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\STUPIA IN / 



THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



ISocutg. 
(gdra Scrits, LXXVII. 
1899. 



BERLIN : ASHER & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN. 

NEW YORK : C. SCRIBNER & CO. ; LEYPOLDT & HOLT. 

PHILADELPHIA : J. B. L1PPINCOTT & CO. 



ENGLISHT BY 

JOHN LYDGATE, A.D. 1426, 

FROM THE FRENCH OP 

GUJLLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE, A.D. 1335. 



EDITED FROM 3 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY MSS. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 

COTTON, VITELLIUS, C xiii (VELLUM, IMPEBFBCT), 
COTTON, TIBERIUS, A vii (VELLUM, A FRAGMENT), AND 

STOWE 952 (PAPER, COMPLETED BY JOHN STOWE, 
ABOUT 1600 A.D.) 

BY 

F. J. FURNIVALL, M.A. CAMBRIDGE, 

HON. DR. PHIL. BERLIN, 
FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY. 






PART I. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY 

BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co. 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING-CROSS ROAD, W.C. 

1899 



E.5 
ho.77 






TO 
THK MEMORY OF OLD 

3obn Stowe, 

THK ELIZABETHAN TAILOR, 

WHO LOVED MSS. AND ANTIQUITY J 

AND TO WHOSE COPY THE COMPLETENESS 

OF THE FOLLOWING TEXT IS DUE. 



Crtra Strits, LXXVII. 

B. CXAT & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON & BUNOAY. 



FOBEWOKDS. 

As DeGuileville's Pelerinage or some abstract or report of it 
was supposed to have been the original of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress, 1 or to have suggested the subject to him, I got one of our 
copiers, the late William Wood afterwards a Eeader at our printers', 
Austins of Hertford to copy Lydgate's verse englishing, some 20 
years ago, from the only two imperfect MSS. of it then in the 
British Museum, Vitellius C 13 and Tiberius A 7. Mr. J. Meadows 
Cowper kindly wrote sidenotes to most of the copy. About six years 
ago, Mr. G. N. Currie, M. A. Lond., a school-master, undertook to edit 
it, and sent it to Clays as fit for press. On his sad death two years 
back, I, as the Society's man-of-all-work, had to take it up, and, after 
trying in vain to fill up the burnt parts of the Vitellius MS. in the 
first four sheets of proof, I luckily came on the Stowe MS. 952 of the 
poem, with a capital text, which had escaped the notice of our great 
teacher in MS. Romances, Henry Ward, thro' not having been fully 
described in the Stowe catalog of Lord Ashburnham. This MS. has 
only about two-thirds of Lydgate's englishing ; but that worthy old 
tailor John Stowe, whom all MS. folk honour, hating a vacuum, 
as Nature does, copied into his MS. 2 the missing part, from another 
MS.; and tho' he modernised the spelling somewhat, and cut off a lot 
of final ees, his text has enabled me to fill up the gaps left by the two 

1 See Miss Isabella K, Gust's two books : 1, The ancient Poem of Guillaume 
de Guileville, entitled Le Pelerinage de VHomme, compared with the Pilgrim's 
Progress of John Bunyan, London 1858 ; 2. A Modern prose Translation (that 
is, Abstract) of . . The PyJgrymage of Man, London 1859, &c. 

2 This MS. , Stowe 952, is no doubt the one that Thos. Speght alluded to in 
his List of Lydgate's works at the end of his Siege of Thebes, Fol. 394, in Chau- 
cer's Workes, 1598, ed. Speght. In his 'Catalogue of translations and Poeticall 
deuises, in English mitre or verse, done by lohn Lidgate, Monke of Bury, 
whereof some are extant in Print, the residue in the custodie of him [John 
Stowe] that first caused this Siege of Thebes to be added to those works of G. 
Chaucer' [1551], the 3rd entry is 'Pilgrimage of the world, by commandement 
of the Earle of Salisbury, 1426.' 

* 



vi Forewords. Lydgate and Bunyan. 

Cotton MSS., and thus secure the Society the complete poem. As his 
master Chaucer had englisht DeGuileville's ABC poem to the Virgin, 
Lydgate left a space for it to be copied in; 1 and this will be fild 
below by the best of the versions I printed for the Chaucer Society, 
in my Parallel-Text Minor Poems. 

Seeing that the main interest of Lydgate's poem supposing his 
verse to deserve that name is its supposed relation to Bunyan's 
world-known work, I suppose our members will read enough of it to 
settle, each in his own mind, whether this Pilgrimage had anything 
to do with the Pilgrim's Progress. I don't think it had ; for De- 
Guileville's main object was to expound and enforce the chief articles 
of Romanist doctrine by any arguments, however absurd, as where 
the Pilgrim has to get his eyes taken out and put in his ears (p. 164), 
so that his hearing may make him believe that bread and wine are 
turnd into Christ's body and blood, though his sight tells him the 
substances are unchanged. 

The only pretty page in the volume is that on the renewing of 
Nature by Spring, p. 92. Of the literary quality of the rest of the 
verse, the less that's said, the better ; but of course the text is of 
worth for its words, metre, and grammar, and its gauge of religious 
folks' minds in the 14th and 15th centuries. 2 Lydgate (at the bidding 
of the 7th Lord Salisbury 3 ) englisht the second and expanded version 
of DeGuileville's poem, made A.D. 1335, the first having been written 
in 1330-1. There is no copy of this second version in the British 
Museum, MS. or printed ; but Mr. Alfred Huth has kindly let me 
make extracts from his copy of the old print, to show how Lydgate 
treated his original. In the following sample he englishes 148 lines 
of French in 254 of English, which include his definitions of the 
three words Original, Posterity, Transgression. For another sample, 
see p. 201-4, after the third Latin poem. 

1 The prose englisher lifts Chaucer's poem into his text as if it were his own : 
p. 165-70, Roxb. Club ed. of DeGuileville's first version. 

J Compare the present fuss about ritualism, incense, &c. 

3 See Cokayne's grand Peerage, vii. 36. Lord S. got his death-wound at the 
Siege of Orleans in 1428. His second wife was Alice, daughter and heir of 
Thomas Chaucer of Ewelme, widow of Sir Jn. Philip. Her third husband was 
William de la Pole, first Duke of Suffolk. She would no doubt appreciate Lyd- 
gate's praise of her husband's relative, not father, Geoffrey Chaucer. 



Forewwds. Extract from DeGuileville's French. vii 

(For comparison with p. 2682, 1. 9671220 
Lydgate.) 

1 If Bien vueil, dis ie, quainsi soit fait. 

Mais ce seroit raison et droit [Fo. nij] 968 Lepeierin 

Que ie sceusse pourquoy baigner 969 

4 Me fault ycy, et quel mestier 970-1 

En est / quant assez laue suy 972 

Et point ne suis ort ne honny, 973 

Ceste eau est froide / et ie suis net ; 976 

8 Et aduis mest, se ie my meet, 977 

Quen tres grant peril ie feray ; 978 

Et plus net, estre nen pourray. 979-80 

IT Or escoute, dist elle lors ; 981 grace aieu 

12 Sassez net tu es par dehors, 982 

Si ne les tu mye par dedens, 983 

Pour la cause de tes parens, 987 

Qui, de loriginal peche, 986 

16 Tout enlaidy et entache ; 985-989 

Duquel estre tu ne pourroies 990 

Bien laue, se ycy ne lestoies. 991-2 

Encores que ce ie taidasse, 993-4 

20 Et que Ie bain sainctifiasse, 995-6 
Se ia nestoit sainctifiez, 

Par ainsi suffiroit assez 997 
Pour toi bien lauer par dedens, 998, 1001 

24 Selon lequel signifiemens 

Test donne leaue par dehors. 999 

^1 Chiere dame, respondy lors, 1003 Lepeierin 

Or est ma doubte moult plus grant 1004-5 

28 Quelle nestoit par cy deuant. 1006-7 

Exposez moy ce quauez dit, 1008-9 

Ou mal en feroye mon profit. 1010 
IT Quant dieu, dist elle, adam, ton pere, 1011-12 grace dieu 

32 Eut cree / et eue, ta mere, 1012-14 

II leur fist si grant courtoisie, 1015-17 

Et leur donna tele franchise, 1018 

Quilz pouoient viure sans languir, 1019-21 

36 Sans necessite de mourir ; 1022-3 

Et tel grace leur octroya, 1023 



viii Forewords. Extract from DeGuileville's French. 

[Gract DU.] Que rectitude leur donna, 

Et droiz les fist en liberte, 1024 

40 Et franchise de volente 1025 

Pour bien garder en eulx droicture 1026-7 

Selon iustice par mesure, 1028 

En tel maniere que le corps 1029 

44 Obeissoit a son ame lors ; 1030 

Et si rendoient subiection 1031 

Les forces basses a raison, 1032-3 

Ce quest bas / a ce que dessus, 1034 

48 Les moins dignes / aux dignes plus. 1035-7 

Et telle ordonnance pouoit 1041-2 

Estre bien dicte, qui vouldroit 1043-5 

Vne iustice origin el, 1046 

52 Qua tes parens, dieu, pour chatel 1047-9 

Et heritaige auoit donne 1049 

Pour ceulx de leur posterite 1050 

Herediter / a tousiours mais, 1051-5 

56 Se point ne se fussent meffaiz. 1055-6 
Mais saiches que moult se meffirent ; 

Car, a leur dieu ilz desobeirent,, 1057 

Et perdirent lauctorite 1058-60 

60 De quoy dessus ie tay parle ; 1061 

Cest, que mourir les conuiendroit, 1062 

Et que plus a eulx ne seroit 1063 

Lobedience de deuant ; 1064 

64 Car cil qui nobeist au plus grant 1065 

Qui le serue, trouuer ne doit, 1066 

Ne qua luy obeisse par droit. 1067-70 

Adam a dieu a desobey : 1071-2 

68 Bien fut dont raison que celuy 1073 

Quil auoit en subiection, 1074-7 

Aussi lui fist rebellion. 1078 

A /~\R t" 6 diray comment en va : 1079-84 

72 \J Se vng bon fort chastel donne a 1088 

Le roy / a vng sien cheualier, 1085 

Pource quil ame, et quil la cher, 1086 

Afin que sil est bien feal, 1087 

76 Bien obeissant et bien loyal, 

Qua luy et ses hoirs tousiours soit ; 1088-97 



Forewwds. Extract from DcGuileville's French. ix 

Mais sainsi est qua feal ne soit, 1098 [Grace 

Et le cliastel ainsi perdu 1100-1 

80 II ait / ou len luy ait tolu. 1101 

Ce nest pas raison / en verite, 1102 

Que ses hoirs en soieut herite ; 1103 
Car combien quauant leur feust deu, 

84 Us lont par leux pere perdu. 1105 

IT Aux premiers parens dieu donna [1106-7] 

lustice original, dont ia x 1 108 

Tay parle, par condition 1116 

88 Que sa luy nul rebellion 1115 
Ilz ne faisoient / il octroyoit 
Quelle fust a trestous par droit 

Ceulx qui de leur posterite 2 1117 

92 Servient desormais engendre, 

Or est que, quant ilz desobeirent 1121-5 

Icelle Justice perdirent. 1 1 22, 1 1 26 
Aux hoirs ne la peurent donner, 

96 Et ilz nen peurent heritor. 1127 

Mais ne fust la transgression 3 1129 

A eulx eust este par raison. 1134-5 

Done, se tu as entendement, 1136-7 

100 Veoir tu peulx bien apertement, 1138 

Que eel original peche 1139-42 

De quoy ie te voz entache, 1143 

Que cest carence de iustice 1144 

104 Original / en celluy qui / ce 1145 

Deusist auoir en verite 1146-7 

Par cause de posterite. 1148 

IF Dame, dis ie moult esbahis, 1149-50 

108 Me faictes, de voz diuers dis, 1151 

Qui ne sentre-suiuent de rien ; 1152 

Et croy que vous le sauez bien. 

Vous dictes quil me fault lauer, 1153-4 

112 Pour ma laidure hors iecter; 1155 

Et vous nommez tele laidure, 1156-7 

' Tache originale, et ordure ' ; 1158 

1 Lydgate's definition of Original takes up lines 1109-13. 

2 Lydgate's definition of Posterity takes up lines 1119-21. 

a Lydgate's definition of Transgression takes up lines 1130-3. 



Forewords. Extract from DeGhtileville's French. 

ete-in.] Laquelle nest fors que carencc 1159-GO 

116 De ceste iustice, et absence. 1160-1 

Or me semble que lauement 1162-3 

Nest besoing a defaillenient. 1164 

Ains vauldroit il mieux par raison 1165 

120 Aucune restitution. 1166 

grace dieu IF Certes, dist elle, il est tout voir, 1167-8 

Qui beaulte na / que doit auoir, 1169-70 

Nest pas sans vilte et ordure, 1171 

124 Voire et si peult estre dordure 1172 

Souuentesfoys commencement, 1173 

Et grant cause et nourricement : 1174 

Com, saucun / point de nez nauoit, 1175-6 

128 Lequel par raison auoir doit, 1177 

A luy ce seroit grant laidure, 1178-9 

Et me pourroit estre / quordure 1180-1 

Aucune / apres ne sensuiuit, 1182-4 

132 Dont, saiches par ce que iay dit, 1185 

Se nas iustice originel 1186 

Quauoir deusses / par laquel bel 1 1 87-8 

Feusses / que nes pas sans laidure ; 1189-90 

136 Et mesmement quant en ordure 1192 

De charnelle concupiscence 1193 

Tousiours enchez / sans resistence 1202 

Faire, tele comme tu deusses, 1203 

140 Se la grant beaulte tu eusses 1204-10 

Que te perdirent pere et mere, 1 208-9 

Quapres eulx tout chascun compere. 1211-12 

Lepeierin IT Or dictes (dis ie) ic vous pry, 1213-14 

144 Sen se lauement, restably 1215 

[Fo. v] Et restitue point seroy 1216 

De la iustice quauoir doy ; 1217 

Et se lorde concupiscence 1219 

148 Adnullee me sera par ce. . . . 1220 

Note. Martews, p. 234, 1. 8433. 

Et cincq pierres i met petites I Dont puceles as martiaus geuent, 

Du rivage de mer eslites, Quant beles et rondos les treuent. 

Konian de la Rose 2176770. iv. 320, Bibl. Elzeo. 

Jouer aux marteaux, signifiat lancer dos petits cailloux ronds en 1'air pour 

les recevoir dans 1'une et 1'autre main ,eri les faisant choquer. C'est un jeu 
analogue a notre jeu d'osselets : ib. v. 216-7. 

Ossclets. The game tearmed Cockall or Huckleboues. 1611 Cotgravc. 



Foreiuords. Amalgamated ' to.' A syllable as a foot, xi 

The two points that strike me most on reading Lydgate's poem, 
are, 1. the large number of times in which he lias run the preposition 
to into the next vowel-beginning word, like tave, to have ; tal, to all ; 
talyved, to have lived ; and 2. the many instances in which a single 
unemphatic syllable does duty for the first measure of a line, and 
rarely that of a half-line after the pause. 

As examples of (1), take 
Telpe the in thy pylgrymage 22/815 
Tescape the wawe of euery streem 25/Q5 1 
Talyved 1 euere, thys no lesynge 2 7/ 1019 
Neuer tave had necessyte 27/IO22 
Lyk tamyghty champyoun 47/1766 
In ta pulpet that ther stood 64/2385 
Tal 2 pylgrymes in ther myscheff 108/7150 
The taforce in thy dyffence 217/7769 
Tarme 3 a man in chastyte 217/7778 

As restoring the to sometimes mends the metre, the reader may 
perhaps put the amalgamation down to Lydgate's scribe. I don't. 

As examples of (2), take 
Of / the gate / was cheff / porter 10/357 
As / yt hadde / only / by grace 23/866 
As / a plac/e most / royal 28/871 
And / to hyr / thus I / abrayde 28/878 
And / to put / the out / of doute 25/947 
Of / ther synne / oryg/ynal 88/1255 
And / tavoyd/en fro / thys place 47/1757 
Of / ryht, as / he ouht/e do 81/3052 
Of / thylke / muta/cioun 94/3542 
A/batyd / & set / a-syde 102/3847 
And / yt wer / abus/youn 102/3852 
Lych / as wry/teth Y/saye 102/3853 
And / with hum/ble cher / & face 104/3947 
Of / the wych / as thouh/te me 105/3987 
The / relefE / wher as / he stood 1 84/51 15 
To / be gyrt / for syk/ernesse 201/7205 

1 Cp. I myghte beter a mendyt yt 7/253 [a = have] 

2 To all. Tyl St. Cp. To al pylgrymes in ther way 21/789 

3 To arme St. 



xii Forewords. One Syllabic as a Measure. Final ' e.' 
After the pause I have carelessly noted only 

Therof / holy / the / manere 9/321 

Thys horn/yd best / and / tenchase 47/1758 

Lyst / the wyn / wer / to strong 59/2229 

In the second line, the restoration of to would make it normal. 
But the student will find plenty of irregularities, as he reads. In 
55/2047, 'That / ye be / thys / no fable,' thys is emphatic. 

In marking the e for the scansion I have occasionally made mis- 
takes, as on p. 138-9, where 'Esau' should have been treated as a 
3-syllabled word, since it rymes with 'vertu,' 1. 5299, 5310. Line 
5280 I should now scan ' Clad / in E / sa-w/ys wede,' 1. 5297 as 
' E/sa-u / to sette / abak,' and 1. 5300 as ' Took / lacob / for E/sa-u.' 
'Swycli / ten / in quantyte/ 136/5205, may want mending to 
' SwycheV I haven't markt all the ee's that need sounding. 



DE GUILLEVILLE'S PILGKIMAGE OF THE 
LIFE OF MAN 

(englisht by Lydgate in 1426, from the 2nd recension of De Guille- 
ville's Ptlerinage de vie humainc, A.D. 1355, pr. about 1500). 



of tije Cranslator, Itofm 

MS. Colt. Vitel. c. xiii, leaf 2. 

q Vi peregrinatis, hunc per libru? docearis 1 

Que bona uel dubia s[it fugienda 2 ] via. [*st.] 
[y] e worldly folk, avyse yow betymes [ s st.] woriaiyfoik 

Wych in thys lyff [ne] ben [but as pylgriiues 3 ], wise betimes, 
Lyk strauMgerys [ti'ere fro youre Cuntre 4 ] [st.] 
5 Vnfraiwohysed and [voyde off lyberte]; 5 [ 5 st.] 4 
ffor schortly here yovre poscessyon for possession 

ys yove to yow / but for a schort sesou??, 
Nor the tresovre 6 wych that ye possede [6 tresou^c 8 ]'' 
ys but thyng lent / ho so kan take hede, 8 tst.f Omnia 

ffor clerkys seyn / how [that] al 7 erthly thyng f ^"cf" viclxi^unt 
Stowndemel, and by vnwar chaiwgyng* //Nesciosunt 

cuia nune // 

Whan folk lest wene / noon hede ne take, -as iiui & 

Her mayster olde 8 sodeynly for-s:ike. [" oide St., old c.] 12 only for a 

short time. 

Thyng myn to-day / a-nother hath to-mor\ve ; 

That kam wyth loye / departeth ay wyth sorwe ; 

And thyng ywonne wyth loye 9 and gladnesse, [9 { ye c s j" 

Ay dysseuereth wyth 10 wo and hevynesse. [ 10 wytu witA c.] 

No tresour here, wyth man wyl abyde ; NO treasures 

J J J will remain 

Who strongest halt / ther rathest hyt wyl slyde : liere wlth 

any one. 

ffortune ys lady / vrith hyr / double face, 

Of every thyng 1 / that sodeynly doth pace ; 20 

Sche pryncesse ys / of al worldly glorye, 

And off al loye that ys transytdrye ; 

Sche ys off chere 11 so varyaunt & dovble. [ n chere St., Fortune de- 

* cue C -J ceives men 

Hyr kalm ys euere meynt -with wo & trovble, 24 r, 

And hyr sugre [ys] vnder-spreynt wyth galle : 
Thys hyr vsage vn-to estatys alle, 

1 docearis. Stowe MS. 952. The Cott. MS. is burnt and torn at the top all 

thro ; 1st page faint. The Stowe MS. was once in the possession of old John 

Stowe, the famous tailor and book-collector. Notes in his writing are on 

Ivs. 1, 3, 4, 13, besides the long bit he copied from 303 bk. to the end, 379 bk. 

PILGRIMAGE. B 



2 Lydgatcs Prolog. Man's Life a Pilgrimage. 

[i fayrest To schewc fayrest whan l sche ys most to drede ; 

fayres'whaTn Of hyh" ne lowh" sclie taketh noon other hede, 28 

ffor wych [let] no man vp-on hyr assure, 
ffor sche ys lyke 2 to the chavnteplure ; [ lyke St., lyk c.] 

and woe ai- Wo after love & after song wepyng 1 , 

ways suc- 
ceeds to Thys hyr cvstom in every maner thyng. 32 

pleasure, 

[leaf 2, buck] In on estate she neuere doth" contyune. [St.; c. burnt} 
Thys stormy quen, wych callyd ys Fortune [St. &c.] 
Hyr gyfftys alle in conclusion), 3 [c. & St.] 

and her gifts Be not but gyffytys off confusion), [c. *st.] 36 

always end in oJ J J 

confusion. ffor wortliynesse in Armes nor vyctorye [c. & St.] 

P collusion, Arn in effect but thinges transytorye [st.&c.] 

Nor hih conquest, nor domynaci'on, [St. &c.] 

Peplys to putte in subieccyon. 40 

It al 4 schal passe as doth a somer flovr ; [ 4 it c, AUe St.] 

In thys world here', 5 holdyug no soiovr P st. here, her c.] 

No thyng abyt, shortly for to wryte, [St. &c.-] 

Good lyff exepte, and only ovr meryte. [c. & St.] 44 
Man's life Trustetli 6 ther-for, ye folk of euery age, [ 6 Trusterth c.] 

is only a pil- 
grimage, That yowre lyff her ys but a pylgrymage ; 

ffor lyk pylgrymes ye passe to & ffro, 
Whos loye ys euere meynt A-niong 1 with wo. 48 

Al" worldly blysse, medlyd ys with stryff; [ 7 AC, Aiiest.] 
ffor ay the cburs, of thys mortal lyff, 
and every pit- Euen'ch hovr doth to liys bouwdys dra we : 

(rrim draws * 

hh! l eiid earer ^ ^ Py^S r y me 's kynd hath set a lawe, 52 

Eche day to lienne a party on ther way ; 
Olde 8 ner yong 1 , ther may no man sey nay, [ 8 oide St., oid c.] 
Lyk a Ryuer sterne, and of gret myglit, [ 9 nat St., om. c.] 
Ne restyth nat 9 nouther [by] day nor nyght, 56 

To holde hys cours as ledeth hy? the streem, 
Eyght so, pylgrymes to-ward lerusaleem 
Haste 10 on her way in thys world, & echone [ 10 Haste on St.] 

which is To-ward that cyte, or to Babylone. [c. <or] 60 

Jemsalem or 

Lyk ther merytes, & lyk to ther degres, 

They be Eeceyved at on of thys cytees, 

Ytakyn inne, 11 so as they dysserve ; [" nine St., in c.] 

And deth, ay redy with hys dart to kerue, G4 

Lyth in a-wayt, dredful off manacys, 

To send palmc-rys to on off tliys 



Lydgate's Prolog. Read the 'Pilgrimage de Monde.' 3 

A-gcyne whas 1 stroke, helpeth no medycyne, pwiiosst.] [leaf s] 
-Salue, tryacle / but grace only dyvyne, 68 ^;] y a ^ a 7, ce 

ifolk to conveye to ther desyred place : againatdeaih 

And many brygaiwt the weye doth manace, 
No man ys sur liym sylue?i to di fiend* ; 
"Wherfore I rede, lat euery whyht a-mend? 72 

Hys lyff be tyme, whil he hath liberte. 
And that folk may the Kyhte weye se 

Best aSSUryd tO-Warde 2 ther passage, [* warde St., ward C.] 80 every man 
should amend 

Lat hem be-holde[n] in the pylgrymage, 76 ln time - 

Which 3 callyd ys pylgrymage de moviide, JrjJl^; 

In the wych fful notably ys fovnde t [ 3 which St., whch c.] ^towide they 

Lernyd, and tavht, who can weH construe, 

IVhat folk schal take, & what they schal eschue. 80 

In thys book, yf [that] they redij yerne, 

Pylgrymes schal the verray trouthe 4 lerne, V {* e <?*- J^ 1 ? 1 t]l * 

jiff they sette ther trewe dyllygence 

To vnderstonde clerly the sentence, 84 

What hyt menyth, & the moralyte ; 

Ther they may, as in a mcrovr, se 

holsom thynges, & thynges fuH notable ; 

What ys prevyd, & what thyng ys dampnable, 88 

What ys holsom, the sovle for to save, 

Whan the body ys leyd in hys grave. twg'm'en 

And to knowe 5 wych be cyteseyns, [ 5 knowe St., know c.] ^"^Jf s<XKt 

Trewe burgeys, & eke 6 frau^keleyns, [ eke St., ek c.] 92 

Wych in good lyff and vertu do excelle, 

In lerusaleem perpetually to duelle, 

Whan the lugge & Lord*, that lyveth evere, 

In hys doom assovnder shal dysseuere 96 

Hys chose shep, wasshe in the lambys blood, At last some 

sliall go to 

Wych for mankynde starff vpon the rood ; Jerusalem, 

And putte the kydcs to dampnaczon, [St. &c.] [leafs.back] 

wych ha noon part of Crystys passyoii), 100 

Endlesly there to lyve in peyne, 
"Where Lucyffer lyth bovnden in his cheyne. ; n d some to 

J J Lucifer, 

ffro the wych, God eue/y man defende, *! ron v, w1 ,"^ 1 

> J fate God de- 

And graunte 7 grace, our lyff here to mende, Vfffffi ^f* 

To-ffor the ffyn of ovre pylgrymage. 

ifor, save hys grace, we ha noon avamitage, 



4 Lydgates Prolog. Lord Salisbury lids him cnglish DcG. 

No tbyng is 1 cleyme as be tytle of rylit, [itost.] 
But of mercy, wych ay lyth in hys myght, 108 

The repent- Yn-to svnnerys. that deve repentawnt, 

ant are i>ar- 

doned. To yive pardon) oft hys benynge graunt, 

[The] Wycli ys to hem, vn-to tber refut, 
Proteccyon) and true sauff-conduit, 112 

Hem to save, that thay be nat lorn). 

And tliys book, the wych I spake off to-fforn), 
Tiie p u i- I mene, the book Pylgrymage de Movnde, 
u, untie MoraH of vertu, of matervs ful profovnde, 116 

made in . " 

French is a Maad & cowpylyd in the Frenche tonge, 

notable book, 

ffuH notable to be rad & songe. 

To ever}' pylgryme, vertuous of lyff, 

The mater is / so cottternplatyff ; 120 

In aH the book, ys not lost a wore?. 

Thys consydred fuH wysly of my lonl 1 
asLordSaiis- Of Salysbury, the noble manly knyht, 
who fought "Wycli in Fravnce, for the kyngys Ryht, 124 

considered I n the werre hath meny day contunyd ; 

"Whom God & grace ban ful wel ffortunyd 

In thenpryses wych he hath vndertake ; 

Lyff and godes, for the kyngys sake, 128 

Knyhtly Inpartyd thys prince vertuous ; 

Ay in the ende -beyng 1 victoryous, 

Swych grace & Eur, God to hy? hath sent, 
and com- Wych gaff me ffyrst iu comavndement 132 

nianded me 

[leaf 4] Thys seyde book in Englysshe for to make, 



Into' E 



As I koude, [al] only for hys sake. 



Be-cause he wolde that men scliold[e] se, 
In ovre tonge, the grete moralyte 136 

"\Vycli in thys book ys seyde & comprehendyd, 
That yt no myhte (me semyth) be Amendyd ; 
The auctour, wych that dyde hyt ffyrst co?pyle, 
So vertuously spent ther-on hys whyle. 140 

And jo pvase And of entent k) do mv lord plesawnce, 

liini 1 will do " 

i iaw tniljr ** ^ U ^- VS worscne l^> f r a remembravnce, 
As I am bovnde for to be hys man, 
I wyl translate hyt sotlily as I kan, 144 

After the lottre, in ordrc effectnclly. 
Thogh I not folwe the won.les by & by, 



Lydgates Prolog. He Icgan A.D. 1426. His verse is bad. 5 

I schal not faille teuchyng* 1 the substawnce, L 1 tonchynge St.] 
Thogh on 2 makyng 1 I ha no suffysawnce ; [ 2 i St.] 148 
ffor my wrytyng*, in co?iclusion), 
ys al yseyd vnder correc<on). 

And of the tyme playnly, & of the date The year in 

A / / which I be- 

Whan I be-gan thys book to translate, 152 pan to trans- 

J late this book 

yt was a thovsand (by computacfon)) was A - D - u - 6 > 

Affter crystys incarnaczon), 

ifour hundryd oner, nouther fer ne nere, 

The surples ouer, syxe & twenty yere, 156 

My lord that tyme beyng 1 at Parys, when my 

"Wych gaff me charge, by hys dyscrete avys, Paris- 

As I seyde erst, to sette myn entent 

Vp-on thys book to be [ful] dyllygent, 160 

And to be-gynne vp-on thys labour, 

Alle folkys be-sechyng 1 of ffavour, 

That on thys book after- ward schal rede ; AH who read 

this book are 

And that hym lyst nat to taken hede 164 to pay more 

J J heed to the 

To the makyng 1 , but to the sentence ; meaning than 

J * to the trans- 

ffor I am bareyn of aH eloquence. lation, 

Ther-for I pray, what so that be seyde, 

[Off 3 gentylljesse not to be evel apayde, [ 3 St., c. burnt] [leaf t, back] 

And my rudnesse helpyn to excuse, 

ffor in metre I ha ne vrith me no muse : 



of the nvne that on Parnase duelle, for no muse : 

J favours me, 

Nor she that ys [the] lady of the welle, 172 

Calliope, 4 be syde cytheron, [*c. inerts'ti\utys'i 

Gaff to my penue, plente nor fuson 

Of hyr licovr, whan thys work was [be]gowie. 

Nor I drank no-wer of the sugryd tonne 176 nor have i 

r\C T T.-J. 11-1 i ilrankoutof 

Ott lubiter, couchyd in hys celer, Jnprttrt 

So strange I fonde to me hys boteler, 
Off poetys [ijcallyd Ganymede. 

But to my labour now I woH me spede, 180 

Prayng 1 ech reder me to recon forte, 
Benignely my rudenesse to supporte. 
ffor Avherso be my thonk, I lese or wynne, 
Wyth yowre grace thus I wyH be-gynne. 184 Here ends 

the trans- 

Here endyth the prologe off the translatcur. } J^ s v*- 



6 DC Guillevilles Prolog. His Dream after A.D. 1330. 



The Prolog 
of the author 
begins. 



Men take no 
heed of 
dreams until 
they come 
true, 



; Tleaf5] 



and then 
they arc re- 
membered. 



If men neg- 
lect them I'or 
long, they 
forget tin-in 
altogether. 



In the year 
ISlO(tfr.mo) 
1 had a won- 
derful dream, 



which I 
wrote down] 
at once, 



Her be-gynnetli the prologue of the auctour. 

fful ofte hyt happeth 1 in certeyn [ faiieth St.] 

Off dremys, the wych that men ha seyn 

I nyhtys, after, whan they wake, 

fful lytel hede ther-of thay take, 188 

Tyl effte agayn yt comyth to mynde, 

That they the veray trouthe fynde, 

Of euery thyng 1 they sawe to-forn). 

ffor, of remewbraunce the thoni) 192 

Pryketh here mynde's -with hys poynt, 

That they hyt se fro poynt to poynt, 

And fynde hyt verrayly yn dede, 

Thogh a-fore they took noon hede. 196 

Be yt of loye, be yt of sorow, 

fful ofte a-pon the nexte 2 niorow [* nexte St., next c.] 

yt ys go clene out off her thouht, 

Ther-of they ha so lytel rouht, 200 

Tyl after they a-vyse hem wel ; 

And then thay fyndyth 3 yt euerydel, pflyndest.] 

Dremys that they had* a nyhte, 

By maner of a dyrked 4 syhte. [* dyrk c, Derkede St.] 204 

But yiff they make longe delay, 

To putto hem forth fro clay to day, 
Than, 5 th[o]rogh foryetelnesse, [ 5 That St., Than c.] 
Thay kan there-of no thyng 1 expresse, 208 

ffor aH ys out of mynde go. 

And on A tyme hyt happyd so, 
ffro Crystys berth a thousand! yer, 
Thre hondryd, by a-cowntys cler, 212 

And over 6 Ten, as I toke kepe, [ read times] 
Vp-on a nyht I lay & sclepe, 
Drempte, (yf ye lyst to lere, 7 ) p here St.] 

A wonder dreme, in tyme yffere. 216 

The wych, a-noon as I a-wook 
Vp on the morow, a pemie I took, 
And wrote yt, yff ye lyst to wyte, 8 [ ? wete] 

That I schold hyt nat foryete ; 220 

But freschly yn my mynde yt kepe, 
Halff wakyng 1 and halff a-slepe, 



DC Guillevillc's Prolog. He lost his vjritten Dream. 7 



That I myht after, by leyscr, 
Correcte byt when tlie day were cler, 
By good avys, whan I took kepe, 
Bet a-dawed out of my sclepe. 

And thys consyderyd euery dele, 
Me sempte I hadde do ryht wel, 
Yiff ther liadde, as tho to me, 
ffalle noon co?itraryouste ; 
ffor al the wrytyng 1 that I wrote 
Was me be-raffte, and how I not, 
Dyscured 1 thurgh the world a brode, 
As God woot wel, and thus yt stood. 
Where-of I hadde as tho no shame, 
ffor al I hald yt but a game ; 
ffor to that tyme fredam I hadde 
To putte away, and eke to adde, 
What that me lyst, lyk as I wende. 
ffor ther was myche thyng 1 to mende, 
To ordeyne, & to correcte, 
And bet in order to directe ; 
ffor many a thyng 1 , yt ys no nay, 
Mot be prouyned, & kut a- way, 
And yshape of newe entaylle, 
In ordre clresse hyt, & yraylle, 
As doth eue?*y manere whyht, 
That wol make a thyng 1 a-ryht. 
ffor he that bar my dreme a-way, 
ffuH lytel thouhte (yt ys no nay) 
On my profyt in any wyse ; 
ffor shortly, as I kan devyse, 
I myghte beter a mendyt yt, 
Lyk as God hadde yeve me wyt, 
Sool by my sylff , than I may now ; 
But aH ys gone, I wot not how. 
And eke yt ys so long 1 a-go, 
That thys dreern was take me fro, 
I haue almost foryete yt al. 
But not for-thy, yet I schal 
Adde, & putte a-way also, 
Where-as I se yt be to do ; 



224 intending to 
correct it 
afterwards. 



228 



[i Stowe] 



232 



236 



244 



248 



252 



But I lost all 

I wrote ; 

liowldon't 

know. 

[leaf 5, back] 



Up to that 
time I could 
add or ' 
diminish, 
as I thought 
good, and 
mend it. 



But he who 
took it away 
did not con- 
sider me. 



256 And now all 
is gone, I 
know not 
how. 



260 But now I 
shall do as I 
like, 



8 De Guillcville's Prolog. Hell go to Jerusalem. 



and when I 
have finished, 
Deaf 6] 



I sliall send 
it abroad. 



Go forth, 
then, ray 
dream, 



and fail not. 



Whether on 
foot or on 
horseback 
them slwuldst 
have had 
leave of me. 



I intend to 
take tliee to 
Jerusalem 
with me. 



A law among 
pilgrims is 
that each 
" shall abide 
other." 



Deaf 6, back] 



I schal not leve in myne entcnt 

To putte alway a-mendement, 1 L 1 amendement St.] 264 

As yt comyth to my knowynge, 

Day be day yt rc-mewbrynge. 

And when that yt a-mendyd ys, 

And se that nothyng 1 be a niys, 268 

By a lace I shal yt were, 

And a-bowte my nekke yt bere, 

Send yt forth to eue?y 2 cowtre, pychest.] 

Wher-as to-fforn that yt hath be, 272 

A-geyn my wyl & my plesavmce. 

And thus 3 for a Remembrauwce, p tins St.] 

Go fforth thow dreme ! I send e 4 the [* sende St., send c.] 
By aft the placys wher thow hast be; 276 

I send the to thy provynours, 
By aH the pathys & the tovrs, 
ffor thow knowest the weye wel, 

And the passage euerydel. 280 

On my be halff[e] thow not ffaylle 
To dresse yt ewyn by entaylle, 
Wher thow wer fferst, wych doth me greve, 
And took of me no maner leve. 284 

ffor wych I calle yt (thys the ffyn,) 
No verray weye off pylgrym. 
By cavse, wherso, by the lak, 

On ffoote, nor on horsebak, 5 p horse St., how c.] 288 
Thow sholdest ha mad no lourne, 
But thow haddest hadde leve off me. 
But ffor as myche as I in dede 

Thynke the wit/i me to lede, 292 

Whan I go, as thow schalt se, 
To lerusaleem, the cyte ; 

To wych weye, wz'tA-ovte 6 more p oute St., ovt c.] 
I am excyted wonder sore : 296 

Thys myn entent, thider to drawe, 
And a-mong 1 pylgrymes, thys a lawe, 
That, as brother vn-to brother, 

Euerych sholde a-byden other. 300 

Thys sholde ben a trewe vsage 
Off folkys" in ther pylgrymage. 



In my Dream I saw Jerusalem the Golden. 



Doo telle 1 myn aventure cler, [ St., c. burnt] 

How passyd syx and twenty yer, , 304 

Telle 2 vn-to on and aH, p Teiie St., Tei c.] 

How that yt ys [to] me ffaH, 

In the Abbey off Chalys, 3 

Whylom ffoumlyd off Seyw Levvyys. 308 

Here begynneth the pylgrym. 
The seyde yer (ho lyst take kep) 

J J V J 

1 was avysed m my slop, 

-ri iii i ii j 

Lxcyted eke, and that a-noon, 

To Jerusalem for to goon. 312 

Gretly meved in my corase 

* 

ffor to do my pylgrymage, 

J r J o J 

And ther-to steryd inwardly. 

And to tell the cause why, 316 

Was, ffor me thouht I hadde a syht 

"WWi-Inne a merour large & bryht, 

Off that hevenly ffayr cyte, 

"Wych representede vn-to me 320 



Ther of holy the manere, 

Wit/i Inne the glas ful brylit & cler. 

[Rest of page blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And werrayly, as 4 thouhte me [* as st., as ye se c.] 
yt excellyde off bewte 324 

Al other in cowiparyson) ; 
ifor God hym selff Avas the masown, 
wych mad yt ffayr, at ys devys. 
ffor workman was ther noon so wys, 328 



yt to concey ve in hys entent ; 
ffor al the weyes & paament 



Wer ypavyd all off gold*. 
And in the sawter yt ys told 1 , 

HOW the ffyi'St ffundaCVOll, 
* 

On hyllys off devocyon ; 

The masou7iry wrought ful clene, 

Off quyke stonys bryht & schene, 

1 J J J 

Wy th a closour rovnd a-bowte 



Apocat. 21. 



332 



FundameMta ei ill Montibu* 
sanctis. 



De lapidibus viuis. 336 



i wii ten 

what lii'ti-11 



[Camb.,Rxb., 

Cap.ii] 

The pilgrim 

said i Listen : 



* was mov cd 

in my dream 

19 goon 

pilgrimage to 

Jerusalem, 



which i saw 

represented 

in a glass. 



[leaf?] 



a " 



, 

with gold. 



K" founda- 
tions were 

maileof . 

living stones. 



3 Chaalit : Roxl). ed., p. 1 ; 'Chaalie,' Add. 22,937 ; 
' Ca!iq?w,' Harl. 4399. 



10 



Jerusalem Gate ivas guarded by an Angel. 



An angel 
guarded it, 



and only 
pilgrims were 
admitted. 

It had many 

mansions, 



and all kinds 
of joy were 
there. 

[Cap. Hi] 



[leaf 7, back] 



The angel at 
the gate slew 
all who 
would pass 
in, 



and tyrants 
ever lay in 
wait to slay 
the pilgrims. 



340 



344 

In domo pa<ris mei &c. 



348 



Off enmyes, 1 ther was no dovvte. [ : Enemyes St.] 

ffor Awngelles the \vach y-kepte, Angeiorwm custodia. 

The wych, day nor nyht ne slepte, 

Kepyng 1 so strongly the entre, 

That no wyht kam in that cyte, 

But pylgrymes, day nor nyht, 

That thyder wentyn evene ryht. 

And ther were meny mansyovns, 
Placys, and habytacyovns ; 
And ther was also al gladnesse, 
loye wa't/i-ovten hewynesse. 
And pleynly, who that hadde grace 
ffor to entrew in that place, 
ffond, onto hys plesavnce, 

Off loye al maner suffysavnce, 352 

That eny herte 2 kan devyse. [ herte St., hert cj 

And yet the 3 entre on swych wyse p the St., they c.] 
Was strongly kepte ffor koinyng* In ; 
ffor the Awngel cherubin, 
Off the gate was cheff porter, 
Havyng 1 a swerd, fflawmyng as cler 
As any ffyr, evene at the gate ; 
And who that wold, erly or late, 
Passen the wal, he was yslawe. 
Ther ne was noon other lawe, 
Ne 4 bet helpe, ne 4 bet refut ; 
The vengauwc ay was execut. 

In the passage thyder- ward, 
The weye was so streiht & hard, 
ffor tyravntys, wit/t ther felonye 
And wt't/i ther mortel torme?ztrye, 
Devyseden on 5 ther en tent 
fful many wonderful torment, 
Lyggyng awayt fro day to day, 
To slen pylgrymes in ther way, 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
6 Makyng 1 ful grete occysion) 

6 All this, nearly to 1. 533, is omitted in the prose Camb. 
(Roxb.), or rather, is comprised in a few lines. In this second 
recension, De Guilleville has here very largely alterd and ex- 
panded his first. 



[St. & c.] 



[* No . . no St.] 



360 



364 



368 



372 



Pilgrims sufferd Martyrdom and Tortures on the Road. 11 



Off pylgrymes of grete Renovn), 

Off men & wommen both yfere, 

"Whos martyrdom) (as ye schal here,) 376 

Was ful grevous to endure. 

ffor somme of hem (I yow ensure,) 

Wern out of here Skynnes flawe ; 

And somme, by ful mortal lawe, 380 

Wer hew (as bokys kan Remembre.) 

Asonder, partyd eue'/y membre, 

Cracefyed, of blood al lied ; 

And many other lost hys lied. 384 

Of somme, the bowelys \ver out Rent, 

And somme on hote colys brent, 

ffretyng 1 salt cast in among 1 , 

ffor to make ther peynys strong 1 388 

Myd the ffyry flawmys reed. 

So?me boylyd in oylle and led, 

And sore bet, that yt was wonder ; 

Somme, s.iwyd evene assonder ; 392 

Somme, vfith wylde hors ydrawe, 

In dyffence of crystys lawe, 

Thorgh-out the ffeld 1 , her & yonder, 

Tyl ther loyntes wente a-souder : 396 

Xerff and bon assonder Rent, 

And ther Entraylles aforn hem brent. 

The ffelouns wern on hem so felle, 

That yt ys pyte for to telle ; 400 

And ther ys no man now a 1 lyve [ion St.] 

That kan the peynys halff descry ve ; 

!N"or a sermon) ther-off make, 

What 2 they suffrede ffor the sake [ That St.] 

Off Cryst Ihesu vn-to the deth, 

ffor love, 3 tyl they yald* vp the breth, [ 3 love St., lave c.] 

Myd ther mortal peynys smerte. 

if or ther ys noon so hard on hert, 408 

So despytous, nor so ffelon), 

That he [ne] wolde ha compassyon), 

Ben agrysed off pytee ; 

And specyally ffor to se 412 

That they suffrede for no synne, 



Many 

suffered 

martyrdom. 



Some were 
skinned alive. 



some hewn 
asunder, 
some 
crucified, 



some roasted 
and salted, 
[leaf 8] . 



some boiled 
in oil and 
lead, 



some torn 
asunder by 
wild horses; 



their suffer- 
ings no roan 
can describe. 



There is no 
one who 
would not 
pity them, 



12 The Blessed enterd ly Wickets above the Gate. 

But only off entent to wynne 
as they only The love off Cryst ; & ffor liys sake, 

wislieil to i i /> 

obtain the AH they han vp-on liem take, 416 

love of Christ, 

BejQg 1 how, ffuH long 4 aforn), 
Cryst to suffre was yborn), 
And fforbar nat to be ded. 

And sythen he that was her hed 420 

[leaf 8, back] Suffrede peynys, deth, & woo, 

who suffered , . ., . . 

pain, death, Hie membrys wolde endure also, [MnaiieSt.] 

and woe, i <v i -i 11 

And ftolwe ther lied on al 1 thyng 1 , omwes eiiecti eaput suum. 
As Seyra Gregoir in liys wretyng 1 Gregori. 424 
Recordeth pleynly (who taketh lied) 
Off alle chose, 2 Cryst ys hed ; [* aiie choys St., ai chose c.] 
fEor wych, the merabrys, as was due, 
Affter ther hed lyst to sue, 428 

as our Wych by example wente a-fore, 

example. 

To whom thentre was not iforbore. 
They who ffor swych as deyde fEor liys love, 

died for the J J 

love of Christ By wyketys entrede in above, 432 

entered by J J J 

wickets, y p t ] ie g at g } hih aloffte, 

Thogh ther 3 passage was not soffte ; [ 3 ther was MS.] 

The porter lyst hem nat to lette. 

And ther pencellys vp they sette 4 436 

On cornerys, wlier them thouhte good, 

Al steyned wt't/i ther ovnc blood. 
And whan that I parceyved yt, 

I conceyvede yn my wyt, 440 

and even That who scholde ther-wit/i-Iniie 

these must -n m_ m 

enter by Entre by fcorce, he most yt wynne 

iorc6) 

By manhood only, and by vertu. 

ffor, by record off Seyw Ma the w, 444 

The hevene (as by hys sentence,) Regnum ceiomm vim patitur. 
Wonnen ys by vyolence. 

nd Custom) Eecordeth ek also,- ^tSSfSyft^ 
Who lyst taken hed ther-to- gSJKrfSl'SSSSS 1 
That gret vyolence & inyght Crysosto[mus]. 

yt ys, who that loke a-ryht, 
A man be born) in erth her downe, 

4 Camb. cap. iii.: "j seyh the penselles Imnginge steyned red 
with blood." * rapere St. 



Cherubim stood at the Gate with a Christ-blooded Sword. 13 



And Eavisshe, lyk a champyon), 452 

The noble hihe hevenly place, 

By vertu only & by grace. 

ffor vertu doth to a man assure 

Thyng denyed by nature. 456 

1 Thys to seyne, who lyst lere, 
That vertu makyth a man conquere 
The hih" hevene in many wyse, 

To wych kynde may not suffyse 460 

To cleyme ther pocession), 

But She be gliyded by ReSOIl), l Vevba translntoris. 

Wych to vertu ys maystresse, 

To lede hyr also, and to dresse 464 

In hyr pylgrymage Eyght 

Above the sterrys cler & bryht. 1 

ffor other weye koude I not se, 

To entre by in that cyte ; 468 

ffor cherubyn, erly and late, 
Ay awaytynge at the gate, 
Was redy euer, and ther stood, 

Whos sword! was bloudyd vritk the blood 472 

Off Crystys holy passyon) 
Whan he made our Eedempct'on, 
Mankynde to restore a-gayn. 

The wych wey, wha?z I hadde sey, 476 

I was a-stonyd in my syht. 
But I was cou?f ortyd a-noon Ryht, 
Whan I sawh the swerd mad blont 
Off chembin, the wych was wont 480 

To brenne as any flawmbe 2 bryht. p flawmbe St., flawnibe c.] 
But now, the sharpnesse & the 3 lyht p the St., om. c.] 
Was queynte, to do no more vengauwce, 
By vertu off cry sty s gret suffravnce, 484 

Wych schal no more for man be whet. 

[4 lines Hank in MS. for an Illumination.] 



4 And ther I sawh a smal wyket [* Cap. v, 1. 10] 
loynynge evene vp-on the gate ; 

And ther stood on, erly & late, 488 

Lenynge, as I kovde espye, 
Wych power 5 hadde, & maystrye [ 5 power St., powder c.] 



Man gains by 
virtue what 
[leaf 9] 
he is denied 
by nature, 



but virtue 
must be 
guided by 
reason. 



One stood 
there whose 
sword was 
red witli the 
blood of 
Christ. 



I was com- 
forted when 
I saw this 
sword made 
blunt, 



and its 

brightness 

quenched. 



[leaf 9, back] 

I saw a small 
wicket, at 
which, one 



14 St. Peter was at one Gate. Doctors guided Pilgrims. 



like St. Peter 
stood, 
[prose, p. 8] 



All who 
entered by 
this wicket 
were made 
naked, 



[Cap. v] 
which re- 
minded me 
of i In- camel 
passing 
through the 
eye of a 
needle. 



There were 
doctors also 



[leaf 10] 



who showed 
pilgrims how 
to enter this 
city. 
[Cap. iv, 1.11] 



ffor to opne & to shette, 

To Receyven and to lette, 192 

Pylgrymes that kam on ther weye ; 

And in hys bond? he held a keye, Ti c b J Io 1 . cla ] S; s tl ; e f ni 

Seyw Peter, me thouht by hys cher, 

That had off God pleyn power 496 

To lete in ffolk wych he knew bable. 

But fPyrst they most (tbys no ffable,) 

Dyspoyllen hem, & nakyd be ; 

ffor noman entrede that cyte 500 

That clothyd was, nor myhte passe, 

Wher he mor, or wer he lasse, 

Or gret compact 1 in any membrc. [ l compact St., compart c.] 

And than A-noon I gan Eemembre 504 

How Cryst sayde, in a certeyn place, 

That yt was as hard to passe 

In-to the hevene A reche man, 

Lych as he reherse kan 508 

By record off hys gospel, 

As yt was to a kamel 

To passe throgh a nedlys Eye ; 

Wych ys a thyng 1 (ho kan espye,) 512 

As yt were an Inpossible, 

And verrayly Incredyble. 

Aff ter' 2 -ward (yt ys no ffayll) [ 2 And affter St.] 

Me thouhte I sawh a gret mervayle : 516 

Vp-on Tours, dyuers estatys 
Off doctours and off 3 prelatys, p off St., om. c.] 

Showyng 1 , as by contenavnce, 

By speche, and by dallyavnce, 520 

Techyng^ pylgrymes to knowe, 
That wer yn the vale lowe, 
How, wit/i travaylle & peyne, 

And how also they sholde atteyne 524 

To make hem wywges ffor to fle 
Hih a-loffte to that cyte, 
By wynges of exauwiple good, 

Yiff they ther lernyng 1 vnderstood, 523 

Wych they tauhte hem in ther lyff 

[5 lines Uanlt in MS. for an Illumination.] 



Jacobins, Austins, &c. made Wings and flew into Heaven. 1 5 



[> dydde St.] 



By doctryne COM tern platytf, 
Outward schewyng 1 , as by cher, 
Ther love was to hem ful enter, 
ffovndyd vp-on charyte. 

Amongys wych I dede 1 se 
Crete noumbre of thys lacobins, 
Off chanovns, & of Awstynys, 
ffolkys ful diuers of maner, 
Both temporal & seculer, 
Off clerkys & relygyous, 
And other ordrys vertuous. 
Mendyvauwtys ful nedy, 
That day & nyht wer ryth 2 besy 
To gedre ffetherys, bryht & shene, 
And make hem wyges fFor to fflen. 
And gan A-noon, with al ther niyght, 
To soren vp, & take her fflyht 
Hih" in-to that ffayr cyte. 
And hitler vp they dyde me, 
Bove cherubin, that Avngel cler ; 
ffor they wer out of hys davnger, 
By the techy ng 1 , and the doctrine, 
And by exauwples ek dyvyne, 
Wych ther maystres hadde hem tauht, 
Wher-by they han the hevene kauht, 
And ffounde ther-in gret avauwtage 
To fforthre hem in ther pylgrymage, 
And how hem sylff they sholde guyde. 

And vp-on the tother 3 syde, p that other st.] 

Vnder the wal of the cyte, 
I sawh, off gret auctorite, 
ffolkys, wych dyde entende 
To helpe her ffrendys to ascende, 
By ful gret subtylyte, 
To make he?/i entre the cyte ; 
And ther-to dyde her bysy cure, 
By scalys throgh the strong 1 closure ; 
And as me thouhte, A-mong echou), 
That Seyn Benet in soth was on). 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination^ 



532 



Among the 
doctor* were 

Augustine* 

536 [prose, p. 2] 



540 



[ 2 were right St.] 



Facient s!b\ pennns & 
volabunt in celuvi. 



548 



552 



556 



560 



564 



568 



and other 
religious 
orders ; 



and they 
made them- 
selves wings, 



[leaf 10, back 
and soared 
above the 
cherubim 
which kept 
the gate. 



On the other 
side I saw 
great men 
helping their 
friends over 
the wall. 



[prose, p. :;] 



Among them 
was St. 
Uenet, 
[Cap. iv] 



16 Benedictines and Franciscans enterd ly Ladders. 



who brought 
a long ladder 



[leaf 11] 
by which 
men of his 
religion 
easily 
entered. 



[Cap. v] 
St. Francis 
also was 
there, 

[prose, p. 3] 



wlio assisted 
his friends 
over by 
means of 
knotted 
curils. 



Others I SAW 
whose immes 
are unknown 
tome. 



I could not 
see all the 
persons, 



"Wycll, as I reherse 1 slial, [> Reherse St., rehen C.] 

ffor to scale that hihe wal, 
. That was so myhty & so strong 1 , 
"With hym brouht a ladder long 1 , 572 

In the wych men myhte se 
xij. grees 2 off huraylyte, [* Twelve greces St.] 

By wych, thor[o]gh deuocyon), 

ffolk off hys relygyon) 576 

Ascendyd vp, gre by gre, 
"W7t/*-ovte lette to that cyte, 
And the ryht[e] weye han take. 

Monkys greye, whyte, & blake, 580 

Ascendyng 1 vp wit/i-oute ffeer. 
And Seyn Fravnceys I sawh ek ther, 
fful dyllygent, and ek bysy, 

And (as me thouht) ful ffrendly 584 

To ffolk of hys profession). 

And ek in myw avysyon) 
I sawh ther cordys rovnd & long*, 
Al yffret with knottys strong 1 , 588 

Hard to ffele, and nothyng 1 soffte. 
And ffro the valey hih" a-loffte 
Vp-on the wal they dede hem caste, 
And by the cordys held ha?n ffast, 592 

Grypyng 1 hem wt/t grete' 3 peyne, [* grete St., gret c.] 
Off entent they myghte atteyne 
To gete vp to that hihe Aval, 

ffor to kepe hem ffrom a ffal, 596 

Alvvay by the corde hem heldf. 

And many A-nother I be-heldl, 
Off dyuevs ffolkys that vp ran, 

Off whom the namys I not kan, 600 

Nor how they dyde hem sylff assure, 
Over the wallys to Recure 
On echo party Round! abovte ; 

ffor I in soth, that stood wz't//-oute, 4 [ in doute St.] 604 
Myghte not be-holden al the paas, 
But on the party that I was, 
Wych was to me gret dysplesavnce. 
But I dar seyen, 5 in substauwce, [ 5 sejv St., seyn c.] 608 



Every Pilgrim left his Wallet and Staff. 17 

That ther was noon off no degre 

Wych entre myhte the cyte, 

But lefft wit/t-oute, lowe doim, [leaf n, back] 

r*> i i i.. 101-1 / -i -i only that 

ffor al. hys sherpe 1 & bordoUW. 2 [' scrippe St.] 612 everyone 

left his wallet 

But thentent otf hys vyage, m>d staff 

And ffyn ek off hys pylgrymage, 



Set 3 of herte fynally ['setteSt.J Omia agunt propUr fiiiem. 

