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University of California Berkeley 



THE 



PILGEIMAGE 



OF THE 



LYF OF THE MANHODE 



THE 



PILGRIMAGE 



OF THE 



LYF OF THE MANHODE, 



FROM THE 



FRENCH OF GUILLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE. 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM ALDIS WEIGHT, M.A., 

LIBRARIAN OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



PRINTED FOR THE 




LONDON: 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SONS, 25, PARLIAMENT STREET. 



MDCCCLXIX. 









Club, 




THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND 
QTJEENSBERRY, E.G., 



PRESIDENT. 



HIS EXCELLENCY MONSIEUR VAN DE WEYER. 

MARQUIS OF LOTHIAN. 

EARL OF CARNARVON. 

EARL OF POWIS, V.P. 

EARL BEAUCHAMP. 

EARL OF CAWDOR. 

LORD DUFFERIN, K.C.B. 

LORD HOUGHTON. 

LORD ORMATHWAITE. 

SIR STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNE, BART. 

SIR EDWARD HULSE, BART. 

SIR JOHN SIMEON, BART. 

SIR WILLIAM STIRLING MAXWELL, BART. 

SIR JAMES SHAW WILLES. 

HENRY BRADSHAW, ESQ. 

REV. WILLIAM EDWARD BUCKLEY. 

PAUL BUTLER, ESQ. 

REV. WILLIAM GEORGE CLARK. 

REV. HENRY OCTAVIUS COXE. 



FRANCIS HENRY DICKINSON, ESQ. 

GEORGE BRISCOE EYRE, ESQ. 

CHARLES GRIFFITH WYNNE FINCH, ESQ. 

THOMAS GAISFORD, ESQ. 

HENRY HUCKS GIBBS, ESQ. 

GRANVILLE LEVESON GOWER, ESQ. 

RALPH NEVILLE GRENVILLE, ESQ. Treasurer. 

JOHN BENJAMIN HEATH, ESQ. 

KIRKMAN DANIEL HODGSON, ESQ. 

ROBERT STAYNER HOLFORD, ESQ. 

ALEX. JAMES BERESFORD HOPE, ESQ. 

HENRY HUTH, ESQ. 

JOHN COLE NICHOLL, ESQ. 

EVELYN PHILIP SHIRLEY, ESQ. 

CHRISTOPHER SYKES, ESQ. 

SIMON WATSON TAYLOR, ESQ. 

GEORGE TOMLINE, ESQ. 

CHARLES TOWNELEY, ESQ. 



ftortmrgi)* Cluft. 




1812. PRESIDENT. 
1. GEORGE JOHN, EARL SPENCER. 



1812. 2. WILLIAM SPENCER, DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. 

1812. 3 GEORGE SPENCER CHURCHILL, MARQUIS OF BLANDFORD. 

1817. DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. 
1812. 4. GEORGE GRANVILLE LEVESON GOWER, EARL GOWER. 

1833. MARQUIS OF STAFFORD. 

1833. DUKE OF SUTHERLAND. 
1812. 5. GEORGE HOWARD, VISCOUNT MORPETH. 

1825. EARL OF CARLISLE. 
1812. 6. JOHN CHARLES SPENCER, VISCOUNT ALTHORP. 

1834. EARL SPENCER. 

1812. 7. SIR MARK MASTERMAN SYKES, BART. 

1812. 8. SIR SAMUEL EGERTON BRYDGES, BART. 

1812. 9. WILLIAM BENTHAM, ESQ. 

1812. 10. WILLIAM BOLLAND, ESQ. 

1829. SIR WILLIAM BOLLAND. KNT. 
1812. 11. JAMES BOSWELL, ESQ. 
1812. 12. REV. WILLIAM HOLWELL CARR. 
1812. 13. JOHN DENT. ESQ. 
1812. 14. REV. THOMAS FROGNALL DIBDIN. 
1812. 15. REV. HENRY DRURY. 



1812. 16. FRANCIS FREELING, ESQ. 

1828. SIR FRANCIS FREELING, BART. 
1812. 17. GEORGE HENRY FREELING, ESQ. 

1836. SIR GEORGE HENRY FREELING, BART 
JOSEPH HASLEWOOD, ESQ. 
RICHARD HEBER, ESQ. 
REV. THOMAS CUTHBERT HEBER. 
GEORGE ISTED, ESQ. 

22. ROBERT LANG, ESQ. 

23. JOSEPH LITTLEDALE, ESQ. 

1824. SIR JOSEPH LITTLEDALE, KNT. 
1812. 24. JAMES HEYWOOD MARKLAND, ESQ. 
1812. 25. JOHN DELAFIELD PHELPS, ESQ. 
1812. 26. THOMAS PONTON, ESQ. 
1812. 27. PEREGRINE TOWNELEY, ESQ. 
1812. 28. EDWARD VERNON UTTERSON, ESQ. 
1812. 29. ROGER WILBRAHAM, ESQ. 
1812. 30. REV. JAMES WILLIAM DODD. 
1812. 31. EDWARD LITTLEDALE, ESQ. 




1816. 32. GEORGE HIBBERT, ESQ. 
1819. 33. SIR ALEXANDER BOSWELL, BART. 
1822. 34. GEORGE WATSON TAYLOR, ESQ. 
1822. 35. JOHN ARTHUR LLOYD, ESQ. 

1822. 36. VENERABLE ARCHDEACON WRANGHAM. 

1823. 37. THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY. 

1827. SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART. 

1827. 38. HON. AND REV. GEORGE NEVILLE GRENVILLE. 

1846. DEAN OF WINDSOR. 

1828. 39. EDWARD HERBERT, VISCOUNT CLIVE. 

1839. EARL OF POWIS. 

1830. 40. JOHN FREDERICK, EARL OF CAWDOR. 

1831. 41. REV. EDWARD CRAVEN HAWTREY, D.D. 
1834. 42. SIR STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNE, BART. 
1834. 43. BENJAMIN BARNARD, ESQ. 

1834. 44. VENERABLE ARCHDEACON BUTLER, D.D. 

1836. SAMUEL, LORD BISHOP OK LICIIF1EJ.D 



1835. PRESIDENT. 

EDWARD HERBERT, VISCOUNT CLIVE. 
1839. EARL OF POWIS. 



1835. 45. WALTER FRANCIS, DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEEXSBERRY. 

1836. 46. RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD FRANCIS EGERTON. 

1846. EARL OF ELLESMERE. 

1836. 47. ARCHIBALD ACHESON, VISCOUNT ACHESON. 

1849. EARL OF GOSFORD. 
1836. 48. BERIAH BOTFIELD, ESQ. 

1836. 49. HENRY HALLAM, ESQ. 

1837. 50. PHILIP HENRY STANHOPE, VISCOUNT MAHON. 

1855. EARL STANHOPE. 

1838. 51. GEORGE JOHN, LORD VERNON. 

1838. 52. REV. PHILIP BLISS, D.C.L. 

1839. 53. RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR JAMES PARKE, KNT. 

1856. LORD WENSLEYDALE. 
1839. 54. REV. BULKELEY BANDINEL, D.D. 
1839. 55. WILLIAM HENRY MILLER, ESQ. 

1839. 56. EVELYN PHILIP SHIRLEY, ESQ. 

1840. 57. EDWARD JAMES HERBERT, VISCOUNT CLIVE. 

1848. EARL OF POWIS. 

1841. 58. DAVID DUNDAS, ESQ. 

1847. SIR DAVID DUNDAS, KNT. 

1842. 59. JOHN EARL BROWNLOW. 

1842. 60. HONOURABLE HUGH CHOLMONDELEY. 

1855. LORD DELAMERE. 
SIR ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, BART. 
ALEXANDER JAMES BERESFORD HOPE, ESQ. 
REV. HENRY WELLESLEY. 
ANDREW RUTHERFURD, ESQ. 

1851. LORD RUTHERFURD. 
1846. 65. HON. ROBERT CURZON, JUN. 
1846. 66. GEORGE TOMLINE, ESQ. 

1846. 67. WILLIAM STIRLING, ESQ. 

1866. SIR WILLIAM STIRLING MAXWELL, BART. 

1847. 68. FRANCIS HENRY DICKINSON, ESQ. 




1848. PRESIDENT. 
WALTER FRANCIS, DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY, K.G. 



1848. 69. NATHANIEL BLAND, ESQ. 

1848. 70. REV. WILLIAM EDWARD BUCKLEY. 



1849. 71. REV. JOHN STUART HIPPISLEY HORNER. 

1849. 72. HIS EXCELLENCY MONSIEUR VAN DE WEYER. 

1849. 73. MELVILLE PORTAL, ESQ. 

1851. 74. ROBERT STAYNER HOLFORD, ESQ. 

75. PAUL BUTLER, ESQ. 

76. EDWARD HULSE, ESQ. 

1855. SIR EDWARD HULSE, BART. 

1853. 77. CHARLES TOWNELEY, ESQ. 

1854. 78. WILLIAM ALEX. ANTH. ARCH. DUKE OF HAMILTON AND BRANDON. 
79. HENRY HOWARD MOLYNEUX, EARL OF CARNARVON. 

1855. 80. SIR JOHN BENN WALSH, BART. 

1868. LORD ORMATHWAITE. 

81. ADRIAN JOHN HOPE, ESQ. 

82. RALPH NEVILLE GRENVILLE, ESQ. 

1856. 83. SIR JOHN SIMEON, BART. 

84. SIR JAMES SHAW WILLES, KNT. 

1857. 85. GEORGE GRANVILLE FRANCIS, EARL OF ELLESMERE. 

86. AVILLIAM SCHOMBERG ROBERT, MARQUIS OF LOTHIAN. 

87. FREDERICK TEMPLE, LORD DUFFERIN. 

1858. 88. SIMON WATSON TAYLOR, ESQ. 
89. THOMAS GAISFORD, ESQ. 

1861. 90. JOHN FREDERICK VAUGHAN, EARL CAWDOR. 

1863. 91. GRANVILLE LEVESON GOWER, ESQ. 
92. HENRY BUCKS GIBBS, ESQ. 

1864. 93. RICHARD MONCKTON, LORD HOUGHTON. 

94. CHRISTOPHER SYKES, ESQ. 

95. REV. HENRY OCTAVIUS COXE. 

96. REV. WILLIAM GEORGE CLARK. 

97. REV. CHARLES HENRY HARTSHORNE. 

98. JOHN COLE NICHOLL, ESQ. 

99. GEORGE BRISCOE EYRE, ESQ. 
100. JOHN BENJAMIN HEATH, ESQ. 

1866. 101. HENRY HUTH, ESQ. 

102. HENRY BRADSHAW, ESQ. 

1867. 103. FREDERICK, EARL BEAUCHAMP. 
104. KIRKMAN DANIEL HODGSON, ESQ. 

1868. 105. CHARLES GRIFFITH WYNNE FINCH, ESQ. 



&ojdburgi)r Club. 



CATALOGUE OF THE BOOKS 



PRESENTED TO 



AND PRINTED BY THE CLUB. 



LONDON: 



MDCCCLXIV. 



CATALOGUE. 



Certaine Bokes of VIRGILES Aenaeis, turned into English Meter. 
By the Eight Honorable Lorde, HENRY EARLE OF SURREY. 

WILLIAM BOLLAND, ESQ. 1814. 

Caltha Poetarum ; or, The Bumhle Bee. By T. CUTWODE, ESQ. 

RICHARD HEBER, ESQ. 1815. 

The Three First Books of OVID de Tristibus, Translated into 
English. By THOMAS CHURCHYARDE. 

EARL SPENCER, PRESIDENT. 1816. 

Poems. By RICHARD BARNFIELD. 

JAMES BOSWELL, ESQ. 1816- 

DOLARNEY'S Primerose or the Eirst part of the Passionate Hermit. 

SIR ERANCIS EREELING, BART. 1816. 

La Contenance de la Table. 

GEORGE HENRY EREELING, ESQ. 1816. 

Newes from Scotland, declaring the Damnable Life of Doctor Eian, 
a notable Sorcerer, who was burned at Edenbrough in lanuarie 
last 1591. 

GEORGE HENRY EREELING, ESQ. 1816- 

A proper new Interlude of the World and the Child, otherwise 
called Mundus et Infans. 

VISCOUNT ALTHORP. 1817. 

HAGTHORPE Revived ; or Select Specimens of a Eorgotten Poet. 

SIR SAMUEL EGERTON BRYDGES, BART. 1817. 



4 

Istoria novellamente ritrovata di due nobili Amanti, &c. da LTJIGI 
PORTO. 

REV. WILLIAM HOLWELL CARR. 1817. 

The Euneralles of King Edward the Sixt. 

REV. JAMES WILLIAM DODD. 1817. 

A Roxburghe Garland, 12mo. 

JAMES BOSWELL, ESQ. 1817. 

Cock Lorell's Boat, a Fragment from the original in the British 
Museum. 

REV. HENRY DRTJRY. 1817. 

Le Livre du Eaucon. 

ROBERT LANG, ESQ. 1817. 

The Glutton's Eeaver. By THOMAS BANCROFT. 

JOHN DELAFIELD PHELPS, ESQ. 1817. 

The Chorle and the Birde. 

SIR MARK MASTERMAN SYKES, BART. 1818. 

Daiphantus, or the Passions of Love. By ANTONY SCOLOKER. 

ROGER WILBRAHAM, ESQ. 1818. 
The Complaint of a Lover's Life. 
Controversy between a Lover and a Jay. 

REV. THOMAS FROG ALL DIBDIN, VICE PRESIDENT. 1818- 

Balades and other Poems. By JOHN GOWER. Printed from the 
original Manuscript, in the Library of the Marquis of Stafford, 
at Trentham. 

EARL GOWER. 1818. 

Diana ; or the excellent conceitful Sonnets of H. C., supposed to 
have been printed either in 1592 or 1594. 

EDWARD LITTLEDALE, ESQ. 1818. 

Chester Mysteries. De Deluvio Noe. De Occisione Innocentium. 

JAMES HEYWOOD MARKLAND, ESQ. 1818. 



Ceremonial at the Marriage of Mary Queen of Scotts with the 
Dauphin of Prance. 

WILLIAM BENTHAM, ESQ. 1818. 

The Solempnities and Triumphes doon and made at the Spousells 
and Marriage of the King's Daughter the Ladye Marye to the 
Prynce of Castile, Archduke of Austrige. 

JOHN DENT, ESQ. 1818. 

The Life of St. Ursula. 
Guiscard and Sigismund. 

DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. 1818. 

Le Morte Arthur. The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Du Lake. 

THOMAS PONTON, ESQ. 1819. 

Six Bookes of Metamorphoseos in whyche hen conteyned the Pahles 
of OVYDE. Translated out of Prensshe into Englysshe by 
WILLIAM CAXTON. Printed from a Manuscript in the Library 
of Mr. Secretary Pepys, in the College of St. Mary Magdalen, 
in the University of Cambridge. 

GEORGE HIBBERT, ESQ. 1819. 

Cheuelere Assigne. 

EDWARD VERNON UTTERSON, ESQ. 1820. 

Two Interludes : Jack Jugler and Thersytes. 

JOSEPH HASLEWOOD, ESQ. 1820. 

The New Notborune Mayd. The Boke of Mayd Emlyn. 

GEORGE ISTED, ESQ. 1820. 
The Book of Life ; a Bibliographical Melody. 

Dedicated to the Eoxburghe Club by RICHARD THOMSON. 

8vo. 1820. 

Magnyfycence : an Interlude. By JOHN SKELTON, Poet Laureat to 
Henry VIII. 

JOSEPH LITTLEDALE, ESQ. 1821. 



6 

Judicium, a Pageant. Extracted from the Towneley Manuscript of 
Ancient Mysteries. 

PEREGRINE EDWARD TOWNELEY, ESQ. 1822. 

An Elegiacal Poem, on the Death of Thomas Lord Grey, of Wilton. 
By ROBERT MARSTON. From a Manuscript in the Library of 
The Eight Honourable Thomas Grenville. 

VISCOUNT MORPETH. 1822. 

Selections from the Works of THOMAS RAVENSCROFT; a Musical 
Composer of the time of King James the First. 

DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. 1822. 

LLELII PEREGRINI Oratio in Obitum Torquati Tassi. Editio 
secunda. 

SIR SAMUEL EGERTON BRYDGES, BART. 1822. 

The Hors, the Shepe, and the Ghoos. 

SIR MARK MASTERMAN SYKES, BART. 1822. 

The Metrical Life of Saint Eobert of Knaresborough. 

REV. HENRY DRURY. 1824. 

Informacon for Pylgrymes unto the Holy Londe. From a rare 
Tract, in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh. 

GEORGE HENRY FREELING, ESQ. 1824. 

The Cuck-Queanes and Cuckolds Errants or the Bearing Down the 
Inne, a Comsedie. The Faery Pastorall or Forrest of Elues. 

By W P , ESQ. 

JOHN ARTHUR LLOYD, ESQ. 1824. 

The Garden Plot, an Allegorical Poem, inscribed to Queen Eliza- 
beth. By HENRY GOLDINGHAM. From an unpublished Manu- 
script of the Harleian Collection in the British Museum. To 
which are added some account of the Author ; also a reprint of 
his Masques performed before the Queen at Norwich, on 
Thursday, August 21, 1578. 

VENERABLE ARCHDEACON WRANGHAM. 1825. 



La Rotta de Erancciosi a Terroana novamente facta. 
La Rotta de Scocesi. 

EAIIL SPENCER, PRESIDENT. 1825. 

Nouvelle Edition d'un Poeme sur la Journee de Guinegate. 

Presented by the MARQUIS DE EORTIA. 1825. 

Zuleima, par C. PICHLER. 12mo. 

Presented by H. DE CHATEAUGIRON. 1825. 

Poems, written in English, by CHARLES DUKE OF ORLEANS, during 
his Captivity in England after the Battle of Azincourt. 

GEORGE WATSON TAYLOR, ESQ. 1827. 

Proceedings in the Court Martial, held upon John, Master of 
Sinclair, Captain-Leiutenant in Preston's Regiment, for the 
Murder of Ensign Schaw of the same Regiment, and Captain 
Schaw, of the Royals, 17 October, 1708 ; with Correspondence 
respecting that Transaction. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART. 1828. 

The Ancient English Romance of Havelok the Dane ; accompanied 
by the Erench Text : with an Introduction, Notes, and a 
Glossary. By EREDERIC MADDEN, ESQ. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1828. 

GAUFRIDI ARTHURII MONEMUTHENSIS Archidiaconi, postea vero 
Episcopi Asaphensis, de Vita et Vaticiniis Merlini Calidonii, 
Carmen Heroicum. 

HON. and REV. G. NEVILLE GRENVILLE. 1830. 

The Ancient English Romance of William and the Werwolf; edited 
from an unique copy in King's College Library, Cambridge ; 
with an Introduction and Glossary. By EREDERIC MADDEN, 
ESQ. 

EARL CAWDOR. 1832. 



8 
The Private Diary of WILLIAM, first EARL COWPER, Lord Chan- 



cellor of England. 



REV. EDWARD CRAVEN HAWTREY. 1833. 



The Lyvys of Seyntes; translated into Englys be a Doctour of 
Dyuynite clepyd OSBERN BOKENAM, frer Austyn of the Convent 
of Stockclare. 

VISCOUNT CLIVE, PRESIDENT. 1835. 

A Little Boke of Ballads. 

Dedicated to the Club by E. V. UTTERSON, ESQ. 1836. 

The Love of "Wales to their Soueraigne Prince, expressed in a true 
Relation of the Solemnity held at Ludlow, in the Countie of 
Salop, upon the fourth of November last past, Anno Domini 
1616, being the day of the Creation of the high and mighty 
Charles, Prince of Wales, and Earle of Chester, in his Maiesties 
Palace of White-Hall. 

Presented by the HONOURABLE R. H. CLIVE. 1837. 

Sidneiana, being a collection of Fragments relative to Sir Philip 
Sidney, Knight, and his immediate Connexions. 

BISHOP OP LICHPIELD. 1837. 

The Owl and the Nightingale, a Poem of the twelfth Century. 
Now first printed from Manuscripts in the Cottonian Library, 
and at Jesus' College, Oxford; with an Introduction and 
Glossary. Edited by JOSEPHUS STEVENSON, ESQ. 

SIR STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNE, BART. 1838. 

The Old English Version of the Gesta Romanorum : edited for the 
first time from Manuscripts in the British Museum and Uni- 
versity Library, Cambridge, with an Introduction and Notes, by 
SIR EREDERIC MADDEN, K.H. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1838. 



Illustrations of Ancient State and Chivalry, from MSS. preserved 
in the Ashmolean Museum, with an Appendix. 

BENJAMIN BARNARD, ESQ. 1840. 

Manners and Household Expenses of England in the thirteenth and 
fifteenth Centuries, illustrated by original Records. 1. House- 
hold Roll of Eleanor Countess of Leicester, A.D. 1265. 
II. Accounts of the Executors of Eleanor Queen Consort of 
Edward I. A.D. 1291. III. Accounts and Memoranda of Sir 
John Howard, first Duke of Norfolk, A.D. 1462 to A.D. 1471. 

BERIAH BOTFIELD, ESQ. 1841. 

The Black Prince, an Historical Poem, written in Erench, by 
CHANDOS HERALD ; with a Translation and Notes by the REV. 
HENRY OCTAVIUS COXE, M.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1842. 

The Decline of the last Stuarts. Extracts from the Despatches of 
British Envoys to the Secretary of State. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1843. 

Vox Populi Vox Dei, a Complaynt of the Comons against Taxes. 
Presented according to the Direction of the late 

RIGHT HON. SIR JOSEPH LITTLEDALE, KNT. 1843. 

Household Books of John Duke of Norfolk and Thomas Earl of 
Surrey; temp. 1481 1490. Erom the original Manuscripts 
in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, London. Edited 
by J. PAYNE COLLIER, ESQ., E.S.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1844. 

Three Collections of English Poetry of the latter part of the Six- 
teenth Century. 

Presented by the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K.G. 1845. 



10 

Historical Papers, Part I. Castra Regia, a Treatise on the Suc- 
cession to the Crown of England, addressed to Queen Elizabeth 
by ROGER EDWARDS, Esq., in 1568. Novissima Straffordii, 
Some account of the Proceedings against, and Demeanor of, 
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, both before and during 
his Trial, as well as at his Execution; written in Latin, by' 
ABRAHAM WRIGHT, Vicar of Okeham, in Rutlandshire. The 
same (endeauord) in English, by JAMES WRIGHT, Barrister 
at Law. 

REV. PHILIP BLISS, D.C.L., and REV. BTJLKELEY BANDINEL. 1846. 

Correspondence of SIR HENRY UNTON, KNT., Ambassador from 
Queen Elizabeth to Henry IV. King of France, in the years 
MDXCI. and MDXCII. Erom the originals and authentic 
copies in the State Paper Office, the British Museum, and 
the Bodleian Library. Edited by the REV. JOSEPH STEVENSON, 
M.A. PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1847. 

La Vraie Cronicque d'Escoce. Pretensions des Anglois a la 
Couronne de Erance. Diplome de Jacques VI. Roi de la 
Grande Bretagne. Drawn from the Burgundian Library, by 
Major Robert Anstruther. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1847. 

The Sherley Brothers, an Historical Memoir of the Lives of Sir 
Thomas Sherley, Sir Anthony Sherley. and Sir Robert Sherley, 
Knights, by one of the same House. Edited and Presented by 

EVELYN PHILIP SHIRLEY, ESQ. 1848. 

The Alliterative Romance of Alexander. Erom the unique Manu- 
script in the Ashmolean Museum. Edited by the REV. 
JOSEPH STEVENSON, M.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1849. 



11 

Letters and Dispatches from SIR HENRY WOTTON to James the 
Eirst and his Ministers, in the years MDCXVII XX. 
Printed from the Originals in the Library of Eton College. 

GEORGE TOMLINE, ESQ. 1850. 

Poema quod dicitur Vox Clamantis, necnon Chronica Tripartita, 
auctore JOHANNE GOWER, mine primum edidit H. O. COXE, 
M.A. PRINTED TOR THE CLUB. 1850. 

Eive Old Plays. Edited from Copies, either unique or of great 
rarity, by J. PAYNE COLLIER, Esq., E.S.A. 

PRINTED TOR THE CLUB. 1851. 

The Romaunce of the Sowdone of Babylone and of Eerumbras 
his Sone who conquerede Rome. 

THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, PRESIDENT. 1854. 

The Ayenbite of Inwyt. Erom the Autograph MS. in the British 
Museum. Edited by the REV. JOSEPH STEVENSON, M.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1855 

John de Garlande, de Triumphis Ecclesise Libri Octo. A Latin 
Poem of the Thirteenth Century. Edited, from the unique 
Manuscript in the British Museum, by THOMAS WRIGHT, ESQ., 
M.A., E.S.A., Hon. M.E.S.L., &c. &c. 

EARL OF Powis. 1856. 

Poems by MICHAEL DRAYTON. Erom the earliest and rarest Edi- 
tions, or from Copies entirely unique. Edited, with Notes and 
Illustrations, and a new Memoir of the Author, by J. PAYNE 
COLLIER, ESQ., E.S.A. PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1856. 

Literary Bemains of KING EDWARD THE SIXTH. In Two Volumes. 
Edited from his Autograph Manuscripts, with historical Notes, 
and a Biographical Memoir, by JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, E.S.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1857. 



12 

The Itineraries of WILLIAM WEY, Fellow of Eton College, to Jeru- 
salem, A.D. 1458 and A.D. 1462 ; and to Saint James of Com- 
postella, A.D. 1456. Prom the original MS. in the Bodleian 
Library. PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1857. 

The Boke of Noblesse ; Addressed to King Edward the Fourth on 
his Invasion of Erance in 1475. With an Introduction by 
JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, E.S.A. 

LORD DELAMERE. 1860. 

Songs and Ballads, with other Short Poems, chiefly of the Reign of 
Philip and Mary. Edited, from a Manuscript in the Ashmo- 
lean Museum, by THOMAS WRIGHT, ESQ., M.A., E.S.A., &c. &c. 

ROBERT S. HOLFORD, ESQ. 1860. 

De Uegimine Principum, a Poem by THOMAS OCCLEVE, written in 
the Reign of Henry IV. Edited for the first time by THOMAS 
WRIGHT, Esq., M.A., E.S.A., &c. &c. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1860. 

The History of the Holy Graal ; partly in English Verse by Henry 
Lonelich, Skynner, and wholly in Erench Prose by Sires 
Robiers de Borron. In two volumes. Edited, from MSS. in 
the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and the 
British Museum, by FREDERICK J. EURNIVALL, Esq., M.A., 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1861 AND 1863. 

Boberd of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, written A.D. 1203; with 
the Erench Treatise on which it is founded, Le Manuel des 
Pechie} by William of Waddington. Erom MSS. in the British 
Museum and Bodleian Libraries. Edited by FREDERICK J. 
FURNIVALL, Esq., M.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1862. 



13 

The Old English Version of Partonope of Blois. Edited for the 
first time from MSS. in University College Library and the 
Bodleian at Oxford, by the REV. W. E. BUCKLEY, M.A., 
Rector of Middleton Cheney, and formerly Rector of Brasenose 
College. PRINTED FOB, THE CLUB. 1862. 

Philosophaster, Como3dia ; Poemata, auctore Roberto Burtono, 
S. Th. B., Democrito Juniore, Ex JMe Christi Oxon. 

REV. WILLIAM EDWARD BUCKLEY. 1862. 

La Queste del Saint Graal. In the French Prose of Maistres 
Gautiers Map, or Walter Map. Edited by FREDERICK J. 
FURNIVALL, Esq., M.A., Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1864. 

A Royal Historic of the excellent Knight Generides. 

HENRY HUCKS GIBBS, ESQ. 1865. 

The Copy-Book of Sir Amias Poulet's Letters, written during his 
Embassy in France, A.D. 1577. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1866. 

The Bokes of Nurture and Kervynge. 

HON. ROBERT CURZON. 1867. 

A Map of the Holy Land, illustrating Wey's Itineraries. 

PRINTED FOR THE CLUB. 1867. 

Historia Quatuor Regum Anglise, authore Johanne Herdo. 

SIMON WATSON TAYLOR, ESQ. 1868. 

Letters of Patrick Ruthven, Earl of Forth and Brentford, 
1615 1662 DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, PRESIDENT. 1868. 



THE following English prose version of Le pelerinage de la vie 
humame is printed from a manuscript in the University Library, 
Cambridge, formerly in the possession of Bishop Moore, of which 
the class-mark is Ef. 5. 30. The MS. is on vellum, and consists of 
136 folios, numbered from 5 to 140. It was probably written about 
the year 1430, a century after the composition of the original poem. 
The version is slavishly faithful, so much so as to be occasionally 
obscure ; French idioms being literally rendered, and the order of 
the words to a great extent preserved. The divisions of the lines of 
the poem are indicated in the manuscript by the signs ( : ) and ( . ) 
It has not seemed worth while to reproduce these marks of division 
in the text, as they might be misleading, and therefore punctuation 
of any kind has been omitted. The numbers in square brackets 
indicate the commencement of each folio of the MS. Excepting in 
these two points, and in the substitution of ' th ' for ' ]?,' which 
almost invariably represents the heavier sound of * th ' as in ' this,' 
the manuscript has been literally followed. 

Of the translator nothing whatever is known. That he lived and 
wrote after the time of Chaucer may be inferred from his adopting 
that poet's verse translation of the alphabetical acrostic which is 
found on pp. 165 170 of this volume, and is known as Chaucer's 
ABC, or La Priere de nostre Dame, traditionally said to have 
been written at the request of Blanche Duchess of Lancaster. An 

a 



ii PREFACE. 

English verse translation of Le pelermage de la vie humaine is attri- 
buted to Lydgate. The acrostic poem he tells us had been rendered 
from the French by his ' mayster Chaucer,' whose version he therefore 
' ymped ' or grafted upon his own. Two MSS. of Lydgate's transla- 
tion are in the Cottonian Collection in the British Museum, Tiberius, 
A. vii. (foil. 39106), and Vitellius, C. xiii. (foil. 2308). Both 
have been injured by fire, and the former is very imperfect. In 
the latter a blank is left for the insertion of Chaucer's acrostic. 
Lydgate's version was made, as he himself tells us, by the command 
of the Earl of Salisbury, Thomas de Montacute, in the year 1426, 
the Earl being then in Paris. It is this poem unquestionably which 
is mentioned in the list of Lydgate's works at the end of Speght's 
edition of Chaucer (1598) as having been ' in the custodie of him 
that first caused this Siege of Thebes to be added to these works of 
G. Chaucer.' This was John Stowe, who superintended the edition 
of Chaucer's works published in 1561, which first contained e The 
Siege of Thebes.' The poem is called in Speght's or Stowe's list 
the * Pilgrimage of the World, by commandemeiit of the Earle of 
Salisbury, 1426,' and Lydgate himself speaks of it as ' Pylgrymage 
de Movnde.' Copious extracts from it are given in an interesting 
volume called ' The Ancient Poem, of Guillaume de Guilleville, en- 
titled Le Pelerinage de l'Homme, compared with the Pilgrim's 
Progress of John Bunyan, edited from notes collected by the late 
Mr. Nathaniel Hill.' 

Warton (Hist, of English Poetry, iii. 163, ed. 1S24) suggests that 
' The Peregrination of Mannes Lyfe/ enumerated by Skelton among 
his prose works, may have been a translation ' from the French, 
perhaps of Guillaume prior of Chaulis.' He adds, however, doubt- 
fully, But it should be observed that Pynson printed Peregrinatio 
Humani Generis, 1508, 4to.' It is difficult to see what is the reason 
for "Warton's hesitation. The book printed by Pynson was either 



PREFACE. Ill 

in English, like the colophon in Herbert's Ames, or in Latin like 
the title. If the former, it might have been Skelton's. If the 
latter, it could have had nothing to do with it, as Skelton expressly 
says he translated from the Erench (G-arlande of Laurell, 11. 1219 
1222 ; Works, vol. i. p. 410, ed. Dyce) : 

' Of my ladys grace at the contemplacyoun, 

Owt of Frenshe into Englysshe prose, 
Of Mannes Lyfe the Peregrynacioun 

He did translate, enterprete, and disclose.' 

But it now appears that the Peregrinatio Humani Generis is not in 
prose but ' in ballad verse or stanzas of seven lines ' (Ames, Typ. 
Ant. ed. Dibdin, ii. 430), and therefore is not by Skelton. A doubt 
still remains whether his translation was made from the original 
poem, or from the prose version of it by Jean Gallopes, of which 
mention will be made subsequently. 

Of the author of the poem there is little more known than of 
his translator. That he was a monk of the Cistercian abbey of 
Chaalis, which was founded in the twelfth century by St. Louis, in 
the diocese of Senlis ; that the name of his father was * Thomas of 
Guilevile ;' that he composed his first pilgrimage in the years 1330 
and 1331, and that he was at that time thirty-six years old, we 
learn from the present volume (pp. 1, 90, 7, 79, 87). He was named 
Guillaume after his patron St. William, formerly abbot of Chaalis 
(p. 63). Erom the prose version of Le pelerinage de Fame, made 
by ' Jehan Galloppes dit le Galoys,' we find that he was prior of 
the abbey, ' Guillaume prieur de 1'abbaye de Chaaliz.' (Manuscrits 
du Eonds Erancais, torn. i. p. 61, n. 602.) According to De Visch 
(Bibliotheca Scriptorum S. Ordinis Cisterciensis, p. 122, ed. 1649) 
he was a Parisian by birth ; * Guillielmus, cognomento de Guilld- 
villd, natione Parisiensis, monachus et Prior Chalisii, seu Caroli 



iv PREFACE. 

loci.' * Lydgate, in his translation of the passage which corresponds 
to that at p. 90 of this volume, has, 

' God ys thy ffader tak Led her to, 
And thow art hys sone also 
Most excellynge off kynrede, 
That euere was w* oute drede 
Most noble & off grettest style 
ffor off Thomas de guillevyle 
Thow art nat sone on that party 
I dar afferme and seyn trewly.' 

(MS. Cott. Vitellius, C. xiii. fol. 147.) 

The MS. of Les trois pelerinages in the British Museum (Add. 
22937) has : 

Ne cuydes pas que soies fil 
De thomas de guilleuille. 

In the printed edition (Le romant des trois Pelerinaiges, Paris, 
sine anno) the corresponding passage is (fol. 44 6, col. 2), 

Et ne cuides pas que soyes filz 
De thomas dit de delguiuille, 

* A curious blunder is made by La Croix du Maine (Bibl. Franc, i. 329), who says, 
' selon aucuns, il etoit natif de Chaaliz, et moine de Pontigny-fille,' a statement which is 
simply due to a misunderstanding of the lines which form the first stanza of the prologue 
of the Monk of Clairvaux, who corrected the press for the undated Paris edition of the 
poem. What he says is perfectly clear : 

Cy sensuit le noble romant 
Du peleri bo et vtile 
Compose bien elegament 
Par guillaume de deguileuille 
De chaliz / de pontigny fille 
Moyne / de lordre de cisteaux. 

Pontigny being the mother abbey of Chaalis. 



PREFACE. V 

the last word being no doubt a misprint for ' deguiluille.' In the 
same volume are three acrostic poems, one in each pilgrimage, in 
which the name of the author is given as ' Guillermus de Deguile- 
villa.' The first of these is in eight-line stanzas, the lines being 
alternately Latin and Erench, and the acrostic is formed by the 
initial letters of the stanzas (foil. 84, 85). The second is the same, 
except that the lines are alternately Erench and Latin (fol. 101). 
The third is entirely Erench, and is in stanzas of twelve lines (fol. 
1676 169) . Of these the first is not found in the British Museum 
MS., which apparently belongs to what is called the first recension. 
The second begins at fol. 84, and the acrostic forms the name 
' Guillermus de deguileuilla.' The third begins at fol. 1516. 

The MSS. of both the first and second recensions, if we may trust 
the account of such as are in the Imperial Library, Paris, which is 
given in the catalogue already referred to, differ in the form in 
which they represent the name of the author. In a MS. of the first 
recension (n. 823), which is dated 1393, it is ' Guillermus de Guile- 
villa,' while the others (n os . 824, 1139, 1647) have * Guillermus de 
Deguilevilla.' A sixth MS. of the same recension calls him ' Guil- 
lermus de Desguilleville;' but this is of no authority, as the form is 
only given as it appears in the colophon, and moreover it is quoted 
by M. Paulin Paris (Les Manuscrits Erancais, vi. 371) as ' Guillaume 
de Deguilleville.' A seventh (n. 376), which is apparently the 
earliest MS. of the first recension, belonging to the end of the 14th 
century, has another form, ' Guillermus de Deguillevilla.' All the 
MSS. of the second recension (377, 825, 829, 1138, 1648) agree 
in calling the author Guillermus de Deguillevilla or de Deguilevilla. 
In the description of n. 1649, which is a manuscript of the first 
pilgrimage, he is called Guillaume de Guillerville. Jean Gallopes 
in his prose version, Le livre du pelerinage de vie humaine (n. 1137), 



VI PREFACE. 

calls him ' Frere Guillaume de Guilleuille.' finally, in the printed 
editions, which represent the second recension alone, his name 
appears as ' Guillaume de Deguileuille,' and this form appears to 
have the strongest evidence in its favour. There is a small village 
in France, called Guilleville, on the road from Orleans to Chartres, 
from which either * de Guilleville ' or ' de Deguileville ' might ori- 
ginally have been derived, but there is no evidence for connecting 
our author with it either as a place of birth or residence. 

The date of his death is unknown, but he was alive as late as 
1358, when he composed his Third Pilgrimage, as he tells us in the 
prologue to that poem. The second recension of his First Pilgrimage 
appears to have been completed about the year 1355, twenty- 
five years after its original composition, for in the prologue, as it 
appears in the printed editions, he mentions the year of his first 
dream as 

Lan mil troys cens diz par trois foiz, 

and afterwards adds, 

Disant a tous comment mauint 
Passe a des ans vingt cinq 
Ou monastere de chaliz 
Qui fut fonde par sainct loys, 

which is interpreted by M. Paulin Paris (Les Manuscrits Frangais, 
vi. 358) as fixing 1355 for the date of the second recension. 

The three poems were printed at Paris by B. Rembolt in a 4 to. 
volume without date, about the beginning of the 16th century, 
under the following title : ' Le romant des trois Pelerinaiges. Le 
premier pelerinaige est de Ihomme durat quest en vie. Le second 
de lame separee du corps. Le tiers est de nostreseigrir iesus/ en 
forme de monotesseron : cestassauoir les quatre euagiles mises en 
vne : et le tout magistralement/ cointemet & si vtilemet pour le 



PREFACE. vii 

salut de lame quon ne pourroit mieulx dire ne escpre. fait et 9pose 
p frere guillaume d' deguileuille en son viuat moyne de chaaliz de 
lordre de cisteaux.' Prefixed to the poem is the Prologue du cor- 
recteur,' a monk of Clairvaux, who appears to have superintended 
the printing. He speaks rather contemptuously of the prose version 
of Jean Gallopes, though without mentioning his name, as having 
been made from an imperfect form of the poem. 

Encor ceste translation 

A este tyree et extraicte 

De la premiere ediction 

De lacteur questoit imperfaicte 

Ainsi que luy mesme latteste 

Euidemment en son prologue. 

The name of this monk of Clairvaux, who superintended the 
printing of the undated Paris edition of Le romant des trois Pele- 
rinaiges, is commonly said to be Pierre Virgin, but this is un- 
doubtedly a mistake. Pierre Virgin corrected the press for the 
prose version of Jean Gallopes, which was printed at Lyons by 
Mathieu Huss in 1499, and he could not be the same with the 
monk who spoke of this very version in such disparaging terms in 
his prologue. The error seems to have been made in some later 
edition than I have seen of the Bibliotheca Scriptorum S. Ordinis 
Cisterciensis by Charles de Visch, for that of 1649 merely mentions 
the editor of the Paris edition as ' quendam religiosum Clarseval- 
lensem, virum eruditum.' Goujet, in his Bibliotheque Pranyoise, ix. 
74, refers to de Visch as his authority for the statement that Pierre 
Virgin, a monk of Clairvaux, revised, retouched, and published 
the three pilgrimages of Guillaume de Deguileville after the death 
of the author. His reference shows that he had another edition 
before him. The monk speaks of the poem as one which by reason 



V111 PREFACE. 

of its great age had become corrupt, and gives the following account 
of his own labours upon it : 

Jadis fut fait a lequite 
En bonne rime et mesuree 
Mais par treslongue antiquite 
A este beaucop deprauee 
Puis de present bien reparee 
'A moult grans peines et trauaulx 
Et a forme deue redigee 
Par lung des moynes de cleruaulx. 

The error by which the monk of Clairvaux has been identified with 
Pierre Virgin, the corrector of the Lyons edition of Gallopes' prose 
version, seems to have arisen from a misunderstanding of the colo- 
phon of that book, which is thus given by Brunet : ' Cy finist ce 
liure intitule le pelerin de vie humaine par messire pierre Virgin 
diligentement veu et corrige iouxte le style de celluy qui la tourne 
de rime en prose.' This clearly shows that by Pierre Virgin the 
book was f diligently seen and corrected,' according to the version 
of Jean Gallopes, that he probably lived in Lyons, and that there is 
nothing to identify him with the monk of Clairvaux who saw the 
Paris edition of the poem through the press. As the labours of the 
latter appear to have been simply editorial, he is not likely to have 
had anything to do with the acrostics which occur in the poems, 
which may therefore be depended upon as determining the poet's 
name to have been Guillaume de Deguileville. 

The prose version of Le pelerinage de vie humaine was under- 
taken at the request of Jeanne de Laval by Jean Gallopes, who 
then describes himself as simply a clerk of Angers. Goujet (Bibl. 
Prang, ix. 91) identifies Jeanne de Laval with Jeanne queen of 
Jerusalem and Sicily, Duchess of Anjou and Bar, and Countess of 



PREFACE. IX 

Provence, who died 22 May, 1382. But though it is undoubtedly 
true that Jeanne Queen of Naples, the possessor of these titles, died 
at the date given by Goujet, she certainly was not Jeanne de Laval. 
There was a Jeanne de Laval, widow of the Conne'table du 
Guesclin, who was the second wife of Gui XII., Sire de Laval, 
and died 23 December, 1433. She would thus be a contemporary 
of Jean Gallopes, who was afterwards chaplain to John Duke of 
Bedford, Regent of Prance, at whose command he transposed Le 
p&lerinage de Vdme into French prose, and who died in 1435. In a 
MS. of Gallopes' Pelerinage de vie humaine in the Imperial Library 
at Paris (n. 1646), the colophon states that it was written ' a la 
requeste de noble damoiselle Jehanne Maillart, dame de Savegnies.' 
As in another MS. in the same Library (n. 1137) the version is said 
to have been made ' a la requeste de . . . Jehanne de Laval,' I infer 
that Jehanne de Laval is identical with Jehanne Maillart, dame de 
Savegnies, and that whether or not she be the same with the widow 
of du Guesclin, she cannot be Jeanne I., the notorious Queen 
of Naples. 

Of Jean Gallopes, who appears to have been of English origin, 
nothing is known beyond what has been already mentioned, except 
that he was dean of the ancient collegiate church of St. Louis de la 
Saulsoye, or la Saussaye, in the diocese of Evreux (Paulin Paris, Les 
Manuscrits Francois, v. 131, 132), and that he was surnamed e le 
Galoys.' Indeed it is not quite certain whether he was dean or canon, 
for M. Paris calls him first by one and then by the other of these titles. 

These works of Gallopes, the latter of which must have been 
executed between the years 1422 and 1435, the translation of the 
Eirst Pilgrimage by Lydgate in 1426, and the translation of the 
Second Pilgrimage, in part also probably by Lydgate, in 1413, which 
was printed by Caxton in 1483 under the title of The Pilgremage 

b 



X PREFACE . 

of the Sowle, all combine to show that in the first quarter of the 
15th century the allegories of Guillaume de Deguileville had 
become popular both in Prance and England. To this period the 
translation now printed for the first time must be referred. 

It is not within the scope of the present Preface to discuss a 
question which has been raised, as to how far Bunyan may have 
been indebted to this allegory for the idea and even the details of 
his Pilgrim's Progress. But it is at least worthy of remark that in 
the 17th century there was copied and circulated in manuscript 
a condensed English version of Guillaume de Deguileville' s first 
pilgrimage. In the University Library, Cambridge, there is a small 
volume of 242 pages, of which the class-mark is Ef. 6. 30. The 
title is ' The Pilgrime, or the Pilgrimage of Man in this "World. 
Wherein y e Authour doth plainly and truly sett forth y e wretchednes 
of mans life in this World, without Grace, our sole Protectour. 
Written in y e yeare of X*. 1331.' The colophon is as follows : 
' Written according to y e first copy. The originall being in St. 
John's Coll. in Oxford, and thither given by Will. Laud, Archbp 
of Canterbury, who had it of Will. Baspoole, who, before he gave to 
y e Archbp the originall, did copy it out. By which it was verba- 
tim written by Walter Parker, 1645, and fro thence transcribed by 
G. G. 1649. And fro thence by W. A. 1655.' The original here 
referred to is the Laud MS. quoted in the notes, and is now in the 
Bodleian Library, among the Laud MSS. n. 740. It is not likely 
that Bunyan ever saw this, or the Glasgow MS. in the Hunterian 
Museum (Q. 2, 25), or the MS. from which the present volume is 
printed, or that in the library of St. John's College, Cambridge 
(G. 21), but he may at some time have fallen in with a little volume 
like that described above. 

With regard to the Notes a few words of explanation are ne- 
cessary. * The St. John's MS.' frequently referred to, is that which 



PREFACE. XI 

has been just mentioned. It contains a translation of the poem 
which is clearly distinct from that here given, and is written in a 
Northern dialect. The variations between the two translations are 
necessarily so numerous that it was impossible to give them all ; 
only such therefore have been quoted as were characteristic or 
threw light upon difficulties. The Laud MS., so far as I have 
examined it, agrees much more closely with that in the University 
Library. I regret that I have not had an opportunity of consulting 
the Glasgow MS. ; but from a specimen of it, for which I am indebted 
to the kindness of Mr. D. Donaldson, Grammar School, Paisley, I 
infer that it belongs to the same type as the text of the present 
volume. The only MS. of the original Erench to which I have had 
access is that in the British Museum (Add. 22937), and my quota- 
tions therefore are entirely taken from it. It is beautifully written 
in a hand of the middle of the 15th century, and is embellished with 
exquisite illuminations. In a MS. note at the beginning Sir Frederic 
Madden has written, s This volume appears to have been executed 
for Claude de Montaigu, Seigneur de Couche, Knt. of the Golden 
Eleece, whose arms appear on ff. 1, 26, 29 b , &c. He died in 1470. 
His wife was Louise de la Tour, daughter of Bertrand Baron de la 
Tour d'Auvergne. She died in 1472.' Claude de Montaigu was 
made Knight of the Golden Eleece at Bruges in 1468, at the same 
time with Edward IV. of England. The MS., as the armorial 
bearings show, was written before this date. In another note it is 
said to have belonged to a Due de Rochefort, whose name it bears. 
It was purchased for the museum at Mr. Dawson Turner's sale on 
June 7, 1859. The Paris edition, which is sometimes quoted in 
the Notes and Glossary, is the undated edition already referred to. 
Another was printed at Paris by Antoine Verard in 1511, but I have 
not had access to it. A Spanish version of the Eirst Pilgrimage 
by ' Erey Vincentio Mazuello ' was printed in 1490 at Tolosa. 



xii PREFACE. 

In the Glossary, which has assumed much larger dimensions than 
I anticipated, I have endeavoured to record all the interesting 
forms of words which occur in the text, as well as to explain the 
words which are obsolete. 

I cannot conclude without expressing my obligations to Mr. 
Henry Bradshaw, University Librarian, Cambridge, for the valuable 
assistance he has rendered me whenever I have had occasion to 
consult him in the course of the work. To M. Prancisque Michel, 
and to Mr. N. E. Hamilton of the British Museum, I am indebted 
for their kindness in helping me to information on points connected 
with the original French ; and to the Rev. J. E. B. Mayor, Fellow 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, for enabling me to have free 
access to the MS. of the Pilgrimage in his College Library. 

WILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, 
3 June, 1869. 



THE PILGBIMAGE OF 
THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



[PABT L] 



[5] To THILKE of this regiown whiche han noon hows but alle as 
seith seynt Poul be thei riche be thei poore be thei wise other 
fooles be thei kynges other queenes alle thei ben pilgrimes j wole 
shewe yow a sweuene that bifelle me the toother day I hadde 
in wakinge rad and considered and wel seyn the faire romaunce of 
the Hose And j trowe wel that that were thing that most moovede 
me to mete this swevene which j wole after shewe yow Now 
cometh neer and gadereth yow to gideres alle folk and herkeneth 
wel Let ther be no man nor womman that drawe bakward Alle 
thei shulden putten hem forth alle thei shulden sitte and herkne for 
this towcheth alle bothe grete and smale with outen any owt taken 
In englishe j haue set it so that lewede mowe vnderstande it and 
ther inne may he wight lerne whiche wey men shulden taken and 
which forsake and leue and that is thing that miche nedeth to 
thilke that in pilgrimage gon in this wyilde worlde Now vnder- 
standeth the swevene that bifelle me in religioun at the abbey of 
Chaalit as j was in my bed 

Me thowhte asj slepte that j was a pilgrime and that j was 
stired to go to the citee of Jerusalem in a mirour And me 
thouhte it was gret with oute mesure I hadde aperseyued and 
seyn thilke citee from ferre and me thouhte it of riht gret aray 
the weyes and the aleyes of thilke citee bothe with inne and 
abowte weren paved with gold the foundement and the masoun- 
rye of the citee was set on hy and of newe stones it was mad 
And an hy wal enclosede it aboute Many ther were with inne of 
howses of places and of dwellinges ther was al gladshipe ioye with 

B 



2 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

oute sorwe ther hadde iche wight shortliche to passe me general- 
liche of alle goodshipes more than euere thei cowde aske or thinke 

cap. iii. But it discounforted me michel that eche wyght entred not at 
his wille For the entre whiche was right strongliche kept Cherubyn 
was porter ther ate which heeld in his hand a foorbushed swerd 
wel grownden with two sharpe egges al skirmynge and turnynge 
Wei he coude helpe him ther with Eor ther is noon kan he neuere 
so miche on the bokelere that ther mighte passe that ded other 
wounded he shulde be In so michel that the prince of the cite for 
he hadde manhode he receyuede deth at the passinge and hadde 
the spere in his side and lefte his blood in parage al thouh he ouhte 
no raunsome And so diden also hise knyhtes hise chaumpiouns his 
sowdiours Alle thei drunken of his chalys and alle thei resseyueden 
deth at the passage At the kernelles ouer the yate of whiche the 
porter forbereth noon j seyh the penselles hanginge steyned red 
with blood Whan j hadde aperceyued al that j sih that entre there 
j muste needes if ther were noon oother passage And algates bi 
thilke wey j seyh non but passe Eche was agast whan he hadde 
seen cherubyn but hennes forthward he may wel putte his bren- 
nynge swerd in safetee 

cap. iv. But right as j lyfte myne eyen an by and biheeld a wol gret 
wunder j sigh wher of j was gretliche abashed Seint Austyn j sigh 
an by on the kernelles and sat and wel semede a foulere other [(3] a 
feedere of briddes With him he hadde many oothere grete maistres 
and doctours that holpen to feede the briddes For for the feedinge 
that thei hadden and the seed that thei shadden bi croumede mor- 
celles and here swete songes and faire many folk bicomen briddes 
and after fly en euene up right Many certeyn j seigh of jacobines 
of chanownes and of Augustines and of alle manere of folkes lewed 
and seculere clerkes and of religiouns and of beggeres and of needy 
that gadered hem fetheres and maden hem grete wynges and sithen 
bigunnen to flee and for to clymbe bye in to the citee Aboue 
cherubyn thei flyen Wherfore thei tooken no keep of his dawn- 



THE LYF OP THE MANHODE. 3 

gere Als soone as on that oother side j turnede my sight and my 
biholdinge yit more j wundrede me of a thing that j seygh Aboue 
the walles of the citee j seygh oothere folk of auctoritee that holpen 
here aqueyntees and bi sleyghtes putten hem in First j seih seint 
Beneyt That on hy ayenst the walles hadde a gret ladder dressed 
Wher inne weren stiked twelve degrees of humblisse bi whiche 
cloumben wel swiftliche in to thilke citee thilke that weren of hise 
folke monk blake and greye and white with oute yndertakinge of any 

After j seyh seint fraunceys that wel shewed hym freend to ca ? v - 
thilke of his religioun For as j hadde in metinge a corde wel 
writhen that bi places was knet he hadde set dounward the wal bi 
which eche that was his aqueyntee ran up Ther was noon were 
hise handes neuere so enoynted that he ne ran up soone j nowh and 
he gripede faste to the knottes Many oothere on the walles j seih 
of which j am not siker to telle yow alle the names nor how thei 
maden here aqueyntes clymbe thider on alle sides For only my 
lookinge was upon the side that was to me ward Ferthere mint j 
not see wherfore me forthouhte sore But so miche j sey yow short- 
liche that in the wal that was to me ward j seih a dore litel and 
streyt which the king of the citee made keepe in equitee The keye 
ther of he hadde taken to seint Peeter in whom he wel triste and 
certeyn wel mihte triste in him For ther bi he ne suifrede noon to 
passe but oonli poore folk For thilke that lyeth nouht hadde seyd 
that the riche mighte not entre there no more than a camele miht 
passe thoruh the eye of a nedele The entre was wunder subtile 
and eche wight onclothed him and naked him at the entringe 
There men miht en fynde olde robes gret plente For ther bi passede 
non clothed but if he badde on the kynges robes And thilke 
passeden aldai whan euere thei wolden Miche likede me this 
passage for the commune avauntage that alle folk hadden there if 
thei bi camen verrey poore Ther was no daungere so men wolden 
despoile hem and here olde robes leue with oute for to haue newe 
with inne the cloos This citee ouhte wel to like yow For there is not 

B2 



4 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

miche to doone ther was neuere noon so riche that he ne may be 
poore if he wole And certeyn good it is to be it for to entre ther 
bi in to swich a dwellinge And good it were to faste a litel for 
to haue ful saulee at the sopere Now haue j seid yow shortlych 
j nowh of the faire citee how in the faire mirour j aperceyued it 
And therfore to go j meeved me For thider j wolde be a pilgrime if 
j mihte elles where see as j mette Noon [7] reste j seygh but wel 
me thouhte that gret reste j shulde haue had if j hadde be with 
inne the cloos Neuere thouhte j to departe fro thens if j mihte 
fulliche come thider 

cap. vi. As j hadde thouht this anoon after j bithouhte me that me failede 
scrippe and burdoun and that me needed to haue hem For it is 
thing wel sittinge to eche walkinge pilgrime thanne j ysede me out 
of myn hous in whiche j hadde ben ix. monethes of the sesoun with 
outen any ysinge A bordoun j bigan to seeche and a scrippe neces- 
sarie to that j hadde to doone 

cap. vii. And as j wente wepinge and bimenynge me seechinge where j 
mihte fynde a marchaunt that mihte helpe me ther of j seygh a 
lady in my wey of hire fairnesse she dide me ioye She seemede 
douhter to an emperour or to a king or to sum oother gret lord 
She hadde on a rochet beten with gold and was gert with a grene 
tissue that was as me thouhte al along arayed with charbuncles 
On hire brest she hadde a broche of gold and in the middes ther 
of ther was an amelle and in the middes ther of a sterre wher 
of certeyn j hadde gret wunder Hire bed was cor owned with 
gold And al aboute envir owned with gret foisoun of shinynge 
sterres Wurthi he was certeyn that hadde yive it hire and so arayed 
hire Curteis she was as me thouhte For she saluede me first 
and askede me goodliche what j wente so seechinge And thanne 
j was al abashed For j hadde not lerned that a ladi of so gret aray 
shulde deyngne to caste hire chere to meward But anoon j 
avisede me that as j hadde lerned and woot wel that who that hath 
in him most bountee hath in him most humblesse and the mo 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. O 

appelen the tre bereth the more she boweth to the folk Humblesse 
is the signe of goode hertes and of benyngne And ho that bereth 
not in him thilke banere hath not in him hool bountee Thanne 
j answerde hire and tolde how it was bifalle me that j was excited 
to go to the citee of Jerusalem but that j was sori bi as miche as j 
hadde neither scrippe ne burdoun and that j wente seechinge hem 
and askinge hem heere and there And she answerde and seide 
My freend quod she if thow wolt heere goode tidinges of that that 
thou seech est come with me For ther bifel the neuere so gret good 
as that thou hast founde me and met with me heere to day For j 
wol helpe the a noon of al that euere thou hast neede 

And thanne a noon j miht no lengere holde me that what euere cap. 
bifel me I ne wolde wite al bothe hire name and what she was 
Ladi quod j youre name youre cuntre and youre regioun and who 
ye ben al j wolde fain in sooth wite and praye yow ye wole telle 
al to me And j trowe j shal be the gladdere And thanne she 
answerde me and seyde In time j wole telle it thee j wol nother 
be to thee doutows ne suspeccious I am doubter to the emprour 
that is lord aboue alle oothere He hath sent me in to this cuntre 
for to gete him freendes Nouht for that he hath neede to hem 
but for that it were him riht leef to haue the aqueyntaunce of alle 
folk and that oonliche for here owen profite Seeste quod she 
how j am arayed and dight queynteliche with charbuncles and with 
sterres thow seye neuere noone fairere And that is for to yive 
light to alle tho that wolen take the weye bi nyghte [8] And it is 
that eche wight fynde me as wel bi day as bi nihte and bi nihte 
as bi day so that thei doo no folye I am thilke that thou shuld- 
est seeche whan thou gost in to straunge londe For as longe as 
thou hast me in cumpanye thou miht haue no better freend If 
thou gost with oute me in this cuntre it may not be that thou ne 
be bihated bothe of my fader the grete kinge and of alle tho that 
ben with him Ther may no wight do wel with oute me I am 
needeful to alle folk The world hadde ben lost er this ne hadde j 



6 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

mayntened it Who so hath me with him no thing faileth him 
And who hath not me alle thinge faileth him I am gouernouresse 
of alle thinge and of alle harmes j am leche I make the blynde see 
and yive strengthe to the feeble I reise tho that ben fallen j redresse 
thilke that han forfetid and j wole withdrawe me fro no folk but 
from hem that sinnen dedly and of swiche j haue no cure as longe 
as thei ben in swich vnclennesse Grace dieu j am cleped ne oother 
wyse am j not nempned Whan thou shalt haue neede of me ' so 
thow shalt clepe me and certeyn that shal be riht ofte er thou come 
fulliche to the citee that thou hast seyn Eor thou shalt fynde 
lettinges and mischeeves of aduersitees and encombraunces which 
thou miht not passe with oute me nother thou ne noon oother leeue 
me right wel And thouh thou mihtest passe foorth or eskape with 
out me which thing may not be yit j sey thee that in to the 
dwellinge of Jerusalem thou shalt not entre with oute me ne sette 
thi foot ther inne Eor althouh thou haue seyn many thinges and 
aperceyued that summe entren al naked and that summe fleen in bi 
aboue and that summe entren bi sleyhtes and summe oothere bi 
Cherubyn ther entreth noon but bi me be thou riht siker For thilke 
that ben naked j make hem. vnclothe hem with oute for to clothe 
hem the bettere ayen with inne Oothere j make fethere with my 
vertues for to flee wel and thanne afterward thei flee as j wole this 
thou hast well seyn at eye Oothere j putte in the beste wise j can to 
assaye so that alle j make hem passe in and entre Now thou miht 
wite with oute dredinge whether myn aqueyntance be good if thee 
like it sey it anoon and let thi speche no lengere be hyd 

cap. ix. And thanne anoon j answerde Lady j crye yow mercy for the loue 
of god that with yow ye wole aqueynte me and that ye wole neuere 
leue me ther is no thing so necessarie to me to that that j haue to 
doone And gretliche j thanke yow that goodliche ben come first 
to me for my goode I haue of nouht elles neede Now ledeth me 
wher ye wole j pray yow tarieth nouht 

cap x. Thanne she took me in thilke same houre and taryede me no 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 7 

lengere but ledde me in to an hows that was hires And she seide 
and tolde me that there j shulde fynde al that j hadde neede of 
She hadde founded thilke hous and masowned it as she seyde xiij . c. 
yer and xxx. hifore that time as she wiste wel I seyh thilke hows 
with good wille and yit at the sihte j abashed me For it heeng al on 
hy in the eyr and was bi twixe the heuene and the eerthe riht as 
thouh it hadde come thider and alight from the heuene It hadde 
steples and faire toures and his aray was riht fair But it discoun- 
forted me riht michel ther was a water bifore it and that needes j 
muste passe [9] it if j wolde entre in to the hous Ship ne bregge ne 
plaunke was ther noon and yit the water was deep as j aperceyued 
wel after whan j was al plounged ther inne And thanne j bigan 
to speke to grace and askede how j miht askape and whi ther was 
suich passage and if ther were owher elles any oother and that bi 
ordre she shulde say me what good that water shulde do me 

Thanne she answerde thow what seiste quod she art abasht cap. 
for so litel? thou wolt go in to Jerusalem and thou shuldest passe 
the grete see The grete see is the world heere which is right ful 
of gret anoye of tempestes and of tormentes and of gret wyndes 
And how mihtest thou passe it whan thou hast gret drede of so 
litel? Heere thou shuldest haue no drede Eor as thou ouhtest wel to 
wite ther passe heere mo litel children than grete men or olde 
Heere is the firste passage of alle goode pilgrimages ther is noon 
oother wey bi noon oother place sane onliche bi cherubyn Ther- 
forth hauen somme passed and in here owen blood han wasshen 
hem And neuertheles thouh thou woldest take thi wey bi 

cherubyn yit is not this wey contrarie but it is to thee cer- 

teyn & right nessessarye For if thou looke whenes thou comest and 
the hows foul of dunge in whiche thow hast be ix. monethes thou 
hast miche neede to washe thee And therfore j rede thee to passe 
heer foorth For thou shalt passe no sikerere wey Heerbi passede a 
king sum time that assurede wel the paas and that was thilke that 
made the paas which was nouht foul ne misdede not If thow wolt 



8 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

passe it sey it now and j wole do come thee thider a special 
sergeaunt of myne that of god is official He is keepere of my 
meyne and ministre of thilke passage Thilke shal helpe thee to 
passe to bathe thee to washe thee thilke shal also crosse thee For 
he shal see anoon that thou wolt go ouer the see and conquere 
Jerusalem And for that thow shalt the lasse drede thine enemyes 
He shal sette a crosse up on thi breste an oother bihynde thee and 
also an oother up on thin heed for thou shalt the lasse drede alle mis- 
cheues He shal enoynte thee as a chaumpioun so that thou shalt 
sette at nouht alle thine enemyes Now answere anoon what is 
thin avys And thanne j seyde It is my desire that anoon ye make 
him come to me 

cap. xii. Thanne cam to me at hire comaundement the official of whiche 
j haue spoke bifore and he took me bi that on hand and put me in 
to the same water there he wesh me there he bathed me and thryes 
he ploungede me ther inne Grace gabbed me of no thing He 
crossede me and enoyntede me wel and sithe ledde me in to the 
hows where ther is riht noble and fair herberwh And there grace 
made me fayr semblaunt fairere than she hadde do bi fore there she 
seide she wolde shewe me many thinges and teche me and that j 
shulde do riht gret wysdom if j wolde vnderstonde it Riht as she 
spak thus j sigh many merueyles a noon of which j wol not holde 
me stille that j ne wole sumwhat seye Sithe afterward whan my ' 
time cometh j wole telle yow of my skrippe and of myn burdoun 
which j desirede For j shall haue leiser j nouh 

cap. xiii. Eirst j seih in thilke place as in the middes ther of the signe 
of Thau which was peynted reed with the blood of the white 
lamb that is the signe with which goddes seruauntes ben marked 
amyddes the forhed And this j sigh apertlyche if my meetinge gabbe 
me [10 J nouht A maister j sigh fasteby that seemede to be a vicarie 
of aaron or of moyses Por j sigh him holde in his hand a yerde 
crooked at the eende and his bed he hadde horned He was clothed 
with a robe of lynene And j trowe wel of sooth that he were thilke 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 9 

of which Ezechiel speketh of in his ix. chapitre For in the folkes 
forhedes he sette the holi Tahu with whiche he hlissede hem It was 
as he seide the tokne bi which god shulde be to hem benigne For he 
wole that alle hise folk be marked bi swich a tokne in the forhed 
With thilke tokne grace dieu made blisse me and marke me in the 
forhed and therof j was miche the gladdere For j hadde wel neede 
ther of Nouht of necessite but of sittinge congruitee 

Afterward j sigh that thilke maister made oynementes that he cap. xiv 
took to the forseide officiall in seyinge swiche woordes Lo heere 
iij. wurthi oynementes that j take thee for alle folk with the firste 
tweyne thou shalt enoynte alle tho that shulen be pilgrimes and 
wolden be champiouns The thridde shal be for the woundede for 
the hurte and for the brusede and for thilke that shulen ligge in 
here dede beddes with oute havinge counfort With this oynement 
thow shalt enoynte hem and be to hem trewe leeche and suer 
enoyntinge hem ouer al bisyliche that ban neede Ther of certeyn 
hauen gret neede alle pilgrimes and alle walkers that passen bi this 
eerthe For alle thei be euere more in werre Wherfore it may not 
be that thei ne beeth ofte yuele j led and hurte And therfore neede 
thei haue at here eendinge of this oynement Now enoynte hem 
with oute failinge For therfore j take thee the oynement Of summe 
oynementes to meward to enoynte the newe kynges For moyses 
vicaryes and for leches as thow art and for the boord on whiche we 
eten And for tahu that j make in the forhedes I with holde to 
myself the execucioun the vse and the administracioun Now keep 
the that thou mistake the not to meward ne misdoo nouht 

As thei speken thus bitwixe hem tweyne and ordeyned here cap. X v. 
oynementes anoon a mayden cam doun of a tour to ward hem that 
was cleped resoun as grace hadde tolde me She bigan to speke to 
hem and seyde with oute flateringe Lordinges that thus diuisen and 
speken of youre oynementes and holden heere youre parlement of 
enoyntinge of oother folk vnderstondeth now two litele woordes 
that j wole soone haue vnclosed yow Oynement is softe thinge 

c 



10 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

bothe forto opne wounde and to shitte Softe it shulde be leyd 

with an instrument and a softe Softe be shulde be tbat 

batb it For of to gret rudesbipe mys bifalletb He that is 
hurte hath noon neede to be rudeliche treted For sum time rude- 
shipe mihte hurte more than the oynement shulde helpe Thilke 
ben rude that ben felle and cruelle as lyouns that wolen thoruh 
vengen hem alle with oute any thing letinge or sparinge And swiche 
ben no goode surgiens ne leches ne fisiciens For thei wolen take 
here oynementes to rudeliche to hem that ben hurte And ther- 
fore j am descended and come to avise you that ther be in yow 
no rudeshipe ne crueltee ne felnesse but beeth pitous to yowre 
woundede folk and merciable and softe Treteth hem alle 
sweteliche and thanne shal youre oynement stonde in stede Ye 
shulde ofte bithinke yow that ye were enoynted for to bicome 
[11] softe pitowse and debonayre with oute doinge any crueltee And 
that ye be not rigurowse bi felnesse no day in yowre live And 
that ye shulde foryive alle harmes and stonde to god For if the 
prophete gabbe not he hath with holde to him alle vengeaunces 
And therfore who so wole bineme it him to yuel ende he may 
come Whan resoun hadde thus spoken the vicarie of whiche j seide 
bifore answerde hire and seide Sey me j praye you if ye can whi j 
haue thus myn bed horned and the yerde sharp at the eende? Is it 
not for to do punishinge and correccoun of yuel dedes ? j trowe j 
shulde putte and hurtle the yuel folk with myne homes and prikke 
hem with the sharpe ende rathere than enoynte hem with the 
oynement Mi faire swete freend quod resoun now vnderstonde me 
yit a litel thow knowest wel what thou hast seyd but thou hast not 
yit lerned al Thow shuldest haue manere as thow ouhtest wel to 
wite to prikke and to hurtle First thou shuldest softeliche avise 
hem and teche hem that thou seest erre And sithe if thow seest 
hem obstinat thou hast good leeue to prikke hem It longeth wel 
to thin office to do iustice of wikkede folk But first be softe er 
thou be other prikkinge or rigurowse And yit j sey thee a poynt 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 11 

ferther If thou haue rigurowsliche hurtled any wyght other 
prikked for his misdede looke thou haue not doon it with oute the 
sweete oyle of compassioun and of pitee For thouh thou be horned 
for iustice algates in thin herte thou shuldest haue pitee of thilke 
that thou hast iuged Bithinke thee that thou were enoynted er 
thow were horned and er thow haddest any prikke and er thow 
haddest any yerde other staf And that ouhte michel softe thee 
whan thow wolt correcte any wyght thow shuldest not also foryete 
of whom thow doost the vicarishipe For ther was neuere noon more 
debonaire than thilke whos vicary thow art that was he that 
seemed horned and was not horned that was moyses that made 
israel to passe thoruh the see that with the yerde he held he made 
hem good passage Now vndirstonde this lessoun for it is woorth 
to thee a gret sermoun Thouh thou seme horned with oute lat 
thin herte be al naked with inne And be merciable with inne 
what euere thow be with oute Eallas thou miht make heer inne 
with oute misdoinge Haue thin herte tretable and debonayre after 
thin ensample thouh thou haue a yerde sharp at the eende Bihold 
also how it is crooked and stowpeth toward that oother ende 
Dowte not that that ne tokeneth that ther shulde be in thee hum- 
blesse whan thou chastisest bi equitee Now vnderstond why 
thilke yerde is taken thee and graunted thee It is to gouerne with 
thi peple and make hem passe thoruh the foorde of this world 
With thi yerde thow shuldest assaye if it be to deep or if ther 
neede other brigge or plaunke Eor if ther failede eithere brigge or 
plaunke it shulde longe to thee to make it and therfore thi name 
is Pontifex Now vnderstonde it this is thi lessoun Now j wule 
sey thee yit if thow wolt vnderstonde to me a litel whi thou hast 
this faire yerd and whi horned hed thou hast Sum time in this place 
riht heere enhabited the hornede of helle and long time bi pos- 
sessioun he hadde maad heere his dwelling But for it displesed 
to Grace dieu that hadde mad the hous for to dwelle ther inne 
hirself she made arme thee with these homes and made take thee 

c2 



12 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

the [12] yerde So that hi thee wente out the vntrewe dwellere that 
wolde be lord Thow hurtledest him with thine homes whan thou 
puttest him out of the place And thow beete him with thi yerde 
whan thou madest him goon out of the place The tweyne faire 
labelles hanginge at thine tweyne homes thou conqueredest at the 
clensinge and sweepinge and poorginge of the place and that was 
whan thou dediedest and halwedest and blissedest the place And 
for that thou were a good champioun in the dedicacoun grace dieu 
wole that thou arme thee ofte in the armes that thou were victour 
inne in tokne ther of and warnynge that it falle thee not in 
foryetinge And to that ende also that thilke vntrewe that thou 
hast discoumfyted and hurtled and beten doun be no customere to 
come there as thow art And also to that eende that thou be nih 
and fresh to fighte newe in alle times and in alle sesouns ayens 
thilke that wolen exile the hous of grace dieu and dispoile it of 
hire goodes hi dymes and taxes bi violences and hi extorciouns 
But ther of as j wot wel of sooth thow doost not wel thi deuoir For 
thi self grauntest hem and shewest the weyes to haue hem the 
which thing grace dieu halt no game And therfore j sey thee with 
oute flateringe that it is but a jape of thine homes and of thi staf 
Thine homes ben of a snayl that hyden hem for a straw anoon as 
thei have felt it 

cap. xvi. Seynt Thomas hadde none swiche homes which strongliche 
defended the king the entre and the wey in to his hous For 
wrongfulliche and with oute cause he wolde make it thral ther it 
shulde alwey be free The wurthi man hadde levere dye than suffre 
it to be thral Of seint Ambrose also j sey thee that defended his 
hous ayens emperoures and emperises so that he was lord ther of 
alone Youre paleys quod he ye haue youre toures youre castelles 
and your citees with the reuenewes of the empire "Wel ouhte this 
to suffice yow Of myn hous medle ye nouht leueth it me ye haue 
no thing ther inne In my tyme it shal neuere be thral I hadde 
leuere leese the lyfe These hadden not homes ne beren hem nouht 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 13 

with oute resoun If thou were also wel horned in defendinge the 
fre vsages of thin hous that thow hast wedded with the ring which 
thou hast on thi fynger And if thow vsedest wel thi yerde and 
argudest wel Pharaon seyinge him that he suffrede thi folk serue 
god with oute thraldom and that he lettede hem not ne oppressed 
hem ne greued hem of no thing thanne were thou goode Moyses 
and seruedest grace dieu with hire goode mes and michel shulde 
plese hire alle times that she wiste thee armed Now do so hens 
forward and thi wurshipe shal be the grettere 

As resoun spak thus to Moyses and prechede the official turned cap. 
him and bar with him the oynementes and putte hem in saaf And 
sithe j sigh as me thouhte a womman toward the west and a man 
toward the est that comen bothe to the official anoon and eche of 
hem took him his hand and he took hem and ioyned hem to gidere 
and sithe seide hem as me thouhte Ye tweyne shule be bothe oon 
and iche of yow here trowthe to oother Neuere dayes of youre 
lyue shal ther departinge be maad of yow tweyne but ther be 
certeyn cause and hi Moises that is there it be do Now keepeth wel 
this sacrament and loueth yow to gideres trewelich [13] And thilke 
tweyne biheighten that thei so shulden And thanne thei de- 
parteden thens The official turnede ayen and wente to Moises 
that was yit at the sermoun that dame resoun made him But as 
thei weren alle to gederes and speken a gret cumpany of folk maden 
cesse here parlement anoon Bifore Moises thei comen and maden 
him requeste that sum seruice in his hous he wolde yiue hem and 
graunte hem 

And thanne he took a peyre sheren and made summe of hem cap. 
come neer him and clippede hem anoon in seyinge to hem that 
god shulde be here part and here heritage Suffice it shulde if thei 
weren wise 

Whan Moyses hadde thus doon Resoun droowh hire anoon to- cap. 
wardes hem and bigan to speke to hem and seide Lordinges quod 
she entendeth hider It is gret wysdom what any man saye sum 



14 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

time to feyne folye Thouh ye be shoren and clipped as fooles 
up on the hed this folie is gret wysdom For therfore j presente 
me to be alwey youre freend who so euere hath ther to exivye 
Forsaketh nouht this loue For ye shole haue it bifore alle folk if it 
ne be long in yowre folie And if ye wol not haue me ye shule 
neuere haue good freend in youre lyue I am Resoun bi whom ye 
been disceuered from oothere bestes And oonliche as longe as ye 
shule haue me ye shule be men And whan ye wole go with oute 
me ye shul wel mown avaunte yow ye be but as doumbe bestes 
and as coltes that ben clothed With oute me ye shul neuere haue 
wurshipe be ye neuere so grete lordes If ye wol eyther make 
ju^ementes silogismes othere argumentes with oute me shule ye 
neuere haue conclusioun that it ne shal come to confusioun Now 
j wulle telle yow if ye wite it nouht how ye shule keepe my loue 
Ye muste ete and drinke more sobirliche than oother folk For 
drunkenesse and glotonye maken me soone turne to flight Ire 
that is vnmesured and felonye the woode maken me voide the hous 
in which thei haue here habitacoun Fleschliche loue driueth me 
al out and soone maketh me voide the place And that with oute 
glose ye mown se in the faire romaunce of the rose Now j pray 
yow quod she that ye keepe yow fro alle these vices if ye wole loue 
me and fro alle oothere also Eor j holde not him to freend that 
abaundoneth him to vices 

cap. xx. Yit j wole telle yow quod she tweyne shorte woordes of the 
shorne place which is enclosed al aboute round with a seercle as 
thouh it were a castel or a towre A gardyn it seemeth wel enclosed 
with an heygh wal The place with inne vnheled sheweth that yowre 
hertes shulden ben opne al holliche to god with oute any mene 
empechement The rounde sercle that maketh the closure aboute 
sheweth that ye shuld haue no cure of the world For from it ye 
muste departe if with youre god ye wole parte Ye mowun not haue 
bothe tweyne to gideres that mown ye wel wite Eor ye haue seyd 
youre self that youre god ye haue chosen to heritage and to youre 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 15 

party e Bi whiche seyinge j se nouht that ye shulden reioyse of 
the world For whan any wight wole parte j vnderstonde not he 
may haue al but taketh that oon and leueth that oother Now 
taketh that that ye haue chose a better part mown ye not haue 
Suffice it oughte For I doute not that thilke part ne is worth al the 
remenaunt Fair to yow [14] thanne is this closure that closeth yow 
and walleth yow in disseueringe yow from the world and departeth wel 
yowre part The place shorn is also fair to yow For ther bi men 
apperceyuen that ye been goode heerdes It is wel right that the 
goode heerde take sum tyme flees of hise bestes for his labour Shere 
yow youre shepherde may at his neede but to skorche yow is not 
yiue him leeue For men han not taken him al but oonliche sheres 
for to shere yow with dueliche 

