte vp myu hede out of the dyrke angles off 
wrechchydnesse, I howe to Reioysshen and to be gladde 
whan I Consydre, se, and verrayly beholde tliat thow 
art the Restynge place off my verray hope, and the 
ffynal terme off my desolaczon // For I perceyue wel 
that thow art the ]\Iete and the Marke off alle labour, 
In whom the sovereyn hope off alle synfuH restyth 
Inne // But wheroff and in what wyse may I knowe 
thys? / Haue nat my synwes made an Obstacle / and 
reysed? vp a wal betwyxe the and me? / ffor sotb, yis / 
how may I tharane, sythen ther is so grete an Obstacle 
sett atwen, knowen or verrayly wyten The secrete 
pryvetes off thy benygnc grace I / Sothly, I wote right 
wel that I may nat / But al be yt so that ther be a 
Closour and a wal which lette me that I may nat sen 
nor Clerly beholden the lyght off thy mercyable grace //[ 
yitt neuertheles I, as a wrechcbe, fferfully stonde be- 
hynde the wallys, and with a ffuli dredfuH Eye looke 
lime by the wyndowes // Which ben the wyndowes 
that I looke Inne by 1 // Trewly, the wyndowes and the 
Comfortable ffenestrallys, as yt semytli vnto me, ben 
hooly Scn'ptures // The which ffuli notably make > 
mencion off the grete swetnesse 2 0ff thy mercyable, 
pyte // ffor by thylke agreable ffenestrallys beholdynge,' 
I se and Clerly Consydre the soote sugryd wordys 
which, by a specyal Inspyrac/on off the holy Gost, Thy 



Tliou, Mai'y, givcst Hope of Life, and hast Mercy on all. 445 

syluen saydest with" thyn hooly halwyd! mouth // ' In [Stowe MS. 

me Om?us grafo'a vite & veritatis ; In me omnis spes vite - 

& virtutis. Transits ad me, Om?ies qui Concupiscitis (Eccie^asti- 

cut xxiv. 25- 

nie, & a generaci'ombws meis Inplemini. Spiritus e?iim jwvuig.; is- 
meus, dulcis, & hereditas mea super mel & ffauura; 
memoria mea in generactowe seculoxum. qui edunt me, 16575 
adhuc Esurient ; & qui bibunt me, adhuc sicient ' // 
This to seyne, 'In me is alle grace off lyff and off 
Trouthe ; In me ys alle hope off lyff and off vertu / that in Thee 
Kometli and maketfi youre passage vn-to me, ye alle Life, 
that hertly desyre me, and ye shal ha plente, and be 16580 
ffulfylledf off my generacions // ffor my spyryt ys soote / 
and myn herytage excedytfi in swetnesse, sugre and 
hony. The mynde and the memorye off me shall 16583 
lasten witfi-outen Ende. And who that ffedetft hym on and timt they 

wlio feed on 

my swetnesse, shan hungren ageyn / And they that ami drink 
savourly drynken off my bouwtevous goodnesse, shart shaiiwant 

J J J ' more of Thee. 

effte ayeyn sore thruste ther-affter ' // ffor Ccrtys, blyssed! 16587 
lady, alle ys swetnesse, alle ys Comfortable, that kometli 
ffro the ; And, by thylke opne wyndowe off thy mer- 
cyable grace, I Consydre And beholde in my Contem- 
platyff medytac/on the grete habondauuce off mercy 
and off pyte that ys in the // ffor, thow blyssed 16592 
lady, yiff hooly Scrypture Eecorde and bare wytnesse turc y \dt- lp " 
that thow art mercyable, pytous and benygne, and Thou'art* 
tliow thy sylff bare l Eecorde her-vp-on, And theroff [" stowe, leaf 

2931 

ffolwed noon Effecte, preff, nor Expe> g ience / Shulde 
men ben bolde or hardy ffor to seyn that the Scryp- 16597 
lures wer ffals / nay, nay, god dyffende // ffor thow, 
blyssed? Lady, in effect verrayly hast mercy vp-on alle and hast 

inercy on 

that off hool herte calle vn-to the, and Castyst fful wiio 

cry t.> Tlieo 

benygnolly the stremys off thy mercyable Eyen vp-on forlie 'p. 

alle tho [that] hope in the, and Crye to the ffor helpe, 

an[d] comfortably Receyuest hem vn-to grace; ffor, as 16603 

loachym the Bysshop, Recordede // ' Tu es gloria leru- 

salem ; Tu leticia Israel ; Tu honorificencia popwli // 

Thow art the gladncsse and the glorye off Jerusalem ; (Judith \\. 

Thow art the myrthe and the Eeioyssynge off alle 16607 

Israel : and thow art the worships and the maunvfvcence i'o " the 

n J J honour ol all 

oft ulle peplya / ffor, more than cny scripture makytli folk - 



446 



The First Consolation of Afflicted Hearts: Mary. 



[Stowe MS. 
only.l 



16613 

When Theo- 
philus 

despaird, and 
denied Christ, 



16619 



Thou restor- 
edst him to 
favour. 

16623 



[* Stowe, leaf 

293, back] 
Who ever 
trusted Thee, 
and lost his 
desire ? 

16628 



16632 

I lift up 
my heart to 
to Thee, 



16637 

for Thou art 
my ho|>e. 



16641 



In Thee only 
I and help, 



16645 



who art the 
full hope of 
my soul. 



menci'on, Thow shedyst and powryst dou?i the Oylle off 
thy Mercy vp-on syraierys / And off ffull yore agone, 
that hath be thyn vsage and thy Custoom / Recorde I 
take off Theophilus, 1 which", whan he was ffallyn in-to 
the horryble ffoule pytt off Desperacion, and denyed* thy 
blyssed! Son we Ihesu Crist, doynge homage to the, Thow, 
blyssed Mayde, Thow benygne Lady, Thow gloryous 
quene off pytee and off mercy, fforsoke hym nat whan 
he Resorted! Ageyn vn-to the, but mercyably delyuer- 
edest hym ffroni the bondys off the ffende, brekyng 
and Ammllyng the Recorde, wretyn with" his owne 
hande, Restorynge hym to grace and to mercy ageyn. 
By swycfr wyndowes and by swych" ffenestraH / I, 
stondynge behynde vnder the waH off my symies, and 
looke and beholde how benygne and how MercyfuH at 
thow Art // 2 ffor who yitt euere callyd! vn-to the / Or 
what man euere putte liis trust or his fulle hope hertly 
in the, and was defraudyd? off hys vertuous desyr 1 ? // 
Whan I Remewbre and Consydre aH: thes thynges, 
And so Clerly at the Eye how thow helpyst al hem 
that ben oppressydf, and Reconcylest ageyn to grace 
alle hem that ben dysespeyred? / And generally art 
socour and helpe to alle synwerys, Ther-ffor I, wofuH 
Wrechche lefffc, vp and dresse the Inward 1 Eye off 
myn herte vn-to the / ffor hooly and Enterly in the 
I putte myn hope stable and ffyx, pcrpetuelly to per- 
seueryn and abyden, Concludyng thus withe the Pro- 
phete / ' Tu es spes mea & porcio mea in terra 
viuenciuwi // Thow, blyssed* lady, art myn only hope, 
my part and my porct'on in the londe of euery-lastynge 
lyff ' // ffor, lady, whan I am ffalle in any Trybulacion, 
walke and goo Roimclc aboate the Erthe, and seke 
affter the helpe off men, an[d] kan nowher noon ff'ynden 
but Only in the // Than may I wel ben aknowen, and 
Confesse me, and 3 seyn / ' Tu es porcio mea : Thow 
allone, Lady, art my part and my porcton,' ffor thow 
Dystynctly, alle other excludyd, art, were, and shalt 
ben the Outer and the ffulle hope off my soule. And 
ther-ffor I may Covenably applye and seyn vnto th 
1 See Migne, vol. 182, p. 1143/1. 3 MS. 'and and' 



The Second Consolation of Afflicted Hearts: Mary. 447 



[Stowe MS. 
only.] 



the werdys off leremye the prophete, ' Spcs mea tu in 
die Affliccionis / Thow art myn Only hope in the 

dayes off myn afflycci'on ' // Et liec votest Consolaczo [ie]rwi 

J J . . xliijoCopt- 

mea, que est mentis spes oppresse, percipio ad occu- tul - 

lum 1 . 16653 



2 Here begynneth the Seconnde 

Consolacion Off Hertes that ben 

Oppressyd* with Trybulacton. 

The seconnde Consolacz'on, O blyssedl lady, which 
that I ffynde in the ys this, that whan I Consydre and 
se, and in Experience ffynde, That whan alle the lustys 
off this transytorye worlde passe away and nat abyde, 
Thow abydest euere in Oon, stable and ffyx witli-oute 
Mutabylyte, 'Quia es. / ffor thow art stedfast and 
stable, shalt perseuere with-outen ende ' // And lyk as 
thes Marynerys in the absence off the soime, whan the 
dyrke nygftt kometfi vp-on, ha no comfort off lyglit / 
but only off the loode sterre, which" off his nature 
abydetfi ffyx in hys spere, and neuere draweth ffor to 
declyn by medyaci'on, off which" they guye and gouerne 
ther passage // Evene so I, a wofuft wrechche, in the 
myd 1 see off this Troublyd* worlde fforpossyd? and ffor- 
dryven with many sturdy wawes off adversyte and off 
Trybulacion, whan the lytyl pore vessel off myn herte 
ys oue?*caste and ffordry ven with" many ffroward? wyndes 
off affliction // Thanwe have I no Comfort nor helpe 
but only to leffton vp the Eye off myn herte vn-to the, 
which" art verrayly callyd the Sterre off the See 3 / Only 
to dyrecten and to brynge wrechches, oute off alle 
Tcrupestys off Trybulaczon, to the havene and to the 
blysfuH povte off euere-lastyng lyff // And her-vpon I 
aparceyve 4 Therby That thow art the sothefaste loode- 
Sterre off the see / ffor / Stella, a stando dicitw / A 
Sterre ys seyde off stondyng ; And therffore, off Sted- 
fastnesse off stondyng thow mayst wel be callyd a 
Stcrre // ffor, whan alle other Erthely Creatures be 

1 The catchword is 'Tu,' so a sheet of ten leaves or less is 
p'.ssiMy missing, tho' I suppose the First Consolation cannot 
have run much further than it does here. 

3 Stella marit: see Migne, vol. 182, p. 1142/2. 



[* Stowe, leaf 

2'JIJ 

The Second 
Consolation 
of troubled 
Heartt. 



16658 

When 

worldly plea- 
sures pais, 
Tliou, Mary, 
abidest. 



1G663 

As seninen 
in tlie niu'lit 
steer by the 
Load-Star, 



16667 



so I, amid 
the waves of 
adversity, 



16672 



find help only 
in Thee, Star 
of the Sea. 



16G78 



[ Stowe, leaf 
294, back] 



Thou art a 
Star, for Thy 
fixedness. 

16684 



448 The Second Consolation of Afflicted Hearts: Mary. 



[Stowe MS. 
only.] 



Thou wert 
ever stedfast, 
when Thy 
Son's dis- 
ciples fled, 



16690 

when Thou 
conceivedst 
Him, 



and keptest 
Thy vir- 
ginity. 

16696 



16700 

If Thou wert 
unstable, 



none else 
could deliver 
me. 

16706 



[1 Stowe, leaf 

25] 

I pray Thee 
bring me to 
the haven of 
everlasting 
Life. 

16713 



Bid me, 

16717 



amoner the 
troubles of 
this world, 
come to 
Thee. 

16722 



veryable thurgh Changynge, thow Abydest stable and 
stedfaste witft-out Mutabylyte / euere in Oon // And 
that shewed' fful wel in the passioiw off thy blyssed? 
Somie // ffor whan alle his discyples ffledde a-way, 
Thow, as a ffyx Sterre, stoode euere stable In the 
ffyrmament off the ffeyth" to-ffore the Croos. Thy 
Stabylnesse was shewed fful wel also in the Concepczon 
off thy blyssecl! sonne, That, nat with-stondyng the 
promys and the beheste off the Aungel, thow stoode 
euere Stable, and nat Chaiwgest thyn holy pwrpos off 
thy vyrgynyte // Thy grete stabylnesse ys also ffonden 
wel ffro day to day in the grete Reffuyt and Eeffuge 
that thow dost to alle synful men, havyng mercy vp-on 
hem euere in ther mescheff whan they ha nede ; and in 
this stant moste in euery Trybulacwm the synguler 
Consolation and Comfort that I have in my Sowle / 
ffor trewly, blyssed' lady, yiff thow were vnstable and 
varyant as other Creatures ben, I koude vp-on no syde 
ffynden Comfort in myn liert // why so 1 // ffor than 
were ther noone other that myght delyue? f e me out off 
the trowble ffloodys off the see off thys Mortal lyff / 
ffor I stoode pleynly vp-on the wrak, myd off the 
ffelle Rage ffloodys off this dredfuH See, lyk to ha be 
perysshed, nadde ben that thy Mercyable hande hadde 
ben porrect to me- ward // And therfore, 1 thow 
blyssedf lady, I make my prayer and myn Inuoccacz'on 
vn-to the, to bene a Mene of Mercy to bvynge me to 
the holsom?tte hauene off euery-lastyng lyff, Seyyng to 
the thes wordes that her swen / Cum beato Petro / ' Si 
tu es, lube me venire ad te super aquas ' / ' Si tu es ' / 
that ys fforto seyn, 'ffor thow art, and neuere shalt 
Cessyn ffor to ben, comwiande me // thow blyssed? 
Mayde, which" art the port and the havene off Elthe 
vnto wrechches, me stondyng vp-on the watrys, that ys 
to seyn, mydd* off Trybulactons in this worlde, to 
ouerekomen hem, and So to kome vn-to the ' // ffor, 
Certys, lady, yiff so be that thow exclude my prayer 
ffro thyn Erys, off alle wrechches I am the moste 
wrechchyd? ; and yiff my synnes fforbarre me, that I be 
nat horde demyng, also that ffor my grete offencys, I 



The 2nd and '3rd Consolations of a Troubled Soul. 449 



arn nat worthy to preyse the // ' Quia non est Speciosa 
Laus in Ore Peccatoris / In as mycli as ther ys no 
worthy prey[s]yng in the mouthe oif a SynfuH: man ' / 
how shall I euere he bolde or hardy to telle iforth the 
Magnyffycence off thy laude // Certys, lady, yiff I 
see that I he nat henygnely herde off the, I wyl 
arrettyn the cause to my syraies, and to the grete 
defautys that I ha done; ffor thow, lady, ffayllest 
neuere, nor thow wan test nat to do socour and helpe to 
alle that deuoutly hesechyn and prayen vn-to the. Et 
hoc est q?od promisisti Ecclesiastico xxiiij : " Sum, & 
vsqwe ad Futuruw sec^l\urQ. non desinaui " / That is to 
seyne / " I am, and in-to the worlde that is to komene, 
I shaH nat Cesse ffor to be " / And ther-ffore, blyssed? 
lady, he-cause thow hast ben, and euere art, and shalt 
ben, Comfort and Consolacion to alle wrechches and 
SynfuH men, In hope that thy Mercy and thy Consola- 
cion in my grete Nede l ShaH nat ffayllen vn-to me / 
Thys ys my Secownde Consolac/own, which" that I 
cachche in the. / 

The Thrydde Consolace'on'j 

Off A Troublyd! Sowle } 

The Thrydde Comfort and Consolaczon, blyssed? 
lady, that I have, ys this, That I se that ffolkys, 
oppressycl' with werynesse off ther owne thoughtys, 
ffynden a Shadwyng place and an holsomme Ecfuge 
whan they fflen to the ffor socour and helpe // wherfore, 
lady, yiff I seye and beholde thatt the ffoxys off the 
Erthc hadden holys to putte Inne ther heedes, And 
bryddes off the heyre, nestys to breden Inne, and a 
Sparwe koude ffynden out an hevese off an hous to 
bredyn Inne / And a Tortyl a place to make hym Inne 
a Neste to ffostren hys bryddes ther-Inne // And that 
I say also this hygh" hylles, ordeyned? ffor hertys to 
pasturen Inne, And in kavyc? stones ffoiwde an hoole, 
an yrchouM to haue his Keffuge ther-Inne ; And amoiige 
al thys, I seye the Childeren off men Dysconsolat 
and Destytuyt off ther loggyng // As whrlom thy 
blysscd' so?mo hadde no place wher to putte Inne his 

PILGRIMAGE. G G 



Mary, I am 
not worthy to 
praise Thee. 

16727 



16731 

Thou never 
fullest th.>.m> 
who devoutly 
pray to Thee. 



16736 



As Thou art, 
and shalt be 
for ever, 
my hope in 
Thy Mercy 
is my second 
Consolation. 

[i Stowe, leaf 
295, back] 

16743 



The Third 
Consolation 



16747 

is, that as 
weary folk 
find refuge 
ki Thee, 



16752 



as the spar- 
row finds 
house-eaves 
to breed in, 



16758 

and tlie 
lu'du'i'lmir :i 
hole to hide 
in, 



16763 



450 



Mary, the Third Consolation of Troubled Souls. 



16766 

[i Stowe, leaf 
2'JC] 



ami as Thou, 
JIary, art the 
refuse of all 
wretched, 



16772 



I shall turn 
to Thee, 
the Noah's 
Ark 



16778 



of Salvation 
for good and 
bad. 

Thou art 
Daniel's Tree, 



16785 



under which 
all creatures 
fed. 



16791 



Audi ho' I'm 
nut pure, 

16796 

[" Stowe, leaf 

2!6, backj 
hut bestial, 
I may mend 
by Thy grace. 



16801 



heede // Trewly, lady, and I seye rnankynde thus 
dyswarre off ther herberwe, that they hadde no place, 
in ther grete necessyte off Reffuge, to Dyverte to / yt 
were but lytytt 1 Wondre though I were dyspurveyed* 
off hope In my sowle, wher I shulde eny Consolac/on 
or Comfort ffynde // But, ffor-as-mych as thow allone, 
And al Only, art yoven tfor a Synguler Reffuge vn-to 
Wrechchys, and Art made ther protectour and dyfFence, 
And, Affter the grete oppression?* off her, art made ther 
Restynge place, to abyden Inne in Equyte / wlierby I 
ffynde a Path and a weye, to whom, in al mescheff and 
necessyte, I shuH fflen and dyuerte vn-to // ffor thow 
art, as I sayde Rathe, Thylke Arche off .Noe, vu-to the 
which", and in tlie which, in tyme off grete Deluge, alle 
the worlde ffley vnto, and were savyd? ther-Inne, alle 
they that by grace myght Entren, as wel thes Rude 
beestes, as Men that were Resownable / Right so, 
blyssed? lady, thow art de verray Arke Off Mankyndes 
savac/on, vnto the which", Rightful and vnriglltf'ul ffltm 
to ffor helpe // And thow art ffygured* also by thylke 
Tree which" that Danyel spak oft', vnder which alle 
the beestes off the Erthe hadde here dwellynge place, 
and vp-on whos brafichys Restyde alle the bryddes off 
the heyr. And vender this Tree was the pasture and 
the ffoode off alle levynge Creatures / Trewly, O blyssedf 
lady, me semyth" verrayly Thow art the sylue same 
Tree, vnto which" alle Resonable Creaturys ffleu vnto 
ffor to ffynde socour and helpe. And sothly, Lady, 
with supportacton off thy mercy, me semyth that 
amonge so manye I shulde nat ben Excludydf // ffor att- 
be-yt-so that I be nat liable nor worthy to be Reknyd* 
amonge the Clene bryddes off hevene, which" sytten 
vpon the hyh" brawjchys of Contemplacion / yett, goode 
blyssedf lady / 2 Dysdeyne nat, thouh I be Rude And 
Bestyall thurgh Sy/me, that I may Sytten lowe vp-on 
the Erthe, by mekenesse and humylyte to amende me 
vnder the agreable Bowes and brauwchys off thy Cus- 
towmable grace, ther to be shadwyd and shrowdyd 
with" thy mercy // And sythyn tliat eiu-ry Creatwre 
tfyut ffoode and spyrytual Reflecc/on in the // Lady, 



J/a/7/, the Third Consolation of Troubled Souls. 451 

yiff yt be nat lefful to me, ffor my grete synncs, ifor to Tho 1 1 may 

Tasten and to Etyn off thyn hooly plentevous ffruyt, Thy trait, 

yett suffre, blyssed* lady, that at the leste that I may 16806 

Saltern ibi ffenuw vt bos Comedam. / Haue my pasture 

ther with" Rude Oxys, and walkyn as a man deiect 

with" Nabugodonoser / Ther, amonge thys wylde beestys, 

to ban my habitacton, to take ther party off the Remys- let me share 

J the leavings 

saylles leffte off hem that be gostly and Spyrytual of the spi- 

ritual repast. 

Repast, to my Sowle helpe // ffor trewly, lady, and 

thow lyst pacyently to suffre me thus, why shulde 16813 

nat my Sowle be Comfortyd? why shulde I thanwe 

be dysespeyred! off thy grace // why shulde my wofuH 

Eyen be dyrked with" longe abydynge in the salte 

Terys off bytternesse // ffor Certys, thouh" the mul- Tllo> y 8 ; |IS 

J J J ' are more Hun 

tytude off my Sy?mes passe in nor^mbre the Sotyl thc sei - S! " 11 . 
amale Sandys and gravett off the See, And though" 16819 
I were nat worthy, ffor my wykkydnessys, to lyfften 
vp myn Eyen towarde the bryghte hevene, yett, nat- 
with"-standyng alle this // <Te tamen, a ffacie ffuroris 
Domini, Refugimu habco // I have the, my Synguler yet Thou, 



Refuge, ffor the fface of the woodnesse off my Lorde 

God' // & yiff that oure fferme ffader x Adam, affter P^pkar 

hys grete Offence, hadde had swych" a shadewyng place 16826 

to have tournyd* vn-to, ffor to haue hydde hys nakyd^ 

nesse, I suppose the lorde hadde nat seyde vn-to hym / 

' Adam, vbi Es ? Adam, wher Artow 1 ' // But the goode 

lorde, seyng so mych" peple pe>ysshe ffor the Syime off 16830 

the seyde Adam, ordeygned? the to ben a Synguler TIM.U nave.-t 

Mene ffor man??ys saluac/on, off Entent, that who-so- Adam 1 * trans- 

UNMMh 

eucre filedde vn-to the ffor helpe and ffor Iteffuge, 
shulde nat perysshen, But Restyn vnder the Shaclwe 
off thy protecc/on, to be Conservyd* Ifro dampnacton IGS;').") 
vnder the large off thy Chary te // Scyynge vnto the, Wci>iuyto 
tliylke wordys that be wretyn In ysaye / the prophete, 
xvj Capitulo : " Absconde fugientes, & vagos ne prodas ; 
habitahu//t apud te profugi mei, & cetera j Esto Lati- 
bulu//; uomm a Facie vastatoris" // This to seyne, "0 16840 
thow blyssedf Lady, hyde hem that fllen vnto the ffor tohuteuH 

J ' J Who n.M- In 

helpe, and they that be vagabonde, dys[c]oure liem nat, Thee for help. 
ffor synfull ffolkys that be fEugytyff shalle ffleen vn-to 



452 



Mary, the Fourth Consolation of Troubled Souls. 



16844 the ffor socour and helpe; and be thow her dyffence 

and her proteccton to-ffore the fface off the Enmy " // 

My hope in And whan I ha this in my RernembrauMce. yt ys the 

Thy aid, 

Mary, is my Thrydde Consolac^on, which that I ff ynde Only in the, 

Third Conso- J J 

lation. In euery Trybulacton. 



The Fourth 
Contolation. 



16851 

[' Stowc, leaf 
21)7, hack] 



As I trust 
and lin|H! in 
Thee, Mary, 

16856 

I claim an 
ancestral 
right of re- 
luge in Thee. 



16861 



Sinners were 
the cause of 
Thy being . 
the Mother 
of God; 

16866 

they made 

Thee 

honourd. 



16871 



Thou art 

I iilllllll tO US 

-iimri-s, 
and we to 
Thee. 

16878 

[* Stowe, leaf 
21W] 



Here begynneth" the 

ffourthe Oonsolacion. 

Certys, Lady, and yt were so that thow dyst Comfort 
to alle other Synnerys save only to me, I hadde 1 Grcte 
matere to Compleyne, and to make grete Sorwe And 
Lamentacton // But, ffor-as-mycli as I haue a Synguler 
Trust and a Specyal hope in the, to-fforne alle other, 
Therffore I wyl Reioyssh in myn herte, and Cleyme off 
Ryght the, in Especyal, to be my Reffuge / And thys I 
Cleyme off herytage by lyneal Dyscent off Succession??, 
be Tytle off myn Awncetrys, other Sywnerys that ha 
be to-fforne. and Sythen thow dydest mercy vn-to 
hem / I, that am a Symjer, Cleyme off Right that thow 
Shalt done Mercy vn-to me // ffor Certys, by olde 
tyme, lady, Synreerys that werne to-fforn<?, weryn Occa- 
siouw That thow were Chosyn to ben the Moder off 
god, and quene of hevene, and lady also off al the 
world 1 . And certys, lady, with" Supportaczon off your 
grace / hadde nat Synnerys ben, thow haddest neuere 
be ReysecJ to so high a degre off worshippe ; And tlior. 
ffore The holy Doctour Seynt Awstyn Seyth vn-to the 
In a Meditace'on // ' Maria, nrnltum Audeo, nmltum 
gaudeo / Multuw-qwe gaudiu??z, multam-qwe michi ffacis 
audaciam.' '0 blyssed 1 Marye, I am gretly hardy and 
bolde, and gretly I Reioysshe, and thow yevest me 
grcte hardynesse ffor to speken' // ffor I speke, and as I 
spcke, right so yt ys / ffor we to the, and thow to vs / 
A v nyh Confederacye hath loyned vs to-gedre / That 
thow ffor vs haste thylke beynge that thow art. And 
trewly in the same wyse, by the Only, we haue the 
beyng that we arn) // ffor yiff that 2 0ure Trespace 
and oure Transgrcssiou/i hadde nat be to-fforne / Tlicr 
hadde nat ffolwed! ther-vpon oure Redempci'on // And 
yiff yt hadde nat be necessarye, vs to haue be bought, 



Mary, the Fourth Consolation of Troubled Souls. 



453 



yt hadde nat be necessary e the to haue Chyldedf oure 
savyour and Rede?ptour, ' Vt quid enim nescium pec- 
cata p?-o peccatoribws pareres, si deesset qui peccasset / 
Vt quid ffieris, mater Saluatoris, si nulla esset Indi- 
gencia salutis ' / ' blyssed lady, why or Avher-ffore 
slmldestow haue Chylded? and brought fForth hym tfor 
Eemedye Off Sywnerys, which neuere knewe what 
synwe was, yiff ther neuere hadde be noOfi that haddf 
synrced 1 to-fforne // Or to what ffyn sholdestow han 
ben Moder off the Savyour, yiff ther hadde be noon 
Indygence off savacion 1 ' And thes wordys off Seynt 
Awstyn, lady, I may Right weH seyn vn-to the // ffor 
sythen Symierys were Cause and Occasyoiw off tliyn 
honour and off thy Magnyffycence, by cause only off 
ther grete synnes, yt semyth vn-to me, sythen that I 
am a Successour off hem, Contynuynge ffro day to day 
in Symie, That I, amonge alle other Sywnerys, may 
Eightffully Cleymen to iflen to the ffor helpe and ffor 
Reffuyt // And that thow, in Recompensacton off the 
grete benefetys which thow hast Recey ved? ffor Sy wnerys, 
wylt nat to me, that am a Synner, denye the Entre / 
Sythyn thow, lady, off verray Right art bownden to be 
Reffuge vnto Sywuerys / ' Sed, quomodo obligata // But 
how, lady, artow bortnden ? ' Artow nat more bo/mden 
off Equyte to RighfuH men than to Sywnerys // ffor- 
soth thow art bouwde to bothe ; a ffor to Rightf lift Men 
thow art bou?zden by Love, And to SynfuH Men thow 
art bourtde by thyn Offyce // ffor a leche hath in hous- 
holde with hym, hem that he loveth / and he hath 
besyde also, wouwdyd and seke men, whom that he 
Recureth and maketh hool / ffor wher-to shulde Oon 
bore the name off a leche, but yiff he wolde hclyn men 
off ther maladyes // Or wherto shuldestow be -callydf 
the Moder off Mercy / Or wher-to shuldestow ha be 
Chosen to be the Moder Off god, yiff thow aH-only 
shuldest loven goode Men and RightffuH, And with 
alle this shuldest nat done nor shewyn no mercy vnto 
Synwcrys / Trewly thow art holden to loven and to 
Cherysshen hem that be RightfuH, And to haue mercy 
on hem that be SyiiffuH // And that showy th fful wett 



We sinners 
made needful 
Thy buaring 
of Christ. 



16886 



on 16892 



As we arc the 
cause of Thy 
greatness, 



16898 

I ami all 
may rightly 
claim Thee, 
Mary, as our 
refuge. 



16904 



Thou art 
bound to 
the unright- 
eous as well 
as the 
righteous, 
[i Stowe, leaf 
298, hack] 

16910 



The Phy- 
sician heals 
sick folk. 

16915 



Thou art 

first tn havi 
mrivy mi 
sinners. 



454 



Mary, be our Refuge in Tribulation ! 



16923 

Tliy secre- 
tary, St. 
Her nard, said 
Thou wast 
debtor to sin- 
ners as well as 
righteous ; 

16928 



16933 



[i Stowe, leaf 

2a] 

to give sin- 
ners forgive- 
ness ; 
and the 
righteous, 
grace. 

16940 



Therefore, 
Mary, bless 
them wlio 
made Thee 
blessed. 



As sinners 
caus<l Thee to 
be blessed, 



be our Refuge 
in tribula- 
tion ! 



Queen of 
Heaven, 

Loadstar of 
the Sea, 



by thylke Memoryal wrytyng off thy Secrctys, which" 
thyn owne Secretarye, Seynt Bernard? wroot, Seyyng in 
thes wordes // ' Sapientibws & Insipientib?w, iustis & 
peccatoribws, Debitricem te ffecisti : Onmibus Onwia 
ffactfa Est // To wyse men and to ffoolys, To RightfuH: 
men And to Sywnerys / thow hast made thy syluen 
doctour / ffor thow art made alle vn-to alle,' by the 
plentevous habondaimce off thy Charyte. And thow 
hast opnetf the Bosom off thy Mercy so largely, that 
alle may taken off the plentevousnesse ther-off // He 
that ys in Captyvyte, Redempc/on; the Syke Man, 
Elthe ; And he that ys hevy, Consolaci'on ; And the 
Synwerre, fforyiffnesse and Remyssyouw ; 2 And the 
RightfuH Man, grace and perfeccion / 'Vt non sit qui 
se abscondat a. Galore eius' // So that noon off no degre 
may shrowden hym, but that the Sonwe of thy Charyte 
shal shyne vp-on hym ; And syth" thow art be-kome 
dettour to RightfuH men and to Synful men also // 
Alle SynfuH men may Justly alleggyn this vers vnto 
the, and seyn : 

ffestina miseris / Misereri virgo beata ; 

Nam te si Recolis, miseri ifecere beatam ; 

Ergo, beaa, miseros quorum te Causa beauit. 

[Mary, be our Refuge in Tribulation! 16946 
4 verses of 8 lines each, abab, bcbc.] 

(1) 
blyssecf mayde / fflour off alle goodnesse, 

On alle SynfuH / ha Mercy and pyte ; 
Thynke how Synwerys / in verray sothefastnesse 

were Cause ffirst / (who so [that] lyst se,) 16950 
That ffolkys shulde / blyssyd / callyn the, 

Only ordeyned? / ffor ther Savac'ion ; 
Now, goode lady / off thy benygnyte 

Be oure Refuge / In Trybulac'ion / 16954 

(2) 
U Quene off heveno / off belle ek Emperesse, 

Loode Sterre / ycallciV off the See 
To Marynerys / that Erryn in dyrknesse, 

Thow art ther Comforte / in Alle aduersyte. 16958 



Mary, be our Refuge in Tribulation ! 



455 



Thy lygftt, ffro Tempest maketli hem go ffre, 
And vp tiiryve / thurgh thy protecciion, 

At the liavene / off alle ffelycyte, 

And ffor tescape / Eche Trybulacton. 16962 

(3) 
H holy Sterre // ffyx in stabylnesse, [stowe, if. 299, bk.] 

With-oute Eclypsyng / Or Mutabylyte, 
Ylyche Clere / shynjiig in brygh~tnesse, 

In whom the Sonne / sent ffro the deyete, 16966 
lyste ffor to take / Oure humanyte, 

Off Mankynde / to make Redempcton, 
That thow shuldest / mayde, Moder ffre, 

Be Oure Reffuge / In Trybulac'ion ! 16970 

(4) Lenvoye. 
^T Pryncesse, excellyng off myght and worthy nesse 

Allc Creaturys / as in dygnyte / 
Myn hertys body / my worldly Cheff goddesse, 

Pray thy Sonwe / ta 1 mercy vp-on me. / [> to iiave] 
Sytfi in alle mescheff / to thy grace I ffle 16975 

Reffute to ffynde / And Consolac'ion. 
And syth my trust / ys Only Sette in the, 

Be my Reffuge / in Trybulac'ion. / 16978 

Explicit. 

2 And sothly, lady, I am Right wel a-knowe that I 
was constreynedf off verray nede And necessyte, to fflen 
to the ffor Socour and helpe, and Chacyd off Trybula- 
cton to kome to the ffor Comfort and Consolacion / 
II And trewly, yiff I seyde the Contrarye, I shulde 
ffoule ffayllen off the Soth. U Now, trewly, I ata 
mych" holden vn-to Trybulacton, And owe Right wel to 
Callyn hyre a Maystresse off myn, that taught me, and 
was so goode a guyde to ary ven vp at so holsom a Por^, 
and at so notable an havene, to ffynde Reffuyt and 
Refuge, 1F O blyssed lady, in the / ffor tyl I hadde 
gone to Scole with Trybulacton, I savoured! IFul lytil in 
the soote mylk of grace which dystylleth dotm ffro tliy 
mereyable brestys to Sj'nwerys, to ftbstren hem in ther 
grete nede, specyally whau they ii'alle in Try])iilacion. 
And truwly I may say, llbr my party, that Trybulaci'on 



bring us to 
the Haven of 
Felicity ! 



Holy Star, 



in whom 
Gort's Son 
took hu- 
manity, 



be our Refuge 
in tribula- 
tion ! 



Pray thy Son 
to have merry 
on me ! 



My trust is 
only in Tliee. 



[ Stowe, leaf 

300] 

Mary, I am 
driven to 
Thee by 
tribulation, 

16982 



and am much 

beholden to 
her 



16987 

for sending 
me to such a 



Till she 

si 'in M ild me, 
1 tastfd little 
of the milk ,.t 
thy breasts. 

16993 



456 



16996 



Blessed are 
tlitt beatings 
that drive a 
child from 
liis errors ! 

17002 



[' Stowe, leaf 

300, back] 
Christ or- 
(laind tribula- 
tion 

17008 

to make us 

obey our 
Master. 



And Tribula- 
tion has sent 
me to find 
refuge, Mary, 
in Thee. 

17015 



I pray Thee 

17021 



17026 



to rescue me 
in this storm, 
and be nay 
refuge. 

17031 

[* Stowe, leaf 
301] 



The Fourth Consolation of afflicted Souls. 

was a necessarye Maystresse vn-to me, lych vnto a pro- 
celle which dryveth aft sodeynly a Shyppe vn-to goode 
aryvaylle. 1F And necessarye ys also thylke sharpe 
prykke, that bryngeth" hym that Erreth in his passage, 
ageyn to the Eight wey. 1F And wel-fuH and blyssed? 
be tho betynges and Skowrynges, that Compellyn a 
Chylde to declyne ffrom his trespacys and his Errours. 
And ther-ffore, blyssed? lady, rather than I shulde be 
Rekkeles to Eesorte vnto the, lat me Eather, vnder thy 
proteccion, ffele sonme party Off Trybulacc'on. IT And, 
benygne lady, I beleue 1 Verrayly, that, by the ordyn- 
a?mce off thy blyssed Sonwe, Was suffryd? and ordeyned 1 
as a yerde in a Maystres hande to Eestreyne neclygent 
Children ffrom her Wauwtonesse and ther trwandyse, 
and to compellyn hem mekely to obeye the doctryne 
and dyscyplyue off ther Mayster. IF And thus, lady, I 
that am Slowh", Neclygent, and ffroward? in alle vertu- 
ous werkys, My Maystresse Trybulaczon, with" hyre 
yerde off Dyscyplyne and of Castygacfon, She hath" 
taugh"t me to komme to the in my grete nede, ffor to 
ffynde in thy grete Mercy, Eefuge and Consolact'on. 
IF So that thow mayst covenably seyn to me the 
wordys wretyn in the Sawter book / " In Tribulac/one 
inuocasti me / In Trybulacion euere thow callyst vn-to 
me." H And Sothely, lady, I conffesse me, and am wel 
aknowe, that yt ys So; Besechyng fful mekely vn-to 
the, with" alle myn hoole herte, only off mercy and off 
pytye, that thow lyst to seyn vnto me, and gracyously 
to Acomplysshe and ffulfyllen in me, thy pore servauwt, 
the Resydue in effect, that ffolweth" in the same vers / 
" liberaui te & exaudiui te in Abscondito tempestatis / 
I ha delyuered? the, and I have herde the in the dyrke 
trouble off the Tempest that Assay lied? the." 1F Now, 
goode blyssed? lady, do now so to thy pore seruamzt, 
and Eeleve hym, off thy mercy, in the Tempest off this 
grete nede, and graunte hym off Sywnes Remyssiouw, 
to be vn-to hym Eefuyt and Eeffuge in eue/y Trybvi- 
lacion / Prestante Vnigenito 2 Tuo, qui est benedictus in 
secula seculonwi. Amen. 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 






Tribulation has driven me to take Refuge in God. 457 






f And whyle I made my prayere, 

The Owgly Smyth / as ye shall here / 1 7036 

y-callydf / Trybulac'iown, 

Whan She herde / myn Orysoiw, 

And Saugh" / by noon Occasyouw 

I wolde nat leue / my Bordou/i / 17040 

Nor my Skryppe / ffor no manace ; 

And sawh" how / In the same place 

I hadde Chose / to myn Entent / 

lieffuge / that was Suffycyent, 17044 

In alle Trouble and dysese, 
Myn h,ertly Sorwys / to apese, 
And stynte / alle myn Aduersytc, 
Anoon she seyde / thus to me : 170 18 

Trybulac/on. / 

II ' I am,' quod she / ' lyk off mauere 
To thylke wynde / (as thow shalt here,) 
That with" his blast / maketft fful offte 

The levys Eyse / and fflen alofFte 17052 

Toward the Skyes / hyft in the heyr. / 

Thus haue I / causycl! thy Kepeyr / 

Thurgh" my Trowble / pryked! the, 

Vn-to Reffuge / ffor to file. / 1705G 

' Caste thy look / toward! the heveue / [stowe, leaf -MI, bk.] 
ffer abowe / the Sterrys Sevene / 
In thy Contemplac'ion / 

That wer but / as a left her doun, 17060 

ffpr-welkycJ / and caste a-way, 

Wych by the ground ful lowii lay, [Cotton MS. fay in* <../.>;,!,.] 
But, thorgh my cowmyssi'ouw, 

I ha tounid the vp-se a -douw, ['so St.] 17064 

And many a-nother ek also, 
AVi't/i my trouble and wit/t my wo ; 
And wt't/i my toongcs I hem chace, 
Ageyn the lord whaw they trespace, 17068 

That I cause hem for to ffle 
To god, on hem to ban pyte. 

' And so??tme I have ek causyd offtc 
To fflon vn-to the sterre aloffte, 17072 

To whom thow ileddytst wi't/t grot labour, 



The Pilgrim. 

When the 

ui,'ly smith, 
Tribulation, 



saw that I 
wouldn't give 
up my scrip 

and >t:ill, 



she said 
Tribulation. 



she had 
driven me to 
take re luge, 



[leaf 242] 



andliadtunul 
me upside 
down with 
woe, 



and made me 
tlee to <ii >d. 
Others she 
hail wnt lo 
Mary, 



458 Tribulation drives the Stray ers back to the right way. 



Tribnf-ition. 

to be com- 
forted by 
Her. 



If I ever 
leave Her, 
Tribulation 
will harass 

nil 1 , 



as she has 
already dune 
to many, 



and driven 
them back 
to Mary. 



Tribulation 
can chastise 
the dissolute 



and those 
predestind 
to salvation. 



[Ieaf2i2,bk.] 



TribniaUoB 

bid* me 
adieu, 



and warns me 
to be stable. 



' ffor to have off hyre, socour, 

Confort and consolac'iouw, 

Ageyn al tribulacioim ; 17076 

Wher-in thow erryst neueradel, 

But wroiihtest prudently and 1 wel. 

' Kep the wel in hyr presence, 

ffor, by verray expe?-yence, 17080 

As sone as thow art from hyr go, 
I shal nat longe be the fro, 
By vertu off my commyss'iouw, 

ffor to don execuc'ioim, 17084 

As I ha don to many on ; 
Wz't/t my toonges made hem gon, 
That wer out off the weye ferre, [stowe, leaf 302] 
Resorte ageyn vn-to that stcrre, 17088 

Ther to haue proteccioiw 
In euery trybulaciiouw. 

' And thus I kan, in many wyse, 

With my yerde wel chastyse 17092 

Swych folkys as be dyssolut, 
And chace at hem in my pursut, 
Namly, folk predestynaat, 

And swych as be preordynaat 17096 

To kome vn-to savac'ioiw, 
That kan in trybulacioura 
Suff ren, and have pacyence. 

' And yiff that thow, for thyn offence, [C.&st.] 17100 
Hast her-to-forn haad nede off me, 

And, in partye, I ha to the 

Parcel declaryd off myw offys, 

As thow mayst fele (yiff thow be wys) 17104 

"VVit7i-oute?i any gret owtrage 
Don to the, or gret damage, 
Wit/<-outen many wordy s mo, 

A dieu ! farwel ! for I wyl go. 17108 

And be war, in thy passage, 
That thow do wel thy pylgryinage, 
And in thy way be iust and stable, 
Lych a pylgrym good and liable.' 17112 

The Pylgrym: 1 [ist., .c.] 



Thinking on my nnstablcncss, I come to a wood, &scca Hag. 459 



17116 



17120 



iSt.] 



17124 



17128 



17132 



And as I stood allone, al sool, [stowe, leaf 302, hack] 

Gan cowpleyne, and make dool, 

Havyng no thyng vp-on to reste, 

Saue (as me sempte for the beste) 

I lenede mo on my bordouw ; 

ffor thogh that Trybulacknm 

Wer departyd in certeyn, 

She sayde she wolde kome ageyn. 

But I (wherso I wooke or slepte,) 
W/t/t my refuge, ay I me kepte, 1 [' 
To have, by hyrc, protecctoun 
Ageyn ech trybulaci'onn, 
But for that I, by gret owtmge, / 
Was off my port, wylde and savage, 
Pyuers off my condycwmn, 

And al day turnynge vp awl dou/?, 
fful off chavmg and doubylnesse, 
Havyng in me no stabylnesse. 

And whyl I wente thus musynge, 
WttA-Inne my sylff ymagynynge, 
I ffyl a-noon, in my passage,^ 
In-to a woode ful savage ; - 
Me thouhte the weyii pwyllous, 
And by to passe, Encombrous ; 
I knew nat what was best to done, 
ffor, in a woode, a man may soone 
Lese his weye, and gon amys, 
Or he be war ; and thus yt ys, 
As pylgrymes knowe wel echon, 
That on pylgrymage gon : 

Passage they fynde, narwh and streyth ; [st<we,ieafwj] 
Brygauntys lyn 2 ek in a-wayt, piycnst.] 17144 

And wylde bestys many on, 
Tassaylle pylgrymes, wher they gon : 
ffolk expert, the trouthe knowe. 

And in a valoy that stood lowe, 17148 

I sawh on stonden in my way, 
Old and owgly, off array 
Dysguysed wonder qucy/itely, 
Oil' port and chere ryht vugoodly, 17152 



The Piliirim. 



I rest, on my 
staff, 



tli ink of my 
changeable- 

llt'BH, 



I coinu tu a 
wood, 
wilil and 
dangerous. 



[C.&St.] 17136 [leaf 248] 



17140 



I see an old 

)iaK Hlaii'liiis 
in a valley. 



400 I see an ugly animal, Avarice, Iroken-backt & six-handed. 



The Pitorim. 



Never read 
I of any 
beast so 
marvellous, 



in Daniel, . 
or K/.ekiel, 
or the 
Apocalypse. 



Her back is 
broken. 



[leaf 213, bk.] 

Koiuul her 
neck id a big 
bag. 



Her tongue 
bungs out. 



She has 6 
hands : 



2, tin' v ilins 
of a grifl'm. 



In the :,ni a 
file. 



Semyng to me (yt ys no faylle) 

That she wolde me assay lie ; 

Yt sempte so, as by hyr clier ; 

And al my lyff, fer or 1 ner, [ noi -.st.j 17156 

Radde I neuer, in book nor geste, 

Off so merveyllous a beste ; 

Nat in the Book off Danyel, 

Nouther in Ezechyel, 17160 

Nor in Thapocalyps off lohan, 

S \vych a beste fond I noon. 

I was abaysshed a-noon ryht, 

Whan fyrst off hyre I hadde a syht ; 17164 

In hyre I fond so many a lak : 
ffyrst, she hadde a brook e bak, 
Corbyd and haltyng, bo the' two ; 

Off rowh frese, she hadde also 17168 

A garnement shape lyk a sak, 
Wych she werede vp-on 2 liyr bak : t 3 weryde on st.] 
Gret nouwibre ther-on I tolde, 
Off cloutys and off pachchys oldc. 17172 

Aboute hyr necke, I sawli ok wel, [stowe, leaf sos, back j 
That ther heng a gret sachel ; [c. & st.] 

She shop hyr no-thyng for the flyht ; 
ffor, that poket (to my syht,) 17176 

She felde yt ful (in especyal) 
Off Coper, yren, and off metal. 

And as yt sempte to me also, 

Hyr owne tonge halp wel ther-to, 17180 

Wych heng out at hyr mouth ful 3 long. [*futo>. st.j 

And aboute hyr nccke strong, 
Thys lady, with hyr corbyd bak, 
Was y-moselyd wit/t that sak, 17184 

Sowyd sore, that nyht nor day 
Yt myghte nat wel falle A- way. 

In nou??ibre she liadde (I gan beholdc 4 ) r 4 as i hoi.ie st.] 
Syxii handys, for I hem tolde ; 17188 

And tweyne (to myw Inspection??) 
Wer the pawmys off A gryffouw. 

And I beheld the same whyle, 
In On hand she held a ffyle, p hadae st.] 17192 



Six-handed Avarice bids me do homage to her Idol. 461 



fforgyd off f ul myghty stcl ; 

And (as f'er as I koude fel,) 

The ffyle was ymad ami ment 

To ffyle brydles, off entent. 17196 

Touchynge hyr other gouernaimce, 1 
She held also a gret ballaimce, 
Only off purpos (yiff she komie,) 

To peyse the sodyak 2 and the sonne, pzwiiakst.] 17200 
And caste hew in the wynd in veyn, 
And neuere to callyn hew ageyn : 

A large dyssh, ek I beheld, 
In hyr hand how that she held. 17204 

And in hyr ffyffthe hand a krokct 
And on hyr hed a gret mawmet. 

Hyr syxthe hand she gan to launch c 
Lowe douw vn-to hyr haunche, 17208 

Wych cause was (vn-to my syht) [stowe, leaf 304] 
She haltede, and wente nat vp-ryht, 
Lyk as a crepyl, \viih potente ; 
Evene me thouhte so she wente. 17212 

[9 linen blank in MS, for an Illumination.] 
And, by maner off bataylle, 
Thys vekke gan me to assaylle, 
Off nialys and inyquyte, 
And felly sayde thus to me : 17216 

The old Avarice : 3 p st., om. c.j 

1 1 swer to the, by my mawmet 
"Wiych vp-on my?* hed ys set, 
In whom ys holy my plesau7ice, 

My trust pleynly, and my creaimce, 17220 

I have abyde vp-on thys way 
Tawayte on the ful many a day. 

' Ley dou?i thy skryppo and thy bordoim, '- 
And do homage to my Mahown ! 17224 

ilbr yt ys he (thow shalt wel knowe) 
Ey whom that I, off hih and lowe 
Allowyd am, and off gret prys. 

1 Hero the IHth centuiy hand in the Stowe MS. 952 stops, 
and old John Stowc's handwriting begins, and goes ou to the 
end. 



The Piliii-'i. 



In the 4th 



(to weigh 
tlie 7.odi;ic 

and sun) 



and a big 
dish. 



In the Mil a 
crocket. 



The f.th held 
her hannch, 



[leaf 244] 

and made her 
limp like a 
cripple. 



[Cap. iii, 

prose.] 

[dip. ii. iR 

omitted.] 



Old Avarice 



says she lias 
long lain in 
wait tor me, 



and requires 
me lo do 

lllMllUL-e tO 

her Idol. 



462 I ask Avarice to describe herself & Idol. The Vale of Sorrow. 



Am rice. 

Without 
Avarice no 
man is sure of 
prosperity. 



I must sub- 
mit to her 
idol, or die. 



[leaf 241, bk.] 
[Cap. iv.] 

I ask her 
authority, 
race, and 
nation ; 



and what her 
Idol is. 
shaped like a 
marmoset. 



Why should 
1 do homage 
to a dumb 
and blind 
thing ? 

Avarire 

[Cap. v, 
prose.] 



bills me fol- 
low her, 



and see the 
Vale of Sor- 
row and the 
Interjection 

ol Lamenta- 
tion. 



Yholde prudent, and ryht wys. 17228 

ffor no man hath, wi't/i-oute me, 

Worshepe nor no dygnyte ; 

In hifi estat ys no whyht Set, 

But thorgh favour off my mawmet, 17232 

To whom thow nivst submytte the, 

Or thow shalt deye ; so mot I the ! ' 

Pilgrim : l [ l st. ( om. c.] 

" ffyrst, thow mvst declare me [st. &c.] 

Thy power and thy?i Auctoryte, , ,, 17236 

Thow olde, ryvelyd off vysage, 

Thy kynrede, and thy lynage, 

Thy contre and thy naci'ouw, 

And also off what region/? 17240 

That thow art born, (I wyl ffyrst knowe,) 
With bak and chyne courbyd lowe ; . 
The nianer ek off thy mawmet, 

Shape lyk a marmoset : 17244 

Tel me hys condiciouw ; 
ffor me thynketh yt no resouw 
Off equyte, nor by no ryht, 

Syth he ys dovvmb, and blynd off syht, , 17248 

I that am born off good lynage, 
Sholde vn-to hyw do now homage." 

Avarice : 2 c 2 st., om. c.] 

' Syth thow wylt fyrst yse, 

And what my name sholde be, 17252 

I wyl, as now, no thyng spare ; 
But the trouthe to the declare, 
That thow shalt (wt't/j-oute offence) 
Yive to me the mor credence. 17256 

' Yiff thow lyst the trouthe se, 
Kom on a-noon, and folwe me, 
And thow shalt (yiff thow kanst espye) 
Here me ful lowde crye ; 17260 

ffor I shaH 3 sen. duryng my lyff, ?'?*'' if f :! , 04> ^ '; k] 

JO J J [_ shall M., slum C.j 

The vale off sorwc?* 4 and off strytf, [*orowst.] 

The woful Interiecci'oim 

Most ful off Umentactoun.' 17264 

Pilgrim: 5 p st., .. c.] 



I see an Abbey like a Chessboard, plnnderd by all tJie Pieces. 463 



The Pilgrim. 

I follow her, 
[Cap. vi, 
prose.] 

and sec an 
abbey, 



[leaf2Ji] 

beside a 
chess-board, 



17276 



And trewely 1 (I took good kep,) [ trewiy c., truly st.] 

She wente vp to a fosse kaue dep ; 

And ther she bad me loke dou ; 

Wher I hadde inspecciouw 17268 

Off an abbey, wych euerydel 

(As I beheld the maner wel) 

Was fouxdyd besydeii a cheker, [c. & st.] 

Squar as ys a Tabler. 17272 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination] 
And I beheld 2 also witft-al, V h>kyd st.] 

Ther wer esches, bothe gret and smal, 
tful wel ywrouht in alF thynges. 

Ther sawh I rookys ami ek kynges, 
And knyhtys (ek in verray soth) 
Drawen, as a ffers y-doth 
In travers wyse, by bataylle, 
Eue>ych other gan assaylle 
Wyth sharpe swerdys, thus tlmuhtc me, 
A dysguyse thyng to se ; 
ffor at the ches, in al my lyff, 
Sawh I neuere swych a stryff, 
Nor so fers A co?ttenau?ice ; 
tt'or everyche gan hy?/i sylff avaiiHce, 
Whaw ther bataylle was ado, 

To make hem redy for to go 17288 

To that abbay ther besyde, 
And, be surquedye and pryde, 
Ther to forreye, what they may, 

Eobbe and spoylle, and ber a- way, 17292 plunder it, 

And revii hem off ther rychesse, 
And brouhte/i hem in swych dystresse, 
That no thyng leffte to ther refut, 
But made al bare anil destytut. 17296 

Whan I hadde al tliys yseyn, 
How al was makyd wast and pleyn, [c. & st.] 

Quod I, "what thyng meneth thys, 

That thys cherche destroyed ys ? 17300 

Thys ys (to myrc oppynyouit) 
The woful Interiecci'ou/i!, 
Wher-off pleynly (me semeth so) 



with chess 
men on it, 



where a battle 
takes place, 



17280 the pieces 



17284 



And when the 
battle is over, 



all the men go 
to the abbey. 



and leave it 

liart'. 

[leaf 2 15, bk. J 



[Cap. vii, 

prose.] 

I ask what 

this ineaiiH. 



464 



Avarice declares that she is the Church's ruin. 



The Pil/jrim 



[Cap. viii, 
prose.] 



says this 
mischief is 
wrought by 
her, 



as Jeremiah 
complained 
(iv, vii, viii, 
etc.) 



that the 
Queen of 
Nations was 
brought into 
subjection. 



Avarice causd 
this ruin; 



17304 



and all of 
her school do 
as she does. 



[leaf 246] 

[Cap. ix, 
prose.] 



The Pilgrim. 

[Cap. x, 
prose.] 
I cannot 
believe she 

li:i> such 

jKiwer. 



Euerych wyse man sholde ha wo, 
And cowpleyne (I the ensure) 
Thys vnhappy aventure." 

Avarice : x [' st., om. c.] 

' Wher thovv be wel or evele apayd, 
Lo her ys al that I ha sayd. 
Thys mescheff (yiff thow kanst yt se) 
Ys ydon and wrouht by me, 
And acowplysshed vp in dede, 
Al-thogh that yt be no nede ; 
Wher-off, in hys prophesye, 
The nobyle prophete leremye 
(As he that lyst no thyng to feyne) 
Wepte sore, and gan compleyne : 
' Alias ! ' quod he, ' how the pryncesse, 
Off folkys alle cheff maystresse, 
Ys trybutarye, and bor douw, 
And brouhte in-to subieccwim ! ' 

' The prophete wyste aforn ryht wel, 
That I sholde causen euerydel 
Thys grete desolacion) 
And thys habomynacion). 
I and myne (yiff yt be souht) 
Have thys grete mescheff wrouht. 

' Thys the custom (in substauwce), 
Holy the mauer and vsauwce, 
Off al that to my scole go, 
By my doctryne to do so, 
And so to werke, by my techyng ; 
fibr ther ys nouther rook nor kyng, 
But ech off hem (for ther part) 
Sore studyen in that art, 
Eue/ych off hem to fynde a waye, 
How they may to me obeye. 
Thow mayst me leve in sykernesse ; 
Ther owne werkys ber wytnesse.' 

Pilgrim : 2 [ s st., om. c.] 

" I may nat levyn (fer nor ner) 

Thow sh oldest han so gret power, 17340 

Wych tliat art so poryly 



17308 



[Stowe, leaf 805] 17312 



17316 



17320 



17324 



17328 



17332 



17336 



Avarice's story of the king whose Paramour was Liberality. 465 



" Arrayed, and so dysguesyly ; 

Halt and lame, (as semeth me) 

Broke-bakkyd, and foul to se. 17344 

And \\iili al thys (I the ensure), 

A verray monstre in nature, 

(Who lyst looke, he shal yt fynde,) 

And engendryd a-gey/i kynde. 17348 

How sholdystow, with al thys thywges, 

Ouer erlys, dukys, 1 kynges, p dukes earls St.] 

Have power or domynacton 

To brynge hem in subiecci'on, 17352 

Sythen they, by gret noblesse, 

Haven off kynde swych fayrnesse, 

And brouht forth by engendrure, 

Kyndely, as by nature ? " 17356 

Avarice : 2 P St., om. c.] 

' Yiff thow wylt a whyle dwelle, '-' 
A good exaumple I shal the telle, 
Reporte me wel in euery thyng : 

' Ther was onys a myghty kyng, 17360 

Wych that hadde, to hys plesaunce, 
A lady in hys governauwce, 
Whom that he louede paramour, 
And took to hyre al hys tresour, [stowe, leaf 305, back] 17364 
Good 3 and lowelles euery del, [ 3 goods St.] 

Be-cause that he louede hyr so wel. 
And shortly, thus vfiih hym stood, 
She gouernede al hys good, 17368 

Whos name was Lyberalyte : 
She was benygne, large and fre, 
Wych, in euery regiouw, 

Hadde gret fame and gret Renoure. 17372 

And she dyde euere hyr labour, 
So to dyspendyn hys tresour, 
That hys worshepe on euery syde 
Gan encrece and sprede wyde ; 17376 

Gat \\yin honour and gret ffanie, 
And wit/4 al thys, a ryht good name. 

' The story doth also specefye, 
She made hys goodys multeplye, 17380 

PILGRIMAGE. H H 



The Pilgrim. 



She (Avarice) 
is so foul, 



a regular 
monster. 



How can she 
rule and sub- 
due earls and 
kings ? 



[Cap. xi, 

prose.] 

explains. 



She tells me 
the story of a 



who had a 
paramour 



[leaf 246, bk.] 



named 

' Liberality.' 



By spending 
his treasure 



slie gaind 
him great 
honour and a 
good name. 



466 JTow Avarice imprisond Liberality, & shamed the King. 

Avarice. And causede also, how that he 
Was wel belovyd in hys centre ; 
ffor love excellyth in worthynesse 
Euery tresour and rychesse. 17384 

[Cap. xii, But whaw that I thys dyde 1 espye, c 1 dydthis St.] 

prose.] 

seeing this, I hadde ther-off ful gret envye, 

And caste to fynde occasions 

ffor to tourne al vp-so-douw. 17388 

the old hag I gan taproche the court ful ner, 

Avarice went L 

to the court, A-queyntede me with the porter 

And with thoffycerys eue/ychon ; 

And in-to chau??ibre I kam a-noon, 17392 

Wher as the kyng a bedde lay. 
stole away Whyl he sleptc. I stal away 

the king's J J 

(Throgh" my sleyhte in prevyte,) 



while he Hys paramour Lyberalyte ; 17396 

And or the kyng yt koude espye, 

Benchauwteraent And sorcerye 

I gan at hyre so enchace, 2 [* tenchase St.] 

That she was voyded fro that place ; 17400 

[leaf 247] And, by fals collus'iouw, 
and shut her I shet hyre in a strong prysowj. 

up in prison. J 

Wher I ha cast, (shortly to telle,) 
Whyl that I lyve, she shal ther dwelle; 17404 

And in hyr stede (off entente,) 
Then Avarice To bedde vn-to the kyng I wente, 

took her , . , 

place by ^the Whyl that he Slepte Vnwarly.* 5 P slept vnwarely St.] 

b y enchant- < And whan he wook al sodeynly. 17408 

ment, 

In stede off Lyberalyte, 
In hys Armys he took nie ; 
At wych tyme, by sorcerye, 

I blente so the kynges Eye, 17412 

became his That I be-kam hys prwamour, 

paramour, . . 

And hadde in guarde al hys tresour. 
Wherso that he wook or slep, 

Off hys worshepe I took no kep ; [stowe,ieafsoo] 17416 
and tumd Hys honour, gold, hys goode fame, 

his honour ' , 

to shame. Al I tournede y t to shame ; 

ffor he ne myghte (who-so me knewe) 

ffynde noon offycere mor vntrewe. 17420 



Avai'ice was begotten in Hell by Satan. 



467 



' I am the same (tliys the cas,) 
Off whom that whylom wrot Esdras, 
Apemenen, wych, hyr sylff al sool, 
Made the kyng so gret a fool : 
Whan she was hevy, he was sad ; 
Whaw she lowh, than he was glad ; 
She took hys crowne, and leyd yt douw, 
And' he, by lowh subiecciouw, 
Al hyr histys dyde oheye, 
ffor he durste hyr nat \vith-seye : 
Thus yt stood, and thus yt was, 
As thow shalt fyndew in Esdras. 

' By wych exauwple, thow mayst se 
That y t fareth thus by me j 
ffor I kan, by my werkynges, 
Deceyue prynces and ek kywges ; 
And al the meyne off the cheker, 
I kan make off herte enter, 
To robben abbeys euerychon, 
And to dyspoylle hem, on by on, 
Wtt/j-outen any compassi'ouw. 

'And touchyng ek my nactoun, 
And my name (yiff I shal telle,) 
I was engendryd fyrst in helle : 
And ther the prynce Sathanas 
(Yiff thow wylt wyte,) my fader was ; 
And in that Valey Infernal 
I was begete : lo her ys al. 

' And my name ek to devyse, 
I am callyd Covetyse 
(Off verray ryht, and nat off wrong,) 
And Avaryce, somwhyle Among ; , 
But Coveytyse, men calle me 
Off verray ryht and equyte, 
Whan I am mevyd in 1 my blood [ om. c., St.] 

To coueyte other mewnys good. 
And Avaryce mew me calle, 
Whan that I fro folkys alle 
Kepe al that euere I gete kan, 
And wyl departe wz't/i no man, 



Avarice 

is she of 
whom Esdras 
wrote (lEidr. 
iv. 2931), 

17424 'Apame, the 
King's con- 
cubine ' (Jo- 
teph. Antiq. 
lib. 11, coj). 4, 
Rabsaces 
Themasius), 
who made a 
fool of the 
King, and 
took off his 
crown. 



17432 



[leaf 247, bk.] 
Avarice can 
deceive kings, 



and make em 
rob abbeys. 



17440 



[Cap. xiii, 
prose.] 

17444 She was be- 
gotten in hell, 



of Satan; 



17448 



her name is 
' Covetous- 
ness* 

17452 and 'Ava- 
rice': 



17456 

Covetousnesg 
when she 
covets other*' 
goods ; 
Avarice when 
she keeps all 
17460 "begets. 



468 



Avarice's hands are like a Griffin's paws. 



Avarice 



is ill-clad on 
purpose, 



so as not to 
waste money 
on clothes. 



[leaf 248] 



She's like a 
dog on a 
haystack. 



[Cap. xiv, 
prose.] 



Her hands 
are made to 
tuke, 
not to give. 



She shuts np 
all her gold. 



Her desire is 
insatiable. 



' Wher they be wel or evele apayed. 

' And that I am thus evele arrayed, 
I do yt only off entent 

That my gold ne be nat spent, 17464 

On clothys wastyd, nor my good. 
And levere me were, bothe gowne and hood 
Wer with wermys day be day 

Conswmyd, and yffret a- way, [stowe, leaf aoe, back] 17468 
Thaw pore folk (so god me spede,) 
Sholde were hem in ther nede ; 
ffor I caste me nat at al, 

Neuere for to be lyberal 17472 

Whyl I may walken on the ground ; 
ffor I resemble vn-to that hound 
Wych lyggeth in a stak off hay, 
Groynynge al the longe day, 17476 

Wyl suffre no beste ther-to to gon, 
And yet hym sylff wyl ete noon. 

' Myn handys off merveyllous fasouz, 
Lyk the pawmys off a gryffourc, 17480 

Be mad (wher-so I slepe or wake,) 
Nat to yive, but for to take. 
To axe me good, wer gret f oly ; 

ffor thys my purpos, (fynaly, 17484 

And as me semeth for the beste) 
To shette my gold vp in my cheste : 
Thys al myw hool entencwm, 

Offys and occupaciion. 17488 

Al good, wher yt be grene or rype, 
I kan wel glenyw, I kan wel grype, 
Bothe to-forn and at the bak : 

What I may gete, goth in-to sak, 17492 

Off entent (be wel certeyn) 
Neuere to taken yt out ageyn. 

' My wyl ys euere vnstauwchable, 
And my desyr in-sacyable ; 17496 

My thouht nor myw affecc'iouw 
Ha neuere ful repleciouw. 
I am the swolwh (who lyst to se) 
Wych that in the salte see, 17500 



Avarice is tied to her Riches like an Ape to a block. 469 



[Stowe, leaf 307} 17520 



' Al that euere goth forth by, 

He devoureth yt Outterly, 

And neuere ne sent no thyng ageyn. 

Tawayte ther affter wer but veyn, 17504 

ffor shortly, he devoureth al, 

Coper, yren, and metal ; 

Al that peyseth or yiveth soun, 

To the botme yt goth 1 douw, [' botome it goythe St.] 17508 

To gretter wrak than on a rok. 