Ther tabyde perpetuelly 616 

Wii/i ffeyth, hope, & chary te, 

To lyve wit/i rest on 4 that cyte ; [*mst.] deMrinproniy 

J J ' to live there 

ffor other thyng 1 , in hert & thouht, '" P eace - 

To her desyre they wolde nouht. 620 

ffor, as the phylisofre seyth, 

(To whom men mosten yeven 5 feyth) [ 5 yevyn st, eyven c.] 
That al ffolk, 6 wherso they wende, [ aiie foite St.] 
What they do, ys for som ende. 624 

And for that skyle, more & more, 



I was steryd wonder sore Thi9 

me to go on 

ffor to take my lournee, ? pilgrimage 

J to that city, 

Lyk a pylgryme, to that cyte. 628 

Off more loye I nat kepte ; 

And, me thouht ek, as I slepte, 

And in my dreem dyde ek mete, 

That ellys I myghte ha no quyete. 632 

And thus ful pensyff in my guyse, [cap. vi, 

A-noon I gan me to a-vyse, 

And thouht in myw avysion), *><>* i remem. 

J '' bered tlmt I 

7 I ffaillede a sherpe 8 & bordon, [ 8 skrippe St.] 636 lacked scarf 

* and staff. 

Wych al pylgrymes ouhte to have, 

In ther wey, hem sylff to save. 

And so the pylgrymes hadde echon 

In ther vyage, but I allone. 640 

They wer echon by-ffore purveyd, 

Bet in ther wey to be conveyed 

A J T j ^ , [leaf 12] 

And 1 roos vp, and that a-noon, ! 8tarted 

And ffro myw hous gan out gon 644 *? y 

2 The Roxb. has scrip, the Fr. escharpe, and the picture shows a scrip worn 
scarf-wise. See also p. 18, 1. 655, 664. Escharpe : f. a Scarfe ; a Baudrick. 
L 'escharpe dun pelerin. The scrip, wallet, or pouch whereiu he carries his 
meat. Cotgrave. Bourdon: m. a Pilgrims staffe. 

7 Catnb. cap. vi. p. 4, where the pilgrim "failede scrippe and burdoun." 
PILGRIMAGE. C 



18 DC, Guilleville meets a gracious Lady, GRACE DIEU, 



but was de- 
layed nine 

months. 



I thought I 
might tiinl 
a scarf and 
staff, 



[Cap. vii] 



and while I 
sought tor 
them 



I met a lady, 



who seemed 
an Emperor's 
daughter. 

[leaf 12, back] 



She was 
clothed in 
white and 
green, 



Vp-on my wey, off wych I tolde ; 
Al be that I was long yholde, 
Or I myhte make my passage 
To gynnew vp-on my pylgrymage. 
'Nyne monethes I was kept cloos, ' 
Tyl at the last I vp Aroos, 
Off entent forth to precede. 
But than at erst I gan take hede 
That, to myn entenciown, 
I myghte ffynden a bordoura 
And a sherpe, 1 wych of vsage 
ffolk han that gon on pylgrymage, 
Nedful to me & necessarye. 
ffor wych cause I dyde tarye 
Or I myghte gynne my lournee, 
To holde my wey to that cyte ; 
ffor wych I went complaynyng 1 , 
Out off my sylff 2 tryst & wepyng 1 , 
Cerchyng 1 toforn & ek behynde, 
Sherpe 3 & bordourc for to fynde. 

And whil I dyde my besynesse, 
A lady of ful gret ffayrnesse 
And gret noblesse, (soth to say,) 
I dyde mete vp-on) the way. 
ffor God wold 1 , (I yow be-hete,) 
Sone that I sholde hyr mete, 
Off grace for myw owne prowfi, 
Wher-off I hadde loye ynowfr, 
And in herte 4 gret gladnesse. 
ffor she, as by lyklynesse, 
Was douhter of som Emperour, 
Somme myghty kyng 1 , or goue?*nour 
Or off that lord that guyeth al, 
"Wych ys of power most royal. 

And thys lady gracyous, 
Most debonayre, & vertuous, 
Was yclad, by gret delyt, 
In a surcote al off whyt, 
Wit7i a Tyssu gyrt off grene. 
And Endlong, ful bryht & shene, 



[ l Scrippe St.] 



648 



652 



656 



660 



psyiffst., fyiffc.] 



p scrippe St.] 664 



668 

Voluntas dei fuit ut cito mi/ti 
occurreret quod volebum. 
Genesis 27. [v. 20] 



[ 4 herte St., hert c.] 



672 



676 



680 



684 



who asks Mm why he weeps, and what he wants, 19 

She liadde a charboiwcle stem, 

That Bound? abowte hyr body shon ; 

Was noon so reche, 1 as I was war. [ l Ryche St.] 

And on hyr brest A nouche she bar, 688 and many 

very precious 

I trowe that nowher was no bet. stones. 

And in the Awmaylle ther was sette 

Passyngly a reche 2 sterre, p Richest.] 

Wych that cast hys bemys ferre 692 

Hound? abovte?^ al the place, 

Ther was swych habou?zdaimce off grace. 

Out of whos bosoom, mylde ynowh, Out of her 

bosom came 

Ther kam a dowe whyt as snowh, 696 a wuite dove - 

"With hys wynge's splayng 1 oute, 
Plauynge rovnd? hyr hond? aboute. 
Thys lady, of whom I ha told', 
Hadde on hyr hed a crowne of gold?, 700 on her head 

she wore a 

Wrouht of sterrys shene & bryht, etownofgoid. 

That cast aboute a ful cler lyht. 

He was ful inyghty, (who taketh hede,) 

That sette yt fyrst vp on hyr hed ; 704 

And made yt ffyrst 3 by gret Avys p c. ffyrst ffyrst] 

Off gret Eichesse and grete 4 prys. [* grete St., gret c.] 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Thys lady, that I spak of here, peafis] 

Was curteys & of noble chere, 708 she was 

. courteous 

And wonderly of gret vertu. and saluted 

me, 

And fyrst she gan me to salue 
In goodly wyse, axynge of me, 

What maner thyng 1 yt myghte 5 be, [ 5 myghte St.] 712 
Or cause why, I sholde hyr lere, 

That I made so hevy chere ; and inquired 

/-\ i j i , T wn y i was 

Or why that I was ay wepyng 1 , weeping. 

if or lak of eny maner thyng 1 .' 716 

Wher-of, when I gan take hede, 

I ffyll yn-to a maner drede, i was afraid 

ffor Vnkonnynge and lewdenesse, 6 [ 6 lewdenesse St.] noble address- 

ing me, 

That sche, of so gret noblesse, 720 

Dysdeynede not in hyr degre 
To speke to on) so pore as me ; 
Eut yiff yt were, so as I gesse, 



20 He wants to go to Jerusalem, but lacks Scrip and Staff. 



I remembered 
beauty and 
humility go 
together, 



and that the 
laden apple- 
tree bows ita 
branches 
lowest. 



Al only of hyr gentyllesse ; 724 

ffor gladly, wher ys most bevte, NOM st. 

Ther ys grettest hvmylyte, 
And that ys verrayly the sygne, 

Swych ar most goodly & benygne. 728 

An appyl tre, -with frut most lade, 
To folk that stonden in the shade, 
Mor lowly doth hys braunchys loute 
Than A nother tre wit/t-oute ; * sine fructn st. 732 
[leaf is, back] ffor 1 wher habouwdeth most goodnesse, [fforst.] 
Ther ys ay most of mekenesse. 2 p mekenesae St.] 
Noon so gret tokene of beute, 

As ys parfyt humylyte. 736 

Who wanteth hyr in hys banere, 
Hath not vertu hool & entere. 

And affter thys I gan abrayde, 

And to hyre 3 thus I sayde, p hire St., hyr c.] 740 

" How to gon, I caste 4 me, [ kaste st., cast c.] 

To lerusaleem the cyte, 
ffayllyng 1 (to myn entencion)) 

Both a sherpe 5 & a bordon), [ 5 Scrippe St.] 744 

ffor wych I went, yt ys no doute, 
ffor to seke ham Round aboute, 
Yiff I myhte any fynde or se." 

Grace dieu : 

' Now vndyrstonde,' 6 than quod she, [ vndewtonde st.] 748 
' Yff thow lyst hawe 7 of hem tydyng 1 , p have St.] 
Thow mostest, ouer 8 alle thyng 1 [ 8 oner st., auer c.] 
To thyrc entent, as thow shalt se, 

ffor thy profyt, kom, folwe me. 752 

And yt is gretly to thy prowfc 
That thow hast me fovnde now, 
By whos helpe 9 thow schalt spede, [ 9 heipe St., help c.] 
To ffynden al that the shal nede.' 756 

The pylgrym: 
Than quod I," my lady dere, 
I pray yow that ye wyl me lere 
Your name & your condycz'ou, 

Your cowtre, & yovr Regyouw ; 760 

ffor yt ful plesaunt wer to me, 



Then I told 
her I wanted 
to go to 
Jerusalem, 



but lackt a 
scrip and a 
staff. 



Follow me,' 
she said, 
' for it is for 
thy profit 
thou hnst 
found me.' 



[Cap. vili] 

' I pray thee, 
sxid I, 
' tell me thy 
name.' 



Grace Dieu tells De Guilleville how she helps Pilgrims. 21 

To wyte pleywly what ye be." 

And she answerde ful mekly, [Grace zwea] 

' Tak hed to me now feyth fully : 764 

I am the 1 douhter off themperovr, [' the St., om. c.] peafH] 

Wych ys the lord and governour daughte/of 

^ff i , j the emperor 

Oft euery lond and regyoim ; ot every land 

And he hath sent me hyder doun, 768 

Here in-to this lowh (xmtre, 

Off entent, as thow shalt se, 

To gete hym frendys, & cowquere and i am 

Bound' a-bouten / euery wher : 772 him friend*. 

JS"at that he hath to hem no nede, 

But only (who kan taken hede,) 

That he haveth gret plesamzce, 

To haue of folkys acqueyntavnce, 776 

ffor ther profyt. more than for hys : But it i for 

their good, 

And thus yt stant & thus yt ys. uot his - 

' Thow sest my noble ryche array, 
And how that I am fresshe & gay, 780 

fful ryally and wel beseyn, 
Nothyng* in wast, nouther in veyn ; 
Thys charboncle, nor thys sterrys clere, 
ffressher wer neuer seyn yfere : 784 YOU see my 

royal array. 

.Nor, I trowe, noon so fayre, 

Whos bewte may nat apayre. 

If ffor to pvlgrymes. day & nyht, i give light 

*" J J ' by day and 

I enlumyne, & yive lyht 788 tiwittopu- 

To al 2 pylgrymes in ther way, paiiest.] 

As wel in dyrknesse as be day, 

So they lyst rewarde me, 

And lyst that I her guj'de' be. 792 

And yiff they erryn in her weye, 

Ageyn I kan hem wel eoraveye ; [I wylle hem guye / and do sokour, 
T ,1 i , p TI j AVhile they to me have theyr' Retour. 

I wyl hem helpen & Kedresse; St J OTft> Q i 

ffor I am she, in sothfastnesse, 796 
Whom thow owest seke of ryht, 

In strau?zge lond? with al thy myght. [leaf 14, back] 

' I yive lyht to folk echon i give light to 

rri. j .e i. or\f\ all who err; 

lhat out of hyr weye gon, 
And releue hem, on & alle ; 



22 Grace, Dieu offers help to De Guilleville. He accepts it. 



my name is 
Grace Dieu, 



and I am 

represented 
by this dove. 



Without me 

tliou canst 
not reach the 
city. 



Some enter 
by subtlety, 



[leaf 15] 



but all by 
me,' 



[Cap. ix] 
' I pray tliee, 
leave me not: 



Leffte vp folkys that be falle, 

ffrom al mysheff & from al blame, 

And Grace dieu, that ys my name, 804 

fful nedful in ech cowtre. 

' And by thys dowe wych thow dost se, 
"Wych I bere wit/i wynges fayre, 

Humble, benygne, & debonayre, 808 

I am tookenyd, who lyst seke, 
Wz't/i hyr goodly Eyen meke. 
And so thow shalt me call in dede, 
Whan thow hast on-to me nede, 812 

And that shal be ful offte sythe, 
That I may my power kythe, 
Telpe 1 the in thy pylgrymage. [' To help] 

ffor fynaly in thy vyage, 816 

As thow gost to that cyte, 
Thow shalt hawe offte aduersyte, 
Gret mescheff and encombraunce, 

Empechementys & dysturbaunce, 820 

Wych thow mayst nat in no degre 
Passe nor endure wit/i-oute me, 
Nor that cyte never atteyne, 

(Thogh thow euer do thy peyne.) 824 

Wi't/i-oute that I thy guyde be. 

' Al-be that in-to that cyte 
Thow hast seyn entren nieny on, 

Nakyd, in-to that cyte gon 828 

So??ime by ther sotel engyn, 
And somme also by cherubin. 
But what so euere they koude don), 
Ther was neuer recey ved noon 832 

(ffor outht 2 they koude hem sylff avauwce,) [ ought St.] 
But only thorgh" myn acqueyntau?ace. 
Lo, her ys al : avyse the 

Yiff thow lyst acqueynted be 836 

Wit/i me : tel on thy fantasye, 
And the trowthe 3 nat denye.' [ 3 Trouthe St., trcwth c.] 

The pylgryme : 

"Ma dame, for Goddys sake, I praye, 
Nat to leue me on the weye 840 



Grace Dieu takes De Guilleville to her house, 1330 years old. 23 

Wit/i-oute yowr helpe & your favour ; 

ffor in thys weye, your socour 

Ys to me most necessarie 

To forthre, that I nat ne tarye ; 844 

Thankyng 1 to your hyh goodnesse, th y aid is 

J ' most neces- 

That ye kam of gentellesse, saf y to me -' 

fiyrst vn-to me for my forthryng*, 

Ther nedede me noon other thyng 1 ." 848 

[6 lines Uank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Tho hyr lyst no lenger byde, [Cap. x] 

But took me in the same tyde, 
And made me with hyr for to gon T1 >en i>e 

took me into 

To an hous of hers a-noon, 852 lier hoU9e - 

Wher I sholde fynde, in dede, 
Al thyng 1 that I hadde of nede. 

She was hyr sylff (yn sothnesse) 

Off thylk hous cheff founderesse, 856 

ffor on hyr word? yt was fyrst groundyd, 
And by hyr wysdom) bylt and fovndyd ; [leaf is, back] 

rp, , , , She founded 

Ihe yerys of the masownry tins iiouae 

Thryttene hundred & thrytty. 860 a|o? yea ' 

And ffor the fayrnesse & bewte 

I hadde gret wyl that hous to se ; 

I-baysshed, 1 for yt was so fayr ; p Abasshed st] 

ffor yt heng 1 hih vp in the hayr : 2 p eyre St.] 864 

Twen hevene & Erthe stood the place, it hun ff he- 

tween lieaven 

As yt hadde (only by grace) and earth. 

ffroin the hevene descendyd douw. 

So stood that hevenly mancyou?z, 868 

With steplys & \vith toures hifre, 

ffresshely arrayed to the Eye, 

As, a place most royal, 

Above al other pryncypal ; 872 

Wych stood vp on a ffayr River. it stood i.y 

a river, over 

The water ther-of holsom & cler ; which " one 

could pass. 

But ther nas passage in that place, 

Nor shepe 3 wherby men myghte passe, ["shippest.] 876 

The pylgrym : 

ffor wych to Grace Dieu I sayde, 
And, to hyr thus I abrayde, 



24? De Guilleville is afraid. Gfrace Dieu cheers him up. 
i said, 'We " Madame, me semeth in my thouht 

seem to be in 

peril-there That we ben in perel brouht, 880 

is no passage 

over/ ffor I kan sen no passage 

To passe by, nor avavmtage." 
Grace dieu : 

' Off me, dred the never a del, 
Thon shait ffor thow shalt passe fayre & wel.' 884 

pass,' she _, 

aid. The pylgrym : 

" I kan not swymmen, yt stondeth so, 

Wherfor I not what I may do. 
i am afraid And yiff I entre. I am in doute 

I shall be J ' 

drowned.' But 1 euei I sholo? komen oute ; ['Howst] 888 

[leaf 16] ffor wych, tentre 2 I stonde in drede, p to enter] 
I have of helpe so grete 3 nede." p grete St., gret c.] 

Grace dieu argueth : 
[Cap.xi] 'What menyth toys'? what may thys be, 891 



That thow art now, as semeth me, [De sacrai^t 

Later hand tn St.] 

So sore a-drad of thys Eyver, 
Wych ys but lyte, smothe & cler ? 
why art Why artow ferful of thys stream 1 ? 

thou afraid of J 

this river? And art toward lerusaleem, 896 

And mustest of necessyte 

Passen ferst the grete 4 see, [* grete St., gret c.] 

Or thow kome ther. lo, her ys al, 

And dredyst now thys Eyuer smal ! 900 

The passage And most kouthe ys thys passage 

is better J J v 

known to To chyldre that be yonge of age, 
children than And offter han thys ryver wonne 

to old people, 

Than folk that ben on 5 age rorcne. p betii in st.] 904 
And the passage ys most kouthe 
To chyldren in ther tender youth, 
ffor yt, in soth, ys fyrst passage 

Off euerych good pylgrymage ; 908 

and there is ffor other weye ys ther noon 

no other way, 

except by the To lerusaleem by to goon, 

Cherubim. J 

But yiff yt be by cherubin. 

And yet somme ha ther entry d Tn, 912 

That wer nat wasshe in thys Ryuer, 

Nor bathyd in the stremys cler. 

Wych to the ys not contrarye, 



Grace Dicu explains tlie Need of the Water of Baptism. 25 

' But thys to the ys necessarie, 916 

Consydred (shortly to expresse) ^"mtiTo" 8 

The grete 1 fylth and vnclennesse, p grete St., gret c.] ft*^ 

The ordure and the dong< also, Smiths, 

Off thy Ike hous thow kome fro, 920 
Wher .ix. monethes thow hast be. 

ffor wych yt nedeth vn-to the [leaf ie, back] 

To wasshe the her, yiff thow take hede, tiiou must 

' J be waht 

Thys my consayl & my Eed : 924 Jj^P" 88 this 

To passe thys 2 Ryuer of clennesse [* thys St., on. c ] 

Yt ys to thee 3 most sykernesse. [ 3 the St., om. c.] 

And al 4 I schal the telle A thyng 1 : [ eke St.] 

Ther passede onys her a kyng 1 , 928 A king once 

passed over, 

ffyrst assuryng 1 the passage 

Vn-to euery maner age ; 

He made the pas hyra sylff alone, 

And yet in hew was fylthe 5 non. [ 5 ffyithe at., fyituc.] 932 

To wasshen hym yt was no nede, 

But that hym lyst, of lowlyhede, ns an example 

> > to others. 

Schewe example by hys grace 

How other folkys sholde passe 936 

Over by the same went. 

Wherf ore tel me thyn entent, Ten me thy 

intent, 

Tiff thow thys Ryuer lyst atteyne ; 

And I shal A-noon ordeyne 940 

A sergauwt of myw in specyal ; 

Wych offycer the helpe shal 

ffor to passe the water cler, 

And wardeyn ys of the Ryuer. 944 

He shal the wasshe, he shal the bathe, antl * win 

appoint one 

And make the passe the more 6 rathe. [ 6 more St., mor c.] b-itheliiee" 1 

And, to put the out of doute, 

He shal crosse the round aboute, 948 

Make the sur, as thow shalt se, 

ffrom al tempestys of the se, 

Tescape the wawe of euery streem, 

And make the wynne lerusaleem 952 <* cause 

thee to reach 

By conquest ; & fynally Jerusalem. 

That thow shalt drede noon emny 
Wher so thow wende, Est or West 



26 De Guilleville asks why he is to be Washt, Baptized. 
He shall ' Sette A cross vp-on thy brest, 956 

(_'1'1>S I lift' 

[leaf n] Be-hynde also, and on thyn hed, 
Ageyn al mescheff and al dred. 
And off entent, as thow shalt se, 
nniiannoint He shal also enoynte the 960 

thee, 

Lych as sholde a Champyon), 
That thow ha no 1 occasyon) [ have noon St.] 

In thy passage, nor no nede 
and then No maner emny for to drede, 964 

sll;,ll [(MI- 
IIO enemy.' Sette hem echon at no prys. 

Now her-vp-on say thyn avys.' 

The pylgrym : 

" I am wel payd that yt be do. 2 

Yiff resouw accorde wel ther-to. 968 

But fyrst I wolde som cause se, 
why wash What nedeth yt to Avasshe me, 

me when I 

am clean ?. Or bathe, when yt ys no nede ; [ 3 bathe St., bath c.] 

ffor I am clene Avasshe 4 in dede [* washen St.] 972 
ffroni al felth 5 and vnclennesse. [ 5 aUe flyithe St.] 

And ouer more, so as I gesse, 

And as i am I am of yerys no thyng 1 old* ; 

not old, the 

cold water The Water alSO OI kyude" COld?, [ 6 kynde St., kynd C.] 976 

may kill me.' 

Wych to entre, as semeth me, 

I sholde in grete 7 perel be; [ 7 grete St., gret c.] 

And clenner than I am thys tyde, 

I sholde not be vp-on no syde." 980 

Grace dieu speketh : 
' Herkene,' quod she ; ' to voyde al doute, 
Thou art Though thow be clene ynowh wi't/<-oute, 

only clean 

outwardly. Thow art wit/i-inne no tnyng 1 so ; 

ffor cause I shal the telle, lo ! 984 

Thou art Thow art soyled in especyal 

soiled with 

original sin, Off the synne orygynal, 

Off fader & moder ek also, 

Thorgh vnclennesse of bothe two, 988 

Spottyd of nature, as ther hayr ; 8 [ 8 heyre St.] 

[leaf n, back] Wher-of thow mayst nat be made fayr, 

But thow be wasshe, as I the telle, 

2 From here to 1. 1346 the long talk on Baptism and Original 
Sin in this 2nd recension is absent from the first recension in 
the Camb. MS. and its original French. 



Grace Dieu explains Man's Creation and Innocence. 27 

In thys Ryuer or thys welle. 992 

And yet thow most have helpe of me 

Yiff thow sholdyst clene be ; 

ffor I mot fyrst my syluew dresse haUow!" 1 

The bathe 1 halwen, & yblesse, [ l bath* St., bath c.] 996 ^{{'J^ 

And than yt shal ynowh suffise thee>> 

To make the clene in alle 2 wyse : [ a aiie St., ai c.]. 

ffor the wasshyng* mad out-ward 

Ys but tookene (who taketh Reward) 1000 

Off al clennesse forth witA-Inne ; 

At wych fyrst thow most be-gynne.' 

The pylgrym : 

" Madame, so hyt nat dysplese, 

I can as yet no thyng* in ese, 1004 

And I shal telle yow wher-fore 
My dovte [is] 3 now mor than before, p i doute st.] i am now in 

-* L J _ more doubt 

And gretter 4 in COnclusyOWl, [* more gretter St.] than ever.' 

But ye make exposicz'oun, 1008 

And bet declare yt to my mynde, 
Or ellys my profyt ys be-hynde." 

Grace diCU : [De lusticia & peecato Original!. Later hand. St.] 

' ffyrst, whan God the world be-gan, 

And after hadde makyd man, 1012 'wiienGod 

created man 

And wo?nman for to be hys fere, and woman, 

Thy forme fadrys, as thow shalt lere, 

God, of hys gret curteysye, 

To hem dyde suyche gentrye 1016 

As to the I shal devyse. 

He gaff to hem so gret fframzchyse, 

Talyved 5 euere, thys no lesyng 1 , [ 5 TO have lived] 

In elthe wit/i-oute languysshvng 1 , 1020 Hegaveium 

J J ' health, lite, 

Lusty & fressh in o degre, and liberty. 

ISTeuer tave 6 had necessyte [ 6 to have] 

Off deyyng* ; and gaff hem in sothnesse, [leaf is] 

Lyberte, & Ryhtwyse 7 nesse, U wyse St., wys c.] 1024 

ff redam of wyl 8 & equy te ; [ 8 and wyiie St.] 

And that they sholde ryghtful be, 

And ther-vp-on, ay done her cure 

To ben Egal by mesure ; 1028 

The body to the soule obeye 



28 Grace Dicu tells how Adam lost Paradise ly Disobedience. 

The body was ' In eue?y mane/ skylful weye, 

Bouiinaii And bern 1 to hyra subieccion: [ beryn St.] 

things, 

So that alway, on-to 2 resou??, pvn-tost.] 1032 

fforeyn 3 strengthys her doim lowe, [? Foreyn st., For eny c.] 
Vpward sholde her sowerayn knowe, 

as the lower And lest 4 WOl'thy of dygnyte, [MeestSt] 

obedient to Vn-to most worthy of degre 1036 

the higher. J 

Obeye sholde by Reuerence : 

Thys was of ryght fyrst the sentence ; 

Shewe of lewdnesse ay a sygne, 1 039 

The 5 lasse of prys to the most dygne. [ 5 The St., TO c.] 

' Off divyne purvyaunce 
Thys was fyrst the ordynaunce, 
That mare shold euer ha be in blysse, 
And al that whyle, of no thyng* mysse; 1044 

Euer ha be fre, & never thral. 
By ryhtwysnesse orygynal, 
He gave man God gaff oure fadrys ous 6 be-forn), [vsst.] 

all the beasts 

of the earth Yiff they ne hadde her fredom) lorn, 1048 

ffor catel and for ther herytage 

Ta last in euery maner age, 

Ben herytavnce, fro gre to gre, 

Off ryht to ther posteryte : 1052 

Thys to seyne, who kan take lied 
for his, and To al that folwed of ther sed 

his children's 

for ever. ff O r euennore : & soth y t ys, 

Yiff they hadde not do a-mys. 1056 

' But whan they gan to God trespace, 
[leaf is, back] They lost ther fredam and ther grace, 
nut he lost Lyff also, and 7 liberte, p and eke St.] 

lite and all J 

things, And hooly ther auctoryte, 1060 

Off wych thow hast herd me seye, 
ffor wych offence they most deye : 
Tho, al 8 thyngys in sentence [ 8 aiie St.] 

Drowh fro man obedyence. 1064 

Who dysobeyth hys sovereyn, 
Off ryht mot 9 folwen in certeyn p mot St., not c.] 
That he shal dysobeyed be 

Off lower thynges of degre, 1068 

Wych wer soget to hys servyse 



Grace Dieu explains hoiu Children suffer for Fathers Sins. 29 



' Or he trespacede in any wyse. 
ffor vn-to God, sothly to seye. 

J J ' 

Whan Adam fyrst gan dysobeye, 1072 

Yt was Eyhtful, by kyndly lawe, 

That to 1 hyra shold be wit/t-drawe C 1 ? fro] 

AH maner 2 obeyssavnce pma 

Off thynges vnder hys gouernaunce, 

J ' 

Wych he hadde in subieccyon, 
Only for hys rebellyon). 

' And, yiff thow be Kesovmable. 
An exaumple ful notable 
I shal vn-to the declare 
Openly, & no thyng 1 spare, 
Yiff thow lysten, taken lied ther-to : 

' I suppose yt falleth so : 
The kyng 1 hath in hys court a knyht 
"Whom he loueth wit/*. al hys myht, 
And, for cause that he tryst hym wel 
He yeveth to 3 hym a ffayr castel, 
Wallyd strong 1 \viih hihe tours 
ffrom al assaut of wynd & shours, 
And to hys heyres, to pocessede j 4 
And ther-vp-on maketh hem a dede, 
Euere 5 by successyon [ 3 Ever* affter St.] 

Ther-of to have pocessyon 
ffor eueremore', to o 6 word, 
"Whyl he ys trewe to hys lord, 
Voyde 7 of al rebellyon). 
Thys was the condycion) : 
But he offendeth, so may falle, 
Than he & hys chyldren alle, 
The castel lese wzt/i-oute grace 
Thorgh ther fadrys gret trespace : 

The chyldren han the gylt abouht, 

," i ii/\j 

Al-be that they oflendyde nouht 1104 

Thorgh ther fadrys gylt, alias ; 

And thus perauwter stant the cas : 

And lyk in cas semblable at al, 

Eyhtwysnesse orygynal 1108 

' Orygynal ' ys for to seyn 



ana he 

liaddisobeyd 



1076 ail thing* dis 

obeyed him. 



1080 



1084 



to, om. St.] 1088 



he ,f e r y e , 8 g 



[atost] 



p And voyde St.] 



compare this 

story : 



A certain 
castietoa 

knierhtand 

h' i>eir n 



[leaf 19] 



1096 



on condition 
disobeyd, 
1100 children 

should lose 



Hedidoffed, 



tor liis sin. 



30 Thro Adam and Eves Sin, Mankind became sinful. 
original gin ' Pleynlv, yf I slial not feyne, 

is 8iiuiUr. . . . f, j , 

A gynnyng 1 wych fro (jrod kam, 

And was fyrst yoven to Adam 1112 

And vn-to 1 Eue hys wyff also, [ l And to St.] 

Adam and Wych they loste, bothe 2 tWO [* loste botlie St., lost both C.] 

I'aiadise, Only for ther Eebellyon), 

Whos ryht was by condycon), 1116 

mid their Wherthrogh that ther posteryte 

posterity 

suflerd for ffully ha lost ther lyberte. 

t.ieir parents 

sin, (Posteryte, playnly in dede, pst. leaves out 11.1119-1122.] 

Ys folwyng 1 doiw of a kynrede 1120 

Lynealy, fro gre to gre.) 

And thus, touchyng 1 ther lyberte, 

ffor dysobeyng* they ha lorn) 

Off her fadrys hem to-forn ; 1124 

Only throgh ther dysobeisau?zce 
and lost their They ha lost ther enherytaunce, 

inheritance 

[leaf 19, back] Wych they may not inheryte ; 

Wher-of ther fadrys ben to wyyte. 1128 

' ffor nadde be ther transgressyon), 

3 Transgressyottn ys for to say 

A goyyng 1 fro the ryht[e'J way, 

Or shortly, in sentement, 

Erekyng 1 off a comauwdement 3 1136 

Ther chyldren shold, by reson), 

Ha cleymyd yt of verray ryht. 
by their pa- Wher-for, yiff thow lefft vp thy syth * [* sight St.] 1132 

rents' trans- ' 

gression. And lyst conceyven everydel, 
Thus thou Thow mayst parceyve fayr & wel 

mayest per- 

thou 6 that Thow art spottyd in party 

Off that thy ffadrys wer gylty ; 1140 

So that thy fylth ys causyd al 

Only of synne orygynal, 

Wych that clerkys in sentence 

Calle wantyng*, or carence 1144 

Off orygynal ryhtwysnesse, 
art spotted Wych thow oughtest (I dar expresse,) 

with original Jo / 

'I-' Ellys haue hadde of equyte 

* 3 These four lines are written at the right-hand side in C. & 
St. ; but with no mark to signify where they ought to be"placed. 



Grace Dieu says our Original Sin is not like a cut-off Nose. 31 



' By tytle of posteryte.' 

The pylgrym: 

" Ma dame, (lyk as ye slial fynde,) 
I am a-stonyd in my mynde 
Off your wordys ful gretly, 
Wych ne sue nat kyndely. 
ffor fyrst, as ye han told' to me 

That I moste waSShe 1 be, C 1 moste wasshed St., most . . 

To casten out myw vnclennesse, 

The wyche 2 fylth, as ye expresse [ 2 which* St., wycii c.] 

And namen yt in especyal 

' Spot or synne orygynal,' 

Wych. ys only, by your sentence, 

No-thyng 1 but wantyng 1 or absence 

Off ryhtwysnesse thus say ye ; 

And in good feytli, as semeth me, 

Wasshyng 1 no thyng 1 may a-vaylle 

To do a- way thyng 1 that doth fay lie ; 

Yt wer bet cordyng 1 to reson) 

To make restytucyon)." 

Grace dieu answerde : 
' Certys, yt ys soth that ye seye. 
But to o thyng 1 take hede, I praye : 
Who that haveth not the bewte 
Wych he shold han of duete, 
Voyde of fylth then ys he nouht ; 
The wych, yif yt be truly souht, 
May be of felth a be-gynnyng*, 
Gret cause also, & gret norysshyng 1 . 
As by exau?nple thus I pose : 

' Yiff a man ffayllede a noose 
Wych he outh 3 haue of Resourc, p ought* St.] 

Yt wer, to myn oppynyoun, 
A gret defaute ([ the ensure,) 
Off bewte ; & a gret ordure 
Ther must sue, yt ys no nay : 
And yiff the noose wer kut a-way, 
The bewte of a manhys 4 face [* mnnnys St.] 

Yt wolde gretly yt dyfface. 5 p aiie dyfface St.] 
Semblably, in especyal, 



' I am aston- 
ished at what 
you say ; 



1152 

C.] 

1156 
1160 
1164 



1168 



1172 



1176 



1180 



1184 



but it seems 
to me that 
Washing can- 
nut avail me ; 



[leaf 20] 
Restitution 
were better.' 



' What you 
say is true. 



If a man 

were without 
a nose, 



it woulil be a 
great want. 



32 Grace Dieu shows how Folk are begotten in Lust. 

so it is you ' Yiff Ryhtwvsnesse or\ T gynal 

want original "" 

righteous- Thow wante, wych thow sholdest haue, 

IIBS8. 

I myghte pryve, 1 so God me save [' preve St.] 1188 
And conclude wit/t-oute wene, 
Off som fylthe thow wer vnclene. 
I dar yt seyn, and wel expresse, 

Naraly whan thow in vnclennesse 1192 

Off flesshly lust wer fyrst be-gete, 
Wych shold not be for-gete ; 
The inst of ffor fleshly lust (in sentence) 

the flesh is 

conciipis- ycallyd ys concupyscence. 1196 

cence, 

As thus consydre myn entent ; 

Whan soule and flessh to-gadre 2 assent pgydrest.] 
[leaf 20, back] To don any gret offence, 

Thau yt ys concupyscence, 1200 

And nouther party by dyffence 

Lyst not make resistence, 

As they shold of equyte, 

Wher-thorgh ther fayrnesse & bewte 1204 

Dyffacyd ys of bothe 2 tweyne. [ s boothe St., both c.] 

And euene lyk (in wordys playne) 
and the of- Thoffence lone? or thow wer borne, 

fenee vias 

committed Off thy fadrys her-to-forn, 1208 

long ere you 

were bom.' Hath lost (yiff thow koudest se) 

Thi grete* fredam & bewte ; [* grete St., gret c.] 

And ther trespace, (yiff thow lyst lere,) 

Ther lynage beyth 5 yt al to dere.' pbeyetust] 1212 

The pylgrym: 6 t* Pyiygrym Asketh st.] 

" With al myn herte 7 now I pray p nerte St., hert c.] 

thyng 1 that ye wyl me seye : 
nut can this yff thys wasshyng*, wtt/i-oute more, 

washing re- J J J ' 

sK.re right- May Restablysshe or restore 1216 

eousnesg, 

The ryhtwysnesse wych, day & nyht, 

1 ouhte haue hadde of verray ryht ; 
and annul And yiff thys wasshyng 1 (in sentence) 

May A-nulle concupyscence ?" 1220 

Grace dieu : 

' Teuchyng 18 that we have on honde, [ s Touchyng St.] 
Thow must pleynly vnderstonde 
A thyng< wych I the telle shal. 






Grace Dieu cannot help De Guillemlle Unless he's baptized. 83 

' Eyghtvysnesse orygynal, 1224 'Toucan 

Thow shalt yt neuer haue A-geyn ; wigbui 

righteousness 

But truste, & be ryght wel certeyn, a & ai > 

That after thow be wasshe clene, 

The fylthe ther-of, (thus I mene) 1228 

Thy wasshyng 1 shal yt sette A-syde, 

But concupyscence shal abyde. [leaf 21] 

' Take the wordy s as I the telle ; piscence win 

But yiff thow wylt, I shal ay dwelle 1232 

With the, to helpe the ay at nede, 

That thow mayst in verray dede if r were to 

j dwe11 with 

Maken myghty resystence you, 

Ageynys thy co?zcupyssence, 1236 

Wych shal the dere neveradel 

Yiff so be thow bere the wel. 

And. but I seye thy wasshyng 1 , yet without 

J J J ' the washing 

I myhte the helpyn yn no thyne? ; 1240 i could not 

J fJ J J . assist you. 

ffor the wasshyng 1 (I the ensure) 

Doth away al the ordure 

Off al that kepen duely 

Ther maryage, and feythfully ; 1 244 

ffor wych, to the ys profytable Tins washing 

will do you 

Thys wasshyng 1 , & gretly vayllable. good: 

Thy ffader, thy moder ek also, your parents 

f were washed, 

Wer wasshyn ther-in, bothe two, 1248 

Whan they wer born) ; & so shalt thow, BO must you 

Syth yt ys syttyng 1 for thy prow : 
That thow hem sue, yt ys Resouw.' 

The pylgrym: 

" I haue," quod he, " suspecyou?^ 1252 

Off ther wasshyng 1 now sodenly. 
Yiff they wer wasshe duely 'if they were 

,, washed, 

Oft ther synne orygynal, 

Me semeth yt sholde folwe in al, 1256 ought i not 

to be clean ? ' 

byth I am gete of 1 ther kynrede, [' gate in St.] 

I sholde go quyt (who taketh hede,) 

Off orygynal in eue?y thyng 1 , 

Thorgh vertu ferst of ther wasshyng 1 ." 1260 

Grace dieu: 
' Than,' quod she to me a-gayn, [leaf 21, back] 

PILGRIMAGE. D 



34 Gh*ace Dieu insists on the necessity of Baptism. 
'Grain is ' Tak hed, whan men sowen greyn, 

freed from \ 

the chaff be- The huske, the chan (yt ys no nay,) 

fore it is J ' 

wn . Mot fyrst be clene putt a- way, 1264 

Er yt be throwe vp-on the lond, 

And sowe a-brood with manhys hond, 

Naked and pur, yff thow take hede. 

And after- ward, whan yt doth seede, 1268 

Ypon the tyme of hys Rypyng 1 

And the seson of gadryng*, 
but when it Men fynde a-geyn the same corn, 

grows it has J J 

us husks as Huskyd as yt was be-forn, 1272 

before, * 

And ther-to clothyd newe a-geyn. 

' By wych exauwple, in certeyn, 
Thogh thy fadyrs were, by grace, 

Off ther orygynal trespace 1276 

purgyd clene, & frely quyt, 

The caffe 1 and the strowh abyt, r. 1 chaffe St., caff c.] 
Rene we th ay & euer shal, 
and so it is Off the synne orygynal, 1280 

with original J J OJ 

8111 : Vpon the greyn, wych of hem spryngeth, 

The huske alway with hem they bryngeth. 

Alle folkys, as thow shalt lere, 

That kyndely be sowen here 1284 

In thys world, fro day to day, 
the husk The husk -with hem abyt alway, 

always re- 



mains.' A n( j seueryth nat in no manere 

Tyl they be wasshe in the Ryuere : 1 288 

Wherfor (by short conclusyouw,) 

They nede echon purgacyouw.' 

The pylgrym : 
it seemed Tha??ne me sempte vt was but veyn, 

vain to reply 

Mor for me to speke a-geyn, 1292 

Or make replycacyouw 
[leaf 88] Ageynys her oppynyouw. 

Off hevynesse I wepte sore ; 

ffor tho I koude do no more, 1296 

f -^ 

I was so whapyd & amaat, 
Tyl at the last an aduocaat 2 

2 A godfather (after whom Guillaume de De Guilleville was 
called). 



An Advocate helps De Gruilleville to cross the River. 35 

Kam to me tho in my nede, tin an advo- 

cate came 

WitA-oute gerdouw other mede. 1300 who spoke 

tor me, 

And, for I hadde of speche lak, 

"VVonderly goodly for me he a spak ; [' siie St.] 

Profrede for to help of grace and would 

ln-1]) me to 

To make me the Eyuer passe, 1304 P* 88 . 

And that I myght ouer gon, 

And that I wer ek wasshe a-noon, a " d e ,, 

washed. 

In al that euer he coude or myghte ; 

And Guyllyam ffor-Sothly 2 he hyhte : [ 2 sotheiy St.] 1308 Hisnnme 

< was William, 

Hys surname I nat ne knew. 

And thus he spak to Grace Dieu : 

" Myn almesse, wit// your grace, 

I \vyl fulfyllen in thys place: 1312 n<i promised 

J to fulfil Grace 

And yiff ye wyl, I calle shal D . ieu ' 8 

y / * pleasure. 

Off your hous the offycyal 

(ffor yt ys now ryht good sesoiw 

Affter your oppynyowi) 1316 

That he make, by your byddyng 1 , 

Of thys pylgrym the wasshyng 1 , 

Wher-of ye han so mych sayd." 

Quod she, 'I am ryht wel apayd.' 1320 

And ther-wit7i-al, benygne of look, Then he took 

Jo me, and 

The aduocaat a-noon me took c-jiied the 

omcial to 

Of charyte, by gret plesaurace, hel P llim 

Affter the custom & vsaimce, 1324 

And made calle 3 fyrst of al [ 3 caiiest.,caiieofc.] 

To helpyn hym the offycyal ; 

Bad hym also, among 1 hem alle, 

After hys name me to calle, 4 1328 deaf 22, back] 

That he shold ek don hys dever a " d bade him 

aid me in 

To helpe me passe the Ryver, crossing the 

That I wer wasshen A-noon ryht. 
And he so dyde with al hys myght; 1332 

And many thynges, as he abrayde, 
Over me, me thouhte he sayde ; 
Wordys that hadde gret vertu, 

As he was tauht of Grace Dieu ; 1336 

Wher-thorgh, me thouht, & that a-noon, 
4 See note to 1. 1298. 



3G A Devil flies out of De Guillcmlle, and he is baptized. 



A black bird 
passed from 
me, 



and lie cried 
out that all 
was lost. 



[Cap. xii] 

The official 
plunged me 
iu the stream, 



just as Grace 
Dieu had 
said. 



Then be and 
the river 
vanished, 



[leaf 23] 



and she led 
me to a fair 
place, and 
made me 
good cheer. 



And said, 
' Now you 
have passed 
the stream, 
and 3'our 
enemy is 
gone, 



I xvill teach 
you many 
things.' 



That I sawh ther, fro me goon, 

A foul that was of colour blak ; 

And in hys lydene 1 thus he spak, [ teems St.] 1340 

Siyyng, 2 men herd hyra eue?-y cost, [ 2 Cryynge St.] 

' I-wys,' quod he, ' I haue al lost ; 

And fro me now ys taken al 

By thys ylke offycyal.' 1344 

The pylgrym : 3 

He hath my clothys fro me Eauht, 
And thre tyme he hath me kauht, 
And in the ryuer plongyd me, 
Crossyd, (as men myhte se,) 1348 

[5 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Enoynted in the stremes colde, 
Lyk as Grace Dieu me tolde : 
1 fonde she lyede neuer a del. 

And whan that I was fayre & wel, 1352 

The Kyuer passyd than A-noon, 
And thavocaat ek was gon, 
Wych only of gent[e]rye 

Hadde don to me gret curteysye 1356 

That shal never out of mynde. 

Than Grace Dieu, most good & kynde, 
Ladde me forth on 4 my repayre [Mn St.] 

To a place ryht inly fayr; 1360 

And neuer she made me to-fore 
So goode 5 cher syth I was bore, [ 5 goode St., good c.] 
Nor was so benygne of hyr port, 

Vn-to me to don confort. 1364 

' Now syth,' quod she, ' that yt 6 ys sene, [asytst.] 
Thow art wasshe, & made al clene, 
And art passyd the ryuer 

"WYt/i-oute percyl or dauwger, 1368 

Thyn Enmy fled Out of thy brest, 
Wher he aforn) hadde made hys nest, 
I shal the shewe of gret delyt 

fful many thyng 1 for thy profyt, 1372 

Yff thow ha lust to lerne of me 
Thynges 7 that I shal teche the, 17 Thynges St., Thyges c.] 
3 This line in C. and St. comes after 1. 1345. 



The Sign of Tau bloodied. The Order of Confirmation. 37 

* And vnderstond hem by & by.' 

And tho befyl ther sodeynly 1376 

A wonder thyng* (thus stood the cas,) 
Wher-of I astonyd was ; Then i was 

astonished 

And yet for-thy I shal not spare, 

Eyht as yt fyl, for to declare, 1380 

Whan I se tyme & best sesoun 

Touchyng my sherpe 1 and my bordouw : [' Scrippest.} 

Whan I ha leyser, trusteth wel, 

I shal yow tellyn euerydel. 1384 

But, or I dyde further passe, 

I sawe Amyddys of that place [Cap. xui] 

A sygne of Tav wych ther stood, rp 1387 at the sign 

And yt was al be-spreynt vfith blood. ^ t.], om.c. 8p rinkied 

J with blood, 

[7 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

And ek, as I koude vnderstond 1 , [leaf 23, back] 

I sawe be sydes 2 a mayster stond* [*besydest.] and one 

beside it 

Oft ryght gret auctoryte, of great 

authority, 

And sempte that he sholde be 1392 

Lyk a vyker douteles 3 p douteies St., douties c.] 

Off Aaron & of Moyses. 

And pleynly tho (as I be-hekP,) 

In hys hond a staff he* held*, [* he St., on. c.] 1396 having a 

Crooked be-fora (I took good hed ;) hand; 

And hornyd also was hys hed. and his head 

was horned. 

Hys garnement, by gret delyt, 

Was of lyne 5 cloth al why t, piynynst.] 1400 

Off the wych, ful wel I wote, J?r v . n . M .'" . m n edio eorKOT - 

h,y.UClliyuS. 1X. 

That the prophete whylom wrot, He is de- 

-r-< i-i Kcribed by 

lizechyel, who lyst to look 1 , Ezekiei 

The nynthe chapytle off hys book : 1404 

Ordre off confyrmaciouw 
Wych, wit/i the sygne of gret vertu 
Markyde manye with Tav marking 

men in tlieir 

Myd of her forhed, on by on, foreheads 

And sayde to hem euerychon, 1408 

' I crosse yow, and corcfenne also with the sign 

With thys / that ye take hed ther-to, 

That ye may be, fro day to day, 

Good pylgrymes in your way; 1412 



38 DC Guillemlle is Confirmd. The Order of the Last Unction. 

ffor thys to yow, tokne & sygne 
Tli at God shal be to yow benygne, 
That ye shal not venquysshed be 
[leaf 24] Off your Enmyes in no degre.' 1416 

And wit/i thys sygne of gret vertu 
Grace oieu I was markyd off Grace Dieu 

marked me, 

Myd my forhed, brede & lengthe, 
Wher-by I 1 kauhte ful gret strengths, [' i St., om. c.] 1420 
and i re- And Receyvede ther by Eyht, 2 [ 2 off Right St.] 

ceived 

strength Vertu, force, & gostly myght, 
To forthre me in verray dede 
acconiing to Off al that euer I hadde nede. 1424 

my need. 

Not nede as I hadde be-fore 

Thorgh the Eyuer or I was bore ; 

Yt was not so gret necessyte 

But covenable congreuyte. 3 [ s congmyte St., congeuyte c.] 1428 

Ordre off the laste vncciouw. 
[Cap. xiv] Affter al thys, I hadde a syht 
Then the Off the mayster, wych of Eyht 

master gave J 

ointment to Made the holsom oynement, 

the (iitiriiil, J 

And after took yt of 4 entent [*offgoodest.] 1432 

To the sayde offycyal, 
saying, And gaff to hym thys charg* \vith-al : 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.'] 
**. ' Have her,' quod he, < ful goodly .^S^fflS* 

Thre oynementys most worthy ; SffliwoM. 

The wych now to the I take 
two of them Only for pylgrymes sake, 
on pilgrims Swycli as in ther oppynyouws 

Wyl be myghty champyou??s 1440 

ffor to holde strong 1 bataylle 
[leaf 24, back] Whan ther Enmyes hem assaylle. 
ti!efr enemies, ' Thow shold do thy bysy peyne 1443 

Tenoynte hem witJi the fyrste 5 tweyne, [ 5 fyrste St., fyrst c.] 

And kep the thrydde wztA-oute more 

ffor folkys 6 that byth woundyd sore, [ ffoikyg st, ffoik c.] 
keepinjftiie And swyche as lygge languysshyng 1 

third for the _. . . . . 

dying. On ther beddys, almost deyng*, 1448 

And of ther l^ff ha no dysport : 
Thow shalt a-noon don hem cownfort ; 



The Ointments for Pilgrims, new Kings, c&c. The Tau. 39 

' Enoynte hyw in especyal 

As ther leclie spryrytual, 1452 

Wher thow sest that yt be nede ; 

And ffeythfully, (yf thow take hede,) 

Pylgrymes that travayU in ther way, often' 8 ar * 

Wych passeu her fro day to day> 1456 ^ edby 

And often in ther passage erre, 

And assayllyd byth vfith werre ; 

Yt fayllyth not, sory or blythe, 

But they be wondyd offte sythe, 1460 

And grevyd wiih many aventure, 

ff ro deth that they may not recure : and " 

meet with 

And at ther ende, thys no fa vile, death when 

* they need 

Whan that deth doth hem assaylle, 1464 ^ oillt - 

They gretly nede thys oynement ; 

And for thys skyle, in myn entent 

I haue take yt in-to thy ward, 

Al syke folkys to Reward*, 1468 

Tenoynte hem whan they haue nede : 

And other oynementys in-dede 

I ha reservyd 1 to my kepyng 1 , [' Beserved St., reseyvyd C.] I have re- 

ceived other 

Tenoynte with a newe kyng 1 1472 ointments 

By the vykerys of Moyses, 

The wych yt make dout[e]les, 

At due tynie certeynly Daf 25] 

By ther power as wel as I. 1476 

ff or syke folkys enerychon, for "< 

And for lechys, as thow art on, 

Wych sholdest alway be bysy, 

Wel awaytynge & redy, 1480 

At the tablys wher we sytte 

Whan we etyn, & not flytte ; 



ffor the tav T, taken hed, -*- But take 

heed of tlie T 

Wych thow niakest in the 2 forhed. [ 2 thy St.] 1484 which you 

* make in 

' But I wyth-holde to Ward me men's (ore- 

heads. 

Off custom & of duete, 

The fynal execucyouw, 

The vse & mynystracyouw 1488 

Off confermyng in the ende : 

Take hed now that thow not offeude.' 



40 The Maiden Reason talks about Ointment and Doctors. 



[[Cap. 
As they 
talked, 



a maid of 
humble cheer 
drew near : 



1492 



her name was 
Reason. 



[leaf 25, back] 



' Sirs,' she 
said, 'who 
stand here 
and speak of 
your oint- 
ments, listen 
toine. 



Ointment is 
a virtuous 
thing 

for certain 
wounds. 



Physicians 
should be 
gentle in their 
treatment ; 



P St., C. burnt] 



1496 



1500 



1504 



P Syre St.] 
[* St., C. burnt] 



And whil they held ther parlementys 
And spak ek of ther oynementys, 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Ther kam to hem of gret manere 
A mayde mek, & humble of chere, 
Wych that of entencyoura 
Descendede from hyr tour a-doura. 

Than Grace Dieu spak vn-to me, 
' lo, sestow nat yonder,' quod she, 
' ResouTi, by hyr sylff allone, 
"Wych cast hyr for to speke A-noon 
To thys folk that thow sest here ? ' 
And she, demur and sad of chere, 
Sayde to hem hyre 1 fantasye 
WitR-outen eny 1 flatrye 

Resou// spak thus: 2 
' Syrs,' 3 quod she, in goodly wyse, 
' That stonden here, 4 & thus devyse 
Off Enoyntynge 4 & oynementys, 
And ther-of hold your parlementys, 
I pray 5 yow that ye nat dysdeyne 
To herkne 5 off me wordys tweyne, 
Wych to tellyn I purpose, 
And a-noon) to 5 yow vnclose : 
Oynemente ys a soote 6 thyng, 
And ryht vertuous in werkyng, 
To wouwdys cloos, & ope also, 
Yiff yt be sofftly leyd therto 
Both wyth hand and instrument ; 
ffor lechys sholden off entent 
Soffte handle the soor to seke, 7 
Yt fyt 8 hem wel to be meke ; 
To whom a-cordeth no Eudnesse ; 
They sholde avoyde boystousnesse. 
Wouwdyd folk desyren offte 
Off lechys to ben handlyd soffte ; 

2 Camb. MS. reads : She bigan to speke to hem, and seyde 
with-oute flateringe, ' Lordinges, that thus diuisen and speken of 
youre oynementes, and holden heere youre parlement of enoynt- 
inge of oother folk, vnderstondeth now two little woordes that j 
wole soone haue vnclosed yow. Oynement is,' &c., p. 9. 



1508 



[ 5 St., C. burnt] 



[ soet St.] 



1512 



1516 



[7 and seeke St.] 
[sytteSt.] 1520 



1524 



Eeason lids them le gentle and pitiful, not revengeful. 41 

' Eudnesse hem doth mor damage 

Then l the oynement avaurctage ; P Thanne St.] 

Harmeth offte tymes more 

To swyche as that be 2 wou/idyd sore : [ 2 as bethe St.] 1528 

I calle hem rude, that be felous, those who 

are not are 

ffers & cruel as be lyowts ; " felons," 

That wyl, 3 thorgh ther cruelte, p while St.] 

On every thyng a-vengyd be; 1532 

Spare ne for-bere ryht nouht, 

They be so vengable in ther thouht. 

Swych be no goode surgyens, 

Lechys, nor physycyens, 1536 

Syke flblkys to restore ; [leaf 26] 

ffor the woundys they hurte more and in .i" re 

those whom 

Thorgh Eudnesse in ther entent : tlie y 8llould 

cure. 

ffor they mynystre ther oynement 1540 

To boystously, & no thing soffte ; 

Wher-thorgh they hurte & slen ful offte, 

Wych affter may nat be amendyd. 

And for thys skyle I am descendyd, 1544 

Kome to yow in sothfastnesse, And i am 

come that 

That ye in yow ha no Eudnesse, there 9llou ' d 

be no cruelty 

Cruelte, nor felon ye, in you. 

Wych ar douhtrys to envye. 1548 

'Beth pytous vn-to folkys wouwdyd, Be pitiful 

m , , , " to wounded 

lyl ye nan her sorys sou?myd, folk; 

Debonayre & mercyable, 

Soffte, goodly, & tretable. 1552 

Tha?zne, in soth, yt may nat fayH then your 

ointments 

lhat your oynementys shal av'ayli wiiibeof 

To syke folke on euery syde, 

That for ther hele on yow abyde. 1556 

Bemewbreth yow vp-on thys poynt, 

How ye wer whylom ek enoynt Ye were 

J J J anointed, 

lo bekome mor debonayre ; 

Nat to be cruel nor contrayre, 1560 not to be 

But teschewe al ffelonye, 

And tavoyde malencolye ; but to avoid 

melancholy ; 

And no vengauwce for to take, ana take no 

vengeance, 

But forgyue for Goddys sake ; 1564 



42 The Vicar asks Reason what liis Hwns and Goad are fors 

( Al old Rancour for to lete : 

ffor, by record off the prophete Meawtvicio &e*o 

* retnbuam. Deutero- 

In hys Sawys that ben olde, 
for vengeance God hath to hyw sylff wit/i-holde / 1568 

beloiitfeth 

Vengauwce to hys lugement ; 

And ther-fore, who that of entent 1 
[leaf 26, back] "Wyl wrastle ageyw yt, this the cheff [St. &c.] 

He shall not faylle to han mescheff.' 1572 

Whanne Resoun hadde hyr tale told, ,, 

The Vyker, that sernpte wonder olde, [stowe MS.] 

answered 1 " ^ whom I tolde yow nat in vayn [St. & c.] 

Moyses 2 cstoweMs.] 

Axed of Resouw thus agayn : [St. &c.] 1576 

' I pray yow that ye nat ne spare, 

The truthe clerly to declare, 

The moralyte to obserue, 

Wherof sholde myn hornys serve] 1580 

what, then, Thys staff ek, with the sharpe poynt. 

are my horns r r j 

for? Telleth me fro poynt to poynt, 

Be they nat maad, by good resouw, 

For punysshynge and Correcciown; [St. &c.] 1584 

Myn hornys, for to take wrak 1 

On shrewes, & to putte abak 1 ] 

And off my staff ek, wz't/i the prykke, 
and what is Chastysen folkys that be wykke, 1588 

the good of J J J 

my staff with Rather than lyk as ye me tolde 

its sharpened 

end?' Her a-forn, how that I sholde 

Enoynte hem -with the oynement ? 