Whan resoun hadde thus spoken to bise shorene and preched to cap . xx i. 
oothere that weren there Moises yaf seruices gladliche as thei 
askeden For summe he made princes of his hous and chamberleynes 
And oothere he made sergeauntes for to areste and putte out the 
enemyes that ben in the bodyes To oothere he dide gret wurshipe 
For to alle he yaf leue to be rederes of his paleys and to preche 
goddes lawe Summe oothere he made holde candeles to serue to 
the grete boord that was set ther he shulde ete To oothere he took 
his gilte cuppe void with the which his bord is wurshiped for to 
serue him ther with To oothere he made bere the bodi of ihesu 
crist upon here oo shulder ther he sette it and was up on the lifte 
shulder that to bere with thei shulde be the strengere thilke he 
wolde bi especial weren ministres and serueres to him and to the 
official at the boord and coadiutowres 

Whan al this was ordeyned as it is aboue diuised eche of hem C a P . xx ii. 
bigan to serue to deserue his office to the bord thei wenten and 
maden redy For it was time to dine Summe spredden the clothes 
oothere leyden the bred aboue oothere brouhten the wyn and casten 
it in the cuppe and therwith as me thouhte a litel water thei dide 
But bifore thei wenten to dinere Moises wolde deliuere him of 



16 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

summe that yit abiden him and weren not yit deliuered And thilke 
he wolde make special officialles of his hous to helpe that oother 
official which hadde wel neede For as he seide he mighte nouht 
aloone gouerne swich an hows 

cap. xxiii. Now j wole telle yow how he dide First he clepede grace dieu 
with an haunteyn vois al were it she was not fer She sat in hire 
trone and of alle she took keep And j sat at hire feet wher of j was 
ioyeful and glad "Whan she herde hire cleped she ros hire up with 
oute abidinge and wente hire to moyses and with hire she ledde me 
And thanne whan moyses sigh hire nyh him he bi gan to wexe 
more hardy and fulliche dide that that j wole telle yow shortlyche 

cap. xxiv. First he ioynede the handes of hem and ioynede hem to gideres 
Sithe took a swerd wel kervinge cleer and furbished and brennynge 
with tweyne egges and handsom turnynge and variable Wel me 
thouhte it was thilke that j hadde seyn cherubyn holde And thilke 
it was treweliche wel propirliche figured Thilke swerd he took hem 
and ther of made hem present with a keye that he heeld that grace 
dieu hadde take him Grace hire self whiche was there that to do 
this halp him he yaf hem and seyde hem Loo heere grace dieu quod 
he taketh hire to yow j yive hire yow in to cumpany to that ende 
that ye make of hire youre freend Whan j herde thilke woord j was 
wroth and abashed and seyde Alias what shal j do if j haue thus 
lost grace dieu thilke hornede hath yive hire to these newe 
officialles I hadde leuere to be ded than he hadde doon me swich 
wrong 

cap. xxv. [15] Whan grace dieu sigh me thus discounforted faste she lowh of 
me and sithe clepede me and seyde Fool wher to gost thou thus 
thinkinge? Wenest thou for to haue me aloone to freend? thow 
ouhtest wite that commune profite is the beste And the profite of a 
commune welle is miche grettere ther eclie man and womman may 
drawe water at here wille and haue ther of here esement than is a 
welle closed ther neuere oon dar neighe ne approche And yit j sey 
thee that so profitable so good ne so delitable the water thow hast 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 17 

alone ne shal be as thilke shal be ther eche man goth to j am welle 
of alle goodnesses Neuere holde j me enclosed j wole profite to alle 
folk and alle j wole loue paramowres and ther inne mihte thou 
leese no thing but it may encrese thi good For alle thilke that j 
wole loue I wole make thi freendes And the mo goode freendes 
thow hast the bettere thow shalt be me thinketh Now haue noon 
envye thouh j be freend to oothere Whan j was thus counforted 
ayen of grace that hadde avised me anoon j sygh dame resoun go 
to the chayere to preche 

Lordinges quod she vnderstondeth me youre profyte lyth ther ca P- xxvi - 
inne j trowe Biholdeth wel the grete benefet and the grete good- 
nesse that grace dieu hath doon yow that this day is comen and 
descended for yow Considereth what yiftes bi hire that Moises 
hath departed yow For the swerd he hath take yow that god hadde 
forged for him for to keepe with that no sinnere entrede in to the 
cuntre of whiche he is lord Now vnderstondeth what swerd it is 
how it is perilouse to fooles How miche thei shulden drede it that 
shulden vse it The swerd serueth of iij. thinges For whan any 
deserueth peyne he smiteth with the poynt other with the egge 
other elles with the flat in sparinge The poynt yiueth techinge 
that ther be neuere do jugement with oute gret discrecioun in the 
doinge of the execucioun of cause nouht yknowe but hid and 
vnknowe Michel is he of foolhardiment and of surquideoures 
thinkinge that bi jre wole venge him or juge bi suspeccioun Michel 
is a swerd yuel sittinge to blynd man and to purblynd man that 
wole smyte at the tastinge and kan not cheesen good from yuel 
Ther shulde no man here thilke swerd that can not wel discerne 
bitwixe helthe and sikenesse bi twixe the grete meselrie and the 
mene and the litel A juge shulde wel vnderstonde the circum- 
staunces of a misdede bi fore that any jugement were doo Swerd 
as j fynde writen is clepid departinge of throte "Wel aughten alle 
juges that wolen wel iuge departe the throte and wel discerne that 

D 



18 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

men seyn Eor right after that he hath herd allegge he shulde do his 
jugernent and non oother wise 

cap. xxvii. Now j wole telle yow of the tweyne egges for whiche the swerd 
is cleped kervinge Wher to oo paas alone sufficeth not to telle and 
what techinge lyth ther inne If ye haue yowre swerd poynted and 
sharp hi discrecioun It is wel riht that ye haue justice in youre 
lond a boue alle vices that alle misdedes and alle sinnes ye haue 
leeue to correcte excepted the cas withholden that the grete horned 
hath withholden And for as michel as youre lond is departed in 
doble partye therfore it needeth that the swerd haue tweyne ker- 
vinges as answeringe to hem That oon partye is the bodi of the 
manhede that men clepen man with oute And that oother is the 
gost that is cleped man with inne That is youre lond that is in 
tweyne departed [16] and yit it is withoute beinge tweyne These 
tweyne as bi justice ye mown whan it is time iustifye To the 
bodi for hise sinnes ye mown yiue trauaile and peyne j nouh and 
charge it with penaunces for to driue with out the sinnes To the 
gost for diuerse cas as whan it is obstinate in his sinne and wol not 
amende for amonestinge ye mown turne to the kervinge with oute 
any sparinge Hurte hym ye mown dedliche bi the strok of 
cursinge And ther is no wounde so cruelle Eor with oute remedye 
it is dedlych and therfore he auhte michel drede him that feeleth 
swich a strok perce on him Wel auhte he also bithinke hym that 
shulde smite with the egge And wel j telle yow that dueliche ther 
with smyt noon but if he haue first smite with the flat of the swerd 
other that he hath avised first thilke that he wole so smyte and 
make deye bi thilke strok Bi the flatte of the swerd j vnderstonde 
good and trewe avisement trewe amonestinge and liueliche prechinge 
whiche smit the euele dedes in sparinge and spareth hem in wel 
smytinge that is the woord of ihesu crist in whom lyth the respyt 
of the deth With the flatte ye shulden vsen to smite whan ye 
seen youre subiectes erre Sermonynge and prechinge maketh men 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 19 

many times leue sinne And if ye mown so haue hem it is bettere 
than to smite with the sharpe 

Now ye hauen thanne how ye mown and shulden after diuerse cap. 
cas vse both of the flatte and of the kervinge other of the poynt in 
wel juginge Eor oo time ye shulden iuge an oother time ye shulden 
punishe an oother time preche And therfore it is cleped with oute 
fable sharp on bothe sides and varyinge Thilke swerd is taken yow 
to that ende that ye haue it alwei redy to turne it and to varie it at 
youre wille and remeve it after that the cas asketh and right and 
euenenesse is And therfore it is right that ye batten as wel bi 
effect as bi name Cherubyn ful of kunnynge and of demynge 
wisdom For if ye weren not Cherubyn many harmes ye mihten doo 
As whan ye shulden smite with the flatte perauenture ye wolden 
turne youre swerd and smite with the kervinge Other whan ye 
shulden iuge ye wolden correcte bifore doinge al the contrarie of 
that that were to doone And therfore in vnkunnynge hand is not 
this swerd wel sittinge And also in irows mannes hand this swerd 
is riht perilous Eor brenninge it was take and graunted bi grace 
dieu The cause is if ye wole wite it for how euere ye turne it be it 
in prechinge or in iuginge in punishinge or in correctinge ye 
shulden shewe it brennynge of verrey loue and charite Eor loue is 
the brennynge fyre that maketh it to flawme 

Now j wole telle yow if ye witen nouht whi ye haue this swerd cap. 
Porteres ye ben as me thinketh of the kyngdom of heuene. The 
keyes ye haue with oute lesinge for to shette the doore and for to 
opne it With oute yow may no wight passe Ye keepen the pas of the 
entre in To yow men muste shewe what thei bringen bifore thei 
passen the yate Alle manere of fardelles smale and grete maad 
and in makinge bifore yow musten be vntrussed and al vnfold and 
al shewed Ther is no thing so wel closed that it ne shulde be 
vnclosed bi verrey shewinge of hoi shrifte Now looketh wel that ye 
haue take thilke swerd and thilke keyes bi avisement Ye shulden [17] 
lete noon passe that wole not shewe his fardelle ye shulden seeche 

D 2 



20 THE PELGEJMAGE OF 

the sinneres and make hem discharge hem of here misdedes Alle 
ye shulden weye wysliche and iuge hem discreteliche keepinge wel 
the verrey interpretacioun of youre name to that eende that men 
mown hi riht clepe yow and nempne yow Cherubyn And thanne 
whan ye haue al j seyn and al hiholde and knowe and iuged the 
misdedes and charged the peynes and enioyned wurthi penaunces 
thanne ye mown vnshette the doore and make youre penauntes 
entre in This is the tokne of the swerd and the shewinge of the 
keyes and the lernynge and the techinge Now keepeth yow wel 
that ye vse discreteliche with hem as ye shulde 

cap. xxx. Whan resoun hadde thus spoken and j hadde al seyn and herd 
lust took me and gret desire for to haue this brennynge swerd and 
the keyes therwith for to he vsshere of thilke passage and porter But 
to what ende j shulde come ther of j hadde nowht yit thouht It is 
thing hifalleth ofte For of hem that wil taketh men seen nouht 
allwey the eende As j hadde thus y thouht j wente me to moyses 
preyinge him that he wolde yiue me thilke faire swerd and graunte 
me that j mihte haue the vsage of the keyes for to keepe thilke 
forseyde passage 

cap. xxxi. Moyses whan he hadde herkned me he shethede the faire swerd 
and bond faste the keyes and enseled al wel wyseliche and sithe 
took me and graunted me bothe that oon and that oother benigne- 
liche in seyinge to me that j lookede wel that j vnbond not the 
keyes ne that j stired not the swerd forto j hadde leeue 

cap. xxxii. Whan he hadde seide me this j was abashed For j hadde seyn 
noon to whom he hadde thus j doo neither of woord ne of dede 
Paste j bithouht me what j shulde do or what j miht do with thilke 
swerd yshethed seled wrapped And with the keyes that he had 
take me also enseled and wel y bounden I wende ful wel he had 
desceyued me Whan j apperceyued grace dieu she led me to resoun 
that spak to me 

cap. xxxiii. My faire freend quod Eesoun the wise what thinkest in thi corage 
where lernedest thou at scole thi thouht is wel foolliche I see wel 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 21 

thou hast not lerned the predicament of Ad aliquid Thilke pre- 
dicament hath reward elles where than to him self He maketh 
his edifyinge up on ootheres ground wol wysliche Al that he hath 
he hath of oothere and yit dooth wrong to no wight If oothere ne 
were ther shulde no thing be of it ne miht he Ensaumple j wole take 
thee so that thou mowe see that at eye and cleerliche vndirstande 
and wel lerne and with holde it Whan god had mad the world hifore 
that man was foormed he was onlich cleped god if Genesis ne gabhe 
But whan man was foormed thanne was god cleped lord In tokne 
that whan he hadde seruauntes he was lord and lordshipinge Whan 
he hadde seruauntes thanne he was lord and yit he was neuere the 
grettere But the lordes of this cuntre hen not swich as me thinketh 
For the mo seruauntes thei haue so miche thei make hem the 
grettere Here seruauntes and here meyne yiuen hem lordshipe Lord- 
ship was knyt in subgis and engendred And if the subgis ne were 
lordshipes shulden perishen That oon and that oother Ad aliquid 
may be seid as me thinketh For that oon hath his comyng out and 
his hanginge of that oother For whan that oon is that oother is 
also And whan that oon faileth that oother faileth also 

[18] Now vnderstond wel this lessoun thow art in subiecioun bihold ca P- xxxiv - 
wel that thou art subiect to oothere and thou hast no subiect Thi 
souereyn what euere he be hath jurisdiccoun miht and lordship ouer 
thee But oo thing disceyveth thee thou hast no subiect as he hath 
For therbi thou hast failed to haue the faire swerd vnheled naked 
and vnshethed And of the keyes also to haue hem vnwounden and 
vnseled With the swerd naked what shuldest thow do and with the 
keyes vnheled thouh thou haddest hem? no thing thatj see but gret 
folye If j here a knyf vnshethed and naked and hadde no thing to 
kerue j shulde make the folk to weene that j were a fool or that j 
wolde wounde or sle sum wight If j bere keyes also naked and 
wente thoruh the strete ther j hadde neither dore ne lok sum men 
miht en weene perauenture that j bere false keyes or that j wente to 
robbe the folk And lightliche men mihten thinken whan men 



22 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. xxxv 



cap. xxxvi. 



cap. xxxvn. 



seyen my keyes liche the keyes that oother men hadden that with 
hem j vnshette here dores 

Serteyn thi keyes han wardes as the straungeres han and therfore 
j sey thee sithe thou hast no thing to shette ne to vnshette and sithe 
thow hast no thinge to kerue ne to kutte it is bettere thi swerd be 
shethed than vnshethed And it is bettere the keyes that thou hast 
ben hid than vnhyd For al hi times may men come to vnkeuere 
both that oon and that oother Thus Moises took hem thee wysliche 
and dueliche to that ende that whan thi souereyn wole and seeth 
time he mai vnbynde thee the keyes and vnshethe thee the swerd 
And that shal be whan he wole take the of his subgis to helpe him 
whan he wole take thee matere wher upon thou mint werche and 
elles thou miht no thing doo if thou ne wolt mis doo Perile of deth 
oonlich he outtaketh thee if it be euident For thanne thou miht 
vnshethe the swerd and vnbynde the keyes Necessitee yiueth thee 
leeue and abaundoneth thee the vsage so that ther be noon oother to 
whom the dede longeth to 

Thilke to whom this office longeth to is he that holt his swerd 
naked and hath the keyes vnbownde naked and vnseeled that is 
thilke that hath iurisdiccioun and lordshipe and is his curat For he 
is put vnder him If thou haddest subiectes as he thou mihtest do 
thi miht were ad aliquid but thou hast noone as me thinketh 
Wherfore thou shuldest not abashe ne wraththe thee thouh the 
swerd be taken thee shethed ne thouh thou haue the keyes enseled 
bounden and wrapped 

Whan resoun hadde thus preched me Moyses wolde go dine and 
haue his mete al oother wise than it was For ther was no thing but 
onliche bred and wyn But it was no mes at his wille for he wolde 
haue flesh to ete and blood ther with for to deface the olde lawe 
that hadde seid that no blood ete thei shulde To helpe him he 
cleped grace and she wente to him anoon And thanne j sigh a gret 
wunder to which ther is noon lich The bred in to quik flesh he 
turned as grace ordeyned it the wyn he turnede in to red blood 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 23 

that seemede wel be of a lamb Sitbe as curteis he wolde clepe the 
officialles to dynere in techinge hem his kunnynge yivinge hem his 
power for to make swich conuersioun as turneth to wundringe 
And sithe he yaf to ete to alle of thilke newe mees with oute 
daunger and he eet with hem and drank of the blood I seeinge it 
with myne eyen bi ouht that j haue herd speke ther shulde noon 
kunne telle of non swich mutacioun that hath so wunderful a 
renown 

Whan j hadde biholden this mete j turned me to resoun for to cap . 
preye hire that she wolde preche me of thilke dynere and teche me 
But riht asj turned meayen I fond hire al [19] abashed Ladi quod 
j what is this ? what eyleth yow P Al abashed me thinketh yow Tech- 
eth me of thilke mete and precheth me ther of j prey yow Serteyn 
j wole not quod she For j can no thing ther on Heere lakketh me 
myn vnderstondinge and my wit al outerliche j am blynd I see no 
thing I haue lost al my sighte I was neuere so abashed in al my 
live For thouh thilke hornede moyses hadde of an ey j maad a fair 
brid or of a barlich corn a pipe I wolde haue holde me in good pees 
ynowh But al abashed he hath maad me For flesh quik of bred he 
hath maad And of wyn blood for his drink ayens nature and 
ayens vsage And treweliche j wol sey it to nature whan j see hire 
And j wole sende after hire to come speke with grace dieu with 
oute taryinge For al this she maketh do And ofte riht contrariows 
to hire For she maketh hire bi hire hynesse leese hire custome and 
hire vsage And anoon as she hadde seid this she lefte me and to 
hire tour she goth And sorweful in the place she lefte me and 
sorweful in to hire tour she wente 

As j was a lone and thouhte upon these thinges j sigh toward the ca P- xxxix - 
tour an old oon that cam and neihede me She hadde nouht the 
cheer glad but right wroth She hadde hire handes vnder hire sides 
and hire eyen glowynge as gleedes I thouhte wel it was nature bi 
that that resoun had seid me and she it was soothliche as j wiste 



24 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

wel after Redi me thouhte hire to chide miche more than to preche 
For toward grace dieu she wente and rudeliche spak to hire 

cap. xi. Lady quod she to yow j come to chide for to defende myn owen 
Wennes cometh it yow for to remeve myne ordinaunces It ouhte 
suffice jnowh to you the party that ye haue with oute medlinge yow 
of myn and with oute cleymynge maistrye ther of Of the heuene 
ye haue the lordshipe with oute any oother havinge part ther of ye 
maken the sterres turne and the planetes varien and the speeres as 
ye wolen laate or rathe ye gouerne And wol loth certeyn wolde ye 
suffre and loth wolde ye be that j entermeted me any thing ther of 
And so wolde j treweliche be riht weri if ye in my part cleymede 
hynesse or medlede yow I wolde dye as soone as suffre it Bi twixe 
me and yow was sette a bounde that divideth us so that noon of us 
shulde mistake ay ens oother That is the wheel in whiche the mo one 
gooth alwei aboute Thilk wheel departeth us and yiueth eche of 
us hire part With oute is youre partye there haue ye the lordshipe 
There ye mowe if ye wole make nouelries ynowe For thouh ye 
made of venus an horned beste or of mercurye a ram j wolde wel 
holde me stille ne neuere speke ther of For there j cleyme no thing 
But with inne al is myn I am maistresse of the elementes and of 
the wyndes For to make varyinges in fyr in eyr in eerthe in see 
I lete no thing stonde stille in estaat Al j make turne and drawe 
to ende Al j make varye erliche and late I make newe thinges 
come and olde to departe 

cap xli . The eerthe is of my robes and in prime temps alwey j clothe it 
To the trees j yeue clothinge and apparamens ayens somer And 
sithe j make dispoile hem ayen ayens winter for to kerue hem 
oother robes and kootes seemynge alle newe ther is neither brembel 
ne broom ne oother tre that j ne clothe ayen Was neuere Salomon 
clothed with suich a robe as is a bush That that [20] j do j do bi 
leysere For j am not hastyf And al mutacioun that is doon in 
haste j hate And therfore is myn werchinge the more woorth 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 25 

Witnesse on resoun the wise I slepe nouht ne j am nouht ydel ne 
j am not preciows to do alwey my deveer after my wit and my 
powere Men and wommen j make speke j make briddes flee bestes 
go fisshes swymme dragowns raunpen Comes growen I am lady 
and maistresse of al to gidere But me thinketh euele that Eor a 
wenche ye wolde holde me Whan my wyn ye make bicome blood 
Eor to make a newe beuerege Litel lakketh that j ne were wood 
Of the bred j am not so wroth Eor j entermeted me neuere to make 
cruste ne cromme ne neuere bred j sette But sooth it is that j 
deliuerede and took the matere of whiche men maken it that ye 
witen wel And therfore j haue wrethe in myn herte whan ye 
remeeven it in to quik flesh and nakenen me of my right 

Whennes cometh it yow to do thus ? It liketh me right nouht j cap. xiu. 
telle yow wel but j haue to miche forbore yow and to miche suffred 
yow in my cuntre whan ye haue er this j ne wot bi what auctorite 
remeved myne vsages and myne ordinaunces my dedes and my cus- 
tomes I remembre wel of the brennynge fyr that ye setten in my 
greene bush with oute brennynge it And al passinge my wille I 
bithinke me wel also of the yerdes of aaron and moyses Eor that 
oon ye maden bicome an addere and that oother that was drye and 
with oute humour ye maden wexe greene ayen and here leues floures 
and frute Of water also ye maden wyn at the feste of Architriclyn 
And many oothere remeevinges of which were to longe to holde 
parlement Also me luste not to foryete of the virgines chyldinge 
which ye maden conceyue with oute man wher of ye diden miche 
ayens me and whan ye maden hire here a chyld and she virgine with 
oute clepinge me to counseil 

Swiche thinges j haue suffred longe wher of j sorwe gretliche cap. xim. 
And neuere erst spak j ne made noise ther of wher of me for- 
thinketh Eor men mowe ofte suffre to miche and be to longe stille 
and slepe to miche Eor bi cause j haue holde me stille ye ben now 
come ayen for to make newe thinges bi whiche ye exite me right 
now to chide with yow bi right gret ire and wratthe and wel j telle 

E 



26 THE PILGRIMAGE OE 

yow that ne were ye so gret a ladi ye slmlde right soone haue the 
werre and at yow j wolde sette And sithe j wolde teche you to 
remeeve so myne vsages with oute warnynge and clepinge of me 

cap. xiiv. Whan, nature hadde thus y spoke Grace that hadde al y herd 
answerde hire in this manere Nature ye he to fers that so fersliche 
and so prowdliche speken to me I trowe ye ben drunken of youre 
wynes And drunken and wood ye semen wel hi the grete jre that 
ye shewen I wot neuere if ye be neewe wexe a fool or elles that ye 
ben doted It is not longe ago that ye seyd ye weren not hastyf but 
j see the contrarye in yow Eor with oute avys ye speke to me hasti- 
liche and niceliche And j telle yow wel that j wolde speke to you 
riht foule and bete yow also ne were myn owen wurshipe and for 
the wratthe j see in yow Eor jrowse folk ben to forbere Eor thei 
mown not discerne cleerliche a sooth for here trowblede vnder- 
stondinge 

cap. xiv. Now seith me dame nature that thus of youre owen forfeture vnder- 
taken me and blamen [21] me and arguen me of boundes and seyn 
that j haue michel mistaken me whan j entrede in to youre gardyn 
So god saue yow of whom holde ye and whennes cometh yow that 
that ye haue ? Ye be lich the wylde swyn that eteth the mast in his 
busch and hath no reward whennes it cometh him ne of what side 
The hed and the eyen he hath in to the eerthe and looketh not 
anhy toward the heuene fro whennes it cometh but oonliche halt him 
to the mast Also j trowe ye knowe not me or elles ye deygne not 
to knowe me for j am debonaire and am no chidere Openeth a litel 
discretliche the eyen of youre vnderstondinge Eor if ye vndo wel 
the liddes me for maistresse and yow for chaumberere ye shule 
fynde al apertliche And thanne ye shule speke to me softeliche 
and do to me homage of al that ye holden of me Sum tyme of my 
curteisye j took yow a gret partye of the world for to ocupye yow 
with and to werche treweliche with so that ye weren not ydel and 
that of al ye wolde to me treweli acounte as chamberere shulde 
alwey do to hire maistresse And therfore if ye were ribt wys ye 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 27 

wolde not speke of bounde that is set bi twixe yow and me For it 
boundeth yow not me It forshetteth yow from passinge ouer For so 
j wole bounde it But to that ende that j shulde not entre weene 
nouht that j bounded it For j may entre whan j wole and neuere 
wil I speke to yow ther of Yit more if me likede it shulde not neede 
yow to medle nomore For j wolde wel al aloone do that that is to 
doone if j wolde but j wole not do so for it longeth not to me It is 
not riht that a maistresse ne haue alle times a chaumberere 

Now ye ouhte thanne to wite that with me ye haue no powere cap. 
and that wole j prooue j nowh bi that that ye haue seid bifore Wel 
ye knowe that j make the sterres to uarie and to turne And that 
the gouernaunce of heuene longeth freeliche to me Now seith 
thanne so god keepe yow if j made a neewe pley that j dide awey 
the sunne from the heuene and that j meeued it so wel that in an 
hundreth winter it were not seyn ne founden ne aperceyued What 
faire thinges wolde ye make ? and how wolde ye eche yeer yiue robes 
to yowre bushes ? and how mihte ye make meyntene generaciouns this 
hundreth winter with oute failinge Aristotle that was an hethene 
that bi argumentes kneew weel soothnesse j make myn aduocat 
ayens yow in thilke debat He seith and proueth bi resoun that 
generacioun is mad bi my sunne of whiche j haue spoke And 
therfore if j had don it awei ye shulde leese yowre powere and riht 
no thing shulde ye mown do Bight so it is of the walkene and of 
the planetes also For if j made al cesse or elles that j wolde do 
al awey ye mihten wel go slepe and reste yow al at leisere For youre 
power were al ylost and abated And therfore it miht not be that 
al the lordshipe ne were myn al to remeeve or to meyntene as it 
come to my lust And therfore ye shulde not grucche ne chide to 
me so sharpliche For as Isaye seith it is a gret pride and gret 
despyt whan the axe wole dresse him ayens the carpenteere And 
whan the pot wole argue the pottere and blame him and asketh 
him his shap or pleyne him ther of And therfore ye shulde wel 
wite if ther were in yow any kunnynge that ye doon me despyt riht 

E 2 



28 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

gret that ye gon thus arguinge me and vndertaken me thus of my 
doinge and hauen no powere with oute me For ye ben no thing but 
oonliche my tool and instrument that j made sum time to helpe me 
with oute any neede that j hadde [22] Ne nouht that j shulde alwey 
haue yow with me but oonliche whan that j wolde For alle times 
that me liketh and that it be my wille many thinges j wole do and 
neuere clepe yow ther to And wole remeve the wyn in to blood 
and in to quik flesh the white bred and the browne also if j wolde 
For j were elles not maisteresse but if j dide my wille alwei at my 
lust So it ouhte not displese yow whan yit in helpinge yow j do 
that that ye mown not do As of the brennynge bush that j kepte 
that it was not brend al were the flaume ther on ther of ye shulde 
soonere thanke me than chide and crye And of the yerdes j sey 
yow the same and of the virgine mooder Of the water j turned in to 
wyn also and of alle that euere j haue doon with oute yow me 
thinketh that ye shulde more glade yow than wrath yow For the 
chaumberere shulde glade hire of the faire deedes of hire maistresse 
and nameliche whan she leeseth no thing And also for a better and 
for the commune profyte Now dooth al that yow liketh For litel or 
nouht it is to me Gladeth yow or wrattheth yow if ye wole or 
chideth For for yow wole j no thing leue to do of that that j wolde 
doo Whan grace dieu hadde thus argued and spoke nature answerde 
cap. xivii. Ladi quod she I haue wel vnderstonde yow and wel j see that to 
argue with yow j mihte not endure Bettere me is to yow obeye 
than any thing to sey ayens yow But neuertheles if j durste a litel 
yit j wolde argue to yow Hardiliche quod grace dieu sei on For j 
holde al that euere ye mown seyn and arguen to day but game 
And therfore leueth nouht a del that ye declare wel youre herte 
Quod nature sithe j haue leeue yit wole j arguen and of youre 
woordes j wole arguen For j sorwe gretliche that ye haue so argued 
me of my seyinges and rebuked me Ye haue seid that the mais- 
tresse shulde not be with oute a chaumberere and me for chaurn- 
berere ye haue holde For which thing j argue that if ye be maistresse 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 29 

with yow as chaumberere j shulde alwey be cleped And with oute 
me ye shulde remeeve ne make no thing here And that ye wolden 
yit conferme hi the ax which ye seiden shulde not dresse him ayens 
the carpentere as thouh ye wolden sey or al with oute seyinge 
vnderstonde that ayens yow that hen carpentere j shulde not ben 
so fers 

Bi this confirmacioun me thinketh j haue myn entencioun For ca P- xlviii - 
as men mown not werche ne the carpentere bylde a good hous 
with oute an ax riht so ye shulde do no thing with oute me if ye 
wole nouht misdoo In alle times ye shulden lede me with yow 
and clepe me And bettere it were as me thinketh that j were 
with yow alwey thanne these neewe officialles that doon with yow 
alle heer needes Ye yiven hem al youre powere and for to yiven 
hem ye binemen me And neuer the lattere j mint neuere haue 
non suich powere of yow that j kowthe make flesh of bred and 
that j mihte remeeve wyn in to blood And that j haue alwey doon 
my deueir in alle times after my powere 

Serteyn quod grace in no wise j pleine me nouht of youre service ca ?- xlix - 
I wot wel that ye haue doon wel ynowh But if ye wole sey noon 
oother thing I wol answere yow soone ynowh ne I wole seeche 
noon oother counseil Nay quod she I answere quod grace that that 
confoundeth yow [23] that is that ye vnderstonde nouht a right my 
seyinges ne thinke nouht on hem For whan j seide that a maistresse 
shulde alle times haue a chamberere it was wel seyd j meynteene 
it But in that winne ye no thing For j seyd not in alle places but 
in alle times And that is not oon For if in alle places she hadde a 
chaumberere it shulde turne the maistresse to more thraldam and 
vnwurship than to hire freedam and to hire wurship But in alle 
times she shulde haue it and that is hire wurship who so well seeth 
So that she may comaunde hire and ordeyne hire what that she 
wole This hadde ye not wel vnderstande as ye shulde Also ye 
vnderstonde not wel the manere of the ax For whan j spak of the 
ax it was not to that ende that j shulde also helpe me with yow in 



30 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

alle times as the carpentere with his ax to howse and to hewe but 
for this certeyn j spak it for j fond in yow feerstee Wherfore j took 
ther of liknesse for to enfoorme with youre rude vnderstondinge Eor 
if the ax shulde nouht dresse him ay ens the carpentere yit lasse 
shulde ye don it Ne were ye of yuel doinge ayens me that haue 
maad yow forged yow shape yow and portreyed yow for to wurshipe 
me and serue me whan it cometh to my lust This may not the 
carpentere sey to his ax for an oother maister made it and he hath 
the vsage ther of with oute more Necessite maketh him keepe it 
so that he haue no defaute of breed But of yow j haue no neede 
Haue youre herte neuere the more feers "With oute ax j may wel 

werche and forge and shape and carpentere with oute 

with oute instrument Of al j may do at my lust 

no wiht compaare him neither carpentere ne oother For j haue 
singulere miht to do al at my wille And therfore j sey yow 
shortliche that right litel is woorth yowre argument litel is woorth 
also youre murmur And also a gret folye me thinketh Whan ye 
gon thus grucchinge of my yiftes and spekinge and murmuringe 
Eor j shulde be euele serued if j mihte not yive of myn owen as wel 
to oothere as to yow It is not matere of wratthe it shulde not hevy 
yow of no thing Eor it is not good that the good go alwey on oo side 
that wite ye wel It ouhte suffice yow ynowh the miht that ye 
holden of me which is so fair that neuere king mihte haue noon 
swich neither for siluer ne oother avoir If j yive any special yifte 
to myne officialles I looke that of no thing ye leese therfore It is 
foly if ye wrathe yow 

cap. i. Whan grace hadde thus yspoken Nature that hadde herd it bisi- 
liche kneeled at hire feet and humbleliche Ladi quod she j pray 
yow thanne on me ye haue merci Argueth no more ayens me for 
pleynliche j knowe my defaute I haue stired me folilich to yow and 
fersliche Ye ben my maistresse j see it wel Ouer alle j ouhte obeye 
to yow Of no thing it shulde displese me of thing that ye wol doo 
I thinke neuere to speke but that ye wolen at this time for yive me 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 31 

al benigneliche with oute with holdinge any yuel wil Serteyn 
quod grace and j wole it But keep yow wel up on youre eyen that 
ye neuere ageyn seyn my faire werkes ne my dedes Tor an oother 
time j miht not suffre so miche ne wolde not suffre 

Whan this parlement was ended and moyses hadde dyned he cap. 11. 
wolde departe of this releef and yive almesse and enlargise it to 
poore erraunt pilgrimes of whiche ther was gret plente ther inne 
But bifore that he miht yive any thing ther of tweyne ladyes [24] of 
fair heringe that weren fair with outen filthe of fair manere with 
oute mistakinge j sigh that of a chamhre comen out and wel cur- 
teysliche thei putten hem bi twixe moises and the folk That oon 
heeld a testament a gret chartre and a scripture wher inne was 
miche lettere writen Al vnfold it she hadde for to rede it as ye 
shule heer afterward heere seye But first of that oother j wole 
seyn of which .serteyn j wundrede miche In oon of hire handes 
she heeld a mailet and in that oother she hadde a good yerde smal 
and greene and courreyinge Bi twixe hire teeth and hire mowth 
she heeld a beesme that more toucheth me Wel curteisliche she 
heeld it and she seemede neuere the lasse wys If an oother 
hadde holden it so men wolden haue holden hire for out of wit 
She this spak first to thilke folk ful wysliche Hire beesme letted 
hire no thing to speke ne to preche 

Lordinges quod she j wot wel that ye biholden myn array But cap . in. 
j trowe wel that ye witen neuere what it bitokeneth yow 
But cometh neer I wole telle it and of no thing j wol gabbe yow 
I am the fair litel biloued The debonaire y dred the riht wurthi 
litel y preised the graciowse litel plesaunt Penitence j am cleped 
wardeyn of the yle hyd Alle filthes j make ley doun bi fore that 
any wight entre in And th erf ore j here with me mailet and yerde 
and beesme With the mailet j breke and brose bi contricioun 
and angwich the herte of man Whan it is fulfilled with old sinne 
and harded I softe it and make it weepe compleyne sighye and 
sorwe And riht as the chyld bi be tinge maketh the juse come out 



32 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

of the harde appel and softeth it with smitenge riht so bi my 
smytinge j make teres come out and crye alias what j haue forfeted 
I repente me A. a. mihte j haue allegeaunce With thilke mailet 
j brosede so sum time Peeter and softed him that so hard ston 
hadde been that his goode maister he hadde forsake I beet so 
michel and smot hym that tendre and softe j yelde him So michel 
j dide in hym bi my smytinge that bi hise eyen j made come out the 
juse and the teres of weepinge in bitternesse and in sorwe Of the 
Magdaleyne j dide riht so For thouh that hir herte were harded in 
sinne bi long time algates bi betinges j made so many teres come 
out of hire and so michel of hire juse gon out that j wesh hire al 
ther inne and purgede hire For whan teres ben comen out and 
ronnen of an herte wel contrite j gadere hem ayen with oute 
abidinge and sithe of hem j make a bowkinge for to putte inne and 
bowke and wasshe alle filthes Thilke tere is so riht strong that 
ther is no sinne so fowl so defamowse that is put ther inne that it 
ne is wasshe And for that j kan so wel washe so wel lathere and 
so wel bowke hath god maad me his chambrere and his principal 
lauendere 

cap. mi. Now vnderstondeth wel yit whi j here the mailet with me The 
herte of a sinnere is a gret pot of eerthe filled with a likour foul and 
stinkinge that men mown not voide for as miche as men mown not 
turne it at here wille ne remeve it that is that bi his hardnesse and 
his grete obstinacioun he wole not amende ne may not repente 
Thilke vessel j smite riht harde and sharpliche with my mailet Peeces 
j make ther of and contrite and alle the gobettes j make [25] riht 
smale to that ende that the grete filthe that was ther inne be shed 
Eor if j knewe hem not wel and made not riht smale peeces of hem 
ther mihte leue and abide filthe ynowh in the peeces 

cap. iiv. Now vnderstondeth this lessoun ye that verray contricioun wolen 
make of youre sinnes Thinketh not ne weeneth that it sumceth to 
biholde and thinke the sinnes in gret Eor lookinge so in gret is but 
leue the pot hool And suppose it were brosed yit were not that 



THE LYF OF THE MA^HODE. 33 

j nowh for eche gobet shulde be to gret and in eche of hem mihte 
leue to gret filthe And therfore ye shulden breke al and brose bi 
smale gobbettes and parties in grete syhinges and grete hachees in 
tbinkinge Swich a tyme thow didest thus Swich a sonedai swich 
a moneday thanne thou didest that and thanne that Gret was 
that sinne and grettere was that So ofte times thou dist that sinne 
atid in that manere thou mistooke thee Litel thow were tempted 
or litel thow were stired or the stiringe thow purchasedest This is 
the manere to breke thilke foule uessel to make of it contricoun bi 
swich consideracioun Thus do j witeth it wel with my mailet that 
j holde in myn bond I breke al with oute any thing levinge and 
make al contrit with oute any sparinge 

Yit a litel woord j telle yow of thilke foule pot filled with filthe *. iv. 
with inne For his grete filthe a worm maketh his norture With 
inne it is engendred and born and with inne norished and reised 
that is the worm of conscience that seemeth to haue the teeth of 
yren For it is so cruelle and so prikinge so remordinge and so persinge 
that if ther were not who to sle it and smite it and astone it it wolde 
neuere stinte to raunge so michel til it hadde slayn his maister 
And therfore j bere mailet to that ende that j forbere it nouht but 
that j sle it and smite it and astone it That is whan the pot is wel 
contrite and wel brosed as j haue seid For but it were contrite bifore 
my mailet mihte neuere touche it ne sle it ne make it dye Now 
suffreth thanne yon re pot ful of filthe to be wel contryte and thanne 
j wole venge yow of the worm and sle it bifore yow This is the 
verray exposicioun and the significacioun of my mailet that ye seen 
that contricioun is cleped 

Now j wole telle yow of the beesme that j haue bitwixe my cap . ivi. 
mouht and my teeth Bifore j haue seyd yow and yit j sey yow that 
j am chaumberere to god the fader almihty And certeyn it is wel 
sittinge to a chaumberere and to a wenche to haue a beesme But so 
iniche ther is that the manere of the holdinge may meeue yow 
And therfore ye shulde wite that to thilke place bi whiche men 

p 



34 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

shulden caste out al the filthe and sweepe thider men shulden 
turne the heesme Eor elles ther mihte be gret suspeccion that in 
sum anglet or in sum heerne or crook or cornere the filthe were 
heled or heped In scripture j haue seyn in diuerse places and haue red 
it of diuerse yates diuerse names For that oon is seyd of fisshes that 
oother of heuene that oother of helle that oon of bras that oother 
of iren and manye oothere of which j holde me stille for it were 
longe to telle But among alle oon ther is of whiche is seyd in 
Neemye that it is cleped the yate of felthe Eor ther [26] bi men curen 
and putten out alle filthes It is better that thilke paas be foul 
than al the remenaunt weren foul Now beth eche oon wel vnder- 
stondinge In the hous of whiche j am chaumberere of whiche 
Grace dieu is the maistresse ther ben vj. yates of whiche ther ben v. 
bi whiche the felthes gon in That oon is the yate of sinellinge 
that oother is of herkeninge and of heeringe that oother of savowr- 
inge that oother of feelinge that oother of lookinge Bi these v 
yates drede nouht ther entereth ofte filthe ynowh But bi hem 
mown nouht ysen ne comen out ayen thilke filthes And therfore 
j shulde leese my time if j turnede my beesme thiderward 

cap. ivii. That oother yate that is the sexte whiche is needeful to saluacioun 
is the yate of filthe bi which eche wiht purgeth him and cureth 
him Bi whiche eche wiht putteth out al if he wole not leue foul 
This is the mouth of sinneres whiche of the yates is the beste Eor 
she putteth out alle the misdedes in the fourme thei ben doon and 
seith hem to his confessour in waymentinge and in weepinge 

cap. iviii. To ward this yate j haue turned and conuerted and born my 
beesme also to sweepe poorge and dense Eor as longe as j am 
chaumberere to grace dieu my maistresse j wolde holde clene hire 
hous with oute withholdinge of any filthe My beesme is my tunge 
and my palet with which j sweepe alle filthes and remeeve and 
dense Ther is no thing ther inne up ne doun neither in corner ne 
in hole that al j ne wole remeeve and seeche and caste out bi hoi 
shrifte with oute fraude and with oute outtakinge any thing Al j 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 35 

putte out the foule yate ther is no thing with inne that j ne here 
out with my tunge and with my beesme For j wot wel it is the 
wille of Grace dieu my maistresse which wole abide in no place but 
it be riht wel swept and clensed that is to sey that she hath no cure 
of conscience in whiche filthe is inne For conscience is the hous the 
chaumbre and the dwellinge in whiche she maketh hire abidinge 
whan it is wel kept 

Now ye haue herd whi j holde thus the beesme in my mouth ca p- lix - 
how also j make confessioun bi certeyn exposicioun Now j wole 
telle yow also shortliche the tokenes of my yerdes why j holde hem 
and what j do with hem and ye shule not holde it in ydel Of grete 
scooles j am maistresse and chastisere of children I correcte the 
yuel doeres thouh thei be of xx 11 yeer old or of an hundreth For euel 
doere chyld is cleped bi the lettere that courseth hem Whan any 
thanne hath misdoo I ley me in a waite to wite the soothe if he be 
passed bi my mailet of whiche j haue spoke and if he haue put 
him vnder my beesme and if he be swept ther with And whan j 
see him so contrite and wel shrive as j haue seid thanne to chastise 
him wel with my smerte yerdes j smyte him peyne and betinge j 
yive him for his goode and his amendinge Oon houre j make hym 
remembre his olde sinne and sey alias whi assented j to that to be 
now a wrecche An oother time j make him sey ayen Sweete lord 
god faire sweete lord j bihote thee amendement I wole nomore be 
so hardi that j dar wratthe thee ne that j dar sinne to for thee 
Oon hour thus j make to preye an oother to sighe [27] an oother to 
weepe an oother time j make him yiue and departe that that he 
hath to the needy and to mendivauns and do almesse An oother 
time j make him go and trauaile in pilgrimage or in sum oother 
long wey And an oother time faste and do sum abstinence to 
withdrawe him fro hise sinnes Thus vnder yerde j holde him and 
punishe him and bete him wel and smyte him and chastise him to 
that ende that it bite him nouht ne turne ayen to his sinne of 
whiche he is cast out and purged And to that ende also that the 

F2 



36 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

olde sinnes that he hath doo ben punished For ther shulde no 
trespas passe with oute punishinge With yerdes shulde thilke be 
beten that hath consented to sinne Heerfore j holde hem Now 
ye wite it fro misdoinge keepeth yow And if ye wole wite the 
name of the yerdes thei ben cleped satisfaccioun Eor satisfaccioun 
is as michel to sey as to do as michel peyne or more withoute ayen 
seyinge as ther was delite in the sinne 

cap. ix. Now j haue seid yow and maad youre sermoun of my craftes 
and of my name But why j am come hider bi twixe moyses boord 
and bi twixe yow that abiden and asken of his releef j haue not 
yit seid yow But herkeneth and j wole telle yow Ye shulde wite 
thac j am partere and porter of this releef With oute me ye 
shulden not come ther nyh but if ye wolden mysdo It is no 
releef to yive to fooles ne to yive to truwauntes It is not to yiue 
to womman gret but if she be gret with the grace of god It is a 
releef for hem that ben in langour for syke and for daungerous of 
whiche who so taketh it digneliche may not be that he ne haue 
allegeaunce this is the releef that lefte of the grete sopere ther god 
suppede Thilke that he brak and departede to his freendes the 
grete thursday with which al the world is fed and quikned and 
susteyned This releef j wole keepe streitliche and cheerliche Ne 
thider j wole that no wight go but if that he be beten with myne 
yerdes and but he be passed bi my mailet and maad clene with my 
beesme Now eche wiht keepe him wel as for him self Eor j do that 
that j ouhte And this is the cause for whiche j am in swich wise 
comen hider 

cap. ixi. Whan this lady hadde spoke and told hire doinge that oother ladi 
that was there and heeld the scripture in hire hande wolde also 
telle hire tale and rede hire scripture bifore alle folk Lordinges 
quod she wel it is sooth that with oute lesinge and disceyte Peni- 
tence hath told yow and divised yow hire grete office And therfore 
j wole telle yow also wher of j serve and who j am I am thilke 
that hadde neuere in despyte neither grete ne smale Thilke that 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 37 

loueth alle folk with hoi herte with oute yuel wil thilke that 
seecheth no vengeaunce ne neither showveth ne smyteth thilke that 
hath set hire entente to forbere hire enemy es I am the mooder of 
vertues thilke that clothed the naked folk thilke that made seint 
martyn vnclothe him self for to clothe the poore man I am norishe 
of orphanynes osteleer to pilgrimes that of the harmes of oothere j 
make myne And to alle my goodes ben commune My name if ye 
wole wite it charite ye shule clepe me For charitee holt in cheertee 
that that oothere holden [28] in vilitee I feede the hungri and visite 
the languishinge I am thilke that of ootheres good am as glad as 
of myn owen Thilke that debonairliche suffreth al pacientlich 
thilke that keepith not heere bakbitinge ne murmur Thilke that 
neuere mis seyde of oothere ne misdide oothere Arid nouht for 
thanne I haue niaad doo sum harm with oute misdoinge 

If ye haue ouht herd speke of the king ihesu and told how he ca P- lxii - 
wolde bicome man and suffre deth for the men Ye shulde wite that 
j am she that made him haue swich annoye For j made him come 
doun from heuene and made him take flesh of mankynde I made 
him bounde to the pileer and corowned with thornes j made him 
sprede hise armes in the cros dispoile him and opene his side The 
feet and the handes j made tacche of him and perce hem with grete 
nailes Sithe j made his blood come out of his tendre body and his 
gost yelde But witeth wel that j made hise harmes turne yow to 
gret good For j made him descenden doun in to helle for to fecche 
yow alle For to caste yow out of the deepe pit and lede yow in to 
Paradise to yive yow and lene yow a yifte that he hadde riht cheere 
that is pees bi which the heuene shyneth and of whiche Paradise 
gladeth The fourme how he yaf this yifte and graunted it is writen 
in this testament that j holde heere present bi fore yow Testament 
of pees it is cleped Now heereth j wole rede it 

I Jhesus the sone of marie weye soothnesse and lyf In my deth cap. ixiii 
that is nih and that is to me al certeyn I make my laste testament 
In whiche j leeue freeliche to hem that ben in the vale of weepinge 



38 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

and in the lond of labour the yifte of pees that is my Jewell the 
moste graciows and faireste that is in . heuene or in eerthe or that 
men mown fynde or seeche That is the Jewell w r ith whiche j 
pleyed me sum time in paradise Of whiche j made my solace whan 
j was in my cuntre But with it j pleyede no more sithe j entrede 
in to this world For whan j was bicomen chyld and comen in to this 
world whan time was j shulde pleye and that j shulde haue had my 
jewel my ministres of Paradise beren it in to this cuntre and maden 
present ther of to thilke for whiche j shulde haue turment with 
whiche Jewell thei haue pleyed euere sithe the time that j was born 
Nouht for it was hers ne for it shulde be hers For my seruauntes 
that kepten it mihten not yiuen it hem ne thei weren not wurthi 
to resceyuen it ne to have it in havinge Thei haue had it oonliche 
to repele it at my lust For saue y may no wyht yive it ne shulde 
yive it But alleweys the grete maistresse charite my ledere that 
ledeth me as a chyld and dooth with me at hire lust bi hire rihtes 
hath therto brouht me that j haue yiven to hem thilke faire Jewell 
and yit freeliche yive it hem and abaundone it hem A fairere yifte 
yaf j neuere but if j yaf my self It is a iewell that was fourmed 
forged and maad and carpentered of my fader with oute smy tinge 
of strok and with oute heeringe of makinge noise Eor noyse and 
strokes maken it nouht but tobreken it and vnmaken it 

cap. ixiv If ther were any that wolde wite of his facioun j wolde wel take 
the Patroun propirliche to hem of good vnderstondinge Who so 
tooke a carpenteres sqwire and sette upward the first ende if he 
sette that oother doun with the cornere in the euene lyne if it were 
so that in the [29] poynt in the cornere that ioyneth the lynes were 
fastned and sette an a. And in the endes were sette p. & x. so that 
x. were on hy and p. alowh as it is heere figured 
lightliche he mihte wite his facioun and aperceyue \p 
there his name right wel w 7 riten 

cap. ixv. These thre letteres heere doon to wite that to thre thinges shulde 
thilke haue pees to whom is left and graunted this faire jewel that 



THE LYF OE THE MANHODE. 39 

is that first an hy there x. is set in scaffold bi which j am in short 
vnderstonde and tokened he shulde haue perfite pees in swich 
manere that alle dedes don ayens my wille ben restreined and 
amended 

Afterward in the anglet wel sett and where she is sett and cap. ixvi. 
nestled a. bi which is vnderstonde the soule that in the bodi of the 
manhode is shulde also haue good pees bi destroyinge of misdedes 
whiche shulden be defaced and arased bi penaunce For thilke may 
not be in pees that is werred with sinne And alle oother pees is 
nouht for him if he apese not the werre bi twixe him and con- 
science bi the instrument of penaunce Afterward yit to his neihe- 
bour that bi the p. of the laste ende is vnderstonde he shulde haue 
pees which to haue ouhte to meeve him the same degree that he is 
inne Eor it is nother hyere ne lowere Bothe in oo degree j sette 
hem whan the scripture j fourmede and maade Alle ben dedlich 
bothe that oon and that oother Worm is that oon and worm is that 
oother It is no thing woorth dispitous herte and fers ne nouht is 
woorth nother pride ne daunger Alle we shule passe bi oon hole 
grete and smale michel and litel Now let hem do so miche that 
thei leesen not my jewel bi here pride Eche wiht haue pees with 
hise neyhebour And so shal the patroun be ful maad of the squyre 
of whiche j haue spoke and the pees whiche j haue figured This 
figure and thilke patroun is a notaries signe with the whiche 
shulden be signed and marked alle goode testamentes And with 
thilke signe openliche j haue signed my testament To alle folk j 
haue yiven pees and graunted and confermed Now eche wight 
keepe it as for him self after the loue that he hath to me Eor after 
that men louen me ther after eche wiht wole keepe it 

Whan charitee hadde al rad this testament and rested thanne she ca P- lxvii - 
bigan ay en hire parlement and suiche woordes she seyde afterward 
Lordinges now ye haue herd bi this scripture that j haue rad heere 
how ihesu hath loued yow and yiven yow his jewel And also how 
he grauntede and yaf it yow at my request Now wole j yit telle 



40 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

vow shortliche whi i haue sett me with thilke testament bi twixe 

/ V 

yow and moyses boord 

cap. ixviii. Wite ye shulden that j am awmenere and dispenser of the releef 
And as penitence hath preched you and told yow that with oute hire 
ye shulden not go ther to but ye wole misdo riht so j telle yow that 
with oute nrisdoinge ye shulden not with oute me drawe yow thider 
ne with oute me ye shulde not come ther nygh if ye ne wole offende 
me The testament of the yifte of pees and the Jewell which the 
sweete ihesu lefte bifore his deth with me therfore j here to that 
ende that j teche yow so that to the releef in no wise ye approche 
ne come but ye haue the jewel of pees For in the anglet of thilke 
jewel bi cause it is priuee and fair wole thilke holi releef be put and 
resseyued and gadered And therfore if ye hadden it not ye mihten 
be punished [30] therfore j rede yow in good feith that ye beren pees 
and that ye passen bi me that am departere and yivere of the releef 
For if ye comen nouht bi me and passeden bi oothere weyes thefte 
it shulde be holde and harm mihte come to yow ther bi Now 
keepeth yow wel offendeth nouht For j do wel j now my devoir and 
that is the cause for which j am come hider fro my chambere 

cap. ixix. Whan charite hadde al ful seid and preched with oute ayen seynge 
thanne j sigh many pilgrimes that were enclined to obeye bi charitee 
evene thei wenten and the jewel of pees beren sithe passeden bi 
Penitence with oute havinge any drede of hire Thei vnderputten 
hem to hire maiiet and with the beesme thei swepten hem "With 
yerdes j sigh thei weren bete And afterward of the releef thei 
resseyueden the which moises yaf hem as charitee ordeyned it Sithe 
j sigh summe cursede that priueliche bi oothere weyes hydinge hem 
fro charite and fleeinge Penitence with oute any shame wenten to 
the releef and resseyueden it Moises with oute any exceptinge and 
ayenputtinge this releef ammynistrede hem and curteysliche took 
it hem But j wole telle yow how it bifel of hem and how it mis- 
bifel hem Whan thei hadden had this releef riht as thouh thei 
hadden be comen out of a riht blac colyeres sak other out of a foul 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 41 

dong hep al blac thei bicomen and salwh foul and stinkinge and 
elded And yit more ouer hungry thei hi kamen ayen and needy 
Thei were namore sauled ther with than if thei hadden fleeinge 
passed hi the doore of an obley makere with oute any thing havinge 
ther to ete Of the oothere it was not so But whan thei hadden 
resseyued the releef of whiche thei hadden ete alle thei weren so ful- 
filled and sauled that oother thing thei wolden noon ne nothing of the 
world thei preyseden Thei hicomen so faire and so gentel that as to 
regard of hem me thouhte alle folk foule as wel the clerkes as the lewed 

Now wole j telle yow with oute lesinge that that made me michel cap. 
abashed Wunder it is that litel thing may fulfille a gret thing 
But the wundres ben grettere whan many thinges that ben grete 
mown haue of that that is not gret fillinge sufficiaunt Alle the 
releef that j sigh yive was so litel to my seemynge that thouh 
swiche ten j hadde had to a dyner j hadde not be fed sufficientliche 
And algates not fulliche oon but thei eche on weren fulfilled and suf- 
fised A litel to eche of hem suffised and ful of a litel eche of hem was 

This made me gretliche thinke and trouble myn vnderstondinge cap. 
And to whom to speke j ne wiste if to grace dieu j ne speke And 
nouht for thanne to hire durste j not speke ne come nyh hire For 
she lened hire at the ende of the arayed bord where she hi heeld the 
releef yiven and al musede Al gates j hardied me and went wel 
nyh to hire "Whan she sigh me anoon she turnede hire towardes 
me and goodliche seide What seechest thou heere I see wel ther 
lakketh thee now sumwhat Serteyn quod j softeliche ynowh 
me lakketh Eor j vnderstonde nouht how this releef that is so litel 
sufficeth to so michel of folk For to me aloone it shulde not suffice 
thouh ther were swich ten Wherfore j preye you that ye wule 
teche me therof a litel and preche me 

[31] Goode freend quod she now vnderstonde and annye thee cap. 
nouht thouh j holde thee longe to teche thee for j see wel thou hast 
neede This releef heere that is yiven oon houre it is flesh and 
blood cleped an oother it is cleped bred and wyn whiche is mete to 



42 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

pilgrimes Flesh and blood it is in sooth but bred and wyn it is 
figured And sooth it is that sum time it was bred and wyn but thou 
sigh that in to flesh and in to blood it was remeeved bi moyses 
whom j helpe Wherfore nature chidde to me and yuele wratthed 
hire Bred and wyn thouh thow clepe it avise thee and j charge 
thee that flesh and blood it be vnderstonden of thee and stidfast- 
liche leeved of thee Ne that shulde not meeve thee that at the 
taast and at the sighte at the smellinge and at the savouringe bred 
and wyn it may seeme thee For thilke foure wittes disseived thei 
ben thoruh out and fooles holden Thei kunne no thing doted thei 
ben lat hem go ligge Fonned thei ben But the witt of heeringe 
oonliche enfoormeth the vnderstondinge more than thilke of taaste 
doth heer ayens other of smellinge savouringe or sighte This heer- 
inge knoweth more subtylliche and apperceyueth more cleerliche 
And er this it was figured in ysaak and esau For ysak ful wiel 
wende of lacob that fedde him that hit hadde been his sone Esau 
For the foure wittes wolden haue disceyued him al vtterliche as 
thow shalt see pleynliche whan thow hast rad Genesis But of the 
heeringe he was no thing disceyued For ther bi he kneew his sone 
Jacob and apperceyued 

cap. ixxiii. Right so j sey thee that if thou triste and leeve in these foure 
wittes thou shalt al vtterliche be disceyued For foolliche thou shalt 
weene that of the flesh it be white bred and that the blood therfore 
be w r yn so that the soothe thou shalt neuere haue ne wite bi thilke 
wittes To the herynge thou mostest leeue thoruh out and triste 
thee bi it thou shalt wite the soothe and by it thou shalt be 
enfoormed It shal teche thee al at the fulle that it is no more 
neither wyn ne bred but it is the flesh that was sprad on the cros 
for thee and hanged and that it is the blood with which thilke cros 
was bi dewed and spreynt And if this bred thou wolt nempne and 
clepe wel and wurthilyche j sey it is bred of lyf of which al the 
world hath his lyf Also j haue in myn vsage so to clepe it bi 
swich langage Bred j clepe it and bred j nempne it that from the 



THE LYF OP THE MANHODE. 43 

heuene cam for to feede man It is the bred with whiche ben fedde 
alle the aungeles that ben in heuene It is the bred which pil- 
grimes shulden putte in here skrippes thouh in litel quantitee thou 
haue seyn it Wei j haue tauht thee that to thi lokinge ne to thi 
sighte thow shuldest no trist haue the heeringe techeth thee oon- 
liche and taketh thee the lernynge And therfore thou mihte wel 
lerne of that that thou shalt heere me seyn 

Charitee that thow hast herd speke and preche nouht longe ago cap. 
was cause of thilke bred and bi hire it was contrived She brouhte 
the greyn from heuene to eerthe and seew it The eerthe ther it 
was so we was neuere ered ne labowred bi heete of the sunne it wex 
and bi dew that fel ther on Charite made berne it and in straunge 
berne putte it Manye founden it there and throsshen it and 
fanned it So michel beten it was so michel fanned it was that from 
the straw it was disceuered His clothinge was doon of him so that 
he was naked and naked [32] afterward to the mille he was born 
and disgisyliche grounden Eor in the hoper of the mille in whiche 
ther was no lynene cloth he was grounden broken and brused and 
tormented Thilke mille was maad to the wynd and with the wynd 
of envye grounde And nouht for thanne this mille hadde stones 
that weren nouht softe Stones of yuel rownynge stones of bak- 
bitinge with which it was frusht bifore that it was taken to the 
hoper Whan it hadde thus be grounde thanne putte hire foorth 
Charite and wolde bicome bakere for to bulte and make ther of 
bred Hire oovene al hot was bifore whiche she wolde bake it 
inne But soth it is that she cowde not turne it ne moolde it at 
hire wille whiche forthouhte hire But of no thing she abashed hire 
For j wole telle thee what bifel ther of She bithouhte hire on a 
maistresse that was the moste subtile that was in burgh or in toun 
Sapience she was cleped ouer al there men kneewen hire Ther was 
no thing that mihte be thouht that she ne cowde doon it anoon 
Bifore that time she hadde lerned thilke wit in the scooles of hire 
cuntre Al the world if she wolde in a box she wolde wel doo other 

G2 



44 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

in the shelle of an ey she shulde wel putte an hool oxe And for this 
subtilitee Charite was bi thouht of hire for the bred that she wolde 
make of the groundene corn that was redy she wolde it were so 
wysliche moolded and so subtylliche that bi seemynge it were litel 
and that to alle it mihte suffice So that of a riht litel eche were 
ful sauled and wel sufficed 

cap. ixxv. Whan charite hadde thus ythouht to fulfille hire wille to sapience 
she wente and dide so michel that she fond hire She was in hire 
chayere and took keep of al So michel charite preyede hire that 
to bake with hire she made hire come Sapience this bred turnede 
and book it And riht as charite seyde hire riht so of al she dide 
And yit more subtylliche she dide it and more wysliche For she 
turnede it gret with oute mesure for to yive ther of feedinge to alle 
and that eche mihte ther of be sauled and sufficed And how wel 
how gret that euere she made it bi seemynge she made it litel And 
vnder litel closure she made it haue his mesure And yit more 
subtylliche she made an oother experiment For of eche of thilke 
partyes that of that bred shulden ben broken Whether it were litel 
or gret she made eche of hem as gret as thouh alle hadden be to 
gideres Whiche thing plesede nouht to hire that chidde with me 
But certeyn michel it heviede me For she can no thing but hire riot 
For eelde that hath doted hire But there algates cam she nouht 
For of me she bithouhte hire For wel she dredde hire that yit she 
mihte be blamed and rebuked But j wole telle thee what she dide 
A clerk of hires Aristotle she souhte and sente him to speke to 
hire and to blame hire and to argue hire. 

cap. ixxvi. Whan Aristotle was come bifore hire he seyde hire the greetinges 
and sithe seyde hire bi likenesse To yow dame sapience sendeth 
me nature to speke and to shewe yow youre mistakinges Michel 
it displeseth hire that ye quassen thus hire ordinaunces and 
remeeven And also it pleseth nouht me For althouh ye ben my 
freend j wole neuere leue for yow that j ne wole seye that that j woot 
Wel ye witen [33] that it is no resoun that the vessel or the hous 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 45 

be lasse than that that is ther inne On that oother side if j make 
folk weene bi argumentes of a gret paleys other of a chirche that it 
were a torell litel soothliche litel thei wolden preyse my seyinge the 
wise folk and wolden skorne me and holde me for a sophistre 

These thinges heere haue ye doon in thilke bred that is disgised cap. 
for the feedinge with inne with which alle folk ben ful fedde that 
the world miht nouht ne the heuene miht not suffice it ye haue 
enclosed and put bi a disgise wise in so litel a closure vnder so 
litel an hopp that thouh ther were suiche foureteene in myn hand 
I wolde wel holde hem This may j nouht wel suffre ne resoun 
may not weel preeve it ne it is not riht gret wunder thouh Nature 
merveile hire But thouh ye hadden so michel doon and that ye 
mihte haue doon it that the dwellinge were as gret as the feedinge 
is gret other elles that the feedinge were as litel as the hous* is litel 
"Wel j nouh j wolde suffre it and Nature wolde it wel On that oother 
side it were youre wurshipe that with oute desceyte men wisten 
how gret the feedinge were with oute goinge divinynge And yit 
more me misliketh and nature halt hire not stille that ye haue 
preeued my maxime fals and repreeved For certeyn j herde neuere 
yit speke ne in my lyve sih that al what so euere it were ne were 
grettere than a part ther of But ye witen wel that ye haue mad 
the partye as gret as the al Which is a gret mistakinge ayens me and 
ay ens Nature this is that j am come hider fore and wherfore j was 
sent hider Now looketh what answere she shal haue that hath 
sent me 

Whan Aristotle hadde spoken sapience aresoned him Preend ca P- 
quod she that cleymest me freend For that thou louest me and 
ther inne thou hast no thing lost For therbi is al good bifalle thee 
Wel thou shuldest avise thee if thow woldest and bithinke thee 
that tweyne scooles j heeld sum time jn whiche thee and nature 
j tauhte For grace dieu wolde it and hadde ordeyned me ther too 
to teche in that oon to werche diuerse artes and excersise to make 
wunderful thinges and subtile and gracious And in thilke was first 



46 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

dame Nature my scoleer There j tauhte hire and lerned hire noble 
craftes and riht subtile as to make floures lilyes gaye roses and 
violettes and oothere graciouse craftes Wher of to seye it is no 
neede In that oother scoole there j tauhte thee vnderstondinge and 
enfoormed thee to argue and to dispute and to juge and discerne 
bi twixe the goode and the wikkede and to make canoun and lawe 
For therfore was thilke scoole ordeyned And there was my wise 
douhter science that is so subtile whiche heeld there the parle- 
mentes and foormed there the argumentes Eor the loue of whom 
thou come and were in the scooles And so michel thow didest 
what up what doun that to mariage thow haddest hire In thilke 
scoole j tauhte and there thou were my prentys and there weren 
shewed thee alle the secrees of Nature For al that euere j tauhte to 
nature riht soone after j told it to thee Nouht that thou shuldest 
mown make any thing ther of but that thou shuldest wel kunne 
juge Swich wurshipe and swich curteysye shewed wel that j was 
freend to thee 

cap. ixxix. [34] And whan thow and nature thus hauen ben vnder my cure 
that han lerned in my scooles bothe faire dedes and faire woordes 
thouh ye seyen me now erre yit ye shulden forbere me Ye shulden 
haue in mynde of the Champyoun that hadde tauht his kunnynge 
to a poore man and hadde no thing take of his For whan thei weren 
in the feeld at the requeste of tweyne dukes that wolden defende 
bi hem eche of hem here owen for which thei hadden gret stryf the 
maister yit which was miche wisere than the prentys bi gan to 
speke to his prentys and aresone him What is this quod he come 
ye tweyne ayens me that am aloone this was neuere of gret wurthi- 
nesse ne of wurthi corage And thanne whan thilke lookede 
bihynde him who was there the maister yaf him swich a strook 
that ded to the eerthe he sente him Yit haue j nouht quod he 
tauht al my wyt to my prentys It is euele bifalle thee to day 
whan thow come ayens me 

cap. ixxx. g j se y thee So god save thee weenest thow that j haue tauht 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 47 

thee now al my wit and al myn art and that al myn j haue 
yiven thee with oute withholdinge any thing Euele thow woldest 
awurthe with me if j hadde no thing to defende me with bi sum 
wey Eor doinge to me vyleynye thow arguest me of sophistrie of 
fraude and of gile bi defaute of discrecioun Now sey me if j were 
a mercere and shewed thee a purs the which j wolde yive thee 
and seyde thee Loo this j haue yiven thee here it with thee for it is 
bi my wille If it so were that thow here it foorth and sithe thou 
founde ther inne foure floreynes or fyve or sixe shulde it seeme 
thee that j hadde any thing disceyued thee or that j were therfore a 
sophistre ? Serteyn quod Aristotle nay but me shulde thinke suich a 
yifte ful of gret fredom and of wurship and of gret curteysye 

Serteyn quod she so it is of the bred that j haue maad so subtile cap. 
Eor with oute j haue not shewed the grete tresore that j haue put 
with inne but j haue riht priuely hid it for to enrichesse with the 
poore folk Eor if it were shewed with oute ther shulde noon dore 
resceyue it Charite ordeyned it so that hath of the poore gret pitee 
And ther inne is no gile but dede of mercy But if with oute j hadde 
shewed gret aparisaunce and put with inne thing that were litel to 
preyse or that hadde not gret quantite thanne thow mihtest argue 
me of gile and blame me 

Yit j answere thee oother weys Eor it is no desceyte thouh j shewe cap. 
it litel to the eye and is gret with inne And j wole that so it be 
bileeved stidfastliche with oute makinge denyinge But if j wolde 
not this or if j dide it oother weys thanne perauenture thow mihtest 
argue me of mystakynge 

Now sey me yit j prey thee that arguest me of my doinges that cap. ixxxiii. 
seist it is not resoun that the vessel or the hous be lasse than that 
that is with inne Seye thou neuere neyther inne ne oute the quantitee 
of the herte of man Serteyn quod he in sooth j haue wel seyn it 
treweliche Now sey me quod she bi thin oth how gret it is to 
thi seemynge ? Serteyn quod he a kyte a litel enfamined shulde 
skarsliche be ful sauled ther with Eor litel it is and nouht gret Yit 



48 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

quod she j aske [35] thee if thou wite oulit with how michel his 
desire may be fulfilled and with how michel it mihte be ful esed and 
sauled or what thing mihte suffice it Serteyn quod he fulfille it 
and saule it and staunche it mihte not al the world thouh al at his 
wille he hadde it Now needeth it thanne quod sapience that ful- 
fillinge to sumcience thow fynde it Other that false bi thi commune 
auctoritee that is wide spred bi whiche thow hast preeued and seyd 
that in the world ther is no thing voyd For of sum thing it shal be 
filled other it shal be empty Ther of quod he j wole sey my 
seyinge For j haue wend and yit weene that oo god that is sovereyn 
shulde make it al ful Soothliche quod she thow seyst wel and of no 
thing mistakest thee ther of But it needeth that thilke god be 
grettere than the world is gret and so enclosed in the world it may 
not be that it ne shulde ouer flowe it. Serteyn quod he j may not 
to that of no thing wel withseye And how shulde it quod she be 
put in an herte that is so litel Thanne muste the hows bi resoun be 
lasse than the good that is put ther inne and so shal thi seyinges be 
false 

cap. ixxxiv. Yit j wole shewe thee this apertliche al oother weys Grece and 
Athenes thow hast seyn and many tymes ben there Now sey me 
sooth if it be in thi mynde how michel that oon is from that oother 
And if ther been manye studyauntes and how grete the citees ben 
Serteyn quod he j mynde me wel that thei ben grete and that ther 
comen ynowe of studiauntes thider and of scoleeres and of folk of 
diuerse craftes Now sey me quod she Where hast thow put alle 
these gretnesses that thow seist In my memorie j haue hem quod 
he certeyn I wot it riht wel Oo quod sapience and shalt thou ther- 
fore conclude me if memorye be in thin bed that in lasse place than 
is thin hed thou hast enclosed tweyne grete citees with alle here 
studiauntes 

cap. ixxxv. In the appel of myn eye j wole shewe thee this also biholde it 
how it is litel and algates ther enhabiteth ther inne holliche al thi 
visage as thow mint see apertliche Also looke in a mirour thou 



THE LYF OF THE MA.NHODE. 49 

shalt se thi visage and his shap And if thow wolt do oother weys 
for to assoile better thine arsmmentes that seist i haue falsed and 

~ d 

repreved thi gretteste principle in as michel as eche partye that 
may be broken of the bred j make as gret as al make that al the 
mirour be to broken in diuerse partyes and if thin biholdinge be to 
eche of hem ther shal not be thilke in which thow ne shalt see thi 
visage al apertliche and apperceyue as wel and as holliche as thou 
didest first in the mirour whan it was hool wher inne ther was but 
oon visage 

Now lady that hauen the engyn so subtil quod he vnderstonde ap 
ye that localliche virtualliche or oother wise Alle these thinges 
ben thei put in the places that ye haue seyd and enclosed For ther 
after j wolde answere or ther after j wolde holde me stille 

Serteyn quod she localliche j vnderstonde not but oother weys ca P 
vertualliche j vnderstonde summe and ymaginatyfliche summe and 
representatyfliche summe of the thinges j vnderstonde And it thurt 
not recche to wite of this anoon For j haue taken thee ensaumples 
onliche for avisement for to make thee soone vnder [36] stonde and 
soone teche thee and lerne thee how vnder litel figure is hid the 
grete feedinge For as in diuerse wises in the litel places these 
thinges ben put riht so with inne this bred al the souereyn good is 
put Soothliche nouht ymaginatyfliche nouht presentatyfliche nouht 
vertualliche with oute more but it is put ther inne and contened 
bodiliche and rialliche presentliche and verreyliche with oute any 
similacioun and with oute oother decepcoun or gile 

The cause why it is put there in partye it is told to fore For the ca P- 
herte is litel the bred as litel is maad also And for his grete 
capacitee the good souereyn j haue put with inne The litele to the 
litele the grete to the grete j haue euene maad as answer inge For 
after that the herte is right soo the feedinge is maad If it be litel 
litel bred it hath If it wole ynowh it shal fynde with inne that 
that may saule it and fille it and suffice it And ther inne is no 
mistakinge thouh the hous for suich cause is michel smallere and 

H 



50 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

lasse than the good that enhabiteth ther inne And suppose that to 
thi seemynge j hadde maad thing mis sittynge and that thou were 
not wel apayed of that thou hast herd me seyd yit j sey thee that if 
j ne wolde j shulde not answere to thee For if j cowde not make or 
sum time dide summe thinges more notable and wunderful than 
oothere for nouht shulde j be maistresse and techere of oothere So 
that thou maist see heere myn answere If thow wolt shewe it ayen 
to nature chaumberere to grace dieu and my scoleer For for hire j 
wole no thing leue to do of that that j wolde do and For charitee j 
wole alwey do and plese hire that that j can She shal no thing 
kunne diuise me that j ne wole do it with oute abidinge 

cap. ixxxix. Aristotle whan he herde this al dedliche he answerde hire 
Serteynly j apperceyue weel that of yow shal j no thing winne It 
is michel bettere for me go my wey than more argue ayen yow I go 
Dooth what euere ye wole good leeue ye haue Thus thilke wente 
and tolde ayen to nature the wit he hadde founde in hire For whiche 
he was departed Nature thanne suffrede it she mihte nomore and 
that hevyede hire 

cap. ixxxx. Whan grace hadde thus told me this faire tale of hire goodnesse 
I hadde gret wille and gret hunger to haue of thilke bred to ete 
Lady quod j with herte j pray yow that of this releef of moyses ye 
wole make yiv.e me for to ese with myn empty herte Longe it hath be 
empty ne it was neuere sauled For it wiste neuere yit of whatt men 
shulden fille it 

cap. ixxxxi. Serteyn quod she thi requeste j holde not dishoneste Michel is 
this bred necessarie to thee to the viage thou hast to doone For 
bifore thou mowe come to the place ther thou hast thi desire bi ful 
wikkede pases thou shalt go and wikkede herberwes thou shalt 
fynde So that ofte thou shalt haue mis ese if thou bere not this 
bred And my leeue thou hast to take it whan thou wolt But 
alwey s it is riht as j fynde in my lawes that thou haue first that 
that thow hast asked bifore That is the scrippe and the burdoun of 
the whiche j seide thee that in myn hous j wolde- purueye thee of 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 51 

hem al bi tymes That shulde he [37] whan j hadde shewed thee 
the faire thinges of withinne whiche alle folk seen nouht 

Now j haue in partye shewed thee the thinges and opned hem to cap. 
thee j am redi to holde thee thine couenauntes With oute failinge 
the scrippe and the hurdoun thou shalt haue alle the tymes that 
thow wolt And sithe if thou wolt thou miht putte of the bred in thi 
scrippe and after as good pilgrym sette thee to thi wey 

Lady quod j miche graunt mercy that is my wish and my desire cap. 
Dooth me soone to haue it for j haue gret lust to stire me Me 
thinketh riht longe that j ne were forth ward and set in the wey Eor 
it is fer to thilke citee to whiche j am exited to goon 

And thanne in to a place that she hadde where ther weren many cap. 
faire iewelles she ledde me with oute dwellinge And out of an 
hucche whiche she vndide rawhte the scrippe and the burdoun 
Neuere j trowe man ne womman so fair a scrippe ne burdoun lenede 
to in whiche he mihte bettere assure him and in a wikkede pas 
triste The fairnesse and the goodnesse of hem bisiliche j lokede 
Wher of j wole not holde my pees that sumwhat ther of j ne wole 
seye The scrippe was of greene selk and heeng bi a greene tissu 
Lysted it was wel queynteliche with xij . belles of siluer Who so euere 
forged hem a good maister he was For eche of hem was enameled 
and in eche enamelure ther was propre scripture the whiche right 
as j sigh it at eye j wole telle yow 

In the firste ther was writen god the fader as me thouhte the ca P 
heuene and the eerthe made of nouht and sithe foormede man 
In the secunde god the sone In the thridde god the holi gost 
But these thre thinges weren to me wunderful and hard and 
dowtows For of so nyh thei ioyneden to gideres that thei seemeden 
to be alle oon And specialliche this j sey that ther was but oonliche 
oon claper that to alle the thre servede In the feerthe belle writen 
ther was Goddes sone ihesu cryst fro heuene in to eerthe de- 
scendede by the holy gost conseyued mad man and of a mayden 
born In the fyfthe he was tormented for sinneres and on the crosse 