' And as an Ape vn-to a blok 
Or to a clog, tyed -with a cheyne, 
Ryht so I do my bysy peyne ; 17512 

I teye my sylff (by gret dystresse) 
And bynde me to my rychesse ; _J 
I bynde yt nat ; yt byndeth me, 
That I am bonde, and nothyng fre-, 
ffor to have theroff plesaurace. 
ffor lak only off suffysaunce, 
I am so teyd (I may nat skape,) 
With a clog, ryht as an Ape, 
"VVych in soth so letteth me, 
That I ha no lyberte 
To gon at large hih" nor lowe. 

' And yiff thow lyst also to kowe 
What my vj 2 handys be, [ 2 syxe 473/17666] 

I shal declare a-noon to the, 
And make a demofistracion : 
I Gryppe and streyne lyk a Gryffouw, 
And faste I holcle ther-w/t/t-ai 
Coper, yren, and ech metal ; 
Streyhtly kepe yt in myra hond, 
Bothe in water and on lond. 
And thow aforn dyst neuere so 
So cursyd handys as they be ; 
Enarmyd abouten Envyroim 
With the pawmys off a Gryffouw. 17536 

' The fyrste hand (for to dyffyne) 
By ryht ycallyd ys ' Ravyne,' r 
That sheweth Gentyl outward alway, 
Tyl that he 3 may cachche hys pray ; [ u st.] 17510 



Avarice 

is like the 
Whirlpool 
that sinks 
everything in 



[leaf 248, bk.] 



As an Ape is 
tied to a clog, 



so is she tied 
to her riches, 



and has no 
liberty. 



17524 [Cap. xv, 
prose.j 



17528 Her six hands 
lay hold of 
everything. 



17532 



Her first 
hand is ' Ra- 
vine.' 



470 Avarice's 1st hand, Ravine, and 2nd hand, Cutpur&e. 



Avarice. 



[leaf 219] 



Her 1st hand, 
Ravine, is 
like a kite. 

She steals 
chickens, 



horses, carts, 



and makes 
poor men sell 
their cows 
and oxen. 



[Cap. xvi, 

prose.] 

She sucks em 
as a spider 
does a fly. 



Her second 
hand 
[Cap. xvii, 

prose.] 
is set behind 
her, to rob 
secretly. 



[leaf 219, bk.] 
Its name is 
Cutpurse." 



' Dyspoylleth 1 pylgrymes est and west, [> dispoyiyn St.] 

Bothe in woode and in Sorest, 

Wit/i-outen any excepcion : 

Thys ys my condyci'on, 17544: 

To robbe and reue wz't/t al my myght. 

' I cleyme al thyng myn off ryht ; 
Myn hand ys lyk vnto 2 a kyte : p iyk to c., lyke to st.] 
I take chykenys that be lyte ; 17548 

Wher I ham fynde, fer or ner, 
I ber hem hoom to my dyner. 
Gret robbery, on folk I make ; 

Hors and carte, bothe I take, 17552 

With porvyaiwce and wyth vytaylle. 
And off malys I wyl nat fay lie : 
Yiff a pore man haue a koAvh", 

Oxe or mare that draweth hys plowh", 17556 

I make hem selle hem by duresse, 
ffor to stauwche my gredynesse, 
Wher any swych I kan espye. 

And as an yreyne sowketh the flye, 17560 

And hyr en troy lies 3 draweth oute, p entrails St.] 
Evene lyk I renne aboute, 
And cesse nat, whan I ha be-gonne, 
Tyl that I my pray ha wonne. 175G4 

' The tother hand, to do gret wrak, 
Ys set behynden at the bak, 
That no man ne sholde espye 

The maner off my roberye. 17568 

So secretly I kan yt vse, 
Outward my falsnesse to excuse. 
Thys hand ful hill vp-on A tre 

Maketh many on onhangyd be; [stowe, leaf 307, back] 17572 
And \viih hys ffeet (wych ys nat fayr,) 
ffor to waggen in the hayr 4 [*ayre St.] 

fful hih a-loffte, yt ys no dred. 

' Thys hand, fro many manhys lied, 17576 

Causeth the Erys be kut away ; 
And thys hand, fro day to day, 
Ys the hand off gret dyffame, 
Callyd Cuttcpurs by name, 17580 



Avarice's 2nd hand, Cutpwrse, robs, burgles, dips Florins. 471 



breaks into 
houses by 
night,] 



' Wych hath a knyff ful 1 sharp of egge, 1 [ 1 stowe] Avarice. 

And yet he dar no glovys begge ; 2 P stowe] hand 2n cut- 

ffor, to vse hys robbery pur * e> 

Off the glovere openly, 17584 

He kepeth hym cloos, al out off syht, 

And vseth for to walke a 3 nyht ponstj 

In narwe lanys, vp and douw. 

Whara that the mone ys go dou?z, 17588 

Thaw he maketh hys ordynauwce 

(By gret mescheff and gret meschauwce) 

ffor to vse ther brybery, 

And for to havnte ther robbery : 17592 robs folk, 

On no thyng ellys they sette her thouht, 

ffor off hyr owne they ha ryht nouht. 

1 Thys hand, by force, ageyn al ryht, 
Breketh vp howsys toward nyht, 175D6 

Bothe in bowrys and in hallys, 
And maketh hoolys thorgh the wallys. 

' Thys hand kan dygge and make niynys ; 
Thys hand kan Royne also florynes ; 17600 dips florins, 

Thys hand ful selde hath any reste ; 
Thys hand kan brake Gofer and cheste ; 
Thys hand, (in cold and ek in hete,) 
Kan falsly selys counterfete, 17604 

And the prent ther-off y-graue ; 
And thys hand wyl also haue 
(By som Engyn, or sleyhte weye) 
Vn-to euery look 4 a koye. piockest.] 17608 

' Thys hand kan forge (I vmlertake) 
ffals monye, and the prent make. 
Thys hand in frenshe 5 (I dar expresso) p freuche st.] 
Ys callyd ' Poitevyneresse,' 17G12 

ffor yt forgeth (thys the ffyn) 
A monye callyd Poytevyn, 6 
"Wych ys in valu (by a-comttyng) 
fful skarsly worth halff a fferthyng. 17616 

' Thys hand ek falsly beyth and sylleth ; 

* Poitevine, monnaie de Poitou. ' Tine poitf.rine, e'est le quart 
d'un parisi (1273 Carl de Ponthieu, Richel., 1. 10112, 1, 159 r.).' 
Godefroi. Sol Parisicn . . as much as the Tornois & a quarter. 
Sol Tournois, The tenth part of 0110 shilling. Cotgrave, Kill. 



breaks open 
coffers and 
chests, 

counterfeits 
seals, 



and has a key 
to every lock. 



It is called 
in French 
* poitevy- 
noresse,' 



[leaf 250] 

far it forges 
the 'poyte- 
vyn," worth 
half a far- 
thing. 



472 Avarices 2nd hand, Cutpurse, and 3rd Jiand, Usury. 



Avarice. 

Her 2nd 
hand, Cut- 
purse, 



robs barns 
and grana- 
ries, 



makes idle 
officers, 



and strips 
poor folk 
of all they 
possess. 



[Cap. xix, 
prose; cap. 
xviii omit- 
ted.] 

The third 

hand 



[leaf 250, bk.] 



forges money, 
to lessen 
others' and 
increase its 
own.' 



c And in reknynge, thys hand mystelleth. 

Thys hand also (yt ys no drede) 

Kan spoylle folk whan they be dede. 17620 

Thys hand kan al the nyht wachche, 

And ful streythly glene and kachche, [Stowe.ieafsos] 

And rendyn vp (yt ys no nay,) 

Al that euere lyth in hys way. 17624 

' Thys hand, thogh men hadde sworn, 
Kan robbe and bern away the corn 
Out off bernys and garnerys ; 17627 

Thys hand kan f erette in ko?myngherys l [ l conyngers st.] 
Be nyhte tyme, whan men slepe ; 
Thys hand, by holys kan in crepe, 
And bern a-way what he may fynde, 
And lyst to leue nothyng behynde; 17632 

Thys hand maketh ydel offycerys 
And many false labourerys. 
Thys hand (ageyns al resouw) 
Doth many gret extors'iouw 17636 

111 eue?y lond and 2 ech COntre, [ 2 in struck out, a over C, and St.] 

Worthy enhangyd for to be, 

Yiff the falsnesse wer yknowe 

That he doth, bothe hyh and lowe ; 17640 

ffor thys hand wyl neuere spare 

Pore folk, to make hew bare 

And nakyd (off entenci'on) 

ffrom al ther pocess'iouw. 17644 

' My thrydde hand, mad by gret wyle 
With the wych I ber the ffyle, 
I shal, as kometh to remewbravwce, 
Declare to the (in substauwce) 17648 

What thyng yt doth specefye. [St. & c.] 

And the trouthe doth sygnefye, 

Thys hand ys wrouht ageyn nature, 

Wych euere doth hys besy cure 17652 

Alway (off entent vntrewe) 
To forge money newe and newe, 
Other folkys gold dystresse, 

And hys owne to encresse, 17656 

By som fals collus'ioun. 



Avarice's 3rd hand, Usury. Her Balance. 



473 



Avarice. 



Her third 
hand finds 



P worth a fourth more : see 
note, p. 471.] 



out how 



to make five 
into six ; 



to keep grain 
until bread 
U dear ; 



' And euere in hys entencwuw 

He ffynt out weyes sotylly 

ffor tencresse hym-sylff ther-by ; 17660 

By maner off euchauwtement 

He ffyndeth out (in hys entent) 

To tourne, by hys sotylte, 17663 

A Tourneys to A parysee 1 ; 

By hys engyn, wyl vndertake, 

Off fyve, syxe for to make. 

' Thys hand kan also (in certeyn) 
In gernerys shette vp hys greyn, 17668 

Abydynge (with an hevy chere) 
Tyl ther kome A dere yere, 
At avau?itage yt to selle, 
And the pans 2 ful streyhtly telle, ['pens St.] 17672 

Vsynge ther-in ful many a whyle. 

'And thys hand that halt the ffyle, [stowe, leaf m, back] 

"VVasteth bothe gret and smal, 

Consumeth and devoureth al, r 17676 

Off pore folkys, the substauwce : 

I pray god yive hym evele chauTzce j 

ffor nothyng may thys fyle endure. 

' Thys hand ycallyd ys ' Vsure,' 17680 

Vsyd in ful many place, 

"YVych ys to god a gret trespace, 

Bothe at marketys and at ffayres. 

And also pro vostys and ek may res 17684 and folk 

In touwes, 3 borwys and cytes 

ff oik off hyfr and lowh degres 

Echon they may nat hem excuse 4 

But that so?/ime off hem yt vse.' 
Pilgrim : 5 

" Declare to me (in substauwce,) 

Wher-off serueth thy balaunche. 

I trowe thow wylt ther-in ryht sone 

Peyse ther-in bothe sonne and mone, 

The sterrys ek, or thow ha do, 

And the zodyak / also." 

Avarice : 6 ['' st., o>*. c.j 

' Lerne, and vnderstond me wcl, 



P touns C., St.] 

[St. & C.] 
[* excuse St., C. burnt.} 

17688 

P St., om. C.] 



to consume 
the substance 
of the poor. 



Its name is } 
' Usury ' ; 



[leaf 251] 

high and low 
practise it. 



The Pilgrim. 

[Cap. xx, 
prose.] 

I ask Avarice 
what her Ba- 
lance is for. 



17692 



Avarice. 



474 Avarice's 4*th hand. How she sells Time ly Usury. 



Avarice 'And I shal telle the euerydel : 17696 

teiu me the Grace dieu, ful yore agon, 

meaning of ' 

her Balance. Among the planetys euerychon, 
(As clerkys wel reherse ko7me,) 
God set the In the zodyak sette a sonne, 17700 

sun in the 

zodiac, to ff or to shede hys bemys brvht, 

give light to 

all the world. And to mynystre hys cler lyht 

Indyfferently (I the ensure) 

Vn-to euery creature, 17704 

And to be comouri, ther-wtA-al, 

To al the world in general ; 

To make the Erthe vfith frut habouwde, 

That ther wer no dyffaute fowzde. 17708 

' Wher-off (yiff I shal nat lye) 
But Avarice I hadde in herte ful gret envye ; 

wiinted it all J 

for herself, ff orj y t W ente nat as I wolde ; 

ffor, my wyl were, that yt sholde 17712 

Vn-to my lust appropryd be, 

By exauwple as thow shalt se. 
' ffyrst, ageyn[e]s al resouw, 

I wolde, by vsurpacwun, 17716 

ffro poynt to poynt in ech degre, 
[leaf 25i, bk.] The zodyak sholde obeye me, 1 [> me St., c. burnt] 

Sonne and mone (ageyns alle skyll), ' [St. & c.] 

Wynd and wether were at my wyll ; [c. & St.] 17720 
ail put under Al put in my governauwce. 

her, so that r 

she might Yt to weye in my ballauwce. 

weigh the 

sun and ' Al thys thyng (as thow shalt SG 2 ) [ 2 sc St., C. burnt] 

moon, &c. in J J o \ 

her Balance. J vsurp e yt vp-On H16 : 17724 

The yer, I weye yt in ballauwce, [stowe.ieafsoo] 
And selle [yt] ek at my plesauwce ; 
And he does j se ii e the wyke, I selle the day, 

sell the day 

and week, (To wych no man dar seye 3 nay) [ 3 sey c., say st.] 17728 
by charging So??ityme by twelue and by thryttene, 

heavy in- , 

terest J5y twenty ek, and by nyntene; 

And in a yer (who kan yt telle) 

The pound for xx ty pans 4 I selle ; [*pensst.] 17732 

The moneth also, by reknyng, 
I selle for ix. or .x. shyllyng ; [c. & st.] 

The wyke also for vj. or fyve, 



Avarice's 4th hand. Of usurious Loans and Sales. 475 



' At a-couwte that we nat stryve 17736 

Affter the sorame, whaw al ys do, 

That my loone kometh to ; 

And lyk as euery man doth take, 

Ther-on my reknyng I do make.' 17740 

Pilgrim: 1 p st., om. c.] 

Than, quod I anon, " lat se 
Touchyng that I shal axen the ; 
I wolde ther-on have thy devys : 
Her ys a woode off lytel prys, 17744 

Wych a woodeman selleth me ; 
And in the sale, thus seyth he, 
' ffor .xxx. ty shyllyng I wyl yt selle, 
So that a-noon (as I shal telle) 17748 

That thow to me, (lych myn entent,) 
Make to me thys paycment 
"VWt/t-outew any mor delay. 

But y iff I graunte a lenger day, 17752 

As thus, tabyde a yerys space, 

Tharane I wyl (withoute grace 2 ) I 1 without grace St., c. burnt] 
Have fourty shyllyng (by iuste reknyng) [c. & St.] 
By -cause off myn abydyng : ' ,, 17756 

Vp-on thys caas I wolde se 

Wher lyk (as yt semeth the) 
The sellere off the wych I telle, 

Outher peysseth or doth selle 17760 

The tyme, outlier the zodyak, 
Off the wyche to-forn we spak." 

Avarice : 3 P St., <>. c.j 

' Touchyng thys thyng, now herkne me, 
And I shal answeiren vn-to the : 17764 

Thys cas (yiff thow lyst to lore,) 
Ys vnderstonde in twey manere : 
Par cas som ma?, (as thow shalt se,) 
Off nede and off necessyte, 17768 

Hys woode, that were by good reknyng 
Worth off valu syxty shyllyng, 
ffor verray nede and indygence, 

Off bothe to make' recompense, 17772 

ffor fourty shyllyng cloth yt selle ; 



The Pilgrim. 

[Cap. i, 
prose.] 
I put a case 
to her : 



A woodman 
sells me a 
wood for 30*. 



to be paid at 
once. 



If I don't pay 
for a year, 



[leaf 252] 

he charges 
40. 



Does the 
seller sell the 
time or the 
zodiac ? 



Avarice 



says the case 
is to be un- 
derstood in 
two ways : 
if a man is 
forst by want 
to sell a wood 
worth G0. 



for 40., 



476 



Avarice's 4th Jiand. How she sells Time. 



Avarice. 

for ready 
money, 



he doesn't 
aell time. 



The cause pleynly for to telle, 
He muste haue redy payement. 



[Stowe, leaf 309, back] 



17776 



But of old, 
woodsellers 
sold by 
length and 
breadth, 



and said, 
' You shall 
have the 
wood for so 
much, 

[leaf 252, bk.] 

if you pay 
cash down. 



But if you 
don't, you'll 
pay a higher 
price for 
longer time, 



as the wood 
'11 grow.' 



If the seller 
warnd the 
buyer before- 
hand, 



he didn't sell 
time. 



But if the 
wood were 
cut down, 



and couldn't 
grow, 



and still the 
seller raisd 
iiis price, 



17780 



Thys marchaunt (to my lugement, 
Who-so off resovm looke wel) 
The tyme selleth neueradel ; 

' But that marchauftt (wtt/t-oute wher,) 
That abydeth al a yer, 
Off hym the cas stant other wyse, 
As I shal to the devyse : 

By Olde 1 tyme (lyst my tale,) C 1 owe., St.] 

Chapmen that made off woode 2 sale, p of wood mad st.] 
They made her sale (who taketh hede) 17785 

By A mesour off lengthe and brede ; 
And to the byggere they wolde seyn : 
' Yiff thow wylt my wodde beyn, , 17788 

At word, (so god me saue !) 
At swych a prys thow shalt yt haue, 
So that my payement be leyd dou?a 
Witft-outen mor dylaczon. 17792 

And yiff thow byde a yerys day 
Off my payment by dillay, s p delay st.] 

I shal the telle by short avys, 

I wyl yt sette at hiher prys ; 17796 

ffor yiff that I A yer abyde, 
My wode shal on euery syde 
Wexe and encresse (I the ensure), 
And multeplyen off nature.' 17800 

' And yiff the marchauwt, in bargeynyng, 
Telle hyra thus in hys sellyng, 
To-forn, or that the wode be bouht, 
The tyme in soth he selleth nouht, 17804 

Nouther weyeth y t in ballauwce ; 
But yiff the wode (par cas or chaurace) 
Wer yhewe, or feld a-douw 

T6-for ther convencion, 17808 

Wych affterward (wo kara espye) 
May nat encresse nor multeplye ; 
Yiff he sette the sale vp sore, 

As thus to sellyn yt for more, 17812 

By cause off bydyug off A yer, 



Avarice's 4th hand, False Semblance, & its Beggar's Dish. 477 



'Than I suppose (wj'tft-oute wer,) 

He peyseth (as I reherse shal,) 

Hys long abydyng tyme and al. 17816 

' But \\han the wode may multeplye, 
Wexe and encressen at the Eye, 
Than thencres and wexyng al 

Ys mesuryd in especyal, 17820 

And yweyed in ballawice, 
Who loketh euery cyrcu??zstauwce. 

' Now shal I make descrypci'on, 

And a cler declaracion 17824 

(Yiff thow kanst wel vnderstond) : 
Thys dyssh that I holde in myra hond, [Stowe.ieafaio] 
(In ffrenche callyd ' Coquynerye ' 
And in ynglyssh ' Trwandrye,') 17828 

Thys hand I vse in bryberye, IV 
In beggyng and in lasyngrye. 
At eue?-y dore I axe and craue, 

My sustenau/zce for to haue, 17832 

And offte sythe (yt ys no dred) 
I put vp many a lompe off bred 
In-to my sak, (so mot I the,) 

And kepe yt tyl yt mowlyd be, 17836 

That yt may nothyng avaylle. 

' And euery man I kan asaylle 
With myw Importable cry, 

I spare noon that goth forby ; 17840 

And thus I axe my purchace. 
And I \vyl payen in no place, 
What vytaylle euere that I spende ; 
And to nothyng I do 1 entende,;. [ l that i St.] 17844 

But for to axen and to crye ; 
And al labour I do defye ; 
I wyl nat travaylle in no wyse ; 

I kan my sylff so wel desguyse 17848 

With my mantel al-to-rent, 
That the peple ys verray blent f 
With my fals illusi'oun 
And feyned symulac'ioutt. 17852 

' I crye and coniure al the day 



then he 
weighd time. 



Avarice then 1 
tells what she 
does with her 
Dish Tru- 
anty. 

[Cap. xxii, 
prose.] 
[leaf 253] 



She begs with 
it for bread, 



tlio" she lets 
that get 
mouldy. 

She attacks 
every one. 



She'll never 
pay for food. 



Her torn 
clothes take 
every one in. 



478 Avarice's 4ith hand, False Semblance, & its Beggar's Dish. 



Avarice 



sits in crowd- 
ed places, 



crying for 
alms; 



feigning 

sickness 



[leaf 25S, bk.] 

and blind- 
ness; 
lying, 



and cursing 
people who 
give her 
nothing. 



[Cap. xxiii, 

prose.] 
With her 
hand of False 
Semblance 
she advances 
beggars of 
all kinds, 



who ask for 
bread, cheese, 

clothes. 



' On pylgrymes that passe by the way, 

As I wer fallyn in A rage ; 

And wer that folk ha most passage, 17856 

Ther I kan sytte in gret dystresse, 

And crye on hem for ther almesse 

With a pytous feyned face. 

And, in hem to fynde grace, 17860 

I feyne ful many a mallady, 

As I wer in A dropesy, 

Or sodeynly podagre falle ; 

And alway, affter good I calle; [C.ast.] 17864 

I feyne me blynd, I feyne me lame ; [St. & c.] 

And for to lye, I ha no shame ; 

I crye vfiih bak ycorbyd doun, 

And make many a pytous souw. 17868 

And thogh I fele no maner peyne, 

I kan ful wel a cause feyne, 

That I am falle in indygence, 

ffor to beggyn my dyspence. 17872 

' And yiff that folk ne yiff me nouht, 
Thaw wit7i a gruchchynge hevy 1 thouht [' hevy'ow.st.] 
I curse hem in-to helle pet. 

Myn herte on malys ys so set, 2 [ pit . . syt St.] 17876 
On ali I wolde avengyd be, 
That wyl no pyte han off me. [stowe, leaf sio, back] 

c Thys ys the hand off f aussemblauwce ; 
And vfith thys hand, I kan avaunce 17880 

Alle thys trwauwtys euerychon 
Wych that on my daurcce gon, 
That, by her offyce and her name, 
ffor to axe, haue no shame : 17884 

Brybours that gon vp and doun, 
Devoyde off occupactourc, 
And lyst hem sylff nothyng avaunce, 
To travaylle for ther sustenaunce, 17888 

As thow mayst sen ful many On 
That aboute the world so gon. 

' Sowme axe bred, sowme axe chese ; 
And for that they wer loth to lese, 17892 

Sowme axe clothys and cootys olde ; 



Avarice's 4>th hand, False Semblance, & its Beggar's Dish. 479 



' And some off hem arn ek ful bolde, 
Off dyvers housys to axe a rente, 
Wych on the byldyng neuere spente, 17896 

As menstrallys and Trege tours, 1 p Tdgetonrs St.] 
And other feyned sowdyours, 
That with patentys aboute gon ; 

And among hem euerychon, 17900 

\I holde thys false pardownerys. 2 ^^"^o^are^re^t ofc\ 
^1 will nat spekyn of no ffrerys, t 3 stowe MS. 952, leaf 310, bk.] 
whiche, in every region, 

ar bound by theyr professyon 17904 

vnto wilfull poverte. 
wherfore they haven lyberte 
to beggen, as them selff affyrm, 

and on this text they them confyrm : 17908 

Christ axyd, when he was her[e] man, 
water of the Samaritan 
I mene, the woman at the well 
in erthe, when he dyd her[e] dwell ; 17912 

wherfore, befull [it] is to frerys, 
sythe they be no processionerys, 
to get theyr lyvelode wher they may. 

' To ther beggyng I say nat nay, 17916 

so that they fayn[e] not in dede 
to axe nat, but for veray nede, 
thayr trewe sustentac'ion, 

without all symulatiion, 17920 

that wilfully men to them profrys ; 
nat to shit vp gold in coffers, 
nor to setten ther labowr 
to gathar and hepe gret tresure. 17924 

'as to myn opynyon, 
I hold it no perfection, 
thowghe that my dyshe & my sachell 
can techen them the craft [ful] well; 17928 

for bothc two (in sothfastnes) 
bo gret[e] tookens of falsnes ; [Stowe.ieaf 311] 

and who that evar dothe them vse, 
I ne can them nat excuse, 17932 

bo the of hyghe and low degre, 



Avarice. 

and rent, 
which never 
goes to build- 
ings. 

Her men are 
Minstrels, 
sham Sol- 
diers, 



Pardoners. 

[Stowe MS. 
952] 

She won't 
claim Friars, 



who say 
Christ's ask- 
ing water of 
the Samari- 
tan woman 
at the well 
justifies their 
begging. 



She doesn't 
condemn it if 
they ask it 
for their 
needs, 



and not to 
shut up their 
money in 
coffers. 



But she 
doesn't think 
their doing it 
perfection. 



480 Avarice's 5th hand with the Crook given ly Simon MaguS. 



[Stowe MS. 
952.] 



Her 5th hand 
with the 
Crook. 



The Crook 
was iven her 

by Simon 
Magus. 



Tl.e S of 
Simon is 
crookt 



like the staff 
of a bishop or 
abbot. 



Avarice is the 
Abbess of the 
Abbey 
Simony. 



By her 5th 
hand the 
hateful vice 
of Simony 
was brought 
into Christ's 
church. 



1 but they be servants vnto me. 

' And also, yf thow lyst to loke, 

touchy nge myn hand eke with tho, crooke, 17936 

I will the tell, or I ha do, 
in what wyse I cam therto : 
thou shalt know[e] certaynly, 

that Symon Magus and Gyosy, 17940 

bothe twayn, in theyr entent, 
made ther-of to me present, 
but the crooke, by oblacion, 
was gyven to me of Symon. 17944 

' and yf I shall the truthe atame, 
the fyrst[e] letter of his name 
is an .s. (who takythe hede,) 

of shape y-krokyd in the hed ; 17948 

and of his name (be well certeyn) 
it is chefe capytall & cheftayn. 
thow wost full well thy selfe, ywys, 
that every .s. y-crokyd is, 17952 

lyche a crose highe in the top, 
lyche the staffe of a byshope, 
or of an abot, wher it be, 
thow mayst example ther-of se. 17956 

' and of an abbey, in sothnesse, 
I am callyd an abbesse. 
whiche abbey, by gret vyllenye, 

ys [y]callyd symonye. 17960 

and as myn hand her with this hook, 
of the .s. his nam[e] tooke, 
ryght so, in conclusion, 
symonye cam of symon. 17964 

' and fyrst thow shalt well vnderstond, 
that by falsnes of this hond, 
most horryble and odyous, 

was brought fyrst in-to christis hous 17968 

the false vyce of symonye. 
and by his feyned trecherye, 
by his sleyhte, and by his gyn, 

at the dore he cam not in ; . 17972 

but at some travas, lych a theffe, 



Avarice's 5th hand. False Shepherds. Sellers of holy Offices. 481 






' wher he do the full gret myschefe ; 
for wher so evar he dothe aproche, 
with this staffe he can a-croche 
the herts of folks by covetyse, 
and ordeynythe in full cursyd wyse 
sheppards to kepe christis shepe, 
whiche of theyr offyse toke no kepe. 

' an herd man is [yjsayd, in dede, 
only, for he shuld[e] fede 
his shepe with spyrituall doctryn ; 
but they draw by an othar lyn : 
they may be callyd, for ther werkynge, 
pastours only of fedynge. 
they fede them selff wjit/t haboundaunce, 
and let ther shepe go to myschaunce j 
I trow it is full well ysene, 
them selfe be fatt, ther shepe be lene. 
I trow, the most[e] part of all, 
men shuld them rather wolv[e]s call 
than trwii herd[e]s; yong and old, 
they come to robb[e] christis fold ; 
they shuld ther shepe from wolv[e]s were ; 
the wool, the mylke, a-way they bere. 
I can not se wher-of they serue, 
that lat ther shepe at meschefe starue, 
and put them selffe in gret defame. 

' and they would eke make lame 
grace dieu of cursydnesse, 
lyke as I shall a-non exprese, 
ffrom the trone of hir mageste, 
by gyfte of temporalite : 
his fals office I can well tell ; 
he can now byen, he can now sell, 
by bound [e]s of collusyon ; 
and all comythe in by syr symon. 

' yet at the last it shall be found 
that grace d'ieu is nat bound, 
ner, hathe not lost hir fraunchise 
by none suche fals[e] marchandyse, 
as comythe in by symony, 

PILGRIMAGE. 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
Avarice 

17970 by simony 
ordains false 
shepherds to 
keep Christ's 
sheep, 



17980 



[leaf 311, bk.] 



17984 



who feed 

. _ _ themselves 
17988 and let their 
sheep go lean. 



17992 They're 

wolves, not 
shepherds. 



17996 



18004 
18008 

18012 
1 1 



by buying* 
ami selling 
holy offices. 



482 A.'s oth hand. The users of Simony are worse, than Judas. 



| b to we US. 

952.] 
Avarice. 

Her 5th hand 
sells and buys 
God's grace. 



The buying is 
Simony; the 
selling is Gy> 
eaite, the sin 
of Gehazi 
(Vulg. Giesi, 
Giezi), 2 
Kings v. 20 ff., 
the taking of 
money for 
spiritual 
gifts. 



Those who 
sell holy 
offices are 
like Judas, 



[St., leaf 312] 



nay, worse 
than Judas, 



for he restord 
the pence he 
took, 



while the Si- 
raonists 
never return 
money. 



Whatever 
goes into 
Avarice's 
sack, never 
comes out 
again. 



' nor couetyse of Gyesy. 

' this hand also with his crochet, 
in swyche a maner is yset 18016 

to sell and byen this gret vertwe 
whiche is callyd grace dieu ; 
but, kyndly to specify, 

the byggyng is callyd symony, 18020 

and the sellyng in certeyn, 
(for to speke in wordes pleyn,) 
they that it sell, for gret or lyt, 

bene y-callyd Gyesite ; 18024 

but symony, (who can entend,) 
dothe bothe nam[e]s comprehend ; 
and all that wolde thus enchace 

grace dieu out of hir place, 18028 

to sellen hir for gold & good, 
they be mad, or el[le]s wood ; 
and resemblen (in swiche cas, 

/I dare affirm,) vnto ludas, 18032 

that ihesu christ for mony sold 
full fallsly, and the panns he told. 

' and suche folke (as thynkythe me) 
wers than iudas, yet thay be ; 18036 

for the pennis that iudas toke, 
af tar ward he it forsoke, 
and restoryd it agayn ; 

but this folke, be well certeyn, 18040 

will for no predication 
nevar make restitution, 
and cawse why, (who lokythe well,) 
is only this, for the sachell 18044 

whiche hangythe fro my neke doune, 
of nature and condic'ioun : 

' what-evar into my sake ther gothe, 
(who that evar be lesse or lothe,) 18048 

it will nevar ysswe out ageyn ; 
the entre is bothe large and pleyne, 
and the mouthe to gon in by 

is evar open at the entry. 18052 

but to comyn out, that wyll nat be 



Avarice's 6th hand, Treachery. When she's a Draper. 483 






' by no maner of sotelte ; 

the way is narow & streyght certeyn, 

for to comyn out ageyn, 

lyke a wyle in a ryver, 

to cache the fysche bothe fer and nere ; 

the entre large / the comynge out 

is so strayt, it stant in dout. 

' A-nothar hand I have also, 
with whiche I werke myche wo 
by a maner of roberye : 
and it is callyd ' trecherye,' 
withe the whiche, (who can conceyve,) 
full many folk[es] I deceve. 
vndar colour of ryghtwysnes, 
I do to folke full gret falsnes, 
that be syniple and inocent. 
withe my frawd they be so blent 
in marchandyse that I vse, 
I can my selff e nat well excuse. 

' in deceyt stant my labowr, 
by fals weyght and fals mesure : 
by large mesure I can byen, 
and streight mesure I sell ageyn ; 
in byggyng I wyll ha trwe wayt, 
but in my salle I do gret slayt, 
bothe in peys and in balance. 

' with sobar cher and countenance 
my chaffer I can well sell, 
and to symple folke I tell 
that it is bettar than it is, 
and wittyngly I do a-mys 
touchynge the pris, how that it gothe, 
and falsly swere many an othe, 
sober all-way, and sad of chere. 

' and whan that I am a drapere, j 
I hange out courteyns in the lyght, 
for to blynde folkcs syght, 
that men may not sen at y" full 
nothar the colowr nor the wull ; 
set it at hyghe pris therto, 



18056 



18060 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
Avarice. 



Her 8ack is 

like a fish-pot 
in a river, big 
at the mouth, 
close at the 
out. 



Her 6th hand 



18064 iscald 

Treachery, 



18068 and cheats 
simple folk. 



18072 



It buys by 



18076 



18080 



18084 



false. 



[leaf 312, bk.] 



18088 When AT* 
rice is a 
Draper, she 
darkens her 
shop, 

so that folk 
can't see the 
18092 wool. 



484 Avarice's Qtk hand. How she works sJtam Miracles 



IStowe MS. 

952.] 
Ararice 



cheats in 
liorse-dcul- 



md with / 
iham pardons/ 
md relics. \_ 



She steals 
images out of 
abbeys, re- 
paints tin-in, 



sets jewels on 
them, 



puts blood 
and milk in 

tin-in, 



and makes 
imlrs for the 
fluids to run 
out, us if by 
miracle. 



These she 
shows, 



with sham 
popes' bulls 
and bishops' 
seals. 



and swere I myght ha sold it so 

the last[e] day, to a chapman : 

thus I begyll many a man 1809G 

U withe this hand of whiche I tell, 

bothe when I by and sell. 

1 this hand myght nat well be worse : 
some tyme ther-wit/i I can sell horse, 18100 

and lyke a falce coursar, I can 
with othis deceyue many a man. 

' som tyme by borows and by towns 
I walke about[en] with pardons, 18104 

with reliks, and dede bones, 
closyd vndar glase and stons : 
I shew them vndar sell and bull, 

and thus the pore people I pull, 18108 

of ther sylvar I make them quite, 
in falsnes I ha so gret delyght. 

' to abbeys eke I can wel gon, 

stell ymagis of tre and stone, 18112 

thowghe they ben old, & paynt them newe, 
and make them seme freshe of hewe, 
with colours bothe' whit and redd ; 
and at theyr brestis and at ther hedd 18116 

I set berryls and crystall ; 
vndar, I make an hole full smale ; 
I put in oyle, wyne, and blood, 

and melke also, to get[ten] good; 18120 

make the lycour round about, 
at small holes to rennyn out, 
as it were done by myracle, 

that ther nis balme nor triacle 18124 

in this world, so ryche of prys, 
of foltyshe people thai ben nat wys. 

' I set eke out swyche ymagis, 

in stret[i]s and at hermytagis, 18128 

and in subbarbys at many a towne, 
with bullis fret full of pardon : 
byshops seles be nat behynd : 

and thus I make folk[e]s blynd, 18132 

by my sleyght and by my guyle. 



Avarices Qth hand. She ivorks sham Miracles lyy it. 485 
' and yet I vse a-nothar whyle : istowe MS. 

952.] 

I go to faytours of entent, Avarice 



and make them eke of myn assent, 18136 [St., leaf sis] 

and, by fals colusyon, 

and cursyd dissymulat'ion, 

I niene suche as ha no shame, makes also 

to fayne them selffe bothe blynd and lame, 18140 

crokyd, halt, and dome with all, 

on euery leg a gret mormall, "<i aiseasd 

full of plastars old and new, 

to make the people on them rew. 18144 

' and, for more decepcion, 
I make them to be leyd a-doun. to He down 

before her, 

U to-forn the ymagys down to ly, images: 

and for helthe lowd[e] cry, 18148 

ther to have amendement. 

and they and I of one assent, 

I lyf t them vp niy self e anon , then she sets 

em on their 

and make them on ther fet to gon 18152 feet 

with-outen eny more obstacle, 

as all wer wrowght by myracle. as if a miracle 

' the people, takynge none hede therto, wrought; 

supposythe pleynly that it wer se>; 18156 
with off erynge and w*t/< pilgrimagis nd folk 

make offer- 

come full oft to suche yma<ns, in ? 8 *"* P U - 

* o ' gntnages to 

for to done ther observaunco : these ilna g e8 - 

and thus I can my selffe avaunce 18160 

as othar losengars can, 

\fiili good that is full falsly won, 

whiche that the, people obeyethe full sore. 

but of this thynge, as now no more 18164 

I wyll nat make rehersall. 

' & for this hand may myche avayle 
to profet me bothe day and nyght, 
I take none hede of wronge or rysht, 18168 Avarice takes 

J no heed of 

thowghe it to folks do gret domage, wrong or 

whill I ther-in fynd advauntage. 

it hathe of falshed many a braunche, 

and why? I 1 put it to my haunche, [' MS. it] 18172 

and to my tonge reyse it agayne : 



486 Avarice's haunch, Lying; and tongue, Forsivearing. 



the cawse I woll vnto the sayne : 
Ava'. m y n haunche is callyd lesynge, 

Her haunch and my tonge f orswerynge ; 18176 

to^ie, 8 ^or- r and, to this twayn, trechery 

swearing, . , , , - , 

is famylyar, and of aly, 

and to them bothe, of kyndly lawe, 

of custome she will evar drawe. 18180 

wher they ben old or yong of age, 

they be echon of o lynage, 

and, by hyre, fyrst, certeyne, 

myne haunche cawhte this spaven. 18184 

' she made my tonge fyrst taplye 

to fynd out lesynge, and to ly ; 

and of lyenge I made to-forne, 

[leaf sis, bk.] W as forswerynge fyrst yborn ; 18188 

which sprang for wher that evar forsweryng be, 

from Lying. 

lesynge is nyhe, as men may se ; 
and wher-so-evar that they go, 

barret is nat fer them fro ; 18192 

all thre bene of on accord, 
with truthe evar-more at dyscord.' 
pilgrim : 



i ask her to "Tell on, I pray, let me se 

tell me about 

them. in what wyse may this be ; 18196 

thow callyst thy tonge ' forswerynge,' 

and thyn haunche also ' lyenge,' 

whiche is so halt and corbyd doun) ; 

tell me here-on some reson." 18200 

Avariet Avarice : 

qwod avarice, ' lay to ere, 

and anon thow shalt well here, 

how that I this othar day 
met Truth mett with truthe vp-on the way : 18204 

and Equity, -. 

withe her was also equite, 
and bothe tweyn, I dyd se. 
of them, as I toke hede, 

begging, and how they begged bothe ther bred ; 18208 

they were so poore bothe two, 
for theyr frynd[e]s wer all go. 
and yf I shall the truthe showe, 



How Avarice got a Spavin in her Leg. Her Tongue. 487 



' this day they ha but frynd[c]s fewe, 
ne non) ne shal, yf that I may. 

' and when I met them on the way, 
I gan to turne the bake full sone ; 
with them I had no thynge to done ; 
for me sempte, to my plesaunce, 
they myght me no thyuge avaunce, 
nor no profit done to me. 
therfore from them I gan to fle 
over the feld[e]s as they lay, 
and I ne cept none hyghe way, 
but forthe, lyke myn opinion, 
as I rann, I fell doune ; [as, i, each afoot] 

and with that fall ther was no gayne, 
but that I cawht a great spavayne 
vpon my lego, which e made me 
for to halt, as thow mayst se ; 
and sothly yet, (who loke well,) 
to halt, I hate it nevar a dell, 
for when wit/j haltynge I am dull, 
it makythe my sake to be more full ; 
haltynge dothe me more avaunce ; 
therby I make chevysaunce, 
for in haltynge is no synne ; 
who dothe vpryght, may nothynge wynn ; (y, 
haltynge me wynnythe many a grote, fv c -' 
it maketh me hatter than my cote, 
that I must my tunge in sothe 
cast out as a dogge dothe. 

' and than full off e it falleth so, 
that to the kyng[e]s court I goo, 
and am ther, of no man afferyd. 
and whan I have the lawe's leryd,, 
and am come to hyghe estat, 
than I become an advocat, 
and make folk[e]s to me drawe, 
swyche as hav to don with lawe. 

' but first I swere, wt't/j-out[en] doute, 
my tunge I shall nat puten oute, 
for ryght ne wrongc, ne for no thynge, 



18212 [StoweMS. 
952.] 



tunul her 
back on Truth 
and Equity, 



18216 



18220 and fled from 
them. 



18224 She fell, and 
gut ;i spavin 
in her leg, 



18228 



which made 
her limp. 



18232 This limp 

won her a lot 
of money. 



18236 Uprightness 
makes no 



! 



18240 



[Stowe, leaf 
3H] 



Avarice goes 
to the King's 
court, 



18244 learns law, 



18248 



turns Advo- 
cate, 



and won't 
speak a word 
except for 
pay. 



488 



Avarice ivill Lie to any extent for Gold. 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
Avarice 

works like 
the tongue 
of a balance, 



goes wliere's 
most weight 
of fees. 

When she 

gets folks' 
money, 



she swears 
their cause is 
good, tlio' it 
isn't. 



She turns 
right into 
wrong, and 
wrong into 
right, 



only to get 
gold. 



Her Tongue 
is sown with 
Lies. 



[Stowe, leaf 
:;i4, back] 



' but wher I se ryght gret wynnynge. 18252 

' on that party evar I hold, 
lyche a balaunce of whiche y told, 
whose tunge draweth to that cost,-, 
wher the weyht gothe doune most-: 18256 

to that party he wyll nat fyne 
the balaunce to enclyne. 
and so fare I when I begyne, 
to holden ther I may most wyne. 18260 

' whan folke me pray \fiih all ther myght 
for to help them in theyr ryght, 
wher the cawse be grene or rype, 

a-non as I the money grype, 18264' 

than I dare swaryn, by bone & blood, 
that theyr cawse is trwe and good, 
thoughe I know the contrary. 

and than anon I wyll not tary, 18268 

for gold and sylvar evar amonge, 
to make ryght, thowghe it be wronge ; 
for I can make, vnto hir syght, 

ryght of wronge, and wrong of ryght; 18272 

toume the matere vp se doune, 
and preue it out by good reson, 
that in the case there is no lake : 
and all I do, to fyll my sake 18276 

withe gold and othar men[ne]s good, 
how evar aforne the case stode. 

' thus haue I told the by resonne, 
and mad a demonstraciion, 18280 

why that my tonge (by dyscryvynge) 
is [yjcallyd ' forswerynge.' 
and withe lesyngs, (who lyst know,) 
vp and downe it is y-sowe ; 18284 

to falshed I do most avauntage, 
and to truthe gretyst damage, 
and in this plyht, as I the told, 

ever my purpos I shall hold, 18288 

that yf the lawe ne chaunge nought, 
I will be fals of word and thought, 
in every place, wher evar I be, 



Avarice tells the meaning of the Hump on her Bade. 489 



1 that no man shall leve me : 18292 

now I ha told the of my sake. 

' touchinge the bonche vpon my bake, 
I wyll to the now specifye 

what thynge it dothe signefye. 18296 

this is the boch gret and hydous, 
with whiche this folke relyg'ious 
bene ybonchyd, full many on ; 
som, I say, nat everychon, 18300 

suche as by transgressyon 
kepe not theyr professyon, 
as they be bound by theyr degre. 

' and by example, (as thow niayst se,) 18304 

so as a boche or a fellon 
ar cawsyd of corruption 
of wyckyd humours & corrupt blood, ) 
of colore adust, fervent and wood, 1 8308 

and othar suparfluyte ; 
ryght so, ryches and gret plente 
ar cawse that a ryche man, 
as the gospell rehers[e] can, 1 
May in-to heven have none entre, 
But euen lyke as ye may se, 
A camell may hym-silffe applye 

To passen thorugh a nedelyes eye, 18316 

Whiche is a thyng not credible, ,, 

But a maner impossible, 

Thys beste is so encomerous, [stowe] 

Off bak corbyd and tortuous, ,, 18320 

And so to passe, no thyng able. 

' And euene lyk in caas semblable, 
ffolkis off relygyoun, 

Bounds by ther professyoun 18324 

ffor to lyue in pouerte 
Off ther owne volunte, 

Ami to pouert hem- silffe proffesso, [ 2 iiym c., them St.] 
3eue they be bocchyd with 3 richesse, [ 3 byst.] 18328 
To gadre vp good 4 in ther bandoun, ['gooa st., ami Tib.] 
Tresoure, and greet poce.scyoun ; [*t. & Tib.] 

1 The readable part of MS. Cottou Tiberius, A. vii, k-gius here. 



I Stowe MS. 

952.] 
Avarice. 

The Bunch or 
Hump on her 
back 



typifies the 
Monks, etc., 



who don't 
keep their 



As swellings 
are causd by 
bad humours 
and blood, 



18312 


so riches stop 
a rich man's 
entry into 
heaven, 


[Stowe 952, leaf 31 1, back] 
[St. & Tib.] 


[Tiberius, A 
vii, leaf 39, 



[Cott. Tib., 
A vii, If. 89] 
as a Camel 

can't po thru 
a needle's 
eye. 

[Cap. xxxiii, 
prose.] 



Monks bound 
to live in 
poverty 



arc so swollen 
by riches 



490 The Hump or Botch of Property stops folks' going to Heaven. 



[Tiberius, A 

vii (ttaind)] 

Avarice. 

that they 
can't go thru 
a little hole 
into Heaven. 
This little 
hole means 
Poverty. 



So let folk 
keep them- 
selves from 
the hump of 
riches, 



which will 
close the gate 
of Paradise, 



and stop the 
hole of 
poverty, 
[leaf 39, back] 
that lets good 
folk thru. 



[Cap. xxxiv, 

prose.] 

This hump or 
botch is 
Property ; 



and Poverty 
lances and 
empties it. 



But Property 
won't let it, 



for fear of 
dying. 



' ffor hard it is ffor hem to trace, [St. & Tib.] 

Or by so smal an hoole to passe 18332 

Vp to that heuenly mansyoun, 

To cleyme there habytacyoun. 

THis lytle hoole (who kan se,) 

Bytokeneth willefful pouerte, 18336 

Receyued with-outen eny stryffe ; 

ffor, pore we kam in-to this lyffe, 

And nakyd, (who taketh heede ther-to,) ,, 
Out off this lyffe we schal eke go. [Stowe,ieaf8i5] 18340 

' Wherffore late ffolkis good heede take, 

(Swyche as han this world fforsake,) 

Hem to preserue by holynesse 

ffrom the bocche off ffalse richesse, 18344 

Whiche is a thyng (who kan discerne) 

That wyl close the posterne 
Of Paradys 1 and the entre, [ l st. (Tib. bturd)] 

And stope the hole 1 off pouerte, 18348 

Whiche is, to parffyte ffolke, the gate 
To lete hem in, erly and late, 
Alle that ben ffounden vertuous 
In ffolkis eke relygyous. 18352 

Properte. 
' rf^ His Jbocche isjcallyjL' Properte,' 

I Whiche is afferd off Pouerte ; 
ffor pouerte (as clerkys teche) 18355 

Is bothe medicyne 2 and leche [* medcyne Tib., medisyn St.] 

To launche the bocche off Properte, 

And voyde alle superfluyte, 

And the bollynge in eche 3 syde. p on echo a St.] 

' But Properte dar not Abyde [Tib.&st.] 18360 

To suffre Pouerte hym to kerue, ,, 

Leste off the wounde he schulye sterue 
Leuere he hathe, in peyne tendure, 

Than pouerte schulde his bocche recure; 18364 

ffor he is dredefful, and eke arwh, [Tib.&st.] 
To passe an hole that is so narwh 

As hym 4 semyth in his devys, [itst.] 
Outher to heven or paradys : 18368 

His herte is no thyng ther-on sot. 



Avarice's Idol, Gold, men's only Good and God. 



491 



'A J 






' Now wole I speke off my mawmet. 

The Mawmet: 

Nd off myn ydol that is so oold, 

Made off siluer and off gold, 18372 

In the whiche (I the ensure) 
Is the ymage and the ffygure 
And the prynte (as thou mayste see) 
Off the lord off the contre. 18376 

This is the god whiche, by depos, 1 p depose St.] 
Loueth to be schutte in hucches clos. 
IT Somwhyle, that men may hym not knowe, 
He wole hym hyde in erthe lowe. 18380 

' This god kan make ffolkys blynde, 
That to his dbseruaunce hem bynde ; 
And causith hem, ageyn resoun, 
To caste her loke's lowe down 18384 

In-to the erthe, ageyne nature, 
Hem-silife so mykel they assure 
In eerthely tresoure, whiche at 2 o day pin St.] 
Schal vnwarely passe away ; 18388 

ffor la we 3 in erthe, on euery syde, 
Lyche a molle they abyde ; 
In erthe is hoolly ther labour ;~ ] 
In erthe ys also ther tresour ; 18392 

Erthe is ther loye and ther plesaunce ; 
No thyng but erthe may hem avaunce ; 
Gold and seluer makyth hem nygh wood ; 
Gold is ther god, gold is ther good ; 18396 

I worschipe gold and my tresour 
As ffor my god and savyour ; 
Saue gold, noon other god I haue. 

[Illumination.] 

C T Thenke not how I schal be grave 18400 

_i_ In eerthe lowe, ther to be ffreete, 
Corupcyoun and worme's mete, 
Hydous, stynkynge, and horryble, 
And to loke vp-on, odyble : 18404 

"What may my gold thanne me 4 avayle, [* me than St.] 
\Vhanne wormes han 5 with me batayle? t 5 have stj 
But here, while I haue lyberte, 



[Stowe, leaf 815, back] 
p low St.] 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.] 
Avarice. 

[Cap. xxxv, 

prose.] 

Her Mawmet, 
of silver and 
gold, 

is an image 
of the lord of 
the country, 



a god, 

[Tib. leaf 40] 



which can 
blind folk, 



and make em 
look on the 
ground, 



where they 
live, like a 
mole. 



Their trea- 
sure and joy 
is all in earth. 



Gold is their 
only God. 



They don't 
think, when 
they rot, 



[leaf 40, back] 



what their 
gold Ml do 
for em. 



492 Avarice always tries to get goods, by Lies or Games. 



[Tiberius. 
Avii] 
Avarice. 



Gold is 
her god and 
mawmet; 



' This thyng to-fforne I kan no 1 se, pnatst.] 18408 

ffor in no thyng 1 2 kan affye, [" i St., that i Tib.] 
But gold and good to multeplye. 
Gold is my god and my Mawmet ; 18411 



[3 all [my] hert to 



[m 
d S 



gold St.] 



for eold, 
St. Lawrence 
was roasted. 



B 



IT And al on gold myne herte 3 is sette ; 

ffor golde, I dyde fful greet offence, 

In colys to roste seynt Laurence. J 

For he, off pite (thus it stood) [St. & Tib.] 

3aue the tresoure and the good 18416 

Off holy churche ffor almesse, 

To pore ffolkis he 4 ffonde in distpesse. [* to foike that he st.] 

[Illumination. ] 
Ut I, 5 in myne oppynyoun, [ 5 1 st., o.Tib.] 

am 6 not off that condicioun : [ am st., i am Tib.] 
To gete good is my laboure, 18421 

And to awmente my tresoure, 
And (as it is to ffolke fful kouthe^)] 
More in age thanne in jouthe, ' r- 1 18424 

Som tyme with lesynges and with ffablys, 
Som tyme at 7 chesse, som tyme at tablys, p at st., at the Tib.] 
[Tib. leaf 41] At merels and the botevau?it, 

At hasard and at 8 [the] devaunt, [ 8 at St., om. Tib.] 18428 

And at these pleye's euerychon, 

My mawmet I worschipe euere in oon. 

IT ffor, wher-so 9 it be vyce or synne, [ 9 so st., om. Tib.] 

I do no thyng but ffor to Wynne ; 18432 

To good is al-way my repay re. 

' And, ffor my Mawmet is so ffayre, 
And ffulffylled off 10 alle plesaunce, p withe st.] 
Do 11 ther-to som 6bseruaunce, [ u i>o St., TO do Tib.] 18436 
And knele an oon vpon thy kne, [stowe, leafsie] 

Lowely to 12 his deyte. 



Her work is 

in get money, 



by lying or 
gaming. 



sin- worships 
her inawuiet. 



She bids me 
kneel to it, 



ffor, but 13 thow do with-out[e] more, ^fi^St'l 



18440 



Thow schalt abyggen it fful sore ; 
And I schal ellys verrey 14 the ; [ u warreye st.] 

Thow geteste no lenger trewys off me.' 
The pilgrim. ^ The Pylgryme : 

A Nd while sche gan me 15 assay le [ 15 me Tib., me to st.] 
A\ fful cruelly, as by batayle, 18444 

Alle sodeynely I dyde sen, 



or she'll 
worry me 



Avarice 
assails me. 



Yoitih saves me from Avarice's attack. I enter a wood. 493 



18448 



[' youthe st.] 



[*yfst.] 



18456 



How that jouthe wente atwen, 
Bytwyxen Avarise and me, 
Cryed trewys, and bad let be.' 

1T Than jouthe spak : l 
' T^iO to hym no vyolence, 

I J ffor I am komen in his diffence, 
Ageynse 2 the to make hym stronge. [ a agaynst St.] 
Thow schalt to hym do now no wronge, 18452 

(Thow 3 thow be cruel off entent,) pthowghest.] 
While that I am here present.' 

IF Auaryce : 

' }Eue 4 thow ne were not ffaste by, 
' Thow myghtteste truste ffynaly, 
That I ffor no thyng wolde lette, 
But that I schulde vp-on hym sette. 

[Illustration.] 

IT Thy komynge is not to my pay ; 
Thow haste me lettyd off my pray ; 
ffor the whiche, I am fful wo ; 
But now to hym I may nat do, 
ffor to ffulffille my talent, 
While thow art with hym present. 
But go thi way, and late hym be, 
And anoon thow schalt wel se, 
I schal hem cacchen 5 in a trappe, 
And aresten by the lappe, 
That he schal not skape away 
ffro my daungere, ^eue 6 I may.' 

IT The Pylgryme : 

AXd whanne that I was at my large, 
And thought I wolde me 7 discharge, 18472 
ffrom alle daunger to go ffre, [ 7 me St., not Tib.] 

ffrom Auaryce at lyberte, 
Thorough helpe and ffavour (in this cas) 



18460 



18464 



[ 5 caclien St., cacche Tib.] 

18468 

[yfSt.] 



Off jouthe that my guyde was, 
I wolde, as tho, no lenger byde, 
But in-tawode 8 there bysyde 
I entryd, whiche stood ffaste 9 by. 
And as I wente, alle sodeynely 
I herde oou wonder lowde crye, 



18476 



[ into a wood St.] 
[ 9 but fast st.] 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.] 
The Pi/grim. 

' Youth ' in- 
tervenes. 

Youth 

bids Avarice 
leave me 
alone. 



Avarice 
[leaf 41, back] 



doesn't like 
this, 



as she can't 
do what she 
wants to me. 



She bogs 
' Youth ' to 
depart, 

and then 
she'll trap 
me. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 42] 



I enter a 
wood. 



18480 



494 A Messenger bids me come and speak to his Mistress. 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.] 
The Pit prim. 

I am pursued 
by one 



bearing a 
naked sword, 



who bids me 
speak to his 
mistress. 

He is in a 
circle, 



[leaf 42, back] 



and carries a 
box like a 
Messenger. 



And afftir me gan ffaste hym hye, 
As he hadde ben in a rage. 
And so straunge was his langage, 



18484 



He shows me 
a mansion. 



like a pa- 
vilion, 
with a Crow 
sitting above. 



That I ne vnderstood hym nought ; 

ffor I conceyued in my thought, [stowe, leaf 316, back] 

How he that affter me gan gon : 

ffrenche 1 nor Latyn he spak noon, c 1 ffrenchs Tib., Frenche St.] 

And in his hand (I was wel war,) 18489 

A nakyd swerde how that he bar, 

fful scharpe grownde ffor to byte, 

And redy as he wolde smyte, 18492 

And bade, I schulde me ffaste dresse, 

Kome to speke with his Maystresse. 

Amydde 2 the way, vpon a lond, pandmydst.] 
With-in a cercle I hym ffond, 18496 

[Illustration.] 

WIth-in whiche (so god me save,) 
I sawgh fful many a ffygure grave, 
fful meruelous, as in workynge ; 

And he bare armys off A kynge, 18500 

A Boxe, lyche a Messangere. 
And trewely, as I neyghed nere, 
By sygnes that I dyde se, 

I wende so that he hadde be, 18504 
Hopynge the bette, at lyberte, 

ffrom al daunger to skape ffre : 

II To whom I spake fful boldely, 18507 
And seyde, " I merveyl 3 ryght greetly P "g$fo,j 
That thow byddeste me ffaste dresse 

ffor to kome to thi maystresse ; 

And by no tokene that I kan se, 

I wote not what sche schulde be; 18512 

ffor whiche, 1 preye the not to spare, 

Off hir the maner to declare." 

IT And he to me in worde's ffewe, 

With his ffynger gan me schewe 18516 

fful ffaste by, a mansyouii), 

Eyght vp, lyche a pavyloun ; 

And on the pomel (who lyste knowe) 

Wonder hygh ther sate a krowe, 18520 



The Schoolmistress's Pavilion with a Crow on the top of it. 495 



18524 



[i hyghe St., hygh Tib.] 



18528 



18536 



His whynges splayynge to and ffro ; 
And with the noyse he made tho, 
The messangere gan newe abreyde, 
And vn-to me ryght thus he seyde : 

IF The Messangere : 
' T)yhoolde ^one habytacyoun 

JD And the hyghe 1 pavylloun : 
In that place (I dar expresse) 
There abydith my maystresse, 
Whiche cessith, nowther nyght nor day, 
To teche hir scolers what sche may, 
fful many wonderfful lessouns, 

And many dyuerse cdnclusyouns. [Illustration.] 18532 
' A Nd, therffore, I callyd the, 
.XX That thow scholdeste the maner se [stowe, leaf 3173 
Off hir scole, and knowe it offte. 
And ffor this skele, the crowe aloffte 
Is sette, (3eue 2 thow kanste espye,) 
Afftir hir scolerys flfor to crye ; 
That fforby passe, bothe este and west ; 
Thereffore sche hath made there 3 hir nest. 

1F The pylgryme : 

rtis me semyth it were ffolye 
To kome there, or go fforby, 
But jeue I knewe (in sentence) 
What doctryne or what science, 
To hir scolers sche dothe teche. 
Thereffore, opunly in thy speche, 
Declare what it schulde be, 
Or ellys I wole not go with the." 

11 The Messangere : 
4 ' A yere,' quod he, ' and no mo, 
ther I had to scole go ; * 

COuetyse, off entente, 
To that scole sche me sente 
And sothely, as it semyth me, 
So I trowe sche dyde the.' 
IT The Pylgryme : 



[-<St.,oi. Tib.] 



18552 



"/"^Erteynely that is not so; 



[Tiberius, 

Avii] 
The Pilgrim. 



declares that 
there his 
mistress 
teaches her 

scholars, 



[leaf 43] 



18539 

P ther made St.] 



18544 



18548 



whom the 
Crow calls to 
her. 



The Pilgrim. 

I say I won't 
go to her un- 
less he tells 
me what 
she'll teach 
me. 



The ifeiten- 
ger 



[leaf 48, bk.] 
says Covet- 
CMISIIPSS Kent 
him to that 
school. 



Though sche and I (bothe two) 



18556 



496 The School of Fortune. Hmv Fortunes arc predicted. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.j 
The Pilgrim. 

Covetousness 
never told me 
of the School. 

The Mesten- 
ger. 



None enter 
the school 
unless sent 
by Covetous- 
ness. 



The manner 
of the school. 



Its specula- 
tive and prac- 
tical sides 
differ. 



One wants to 
get dignity 
or treasure, 

[Tib. leaf 44] 



and to know 
one's luck. 



The Messen- 
ger makes a 
circle on the 
ground, 
with char- 
acters and 
figures. 



" Hadde I-ffere longe dalyaunce, 

Sche made no 1 maner off r^membraunce [ no St., me no Tib.] 

Off this scole, in no degre, 

Off whiche thow spekist off 2 to me." p off, om. st.] 18560 

IT The messangere : 
' rilHan I dar seyn (as thow schalt ffynde) 

1 That it was, out off hyre mynde ; 
ffor at this scole ther comyth no wyght 
ffor to leerne, day nor nyght, 18564 

But jeue that he, ffirste, (off entent,) 
Be ffro covetyse I-sent. 

*3it off this scole, (jeue thow wylte dwelle,) 
The maner, I schal the telle : 18568 

IT ffirste, whanne I was heder sent, 
I wolde, by som experiment, 
Or by som schorte conclusyoun, 
Haue preued 3 out my lessoun; 
ffor speculatyff and the practyk '") 
Off this scole be not lyk j 
ffor speculatyff (in sentence) I 
With-outen good experience, \ 
Avaylith lytle or ellis nought, 
How longe euere that it be sought. 
IT Now take heede, and thow schalt se 
I wolde haue 4 dygnyte, 
Or som other greet tresour, 
And ther-on sette my labour ; 
And wolde knowe, to 5 this estat 
Wher I schal be ffortunat. 
IT ffirste, with my swerd, vp-on the ground 
I make a cercle large and round, 
With karectis and with 6 ffygures, [ with cm. Tib., St.] 
And knowe not the aventures, 
Nor the dirkenesse hydde with-Inne, 
Off the karectis, whanne I gynne 
To emprynte : al 7 they be sene, [ 7 tyll St.] 

I wote neuere what they mene ; 18592 

[Illustration.] 

SAue I conyecte yt may so be, 
That spiritis scholde obeye to 8 me, ["obeyst.] 



[ provyd St.] 18572 



18576 



[*hneaSt.J 18580 



P to to Tib., to St.] 
[Stowe, leaf 317, back] 

18584 



18588 



/ denounce the folly of invoking Spirits. 



497 



' By my 1 invocacyouns [ myne St.] 

To answers to my questyouns, 18596 

Swyclie sperytis as I kalle ; 

And jit I knowe noon off hem alle, 

Saue off entente, as thow mayste se, 

That they schulde graunte me 18600 

Som maner gyffte, or som gerdoun, 

Concernynge myn oppynyoun, 

By vertu off the cercle round, 

And Carectis graven in the ground, 18604 

By schewynge or by apparence, 

Affter that I jeue credence.' 

1f The pylgryme : 
" A lie that thow doste specyffye, 

J\. Is but ffalsehed and ffantesye 18608 

And cursyd ymagynacyoun, 
Brouth 2 in ffirste by Ulusioun. p brought St.] 

" This scole is nought, in sotheffastenesse, 
Whos doctryne is but cursydnesse. 18612 

The scolers there-off, I holde hem wood ; 
Swyche spiritis may don to the no good ; 
And jeue thow koudeste the trouthe entende, 
Harme they may, but not amende : 18616 

They wole wyrke in 3 thi damage, \? to St.] 

But no thyng to thyne avauntage, 
Who that kan loke wel aboute. 

" Also thi siluen 4 stante in doute [* my seicre St.] 18620 
Where-off thi cercle scholde serue ; 
And thynges that thow doste obserue, 
Alle is but ffoly and mysbyleve, 5 [ 5 fais beieve St.] 
Towchynge the spiritis, thow mayste wel leve; 18624 
ffor the they wyl no thynge do wel, 
ffor they the louen neuere a del." 

If The Messangere : 

F Dar afferme (with-oute 6 slouthe) [ 6 with-out c., St.] 
J_ In party that thow haste seyde trouthe, 18628 
Excepte oonly (it is no nay) 
In many thynges they helpe may, 
A man 7 greetly to magnyffye, , p man St., c. Muni] 
Encresse also, and niultcplye, [stowe.ieafsis] 18632 

PILGRIMAGE. K K 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
Necroman- 

cy'i 
Meuenger 

gays that, by 
his invoca- 
tions, spirits 
are made to 
answer and 
obey. 



[leaf**, bk.] 



The Pilgrim. 



I declare it is 
all falsehood. 



The scholars 
are mad ; 



the spirits do 
harm; 



all is folly. 




498 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.J 
Neeroman- 

cy't 
Messenger. 

[leaf 45] 
but the 
spirits mast 
obey the 
King. 

The Pilgrim. 



I ask the 
Messenger by 
what power 
he compels 
the Spirits. 



Necroman- 

cy'i 
JHeitenger. 



The PUnrim. 



Ntcroman- 

cy's 
Meifenver. 

He says they 
will obey him 



as assuming 
he holds 
authority 
and a com* 
mission from 
the King. 
[leaf 45, bk.] 



How the Messenger makes Spirits obey him. 

Whanne they be c6nstreyned to do so, 

And haue no power to go ther-ffro, 

Comaunded 1 to swyche obseruaunce ^maS"^^'' 

By hym 2 that hathe the gouernaunce [nuemst.] 18636 

I mene the kyng, to whom, eche weye, 

Mawgre ther myght, they muste obeye.' 

f The Pylgryme : 
" T Conceyue, and se wel here, 

JL Thow art the kynges messangere, 18640 

By the armes that thow dost were, 
And by the sygnes I se the bere ; 
But make 3 demonstracyoun [ s make a st.] 

To me off thi comyssyoun, 18644 

By what power or by what peyne 
That thow mayste 4 hem so constreyne." 

1T The Messangere : c* mayst st, muste in>.] 

'/^Ommyssyoun I haue neuere on; 
\J And trewely I dar axe non ; 18648 

And though I dyde (as thow schalt se) 
He wolde graunte noon to me.' 