Wher-vp-on seyth your entent.' 1592 

Resouw Answereth: 

' My fayre frend,' quod tho Resoun, 
/My friend, < Tak hed in thy dyscreciouw : 

be reason- * " 



able: 



1 Camb. MS. reads : And therfor who so wole bineme it liim, 
to yuel ende he may come, p. 10. 

2 This is a red line, some one answering the preceding speaker. 
The Camb. MS. goes on : Whan resoun hadde thus spoken, 
the vicarie of whiche j seide bifore, answerde hire and seide, 
"Sey me, j praye you, if ye can, whi j haue thus myn hed horned 
and the yerde sharp at the eende ? Is it not for to do punish- 
inge and correccoun of yuel dedes ? j trowe j shulde putte and 
hurtle the yuel folk with myne homes, and prikke hem," &c., 
p. 10. 



Ecason says, Sinners must le gentled ere they re punislit. 43 

' Vnderstond me euery del : 

I wote 1 what thow menest wel, L 1 wote St., wot c.] 1596 

And knowe platly thy menyng 1 . 

Mesure ys good in euery thyng* : there i 

moderation in 

Thogh thy hornys & pyk also a)1 things- 

Be yove 2 to the, bothe two, p St., c. burnt] 1600 

ffor 2 Punysshyng & for chastysyng 1 

Off f olkys Eebel in werchyng 1 ; [>af 27] 

Yet f yrst thow sholdest hem dyrecte. You m " 8t 

J J direct, and 

And \fi\Ji fayrnesse hem correcte, 1604 pnnfahwith 

fairness, 

Swych as thow sey, day by day, 3 [ 3 fro day to day St.] 
Eriyn fro the hit 4 Ryhte way ; [* bin om. St.] 

And yiff thow fouwde hem obstynat, 
That 5 longeth yt to thyw estat [ 5 ? Than] 1608 

To punysshen hyw by thyw offyce, 

And vp-on hem don ek iustyce a nd accord- 

ing to the 
Egally for ther offence : offence. 

The la we yiweth 6 the lycence. [ 6 yevetb st.] 1612 

' But ferst thow sholdest trete he?H fayre, 
Be goodly ek, and debonayre, 
And don alway ful gret labour 

To she we swetnesse afor Rygour. 1616 

And thogh the prykke of Rygour be Though yonr 

V J / & sti.ff [crosier] 

ffor chastysyng 1 y-yove to the, > given yu 

J J J J to punish 

Be alway war, touchyng 1 ryht : witu 

Whan thow chastysest any Avhy&t, 1620 

Do yt neuer by suych duresse 

But yt be meynt ay wit/i suetnesse ; 

Medle wit/i-al the vnccyou?i let judgment 

ever be tein- 

Off pyte and compassyoun. 1624 peredwith 

' In thyn entent to be mor clene, 
Thogh thyn hornys be sharp & kene 
To punysshe folk by ryhtwysnesse, 
Thow sholdest ay the poynt so dresse 1628 

In thy Rygour of equyte, 
Euere in hert to han pyte and have pity 

i upon those 

On hem that thow hast mstesyed. whom you 

have "jus- 
Let mercy with ryht be so alyed, 1632 ticed." 

And thynk how many day to-forn, 
Or thow haddest any horn, 



Reason says: Imitate the mild Moses; be merciful. 



[leaf 27, back] 



Ilemember 
that you were 
anointed be- 
fore you were 
horned, 



and forget not 
whose vicar 
you are, 



and follow 
Ilia example. 



Moses led the 
Israelites 
through the 
Bed Sea, 



and you hare 
people under 
you: 

remember 
this lesson, 



and be merci- 
ful inwardly 
whatever 
you are out- 
wardly. 



' Thow wer Eenoynt : thynk ther vp-on 
Lat yt not fro thy mynde gon 
Which thing, whan thow dost aduerte, 
Yt shaft nesshe ful wel thyn herte 
Whan yt is harde or out of loynt, 
To ponysshe or smyte with the poynt, 
Or with thyn homes to hurtle sore : 
Ha this in mynde euer more, 
To medle mercy with equyte. 

' Remembre also ful wel, and se 
That he, of whom thow art vyker, 
And chose to be hys offycer, 
Was humble, meke, & debonayre, 
Charytable, & nat contrayre : 
Of whom thow shalt exau?ftple take, 
To-forn 2 or thow thy domys make. 
Hornyd 3 he was by apparence, 
If at vsyng* hem by vyolence : 
Thys was that holy Moyses 
That ladde al Israel in pees 
Myddys thorgh the large see ; 
And vfiih hys yerde, thys was he 
That passede the floodys raage, 
And made hei haue good passage. 

' Vnderstondeth thys lessoiw, 
Ye that han in subieccioura 
Peplys vnder your prelacye, 
To lerne how ye shal hew guye. 
Thogh ye be hoinyd to syth 4 outward, 
Shewe as they wer styff & hard, 
Lat hem nat growen in your herte 
To make your shep / to sore smerte. 
Thogh ye shewe / out-ward dredful, 
Beth in your hertys mercyful, 5 



[st.&c.] 1636 



[Stowe] 

[st.&c.] 1640 



1644 



Er:t Moyses vir mitissi- 
iniM. NMinerorum 12;:i). 



1648 



p To forn St.] 
[3 Hornyd St., US. torn C.] 

1652 



1656 



1660 



[ sight St.] 



1664 



1668 



1 Camb. MS. reads : Bithinke thee that thou were enoynted 
er thow were horned, and er thow haddest any prikke, and er 
thow haddest any yerde or staf, And that ouhte niichel softe 
thee whan thow wolt correcte any wyght. thou shuldest not also 
foryete of whom thow doost the vicarishipe, p. 11. 

5 Camb. MS. reads : And be merciable with-inne, what-euere 
thow be with oute ; Fallas thou miht make heer-inne with-oute 
misdoinge, p. 11, omitting all between lines 1671 and 1699. 



Reason cites Aristotle, and lids Church-Rulers be gentle. 45 



' Dyssymule, and male in swych caas 

Off Elenchorum a fallaas. JJ. [St. & c.] 



[leaf 28] 



[St. & C.] 



Verba Translatoris. 
[C.&St.] 1672 



[i Boolys St.] 



(Elenchus ys a syllogysme, 

Or by fallaas, a Sophisme, 

Thyng 1 that hatfr on Apparence\ 

W*'t/i-outen eny Existence ; <A 

Or an argument in shewynge 

"Wych in effect hath no beynge 

Affter the thyng that yt doth shewe.) 

1T And thcr-fore, in wordes fewe, 

To the purpos vallyable, 

An exaiwiple ful notable 

To folk that be not rekkeles, 

Putteth Arystotyles : 

In Elenchis thow mayst rede 

He byddeth for to take in dede 

A Boelys 1 galle, & ther-wit/i-al 

On bord, on cloth, or on a wal 

Portreye or peynte, as I ha told, 

And yt wyl resemble gold 

By apparence vn-to the syht, 

Yiff yt be vernysshed cler & bryht. 

IT And sothly, who that loke wel, 

Off gold ther ys neuer a del, 

But apparence, to deceyue 

ffolkys that kan not vel 2 parceyve 

Tlie feynte colour in hys kynde. 

U By wych exauraple han in mynde, 

Thogh thow be hornyd on thyn hed, 

To shewe outward a tookne of drede 

Vn-to folk that be contrayre, 

Yet ay be inward debonayre. 

' Tak exauwple off thy staff 
Wych Grace Dieu vn-to the gaff : 
Thogh the poynt be sharp & kene, 
Yt ys vpward, pleyn, sinothe & clene 
The myddys ryht as any lyne, 
Aboue, crokyd to enclyne ; 
Sygnefyyng vn-to the 3 

3 Camb. MS. reads : Dowte not that that [yerde] ne tokeneth 



[2 wel St.] 



1676 



1680 



1684 



1688 



1692 



1696 



1700 



1704 



Take an ex- 
ample of Aris- 
totle's : 



A bull's gsill 
rubbed on a 
board 



will look 
exactly like 
gold. 



So you, 
thougb you 
show dread- 
ful without 
be merciful 
within. 



Your staff 
should teach 
you humility, 



46 Reason explains the meaning of the Pontiff's Staff, 

[leaf 28, back] fl Whan thou punysshest by Equy te ['- 1 stowe MS.] 1708 
That ther-with-alle thow ha mekenesse 

Al-way to drawe by SoffteneSSe fYsidorus/ Bonus rector estqui 
* in humihtate seruat discipliiiam. 

Thy shepe that gon out of the way, 
wlu^quity 81 ' R atlier by ffayrenesse than affray. 1712 

Whan they retornen home ageyn, 

Lat ay thy Chary te be seyn, 1 

That yt surmouwte thy rygour. [St. & c.] 

Eemembre alle-way at ther Eetour 1716 

Above al maner other thyng, ,, 

Vp-on ther elthe & amendyng 1 ; 
Ever show a Schew hem euer of lone a sygne, 

sign ot love to " 

men. And in thy drauht be ay benygne, 1720 

Voyde of rancour & felonye ; 

Than dostow trewly occupye 

The staff wych thou hast on honde. 

'ffor thow shalt well vnderstonde 1724 

Yt tokeneth (who that kan concerne,) 
Yonr staff That thow shalt ther-witft governe 

is u sign of 

authority; The peplys (I dar wel specefye,) 

Commyttyd to thy prelacye ; 1728 

Mak hem passe (thys thy charge,) 

The Ryuer of thys world ful large, 
with it you Thy 2 staff, to ther a-vauwtage [ 2 Thy St., My c.] 

shall conduct * 

men over the Shal conduite 3 ther passage ; [ 3 conduyte St.] 1732 

ffychche the pyk profound & depe 

In-to the wawes, hew to kepe. 

' And wi't/j al thys, thow most take hede 

Off plank or bregge, yiff they nede : 1736 

and provide Yiff they ffayH. thow shalt on make. 

bridges when * J 

necessary. As tho\v art bounde for her sake ; 

And for that cause, folkys alle, 
Hence your Pontifex they doth the calle, 1740 

name is 

Poi Br'd X Makyng a bregge, thys to seyne, 
maker. pjjg p assa g e that they may atteyue. 

Vnderstond wcl thys lessouw 

Lyke 4 myw informacyouTi ; [ stowe MS.] 1744 

[leaf 29] H Yet oue?'more I shal the teche, 

that ther shulde be in the, humblesse, whau thou chastisest by 
equitee, p. 11. 



and tells how he drove out the Horned Beast of Hell. 47 

' YifB thow take bed to my speche, 

Touchyng 1 thyn hornys bothe two, 

Thy staff ek, wit/i the pyk also. 1748 

11 Whylom her ther dyde dwells At one time 

a horned 

Thornyd best wych lyeth in helle, hei'ndweit '" 

Makynge here hys mansion [St. & c.] here - 

And longe held her 1 pocessyon), [ l here St.] ,, 1752 

Lordshepe ek & gouemaunce, 

Wych was gret dysplesaimce 

To Grace Dieu, that he so sholde 

Abyden her, as I the tolde. 1756 

And Tavoyde?i fro thys place TO drive him 

out Grace 

Thys hornyd best, and tenchase, jHengawyou 

horns, 

She callede the, lyk as I fynde, 

I trow thow haue yt wel in mynde, 1760 

Gaff the hornys in sentence 

With hym to stonden at diffence. 

The staff also, wych I off telle, 

Sche took to the, hym to expelle ; 1764 

Armede the of entenc^oun and armed 

you with 

(Lyk tamyghty champyouw,) [team.] your staff, 

'With thys hornys that I of spak, 

On thys beste to take wrak, 1768 

To make hym fro thys hous to fle, that you 

might drive 

By power that she gaff to the : out the ty- 

rant, 
The vntrewe false enherytour, 

That was her lord & gouernour, 1772 

And long tyme pocessyowner, 

Tyl thow dydest thy dever, 2 

As Grace Dieu the tauhte a-ryht, 

To putte hy?rc out by verray myght, 1776 

Thorgh hurtlyng^ of thyn hornys tweyne ; 

And dyst also thy bysy peyne, 

Wit/t thy staff to make hy?w flee, 

Maugre hys myght & hys powste. 1780 in spite of his 

power. 

2 Camb. MS. reads : Thow hurtledest him with thine hornes 
. . . And thow beete him with thi yerde whan thou madest him 
goon out of the place. The tweyne faire labelles hanginge at 
thine tweyne hornes thou conqueredest at the clensinge, and 
sweepinge, and poorginge of the place, and that was whan thou 
dediedest, and halwedest, and blissedest the place, p. 12. 



48 Reason says Grace Dieu wishes her House always protected, 

[leafao.back] i Thogh~ he were sory to cleparte, [' ' stowe MS., leaf 36] 

Thow dyst that Felouw so coarte, 

That here he durst[e] nafr abyde. 

' And eke vpon that other syde, 1784 

The two The two Labellys, large and longe, 1 

labels on your 

tained y wJJen b " ^angynge ty thyn hornys stronge, [St. & c.] 
theYealT 1 '" 6 Ar F yo ure of the co?iqueste 

That thow madest on tliys beste, ,, 1788 

And of the Clensynge of thys place, [c. & St.] 
Wasshe & swept only by grace, 

and hallowed J niene fyrst at 2 the halwyng, p stowe] 

tlie place. J J ' 

yt makyng 1 hooly by blessyng 1 , 1792 

Lyk a myghty champyoim 
In the dedycacyouw; 
Wych for to don, as yt ys skyl, 
Grace Dieu Off Grace Dieu thys ys the wyl : 1796 

wills that you 

shall be ai- That thow be armyd offte sythe, 

ways armed, 

As a vyctor, thy myght to kythe, 
That thylke best most contrayre 

Be neuer hardy to repayre, 1800 

Nor yt tassaylle by no wrong 1 , 
Whaii he seth thyw armour strong 1 ; 
Wych ar sygnes in substaunce 

Ay to be put in remembraunce, 1804 

BO that an How thow hast vewquysshed & fordon) 3 p bore aou st.] 

mav tear you 

and remem- Thylke vntrewe fals felon), 

ber how you 

the"tof hed - Bete * oppressyd fynally ; 

And that thow mayst ben ay redy, 1808 

ffressh & newe ay to bataylle 
Ageyws aH that wyl assay lie, 

and yon be At alle 4 tyme & ech SCSOUW, [* aUe St., al C.] 

ever ready to _ . 

defend the Off Grace Dieu the mansyouw. 1812 

mansion of 

Grace Dieu. Or yt dyspoylle in any wyse, 

Eobbe or reue yt in ther guyse, 

By 5 sleythe, f alshed, or any whyle, [ 5 stowe] 

Grace Dieu ff or to exile 6 1816 

6 Camb. MS. reads : And dispoile it of hire goodes bi dymes, 
and taxes bi violences and by extorciouns. But ther of as j 
wot wel of sooth, thou doost not well thi deuoir, For thi self 
grauntest hem, and shewest the weyes to haue hem, the which 
thing grace dieu halt no game, p. 12. 



Reason further explains the Pontiff's Horns. 



49 



If you do not 

do tliis, 



' By 1 dyuers extorsyons pstowe] 

Of clymes or Subvencions, [C. &st.] peafso] 

or taylladges [ijffounde newe, 

By Exacc'ions fuH vntrewe : 1820 

Yiff thow yt suffre, ffer or ner, [St. & c.] 

Thow dost not trewly thy deuer, ,, [prose, p. xi 

Whan thow fyndest or dost espye 

Sotyl weyes ffor flatrye 1824 

To spoylle of Grace Dieu the hous 

By any tytles ravynous, 

Thow dost to hyre no plesaunce, 

But gret A-noye & dystourbau?zce. 1828 

I say, as yt lyth in my thouht, 

Platly the trouthe, & spare yt nouht : 

H Thyn hornys hih" vp on thyn hed, 

Nor thy staff, (yt ys no dred, 1832 

I dar pleynly specefye,) 

Ar but tooknes of mokerye, 

Lych hornys of a lytell snayl, 

Wych 2 serue for noon avayl, pwhichest.] 1836 

But for a lytel strawh" wyl shrynke : 

Her-vp-on thow sholdest thynke. 

' Swych hornys hadde nat Seyra Thomas, 
That kepte the entre & the paas 1840 

ful myghtyly ageyw the kyng 1 , 
And wolde suffre for no thyng 1 
Hym to entren in-to thys hous ; 

But, as a champyoim vertuous, 1844 

Kepte the fredam & frauwchyse, 
And suffrede in no maner wyse 
The house of Grace Dieu at al 

ffor to serue, nor to be thral : 1848 

Rather he ches to dey & sterue 
Than suffre that yt sholde serue, 
Thys holy bysshop Seyn Thomas. 
IT Seynt Ambrose 3 in the 4 same caas [* this St.] 1852 

3 Camb. MS. reads : Of seint Ambrose also j sey thee that 
defended his hous ayens emperoures aiid emperises, so that he 
was lord ther-of alone. 'Youre paleys,' quod he, 'ye haue youre 
toures, youre castelles, and your citees, with the reuenewes of 
the empire. Wei ouhte this to suffice yow,' p. 12. 

PILGRIMAGE. E 



your horng 
and staff 
are but a 
mockery, 



and your 
horns are no 
better than 
a snail's. 



[Cap. xvi] 



St. Thomas 
did not act 



but fought 
manfully for 
Grace Dieu. 



50 



Reason still expounds the Horns and Staff. 



[leaf 80, back] 



St. Ambrose 
also refused 



to allow 
Emperor 
or Empress 



to touch the 
heritage of 
Christ. 



And so your 
horns should 
be for a de- 
fence of the 
Church, 



and your 
staff to de- 
mand of Pha- 
raoh to let 
the people go 
free. 



[leaf 31] 



Then you 
would be 
truly railed 
Moses.' 



1856 



1860 



1 Deffendyd myghtyly also ['- 1 stowe MS., leaf 37] . 

Hys hous, lyk as he sholde do, 

Ageyn the sturdy Emperour, 

By dyllygence and grete labour ; 

Tolde hym that he shulde kepe 

Oonly hys Temperall Lordshepe, 1 

Hys paleys & hys mansyouws, [St. &c.] 

Hys cytes, castelles & hys touws ; 

The Eevennues ther-off ytake, 

And ther-with~-al, murye hym make ; 

Wych ouhte ynowh to hyra suffyse, 

And entermet hy? in no wyse 

Touchyng 1 Cristys herytage ; 

And sayde, for al hys felle rage, 

That he wolde rather deye 

Than suffre in any mane?- weye 1868 

Durynge hys tyme, short or long 1 , 

He 2 sholde ther-to done any wrong 1 . P stowe] 

Thys 2 folk, to myn oppynyoun, 

Vsede 2 ther horny s by Resouw, 1872 

As 2 I to the ha told ryht now. 

And, by exauraple, so sholdyst thow 

Bar thyn hornys for dyffence, 

And suffre that no vyolence 1876 

Were ydon vn-to thy spouse 

Wych ys so ffayr & vertuouse, 

Weddyd to the by iuste weddyng 1 : 

I take 3 record of the ryng 1 , p stowe] 1880 

On 3 thy fynger that thow dost vse ; 

Therfor thow mayst the nat excuse 

Off the yerde nor the woncJ 

Wych thow beryst in thyn hond, 1884 

To seyn manly to Pharao, 

(As of ryht thow sholdest do,) 

To suffre thy f olkys -to go f re, 

As they ouht of lyberte ; 1888 

Nat to greue hem, nor oppresse, 

Nor constreyne hem by duresse. 

1T Than sholdestow (yt ys no les,) 

Be trewely callyd Moyses, 1892 



Two Pilgrims come to be married. What is ntedful. 51 

Kyht agreable by vertu 

Vn-to that lady, Grace Dieu, 

And of servyse acceptable 

To that lady worshepable.' 1896 

IT In thys whyle that dame Eesoun Ca P- xvii ] 

While Reason 

Hadtle comunvcacvouw thus talked to 

Moses, 

Wyth Moyses, ryht ther withal 

The forseyde offycyal 1900 

Ys vritii hys oynementys gon, 

And putte hem in warde a-noon : the official 

pat his oint- 

That they wer sauff , I dar wel seye, ments under 

' lock and key. 

Closyd vnder look & keye. 1904 

Ordre off maryage : 
And tho, myw Eye as I vp caste, 
I sawe komen 1 wonder faste p saughe komyng St.] 
A pylgrym al sodeynly, 

Holdyng hys weye fynally, 1908 

(As me thouht in hys entent), Then i saw 

v ' a man from 

Drawynge in-to the oryent ; the E M. 

And euene in the opposyt 

I sawe ek kome by gret delyt 1912 

[5 lines Hank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
A womman, wych that was also and woman 

from the 

A pylgrym ek : & bothe 2 two. P bothe St., both cj w.t,ap. 

rJ o J proachthe 

Her wey took in especyal official, 

To- ward ys the offycyal 3 ; 1916 

Sayde vn-to hym, they bothe a-noon, [St. & cj 

How they wolde to-gyder gon 

On pylgrymage in ther degre 

To lerusaleem, the Cytee, [stowe, leaf ss, back] 1920 

' So ye teche vs, and dysserne 

How that we shall vs gouerne, [st.&c.] who joined 

their hands 

To be sur, in oure passage, together, 

To ffulfylle our pylgrymage.' 1924 

Thawne anoon Thoffycyal, 
Whan he knew ther menyng 1 al, 
Tolde hem, yiff they wolde gon, 

3 Camb. MS. goes on : And eche of hem took him his hand, 
and he took hem and ioyned hem to-gidere, and sithe seide hem, 
as me thouhte, ' ye tweyne shule be bothe oon, and iche of yow 
bere trowthe to oother,' p. 13. 



52 



Move Ad/vice to the Pilgrims about to Marry. 



and bade 
them live in 
unity and 
love, 



and promise 
with an oath 



that they 
would do as 
he com- 
manded 
them. 



It would be 
better for 
them to be 
alone, 



[leaf 82] 



than to be 
untrue to 
each other. 



They were to 
swear to live 
together in 
peace. 



They most of herte be al on, 

Tweyne in on, & on in tweyne, 

Both in loye & ek in peyne ; 

And so to-gydre ay perseuere, 

Tyl that deth make hem dysseuere. 

Seyde 1 ek to hem, 'look that ye 

In 1 trouthe, & in stable te [stabyitee st.j 

Yee 1 loue to-gydre as ye sholde, 

Whether ye be yong* or olde ; 

And that your trouthe on outher syde 

Perpetuelly in on a-byde, 

To your last, that yt endure : 

IT And that ye shal to me Assure 

Both be feyth & ek by oth ; 

And beth wel war, for leff or loth, 

That ye, for no varyauwce, 

]STe breke nat your assurauwce ; 

ffor yif ye don), 2 ye be forsworn) ; 

And ek I warne yow to-forn, 

YifE that ye don 2 in dede or thouht, 

fful lytel shal a-vaylle, or nouht, 

Than vn-to yow your vyage, 

Your labour, nor your pylgrymage. 

Yt wer wel bet, to myw entent, 

That ech of yow allone went, 

Sool by hym sylff, and nat trespace, 

Than be founde on 3 any place 

Vntrewe to hys cowpanye ; 

ffor, gret forfet & folye 

Yt ys, a man for to be founde 

Vntrewe to hym that he ys bounde. 

IF But yiff your wyl of both yffeere 

Be parfyt, hool, & ek entere 

To gon to-gydre, (lat now se,) 

On pylgrymage to that cyte, 

"Whyder to gon I caste also, 

Ye most suerne her, 4 bothe two, 

On Query part, for old or newe, 

That ecli to other shal be trewe, 

So tenduren, al your lyff, 



1928 



1932 



[i Stowe] 



1936 



1940 



1944 

[*-*oi.St.,leaf39] 



1948 



1952 



[3 in St.] 



1956 



1960 



[* sweren here St.] 1964 



Folk ask Moses for a Service. He dips their Crowns. 53 

' Wit/i-outew werre or any stryff ; 19G8 

Off on hert & en ten cy on), 

Neuere to make dyuysyon), 

Nor departyng 1 causeles, 

"WWt-oute assent of Moysees.' 1972 

Affter al thys, A-noon ryht 

I sawfi hem bothe trouthe plyht, mUeVaT 

Hand in hand ybouwde faste ; these 

Euere, whyl ther lyff may laste, 1976 

So to continues & endure, 
Ther feyth by oth they dyde assure, 
ffor euermor : lo her ys al. 

And thanne A-noon the offycyal 1980 ^J e r n e _ the 

Ys retournyd in certeyn 1" Momf^" 

Hoom to Moyses ageyn, 
"Wych stood of entenciou?& 

To here the talkyng 1 of Kesoura. 1984 

Ther-to he sette al hys entent ; 
But at the last ther parlement 
Yendyd ys, for so gret pres 1 

Kam a-dou?* to 2 Moyses, pvn-tost.] 1988 

Bequeryng hym in humble wyse [St. &c.] [learsa.back] 

to wliom a 

To graunten IIQIII somme semyse crowd soon 

came asking 

In hys hoUS, Oft gentyllesse. ,, service in his 

house. 

And he full goodly gan hym dresse, [StoweMS., lenfsg, tk.] 

As I conceyved Avith my look, 1993 

[4 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] [Sacramentum ordinis st] 

And a peyre of sherys took, [Cap. xviii] 

Merkede 3 hem (I took good heed,) p Markede st.] 

On foure parteys of ther hed ; 1996 

And affter that, vp-on the crowne, Then Moses 

took a pair 

To-forn) hy?w as they knele douw, ofsiiears, 

and shaved 

Seyng 1 to hem stondyng 1 a-part, their crowns. 

<That God shal be the hoole part 2000 

Pleynly of ther enherytau?zce, 

As 4 ther Eychesse & suffysaunce : pstowe] 

Ther-of they may be wel certeyn.' 

1 Camb. MS. reads : But as thei weren . . . speken, a gret 
cumpany of folk maden cesse here parlement anoon. Bifore 
Moises thei come7i, and madeii him requeste that sum seruice in 
his hous he wolde yiue hem and graunte hem, p. 13. 



Reason justifies Head-shaving. She promises Help. 



[Cap. xix] 



Then Reason 
drew near, 



' To shave 
the head it 



deemed a 
folly by some 
men, 



[leaf 83] 



but not by 



Whoever 
may envy 
you, I will 
not. 



Wherever 
yon dwell 
you will be 
known for 
true men. 



Resouv ageyn : 

And thattne Reson) effte ageyn, 2004 

(Lych as I shal yow devyse,) 
Gan to spekyn in thys wyse : 
' Syrs, taketh hed,' a-noon quod she, 
' Som whyle, as semeth vn-to me, 2008 

Yt ys wysdom), ryht, & no wrong, 
To feyne foly euere a-mong, 
Thogh ye now, also God me saue, 
Ben yclypyd & yshaue 2012 

Vp-on your hedys eue?ychon), 
"Wych thyng ys dempte of many on 
fful gret vnwyt & gret ffolye 

Off malys & malencolye ; 2016 

They deme so malycyously, 
But trewly so do nat I. [c. * St.] 

ffor as in myn oppynyon 

I deme yt 1 gret dyscrecci'on), pstowe,ieaf4o] 2020 
And ful gret wyt that ye ha do, 
And for that skyle taketh hede ther-to. 
1T To be youres, of entent, 

Hooly to yow I me present 2024 

As your paramoire entere ; 
And who-so-euere (as ye shal lere,) 
Gruchche, or haue envye ther-to, 
Al-way forth I wyl be so. 2028 

ffor trusteth wel, that I am she 
By whom that ye yknowe be 
ffrom other bestys lo her ys al 
And seueryd in especyal. 2032 

1T And pleynly, ek, I kan yow telle, 
Al the whyl that I dwelle 
"With yow, A-mongys hyh & lowe, 
ffor verray men ye shal be knowe, 2036 

Thorgh wysdom & thorgh prouydence, 
And haue A verray dyfference 
ffrom other bestys to dyscerne 

How ye shal your sylff gouerne. 2040 

Al the whyle that ye me holde 
With yow tabyde, as I tolde, 



Reason cant put up with Sins. 



55 



[i nought St.] 

[* trouthe St.] 2044 But if I 

leave you, 
you will 
become as un- 
reasonable 



2048 

[St. &C.] [leaf S3, back] 

2052 



[St., leaf 41] 
[St. & C.] 



' Ye shal be men, & ellys nauht l ; 
And yiff the trouthe 2 be wel souht, 
Whan that I am fro vow gon, 
Ye may avauwte (& that a-noon,) 
That ye be (thys, no fable) 
"Bestys & vnresownable, 
Uyspurveyed of al Resomz, 3 
And voyde of al dyscrecczouw ; 
For yiff ye wante shortly me, 
Yee may neuere in no degre 
(Though" yee euere do youre peyne,) 
Worshipe, off youre sylff atteyne 
]N"or clymbe to no gret honour 
But yiff ye ban of me socour ; 
Thogh ye be lordys of estat, 
Proud of your port, & eke ellat, 
Lytel to yow, al may avaylle 
Wit7i-oute me, yt ys no faylle, 
for to make your lugementys, 
Syllogysmes, or Argumentys, 
Or of Wysdam any thyng ; 
"VWt7i-oute me, thys no lesyng, 
Ye shal ha no cowclusyon, 
But fynally confusyon). 
1T ffor wych I caste me to telle 
How ye shal ha, yiff ye lyst dwelle, 
The loue of me on euery syde : 
Ye most ay be, & so abyde, 
That ye in yow ha sobyrnesse, 
And voyde fro yow dronkenesse 
And hyr suster glotonye, 
Wraththe, Ire & ffelonye ; 
ffor \vher-so-euere that they be, 
They make me a- way to fle ; 
ffor wher they make her mansyou?*, 
I leve that habytacyouw. 
Venus thenys doth me chase, 



3 Camb. MS. reads : ye be but as doumbe bestes, and as 
coltes that ben clothed. With-oute me ye shul neuere haue 
wurshipe, be ye neuere so grete lordes, p. 14. 



and lack all 
honour, 



2056 



2060 



2064 



2068 



however high 
or wise you 
may seeni. 



If I am to 
remain, 



2072 Drunken- 
ness, 

Gluttony and 
Wrath must 
be banished. 



2076 



56 The Romance of the Eose. Beason explains the Tonsure. 
Lust win ' And voydeth me out of that place, 2080 

drive me 

away, As yt ys sayd & told ful wel 

Who lyst loken euerydel, 
as may be Wit/i-outew any maner close, 

xeen in the 

Romance of In the Romaiwce of the Roose. 2084 

the Rose. 

U Wherfor I pray yow euerychon), 
[leaf si] ffor to kepe yow, on by on, 

ffro thys vyces that I ha told, 

And from al other, yong and old ; 2088 

wherefore ffor my loue that ye hem fflee, [c. & St.] 

flee all these J 

vices, Yin ye lysten han freushepe of me. 

U ffor, but ye yow fro vyces kepe, 

Ye shal lese the frenshepe 2092 

Platly of me, as I yow tolde. 

And ffynally, I nat ne holde 

Hym for my frend, (knowe thys ryht wel,) 
for he who That yiveth hys body euerydel 2096 

does not 

cannot be Vn-to vyces, eue?'6 in oon. 

my friend. 

[Cap. xx] U And two wordy s, or that ye gon, 
Shortly to yow, & nat ne spare, 

Openly I wyl declare 2100 

Tookne of your crowne, cloos wzt/i-Inne, 
And at the cercle fyrst begynne. 
your tonsure I naene the closure fer \n't7i-oute 

signifies 

That ys cerclyd round a-boute 2104 

As A castel or strong douwgou?z, 
Or lyk a gardyn, Avych envyrou?i 
Ys closyd \\itJi- a myghty wal ; 

The wych (who consydreth al,) 2108 

\Vtt//-lune ys ope, to sygnefye, 
that you are That ye to God sholde hool aplye 

to apply your 

hearts wholly Your hertys, to hyw so enterly 

That noon affecczon worldly, 2112 

Nor erthly thyng, ha noon entre. 

ffor, lerueth thys shortly of me : 

Your Cercle round aboute the hed 

Sholde kepe (yt ys no dred,) 2116 

Off your hertys the closure, 
voiding To voyde away al worldly cure 

all worldly 

cares. Qut of your affeccyon), 



Reason ivarns them against Worldly 'Pleasures. 



57 



You must 
serve God 
day and 
night, 



And shewen (in conclusyon) J ) 2120 

That ye have the world for-sake* [St. &c.] [leaf 34, back] 

And of herte youre-sylff ytake 

Hooly to God, off wyl entere ; 

For ye ne may not bothe ytfere 

Serve God, and the worlde also, 

And be trewe in bothe two : 

The toon, a-syde most be layd. 

' And thynk also what ye ha sayd. 
God ys for our avauwtage, 
Our party, & our herytage, 
Whom we ha chose w't/t al our myght 
ffor to serue day & nyht. 
By wych word, so God me saue, 
Me thynketh ye sholde no loye haue 
Of thys worldys veyn plesaunce, 
Wych ys so ful off varyawzce, 
So ful of chang 1 & dovbylnesse ; 
ffor now, to oon he yyveth Rychesse, 
Eobbeth a-nother, as ye may se, 
And cast hywi in-to pouerte ; 
And sowme he yiveth neueradel : 
Wherfore loke ye kepe wel 
The part off your elleccyouw, 
Off herte & hool entenczou?j, 
That ye ha chose, yiff ye be wyse, 
Wych ouhte ynowgh" to yow suffyse ; 
ffor, as in cowparyson), 
Yt passeth al pocessyon). 
U Lat your tonsurys, round at al 
Close your hertys as a wal ; 
And that yt go so round aboute 

ffor to sette 2 the world w/t/i-oute, p siiette st.] 2152 
And yt dysseuere in al 3 thyng 1 , paiiest,] 

And your party so departyng 1 , 
That 4 ye be shorn so as ye sholde [*stowe] 

As 4 chose shepe of Crystys folde, 2156 



[Stowe MS., leaf 42] 

2125 

,, _/lwt7 

[St. & C.] 

!,' 2128 

IT Dominus pars hereilitatit 
mee / (St.) (Psal. xv. 5.) 



2132 



2136 



2140 



2144 



2148 



and pnt no 
trust in the 
changing 
pleasures of 
the world. 



The choice 
you have 
made sur- 
passes all 
earthly pos- 
sessions. 



You are the 
chosen sheep 
of Christ's 
flock, 



1 Camb. MS. goes on : For from it [the world] ye muste 
departe, if with your god ye wole part. Ye mowun not haue 
bothe tweyne to-gideres ; that mown ye wel wite, p. 14. 



58 Reason on the Monk's Duty. Moses appoints his Officers. 



[leaf 85] 



and the 
shepherd 
shall receive 
the fleece; 



but lie must 
not shear it 
out of mea- 
sure only 
for need. 



cherish, not 
oppress the 
flock.' 



[Cap. 



Then came a 
crowd to 
Moses, 



demanding 
to be made 
his servants. 



He made 
ushers, cham- 
berlains, 
sergeants, 



[leaf 85, back] 



Lyk to bestys resounnable. 

Thanne of ryght (yt ys no fable) 

Your shepperde, that taketh of 1 yow kepe, 

Schal receyuen off hys shep 

The flees somwhyle for hys travaylle ; 

But he shal nat so yow assay lie, 

To flen yow fro yowr skyn al bare ; 

In swyche 2 cas he moste spare ; p swyche St.] 

ffor he therto hath no lycence, 

To yow to don) swych vyolence. 

He shal yow shern duely in dede, 

Nat out of niesour, but for nede, 

Take hys part hym to sustene ; 

And for that skyle, thus I mene, 

That he shal no vengeauwce make : 

Therfore he hath the sherys take, 

And nat the knyff, to Eobbe & slen, 

And folk out of her skyn to fflen ; 

But cherysshe hem rather by fauour 

Than oppresse hem by Eygour : 

Thus sholde euery shepperde do, 

Resouw algate techeth so.' 

U And whan thys lady, dame Resouw, 

Hadde y-endyd hyr sermou?z, 

Ther kam folk in sondry wyses, 

That a-bood to han servyses, 

Ordre off Colyt : 
Made ther requeste to Moyses ; 
And he, Amongys al the pres 
Assygnede sondry offycerys. 
And somme off he??i he made hussherys, 
And S07?ime also he ordeynys 
To haue offyce off chauraberleyns ; 
And sergauwtys he made also, 
To whos offyce yt longeth to, 
The Enmy to putte away, 3 
Out of bodyes nyht & day, [st.&c.] 2192 

3 Camb. MS. has, ' for to areste and putte out the enemyes 
that ben in the bodyes. To oothere he dide gret wurshipe ; 
For to alle he yaf to be rederes of his paleys and to preche 
goddes la we,' p. 15. 



[i on St.] 

2160 



2164 



2168 



2172 



2176 



2180 



2184 



2188 



Moses's Officers lay and cover his Table for Dinner. 59 



[St. & C.] 

[Stowe MS., leaf 43, back] 
[St. & C.] 



Wher that euere by bataylle 
He ys hardy ffor to assaylle. 

Moses eke, who lyst take hede, 
Ordeyned Lystres for to rede, 2196 

Myd the palys for to stonde, 

To make folke to vnderstonde 

The lawe, by ful gret avys, 

As longeth vn-to her offys. 2200 

And sowime, as I kan beholde, 
He made kandelys for to holde, 
And torchys for to yive lyht ; 

By ther offyce, as yt was ryht, 2204 

Thay held hem, as I toforn ha sayd, 
To-for the table, whan yt was layd ; 
11 For sone he sholde to dyner gon. 
And vnto other he took a-noon 2208 

Hys syluer cuppe gylt richely, 
And bad hem maken yt redy 
To seruen. hyra the same tyme. 

And some also, on ther lyfft syde, 2212 

Vp-on ther shulderys, he made weere 
A Tookne off Cryst, & yt to bere, 
That they sholde in especyal 

Awayte vp-on thoffycyal, 2216 

As trewe seruamztys off entent, 
And be mynystres dyllygent, 
ffeythful, humble, & covenable 
ffor to serue hyra at the table. 2220 

[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

And thaw they gan, by good avys, 
^Eue?ych to don hys owne offys, 
And dyden ek ther bysy cure 

To leyn the 1 boordys, & to cure p the St., om. c.] 2224 
With napry ful couenable. 
And somme sette vp-on the table 
{Lyk ther offyce) wyn & bred ; 

And sowme also (I took good hed,) 2228 

Lyst the wyn wer to strong, 
Putte in water ther a-mong : 
11 ffor yt was somwhat passyd pryme, 



readers to 
preach, 



candlebearers 



to attend his 
table. 



Others were 
appointed to 
attend the 
official 



and serve 
him. 



[leaf 36] 
[Cap. Mil] 



They pre- 
pared the 
table, putting 
on it bread 
and wine, 



60 



Grace Dieu takes De Ghiilkville to Moses. 



as it was 
past prime, 
and dinner 
time. (Cp. 
Chaucer.) 



But Moses 
made other 
officers to 
serve in his 
house 



and aid the 
official, 



[Cap. xxiii] 
after which 
he called 
aloud for 
Grace Dieu, 



at whose feet 
I sat. 



[leaf 86, back] 



When she 
heard him, 
she took me 
and went to 
him. 



Vp-on the hour off clyner tyme. 2232 

But Moyses, to-for dyner, 
Caste hyw fyrst, wit/i ful sad cher, 
To delyuer hy? * that abood. [> hem St.] 

And so??ne that aforn hym stood, 2236 

He made he??i offycerys newe, 
ffor to serweii and be trewe 
AWt/i-Inue hys hous, in specyal 

To wayte vp-on the offycyal, 2240 

And to helpe hym in hys nede ; 
ffor who that wysly taketh hede, 
May se wel that thoffycyal 

May nat allone gouemen al, 2244 

But he haue helpe, swych as hym ouhte." 

Now shal I telle how he wrouhte : 
Thys Moyses, among he??i arl, 

ffyrst he gan fill lowde calle 2248 

Grace dieu, al be that she 
"Was faste by, wych, in hyr se 
Sat vp in hyr trone on hyh" ; 

Sche was nat ffer, but wonder nyh", 2252 

And took good heed of euery thyng. 
(And al thys whyle beholdyng, 
I sat at hyr ffeet douw lowe.) 

2 And whan she sawe & gan knowe 2256 

That she was callyd among echon, [St. & c.] 

She taryeth" nat, but kam anoon 

To Moyses ful evene & ryght ; ,, 2259 

And vn-to hym, with" alle hir mygfit, [stoweiis., leaf 44, bk.] 
She shewed hir-selff most frendely, [St. & c.] 

Wher-off he gan waxen hardy 

"VVhan she was kome, and thowhte he was 
Myghty & nior strong in thys caas 2264 

To fulfyllen hys entent, 
"Wych I, by good avysement, 
Shal vn-to yow shortly here 

2 Camb. MS. adds : When she herde hire cleped, she ros hire 
up with-oute abidinge, and wente hire to moyses, and with hire 
she ledde me. And tharme whan moyses sigh hire nyh him, he 
bi-gan to wexe more hardy, and fulliche dide that that j wole 
telle yow shortly che, p. 16. 






Moses gives Grace Dieu to the Pilgrims, to help them. 61 

Rehersen, yiff ye lyste to here. 2268 i win now 

i \ir i , ,1 tel1 you what 

And Moyses, A-noon ryglit than, he did. 
Thus to werkyn he be-gan : 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Ther handys fyrst, as ye shal lere, [ a p- x ^v] 

Enoyntede, and closede hew yfere, 2272 joined uieir 
* And took to hem f ul cler & bryht 



A swerd, the wych, vn-to my syht, 

gave them a 

Was thylke same that Cherubyn J d and 

Whylorn held at Thentryng 1 In 2276 

At Paradys, who lyst to look ; 
And keye's ek to hem he took, 
To kepe hem \vel in ther en tent. 

And al thys whyle was ther present 2280 

Grace Dieu, I took good heede, 
To helpyn hem the bet to spede. 
Whom Moyses took hem also, 

And sayde, (I took good hed ther-to,) 2284 

' Syrs.' quod he. ' most off vertu, And Moses 

said, ' I give 

Seth her to-for yow, Grace Dieu Grace Dieu to 

you; 

I gyve hyr yow for more 1 grace, c 1 more St., mor c.] [leaf 37] 

That she may, in euery place, 2288 

At alle tyme's vfith yow be, 

Yiff yt be-falle sothly that ye 

Eeceyue hyre, as ye ouhte do, receive her 

J with joy and 

With loye & glad herte also, 2292 keep her.' 

And kepe hyr with yow day be day, 

That she neuere parte a-way.' 

IT And whan I herde al thys yfere, 

I wex abaysshed in my chere ; 2296 

Seyde vn-to my sylff ryht tho, Th en i said, 

J J J 'What shall 

" Alias, now, what shal I do 1 

Grace Dieu, I ha lost al ; 

ffor I se how Thoffycyal 2300 

Hath yowen hyre fro me away 

On thys sylue same day, 

Vn-to thys horny d folk in sothe, 2 

3 Cambr. and Fr. Prose reverse this: "tliilke hornede hath 
given him to these newe officialles." p. 16. 



62 Grace Dieu explains that Good to All is better than to One. 

And with hem, fro me she goth. 1 2304 

Wherfor now I kan nat se 
who shall Who shal delyueren vnto me 

deliver me 

scrip and Sherpe 2 or bordouw to my vyage. p scryppe St.] 

Staff for my 

journey?- TO helpe me in my pylgrymage, 2308 

Wych she me hyhte thys other day." 
But thawne A-noon I took my way 

To-wardys hyre lyne Ryght, 

wouwf eak And Thoughts pleynly that I myghte 2312 

to her. Seyn to hyre my fantasye, 

And my matere specefye ; 

ffor sythe the tyme, ffer nor ner, 

That I was wasshe in the Eyver 2316 

By hyre Aduocat, fayre & wel, 

I spak not vrith hyre neuere a del. 
(When i was And in the tyme off my wasshyng*, 
Advocate The aduocat, by hyr hyddyng, 2320 

spoke for me.) < J J J J > 

Spak for me in goodly wyse, 
As ye to-forn) han herd devyse. 

peaf 37, back] Wher-fore I thouhte I wolde assaye [st.&c.] 

To speke to hire, & not delaye : 2324 
" Ma dame," quod I, " and yt yow plese, 

I am falle in gret dysesse, 

And dyscomforted in myn herte, 

he" d what k i Wh an I consydre and aduerte, 2328 

wither That M y ses 8 aff y w a - 



Which Gyfft ys no thyng to my pay ; 

For yif I wante yow, in certeyn 

My pylgrymage ys but in veyn." 2332 

Grace Dieu answereth : 
Quod Grace Dieu, 'yiff thow take hede, 
Thow hast verrayly in dede 
fforyete al that I ha the told. 
fweVed'-i "Wostow nat wel, to yong 1 & old, 2336 

wTlTprovide That 3 I Wyl profyte What I may Non snbtrahet personal* 

for all who J I J J ctimtquam Deus quont- 

go^the right To s a n that go the ryhte way ; &ttSffSi 

So that eueyy pylgrym shal pstowe] jS3jfi H ' 
At alle 4 tymes (lo her ys al) [* aiie St., ai c.] 2340 

1 There is nothing in Camb. corresponding to the lines be- 
tween Nos. 2302 and 2344. p. 110, MS. 



Grrace Dieu will help all Pilgrims. 



Me fynde redy, euere in on, 

In ther weye with hem to gon, 

To cowveye hem, whaw they ha nede. 

' What ! wenystow me to possede 
Thy sylff allone, quy t & clene ? 
Thow art a fool, yiff thow yt wene ! 
The comoura profyt, fer & ner, 
Ys mor than profyt synguler 
To be preferryd, as I the telle. 
Sestow nat how a comoure welle 
Mor avaylleth (who looke wel,) 
Than doth A-nother seuerel ? 
ffor, at a commoim welle, of ryht 
May fette water euery whyht, 
Her thrust to staimchen & apese, 
And drawe yt at her owne ese. 
Wher-as, a welle cloos aboute, 
Wych for-barreth folk witfi-oute, 
That no man neye dar no ner, 
Lyst they fellyn in daurcger. 

' And to purpos to expresse, 
I am welle of al goodnesse ; 
Nat holde cloos vn-to no wyht, 
But vn-to alle (of verray ryht) 
I am comwne and plentevous, 
And to profyte desyrous 
To goode pylgrymes euerychon), 
To forthre hem wherso they gon). 

' And thogh I be comozm to alle 
That vn-to myn helpe calle, 
Thow mayst knowe & truste wel 
Thow hast nat lost me neueradel ; 
ffor ay vtith the I wyl abyde, 
And neuere parte fro thy syde : 
As longe as thow hast the cast 
To ben a pylgrym stedefast, 

50 long thow shalt nat off me faylle 
To helpe in what I may avaylle.' 

51 Affter al thys, I confort took, 
That Grace Dieu me nat for-sook, 



2344 



2348 



and be with 
them in need. 



[Cap. xxv] 

You are a 
fool, if you 
think 



2352 



2356 



[St. & C.] 
[i St. & C.] 



2360 



2364 



2368 



2372 



2376 



2380 



the profit of 
one is to be 
preferred to 
that of all. 



[leaf 38] 



I am a well 
of all good- 
ness. 



and common 
to all pil- 
grims. 



With thee I 
will abide as 
long as thou 
remain stead' 
fast." 



'64 Reason's Sermon. The Sivord is to thrust, cut, or spare. 



Then Reason 
mounted the 
pulpit to 
preach, and 
said, 

[Cap. xxvi] 



The sword 
you have re- 
ceived was 
made to 
guard^Para- 
dise. 



[leaf 38, back] 



It is perilous 
to all fools, 



because it "" 
always me- 
naced them 
for their mis- 
deeds. 



It is designed 
for three 
things : 

1. to hurt 
with point, 

2. cut with 
edge, 

3. spare with 
flat. 

1. The Point 
is to teach 
that punish- 
ment must 
not be given 
without dis- 
cretion. 



[St. &c.] 



But me coumfortede off hyr grace. 

And tho ryht in the sylue place 
I sawh" Auoon, Dame Resoiw 
Ascende to make A Sarmoun. 
In ta pulpet that ther stood. 
U ' Syrs,' quod she, ' yt wer ryht good 
ffor your profyt, (yt ys no drede,) 
Off my sarmouw to taken hede. 
Ther was a swerd, yt ys no nay, 
Delyuered yow thys same day, 
fforgyd sythe 1 go ful longe, [' sythe st., syth c.] 

To kepe thentre wonder stronge, 
And the passage of Paradys. 2 
At which" tyme was noon so wys [St. & c.] 

That entre myghte, ner comen In, 

But yiff it were by Cherub jm, [stowe MS., leaf 47] 
Which" at the gate was cheff porter, 
Holdynge that swerd ful bryht & cler, 
Folkys for to kepen oute. 

' And this swerd, yt ys no doute, 
Was to ffoolys ful peryllous, 
Swycli as wern malycyous ; 
ffor they ther-by wer made afford, 
And ypunysshed by that swerd. 
Lyk ther gyltys & trespace 
Thys swerd alway dyde hem manace. 
The wych swerd (who that kan se,) 
Ordeyned ys for thyngys tlire : 
To punysshe folk as they dysserue, 
Poynt & egge, to hurte & kerue, 
And -with the platte, among to spare, 
That ryht fro mercy be nat bare. 

'The poynt yiveth fyrst entendement 
That neuere no fynal lugement, 
Nor hasty execucyouw, 
Be yove wtt/i-oute dyscreciou, 
In causys nouther hifi nor lowe 



2384 



2388 



2392 



2396 



2400 



2404 



[st.&c.] 2408 



2412 



trtbuit, decorem & 
perpetuitatem confert. 
BernardKs super Can- 
tica. 

2416 



2 Camb. : that no sinnere entrede into the cuntre of which he 
is lord. Now vnderstondeth what swerd it is, how it is perilouse 
to fooles, p. 17. 



Reason orders Caution before taking Vengeance. 65 
Namly wher they be nat knowe : Region. 



ffor he ys a fool, & ffoul hardy, "e who takes 

vengeance on 

That, off wenyng & surquedy, 2420 ScCon"*" 

Hasty ys, hy?n sylff tavaurcce, 

Off Ire for to do vengaunce, 

Or demen by suspecyon) 

WiM-oute examynacyon). 2424 

' Swyche, I dar wel specefye, 
Do nat trewly occupye 
The swerd of ryghtful lugement. 

Thorgh ygnorauwce they be so blent, 2428 [leaf 39] 

And, as a blynde man, so they werke, ignorance, by 

Stumblynge alway in the derke. 
Good from evel they kan not chese, 
Nor whot 1 nat wher to saue or lese : [iwootst.] 2432 
Redy to hyndren & to deere, 
Swyche sholde no swerdys bee're, 

That kan not knOWen evel fro good, [Stowe, leaf 48] and cannot 

discern 

Nor whan ys tyme of letyng blood ; 2436 

Nor, kan nat dyscerne A-ryght 

ffor ygnorance & lak off syht 

At-wexen helthe & malladye ; between 

J health and 

Nor, a-twen the meselrye 2440 disease. 

Grettest, smallest, and the mene ; 
He kan no dyfference atwene 
Ne\ve syknesse nor the olde. 

' But Query trewe luge sholde 2444 

Weyen lustly 2 in ballarmce. pstowe] Before judg- 

' i mentis 

Lonsydren euery cyrcu??istauwce 3 given, every 

. circumstance 

Off trespacys by avysement, 

Or he yive any lugement. 2448 

'ffor thys WOrd-GlayVC, 4 (in Sentence,) Verba translatoris. Lydgate's 

By record off lanuence o/ac, <- 

(Thys was nat ful yere agon) 

In hys book Catholicon 2452 

Seyth, Glayve in French, (& wryteth thus,) 

3 Mout doit ains le iuge entendre 1102 
Les circonstances du meffait, 

Que nul jugement en soit fait. p. 35. 

4 Camb. : Swerd, as j fynde writen, is clepid departinge of 
throte, p. 17. 

PILGRIMAGE. p 



66 Derivation of ' Glaive.' The Sword's two Edges. 

Reason. Ys Ul Latyil GuladlllS, 1 [' Gladius St Guladius C.] 

* T[ Gladius a gula dicitwr, <fc generaliter 

of a ' as he 



asa/t ffor that y fc a - sonder kut 

The throte off a man a tWO:^^S^^^^ 
Thys lanuence recordeth so^^ta/ffix^Va! 1 ' P 8 ' 
ffor throte yn Ynglyssh, (thys the ffyn,) 
because some- Ys callyd Gula in Latyn, 2460 

body's throat * 

was cut with "Wher-off Glay ve took hys name. 

one. J J 

[leafso.back] Grameryens 3 seyn the same, pstowe] 

For yt a-sondyr 3 doth deuyde 

The partyes layde on eue?y syde, 4 2464 

Wher, save Right, ys 3 no refuge. ,, 

- Grace joieu < But first, every Right 3 ful luge 

resumes. 

Sholde, by 3 good avysement, ,. 

Or he gesse 3 eny lugement, 2468 

Discerne 3 to-fom) (wt/i al hys myght), ,, 

Seke and 3 enqueryn out the ryght ,, 

Off outher 3 part in hys presence, 

Nat 3 ben to hasty off sentence, 2472 

ISTor 3 ofE hys doomys in no wyse. ,, 

11 Also 3 to yow I shal devyse, 

[Cap. xxvii] '"Wheroff the tweyne eggys serue, 

edges'oftiie Off thys swerd, that kutte & kerue : 2476 

Sword serve /v IT .. c 

to cut, ftor on allone in no wyse & [ s stowe] 

By hym sylff may nat suffyse : 6 

ffor yifE yowr swerde forgyd off steel ,, 

Be to-forn) ypoynted wel, 2480 

And sharpyd by dyscrecKHirz, 
Ye rnoste (off ryght & good resouw) 

and to reform Ther- wit/i-al haue rvghtwysnesse, 

the vices of Jo J 

your subjects Vyces to reforme and dresse, 2484 

On your sogectys (euere among,) 

2 Glaive, si com truis en escript, 1105 

Guele devisant, si est dit. p. 35. 

4 Camb. : For right that he hath herd allegge, he shulde do 
his jugement, and non oother wise, p. 18. 

Quar tout ainsi comme allignier 1110 
II a oui, son iugement 
Doit il faire, non autrement. p. 35. 
6 Pour quoi .1. seul pas ne soufist 1115 
Et quel enseignement i gist. 
Se vostre glaive avez pointu 
Par discretion, et agu. p. 36. 



Reason, on the Relations of the Soul and Body. 67 

Hern to correcte wha?i they do wrong. Reaot>. 

ffor vp-on trespacys & mysdede 

Ye ha lycence (yt ys no drede,) 2488 

ffor to do correccyoiw 

And COUenable pUnyClOUW, by correction, 

Egal, as folk ha dysservyd, 

Except casys that be reservyd [stowe, leaf 49] 2492 

And wet/-holde (soth to seyne,) 

To 1 hyw that hath the hornys tweyue : [ stowe] except such 

J J J !ls are re . 

They be except vn-to hys hand. %$$? 

' And thus departyd ys your land 2496 t"' " 8 - 

In double party, (thys no doute :) [ieaf*o] 

The Ton, the body ys \vtt7t-oute, 
fflesshly, & redy vn-to synne ; 

But the thother man wit/i-inne 2 [ 2 stowe] 2500 The inward 

man is the 

Ys the soule & the spyryt, 2 soul which 

rj J ' delights in 

"VVych in goodnesse hath most delyt. goodness. 

Thys the land, loke wel therto, 

That ye shal departe at 3 two, pa stowe] 2504 

Atwyxe bothe, thogh that iieuere, 

Whyl they lyue, may dysseuere. 

' And to thys tweyne, ansuerynge 
Ys thys a \verd double-kervynge : 2508 The body and 

soul can 

Wlier-wzt/i ye shal your wyt applye, never be 

J J J Kf J separated in 

Sowle & body to lustefye, 

Whan ye sen *y t be to do ; 

As thus tak hed, I niene so : 2512 

The Body, ffro hys synues grete, [stwe.ieafig] 

Duely ptmysshe 4 in cold & hete, 

Yive hy? peyne, and ek penaujzce; bolfra'ts 

Consydred euery cyrcu?stau?zce : 2516 g'veitpain, 

Travaylle, whaw he ya to rage, 

Sende hym out on pylgrymage ; 

Charge hym wi't/i fastyng & wakyngj and make 

So that ahvay answwyuge 2520 

The penaunce be to the treapace, [stowe, leaf 49, back] 

Off equyte that yt not passe : 

U Thus ye shal do, yiff ye be wyse. 