H 2 



52 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

doon naturelly ded and buryed In the sixte Descended doun in to 
lielle for to caste out alle hise freendes and lede hem in to Paradys 
In the seventhe sussited In the eyhtthe steyn in to heuene and 
on the riht half of his fader sett for to iuge the quike and the dede 
In the nynthe was set the holi cristene cherche with the holi sacra- 
mentes that ben solempnysed ther inne In the tenthe the oonhede 
and the communioun of the seyntes and the indulgence of sinne bi 
cristenynge and penaunce In the eleventhe risinge of alle the dede 
that shulen come to the iugement in bodi and soule and there shulen 
heere here sentence In the twelfthe guerdoun of alle goode dedes and 
punyshinge of hem that the yuel dedes haue doon and nouht repented 
hem This is of the belles the scripture that writen is in the enamelure 
bi w r hich if ye wole the bewtee of the scrippe seen ye mowen 

cap. ixxxxvi. NOW T j wole telle yow also of the burdoun that was of an oother 
facioun It was liht and strong and euene [38] and was maad of tre 
of Sechim that in no time mai rote ne perishe for cause of fyr On 
the ende anhy was a pomelle of a round mirour shynynge and fair 
In whiche cieerliche men mihten see al the cuntre that was fer Ther 
was no regioun so fer that ther inne men ne mihten seen it And 
there j sygh thilke citee to whiche j was exited to gon riht as j 
hadde seyn it and aperseyued it bifore in the mirour also in the 
pomelle j syh it Wher of j was fayn The better j louede the bor- 
doun in sooth and the more j preysede his facioun A litel bi nethe 
an oother pomel ther was a litel lasse than that oother that was 
maad riht queynteliche of a charbuncle glistringe Who that euere 
it made and cumpasede and that to the burdoun ioyned it he was 
not of this lond In an oother place he muste be souht Ryht wel it 
was sittinge to the burdoun and ryht auenaunt No thing ther 
mislikede me in it but that it was not yrened But afterward she that 
shewed it me appesed me wel 

cap. ixxxxvii. Whan these iewelles weren drawen out thanne seide me grace 
dieu See heere the scrippe and the burdoun that j haue bihyght 
thee I make thee yifte of hem In thi viage thou shalt haue neede 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 53 

of hem keep hem wel and so thou shalt be wys The scryppe Foy 
is cleped with oute which thow shalt neuere do jurney that ouht 
shal availe For thi bred and thi vitaile thow shuldest in alle times 
haue ther inne And if thow wolt wite this bi oother seyinge than 
by myn Seynt Poule shal wel enfoorme thee that telleth that it is 
writen that the iuste liveth bi his scrippe that is to seyn who so wel 
vnderstonde that he liueth of the good that he taketh ther inne This 
scrippe is of greene colour For riht as greenesse coumforteth the 
eye and the sight riht so j sey thee that sharp feith maketh sighte 
of vnderstondinge Ne neuere shal the soule perfytliche see if this 
greenesse ne lene him miht and strengthe And therfore she shal 
neede thee for to redye thee in thi wey 

Lady quod j seyth me for the loue of god of these belles so litele p- 
why thei ben thus tacched and stiked in the skrippe Of the thre 
also that han but oon claper whiche to hem is commune 

Serteyn quod she in the time bifore that was in the time that j cap. 
made the scrippe it sufficed al sympilliche to leeue in god perfyteliche 
And thanne was the scrippe with oute ringeres and with oute belles 
But j telle thee that many erroures sourdeden sithe and many harmes 
Eche wolde leeue in god as him likede Oon leeued in oo wise an 
oother in an oother wise at his devys as thou shuldest wel wite if 
thow haddest seyn here erroures And so was this scrippe elded and 
defouled But for to recouere the bewte and for to do awey alle 
erroures and for oon bileeue shulde be to alle and with oute desceite 
the twelve apostles setten ther on these twelve belles that ther ben 
and in eche of hem propir writinge that propirliche techeth and 
seith in what manere and how men shulden bileeue in god stede- 
fastliche These twelve belles heere maken the twelve articles 
of the feith that ben the which thow shuldest stedefastliche 
bileeue and haue in thi memorie Ofte thei shulde awake thee 
and ringe at thin ere For nouht be thei not maad belles ne 
rins;eres For if thow were to slowh other leftest to looke the 

O 

writinge at the leste with ringinge of summe of hem thou mihtest 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

remembre thee On that oother side [39] seint Poul seith and 
to the Homayns he hath writen that hi heeringe of swich ring- 
inge men haven the feith perfytliehe so that he putte not the ring- 
inge in the scrippe but it exiteth the memorie in what manere men 
shulden bileeue Nouht that it sufficeth onliche to bileeue stidefast- 
liche ffor ther ben mo oothere thinges that ben to bileeue stidfast- 
liche as of the wyn and bred that ben remeeved in to flesh and blood 
Of God also in trinite thre persones in oonhede Wher of thou hast 
seyn the ensaumple in the belles of whiche thow askedest For riht. 
as oo claper serueth to thre belles wel and faire riht so is the 
trinitee but oo god alone in soothnesse God alone and thre it is 
and eche of the thre is god that thow shuldest bileeue stidefastliche 
And many oothere of ringinges of whiche as at this time j wole 
holde me stille and for to lasse ennuye leue it For of the twelve 
alle thei hangen Who so wel at here rihtes al wel vnderstant 

cap. c . Ryght as grace dieu spak and diuisede of these belles j that 
biheeld the scrippe and alwey hadde myn eye ther on sygh dropes of 
blood sowen and dropped ther on Whiche thing michel displesede 
me and meevede al my corage for that j hadde not seyn it bifore 
after j hadde seyn and apperceyued the scrippe Lady quod j newe 
j am discoumforted euele I se blood shed on the scrippe that 
neuere er j apperceyuede Eyther apeseth me of thilke blood or 
elles taketh me an oother scrippe 

cap. ci. Haa quod she discoumforte the shuldest thou nouht but coum- 
forte thee For whan thow wost the cause thou shalt loue the scrippe 
the bettere Ther was sum time a pilgrym that highte steuene that 
in yowthe bar the scrippe in alle places ther he wente But he was 
aspyed with theeves For the scrippe that was fair michel thei 
peyneden him to bineme it him and michel peyne thei diden him 
But he defended him so wel that he wolde for no thing men shulden 
bineme him suich a scrippe but leeuere he hadde men sloowen him 
Algates thei sloowen him and mordred him and stoned him and of 
his blood was thus this scrippe bi dropped and aproved But that 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 55 

time it was fairere for the blood that was al neewe For colour that 
is red up on greene chaumpe it is wel fair and that apperede open- 
liche For after his bleedinge it was boren more than bifore michel 
more and more desired Many folk cornen after and so michel 
diden that thei hadden it And afterward for to defende and keepe 
it thei suffreden to dismembre hem and suffreden peynes and tor- 
mentes to the deth Who so wolde nombre the martyres that for it 
suffreden deth ther is neither tunge coude telle it ne herte thinke it 
ne bond write it So that thouh thilke scrippe were bidropped with 
thilke blood and preeued it is no thing that is to wundre upon but 
it is thing michel more woorth than a margerye and more preciows 
And j sey thee wel that if the dropes weren neewe thow woldest 
holde hem riht faire But it is a long time gon that no wiht bledde 
of his blood ther on The bleederes ben passed and alle agoon But 
therfore ben the dropes of blood that ben elded neuere the lasse 
worth Of the bewte recche thee neuere "Whan thou hast thing that 
is as michel worth So that the scrippe thus dropped with this blood 
[40] and so preeved j take thee in ensaumple to that ende j sey it 
that if men wolden withdrawe it thee other bineme it thee rathere 
thow shuldest suffre to hewe thee and sle thee than suffre to bineme 
it thee Now take it thanne anoon for it is sittinge to thee 

Ladi quod j wel it sufficeth me of this blood which ye haue seyd cap. en. 
me But me thinketh riht bevy that ye haue take me this scrippe 
bi couenaunt For j wot neuere how j shal heer after vse it Algates 
she liketh me and no thing mis liketh me ther inne So j wole take 
it with oute taryinge sithe j haue graunte of yow 

And thanne with oute lettinge j took it and abowte me anoon cap. cm. 
j dide it and grace dieu halp me that arayed it me at hise rightes 
Wel glad was j whan j seyh it aboute me and felte it For longe bifore 
it was that j hadde desired it michel and asked it 

Now j wole telle yow ayen of the burdoun of which grace dieu cap. civ. 
made me sermoun After quod she that j haue seyd thee of the 
scrippe whiche gladeth thee wel j wole also telle thee of the bur- 



56 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

doun at the shorteste that j may The burdoun hatteth esperaunce 
whiche is good in eche sesoun Eor thilke that leneth him sikerliche 
ther to may not falle The wode of sechim of which it is rnaad 
sheweth ful wel which it is To it thou shuldest lene thee in alle 
euel paas wher thou shalt go In wikkede Paas holde it riht euene 
and looke wel on the pomelles For the pomelles shulen holde thee 
up and nouht suffre thee to falle 

cap. cv. The hye pomel is ihesu crist that is as the lettere seith a mirour 
that is with oute spot In whiche eche wyght may see his visage In 
whiche al the world may mire him wel and considere him Eor al 
the world ther inne mired is nouht as greet as aas in a dee In 
thilke pomel thou shuldest mire thee and ofte looke ther inne 
Lene thee ther to and strongliche clyue to the poyntes Eor whan 
with inne thou seest wel thou shalt neuere haue discomfort of no 
thing And as longe as thou lenest thee ther to thow shalt neuere 
falle in wikkede paas Now think heer on if thou be wys and the 
bettere thow shalt do thi viage 

cap. cvi. That oother pomel is thilke of whom he was born that is the 
virgine marie mooder that conseyuede and bar hire fader that is 
the charbuncle glisteringe that enlumineth the niht of the world 
Bi the which ben brouht ayen to wey alle that ben distracte and 
forveied Bi the which beth enlumined alle thilke that beth in 
derknesse Bi the which beth reised the fallen doun and the ouer- 
throwen And therfore she hath be graffed hi subtile art and ioyned 
to this burdoun that is so fair to that ende that she be oo pomel 
Eor first ther was but oon allone whiche sufficed not Eche miht 
not come ther hi ther to ne holde it But bi this men comen and 
lenen ther to anoon So that this is necessarie to eche wight that 
is pilgrym therfore j rede that thou lene thee ther to and triste in 
alle times Eor bi it thow shalt be meyntened and susteyned in alle 
wikkede paas And bi it thou shalt mown come to that oother that is 
hyere So that whan thou art lened and affi.cch.ed to twey pomelles 
wel j telle thee that sureliche and sadliche thou miht go And 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 57 

therfore in the burdoun thou miht wel triste thee and assure [41] thee 
Eor the pomelles that ben set ther on shulen susteyne thee in alle 
euele paas This is a good burdoun keep it wel j haue yive it thee 
so that thyn it is 

Thanne in the hond she put it me wher with to myn herte she ca P cvii 
dide gret ioye Eor wel j seyh that j was redy in al to putte me to 
my weye But algates it mis likede me of the burdoun that it was 
not yrened Lady quod j to grace dieu j may not holde me hi god 
that j ne sey yow my thouht of thilke burdoun that is not yrened 
It mis liketh me michel witeth it wel For alle oothere j see yrened 
therfore if ye wole seith me whi suich ye haue take it me 

Haa quod she What thou art a fool It needeth thee not a belle ca ? cviii - 
at thi nekke Haue j not right now seyd thee if thow woldest a litel 
remembre thee that to the eende aboue thow shuldest triste thee 
and lene thee to the pomelles Eor the pomelles shulen holde thee 
up and not suffice thee falle The eende bi nethe dooth thee no thing 
And nouht for thanne wel thow wost that a burdoun yrened weyeth 
more than thilke that is vn yrened Vn yrened j took it thee for to 
my weenynge thou shuldest here it the bettere And on that 
oother side yrened burdoun stiketh deppere in the fen and in the 
dunge than thilke that hath noon yren And the deppere it stiketh 
the more is thilke empeched that bereth it over thilke that bereth 
it vn yrened Therfore j haue take it thee suich for j wol not that 
thou be empeched neither in forwh lie in mire ne that thou haue 
noon encombraunce Haa lady quod j yit oo woord Me thinketh j 
am not a fool nouht for that that ye haue seyd but for that of 
which ye speken nouht If houndes assaile me other theeves and 
my burdoun be not yrened trowe ye thei wole drede it so michel as 
if it were yrened bifore And for that cause onlich j spak this and 
noon oother weys Ther to quod she j make thee answere Eor bur- 
doun is not to smite with ne to fyghte with but with oute more to 
lene ther to And if thou seye thou wolt with oute more defende 
thee armures with which thou shalt wel defende thee with oute 

i 



58 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

offence and with whiclie thou shalt wel discoumfyte thin enemy s 
riht a noon j wole take thee For j wot wel where j shal fynde hem 
Haa lady quod j hi swich condicioun the hurdoun liketh me wel 
Wherfore j pray yow that ye fecche these armures and taketh 
hem me 

cap. cix. And thanne grace dieu entrede in to hire curtyne and clepede 
me Now bihold quod she an hy to thilke perche I muste go to 
fecche armure to go fer with Ynowh thow seest to arme thee with 
Ther heth helmes and haubergouns gorgeres and jakkes taarges and 
al that needeth to thilke that wole defende him Now take there 
that that thou wolt haue and arme thee thow hast leeue 

tap. ex. Whan j syh these faire armures michel j reioysede me of the 
bewtee of hem but algates j wiste not wel with which j shulde do 
my profyt best For j hadde neuere vsed armes ne j hadde nouht ben 
armed Lady quod j sheweth me now j pray yow if ye [42 j wole 
whiche armures j shulde take and how j shulde arme me For but if 
ye helpe to arme me ye hadden do no thing 

cap. cxi. And thanne she took a doublet of a diuers facioun j sigh neuere noon 
swich ne neuere herde speke of noon swich For riht euene bihynde 
on the bak was set an anevelte that was maad to resseyue strokes of 
hameres Of it at the firste bigynnynge she made me yifte and 
present Loo heere quod she a doublet the beste that euere man 
sigh For who so hadde neither handes ne feet and were teyed to a 
pileer If that he hadde that upon him with oute more he shulde 
neuere be venquished But he shulde with gret wurship be victour 
of alle hise enemy s And ouer j sey thee and be not abaasht Who 
so hath on thilke garnement he dooth his profyt with that that 
oothere doon here vnprofyt and here harm Clowdes maken his corn 
growe and tempestes fylleth hise gerneeres and pestilence hise 
seleeres Of grete hardshipes he hath a softe bed and of tormentes his 
grete delite Hise deyntees he maketh of pouerte and his solas of 
aduersitees Fastinges maken hym fat and syknesses strengthe 
Pouerte and tribulacioun maken him his recreacioun The more men 



THE LTF OP THE MANHODE. 59 

prikken it the hardere it is And riht as the doublet is maad with 
poynynges For whi it is cleped a purpoynt riht so who so hath it 
on of prikkinges he bicometh armed Bi prikkynges it is worth that 
that it is and with oute prikkinges it is no thing woorth If thou 
wolt wite what it hatteth Pacience men clepe it whiche is maad 
to suffre peynes and to susteyne grete prikkinges for to be as 
anevelte that stireth not for the strok of a fether but resseyueth 
and endureth al with good wille with oute murmurynge 

This doublet wered on ihesu crist whan in the crosse for thee cap. 
he was hanged up on him it was rihted and prikked and mesured a 
right at hise rihtes Al he suffrede and al endurede and no woord 
seyde ne sownede An anevelte he shewede him and was to alle 
the strokes of whiche he was smite And therfore on him was 
forged and moneyed thi ransoum The wikkede smithes forgeden 
him on his bak and money den him So that thou shuldest wel 
suppose that whan the kyng wolde arme him with these armures 
thei been goode and that thei ben not to refuse Wherfore take 
hem and do hem on And so thou shalt be miche the rediere to do 
on that oother armure that up on these shulden be For bi nethe 
goth the dowblet who so wole arme him bi resoun 

And thanne j took the garnement and clothed me j ne wot how cap. 
hevi me thouhte it and streyt and to here it michel it greeuede me 
Lady quod j youre purpoynt was not a poynt shape for me swich 
mihte j not here it with oute greevinge me to michel Serteyn 
quod she the purpoynt were shape for the ariht if thow were ariht 
shape But on thee it holt that art not rihted ariht after his riht 
For thou art to fat and haste to miche grees vnder the wynge and 
art to boistous and to ryotous and to michel fed Swiche thinges 
maken thee so gret that with oute grevaunce thow miht not here 
the purpoynt on thi bak And therfore in al thou muste confoorme 
thee to it not it to thee Doynge awey that that is to michel on 
thee [43] Michel smallere thou moste be if thou wolt be wel clothed 

Lady quod j techeth me now how ye vnderstonden this to wite cap. 

i2 



. 60 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

soothliche whether me neede ouht a carpentere to hewe me How 
j mihte be rihted and shape to his riht Serteyn quod she ryotous 
thou art j nowh and envyous Wite thow shuldest that the purpoynt 
wole rihte thee if thow wolt here it with oute dispoylinge thee 
needeth noon oother carpentere It shal hewe thee to his riht and 
after it rihte thee But after whan thou art rihted it shal be to 
thee neither greevous ne harmful If ther be any that misseyth 
thee or that dooth the vileynye turne the bac towardes him Lawhe 
in thin herte and sey no woord It shulde no thing recche thee to 
haue the berkynge of howndes turne the anevelte and lat him 
smyte al at his wille For hi the strokes that he shal yive thee 
he shal rihte thee the purpoynt And also j sey thee that ther bi 
thow shalt haue the gryndinge of corownement For bi swich srnyt- 
inge and forginge and bi swich knokkinge shal be forged thee the 
corown that no man kowde make that is thilke with whiche ben 
corowned these martires that the purpoynt loueden Whiche up on 
the anevelte suffreden to knokke so michel and strokes to yiven 
that bi the strokes was forged hem and arayed hem the coroun 
And therfore in good feith I rede thee that the purpoynt with oute 
lettinge thow here For in oo tyme that hastliche shal come it shal 
neede thee That shal be whan tribulacoun shal aspye thee and 
assaile thee in the feeld in wey and in hous And shal sende thee 
hire seruauntes that so grete strokes shulen smyte up on thee and 
so michel shulen knokken up on thee that if thou haddest not on 
the doublet in gret perile of deth thow shuldest be Now do ther of 
thi pleyn wille For of the seyinge j do my devoyr 

cap. cxv. Ladi quod j michel it liketh me that that ye seyn ne of no thing 
j ayen sey yow But of so michel that my powere is not so gret as 
j trowe that it mowe suffice and susteyne the doublet Algates afforce 
me j wole to here it as longe as j may If ye wole take me more 
looketh wher of j haue neede I wole be sufficientliche armed thouh 
j shulde berste 

cnp. cxvi. Thanne she rauhte an haubergeoun of a fair and plesaunt facioun 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



61 



and seyde me Take this garnement whiche was maad in the olde 
time for to fighte with ayens deth and ayens alle thilke of his ost 
that is ayens peynes and tormentes and alle here dredes For deth 
is a beste so wylde that who so seeth it he woodeth he leeseth 
purpos and cuntenaunce and the burdoun of esperaunce He is 
yuele bitaken and lost that is not thanne clothed with these 
armures But he that with thilke haubergeoun is clothed preyseth 
it nouht at a bodde He gooth suerliche in alle werres to haue loos 
and conquere prys For drede of deth he shulde not deyne to turne 
ayen ne wolde not This garnement forgede sum time the smith of 
the hye cuntre that forgede the light and the sunne with oute 
tonges and with oute hamer In thilke time ther ne was appreeued 
ne alowed noon oother armure Ne yit he is not wel armed that 
ther with is not armed ne clothed 

This haubergeoun hatteth Force whiche ihesu cristes champiouns 
wereden in old time whiche [44] weren so stable in werre and in 
tournament and so stronge that thei setten the deth at nouht and 
that was for the haubergeoun which was of so strong a shap that 
for no wepene ygrounden ther was neuere mayl y broken But 
cause ther was al preeved whiche shulde not be heled For with the 
nailes with whiche was nayled the sone of the smith and ryven the 
mailes weren endowed and rivetted The yren was also tempred in 
the blood that com out of hise woundes Wherfore the hauber- 
geoun was michel the strengere and the more sure And alle thilke 
that weren that time ther inne clothed weren so riht strong that 
ther was no mortal werre ne tournament were it neuere so strong ne 
so cruelle that thei dredden a straw And therfore thow shalt do it 
up on the purpoynt if thou leeue me and se if thou be meete ther too 

And thanne the haubergeoun j took and anoon after seide here 
Lady quod j j pray yow that goodliche er ye make me don on this 
garnement that ye wole shewe me al that that ye wole arme me 
with For after that that j sigh j wolde redye me to be armed And 
thanne a gorger an helme a targe a peyre glooves and a swerd she 



cap. cxvu. 



cap. cxvin. 



62 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

rauhte me with oute any tarynge and seyde With alle these armures 
it needeth thou arme thee at the leste And if thou kunne defende 
the wel thei shule suffice thee ynouh al he it that j wolde take thee 
oothere if j founde gret miht in thee But j wole keepe hem to 
oothere that j shal fynde strengere than thee "With the helme and 
with the gorger for to keepe hool thin hed thou shalt first arme 
thee whan thou hast doon on thin hauhergeoun And sithe the 
glooves thou shalt take with which thou shalt glooven thin hondes 
For if in hem thou hiddest hem nouht thou were not wel armed 

cap. cxix. This helme as thow shuldest wite is attemperaunce of the sighte 
of the heeringe and of the smellinge thinges that mown greeve 
thee For riht as the helme keuereth and refreyneth hise wittes and 
restreyneth riht so attemperaunce serueth to keepe the eye that 
it he not to open and to miche ahaundoned to folye and to vanitees 
For if the viseer ne were streyt ther mihte entre in swich an 
arwe that euene to the herte it mihte go and with oute remedye 
wounde it to the deth To heere also murmurynge bakhitinge fool 
speches thilke helme stoppeth so holliche that to the herte ne to 
the thouht no dart may misdo al be it that the wikkede neyhebore 
can strongliche sheete his arwes and hise springaldes To the 
posternes thei mown wel casten but thei shulen no fre entree haue 
in Of the smellinge also j sey thee For the helme keuereth it so that 
hi his disordeyned smellinge the herte is no thing hurt So thus 
for to keepe thee this helm is good to arme thee with For it is 
thilke that sumtime was cleped helme of saluacioun Of whiche 
Seint Poul amonesteth that men don it on her hedes 

cap. cxx. Now j wole telle thee of the gorgeer which shal keepe thi throte 
hool Sobirtee it hatteth in this cuntre and also ouer see It is a 
party of attemperaunce which was maad for to restreyne glotonye 
For she taketh folk bi the throte and ouercometh hem But thow 
shuldest wite that this armure is maad of double mailure For it 
shulde not be strong j nowh if it ne were so doubled And the cause 
is for gloto[45]nye hath double woodshipe Woodshipe of savour- 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 63 

inge and woodshipe of outrageous spekinge Bi the savouringe 
stiren the goomes with which she wolde sle hire self Bi the 
spekynge maketh the sleyghtes with which she sleth hire neighe- 
bores as thow shalt after wite more pleynlyche whan thou shalt 
seen it So that ayens suich a mister man it is good to haue suich 
a gorgeer For it is a thing wel sure al be it litel armure And ther- 
fore j rede thee that goodliche and bisiliche thou arme thee ther 
with Of thi mete and of thi drink be thou neuere more daunger- 
ous What thou fyndest take it gladliche and of litel hold the wel 
apayed Of spekynge riht so j sey thee Keep thi mouth and mis sey of 
no wight and in alle times spek to alle folk resonableliche With 
this gorgeer was sum time armed the abbot of Chalyt thi goode 
patroun seint William For thouh he hadde had but bred and water 
as wel he hadde be payed a,s thouh he hadde had oothere mes 
ynowe Wherof thou miht fynde in his lyf that he cowde faste 
wel among grete mes and also haue thirst And there thou miht 
se also that of spekinge to alle folk he was not oonliche him self 
atempree but he attemprede also the euele spekeres whan he herde 
hem Sey he wolde seyn to thilke that is in a feeuere whan he 
trembleth that he tremble nouht and ye shul see how he wole cesse 
Biht so he wolde seyn thilke that ye speken of wolde cesse if he 
mihte wol gladliche So that whan suich a man armede him with 
swich a gorgeer and gorgered him soo thou shuldest also fastne on 
gladliche thi gorgeere and arme thee ther with 

Of the glooves also j sey thee wher of is good thou be mynged cap. 
For if on thine hondes thou were hurt with the remenaunt thou 
shuldest litel doo The hondes that shulden be armed and glooved 
with the glooves ben touchinges and handlinges and tastinges For 
al be it that men mown fynde bi al the bodi with oute tastinge 
algates it is most wist and knowen bi the hondes ffor thei maken 
most the touchinges and the tastinges And therfore it is more 
leeued of folk than oothere tastinges ben Therefore alle tastinges 
generalliche is vnderstonde bi the hondes The glooves with whiche 



. 64 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

thilke tastinge and thilke hondes thow shuldest arme ben these that 
j haue shewed thee that with armures ben armed The thridde part 
of attemperaunce which men clepen continence the which seyinge 
in singuler may wel be seid equipolle to a plurelle For of dede and 
of wille his name shulde be doubled For the dede shulde not suffice 
if the wille ne were ther with with oo glooue shulde no wiht be 
wel glooved ne wel armed So to be with oute annuy tweyne 
needen For dede and wille muste bothe be had Goode thei ben bothe 
tho tweyne to gideres as me thinketh and couenable 

cap. cxxii. Swich continence thus doubled is cleped of summe men gayn 
payn For bi it is wunne the bred bi the whiche is fulfilled the herte 
of mankynde and that was figured heer bifore in the bred that 
Dauid askede For Achimelech wolde neuere graunte it him ne take 
it him bifore that he wiste he was glooued and armed with gayn 
paynes This thou miht fynde if thou wult studie in the book of 
kynges These [46] glooues hadde sum tyme seynt Bernard Whan the 
womman was leyd bi him in his bed al naked For how euere she 
tastede him and stired him and exited him neuere turnede he him 
towardes hire ne to hire taste assentede She fond hise hondes so 
armed that she wende him a man of yren Wherfore confused she 
departede and wente out of his bed with oute hurtinge him And 
that maden the gayn paynes with whiche he hadde armed hise 
hondes And therfore j rede thee that goodliche thou arme thee 
lich him for therfore j haue brouht hem thee hider and presented 
thee of hem Of the swerd thou shuldest wite that bettere armure 
thou miht not haue for if thou kowdest wel helpe thee ther with 
and haddest noone oothere armures thow shuldest be more dred 
certeyn than if thou were armed with oothere armures and haddest 
noon other cowdest not helpe thee ther with This swerd justice is 
cleped amonges alle the most chosen and the beste that euere girde 
or handelede kyng or erle Neuere was Ogrers swerd ne rowlondes 
ne olyueeres so vertuowse ne so inihti ne hadden so michel bountee 
This is thilke that whan time is yildeth to eche that that is his 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 65 

This is a swerd to an emperour a regent a gouernour by whiche 
alle thilke of his hous ben gouerned with oute mistakinge For in 
alle times she manaseth that ther be noon that mis do She keepeth 
the bodi fro rebellinge and constreyneth the herte to loue god She 
maketh the herte conuerte from fraude and forsake baret The will 
the affeccioun the ynderstondinge and the entente the soule and alle 
hire meyne so arayeth hem and chastiseth hem that ther is noon 
of hem that durste misdoon hire on peyne of drawinge out of bothe 
here eyen For anoon with oute abidinge it shulde be corrected with 
the swerd Ensaumple thou hast in seint Beneynt that with this 
swerd was girt The king had girt him ther with whan he made 
him lord of lawes For whan he sygh that his body that was tempted 
wolde not obeye to him as good emperour and as good gouernour 
With the swerd he smot it so cruelliche and so punished it that wel 
nygh he hadde slayn it Wherfore it was neuere afterward rebelle 
ne inobedient to his comaundement 

This swerd thou shalt bere and bi it thou shalt defende thee from ca P cxxiil - 
alle thilke that j haue seyd the bifore whiche been thine priuee 
enemyes For enemy more daungerous more shrewed ne more 
perilous thow ne miht haue than thine priuees and thilke that ben 
nigh thee So whan thou feelest any rebelle and go ay ens thi 
saluacioun smite him so harde that he be no more so fers ayens 
thee And whan thou seest any of hem forueyne and aperseyuest 
it as whan thou seest the herte erre and thinke to any baret whan 
thou seest the thouht gon out of good wey and ordeynee whan thou 
seest the wille encline to dede disordeynee thanne lat the swerd be 
shake and put bifore Bi it lat eche be redressed and driven ayen 
in to his place Now do it thus wysliche For j passe me shortliche 

Ladi quod j it were wel sittinge as me thinketh that sum shethe ca P cxxiv - 
j hadde of yow wher inne j mihte putte the swerd For j mihte 
not alwey bere it thus with oute that it greeuede me On that 
oother side seynt Beneynt bar it not thus naked [47] but he hadde 
it girt a boute him as the king hadde girt it And that haue ye wel 

K 



66 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

tauht me Bi which thing me thinketh that sum time the swerd 
hadde a gerdel and a shethe in whiche she was put And that 
wolde j haue if that it were youre wille Sertes ful wel thou seist 
quod she and wel me liketh that ententyf to my woordes thou hast 
hen And therfore al at thi wille the scauherk to the swerd thou 
shalt haue and gerdel with which thou shalt gerde it 

cap. cxxv. And thanne anoon j sigh hire gon to ward the noble perche that 
is toward the perche on whiche that oothere armures weren and 
hongen Prom thennes the scauberk she vnheeng and brouhte it and 
seyde me Loo heere thilke that seynt Beneyt putte in the swerd 
and bar it A good thong ther is for to wel gerde thee and a good 
bocle for to strengthe it Now take it and keepe it wel and leese it 
for no thing Thilke scauberk is cleped humilitee hi his riht name 
jn whiche thow shuldest thi swerd herberwe and thi justnesse hide 
For if any good thou seest in thi self and that thou hast doon that 
and that hyde it thou shuldest in thilke scauberk which is maad of 
dedliche skyn mynginge thi self and thinkinge in alle times bi- 
knowinge that thou art dedlich and that of thi self thou hast 
not doon it but that it is bi me Bithinke thee of the pub- 
lican and the pharisee that diuersliche hadden here swerdes and 
beren hem For thilke that in the shethe hadde it and bikneewe him 
self a sinnere was preysed and hyed And that oother for he hadde 
his swerd vnshethed and vnscauberked was lowed It is michel 
more worth oon accuse himself and biholde his feebelnesse entende 
to the scauberk and to the lether than to diskeuere his iustice and 
to sey bihold my swerd which j haue vnshethed yow For so doon 
the prowde folk ful of wynd and vauntynge folk that ne seecheen 
but veyn glorie And that ther be alwey mynde of hem Thow 
shalt not do so rather thou shalt hyde the swerd in the shethe 
lowinge thee and humblinge For causes thou shalt fynde ynowe 
whan wel thou hast biholden thi self 

cap. cxxyi. And thanne whan thou hast put it in and shethed it with the 
girdel thou shalt girde thee and with it thine armures thou shalt 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 67 

strengthe to that eende that thow here hem the more sureliche and 
the fastere Eor ther is noon be he neuere so wel armed but it be 
fastned aboue either with girdel or with baudryk that shulde sey he 
were wel armed So that the girdel shal be worth to thee a baudryk 
whan it is wel girt aboute thee and with his bocle wel fastned 
The girdel hatteth Perseueraunce and the bocle is cleped constaunce 
whiche shulden in alle times holden hem togideres with oute any 
departynge Eor at the neede and at the assaut that oon with oute 
that oother is wel litel woorth The girdel for the grete lengthe 
holt the armures in miht She holt hem vertuous with the swerd 
that she susteyneth She holt hem alwey oon keepinge hem that thei 
ben not doon of for noon enchesoun in no time ne in no sesoun 
The bocle holt and keepeth faste the girdel that it vnfastne nouht 
Al it holt in estat stedefastliche and keepeth al sureliche For that 
is the riht fastnynge and the surenesse of the armure So that whan 
thow askedest these thinges it liked me wel Eor ther is no thing ther 
of that it ne is covenable to thee and [48] riht profitable Now vse 
hem as thou shuldest and thou shalt doo thi wurshipe gretliche 

Whan these woordes j herde j bicom thouhti and abashed For ca P- cxxvii - 
of this exposicioun was litel myn entencioun Scauberk and girdel 
lasse greevinge j wende wel haue had with oute fable And al were 
it that j wolde that the purpoynt whiche j hadde on hadde be doun 
alweys j suffrede at that time and no thing answerde 

Whan of the scauberk she hadde thus seid me she took hire ca P- 
woordes ay en anoon. Now j wole sey thee quod she yit a woord 
of the targe With oute targe is no wiht wel ne ariht armed ne 
wel kept Eor the targe defendeth that oother armure from em- 
peyringe Bi it been the oothere kept that thei ben not atamed 
And as longe as it is put bifore so longe been the oothere saaf 
This targe hatteth Prudence whiche the kyng Salomon bar sum 
time customableche for to do riht and iugement This targe was 
more woorth to him than two hundreth sheeldes and thre hun- 
dreth targes of gold that he putte in his neewe hous For bi this 

K2 



68 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



targe lie was wurshiped and preysed in his time And whan he 
hadde afterward lost it al his wurshipe fel alle hise targes of gold 
and hise sheeldes weren neuere woorth to him a red hering For lost 
thei weren This targe targede him as longe as he bar it with him 
But soone was he lost whan the targe was lost So that ther bi 
thow miht see and apperceyue if thou wolt the woorth of his targe 
whiche was more than fyve hundreth of gold Therfore j rede 
thee here it thee and thin armure to keepe and for to pleye ther 
with and scarmushe whan thow seest enemyes come thouh thou 
kunne not pleye at the bokeler or kunne not wel helpe thi self 
she shal teche thee to pleye oother maister shal thee noon neede 
Now take it whan thow art armed with that oothere armures 
that thow hast It were wel time if thow woldest thou tooke 
hem to doon hem on For therfore j haue rauht hem and vnfolden 
hem and taken hem thee Do hem on faste for thou hast neede of 
nouht elles 

cap. cxxix. Whan these woordes j vnderstood inyn herte al afrighte ffor as j 
haue seyd I hadde not customed to be armed And on that oother 
side michel j bisorwede the purpoynt that j hadde on Algates for 
to hire plesaunce doon and fulnlle to arme me j assay ede And at 
the haubergeoun j began Vp on the purpoynt j dide it on but that it 
was wel sey j nouht Whan j hadde doon it on anoon j took the 
double gorgere and dide it aboute my nekke and sithe shof myn bed 
in the helm and hid it After j took the gayn paynes and the 
swerd with whiche j girte me And sithe whan j was thus armed j 
putte the targe to my side Al j dide as she hadde seyd me al were 
it it liked me litel 

cup. cxxx. Whan armed thus j sih me and that j felte the armure upon me 
greevous and hevi and pressinge me as me thouhte Lady quod j to 
grace dieu mercy j pray yow that of no thing ye displese yow thowh 
j she we yow my disese These armures greven me so miche that j 
may not go foorth Either j muste heere abyde or alle j muste doon 
hem of The helme alther first dooth me so 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 69 

that j am ther inne [49] al astoned and blynd and def I see no thing 
that liketh me ne heere no thing that j wolde Bi the smellinge I 
feele no thing the whiche me thinketh gret torment Afterward 
thilke shrewede gorgeer that yuele passioun smyte it bi the throte 
maistrieth me soo that j may not speke as j wolde ne haue no thing 
that deliteth me ne that profiteth me any thing to the bodi 

Afterward with the gayn paynes wel j wot j shal neuere winne cap. 
my bred youre glooues ben not for hern that han tendre handes and 
tendre j haue hem and that forthinketh me And thei ben harde 
out of mesure 1 mihte not endure hem longe svviche with oute 
sheendinge myself Biht so of the remenaunt j sey shortliche to 
deliuere me al greeueth me so riht gretliche that neuere at 
shorte wordes j mihte telle it but j hadde grettere wit than 
j haue Superysed j am as Dauid was that hadde not lerned 
armes Armed he was but bisiliche and hastiliche he leyde hem 
doun And therfore as he dide wole j doo for his ensaumple liketh 
me wel Alle the armures j wole ley doun and with the burdoun j 
wole passe me I haue leeuere go lightliche than abide heer sureliche 
Go foorth mihte j nouht if j ne leyde doun the armure And so 
shulde j be letted to go in the faire citee Wherfore j pray yow it 
anoye you nouht ne holdeth it not for a despyte 

Sertes quod she now sheweth it wel that with holde thou hast no ca P- 
thing of al that j haue seyd thee or wel litel thou thinkest ther on 
Other thou weenest perauenture that in me be so gret vnthrift that 
my wordes ben fables other that thei ben disseyuable Wenest thou 
it so god keepe thee Sey it me rathere bi times than to late Lady 
quod j for the loue of god mercy weeneth it neuere soo I wot wel 
that ye seyn no thing that it ne is ordeyned for wele But my mint 
streccheth nouht to that that this armour mowe longe be bore of me 
Nouht for that j haue foryete youre woordes of any thing Eor 
certeyn j bithinke me wel that ye haue seyd me that thouh at the 
firste thei doon me encumbraunce thei shulden not so whan j were 
longe lerned of hem But j sey yow that j may not lerne hem For j 



70 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

fynde in me to gret feebilnesse and in hem to gret hardnesse These 
ben thinges gretliche vnliknynge and discordinge 

cap. cxxxiii. And whi quod she hast thou put me to trauaile and wherto hast 
thou required me the armures whan thou miht not here hem 
other wolt not here hem ? Ladi quod j j thouhte not ther on whan 
ye setten me in the wey Burdoun yrened j hadde asked yow al 
onliche But whan of armures ye speken to me and amonested 
me of hem thanne j required hem For wel j wende my strengthe 
hadde ben for to haue boren hem But ootherweys it is for in me 
no strengthe is j se it wel For j am wery as soone as j am armed 

cap. cxxxiv. Strengthe thou hast not quod she for herte in thee thou hast 
noon It is nouht for that thou ne art sholdred ynowh and boned 
Strong and mihti ynowh thou art If any good herte in thee thow 
haddest For of the herte cometh the strengthe of man as the appel 
of the appel tre What mihte seye a litel man whan thow that 
seemest a chaumpioun refusest to here these armures and excusest 
the bi feebilnesse [50] What shuldest thou also doo j prey thee if 
thou mostest be armed to keepe thee from oothere thou maist not bere 
hem as thou seist Yit also j prey thee what shalt thou do whan thi 
wey thou shalt go vnarmed and that thine enemyes shulen assaile 
thee and enforce hem to sle thee ? Serteyn thanne thou shalt seyn 
alias whi woldest thou evere vnarme thee whi leeuedest thou not 
grace dieu ? now thou art all disceyued Now thou wost what mis- 
cheef it is and wost also wel that so gret greevaunce was it not of 
beringe of the armure as it is to endure these harmes Now weren 
the armures gret counfort to me if j hadde hem Alias whether euere 
j shal mown fynde grace dieu ayen that she wole arme me 

cap. cxxxv. Whan thou hast thus j cryed and that thou art wounded to the 
deth weenest thou so god saue thee that j wole thanne gladliche 
drawe me thidervvard whan thou hast of no thing leeued me and for 
thi goode ? And on that oother side thouh j wente so god kepe thee 
what shulde j do theere ? Thou shuldest be now michel strengere 
than thou shalt be thanne For thou shalt be thanne feeblished with 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 71 

woundes that thow slialt haue So that whan thou miht not now here 
the armures ne endure hem at that time to come j shulde go for 
nouht and for nouht j shulde trauaile me Now anoon is the time 
to lerne to here armes with oute any more ahidinge If thou leeue 
me aboute thee thou shalt holde hem and keepe hem to that eende 
that whan it shal be neede thou mowe helpe thee with hem If thei 
ben hevy go faire Eor softe men fer goth Soonere is the mule ofte 
times at seynt James that goth roundliche than is thilke that smiteth 
and sporeth his hors and maketh him go sharpliche For michel 
soonere he fyndeth encombraunce than the mule that goth round- 
liche his wey 

Off that thou spekest of Dauid that the armure sum time leyde cap. 
doun I sey thee that if of him thou wolt take ensaumple j wole not 
vndertake thee But j wole thou vnderstonde how thow shalt make 
thi foundement Eor first thou shuldest biholde and considere his 
chyldhode Eor chyld he was that time and litel as the story seith 
Also on that oother side considere the armures whiche vreren nouht 
for a popet but thei weren for the sone of Saul the gretteste of the 
cuntre Wherfore thou shuldest wel thinke that thei weren grete 
and stuffed and right hevy So that these twey thinges biholden 
and thouht diligentliche with gret riht Dauid dide of the armure 
and leyde hern doun Eor Saul thei weren goode but for Dauid weren 
thei no thing woorth Eor that that is good for a colt is not good for 
a staloun This is that Aristotle seith in etiques where it is writen 
But if Dauid hadde ben as gret as thou as he was sithe and thanne 
he hadde vnarmed him Serteynliche thou were thanne caused for to 
take ensaumple of him and do as he dide but thus dide he neuere 
ne thus to do tauht not thee Eor whan he was bicomen a man he 
was armed in alle werres It needeth not to suppose that he vnarmed 
in to werres wente Eor if so he hadde gon on lyue hadde he neuere 
turned ayen The armures in alle times he louede And that time 
that he vnarmed him of the armure of Saul He [51J took oothere 
with whiche he sloow Golias thilke that time weren to him couenable 



72 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

If thou were a chyld as he was thow mihtest do as lie dide I wolde 
wel suffre that in thi chyldhode thou haddest not so gret penaunce 
But thou art gret ynowh to here these arraures if thou wolt preeue 
thi self wel and shame thou auhtest to haue if thou forsake to 
here hem 

cap. cxxxvii. Ladi quod j I see ful wel that j shulde no thing winne to resiste 
ne to argue ne to despute ayens you But j telle you that doun 
j moste ley al to gideres with oute more abidinge Ther is noon 
that of j ne wole do For ther is noon of whiche j haue ioye Alle 
these armures han frushed me and pressed me and defouled me 

cap. cxxxviii. And thanne the bocle j vnboclede and the armures j vnlacede 
sithe leyde doun girdel and swerd with the targe litel biloued Whan 
she sygh me so doo anoon she areynede me and seyde Sithe thow 
wolt thus vnarme thee and al thin armure do awey thou shuldest 
at the leste biseeche me to fecche thee oon who so it euere were 
that were mihty that mihte here the armure and that trussede hem 
on the shulder and here hem after thee to that eende that thou 
mihtest take hem alle times that thou haddest neede Ladi quod j 
so michel j haue oifended you that j durst not aske yow that But 
now j require it yow in biseechinge Now a litel quod she abide 
me and j wole leue thee suich on j trowe that shal susteyne wel 
the armure and that wel shal here hern with thee 

cap. cxxxix. And thanne grace dieu wente hire j wot not wel in to what place 
and j al aloone abod there Where j vnarmede me of alle poyntes 
T dide of gorgeer and haubergeoun and helm and doublet Oonlich 
j withheeld the scrippe and the burdoun for pilgryme Whan j sih 
me thus vnarmed thanne j was al discounforted Aa goode swete 
god quod j what shal j doo whan so michel peyne j haue do to 
grace dieu my maistresse and my goode procuresse She hadde 
now arayed me queynteliche and nobleche As an erl arayed me 
she hadde and as a duke No thing failede me But j ayens hire 
techinge and hire swete amonestinge haue al doon of and haue 
nothing withholde Eaire swete god Why haue j my vertu lost and 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 73 

where haue j doon it whi am j not more mihti more strong more 
hard more vertuows So that j mihte susteyne and suffre wel the 
armures Michel j were the more worth certeyn and grace dieu 
wolde loue me the bettere Also alle folk wolden preyse me the 
more and loue me the more and drede me the more But now it is 
wurs j mihte not endure hem hi no wey To grace dieu j committe 
me and al in hire j wole abide Yit j trowe she wole helpe me and 
that she wole not yit faile me And ther of she hath maad sern- 
blaunt Wherfore my counfort is the grettere Eor forto make me 
ashamed she is gon bisyliche to fecche sum wight and bringe that 
mihte here these armures 

As j was in this plyt and diuisede thus my self aloone cam grace cap. cxi. 
dieu that ledde a wenche that hadde noone yen as me thouhte at 
the firste whan j syh hire But whan she was nyh comen to me 
and that j hadde wel apperceyued hire I sigh that hire sighte was 
set in hire haterel bihynde And bifore she sigh no thing This was 
thing [52] riht hidous as me thouhte and riht dreedful and j was 
ther of wunderliche abashed and thouhti 

As heer of j thouhte and strongliche wundrede me grace dieu cap. exit. 
spak to me Now j se wel quod she now j see how thou art a 
wurthi knyht And whan thou shuldest fihte thou hast leyd doun 
thin armure and art discounfited with oute smitinge of strok Thee 
needeth a bath to bathe thee and a softe bed to ley thee inne A 
surgien to sounde and counfort ayen the senewes that ben brused 

Ladi quod j ther of shule ye be leche and confortouresse Eor ca P- cxlii - 
soothliche j am so wery That j mihte no more susteyne the armure 
ne j hadde no more strengthe Wherfore j pray yow ye ben not wroth 
ne euel apayed For yit j haue trist and hope to yow of alle 

Now quod she j haue founden thee this wenche and led hire to cap. cxiiii. 
thee from a cuntre that is ferre for to socure thee at thi neede Eor 
wel j see but j helpe thee soone thou woldest go a shrewede wey 
This wenche thou shalt see and thine armures thou shalt take hire 
and she with thee shal beren hem to that ende that alwey whan it 

L 



74 THE PILGRIMAGE OE 

is neede as j haue seyd thee thou fynde hem redy and do hem on 
For but if thou haddest hem alwey nygh thee and didest hem on at 
thi neede thou shuldest be ded and slayn and euele be taken 

cap. cxiiv. Lady quod j of this monstre whiche ye haue maad me a sbew- 
inge of wolde j fayn wite the name And whi it is of swich 
facioun It is a thing disgisy to me and nouht acustomed On that 
oother side j wende as j hadde lerned of yow that a seruaunt ye 
wolde haue led me light and strong for to helpe me For the craft of 
swich a wenche is but to here a pot Swich a wenche mihte neuere 
endure to bere swiche armures 

cap. cxiv. Ther of quod she j wole sey thee shortliche ynowh and answere 
thee This wenche is nempned and bi hire rihte name cleped 
Memorie whiche apperceyueth no thing ne seeth of the time 
coinynge but of the olde time she can wel speke and diuise to the 
time passed And bihynde ben sette hire yen and hire light It is 
not thing riht dreedful as thow weenest but it is thing riht ne- 
cessarie to alle thilke that wolen make here ordinaunce and here 
prouidence of any wit or science Er this hadden clerkes of vni- 
uersitees fallen to pouerte if here havinge or kunnynge that thei 
geten bifore ne kept hem For litel is woorth thing ygoten if after 
the getinge it ne be kept So she hath the eyen bihynde and therbi 
wite wel that she is tresorere and keepere of science and of gret 
wysdom And after that thou shuldest wite that al the wit and the 
kunnynge she keepeth She bereth it so and in alle places she hath 
it with hire So that if thou make hire bere and keepe these ar- 
mures with thee she shal norishe hem ne neuere daunger shal she 
make ther of And as strong as she is to bere hem as mihti she is to 
keepe hem And therfore haue hire not in despyt as thou hast seyd 
bifore that thou boldest hire for a wenche that shulde but bere a 
pot But thi self thou shuldest despise and litel preyse if so miche 
good thow coudest For that that thou maist not bere she shal wel 
bere with oute greevinge hire And [53] that shal be a grettere con- 
fusioun to thine eyen than if a seruaunt bere hem that were strong 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 75 

and mihti And therfore avisiliche and witingeliche j haue brouht 
hire to thee to that ende that whan she hath the armure and shal 
bere hem that thou assaye to bere also or elles that thou haue gret 
confusioun 

Ladi quod j sitho it is thus j wole to yow neither sey ne ayen sey cap. 
Ne also ayensey yow miht j nouht wel of no thing Now lat hem 
thanne alle be houen up on hire and trussed and sithe j wole go 
bifore and she shal sewe me And thanne she and j hoven hem up 
and to memorye tooken hem And she took hem gladliche as it was 
gret neede 

Whan thei weren trussed grace dieu god yilde hire wel goodliche ca P- cxlvii 
spak to me in seyinge me swiche woordes Now thou art quod she 
arayed to go in to the faire citee thou hast memorie thin soomeer 
that after thee shal come bihynde whiche shal bere thin armure to 
arme thee whan it shal be time Thou hast the scrippe and the 
burdoun the faireste that euere man bar Of alle thinges thou were 
redy if of moises bred thou haddest Go and take it leeue thou hast 
al be it thou hast not deserued it But keep thee wel that of that 
thou shuldest do passe thee no thing as thou hast seyn and knowen 
that men shulden doon 

And thanne to moyses j wente and of his bred j asked him that cft p cxivm. 
was of the releef that he yaf and grauntede to the pilgrimes He yaf 
it me and j took it and sithe in myn scrippe j putte it 

Sithe to grace dieu j turnede ayen and of hire goodshipes j ca P- cxlix 
thankede hire preyinge hire that she wolde not leue me ne alongne 
hire from me And biseechinge hire that at my neede she wolde not 
be fer fro me For wel j wiste as j seyde hire that with oute hire j 
mihte do no thing 

Serteyn quod she soothliche with oute me thou miht no thing do ca P- cl - 
And soone thou shuldest be discounfited if of me thou ne haddest 
keepinge Therfore thou doost as the wise whan thou requirest that 
that thou wost is needeful to thee And for j fynde thy requeste in 
no thing dishoneste therfor to go with the is myn entente as at this 

L 2 



76 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

time and nouht to departe fro the j thinke if it ne be by thin offence 
Lady quod j michel graunt mercy now j haue ynowh as me thinketh 

cap. cii. Now vnderstonde quod she how gon with thee j thinke Ther ben 
sunime men that hauen in here freendes so gret trist and hope that 
thei ben miche the wurse For thei thinken that thei shulden be for- 
born and kept hi hem thouh thei hauen doon or doon yuele So for 
that thou shalt not triste to michel to me or lene thee to that 
entente that thou do harm in trist of a susteynour of thi sight ne of 
thin eye j wole not be seyn I haue a stoon that to the folk whan j 
wole yelt invisible Bi thilke j wole hyde me from thine eyen So 
that whan thou shalt weene that j be with thee thanne perauenture 
j shal be ago bi sum oother wey sum time and turned from thee And 
that shal be whan thou puttest thee oother weys than [54] dueliche 
As whan thou wolt not deingne to aske thi wey other wolt not go 
And whan thou wolt leue the goode weyes and go bi the wikkede 
weyes Therfore be avised to go wyslich hens forth ward For from 
hens forth j vse and wurche after my stone and anon j parte fro thi 
siht and thi biholdinge 

cap. cm. As soone as she hadde that seid more sih j hire not Wher of loowh 
not myn herte whiche sorweful was but more mihte it not do 
Algates to go my wey as j hadde purposed it j wolde not leue but j 
wolde anoon take my wey To memorie j bad that she shulde come 
after me and that she sewede me that she brouhte myn armure and 
that she foryete noon She soothliche dide it so Al she brouhte 
no thing she loste And it was gret neede For after j fond so gret 
encumbraunce that j hadde be ded sum time if j ne hadde be 
warnished of armure Nouht that j dide hem on ne took hem alwey 
at my neede For many times bi my slouthe j suffrede strok of dart 
of arwe that j hadde not suffred if j hadde be wel armed 

cap. ciiii. Now j haue seid yow al with oute lesinge oon partye of my 
swevene The remenaunt j shal telle yow heer after whan j haue 
time And ye the more gladliche shulen heere it whan ye ben rested 
awhile With oute jnterualle alle thing enoyeth bothe the faire weder 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 77 

and thilke of reyn An oother time ye shule come ayen if more ye 
wole heere And ther whiles j wole avise me to telle ariht as j mette 

Heere endeth the fir ste party e of this book 
And heere Mginneth the secunde Partye 

After that j haue seyd bifore of that j sigh in slepynge oothere ca P- * 
wundres that j sigh sithe as j have bihyght yow j wole shewe yow 
For it is not resoun to hele it 

As j hadde ordeyned me at alle poyntes to go my wey I bigan ca P- " 
michel to thinke whi it was that j miht not thus here myn armures 
or whi that j hadde not as gret power as thilke wenche hadde that 
bar hem after me Now j am a man quod j that seemeth a 
chaumpioun For mayme wot j noon in me but am hool of alle lymes 
and that am maad ynowh to here bothe this wenche and hire 
berdene Whens cometh it that j am thus failed of miht That j 
may not endure an hour that that j see hire here Shame and 
confusioun it is to me whan she is strengere than j 

As on this j thouhte and that allewey thinkinge wente j mette ca P- iij - 
in my wey a gret cherl euele shapen grete browes and frounced 
that bar a staf of crabbe tree and seemed to be a wel euel mister 
man and an euel pilgrim What is this quod he Winder goth 
this pilgrim Lord whider goth he He weeneth he be now ful 
wel arayed and queyntised But anoon with me he shal lette and to 
questiouns he shal answere 

Whan thus j herde him speke j bicom wunder sore abashed For ta P- iv - 
j wende he wolde haue ronne up on me with oute more abidinge 
Al gates curteisliche j spak to him and humbliche Sire quod j 
j require yow that ye wole not enoye me ne enpeche me of my 
viage For j go fer in pilgrimage And a litel [55] lettinge wolde 
greve me gretliche 

Serteyn quod he the disturblaunce cometh of thin ouer trowinge cap. v. 
Whens cometh it thee so god saue thee and whi art thou swich and 



78 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

swich that thou darst passe the lawe that the king hath wel 
ordeyned A while ago the kyng made defence that non took 
scrippe ne that noon bere it with him ne handelede Imrdoun And 
thou ayens his ordinaunce bi thi foolliche surquidrye hast vndertake 
to bere bothe that oon and that oother as me thinketh Whens 
cometh it thee and how hast thou dorre be so hardi Euele thow 
come and euele thow wentest and euele hider thou brouhtest hem 
Neuere day in thi lyve ne didest thow a grettere folye 

cap. vi. Whan these woordes j understood more than bifore j was abashed 
Eor what to answere j ne wiste ne answerere hadde j noon Glad- 
liche an aduocat j wolde haue hired me if j mihte haue founden him 
Eor gret neede j hadde of oon if j hadde wist where to have pur- 
chaced him Algates j studyede how j mihte escape As j lifte up 
myne eyen j sygh come that after whiche j hadde gret desire that 
was dame Resoun the wise whiche men mown wel knowe bi the 
langage For she wole no thing sey but sittingeliche and wel ordeyned 
Bifore j hadde seyn hire wherfore she was the more knowen to me 
I was riht ioyful whan j syh hire For wel j thouhte that bi hire 
shulde thilke crookede cherl be maat which harde hadde grucched 
me and so he was at the laste and j pray yow vnderstondeth how 

cap. vii. Resoun cam euene to him and seide him Cherl sey me now so 
god keepe thee wherof thow seruest and whi thou seemest so 
diuers Art thou a repere or a mowere or an espyour of weyfareres 
How hattest thou and where gaderedest and tooke thi grete staf ? 
the staf is not auenaunt ne sittinge to a good man 

cap. viii. And thanne the cherl lened him on his staf and seyde hire What 
is this Art thou meyresse ? or a neewe enquerouresse ? Shewe thi 
commission and at the leste thi name j shal wite and the grete 
powere that thou hast that bi semblaunt thou shewest me Eor if j 
were not suer therof j wolde to thee answere no thing 

cap. ix. And thanne resoun putte hire hond in to hire bosom bi a spayere 
and took out a box of which she drow a lettere and sithe seyde him 
Serteyn my poowere j wole wel do the to wite Hold see heere my 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 79 

commissioun rede it and thou shalt wel wite my name and my power 
and who j am and whi j am come hider 

Serteyn quod he j am no clerk ne j can no thing in thi leves rede ca ? x - 
hem as thou wolt For wite wel j preyse hem litel. Beawsire quod 
she alle men ben not of thin opynioun Of michel folk thei hen wel 
preysed and loued and auctorised And nouht for thanne thou 
shalt heere hem But my clerkes failen me alle I wole putte thee 
out of suspessioun and shewe thee what powere j haue Come forth 
clerk quod she to me vndoo these letteres out of plyt rede hem 
bifore this bachelere that weeneth he be a lord Whan he heereth 
hem red if god wole he shal answere me 

And thanne j took hem and redde hem Wherof the cherl was no cap. xi. 
thing wel apayed For alwey he grummede and alwey shook his 
chyn And [56] at euery woord j redde j sygh his teeth grynte If 
ye wole wite the tenure of the lettere heer after ye shule heere it 

Grace dieu bi whom gouernen hem as thei seyn the kynges and ca p- xii 
regnen to resoun oure goode louede freend and in alle goode dedes 
wel proued gretinge and of that we sende dooth pleyn execucioun 
Of neewe we haue vnderstonde wher of us is not fayn that a cherl 
shrewede prowd and daungerous that bi his name maketh clepe him 
and nempne him Rude entendement hath maad him an espyour of 
weyes and a waytere of pilgrimes and wole binenie hem her bur. 
douns and vnscrippe hem of here scrippes bigylinge hem with lyinge 
woordes And for he w r olde be the more dred he hath borwed of 
orgoill his wikkede and cruelle staf that men clepen obstinacioun 
The whiche michel more displeseth me than dooth the frouncede 
cherl For the which thing maundement we yiven you nouht in 
comaundinge that ye go thiderward and amoneste thilke musard 
that his staf he ley adoun and that he cesse of the surpluis And if 
any thing he withstonde other wole not obeye yiueth him day com- 
petent at the assyses of jugement Of this pleyn power we yiven 
yow and maken you commissarye Yiven in oure yeer that eche wiht 
clepeth M.CCC.XXXI 



80 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

cap. xiii. Whan al was rad Resoun took ayen hire letteres and putte hem in 
saaftee and sithe areynede the cherl and seyde him swiche woordes 
Beausire quod she now thou hast herd my power and whi j come 
heere wolt thou more answere to me of that j haue asked thee 

cap. xiv. Who art thou quod the cherl Who am j quod resoun for seint 
Gerineyn Hast thow not herd riht now what men han red heere 
Thinkest thou on thi loues other to take toures or castelles Quod 
he j haue wel herd bi seint Symeon that thou hattest resoun -But 
for it is a name defamed therfore j haue asked who thou art and 
with good riht Nouht defamed bi seint Beneit quod Resoun But 
where hast thou founde that ? At the mille quod he ther j haue be 
there thou mesurest falsliche and stelest folkes corn 

cap. xv. Beausire quod she heere now tweyne litel woordes and under- 
stonde Misseyinge is no wurthinesse ne thou spekest not as the 
wise At the mille perauenture ye haue seyn a mesure that is cleped 
resoun but therfore it is not resoun but it is fraude and desceyt 
Bi twixe name and beeinge j wole wel make difference Oon thing is 
to be resoun and an oother thing haue his name Of the name men 
mown maken couerture for to hele with here filthe This thing is 
falle many a time in many a strete that who that is not fair make 
him queynte And who that is not good make him simple Alle 
vices gladliche doon it And ofte times maken hem kouerynge with 
the name of the vertu contrarye for to lasse displese the folk And 
yit is not the vertu the lasse woorth bi a straw But it is signe 
that it is good Whan the vice appareth him and clotheth him ther 
with So that if with my name thilke mesure wole queyntise him 
and hele him therfore am j not defamed but wurshiped shulde be 
ther by of alle folk of good vnderstondinge 

cap. xvi. What is this quod he that god haue part thou wolt be preysed of 
that that oothere shulden [57] be blamed If j kneewe not a flye in 
mylk whan thou toldest it me j hadde gret wrong Weene not that 
whan I heere nempne a kat or an hound that j ne wot wel it is noon 
oxe ne kow but that it is an hound and a kat Bi here names j 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 81 

knowe wel eche of hem For here names and thei be al oon So that if 
thou hattest Resoun j sey also thou art Resoun And if resoun stele 
the corn j sey that of thee it is stolen Al the water that maketh 
the mille turne ne mihte wasshe thee ther of For alle thine slye 
woordes and fallaces weene not that euere oother weys thou make 
me vnderstonde 

And thanne resoun smylinge and al turnynge it in to jape seyde ca P- xvii - 
him Now j see wel that of art thou hast lerned and subtiliche 
kanst argue and bringe foorth faire ensaumples And if thou 
haddest a grettere bely thou woldest weel seeme wurthi O quod 
he thou scornest me That j do certeyn quod resoun wite it wel 
And yit more j wole scorne thee for to j wite thi name as thou wost 
myn And wite wel thou hast no wurshipe of the helinge j ne 
wot what thou shalt haue of the tellinge Wurshipe quod he what 
seyst thou the vnwurshipe is thin Thou hast my name in thi leues 
and askest it Thou art lich him that sit on his asse and yit seecheth 
it ouer al I ne wot what it tokeneth but if it be scornynge Aa 
quod Resoun art thou thilke that art set in my leues The name 
with inne wel j wiste but thee knew j not I heeld an oppinyoun 
that j and my name is not oon For with my name may appare 
him eche theef that goth to stele And therfore j wende soo of 
thee For hadde j not yit lerned that thou and rude entendement 
weren oon ioyningeliche But now j see wel with oute suspecioun 
that ye ben oon with oute distinccioun Thine ensaumples han tauht 
it me and thine seyinges that ben so subtile I wot bi thi 
woordes that thou propirliche art rude entendement More miht 
thou not argue but oonliche so be thou nempned For bi existence 
thou art it with outen difference Wherfore j foryiue thee the 
vileynee that thou hast seid to me bi felonye For j see wel thou 
wendest that of me it were as it is of thee But rudenesse tauht 
thee soo to weene For rude thou art as eche wight seeth wel and 
euel willed And therfore set thee was this name 

With these woordes the cherl was ateynt to the herte Nouht he cap. 

M 



82 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

seyde for he cowde not but oonliche grinte with hise teeth R/esoun 
stinte not but song him of an oother song Now quod she sithe I 
woot thi name gret neede haue j nouht to aske more of the reme- 
naunt In my letteres it is al cleer For an espyour thou art of 
weyes and an assaylour of pilgrimes Thou wolt bineme hem here 
burdouns and vnscrippe here scrippes "Why doost thou it bi thi 
soule ayens the wil of my lady For that thei quod he witingliche 
passen the gospel that j haue herd seyd in cure toun and keepen it 
shrewedeliche Ther it is defended to alle as j haue vnderstonde that 
no man bere out of his boom neither scrippe ne burdoun So whan 
that j see hem bere hem ayens the defence of the kyng gladliche for 
to keepe the lawe j do peyne to make hem to leve hem 
cap. xix. [58] Oo quod resoun oother weys it goth Thilke defence was longe 
agon al oother weys turned and remeved to the contrarie Wei it is 
sooth that it was defended but afterward it was recomaunded Cause 
resonable ther was for whiche ther needed wel chaunge It is not 
vnwurshipe to the king thouh he chaunge his lawe for cause honeste 
The cause of the chaunginge ayen shortliche j wole telle thee if thou 
wolt Who so is at the ende of his wey hath noon neede to be 
pilgrime And he that were no pilgrime shulde litel do with scrippe 
or with burdoun Ihesu the kyng is the eende to whiche alle goode 
pilgrimes thinken That is the eende of good viage and of good pil- 
grimage To that terme and to that ende weren comen hise goode 

o o o 

pilgrimes bi his clepinge Whan he defended hem that no more thei 
beren scrippe ne burdoun but leften hem and leyden hem doun 
Sufficient he was and mihty to deliuere hem plentivowsliche al that 
hem needede With oute beeinge in any ootheres daunger On that 
oother side he wolde that whan he sente hem to preche that here 
herkeners aministreden hem and founden hem here vitailes For 
euery werkere is wurthi to haue and resseyue byre And eche wight 
dide ther of so michel that at the turnynge ayen no wiht pleyned 
him Wher of thou hast herd that he askede hem oones whan him 
thouhte good Hath yow quod he any thing lakked whan j haue 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 83 

thus sent yow with oute scrippe to preche to the folk and to shewe 
the woord of god ? And thanne thei answerden him Serteynliche sire 
nay Sufficientliche we haven hadde and no thing ne faylede us 

Lo heere the cause for whi was defended that thei beren no cap. 
scrippe and that thei vseden not of the burdoun But whan he 
shulde afterward gon and passen bi the brigge of deth Whan he 
sigh that he that was the eende of here wey departede from hem 
thanne wolde he chaunge his lawe as a softe and tretable kyng and 
seyde hem that thei tooken ayen here scrippes and diden hem on 
ayen Who so hath he saide any sak take it and a scrippe ther 
with As thouh he seyde apertliche and cleerliche Thouh j for ye weren 
comen to the ende of youre wey defendede yow that ye hadden ne 
here no scrippe now j muste alonygne me from yow and leue yow j 
wole that ye taken ayen al as ye hadden bifore For j wot wel whan 
ye han lost the sighte of me a scrippe shal be needeful to yow and a 
burdoun to lene yow to Pilgrimes ye musten ben ayen and sette yow 
to youre wey ayen Elles shulden ye not mown folwe me ne come 
to me On that oother side whan j am gon ye shule fynde noon that 
gladliche shal do yow good ne that with good herte speke any thing 
to yow To youre scrippe ye shule holde you til ye come ayen to me 
Now taketh it for j graunte it yow for the neede j see ther of So 
see heere al in apert the cause which is sufficient to here scrippe 
and burdoun Wherfore thou shuldest not medle thee to areste 
thilke that hauen it ne that beren it where thei gon Leeue thei hauen 
and cause ther is in to the time that eche cometh to the ende of his 
viage and of his pilgrimage 

What is this quod the walkere What gost thou thus jangelinge cap. 
me Wolt thou holde the gospel at fable and lesinge thow seist it 
vncomanded that that [59] god hadde ordeyned Whiche thing if it so 
were riht so alle hise ordenaunces shulden be put out of the book 
and defaced and scraped Nouht so quod Resoun For it is riht to 
wite the time passed how men diden how men seiden Whi that 
was What cause ther lyth Whi ther weren mutaciouns of doinges 

M 2 



84 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

And therfore is not the gospel reprooved ne defaced but to goode 
vnderstonderes it is the more gracious and the more plesaunt The 
mo diuerse floures ben in the medewe the more is the place gracious 
And the more that here facioun is diuerse the more gladliche men 
biholden hem 

cap. xxii. And thanne blissede him the cherl with his rude crookede hond 
What is this quod he thou wolt amase me and enchaunte me Al 
that I sey thou turnest and stirest al to the contrarye ffalsnesse 
thou clepest fairnesse and of fairnesse thou seist falsnesse That 
that was of the kyng defended thou seist was comaunded turnynge 
the gospel al up so doun bi disgisy woordes and lyinge Thou ne 
art but a bigilouresse of folk Lat me stonde For j preyse not thi 
woordes ne thi dedes at thre verres In my purpos j wole holde me 
and of no thing seeche thee 

cap. xxiii. At the leste quod resoun thilke staf thou shalt ley doun For thou 
wost wel grace dieu hath comaunded it and ordeyned it To grace 
dieu quod he of what it may greeue j see not On that oother side 
necessarie it is to me to that that j haue to doone I lene me ther 
to and j defende me ther with and sette the lasse bi alle folk And 
me thinketh j am michel the more dred And therfore if j leyde it 
doun a gret fool j were and a gret cokard Oo quod Resoun thou 
seist not wel thou hast neede to haue oothere frendes Grace dieu 
shulde neuere loue thilke that bere swich a staf It was neuere leef 
to hire She hateth it more than the goot the knyf So that if thou 
leidest it not doun thow were not wys 

cap. xxiv. Oo quod the cherl How thou art a fool to seyn swiche woordes 
If the staf greevede hire not whi shulde it displese hire I wole sey 
thee quod resoun rudeliche For oother mete j se wel thi rude throte 
asketh not If thou haddest a freend to whiche any wight dide 
disese It shulde of nothing greeue thee but of as michel as it 
shulde displese thee Grace dieu loueth alle folk and wole the 
avauncement of alle And therfore whan any man hath mischeef or 
that men don him any disese al be it she hath no greuaunce yit 
hath she displesaunce This staf is enemy to thilke that she wolde 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 85 

haue freendes Ne were it the jewes wolden come to hire and 
conuerte hem Alle heretikes wolden also leue here errour and 
amende hem Bi it weren put to confusioun Nabal and Pharao 
For to it thei leneden so that thei purchaseden here deth If it ne 
were obedience shulde regne ouer al and comaunde Eche shulde do 
that that he were comaundede and of no thing disobeye If it ne were 
alle rude wittes wolden ben enclyn and humble hem Thi self that 
hattest rude entendement if thou ne lenedest so faste to it leeue me 
and amende thee And therfore j rede thee ley it doun and lene 
thee no more therto 

Haa god quod he What I preyse litel woordes that ben of this cap. 
manere I wole to thee of no thing obeye ne j wole not leue the 
staf I wole lene therto [60] wolt thou other wolt thou not wite it wel 
Now quod resoun now j se wel that ther is no more to speke with 
thee but oonliche to cite thee to assises of jugement j somowne thee 
with oute more taryinge Come thider with oute sendinge any 
o other 

Thanne resoun turnede hire ayen to meward and clepede me cap 
Go quod she hardiliche with oute dredinge rude entendement Sey 
him no thing ne answere him not For the techinge of Salamon is 
that men answere no woord to him that men seen and fynden a 
fool Lady quod j suinge he seith oother weys For he seith men 
shulden answere him for to shewe him his shame Serteyn quod she 
thou seist sooth But thou shuldest vnderstonde and wite that 
thilke woord was dispenced me for to answere whan it were tyme 
and therof haue I doon y nowh al be my trauaile lost For he is of 
no thing amended ne a shamed A fethere shulde as soone entre in 
to an anevelte as woordes shulden entren in him or profiten He is 
as hard as adamaunt other dyamaunt For that that he conceyueth 
first he wole for no thing leue So that with swich a cherl to speke 
thou miht no pris conquere Go thi wey with oute chidinge with 
him and lat him grucche ynow shake his bridel and his chin and 
gnawe on his staf 



86 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. xxvii. Lady quod j I thanke yow of that ye teche me thus but j telle 
yow certeynliche that j durst not passe forth for the cherl hardiliche 
but j hadde what euere it were of yow Wherfore j pray yow that 
with me ye come and that passinge him ye lede me For j haue also 
to speke with yow and wole aske yow of sum thing nedeful long- 
inge to my bisinesse 

cap. xxviii. And thanne with oute taryinge hi the hond she took me and 
til j was passed the cherl ladde me In my wey she sette me wher of 
j hadde gret ioye The cherl bilefte there grucchinge lenynge on his 
staf grummynge but ther of rouhte me no thing Resoun loowh 
faste ther of 

cap. xxix. Whan thus j sigh me ascaped and was wel gon forth of resoun j 
bigan to aske that of which ye haue herd me speke Lady quod j 
michel j haue ben in gret thouht and yit am Why j may not en- 
dure ne susteyne noon armure A wenche j see here hem whiche 
is shame to me whan j may not here hem also that shulde be more 
mihti hi the half and more strong if any herte were in me Wher- 
fore j pray yow and biseeche yow that ye wole teche me the cause 
whens it may come For gret desire I haue to wite it 

cap. xxx. Thanne answerde me resoun What is this quod she In the hous 
of grace dieu not longe agoon j sigh thee and many times thou speke 
to hire How hast thou be so michel a fool that of hire thou ne 
hast asked this ? And not for thanne j trowe not that sumwhat she ne 
haue seyd thee hi which thou miht apperceyue and wite that that 
thou askest Lady quod j j wole telle yow Many of hire seyinges 
foryeten j haue Of this wel j mynde me with oute more that she 
seide me j was to thikke But if j made me smallere or dide my 
selfe any harm a feloun men wolden clepe me Ne on that oother 
seide j myhte neuere bere myn armure so wel as jf j were gret and 
strong But swiche thinges maken me abashed For thei ben nouht 
in [61] vsage I enquerede not the soothe of grace dieu for j dredde j 
hadde ennoyed hire or mistake me to hire wherfore j pray yow 
that ye wole lerne me and make me vnderstonde it 



THE LTP OF THE MANHODE. 87 

Wost thou quod she who thou art ? whether thou be aloone or cap. 
double thou be ? If thou haue noon to norishe but thi self ne to 
gouerne and arraye And thanne al abashed j seide hire Ladi in 
feith me thinketh that j haue noon but my self to gouerne ne j haue 
noon oother to thinke on I am al aloone ye seen wel I wot neuere 
whi ye aske it 

Now lerne quod she and vnderstonde and herkne bisyliche for ca P xxxii 
oother thing j wole sey thee And of the contrarie j wole teche thee 
Thow norishest thilke that is thi grete enemy Of thee he is euery 
day fed yiven drinke hosed and clothed Ther ne is mete so precious 
so costlewe ne so delicate that thou ne wolt yive it thilke how 
miche that euere it shulde coste thee Bitake thee it was for to 
serue thee but thou art his seruaunt bicome Wantounliche thou 
wolt hose him and take him noble robes queyntise him with iewelles 
with tablettes with knyves with girdelles with purses with disgisye 
lases of silk medled red and greene Queynteliche thow wolt eche 
day aray him and eche niht wol softeliche ley him and do him his 
ese Oon day thou chaufest him the bath and sithe stiwest him 
On the morwe thou kembest him thou polishest him and seechest 
him mirthes and disportes as michel as euere thou miht day and 
niht Swich as he is thou hast norished him and michel more bisy 
thou hast ben aboute him than a womman aboute the chyld she 
yiveth souke and feedeth A gret while it is that thou bigunne and 
neuere sithe stintedest Thouh j seide xxxvi.* 1 winter j failede j trowe 
but litel And al be it he hath thus kept him and forbore him thou 
shuldest wite that he bytrayeth thee and desceyueth thee and dooth 
thee harm That is thilke that suifreth thee not to here ne to endure 
thin armure That is thilke that is thin aduersarye alle the times 
that thou wolt doon wel 

Lady quod j J am awundred of that ye tellen me heere If cap. 
ye ne weren so wys and hadden in yow so gret wit I wolde weene 
al were lesinge or elles that it were meetinge But in yow j wot so 
michel good that gabbe wolde ye not for no thing Wherfore j pray 



. 88 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



you that ye sey me who is thilke wikkede traytour What is his 
miht and his shap Where he was bore How he hatteth to that 
ende that j knowe him and do him disese ynowh For thouh al quik 
j dismemhrede him wel were j not venged 

tap. xxxiv. Sertes quod she thou seist sooth For therwith thou shuldest wite 
that ne were thou of him were noo thing or litel thing it were 
Ther wolde no wiht biholde it ne deyngne to preyse it For it is an 
hep of rotennesse a buryelles maad of filthe a restinge for a coluer 
By it self it may not remeeve ne no thing doo ne lahoure For he is 
impotent and contract deef and blynd And counterfeted it is a 
worm diuerse and cruelle that was bore in the eerthe of wormes 
An herte with inne him breedinge wormes and norishinge wurmes 
with inne it A worm that in the laste eende shal be mete to 
wormes and shal rote Al be it of swich makinge and of swich 
condicioun yit thou makest him to ligge hi thee and in the bed slepe 
with thee [62] and gost aboute to gete him al that is good for hym 
as j haue seid thee bifore And yit more whiche is a vyle thing 
whan he hath eten and is to ful thou berest him to priuee chambres 
or to feeldes to voide hys wombe Now looke whether thou be 
verriliche a thral and a wrecche For of al that he can thee neuere 
thank but is the more haunteyn and the gladdere to do thee harm 
So michel he is of shrewede doinge 

cap. xxxv. Ladi quod j his name whi telle ye me not anoon with oute tary- 
inge For rediliche j wolde venge me and anoon go sle him j wolde 
quod resoun leeue hast thou nouht to sle him but wel thou hast 
leeue to chastise him and to bete him and to abate his customes to 
yive him peynes and trauailes and ofte to make him faste to vnder- 
putte him to penitence with oute the whiche good vengeaunce of him 
shalt thou neuere haue ne neuere in no time be wel avenged For 
as while erst thou seye if wel thou vnderstoode Penitence is his 
maistresse and oonliche his chastiseresse thilke that hath the rihte 
iugement of him whan time and cesoun is present Therfore take 
him to hire and she shal bete him and chastise him so wel with 