1T The Pylgryme : 
" ri^Hanne wote I wel, (jeue it be sought,) 

I ffor the, that they wole do ryght nought. "186 52 

IT The Messangere : 



ITEre vp-on, what so 30 seye, 



Wote 5 wel they wole 5 obeye 
Pleynely vnto my byddynge ; [ 5 1 wott . . . that they win St.] 
ffor they wene that, off the kynge . 18656 

I hadde fful auctorite, 
Commyssyoun and fful pouste, 
To maken them, lyche 6 myn entent, [' lyke st.] 
To <5beye 7 my comaundement 17 or fobeyg] 18660 

By vertu off myn orysoun, 8 

Karectys and comurysoun 8 ; [ orison* . . . commyssions st.] 
ffor drede off whiche, (be wel certeyn,) 
I knowe they dar me not with-seyn.' 18664 

II The Pilgryme : 
" ~VTTT"Her thow be wel or yuel apayd, 

y y Take good heed what thow haste sayd : 
Thow haste ben ffalse in thi workyng, 



/ say Magical Signs and Seals are Marks of the Devil. 499 



18668 

[i punishid St.] 



[ J iniquite St.] 
P tobbaye St.] 



18672 



[* bast St.] 



18676 



" And wrongely don vn-to thi kyng ; 

Wher-ffore thow shalt I-ponysshed 1 be 

ffor thi greet Inequyte, 2 

To make spiritys the to obeye, 3 

And swyche charges on hem leye 

By disseyte and ffalse tresoun, 

And, haste 4 no coramyssi'oun 

ffor the to schewe on see nor lond, 

And haste 4 I-made eke, with thyn hand, 

Karectis and cercle round, 

And compassid it vp-on the ground ; 

And art so blynd, thow kanste not seen, [stowe, leaf sis, bk.] 

On no party, what they mene. 18680 

" And swyche karectis (I dar wel telle) 
Be niarkis off the deuel off helle, 
ffirste ordeyned (who kan conceyue) 
Innocentis to disceyue. 
And thow mayste also (truste me) 
There-with thow schalt dysseyued be 
ffor this selis, thow schalt ffynde, 
Constreyne the, and sore bynde 
By a maner allyaunce 
To do the deuel swyche obseruaunce 
Made to thi conffus'ioun, 
As bonde or oblygacyoun ; 
By whiche he wole (off verrey myght) 
Cleyme the his man off ryght ; 
By swyche a tytle, make hym stronge. 

" And to spiritis thow doste greet wronge, 18696 
Hem to constreyne in thi workynge 
To brynge th6 other mennes thynge, 
(Be it by day, be it by nyght,) 

Vn-to whiche thow haste no ryght ; 18700 

"Where-in thow art greetly 5 to blame, [ 6 gretiy St., greet Tib.] 
To bydde hem in the kynges name 
Or constreyne hem, ageyne resoun, 
By karecte or by 6 comyssyoun, pby,o.st.] 18704 

To robbe or steele, to thi ffavour, 
Off other ffolkes 7 ther tresour, p flbikis St., ffoike Tib.] 
By verrey fforce, ageyne 8 ryght. p agaynst St.] 



(Tiberius, 

A vii.j 
The Pilgrim. 

I declare the 
Messenger 
shall be 
punished. 



He has done 
treason. 



18684 



18688 



His char- 
acters are 
marks of 
the Devil. 



His seals 
bind him to 
do the Devil 
allegiance. 



18692 [leaf 46] 



It is a wrong 
against the 
spirits 



to constrain 
them to rob 
other men's 
goods. 



500 



The Company of the Users of Spirit-conjuration. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
The Pilgrim. 

This con- 
straining the 
Spirits is 
wrong 
towards the 
King, 



and may be 
requited in 
hell. 




but lie is one 
only of a 
great com- 
pany: 



Solomon, 
Virgil, 

Cyprian, 
Abelard, 
all used this 
art. 



Magic is not 
o dangerous 



" And ^eue thow loke aboute 1 ryght, p about Tib., st.] 
To the kyng, vsynge this vice, 18709 

Thow doste fful greet preivdice 2 [* preiudice st.] 
Ageyne his lawefful ordynaunce, 
Where it is boden 3 (in substaunce) [bod yn st.] 18712 
And dyffendid, (who kan espye,) 
Alle maner theffte and robrye, 4 [* robery st.] 

In peyne off deth : take heede her-to, 
And with-drawe thyne hand ther-ffro 18716 

With al thi myght and al thy peyne. 
Thow standeste 5 in daunger atwene tweyne ; [ 5 stanst st.] 
Outher off God or off Sathan 

Thow art off the leege man ; 18720 

And therffore, ffor to lyue in reste, 
Leeue the worste, and cheese the beste ; 
ffor (schortly I schal devyse,) 

Thow schalt be quytte lyke thi servyse, 18724 

In helle with dampnacyoun, 
Or heuene, to thi savacioun." [C.&st.] 

The Messangere: 
F thy worde's I 6 take hede, [ 6 words when i st.] 

They putte me 7 in fful greet drede : 18728 

But, o thyng comfforteth me, F me st., me not Tib.] 
Whanne that I considere and se 
There is so greet a company e, [Stowe,ieafsi9] 

Me to susteyne in my ffolye, 18732 

Off ffolkis that to-fforne haue be 
Off wonder greet autoryte, 
As why lorn was kyng Salamoim, 
And Virgyle, off greet renoun, 18736 

Cypryan and Albalart, 

And many an-other in this art, [Tib. & c.] 

Maystres by experyence, 

And hadde also ther-to lycence 18740 

(With-outen 8 eny noyse or stryffe,) [ 8 outen st., out Tib.] 
flfor to vse it al her lyflfe. 

' And this ilke craff te also 

(Who that takyth heed ther-to,) 18744 

Is not in rewarde so perillous, 
Dredefful, nor superstyci'ous, 



/ refuse, to go to the Messenger's Mistress, Necromancy. 501 



18748 



18752 



18756 



' As som crafftis that haue be do 

With sacriffyce, and eke also 

With obseruaunces, vpon mownteynes, 

In deserte, 1 and eke in pleynes, C 1 decrert St.] 

And in placis fful 2 savage, ["full of St.] 

Solytarye, and fful off rage, 

That, alle the maner ffor to noumbre, 

It wolde a man greetly encombre, 

As thow schalt se and knowe anon 

$eue thow lyste with me to gon ; 

And ff ynally, thi pas to dresse [Tib. & St.] 

To hir that is the cheff maystresse 

Off alle this thyng that I haue tolde, 

That, 3eue thow be hardy and bolde 

ffor to proche 3 to hir presence, [ 3 taproche St.] 

Thow schalt haue fful experyence.' 

f The Pylgryme : 
" fllHat euere I schulde this thyng se, 4 [* shuid . . yse St.] 

J_ God, off his grace, dyffende me ; 18764 

And he be my proteccyoun 
Fro 5 thylke habytacyoun ! [ 5 fro st M ? TU>.] 

ffor, by opene evidence, 

And by recorde off thi sentence, 18768 

Thilke place, with-oute 6 wene, [ 6 with out Tib., St.] 
To good 7 it doth no-thyng partene; U god St.] 

ffor, by the crowe that sytte aloffte, 
Makyth noyse and cryeth offte, 18772 

It schewith wel how thylke place 
Is devoyde, and ffer ffro grace, 
And longeth (as I reherse kan) 

To the Deuel and to Sathan ; 18776 

ffor, save the Deuel, noon other wyght 
Hathe power there, off verray ryght. 
Therffore I wole me holden heere, 
And to that place kome noon nere ; 18780 

And trewely, (to my devys,) 
Thi-silff also (jeue thow be wys,) 
Thow schalt wysely with-drawe the, [stowe, leaf sio, back] 
And abyde 8 here with me pabydenst.] 18784 

ffor thyne owne avauntage, 



[Tiberius, 

Avu.] 
Necroman- 
cy's 
Messenger. 

as sacrificiul 
rites in wild 
spots. 



The Messen- 
ger bids me 
go to his 
Mistress. 



18760 [leaf 47] 



God forbid ! 
I say; 



for, by the 
crow which 
sits aloft on 
her pavilion, 



the place 
belongs to 
Satan, 



and I will not 
go to it, 



502 The Duke who preferd to be damnd with the Majority. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
The Pilgrim, 

for it means 
destruction. 



[leaf 47, back] 
Story of the 
duke of 
Ffryse, who, 
as he was to 
be baptisd, 
and had one 
foot in the 
well, drew it 
out on 
hearing 



that more 
folk would go 
to Hell than 
Heaven, 



and said he 
preferd being 
damnd with 
the majority. 



[leaf 48] 



Surely Solo- 
mon amended 
ere he died, 



"Leste it turne to thi damage ; 
ffor, who gothe to that mancyoun, 
Gothe streytte to his destruccyoun, 18788 

As ther haue do fful many oon, 
Whiche here-to-fforne haue theder gon, 
Eesemblynge (as I kan devyse) 18791 

To hym that was the Duke of 1 Fryse, [ofst.,o.Tib.] 
Whiche, whanne he shuld ha be baptisyd, [Tib. & St.] 
(In story e as it ys devysed, 
And as bokes kan wel telle,) 

His o ffoot was putte in the welle, 18796 

To haue receyved cristis lawe, 
But he in haste gan it with-drawe ; 
[Illustration.] 

FOr hym thought he herde a cry, 
That affermed certeynely, 18800 

ffor synne and ffor Inyquyte, 
How mo ffolke schulde dampned be 
At the day off lugement, 

Gon to helle, there to be brent, 18804 

3e mo (as in comparisoun) 
Thanne ffolk ffor ther savacyoun 
Scholde that day receyued be, 

To dwelle in heuene, that ffayre cyte. 18808 

IT But this duke, hym-silff to encombre, 2 [* tencomber St.] 
Seyde 3 with the gretteste nowmbre, pseydst.] 
And wolde go, 4 thorough his ffolye, [* he would go St.] 
And with hem holde 5 companye, pkepest.] 18812 

There-with affermynge, in his thought, 
That, off baptysme, he sette 6 nought. [ sett St.] 
ffor whiche, me semeth it were ffolye, 
The to halden companye 18816 

With swyche ffolke in thyn entent, [Tib. & St.] 
Off whiche affter thow schalt repente. 

" ffor I suppose that Salamoun 

(Off whom thow madest mencyoun) 18820 

Wher in-ffectte, or hadde his parte, 
In his dayes, off swyche arte, 
As som ffolk seyne, (who kan entende,) 
That hym-silffe he dyde amende 18824 



Necromancy's Messenger refuses to repent. 



503 



[stowe, leaf 320] 



18836 



18839 

[> what that St.] 



" Off that and many another thyng, 
To-ffore the hour off his deiyng, 
And resceyued was to grace, 
And hath in heuene a dwellynge place. 
1T And semblabely, the tother man, 
The grete clerke callyd Cypryan, 
To-fforne his deth, lyste to fforsake 
This craffte, and ffor Crystis sake, 
Suffred (as made is mencyoun) 
Martirdam and passyoun, 
And is in heuene stelleffyed, 
And with seyntis gloreffyed. 
If Take heede to hem, by reed off me, 
And not to hem that dampned be. 
Thenke on hem that ben in blysse ; 
And where as 1 thow haste don amysse, 
With-drawe thy ffoot, and do penaunce, 
And haue in herte re"pentaunce." 

1T The Messangere : 

|Ertys,' quod he (' 3eue thow lyste se,) 

That thow seyste, ne may not be. 
Though thyne argumente be stronge, 
At that scole I haue ben longe, 
And fful wel lerne'd my lessoun ; 
And by sodeyne departysoun, 
(Who takyth heede, it is no nay,) 
So sone I may not part away, 
As 2 I kan not (in myne entente) 
ffynde in myne herte to repente, 
Nor to departe vp-on no syde ; 
I am with-hoolde ; I muste abyde, 
With other scolers mo than oon, 
Whiche that there to scole goon, 
As ffolke may sen ther, gret ffoysoun. 

' And eke my skrippe and my bordoun 
Ben I-leffte in that hostage, 
And lyne in maner off morgage ; 
And I ne may not hem 3 recure ; 
And also (as 4 I the ensure) 
I gyue no force, 5 in certeyn, [ 5 fors st.] 



18828 



18832 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
The Pilgrim. 



and went to 
heaven ; 



Cyprian also 
forsook this 
craft, 



and suffered 
as a martyr. 



Look to the 
Saints, and 
not the 
Damnd ! 



Necroman- 
cy's 

Metienger. 



18844 



18848 



[Tib. & St.] 
p And St.] 



The messen- 
ger has been 
long at this 
School of 
Commerce 
with Spirits, 
and will not 
leave it. 

[leaf 18, back] 



18852 



18856 



[Tib.&st.] 18860 
pthem nat st.] 



His scrip 
and itatTare 
there. 



504 Necromancy: her Sword in a Book; her Wings. 



[Tiberius. 

Avii.] 

The Pilgrim, 



I think I'd 
better run 
away. 



The Messen- 
ger calls on 
his mistress, 
Necromancy, 
to fall upon 
me. 



She comes 
after me. 



[leaf 49] 

She has a 
Sword 



and big 
Wings. 



She bids me 
stay and see 
her craft. 



She sits high 
upon a tree. 



Her name 
is ' Necro- 
mancy.' 



18868 



p peniious St.] 



18872 



pin St.] 



' Though I neuere hem haue ageyn.' 18864 

1T The Pylgryme : 

AN"d whanne that I these wordes herde, 
In maner l trewely I fferde C 1 St., Tib. 
As though I hadde astonyed be ; 
And, as it semed vn-to me, 
I stood in a perilous 2 cas. 
And therffore I abasched was, 
And sawe no bette reffute to me, 
But ffro that place ffor to ffle ; 
ffor he (schortely, in sentence) 
To whome I neuere dyde offence, 
Me to bryngen in-to 3 distresse, 
Gan to callen his maystresse 
To koine vpon 4 me in greet rape, P vpon St., on Tib.] 
That I schulde hir not escape. 

And sche, off ffalse entencyoun, 
Kam out off hir pavilloun 5 
Affter me, that I wente abak, 
Hydous off look, oolde and blak, 
Off whom I greetly 6 was afferd. 

In the 7 mydde off a book, sche heelde a swerd ; 
Other scawberk hadde sche noon ; U i the, om. St.] 
And, as I byhelde auoon, 

Sche hadde (in sothe, as thoughte 8 me) E gSyg?f 
Large whynges ffor to ffle. 18888 

IT And, by a maner ffelonye, 
Sche gan loude ffor to crye ; 
And, me manasynge off pryde, 

Bad me that I schulde abyde ; 18892 

And ellis, mawgrey al my myght, 
I schulde not skape out off hir 9 syght [ 9 his St.] 
Til I hadde in partye 
Somwhat seyne off hir maystrye. 18896 

And towarde me hir look sche caste, 
And gan to come vp-on fful ffaste ; 
But as sche kam, it sempte me, 

That sche sate hygh vp-on a tre, 18900 

And pleynely gan to speceffye, 
Hir name was ' Nygrdmauncye/ 



18876 



P parylyon St.] 18880 



[ 6 gretiy i St.] 18883 



Her book, ' Death of the Soul' I meet the hag ' Heresy' 505 



[Ultistration.] 



[Tiberius, 

AviL] 
The Pilgrim. 



WHiche, by my craffte 1 (in substaunce) p be craft St.] 
Kan ffolke encresse, and wel avaunce, 18904 
That ben in my subieccyoun 
And lyste to leerne my lessoun. 

2 This ilke book that thou 3 WOlte SO, P that thou om, Tib.] [leaf 49, back] 



18908 



Is I-callyd Mors Anime, 

"Whiche is in englysche (ffor to seyn,) 

' Dethe off the sowle,' in certeyn. 

And this nakyd swerd whiche I hoolde, 
(As thow mayste thi silffe byholde,) 
There- with (ffor schorte conclusyoun,) 
Whanne thow haste herde my lessoun, 2 
There- with thow schalt yslayne 4 be. [*ysiayn St., siayne Tib.] 

And thus sche gan manasse me, 
Where-off I stood in fful greet drede : 
But off grace, (as I toke hede) 
A white dowue I dyde se 
ffleen sodeynely towardes me ; 
But with me, where as I stood, 
Sche ne made no lenger 5 abood. [ 5 longest.] 

And I ne made no greet delay, 
But wente fforthe vp-on my way ; 

And I mette (or I was war) 

\ 
An oolde oon, whiche that 6 ffagot bar [ 6 a St.] 

Vpon hir bak, and eke therto, 
In hir hand sche heelde also 
A peyre cysours scharpe I-grownde. 
And, to me-ward as sche was bounde, 
Sche bad (ffor schorte conclusyoun) 
ffor to leye my skryppe adoun ; 
And gan vp-on me ffor to ffrowne, 
Lowde cryed, hir lyste not rowne : 

H Heresye : 
' IjlOr but thow leye here adoun, 

M I schal, to thi conffusyoun, 
Schape thi skryppe off newe array, 
ffor it is not to my pay ; 

2-2 om. St. The good old tailor's eye caught the second 
'lesson,' 1. 18914, in his MS. instead of the first, 1. 18906. 



18912 



18916 



18920 



18924 



18928 



18932 



Her book is 
called ' Mors 
Arums,' 

Death of the 
Soul.' 



When I have 
learnt her 
lesson, her 
sword shall 
slay me. 

She threatens 
me. 



The dove 
again saves 
me, 



and I depart. 

I meet an old 

hag, 

' Heresy,' 



who bids me 
lay down my 
scrip, 



18936 



or it will 
be shaped 
otherwise 
for me. 



506 



Heresy formd Pelagians, Arians, and other Sects. 



[Tiberius, 
Avii] 

The Pilgrim. 

[leaf 50] 



I refuse to 
obey her until 
I know her 
authority. 



Herety. 



[leaf 50, back] 

She first 
shaped the 
scrip of Pe- 
lagians and 
Ariana. 



Her name is 
' Heresy.' 



T 



' I schal it kutte in other wyse, 

Lyche as my-syluen lyste devyse.' 18940 

[Illustration.] 

IF The Pylgryme : 

(How oolde vekke, as semeth me, 

That thow mayste not clerely se ; 
Wherffore me lyste, by thi byddynge, 
ffor to do no maner thyng, 18944 

But $eue to-fforne I knowe and se [stowe,ieafs2i] 
Thy powere and thyn autorite ; 
Thy worke also, and thyne office, 
I wole ffirste knowe in myn avyce." 18948 

[Illustration.] 

Heresie: [st.,om.Tib.] 

I Or pleynely, off lasse and more, 

Evene afftir my ffadris lore, 
I wole (off bothe 1 ffalse and trewe,) [ibotheofst.] 
The skrippes kutte and schape newe, 18952 

Off pylgrymes greet and smale, 
Kutte hem alle on pecys smale ; 
ffor it was I, my-silffe allon, 

That schope the skryppes jore agon ; 18956 

ffirste, off this Pellagyens, 
And also off these Arryens, 
And off other sectys newe, 

ffounde ffalse, and 2 vntrewe, [ and fun st.j 18960 

As oolde boke's speciffye ; 
ffor I am callyd ' Heresye,' 
The whiche do alwey 3 my labour 
To brynge ffolke in greet errour, 






[ all ways St., awey Tib.] 

18964 

That ffolwe 4 my condissiouns ; [ foiow St., ffolke Tib.] 
Only by ffalse oppynyouns, 
Make her hertis to declyne 

Her.business. ffro the trouthe off luste doctryne, 18968 

And cause hem ffor to don ther cure, 
And amys to 5 expowne hooly scripture. [ 5 Amysst.] 

' And, trewely, nadde bene 

The greete 6 counceyle at Nycene, [ 6 greet Tib., gret St.] 18972 
Ordeyned by greet Constantyn, 
And nadde ben also Augustyn 



Had it not 
been for the 
Nicean Coun 
cil, and 
Constantine, 
and Augus- 
tine, 



Heresy threatens me, and her Father lars my way. 507 



[i tanull St.] 18976 



18980 



18983 

[ that om. St.] 



18988 



18992 



' And many other greet doctours 
ffor to anulle 1 niyn errours, 
The skryppes off holy churche echon, 
I hadde ffor-don (fful ^ore agoon,) 
Off pylgrymes that passe by the way, 
Sythen goon fful many a day. 

' And $it I schal, what so byffalle, 
Assayle the* amonge hem alle, 
And myn oolde purpos holde, 
In ffyre, though that 2 I brenne schulde, 
I wole my wyttes alle applye, 
Hardy d with obstynacye, 
Contynue til the ffyre be hoot ; 
Therffore I here this ffagot. 

' And ffirste, thow schalt me not escape, 
But newe I wole thy skryppes schape, 
Or ellia I dar vndirtake 
That thow schalt it here fforsake, 
And leve it with me vtterly 3 : p entteriy St.] 

My ffader is here ffaste by, [Stowe, leaf 321, back] 

Whiche hathe power (as thow mayste se) 
And 4 bothe vp-on londe and see, [yest.] 18996 

Thow schalt not skape hym (in certeyne,) 
But with daunger and greet peyne.' 

11 The Pylgryme : 

Myne eyen tho 5 1 gan vnffolde, 
And anoon I gan byholde 
In the weye me byfforne, 
An hunte stoode 6 with his home, 
Off chere and looke 7 ryght pervers. 
And the passage, in travers, 
With cordes he gan it ouere-leyne, 
ffrette with nettys alle the pleyne. 

And he brought in his companye 
The ffalse vekke Heresye. 
And, that men schulde hym wel knowe, 
His home he gan fful lowde blowe ; 
As it were to catche his pray, 

Eyght so he blewe on 8 the way, [ 8 Mew vp on St.] 19012 
[Illustration.] 



[Tiberius, 
Avii] 
Hereiy. 

the scrips of 
Holy Church 
had been 
destroyed 
long ago. 



She will 
attack me, 



[leaf 51] 
and reshape 
my scrips. 



[ 5 then St.] 

19000 

[ stood Tib., stode St.] 
(7 look Tib., loke St.] 

19004 



19008 



I shall not 
escape her 
father, Satan. 

The Pilffrim. 



I see him, a | 
hunter with 
his horn, 



who strews 
the plain 
with nets, 



and blows his 
horn. 



508 Heresy's Father sets nets, hooks, and lines for me. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii] 
The Pilgrim. 

[leaf 51, bk.J 
He is Here- 
sy's father, 
and bars my 
passage. 

The nets are 
so close that 
no one can 
escape. 



Swimming is 
the only way 
cut. 



Deaf 52] 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask the 
Hunter what 
Officer he is, 
who snares 
the King's 
animals. 



Bad ! his doughter Heresye, [ l bad St., And Tib.] 

The passage so to 2 kepe and guye, p so to St., to Tib.] 

That I scholde not, in no syde, 

ffrom ther damage my sylffe provyde. 19016 

And trewely (as I haue sayd) 

The nettys were so narewe layd, 

On 3 lond, on water, and in the hayr, p on St., in Tib.] 



That I myght haue no repayr 
To passe ffreely that passage. 
It was so fful off mortal rage, 
Off daunger and adversite, 
That, but yiff 4 I amydde the see 
Durste swymme, ther was no way 
ffor me to passe, nyght nor day. 

And there he dyde also malygne 
To leyne out nettys, and assigne, 
There to stoppen my passage ; 
So that I ffonde noon avauntage, 
ffrom his dawngere to declyne ; 
ffor many an hook and many a lyne 
"Were caste in-to 5 that peryllous se, 
Off entente to letten me \ 
[Illustration.] 

THat, mawgre alle my fforce and myght, 
But $eue I kowde swymme aryght 
Amonge the wawys ffeerse and ffelle, 
1 muste vndir his dawnger dwelle. 

But ffirste, while he his trappys leyde, 
Vnto 6 the hunte thus I sayde : [ St., Tib. b 
The Pylgryme: 



19020 



['yiff that Tib., yf St.] 

19025 



19028 



19032 



[ 5 in St.] 



19036 



[C. & Tib.] 

wfl 19040 



H 



Ivnte," quod I, " telle me now, 
What maner officere arthow, 7 [' art tou st.] 



Whiche [thus] lyggeste on the way, 

Vnlaweffully 8 to CaCChe pray, [ 8 vnlawfully St., vnlawefull Tib.] 



Thus to make thyne arestis, 
Namely on the kynges beestis ? 
I trowe thow haueste no lycence 
ffor to don so greet offence ; 
I dar afferme (eerly and late), 
Swyche hunters, the kyng doth hate ; 



19045 



[Stowe, leaf 322] 



19048 



/ see Pilgrims swimming in the sea, some upside down. 509 



" And it semyth, by thi manere, 
Off his, thow art noon officere." 19052 

1T The hunte 1 : c hnntar st.] 

aVod he, ' what makystetow swyche stryff 1 
Thow art wonder Inquysytyff, 
Besy also, by argument, 

To hoolde with me a parlement, 19056 

By langage, and longe pletyng ; 
ffor, though I longe not to the kyng, 
(And thow conceyue aryght I-wys,) 
Som tyme I was oon off his ; 19060 

And though I haue no conge* 2 piibertest.] 

Off hym, to hunte in this centre", 
He suffryth me here, in this place, 
At his beestis ffor to chace, 19064 

And assaute on hem to make. 
And whanne that I by fforce hem take, 
Be it by day, be it by nyght, 

I cleyme hem to ben myn off ryght.' 19068 

1F The Pylgryme : 

ANd while I herde alle his resouns 
And ffrowarde oppynyouns, 
Myne herte abaschyd, gan to colde, 
Namely whanne I gan byholde 19072 

Pylgrymes, by greet aduersite, 
fful many oon swymme 3 in the see ; [ s swymmen St.] 
And they were clothyd euerychon. 
And som off hem, I sawe anoon, 19076 

Ther ffeet reversed vp so doun ; 
And som (in myn inspeccyoun) 
Sworame fforth fful euene and 4 ryght ; past] 
And som hadde whynges ffor the fflyght, 19080 

That afforcyd 5 hem silff fful offte [ s offeryd St.] 

For to fflowe 6 fful hygh alloffte. [ for taflowe St.] 
And though ther 7 purpos was so sette, p the St.] 
The see hath hem fful offte lette ; 19084 

[Illustration.] 

SOwme, by the ffeet were bounde stronge 
With knottys, off 8 herbis longe ; [ 8 of the St.] 
And sowme, with wawcs wood and rage, 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 




says he was 
once an 
officer of the 
King, 



and now 
hunts on his 
own author- 
ity. 



[leaf 52, bk.] 
The Pilgrim. 



I am cast 
down, and 
see many 
pilgrims in 
great ad- 
versity in the 
sea, 

with their 
clothes en, 
and some 
with their 
feet in the 
air, 



while others 
have wings; 



others' feet 
are clogd 
with weeds. 



510 The Sea is the World, in which Pride wrecks men. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.) 

[leaf 53] 

The Pilgrim. 

The sad state 
of Pilgrims. 



The Hunter, 
Satan, 



i St., Tib. blurt] 19088 



[ wex St.] 



tells me that 
many snares 
are laid for 
me. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask who 
put the 
pilgrims in 
the sea. 
The Hunter 

Bays that 



Were ysmytt 1 in ther vysage, 

That they losten look and syght, 

And ffeble were 2 off fforce and myght : 

And, by dyuerse apparaylle, 

The rage so gan hem assayle, 

In many another dyuerse wyse, 

Mo than I may as now devyse. 

The Hunte : 3 
' T Do fful wel,' quod he, 4 ' espye 

JL Where-on thow castyste so thyne eye. 
ffor alle thy wyles and thi lape, 
Thow schalt not so ffro me eskape ; [stowe, leaf 322, back] 
I schal the cacche by som crook ; 
I haue leyde ffor the, las and hook, 
As thow mayste thy-syluen se : 
Thow schalt not skapen by this see.' 

IF The Pylgryme : 

(Elle me anoon, and lye nought, 

As it lythe, ryght in thy thought, 
These pylgrymes alle that I se, 
Who hathe thus putte hem in thys 5 see 1 " 

If .The hunte: 



19092 



[' huntar St.] 
[* qwod he full well St.] 

19096 



19100 



T 



19104 



[ 5 thy St.] 



"TS not this,' quod he anoon, 



'An hyghe 6 way ffor ffolke to goon 
Therby, alle day in ther vyage, [ 6 hyghe St., hygh Tib.] 19109 
Swyche as goon on pilgrymage ] 
I hadde not ellis (as I haue seyde) 
Myne hookys and my nettys leyde, 19112 

To cacchen alle in this place 
ffolke that ff orby here do pace ; 

[leaf 53, bk.] ffor this greete 7 large See [ 7 greet Tib., gret St.] 

Whiche that thow here doste se,' 19116 

It is the world, ay fful off trowble, 

fful off many wawys dowble, 

And fful off woo and greet torment, 

In whiche fful many a man is schent, 19120 

With bellewys blowe on euery syde, 

Which that myne owne douhter, Pryde, 

Is wonte, with hir ffor to bere, 

Good pylgrymes ffor to dere. 19124 



the sea is 
the world,! 
full of 
trouble, 



in which 
Pride wrecks 
many. 



Covetousness drowns folk. The Contemplative. ' Ortigometra.' 511 



' And many a pylgryme thow mayste se 
Swymme in this perelous see : 
Somme off hem, (whiche is not ffeyre,) 
Ther ffeet han vpwarde in the ay re 1 ; phayrst.] 19128 
And alle swyche (jeue thow lyste se) 
Ben thylke ffolke that charged be 
With the sak off couetyse, 

And ouere-lade in many wyse, 19132 

That they, to swymme be not able, 
Ther burthen is so Importable ; 
Whiche, by ffalse affeccyoun, 

Ploungith her heede's low a-down " 19136 

Vnder the wawys off this world here, 
That they may not (in no manere) 
Swymme, ffor the hevynesse 
That they bere, off greet rychesse. 19140 

OTher ther ben that swymmen ryght, 
And haue eke wynges ffor the fflyght ; 
And tho ben ffolkis whiche, in this lyffe, 
In herte ben con templatyffe, 19144 

In wordely thyng haue no plesaunce, 
Save in ther bare sustenaunce : 
In this world, ther loye is nought ; 
ffor alle ther herte and alle ther thought, 19148 

And ffynal truste off ther workynge, 
Is sette vp-on the heuenly kynge. 

' But ffor alle that, (I the assure, 2 ) [stowe, leaf 323] 
In this see they muste endure p ensure St.] 19152 

Bodily, by greet penaunce, 

In hevene hem sylffe 3 to avaunce. pthem aeiven St.] 
And, ffor the love 4 off crist ihesu, [ love St., lawe Tib.] 
They make hem whynges off vertu, 19156 

To ffleen (by clene affeccyoun) 
To the heuenly mansyoun ; 
Whiche greetly displesith me, 
Theder whanne I se hem ffle. 19160 

Swyche ffolke resemblen alle 
Vn-to a bryd that clerkes calle 
Ortigometra in ther bokys ; 
And this bryd caste his lokys 19164 



[Tiberius, 

AviL] 

The Hunter, 

Satan. 

Many pil- 
grims swim 
in this sea. 
Those with 
their feet in 
the air are 
overladen 
with the sack 
of Covetous- 
nest, 



which plung- 
es their heads 
under the 
world's 
waves. 



Some have 
wings for 
flight. 

These are the 
Contem- 
plative, 



whose 

thoughts 
are always 
set on the 
heavenly 
King; 
[leaf 54] 

they must 
still endure 
and suffer to 
gain Heaven. 



They are like 
the bird 
Ortigometra. 



512 ' Ortigometra.' Folk clogd with the Weeds of Riches. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
The Hunter. 



which, when 
it is tired, 



drops into 
the water, 



and sets up 
one wing as i 
sail, 



till it can fly 
again. 



Those Pil- 
grims in the 
sea with their 
feet bound 
with weeds, 



[leaf 54, bk.] 



have their 
minds so fixt 
on worldly 
prosperity 
and riches, 



that they can 
neither swim 
nor fly. 



Some, too, 
are blind, so 
that they 
can't see the 
emptiness of 
this world's 
glory. 



' To-fforne hym prudently, to se 

Whanne he schal swymme in the see : 

This ffoul hath whynges ffor the fflyght, 

Be he 1 anoon off kyndely ryght. c 1 to best] 19168 

Whanne he is wery off travayle, 

And that his ffederes do 2 hym ffayle, p done St.] 

Anoon (off his condiscyoun) 

In-to the water he fallith doun, 19172 

And thanne 3 to swymme wole not ffayle : p that St.] 

Off his o whynge, he makith a ssayle, 

Amonge the sturdy wawys alle 

To kepe hym silffe, that he not ffalle, 19176 

Til he resume ageyne his myght, 

Off acustom, 4 to take his fflyght. [* custom St.] 

Thus stoundemel 30 may hym se, 

Som tyme swymme, som tyme fflee, 19180 

In bokys as it is I-ffounde. 

' But they that haue 5 fleet I-bounde [ 6 haue ther st.] 
With herbes and with wedes greene, 
That they may not aryght sustene, 19184 

Nowther to swymme nor to fflee, 
They be so bounden in the see 
Off wordely 6 delectacyoun [ worldly St.] 

In ther inwarde affeccyoun ; 19188 

ffor alle ther hool ffelicyte 

Is Sette in Veyne 7 prosperite [ 7 veyne St., verrey Tib.] 

Off the world, and in rychesse, 

fful off chaunge and dowblenesse, 19192 

With whiche they be so 8 sore bounde, [ 8 so St., om. Tib.] 

That her soulis yt wole conffounde ; 

ffor they haue power none, 9 nor myght, [9 "^*Jj t-l Tib * 

Nowther to swymme nor fneen 10 aryght ; pflyen st.] 

So sore the world doth hem constreyne, 19197 

That it were to hem greet peyne, 

Her hertis ffro the world to vnbynde. 11 [ n tuunbynd st.] 

'And som also be makyd 12 blynde, pmadest.] 19200 
Ther eyen cloos, they may not se, 
ffor to considere the vanyte 
Off this worldis ffalse veyneglorye, 
Euere vnsure and traiisitorye, 19204 



Heresy's Father is Satan, who tempts Pilgrims. 



513 



19212 



* rovcrbs. oi. at. 



19216 



' And fful off mvtabylyte, 1 C 1 mutabylyte St., mvtabytc Tib.] 

Wliiche schewith to hem fful greet bewete 

By a 2 maner off apparence, p a St., om. Tib.] 

But it is ffalse in existence ; 19208 

That is fful ffoule, dothe schewe ffayre, 

Lyche a ffloure that dothe vnapay re 3 \jTib. &st. apayrest.] 

Whanne it is plukkyd and leyde lowe, 

Or with som sodeyne wynde I-blowe. 

Whiche bewete (as wryte Salamoun) 

' 

Is but a ifalse decepcyoun ; 

And ffolkis that beth there-with blente, 

Or they be war, beth offte schente, 

ffor lak ther eyen be not clere. 

IF 'Eke som ther swymmes 4 (as 30 may leere) [* swyme St.] 

With hand and armys strecchyd out ; 

Swyche as parte her good aboute 19220 

To pore ffolkis that haue neede ; 

And swyche vnbynde 5 her fleet, in deede, P ky^m ] vn " 

ffrom wordely 6 delectacyoun, [ worldly st.] 

And off devoute entencyoun, 19224 

By councel off her c6nffessour, 

Vnbynde her ffeet, by 7 greet labour, u with st.] 

ffor to goon in there vyages, 

Barffote, to seke pilgrymages ; 

Off ther synne's to haue pardoun, 

fforjeuenesse and remyssyoun, 

Whanne ther menynge trewely 

Is voyde ffrom al ypocrysy. 

ANd thus as now (withoute 8 slouthe) 
To the I hauo tolde the trouthe. 

' And trewely 9 3it, ouere alle thyng, c 9 sothiy St.] 
I hate trowthe in my workyng ; 
And off malys, bothe day and nyght, 
Werrey 10 trouthe with al my myght. 

' By name, callyd I am Sathan ; [ |o wen-ay st., vcrrey Tib.] 
The whiche, as ffer as euere I kan, 19240 

I worke, in myne entencyoun, 
ffor to cacche, in my bandoun, 
Alle pylgrymes (as thow mayst sc,) 
That swy?/nnen in the wawy see 19244 

PILGRIMAGE. L L 




19228 



19232 

[8 without Tib., 
St.] 



19236 



like a flower 
fades, when it 
is plucked. 



They who 
swim with 
outatretcht 
arms are 
those who 
gave to the 
poor, 



j [leaf 55] 



and went 
pilgrimages. 



Hut Truth is 
hated by 
Satan the 
hunter, 



and he is 
always en- 
deavouring 
U lay hold 
of pilgrims, 



514 Satan's snares to catch folk. He personates an Angel. 

[Tiberius, ' Off this world, fful off disseyte. 
stitan. ' And euere I lye in greet awayte, 

And no moment I ne ffyne 

ffor to leyne out hook and lyne. 19248 

by means of ' My lyne (by denionstracyoun) 

Temptation, 

I-callyd is Temptacyoun ; 
And whanne that ffolke (in ther entente) 
Off herte and wylle ther-to concente, 19252 

Thanne on myn hook (by ffalse awayte,) 
They ben I-cacchyd with the bayte ; 
And thanne, by fful mortal lawe, 
To my bandoun, I hem drawe. 19256 

and nets ' I leye out nettes nyght and day, 

spread day 

and night, In water and lond, to cacche my pray. 

[leaf 55, back] ' With nettys, I haue eke my repayre [stowe, loaf 224] 

ffor bryddes that ffleen eke in the hayre, 19260 

ffor to make hem ffalle adown 

ffrom ther contemplacyown. 

And, thus ffolkys to bygyle, 

I am a ffoulere eke som whyle ; 19264 

ffor alle that hygh or lowe goon, 

I jnake nettis ffor euerychoon, 

(In myne entente, it is no drede), 

To cacche hem, outher 1 by ffoot or hede, [' or st.] 19268 
as a spider As an vreyne wewyth 2 a calle, p wevithe St.] 

weaves a net .. . 

to catch flies; To make myes there-m to d ffalle. ptoom.st.] 

but he cannot ' But I ne may not do no wronge 

injure virtue . 

To ffolke that ben in vertu stronge. 19272 

I venquysche (nouther nygh nor Iferre) 
No man that halte ageyne me werre ; 
and manly And ffeble is my vyolence, 

resistance. 

Whanne ther is manly resystence. 19276 

ANd $it I haue a thowsande treynes, 
And as many laas and cheynes, 
With 4 whiche I compasse, day by day, i*om. St.] 
To lettii pylgrymes on ther way; 19280 

ffor I, by ffalse illusyoun 

He can trans- And by dySSUmylacyOUn, 5 [ 5 dyssimilasyon St.] 

form himself - j* / ' r t x 

into an angel Kan me transttorme (anoon ryght,) [ 6 me St., mys Tib.] 

To lykenesse off an aungel bryght; 19284 



Satan makes a Hermit kill his own Father. 



515 



' Take off hym the resemblaunce, 

The vesage and the contenaunce, 

So to disseyuen, in couert ; 

And to an heremyte in desert; 19288 

I 1 dyde oones so appere, V- And i Tib., i st.] 

fful off ffetheres bryght and clere, 

And toke 2 on me the message [ toke St., do Tib.] 

Off an aungel, by my vysage, 19292 

And bad vn-to that hooly man 

To kepe hym warly ffrom Sathan, 

ffor he was schapen, by batayle, 

The nexte more we, hym to assay le ; 19296 

And tolde hym also, (ffynally, 

ffor to disceyve hym sotylly,) 

He wolde take, (in sothenesse,) 

Off hys ffader the lyknesse, 19300 

Bothe vesage and contenaunce, 

The maner and the resemblaunce. 

[Illustration.] 

' A Nd bad the heremyte anoon ryght 
J\_ To fforce hym, at the ffirste syght, 19304 

To smyte hym ffirste, with knyffe or swerde, 
And no thyng to ben afferde 
With al his myghtty vyolence, 

Whanne he cam ffirste to his presence. 19308 

IT And so, vpon the nexte' more we, 
ffor to encresse his dool and sore we, 
I made his ffader hym vesyte ; 1931 1 

And anoon, this seyde heremyte, [stowe, leaf 321, back] 
This Innocent, thys cely man, 
"Wenynge hit hadde be Sathan, 
Vp sterte anoon, and toke a knyff, 
And raffte his ffader off his lyff, 19316 

That he to grounde ffel downe deed. 

' And thus I kan (who takyth heed) 
A thousande weyes, ffolke 3 dysceyue, [ 3 ffoike to St.] 
Or they my treynes 4 kan conceyue. [ trappis st.] 19320 
And therffore, 5 be wel war off me, [ 5 tiierfore st., hcrfforc Tib.] 
ffor I caste eke 6 dysseyuc the ; [ 6 eke to st] 

3eue I at largo may the ffynde, 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.J 
Satan. 



and did once 
so appear to 
a hermit in 
the desert, 



and bade 
him beware 
of Satan, 

[leaf 56] 

who would 
visit him en 
the morrow 



in the like- 
ness of his 
father : 



he must kill 
him at once. 



Accordingly, 
his father ' 
comes, 



and the 
hermit slays 
him. 



[leaf 50, back] 



516 



By crossing myself, I make Satan pmverless. 



[Tiberius, 
Avii.] 



Satan goes 
about 



like a raven- 
ous lion, 
to devour 
the Lambs of 
Christ's fold. 



Satan de- 
clares I shall 
not escape 
him. 



The Pilgrim. 



I defy Satan, 

[leaf 57] 



cross 
myself, 



pass the 
devils, 



19328 



' In my laas a I schal the bynde ; [ lace St.] p tendit St.] 

IT ffor, as seynt Petre lyste endyte,* 

And in his pystelys ffor to wryte, 

I go and serche, day and nyght, 

With alle my fforce, with al my myght, 

Lyche a ravenous lyoun, 

ffor to devoure, vp and doun, 

Alle ffolkys, jonge and oolde, 

That lambre 3 be off cristis ffoolde. p lambes stj 19332 

I haue off hem, fful jore agoon, 

Off hem devoured many oon ; 

Strangelyd mo than I kan telle ; 

And that 4 were to longe to dwelle, t*u St.] 19336 

ffor to rekene hem alle in nowmbre, 

Thousandis mo than I kan nowmbre ; 

And trewely, in two hundred 3er, 

I koude not telle the maner 

Off alle my treynes by and by. 

' And I warne the outerly, 
Thow schalt not lyghttely (jeue I may,) 
ffro my daunger skape away.' 

IT The Pylgryme : 
" "VTTHer thow be wel or yuel apayd 

f T In the wordes that thow haste sayd, 
I haue ffounden a greet dyffence, 
To make ageyne the, resistence, 19348 

And conceyued 5 it in my thought. V 
Blowe thyne home, and spare nought, 
ffor thow schalt ffayle (^eue that I may) 
To make off me 6 schortely thi pray." [thest.] 19352 

And to be more stronge in vertu, 
"With the crosse off crist ihesu, 
,And off his grace moste benygne, 
I gan me crossen, and eke sygne, 19356 

ffor to assure 7 my passage [ 7 tassure St.] 

Ageyne his laas so fful off rage. 

And by my crossynge, I anoon 

Gan to passe hem euerichoon ; 19360 

They hadde no power ffor to laste ; 
ffor, by the vertu, they to-braste ; 



19340 



19344 



Satan laments. His purpose is to lie always. 



517 



And I anoon gan ffaste fflee, 



[stowe, leaf 325] 



19364 



c l st., Tib. 



19368 



pimntarst.] 



of St.] 19372 



And wolde haue taken anoon the see ; 
But, longe or I entter myght, 
Whan 1 Sathan off me hadde a syght, 
He gan to crye (so stood the cas) 
' Out and harow ! alias, alias ! ' 

1F Sathan the hunte weymentith 2 
And tonnentyth with hym silffe. 3 pwHianyehunur 

[Illustration.] 

' Vnhappy, 4 and fful off meschaunoe [* st., i vnhappy Tib.] 
I was, whanne I dyde me avaunce 
In any wyse ffor to teche 
Vertu, or 5 trowthe ffor to preche ; 
ffor, it longeth not to me 
To teche trouthe in no degre ; 
But, off ffortune it happc so, 
That I be c6nstreyned ther-to, 
By vertu off som orysoun 
Or by som conyurisoun, 6 
That greete 7 clerkes me compelle, 
The verrey trowtho" ffor to telle, 
Mawgrey my wylle, off many a thyng, 
By vertu off the greete 8 kyng. [ 8 gret st., greet Tib.] 
ffor ellys (who that kan espye) 
My purpos is, euere ffor to lye, 
And 9 haue disseyued fful many a man, 
Eyght as dyde lulyau. 

' Though I were by hym constreyned, 
And by his charm es greetly peyned, 
3 it at the laste, whanne I abrayde, 
I lye'd, alle that euere I sayde. 
And now I oughte a-cursyd be, 
Whanne that I gan medle me 
To seyne a trouthe agaynes 10 kynde, [ |0 agayns Tib., st.] 
Sethen men, in me may 11 noon ffynde; [nemay inmost.] 
There-off I repente me fful sore, 
With trowthe, medle I wole no more.' 

IF The Pylgryme answerth to Satan : ! - 
Sathan, thi displesaunce 
Was to me fful greet plesaunce, 



19384 



p i st.] 



19388 



19392 



19396 

pilgrim st.j 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.l 



and flee. 



Satan la- 
ments. 



It's not his 
work to 
preuch Truth, 
[leaf 57, back] 



[ 6 coniurasion St.] 
[" greet Tib., grctc St.] 

19380 



He tries to 
lie always. 



He'll meddle 
no nmrc with 
Truth. 



518 / surim to a tree, and am thrown on Fortune's Wlwel. 



[Tiberius, 

A vii.] 
The Pilffrim. 

I am em- 
boldened, 



relying on 
my scrip and 
staff. 



[leaf 58, Tib.] 



I swim, sup- 
ported by my 
scrip and 
staff, 



and undergo 
many perils. 



I see a tree, 
ami thinking 
it an island, 
I go towards 
it. 



[leaf 58, back, 
Tib.] 



Then I am 
cast on a 
wheel, 



" Releuynge me off my distresse." 
I took there-off greet hardyuesse, 19400 

Made as tho 1 no lenger lette, p thow st.] 

I spared nowtber hook nor nette, 
But, trustynge (in conclusyoun) 

Vp-on my skrippe and my burdoun,-, 19404 

And there-vp-on I bylened 2 me p lened st.] 

Wbanne I entryd in-to the see ; 
And, in swymmynge to be more stable, 
Me thought my skryppe proffitable <( 19408 

To kepe me sure in herte and thought, 
In my way, that I erred nought. 
[Illustration.] 

TRewely, 3 in this dredefful see, p yet truly st.] 19411 
Is 4 greet myscheeff and adue?-syte : [*o. st.] 
Many a perel (I jou ensure,) 
And many a straunge aventure 

I ffelte tho in my passage, 19415 

Off wawys and off 5 rokkis rage, ^prfdSJTffif 3 
And many a tempeste (in certeyn) 
Off thondrynge, lyghtnynge, and off reyn, 
And other perels that be-ffelle, 

That, jeue I schulde hem alle telle, 19420 

Or the myscheves alle endyte, 
They were to longe for 6 to wryte. [ for St., . Tib.] 

But while that I, in my passage, 

Byheelde the see, sterne and savage, 19424 

Me thought I sawe bysyde me, 
That there stood a greene tre ; 
And I was glad alle 7 thilke while, pofst.] 

Wenynge there hadde ben an yle, 19428 

In hope that I schulde londe, 
Hastely, vp at soni stronde, 
Whiche was to me fful greet plesaunce. 

And as I gan my silffe avaunce, 19432 

And thederward gan ffaste bye, 
Anoon my sylffe I dyde aspye 
(Whanne that I gan loke wel) 

Tliat I was caste vp-on a whel, 19436 

Off whiche to-fforne I sawgh no thynge ; 









The Tree has Nests on it. Fortune, and her dmcble look. 519 



19444 



19448 



it ueinyd St.] 



1945G 



[St. & Tib.] 



ffor the ffloodes, in ther ffiowynge, 
Hadde with his wawes euerydel 
Ouere-fflowyd so that whel, 
That I toke no heede there-at, 
Tyl sodeynely there-cm I sat. 
And wyldely the wawys smette 
Vp-on this whel, ay as they mette ;. 

ANd euere round, (as thoughte me,) 
This whel wente aboute the tre, 
Where-off, I astonyed was, 
Whanne I sawe this sodeyne caas. 
Vp on whiche tre anoon, 
I sawgh nestys fful many oon ; 
And bryddes (that I koude knowe,) 
Somme hyh, and somme 1 lowe, [> som Tib., some St.] 19452 
Ther nestis made (I toke good hede) 
Grete and smale (it is no drede). 
U And I denied, 2 in certeyne, [ 

That this tre hadde hoolys tweyne ; 
And on the hygher hoole aloffto, 
I sawe an hand putte out fful offte. 
And this hand (as to my look) 
To the nestis put up an hook, 
And (as to myne inspeccyoun) 
Was besy to pulle the nestis douii. 

And as I stode a lytel throwe 
At the hoole that stood moste lowe, 
1 sawgh heedes lokynge oute 
Towarde the brauiiches roundc aboute, 
In purpos (jeue it myght haue be) t 3 ,' 
To clymbe vp hyghe on that 3 tre : 
They wolde haue take it ffayne in honde. 

And there I sawe a lady stonde 
Amonge the wylde wawys trowble, 
Vp-on a whel dyuerse and dowble. 
Departyd was her garnemente, 
Halffe hool, and haluendel was rente \ 
The to party, as snow was white 
To loke vp-on, oft greet delyte ; 
The tother party (as thought mo) 



[St. & Tib.] 



19464 



. . that Tib., 
. .tliilko St.] 
[Stowe, leaf 2SO] 



194G9 



19472 



19171! 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.) 
The Pili/rim. 



which re- 
volves round 
the tree, 



and on which 
are many 
birds' nests. 



[Tib., leaf 59] 

The tree has 
two holes in 
its trunk ; 
and out of 
the upper one 
goes a hand 
with a hook, 
trying to 
ilrai; the 
nests down. 



A lady 
(Koi-luiiel is 
standing on 
a wheel. 



Her garment 
is of two 

parts, 



520 My Staff" helps me. I ask Fortune to explain her Wheel, &c. 
[Tiberius, Was ffoule and owgely on to se. 

And hir VSae eke als 



and so also is Was departyd euene a two ; 19480 

her Tace. ,,,, -,-, 

ihe to party was amyable, 
And to byholde delytable, 
Bothe off porte and off manere, 

Glad and lawynge off hir chere; 19484 

U The tother syde, hydous and old, 
Whiche was ryuelyd many ffold ; 
Dame For- And on hir schuldres rownd and square. 

tune bears a 

staff on her A crokyd staffe in sothe sche bare. 19488 

shoulders. 

And whanne I gan al this aduerte, 
Dyscomff6rtyd in myn herte 

\Illustration^\ p I was, and gretly gan gaste St.] 

[Tib., leaf 59, fT^Hanne was I, greetly agaste 1 ; 

I And my burdoun I heelde ryghte ffaste, 19492 
And dyde also greetly my peyne 



staff 11 y ^ 8 r YP e it w ith niyne handcs tweyne ; 
And seyde, (off sodeyne moscyoun,) 
" Bordoun," quod I, "bordoun, bordoun ! 19496 

and tell it, But thow me helpb' 2 in this Caas, [ helpe now St.] 

unless it 

helps me I may 3 wepe and seyne ' alias, p may well St.] 

My peynes ben so scharpe and kene. 

And but thow helpe to sustene 19500 

Myne nownpowere and inpotence, 4 [* impotence st.i 

That I may stonden at dyffence 

Vp-on my ffeet, and that anoon, 

i shall be ff arc-wel ! my loye is alle agoon ! " 19504 

it enables me IF But tho, thorough helpe off my bordoun,/ 

to rise. T , 

1 roos vp as a champyoun. 

But whanne this lady dyde espye 

Fortune tries That I Was VH, ScllC gall to llVG 19508 

to set me r 

down again. ffor to haUC putte 1116 doUll ageyn J [ 5 taputSt.] 

And I trowe ryght wel certeyn, 
That, but I hadde spoken ffayre, 

And off my porte be debonayre, 19512 

I hadde ben to 6 ffeble off myght, [ 6 to St., ffui Tib.] 
Vp-on my ffeet to stonde 7 vp ryght. [Uastanast.] 
[Tib., leaf eo] T)Vt I abrayde, and bade in deede 

JJ that scho scholde taken heede 19516 



How Fortune is ever changing, and betrays all ivho trust Jter. 521 



To thilke party that was ffayre 

Off hir, and putte me ffro dispayre, 

And schewe, lyke hir contenaunce, 

Som counfforte or som plesaunce ; 19520 

And that sche wolde expowne me 

What lady that sche schulde be, 

Hir name, hir power, euerydel, [stowe, leaf 326, back] 

Bothe off hir and off hir whel, 19524 

And off the tre, and off the croppe, 

And off the nestis in the coppe, 1 [ l cop st.] 

And do to 2 me som avauntage, p done to St., do TH>.J 

To ffurthre me in my vyage. 3 19528 

H" ffortune : 
' ~T~JN r me (schortely to expresse) 

JL There is no maner stablenesse ; 
ffor, (be hereoff ryght wel certeyn,) 
Alle that I worke, is vncerteyn ; 
Lyke my dowble contenaunce, 
I am so fful off variaunce. 
Therffore, to axe how I me guye, 
It is no wysdam, but ffolye ; 
I worke no thyng in certeynte, 
But fful off greet duplycyte. 
I am what-euere I do provyde ; 

ffor I la we 4 on the ryghte 5 syde, [ 4 lawghe st.] p ryght rib., st.] 
And schewe a cher off greet delyte 19541 

On the party that I am white. 6 [ deiyt . . . whit st.] 
Thanne men me callii ' glad ffortune ' ; 
But, no while I do contune ; 
ffor, longe or ffolke may aparceyue, 
I lean hem sodeynely disseyue, 
7 And make her loyii go to wrak 
AVyth ffroward mowhiis at the bak. 
'Than y, lykned 8 to the moone, 
ff oik wyl chauwge my name sone ; 
And fro my whel whaw they are falle, 



19532 



19536 



I ask her 
name, and 
what her 
Wheel, and 
the Tree and 
Nests mean. 



Fortune. 
Fortune says 



ever variable 



and full of 
duplicity. 



When she 
favours folk, 
they call her 
({lad For- 
tune ' ; 



19544 



[Stowe, leaf S27] 
[Tib. A. 7, If. 60, bk.] 
[".lykenyd St.] 19549 



[Cott. ViteD. 
C. 13.] 



hut when she 
throws them, 
' Intbrtune.' 



3 Stowe leaves a blank of 10 lines in his copy, and puts a side- 
note "fortune should be porturatyd." 

7 The text is now again taken up from MS. Cott. Vit. c. xiii. 
leaf 253. 



522 How Fortune plays ivith men. Her Wheel Charybdu. 

Fortune. ' ' Infortune ' they me calle. 19552 

To ffolk vnworthy, and nat dygne, 
I am somwhyle most benygne, 

Lyggynge awayt in euery cost, 19555 

Off ffolk whom that 1 1 cherysshe most. 

She deceives And who that On me Set hys lust, [ l that Tib., om. C., St.] 
all who trust J 

her - I kan deceyve hyw off hys trust. 

Tak hed pleynly, and thow shalt se 

A pleyn exau?Mple off thys tre, 19560 

TheTreemay HOW thys tie (at WOld) 
be likened to v 

the world. May be resemblyd to the world. 

U 'ffyrst, in thys world be grete estatys, 19563 

Off kynges, prynces, and off 2 prelatys, [ 3 offoi.Tib., of St.] 
Wych in thys erthe 3 chau?igen offte. p world st.] 

The Nests on And the nestys hyh" aloff te 

the Tree are 

degrees of J} en degrees 4 off lordshepe, [* degrees Tib., dcgres C., St.] 

That so offte on heihte lepe, 19568 

Bothe off hyh" and lowh" degre. 
Those below And they that al by-nethe be, 

Loke vp-ward, and al day gaze, 

As yt wer vp-on A maze : 19572 

Tho be they, that so offte 
want to Desyre for to clymbe aloffte 

climb to high 

estate. To hili estat and hih" degre, 

ffrom ther estaat off pouerte. 19576 

But in it, 'Sowme 5 off hem may longe abyde, 

nnne stay 

ion*?, their ff O r I sette hew ofFte asyde ; [(? None), some Tib., st.] 

toriunes * 

change. Wych thyng to hym ys no thyng soote, 

Whan they be longe put vnder ffoote 19580 

Thorgh my double varyau?zce. 

And sowrne kan ban 6 suffysauwce, C 6 h $f*" t 8om ka " h:ilie 
[iaf 234, bkj Arid ben ryht glad in ther entent 

Off the lytel that god hath sent ; [Tib., leaf GI] 19584 

They ha 7 no care for 8 ther dyspence. ^p^gtJ^f*i 

And somme haue euere Indygence, 

And kan \\ith no thyng be content, 

W/t/i coveytyse they be so blent, 19588 

Wych, for ther oune wrechchydnesse, [stowe, leaf 327, back] 

Lyve euere in pouert and dystresse. 
Tiie wheel ' Touchyiig my whel (yt ys no douk-,) 



Fortune's Crook, and the Nests, or folk of high degree. 523 



which always 
turns 

signifies that 
man cannot 
remain aloft, 



19596 

[i C., St., whiche whel 
who Tib.] 



' Wych tourneth euere round aboute, 19592 Fortune. 

Ther may no man aloffte Abyde 

But yiff so be I be hys guyde. 

Yt turneth euere to and ffro ; 

The pley ther-off ys meynt vfith wo ; 

The wyche whel (who that 1 kan se,) 

Ys a pereyl off the se, 

On, the grettest off echon, 2 P one ... one St.] 

ffor to rekne hem on by on ; 19600 

And, thys phylisoffres alle, 

' Karybdis ' lyst yt for to calle, 

Yt devoureth so many A man, 

Ye, mo than I reherse kan.' 19604 

IT The Pylgrym 3 : c 3 Tib., piigryme st., om . c.j 

" Touchy ng thy staff, tel on, lat se 
What maner tookne yt may be, 
That yt corbyd lych and 4 Crook, [anTib.] 

And mad in maner off 5 an hook." piykest.] 10608 

IT Dame Fortune 6 : c 6 Tib., om. c.] 

' With thys Crook, by gret vengauwce, 
ff oik, that to soon 7 I dyde avauwce, [' to fforne Tib., St.] 
Thorgh my transmutacfouw, 

Al sodeynly I rende hem douw, J9612 

That sat in chayerys hih" aloffte ; 
To whom ther fal ys 8 no thyng soffte. [T VL a ii 8 6 st. b ] ack] 
Reyse vp ageyn al sodeynly 

Other that be nothyng worthy, 19616 

And cause ek somme (Est arid west) 
ffor to bylde fful hih ther nest 
And ther habytciourc ; 

Sowtyme, off wyl, nat off resou?z, 19620 

I take noon bed off no degre, 
But only off my voluwte.' 

II The Pylgryme 9 : [" Tib., om. c.] 

" fful ffayn I wolde ek vnderstonde 
The menyng also off the hond, 19624 

At the hoole hyh aloffte, 
That reyseth vp his crook so offte, 
The nestys for to rende a-douw : 
Tel me thexposictou?*." 19628 



and is called 
Chary bdis. 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask Fortune 
about her 
hookt staff. 



Fortune. 

She says it 
brings down 
those too 
soon raised 
up, 



and raises 
up others, 
tho' un- 
worthy. 



[leaf 255] 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask her 
about the 
Hand con- 
tinually rais- 
ing i In- 
Crook, to pull 
the Nests 
down. 



524 No estate is safe from Fortune's tricks. I fall from her. 



Fortune 

says the 
Ni'sts are 
men of tlie 
highest de- 
gree. 



These Princes 
and Lords 



can never be 
safe against 
mutability, 



against trea- 
son and 
poison. 

[leaf 255, bk.] 



When For- 
tune smiles 
on Folk, she 
lies in wait to 

I rick em. 



IT Dame Fortune * : IE Tib., om. cj 

' The nestys hifi vp-on the tre, 
That beii hyest off degre, 
Ben they off ryht and good resouw 
That eutre by successions, 
As kynges, by iust enherytauwce, 

Whom that trOUthe lyst avaUWCe 2 [ 2 trouthe habundaunce Tib.] 

Only by lyneal dy scent, 
Hys lyges echon 3 off assent ; 
Or, 4 for lak off success'ioxm, 
Swyche as by ellecc'iowi 
Ben reysed vp to hih" degre, 
As many pn'nces and lordys be. 

' Thogh I to hem have envye, 
To reve hem off ther Regalye, 
Yet, thogh I ther-to haue no niyght 
ffor to robbe hem off ther ryht, 
Yet (who lyst looke with Eyen cler) 
They be ful offte in my daimger; 
ffor they may nat assuryd be 
Ageyn my mutabylyte, 
Nor ageyn my mortal stryff ; 
ffor offte sythe they lese her lyff 
By compassyng off ffals Tresouw, 
By mordre also, and poysoun. 
And trewly, al thys frowardnesse 
Ys tookned 5 by the crookydnesse 
Off my staff and off my crok, 
Wrong 6 at the ende, as ys an hook. 

' And whan I loke v/iih Eyen cler, 
Lawhe on ffolk, 7 and make hem cher, 
Thanne lygge I rathest in a-wayt, 
ffor to don hem som deceyt. 

' Lo, her ys al ; go forth 8 thy way ; 
And truste wel, yiff that I may, 
What weye cuere, that thow go, 

Or thy pylgrymage be do, 19664 

Tourne yt to sour, outlier to swcte, 
Onys I shal yet 9 with the mete.' p ther St.] 

H Fortune is walkyd. 10 [> Kb., om. c., st.] 



[Stowe, leaf 328] 19632 



[s leegis echone Tib.] 19636 
[*OrTib., OffC., of St.] 



19640 



[Tib., leaf 62] 19644 



19648 



19652 



tokenyd St.] 



[ wron S e St.] 19656 



folk, om. Tib., folke St.] 



19660 

[8 ftbrthc Tib., forthe 
St., foth C.] 



Cast off lyy Fortune, I am disconsolate. 



525 



19668 



C 1 That i, Tib.] 

p low. Tib.] 19672 



19680 



[stowe] 
[ 5 fui, om. Tib.] 



19684 



[ 6 sharp inghe St.] 



And ffortune wente her way A-noon. 

And also sone as she was gon, 
I stood in dred and in gret doute 
Vp-on hyr whel turnynge aboute, 
Tyl that, 1 by reuoluc'iouw, 
I 2 was cast fful lowe A-douw, 
By power off that 3 double quene ; 
ffor, I myghte me nat sustene, 
In iupartye and in gret dred, 
Wysshynge that I hadde be ded. [stowe, leaf m, back] 19676 

And in trouble and gret peyne, [Tib., leaf 62, back] 
Thawne I gan my sylff 4 compleyne, 
Dysconsolaat off al vertu, 
Only for lak off Grace Dieu, 
That was whylom to me ffrendly, 
Whom I ha lost thorgh my foly, 
Wher-off I felte ful 5 gret offence, 
That I forsook so penytence, 
Only (alias !) for lak off grace, 
By hyr sharpe heggh 6 to passe, 
Wher I myhte have had socours, 
And medycyne to myw Errours, 
By hyr spyrytual doctryne 
ffro the wyche I dyde enclyne. 
Alias, my woful aventure, 
That I leffte myn Armure 
Behynde me, alias, in veyn ! 

But yiff I myhte hem gete ageyn, 7 
I sholde 8 lyue bettre in pes, [ 8 . would St.] 19695 

And n6 mor ben SO rekeleS ; 9 [ 9 rekeles Tib., rekles C., recles St.] 

But, alias my woful ffaate ! 

I make my c6wpleynt al to late ; 

ffor I stonde in Iupartye 

Only off deth, thorgh my ffolye. 19700 

Alias ! what may I now best werche 1 

sacramentys off the cherche, 

1 hope by grace wel certeyn, 

I receyvede yow nat in veyn ; 19704 

But now, alias, that I am falle, 

I ha lost yow, 10 on and u alle, [JJ JJK^-r 40 " Tib " yow su 



19688 



19692 

ageyn Tib., hole in 3fS. C., 
get them agayne St.] 



The Pilgrim. 

Fortune de- 
parts, 



and I am 
thrown from 
her wheel. 



I lament my 
loss of Grace 
Dieu, 



[leaf 256] 

and my hav- 
ing left my 
armoui 
behind, 



I am in 
jeopardy. 



526 The White Dove appears, with a Bill from Grace Dieu 



The Pilfjrim. 

I find no 
support in 
my scrip and 
staff. 



When I first 
saw the 
vision of the 
Heavenly 
C'ty, 



I was eager 
to go there. 



Now I am 
stopt, and I 
weep. 



[leaf 256, bk.] 
But soon the 
white dove 
appears to 
me with a 
bill 



from Grace 
Dieu, 
giving me 
advice, 



And ha no sustentac'iouw 

In my skryppe nor my bordoura, 19708 

Wher-on that I may lene me, 

Toward lerusalem the cyte. 

And thogh al day I studye and muse, 
How shal I my sylff excuse, 19712 

Or what answere 1 shal I make, 
Off al that I ha vndertake, 
And behifite in my corage, 

To fulfylle my vyage, 19716 

What 2 fyrst I hadde inspecci'oun [ (? Whan,) what St.] 
Off that noble Royal touw, 
Wyth-Inne A merour, shene and bryht, 
Wych gaff to me so cler a lyht, 19720 

That ther-wyth-al I was a-noon [Stowe, leaf 320] 

Ravysshed, thyder for to gon ; 
But I may synge ' weyllaway ' ; 

I am arestyd on the way, 19724 

And dystourblyd her, wepynge. 