4 Camb. : To the bodi for his shines ye mown yiue trauaile, 
&c., p. 18. 



G8 A proud Spirit is to be sharply cut. On Cursing. 

K"n, n n. ( But in a-nother mane?- wyse 2524 

nut act differ- Punysshen the spyryt ye shal also ; 

ently with J fJJJ 

tiie spirit. As 1 thus : taketh good bed ther-to : [' And St.] 

I:i dyuers cans ye mot cousydre, 

And peysen euery thyng to-gydre : 2528 

if one is Yiff he be proud or obstynat, 

proud, dis- 

euSed eut> r Dysobeyywge or ellaat, 2 

[leaf 40, back] Hys trespace 3 to amende, pstowe] 

And ne 4 lyst nat to entende [nest.] 2532 

To be redressed 5 by meeknesse, pstowe] 

And, 6 thorgh pryde or Frowardnesse, 5 [ 6 nor St.] 

Wyl take no correction. 

Tha?i may yow 7 (in conclusj r on) pyestcwe] 2536 

Tornen (to maken hym afferd,) 

The tother party off the swerd, 
you mast use "Wych ys sharp, & whet ful kene, 

the sharp J J 

edge of the To wonde, & hurte, & parte atwene, 2540 

sword to him, 

And ful mortally to byte : 
Spareth nat ther-wttA to smyte, 
Lyk as ye may, by your power. 

' AVherfor doth iustly your dever 2544 

and smite to To smyte & hurte. for punysshyng, 9 

punish. 

By the sharpe strook of 10 cursyng ; [ i( >stowe] 

ffor wou?zde nor hurte ys noon so 10 fel ,, 

Nor noon so mortal nor crnel 10 2548 

cursing is Nor mor pe?yllous to be 10 drad ; ,, 

cruel and 

perilous, tfor Remedy may noone 10 be had, [St., leaf so] ,, 

Mouther salue, That soor to sownde 

But by hym that gaff the wou^de, 2552 

Or by A-nother (in certeyn) 
and can only That ys a-bove, mor souereyn, 

be cured by 



hath an hand, power, & myght, 
Hy??i to recure, (of verray ryght,) 2556 

Serche the soor wit//-Inne & oute. 
"VVherfore he 11 sholde gretly doute, [" he st., ye c.] 

2 Catnb. : and wol not amende for ammestinge yc mown turnc 
to the kervinge, p. 18. 

8 Sans Riens y aler espargnant. 

Naures, se pouez, mortalment, Par force . . . 

9 Camb. : Hurte hym ye mown dedliche bi the strok of cnrs- 
inge. And ther is no wounde so cruelle. For with-oute remedye 
it is dedlych, etc. ; p. 18. 



A Priest curses a Tree, and makes it "barren. 



60 



2560 



2564 



2568 



That so ys hurt, as I ha told, 
Wherso be he yong or old. 

Exau?ple off the pereyl off cursyng. 1 
U And to purpos in especyal : 
Yt fyl that oon offycyal 
In-to a gardyn onys wente, 
To gadre cheryes off entente, 
The fayrest that he koude se, 
And clamb ful hifi vp on A tre. 
But shortly, in hys cornyng douw, 
Yt ffyl thus, (in conclusyon),) 
That a brauwche hys surplys hente, 
And the cloth a-sonder Rente, 
Wher-of in hert he wex ful wroth ; 
And, or he any ferther goth, 
Thus he seyde vn-to the tre, 
" Now," quod he, " cursyd mote thow be ! " 
And wente hym forth, for nor ner, [stowe, leaf so, back] 
Tyl vn-to the nexte yer, 
To gadre cheryssh 2 he kam a-geyn, 
And found the tre drye & bareyn. 
Off wych thyng he wex al sad, 
And in hys herte no thyng glad, 
Whan he remembrede how that he 
Hadde a-forn cursyd that Tre. 
Wher-of he repenteth sore, 
And, wit/i-oute?z any more 
He seyde, (or he ferther wente,) 
"I the assoylle, in myn entente. 
God wot, I mente no thyng so, 
So grete 3 vengaurece to ha do : 
I ha mysdon ; for-gyue yt me, 
ffor the dyffaute was nat in the. 
My-sylff, I may the Rentyng whyte, 4 
I knowe yt wel, & the aquyte." 
And after the absolucyon) 
Yt bar cheryes gret Foyson), 5 p Foyson St., eeyson c.] 



1 This story is absent from Camb. From 1. 25592680 (p. 125 
MS.) only occupies three lines of Camb. Nor is it in the French 
of Addit. MS. 22,937, the first version. 



Instance of 
the evil of 
Cursing. 

An official 
went to 
gather 
cherries. 



[leaf 41] 



As lie de- 
scended tli 
tree, a branch 
caught his 
surplice and 
tore it. 



2572 



2576 



2580 



2584 



P grete St., gret C.] 2588 



[* Rendyng wyte St.] 

2592 



This made 
him curse 
the tree. 



Next year he 
came again 
and found the 
tree barren. 



Then he 
repented, 



and absolvd 
the tree, 



70 Cursing is not a light Matter. Its Sword. 




2596 



[leaf 41, back] 



They are 
fools who 
curse with- 
out thought, 



Men heed 
cursing but 
little, 



whereby Die 
soul is with- 
out virtue. 



So men 
should heed 
this Sword, 



and consider 
well before 
they use it, 

[leaf 42] 



[1 And eet St.] 



2600 

[" St., leaf 50, back.] 
[3 Stowe] 



2604 



[Stowe, leaf 51] 



Laden wit/i frat fynaly, 
ffor tweyne, yt bar almost twenty ; 
And heet 1 hys fulle \vit/t glad cher, 
Affter, euere, fro yer to yer ; 
And neuere forgate, in hys lyvyng, 
The sentence off hys cursyng ; 
ffor swych thyng, 2 so as semeth me, 
Shulde nat lightly 3 f orgetyn be. 

' ffor they be foolys, in certeyn, 
That Eeklesly of cursyng seyn, 
How that a man that cursyd be, 
That afferme of skorn, that he 
Hath hetyn 4 hys sa\vle of whyte 4 bred. 
Off curs they take so lytel heed, 
Havyng no Keward, Thorgh ther synne, 
How the soule that ys wtA~InH6 
Ys off gostly frut, certeyn, 
Wonder drye, and ek bareyn, 
By the swerd of curs conformdyd, 
And so mortally ywou?zdyd, 
That yt may profyt neuer a dele 
To bere 5 frut (who loke wel,) 
Of vertu, (I yow ensure,) 
ffor that yt lakketh moysture 
Off grace, wherby, (who kan espye,) 
Al vertues fructefye. 

' ffor wych, folk sholde taken hede, 
The swerd of cursynge for to drede. 
I mene as thus specyally, 
Whan ther ys cause iustly why, 
And he that doth yt, hath power 
To execute yt fer & ner, 
By ordynarye auctoryte. 
But yet to-forn) (yt semeth me) 
He sholde consydren (in hys syth 6 ) [ 6 syghtst.] 
Whan that he smyte, he smyte of ryht, 
And that hys cause be notable 

Or he precede to be vengable. 2632 

ffor, I telle yow sykerly, 
JsTo man ne smyteth duelly, 



[*etyn wliyte St., 
hetyn whyt C.] 

2608 



2612 



[5 bere St., ber C.] 2616 



2620 



2624 



2628 



Advice must be used before Punishment. 



71 



With the sharpe for to kerue, [stowe, leaf si, back] 

But he to-forn ful wel obserue 2636 

That he ferst vtith the platte assay, 

In goodly wyse, Avhat he may, 

Al that ys mys, 1 for to redresse : C 1 a mys St.] 

ffor by the platte, I ther 2 expresse [darst.] 2640 

Off thys swerd, and specefye, 

Prudent a-wys 3 in prelacye, pavysst.] 

With good & trewe avysement. 

' And fyrst, that he, in good entent, 2644 

By trewe Ammonycyon) 
And fructuous predicacyon), 
Or he smyte by violence, 

To lete passe the sentence, 2648 

The evele to smyten 4 in sparynge, [* smyten St., smyte c.] 
And spare hem also in smytynge. 
Thys was of Ihesu the doctryne, 

In whom lyth al the 5 medycyne pourest.] 2652 

Off deth, vrhan men be wour^dyd so. 

' 6 And taketh alway heed her-to, 
To vse the platte, nyh & ferre, 

Wharc ye se your sogettys erre, 2656 

Alder-fyrst ; I mene thus, 
With doctryne vertuous 
Teche, preche, & so begynne 

ffor to make hern love ther synne. 2660 

11 Yiff ye may folkys so 7 recure Fto st.] 

That be wouwdyd, I yow ensure, 
Ther grevous wourzdys to allegge, 
Bet ys the platte than the egge. 
ffor eche leche that wel kan werche, [stowe.ieafsa] 
!N"anily lechys of the cherche, 
That han manhys 8 sowle in cure p mannys st.] 

With plat they sholde fyrst recure, 2668 

Rather than with the sharpe wouwde, 6 



and try the 
flat before 
the edge, 



according to 
the doctrine 
of Christ. 



Try teaching 
and preach- 
ing first. 



Doctrina bona dabit prutiam. 
l>rouerb\orum. 1!> (v. 15) 



2664 



It is better to 
recover men 
thus 



[leaf 42, back] 



6 6 The following 16 lines English are 6 French ones of the first cast : 
De ce plat vser vous deuez 
Quant vos subies errer veez : 
Sermouner et bien prescher, 
Fait niaiutes fois peclie laissier : 
S'ainsi les pouez garantir, 
Mieulx vault que du trauchant ferir. 



72 The Sword Versatile. Its Wielders are Cherubin. 

Reaton. "By ther charge, as they ar bouwde. 
tlia b y ' Now haue ye herde 1 & ye lyst se [stowe] 

wounding ' 

the" bar ^ W J G ^^ VSG11 E ^ gl ^ 11>e ' 

^se- The plat, the sharpe, & eke the poynt, 

I haue yovv told, fro poynt to poynt ; 

And rehersyd ek also 
[Cap. xxviii] In divers caas how ye shal do : 2676 

Tims I have 

mid you how bomtyme luge by vengauwce, 

and when to J o J 

use the Sowime punysshe by penau/zce, 

Entrete somme v?i\h ffayrnesse, 

Somrae chastyse with sharpnesse, 2680 

And for that skyle, the swerd, ywys, 

"V v pallvrl VprsatvllR 2 [ 3 Versatile et variable, Add. Gladius 

v ersaiyiis , vei Batiljg j gg^-j (j .. 24)j c & gt>] 
"Wych ys to seyn, (oute of doute,) 

which is A thyng that men mowe 3 tome abowte, pmay St.] 
tile, because Now the platte, (who kan take hede,) 2685 

(see Genesis) r x 

it turns every And 4 the sharpe, wha?i yt ys iiede. [*stowe] 

way, and 

may be used < ^ n d for thys skyles, off TCSOU/i 

according to 

Yt ys yput in your bandou, 2688 

Ay to be redy, (as yt ys skyle,) 
ffor to tourne yt at your \vyl. 
And when Ther-to ye han power & myght, 

you wield the 

sword, As the caas wyl sunre oft ryht, 2692 

Off verray trouthe & equyte. 
' And for that skyle, sothly ye, 

youarecalld That in yO\V thei be no blame. [Stowe, leaf 5, back] 
Cherubin, J 

full of know- Therfor ye trewly ber the name 2696 

ledge and 

wisdom. 5 Cherubin, fful Of SCyence *-* Cherubim, plain de science, 

Kt de diume sapieiu-e. Add. 

And off dyvyne sapyence, 
ffor mysteiy<5 that ys ther-In. 5 

' ffor yiff ye wer nat Cherubin, 2700 

Thys to seyne, in your werkyng 
if you were Yiff ye ne haue nat ful ko?myng. 

not Cherubin J 

[leaf 43] Ye myghtc do ful gret outrage, 
wrong,'*" Rj'ght gret harme, & gret damage ; 2704 

In stede off the platte & pleyn, 

Touruen the sharpe egge in veyn 

Correcte a cause grene & newe, 
and condemn Deme, or ye the trouthe knewe, 2708 

men in haste. 

Off hast, wttA-oute good a-vys, 



This bright Sword betokem Love. Porters of Paradise. 73 



Wycli ys contrayre to your offys. 

ffor in the hand (yif yt be souht,) 

Off a fool that kan ryght nowht, 2712 

A swerd ne sholde nat be take, 

Eyghtf ul doomys for to make ; 

And in the hand off men yrous, 

To take a swerd ys peryllous. 2716 

ffor thys swerd (yiff ye take hede.) 

Was bryht brennyng as the glede 

On euery part & eue?y syde, 

With flawme perpetuelly tabyde, 2720 

To yow ytake, (take hed ther-to,) 

Off Grace Dieu nat longe ago. 

And cause why, of the brennyng, 

Yiff ye lyst to have knowelichyng, 2724 

Was, that ye sholde, lyk your degre 

Ben ay in love & chavyte ; 

ffor loue brennyng in your desyr [stowe, leaf 53] 

Ys shewyd by the bryghte fyr ; 2728 

And so to speke, in wordys fewe, 

Ye sholde alway your sylue?z shewe 

U Wyth cherysshyng ffyr of plesaunce 

ffor, yt wer a great meschauwce 

Yff 1 Ire, in stede of charyte, 

Brent your hertys, (as semeth me.) 

Swych rage ffyr (shortly to telle,) 

Was kyndlyd ffyrst, and kam from helle, 

And to your swerd, I dar Eecorde, 

Noon swych fyr may nat aecorde. 

' Now haue I told (ye sen yt wel,) 
Touchyng thys swerd eue?*ydel ; 2740 

Why ye yt bere, & skyle why. [st. & c.] 

ffor ye be porterys 2 verrayly ,, 

Off the rewme of Paradys, ,, 

Lych cherubin, prudent & wys. 2744 

And the keyes ye ban also ,, 

To shette the gatys, & vndo ; 

2 Fr. Portier estes, se ni est achiis, Du Roiaulme de paradis. 
From Camb. : Porteres ye ben, as me thinketh, of the kyngdom 
of heuene. 



Ignem veni m'Mere in 
terrain ; & quid volo 
nw vt accendutur. 
(Luc. xii. 49.) 

[' MSS. Off.] 2733 



2736 



Into the band 
of the fool 
and the angry 
man this 
Sword should 
not be put. 



It is bright 
and burning 



to show that 
you should be 
in charity 
and love. 



Rage came 
first from 
hell. 



[leaf 43, back] 



[Cap. xxix] 

You are made 
Porters or 
guards of 
Paradise, 



7 -A Paradise- Porters arc St. Peters Underhgates. 
seaton. "W7t7<-oute yo\v ther entreth noon, 

ftt th<3 o aat J s o n > 



"\Vtt//-Inne to haue hys mansyouw. 
' Seyn Peter (of entencyouw) 

Hath mad yow (yiff ye vnderstonde,) 

Pete?un ^ s vn derlegatys, tner to stonde, 2752 

del-legates, r _fo kepe the passage & entre ; 

And at tlie gate for to se 

Trussellys, ffardellys, in that place. 

Or any marchauwt in may passe, 2756 

He mvste 1 vntrusse hew & vnbynde, [' stowe, leaf 53, back] 

That no thyng be lefft be-hynde. 
exain^ne'.u How sore aforn that they yt close, 
who enter. ye muste hem make yt to vnclose 2760 

By trewe reuelacyon) 

And enter 2 COnfeSSyOll). [ 2 Entere (entire) St.] 

' Wherfor tak kep, & beth ryht wys, 
And seth to-forn, by good a-vys, 2764 

The swerd, the k eye's ek also, 
How ye ha take hew bothe two ; 
And lat noon passe, (loketh wel,) 
YOU must But he vnclose hys fardel. 2768 

search nil 

who come in, And also that ye wel provyde 

To cerche hem wel on euery syde, 

Thys synfnl folk, \vitJi pakkys large. 

Beth besy ay, hem to dyscharge ; 2772 

wisely con- And weyeth wysly in balau?ce, * 

siderinR . 

every eircum- Consydrvng cilery circu?wstaunce. 

stance, J J ' 

[leaf 4t] By good delyberacyon) 

Demynge, in your dyscrecyon, 2776 

Your verray name, & what ye hihte. 
And consydreth in your syhtc, 
striving to To dyscerne, in euery place, 

iliscern folk's J J L 

guilt, and Affter the gylt & the trespace, 2780 

To charge synnerys, & cowstreyne, 

^lekly for to suffre peyne, 

And enioyne hem ther penaunca. 

' And whan ye sen ther repextau?ce 2784 

opening the y e ma y to swych, erly & late. 

Kate to those J J J 

who repeat. Qpno duely the gate 



The Pilgrim wants to le Porter of the Castle. 75 

Off Paradys, of verray ryht, ston. 

By iuste tytle, thorgh your myght. . 2788 

' Lo, her the sygnyf ycacioii), [stowe, leaf 54] 

And trewe demonstracion) 
Off swercl & keyes, bothe yfere, 
Shortly, (yiff ye 1 lyst to lere.) [> yowst.] 2792 Themeanin* 

J ' - J J J of Sword ami 

I ouerpasse & late yt gon), Keys i pass 

r over it has 

By-cause folkys many on fte , n b * e " 

declared 

Han her-to-forn (who loke wel,) 

Declaryd the mate; 1 euerydel, 2796 

And what they tokne in ther wrytyng : 

Consydreth thys in euery thyng ; 

Looke that ye yow nat excuse but charge 

Your offyce trewly for to vse, 2800 your office 

discreetly.' 

So as ye ouhte dyscretly. 

[The Pilgrim J\ ThePilgrlm. 

2 And whan that Besoim fynally 

Haclde told hyr tale, I herde al wel, [Cap. xxx] 

And consydred euerydel, 2804 

Talent I hadde, & gret desyr 

3 To haUC that SWerde, 4 bryht as ffyr, [* swerde St., swerd C.] Then I de- 
sired to have 

And the keyes eke y-ffere, thesword 

and Keys. 

Off entent (as ye shal here,) 2808 

That I myghte ben an huissher, Hostiarius 

Or at the gate a porter, [leaf 4 i, back] 

The passage to kepe of ryht 

Ther-on tawayte 5 day & nyht : [ 5 stowe] 2812 

This fantasye 5 fyl in my thouht : TO be a 

Poi't61* 

But, God wot, I wyste nouht, 5 

Nor knewe ful lytel (at the leste), 

What was the ffyn of my requeste, 2816 not knowing 

j i W ], a t ti, e ell( i 

Nor took but lytel heed ther-to. 3 wouid-te. 

And offte tyme yt falleth so, 
That A man hath wyl ta thyng [stowe, leafs*, back] 

2 Camb. MS. has : But to what ende j shulde come, ther-of j hadde 
nowht yit thouht. It is thing bifallith ofte, p. 20. 
3 - 3 l)auoir ce glaive flamboiant, 

Auecques les clefz, pour estre huissier 
Du dit passaige, et portier ; 
Mais ad quel tin de ce venroie, 
Encore pas pense n'y auoie. 
(5 French lines of the 1st cast puft out into 12 English, as usual.) 



76 Moses gave the Pilgrim the Siuord o.nd Keys fixt up. 

The pilgrim. Wych ncuere ys broulit to noon endyng, 2820 

As men may offte sythes se. 

ffor yiff the sonys of zebedee 

Hadde madd 1 ther askyng ryhtfully ["made St.] 
AR H befell They hadde ben herd ful hastyly : 2824 

to the sons of _ ' , , , . 

Oft ther askyng. (as ye may lere,) 



And off al that they gan requere, 
Yt was ytornyd other wyse 

Than they, aforen, 2 gan devyse : [ z afom c., affome st.] 2828 
In the gospel ye may yt se 
so it hap- A m i even e lyk yt ffyl of me, 

pened to me. J -J J 

[Cap. xxxij Whan I to Moyses gan gon, 

Besechyng hy??& that he, A-noon 2832 

Wolde grauwte, 3 lyk myn askyng, [ 3 graunteu St.] 
The swerd and keyes to my kepyng, 
Off hem frely to haue vsage, 
when i made ffor to kepen the passage. 2836 

my request to 

Moses, But whan that he had herd me wel, 

He fulfyllede neuereadel 

Lych the pnrpos of myn askyng, 

Nor then tent off my thynkyng : 2840 

The swerd 4 he took me in myw hond, [ swed c., swerde St.] 
he did not But (as ye shal vnderstond,) 

answer me as 

i expected. Co?>miyttyd so to my depoos 

That yt was alvvay stylle cloos 2844 

In the skawberk, as I ha sayd, 
[leaf 45] Wheroff I was nat wel apayyd. 5 papeydest.] 

The keyes also, stronge &, wel 

Bon/de & closyd vnder seel ; 2848 

And al was don off hih prudence, [Stowe,ieaf55] 
But ail was That I sholde haue 6 no lycence [ haue St., ha c.] 

done wisely 

and pru- To vsen hem at lyberte, 

But yiff I hadde auctoryte 2852 

ffrom hem that hadden al the charge. 

ffor yiff I vsede hew at large 

Mor than my power was or ys, 

As I was tauht, I dyde amys. 2856 

[Cap. xxxii] Wher-off I was, ay mor & more 

Abaysshed, & astonyd sore, 

And specyally (to speke in pleyn,) 



The Pilgrim hasn't learnt ' Predicamentum ad aliquid.' 77 
That I to-foni) hadde nat seyn 2860 ri>e pugrim. 



Som other folk ybounde so, ? "'"? 8tol i- 

ished that I 

In cas semblable as I was tho ; ot'henHnUke 

Thynkyng (in myw entencyou?;) Sy!eTr,* h 

That I wolde to 1 Kesouw [' woide vnto st.] 2864 

Holden my way, off hyre tenquere, 

And the cause iustly lere 

Off al thys thyng, for mor certeyn ; and went to 

' J ' Reason to en- 

And thus she Answerde me ageyn : 2868 i uil ' e - 

Resown Answerd : season. 

' My ffayre ffrend,' a-noon cpiod she, [Cap. xxxmj 

' Lych as I consydre & se, 
Thy wyt ys blont & dul sow del, she told me 

my wits were 

That thow mayst nat se ryht wel ; 2872 blunted and 

And thogh thow haue at skole be, 

Thow hast nat ther (as semeth me,) 

Lernyd gret wyt, nor bore a-way ; 

And specyaly (I dar wel say,)" [stowe, leaf 55, back] 2876 

Thow hast nat lernyd, for al thy wyt, and that: 

J . . J J ' had not 

predicamentum 2 ad aliquid. [ J Fr. Lepredicamenl] learned tlie 

l Predieamen- 

ffor thys predicament, sothly, tumadaii- 

Hath hys beholdyng (fynaly) 2880 [leaf 15, back] 

Vnto som other mane? 1 thyug 

Than to hym sylff, as in werkyng 

Makyug (in conclusion), 3 ) [St. & c.] 

Hys ground & hys fundacyon) ,, 2884 

Vp-on A-nother grounde, in. soth : ,, 

Thys predicament alway so doth. ., 

ffor what he hath (tak heed, my brother,) wllich takes 

what it has 

Nat off hyra-sylff, but off a-nother 2888 from another, 

He taketh yt, to be mor strong, 
And to no whiht ne doth no wrong. 

' And bere a-way thys in thy thouht, 
That yt were ytold for iiouht, 2892 and is no 

-r, , , , /. , . . . (?ood unless 

But he hys power (to speke in pleyn,) it does so. 

Tooke off A-nother (in certeyn) ; 

ffor off hym sylff yt may not be. 

Exau??iple I wyl now lerne the 2896 

3 II fait son edifiement 
Sur anltruy tous moult sagement. Addit., leaf 9, col. 2. 



78 Of God, and Lord God, and Lords and Subjects. 

Rf>on. That wit'/i thyrc eyne mor clerly 
Thow mayst be-liolde yt openly. 

' Whan God Almyghty (yiff yt be souht,) 
Al thys world hadde maad off nouht, 2900 

Before tiie (As clerkys Avel reherse kan,) 

creation God 

Almighty To-forn or he had makyd man, 

was called 

Lord" 01 ( Tak lied & lok ^ prudently,) 

He was ycallyd but God only, 2904 

Yiff Genesis ne lye noullt. dixitdeus. Genesi*icapttato(8 ) 6,&c.;. 

But A-noon as man was wrouht, [stowe, leaf 66] 

(Tak hed & marke Avel thys word,) 

Hutassoon Than WaS he Callyd God & Lord, Plantiiuerat Dmniimg 
as man was j e -m (PawrtlWra). 

a8 [n to kne, (wh that kan obserue,) - *" () 



and Lord. He made 1 a seruau?t hy??i to serue, c 1 hadde St.] 

Tho was he Lord, havynge lordshepe. 

And yet (who that taketh kepe,) 2912 

Hys lordshepe was nat mor at al 
Temporal As ben thys lordys temporal, 
grea1er, re(l Gretter off domynacyon) 
[leaf 46] Whan they han in subieccyon) 2916 

Peplys at her lust to-beye 2 : [* tobej-e St.] 

ffolk ar wont than 3 to seye, [ 3 ffuike . . . timune st ] 

That ther seruau?ztys & meyne 
peopTetbey Yivetli them power & powstee ; 2920 

So that (in conclusion),) 

Ther myght & domynacyon), 

Off ther sogettys fyrst doth sprynge, 

And ys engendryd in werkyng. 2924 

ffor yiff ther sogettys Aver put away, 
ey Ther lordshepe (I dar AVC! say,) 

Sholde faylle, & ther power ; 

And sogettys, Avych they haA-en 4 her [* imvethe St.] 2928 

To serven hem, and to obeye, 

Sholde ek fayH, I dar wel seye ; 

ffor lordshepe pleynly 5 ther Aver noon, [ 5 pieyniy om. st.] 

Yiff ther seruauntys Aver agon. 2932 

The name off servau?*t ek also, 

Yiff that lordshepe Aver ago, 

Muste ek faylle, as thow mayst se ; [stowe, leaf 56, back] 

ffor nouther party may nat be 2936 



The Pilgrim cannot have the Sivord 'lare. 79 

Wt/i-outew other (yt ys no drede). Rea-on. 

1 By wych exauwple (who taketh hede,) iio there 
Lordshepo ys sayd especyally wouidbe'no 
Off seruauntys ; & ek tnvly 2940 serv " ts - 
Seruau?ztys also namyd be 

OfE lordshepe, in ther degre. 

And thus ys sayd, (haue thys ther-wyth,) 

Predicamentuw ad aliquid. 2941 { n u t 

ffor eche off other hath gynnyng, ti.e other. 

And ys on other dependyng. 

Whan the Ton ys, than ys the tother ; 

ffor yt ne may nat be noon other ; 2948 

Whan the Ton faylleth, ek also Suiuo- 

They muste ffaylle bothe two. ether - 

*[f Vnderstond wel thys lesson, 

How thou 1 art in subieccyoii) ; 2 C 1 HOW thou St.] 2952 g^^ ] 

Consydre how thow art ysett .) [St. & c,] 

Vnder a-nother, and soget ., 

To hym, and mvstest hy??i obeye ,, 

Wych hath also (I dar well saye) ,, 2956 

Vpon the(e) lurediccyon), 

Power & domynacyon), 

As thy souereyn, -what-euere he be. 

' But o thyng deceyveth the : 2960 YOU have no 

nubjecta as 

Thow hast no sogetys as hath he ; He ha8> 

ffor wych thyng (consydre & se,) 

Thow fayllest & art put a-bak. 

And in swych caas, thow hast gret lak [stowe, leaf 57] 2964 

To haue the swerd, bryht and cler, 

Commyttyd vn-to thy power, ^.We u" 

Out of the skawberk, yt to vse. fuscabZrdf 

Yt wer but veyn for the to muse 2968 

Ther-vp-on, or gruchche ageyn. 

' The keyes also in certeyn, 
Thow mayst nat han hem, nor possede 
But vnder seel, (yt ys no dred.) 2972 

The swerd also, (yt ys no dovte.) Even if it 

7 w were drawn 

Yiff that yt wer drawen oute, >: <UI ^^ 

J do nothing 

with it; 

2 Camb. MS. continues : subiecte to oothere and thou hast no 
subiect. Thi souereyn, what euere he be, p. 21 . 



80 The Pilgrim must first learn Self-government. 

Raon. Thow sholdest ther-witA do ryht uotiht. 

ffor yiff the trouthe be wel souht, 2976 

Thow hast yt nouht in thy denieyne 
!S r o thyng for to part at-weyne, 1 [' in tweyne St.] 

Mouther to kerue nor to smyte. 

And shortly, (yiff I shal endyte,) 2980 

and it were Bet wer to the, Touchyng swych werk. 

better to keep , , 

it undrawn, To kepe yt cloos in the skauberk 

Than folyly thy-sylff to bolde, 

Out off the skauberk yt to holde ; 2984 

ffor ffolkys wolde deme off ryht, 
than, draw- Ther-ofF whan they hadde a syht, 

ing it, to look * 

like a fool. Yt wer no wysdom, but foly, 
[leaf 47] And a maner Surquedy, 2988 

Whan they be-helde euerydel, 

Tlie keyes nat closyd vnder seel, 2 [ eu St., ei c.] 
[Cap. xxxv] Syth thow (wi't/j.-outen any glose,) 
u is not for Mayst nouther shette nor vnclose, 2992 

you to open ,. 

and shut. it longeth nat to thyn offyS. [Stowe, leaf 57, back] 

' ffor wych, lerne to be wys, 

And se how they wer taken cloos, 

And vnder seel in thy depoos, 2996 

Knet & bouwde faste & strong, 

That thow w/t/i hem ne do no wrong. 

Thy power ferther doth nat strecche, 

Wher-off thow sholdest no thyng rechche, 3000 

Yiff thow wer wys, as semeth me. 
if you listen ' And Tak also good heed, & se, 
win r^t Off al that I to-forn ha sayd : 

Thow sholdest be ryht wel a-payd 3004 

Off thy power, & nat ne stryve, 

Thogh thow neuere in al thy lyve 

Haddest no lordshepe nior at al. 

And for to speke in specyal, 3008 

Yt ouhte ynowh to the suffyse, 

As I shal to the devyse, 

and atrive to Thy-sylff for to gouerne a-ryht, No<a. st. 

sell. 6 "' ' Dyschargyd off euery other whyht. 3012 

Than artow prudent, douteles ; 

And for thys skyle, Moyses, 



The Sword and Keys are to be used only by Leave. 81 



' Wych in hys tyme was wys & old, 

Took hem to the, as I ha told, 3016 

To fyn only (to speke in pleyn) 

That he, as lord & souereyn, 

May, whan hywz lyst, as thow shalt lere, 

Whan that tyme doth yt 1 requere, [lytdothst.] 3020 

The keyes closyd vnder sel, [stowe, leafss] 

He may to the vnbynde wel ; 

The swerd also, by tytle of lawe, 

Make that thow shalt yt drawe 

Out off the skauberk, fer nor 2 ner, pnest.] 

Lych as thow hast off hy?/i power, [St. & c.] 

Sogett alway to hys sentence ,, 

And as the caas graimteth lycence. ,, 3028 

Hys power he may cowmytte ,, 

To the, ffro wych thow niayst nat flytte. 

ffor as I shal to the devyse, 

Yiff thow dydyst other wyse 3032 

Thow sholdest offende ful gretly, 

Pereyl off deth except only, 

Wych ys a cause evydent 

That thoAV mayst wel (& nat be shent,) 3036 

The swerd ydrawe, (tak hed her-to,) 

And the keyes vnbynde also. 

ffor nede & gret necessyte 

Lycence 3 grauwtyd vnto the [ 3 stowe] 3040 

Plentevously, & ek vsage, 

Consydryd \rith the surplusage, 

Pre-supposyd ther be no whyht 

To whom the offyce sholde of ryht 3044 

Appertene off duete. 

I mene thus, tak hede 4 & se ; [hedc., hede St.] 

Marke yt wel in thyre entent, 

That he be 5 nat ther present I s be tiwr c., be St.] 3048 

Wych halt the swerd (now vnderstond,) 

Bare & nakyd in hys hond, 

And the keyes vnbounde also, 

Off ryht, as he ouhte do, 3052 

Thys he that haueth pleyn power, 

(Who kan looke wzt/i eyen cler,) 

PILGRIMAGE. O 



Moses gave 
you the swoul 
and keys, 



and may, if it 
please him, 



3024 [leaf 47, back] 
give you 
leave to use 
them as re- 
quired. 



His power he 
may commit 
to you. 



Otherwise it 
is sin to use 
them unless 
in peril of 
death, 



and then only 
if he be not 
present 
whose duty 
it is. 



[Cap. xxxvi] 
Who holds 
the sword 
naked, 
and the keys 
unbound, 



82 Yet the Mendicants use the Sword and Keys. 



and has juris- 
diction, 



mast be 
obeyed. 

[leaf 48] 



You have, I 
tliink, no 
subject of 
your own. 



Pilgrim. 

Tlien I said, 
' I have seen 
people who 
are without 
subjects 



bear the 
naked sword, 



and freely use 
the keys, 



3056 



30tiO 



[ Stowe] 



3064 



[ hath St.] 



3068 



3072 



And haueth lurediccyon) 

Above, & domynaci'on, 

And ys the ryght ful relatyff, 

To whom, m't/i-oute noyse or stryff, 

Thow art soget, & vnder put 

To hyi allone : & trewly, but 

Thow \\jin obeye, thow art Coupable ; 

ffor yiff thow, in cas semblable, 

Haddest sogettys vnder the, 

Thow myhtest wel (lyk thy degre,) 

Don as he doth 2 in alle thyng, 

And fulfylle in werkyng. 

Thanne folwede yt a-noon forth-wyth, 

Thy power wer Ad aliquid ; 

But thow hast noon, (as semeth me,) 

Wheroff thow ouhtest glad to be, 

And in thyn herte ful loyous.' 

The pylgrym argueth : 
3 'Ma dame/ (]uod I, 'most vertuous, 
(Yiff ye lyst to here me,) 
I have seyn, & alday se, 

Som f olkys (in conclusyon)) [stowe, leaf 59] 

That hadden in subieccion) 3076 

Sogetys noon, nor gouemance, 
And yet they dyde hem sylff avaunce, 
And wer ther-off no thyng afferd, 
Uakyd for to here the swerd. 3080 

To whom also yt ys wel fouwde 
That the keyes wer nat bounde, 
But redy euere (beth wel certeyn,) 
Tvnshetten & to shette ageyn 3084 

Lokkys echon (yt ys wel wyst,) 
And entrede whan that euere hem lyst. 
At alle tyme they be redy, 
Shette and vnshette hardyly. 
The cause to me vn-knowew ys 
And yet I dar afferme thys, 
They ha no mor power than I ; 

ffor wych they han, al sodeynly, 3092 

8 From 1. 3072 to 1. 3230 is absent from Camb. MS. 



3088 

De tnendicantibut loquitur. St. 
om. C. 






Earthly things are ruled l>y heavenly. God is Lord of all. 83 

Astonyd my?* oppyuyou??. at winch i am 

ffor yiff ther be Kelacyoim 

Yfounde there, I dar wel say 

Tliat yt ys ystole a-way.' 3096 Reason. 

1 ReSOUn AnSWereth. ['- l Stowe MS., leaf 59.] [leaf 48, back] 

Eesoun answerde ageyn to me : 

' Take heed / and vnderstond,' quod she, 

' The Form ere off the high" hevene, 

And maker / off the Storres .Sevene 1 3100 

Hath so ordeyned / alle thynges, [c.&st.] 'Heavenly 

bodies are 

That they shal, in her meuynges, made 

Holdeii ther cours / swyfft or soffte, 

Lyk as the bodyes hih" a-loffte, 3104 

Lyst ordeyne, (who kan knowe,) ,, 

So that erthly thynges lowe ,, 



e dvSPOSlCVOnS 2 [ 2 dysposicioans St., dys . . sicyons C.] for earthly 

things to 

Off hem. & ek impressiouns, 3108 receive 

impressions 

To be gouernyd (in sentence) andbe hem> 

Affter the hevenly influence, fS?- by 

Dyversly, ech in hys kynde, fluence. 

"Who 3 the causys kan out fynde pstowe] 3112 

Off 3 ther dyuers mocyouws ,, 

Tliorgh naturel Inclynaciouws. 3 

IT Yet for al thys, yt lettyth nouht, 

But that the Lord, wych al hath wrouht, 3116 But God has 

sovereign 

Hath lordshepe sovereyne, p wer . 

What \\yrn lyketh to ordeyne, 

As the Lori most pryncypal, 

Wit/i-outen any mene at al : 3120 

In heuene, Erthe, or in the se, 

So as hyra lyst, yt muste be. 

Off hevenly bodves cyrculer, and is the 

J " J ' centre of the 

He stant no thyng in ther dauwger ; 3124 universe. 

But he may do, thys myghty kyng, 

What-eueye hym lyst, in hys werkyng, 

hih" a-loffte, & her don 4 lowe, [ 4 dovn) St.] 

Thogh the hevene no-thyng knowe 3128 

The Influence of hys power, [stowe, leaf eo] 

Wych ys so myghty & enter, None can 

J ' JO J comprehend 

That no whyht may yt comprehende tis pwr, 



God's chief Vicar, the Pope, delegates his Pmver 



Reaton. 
[leaf 49] 



and none are 
so hardy as 
to oppose 
His decree. 



The heavens 
declare the 
glory of God. 



' How fer hys power doth extende, 3132 

Was neue?-e yet noon so gret clerk. 

' And thogh the heuene, touchyng his wark 1 
Hadde any maner knowelychyng [' ins wark st,, om. c.] 
To comprehendyn hys werkyng, 3136 

Yt sholde nat so hardy be 
To gruchche ageyn hys deyete. 
But I 2 speke in wordys pleyn, pist.,toc.] 

Humblely vrith Davyd seyn 3140 

Touchyng hys myght wych doth excelle, 
'Lat the heuene hys glorie telle, 
Hys laude, hys honour, & preysyng, 
And yive worshepe to hys werkyng. ceiunan-ant gioriam Dei. 



And also (in hys best entent) 
Lat also the fyrmament 
Hys handwerk devoutly preyse, 
And day-by-day hys honour Reyse 
In laude & prys ful many fold.' 
' But cause why that I ha told 
Thys thyng to the thus, 3 by-&-by, 
I shal reherse the cause her why. 
The hihe hornyd, most holy, 
Callyd in erthe comounly 
Off God the chose cheff vyker, 
And hys place kepeth 4 her, 
And doth yt pleynly occupye, 
The wych, no man wyl denye ; 
Yet thogh thys vyker, aboue echon 
Haue power off yore agon, 
Aboven euerych other whyht, 
And wolde the cours (of verray ryht) 
Off hys myghty excellence 
"VVher 5 douw shad by influence 
To other lowere of degre 
Co??myttcd from hys souereyn se, 
Whom he ordeyneth her & yonder 
By commyssyon) to be vnder 
[leaf 49, back] 6 Hys higfi power by Ordynawnce 
For to haven Governawnce 
(Who that kan the trouthe seke) 



3H5 



3148 



I 3 thus C., om. St.] 



Thongh 
God's chief 
vicar have 



power above 
all men to 



shed Hia 
influence 
around, 



3152 



['kepteSt.] 3156 



[Stowe, leaf fl, back] 

3160 



[5 were St.] 3164 



3168 

[ * St. MS., leaf 60, b:ick] 



to Folk of Religion, who bear the Sword and Keys. 85 

' To bere the swerd, and keyes eke, 3172 Reason. 

So that by her dyscrew'on 

And prudent 6 mediacyon 

AH thynge vnder ther myghte [c. & St.] 

"Wer gouemyd wel by Eyfit, 3176 

"Wych to hem dooth 1 apertene [' to hem dooth St., om.c.] 

Vnder entent pur & clene, 

Affter the bond off ther offys. 

1 But nat for-thy, yet for al thys, 3180 

Ther ys no cause but that he 

"Wych that hath the souereynte, yet lie, as 

The chefF vyker above echon, 

Off verray ryght, & other noon, 3184 

Ys curat (in conclusions, 
"WYt/i-oute al mediac'iouw,) 

0\ie)' crystyS 2 MkyS alle. [* Crystene St.] and curate 

Yt may noon other- wyse falle, 3188 Christ's flock, 

Off verray ryght, I the ensure. [stowe, leufei] 

Al-be that he, vnder hys cure 

Haue set by hy 3 co??miyssyon), pins St.] 

So?nme folkys of relygyon), 3192 

Hys offys to excersyce 

Vnder hy??i in sondry wyse ; 

Hem establysshed, vrith power large, has others 

,,,, TIT mn/ commission- 

fror to helpe hjm ber hys charge ; 31 'Jo ed to aid Mm. 

In hys name, or 4 elles nouht pandst.] 

ffor what they do, or what ys wrouht, 

ffro hy??^ the power ys descendyd, 

The wrong by hym mot be amendyd, 3200 

Yiff ther be any in ther werkyng. 

' And therfore, touchyng thys thyng, 
(To seyn shortly, & nat tarye,) 

Tliey be nat but ordynarye, 3204 

Commyttyd, ther offys for to do, 
Thogh thow sest hem bothe two And though 

-n i A i 1 ii, i, j you see these 

Ber swerd And keyes in ther hond p ea f 50] 

Naked & vnclosyd ; yet vnderstond, . 3208 nakedlword 
They ha nat stole hem, fer nor ner, and keys> 

ffor they hadde pleyn power they received 

' * them from 

Oft the vyker pryncypnl, the principal, 



86 Of the Sacrament of the Altar. Mcscs dines on 



who can take 
them back 
when He 
chooses. 



You should 
be thankful, 



and not 
meddle with 
what does 
not concern 
you.' 

[Cap. xxxvii] 
Pilgrim. 



Then Moses 
went to 
dinner, 



[leafSO.back] 



which con- 
sisted of 
bread and 
wine only. 



' "Wych aboue gouemeth al, 3212 

That gaff to hem ther power wz't/i 

Predicamentuw ad aliquid. 

They tooke yt (who consydereth al) 

Off hys gyffte in especyal ; 3216 

And whan hyw lyst, (yt ys no nay) 

He may ageyn take yt away, [stowe, leaf ei, back] 

"Whan that he seth tyme & place. 

ffor thyng that graimtyd ys off grace 3220 

May be Eestreyned 1 efft ageyn p St., restey . . c.] 

In many caas, be wel certeyn. 

And thogh thow haue no swyche power, 

Thow sholdest, vritb al thyrc herte enter, 3224 

To Ihesu Cryst, in thyn entent, 

Thanke of that he hath the sent ; 

fferther nat medle than thyn offys ; 

ffor I holde, he ys nat wys, 3228 

That in medlyng ys mor large 

Than the boimdys of hys charge.' 

Off the Sacrament off the Awhter : 
And whan thys lady, Dame Eeson), 
Touchyng myn oppynyon), 3232 

Hadde declaryd vnto me, 
Eyht forth-wit/i I dyde se, 
(As I be-held tho douteles,) 

That the hornyd Moyses 3236 

Shope hyw Ryght as any lyne 
To make redy & go dyne, 
And hys mete ek redy make. 

And tho, good heed I gan take 3240 

How hys mete (pleynly to deme,) [c.&st.] 

Was other than yt dydc seme ; 

And off 6 thyng, as I took heed, [St., leaf 02] 
Ther was no thyng but wyn & bred, 3244 

The wych wer nat to hys entent ; 

ffor tho he hadde gret talent 
To etyn fflesshe, in hys delyt, 

And blood ek in hys appetyt, 3248 

ffor to dyfface the olde 2 lawe, J ? oide St., old c.] 
And the Ryytys ther-off witft-drawe ; 



Bread and Wine, which turn into Flesh and Blood. 87 

Wych lawe (as I vnderstood,) Pilgrim. 

Bad men they sholde ete no blood. Ca c v e m n e e d ar s st'Tm c The ow Law 
But Moyses in hys entent, 3253 should eat no 

J blood. 

Contrayre to that comandement, 
To helpyn hym Among hem alle, 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
Grace Dieu be-gan to calle ; 3256 

And she kam forth A-noon ryht. 

And ther I sawh a wonder syht, 
Mor merveyllous than euere aforn) 
I hadde seyn syth I was born). 3260 

ffor ther I sawh, (as I took heed.) But i saw 

7 v the bread 

In-to Rawh fflesshe, tornyd bred ; SrFtoSf 

Grace Dieu ordeynede yt so. 

And wyn (I took good heed ther-to.) 3264 and the wine 

J v into red 

Was tornyd ek in-to Eed blood. uiood. 

The wych (so as I vnderstood,) 

Sempte of a lambe, as thouhte me. 

And, as A man curteys & fre, 3268 

Hys off ycerys he gan calle, [Moyses St., om. c.] [leaf 02, back] 

And bad they sholde komen alle [St. &c.] [leafai] 

Vn-to dyner ; & ek hem tolde he' called 6 

The maner hooly how they sholde 3272 

Han myght & power enterly 

ffor to maken al redy 

The dyner al so wel as he, 

At due tyme, in ther degre. 3276 

And as they weryn at dyner, 
To hem he gaff pleynly power nd he e ave 

them power 

To maken (in conclusion)) * do , as he 

X t had done. . 

That merveyllous mutaci'on), 3280 

Bred in-to flesshe, wyn in-to blood. 

And off that foode (I vnder-stood) 

He Gaff to etyn to hem alle After which 

he gave them 

(Wych to-forn he dyde calle,) 3284 tins food. 

Thys newe mete most vnkouth, 

Mynystrng 1 yt in-to ther mouth. 

With hem, hym-sylf he heet also, 

And of the blood he drank ther-to. 3288 

I sawh yt vrith my ft Eyen cler. 



88 Eeason cant understand the Sacramental Change, 



Pilgrim. 



I saw the 

mutation 

with my own 

eyes, 

[Cap. xxxviii] 



and inquired 
of Reason 
what she 
thought. 



Reason. 
[leaf 51, back] 



But she saw 
no more than 
I did, 



and said if 
Grace Dieu 
had made a 
bird of an 
ess, or of a 
grain an ear, 



she would 
have said 
nothing ; 

but to con- 
vert bread 
into flesh, 



and wine 
into blood, 



But swych a merveyllous dyner 

~NQ was neue?*e a-forn yseyn, 

Nor neuere (that I lierde seyn,) 3292 

IvTe was no swycli mutacyon, 

Nor off so wonderful Renou??. 

But whan I hadde be-holden al, 

I tornede me A-noon wit/i-al 3296 

To- ward that lady dame Resouw, 
Makynge to hyr thys questyoim : 

The pylgrym: 1 ['St. (leaf 6S) adds 'Asked'] 

' Ma dame,' quod I, ' I yow preye 

That ye to me lyst to seye : 3300 

"What semeth yow, telle on pleynly.' 

Resoura koucle nat answere. 
' Certys,' quod she, ' that wyl not I, [St. & c.] 

ffor ther-of I kan no thyng ; ,, 

Yt passeth myn vnderstandyng, ,. 3304 

My wyt also, & ek my mynde. ,, 

To sen, myw Eyen ben to blynde ; ,, 

I se no mor ther-off then thow ; 

And I am so astonyd now, 3308 

Mor than euere I was a-fore, 

Syth tyme that I was bore, 
ffor yiff that she (I dar wel say) 

Hadde ymakyd off an Ay [Je ouo c. & St., leaf es] 3312 

A bryd vrith ffethres for the flyht, 
Or that she hadde, thorgh hyr myght, 
Off a lytel barly greyn 

Makyd an Er large & pleyn, 3316 

Thys ylkede 2 Ornede Moyses, [ 2 For thys yike ?] 
I wolde han be stylle & in pes, 
And ther-off han take noon heed. 
But [s]he 3 hath mad Rauwh fflessh of bred, phec.&st.] 
Wherof I am falle in rage. [stowe, leaf es, back] 3321 

And also of that beuerage, 

That [s]he 4 hath tornyd wyn to blood, [*hec.&st.] 
My sylff beholdyng, ther I stood, 3324 

Ageyn the custom of nature. 
And trew[e]ly, I the ensure, 
That I shal no lenger dwelle, 



and tells Nature, an old Lady, who gets wroth. 89 

Eut to Nature the trOUtlie 1 telle, [Urouthe St., trouth C.] Reason. 

And sendyn hyre to be A-wreke 3329 

To Grace Dieu, with hyr to speke, 

With cher boystous. wordys nat ffavre, is proof that 

slie has tran- 

Vnto whom she ys contrayre. 3332 wended the 

laws of 

ifor She hath, (yiff I Shal not lye,) [Grace Dieu St.] Nature, 

Off pryde only, & surquedye, 

Lyft the custom & vsage, 

And off nature the passage 3336 

Transcendyd pleynly, & the boundys ; 

And in dede, ek yt founde ys [leaf 52] 

That she hath, of force & myght, [St. & c.] to whom 

complaint 

Broke hyr franchyse & hyr rylit. 3340 should be 

_ made. 

The Pylgrym : 

And whan Resouw hadde told me tliys, Pilgrim. 

Sche A-noon retournyd ys 
In-to hyr tour vp bin" ageyn. 

And tha?ine A-noon, vp-on the pleyn 3344 [Cap.xxxix] 

I sawh a lady off gret age, Then i saw 

mi i i i an old Lad y 

The wych gan holden hvr passage going to- 

wards Grace 
Towardys Grace Dieu in soth, Dm- 

And off hyr port I-rous & wroth, 3348 

And hyr handys ek of pryde [stowe, leafci] 

Sturdy ly she sette a syde. 

Hyr Eyen ek (I took good hede,) 

Breranyng bryht as any glede ; 3352 

Wonder large off hyr feature,* (Feat ^ 3i.iia) 

Trowynge that she was Nature : it was Nature 

i in a furious 

And so she was, thys lady old, temper. 

ffor Resouw hadde vn-to me told 3356 

Hyr maner and condyciouw. 
And, to myn inspecciou, 
Sche was redy for to stryve, 

ffor Anger dyde hyr herte Ryve 3360 

Atweyne, in purpos for to chyde ; 
Hyr handys set vnder hyr syde. 
And vn-to Grace Dieu A-noon 

Thys olde 3 lady ys forth gon ; p oide St., old c.] 3364 

And Rudly fyrst she gan abrayde. to upbraid 

Grace Dieu, 

And vn-to Grace Dieu she sayde : saying: 



90 Old Dame Nature remonstrates with Grace Dun. 

Nature. [6 lines Hank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

[Cap. n] i ' Dame,' quod she / Right of Entent / 2 [J - 1 I ^ e ] MS " 

Sy'l'cTme 1 ' As J 66 stonden / hel P reS6nt > * 336S 

to chide yon wiier-so that yee / be leeff 1 or loth, 

With youre gouernawice I am wroth, 

That ye be bold, in any -wyse 

ffor to medle of my frauwchyse. 3372 

And I am kome, as ye may se, 

To dyffende my lyberte. 

Vn-to yow yt ys nat due [stowe, leaf 6i, back] 

forrempving My ordyna?mcys to remeue. 3376 

nances. Record I take off alle wyse, 

Yt outhe ynowgh to yow suffyse 

The party that ye han ytake, 

And no maystryes for to make 3380 

In the boundys that I kepe. 



TO yon u ' ffor, thogh ye ban 3 the lordshepe p 

committed ,->.., 

the starry Off the heuene & eue?y spere, 

And off the sterrys bryht & clere, 3384 

And off the planetys hih a-loffte, 

Somme swyfft & so?me soffte 

Holdyng ther cours & ther nievyng, 

And as ye lyst in alle thyng 3388 

They stonden all in your demeyne, 

Ther cours, as ye lyst, ordeyne. 

Ouer hem ye han the souereynte ; 
and if i inter- And yiff I wolde medle me 3392 

fered with 

them you Towchyng ther cours, or how they goth, 
angry, and WiHi me ye wolde be ful wroth, 

deapise me. 

And my presiu^pcton despyse. 

And I, ryht in the sylue wyse, 3396 

Ifyoumeddle Yiff V6 mcdlede Wrongfully 
with my free- ' 

dom, Touch yng the bouwdys of my party, 

Ther to cleyme off me lordshepe, 

My fredam I wolde kepe. 3400 

I'll die rather Eather than suffren any wrong, 

than suffer * 

wrong. I wolde deye, thogh ye be strong ; 

2 Camb. MS. reads: 'Lady,' quod she, 'to yow j come to 
chide, for to defende myn owen. Wennes cometh it yow for to 
remeue inyne ordinaunces ? ' Camb. , p. 24. 



All above the Moon is Reasons; below it, Grace Dieu's. 91 



* Trusteth thys ryght wel at al. [c. & St.] 

' And declare to yow I shal, 3404 

Now that ye & I be met, [Stowe, leaf 65] 

The trewe bouwdys that be set 

Atwyxe vs tweyne, syth go ful long, 

That noon to other do no Avrong ; 3408 

"Wych to yow I shal devyse, 

And declare the frauwchyse 

Off outher part, yiff ye lyst lere, 

That noon ne medle, fer nor nere, 3412 

To have lordshepe off othrys ryht, 

Nouther by force nor by myght. 
' And yiff ye lyst to lerne yt sone, 

The cercle off the colde moone, 3416 

Atwyxen yow & me for evere 

The bouwdys trewly doth clysseuere, 

And yiveth to eue?ych hys party ; ? metho' St., om. c. 

Yiff ye lyst look Ryghtfully 1 [' Ryghfuiiy c.] 3420 

As I shal declare now : ^^0- 

The hiher part longeth to yow, K2fc?jSi 

Wher ys your lordshepe & your myght, SSK^^Wa, 

And ye may ther (off verray ryght) 'W^ 2 *>" 

Maken thynges fresshe of hewe, 3425 

And whaw ye lyst, transforme hew newe ; 

Your power ys so vertuous ; 

ffor thogh ye made dame Venus 3428 

A best wz't/i hornys sharpe & hard, 

I wolde ther-to ha no Reward. 

And thogh that ye, (yt ys no fayl,) 

Off Mercurye made a snayl testudo&c. 3432 

I wolde me nat putte in pres 

To gruchche, but kepe me sty lie in pes; [St., leaf 65, back] 

ffor ther I cleyme no mane?- ryht. 3435 

' But her by-nethe, ys al my myght ; 3 P my^iit^st, 

Off ellementyS I am maystreSSe, Natura naturata, motu*movens. 

Lady also & pryncesse 

Off wyndys and inpressyouws, [st.&c.] 

And make transmutacyouws, 

Many wonder varyance. 

2 C. ; St. has wrongly ' Inconip^'ftilia.' 



3440 



[leaf 53] 
Nature. 

And now we 
are met I'll 

declare the 
bounds which 
were set be- 
tween us. 



The ' circle 
of the cold 
moon ' is the 
fixed bound- 
ary between 
us two. 



The higher 
part belongs 
to you ; 



and though 
you should 
make Venus 
a horned 
beast, 

and Mercury 
a snail, 



I would not 
complain. 



But here be- 
neath, I am 
Mistress, 



[leaf 58, back] 



mota St. 



92 Nature rules the Elements, and renews the Earth. 

Nature. ' ffor I ha the gouernauwce [st. & c.] 

and have the Off fyr, of heyr, (as ye may se,) 5 " P"'" 10 *' * . mu " do 

government J ' J ' \ J J '/ [St. & C.] 

of fire, air, off erthe. and off the large se, / 3444 

earth, and 

Ma - Off ther accord & ther debate ; 



I leue no thyng in on estat, 

But make eche thyng, by declyn, 

ffor to drawe to hys ffyn. 3448 

I make alday thynges newe 

The olde, refresshyng off her hewe. 
[Cap. xii] The erthe I clothe, yer by yer, 

Mith'ibMu- And rcfresshe hym off hys cher 3452 

vearT " y "Wyth 1 many colour of delyte, [' stowe] 

Blewh 1 & grene, Red & whyt, 

At pryme temps, vrith many a flour. 