THE LYF OP THE MANHODE. 89 

hire yerdes that a good seruaunt he shal be to thee from hens forth- 
ward And that shuldest thou rathere desire and more wilne and 
procure than thou shuldest do his deth ffor he is to thee taken to 
lede thee to the hauene of lyf and of saluacioun It is the bodi and 
the flesch of thee oother weys can j not nempne it- 
Lady quod j what sey ye ? haue j met other mete ye Mi bodi and ca P- xxxvi - 
my flesh ye clepen oother than my self and yit ye seen that with 
yow j am alloone ne noon ther is heere but we tweyne I wot not 
what this tokeneth but if it be a fairye It is not so quod resoun For 
of my mouth cam neuere out lesinge ne fairye ne no thing that 
men shulden clepe meetinge But sey me bi thi feith thou owest to 
god If thou were in a place there thou haddest thine mirthes good 
mete softe bed white clothes ioye reste and gret disport and thi willes 
bothe day and niht that j mowe wite sooth if thou woldest make 
ther any taryinge and abidinge Serteyn quod j ye Aha quod she 
What hast thou seid thanne thou woldest leue thi pilgrimage and 
thi viage Ladi quod j that shulde j nouht For al bi tymes after- 
ward j shulde go Al bi times wrecche quod she ther nis man in 
this world lyvinge that euere may come bi times renne he neuere 
so faste And suppose that after the mirthes and eses thou thinkest 
go thider albitymes bi trauaile and bi labouringe I aske thee if 
thou woldest ouht sette thee to thi wey as longe as thou founde 
swich ioye and swich solace Alias lady quod j alias ther to can j 
not answere but that oonliche j wot wel Fayn j wolde abide and also 
fayn j wolde go Thanne quod she thou hast double wil and double 
thouht that oon wole abide that oother wole go That oon wole reste 
that oother werche That that oon wole that oother ne wole Con- 
trarie that oon is to that oother Ladi quod j certeynliche as ye 
seyn j feele in me Thanne art thou not fool quod she thou and thi 
bodi ben tweyne For tweyne willes ben not of oon but thei ben of 
tweyne that wot<eche wiht 

Ladi quod j j pray you that ye sey me who am j sithe my bodi j cap. 
am not I shulde neuere be in ese if sum what heer of j ne wiste 

N 



90 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

Haa quod she What hast thou lemed thou canst not michel as me 
[63] thinketh It is miche more woorth oon to knowe him self than 
who is emperour kyng other elles Or that can alle sciences and 
haue al that is of the world But sithe thou hast not lerned it thou 
art wel avised to aske it And j wole shortliche ynowh telle thee 
sum what that j vnderstonde 

cap. xxxviii. The bodi shet with oute of whiche j haue spoken to thee is in alle 
degrees out shet Thow art of god the portreyture and the ymage 
and the figure Of nouht he made thee and foormede thee to his 
liknesse A more noble facioun mihte he not yive thee He made 
thee fair and cleer seeinge lightere than brid fleeinge immortal with 
oute euere deyinge and lastinge with oute endinge if thou wolt wel 
biholde thi self but that thou haue forfeted no thing to thi noblesse 
may compare Heuene ne erthe se ne brid ne oother creature except 
the nature of aungeles God is thi fader and thou his sone Weene 
not that thou be sone of Thomas of Guileuile For he hadde neuere 
sone ne douhter that was of swdch condicioun ne of so noble a 
nacioun Thi bodi which is thin enemy that thou hast of him Of 
him it cam thee he bigat it as kynde ordeyned him Riht it is that 
the tre bere swich fruyt as kynde techeth it Biht as thornes mown 
not bere ne caste figes riht so the bodi of the manhode may not 
bere fruyt but foul and veyn vyle filthe and corrupcioun rotennesse 
and stinkinge dunge But swich thing art not thou For thow hast 
not thi comynge foorth of dedliche man but it is come thee of god 
thi fader God made neuere with hise handes in the world but twey 
bodies of manhode To whiche tweyne he committede to make the 
oothere after the ensaumples But the facioun of the gost he with- 
heeld by certeyn avys Al he wolde were maad of him with oute 
medlinge of any wyht elles He made thee for a gost thou art 
And he putte thee in the bodi that thou art ther inne he putte thee 
for to enhabite a while and for to preeve to wite soothlich if thou 
woldest be vertuous and knyghtliche to wite whether thou woldest 
venquise the body or yelde thee to him Bataile thou hast to him 



THE LYF OP THE MANHODE. 91 

in alle times and he to thee If thou ne yelde thee bi flateringe he 
ouerthroweth thee doun and desceyueth thee and maketh thee 
yelde thee and ouercome Vnder him he holt thee if thou leeue 
him there as thou shuldest venquise him bi rniht He shulde neuere 
haue power ouer thee if it ne were bi thi wille Thou art Sampson 
he is Dalida thou hast strengthe in thee he hath noon He can no 
thing do but flatere thee to delyuere thee to enemyes He wole 
bynde thee if thou wolt and shal shere al thin her And thi 
priuytees whan he wot hem to thilke philistyens shal shewe hem 
That is the frendshipe that he hath to thee and the trouthe and 
the feith Now looke if thou wolt assente to him with oute 
smytinge of strok if thou wolt be desceyued as Sampson was and 
holde a fool 

Ladi quod j wundres j heere I meete veryliche j trowe A spiryt ca p. 
ye clepen me that am shoven heere in my bodi that ye seyn am 
cleer seeinge and yit j see neyther more ne lasse And of my bodi 
ye haue seyd it is blynd that seeth wel And manye oothere grete 
wundres whiche ben fleen in myne eres Wherfore j pray yow ye 
wole teche me and lerne me more cleerliche For aske can j not 
wel of the baishtnesse that j haue 

[64] And thanne resoun bigan ayen Now vnderstond quod she cap . xi. 
hider Whan the sunne is shadewed and at time of midday is shoven 
vnder a cloude and may not be seyn ne apperceyued I aske thee for 
my loue that thou sey me whens cometh the day It cometh 
quod j to my seemynge of the sunne that is hid that maketh his 
lightnesse passe thoruh the cloude As quod j men seen it thoruh 
sum glas other as men mown seen fyre in a lanterne 

Serteyn quod resoun if that that thou hast seid thou haue vnder- ca p. xii 
stonde the soule thou hast in thilke dedliche bodi The bodi is a 
cloude and a lanterne bi smoked thoruh the whiche how it euere be 
the brightnesse with inne men seen The soule that enhabiteth in 
the bodi spredeth his brightnesse outward and maketh weene to 
foolliche folk that al the light be of thilke poure cloude with 

N 2 



92 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

whiche the soule is shadewed But if the cloude ne were the soule 
shulde haue so gret light that she shulde see al pleynliche from the 
est to the west She shulde also see and knowe and loue hire 
creatotir 

cap. xiii. The eyen of the bodi hen not swiche but thei ben as glasses bi 
the whiche the soule yiueth light to the bodi with oute But heer- 
fore thou shuldest not weene that the soule haue neede of these 
eyen and these glasses For bifore and bihynde with oute bodilych 
fenestralle he seeth his gostlich good And sum time he shulde the 
bettere see it if the bodi hadde noon eye Tobye a time was blynd 
as to the body but therfore was he not blynd as to the soule For bi 
him was his sone tauht how he shulde meyntene him and what 
wey he shulde holde Neuere shulde he haue tauht it him if with 
the soule he ne hadde yseye The soule sigh al cleerliche and 
knewe that that he seide him So if j sey thou seest cleerliche yit j 
wole conferme it For thou seest nouht thi body that is blynd bothe 
with inne and with oute Neuere shulde he see sighte if bi thi liht 
it ne were And riht as j sey thee of the sight right so j sey thee of 
the heeringe and of hise wittes For thei ben but instrumentes bi the 
which he resceyueth of thee that that he hath For he ne heereth 
ne seeth if it ne be oonliche bi thee And j sey thee vtterliche if 
thou ne bere him wel or susteyned him strongliche as a donge hep 
he shulde be ne neuere shulde he stire him 

cap. xiiii. Lady quod j now j aske and j pray yow how is it that the soule 
whiche is with inne bereth so the bodi and he with oute Me thinketh 
bettere that that is bore that is contened with inne And bettere 
me thinketh berere and susteynour that that is with oute For 
thilke bereth that conteneth and thilke is bore that halt him with 
inne 

cap xiiv Now vnderstonde quod she a litel Thi clothinge and thin 
habite it conteeneth thee and thou art with inne thow woldest 
make gret wundringe if j seyde it bere thee or gouerned thee in any 
wyse Is it thus quod she Lady quod j ye Quod she but this in 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 93 

difference j sette thee that the soule hereth and is born She princi- 
pally bereth the body but he bi accident bereth him And in 
resortinge him to his vertu is entendaunt If euere thou seye 
gouerne a ship in a ryueere and leede there thou mihtest take an 
ensaumple with oute harmynge thee on any wyse The gouernayle 
whiche is with inne ledeth it And so led it is and leedeth For if he 
with inne [66] ledde it nouht his ship wolde not leede him Thi soule 
is the ledere and the gouernowr of thi bodi She ledeth it she bereth 
it and in ledinge so bereth it The bodi bereth it at his wille and 
after that she concenteth The bodi shulde not here here but if she 
bere the bodi And therfore thou shuldest peyne thee to gouerne so 
ariht thi bodi that in ledinge him he mowe lede thee to sure 
hauene after the deth 

Ladi quod j certeynliche j trowe that youre speche shulde be to cap. xiv. 
me riht necessarie if ye wolden doo so michel for me that ye dide 
me out of my shap and dispoiled me of the body and shewed me 
thilke vnthrift thilke blynde that so miche hath misdoo me as ye 
seyn so ofte times and yit mai not be stille So that j mowe preeve 
and fynde that that ye seyn Nouht that j drede of any thing that 
ye ne seyn riht wel but j vnderstonde nouht certeynliche ne cleer- 
liche youre woordes Wherfore j pray yow that ye wole entende 
ther to for to teche me a litel 

And thanne resoun seide I trowe riht wel that litel thou vnder- cap . xivi. 
stondest me And wost thou whi it is For the bodi maketh an 
obstacle bifore gret and thikke oother thing can he not doon but 
aldai be to thee contrarious But for thou hast bisouht it j wole do 
it of thee if j may And thou shalt also laboure ther to and do 
peyne with me For litel j shulde do bi my self if of thee helpe j ne 
hadde Algates trusse him ay en thou shalt and moste haue him 
ayen on thi bak For it is not in my powere to sequestre him longe 
from thee and yit it is hard to make the forberinge oon sool 
moment To the deth this longeth whiche cometh ofte with oute 



94 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

sendinge after Now take on that side and j on this and entende 
nouht neither hider ne thider 

cap. xivii. And thanne resoun sette hond to me and j putte me in hire 
baundoun She drowh and j shof So miche we dide she and j that 
the contracte was ouerthrowe from me and j vncharged Whan 
vntrussed thus j was j was rauished in to the eyr an hygh Me 
thouhte j fleih and that no thing j weyede at my wille ouer al j 
wente and up and doun and fer j seyh No thing in the world as 
me thouhte was heled ne hid fro me Gladed j was gretliche This 
mislikede me oonliche that yit j moste ther inne enhabite and her- 
berwe and dwelle For no thing or litel j seigh ther inne but the 
empechement of my wey Welj seigh that it was sooth al that 
resoun hadde preched me Wei j seigh my bodi that it was dunge 
and to preise it was no thing Wei j seigh that alwey it shulde 
abide in oo place but it were doon awey At the eerthe streiht it 
lay there neither it herde ne seigh His contenaunce was tokne 
that no vertu in him he hadde I wente and cam al aboute him to 
wite sooth if he were aslepe And j tastede hise pouces but wite 
wel j fond nouht in sinewe ne in condyt ne in veyne more than in a 
blast of wynd in pouce ne breth It was nouht j seigh it wel Ey on 
him and on alle hise doinges 

cap. xiviii. Whan j hadde considered al that resoun after arened me Loo 
heere quod she thou seest wel thin enemy Now thou knowest him 
wel This is he that suffreth thee not to here ne endure thin armure 
Thilke that hi flateringe beteth thee doun and ouercometh thee and 
yildeth the venquised Thilke that empecheth thee to clymbe and 
flee an hy to thi creatour I haue spoke thee j nowh heer of bifore 
it ouhte suffice thee so michel With [66] inne him thou moste entre 
Charge him and trusse him ayen Bere him in to thi viage and in 
to thi pilgrimage 

cap. xiix. Ladi quod j myn entencioun and my deuocioun was that with the 
armure j armede me and that thus j wente armed a while for to 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 95 

preue whether j mihte here hem thus For me thinketh veriliche now 
that thei weye no thing 

Sertes quod she thou seist sooth litel thei Aveyen Wherfore thou cap. i. 
shuldest wite that thouh thou thus vsedest hem thou shuldest no 
merite haue Thou shuldest do hem on whan thou hast on thin con- 
tracte blynd and naked Wei he ouhte susteyne thi dedes for welthe he 
wole At the goode parte thou shalt neuere haue welthe at the laste of 
whiche he ne wole be ther of perceyuere Now trusse him ayen and 
take him and sithe entende to arme thee 

"Whan she hadde seyd me this with oute taryinge j fond me ca P H 
trussed Al the miht j hadde and the welthe of whiche j rejoycede 
me oo for to seye in oo moment al was hid al was shadewed vnder 
the cloudy cloude vnder the whiche ther is noo wel cleer seeinge 
Thilke cloude that j hatede so miche bifore and preysed so litel j 
bigan to loue ayen and to bimeene and think that to him j wolde 
assente and that his wille j wolde doo But whan j apperceyued 
afterward ayen that so j wolde be disceyued j bigan to tere and to 
weepe and to sigh Alias quod j thou what shalt thou doo to 
whiche of these tweyne shalt thou acorde 

And thanne seide me resoun What eyleth thee ? Whi art thou dis- cap. m. 
coumforted ? Weepinge longeth to wommen but to men it bicometh 
not wel And thanne j seyde hire Heerfore j weepe For riht 
now with inne this houre bifore that j hadde trussed ayen this 
poore bodi j was so mihti that j wende wel haue ben worth tweyne 
I fly a boue the skyes heyere than eyther heroun or egret I sigh 
and vnderstood and fond no contrarie Now is the game so turned 
ayend ward that my contrarye j haue founden ayen The bodi 
oppresseth me and beteth me doun and halt me vnder him ven- 
quised I haue no vertu bi whiche j may resiste him ne contrarye 
him Mi wille j haue vtterliche lost I ne wot where it is bicome 
Mi strengthe ne is but of thilke that quik in to the eerthe is flowen 
As an ape is tyed to a blok and is atached that he may not stye 
an hy that in styinge he ne cometh soone doun ayen so is to me an 



96 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hevy blok the bodi and a gret withholdinge He felleth me ayen 
whan j wolde flee and withholt me whan j wolde clymbe For me as 
me thinketh was seid that that j sigh writen a while ago that the 
bodi which is corrupt and shrewed and hevy greeueth the soule and 
so oppresseth it that in wrecchednesse he holt it so put bi nethe so 
holden so serued that no wunder it is thouh in weepinge j sey alias 
so discoumforted j am gretliche and riht sorweful 

cap. Hii. Thanne seide resoun Seest thou quod she wel that j haue of no 
thing gabbed thee that the bodi is thin aduersarie of al the good 
thou woldest do Sertes quod j it is so j see it wel god yelde yow 
But seith me oo woord whi is he strengere than I and whi j am not 
ne may not be as strong as he Strengere quod she is he not but 
thou miht not ouercome him in his cuntre In thin owen thou 
shuldest if thou were ther inne Eche wight is strong on his owen 
dung hep and tristeth to his cuntree He is heere in his cuntree on 
his dung [67] hep and up on his dunge set And therfore he is the 
strengere ayens thee and the more fers and of the grettere beringe 
But if in oothere places thou haddest him in thi cuntree thou 
shuldest be strengere there He shulde not mown with sitte thee ne 
ayens stonde thee Not that j sey thee thus for to putte thee in to 
faitourye ne that j wole sey that thou ne miht mate him and sup- 
plaunte him For if thou wult up on his dung hep if thou canst any 
thing of the cheker thou shalt make him chek and maat make he 
neuere so michel debaat Litel drinkinge litel etinge litel restinge 
trauaile goode disciplines and betinges orisouns and weylinges the 
instrumentes of penaunce shulden do thee riht and vengeaunce Thei 
shulen make thee victour to gret wurshipe of thee wule he other 
noon And thanne whan he is thus a daunted vnder thee thanne 
thou shalt wel mown arme thee with arnmres For sooth to seyn thou 
hast noon so gret lettinge ne so gret encombraunce as of that he is 
so slugged to wilful and to miche fed And that it was that grace 
dieu seide thee whan she spak to thee 

cap. iiv. Ladi quod j certeynliche now first j vnderstonde but that time j 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 97 

vnderstood it no thing Al were it she spak me of the bodi j wende 
it and j hadde ben al oon But it is not so bi yow the soothe j haue 
lerned after that j haue enquered 

Certeyn quod she al the soothe bi hire thou mihtest wel haue ca P- ly - 
wist if thou haddest bisouht hire For of hire haue j lerned No thing 
cowde j if she ne were ne no thing of me were Al that j sey thee 
it is bi hire If j clepe thi bodi thin enemy heer after thou shalt 
wel wite it is so Eor whan thou woldest go any good wey he shal 
turne thee amys and make thee go an oother wey And suppose that 
sum time he suffre thee go bi there thou shuldest Yit j sey thee that 
slough thou shalt fynde him and slugginge Longe he wole reste 
and turne up on that oother side Whan at the mete thou hast set 
him late he wole rise and with euele wil Al he wole do slowliche 
for to make thee lettinges His good he shal wel kunne espye And 
whan it is tyme to flatere thee And thanne whan thou shalt take 
no keep disceyued thou shalt fynde thee Wherfore j rede thee wel 
that up on thi warde thou keepe thee and nouht triste thee on him 
ne in hise flateryes For whan thou dost his wille thou shuldest in 
soth wite that ayens thi self thou strengthest him and ministrest 
him his tool with whiche he werreth thee and turneth thee out of 
thi wey So if thou haue wel vnderstonde me he may wel be knowen 
to thee and wel thou miht see that he is thilke that is thi mortal 
enemy that suffreth thee not to here ne endure thin armure 

Ladi quod j god yilde yow I see riht wel that it is thus Ye haue ca p. ivi. 
my bodi wel distincted from me and al cleerliche shewed me how 
alwey he is contrarious to me to alle the good that j wolde doo So 
that for j wot yow wys and that j shal alwey haue neede of yow 
gladliche j wolde ye heelden the wey to the citee with me Gret 
counfort ye shulden do me So that j prey yow that ye wole come 
with me bi yowre wille 

Grace dieu quod she if thou haue hire with thee it sufficeth wel cap. Mi. 
Thou shalt neuere in thi live haue more profitable companye 
Nouht that j wole [68] excuse me that j ne wole go with thee sithe 

o 



98 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

thou wolt it But j telle thee wel that bi twixe us tweye shal be sum 
time cloudes other vapoures arisen other mistes other smokes 
thoruh whiche j shal be hid fro thee Sum time thou shalt see me 
thikkeliche and derkliche and sum time neither more ne lasse thou 
shalt se me ne litel ne michel And sum time cleerliche thou shalt 
se me wel apertliche After the wey thou gost ther after thou 
shalt see me But algates if thou hast neede of me seeche me 
aboute thee For if thou seeche me bisiliche thou shalt fynde me 
rediliche Now alwey go for thou hast no neede to tarye ne to 
abide Tak good wey and leeve not the bodi whiche is to thee of 
euele feith 

cap. ivin. ^ n ^ thanne thankinge hire of hire goodshipes j sette me up 011 
my wey foorth to go with oute abidinge Ofte j fond al that she 
tolde me and aperceyued al that she tauhte me Seelden it was 
that j sih hire but if j dide gret peyne ther to The cloude hidde hire 
from me that the bodi made bi twixe us tweyne Now god keepe 
me from lettinge For j can neither wey ne path bi which j may 
sureliche go to the cite j thinke to Wel j thinke that j shal haue 
to doone Eor whan j fynde myn aduersarie thilke that j haue softe 
norished me thinketh thilke that j neuere sygh wole not do me 
more despyte 

cap. iix. Thus alwey as j wente and thus in goinge studiede j sygh that 
my wey disseuerede and departede in twey weyes nouht that thei 
twinneden fer jt seemede that oon from that oother but bi twixe 
tweyne an hegge riht wunderful j sigh that was set whiche seemede 
streighte fer Ther grewen ther inne bushes and bramberes Bushes 
thorny fid of prikkes thikke plaunted thoruh out and thikke enter- 
medled That oon of the weyes costed on the lift half and that oother 
on the riht half Wel it seemede that oo wey it were if the hegge 
amidde ne were 

cap. ix. On the lifte side ther sat and lenede hire on a ston a gentel 
womman that hadde hire oon bond vnder hire spay ere and in that 
oother hond she heeld a glove whiche she vsede pleyinge aboute 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 99 

hire fynger she kaste it and turnede it in and out Bi hire counte- 
naunce j sigh wel she was nouht of gret care Eor litel rouht hire of 
spinnynge or to laboure oother labour 

On the wey on the riht half a makere ayen of mattes and arayour cap. ixi. 
j sigh sitte that arayede and made ayen hise olde mattes And 
more yit wher of abashed j was For that that he hadde maad j sigh 
him al to breke ayen and sithe araye it ayen "Wel me thouhte a 
fool he was and that no witte in him he hadde litel j preisede him 
But a fool j was as j aperceyuede wel sithe Algates first to him j 
spak al were it was me not leeuest and seide him Sey me now j 
pray thee frend which of these weyes is the bettere I wente neuere 
heer bi teche me bi which j shal go 

Whider quod he woldest thou rihtliche go Go quod j I wule cap. ixii. 
ouer see in to the citee of Jerusalem Of whiche the bisshop is born 
of a maide Come quod he to me Heerfore j am rihtliche in the 
wey Eight bi me the wey of jnnocence and the euene wey 
biginneth This is the wey bi whiche thou miht go to the citee of [69] 
biyounde see Pain quod j wolde j wite if that that thou seist me is 
sooth For thi werk seith me that litel wit in thee ther is I see thou 
art set to make mattes whiche is a foul craft and a poore And j 
see that ofte thou vndoost that that thou hast wel doon and 
makest it ayen and that thinketh me is no gret wit but if thou 
teche me the cause 

And thanne answerde me thilke Thouh of poore craft j be it ca P- lxiii - 
is no cause to blame me fore ne to argue me of folye Eche 
wiht may not forge corownes of gold ne chaunge gold Oon hath oo 
craft an oother an oother That that oon dooth an oother dooth not 
If alle weren of oo craft pooreliche thei shulden chevice hem 
And j telle thee wel that the craft that is most poore is most neede 
of And ofte is more necessarye than thilke that is riche and gret 
That oon bi that oother is meyntened and gouerned and sustened 
Ther is neuer oon that is wikked But that it be treweliche vsed jt 
thruste not recche but that the man be not idel wher euere he be 

o2 



100 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

More is woorth poore craft trewe than idel of court ryal Thouh 
j breke and make ayen to that ende that j be not idel thou shuldest 
not therfore blame me For if j hadde oother thing to laboure j 
wolde ocupye me ther on And nouht to breke that that j haue 
maad for to make it ayen But thou seest wel that j haue nouht to 
doone but if j rente my werk and made it ayen This ouhte suffice 
thee if thou louedest me ariht 

cap. ixiv. Loue quod j and who art thou And whennes is swich thpuht 
come thee ? thou didest me neuere good ne miht doo as me thinketh 
Men mihten holde me a fool if j yeue thee my loue but j knewe 
thee oother weys I see in thee but folye and cokardye that preysest 
more the laboreres than the idel folk I wot neuere who hath 
tauht thee this ne who hath maad thee sey this neither For wel j 
wot that reste is michel bettere than labour And it were bettere 
for oon holde him in ese than either werche or diche And as longe 
as thou boldest the contrarie for a fool thou shalt be holde alweys 

Oo quod he my faire sweete frend litel thou knowest me as me 
thinketh and litel also thou knowest ydelshipe and hire perilous 
countenaunce I aske thee answere me now For what cause is it and 
for what resoun that yren that is cleer and foorbushed waxeth 
rusty and foul and holt not alwey his fairnesse If it be so quod j 
of that that thou seidest me bifore j haue wrong to argue more 
with thee For at thilke woord thou hast ouercome me Serteyn 
quod he it is riht so ther of For riht as the yren with whiche men 
doon no thing is in perile that it wole soone ruste riht so the man 
also that is ydel and no thing dooth is in perile that he ruste soone 
bi vice and bi sinne But whan he wole ocupie him and bisye him 
in labour that keepeth him from sinne and from spottinge of rust 
This is woorth to him a foorbishour and a file and a filour 
cap. ixvi. j re ^ ee q UO( j j k a t thou sey me where swiche woordes 



thou hast drawe and also thi name and who thou art For gretli 
j am abasht that thou that j wende a nice man answerest me so wel 
Grace dieu quod he whiche thou seest not speketh to thee nouht j 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 101 

She putteth me in myn ere and counseileth me al that euere j sey 
Be neuere abasht For thou shuldest wite that j am thilke that yiueth 
the bred to the folk with oute which the kinrede of Adam hadde 
er this ben [70] dede for hunger Ne nouht hadde be woorth elles 
the arch of Noe I am thilke that shortliche maketh the time passe 
with oute enoyinge thilke for whiche alle men ben born for the 
bitinge of the appel Cleped j am bi my riht name labour or ocupa- 
cioun Clepe me as thou wult I ne recche whether of these tweyne 
Bi me thei passe thilke that gon in to the citee of biyounde the see 
of whiche thou speke to me at the biginnynge Now do thou as is 
in thi thouht Come bi me or on that oother side tak thi wey But 
keep thee wel that bi the cheesinge of thi wey thou biholde no fool 

Whan thus hadde seid me the mattere who he was and what ca P- lxvii 
name he hadde j thouhte j wolde go bi his wey But in that time 
my sory body bigan to flatere me and to glose me seyinge to me 
Fool what gost thou thus thinkinge Leevest thou this fool this 
cokard ? Leeue him nouht Go from him He ne is but a turmentour 
and a trauailour of folk. Go spek with the dameselle that hath hire 
hond vnder hire spayere aske hire the wey also as thou hast doon of 
this She perauenture shal telle thee swich woord That thou shalt 
neuere recche of this wey that is on the riht half but shalt go bi 
that oother on the lift half 

Oo quod j to the bodi Ful wel ful wel knowe j thee I wole not cap. 
ther of For j woot wel if j leevede thee j shulde soone go an yuel 
wey And if j sey sooth quod he wolt thou thanne leeue me Ye 
quod j The wey on this side quod he is not fer from the wey on 
the yonder side Al is oon but that bi twixe tweyne is the hegge 
of thorny wode An hegge is no wal with kernelles for to close with 
toures ne castelles Ther is noon hegge that ne is perced in sum place 
and to broke or that men ne mown perce it and breke it in sum 
place So thouh thou were forveyed other ferred from thi wey soone 
j nowh thou mihtest passe the hegge and turne ayen to thi wey 
with oute any withseyinge Wherfore if thou vnderstonde my 



102 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

seyinge it may not michel greeve th.ee to go speke with the faire 
that sit yonder up on hire ston And thanne j seyde him Go we 
now thilke wey "Wei j see pees shulde j noon haue but in sum 
poynt j leeuede thee 

cap. ixix. rp o ^ ne damiselle j com me that at the eende of that oother wey 
sat and seide hire gretinges And she seide God looke freend 
Damiselle quod j treweliche ye diden me a gret curteysie and ye 
tauhten me my wey if ye coude it Of the wey quod she thou miht 
not faile if hi me thou wolt come For j am porter and vussher of 
many a fayr wey I lede the folk to greene wode to gadere the vio- 
lettes and the notes I lede hem to the places of delite of pley and 
of disport There I make hem heere songes roundelles and ballades 
and swete sownes of harpes of simphannes of organnes and of 
oothere sownes whiche were wel longe to telle al There j make 
hem see pleyeres at the bal pleyes of iogelours pleyinge at the tables 
at the chekeer at the bowles at dees at merelles and manye oothere 
museryes If in to swich place thou wolt go bi me thou muste 
passe Now loke whether thou wolt come For with thee thi counseil 
thou hast 

cap. ixx. Counseyl quod j alias sorweful counseil j haue but he hath no wil to 
counseile me treweliche A [71] yens me to werrye me he is bicome 
aduocat Wel was j desceived whan j acorded me to yive him a 
pensioun to counseile me And yit am j more desceyued For alwey 
bothe yister day and to day haue he wole thilke pensioun And 
take it him j muste I wot neuere whether euere j shal haue riht of 
him or whether euere j shal see me venged 

cap. ixxi. Why so quod she seist thou so thou art a fool See j not wel that 
he hath yiven thee good counseil whan he hath brouht thee to me ? 
Serteyn quod j fayn j wolde it were soo But j ouhte make a crosse 
thanne For it shulde be the firste time that euere he hadde wel 
counseiled me Sey me now quod she how he hath counseiled thee 
and bi what woordes he hath mad thee come hider to me and what 
he seide thee And j wole telle thee anoon if his counseil be good 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 103 

and trewe He seide me quod j that aloyngne me ne forueye me 
fro my wey michel mihte j nouht thouh j come to speke with yow 
And that thouh j were forueyed or out of my wey bi yow yit he seide 
me the hegge shulde soone be perced and broke wherbi j shulde 
soone mown ayen to my wey Swiche wordes haue brouht me hider 
god leeue j be wel aryued 

Now thou maist quod she see that he wole not disceyue thee cap 
He wole suffre for to saue thee and for to keepe thee from harm 
Eor whan he speketh to perce the hegge to redresse thee wel thou 
mint see that he seecheth nouht to his disport ne to his solas Eor if 
any peyne ther be soonest shal he haue it allone nouht thou He 
shal be scracched and prikked and be bled Leeue him ther of 
al sureliche jn that miht thou no thing leese Come bi me it is 
thi wey thou art not the firste pilgrime ther haue come summe er 
now the wey is al forbeten 

Ladi quod j sithe ye wole and rede that j go bi yow seith me the cap 
condicioun of yow and how ye hatten this wolde j fayn witen biforn 
j wente yowre wey 

Ther of quod she needeth thee nouht gretliche recche to wite if ca P lxxiv 
thee like Eor many ther haue passed bi me that this haue 
not asked I was so plesaunt to hem thei speken not ther of 
neither more ne lasse Neuertheles sithe thou wolt knowe this 
Wite in certeyn that j am oon of the popettes that dame Peresce 
whiche thou shalt see and fynde heer after and made sette heere 
Hire douhter j am and am cleped Oiseuce the tender sister 
I loue better to strike my glooves to keembe myn hed to shode 
me and to biholde me in a mirour than do any oother labour 
I wishe after festes and sonedayes for to rede vanitees to gadere 
lesinges to gideres and make hem seeme soothe and for to telle 
trifles and fables and rede romaunces of lesinges I am the freend 
of thi bocli whan thou slepest and whan thou wakest j keepe him 
that he haue no peyne and that ther be no wales in the hondes 
Ofte j yive him greene garlaundes and ofte j make him biholde his 



104 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



skin if it be fair and if it be wel arayed wel clothed and wel hosed 
And sum time j make wormes come in the hondes for to digge in 
hem to tile hem and to ere hem with oute any sowinge Now looke 
what thow wolt doon what thou thinkest what counseil thou hast 
If thou be leef to come hi me sey it anoon and with oute taryinge 
tukke thi lappes in thi girdel and set thee in thi wey 

cap. ixxv. [72] Whan she hadde so seide me anoon j seide hire Sithe my bodi 

is youre frend if ye loue him treweliche ye shulden not desceyue 
him And wel ye witen if ye weren forueyed he were desceyued 
Eor j wolde sharpliche and shrewedliche passe Soone ynowh j 
wolde make me swich an hole that j wolde fynde ayen my wey 
Litel j wolde bi pleyne him thouh he were prikked and scracched 
Go quod she spek no more of him self the wey is chosen Blame not 
me ne argue me not of fals loue 

cap. ixxvi. And thanne bi Oiseuce j passede and in to hir wey entrede me 
That oother wey j sette al in negligence and in to foryetinge This 
j took bi my folye It may not be it ne is the wers for me Eorueyed 
j am But I wot no thing ther of but riht soone j shal see it wel 
ynowh Now god yiue me grace so to go and the shrewede pases so 
to passe that sum time er j come to the ende of the shrewede wey j 
mowe come ayen to the goode wey and passe the hegge 

cap. ixxvii. Thus as j wente alweys costinge the hegge a vois j herde on that 
oother side that clepede me and seide Musard what doost thou there? 
and whider gost thow? Why hast thou leeved the counseil of thilke 
berkinge lyere Oiseuce the jangeleresse The counseil that she hath 
yiven thee shal lede thee to pouerte It shal lede thee euene to the 
deth Al be it the wey is wrong in litel time she hath desceyued 
thee Seint Bernard clepede here not for nouht stepdame of vertu 
whan he kneew hire and was avised of hire She is mor estepdame 
to pilgrimes than kyte to chekenes Wel j trowe thou shalt fynde it 
soone ynowh And that swich thou shalt fynde hire a noon if thou 
ne come hider and leue the wey of biyounde 

cap. ixxviii. And thanne al abasht j was and as who seith al out of my self 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 105 

For who spak j sigh not and who it was j wiste not . Algates j an- 
swerde Sey me now quod j pray thee who thou art that ar guest me 
and that thus spekest to me I shulde neuere be at ese but j wiste 
sum what 

And thanne answerde thilke that spak Thou owhtest wel wite cap. ixxix. 
who j am For j hadde doon thee michel good if any thing ther 
of thou haddest withholden I am thilke that ledde thee in to 
myn hous and shewede thee many a fair iewel and made thee yifte 
of hem Grace dieu men clepen me 

Whan j herde that thanne j seide hire Goode ladi sithe it is ye cap. ixxx. 
j thanke yow and wel j ouhte that ye deyne to speke to me I haue 
had gret wille to speke with yow of this wey for to aske yow Who 
maketh this hegge that is heere a midde Wherfore j pray yow that 
ye lerne me and teche me the soothe And sithe afterward to my 
powere j wole do my devoyr to passe it thouh my bodi haue to 
suffre j thinke wel to suffre it He hath be my counseilour thouh 
he haue sorwe j ne recche 

Serteyn quod she forth thou shuldest passe it thoruh if any herte cap. ixxxi. 
thou haddest For after that thou gost ferthere thou shalt haue the 
hegge thikkere Lady quod j ther of am j glad For hi so michel 
shal the bodi that wold bitraye me in makynge me come on this 
half be punyshed the more 

Now vnderstond quod grace dieu thanne The hegge that is cap. ixxxii. 
amidde the twey weyes is the ladyes whiche thou seye haue a 
maylet and smerte yerdes and the beseme [73] bi twixe the teeth 
Penitence she maketh clepe hire in heuene in eerthe and in see 
She plauntede the hegge for thilke that gon the wey bi younde to 
that ende that thei mown not passe to this half with oute enduringe 
of peyne She plauntede it also for to take ther of yerdes and 
baleys and for to hafte ther with hire mailettes alle times that it be 
neede For in many places she hath to doone with hem for to with- 
drawe with sinneres from yuel The hegge at this biginnynge is not 
riht thikke I rede thou passe it anoon For soone heer after thou 

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106 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

miht fynde swich thing that shal lette thee and shal not suffre thee 
passe hider 

cap. ixxxiii. ^nd thanne j bigan to biholde hider and thider and to muse to 
wite if j mihte fynde any hole bi which j mihte passe But in 
musinge j sygh resoun on that oother side wher of j was michel 
abasht Wei j knew hire bi hire visage Ladi riht wys quod j how 
haue ye left me on this half that wende foot bi foot with me ye 
hadde allwey come and nouht left me On me quod shee it is not 
long For thou hast first left me If thou haddest come on this half 
yit thou haddest had me with thee But weene not that j wole go 
wey that be blame wurthi I wole holde me to the goode wey bi 
which goon the goode pilgrimes Come hider and leeue grace dieu 
For she hath profred thee the faireste of the pley And fool thou 
shalt be if lengere the wey on that oother half thou go 

cap. ixxxiv. Whan she hadde thus seid me yit j bigan to muse and to koleye 
to biholde where the leste thikke of the hegge were and the leste 
sharpe For j hadde pite of the bodi more than j shulde Now god for 
his pitee keepe me For j am nygh a shrewed market While the 
brid goth coleyinge hider and thider turnynge the nekke ofte it 
bifalleth that in the strenges he is take whiche is set in his wey 
Other it happeth that he is slayn with a bolt other bi lyrned He is 
a fool that doth not whan he may for he shal not whan he wolde 

cap. ixxxv. Now j wole telle yow how it bifel me wher of michel mis bifel me 
As j wente musinge seechinge an hole in the hegge ther weren in 
my wey strenges and cordes whiche j sigh not With inne hem j felte 
me teyed sodeynliche and bi the feet arested Wher of j was gret- 
liche abasht and sori to myn herte I lefte spekinge to resoun and 
haluelinge j foryat grace dieu Of the hegge j made no fors ne to 
fynde neither hole ne gap I hadde j nowh to doone and to thinke 
to vnknytte the cordes Breke hem mihte j nouht wel for j was not 
so strong as sampson A vile old oon and mangracious and hidous 
that j sih not bifore For she com seuynge me and helde the cordes 
and the streenges with that oon hond and gripede hem 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 107 

Whan j turnede me ayen and sigh hire abasht j was more than cap. ixxxvi. 
bifore Eor j sigh hire al mossy and of mosse al rouh foul and old 
vile and blak and salwh She hadde be foul in an halle who so 
hadde seyn hire daunce A boucheres ax she hadde vnder hire side 
for to kille with swyn And she bar cordes in a fardelle bounden to 
hire nekke Wei j wende whan j sigh the manere that a takere of 
wulues she hadde ben or of otres Eor to kinges huntes for the wulf 
and for the otre longen swiche trusses 

What is this quod j thou olde stinkinge What comest [74] thou cap. 
thus folwinge me? What art thou and bi what riht arestest thou 
me heere ? thou shuldest not come thus with oute spekinge other 
koughinge Wei it sheweth thou come neuere out of good place 
Elee hens and let me don of these strenges from aboute my feet 
I am neither gerfaucoun ne faucoun ne sperhauk ne a merlyoun 
ne noon oother faucowners brid thus for to be bownde with gessis 

And thanne the olde answerde me Bi myn hed quod she thou cap. 
askapest me not as thou weenest Euele thou come heere Of me 
thou shalt haue it Olde stinkinge thou hast cleped me Old j am 
But miscleped me thou hast of that stinkinge thou hast seid me 
For stinkinge am j not j trowe In many a fair place haue j be 
bothe in winter and in somer Leyn in chambres of emproures of 
kynges and oothere grete lordes Leyn in corteynes of bishopes of 
abbotes of prelates and of preestes that neuere was cleped stinkkinge 
erst in no time ne nempned Whens cometh it thee ? How durst 
thou speke thus? thou art in my strenges arested and teyed I trowe 
thou woldest be riht fers and speke riht euele to me if thou were 
ascaped me And therfore sithe j holde thee j trowe that j shal wel 
venge me I wole putte thee in to swich place where j wole make 
thee leeue in my god 

Thow olde quod j Who art thou that hast the herte so stout? thi C ap. 
name thou shuldest sey sithe thou manasest me so Serteyn quod 
she j wole it wel that it be no thing heled to thee Mi name Who j 
am wher of j serue I am wyf to the boucher of helle that lede to 

p2 



108 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hym by cordes the pilgrimes that j may areste and hynde hi the feet 
as thouh it were swyn Manye j haue led him er now and yit j shal 
lede him ynowe of whiche thou shalt be the firste if thou ne ascape 
me out of my strenges Therfore j come to hynde thee thus priue- 
liche and stilleliche Eor if j hadde comen oother weys j wende wel 
haue lost my trauaile Por thou woldest haue passed ouer and go 
thi wey 

cap. xc. I am the olde that ly hi children in here beddes that make hem 
turne on that oother side and be loth to rise I am boren for to ley 
hem in cradel and to make hem slumbre and to shitte the liddes 
of here eyen that thei see nouht the light I am thilke that 
maketh the gouernour slepe amiddes the ship vnder the mast 
whan he hath lost other broken the steerne thouh it be amiddes 
the see and that he see wyndes risen whan he hath lost cheuishaunce 
j make him putte al in neuere recchinge and al suffre to perishe 
and go to nouht and the ship go in perile I am thilke that make 
thisteles come in to gardynes with oute delvinge and make brambres 
and netles to rise Ofte times it hath bifalle me that that was redi 
to make on the morwe j slewthede it and dide no more ther too 
Gladliche of alle thinge generalliche j abide the time to come And 
wel ofte hi me hath be many a good werk slewthed I hatte 
Peresce the goutous the encrampised the boistous the maymed 
the foollich the founded the froren And if oother weys thou 
wolt nempne me Tristesse thow miht clepe me Por all that j see 
it annoyeth me And riht as a mille that hath in him no thing to 
grynde maketh poudre and bren of him self riht so go j grynd- 
inge my self and wastinge my self and al for anoye Por ther pleseth 
me no thing but it be doon [75] at my lust and at my wille And for 
alle thingge annoyeth me soo j here this ax which men clepen 
annoye of lyf that astoneth and dulleth the folk riht as a gobet 
of led This is properliche the ax with whiche j dullede sum time 
Helye vnder the juniperyn Ne hadde be the hye hunger hi whiche 
he was twyes excited he hadde not escaped me for miht that he 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 109 

hadde With this ax j dulle and lede the clerkes at cherche So 
hevy and so leded j make hem that if thei were weyen men mihten 
selle hem bi peys and oon shulde weye wel two or thre I spare 
noon that j may dulle and that j fynde 

These strenges heere and these cordes with wiche thou art cap. xd. 
bounden hen maad of my howelles and therfore thei ben stronge 
thow miht drawe thei wolen not breke Thei ben not cordes of 
cleernans but thei were made of synewes al blak and twyned and out 
of my wombe drawen If thou wolt wite how thei hatten that oon 
hatteth Negligence that oother is werynesse and letargie the sownere 
Lethie thei ben and softe Suiche j made hem for to bynde with 
the folk and for to wynde faste aboute hem to make the folk abide 
with oute reendinge of here robes If j sey sooth thou wost For bi 
hem tweyne j holde thee 

Of hem that thou seest trussed and fardelled at myn nekke as at cap. xdi. 
this time j holde me stille and leue it til an oother time Al bitimes 
thou shalt fynde thee in hem and feele thee bounden Of oon with 
oute moo j wole telle thee Eor j wole more enforce me to bynde 
thee and areste thee therinne than in the oothere Thilke corde bi 
his rihte name is cleped desperacioun It is thilke that judas heeng 
bi whan he hadde bitrayed the kyng ihesu This is the hange- 
mannes corde of helle with wiche he draweth and hangeth on his 
gibet thilke that he taketh I here it aboute in the cuntre for the 
hangeman hath committed it to me to that ende that if j fynde any 
fool j make him a knotte aboute the nekke and that j drawe him 
and lede him and that he haue euele sorwe Now looke whether to 
good hauene the wynd of the north haue brouht thee and whether 
Oiseuce that seith she is my douhter haue wel serued thee Of 
gyle she made thee come on this half and heere thou shalt dye if j 
ne dye 

Whan the olde hadde thus spoken and sermowned of hire craft ca P- xciii - 
with gret despyte j seyde hire ayen Thou olde mossy me thinketh 
thin acqueyntaunce no thing woorth Lat me go For thou doost me 



110 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

lettinge and hast er now doon And thanne she drow hire ax from 
vnder hire side and smot me so gret a strok that doun she ouer- 
threwh me If myn hawhergeoun j hadde had wel it hadde thanne 
be me in sesoun For the strok which j was smyten with was dedlich 
ne hadde j had with me in my scrippe of the oynement that the 
kvng inaketh that is the gostlich ovnement that no dedlich man 

t/ O * 

kan make That hadde grace dieu put in my scrippe Whan j took 
it wel she wiste j shulde haue neede ther of and therfore she hadde 
ther inne put it 

cap. xciv. Harrow quod j whan doun j sih me Goode lord god jhesu mercy 
This olde hath ouerthrowe me and slayn me with hire ax If of you 
j ne haue socoure the sonere j see no thing of to morwe in me 
Help me and socoure [76] me and out of this peryle caste me 

cap. xcv. As j compleynede me and in compleyninge lay doun the olde 
leyde doun hire fardell and wolde vnfolde the hangemannes corde 
for to tye me aboute the nekke Wher of me thouhte not wel 
Weenest thou quod she for to eskape for thi waymentinge and for 
thi cryinge? The hangemannes corde j wole putte aboute thi nekke 
and fastne and sithe afterward j wole be drawere and hangere of 
thee In that dede wole the hange man avowe me wel and it shal 
like him wel 

cap. xcvi. "Whan j herde swich manassinge and sigh wel the redynge on my 
burdoun j bithouhte me To him j cleuede and myn herte com ayen 
With bothe handes j gripede it and lened me ther to and so miche 
dide that as who seith j ros ayen on my feet and dressede me I 
wolde haue flowe to ward the hegge but thijke olde was neither 
slowh ne slepy but after me she com with hire ax and with hire 
cordes she withheeld me of which j was not vn enpeched Ayen 
ayen quod she thou gost not yit j trowe It stont thee in no stede to 
drawe ayen thiderward the hegge thou mostest foryete to myn ax 
and to my cordes thou mostest of alle thinge acorde thee Thus 
she drof me ayen with hire ax and droowh me bi the streenges that 
j bar and that j droowh after me Sorweful j was and gretliche 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. Ill 

dredde me that with the false judas corde she made any knotte 
aboute my nekke Neuertheles for j obeyede to hire al to al she 
trussede it ayen on hire nekke as it was first and forbar me That 
oother she leet doun and drawen doun bi the eerthe seyinge that if 
j drowe me were it neuere so litel to the hegge ward she wolde 
anoon take hem ayen and to hire she wolde drawe me ayen 

So she dide as she seide and wel heeld that she bihyghte For alle cap 
times that j wolde haue go to ward the hegge and rekeuered it she 
fered me with manasses and heff up hire ax to me and took hire 
cordes and drowh and from the hegge aloyngned me 

As j wente aloygnynge me so from the hegge as thilke olde made cap 
me go wher she wolde up on the pendaunt of an hidous valey foul 
and deep and derk tweyne olde riht hidous and that to me weren 
riht wunderful j sigh come euene to me That oon bar that oother 
in hire nekke Of whiche thilke that was born was so gret and so 
swollen that hire gretnesse passede mesure It was not werk of 
nature as argued hire shap At hire nekke she bar a staf and an 
horn she hadde in hire forhed bi which she shewed hire riht fers 
In here hand she heeld an horn to blowe with And bi a baudryk 
she bar a gret belygh And she was arayed with a white mantelle 
A peyre spores she hadde on with longe rewelles wel arayed Wel 
it seemede that she was maistresse of the olde hire berere So she 
made hire where hire likede And she heeld hire a mirrowr wher in 
she lookede hire face hire semblaunt and hire visage 

Whan j sih thus these tweyne olde What is this quod j swete cap. xcix 
god mercy In this cuntre ben but olde Olde heere and olde there 
I wot neuere whether j be in femynye ther wommen hauen the 
lordship If j be slayn bi hem me were bettere haue ben ded 
[77] born And michel soriere j wolde be soo than if j dyede in 
mortal werre 

And thane a vois cam to me that was as j trowe of grace dieu cap. c. 
that seide me an hygh To disconforte thee is no thing woorth 



112 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

Bataile thou shalt haue with these olde other with oute bataile 
thou shalt yilde thee thou art entred in to here curitre And ther 
entreth noon that ne is assailed of hem and werred be it on horse 
other on foote Be not abasht for tweyne or thre For thou shalt 
fynde heer after oothere ynowe that wolen holde thee riht nigh 
And j telle the wel that if thou ne bee oother weys armed and 
arayed thou shalt neuere keepe thee so wel that thou ne shalt be 
vileynesliche treted 

cap. ci. And thanne j seide here I pray you that ye seyn to me who ben 
these heere that j see comen nygh and maken me abasshe soo 
Thou shalt quod she al bitimes aske hem whan thou wolt Riht as 
thilke that leedeth thee bi hire cordes hath seid thee who she is 
riht so shule these heere with oute lesinge seyn thee who thei ben Eor 
j haue so ordeyned hem and comaunded hem 

cap. cii. Ryht as j entended to thilke uoys that j herde hye The olde that 
hadde the horn and rod on that oother cam prikinge euene to me 
sporinge up on that oother olde Hire horn she took and bleew and 
after she seide to me Abide me there euele come thou heere Yilde 
thee anoon other at a strok see thi deth Who art thou quod j to 
hire to whom j shulde yilde me thus ? But if j wiste thi name j 
wolde neuere yilde me to thee And j wole quod she teche it thee 
Thow shuldest wite quod she that j am thilke that of olde am 
cleped and losed the eldeste ther is noon so old as am j I avaunte 
me ther of j forsake it not Bifore that the world was maad or that 
the heuene were ful maad jn the nest of heuene j was bred and con- 
ceyued and engendred A brid that men clepeden sum time lucifer 
bredde me Was ther neuere of brid so euele a bredinge brid For 
anoon as j was disclosed and that j sigh and aperceyuede my fader so 
harde j bleewh with these belyes that j haue with me that from the 
hye nest j made him falle doun and plounge in to helle He was 
bifore a whyt brid noble and gentel brightere shynynge than the 
sunne at ful midday Now he is bicome so blecched so salt so foul 
that he is werse than the deth In the see he is waxe a fysshere 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 113 

and a takere of briddes and of bestes Heer after thou shalt wel see 
him whan over the see thow shalt go 

Now j sey thee whan j hadde thus put him and shoven him out cap. cm. 
of his nest j fel doun with him ne in heuene j dwellede nomore 
In to eerthe j com whiche was neewe maad of whiche me thouhte 
not riht fair For j sygh there a werk which was maad to clymbe 
an hy to the nest from which j was fallen and from which j hadde 
maad my fader falle in to derknesse Whan j sygh that in me 
ther was but wretthe Wherfore j bithouhte me that if j mihte j wolde 
with oute tariynge make him falle also and lette him to clymbe 
As j thouhte j dide I com to him my belyes j took and so bleewh 
him in his thouht and so made his wombe [78] to swelle that him, 
thouhte if he eete of the fruyt whiche was defended he shulde be as 
ful of kunnynge as god his souereyn Be this wey he was suprysed 
and from al to al desceyued And therfore he was driven out of 
paradys and straunged ther too he loste also his avauntage to clymbe 
and go to the nest 

Whan j hadde don these tweyne chyldhodes while j hadde souk- cap. civ. 
ynge teeth and that j was yit in chyldhode j bithouhte me that j 
wolde yit do harmes j nowe Manye j haue don and alwey doo and 
wole do I make and purchace the werres and make the lordes of 
cuntres haue discensiouns hi twixe hem and discordes and indigna- 
ciouns that oon ofte to deffye and despise that oother for euele wil 
I am ladi and condyeresse cheuentayn and constablesse of alle 
stoures in chevachyes ther as baners ben displayed ther as ben base- 
nettes and helmes and garnementes of velewet beten with gold and 
siluer and oothere queyntisinges And alwey thei ben neewed bi 
me I make hoodes purfyled with silk and ribaned with gold aboute 
hattes cappes and hye crestes streyte cotes with hanginge sleeves bi 
the sides To white surcotes rede sleeves to nekke and breste white 
a coote wel decoloured to be wel biholde Garnementes to longe or 
to shorte Hoodes to litel or to grete Bootes litel and streyte or so 
grete that men mihte make of hem tweyne or thre A girdel smal 

Q 



114 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

or to brod with whiche queintisen hem as wel the halte the bois- 
touse the spaueynede the blynde the embosede the maymede and 
oothere Swiche thinges j make for j wole that euery wyght haue 
to me his eye and that of me be seid with oute peere and singuler 
of aray to that ende that j haue prys of alle and that noon be 
paringe to me For of peere ne felawe j keepe noon in no time And 
soone wolde myn herte clyve if any comparede him to me Al that 
j seye j wole susteyne be it good or yuel and mayntene it And 
neuere wolde j repele thing that j hadde euele seid I wole haue 
noon vndertakere nomaister ne techere Eor riht as a scabbed beste 
hateth hors comb and sor hed a comb riht so hate j techinge and 
counseil and avisement The wit of oothere j preyse no thing me 
thinketh my owen bettere and that j can more than any oother 
And that ther is no time no thing wel doon ne wel seid ne ariht 
ordeyned but it be forthouht bi my wit And suppose that any wiht 
dide any thing wel or seyde be it neuere so wel seid or doon sithe bi 
me it was not doon myn herte so disdeynows therof j haue that litel 
lakketh it ne bresteth on tweyne I wolde aloone haue the loos the 
wurshipe the prys And wel j dar sey that sori j am whan any is 
wurshiped or preised but j If any haue lasse than j anoon j haue 
him in despyte I sey anoon that he is nouht or that he is an asse 
cristened If j heere ther be any wiht that preyse me j make sem- 
blaunt that j heere it nouht or elles j sey him thou skornest me 
thou shuldest not so do I wot wel j am nouht so sufficient as ye 
gon seyinge of me Mi fame j knowe wel and see but j kan no 
thing and that forthinketh me 

cap. cv. And wost thou whi j sey it and why j humble me thus Weene 
not that j sey it to that ende that men seyn ayen to me ye seyn 
sooth ye kunne no thing ye haue knowinge of youre self For if men 
seidenme soo myn herte wolde breke for sorwe anoon I shulde [79] 
be slayn with the spere that j hadde forged But j sey it for j wole 
that the tale be turned oother weys that is to sey that it turne as 
bifore is seyd wryinge to my wurshipes so that at the eende my 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 115 

preysinge be brouht ayen and confermed that men seyn Lady sane 
youre grace from hens to Boloyne de grace is noon that cowde ne 
mihte do as ye youre wit is singuleerliche to alowe and to preyse 
I sey it yow with oute scornynge and withoute any flateringe 

And thanne whan j heere swiche beringes up and swich avaunt- cap. cvi. 
inge Wastes myn herte hoppeth for ioye and lepeth and trippeth 
Swollen and wombed thanne j bicome as thou seest and of gret 
beringe thei maken me place more than j hadde Large chayer large 
benche sitte allone as princesse go bifore as duchesse be with folk 
envirowned a ferre with oute beeinge empressed For anoon j shulde 
breste if j were any thing empressed Eeers j am thanne as Leopard 
and thwart j haue my lookinge A squynt j biholde the folk And 
for feerstee j strecche my nekke and heve up the browen and 
the chin makinge the countenaunce of the lyoun I go with my 
shuldren spaulinge and with my nekke coleyinge With alle myne 
ioyntes stiryinge and with alle my sinewes j make it queynte I am 
the scume that wole flote aboue good water and swimme of ootheres 
wel doinge j wole make me a scaffold and sitte aboue as an ape I am 
as a swollen bladdere that hath in yt but stench whan a man 
breketh it or vnbyndeth it I see nouht my feet ne my goinge for 
my gretnesse and my swellinge Ne neuere apperceyue ne see 
defaute that is in me The defautes of oothere j see wel I am japere 
and scornere of alle folk In old time j was cleped queen and 
corowned But Ysaie whan he sih me anoon he cursede my coroun 
Sorweful he was whan j bar it and whan queen j was cleped 

I hatte orgoill the queynte the feerce hornede beste whiche cap. cvn. 
haue take the horn and set amydde my forhed the folk to hurtle 
It is an horn that is cleped feerstee and cruelltee An horn of 
vnicorn which is more cruelle than biscorn or chisel of carpenter 
In the world ther is no steel be it neuere so wel tempred ne 
grounde so wel poynted ne sharp that mihte perce ne entre with inne 
the herte of man with oute reboundinge ayen if this horn ne helpe 
and made the wey I make the wey to daggeres to swerdes and to 

Q2 



116 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

alle oothere yrenes whiclie ben made to sle men with I hurtle on the 
riht half and the left half with oute sparinge preest or clerk And 
wite wel that j hurtele most cruelliche thilke that to here power 
hauen poorged hem of here sinne 

cap. cviii. With me j bere a peyre belyes spores staf and horn And am 
clothed with a mantelle to shewe myn estaat the fairere My belyes 
hatten veyn glorie maad to quykene with coles for to make folk that 
ben blacked with old sinne to weene thei ben shynyuge and most 
wurthi of alle oothere These belyes hadde Nabugodonosor in his 
forge that seide he hadde founded babiloyne in his beautee and 
in his strengthe The sparcles that he caste sheweden wel that he 
hadde with inne gret quiknynge of cole that was maad bi instru- 
ment 

cap. cix. As wynd looseth and felleth doun the fruit of trees [80] riht so the 
wynd of thilke belyes leith alle vertues doun to the eerthe Al he 
bloweth doun that he ouertaketh He leueth no goodshipe bifore 
him He vnnestleth the bye briddes and ouerthroweth doun here 
feedinges He maketh hem leese bi here folye the sustenaunce of 
here lyvinge If euere thou herdest speke of the rauen that sum 
time heeld a cheese in his mowth To whom the fox saide Rauen so 
god keepe thee as sey me a song I haue desire to heere the sweete 
soun of thi faire polished throte which is more woorth than of a 
symphanye Leuere j wolde heere it than soun of organe or of 
sautree Wherfore faile me not j prey thee for j come hider ther- 
fore The whiche whan he felte swich wynd and was ouercome 
with suich blowinge the cheese he mihte no lengere susteyne but 
leet it falle To singe he took him up with oute taryinge as 
thilke that hadde the herte gay for he wende the fox hadde seyd 
treweliche But nay of his song he ne rouhte The cheese withoute 
more he wolde haue He bar it awey as him likede and thus 
desceyuede the rauen 

cap. ex. Bi this ensaumple thou miht cleerliche apperceyue that the 
wynd of the belyes maketh hem that ben best fethered to leese and 



THE LTF OP THE MANHODE. 117 

ley doun that that thei haue that is to seye that whan j see any 
haue vertu in him either goodes of grace or of fortune to that eende 
that j drawe for oon and that j doo awey his merelle with these belyes 
heere j whistle him and blowe him soo that that he holt he leeseth 
and cometh doun 

The wynd of thilke belwes shulde neuere powder ne asshen cap. cxi 
abide that is dedliche man which is seid that asshen and powder 
and dunge is This powder whan it is blowen it is with litel wynd 
reysed soone gon in disparpoylinge and cast in to perdicoun 
These blastes maken often reedes and floytes and shalmuses and 
thilke that ben voide of goodnesse and han no wit in hem I blowe 
with thilke belyes the berth to thilke that of his soule wole make a 
wastel to the maister deuel And yit j sey thee ther with that who 
so hath light in his bosum with thilke belyes j fanne it And 
whethir it be greyn or chaf thing that ouht be woorth or no thing 
woorth j preeue it bi faste blowinge Eor if it be chaf soone j make 
it rise But if it were greyn it wolde no thing do for my belyes 

Bi these belies j can wel drawe and gadere ayen wynd Eor cap.cxii 
whan any goth blowinge me and whistlinge in myn ere seyinge me 
that j am fair and that j haue a fair cote that j am noble and 
riht mihty wys curteys and wurthi thanne j drawe that wynd to me 
and in my wombe j make it place Gret j become as thou seest I 
haue seid it thee er now Thilke wynd thanne maketh me araye 
me as a pecok heue up my tail bye to that ende that men mown 
apperceyue my confusioun To hem that seen no thing j haue an 
hundreth eyen of Argus that ben shed in my tail beter to here 
jugementes than to myn owen with whiche j see my self cleerliche 

Of the wynd of these belyes j am swollen so that if j ne were cap. 
avented j shulde soone breste or with oute brestinge dye for sorwe 

And therfore in stede of an aventour j haue a special horn bi cap 
whiche j caste and vapoure out the wynd [81] that j haue in my 
bodi This horn bi his name shulde be cleped vantaunce other 
void paunche It is thilke bi which j abashe alle the bestes of the 



118 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

cuntre bi the whiche j make hem heue up here hedes whan j wolde 
blowe harde I blowe prise ofte time whan j haue no thing take 
neither in feeld ne in wode Eor ofte j avaunte me of that that j haue 
of neither more ne lasse and seye that j haue in time passed doon 
that that neuere com in my thouht I sey j am of gret kyn of hygh 
and noble auncestrye that j was bore of gret hous to which longeth 
grete possessiouns and wel kan do that and that The kyng knoweth 
me wel And j nowe of oothere arayes whiche ne ben but bostinges 
And the fooles weenen that it be prise that kunnen nouht the gise 

cap. cxv. I blowe also whan j haue take a pray other that j haue to my 
thinkinge doon any wurthi dede For to that entente that j wolde 
haue wurshipe j wole neuere hele it ne to be ded holde it stille As 
an henne that hath leyd kakeleth anoon so to eche wiht j telle it 
anoon Tprw tprw j sey tprw tprw haue ye herd haue ye seyn how 
j haue seyd What sey ye therof ? Is it wel j doo ? thinketh yow j 
haue properliche ydoon it and subtilliche ? trowe ye that thilke or 
thilke hadde doon it thus ? Whan j wole studye or thinke on a thing 
j am not agast that ther be any that kan bettere do ne may than j 

cap. cxvi. of thilke horn cometh out gret breth whan it is blowen with ful 
bely And a wrecche is he with oute drede that bloweth al that he 
heereth and that bi no wey wole herkne ne heere noon horn Alwey 
wolde swich a musard that for the horn is cleped a fool that men 
herden him alwey speke and that no man seide no thing but of him 
Who that wole alwey holde parlement of himself resembleth the 
kockow that can nouht singe and iangle but of him self Swich a 
fool swich a blowere that of his wynd is cleped avauntour seith that 
he wot wel and vnderstant what folk wolden seye and recoupeth 
here woordes and holt hem as fooles To alle he answereth with oute 
askinge and maketh his sentences flee a brod He argueth he 
assoileth he concludeth And of swich cloth maketh ofte a clout 
that who that seide it is nouht of swich colour soone he shulde be 
redi to chide and to rebuke and to make poudre flee Soone shulde 
he make eerthedene and sturinge of thunder Swiche folk kan wel 



THE LYF OP THE MANHODE. 119 

blame vices and magnifye fastes and vertues and penaunces al be 
ther noon in here paunches For ther is no thing in hem but wynd 
and blowing to make the folk to wundre up on hem 

This horn maketh a shrewede hunte For seelde it bifalleth that he cap. 
is a takere He driveth al awey with his horn And riht as the pye 
with hire cryinge and chateringe suffreth no brid to nestle nygh 
hire but maketh hem flee awey and maketh hire self to be hated of 
hem alle riht so eche wiht goth to flihte whan thei heeren the noise 
of thilke horn thei wolen not nestle nyh him for his iangelinge and 
his cryinge 

This horn was not rolandes with whiche he bleewe in his deyinge ca p. 
It is not maad of the horn of an oxe And longe it is sitthe it was 
not neew^ It hath be maad euere sithe j was born And of him j 
was hanselled And as longe as j live j shal not [82] leue it ne stinte 
to blowe it By it eche wiht shal mown knowe me and be avised of 
me if thei wolen 

Of the spores j sey thee also For bi hem knowen j am thei cap. cxi x 
shewen that j ride faire palfreyes otherwhile gladliche for j shulde 
not deyne to go on my feet but j hadde hors biside me Thei seyn 
j am more redi for to reuerse and do ennoye than for to go forth- 
ward To go bacward myn heeles ben most redy That oon 
hatteth inobedience and that oother is cleped rebellioun The firste 
Adam took on him whan he eet of the frute bi eeue He mihte bi 
no wise taste it but he wente reuersinge And reuerse miht he 
nouht but he hadde first the spore the wey was nouht haunted 
With oute mo Eue hadde gon it and after here wente he Sorwe 
cam therof and yit shal The spore whiche made him hardy hooked 
him and to deth putte him Of euel time was he gentel man that 
for to ete hadde a spore And in sori time he hadde a steede whan 
for him he moste vse it For ne hadde the steede been that of his 
riht side was foormed hadde he neuere deyned to haue vsed it ne 
had it to his mete 

That oother spore sette sum time on his heele the kyng pharao cap. cxx . 



120 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

That was whan the souereyn kyng of his miht wolde deliuere 
the peple of Israel out of his powere and of his hond and caste hem 
out of his lond But for ayens a strengere than him self he wolde 
doo his miht his spore was a lettinge to him and a gret encum- 
braunce For whan he hadde longe spored in the ende he reuersede 
so harde that in the see he ouerthreew Swich folk ther is that 
weeneth assaile oothere that with his owen strok ouerthroweth 
Men seyn he is not wys that hurteleth ayens a sharp poynt But 
what that euere shal bifalle the prowde may not withholde him but 
tristeth so in his spore that at the ende he leeseth his lyf 
cap. cxxi. Now j wole telle thee of the staf that j here in stede of a bur- 
doun I sustene me ther with and lene me therto "Whan j fynde 
any wyht that wole tarie me and whan any wole ouerthrowe me bi 
his sermoun and preche me I skirme therwith and defende me 
whan my ayens my lust wole bi resoun ouercome me and bineme 
me my condiciouns I defende vices and sinnes Ther is noon old ne 
neewe that deyneth to yelde him as longe as j wole defende him 
This is the staf that Rude entendement the cherl heeld in his hond 
as thou seye whan resoun desputede with him Obstinacioun it is 
cleped as it was told thee that time This is thilke on whiche saul 
lenede him whan Samuel vndertook him of the pray that he hadde 
and kepte from Arnalech It is a staf for a cowheerde whiche may 
in no time blowe For it is hard and knorred and writhen In 
the wodes of egipte my fader fond it that brouhte it me In euele 
time greewh it for thilke that ther with shal be beten The cherl- 
liche hertes j bete and smite ther with with gret wille for to harde 
hem and make me be bihaated of folk of good vnderstondinge I 
make flee and drive awey grace dieu fro alle places and make a 
stumblinge to hem that ben bisy to turne ayen to the hegge of 
Penitence And to that eende that the lettinge be the grettere 
j haue maad a stake for to tye too the laces of Peresce the bettere 
to with holde at my lust thilke that j wole Now bihold whether 
thew ouhtest wel to crye alias whan thou hast founde me I wole 



THE LYE OF THE MANHODE. 121 

shewe thee anoon the pley that [83] j can pleye But first sithe j 
haue thus miche seid thee j wole sey thee of myn habite 

This mantelle with whiche j am arayed as thow seest it is longe cap. 
a go that it was maad for to couere with that that j haue of felthe 
and for to mantelle with my defautes and consele rnyne vnthriftes 
Biht as the snow embelisheth and whiteth a dong hep with oute or 
that peynture maketh shynynge a huryell that is foul and stinkinge 
riht soo this mantelle hath mantelled me and seith to the folk that 
j am fair and that j am an holi thing But and j were wel disclosed 
and were seyn with inne j shulde of neueroon be preysed If euere 
thou seye an enchauntour pleye with an hat how he maketh the 
folk to weene ther be sumwhat vnder and ofte it is ther is no thing 
Ther bi thou mint wel vnderstonde that al be it j be mantelled and 
wel hatted withoute who so seye me wel with inne shulde mown 
seye blow heer is no thing A brid that hatteth an ostrich bereth 
the significacioun of the mantelle that j haue and of me whiche 
hath the fetheren aboute him and algates flee may he nouht ne 
reise him self in to the eir Summe that knowen him nouht shulden 
weenen he shulde fle Riht so the folk leeven that after the habite 
whiche thei seen with oute that j be a brid bye raueshed heuenlich 
contemplatyf and that j be a gostlich thing and that j shulde flee to 
heuene But algates in eerthe j habite and al there delite me Mee 
may j nouht Mantelle and wynges j haue for nouht 

Ypocrysie bi his rihte name this mantelle j clepe jt is furred cap. 
with fox skynnes in lengthe and in brede al be it with oute woven 
maad and worpen of the wulle of white sheep Ofte j here it to 
cherche and j do it on whan j go preye to god and araye me ther- 
with whan j drede me that any wolde putte me out of the estate 
and of the dignitee that j haue a while be inne I do it on also 
whan j am al put out and deposed and make the SANCTIEICETUR to 
recouere sum hap I do as Renard dide that made him ded in 
the wey for to be cast in to the carte and thanne haue of the 
heringe Bi it j haue ofte ben in gret estate and gret degree and as 

n 



122 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. cxxiv. 



cap. cxxv. 



cap. cxxvi. 



an ape clomben anhy and be as a goddesse biholden An ape j am 
and apes ben thei that vsen it For it maketh do and counterfete 
oothere craftes than men kunnen do And it is but an apeshipe to 
make the folk muse so Ape was the pharisee that with oute shewede 
him clothed with bountee counterfe tinge that he was juste and 
livede wel and as he seyde fastede tweyes in the woke and was no 
sinnere as the publican that shewede to god his mayme The ape 
that made him sum time a cobelere bitoknede him For he medlede 
him so michel of the craft that at the laste he kitte his owen throte 
He is a fool that medleth him of craft that he hath not lerned 

I were not this mantelle aloone it is maad for alle olde Eche 
borwith it at his time for to be of the fairere aray Peresce maketh 
hire wurthi and j make me humble Alle the oothere also coueren the 
viletee of hem self ther with The more it is vsed the more strong 
it is and the lasse wered I wole anoon do it thee on For j wole 
make thee assaye it and sithe after if j haue leisere of thee j wole do 
at my wille 

Whan orguill hadde thus told me of hire aray yit my wille was to 
wite who that oother was [84] that bar hire and susteyned hire O 
olde quod j who art thou that susteynest orguill up on thee and that 
suffrest so that so euel a beste be set upon thyn hed j trowe thow be 
nouht wurthi whan thou berest hire thus up on thee 

And thanne she answerde me Sithe quod she thou wolt wite who 
j am j wole sey it thee with oute taryinge Wel thou seist quod she 
with oute flateringe me whan thou seist j am no thing woorth 
For soo it is I am the olde fool that to eche wiht sey faire woordes 
and entermete me to salue the grete lordes doinge awey the 
fetheren of hem that thei haue nouht on hem I preyse hem ariht 
bothe in riht and in wrong in servinge hem of Placebo I sey no 
thing ay ens here wille For wel j haue lerned to lye To fooles j 
sey thei ben wise to hem that ben hastyf j sey thei been atempree 
To hem that ben negligent j sey thei ben diligent And to tirauntes 
j sey thei ben pitowse I can wel russhe a dungy place and coife a 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 123 

soor bed And j can with good oynture enoynte a shrewede wheel 
that cryeth that it shal crye more after and communeliche be the 
werse I am welcome alwey to princes courtes and resceyued 
Ther is neither jogelour ne jogelouresse that maketh grettere solas 
there than j doo But thei ben fooles For alle j desceyue hem with 
the floyte I am the meremayden of the see that often make 
drenche and perisshe thilke that wolen heere my song Flaterye j 
am cleped hi my name tresouns cosyn eldere doubter to falsetee 
norice to iniquitee Alle the olde that thou hast seyn bifore and 
alle thilke that thou shalt see after alle thei ben fed norished and 
susteyned with my brestes And al be it that j am thus norishe to 
alle bi my vice j am to orguill an vndersettere and a susteynour by 
especial Hire j bere hire j holde up as thow seest and mayntene 
hire Ne were j she wolde falle anoon For she shulde not kunne 
go on foote 

Sey me now quod j wher of serueth thilke mirrour that j see cap. 
Herdest thou quod she neuere speke ne telle of the vnicorn how in 
the mirrour she leeseth al hire feerstee of the wildernesse and how 
she holt hire stille whan she hath seen hire bed ther inne I haue 
wel herd speke it quod j I wole quod she bi good riht likne orguill 
to the vnicorn For if she mirrede hire not ofte ther inne eche 
wight shulde wundre in hire manere And for loue she wolde no 
thing do But whan she hath wel mirred hire and biholde hire 
visage she bicometh more debonayre to thilke that holt the 
mirrour This mirrour is resouenaunce and acordaunce to that 
that men seyn For whan the prowde seith any thing He wole that 
men seyn thou seist sooth it is so I am a good mirrour mirre thee 
in me But if he founde no mirrour he shulde not hele his feerstee 
but anoon he shulde haue up the horn and anoon hurtle as an 
vnicorn And therfore to that eende that j be forboren and nouht 
hurtled j bere the mirrour and graunte al that j here or see I am 
Ecco of the bye wode that answere eche wiht bi my folye and sey 
al that j heere whether it shulde helpe or ennoye 

R 2 



124 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. cxxviii. ^ n( j ^j^ as flaterye heeld me thus with talinge and spak to me 
and tolde me hire doinges and the craft that she cowde do an oother 
old com up on me wher of com gret afray to niyn herte Tweyne 
[85] speres she had ficched and tacched in hire tweyne eyen She 
wente up on the ground with foure feet as a dragoun And witeth wel 
that she was so leene and so drye that she hadde in hire flesh ne 
blood Alle hire ioyntes and hire sinewes seemeden as vnheled Up 
on hire bak ther seeten oothere tweyne olde that weren as gastlich 
as she or more and dreedful and horrible That oon sat muselled with 
a fauce visage and so she hadde hid hire foorme and hire visage 
that no man shulde see hire A. daggere she hadde in hire riht 
hond and a box she held in hire left hond But the daggere she 
hidde bi hinde hire and conseled it That other olde heeld in hire 
hond a spere that was al ful of eren of men perced whiche weren 
spited ther on that oon ende extendede to me ward and that oother 
bi twixe hire teeth she hadde with a red bon bloodi rounginge as 
she com The yren of a barbede spere was ymped ther inne It 
was maad swich an yren for to perce with and hooke the pilgrimes 
The olde shrewe made hire riht fiers that euele passioun come to 
hire 

cap. cxxix. Whan j hadde wel seyn these olde and wel apperceyued here 
aray j bithouhte me that j wolde wite here names if j mihte Thow 
olde quod j to the firste that was berere of the oothere sey me wher 
of thou seruest and thi name if thou wolt Gret hidousshipe and 
gret drede ye doon me thou and these oothere foule olde And 
thanne she answerde me Serteyn quod she thouh thou be abasht it 
is not with oute cause For soone wolde j deliuere thee to the deth 
I am envye which orguill conceyuede sum time whan Sathanas lay 
bi hire to whom j am doubter In the world ther ne is castel ne 
toun that j ne haue doon slauhter inne of many a man and many a 
womman I am the wylde beste that sloowh sum time Joseph which 
lacob seide that a wylde beste hadde deuowred him Soothliche 
quod she j am the riht wylde beste whom to see shulde no wight 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 125 

haue ioye ne yiue peny therfore That thing which j live with is 
bitter And j shulde neuere be at ese if j savowrede swete thing 
Ootheres lennesse norisheth me and ootheres wrathe reioyseth me 
Ootheres ioye teeneth me ootheres sorwe is my mete And if of 
swich mes j hadde ynowe j shulde be gret and fat ynowh anoon 
But for j may not haue ofte swich mes at my wille j am lene and 
pale and discolowred The prosperite of oothere sleth me and maketh 
me lene and pale The ese of oothere eteth my blood and souketh it 
as leches I leeue and j were in Paradise j shulde anon dye for sorwe 
the goodshipe that is ther inne shulde sle me And therfore he that 
putte me ther inne dide me wrong For deth hath assured me and 
couenaunted me that j shal neuere deye bifore the time that al the 
world be ended And yit j leeue nouht that j shal thanne leese the 
lyfe The deth bihight it me for that bi me in the world he sette him 
Bi me he com thider in and entrede and bi me he regneth and shal 
regne I am the beste serpentine that shewe al shrewednesse I 
hate alle folk that wel doon and to my power j confounde hem 
Ther is no thing that j can loue in heuene in eerthe ne in see I do 
despite to charite and werrye the holy gost With these tweyne 
speres that thou seest departe and come out of my tweyne eyen j 
pursue and werrye eche wight That oon hatteth wrathe of ootheres 
ioye And that oother is cleped ioye of ootheres aduersitee Of the 
firste saul strengthed him to smyte Dauid whan he harpede For he 
hadde despite and gret wratthe whan he was more preised than he 
Of that oother kyng ihesu had[86]de the side perced More harm 
dide him the skorninge that the iewes maden of his torment than 
dide the spere that longius putte in his side 

These speres ben rooted and plaunted deepe in myn herte but bi cap. 
myne eyen thei haue here issue for to make beste horned and for to 
make me caste venyme bi myne eyen and envenyme my neghebores 
bi oonliche oon lookinge Myne eyen ben eyen of basiliske whiche 
slen thilke that nestlen or enhabiten nygh bi me Dede thei ben 
as soone as j see hem Mo of oothere shrewednesses j do ynowe 