And whyl I lay thus cdrapleynynge, 
And knewh non helpe nor respyt, 
A-noon ther kam A dowe whyht 19728 

Towardys me, by goddys wylle, 
And brouhte me a lytel bylle, 

And vndyde yt in my syht ; 19731 

And affter that she took hyr flyht, [St. & c.] 

And, fro me gan passe away. 

And I, wit/i-oute mor delay, 
Gan the bylle to vnf olde ; 

And ther-in I gan beholde, 19736 

How Grace dieu, to myn avayl, 
In that bylle gaff me couwsayl, 
1 That I sholde, ful hurablely 

Knelynge on my knes, 3 deuoutly ponknesst.j 19740 
Salue, with fful good avys, 
The blyssede quen off paradys, 
Wych bar, for Our savaczon, 4 [* savation st.] 19743 



1 Some leaves arc out of Tib. A. vii, after these catchwords, 
: Or what aiiswere. ' 



and an ABC Prayer, ivhich the Poet Chaucer englisht. 527 



The ffrut off Our redempczon. 1 C 1 redemtion St.] 

And the ffourme off thys prayere 

Ys ywrete, as ye shal here, 

In Ordre pleynly (who kan se) 

By maner off An .A. b. c. ; 

And ye may knowe yt sone, and rede, \ 

And seyn yt whan that ye ha nede. I 

the translator 2 : pst.,o.c.] 

And touchynge the translaciou?^ 

Off thys noble Orysouw, 19752 

Whylom (yiff I shal nat feyne) 
The noble poete off Breteyne, 
My mayster Chaucer, in hys tyme, 
Affter the Frenche he dyde yt ryme, 19756 

Word by word, as in substauwce, 
Ryght as yt ys ymad in Frauwce, J 
fful devoutly, in sentence, 

In worshepe, and in reuerewce 19760 

Off that noble hevenly quene, 
Bothe moder and a mayde clene. 

And sythe, he dyde yt vndertake, 
ffor to translate yt ffor hyr sake, 19764 

I pray thys [Quene] that ys the beste, [c. & St.] 
ffor to brynge hys soule at reste, 

That he may, thorgh hir prayere, [S bS leaf329 ' 
Aboue the sterrys bryht and clere, 19768 

Off hyr mercy and hyr grace 
Apere aff orn hyr sonys fface, [C. & St.] 

"VVyth seyntys euere, for A memory e, 
Eternally to regne 3 in glory e. [ 3 regme c., rengne St.] 19772 

And ffor memoyre off that poete, 
Wyth al hys rethorykes swete, 
That was the ffyrste in any age 

That amend ede our langage ; 19776 

Therfore, as I am bouwde off dette, 
In thys book I wyl hym sette, 
And ympen thys Oryson 

Affter hys translac'ion, 19780 

My purpos to determync, 
That yt shal enhvmyuc 



The Pilgrim. 

and a form of 
prayer, 



19748 like an ABC, 



translated 
by CHAUCEK 
from the 
French. 



[leaf 257] 



May the 
Queen of 
Heaven give 
him a place 
above the 
stars ! 



He was the 
first to amend 
our language. 

His poem 
will be in- 
serted here, 
as a set-off 
to the writer's 
debt, 



528 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 



in order that 
folk may see 
Our Lady's 
ABC. 



Thys lytyl book, Hud off makyng, 
Wyth som clause off hys wrytyng. 1 

And. as he made thys Orysouw 
Off ful devout entencfouw, 
And by maner off a prayere, 
Ryht so I wyl yt settyn here, 
That men may knowe and pleynly se 
Off Our lady the .A. b. c. 2 



19784 



19788 



Queen of 
Pity, 



IMS. Ff. v. 30, Cam)). Univ. Libr., leaf 112, back,] 

Incipit carmen secun&um. ordinem Litteraxum 
alphabet!. 

'cfc>C 

(1. A.) 

Al mihty and al merciable queene, 51 Cap m lvii m 
To whom fat* al J)is world fleeth for socour, 
To haue relees of sinne, of sorwe and teene, 

Gloriowse virgine, of alle floures flour, 19794 

i flee to thee. To fee j flee, confounded in errour ; 

Help and releeue, fou mihti debonayre ! 
Haue mercy on my perilous langour ! 

yenquisshed me hath my cruelle aduersaire 19798 

(2. B.) 

Bountee so fix hath in fin herte his tente, 
Jjat 1 wel j wot 1 thou wolf my socour bee. 
Jjou canst* notf warne him, fat with good entente 

Axeth fin helpe j fin herte is ay so free; 19802 
Jjou art 1 largesse of pleyn felicitee, 

Hauene of refute, of quiete and of reste. 
Loo how fat theeves sevene chasen mee ! 

Help, lady briht, er fat my ship to-breste ! 19806 

1 Compare Scogan's quoting Chaucer's Salade of Gcntilncsse, 
though without its Envoy, in his Poem to his pupils, Henry 
IV.'s sons. Thynne's Chaucer, 1532, leaf 380, back, col. 1; 
llnyX p. 547, col. 1. 

2 The remainder of this leaf, 257 of the MS., is left blank, 
the scribe never having copied- iu Chaucer's poem. It is printed 
above from the first of the Society's Parallel-Texts. John Sto\ve 
also left blank three leaves of his copy, putting A, 13, C, etc., 
where the successive stanzas should start. 



Have mercy 
on me! 



Thou wilt 
help me. 



Seven thieves 
chase me. 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 



529 



(3. C.) 

Comfort 1 is noon, but in yow ladi deere ; 
ffor, loo, my sinne and my confusi'own 
(Which ouhten not 1 in f i presence appeere,) 

Han take on me a greevous accumn. 19810 

Of verrey riht 1 and desperaci'own ; 

And as bi riht 1 , J>ei mihten wel susteene 
Jjatf j were wurf i my dampnaciown, 

Nere merci of you, blisful heuene queene ! 19814 

(4. D.) 

DOwte is f er noon, fou queen of misericorde, 
J>at fou nart cause of grace and merci heere ; 
God vouched saf, thoruh fee, -with us to accorde ; 
ffor, certes, crystes blisful mooder deere, 19818 

Were now Jje bowe bent 1 in swich maneere [leaf us] 

As it was first 1 , of justice and of jre, 
)3e rihtf ul god, nolde of no mercy heere ; 

But 1 thoruh fee han we grace, as we desire. 19822 

(5. E.) 

Euere hath myn hope of refuit been in fee ; 
ffor heer biforn, ful ofte, in many a wyse 
Hast 1 fou to misericorde resceyued me ; 
But 1 merci, ladi, at 1 Jje grete assyse, 
Whan we shule come bifore f e hye iustyse ! 
So litel fruit shal f arcne in me be f ounde, 
Jjat 1 , but fou er fat 1 day l me wel 2 chastyse 1 , [L ^'^% " w 
Of verrey riht 1 my werk me wole confownde. 19830 

(6. F.) 
Fleeinge, j flee for socour to f i tente, 

Me for to hide from tempeste ful of dreede, 
Biseeching yow, fat ye you not absente 

fouh j be wikke, 0, help yit 1 at 1 fis neede ! 19834 
Al haue j ben a beste in wil and deede, 
Yit, ladi, fou me clof ci with f i grace ! 
Jjin enemy and myn, (ladi, tak heede !) 

Vn-to my deth, in poynt 1 is me to chace. 19838 

(7. G.) 

Gloriows mayde and mooder, which fat neuere 
Were bitter, neife?- in ecrf ij nor in see, 



Chaucer. 



19826 



ion 



Thru thee, 
God was re- 
conciled to 
us. 



My hope of 
refuge has 
been ever in 
thee. 



Help me at 

this need ! 



PILGRIMAGE. 



MM 



530 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 



Speak for me, 



or I shall go 
to Hell! 



Christ won 
pardon for 
every peni- 
tent. 



When a man 
errs, thou 
setst him 
straight. 




Let not the 
Fiend brag 



But 1 ful of swetnesse, & of merci euere, 

Help, Jjat my fader be not wroth with me ! 19842 
Spek }>ou ! for j ne dar not him ysee. 

So haue j doon in eerfe, (alias ]>er-while !) 
J)af certes, but if J)ou my socour bee, 

To stink eterne, he wole my gost exile. 19846 

(8. H.) 
He vouched saaf, tel him, as was his wille, [leaf us, back] 

Bicomen a man, to haue oure alliaunce ; 
And with his precious blood he wrot 1 J>e bille 

Vp-on Jje crois, as general acquitaunce 19850 

To euery Penitent 1 in ful criaunce ; 

And ferfore, ladi brihf, J>ou for us praye ! 
)5awne shalt fou bope stinte al his greuaunce, 

And make oure foo to failen of his praye. 19854 

(9. I.) 

I wof it wel, J>ou wolf ben oure socour, 
J>ou art 1 so ful of bowntee in certeyn ; 
ffor, whan a soule falleth in errour, 

Jji pitee goth & haleth him ayein ; 19858 

paraie makest 1 pou his pees with his souereyn, 
And bringest him out* of fe crooked strete. 
Who so fee loueth, he shal not 1 loue in veyn ; 
Jjat shal he fynde, as he J>e lyf shal lete. 19862 

(10. K) 
Kalendeeres enlumyned ben Jjei 

fat 1 in Jris world ben lighted vfith J)i name ; 
And who-so goth to yow pe rihte wey, 

Him thar not* drede in soule to be lame. 19866 

Now, queen of comfort 1 , sithe pou art 1 pat same 

To whom j seeche for my medicyne. [ MS. vntame] 
Laf not 1 my foo no more my wownde entame l ; 
Myn hele, in-to fin hand, al j resyne. 19870 

(11. L.) 
Ladi, pi sorwe kan j not< portreye 

Vnder J?e cros, ne his greevous penaunce ; 
But, for youre bof e's peynes, j yow preye, 

Lat not 1 oure alder foo make his bobaunce, 19874 
Jjat he hath, in hise lyste's of mischaunce, [leaf iu] 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 531 

Contact 1 bat ye hope haue bouht so deere. Chaucer. 

As j seide erst 1 , bou ground of oure substaunce, that he has 

rumd me ! 

Continue on us bi pitous eyen cleere ! 19878 

(12. M.) 
Moises, bat sauh be bush with flawmes rede 

Brenninge, of which ber neuer a stikke brende, 
was signe of bin vnwemmed maidenhede. 

bou art 1 be bush on which ber gan descende 19882 
be Hoh'gosf, be which bat 1 Moyses wende 
Had ben a-fyir : and bis was in figure. 
Now, ladi, from be f yir bou us deufende, Defend us 

from Hell 

which bat in helle eternalli shal dure ! 19886 flre! 

(13. N.) 
Noble princesse, bat neuere haddest peere ! 

Certes, if any comfort 1 in us bee, 
Jjatt cometh of bee, bou cristes niooder deere. 

We han noon oober melodye or glee, 19890 

Vs to reioyse in oure aduersitee ; 

Ne aduocatt noon, bat wole, & dar so preye YOU, Lady, 

* are our sole 

ft or us, and bat for litel hire as yee, ai>a unpaid 

advocate. 

bat helpen for an Aue-Marie or tweye. 19894 

(14. 0.) 
O verrey light of eyen bat ben blynde ! o light of th 

verrey lust of labour and distresse ! 
tresoreere of bowntee to mankynde ! 

bee whom god ches to mooder for humblesse ! 19898 mother of 

Christ, 

ff rom his ancille he made be maistresse 

Of heuene & eerbe, oure bille up for to beede. 
bis world awaiteth euere on bi goodnesse, thou faiiest 

no one in 

ffor bou ne faiiest neuere wight at neede. 19902 need. 

(15. P.) 
Purpos I haue, sum time for to enquere, [leaf m, back] 

Wherfore and whi be Holi Gosf bee souhte : 
Whan Gabrielles vois cam to 1 bin ere, [Ms.vnto] 
He, not" to werre us, swich a wunder wrouhte, 19906 
But 1 for to saue us bat he sithen bouhte. 

ba?me needeth us no wepene us for to saue, we've only 

But oonly ber we diden not, as us ouhte, ask^r" 1 ' to 

Doo penitence, and mcrci axe and haue. 19910 Smll 



532 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 



To whom 
shall I flee, 



but to thee ? 



Chastise me, 



judge, and 
heal me ! 



God forgives 
only those 
who please 
thee. 



I bring ray 
penitent soul 
to thee. 



199H 



19918 



19921 

ter hys 



19926 



(16. Q.) 
Queen of comfort 1 , yit whan j me bithinke 

pat 1 j agilf haue bope him and pee, 
And pat 1 my soule is wurthi for to sinke, 
Alias, j, caityf, whider may I flee? 
Who shal vn-to pi sone my mene bee ? 

Who but 1 pi-self, paf art 1 of pitee welle. 
Jjou hast 1 more reuthe on cure aduersitee, 
)3an in pis world mihf any tunge telle. 

(17. R.) 

Redresse me, mooder, and me chastise ! 
ffor certeynly, my faderes chastisinge, 
J)af dar j nouhf abiden in no wise ; 

So hidous is hys 1 rihful rekenynge [1M ?;^. 
Mooder, of whom oure nwci gan to springe 
Beth ye my juge, & eek my soules leche ; 
ffor euere in you is pitee haboundinge 
To eche, pat 1 wole of pitee you biseeche. 

(18. S.) 
Soth is, pat 1 God ne granteth no pitee 

With-oute pee ; for God, of his goodnesse, 
fforyiveth noon, but 1 it 1 like vn-to pee. 
He hath pee maked, vicair & maistresse 
Of al pe world, and eek gouemowresse [leaf us] 

Of heuene ; and he represseth his iustise 
After pi wil ; and perfore, in witnesse, 
He hath pee corowned in so rial wise. 

(19. T.) 
Temple deuouf, per god hath his woninge, 

ffro which pese misbileeued depriued 1 been ! 
To you, my soule penitent 1 j bringe. 

Resceyue me ! I can no ferpere fleen. 19938 

With thomcs venymous, heuene queen, 
ffor which pe eerpe acursed was ful yore, 
I am so 2 wownded, as ye may wel seen, [*OW.MS.] 
pat j am lost 1 almost 1 ; if smerf so sore. 19942 

(20. V.) 

Virgine, paf arf so noble of apparaile, 
And ledesf us in-to pe hye tour* 



19930 



19934 



f 1 pryued, John's and 
Laud MSS.] 



Chaucer's ABC Prayer to the Virgin. 



533 



Of Paradys ! f ou me wisse, and cownsaile 

How j may haue fi grace & J>i socour, 19946 

All haue j ben in filthe and in errour. 

Ladi, vn-to fat court 1 f ou me aiourne, 

Jjaf cleped is fi bench, freshe 1 flour, [ MS. fresh] 

J3er-as fat 1 merci euere shal soiourne. 19950 

(21. X = Ch.) 

Xpc 2 Jji sone, fat in fis world alighte, [=christus} 
Vp-on f e cros to stiff re his passioan, 
And eek 3 fat Longius his herte pighte, [ 3 MS. eek suffred] 
And made his herte blood to renne adozm : 19954 

And al was fis for my saluaciown ; 
And j to him am fals, and eek vnkynde ; 
And yit he wole not 1 my dampnac'iozm : 
Jjis thanke j yow, socour of al mankynde. 1 9958 

(22. Y.) 

Ysaac< was figure of his deth, certeyu, [leaf its, back] 

J)atf so fer-forth his fader wolde obeye, 

f at* him ne rouhte no-thing to be slayn ; 

Kihfc soo J)i sone lust, as a lamb, to deye. 19962 

Now, ladi ful of merci, j yow preye, 

Sithe he his merci mesured so large, 

Be ye not 1 skantt ! for alle we singe & seye 

Jjafr ye ben from vengeawnce ay cure targe. 19%6 

(23. Z.) 

Zacharie yow clepeth J>o opene welle 
To wasshe sinful soule out* of his gilt 1 ; 
)?e/'fore J)is lessown ouht j wel to telle, 
Jjaf, nere J>i tender herte, we weren spilt*. 19970 

Now, ladi bry^te, 4 sithe J>ou canst and wilf, 
Ben to J>e seed of Adam merciable, [+ MS. om., b^t Gy.] 
And 5 bring us to Jjaf palai's fat is bilt 1 [ 5 And John's MS. om.] 
To penitentes fat ben to merci able ! Amen ! 19974 

U Explicit* carmen. 



Lady, lead, 
me to thy 
Court of 
Mercy ! 



Whan T, wyth good deuoci'omz, [stowe, icafsso] 

Hadde 6 sayd thys Orysoiw, [ 6 whau witii g. a. i had si.] 
Off the ffloodys the grete Rage 
somwhat to a-svvagc, / 



Christ shed 
His blood for 
me. 



As Christ 
died for me, 
do you, 



Lady, shield 
me! 



Bring us to 
the Palace 
built for 
penitents ! 



[leaf 258] 
The Pilf/rim. 



The waves 
IX>;;HII to 
abate after 
1J9/O this prayer. 



534 



The two halves of the Lady Astronomy- Astrology. 



The Pilgrim. 



I reach a hill 
of sand, 



and find one 
lady writing 
in the sand, 



and another 
lady leaning 
on a red 
spear. 



I see only 
half the body 
of the Lady 
Astronomy- 
Astrology. 



[leaf 258, bk.] 
I ask her if 
this sea pro- 
duces such 
monsters as 
he is. 



And the wyndes, for myw ese, 
Gan in party to apese. 

The whel I leffte, off ffortune, 

Wych selde in One 1 doth contune; t 1 one St., on c.] 19982 
I swam forth, in ful gret ffer ; 
I knew no waye, her ne ther ; 
Tyl at the laste, off grace, I fond 
A verray lytel hyl off sond, 19986 

And thyderward I gan me dresse, 
To reste me for werynesse. 

And there, in soth, A-noon I ffond 
A lady wrytynge in the sond, 19990 

Lokynge toward the ffyrmament 
Thorgh a lytel instrument. 

A-nother lady I sawh ek ther, 

That lenede hyre on A red sper : 19994 

I myhte nat beholde her wel, 
ff or I sawh but the halvendel 
Off hyr body, nor hyr fasown ; 

And (as to myw inspecciiouw,) [stowe, leaf sso, back] 19998 
In hyr hand she held a spere, 
Lokynge vp on the sterrys clere. 

And douw I sat, and gan beholde 
Thys .ij. ladyes off wych I tolde; 20002 

ffor I was wery off travaylle. 
And yiff yt myhte me avaylle, 
I dyde also my besy peyne 
To sen the maner off hem tweyne. 20006 

And to hyre (A-noon ryht,) 
That was but halff On 2 in my syht, [ one St.] 

I sayde a-non as ye shal here, 
Sojwwhat abaysshed off my chere : 20010 

[The Pilgrim:] 
" Tel on," quod I, " lat me se ; 
Be ther swych monstres in thys 3 Se [ 3 yest.] 

Abydynge, lyk as ye do seme ? 

ffor I kan noon other deme, 20014 

But, monstres that ye sholde be, 
By sygne's outward that I se. 
Yiff thow mayst speke, nat ne spare, 



The visible half of the Lady is cold Astronomy. 



535 



" The trouthe to me for to declare." 20018 

Astrology : l C l st., om. c.] 

Quod she, ' I may speke wel, 

And I ha lost ek neueradel 

Off my speche nor language. 

And thogh I shewe to thy vysage, 20022 

My-sylff, but halff on, in thy syht, 

Wych halff (who so loke a-ryht) 

Ys ryht noble and honurable, 

And also ryht Auctorysable.' 20026 

Pilgrime: 2 p St., om. c.] 

" Touchyng thys halff, tel on clorly, 

What maner thyng ye mene ther-by. 

The tother part, what sholde yt be, 

Wych as now I may nat se 1 " 20030 

Astrology : 3 P St., ? striogye (in tnargin) C.] 

' Certys, (thogh thow yt nat espye,) 

She ys callyd Astronomye, 

Wych ys wont to wake a-nyht, 

To loke vp on the sterrys bryht. 20034 

Off whom, whylom thus stood the cas : 

In Egypt ffyrst she norysshed was, 

Of thylke noble prudent kyng 

Wych excellede in konnyng, 20038 

And was callyd (as thow mayst se) 

The noble wyse Tholomee, 

(So thys clerkys Olde hyra calle,) 

That ffond the cours off sterrys alle, [stowe,ieafS3i] 20042 

Mevynge in ther bryhte sperys, 

Bothe be dayes and by yerys ; 

How that they move, long or sone, 

And the cours off sonne and mono ; 20046 

ffond out the eclypses (by resouw) [c. & St.] 

In the tayl off the dragouw, 

Or in the hed (wit/i-oute lake) ; 

The cours ek off the zodyake. 20050 

' And many mo conclusion ns 

Off hevenly transmutacwniras 
He ffond al out, by gret labour ; 
Whcr-ffore, worshcp and gret honour, 20054 



Antrology 



says that the 
half of her I 



is noble. 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask what 
the visible 
half is, 

and what thu 
invisible. 



Aitroloav- 

The visible 
part is Astro- 
nomy, 



noitrisht first 
in Kgypt, 



by Ptolemy, 



who found 
out the 
courses of 
the stars, 



[leaf 259] 
the eclipses, 



and the 
zodiac, 



536 



The Lady Astrology justifies her teaching. 



Attrotopy. 

whereby he 
gaind great 
honour. 



Constella- 
tions 



have influ- 
ences on the 
earth 



which are 
cald Neces- 
sity, 

or Natural 
Dominion, 
on account 
of which her 
invisible half 
is named 
Astrology, 



[leaf 259, bk.] 
and termd 
superstitious. 



But consider: 



' Thys worthy kyng gat in hys tyrne, 

Wych wer to long for me to ryme. 

The causes and theffectys alle, 

Wych off her mevyng sholde falle 20058 

By ther mevyng, (wztA-oute 1 lak :) C 1 with out c., St.] 

Thys ys the halff that I off spak ; 

And, al thys ys my partye,~ 

Wych I calle Astronomy e. 20062 

' I sey also (yiff thow take hed,) 
That ther be (yt ys no dred) 
Many constellaci'ouws 

And many varyaci'oims ; 20066 

And lyk affter ther dyfferences, 
They yive in erthe influences, 
Many dysposiciouws 
And dyvers operaczouws. 20070 

' And yiff I durste speke in pleyn, 
And the trouthe apertly seyn, 
I wolde affermen vn-to the, 

To caUe al thys < Necessyte,' 20074 

Or name yt ' Dysposic'ioun/ 
Or ' Naturel Domynyouw.' 
And therfor, toucyhng al thys Art, 
Namyd for the tother part, 20078 

I am callyd ' Astrologye ; ' 
The tother part, ' Astronomye.' 

' And be-cause I telle more 

Than Astronomye dyde off yore, 20082 

Off ffolk to me-ward envyous, 
Calle me ' superstycyous,' 
Be-cause off the dyfference, 

That I glose the scyence, [C. & st.] 20086 

And expoune it (fer & nere) 

Ryht as me lyst, on my manere ; ,, 

And after myne opinioun, 

Expoune the conclusyons, [stowe, leaf ssi, back] 20090 

And preve them out, fro day to day, [c. & St.] 

Who that euere ther-to seyth nay. 

' ffor, I pray the, lat now se, 

How myhte yt falle, or elles be, 20094 



The differing Dispositions of Men are due to the Stars. 537 



20098 



20102 



[ 2 contrary & dispitious St.] 

20106 



c ff or to deme y t off resouw 

By cler 1 demonstraci'ouw, [Merest.] 

Her in thys world, (by good avys,) 

On ys a fool, A-nother wys ; 

Thys man glad, that man Irous ; 

He lovynge, he envyous ; 

On, ffrownyrcg, lokyng nat ffayre ; 

A-nother, off cher ys debonayre ; 

A-nother, off port ys gracyous ; 

A-nother, contrayre and despytous ; 2 

On, stedefast, A-nother vnstable j 

A-nother, in loue varyable. 

On wyl do ryht, A-nother wrong ; 

Thys man ys ffeble, that maw ys strong, 

Thys man pensyff, that man ys sad, 

He thys ys wroth, he that ys glad ; 

Thys man hasty in werkynge, 

Another ys soffte and Abydynge ; 

Thys man ys hevy, that man ys lyht ; 

Thys goth be day, that man be nyht ; 

On vseth trouthe, he trecherye, 

And to stele by Roberye. 

man ys trewe, A-nother ffals, 

And somme Am hangyd by the hals ; 

And (who lyst loken her-wyth-al,) 

O man ys gret, A-nother sinal ; 

Som man loueth wysdam and scyence ; 

Som man, ryot and dyspence ; 

Som man ys large, som man ys hard ; 

Som man ys ek a gret nygard ; [C. & St.] 

He 3 thys A coward, he that ys bold ; [ 3 his St.] 

And som man halt a good houshold ; 

And somme, off hertly indygence, 

Ar ff ul streyhte off ther dyspence ; 

And som man, durynge al hys lyff, 

Kan nat lyve but in stryff. 

'Wher-off komen al thys dyfferencys, 
But off hevenly influencys, 
By gouernaurace (who loketh al) 
Off the bodyes cclestyal 1 



Aitrolofftr. 



we see some 
men are wise, 
others 
foolish, 



some right, 
some wrong, 



some hasty, 
some soft, 



201H 



20118 



20122 



20126 



some true, 
some false, 



[leaf 260] 



some liberal, 
some miserly. 



20130 



All these 
differences 
are due to 
celestial in- 
fluences. 



538 



God made the whole World subject to the Stars. 



Attrolopy. 



Men's bodies 
here 



follow their 
Constella- 
tions, which 
are the 
' second 
causes.' 



The Creator 



made each 
thing work 
after its kind, 

as St. Augus- 
tine records. 



[leaf 260, bk.] 
Both Dame 
Fortune and 
Chary bdis 
are under 
subjection to 
the heavens; 



and men 
reckon their 
hours :md 
days accord- 
ing to the 
heaven's 
movements, 
good or bad, 



'And I dar also specefye, [stowe, leaf 332] 

As the planetys dyversefye 
Aboue, (who so koude knowe,) 

So the bodyes her doura lowe 20138 

(Affter myn oppynyouw) 
flblwe ther constellaczouw. 
ffor, thys philisoffres alle, 

The ' secovmde causys ' dyde hew calle : 20142 

Affter ther name (in wordys ffewe) 
Ther effectys they must she we, 
Or elles I wolde boldly seyn, 
They tooke ther name but in veyn. 20146 

' The creatour, at begynnyng, 
Whan he hem made in hys werkyng, 
He gaff hem power, (clerkes ffynde) 
Euerych to werkyn in hys kynde, 20150 

And for to meve to som ffyn. 

' And as the doctour seynt Awstyn 
Recordeth shortly in sentence, 

The lord, off hys magnyfycence, 20154 

Suffreth hem, (who-euere muse) 
Affter ther kynde her cours to vse. 

' And dame Fortune ek also, 

And hyr Karybdis 1 bothe two, [' carbdes St.] 20158 

With al hyr domynaciouw, [C. & St.] 

Stant vnder subieccwmn 

Off the hevene, off verray ryht, ,, 

Ai 2 hyr power and hyr myght [-*om. St.] 201 62 

Ys 2 youe to hyre at certeyn tymes, 
Bothe at Eve and ek at prymes, 
To executes hyr 3 power [ ther St.] 

Vnder the sterrys bryht and cler : 20166 

Bothe hyr dedys infortunat, 
And ek hyr werkys ffortunat, 
Bothe to lawhen and to wepe. 

'And, men muste her 3 houres kepe, 20170 

To rekne al the daye's sevene 
Affter the mevyng off the hevene ; 
Wych be goode, And wych contrayre, 
Wych amende, and wych a-payre, 20174 



Homer lelievd in the Influence of the Stars on Men. 539 



c Aff ter the sterrys hem assure 
In good, or in Evele A venture ; 
Wych hourys ben happy And Ewrous, 
And wych also malicious. 

' And shortly, (who consydreth al) 
Affter the bodyes celestyal, 
Lych as they her cours done holde, 
And the Stocyenes 1 wolde ^psS 

Holden wiih me, (yiff they wer here,) 
In ther bookys as they lore. 

' And Mathesis wolde cowferme 
Al that euere I afferme, 
Make a confyrmaciouw 
Vp-on myn oppynyouw, 
By ther Argument's cler. 
And the poete ek, Homer, 
Whylom merour off elloquence, 
Contentyth ek to thys sentence : 
He seyth in hys wrytyng thus : 
At rysyng vp off Phebus, 
That whan hys bemys y-reysed be, 
He yiveth ech man volunte 
And wyl (ther kan no man sey nay,) 
How he shal gouerne hym that day. 

' And aff ter Phebus ordynauwce, 
Sorame ha sorwe, and som plesau?*ce ; 
Thys poete (in conclusions) 
Leueth 2 on thys oppynyouw : 
And what-so other folkys do, 
I leue ther-on my sylff also ; 
And my levyng that thow sest here, 
Yfouwdyd ys on a red sper ; 
And yiff thow kanst yt wel espye, 
My leuyng doth so sygnefye. 

1 Now tel on, and thyn herte bolde, 
Wyche 3 party thow wylt holde, p whiche St., wych c.] 
And make a demoustraci'ouw 20211 

Affter thyn oppynyourc ; 
And as thow hast her-in creaunce, 
Outlier ffeyth or affyauwce.' 20214 



Astrology. 



as the stars 
certify. 



20178 



n'S stj k] 20182 



20186 



20190 



20194 



20198 



[* levethe St.] 20202 



20206 



This, the 
Stoics hold, 



and Mathesis. 



And Homer, 
the mirror of 
eloquence, 



says that the 
Sun, at his 
rising, 



[leaf 261] 
gives man 
will to rule 
himself every 
day 5 

and that the 
Sun allots 
sorrow and 
pleasure to 
men. 



Like Homer, 
I believe 

this. 



What is your 
opinion ? 



540 



/ hold Astrology to be Superstition. 



The Pilgrim. 



\ feel ahusht 
and afraid, 



and I ask 
counsel of 
Reason. 



Then I 

answer: 



[leaf 261, bk.] 



Astrology is 
superstition. 
You seem to : 
have been 
in the sky, 



to have 
discoverd 
ttie stars' 
secrets, 



and got 
Venus to tell 
you when 
she'll join, 



The Pilgrim: [st.,o.c.] 

Whan I herde hyr wordys alle, 
Off look and cher I gan to palle, 
And wex abaysshed mor and more, 
And be-gan to syhe sore ; 20218 

Thoghte in myw herte, off grete * ff er, [' gret c., St.] 
I was nat passyd al dauwger 

[Line wanting in both MSS., tho' neither has a gap.] 
As yet, in thys streyth passage ; 20222 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Thouhte also, (so god me rede !) 
That I hadde ful gret nede, 
Touchynge thys oppynyouw, 
To axe cownsayl off Eesouw. 21226 

I answerde to that party : 
"Thow spekyst," quod I, "ful largely. 
God grauwte me (to myw entent) [stowe, leaf 333] 
In thys mater A-vysement, 20230 

My wordys so, for texpresse, 
That ffynally I may represse 
Thyn errours and thyw ff olye, 

Groundyd on Astrologye, 20234 

Wych ne be nat vertuous, 
ffor they be superstyc'ious. 

" Yt semeth as thow haddest ben 
Hih" in the hevene, for to sen 20238 

Al aboute, nyh and ff erre, 
And axyd ther, off euery sterre, 
Ther coursys and ther moctouws 

And ther reuoluci-ouws, 20242 

And dyscuryd ther secres 
To the, and al ther pryvytes, 
Wych ar good, wych ar malygne, 
Whan they shal entren any sygne, 20246 

Or entren any mancioim, 
Ther to haue domynyovm. 

" I trowe, thow wylt the makyn bold, 
How that Venus hath the told 20250 

The tyme assygned, whan that she 
Shul, next, conyoyned be 



Astrology defends belief in the Planets' influence. 



541 



"And declaryd to the / the day 

Whan that she shal parte away 20254 

ffro mars, that ys hyr owne knyht : 

In hevene thow haddyst her-off a syht. 

Wher wer thow euere so pryve, 

Or with the sterrys so secre, 20258 

To knowe the power and the myght 

That god hath yove to hem off ryht ] 

" I dar affermen her a-noon, 

Sterrys and planetys, euerychon, 20262 

Be soget to hys power royal 
And to hys ryht Imperyal. 
What-so-eue?-e thow kanst allegge, 
They ha noon other pryvylegge, 20266 

ffraunchyse nor coramyssioiw, 
But vnder hys domynacwmw ; 
And vn-to that (I dar wel seye) 

Alle the planetys muste obeye, 20270 

And fro that ordre neuere varye, 
Who-eue?*e afferme the contrarye." 

[Astrology.] 

Quod she a-noon ageyn to me, 

c Neuer in my lyff ne dyde I se 20274 

No pryvylege (touchyng thys thyng) [stowe, leaf 333, back] 
Yove 1 to the sterrys in ther mevyng; pgyven st.] 
Nor, in the heuene so hih" and fferre, 
I spak 2 neuere vfith no sterre ; [ J spake st.] 20278 

Nor I nat knowe ther secres, 3 [ 3 secretes st.] 

Ther mevyng, nor ther pryvytes, 
Nor how ther cours aboff 4 ys lad, 
But as I haue in bookys rad, 
And ther conceyved by wrytyng, 
Bothe off her cours and ther mevyng. 

' And also long experyence 
Hath yove to me ther-off scyence ; 
Ek olde clerkes her-to-fforn 
That wer ful longe or thow wer born 
Yt dyde ynowh to hem suffyse, 
To knowe the maner and the guyse 
Off grete effectys off the hevene, 



The Pilgrim. 

and when 
part from 
Mars. 



But I say 
that stars 
and planets 
are subject 
to God, 
and must 
obey His 
orders ; 
they have 
no privilege 
or commis- 
sion from 
Him. 



[leaf 262] 
Aitroloffy. 



Astrology 
declares she's 
not been to 
the stars and 
askt their 
secrets, 



[ or aloff C., aloft St.] 

20282 



20286 



20290 



but she has 
read old 
books, 



and old clerks 
were con- 
tent to know 
the effects of 
the heavens, 



542 



/ answer Astrology's arguments. 



Astrology. 



and trust in 
them. 



She believes 
in the influ- 
ences of 
Planets and 
Stars, 



which are no 
derogation 
from God's 
power. 



[leaf 262, bk.] 
Tho' a king 
grants a com- 
mission to 
Provosts, 



his power is 
not restraind 
by it. 

The Pilgrim. 

I rejoin, that 
this answer is 
insufficient. 



A King 

doesn't lose 
his power by 
appointing 
deputies. 



' And off the 1 planetys alle sevene. c 1 the St., om. c.] 
Ther-in, ful myche they sette her lust, 
And ther-in was fynally 2 her trust, [* fynaiiy was St.] 20294 
As they by wrytyng specefye. 

' And I ful 3 gretly ek affye P will St.] 

In the hevenly mocwnws 

And in ther reuoluciouws, 20298 

Conceyvynge that, by ther mevyng, 
That, alone 4 the myhty kyng, [* tha alone st.] 

Ys no party (fer nor ner) 

The mor excludyd fro hys power, 20302 

Nor exempt in no degre 
ffrom hys imperyal powste ; 
But semblably (and thys ys soth) 
As a kyng off custom doth, 20306 

Off hys myght and hih renouw 
Graunteth a commyssi'ouw 
ffor a space, or al ther lyves, 

To hys provostys 5 or bayllyves ; [* provosts st.] 20310 
Yet for al that, in no manere 
He restreyneth nat hys powere.' 

[The Pilgrim:] 

" Thyn answere, I conceyve yt wel, 
"Wych may suffyse neueradel, 20314 

No mor than may a rede 6 sper [ reade St., red c.] 
Suffyse off myght, nor off power 
(Who-so the trouthe espye kornie) 
To endure to bern 7 A tonne, [stowe, leaf 334] 'pberest.] 
ffor yiff the kyng (shortly to devyse) 20319 

Hadde yove 8 hys power in swych wyse [ 8 have gyve st.] 
To hys provdstys, 9 and ek also [ 9 provost c.] 

To hys bay lyves, 10 bothe two, [ 10 baylys C., baylyvs St.] 



And hadde hem mad ther-off certeyn, 
And myghte yt nat repelle ageyn, 
Tharaie he were (to our purpos) 
Dysbarryd, and from hys power clos. 

" And evene lyk (to our entent) 
Off planetys and the fyrmament, 
And off sterrys the moci'ouw, 
Yiff they hadde cowmyss'iouw 



20323 



20326 



20330 



As God ordaind Stars to give Light, He must rule them. 543 



"Vp-on al thyng, 1 hih and lowe, [UhyngeSt.] 

Her in erthe that men knowe, 

Bothe to shette and ek vnclose, 

And as hym lyst, ffor to dyspose 20334 

At ther owne voluwte, 

That yt myhte noon other be, 

But as the hevene (in substauwce) 

Lyst to tourne the ordynauwce ; 20338 

Than muste ther power (who kan se) 

Be fallen off necessyte, 

As the sterrys wolde ordeyne : 

The kyng ne myght yt nat restreyne ; 20342 

ffor he, off verray volunte, 

Hath wyth-drawen hys powste. [C. & St.] 

Thus thow woldest hym exclude, 

And by thy wordy s ek conclude, 20346 

That alle thynges that her be, 

Sholde falle off necessyte, 

Wherby (who that kan dyscerne) 

The lord that al hath to gouerne, 20350 

Sholde, by hys coramyssiioura, 

Kestreyne hys domynaciourc, 

Wych ys A maner impossible. 

And as to me, no thyng credyble, 20354 

What-euere her-on thow lyst to seyn. 

" But I wyl answere the ageyn, 
Touchyng the hevenly moczouws, 
Ther power and ther commyssiiouws, 20358 

Ther influencys and ther mevyng : 
Al thys, they haue yt off the 2 kyng ptheyrc.] 
And off the lord (who kan concerne) 
That hevene and erthe doth gouerne. 20362 

And trewly, in A-nother wyse 
Than thy sylff dost her 3 devyse. p here St.] 

" Touchyng ther power, (tak good heede, 
In Genesis thow mayst yt rede;) [stowe, leaf 334, bk.] 20366 
He ordeynede sterrys for to shyne, 
To yive lyht, and enlwmyne, 
And to the world, by ther bryhtnesso, 
To yive couwfort and clernesse ; 20370 




their power 
would be of 
Necessity, 



[leaf 268] 
excluded. 



It is impos- 
sible that the 
Lord, who 
governs all, 
should grant 
a commis- 
sion; 



and as to the 
power of the 
stars, 



we read in 
Genesis, 
that God or- 
daind stars 
to shine, and 
Rive light to 
the world: 



544 The Stars are only Signs of God, & can't affect His work. 



20386 



20390 



The Pilgrim. " And to dyscerne, (who loke a-ryht) 

To knowe the dayes wel fro nyht, 

He sette hem ther (by certeyn lynes) 

As for markys and for sygnes : 20374 

Lat the byble wel be souht, 

And other thyng thow fyndest nouht. 

" Off the power that he hem sette, 20377 

Ther-off he wyle no thyng hew 1 lette; [ l hemom.st.] 
but their I But "shortly, al ther gouernauwce 

government 

is with Him. Abydeth vnder hys puissauwce ; 

[leaf 263, bk.] He byndythe, 2 and vnbynt also ; [* St., vndoth c.] 

What euere hym lyst, that mot be do ; 20382 

And word that her ys sayd, 

(And ful notable to be layd, 

To be put in remembrauwce, 

My conclusions to Avausce,) 
God gave the That the sterrys ffer above, 

stars only for * 

signs, w er only nor sygnes yove, 

That thynges (who so lyst to se) 

Wyth hem sholde markyd be. 

"And who that euere ageyn malygnes, 
and marks of They be but markys, nor but sygnes 

Off thylke lord celestyal, 

That syt above, and rewleth al, 20394 

Sterrys and constellacfouws. 

"And as in cytes and in townys, 

Maystres off dyvers crafftys 

Hang out, on polys 3 and on raff tys, [boiysst.] 20398 

JDyuers sygnys hih" and lowe, 

Wher-by that men ther crafft may knowe ; 

As sowme off hem hang out lyouws, 

Somme Eglys and gryffouws, 20402 

Peynted on bordys and on stagys, 

Dyuers Armys and ymages 

(In cytes mo than .ix. or ten,) 

Wherby man knowe thys 4 craffty men; [nhesst.] 20406 

But wher-so-euere they hangyd be, 

Hih aloffte, that men may se, 
NO one but a' He wer A ffool, and nothyng sage, 

fool would _,. 

think that lliat wolde dome in hys corage, 20410 



as, in cities 
and towns, 
divers crafts 
are denoted 



such as lions 

and griffins 

;inted on 



where men 
can see them. 



TJie Stars and Firmament witness tJieir Maker, God. 545 



" That thys markys, on pool or rafft, 

Kan no thyng medlen off the crafft, 

Nor helpe ther-to, (yt ys no ffayl,) 

Nor to the crafFty men avayl. [stowe.ieafsss] 20414 

" And at tavernys (we'tft-oute wene) 
a Thys tooknys nor thys bowys 2 grene, [*c. Tib. leves St.] 
Thogh they shewe ffressh and ffayre, 
The wyn they mende nat, nor apeyre, 20418 

Nor medle no thyng (thys the ffyn) 
Off the sale nor 3 off the wyn, D more Tib.] 

N6r hath no thyng to gove"rne, 

Off the celer nor taverne : 20422 

By hem ys no thyng do nor let ; 
They be ther, hut for markys set. 

" And semblably, to Our entent, 
The sterrys and the ffyrmament, 20426 

Planetys and constellaczouws, 
Cerclys, sygnes, nor mans'iouws, 
Ar (to speke in wordys ffewe) 

No-thyng but markys, for to shewe 20430 

Off the workman, and off 4 the lord I poffom.Tib.] 
That made al thyng wiih A word. 

" In erthe, ther ys no taverner, 

That couchyd hath in hys celer 20434 

So many wynes red nor whyht, 
Nor other drynkes off delyt, 
As thys lord hath Beverages 

Off Grace, 5 y-mad ffor sondry ages. p gracys st.] 20438 
And off al thys, (who lyst to se,) 
The sterrys, no-thyng but toknys be, 
That al our goody s, her doiw lowe, 
Kome fro that lord (who lyst to knowe) ; 20442 

And alle the gyfftys ek off grace 
Descende from that hevenly place. 

" He party th hys gyfftys dyversly, 
And, off hys grace and hys mercy, 20446 

AH folkys ha suffysaiwce, 
Plente ynowh, and habondaunce ; 
ffor, off hys grace (as yt ys skyl,) 



The Pilgrim. 



The green 
boughs hung 
out at a 
tavern 



[leaf 264] 
don't affect 
the wine : 



they're only 
signs. 



So also the 
stars and 
constellations 



do but show 
their Lord 
and Maker. 



No taverner 
on earth has 
such wines 
and drinks 
as God has 
for His folk. 



From Him 
we have all 
our goods, 
and gifts of 
grace ; 



every one 
has enough, 



1 Tib. A vii. starts again with leaf 63. 
PILGRIMAGE. 



N N 



546 



The Stars have no influence on Men's lives. 



The Piliirim. 



as is His 
will. 



[leaf 264, bk.] 
Don't believe 
that the Stars 
have any 
influence for 
good or evil. 



If they had, 
a man might 
as well be 
a thief or 
robber 



as a true 
man, 

since Neces- 
sity would 
make him 
one. 

If the Stars 
have ordaind 
it must be BO, 



why should 
a thief be 
punisht, 

or a true man 



rewarded, 



as the stars 
are the cause 
whereby a 
man does 
well? 



Moreover, the 
Sacraments 
would avail 
nought, 



** He parteth, as yt ys hys wyl. 20450 

" Therfor lat grace be thy guyde, [Tib., leaf 63, back] 

And al thy resouws set asyde ; 

And wene nat, in thyw entent, 

The sterrys nor the ffyrmament 20454 

Ha no vertu (witTi-oute glose) 

Good or evel, for 1 to dyspose, p for om. Tib.] 

But as the lord celestyal 

Ordeyneth, that governeth al. 20458 

Wher-for, beholde and loke a-ryht, 

And deme off resoim in thy syht, 

And he with me nat evele apayd. 

" Yiff yt wer soth that thow hast sayd, 20462 

Yt wer as 2 good (thys, the cheff) [ 2 all st.] 

To hen a rohbere and a theff, 

(By the resouws that thow gan, 3 ) [ 3 began St.] 

As for to ben A trewe man, 20466 

ffolwynge, off necessyte, 

That yt myhte noon other be ; [Stowe, leaf sas, back] 

The sterrys, the hevene, bothe two, 

Han ordeyned yt mot be so 20470 

By ther hevenly influence, 

Wyth-outew any resystence. 

Why sholde A theff thara punysshed be, 

That fro robbry may nat ffle ; 20474 

Or A trewe man, by resouw, 

Vertuous off condyctouw, 

Mawgre hys wyl and* al hys myht, [* wit* St., and Tib.] 

Escheweth wrong, and doth al ryht. 20478 

Touchyng hys meryte nor gerdoure, 

He noon dysserveth, off resouw, 

ffor the sterrys euerydel 

Ben only cause that he doth wel. 20482 

Wher-vp-on (who-so taketh hede) 

Bothe sholde haue ylyche mede, 

Good or harm, wher-so the werche. 

"And also off al hooly 5 cherche, [ 5 iiooiy om. Tib.] 20486 

Yiff thy resouTis wer certeyn, 

The sacramentys wer in veyn 

In thys cas (yiff yt be souht) ; 



The time of a Man's Birth has nought to do with his Life. 547 



20506 



" ffor they sholde a-vaylle nouht, 

J^or to mankynde do l no good. t 1 c., Tib., be St.] 

" And Cryst Ihesu, that shadde hys blood, 
Only mankynde for to save, 

What effecte 2 sholde haue [* Tib., effect c., St.] 20494 

Hys peyne or grete passi'ouw, 
To brynge vs to savaciouw, [ 3 c., Tib., do well St.] 

Yiff no man myghte don evel 3 nor good, 
But evene so as the hevene stood? 20498 

Ther wer noon helpe nor socour ; 
The wych 4 wer a gret errour, [ wiuche Tib.] 

A man to leve in any 5 wyse [ 5 c., Tib., such a St.] 

So as thow dost her devyse ; 20502 

ffro 6 wych, I pray god me preserue ! [ 6 Tib., ffor c., St.] 

" Thow seyst also, men sholde obseme 
Houres and constellacwmws 
ffor sondry operactovms ; 
The ascendent, consydre and se, 
Off a mawhys natyvyte, 
To ffynde the dysposicwmw 
Off A manhys condyciouw, 
To good or evel, 7 be kyndely lawe 
Off nature, he sholde drawe ; 
The wyche (who 8 the trouthe espyes) 
Ar 9 but fables, and ful off lyes ; [ 9 c., Tib., as St.] 20514 
ffor men ha seyn 10 her-to-fforn, [ 10 sene St., seyne Tib.] 
Two chyldren in moment born, 
The ton ryht good and fortunat, 

And the tother infortunat; 20518 

And men ha seyn 5 ek at tyme, 
(Bothe at Evyw and at pryme,) 
Twey men that a crafft wel koraie : 
At On hour they ha be-goraie ; [Tib., leaf GI, back] 20522 
The ton Off hem ful wel hath wrouht, 
And the tother hath 11 do ryht nouht. 
And tweyne, on hour (who kan espye) 
Han bothe had malladye : c 11 The tother he hath Tib.] 20526 
The ton was mad hoi by nature, 
The tother myghte nat endure, [c. & st.] 

But hath deyed, in certeyn : 



20490 The Pilgrim. 



20510 



F badd St.] 



[Stowe, leafS36] 
[8 C., Tib., who-so St.] 



[leaf 265] 

nor the death 
of Christ. 



If no man 
conld do evil 
or good but 
as the Stars 
direct, 

there'd be no 
help for us. 



As to hours 
and constel- 
lations, 

you say that 
a man's 
nativity 
controls his 
disposition 
and con- 
dition, &c.: 



these are 
fables and 
lies. 

For we see 
that, of two 
children born 
together, one 
is fortunate, 
the other un- 
fortunate ; 



that of two 
sick, one 
must live, 



[leaf2Gr,,l>k.] 
the other die : 



548 Predestination does not dash tvith Man's Free Will. 



The Pilgrim. 

so nativity's 
influence IB 
nonsense. 

Of 100,000 
men in battle, 



all were not 
born on the 
same day, 



though all are 
slain. 



Yet some folk 
are predesti- 
nate to bliss, 



and some to 
damnation* 



But the cause 
is not God's 
foreknow- 
ledge : 

it is the great 
difference in 
the life thtit 
folk lead, 



which sends 

tin-in to 

siilviition or 
damnation. 



Though God 

knows it all 

[leaf 266] 

beforehand, 



men are free 
to choose 



[Mn St.] 20538 

[3 ones St.] 
[* martis St., marrys C.] 

20542 



20546 



" Wherfor thy resouws be but veyn. 20530 

" Or telle me also a resouw 
Touchynge thyw oppynyouw : 
An hundryd thousand men assaylle 
Euerych other in bataylle ; 20534 

Wher-off kometh ther 1 destyne, [ c., Tib., that St.] 
That they ben alle at o lourne, 
And yet par cas (yt ys no nay) 
They wer nat alle born) on 2 o day, 
Nor they nat entre, nyh nor ferre, 
AH at tonys 3 in-to that werre ; 
And yet, by Martys 4 mortal la we. 
Euerychon they ben yslawe : 
Tel the cause what may thys be, 
And spek no mor off destyne. 

" Yet som folk ben ordynat, 
And also predestynat, 
Prescryt 5 to-forn to loye and blysse, cs - p pSjffi b p ] rescyt " 
Off the wych som other mysse, 
Swych as (in conclus'iouw) 
Gon vn-to 6 dampnaci'ouw). [ c., St., in to Tib.] 20550 

"And, trewly 7 (yt ys no dred) [Ureweiy Tib.] 
The cause ys nat (who taketh hed,) 
The dy vyne prescyence ; 

But the grete dyfference 20554 

Ys causyd off good and off badde, 
Affter the lyff that they her ladde. [ 8 Tib., the St., thy c.] 
And in this 8 world (bo the ffer and ner, 9 ) 
As they rowede in the Ryuer, f 9 ^H^l^^^ 11 20558 
So?ttme to loye, sowme to peyne, 
ffro synne as they hem-sylff restreyne ; 
The goode to savaci'ouw, 

The evele vn-to dampnacfouw, 20562 

Constreyned no-thyng by destyne, [stowe, leaf sse, back] 
But by ffre wyl and lyberte. p thyng <m. St.] 

"Thogh god knewe al thys thyng 10 to-forn, 
Many 11 day or they wer born, [ Many a st.] 20566 

Hys knowyng nor hys prescyence, 
Vn-to man doth noon offence, 
ffredam ys yove 12 to hem to chese, ["gyvenstj 



God, not the Stars, is the cause of Disease and Defect. 549 



20574 



20578 



20582 



20586 



" Whether hyra lyst to wywne or lese ; 20570 The pn g rim. 

ffor, knowyng (who that looke wel) 
Off god, ne causeth neueradel 
Wher them lyst, off bothe tweyne, 
To gon to loye, outher to peyne. 

" And, ther-for, do by my lore, 
And off destyne spek no more ; 
ffor the planetys euerychon, 
And the sygnes, on by On, 
And euery sterre, in hys degre, 
Mevyn by the volunte 
Off the lord that syt alofftej 

" And also (as yt falleth offte) 
ffolkys that in thys world her be, 
(At the Eye as thow mayst se,) 
So??ime be lame, and feble off myght ; 
And somme strong, and gon vp-ryht, 
And many welde hem sylff ryht wel ; 
But, off the sterrys neueradel, 
Nor off the hevenly influence, 
Strengthe, myght, nor impotence, 
Be nat causyd (on no syde) 
But as the lord lyst to provyde. 

" No man blynd, nor no man lame 
Born the gospel seyth the same ; 
ffor whan cryst, in swych A cas, 
Off the lewys axyd was, 
(As in lohan ye may fynde,) 

Why the blynde maw was bor 1 blynde, ['boniest.} 20598 
He told hem pleynly at A word, 
'To prove the workys off the 2 lord, ["owe St.] 

And hys dedys by myracle, 
W^t/i-outen any mor obstacle ; ' 
And other cause was ther noon, 
As seyth the gospel off seyn lohnX 

" And nothyng thorgh the rnoczou?* 
Off sterrys dysposiciouw, 20606 

Was thys blyndnesse to hyw sent. 

" And davyd seyth ' the fyrmament 
Was ordeyned, at O word, 



20590 



20594 



whether 
they'll go to 
joy or pain. 



Say no more 
of Destiny. 



All the stars 
move by the 
will of God. 



Tho' some 
folk are 
lame and 
weak, 



others 
strong, 



i lie stars and 
heavenly in-, 
fluences are 
not the cause, 



but only God. 

As to the 
blind, 



St. John says 
Christ told 
the Jews the 
man was 
born blind to 
show His 
mirarulous 
power, 



20602 [leaf 266, bk.] 



and not by 
the stars' 
disposal. 



David i!e- 
c-larex the 
firmament 
was urdaind 



550 Astrology contends for the Power of Stars over Men. 



to declare the 
works of the 
Lord. 



Ptolemy says 
a wise man 
lias power 
over all con- 
stellations. 



Sapiens dommabitur astris. 
[3 wyse St., wys C.J 



The Pilgrim. To telle the WerkyS off the lord. Cell enarrant. 20610 

The sterrys, he 1 makyd for to shyne, [stowe, leaf 337] 
Vp-on the Erthe tenlwmyne ; [ be St.] 

Hih" in hevene to abyde, 

A-sonder only to devyde 20614 

The day and ek the dyrke nyht. 

"And in hys Centyloge a-ryht, 
The grete clerk, kyng 2 Tholome, [ grete kynge St.] 
Affermeth ther (who lyst to se); 20618 

He seyth (As I reherse kan) 
That in erthe A wyse' 3 man 
Haueth domynacwmw 
Above ech constellactouw." 20622 

And affter he hadde herd me seyn, 
Thus he answerde me ageyn : 

Astrologye : 4 [* st, om. cj 

' Affter thy wordys rehersyd here, 
The heuene, with hys sterrys clere, 20626 

Sholde hauew, in substauwce, 
But lytel power or puissauwce, 
And sholde also, by thy devys, 

Ben also off lasse prys 20630 

Thaw ys the erthe', her dou?& lowe, 
With greynys and with sedys sowe ; 
ffor the Erthe, wher-on we gon, 

Bryngeth fforth ffruites many On, 20634 

Euerych grouynge in hys kynde, 
And flourys fayre, as thow mayst fynde ; 
And yet, for al hys gret ffayrnesse, 
The hevene haueth mor noblesse [St. &c.] 20638 

Than hathe therthe in hys degre, ,, 

By many effects, as man may se ; ,, 

And it also more necessary. 

And shortly, (for me lyst nat tarye,) ,, 20642 

In hevenly myght and puissauwce, 
The erthe hath al hys governawice.' 

[The Pilgrim] : 

" In som thyng thow seyst ful soth, 
Touchyng that the hevene doth. 20646 

In erthe, ther sholde no?* groyns spry?zge, 



Attrology 

answers me : 
According to 
this, the 
heavens have 
little power, 



and are of less 
worth than 
the earth 
with its 
fruits and 
flowers. 



[leaf 267] 
Yet the 
heavens are 
nobler than 
it, 



and govern 
the earth. 



The Pilgrim. 
True, say I, 



Han has Free Will ; is not subject to Stars. Astronomy. 551 



" Nor ffruitys non yt sholde forth brynge, 

Ne wer the hevene (wyth hys myght) 

Gaff ther-to, couwfort and lyht ; 20650 

ffor the hevene, thorgh hys bryhtnesse, 

Thorgh hys hete, and hys clernesse, 

Causeth in erthe many a payre 

fflourys and ffruit to sprynge fay re, 20654 

And yiveth ther-to (as thow mayst se) 

fful grete gyfftys off bewte, 

Lych as the lord off most renoun 

Hath yove hew by co?myssiiouw. 20658 

11 But hys power, nor hys powste, 
Ne strechchet nat (who lyst to se, 
Neuere sythe the world by-gan,) [stowe, leaf 337, back] 
Touchynge the gouernaurece off man. 20662 

ffor man hath choys and voluwte, 
ff redam also, and lyberte. 
Hevene ne sterrys, bothe two, 

Ther- wit/* haue no-thyng to do, 20666 

Nor neuer aforn, power hadcle, 
To cause hym 1 to don good or badde. [> them St.] 

" But whaw I mette ffyrst wit/i the, 
Off thyng thow spak to me, 20670 

Touchyng thy tother halff partye 
Wych callyd ys ' Astronomy e.' 
Tel me a-noon, and have y-do, [St. & c.j 

Ys she ff er now f ro the go ? 20674 

Wher ys hyr habytactouw, 

Hyr dwellyng, or hyr manci'ou?* ] " 

Astrologie : 2 [ 2 st., o. c.] 

' Wher that she be, her or yonder, [St. & c.] 

We ne be nat ffer asonder, 20678 

ffor vnder hyre proteccwnms 
I make dyvynackaws ; 
And by hyr power grauretyd me, 

I have scolerys two or thre, 20682 

Wych that on me euere abyde, 
And departe nat fro my syde.' 

Pilgrim : 3 [ 3 st., om. c.] 

" Tel on a-noon, I pray the, 



The Pilgrim. 

the heavens 
do give light 
and heat to 
the earth ; 



but they 
don't govern 
man. 



Man has 
choice and 
freedom ; 

and neither 
sky nor stars 
can make him 
do good or ill. 



Now tell me 

about 

Astronomy. 

[leaf 267, bk.] 



Astrology. 



Astronomy is 
near me. 



Slie has two 
Scholars tor 
divining : 



The Pilgrim. 



552 Of Pyromancy, Aeromancy, and Hydromancy. 



The Pilgrim. 



Attrology. 



the first is 



Pyromancy, 
who divines 
in the fire. 



The second is 
Af'rmaney, 
who divines 
by air. 



[leaf Z68] 
The third is 



Hydro- 
mancy, who 
divines by 
water. 



The fourth is 



" Declare her namys here to me, 20686 

And thy-sylff no-thyng excuse, 

Wher thow dost swych craff tes vse ; 

ffor syth thow seyst so nyh they be, 

With al myn herte I wolde hem se." 20690 

Astrologie : l [ J st., <m. c.] 

' fEor to ff ulfylle thy desyr : 
The ffyrste place ys in the ffyre ; 
And my scoler, ffyrst off echon, 

Wher-so-euere that we gon, 20694 

(I kan hyr in no wyse excuse,) 
In that place she doth yt vse. 
And she (as I shal specefye) 

Callyd ys ' Pyromancye ' : 20698 

ff ro thennys she may nat wel dysseuere ; 
And in the ffyr she dwelleth euere ; 
And therby (in conclusions) 

She maketh hyr dyvynaciouw, 20702 

Be yt ffoul or be yt ffayr. 

' My secouwde scoler in the hayr 2 p is the ayre St.] 
Pleynly, affter my doctryne, 

At alle tymes doth devyne ; 20706 

And therfor (yiff thow koraie espye,) 
Hyr name ys callyd ' Aermancye.' 

' The thrydde ys off fful gret renouw, 
And hath hyr habytac'iouw [stowe, leafsss] 20710 

In the se (who kan dyscerne); 
Whom Neptunus doth goueme ; 
By whom (the story telleth thus) 
The myghty man Neptanabus, 20714 

fEader to Alysauwdre the kyng, 
Wrouht fful many A dyuers thyng ; 
And in the water and in the se 

"Was al hys crafft, as thow mayst se. 20718 

Ther-fore (me lyst nat for to lye,) 
Yt ys callyd Ydromancye, 
By water (in conclus'iouw), 
Augurye or dyvynaci'ouw. 20722 

< The ffourthe, (yt nedeth nat telle,) 
ffor, awhyle yiff thow wylt dwelle, 



Geomancy claims to fix Sowing-times, and to foretell Crops. 553 



' Thow shalt A-noon, her in presence 

Sen ther, off experyence, 20726 

ffor yt ys wrouht by mawhys bond, 

Somwhyle in erthe and in sond : 

Ther-fore (shortly to specefye) 

Yt ys callyd Geomancye.' 20730 

[The Pilgrim] : 
Than quod I, " tel on to me, 
What be the poyntys that I se : 
Declare to me, and nat ne ffaylle, 
What may they helpyn or A-vaylle." 20734 

Geomanc[y]e 1 : C 1 st., m. c.] 

' Be-twyxen ernest and ek game, 
' Geomancye,' her ys my name. 
Astrologye ys my maystresse, 

That dyde my name to the" expresse ; 20738 

To whos doctryne and whos sentence 
I yive ffeyth and fful credence ; 
And by thys poyntys, I kan knowe 
Whan ys tyme to Ere and sowe; 20742 

And wher, thys nexte yer certeyn, [C. & st.) 

Ther shal be plente off frut and greyn. 

And I kan telle, nyh" and fferre, 

Bothe off pes and ek off werre ; 20746 

And in effect, I wyl nat ffaylle 

To telle the ffyn off a bataylle. 
And, that I lese nat my labour, 

I take the tyme and ek the hour 20750 

Whan that I my werk begynne, 
Who shal lesyn, or who shal wynne, 
Or who shal ffaylle 2 off hys plesawzce ; [ 3 who siiaiian St.] 
ffor thys poyntj ha resemblauwce 20754 

To the sygnes in the hevene, 
And to the planetys alle .vij. 3 p seven St.] 

' And, I taake also good heed 

To the tayl and to the bed, 20758 

Hih" a loffte, off the dragouw, 
Wha?e I ffourme my questyouw, 
Wher-on, by hevenly influence, [stowe, leaf -iss, back] 
I yive trewe and iust sentence 20762 



Astrology. 



Geomancy, 
who divines 
by earth and 
sand. 



The Pilgrim. 



Geomancy 



sets forth her 
occupation. 



By her 
Points she 
can tell times 
for sowing 
[leaf 268, bk.] 
and future 
crops, 



peace and 
war, 



loss and 
success, 



by the signs 
in the sky 
and planets, 



and the tail 
and head of 
the Dragon, 



554 



/ reproach Geomancy fw trusting in Astrology. 



The Pilgrim. 



Geomancv. 



and the sky's 



influence. 
The Pilgrim. 



I scold 
Geomancy, 



and say it 
is fully to 
trust in 
Astrology, 
[leaf 269] 



She has no 
sense in her 
head, 

and her craft 
is dangerous 
to simple 
folk. 



I bid her go, 



as I'm afraid 
I'm in danger 
of falling 



' On every thyng, and ech demaimde, 
Lyk as my ffygures me comauwde.' 

Pilgrym : x [ st, om. c.] 

"Tel fforth to me euerydel, 
Wher-off serveth that tuel." 20766 

Geomancy : 2 p st., om. c.] 

' I looke thorgh (off hool entent) 
Vp-ward to the ffyrmament, 
To han, vn-to my questi'ouw, 

A maner dysposicfouw, 20770 

Or that I my ffygur sue, 
How the hevene doth influe. 

Pilgryme : 3 p st., om. c.] 

" Now I teUe the Outterly, 

That thow art ryht vnhappy, 20774 

And dygne (to myw oppynyoure) 
OfB shame and off confus'ioun, 
That, so myche off thy ffolye 

Trustest in astrology e, 20778 

"Wenyng, at thy 4 comauwdement, pthestj 

ffor to make the ffyrmament 
As thow lyst, ryht at thyre hond, 
ffor to descende vp-on the sond, 20782 

By influence avale a-doure 
By cause off thy questioura ; 
Wenynge ta fond 5 Out a weye [ 5 to a found st.] 

That the hevene the sholde obeys. 20786 

" In thyn hed ys no resoure, 
Clernesse nor dyscreci'ou?* ; 

Thy craffb and thow be 6 peryllous [6be,o.st.] 
To symple ffolkys vertuous, 20790 

To brynge hem in mysgouernaunce. 
I praye god, saue me fro meschau/ice, 
And ffro thy gret Inyquyte ! 

Go hens, that I no mor the" se ! 20794 

I drede me gretly in my thouht, 
That I am in pereyl brouht ; 
Namly in thys dredful se, 

I trowe sothly that I be 20798 

ffalle on a pereyl doutclcs, 



/ sail to another Isle, and meet the hag Idolatry. 555 



20802 

[ 2 cyrces St., cyces C.] 



[ theyr St.] 20806 



Wych that callyd ys 'Cyrces.' " 

iThys tweyne loude gan to crye, E 1 A s t rol ^ e ] and Geoman y 
And gan vn-to me specefye 
That I was falle vp-on Cyrces, 2 
And that I sholde (douteles, 
By no treyne nor by no lape) 
ffrom ther 3 daunger nat escape. 
And I, for dred, gan haste me 
Streyht ageyn vn-to the se, 
And leffte hem bothe on An ylond, / 
Makynge ther poyntys in the sond. [stowe, leaf 339] 20810 

And tharaie I gan to bydde and preye, 
That god wolde helpe me 4 on my weye, [Ti ai,f Laf esT here 
ffrom alle 5 stormys in my passage, [* aUem' Tc' stV 
And also fro the gret outrage 20814 

Off wyndes wych that, bin" and lowe, [C. & St.] 
Sternely at me gan blowe. 