And al the soyl, thorgh my fauour 3456 

Ys clad of newe ; medwe & pleyn 
i make sweet And hilles hih", ek spyce & greyn 

spices to 

grow, I make to enspyre soote, 

And do the bawme, out of the Rote 3460 

In-to the crop a-ryse & sprynge. 
and the trees ( And in-to trees ek I brynge 

to bud and * ' 

blossom, -J^QJ, i us j;y "blosmys whyte & rede; [stowe, ic;f66] 

And in ther brauwchys ek I sprede 3464 

A-brood myn f resshe vestyraentys, 

And with myn vnkouth paramentys 

I clothe ham wyth buddys glade, 

"Wych, -with wynter, dede I made, 3468 

Thorgh constreynt of hys coldys kene, 

Tornyng to russet al the grene 

"With fretyng of hys bytter cold, 
causing all ' ' But al that wynter maketh old, 3472 

which winter 

made old to And wttn hyr stormvs doth desteyne, 

become J 

young again, j ma k e yt frcsshe & yong ageyn ; 
[leaf 54] The bromys -with ther gol Jen floure, [c. &st.] 3475 

That wynter made' (with hys shour) [St. &c.] 

Xakyd and bare, dedly of hewe, ,, 

With levys I kan cloth hem 2 newe ; [*hem St., \\ym c.] 

i repair the i And off the feld the lyllyes ffayre. / 

beauties of J J J 

the flowers, And off herbys many a payre, 3480 

That wynter slowh vrith hys constreynt, 



Nature hates sudden Changes. She makes Men speak. 93 



4 And made hem of ther colour ffeynt, 

ffor no cost, me lyst not spare, 

But ther Rychesse I do repare, 3484 

Whan hete off cold hath the 1 victorye, p the om. St.] 

That Salomon in al hys glorye ^fiSSftiJSf itai " *' 

Was nat clad (I dar wel sey) 

Halff so freschly as ben they ; 3488 

Xor hys robes wer nat lyche 

Off colour to the busshes Ryche, 

Wych be clad in my lyiFree, 

ffro yer to yer, as ye may se. 2 [stowe, leaf 66, back] 3492 

' And who that taketh hed ther-to, 
Al thyng that mere se me do, 
I do by leyser, by and by : 
I am nat Rakel nor hasty ; 3496 

I hate, in myn) OppynyOUWS, Subitas mutaeso?zes odit natura 

Al sodeyn mutacyouws ; 

My werkys be the bettre wrouht, 

Be cause that I haste nouht : 3500 

I take record of dame ResonX 

' And also ek in no sesou) 
I slepe nouther day nor nyht ; 

ffor, of custom & of ryht, 3504 

I hate al 3 mane?' ydelnesse, p aiie St.] 

Ouer al wher I am maystresse. 
I am nat slowh, thorgh-out the yer, 2 ceil & mundi 
To do my werk & my dever 3508 

Affter my power & kownyng ; 
And I make, with my werkyng, 
Man & womman to speke a-ryht 

Euery language, thorgh my myght; [c. &st.] 3512 

ffovlys to flen, I teche also, 

And euery beste for to go ; 

ffysshes to swymmen in the see, 

2 The passage contained in 11. 3451 3492 extends over not 
quite six lines in Camb. It runs thus : The eerthe is of my robes, 
and in prime temps alwey j clothe it. To the trees j yeue 
clothinge and apparamens ayens somer. And sithe j make dis- 
poile hem ayen ayens winter, for to kerue hem oother robes and 
kootes seemynge alle newe, ther is neither brembel ne broom ne 
oother tre that j ne clothe ayen. Was neuere Salomon clothed 
with suich a robe as is a bush, p. 24. 



Jfature. 



so that Solo- 
mon in all his 
glory was not 
so richly ar- 
rayed us is a 
bush in my 
livery. 



I do all lei- 
surely; I 
hate sudden 
changes. 



I never sleep. 



I hate idle- 
ness. 



I make men 
to speuk, 



[leaf 54, back] 
fowls to fly, 



94 Nature complains that Grace Dicu turns Water into Wine. 



serpents to 
creep, 



and grain to 
grow. 



I am mistress 
of the earth, 



but you 
would dimin- 
ish my power, 



and turn wine 
into blood, 



which sur- 
passes my 
wit. 



I never 
troubled my- 
self to make 
bread, 



[leaf 55] 

which is 
made of my 
grain. 



'And I make ek (as ye may se,) [c. &st.j 3516 

Serpentys on the grovnd to krepe ; ,, 

And alle greynes ek I kepc, 

Make hem groven 1 in ther guyse, ['growenst.j 

And al ther sesovms I devyse. 3520 

And yiff I shal the trouthe expresse, 

I am lady & 2 maystresse p and ek St., leaf 67] 

Off al the Erthe, who lyst knowe. 

' But ye wolden holden lowe 3524 

My power, (yt ys no doute,) 

Yiff ye myghte yt brynge a-boute, 

fful wrongfully, ageyn al ryht, 

And 3 apallen ek my myght p ston-e] 3528 

At your fre choys ; thys the ffyn ; 

Tourne vnkyndely my wyn 

In-to blood, folk for to dryuke ; ' 3531 

The wyche 4 doth me sore a-thy nke, [ 4 winche St., wycu c.] 

And fret myn herte 5 so with rage p herte St., hert c.] 

That ye do me swych outrage, 

So nyfi. vn-to myn herte yt sytte : 

And yt passeth ek my wyt, 3536 

Your governauftce in thys matere. 

' Touchy ng 6 bred, ye shal wel lere, 
(To speken in especyal,) 
I am not so wroth with-al, 3540 

Nor gruchche (in myw oppynyouw) 
Off thy Ike mutaci'outt, 
Be cause that I (who taketh hed,) 
Medlede neuere to make bred, 
Croste nor krome, al my lyve. 
But I dar afferme her blyve, 
Thogh I neuere made looff, 
The mater that yt ys made off 
Kometh fro my 7 corn & greyne 
And I delyuered hem, certeyn, 
Vn-to Crafft, wych I assure 
Ys soget vn-to Nature. 
Thogh she yt made by hyr engyn, 
The mater ffyrst was pleynly myn, 
And kain fro me, yt ys no drede. 



P Tonchyng St., 
Touchyd C.] 



3544 



3548 

[7 me St. (cf. line 3555)] 



[Stowe, leaf 67, back] 3552 



Nature complains of Grace Dieu's Miraculous Deeds. 95 



But you have 
turned bread 
into flesh, 



which I can- 
not allow 
again. 



' But that ye han thus twrnyd bred 3556 

In-to Rawh fflesshe at your dyner, 

In preiudyce off my power, 

To forbarre me of my ryht, 

Wher hadde ye power outher myght 3560 [Cap. 

To werke so ageyn my lore 1 

I may suffren yt no more. 

I ha forboor yow many day, 1 p a day St.] 

And suffryd ek (yt ys no nay,) 3564 

Wrongys that ye ha do 2 to me. p done St.] 

I not by whos auctoryte, 

That ye, by your gouernau?zcys, 

My custommys & myn ordynauwcys 3568 

Ageyn Resouw and al 3 skyl paiiest.] 

Ye han ytournyd at your wyl. 

I haue hem wel in Ke*membrauwce, 

"With euery maner cyrcumstau?zce. 3572 

' ffyrst, contrayre to myn entent, 
The busshe affyre, & nat brent, Exodi 30 capttuio 
How ye yt made ful longe ago. 

And I rernembre wel also 3576 

Off Aaron & of Moyses, 
How that ye,ageyn my pes, 
Ther y erdys, bothe 4 old & drye, [* bothen St.] 

Ye maden, thorgh your maystrye, 3580 

The Toon a serpent (ys yt nat so 1) [stove, leafes] 
In presence of Kyng Pharaoo ; 
The tother, ye made wexe al grene 
With frut & levys, (thus I mene,) [c. & st.] 3584 

Budde and blosme, vrith many flour, - 

To myn vnworshepe & dyshonour, 

Ageyns nature, at the leste. 

And ye tournede, at the feste 3588 

Off on callyd Architeclyn^ 
Water also in-to good vvyn. 
And also many A-nother thyng, 

Thorgh yoiir wonderful werkyng 3592 

Ye han ywrouht ageynys kynde. 

' And o thyng cometh now to mynde, 
Wherwyth ye dyde myn herte tene, 



I have 

sufferd many 
wrongs from 
you, 



as the bush 
on fire, but 
not con- 
sumed ; 



Moses* rod 
turned into a 
serpent; 

[leaf 55, back] 



Aaron's made 
to bud; 



water turned 
into wine at 
Cum; 



06 Nature complains that Grace Dieu breaks her Laws. 



a Virgin bear- 
ing a Child. 



[Cap. xliii] 



These things 
have caused 
me much 
sorrow, 



though I did 
not seem to 
heed them. 



[leaf 56]: 



You excite 
me to war 
against you, 



because you 
change my 
laws, 



and do not 
call me to 
yourcounsel.' 

[Cap. xliv] 



quam natura prescripsit ; 
nee ab ilia declinandum / 
& contra ilium qui nititur 
lion alia via est quam contra, 
aquam nauigare. 

3604 



' That ye made a niayde clene 3596 

To bere a cliyld, by your art, 

And of man hadde neuere part. , 

To nae ye dide to gret A 1 wrong ; [> togrete st.j 

And I ha suffryd al to long 3600 

That ye, a-mong thys werkys allo, Seneca - TenenJa "* via 

Lyst me nat to consayl calle. 

Wher-of, whan I dide aduerte, 

I hadde gret sorwen yn myn herte ; 

Thogfr I made no noyse at al, 

I gruchchede in especyal 

A-geyn your werkys wonder stronge : 

A man may suffren al to longe, 3608 

As I ha don, or that he speke ; 2 [ 2 speke St.] 

And abyde or he be wreke ; [stowe, leaf es, back] 

Slepe to long, or he a-wake ; 

Suffren, or he vengauwce take ; 3612 

And I ha ben to longe in pes, 

And in mane?' Eekkeles 

To suffre wrong, & took noon hede 

Off al that ye ha done in dede. 3616 

'And now ye ben ykome ageyn, 
Off entent to make in veyn 
Newe thynges men may se, [c. & St.] 

Only to excyte me 3620 

Ageyns yow, both nyfi & ferre, 
To be wroth, & gynne a werre, 
And to be \\iili yow at debat. 

And, ne wer the gret estat 3624 

That ye be off, trusteth me wel, 

I wolde spare neueradel 
Yow to werreye & oppresse, 

That ye ha swych hardynesse 3628 

ffor to chauwgen myn vsages, 

And lyst nat, thorgh your gret outrages, 

Off equyte, to myn avayl, 

ffor to calle me to couwsayl, 3632 

Wher-off I am riht wele apayd.' 

II And whan Nature hadde al sayd, 
Grace dieu ful sobyrly, 



Grace Dieu reproaches Nature for her Hastiness. 97 



3640 



E 1 though St.] 3644 



3648 



[3 as St.] 



(That herde hyr tale by and "by,) 
Nat hastyly, but by mesure, 
Thus Answerde to Nature : 

Grace Dieu answerde: 
' Ye ben,' quod she, ' to cruel, 
To hasty also, and to fel 
Ageyns me, in your language. 
ffor ye speke by gret outrage 
Proudly to me, & ha no feere, 
Lych sothly as thog 1 ye were 
In party dronken of your wynes 
Wych that groweth on 2 your vynes. _ [* in St.] 
Ye resemble by your mood 
And by your port, as ye wer wood. 
And for ouht that I kan se, 
Ye be sottyd (thus 3 semeth me) 
Off newe, & I wot nat how. 

' Eemembreth what ye spake ryht now, 
And how ye sayde to me pleynly, 
' That ye wer nat to hasty 
In your werkys, fer nor ner ; 
But that ye wrouht al be leyser, ,, 

And in your werkys dyde tarye.' 

And I se now the contrary e 

In your persone folyly. 

ffor ye to me, ful nyce'ly, 
Al that euere ye dide expresse, 
Was ysayd off hastynesse, 
"WWi-outen any gret avys, 
Lyk as thogh ye wer nat wys ; 
Your wordys nat in ordre set, [Stowe, leaf 69, back] 
Rancour, your Resozm hath so let. 
And, trewly, nadde be 
That I concevede, & dyde se 
Your sodeyn Ire & your Eancour, 
And also for myn owne honour, 
I hadde yow voyded A-noon ryht, 
And boodew yow gon out of syht. 
But folkys wych that ben Irous, 
Hasty & malyncolyous, 

PILGRIMAGE. 



3636 Grace 



[c. & St.] 



3652 



3656 



3660 



3664 



3668 



3672 



Grace Dieu 
answered, 
You are too 
hasty ; 



you seem to 
be drunk, or 
mad. 



Remember 
what you 1 
said just 
now, 
[Ieaf56,back] 



that you 
wrought lei- 
surely. 



But now 
anger has 
overcome 
you. 



Had I not 
seen your ire 
I should have 
avoided you. 



[c. & St.] 



98 Grace Dieu asks Nature, Who gives her Power. 

1 Other folk, that wyse bene, 

Mot forbern hem in her tene, 3676 

Be-cause they kan he/ nat 1 gouerne; [ l nathemst.] 
Angry men And ek for they kan nat dyscerne 

cannot IT', 

clearly dis- A thyng clerly in ther en tent. 

cerna J J 

matter. ff r ther trouble, entendement 3680 

Ys vritli Ire yblynded so, foet ?- C st " c - om :} Ira im P edit 

* J ammnnj, ne possit cernere verunt. 

That they wot nat what they do. 
To sen a trouthe, they nat entende, 
ffor they kan nat co?nprehende, 3684 

Thorgh ther obstynat blyndnesse, 
No thyng but off wylf ulnesse : 

[Cap.xiv] It 2 stondeth thus, I dar assure. [*itst.,ic.] 

But ten me, ' But tel me now, dame Nature, 3688 

Nature, see- 

b"fm hat y u Touchyng that ye, her in thys place, 

Rebuke me off my trespace, 

And vndernemen and repreve, [c. & St.] 

Deaf 57] And outragously your-sylven greue 3692 

Off offencys I scholde ha do ; 
a r d f r t a rT y And affermen ek also, 

at what I do, 

Your fraunchyse to avaylle [Stowe.ieafTO] 

Off bouwdys & off botayUe : 3696 

I mene thus, of bowndys set, 
By mesour tryed out & met 
A-twyxe the ryht of yow & me, 
and say i had And seyn, ' A-geyn your lyberte 3700 

no licence to J ' J J J 

enter into That I dyde gret offence 

your garden : 

To entre, & hadde no lycence, 
In-to your gardyre al to sone, 

Vnder the cercle off the moone, 3704 

Wych to yow allone ys fre.' 
I pray yow, ansvvere ageyn to me, 
(Say the trouthe, so God the 8 saue !) pyowst.] 
of whom do Off whom holde ye that ye haue, 3708 

you hold all 

have ? u Your lordshepe & euery del ? 
Ye Resemble (who loke wel,) 
Vn-to the wylde swyn savage, 

Wych that renneth in hys rage / 3712 

In the woodys large & grene, 
And ne kan no ferther sene 



Grace Dieu tells Nature she is but her Chambermaid. 99 

' But to the frut that he hath foimde, Grace men. 

And the Acorn vs on the grounds. 3716 YOU are like 

J a swine in 

ffor to fille 1 hys hongry mawe. t 1 FyUe St., feiie c.] the woods, 

fEor he, in hys swynys lawe, 

Off hys rudnesse bestyal, 

Ne kan no f either se at al 3720 

Toward the hevene, nor the tre 

Wher he receyveth hys plente, 

That bar the frut for hys repast, which sees 

nothing 

Al that ys from hys mynde past ; [Stowe, leaf 70, back] 3724 beyond the 
J J J acorns on 

ffor to the acorn al only, winch it 

J ' feeds, 

And to hys ffoode fynally 

Ys 2 set hys herte & al hys thouht ; [ 2 vt St., YS c.] 

ffor he in soth ne recchet nouht [St. &c.j 3728 [ieaf57,back] 

Off alle the surplus neueradel. 

' And trew[e]ly ye may ryht wel 

Vn-to thys swyn resembled be, ',, 

Wych kan not be-holde or se, 3732 

Nor of malys, nor dysdeyn, 

Lyst nat knowen. in certeyn because you 

, , , , know nothing 

Oft whom ye nan al your power of whom you 

ITT ; T -r i receive your 

Wit/i-lnne your bouredys, fer or ner. 3736 P w er. 

W*'tA-oute me ye ha no thyng; [St. &c.] 

Nor al your craff t nor your werkyng, 

"WYt/i-oute me may nat avaylle. 

Yovr werkys alle I sowbpowaylle, 3740 AH you have 

... . comes from 

Ana hem supporte, yii ye ha mynde. me, 

' Vndoth your Eyen 3 dyrk & blynde,/ p Eyen St., Eyn c.] 
The Eyen of yovr entendement ; 

And, by good avysement, 3744 

The lyddys off your Eye vncloseth ! 
Knoweth wel (and nat supposeth) 
I am lady, hool & entere ; 

And ye be but my chamberere : 3748 and y u af e 

Thys shal ye fynde al openly servant, 

Yiff ye looke avysely. 
Leve your wordys hih aloffte, 

And lerneth for to speke soffte, 3752 

And Eenou?zceth al your rae ; [Stowe, leaf 71] and should 

tr u M j i do homage 

nor ye sholde me don homage to :ne - 



100 Grace Dieu says she is Natures Mistress. 

Grace Dieu. ( (Off lustyce and equyte), 

ffor that ye holde, ye holde of me. 3756 

ffor long agon, a gret partye, 

I gaff to yow (of curteysye) 

To occupye your sylff alvvay, 
i gave you Off entent that, nyht nor day, 3760 

what you 

have to keep That ye sholde nat ydel be, 

you from 

idleness, ^ n( j that ye sholde, a-geyn to me 
and to me Yelde accouwtys off euery thyng 

you must * 

IfccouTt Touchy ng the fyn of your werkyng, 3764 

[leaf 58] As a chamberere (in sothnesse) [St. & c.] 

Sholde vnto hire mayst[e]resse. 

And therfore, yiff ye wer wys, 

Ye sholde nat in your avys 3768 

Speke of bowzdys in no degre 

Set be-twyxe yow & me. 

bouwdys c6nstreyne your party ; 

F al tllafc > * & frel y 3772 

Wher that me lyst, at lyberte : 
They bouwde yow, & no thyng me ; 
Close yow out, that ye nat passe ; 
But I go fre in euery place ; 37 7 G 

In heuene, in erthe, & in the se 
I bouwde yow, & ye not me. 
whether you Wer yt offende yow or crreue, 

are offended J 

or not, does j take of yow no maner leue, 3780 

not concern 

me - To go & medle wher I shal : [stowe, leaf 71, back] 

Ye ha no thyng to do vfitli al. 
' I do ryht nouht in my werkyng 

But as yt ys ryht wel syttyng 3784 

Off equyte & ryhtwysnesse. 
A mistress ff or she that ys a maystfelresse 

must have a , , , , , , 

servant. Muste haue a seruauwt hyr to-beye : x ['to obeye] 

I trowe ye kan yt not ws't/i-seye. 3788 

[Cap. xivi] And ye ouht to know ek wel 
That ye ha power neueradel 

without me, W/t/i-oute me, on no party. 

you can do ' 

nothing. j -^yj shewe good skyle why, 3792 

Vp-on the wordys that ye ha sayd, 
So ye wyl nat ben euele apayd. 



Grace Dieu says her Sun alone makes Nature work. 101 



Ye seyde, ' the mevyng of the hevene 

And the planetys alle seuene 3796 

Longen to me pleynly in al ; 

And how ther cours celestyal, 

I haue yt hoi in gouernaiwce ; 

And how that I, at my plesaurcce 3800 

Tourne the hevene Round abowte. 

' Thanne I axe of yow thys doute : [c. & St.] 
Yiff I now made a newe pley, [Comb., p. 27] 
ffor to take the so?me away 3804 

Douw fro the heuene a-noon ryht, 

That no man of hym hadde a syht 

Thys hundryd yer, in no manere, ,, 

Nor that hys bryhte bemys clere 3808 

Ne wer nat seyn : answere here-to, 
What maner thynges myghte ye do ] 
Or wheroff sholde ye ha socour, [stowe, leaf 72] 
To brynge forth outher herbe or flour 1 L 3812 

Or fostre your sedys, blosme, or greyn 1 
Or vfith newe grene a-gayn 
Clothen the busshes in ther maner 
As ye ar wont fro yer to yer, 3816 

By yerly reuoluc'iouras ? 

' And touchy ng generaci'ouws, 
What power ha ye ouht to do, 

Yiff the sowne wer ago ] 3820 

Al sholde faylle, yt ys no nay. 
And sythe go ful many a day, 
The paynym Arystotyles, 

Wrot & expressede douteles, 3824 

That was so noble & prudent, 
Preveth ful wel by argument, 
By trouth also, & good Reson), 
That al 1 generacyon) Exemption [Uiiest.] 3828 

Ys SUSteyned by the SOWne. In 2 de generadone 

Whan the skyes dyrke & downe 

Ben devoyded a-way clone, 

Wz't/i hys bemys bryht & shene, 3832 

That on erthe wer no bryhtnesse, 

I take your clerk vn-to wytnesse, 



Grace Dieu. 



You have 
said, ' The 
heavens are 
under my 
rule,' 



[leaf 58, back] 
then I ask 

you this : 



'If I were to 
take away 

the sun, 



how would 
you bring 
forth herbs ! 



how re-clothe 
the bushes ? 



If the sun 
were with- 
drawn, all life 
would fail, 



as Aristotle 
proved, 



102 Grace Dieu ridicules Natures Presumption. 



Grace Dieu. 

and lie shall 
be my ad- 
vocate. 

[leaf 59] 



If I made the 
sun and stars 
cease to 
shine, 



your power 
would be set 
aside. 

I 



Your grudg- 
ing against 
me is like 
the axe argu- 
ing with the 
carpenter, 



or the pot 
with the 
potter ; 



you were 
made to be 
my instru- 
ment to help 
me. 



Deaf 59, back] 



3836 



[C. & St.] 

3840 

[Stowe, leaf 72, back] 
[' Rounde St., Round C.] 

P eche St.] 
P brigfit St., bryght C.] 3844 



3848 



[ have St.] 



' Arystotyle, in thys debaat, 
ffor to ben myn aduocaat 
A-geyns yow in thys matere. 
ffor your power al yfere 
Wer lost & gon (shortly to fyne,) 
Yiff no sonne ne dyde shyne. 
ffor your power wer al shent, 
Yiff the Kounde 1 fymiament, 
The planetys, & ech 2 spere, 
And the bryhte 3 sterrys clere, 
Yiff I he??i maade to cesse echon, 
Than wer your power clene agon, 
A-batyd, & set a-syde. 
Wher-vp-on, lat be your pryde, 
And gruchchet nat ageyn[e]s me, 
Syth I ha 4 the sovereynte, 
Lordshepe, & domynacloun. 
'And yt wer abusyouw 

Lych as Wrytetll Ysaye, Nuqnid glorlabUnr securis/ 

J J J ' \ saye x capitulo 

And in hys book doth specefye, 
A gret despyt (both fer & ner) 
Yiff a-geyn the carpenter 
The Ex wer bold, by surquedye, 
ffor to holden chauntpartye. 
Yt wer a thyng ageyn[e]s kynde, 
In Holy Wryt as ye shal fynde, 
And a thyng off gret dysdeyne, 
And yiff the pot sholde also seyn 
To the potter that hyw wrouhte, 
And hys forme a-boute brouhte, 
Yiff he pleynede off 5 hys makyng, 
Touchyng hys fason) and werkyng, 
Yt wer a thyng nat covenable. 

' And evene lyk in cas semblable 
Ye argue ageyn[e]s me, 
Wych in effect nat ellys be 
(ffor al your sot el argument) 
But myn handwork & instrument, 
Wych I ha mad to helpen me, 
Nat off no necessyte, 



3852 



3856 



3860 



on St.] 



3868 



3872 



[Stowe, leaf 73] 



Grace Dieu will do as she likes, turn Wine to Blood, &c. 103 

' That I off yow (yiff ye take hede,) [c. & St.] grace Dieu. 

Sholde haue any mane?' nede 3876 

Among my grete werkys alle, 

But only whan me lyst yow calle. 

' And many a thyng I haue ek wrouht, i have done 

To wych I ne callede yow nouht. 3880 without you, 

Yt nedede nat the caas so stood : 
And I shal chau??ge wyn to blood and i shall 

turn wine 
WU/i-OUte your COUWSayl or your red, Consilium meu> gtabit, intoblood 

& omwis voluMtas mea 
And ill-to Rawll flessh. ek whyt bred, fi6 *- Yeaye. 46 [10]. and bread 

into flesh 

And brown also, whan that me lyst, 3885 now without 

your advice, 

Thogh off yow yt be nat wyst. 

' The cause ys, 1 in conclusions, c 1 as st.] 

Off thys ylke mutaciouw, 3888 

At myn owne lust yt dresse ; 
And ellys ne wer I no maystresse, else am i no 

T> i. T -U J 3- i u mistress. 

But yitt I nadde lyberte 

To don al thyng that lyketh me 3892 

"WWi-oute" labour at myn ese, 

Wych sholde yow nat dysplese, 

Thogh I do thyng (tak hed her-to,) 

Wych your-sylff ne may nat do ; 3896 

Therof ye sholden ha dysport, Yon should 

take comfort 

And in your herte gret coumfort, from the 

wonders 

As of the bussh. wych to the syht wrought by 

J me, as of the 

Sempte as yt hadde brent ful bryht, 3900 bush, 

And brent nat, as I ha sayd ; 

Wher-of ye sholde be wel apayd, 

And thank me of entenciouw [Stowe, leaf 73, back] 

Only for the savac'iouw, 3904 

Rather than chyde, or 2 lowde crye [ 2 and St.] 

Off rancour & malencolye, 

Off hast to be so liekke'les. 

' And off the yerd of Moyses 3908 and the rods' 

, ff . . . of Moses and 

And on Aaron, wher-on ye pleyne ; Aaron, 

And off that May de souereyne, [c. &st.] [leafeo] 

Mayde & moder in clennesse, 

Off chastyte the cheff pryncesse, 3912 

Wych bar a chylde in verray dede, andthevir-;, 

And kept alway hyr maydenhede ; 



104 The Common Good must le preferd to the Special. 



and the 
miracle of 
Cana. 



A good serv- 
ant ought to 
rejoice in the 
works of her 
mistress. 



The common 
good must 
always be 
preferred. 



The Pilyrim. 



Nature, 
knowing she 
was wrong, 



[leaf 60, back] 



cried for 
mercy, and 
said: 



[Stowe, leaf 74] 



' And off the water tornyd to wyn 
At the fest off Archityclyn : 
Al thys I wrouhte, thorgh my myht, 
"WYt/i-oute preiudyce of your ryht ; 
"Wher-off ye sholde ha gret gladnesse, 
And nat gruchche for hevynesse 
Touchyng al thys, in no manere. 
ffor alway a good chaumberere 
Sholde be ryht glad in herte 
Whan she seye, or dyde aduerte 
The fayre werkys (in sothnesse) 
Off hyr lady or maystresse, 
Pryncypally (who loke wel,) 
Whan that she leseth neueradel 
Off hyr ffravmchyse in no degre. 
ffor euere mot preferryd be 
The comouw good in general. 
Goodys that ben e.?pecyal, 
The comoura good, in soth I calle / 
That doth profyte to folkys alle, 
Especyally in al vertu.' 

And whan thys lady, Grace dieu, 
Had al sayd, I yow ensure, 
A-noon thys lady, dame Nature, 
a Whan she had herd hyr tale a long, 
Knowyng that she hadde do wrong, 
And hyr compleynte (to specefye,) 
Was ygrouwdyd on folye, 
fful humblely in hyr degre 
She ffyl a-noon vp-on hyr kne. 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Nature cryede mercy. 

The fyrste 2 word that she gan seye, [ 2 Fyrste St., fyrst cj 
Nature, off mercy gan hyr preye, 
And vfiih humble cher & fface 
She confessede hyr trespace ; 
And to hyr sayde most mekely, 3 
' Ma dame,' quod she, ' ful folyly 
I have governyd me to yow, 

1 Cap. 1. Caps, xlvii, xlviii, and xlix of C. are omitted. 



3916 



3920 



3924 



3928 



3932 



3936 



3940 



3944 



3948 

P mekely St., mekly C.] 



Nature begs Grace Dieu to fwgixe her. 



105 



3964 



* And ful vngoodly spoke now, 3952 

"Wher-off I repente sore. 

And certys, I ne sbal no more 

Offende yow in no manere, 

ISTouther in speche nor in chere ; 3956 

So that, of mercy & 1 pyte, [Undottst.; leaf 74, back] 

Ye Avyl as now forgyve yt me, 

That I ha don al outterly ; 

And that ye wyl, so gracyously, 3960 

Off alle that euere me asterte, 

No thyng reservyn 2 in your herte, [ 2 reservyn St., rebersyn c.] 

Only off your benygne grace, 

But clene forgete my trespace.' 

Grace Dieu answereth: 
' Certys,' quod Grace dieu rylit tho, 
' I wyl gladly that yt be so ; 
But taketh hed of that I seye, 
In peyue of lesyng of your eye, 
That ye neuere, in al your lyff, 
Be nat hardy for to stryve 
A-geyn my workys in no wyse ; 
Nor that ye no thyng despyse 
What-euere I do, for al your wy t ; [c. & St.] 

ffor I ne wyl nat suffren yt, 

But werke alway (as yt ys skyl) 
"WWi-oute yow, affter my wyl.' 
IT And whan thys parleme?at was do, 
As ye han herd, atwen he? two, 
And Moyses ek dyned hadde 

"Wi't/i hys seruawtys good & badde, 3980 

He made A-noon (thys, the cheff,) 
ffor to departe the releff : 

Hys Awmener yt hadde in charge, [Stowe, leaf 75] 
And bad to yive yt forth ful large 3984 

To pylgrymes, wych day be day 
Travayllede forth vp-on her way ; 
Off the wych, as thouhte me 
Ther was gret nouwbre & plente. 3988 

But, or that he gaff any thyng 
Off the releff in partyng 



3968 



3972 



' I repent of 
what I have 
spoken. 



Forgive me, 



and forget 
my trespass. 



Grace Dieu. 

' Certainly,' 
said Grace ; 



' but beware 
of striving 
with me, 



[leaf 61] 

for I will not 
permit it.' 

3976 The Pilgrim. 



[Cap. li] 



When Moses 
bad dined, 



and had com- 
manded his 
almoner to 
give food to 
poor pil- 
grims, 



106 Two Ladies appear: one with a Hammer and Broom, 



The pilgrim. Vn-to any nianer whyht, 

Out off a chavwibre, a-noon ryht, 
I sawh two ladyes koine yfere, 
Wych, of port & of manere 
And off wommanly plesaunce, 
Hadden ful gret suffysaimce ; 
And curteysly amyd the pres, 
Atwen the peple and Moyses, 
They putten hem, thys ylke two. 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 



two ladies 
appeared 



between 
Moses and 
the people. 



3992 



3996 



The first held 
a little writ- 
ing in her 
hand. 



[leaf 61, back] 



The other 
held a ham- 
mer in one 
hand, 

a rod in the 
other, 



and a besom 
in her mouth. 



Anybody else 
would have 
been thought 
mad. 



H And she that wente a-forn ryht tho, 4000 

(As yt serapte vn-to my wyt), 
Held in hyr hand a lytel wryt 
Vnclosyd vn-to my reward, 

As ye shall heryn affterward, [C. &st.j 4004 

Yiff ye lyst a whyle dwelle. 

But off the tother I shal fyrst telle, 

1 Wych in hyr hond, (as I be-helde 

The same tyme) an hamer helde. 1 4008 

And in hyr other hand wt/i-al, 
She held a yerde, sclender & smal, [stowe, leaf 75, back] 
To skouren chyldern, & chastyse. 
And also, as I shal devyse, 4012 

Vn-to my syht a thyng vnkouth, 
She held a bysme in hyr mouth 
Atwyxe hyr teth, (yt ys no fayl,) 
"Wher-off I hadde gret mervayl. ^ 4016 

Yet she yt helde so cvrteysly 

That no man wolde 2 deme ther-by [ 2 woide St., wold c.] 
That she was neuere the lasse wys. 
But yiff a-nother (to my devys,) 4020 

Hadde holde yt so as dyde she, 
Men wolde ha sayd, she hadde be 
Out of hyr wyt, or ellys falle 

In-to rage. And fyrst of alle 4024 

Thys lady wysly dyde abrayde 
To pylgrymes, & thus she sayde : 
(The bysme lette hyr neueradel 

1-1 The same tyme / an hamer held / 

In hyre hande / as I beheld?, Stowe, ftaf 75. 



who is Dame Penance, and sweeps and hammers men. 107 



4032 



4036 



4040 



But that she myght speke wel :) 4028 

' Syrs,' quod she, ' I wot ryht wel 

That ye consydren euerydel 

My gouernauwce & myn aray. 

But I wot wel, (yt ys no nay,) 

Ye nat aduerten in substaunce 

Touchynge al my gouernauwce. 

I trowe ye kan nat al espye 

What thyng yt doth sygnefye. 

But, koraeth ner to me echon, 

And I shal declare A-noon 

To yow the maner by & by, 

And yt expone feythfully, 

Off the trouthe my sylff taquyte. [stowe, leaf 76] 

' I am the ffayre, louyd but lyte ; 
Off my port, demur And sad, 

Debonayre, & gretly drad [sadde . . . dradde St.] 4044 

Off fele folkys that me se. 
And trew[e]ly I am ek she 
Now-a-dayes lytel preysyd, 

And yet ful worthy to be reysed 4048 

Off prys, to folkys that be dygne ; 
Eygerous & ful benygne 
To alle that be vertuous ; 

Happy also, and ryht Ewrous, 4052 

The gracyouse, of smal 1 plesaunce, p smal St., syn al c.] 
I am callyd Dame Penaunce. 
The cheff wardeyn (who lyst se,) 
Off thylke yle most secre ; 

The Wycll (who espye kail,) Verba Translatorys 

Ys _jhyd wit/i-Inne a man. 

I make yt clene (I yow ensure,) 

Off alle fylthe & al ordure, 

Or ther-yn entre any Avhyht. 

Therfore I bere, off verray ryht, 

Thys bysme ; Thys hamer, ek ther-to, 

And thys lytel yerde also, 

On al felthes 2 to be wreke. [ Fyithes St.] 

With thys hamer I brose & breke, 

Lyk to my condycyoun 



4056 



4060 



Penance. 

[Prose. 

Cap. lii] 
' Sirs,' she 
said, 'I know 
you are ob- 
serving my 
demeanour 
and dress ; 



but you do 
not see what 
it signifies. 



[leaf 62] 



I am the fair 

one, 

little loved. 



I am little 
praised. 



My name is 
Penance. 



I guard the 
Isle within 
man, 



and cleanse it 
of all filth. 



108 Penance softens Men's Hearts, and makes them repent. 

penance. ' With anguissh and contric'ioim, 4068 

with my Hertys that be obstynat 

liammer I J J 

break obsti- With Synniis olde, ek indurat, [Stowe, leaf 76, back] 

nate liearts. J . ' 

And fulfyltyd with vnclennesse, 

I do alway my bysynesse 4072 

To make hem souple, nesshe, and tendre, 

And off her grete 1 bollyng, sclender ; [ grete St., gret c.] 

Also for to wake and wepe, 

[leaf 62, back] Sorwe & pleyne with syhes depe, 4076 

ffor ther synnes waymentynge. 

AS a child U And as a Chylde with" betynge Exempiuw. [c. & st] 

an apple By exavwiple (as ye so ofFte.) 

makes it soft, 

Maketh his harde 2 appyl soffte p he harde St., . . ins hard c.] 

With offte smytyng off hys ffyst, [c. &st.] 4081 

Tyl yt be tendre as hym lyst, 

And that the lycour ysseth oute, 

Eyght so fare 3 I, yt ys no doute : p fare St., far c.] 4084 

I smyte hertys vp & down, 

And make hem, by contryciovw, 

"Wyth salte terys (thys the cas,) 

so i make To sorwe, cry e, & seyn, alias 4088 

Mas! tor That they eucre dyde Amys ! 

their sius, J J J 

Ye shal yt tynde, & thus yt ys, 
Off ther trespacys they repente, 

And seyn, in al ther beste entente, 4092 

and cry to 'A, Lord God ! now, off thy grace, 

God for 

mercy. How shal I ban off my trespace 

Allegement, wtt/i-oute the, 

But thow graunte, off thy pyte, 4096 

That I may, al outterly, 

Off my Gylte's ha mercy, 

So that I do no mor Amys ? 

Now, goode Lord, thow graunte thys ! ' [St., if. 77] 4100 

Thus I maken hem cryew offte. 
with this And with thys Lamer I made soffte 

hammer 

i softened Seyn Petrys herte, & yt to-brak, 

Peter s heart, 

That yt wente al vn-to wrak, 4104 

Wych ffyrst was hard as any ston. 
But I made yt nesshe A-noon 
Whan he hys mayster fyrst forsook. 



Penance reformd St. Peter and Mary Magdalene. 109 

' But whan that I the hamer took, 4108 Penance. 

I smet hvw so with repentavmce. ?? d made 

him weep 

And made hyw nesshe vrith penauwce, 

That the lews, off hys wepyng 

Yssede out in cdmpleynyng 4112 

Of verray sorwe & bytternesse, peafes] 

He felt ther-off so gret dystresse 

In hys greuous hertly peyne. 

' And also Mary Mawgdeleyne, 4116 

With thys hamer I smot 1 so [' smote St.] 

That hyr herte I rooff a-two, 
"Wych was ful hard \vith synnes old. 
But vfith strokys manyfold 4120 



I made hyr tendre, (yt ys no doute,) with it i also 

J , cleft the heart 

That the terra yssede oute, of Mary Mag- 

' " dalene, 

Out off hyr brest, so gret plente, 

That men myghte the lycour se 4124 

By hyr chekys renne a-down 

Off verray sorwe, so gret foysown, 

That, in hyr bytter sorwes kene, 

She was wasshe \\ith-al so clene, 4128 

And so inly purefyed, 

That ther was no felthe espyed [stowe, leaf 77, back] 

Off synne wi't/i-Inne hyr tendre herte. 

ffor, whan the bytter terys smerte 4132 and with the 

abundance of 

Off hyr wepyng wer Ronne down her tears 

* washed away 

Thorgh sorwe & gret contryci'ouw, i>er sins. 

I took vn-to hem so gret kepe, 

That I hem gadrede on an hepe, 2 [* kepe St., hep c.] 4136 

That ordure leffte noon be-hynde. 

And I to-gydre dyde ham bynde 

Al that euere they wrouhte a-wrong, 

And make ther-off a lye strong, 4140 

That ther-w^-al (I yow ensure,)' ^SSS^KK 

I wasshe a- way al ordure. 3 The tears of 

" repentance 

ffor who so lyst consydre & se, cleanse from 

So gret a synne may non be, 4144 

But that the lye off repentyng 
Doth yt a-way in wasshyng, 
And maketh yt clene euerydel, 



110 Penance cleans men's Hearts out like an old Pot. 



[leaf 63, back] 
For this 
washing I am 
called the 
king's Laun- 
dress and 
Chamberer. 

[Prose. 
Cup. liii] 



My hammer 
is used upon 
a sinful man 



as if he were 
a pot full of 
hardened 
filth, 



which before 
it can be 
cleansedmust 
be broken. 



[Cap. liv] 
Understand 
from this, 



' Yiff yt ther-in be wasshe wel. 4148 

And for thys skyle, in my wasshyng, 

I am vn-to the myghty kyng 

Callyd sothly the ' lavendere,' 

And also ek hys ' chaumberere,' [C. &st.] 4152 

In thys offyces bothe two, 

'Now vnderstondeth ek also, 
That thys hamer I ber \vith me 

ffor thys skyle, as ye shal se, ; 4156 

Yt fareth, by a synful man, 
(Who so vnderstonde kan,) 
As by A Pot (in sothfastnesse) 

That ys ful of vnclennesse, 4160 

Verray stynkyng & horryble, 
And to smelle ful odyble, 

Wych may nat wel devoyded be, [stowe, leaf 78] 
ffor-as-myche (as ye wel se) 4164 

The fylthe ys hardyd so \nt7i-Inne, 
That yt wyl not lyhtly twyrnie, 
OS old gadryng ful indurat, 

And in maner obstynat, 4168 

To be made clene in any wyse. 
But than anoon I kan devyse 
Myn hamer myghtly tavale, 1 P to avaie, let fail] 

And breke the pot in pecys smale ; 4172 

And on the felthe to be wreke ; 
On smale sherdys I it breke. 

' And fyrst off alle I begynne 

To drawe the felthe hyd wit/t-Inne 4176 

Out, to make yt shede a-brood, 
Wych wttft-Inne so long a-bood, 
And al the ordure ek wifc&al. 

And yiff I broke yt nat so smal 4180 

On pecys vp-on euery syde, 
The fylthe wzt/i-Inne wolde abyde, 
And mor & mor ay wexyn hard. 

'Now vnderstond, & hath reward 4184 

To thys doctryne & thys lesson) 
Touchyng verray contryciouw, 
Ye that desyre of herte & thouht 



Folk must repent with Sobbing and salt Tears, 111 
' To lerne yt, & for-gete yt nouht. 4188 Penance. 



Thynketh, ye folkys that be \vyse, one s w ' se 

That yt doth nat ynowh sutfyse 

A man, in Groos (as ye shal lere,) 

To gadre hys sy?znes aH yffere ; 4192 

But, lyk the pot, he most he? breke, [stowe, leaf 78, back] 

And no thyng in the asshes reke. 

I mene as thus : conceyveth al, 

Thogh that a pot be broke smal 4196 that it is not 

enough to 

On sherdys & on pecys ek, gather your 

sins together 

Yet al yt ys nat worth a lek, a d bi ; e , ak , 

J tliem like the 

But Query sherd be cerchyd 1 wel [' serciiyd St.] P ot > 

Touchynge hys ordure euerydel, 4200 

And yscrapyd clene a-way, 

Ye mot hem breke in gret affray, 

That felthe noon ther-in abyde ; 

ffor wych ye moste wel provyde 4204 

With sobbynge & vrith syhes depe 

And salte terys that ye wepe, 

And other peynys sharpe & smerte ; but that each 

r J J sin must be 

Ihynkynge thus wt/?-Inne your herte ; 4208 repented of, 

' Thow dyst offende on swych a day, 

"Where yt Sonday or Monday ; 

Than dystow thy Ike grete synne ; 

And swych an hour thow dyst begywne, 4212 

Havyng off God no dred nor fere. 

Thys was gret ; that was grettere. 

And thus thow dyst, thylke tyme, 

Wher yt at Eve, wher yt at pryme, 4216 andthecir- 

A1 oftiii cumstancea 

And to don evel, were' 1 oftte blythe, [* were St., wher c.] ont called to 

And that thow dyst so offte sythe. 

And rekne by & by yffere 

The cyrcu??zstau/zcys & the manere ; 4220 

Torne & cast ek, vp so douw, 

Wher that thy Temptaciouw 

Was gret or smal ; acounte al thys, [stowe,ieaf79] [leafei.back] 

And thynke 3 whan thow dyst amys, p thynke St., thynk c.] 

Yiff a-forn thy great offence [C.&st.] 4225 

Thow madest any re"systence, and whether 

A j i ii ,1 .1 you resisted 

And wher thow wrastlyst any thyng it. 



112 Penance smashes all Sins with her Hammer. 

penance. ' To wtt/i-stondeu in werkyng [c. &st.] 4228 

Thy temptaciouM, gret or smal ; 
Or wher thow (in especyal) 
In thy wrastlyng dist purchace 

Thy temptacioiw to enchace ; 4232 

Also whether Or wher that thow, for shame or drede, 

for shame 

you ab- Lettyst for to do the 1 dede : E 1 that St.] 

B tamed, 

Or wher thow settest drede asyde, 
And on the dede dist abyde 4236 

or left shame Tyl thow haddest do thy lust, 

till you had , . 

satisfied your And after that lefftyst the rust 

desires. . 

lo kankren in thy conscience, 

In aggreggyng of thyn offence : 4240 

Al thys mote be of due ryht 

Consydred wel off euery whyht. 

' And thys the mane?- (who loke wel,) 

To breke in 2 pecys euerydel ponst,] 4244 

The vessell off thy gret offence 

Wit/i-Inne thy 3 owne conscience : [ 8 thyn St.] 

in this way i Smy t yt vfith the harner sore, 
vessel of your Tyl yt on pecys mor & more 4248 

sins, 

Be mad by pleyn contricion), 
By swych consyderacion) 
That ther abyde fylthe noon. 

'And thus I werke alway in on, 4 poonst.] 4252 

With thys hamer that I holde, [stowe, leaf 79, back] 
Al vnclennesse to vnfolde ; 

I 5 breke al douw, & spare nouht p And St.] 

Off no thyng that ys done or thouht, 4256 

tin ail are Tyl that trewe purgaciouw 

purged by 

contrition. Be makyd by contriciouw. 
[leaf 65] ' But yet a lytel word, I praye 

That I mot vn-to yow seye, 4260 

Off thys olde pot texpresse, 

Wych ay ys ful of vnclennesse, 

Off whos ordure, gadyrd off old, 
in tins pot i Wit/i-Inne yt sylff, as I ha told, 4264 

engendered ,. . 

secretly a Engendryd ys a werm (in soth.) 

worm, 

Wych ful grete 6 damage doth [ 6 grete St., gret c.] 
By long processe, yiff yt abyde. 



Penance breaks Conscience in bits by Contrition. 



113 



' ffor thys worm), hy?tt-sylff doth hyde 4268 

Wit/i-Inne thys pot ful couertly, 
That no man may wel espy 

/ f v 

Off hys engendryng, fer nor ner ; 

Nor of hys norysshyng the maner. 4272 

Thys, the wenn of conscience, 
"Wych hath hys teht 1 by vyolence [' Teth<? St.] 

Hardere (who that looke wel,) 

Than outher Iron outlier stel ; 4276 

Wonder cruel, ay fretynge, 
And ryht perillous in percynge, 
So fer forth (yt ys no drede,) 

But he be slayn in verray dede, 4280 

Thys mortal werrn wyl neuere fyne, 
Vp-on hys mayster for to rnyne, 
And gnawe vp-on hym day & nyht, [stowe, leaf so] 
Tyl he ha slay hym thorgh hys myght, 4284 

Thorgh hys dredful vyolence. 
' But for to make resistence, 
Ageyn thys werm, hym to w/t/t-stand, 
I ber thys 2 hamer in my?* hand, [ast.] 4288 

And smyte a-pon hy?w ay so sore, 
And spare hym nat, but mor & more 
I ley vpon hym, to be wroke. 

And thys ys whaw the pot ys broke 4292 

On pecys smale, vp & douw, 
By verray trewe contrici'oure. 
ffor yiff y t wer nat broke aright, [c. A SLJ 

Myn hamer sholde ha no myght : 4296 

Thys the Fyn, shortly to seye, 

To si en hym nor 3 to make hym deye. p.stowe] 
Wherfor ye moste 4 suffre wel [* ye must* St., . . most c.] 
That I breke hy? euerydel 4300 

On pecys smale, the werm to presse, 
Tavoyde away al vnclennesse. 
And on thys werm, (yiff ye lyst se,) 
Thus I shal avengyd be ; 4304 

Make hym lowly to obeye, 5 [ s to beye c., tobeye St.] 
That he of verray force deye 
To-for yow in your owne syht. 

PILGRIMAGE. I 



which is 
called Con- 
science. 



It must b 
slain, or it 
will never 
cease to prey 

iil'on its 
.mister. 



To kill it, I 
lay upon it 
with my 
hammer. 



[leaf 65, back] 



It must be 
broken in 
pieces, 



and it must 
die. 



114 



Penance explains what her Besom is. 



My hammer 
is Contrition. 



[Cap. Ivi] 



You may 
now learn 
concerning 
my Besom, 



and why I 
be;ir it in my 
mouth. 



[leaf 6(5] 

Care in re- 
quired in its 
use, 



lest filt)i be 
left here and 
there, 



' And thus, yiff ye take hede a-ryht, 4308 

Thys the sygnyfycaci'oim 

And verray exposici'oun 

Off thys hamer that ye her se ; 

The wych ys namyd, ek off me, 4312 

(Trewly, in conclusyoiw,) [stowe, leaf so, back] 

Nat ellys but contryctouw. 

' Swynge vp-on, yiff ye lyst lere, 

Off the bysrue ye shall here, 4316 

Wych, myd my teth, 1 day by day, [Tethest.] 
Wtt/i-Inne my mouth I bere alway, 
As I to-forn ha told yow here ; 

And how I am the Chauwberere 4320 

Off hym that ys most myghty kyng. 
And thys bysme ys wel syttyng 
To hyre that ys a chauwberere. 

But yt may happe, the manere 4324 

Ys vn-to yow a thyng vnkouth, 
That I yt holde thus in my mouth. 
But yiff I made mencyoun 

Off the Exposyc'iouw, 4328 

Ye knowe wel, (yt ys no doute,) 
That who that 2 euere shal castew eute [* so St.] 
Any f el the or vnclennesse, 

Out off a place, he most dresse 4332 

The bysme wysly to and fro, 
That he nat be-syde go ; 
But that he haue ay in mynde, 

That felthe noon be leffte be-hynde, 4336 

Lyst, in the purgaciouw, 
Men myghten han suspecyouw 
That any maner vnclennesse, 

Thorgh slouthe or foryetylnesse, 4340 

"VVer lefft be-syden, her or ther, 
In any Angle or Corner, 

ffor the bysme was nat redy [stowe, leat si] 

To swepe cleno by & by. 4344 

ffor, by swych occasi'ouw, 
Ther myghte, of felthe gret foisouw 
Be couert, as yt happeth offte, 



Penance's Account of the Five Gates: one of Filth. 115 
On liepys reysyd hih a-loffte 4348 Penance. 

In SOm Angle, Est Or West, or be covered 

in heaps in 

The wych thyng wer nat honest. corners" 11 

' And to purpos off thys matere, 

In holy wryt, (as ye shal here,) 4352 

I have y-rad f ul yore Agon) i have read 

J J of divers 

Off dyvers gatys mo than on, Gtes, 

And sondry namys, (who taketh hede) 

They hadde sothly as I rede, 4356 

Gaate 1 off the welle, men dyde on) calle; Portafontis 

And a-noth,er, A-mong alle, [' Gaate St., Graate c.] 

As the byble kan yow telle, 

!Xamyd Was the gate Of helle. Portainfemi 4360 as the gate 

J of hell and 

And A-nother I kan nevene, the gate of 

heaven, 

Callyd was the Gate off hevene ; Porta eeii 

And a-nother gate ther was, 

That was callyd the gate off bras, 4364 one of brass, 

' another of 

And also ek, to laste long, ron ; 

Ther was a gate of Iren strong. Porta fen-ea 

But A-mong hem euerychon 

Nee'mye speketh of on, 4368 and one called 

-*_..* byNehemiah 

And callyd ys in scripture the Gate of 

The gate off felthe & Ordure, [C. &St.] Porta Sterquilinij [leaf 66, back] 

To voyden 2 (In conclusions) 

Alle the fylthes of the Touw j 4372 

Out by that gate, day be day, ,, [stowe, leaf si, back] out of winch 

J was carried 

Alle the donge to lede away, a11 t||iit cou'd 

corrupt the 

That no maner corupcyouw ) ,, town - 

Nengendre nat with-Irme the Tou?j. 4376 

And bet yt ys, as thynketh me, 

That thylke place defoulyd be, 

Than al the cyte wer encourabryd 

"VVyth ffylthes, wych may nat be noumbryd 4380 

Wych euery day encresse off newe, 

And mor & mor ay do renewe. 

' But wher that I am chauwberere, where I live 

And abyde, (as ye shal lere,) 4384 

ffor to do my besyuesse, 

2 ' For ther-bi men curon and putten ont alle filthes.' Camb. 
p. 35. 



116 The Fwe Gates which let Filth into Man. The 6th Gate. 

penance. And Grace Dieu ys ek maystresse, 
there are six That ther be .vj. 1 Gatys large. psyxe] 

gates, 

Wych to kepe, ys a gret charge, 
As I shal to yow descryue. 
by five of ' And off thys syxe, ther be fyve 

Wllicllttll J J > J 

kin.is of filth By wych al mane?- vnclennesse, 

are admitted; J * 

ffylthe, ordure, and wrechchydnesse 4392 

Entreth in, erly & late. 

Off wych fyve, the fyrste 2 gate [fflrstst.] 

that is hy Ys callyd the gate off smellyng, 

2! hearing*' The lother the gate off heryng, 4396 

s. touch, The tother of Touch, the fourthe of tast, 

The ffyffthe (wych I rekrie last,) 
and s. sight: Callyd ys the gate off syht. 

And by thys fyve, day & nyht, 4400 

Entreth in-to that mans'iouw 

Al felthe & al corrupcyouw 

And al ordure (yt ys no doute), [stowe, leaf 82] 

The wyche 8 may nat comew oute [ 3 which* St., wych c.] 4404 

Ageyn by hym 4 in no manere, [hemst.] 

and the sixth And therfore, As a chawwberere, 
[Cap. ivii, ' ' The syxte gate I stonde & kepe, 

prose.] 

[leaf 67] And wztA. my bysme faste swepe, 4408 

Do my peyne & besynesse 
Tavoyde away al vnclennesse. 

' ffor thys syxte gate, in soth, 

Gret helthe & gret profyt doth ; 4412 

ndoutofit ffor yt maketh purgaciouw 

I sweep nil 

corruption. Oft al maner corrupoiouw ; 

And al fylthes round aboute, 

By that gate men putten oute. 4-116 

Who that wyl with-Inne be 

Clene off al dishoneste, 

To purge hy??t clene, as he best kan. 
This suth Thys gate ys callyd 'the mouth off man,' 4420 

Gate is man's . - , 

Mouth, Most profytable oft euerychon), 



for alle fylthes ther-out gon, 

filth goes in _, , - , 

confession. Evene as they wer done in dede ; 

No thyng concelyd for no drede, 4424 

Dut seyd vn-to hys confcssour, 



6th Gate, Man's Mouth. Penances Tongue is her Besom. 117 



pi, om. st.] 4428 



Wit/4 dyllygence & gret labour, 
"With terys and lamentac'ioun. 
'And I 1 ha most affeciouw, 
At thys gate to abyde ; 
To make yt fayr on euery syde, 
I purge, I swepe, I make yt clene, 
ilor fylthe noon) I may sustene 
Ther tabyde, in no manere. [stowe, leaf sa, back] 

And whyl that I am chaumberere 
To Grace Dieu, my maystresse, 
I wyl kepen in clennesse 
Hir dwellyng & hyr mansi'ouw 
ffrom al manere corrupci'ouw. 
And my bysme, that al thys doth, 
Ys myn owne Tonge, in soth, 
Whev-v/ith I swepe & make al wel. 
That felthe abyde neueradel, 
Hill nor lowh, in no maner, 
I cerche eche Angle & ech corner ; 
Euery hoole, gret & smal, 
I remewe, in especial, 
Clene wit/j-outen & wit/i-Inne, 
The fylthe of euery maner synne ; 
Caste hem out, & spare nouht. 
And ther ys no comer vnsouht, 
But that I go to euery place ; 
Now her, now ther, aboute I trace, 
By verray pleyn confessiouw, 
Wit/t-oute fraude or decepci'ouw, 
Ther may no thyng me skape fro, 
ffor Grace Dieu wyl yt be so. 
ffor she ne wyl no-wher abyde, 
But yt be clene on euery syde ; 
Whos chauwbre & whos mansion??, 
Dwellyng, & habytaeiouw 
Ys trewly, (wtt/t-oute offence,) 
Verray clene conscience ; 
And ther she wyl abyden ay, 
Whan aH fythe's be put a-way, 
And that yt be clene & entere. 



4432 



4436 



[C. & St.] 

[St & C.] 



4440 



4444 



4448 



4452 



4456 



4460 



[Stowe, leaf 83] 4464 



At this gate 
I abide to 
make it fair 



[Cup. IviiiJ 



While I bold 
my office I 
will keep ull 
clean. 



The Besom 
with which I 
do all this is 
my Tongue. 



[leaf 67, back] 



Nothing can 
escape my 
vigilaiiccMH 
Confession. 



The dwelling 
of Grace Dieu 
is Conscience. 



118 Penances Roch for her Children young and old. 



Penance. 

[Cap. lix, 
prose] 
Now I have 
told you all 
the manner 
of using ray 
besom; 



I will tell you 
why I carry 
these small 
Rods. 