126 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



whiche my douhtren mown wel telle thee if thou wolt aske hem 
Thei mown more esiliche speken that ben on horse up on my bak 
than j that haue no reste In askinge hem and seechinge who thei 
ben and in heringe what thei shulen sey thee thou shalt mown wite 
if thou wolt of sooth who j am And j wole quod j with oute 
taryinge gladliche aske hem 

cap. cxxxi. "Who art thou quod j that sittest first up on envye the fierse that 
hast thi visage and thi facioun hid vnder this fauce visage that 
berest box and oynement and knyf ydrawe in hideles wher of no 
good j may thinke if sum oother thing thow ne sey me And 
thanne she answerede me and seyde If euery wiht wiste who j am 
ther wolde noon neyghe me ne acqueynte him with me I am an 
executrice and a fulfillere of my moderes wille envye And hi 
cause she mihte not greeve eche wiht as she wolde she sette me 
sum time to scole and preyede me that j lernede suich an art and 
swich a malice wherbi j putte hire euele affeccioun in to execucioun 
Now j telle thee j wente me to a scoole and there j fond my fader 
that was maister ther of and there tauhte my sister to ete mennes 
flesh raw and to rounge bones as thou seest Whan my fader sigh 
me Come hider n6w my douhter quod he Wel j see that sum gile 
or sum malice thou wolt kunne for to desceyue with the folk I 
wole teche it thee with good will and gretliche j shal be gladed 
ther of 

cap. cxxxii. And thanne my fader vnshette an hucche and droow out ther of 
this box and this fauce visage And took me this knyf priueliche 
whiche j here stilleliche and in hideles Douhter quod he who that 
wole desceyue briddes he may not sette the wacches in the thikke 
ther thei ben ne in the pathes Eor if thei seyen a wacche there 
anoon thei wolden flee This my douhter j sey thee for thus michel 
'Eor if thou wolt desceyue an oother it needeth nouht that thi foule 
face make to him a wacche ne that thi mis shapen visage hidous 
and derk and foul thou shewe him for so thou shuldest leese al the 
labour that thou settest ther aboute But it needeth deere douhter 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 127 

that thou haue manere more subtile and that thou shewe him fair 
semblaunt and fair cheere bifore oother thing that thow doo as the 
scorpioun that maketh bi dissimulacioun fair semblaunt and fair 
cheere and stingeth with the tail bihynde And therfore so that thou 
accomplise and do that with oute failinge knyfe and box and oyne- 
ment and fauce visage j presente thee These ben instrumentes and 
tooles bi whiche manye han ben perished loab whan he slowh amason 
and abner sum time halp him ther with ludas also was not vnwar- 
nished of hem whan he slowh the kyng jhesu Triphon also and 
manye oothere whiche ben not wery to haue hem I rede thee 
douhter to haue hem to counforte [87] with thi mooder and to 
helpe hire to fulfille that that she may not doon allone With the 
oynement thou shalt enoynte hem whiche thou darst not smyte 
with the knyfe And with the fauce visage peynted to thi visage 
thou shalt make a kage that is to seye that thi thouht thou shalt 
hele with falsnesse and bifore shewe oother than thou shalt be with 
inne And sithe thou shalt haue woordes that shulen be softe and 
enoyntinge This is the oynement with whiche ben enoynted ofte 
the kinges and the prelates Ther is neither duk erl ne baroun that 
ne wilneth this oynement For thei wolen alwey that men seyn 
hem that that shal not anoye hem Wherfore douhter hardily 
enoynte hem with thilke sweete oynement and sithe after the 
oynture smyte hem so that thei mown not be cured 

Now j telle thee whan my fader hadde thus seid me out of the ca P- 
scoole he wente Up on my mooder j am sett in this wise as thou 
seest Maistresse j am as me thinketh of al that hath be tauht me 
Wei j can sette my fauce visage and in alle poyntes entermete me of 
the box and of the oynement for to lawhe with the mouth and wel 
j can bite with the tooth with oute abayinge and make my cheere 
simple On that oon side frote and enoynte and on that oother side 
smite and stinge I am the addere that holt him vnder the gras til 
sum wiht cometh that j sle whan he is sett bi me on the gras 
With oute thou seest me arayed but therfore thou knowest me not 



128 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



treweliche Men knowen nouht wyne bi the hoopes ne folk bi the 
clothinge Many a wilowh is ofte clothed with faire leues that is 
with inne al holowh and al ful of wormes I am a wormy wilowh 
Who so leneth to me is lost And thouh he triste me nouht yit may 
noon askape me For fro me may no man keepe him Neither 
strengthe of folk ne gret foysoun ne here wittes j preyse not at a 
budde So that j haue set on my fauce visage and cast on hem a fals 
lawghinge alle thei ben perished and disceyued and alle fallen in to 
my mercy 

cap, cxxxiv, I am tresoun that haue maad many times many a shrewede 
drauht I pleyede neuere at game of merelles ne of chekeer that bi 
my art j ne took which that j wolde ther is neuer oon neither rook 
ne king that whan j wole j ne drawe to me And for thi lyfe hath 
longe enoyed my mooder envye she hath comaunded me and seide 
me that j drawe thee to me with oute respite and that ded j presente 
thee to hire so that now riht j crye a la mort and sey that of me 
thou shalt haue it Euele come thou heere Seint nicolas that sus- 
cited the thre dede shal neuere haue thee out of myne hondes 

tap. cxxxv. And thanne as she neihede me and that to deth she wolde haue 
smyte me that oother that sat with hire areyned hire and seide hire 
thus Sister be nouht so hastyfe suffre that he lyve j prey thee til 
so miche that he wite my name And sithe togidere we shule assaile 
him I shulde dye for sorwe and wreththe if as wel as thou j ne 
greuede him And j quod she graunt it wel But j preye thee that 
thou haste thee I wole that anoon we haue the wurshipe to don 
him vnwurship ynowh 

cap. cxxxvi. And thanne the bicchede shrewe euele passioun come to hire 
areyned me berkinge on me rounginge on the bon that she heeld 
How quod she art thou so hardy that thou hast brouht hider a staf ? 
I hate [88] bothe euene stafes and crokede that ben sharpe at the 
ende bi nethe Alle thilke that beren hem j loue not but gladliche 
whan j see my time j berke on hem and bite on hem bihynde al be 
it that fair cheere and fair semblaunt j counterfete hem bifore hem 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 129 

as mi sister dooth And for thou hast a staf al be it nouht croked 
bi cause my mooder envye louede neuere thee ne thi fader of me 
thou shalt haue it Euele come thou heere I wole ete thee anoon al 
quik To the bon j wole ete thee and drawe thi soule out of thi bodi 
Thow seye neuere in thi lyfe mastyf ne bicche in bocherye that so 
gladliche wolde ete raw flesh as j ete it I haue the throte bloodi 
as the wolf that hath strangeled the sheep in the folde and hath 
rounged hise chekes I am of the lynage of the raven that hath 
mad his nest in helle I loue to ete caraynes The more stinkinge 
thei ben the more cheere j haue hem I wolde neuere bite good 
morcelle while j mihte haue a shrewede Thouh j hadde appeles to 
keepe j wolde neuere sauoure hem bifore that j seye hem sumwhat 
roten or foul But if j founde in hem rotennesse thanne anoon j 
wolde bite hem and gladliche assaye hem and sauoure hem and 
chewe hem This is my lyfe and my norture as it is to my mooder 
envye 

The whiles she tolde this al were j abasht a litel j bigan to smyle cap. 
and seyde Thow olde thow were good to keepe and to cheese myne 
appellen And if thow wolt forbere to bite me j wole take thee 
rotene and shente appelen ynowe and if this wole not suffice thee j 
wot where lyth michel filthe I wolde fynde thee ynowh ther of 
rathere than thou go grucchinge to me 

And thanne anoon she took ayen hire woordes and seide me thus cap. 
Me needeth nouht go to fer if j wole fynde swich filthe In my 
mouth j haue the instrumentes with whiche j haue maad the 
forginges Thouh ther were noon in the world bi twixe my teeth 
thei shulden be forged ayen as the maister tauhte me whiche tauhte 
my sister 

I leeue wel quod j that if thou haddest mateere thou woldest cap. 
forge But with oute matere forgeth no wiht Eor kunne a smith 
neuere so wel forge with oute yren and with oute steel he may noon 
ax forge I fynde matere quod she ynowh For alle the goodshipes 
that j may fynde j can turne the goode in to euel and interprete 



130 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hem falsliche I can wel turne wyn in to water and fyn triacle in to 
venyme I can wel sheende the goode appelen and diffame the 
wurthi folk and sithe j deuowre hem as raw flesh and ete hem How 
hattest thou quod j to hire Detraccioun quod she that to drawe 
and to pulle the folk with my teeth for to make colys for my 
mooder which is syke that she may soupe it in stede of potage She 
hath mad me a makere of mete and hire maister cook I serue hire 
of percede eren that ben put and spited thoruh with my spere with 
the sharpe yren in wise of smale hastelettes Mi tunge j clepe my 
spere for his cruelle wounde whiche he maketh it perceth and 
smiteth sorere and more cruelliche than any spere or any kervinge 
thing ther mihte no barbede arwe make a more cruelle ne a more 
perilouse wounde thouh it were cast out of an arblast The eren that 
thou seest spited and shoven on thilke spere ben the eres of [89] 
hereres and herkeneres of that that j seye thilke that heeren glad- 
liche my seyinges putten here eres up on my spere for to serue with 
my mooder which thei seen languishe 

cap. cxi. And wherfore quod j hath it a crook hooked to the yren of the 
spere I wole telle thee quod she Whan j haue perced an ere or 
manye and cast my spere thoruh hem at my wille thanne gladliche j 
hooke to me the name of an oother and crooke it "With bettere wille 
j stele good name than a theef dooth tresoure Thanne quod j thou 
art a theef For good name is more woorth than richesse Serteyn 
quod she wel sooth thou seist But Salomon hath tauht it thee A 
proued theef j am of al good name Eairere thing may j not stele 
in this cuntre as me thinketh Wherfore but j make restitucoun 
ther of j may haue no foryifte ther of But ther to wolde j be ful 
loth for the grete shame j shulde haue ther by Orguill also whan 
she wiste it she wolde neuere acorde hire therto And what doost 
thou quod j to hire whan thou hast hooked a good name hi the ere 
that herkenede and dispoiled sum worthi man ther of Serteyn quod 
she the noueltee ther of j tolde thee er now I turne good name 
into venyme and so j norishe my mooder Me thinketh quod j to 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 131 

hire that neuere of al this yeer j ne sih a shrewedere heste than 
thee Serteyn quod she j leeue it wel "Werse than helle j am For 
helle may not enoye to hem that ben not in his clos or that hen of 
holy lyvinge For thouh seint johan were with inne helle he shulde 
noon harm haue The grete perfeccioun of him shulde make him 
shadwe And j telle thee j greeue as wel the ahsente as the presente 
No more it greeueth me to caste my spere ouer the see than a 
myle or tweyne And j telle thee as wel j annoye hem that ben of 
good lyvinge as hem that ben it nouht If seint johan were in 
eerthe yit of my spere he shulde haue In heuene and j wolde anoon 
j shulde smite him I haue assayed it er this And summe oothere 
j haue smiten ther inne and yit j shal And also j telle thee that 
j wole no lengere now holde me that j ne wole smite thee and 
make thee falle doun And thanne answerde tresoun Sister quod 
shee doo we to gidere Smite on that oon side and j wole enoynte 
him And sithe on that oother side j wole smite him And so shal 
he not mown escape if he ne haue riht an excellent phisician I 
wole it wel quod that oother but j preye thee that out of the sadel 
we make him first ouerthrowe So that he mowe no more ride 

Whan these woordes j herde thouhty j bicom. and abasht For C a P . cxii 
j wende nouht ne thouhte to haue had hors Thou what hattest 
quod j to tresoun ? Haue j hors Detraccoun ? Whi hath she seid this 
If thou wite it telle it me Hesoun quod she tauhte it me whan 
she spak with me and seide me that on horse he is wurthen up that 
of good name is renowned This hors shulde haue foure feet as eche 
wiht shulde wite For if he hadde thre or tweyne or oon withoute 
mo he shulde halte Ther were no wiht wurshiped that on swich an 
hors were wurthen uppe 

That oon of the feet of thilke hors is that a man haue in him noon cap 
evell but that he haue [90] holi fame That oother is that he be 
not of condicioun of thraldam The thridde is that he be engendred 
in legitime mariage The feerthe is that he haue no rage ne tecche 
of woodshipe ne neuere haue had in his lyfe These ben foure feet 

s2 



132 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

couenable to hem that beren witnesses And for that thou feelest 
thee wurthen up upon thilke hors Mi sister hath spoken to oner 
throwe thee doun and j wole also helpe ther too 

cap. cxiiii. And thanne she spak ayen to hire sister and seyde Sister quod 
she hi which epartye is it that we shule first assaile him Kanst thou 
quod she the song that jsrael of Daan song FIAT DAAN COLUBER 
IN VIA ? I am Cerastes the hornede and Daan the crookede addere 
that go nouht the euene wey and that bite folk in stelthe I wole 
go al stilleliche and bi hynde bite the nailes of the hors that he nath 
and thus j trowe he shal falle That is to seye that ther aboute as he 
shal no thing apperceyue of me j wole bite him priueliche and do 
him lettinge For if j made me felt of him and that in apert j 
bite him anoon with his yrened foot he shulde yiue me in the 
visage Thinges that hauen feelinge doon so He shal no thing 
apperceyue that my tooth biteth bihynde til he falle al bacward 
that he mowe not rise and that the hors shal halte And thanne 
answerde tresoun Now come hider thanne assaile we him It liketh 
me wel that thou hast thus expowned the seyinge of lacob 

cap. cxiiv. And thanne detraccoun caste up on me hire spere and hurte me 
And sithe ran with open throte toward me as a wood womman and 
with the teeth took the hors bi the nailes and made him halte sore 
Me also spared she no thing With the teeth she took me Wel 
she shewede hire that of dragownes kynde she was Doun she beet 
me Wher of j was sorweful But therfore askapede j-B.ouht Euene 
to me ward com Envye and with hire tweyne speres she smot me 
and in my bodi she shof hem Tresoun feynede hire nouht For 
as longe as hire sister hot me and wente rounginge my sides she 
heeld hire oynement with whiche on that oon side she enoyntede 
me and on that oother side in the wombe she shof me with hire 
knyf and hire daggere The olde with the grete staf with alle hire 
instrumentes neighede me and seide Tilde thee thou seest wel thou 
miht not escape And thanne she bigan to wrastle with me to bete 
me to smite me and to make me suffre peyne ynowh Whan j sih 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 133 

me thus bitrapped if gretliche j were discounforted it needeth not 
to aske Wei j mihte crye alias Peresce hadde respyt ynouh to 
peyne hire to areste me for arested j was at alle poyntes Ne helpe 
my self mihte j nouht Algates my burdoun j heeld euene and it 
was not falle fro me And gret trist j hadde that ther bi j shulde 
afterward escape 

As j was in this plyte and that j biheeld hider and thider toward cap. cxiv. 
an hullok j sigh renne and come an old oon Hold him faste quod 
she to the oothere hold him faste for j come Looketh he ascape yow 
nouht bi the burdoun whiche he gripeth too Thilke olde was dis- 
gysee For with poyntes she was armed al aboute as an irchoun 
Bi a baudrike she hadde a sithe and in hire handes she hadde twey 
caliowns greye And as me thouhte fyre com out of hem bi hire 
visage [91] And wel j telle yow al were it that with oute wood- 
shipe she was it seemede not soo In hire mouth she hadde a sawe 
but what to doone ther with j ne wiste if first j ne askede hire 

Thow olde quod j whan she was come nygh me sey me whi thou C ap. 
hast swich contenaunce and array and what thou hattest Gabbe 
me of no thing Eayn j wolde wite it al be j haue ynowh to sufire 
And thanne hire tweyne caliowns she smot to gideres so that she 
made the flawme lepe in to my visage Serteyn quod she of my 
craftes j wole anoon make thee feele and my name j wole divise 
thee 

I am the olde angry the euele kembed the evele tressed the cap. 
irchownes douhter rownded to gideres wiche roundeth him for vertu 
with hise broches He hath armed me for j shulde be dred And 
to that ende that if any wiht neigh e me that he shal haue of sum 
broche Vengeaunce j seeche and wole haue of alle thilke that j may 
wite haue misdoo me In kindelinge fir ayens god and alle hise 
halwen j trowe wel that j shal amende it Eor j wot wel vengeaunce 
is taken in his hond as in souereyn hond I haue seyn ther of siker 
writinge I am prikkinge and hateful impacient and ryght bisy 
More sharp than brambere or thorn or greisiler Who so wolde 



134 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

close his gardyn with a strong hegge and subtile he shulde sette me 
there Eor ther shulde noon hegge do so miche as j I hatte NOLI 
ME TANGEKE that haue anoon sorwe in weylinge that with a litel 
enchesoun make a cast of a broche up on the poynt in levinge thilke 
that bifore was my freend I make of men howlinge cattes at ful 
mid day and nouht seeinge And bleende hem and make hem 
bestial and trouble hem in al here avys I serue of vinegre and of 
vergeous and of greynes that ben soure and greene and yive hem to 
hem that ben coleryk rather than to hem that ben flewmatyk In 
the litel world this thing that is so round is cleped j reise the 
wyndes and thundres and make tormentes and j make resoun 
withdrawe and vnderstondinge shadewed I hatte Ire the rivelede 
the toode envenymed the chidere mooder of houndes that of swet- 
nesse hath in hire no thing I am more hastyf than coles and more 
soure than wurmode I am hydinge of which the fyre lepeth out 
whan any wiht assaileth me be it neuere so litel Ther may noon so 
litel wynd blowe toward me that anoon j muste caste smoke hurtele 
my caliouns and smyte and make the nawme lepe out If drye 
tunder j hadde ynouh I wolde putte anoon the fyre ther inne 
Despyte hatteth that oon of the caliouns and that oother is cleped 
chidinge Thilke that sum time smiten to gideres the twey wommen 
that askeden iugement of kyng- Salomon whiche of hem hadde the 
qwik chyld 

cap. cxiviii. With these caliouns j forgede sum time the sawe which j haue in 
my mouth The hamer ther to was thilke that is cleped chidinge 
and despyte was the anevelte Impacience is the yren ther of which 
was taken and maad in helle The more men smyten it the lasse it 
platteth and the more men heten it the hardere it waxeth I made 
sum time endente it subtiliche now herkene how Dame justice the 
smythiere of vertues and the forgeresse hath a file [92] that hi name 
is cleped correccioun that is the fyle that alwey fyleth sinne to the 
roote It ne may suffre neither rust ne nit he that it ne fyleth awey 
and clenseth And for she wolde sum time haue fyled me and don 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 135 

out my rust I sette ayens hire the shrewede yren of which j 
haue spoken thee She whan she wende haue fyled me fyled myn 
yren and endented it A sawe j haue maad ther of thou seest it 
wel Hise teeth ben grete as of an hound The sawe is cleped 
hayne Bi which disioynct is ysawed the onhede of hretherhede and 
the trouthe of oonhede In lacoh and Esau thou hast seyn the 
figure I sawede hem and vnioyned hem And bothe that oon and 
that oother j sente fer And so haue j many an oother doo of which 
were to longe to telle 

I here this sawe with my teeth to that ende that whan j sey my cap. cxiix. 
Pater noster j be sawed and disceuered from god the fader For 
whan j preye that he haue mercy on me and foryive me my mis dedes 
as j foryive thilke that hauen misdoon to me and to hem j foryive 
no thing j wot wel that ayens my self j preye and turne the sawe to 
meward 

Ther is in this sawe so riht litel of wurshipe prys or wurthinesse cap. ci. 
that who that be maister ther of he putteth him vnder that that he 
saweth that is in the pit bi nethe in whiche dwelleth Sathanas I 
thinke that thou shalt assaye it and that thou shalt be mayster ther 
of a noon And sithe afterward j wole gerde thee with the sythe 
that j haue aboute me It is thilke that j gerde murdreres with whan 
j make hem my knyghtes Barabas hadde it gert sum time whan he 
was take and put in prisoun Homicidye it is cleped bi his riht name 
and occisioun It is thilke that moweth the lyfe and the gost out of 
the bodi thilke with whiche the tyrauntes targeden hem sum time 
whan thei slowen the seintes He is not man but beste that vseth 
swich a sithe The sithe maketh him wylde and seeche pray in many 
wodes Swiche bestes ben piloures for hem that gon bi the cuntre 
To hem shulde the kyng rathere hunte than to hert or buk or bor 
And for thou art pilgrime j haue set me in thi wey With the sithe 
j wole girde thee with whiche j wole mowe thi lyfe 

As j was in this plyte and that j abod oonliche the deth Memorie 
j syh faste bi me that seide to me Sey me now sey me swich 



136 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

armures thow wolt not of Excuse thee raiht thou nouht for j am 
faste bi thee and thou shuldest alwey haue thin armure redi if thou 
woldest Lo hem heere as grace dieu seide thee Make not heere thi 
bed Eor thou shuldest haue shame ther bi and thou abide lengere 
It is shame thou hast so longe abide and profyte hast thou noon had 
ther bi If thou haddest er now had hem on thou haddest nouht 
now be deliuered to thilke olde that hauen thus withholden thee and 
surmownted thee and felled thee "Whan j sigh that thus mi wenche 
argued me and vndertook me sorweful j was and a careful herte j 
hadde that lengere j shulde ligge To my burdoun j gripede and as 
who seith aroos ayen Slowliche it was Eor j was feebele for j hadde 
leyn longe I wolde haue doon on myn armure but j hadde no time 
ne leisere Peresce putte hire bifore and manasinge me seide that if 
j neighede the armure of hire ax j shulde haue [93] Hire j dredde 
and no thing dide Hire pley j hadde lerned bifore Now god keepe 
me from havinge werse Eor powere haue j in me no more I haue in 
me no thing more wher in j triste but the burdoun to which j lene 
me Mi scrippe serueth me of riht litel To the bred that is ther 
inne j dar not touche to my profyte as longe as j am on this half 
in the wronge wey If j ete it grace dieu wolde holde it no game I 
am hungry biside the bred Euele leevede j Oyseuce at the firste 
time she desceyuede me whan jleeuede hire Eor bi hire j am holde 
a wrecche Bi hire j am deliuered to these olde theeves espyowresses 
of pilgrimes In hire hondes j shulde dye if of grace dieu j ne 
hadde socowr 

cap. ciii. As j wente thus waymentinge rounginge on my brydel a valeye 
deep ful of busshes hidous horrible and wylde j sigh bifore me bi which 
passe j muste if j wolde go forth Wher of j was a basht Eor bi 
wodes hauen men lost al here wey and many periles ben in hem to 
pilgrimes that goon alloone Theeves murderers wylde bestes 
duellen in hem in hy deles And many disgise thinges ther ben ofte 
times founden in hem Swich thing as j fond whan j passede ther 
bi j wole telle yow but bifore that j sey yow more heer of to that 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 137 

ende that it enoye yow noulit j wole heere yive yow good niht and 
heere j wole make a restinge To morwe if ye wole come ayen 
thanne ye shule heere the remenaunt Y no we j wole telle yow of 
mischeeves and encumbraunces that j fond Pitee ye shule haue 
therof as j trowe And taketh keep eche as a yens him self For of 
the mischef of an oother eche may make a mirrowr for him self 

Heere endeth the secunde party e of this look 



Heere biginneth the thridde party e of this book 

Now herkeneth now sweete folk myne auentures and how j was cap. i. 
euele welcomed and euele led in the wode of whiche j haue spoke 
As j descendede and aualede in to the deepe valey an oother olde of 
oother figure of oother manere of oother foulnesse than j hadde seyn 
bifore j sigh hadde sette hire in my wey Disgised shrewedliche she 
was And it seemede that avisiliche as hire pray she abod me and 
that up on me renne she wolde Swich thing in Daniel ne so maad 
in Ezechiel ne foulere in the appocalipsis j bithinke me nouht that 
euere j sigh Boy stows she was and wrong shapen and enbosed 
And clothed with an old gret bultel clouted with cloutes of old 
cloth and of lether A sak she hadde honged at hire nekke Wei it 
seemede that make flight wolde she nouht For she putte ther inne 

bras and yren and sakked it Hire tonge whiche she hadde 

out halp hire ther to faste Hire tunge was mesel and foule de- 
faced Sixe hondes she hadde and tweyne stumpes The tweyne 
hondes hadden nailes of griffouns of whiche that oon was bihynde 
in straunge manere In oon of that oothere handes she heeld a 
fyle as thouh she shulde fyle brideles And a balaunce wherinne 
she peisede the zodiac and the sunne in gret entente to putte hem 
to sale A disch in that oother hand she heeld and a poket with 
bred In the fifte she hadde a crochet And up on hire hed a 

T 



138 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

mawmet she bar which made hire eyen hiholde downward The 
sixte hand [94] she hadde lenynge up on hire hrokene haunche And 
sum time she haf it hye to hire tunge and touchede it 

cap. ii. Which an old oon so foul j sigh And that hi hire passe j most 
abashed ynowh j was For j was ful wery of bifore for to haue 
more anoye as j haue seid Harrow quod j god what shal j doo I am 
ded if this foule beste areste me heere in these busshes She hath 
so many handes that if she gripe me j drede me j shal neuere askape 
Counseile me faire sweete ihesu or elles j am lost 

cap. iii. In thilke poynt j sygh the olde come to ward me for to assaile me 
and seide me Bi mahoun quod she that is my god in whom j leeue 
the abod j Of me thou shalt haue it Euele come thou heere Thou 
shalt dye heere Ley doun thi skrippe and thi burdoun and do 
omage to my mahoun It is he hi whom j am alosed and cleped 
wys and wurthi and wurshiped Thilke with oute whom no wiht is 
preysed in eerthe ne autorised Thilke hi whiche ben wurshiped many 
grete fooles and cleped wise To him it needeth thou submitte thee 
and him to serue sette thee and sithe afterward j shal make thee 
shamefullich and vileynesliche dye 

cap. iv. Whan the olde to.ok swiche woordes to sey ther took me no lust 
to lawghe But wel j wolde of sooth wite hire name and who she 
were Thow olde quod j sey me tni name Who thou art wherof also 
thou seruest Of what linage of what nacioun thou art and of what 
regioun Who is and wherof serueth thin ydole to whiche thou 
woldest j putte me to serue It is not resoun that to a marmoset 
that is blynd and deff and dow^m j serue and do omage that am of 
noble fre lynage And if so be that j shulde to him serue for drede 
of deth yit j sey thee j wole wite who he is and also wite soothli j 
wole who thou art and whens Wherfore j prey thee answere me 
anoon 

cap. v. And thanne the olde answerde me Sithe thou wolt wite who j am 
anoon soone ynowh j wole sey it thee But first j wole shewe thee 
of my chyldhode and of my pley so that thou leeue me the bettere 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 139 

Come after me ther thou seest me go and crye faste Alias j shal 
now see the sorwe of weepinge and of weylinge ful of sorwe The 
sorweful sighinges ful of lamentacioun Ther seeth it noon that ne 
cryeth harrow which gret woodshipe is this 

And thanne the olde made me gon up on a gret hassok And ca P- vi - 
ther j hiheeld a fair chirche in a pleyn founded bisides a chekeer 
Wher there weren ches bothe grete and smale Of which j sigh 
rookes and knyghtes and the king Whiche ledden gret estaate 
Eche of hem hadde his swerd gert which was to me disgisee thing 
Eor oother times j hadde pleyed at the ches and hadde seyn noon 
that was of swich manere Here countenaunce was right fiers Eor 
to the cherche ward thei wenten and bete it doun thei wolden The 
kyng first bifore wente and mynede the foundement Of a bisshopes 
croos he made his howwe and his pikoyse Pikoise was the sharpe 
ende and howwe was the krookede ende 

What is this quod j whan j sigh that that j see there Am j ca P- vii - 
abasht ? Is this meetinge or faireye or fantome or woodshipe ? Is 
this the sorwe and the weylinge of which thow speke to me ? It is 
this cer[95]teyn ? Soothliche this is weylinge and sorwe ioyntliche 
this is interiectioun sorweful wer inne is no thing that lusteth 

And thanne the olde seide me It is treweliche this that j haue cap. viii. 
seid thee See there the king of the cheker and hise rookes and hise 
knihtes whiche hauen alle the poyntes limited hem and ordeyned 
hem in the cheker Ynowh thei hadden of here owene lond with 
oute getinge of ootheres ne were j But j may not suffre that thei 
haue sumcience with oute binemynge of othere And therfore j 
sende hem to thilke cherche that is nygh here cheker for to delue 
and bineme To the kyng that shulde founde cherches and defende 
hem and gouerne hem j haue take a tool ful of wurshipe for to do 
cherles werk that is a bishoppes croos to make ther of an howwe 
and a pikois A bisshopes cros is wurshipful but to a king it is 
thing reprouable to diche and to delue and to vnfounde founda- 
ciouns that hise auncestres hauen founded and oothere noble lordes 

T2 



140 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

A cherl he bicometh whan he dicheth and delueth and he maketh 
an howwe of the staf that bicom crooked for holi cherche whiche 
he shulde susteyne Cherl is also the hornede whan the staf with 
which his cherche is susteyned and gouerned and with whiche he is 
wursjriped he taketh to thilke that maketh ther of pikoys and 
howwe to that ende that his cherche be beten doun and fordoon 
Eor it is nygh the cheker that oon is cherl and that oother more 
But j sey not which is the more The kyng holt pike and howwe 
and delueth wher of the cherche sorweth And the hornede deli- 
uereth him tool whan he deliuereth him dimes His croos to his 
burdoun he yiveth him whan the cherche he abaundoneth him 
Ther of prophesied sumtime leremie and wepte for he sigh that 
folk howweden and doluen aboute the cherche that she payede 
subsidies dimes and extorciouns He seide wundringe him and 
compleyninge him sorwefulliche How she that was princesse of 
alle folk and maistresse was bicornen tributarie And who dorste 
doo that As thouh he wolde seye he ouhte wel to weepe 

tap. ix. Now weepe quod she and mak gret sorwe as j haue seide thee 
bifore The chirche is mined aboute litel lakketh it ne is ouer- 
throwe To destroye it eche wight setteth too the hond bothe rook 
and pown Al the cheker folweth the king But all that thei don 
thei don hi me I make hem dd al that thei do For of bifore this 
time thei ben my scoleres Strlengthe hath neither kyng ne rook 
that thei ne obeye to me alle Alle thei studyen in myn art come 
thei rathe come thei late leremye and thou leeue not me "Wit- 
nesseth it that is woorth thre 

cap. x. Michel abasht quod j to hire thou makest me if thou sey me 
nouht who thou art For j can not see that thou might haue swich 
power I see thee poreliche clothed misshapen crooked and embosed 
and mawgre nature engendred and forthouht as j trowe And how 
shuldest thou haue lordshipe ouer kynges and erles and be lady to 
hem that ben engendred bi nature and nobleliche yborn 

cap. xi. And j wole telle it thee quod she Thow shuldest wite that j am 






THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 141 

thilke that haue the sorseryes bi whiche j biwicche the folk Whan 
j wole j make me plesaunt graciowse and lusty And whan j am [96] 
biloued and plese that that j comaunde is the soonere doon I 
biwicche erles dukes princes kynges Ther is noon that bi my 
sorceryes ne doon my comaundementes I am the douhter of 
Besachis Apemendeles that haue set the king soo that he lawheth 
whan j lawhe and is sorweful whan j am it That suffreth that j do of 
his corowne and make him yive it me Thus y writen thou shalt fynde 
it in the secunde Esdras Sumtime the king hadde a lemman which 
was longe in his cumpanye And so michel he louede hire that al 
his tresore he took hire to dispende to the needy to the poore re- 
ligious Liberalitee she hyghte and was sum time of gret name and 
thilke that louede the kyng michel And often she wolde purchace 
that the king yaf so michel of his tresore that ther fel him ther of 
riht gret wurshipe and prys and his tresore was neuere the lase but 
encresede ynowh Eor riht as the corn sowen dooth more good and 
profyte than thilke that lyth in the gerner riht so the goodes that 
ben yiven ben more worth than the hepede 

Now j telle thee whan j sigh hire that the kyng wurshipede thus cap. X H. 
j bithowhte me that if j mihte of alle poyntes j wolde withdrawe 
hire So j dide as j thouhte In to the kinges chaumbre j entrede 
So miche j dide bi sorcerie that the porter leet me entre in To 
the kinges bed j wente His lemman j fond biside him And ther j 
withdrough hire and stal hire fro him and out of the chaumbre j 
drouh hire In prisoun vnder keye j putte hire ther she is and alwei 
shal be Afterward in to the kinges bed j entrede and in hire place 
j leyde me He wende j hadde ben his lemman but j was it nouht 
I biwicchede him and desceyuede him So that his tresorere j was 
I keepe al his tresore and al his siluer and his gold He weeneth j 
do him wurshipe but j do him gret vnwurshipe and al his lyfe shal 
doon him while of me he maketh his lemman Por a more defamed 
lemman miht he not haue for al his auoir 



142 THE PILGEIMAGE OF 

cap. xiii. If thow wolt wite mi nacioun whens j am and what is my name 
thou shuldest wite that j was born in the vale of the derke helle 
there Sathanas engendrede me And fro thens he brouhte me to 
vsureres ther he norishede me Wherfore vsurere j am cleped 
Summe clepen me coueytise and summe oothere clepen me Auarice 
For j keepe my goodes to miche Clepe me as thou wolt and he 
nouht a hasht thouh thou see me thus to ragged and to clouted and 
euele clothed for thou shuldest wite that j wole neuere yive of myn 
to doo good with I haue robes ynowe to doon on but j wolde 
rathere late hem alle roten and alle to be eten with wurmes than j 
or any oother shulde be esed with hem I hadde freendes ynowe if 
j cowthe ariht departe myn which serueth me of nouht But j am 
lich the hound that lyth on the hep of hey to which if any sette 
hand he abayeth and berketh and cryeth al be it that he etc noon 
ther of 

cap. xiv. I haue handes ynowe to gripe with but j haue none to yive 
with The hondes of my yivinge ben kitte and doon from here 
stumpes A fool he is that asketh me yiftes I desire but for to 
gadere hepes of pens that is myn office and my craft Sixe hondes 
j haue for to gripe with in sixe maneres and to glene For to sakke 
in my sak to peise me and charge me with to that ende that if j 
falle adoun j mo we no more ryse ay en The more j haue the more 
j wolde haue Vnstaunchable is my wille [97] Mi thouht and my affec- 
cioun may haue no fulfillinge I am the grete gulf of the see that 
all resceyueth with oute any thing castinge out ayen that al gadereth 
and al sweleweth and no thing yeldeth ne no thing cometh out 
ayen I make me hard and trusse me and peise me of swich metalle 
as j see peiseth most that is gold Of which j make me a blok and a 
stake and tye me ther to For rihtfulliche j may be cleped an ape 
clogged It seemeth that j kepe the clogge but it keepeth me 
michel bettere It keepeth me that j go nouht bye and doun it holt 
me and doun it peiseth him To Judas that bitrayede thi kyng this 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 143 

blok sum time j heeng so in hise purses and putte so miclie bras in 
hise sakkes that from hye to lowe j made him shamefulliche falle 
doun and plounge in to helle 

Now j wole telle thee of myne handes with whiche j gripe the cup. 
rnetalles and the bras as j haue told thee Werse handes as j trowe 
in thi lyfe founde thou neuere Riht soone thou shalt assaye it 
The firste which is armed with nailes of Griffoun is cleped rapyne 
whiche maketh him gentel and seith that his pray sunreth him to 
take him where he mo we fynde him There as he goth ofte and 
robbeth the pilgrimes in the wodes and sleth hem in the weyes I 
haue quod she the nailes crokede Gentel j am drede me not ther is 
no thing it wole forsake And hool it is that it mowe graspe al and 
ouer al take my pray Who so euere grucche the thing is myn Thus 
this hand pleyeth him and dooth manye harmes bothe day and niht 
This is the hand of the puttok that kaccheth and gripeth the 
chikenes She taketh hors and kartes and the puruiaunces that 
goode folk hauen maad for here owen vsage If a poore man haue 
oxe or swyn to keepe for his store she taketh it and neuere reccheth 
hire thouh the poore man selle his cote for his lyflode but that hire 
lust be fulfilled 

With this hond so j kerue and shere that at the kervinge it cap. 
araseth and breketh And at the clippinge and at the sheringe j 
skorche al with oute any thing levinge I do as the yrayne doth For 
as longe as any blood or marigh is in the flye al she souketh it and 
pulleth it. This hand is a skorcheresse and a bacouresse of poore 
folk She seecheth the lous vnder the skyn For to haue and bineme 
the more And whan the poore ben skorched thus and to pulled and 
that alle here goodes ben thus shaken and drawen out and arased 
who so wende fynde lyflode there mihte wel be holde a fool Thus 
thinke j to pulle thee and make of thee my dispense souke thi 
marigh and thi blood and drawe to me that which thou shuldest live 
with But of the oothere fyve handes j wole sey thee first as j haue 
bihight thee 



14 i THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

cap. xvii. That oother hand which j bere hi hynde at my hak in straunge 
manere is the hand with which j gadere to me ward priueliche and 
in hydeles oothere goodes It is the hand that maketh the feet to 
wagge and the eren to he kitte Coutte burse it is cleped and 
latrosynie the defamede It is the hand that dar aske no glooves 
of the glouere to gloove hym with For it sheweth him nouht 
but hi nihte and whan the moone shineth nouht Crookede nailes 
[98] it hath as that oother hath For it draweth to hire whan 
she hath time as miche as that oother or more But it is so that 
hire drauht cometh nouht so to knowleche Wher of it is sorwe 
and gret mischaunce Manye ther ben now of accrocheres and 
kaccheres a boute the kyng that if thei weren apperceyned thei 
ouhte haue ynowh to doone to paye ayen to the king Swiche 
folk maken him to byen ootheres thing for he may nouht reioyse 
his owene This hand is an vnmakere of howses and an vnhelere 
and brekere of cofres and a roungere of floreyns and counter- 
fetere of seles and a graueresse of false seles A fals lokyere and 
a fals monyere and a fals tellere of pens This hand dispoileth 
the dede and holt clos wyndowes and dores in to the time that 
she haue griped and glened al that she wole Thilke is execu- 
trice and dispendere of the residue of the testat Wher of j telle 
thee that to hire self she wole drawe and acrcche the faireste Of 
this hand ben nouht exempt follTthat gon and stelen hi nihte Ne 
false forsteres that ben assentinge to swiche dedes Ne false ser- 
uauntes also that seruen folk vntreweliche and labowren falsliche 
Millewardes also that filleth here resoun with oute clepinge of resoun 
False tailowres also and oothere folk that oothere goodes taken so 
largeliche that if it were wist the selfe hand wolde hange hem And 
nouht for thanne hanged thei shule be at the laste whan thei haue 
abide longe ynowh At the laste j wole hange hem my self as j haue 
hanged many an oother 

cap. xviii. Now quod j art thow an hangestere ? Ye certeyn quod she Peresce 
quod j tolde me it was she And thanne she seide me Certeyn she 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 145 

it is treweliche but that is oonliche of the soule But j am both of 
the bodi and of the soule So god keepe thee quod j sey me now 
who heeng the bodi of judas whether thou or she ? gabbe me nouht 
Neuere god keepe me quod she But j sey thee we bothe putte 011 
him the knotte to gideres and bi assente heengen him But ne 
hadden myne handes holpen Peresce hadde neuere drawen him 
hye Eor his bodi peysede And that longeth nouht to hire And 
therfore principalliche myn hand made the hanginge If thou 
leue me keepe thee from swich an hand For she maketh the rere- 
warde She taketh the folk subtilliche and sithe whan she may she 
hangeth hem 

Of the hand that holt the file j wole telle thee for it is my lust cap. 
It is the hand with whiche j gripe and putte to gidere and hepe that 
that oothere hauen laboured and conquered with here swetinge She 
is maad ayens nature For in alle times she dooth bisinesse to sette 
bras and yren to brode for to engendre oother poudre Oothere 
handes maken it ammenuse with handlinge But this maketh it 
encrese al maugre nature An enchauntouresse she is gret Eor 
alwey bi enchauntementes she maketh it conuerte in to paresis and 
of fyve maketh bicome sixe She maketh and forgeth withoute 
smitinge of strok koyn that mown not dye And bi the longe 
enduringe of hem koyn of yren she maketh clepe hem And she 
hath corn in gerners and abideth til the greyn be deere And 
thanne hire corn she selleth to the dubble and taketh therfore 
dubble payement She holt [99] a fyle for to fyle with ootheres 
substaunce and waste it litel and litel it goth rounginge oothere in 
comynge and goinge Ther is no thing that biside it mihte endure 
that al to vsure it ne must go Vsure bi name it is cJeped Eor bi 
him is the lyf vsed of thilke that in here vsage vseth his time and 
his age If so in vsage it ne were as it is eche wiht wolde be agast 
of it But soo in vse bicomen it is that in feyres knowen it is In 
to the feires the folk gon vsinge it bifore alle folk And fylinge also 
But there is noon Meyr ne provost that ayensseith to here dooinge 

u 



146 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

cap. xx. Sey me quod j of the balaunce in which with so gret entente thou 
peisest the zodiac and the sunne For it is thing of whiche j wundre 
Lerne quod she and vnderstonde wel For j wole gabbe of no thing 
Grace dieu aboute the zodiac sum time sette the sunne to shyne to 
eche wight and for to be commune to the world To alle she wolde 
it were general and that noon hadde defaute ther of Now j telle 
thee that that displesede me for my profyte which lay not ther inne 
For j sigh if j hadde not the time and appropred it not to me right 
litel j myghte werche with my fyle and riht litel fylen And ther- 
fore j aproprede to me the zodiac The time and the sunne j made 
myn owen and in my balaunce j putte hem Bi myn outrage j haue 
maad my self weyere ther of and sellere I selle it bi dayes and bi 
wookes bi vtases and bi quinzimes bi monethes and bi yeeres al hoi 
And the pound j selle for twenty pens The moneth j selle for nyne 
shillinges or for ten after that eche wight taketh ther of ther after j 
weye it and selle it 

cap. xxi. Now sey me quod j j preye thee of a wodyere that solde me a 
while ago wode in his foreste and seide me The wode is thin for 
thretti shillinges if thou wolt anoon make me the payment And if 
to the yeer ende thou wolt abide For fourti shillinges j moste selle 
it I wolde wite for sooth if thilke peysede the zodiac and solde it 
Ther of quod she j wole telle thee as j haue herd speke Sum time 
the wodieres solden here wode up on the-stok and seyden If thou 
wolt haue my wode anoon thou shalt yive therfore swich prys And 
if thou wolt abide to the yeer ende for grettere pris j moste selle it 
For bi the yeer my wode shulde wexe and ther after it shulde be the 
more worth If thus he selde thee the wode thilke j sey thee as bi 
myn avys that he weyede not the time But if the wode were doun 
and hewen and kitt j trowe the time were weyen of the thing which 
mihte not amende ne multiplye Whan for long time the thing is 
sold the zodiac is peysed But whan the thing may of him self mul- 
tiplye j weene and leeue that the waxinge is oonliche peysed and 
mesured The wodyeres quod j sellen seelde here wodes but on the 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 147 

stokkes thei liggen longe doun er thei mown ben sold And algates 
deere it maketh hem whan thei ben not payed in hande And 
thanne she answerde me and seyde I wole sei thee that that lyth me 
on herte availe what availe may If the wodyeres of the wode diden 
nouht the hewinge of the wode bifore that the biggeres comen to 
hem wel long time thei mihten abiden er thei shulden selle here 
wodes For the marchauntes whan thei [100] seyen the wode nouht 
hewen ne kitte wolden seye To longe we shulden abide Passe we 
ouer and go we hens oure thing wolde be hasted we haue no neede 
to tarye And therfore as j trowe it was ordeyned for commune 
profite that er the marchauntes camen the selleres shulden felle 
here wodes and niake kitte hem and araye hem and that was a good 
ordinaunce and a gret fortheringe to hem that of timber hadden 
neede or that wolden brenne wode And therfore ouhten thei not 
leese that doon here curteysye if for oothere thei haue hewe here 
wode which wolde haue amended with inne a yeer I trowe the 
derrere thei mown selle it with oute mistakinge So that thei doon 
it nouht ne thinke it nouht for no treccherie ne bigilinge For in 
swich wise thei sellen the zodiac and peisen it And perauenture 
summe doon it soo But koueringe thei haue bi that that it is acus- 
tomed and that the vsage is approued Now vnderstonde it wel and 
expownde it as thou wolt bothe the texte and the glose Of the 
hand with the dysh j wole telle thee oothere tidinges 

This hand heere is cleped coquinerie Trewaundrie bi name j 
cleyme it and maungepayn j clepe it It is thilke that hideth brybes 
in his sak And so manye ther ben that mowled thei waxen and doon 
good to no wiht That is thilke that biseecheth bred for the loue of 
god and wole in no place paye scotte for no thing that she dis- 
pendeth And hath no desire that any wiht amende bi hire curtey- 
sye that she wole do With the dish she purchaceth hire lyflode 
riht shamefulliche Al be it that if she wolde she mihte amende it 
For she mihte laboure and peyne hire to winne That is thilke that 



148 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hath thus to ragged me and to clowted me as thou seest It can no 
thing doo but make cloutes and panteneeres and bagges and bere 
bribes and clawe me in the busshes She leedeth me in to the grete 
weyes there the weifareres and the pilgrimes or oothere grete lordes 
shulden passen to asken there here almesse And to that ende that 
thei haue the grettere pitee of me and that thei mowe with bettere 
wille yive me the more of heres She maketh me more feeble bi 
the thridde part and more poore thanj am And ther withj sey 
thee that bi art she maketh me counterfete and with drawe with 
feet and handes and go crooked on a staf and crye alias with outen 
resoun And al be it j haue noon harm and haue my wombe ful yit 
other hye or lowe j curse hem that failen me 

(up. xxiii. This hand borwen ofte to trewaunde with these gentel folk In 
here grete haukinge glooves thei kunne putte it and hide it And 
wel thei kunne glooven maungepayn whan thei wolen trewande 
therwith To these religious thei strecchen it with oute hauynge 
shame in askinge Now hider skinnes for haukes hoodes thei seyn 
and yif me aloyne if thou wolt and a peyre gessis And j haue gret 
neede of a brod gerdel and of a coler to my grehound Make yive 
me of youre cheeses j prey yow and faile me nouht that j haue a 
gowne of the lyuerey of yowre abbeye Lene me eighte dayes a 
soomeer and an hors for to ride on j prey yow A carte for to lede 
with my wode and twey plowes or tkre-fec to ere my lond Ye shule 
haue hem ayen with [101] inne the moneth And thus from hand to 
hand thei helpen hem self shainefulliche in sparinge of here owene 
there thei haue ynouh of here owene And it seemeth that thei 
weene not that poore folk of abbeyes hauen any thing but for hem 
Wher of thou hast seyn if thou woldest that whan thei hauen nouht 
that that thei asken thei taken noon excusacioun but hauen gret 
indignacioun and haten hem of the hous Now looke whether thei 
ouhten wel to loue me whan j make hem thus to bere the dish of 
trewaundise and putte here hand in here glooues whan with my 
sak and with my dish at here elbowes j shame hem It is an neewe 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 149 

manere that noblesse seecheth thus his bred and that thus it is 
bicome thral to me that am old and hoor 

Of the hand with the crochet quod j sey me a litel if thou wolt ca i'- xxiv - 
Eor as of this it sufficeth me And thanne she answerde me and 
seide The hand with the crook was sumtime fisshed in the derk 
helle Simon magus and Giesy brouhten it me hider and maden me 
yifte and present ther of but the crook yaf hire Simon of the firste 
figure of this name and cheuenteyn As a crochet it is figured thou 
wost it wel it is nempned this crook This crook and this . S . shewen 
wel that j am abbesse but it is of a blak abbeye There as folk liven 
shrewed lyf Of this crochet . S . and Simon this hand hatteth 
symonye It is an hand that entreth in to the hous of ihesu crist bi 
false breches and holes as theeves And whan with inne it hath led hem 
and with hire crook hooked hem of hire crochet crooses she maketh 
hem and pastores of sheep she maketh hem Pastores j seye but 
thilke it ben that so feeden hem and so doon with hem that 
bettere men mihten clepe hem wulues than keeperes of sheep 
With here croses bi strengthe thei withdrawen and disencresen 
grace dieu of the tresore of hire rialtee bi yifte of temporalitee 
Oon hour thei ben biggeres an oother time thei ben selleres And 
often thei wagen hem self to hem that taken hem the monye 
Grace dieu is wroth therwith For hire thinketh wel she is litel 
preysed whan she is waged and leyd for so litel thing Also she is 
not wel apayed ne it lusteth hire not wel whan thilke that she hath 
sette in lordshipe doon hire thilke velenye 

This hand with al hire crochet is of swich rnaneere and swich ca r xxv - 
gise that oon houre it biggeth an oother it selleth Therfore who 
so wole propirliche speke whan it selleth Giezitrye and whan it 
biggeth Symonye it is seyd But communeliche Simonye compre- 
hendeth the names Of swich hand ben nouht exempt thilke that 
maken synge masses for bihotinge and yivinge of siluer The 
preestes also ben nouht exempt ther of that taken the siluer but 
ben lich the false ludas that solde ihesu for pens And therwith j 



150 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



sey thee yit that werse than judas thei ben For whan he sigh that 
he hadde don euele he yelte ayen the pens But thei wole not doon 
so Ther shal no silogisme of resoun ne predicacioun neuere make 
hem yilde it ayen ne lede hem to swich ende And if the cause thou 
wolt wite [102] j sey thee wite it for sooth that the sak which at 
myn nekke j here hath so subtile a yate that what is cast ther in ne 
may not out ne be doon awey It is maad as a were for fysh 
Entree ther is but issue nouht And therfore myne handes and alle 
thilke that hauen hem or borwen hem mosten caste ther inne al 
that thei mown conquere But ther may no thing come out of the 
sak It moste roten ther inne 

cap. xxvi. Whan she hadde thus tolde me and seid me of this hand which 
dooth to god gret despyte as me thinketh after j preyede hire and 
seyde hire that she wolde telle me of that oother hand which she 
hadde leyd up on hire mayme That oother hand quod she is cleped 
Baret treccherie tricot Hazard and disceyuaunce whiche alwey 
avaunceth hire to bigile thilke that ben symple and with oute 
malice Or that ben nyce to marchaunde false weihtes and false 
balaunces and false mesures she vseth doubleliche With the grete 
met yerde she wole mesure that that she biggeth And that that 
she selleth with the smallere mesure she wole mete Right so with 
Balaunces she dooth and with the weyhtes that she dooth in hem 
For wel she can make chaunge of henr-after that she deliuereth or 
resceyueth Neuere mesurede she ariht ne iustliche weyede weyghte 
Swich thing dooth to god despite I haue seyn it writen in prouerbe 

cap. xxvii. This hand is a steynowresse of corteynes and a makere She 
maketh curteynes to draperes For the coloures of the cloth shulde 
seeme the more fyne to the folk And j telle thee also that riht 
ofte she sheweth goode penywoorthes But afterward whan thei 
ben bouht she hath oothere of the same colour which she deliuereth 
the biggere 

cap. xxviii. Manye harmes dooth this hand O time she marchaleth hors and 
maketh the badde seeme good to hem that wolen bigge hem An 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 151 

oother time bi the cuntre selleth false gerdeles and swiche oothere 
thinges and sheweth hem to the symple folk for to haue siluer 
falsliche An oother time taketh ymages in the cherches that ben 
olde and maketh hem holes in the hed And for to make the preest 
winne she dooth oyle or water or wyne whiche she hath rediest 
in the hole that she hath maad to that ende that whan the licour 
descendeth doun it mowe be seid that it swet and that the olde 
ymage mowe be named to do miracles Thanne j go speke with 
the trewaundes and make hem to seeme embosed or contract or deff 
or dowm And in swich wise j make hem come bi fore the ymage 
and crye Alias holi ymage hele me After god in yow j haue 
grettest feith And thanne al hool j reise hem and in short time 
with myn hand j shewe hem hoi But wunder is it nouht for harm 
hadden thei noon ne sykenesse Al oonliche myn euel thei hadden 
But the folk weenen it nouht thei arretten it to the ymage And 
thus the preest winneth and the folk maken a fals feste 

Many an oother harm hath the hand doon and alle dayes yit ca P- xxix - 
dooth But j wole sey thee no more now for j haue ynowh to sey 
thee yit At the leste quod j thou shalt sey me if thou wolt for 
what cause thou hast the hand up on the haunche that halteth and 
whi it approcheth so ofte and toucheth to the me[103]sel tunge 
And thanne she answerde me Serteyn my tunge whiche is mesel is 
cleped periurement and my mouht j clepe mensoige Por it draweth 
of the spaueyne To these tweyne thinges treccherie is familier and 
freend To hem she draweth gladlich Eor it cometh hire of kynde 
Bi hire was maad menterye And bi hire j am spaveyned Bi 
menterye is also periurement born and engendred For periurement 
may not be but if mensoige make him come foorth And in 
mensoige and in periurement may not be that ther ne is sum baret 
These ben thre thinges of acord al be it thei haue gret wrong This 
is the cause for whiche the hand is lened on the haunche and for 
which she entermeteth hire to taste and to visite so ofte the tunge 

Now sey me quod j how thou seist thi tunge periurement and cap. xxx . 



152 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

whi thou clepest thi spaueyned haunch e menterye I mette sum 
time quod she with verite and equite that souhten here hred and 
weren riht poore Thei hadden none freendes ne yit ne hauen as 
me thinketh Whan j sih hem j wolde haue turned aweyward 
For wel j wiste winne of hem mihte j no thing At the laste j 
lefte here wey and bigan to fle bi the feeldes with oute holdinge 
wey At a molle hille j stumblede and fil doun and spaveyned me 
Yit am j not hool ne shal be day of my lyfe Boistows j am and 
haltinge and wronge To the virly j go hippinge My mayme and 
my spaveyne j clepe mentirye For ther is noon haltinge so foul as 
lyinge But algates to me it is necessarie to that that j haue to 
doone Soneste my sak is filled ther with and soonest j fynde 
cheuesaunce ther with If riht j were and riht wente j shulde not 
fynde so mychel ne ynowh For swiche comen bi me that wolden 
gon here wey and keepe hem fro my wey 

cap. xxxi. Now j telle thee that whan j go thus haltinge thus lyinge and 
hippinge ther goth out of me so gret hete so stinkinge and so gret 
brennynge and so gret desire of wilnynge to haue yit more than j 
haue of auoyr that out j moste drawe my tunge as an hound that is 
to hoot To the kinges court j go me after that j haue herd of the 
lawes and sey that an aduocat j wole be and that of pies j wole 
medle me There j make the ooth that my tunge j ne wole drawe 
for no folk but if thei haue good riht ^But whan j wole the style j 
haue and hippe a while bi lesinges and lyinge But whether euere 
it be riht or wrong my tunge j may not forbere that j ne drawe it 
out whan j see j shal hauemoneye And j telle thee that riht so 
j doo as the balaunce which enclineth his tunge to thilke part that 
of the peys hath the grettere part For there j see greteste winnynge 
thider j conuoye my tunge thiderward j drawe it most gladliche as j 
see ther ben most pens Ofte times it hath bifalle that summe 
hauen come to me preyinge me that j helped hem of here cause and 
that j witnessed hem a trewe riht and that j swoore therfore And 
wost thou what j dide thanne Be riht siker that whan moneye thei 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 153 

tooken me for to caste in my sak anoon j swoor lightliche that in 
[104] the cause thei hadden riht and that with good riht thei 
plededen and wel j wiste veriliche that it was al oother weys 

Swich manere of langwetynge and of stutinge and turnynge upso- cap. 
doun the wrong in to the riht for to drawe with and for to bringe 
with to my sak sum siluer sheweth whi the tunge is seid and cleped 
periurement And also j telle thee that mesel she is hi sweringe and 
bi lyinge And for the brennynge that she hath to assemble ootheres 
goodes bi false languetinges and vntrewe sweringes So michel j 
haue gabbed and forsworn and so falsliche languetted that j shal 
neuere be bileeued if canoun or lawe ne chaunge Bi it men mowe 
knowe me For swich tunge is not yifte of nature Nature wolde 
wretthe hire if man or womman drowe to hem with the tunge yren 
or bras and do ther with as with an hand And ther bi thou miht 
wel see that j longe no thing to nature ne that j am not of hire 
linage ne neuere was of hire werchinge And bettere thou shalt wite 
it whan thou hast herd of my bowche It is wel quod j myn enten- 
cioun that thou make me ther of collacioun And after that foryete 
nouht the mawmete of which thou hast spoken me 

My bowche quod she is thilke bi which ben bowched thilke that ca P- XXXU1 - 
shulden ordeyne hem self after riht rule and also rulen oothere It 
is a thing superflue whiche maketh alle rules bowchede and 
enpecheth al that riht is Thou shuldest wite that thilke it is that 
maketh the riche be likned to a camaile that may not passe at the 
yate of heuene for his bouche Whan man entreth naked in to the 
world by the posterne which is streyt If he shulde bi the same 
wey recouere ayen and bitwixe the tweyne he maketh him bouche 
he ouhte wel to wite that if the hole ne be woxe he may not passe 
other he muste do awey his bouche Man that entreth in to reli- 
gioun bi a vow or bi professioun and gadereth that that he hath left 
and that whiche he hath renounced bi the posterne of paradys 
which is streyt as thou seye passe may he nouht at the deth as 
longe as he bereth with him swich a bouche 

x 



154 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. xxxiv. This bouche is properfcee which dredeth pouerte hire phisician so 
michel that she dar nouht abide hire for she wolde to breste hire 
and cleue hire and shende hire This is nouht thing to hele For 
riht as a soor hed maketh no ioye of a good comb no more keepeth 
propertee that pouerte take him in cure She hateth it and j also 
For in as michel as j am bowched the bouchede and the enbosede 
that ben comen in to these cloistres ben my kyn and cosyns and 
manye oothere of myn affinitee ben bouched biside here rule and 
gon biside the rihte wey wrongfulliche And of redressere ne of 
vndertakere thei taken no keep Whan thou art heer after of me 
bouched thou shalt wel see hem And that shal be riht soone if j 
may But first j wole telle thee a woord of myn ydole mawmet 
which is my lord and my god and thyn shal be also as j trowe Now 
keepe thee wel for al haue thou refused him thi god he shal be 
boongree mawgree 

cap. xxxv. [105] Myn ydole and my mawmet is the peny of gold and of siluer 
Wher inne is enpreented the figure of the hye lord of the cuntree 
It is a god that wole ofte be swathed and bounden that wole that 
men cowchen him ofte and vncowche him that wole ligge in cofres 
in hideles and in corneres and be hid in eerthe wel ofte with wormes 
That is the god that bleendeth hem that turnen here eyen toward 
him that maketh fooles stowpe here eyeji in to the eerthe and waite 
the moldewerp Thilke that maketh the folk bouched as j am or 
more Thilke that hath difigured me and defamed me as thou seest 
He made me foul and vnthryfti and algates so michel he haunteth 
me and so michel he pleseth me and so hath my loue that in eerthe 
j wurshipe him as god Ther is no thing that j mihte do that j ne 
wolde do it for to drawe him to me and to lede him in to myn hous 
Sum time j made roste laurence up on the coles for he hadde 
binome it me and turned it fro me I loue him so michel that j 
waxe a fool and ofte leese my cote for him I haue many pleyes as 
thou seest bothe at the merelles and at the dees And go dispoiled 
and naked as a wafrere doun the strete And for j loue him so 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 155 

michel j wole that also thou make him fair semblaunt and that he 
be serued of thee and hi thi lord Now looke what thou wolt doo 
Eor trewes of me thou shalt no more haue Wurshipe him anoon and 
in alle degrees yilde thee to him 

As Auarice prechede me and constreyned me to wurshipen hire cap. 
false ydoles Lowe herde crye.bi hynde me with hye voys and with 
hye teene Harrow felawe is that thi man that j see there with 
which auarice holt pie and no thing dooth to him Go we thider 
and assaile we him and do we him shame ynowh Auarice hath 
spared him to miche She ouhte wel to be holden nice Serteyn 
answered hire felawe thou seist sooth Now do we peyne that of 
oure handes he askape us nouht and that he leue ded in the place 

Whan swiche woordes j herde more j was abasht than bi fore cap . 
And gladliche j wolde haue take the flyght if j ne hadde dred the 
folwinge A litel aside j turnede me and biheeld and sigh come a 
gret old oon with a long nose and grete eyen and euele shapen that 
a foul sak deep and perced heeld with hire teeth And hadde with 
inne it a fonelle To strangle me she shoop hire manere and a yens 
me strauhte hire handes And swoor me bi alle halwen and trowthe 
she ouhte to seynt George that she wolde take me bi the throte 

An oother j sigh come after that michel more made me affrayed cap. 
A fauce visage of a ladi wel j figured in hire left hand she bar and 
as with a targe dide ther with She rod on a swyn and arayed she 
was wel faire But hire array was michel blakked and defouled of 
dunge Wherfore she shadwede hire visage and hire facioun vnder 
hire hood A darte she hadde that smot me al bifore that j spak to 
hire Bi the eye it entrede To the herte it com me Wherfore 
michel misbifel me that j hadde nouht on myn helm and that j was 
not armed up on myne eyen Afterward she smot me up on the 
handes Wherfore me hadde [106] needed my gaynpaynes to haue 
glooued me with and that j hadde hem on But sooth it is that the 
folk seyn The fool abideth nouht til he honge 

Whan j sygh me thus yhurt and that j was not yit assured of the cap. 

x2 



156 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

firste Por wel she made me cheere that for j hadde no gorgere OD hi 
the throte j shulde be holde I ne wiste what to thinke ne what to 
doo So michel j sigh wel that to crye and braye shulde nouht he 
woorth to me a def note Wrecche quod j what shalt thou do? 
Michel euel it is hifalle thee certeyn that euere thou come heere a 
lowh It hadde michel hettere bifalle thee if at the firste thou 
haddest leeued the mattere Now thow hast wratthed resoun and 
grace dieu is goon and thou art so hurt in thine handes for defaute 
of gaynpaynes that thou miht not here thi burdoun At the leeste 
thou shuldest aske who thei ben that hauen doon thee that Thou 
olde quod j thanne that berest with thi teeth the foulede sak perced 
sey me thi name and gabbe me nouht If in ernest with oute 
smytinge strook thou wolt thus make me dye 

cap. xi. And thanne the olde answerde If thou wost who ben epicurie 
thou shuldest wite that j am here mooder who so euere haue be 
here fader Who ben quod j Epicurie ? It ben quod she a folk that of 
here persede sak maken here god that in alle times hauen here 
thouht to fille it for to uoyde it In the kichene thei wolden rouken 
an hoi day gladliche for to roste a smal hastelet or to make a steike 
or sum oother disgisee thing Thei hauen no delite but if in mete 
and drink thei hauen it that thei holden a delite oonliche and a 
mirthe How hattest thou quod 1 to hire Glotonye quod she that 
in my percede sak putte so michel that it bicometh foul and 
stinkinge I sakke as michel sum time as tweyne or thre poore 
men mihten wel fille here sakkes with If thou wistest wel the 
wast the outrages and the los that j do of metes in the yeer Castri- 
margye thou woldest properliche sey j were and clepe me And 
what is quod j Castrimargye ? It is quod she plounginge and 
drenchinge of morselles that men mown fynde in goode housholdes 
Alle goode lopyns j plounge and drenche Ther is neuere noon 
that j sende any thing too And yit j telle thee that j haue sakked 
many oon that j haue needes cast out ay en and put out and left 
trases of dunge after me as a snayl Py quod j thou olde stinkinge 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 157 

go no more spekinge to me ther of It is thing abhominable and 
foul and reprouable Serteyn quod she thou seist sooth but whan 
thou wolt wite the soothe it is resoun that j sey it thee If men 
clepen me glotonye and that j ete to michel and drinke and swelle 
michel it is not thing that j shulde hele I am the wolf of the wode 
that alwey haue raage in my teeth For alwey j muste make the 
chyn trotte and the throte gaape I am Beel that al deuowreth and 
that putte my nose in to kichenes bi the wyndowes for to smelle 
and seeche and trace as dooth an huntes hound to wite which mete 
is the beste My nose is long Oueral j putte it in smellinge but 
myn entente is al to wite if j myhte fynde thing that j mihte 
showve in my sak 

[107] Sey me quod j if thou fille it ouht with metes of litel prys ca ?- xli - 
If with benes or with gret bred thou madest euere thi wombe gret 
Wite wel quod she the trouthe is that as wel j haue customed to 
sakke gret brown bred as to ete grete metes As wel the rudenesse 
as the curiowstee maketh me glotoun but the longe nose was yiven 
me of my fader to that ende that j made me fisshinge to the guste 
of my grete leccherye And what thing quod j is guste? It is that 
quod she bi which passeth al that j swelwe And that wher inne is 
myn delite with oute more It is the bouchinge of my sak which 
it maketh bi towchinges And yit it hath not twey fyngres of 
lengthe if it were mesured Fayn j wolde it were lengere and that 
it were as the nekke of an heroun And j wold wel that ther were 
eueremore there passage of sweete morselles that with lopyns it were 
wel froted Were j on horse or on foote j rouhte neuere what peyne 
the persede sak hadde but that it were ful The eyen ben grete 
My guste brennynge That oon and that oother wolen al As michel 
or more as the guste may gusten the eye wole deliuere him The 
eyen ben more vnmesurable than the sak is either long or brod As 
longe as any thing may in to the paunche thei haue of no thing 
sufficience It is a thing that michel hath shorted my lyfe bi mi 
folye Ther is noon more perilowse knyf than is a superflue morselle. 



158 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. xiii. ^ n( j w ]^ q UO( j j puttest thou in morselles soo pestilencial ? I bere 
quod she so pestilencial a louche in my mouth that whan it hath 
touched to the morselle it taketh swich reuelle in it that if to that 
oother it ne touchede as out of witte it shulde be That oon after 
that oother y wole touche with oute stintinge It reccheth him 
neuere of my profite but that with oute more he haue his delite 

cap. xiiii. Sey me quod j how it is nempned and cleped thilke touche It 
is quod she a wichche a fleinge messanger that seith and telleth to 
alle that that the herte hath comaunded Maleschique and male 
voysigne the folk clepen hire that ben hire neighebowres For 
gladliche she misseith and soone seith vileynye Whan she hath 
towched goode morselles and filled hire with goode wynes Is she 
thanne quod j a vintere that to assaye wynes entermeteth hire? 
What is she ? Thanne she seide There she taketh hire grete disport 
Bi hire j am vnmesurable and bi hire j am cleped glotoun She 
putteth me to wurshipe and binemeth me bothe prys and wurshipe 
She hath left me the fonelle that in my sak thou seest bouched It 
aualeth and tunneth the wyn and thoruh outrage so michel it 
yeueth me that j haue neither wit ne resoun ne can fynde my hous 
ne leyn me in my bed Thou art thanne quod j to hire thing that 
hast no techinge ne gouernement in thee That is sooth quod she 
if thou wistest riht wel al myn gouernaunce Eor whan j haue 
tunned my wynes and chewed my metes I wolde thanne sey veleynye 
to god and to oure lady seinte marye If resoun come to me j wolde 
anoon sey ne fro me Thouh justice thouh equite thouh prudence 
thouh soothnesse comen alle to me thei shulden be shouen out and 
putte ayen Sobernesse and attemperaunce shulden haue of me [108] 
but mischaunce I haue skorn of hem and make drive hem out Whan 
the wyne is entred in to myn horn thanne j am as feers as vnicorn 
Thanne j wole hurtle eche wight chide oon blame an oother and 
roile myne eyen as a bole It is not for nouht that j haue twey 
wombes As a butour j bicome and this bifalleth ofte How quod 
j hast thou twey wombes Ye quod she that ben genderes of Dame 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 159 

venus that folweth me heere Of which yueresce is that oon seid 
And that oother the gulf that to ete is euere redy Whan the firste 
hath stinte etinge and that oother hath apperseiued it he seith he 
wole ete also And if it bifalle that he drinke first that oother wole 
drinke also and seyth anoon j reuye it And oones sufficeth hem 
nouht no certeyn ne twyes ne thryes but wolen alwey with oute 
ende pursue that that thei haue higunne Eche wole take last and 
euere it is to higinne as longe as ther is wyne in the pot and til the 
mete he put to the ende These twey wombes maken dame venus 
reuelle hi hem she is most ryottous and to doon euele lest shameful 
Bi hem most gladliche she holt hire nygh me and cometh after me 
Bi where euere j go she goth gladliche Eor she thinketh wel that 
she shal haue in subieccioun thilke whiche j haue seised bi the 
throte I thinke it shal be thou sithe thou art come hider 

And thanne she took me bi the throte with bothe handes and seide cap. xiiv. 
me thus Sithe thou hast no gorgeere wite wel in certeyn that michel 
the more feers and more cruelle thou shalt fynde me Harrow 
quod j alias alias alias Let me speke to thilke that j see go bihynde 
thee She hath smiten me with hire darte Euele j shal be bi take 
and lost if of sooth j ne wite who she is And she seide me In thee 
it is I wole wel that she sei it thee But thow shalt not askape me 
I wole holde me seised of thee sithe j haue thee so nigh me 

And thanne j askede to hire that hadde smiten me Who art thou cap. xiv. 
Mceliche thou gost bi the cuntre up on thilke swyn as me thinketh 
and niceliche bronnched and hid vnder thyn hood Serteyn quod 
she j am thilke that make my subgis dwelle and enhabite in fennes 
as frosshes There j amase manye bothe of sighte and of speche and 
of here countenaunce also I am Venus of which thou hast herd 
dame glotonye speke that maistryeth thee bi the throte Longe 
agon j putte and drof virginitee out of the world The aungeles 
which she was sister too hadden me neuere sithe wel in herte Thei 
stoppen here noses whan thei seen me which thing thei wolden 
nouht doon for a stinkinge karayne But if grettere vice were ther 



160 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

inne I pursue chastitee ouer al with oute stintinge either winter or 
somer Ne hadde she withdrawe hire in to religioun I hadde er 
this put hire to deth But j fynde the castel soo strong that harm 
may j noon doon But if any come muse at the dore as was of oon 
that corrupt hadde he not be if out he hadde not goon Also j may 
not anoye chastitee but if he go out at the dore 

cap. xivi. \\That haue thei tweyne misdoon thee quod j that [109] thou wolt 
hem so litel good? Virginitee quod she wolde neuere lye in bed ne in 
chaumbre that j lay inne It was neuere that j ne was hateful to hire 
and abhominable for my stinkinge which may not be binome me 
Chastitee hateth me also and whan she seeth me seith fy I haue 
leeuere lace my mantelle than ly any time bi thee I haue leeuere 
yilde me in to an abbeye than any thing be in thi cumpanye How 
quod j may this be sooth that these monkes white greye or blake 
hauen resceyued chastitee and that she is y olden to hem Yis quod 
she sikerliche But it displeseth me gretliche she is dortowrere there 
and maketh here beddes as chamberere She hath office thanne 
quodj Sooth quod she and for that j haate hire the more and 
pursue hire and am the more sharp ayens hire 

cap. xivii. Whi quod j hast thou smiten me ? Whi quod she weenest thou 
sithe j am so nyh thee that thou shalt nouht feele of me Bi myn 
hed that is wel kembt thou hast not yit al assayed Whan j assaile 
any who euere it be j parte nouht so soone from him Art thou 
quod j so wel kembt and arayed as thou seist? If thou were it thou 
woldest not as j trowe hide thee from me Now vnderstonde quod 
she a litel It is wel sooth that if j were fair j wolde not thus 
shadewe me vnder myn hood It folweth nouht that thouh j be thus 
kembt and a litel make the queyntrelle that for swich cause j am 
fair I am foul old and slauery foule stinkinge and dungy More 
vile bi ynowh than j dar seye For it is nouht for to speke I 
shadewe me that men seen me nouht al be it j am riht queynte and 
recche neuere of ootheres sihte In place ther no sighte is j go bi 
turnynges and bi corneres and seche hydinges and corneres And 



THE LYF OF THE MA.NHODE. 161 

se no sighte at ful midday And haue peyne and thouht ynowh and 
ofte putte me in perile to doo a litel of my lust If thou wistest 
how ofte and bi which place j go ofte j trowe thou woldest michel 
abashe thee and that riht litel thou woldest preyse me 

I ride a wunderful hors Eor there as the pas is wurst and as is 
most filthe there of his kynde he leith him The hors is euele wil that 
bereth me and is redy as a sowe to ley hire there the dunge is and 
bidunge hire It is figured as a swyn that in the eerthe hath his 
morselle There as he leith him self he leith me but it is more in 
foul place than in clene Bi him j am thus soiled and bidunged and 
defouled and he also Thus in storpaile foule j am but in hideles j am 
michel foulere And therfore j bere a peynted fauce visage for to 
make ther of couertour to my visage ful of filthe This fauce visage is 
cleped Eardrye With which whan j am eelded and bicome riueled and 
frounced and discolowred j make me shynynge in despite of nature 
in chaunginge of my feture Thanne j make me a pryue chaumbre 
for alle thilke that passen the wey A verrey dunghep in a weylate 
ther eche at his time may come to make filthe Fy quod j j recche 
neuere now of thi knoweleche ne of thee I see wel now and knowe 
that to haue parlement with thee is nouht but gret diffamacioun 

Serteyn quod she if thou haddest seyn the instru [110] mentes that j tap. 
haue hid vnder my coote if thow ne were michel out of thei wey 
thou sholdest preise me michel lasse and lasse speche holden with 
me Shewe me hem quod j to hire and telle me how thei ben 
nempned As ther of quod she thei ben nouht honeste to shewe ne 
for to speke of This may wel suffice thee Vnder stonde hem now as 
thow wolt And wite wel thei ben perilouse Thou shalt not see 
hem at this time For j shewe hem neueremore apertliche for here 
vnthrifty feture and here foulnesse And yit algates wel j kan smite 
summe with hem whan j haue leiser I wole smite thee but thou 
flee fastere or go than a tigre But sithe glctonye holt thee of thi 
flight j drede me nouht Of me thou shalt haue it Heere thou 
shalt dye and neuere go ferthere 

Y 



162 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



cap. i. And thanne the olde smot me with a darte to the herte and fellde 
me Glotonye halp hire michel Bi the throte doun she shook rne Aua- 
rice and alle the oothere sheweden nouht that thei hadden the gowte 
Eche of hem smot me at here cours with swich armure as she hadde 
Binome me thanne was my bordoun hut my scrippe thei leften me Thei 
thouhten wel recouere it whan at alle poyntes thei hadden slayn me 

cap. H. Whan j sigh me thus bitrapped beten doun smyten hurt 
Whan j hadde my burdoun lost bi which j was wont to reise me 
ayen neuere man as j trowe was more desolat than j Alias quod j 
what shalt thou do sorweful wrecche what shalt thou sey Now art 
thou comen to thin ende Why were thou euere pilgrime Whi 
tooke thou euere burdoun for to leese it in this cuntree It hadde 
ben bettere for me thou haddest be ded born Who may euere 
helpe thee? Who may visite thee ? Who may counseile thee ? Thow 
hast lost grace dieu thi goode freend Aa Penitence penitence whi 
made j euere drede to passe the thorny hegge Ye shulden now be 
me ful sweete and deere ne were j so aloyned and straunged from 
yow Youre yerdes and your disciplines youre prikkinges and youre 
thornes weren to me oynement now to my riht grete misaduentures 
Oo ye armes of chiualrye I ouhte biweyle you al my lyfe thouh j 
livede lengere I was oones arayed and enoorned with yow riht 
queynteliche But alias wrecche for longe was it nouht But 
anoon j leyde you doun Many harrnes haue bifalle me sithe ther bi 
And now riht with oute any forberinge I am deliuered and put to 
the deth Oo thou sacrament of holi cherche I drede me j preyse 
thee litel I drede me j haue resceyued thee in veyn sithe j haue lost 
my burdoun bi whiche j was wont to reise me whan j was falle Oo 
thou citee of Jerusalem to which j was excited to goo How shal j 
excuse mee to thee and what answere shall I make thee I hadde 
bihight thee in my corage that j wolde do the viage to thee for that 
j sigh thee in the faire mirrowr cleer and polisshed Now j am 
beten now j am hurt soo that on my sides it is scene In euele 
time forueyed j I trowe j shal neuere seen thee 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 163 

As j compleyned me and biweyled my losses I sigh a cloude passe cap. m. 
whiche was nouht michel reysed Out of whiche the wynd com also 
she com from the mid day Ouer me she tariede and there a hood a 
while But gret fors made j nouht ther of [111] for the sorwes that 
j felte I was as half ded and litel lyfe hadde in the bodi Now 
vnderstondeth so god keepe yow how loth grace dieu departeth hire 
from hem that she hath socoured bifore Whan misaduenture hath 
bifalle hem And how gladliche she socowreth hem whan neede is 
Of thilke cloude descendede a vois that seide me thus Now up 
wrechche coward now up To michel thou hast crept up and doun 
Thou hast euele proued thi craft For thou art a shrewede knyght 
I haue brouht thee thi burdoun ayen to deliuere thee from 
orphanitee Entende to me I reeche it thee and yilde it thee and 
stablisshe it thee I wole nouht yit thi deth al be it thou hast don 
wrong ayens me But j wole thou conuerte thee and that thou 
amende thee and that thou lyve 

Whan swiche woordes j vnderstood a litel j opened myne eyen ca r- Uii 
and sigh an hand onhy that heeld my burdoun and arauhte it me 
I thouhte it was the hand of hire that at the firste time hadde taken 
it me and she it was Aa god quod j goode tidingges Neuere 
deseruede j to yow that ye shulde thus thinke on me Now riht j 
hadde be lost if ye ne hadden socoured me Sithe my burdoun ye 
yilden me and of youre pitee ye areechin it me ye don me counfort 
of my sorwes and respiten me of the deth Graces and thankinges 
j yeld yow sweete ihesu crist Aa grace dieu my sweete lady now j 
see wel that ye louen me ye hauen not at alle poyntes forsaken ye 
hauen at the neede shewed yow redy to helpe me if it ne be along 
on my self I wot neuere whens this cometh yow but of youre debo- 
nayrtee Por in me haue ye not founden it Youre counseil j 
leeuede neuere With good riht it is euele bifalle me With bothe 
myne handes j crye yow mercy and weepinge sey my gilt I shal 
amende it j bihote yow my ladi bi my soule With oute more for- 
yiueth me this time I wole an oother time leeue yow Hedresseth 

Y2 



164 ..' THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

me and releeueth me Eor the abidinge greeueth me riht michel 
To the hegge euene j wole go if bi yow j haue deliueraunce And if 
ye wole ye shule lede me thider whan ye haue reised me hens 

cap. HV. And thanne grace dieu answerde I wole sey thee riht a fair 
game If thilke that is awmeneer wolde do so michel to ward my 
fader which is hire sone She is his mooder that he wolde give me 
ayen to thee yit thou shuldest not go to wast yit thou shuldest wel 
turne ayen to penitence I wolde gladliche lede thee thider if thou 
woldest and doo from thee thy torment And who quod j is thilke 
ladi that ordeyned of yow is lady ? A gret lady she is whan she is 
ordeynowr and awmeneer of yow Serteyn quod she thou seist sooth 
And therfore thou mostest first haue thin herte to hire and crye 
hire mercy If she wole j wole helpe thee and socowre thee at this 
neede And also j haue wil ther too as j haue er now shewed thee 
If thou wite nouht who the lady is gret defawte and gret shame it 
is to thee She hath oother times kast thee and releeued thee out of 
many an yuel paas It is the charbuncle and the pomelle of thin 
burdoun that is so fair I haue spoken thee [112] ther of er now Thou 
art a fool whan thou hast foryete it Lady quod j j wiste nouht ne 
took no keep that of hire ye speken But j wende of sum oother ye 
hadden spoken vnknowen to me that j hadde neuere seyn bifore 
But sithe it is to my charbuncle j wole gladliche opene myn mowth 
and with good herte preye as j can to hire But if ye wolden yive 
me the foorme and shewe me the manere how j shulde biseeche hire 
right gladliche j wolde doon it 

cap. iv. And thanne of the clowde a scripture she kaste me and seide me 
thus Loo heere how thow shuldest preye hire bothe at this neede 
and alwey whan thou shalt haue semblable neede and whan in 
swiche olde hondes thou shalt bee Now rede it anoon apertliche and 
biseeche hire deuowtliche and with verrey herte bihoote hire that 
thou wolt be good pilgrime and that thou wolt neuere go bi wey 
there thou weenest to fynde shrewede paas 

cap. ivi. Now j telle yow the scripture j vndide and vnplytede it and 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 165 

redde it and maade at alle poyntes my preyeere in the foorme and 
in the maneere that the same scripture conteenede and as grace 
dieu hadde seyd it The foorine of the scripture ye shule heere If 
A. b. c. wel yekunne wite it ye mown lightliche for to sey it if it 
be neede 



Incipit carmen secundum ordinem Litterarum alphabet! 