And in the same sylue whyle, 

I sawh apere a lytel yle, 20818 

Wher-off I hadde gret gladnesse ; 
And thyderward I gan me dresse ; 
Kauhte so ffer vp -with myn hond, 
That, off grace, I kam to lond. 20822 

And ther I sawh, off cher fful bold, 
A vekke, hydous and ryht old, 
And wonder Ougly off hyr chere ; 
Hyr handys she beet also yffere ; 20826 

And hyr lawhyng to determyne, 
Lych an hors she gan to wyne. 6 [ 6 wbyne Tib.] 

And I, my look vp-on hyr leyde, 
And evene thus to hyre I seyde : 20830 

The Pylgryme : 7 u Tib., pilgrim st., om. c.] 

" thow most tfoul in beholdyng, 
Tel on the cause off thy lawhyng ! " 

Ydolatrle : [C- > margin; Idolatrye Tib., St.] 

' Kom On, and entre in w/'t/* me, 

And the cause thow shalt se.' 20834 

[The Pilgrim]: (.Blank for Illumination inC.] 

And I entrede by hyr byddyng ; 

And ther I ffond On 8 syttyng / [ 8 oou Tib., on st.] 



The Pilgrim. 
into Cyrcea. 



They tell me 
I have thus 
fallen. 



So I sail off, 



and leave 
Astrology 
and Geo- 
maiicy on the 
island. 



[leaf 269, bk.] 



Then I find 
another little 
isle, 



and meet on 
it a hideous 
old hag 
(Idolatry), 



who whinnies 
like a horse, 



Idolatry. 

and who 
bids me 
come into 
her house. 



I enter witli 
her, and find 



556 In Idolatry's house I see a Carpenter worship an Idol. 



The Pilgrim. 

an image on 
a chair, 
crownd like 
a king, 



[leaf 270] 

with a shield 
painted with 
black flies 
and spiders, 



[Tib., leaf 65, back] 
[Tib., C., & St.] 



20838 



20842 



and a churl 
kneeling and 
sacrificing 
to it. 



The churl 
is a carpenter 
or a mason. 



Idolatry. 
Idolatry 



delights in 
seeing the 
churl worship 
the Image, 



and wants 
me to kneel 
to it 



In A chayer, an ymage, 

Eyht ffoul off look and off vysage : 

He sat crownyd lyk a kyng, 

In hys bond a swerd holdyng ; 

Vp-on hys shuldrys brood and large 

Me thouhte that he had a targe, 

Wyth blake fflye's al depeynt : 

Yreynes 1 wern A-mong hem meynt; [ And vreynes Tib.] 

[An Illumination follows this line in Tib.] 
And (wych that ys ful foul to nevene) 20845 

Ther was a maner off smoky levene 2 p heuene Tib.] 
Wych the ydole dyde embrace. 

And round aboutew in the place, ,, 

Yt was fful (I yow ensure) 
Off bryddes dunge and foul ordure. 20850 

To-for thys mawmet (in certeyn) 
I sawh knelyn a vyleyn, 

With powdrys and 3 with fumys blake, [ 3 and om. Tib.] 
Sacryfyse for to make 20854 

To thys ydole, vrith hys sheld. 
And he that 4 knelede (as I be-held) [* that om. Tib.] 
Was 5 (to myw Oppynyouw) p And was Tib.] 

A Carpenter or a masoun. 20858 

Idolatry e : 6 [ Tib., St., in margin C.] 

Thawne thys dame Ydolatrye, [stowe, leaf sso, back] 

ffoul and horryble off look and Eye, 

' Behold,' t^uod she, ' and looke wel, [Tib., leaf 66] 

And se the maner euerydel 20862 

How I ha 7 loye and gret gladnesse phaueTib.] 

To sen thys cherl, by gret humblesse, 

Toward thys mawmet hym-sylff tavauwce, 8 [ 8 to vaunce Tib.] 

Don worshepe, and dbseruawrece; 20866 

And I abyde, for to se 

That thow shalt knele vp-on thy kne, 

To-fforn hym, by devociouw. 

fforsake thy skryppe and thy bordouw ; : 20870 

And, to hys myghty excellence, 

Don worshepe and reuerence.' 

The Pylgryme: 9 [ Tib., pngrim st., om. o.j 

Lyst for thys thyng I ffyl 10 in blame, ["> Lcste . . ttciie Tib.] 






Idolatry strives to deface the ivorship of God. 



[i And Idolatrye Tib.] 
[2 free Tib., St., ff C. burnt] 
1C., Tib., St.] 

20878 



20882 



If Deuteronomi. 6 (13) 
Dominum deum tuum 
timebis, & ill! soli se[r- 
vies]. Tib., om. C., St. 

20886 



[leaf 270, bk.] 
Idolatry. 

She explains 
that she is 
' Idolatry,' 



and her ob- 
ject is to 
abolish the 
worship of 
God. 



She is the 
friend and 
daughter of 



20890 



[Tib., leaf 66, back] 



I' Tel on ffyrst, what ys thy name." 20874 m Pilgrim. 

Dame Idolatrye : [Tib., Ydolatre St., Ydolatrye in margin C.] 

' Ydolatrye 1 I am,' quod she, 

'And off ffolkes that be ffre, 2 

Thys my custom and vsage 

ffor to brynge hem in seruage.' 

And I kan, by collusi'ouw, 

Tourne al estatys vp-so-douw, 

And sette (thogh ffolk hadde yt sworn,) 

That ys bakward, to go beforn. 

To dyfface, ys my labour, 

The kynges worshepe and honour, 

And al that to my sylff applye. 

ffor I am callyd ' Ydolatrye,' 

The wyche (who wel loke kan) 

ff rend and douhter to Sathan ; 

ffor Sathan (shortly for to telle) 

In mawmetys I make hyra dwelle. 

' By thys cherl vp-on hys kne, 
Her thow mayst exaumple se, 
How he, wyth al hys dyllygence, 
Doth hym honour and reuerence, 
Wenynge, by hys apparaylle, 
The mawmet myhte to hym avaylle. 
ffor Sathan, that ys cloos wit/4-Inne, i' 
To Infecte hys soule wyth synne, 
And hys wyttys to entrouble, 
Yiveth an answere wych ys double, 
Wych hath (to marren hys entent,) 
A maner off double entendement, 
And leueth hyra euere in none-certeyn, 3 p ^^vn?r^3 
Or kepeth hym Muet 4 off dyscleyn ; [* muyt St., Muet Tib.] 
And hys 5 requeste doth refuse, L 5 his Tib., hyr c., her St.] 
To make the fool more for 6 to muse, [ 6 for c., St., om. Tib.] 
Lose hys tyme, off wylfulnesse. 20907 

' And yet, in al hys wrechchydnesse, [stowe, leaf sto] 
Efft 7 he doth hys dyllygence, [' oaie Tib., eft st.] 
Wit/i 8 smoke and ffyr hy?;i to encense, [ 8 with om. Tib.] 
Prayeth hys Mawmet nat to fay lie, 20911 

To yive Answere, and hym 9 consaylle, [ 9 c., Tib., hem St.] 



20894 



20898 



20902 



who is en- 
closed in the 
idol, 



and always 
gives answers 
with a double 
meaning. 



Tlie churl 
prays the idol 
for an an- 
swer; 



558 The Cai'penter who made the Idol, yet prays to it. 



[leaf 271] 
Idolatry. 



but it hears 
not, and an- 
swers not, 



for it is dumb 
as a stone, 



and as dead 
as wood. 



Whoever be- 
lieves in it is 

a fool. 



Yet the car- 
penter first 
made the 
Idol, 



and knows 
it can't help 
him. 



That's why 
I taught. 



The Pilgrim. 



I bid the car- 
penter rise, 



[leaf 271, bk.] 



and ask for- 
giveness for 
his guilt. 



' And helpe hym, that he myghte spede, 
To forthre hym in hys gret nede, 
Syth he in hym doth so affye. 

' Se how thys fool, off hys ffolye, 
Seth how hys Mawrnet, ffoul off chere, 
Herys 1 hath, 2 and may nat here; 
And syttynge also in hys se, 
Eyen hath, and may nat se ; 
But ys as dowmb as stok or ston ; 



20914 



eres Tib., St.] 
;* he hath Tib.J 



20922 



And hath ffet, and may nat gon, 
Nor from hys chayer, a foot remewe, 
Thogh al the world hym woldii sue. 

* Hys swerd, hys targe, in bataylle 
May to hym ryht nouht avaylle ; 20926 

ffor he ys ded, as ston or 3 tre. [ 3 c., Tib., in St.] [Tib., leaf 67] 
And 4 trewly (so as thynketh me,) [* And ooniy Tib.] 
Who doth to swych on, 5 reverence, p oon Tib., one St.] 

ReqUerynge 6 hys benyVOlence, [ Requyrynge Tib., requeryth St.] 

He ys (for short conclus'iouw) 20931 

A fool, in myn oppynyouw. (/! 
' And for to touchyn hym mor ner, 

The Same Sylue 7 Carpenter P selffe same St., same silffe Tib.] 

Dyde a-forn hys bysy peyne 20935 

To forge hym, wyth hys handys tweyne, 

And make hym ffyrst off swych entaylle, 

And wot he may nothyng avaylle 

To helpe hym, whan that 8 al ys do. 

They ben A-coursyd, bothe two : 

And thys the cause (wyth-outii more) 

ffyrst why that I lowh so sore.' 

The Pylgryme: 9 [Tib.,piigrimst.,ow.c.] 

Yet nat-wyth-stondyng, off entente, 
To the cherl 10 A-noon I wente, [ 10 cimrie Tib.] 

Bad hym a-ryse, and that a-noon, 
And that he sholde thenys gon, 20946 

And leue hys fals oppynyouw, 
Go take 11 hys skryppe and hys bordouw, c " ^c"^;^] 
And, off hertc ful mekly, 

Gon and crye the kyng, mercy 20950 

Off the gylt and the trespace 



20938 

[ 8 that OCT. St., whan ne 

Tib.] 

If Sapientz'e 14". (8) 
fT Idolum maledictum 
[est] et qui fecit illud. 

20942 



T 



Why Idolatry is not justified ly Pilgrims adoring Images. 559 



That he hadde don in that place, 

And that hys herte was so set 

To worshepe A Marmoset, 20954 

Wych to helpe, (fer nor ner,) 

Hath no puissaurace nor power, [stowe, leaf 340, back] 

"VVher-ofE (wM-oute mor respyt,) 

The Cherl in herte hadde gret despyt, 20958 

And felly gan a-geyn abrayde, 
And vn-to me ryht thus he sayde : [Tib., leaf 67, back] 

The Vyleyne : l U St., veleyne Tib., . . yleyn C., in margin.'] 

' How darstow 2 me her repreue, p darste thow Tib.] 

Or thyw. herte so to greue, 20962 

To sen me don swych (Sbseruauwce 

Wit// al myw hoole affyauwce, 

To thys yddles set on stages, 

Syth pylgrymes, in ther 3 passages 

Honowre and worshepe, euerychon, 

Ymages off tymber and off ston ; 

And crystene peple, ful nyh alle, 

On ther knes to-forn hem falle ; 

And, whan al to-gydre ys souht, 

They may helpe yow ryht nowht, 

Nor done to yow noon avauwtage, 

N"o mor than her, may myw ymage.' 

1T The Pylgryme : 4 [* Tib., pilgrim st., om . cj 
"That thow woldest her conclude, 
Thy resouns ar 5 but rude, 
ffor, sothly, we nothyng laboure 
The ymages to honoure, 20978 

Stook nor ston-, nor that men peyntes ; 
But we honoure the holy seyntes 
Off whom they beryn the lyknesse, 
In our mynde, to enpresse, 
By clere 6 demonstracwmws, 
Ther martyrdam, ther passi'omzs, 
Ther holy lyff, ther 7 myracles 
Wych ben to vs but 8 spectacles, 
And as mcrours, that represente 
Ther trewe menyng and ther 9 entente, 
Ther grete labour and vyctorye ; 



The Pilgrim. 



Pther om. Tib.] 20966 



20970 



20974 



[ 5 C., St. they are, Tib., St. 
The Q-iyllable line it yood.] 



20982 

[ clere St., cler C., cleer Tib.] 

[7 and ther Tib.] 
[ 8 but St., but as C.] 20986 



['ther om. St.] 



He scorns 
me, 



and asks how 
I dare reprove 
him 



when pil- 
grims wor- 
ship images 
of wood and 
stone also ; 



yet they help 
no more than 
his own Idol 
doea. 



The Pilgrim. 



I tell him 
this is not so. 



We Chris- 
tians honour 
the saints 



[leaf 272] 



for their 
miracles, 



SCO Christian Images are meant to be read like Books. 

The pilgrim. " That we sholde ha memorye, [Tib., leafesj 20990 

and make By hem, a kalender to make, 

from them a 

calendar of What they suftrede for crystes sake, 

Patriarchs, , J 

Patryarches and prophetys, 

Wych in hevene haue now her setys ; 20994 

The 1 passi'oim off cryst hym-sylue, C 1 And the Tib.] 

[An Illumination follows in Tib.] 
of Christ and And off hys apostelys twelue, 

His Apostles, * 

and Martyrs. And oft martyrs that wer vyctours ; 

The pacyence off cdnfessours, 20998 

And off maydenes, in ther degre, 
That deyde 2 in vyrgynyte, p c., deyed Tib., dyed St.] 
As clerkys in ther lyve's 3 ffynde. pboksst.] 



Our images " Ymages presents to Our mynde, 21002 

express the , , , 

Saints' holy And to vs, clcrly expresse, 

lives, 

Off her ly vyng the holynesse ; 
And for thys skyle, (wit/i-oute let) 
and are Ymages in cherches ben vp set : 21006 

set up in 

churches And vn-to folkys many On, 

fful gret profyt also they done, 

Namly, to swych (I yow ensure) 
that the un- That ne kan, no lettrure ; 21010 

learned may ~, . . . , , 

read from ttor, on ymages whan they lookys, 

totaf fi ft Ther they rede, as in ther bookys/ ^^.'.^ihb.] 

and learn What they Ouhte off ryht to SUe, [Tib., leaf 68, back] 

and to avoid. And also what they Shal 5 eschewe, [ 5 schulde Tib., slmld St.] 

Ther they may yt clerly lere. 21015 

" But off thy mawmet, I wolde here, 

"Wych may the no thyng socoure, 

[leaf 272, bk.] Why thow sholdest hyw honoure. 21018 

slwuid'ife ff r (who that any resouw kan,) 
ido r i! h whicn e Wit^-Inne, enclosyd ys Sathan, 
Satan" 18 And ther hym-sylff hath mad a se, 

The pry nee off al inyquyte, 21022 

and win hurt The wyche 6 (shortly for tendyte,) [ 6 wiwche Tib., St., wycii c.] 
ally ? fful mortally he shal the quyte, 

Whan he seth tyme, and best leyser. 

And therfor, now, whyl thow art her, 21026 

Off thy Mawmet for to telle, 

Sey on ; for I ne may nat dwelle." 



7 meet the old hag Sorcei^y, who hooks me. 561 

The Vyleyn : l P St., veleyne Tib., am. C.] The Villain. 

' Thow gest 2 no mor, as now, for me ; P geste Tib., getst St.] 
But off thyng I warne the ; 21030 

Yiff thow in thys place abyde, The car- 

penter de- 

Myn ax shal thorgh thy nekke glyde, c!" e8 m e ' U 

But yiff 3 thow do to myw linage, pjeueiib.] idoVt 

Lowly worshepe and homage. 21034 f d ^ hi P his 

Ches yiff 3 the lyst, and lat me se, 
ffor thow gest 4 no mor off me.' [ getest St., geste Tib.] 

The Pylgryme : 5 [ s Tib., Pilgrim St., om. C.J Tht Pilgrim^ 

Than I stood in fful gret doute. fe^ lngreat 

And as I tournede me aboute, 21038 

Myd off thys He that I off tolde, 

And Query party gan beholde, 

Myd off thys se, lookyng ech way 

How I myhte eskape a- way ; 21042 

And to-for myw Eye 6 I fond peynestj [Tib., leaf 69] 

A Maryssh, or elles a merssh 7 lond, u mershe St.] w'wl^a 40 " 

That peryllous was, and ful profourade, marsh. 

And off ff ylthes ryht habouwde. 2 1 046 

And thyder-ward as 8 I gan hye [Swasc.] imwta^oid 

A vekke Old me dyde espye, 
Komyng wtt7i an owgly cher; [stowe, leaf 841, back] 
Vp-on hyr hed, a gret paner; 21050 

In hyr ryht hand (as I was war,) 
An hand kut off, me sempte she bar. 

And^ Or any hede I took, 9 [ I took Tib. (C. burnt), she toke St.] [leaf 273] 

She kauhte me 10 with a crokyd hooke. 10 P a -^ g b gg- 6lOTI * ) ' 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib. 

The old Witch has, in her left hand, a long stick, 

hookt under the Pilgrim's left armpit; and her 

right hand grasps a big cut-off hand by its wrist.] 

And as she gan me faste holde, hoiVof'me 

I axede hyre what that she wolde, 21056 ^ her 

And make 11 a declarac'iorm p 1 make c., Tib., St.] 

Off name and off condyc'iouw. 

*IT Sorcerye : 12 P* Tib., St., om. C.] Sorcery 

Quod she : 'vnderstond me thus; 21059 

My name yS ' BythalaSSUS,' 13 U 3 bythalassus Tib., Bythassus C., St.] tells me she 

Wych ys to scyne', (who lyst 14 se) P 4 lyste Tib., lyst c., St.] lassus, 

PILGRIMAGE. O O 



562 



Sortilege or Sorcery, who should be cold Malefice. 



Sorcery. 



and her 
name is 



Sortilege or 
Sorcery 



[ 3 som C., Tib., some St.] 
[ Cortylage Tib.] 



not at St., nat C., 
not Tib.] 



(with knives, 



and oint- 
ments, &c., in 
her basket); 



[leaf 273, bk.] 



but she 
should be 
cald ' Male- 
flee,' 



as her drinks 



' A ffamous pereyl off the se, 

In wych (wyth-outen any grace) [Tib., leaf 69, back] 

Alle 1 If oik that forby pace, [ Aiie Tib., AI c., AH st.] 21064 

And alle tho that thorgh me gon, 

I make hem perysshen, 2 euerychon. [ 2 peryshe st.] 

' And also ek touchyng my name, 
I am callyd (by gret dyffame, 21068 

As som 3 ffolkys specefye,) 
' Sortylege 4 or Sorcery e.' 
Many f olkys thus me calle ; 
And yet they hate me nat 5 alle ; 
I am be-lovyd, bo the ffer and ner. 21073 

' And I ber ek in thys paner 
(Who that wit/i-Inne lyst to seke) t 
Many knyves and hoodys ek, 21076 

Dyvers wryte's and ymages, 
Oynemewtys and herbages, 
Gadryd in constellac'iouws ; 

ffor I obserue my sesowzs, 21080 

and make off hem elleccyouw [Tib.] 

afftir myne oppynyoun. 

And 'Maleffyce', folkes 6 alle, [Tib.] [ Maiyfite folks st.] 
Off ryght, they shulde me so calle. [Tib.] 21084 

I have ful many evel vsages [Tib. & c.] 

Off drynkes and off beverages, ,, 

Wherby I make (her and yonder,) 
ffrendys for to parte assonder; 21088 

ffor, WZt/i fals COwiurySOUWS 7 U C. & Tib., conjurations St.] 



and enchant 
ments ruin 
folk, 



And wi't/i myw incawtaci'ouws, 
And many dyuers enchauwtement, 
Sondry folk ben off te shent. 
And, with dyuers crafftys ek, 
I kan make men ful sek ; 
and kin some. And somme also ful cursydly 
ffor to deye sodeynly. 

' And, in lordys ek presencys, 
I kan make ek 8 apparencys 
Whan that me lyst, ful many On, 
Yiff I sholde telle he?re euerychon.' 



21092 



21096 



[Stowe, leaf 212] 

[ 8 eke make Tib.] 

[Tib., leaf 70] 



21100 



The Pilgrim. 



ITThe Pylgryme:' 



[9 PilRrim Tib., St.,oj.C.] 



How Sorcery went to the Devil's School, and lost her Soul. 563 



on t* scolars . many a St., scolers . . many 
011 Tib ^ 8Colery8 1 _ manyng c.] 



" Tel on, (we't/i-oute mor taryng,) 
Wher lernystow al thy komiyng. 1 " 

11 Sorcerye : 2 [* Tib., St., erye, in margin C.] 

' Sothly, (as I reherse kan,) 

TIT i r, ,1 nitm 

I lernede my korenyng oft Sathan, 21104: 

J 

[An Illumination follows in Tib., of the Devil and 
four women, one with a long-headed rod, and an- 
other with a child in her arms.] 
Wych halt hys scole nat hewnys ffer, 
And hath ydon ful 3 many A yer. pydonest.] 

And to that scole kome and gon, 21107 

Off seolprvs ful manv 4 
lerys iui uidiiy 

And he, aboue al maner thyng, 

Ys ful glad off ther komyng. 

And off that Art, in many wyse, 

Ther, I ha 5 lernyd the guyse. phaueTib.] 21 11 2 

And offte 6 sythe (yiff thow lyst se,) [ offte c., Tib., eft st.] 

Ther, wyth othor scolerys be.' 

11 The Pylgryme : 7 U Tib., piignm st., om. c.] 
"Tel on (and make no mor lettynge 8 ) [Tib., leaf 70, back] 
What gaff thow hjm for thy kmrnynge" ? " ^^r)] 

IT Sorcerye : 10 [' kunnynge Tib., conynge St.] [i" Tib., St., om. C.] 

' The trouthe, yiff I telle shal, 21117 

My soule I gaff hy??i, hool and al, 

And forsook (by chaffaryng) 

The werkys off the myghty kyng. 21120 

And who that euere wyl do so, 

And to that scole approche vn-to, 

He may (yiff that I shal nat lye,) 

ffynde ther swych u mercerye.' P 1 ^J^/Jg st - ffynde ' 

H The Pylgryme : 12 [" Tib., Pilgrim St., om. C.] 

"Thow hast (as I shal devyse,) 21125 

Mad a shrewde 13 marchaumyse, P schrewya Tib.] 

To yeue 14 A thyng off gret noblesse, [ M yueC., jeueTib.] 

Excellyng ek in worthynesse, 21128 

And also off so 15 gret vertu, p so c., St., om. Tib.] 

ff or a thyng off no valu, 

And (off trouthe and off resouw) 

Most wyl 16 off reputacmira ; [ w vyie Tib., vyii st.] 21132 

ffor the wych, (I dar wel telle,) 



Sorcery. 

she got her 

learning from 

satan(who 

has his school 

near), 



[leaf 274] 

Sorcery. 



in return for 



The Pilgrim. 

i ten her 

she's made a 

bad deal, 
to give her 
worthless 



564 Of the face Physiognomy, and the hand Chiromancy. 



The Pilgrim. 

and that 
she stands in 
great peril, 

Sorcery. 



but she 
doesn't 
repent, , 



and will not 
change tho' 
she goes to 
Hell for it. 



[leaf 274, bk.] 
The Pilffrim. 

I ask her 

what the 
cut-off hand 
means. 



Sorcery. 

She says 
Mathesis 
gave it her 
long ago, 



and also a 
whole face, 



cald ' Physi- 
ognomy,' and 
the hand is 
Chiro- 
mancy,' to 
tell folks' for- 
tunes by. 

The Pilirrim. 



Sorcery. 



[G-syll. line] 

-M:m is cald a 
Microcosm, 



[3 haue St.] 21140 
[Tib., leaf 71] 
[Stowe, leaf 842, back] 

21144 



[* Tib., om. C., St] 
[Tib.] 

21148 



" In grete 1 pereyl thow dost dwelle, [> gret c., St., gvet Tib.] 

(Off verray soth, And off no lape,) 

Neuere lykly to eskape." 21136 

1T SorCerye : 2 P Tib., St., in margin C.] 

' Al thy seyyng, euerydel, 
I wot my-sylff that, wonder wel ; 
fEor I stonde in swych meschauwce 
That I ha 3 no repentauwce ; 
I am so ffer ybrouht wit7i-Inne, 
And engluyd so with synne, 
So clevynge vp-on myw errour, 
That I truste on no socour ; 
ffor thogh I sholde go to helle, 
I wyl nat go ffro that I telle.' 

IF The Pylgryme : 4 
" Declare to me, and haue Ido, 
Where-off seruith that hand also 
whiche thow 5 holdyst now so ffaste : 

Thys thyng, expowne to me in hast." [ 5 thow st., that Tib.] 

1T SorCerye : 6 [' Tib., St., erye in marc/in C.] 

Quod she to me ageyn 7 a-noon ; [' ageyn, om.Tib.] 

' Math esis, fful yore agon, [C.&TU>.] 21152 

Gaff yt to me (by gret outrage,) 

And also ek 8 an hool vysage, [ 8 c., Tib., eke also St.] 

Wych that I haue in my depoos, 

Her, wit/i-Inne my paner cloos. 21156 

Yt ys ycallyd ' Physonomye,' 9 

And thys hand 'Cyromancye,' 9 '[ Tib. transposes these lines.] 

To telle the dysposiczoxms 

Off ffolk, and ther condyc'iouws.' 

1T The Pylgryme : 10 j [' Tib., 
" Tel on ! expowne that thyng to me, 
In what wyse that myhte be, 
Or that thow and I dysseuere ; 
if or, at that scole I was neuere." 

11 Sorcerye : u 

' Herdystow neuere (off aventure) 
That a man, in scrypture, 

Off thys 12 phylosofres alle, F That off these Tib.] 

How 'Mycrocosme' 13 they hym caUe, [13 ^^..^ a] 



21160 



, om . c.j 



21164 



[" Tib., st., n.c.] 
[Tib., leaf 71, back] 



Man is a Microcosm. His hand is starrd like the Heavens. 565 



21176 



21184 



.C.] 



' (Shortly to tellen, at word) 

Nat ellys but ' the lasse world T 21170 

IF The Pylgryme : l l 1 Tib., pilgrim St., om. c.] 
" I haue herd yt 2 in scolys offte, [ J And i haue herd Tib.] 
Ther yrad, 3 bothe loude and soffte." P ^^^j- where l 

IF Sorcerye : * [* St., . . erie i margin C.] 

' Thyn Answere mvt be verrefyed ; 21173 

Thys lasse world ys stellefyed 

Lych hevene, and as the ffyrmament, 

Ther-off to make A lugement, 

Vnderstonde by bothe two, 

The vysage and the hand also, 

Vp-on wych, by trewe syht, 

Men may yive a doom A-ryht y 

Telle the condyc'iouns 

By dyvers lyneac'iouns 

Wych ther be set (I the ensure,) 

Eyht as sterrys off nature. 

IF The Pylgryme r 5 C 5 Tib., pugvim st., 
" To thy wordy s I may accorde 
In party, and nat dyscorde, 
That a man whom we nevene 
Ys ysterryd as the hevene ; 
But her-vp-on, in substaunce, 
Thow puttest nat in re"membraurace, 
Namynge thylke lyneact'ouws, 

By namys off constellaw'ouws ; [Tib, leaf 72] 21192 

ffor trewely 6 (who kan remembre) [ - K treweiy in... trewiy c., 
The body off man, and euery mewbre, 
Ben off erthe, in certeyn, 
And to erthe shal tourne ageyn. 

" And, afftor philisofres talys, 
Ther ben hylles, ther ben wales, 7 
Medwes, ryvers, bothe' two, 
Wylde bestys ek also, 
And grete ffeldys men may sen, 
And pathes that hem departeth 8 a-twen, [ departe rib.] 
And places also off desert, 

Somme open, somme couert : 21204 

Thys be the lyneac'iouws 



Sorcery. 

or the less 
world, 

The Pilgrim. 



Sorcery. 



which is 
stanl like 
the sky ; 



that is, by 
man's face 
and hand. 



21180 [leaf 275] 



By the lines 
in them, 
man's fate 
can be told ; 
they are 
Nature's 
Stars. 



[Stowe, leaf 34S] 



21188 



21196 



[ 7 talis . . valys Tib., tallis . . 
vallis St.] 



21200 



The Pilgrim. 

I partly agree 
with you, 
Sorcery. 



But recollect, 



man's body 
is of earth, 
and will 
turn to earth. 



Philosophers' 
tali's say that 
there are hills 
and valleys, 



fields and 
paths, 



and lines uald 



566 Man's Heaven is his Soul; his Sun is his Reason. 



The Pilgrim. 

Constella- 
tions in man's 
hands and 
faces, 



whereby 
their disposi- 
tions can be 
divined. 



But all this 
is fables and 
liea. 

[leaf 275, bk.] 



The only 
heaven in 
man is his 
soul, 



and of this, 
the Sun or 

intellect 



is his reason : 



and his good 
example is 
the Stars. 



Clerks call 
the less 
world iii;iii, 



and his Stars 
make him 
cald Celestial. 



But to sup- 
pose that 
shapes and 
lines 



" Y-namyd constellac'iouws, 

In the handys and the vysage, 

Wherby, clerkys that be sage, 21208 

Affter thyw oppynyouw, 

Make dyvynac'iouw, 

And declare to the and me 

(Who that kan beholde and ae) 21212 

A manhys 1 dySpOSic'iOUW. P mannes Tib., mans St.] 

" But al thy s, in conclus'iouw ; 
To devyne, by swych 2 thynges, [* swyche Tib., snche St.] 
Ar but fables and lesynges. [c.&Tib.] 21216 

ffor, (yiff thow wylt trewly nevene,) 

In A man, ther ys noon hevene, 
(ffor to name yt trewely. 3 ) [ trewiy c., truly St.] 

But hys sowle al only. 21220 

What so euere ther-off thow teller, 
That ys hys hevene, and nothyng ellys : 
Thus clerkys seyn, that trouthe kowne. 
And, off thys, the bryhte soraie ;s 21224 

Namyd ys (in sentement) 

Intellect Or entendement.' 4 [* C., nb., Incelent or encendement St.] 
The mone 5 (in COncluSlOUw) [ s mone Tib., name C.] 

Ys ycallyd hys resoun, [Tib., leaf 72, back] 21228 

Hys vertues, and goode thewes. 

" And good exauraple that he shewes, 
Tho ben the sterrys bryht and clere, 
Wych that in thys heuene apere. 21232 

And hooly clerkys, in bookys kan, 
' The lasse world ' thus calle A man. 
And who that hath most holynesse 
In vertu, haveth most bryhtnesse : 21236 

Wych sterrys make a mare at al 
To be callyd ' celestyal,' [stowe, leaf 343, back] 

And concluden (off Kesourc,) 

Hevenly dysposic'iouw. 21240 

Thys the trowthe, we't/*-oute glose. 

" And lyk thy wordys, I suppose, 

Affter the CaaS off thy Seyyng. 6 t 6 seiynge Tib., sayenge St.] 

That swyche toknys outward shewyng, 21244 

ffygures or 7 lyneac'iouws, ['and Tib.] 



Marks in a man's Hand or Face can't control his Acts. 567 



" Shewede the condyczouws, 

And outward made ther-on A skyl 

Off governauwce towchyng hys wyl, 21248 

Off folkys inclinac'iouws, 

Yt ai 1 but fals fuildaCM)UWS, [ That are Tib.] 

(Ther-vp-on, who lyst to se,) 

To conclude necessyte, 21252 

That yt muste be so off ryht. 

" ffbr tooknys, in A manhyS 2 Syht, [ mannes Tib., mans St.] 

And sygnes (bothe at eve and prime,) 

Deceyve and fay lie ful ofte tyme, 21256 

To folk that looke with eyen cler. 

Ryght as, off A tauerner, 

The grene bussh that hangeth out r \ 

Ys a sygne (yt ys no doute,) 21260 

Outward, folkys for to telle, 

That witft-Inne ys wyn to sell. 

And for al that, (I the ensure) 

Yt may f alle 3 off aventure, p&yiest.] [Tib, leaf 73] 21264 

ffor alle the bowes, rekne echon, 

That, wit/i-Inne, wyn ys ther noon. 

" And Eveue (to purpos off thys cas-,) 
Yt ffyl thus off Ypocras, 21268 

The phylysofre ful famous, 
Ryht prudent and vertuous, 
Off whom the ffygur and ymage 

And tooknys alle off hys vysage, 21272 

Wer ybrouht to Phylemouw, 
A phylisofre off gret renoun, 
ffor to descryue hem by and by, 

And to concluden naturelly 21276 

Al the inclynac'iiouns 
And also the condiciouws 
Off Ypocras, that was so wys. 

" And Philemoiw (by short avys) 21280 

Ccncluclede (as in sentement) 
That he was incontynent, 
And off hys ly vyng vycyous, 

And naturely ek lecherous. 21284 

ffor (whan he took good heed ther- to,) 



The Pilfrrim. 



govern Man's 
will is 



[leaf 276] 

They are but 
signs, and oft 
deceive. 



As a taverner 
hangs out a 
green bust 
for a sign, 



that wine is 
on sale in- 
side; 



but some- 
times it isn't. 



The shape 
and linage of 
the philoso- 
pher Hippo- 
eras 



were brought 
to Phylemon, 



who, by 
them, ad- 
jiulgd him to 
be a vicious 
man. 



568 



Chiromancy &c. are accursed Arts. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 276, bk.] 

Bat Hippo- 
eras bridled 
liia inclina- 
tions by his 
reason, aud 
lived virtu- 
ously. 



His outward ; 
shape and 
lines caused 
no necessity. 



Therefore 
these arts are 
superstitious, 
and accurst. 



Chuck em 
into the sea. 



Then I broke 
away from , 
Sorcery 



and went to 
a rock, 



and was soon 
surrounded 
by the sea. 



" The tooknys outward told hyra so, 

By Open demonstrac'iouw. [stowe, ieafs] 

" But ypocras, (off good resouw) 21288 

By vertu only, dyde hys peyne, 
Alle the sygnes to restreyne, 
ffor-dyde hys inclynacfouw 

Wy th a brydel off resourc ; 21292 

And wyth hys fflessh held swych a stryff, 
That he was vertuous off lyff. 

" The tooknys (who so lyst to se) 
Causede noon necessy te ; 21296 

ffor, thogh they gaff an apparence, ' 
They wer fals 1 in existence, p were ffaise Tib.] 

And maden a ful strong lesyng [Tib., leaf 73, back] 
To Phylemouw in hys demyng. 21300 

" Wher-for, lerne thys off me ; 
Lat thy ffantasyes 2 be, p ffantesye Tib.] 

ffor to brynge 3 folk in 4 rage, P ^^"V] 3 8 a > St ' ] 
Both off thyw hand and thy vysage, 21304 

And also ek off thy paner 

Wyche 5 that thow shewest her. [ s wMche Tib., St., wych c.] 
ffor they be superstycious, 

Cursyd, and ryht contagyous; 21308 

And therfor, by the rede off me, 
A-noon let cast hem in the Se." 

And in thys poynt, good hed I took, 
And brak 6 loos oute off hys hook ; [ 6 brake Tib., St.] 



And, wyth-oute mor delay, 

Wente forth vp-on my way, 

Tyl at the laste I gan Aproche 

ffaste by vn-to A roche. 

And I a-noon (off goode entente) 

Ther-vp-on, a-noon I wente. 

And to thys roche large 7 and squar, 

The se kam douw, or I was war, 

And besette me round aboute ; 

Wher-off I stood in ful gret doute, 

And hadde in herte fful gret wo, 

Whan I was besegyd so 

Wyth the floodys sterne and hug, 



21313 



21316 



[7 longe Tib.] 



21320 



21324 



The old Enchantress, Scyiia, or Conspiracy. 569 

And knew, 1 as tho, no refuge, [kneweTib.,knewC., St.] The Pilgrim. 

Confort nor consolac'ioim. peaf 277] 

And sodeynly I sawh kome doim 21328 Anoiden- 

" chantress 

A wonder Old enchauwteresse, " (Scyiia) 

' comes to me, 

And to me-ward she gan hyr dresse. 

And I sawh wel ek ther I stood, 

On the wawes how she rood, 21332 riding on 

the waves, 

Off look and chere 2 fful pervers ; [* chere St., cher c.] 
And howndys manye and dyvers [Tib., leaf 74] 

She hadde, behynde and ek beforn; [stowe, leaf 344, back] 
And myghtyly she blewh an horn, 21336 

Made hyr houredys a gret route, houmisat 61 

ffor tassaylle me round aboute. me - 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., 
of the Hornblmoer on the loaves, and the Pilgrim on 
his little bit of ground, and eight hounds round 
Mm.] 

And as I stood vp-on the wrak, 
Evene thus to me she spak : 21340 

IT Scilla, (or) Conspiracciovw : 3 ^Ji^Z'^cn **".<> 

N nargin^.u Conspiracy. 

Quod she, ' thow must descende a-douw, 

She bids me 

ffor ther geyneth no rauwsouw co " ie d wn 

or her dogs 

But that thow shalt devoured be 'ii devour me. 

Off thys houwdys, that thow dost se.' 21344 

1F The Pylgryme : * [* Tib., pilgrim st., om. c.] re puonm. 

" Certys," quod I, " yt is no nay, 
I stonde in a perillous way ; 
But, I praye the, in thys rage, 
Let me nat off my passage, 21348 i ask her not 

to hinder me 

Nor bryng me nat in no dyffame 

Tyl that thow ha told thy name, [Tib., leaf 74, back] tm she's told 

* me her name, 

And shewyd, by relac'ioun, 

Thy maner, and thy condyciiouTZ." 21352 

Scilla, Conspiracyoiw : 5 [? Tib., st., om. c.] scyiia. 

' My name (for short conclus'iouw) [leaf 277, bk.] 

IT n i c n ' t slle sa .V 8 it>s 

Ys callyd ' Conspiraczoure, conspiracy, 

Or ellys (what so euere falle,) 

' Scilla ' ek thow mayst me calle ; 21356 or sciiia, 

And am ek (yiff thow lyst 6 Se) [ 6 lyste to Tib., lyst C., St.] a peril of the 

On off the pereilles off the se. 



sea. 



570 



Conspiracy's Hounds that carry out her Frauds. 



Scylla, or 
Conspiracy. 

She hunts 
folk who row 
in it, 



and makes 
her hounds 
bark at 'em. 



They bite 
grievously, 



and are 
coupled by 
great oaths. 



If they don't 
bark, they 
bite men, 



and work by 
fraud. 



She tells a 
story of two 
kings 

who went 
to war. 



The first 
attackt, with 
his knights, 

[leaf 278] 



who had 
sworn the 
day before to 
fight well. 



But they 
iaild him, 



' I chace at hem that ther-in Howe, 

And make the felle floodys flowe, 21360 

ffolkys for to putte in doute, 

Do myn houwdys, ful gret route, 

Berkyn, and gret noyse make ; 

And grete bestys for to take 21364 

Wtt/i-oute noyse or 1 berkyng : [ l or greet Tib. j 

Wonder grevous ys ther bytyng. 

I couple hem "with myn owne hondys, 

And grete hothes 2 ben the bondys [ otb.es Tib.] 21368 

Wyth wych I make ther allyauwce, 

Bothe by feyth and assurauwce. 

' Wyth the noyse that they make, 
Pylgrymes offte they don a- wake ; 21372 

And thogh they berke nat On A man, 
fful mortally they byten kan ; 

And thogh they byten by greet 3 sleyhte, P gr fS" gre 
Ther berkyng ys no thyng on heyhte ; 21376 

Ther fraude ys do so couertlye, 
That no maw may yt espye ; 

ffor, vnder colour, (in sothnesse,) 21379 

They wyl ha 4 thank for her falsnesse. [* woie haue Tib.] 

' And, to purpos off thys thyng, '- 1 ra *f,aff n i 3 f ' 
Yt ffyl onys, that a kyng, to war ' ] 

A-geyn a-nother kyng nat ferre, 
Off purpos held A mortal werre ; 
And with the meyne that they wt't/i-held, 
Bothe they kam in-to the ffeld. [stowe.ieafsis] 

'The ffyrste kyng that I off telle, 
WM 5 knyhtys that aboute hym dwelle, P .[^- th 
On whom he trustede as hys lyff, 
Gan fyrst asayllen in thys stryff ; 
But for al that, I, w/tfe my wyle, 
Thus I dyde the kyng begyle : 
I made hys knyhtys, the 6 day to-forn, [theyc.] 
Vn-to hym for to be sworn, 
Ther-vp-on her lyff to spende, 
That they sholde hym wel dyffende, 
And knyhtly gouerae the bataylle. 

' But at the poynt, they dyde \iyrn faylle ; 



21384 



21389 



21392 



21396 



How Scylla makes a King's Knights deceive him. 571 



' They entren in wM manly chere ; 
And whan they gan assemble yfere, 
Off purpos, thys 1 knyhtys eue?ychon 
Wer y-yolden, On by On, 
By sleyhte and by collusiouw, 
To make hyw paye ther rauwsouw. 
Wherfor, the same kyng, alias, 
"Was decey ved in thys caas ; 
With shame and gret cowfusi'ouw 
Drowh bak vn-to hys pavyll'ioura, 
Supposynge, in hys drede, 
That thys knyhtys off manhede 
Hadde be take in that dystresse, 
Off manhood and off hih prowesse. 
And therfor, touchyng ther raurasouw, 
The kyng made ther redempciouw. 
And whan that they kam to hys syht, 
He thankede hem with al hys myght, 
Demynge, off manhood, for hys sake, 
That they hadde, echon be take, 
And lovede hem more than beforn, 
Be-cause they han hem so wel born : 
But al was fals decepc'ioiw, 
Contrayre to hys oppynyoura. 

'And swyche 2 houwdys douteles, 
God wot, I ha mo than a les ; 
Off hem, plente and gret foysoiw, 
ffor to cachche me venysouw, 
Off ffatte bestys, hih" off gres, 
With howndys that be nat Rekkeles, 
To chachche, 3 and brynge what they may, 
Hoom to my larder, day be day. 
Swych houradys, myn horn wel knowe, 
And they wyl kome whan I blowe, 
And fawne also whan they me seth. 
And thow most fele ther sharpe teth ; 
And 4 truste' wele, they shal nat faylle, [* And Tib., for St.] 
In al hast, the tassaylle.' 5 

And wyth the blowyng off hyr horn, 
(Bothe behynde and beforn,) 



21400 

these Tib., thes St.] 



21404 

[TJb., leaf 75, back] 

21408 



21412 



21416 



21420 



[ 2 swyche Tib., swych C. 
suche St.] 

21424 



21428 

P cache St.] 



21432 



Scylla, or 
Conspiracy. 



and surrerd- 
erd, in order 
to make him 
pay their 
ransom. 



So the king 
had to re- 
treat, 



and redeem 
his knights. 



Then he 
thankt them 
for their 
manhood, 



and lovd 
them ; 



but the whole 
thing was a 
fraud. 



[leaf 278, bk.] 
Scylla has 
many hounds 
to catch her 
venison, e. 



[ 5 to assaylle Tib., to assayll St.] 
[Stowe, leaf, 345, back] 



[Cf$ylt. Hue] 

When Scylla 
blew her 
lion i, 



572 Scylla's hounds lite me. / am on a rock in the sea. 



The Pilgrim. 



her hounds 
attackt me ! 



But the 
waves make 
her and her 
dogs 



withdraw, 



Scylla. 



she threaten- 
ing to be 
revenged if 
she finds me 
again. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 279] 



I am left 
alone in 
torment, 



As cruelly as the houwdys kan, 

Vp-on me echon they ran, [Tib., leaf 76] 21440 

And gan assaylle me mortally : 

They berke, Hhey byte, 1 ryht felly, P J am. St., they bete Tib.] 

And to me dyde ful gret wrong, 

The grete lemerys wer so strong. 21444 

And hadde nat the floodys be, 
That drowh ageyn in-to the See, 
And ek Scilla (of whom I tolde,) 
With hyr Eyen ffoul and Olde, 21448 

Caste hyr look on me A-non, 
And sayde that she muste gon 
Bakward, and hyr-sylff wit7i-drawe 
"Wyth the flood and wyth the wawej 21452 

[Scylla or Conspiration.] 
' But ffyrst,' quod she, ' ha thys in mynde, 
A-nother tyme, yiff I the ffynde, 
Truste fully, I shal be 
Bet avengyd vp-on the.' 21456 

[The Pilgrim.] 

And whan hyr houwdys and she wer gon, 
I leffte behynden al aHon, 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., 
of the Pilgrim lying on his little oval green Island 
in the sea, his bare knees, chest, and right arm 
showing thro' rents in his torn white ro&e.] 
Al to-torn and rent with wondys 

Thorgh bytyng off hyr cruel houwdys, 21460 

"Wyth gret sorwe and pass'iouw, 
In torment and afflicc'iouw ; 
And me remembryng in certeyn, [Tib., leaf 76, back] 



That yiff the floodys kome ageyn, 
She sholde, tencresse vrith my wo. 
Kome ageyn hyr-sylff also ; 
Therfore, to fflen out off hyr syhte, 
In the beste wyse I myghte. 
and try to get I dyde my labour and my cure, 
In hope my syluew to assure, 
Yiff I myhte, by hap or grace, 
To drawe to som other place. 



to some other 
place. 



21464 



21468 



21472 



In a trance, I see a Tower revolving like a Wheel. 573 



[leaf 97 Tib., 846 Stowe] 

21488 



And whyl I lay thus in A trance, 
In gret Anoy and perturbaunce, 
I herde a voys mellodyus, 

Wonder soote and gracyous, 21476 

Wych was to me f ul gret plesaunce ; 
ffor I forgat al my grevaunce, 
My dool and al my pass'ioim, 
Wyth meUodye off thylke souw. 21480 

But as I stood thus in a wher, 
And drowhe 1 me toAvard the ryver, [1 x drowu c;.]'' And 
A Tour I sawh, wylde and savage, 
And squar aboutew, off passage, 21484 

[An Illumination of the Tower follmcs in Tib., with 
flames coming out of six holes below the battlements. 
The Pilgrim is shown on his Island.] 
Wych hadde Rounde 2 ffenestrallys, [* Round c., St., rownd Tib.] 
Percyd thorgh, vp-on the wallys ; 
At wyche hoolys, (out off doute,) 
Smoke and flawme passede oute ; 
And yet thys tour (who loke wel,) 
Tournede abouten as a whel 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Vp-on the iflodys Envyrouw, 

Wyth the wawes vp and douw. 21492 

Somwhyle (as I koude knowe) 
The hiest party was most lowe ; 
And also (ek I sawh ful offte) 

The lowest party set aloffte ; 21496 

And thus, by transmutaciouw, 
Yt turnede alway vp so douw. 

And in thys whyle, euer Among, 
I herde a melodyous song, 21500 

Off On (as I koude vnderstond,) 
That ber a phetele 3 in hys hond ; [ 3 phethcie Tib., piietcii st.] 
And thys menstral (soth to seyne) 
Was departyd evene a tweyne : 21504 

ffrom the myddel vp, A man, 
Donward (as I reherse kan) 
A bryd Avynged merveyllously, 
Wyth pawnys streynynge mortally. 21508 



The Pilorim. 
In a trance, 

I hear a me- 
lodious voice, 



which makes 
me forget my 
grief. 



I go towards 
the river, 
and see a 
square tower, 



[leaf 279, bk.] 



which turna 
round like a 
wheel 



with the 
waves. 
Sometimes 
the top is at 
the bottom ; 

and then the 
bottom is at 
the top. 



In the Wheel 



is a Minstrel, 



who is man 
above and 



bird below. 



574 A Merman, Worldly Gladness, tells me what he does. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 280] 



Worldly', 
Gladness. 

This Minstrel 
offers to play 
to me, as he 



:an play 
everything, 



and amuses 
lords as well 



as shepherds. 



He sings 
and dances a 
weddings ; 



and his name 
is ' Worldly 
Play,' 

a Mermaid 
(or Merman)] 
of the Sea. 



He makes 
people forget 
their Creator, 
and ruins 
them. 

[leaf 280, bk.] 



p Tib., margin c.] 



pl ? y r e ^ p f Tfore st P ] eyn to 

21517 



\? And om. Tib.] 



[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., of 
a Bird-man flying to the Pilgrim, a curvd fiddle 
in his left hand, its curvd bow in his right.] 
And thys beste l f ul savage, L 1 beeste Tib., best c.j 

Lyk a man off hys vysage, 

Spak to me fful curteysly ; [Tib., leaf 77, back] 

And thus he sayde muryely ; 2 P merely Tib.] 21512 

IF Gladnesse off the World : 3 
' Tel on to me (and sey nat nay,) 
What maner solace, or what play 
Lovest thow best : tel on, lat se, 
And I shal pleyn to-fore 4 the ; 
ffor I kan (lych to thyn entent) 
Pleye on euery instrument ; 
And, 5 for to make lordys cher, 
Bothe at ches and the cheker, 
The drawhtes ther-off, ful wel I kan, 
Ye / bet than any other man. 
And whan that ylke play ys do, 
ffor shepperdys I kail also, 
At the merellys, best off alle, 
Whan so that they lyst me calle, 
Pype and taboure in the strete, 
Wyth lusty folkys whan I 6 mete. 

' At weddynges, to do plesauwce, 
I kan karole wel, and 7 daurece; 
In euery play I do excelle. 
And yt wer to long to telle 
The dysportys and the playes 
That I vse on somer dayes : 
My loye ys al in merthe and game ; 
And ' Worrldly 8 Play,' that ys my name. [ 8 wordeiy Tib.] 

' Men may me calle (off equyte) 
A Mermayden off the se, [stowe, leaf 346, back] 

That synge off custom, ay gladdest, 
To-forn a storm and 9 a tempest, p or St., and Tib.] 21540 
To make ek folk 10 (thys my labour,) [ w foike eke Tib.] 
To forgete ther creatour ; 
And folk in my subiecctoun, 
I brynge hem to destrucctoun.' [Tib., leaf 78] 21544 



21520 



21524 



[ they Tib.] 21528 



p and wel TU>.] 



21532 



21535 



How Admiral Satan built the Turning Tmvcr. 575 

IT The Pylgryme : 1 P Tib., PUgrim St., o. C.] The Pilgrim. 

" Thogh thow be-gynne in gladnesse, 

Thow endest euere in wrechchydnesse ; 

Ellys I wolde, for my plesauwce, 

Wyth the haven aqueyntauwce. 21548 

I pray the, put me out off doute i ask him 

what the 

Oft thys tour turnynge aboute ; Turning 

J J ' Tower 

What maner thyng that yt may be, means. 

ffyrst off alle, that wolde I se." 21552 

HWordely Gladnesse: 2 p m, wrMiy gudn* worjdiy 

J St., om. C.J Gladness. 

' ffyrst, 3 (yiff thow lyst to SO,) [ 3 Fyrste Tib., Fyrst C., St.] 



mi i ^ i n> 1 1 He says that 

The grete Amyral oft the see, Satan; Ad- 

Wych that callyd ys Sathan, sea, began 

Thys tour sothly he began ; 21556 

ffor he fyrst (off entencwraw) 

Made ther hys habytacwuw. 

And other shyp ne hath he noon, 

Among the floodys for to gon, 21560 

In the wyche, by gret deceyt, i 

He ly th euere in a-wayt, ? nd e y er . Iies 

J ' in wait fur 

Wyth pylgryines to holde stryff, pilgrims. 

And to make hem lese her lyff. 21564 

He seth, bothe by hyl and vale, 

Thorough 4 thy Ike hoolys smale, f* ^"^'s- Thor(?h c - 

By what weye that they gon ; 

(Amongys wyche, thow art on,) 21568 

And, to deceyve hem in her weye, He bids me 

play sweet 

Her he maketh me sytte, and pleye 8 ngs t de- 

ceive them. 
Wiih soote song and armonye, 

Alle pylgryme's to espye. 21572 

Yt behoueth the taproche, 

Or that thow go ner to that roche.' [Tib., leaf 78, back] 

The Pylgryme : 5 [ s Tib., Pilgrim St., om. C.] TAePilprim. 

" ExpOWlie fyi'St-lyk 6 my desyr ; [ 6 ffirste Tib., fyrst lyke St.] I ask him to 
J J J explain the 

Wherfor serueth the smoky ffyr 21576 smoky fire 

- J J tliat comes 

That ysseth 7 at the hoolys oute, [" yssyth Tib., yssuythe St.] j > "} e f i * h h 

In thylke tour 8 round aboute : [towreTib.] Tower. 

Wych thyng, fyrst to me declare ; peaf asi] 

And thanne to pleye, I shal nat spare." 21580 W orJM V 

^1 Worlfll V GladllPSSO 9 C 9 wo '-l'y C. in margin, Wordely 
Uiy VJlclUI ^ . ( ; h 



. Tib-> 
St.] 



576 Satan's fires stir up Lust,& Love ofRiclies, but all perish. 



He says, 
Sutan has 
here his 
dwelling ; 



and with his 
fire he makes 
folk amorous. 



' Sathan, devoyded off al grace, 

Haveth tlier hys dwellyng place. 

In thylke dyrke ffyr, (nat bryht,) [stowe, leaf 3*7] 21583 

Ther he lyht, 1 bothe daye and nyht ; C 1 lythe Tib., lyethe St.] 

And A-mong the smokys blake, 

Ther he gan hys bed to make. 

And wyth that ffyr despytous, 

He maketh f olkys amerous ; 21588 

[.4 double Illumination in Tib.: on the left a man 
hissing and embracing a woman ; on the right two 
men playing at dice.] 
And wit/i the flawme he kan enbrace, 
fiblkys hertys to han solace 
In worldly loye (at A word) 
Mor than in ther sovereyn lord. 21592 

' The folkys wych, in ther desyr, 
That nyht and day bre/me in thys ffyr, 
Ar thylke ffolkys (fynally) 

Wych that brenne so fervently, 21596 

Worldly goodys, whaw they be-gynne, 
To encressyn and to wynne, 
Gret tresour to multeplye ; 

In the wych they nior affye 21600 

Inwardly, in ther entent, 
Than in the lord, that al hath sent, 
ffiowynge and ebbynge in thys se, 
Sow tyme with gret prosperyte, p towr St., tourne Tib.] 21604 
Somwhyle, whan the tourn 2 doth varye, 
The world they fynde to he??i contrarye ; 
Al goth to wrak ; they may nat chese ; 
And thogh so falle that they lese, 21608 

And fyude fortune in nowncerteyn, 3 
Yet they wylle hem awntre 4 ageyn 
To say lien in 5 thys perillous see, 
So ful off mutabylyte ; 
ffor the hoote smoky ffyr 
Neue?-e quencheth, in her desyr. 

rieaf28i,bk.] And by his 6 sleyhtys, thus Sathan, [hisTib.,st.,c.6ttr<] 
He hath deceyvyd many A man. [St.&c.] 21616 

Let now se, and make no lape, 



The people 
who burn in 
his fire 



are those 
who heap up 
riches, 



which they 
trust more 
than God, 



and for this 
purpose ven- 
ture on the 
sea of muta- 
bility. 



[ 3 no certayne St., nown 
certeyne Tib.] 
[* aventer St., aventure 
hem Tib.] 

[5 on Tib.] 

21612 



The Merman thrmvs me into the Sea. Youth rescues me. 577 



P: 

[ ffedle Tib.] 21628 ; 



[ 5 to om. Tib.] 21631 



< Wher thow hys treynes kanst 1 eskape.' [ {^ I S i |i f i] can8t hu 

11 The Pylgryme : 2 [* T>b-. Pilgrim st., om. c.] 
" Wyth-Oute long processe to make, 
Hys tour and hym, her I forsake ; 21620 

And, (shortely 3 to Specefye,) P schortely Tib., shortly C., St.] 

Swyche pleyes I defye, 

Wych bryng a man in sorwe and shame. 

But yiff that any other game [Tib., leaf 79, back] 21624 

Thow kanst, I wyl abyde and se 

The nianer, how yt lyketh me." 

And thys menstral thaw a-noon 
Maade hys ffythele 4 for to gon, 
And song wyth-al fful lustyly. 
And wyth hys syngyng, sodeynly 
To me he gan to 5 tourne hys tayl ; 
And wyth hys pawnys, 6 sharp as A nayl, [stowe, if. 347, bk,] 
By the Arm he gan me streyne : [ c., St., jAwmes Tib.] 
Mawgre my myght and al my peyne, 

Horrybely 7 he Caste me [ 7 Horybely Tib., Horrybly C., horyble St.] 

Amyddes off the grete se, 21636 

[An Illumination folloivs in Tib., of the Pilgrim 
thrown off his Island into the sea, the Bird- 
Merman playing his own fiddle, and Youth (with 
wings) embracing him. 

Among the wawes, ffer be southe. 

And nadde ben 8 that tyme, Youthe, [ 8 ne had be st.] 

(Off wych I thouhte no thyng tho, 

ffor she was ffled, off yore ago,) 

I suppose that I hadde be 

Perysshed Amyddys off the se. 

But Youthe than, in hyr Ketour, j 

Was to myw helpe gret socour ; / 

ffor Youthe, in the same place, 

The Meremayden gan enbrace, 

That redy was, off cruelte, 

Thylke tyme to ha stranglyd me, 

And dou to me gret vyolence. 
But, for loye off the presence 

Off thys Youthe that I off spak, 

I eskapede from hyr wrak, 21652 

PILGRIMAGE. P P 



21640 



21644 



[Tib., leaf 80] 



21648 



The Piltrrim. 



I repudiate 
these games, 
which bring 
a man to 
shame. 



The Merman 

I lays his 
.Idle and 
ings ; 



and then 
seizes me and 
throws me 
into the sea. 



I should have 
drownd, had 
not Youth 
saved me, 



who embraces 
the Merman, 



[leaf 282] 



578 / swim back to my Isle, and lament my sad case. 

The puprim. And hadde myw Arm ageyw at large ; 

And (wit/A-oute 1 shyp or barge,) [' wiuout Tib., St.] 
while i swim I gan swymme, vfith-Irme a whyle, 
isle. Ageyn vn-to that same yle 21656 

ffro the wych that I kam ffro. 
Whan the meremayde was go 

I mene, thys worldys fals solace, 

That gan so sore at me to chace ; 21660 

But lyst 2 she sholde ha takew me, [" leste Tib., lest st.] 

I swam f ul f aste amyd the se ; 

ffor dred off hyre, I was in were. 
Youth re- But Youthe and she, to-gydre yfere, 21664 

joices with OJ J 



the Merman, ff u l g re ^ J y e ^gy g an 

and forsakes And thus hath Yowthe me forsake ; 

me. 

ffor than I loste hyr in certeyn, 

That she to me kam neuer ageyn. 21668 

so i git down And douw I sat, ffor werynesse, 

and lament. e. 

And gan co??ipleyne in gret dystresse : 

\Blarik in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib,, of 

the Pilgrim sitting on his Island.] 
11 Alias," quod I, (myd off my wo,) [Tib., leaf so, back] 
" Alias, alias ! what shal I do ? 21672 

HOW simii i How shal I, wrechche, eskape a- way 
Out off thys yle 1 weyllavay ! 

Five enchant- ffor, by .V. 3 EnchaUTitereSSCS, [ 3 C., St., ffor ffyue Tib.] 

ressesCScylla, * 



am ^ rount in g ret dystressys, 21676 

?a"suhav"e And in g ret Peyli douteles : 
tog'rlatZ. ffor SciUa ffyrst, and ek Cyrces, 
tress, jj an caus yj me t g 0n A-mys ; 

[leaf 282, bk.] Syr6n6S, 4 and KaribdlS, [* Tib., C. burnt, Sirines St.] 21680 

And Bythalassus, 5 worst of alle, [ s Tib., st., c. burnt] 
Ben attonys on me falle ; [stowe,icaf3i8] [st.&c.] 
And, mortally me to be-guyle, 

in this we? They han me brouht in-to thys He, 21684 

Long in sorwe to soiourne, 
And kan non other wey retourne, 
To ffynde socour in thys cas. 

I may wel sorwe and seyn alias ! 21688 

Out off my wey, in nourccerteyn, 6 [ nouncerteyn Tib.] 
And kan no mene to konio Ageyn. 



I pray to God, and a Ship nears me, with a Dove on it. 579 



"Was neuere pylgrym in swych poynt, 21691 

Trewly , nor in swych disioynt. 1 [ c., Tib., suche ioynt St.] 

" Now, goode god, off thy grete grace, 
Be my socour in thys place ! 
ffor thow, for my savaciouw, 

Art the pomel off my bordovw. 21696 

To the, as for my 2 cheff coimfort, p the Tib., my st.] 
In thys nede I ha resort, 
To brynge me, throgh thy grete myglit, 
In-to the weye I may go ryht, 21700 

And ben supportyd (fer and ner) 
Wyth that charbouwcle bryht and cler, 
Wych that, wyth hys bemys bryht, 
Yiveth vn-to my bordourc lyht. 21704 

"Now parte 3 wit h me, off thy clernesse, p parten st.] 
And bryng me Out off my dystresse, 
Out off thys dedly mortal rage ! [Tib., leaf si] 

ffor, syth tyme off my tendre age, 21708 

My trust, and myw affyavwce, 
My loye, and al my suffisaunce, 
Al hooly hath be?a in the, 

Ageyns al aduersyte, 21712 

In euery peyne and ech labour, 
To fynden confort and socour. 

And now I 4 stonde in so gret drede, [* i St., that c., Tib.] 
Helpe me in thys grete 5 nede ! " [ 5 gret c., St., greet Tib.] 

And whyl I gan me thus cowpleyne, 21717 

Evene A-myd off al my peyne, 
I sawh, A-myddys off the se, 

A shype 6 say lie towardys me ; [ 6 sbype St., shyp c.] 21720 
And evene above, vp on the mast 
(Wherfor I was the lasse A-gast,) 
I sawh a croos 7 stonde, (and nat flytte,) 
And ther-vp-on, A dowe sytte, [ 7 crosse Tib., crose st.] 21724 
Whyt as any rnylk or snowh, 
Wheroff I hadde loye ynowh. 

[An Illumination follows in Tib., of a Ship with its 
fore and hind castles, and a Dove on a Cross at 
the top of the mast. The Pilgrim is on his isleJ\ 
And hi thys shyp (a-geyn al shours,) 



The Pilgrim. 

No pilgrim 
ever was in 
such straits 
as I am. 
Good God, 
help me ! 



Thou art the 
pomel of my 
staff, 



and support- 
est me with 
the carbuncle 
that lights it. 



Bring me 
out of my 

distress ! 



[leaf 283] 



Then, in the 
midst of my 
trouble, 

a ship sails 
towards me, 



with cross 
and a white 
dove on its 
mast. 



580 



Grace Dieu comes to me again, out of the Ship. 



The Pilgrim. 



and castles 
and towers. 



I forget all 
my sorrows. 



The ship 
casts anchor, 



and Grace 
Dieu de- 
scends from 
it. 

[leaf 283, bk.] 



I kneel, and 
pray her to 
help me. 



Grace Dieu. 



She says she 
has sought 
me long on 
sea and land, 



and asks 



21732 

[Stowe, leaf 348, back] 



Ther wer castellys, and ek tours, 21728 

Wonder dy vers mansi'ouws, [Tib., leaf si, back] 

And sondry habytactoures, 

(By resemblavmce and semyng,) 

Lych the loggyng off A Kyng : 

And as I took good hed ther-at, 

Al my sorwes I for-gaat ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
JSTamly, syttyng on A roche, Arystoteles (later) 
Whan I sawh the shyp aproche 21736 

Toward the He War 1 I abood, P where Tib., wher St.] 

Wych dyde to me f ul gret good ; 

Kamly, whan yt kam so faste, 

And began ther, Anker caste. 21740 

Out off wych ther ys descendyd, 

On, that myhte nat ben amendyd, 

I mene, the lady off most vertu, 

Wych was callyd Grace Dieu. 21744 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., of 

Grace Dieu, come out of the Ship (from tchich the 

Dove has gone) on to the Island, and the Pilgrim 

'kneeling to her. A second Illumination of like 

kind is on the top of leaf 82.] 

And ffyrst, whan that I dyde hyr se, 

I ffyl a-dourc vp-on my kne, 

Prayede 2 hyr helpen in thys nede, p i prayed Tib.] 

To me that stood in so gret drede, 21748 

Out off thys He, only by grace, 

To helpyn that I myhte pace. 
[Grace Dieu] : 

' What ys al thys ? ' A-noon quod she ; ; [leaf sz, Tib.] 

' Whens komestow ? wher hastow be ? 21752 

fful longe (as thow shalt vnderstond) 

I ha the souht, On se and lond, 

God woot, in ful good entent ; 

And yt wer mor cowvenyent 21756 

That thow sholdest, affter me 

Ha souht, wher that I hadde be. 

But tel me, or thow go asyde, 

Castestow, 3 her for tabyde, p c., Tib., cast towe St.] 21 760 



Grace Dieu bids tne go back to Dame Penance. 



581 



' Or to restyn any whyle 

Wy th-Inne thys dredf ul peryllous yle 1 ' 

Pilgrim: 1 [st.,oi.c.] 

"Certys, I stoonde in grete 2 where [*gretc., St., greet Tib.] 
Off that I am aryved here ; 21764 

I whot 3 nat be what a venture. p woot Tib., wot St.] 

And trewely 4 I yOW ensure, [ trewely Tib., trewly C., truly St.] 

Tabyden her ys no plesauwce, 

But a-nooy, and gret grevauwce; 21768 

And fayn I wolde (wyth al my myght) 

Kome to the weye that goth ryht ; 

And, Out Off thys He gO, [Tib., leaf 8, back] 

So fful off sorvven 5 and off wo." [frowst.] 21772 

U Grace Dieu: 6 cTib.,st.,)aivc.] 

Thanne I caste, for thy sake, 

In-to my shyp, the for to take, 

Only off mercy and pyte. 