As a school- 
mistress I 
chastise 
children who 
do wrong, 

[leaf 68] 



whether they 
be 20 or 100 
years old. 



When they 
do amiss, I 
lip in wait for 
them, 



and make 
them repent, 



[> that i St.] 4468 



4472 



4476 



4480 



4484 



' !N"ow, haue I told yow the maner 
Off my bysme verrayly, 
And declaryd also, how I 1 
Make ther-wtt/t confessyotm 
By certeyn exposicioim 
As ye ban herd her by & by. 

' But I shal telle now shortly 
Vn-to yovr a lytel tale, 
Why I bere thys yerdys smale : 
U I am off scolys a maystresse, 
Chyldren, in ther wantownesse, 
Affter ther gyltys to chastyse, 
That wyl not lerne to be wyse ; 
I mene thus, whan they trespace 
Boldely, a-for my face, 
Off age thogh they be xx ty yer, 
Outher an hundryd, fer or ner, 
Men may ful wel hem ' childre ' calle, 
ffolk that ben in synne falle : 
And hooly wryt, Ked Y-saye, 
In hys wrytynge, doth specefye 
A chyld an hundryd wynter old, 

(In hys wrytyug yt ys told,) 

Swych a chyld a-cursyd ys ; 

And therfore, whaw they don) Amys, 

In a-wayt y lygge alway 

To wyten whether, ye or nay, 4492 

My 11 hamer hem touchyd any thyng, 

Or whether they, in ther purgyng, 

Vn-to my bysme submyttyd be, [stowe, leaf as, back] 

Off lownesse and humylyte, 4,496 

That they be swept clenly at al, 

And that the hamer breke smal 

ffyrst by trewe contricyoun 

And verray iuste co?zfessifoun. 4500 

Thanne A-noon myre yerde I take ; 

And amendys for to make 

By repentauwce, in diuers wyse, 

With my yerde 1 ham chastyse, 4504 

Putte he? to penaunce of entent 



Penance makes Folk go Pilgrimages, fast, and pray. 119 



' To brynge hem to amendement, 

And to haue in remembraurcce 

Ther olde sywnys in substaiwce ; 

And whan they thynke on ther trespas 

if ul offte sythe to seyn ' alias, 

That they so sone dyde assente ! ' 

And than they seyn, ' I me repente, 

O, Lord God, of my mysdede, 

Off al fals lust & flesshlyhede. 

But tho\v that art my Creatour, 

I am A-knowe my/z erronr, 

And axe off the forgyff (e)nesse, 

Makyng be-hest in sothenesse 1 

Neuer lier-af ter for to be 

Hardy for toffende the.' 

Thus I make hewt, wt't/i gret peyne, 

Oon hour to wepyn & cowepleyne ; 

Another hour, by largesse, 

ffor to geven gret almesse 

To pore folk that be" nedy. 

' Another 2 tyme also I [stowe, leaf s*] 
Make hem go on pylgrymage, 

Barfoot, by many streiht passage ; 4528 

I make hew faste, 3 preye, & wake, P faste st, fast c.] 
And to were (for Crystys sake,) 
On ther bodye's ful offte 
Sharpe heyre's, no thyng sofEte. 
And thus my smerte 4 yerde I vse, 
Alle synnes to refuse, 
And do wtt^-al correccioun, 
Only off entenci'ouw, 
That the remors of noon offence 
Abyde in ther conscience, 
Nor retourne ther ageyn. 
ffor I wyl be wel certeyn 
That olde synnes 5 punysshed be 
Off Ryghtwysnesse & equyte ; 
ffor, wt't/i-oute punycyouTi, 
Passeth no transgressi'ouw ; 
ffor, who to synne doth assente, 



4508 



4512 



4516 

[ l sotheiiesse St., sotlwesse C.] 
[C. & St.] 

4520 



4524 



[ 2 And another St.] 



4532 

[* gmerte St, smert C.] 



4536 



4540 



synne St.] 



and confess 
to God, 



and ask of 
Him forgive- 
ness. 

[leaf 68, back] 



Thus I make 
them to give 
alms, 



go on t>il- 
grimafje, 



fast, and 
pray. 



Thus I use 
my Rod. 



Thus old 
sins receive 
righteous 
punishment. 



4544 



120 Penance is the Portress of Righteousness. 



All who sin 
must repent. 



The Rod I 
use is named 

Satisfaction. 



[leaf 60] 



[Cap. Ix, 
prose.] 
Thug I have 
made you a 
sermon of my 
name and 
office, 



and of my 
coming be- 
tween you 

and Musu*. 



Righteong- 
ne88 made me 
Porteress, 



that none 
should ap- 
proach with- 
out me. 



' Moste affter-ward hyw repente ; 

And have due repentaurcce 

And vnderfongyn hys penaurece 4548 

ffor hys sywnes newe & old. 

And ther-fore, thys yerde I holde, 

Wych namyd ys (of iuste resouw,) 

Trewe satysfaccyoun. 4552 

' And sothly, (yifF I shal nat feyne,) 
Satysfaccyouw ys to seyne, 
Asseth that ys mad for synne, 

And that a man haue wit^-Inne 4556 

As myche sorwe & repentaurace, [suwe, leaf 84, back] 
As he hadde fyrst plesauwce, 
Lyk to hys flesshly appetyt, 

Or in hys synne fals delyt. 4560 

Off equyte & good resourc. 

' Now haue I made yow A sarmoun 
Off my name & myn offys, 

And told the cause (yiff ye be wys,) 4564 

Off my komyng A-mong thys pres, 
A-twyxe yow & Moyses, 
And sette me ek (yt ys no fable,) 
Eveue Aforn) hys owne table, 4568 

In myn entent, & thys the cheff, 
Be cause ye Axen the releff 
Off hys dyner, on & alle 

And ther-affter faste calle, 4572 

Wz'tA wonderful gret bysynesse. 

' But vn-to yow I shal expresse 
The cause off my stondyng here 

Yiff yt lyke yow to lere. 4576 

I am my-sylff the porteresse, 
(Maad off verray Ryght \vysnesse,) 
Off the releff that ye sen her, 

And the trewe chauraceler, * 4580 

That noon of hih" nor lowh" degre, 
Kome no ner wt't/i-oute me, 
ffor thanne ye dyde gret offence. 

ffor thys releff, in existence 4584 

Sholde be yove for no thyng 



Tlie Sacrament of Bread and Wine, Christ's Flesh. 121 

' To swyche as ben in ther lyvyng, Penance 

ffoolys nor trwauwtys in no wyse ; ment^iTood 

ffor, as I shal to yow devyse, [stowe.ieafss] 4588 fo"^"^^ 

Thys releff ys the trewe ffoode, 

Ordeyned for he?tt that be goode ; 

Inwardly in ther hertys brent, 

And in the loue off God fervent, 4592 [leaf eo, back] 

To hooly pylgrymes, day be day [c. & St.] 

That gon the verray ryhte way, ,, 

And off verray travayllynge 

Ben also syk & languysshynge, ,, 4596 and for those 

J o J J b who hunger 

And 1 hunger han to be recuryd. [' stowe] a H d H 1 , 1 .?. 

after Right- 

To 1 swych thys releff ys assuryd, eousness. 

That kan yt 1 hetyn deuoutly, 

To resseyue 1 only ther-by ,, 4600 

Parfyt Elthe in ther entent, 

And gostly ek allegement, 

And 2 contynue ther pylgrymage, piost.] 

Day be day, in ther vyage, 4604 

As pylgrymes sholde koraie, 

The weye 3 wych they ha be gowne, [ s weye St., wey c.] 

Off trewe menyng, no-thyng feyned : 

To swych thys releff was ordeyned 4608 it was given 

J J J by Christ 

Off Cryst Ihesu at the souper * the Las t 

J Supper, 

Whan hys Apostlys sat ful ner. 

He brak & partyd yt to ech on, 

Wher as they setyn on by on, 4612 

The Grete Thursday at hys mauwde, 

Off hys largesse & gret bou/ztee, 

Whan he sat with hem at the cene, when He sat 

with His dis- 

Gostly to swych as he knewe clene. 4616 cipies. 

To swych, he gaff hem alderlast 

Hys owne boody for cheff repast, 

As the cheff cherysshynge foode [stowe, leaf sa, back] 

To alle folkys that be goode. 4620 He gave it to 

' And peplys off hih" & lowh" degre 
Thorgh-out the world sustenyd be, 
And therby han ther sustenauwce, 
In al vertu hem-sylff tavauwce. 4624 

The wyche I kepe ful streihtly 



122 Penance, ends. Charity tells who she is. 

Penance. f In myw entent, that fynally 

Yt be nat touchyd of no whyht, 

[leaf 70] But he to-forn (as yt ys right, 1 ) [istowe] 4628 

ce"ve8*i" uiitii Be with iny yerde 2 fyrst chastysed, [* yerde St., yerd c.] 
chastised and And also (as I ha devysed,) 

Wiifi myw hamer broke a-two, 

And wit// my bysme swept also ; 4632 

That he be purgyd al aboute, 

Bo the wit/i-Innen & w/t/<-oute : 



and old do as 

i command.- To werkyn affter my devys, 4636 

Whether that he be yong or old.' 
[Cap. ixi, And whan thys lady hadde al told. 

prose.] 

And yt 3 declaryd (al yfere) [ yt St., m. c.] 

Off hyr offyce the nianere, 4640 

Then the U The tother lady that stood hyr by, 

other lady, J J J 

charity, Gan presse forth, & was redy 

stood forth, r 

and said: (Lych as ye shal vnderstond,) 

"With the scrypture in hyr hond, 4644 

Off the wych to-forn) I tolde ; 

And hyr lettre she gan vnfolde, 

And in opyn audyence 

Thus she seyde in sentence. 4648 

charity. ' Syrs,' quod she, ' yiff ye lyst lere, [su>we,ieaf86] 
YOU imve Ye han herd al the manere 

heard Pen- 
ance describe How thys lady, Dame Penaurace, 

her office, 

Hath declaryd in substau?ice 4652 

To yow hyr offyce by & by. 
And, by your leue, now wyl I, 
In hope I may your thank dysserue, 
and now i Declare wher-off that I serue, 4656 

hope you will 

hear me. Off niyn offyce & my degre. 

' I wyl ye wyte, that I am she 

That neuere hadde yet delyt / 

To haue no persone in despyt, 4660 

Hill nor lowh, in no degre ; 
My joy lias ffor al my loye, wherso I be. 

ever been to 

prosper ail As fer forth as I ha myght, 

men, 

Ys to forthren euery wyht. 4664 

And neuere yet, for no greuauwce, 



Charity feels for all Folk, and gives to the Poor. 123 

' On no man I took vengauwce. [stowe] [leaf 70, back] 

Myn Enemyes also I fforbere ; charity. 

And myn Entent ys nat to dere [St. &c.] 4668 andioveaii. 

men. 

To no persone nor to no man, 

As fer forth as euere I kan. 

I am modre off al vertue ; 

And I am she (as yt ys due,) 4672 

That clothe folk wych nakyd be ; 

And of mercy & of l pyte [lofst., om.c.] imadest. 

J r J Martin cut 

I made Seyn Martyn, yore agon, MS mantle 

(Al-be that he hadde but on,) 4676 

Hys mantel to kutte A tweyne, 

And dyde al hys bysy peyne 

To clothe the poore, wych nakyd stood to clothe the 

Myd off the gate, devoyde of good. 4680 

I am noryce of al nedy, [stowe, leaf se, back] 

And I herberwe comouwly i shelter the 

homeless, 

Al pylgrymes in ther nede ; 

And I am she (yt ys no drede.) 4684 and feei the 

adversities 

That ffele as myche harm in me of others, 

Off other folkys aduersyte, 

As they hem-sylff that yt 1 endure. 

And al 2 my goodys (I ensure.) paiiest.] 4688 and divide 

' my goods 

Be comouw vnto euery whyht, among the 

Whan they ha nede, as yt ys ryht. 

' Seyn Poul sayd ek, in hys wrytyng, 
Off vertu he hadde no thyng, 4692 

"WWi-oute that he hadde me ; (i Cor. xiii. i 3) 

And that he myghte in no degre st. Paul 

could do no 

Wit/i-oute me do no good dede. (?<*><> Ae * A 

without me. 

And trew(e)ly (who taketh hede,) 4696 

No good 3 dede nor good 3 en tent pgoodest.] 

Ys worth, but yiff I be present, 
Among estatys hih nor lowe. 

' And yiff ye lyst my name knowe, 4700 My name is 

ft 11 \ A j nu Charity - 

I am callyd dame Charyte, 

That liaue al folk in cherte. 4 [* cherte st., ceice c.] 

1 Camb. MS. reads : I am ... Thilke that loueth alle folk 
with liol herte, with-oute yuel wil ; thilke tliat seecheth no 
vengeaunce, ne neither showveth ne smyteth ; thilke that hath 
set hire entente to forbere hire enemyes, pp. 36, 37. 



1 24 Charity visits the Sick, and makes Folk think of Christ. 



Charity. 

I cherish the 
despised, 
feed the 

hungry, 



and visit the 
sick. 



I comfort the 
distressed, 



speak well of 

all men, 



[Cap. Ixii] 



and remind 
thrm ot the 
mercy of 
Christ, 



who humbled 
Himself 



Deaf 71, back] 
to suffer and 
die upon the 
cross. 



4704 



4708 



4712 



'And other, that folk haue in despyt, [leaf 71] 

Hem to cherysshe, ys my delyt ; 

I ffeede folk that hongry be, 

And parte wtt/i hem off my plente ; 

And vysete hem that lyggen seke, 

And dwelle wt't/i folkys that be meke ; 

And for no cost I do not spare, 

To be glad off the welfare 

Off euery other mane/* whyht, 

As off myn owne of verray ryht. 

' I am she that paciently. 

Kan suffren, & benyguely [stow,iemf87] 

Alle sorwes wel apese. 

And I am she that kan done ese, 4716 

Al hevynesses to recure. 
And I am she that set no cure 
Off grucchyng nor detraccioun ; 

ffor thys ys my condici'oun, 4720 

Harm to speke neueradel, 
But, off ech man to sey wel, 
Wych I holde a gret vertu. 

11 And yiff he haue off Cryst Ihesu 4724 

Any maner RemewbrauTjce, 
I made hyw for to ha plesaunce 
Off mercy, as I reherse kan, 

ffor loue to be-kome A man, 4728 

And taken your humanyte, 
And suffren, by humylyte, 
Deth for your sake, & passi'oun ; 

Made hywi fro hevene kome A-doun, 4732 

And suffren ek (as yt ys founde,) 
To a pyler to be bovnde, 
And tendure (that Lord most fre,) 
Wit/i sharpe thornys crownyd be, 4736 

And sprede hys Armys on the rood, 
And for your sake shede hys blood ; 
And to a croos to be ek nayled, 

And doun therby hys blood y ray lied [C. &st.] 4740 

To-forn, be-hynde, & eue?y cost, 

And to his Fader yelde hys goste, 



Charity sent Christ to Hell. Christ Jesus' s Testament. 125 

In to his hand hys spyryt take. [st.&c.] charity. 

' Al thys I made hy?, for your sake, 4744 

Tenduren off entenciouw, 

To make your redempciouw [stowe, leaf 87, tack.] 

That wer for synne lost echon. 
And to helle I made hyra gon, 4748 He went o 

hell to fetcli 

To fette hem out that ley ther bouwde, thence those 

who were 

The deveH 2 power to COnfoUwde, [* Devellys St.] bound by the 

r devil. 

Wych hadde grevyd man so sore. 

' And I shal telle yow euermore, 4752 

How thys kyng most souereyne, 
To-forn hys passi'oim & peyne, 
And hys tonnentys wonder strongo, 
Or he the deth sholde vnderfonge, 4756 Before Hi 

death Christ 

He fforgate nat off entent 'n'' e His 

Testament. 

ff or 3 to make hys testament. [ 3 stowe] 

The forme ther- off to endyte, 

He callede me yt to wryte : 4760 

ffor to make the forme bettre, 

My sylff wrot yt, Query lettre i wrote it, 

And namyd yt (yt ys no les,) and railed it 

J J VJ J T/te True. 

' The trewe testament off PCS.' Testamentum pads. 4764 Testament 

of Peace. 

Wych to-for yow alle I brynge, 

That ye may ha knowelychynge 

What maner thyng ther-on doth sue, 

And what to yow ther-off ys due, 4768 

I wyl yow reden the sentence, i win read it 

J to you, if you 

Yiff ye wyl yiven audyence. win listen. 

Lo thys yt ys, herkneth echon, 

As I shal her rollers A-noon. 4772 

The testament off Cryst Ihesn. 
I. Ihesu, sone of Marye. rstowe, leaf ss] [Cap. ixin, 

prose.] 

Wych namyd am (\\ith-outc lye) i, Jesus, who 

Trouthe, Sothfast lyff, & weye-, "So*' 

Now to-forn or that I deye, 4776 'I 1 * w ife> " IKl 

The deth off whom ys ful certeyne, 
And how I shal endure peyne ; 

But tO-forn, of good entent before I die 

T . . will make My 

1 wyl mak my testament. 4780 win. 

' And fyrst off alle, wylfully 



126 The last Will and Testament of Christ Jesus. 

c/iarity. I bc-qiiethe enterly 
i bequeath My soule vn-to my Fader dere, 

my Soul to 

God That syt above the sterrys clere, 4784 

Yt to kepen & conveye, 

And to governe yt in the weye 
for Him to Whan y t shal descends douw. 

keep while I c-'j ~i_~V~ 

descend into In-to the dyrke 1 mansyoUW [> dyrke St., dyrk C.] 4788 

Off the foule pyt of helle, 
Wher as fendys euere dwelle, 
My frendys ther to fette a-way, 

Wych ha be ther se many day, 4792 

To delyvere hem out off wo. 
My Body i ' And my body, I quethe also 

bequeath to 

the sepulchre To the sepulkre, for dayes thre, 

days, and to \Yych Joseph hath mad for me. 4796 

true pil- 
grims, Wych Body I leve also 

To trewe pylgrymes that her go, 
As thyng that most may hem avaylle 
Hem to releue 2 in ther travaylle; [ 2 Rereieve st.] 4800 
to sustain As cheff Repast, hem to sustene 

them. 

In ther vyage ageyn al tene. 

My Heart to Myn heite I quethe (ek Of en tent.) [Stowe, leaf 88, back] 
those who * 

keep My To aU that my comauradcment 4804 

command- 
ments j Kepe, to ther power feythfully, 

And my statiitys enterly. 
My Mother My Moder, I leue to Seyn lohan, 

to St. John, ' - 

To be a-vaytyng euere in on 4808 

Vp-on hyre, in al the smerte 

That she shal felyn at hyr herte, 

Whan she me seth in gret mescheff, 

Deaf 72, back] Lad to my deth-ward as a theff ; [C. &st] 4812 

sustain her Wych shal thorgh hyr herte blyve, ,, 

8imii sutter Sharper than any swerd y-Ry ve, 

And maken hyre in Terys drowne, 

And offte sythe's for to swowne 4816 

Off verray nioderly pyte : 

But than shal lohan hyr socour be 

In hyr lamentaci'ouws, 

ffor trouble off my passi'ouws, 4820 

To cou?forte hyre in al hyr wo. 



The last Will and Testament of Christ Jesus. 127 



' And to Seyw lohan I leve also, chanty. 

That he may han perseueraimce aiso J ieave 

To sen me in my gret suffrage ; 4824 ^ u nce 

ffor, he ys my frend certeyn, 
And so am I to hym ageyn 
ffrendly, off verray kyndenesse, 
Wych ys not meynt wit/i doubylnesse. 4828 

' My blood, I quethe ek for Kauwsouw My Blood i 

give to those 

To al that haiie 1 COWnaSSlOUre P that liaue St., thaue C.] who have 

* compassion 

Off my deth, & ek of me, on Me; 

And off the grete aduersyte 4832 

That I endure for her sake. 

To alle swych my blood I take, 

That kepe hem clene out off synne, [stowe, leaf so] it win cleanse 

Therby that .they may hevene Wynne 4836 aii sin. 

Ageyn al persecucyouw 

Off the ffendys temptac'iouw ; 

Ageyn hys myght hem to provyde, 

The large wonde vp-on my syde 4840 

Al hope, 2 I geue hem to refut. [ 2 Oope St., open] 

' To m't/i-stonde hys felle sut, 
As champyouws -with hyw to stryve, 

My wondys I geue hem alle fy ve.; 4844 My Five 

The grete karectys, brood & Eeede, leave to timse 

J ' whoconteiul 

To plete for he?n whaw they ha nede, with the 

devil, 

I make ther vocat of my blood ; 

And thogh ther cause be nat. good, 4848 

Wit/i- synne Apeyred, & trespace, [leaf 733 

Ther-by that they may gete 3 grace, [ 3 sete my st.] and also be 

reconciled to 

Only of mercy & 4 pyte [+andoffst.j Me. 

Reconcyled ageyn to me, 4852 

A-noon, as they ha r<$pentauwce, 

And Amende hem by penauwce, 

And preye to me in ther dystresse, 

ffor to grauwte hem forgyffnesse. 4856 

' And to save he??i fro meschaunce, 
I 5 make ek an ordynavnce p And St.] i also make 

T . T 10 an ordiiisiiK-e 

L,awes to be rad & songe, which i be- 

r\ i i PC A n f> queath to 

Lompyled ott myn ovvne tonge, 4860 young and 

Wych I be-quethe to yong & olde, 



128 The last Will and Testament of Christ Jc&us. 



Charity. 



that T shall 
be a Mediator 
between God 
and man. 



My Peace I 
Rive to all the 
world. 



It is the 
fairest gift I 
ever gave, ex- 
cept Myself. 



[leaf 78, back] 

Peace is the' 
most perfect 
jewel made 
by My 
Father. 



[Cap. Ixiv] 

It is good to 
pit the ex- 
ample of 
Peace in re- 
membrance. 



'To plete for hew, & plees 1 holde [> piees St., pies c.] 
To-for myw owne Ffader dere, 

In al ther nedys fer & nere, 4864 

Ther to ben her aduocat. 
And (tavoyden al debat.) 
I shal for hem be swych a mene, 

Off synne to putte away the tene, [stowe, leaf 89, back] 4868 
The tenys off eternal wo. 

' And my pes, I gyue also 
To al the world in habondauwce, 

Wherby they may hew sylff avauwce 4872 

And ffraurcchysen at the beste, 
Tlierby euere to lyve in reste, 
In perfyt loye ay tabouwde, 

Yiff the ffaute be nat fovmde 4876 

In them sylff, for lak off grace 
Yt to refuse for ther trespace : 
ffor, in pes ay to perse"uere, 

So ffayr a gyffte gaff I neuere, 4880 

My sylff except, vn-to no man, 
Syth tyme that the world be-gan. 
ffor who consydreth, & loke wel, 
Pes ys the parfyt lowel 4884 

That al Eychesse doth transcende. 
Verray pes doth ek amende [c. & St.] 

Al vertues that men kan nevene ; 

And pees was fyrst wrought in heuene, 4888 

Off thylke souereyn Carpenter 

That syt aboue the sterrys cler, 

That forgyd fyrst, (who lyst look,) 

Wit/i-outen any noyse or strook : 4892 

Strook nor noyse inake?i no pes, 
But they yt breke douteles. 

' Wherfore, As semeth vn-to me, 

Yt ys good that the exaumple be 4896 

Off pes yput in Reme??ibrauwce, 
Wych ys the ground off al plesauwce. 
And off thys pes, by good Eeson, 
That ther be shevvyd a patrovn, 4900 

To knowe the verray exauwpleyre, [stowe, leaf 90] 



The Last Will and Testament of Jesus Christ. 



129 



And tavoyden hys contrayre. 
Verryly in portrature 
Ye shal sen her the ffygure. 
The portrature off pes to make, 
' ffyrst ye shal a squyre take, 
A Squyre off a carpenter ; 
And ye shal vse thys maner : 
ffyrst, to done your bysynesse, 
The Ton ende vp-ward to dresse 
Hih" a-loffte, ryht as lyne ; 
And ferthermor to determyne, 
The tother ende lower douw, 
So that (in conclusion?*) 
The Angle corner in your syht, 
Wych loyneth the Endys lyne ryht ; 
In wych corner (yiff ye lyst wyte,) 
Ther ys in soth An ' A ' y wry te. 
Than lynealy, yiff ye descende 
Douw vn-to the lower eude, 
Ye shal fynde wryte A, ' P,' 
And alder hyest ye shal se 
In that ende An ' X ' yset ; 
And whan thys lettrys ben yknet, 
loyned in on, who kan espye, 
Parfyt pes they sygnyf'ye. 



4904 



4908 



4912 



Charity. 



To make the 
' portraiture ' 
of peace, lake 
a carpenter's 
square : 



let one end 
stand up- 
right : 



in the an^le 
formed hy 

4916 the two sides 
you will see 
the letter A. 



4920 



[St.&C.] 



4924 



[6 lines blank in MS. for an 
Illumination, no doubt. 

The figure here is from the 
Stowe MS., leaf 90.] 



i 
Ai 



And overmor, thys lettrys thre [stowe, leaf 90, back] 

Ar tooknys, that in vnyte 

He sholde ha verray loue & pes, 

With thre thynges douteles. 

He that hath pocessiiouw 

Off thys lowel, most off Renou., 

And he to whom Cryst hath yt take, 

Sholde kepe for hys sake 

Pes -wilt eue/y maner whyht. 

PILGRIMAGE. i 



4928 



4932 



Look to the 
lower end, 
[leaf 74] 
and you'll 
seep, 
and in the 
upper end the 
letter x. 



[Cap. Ixv] 
These three 
letters are 
tokens of 
peace. 



130 The Last Will and Testament of Jesus Christ. 

charity. < And fyrst above, as yt ys rylit, 4936 

By A- i am Wlier as the .X. condygiiely 

signified. 

Ys set a-loffte, as most worthy 
By wych (yiff yt be espyed,) 

I am trewly sygnyfyed, 4940 

In tookne that noon be rekkeles, 
Peace be- ffyrst to haue pwfyt pes 

Uveen God 

imdiuecan W/t/i God & me, wych byth al on, 

never be 

separated. And may neuere assondev gon ; 4944 

And also (as I shal devyse,) 

That he (in no maner wyse) 

Ne do no thyng in no degre 

Wych that sholde dysplesii me : 4948 

Peace re- And yiff yt happe, off neclygence, 

strains men J J Jfo 

from offend- A-geyn me that he do offence, 

ing me. & 

[leaf 74, back] x ln alle haste that he hym peyne [stowe] 

To with-drawe hym / and Restreyne 4952 

ffrom alle evellys, for my sake [c. & St.] 

And that he amendys make, 

Hys trespasse to ben a-knowe. 

[Cap. ixvi] ' And in the corner that stent lowe, ,, 4956 

where you Wher as ye sen An ' A ' stonde, 

seethe^tlmt J 

represents Ther-by pleynly ys vnderstonde 

the soul of J f J J J 

man. The sowle off man, with whom ech whyht 

Sholde ha pes, of verray ryht. [stowe, leafoi] 4960 

So that in a marchys 2 thouht [* mmmys st.] 

Synderesis ne gruchche nouht, 3 

(Definition of (Synderesys, to speke in pleyu, 

Suwlerenit.) V J J ' 1 J 

Ys as myche for to seyn, 4964 

By notable descripcioiw, 

The hiher party of Eesouw ; 

Wherby A maw shal best discerne 

Hys conscience to governe,) 4968 

Thorgh no trespace nor offence, 

By no Remors off conscience ; 

Lat euery man tak hed her-to, 

And vritit your neyhebour also 4972 

1 Alle declcs don ayens my wille ben restrcincd and amended. 
Camb., ]). 39. 
:i Lines 4963-68 are written on the margin opposite 1. 4957. 



were 

aiiy 



The Last Will and Testament of Jesus Christ. 131 

' Ye most ha pes & vnyte, chanty. 

Syeh ys ytokenyd by the .p. ThcTpb^r" 

tokens peace 

And ys yset fyrst off echon. 

' And that ye sholde be al on, 4976 

Thexau?ple techeth yo\v fill wel, 
(Yiff ye consydren euerydel,) 

How ye bothen, in^QJyne because p 

Stonde, & may yt not declyne. 4980 (BOM tin* 

Lyneally, yt ys noon other, 
As brother verrayly to brother, 
Nature wyl that yt so be, 

Hih" and lowh", off o degre, 4984 

Bothe tweyne ymade lyche ; 

The pore man & ek the ryche, and aii men 

At the gynnyng, as ye shal lere, 

Al forgyd wern of matere, 4988 

Touchyng ther ffyrste orygynal, 
And bothe tweyne be mortal ; 
The Ton, the tother, in certeyue 

They be but werme's bothe tweyne, 4992 

And they ne kan he?>& sylffe nat kepe, [c. &st.] [leaf 75] 

But that they shaH to erthe krepe ; 

When that deth doth hem assaylle. That winch 

happens to 

' ff or what ys worth, or may avay lie. ,, 4996 one happens 

J J to another, 

A felouri herte or hardynesse, ,, 

Daunger, despyt or sturdynesse, 

Nat may socoure vp-on no syde, [stowe, leaf 91, back] 4999 

Ther deynous port, ther grete 1 pry de, [' grete St., gret c.] 

Yt may hem done noon avautage, 

ffor al shal passe By o passage, 

And by on hole off gret streihtnesse ; 

Powerte & ek rycliesse, 5004 

Al goth way, bothe gret & smal ; and au go 

T^ .. , , oneway. 

Excepciouw ys noon at al, 

To helpyn in thys streihte nede. 

' Wherfor euery man take hede, 5008 wherefore 

Thorgh pryde to be nat rekkeles, lest tins jewel 

Thys ryohe lowel callyd pes, 
To kepe yt wel, & lese yt nouht. 

'And euery man, in herte & thouht 5015 



132 



The Last Will and Testament of Jesus Christ. 



Charity. 



All testa- 
ments should 
be signed in 
peace and 
unity.' 



[leaf 75, back] 

[Cap. Ixvii, 

prose.] 
When 

Charity had 
finished the 
testament, 



she went on 
to say, 



' You have 
liriii-il in 
what I have 
read, 



how Christ 
gave His 
peace and 
other gifts 
to men. 



' Do hys dyllygent labour, 

To ha pes with hys neihebour, 

As roote off al perfecciouw, 

Yp to parforme the patrouw 5016 

Off vnyte & sothfast pes, 

Tendure & lasten endeles ; 

So as yt ouht, off iust resouw, 

As tookne off the tabellyouw, 5020 

With wych, in pes and vnyte, 

Al testamentys sholde be 

Sygned & markyd comoxwly, 

And ek cowfermyd openly. 5024 

' And tovchyng her thys wryt present, 
Callyd of Cryst the testament, 
With tookne off tabellioun, 

I marke off entencyouw 5028 

To last in pes & vnyte.' [C. & St.] 

*And whan thys lady Charyte 

Hadde Eadd and yoven off Entent 

The pes off Cristes Testament 5032 

To alle folkys that were there, [stowe, leaf 02] 

Chargy?ige hem, 2 off herte entere, [ 2 stowe] 

Affter the fforme 2 euerydel, ,, 

Al ther lyve 2 to kepe yt wel, 5036 

Anoon a-geyn, as ye shal se, 
Thys 3 fayre lady Charyte pihisst.] 

Hyr tale gawne al openly, 
Sayynge thus benygnely. 5040 

Charyte speketh hyr ageyn. 
' Syrs,' quod she, ' ye haue herd al 
By thys lettre (in specyal) 

Wych I ha rad 4 in your presence [* reddest.] 

Openly in audyence, 5044 

How Cryst Ihesu, off hys goodnesse, 
And off hys grete kyndenesse, 
Out off thys world whan he sholde gon, 
Gaff hys pes, to yow echon, 5048 

1 Camb. MS. reads : Whan charitee hadde al rad this testa- 
ment, and rested, thanne she bigan ayen hire parlcmcnt, and 
sniche woord.es she seyde afterward, ' Lordiuges, &c., p. 39. 



Penance and Charity needed for the Lwd's Supper. 133 



I will tell you 
why I am put 
between you 
and the table 
of Moses. 



[Cap. Ixviii, 
prose. J 



' Wit/i many gyfftys off gret prys, charity. 

Wych ye shal kepe, yiff ye be wys, 

As I ha told in ech estat ; 

ffor pes devoydeth al debat, 5052 

Wher yt abydeth parfytly. 

' But I shal telle the cause why 
That I me putte fyrst in pres 1 p prees st., pes c.j 
Atwyxe yow & Moyses, 5056 

And the table wher as he stood, 
ffor me-thouht yt was nat good [stowe, leaf 02, back} 
That noon off yow, in no degre, 

Sholde a-proche wit/i-oute me 5060 

To clayme part (thys, the cheff) 
At hys table, off the releff 
But I my-sylff wer ther present. 

'And ek the sayde testament, 5064 [leaf 76] 

That I ha told off in substauwce, 
And yiff ye haue in remembrauwce [c. & st.] 

Dame Penaunnce yow tolde so, 

Yiff ye took good hed ther-to, 5068 

Wz't/i-outew hyre, thys the ende 2 p thende c., st.] 
Ye be nat hable for to wende 
To the table off Moyses. 

And but ye haue ek parfyt pes 5072 

Wiih yow echon, & also me 
Wych am ynamyd Charyte, 
Ye be vnworthy & vnhable 

To ha the releff off hys table. 5076 

ffor yt were a presu?7z.pc'iouw, 
And a gret transgress'iouw, 
To neyhen ner, or to be bold, 
Or to clayme (as I ha told) 5080 

Off that releff most specyal, 
Wher-off ech part ys on & al, 
Ther ys ther-in no dyfference ; 

And therfor, lat be noon offence 5084 

In yow, vp-on no maner syde, 
But that aforn ye yow provyde, 
As I the charge haue on yow leyde.' 

And whan Charyte hadde al sayde, [Stowe, leaf 93] prose.] ' 



Without pen- 
ance you are 
unable to 
reach the 
table; 



and unless 
you have 
peace you 
cannot have 
relief. 



It were pre- 
sumption to 
approach 
without 
preparation.' 



134 



Moses gives the Leavings of the Supper to all. 



Pilgrim. 

When 

Charity had 
finished the 
pilgrims 
pressed 
forward, 



ai id presented 
themselves 
before Moses. 



[leaf 76, back] 



But I saw 
tioine who 
were un- 
worthy. 



They liid 
themselves 
from Charity, 
nnd fled from 
Penance. 



Moses 1 iR- 
stowed his 
gU'ts on all 
alike, 



but the bad 
came away as 
lilarl; as a 

collier's sack, 



And mad a ful conclusiovw 

Off hyr speche & hyr sarmoiiw, 

Pylgrymes hem putte fast in pres 

Toward the table off Moyses ; 5092 

Conveyed ech in ther degre 

Wt't/i parfyt pes and Charyte, 

And wit/?, verray repentauwce, 

Confessiiou?i, & ek penaunce. 5096 

Pylgrymes alle off good entente, 

To Moyses they hem presente, 

As they myghte hem redy make, 

And, the releff off hyw take 5100 

fful devoutly off assent. 

And Grace Dieu was ay present [c. ft St.] 

Whan they, w/t/i gret deuocyoim, 

Took yt in ther entencyoun, ,, 5104 

And \vith a clene conscience. ,, 

But I sawh ther in presence, 
So??ime pressen to the table 

That wer vn worthy & vnhable ; 5108 

Wych held hem-sylff fer out asyde, 
And fro Charyte gan hem hyde, 
And fledde also fro dame PenauHce ; 
And yet hera-sylff they gan A-vauwce, 5112 

Oif boldenesse al shameles, 1 C 1 shameies st., shamies c.] 
ffor to receyve off Moyses 
The releff, wher as he stood. 

The wyche thouhte 2 nat but good ; 5116 

ffor he, off clene affecci'ouw, 
Gaff yt wtt/j-oute excepci'outt 
(Off the plente that he hadde,) [stowe, leaf 93, back] 
To pylgrymes good & badde, 5120 

ffor he noon hede ne dyde take. 
But they retournede foul and blak 
I mene, swych that of boldnesse 
Toke yt nat in clennesse, 5124 

As they ouht ha done off ryht ; 
Swych wer foul & blake of sylit 
Lyche 3 to a colyers sak. p Lyche St., Lych c.] 

ffor in hem-sylff was all the lak 5128 



[* whiche tliouphte St., If. US ; 
wych thouht C.] 



Good Pilgrims are satisfied, tho the Food seems small. 135 



5132 



5136 



5140 



5144 



5148 



That they semede so odyble, 
Stynkynge also, & horryble, 
Hungry, thorgh ther gret offence, 
& nedy in ther conscience ; 
And, for lak off good entent, 
Wer also ful indygent, 
And voyde ek off al gostly foode. 

' But sothly, thylke that wer goode, 
And goostly tooke ther ffedyng, 
They wer fulfylled in all thyng 
Off that releff most in substaurcce, 
And ther-in hadde al suffysauwce, 
Keplevysshyd in herte & thouht, 
Off other thyng them nedede nouht. 
The goode pylgrymes thouhte so, 
That they wer Eedy for to go 
(Thorgh suffysauwce off that repast) 
ffro the table whan they wer past, 
And, to-forn) alle, as they koude, 
ffor verray loye they seyde loude, 
That they wolde noon other thyng, 
Hem to sustene in ther lyvyng, 
And to deffende hem fro damage 
As they wente on pylgrymage 
As pylgrymes good and sadde. 

But mervayl of thyng I hadde 
Wit/i-Inne my sylff, & grete 1 doute 
That swych A meyne & a route 
As was ther, to putte a 2 preff, 
Was fulfyllyd off the releff, 
The wych was (as thouhte me,) 
So verray smal in quantyte. 
Wher-off I gan wondre sore, 
And merveylle mor & more, 
And thoghte, thogh ther hadde be 
Ten so myche in quantyte 
Off releff lefft at the table, 

Me sempte that I hadde 3 be bable [ 3 hadde St., on. c.] 
At dyner, my-sylff ryht wel, 
To have hete yt euerydel, 5168 



[Stowe, leaf ffi] 



Pilgrim. 



liungry and 
indigent. 



[leaf 77] 



The good 
pilgrims 
canie awuy 
satisfied, 



5152 



[> grete St., gret C.] 

5156 

P in St.] 



5160 



5164 



and desired 
no other 
sustenance. 



[Cap. Ixx, 
prose.] 



I wondered 
that so little 
could satisfy 
so many. 



I thought I 
could have 
eaten ten 
times as 
much myself. 



136 / ask Grace Dieu to explain the Mystei'y. 



Pilprim. 



[leaf 77, back] 



Vet each 
}>ilgrim had 
hud enough, 



nnd had been 
made mighty 
nnd strong. 

[Cap. Ixxi, 
prose.] 



I thought I 
had lost my 
reason. 



o I went to 
Grace .Dieu, 



and asked 
her tor some 
proof of the 
truth of what 
I had seen. 



[leaf 78] 



And yet nat had (to my plesauwce) 

Halff A repast of suffysauwce. 

And yet, the pylgrymes eue?ychon 

Sayde & affermede, On by on, 

That they fonde swych fulsomnesse, 

And so plentuous largesse [c. & st.] 

As they yt tooke by good leyser [St. & c.] 

At that merveyllous dyner, 

That to euerych (in ther guyse) 

A lytel dyde ynovvh suffyse. 

And euerych (in especial) 

Was ther fulfyllyd \vith ryht smal 

Ther-wzt/i, myghty mad, & 1 stronge. 

Wher-vp-on I gan ful longe, 
And thouhte (A-mong hem euerychon) 
Myn vnderstondyng was agon 
ffor lak off wyt in gret dystresse, 
And forcloudyd -with dyrknesse. 
Reson was hyd, so sempte me, 
That I kowde hyr nowher se ; 
In al that place, I sawh nat tho, 
No whyht I myhte speke vn-to, 
Save Grace Dieu, wych ther abood, 
And to-for the Table stood 
Off Moyses ; & off entente, 
Vn-to hyre a-noon I wente. 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination^ 

The pylgrym askede. 
' Ma dame,' cpiod I, ' I ha gret nede 
That ye wolde, off goodlyhede, 5196 

And off your gret excellence, 
Shewen to me som evydence 
How yt myghte shewyd be, 

That so lytel quawtyte 5200 

Off thys releff (in any wyse) 
Myghte of resouw ynowh suffyse 
To so manye as ben here ? 

ffor, ma dame, (& ye lyst lore,) 5204 

Swych ten in quantyte [stowe, leaf 95] 

Wolde nat suffysen vn-to me 



5172 



5176 



5179 

[Stowe, leaf 94, back] 
[' and made St.] 



5184 



5188 



5192 



Bread and Wine are changed to Christ's Flesh and Blood. 137 



[Cap. Ixxii, 

prose.] 

She answered 
me, 



' I will tench 
you by and 

by. 



At dyner, to my delyt, Grace 

To fulfylle myn appetyt.' 5208 

Grace Dieu answerde, 
' I leue ryht wel,' quod Grace Dieu, 
' Touchyng thys merveillous vertu, 
Thow hast gret nede for to lere ; 
But herkene now, & ley to here, 
I shal the teche verrayly 
The pryvytees, by & by, 
Bothe by evydence & preff. 

' Thys ylke vertuous releff, 
Som whyle (who yt vnderstood) 
ys ynamyd flesshe & blood, 
And soni tyme (tak good heed,) 
Yt ys ycallyd wyn & bred, 
Goostely mete & goostely foode ; 
To pylgrymes that be goode, 
fflessh & blood yt ys no doute ; 
Bred & wyii shewyd wit/i-oute, 
Al be yt so (yt ys no dred,) 
That yt to-forn was wyn and bred, 
As thow knowest wel certeyn ; 1 c 1 in certeyn St.] 
But Moyses (no thyng in veyn) 5228 

Vp-on hys table (as yt stood) 
Hath tournyd yt to fflessh & blood. 
Thys ys trewe, & verray soth ; [stowe, leaf 95, back] 
"Wher-off nature was ryht wroth ; 5232 

Anger made hyr herte ryve, 
And ther-vp-on gan with me stryve : 
She knewe no ferther (thys, the ffyn) ^ 
But that yt was ay bred & wyn. 5236 

' Thow shalt wel knowe how that she 
Sawh nat the grete pry vyte, [c. & St.] 

ffor lakkyng off dyscrecyouw, 

Off thys ylke mutacyouw, 5240 

But 2 I the charge ther I stonde, pstowe] 

That Hessh & blood thow vnderstonde, 
And so beleue yt verrayly, 

And lat nat meue the outwardly, 5244 

Thogh that yt shewe outward so 



5212 



5216 



This food is 
changed 
5220 ''' OI bread 

and wine into 
flesh and 
blood 



5224 



by Moses 
for good pil- 
grims. 



Nature was 
angry at this 
because she 
understood 
not the 
mystery. 



[leaf 78, back] 



138 Four of Man's five Wits deceive him. TJie fifth, 



Gra 



Touch, taste, 
sight, and 
smell are de- 
ceived. 



Four of man's 
wits lire clean 
gone, 



but the fifth 
wit, or hear- 
ing, 



makes up for 
all the rest, 



[leaf 79] 



as it did to 
ls;mc when 
Jacob de- 
ceived him 



in the matter 
of the potagc, 



' In touch & syhte bothe two, 

Also in tast & in smellynge 

Lych bred & wyn Rescrub[e]lynge, 5248 

Outward, as by apparence ; 

Trustii shortly in sentence, 

Thy fowre wyttys (lerne of me) 

ffynally deceyved 'be ; 5252 

Off verray foly they be blent, 

That they ha noon Entendement, 

The trouthe trewly to cowcey ve ; 

Swych dyrknesse hem doth deceyve, 5256 

That the offyce of hem echon 

Ys from hem 1 foure clene agon, c 1 hem St., hym c.] 

ffor lak, pleynly, of knowelychyng. 

< But the fyffthe wyt off heryng 5260 

Wych nior clerly in sentence 
Haueth full intelligence 

He techy th the wyttys euerychon [stowe, leaf ec] 
Evydeutly what they shal don), 5264 

The tast, the touch, & ek the syht, 
Smellyng also (off verray ryht,) 
Whan they ha lost ther knowelychyng, 
The ffyffthe, that callyd ys Heryng, 5268 

Aparceved hath so wel, 
That he knoweth euerydel 
In thys matere what shal be don). 
And thys was fyguryd longe a-gon, 5272 

Ked the Byble, yiff ye lean, 
In Ysaak, that olde man, 
Whan Esau (to hys entente,) 

In-to the feld on huntyng wente, 5276 

And hys labour spente in veyn. 
ffor longe or that he kam 2 ageyn, pkomest.] 

lacob verrayly in dede, 

Cladde 3 in Esawys wede, p ciadde St., ciad c.] 5280 

Wit/i her 4 vp-on hys hondys layd [ hcer st. (hair)] 
(As hys moder hadde hyw sayd,) 
To Ysaak helde 5 hys passage, p hcide St., held c.] 

And to hym brouhte the potage 5284 

In ryht gret hast, (as he was tauht,) 



Hearing, is alone trustworthy, as Isaacs case shows. 139 



And sayde, he hadde hys pray ykauht 
In venery, amyd the feld. 

' But, Ysaak no thyng be-held, 5288 

ffor he was dyrkyd off hys syht, 
And gretly feblyd off hys myght, 
ffor Touch & smellyng wer agon ; 
And Ysaak wende euere in on, 5292 

That Esau hadde be present. 
But Eebecca, off entent, 

Sente lacob in hys name ; [stowe, leaf oe, back] 

ffor in hyr herte she hadde a game, 5296 

Esau, to sette abak. 

' But thys olde 1 man Ysaak [' oide St., oia c.] 
The pa try ark of grct vertu, 

Took lacob for EsaU, [Took / lacob / for / Esau] 5300 

In touch, in tast, & in smellyng, 

In syghte also ; but hys heryng 

"Was hym be-lefft, hool & entere. 

And thus he sayde, as ye shal here : 5304 

' The voys of lacob semeth me ; 

Off Esau, the handy s be ; 

I here lacob speken wel ; 

But the handys that I fel, 5308 

The handys ben off Esau.' 

' Consydreth now how the vertu 
Off Touch", & ta?t, smellyng, & syht [St. & c.] 

Hadde pleynly lost hys myght ; 5312 

The force off heryng sty lie a-bood ; ,, 

Wit/t Isaak, ryht so yt stood. 

U By wych exauraple, tak good heed 
ffor profyt off thyrc owne speed, 5316 

Off thys fygure that I ha told ; 
Lefft vp thyn eyen & be-hold : 
Avauwce the nat, nor mak no bost, 
ffor thy .iiij. 2 wyttys thow hast lost. [ 2 ffoure St.] 5320 
Ther myght, ther force, ar fro the wey ved ; 
Yiff thow truste hem, thow art deceyved ; 
ffor Tast nor touch in no degre, 

Nor 116 thyng that thow kanst se, 5324 

]S"or thy smellyng (tak good hed,) 



thinking it 
was KSUII 
who brought 
it. 



All his senses 
deceived him, 
except hear- 
ing. 



" The voice 
is the voice 
of Jacob, 



but the hands 
are the hands 
of Esau." 

[leaf 79, back] 
[Cap. Ixxiii, 
prose.J 



By tins ex- 
ample take 
heed, 



and do not 
trust to your 
four senses, 



140 Let Hearing guide you. Christ's Flesh and Blood. 



Grace Dieti. 



but let hear- 
ing be your 
guide ; 



it will teach 
you the plain 
truth. 



Bread and 
wine are the 
very flesh 
anil blood of 
Christ, 

[leaf 80] 



which 
nourish the 
whole world. 



5328 



ffoure St.] 



It was sent 
from heaven 
to lix-d man. 



Ne she we to the but wyn & bred 
By ther engyn, hih" nor lowe, 
Thow ue shalt noon other knowe. 

' Thy ffoure wyttys set a-syde, 
And lat heryng be thy guyde ; 
ffor, thys .iiij. 1 in sothfastnesse 
Kan nor may ber no wytnesse. 
Wher-for thow mustest, for the beste, 
Abyde on heryng, and ther reste ; 
ff ully truste to hys sentence ; 
Yiff feyth to hyw, & ful credence ; 
ffor heryng shal, wi't/t-oute slouthe, 
Teche to the, the pleyne trouthe, 
liyght as yt ys, ne doute yt nouht. 

' And conceyue wel in thy thouht, 
Thys releff (yiff thow kanst take hede,) 
Ys pleynly nother wyn nor bred 1 , 
But the flessh (yiff feyth to me,) 
That heng vp-on the roode tre, 
And, by force & verray strengthe, 
On the croos was drawe alengthe, 
fful streyhtly nayled on the rood ; 
And thys ys ek the verray blood, 
On goode ffryday that he shadde, 
Whan lewe's to the deth hyw ladde, 
Wher-off he was steyned reed. 
H Thow mayst also call yt 2 bred, [ caiie yt St., caiiyd c.] 
Thys same releff, (wit/i-oute stryff,) 
The verray sothfast bred off lyff. 
Wych susteneth (I the ensure,) 

Al the world wit/i hys pasture, 5356 

And yiveth to hem in substaurace [stowe, leaf 97, back] 
Verrayly ther sustenawice. 
^1 And ek also (thys niyra vsage, 

Ther-off to ban thys language, 5360 

Looke thow take good heed ther-to,) 
I calle yt bred, & name yt so ; 
Wych, for niawhys 3 savac'ioun, 
ffro the heuene kam a-dou?z, 5364 

To ffcde man her verrayly. 



5332 



5336 



5340 



5344 



5348 



5351 



Hie est panis qui de 
celo descendit. 

[3 mamies St.] 



Charity sowd the Heaven-brought seed of Christ on Earth. 141 



5368 



[St. & C.] 



' Yt ys the bred, ek, trewly 
Wher-wa't/i Auwgelys fedde ybe 
In that hevenly souereyw se. 
Thys bred, pylgrymes euerychon, 
On pylgrymage, (wher they gon,) 
Or wher-so-euere that they were, 
In ther sherpe 1 they shold yt bere. [' scryppe St.] 5372 

' And thogh that thow (as sempte the,) 
Sey yt but lyte of quawtyte, 
I charge the, her a-noon ryht, 
Trust in no wyse to thy syht, 
Nor to thyn Eyen, wych ar blynde ; 
But haue alway wel thy mynde 
To thyn heryng ; & ther only 
Tak thy doctryne fynally ; 
ffor, by heryng thow shalt lere 
A thyng that I shal the tellyn here : 

' My frend, take good bed, & se. 
Thow herdest late Charyte 
Maken to the a good sarmouw, 
But (as in conclusion^,) 
Thys lady (yiff thow took good bed,) 
Spak but lytel off thys bred 
In hyr sarmou/i (thus stood the caas) ; 
And pleynly, thys the cause was ; 
ffor she hyr-sylff the menys souhte, 
That she the greyn from hevene brouhte, 
And made yt in the erthe lowe 
Her be-nethe to be sowe ; 
But that erthe, (be wel certeyn,) 
Wher as sowe was thys greyn, 
Was nat labouryd (trust me wel,) 
Mor yheryd neue?-adel ; 
Vnderstonde yt, yiff thow kowne. 
ffor, by hete off the so?me,- 
That shyneth fro the heuene A-loffte 
With hys attempre bemys sofl'te, 
And the hevenly dewh most clene, 
Wit// hys syluer dropys shenc, 5404 

(The wyche 2 doth no thyng in vcyn,) [ 2 wiiichc St., wych c.] 



Angels 
teed on it in 
heaven. 



5376 



5380 



5384 



5388 

[Stowe, leaf US] 



5392 



5396 



The food 
seemed little 
in quantity, 
but your 
sight de- 
ceived you.' 



[Ieaf80,backJ 



[Cap. Ixxiv, 

prose.J 
[Camb., p, 43] 



Charity 
preached hut 
little of this 
bread. 



She brought 
the grain 
from heaven, 
and sowed it 
in earth. 



The sun and 
the dew made 
it spring. 



142 The Grain of Christ was cut, inilld, and baked. 



Grace Dieu. 

When ripe it 
was cut mid 
garnered. 



Then it was 

thresh <-d and 
cleaned, 



[leaf 81] 



and brought 
to the mill 
and ground. 



The mill 
was turned 
liy the winds 
of envy. 



The stones 
were scorn 
and derisinn. 



Stowe, leaf 98, hack] 
1 Alle made St.] 

[ olde St., old C.] 



Charity made 
the flour into 
bread, 



'Made to growen vp thys greyn, 
Tyl yt was rype & ful off corn. 

' Than Charyte yt hath vp shorn, 
And in a place wonder straimge 
She made yt leyn vp in hyr grawjge, 
Tyl the thressherys (wt't/A gret hete) 
Hadde thys greyn ythrysshe & bete ; 
And after fannyd yt so clene 
That ther was no chaff ysene, 
And the strawh yleyd a-syde ; 
ffor ther ne myghte nat a-byde 
Husk nor chaff, but puryd greyn, 
Nor, no thyng that was in veyn, 
Al mad l nakyd off entent, 
Out off hys olde 2 vestement. 

' And whan yt was so ffer ywrouht, 
Thys greyu was to the melle brouht, 
And grounde ther \rith ful gret peyne 
A-twyxe the harde 3 stonys tweyne. [ hardest., han 
And yiff I shal the so the 4 telle, [* sothe St., sotu c.] 
The seyl-yerdys off the melle, 
"Wych tournede aboutew offte, 
"Wer clad in cloth that was not soffte. 

'Tys 5 melle ek (yiff thow canst espye,) ['Tim 
Wyth false wynde's off envy,e, 
(Wher as yt stood vp-on the growide,) 
Tournede euere aboute Round ; 
And the Grynstonys (that I off spak) 
^lad ful harde for the wrak, 
Wer stonys off derysi'ouTiS ; 
Off skorn, & fals illus'iouws, 
The wych two (who kan aduerte) 
Perceden ful nyh the herte. 

' And whan no thyng was lefft at al, 
But that yt was ygrouwde smal, 
Charyte gan neyhen ner, 
And wolde be-come a pasteler, 
Lych a baker, (yt ys no drede,) 
Off that flour to make her bred. 
And hyr Ovene was of old 



5408 



5412 



5416 



5420 



5423 



5428 

St.] 



5432 



5436 



5444 



Wisdom hclpt Charity to make Bread that fed the Wwld. 

' Verray hote, (& no-thyng cold,) Grace pie*. 

Wher-as she caste hyr for to bake. 

'And whan she gan hyr past to make, 5448 

Al tournede nat vn-to hyr pay, but not with- 

out trouble. 

Wher-off she hadde no desmay, 

Off thylke past wych that she wrouhte. [stowe, leaf 09] 

& A-noon she hyr be-thouhte 5452 

(Among, in al 1 her besynesse,) [ Amonge / aiie St.] 

Off on that was a gret maystresse, so she 

sought aid 

So sotyle off dyscrecyoim of wisdom, 

Was nouther founde in borgli nor torn* ; 5456 Deaf si, back] 

ifor what men thouhte, or wolde liaue don, 

She koude yt brynge about a-noon : [St. & c.] 

Lernyd 2 she hadde, in hyr contre, p stowe] 

At scolys 2 ther she hadde be. 5460 

Thogh al hyr koraiyng wer nat wyst, who could 

en "\ i work inur- 

bne koude haue mad, yiff that hyr lyst, veis. 

Al the world so large & Rou?d!, 

And al the co?wpas off the ground?, 5464 

ffor tashet 3 & Closyd al P to liave shut] She would 

_. T put the world 

W it/i-lnne a sotyl boyst, but smal ; into a box, 

And off An Ey witA-Inne the shelle, 

She koude also (I dar wel telle,) 5468 or an ox into 

TT f\ j o i an eggshell. 

Ha put an Oxe strong & large ; 

ffor yt was, no maner charge 

To hyr gret magnyfycence ; 

And hyr name was^Sapience. 5472 

' And, for hyr gret sotyllyte, 
Thys lady, callyd Charyte, charity 

r> J I, C n i -i prayed her 

Frayede hyr, off goodlyhed, to knead the 

ffor to helpe 4 make thys bred [* heipen St.] 5476 

Off the fflour wych that she brouhte ; 

And also lowly hyr be-souhte 

To tempre the past so sotylly, 

That yt myghte fynally, 5480 

Off Eesemblauwce be but smal ; ^stowe, leaf 99, back] 

And that yt myghte suffyse at al and thnt the 

(By vertu, verrayly in dede) 

Al thys worlde to fostre & fede, 5484 

That ech, off lowh & hili degre, 



144 Wisdom and Charity made the Bread of Christ's Body. 

Grace DJ<;K. May, off Ijtel, ha plente. 
[cap.ixxv, ' And for thys cause ryht a-noon 

prose.] * 

Dame Charyte ys forth gon 5488 

Vn-to thys lady Sapience ; 
And -with humble Reuerence, 
As she sat in hyr Royal Se, 

Lowly, thys lady Charyte 5492 

[leaf 82] Prayede hyr good heed to take, 

Charity made _, , . , , ' - , , , 

her request to lo helpe that thys bred wer bake. 