Al mihty and al merciable queene p. 

To whom that al this world fleeth for socour 

To haue relees of sinne of sorwe and teene 

Gloriowse virgine of alle floures flour 

To thee j flee confounded in errour 

Help and releeue thou mihti debonayre 

Haue mercy on my perilous langour 

Venquisshed me hath my cruelle aduersaire 

Bountee so fix hath in thin herte his tente 

That wel j wot thou wolt my socour bee 

Thou canst not warne him that with good entente 

Axeth thin helpe thin herte is ay so free 

Thou art largesse of pleyn felicitee 

Hauene of refute of quiete and of reste 

Loo how that theeves sevene chasen mee 

Help lady briht er that my ship to breste 

Comfort is noon but in yow ladi deere 
For loo my sinne and my confusioun 
Which ouhten not in thi presence appeere 
Han take on me a greevous accioun 
Of verrey riht and desperacioun 
And as bi riht thei mihten wel susteene 
That j were wurthi my dampnacioun 
Nere merci of you blisful heuene queene 



166 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

Dowte is ther noon thou queen of misericorde 
That thou nart cause of grace and merci heere 
God vouched saf thoruh thee with us to accorde 
Eor certes crystes blisful mooder deere 
[113] Were now the bowe bent in swich maneere 
As it was first of justice and of jre 
The rihtful god nolde of no mercy heere 
But thoruh thee han we grace as we desire 

Euere hath myn hope of refuit been in thee 
For heer biforn ful ofte in many a wyse 
Hast thou to misericorde resceyued me 
But merci ladi at the grete assyse 
Whan we shule come bifore the hye iustyse 
So litel fruit shal thanne in me be founde 
That but thou er that day me chastyse 
Of verrey riht my werk me wole confounde 

Fleeinge j flee for socour to thi tente 
Me for to hide from tempeste ful of dreede 
Biseeching yow that ye you not absente 
Thouh j be wikke O help yit at this neede 
Al haue j ben a beste in wil and deede 
Yit ladi thou me clothe with thi grace 
Thin enemy and myn ladi tak heede 
Vn to my deth in poynt is me to chace 

Grloriows mayde and mooder which that neuere 
Were bitter neither in eerthe nor in see 
But ful of swetnesse and of merci euere 
Help that my fader be not wroth with me 
Spek thou for j ne dar not him ysee 
So haue j doon in eerthe alias ther while 
That certes but if thou my socour bee 
To stink eterne he wole my gost exile 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 167 

He vouched saaf tel him as was his wille 

Bicomen a man to haue oure alliaunce 

And with his precious blood he wrot the bille 

Vp on the crois as general acquitaunce 

To euery Penitent in ful criaunce 

And therfore ladi briht thou for us praye 

Thanne shalt thou bothe stinte al his greuaunce 

And make oure foo to failen of his praye 

1 wot it wel thou wolt ben oure socour 
Thou art so ful of bowntee in certeyn 
Eor whan a soule falleth in errour 
Thi pitee goth and haleth him ayein 
Thanne makest thou his pees with his souereyn 
And bringest him out of the crooked strete 
Who so thee loueth he shal not loue in veyn 
That shal he fynde as he the lyf shal lete 

Kalendeeres enlumyned ben thei 

That in this world ben lighted with thi name 

And who so goth to yow the rihte wey 

Him thar not drede in soule to be lame 

Now queen of comfort sithe thou art that same 

To whom j seeche for my medicyne 

Lat not my foo no more my wounde vntame 

Myn hele in to thin hand al j resyne 

Ladi thi sorwe kan j not portreye 
Vnder the cros ne his greevous penaunce 
But for youre bothes peynes j yow preye 
Lat not oure alder foo make his bobaunce 
[114] That he hath in hise lystes of mischaunce 
Conuict that ye bothe haue bouht so deere 
As j seide erst thou ground of oure substaunce 
Continue on us thi pitous eyen cleere 



168 



iMoises that sank the hush with nawmes rede 
Brenninge of which ther neuer a stikke hrende 
Was signe of thin vnwemmed maidenhede 
Thou art the hush on which ther gan descende 
The holigost the which that moyses wende 
Had hen a fyir and this was in figure 
Now ladi from the fyir thou us defende 
Which that in helle eternalli shal dure 

Noble princesse that neuere haddest peere 

Certes if any comfort in us hee 

That cometh of thee thou cristes mooder deere 

We han noon oother melodye or glee 

Vs to reioyse in oure aduersitee 

Ne aduocat noon that wole and dar so preye 

For us and that for litel hire as yee 

That helpen for an Aue marie or tweye 

O verrey light of eyen that hen blynde 

O verrey lust of lahour and distresse 

O tresoreere of hountee to mankynde 

Thee whom god ches to mooder for humhlesse 

From his ancille he made the maistresse 

Of heuene and eerthe oure bille up for to beede 

This world awaiteth euere on thi goodnesse 

For thou ne failest neuere wight at neede 

Purpos I haue sum time for to enquere 
Wherfore and whi the holi gost thee souhte 
Whan gabrielles vois cam vn to thin ere 
He not to werre us swich a wunder wrouhte 
But for to saue us that he sithen bouhte 
Thanne needeth us no wepene us for to saue 
But oonlv ther we diden not as us ouhte 

m 

Doo penitence and merci axe and haue 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 169 

Queen of comfort yit whan j me bithinke 
That j agilt haue bothe him and thee 
And that my soule is wurthi for to sinke 
Alias j caityf whider may I flee 
Who shal vn to thi sone my mene bee 
Who but thi self that art of pi tee welle 
Thou hast more reuthe on oure aduersitee 
Than in this world miht any tunge telle 

Redresse me mooder and me chastise 
For certeynly my faderes chastisinge 
That dar j nouht abiden in no wise 
So hidous it is hys rihtful rekenynge 
Mooder of whom oure merci gan to springe 
Beth ye my juge and eek my soules leche 
Eor euere in you is pitee haboundinge 
To eche that wole of pitee you biseeche 

Soth is that god ne granteth no pitee 
With oute thee for god of his goodnesse 
Foryiveth noon but it like vn to thee 
He hath thee maked vicair and maistresse 
[115] Of al the world and eek gouernowresse 
Of heuene and he represseth his iustise 
After thi wil and therfore in witnesse 
He hath thee corowned in so rial wise 

Temple deuout ther god hath his woninge 
Fro which these misbileeued depriued been 
To you my soule penitent j bringe 
Hesceyue me I can no ferthere fleen 
With thornes venymous heuene queen 
For which the eerthe acursed was ful yore 
I am wounded as ye may wel seen 
That j am lost almost it smert so sore 

z 



170 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

\ irgine that art so noble of apparaile 
And ledest us in to the hye toure 
Of Paradys thou me wisse and counsaile 
How j may haue thi grace and thi socour 
Al haue j ben in filthe and in errour 
Ladi vn to that court thou me aiourne 
That cleped is thi bench O fresh flour 
Ther as that merci euere shal soiourne 

.Xpc thi sone that in this world alighte 
Vp on the cros to suffre his passioun 
And eek suffred that longius his herte pighte 
And made his herte blood to renne adoun 
And al was this for my saluacioun 
And j to him am fals and eek vnkynde 
And yit he wole not my dampnacioun 
This thanke j yow socour of al mankynde 

Isaac was figure of his deth certeyn 
That so fer forth his fader wolde obeye 
That him ne rouhte no thing to be slayn 
E/iht soo thi sone lust as a lamb to deye 
Now ladi ful of merci j yow preye 
Sithe he his merci mesured so large 
Be ye not skant for alle we singe and seye 
That ye ben from vengeaunce ay oure targe 

Zacharie yow clepeth the opene welle 
To wasshe sinful soule out of his gilt 
Therfore this lessoun ouht j wel to telle 
That nere thi tender herte we weren spilt 
Now ladi sithe thou canst and wilt 
Ben to the seed of Adam merciable 
Bring us to that palais that is bilt 
To penitentes that ben to merci able 
Explicit carmen 



THE LYP OF THE MANHODE. 171 

Whan thus j hadde maad my preyere to hire that is dispensere to cap. Mii. 
grace hye j heef myn hand and drowh my bordoun to me Grace as 
j haue told you of hire goodshipe rauhte it me Whan j hadde it to 
grace j seide As me thinketh riht now j fynde that if ye wolde 
helpe me j shulde be reised ayen and that anoon j shulde haue hele 
if with youre oynement ye enoyntede me Wei j wot that my char- 
boncle hath so wel vnbocled the bocle vnder which ye weren bocled 
that freedam she yiveth yow to helpe thilke that ye wolen thouh 
thei ben dede or hurt Excuse yow of dispenseer ne of awmeneer 
mown ye not She wole that ye ben delt aboute that no wight haue 
[116] defaute of yow But that it be youre wille So that if of you j 
haue no socour It holt not of hire but of yow Helpeth me She 
wole helpe me j truste And alwey ther too j lene me 

And thanne grace dieu rauhte oon hand and seyde me thus cap. HX. 
Sithe thou hast gret triste to me j wole helpe thee Tak hider thi 
fynger Rys up and lene thee to the bordoun And looke thou feyne 
thee nouht Thou shuldest for nouht reche me thi finger but if thou 
helpe to reise thi self And thanne my fynger j took hire and to the 
burdoun j gripede So michel j strengthede me and so michel she 
halp me that to the foule olde it forthouhte Eche wente in to here 
regioun to here confusioun But neuertheles sithe j sigh hem and 
sithe thei diden me gret annoy And thouh j seide alwey j trowe j 
shulde not gabbe 

And thanne grace dieu shewede me a gret roche in an hy place cap. ix. 
An eye up on thilke roche ther was that droppede dropes of water 
And a kowuele ther was bi nethe that resceyuede alle the dropes 
Seest thou quod she the kowuele Ye quod j Ther inne quod she 
thou mustest bathe thee for to hele thi woundes and for to wasshe 
thee 

Seith me now quod j to hire whens the water cometh j preye yow cap. ixi. 
Thilke eye that j see abasheth me and the water also that j see come 
out ther of Now vnderstonde a litel quod she and turne to me thin 
ere Thilke roche that thou seest theere is the herte of thilke that 

z2 



172 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

witingeliche hath left the wey of saluacioun as thou hast that is 
harded in his errour as roche Now j telle thee that whan j haue 
left him thus a gret while in his sinne I am sum time take with 
pitee of him and with his eye j make him conuerte and turne to 
him self For he shulde biholde hise owene dedes And thanne 
whan the eye hath wel seyn the hardshipe of the herte Anoon it 
is stired harde to weepe and to droppe teres A welle gladliche he 
wolde be for to make it softe if he mihte But for he may nouht to 
that ende that he lese not his labour this kowuele j haue set vnder 
for to take the droppinges I wole not that the teres that j see so 
shed ben lost Thei ben goode to make the bath to thilke that hath 
mayine in the herte It is a secunde cristeninge with which peni- 
tence can wel make hire lye and hire bowkynge Ther inne was 
bathed and stiwed the magdaleyne sum time Seint Peeter also 
bathed him ther inne The egipcian marie also and manye oothere 
that j sey nouht Of Penitence thou herdest it seid if thou woldest 
whan thou seye hire And therfore if thou wolt be heled ther inne 
thou mustest be wasshen It is a gret purginge Ladi quod j if it 
were youre wille to lede me to the place j wolde gladliche go thider 
with oute yow j shulde no thing do there And thanne she seide It 
liketh me wel Go bifore thou shalt fynde me there go thou neuere 
so faste 

cap. ixii. Now j telle yow thider j wente pas for pas and there j fond hire 
But vnder the clowde she was hid and shadewed as she was bifore 
Whan j com thider the kowuele j sigh which was not ful ne half 
ful Ladi quod j heer is not water ynowh wher inne j may be 
wasshe ther is wel litel to make of a bath And thanne grace dieu 
lowe abeescede A yerde [117] she heeld in hire hand Where she 
hadde take it j wot neuere I hadde not seyn it bifore Wher of j 
abashed me michel I thouhte that Moiseses it were with which he 
smoot the roche in deserte Soone he made water come out ther of 
for to hele the thrist of israel And it was that treweliche as j sigh 
bi dede euident With thilke yerde she smot the roche and anoon 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 173 

ther cam water out ther of jn to the cowuele that was ther ynder it 
ran And euene cam But alwey it took his cours thoruh the eye 
as j haue seyd yow Now quod she thou hast water ynowh to be 
was she if thow wolt Entre ther inne and wasshe thee ther inne 
Por a poynt j haue maad it thee warm To the cheekes put thee 
therinne and the wasshinge shal be good for thee And thanne 
with oute taryinge j entrede in and bathed me and wesh me It 
hadde al heled me j trowe if j had endured it ynowh But soone j 
wente out ther of Eor of suich bathinge j had not lerned I was 
not lych to Dauid that seide he made him bath alle the nihtes of 
hise teres and shedde hem up on his bed 

Whan j was thus comen out of the bath Grace dieu seide me cap. 
Weenest thou thou be so soone hool If in to thornes j hadde put 
thee and in to prikinge netles al naked as thou haddest wel deserued 
how woldest thou haue suifred hem that a litel water of which thou 
shuldest reioyse thee for thin hele thou miht not suifre a litel while ? 
How mihtest thou also suffre the hegge that thou hast desired 
which e thou shalt fynde more thorny and more sharp and dan- 
gerows with oute comparisoun than thou didest at the firste time 
that suffrest not to bathe thee ? Go now and do as thou wolt I shal 
see how wurthi thou shalt be to that that is to come for bifore thou 
hast not ben it But a good knight whan he is hurt in the stour 
and chawfed he is michel the more corageows after and the more 
knightlich If thou so doost j wole be glad ther of and with the 
bettere wil j wole helpe thee but algates at this time thou shalt no- 
more see me I go I wole see what thou wolt do yit and what wey 
thou wolt take 

Whan j herde that thus she seide me and that in swich wise she cap. 
dide sorweful j bicom and abasht Alias quod j what shalt thou 
do Alias wrecche alias which side shal j go Whan j wot not where 
j shal take my wey ? j trowe that neuere pilgrime was more abasht 
than j Goode lord god help me thou art the hye pomelle of my 
burdoun I crye to thee and biseeche thee that in thee j mowe see 



THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

where is my wey and that thou gide me Holi charbouncle 
shinynge of which my burdoim is maad shinynge lighte me bi 
where j shal go thou art oon pomel in which j haue gret suretee 
and trist and haue had all my chyldhode To thee j holde me to thee 
j lene me But if thou helpe me lost j am 

cap. ixv. So as j spak thus to my pomelles and preyede hem j bi thouhte 
me on which half j hadde left the hegge Bi gesse j thouhte j wolde 
go and that litel or no thing j shulde faile ther of To the wey j 
sette me soone ynowh but j dide not my iorney Eor j fond empeche- 
rnent If ye wole heere how cometh ayen an oother day for heere j 
wole make a restinge 

Heere eendeth the thridde party e of this book 
[118] Heere biginneth the feerthe party e of this book 

cap. i. Now j wole telle yow lordinges how j fond empechement in my 

wey And j wole telle yow with oute more of that that is grettest 
to me and toucheth me moste For in valeyes and in hilles j sigh 
manye disgisy thinges Of whiche j shulde neuere make eende if j 
wolde telle you al And also it shulde anoye to me and to thilke 
that shulden heeren it Now j sey yow as j wente bi a wey that j 
hadde take bifore me j fond a see Wher inne was michel drede to 
biholde Tempested it was gretliche of grete tempestes and of wyind 
Men and wommen ther weren that al clothed swommen ther inne 
Summe hadden here feet aboue j sigh no more of hem Oothere 
stooden up riht Of whiche summe hadden wynges and seemeden 
thei wolden haue flowe ne hadde the see empeched hem Summe 
oothere j sih arested bi the feet and faste bounden with longe erbes 
that weren in the see that michel anoyed hem Summe oothere j 
sigh bended bifore here eyen and oothere ynowe diuerseliche arayed 
of which j holde me stille as at this time 



THE LTF OP THE MANHODE. 175 

Whan j sigh swiche thinges afrayed j was and gretliche abasht ca P- iL 
Lord god quod j what thing is this Swich a see sigh y neuere 
ther is noon swich see in my cuntree ne suich fish as me 
thinketh I see wel now go foorth may j nouht I muste turne 
ayen or j muste heere abide in abidinge thi merci If j putte me 
ther inne j am dreynt If j go bi the coste I shulde go mis 
anoon if j ne founde who that yeue me sum good avyis Lord god 
j wot neuere what j shal do if j ne haue avys bi thi grace At the 
laste j avised me to myself and bithouhte me that if there j abide 
winne mihte j nouht ther bi And of the turnyng ayen j was siker 
that yit lasse j shulde winne and thouhte that up on the stronde j 
wode go to see if j miht fynde ship or boot bi which j mihte passe 
and go ouer with oute perile On the wey j sette me with oute 
taryinge and bigan to coste the see al after the stronde but j made 
nouht riht gret viage what j sih Sweete folk blisseth yow A 
foul beste that alle thilke that wel hadden biholden it shulden 
neuere ben assured I sey for me my soule dredeth it alle the times 
that j bi thinke me ther on Thilke beste was disgised soo vileliche 
and so foule figured that of the speche j shulde haue gret affray if 
j speke yow longe ther of Ordeyned j haue that peynted it be heere 
and figured To that ende that who that wole mowe see it Oother 
weyse chevice me cowde j nouht 

Al weys so michel j sey you that in the see j sigh him fisshe ca P- 
Ther inne he hadde cast hise angles and his lyne he heeld with hise 
handes An horn he hadde hanged at his nekke and he bar a trusse 
of cordes And a nette fleinge he had hanged up on the see bi 
nethe the cloudes Whan he sigh me come anoon he bigan to blowe 
and to houpe and to strecche hise cordes in my wey so that j shulde 
not askape Whan j sigh suich redyinge abasht j was gretliche For 
wel j sigh that if j passede bi him anoon taken shulde j be Sweete 
god quodj what shal j doo? Shrewede weyj fynde [119] whider 
shal j go I shal neuere out of this place if j ne haue helpe of thi 
grace 



176 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

cap. iv. j n this poynt j sigh, come an olde oon rennynge A fagot of wode 
she bar and bakward she ran and thwart ouer And asqwynt she 
biheeld me for she was purblynd whan she was nygh Now hider 
quod she yilde thee to me And who art thou quod j to whom j 
shulde yilde me? I am quod she in fair wey a stumblinge and a 
lettinge to folk on foote and on horse I hatte Heresye the pur- 
blynde that anoon as my fader bloweth j come and areste pilgrimes 
for to vnscrippe hem of here scrippes I hate scrippe ouer alle 
thing I thinke to shewe it thee wel for j wole bineme thee thyn 
if j may and to breke it I see scripture in the belles that as to my 
biholdinge It is nouht apoynt ne ariht writen Hold thi pes thou 
olde cursede quod j the scripture is writen aright but thou lokest 
not ariht With purblynde eyen and thwartinge may not be hool 
lookinge Me reccheth neuere quod she Wel j wole that after that 
j see with eye the scriptures ben corrected thoruh out and to rent 
As j go al contrarye and bacward myn heeles and sewe not oothere 
ne go not bi here paas nomore haue j not biholdinge to the scrip- 
ture as oothere hauen Brent j shal be yit as j trowe and put in to 
the fyir and therfore j bere with me this fagot heere al redy for to 
sette fyir ther inne Sey me sooth now quod j art thou the olde that 
madest brenne the templeres ? Ye soothliche quod she And thou 
shuldest also wite that j am thilke that stirede ayens Augustyn 
in the time that he was pilgryme But j mihte neuere bineme 
him his scrippe ne vnscrippe him With my shame j departede 
from him A fool j was whan j assailede him And whi quod 
j assailest thou me ? What quod she weenest thou that thou 
be as strong as he was Nay certeyn quod j But j sey thee that 
sithe that man hath ouercome thee thou shuldest not afterward 
be so boistous to manward Haa quod she alle hauen not euene. 
strengthe I haue sithe founde manye that j haue vnscripped 
mawgre hem And so wole j doo of thee Hider now quod she take 
me thi scrippe with oute taryinge I wole not certeyn quod j And 
thanne she sette at me And swich time ther was that she made me 



THE LTF OP THE MANHODE. 177 

agast that she shulde haue binome me the scrippe or broken it or 
doon sum ther of awey Neuertheles j bleynte and with my burdoun 
smoot hire so that j made hire uoyde the place And thanne grace 
dieu appeerede to me and seyde that j hadde wel doon that j hadde 
defended me and that therfore she wolde shewe me my wey and 
wolde come with me 

Ladi quod j I thanke yow gretliche of that ye be comen hider and cap. v. 
of that that ye bihoten me and counforten me thus ayen I hadde 
ben lost in this hour if ye hadden dwelt lengere thilke wylde beste 
there hadde al discomforted me This wylde see hadde also maad me 
al abasht and yit j wot neuere what it is if of yow it ne be tauht 
me Wherfore j preye yow that ye wole teche me and lerne me of 
these thinges Men mown quod she wel speken goinge and gon 
spekinge Go we and j wole teche thee and seyn thee shortliche 
these thinges 

Now j telle yow that biside the cordes that the wylde beste hadde cap. vi. 
stented in my wey we wenten [120] and mawgre him passeden forth 
How it euere were he durste not grucche were it neuere so litel for 
grace dieu whiche he dredde After the see costyinge grace dieu com 
spekinge to me and seyde This see quod she that thou seest is the 
world that no time is that ther ne is torment ther inne For veynglorie 
whiche bloweth ther inne that is the beligh that orguill bereth It 
is not longe agoo that thou seye it at the eye Bi this see swimmen 
and gon diuerse folk diuerseliche Summe goon the feet aboue and 
that ben thilke that ben charged with the beringe of the sak of 
Auarice which is nouht couenable in see For the grete weihte of 
it ploungeth the heed of thilke that bereth it and maketh him 
foundre doun so that he may not swimme Swiche folk j holde lost 
yn to the time they ley al doun Of oothere that goon al up riht 
of whiche summe ben weenged wite wel that thei ben a folk that 
keepen no thing of the world but oonliche here sustenaunce and 
hauen here trist in god al oonliche In the see thei ben for thei 

2 A 



178 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

mihten not elles Hue bodiliche But thei seechen not the gostly lyfe 
in the see Wei thei witen that in oother place thei shule haue it 
and therfore thei swimmen and gon up riht The wynges hen 
wynges of vertues for to flee with to the cuntree ahoue Swiche 
folk ben lich a hrid that Ortigometra j clepe For whan he shulde 
passe the see and is trauailed of fleeinge to swimme in the see he 
taketh him But in swimmynge he streccheth his wynge and 
maketh ther of a seil and a steere soo that he sinke not doun 
and so that he mowe flee ayen ahoue the see as he dide 
bifore Riht so of thilke whiche j speke to thee Onliche in the 
see thei ben for cause of necessite But here willes elles where 
thei haue 

cap. vii. Of hem that bi the feet ben bounden and arested with the erbes 
wite wel it ben folk that be michel biloued that hauen alle here 
affecciouns to delite hem in vanitees and yd el seculer thinges Thei 
louen better wordlich needes than children to go to manages And 
with suiche thinges thei ben wounden bi legges and bi feet How 
thei shulden flee j wot neuere thei haue ynowh to doone to swimme 
.cap. viii. Of hem that han here eyen blyndfelled and ben as blynde wite 
wel thei been foollish folk that leeuen but in kynde and in thing 
thei seen with oute And al be it the world is foul and al that is ther 
inne neuertheles blyndfelled thei maken hem the fooles Of fair- 
nesse it hath of which Salomon spak sum time and seide that it 
was veyn in the pistel of the magdaleyne And ther with thei haue 
bended hem that thou seest there and blynded hem Eyen thei 
haue with which thei seen no thing for vanitee that stoppeth hem 
and for fortune and prosperitee that thoruh out blyndeth hem In 
perile thei ben thou seest it wel I wole no thing sey thee more of 
hem But if thou wolt any thing heere of the wylde beste that 
thou seest fisshe on the stronde j wole telle thee shortliche with 
oute more lesinge Thilke beste hatteth Sathan which dooth al his 
entente to haue alle thilke that ben in the see bi his fysshinge and 



THE LTF OP THE MANHODE. 179 

bi his hookinge with his lyne and with hise temptaciouns with 
which he tempteth man and womman to whiche whan any con- 
senteth anoon with that oon he ta[121]keth him and anoon he pulleth 
him and draweth him to him for to here him with him But for 
he may not haue alle so at his wille that is to seye For that with 
the ees ne with the feedinge of temptacioun he taketh not as he 
wolde therfore he hath lerned to make cordes and hreide thredes 
and to make nettes to fishshe with for to drive awey fetheren and 
for briddes fleeinge Eor hem that thou seest haven wynges and 
ben goode contemplatyf folk he is bicome a fowlere and hath stented 
his nette upon the see that thei beten not here wynges ne askape 
him For hem that him thinketh wolden flee and gon out of the 
see an hunte he maketh him and hath stented hise strenges and 
hise cordes bifore here wey Ther shal noon goon out that he ne 
arresteth if he may or bi feet or hi hed Thou seye neuere yrayne 
that made so manye nettes and snares for the flyes ne that sette so 
gret bisynesse as this beste bisyeth him for to bynde creature of 
mankynde And alwey he werpeth temptaciouns and breideth hem 
and weueth hem and alwey stercheth his werk and alwey putteth 
thredes in the reedes But certeyn who so were wys and hadde a 
litel strengthe thouh it were but the strengthe of a flye that he 
hadde of alle hise strengthes he shulde not recche His cordes 
ben but copwebbes Thei ben rent and broken with the flyght of a 
gret flye Wherfore seint Jerome seith that ther is noon discoumfyt 
of him ne withholden in hise bondes but if he wole Eor feeble thei 
been bothe he and hise strenges But therfore j sey thee nouht that 
thou riht bisyliche and wysliche ne keepe thee Eor he hath a 
thowsand artes for to desceyue folk with and a thowsand and a thow- 
sand that thou seest not He taketh gladliche a fauce visage and 
falsliche dissimuleth that he is a briht aungel and that he seecheth 
not to do harm Bithinke thee how he desceyuede an heremite to 
whom he appeerede with a fauce visage in liknesse of a good 

2A2 



180 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

messanger and of a good aungel The deeuel seide to the heremite 
thus The deeuel quod he is suhtile Be war thou he not supprised 
of him He wole come to thee to morwe and shal seeme thi fader 
I rede thee thou hindre him and smite him first On the morowe 
his fader com to him wher of michel misbifel him His sone sigh 
him and smot him and fellede him doun to the eerthe ded Subtil- 
liche sathan desceyuede him but to late he apperceyued it Keep 
thee from him if thou leeue me from hise settinges and from hise 
nettes It is thilke of which seint Peeter seide that he seecheth day 
and niht what he may take and deuowre If j wolde telle thee in 
how many wises and maneres he hath slayn many sheep and how 
many lambren he hath departed fro the brest and strangled j trowe 
it shulde not plese thee For j see riht now it anoyeth thee Keep 
thee fro him j passe me shortliche that j werye thee nouht to 
michel ther of 

cap. ix. As grace dieu spak to me j sigh bifore me a damisele that bar a 
bal Nice she seemede rouh and fethered on the feet she was as a 
dowve To hire j wolde speke and seide hire Damisele me thinketh 
that niceliche ye beren yow j wot neuere wher of ye serue Yis 
quod she thou wost wher of j serue Of my manere thou shuldest not 
speke more ne lasse but agast of me thou shuldest be [122] "Who be 
ye gentel quod j Which if men made of you saale mihte no man 
livinge ouerbigge yow ne loue yow to michel Thou gabbest of no 
thing quod she but that men vsed me wel But it is riht hard to 
doone to folk that ben of wikkede doinge I hatte jolyfnesse the 
lyghte the tumbistere the rennere the fonne the lepere that sette 
nouht alle daungeres at a glooue I go j come j lepe j flee j 
springe j carolle j trippe j daunce j trice goinge to reuelle j 
strogle and lepe diches joynpee and caste the ston with the fertheste 
I abasshe me neuere more to pass dych hegge ne wal And of my 
neyghebowres apples in here gardynes j wole haue I am lopen in 
an appel tre lightliche anoon I am not for nouht rouh on the 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 181 

feet ne fethered for nouht Mi feet beren me where j wole thei 
hauen wynges thou seest it at the eye Azael bar hem sum time 
but he abouhte it sore To gret lightnesse sumtime is not good for 
the lyfe Oon with hevy feet wys is more woorth than foure fooles 
with fleeinge feet And therfore er this holicherche hath ordeyned 
that ther were no persone set ther inne for to gouerne it that ne 
hadde feet of led for to go with So that ther of j am priued as longe 
as j am thus rouh footed A crooked staf me lakketh for to cholle 
with and a bal to pleye me with Oother croce needeth me non If 
j hadde it were folye Eor my feet mihten not holden hem from 
stiringe ne wolden not I haue not yit my fulle of pleyinge at the 
boules to gadere floures to bigile to pleye at the merelles to heere 
songes and instrumentes and seeche my disport In my bal day 
and niht I haue more ioye than in al that euere my fader tauhte 
me or in al that euere my mooder seyde me I posse it j handele it 
j pleye ther with This is my studye I haue no thouht but to 
pleye me and procure my merthes Serue ye of any thing more 
quod j That thou shalt see wel quod she Eor anoon j wole trusse 
thee and hi the see bere thee quod shee Other thou shalt soone fynde 
thilke that shal do the soule from the bodi which in latyn men clepe 
Mons And what thing quod j is mors ? Thou shalt quod she wite 
whan thou hast seyn yilesse and that she shal bicomen in thee 
And where is vilesse quod j and where dwelleth she and what 
thing is it ? In time quod she thou shalt wite but that shal 
not be yit Yif hider thin hand I wole flee and bi the see j wole 
bere thee there thou shalt see many merueyles if thou ne slepe or 
slombre to michel 

And thanne with oute more taryinge she took me bi the hand cap. x. 
and anoon sette me in hire nekke and sithe took hire to flee aboue 
the see Wel assured was j nouht Eor the grete wawes that j sigh 
and for that she plounged me ther inne whan she wolde In gret 
perile she putte me ofte bi hire nice foolisshe manere Cyrtim 



182 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

Caribdim and cillam Bitalasson and Sirenam and alle oothere 
periles of the see she made me feele and endure And if ye witen 
not what is Cirtes Caribdis and the oothere thre j wole shewe it you. 
riht shortliche for j think more to an oother eende 

cap. xi. Cirtes is propre wil that as a sond assembled maketh an hil in the 
see bi whiche whan a [123] wawe cometh it muste make a stintinge 
If j sigh man or womman that gaderede and hepede hise willes to 
michel and that kepte not to doo as oothere j wolde sey thus It is 
sond it is grauel that hepeth to michel to gideres that maketh the 
botme of the see bouched and binemeth the weye of the see to 
swimme That is Cirtes the perilous Keep thee from him he is 
dredful 

cap. xii. Caribdis is the wysdom and the kunnynge that is in the world 
seculere implicacioun and worldliche ocupacioun alle swiche thinges 
gon aboute alwey alday turnen alday uaryen alwey in here jdem 
comen ayen and not in oo point holden hem It is a meevinge 
sercleliche suich in the ende as at the firste It hath noon 
abidinge ne eende no more than is in the wheel of a mille As 
longe as it dureth and water cometh ther to If of Salomon ye 
bithinke yow how he souhte aboute how he assaiyede of alle 
and how he heeld it thing veyn and torment and peyne Ye 
mown wite and bi his ensaumple if ye wole that al the ocupa- 
cioun and the marchaundise of the world is a verry caribdis and 
a wrong perile 

cap. xiii. In Cilia and bitalasso also but shrewednesse j sey you noon 
Cilia is seid aduersitee Bitalassus prosperitee It ben sleyhtes 
with whiche fortune maketh hire wheel turne Bitalassus maketh 
it gon up and Cilia maketh it avale down Ye haue seyn it peynted 
on walles Ye knowe it wel I holde me stille with this Aduersitee 
dooth as Cilia For whan any wight goth bi him he is hurtled and 
tempested and with the wawes of the see possed Howndes gon 
abayinge up on him murmuringe with here teth Of his dotages it 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 183 

it is a perile that many folk dreden and loth ben to putte hem ther 
inne But that oother is not lasse to drede who so cowde wel 
biholde it For withholdinge and ful of cley and arestinge and 
glewy is thilke of wordlich richesse of wurshipe of strengthe of 
idel fairnesse So that wonder it is that thilke ne is perished that 
passeth bi it 

Sirena is wordlich solas the which with hire singinge and idel ca P- xiv - 
desport draweth the shipmen to hire that is a perile to which jolyf- 
nesse ledde me and bar me ofteste I trowe she louede it wel or 
elles that she haated me to the deth 

Now j telle yow whan j was a riht gret while born thus on the cap. xv. 
lift side j sigh an old oon that rood the wawes of the see and hadde 
a skin gert aboute hire as a smythiere and in hire hand a gret 
hamer and a peire tonges she bar with wich she manaced me harde 
fro fer Hider now quod she lighte doun thou shalt no more be 
thus bore thou mustest lerne to swimme bi the see as oothere doon 
Thanne wolde j wite hire name and who she was and wher of she 
seruede Sey me quod j wher of thou seruest how thou hattest and 
who thou art and why thou manasest me and no thing haue misdoon 
to thee j wot wel And thanne she answerde me Mi skin my tonges 
and myn hamer shewen wel ynowh my craft For thei been [124] tooles 
to forge with Me faileth no thing but an anevelte Wel is it bifalle 
thee if thou haue oon Eor if thou haue oon j wole forge ther on thi 
corowne and make it And if thou hast it not euele welcomed shalt 
thou be anoon wite it wel Mi strook shal not be in jdel up on the 
anevelte it shal falle 

And thanne of the noble gambesoun that gracedieu in hire hous cap. xvi. 
hadde yiven me wher on the anevelte was set bihynde j bi thouhte 
me But to laate it was For j hadde it nouht on To laate he cometh 
to arme him that first is entred in to torment Soone ynowh she 
tauht it me But the surplus she seide me first I am quod she the 
goldsmithesse and the forgeresse of heuene that make and forge in 



184 THE PILGRIMAGE OP 

this cuntree the corownes of paradys The metalle of which j wole 
werche I bete and smite to preeue it and in a brennynge oovene j 
putte it to se of what metalle it is Oon hour with the tonges j take 
it and platte it and strecche it and an oother j hepe it ayen with 
the hamer with whiche j bete it The goode metalle j make bettere 
the wikkede j make wurse Tribulacioun j am cleped bi alle scrip- 
tures approoved Myn hamer persecucioun is seid with which j 
pursue many oon and smite hem whan j see my time so gret a strok 
that if the purpoint which memorie hath he haue not on he is lost 
and confounded To Job sum time it needede and to alle thilke of 
the kalender and to many oothere that ben not writen ther inne 
For it is to litel For if thei ne hadden take the purpoynt and the 
anevelte at dewe time the grete strokes that j smot hem hadde 
confounded hem with oute delay 

cap. xvii. My tonges ben the distresse and the anguishe that so harde 
presseth troubel herte that it thinketh it is streyned in a pressour 
shet with a vys and loken as drestes defouled Wher of men haue 
seyn wel ofte bi the condyt bi which it descendeth a gret presserage 
of teres that of the sorwe is messangere 

cap. xviii. The skyn of whiche j make my barmfell j clepe Hountee and 
confusioun For whan j haue acloyed any wyght and so beten him 
and hamered him be it rihtfulliche or wrongfulliche that he shulde 
be put to the deth or that he shulde be rnaymed on the bodilich 
bodi anoon his skin abiggeth it bi the shame that j doo it For bi 
the and bi the skin which is al oon thilke knoweth wel who j 

am And to whom that j wole doo annoye men mown wel knowe 
bi his visage For mawgre him cometh my strok confusioun he hath 
ther of and shame But j sette litel acounte bi hise doinges I 
make a barmfell ther of for to forge with for to make him more 
encumbred The more shame the man hath the more persecucioun 
he fyndeth If thou haue of swich a skin j wole wite it and make 
my barmfell ther of And afterward j wole smyte the more hard- 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 185 

liche and the fastere up on thee If thou be void thou shalt breke 
other sowne hye In voydnesse is but murmure whan men smyte 
it with an hard thing j wot it wel j haue assayed it The lawe was 
committed to me er now Adonay committed it to me whan he 
made me smythiere of heuene Shewe me thi commissioun quod 
j if thou sey sooth and also thi power Eor j wole leeue thee 
to day nomore of no [125] thing if j ne see it and rede it And 
thanne anoon she putte hire hand in hire bosum and drowh 
out the commissioun and seide me If this sufficeth thee nouht 
I haue an oother of an oother maister which j wole yit shewe 
thee afterward Thilke quod j wole j haue also She took it me 
and j sigh hem bothe Of whiche the firste was writen in this 
manere 

Adonay kyng of iustice which hath the power in the eclips the cap - X1X> 
grete emperour of nature whos rewme dureth alwey greetinges to 
tribulacioun suich as we ouhten to sende hire Of neewe we haue 
vnderstonde that prosperitee the stepdame of vertu hath set hand 
in oure wordlich kingdam and hath put hoodes bi fore the visages 
of oure soudyours and hath doon of here armures and bi nome hem 
here swerdes and bokeleres and with oute abidinge wole lede hem 
to hange hem with instrumentes of ioye And yit more that she 
hath uoided the garnisons that we and oure grace hadden bifore 
this time put in diuerse regiouns "Wher thoruh we hadden goode 
castelles ther as we hadden many goode vesselles in whiche we 
hadden put fillinge of the grete tresores of Paradys that was the 
sweete shedinge of oure grace and the oynture It is michel more 
noble tresour than is siluer gold or stoones And for oure mootiere 
thou art and oure sergeantesse we senden thee and comitte thee 
that thou go bi alle houses and that thou seeche prosperitee soo that 
thou fynde hire and that thou smyte hire soo that she durre no 
more be so proud ne rebelle ayens us And also we sende thee and 
committe thee that afterward thou hurtle alle thilke so cruelliche 
that hauen here hoodes wrong turned and that prosperitee hath 

2B 



186 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

blyndfelled that thei take avisement and that thei vnblyndfelle so 
here eyen that thei mown biholde to the heuene Eor thus capped 
ne bended shulden thei not be but if thei wolden And after that 
here armure and here mailes ben to broken thou shalt forge hem 
and make hem ayen and soone make hem clothe hem ayen Of 
Paradys we haue maad thee smithiere and goldsmithesse therfore 
Afterward we sende thee that thou take in thin hand and holde alle 
disportes and solaces and alle ioyes and pleyes that ben wordlich 
and that thou go not out of the place bifore that thou haue buried 
hem alle We wole not that oure knyghtes ben hanged with suiche 
craftes We yiven thee also power that thou go see oure vesselles 
if any thing be in hem If thei ben voide thei wole sowne whan 
thou smitest hem If thei be not ful thou shalt heere murmure It 
is the tokne bi whiche thou shalt knowe hem To do this we 
yiven thee pleyn power and commaunde to alle grete and smale 
that to thee thei ben obeisaunt with oute ayen seyinge This 
was maad the day and the yeer that Adam was put in to exill 
That oother com missioun ye shule heere if ye wole which is 
not swich 

cap. xx. Sathan the amyrall of the see enemy to the kynrede of Adam 
kyng and lord of iniquitee and persecutour of equitee gretinge to 
tribulacioun suich as we mown sende hire Ynderstonde we haue 
of neewe Wher of us thinketh not fair that the seruantes of 
Adonay ben so pryded ayens us that thei wolen be resceyued to the 
place from which we [126] ben fallen And eche of hem hauen taken 
a scrippe and a burdoun men seyn seyinge that thei wolen do the 
pilgrimage thider and the viage Wherfore maundement we yiven 
thee and comaundinge that thider thou go with oute taryinge and 
that thou smyte with oute manasinge alle thilke that thou seest 
clymbe thider and as michel of heres as thou myght fynde Do 
more to hem than thou didest to job Erom whom thou tooke hise 
temporal goodes Bineme hem here scrippes and here burdouns and 
put thi tonges to the bodi to the lyuere and to the lunges so that 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 187 

here hertes and here entrailes comen out as of judas And that thei 
hangen hem self with hise cordes Of this pleyn power we yiven 
thee This was maad in thilke sesoun that the king of jewes maade 
the theef stye in to heuene 

Whan these commissiouns j hadde diligentliche red seyn and herd ca P xxi 
j foolded hem and took hem to hire ayen And thanne j seide hire 
So god keepe thee quod j sey me now if thou wolt vse of hothe or 
elles of whether thou wolt vse thei strecchen nouht to oon ende no 
more than triacle and venym Whan j shal quod she smite thee and 
knokke upon thee thanne thou shalt wite if thou wolt of whiche of 
the tweyne j shal vse Eor if thou sey ne sowne no woord hut in 
yildinge thankinge to god thanne thou miht wel wite of sooth that 
j sergeaunte with the power and with the vertu of the firste But 
if thou wolt haue thi manere in grucchinge to god and to hise 
seintes and vnscrippe thee of thi scrippe and castinge doun thi 
burdoun as dide Theophile thanne thou miht wite also that j do it 
bi the enemy so that on thee it holt with oute more of which j shal 
vse Eor j werche al after that j fynde in hertes of men As the 
sunne bi fayrnesse hardeth the dunge and softeth wex or suette riht 
so of me j may sey that after that that the matere is disposed 
and ordeyned ther after j shal sergeaunte and werche diuerseliche 
Now keep thee from me j may no lengere holde me that j ne 
smyte thee 

Anoon as she hadde so seyd she com euene to me and wel cap. xxii 
dide hire couenaunt and smot me that doun in to the see she 
felled me lolyfnesse leet me falle and wente hire wey and flygh 
Ne hadde my burdoun be j hadde be dreynt with oute tarynge To 
it faste j heeld me for swim me cowde j nouht And yit j mihte wel 
haue lerned it if j ne hadde to michel aslewthed it Many j sigh 
certeyn that swommen wel and wel strauhten here handes to poore 
folk whan thei hadden neede And many oothere that stireden here 
feet and gladliche wenten bi penitence in to grete viages and in to 
grete pilgrimages This is the manere of swymmynge that j sigh do 



188 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

in thilke see But j swam not soo Eor j tristede oonliche to my 
burdoun which sank not to the botme but swam aboue Now j telle 
yow as j wente thus swymmynge the smithiere ledde me alwey 
knokkinge up on me and so faste heeld me in presse with hire 
tonges that me thouhte j was put in a pressour So michel sorwe j 
hadde in herte that for litel j hadde lete my burdoun go dounward 
the see where it go wolde Whan in swich perile j sigh me thanne j 
preyede to god merci Mercy quod j sweete creatour [127] Be not 
failinge to me in my mischeef and in my sorwe thouh j haue bi iolyf- 
nesse my lyf foliliche vsed a while Sweete creatour j repente me 
ther of For whan j sih iolyfnesse bifore me and that she was a 
sotte thi grace which ledde me and condyed me j lefte and sufired 
hire bere me To the forge she hath brouht me Now she hath 
bore me Now j am falle now is it soothliche misbifalle me if thou 
redy ne make me a refute as thou didest bi thi grace to Noe in the 
time of the diluvie Thou seest sweete god that j am peresshed 
Lord make me of thee a shadwe and a restinge in which j may go 
showve me and dwelle for thi smithiere And if of thee j may not 
make it at the leste sweete god that it be thi wille that aboute thi 
grace mowe be it as it was wont to be 

cap. xxiii. As j made thus my preyere the smithiere anoon herde me and 
seyde me sithe j hadde not leyd doun my burdoun and that j cryede 
to god mercy she wolde leede me and conduye me to grace dieu I 
am quod she riht as the wynd that ledeth leves in to shadewes and 
in to corneres Whan any wole flee in to the skyes and afterward 
hapneth him to falle other mishapneth he hath neede that with oute 
tariynge he fynde refute and cornere to keepe him and that he be 
turned in to place ther he be not defouled I am thilke that glad- 
liche dooth thilke craft whan it is neede I chastise thilke that ben 
dissolute and bete thilke that j see to dulle Thilke that ben 
forueyed j putte hem in to wey And neuere shulde j be at ese 
bifore j hadde founden hem a cornere where j mihte hyde hem 
Summe j drawe to the pitee of the ryal magestee of god Oothere 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 189 

j leede to the grace Summe oothere to the sterre tresmountayne 
Summe j leede holdinge up here handes to summe of the oothere 
seintes Thider as any hath vsed to hide hem thider j lede hem 
And for that grace dieu is thilke shadwe which alwey thou hast 
founden redy at alle thi needes j leede thee thider E/ecche thee 
neuere thouh thou haue peyne 

As tribulacioun made me thus hire narracioun j biheeld that j cap 
was nyh the Hyuaile that j wolde go too Grace dieu j sih that 
heeld hire stille and hadde not stired hire Whan j was nyh Hider 
quod she where hast thou be ? Whens comest thou ? I wende j hadde 
lost thee For j sigh thee nouht longe Thou leftest me wel nice- 
liche I wot neuere how thou hast take hardement to turne ayen to 
me Sey me so god saue thee whi thou leftest me soo and who hath 
led the thus ayen to me on this side 

Whan j sigh she argued me so Anoon j seyde hire Merci ladi cap. xxv 
Soothliche niceliche j departede fro yow and foliliche Deere j haue 
sithe abouht it But algates j confesse and biknowe that the grete 
goldsmithesse hath led me ayen to yow Loo hire heere where she 
holt me and cometh with me mawgre me Driveth hire fro me j 
prey yow and beth me a rescues for hire That that she hath doon 
sumceth me wel sithe she hath maad me turne ayen to yow Yit 
haue j gret hope ye wole not fayle me 

In makinge thus my preyere the goldsmithesse drouh hire ayen cap 
and bar awey hire instrumentes Wher of [128] j was not sori But 
michel weryere she lefte me than j hadde be longe bifore And thanne 
grace dieu seide me Now thou seest that riht so man to bisy lyth 
euele as a got that scrapeth to michel Thou hast alway wold so 
michel medle thee that thou haddest neuere reste Thou hast ben up 
and doun and in the feeld of thi flowinge left me that am thi refute 
Sorweful wrecche whider woldest thou flee whider woldest thou go 
and what shuldest thou doo whan men wolden do thee annoy if j 
ne were thi shadewe ? Wrecche sorweful what haddest thou doon 
riht now whan tribulacioun tormented thee soo if thou ne haddest 



190 



THE PILGRIMAGE OP 



founde me in this cuntree ? Certeyn she hadde led thee and aryued 
thee to a shrewede hauene And that shulde haue be to thilke fishere 
there Of whom she hath a commissioun It is not longe that thou 
seye him strecche hise angles for to take with the folk Neuertheles 
and thou wolt come and holde thee with me yit j wole not faile thee 
but j wole yit be thee a freend and j wole lede thee in riht short 
time euene to the hegge ther thou menest And if thou woldest 
abbrigge thi wey and shorte it wel to go to the faire citee to whiche 
thou art stired to go yit j wolde wel leede thee thider with oute 
goinge bi the longe wey But nouhtforthanne equipollence ther 
shulde be of penitence Penitence hath put hire yerdes and hire 
maylettes in diuerse places and yit most effectuelliche in the wey of 
which j holde thee speche she hath set hire instrumentes but the 
wey is lasse and michel shortere to go bi to thee citee ther thou 
woldest go to so ther of thou shalt answere me my wil thou 
hast herd 

cap. xxvii. Whan these woordes j herde of ioye j was al fulfilled Michel 
liked me the abbregginge of my wey and the shortinge And 
no thing it misliked me of that she bihight me that yit she 
wolde helpe me Lady quod j short wey is good for a recreaunt 
pilgrime And recreaunt j am and trauailed The shorte j wolde 
gladliche go Leedeth me thider j pray yow and sheweth it me 
I am no thing aferd thouh ther be equipollence of the hegge of 
Penitence 

cap. xxviii. In thilke poynt a ship riht gret and wunderful j sigh flotinge in 
the see wel nygh the arryuaile al redy to make passage She was 
bounden with hoopes al aboute and faste fretted But summe of 
the hoopes weren slaked for defaute of oseres Summe weren to 
slakke and summe weren to broken the bindinge was the lasse 
strong But the hoopes hadden not the wrong For thei weren 
stronge ynowh if thei hadden be bounden In thilke ship weren 
many howses and many dwellinges and weren riht noble and 
seemeden wel kynges houses there weren toures and castelles walles 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 191 

with arches and kernelles And aboue was the mast of the ship 
dressed wher upon heeng the seyl ystreight whiche oother weys is 
cleped veyle al redy to seyle if that it hadde good wynd and that it 
hadde noon encumbraunce 

Seest thou thilke ship there quod grace dieu to me ? Ye parde cap. 
quod j But j am abasht For j sigh neuere erst noon swich Tit 
quod she thou shalt be more abasht Whan thou shalt be with inne 
there thou shalt see the faire thinges If. thou dorre entre with me 
ther in Seith me now quod j how the ship hatteth and who 
gouerneth it and if j muste entre ther inne to passe the see [129] The - 
ship quod she bi his name is cleped religioun She is bounden and 
bounden ayen Fretted with obseruaunces As longe as it is so 
bounden it may not perishe ne faile To bynde ayen it is cleped to 
that ende that in it ben bounden ayen the dissolute and defouled 
soule of thilke that putteth him ther inne If the grete hoopes and 
the olde whiche the goode religiows setten ther on sum time weren 
wel kept and wel bounden ayen at here rihtes the ship shulde 
neuere faile in no time for harm that mihte come ther too But 
ther ben summe folk that recchen so litel of the smale oseres that 
bynden hem that the ship is in perile For it is knowen thing that 
the hoopes seruen of nouht but if the oseres fastne hem The 
oseres j clepe the smale comaundementes whiche ben restreynynge 
and keeperes of the grettere Wherfore j seye that who that breketh 
hem or looseth him to michel al the ship is to michel loosed And 
neuere shulen the grete olde ben wel kept but if thei ben bounden 
with summe lighte comaundementes in wise of smale oseres Now 
wolde god my fader the kyng that religioun were swich as it was 
whan at the biginnynge she took hire byndinge But of bynderes 
ayen ben almost noone For alle thei hauen lost here instrumentes 
The smale oseres ben broken the grete hoopes ben the lasse strong 
And therfore the ship is michel the more perilowse and the more 
dredful Nouht that j wole blame it ne despreise it ne disalowe it 
For yit ther ben goode bynderes and of religious ynowe that 



192 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hauen non neede that men putten on hem neewe oseres Of it am 
j gouernowresse maistresse and conduyeresse And the mast which 
is dressed hye with the seyl crossed amidde helpeth me wel 
to lede it whan the wynd wole blowe ther inne The mast is the 
cros of jhesu Crist and the wynd is the holi gost The which as 
Gildene mouth seith mown lede the ship to hauene If in to 
Jerusalem hastliche thou wolt go thou mustest entre hider in and 
logge in oon of the castelles Either of Cluigni of Cistiaus or in 
an oother that to thi lust shal leede thee thidir hettere at thi wille 
Alle ben defensable and stronge for to keepe ther inne bothe body 
and soule Ther may noon entre there to do harm kunne he neuere 
so michel caste or sheete if it ne were so that men opened hym the 
castel and that a man yolde him Go we now thider j rede thee It 
is bettere than bi swymmynge thei ben in perile thilke that passen 
bi swymmynge and vnnethes askapen 

cap. xxx. And thanne grace dieu ledde me in to the ship and there shewede 
me the faire castelles of whiche j haue spoke And seide me that j 
wente where j wolde go al at my wille and she wolde make me entre 
As she seide j chees and to entre j stirede me anoon The porter j 
fond at the entree which bar an hevi maace Porter quod j let me 
go I wole entre in to this castel Grace dieu hath ordeyned me soo 
which hath led me euene hider Frend quod he if j wiste that it 
plesede the kyng j wolde wel suffre thee entre in But j wot it 
nouht Is thanne the king ther inne quod j ? Ye certeynliche quod 
he j were not heere elles I wolde neuere helde me at the dore if j 
ne wiste the king with inne Whan j holde me at the dore it is tokne 
that with inne is the kyng of [130] Paradys How art thou cleped 
quod j ? Paour de dieu quod he j hatte And am the biginnynge of 
wisdam and foundement of goodshipe And j heve out sinne also 
that he be not logged in thilke castel Ne j suffre him not entre in 
to his ship to enhabite ther inne If he entre her inne It is maugre 
me priuiliche in hideles My grete maace is cleped the vengeaunce 
of god and the gryselichhede of helle of whiche alle auhten haue 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 193 

drede I bete and smyte and chastice the folk that the! doon no 
folye If this maace ne were eche wolde preyse me to litel What 
quod j shalt thou smite me ? Ye quod he elles thou shalt not entre 
in to the castel And thanne j bigan to biholde grace dieu and seide 
hire thus Goode sweete ladi me thinketh the entre is not so abaun- 
doned to me as ye seyden me And thanne she answerde me and 
seide me Hast thou foryete that j haue seid thee ? that thou shuldest 
fynde equipollence of the hegge of penitence Stroke of the porter 
is no deth He shal not smite thee so harde but that thou shalt yit 
mown endure oothere peynes Refuse not to entre in for the maace 
A knyght oweth wel to suffre colee er he entre in to stour or haue 
dignitee of wurshipe Is it so quod j to hire ? Ye quod she And j 
wole entre ther inne gladliche quod j But that j entre not first 
goth bifore j wole sewe yow and go anoon after yow 

Thanne entrede she and j after But the porter that was nygh for- cap. 
yat nouht to smyte me Swich a strok he yaf me that he made me 
quaake and doun he hadde gronded me ne hadde my burdoun be 
Alle knyhtes that hauen swerdes resceyuen not swiche colees Gret 
joye it were and profyte j trowe if thei hadden swiche 

Now j telle you whan j was passed forth bi the porter that j rap. xxxn. 
haue nempned j sigh manye merueyles in the castel whiche me 
thouhte riht faire Ther was ther inne cloystre and dortour chirche 
chapitre and freytour And j sigh also ostelrye ther inne bi that 
oon side and fermerye To the ostelrye j wente at the firste think- 
inge to herberwe me there There j sigh Charitee and seruede and 
herberwede the pilgrimes and ofte wente to the yate to feede the 
poore folk that j haue spoke you of heer bifore It is she that heeld 
the scripture of pees Whan Moyses yaf and departede the releef 
Poorth j passede jn to the cloystre j wente and to the chirche And 
there j fond a fair cumpanye of ladyes of whiche j wot not the names 
of alle Por with oute mo of hem that sitten me most at herte and 
of which j wundrede most j askede the names of grace Tweyne j 
sigh that cloumben the degrees of the dortour and wenten to gideres 

2c 



194 



THE PILGRIMAGE OF 



And that oon hadde a gambisoun and that oother bar a staf 
Thilke with the gambisoun was at the grees and there she abood 
me Of oothere clothes she was al bare saue of as michel as she 
was clothed inne And that oother was armed on the handes and 
glooued with glooues and with a rochet riht whyt she was arayed 
wel nobleliche Tweyne oothere j sigh speke to gideres and go 
toward the chapitre Of whiche that oon bar cordes and byndinges 
and that oother heeld a fyle stiked [131] bitwixe hire teeth and was 
armed with a targe 

cap. xxxiii. An oother j sigh that wente bi the cloistre and as me thouhte 
she bar mete croumed up on parchemyn And ther sewede hire a 
whyt culuer in the eyr fleeinge after hire 

cap. xxxiv. An oother yet j sigh go euene foorth toward the freytour whiche 
as it seemede me hadde a gorgiere a boute the throte 

cap. xxxv. An oother j fonde at the chirche that bar a messangeres box and 
hadde wynges redy streiht for to flee to the skyes and in hire hand 
she bar an awgere and heeld it hye With that oother hand wher 
of j abashed me michel she serued dede folk that j sigh ther inne 
And it seemede that bi hire seruice she made hem bicome onlyue 
ayen 

cap. xxxvi. An oother ther was yit ther inne that in hire hand bar an horn 
and made ther inne a gret soun of organes and of sawtree I 
thouhte she was a jowgleresse and a disporteresse to folk 

cap. xxxvii. Whan j hadde wel seyn alle these thinges j was stired to aske 
of grace dieu Wher of these ladyes serueden and who thei weren 
Lady quod j to hire j preye yow techeth me who ben these ladyes 
and wher of thei seruen Eor j am abasht for hem And thanne she 
seide me I wole that thou see first apertliche at the eye how men 
seruen in the freytour and that thou see the dortour Go we now 
thider quod j to hire In to the dortour we wenten And there j sigh 
hire with the staf that maade the beddes and leyde on hem white 
clothes 

cap. xxxviii. And hire felawe with the gambisoun sang swich a song I wole 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 195 

singe j ouhte wel doon it I bere no thing with me At the litel 
wiket j shal not be withholde for j am naaked 

In the TYeytour afterward j sigh that of whiche j was michel more cap. 
abasht Many dede folk alle buryed yeven mete to the quike and 
serueden hem sweeteliche and deuowtliche on knees And the ladi 
with the gorgier that was fretoreere viseted hem that eeten and 
filled hem here defautes 

Now j wole telle thee quod grace dieu of the noble ladies of this cap. xi 
place and of that thou hast seyn heer inne The ladi that bereth 
the strenges and the cordes and the byndinges she is the maistresse 
of heer inne next me She is prioresse whiche leedeth alle the 
cloystreres in les bounden hi hondes and hi feet and maketh hem 
prisoneeres with opene dores Bi name she is nempned and cleped 
obedience Hire cordes and hire byndinges been hire diuerse 
comandementes whiche bynden propre wille that it doo no thing of 
his owen lust Heer after thou shalt wite it wel whan thou shalt be 
holden in hire laaces 

The ladi that bereth the file she is cleped hi name Discipline She cap. xii 
is the ladi that keepeth the ordre that thei be not hardy to do euele 
The fyle that she bereth in hire mouht it is vndernemynge of euele 
She leueth no thing that she ne correcteth and skowreth and for- 
bisheth And to that ende that she do alle thinge apoynt and that 
oothere misdoon not hire she is targed with the targe that thou 
hast left and that thou took to memorie The name j haue [132] 
seid thee to reherce it it were litel woorth 

She with the gambesoun which hath seid the song is wilful cap. x 
pouerte that hath bi hire goode wille left alle the goodes that she 
hadde in the world and as michel as she mihte haue ther inne At 
alle poyntes she hath vnclothed hire Biht now thou haddest seyn 
hire naked ne hadde j put on hire the purpoynt that bi lachesse 
thou took to memorie to bere Thow wost wel how men clepen it 
She singeth thou hast herd it that she hath no thing aboute hire 
that shal with holde hire to passe to the citee there she wolde go to 

2c2 



196 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

Ther while needeth thou acqueynte thee with hire and that thou 
preye hire holdinge up both thine handes that she wole comforte 
thee to that ende that thow mowe singe soo 

cap. xiiii. Of hire felawe j sey thee also that bereth the staf and maketh 
thebeddesj rede thou make hire thi freend al thi lyue that she 
make thi bed alle nihtes and that thou make hire a place with thee 
Gladliche she wole ligge with thee alle times that the liketh She 
lith and resteth hire ofte with that oother al niht Good it is to 
haue swich dortorere swich wenche and chaumberere Thouh Venus 
come in to the dortour she wolde drive hire out with hire staf and 
wole suflre hire to ligge in no bed that ther were for no peny And 
if thow wite not why it is the cause and the resoun is swich For 
Venus as she seith drof hire and putte hire sum time out of the 
world Wherfore it is riht that she drive hire ayenward and do hire 
the same This ladi is cleped Dame blaunche the wasshene Thilke 
that of no wiht hath cure if he ne be why t and with oute tilthe And 
if oother weys thou wolt nempne hire Chastite thou miht clepe 
hire chasteleyne of this castel Ther is nother archere ne querelle 
that she ne wole defende and that neither arwe ne darte entre She 
is not for nouht armed with the gloouen and glooued Who so is at 
the dore hi whiche the assaute cometh with hand armed he is ofte 
the michel more hardi ayens the dartes that ben cast Weel thou 
wost the name of the gloouen I tauht it thee in myn hous A fool 
thou were whan thou vngloouedest thee of hem It wole be hard to 
haue hem ayen afterward 

cap. xiiv. The ladi that thou hast seyn goo bi the cloistre and here mete up 
on parchemyn is pitaunceere of heer inne and suthselerere She 
yiveth mete to the soule and feedeth it that it hungre nouht She 
fulfilleth the herte nouht the wombe with hire goode and sweete 
mete She is also cleped lessoun and studie bi hire rihte name 
And hire mete is nempned holi writ that is putt ther on and vessel 
maad of parchemyn for it shulde not shede bi the wey It mihte 
not be kept soo wel ne so faire in oother vessel With hire j rede 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 197 

thou acqueynte thee For bi hire if thou wolt thou slialt lightliche 
haue the acqueyntaunce of the oothere And the loue and the 
knoweleche and the grace of the holi gost that folweth hire as a 
whyt culuer shal shewe thee and sey thee al that thei doon in the 
londe of biyonde He is messanger and cometh to speke with thilke 
that he seeth studie and that taken here feedinge bi the hand of 
lessoun 

Now j wole telle thee yit after of that thou hast seyn in the ca P- xly - 
freytour She that hath the gorgiere is ladi [133] and freytoureere 
Abstinence thou shalt clepe hire whan to hire thou shalt speke Hire 
gorgiere is Sobrietee thou ouhtest wite it if thou ne haue foryete 
it I seide it thee er this The dede that seruen and feeden the quike 
deuoutliche with outen lesinge ben the goode folk that ben gon out 
of this world that han yiven so michel of here goodes to the quike 
that thei ben susteyned ther with and sufficientliche fedde Serteyn 
thilke were riht nice that wiste nouht he hadde seruice of dede and 
eete of heres and that with oute heres he shulde dye of hunger And 
therfore seruice men taken of hem riht as thouh thei weren present 
And in preyinge for hem men shulden thanke hem And therfore 
thei ben sette on knees as thouh thei seiden Preyeth for us With 
owres ye liven with bothe youre handes preyeth for us 

Now quod she that is wel doon heer inne thou hast seyn it in cap. xivi. 
dede The ladi that is at the cherche that bereth the messangeres 
box it is the ladi that serueth hem ayen after that eche deserueth 
And with the augere thou hast seyn she perceth the heuene So 
that she maketh the goodshipes descende that yilden hem here 
lyflode This awgere is seid bi name Furaunt continuacioun that bi 
his goode continuaunce maketh the heuene an hygh to perce And 
also yiueth hem mete and sweeteliche abaundoneth it hem Half- 
peny ne peny haue thei nouht yive that it ne is guerdoned hem an 
hundreth fold For thei haue the lyf that shal neuere faile So thouh 
thei hauen serued the quike thei ben also serued ayen bi hem Here 



198 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

messangeere rediliche serueth hem ayen and apertliche maketh 
liein rise from deth bi the grete goodes that she dooth hem And 
purgatorie she ahbreggeth hem and here peynes she alleggeth hem 
If of the lady thou wolfc wite the name she hatteth orisoun and sum 
time she is cleped preyere in oother manere She hath wynges for 
to flee faste and for to soone stye up in to heuene for to soone doo 
hire message hifore god for mankynde And is procuresse whan 
time is to see him Messangere she is and rediliche presenteth him 
hifore the kyng And in good feith sheweth that that is bihight 
him And bi hire is noon put in defaute But that here procura- 
cioun be seled with deuocioun To hire j rede that thou go and that 
thou sende hire bifore from thee to the citee to which thou wolt go 
She shal wel kunne redye thee a place and a couenable dwellinge 
there as thou shalt make habitacioun It is not resoun that thi 
comynge thider ne be wist bifore Ther sette neuere man the foot 
with inne that ne hadde sent bifore Of the theef it was customed that 
was hanged with jhesu He sente orisoun bifore He was the bettere 
and euere shal be So shalt thou do and thou leeue me For thou 
hast neede as he hadde 

cap. xivii. The ladi that thou hast herd pleye with instrumentes and bereth 
an horn that is the waite that awaketh the king alle times that he 
slepeth bi hire blowinge Bi hire cryinge if he ly to michel she 
maketh him rise In latynlatria she is cleped bi name and nempned 
Hire horn is the inuocacioun of Dieu in adiutorioun at euery hour 
with oute weeryinge So she bloweth at the biginnynge and sithe 
to hire organes she aplyeth hire and deliteth hire to the melodye 
And to the sawtrye she taketh hire enter[134i]medlinge ther with 
And thanne ther is gret melodye of sweete song and of psalmodye 
Thus the instrumentes ben cleped and nempned bi here names 
These ben the instrumentes that ben plesaunt to my fader the king 
almihti Michel he loueth swich organe and swich song and swich 
jogelorye And for that it liketh him wel he maketh of thilke that 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 199 

pleyen with hem and doon it hise principal pleyeres and hise special 
jogeloresses Swich thing longeth wel to a kyng for his disport as 
whan thei blowen 

As grace dieu spak thus to me j sigh hire bifore me that heeld cap 
the byndinges and that she come to me euene Hider now quod 
she Who art thow what seechest thou in cloistre ? Whider gost 
thou I wole thou sey it me a noon I wot neuere whether thou 
espye us Lady quod j espye yow wole j nouht But j shulde go 
in to Jerusalem the citee Wherfore grace dieu hath led me hider 
for to abbregge my wey and for to shorte it Hath she not seid 
thee quod she that heer inne thou shalt fynde hard bed hard lyfe 
and hard passage al be it that it seemeth not swich ? Yis quod j 
But j wolde fayn do hire wille if j mihte Ther is no thing quod 
she thou ne shalt do wel if thou ne be to lache Al holt in good 
wille And whether thou hast it good to proof j wole putte thee 
anoon Hider now cum forth quod she take hider thine handes And 
thi feet I wole sette thee as a faucoun in gesse 

Whan swiche woordes j herde riht gretliche j was abasht Eor j ca p. xiix 
hadde not be wont to be bounden ne corded Elee durste j nouht 
for grace dieu that hadde led me to the place Hider now quod j 
dooth what ye wole j am abaundoned to yow I durste not be con- 
trariows to thing that ye wolden doo Grace dieu hath wel avised 
me that j shal fynde in this place countrepeis and equipollence of 
the hegge of penitence 

And thanne she vnfolde hire byndinges and bi the feet bond me cap. i. 
so that me thoute j was sette in stokkes other take with grinnes 
The byndinges with whiche she hadde bounden me she heeld with 
hire handes bi that oon ende and seide me that whan j wolde gon 
oo wey j shulde go an oother Afterward j wiste it wel But of that 
strof j no thing I haue leuere sey it an oother time than write it 
heere in my book Afterward she bond myne handes and seyde me 
that alle the werkes that j dide shulden be bareyn but if j dide hem 
bi hire My tunge yit she made me drawe out and aboute it a bynd- 



200 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

inge she putte and seyde me j shulde nouht speke if bi hire j ne 
speke This byndinge quod she is cleped silence Benedicite this is 
thilke that oonliche vnbynt it Of grace dieu j sey nouht ne of hem. 
that thou hast seyn ne of oothere that thou shalt see that to hem 
thou miht speke whan any thing thou wolt aske hem 

cap. H. Whan thus the prioresse hadde sette me and bounden me as 
hound leced a gret while afterward j sigh tweyne olde Wher of 
michel j abasshed me That oon bar tweyne potentes on hire nekke 
and she hadde feet of led and a box she hadde bi hynde hire as a 
messangeere That oother was also a messangere and up on hire 
heed bar a bed and hadde trussed hire lappes in hire girdel redy as me 
thouh[135]te for to wrastle To me thei comen to gidere and sey den 
me The deth sendeth us to thee for to tourneye For she cometh 
to thee with oute taryinge and hath seid us and enioyned us that 
from thee we departen nouht bifore that we haue ouerthrowen thee 
and to the eerthe felled thee She wole fynde thee tormented and 
maat so that she mowe sey to thee chek and maat 

cap. HI. Who ben ye quod j anoon I knowe neither yow ne the deth I 
wole wite who she is and if deth be youre maistresse And j wole 
also wite if bothe tweyne ye ben with hire Wherfore seith it me 
if ye wole and youre names and wher of ye seruen And thanne thei 
seiden me The arguynge ne the thuartinge is no thing worth ayens 
us ne ayens deth neither For ther is noon that may be so strong 
that we ne abaaten him of alle poyntes as soone as we come The deth 
hath the lordshipe in the world ouer the lyfe of the bodi And 
kynges and dukes dreden hire more than doon smale poore folk 
Biche and poore she maketh euene and neuere spareth no wight 
And in many places entreth ofte there she hath not sent bifore 
Soo that she hath don curteysye to thee whan she hath maad us 
come bifore This is a certeyn warnynge that she cometh to thee 
hastliche Of hire we ben messangeres and specially currowres Eche 
of us shal sey thee hire owen name And thanne thilke spak that 
bar the bed up on hire heed and that seemede a wrastlere I hatte 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 201 

quod she infirmitee that oueral ther j fynde hele sette me to wrastle 
with him for to venquishe him and ouertrede him Oon houre he 
felleth me an oother time j felle him But fewe as j trowe shulden 
felle me ne were medicine that dooth sum coumfort Whiche was 
bore to dryue me awey Ofte it bifalleth that j fynde hire lened or 
sette at the dore bi whiche j shulde passe for to go do my message 
and so j muste turne ayen or soiourne long time with oute And 
neuerthelees mawgre alle the boxes and hise emplastres and hise 
oynementes and hise empassionementes sum tyme j entre in and 
compleyne to thilke anoon which deth hath sent me to Down j 
bete him and doun j ouerthrowe him He hath no mary that j ne 
souke His blood j drinke his flesh j ete So that he hath neither 
strengthe ne vertu And thanne in the bed that j haue j ley him so 
that deth fynde him al redy his lyfe to drawe with oute havinge to 
michel to doone 

Thou art not quod j messangere to which men ouhten make good cap. im. 
cheer This that j am quod she For thou shuldest wite that j am 
thilke that make remembre on penitence whan she is put in for- 
yetinge Thilke that bringeth folk to the wey whan thei ben out ther 
of and setteth hem ayen in the rihte wey Sum time thilke that 
made nature For he sigh that summe ne reccheden nouht of him 
and hadden foryeten him and litel dredden him clepede me and 
seide me Go in to thilke wordliche cuntree and wrastle with hem and 
bete hem doun that thou fyndest boistous ayens me For bi cause 
thei haue hele thei preysen me litel and hauen put me in foryetinge 
Correcte hem and chastise hem and bynde hem so faste in here 
beddes that thei [136] mowe not a rise ne turne hem at here wille 
And that thei leese savour of etinge and al the appetite of drinkinge 
To thilke ende j sey it thee that j wole thei preye me of mercy and 
that thei amenden hem and entenden to saue here soules So that 
the deth mowe fynde hem in swich plyt that eche of hem mowe sey 
to him Deth j drede thee nouht a straw I haue sette al myn herte 

2D 



202 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

and al my thouht to my creatour Smyte whan thou wolt my soule 
is al arayed for to gon out of his bodi Penitence the lauendere 
hath maad it bi so miche in hire bowkinge that it is porged and wel 
wasshen. 

cap. Hv. Now j telle thee that whan he hadde thus seyd me soone j 
obeyede to him Mi lappes j put in my girdel and wente me bi the 
cuntree And so michel j haue doon that manye j haue discounfited 
and ouerthrowe with wrastlinge In bedde j haue maad manye ligge 
And of thee wole j do no lasse Make thee redy I wole wrastle 
with thee and soone leyn thee doun in thi bed 

cap. iv. That oother quod j to hire shal first as couenaunt is sey me who 
she is I wole it wel quod she And thanne that oother seide I am 
thilke that whan thou were bore with iolyfnesse thou wendest 
neuere haue seyn Thou seidest of me she is ferre she shal not 
come a good while she goth softe she hath feet of leed she may not 
go I haue tyme ynowh to pleye me Now j telle thee soothliche 
feet of leed j haue and go softe But ferre men gon litel and litel 
ful wel er this men hauen seid it Thouh j be comen softe algates 
ouertake thee j haue and tidinges j bringe thee that the deth whiche 
forbereth nouht cometh to thee Hire messangere j am She may 
haue no messangere that may speke ther of more verryliche Mi 
felawe gabbeth sum time for sum thing contrarye that suifreth hire 
not to do hire message But me may no thing empeche to shewe it 
certeynliche Viletee the dotede j hatte the leene the rivelede 
thilke that hath the hed hoor and wel softe Al bare of her Thilke 
of whom folk shulden aske counseil and here gret wurshipe too For 
j haue seyn the time passed and michel good and yuel preeued 
This is the glose of science and thilke bi which men kunnen the 
thinges Ther shal neuere noon kunne no science if he ne haue 
seyn and preeued Neuerthelees ofte it bifalleth and needeth nouht 
to hele it that al be it that j haue seyn ynowh and preeued ynowh 
and cowde ynowh and al be it j haue wel an hundreth winter j am 
sette in the rewe of children and at the laste dote and haue no wit 



THE LTF OF THE MANHODE. 203 

to counseile This is the cause for which Ysaie ciirsede me sum 
time whan he sigh me 

Sey me quod j of the potentes and thanne anoon go hens sithe cap. M. 
thou hast doon thin erande me liketh nouht thi presence Like or 
nouht like quod she so shal it not be Deth shal first come to thee 
er j departe fro thee I wole anoon bete thee so michel that gret 
ioye shalt thou neuere haue Courbe and impotent j wole make thee 
with the grete strokes j shal yive thee Neuertheles so michel 
auauntage thou shalt haue of me if thou be wys that the twey 
potentes that j haue to lene me too [137] I wole take thee Nouht 
that j wole for this enchesoun bineme thee thi burdoun For with the 
spiritual staf the temporal is good My potentes ben bodiliche and 
for to susteyne the body thei ben For this cause j dide make hem 
and took hem and trussed hem Curteys j am Eor hem that j bete 
j ouerthrowe hem nouht soo soone that on that oon side thei ne ben 
susteyned if on that oother side thei ben smitten Wherefore so 
lightliche fallen thei nouht ne so soone misbifallen So that now 
take hem if thou wolt thei shule neede thee wel bothe tweyne Mi 
strokes ben sore to here Soone thou shalt wite it if j ne deye 
Hider now quod she to hire felawe It is time that we doon him 
annoye Wrastle with him and make him ligge in thi bed And on 
that oother side j wole helpe thee and annoye him to my power. 