Entre in, and I shal lede the 21776 

(Wyth-outen any mor delay,) 

In-to A mor surer way : 

That lyne ryht shal lede the 

To the place and the cyte 21780 

Wych thow hast (wt't/i herte and thouht,) 

Long tyme, as a pylgrym, souht. [stowe, leaf 349} 
' In myd weye thow must abyde, 

And nat tourne on nouther syde. 21784 

And, redyly thy-sylff tavauwce, 

Thow shalt fynde dame Penauwce, 

Whom thow leff test folyly ; U wenteste thow Tib., wenst tow St.] 

And therfor wentystow 7 wrongly : 21788 

Wyth hyre thow woldest nat soiourne ; 

But thow shalt ageyn retourne [ 8 hegg Tib., heyghe st.j 

Toward the heggh 8 off hyr pla?mtyng, 

And seyen 9 to hyre thy felyng.' [ neye Tib, seyn c.] 21792 

H The Pylgrym: 10 [ 10 pgrim Tib., St., ow. c.] 
" Ma dame," quod I, " that ys my wyl ; 
ffor (off resouw and off skyl) 
Ech pylgrym sholde (what he may,) 
Desyre to gon the shortest way ; 21796 

Yt wer goodly to do so. 



Grace Dieu. 

whether I 
mean to stop 
on the isle, 
[leaf 284] 
The Pll,jrim. 



I tell her No: 



I want to 
leave the 
island. 



Then she bids 



me enter her 
ship, 



and return 
to Dame 
Penance. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 281, bk.] 



582 / am to bathe in a Cistern, fild ivith drops from an Eye. 



The Pilgrim. 



I thank 
Grace Dieu, 



who leads me 
to a rock, 



with an Eye, 
out of which 
drops like 
team run to 



a cistern 
nar. . 



Gract Dieu. 



In this I 
must bathe 



before I enter 
her ship. 



Grace Diru. 

This rock is 
formed of 
hard hearts 
of men. 



21804 

[i theder Tib., thethar St.] 
P hard C., St., Tib.] 

21808 



" And, for the co?*fort that ye ha do 

To me, off mercy mor than ryht, 

I thanke yow wyth al my myght." 21800 

And than thys lady, off hyr grace, [Tib., leaf as] 
Brouhte me vn-to a place 
Wych, syth tyme that I was born), 
I hadde neuere seyn to-forn ; 
And thyder 1 she made me to gon 
To a roche off harde 2 ston 
And, At an eye, ther ran oute 
Dropys off water al aboute : 
The dropys wer (to my semyng) 
Lych salte terys off wepyng ; 
And in-ta 3 cisterne ther besyde, P ta St., to a Tib.] 
The dropys go/me for to glyde. 21812 

U Grace Dieu : 4 [* Tib., st., om . c.] 

' ffyrst,' (]iiod Grace Dieu to me, 
1 In thys vessel that thow dost se, 
Wyth water off the harde ston 

Thow must be bathyd, and that A-noon; 21816 

Wych shal helpe, and be refuge 
To hele thy wondys large and huge ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., of 
tears dropping, from an Eye in a hill, into an 
oblong marble bath, Grace Dieu, with Jiands 
spread, speaking to the Pilgrim.] 
ffor in my shyp thow entryst nouht, 
Tyi thy wouwdys be clene souht.' 21820 

U The Pylgrym : 5 r, 5 Tib., pilgrim st., om. c.] 
" I pray yow to 6 declare me, [Tib., leaf ss, back] 

Thys Eye, with dropys, that I Se; [ Madame I preye you Tib.] 

That 30 wolde specefye 

What thyng that yt doth sygnefye." 21824 

U Grace Dieu answerith : 7 t 7 Ti c b .",^^5 st - 
' Thys roche (yiff thow wylt wyt A-non) 
Wych ys hard as any ston, 
Ar the hertys, in ech estaat, 

Off folkys wych ben Indurat 21828 

To knowe ther errour and ther synne, 
Iti wych that they be fallyn Inne ; 



The Second Baptism for Sinners like Magdalen & Peter. 583 



Grace Dieu. 

These hearts 
Grace Dieu 
softens, and 

makes their 
tears run out 
of the Eye for 
contrition. 



' Tyl I SOD! whyle lyst to Se [Stowe, leaf SW, back] 

(Only off mercy and pyte,) 21832 

To tourne her herte, hard as a ston, 

And make the 1 water out to gon, [' there Tib., the st.] 

At ther eye to renne doim 2 padounTib.] 

By sorwe and by contriciouw. 21836 

' The 3 salte terys han ther her cours : [ 3 The o. Tib.] 
Ryht as a welle hath hys sours 
Vpward, vritii water quyk and cler, 
And renneth in-ta 4 gret ryver, [ 4 in ta St., in to a Tib.] 21840 
Ryht so, by dystyllaciouw 
The crystal terys descends doun, 
Whan folk 5 for ther synnes wepe. [ 5 wiwnne foike Tib.] 

'And swyche 6 dropys I do kepe, [ 8 swyche Tib., swycn c.] 
And the water euerydel, 21845 

To make A bath, in a vessel, 
ffor wondyd folk that fele peyne 

In conscience, and sore pleyne, 21848 

Tyl they for elthe 7 and sure'te, (7 heeithe Tib.] 

Wyth thys bath y wasshen be ; 
ffor yt recureth eue/-y wonde, [Tib., leaf 84] 

Callyd 'bapteme the secouwde,' 21852 

That doth a- way al 8 grevaiwce. [ 8 aiieTib.] 

Wyth wych water, dame Penauwce 
Jklaketh a lye (I the ensure,) 

To wasshen a- way al ordure ; 21856 [leaf 235, bk.] 

In wyche bathe 9 (in certeyne) 
The hooly wowman Mawdeleyne 
Ywasshen was, tak hed her-to. 

Thapostel Peter ek also, 21860 andst.peter ; 

And many mo than I may telle, 
Wer ywasshen in thys welle ; 
And so shaltow, by red off me, 
Yiff' tho\v lyst to purgyd be.' 21864 

U The Pylgryme : 10 C 10 Tib., pilgrim st., om . c.] 
" Ma dame, (yiff that ye lyst to se,) 
Thys vessel (as semeth vn-to me,) 
Ys nat halff fful ; and Trewely n ^ t ^g > st T j b - Trcwly c - 
Therfore I drede fynally 21868 

That I may nat bathyd be, 



[9 whiche biitlie St., 
wych bath C., Tib.] 



They make a 
bath in the 
vessel, for 
folk with 
wounded con- 
sciences to 
wash in ; 



and this is 
calld the 
second 
Baptism, 



in which the 
Magdalene 
was cleansed, 



as I am to be. 



The Pilprim. 



I say the 
vessel is only 
half full. 



584 Grace Dieu smites the Rock, and Water flows from it. 



Grace Dieu. 



The Pilgrim. 

Grace Dien 

Etits out her 
and. 



The white 
dove brings 
her a wand, 



like the rod 
of Motes, 



[leaf 286] 



with which 
Grace Dieu 
smites the 
rock, 



Grace Dieu. 



[i Tib., grace dieu St., 
urn. C.] 



21872 
21875 

[ a Tib., St., om. C.] 
[ s anon to her flyenge St.] 



[ 5 sraot Tib.] 



" But yiff ther were mor plente." 

U Grace Dieu Answerith : l 
Quod she to me (as in substauwce), 
' Thow hast off water suffysauwce.' 

She sayde soth, as I wel ffond, 
And putte forth A-noon hyr hond 
Toward hyr shyp off gret delyt. 
And thanne a-noon, a 2 dowe whyt 
Retournyd ys at hyr callyng, 
And kam to hyre A-noon fleyng. 3 
In hyr beek she brouht A wond, 
\Vych Grace Dieu took in hyr hond ; 21880 

And tharaie the dowe (in certeyn) [Tib., leaf 84, back] 
ffley vn-to the shyp a-geyn. [stowe, leafsso] 

Thys yerde sempte (douteles) 

Lyk 4 to the yerde off Moyses, [c.,st.,o.Tib.] 21884 
Wyth wych (the byble seyth apert,) 
The ston he smette, 5 in desert ; 
And vriih the water that out ran, 
Off Israel, bothe beste and man, 
Drank ynowh in habondauwce, 
Ther was so huge suffysauwce. 

And trewly, as to myn entent, 
By sygnes that wer evydent, 
Wyth the same yerde a-noon, 
Grace Dieu smette 5 on the ston. 
And thawne the roche, Rowh and hard, 
(I hadde ther-to ful good reward) 21896 

At an eye (yt ys no doute) 
The water gan to rownen oute 
In-to the vessel that I off spak, 
That off plente ther was no lak. 21900 

[Grace Dieu]: 

Qttod Grace Dieu A-noon to me, 
' Now thow hast ynowh plente 
Off water, (I dar vndertake,) 
Suffysauwtly a bath to make ; 21904 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination, given in Tib., 
of the Pilgrim in a square ivhife bath, filling with 
the drops from an Eye in a green rock, by which 



21888 



21892 



Grace Dieu. 



lukewarm, 
and nice to 
batbe in. 

The Pilgrim. 



I get into the 
bath, 



but feel faint, 

[leaf 286, bk.] 
and cannot 
long stay. 



, st . 
21920 



/ get into the Bath, but soon get out again, which is wrong. 585 

Grace Dieu stands, mth a long wand in her right 
hand.] 

'And mor holsom yt ys to the, [Tib., leaf 85] 

Be-cause the water (as thow mayst se,) 
Ys lewk : therfor yt ys mor hable, 
And to bathys mor cou?/ifortable.' 21908 

[The Pilgrim]: 

And Grace dieu me bad A-noon, 
In-to the bath I sholde gon. 
And in I wente A-noon, by grace, 
And ther a-bood but lytel space ; 21912 

ffor (to rehersyn euerydel) 
The bath lyke"de me nat ryht wel : 
I gan feynte on euery syde, 

Wher-fore I myhte nat abyde 21916 

In that bath to stonde 1 stable ; [' c., Tib., bathe to stond St.] 
ffor, I was nat resemblable V^ 

To kyng Davyd in my bathyng, !^ u 
Wych, wyth the terys off hys wepyng, 
"Wyssh hys bed-strawh 2 euerydel, p wysche . . bedstraw Tib.] 
Hys bed also, (who loke wel). 

And 3 off the bath whan I was go, 
Grace Dieu 'A-non kam to : 

U Now Grace Dieu spekyth : 4 
Quod she, ' wenystow to be 
Al hool off thyw infyrmyte, 
And off thyn wondys euerychon, 
That so sone art out gon, 
Out off thys ylke holsom welle, 
And lyst nat ther 5 no lenger dwelle ? 

1 What woldestow ha sayd to me, 
Yiff I hadde wrappyd the, 
Nakyd, cast the vp and dourz 
In thorny s for thy savaci'oun, 
Ther ta suffryd 6 sharp prykyng ; 
Or, A-mong netlys fful bytyng, 
Bak and brest, and euery syde ; 
Whan thow myghtest nat abyde 
In soffte water, by suffrauwce, 
Thy-sylff in Elthii 7 to avauce ? 



[* out Tib., St.] 

21924 

[ Tib., grace dieu 
St., om. C.] 



21928 



not ther in Tib.] 



21932 



[Stowe, leaf 350, back] 



When I'm 
out, 



Grace Dieu. 
Grace Dieu 



reproves me 

for not stop- 
ping in the 
bath. 



What should 
I have said 
to her if she'd 
cast me 
naked into 
thorns 



[ to a suffred Tib., 
to sofer St.] 



21936 or nettles 



[Tib., leaf 85, back] 



[7 helthe Tib.] 21940 



instead of 

sott water ? 



586 Grace Dieu reproaches me. I plead for pity, & will do well. 

Grace pieu. ' Tel vn-to me the manor how, 
HOW can i What wysc thow shalt entre now 

now enter 

her ship with In-to my shvp. wher dame Penauwce 

Dame Pen- * J *' 

ance? Haueth al the gouernaurace, 21944 

Bothe to bynden and vnbynde? 
I trowe thow wylt abyde behywde, 
And make her-off a long delay, 
And I shal seylle forth on my way.' 21948 

The Pilgrim. ^ The Pylgryme : * P Tib., Pilgrim St., om. C.] 

" Madame," tha/me a-noon quod I, 



[Tib., leaf ss, " Haueth 2 on 3 me pyte and mercy ! [* Hath Tib., havythe st.] 

back] 

i ask for pity With-in joure schippe, so doth 4 provyde, [Most] 

' ercy ' By-hynde that I not abyde. 21952 

i promise To trowthe, aeue 5 ae lyste entende. Pyfst.] 

that I will . .. T 

amend in With-m joure schippe I schal amende. 

her ship, 

And redresse also (I-wys,) 

Alle that I haue don amys. 21956 

U Considerith also in 3oure syght, 
as a knight, That in batayle, a manly knyght, 

when wound- . 

ed, acquires (By exaumple, as it is ffounde) 

courage. Whanne he hathe kaught eny 6 wounde, 21960 

Not-withstondynge his langour, [ hath ons cawht a st.] 

It encresith his vygoor, 

Makith hym, off cher and off vysage, 

The more hardy 7 off corage, [Hmrdy st., hard Tib.] 21964 

Grete empryse vndertake, 

ffor drede off deth, hem not fforsake." 

Grace Dieu. IT Grace dieU anSWerith : s [ 8 grace dieu St.] 

Grace Dieu S~~\ vod grace (lieu anoon ryght, 

Wi*., leaf 86] \2v/ ' Byholde and se a noble knyght, 21968 

Makynge thyne owne chaumberer, 9 V ch&ritere '] 

To bere thyne armure as 10 a sqvyer, [wiykest.] 

Whiche mayste not thy silff assure 

ffor to berne hem, nor endure. 21972 

i ought ' I wolde seen, to-ffore wytnesse, 

show ome Som knyghttely deede off hygh prowesse 

brave deed f 8 u-J rt. i of- 1. 

Accomplyschid, thorough thi myght, 

To bere recorde thow art a knyght, 21976 

3 Many leaves are here missing in the MS. Cott. Vit., c. xiii. ; 
but the missing portion is supplied from MS. Cott. Tib. , A vii. 






Grace Dicu warns me that I must keep my Promises. 587 

' By armes proved in som coste. [Tiberius, 

Thow art no thyng but wynde and boste, Grace men. 

Byhotynge myche, whan al is wrought, than pro- 

And in deede doste ryght nought.' 21980 

If The Pylgryme: The p ^'>- 



M 



Adame," quod I, " y t is no ffayle, \ 



I schal amende with travayle ; 
And, I hope, vexacyoun [stowe, leaf ssi] 

Schal ^eue to me fful hygh renoun, 21984 

To conquere som excellence ?. m e excel- 

ling acts ; 

By vse and longe experyence. 

" I haue pleynely, in the see, and that rve 

* J J ' been ship- 

Nauffragus fful long I-be, 21988 ***. 

And suffred (bothe este and weste.) a . nd * e 

V / through 

Many 1 perel and greet tempeste, L 1 many a St.] tern' 8 *"* 1 

And ait I stonde in a deluge. i am stm 

in a deluge. 

But jeue I haue off $ou reffuge, 
With-in ^oure schippe me ffor to marke, 
As Noe was with-in his arke, 
I may not (schortely to telle,) 

Escape out off this 2 ffloodes ffelle." pthesst] 21996 
H Grace dieu answerith: [grace dieu st.] 

wel provyded in thi thought, 

That thow behote me ryght nought, 
3eue thow wolte 3 my thanke disserue, [' wyit St.] 
But that thow wolte 3 trewely obserue ; 22000 

ffor bette it is, not vndertake, it ' be"er 

not to make 

And avowys noon to make, promises, 

Than to make hem by assent, 

And breke hem affter, off entent : 22004 and break 

them after- 

Swhiche avowes, loue I nought, wards. 

But they be made off herte and thought. 

Wherff ore, with-out eny slouthe, i must keep 

mine. 

Kepe thyne heeste to me, off trouthe.' 22008 

IT The Pylgryme: The pugrim 




supportacyoun, I assure her 

It is myne entencyoun, 

My promysse, bothe' 4 day and nyght, [* bothe om. St.] i \\\\\ keep 

To kepe yt, as I haue byhyght." 22012 

fl Grace dieu answerith: [grace dieu sto 






588 



Grace, Dieu takes me to her Ship ' Eeligion! 



[Tiberius, 

Aviii 
The Pilgrim. 

Then Grace 
Dieu takes 
me to the 
shore, where 
the ship is. 
Its bonds are 
loose. 

The osiers 
round it 
break, 



and Its hoops 



come apart. 
[Tib., leaf 87] 



I ask Grace 
Dieu the 
name of the 
ship, 



whose cap- 
tain I blame, 



for letting its 
bonds break. 



Grace Dieu. 

This ship is 
' Religion,' 



which is 
bound with 
circum- 
stances and 
observances. 



Voung folk 



neglect the 
observances ; 



THanne Grace dieu, with good chere, 
Ladde me doun to the revere ; 
And there we han a schippe I-ffonde. 
With greete bondis it was bounde ; 22016 

But the bonde's sat not cloos ; 
The moste parte off hem were loos ; 
The smale osyers, here and Bonder, ' 22019 

To-brake 1 thanne, and 2 wente asonder, K^J|J f f I1 "- < J r i k Tib>] 

* L* alUl LllilIL ol.J 

The hopes about the vessel, 

Bycause they were not bounde wel ; 

3 it the hoopes (it is no nay) 

Were stronge I-nowgh at good assay ; 22024 

Deffaute in hem was ffounde noon ; 

But, ffor the osyers nygh echon 

Were broke ffyrste (as it is ffounde), 

Wherffore the hoopys were vnbounde. 22028 

U The Pylgryme : c 1 with out Tib., st.] 

" 1% /["Adame," quod I, " with-oute 3 blame, 

XT JL Off $oure schippe, telle me the name, 
And who that scholde it wel gouerne ; 
ffor sothely, as I kan discerne, 
The gouernour, is not wys, 
(As me thynket 4 in myn avys,) 
That lyste suffren (off ffolye) 
The boondes breke so reklesselye 
In myddes off the perelous see, 
In whiche there is no surete." 

U Grace dieu answerith: 
' ri^His schippe (as by discripcyoun) 

J_ I-callyd ys Eelygyoun ; I 22040 

Whiche is bounde with circumstauncis, 
And ffret with dyuerse obseruauncis. 
And while that it is bounde wel, 

It may perysche neueradel ; 22044 

But jonge ffolkes neclygent, 
That entre this schippe off entent, 
And, thorough ther mys-gouernauncis, 
Kepe not the obseruauncis 22048 

That were made by ffolkis olde, 
ffor to breke hem ben fful bolde : 






22032 

[ thynkythe St.] 

22035 

[Stowe, leaf 851, back] 



If small things in Religion are neglected, great ones will be. 589 



' ffirste, thosyerys smale, 
Telle off hem but lytel tale, 
Caste hem byhynden at her bak, 
Where-thorwgh the schippe goth al to wrak : 
Breke the smale circumstauncis, 
And ffare-wel the greete 6"bseruauncis ! 
ffor, $eue the smale comaundementis 
Be not kepte in ther ententis, 
The greete (in conclusyoun) 
Gon vn-to destruccyoun. 
The smale (bo the in colde and heete,) 
Be wardeynes off the greete ; 
And jeue the smale sothely ffayle, 
Aryght this schippe ne may not sayle. 
Breke the smale here and Bonder, 
And the greete muste goon assonder. 
Thus the schippe off religyoun 
Gothe offte to distruccyoun. 
So, wolde god, ther lyvynge 
Were lyke now ther gynnynge, 
The schippe scholde the better preve, 
Ageyne al tempeste hym 1 -silffe releve : 
It were almesse, by the roode. 
' 3it I hoope som are gode, 
Swyche as to holynesse entende ; 
And who doth not, god hym amende ! 
God 3eue hem grace so to dresse 
The maste 2 vpward, by holynesse, 
And that they may, to her avayle, 
By grace, so to crosse sayle, 
That in the wynde be no debat 
To make ther passage ffortunat ; 
That redely they may, and blyue, 
At the hauene vp taryve, 
Where loye and blysse (who kan disserne) 
Is endelesly, and lyffe enterne. 
U Now cheese ffreely, affter my lawe, 
To whiche castel thow wolt drawe; [stowc, leaf 352] 
And in my schippe, they ben echon 
Bylte fful ffayre, off lyme and stoon. 



22052 



22056 



22060 



[Tiberius, 

A vii. | 
Grace Itieu. 

then the 
osiers break, 
and the ship 
goes to pieces. 



If small 
observances 
are not held, 
[Tib., leaf 87, 

back] 

the larger are 
destroyed. 



22064 



22068 



[i them St.] 22072 



[' The mast St. 
must Tib.] 



Thus the ship 
of religion is 
often ruind. 



Still, I hope 
some folk are 
good, 



22076 

, He 

22080 
22084 
22088 



and will keep 
the mast up 
by holiness, 



so that they 
may get to 
the haven of 
joy and bliss, 
and eternal 
life. 



She asks me 
which castle 
I'll go to. 



590 I decide to enter the Cistercian Castle (Order of Monks}. 



[Tiberiui, 

Avii.] 
Grace Dieu. 



[Tib., leaf 88] 

I may choose 
the house of 
the Cisterci- 
ans, Cluniacs, 
Carthusians, 



or Friars 
Preachers 
or Minors, 
etc. 



All stand on 
firm ground, 



and are safe 
against the 
foe. 



Therefore I 
ought to 
choose one 
and enter, 



[Tib., leaf 88, 

back] 

as tin- sea of 
the World 
will assail me 
daily. 



The Pilflrim. 



I choose 
the castle of 
Cystews, the 
Cistercian 
order, 



Grace Dieu. 



' And sythen thow haueste lyberte 
ffor to entren or go ffre, 22092 

Cheese amonge these towres alle, 
At whiche gate' thow wolte calle. 
H Ther 1 ben the Cystews ffaste by ; [ l her St.] 
And not fful ffer is eke Clwny. 22096 

Byholde 3onder a Chartrehous, 
2 An ordur that is full vertuous. 2 [* * st., om. Tib.] 
Thow mayste eke sene ffrere Prechours, 
And other that callyd ben Menours ; 22100 

Ordres off many other 3 guyse, [ a nothar St.] 

Mo tkanne as now I kan 4 devyse : [* i can as now St.] 
Cheese at thyne owne volunte, p wilt St.] 

In whiche off alle thow wolte 5 be. [Illustration.] 22104 
' A lie they stonde in 6 stable grownd, [oust.] 
JTjL. To kepe, bothe saaff and sownd, 
Body and soule, (it is no drede) 

Who kepith his rule in verrey deede. 22108 

And these placis agreable, 
Alle they ben dyffensable 
Ageyne the flende and alle his myght, 
That man assayleth day and nyght 22112 

In this mortal trowbely see, 
ffulffilled with greet aduersyte. 
And, therflfore, 3eue thow do wel, 
Entre anoon in som castel, 22116 

There thow mayste (at a word) 
Kepe the within schippes bord. 
This wordely see (it 7 is no ffayle) 17 it St., om. Tib.] 
Eche day off newe the schal assayle ; 22120 

Wherffore I councel the to ffle, 
Whyle thow haste myght and lyberte.' 

1T The Pylgryme: 

" Adame," quod I, " whan al ys sought, 

I haue chose (off herte and thought,) 22124 
Off Cystews, (in eche syde) 
In that castel to abyde, 
In-to that ffortresse I wole gon." 

Grace Dieu: 8 c 8 st., om. Tib.] 

'Entre my schyppe,' quod sche, ' anoon.' 22128 



M 



The Porter ' Dread of God.' The King is in the Castle. 591 

And affter that, sche lyste not dwelle, [Tiberius, 

But gan hir hanker vp to pulle, Orace ^^. 



P 



And in the see, fforthe bygan to sayle and the ship 

Towarde the castel, $eue it wolde avayle, 22132 andstuStolt! 

Me to spede on 1 my lorne. Pvponst.] 

And at the laste, I ffonde a large entre ; i go to the 

But, off entente, stylle awhile I stood 
Sool by my silffe, and at the gate abood. 22136 

IT The pylgryme : The puprim. 

Orter," quod I, in haste, " I preye the, and ask ad- 

', . mittanceof 

At this castel graunte me entre, the porter, 

ffor Grace dieu hathe me hyder brought, [stowe, if. 352, bk.] 
Off the entre that I ffayle not." 22140 

1T The Porter answerith: The porter. 

Vod the porter anoon to me, who says he 

* must first 

'3eue I knewe, and dyde se have the 

' > King's 

That the kyng wolde it avowe, permit. 

Thyne entre I scholde alowe ; 22144 

But the wylle 2 off the kyng [' will is St.] [Tib., leaf 89] 

There-off I knowe no maner thyng.' 

IT The Pylgryme : The pu ff rim. 

" r I lElle me thanne, lyke myne entent, 

JL Is the kyng hym-silffe present 1 " 

IT The porter answerith : The porter. 

' r I lEuste wel, as thow schalt leere, 22149 

I I wolde not ellis sytten heere : 
It is a sygne (eerly and late,) 

Whanne thow seeste me at the gate, 22152 

To telle (by good avysement,) The King is 

m, i , - iu the castle. 

Ihe kyng hym-silfre ys here present. 



HH 

1 



The Pylgryme: {Illustration.} 

Elle me thy name, off gentillesse, 22155 

With-outen 3 eny straungenesse." [ 3 outen St., out Tib.] 



' A 

/\ 

XJL 



U The Porter answerith : TV^ Porter. 

Nd I schal 4 telle the with-out schame : [ 4 1 shall the St.] [Tib., leaf 89, 

back] 

Drede oil god, that is my name ; The Porter's 

Whiche is ground (with-out offence) "iTead'of 
Off wysdam and Sapyence. 22160 

I voyde synne, and vyces chace, avoiding sin, 

That noon 5 may entree in this place ; [ 5 oon st., men Tib.] 'g vi ^. 



592 The Porter lets me into the Castle. I see its Buildings. 



chastising ; 
sinners, 



of whom 
none enter. 



The Pilgrim. 



The pilgrim's 
desire is to 
serve the 
King. 
The Porter. 



The Pilgrim. 



[Tib., loaf 90] 



He lets me 
into the 
Monastery, 



and I see its 
cloister, 
chapter- 
bouse, etc., 



with servitors 
serving. 



1 Nowther oolde nor jonge off age 

Schal have heere 1 noon herbergage; [Uherst.] 22164: 

ffor this staffe (jeue thow take heede) 

With the greet pa?'lom 2 of leed, [* piom>-st.] 

Is I-callyd (in substaunce) 

' Off god almyghtty, the vengaunce ; ' 22168 

And there- with-al, in cruel wyse, 

Alle synners I chastyse. 

' And with this ylke sturdy Maas, 
I putte hem out a fful greet paas ; 22172 

ffor noon swyche (3eue thow lyste 3 lere,) P none . . lyst st.] 
Ben hardy to entre here.' 

U The Pylgryme : 
I yre, 4 1 praye the, oonly off 5 grace, [J fjfdt ' O f St.] ^ 

I may entren in this place ; 22176 

ffor myne entente and my menynge 
Is to do servyse to the kyng." 

1T The Porter answerith : 
' 5Eue I knewe that it 6 were so, l* it st., om, Tib.] 
f With-outen many worde's mo 22180 

Thow scholdeste haue graunte off me, 
To entren at good lyberte.' 

U The Pylgryme : 
" "TN other wyse neuere a del 

_|_ Wole I not entren in 7 this castel, [nnom. st.] 
But ffor to do the kyng aervyse." 22185 

And thanne, in fful goodly wyse, 
I was leten in off the porter : [stowejcafsss] 

Hym lyste to make no daunger. 22188 

U Aboute I wente, byholdynge 
Vp-on many a ryche thynge ; 
I sawe A cloystrejand A dortour, 
A chapytleaous 8 and A ffreytour ; c 8 chapytie hons st.] 
And there- with-al, a ffayre Hostrye, 22193 

And a large ffermerye ; 
And, off God, thanke to dysserve, 
ffayre meyne I sawgh there serve. 22196 

And, I suppose ffor my beste, 
There to herborewe and to reste, 
On ther cam, and preyed me, 



Charity greets me. I meet the fair Lady Lesson. 593 



And hir name was Charite. >' 22200 

[Illustration,] 

TO pylgrymes, in goodly wyse, 
Sclie dyde moste trewely the servyse. 
With chere benygne, and glad vysage, 
Sche brought hem to ther herbergage ; 22204 

And euere sche was moste ententyff, 
With-outen 1 noyse or eny stryff : [' outen st., out Tib.] 
To serue pore ffolkys alle, 

That ffor helpe to hir calle, 22208 

Sche was besy euere more. 
And in this book, not goon fful ^ore, 
I spake off hir, dowteles, 

ffor sche heelde the wrytte off pees, 22212 

Whanne Moyses, the byschop cheeff, 
Gan departe the releeff 
To pilgrymes (in substaunce) 
To jeuen hem ther sustynaunce. 22216 

ANd 2 thorough the cloystre, thanne anoon, 
By the waye as I gan goon, pandom. St.] 
Off a venture in my repayre, 

I mette a lady Inly ffayre, 22220 

Bothe off schappe and off stature ; 
And sche bare (I ^ou ensure) 
In hir hand, a smal coffyn 

Whiche was made off parchemyn. 22224 

A white dowve (it is no dowte) 
Alle-way sewyd hir abowte. [Illumination."] 

51 The Pylgryme : 

ANd as I lokyd heere and ther, 
I stood in a maner wher, 22228 

What tokenes it 3 myght be, [ tooknys that it St.] 

The thynges that I dyde se ; 
Prayed hir in goodly wyse, 

That sche wolde anoon devyse 22232 

There-off by exposicyoun, 
A cleer sygnyffycacyoun. 
H Lessoun declarith : 4 [ decianth, om . st.] 



[Tiberius, 

AviL] 
The Pilgrim. 

Charity 
greets me. 



She shows 
pilgrims to 
their lodging, 



[Tib., leaf 90, 

biw;k] 

and is busy 
in serving. 



See p. 134, 

above, where 
I speak of her 
with Moses. 



Tltewely,' quod sche, there as sche stood, 
' I ne thenke no thyng but good, 

PILGRIMAGE. 



Thro' the 
cloister 



I meet a fair 
lady (Lesson) 



with a small 

parchment 

box; 

and a while 
dove follows 
her. 



[Tib., leaf 91J 



I ask her 
what these 
tilings ineuii. 



She says she 



22236 
Q Q 



594 Lady Lesson, atid Lady Hagiograptiy, described. 



[Tiberius. 

Avii.] 
Lady Lexson. 

is the Sub- 
cellarer and 
Pittance!-, 
and feeds the 
soul with 
holy 
thoughts, 



supplied by 
the Mercer 
and Clois- 
terer, 



The PUgrim. 



to whom she 
takes me. 



This lady's 
body is 



[Tib., leaf 91, 

back] 

olear on one 
side, 

and clouded 
on the other. 



' ffor I am Sowcelerere l 

Off this place, and Pytauncere, 

I menystre the lyffiode 

To the sowle, and eke the ffoode : 



I ask her 
name and 
station. 



[' sawcelerere St.] 



[Stowe, leaf 353, back] 



22241 



22244 



[ J that om. St.] 



[MoysterC.] 22248 



The herte I ffeede (the pawnche nought,) 
With fful many an hooly thought. 
My ffoode is soote and cherischynge, 
And ryght hoolsom in tastynge ; 
Whiche ffoode is delyuered me 
By on whom that 2 thow schalt se; 
ffor sche is bothe A Mercer :f 
Off this place, and cheeff Cloystrer.' 4 
U The Pylgryme : 

Lyke the desyre whiche that I hadde, 
To that lady sche me ladde ; 
Whiche (schortely to speceffye) 
Plente hadde off Mercerye, 
And moste delytable off syght, 
Sehe hadde Merours ffeyre and bryght. 
But this lady merveyllous 
W^s off schappe suspecyous ; 
ffor I took good heede ther-to : 
Sche departyd was on 5 two ; 
That made hir body to devyde, 
Wonder cleer on the ryght syde ; 
But (as I aspyen koude,) 
Hir lyfffce was schadewed with a clowde. [Ilfamiitcction.] 

ANd whanne that I byheelde the guyso 
Off alle hir queyntii marchaundy.se, L ) i ) i ) G4 

"Madame," (paod I, "in certeyn, 
Wonder ffayne I woldti beyn, 
Somwhat off joure thynges heere, 
3eue so were 30 wolde lere 22268 

To me (by schorte conclusi'oun,) 
3oure name and ^oure condicyoun." 
II Agyographe : 



2225: 



22256 



[' ill St.] 



22260 



3 Merrier: m. A good Pedlcr or ineane Haberdasher of 
small wares ; a tradesman that retailes all manner of small 
ware, and hatli no better then a shed or booth for a shop. 1611. 
Cotgrave (1650). 



Why Hayiography is bright on one side, dark on the other. 595 



T Am,' quod sche, ' cheeff noryce 



22284 



[* St. repeat* 12 here: 
/ea/358 *] 

22288 



To alle ffolkes that ffleen vyce. 22272 

2^o cloyster is worthe (who looke aboute) 
On no syde whan I am out. 
I makii cloystris fferme and stable, 
Worsehipe-full 1 and honowrable ; C 1 full St., cm. Tib.] 
And my name (jeue thow lyste se,) 22277 

Is callyd Agyographe, 
Whiche is to seyne (I the ensure,) 
Off holy wrytynge the scripture. IT Sancta, crip[tura] 22280 
And at ffeyrcs and at ffeestis, 
I reste in skynnes off dede bestis.' 

H The Pylgryme: 
" T~\Eclare me, and doth not ffeyne, 

I J Why be 30 partyd thus on tweyiie 
The to parte, 2 wonder ffayre off cheere, 
Lusty, amyable, and cleere ; 2 

The tother party, 3 wonder myrk, 
Schrouded with a cloude dyrk." 

II Agyographe: 

Was not, 1 quod sche, ' sothe to say, 
,1, Lyche the", borne vp-on a day, 
But by processe and leyser, 
And by space off many a ^er. 22292 

' By oolde tyme (stylle and loude,) 
I was schadewed with a cloude, 
And fful derkely kepte in cloos, 

Tyl tymc that the sonne aroos 22296 

I rnene, the tyme that was to-ffom 
That Cryst ihesu lyste to be born, 
Thilkii tyme, my party ryght, 

Off a cleer skye kaught his lyght ; 22300 

Tlio whiche skye, proffetys seyde, 
Was that blessed lioly mayde, 
Off lesse bothe braunche and (flour, 
That bare Ihesti, oure saviour. 22304 

' That tynu-, with his streemes clere, 
ffirste my bryghtteiiesse dyde appere ; 
And alle derkenesse to termyne, 
Only by grace whiche is devyne. 22308 



[Tiberius, 

Avii] 
Hugiography 

She ia chief 
nurse to all 
who rtee vice, 



and her name 
is Hauyo- 
Ktt'p'iy, 
[Tib., leaf 92] 



the writing 
of Scripture 

on beasts' 
skins or 
parchment. 

The Pi'i/i-im. 



She has one 
side bright, 



and the 
other dark, 



Hagiooraphy 

localise 
she was not 
born on one 
Jay. 



Her dark- 
side signifies 
the time 
before Christ, 



her bright 
side the time 
after Him. 



[Tib., leaf U'J, 
bockj 



596 Hagiography's dark Side, and the Goods she has. 



[Tiberius, 



Her dark side 

is enlishtend 

by the bright, 



a the ow 

Testament is 

explained by 



The pi>nri m . 



I ask her to 
explain this, 



' But the party off my vysage 
Whiche is clowded with vmbrage, 
Off cleernesse scholde haue no reporte, 
But ^eue he hadde his resorte 22312 

To that party, by vertu, 
Off the cleernesse off crist ihmi ; 
Where-off, 1 lakkynge dyscrescyoun, [' wherfore st.] 
Thow madeste a lymytacyoun, 22316 

Affermynge (by a maner slouthe,) 
My dyrke 2 parte wher voyde off trouthe : ^ay^ifb] 
I mene as thus, (in sentement,) 

That the oolde testament 22320 

Were derke and cloudy off his syght, 
3eue that it ne took his lyght 
(Claryffyed by entendeinent) 

Off the newe testament, 22324 

Whos schynynge (in conclusyoun) 
Is cause off oure savacyoun.' 

IT The Pylgryme : 

IXpowne this with-oute 3 glose, [ 3 out Tib., st.] 



May rose i 



She says she 
sells oint- 
ments, 



to relieve 
sick folk, 

[Tib., leaf 93] 

knives, 



horse ami 

man, 



And 30 schal haue the ffyrstc rose 22328 

That I may ffynde (yt is no nay) 
In the moneth of ffresche may." 
U Agyographe : 

Vod sche, ' jeue I schal the telle, 

Mercerye I haue to selle, 22332 

In boystes, soote oyneinentis, 
There-with to don allegementis 
To tfolkes whiche that 4 be not glade, [ 4 that st., om. c.] 
But discorded 5 and mallade, [ 5 discomfited st.] 22336 

And hurte with perturbacyoun, 6 [stowe, leaf 354, back] 

Off many trybulacyOUnS : [ 6 perturbacions St., perturbacyoun Tib.] 

I haue knyties, phyllettys, callys, 

At ffeestes to hangen vp on wallys ; 22340 

Korabes (mo than nyne or ten,) 

Bothe ffor horse and eke ffor men ; 

Merours also, large and brode, 

And, ffor the syght, wonder gode ; <{ 22344 

Off hem I haue fful greet plente 

ffor ffolke that hauen volunte [Illumination.] 



Sdyiograpky's Mirrors. One makes me too fair. 597 

' ^ X T)yholde hem-silffe ther-ynne, [' to st., om. Tib.] [Tiberius, 

J3 Wher they be cleene, or tfoule of synne. a^^^ 
' But, som ffolke hem-silffe byholde 22349 to show folk 

ffor to hyde her ffylthes oolde, theyVe'nure 

Whiche ther bewete dothe apayre. 
And somme merrours schewen ffayre, 22352 

By apparence off bewte, 
Though that ther be no bewte : 
Alle these thynges (who takith kep) 
I haue hem towched on an hep. 22356 

$eue here be aught that may $011 plecse, i may take 

mi -L. L ii- wll!it 1 please 

lake it at tnyne owne eese. of her stuck. 

[The Pilgrim :} The pu ar \m. 

H In these thynges ffresche off delyte, 
I sawgh there-in fful greet proffyte, 22360 

And also in her acqueyntaunce, 

Preyed hir to haue suffraunce, [Tib., leaf os, 

To graunte me leyser, and good ese, 22363 

To seen what thyng me myghte 2 pleese. 
And, by good inspeccyoun, 

Hadde turned al 3 vp SO dotm, P all tournyd St.] I turn her 

3,-i T i j things upside 

eue eny thyng I koude espye down, 

Amonge alle hir mercerye. 22368 

Vp and down I dyde se to find what 

, T7 , , ,, 1111 pleases me 

What thyng Jyked beste to me ; best. 

But, amonge hir thyngos alle, i find a gix s 

__ T , which shows 

Vp-on a merour I was nalle, 22372 me more r.iir 

1171 -l i j i_- i tluuilam; 

Whiche schewyd me, in his gla, 
More ffayre in sothenessc than I wa, 
By apparence sodeynely 

The merour lyed verily : 4 [* sodeynely Tib n vcriiy st.] 22376 
I knewe it wel in exystence 
And by oolde experyence. 
Whan the trouthii was conceyved, 
I wystii wel 1 was deceyved ; 22380 

To hir sayde, (in myne avys,) 
That to hir it was no prys 

To schewen out swyehe mercerye, and i find 

Off merours to make men to pryc. L'L'.'584 l i"i- 

^f Agyographe ', 



598 



[ Tibsrius, 
Avii.] 



Hagiograpliy's mirror ' Adulation.' 
~T Schewe no tliyng, in sotlie,' quod sche, 



that mirrors 
are of dif- 
ferent kinds, 



22388 



22392 



22396 



22400 



The Pilgrim. 



and the one 

I have 



' But as it is in veryte. 
she explains I wole hoolclen my byheste, 

As ffolkes maken me requeste ; 

ffor, as ffer fforthe as I kan, 

I wole deceyue no maner man ; 

The deceytes, ffeytheffully [stowe, leafsss] 

I wole schewe hem opunly. 

Merours ther ben in many wyse, 

As Craffty ffolkes kan devyse, 
[Tib., leaf 9i] Whiche schewen dyuerse vysages 

And many wonderfful ymages, 

Whiche to declare, I wole not dwelle : 

Reede perspectyff, and that wole telle, 

And schewen out the varyaunce 

Off dyuerse ffacys, by demonstraunce.' 
If The Pylgryme: 

ANd off a merour that I ffonde, 
Whiche that I heelde in inyn hande, 1 
I preyed hir, with-oute 2 schame, [ 2 out Tib., St.] 

To> telle me there-off the name. 22404 

Ilaoiograptiv [[ AgyOgraphe : 3 P agiographye St.] 

' "FT Yt were good to bye and lowe, 

1 I That allii ffolkes scholde knowe, 
And there-off hadde a trewe syght, 
lustely what this merour hyght, 22408 

That ffolkes (ffor greet lak off lyght) 
Were not deceyued in her syght. 

THis merour (by descripcyoun) 
Is called Adulacyoun : 22412 

This is (withouten eny blame) 
Veryly his ryghte 4 name ; [* rygut Tib., st.] 

ffor, take good heede, that fflateryng 
Is engendred off lesyng : 22416 

Somme callen hir Placebo, 
ffor sche kan maken an Eccho, 
Answere euere ageyn the same, 

Because that he wole haue no blame. 22420 

Though it be ageyne resoun, 
There is no contradiccyoun, 



is cald ' Adu- 
lation.' 



Now, flattery 
comes from 
lying. 

and is raid 
by some, 
' placebo,' 
because she 
echoes folk's 
wishes. 



This flattering Mirror lies, and deceives folk. 



599 



22428 



' ffor, bothe off newe, and ^ove agon, 
ffolkes sothely (mo than on) 
Han in Adulacyoun 
ffounde fful greet decepcyoun : 
Lordes (wherffore I seye ' alias ! ') 
Han be dysseyued in this caas, f 
And, by advlacyoun 
Brought to ther destruccyoun. 

1F fflaterye : l C 1 om. St. Ilagiographv still tfeakt.'] 

'"TT^Or this custom hath fflaterye, pieynst.] 

JL To seyne 2 thus by losengerye 
"Whanne hym lykyth to bygyle, 
ffulsely by his sotyl while, 
To hem that be moste vycyous, 
How that they are vertuous ; 
And though they ben to vyces tliral, 
They seyne eke they be lyberal, 
Though they be streyte and ravynous, 
And greete nygardes in her hous. 
They callij ffame and hygh renoun, 
Raveyne and ffalse cxtorcyoun. 
Though they be ffooles, and off no prys, 
They afferme that they are wys. 
U AVho that tvustith in swyche langage, 
He is a ffool, and no thyng sage, [stowe, leaf 355, back] 
And ffolyly spcnte his labour, 
That lokyth in any swyche merour ; 
And namely, whanne al is do, 
That he knowith it is not so. 

' Eche wyght knowe hym-syluen kan, / 
Bette thanne eny other man. 
Leff, off 3 fflaterye the sentence, [ leve of 

And jeue to trouthe fful credence ; 
Thow knoweste bet thi-silffe, (off ryght,) 
Thanne doth eny other wyght. 
H ' Late 4 lordus (Avhanne they kan cspye,) [*ietst.] 
Sctte asyde alle fflaterye ! 
But now, alias, it stondytli so, 

They be disseyued by Eccho ; 22400 

And ther sogetes, in many cost, >-ts st.j 



22432 



22436 



22440 



22444 



22448 



22452 



22456 



[Tiberius, 
Avii.] 



[Tib., leafy t, 
back] 



Adulation 
haa brought 
many to 
destruction. 



The vicious 
are told they 
ure virtuous ; 



f.mls, that 
they are 
wise. 

He who 

trusts flat- 
terers is a 
fool. 



[Tib., leaf 95] 



I/onls are 
tlcrc'ivi'il bv 

Krh,., 



600 



Flatterers cause bloodshed. A worsening Hfirror. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
Haoiogrophy 



and wrong 
the poor, 



because flat- 
terers 



tell them that 
poor folks' 
goods belong 
to them of 
right. 



Thi* causes 
rebellion 



[Tib., leaf 95, 
back] 



and btood- 
ehed. 

Wherefore, 
take this 
other mirror, 
and look in it. 



The Pilgrim. 



I refuse tlw 
mirror, 



but look in 
another, 



and vicious. 



' Ben by fflaterye lost, 

And put in greet oppressyoun 

And in greet tribulacyoun ; 22464 

I mene, by swyche as be stronge, 

To pore men ffor to do wronge, 

And suppose, thorough, ther greet myght, 

That they may doon it off ryght j 22468 

fflaterers bere hem so on hande, 

Whiche, day and nyght, aboute hem stonde, 

And fful ffalsely hem counsayle 

To dispoyle the porayle ; 22472 

Seyn, 1 the good is herys off ryght ; [ seyne St.] 

Whiche causith, in the peplys syght, 

fful greet envye and greet haterede, 

Whanne they be pressed with greet drede ; 22476 

And causith, by swyche oppressynges, 

Greete rwmours and rysynges, 

And, som while, rebellyoun 

In many dyuerse regyoun ; [Illumination.'] 22480 

ffor lak oonly off polosye 2 ppoieciest.] 

Off ff olke aboue, that scholde hem guye ; 

Causith, som while, schedynge off blood. 

Wherffore this meroure, jeue it be good, 22484 

Take it to thi pocessyoun, 

To haue there-in Inspeccyoun.' 

11 The Pylgryme: 
" "1% /TAdame," quod I, "}ow not displeese, 

J_T_1_ This myroure schal do me noon eese : 22488 
For, 3 wher-so that I leese or wynne, [ 3 for St., om. Tib.] 
I wole neuere looke there-Inne." 

But ryght anoon, myne happe it was 
To loken in another glasse, 22492 

In the whiche (withouten wene) 
I sawe my-sylff, ffoule and vncleene, 
And to byholde, ryght hydous, 

Abhomynabel and vecyous. 22496 

Thilke 4 merour and that glas [* Tiuike St., That rib.] 
Schewyd to me what I was. [Illumination.] [siowe, if. sse] 
"VrTHerffore, off rancour and dysdeyn, 
. f T The same merour I caste ageyn, 22500 









The Mirror of Conscience. Lady Lesson. Holy Scripture. 601 



'N 1 



With-out abood, 1 in liir panere, [* abod St.] 

ffrowarde off look, and eke off chere, 

And gan my bale awey to turne ; 

And therffore score I gan to morne. 22504 

IF Agyographe : 

"Ow I se wel, by thy 2 contenaunce, ptiiy st,, ow.Tib.] 

And also by thy goueraaunce, 
Thow haste no luste to loke and se 
In this merour (yt semyth me) 22508 

Callyd 'the 3 Merour off Coney ence,' p the on. St.] 
Whiche schewith (by trewe experyence, 
With-out Eccho or fflaterye, 

Or eny other losengerye,) 22512 

Vn-to a man, what ymage 

He bereth aboute, or what 4 visage, [* what om. St.] 
The portrature, ryght as it is, 
And in what thyng he dothe amys, 
And how he schal the be'tte entende, 
Alle his ffylthes to amende.' 

1F Lessown [the Subcellarer] : 

THanne quod the southe-Celerer : 5 
' Towchynge hir, the Mercer, 
It is to hir, displesaunce, 
That thow wolte not han aqueyntaunce 
With hir, whiche sothely myght be 
fful greet profFyte vn-to the, 22524 

In what thow scholdeste haue ado. 

' And ^eue I wyste thow woldeste 8O, 
I wolde maken the to ben able. 

Eche day to sytten at hir table; 22528 

With hir to be comensal, 

Off Cheerte 6 in especyal. [ cherite stj 

And 7 (}eue I schal the trouthe telle) [st&Tib.] p for St.] 
In howsholde with hir I dwells, 22532 

And am to hir, off custom, ner. 

' And the name off this Mercer 
I-callyd is ' hooly scripture, 1 

Whiche ffor to leren, I do my cure, 22536 

In a vessyl off Parchemyn : 
Off ffee, I calle the offyce myn : 



[Tiberius, 

A vi i. 

leafOH] 

The Pilyrim. 

This I throw 
away. 

Hagiograph]/ 
tells me it is 



22516 



[I sowcelerer St.] 

22520 



the Mirror of 
Conscience, 



which shows 
a man as he 
is, 



and how he 
shall amend. 



Lady Leson. 



The Sub- 
cellarer 



offers to fit 
me 



to ait at table 
with the Mer- 
cer or Pedlar, 



[Tib., leaf 96, 
back] , 



whose nnme 
is Holy Scrip- 
ture, 



kept in parch- 
ment. 



G02 The Holy Ghost's grace follmvs Study, Two more Ladies. 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.] 
Lad// Leaon. 



Her name is 
* Le.iHon ' or 
' Study.' 



If I will know 
her, 



Orace of the 

Holy GhOSt 

shall follow 
me, 



iiinl she will 
show me ce- 
lestial secrets. 



[Tib., Iciif 97] 
The PUiii-im. 

Then I see 
two more 
ladies, 
one hearing 
cords, 



the other a 
file and a 
targe. 



' In swyche a vessel, euery coost, 22539 

I bere it that they 1 be not lost. [' it St.: :-a Te*tament,p.&m.] 

Therto I do my dylygence, 

To kepe it ffrom alle vyolence ; 

ffor it may not (as thow doste 2 se,) [maystst.] 

In noon other vessel be, 22544 

To kepe it in savacyoun ; 

And my name is eke ' Lessown,' 

And ' Studye,' amonge these clerkes alle, 

Whiche off bothe, thow lyste me calle. 

'And ffirste, ^eue thow haue plesaunce, 
With me to liauen aqueyntaunce, 
Thow schalt aqueyntyd ben anoon 
With these la dyes euery chou, 
Verreyly at thyne ownc lyst : 
In my byheste haue ffully tryst, 
ffor grace off the hooly goost 
Schal ffolewe the in euery coost, 
Ryght as this whyte dowue doth, 
Ay sueth me, and that is soth, 
Whiche schal the teche and tellen al 
The secrees celestyal. 
ffor, sche is off hevene (ffer and ner) 
The verrey trewe messager. 
Erly at more we, and at eve 
Estudyantys 3 sche kan releve, 
To ^eue hem her reffeccyoun 
By myne ad-mynystracyoun.' 4 

Other two ladyes I sawe also 
To the chapitre that wente tho ; 
The ton off hem, bar in hir hondis, 
Cordiis and eke strongc bondis ; ^Illumination.'] 

THe thothcr (in the same while) 
In hir mouthe sche bare a ffyle 22572 

Eudentyd ; the tcth there-off were large ; 
And on hir breste, a fful brood targe. 
H The Pylgryme : 

ANd or they ffurther myghtu 5 goon, [ 5 wysiit Tib., st.] 
I requyred hem anoon, 22576 

Tc tulle me (by good avys,) 



22548 



22552 



22556 

[Stowe, leaf 35C, back] 



22560 



estudiauncy s St.] 22564 



[* admyn . . St., and 
min . . Tib.] 



22568 



Lady Obedience, with her Discipline, and Prudence. 603 



[Tiberius, 
A vu.] 



Bothe ther names and ther offis. 
U Obedyence : 

THe lady that the boondys bar, 
To me seyde (as I was war), 22580 

' I am,' quod sche, ' (schortely to expresse), 
Of this hous the 1 cheeff pryoresse, [' theom. St.] 
Nexte Grace Dieu (in substaunce,) 
I haue here 2 the gouernaunce, P here st., off Mr Tib.] 22584 
(Bothe byfforne and eke byhynde.) 
And with these boondb's eke I bynde, 
(Wher-so that they be soure or swete,) 
Off ffolkes bothe hand and ffete, 22588 

That they, in no wyse, doore .i. audent St., om. Tib. 
Passen by noon opene doore : .i. pr iiostium St., om. Tib. 
/' I holde hem in, lyke prisoners, 

And off look and eke off cherys ; 22592 

And my name (in sentence) 
Callyd is Obedyence. 

' My boondes and my lygameutys 
Ben dyuerse comaundementys, 22596 

To holden in subieccyoun 
ffolkes off relygyoun. 
IT And off my ffylb to termyne, 

It is I-called Dyscyplyne : 22600 

And that I (bothe northe and south) 
Am wonte to here it in my mouth, 
Betokeneth reprehensyoun 

Off ffolke, ffor her transgressyoun, 22604 

There-with I secure in euery syde, 
That ther may no ruste abyde, [Illumination.] 
Nowther ffylthe, ffor noon offence. 

' My targe callyd ys ' Prudence : ' 22608 

Euery thyng (I the ensure) 
to gouerne it by mo.sure.' [Tib. & St.] 

IT And, as I hadde good reward, ,, 

I sawgh oon in-to the ffreyterward 22612 i then see 

Goon a mesurable paas, [stowe, leaf 857] 

Wonder sobre off look and ffaas, 

And no thyng dissolut off cher : another i.i.iy 

Armyd sche was with a gorger. 22616 a gorger, 



The laily 
with tin- 
bonds is the 

chief Prioress 
of the Cjn- 
vent, 

[Tib , leaf 97, 
back] 



and with her 
bonds she 
binds fork, 



and detains 
them indoors. 



Her name is 
Ouedienue. 



Her bonds 
are Com- 
mandments 

to keep 
M,,nk and 
Nuns in 
subjection. 
The file is 
' Discipline," 



which scours 
oil' i In- rust 
of filthy sins. 

[Tib., leaf 98] 

The targe is 
' Prudence.' 



604 



Lady Abstinence, and her Gorger 'Sobriety.' 



[Tiberius, 
Avu.] 

The Pili/rim. 

whom I uskt 
to tell her 
name. 



and explain 
the coverd 
tables, the 
folk skiing 
at them, 

and the dead 
people serv- 
ing them. 



Abitinencg. 

S!ie says she 
is the Re- 
fectorer, who 
manages the 
Refectory 
and feeds 
the folk. 



Her name is 
Abstinence. 
Her Qorger 
is ' Sobriety.' 

[Tib., leaf 98, 
back] 



The dead 
who serve 
at table, are 
the Founders 
and endowers 
of religious 
houses, 



who thus 
daily feed 
monks and 
nuns. 



The Pylgryme: 

Off whom I gan anoon enquere, 
That sche wolde goodly leere 
To me (by schorte conclusyoun) 

Hir name and hir condissyoun ; 22620 

And off the tablys cured echon, 
And there-ate syttynge many on ; l [' a one St.] 

And also, as I dyde obserue, 

Noon other ffolke at mete serve, 22624 

But ffoHges deede euere more, 
Where-off I was abaschyd sore. 

U Abstynence : 
' T Am,' quod sche, ' the Freytourer 

J_ Off this hous, and Boteler, 22628 

And mynystre the sustenaunce 
To ffolkes, lyke to ther plesaunce. 

I kepe hem hool, I kepe hem cleene, 

By a mesurable meene, 22632 

That, surffet be not to blame. 

' Abstynence,' that is my name ; 
And my gorger that thow doste se, 
Is I-callyd ' Sobrete/3 [' sobriete St.] 22636 

To kepe the gorge in 3 sobrenesse, [by St.] 

ffrom sorffet, and al excesse. 

d these ffolkes that ben deede, 
Whiche that serue, (^eue thow take heede,) 
Be thilke ffolkes euerychon, 22641 

Whiche that, off $ore agoon, 
To-fforne her deth, off holynesse 

And off verrey parffytenesse, 22644 

Made the ffoundacyoun 
Off ffolkys off relygyoun ; 

Endowyd 4 hem with greet snbstaunce, [* enduyd St.] 
Ther-by to haue ther sustynaunce. 22648 

II And ffor that skele (as I devyse) 

They done 5 eche day her servyse, [ s done St., don Tib.] 

And ben to hem eke servysable 

Whanne they sytten at the table. 22652 

' And ageyneward, sothe to seye, 
The tother ffor hem wake and praye, 



The two ladies, Chastity and Willing Poverty. 605 

' Bothe by day and eke by nyght, [Tiberius, 

As they are bounden, off dewe ryght, 22656 Absence. 



To ther SOwlis tO don SOCOWre, In return for 

And afftirward to the dortoure.' latter pray 

__, _., . _ for their 

[The Pilgrim]: Founders' 

IWote not wel what it mente, 22659 TitePiigrim. 

I sawgh how tweyne 1 ladyes wente : ''.^'ribV i then see 

rp, o tf i / T \ two more 

Ihe on- on hem, (as I was war,) [Honest.] ladies, 

T i i i olle (Chas- 

ln lur hand, a stall sche bar : tity) with a 

Staff, the 

Ihe tother, save a gambesoun, other naked, 

except her 

Was nakyd (in myne inspeccyoun). 22664 f^" 

And sche that bare the staff, anon jacket), 
ffro bed to bed sche is agon 

Thorowgh-out the dortour (by and by), The first 

V J J/ ' (Chastity) 

And made the beddes fful clenly : 22668 made the 

l>o<ls, and 

And with clothis cleene and white laid wllite 

sheets over 

Sche spradde hem ouer, by delyte, them< 

That no thyng ne lay a 3 wroiige. p a St., on. Tib.] 22671 [Tib., leaf so] 

Sche that was nakyd, gan a songe, [lUttminatwtk] The naked 

one sani: 

WHiche (to putte in remembraunce) [stowe, ir. 357, bk.] this song: 
Was pleynely this, as in substaunce : 
U The ffyrste verse off the song : 

' ~|" Schal synge, with al my myght, wuang 

JL And so I howe, 4 off verrey ryght. 22676 

I am nakyd, as 56 may Se ; [* owe, ought: have St.] I am naked; 

By no thyng men may holden me : no one can 

J ' hold me. 

Thowgh they me pursue, day and nyght, 
To hold[e] me they have no myght. 5 [St., om. Tib.] 22680 
H The secunde verse : 

Smale i^osterne I may pace, i can pass 

through a 

And, thorough thykke and thynne trace ; narrow door, 
ffor, thow that ffolkes dyde her peyne, 
They may off me no thyng restreyne, 22684 
Affter, euere thow 6 they chace. [ 6 thoghe St.] 
H The thryde verse : 

Am ' WyllefTull Pouerte : ' i am wining 

J Poverty. 

And, off myne owne volunte, [Tib., leaf <M, 

back] 

5 The 2nd and 3rd verses have only 5 lines each ; the first 
ought to have the same ; but as Stowc's 6th line stops the line- 
numbering getting uneven, I put it in. 



I 



GOG Willing Poverty, and her jacket Patience. 

[Tiberius, ' I despyse alle rychesse ; 22688 

i sleep Slepe in loye and sekyrnesse, 

Nol'fief can Nor theves may not robbe me.' [Illumination.'] 
r ^, ffri *. The Pylgryme: 
i o to the ^P llir that so nakyd was, 

nuked iiuiy. J_ I gan to hasten a greet paas ; 22692 

Bysoughtte hir that sche nolde spare, 
Hir name, to me ffor to declare. 
wining n Pouerte : 

Poverty. 

name > 3 eue ! scbal tel16 tne > 



I 



I am ' wyllefful Poverte ; ' 22696 

Povei-ty,' ffor, 1 to swyche pouerte I haue me take, l l om. st.] 
and has And the world I haue fforsake, 

given up all 

property Eychesse and alle pocessyoun, 

save her Save oonly this Gambysoun, 22700 

jacket J 

Patience, Whiche is callyd 'Pacyence.' 

And therffore, with-out offence, 

fforsake I haue the Tempera! 
[Tib., if. ioo] ffor goodes that ben celestyall : [Tib.&st.] 22704 

in exchange mi i 11 

for celestial There is my rychesse and gerdoun, 

My.tresowre and my pocessyoun.' 
piian m . ^ The Pylgryme : 

Preye the that thow not tarye : 

Why is it caUyd ' voluntarye ' ] " 22708 

wuii lig f Pouerte: 

Poverty. 

mi 

1 Ther may no thyng a man avayle ; 
fs'Se^v'm- (What manor thyng that euere it be,) 
illgly - But it be doon off volunte. 22712 

see next a Kome fforthe. and se an exanplayre 2 [ 2 exempiayre St.] 

case of 

involuntary Off povertc not voluntarye.' 

poverty.' 

And, with-oute 3 more lettynge, p out Tib., st.] 
she shows Sche Schewyd me oon, ffelle off lokynge : 22716 

me an old 

woman Groyiiyngo sche sat. ffrownynge and sad : 

frowning and 7 - 

sad. And off hir cheere sche was not glad. 

' Here thow 4 mayste seen pouerte [*timw st., om.Tib.] 
Whiche is no thyng off volunte. [Illumination.^ 22720 

[Tib., if. 100, Thow mayste off hir 5 anon enque-re, 5 [ 5 - 5 St., Tib. torn.] 
And the trouthe sche schal the leere. 
U The Pylgryme : 



beoan8e %ste this (it is no ffayle,) 



How Impatient Poverty plays tricks to get money. 607 



nn 

I 



oolde," quod I, " so ffoule off cheere, [Tiberius, 

What cause haste thow to abyden 1 heere ^g-, 6 - lf - m pn'm-im 



Amonge this ffayre companye [' hastow tabiden st.] 22725 i ask the old 

r\ i J i) T j. ii woman why 

Oft ladyes I 1 trowe thow art a spye. she is among 

Thow owghttyest not, with so ffoule a fface, ladies. 

To 2 abyden in so ff eyre a place." p TO >. st.] 22728 

11 Pouerte Impacyent : 3 [ 3 impacyent Tib., om. St.] Impatient 

* ' Poverty. 



QYod sche, 'the trowthe ffor to kythe, ghe , Im 

Thow haste seyne fful offte sythe Poverty,' 

With lordes, ladyes, (it is no doute,) [st. &Tii>.] You've'often 

In her 4 chawmbres rounde abowte 22732 am" ladies' ds> 

For to maken dyuerse Tapes, [ timyr st.] )I1IS ' 

Foxes rennen, and eke apes, foxes ami 

apes to make 

Dysporte and pleye on euery syde : ' lorthem. 

And semblably, here I 5 abyde ; [ i here st.] 22736 

Where-off thow scholdest me not 6 ropreve ; ["" not me st.] 

ffor vn-to hem, no thyng I greve ; 

It dothe hem non dysavauntage, 

ffor to my silffe is the damage. 22740 



A 



aeue men me callen ' Pouerte,' ['and, om. st.] Weil: ns 

take my 






Anil I 8 take it not at gree [iom. st.] poverty 

Thorough my ne no wne 9 Impacyence, [ownest.] 22743 impatiently 

My grucchynge doth no wight 10 offence, P^JJBJ&Tg* w'iiV'"" 
(Who so takyth heede ther-to) " bove ^ ' 
But to my silffe, and to no mo. 

Off ffolkes oif dyscressyoun, discreet folks 

J hold me in 

I am had in derysyoun ; 22748 <ienmn 

like" lords 

They holde off me but a lape, Jo tlieil- ape*- 

As a lord dothe off his ape.' [Tib., ir. 101] 

The Pylgryme: The pup*,,,. 

" TTyt semyth, as 12 by thy resemblaunce ["MOW. st.] 

I 1 And by thy owgely 13 contenaunce, [" own st.] 

By lyfftyiige vp off thy mosel, 22753 Your lifting 

That thow pleyest the ape wel : mu/./.ie shown 

that vim ]ilay 

And that thow art the comune ape, MwApewtB, 

xifforij tfolke to pleye and Lip.-." 'I'llM 

II Pouerte Impacyent : 

11 I 7ieed lianlly say in an E. K. Text that the vulgar error of 
holding that 'like' is iiot a conjunction, is <hic to ignorance!. 
Like, from 'like as,' is a conjunction; Like, from 'like to <>r 
unto, 'is a preposition. Sec S. Walker, L'rit.nn ,S7/ nl,-<: v/>. . ii. 115-1'J:3. 



608 / leave Impatient Poverty, and go to Lady Chastity. 



< f I lHat is thorough myne Impacyence, 
impatient JL And ffor lak off pacyence, 



Poverty. 



That makyth me in herte swelle, 



She answers: 

That comes And, with greetc wyndes belle, 22760 

from lack of ' 

patience, That dothe my lyppes hyghe 1 reyse, c 1 iiygu Tib., high St.] 

which pouts 

my HP*. Whiche, no man ne schulde preyse ; 
and makes ffor it makyth a demonstraunce 

me look like 

an ape. Ore an apys contenaunce. 22764 

' I love no manor besynesse, 
But oonly slouthe and ydelnesse. 

' Ryghtffully, thorough my dyssert, 2 pdecertst.] 
I may ben callyd wel ' Povert.' 22768 

Off good, I haue no maner thyng, 
i always grin But as the 3 bycche, ay groynyng, [ s a St.] 

like a bitch ! ' i_ i V 

Wel worse sothely than I seme ; 

Off euery thyng, the worst I deme.' 22772 

The Pylgryme : 






Then i leave A Noon I laffte hir companye, 

her, and go /% * 

to the lady JLA_ And gan me ffaste ffor to hye 

who made the 

beds in the To hir that, with hir lokes glade, 

Dormitory. 

In 4 the dortoure beddes made ; [ in St., But in Tib.] 22776 
[Tib., if. 101, And curteysely I gan hir preye, [St. & Tib.] 

To me sche wolde hir name seye. [stowe, leaf sss, back] 
chattity. u Dame 5 chastyte : [ 5 Dame om. st.] 