And she goodly, and that a-noon, 

fforth with Sapience ys gon ; 5496 

And, as she koude best deuyse, 

Temprede yt in swych a 1 wyse, [> swiche St.] 

who prepared Made yt CTet Wit7/-oute mesure, 

the bread us 

desired. To yive al folkys ther pasture, 5500 

Suffycye"nt to feden al, 

Thogh to thy syht yt was but smal 

Outward, as in rdsemblauwce, 

Yet, by souereyn suffysaunce, 5504 

Closyd in a lytel space,, 
Though it Ther was so gret plente of grace 

appeared 

lime there To al the world, in habondauwce. 

was much ; 

Ther-in to fynde suffysauwce. 5508 

' Tak heed, & be nat neclygent 
Off a-n other experyment 
That ther was wrouht ; tak ek good hede, 
In the makyng off tliys bred, [stowe, leaf 100] 5512 

Yt was y wrouht so sotylly 
and iii every That in eu^'y smal party, 

part WHS tlit- 
virtue of the Severyd and ybroke asoimder, 

whole ; 

And departyd her & yonder, 5516 

Grettest & smal, Rekne echon 
Wer lych off vertu, & al 2 on ; paiiein St.] 

Off power & manere 

As whan yt was hool and entere. 5520 

The wyche 3 thyng (I the ensure,) [ 3 wiuciie st., wych c.] 
Yplesede 4 nat to dame Nature; [ 4 Piesede St.] 

at which ffor she was wroth therf or with me, 

Nature was 

again angry. And ther-on woldo ha vengyd be. 5524 

She knew ther-off no thyng at al, 



Aristotle is sent by Nature to reproach Sapience. 



145 



' ffor yt was hydde in especyal 

ffrom hyr knovvyng euerydel. 

And also ek, ye wyte wel, 5528 

Offte sythe Eyot & age 

Puttii folkys in dotage, [c. & St.] 

That they may not trouthe se. 

And for she doutede hyr off me 5532 

To be blamyd in certeyn, 

Yiff so were she kome a-geyn, 

Or put a-bak fro hyr entent, 

Ther-fore she hath hyr clerk now sent, 5536 

Arystotyles the wyse, 

In dyffence off hyr frauwchyse, 

To thys lady Sapyence. 

' And whan he kam to hyr presence, 5540 

As hyw thouhte fyrst was due, 
Goodly he gan hyr to salue ; 
Affter, demeur & sad off chere, [stowe, leaf 100, back] 
To hyre he sayde in thys manere : 5544 

[6 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Arystotyles dyde hys massage in thys manere : 
' Ma dame,' quod he, ' in-to thys place, 
Vnder support off your grace, 
Nature hath me hyder sent, 

To declare yow (off entent) 5548 

Your dyffautes, by & by ; 
And to shewe the cause why 
Off my komyng, ys 1 thys, that ye [' in St.] 

Han to-brook (as semeth me) 5552 

Off nature the ordynauTice, 

And don 2 to hyre gret grevau/zce, [ 2 done St., don c.] 
Wych pleseth me neueradel, 
Al be yt so, I love yow wel. 5556 

' Ye knowe (off your dyscrecyouw, 
Off trouthe ek, yt ys no Resoira, 
Who so cleerly looke & wel,) 

That an hous or a vessel 5560 

Sholde be lasse, & her ygynne, 3 [C. & St.] 

3 Camb. MS. reads : It is no resoun that the vessel or the 
hous be lasse than that that is ther-inne, p. 44. 

PILGRIMAGE. L 



[leaf 82, back] 

Age brings 
in dotage. 



Aristotle is 
sent by 
Natuie to 
Wisdom, 



and argues 
thus: 



[Cap. Ixxvi, 
prose.] 



' Nature has 
sent me to 
you, 



to declare 
that you have 
broken her 
ordinance. 



' [leaf 83] 



146 Aristotle reproaches Sapience for ill-treating Nature. 

Grace Dieu, ' Than that thyng wych ys wit/<-Inne. 

report* J ' J J 

Arutotie. And yiff I made to your enteut, 

it is contrary p,y appareiice off Argument, 55 64 

to reason to J ff 

?e^s a than U ttiit -A- 8 tnus > tnat I w lde preve, 

the'*o2. ln ( ffor to makii folk 



if i siionid That a paleys huge & lar<*e, 

prove a piilsce 

to be a little Qr A menstre on gret 1 charge, [igrest.] 5568 

turret, 7 

That yt wer but A Turneys smal. 
the wise Clerkys wolde (in especyal) 

w.mld say 

i was guilty Seyii yt wer but mekerye, 2 p Mokeryc si.] 

of sophistry ; J J J ' 

Or A maner sophystrye, 5572 

Shewyd, as yt wer for game ; 
[Cap. ixxvti] And ye your sylff ha do the same. 
and you imve (Yiff ye lyst to be avysed.) 

done us ill, if ' 7 J 

you maintain i n thys bred wych ys desguysed ; 5576 

ffor the foode & the pasture, 

That ys wit/*inne (as ye assure,) 

Gyveth ful repast spyrytual 

To al the world in general, 5580 

So flier the vertu doth extende ; 

And yet, that thyug to co?prehende, 

Al the erthe, in no wyse, 
that winch Nor the hevene, mowh nat suffyse, 5584 

lieaven can- 

not contain That thyng ye (in especyal) 

Han closyd in a cloystre smal, 

Who kan mesure yt, or cowpasse, 

And shet yt in a lytel space ? 5588 

can be held And swych .xiiij. e (on see or land*) 

in the hand, 

inhere were I myghte wel holden in myn hand ! 

fourteen of 

them i I trowe your sylfl: kan nat sey nay ; 

And for no fauour I ne may 5592 

Tins i cannot Suffre no lenger (in certeyn,) 

allow. * ' 

But that I muste yow w't/<-seyn, 
[ieat83,back] And declare, wher as ye ffaylle, [stowc.icaf m.h.-u'k] 

( 3 And yt ys no grete merveylle, 5596 

Who-so lyst goode heed? to take) ,, 

Thogh nature dyde awake, 

3 Camb. MS. reads : This may j nouht wel suffre, ne resoun 
may not weel ]>reeve it, ne it is not riht gret wuuder thouli 
Nature merveile hire, p. 45. 



Aristotle repi'oachcs Sapience. She answers him. 



' And ther-vpon gaff vow an bete, [c. & St.] 

Yow to wit/t-stonde & conterplete, 5600 

Touchyng hyr ryht in specyal. 

'And thys greueth me most at 1 al, [offst.] 

That my Maxime apryved, 2 P apprevyd St.] 

Ye in dede han yt reprevyd ; 5604 

And (to speke in vvordys pleyn,) 
Neuere in my lyff herde I seyn 
In-no scolys, her nor there, 
But that " on al" (what euere yt were,) 5608 

ATnf3 V>p rrrpttor tVisin Viv nartv Omne totum mains est siia parte. 

>e grettei tnan nj s party. [S Motte ^ Not c ^ * 
But ye 4 han makyd wrongfully, [*yst.] 

(I wot nat by what 5 maner scole,) [ 5 what St., no c.] 
The part Egal to the hoole, 5612 

"W7t7<-outen any difference ! 
Wych I holde a gret offence 
Ageyn nature, in verray soth. 

And no wonder thogh she be wroth, 5616 

And laboure for Amendement. 
And for thys skyle she hath me sent 
To your presence, only to here 
What ye wyl seyn in thys matere.' 5620 

Sapyence answerde. 

A-noon thys lady Sapience. [stowe, leaf 102] 

(Whan she hadde herde 6 in sentence [ herd c., herde St.] 
The wordys of Arystotyles) 

She stynte a whyle, & was in pes. 5624 

But at the laste she abreyde, 
And vn-to hym ryht thus she seyde : 
' My frend,' quod she, ' I do wel se 
Off trowthe that thow lovest me, 5628 

And dost me calle, off herte entere, 
" Thyn oune souereyn lady dere ; " 
7 In wych thow hast ylost no thyng [C. & St.] 

But yfouwde ful grete Forth eryng. ,, 5632 

Wherfor thow shuldest, ]yke the wyse, 



Grace Dieu 

reports 

Aristotle. 



You have 
disputed 
my maxim, 



and assert 
that tlie part 
is equal to 
the whole. 



Nature de- 
mands to 
know what 
you have to 
say for your- 
self?' 
[Cap. IxxviiiJ 



Wisdom 
answered : 
' I know you 
love me, 



[leaf 84] 



7 Camb. MS. reads : Thou louest me, and ther-inne thou hast 
no thing lost ; For therbi is al good bifalle thee. Wel thou 
shuldest avise thee, if thow woldest, and bithinke thee that 
tweyne scooles j heeld, &c., p. 45. 



148 Sapience answers Aristotle: Slie taught Nature. 
Grace Dieu ' Prudeentlv thy-sylff avvse, [c. & st.] 

ffpOfff 

sapience. Thynke aforn, & ek beholde, ,, 

and it is good How that whylom I dydde holde 5636 

for you that * 

you do. TWO scolys off f ul gret Renouw ; 

And bothen (in conclusion?*,) 
i had two Wer vnder my gouemauytce. 

SrhiK.U in 

wi.icii i And the, in kownyng to avauwce, 5640 

taught many 

things, I tauhte many thynges newe 

Eecord thy sylff yiff thow be trewe. 

And (to speke in wordys fewe,) 

Grete merveilles dide shewe. 5644 

and in one of And in on off thys scolys tweyne, 

them Nature 

was my chief My SCOler BlOate 1 SOUCreyn. P moste St., moat C.] 

scholar. ' 

ffyrst of echon (I the ensure,) 

Was hyr-sylff, dame Nature. 5648 

' And as thy-sylff ful wel yt knewe, 
I tauhte hyr many thynges newe ; 
ffyrst, by Graff t off hyr werkynge [stowe, leaf 102, back] 
To make the fresshe flourys sprynge, 5652 

Buddys, greyns, & flourettys, 
i taught her The flour delys, the violettys, 

to mike all , J ' 

violets, roses, The rosys also, iresslie oft hewe, 

and flowers. 

And many other craftys newe, 5656 

As men may se (who taketh hede,) 
Wych to reherse, yt ys no nede, 
I tauhte hyr al, & thynges mo. 
in my other And in my other scole also, 5660 

school I 

taught the Wych. thy sylff lyst to sue, 

ait of reason- J 

in &. I tauhte folkys to argue 

Pro & 2 contra, yong & olde, [*andst.] 

And wych wey they sholden holde 5664 

To preven out the sothfastnesse 

Off every thyng, fro the falsnesse ; 

Betwyxen good & evel dyscerne. 

[leaf s*, back] 8 And I maade ek (who kan concerne) [c. &st.] 5668 
and how to Lawes off Cy vile and Canon ; 

make canon 

and other And ther, (in myn Entencz'on) 



laws. 



3 Camb. MS. reads : And to make canoun and lawe, For 
therfore was thilke scoole ordeyned ; And ther was niy wise 
doubter science, p. 46. 



Sapience's Daughter, Science, taught Aristotle. 149 

' Myn eldest doubter, moste Entere, [C. & st.] Grace mm 

report* 

Ther I sette, folk 1 to lere, [iflbikysst.] 5672 sapience. 



Wych that callyd ys Syence," 

Sotylle, and off gret excellence ; **%%. c . $S$M. 

And ther she helde hyr parlementys, ,, 

And formede many argumentys, 5676 

As she that was deuoyde off slouthe. ,, 

ffor lone off whom (thys the trouthe,) 

Thow kam to skole ; & for hyr sake 

Nyht & day thow dydest wake, 5680 

Tyl, for thyn owne Avauwtage 

Ye wer coniunat 2 by maryage, p c-oniunctt st.] fstowe, icafios] 

Wherby I made the so wys, 

That thow be-kam myn aprentys. 5684 

And thanne, off gret affeccyo^, 

I made reuelaciourc I revealed 

many secrets 

To the, Amongys my werkynges to you, 

Off naturys secre thynges ; 5688 

To knowe the clere fro the derke ; 

Nat that thy syluen sholdest werke 

No thyng that longeth to hyr art, 

But that thow sholdest (for thy part) 5692 

The causes knowen by & by, 

And ther-on demene 3 fynally t 3 Jemen st.] 

The trouthe pleynly, & no more. 

' And for that skyle gon ful yore, 5696 and at last 

took you as 

In guerdon of thy gret labour, my friend. 

I callede the my " paramour." 

And sy th thow hast, vnder my cure, [Cap. ixxix] 

Dwellyd so longe \\iih Nature, 5700 $WA 

A j e M-I Nature lived 

And seyn so many tayre thynges, so long under 

And so many vnkouth werkynges 

Wtt^-Inne my scole, of gret fauour, 

4 Thogh thow seye in me Errour, [c. &st.] 5704 [leafssj 

Thow sholdest, off thy Curtesy, do not be 

Imrsh. 

ffor-bere me more pacyently, ,, 

Yiff thow lovedest, and wer kynde. ,, 

4 Camb. MS. reads : And whan thow and nature thus liauen 
ben vnder my cure, that han lerned in my scooles bothe laire 
dedes and faire woordes, thouh ye seyen me nowerre, yit ye 
sliulden forbere me, p. 46. 



150 Sapience didn't teach Aristotle all she knew. 

Grace oieu, ' And thow sholdest haue in mynde, [c. &st.] 5708 

sapience. And remewbren (off good Resoim,) ,, 

Smmpion How on y 8 a m yg ht y champyouw, 

a^rTn.m That koude the Crafft 0nC fyktyng Wel 

how to fight. Xauhte hys kownyng euerydel 5712 

To a poore man hym besyde, [stowe, leaf 103, back] 

And lyst ther-off no thyng 1 to hyde ; [ l no thyng / therofrst.] 

And for hys mede he took no thyng, 

OfE curteysye, for hys kownyng. 5716 

' But affterward, the case stood so 

That they sholde bothe two, 

At Requeste off dukys tweyne, 

A certeryn quarll to dareyne, 5720 

Afterwards Mete in a feld : & so they mette : 

they met in 

fight, And as they gan vp-on to sette, 

Eue?-ych other to assaylle, 

He that was wysest in batnylle, 5724 

Off wysdam & dyscrecyouw, 

I mene the maister Champyoim, 

That was avysee, & mor wys 

Sayde A-noon to hys prentys, 5728 

when the " Yt ys no ryht, wher-for I pleyne, 

champion, J 

by a trick On. to f yhte ageyns tweyne. 

which he had J J J 

not told the Ye be tweyne, I am but On." 

poor man, 

And Thaprentys tha?me Anoon, 5732 

As he bakward cast hys look, 

slew him. The tother Rauhte hym swych a strook 
That he fyl ded, & al was done : 

And thanne the mayster sayde Anoon, 5736 

" My prentys hath nat lernyd al, 
ffor I kepte 2 in especyal [ 2 kepe St.] 

[leaf ss, back] 3 A poynt, tyl that I hadde nedc." [stowe] 

'And thus, yiff thow kanst taken hode,' 5740 
(Quod this Lady Sapience) ,, 

' I taughte neuere al my Science & st.] 

To the, as I reherse shal. 

What, wenystow to knowen al ? 5744 

3 Camb. MS. reads : It is enele bifalle tliee to day, whan thou 
come ayciis me. So j sey thee, vSo god save thee wccnest. thou 
that j haue tauht thee now al my wit and al myu art, p. 46. 



She kept back part, about the Sacramental Bread. 151 

' For vn-to the, nat ne syt [c. & st.] orace oteu, 

reports 

ff 01' to knOWen al my WVt I [Stowe, leaf 104] Sapience and 

Aristotle. 

Thow dyst yt neuere yet dysserue. ,, so it is not 



Sqm-what to me I wyll reserue, 5748 

To be mor strong in bataylle, a " * arts - 

Lyst thow woldest me assay lie ,, 

"With thy sotyl sophystrye, 

To don to me a vyllonye 5752 

With argumentys off fallaas, 

Sout out in som x mane?' caas, [' sought out / in *omme St.] 

By fraude or by decepcyoura 

if or lakkyng off dyscrecyou/*. 5756 

' But tel me now A-noon, I preye, 
And the Trouthe nat geyn-seye, 
Yiff I gaff a purs to the, l( J were to 

offer yoti^u 

Ryght fayr & ryche vp-on to se, 5760 P urse > 

And wentyst forth vritJi-al A-noon ; 

And sodeynly, whan thow wer eon, a (1 y 

fiMUHl money 

Par caas thow fourade ther-in as blyue iu 5t 

Off gold thre pecys, outher fyve 5764 

Outher .vj., whan thow hast sou lit, 

Tel on, as yt lyth in thy thouht, 

Wer yt deceyt or sophystrye, should i have 

J J f J J > deceivedyou? 

Or myghtestow off gent(e)rye 5768 

Seyn I hadde deceyved the 1 
Answere ageyn ; tel on ! lat se ! ' 

Arystotylles 2 Answerde : [st., The pyigrym c.] 
' Certys,' quod he, ' me lyst nat lye, 
Yt were no maner sophystrye, 5772 

But A tookne off gentyllesse-; [stowe, leaf 104, back] 
And also (pleynly to expresse,) [icafsc] 

A sygne (as I kan devyse,) NO: but a 

Off honour, love, & gret fraunchyse.' [c.&st.] 5776 honour ami 

Sapyence speketh: 

' Certys,' quod she to hym ryht tho, [Cap. ixxxi, 

' Thys bred I haue yrnadd ryht so, 
So sotyl ek, yt ys no doute, 
But I ha not shewyd wt/i-oute 5780 

- Aristotle, in the Fr. Prose, rightly, and in Caiub. MS. Altk'iihani. 



152 Why Sapience didn't explain tlw Sacramental Bread. 
Grace Die* ' The grcte Tresour wych verrayly 

reports 

sapience. Ys shet wit/i-Inne secrely, 



bread'-"' """ ^ O1 '^ folk y S for to 



Lown u?e A y> whan the y ther-off ha nede ; 5784 

witotalfc 1 A 1101 specyally to hem that be 

ffrendys vn-to charyte, 

Wych in ther passage, nyht & day 

Holden ay the ryhte 1 way. [' Right* St., ryht c.] 5788 

Alle swych (yt ys no dred) 

Shal he sustenyd with thys bred, 

And haue ther ful repast witA-Inne, 

Swych as be nat infect \vitii synne. 5792 

And Over-mor, (yiff thow take bed,) 
if lima, Yiff the valu off thys bred 

men would 

not have Were yshewyd al wttA-onte, 

lared to eat J 

!t - Men sholde nat (yt ys no doute,) 5796 

Haue no maner hardynesse 

ffor taproche, in sothfastnesse ; [stowe, leaf 105] 

But rather, for verray feere, 

Go, seke her bred ellys where, 5800 

To ther sustentaci'ouw. 
Here is no ' But her ys no decepcyouw. 

deception. 

But curteisye & gret bouwte, 

Honour & lyberalyte ; 5804 

ffor, to speke in wordy s fewe, 

But yiff I dyde wit/i-oute shewe 

A grete 2 thyng by apparence, p grcte St., gret c.] 

The wyche, 3 as in existence, [ 3 whiche St., wych c.] 5808 
[leaf 86, back] Were nat wit/<-Inne, (who lyst se,) [C.&st.] 

piacelf within But verray smal off quawtyte, 

sninuthiiiK of _,, . , r .., 

small value, Ihou myygntest than[ej me repreve, 

And by argumentys preve 5812 

Ageyn me (in conclusyoun) 

vonmiKht A maner off decepcyouw, 

W blamed ^ nc ^ blame me in many wyse. 

rcapJhtxxii, ' And yet to the I shal devyse ,, 5816 

Another Answere, wych to the ,, 

Shal suffyse, yiff thow lyst se. ., 

I Holde yt no deceyt at al, ,, 

Thogh to the Eye it shewe smal, 5820 



She asks Aristotle if he's ever seen a Mans Heart. 153 

' And wit/t-Inne be gret & large. [c. & st.] Grace oieu, 

Wher-vp-on, her I the charge sapience ana 

1 Aristotle. 

That chow be-leue yt stedefastly, 

* ' You must be- 

And put no doute, but fermely 5824 "evem-miy. 

Truste ay so, off herte & thouht ; 

And loke thow denye yt nought, 

But her-on feythfully abyde. 

ffor yiff that I (on any syde) [stowe, leaf 105, back] 5828 Had i done 

-rr , , , . ,, otherwis-e, 

.Hadde yt mad in other wyse, 

Than thow a-forn hast herd devyse, 

I hadde, thorgh my neclygence, i should have 

mi > been blame- 

lher-in don ful gret offence. 5832 worthy. 

' But tel me now A-noon, I preye, [cap. ixxxiii, 

1 J ' prose.] 

And spare nat, platly to seye 

As thow semest in thys matere, 

Wych hast repreuyd me so here, 5836 

Off myche 2 thyng, nat yore agon, p myche st., wych c.] 

Trowest thow answere A-noon, 

That nat a-cordeth -with resouw. 

A vessel, hows, or mans'iouw 5840 YOU say the 

it / o i T vessel cannot 

May be lasse (& her I gynne) be less than 

Thara the thyng that ys wit/i-Inne. contains: 

4 But ffyrst I axe, to voyde al stryff , 
Sawh thow euere, in al thy lyff, 5844 

Off man hys 3 herte the qua?ztyte? [ 3 mannys st.] [leafs?] 

A A i i till did y 01 ' nvcr 

Answere A-geyn ; tel on, lat se ! ' * the heart 

Arystotyles Answereth : 

1 Certys,' quod he, & that ful blyth, Yes, often, 

' I haue yt seyn ful offte syth.' 5848 

Sapyence axeth: 

' Thanne,' quod she, w*t/i-oute slouthe, 
' Declare to me the verray trowthe ; 

Syth thow halst thy Sylff SO WyS, [Stowe, leaf 106] Then tell me 

How gret ys yt, to thyn avys.' 5852 i * 

Arystotyles answereth: 
1 Sothly,' quod he, ' I dar expresse, 
As touchyng the gretnesse, 
Yt ys but smal vn-to the sihte ; 

ffor ther-wit/f-al, vnnethe myglite, 5856 

An hungry kyte (& do no wast,) 



154 Man's small Heart is not satisfied with the World. 



Grace Dieu 
reports 
Sapience and 
Aristotle. 



' It is nut 
lui'tfe enuugli 
to teed a 
kite.' 



'What is 
its inward 
capacity ? ' 



' Nothing can 
satisfy it.' 



[leaf 87, back] 



' It lias been 
said 



t h;it no place 
in the world 
is empty.' 



1 Ther-off ban a ful ropast, 

To stauwche bys hunger (for gret nede,) 

At the ifulle hy*-sylff to Ifede.' 5860 

Sapyence axeth : 
Quod Sapyence to hym ageyn, 
' Than axe I the (no thyng in veyn,) 
Yiff thow knowe auht, answere to me, 
The inward gret capacyte 5864 

Off an herte, wych ys so smal ; 
And yiff yt myghte (to reknen al,) 
Be fully fed in any wyse ; 

Or what thyng myghte to yt suffyse 5868 

To appese hys gret delyt, 
Or stau?/che hys gredy appetyt.' 

Arystotyles answerd : cstowe, leaf ioc, back] 

' Certys,' quod Aristotiles, 

' I dar afferme douteles, 5872 

Ther ys no thyng that I kan se, 
That may Gyve ful sawle 
(Who that wysely kau aduerte,) 

ffor to stauwche a gredy herte, 1 5876 

Nat alle the world, yt to fulfyl, [stowe, leafioe, back] 
Thogh" yt were hooly at hys wyl.' [stowe] 

Sapience argueth : 

Than we her-vp-on / quod Sapience, ,, 

' Yt behoueth in sentence, [st. & c.] 5880 

That the fulfyllyng in substau??ce 

To the fulle haue suffysaimce ; 

Or ellys yt mot nedys be 

That the wlgar atictoryte, 5884 

Wych for thy party thow hast leytl, ,, 

Prevyd by argument & seyd, ,, 

In al the world, thow toldest me, ,, 

Ther may no place voyde be ; Non cat dare vacum 5888 
And yiff that woyde wer any thyng, 
Yt sholde folwe, off thy seyyng, 
That yt niuste f ulfylled be ; 

1 Camb. MS. reads : Serteyn, quod he, fulfille it, and saulc it, 
and stauuche it, mihte not al the world, thouh al at his wille 
lie hadde it, p. 48. 



So the Thing containd can be greater than What contains it. 155 



' Or ellys off necessyte 5892 

Yt muste algatys voyde a-byde : 

Thy sentence me lyst nat hyde.' l [ to hyde st ] 

Arystotyles Answerde : [stowe, leaf m] 

' Touchy ng,' quod he, ' that I ha sayd, 
So ye be nat evele apayd, 5896 

I wyl afferme the same yit, 
I wende trewly to my wyt. 
ffor to speke in wordys pleyn, 

That gret Good most souereyn 5900 

Sholde (but yiff my wyt be dul,) 
Make a thyng ffor to be ful.' 

Sapyence speketh: 

'ffor-soth,' quod she, 'thow seyst ryht wel, 
And ther-in erryst neueradel. 5904 

But yt behoueth (yf thow kanst se,) 
That yt mot nedyes gretter be 
Than al the world ys off gretnesse ; 
And than mot folwen in sothnesse, 5908 

(Vnderstond, & herkne me,) 
That yiff that thyng sholde closyd be [c. &st.] 
W/'t/i-Inue the world, (yt ys no drede,) ,, 

On som party yt muste excede, 5912 

(I dar ryht wel the trouth expresse,) 

Or overgon yt for gretnesse.' 

Arystotyles : 2 [ St. adds Answenl '] 

' Certys,' quod he, ' I may nat wel [stowe, leaf 107, imck] 
In thys wit/t-sey yow neueradel.' 5916 

Sapyence argueth : 
' Than her-vp-on,' a-noon quod she, 
' In any wyse how myght yt be, 
That thys world, so gret in al, 

Wit// [in] an herte that ys so smal 5920 

Myghte be put, or closyd be ? 
if or thanne, o tf necessyte 
Mot nedys folwen, & off Resoun, 

The hous or thabitaciu >ura 5924 

Mot be lasse (a preff to wynne,) 
Than the thyng yput wi't//-Innc. 
"Wher vp[on], conclude I may 



Grace Dieu 
reports 
Sapience and 
Arittotle. 

' God created 
tlie world 
full.' 



' And tin.- is 
truth.' 



But must l>e 
greater tliun 
the world, 

[leaf 88] 



and must 
extend 
beyond it. 



Therefore 
the house is 
less than 
that con- 
tained in it. 



156 All Rome and Athens can be held 

Grace oieu ' That al thy wordys (yt ys no nay,) 5928 

sapience and Be repreuablc foiwde in dede, 

Aritotle. 

~ And verray fills, yitf thow take hede. 
[Cap. ixxxiv, ' Also to the I shal devyse 

i win prove A preff in a-nother wyse, 5932 

manner? 1 '' 6 By open demonstracyoufzs. 

Hastow nat ben in thilke touws, 

Eome, 1 and Atlienys ek also, 

And soiourned in bothe two, 5936 

fful many a yer in bothe leyn, 

The manor & the gretnesse seyn, 
YOU imve And be-holde ther gouernaurcce 1 

seen Rome 

and Athens Now yiff thow haue in Rcmembrawjce 5940 

many times? 

By cler report off outher touw, [stowe, leaf IDS] 

Tel me thyn Oppynyouw, 
[leaf 88, back] What space of land they do contene, 

And yiff thy wyth may eke sustene, [stowc] 5944 

HOW far are I charge the that thow me telle 

they apart? 

HOW many What noumbre off clerkys ther-in din-lie, ,, 

students have 

they? 1 Off ther estate and ther degres, [c. &st.] 

And the gretnesse of ther cytes.' 5948 

Arystotyles answerede : 

' Certys,' quod he, ' to sey the sothe, 

They are They be gret and large bothe, 

large, and J 

have many Rovmd off COmpaS. & rVIlt WTO6. ,, 

students.' 

And many scolerys ther a-byde, 5952 

And many a-nother craffty man, 
As I ful wel Remembre kan.' 

Sapience Axeth : 
Quod Sapience, ' than pray I the, 

thyng that thoAv telle me ; 5956 
where then Touchyng ther makyng and byldynges. 

have you put . , ' 

aii the great- Yift thow hast al thys grete 2 thynges [ 2 grot c., ^rete St.] 

ness which 

you have Reportyd wel, on euery syde, 

Wher hastow put hem to abyde?' 5960 

Aristotiles answerde : [stowe, leaf ios, back] 

Quod he, ' vritii support off your grace, 

1 kan telle noon other place, 

1 Grece, in Camb. prose. 



'in a Man's Memory ; all his Head in an Eye or Mirror. 157 



' (ffor to speke in wordy s pleyuc,) 
Wher I ha put tho townys tweyne, 
So renomyd & flourynge in glorye, 
Saue only in my memorye ! ' 

Sapyence : 

* 2fo w sothly,' quod Sapience, 
Thow hast shewyd thy sentence 
To me ful pleynly & ryht wel ; 
And declaryd yt euerydel 
In wordys wyse, & nat rude. 
And her-vp-on thow shalt conclude, 
(Yiff prudently thow lyst take heed,) 
Yiff thy memorye be in thyn hed, 
Thow seyst yt ys in lasse space 
(Who so lyst a-ryht compasse,) 
Than ys thyn hed, on outher syde, [c. & St.] 

Wher thy Memdrye doth a-byde. 

' Also ek, in wordys fewe, 
A-nother exauwple I wyl shewe r 
Wych I to the reherse shal 
Off thyn Eye by the bal : \ 
Yiff thow ther-to kanst loke a-ryht, 
Yt ys but smal vn-to the 1 syht, 
And conteneth lytle space ; 
And yet the gretnesse off thy face 
A-bydeth there, (yiff thow list lere) [stowe, leaf 109) 
Swych as yt ys, hool & entere 
In Routtdnesse off that lytle bour. 

' Tak hed also off A merour, \ 
Or ellys off a lytel glas. 
To purpos in the same cas, 
Wher thow mayst ek thy face se 
Off what gretnesse that yt be ! 

' And yiff thow wylt in bettre wyse, . 
Vn-to the, that I devyse 
To assoyl thyn Argument 
ffynally to myn entent, 
That seyst I sholde ha falshed the, 
And repryved thy Maxime, 
Whan I seyde, yiff thow take heed, 



Griice Dieu 

report* 
59G4 Sapience. 



Iu my 
memory ! ' 



5968 



5972 



5976 



'This is a 
wise answer, 



[leaf 89] 

for the 
memory is 
contained iti 
the head. 



5980 [Cap.lxxxv] 



[UliySt.] 5984 The eye is 
small, but it 
can embrace 
all the face ; 



5988 



5992 



599G 



0000 



and the face 
can be seen 
in a small, 
mirror. 



158 So every part of the Sacramental Bread lias full Virtue. 



Grngf Dieu 
reportt 
Sapience and 
Arittotle. 

From these 
examples 
leam that I 
spoke truly. 

In a broken 
mirror each 
part retains 
the virtues of 
the whole. 

[leaf 89, back] 



[Cap. Ixxxvi, 
prose.J 



Am I to 

understand 
this locally 
or virtually ? 



[Cap. Ixxxvii, 
prose.] 

Not locally, 
certainly. 



Some under- 
stand it 
virtually and 
some other- 
wise. 



' That Query party off thys bred 

Off vertu, in especyal, 

I make as gret as I do al, 6004 

Tliogh yt be broke on many a part. 

'And tak Exauwple (for al thyn art) 
Off A merour, fyrst hool at al : 

Thogh yt be brooke on pecys smal, 6008 

In eche part and quantyte 

Thow mayst as wel tliy face se [c.*st.] 

As toforne, (yiff thou lyst lere) ,, 

Whan yt was fyrst hool and entere 6012 

Aristotiles Axeth : [stowe, leaf 109 ; nm. c.j 

4 Now, 1 myne owne lady dere, [' stowe, leaf 109, back] 
I pray yow, 2 (towchyng thys matere,) [* yow pray st.] 
Wych be so sotyl in koraiyng, 

Telletli me, touchyng thys thyng, 6016 

Vnderstonde ye " localiter," 
Or ellys " virtual iter ? " 
Lat thys thynges ben yset, 

To-gydre bourcden & yknet ; 6020 

In boimdys closyd so strongly 
That I ther-on may feythfully 
Gyve answere, as yt ys skylle, 
Or close my mouth, & so be stylle.' 6024 

Sapience Answereth: [st, om. c.] 

' I vnderstoude nat,' quod she, 
' " Localiter," as thow shalt se ; 
Thys to seyne, \vith thy grace. 

He occupieth ther no place. 6028 

Sowrne vnderstonde certeynly 
That he ys ther vertuously ; .i. virtuaiiur St., om. c. 
Sowme seyn " ymaginatiue," 

And soraine " representatiue," 6032 

On ther oppynyouws, as they dwelle. 
And this exauwiplys I the telle, 
To yive the ful avyse'inent 

How thow mayst, in thyw entent, 6036 

Conceyve, that halst thy sylff so wys, 
And to yive the, good avys, 
How a cloystre off sinal mesure 



The, Sacramental Bread contains the Greatest Good. 159 



Grace Dieu 

report* 

Sapience. 

As a small 
vessel may 
contain much 
food, 

[St. &C.] 6044 [leaf 90] 
so; in this 

>j small bread, 

is the greatest 

good. 



C048 



' May co?prehende gret pasture ; 6040 

And!, as grete thynges set [stowe, leafiio] 

In sniale bondys may be knet. 

' And evene so, yiff thow take hed, 
Vnder lyknesse off thys breed. 
The grettest good most sovereyn 
Ys ther closyd in certeyn ; 
Nat only " ymaginatiue," 
Nouther " Representatiue," 
(Vnderstond now wel my lore,) 
Nor " Virtualiter " wM-oute more ; 
But ther yt ys 1 put sothfastly, ['ysytstj 

(Yiff thow lyst lerne ffeythfully,) 6052 

Bothen " Corporaliter " 
And also ek " Realiter ; " 
Bothe " Presencialiter " 

And also ek " Veraciter ; " 6056 

Wi't/j-oute al symulaciouw, 
Peceyt, or any Ficciou?* 
And off thys puttyng, the cause why 
I haue declaryd in party. 6060 

'ffyrst, yiff thow consydrest al, 
ffor an herte that ys smal, 
I ha the bred mad smal also, 

(Yiff thow take good hed her-to.) 6064 

And for hys gret capacyte, 
The good that hath most sovereynte, 
I haue ther-in put (certeyn) 

The good that ys most souereyn : 6068 

Gret vnto gret, smal vn-to smal, 
Wych ys Answeryng in al, [stowe, leaf no, back] 

And corespondent by mesure. 

ffor affter that (I the ensure,) 6072 

That an herte be gret or smal, 
Kyht so, in especyal, 
Answeryng, by mesure, 

Ryght so ys made 2 the pasture ; [ z made St., madc.3 6076 
A smal herte (tak good' hede,) 
ffyndeth also smal the bred. 

' Consydre & se the mane/ 1 howh : 



It is there 
corporally 
and really. 



[Cp. Ixxxviii, 
prose.] 



For the small 
heart, I have 
made small 
bread, 



and I have 
great for the 
great. 



It is made 

to suit, all 
capacities. 



160 



Tfce Virtues of the Sacramental Bread. 



[leaf 90, back] 
Grace Dieu, 
reports 
Sapience. 



Every one 
has enough. 



The " house " 
is less than 
the good 
dwelling 
within it. 



I ought to 
answer no- 
tiling, unless 
at my will. 



If I work a 
wonder 



I ought not 
to be im- 
peached. 



[leaf 91] 



' Yiff he desyre to haue ynowli, 1 [c.&st.] 6080 

He shal ther ffynde (Truste me) 

Suffysaurece to hys sawle, 

Hym to fulfyllun at hys Ese, 

And hys desyrys to appese. 6084 

Aud, as I reherse shal, 
Her ys noon offence at al, 
Mouther vn-to yong nor old. 

' And for thys cause that I ha told, 6088 

The hous ys lasse, witA-oute' wene, 
Than thylke thyng yt doth contene ; 
And lasse (for short conclusiovm,) 
Ys the habytacyoura 6092 

Than the good (I dar wel telle) 
Wych wtt/i-Inne the hows doth dwelle. 

' And I suppose (tak also hed,) 

That vn-to the, by lyklyhed 6096 

I hadde don, in my werkynge, 
Som thyng wych wer nat syttynge, 
Off wych thovv wer nat plesyd wel. 
And ek (to Reknen euerydel,) 6100 

That I ha told the in substauwce, 
Thogh yt wer nat to thy plesau??ce, [stowe, leafiii] 
I ouhte off Reson, nor off skyl, 

Answeryng no-thyng but at my wyl, 6104 

Off ryht nouht, (as semeth me,) 
Nor take no maner hed to 2 the [* heed off St.] 

Off no-thyng that thow hast me souht. 

'And, par cas, yiff I hadde wrouht 6108 

Some vnkouth thyng that wer notable 
By Aventure, or profytable 
Mor than any other whyht, 

Wych wer inerveillous to syht, 6112 

I ouhte nat, as thynketh me, 
Off no wyht apechyd be ; 
Consydred how (in sothfastnesse) 
That I am namyd a " maystresse," [c. &st.] 6116 

Wych ouhte suffysen vn-to the : 



1 Camb. MS. reads : If it wole ynowh, if. shal fyndc with-inne 
that that may saule it, and fillu it and suffice it, p. 49. 



Aristotle resolves to go home and let Wisdom alone. 161 
' Thow gest as now no mor of me : [C. & St.] Grace men 

reports 

Tak thys now in especyal. sapience. 

'As for Answere to the, fynal, 6120 

Lo, her ys al, in wordy s pleyn : 
Go now. & retourne home ageyn GO home, 

mid tell 

To Nature (in cowclusi'oim), Nature " 

To 1 mak to hyre relaci'ouw, E 1 Ana St.] 6124 

As she that ys (shortly to fyne,) 

A symple scoler clepd off myne ; 

And also (yiff thow lyst to lere,) 

But off Grace my chauiberere. 6128 

' And syker, I wyll that y t be wyst, 
I wyl do what-euere me lyst, i shall do 

J just xvhat I 

W herso yt plese outlier greve, please, 

And take off hyre no maner leve ; 6132 

And don what euere lyketh me, [stowe, leaf in, back] 

Only for loue off Chary te ; and only for 

What euere hyre lyst, that shal be do : ake.' 

My wyl ys that yt shal be so. 6136 

ffor what-so that hyr lyst devyse, 

In al my beste ffeythfull wyse 

I shal consente (& tarye nouht,) 

To al that euere she wyl ha wrouht, 6140 

In specyal & in general.' 

And whan that he hadde herknyd al, [Cap. ixxxix, 

prose.] 

Thys Aristotile gan abraide, 

And humblely to hyre he seyde : 6144 Aristotle says 

Aristotle meked hym selffe. ^1?^^*' 
' Sothly,' quod he, ' I se ryht wel it is no good 

arguing with 

Yt may avaylle neueradel wisdom, 

(ffor ouht that I kan espye,) 6147 

With yow to holden chauwpartye, 2 [ 2 champartye St.] 
Or Argue al the longe day : 

Yt ys best that I go my way. He'ii go 

J ^ j j home> 

Do what yow lyst, ffer or ner, 3 [c.&st.] [ieaf9i,back] 

Youi J myglit ys grete, and your power; 6152 

What-so ye lyst, ye may weH: don.' 



3 Camb. MS. reads : Dooth what cucre ye wole ; good leeuc 
ye haue, p. 50. 

PILGRIMAGE. M 



1G2 / ask Grate Dicu for th-e Bread from Moses's Table. 



Grace Diett. 

Then Aris- 
totle went, 
and told 
Nature all, 



but she bore 
it with 
patience. 

[Cap. xe, 
prose.] 
The Pilgrim. 



When I had 
heard this, 
I longd for 
that bread ; 



and prayd 
(intee l)ieu 



[' alle St.] 



to grant me 
the bread I 
sought. 



[Cap. xci, 
prose.] 



[leaf 92] 

Said she: 
' Your request 
is reasonable ; 



' And thus thys mayster ys a-gon, 

And dyde ek a hys bysy cure, 

ffor to tellen to Nature 

Off hys exployts and off hys sped. 

And a-noon, as she took heed, 

She gan to gruchen in hyr thouht ; 

But whan she sawh yt wayllede 2 nouht, 

Mor to maken resistence, 

She suffrede al in pacience.' 

Whan Grace Dieu off hyr bou?ite, 
Thys tale hadde ytold to me, 
To-forn as ye han herd devysed, 
With gret desyr I was supprysed 
In my thouht & my corage, 
And hungrede for myw avauntago, 
In hope tave had the hettre sped 
ffor to haue Etyn off that 



[C. &. St.] 



6156 



6150 

[Stowe, leaf 113] 
[* vayllede St.] 



6164 



6168 



The Pylgrym prayede. 



[St., om. C.J 



" Ma dame," quod he, & gan hy?n. meke, 

" Humblely I yow be-seke, 

Me to grau?ite, to myn encres, 

Off the Eeleff off Moyses, 

My voyded herte to fulfylle, 

Wych so longe (a-geyn my wylle, 

As ye wel knowe,) hath voyde be, 

And neuere ne hadde hys f nl sawlee. 3 [ 3 sawie St.] 

ffor, to thys tyme neue>-e yit 

I nat conceyvede in my wyt 

Wher-wj't/t yt myghte fulfylled be ; 

ffor wych, I pray yow, grauteth me." 

Grace Dieu Answerde 
1 Certys,' quod she, ' thy requeste, 
I holde yt ys nat dyshoneste ; 
ffor thys bred ys necessarye 
To alle folk wych lyst nat tarye 

In ther vyage, thus semeth me. 

ffor, or thow come to that cyte 6188 

Whyder thow castest for to gon, 

By many weye's mo than on, 
Thow shalt be troublyd (yt ys no drcd) 



6172 



6176 



6180 



[St., om. C.] 
[Stowe, leaf 112, back] 

6184 

[C. & St.] 



Grace Dieu promises me the Bread, and Scrip and Staff. 1G3 

' Yiff thow haue nat off thys bred, 6192 Grace men. 

Al thy sorwes for tapese, . vml wil1 nee<l 

this bread on 

Thow art lyk to haue dysesse, your journey. 

And in thy weye 1 gret offence ; [' weye st., wey c.] 

ffor wych thow shalt ha lycence G196 

To take thys bred, & ek cowge. 

' But fyrst, off ryht & equyte, 
Toward thys bred or that thow drawe, 
(As yt ys wryten in my lawe ;) 6200 

Thow must ha fyrst, pocess'iowi But first you 

must have 

Off a sherpe 2 & a bordoim, p swippe St.] your scrip 

and .Stall'; 

As thow to-forn Requeryst me 

In lowly wyse to grauwte hem the. 6204 

' And 1 answerde the ageyn , 
And the be-hihte ek (in certeyn,) 

That in myn hows ther was plente and i win - 

Off bothe tweyne : thus told I the. 6208 thm*. 1 

And tolde the, on the tother syde, 
That I sholde for the provyde, 
To shewe the, in my depoos, 
Thynges that wer wit/t-Inne cloos, 6212 

J and show 

Wych I ha shew yd but to fewe ; you other 

wonderful 

But vn-to the I shal hem shewe. [stowe, leaf us] things in 

my house. 

And sowme off hem secrely [Cap. xcii, 

I ha the shewyd in party, 6216 

And am ay redy (as I tolde) 
Thy couenauwtx''* 1 for to holde 
Wit/i-outen al collusion??. 

'And towchyng shyrpe 3 & bordouw, [ 3 skryppe St.] 6220 
Thow shalt hem haue (as I be-hihte) [stowe] [leaf >, back] 

Deluyered in thyn owne sighte. [stowe, leaf us] 

And after that, (yt ys no drede,) [stowe] 

Thow shalt nowe put ther-in thy bred [c. & st.] 6224 YOU shall put 

J the l.iva.l in 

"Wtt/t-Inne thy shryppe, 3 as yt ys ryht ; your strip/ 

And affter that, thow shalt ha myght, 
fforth vp-on thy way, by grace, 

As A pylgryui for to passe. 6228 

The pylgryme answerid : 4 [The Pyigrym Answerde. st.] 
" ^Ea dame," qwwl he, vrith gret meknesse, [Cap. xt-m, 

prose.] 
4 In Stowe's hand. 



164 Grace Dicu says she must put my Eyes in my Ears. 



Tke Pilgrim. 
I thank her. 



[Cap. xciv, 

prose.] 

Grace Dieu 
lead* me to 
a place full 
of jewels. 



Grace Dieu. 

and tells me 
to look und 
see; 



but that 
I can only 
xee my scrip 
and bourdon 
if my Kyes 
are placed 
where my 
Ears are. 



Therefore (the 
will take out 
my Eyes, 

[leaf 93] 

and place 
them in toy 
Ears. 



The Pilgrim. 



I say I 

would rather 
leave both 
scrip and 
bourdon 



" I thanke vn-to your worth ynesse ; 

ffor my desyr & my wysshynges 

Resten fully in thys thynges. 6232 

I wolde, mt7-oute wordys mo, 

Have hem fayn, & ben ago." 

Thanne thys lady, off hyr grace, 
Ladde me in-to a place 6236 

In wyche (who kan reporte wel) 
Was ful many a ffayr lowel, 
Vp-on wyche myn Eye I leyde ; [stowe, leaf us, back] 
And Euene thus to me she seyde : 6240 

Grace dieU Spake : C In Stowe's hand. The Stowe MS. has it.] 

' Lefft vp thyw Eye, be-hold & se, 1 
And tak good heed now vn-to me ! 

' ffyrst, thys skryppe & thys bordoure 
Haven thys condycyouw, 6244 

That thow in soth may them 2 nat se, [* mayst hem St.] 
But yiff so falle, thyw eyen be 
Set ther as thyn Erys stonde. 

And therfor thow shalt vnderstonde, 6248 

Yiff thow hem seye A-noon now ryht 
Wiih thyn Eyen cler & bryht, 
Wher as they be, now truste wel 

They sholde the plese neueradel. 6252 

Wherfor I shal (yiff that I may) 
Bothe thyn Eyen take away, 
And hem out off her place fette ; [c. & St.] 

And in thyn Erys I shal hem sette, 6256 

That thow mayst, at lyberte, 

Skryppe & bordourc bettre se.' 

the pylgryme matvelethe : 3 [The Pylgrym merveylteth. St.] 

" Madame," quod I, "what lyst ye seyn? 

Me thynketh that ye speke in veyn : 6260 

Ye speke off thyng that me wer loth, [Stowe, leaf m] 

And make myn herte wonder wroth, 

And yive to me occas'iouw 

To leue skryppe & ek bordoiiH, 6264 

1 From 1. 6241 to 1. 6581 is a dialogue between Grace Dieu 
and the Pilgrim touching the five senses, and as to the transfer 
of his eyes to his ears, all which is omitted in the Camh. MS. 
and in the first French prose. Aldenham. s In Stowe's hand. 



Grace Dieu explains ivhy my Eyes must go in my Ears. 165 

" And to for-sake bo the tweyne. fke Pilgrim. 

And syker (yiff I shal nat feyne,) J'|; d "^ ergo 

I hadde leuere to do so, figureinent. 

Than to endure so grete 1 wo, [' grete st., gret c.] 6268 

ffor tapere rnonstruous, 

Or shewe me-sylff so odius ; 

Or that ye sholde (I yow ensure,) 

So me transforms or dysfygure." 6272 

grace dieU Spake : 2 [* In Stowe's hand. It is in the Stowe MS.] Groce Dim. 

' Vnderstond,' quod she, ' a lyte SSS^SSs: 

In thys mater, my sylff taquyte, 
Off wych I shal the telle more. 

' Yt ys not yet ygon ful yore 6276 

(Yiff thow remewbre, & lyst tak heel.) YOU remem- 

ber that you 

Whan thow doutest the off thys bred, >iildn't un- 

derstand 

And haddest merveil (ek parde,) 

By what Resouw yt myghte be, 6280 

Whan thyn herte stood in doute 

That so myche folk aboute '">" so many 

* folk could be 

Hadde in thys bred ful suff ysamace, 5 W with tins 

J J bread. 

And ful repast to ther plesaunce, 6284 

That al thy wyttys, in no wyse 

Koude teche the the guyse [stowe, leaf in, back] 

Of thys vnkouthe 3 pryvyte; [ 3 vnkouthe St., vnkouth c.] 

And, ne hadde thy Erys be, [stowe] 6288 [leaf 93, back] 

(Yiff thow Remembre the ryht wel,) 

Thow haddest knowen neue>'adel. 

* For yiff yt be a-ryht concey ved, [C. & st.] 

Alle thy wyttys wer deceyved, 6292 Your senses 

Q6C6ivu you* 

And lyede pleynly vn-to the, 

What they felte or dyde se, 

Saue the trouth (& thus y t stood) But your 

x J ' Kars told you 

With ihyn Eryng stylle a-bood. 6296 the truth; 

' Wherfore I muste (of verray ryht.) therefore I 

must put 

Translate mvn Eyen & thy syht, y"r %e 

* * into your 

Tliyder wher thy?i Erys stonde. Kars 

And (as thow shalt wel vnderstonde,) 6300 

Thyw Erys muste haue Eyen clerc that y u ma y 

perceive tins 

Taparcey ve, in thys matere, [c. & st.] c iearf r - 

And to conceyven euery thyng. 



166 Grace Dieu explains why my Eyes must go in my Ears. 

awe pifit. ' ff or, trustc me wel, that Eryng .i. Amutus st., am. c. 6304 

Wei dysposyd, voycle of slowthe, 

Kan the telle best the trouthe, 

In thynges wycli that ben dotous, 

Wonderful & merveyllous. 6308 

' ffor wych thyng, I wyll nat lette, 

Ther thyn Eyen for to sette, 

With hem to sharpe nior thy wyt ; 
for you do ffor tilow seyst nat clerly yit, 6312 

not;e J J 

clearly yet. As tllOW Olllltest 111 UiyW lliyilde. 



Thow trustest vp-on fouve' blynde. 

On whoin tro \vynge, (truste me,) 6315 

Thow art fill blynde, & ijiayst nat se. [stowe, learns] 

' But yt be-houeth, that clerly 
YOU must Tilow mustest sen, & openly, 

Bee clearly 

before taking Or tllOW liaUC pOCBSSlOUM 

Scrip and 

Bourdon Outlier of skryppe or off bordoun. 6320 

out of in y 

lunwe; ff or thow shalt hem nat possede, 

Nor bern hem out (yt ys no drede,) 

Out off llly?^ hous, in no man ere, 

(Sherpe 1 or bordouw bothe yfere) [' skripi>e st.] 6324 

[leaf 94] Tyl thow kiiowe (wi't/i-oute slowthe) [c. & st.] 

Ht'and'ulr Verrayly the pleyne trouthe 
J'f an tlS? ' Off al that hath be told to the 
ha. been toid Touchynge thys bred ; now truste to me, 6328 

And wene nat, in 2 no maner wyse, p in St., nat c.] 

As I shal to the devyse, 

That I no-thyng off volunte 

Seye thys wordys to tempte the 6332 

A-skawnce : I wolde A-geyns ryht 

Wit/i-drawe that I ha the be-hyht : 
i win keep To the, my promys I wyl kepe ; 

my promise J 1 

to you, ffor neuere, vakyng d nor t \-slepe, pwakyngst.] 6336 

(As I ryht wel reherse kan,) 

leceyved neue/'e man 

thyng that longede vn-to 

' And ther-fore doute no-thyng the, 6340 

i win not That I wyl to no strange' fourme, 

deface <>r de- J 

form you. Ihe diffaceii, nor dysfourme ; 
ffor platly (in conclusions) 



for i never I decoy ved neiie/'C man 

deceivd any * 

H"" 1 - Off thyng that longede vn-to me. 



I object to have my Eyes taken out and put into my Ears. 1G7 
' Yt lytli in thyn ellecci'ouM, 6344 Grace oieu. 



And ill tllV fre cllOVS Vt Slial be, [Stowe, It-arm, back] You have 

J J J free choice.' 

ft'or to chesyu, as for me 

To settyu thy?i eyen her or there. 

' And for my party, thow shalt lere 6348 

Yiff thow in me haue swychii l tryst, [' swyche st., swyt-h c.] 
ffor to Kemeue hem, wher me lyst, 
As for onys to assay e, 

Yiff I ther-wyt/i nat the dysmaye, 6352 

But do yt for thy/i avauwtage, 
Tlie ther nat pleyne on no damage.' 

The pilgrim axltlie : [l>iStowe' hand. The Pylgrym Asketh. St.]' The Pilgrim. 

" Wher-otf serueth (touchyng thys thyng) i ask to 

J J J ' what eiull 

Clernesse oft myn vnderstondyng, 6356 ii<'ui imve 

J ll J \ clearness of 

Wych clerkys calle (in sentement) uiKierstand- 

Intellect or enten dement, 

Wych hath Eyen (I dar seyn so,) 

As manye (or an hundryd mo) 6360 

As hadde Argus / of yore agoon, [stowc] [ieaf9i,baei>] 

Yit in hys Erys / hadde he noon, hSJ^d, 

In bookys olde / ye may weH se. 

" I hope yt stant nat so \ritJi me, [c. & st.] 6364 

That good avys shal me so fay lie, 
Jfor no Rudnesse so masaylle. 
Me thynketh pleynly (as I tolde) 

But that myn vnderstondyng sholde 6368 My'under- 

Techyn me the trouth al pleyu, si.onid teut-u 

me plainly 

And ther-to haue no dysdeyne, without iun- 

IIIR my eyes 

Me tenfourme of al thys thyng, [stowe, leaf no] removed. 

"WWi-outen any remowyng 2 [ 2 Remewyng st.] 6372 

Off the Eyen in myn hed 

Into 3 myn Eryn (who kan tak hed) ; p into st., in c.] it would be 

Wych wer in soth An vnkouth syht, [st.&c.] iigh,wni 

Brcat marvel 

And gret merveyl to euery whyht." 6376 to everybody. 

Grace Dieu Answerde 4 [* st., am. c.] Grace DWI. 

Quod grace clieu, 'tak hed, & se, 
Thyn vnderstondyng (truste me) 
Wolde in soth ha no dysdeyne 

To teche the the trouthe pleyn. 6380 

But thow mayst truste me ryht wel : 



168 Grace Dieu shows hmu I misunderstand the matter. 



Grace Dieu. 

Grace Dieu 
saya that I 
don't under- 
stand the 
matter we 
are talking 
about ; 



and that for 
luck of know- 
ledge I have 
fallen into 
darkness. 



[leaf 95] 



The under- 
standing has 
but one eye, 



and gives 
judgment by 
what it sees. 



It cannot see 
further tlian 
the outside, 



' He vnderstondeth neuemlel 

Off thys raatere that we off talke, 

He goth be-syde, & maketh a balke, 6384 

To sen clerly thexcellence, 

The valu and the 1 magnyfycence c 1 the om. sto 

Off that we holde our parlement, 

He ys so feble & indygent 6388 

ffor lak off knowyng (in sothnesse), 

He ys [so] fallen in dyrkenesse, 2 [* dyrkenesse St., dyrknesse CJ 

That he knoweth her-of ryht nouht, 

Truste me well, (yiff yt be souht,) 6392 

The verray trouthe, (so god me saue). 

' And ther thow seyst, he sholde ek haue 
An hundryd eye'n, & yet mo, [stowe, leaf ue, back] 
Thow shalt wel wyte yt ys nat so, 6396 

Nor that yt ys a thyng credyble, [St. &co 

Nor off hys lookys wych be possyble, 

"Wych he hath by successyouxs ; ,, 

I sey nat off then ten cyoims ,, 6400 

Wych thow hast in many wyse ; 

ffor than (shortly to devyse) 

In swych caas thow seydest wel, 
And elles platly thow shalt fel 6404 

Thow wentyst foule out off the weye. 