And thanne bothe to gideres thei tooken me and maaden me ca p. ML 
anoon falle doun and bi the throte thei tooken me to streyne me and 
harde to pinche me Crye and braye j mihte riht wel Oother solas 
hadde j noon In the bed at the laste thei leyden me and seiden to 
me Araye thee the deth cometh If she take thee sodeynliche It is 
not long on vs We haue wel warned thee and yit we warnen 
thee 

As j was holden in this plyte and thus lay on the bed I sigh cap. MIL 
a lady come that made myn herte glade She hadde a symple bi- 
holdinge and a visage benigne and plesaunt and hadde drawen out 
hire oon brest bi the vente of hire cote and she hadde a corde in hire 

2D 2 



204 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

hand as thouh she wente to hey To me she com hire and vnfolded 
hire corde and thanno seyde me Hider now come to the fermorye 
For thou art not wel heere And thanne j seide hire Sweete lady j 
bihoote yow bi my soule and swere yow that with yow j wolde glad- 
liche go but for j wot not who ye be I biseeche yow that ye 
wole teche me And j wole quod she sey it thee Wite of sooth 
that j am thilke that after sentence yiven in alle jugementes j 
shulde he resceyued but if wrong be doon me Whan the souereyn 
kyng sum time hadde doon jugement of mankynde and put to deth 
bi here folve thanne i maade hime leue of his hand And for to 

V >l 

haue in sum bileevinge j maade him sette a bowe with oute corde in 
the heuene for cause of accord With the corde which the bowe was 
corded and that j haue vncorded j drawe and bringe out the wrecches 
of miserie whan I fynde hem ther inne And therefore accordeth 
hire Resoun that j hatte Misericorde that is to seyne corde of 
wrecches for to drawe hem out of foul wrecchednesse My mooder 
Charitee was cordere and thredere of this corde As soone as it 
breketh shal neuere noon mowe stye in to heuene 

cap. iix. Why quod j haue ye drawe youre brest? is ther milk ther inne with 
whiche ye wole yive me souke ? Ye quod she thou hast more neede 
ther of and yit shalt haue than of gold or of siluer. Pite it hatteth 
It needeth wel to yive souke with to the poore folk I yive ther 
with sowke to the hungrye and j werne it not to thilke that in time 
passed hauen misdoon me Aristotle seith that milk is noon oother 
thing but blood that is remeved and maad al whyt bi decoccioun of 
heete that blyndeth his rednesse If thou wost not what it is to seyn 
[138] thou shuldest wite that man ful of jre hath nouht in him but 
red blood the whiche shulde neuere be whyt but if charite boiled it 
and turned it in to whitnesse whyt milk it bicometh whan it is soden 
and the rednesse goth al awey And thanne thilke that hath swich 
milk foryiveth al that men han mysdon him To him is wel sittinge 
swich a brest and wel auenaunt My fader that was put on the cros 
was not vn war shed of swich a brest al were it nouht neede to she we 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 205 

it He maade perte and kerue his riht side the side of his manhode 
Ther dide neuere no mooder ne norice so michel for hire chyild 
Thanne his breste shewede wel To eche it seide Come forth haue 
Who so wole souke come forth In me is no more blood of Ire , 
Charitee hath remeeved it and soden in to whyt milk for commune 
profite Ther sookneuere noon non swich milk ne droouh noon swich 
brest 

Now j telle thee thus j yive sowke to thilke that j wot hauen cap. ix. 
neede and so j am lich my fader and also charitee my inooder And 
therwith thou shuldest wite that in alle places that j may see any 
poore that hath hunger Anoon j yive him bred Mete and drink j 
yive after that j haue foysoun of good If j see any discomforted 
any naked any vnclothed j clothe hem ayen and coumforte hem 
and stire hem and counseile hem to pacience The pilgrimes j 
resceyue in myn hous And whan any is in prisoun j go visite hem 
ones in the moneth at the leste Thilke that ben dede j burye hem 
and thilke that been in bedde bi eelde or bi syknesse j serue hem in 
hurnblesse And heerfore hath grace dieu maad me enfermerere of 
this place I serue the grete and the smale and ofte make hem 
ayen here beddes and suffre hem endure no defaute that j may 
amende If with me thou wolt come j am redy to serue thee Gret 
wil quod j haue j ther too But how it shal be j ne wot These mes- 
sageres holden me so nih that j ne may goon after yow If ye diden 
hem from me gret bountee ye diden me Doon hem awey quod she 
may j nouht But with my corde j wole lede thee with me if j may 
in to the fermerye to reste The messangeres shule come thider also 
and j trowe wel nouht leue thee bifore that the deth come ne 
forbere thee 

And thanne hire corde she bond to the bed and ledde me forth cap. ixi. 
The olde also foot bi foot comen thider wher of j was nouht glad 
Power was nouht myn and amende it mihte j nouht 

Whan in the fermerye j was and hadde leyn there a while sodeyn- cap. ixii. 
liche and a soursaut j sigh an old oon that was clumben anhy up 



206 THE PILGRIMAGE OF 

on my bed Wherof j was gretliche abasht She afryghte me soo 
that speke to hire mihte j nouht ne no thing aske of hire In hire 
hond she heeld a sithe and she bar a cheste of tree and anoon she 
hadde sett oon of hire feet up on my brest for to streyne me Ho 
ho quod grace dieu thanne that was not fer fro that place Abide a 
while I wole sey him twey woordes that j haue to sey him Sey now 
thanne anoon for j haue to go elles where 

cap. ixiii. And thanne com grace to me and sweetelich seide me Now j see 
wel that thou art at the streyte passage of thi pilgrimage Loo heere 
the deth that is comen Which is the ende of alle eertheliche thinges 
[139] and the terrnininge She thinketh to mowo thi lyfe and putte 
it al in declyn and sithe in hire coffyne thi bodi she wole putte for to 
take it stinkinge to wormes This thing is al commune to eche man 
and womnian Man in this world is ordeyned to the deth as the 
gras in the medewe to the sithe For that that is to day greene 
and to morwe drye is hey Thou hast now be greene a long time 
and hast had reynes and wyndes But now thou mostest be mowe 
and to broke in twey peeces That oon is the body that oother the 
soule Thei mihten nouht passen to gideres The soule shal first go 
and sithe afterward the bodi shal go But that shal nouht be so 
soone The flesh shal first be roten and nee we geten ayen at the 
general assemblee Now looke whether thou be wel apoynted and 
arayed If it ne be long on thi self thou shalt anoon come to the 
citee to whiche thou hast ment Thou art at the wiket and at the 
dore that thou seygh sum time in the mirrour If thou be dispoiled 
and naaked thou shalt be resceyued with inne Thou haddest wel 
chier thilke entree at the firste whan thou seigh it And algates so 
michel j sey thee that thou crye mercy to my fader in biheetinge to 
Penitence that thouh thou haue nouht doon heer sumcience gladliche 
thou wolt don it in purgatorie there thou shalt go too 

cap. ixiv. Now j telle yow if j mihte haue spoke j hadde maad hire many 
deniaundes of whiche j hadde doute and kneewe nouht It is folye 
for to abide to the neede Whan men weenen that deth be riht fer 



THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 207 

he abitte at the posterne Wei j wiste that j was supprysed The 
deth leet the sithe renne and maade the soule departe from the 
hodi Thus me thouhte as j mette But as j was in swich plyte and 
in swich torment I herde the orlage of the couent that rang for the 
matynes as it was wont Whan j herde it j awook and al swetinge j 
fond me And for my meetinge j was gretliche thouhti and abasht 
Algates up j ros me and to matines j wente But so tormented and 
weery j was that j mihte no thing doo there Myn herte j hadde so 
fichched to that j hadde met that me thouhte and yit do that swich 
is the pilgrimage of dedliche man in this cuntre and that he is ofte 
in swich periles And therfore j haue sett it in writinge in the wise 
that j mette it Nouht that j haue sett al for the writinge shulde be 
to long 

If this meetinge j haue not wel ymet j preye that to riht it be ca P- lxv - 
corrected of thilke that kunne bettere meete or that bettere mown 
make it Thus michel j sey also that if any lesinge ther be ther inne 
that to meetinge it be arretted For bi meetinge may nouht alle 
sooth be shewed Errour wolde j noon meynteene bi noo wey But 
gladliche j wolde and haue wilned that by the meetinge that j haue 
seyn alle pilgrimes ryghteden hem and kepten hem from forueyinge 
Eaire he chastiseth him self men seyn that bi oothere is chastysed 
The errour and the forueyinge of oothere shulde ben warnynge that 
eche take his wey soo that he mowe come to good eende Thilke 
eende That is the guerdoun and the rewarde of the ioye of heuene 
Whiche god grawnte to alle quike and dede Amen 

Heere endeth the romaunce of the monk of the pilgrimage of the 
lyfe of the manhode which is maad for good pilgrryme that in this 
world swich wey wole holde that he go to good hauene and that he 
haue of heuene the ioye Taken up on the romaunce of the Hose 
wher inne the art of loue is al enclosed Preyeth for thilke that 
maade it that hath maad make it and wrot it Amen 



NOTES. 



p. 1, 1. 12. In Englishe j haue set it. The Glasgow MS. has 'In frenche i haue sett 

it,' following the French Quar toute en francois mise lai. 

1. 13. may he wight lerne. The St. John's MS. has 'maye ilke man lere.' Per- 
haps 'he' is a fragment of 'iche' as in p. 2,1. 1. The French has 
chascun, and the Laud MS. ' eche wyght.' 
1. 17. Chaalit. So in the French MS. The St. John's MS. has < Chalice.' 

p. 2, 11. 29, 30. lewed religiouns. The St. John's MS. has ' of lerede of 

lewidde of seculere of regulere.' 

]>. 7, 1. 27. contrarie There is an erasure here in the MS. The St. John's 

MS. has 'contrarye to the,' and the Laud MS. ' contrary to J> e .' 
p. 9, 1. 1. Ezeldel ix. 4. 

11. 2, 24. Tahu, an error of the scribe for ' Thau.' 
1. 8. maister : gloss, ' or vicarie.' 

p. 10, 1. 2. with an instrument. There is again an erasure in the MS. The 

French has De ouny et doulx instrument, and the St. John's MS. reads 
' with an eueyn instrument and a softe.' 
1. 3. of to gret rudeshipe. Perhaps we should read ' ofte ' for ' of.' The St. 

John's MS. has ' for ofte sithis ouergrete reddour falleth amisse.' 
1. 10. avise : gloss, ' teche.' 

p. 11, 1. 20. ne tokeneth. Originally ' betokeneth.' 

p. 12, 1. 19. the which thing grace dieu halt no game. The French MS. has, 

La quelle chose grace dieu 
Ne tient a soulas ne a Jeu. 

1. 23. Seynt Thomas. The St. John's MS. adds ' of Caunterbery.' 
1. 29. quod he: gloss, 'i. Ambrose.' See Ambrosii Epist. xx. ' Ad imperatorem 
palatia pertinent, ad sacerdotem ecclesiae.' See also his Sermo contra 
Auxentium, De non tradendis basilicis in his 21st Epist. 
2 E 



210 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 13, 1. 2. with the ring : ' and with the ling ' was first written, but ' and ' is struck 

through with the pen. 

1. 19. thilke. The text has 'thilke,' but the catchword is ' ]>ilke.' With few 
exceptions, J> in the MS. represents the heavier sound of ' th ' as in ' this,' 
and the lighter sound is denoted by ' th.' 
p. 14, 1. 12. me: gloss, 'i. resoun.' 
1. 14. j : gloss, ' i. resoun.' 

1. 20. See Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose, vol. vii. p. 116, ed. Bell. 
1. 28. with oute any mene empechement. The French MS. has sans point aucun 
empechement. The St. John's MS. reads 'withowten mennes em- 
pechement.' 
p. 15, 1. 8. After part, ' of ' has been erased. 

11. 28, 29. eche . . . office. The French has : 

Chacun commenca a seruir 
Pour son office desseruir. 

1. 32. a litel water thei dide. The French is Que de leaue vng petit y mis. 
p. 16, 1. 8. hire : gloss, "grace dieu.' 
1. 9. me : gloss, ' i. pilgrim.' 
1. 21. ,;' herde: gloss, 'pilgrime.' 
p. 17, 1. 6. me: gloss, 'grace dieu.' 
1. 7. j. : gloss, 'pilgrim.' 
1. 8. avised : gloss, ' i. taught.' 
1. 16. Now j : gloss, 'resoun.' 

1. 31. Isidore of Seville, in the 18th book of his Origines, chap. vi. says, of 
the etymology of gladius, ' Proprie autem appellatur gladius, quia yulam 
dividit, id est cervicem desecat.' 
p. 18, 1. 4. Wher to oo paas alone sufficeth not is literally from the French Pour quoy 

vng seul pas ne suffist. 
1. 26. avised: gloss, ' i. warned.' 
1. 27. j : gloss, i. resoun.' 
1. 28. avi&ement : gloss, ' i. techinge.' 

p. 19, 1. 3. Now ye hauen thanne. Something is apparently omitted. The St. John's 
MS. has ' have 36 herde.' The French is Or sauez done, which looks as 
if the translator might have read auez. The Laud MS. has ' Now 36 
haue herde.' 

p. 20, 1. 11. j : gloss, 'pilgrim.' 
p. 23, 1. 23. she : gloss, 'i. grace dieu.' 



NOTES. 211 

p. 23, 1. 24. hire ; gloss, ' i. nature.' 
she : gloss, ' i. grace.' 
hire : gloss, ' i. nature.' 

1. 30. wroth : The St. John's MS. has ' wrathelatehY 
p. 24, 1. 3. she : gloss, ' nature.' 
p. 25, 1. 5. After euele, ' for ' is struck out in the MS. 

p. 26, 11. 1, 2. This passage, which is rather obscure, is made clear by the French : 

Et bien vous di se ne feussies 
Si grant dame tost eussies 
La guerre et ad vous me preisse. 
p. 27, 1. 18. See Aristotle, De generatione animalium, ii. 3. 

1. 29. Isaiah x. 15, xlv. 9. 

p. 28, 1. 18. leeseth. The MS. has ' leeseeth,' but the last ' e ' has a dot under it to in- 
dicate the error, 
p. 29, 1. 21. she : gloss, 'nature.' 

1. 26. And that is not oon. A translation of the French qui nest pas tieulx. The 

St. John's MS. has ' and that nought alle ane.' 
p. 30, 1. 8. he : gloss, ' carpenter.' 

11. 12, 13. with oute with oute instrument. There is an erasure here in 

the MS. The French is sans oustil et sans instrument, and the St. John's 
MS. has ' with oute tnle and with oute instrumente.' 

11. 13, 14. lust no wihi compaare him. Another erasure in the MS. 

The French is A moy comparer ne doit on, and the St. John's MS. has 
'to me schulde na man make comparyson :' the Laud MS. 'to me schuld 
no wyght compaire hyme.' 
p. 31, 1. 6. Of this releef should be 'of his releef as in the St. John's and Laud 

MSS. The French has de son Belief. 
1. 20. for marked through in the MS. 
p. 32, 1. 3. allegeaunce. In the margin ' or Foryeuenes.' 

1. 24. he inserted above the line, 
p. 33, 1. 18. if ther were not who to sle it is literally from the French Que sil nestoit qui 

le tuast. 
1. 31. sittinge to. The MS. had originally 'J>at,' which is struck out, and ' to ' 

written above. 

p. 34, 1. 33. outtakinge. The first syllable has been erased by mistake in the MS. 
p. 35, 1. 7. kept. The St. John's MS. has ' swepede,' which is no doubt the time 
reading, as the French is baliee* The Laud MS. reads ' swepyd.' 

2 E 2 



212 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 35, 1. 31. punishe him and bete. The MS. originally had ' punishe him and chastise 

him and bete,' but the omitted words are struck out. 
1. 32. it: gloss, 'conscience.' 
p. 30, 11. 15, 16. The French is, 

Cest vng Relief pour langoreux 
Pour maladez et dangereux. 

1. 20. For grete thursday the St. John's MS. has ' schire thursday.' 
p. 37, 1. 15. ouht. We should read ' nouht.' The French is se point auez oy parler. 
1. 26. lene. We should read leue as in the Laud MS. The French has tmsser. 
1. 32. nih. The MS. reads ' niht.* 
p. 39, 1. 6. the soule. The St. John's MS. has ' Anima That es the sawle.' 

1. 33. yit inserted above the line, 
p. 40, 1. 12. is wiitten above the line. 

priuee. The St. John's MS, has 'precyous,' but the reading in the text 
is correct, as the French is priuee. 

11. 31, 32. and how it misbifel hem. Written in the margin, 
p. 41, 1. 2. ouer. Written above the line. 

bi. Written above. 
1. 10. j: gloss, ' i. pilgrime.' 

1. 21. she lened. Between these words 'was' stood originally in the MS. but is 
struck out. 

p. 42, 11. 15, 16. For ysak Esau. Inserted in the margin by another hand. 

p. 43, 1. 2. which. Originally ' with which,' but the former word is struck out. 

1. 32. if she: gloss, 'i. sapience.' 
p. 44, 1. 20. hire: gloss, 'nature.' 

1. 21. it heviede me. The St. John's MS. has 'hit heuyed hir,' and rightly, as 

the French is Mais moult forment li en peso. 
1. 26. hire: gloss, 'sapience.' 
p. 48, 1. 19. Grece. The French is Romme. 
p. 49, 1. 3. that : inserted above. 
1. 10. he: gloss, ' arystotyl.' 
1. 22. presentatyfliche should be ' representatyfliche ' as before. The French is 

representatiuement. 
p. 50, 1. 4. seyd. A mistake of the scribe for ' seye.' 

1. 5. dide. The St. John's MS. hass 'did nou5t,' but it is not absolutely 

necessary. The French is ne faisoit. 
1. 7. maist: written above the line. 



NOTES. 213 

p. 50, 1. 9. and: written above the line. 

p. 52, 1. 29. yrened. The St. John's MS. has ' hupyd ne pyked.' 

p. 53, 1. 1. Foy: gloss. ' feyth.' 

1. 26. The St. John's MS. has ' and on ilkane of thaym twelfe sere wrytynges 

that properly techeth : ' where ' sere'=several. 
p. 54, 1. 30. thei peyneden him to bineme it him. For the first ' him ' we should read 

' hem.' The French is De lui oster moult se penerent. 
1. 34. aproued. The French of this passage is, 

Sic que de son sang ainsi gouttee 
Fut lescharpe et ensanglantee. 

p. 55, 1. 3. boren. The St. John's MS. has ' it was mare brym J>an before,' where 
' brym ' is a corruption, as the French is portee. ' Brym ' signifies ' re- 
nowned.' 
p. 56, 1. 1. esperaunce: gloss, 'hope.' The St. John's MS. adds, 'that esperaunce 

that es als mykille at saye on Inglische as hope.' 
p. 58, 1. 8. to go fer with. The French is loing aler. 

1. 32. Fastinges strengthe. The French has, 

Jeunes le font engraisser 
Et maladies enfourmer. 

The St. John's MS. reads, ' Fastynge makes hyrn fatte and sekenesse 
athende5 hym.' The Laud MS. for ' strengthe ' has ' strenthis hym.' 
p. 59, 1. 6. as anevelte. We should read ' as an anevelte.' The French is coninie vne 
enclume. The St. John's MS. has ' a stithy,' where oddly enough ' as ' 
has dropped out for the same reason as ' an ' is omitted in the text. 
1. 23. was not a poynt shape for me. French, ne mefut pas faille a point. 
p. 60, 1. 11. that: written above. 

1. 13. thow shall haue the gryndynge of corowaement. For ' gryndynge ' read 
' grauntynge ' as in Laud MS. The St. John's MS. has ' J> 11 schalle have 
graunt of the crowne of lyfe.' The French is, 
Et si te di que emolument 
En auras de courounement. 
p. 61, 1. 12. ne: written above. 

1. 15. Force: gloss, 'strengthe.' 
1. 19. no: written above, 
p. 62, 1. 2. at the leste. The St. John's MS. has ' atte the beste,' but the reading in 

the text is right, as the French is A tout le mains. 
1. 9. in hem : gloss, ' glooves.' 



214 PILGRIMAGE OP THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 62, 1. 12. hise wittes. We should read ' thi wittes.' The French is, 
Quar ainsi com coeuure et refraint 
Le heaulme tes sens et restraint. 
1. 13. the eye: 'the' written above. 

1. 15. streyt. The St. John's MS. has 'strayte olierd,' i.e. with narrow holes for 
the eyes, and perhaps rightly, for the French is Quar se nestoit loilliere 
estroitte. 
1. 17. fool The St. John's MS. has ' fowle,' but the text is right. The French 

is folz parlemens. 

11. 27, 28. thi throte hool The St. John's MS. has < the throte bolle.' 
1. 33. she: gloss, < glotonye.' 
p. 63, 1. 2. goomes. The French is Par gouster le talant ment. 

1. 13. Seint William. Guillaume de Donjeon, formerly abbot of Fontaine-jean, 
became abbot of Chaalis in 1187, was made archbishop of Bourges 
in 1200, and died 10 Jan. 1209. He was canonized by Honorius III. 
in 1218. See Gallia Christiana, torn. x. col. 1509. 
p. 64, 1. 10. continence: written in the MS. ' continenence.' 
1. 18. she tastede him: French, le tatast, 
1. 19. to hire taste: French, de son taster. 
1. 29. noon: gloss, 'i. swerd.' 
1. 31. erle. The St. John's MS. has < cayser.' 

Ogrers. This should be ' Ogiers.' The French has Ogier. Ogier le 
Danois, or Oddegir the Dane, was one of the heroes of Charlemagne's 
court. His exploits are the subject of an old French poem by Adenez, 
under the title of Les enfances d' Ogier le Danois. See Warton's History 
of English Poetry, i. 139, ed. 1824. The Romans d' Oger by Raymbert 
is described in the Catalogue des Manuscrits Fra^ais (Bibl. Imp.), 
torn. i. p. 258, n. 1583. Roland's sword Durenda, or Durindale (Ellis, 
Metr. Rom. ii. 315, ed. 1811), was broken by him at the battle of 
Roncesvalles in cleaving a block of marble just before his death (See 
Turpin's Life of Charlemagne in Rodd's Anc. Span. Ballads, i. 42, ed. 
1821). According to another legend the hero threw his sword into a 
poisoned stream, where it still remains. The three heroes, Ogier, Roland, 
and Oliver, are frequently mentioned together in the romances relating to 
Charlemagne, as for instance in the romance of Sir Otuel (Ellis, Metr. 
Bom. ii. 326), and in that of Roland and Ferragus (Ibid. 313). 
p. 65, 1. 3. she: gloss, 'Justice.' 



NOTES. 215 

p. 65, 1. 10. swerd: gloss, 'justice.' 

1. 11. he: gloss, ( beneyt.' 
p. 66, 1. 19. lime: gloss, 'grace dieu.' 
p. 67,11. 27,28. empeyringe: written in the MS. ' emperyringe,' but the first 'r' is 

dotted for erasure. 

p. 69, 1. 5. soo that. Between these words several others are omitted. The French is, 

Quit semble questrangler me doie 
Si mestraint que ne puis parler. 
The St. John's MS. has, 'that me thynke it schulde strangill me. It 

streyneth me so that I maye noujt speke as I walde &c.' 
11. 12, 13. at shorte wordes : French, en briefment. 
\. 14. Superysed: gloss, ' i. ouercome.' 
1. 33. longe: written above, 
p. 70. 1. 21. shalt : written above, 
p. 71, 11. 2, 4. to come . . . to bere. These four words are written above. 

1. 18. for the sone of Saul. The St. John's MS. reads ' for Saule hym selfe.' 
p. 72, 11. 7, 8. dounj moste ley. The St. John's MS. has ' me bus nedes laye downe,' 

where ' bus '= behoves. 
1.21. leue. Perhaps we should read ' lede ' as in Laud MS. The St. John's 

MS. has ' brynge,' and the French line is Et Je tamerrait tel ie cuit. 
1. 23. j wot not. The Laud MS. originally had ' J note,' but ' wott ' is added in a 

modern hand. 

1. 24. al aloone. The St. John's MS. has ' be my ane.' 
p. 73, 1. 29. to : written above. 

p. 75, 1. 25. alongne: corrected in the MS. from ' alonygne.' 
p. 76, 11. 9, 10. The French is, 

Jai vnepierre par qui lagent 
Quant vueil voi inuisiblement. 

p. 79, 1. 13. grummede. The St. John's MS. has 'gruyned:' Laud MS. 'groyned.' 
1. 14. his : corrected in the MS. from ' hise.' 
1. 25. orgoill : gloss, ' pride.' 

p. 80, 1. 16. resoun but. Between these words several others have dropped out. The 
Laud MS. inserts ' for to couere wyth his grete vnreson,' following the 
French, Pour sa graunt desraison celer*. 

1. 24. yit is. The MS. originally had 'yit it is,' but ' it' is dotted for correction, 
p. 81, 1. 11. quod resoun. The MS. originally had 'quod she resoun,' but ' she ' is both 
dotted and struck out. 



216 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 83, 1. 13. alonygne. The 'y' is written over an erasure. 

1. 26. pilgrimage. Originally ' viage pilgrimage,' but the former is struck out. 

1. 28. holde at fable. From the French tenir a fable. 

1. 30. be : written above, 
p. 84, 1. 8. al : written above, 
p. 85, 1. 6. were : written above. 

1. 18. to meivard : gloss, ' pilgrim.' 

p. 86, 1. 10. grumminge. The St. John's MS. has ' groynande.' 
p. 87, 1. 25. he hath. We should read ' thou hast.' The French is 

Et comment quainsi a son gre 
Laies semi et deporte. 

\. 30. that. Originally ' |>is that ' in the MS. 
p. 89, 1. 16. woldest lene. Originally 'woldest |> u leue ' in the MS. 
p. 90, 1. 16. Thomas of Gvileuile. The French is thomas de guilleuille. 

1. 18. which: written above, 
p. 91, 1. 3. and : written above. 

1. 5. wille. The St. John's MS. has ' witterynge.' The Laud MS. ' wytte.' 
But the text is right. The French is Se ce nestoit par ton voulour. 

1. 18. whiche eres. The French is Qui ne sont prises es oreilles. 

1. 33. cloude : gloss, ' i. pe body.' 
]>. 92, 1. 25. so : written above. 

1. 30. she : gloss, ' i. resoun.' 
p. 93, 1. 3. The French is, 

En resortissant 
A lui sa vertu et rendant. 

1. 4. thou. The MS. has fouh.' 

1. 5. gouernayle. The French MS. has gouerneur, the St. John's MS. ' go- 

taemaunce.' Perhaps we should read ' gouernowr ' as in 1. 8. 
p. 94, 1. 5. that the contracte was ouerthrowe : French, Qne le contrail fut trebuchie. 

1. 21. doinges. The MS. has ' dunges.' Laud MS. ' dong.' St. John's MS. 

' doynge.' The French line is Fi de lui et de son maintien. 
p. 95, 1. 7. At the goode parte : French, au bien partir. 

1. 12. oo for to seye in oo moment : French, En vng moment oy a dire. 
p. 96, 1. 3. that that. The former of these words is added above the line. 

1. 31. so slugged. The Laud MS. reads 'to slugged.' 
p. 97, 1. 20. he werreth thee : French, il te guerroie. 

1. 24. god yilde yow : French, Je vous mercy. 



NOTES. 217 

p. 97, 1. 28. with me. Some lines are here omitted. The French is : 
Quauec mot deussies lauoie 
A la cite ou men suy 
Quar ie croi bien que maint ennuy 
En mon chemin ie trouuerai 
" Pour Ids maux pas. Q' pas ie ne scei 

Pourquoi sauec moi estie. 

The St. John's MS. has : ' gladly I walde that 36 helde the waye w 1 me 
to the cetee whither I am styrred to ga. For I trowe ryght wele that I 
schalle fynde many ane enmy in my waye for the schrewid pathes whilke 
I knawe noujt wharfore and 36 ware with me,' &c. 
p. 98, 1. 28. costed. Originally ' costed it ' in the MS. 
p. 99, 1. 4. a malcere ayen of mattes and arayour. The St. John's MS. has ' a bithere 

or a reparalere of mattes.' 
p. 100, 1. 6. it : written above. 
1. 14. it : written above. 
p. 101, 1. 2. the see : ' the ' written above. 

1. 12. biholde. We should probably read ' be holde,' that is, be held or 
regarded. The St. John's MS. has ' be halden,' and the French is, 
Que ne te faces fol tenir 
Pour la pieur voie tenir. 
\. 25. he : gloss, bodi.' 

p. 102, 1. 29. But I ouhte make a crosse. Literally from the French, Mais fair e la crois 
en deuroie. The St. John's MS. has, ' But I scholde hakke in the poste.' 
1. 32. hath : ' hath he ' originally in MS. 

p. 103, 1. 5. soone mown ayen to my wey. The St. John's MS. reads ' sone turne agayne 
to my waye,' perhaps rightly, as the French is, Bien tost retourner a ma 
voie. The Laud MS. has ' shuld mowe sone turne ayen,' and ' mowe ' 
is struck out. 

1. 9. perce. The St. John's MS. has here and elsewhere ' perche.' 
1. 23. Peresce : gloss, ' slewthe.' 
1. 25. Oiseuce: gloss, 'jdelshipe.' 

p. 104, 1. 2. Compare Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, i. 4. 65 : 
' Not half so big as a round little worm, 
Prick'd from the lazy finger of a maid.' 
And Beaumont and Fletcher's Woman Hater, iii. 1 : 
' Keep thy hands in thy muff and warm the idle 
Worms in thy fingers' ends.' 
2 F 



218 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 104, 1. 4. thou: 'jni' in the MS. 

1. 28. S. Bernard, De consideratione, lib. ii. cap. 13. ' Fugienda proinde 

otiositas, mater nugarum, noverca virtutum.' 

1. 32. and leue the wey ofbiyounde. The French is En laissant le chemin de la. 
p. 105, 1. 21. that : originally ' that hath.' 
p. 106, 1. 4. any hole : The St. John's MS. adds ' or muysse,' that is, an opening in 

a hedge made by game. 

1. 13. And fool. The St. John's MS. has < ane ebber fole.' 
1. 20. in the strenges. The St. John's MS. has ' in gildres.' 
p. 107, 1. 7. for the. The MS. has <foj>e.' 

1. 32. heled to thee. The St. John's MS. has ' layned fra the.' 
p. 108, 1. 22. Peresce : gloss, ' slewthe.' 
p. 109, 1. 28. Oiseuce : gloss, 'jdelshipe.' 

p. Ill, 1. 19. In here hand. So the MS. We should read 'hire.' 

p. 113, 1. 30, &c. The St. John's MS. has more details: 'To white garmentes rede 

sleues garmentys lawe colerde forto schewe the white nekke & the white 

halse opere with standande colers wele enbrowdede and sette with 

perle or w l spanges of siluer or of golde. Garmentys to lange or to shorte 

to wyde or to strayte. Sum reved in many Jagges, sum cutted and corven 

strayte of dyuerse coloures, with resons and poyses. Hudes to litelle 

or to grete sum with mare cleth in the tepet than in alle the hude 

efter.' 

p. 114, 1. 1. After brod the St. John's MS. adds 'homes and wistles harnaiste with 

siluer and golde and alle opere swilke newe gyses.' 

1. 20. lasse. The Laud MS. has ' more ' over an erasure. The French is, 
Saucun de mon sens bien petit 
A. tantost Je lai en despit. 
1. 25. fame. The French MS. hasfaulte. 

p. 115, 1. 2. Boloyne de grace. A town in the extreme south of France in the de- 
partment of Haute Garonne. 
1. 11. am : written above. 

1. 22. j see wel. After these words there is an omission. The St. John's MS. 
has ' but of thayre godscheps I see neuere a dele and perfore I &c.', and 
so the Laud MS. The French is, 

Mais de bien Je ne voi Rien 
Et pour ce suis ie mocqueresse. 
1. 26. orgoill : gloss, 'pride/ 



NOTES. 219 

p. 117, 1. 2. or: written above. 

1. 3. that j drawefor oon. Literally from the French, 
Affin que ie traie pour vne 
Et que lui oste sa merelle 
Du soufflet se ie le ventelle. 

merelle: The French is merelle, and the St. John's MS. reads 'meryte,' 
which seems to be a corruption. ' Merallus ' is defined in Du Cange as 
' Tessera quae in pluribus ecclesiis, canonicis, capellanis, aliisque pra?- 
bendariis datur in prsesentise signum, ut his quolibet sabbato exhibitis 
testentur, quoties et quibus officiis interfuerint, et debitas recipiant 
distributiones.' In some such sense ' merelle ' appears to be used in 
this passage. 

1. 31. in: omitted in the MS. 
1. 32. vantaunce : gloss, ' i. bostinge.' 

p. 119, 1. 11. " This horn was endued with such power, that all other horns were split 
by its sound ; and it is said that Orlando at that time blew it with 
such vehemence, that he burst the veins and nerves of his neck." 
Turpin's Life of Charlemagne, ch. xxiii. given in Eodd's Ancient 
Spanish Ballads (vol. i. p. 43, ed. 1821). Scott alludes to it in his 
Marmion, Canto vi. 33. ' for a blast of that dread horn, &c.' 
1. 28. Of euel time was he gentel man. So the St. John's and Laud MSS. 

French, De mal heure fut gentil horn. 
p. 120, 1. 9. prowde : corrected in the MS. from 'poudre.' 

1. 23. blowe: gloss, 'i. burioyne.' The St. John's and Laud MSS. have 'bowe,' 
and this is possibly right, as the French is ployer. 

I. 31. Peres ce : gloss, ' slewthe.' 

p. 12.1, 1. 31. Renard: gloss, 'fox.' See Roman du Renart, ed. Meon, i. 29 35 ; ' Si 

coume Renart manja le poisson aus charretiers.' 
p. 122, 1. 2. it : gloss, ' mantelle.' 

1. 12. Peresce : gloss, ' slewthe.' 

II. 18, 20. orguill: gloss, 'pride.' 

p. 123, I. 1. soor hed. The MS. had ' forhed,' which is corrected in the margin. 
1. 25. resouenaunce : gloss, ' remembringe.' 

1. 29. haue. We should read ' heue,' as in the Laud MS. The French is leue. 
p. 124, 1. 1. talinge : ' talkinge ' in the St. John's and Laud MSS. The French is, 

Ainsi comme a plait me tenoit 
Flaterie et a moi parloit. 

2r 2 



220 PILGEIMAGE OP THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 124, 1. 10. visage : gloss, ' visure.' 

1. 30. slaufiter : The MS. has < shauhter.' 
p. 125, L 24. he : gloss, ' dauid.' 

he : gloss, ' saul.' 
1. 27. longius. The traditional name of the soldier who pierced the side of 

Jesus, 
p. 127, 1. 5. accomplise : gloss, 'i. fulfille.' 

1. 29. with the tooth : repeated in the MS. but corrected. 
p. 128, 1. 7. set on. The MS. originally had set on hem, but ' hem ' is struck out. 

1. 17. The story of St. Nicholas, archbishop of Myra, who restored the mur- 
dered children to life is told in Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary 
Art, p. 269. The event is frequently commemorated in the pictures of 
the saint, or, as is more probable, the story may have grown out of 
the pictures which originally referred to a different cirannstance. 
p. 129, 1. 8. the raven : ' the ' is written above, 
p. 131, 1. 13. j wole. The MS. had originally, ' also j wole,' but 'also' is marked for 

erasure, 
p. 132, 1. 6. Fiat : We should read ' Fuit ' as in the French MS. 

1. 14. feelinge. Originally 'no feelinge,' but 'no 'is dotted for erasure. 
1. 20. womman and : ' and ' is written above, 
p. 133, 1. 13. caliowns : gloss, 'i. flintes.' 

1. 20. fir : added in the margin. 

p. 134, 1. 3. that haue anoon sorwe in weylinge. This obscure passage is not more 
clear in the Laud MS. which reads, ' J> 1 has anone curamen in ve,' or 
in the St. John's MS. which has ' that has als sone carmen and ve.' 
In the French MS. the whole runs thus, 
Jai nom Noli me tangere 
Qui at tantost cuer moult ire 
Men a petite achoison 
Et fait vng sault quant daguillon 
Suit pointe en delaissant cellui 
Qui par deuant mestoit amy. 
The Paris edition reads ' carmen en ve ' in the second line, ' Mue ' in the 

third, ' fais ' in the fourth, and ' Suis ' in the fifth. 
1. 7. in : added above. 
p. 135, 1. 1. yren: gloss, 'impatience.' 
2. She: gloss, 'iustice.' 



NOTES. 221 

p. 135, 1. 28. piloures: an evident mistake for 'perilous,' which is the reading of the 

St. John's and Laud MSS. The French has perilleuses. 
p. 136, 1. 18. serueth : written above. 

1. 21. oyseuce : gloss, 'ydylnes." 

1. 30. murderers. The MS. has ' murderes.' 

p. 137, 1. 25. She hadde There is an erasure in the MS. which probably should 

be filled up with the word ' drawen.' See p. 152. The French is, Set 
langue que hors traicte auoit. The St. John's MS. has, ' Hir tunge 
whilke scho hadde drawen oute.' 
p. 138, 1. 12. it: gloss, ' deth.' 

1. 4. Which an old oon so foul j sigh. We should probably read ' When swich ' 
for ' Which.' The St. John's MS. has ' When I sawe swilke ane aide 
delle that was so fowle and so vggly. The Laud MS. reads, ' When 
such an old so foule I sygh,' and the French is, Qvant telle vieille si 
laide vy. 
p. 139, 1. 19. Before Soothliche the MS. originally had ' q d she,' but these words are 

struck out. 
is : written above. 

1. 23. the poyntes : l the ' is written above. 
1. 30. a : written above. 

p. 141, 1. 6. Besachis Apemendeles. The reference is to the apocryphal book of 
1 Esdras, iv. 29-31, where the story is told of Apame, the daughter of 
the admirable Bartacus, and King Darius. In the Vulgate, Bartacus 
is called Bezax. 'Apemendeles' is a corruption from the French, 
which stands thus : 

Je suis lafille de besachis 
Apemen delez qui sest mis 
Le Roi qui Rit quant ie lui ris 
Et dolent est quant ie le suis. 
\. 9. it: written above. 
1. 11. to dispende : written above, 
p. 142, 1. 3. engendrede. The MS. has ' engendre.' 
p. 143, 1. 18. store. The St. John's MS. has ' warnestore.' 

1. 23. yrayne: ' or a loppe ' added in the margin, 
p. 144, 1. 14. thing: added in the margin. 

1. 23. stelen U nihte. The St. John's MS. has ' steles venyson on nyghtertale.' 
1. 20. After resoun the St. John's MS. adds, ' Fals scheperdes also that falsly 



222 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

serues Jjaire maistres false baxteres and brewsters also that falsly bakes 
agayne tlie assise and delyueres faire brede and thayre ale with fals 
mesures. Also false taylours, &c.' 
Compare p. 80, 1. 16. 

p. 145, 1. 16. poudre. The MS. has 'pondre.' The St. John's MS. reads ' poudre.' 
Laud MS. has ' powdre.' The reading is probably corrupt. The 
French is, 

Elle est faute contre nature 
Quar en tons temps elle met cure 
Darrain etfer mettrer couuer 
Pour aultre prendre et engendrer. 

1. 19. alwey. The translator read tousiours for tournois. The French is, 
Quar tournois par enchantement 
Fait conuertir en pdrisis. 
See Glossary, s. v. Parisis. 
1. 32. vsinge it : added above. 

p. 146, 1. 23. up on the stok. The St. John's MS. has ' vp on the stouen.' 
p. 148, 1. 2. panteneeres should be ' pauteneeres.' See Glossary. 

I. 21. After ableye the St. John's MS. inserts, Sum askes gloues, sum knyfes, 

sum says I am a beggere and hafe myster of tymbere, I pray 3owe 
giffe me a tre or twa. Sum says I am a 5onge husbande, I pray jou 
giffe a stotte or twa to my plught, [sum] sayse me buse make a Journey, 
I pray 3owe lene me for aght dayes or nyne, &c.' 

1. 24. After moneth the St. John's MS. has, ' Sum forto spare with thayre awne 
purse when thay passe thorowe the cuntre, leves ostries and ynnes and 
goode townes and lyes atte abbayes, sum with x hors, sum with xx, 
and thare thay muste be serued with alle the deyntees that may be 
geteii. And but 3if thay be, they schalle wayte the abbaye with ane 
euylle turne.' 

p. 149, 1. 23. leyd. The St. John's MS. has layde in wedde.' 
p. 150, 1. 2. thei: gloss, ' i. prestes.' 

1. 9. hauen: MS. ' hauem.' 
p. 151, 1. 23. periurement : gloss, ' forswerynge.' 

mensoige : gloss, ' gabbinge.' 
1. 26. menterye : gloss, ' lesinge.' 

II. 28, 29. mensoige : corrected in MS. from ' mensonge.' 
p. 152, 1. 7. molle. The St. John's MS. has ' moldewarpe.' 



NOTES. 223 

p. 152, 11. 23, 24. the style j haue: French, le stille ai. Cotgrave gives ' Stil: m. The 

stile, vse, course, or fourme of pleading, or of proceeding in Law.' 
p. 153, 1. 29. that : written above. 

p. 157, 1. 5. hele. The St. John's MS. has 'layne,' i.e. conceal, 
p. 159, 1. 1. yueresce : gloss, ' drunkeshipe.' 
1. 15. thanne : added above. 

11. 24, 25. Niceliche . . , . . Niceliche. French, Sottement nicement. 

1. 30. out : written above, 
p. 160, 1. 12. lace. The French MS. has laissier, which must have been read lasser as 

in the text, and laisser as in the St. John's MS. where we have ' lose.' 
p. 161, 1. 25. nempned. The following sentence is much condensed. The French is, 

Lun a nom dist elle rqptus 
Lautre stuprum lautre incestus 
Lautre est dit adulterium 
Et lautre fornication 
Et lautre qui nest pas a dire 
Te pent il bien a tant souffire. 
p. 162, 1. 13. me: gloss, ' soule.' 
1. 31. the : added above. 

p. 163, 1. 33. me: originally in the MS. ' it me.' 
p. 164, 1. 10. that : originally ' that to ' in the MS. 

p. 166, 1. 15. me chastyse: written over an erasure. The common editions have 'cor- 
recte me.' In the St. John's MS. the line stands thus : 

' Bot ]? u ar that daye correcte my folise.' 
p. 168, 1. 2. The St. John's MS. reads for this line, 

' Brynnande of whilke neuere a qwist brent :' 
where qwist is the Icelandic qvistr, Swedish qvist, a twig. 
1. 7. defende : ' deufende ' in the MS. 
p. 169, 1. 12. hys : added in the margin. 

rihtful : < rihful ' in MS. 
p. 171, 1. 24. me: added above. 

p. 172, 1. 7. A welle. The St. John's and Laud MSS. have ' and fulle,' but the reading 
of the text is the true one. The French is, 
Volentiers fontainne seroit 
Pour fair e le mol si pouoit. 
1. 15. also: added above. 
1. 28. abeescede : gloss, ' stouped.' 



224 PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 

p. 172, 1. 32. hele. The St. John's MS. has 'sloken.' 
p. 174, 1. 23. here : corrected in the MS. from ' heere.' 
p. 175, 1. 2. swich : written above. 
1. 12. ivode : so in MS. 
1. 25. had : added above. 

p. 177, 1. 25. that : originally repeated in the MS. 
p. 178, 1. 23. Prov. xxxi. 30. 

p. 179, 11. 7, 8. for to drive . , . fleeinge. Probably corrupt. The French is, 

Et pour chacier faire panneaux 
Et retz volans pour les oiseaux. 
1. 8. fetheren : gloss, ' vertues.' 
1. 24. S. Jerome, Comm. in Ep. ad Eph. lib. ii cap. 4 : ' Potestas quippe diaboli 

non in temeritate illius atque jactantia, sed in tua est voluntate.' 
p. 180, 1. 4. hindre : ' himdre ' in MS. 
p. 181, 1. 4. than: ' J>at ' in MS. 

1. 11. stir ing e : l striringe ' in MS. 

1. 19. After here thee the St. John's MS. adds, ' Schalle 36 bore me quod I, 
Damyselle whate hafe 36 sayde 30 wille noujt bere litelle when 30 speke 
to bere me. 3it I wille bere the quod scho, &c.' The French has, 
Vous me porteres quauez dit 
Dis Je . damoiselle . petit 
Fais porte mie ne voulez 
Quant de moi porter vous parlez 
Si te porterai ie dist elle fyc. 
p. 182,1. 13. uaryen alwey in here jdem . The French is, Tousiours en leur ydee 

reuiennent. 
p. 183, 1. 2. that oother : gloss, ' prosperite.' 

1. 25. up on the anevelte it shal falle. The St. John's MS. has ' For ow)>ere 
vpon the or vpon a stythy they schalle falle.' Laud MS. ' apon ye or 
apon an anueld it shalle falle.' 
1. 31. torment. The St. John's MS. has ' tournemente ' and rightly. The 

French is tournai. 
p. 184, 1. 4. platte it. The St. John's MS. has 'penes it oute.' See Jamieson's Scottish 

Dictionary, s. v. Pene, ' To beat out ; to forge.' 

1. 25. In the space which is left blank in the text the scribe has in the MS. 
written ' uacat,' which must have originally stood in the margin to call 
attention to the omission. The St. John's MS. has ' For by the 
skynne and by the schame whilke es alle ane.' The French is, 



NOTES. 225 

Quar a la conuenue et a la pel 
Qui est vng forain deuantel 
Cognoist on oil que Je parsui. 
p. 185, 1. 14. which hath the power in the eclips. The French is, De qui le pouoir point 

neclipse. 
1. 20. abidinge: written over an erasure. 

1. 22. garnisons : ' garnisoms ' in MS. 
p. 187, 1. 16. Theophile. Pei'haps Theophilus the Arian bishop, who lived in the fourth 

century. 

p. 188, 1. 20. was wont : 'wont was' in MS., but the words are marked for trans- 
position. 

p. 190, 1. 19. she : written above, 
p. 191, 1. 11. bi his name. The St. John's and Laud MSS. have 'hir,' and this is the 

true reading. The French is par son nom. 
1. 25. if: written above. 

p. 192, 1. 23. Paour de dieu : gloss, 'i. drede of god.' 
p. 193, 1. 8. Stroke : written in the margin. 

the porter : written above. 
1. 12. dignitee of wurshipe. The St. John's MS. reads ' or ' for ' of.' The 

French is dignite ne honneur. 

p. 194, 1. 11. croumed. The St. John's MS. has ' muled.' The French is enmiellee, 
p. 195, 1. 6. was: corrected from ' wat.' 
p. 196, 1. 10. in : written above. 

p. 197, 1. 28. Furaunt : written in the MS. ' Fu-rafit.' 
p. 199, 1. 6. Whider gost thou : written above. 

1. 17. as : written above, 
p. 201, 1. 2. he : originally < she ' in the MS. 
p. 202, 1. 25. well softe. We should read ' wel ofte.' The French is lien spuuent, and 

the St. John's MS. has fulle ofte.' 
p. 203, 1. 1. Isaiah Ixv. 20. 

1. 15. ne : written above, 
p. 205, 1. 1. perte. We should read ' perce.' The French is percier, and the St. John's 

MS. has ' perche.' 
1. 27. wel should be ' wil.' The French is et point ne te lairront, and the St. 

John's MS. has ' thay wille.' 
p. 206, 1. 23. be : written above. 

1. 29. heer : written over an erasure. 

2G 



GLOSSABY. 



Abbreviations, v. t. = verb transitive ; v. i. verb intransitive ; pr. p. = present participle ; 
p. p.= past participle. The others are obvious. 



ABASHE, v. t. To confound, astonish, 117 
ABASHED, p. p. Put to confusion, not only 

by shame but by other emotions, as 

wonder, 2 
ABAUNDONED, p. p. Given into anyone's 

power, 193, 199 

ABAYE, v. i. To bay as a hound, 142 
ABAYINGE, sb. Baying or barking, 127 
ABEESCEDE, pret. Bowed, stooped, 172 
ABIDE, p. p. Abode, 144 
ABIDEN, pret. of Abide, 16 
ABIDINGE, sb. Stopping, delay, 16, 50 
ABIGGE, v. t. To suffer for, 184 
ABITTE. Abideth, 207 
ABOD, pret. Awaited, 137 
ABOOD, pret. Awaited, 194 
ABOUHTE, pret. Suffered for, 181 
ABOUHT, p. p. Suffered for, 189 
ABOWTE, adv. Without, 1 
ACCORDE, v. i. To be reconciled, 160 
ACCROCHERES, sb. Encroachers, 144 
ACLOYED, p.p. Fastened upon, tormented, 

184. The French MS. has endoe, which 

in the Paris edition is changed to tour- 

mente. 

ACORDED. Agreed, used reflexively, 102 
ACROCHE, v. t. To catch with a hook, 144 
ACUSTOMED, adj. Usual, customary, 74 
AD ALIQUID. The third of the ten predica- 
ments or categories of Aristotle TO. npos , 

21 

ADAUNTED, p. p. Daunted, 96 
ADIUTORIOUN, IN, 198. ' Deus in adjutorium 

meum intende ' is the beginning of Ps. 

Ixx. in the Vulgate. 



ADOUN, adv. Down, 79 
AFFICCHED, p. p. Attached, 56 
AFFORCE, v. t. To force, compel, 60 
AFFRAY, AFRAY, sb. Fear, terror, 124, 

175 

AFRIGHTE, pret. Was frightened, 68 
AFRYGHTE, pret. Frightened, 206 
AFTER, adv. Afterwards, 1 
AGAST, adj. Afraid, 118 
AGILT, p. p. Offended, 169 
AGON, adv. Ago, 82 
AIOURNE, v. t. To cite, summon, 170. 

See Cotgrave, Fr. Diet. s. v. Adjoumer. 
AL, sb. ' The al,' the whole, 45 
AL, adv. Altogether, 19, 41 
A LA MORT, int. 128. Cotgrave has (Fr. 

Diet. s. v.) ; 'A mort a mort. Kill, 

Kill ; the cry of bloudie souldiors 

pursuing their fearefull enemies vnto 

death.' 
ALDAI, adv. All day long, constantly, 93. 

Translation of French, tousiours. 
ALDER, gen. pi. of All, ' oure alder foo,' 

the foe of us all, 167. See ALTHER 

FIRST. 
ALGATES, adv. Yet, nevertheless, 11, 

32,41 

AL HOL, adv. Completely, 146 
ALIGHTE, pret. Descended, 170 
ALL, conj. Although, 166 
ALLEGEAUNCE, sb. Alleviation, 32 
ALLEGGE, v. t. To alleviate, 198 
ALMESSE, sb. Alms, 31, 148 
ALONGNE, ALONYGNE, v. t. To separate, 

remove, 75, 83; pret. ALOYNGNED, 111; 



GLOSSARY. 



227 



pr.p. ALOYGNYNGE, 111; p.p. ALOYNED, 
162 
ALONG ON. On account of, by reason of, 

163 
AL ONLICHE, AL OONLICHE, adv. Only, 

alone, 70, 151 

ALOSED, p. p. Famed, renowned, 138 
ALOWE, v. t. To praise, 115 
ALOWH, adv. Below, 38 
ALS, conj. As, 3 

ALTHER FIRST, adv. First of all, 68 
AL TO AL, adv. Altogether, 111, 113. 
' From al to al ' is a literal translation 
of the French de tout en tout. 
AL WERE IT, conj. Although, 68, 99 ; 

comp. albeit. 

ALWEY, adv. Always, 79 
AMASON. Amasa, 127 
AMELLE, sb. Enamel, 4 
AMIDDE, adv. In the middle, 98 
AMMENUSE, v. t. To diminish, 145 
AMMYNISTREDE, pret. Administered, 40 

pi. AMMINISTREDEN, 82 
AMONESTE, v. t. To admonish, 62 

pret. AMONESTED, 70 

AMONESTINGE, sb. Admonishing, admon- 
ition, 18, 72 

AMYDDES, prep. In the midst of, 8 
AMYRALL, sb. Admiral, 186 
ANCILLE, sb. A handmaid, 168 
AND, conj. If, 3, 121 
ANEVELTE, sb. An anvil, 58, 134 
ANGLE, sb. A fishhook, 175, 190 
ANGLET, sb. A little angle or corner, 34 
ANGWICH, v. t. To fill with anguish, 31 
AN HIGH, AN HY, adv. On high, 2, 94 
ANNOYE, ANNUY, ANOYE, sb. Hurt, 
injury, 7, 37, 64. Tedium, irksome- 
ness, 108 

ANNYE, v. t. To annoy, vex, 41 
ANOYE in the constraction ' anoye to,' 174 
APARISAUNCE, sb. Appearance, show, 47 
APAYED, p. p. Pleased, 50, 73 
APEMENDELES, 141. See note. 
APERCEYUED, APERSEYUED, p. p. Per- 
ceived, 1, 2 

APERT, IN. Openly, 83, 132 
APERTLICHE, adv. Openly, 26, 48, 194 
APESE, v. t. To satisfy, content, 54 



APESHIPE, sb. A monkey-trick, 122 

A POYNT, APOYNT, adv. Fitly, aright, 

perfectly, 59, 195. French, a point. 
APPARAMENS, sb. Apparel, 24 
APPARE, v. t. To apparel, array, 80, 81. 

The French is parer. 
APPELEN, sb. Apples, 5, 129 
APPESED, pret. Pleased, 52 
APPREEVED,^. p. Approved, 61 
APPROPRED, APROPREDE, pret. Appro- 
priated, 146 

APROTJED, p. p. Proved, 54. See note. 
AQUEYNTE, v. t. To make the acquaint- 
ance of, associate with any one, 6 
AQUEYNTEE, and pi. AQUEYNTEES, or 

AQUEYNTES, sb. Acquaintance, 3 
ARASE, v. i. To tear away, 143. French, 

arracher. 

ARASED, p. p. Erased, torn away, 39, 143 
ARAUHTE, pret. Reached, 163 
ARBLAST, sb. An arbalest, or crossbow, 

130 

ARCHITRICLYN, sb. The master of the 
feast, 25. The allusion is to the mar- 
riage at Cana. 

AREECHIN, 2 pi. pres. Reach, 163 
ARENED, p. p. Addressed, 74. Comp. 

ARESONE. The French is ma arresne. 
AREYNED, pret. Addressed, 128 
ARESONE, v. t. To address, converse 

with, 46 ; pret. ARESONED, 45 
ARESTINGE, adj. Hindering, adhesive, 

183 

ARGUE, v. t. To reprove, rebuke, 13, 26 
ARRETTE, v. t. To attribute, impute, 151; 

p. p. ARRETTED, 207 
ARYUAILE, sb. A landing-place, 1 90 
ARYUE, v. t. To bring to shore, 190 
ASKAPE, v. t. To escape, 107 
pret. ASKAPEDE, 132 ; p. p. ASCAPED, 
107 

ASLEWTHED, p. p. Delayed, 187 
As MICHEL TO SEY AS. As much as to 

say, 36 

ASPYE, v. t. To spy, GO; p. p. ASPYED, 54 
ASSAYS, v. t. To try, 129 
ASSOILE, v. t. To absolve, acquit, put out 
of the way of attack, 49 ; to solve a 
question, 118 



228 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



ASSUREDE, pret. Secured, 7 

ASTOKE, v. t. To stun, 33, 108 ; p. p. 
ASTONED, 69 

AT. 'To hold at fable,' to regard as a 
fable, 83 

ATAMED, p. p. Injured, 67. The French 
is entamees. 

ATEMPREE, adj. Temperate, 63, 122 

ATEYNT, p. p. Touched, 81 

ATTEMPERAUNCE, sb. Temperance, 62 

ATTEMPREDE, pret. Eestrained, 63 

AUCTORISED, AUTORISED,|>. p. Authorized, 
invested with authority, 79, 183 

AUALE, v. t. To lower, 158 ; v. i. To de- 
scend, 182 

AUALEDE, pret. Went down, descended, 
137 

AVANTOUR, sb. A boaster, 118 

AVAUNCE, v. refl. To put oneself pro- 
minently forward, 150 

AVAUNTE, v. refl. To boast, 14 

AVAUNTINGE, adj. Boastful, 115 

AUENAUNT, adj. Fitting, becoming, 52 

AVENTED, p. p. Provided with a vent, 
117 

AVENTOUR, s&, A vent, 117. French, 
souspiral. 

AVISE, v. t. To advise, 10 

AVISEDE, pret. ' J avisede me,' I re- 
flected, considered, 4 

AVISEMENT, sb. Discretion, consideration, 
18 ; advice, 114 

AVISILICHE, adv. Advisedly, purposely, 
75, 137 

AVOIR, AUOYR, sb. Possessions, property, 
30, 141, 152 

AVOWE, v. t. To avouch, vouch for, 110 

AVYS, sb. Opinion. ' What is thin avys ' 
= what do you think? 8 

AWEYWARD, adv. Away, 152 

AWMENEER, AWMENERE, sb. Almoner, 40, 
164 

AWUNDRED, p. p. Astonished, 87 

AWURTHE, v. i. To become, fare, 47 

AXE, v. t. To ask, 165 

A YEN, adv. Again, 23 

AYENS, prep. Against, 23 

AYEND WARD, adv. Again, 95 

AYENPUTTINGE, sb. Opposition, 40 



AYENSSEITH, contradicts, 145 

AYEN SEYINGE, sb. Contradiction, 36, 40 

AYENS STONDE, v. t. To withstand, 96 

BACHELERE, sb. A young man, 79 

BACOURESSE, sb. 143, a doubtful word. 
The French MS. has bacouneresse or 
baconneresse. In the printed edition the 
passage is omitted. The St. John's 
MS. has ' faconeresse ;' Laud. MS. ' fau- 
coresse." 

BAISHTNESSE, sb. Bashfulness, 91 

BALEYS, sb. Brooms, 105 

BARET, sb. Strife, contention, 65 ; cheat- 
ing, deceit, 150 

BARMFELL, sb. A smith's leather apron, 
184 

BASENETTES, sb. Small helmets or head- 
pieces, 113 

BASILISKE, sb. A fabulous serpent, the 
glance of whose eye was believed to be 
deadly, 125 

BAUDRYK, sb. A belt, 67, 111 

BAUNDON, sb. Command, control, 94 

BE, p. p. Been, 4 ; BEETH, 3 pi. subj. 9 
BEN, 3 pi. Are, 1 

BEAWSIRE. Fair sir, 79 

BEEDE, v. t. To pray, 168 

BEEL, sb. Bel, 157. The reference is to 
the story of Bel and the Dragon. 

BEESME, sb. A besom, broom, 31 

BEET, 1 s. pret. 32 

BEETE, 2 p. s. pret. Didst beat, 12 

BE GRAFFED, p. p. Grafted, 56 

BELIGH, BELYES, BELYGH, sb. A pair of 
bellows, 111, 112, 177 

BEN. In the phrase ' ben not to refuse ' 
= are not to be refused, 59 

BENDED, p. p. Bandaged, 174, 178 

BERE, 3 s. pret. Bare, 92 

BEREN, 3 pi. pret. Bare, 66 

BERINGES vp, sb. False flatteries, 115. 
The French is loberiez. 

BERNE, v. t. To put in a barn, 43 

BESACHIS, 141. See note. 

BETE, p. p. Beaten, 41 

BETEN, p. p. ' Beten with gold,' is covered 
with beaten gold, 4, 113. The French 
MS. has a or batu. 



GLOSSARY. 



229 



Bi ABOUE. Above, 6 ; French, par dessus. 

Bi CAUSE, adv. Because, 25 

BICCHEDE, adj. 128. ' The bicchede shrewe ' 

is the translation of the French la lisse 

pautonniere. Of ' lisse ' Roquefort says, 

' ce nom etoit particulierement donne a 

la chienne, et par metaphore on le don- 

noit aussi aux femmes debauchees;' and 

' pautonniere ' he explains as ' prostituee, 

fille publique.' 
BICOMEN, v. i. To become, 167 

BICOMEN, p. p. Become, 38 
Bi DROPPED, p. p. Spotted, 54 
BIDUNGE, v. t. To cover with dung, 161 
Bi ESPECIAL. Especially, 15, 123 
BIFALLE, p. p. Befallen, 45 
BIFORX, adv. Before, 166 
BIGGE, v. t. To buy, 149 
BIGGERES, sb. Buyers, 147 
BIGILOURESSE, sb. A female beguiler, 84 
BIHAATED, BIHATED, p. p. Hated, 5, 120 
BIHEETINGE, pr. p. Promising, 206 
BIHEIGHTEN. Promised, 13 

pret. BIHIGHT, BIHYGHTE, 111, 125 

p. p. BIHIGHT, BIHYGHT, 52, 143 
BIHOLDE, v. i. To look, 106, 138 

pret. BIHEELD, 133 

p. p. BIHOLDE, 20 

BIHOLDINGE, sb. Look, appearance, 203 
BIHOOTE, BIHOTE, v. t. To promise, 35, 

163, 164 

BIHOTINGE, sb. Promising, 149 
BIKNOWE, v. i. To acknowledge, 189 

pret. BIKNEEWE, 66 

pr. p. BIKNOWINGE, 66 
BILEFTE, pret. Remained, 86 
Bi LEYSERE. Leisurely, 24 
Bi LIKENESSE. Apparently, 44. The 

French is par ceste semblance. 
Bi LYMED, p. p. Caught with birdlime, 

106 

BIMEENE, v. i. To bemoan, 95 
BIMENYNGE, pr. p. Bemoaning, 4 
Bi SEEMINGE. Seemingly, 44 
BINEME, v. t. To take away, 10, 29 

p. p. BINOME, 154 
Bi PLACES. In different places, here and 

there, 3 
Bi PLEYNE, v. t. To bewail, 104 



BISCORN, sb. A club shod with iron, 115. 

See Du Cange, s. v. Biscorna. The 

French is bicorne. The St. John's MS. 

has ' twybille.' 

Bi SMOKED, p. p. Smoked, 91 
BISORWEDE, pret. Sorrowed for, lamented, 

68 

BE TAKEN, BlTAKEN, p. p. * Yuele bi- 

taken '= in evil case, 66, 74 

Bi THOUHT, p. p. Remembered, 44 

BITRAPPED, p. p. Entrapped, 133 

Bi TWIXE, prep. Between, 7 

BIYOUNDE, THE WAY OF, 104. See note. 
In p. 99 ' the citee of biyounde see ' is 
from the French la cite doultre mer. 

BLAKKED, p. p. Blackened, 155 

BLECCHED p.p. Blackened, 112. The 
St. John's MS. has ' blak.' 

BLEENDE, v. t. To blind, 134 

BLEYNTE,j>re. Flinched, started aside, 177 

BLISSEDE, pret. Blessed, 84 

BLOWE, v. i. To bud, or blossom, 120. 
But the reading is doubtful. See note. 

BLYNDFELLED, p. p. Blindfolded, 178 

BOBAUNCE, sb. Boast, 167 

BOCHERYE, sb. A butcher's slaughter- 
house, 129 

BODDE, sb. A bud, 61. See BUDDE. The 
French MS. has ne la prise vng bouton. 

BOISTOUS, BoisTouse, BOYSTOWS, adj. 
Limping, lame, 108, 114. In p. 108 it 
represents the French boiteuse. In p. 59 
it is the rendering of the French drus, 
which Roquefort interprets ' gros, epais, 
&c.' 

BOISTOUS, adj. Rough, churlish, 176 

BOND, pret. of Bind. Bound, 20 

BOOK, pret. Baked, 44 

BOONGREE MAWGREE. Will he nill he, 
154. The St. John's MS. has ' niltowe 
wiltowe.' 

BORD, sb. Table, 15 

BORDOUN, sb. A pilgrim's staff, 4. French, 
bourdon. 

BORE, p.p. Born, 88, 118 

BORE, p. p. Borne, 69 

BOREN, p. p. The French MS. has portee, 
55. The St. John's MS. reads ' brym,' 
that is, known, renowned. 



230 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



EOT, pret. of Bite, 132 

BOTHES, used as the genitive of BOTH. 

' Youre bothes pavnes '=; the pains of you 

both, 167. The St. John's MS. has 

' 30 r bather paynes.' 
BOUCHE, BOWCHE, sb. A hump, 153 
BOUCHE, v. i. To become humpbacked, 

153 

BOUNTEE, sb. Goodness, 4, 5, 165 
BOUCHINGE, sb. Bulging, 157 
BOWCHED, BOWCHEDE, p. p. Made crooked, 

or humpbacked, 153 
BOWKE, v. t. To wash, 32 
BOWKINGE, sb. A washing, 32, 172 
BRAMBERE, BRAMBRE, sb. A bramble, 98, 

108, 133 

BRAS, sb. Money, 142 
BRAYE, v. i. To yell, 156, 203 
BREDE, sb. Breadth, 121 
BRENNE, v. t. To burn, 176 

p.p. BRENT, 176 

BRENNYNGE, adj. Burning, 2, 157 
BRESTE, v. i. To burst, 114 
BRETHERHEDE, sb. Brotherhood, 135 
BRID, sb. A bird, 23 ; pi. BRIDDES, 2 
BROCHE, sb. A prick or spine of a hedge- 
hog, 133 
ERODE, in the phrase ' sette to brode '= set 

breeding, 145. Compare Shakespeare's 

' breed of barren metal.' 
BRONNCHED,J. p. Hoodwinked, 159. The 

French MS. has embronchee. 
BROSE, v. t. To bruise, 31 

pret. BROSEDE, 32 

p.p. BROSED, 32 
BROWEN, sb. Brows, 115 
BUDDE, sb. A bud, 128. The French 

MS. has ne prise vng bouton. See 

BODDE. 

BULTE, v. t. To bolt, sift as flour, 43 
BULTEL, sb. A bolting cloth, 137 
BURYELL, BURYELLES, sb. A burying-place, 

88, 121 

BUT, conj. Unless, 119 
BUT IF, conj. Unless, 28 
BUTOUR, sb. A bittern, 158 

CALIOUNS, CALIOWNS, sb. Flints, 133, 134 
CARAYNES, sb. Carcases, 129 



CAREFUL, adj. Anxious, 136 
CARPENTERE, v. i. To work as a carpenter, 

30 ; p. p. CARPENTERED, 38 
CASTRIMARGYE, sb. Gluttony, 156. Greek, 



CERTES, adv. Certainly, 166 
CERTEYN, adv. Certainly, 4, 9 
CESSE, v. i. To cease, 13 
CHAPITRE, sb. Chapter-house, 193 
CHARBUNCLE, sb. A carbuncle, 4, 164 
CHARGE, v. t. To load, 142 
CHASTELEYNE, sb. The mistress of a castle, 

196 

CHAUFE, v. t. To heat, 87 
CHAUMBERERE, sb. A chambermaid, 28 
CHAUMPE, sb. A field, 55 
CHAWFED, p. p. Heated, 173 
CHEER, CHERE, sb. Countenance, 4, 23 
CHEERE, adj. Dear, 37, 129 
CHEERLICHE, adj. Dearly, carefully, 

36 
CHEERTEE, sb. Literally dearness, esteem. 

' Holt in cheertee' = holdeth dear, 37 
CHEESEN, v. t. To choose, 17 

pret. CHES, 168. CHEES, 192 
CHEKEER, CHEKER, sb. The game of chess, 

96, 102 ; a chess-board, 139 
CHERLLICHE, adj. Churlish, 121 
CHERUBYN, sb. A cherub, 2. Used as a 

proper name. 

CHEUENTAYN, sb. A chieftain, 113 
CHEUESAUNCE, CHEUISHAUNCE, sb. Profit, 

thrift, 108, 152 

CHEVACHYE, sb. A campaign, 113 
CHEVICE, v. refl. To thrive, succeed in an 

undertaking, 99, 175 
CHIDDE, in the construction 'chidde to 

me,' 42. The French is a moi tensa. 
CHOLLE, v. t. To bandy, knock, 181 
CHYLDHODES, sb. Childish acts, 113. The 

French MS. has enfances. 
CHYLDINGE, sb. Conception, 25 
CLAWE, v. t. To scratch, 148 
CLEEK, adj. Bright, polished, 16 
CLEERNANS, sb. 109. A mistake for 
' Cleeruaus.' The French MS. has 
Cleruaux. 

CLEPED, p.p. Called, 6 
CLOS, sb. Enclosure, 131 



GLOSSARY. 



231 



CLOSURE, sb. Enclosure, compass, 14, 44 
CLOUMBEN, pret. Climbed, 3, 193 

p. p. CLOMBEN, 122 
CLOYSTRERES, sb. The inhabitants of a 

cloister or convent, 195 
COIFE, v. t. To dress the hair, 122 
COKARD, sb. A simpleton, 84, 101. French, 

coquard. 
COKARDYE, sb. Silliness, 100. French, 

coquardise. 

COLEE, sb. A blow on the neck of a 
knight with the flat of a sword when he 
was created, 193 

COLEYINGE, pr. p. Turning the neck this 
way and that ; hence, spying, peeping, 
106, 115. In the latter passage the 
French is coliant. 

COLLACIOUN, sb. Information, account, 153 
COLUER, CULUER, sb. A wood pigeon, 88, 

192 

COLYS, sb. Broth, 130 
COME, 2 s. pret. Camest, 46 
COMEN, p. p. Come, 17 
CONDUYE, v. t. To conduct, 188 
CONDUYERESSE, sb. A conductress, 192 
CONDYED, pret. Conducted, 188 
CONDYERESSE, sb. Conductress, 113 
CONDYT, sb. A conduit, 94. Used here 

of the passages of the body. 
CONFORTOURESSE, sb. A strengthcner, 73 
CONSTABLESSE, sb. A female constable, 

113 

CONSTAUNCE, sb. Constancy, 67 
CONTEENE, CONTENE, v. t. To contain, 92 
CONTRACT, adj. Contracted, deformed, 88 
CONTRACTS, sb. A deformed person, crip- 
ple, 94 

CONTRARIOUS, CONTRARIOWS, adj. Con- 
trary, 23, 93, 199 

CONTRARYE, V. t. To OppOSC, 95 

CONUERTE, v. refl. To be converted, 85 
CONUERTE, v. i. To turn, 65, 145 
CONUICT, p. p. Vanquished, overcome, 167 
CONUOYE, v. t. To convey, 152 
COPWEBBE, sb. A cobweb, 179 
COQUINERIE, sb. Eoguery, knavery, 147 
CORAGE, sb. Heart, mind, 20 
COROWNE, sb. A crown, 183 
COROWNED, p. p . Crowned, 37 



COROWNEMENT, sb. Crowning, coronation, 

60 

COSTE, v. t. To go alongside, 175 
COSTED, pret. Bordered, lay alongside, 

98 

COSTLEWE, adj. Costly, 87 
COSTYINGE, sb. Going alongside, coasting, 

177 
COUNFORT, v. t. To strengthen, comfort, 

73, 177 

COUNTREPEIS, sb. Counterpoise, 199 
COURSE, adj. Bent, crooked, 203 
COURREYINGE, adj. Pliant, 31. The 

French MS. has biens ploians. 
COUTTE BURSE. Cut purse, 144 
COUENABLE, CovENABLE, adj. Agreeable, 

fitting, 64, 67 
COUENAUNT, adj. Convenient, suitable, 

202 
COUENAUNTE, v. t. To make an agreement 

with, 125 

COUENT, sb. A convent, 207 
COWUELE, sb. A vat, 173 
CRIAUNCE, sb. Trust, credit, 167 
CROCHET, sb. A. hook, 137 
CROIS, sb. A cross, 167 
CURE, sb. Care, 14 
CURIOWSTEE, sb. Curiosity, 157 
CURROWRES, sb. Couriers, 200 
CURTEIS, CURTEYS, adj. Courteous, 4 
CURTEYSLICHE, adv. Courteously, 31 
CUSTOMABLECHE, adv. Usually, 67 
CusTOMEDjjp.j). Used. ' I hadde not cus- 

tomed to be armed '=1 had not been 

used to be armed, 68, 198 

DAMISELE, sb. A damsel, 180 

DAUNGER, DAWNGERE, sb. Used in the 
feudal sense of jurisdiction, 2, 82 

DAUNGEROUS, adj. Used apparently in 
the literal sense of ' subject to,' under 
the control of, and hence, anxious about, 
in fear of, 63. The French MS. has : 
De ton boire et de ton mangier 
Ne soies oncques en dangler. 

DEBAAT, sb. Strife, 96 

DEBONAIRELICHE, adv. Gently, 37 

DEBONAYRE, adj. Courteous, gentle, 10 

DEBONAYRTEE,S. Gentleness, courtesy, 163 



232 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



DECOLOURED, p. p. Having a low collar, 
113. The French MS. has escoletee. 

DEDE BEDDES, sb. Deathbeds, 9 

DEDIEDEST. Didst dedicate, 12 

DEDLICHE, adv. Mortally, 18 

DEDLICHE, adv. 50. Possibly the reading 
is corrupt. The French MS. for ' al 
dedliche ' has Tout maintenant. In the 
Paris edition this is altered to Tout 
laschement. 

DEDLICHE, DEDLYCH, adj. Mortal, 18, 91 

DEE, sb. A die, 56 
pi. DEES. Dice, 102 

DEFAMOWSE, adj. Infamous, 32 

DEFAUTE, sb. Fault, 30 

DEFENCE, sb. Prohibition. ' Made de- 
fence '= prohibited, 78 

DEFENDE, v. t. To forbid, 12, 82 

DEGREES, sb. Steps, 3, 193 

DELITABLE, adj. Delightful, 16 

DELT, p.p. Distributed, 171 

DELUE, v. i. To dig, 139 
pret. DOLUEN, 140 

DELVINGE, sb. Digging, 108 

DEMYNGE, adj. Judging, judicious, 19 

DEPARTS, v. t. To divide, 17, 24 
p. p. DEPARTED, severed, 180 ; pret. 
DEPARTEDE, 193 

DEPARTERE, sb. Divider, distributer, 40 

DEPARTINGE, sb. Separation, 13 

DESPERACIOUN, sb. Despair, 109 

DESPORT, sb. Sport, 183 

DESPYTE, sb. Spite, 69 

DEVEER, DEUEIR, DEUOIR, sb. Duty, 12, 
25, 29 

DICHE, v. i. To dig, 100 

DIDE. ' And therwith as me thouhte a 
litel water thei dide,' i.e. mixed, 15 

DIFFAME, v. t. To defame, disparage, 130 

DIFFAMACIOUN, sb. Disgrace, 161 

DIFIGURED, p. p. Disfigured, 154. The 
French is deffiguree. 

DIGNELICHE, adv. Worthily, 36 

DILUVIE, sb. The Deluge, 188 

DIMES, sb. Tithes, 140 

DISALOWE, v. t. To disapprove, 191 

DISCEYUAUNCE, sb. Deceit, 150 

DISCLOSED, p. p. Uncovered, 121 

DISCOUMFYT, p.p. Discomfited, 179 



DISDEYNOWS, adj. Disdainful, 114 
DISENCRESE, v. t. To deprive, 149 
DISGISE, DISGISY, DISGYSEE, adj. Dis- 
torted, monstrous, 45, 74, 133 
DISGISYLICHE, adv. Monstrously, hide- 
ously, 43 

DISIOYNCT, adv. Asunder, 135 
DISKEUERE, v. t. To disclose, 66 
DISORDEYNED, p. p. Disordered, 62 
DISORDEYNEE, p. p. Irregular, 65 
DISPARPOYLINGE, sb. Scattering, disper- 
sion, 117 
DISPENDE, v. t. To distribute, expend, 

141 

DISPENDERE, sb. A dispenser, 144 
DISPENSEER, DISPENSERE, sb. A steward, 

171 

DISPITOUS, adj. Spiteful, 39 
DISPORTERESSE, sb. A maker of sport or 

mirth, 194 

DISSEYUABLE, adj. Deceptive, 69 
DISSIMULE, v. i. To feign, 179 
DIST = didst, 33 
DISTINCTED, p. p. Separated, 97 
DISTRACTE, p. p. Distracted, 56 
DISTURBLAUNCE, sb. Disturbance, 77 
DIVISE, v. t. To describe, 133 

p. p. DIVISED, 36 
Do, Doo, p. p. Done, 8, 17 
Do in the phrases ' do come '= cause to 

come, 8 ; ' dooth me to haue,' 51 
DOONE. 'To doone'=to do, 178 
Do ON, v. t. To put on, 121, 122 
DORE, v. i. To dare, 47 

2 s. pres. DORRE, 191 

3 s. pres. DUKRE, 185 
p.p. DORRE, 78 

DORTOUR, sb. Dormitory, 193 
DORTOWRERE, sb. The superintendent of 

the dormitory, 160 
DOTED, p. p. Made foolish, 26 
DOUHTREN, sb. Daughters, 125 
DOUNWARD, adv. ' Dounward the wal '= 

down along the wall, 3 
DOUTOWS, adj. Distrustful, 5 
DOWTOWS, adj. Fearful, dreadful, 51 
DRED, p. p. Dreaded, feared, 133 
DREDDE, pret. Dreaded, 44 
DRENCHE, v. i. To be drowned, 123 



GLOSSARY. 