' T Am callyd by my name, 

J_ The ffeyre, with-oute 6 spotte or blame, [ out Tib., St.] 
That may, in no place endure 22781 

Where that ffylthe is, or ordure. 

She is Dame And of 7 ffolkeS that me Se, t 7 of St., om. Tib.] 

Chastity, 

Chatelaine I am 8 Callvd Chastyte : [ 8 They calle Tib.] 22784 

of the castle. 

Off thys castel, chasteleyne, 

Whiche, day and nyght, I 9 do my peyne pi. St.] 
ffor to kepen this castel 

ffrom schotte off Gonne and of 10 quarel. [ 10 ofst., om. Tib.] 
she is well; And therffore I am armed wel, 22789 

armd, 

Bette thanne in yren and n steel ; [ ll Bet than yren outlier st.] 
Xyght and day is my laboure, [st.&Tib.] 

For to dyffeude 12 euery toure, [ 1J for to defenden St.] 
Bothe 13 erly and also late, [ St., Tib. rd] 22793 

castie and And on myne handys, I haue off plate, [1 'll 'urn i nut ion.] 



/ see Lady Prayer, winging her way to the Sky. 



A 



Peyre 1 gloues, ffor dyffence, 
I-callyd ' Dowble Contynence,' \ 



[* fortassaille St.] 22800 
[3 a St., am. Tib.] 



22804 



[i peyre of St.] 

22796 

Myghty venus to rechace, 

And to putte hir ffro that place, [Tib. & St.] 

That sche may haue noon entre 
ffor to assayile 2 chastyte, 
Whiche schal, as a 3 conquerour,) 
Kepe and deffende the dortour, 

' To alle my ffreendes, I wole socoure, 
That with herte me honowre, 
Hem to kepe ffrom vnclennesse, 
While I to hem am cheeff maystresse.' 

U The Pylgryme : 

Afftir this, anoon I wente 
In-to the mynstre (off good entente), 22808 
And, asyde castynge my syght, 
(I sawe a lady ffayre and bryght, 
Sad off contenaunce and off 4 cheere; poffow. st.] 
And sche bare, lyke a messangere, 22812 

A boyste ; and anon ryght, [6-tyiiaWe line} 

Toward the heuene sche took hir fflyght ; 
ffor (as I kowde byholde and se,) 
Sche was whynged, ffor to ffle. 22816 

ANd trewely (as I koude espye,) 
Sche ffleye 5 ffer aboue the skye. [ 5 flyghst.] 
And, as me thoughte, longe and large, [St. &Tib.] 
Affor hir brest, sche bare a targe ; 22820 

And (schortely as I kan reherse) 

The sylve heuene sche dyde perse. 

And I thought (in sotheffastenesse) 

Hir laboure and hir besynesse 22824 

Was ffor to maken (in certeyne) 
Deede men to ryse 6 ageyne. [Myvest.] 

And I gan ffor to neyghe 7 nere, U neyi?ii Tib., nynbe St.] 
Preyed hir (off herte entere) 22828 

To jeue me infformacyoun 

Off name and of 8 condyscyoun. [" and of st., and Tib.] 
IF Prayere : 

"y name, jeue thow lyste to here, [stowe, leaf. -inn] 
I am, off ffolke, callyd ' Prayere ' ; 22832 

PILGRIMAGE. R R 



609 

[Tiberius, 
Avii.] 
Chastity. 

stop Venus 
[Tib., If. 102] 



from assail- 
ing chastity. 



M 



The Pilgrim. 



In t In- 
minster 



I see a 
winged lady, 
sad of coun- 
tenance. 



who flies 



upward, 
above the 



[Tib., If. 102, 
back] 



and into 
heaven, 



whose busi- 
ness is to 
make dead 
men rise 
again. 



Prayer. 



Her name is 
' Prayer.' 



010 The Dead who wait on the Monks are Endmvers of Orders. 



LTiberiua, 
Avii.] 
Prayer. 



She gays that 
these dead 
folk 

[Tib., If. 103] 



Are good men 
who, while 
living, gave 
of their alms 
to sustain 
this house, 



and provide 
the monks 
a competent 
livelihood, 



that they 
might pray 
for them. 



She flies to 
heaven 



to present 
Ood with 
well-meant 
prayers. 



Her Targe 
is Fervent 
Continuation 
of Prayer. 



' And lerne off me that (off resoun,) [St. &Tib.] 

Eche man is worthi the guerdoun 

(Yf l that trouthe be obserued,) 

Lyke as he hath trewely deserued. 22836 

And eche wyght, ffor his good dede, [ l Tib. would be 1 3eue.'] 

Is worthi to resseyue his mede, 

Lyke his meryte, off equyte. 

' These deede ffolk whiche thow doste se, 22840 
[Illumination. Pilgrim, Angel, and two dead Men.] 
Ben they whiche, euery day suynge, [Tib. & St.] 
$euen lyuelode and fost[e]rynge 

To ly vynge ffolkes that here-in dwelle : 
In what wyse, I schal the telle. 22844 

Whanne they alyue were heere present, 
They gaff off herte, in 2 good en tent, [ s and St.] 
Thorough ther parffyte holynesse, 
In-to this hous fful greet almesse ; 22848 

And, to ther sustentacyoun, 
They made the ffoundacyoun 
Off this ylke same 3 hous; p same nke St.] 

And jaff vnto relygyous 22852 

Meete and drynke (off good entent) 
And lyuelode competent ; 

Off purpos (sothe ffor 4 to seye) [*forom. st.] 

That they scholde ffor hem preye. 22856 

And so they don, bo the day and nyght, 
Off consuetude and off ryght. 

' Wherffore, callyd I am ' Prayere,' 
Whiche that am the messagere 22860 

That fflee 5 to heuene with whynges lyght, [ s fly st.] 
ffer aboue the sterres bryght, 
To-ffore the lord, to presente 

Prayere made in good entente, 22864 

Lyche as these ffolkes haue in charge. 

' And the name eke off my Targe, 
Is Fervente Contynuacyoun 
Off preyere by devocyoun. 22868 

IlOr there nys 6 halpeny nor fferthyng, [ 6 nys St., is Tib.] 
But it requerith his guerdownyng 
More trewely (jeue it be tolde) 



Lady Orison takes Prayers to Heaven, and will guide me. 611 



' Thanne the sowme a thowsande ffolde, 22872 

In the lyffe that is eterne, 

Off hym that eche thyng kau concerne, 

Eternally lyvyng in glory. [stoweMs.,ieaf359] 

' Prayer abreggeth purgatory, [St. &Tib.] 22876 

And alleggeth (in certeyne,) 

Of sowles the greete 1 peyne, [> greet Tib., gret st.] 
And gyveth to hem remyssyoun. 

Wher-ffore I am callyd 'Orysoun,' 22880 

That do off ffolkes the message 
To 2 god, by fful swyffte passage. p to St., And to Tib.] 
The requested I kan speede, 22883 

Off ffolke that preye in love and dreede, [stowe, leaf 359, bk.] 
And make the procuracyoun 
Off Prayere and off Orysoun. 

ANd with the kyng (take heede also, 
Who hath any thyng ado 22888 

To expleyten his laboure) 

I am cheveste procuratoure ; [st. & Tib.] 

And euere my supplycacyoun, 

Whanne 3 it is grownded on resoun, 

It is never, I dar devyse, p wimn St., Euere Tib.] ,, 
Not refusyd, in no wyse. 

WHerffore, by the reed off me, 
$eue thow wolte 4 gon to that Cyte, 
I schal the schewe the ryghte 5 way, [ 5 rygiit Tib., St.] 
And the passage (it is no nay) 
Gladdely eke, }eue it may pleese. k 

' And also, ffor to doon the eese, 22900 

I schal the lene a mansyoun, 
To make thyne habytacyoun : 

It sytte wel, bothe 6 to hygh and lowe, [botheow. st.] 
Thy comynge ther afforne be 7 knowe ; [?tost.] 22904 
ffor who that schal haue there entre, 
Knowe, to-fforne, it muste be ; 
Nor n6 man may haue there hostage, 
But I to-fforne do his message. 22908 

' And off the theeff , in his hangynge, [Tib. & st.] 
Whanne he henge by the myghty kynge ,, 
Crist ihexu, vp-on the roode, 



22892 



22895 



[Tiberius, 
Avii.] 
Prayer. 



[Tib., If. 103, 

back] 
Prayer 
shortens 
Purgatory. 



She is ' Ori- 
son,' and 
takes prayers 
to heaven ; 



and her en- 
treaty is never 
refused by 
God. 



She says slip 
will show me 
the way to 
the City, 



and lend me 
a house there, 



for the com- 
ing of all 
must be 
known be- 
forehand. 



[Tib., If. 104] 



612 Lady Prayer will take my Message to the Heavenly City. 

[Tiberius, ' That deyed ffor oure alder goode ; 22912 

prwer. Off whom the theeff fful humbely 



Even of the Axed off that lord mercy ; 

penitent tliief rrii .. , re i_- 

npon tbe Ihe same tyme, nor his socoure, 

waTthemes- I 1 wente afforne enbassatoure, [> i st., And Tib.] 22916 

sengerto . . . 

Heaven; And trewely dyde his message, 

And made 2 redy his passage, [ a TO make St.] 

That he myght resseyued be 

In Paradys, that ffayre centre. 22920 

ANd semblabely, as by my reed, 
By this exaumple take good heed, 
That thow be" not putte in blame, 
Thy-silffe, ffor to do the schame. 22924 

Thow haste as greet neede, at a preeff, 3 [ 3 ?meeffTib.] 
I 4 sothe, as hadde the seyde theeff. [*inst.] 

and he win And, to ffurther thy vyage, 

aetorine. I wole my silfFe don thi message.' 22928 

The pilgrim, f The Pylgryme : 

Nd thanne anoon, Avith humble cheere 

I thankyd tho vnto Preyere, 
i accept her And seyde, " my cause to amende, 

That to-fforne I wolde hir sende, 22932 

ffor my reffute and my socoure, 
ffor to ben my procuratoure." 

Anoon affter, in certeyne, 

Whanne I hadde the place seyne, [stowe, leafsoo] 22936 
And, by cleer inspeccyoun, 
Mad*my vysitacyoun, 



A 1 



A Nd in my way as I gan go, 



[Tib., if. 10*. jLjL Within the place to and ffro, [st.&xib.] 22940 

Of aventure me by-fforn, 

Ti\en i nee I sawgh one that blewe an horn. ,, 

.Lady blow- fe 

ing a horn. And made a noyse wonder lowde. ,, 

And (as I espy en koude) 22944 

In organys and in sawtrye ,, 

She made a wonder melodye. 

[Illumination: the Pilgrim, with a Woman at an 
Organ, bloicing a cow's horn ; beyond, a table with 
a Harp on it. One large and Jive small windows 
in the room.] 



The, Handmaid, and her Horn of Call on God for Help. CIS 



WHom I by-sought, off hardynesse, 
To me, that sche wolde expresse, 22948 

(Off hir grace, in goodly wyse,) 
Her office, and her servyse. 

1T Latrya : [Xar/jcia, the state of a hired workman.] 
' /^\ff this place, ffolkes alle, 

\_J ' Latrya ' l they me calle. [> Lat-er-ia] 22952 

Myne offyce is moste in wakynge, 
To kepe the gate aboute the kynge. 
I wacche thereon, day and nyght, 
Do my fforse, 2 and eke my myght, pservysst.] 22956 
ffor to lyne 3 aye in awayt, p iy st.] 

That there be ffounden no dysceyt. 
Nowther behynde nor beforn ; [Tib. & St.] 

ffor thanne anoon I blowe myn horn. 22960 

' Who lythe to longe, I make hym ryse ; 
Slogardes alle, I 4 chastise, [*aiiidost.] 

And to slouthe I do greet sorewe ; 
ffor, bothe at eeue and eke at morew, 22964 

I kepe the howre's off rysynge, 
To do worschipe vnto 5 the kynge. [ 5 vnto st., to Tib.] 
Alle ffolkes vp I calle, 
That no slomber on hem ffalle. 22968 

' Myne home is Invocacyouu 
Off Deus in adiutorium : 
I blowe myn horn toward mydnyght, 
To reyse vp ffolkes anoon ryght; 22972 

I suffre hem not, off sleep to deye. 
Myne orgones, I tempre ffor to pleye, 
And vp-on hem I make a sown 

With-OUten IntermySSyOWn. sine intermissione orare. St.owi.Tih. 

' And trewely, alle my melodye 22977 

Is in songe off Persalmodyc. 6 [ 6 and paaimody st.] 
And, devoutely, in myne ententis, 
I calle so myne Instruments ; 22980 

ffor thylke kyng that is most stronge, 
Moste hym delytyth in swyche songe ; 
To hym it 7 is moste pertynente, p it om. st.] 

Whanne it is songe off good entente, 22984 

In cleunesse and in purete.' 



[Tiberius, 

Avii.j 
The Pilarim, 

I ask what 

her work is. 



T.ntriii. 

Slu' gays she 
is Latria, 
a handmaid. 



She keeps 
the gate of 
the (.'untie 
day and 
night, 



[Tib., If. 105] 



makes folk 
get up, 
and whips 

sluggards. 



Her horn is 
cald Invoca- 
tion of God 
to help. 
She blows 
it at mid- 
night, 



ami xings 
Psalmody, 
in which 
the King 
delights. 



614 Obedience warns me of the Hardships of my Journey. 



[Tiberius, 

A Til.} 
The Pilgrim. 

Then I see 
the lady who 
had bonds in 
her hands. 



Obedience. 

She is Obedi- 
ence, 

[Tib., If. 105, 
back] 



and asks me 
if I come 
there a* a 

py. 



I tell her 
that I want 
to go to 
Jerusalem. 



Obedience. 



She says the 
beds and pas- 
sage are hard. 



The Pilf/rim. 

I assure her 
that I don't 
mind that. 



Obedience 
then binds 
me 



T I ^ 

1 



And while that Latrya spak to me, 
I sawgh the lady, whiche in J hir handys C 1 lady within st,] 
Whiche I off spak, that bar the bondys, 2 [stowe.ieafseo.bk.] 
Sad and demure off hir vysage. [* bands st.] 22989 

To me sche takytli hir passage : 

H Obedyence : 

Elle me/ quod sche, ' on euery part 22991 

Verely what that thou art, [stowe MS., Tib. burnt] 
And the truthe specifye, 

Yf thou come ought as espye [st. & Tib.] 

Into this place, to or 3 ffro, pandst.] 
Or thou eny ffurther go.' 22996 

H The Pylgryme : 
" ~E /TAdame," quod I, " haue on me ruthe. 

jLr JL I am no spye, in good trouthe ; 
My purpos is, and that anoon, [st. & Tib.] 

To lerusalem ffor to goon. 23000 

And, the weyiis as I sought, 

Hedre grace dieu me brought ,, 

Only my waye ffor tabrygge, 

And to eschewe eche other brygge." 23004 

IT Obedyence : 4 [ latria st.] 

' Tolde she the not (^eue thow haue mynde,) 
Here-in that thow scholdest ffynde 

Beddes harde, and no thyng soffte, 
As it is I-prevcd offte 23008 

Off ffolke off euery maner age : 
And heere is a fful hard passage.' 
The Pylgryme : 

Ow harde euere that it be, 

Trewely I schal it take at gre ; 23012 

To grace dieu, what that I kan, 
Serue hir as hir trewe man." 



H 



Obedyence : 



[St. & Tib.] 
3 latria St.] 



' Take heder thy ffeet and thyne hondes ; ' 6 [St. & Tib.] 
I shall them bothe knett in bands. CStowe MS. 952, 23016 

leat ot>0, back] 

thow shalt ha ges [lyke] a i'aucou, 

8 There is only one more after leaf in MS. Cott. Tib. A. vii, and 
the portion of the poem contained on that leaf, which is nearly 
illegible, is not missing in Vit. c. xiii. W. WOOD (copier). 



Obedience binds me securely. Envy, &c. get into the Castle. 615 



23020 



23024 



] 23028 



[> nine and thirty] 



23032 



1 only of entenci'oun, 
without eny contrariouste, 
that [thou] shalt ylured be.' 

Pilgrim : 

she band me foot and hand also, 
that to meve to ne fro 
I hadd no manor lyberte ; 
nor ray tonge was not fre 
for to speke, but by lycence ; 
nor in the seller, nor in the spence, 
ete nor drynke on no syde, 
but lycens were my gyde. 
And, for tacounte the terme entier, 

the Space of XXXIX 1 yere 

I was bound of volunte, 
to obedience (as ye may se), 
as the statuts, fayn and well, 
bound the folk of that castell. 

and truly, in hert nor in thought, [stowe.ieafsei] 
my bondes 2 greuyd me ryght nought ; ["bonds st.] 23036 
but (as it comythe to re"meinbraunce) 
ther befell a wondar chaunce : 
the portar happede on a day 
to ben fer out of the way ; 
the kynge was absent eke also ; 
and, in absence of bo the two, 
(and the gate' was vnshet,) 
ther cam in, withoute 3 let, 
a thefe, that no man coude espye, 
that was callyd Falls Envye : 
hir two doughtars, the ton, ' Treson ' 
called / the tother, ' Detraction ' : 
with them (by gret cruelte) 
Scilla, a monstre of the se, 
and her hounds hir folowynge 
with grete noyse and gret barkynge. 

and this meyne, in the castell 
made noyse and gret revell : 
In a lenton (who lyst se) 
they made the ladyes for to He 



(Stowe MS. 
952.] 



The Pilgrim. 



foot and 
hand; 



for 39 years. 



[3 without St.] 23044 



23048 



My bonds 
<Um't trouble 
me. 



One day the 
Porter of the 
Castle was 
out, 

the King 
absent, 



and the 

Castle-gaU 

open. 

In came 
False Envy, 



Treason, 

Detraction, 



and Scylla, 
with hounds, 



23052 



and drove out 

Die Ladies. 



616 / ride the horse, Good Renown, aivay from Envy, &c. 



(Stowe MS. 

952.] 
The Pilgrim. 



Envy, 

Treason, and 
Detraction 
sought me. 



I got a horse, 
to escape 
from them. 



Seylla, 



Scylla. 



This Horse 
wag Good 
Henown, 

with the four 
feet, 



1. Void of 
Defame. 



out of thilke holy bowzdes. 

and Scilla folowed with hir hounds, 

gan at them sore enchace ; 

and Envy, thrughe all the place, 23060 

with hir dough ters (out of doute,) 

gan to seke me round about. 

they were conspiryd alle 1 thre p ail St.] 

playnly to devoure me, 23064 

only by conspiraci'on 

of envie and detraccion. 

their felowship I forsoke ; 

and anon an horse I toke, 23068 

for to flyen, with all my myght, 
to escape out of hir syght. 
and truly, for no maner rape, 
theyr treynes 2 I myght not eskape. ptreynsst.] 23072 

quod Scilla then, (of gret despyt,) 
' he weny the for to have respit, 
and by his horse to bene socowryd, 
that he shall nat ben devowryd 23076 

of vs by persecution.' 
' ye, for all that,' quod Treason, 
* as it is [vnjto vs dwe, 

aftar hym we shall pursue. 23080 

what maner of horsse myght he have, [stowe, leaf an, back] 
that from owr daunger shuld hym save 1 ' 

Scilla : 

quod Scilla, ' I shall well telle, 

yf ye lyst a while dwelle : 23084 

this horse is cawlyd ' Good Renowne,' 
whiche hathe (in conclusyon) 
f owr fette hym to susteyne ; 

and elles 3 (without eny wene) peiust.] 23088 

he shuld (to his confusion,) 
at myscheffe halten even a-downe, 
with thre, tweynii, or with one, 

vpryght he shuld nevar gon, 23092 

but stomble aye, and gon a-myse. 

' the firste 4 fote of his horse is, [* first St.] 

that he have no condic'ion 



The Feet of the /torse, Good Rcnoivn. The Serpent. Envy. 017 






' sownynge to dyffamaci'on, 

this is to seyne, touchynge shame, 

that he be voyde of dyffame. 

' The second, (to his advantage,) 
that he be borne out of servage : 
this to meane, that he, in all, 
out of thraldome be lyberall. 

' The third, (withouten all outrage,) 
to be borne in trwe manage, 

' the fourthe is, a foot full good, 
of nature that he be nat wood, 
nor that he, by no frolage, 
be nat fallen into rage. 

' these fowre feet (in sothnesse), 
of truthe all- way bere witnesse ; 
but we (by conspiratiouw) 
shall maken hym alryght a-doune ; 
and, shortly, (to owr avayle), 
here-on we shall haue a consayle.' 

and, lyke to theyr opynyon, 
fyrst ther spake Detraction : 
quod she, ' I can a noble songe 
that aye resownythe vnto wronge, 



[ Stowe MS. 
952.] 
Sci/ll-a. 

The feet of 
tin- horse 
Good Be- 
nown.' 
2. Free-born. 



3. Legiti- 
mate. 



4. Sane. 



23096 



23100 



23104 



23108 



23112 



23116 Detraction 



That Ddn Of InUldict t^ at ^ an coluber in via, cerastes in semita, 

mordens ungulas equi, ut cadut ascensor ejus 

Jiat coluber in via. *.-Q'nei* xiiv. 17.] 

'this songe I wot ryght welle,' qwod she, 23121 
' was I-songen first for me. 
to vse it, I am nat rekles, 

I am the honied Cerastes, 1 I 1 Kcpaurnp, cerastes, a horned serpent.] 

whiche evar (as ferforthe as I may,) 23125 

trace ever the wronge way. 
and covertly, in my werkynge, 

I vse for to byte and stynge ; 23128 

with tethe & tonge I do most wrake, 
evar behynden at the bake. 
' the horse of hym, in difFame, 

[ ?io blank in MS.] 23132 

so priveily I shall disceyve, [Stowe, leaf 362j 

that he shall nat apparceyve. 
I shall be falshed so prevyd, 



says she is 
the Horned 
Serpent that 



bites and 
stings folk 
behind their 
bucka, 



and she will 
upset my 
burse. 



018 Envy wounds me. Dogs tear me. My legs & arms are broken. 



I Stowe MS. 
968.] 



The Pilgrim. 



Detraction 
makes my 
horse lull 



with her 
Serpent- 
tongue. 

I tumble 
down among 

the hounds. 



Envy wounds 
me with 3 
spears, 



and the dogs 
tear me. 



Treason hits 
me on the 
head with a 
club; 



and breaks 
my legs and 
arms. 



Then they 
leave me. 



' to make hym halten in some syde ; 23136 

whiche so sore shall hym greve, 
that he shall not mowe releve.' 

' Sothly,' quod tho Treason, 
' that good was hir oppinion.' 23140 

and when she hadd hir tale do, 
echon they accordyd well therto ; 
the houndes 1 stoden at abaye [ hounds st.] 

and gan barke, by gret affray. 23144 

and at[te] last, Detraction 
made myn hors to falle a-doun, 
and to halten in swyche wyse 

that I myghte 2 nat a-ryse : [ mygiit st.] 23148 

withe a tonge of a serpent 
myne horse and I were bothe shent ; 
And doun at erthe, in gret affray, 
amonge the houndes ther I lay. 23152 

and aftar (by great felonye) 
I was assay lyd by Envye ; 
and wi't/i thre speres sharpe ground, 
she gave to me many a wound. 23156 

and of Scilla, the cruell hounds, 
gaue me many mortall wounds ; 
I was to-torne with ther chas. 

and than cam Treason wtt/t hir mas, 23160 

hevy as a clobbe of leed, 
and ther-of set me on y e hede ; 
lege and arme she brake in twayne, 
that yet I fell the grete 3 payne p gret St.] 23164 

of that ylke mortall stryffe, 
and shall felle it all my lyffe. 

and whill I lay thus in a traunce 

of grete anoye and grete grevaunce, 23168 

those olde 4 vekkes dispitious, [*oidst.] 

[No gap in MS.] 
they me left in full gret drede, 

wenynge that I had be dede. . 23172 

and comfort, truly was ther none, 
for all my fryndes 5 were gon : [ 5 tvynOa St.] 

in prison, lay Charite ; 



/ make myself a wooden Leg, and anoint my bmises. 619 



Mercy was hound, & eke Pitie, 23176 

whiche lykyd me nothyng well, 
and Scilla cawsyd everydell ; 
for my sorow and my grevaunce 

was to her full gret pleasaunce ; 23180 

and it grevyd hir full sore 

that I hadde 1 harme no more; [stowe, leaf SGS, bit.] [IMS. had] 
and she (of indignation,) 

made a quarell to Treason, 23184 

that she dyd no more veugaunce, 
to encrese my wofull chaunce. 
wherfore I (in myn entent) 

I axyd a ryghtfull iugement, 23188 

cast my gage tofore the kynge, 
to have amende of all this thynge ; 
and, for this great transgression, 

I made a-pele vppon Treson ; 23192 

and complaynynge thus my wo, 
I lay, and turnyd to and fro, 
inaymyd in so mortal! wyse 

that I myghte 2 nat aryse p myght St.] 23196 

on my fete, for gret destrese ; 
and vpreard my-selfe to drese. 






I made me a leg of tre 
to rysen (yf it wold ha be) ; 
and that leg (in my discese) 
dede me after full gret ese ; 
for, to my gret confusion, 
lost I hadde 3 my bordon ; 
I mist not where, in serteyn, 
tyll Grace Dieu it brought ageyn, 
whiche that found it on a dny 
at the turnynge of a waye. 

and in thes wofull auentures, 
as I anoynted my bresures, 
complaynynge early on a morow, 
as I lay, and made sorowe, 
when phebus, with his beme's bryght, 
gilt the hylle's 4 with his lyght, 
to chase the myste's that were durku, 



23200 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
The Pilgrim. 



Seylla is de- 
lighted at my 
wounds, 



and re- 
proaches 
Treason for 
not having 
injured me 
more. 



I accuse 
Treason 
before the 
King, 



and (tho' my 
arms are 
broken) 
make myself 
a leg of wood, 



[had st.] 23204 



23208 



23212 



and anoint 
my wounds. 



At morn, 



[ hylls St.] 



620 Ovid comes, and pities me. He'll curse my harmers. 



[Stowe MS. 

962.] 
The Pilgrim. 

old Ovid 
comes to me, 



pities me, 



The Pilgrim. 



says he loves 
me, 



and will curse 

n iy injurers. 



The Pilgrim. 



to me there come a full old clerk e, 23216 

whom, sythe tyme that I was bore, 

I had nevar sene tofore ; 

and his booke on me he layd, 

and euen thus to me he sayd : [stowejeafses] 23220 

Ouidius : 

quod he, 'of true affection, 
I ha gret compassyon 
on thy sorowe and on thy doole, 

that thow liggest here all soole 23224 

in grete myscheffe (as semethe me) 
wher-of I haue full gret pyte.' 

Pilgrim : 

" for to put me in certeyne, 

I pray the that thou woldest seyn 23228 

thy name openly to me, 
that I myghte l thanken the." [ l mygut st.] 

Ouidius : 

' of my name it stondethe thus ; 

I am callyd Ovydius, 23232 

whiche loue thez, more than thou canst wene : 
here-aftar it shall be sene. 
and yf thow haddyst, her4o-forne, 
in my tyme, in sothe be borne, 23236 

to thy consolation 

I shold haue towght tJiee a lessonne, 
whiche shuld ha be to thy plesaunce, 
and shuld ha made tliee in substaunce 23240 

ffull sufficiauut, in many a thynge, 
bothe in doctryne and in connynge. 
but I am come to denounce 

a sertayn curse, & to pronounce, 23244 

011 alle 2 thilke the sentence, [*aiist.] 

whiche vnto the ha don offence, 
whiche sentence (in wordes 3 fewe) [ 3 words st.] 

to the in latyn I shall shewe, 23248 

Terra sibi fruges fy cetera / ' 

Pilgrim : 

whan his vers weren all ysayd, 
vnto hyin thus I abrayd : 



/ leave Vengeance to God. Acrostic of my Name. 



621 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
The Pilgrim. 



I tell Ovid 

that I'll pat; 
off cursing 
till God 
judges at 
Doomsday. 



Ovid goes; 



" that ye (of true affection,) 

have on me compassyon, 23252 

on my doolie and on my smert. 

I thanke yow with all myn hert; [Stowe, leaf ses, back] 

hut I ha no devosyon 

In cursynge nor in malison ; 23256 

I shall delay [e]n all cursynge, 

tyll tyme that the myghty kynge, 

by iugement, eche thyng shall deme, 

as vnto hym it shall but seme, 23260 

of ryghtwisenesse, to provide." 

and in this wise, the clerke Ovide 
went his way, and lefte 1 me p left St.] 

lyggynge in great adversitie ; 23264 

and to expresse (in complaynynge) 
my grete 2 sorow by writynge, [ great St.] 

I will myn owne name shewe, 

sette out by lettars on a rowe 23268 

at the gynnynge of this ditie 
in eche ballad as ye may se, 
of Frenche and Lattyn, bothe I-fere, 
ryght anon as ye shall here. 23272 

hauythe me excusyd of my rudenesse, 
thowghe I to you my name expresse : 



[ACROSTIC OF GUILLAUME DE DEGUILVEVILLE'S NAME: 
GUILLERMUS DE DEGUILEVILLA.] 



and T, De 

Ouileville, 
will tell you 
my name by 
an Acrostic. 



(1) 

Grato messium tempore, 
Quant nature sez beaux l fruiz dore, 2 
Et prompta sunt in liquore 
Ses vins qu'encore pas n'affore, 4 

Quo folium in arbore 
Se commence a deuenir sore, 
Et boreas in equore 
Si n'est pas trop nuysant encore. 8 

(2) 

"\7ldi scriptum in margine 
V Ou cestuy escript s'enracine, 
Mirandam pulcritudine, 
Grace dieu, du ciel royne digne, 12 



Me vocantem ex nomine : 

' Vien auant, et si t'achemine 

Mecum, quia regimine 

Tu as mestier, et de doctrine.' 16 

(3) 

ILla me duxit prospere 
En 1'ung des chasteaulx de son pere, 
Exhortaudo summopere, 
Que 1'un de leans ie fusse frere, 20 
Virginiqwe puerpere, 
Estoille de mer pure et clere, 
Me servum vellern tradere, 
En la faisant ma bonne mere. 24 



1 beaux, Petit print, om. St. 

2 Stowe ends here. The rest is copied from Petit's French edition of Lc 
romant dcs trois Pcltrvnaicfcs. Lc premier pclcrinaigc eat de I'hommc durant 
qu'est en vie . . . ab. 1500. Foeillet .Ixxxiiij. col. 2, sign, l.iiij. 



622 Acrostic of my Name : Guillermus DC DeGuilevilla. 



(4) 

T Egis audite nouelle, 
Jj Plaisante me fut la nouuelle, 
Nam, mel mundi inixtum felle, 
Si me nuysoit a la forcelle. 28 

Tune pellem dedi pro pelle, 
Pour seruir h ceste pucelle, 
Puro sperans frui melle, 
Pour quoy la vie se renouuelle. 32 

(5) 

LOngo cursu pacifice 
Remains ou chastel sans malice, 
Vtilitati publice 

Entendant, selon mon office. 36 

Sparsim apparent rubrice 
1 A tout chascun, s'il n'est trop nyce, 
Nam factuni est theatrice, 
Sans quelconque notable vice. 40 

(6) 

EA propter prodiente 
D une cauerne pestilente, 
Inuidia furiente, 

Et du bien de 1'autruy dolente, 44 
Improuise ac repente, 
Seilla la lisse pulluleute, 
Proditione presente, 
Sans nul delay me mist en vente. 48 

(7) 

"HAbida sic orta peste, 
Xl De corner fist .tres grant moleste 
Cum canibus atqrte reste ; 
Moy, comme vne sauuaige beste, 52 
Alba circumtecta veste, 
De chasser se monstra moult preste ; 
Alta echo bosci teste, 
Trop me fut ceste chace agreste. 56 

(8) 

ME persequens indefesse, 
La tres cruelle veneresse, 
Ac violenter me subesse 
Fist a ses chiens hors de lesse, 60 

Sicqwe clamare necesse 
Bien me fut, pour yssir de presse, 
Sed, si potuit prodesse, 
N'est pas bien ceste chose expresse. 64 

(9) 

VAluisset facta pace, 
Se traliison vne autre trace 
Non intrasset sine face, 
Ann qu'on n'apperceust la face ; 68 
Nam, duce nicticorace, 
Par le coup d'une grosse masse, 
Ostenso vultn fallace, 
Si m'abatit en my la place. 72 



(10) 

Qlc persequitur peruerse 
O Tous temps / et assault et reuerse 
Viros, sinderesis terse, 
Faulse trahison la peruerse ; 76 

Et timendnm, si sic per se, 
Au dedans du chastel conuerse, 
Me per hanc oues disperse 
Soient par maniere bien diuerse. 80 

(11) 

DEtraction cum mnrmure, 
Pour luy ayder, tres grande cure 
Subministrant, et gutture, 
Par le dur glaiue qui trop duve ; 84 
Asseruntqwe de iure, 
Que faire doyuent grant iniure 
Hominibus vite pure, 
2 Que le siisdit chastel enmure. 88 

( l ?\ 
~f~t Xpertus hoc minis dure, 

Jj Soustiens leur griefue forfaicture, 

Maxime cum nullo rure ; 

Bestes y ait do tel facture, 92 

Turpissime sunt figure, 

Et sans ouuraige de nature ; 

Vnde earum iacture 

Plus griefues me sont sans mesiire. 96 

(13) 

DE quarum turpitudine, 
Et du tout mauuaise conuine, 
Exaratur in margine, 
De ceste voye ou ie chemine, 100 

Non qttorf alie pagine 
D'auctorite saincte et diuinc, 
Maiores certitudine 103 

N'en contiennent mieulx la doctrine. 

(14) 

EArum tormentum grane, 
I Plus assez que cy ne 1'agraue 
Sustinui / non pro caue 
Trahison qui les maulx encaue, 108 
Sepe mihi dicens aue, 
Combien qu'elle me fust moult hauo, 
Me prostrauit ictu claue, 
En faisant de moy son espauc. 112 

(15) 

C\ Eauiter sic, et nocue, 
vJ El m'abatit de sa massuc, 
Constat ouibus pascne, 
Que bien i'ay ma peine perdue, 116 
Et castrum superuacue, 
Pour auoir la teste tondue, 
Intraui nam preeipue; 
Mon csperance y est rompue. 120 



Fo. Ixxxiiij, back. 



2 Leaf 84, back, col. 2. 



Acrostic of my Name : Guillermus De DcGuilevilla. 023 



(16) 

~l TT semirem virge iesse, 
V Me mist grace de dieu en Iesse ; 
Quod {"merer magna messe, 
M'acertena par grant promesse ; 124 
Sed video nunc expresse, 
Dont grande doleur mon cueur presse, 
Quod egredi est necesse, 
Et ailleurs celebrer ma messe. 128 

(17) 

ID, si seruato ordine, 
Et bonne paix a marie digne, 
De qua, cum moderamine, 
A elle plaindre ie me fine. 132 

Potuissem pro nemine 
Qui en cestuy monde chemine, 
Stetissem tanto turbine, 
Demourant hors de discipline. 136 

(18) 

LEgatus celi curie 
1 Pleust a saincte vierge marie, 
Quatinus nunc summnrie, 
Et de plain sans point farderie, 140 
Cognosceret ex serie, 
Se ie dy voir on menterie, 
Et quis currentis fnrie 
A punicion demerie. 144 

(19) 

EX hoc iustificatiue, 
A bon aduis tournant 1'estriue, 
Deus auctoritatiue 

Osteroit tout ce qui estriue ; 148 

Impediret causa tme 
Sa nef, qu'a bon port elle n'arriue, 
Simul, et miscratine 
Me leroit il grace hastiue. 152 

(20) 

VTinam nutu gratie, 
Gardieune qu'est de ma vie, 
Impetum tante furie, 
En memoire ie n'eusse mie ; 156 



Sed defectus iusticio, 

Qui on poulce fut endormie 

Im cellula memorie, 

Trestous les iours Harou i'en crie. 160 

(21) 

TLlud nesciens nescire, 
_L A dur colier mon ame tire, 
Presertim cum inuenire 
Je ne puisse, ou trouueray mire, 164 
Qui iam velit subuenire 
A ma playe las qui s'empire 
Ex descensu magne ire, 
Dont souuent ie ne suis pas sire. 168 

(22) 

T Vcis creator optime, 
Jj Estre vueillez fort anime 
Succurrendi promptissime 
A tel giief dont suis opprime ! 1 72 
Et sum certus firniissime, 
Se luy est mon fait intime, 
Michi succurret proxime, 
Et sera mon vieil roil lime. 176 

(23) 

T Egi quodam volumine, 
lj Quant fait est bien examine 
Justicie libramine, 

Qui a tort, est tantost mine ; 180 

Kt iustus not redit sine 
Honneur, quant Ie plait est find, 
Et iudici sine fine 
Est vray salut predestine. 184 

(24) 

A Rbores solis et June, 
fi Se m'eussent dit quant ie fuz ne, 
Cui casui vel fortune 
2 Je seroye ioinct et adune, 188 

Non dedissem causam prime 
Pour ainsi estre destine, 
Nam semper me trahens fune, 
Grande traliison m'a esgrune. 3 192 



1 Fo. Ixxxv. 

3 The French goes on : 

OR ai ie dit que vne aduenture 
Au chastel ie trouuay moult dure, 
Pour Ie portier qui ne fut pas 
A la porte gardant Ie pas, 



Fo. Ixxxv., col. 2. 

Que cestes vieilles n'y entrassent, 
Et que leurs chiens n'y amenassent ; 
Mais pour ce ne doy ie pas taire 
Ce que par apres i'en vy faire. 



This French edition was 'corrected' by a Monk of DeGuilleville's monastery, 
and was printed in or about 1500 by " Maistre Barthole et Jehan petit" (title, 
last line), and "A paris, Au soleil d'or / en la maison Maistre bertholdn " 
(Fo. j. back, col. 1), as the " Correcteur," P. Virgin, says. 

Prof. Paul Meyer refers me to three other Acrostics by DeGuileville on his 
own name : 1. in Le Ptfcrinagr. dc I'Amc, Roxburghe Club, 1895, p. 57-64, in 
alternate French and Latin lines, beginning 



624 The King comes back, and orders the Arrest of my Foes. 



[Stowe VS. 

952.] 
The Pilgrim. 

Now I've 
told alt the 
harm that 
Scylla, Envy, 
and Detrac- 
tion did me. 



When the 
king came 
back 



I told him 
my wrongs. 



The King 
had procla- 
mation made 
for my foes' 
arrest, 



now I ha told myn adventure 

of all that evar I dyd endure, 23276 

of Scilla and her houndes fell, 
and eke (as ye ha hard me tell) 
of Envy and of Treason, 

and of falce Detraction. 23280 

how they ha wrought to my hyndrynge 
In the absens of the kynge 
and of his portar, in sertayne. 

But when they were come home agayne, 23284 

and enteryd in-to the castell, 
it lyked me ryght wonder wefl. 
a-non I went to his presens, 

and tolde hym of the gret offens 23288 

whiche that Scilla wtt/t hir hounds 
had don to me wt7an his bounds, 
by the conspiracion 

of Envy and [of] Treason : 23292 

my wrong I dyd specifye. 

the kynge a-non let make a crye, 
that were-so-evar they myght be 
found in towne or in citie, [stowe,ieaf364] 23296 



I race Dieu, du ciel royne, 
F Semper regnans sine fine, 



Cognoissant pous et orine, 
Et magistra medicine . . . 



and making the writer's name "Guillermus de Guille villa" as above; 2. in 
the same volume, an Acrostic in French only, in three separate sections 
the third in but a few MSS. p. 348-53, 376-8 (see note, p. 356 there), 
having the guile with one I only: "Guillermus de Guilevila"; this begins, 
p. 348 : 



Et en rien n'est descordable, 
Qui en .iii. est distincter . . . 



C\ racieuse est 1'assemblee 

\J Qui n'est onques dessemblee, 

3. In the Ptterinagc Jliesucrist, Roxburghe Club, 1897, p. 119-130, in French 
only. This begins : 

I lorieus Dieu, dont te vint il 
IT Qu'envoias ci aval ton fil, 
Et que pelerin le feis 



G 



Bien savoies, qu'en tel courtil, 
N'avoit pour li May ne Avril, 
Et son soulas point n'i veis. 

This Acrostic makes the name " Guillermus de Deguilevilla " ; but the editor 
of the Roxburghe volume, the late Prof. Stiirzinger, notes on p. 125 that ten 
MSS. leave out one couple of the DC stanzas, thus reducing the name to 
"Guillermus de Guilevilla." 

I may add here that the prose treatise on the Virgin as the sinner's Refuge 
from Tribulation, and the Consolation of Afflicted Hearts, p. 437, etc., above, is 
substituted by Lydgate for about a page of DeGuileville's French verse, Foeillct. 
Ivij., cols. 2-4, which I shall print in the Forewords to this Part II. 



The Ladies return to the Castle, to work fearlessly. 625 



that folke shuld them spare nought, 
to his presens till they were brought, 
for he cast hym, anone ryght, 
on them to done iustice and ryght, 
that they go no more at large ; 
and gave his porter eke in charge 
forto shette the gates sore, 
that they entre there no more, 
nor that they have ther no chere. 

and then I saughe a messagere 
wher the kynge of custome dwells, 
In the castell rynge bells, 
for to rnaken assemble", 
where the kynge set in his se, 
of the ladyes that ther dwell, 
(of whome to-forne ye have herd tell,) 
that suffred gret oppressyon 
of Envy and Detracci'on, 
of Scillas houndes, 1 by berkynge, 
in th[e] absens of the kynge, 
of their drede and mortall rage, 
wher-of they suffred gret damage. 

'Madams,' quod this messegere, 
c the kynge, most myghty of power, 
whiche hathe, in great charitie, 
(in effecte, as ye shall se,) 
and purposethe in his entent, 
he hathe be longe from yow absent, 
(as ye know yowr-selffe full well,) 
but of new, to this castell, 
he is come for his pleasaunce ; 
and he hathe made an ordynaunce 
and statutes full covenable, 
to yow echon) ryght profytable, 
commaundynge yow, echon, in dede, 
that, hens-forthe, ye ha no drede 
of your enemys, nor hevynesse, 
but that yow do yowr besynesse 
(as it is the kynge's 2 will) 
yowr office truly to fulffyll, 

PILGRIMAGE. 



23300 



23304 



23308 



[Stowe MS. 

952.] 
The Pilgrim. 



that he might 
punish them. 



[' hounds St.] 



[Stowe, leaf 36t, back] 
[ kyngs St.] 

2333G 

s s 



Then the 
bells were 
rung to 
assemble the 
Ladies of the 
Castle, 



23312 



23316 



23320 



whom Envy, 
Detraction, 
and Scylla's 
Dogs had 
worried. 



The Kinift 
Mestenger. 



The Ladies 
were told 



23324 



23328 



23332 



not to fear 
their toes, 



but do their 
work. 



62G The Ladies live happily. I resolve to visit Castles, 



I Sto we IKS. 

952.] 

The King's 
Mestenger. 



The Pilgrim. 

Then every 
lady did her 
duty quietly 
and happily. 



Where the 
pate is well 
kept, no vices 
can enter. 



Then I re- 
solvd 



to visit castles 



and see how 
every officer 
workt. 



So I got 
leave, 



saw many 
countries, 



'as ye dyd, when ye began, 

and bettar, yf ye bettar can ; 

for the kynge (as ye shall se) 

will on your foon avengid be : 23340 

to yow I ha no more to say.' 

than the messengar went his way, 
and thes ladys, by good advyse, 

full truly dyd theyr offyse, 23344 

evereche, lyke to ther degre, 
voyde of all contrariouste ; 
and (shortly for to devyse) 

wher that truthe and iustice 23348 

be truly kept in any place, 
I dare sayne ther abydythe grace ; 
And where the gate is kept well, 
of palays, maner, or castell, 23352 

that vycis may ha none entrie, 
that place stant in suerte, 
and eche thynge tournethe for the best j 
for, ther is peace, and ther is rest, 23356 

and evar gladly, to theyr forthynge, 
ther abyte the ryghtffull kynge ; 
and ther is suraunce & eke trust. 

and afftar this, I had a lust, 23360 

cawght in my-selfe a great corage, 
for to holden my passage, 
and greatly gan my selffe delyght, 
dyvers castells to vysyte, 23364 

for to consythar the maner 
of euery maner offycer, 
How euerych dede in his degre. t^s. Cott. Viteii. c. ii, 

leaf 287, begmt again.} 

and it is good, a man to se 23368 

many thynges, and to here, 
for therby a man may lere [Stowe, leaf 865] [c. & St.] 
ful moche thynge outward by syght, ,, 

and take example to done right. ,, 23372 

And whan I hadde ther-to lycence 1 [Mycensst.] 
I wente and dede my diligence 2 p dyiygens St.] 

to visiten, and to se 
ful 3 many wonderful couwtre. [ 3 M om. St.] 23376 






I see Religious Orders who break their Bonds. Grace Dieu. 627 



[ peryshyd St.] 2338$ 



and ther 1 I fond ful gret foysouw [' ther St., om. c.] 

Of many dyuers Religyotw ; 

and I saugh, of many oon, 

The grete bondes euerychon) 23380 

broke, that shuld hem wel conserve, 

yef they wold hem wel observe, 

Kepe hem from al aduersite, 

as here-to-forn ye dede se, 23384 

Whan the smale wikres 2 brak, [wyrksst. (see p. sss, above.}'] 

The hopes wenten al to wrak, 

And many shippes for lak, alias, 

Was yperysshed 3 in the same cas, 

and brought vnto confusi'ouw, 

(toforn as is maad 4 rnens'iouw) [* made is St.] 

for lak in their gouernaunces, 

Nat kepyng their obseruaunces. 23392 

And her-vpon I ferther wente 
to sene 5 more (in myn entente). [ 5 sene St., sen c.] 
And withyne a litel space 

I cam into a noble place ; 23395 

and at the gate I saugh somers ; 
and on hem sitte, 6 fressh of chers, [ 6 sat St.] 

Aungels, of gret vertu ; [t-tynabte une] 

and hafter hem, kam Grace Dieu, 23400 

fresshly Ridyng in a char. 

and the gate (I was wel war) 
Of the castel stood vnshet. 

and truely, whan I had met 23404 

the Somers, I gan enquere [c. &st.] 

of oon, that he wold[e] lere 

goodly, and informe me, [Stowe, onieafses] 
whos the somers sholde 7 be, pshoidst.] 23408 
Which hadde, vpon) hir weye, 

Aungels hem to conveye, \6-tviiabie line] ,, 
Only for to make hem strong. 

The aungel: 
' To Grace Dieu,' quod he, they long.' 23412 

The pilgrym: 

Quod I to oon that rood behynde, 
" telle me wher I shal hir fyndo." 



The Pilgrim. 



and divers 
religions 



with broken 
bonds, 



(as yon saw ; 
when the 
wickers 
broke, the 
hoops burst, 
and the ships 
sank,) 



for lack of 
government. 



At a noble 
place, 



I see Angels 
on horses, 



and Grace 
Dieu in a 
Chariot. 



[leaf 287, bk.] 



These horses, 
ridden by 
Angels, 



aie Grace 
Dieu's. 



628 Grace Dieu shows me a bad old Head of a Convent 



The Pilgrim. 



I go to Grace 

Dieu's 

chariot, 



nnd tell her 
my adven- 
tures. 



[leaf 288] 
Grace Dieu. 



The Pilgrim. 

I follow her 
thru many 
dwellings. 



and see 
Virtues and 
Vices, 



an old lady, 



head of a 

Convent, 



The Auilgel: [Stowe, leaf 365, back] 

Qwod thaungel, ' as it is due, 

her, in hast, she shal vs sue.' 23416 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

And in my way so I me bar, 
that I fonde Mr in hir char ; 
and a-mong hir folkes alle, 

benignely 1 she gan me calle, c 1 benyngiy st., benigiy c.] 23420 
and bad I shold ek ha no fere 
to telle what I dede there. 

The pilgrym: 

And I answeryd 2 anon) ryght, P answeryd St., answerd C.] 

how I wente to haue a syght 23424 

of sondry castelles (it is no doute,) 

that in the couwtre stood aboute, 

and of folkes gouernaunce, 

that ther abood for her plesaunce. 23428 

Grace clieu : 

Graciously, y-wys, qwod she, 
' Now thou hast yfounden me 
toforn or that I was ago. 

but (withoute 3 wordes mo), [ without c., st.] 23432 

come and folwe on after me, 
and many thynges thou shalt se.' 

and she ladde me, vp and doun, 

by many diuerse mans'ioun, 23436 

In cloystres, as wente tho 

Round about, to and fro : [6-wiiabie ime\ 

ther I saugh vertues and ek vices, 
and many dyuerse edifices. 23440 

I saugh ther places ruynous, 
and to dwelle in / perillous. 

she shewed me, on our walkyng, 
an olde lady ther haltyng, 23444 

and (as by her contenaunce,) 
She hadde ther gret gouernaunce : 
she bar a Rewle of a masown, 

and pleyed by derysi'own, 23448 

and (as I coude tho espie) 
by a maner mokerye. 






f minded ~by St. Benedict, whose Rule was neglected. 629 



In hir hand (as I was war) 
a grete 1 spoon also she bar; 
and as she reysed it a-lofte, 
to hir mouth she putte it ofte. 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And also (as to my reward,) 
hir hed was turned ek hakward, 
that toforn (as I ha mynde,) 
Was turned and ysette behynde. 

[Grace Dieu]: 

Quod Grace dieu a-noon to me, 
' at the eye thou mayst se ; 
this hous (yef thou canst espye,) 
whilom was by masounrye 
bilt, and founded spiritually 
by sent Benet, feithf ully 
by lyne and level of masoun, 
thorugh gostly foundac'ioun, 
for which, whilom parmanable, 
it was tabide the mor stable. 

' conceyve also, (by my doctryne,) 
thyng that is maad by rule and lyne, 
In it self hath more beaute 
tendure, and mor stabilite. 
but whan the masoun was agoon, 
the rule wente, and that a-noon, 
and the lyne stood nat faire 
Whan the rule gan apaire; 
and thus the rule, and ek the lyne, 
bothe attones gan declyne. 
and feithfully, in this castel, 
the rule was nat kept ryght wel ; 
for, sith the halt held this place, 
al good rule gan difface. 
of vertu ek she is so bare, 
the edifices to repare ; 
for the old fundaciourc, 
She hath nat but derisiouw ; 
She reccheth nat what-euere falle ; 
thaugh the stooncs fallen allc, 



[igretC., grete St.] 23452 



23456 



23460 



[Stowe, leaf 366] 



23464 



The Pilgrim. 

with a great 
spoon in her 
hand. 



Her head was 
set on back- 
wards. 



Grace Dieu. 
[leaf 288, bk.] 



The house 
was founded 



by St. 
benedict, 



23468 



23472 



23476 



but its Rules 
were not 
faithfully 
kept. 



23480 



[See 1. 23,441] 



23484 



23488 



Its Head 

cari-d nothing 
if its Stones 
of Virtue fell 
out. 



630 The Convent's Mortar of Prayer and Work didn't, last. 



Grace Dleu. 



The Pilgrim. 
[leaf 289] 

I said the 
masonry of 
the house wag 
not perman- 
ent, 



Grace Dint. 



and the 
mortar was 
not stable. 



It was made 
first of ori- 
sons and 
fasting, 



singin? of 
masses. 



' of vertu, bilden in the place ; 
for, save to play and to solace, 
I dar sey she, in hir werkyng*, 
Intendeth to noon other thyng 1 .' [st.&c.j 23492 

The Pylgrym: 

" Ma dame," quod I, " to my semyng, 
this place first, in his bildyng, 
(Who consydereth euerydel) 

the masounry was nat maad wel, 23496 

Was not duely maad, nor stable, 
Sith it is not parmanable." 

Grace Dien: 1 [ist^ow.c.] 

' Touchyng the bildyng, tak good heed : 
the masounry, (it is no dreed,) 23500 

I dar ful wel thy-self assure, 
it was maad for to endure, 

and to haue last 2 for many yer, [ a lust c., last St.] 
Save oonly the morter 23504 

Was not iustly (as I ha sayd) 
stably among the stoones layd, 
ffounded vpon true entent 
more stedfastly than is cyment. 23508 

' It was first maad of orisouws, 
of fastyng and afflicciiouws, 
to holde the cloystre round about 
by stablenesse, and not gon out 23512 

into the world, vagabound, [Stowe, leaf see, back] 

the edifices to confound ; 
but in their cloystres stille abyde 

in mekenesse, and not in pryde, 23516 

Haue their frequentac'iouws 
in prayer and in orisouws ; 
erly on morwen to aryse, 

in vertu to haue excercyse ; 23520 

and at festes more and lasse, 
ofte tyme's synge masse. 

' this was whilom, (I you ensure,) 
of their morler, the temprure, 23524 

founded vppoii) chary te, 
on concord and fraternyte, 






Every Nun does as she likes, and the Pow are neglected. 631 



'In love and in perfecci'ouw, 

Voyde of al devisi'ouw, 23528 

In parfit pes and vnyte 

of high and lowe in their degre, 

for love only of crist ihesu. 

'And yef the morter, in his vertu, 23532 

had abide in stabilnesse, 
"VVithouten eny doubleuesse, 
Lich the first fundac'iouw, 

The werke 1 nad not falle a-douw, [' werk c., workest.] 23536 
but stable stonde in his degre. 

' and now, echon ha liberte, 
at J?eir lust, to slepe and wake ; 

and noon other hed 2 ne take [ heode St.] 23540 

forto kepe their dbseruaunce : 
and thus, for lak of gouernaunce, 
Pes from hem, and vnyte, 
Exiled is, and charyte. 23544 

' that whilom gaff drynke and foode, 
and vnto pore their lyveloode, 
oonly of mercy and pyte, 

and, held hospitalyte ; 23548 

and, of euery manere age, 
gaf to pore folk herbegage, 
such as thei seyen, in distresse, 
in myschif, and in Seknesse.' 23552 

Pilgrim : 3 p st., om . c.] 

"Ma dame (and ye list take hede,) 
Who hath nought, (it is no drede,) 
may not parten his Almesse 
to folk that Leven in distresse." 23556 

Grace Dieu: 4 [* st., . co 

' Thow seyst soth, (as thynketh me,) 
but wher thou leggest pouerte, 
whiloui thei had suffisaunce, 

plente ynowh, and habuudaunce, 23560 

whan thei worsheped in special [Stowe, leaf 307] 

The myglity kyng that gaf hem al 
suffisaunce in eucry lond ; 5 [ 5 land . . . hami St.] 

but now he hath withdrawe his bond 5 23564 



Grace Dieu. 
[leaf 289, bk.] 

pence and 
unity, 



and love of 
Christ. 



But from lack 
of observance 
of rules, and 
of govern- 
ment, peace 
and unity 
are exiled, 
and nothing 
is given to 
the poor. 



The Pili/rim. 

But, said I, 
they that 
have nothing 
cannot give 

alms. 



True, an- 
svyerd Grace 
Dieu, 

but there 
was plenty 
while they 

worshipt 
the i;ivat 
King, 

I leafed] 



C32 Spiders are in the Convent ; Dogs 1 dung in the Cemetery. 



but now they 
are careless, 



and the place 
IB unclean : 



spiders, 



swallows, 



dogs' dung, 
nettles and 
weeds are in 
it and around 
it. 



Christ did 
justice on 
those who 
defiled the 
temple. 



[leaf 290, bk.] 

But this 
negligent 
Head would 
not reform 
abuses. 



She cared 
only for 
worldly 
vanity : 



' for their offences ; this the fyn : 

ther goodes drawen to declyn ; 

for thei be Rekles of livyng 

forto seme that noble kyng ; 23568 

and, for slouth and necligence, 

they doon in o thyng gret offence. 

ffor wher the lord (in his degre) 

Duely shuld honmmre'd 1 be, p honoryd shuid St.] 23572 

the place is not, with diligence, 

Clenly kept with reuerence ; 

for beforn, and ek behynde, 

Yraynes and webbes men may fynde ; 23576 

and also ek, (yef thou take hede,) 

Swalwes and othre bryddes brede; 

and also ek (through al their boundes) 

dong of dogge's and ek of houndes, 23580 

nettles and wede's round aboute, 

in cymyterys ful gret route, 

lich a disert or places 2 wilde, ['place St.] 

wher no man hath lust to bilde, 23584 

Replevisshed of al ordure, 

as it were withouten cure ; 

and many oother dishonestes, 

bestial in ther degres, 23588 

inor than I can here devyse. 

' and crist ihesus dede iustyse 
on hem that in the temple solde : 
because oonly thei were bolde 23592 

to done dishonnour to his hous, 
he was in party Regerous, 
As the gospel kan you telle ; 

he bett hem out with a flagelle, 23596 

That noon of hem durst abyde. 

* Wherfore this halte that here is guyde, 
list nat, of hir frowardnesse, 

suche 3 thynges to redresse, p suche St., such c.] 23600 

nor do semyse in hir werkyng 
for tentende vpon) the kyng : 
her look, hir cher, (as ye may se,) 
is vpon) worldly vanyte, 23604 



God will avenge this. Abuses have crept in, & Gluttony. 
' and al hir hertes besynesse, ora 



633 



[ ezechiell St.] 



23620 






[* St., om. CJ 



' and al hir hertes besynesse, 

rather than on holynesse ; 

for which the kyng (iustly and wel, 

that considereth euerydel) [stowe, leaf sev, back] 23608 

hem to quyte wil not cesse, 

maketh their goodes to discresse ; 

and, for their pompe and their pryde, 

Set her Kichesse out a-syde, 23612 

amenusyng their substance, 

their tresour and their habundance, 

"Which made hem first their 1 lord forsake. 

'therfore he can it fro hem take [ theyr St., the c.] 23616 
Whan-euere he list, who loke wel ; 
ffor the Prophete Ezechel 2 
Writeth, (who so taketh hede) 
Idelnesse, plente of bred, 
caused (in conclusi'ouw) 
of Sodom the distrucci'oun.' 

Pilgrim : 3 

" I pray yov, telle on a-noon ryght, 
She that halteth iu my syght, 
What is hir name, and hir offys, 
of whom ye sette 4 so litel prys ] " 

Grace Dieu: 5 
' To make a playn discripciourc, 
She is called ' Abus'iouw,' 
because, the good that god hath sent, 
by hir thei ben wrongly dispent, 6 
And ageyn his wul 7 abused ; 
Wherof she may nat ben excused. 

' She halt a rule of a masouw, 
only by fals collusiourc ; 
for, to the rule that she is bounde, 
(Whan the trouth is sough[t] 8 and f ouncle, [ 8 known st.] 
Therto she haveth no reward,) 23637 

Hir hed ytourned is bakward ; 
Vnto the world she cast hir look, 
Wich, vnder colour, she forsook. 23640 

' hir spon also doth signefye 
the foule vice of Glotonye, 



23624 



[* is set St.] 
[5 St., om. C.] 



23628 



[ spent St.] 
17 will St.] 



Grace Dieu. 



and the king 
will not fail 
to take 
redress for 
these evils. 



As Ezekiel 
said, 



idleness was 
the destruc- 
tion of 
Sodom. 



The Pilgrim. 

I ask who 
this bad Head 
of a Convent 
is. 



Grace Dieu. 



This Head ia 
' Abuse," 



23632 [leaf 291] 



and has her 
head turned 
backward. 



Her Spoon 

signifies 

Gluttony. 



634 In Convents, the community of goods is gone. 



.Grace Dieit. 



She has for- 
saken the 
unity of 
antiquity, 



and dis- 
covered the 
viue of 
Property, 



using the 
Spoon of In- 
dividualism, 

usurping the 
fat, and leav- 
ing the lean, 



[leaf 291, bk.] 



not like 
shepherds, 
but like 
ravenous 
wolves, 



getting goods 
with the 
spoon of In- 
dividualism, 



and obtaining 

Christ's, 

curse. 



' for, ageyn ryght and al Resouw, 

by force and vsurpaci'ouw, 23644 

she hath forsake the vnyte 

of fraternal antiquyte, 

by perfecciowi to centime 

to haue hir goode's in comune. 23648 

' but this fals Abus'iouw, 
only by vsurpaciouw 
In Religious (who list se), 

fonde out the vice of propurte, 23652 

Which is thyng most vicious, 
rennyng among religious, [stowe, 

Which causeth ofte discord and stryf, 
contrary to Thapostles lyf. 

' In p?*opurte (ye may ther rede) 
thei ne dide nothyng possede ; 
her good was comouw, in certeyn. 
Wherfore the Spon that thou hast seyn] 23660 

ys callede ' Syngularyte,' 
thyng to possede in propurte ; 
to gedre the fatte (thus I mene,) 
vnto hir self, and leve the lene : 23664 

As the Prophete Ezechiel, 
to the sheperdes of Israel 
Spak and wrot, f ul yore a-go : 

' Sorwe be to you, and wo, 23668 

that ne take to nothyng hede, 
but your silven 1 forto fede ; [' seivs St.] 

not lik sheperdes of cristus hous ; 
but verray wolves Ravinous, 23672 

liggyng awayt, bothe nyght and day, 
forto devoure what thei may : 
they take bothe mylk and wolle ; 
and the fatte, away thei pulle 23676 

with the spoon of cruelte 
ycalled Syngularyte, 
thei Robbe pantener and purs, 
and gete hem ofte Cristes cours. 2 [ 2 curs St.] 23680 

' ffor which cause, I, Abusiiouw, 
am come of entenc'iouM 



So the property they have misused is given to worthier folk. 635 



' Such abusi'ouws to se, 

and their superfluyte 

to kutte away, which that thei vse, 

and their goodes to amenuse. 

' The Aungels han hem take away, 
Which thou mettest this same day, 
With grete some?*s in sothnesse, 
ledyng away the gret Eichesse, 
to parte it (of entenc'iouw) 
to folk that in deuocioiw 
lede her lives in comune, 
and in deuociouw do contune ; 
such as in god gretly delyte, 
fro good to bet alway profyte. 

' figure herof , ye may se, 
how that by olde Antiquyte, 
the bible ful wel can you tel, 
how the childre of Israel 
took of Egypt the Tresour 
In recompense of her labour. 
As for guerdouw, by dwete 
Whan they passed the rede Se, 
they tooke in thyng by Eobberye, 
as clerkes list to specifye ; 
they bare 1 with hem gret substaunce, 
only by Godde's ordynaunce, 
Egipciens (it is no drede) 
Were not worthy it to possede. 

' and som folk deme off Resoun, 
that folk that haue possessi'ouw, 
and ben cursed of livyng, 
It is leful (by their demyng) 
forto spoylle hem duely, 
and yeve it hem that ben worthy.' 

Pilgrim : 2 

Touchyng that oppynyouw, 
thus I answerd of Resouw : 
" god ne doth nat thus alway, 
who that conceyveth, day by day ; 
for ther ys many an vsurer 



Grace Dieu, 



23684 



But the 
Angels 

23688 have carried 
off their 
wealth, 



to part it 
among de- 

voutfbik. 



[Stowe, leaf 368, back] 



_ _ 

23692 



23696 



23700 The Israelites 
took the 
treasure of 
Egypt 



23704 [leaf 292] 



[i bare St., bar C.] 



23708 by God's 
decree ; 



and some 

folk hold 

23712 that evil 

men's goods 
may be law- 
fully taken 



[ St., om. C.] 



and given to 
the worthy. 



The Pi/prim. 



Hut Ood let 
many usurers 

23720 exist, 



636 Convents were endowd far Prayer and Worship. 



The Pilgrim. 



who possess 
unworthily 



and give not 
to the poor. 



Grace Dieu. 



They shall 
give account 
to God; 
[leaf 292, bk.] 



but the pos- 
sessions of 
religious 
houses 



came by way 
of alms, 



that the 
monks might 
pray for the 
louuders. 



" in dyuers londes fer and ner, 

that wynne gold ful cursedly, 

and it possede ful 1 vnworthily, [ fai, om. St.] 23724= 

how falsly that they come therto ; 

and god suffreth that it be so ; 

and yet, to pore they yeve no thyng, 

though they be ryghtful of livyng." 23728 

Grace Dieu: 2 pst.om.c.] 

' As to thy conclusions, 
ther is noon solucioun : 
god gaf neuere (fer nor ner,) 

licence to noon vsurer, 23732 

that he shuld (I the ensure) 
ben admytted to fals vsure. 
god suffreth hem to ban tresour, 
gold, Eichesse, and gret honour : 23736 

of al the tresour that they weld, 
To hym they shal acountes yeld. [c. & St.] 

first, they it wan 3 by violence, pytwanst.] 

of god hauyng no licence ; 23740 

wherfor, to their Dampnaci'ouw, 
hd suffreth their pocessi'ouw, 
as he hadde 4 no reward ; [* had c., St.] 

but he wil punysshe hem afterward, 23744 

(though they for a while habound,) 
the vice of Vsure to confound. 

' but goode's of religious, 

that was yeve in-to 5 her hous ['wntost.] 23748 

In ther first foundac'iouw, 
their tresour and possessions, 
it was yove hem of almesse 

for their grete perfitnesse, 23752 

of entent that, day and nyght, [stowe, leaf 869] 

that they shold, with al their myght, 
Worshepe god with grete honours, 
and truely pray for their foundours. 23756 

' and iustly, this condiciouw 
is worth an obligac'ioim. 

that 6 whan it falleth their fooly, [then St.] 

that thei not vse duely 23760 






If these fail, the Goods are taken, as Israel spoilt Egypt. 637 



' their offices as thei sholde do, 

to kepe ther obseruaunces also 

(lich to their profess'ioura) 

in prayer and deuociouw, 23764 

god wil, of his ryghtful lawe, 

to chastice hem, his hond with-drawe, 

suffre her goode's to vnthryve, 

but if thei. amende hem blive ; 23768 

yive it to hem that wil hym seme, 

and his comandementes obserue. 