233 



DRESSE, v. t. To set up, 29 

DRESSED, p. p. Set up, erected, 3 

DRESTES. sb. Dregs, 184 

DREYNT, p. p. Drowned, 175 

DROF, pret. Drove, 159 

DROOWH, DROWH, pret. of Draw, 13, 94, 

171 

DURE, v. i. To last, 168 
DYMES, sb. Tithes, 12 

EDIFYINGE, sb. Building, 21 

EELDE, sb. Old age, 44 

EELDED, p. p. Aged, 161 

EERTHEDENE, sb. Earth-din, earthquake, 

118 

EES, sb. Bait, 179 
EET, pret . Ate, 23 
EGRET, sb. A young eagle, 95 
ELDED, p.p. Aged, 41 
EMBOSEDE, adj. Humpbacked, 114 
EMPASSIONEMENTES, sb. Remedies, 201. 

The St. John's MS. has ' pocions.' The 

French MS. reads emprisonnemens. The 

Paris edition has pocionnemens. 
EMPECHED, p. p. Hindered, 57 
EMPECHEMENT, sb. Hindrance, 94 
EMPEYRINGE, sb. Injury, 67 
EMPLASTRES, sb. Plasters, 201 
EMPRESSED, p. p. Crowded, thronged, 

115 
ENAMELURE, sb. A piece of enamelled 

work, 51 
ENBOSED, adj. Humpbacked, 137. The 

St. John's MS. has ' bouge bakked.' 
ENCHESOUN, sb. Cause, 67, 134, 203 
ENCLOWED, p. p. Nailed, 61 
ENCLYN, p. p. Inclined, 85 
ENCRAMPISED, p. p. Cramped, distorted, 

108 

ENFAMINED, p. p. Starved, 47 
ENFERMERERE, sb. The superintendent of 

the infirmary, 205 
ENFOORME, v. t. To instruct, 30 
ENFORCE, v. refl. To strengthen oneself, 

70 

ENGYN, sb. Wit, 49 
ENLARGISE, v. t. To give as largess, 

distribute abroad, 31 
ENLUMYNED, p. p. Illuminated, 167 



ENNUYE, sb. Irksomeness, tediousness, 54 
ENOORNED, p. p. Adorned, 162 
ENOYE, v. i. and t. To annoy, cause an- 
noyance, 76, 77 

ENOYINGE, sb. Ennui, tediousness, 101 
ENOYNTE, v. t. To anoint, 171 
ENPECHE, v. t. To hinder, 77 
ENQUEROURESSE, sb. A female inquisitor, 

78 

ENRICHESSE, v. t. To enrich, 47 
ENSAUMPLE, sb. Example, 69 
ENSELED, p. p. Sealed, 20 
ENSELEDE, pret. Sealed, 20 
ENTENDAUNT, adj. Attentive, 93. The 

meaning of the passage is doubtful. See 

note. 
ENTENDE, v. i. To attend, give heed, 13, 

66, 95 

pret. ENTENDED, 112 
ENTENDE, v. refl. To busy oneself, 201 
ENTENDEMENT, sb. Intention, 79 
ENTENTYF, adj. Attentive, 66 
ENTERMEDLED, p. p. Mingled, mixed, 98 
ENTERMETE, v. refl. To interpose, employ 

oneself, 122, 127, 158. < Entermete me 

of ' is a translation of the French irfen- 

tremettre de. 

ENTRE, sb. Entrance, 12 
ENVENYME, v. t. To poison, 125 
EPICURIE, sb. Epicures, 156. The French 

MS. has epicuri. 

EQUIPOLLE, adj. Equivalent, 64 
EQUIPOLLENCE, sb. An equivalent, 190 
ER, adv. Before, 54 
ERBES, sb. Herbs, weeds, 174, 178 
ERE, v. t. To plough, 104 

p. p. ERED, 43 
EREN, sb. Ears, 124 
ERRAUNT, adj. Wandering, 31 
ESEMENT. sb. Refreshment, relief, 16 
ESPERAUNCE, sb. Hope, 56 
ESPYOWRESSE, sb. A female spy, 136 
EUELE, adv. Ill, 54 
EUENE, adj. Straight, 52 ; equal, 176 
EUENE, adv. Straight, 133, 194 
EUENENESSE, sb. Justice, 19 
EXCITED, p. p. Stirred, 5 
EXILE, v. t. To make desolate, 12 
EY, sb. An egg, 23, 44 



2 H 



234 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



EYE in the phrases ' see with eye,' or ' at 
the eye,' 176, 177, 194. ' At eye ' is a 
translation of the French a lueil, 6, 21 

EVEN, sb. Eyes, 2, 117 

FACIOUN, sb. Features, 155 
FAIREYE, sb. A fairy scene, 139 
FAIRNESSE, sb. Beauty, 4 
FAIRYE, sb. A faiiy tale, fiction, 89 
FAITOURYE, sb. Sluggishness, 96 
FALLAS, sb. Deceit, guile, 11 

pi. FALLACES, 81 
FALSE, v. t. To prove false, 49 
FALSETEE, sb. Falsehood, 123 
FANNED, pret . "Winnowed, 43 
FARDELLE, sb. A bundle, 19 
FARDRYE, sb. Face-painting, 161. The 

St. John's MS. reads ' faidry.' 
FAUCE, adj. False, 127 
FAYN, adj. Glad, 52. ' Us is not fayn ' 

= we are not glad, 79 
FEEBLISHED, p. p. Enfeebled, 70 
FEEDINGES, sb. Food, 116 
FEERS, adj. Proud, 30 
FEE RS TEE, sb. Fierceness, pride, inso- 
lence, 30, 115, 123 
FELLE, adj. Fierce, 10 
FELNESSE, sb. Ferocity, 10 
FEMYNYE, sb. The land of the Amazons, 111 
FEN, sb. Mud, 57 
FENESTRALLE, sb. Window, 92 
FERMERYE, sb. An infirmary, 193 
FERRED, p. p. Far removed, 101 
FETHERE, sb. Feathei-s, 6 
FETHEREN, sb. Feathers, 179 
FICCHED, FICHCHED, p. p. Fixed, 124, 

207. French, fahe. 
FIGURED, p. p. ' Bred and wyn it is 

figured? that is, it has the figure or form 

of bread and wine, 42 
Fii, pret. Fell, 152 
FILLINGE, sb. That which fills, 185 
FissHED=Ficched, 149 
Fix, adj. Fixed, firm, 165 
FLAWME, v. i. To flame, flash, 19 
FLAWME, sb. Flame, 133 
FLEE, FLEEN, v. i. To fly, 6, 169 

p. p. FLEEN, 91 
FLEINGE, pr. p. Flying, 175 



FLEWMATYK, adj. Phlegmatic, 134 

FLOWE, p. p. Flown, 174 

FLOYTE, sb. A flute, 117, 123 

FLY, pret. Flew, 95 

FLTfQHjpret. Fled, 187 

FOISOUN, FOYSOUN, sb. Abundance, plenty, 

4, 128 

FOLILICHE, adv. Foolishly 189 
FOND, pret. Found, 44 
FONELLE, sb. A funnel, 155 
FONNE, sb. A foolish person, 180. There 

is some doubt about this word. It is 

omitted in the St. John's and Laud MSS. 

The French MS. has for ' the fonne the 

lepere,' La sauterelle la saillant. It 

may possibly be an old form of ' fawn.' 
FONNED, p. p. Foolish, 42 
FOOL, adj. Foolish, 62 
FOOLHARDIMENT, sb. Foolhardiness, 17 
FOORBUSHED, p. p. Furbished, 2 
FOR, conj. Because, 49, 80 
FOR, prep. ' A rescues for hire' = a rescue 

from her, 189 
FORBERE, v. t. To let pass, 2 

pret. FORBAR, let alone, 111 

p. p. FORBOREN, 123 
FORBETEN, p. p. Beaten, trodden, 103 
FORBORE, p. p. Forborne, endured, 25 
FORDOON, p. p. Destroyed, 140 
FORGERESSE, sb. A female forger or 

smith, 134 

FORS, sb. Care, 106 
FORSAKE, p. p. Forsaken, 32 
FORSHETTE, v. t. To exclude, 27 
FOR THANNE, adv. For that reason, there- 
fore, 43, 86 
FORTHINK, v. refl. l Me forthinketh ' = I 

repent, grieve, 25, 114 
FORTHOUHT, p. p. Previously thought, 

114. In p. 140 it is the translation of 

the French pourpensee. 
FORTHOUHTE. ' Me forthouhte,' it grieved 

me, I was vexed, 3, comp. 43 
FORTHWARD, adv. Forward, 51 
FORTO, conj. Until, 20, 81 
FORVEIED, p. p. Strayed, wandering out 

of the way, 56. French, fourvoyer. 
FORUEYED, pret. Strayed, wandered out 

of the way, 162 



GLOSSARY. 



235 



FORUEYINGE, sb. Straying, 207 

FORUEYNE, v. i. To go astray, 65 

FOR WHI. For which reason, wherefoi'e, 
59,83 

FORYETE, v. t. To forget, 11 ; pret. 
FORYAT, 193 ; p. p. FORYETE, 69 

FORYIFTE, sb. Forgiveness, 130 

FOUNDED, p. p. 108. The French is len- 
fondue. Cotgrave explains ' Enfondu ' as 
' Mucke-wet, wringing-wet.' The St. 
John's MS. has ' affounded.' 

FOUNDEMENT, sb. Foundation, 1, 71 

FOY, sb. Faith, 53 

FREDOM, sb. Liberality, 47 

FRETOREERE, FREYTOUREERE, sb. The 
superintendent of the refectory, 195 

FRETTED, p. p. Bound about, 190, 191. 
In the former passage the French is 
ferree, in the latter fretee. In both the 
Paris edition has confortee. Roquefort 
gives ' Freter: Croiser, entrelacer.' 

FREYTOUR, sb. A refectory, 193. 

FROREN, p. p. Frozen, 108 

FROSSHES, sb. Frogs, 159 

FROTE, v. t. To rub, 127 

FROUNCED, FROUNCEDE, p, p. Wrinkled, 
77,79 

FRUSHED, FRUSHT, p. p. Bruised, 43, 72. 
In the latter passage the French is 
froue. 

FULFILLE, v. t. To fill, 41 

FULFILLED, p. p. Filled, 31 

FURAUNT CONTINUACIOUN, 197. In the 
French MS. it is Servant continuation, 
but in the Paris edition it is correctly 
given Feruent continuation. The St. 
John's and Laud MSS. have ' feruent 
continuaunce.' 

GABBE, v. t. To deceive, 8 

pret. GABBED, 8. French gaber. 
GADERETH, 2 pi. imper. Gather ye, 1 
GAMBESON, sb. A quilted and padded 

coat worn under the armour, 183 
GAN, pret. Began, 168 
GARNEMENT, sb. A garment, 58, 113 
GARNYSON, sb. A garrison, 185 
GAYN PAYN, sb. Breadwinning, 64 
pi. GAYN PAYNES, 64 



GERFAUCOUN, sb. The peregrine falcon, 107 
GESSE, sb. The jess of a falcon, 199 
GIESY. Gehazi, 149 
GIEZITRYE, sb. The sin of Gehazi, 149 
GILDENE MOUTH. Chrysostom, 192 
GLADE, v. reft. To gladden, 28 ; v. i. To 

be glad, rejoice, 37 

p. p. GLADED, 126 
GLEEDE, sb. A burning coal, 23 
GLISTERINGE, adj. Glittering, 56 
GLOOUE in the phrase ' sette at a glooue,' 

180 

GLOOUEN, sb. Gloves, 196 
GLOOVEN, v. t. To cover with gloves, 62 
GLOSE, v. t. To flatter, 101 
GLOSE, sb. A gloss, commentary, 147 
Go, p. p. Gone, 111 
GOBET, sb. A bit, lump, 33, 108 

pi. GOBETTES, GOBBETTES, 32, 33 

GON, 3 pi. Go, 1 
GOODLICHE, adv. Kindly, 4, 6 
GOODSHIPE, sb. Kindness, 192 
GOODSHIPES, sb. Kindnesses, 75 
GOOMES, sb. Gums, 63. Apparently used 

metaphorically for the appetite. 
GORGER, GORGERE, GORGIER, GORGIERE, 

sb. A piece of armour defending the 

throat, 58, 61, 194, 195 
GOST, sb. Spirit, 90 
GOSTLICH, adj. Spiritual, 9'?, 121 
GOUERNAYLE, sb. A rudder, 93. The 

reading is doubtful. See note. 
GOUERNOUR, sb. A pilot, 108 
GOUERNOWRESSE, sb. A female pilot, 192 
GOUTOUS, adj. Gouty, 108 
GRACIOUSE, adj. Graceful, becoming, 46 
GRAUNTE, sb. Leave, permission, 55 
GRAUNTMERCY, sb. Literally, great thanks, 

76 

GREHOUND, sb. A greyhound, 148 
GREISILER, sb. A gooseberry bush, 133. 

The St. John's MS. has ' scharpe 

whynnes.' The French MS. has gro- 

sillier. 

GREES, sb. Steps, 194 
GRET. ' In gret ' = in the gross or mass, 

32. French en gros. 
GRINNES, sb. Gins, traps, 199 
GRINTE, GRYNTE, pret. Gnashed, 79, 82 



2H2 



236 



PILGRIMAGE OP THP LTP OP THE MANHODE. 



GRONDED, p. p. Felled to the ground, 

193 
GROUNDEN, GROWNDEN, p. p. Ground, 2, 

43, 

GRUCCHE, v. i. To grumble, 30 
GRUMMEDE, pret. Grumbled, 79 
GRUMMYNGE, pr. p. Grumbling, 86 
GRYSELICHHEDE,S&. Grisliness, horror, 192 
GUERDONED, p. p. Eewarded, 197 
GUERDOUN, sb. Eeward, 52 
GUSTE, sb. Taste, 157 
GUSTEN, v. i. To taste, 157 

HABITE, v. i. To dwell, 121 

HABOUNDINGE, pr. p. Abounding, 169 

HACKEES, sb. Pangs, torments, 3 *. The 
French is hachieez. Roquefort explains 
' Hachee ' as ' Peine, fatigue, penitence, 
tourment, peine imposee aux gens de 
guerre.' 

HAF, pret. Heaved, 138 

HAFTE, v. t. To make a handle for, 105 

HALE, v. t. To drag, 167 

~H.Ai.p,pret. Helped, 55, 127 

HALT. Holds, 12, 92 

HALTE, v. i. To go lame, 132 

HALUELINGE, adv. Half, 106 

HALWEN, sb. Saints, 133 

HAN, 3 pi. Have, 1, 6, &c. 
HAUEN, 3 pi. 7, 135 

HANDSOME, adj. Easy to handle. The 
French MS. has maniable. 

HANGESTERE, sb. A female executioner, 
144 

HANGYNGE, sb. Dependence, 21 

HANSELLED,/).^. First used, 119. The 
St. John's MS. has ' haxselde.' Cot- 
grave gives ' Estreine . . . Handselled ; 
that hath the handsell or first vse of.' 

HAPPE, v. i. To happen, 106 

HARDE, v. t. To harden, 120 

HARDED, p. p. Hardened, 31 

HARDEMENT, sb. Hardihood, courage, 189 

HARDIED, pret. Hardened, emboldened, 41 

HARROW, int. French, Haro, 110, 138. 
Cotgrave (French Diet. s. v.) has, ' Crier 
Haro sur. To crie out vpon, or make 
huy and crie after. ... In which case 
those that are within the hearing thereof 



must pursue the malefactor, or else they 

pay a fine.' 

HASSOK, sb. 139. The French is fosse. 
HASTED, p. p. Hastened, 147 
HASTELET, HASTELETTE, sb. A slice of 

meat roasted on a spit (French, haste), 

130, 156 

HASTLICHE, adv. Hastily, 60 
HASTYF, HASTYFE, adj. Hasty, 24, 128 
HATEREL, sb. The crown of the head, 73 
HATTE, 1 s. pres.. Am called, 115 
HATTEN, 2 pi. pres. Are called, 19 
HATTEST, 2 s. pres. Art called, 131 
HATTETH, 3 s. pres. Is called, 56 
HAUBERGEOUN, HAUBERGOUN, HAWBER- 

GEOUN, sb. A hauberk or breastplate, 

58, 110 

HAUNTEYN, adj. High, 16. Haughty, 88 
HAVINGE, sb. Keeping, 38 
HAYNE, sb. Hatred, 135 
HEEF, HEFF,pret. Heaved, raised, 111,171 
HEENG, pret. Hung, 7, 143 
HEERDE, sb. A herdsman, 15 
HEERNE, sb. A nook or corner, 34 
HELE, sb. Health, 167, 201 
HELED, p. p. Covered, 34 
HELME, sb. A helmet, 58 
HELYE. Elijah, 108 
HEM, pron. Them, 1, 3, &c. 
HENNES FORTHWARD, HENS FORTH WARD, 

adv. Henceforth, 2, 89 
HERBERWE, v. t. To harbour, shelter, 

lodge, 66, 193 
HERBERWH, sb. Lodging, shelter, 8 

pi. HERBERWES, 50 
HERE, pron. Their, 3, &c. 
HERES, pron. Theirs, 197 
HERKNE, v. t. To listen to, 20 
HERS, poss. pr. Theirs, 38 
HEUENE, genitive case, as in ' heuene 

queen,' 165 
HEVY, adj. Sad, 55 
HEVY, v t. To make heavy or sad, 30 

pret. HEVIEDE, 44 ; HEVYEDE, 50 
HE GENTEL MAN, 119. The French of this 

passage is De mal heure fut gentil horn. 

Compare 'he Moyses,' Chaucer, C. T. 

10564. 
HE WIGHT. Each person, 1. See note. 



GLOSSARY. 



237 



HEY, sb. 204. ' As thouh she wente to 
hey ' is in the French MS. Comme alast 
au fain. 

HIDELES, HYDELES, sb. Hiding places. 
' In hideles ' = in secret, 126, 136 

HIDOUSSHIPE, sb. Hideousness, 124 

HIPPE, v. i. To hop. 152 

HIPPINGE, adj. Hopping, limping, 152 

HOL, HOOL, adj. Perfect, 5, 19 

HOLDE, p. p. Holden, held, 28, 136 

HOLLICHE, adv. Entirely, 62 

HOLPEN, pret. of Help, 3 

HOLT, 3 s. pres. Holdeth, 22, 100 

HOMICIDYE, sb. Homicide, 135 

HONGED, p. p. Hanged, 137 

HOPP, sb. A hopper (?) 45. The St. 
John's MS. has 'hepe.' The French 
is si tres petite masure. The Paris ed. 
has mesure. See Cotgrave s. v. mesure. 

HOSE, v. t. To clothe with hose or shoes, 
87; p. p. HOSED. Shod, 87. The 
French has chaussie. 

HOUEN, pret. and p. p. Heaved, 75 

HOUNTEE, sb. Shame, 184 

HOUPE, v. i. To shout, 175 

HOWSE, v. t. To build houses, 30. The 
French MS. has edifier. 

HULLOK, sb. A hillock, 133 

HUMBLESSE, HUMBLISSE, sb. Humility, 3, 
4. 168 

HUNDRETH, adj. Hundred, 117 

HUNTE, sb. A hunter, 107, 119, 157 

HURTLE, v. t. To push, thrust, 10, 115 

HYED, p. p. Exalted, 66 

HYGHTE, pret. Was called, 141 

HYNESSE, sb. Haughtiness, 23. Supe- 
riority, 24 

JDEL, IN, In vain, 183 

J DOO, p. p. Done, 20 

J FIGURED, p. p. Figured, 155 

J LED, p. p. Led, 9 

IMPLICACION, sb. Entanglement, 182 

IN, prep. Used where we should say ' on,' 

as 'in hire nekke,' 111, 181 
INDULGENCE, sb. Forgiveness, pardon, 

52 

INOBEDIENCE, sb. Disobedience, 119 
J NOUH, adj. Enough, 18 



IRCHOUN, IRCHOWNE, sb. An urchin, 

hedgehog, 133 

IROWS, JROWSE, adj. Angry, 19, 26 
J SEYN, p. p. Seen, 20 

JAKKE, sb. A coat of mail, 58 
JANGLE , v. i. To chatter, 118 
JANGLERESSE, sb. A quarrelsome woman, 

104 

JAPE, sb. A mockery, jest, 12 
JAPERE, sb. A mocker, 115 
JOGELORYE, sb. Minstrelsy, 198 

JOGELOUR, JOGELOURESSE, JoWGLERESSE, 

sb. A minstrel or jester, male or 
female, 120, 194. For ' jogelouresse ' 
the St. John's MS. has ' menstralle ' or 
' mynstralle.' 

JOLYFNESSE, sb. Jollity, 180 
JOYNINGELICHE, adv. Jointly, 81 
JOYNPEE, adv. With feet close together, 

180 

JUNIPERYN, sb. The juniper tree, 108 
JUSTIFYE, v. t. To pass sentence upon, 18 
JUSTNESSE, sb. Eighteousness, 66 

KANST, Knowest, 132 

KARAYNE, sb. A carcass, 159 

KEEMBE, KEMBE, v. t. To comb, 87, 103 

p.p. KEMBED, 133; KEMBT, 160 
KEEP, sb. Heed, care. ' To take keep ' 

is to take heed, 2, 16, 137 
KEEP, v t. To care for, heed, 177 
KEEPITH NOT HEEBE = careth not to hear, 

37. The French MS. has nai cure. 
KERNELLES, sb. Battlements, 2 
KERVINGE, adj. Trenchant, cutting. 16, 

130 

KEVERETH. Covers, 62 
KITTE, pret. Cut, 122 

p.p. KITT, KITTE, 142, 146 
KNET, p. p. Knitted, 3 
KNORRED, p. p. Knotted, gnarled, 120 
KNOWE, p. p Known, 20 
KOLEYE, v. i. To bend the neck this way 

and that ; and so, to spy, peep, 106. 

French, coloier. See COLEYINGE. 
KOWUELE, sb. A vat, 171. The French 

is cuuier, and the St. John's MS. reads 

'fatte.' 



238 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



KUNNE, v. i. To. be able, 23, 46, 68. 

' They kunne no thing ' = they can do 

nothing, 42 

KUNNYNGE, sb. Knowledge, 19 
KYNDE, sb. Nature, 90 

LABOURE, v. t. To work, 99 

LABOWRED, p. p. Tilled, cultivated, 43 

LACHE, adj. Negligent, 199 

LACHESSE, sb. Negligence, 195 

LAMBREN, sb. Lambs, 180 

LANGUETINGE, LANGWETYNGE, sb. Bab- 
bling, chattering, idle talk, 153. The 
French is de langueter. 

LANGUETTED, p. p. Babbled, 153 

LAPPES, sb. Skirts, 200 

LASSE, adv. Less, 30 

LAT, imper. of Let. 11, 167 

LATHERE, v. i. To make a lather with 
soap, 32 

LATROSYNIE, sb. Robbery, 144 

LAUENDERE, sb. A laundress, 32, 202 

LAWHE, v. i. To laugh, 141 

LECED, p. p. Leashed, 200 

LECHE, sb. A physician, 1 69 

LEDE, v. t. To make heavy like lead, 
109 
p.p. LEDED. Lumpish like lead, 109 

LEEF, adj. Dear, 84 

LEESE, v. t. To lose, 12, 23 

LEEUE, v. t. To believe, 6 

LEEVED, p. p. Believed, 42 

LEEUERE, LEDERE, adv. Rather, 12, 54 

LEEUEST, adv. Most agreeable, 99 

LEFTEST. Didst omit or neglect, 53 

LEGITIME, adj. Legitimate, 131 

LEHMAN, sb. A paramour, mistress, 141 

LENE, v. t. To lend, 37, 53. It is difficult 
in the MS. to distinguish between ' lene ' 
and 'leue.' On p. 37 we should read 
' leue,' as the French has laisser. On p. 
53 it is probably ' lene,' as the French 
is porte. On p. 72 ' j wole leue thee ' is 
a rendering of Je tamerrait. The St. 
John's MS. has ' brynge.' Read ' lede.' 

LENGERE, adv. Longer, 7 

LERNE, v. t. To teach 46 

LES, sb. A leash, 195 

LESINGE, sb. Lying, falsehood, 19 



LETARGIE, sb. Lethargy, 109 

LETHIE, adj. Lithe, supple, 109 

LETTE, v. i. To remain, 77 ; v. t. To 

hinder, 113 

LETTED, pret. Hindered, 31 
LETTINGE, sb. Hindraunce, 6, 10 
LEWEDE, sb. Laymen, unlettered people, 1 
LIGGE, v. i. To lie, 42, 136. ' Lat hem 

go ligge ' is a translation of the French 

Voisent couchier. 
LIGHTLICHE, adv. Easily, 21 
LIGHTNESSE, sb. Brightness, 91 
LIKE, v. t. To please, 3 ; v. i. To be 

pleasing, 169 

LIKNESSE, sb. A similitude, 30 
LOKEDE, pret. Beheld : used transitively, 

51 

LOKYERE, sb. A locksmith, 144 
LOND, sb. Land, 38 
LONG. In the phrase ' On me it is not 

long ' = ' it is not my fault,' 106. Com- 
pare 203 

LONGE, v. i. To belong, 10, 11 
Loos, sb. Renown, praise, 61, 114 
LOPPE, sb. A flea. Note on p. 143 
LOPYNS, sb. Morsels, 156, 157. French 

Lopin. 

LORDSHIPINGE, sb. Lordship, 21 
LOSED, p. p. Praised, 112. The St. John's 

MS. has ' alosed.' 

LOWED, p. p. Made low, abased, 66 
LOWH, pret. Laughed, 1 6 
LOWINGE, pr. p. Making low, abasing, 66 
LOYNE, sb. A hawk's leash, 148. The 

French is vnes longes, and Cotgrave 

(s. v. Longe) gives ' a hawkes lune, or 

leash.' 

LUST, sb. Pleasure, 38 
LUST, pret. Was pleased, 170 
LUSTE. ' Me luste ' = I desired, 25 
LYFLODE, sb. Livelihood, 142 
LYFTE, pret. Lifted, 2 
LYSTED, p. p.. Bordered, edged, 51 
LYVE, sb. Life, 45 

MAAT, adj. Mated, confounded, 78 
MAHOUN, sb. Mahomet, 138 
MAIDENHEDE, sb. Virginity, 168 
MAILES, sb. Pieces of mail, 61 



GLOSSARY. 



239 



MAILET, MAYLET, sb, A mallet, 31, 

105 

MAILURE, sb. Mailed work, 62 
MAISTRYE, v. t. To master, overpower, 

159 
MAKE. In the phrases ' make deye ' = 

cause to die, 18 ; ' make do ' = cause to 

be done, 23 ;' make mayntene ' = cause 

to be maintained, 27 ; ' made tacche ' = 

caused to be fastened, 37 ; ' made berne 

it ' = caused it to be put in a barn, 43; 

' make yive ' = cause to be given, 50 ; 

' make kitte ' = cause to be cut, 147 
MALESCHIQUE, sb., 158. See note. 
MALE VOYSIGNE, sb. HI neighbour, 158 
MALICE, sb. A mischievous trick, 126 
MANASETH. Threatens, warns, 65 
MANASSES, sb. Menaces, 111 
MANERE, sb. Kind, 139 
MANERE. ' To haue manere ' is a literal 

rendering of the French, 10 
Maniere si com dois sauoir 
Dois de poindre et hurter auoir. 

Compare p. 187. 
MANGRACIOUS, adj. Ungracious, 106. 

Probably the reading should be ' mau- 

gracious.' 

MANTELLE, v. t. To cloak, 121 
MARCHALE, v. t. To shoe a horse, and so, 

to play the farrier with a horse, and 

doctor it for sale, 150. The French is 

cotonne. 
MARCHAUNDE, v. t. To traffic with, 150. 

The French MS. has ; 

Ou qui de marchander sont nice 
Defaulz pois et de faulse mesure. 
MARGERYE, sb. A pearl, 55 
MARIGH, sb. Marrow, 143 
MARY, sb. Marrow, 201 
MASOWNED, pret. Built, 7. French maqon- 

ner. 

MATTERE, sb. A maker of mats, 101 
MAUNDEMENT, sb. Commandment, 79 
MAUNGEPAYN, sb. Literally, cat-bread, 

147 

MAWGRE. In spite of, 140 
MAWMET, sb. An image of Mahomet, and 

hence an idol generally, 138 
MAYME, sb. Blemish, fault, 122 



MEDLE, v. refl. To intermeddle, mix one- 
self up with, 24, 152 
MEDLED, p. p. Mingled, 87 
MEES, MES, sb. Mess, course of meat, 

13, 22, 23, 125. French me's. 
MEETISTGE, sb. Dreaming, 8, 87 
MEEUE, v. t. To move, 33 
MEEVED, pret. Moved, 4 
MEEVINGE, sb. Movement, motion, 182 
MENDIVAUNS, sb. Mendicants, 35 
MENSOIGE, sb. Deceit, 151. The gloss 
quoted in the note is ' gabbinge ' ; men- 
terye ' being explained by ' lesinge.' 
MENTERYE, sb. Lying, 151 
MERCIABLE, adj. Merciful, 10, 165 
MERELLES, sb. The game of morris, 102, 
128. Cotgrave (Fr. Diet. s. v.) gives : 
' Le leu des merelles. The boyish game 
called Merills, or fiue-pennie Morris; 
played here most commonly with stones, 
but in France with pawnes, or men made 
of purpose, and tearmed Merelles.' For 
' merelle ' as used in p. 117, see note. 
MERLYOUN, sb. A merlin, 107 
MERVEILE, v. refl. To marvel, wonder, 45 
MESEL, adj. Leprous, 137, 151 
MESELRIE, sb. Leprosy, 17 
MESSAGERE, sb. A messenger, 205 
METE, v. t. To dream, 1 
pret. METTE, Dreamed, 4 ; MET, 89 
pr. p. METINGE. Dreaming, 3 
MET YERDE, sb. A measuring rod, 150 
MEYNE, sb. A company, or household, 8 
MICHE, adv. Much, 1, 3, &c. 
MIDDES, sb. Midst, 4 
MIHT, 2 s. pres. Mayest, 5, 6 
MILLEWARDES, sb. Millers, 144 
MIRE, MIRRE, v. refl. To look at oneself 
in a mirror, 56, 123 

pret. MIRREDE, 123 ; p. p. MIRED, 
MIRRED, 56, 123 
Mis, adv. Amiss, 175 
MISBILEEUED, sb. An infidel, unbeliever, 

169 

MISCHEEF, sb. Misfortune, 188 
MISDIDE, pret. Did harm to, wronged, 37 
MISDOO, MYSDO, p. p. Misdone, 35, 36 
MISERICORDS, sb. Mercy, 166 
MISLIKE, v. t. To displease, 52 



240 



PILGRIMAGE OP THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



MISSEYE, v. t. To revile, speak evil of, 60 
MISSEYINGE, sb. Reviling, evil speaking, 

80 

Mis SITTINGS, adj. Unbecoming, 50 
MISTER. * A mister man ' = a kind of 

man, 63, 77 
Mo, adj. More, 4 
Mo, adv. More, 17 
MOLDEWERP, sb. A mole, 154 
MONEYED, p. p. Minted, 59 

3 pi. pret. MONEYDEN, 59 
MONYERE, sb. A coiner, 144 
MOODER, sb. Mother, 37 
MOOTIERE, sb. 185. The French MS. has 

merciere. The St. John's MS. reads 

' mascere,' which appears to be ' macer.' 
MORSELLE, sb. Muzzle, 161. The French 

MS. has musel, the St. John's MS. 

' murselle.' 

MOSTEST, 2 s. pret. Must, 70, 110 
MOWE. May, 1 

2 pi. MOWN, 14 ; MOWEN, 52 
MOWLED, p. p. Mouldy, 147 
MOWN. Used as an auxiliary verb. ' Ye 

shul wel mown avaunte yow,' ' ye shall 

well be able to vaunt,' 14. ' Thou 

shuldest wel mown make,' 46 
MUSARD, sb. A dreamy fellow, 79, 104 
MUSERYES, sb. Amusements, 102 
MYNDE, v. reft. To remember, 48 
MYNGED, p. p. Reminded, 63 
MYNGINGE,^. j9. Reminding, 66 

NAKED, pret. Made naked, 3 

NAKENE, v. t. To strip, 25 

NART. Art not, 166 

NAY, adv. Nothing, 116. ' But nay of 

his song he ne rouhte.' The French is 

nennil. 
NE. Nor, 37 

NE NEITHER, 37 

NEEDE, v. i. To be necessary, 64. Used 
impersonally in the phrase ' it shal neede 
the ' = thou shalt have need of it, 60 

NEEWE, OF. Of late, 185, 186 

NEEWED, p. p. Renewed, 113 

NEIGHE, NEYGHE, v. t. To draw near, 
approach, 16, 126. 
pret. NEIHEDE, 23, 128; NEIGHEDE, 132 



NEMPNE, v. t. To name, 20 

p. p. NEMPNED, 6 
NERE = were there not, 165 
NEUEROON, No one, 121 
NEUER THE LATTERE. Nevertheless, 29 
NICE, adj. Foolish, 100 ; Graceful, 180 
NICELICHE, adv. Foolishly, 26, 159. See 

note on the latter passage. 
Nis. Is not, 89 
NOBLESSE, sb. Nobility, 149 
NOLDE. Would not, 166 
NORISHE, sb. Nurse, 37, 123 
NOTES, sb. Nuts, 102 
NOTHER, adv. Neither, 5, 6 
NOUELRIES, sb. Novelties, 24 
NOUHTFORTHANNE, adv. Nevertheless, 
190 

0, adj. One. ' tyme ' = at one time, 
150 

OBEYE in the construction ' obeye to,' 65 

OBLEY, sb. A wafer cake, 41 

OBSTINACIOUN, sb. Obstinacy, 32, 79 

OCCISIOUN, sb. Slaughter, 135 

OF, in the phrases ' doun o/' = down 
from, 9; 'To do iustice o/'' = to do 
justice upon, 10 ;' Lowh of = laughed 
at, 16 ; ' Serueth of = serveth for, 17 ; 
' Vse of = use, 19 ; ' Hangynge /"'= 
dependence upon, 21 ; ' Drunken of = 
drunken with, 26; ' bifel of = befel, 
40 ; ' Michel of = much, 41 ; ' doon 
of = done off, stripped off, 43 ; 'under- 
took of = reproved for, 120 

OF, prep. Out of, 164 

OF BIFORE. From before, 140 

OISEUCE, OYSEUCE, sb. Idleness, 103 

ON, in the phrases ' witnesse on ' = take 
witness of, 25 ; ' bithouhte hire on ' = 
bethought her of, 43 

ON redundant in ' wered on ' = wore, 59. 
Compare Chaucer, C. T. 6600 : ' That 
werith on a coverchief or a calle.' 

ONHEDE, OONHEDE, sb. Unity, 52, 135 

ON LYUE, adv. Alive, 71, 194 

Oo, adj. One, 48 

OON, in the phrase ' that is not oon,' 29. 
The St. John's MS. reads ' nought alle 
ane.' 



GLOSSARY. 



241 



OOTHERE, pron. Others, 3. It occurs as 
the genitive plural, ' othere goodes ' = 
other men's goods, 144 
OOTHERWEYS, adv. Otherwise, 70 
ORDEYNEE, p. p. Ordained, regular, 65 
ORGOILL, ORGUILL, sb. Pride, 79, 115, 

122 

ORLAGE, sb. A clock, 207 
ORPHANITEE, sb. The condition of an 

orphan, 163 

ORPHANYNES, sb. Orphans, 37 
ORTIGOMETRA, sb. Greek o'prvyo/iijrpa, 

probably the landrail, 178 
OTHER, conj. Or, 1 

OTHERWHILE, adv. At other times, 119 
OUHT A = any, 60 

OUHTE. Owed, 2. In the construction 
' ouhte obeye,' 30 ; ' ouhte haue,' 144 ; 
' ouhte biweyle,' 162 
OUTERLICHE, adv. Utterly, 23 
OUTTAKE, v. t. To except, take from, 22 

pr. p. OUTTAKINGE, excepting, 34 
OUER, adv. Moreover, 58 
OUERBIGGE, v. i. To overbuy, 180 
OUERTHROWE, v. i. To upset, be over- 
thrown, 120 

pret. OUERTHREEW, 120 ; p. p. OUER- 
THROWE, 94, 202 

OUERTREDE, v. t. To trede down, 201 
OWETH. Ought, 193 
OWHER, adv. Anywhere, 7 
OWT TAKEN, p. p. Excepted, 1 
OYNEMENT, sb. Ointment, 9, 126 
OYNTURE, sb. Anointing, 123, 127 

PANTENEERES, sb. 148. We should read 
' Pauteneeres.' Cotgrave gives ' Pau- 
tonniere,/. A shepheards scrip.' 

PAAS, PAS, sb. Passage, path, 34, 56, 161 

PA OUR DE DIEU. Fear of God, 192 

PARAGE, sb. Payment, 2. The true 
reading is no doubt ' Paiage,' for the 
French MS. has peage, that is ' toll.' 
Laud MS. ' payage.' 

PARAMOURES, 17. The French MS. has 
Et toutes gens par amour amer. 

PARDE, int. Forsooth, 191 

PARESIS, adj. Parisian, 145. The French 
MS. has parisis. The meaning of the 



passage is illustrated by the following 
quotation from Cotgrave's Fr. Diet. 
' Sol Parisien, ou de Paris. The Pa- 
risian sol ; is as much as the Tournois, 
and a quarter; for twentie of them 
amount vnto twentie flue of th' other.' 
See also Cotgrave, s. v. ( Livre Parisis.' 

PARINGE, adj. Comparable, 114 

PARLEMENT, sb. Conversation, discourse, 
25, 31, 39. To holde parlement of '= 
to talk of, 118 

PARTERE, sb. Divider, distributer, 36 

PARTYE, sb. Part, 18, 45; pi. PARTIES, 33 

PASSE, v. t. To transgress, 82 

PASSIOUN, in the exclamations ' Yuele 
passion smyte it,' 69 ; ' euele . passioun 
come to hire,' 128. In the former pas- 
sage the French MS. has Que la male 
passion fiere. 

PASTORES, sb. Shepherds, 149 

PATROUN, sb. Pattern, 38 

PAUTENEERES. See PANTENEERES. 

PEISE, v. t. To weigh, weigh down, 142 
pret. PEISEDE, 137 

PENAUNTE, sb. A penitent, 20 

PENDAUNT, sb. A hanging or precipitous 
slope, 111 

PENSELLES, sb. Flags, 2 

PENYWOORTHES, sb. Purchases, bargains, 
150 

PERAUENTURE, adv. Perchance, 19 

PERCE, v. t. To pierce, 103, 115 

PERESCE, sb. Sloth, 103 

PERFITE, adj. Perfect, 39 

PERIUREMENT, sb. Perjury, 151 

PEYNE, v. reft. To give oneself trouble 
or pains, 54, 147 

PEYNE, sb. In the phrase ' do peyne with 
me ' = take trouble with me, 93 

PEYNTURE, sb. Painting, 121 

PEYRE, PEIRE. A peyre sheren, 13. A 
peyre glooves, 61. A peyre spores, 111, 
A peyre belyes, 116. A peyre gessis, 
148. A peire tonges, 183 

PEYS, sb. Weight, 109, 152 

PIKOIS, PIKOISE, PICKOYSE, sb. A pick- 
axe, 139 

PIGHTE, pret. Pierced, 170 

PILEER, sb. A pillar, 37 



2i 



242 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



PILOURES, sb. 135. -An error of the scribe. 

See note. 

PISTEL, sb. An epistle, 178 
PITAUNCEERE, sb. One who distributes 

the pittance or dole of provisions at a 

monastery, 196 
PITOUS, PITOWSE, adj. Compassionate, 

10, 122 
PLACEBO. The vesper hymn for the dead, 

] 22. ' To sing a song of Placebo ' 

(Bacon, Essay xx. p. 88) became sy- 
nonymous with ' to flatter.' Chaucer 

says (Parson's Tale), ' Flaterers ben the 

develes chapeleyns, that singen ay 

placebo.' 1 

PLAT, v. i. To become flat, 134 
PLATTE, v. t. To make flat, beat out, 184 
PLEINE, PLEYNE. To complain, used re- 

flexively, 27, 29 

PLENTIVOWSLICHE, adv. Plenteously, 82 
PLEYN, adj. Full, 79, 187 
PLYT, sb. Folding, 79 
POMELLE, sb. A knob, 52 
PORTREYED, p. p. Drawn, designed, 30 
POSSE, v. t. To push about, toss, 181 

p. p. POSSED, 182 
POTENTES, sb. Crutches, 200, 203. It 

should be written ' potences,' as in the 

French MS. 

POUCE, sb. The pulse, 94 
POUDRE, sb. 'To make poudre flee,' 118. 

The French MS. has Et de faire fouldre 

voler. 

POUERTE, sb. Poverty, 104 
POWN, sb. A pawn at chess, 140 
POYNT, IN. On the point, 166 
POYNTES, in the phrase ' of alle poyntes,' 

141, 200. The French MS. has de tons 

poins. 
POYNYNGES, sb. Prickings, 59. The 

French is pointures. 
PRECIOWS, adj. 25. Evidently a mistake. 

The French MS. has Et sine suis point 

paresseuse. The St. John's MS. has 

' for seyinge.' 
PREEVE, v. t. To prove, 45 ',p.p. PREETJED, 

55 

PRESSERAGE, sb. Pressure, 184 
PRESSOUR, sb. A press, 188 



PREYSE, v. t. To prize, value, 128 
PRIKIKGE, pr. p. Spurring, 112 
PRIME TEMPS, sb. Spring, 24 
PRISE, sb. The note on the horn which 

the hunter blows at the death of the 

deer, 118 
PRIUEE, adj. Secret, 40, 65 ; pi. PRIUEES, 

intimate friends, 65 
PRIUELICHE, adv. Secretly, 40 
PRIUYTEES, sb. Secrets, 91 
PROCURACIOUN, sb. The office of mediator, 

198 
PROCURESSE, sb. A provider, mediator, 

72, 198. In the former passage the 

French is procurarresse. 
PRYDED, p. p. Filled with pride, 186 
PRYS, sb. Esteem, estimation, 61. 'To 

haue prys of alle ' = to be superior to 

all, 114 

PURCHACE, v. i. To procure, 141 
PURFYLED, p. p. Adorned with trim- 
mings or edgings, 113 
PURPOINT, PURPOYNT, sb. A doublet or 

corslet, 59, 184 

PURUEYE, v. t. To provide, supply, 50 
PURUIAUNCE, sb. Provision, 142 
PUTTE, v. t. To butt, 10 

PUTTE AYEN, p. p. Opposed, 158 

PUTTEN, inf. of Put, 1 

QUASSE, v. t. To quash, 44 
QUERELLE, sb. A quarrel, the square- 
headed bolt of a cross-bow, 196 
QUEYNTE, adj. Neat, elegant, 80 
QUEYNTISE, v. t. To adorn, 80 ; p. p. 

QUEYNTISED, 77 

QUEYNTISINGES, sb. Ornaments, 113 
QUEYNTRELLE, sb. 160. ' And a litel 
make the queyntrelle ' is a literal ren- 
dering of the French Et vng pen fais la 
cointerelle. 
QUIK, QUIKE, QWIK, adj. Living, 23, 52, 

134 

QUIKNYNGE, sb. Kindling, 116 
QUINZIMES, sb. Periods of fifteen days, 

146 
QUYKENE, v. t. To kindle, 116 

HAD, p. p. Bead, 1, 39 



GLOSSARY. 



KATHE, adv. Early, 24, 140 

RAUHT, p. p. Reached, 68 

RAUNPEN, v. i. To crawl like a serpent, 
25. French, ramper. 

RAUESHED, RAUISHED, p. p. Snatched, 
caught up, 94, 121 

RAWHTE,^*^. Reached, 51 

RECCHE, v. t. ' It shulde no thing recche 
thee ' = thou shouldst not care, 60 

RECCHINGE, pr. p. Caring, 108 

RECOUPE, v. t. To retort, 118 

REDE, v. t. To counsel, advise, 40 

REDYE, v. t. To prepare, make ready, 
53, 61 

REDYINGE, REDYNGE, sb. Preparation, 
110, 175. In the former passage the 
St. John's MS. has ' redyinge,' which is 
probably the true reading. 

REFUIT, REFUTE, sb. Refuge, 165, 166 

REGARD. ' As to regard of hem ' =: in 
comparison with them, 41 

REKEUERE, v. t. To recover, 111 

RELEEF, sb. Remainder, 31, 36. Roque- 
fort explains ' Relief ' as ' Restes de pain 
et de viande qui se trouvent dans une 
cuisine.' 

RELIGIOUN. ' In religioun ' is in the mo- 
nastic life, 1, 160 

RELIGIOUS, sb. A person who has taken 
a religious vow, a member of a monastic 
order, 141 

REMEEVE, REMEVE, v. t. To remove, 
change, 24, 25 ; p.p. REMEVED, 204 

REMEEVINGES, sb. Removings, changes, 
25 

REMORDINGE, adj. Biting, 33 

RENNE, v. i. To run, 89 

RENNERE, sb. A runner, 180 

REPELE, v. t. To recal, 38 

REPREEVE, v. t. To disprove, confute, 45 ; 
p. p. REPREVED, 49 

REQUIRED, p. p. Asked for, 70 

RESCUES, sb. A rescue, 189 

RESOUENANCE, sb. Remembrance, 123 

REUERSE, v. i. To turn back, 119 

REUYE, v. t. Torevie; a term at cards, 159 

REWARD, sb. Regard, 26 

REWE, sb. A row, 202 

REWELLYS, sb. Rowels, 111 

2 



REWME, sb. Realm, 185 

RICHESSE, sb. Riches, 183 

RIGHTES, RIHTES, in the phrases ' at here 

rihtes,' 54, 191 ; 'at hise rightes,' 55, 

59. Aright. French, a son droit. Comp. 

1 after his riht,' 59 
RIHTED, p.p. Adjusted, fashioned, shaped, 

59 

RIHTE, v. t. To fit, adjust, 60 
RIUELED, RIVELEDE, adj. "Wrinkled, 134, 

161 
ROCHET, sb. A loose outer garment worn 

by women. 4. Chaucer uses the forms 

rokette and rochette, ' Rom. of the Rose,' 

1240, 4357 

ROILE, v. t. To roll, 158 
RONNEN, p. p. Run, 32 
ROUH, adj. Rough, 107 
ROUHTE, pret. Recked, 116. ' Rouhte 

me ' = I cared, 86 
ROUKE, v. i. To crouch, 156 
ROUNDLICHE, adv. Straightforwardly, 

steadily, 71 
ROUNGE, v. t. To gnaw, 126 ; p. p. 

ROUNGED, 129 

ROUNGERE, sb. A gnawer or biter, 144 
ROUNGINGE, pr. p. Gnawing, 124 
ROWNYNGE, sb. Whispering, 43 
RUDESHIPE, sb. Roughness, 10 
RUSSHE, v. t. To strew with rushes, 122 
RYUAILE, sb. The bank of a river, or the 

sea-shore, 189 
RYVEN, p. p. Pierced, 61 

SAAF. ' In saaf ' = in safety, 13 
SAKKE, v. t. To put in a sack, 142 ; pret. 

SAKKED, 137 

SALUE, v. t. To salute, 122 
SALUEDE, pret. Saluted, 4 
SALWH, adj. Soiled, sallow, 41, 107. In 

the former passage the French is salts. 

The St. John's MS. has sulwy.' 
SAPIENCE, sb. Wisdom, 43 
SAULE, v. t. To fill, satiate, 48. French 

saouler, to glut, cloy. 
SAULEE, sb. Satiety, repletion, 4 
SAULED, p.p. Filled, satiated, 41 
SAUTHEE, SAWTREE, sb. A psaltery, 116, 

194 

i2 



244 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



SAUE, prep. Except. ' Saue y,' 38 
SAUOURE, v. t. To taste, 129 
SAVOWRINGE, sb. Tasting, 34 
SCARMUSHE, v. i. To skirmish, fence, 68 
SCAUBERK, sb. A scabbard, 66 
SCOLEER, sb. A scholar, 46 
SCOTTE, sb. Shot, payment, 147 
SCRIPPE, sb. A small bag, 4 
SCRIPTURE, sb. A writing, 31 
SECHIM, sb. Shittim, 52, 56. An error 

of the scribe for ' Sethim.' 
SECREES, sb. Secrets, 46 
SEECHE, v. t. To seek, 4 

pr. p. SEECHINGE, 4 
SEELDE, adv. Seldom, 119 
SEELDEN, adv. Seldom, 98 
SEEMEDE. In the construction ' seemede 

wel be ' = appeared really to be, 23 
SEESTE. Seest thou, 5 
SEEW, pret. Sowed, 43 
SEIH, 3 ; SEYGH, 3 ; SEYH, 2 ; SIGH, 2 ; 

Sm, 2. Saw. 
SEISTE. Sayest thou, 7 
SELEERES, sb. Cellars, 58 
SEMBLABLE, adj. Like, 164 
SEMBLAUNT, sb. Appearance, likeness, 

73, 111. 'To make semblaunt ' =. to 

pretend, simulate, 114 
SERCLELICHE, adj. Circular, 182 
SERGE ANTESSE, sb. A female bailiff, 185 
SERGEAUNTE, v. i. To play the sergeant, 

187 

SERMONYNGE, sb. Preaching of sermons, 18 
SERMOWNED, p. p. Discoursed, preached, 

109 
SETTINGES, sb. Traps, snares, 180. The 

French MS. has tentes. 
SEUYNGE, pr. p. Following, 106 
SEWE, v. t. To follow, 176; pret. SEWEDE, 

76 

SEY, v. t. To tell, 10 
SEYE, 2 s. pret. Sawest, 5, 179 
SEYEN, 2 pi. pret. Saw, 46 
SHADDEN, pret. of Shed. Scattered, 2 
SHAKE, p.p. Shaken, 65 
SHALMUSE, sb. A shawm or clarionet, 117 
SHAPE, p. p. Shapen, 30, 59 
SHED, p. p. Spilled, poured out, 32. 

Scattered, 117 



SHEDE, v. i. To spill, 196 
SHEENDE, v. t. To injure, 130 
SHEENDINGE, pr. p Injuring, 69 
SHEETE, v. t. To shoot, 62, 192 
SHENTE, adj. Damaged, injured, 129 
SHET, p. p. Shut, 90 
SHITTE, v. t. To shxit, close, 10 
SHODE, v. t. To part the hair, 103 
SHOP, pret. Shoved, pushed, 68 
SHOLDRED, p. p. Having good shoulders, 

70 

Snoop,pret. Shaped, made, 155 
SHORTE, v. t. To shorten, 157, 190 
SHORTIKGE, sb. Shortening, abridgement, 

190 

SHOVEN, p. p. Shoved, thrust, 91 
SHOWVE, v. t. To thrust, 188 
SHREWED, SHREWEDE, adj. Wicked, mis- 
chievous, bad, 65, 73, 119 
SHREWEDNESSE, sb. Wickedness, mischief, 

125, 182 

SHULDE, SHULDEN. Would, 121, 125 
SHULDEN, 3 pi. Should, 1 
SHULDREN, sb. Shoulders, 115 
SHULE, 2 pi. of Shall, 13; SHOLE, 14; 

SHUL, 14 

SHULEN, 3 pi. of Shall, 9 
SIGHYE, v. i. To sigh, 31 
SIKER, adj. Sure, certain, 3, 152 
SIKERERE, adj. Surer, 7 
SIKERLICHE, adj. Certainly, 160 
SIMPHAUNES, sb. Musical instruments of 
some kind, the form of which is not 
known, 102. The word is clearly bor- 
rowed from the symphonies in the Vul- 
gate of Dan. iii. 5, rendered in the 
Authorized Version ' dulcimer.' 
SIT. Sitteth, 81 
SITHE, adv. Then, 8 
SITHEN, adv. Then, 2 
SITTINGS, adj. Becoming, suitable, 4, 9 
SITTINGELICHE, adv. Suitably, 78 
SKIRME, v. i. To fence, 120. French 

escrimer. 
SKIRMYNGE, pr. p. Making passes as in 

fencing, 2 

SKORCHE, v. t. To flay, 15, 143 
SKORCHERESSE, sb. A female flayer, 
143 



GLOSSARY. 



245 



SLATTERY, adj. Slobbery, 160 

SLE, v. t. To slay, 33 

SLEWTHED, p. p. Delayed by sloth, 108 ; 
pret. SLEWTHEDE, 108 

SLEYGHTES, sb. Artifices, 3, 63 

SLOOW, SLOOWH, 3 s. pret. Slew, 71, 124 

SLOOWEN, 3 pi. pret. Slew, 54 

SLUGGED, p. p. Rendered sluggish, 96 

SLUGGINGE, adj. Sluggish, 97 

SMIT. Smiteth, 18 

SMITE, p. p. Smitten, 18, 59 

SMYTHIERE, sb. A smith, 134, 183 

SOBIRTEE, sb. Sobriety, 62 

SOPTE, v. t. To soften, 11, 187; pret. 
SOFTED, 32 

SOLAS, sb. Pastime, recreation, 123 

SOND, sb. Sand, 172 

SOOMEER, sb. A sumpter horse, 75, 148 

SOOTH, sb. Truth, 8 

SOOTHLICHE, adv. Truly, 48 

SOOTHNESSE, sb. Truth, 27 

SOPHISTRE, sb. A sophist, or sophistical 
reasoner, 45 

SOTH, adj. True, 169 

SOUDYOURS, sb. Soldiers, 185 

SOUNDS, v. t. To make sound, 73 

SOUPE, v. t. To sup, 130 

SOURDEDEN, pret. Sprung up, 53 

SOURSAUT, A. 205. The French MS. has 
en sursault. 

SOWE, p. p. Sown, 43 

SOWNEDE, pret. Swooned, 59 

SOWNERE, sb. A snorer, 109 

SPARCLES, sb. Sparks, 116 

SPAULINGE, pr. p. Spreading out the 
shoulders, 115. The French MS. has 
espauliant. 

SPAUEYNE, sb. The spavin in a horse, an 
excrescence growing on the inside of 
the hough, 151. ' For it draweth of 
the spaueyne ' is a literal rendering of 
the French, Pour ce que trait de les- 
pauain. 

SPAVEYNED, p. p. Spavined, 151 

SPAYERE, sb. An opening in a dress, 78, 
98, 101. In the latter passages it is the 
rendering of the French laisselle, the 
arm-hole. In p. 203 it is called a 
' vente.' 



SPEERES, sb. Spheres, 24 
SPERHAUK, sb. A sparrow-hawk, 107 
SPEKE, 2 s. pret. Didst speak, 101 
SPOKE, p. p. Spoken, 39 
SPORES, sb. Spurs, 111 
SPRAD, p. p. Spread, 42 
SPREYNT, p. p. Sprinkled, 42 
SPRINGALD, sb. An engine of ancient 

warfare for throwing stones, 62. Here it 

seems to be applied to the stone or shot. 
SQUYRE, SQWIRE, sb. A carpenter's square, 

38, 39. French, esquierre. 
STAL, pret. Stole, 141 
STALOUN, sb. A stallion, 71 
STEERE, sb. A rudder, 178 
STEERNE, sb. A rudder, 108 
STENTED, p.p. Stretched, 177, 179 
STERCHE, v. t. To stretch, 179 
STEYN, p. p. Ascended, 52 
STEYNOWRESSE, sb. A female dyer, 150. 

The French is estrendresse, and the St. 

John's MS. has ' extendresse.' 
STIKED, p. p. Stuck, fastened, 3, 53 
STINTE, v. t. and v. i. To stop, 167 ; pret. 

STINTE, 82 ; p. p. STINTE, 159 
STINTINGE, sb. A stoppage, 182 
STIWE, v. t. To stew or put in a hot bath, 

87; p.p. STIWED, 172 
STONDE TO, 10. The French MS. has 

JEt a dieu vous attendissiez. 
STONT, 3 s. pres. Standeth, 110 
STORPAILE, sb. 161. A doubtful word. 

The French MS. has, 
Par lui ainsi in abstracto 
Laide suis mais in concrete, &c. 
STOUR, STOURE, sb. A fight, 113, 173, 

193 
STRAUHTE, pret. Stretched, 155 ; pi. 

STRAUHTEN, 187 

STRAUNGED, p. p. Estranged, 113, 162 
STREIHT, p.p. Stretched, 194 
STRENGERE, adj. Stronger, 120 
STRENGTHE, v. t. To strengthen, 58, 66; 

pret. STRENGTHED, 125 
STREYNE, v. t. To press, 203, 206 
STREYT, STREYTE, adj. Narrow, 3. Tight, 

close fitting, 59, 113 
STRIKE, v. t. To stroke, smooth, 103. 

French, enfourmer. 



246 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



STRONDE, sb. Strand, beach, 175 
STUDIAUNTES, STUDYAU.NTES, sb. Students, 

48 

STUTINGE, sb. Stammering, 153 
STYE, v. i. To climb, mount, 95, 187 
STYINGE, sb. Climbing, 95 
STYLE, sb. 152. See note. 
SUBGIS, sb. Subjects, 21, 159 
SUICH, SWICH, adj. Such, 7, 9 
SUINGE, adv. Literally : following, after- 
wards, 85 

SUM TIME, adv. Once, 7. Sometimes, 10 
SUPERFLUE, adj. Superfluous, 153, 157 
SUPERYSED, SUPRYSED, p. p. Surprised, 

69, 113 

SURPLUIS, SURPLUS, sb. The rest, 79, 183 
SURQUIDEOURES, adj. Arrogant, 17 
SURQUIDRYE, sb. Arrogance, 78 
SUSCITED, pret. Eaised again, 128 
SUSSITED, p. p. Raised again, 52 
SUTHSELERERE, sb. An underccllarcr, 196 
SUSTEENE, v. i. To sustain, maintain, 

165 

SWELEWE, v. i. To swallow, 142, 157 
SWEUENE, SWEVENE, sb. A dream, 1. 

A.-S. swefen. 
SWYN, sb. A hog, 155 
SYMPHANYE, sb. 116. See SIMPHANNES. 
SYMPILLICHE, adv. Simply, 53 

TAARGE, sb. A shield, 58 

TAASTE, sb. Touch, feeling, 42 

TABLES, sb. The game of backgammon, 

102 
TACCHE, v. t. To fasten, 37 ; p.p. TACCHED, 

53, 124 
TAKE, v, t. To give to, entrust, 9 ; pret. 

TOOK, 9; p.p. TAKEN, TAKE, 3, 16 
TALINGE, sb. Telling tales, gossiping, 

124 

TARGE, sb. A shield, 170 
TARGEDE, pret. Shielded, 68 ; pi TAR- 

GEDEN, 135 ; p.p. TARGED, 195 
TARIE, v. i. To await, 120 
TARYEDE. Delayed (used transitively), 6 
TASTE, sb. Touch, 64 
TASTEDE, pret. Felt, touched, 94 ; hence, 

tempted, 64 
TASTINGE, s.b. Feeling, 63. ' At the 



tastinge ' = at a guess, 17. The French 

MS. has a tantons, probably for a tas- 

tons, 
TEENE, v. t. To grieve, give sorrow to, 

125 

TEENE, sb. Tone, 155 ; sorrow, 165 
TEMPESTED, p. p. Disturbed by tempests, 

174 

TERMININGE, sb. Termination, 206 
THANNE, conj. Then, 33 
THAR, v. i. ' Him thar not drede ' = he 

need not dread,' 167 
THAT, art. The, 8, 15 
THE redundant in ' the deth,' 18 ; for 

the men,' 37 ; ' the sweete ihesu,' 40 ; 

' the greetinges,' 44 
THER, adv. Where, 15 
THERE AS. Where, 12 
THERFORTH, adv. By that way, 7 
THER NYGH, THER NYH, adv. Near to that 

place, 36, 40 
THER WHILES, adv. In the meanwhile, 

77 

THIKKELICHE, adv. Dimly, obscurely, 98 
THILKE, pron. That, those, 1, 117 
THINK used impersonally. ' Us thinketh ' 

= we think, 186 
THO, pron. Those, 5, 64 
THORUH, adv. Thoroughly, 10 
THOUHT, sb. Sorrow, 161 
THOUHTI, THOUHTY, adj. Sorrowful, pen- 
sive, 67, 73, 131 
THRAL, sb. A servant, slave, 88 
THRAL, adj. Enslaved, 12 
THRIST, sb. Thirst, 172 
THROSSHEN, pret. Threshed, 43 
THURSDAY. ' Grete thursday ' is Maunday 

Thursday, 36. The St. John's MS. has 

' schire thursday.' 
THRUSTE, pret. of THAR. ' It thruste not 

reeche ' = there is no need to care, 99 
THURT. Need. ' It thurt not reeche ' = 

there is no need to care, 49. See THAR, 

THRUSTE. 
THWARTINGE, adj. Cross ; used of the 

eyes, 176 

THWART OUER, adv. Across, 176 
Tissu, TISSUE, sb. A fillet or band of 

woven stuff, 4, 51. French, tissu. 



GLOSSARY. 



247 



To in the construction ' j askede to hire,' 
159 

To redundant after ' vnderstonde,' ' dis- 
plesed,' 11. The phrase ' hold to 
friend ' = regard as a friend, 14. Com- 
pare ' have to freend,' 16 ; ' Ches to 
mooder ' = chose for mother, 168 

TOBREKE, v t. To break in pieces, 38, 
99 ; p. p. To BROKEN, 49 

To BRESTE, v. t. To split asunder, 154 ; 
v. i. To burst in pieces, 165 

To CLOUTED, p. p. Covered with clouts 
or patches, 142 

To DRAWE, v. t. To draw in pieces, 130 

To FOR, prep. Before, 35 

To FORE, adv. Before, 49 

To GEDERE, To GIDERE, To GIDERES, adv. 

Together, 1, 13, 25 

TOKENED, p. p. Betokened, signified, 39 
TOOTHER, adj. Other, 1 
To PULLE, v. t. To pull in pieces, 130 
To RAGGED, p. p. Covered with rags, 142 
TORELL, sb. A turret, 45 
To RENT, p. p. Kent in pieces, 176 
TOURNEYE, v. i. To engage in a tourna- 
ment, 200 
TPRW, int. A word intended to imitate 

the cackling of a hen, 118 
TRAUAILE, sb. Toil, labour, 70 
TRAVAILE, v. refl. To labour, take pains, 

71 

TRAUAILED, p. p. Wearied, 178 
TRAUAILOUR, sb. A vexer or troubler, 101 
TRESMOUNTAYNE, adj. 189. The ' sterre 

tresmountayne ' is the pole-star. 
TRETABLE, adj. Tractable, 11, 83 
TREWANDE, TREWAUNDE, v. i. To cheat, 

148 

TREWAUNDE, sb. A knave, 151 
TREWAUNDISE, sb. Beggary, knavery, 148 
TREWAUNDRIE, sb. Beggary, roguery, 147 
TREWES, sb. A truce, 155 
TRIACLE, sb. An antidote to poison, 130, 
187. The word has degenerated into 
the modern 'treacle.' Its derivation is 
from the Greek Oj/pm/d}. 
TRICE, v. t. 180. French, baler. 
TRICOT, sb. Cheating, 150 
TRIST, sb. Trust, 43 



TRISTE, v. t. To trust, 3, 42 ; pret. TRISTE, 

3 ; TRISTEDE, 188 
TRISTESSE, sb. Sorrow, 108 
TROWE, v. i. To think, believe, 10 
TRUSSEDE, pret. Packed, 72 ; p. p. 

TRUSSED, 75 

TRUSSES, sb. Packages, 107 
TUMBISTERE, sb. A tumbler, 180 
TUNDER, sb. Tinder, 134 
TUNNE, v. t. To put liquor into a cask, 

158 

TWEY, adj. Two, 56 
TWEYNE, adj. Two, 12 
TWINNEDEN, 3 pi. pret. Separated, 98 

VNBLYNDFELLE, v. t. To strip off a band- 
age from the eyes, 186 
VNBOND, pret. Unbound, 20 
VNBYNT. Unbindeth, 200 
VNCHARGED, p. p. Unloaded, unburdened, 

94 

VNCLOSED, p. p. Disclosed, 9 
VNDERNEMYNGE, sb. Reproof, rebuke, 195 
VNDERSETTERE, sb. A supporter, 123 
VNDERSTONDE, p. p. Understood, 39 
VNDERSTONDEN, p. p. Understood, 42 
VNDERTAKE, v. t. To reprove, 26, 71 
VNDERTAKERE, sb. A rebuker, 114 
VNDERTAKINGE, sb. Reproof, 3 
VN ENPECHED, p. p. Unhindered, 110 
VNFOLD, VNFOLDE, p. p. Unfolded, 19, 

199 

VNFOUNDE, v. t. To tear up the founda- 
tions, 139 
VNGLOOUE, v. refl. To take off one's 

gloves, 196 

VNHEENG, pret. Took down from a peg, 66 
VNHELED, p. p. Uncovered, 14, 124 
VNHELERE, sb. An uncoverer, one who 
strips off the covering of anything, 144 
VNHYD, p. p. Unconcealed, 22 
VNIOYNE, v. t. To disjoin, 135 
VNKEVERE, v. t. To uncover, 22 
VNKNOWE, p. p. Unknown, 17 
VNKUNNYNGE, adj. Unskilful, 19 
VNLIKNYNGE, adj. Unlike, dissimilar, 70 
VNMAKERE, sb. A destroyer, 144 
VNNESTLE, v. t. To turn out of a nest, 
116 



248 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



VNNETHES, adv. Hardly, 192 
VNPLYTEDE, pret. Unfolded, 164 
VNPROFYT, sb. Loss, 58 
VNSCAUBERKED, p. p. Taken out of the 

scabbard, 66 

VNSCRIPPE, v. t. To deprive of a scrip, 79 
VNSHETTE, v. t. To undo, unfasten, 20 ; 

pret. VNSHETTE, 126 
VNSTAUNCHABLE, adj. Insatiate, 142 
VNTAME, v. t. To break open, injure, 167. 

The St. John's MS. reads 'entame,' 

perhaps rightly. 

VNTHRIFTE, sb. Worthlessness, 121 
VNTRUSSED, p. p. Unpacked, unloaded, 

19, 94 

VNWARNISHED, p. p. Unfurnished, 127 
VNWARSHED, p. p. Unprovided, 204 
VNWEMMED, adj. Unspotted, 168 
VNWOUNDEN, p. p. Unwound, 21 
VNWURSHIP, sb. Dishonour, 29, 128 
UP so DOUN, adv. Upside down, 84 
VTASES, sb. Periods of eight days, 146 

VANTAUNCE, sb. Boasting, 117 

VAPOURE, v. t. To puff out as vapour, 
117 

VELEWET, sb. Velvet, 113 

VENGE, or VENGEN, v. reft. To avenge, 
10, 17 ; p.p. VENGED, 88 

VENQUISE, v. t. To vanquish, 90 

VENTE, sb. An opening, 203 

VERRAY, VERREY, adj. True, real, 19, 
33 

VERRES, sb. 84. A doubtful word. The 
French MS. has noires, which may be a 
mistake for nois, as appears from the 
rhyme. The St. John's MS. has 
' benes ;' Laud MS. ' barrys.' 

VERRYLICHE, adv. Truly, 202 

VEYLE, sb. A sail, 191 

VIAGE, sb. Travel, journeying, a journey, 
82, 187 

VICARIE, sb. A vicar, 8 

VICARISHIPE, sb. The office of vicar, 11 

VILESSE, sb. Old age, 181. Fr. vieillesse 

VILETEE, sb. Worthlessness, 122 

VILITEE, sb. Literally cheapness, con- 
tempt. Holden in vilitee ' = hold 
cheap, 37 



VILEYNESLICHE, adv. Villanously, 112 

VINTERE, sb. A vintner, 158 

VIRLY, sb. A virelay, 152 

VOID, adj. Empty, 15 

VOIDE, v. t. To quit, 14 ; To empty, 32, 

88; To clear out, 185 
VOID PAUNCHE, sb. Empty-paunch, 117 
VOUCHED SAF. Vouchsafed, 166 
VOYDNESSE, sb. Emptiness, 185 

WACCHE, sb. An ambush, 126 
WAFRERE, sb. A seller of wafer cakes, 

154. French, oublier. 
WAITE, sb. A band of music, 198 
WAITE, sb. Ambush, 35 
WAITE, v. t. To watch, 154 
WALKENE, sb. The welkin, firmament, 27 
WARNISHED,P. p. Garnished, equipped, 76 
WASSHE, p. p. Washed, 32 
WASSHEN, WASSHENE, p.p. Washed, 172, 

196 
WASTEL, sb. A cake of fine white bread, 

117 

WAXE, p. p. Grown, become, 112 
WAWE, sb. A wave, 182, 183 
WAYMENTINGE, sb. Lamentation, 34 
WAYTERE, sb. A waylayer, 79 
WEENE, v. i. To think, 21 ; p.p. WEND, 

48 
WEL, adv. Eight, very; used intensively, 

20 

WERE = wert, 33 
WERED, p. p. Worn, 122 
WEREDEN, 3 pi. pret. Wore, 61 
WERRE, sb. War, 26, 111 
WERRE, v. t. To war or strive with, 97 
WERRED, p. p. Engaged in war or con- 
flict, 39, 112 
WERRYE, v. t. To war or contend against, 

125 

WERNE, v. t. To forbid, 204 
WERPE, v. t. To lay as a warp, 179 
WESH, pret. Washed, 8, 32, 173 
WEXE, p. p. Grown, 26 
WEY in the phrase ' brouht to wey ' = 

brought back to the right path, 56 
WEYLATE, sb. A place where roads meet, 

161. The French MS. has quarrefour. 

In Suffolk the word still remains, though 



GLOSSARY. 



249 



much disguised. Forby (Vocabulary of 
East Anglia) gives it in the form 
'releet,' as used in the compounds, 
' four-releet,' ' three-releet ; ' but these 
are in reality nothing more than ' four- 
wayleet ' and ' three-wayleet.' The for- 
mer easily became < four 'yleet,' and this 
as easily when written became ' four- 
releet,' from which ' three-releet ' would 
be formed by analogy. The St. John's 
MS. spells the word 'walett.' 

WHAT. The phrase ' What thou art a 
fool ' is a literal rendering of the French 
comment tu es fol, 57 

WHAT UP WHAT DOUN, 46 

WHETHER, adv. Whither, 102 

WHICH, pron. Used where we should say 
'what,' 139. 'Which gret woodshipe 
is this.' 

WHICH AN, 138. See note. 

WHO, pron. He who, 118 

WHO, pron. Used indefinitely for 'one, 
some one,' 33. So in the phrase ' as 
who seith,' 136 

WIGHT, WIHT, WYHT, sb. A person. 
' Eche wiht ' = every one, 38 ; 'no 
wyht ' = no one, 37 

WILNE, v. t. To desire, 127; p.p. WILNED, 
207 

WIKKE, adj. Wicked, 166 

WISE, sb. Way, manner, 45 ; pi. WISES, 
49 

WISSE, v. t. To teach, show, 170 

WIST, p. p. Known, 63 

WISTE, pret. Knew, 7 

WITE, v. t. To know, 5, 7 

WITH, pret. Used after a passive parti- 
ciple where we should now use ' by.' 
' Aspyed with theeves,' 54 

WITH, put after the verb in such phrases 
as ' for to ese with,' 50 ; ' for to kille 
with swyn,' 107 ; ' to quykene with,' 
116 ; 'for to mantelle with,' 121 ; 'for 
to hook with,' 124 

WITH HOLDE, p. p. Withheld, With- 
holden, 10 

WITH OUTEN, prep. Without, 1 

WITH SITTE, v. t. To sit in opposition to, 
96 



WITHSEYE, v. t. To contradict, 48 
WITHSEYINGE, sb. Contradiction, 101 
WITINGELICHE, adv. Knowingly, 75 
WODIERE, WODYERE, sb. A woodman, 

146 

WOKE, WOOKE, sb. A week, 122, 146 
WOL, or WOLE. Will, 1, 4, 5, &c. ; 2 pi. 

6 ; 3 pi. WOLEN, 5 ; WULE, 11 
WOMBE, sb. Belly, 88 
WOMBED, p. p. Big-bellied, 115 
WONINGE, sb. Dwelling, 169 
WOOD, WOODE, adj. Mad, 14, 26 
WOODE, v. i. To become mad, 61 
WOODSHIPE, sb. Madness, 62, 131 
WOOT, pret. Knew, 4, 44 
WORDLICH, adj. Worldly, 178, 183, 186 
WORPEN, p. p. Having a warp, 121 
WOST, 2 s. pres. Wettest, knowest, 54 
WOXE, p. p. Grown, 153 
WRATH, WRATHTHE, WRETTHE, v. reft. 

To make angry, 22, 28, 153 
WRETHE, WRETTHE, sb. Wrath, 25, 113 
WRITHEN, p. p. Wreathed, twisted, 3, 

120 

WRONGE, adj. Twisted, distorted, 152 
WRYINGE, pr. p. Twisting, perverting, 

114 

WUNDER, adv. Wonderfully, 3, 77 
WUNDERLICHE, adv. Wonderfully, 73 
WUNDRE, v. i. In the construction ' to 

wundre upon ' = to wonder at, 119 
WURMODE, sb. Wormwood, 134 
WURSHIPE, sb. Honour, 26 
WURTHEN, p. p. Literally, become. ' Wur- 

then up ' = gotten up, mounted, 131 

YATE, sb. Gate, 2 

Y BOUNDEN, p.p. Bound, 20 

Y BROKEN, p. p. Broken, 61 

YDELSHIPE, sb. Idleness, 100 

YDOON, p.p. Done, 117 

YDRAWE, pr. p. Drawn, 126 

Y DRED, p. p. Dreaded, 31 

YELDE, YILDE, v. t. To reward, 75, 96, 

97. In the phrase ' God yelde yow.' 

In the latter passage it is a translation 

of the French Je vous mercy. 
YELDE, YELTE, pret. Kendered, 32, 150; 

YELT = renders, 76 
K 



250 



PILGRIMAGE OF THE LYF OF THE MANHODE. 



YEN, sb. Eyes, 73 

YERDE, sb. A rod, 10 

YGOTEN, p. p, Gotten, 74 

YGROUNDEN, p. p. Ground, 61 

Y HERB, p. p. Heard, 26 

YHURT, adj. Hurt, 155 

YIFTE, sb. Gift, 17 

YILDETH, rendereth, 94 

YIUE, v. t. To give, 13; pret. YAF, 15 ; 
p.p. YIVE, 4, 16. In p. 132, ' anoon 
with his yrened foot he shulde yive me 
in the visage' is a rendering of the 
French, 

Assez tost de son pie ferre 
En mon visaige auroit donne. 

YKNOWE, p. p. Known, 17 

YMPED, p. p. Grafted, 124 



YNOWH, adv. Enough, 178 
YoLDE,^w*e. Yielded, 192 
YOLDEN, p. p. Given up, 160 
YRAYNE, sb. A spider, 143, 179 
YRENED, p. p. Shod with iron, 52 
YSAWED, p. p. Sawn, 135 
YSEE, v. t. To see, 166 
YSEN, v. i. To issue, 34 
YSEDE, pret. Issued, 4 
YSEYE, p. p. Seen, 92 
YSHETHED, p. p. Sheathed, 20 
YSINGE, sb. Issuing, going out, 4 
YSPOKEN, p. p. Spoken, 30 
YSTREIGHT, p. p. Stretched, 191 
YUELE, adv. HI, evilly, 42 
YUERESCE, sb. Drunkenness, 159 



Add to Glossary, p. 238, col. 1 : 

LIFTE, pret. Remained. 



ERRATA. 

p. 104, 1. 29. For mor estepdame read more stepdame. 

p. 106, 1. 31. For mangracious read maugracious. 

p. 109, 1. 8. For cleernans read cleeruaus. 

p. 120, 1. 33. For thew read thow. 

p. 143, 1. 25. Dele full stop after ' pulleth it.' 

p. 144, 1. 12. For apperceyned read apperceyued. 

p. 148, 1. 2. For panteneeres read pauteneeres. 

1. 18. For aloyne read a loyne. 
p. 165, 1. 4. For yekunne read ye kunne. 
p. 182, last line. Dele it. 
p. 205, 1. 1. For perte read perce. 



Westminster: Printed by J. B. NICHOLS and SONS, 25, Parliament Street. 



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