' herof ye may sen a figure 

fful wel rehersed in scripture : 23772 

In Egipt whilom, how it fel, 
Whan the childre of Israel 
Wher 1 ther in subiecci'ouw p were St.] 

al that ilke regiouw ; 23776 

thorugh their travaiH and labour, 
was maad ryche of gret tresour ; 
but afterward (as ye may se) 

Vij yeres of Sterylite 23780 

folwed on, (as ye may red,) 
wherof loseph took good hed 
long a-forn, of high prudence ; 

and faugh his noble providence, 23784 

Ageyn the hunger, Eche syde, 2 l* eche syde St., ech a syde c.] 
ful prudently gan to provide, 
and shop ther-fore a remedye, 

(as Genesis doth specifye ;) 23788 

for, thorugh the myght of godde's hond, 
he sustened al the lond 
from hunger and aduersite, 
The vij yer of Sterilite. 23792 

' but of al this grete dede, 
thei of Egipt took non hede, 
to thank en (in especial) 

the myghti lord that gaf hem al ; 23796 

nor wolde suffre, in no wyse, 
Israel do sacrifyse ; 
but held in subiecciouw, 
out of the lond of promyssiouw. 23800 



Grace Dieu. 



If they do not 
so pray, God 
will chastise 
them. 



See a type 
iu Egypt. 



[leaf 293] 

After the 

Israelites 



had enricht 
it, 



came seven 
years of 
famine. 



These were 
provided for 
by Joseph, 



but the 
Egyptians 
did not thank 
God. 



They held 
the Israelites 
in bondage ; 



638 Vicious folks' Riches shall be given to the Virtuous. 



Grace Dieu. 




[leaf 293, bk.] 



as a reward 
for their 
virtue. 



The PUgrirn. 



Yet I have 
eeen many 
devout people 
in poverty. 



Why does 
God Buffer 
this? 

Grace Difti. 



23804 

[Stowe, leaf 369, back] 



23808 



23812 



[C. & St.] 



' wherf ore, merveille neuere a del, 
thaugh god suffred Israel, 
oonly of his ryghtwesnesse, 
to robben hem of their Bichesse, 
and spoylen hem of their Tresour. 
god gaf it hem for their labour, 
And as for a mede in guerdouw, 
Departyng from that Kegioim. 

' They hadde disserued it of yore, 
by gret labour that sat hem sore, 
thorugh cdnstreynt of Kyng Pharao, 
which wolde not suffren hem to go, 
Xor to departe in rest and pes, 

for no massage of MoyseS ; x C 1 message off mosese St.] 

but put hem euere in delay, 

1 and thus the lord can take a- way 
Eichesse of folkes vicious, 
and yive it hem that be vertuous ; 
As he hath done here in this place : 
thou mayst beholde it with thy face.' 

Pilgrim : 2 

" Certe,s-," qiiod I with hevy cher, 
" In other places mo than her 
(to telle shortly, and not tarye) 
I ha beholde the contrary, 
wher folk, by gret deuoc'iou?z, 
han kept their religious 
ful streytly, in gret honeste, 
that han falle in poueHe, 
bothe of liflood and vesture, 
that thei myghte 3 nat endure, [ 3 myght c., St.] 

Mischef hath hem brought so lowe. 
and fayn I wold the cause knowe, 
why god wil suffre their grevaunce, 
forto lakke their suffisaunce." 

Grace Dieu: 4 
Qwod Grace Dieu a-noon to me, 
' I wil herof answere the, 
and make therof no gret delay ; 
but her cometh oou nov in our way, 



23816 



23820 



[ St., out. C.] 



23824 



23828 



23832 



[* St., om. C.] 



23836 



The Dwarf ' Sterility ' who dwelt seven years in Egypt. 639 



4 and I wil first, of good resouw, 

knowen his entencioiw ; 23840 

or go thy self, by my biddyng 1 , 

And axe the cause of his comyng 1 .' 

And sodeynly, good bede I took ; 
and cast on syde on hym my look, 23844 

which, lich a dwerf, (this the caas,) 
of his fetures shapen was. 
a pyk of Iren, sharp and longe, 
he held, that was of makyng strong*. 23848 

Pilgrim : l [Blank in MS. for an Illumination.'] 
And to me- ward his look he layde. [ St., <m. c.] 
but first, to hym ryght thus I sayde. 
" Telle on, thou dwerf, (ha no shame,) 
To vs, thyn office and thy name." 23852 

Sterelite: 2 cst.,o.c.] 

' I called am (yef thou list se) 
Of folkes alle, 'Sterility,' [stowe, leaf 370] 

which ha this hous maad ful bareyn, 
bothe of frut and ek of greyn. 23856 

Ther good, their lond, (yef it be sought,) 
I ha distruyed and brought to nought : 
This my craft and myn offys ; 

and therfor (by gret avys) 23860 

to caste folk in pouerte, 
I am called ' Sterilite ; ' 
foul and ougly of look and cher : 
In Egypt I dwelled vij yer. 23864 

wher I abyde, (be wel certeyn,) 
I make the land to be bareyn.' 

Grace Dieu : 3 p St., om. c.] 

Qwod Grace Dieu, ' a litel space, 

Go thy way out of this place ; 23868 

and what-so-euere herafter falle, 
whan me list, I shal the calle.' 

And whan that tourned was his bak, 
Grace dieu thus to me spak : 23872 

' touchyng the goode's, day be day, 
which that I ha take away 
fro this place here present, 



Grace Dieu. 



[leaf 294] 
The Pilgrim. 

A Dwarf 
approaches, 



Sterility. 

named 
'Sterility,' 



who dwelt 
7 years in 
Egypt, 



Grace Dieu. 



and is sent 
away by 
Grace Dieu. 



[leaf 291, bk.] 



640' Grace Dieu sends me to the Cellarer 'Purveyance.' 



Grace Dieu 



23876 



bids me go to 
the Cellarer, 



' Purvey- 
ance.' 



She will never 
return 



to the Con- 
vent till 
Virtue again 
reigns there. 



[leaf 295] 
The Pilgrim. 

Grace Dieu 
departs in 
her chariot. 



I sro to the 
Cellarer, 



' I dide [it] oonly of entent 
that other folk shold it possede, 
which (bothe in wark and ek in dede,) 
lede her lyf in perfitnesse, 
In vertu, and more holynesse 
than thei which that her now be. 

' and touchyng that thou askest me, 
Thou shalt haue answere therof noon, 
but first, I charge the to goon 
to hir that is the Selerere 
of this place that stondeth here ; 
aske hir (that thou mayst conceyve) 
touchyng the good she doth receyve, 
to telle the playnly al the guyse, 
how it is spent, and in what wyse. 
and, hir to knowe among hem alle, 
' Purveyaunce ' folk hir calle. 
and whan she hath declared al, 
thou shalt haue (in special) 
of the demauwde (by good resouw) 
a true Declarac'iouw, 
as it accordeth and is dwe. 

' and forth my Somera I wil swe ; 
for, in this place, on no syde, 
I caste me no longer to abyde ; 
nor neuere (to speke in worde's playn) 
hider 1 to retourne agayn, 
til the tyme that I may se 
that vertu and honeste 
Kesorte by deuoci'ouw 
Into thys Eeligiouw.' 

And with that word, (as I was war,) 
I saugh hir gon in-to hir char, 
and in this while (of good entent, 
lich to hir comandement) 
I wente with a sobre chere, 
forth vnto the celere[re], 
and, my iourne to avaunce, 

I knewe 2 hir by hir contenauncc ; [ s knew St., knowe c.j 
for (the trouthe 3 to expresse) ptrouthcj 



23880 



23884 



23888 



23892 



23896 



23900 



[i hethar St.] 



[Stowe, leaf 370, back] 23904 



23908 



23912 



Everything given to Convents is wasted and spent. 641 



P playn troutli C., playn 
truthe St.] 



She was of gret sobrenesse, 23916 

of gret reuerence and honeste, 

and of gret matury te ; 

saad of look, and ek of cher, 

Egle-eye<J, bryght and cler. 23920 

[The Pilgrim]: 

" Ma dame," quod I, "of good entent, 
Grace Dieu hath to you sent, 

that ye sholde (in wordes fewe) 23923 

the playne trouthe 1 to me shewe, 
wher ye putte the rychesse 
that ye receyve, in sothfastnesse." 

Celerar : 2 p st., after i. 23928, om. c.] 

And she that spak no word in vyyn, 
to me answerd thus agayn ; 23928 

' al that I haue in my depos, 
from hir ther shal nothyng be clos. 
Kome forth in hast, and folwe me, 
and thou shalt the trouthe 3 se.' ptrouth c., truthe st.] 23932 

and I cam after (for the best), 
and she gan vnlokke a chest, 
the whiche, 4 whan I dede se, [ 4 whiche St., which c.] 
I gan gretly abasshe me, 23936 

for the huchche (it is no doute) 
was ful of holes round aboute ; 

and at ech hole (as though te 5 me) [ 5 thought c., thowght st.] 
an hand put out, I elide se, 23940 

(who 6 -so euere slepe or wake) [ 6 wher c., who st.] 

Kedy to receyve and 7 take. p and st., and to c.] 

Pilgrim : 8 [Blank for Illumination.] [ 8 st., om. c.] 
I prayed her, to specifye 
what thyng it dede signefye. 23944 

Celerar: 9 pst.,om.c.] 

' To telle, and voiden al deceyt, 
this the place of the receyt 
of goodes, which that, day and nyght, 
kome to this place of verray ryght, 23948 

(forto speke in general,) 
but this handes consumen al, 
Spende and waste on euery syele, [stowe, leaf 371] 

PILGRIMAGE. T T 



and ask her 



where she 

puts the 

goods given 

her. 

Providence, 
the Cellarer. 



She bids me 
follow her 



to a chest, 
full of holes 
with hands 
stretching 
out of em. 



[leaf 295, bk.] 



The Pilgrim. 



The Cellarer. 



This place is 
the Receipt 
of Goods. 



Everything 
that cornea in 
is consumed 



by the 

Hands : 



The three Hands that grab the G'lmrctis goods. 



The Cellarer, 
'Providence. 

nothing is 
left for the 
poor. 
The Pilgrim. 



Providence, 
the Cellarer. 



The Hands 
thut take 
Cliurcli goods 
are: 



1. The hand 
of Dimes, or 
Tenths for 
the king ; 



[leaf 296] 

2. that of the 
Collector for 
t rentals, 
bulls, con- 
tributions, 
etc. 



The Hands 
waste the 
goods of 
holy church. 



3. The Hand 
with an Eye 
in it 



is that of the 
Visitor, 



' that ther may no thyng abyde, 23952 

for to departe by almesse 

to folk that liven in distressed 

Pilgrim : l [ l st., om. c.] 

" Ma dame," quod I, "as semeth me, 
ye sholde, of ryght and equyte, 23956 

The handes kerve, and kutte away, 
and stoppe the holes nyght and day." 

Provide[n]s Celerar : 2 p st., om. c.] 

Qttod Providence anoon to me, 

' Thes, ben the handes thre, [&-t v ii<a,ie line] 23960 

which that theve's (by assent) 
ar wont to vsen (of eutent), 
I mene, pyratys of the Se, 
Avhich brynge folk in pouerte. 23964 

' The first hand of alle thre, 
ys called (lerne this of me,) 
' the hand of Dymes,' by gadryng, 
To gadre vp dyme's for the kyng. 23968 

' the to ther hand, ful sore pulles 
gold for trentals and for bulles, 
and dyuers subuenc'iou?zs 

and grevous contribuci'ouws, 23972 

graunted (in especial) 

at Chipytres 3 general. p chapters st.] 

the handes do no thyng, nor werche, 
but waste the good of holy cherche.' 23976 

Pilgrim : 4 [* st., om. c.] 

"What hand is that (telle on, let Se,) 
Which hath an Eye (as thynketh me,) 
Sett in the mydde's of the hand ? 
for I saugh neuere (on Se nor land) 23980 

Such another hor-toforn, 
Sith the tyme that I was born." 

Providens : 5 p st., om. c.] 

' Be nat astonyed, neue?'e a del ! 

this hand is (who so loke wel,) 23984 

of our noble Visitour, 
Which doth his peyne and his labour 
to looke for lucre and fals guerdon??, 



Church Visitors seek Money, not Right. I meet Apostasy. 643 



Providence. 
who always 

j" oks for 

menMn for 
wroug - 



So we are 
very poor. 



The Pilgrim. 



[leaf 296, bk.] 
and meet an 
old woman, 



' alvvay, for retribncfoun; 23988 

they caste her eye for wynnyng, 

and, ryght nought for amendyng ; 

take (in their entenc'iovms,) 

pans for 1 procuraciouns. [Undst.] 23992 

ther entent, in no wyse, [6-iyiiabie ] 

ys sett on ryght nor on iustice. 

' ek other hande's, mo than thre, 
han cast vs in gret pouerte.' 23996 

[The Pilgrim:] 

With that word, makyng no delay, 
I took my leve and wente away. 2 [stowe, leaf 371, back] 
I hadde no leve, (shortly to telle,) [* my way st.] 
but shop me horn to my castel. 24000 i go away, 

And on my waye, 3 me be-fel, [ 3 way c., st.] 

[No gap in either MS.] 
I mette an olde oon in that tyde, 

that to me kam on the left syde, 24004 

Of whos look I was affrayed! : 
hir hande's partid, and displayed! 
vpward to a castel wal, 

resemblyng (as me thought in al) 24008 

That hir entent was to ascende 
vpon the wal, or to descende. 

a blak Eavoun 4 (it is no doute,) [*ra\-yn st.] 

took his ftyght ful round aboute, 24012 

Wher-so-euere that she went, 
and I knewh nothyng what it ment ; 

[UlanJc in MS. for an Illumination.] 
But I caste, withynne a throwe, 

playnly that I wolde 5 knowej [ s wold c., would st.] 24016 
of al thys thyng som evidence ; 
and wente a-noon to hir p?*esence. 
and first of al, I gan enquerc, 

to telle me what she dido there ; 24020 

of name and of condici'ouTi 
Make a declaracioim. 

Apostacye : c [" st., om. c.] 

Quod she, ' yef thou konne espye, 
I am called 'Apostacye,' 24024 



witb a black 
Haven flying 
round her. 



I ask who 

Mir is. 



Apottaty. 



She is 'Apo- 
stasy,' 



044 Apostasy acts like Noah's Raven; she doesn't return. 



Apoitatu. 



who set her 
hand to the 
plough, 

[leaf 297] 
but turnd 
back 

to worldly 
vanity. 



She often 
meant to turn 



back to the 
King, 



but the Raven 
itopt her, 



with his cry 
of Cras, eras ! 



As the raven 
retijrnd not 
again to 
Noah, 



[i best C., St.] 
[done St.] 24028 

P plughe St.] 



P worldly St.] 



24036 



[ round St.] 



24040 



' which whilom, of entenci'ouw, 
made my professi'ouw, 
In al my beste 1 feythful wyse, 
for to ha do 2 truely semyse 
duryng my lif, vnto the kyng 
that is most myghty of werkyng. 

' I sette myn hand? vnto the plough ; 3 24031 

But I haue hym falsed? ynough, 4 [* ynughe st., nough c.] 
tourned the bak (as thou mayst se) 
vnto wordly 5 vanyte, 
left myn homage, trouth and al, 
and am kome doun ouere the wal 
for vayn glorie (out of doute) ; 
In many countre ro&ne 6 aboute, 
of entent, for to purchaas 
prospmte and vayn solas. 

' and yet ful ofte (in many caas,) 
myn entent and purpos was, 
fro worldly glorie, fals and vayn, 
to haue tourned horn 7 agayn, [ 7 ?Ms.,hemc.,themst.] 24044 
and amended my livyng 
In the seruyse of the kyng ; 
but truely (it is no nay) [stowe, leaf 372] 

the Kavoun 8 was euere in my way.' p raven st] 24048 

Pilgrim : 9 

" Truely, and thou dedest wel, 
thou sholdest lette neuere a del 
for to delaye so thy paas. 
thaugh that he crye on the", ' eras, eras, 
thou sholdest 10 remembre the among 1 , [' shuist st.] 
and take noon hede vnto his song 1 ." 

Apostasie : u 
' The trouthe 12 forto specifye, 
I folwe, in 13 myn Apostasy e, 
In my passage vp and dowi, 
the Ravenes condiciouw, 
that whilom was of Noe sent 
out of the arkc, of entent 
to beholden how it stood*, 
of the deluge and the flood? 



[9 St., om. C.I 



24052 



[ St., om. C.] 
trouth C., truthe St.] 

[ in, om. St.] 24056 



24060 



Noah's Raven calls ' Cras,' to-mwow : so Apostasy delays. C45 



' boyllyng with many sturdy wawe ; 

Wlier the water gan withdrawe. 24064 

' but the Raven fond 1 a kareyn ; 
therfore he cam not agayn. 
and I stonde in the same caas, 

abyde, and synge alway ' eras, eras,' [c.&st.] 24068 
makyng many fals delayes, 

and prolonge forth my dayes, 

forto Resorten horn ageyn, 
and spende 1 thus my tyme in veyn.' [ spend c.] 24072 

Pilgrim : 2 p st., o. c.] 

" Thy werkes (yef I shal not tarye) 
ben vnhappy and contrarye ; 
and thyn handes, bo the two, 

ben yperced porugh also. 24076 

greyn nor frut, vpon) no syde, 
In no wyse wyl abyde ; 
for shortly (who so list to sek) 

al goth thorugh, and wasteth ek. 3 p seke . . eke st.j 24080 
Who-so-eue/-e the trouthe atame, 
thy tonge is dampned, and ek lame, 
that it may seyn noon orisouw, 

nor make no supplicaci'ouw, 24084 

Which sholde ben acceptable 
vnto that kyng most hon<wrable. 
he is not plesed, (on nco syde,) 

Whil in this staat thou dost abyde, 24088 

and hast no purpos to Retourne, 4 [* for to toum st.] 
but in the world dost ay soiowme." 

Apostacie : 5 [ 5 st., om . c.] 

' True'ly, to thy sentence 

I may yeve ful credence; 24092 

for Seynt Poule hym-silfe 6 saith, [seifest., sure.] 
(to whom, men must yeve fayth, 
and ful beleve to his word,) [stowe, leaf 372, back] 

' who is not withynne shippes 7 bord, U syppes St.] 24096 
stant in perail of Perysshyng, 
and on the poynt of his drownyng,' 
fel fer from his savaci'owi, 
il'ur lakkyug of ditjcrdciouw. 24100 



Apottaiy. 



[leaf 297, bk.] 

so Apostasy 
returns not 
again, 
but always 
sings Cras, 
to-morrow. 



The Pilgrim. 



Her tongue 
says no 
prayer or 
supplication 
acceptable 
to the King. 



Apostasy. 



As St. Paul 

HHitll, 



he who is 
not within 
the ship, 

stands in 
danger of 
drowning. 

[leaf 298] 



C4G / tell Apostasy to return. Age and Sickness come to me. 



Apoitaty. 



She doubts 
whether, if 
she returnd 
to God, 
she would 
find grace. 



The Pilgrim. 

I assure her 
that she will 
find grace, 



if the will 
devoutly fix 
her heart on 
God. 



Then I go 
home 



and relate 
all I have 
seen. 



[leaf 298, bk.] 

Two Messen- 
gers, ' Age ' 
and 'Sick- 
ness,' come 
to me, 



' and I wot wel, for my partye, 
I issed 1 out thorugh my folye ; 
Wherfore I stonde in nonece/'teyn, 
yef I retourned liom ageyn, 
wher I sholde grace haue, 
therby my soule for 2 to save.' 

Pilgrim : 3 

" ne doute the nat to tourne ageyn, 
but be therof ryght wel certeyn, 
That of grace thou shalt not faille, 
So that thou make a 4 stoupaille 
of the hoole's that open 5 be 
in thyn handes (as thou maist se), 
this to mene, in sentement, 
that playn and hool be thyn enteut, 
grounded on perfecciou?i ; 
and that, by gret deuoci'ouw, 
that thou make thyn herte stable, 
and of entent not variable, 
look her-to on eue?-y syde, 
for I may no longer abyde, 
for, I caste me a-noon, 
horn to my castel forto goon, 
and by the nexte' waye 6 wende, 
and ther, vnto my lives ende, 
abiden in the same place, 
lik as god wil yeve me gmce." 

and whan I was kome horn ageyn, 
of al that euere I had seyn, 
I made playn Eelaciou?i 
to folk of that Religiou?z ; 
and afterward (I you ensure,) 
ther fel a wonder aventure, 
the whiche, 7 whan I dede aduerte, 
yt liked? nothyng 1 to myn herte : 
I saw tweyne olde (by assent,) 
Kome to me of oon entent, 
Wonder dyuers of her cheres ; 
and bothe two wer massageres : s 
the toon of hem (I was wel war) 



[' yswyd St.] 



24104 



[' for St., om. C.] 
[3 St., om. C.] 



24108 



[*aom. St.] 
[ 5 St., apon C.] 



24112 



24116 



24120 



[ 6 St., next way C.] 



24124 



24128 



24132 

[" which C., whiehe St.] 



[St. & C.] 



24136 



[ 8 messengers St., 
manager C.] 



Age and Sickness come from Death, to warn me. 



047 



ag c.] 
24144 



*g* *a 

Stckne*i. 

on the part 
">* 



Vpon hir bak, a bed she bar ; 24140 The pilgrim. 

The totlier (if I sluil not feyne) 

bar also, patentes tweyne ; 

the toon also, in hir commyng,' [t ^ 

gird with a baudrek, for wrastelyng : 

In their corayng I fonde gret lak, 

aud evene thus to me they spak : 

Age & Sicknes : 2 p st., <. c.] 

( deth,' quod they, ' hath to the sent 
bothe vs tweyne, of entent, 24148 

pleynly to the to declare, 
that hym self ne wil not spare 
forto come to the anoon ; 

and bad, aforn we sholdo 3 goon, p shoid c., shuid st.] 24152 
and done our fulle besynesse, 
with al our myghte, the to oppress, 4 c * tapTS^.?" 
and not departe fro the at al, 

til thou be cast, and haue a fal, 24156 

that he may, at his commyiiir*. 

(' J ' 

fynde the, by our workyng 1 , 

1 J J ' 

So awhape'J? and amat, 

that he may seyn to the, ' chek mat.' ' 24160 

Pilgrim : 5 [Blank for Illumination.] [ s st., om. c.] 
Q^od I, "declareth vnto me, 
ftirst of allc, what ye be. 
I knowe not your gouernaunce ; 

With deth I ha non unueynt:iunce : 24164 

and yef that he be your maystresse, 
I pray you, iirst, that ye expresse 
your office, and your smiyse, 
and your names doth devyse." 24168 

Age & Sicklies : 6 [ B st., om. c.] 

Quod, they, ' it wer not but in veyu, 
With vs to stry ve, or wynse ageyn j 
for, ther is noon 7 so hardy, C 7 none St.] 

so wys, so Eiche, so myghty, 24172 

that may, by force nor 8 allye, [" or st.] 

J ' J 

holden with vs Champartye. 

' for deth hath had, ful yore agoon, 

1 1 I-' i! P 11 1 .HIT 

lordshipe of folkes euerychoon ; 2 i 1 < 6 



and say that 

he will soon 

follow, 

and check- 

ma t me - 



[leaf 2;w] 
i have no 

acqunintance 

with Death. 
i if who 



They a >- 

il is in vain 



to strive with 

onesomighiy 



-ho is Ruler 

oft ' Vel 'i r " C - 



G48 



Age and 
Sick nett . 

and is more 
feard by lords 
and kings 



than the poor, 
who often 
wish to be 
dead. 



Death hag 
ent to warn 
me that I 
shall not 
escape him. 



Siekneil. 

The Messen- 
gers are 
Sickness* 
and 'Old 
[leaf 299, bk.] 
Age.' 



And tho' 
Medicine, 



with her 
drinks 



and apothe- 
caries stuff, 
saves folk for 
a time, 



yet Sickness 
and Death 
have the 
mastery in 
the end. 



Death warns me that I cannot escape him. 

' for, who considereth alle thynges, 

Drad more of lordes and of kynges 

than of folkes (who list se) 

which that duellen in poue?'te. 24180 

for pore folk that lakke l bred 1 , C 1 lak c., lake St.] 

desire ful ofte 2 to ben dedf. [* desyr ofte for St.] 

' and, yef thou aryght behold*, 

vnto deth thou art yhold*, 24184 

that he, toforn 3 hath to the sent ; l 3 to tofom c.] 
for ofte, without avisement 
he cometh to folkes vnwarly, . 

and hem assailleth sodeynly, 24188 

though the contrary had sworn, 
but, he hath vs sent to-forn, 

a<5 rrm <j-i <Tf>T-<s 4 fn war-Tip t.ViP [Stowe, leaf 273, back] 

as massagers 10 warnt wie , ^ Ir , eggellger g st ] 

from his power thou may st 5 not fle ; ['may st.] 24192 
and ech of vs (withoute blame) 
Shal declare the his name.' 

[Sekenesse :] 

The firste 6 to me dede exp?*esse : [ first c., St.] 
quod she, 'my name is Sekenesse. 24196 

helthe and I, but litel space [St. & c.] 

May abiden in place, 
we wrastlen ofte (as men may se) ; 
som while she venquyssheth me, 24200 

and, som tyme, 7 in c^rteyn, 
I over-throwe hir ageyn, 
make hir forto bowe hir chyne. 
and, ne were 8 that medicyne 
ys cause that she doth releve, 
my sayllyng shold hir often greve. 
but, maugre hir potaci'ouns 
and dyuerse confecc'iouns, 
and other sondry lettuaryes 
Maked at the potycaryes, 
bothe emplastres drye and moystes, 
and oynementes put in boystes, 
yet deth and I (who lyst espye) 
Haue, at the laste, 9 the maystrye. p last c., St.] 

' first I souke vp (for the nones) 



[" some tym St.] 



[8 ware St., wer C.] 24204 



24208 



24212 



PyscallySt] 24220 



24224 

P St., om. C.] 
[* messenger St.] 
P shold C., shuld St.] 
[St.,om.C.] 

[7 this St.] 

24228 



24232 



sycknwse St.] 24236 
[Stowe, leaf 874] 



Sickness 
sucks up 
folks' mar- 
row 



and vital 
power; 



The Pilgrim. 



Sickne. 



but she gives 
sick folk 
time for 
repentance. 
[leaf 300] 



How Sickness troubles Folk, and makes them Repent. 649 

' the mary closed in the bones, 24216 sickneu. 

and (wher that it be bad or good,) 

waste 1 the flessh, and drynke the blood; c 1 wast St., baste c.] 

And thus my silf, I cdnsume al 

the vertu that called is 2 ' vital' ; 

and at the last (who list knowe,) 

ley hym in a bed ful lowe, 

That deth may (withouten stryf) 

a-noon bereve hym of his lyf.' 

Pilgrim : 3 

" Sothly, thou art no massagere, 4 
to whom men sholde 5 make chere." 

Secnes : 6 

1 ff or sothe, yis, 7 (who taketh hede,) 
folk ar holde to me in dede ; 
for, sike folkes to avaunce, 
I make hem to ha repentaunce 
Whan she was put out of mynde, 
and therby, a mene fynde, 
that folkes, by contricioun, 
may come to their savac'iouw ; 
for proudest folkes, (as I gesse,) 
I chastyse with Seknesse. 8 

' and first, I haue gret delit, 
from hem to take their appetit ; 
their .v. witte's and Resoun, 
I be-reve hem, vp and doun, 
make (as thou shalt vnderstonde,) 
folk so feble, thei may not stoiide. 

' and we be come to the bly ve, 
with the to wrastlen and to stryve.' 

Pilgrim : 9 

" Or ye to me don eny shame, 
let me first knowen the name 
of the tother massager, 10 
That loketh with so fel a cher." 

Sicknes : n 

' I graunte wel she shal the telle, 
yef thou wilt a while 12 duelle.' 

Age : 13 



[ftvC] 



24240 



Their appe- 
tite is lost 
first; 

then the 5 
senses, then 
reason. 



24244 



[ St., om. C.] 



[ 10 messenger St.] 



24248 



[ St., om. C.] 



[" whil C., whlll St.] 
[" St., om. C.j 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask who the 

2nd Messen- 
ger is. 



Sicknett. 



Old Age. 



650 Old Age, Death's Courier, brings me two Summonses. 



pr<l Age. 

She is 'Old 
Age,' 



who plucks 
the fresh 
feathers of 
Youth, 



and is the 
Courier of 
Death. 

[leaf 800, bk.] 



Her empty 
skin 



and shriveld 
visage show 
she m uld. 



But she 

excels in 
knowledge. 



The Pilgrim. 

1 bid her tell 
me what her 
Patents are, 
and then go. 



she, ' of folkes that ben sage, 
I am of custom called ' Age,' 
Contraii'ous (as it is kouth) 
to hir that is ycalled! Youth, 
which whilom had (thou myghtest 1 se) 
fresshfi fetheres forto fle. 
but Age hath plukked! hem away, 
that vnnethe 2 gon I may; "~ 'Tf vnneth c., vnnethe St.] 
my fet be now (who taketh hede) 
hevy as they were of lede ; 
I may not gon, but with labour, 
and yet of Deth I am corour, 
knowe 3 in Couratres fer and ner. 

'And 4 who that is a massager, 5 
Wher he holdeth his passage, 
mut do truely his massage, 6 
and the trouthe 7 telle of ryght. 

' I am vnweldy, and not lyght ; 
and (to speke in worde's fewe,) 
myn empty skyn doth wel shewe 
what that I am ; and ouer more, 
thou mayst se, by my lokke's hore, 
and by ryvels of 8 my visage, 
How that I am called ' Age,' 
of whom, folkes that 9 discerne, 
may ful many thynges lerne. 

' though that wasted! be my blood?, 
I ha seyn bothe evel and good ; 
Preved? (if I shal not feyne) 
ende and gywnyng of bothe tweyne. 
age, in konnyng* doth excelle ; 
who muche seth, can muche' telle : 
no man in komiyng 1 (this, the chef,) 24283 

withoute 10 syght may ha no pref.' [ 10 without c., withe out St.] 

Pilgrim: 11 [nst., ,.c.] 

" To here now, myn entent is, [stowe, leaf 37*. back] 
what betokne thi pateutes ; 
and after that, make no delay, 
but take thy leve, and go thy way." 24288 

Age : l - , L 12 st,, vm. c.] 



24252 



24256 



24260 



P knowne St.] 
[*St.] [ s messenger St.] ' 

24265 

[ message St.] 
[" trouth C., truthe St.] 

24268 



24272 

[ in St.] 
[ folk that C., folke that St.] 

24276 



24280 



Old Age will guide me to Death. Her two Patents. 651 



P towardethc., toward 

deatlie S>t.J 



' wher-so it like the, or displese, 

I wil abiden at myn eese, 

And fro this place not retourne, 

but eue? - e in on with the 1 soiourne. [ l the om. c., the st.] 

I may not parte lyghtly a-way, 24293 

as Youthe dede this other day. 

She the 2 forsook (in verray dede) [ the om. St.] 

whan thou haddest to hir most nede; 24296 

she went hir way, and took hir flyght, 

and fled a-noon out of thy syght ; 

caste hir neuere to come ageyn : 

to looken after, wer but veyn. 24300 

but I, be leyser mut abyde, 

toward dethe 3 to be thy guyde 

J o J 

for, til deth come, I vndertake 

that I shal the not forsake. 24304 

' I haue doon my besy peyne. 
to brynge the patentes 4 tweyne, [* patents c., St.] 
oonly of fauour, for 5 thy best ; [ 5 to St.] 

ther-vp-on that thou mayst reste, 24308 

and of noon entenci'ou?i 
to take fro the thy bordouw : 
to the, bothe may availle. 

' and, for mor suer sowpewaille, 6 [Ssupewuyiest.] 24312 
to the bordoim spiritual, 
a staf is nedf ul, temporal : 

Euevych of hem with-oute 7 wene, U out c., St.] 

the tother must of ryght susteue ; 24316 

for whan the t6 part cloim doth falle, 
help of the tother he must calle, 
yef hym list hym-self assure. 

but thou ne shalt not 8 wel endure ["not, om.c., st.] 24320 
the felle assautes of vs tweyne ; 
for, we ne shal no longer feyne, 
but (for short conclusion?*) 
ber the to the Erthe a-douw.' 24324 

Pilgrim : 9 E 9 st., om. c.] 

And bothe tweyne, with a brayd*, 
vpon a bed they ha me laydl, 
for they wolde not of me faille, 



Old Age. 
She says 



she'll stay 
with me, 



[leaf 301] 



till Dentil 
comus. 



She has 
brought me 
2 Patents to 
rest on, 



as a temporal 
stuff is 
needed, as 
well as a 
spiritual one. 



But she says 
I shall nut 
endure the 
Assaults of 
her and 
Sickness. 



The Pilffrim. 



They lay me 
on u hud. 



C52 



Lady Mercy will lead me to the Infirmary. 



The Pilgrim. 
[leaf 301, bk.] 



Then the 
lady Mercy, 



Misericord,' 
comes to me, 
with one 
breast bare, 
to give me 
milk, and a 
Cord 



to pull ine 
up. 



Mercy. 

She bids me 
rise and fol- 
low her to 



the Infir- 
mary. 



The Pilgrim. 



Mercy. 

[leaf 302] 
She tells me 
lier occupa- 
tion. 

AVhen Judges 
give sentence, 



ther tabyde, til deth assaille. 

And 1 in distresse and gret affray, 

vpon the bed whil I thus lay, 

I myghte 2 tho no f either gou, 

to ine a lady cam a-noon, 

with ful many noble signe, 

of cher and lok, ful benigne, 

(I dar ryght wel record 1 ,) 

Whos name was ' Myserycordf ; 

oon of hir brestes opon was, 

to yeve me mylk in such a caas. 

And also (as I was war,) 

me sempte that a corde she bar, 

to bynden hay (so thoughte 3 me). 

and, of mercy and pyte, 

to me that lay, like a wrecche, 

She gan hir corde abrood to strecche ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And ful goodly, with that sygne, 
to me she sayd with cher benygne : 

Mysericord: 4 
' Eys a-noon, and sue me, 
for by thy cher, I do wel se 
that thou art feblydl 5 of thy myght, 
and thou list not her a-ryght ; 
Wherfore I wil the fostre and guye, 
and lede the to the fermerye.' 

Pilgrim : 6 

Qziod I, " that were ful glad to me. 
But, for I wot not what ye be, 
I pray you with ful humble cher, 
your name, that ye wil me lore." 

Misericord : 7 

' My name, yef it be conceyved, 
I ought Avel to ben receyued, 
for, whan luges, for offence 
han yove'd? 8 hir sentence, 
I do my peyne and my labour, 
of Justice and of Rigour 
f orto do rcmiss'iouw, 



24328 

[t St.] 

[Stowe, leaf 375] 
P myght St., C.] 24332 



24336 



24340 

thought C., St.] 



24344 






[ St., om. C.] 



24348 



[ 5 feble St.] 



24352 



[ St., om. C.J 



24356 



[7 St., om. C.] 



[ have gyven C.] 24360 



Mercy made God set the Eainlow in the Sides, for Peace. 653 

' and make a mittigac'iourc 24364 

(as folkes may ful wel discerne). 

' for whan the kyng that is eterne, 1 [' eterne St., sterne c.] 




[* yove C., gyven St.] 



24368 



[ 3 and St., on C.] 



24372 



24376 



had yoven 2 in sentement 

a ful dredful lugement 

of Adam and 3 the lynage, 

forto deye for their outrage, 

I cam to hym ful humblely, 

and prayed hym ful benygnely, 

the myghty kyng celestial, 

not forto distruyen al ; 

but that he wold, in his grevauwce, 

modefyen his vengeaunce, 

and to with-drawe his lugement. 

' and his bo we that was bent, 
I made hym drawe of the corde, 
and, for sygnes 4 of concorde, [ sygns c., sygne St.] 24380 
Sette it in the heven alof te ; 
and (as men may se ful ofte) 
In tookne of pes, and not of wrak, 
from vs he tourned? hath his bak, [stowe, leaf 375, back] 
that, of his mercyable lawe, 24385 

he may not the bowe drawe, 
whan of mercy (as it is knowe) 
toward hyra-self he drough the bowe. 24388 

' whan he, for our Inyquyte, 
dyed vpon the rode tre, 
he bought our gilt so sore, 
and vnderstond, ouer more, 
vp nor doun (who loke wel) 
he may not drawe it neuer a del. 
for, of the bowe the discord?, 
vnderstonde by the cord 1 : 
I made hem so forto acorde, 
that called am ' Misericorde.' 
for (yef thou dost 5 wel vnderstond!) 
the stryng therof is in myn hond? : 
thou mayst behold it wel, and se ; 
for, of mercy and of pyte, 
I drawe out wrecches from her charge, 



Adam and 
his children 
to deatli, 



she prayd 
Him 



to withdraw 
His judg- 
ment: 



and she made 
Him 

set his rain- 
bow in the 
heaven, in 
token of 
peace. 



[6-tylfable line] 

[St. AC.] 24392 



24396 



[5 canst St.] 



He drew the 
bow against 
Himself, 
when He died 

on the Cross. 



[leaf 302, bk.] 



She, Mercy, 
made the 
bow and cord 
agree, 



and so her 
nume is 
'Misericord.' 



24400 



She pulls 
wretches out 
from their 
burden, 



G54 Charity ivove Mercy's Rope. Mercy's Milk for Sinners. 



Mercy. 



mercy on 
them. 



The Cordeler 
who wove the 
Cord of Peace 
and Unity . 



was Charity ; 



and without 
it none may 
ascend to 
heaven, for 



by it alone 
can they 
climb up 
there. 



The Pilgrim. 

Why is one 
of your 
breasts bare ? 
asktl. 
[leaf 303] 



ilerey. 

Because you 
have more 
need of my 
milk than of 
gold or silver. 



This milk is 
Mercy and 
Pity, to help 
sinners. 



' and make hem go loos at large. 24404 

' therfore folke's alle .acorde 
to calle me ' Miscricorde ' ; 
of which (by declaraciouw) 

to make an exposic'iouw, 24408 

Misericorde, truely 
ys, on wrecches to han mercy. 

' thus my name l thou shalt knowe ; [' this nam St.] 
I drawe hem vp, whan they ben lowe. 24412 

the cordeler that waf 2 the corde ['wave St.] 

of pes, vnyte, and concorde, 
only on wrecches to han pyte, 
hyr name was called ' Charyte.' 24416 

' and yef the corde wer broke a-sondre, 
ther is no man, (her nor yondre,) 
though he euere dide his peyne, 

that myghte 3 to the heveu atteyne; p myght c., st.] 24420 
for, by this corde (as I the told!) 
alle Synners must hem hold*, 
and playnly clymben vp therby, 
oonly of pyte and mercy.' 24424 

Pilgrim : 4 [* st., om . c.] 

" lady, put me out of doute, 
why ha ye now drawen oute 
Oon of your brest.es fayr and whyte 
(which to behold, I me delyte,) 24428 

like as ye wolde be my bote, 
wasshe me with your mylk most sote 1 " 

Misericord : 5 V st., <>. c.] 

'Truely,' quod she ' (yef ye take hede,) 
of my mylk thou hast mor nede 24432 

(yef the trouthe be iustly told) 
than outher of siluer, outlier 6 of gold, [orst.] 
or of any precious ston, 

forto rekne hem eue?ychon. 24436 

for tin's mylk which thou dost se, [stowe, leaf 376] 
ys called Mercy and Pyte, 
alle Synners to sustene ; 

and to releve hem in their tene, 24440 

it" bryngeth hem in rest and 8 pees. [ & sl'"-om ' c ] 



.This Milk of Mercy, Christ shed widely on the Cross. 655 



' And, like as Aristotiles 
ivritte, that mylk is nothyng elles 
(as alle Philesophres telles) 24444 

but blood, by tmnsmutacioim 
thorugli hete and lent 1 decocci'ouw, [Mytest.] 

tourned away from his rednesse 

to pe/'fectioura of whytenesse ; 24448 

and (to speke in wordes playn) 
this nomore forto sayn, 
that a man that ys irous, 

froward and malencolious, 24452 

hath but red blood : and that rednesse 
may neuere tourne to whitenesse 
(as clerkes sayn,) but yef so be 

it be decoct by charyte, 24456 

that his malicious appetit 
be itourned! into whit, 
thorugh perfect'iourc of hete 

of charyte, that.ys most swete, 24460 

Than the smoke of fals envye, 
the fume eke of malencolye, [St.&c.] 

fieth away, in rednesse, &tyiiabic line 

chaunged clene into whitenesse. 24464 

' and who that drynketh of this mylk 
mor sote and softe than any 2 silk [' tim any c., than St.] 
foryeveth (in a litel space) 

ech offence and trespace 24468 

that men ha gilt hym in his live ; [c. & st.] 

hym list no more ageyn to stryve. 

' of such mylk, most of vertu, 

gret plente hadde crist ihesu ; 24472 

Shewed his brestis of pyte 
whan he was hanged! on a tre. 
he sufficed? tho (it is no doute,) 

the likour for to Renne aboute, 24476 

and for to shede it out yffere 
than he was stonken 3 with a spere, [' stongen St.] 
the syde of his humanyte, 

on alle synful to ha pyte, _' I ISO 

for to wasshe away our vyce. 



Mercy. 

Milk i- blood 
by transmu- 
tation, 
according to 
Aristotle. 



An angry 
man's red 
blood 



can only be 
turnd white 



when decoct 
by Charity. 



[leaf 303, bk.] 



Whoever 
drinks of this 
rnilk forgives 
offences. 



Christ Jesug 
had plenty 
of it 



on the Cross, 



and shed otit 



more than 
mother or 
nurse ever 
gave to child. 



Red blood is 
changed by 
Chanty into 
white milk. 



[leaf 304] 



[* mankynR C., " 

miinky ml St.] 



656 Mercy is pitiful, like her Father God. She does good works. 

' was neuere moder nor noryce 
that gaf such my Ike l her-to-f ore [' myike St., mylk c.] 
to hir child, whan it was bore. 24484 

his brestes, that be most fair and whyte, 
most holy, and fresshest of delyte, 
arn euere open to folke's alle. 

his voyce, 2 synners doth ek calle, [* voyce St., voys c.] 24488 
and bit hem in their herte thenke, 
of his soote mylk to drynke : [stowe, leaf sre, back] 
4 for blod of ire is noon in me, 

but mylk of mercy and pyte,' 24492 

which wassheth away al vengeauwce : 
who hath this mylk, hath suffisaunce. 

' The Rede blood (as folk 3 may se) Pmen St.] 
y-chaunged is, by chary te, 24496 

Into whyte mylk, hoolsom and good, 
shaad for mankynd 4 vpon) the rood ; 
with the which, I fostred and fede 
alle folke's that ha nede, 5 p fedd . . nedde st.] 24500 

such as list, by on acorde, 

for to be 6 drawe with my corde, r* be St., om. c.] 
to alle I am so mercyable, 

to my fader, Resemblable, 24504 

and to my moder Chary te. 

' for whan that I may any se 
In myschief , hunger, outlier thurst, 
hem to fede, it is my lust. 24508 

naked and nedy, that ben lothe, 
I haue in custom hem to clothe ; 
And, gretly I me delyte, 

f oik in prisoun to visyte ; 24512 

and lede, with a glad visage, 
pore folk to their herbegage ; 
And thei that deye in 7 pouerte, p en c., in st.j 

to burye hem, I de"lite me : 24516 

to suche' 8 labour I entende ; f 8 such c., suche St.] 

al thyng amys, I do amende ; 
folke's sike and vnweldy, 

of pyte only and mercy, 24520 

I serve hem in humylite. 



Mercy 
feeds the 
hungry, 



clothes the 
naked, 



visits folk in 
prison, 



buries the 
poor, 



and serves the 
sick. 



I cannot follow Mercy, as I grow feebler and feebler. 657 



'And now I am y come to the, 

In al my beste 1 feythful wyse, p best c., St.] 

forto profre my serayse.' 24524 

Pilgrim : 2 [ 2 st., O m. c.] 

" Ma dame," ([uod I, " as it is due, 
my lust is gretly you to sue ; 
but, for my grete febilnesse, 

which me restreyneth by distresse, 24528 

And, fees massagers 3 also [ 3 messengers St.] 

Causen that I may not go. 
And if ye wold!, of your goodnesse, 
Doon your grete besynesse 24532 

Thes massagers 4 to putte away, [* thes messengers st.] 
I wolde (withoute 5 mor delay) [ 5 without c., st.] 

folwe, in al my best entent, 
to gon at your comandement." 24536 

Misericord : 6 [ st., om, c.] 

' Truely (nouther nygh nor ferre) 
I may not voyde nor differre 
the massagers 7 from thy p? - esence; (7 messengers st.] 
but I shal do my diligence, 24540 

with my corde, the tenbrace, 
and to lede the to the place [stowe, leaf 377] 

which called is the Fermerye. 

the massagers 8 her faste by, 24544 

I ha no myght hem to coharte, 
to maken hem fro the departe. 
til that deth hym-silf assaille, 
tab id en on the, they wil not faylle.' 24548 

Pilgrim : 8 [ st., om . c.] 

Than anoon Myserycorde 
gan tenbrace me in hir corde. 
and the olde, bothe tweyne, 

Were present, and dide hc-r peync 24552 

to brynge me to my bed? anoon, 
and list, not from me fer 9 to goon. [ 9 for St.] 

and therwith-al, auoon ryght 

I gan to feblen of my myghf 2455G 

mor and mor, erly and late, 
til the porter at the gate 

PILGRIMAGE. U U 



Mrrr.u. 



The Pilgrim, 

I tell Mercy 
that I'd fol- 
low her if I 
were not 
feeble 



anil kept back 
by Sickness 
and Age. 



f leaf 304, bk.] 



Jl/erejy. 



She says I 
must go to 
the Infir- 
mary ; 



and the Mes- 

M-nircrs must, 

remain with 

me. 

The Pitt/rim. 



I grow more 

IVeble. 



658 Prayer and Alms come to skmv me the way to Jerusalem. 



The Porter 



The Porter. 
[leaf 305] 

brings me 
two messen- 
gers 

to show me 
the way to 
Jerusalem. 



They are to 
be sent be- 
fore, 



to prepare 
my reception 

I Ill-re. 



These lies- 
Rengers are 
Prayer' and 
Alms.' 



The Pilfjrim. 
But, said I, 



I have no 
possessions, 



[leaf 305, bk.] 



brOUgllte me two maSSagerS, 1 [ l brought C. & St., messengers St.] 

benygne and goodly of her chers. 2 -15 GO 

[The Porter :] [6 lines blan/t for an Illuminalion.] 
Qwod the porter anoon to me : 
' I ha the brought (yef thou lyst se) 
two massagers 1 (it is no nay) 

which shal the teche the ryghte 2 way [* ryght c., st.] 245G4 
to Jerusalem the cite ; 
for (bi tooknes that I se,) 
I conceyve (on eue?-y syde) 

thou mayst her, no while abyde. 24568 

wherfore, to make thy passage, 
Send? hem toforne, on thy massage, 3 [ 3 message St.] 
that thou mayst, by thy sendyng, 
be bet receyved! at thi comyng, 24572 

withouten eny spot of blame, 
and make to hem, in thi name, 
a maner of commyss'iouw, 

and ek a procuraciouw, 24576 

that they may, thorugh their wcrkyng*, 
be receyued! of the kyng 1 
thorugh fauour of their langage, 

to taken vp their herbergage 24580 

In that cyte clestial, 
wlier tlie kyng is eternal. 

' thes ladyes names to expresse, 

they ben Prayer and Almesse ; 24584 

And they ben redy, bothe tweyne, 
In this caas to done her peyne.' 

[The Pilgrim:] 
"Truely," quod I to the porter, 

" I wolde, with al myn hert entier, 24588 

don almes of entenc'iouw ; 
but I ha noo pocess'iouw, 
nor nothyng in propurte, 

but al thyng in co?mnunyte. 24592 

al propurte, I ha forsake, 
And to pouerte me take, 
Of myn 4 ordre, in sothfastnesse. [* st., c. burnt] 

" Wherfore, touchyng such almesse, [stowe, leaf 377, back] 



lam too poor to employ Messengers. The improvident King. 659 






" I ha sothly no powere 24597 The 

to make of hir a niassagere, 

to take herbergage for me 

In that hevenly, chef cyte. 24600 

almes, and al such oother thynges, 

mot ben of lorde's and of kynges 

Sent to-forn to that cyte, 

Yef they wil \vel receyved be, 24604 

ther to make her purveaunce, 

terberwe l hem to their plesaunce. [' to harbour, lodge] 

" for (who-so list the trouthe lere) 
alle estates in this world here 24608 

kynges, prynces, bo the two, 
Dukes, lorde's ek also, 
Reekne hem alle, by and by, 

and thei be pilgrymes as 1 : 24612 

let hem toforn pourveye wel 
forto take vp their hostel, 

Sende her massagers 2 to se [* theyr mesengare st.] 

their herbergage in that cyte, 24616 

that, for lak of providence, 
through slouth, or through necligence, 
they be dispurveyed, at her comyng 1 , 
as Barlam telleth of a kyng 1 , 24620 

which, of custom synguler, 

Reyned? neuere but a 3 yer ponest.] 

In a lond ; and this the ende, 

than of force he must wende 24624 

Into an Ilond! (in certeyn) 
that was of vitaille ful bareyn ; 
and thus this kyng cam to meschaunce, 
for laak oonly of pourveyauuce, 24628 

that he toforn, for his availle, 
lyst to sende no vitaille. 

Ther was noon other menc wey ; [c. & st.] 

for hunger, he must nedc deye. 24632 

"after whom, thus stood the cas, 
that a-nother kyng ther was, 
which shulde 4 for a yer succede ; [ simid c., st.] 
but he was wys, and took good hede, 24G36 



and therefore 
cannot have 
'Alms' as a 
messenger. 



Kings, 
princes, 
dukes and 
lords may 
have such 
messengers. 



Harlam's 
story of a 
King, who 
reijjnd only 
a yeur, 



and then went 
to a barren 
island, 



where he 
came to grief 
Ixvausf lie 
hail made no 
provision for 
himself. 



[iBHfSOC] 

So he died. 



660 Let us all prepare our places in Paradise, as St. Louis did. 



The pilgrim. " whil he stood in haboundauwee, 
forto make his purveyaunce, 
to sende, in the same while, 
vitaille into that bareyn He. 
he was prudent, aforn to se, 
to provide that Scarsete 
sholde sodeynly hym not assaille : 
wherfore, he sent his vitaille 
Into that yle that bareyn was. 

" wherfore, let ech man in such caas, 



His successor 
iuH.li> pro- 
vision during 
his reign, 



and was all 
right. 



24G40 



24644 



So let each 
man provide 
for his entry 
into Para- 
dise, 



as St. Louis 
did, 



and was re- 
ceived into 
the heavenly 
Jerusalem, 



[leaf 306, bk.] 



for hi* 
pruyers, 



his alms, 



[* messengers St.] 
P vitilars St.] 24660 



sen aforn, in his resouw, [.stowe, 

while he stant in pocessi'ouw 246-18 

of his Rewme, by good avys 

to sende aforn to paradys, 

to taken vp, in that cyte, 

herbergage lik his degre ; 24652 

as whilom dede 1 seynt Lowys, [Mydst.] 

the holy kyng that was so wys : 

Whil he hadde domynaciouw 

thorugh-out al his Regions, 24656 

he ne was not necligent, 

but'sent aforn, of good entent, 

his massagers 2 and his corrours, 

his vitaillers, 3 his pourveyours, 

only for his avauntage, 

to taken vp his herbergage 

In that ilke noble Rewm, 4 [ reme st.] 

called hevenly leurusalem ; 24664 

wher he was, for a memorye, 

Receyved 1 forto regne in glorye, 

that holy 5 kyng contemplatif, [ 5 St., c. burnt] 

for the veHues of his lif, 24668 

his pj'ayours and his orysouws, 

his fastynges and deuoci'owjs, 

his mercy meynt with ryghtwesnesse, 

his compassiouws, his almesse, 24672 

of cherches his foundaci'oims, 

and other dyue?'s mansi'ouws 

y-mad for folkes pore and blynde, 

Which, neuere, shal 6 out of mynde : [ shall nevar st.] 24676 



Prayer agrees to be my Messenger to Paradise. 661 

" alle tlies vertues (in substaunce) Thejpuarim. 

made aforn hyiu pourveyaunce ; Tirtue's" dry 

took vp a paleys most Iloyal 

In that cyte celestial, 24680 

for kyng Lowys, that holy man, 

as his lif reherce can, 

wel bet than I can expresse. 

" and for my part, fcouchync almesse, 24684 But l C!inlt 

J r ' make Aim* 

I may not make hir (fer nor ner) 

forto be my massager : l [ l sessengeri!) St.] >y Me8 - 

MfW, 

She nys not pertyneut to me, 

which ha no thyng in propurte, 24688 

but by licence (in certeyn) 

oonly of my souuereyn. 

" \vherf ore (of entenci'ou?*) 
I shal make a commyssiouM 24692 I've no 

property. 

to oon that is prudent ana sage, 

to taken vp myn herbergage : So i must 

. send Prayer 

the name of whom is Jr raver, my mes- 

senger, 
to go toforn as massager." 2 p messenger st.] 24696 



Prayer : 3 p st., om. cj 



Prayer. 



Quod Prayer, ' for thy best, Prayer 

a^i'tt's. 

I wil fulfille thy requeste 

as forforth 4 as I ha myght, [* farfortiie st.] 

and as toforn 5 I ha behyght.' [stowe, leaf 878, back] 24700 

[The Pilgrim] : [ s reason St.] The Pilprim. 

And with that word, anoon Siknesese 

bad hir haste fast, and dresse, [leaf 307] 

withouten eny mor delay, 

forto spede hir on hir way ; 24704 

and without eny longer space, 

for tavoyden anoon the place. 

[Siknesse] : sickn e $$ 

Quod she, ' it is now no sesoim nys H' too 

late to muke 

to maken a comyss'iou/^, 24708 acnni>iision 

now. 

at this tyme, to prayere ; 

for, playnly (who list to lere,) 

bothe at complyn and at pryme, 

it hath be mad afore this tyme ; l' 1712 

or elles, lu;rbergage to wynnc, 



662 Death comes to me. Grace Dieu warns me of my end. 



Sickneu. 
The Pit u rim. 



Death stops 
on my bed, 



and I am in 
great dread. 



[leaf 307. bk.] 
(iraee Dieu 
appears. 



Death tells 
her to make 
baste, 



as he has 
much else 
to do. 



Grace Dieu 
warns me 



that 

Death is 
present, 



' It were to late now to begynue.' 

Pilgrim : 1 C l st., <>.. c.] 

" God me 2 graunte grace and mynde, P me St., om. c.] 
good herbergage forto fynde; 24716 

for now I liaue ynowh to do, 
of veyay constreynt and of wo, 
to remembre on 3 my siknesse." [ 3 oon c., on St.] 

and with that word, ther gan in dresse 24720 

oon vpon my bed! anoon, 
the cruelist of al my foon ; 
of whom in soth, whan I took hede, 
I loste speche, of veray drede : 24724 

I myghte 4 make no questions [ myght c., St.] 

to axen hir condici'ouw, 
she was so dredful of hir chere : 

a sithe she bar, and ek a bere ; 24728 

sette hir foot vpon my brest, 
for to maken on me arest. 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.'] 
but than 5 a lady of gret ve/'tu, I s St., c. burnt.] 

that was called Grace dieu, 24732 

bad hir a wyle lete be, 
whil that 6 she spak a word to me. [ that St., tim c.] 

Deathe : 7 [See the French on p. 665.] u st., om. c.] 
' Sey on, and tarye neue>- a del ; 

for I may not abiden wel. 24736 

I haate soothly al taryyng ; 
and I ne love non abidyng. 
the cause is this, (who taketh hede) 
I ha mo thynges forto spede, 24740 

In other places mo than oon ; 
wherfore telle on, for I mot goon.' 

[Grace Dieu] : 8 [" Pilgrim st., om.c.] 

Grace' dieu, hir look she layde 

Vp-on me, and thus she sayde : 24744 

' thou stanst vpon) a streyt passage, 
now as in thy pilgremage. 
Deth is present, as thou maist se, 
fro the which, no man may fle. 24748 

she is of contynauwce odyble, [stowe, leaf 379] 



Death will give me to the Worms, and part Soul & Body. 663 



' and of thynges most terryble ; 

she is the encle of euery thyng ; 

and now she cast, at hir commyng, 24752 

thy lif 1 playnly, as thou shalt knowe, [' seife St., ta vie DeG.] 

with hir sithe vp to mowe : 

And afterward, this the fyn, 

to putte the in hir coffyn ; 24756 

and after, of entencioim, 

to yeve the in pocessioiw 

to worm es (as thou shalt ek knowe,) 

that liggen in the erthe lowe ; 24760 

the which (as I wel telle can) 

Is common to euery man. 

' ther may no man, of no degre, 

hygh nor lowh, his power fle. 24764 

for, lych as herbes and as floures, 
that spryngen with soote 2 shoures p oot c., St.] 
bothe in ApriH and in May, 

and afterward (it is no nay,) 24768 

with a sythe (who list to knowe,) 
they ben on erthe leyd ful lowe, 
and far-wel then al their fresshnesse ! 
farwel her colour and grenesse ! 24772 

It not appereth, her nor there, 
the hoote Sonne maketh hem Sere ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Ther colours and their fressh aray, 
al ys tourned into hay. 24776 

' and, thou, that so longe be 
Grene and lusty forto se, 
Deth (his power for to kythe,) 

wil abatyn with his sythe 24780 

thy grenesse, and ek also 

parten the on 3 peces two, [ 3 in st.j 

The soule, the body, her and yonder, 
and maken hem to parte assondre. 24784 

for, playnly, as thou shalt lere, 
they may, as now, not gon yfere ; 
the soule muste 4 go tofore, [* must c., st.j 

and the body shal be bore, 24788 



Grace Dieu. 



and means 
to mow my 
life down, 



put me in a 
coffin, 



and give me 
uu to worms. 



This end is 
common to 
all men, 



[leaf 308] 



as tlie flowers 
fall before the 
scythe. 



Death will 



divide my 
soul and body 
asunder, 



664 / must pray for mercy. Death swings his Scythe at me. 

Grace pieu. ' In erthe to haue his mans'ioim, 

and tourne to corrupc'iouw; 
to i>e joined and afterward, be wel certeyn, 

afterwards 

etemaiiy. loynod with the soule ageyn, 24792 

and ben to-gidre eternally. 
i must be ' Now loke that thou be ful redy : 

ready. 

[leufsos.bk.] for yf 1 ther be no lak iu the, [' St., c. burnt] 

thou shalt go streyht to the 2 cyte [wutst.] 24796 

Of the kyngdom and the Rewm 

that called ys Jerusalem, 

to which thy pilgremage was sette. 
i Have come ' thou art come to the wyket 24800 

to the wicket. . . J 

(Which is gynnyng* of thy labour,) 

thpw 3 beheld in a myrrour, [ 3 thow st., c. burnt] 

whan thow were ful tendre of age, [st. & c.] 

at gynnyng of thy pilgrymage ; 24804 

and therfor 4 noAV thou art sette [* St., c. burnt] 

at the boundes of the wyket, 

i must first I consaille the, first to crye 

for mercy, Vnto my Fadre for me?'cye, 24808 

promising beliotyng the lady dame Penaunce, 

ance yef thou ha not in suffisauuce 

Don to her, whil thou wer here, 

lustly and truely thy devere; 24812 

thou art in wil, at thy party ng*, 

thorugh grace and mercy of the kyng 1 , 

that Kegneth eternally in glory e, 

to make up It to fulfille in purgatorye : [st.&c.] 24816 

my default i . 

Purgatory, ther tabiden in that place, 

tyll the lord 1 wil do the grace, 

of his mercy, at the laste.' 

ne pilgrim. And, for the tyme cam on faste, 24820 

My speech and my speche gan to faille, 

begins to fail. 

I thoughte it j fooly for tasaille ['it st.,ac.] 

Grace dieu with questi'ouws, 

with demandes or 6 resouns. [fiandst.j 24824 

And (as I coude ek wel discerne) 
Death swings Deth abood! at the posterne, 

his scythe at A 

n; and gan to lete goon his sythe, 

his cruel myght on me to kythe, 24828 



I get so frightend that I wake out of my Sleep. 



665 



And gan so streytly me coharte, 
That the soule mot departe. 
And, such a feer anoon me took, 
Out of my slep that I a-wook. 



The Pityrim. 



my Soul 
must go. 
[leaf 809] 

24832 I awake. 



The last sayings of Death, Grace Dieu, and the Pilgrim are, in De Guileville's French 
(Petit's edition, Foeillets xcj. 4 xcij. 2) : 

LA MORT. Que, se n'en as a souffisance 

OR dictes tost done / ce dist elle, 24735 Fait / volentiers tu la feras 
Car moult ie he longue vielle : 24737 En purgatoire, ou tu iras. 
Prestement me vueil deliurer, 
Car autre part me fault aler. 24741 

LE PELERIN'. 

^1 Adonc vint grace dieu a moy, 
Et me dist doulcemeut, Or voy. 



24810 
24813 
24816 



LE PELERIN. 



OR vous dy ie / que lors se i'eusse 



GRACE DIEU. 

IT Je voy bien, qu'a 1'estroit passaige 
Tu es de ton peleriuaige. 
Voicy la Mort, qui de pres t'est, 
Qui, des choses terribles est 
La fin / et le terminement. 
J Ta vie, tantost faulcher entent, 
Et la mectre du tout a fin ; 
Et puis ton corps en vng cofin 
Elle mectra, pour le bailler 
Aux vers puans, pour le manger. 
Ceste chose est toute commune 
A tout chascun et a chascune : 
Homme, en ce monde, est expose 
A la mort, comme 1'herbe au pre 
Est a la faulx / aussi est feyn, 
Qui huy est verd / et sec demain ; 
Or as este verd vng long temps, 
Et si as receu pluyes et vens ; 
Mais fault maintenaut te faulchier, 
Et en deux pieces despiecer. 



_ Peu bien parler / que ie luy eusse 24821 

24743 Fait des demandes dont i'auoye 24824 

24744 Grant doubte / et que pas ne sauoie, 

1 Folie est d'actendre au besoing, 24822 
Car souuent on cuide que loing [' Fo. xcij. 2] 

24746 Soit la mort ; qu'elle est aux postis, 24826 

24747 Bieu ie le seen / ie fuz soubzpris. 



24750 La mort laissa sa faulx courir, 

24751 Et me fist du corps departir. 
24753 Ce me sembla en ce moment, 

[> Fo. xcij] Si que, de 1'espouentement 

24756 Esueille et desdormy fu, 

24758 Et me trouuay si esperdu, 

24759 Qu'auiser ie ne me pouoie 

24761 Se ia mort ou en vie i'estoie, 

24762 Jusqu'a tant que i'ouy sonner 
L'orologe de nuyt, pour leuer ; 

24765 Et aussi lors chantoient les cocqs ; 
24769 Pour quoy, leuer me cuiday lors; 

Mais ne pen / car fuz retenu 

24772 De la grant pensee ou ie fu 

24766 Pour le myen aduentureux songe, 
24780 Ou qnel, se quelque vne mensonge 
24782 Estoit meslee ou contenue, 



24827 
24830 



24832 
[not englisht} 



L'huys est estroit/ 1'ame / et la cher 24783 Ou qui fust de peu de value. 



Ne pourroient ense7iible passer. 
L'anie premiere pasaera, 
Et puis apres la chair yra. 
Mais si tost ne sera ce mie ; 
Auant sera la chair pourrie, 
Et autre fois regeneree 
En la grant commune assemblee. 
Doncques regarde se apoinetey 
Deuement tu es, et appareilley. 
S'a toy ne tient, tantost verms 
La grant cite ou tendu as. 
Tu es au guichet et a 1'huys 
Que ou inirouer pieca tu vis. 
Se tu es despoille et nuz, 
Dedans tantost seras receuz. 
Celle entree tu auoies moult diier, 
Lors quant tu la vis au premier ; 
Et toutesfois, tant ie te dy, 
Qu'a nion pere tu cryes mercy, 
Eii prometant a penitence, 



24786 Nul esmerueiller ne s'en doit, 

24787 Car iamais froment on ne voit 

24788 Croistre / qu'entour paille n'y aye, 
Jusques que dehors on Ten traye ; 

24790 Par quoy, s'en mon songe y a grain, 
24792 Et aueeques paille ou estrain 

y ait / ce qu'est bon / soit garde ; 

24794 Ce que n'est bon, soit hors vonne. 
Que ne dy pas tant seulement 

24795 Pour ce premier liure present, 

24796 Dont cy endroit ie feray fin, 
24800 Pour me reposer en chemin, 
24802 Mais aussi pour ce que s'eiisuit, 

Ou tout le grain en paille gist, 

Que recommande aux bons venneurs, 

Qui sceuent hors venner erreurs. 

24807 IT La fin du premier pelerinaige 

24808 Do I'liomme dunuit 

24809 En vie . Deo gratias." 
















- 



PRATT 

DEC 1 u i- 
AU6 31984