' ffor he hath only but on Eye, 
That Symply seth & vnderstondeth, 
And thynges wych he vnderstondeth 6408 

Lyk to hys syht, as they doth 3 deine, pdost.] 
He byt, & kan no ferther deme. 
Swych thyng as longeth to hjm off ryht, 
ffor to be demyd by the syht, 6412 

He recey veth to hys presence ; 
And thanne thyra Intelligence, 
Also ffer as he doth se, 

He Gyveth hys doom in that degre : 6416 

On thyng nat seyn, he kan nat muse ; 
But al swych thyng he doth refuse, 
And sent yt forth (pleynly to seyn), 
Outward, ther as yt kam a-geyn. 6420 

ffor lak, he kan no ferther se, 



Grace Dieu explains the 5 Gates of Penance's Sermon. 169 



[stowe, lesf 117] 



* Thorgh hys ffoltysshe vanyte.' 

The pilgrym axithe: c/ *A* 
" Ma dame," quod I, "ful gladly 
I wolde wyten certeyuly, 6424 

Clerly to be put out off doute, 
What ys he that wych sendeth oute, 
And what ys he (ek in certeyn) 

That Eeporteth hem A-geyn 6428 

Tydynges erly & ek late ; 
And y iff ther be ek any gate 
A-twen the brynger / and hym that sent ; [c. & st.] 
I wolde fayn / in myn Entent [stowc, leafin] 6432 

Off yow / haue Informacyouw, [stowe] 

And clerly dyffynycyouw." 

Grace Dieu Answerthe [stowe, c. wank.] 

' Certys,' q>iod sche, ' by thyn askyng [St. & c.] 
Thow shalt neuere knowe no thyng 6436 

As I be-leue, in substamzce. 

' Thow herdyst whylom, how dame penauwce 
Made a declaraciouw 

Off vj. gatys, in hyr sarmoim. 6440 

And fyve off hem, she sayde blyue, 
That they wer the wyttys fyue ; 
By wych gatys she dyde assure, 

That al fylthes & al ordure 6444 

Entrede in, 1 in sondry wyse, pinnest.] 

(As thow herdyst hyre devyse,) 
Whan they wer open, & nat cloos. 
The wych gatys, to my purpos [stowe, leaf 117, back] 6448 
I wyl now take in specyal 
W/'t/<-oute preiudice at al. 

f ffor thys gatys, I calle " porterys," 
" Bryngerys-in 2 & massagerys" pinnest.] 6452 

Off echo 3 thyng, & sayd w*t//-oute, [* eciie St., ech c.] 
But yiff yt falle wit/t-oute doute, 
Certeyn Secretys, wych that be 

Hyd & ydon in pryvyte. 6456 

Thys gatys I callc the "passages, 
Wherby in 4 passen the massages." pinnest.] 

' Thys to seync (vnderstond me wel ; 



through 

vanity. 

The Pilgrim. 



I ask who is 
lie that sends 
out, and who 
that brings 
in, tidings 
early and 
lute. 



[leaf 95, back] 



Grace Dieu 

refers t<> the 
sen i IDH of 
Dame 
I'euauiice. 



The five gates 
are the five 
senses : 



and these 
gates are the 
bringers in 
and mes- 
sengers. 



170 The Eye and Nose report to Fancy, and she to Intellect. 
awe Dieu. ' Concey ye my speche euerydel :) 6460 



The Eye is y e y s the gate, lookyng porter ; 

the porter. J J J o r 

The Nose is Nose, the dore & massagcr 

the iliK>r and 

messenger. Who kan parcey ve ys smellyng ; 

And semblably in euery thyng, 6464 

Eueue lyk yt doth be-falle 
Off thyn other wyttys alle, 
Thanne whan that lokyng is porter 
[leaf 96] Off the Eye, & massager. [c.&st.] 6468 

' And I wyl here by & by ,, 

concerning Speke off the Eye specyally, 

the eye: * J f J J> 

And lete the tother passe & gon. 

'Now herkne, & thow shalt here A-noon 6472 

As I sayde rathe vn-to the, [c. & st.] 

Look-ing is Lokyng, -with wych men do se/ 

Vn-to the Eye ys porter 

(As thow well wost) & massager; 6476 

who, when And wlian that he seth thynges newe, 

he sees new * ' 

things, ffresshe & lusty of ther he we, [stowe, leafiis] 

ffayr or foul, \vher-so yt be, 

He bydeth nat in no degre, 6480 

Nouther slepeth nor resteth nouht, 

But, as swyfft as any thouht, 

Thorgh hys bysy dyllygeiice, 

A-noon, (as he hath licence 6484 

Off the wyttys callyd comwne, 

Thanne hys offyce to contune,) 
makes a He maketh a demonstraciouw, 

report ot 

them, Report & ful relacyouw, 6488 

first to ff yrst off aft, to fantasye. 

Fantasy J 

'Thanne ffantasye doth hyr hye / .1. Fastinat st. 
who goes to To Go forth to Entendement, / 
uient, To yive a trewe lugement 6492 

Off report that he hath brouht, 

Justly to deme, & erre nouht, 

Be yt off thynges newe or old. 

' Now telle I the, as I ha told 6496 

Amongys al thy doomys stronge ; 

Yilf the thyng vn-to \\yin lougc, 

Thanne he (in conclusiouw) 



Pilgrims go to Hearing ; he goes to Fancy ; she to Intellect. 171 

' Wyl yt demyn off Eesouw. 6500 Grace Keu. 

And ther-vp-on ek determyne, whu-h jmifjes 

MMNUNg to 

And in hast hys doomys fyne, reason. 

"\Vhan he hath cerchyd yt & sought. 

' & yiff to hyw yt longeth novht, G504 

By hem that brouhte yt (in certeyn), [c. &st.] [leaf DC, back] 

In haste he sent yt forth ageyn ; [stowe] 

The Messagerys (Erly and late) [stowe, learns, back] 
Conveye y t by the same gate [st. & c.j 6508 

By \vych yt kam : lo, her ys al. ,. 

' And mor to the I telle shal ; 

(Reporte me wel at alle tynies ;) 

The skryppe that lougeth to pylgrymes, 6512 

(I mene, off pylgrymes in specyal, 
Swyche as be goodti foiuzde at al,) 
"Whan they hew skryppen eue/ychon, 
They fyrst vn-to the gate gon 6516 Pilgrim* w 

_, first to the 

Off the Ere, & oft Eryng ; Katcoftiie 

ear an.) of 

And ther, witA-onte mor taryyng, hearinjf, 

Hem sylff redy for to make, 

ffyrst, the porter they awake 6520 nni awake 

the Porter, 

Yiff that he slepe; and tlian A-noon, 

By thylke gate, in 1 they gon. [' inne, stowe, leaf us, bai-k.] 

' Off other gatys (I ensure) 

They do no fors, nor ha no cure ; 6524 

ffor heryng ther ys cheff porter ; 
And he goth forth as massager, who goes as 

_. ., ' , niesseiiKer 

ftyrst to wyttys that be coniwne ; 
And, or that they ther-on coniwne, 6528 

They make a demonstracyoiw 
Cler, 2 & ful relaci'owa, p ciere st.] 

To fantasy e, wher as she 3 Syt. piwst.] toFantai.y ; 

' And no lenger she abyt, 6532 

But to the grete Illge she gOth then Fantasy 

OVherso that he be glad or wroth) ; jJse KH- 

tviidemviit; 

fehe sheweth platly hyr entent 

Yn-to thys luge, Entendement. 6536 

And whan that he hath nuisyd longe [stowe, 

Thcron, in hys doomys stronge, 

And he, for lak off knowelychyug, 



172 Grace Dieu argues. I agree to have my Eyes in my 



Ears. 



for lack of 
knowledge 
lie could give 
no judgment. 



Taste, touch, 
and sight 
were all 
deceived. 

To know the 
truth, a man 
must place 
his eyes in 

his ears ; 



they Khali 
then judge 
truly, and 
not err. 



The Pilijrim. 
I unswerd, 



I have con- 
sidered 
everything, 



and wish my 
eyes to be 
placetl in my 
ears at once. 



[leaf 97, back] 



ffeleth ther-in no mane/- thyng, 
Thanne off Folye, he chek maat, 
Awhapyd and dysconsolat, 
Sent yt ageyn (yt stondeth so) 
By thylke gate that yt kam fro ; 
ffor he (shortly, in sentement) 
Koude gyue noon other lugement, 
ffor al hys wyttys wer a-gon, 
Sane that Eryng (among echon) 
Kam a-noon to hys refuge, 
ffor to deme & be a luge, 
As yt longede off verray ryht. 

' ffor smellyng, Tastyng, touch, & Syht, 
They wer deceyved, euerychon ; 
And for to knowe the trouthe a-noon, 
And a trewe doom to make, 
A man muste the Eyen take, 
And to the Erys hem translate, 
"VVych off Eryng ys the gate ; 
And ther, whan they be set aryht, 
They shal be cleryd so off syht 
To deme trouthe, and no-thyng erre, 
Bryht as any scran e or sterre.' 

The pylgrym answereth : 
" What euer," quod I, " that ye han sayd, [st< 
Ther-off I am ryht wel a-payd. 
I ha consydred euerydel 
That ye to-forn ha seyd ryht wel ; 
ffor wych, ma dame, (as ye best se,) 
I wyle 1 that my 74 Eyen be c 1 w 

Wt/-Inne my/4 Erys set a-noon, 
Or ye any ferther gon. 
ffor I ha conceyved in my thouht, 
That to me, ful lyte or nouht 
My pylgrymage sholde avaylle, 
Yiff so that I dyde ffaylle 
To haue a Skryppe / or Burdon." 
IT And tho / to myn Entenci'on / 
(Lyche as to yow / I tolde Late /) 
Eyen two she gan translate 



[c. &st.] 6540 



6544 



[St. & c.] 



6548 



6552 



6556 



6560 



6564 



6568 



[Stowe, leaf 11U, back.] 

[Stowe] 6576 



Grace Dieu moves my Eyes, and gives me Scrip and Staff. 173 



In-to myn Eryn, ther they stood. [stowe] 

And for she sawh that yt was good, [C. & St.] 6580 
An huchche she gan a-noon vn-shette ; 

And out a-noon ther-off she fette 
(Lyk to myn oppynyoim) 
Bothe a skryppe & a bordoim. 6584 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.'] 
1 0ff wych thynges, a-noon I 
Gan to merveille ful gretly, 
With myn Erys (as she me tolde) 
Whan that I gan hem be-holde : l 6588 

The skryppe mad & shape clene, [stowe, leaf 120] 
By A gyrdel heng off grene, 
The Avych was (as I vnderstood) 

Spreynt AVi't/t dropys off red blood, 6592 

Wheroff I was abaisshed sore. 

And over that, I sawh yet more : 
Vpon the same gyrdle stronge, 

Off syluer, smale bellys honge, 6596 

Twelue in noiunbre, & no mo, 
Wei enamellyd ; & also 
Ech off hew (I yow ensure) 

Hadde a dyuers Scrypture, 6600 

The lettrys large & curyous ; 
And in the ffyrste was wryte??. thus : 
" God the ffader," fful wel ywrouht, 
That heuene and erthe made off nouht, 6604 

And made ek man to hys lyknesse, 
Off hys grace & hys goodnesse. 

And ferthermor (yiff I shal telle) 

Was wry ten in the nexte belle : 6608 

" God the Sone, off wysdam most." 
In the thrydde, " God the Holygost." 
And they wer mad so wel, echon, 
Semynge to me they were al on ; 6612 

And wet//-Inne I dyde se 
A claper that seruede hew aH thre. 

In the fourthe was wryte & graue, 
How goddys sone, man to sane, 6616 

1 1 Not in Camb. prose. Aldcnliam. 



The Pilgrim. 

Grace Dieu 
transfers my 
eyes into my 
ears, 

and brings 
forth a scrip 
and stuff. 



I marvel 
greatly. 



The scrip 
hangs by a 
green girdle, 

sprinkled 
with drops 
of blood, 



with twelve 
silver bells 
hanging. 



[Cap. xcv, 

prose.] 

1. God the 
Father. 

[leaf 98] 



2. God the 
Son. 

3. God the 
Holy Ghost. 



4. Christ's 
coming on 
the earth,] 



174 My 4>th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and, Qth Girdle-Bell* of Silver. 



The Piiffrim. 



ami birth by 
a Virgin. 



5. Christ's 
passion, 



crucifixion, 



and burial. 



(5. His descent 
into Hell. 



[leaf 98, back] 



7. His Resur- 
rection. 



8. His Ascen- 
sion. 



9. Holy 

Church. 



Cryst ihftm, descended JOUM 
ffrom that hevenly mansyoim 
In-to the Erthe. & be-kam man 
And (as I reherse kan,) 
Off the holy gost conceyved, 
Porely in thys world receyved, 
Born off A mayde pur & ffre, 
Ay flouryng in vyrgynyte, 
Wych alle wewmen dyde excelle. 

And wryteu in the fyfftlie belle, 
Graue in ordre, by & by, 
Was hys grete tormeutry, 
And ek how lie was crucyfyed, 
And how that he for man hath dyed, 
And suffryd ful gret passi'oim, 
To niaken hys redempcyouH, 
With many wovwdys ful terryble, 
And rebukys ful penyble, 
Mankynde only for to save ; 
Take fro the croos, put in hys graue, 
Affter al hys peyne & wo. 

And in the .vj. Avas wryte also, 
(Wrouht, yt myghte nat be amendyd,) 
How he to helle ys descendyd, 
Hys frendys ther to fette a-way, 
Wych hadde be there so many a 1 day 
To bryrige hew to paradys. 

And in the .vij. (by gret avys) 
Was wryte hys resurecci'oiw ; 
In the viij., 2 hys Ascenciou?* 
Vp to the hihe heuene ageyn, 
With hys fader (in certeyn) 
To sytten there on the ryht syde, 
With hym perpetuelly tabyde, 
Ther to demen quyk & dede, 
Eury man affter h} r s dede. 

Also (yiff ye lyst to wyte,) 
In the nynthis ther was wryte 
(Graue off hym that dyde yt werche,) 
Crystys spouse, hooly cherche, 



[Stowe, leaf 12(1, back] 

GG20 



6624 



6628 



6632 



6636 



[Syxte St.] 



0640 



i a om. St.] 



[Sevenths St.] 6644 



[* heytlie St.] 



6648 



[Stowe, leaf 121] 



6652 



6656 



The I0th, llth, and 12th Silver Sells. My Staff. 175 

With al hys dyuers paramentys, ne pilgrim. 

And aH the .vij. 1 sacramentys. [> sevcnc St.] 

And in the Tenthe, men myhte so in - The Com- 

munion ot 

The Oonyug and the vnyte 66GO Si| "" 8 - 

Off seyntys, the conmnyoim, 

Ordeyned for mahys 2 refeccyoun, [* mannys St.] 

And off synne's Indulgence 

By baptesme & by penytence. GG64 

And in the .xi. 3 (be wel certeyn,) [ 3 Ei'.eventiie st.] n.Theiws- 

iii;; of all. 

Was the Eysyng vp A-geyn V' e '' ast 

J " ' Judgment. 

Off aH raan-kynde, bothe hi& & lowe, 

Whan gabryel hys horn shal blowe, 66G8 

To calle aH: ffolkys off entent 

To koine to the lugement. 

Body & sowle (as ye shal lere) 

Bothe knet Ageyn yfere, GG72 

Shal ther come to audience, 

ffor to heryn the sentence ; 

And thyder haven ther Repayr 

To-for the luge hih" in the hayr, 6676 

Goode & badde : thus stant the caas. [leaf 99] 

And in the .xii., 4 grauen ther was [ 4 Tweithe St.] 12. The Re- 

ward of the 

Only, off gOOde, the gUerdou;/-, [Stowe, leaf 120, back] Goo<l,aiidtlie 

Punishment 

And off wykked, punycyou7, 5 p the punycion] 6680 "yj'jfj 

Swych as dycle no penau?zce, 
I^or ne hadde no repentau?ice 
To make amendys, I yow ensure. 

Loo, her, hooly the scrypture 6684 Howsimii i 

._ describe the 

Oft the syluer bellys clere, staff? 

And off the namel 6 ek yfere. [ 6 Thenamci St.] 

Now shall I tellen the ffacz'oxw [Cap. xovi, 

And the mane/- off the bordou, 6688 pr sc ' ] 

Wych was (yiff ye lyst to lere) 
Wrouht & mad in thys manere : 

Yt was ymad bothe strong & lyht, it was strong 

Long also, & evene vpryht ; 6692 

Off drye wode (yiff yt be souht) of dry wood, 

Wyche neuere ne roteth npuht, whidi does 

. not perish 

JNor neuere pensslietn, (in certeyn.) b r R r 

J " water; 

JN outlier for ffyr, nor ffor no reyn. 6696 



176 My Staff has a Mirror on the Tap, and a Carbuncle below. 
Yt was ywrouht & mad so wel j 



it imd a And a-boue, a Koiwd poomel 

mirror at 

the top, Off a nierrour, that shon ful bryht, 

And gaff envyroim a gret lyht, G700 

in which In the wycli, men myghte se 

might be J 

seen aii the ff er ffrom hem al the centre 

country lar 

and near. Bovwde aboute hem Envyroiw. 

ffor ther ne was no regyoiw 6704 

So ffer from yt, by no dystaimce, 

(To Reknen euery cyrcumstauwce) 

But men myghte sen yt euerydel, 

And beholde yt ffayre & wel. 6708 



i saw in it And in that myrour dyde I se 

the City to J J 

. . The rnaner hool off the cyte 



the City to 
which I wa 

To the wych I was so bent [stowe, leaf 122] 

ffor to gon, in myn entent. 6712 

[ieaf99,backj ffor wych (in myn oppynyouw) 

I preysede gretly the Bordouw, 

And louyd also wel the bet. 
There was & lower doiw ek ther was set 6716 

another |>om- 

do e wn wer A-nother poomel, wych off makyng 

Was lasse & Round, (to my seemyng,) 



a charboncle ston, 
The wych as any so/me' shoon, 6720 

Thorgh al the centre shadde hys lyht 
(Yt was so Oryent and so bryht) 
An huge compas rouwd a-boute. 

And whan she hadde y taken oute 6724 

Thys two lo welly s ffayr & ryche, 
I trowe nowher wer noon lyche, 
Grace Dicn Grace dieu (fayre mot hyr falle !) 

calls me, and 

wy: In goodly wyse gan me calle. 6728 

Grace Dieu. Grace dieu speketh : 
[Cap xcvii, Thys lady goodly spak to me, 

' Kom ner, my sone ; tak hed & se ; 

Loo her (yiff I shal nat feyne) 

Thylke Ryche Gyfftys tweyne 6732 

Wych I be-hihte whylom to the ; 

And thow shalt nat deceyved be. 

' Loo her A skryppe & a Bordoiw, 



Grace Dieu gives me a Scrip (cald Faith], and a Staff. 177 

' The wych. (off hool entencyouw) G736 Grace mtu. 

I gyve to the, now kep he??i wel ! [stowe, leaf 122, back] ' LO, i give 

OJ L tliee a Scrip 

Considre the maner everydel, ttlld a staff > 

How they be ryht necessarye 

To forthre the, (thow shalt nat tarye,) 6740 

To helpe the in thy vyage, they win help 

J J e tliee in thy 

And to specie thy pylgrymage. pilgrimage; 

Thow shalt off hem have ay gret node, 

Yiff thow lyst thy lourne spede, 6744 

Nedful to pylgrymes alle ; 

And "fevth," thy Skryppe thow shalt calle ; andtuou 

J shall call thy 

Wyth-oute wych, 1 may nat be C 1 yt *cratcht out] scrip Faith. 

Brouht aboute no lournee 6748 [lenfioo] 

Nor vyage that may a-vaylle. 

ffor, thy bred & thy vytaylle, 

Ther-in thow shalt alway concerve, 

And alle tymes thow shalt observe 6752 

Thys skryppe wel in thy bandoiw, 

In euery cyte & euery Tourc, 

In al thy moste feythful wyse, 

And also for to auctoryse. 6756 

' Touchyng thys Skryppe callyd " ffeyth," 
Herkne what thapostel seyth Hearken 

J what the 

In a pystel that he endyteth, a P s <;l e 8a ,y s . 

* J J touohin<; this 

And to the Romayns pley?zly wryteth : 6760 ^Sft fl 

" The ryht-ful man, wM-oute stryff, ISmans? the 

By thys skryppe lat hys lyff ; " 2 lustus ex Fide uiuit 

Thys to seyne, that ffeyth off ryht 

Yiveth lyff to euery maner whyht ; 6764 

As Abachuch that hooly man, AS also in 

the second 

In hys wrytyng reherse kan, u la i pt i e r, f 

J J J i Habakkuk, 

The secou?de chapytle off hys book, 3 [stowe, leucm] 
Who so lyst lyfft vp hys look. 6768 

' And thys skryppe (wit/i-oute wene,) 
Off hys colour mot be grene ; 
Wych colour (who so look a-ryht) 
Doth gret co?fort to the syht ; 6772 

2 1. 17, as it is written, ' The just shall live by faith.' 

3 Behold, his soul (which) is lifted-up is not upright in him : 
but the just shall live by his faith. 

PILGRIMAGE. N 



The Given of the Scrip is mingled with the Red Blood 



Faith makes And so doth ffeyth, (who taketh lied :) 

pilgrims glad * ^ 

an.i bright, Yt maketh pylgrymes glad & lyht, 

With hem abydyng day & nyht; G77G 

ami comforts And in ther weyo (I dar reporte,) 

them in the J ^ 

wa y> Gretly doth hem Reconforte. 

ffor good l pylgrymes euerychon, [' goode St.] 

On pylgrymage wlier they gon, 6780 

Only ffeyth doth hem sustene, 

ns the green By exawnple, as the grene, 

colour gives " 

clearness to The gentyl colour glad & lyht. 

the sight. J 

[icafioo, bk.j Yiveth clemesse to the syht. 6784 

2 ' Whan the grene al wtt/i-oute 
it is of more Ys spreynt with dropys Eouml aboute 

value, when 

sprinkled off red blood (who kan entende). 

with blood, 

Than tlie syht yt doth amende 6788 

fful gretly, I dar wel seyn ; 
ffor ther ys drope 3 noon certeyn, p droop St.] 

But yt ys worth, & off mor prys 

To pylgrymes that be wys, 6792 

than either Than outher perle or margaryte. 

l>earl or 

margarite, And (as I dar ryht wel endyte,) 

Yt is mor Ryche & precyous, 
and has Mor off valu & vertuous, 6796 

more worth 

and virtue Ihe bloody dropys, wbaM they be spreynt [St., leaf 12.-!, bk.] 

Vp-on the grene, & ymeynt, 

To make a man mor strong & lyht, 

And tafforce \\ith hys syht, 6800 

than any Than auy other Ryche ston 
stone. ffor to rekne hem eue?'ichon, 

' The grene ys good in specyal 

Whan the rede ys meynt \vith-al 6804 

The red Off blood : for pleynly the Rednesse 

8hows the 

blood of the Wych that was shad 4 m clennesse [shaddest.] 

martyrs 

Off gloryous martyrs longe agon, 

That spente her blood, & leffte noon, 6808 

But suffrede al the vyolence, 

And the mortal ek 5 sentence [ 5 eke / the mortal St.] 

Off Tyraimtys Tyranye, 

2 From 1. 6785 to 1. 6359 is omitted in Canib. prose. Aklenham. 



of Martyrs who died to set Pilgrims an Example. 179 

' And sparede nat platly to dye, 6812 Grace Dim. 

(Ther legende so wryt & seyth) bo r d . 1 ^ for 

J J ' the faith. 

ffor to dyffende cry sty s ffeyth ; 

ffor wych, vp-on thys skryppe off grene, 

The bloody dropys ther ysene, 6816 

Shewyn (in conclus'iouw) 

Ther martyrdam, ther passiouw, 

Off ther owne voluTzte, 

Only to yiven vn-to the 6820 [leaf 101] 

Verrayly an exauwplayre 

(Wherso-euej-e thow repayre) 

To suffre deth for crystys sake, 

Eather than thow shust forsake 6824 

Thy skryppe in any maner wyse, 

Off wych thow hast herd me devyse. 

' ffor seyntys wych that suffrede so, [stowe, leaf 124] The saints 

J J J that suffered 

I wot ryht wel that they be go 6828 went to 

J Paradise. 

To paradys, & Entryd in ; 

ffor the swerd off cherubin, The sword of 

the cherubim 

Wych whilom at the "ate stood, wl| Rtood t 

the gate is 

Ys so blontyd vtit/i her blood, 6832 Blunted with 

' their blood. 

That yt ys (I dar wel seyn) 

In l the skawberk vp ageyn. C 1 in to St.] 

' But now-a-dayes it stant 1 so, / But now 

Hooly sey?tys ben aH a-go, 6836 

That wer so myghty & so strong, 
And dradde nat to suffre a 2 wrong paom.st.] 

ffor the ffeyth, yt to dyffende, 

Her lyff , her blood, ther-on to spende ; 6840 

Redy they wern, & that a-noon ; 
But now, annethe 3 ther ys nat on C 3 vnneihe st] there is none 

to put him- 

That wyl hvm putte in lupartye, seinnjeo- 

J J J ' pardy for the 

Crystys feyth to magnefye, 6844 fi* 1 *- 
Nor make myghty resystence 
Ageyn Tyrauwtys by dyffence. 

' Yet sowme boste & speke grete Yet some 

boast, 

Whan they be famous, ful off heete, 6848 

And han yheete & dronke at large, w ' ien th y 

have eaten 

Her bely stuff yd as a barge : and drunken, 

Than they, for our feythys sake, 



180 Now, folk brag Ind don't fight for the Faith. Heresies. 

Grace pieu. ' "Wyl crystys croos vp-on hem take ; 6852 

And, as champyoims, thawne they seyth 
timt they win That they wyl fyhte for our ff ey th. 

flfflit for our J / J 

faith, But whan yt kometh vn-to nede, 

deaf 101, bk.] Al that they spak touchyng dede, 6856 

but their Yt ys for nouht, I dar wel seyn : 

boast is vain. . J 

And thus ther host ys but in veyn ; 
By ther wordys tliey wyl nat dwelle. [stowe, leaf 12*, back] 
[Cap. xcix, < But by old tyme, I shal the telle. 6860 

prose; c:ip. * 

sw i oinu- Whan I the skryppe gan fyrst devyse, 

(ML 

Yt was al in a-nother wyse, 

The scrip \Vi't/i-OUte bellyS, Symplely : .1. simplicity St., om. C. 

luul no bells J * J J > 

at nrst, Tha?j suffysede, stedef'astly 6864 

To loue god, our creatour, 

And hym to seme vrith gret honour, 
hut when ' But affter roos vp heresyes, 

heresies _ , 

arose, OppynyouTis & lantasyes, 6868 

The ffeythe 1 falsly for to greue; [' neythe st., ueytii c.] 
and men And ther gan eue/-y man to leue 

believed on 

God aceoni- On god attter hys owne lust, 

in? to their 

own opinions, And sette pleynly Al ther trust 6872 

Affter ther owne ffantasye ; 

Off wych (yiff I shal nat lye) 
(of whom Somme wer call yd " Arryens," 

some were ' 

Arrinns, And so?>mie also " pellaijyens," 6876 

and some 

Pelagians), Wttft ther oppynyoxins newe ; 

And other sectys ful vntrewe, 

The feyth off cryst for to werreye, 

And lyst nat to the cherche obeye, 6880 

Thorgh ther false oppynyou?&s, 

Concludyng by collusiouws 

Off falshed shewyng many sygne, 

Ageyn thy skryppe to malygne, 6884 

Ther-vp-on to be a-wrekc ; 

Off Avhom me lyst no mor to speke. 
' But my speche I wyl restreyne, ; 

ffor wych cause, folk dyde hyr peyne, 6888 

prelates of And prelatys off the cherche, 

the church, 

Ageyn ther malys for to werche, 

Makyng in especyal [stowe, leaf 125] 



Councils reformd the CJmrch, and set 12 Articles on Sells. 181 

' Senys & cou?jsaylles general, .i. simxia st. 6892 Grace Dieu. 

Off prouydence & gret avys, Oaf 102] 

js j.i i j.. ii_ i made synods 

nor to wythstonde ther malys, and councils 

And ther errours to putte a-way, 

That contynuede many a day, 6896 

To re forme the hewte to store the 

unity of the 

Off the cherche by vnyte, faith ; 

I mene, by vnyte in substaurcce 

Off our ffeyth and our creauwce, 6900 

In ther hool Entencyoiw ; 
To make Restytucyou, 
By ther dyllygent labour, 

Off that was broke by ther Errour, 6904 

That wtt/t-Inne nor wtt/i-oute 

Yt sholde no mor be put in donte. , 

'And for that skyle, & no thyng ellys, and they 

lU'Vlsfl tl>6 

They souhten out the .xii. bellys 6908 twelve ueiis, 

That I off spak, & I the telle : 

They sette lettrys in ech belle, with letters 

in each, 

And articles off our creaiwce, and Articles 

of our Belief, 

By thapostolys Ordynamice ; 6912 

The wych wer mad (vn't/i-oute stryff) made in the 

J v J ' primitive 

In hooly cherche prymytyff. church. 

' And in the Skryppe (tak hed to me) 
Off wyche 1 now I telle the [' which* st., wych c.] 6916 

(Off entent ful pur & clene), 
The bellys, mad off syluer shene, And the beiis 

were hung in 

They hengen hem, as thow mayst se, the scrip, 

Wych thow howest (off duete) 6920 

Off te sythe's here hem Rynge, [stowe, leaf 125, back] 

Off entente only to brynge 

Ther sown vn-to thy remerabrauwce, 

And how thow shalt, in thy crea\;/ce, 6924 

Leve in god ay stedefastly. 

' And for that skyle, cowtynuelly 
In thyn Erys the tawake, 

Thy bellys shal a chymbyng make, 6928 to leach thw 

Day be day (in sothfastnesse) EtfSftShT 

To teche the the stedefastnesse [leaf 102, bk-.j 

Off the feyth, thy-sylff to Saue. 



182 The Bells on thy Scrip of Faith teach thec Belief in God, 



Grace Dim. 

and limn 

Jierdr-t HO 

other clock, 
day or night, 
if t i H MI count 
their strokes 
truly. 



Thou 

shouldst 

always think 

upon the 

scrip called 

Faith, 

and what the 

Apostle 

writes to the 

Romans. 



Thou shalt 
first believe 
in God, 



[leaf 103] 
and that this 
wine and this 
bread are 
changed into 
flesh and 
blood. 



' And the nedeth nat to haue G932 

Noon other horlege, 1 day nor nyht, C 1 Orioge st.] 
ffor to smyte thyw hourys ryht, 
Yiff thow ther strokys trewly tellys, 
.xij. hourys and .xij. belly s ; 6936 

And ek also graue in the lettre 
.xij. Artycles, to go the bettre, 
Wych shal echon yfouttde be 

Wyth-Inne thy skryppe, to teche the, 6940 

And teuforme the wel ynowh. 

' But thow hast be somwhat slowh, 
In thyn herte to taken hede, 

Ther scrypture for to Rede ; 6944 

I mene thus, thy sylff to saue, 
The Scrypture in the bellys graue ; 
Yet, by ther chymyng (in substauce), 
Thow sholdest ay ha remeibraiwce 6948 

Vp-on thy skryppe callyd " ffeyth," 

' And thynk ek what Thapostel seyth : 
To the Romeyns he endytetb, 

Pleynly seyth, and thus he wryteth : [stowe, ieufi2G] 6952 
" That thys bellys, in ther chymynge, 
And by iioyse off ther sownynge, 

Parfytly they brynge in feyth Fides ex auditu. Romanes 10.2 st. 
To the Erys ; and thus he seyth : 6956 

" Wher thyn Eyen be set most clere, 
The verray trewe sown to here, 
Abydynge, nat transytorye, 

To excyten thy Memorye, 6960 

Thy pylgrymage to Acheve, 
How thow shalt ffyrst, in god be-leue ; 
Wych doth nat ynowh" suffyse, 
Wyth-oute that I shal devyse. 6964 

' ffor yt be-houeth ek herto, 
That thow mustest beleue also 
Stedefastly (yt ys no dred), 

That thys wyn & ek thys bred \ 6968 

Be chauwgyd in-to flesshe & blood. 

2 x. 17. So then faith (cometh) by hearing, and hearing by 
the word of God. 



the Sacrament and the Trinity. She puts the Scrip on me. 188 

' And her-w-it/t-al yt ys ek good, Grace men. 

Be-leue god in Trynyte, Believe also 

J J in the 

Thre personys in vnyte. 6972 'i'ri'i'y; 

And, thy ffeyth mor strong to make, 

Thow shalt a good exaumple take and take nn 

/-> i ITI example from 

Ore thylke syluer bellys thre, tlie tlir ee 

J . J silver bells, 

To wych, in Tookne off Vnyte, 6976 winch have 

, .. . . one clapper 

A claper serueth in chymyng, in chiming. 

J J ' in token of 

Wych declareth in sownyng, unity, 

" Ther ys but O god, & 11O 1710." and declare 

'There is hut 

' And tak Alway good hed her-to, 6980 e God.- 

ff ro tliys, that thy ffeyth nat varye, 
Who-euere sowne the contrarye. [stowe, leaf 126, hack] 
And truste wel how the purtycles 
And the Remnau;it off Artycles 6984 

Of aH the tother, (who kan entende) 
Euerychon, her-on depende. 

4 Now take thy Skryppe, & go thy way, Take the 

And thynk her-on ryht wel alway ; 6988 

And forget nat (yong nor old,) and forget 

No thyng that I ha the told, i have told 

"YVryt in thyn herte as in a book.' 

[The Pilgrim.] The Pi, g ri m . 

And off hyr hand the Skryppe I took ; 6992 [Cap. ciii, 

But she, only off hyr goodnesse, 
The skryppe aboute me gan dresse, 

Thys Grace dieu, ful manerly, Grace nieu 

And Tapoynte yt ffetvsly, 6996 the scrip over 

,, / J myshoul- 

Ouer 1 my shuldere she yt caste, ponst.] ders, 

And be-gan to bookele yt faste, 

In travers wyse, yt tenbrasse, 

She gan the gerdel to co??ipasse ; 7000 

Made the pendant, that was long, 

To be knet & fastnyd strong, 

That the Tonge thorgh gan perce. 

And than to me she gan reherse 7004 [leaf 103, bk.] 

A scrypture off ysaye Mr* 1 

Remembryd in hys prophesye, onsaiah pter 

The .ii. 2 chapytle ye may se, p Eiieventhe St.] 

Grace dieu seyng to me : 7008 



184 Grace Dieu gives me a Girdle, and a Latin Creed. 



Grace Dieu. 

First, thou 
shalt nave a 
girdle of 
Righteous- 
ness 

as a restraint 
of the flesh. 



She then 
gives me a 
writing, 



Grace Dim. 

which con* 
tains n 
description 
of the scrip. 



Grace dieu : l [ Dieu s P ak st.] 

' ffyrst, thow shalt haue ffor Sykernesse [stowe, leaf 127] 

A gyrdel off Ryghtwysnesse, 

To restreyne al lecherye. 

And, for to make also dye 7012 

Al tflesshly lustys euerychon, 

I shal the gyrde (& that a-noon,) 

Wyth thys skryppe, wych thow shalt bere 



It is in Latin. 



for clerks 
who can un- 
derstand it, 



[leaf 104] 

and for them 
I give it. 



The to dyffende (that no thyng deere) 
On pylgrymage, wherso thow go.' 

And thawne she took a wryt also 
Out off hyr huchche, & rauht yt me. 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination] 
' In thys wryt, thow mayst,' quod she, 
' Be-holde the descrypci'oiw, 
The maner hool, and the fasoure 
Off the skryppe that I the took ; 
And offte cast ther-on thy look 
ffro day to day, the bet to spede ; 
And offte sythe that thow yt rede, 
The cope pleynly, & scn'pture, 
The wych ys mad (I the ensure) 
In latyn only, off entent 
To yive to the entendement, 
And to clerkys that kan lettrure, 
And vnderstonde hem in Scrypture, 
That they may, both hit" & lowe, 
The maner off thy Skryppe knowe, 
To folwe the ffeyth off crystys secte ; 
To hem thys latyn I dyrecte. 



7016 



7020 



7024 



7028 



7032 



7036 



185 

A LATIN POEM ON THE ARTICLES OF THE 
CREED. 



(43 Stanzas of 12 lines each 

(1) [p. sis, v] 

1 c Redo ego catholicus, 1 

Simplex sim uel iherarclricus, 

Fide firma & simpliei : 
Iniplicite, si laicus, 
Explicite, si clericus, 5 

Simbolo volo subici, 

A firmamento deici, 

NuTiqztam volo nee effici, 
Vt planeta erraticus : 9 

Malo mortem 2 qua??i iufici, 

Erroribtis heretici, 
Legi dei concentricus. 12 

(2) 

In deum, a quo conditus 13 
Est nnmdus, credo 3 primitus 

lam lucis orto sidere : 
Fidei est introitus, 
Vbi, ego neophicus, 17 

Debeo pedem figere. 

Paruw est deo credere, 

Vel deum ni preponere 
Ei velim 4 in corditus : 21 

Nisi eum diligere, 

Velim verbo opere, 
Et toto corde penitus. 24 

(3) 

Fatrem primuwz magnifico 25 

Eteruum, et glorifico, 
A quo meum exordium, 

Eu?n.-qt6e sic specifico, 

Catholice & explico, 29 

Qiii genuerit filium, 
Eum-qe esse aliu?w, 
Non aliud per proprium, 

Fersonale diuidico : 33 

Finem atque principimn, 
Atqwe eontm nescium, 8 

Ymagiuor & iudico. 36 

(4) [leaf 104, back] 
0??raipotentera pariter 37 

Omnia.-que suauiter 

Disponewte?, hunc 6 clamito, 
Nil frustra, nil inaniter, 
Nil-qite nisi vtiliter, 41 

Operantem recogito ; 

Si in fide hac hesito, 

Si vacillo uel dubito, 
Non sum discretus arbiter ; 45 

Egeo duci digito, 

Quia errans exorbito, 
Et relinquo bonum iter. 48 



49 I believe in 
God 



53 



57 



60 



61 tlie Father 
Almighty, 



ryming aab, aabbb, abba. ) 

(5) 

Creatorem nnno fateor, 
A quo reus ego reor, 

Renun creatas species ; 
Quern adorare teneor, 
De quo dictum confiteor. 

Illi soli tu seruies, 

Hoc non feci millesies, 

Mea 7 culpa & pluries. 8 
Me perditotn intueor, 

Nisi dicat " saluus fies ! 

Tu es mea progenies ; 
Tui fili misereor." 

(6) 

Cell & terre dominum, 
Angeloram & Iwminnm, 

Eum in fide video ; 
Patrem-que esse luminmn, 
Dantem tenebris 9 termimim, 65 

Sic intueus spem liabeo. 

Et si ei non valeo 

Servire sicwt debeo, 68 

Ob grandem molem criminum, 

Quo me verta?n, lui?ic timeo, 

Contremisco & paueo, 
Ne vindex sit peccaminum. 10 72 

(7) [105, col. 4] 

Et quia patrem credere 73 Maker of 

Non creditur sufficere, jjf e aveu and 

Ne non esset relacio '' lj 

Ad articulos vergere 
Me volo, et coraiertere, 77 

Qui dati sunt de filio, 

Cuius est generacio, 

Sic miranda-qMe racio, 
Earn nescit exprimere, 81 

Veluti vespertilio 

Stupet 11 solari radio, 
Sic nescit ibi cernere. 84 

(8) 

In ihesum Christum, igitur, 85 and in Jesus 
Mea fides dirigitur. Christ, 

Ipse est pafris filius ; 
Genitus est, et gignitur, 12 
Et gigni semper creditur, 89 

Sicut a sole radius. 

Nil in patrc supmus, 

Nil in nato inferius ; 
In quantu?n deus dicitur, 93 

Eternum est suum prius, 

'Kternwn-que posterius ; 
Nullis extremis clauditur. 96 



1 St. Credo Ego Catholicus. (Jn. Stowe adds, " a large uombar of verses vpon y 
crede, in lattyn, should folpw liere in this place.") 

2 Mori mato, Print. 3 quo, 1'r. * velis, Pr. 5 eorum fore nescio, Pr. 
6 Hunc disix)ncntem, Pr. 7 MS. Maa. 8 pluries, Pr. 9 tenebre, Pr. 
10 pecuaminuin, Pr. ll Super, Pr. w giuitur, Pr. 



18G 



A Latin Poem on the Articles of the Creed. 



(9) 

His only Son Filiuwi eius vnicuwi 97 

our Lord, p er decretum catholicum, 
Hu?ic affirmo & assero ; 
Sine quo, totuni lubricuwt, 
Inane & erraticum, 101 

Et carens casu prospero. 
Sibi seruum me offero, 
Nu?tc, et quamdin fuero. 1 
Q?imuis sit valde modicum, 
Ad eum-qw me transfero, 
Quandocujtqwe errauero 107 
1a.rtquam ad polum articum. 

(10) 

Who was con- Dominion nostrum dicere 109 
reived by the TJ 11T ,p ,,00 filii HpYtvrp 
Holy Ghost, J , e . . 

Qui dicimur cathohci, 

Debemus et attollere, [leaf ins] 

Mente, uerbo, et opere, 113 
Preconio multiplici, 
Potestas ei?<s deici, a 
Nunquam potest, ncc effici 

Minor siue decrescere 117 

Sibi-qtte debent subici 3 
Terrigeue & celici, 

Et inferutw hu?ic tremere. 120 



(11) 



born of the Qui concep tus est vtero, 
Virgin Mary, Virginali, hoc assero, 
Illibatis visceribus, 

Cuiiw cum pnrscrutauero, 

Modu?;i hebetatus ero, 
Retensis 4 cu?ictis sensibus, 
Hoc fecit ru]>tis vsibus 
Et consuetudinibus 

Nature, pro me misero ; 
Vnde, ex infelicibus 
Me repiito hominibus, 

Si hec oblitus fuero. 



121 



125 



129 



132 



(12) 

suflferd De spmta aanato fuit, 133 

Qttc/rt uirgo deum geuuit, 
De deo po^re genitum, 
Quern deus carne?n induit, 
Et vteruwi IIOTI horruit ; 187 
Licet sibi insolitum 
Iter 6 fuit incognitmn., 
Et nature absconditum, 
Quia fecit vt voluit : 141 

Plus scratari est irritum ; 
Fides valet ad meritum ; 
Et plus vltra no?i arguit. 144 



(13) 

Natus est temporaliter, 145 

Qui uatus eternaliter 
De deo pc^re fuerat. 

Ipso nato celeriter 

Factus est 6 pius arbiter 149 
Pro imwdo qui perierat. 
Homo entwi offeuderat, 7 
Deu?/i qui hu?tc creauemt ; 

Et sic erat lis iugiter, 153 

Vnde esse non poterat 
Qui'a ]\omo qui peccauerat 

Nou puniretur grauiter. 156 



(14) 

Ex maria, ergo, pium 
Pacis traxit commercium, 

Nona reparans fedem, 
Et reddens Arbitragium 
Se 8 ad pa^ris arbitrium 
Obtulit, proptcr scelera, 
Mundi beata viscera 
Hui?ts matris, et vbera, 
Suuwi-qtw puerperiuw. 
Felix ipsa puerpura, 
Serniant ei sydera, 
Et tottis grex ndeliam. 

(15) 



157 



161 



165 



168 



169 



Virgine ipsa firmiter 

Seruante, et 8 stabi'iter 
Sancti pudoris lilim 10 

Slum, Venus et lupiter, 

Et totum celu? pariter 173 
Mirantur puerperiuui, 
Etas q?toqe viuencium, 
Et luueutus & seniu?rt, 176 

De hoc stupent perhenniter. 
'Miror,' dicit, 'ingenium, 
Et virgiue?/i et filimn, 

Hie studerem inaniter. ' 180 

(16) 

Passus est ipse filius, 181 

Licet pcccoii nescius, 

Penas & contumelias, 
Facttts-qtw est propicius, 
Qui fenis fuerat prius. 185 

lam expertus miserias, 

Nu)iquam inuentus alias, 

Fuit pater-familias, 
Qui contulerit plenius 189 

Suas misericordias [105, col. 3] 

Pro suis, & angustias 
Sustinuerit durius. 192 



1 vixero, Pr. * deijci, Pr. 3 snbijci, Pr. * Rctunsis, Pr. s Ita, Pr. 
6 ct, Pr. ~ lOi, col 2. 8 6cU, Pr. 9 Seruantqe, Pr. 10 filium, Pr. 



A Latin Poem on the Articles of the Creed. 



187 



(17) 

Sub, qui supra est, ponitur, 193 

Et subdito subicitur, 1 
Rex celor?;i altissimus 

Coram iudice ducitur, 

Et iudicio sistitur, 197 

Qui ludex est equissimus, 
Superior sit infinvHs, 
Et virornm nouissinuts, 

A suis-qtte reliuquitur, 201 
De maximo fit minimus, 
Et licet sit sanctissiiims, 

Reus mortis condicitur ; 204 

(18) 

Poncio Filato, Feram, 205 

Fereute et inortiferam 

Contra ipsum senteuciam. 
In eruce manum dexteram 
Affigendam, et altera?^ 209 

Extendit in angariam ; 

Tu?ic secundum leremiam 2 

Transeimtibus per via?;i, 
Potuit sua??i asperam 213 

Monstrare contumeliam, 

Illatam per inuidiam, 
CUTO nil egisset perperam. 216 

(19) 

Crucifixus ille fuit, 217 

Et soluit quod non rapuit, 
Dans animaui in preciuw. 

Sua pena non latuit, 

Sanguis fluens edocuit, 221 
Et latus suum peruium, 
Anime-qwe diuorcium. 
Qua?i.tuwt graue suppliciuw 

Pro ho?nme sustinuit ! 225 

Sium qoqe obprobrium 
Yactiim oculis omnium, 

Euidciiter hoc innwit. 228 

(20) 

Mortuus est, eum tradidit 3 229 

Deo pn/.ri, et reddidit, 
Fuso sanguine, spiritum. 

Moriens, artem condidit, 

Qua sibi morte?n subdidit, 233 
Sibi tollens ius solituiu, 
Hostis per hanc depositum 
Quod tenebat ad libitum. 

Confusus totum perdidit, 237 
Infernus-qrte dans gemitu??i, 
Videns suoram exituwi, 

Sibi dolore?;i addidit. 240 



(21) 

Et ideo dim moritur, 241 under Pon- 

Et du? per hoc reuiuitur, tius rilate 

Fletus miscetur gaudio, 
Pro morte fletus oritur, 
Cu?;i mnocens occiditur, 245 

Pro alieno vicio. 

Fit autera exultacio, 

Cam meutali tripudio, 248 
Du??i per morte?;i mors vincitur 

Pio tamew arbitrio 

Videtur-qe compassio 
Satis in plus intenditur. 252 

(22) 

Sepultus est per triduwre, 253 was crucified, 
Vsu sopito seusuum, ' 

Sicut mortui seculi, 
Suu?rt erat irriguum, 
Exhaustui atqtw arcuum ; 257 

Exhaust! omnes riuuli, 

Deleti era?it tituli 

Visu wlgaris 4 oculi. 
Vincisse fuisse suum, 261 

Fuisse caput Anguli, 
, Ductor uel rector populi, 
Aut deus exercituu7/t. 264 



265 a"d buried; 
He desmuled 



(23) 

Descendit eius anima, 
Corporis sancta victima, 

Relicta in sudario, 
Ad acherontis infima [ioe, col. i] 
Venit pro dragina decinia, 269 

Longo perdita senio, 

Non ilia que de gaudio 

Lapsa est a principle) 
Ad iuferni nouissima. 273 

Sed ilia procul dubio, 

Que, iu primo pomerio, 
Rapta est fraude pessima. 276 

(24) 

Ad inferna, cum lumine 277 >"'o Hell; 
Veniens, & in numine, 

Genus Adam visitauit, 
A baratri voragine, 
Deseiitos 5 in caligine, 281 

Suos omnes liberauit, 

Ille hostei tti?ic mactauit, 

Et mactatuwi spoliauit 
Sua consuetudine. 285 

Ne furiat in quos pauit 

Sicut prius, et quos lauit, 
Fuso corporis sanguine. 288 



1 subijcitur, Pr. 2 Hieruniam. Pr. 3 leaf 105, col. i. 
* vulgaris, Pr. 5 ? Desceiisos. 



188 



A Latin Poem on the Articles of tJic Creed. 



(25) 

tiie third day Tercia die redijt, 289 

from 'ui e aga '" Et teni l )US no)4 pi'eterijt, 
dead; Datum ante diuorcitm. 

Regrediens, introijt 
Potenter vnde exijt 293 

Corporis domiciliuw, 
Lapis inagnns ad hostiim 1 
Datus in hostiarium 1 
Himc ingressum no7t 2 nescijt, 
Custodmn-qtte astanciu?n 
Sellereia 3 et studinm 
Percipere uon neqnijt. 300 

(26) 

He ascended Resurrexit a mortals, 301 

into Heaven, Resumptis viribus suis, 

Vltra morti non subditus, 
Clausis venis irriguis 
Et tersis plagis profluis, 305 
Impassibilis penitus, 
Vita sibi est habitus, [loc, col. 2] 
Priuacio interitus, 
Realteratis mntuis. 309 

Thome testis est digitus, 
Vulneribus appositns, 
Ex iussu, clausis lanuis. 312 

(27) 
and sittetli Ascendit supra sydera, 313 

on the right v*. o,, nl M, ppli mm'i-vi 
hand of God ^ supra ce \ l supera, 
the Father Kediens de incolatu, 
Almighty; Transeundo per aera, 

Findens redemptis ethera 317 
Potentyssimo volatu. 
Tune Rachel, cum apparatu 4 
Leticie, & omatu, 
Exiens sua camera, 321 

Obuiawi terso ploratu, 
Mutato-qiu; eiulatv, 
Ei venit hymnifera. 324 



(28) 



325 



tlience Ad celos, sic (\iiando fuit 
001 " 6 Rejzressus, et rehabuit 
Honoris primi solium, 

Quatdo vnitawz. statuit, 

Carnem nostram et ]x)suit, 329 
Caput esse celestimn ; 
Tu?ic homo in exiliura 
Datus, & in obprobrium, 

Luctu?n, tergere debuit, 333 
Et relevare ciliuwi 
Demissuwz propter viciu?H, 

Regi-aciando potuit. 336 



(29) 

Sedet ad dexter awi Dei 337 

Patris, cocqualis ei, 

Homiuewi sic magnificans, 

Tempus sui lubilei 

Cognoscens, et requiei. 341 

Plus se penis 11071 implicans, 
Modus suns est indicans 
Quod lam index sit iudicans, 

Ne presuma7it nitnis rei. 34/5 
Quodqttc 8 deuotus supplicans, 9 
Cicius-qtte ius vindicans. 7 

Impetrat premia spei. 348 

(30) 

Omnipote/Jtis tilium 349 

Potencie 11011 nesciu?/?, 

Hu7ic a?ii?a mea credit ; 
Et si quid est coutrarium 
Potencie vcl obuium, 353 

Huic inesse now. concedit, 

Imbecillis si accedit, 

Ad mm i\\uu\uam recedit, 
No7i repoi'ta7is auxilium. 357 

Totum posse suo cedit. 

Deus pater, sibi dedit 
Regui celi dominium. 360 

(31) 

Inde venturus, In fine, 361 
CU?H, ferula discipline 

Et vlcionis gladio, 
Eductis tecto vagine 
Pro iusticie diuine 365 

Exercendo iudicio. 

TIIJMS disiu?icte reunio 

Hominu?;i et reiuuctio 8 
Erit substancie bine 369 

Omnium 9 que ostensio 

Actuu7 et operacio 10 
Absqjte tegmiue cortine. 372 

(32) 

ludicare cum veniet, 373 

Nullus eu?>i effugiet, 
Nee hffifiebit diffugium. 

Nnllfts ibi excipiet, 

Neqwe deffendere sciet 377 

Se per declinatoriim ; 
Nichil tmic dilatorium 
Omnium appellanciu?/i 

Valebit ucl proficiet 381 

Immo seciindum propnuwi 
Opus uel exercitu?n [106, col. 4] 

Vnusquisq?te recipiet 384 



1 ostium . . . ostiarium, Pr, 2 E(fresum suuni, Pr. 3 Sollentia, Pr. 

* On margin : Racliel interprftuta, viilua doinini, & signat cecuui . . qut in morte 
[? MS.] slantes dictt ysaias [xxxiii. 7] ' Anjjeli paou a[mare] flebut/ In assensu 
ciiu [? MS.] 5 Neqoe, Pr. 6 j^f joe, col. :<. 7 vendicjuis, Pr. 

8 MS. ieiunctio. reiuiictio, Pr. '> Umnium, 1'r. 10 apertio, Pr. 



A Latin Poem on the Articles of the Creed. 



(33) 

Viuos & mortuos scio 385 

Dissimnli stipendio 1 

Ilia die praniari, 
Qnosdam eterno gaudio, 
Alios-qe incendio 389 

Infernali nume/'ari ; 

Viuos se potenmt fari, 

Et de vita gloiiari, 
Quorum erit vocacio ; 393 

Mortui-qe uomiviari 

Poterunt, et appellari, 
Quorwm erit expulsio. 396 

(34) 

Credo, cum precedentibus, 397 
Et cum predictis omnibus, 

Quosdam adhuc articulos, 
Quos in mumii cMtpwtribua 

Totis auinie viribus 401 

Colligo ut nianipulos, 
Fidei namq?w ilosculos, 
Hos sicut et preambulos, 

Cognosce ex colovibus, 405 

Ad ipws habens oculos, 
Vt discurram per singulos, 

Nou exceptis aliquibus. 408 

(35) 

In spiritum sanctu?/i credo, 409 
Licet fex siin, et putredo, 

Et vilis esca vermium. 
Ipsc i>atris est dulcedo, 
Est filij, & 2 mulcedo ; 413 

Et consolator cordium, 

Diceie potest omnium. 

Artifex sum per 3 propriuwi, 
Patrc nato-qttc procedo ; 417 

Digitus SUMI erranuiuwi, 

Tcrcia persona trium, 
Proeedejts, uuncpoam recedo. 

(36) 

Sanctam eeclesiam del 421 

Credo esse matrem mei, [107, col. l] 
CunctoTum-(iue fidelium. 

Qui contrariantwr ei, 

Facti simt omniwo rei ; 425 
Erit eis opprobrium. 
Pro hac, quondam martirmm 
Passi sum, et supplicium 

Boni athlete fidei ; 429 

Crnentatnm vestigium, 
Et Ronia, caput gencium, 

Testes liunt \iuius rei. 432 



(37) 

Catholica?n, hanc clamito, 433 the quick and 
Et refertam recogito the dead - 

Septem medicinalibus, 
Distinctis quasi digito, 
Ad succurrendum perdito 437 

In distinctis langoribus, 4 

Prinuim originalibus, 

Medelam confert onuiibus, 
Alia (\ue non hesito, 441 

Dant diuersis respectibus 

Cura?n infirmitatibus, 
Seruato modo debito. 444 

(38) 

Sanctorum commuiiiouem 445 I believe in 

Et glorificacionem ^! e " ol .y 

T fi , . , . Ghost, the 

in ceiesti ecclena, holy catholic 

Credo per assercione??i Church, 

Et per affirmacionem 449 

0?nis honorans 5 dulia, 

Ali(]uos yperdulia, 

Solum deum-qwe latria, 
Ponendo dictinccionem, 453 

Satis sperans dc venin, 

Si sua patrociuia 
Pro me present 6 caucione?H. 456 



(39) 

Remissione? fieri, 

Peocatoram, ut reperi, 
Credo per penitenciaw, 

Per naanian, hocsuggeri, [107, c. 2] 

In agro regum veteri, 4til 

Dico ad euideociam, 
Nam sicut hie mundicia?>i 
In aquis, et carenciam 

Lepre, ut caro pueri, 465 

Kecepit : sic per gra/mm, 
Penitens, renerteuciam 

Habet a porta inferi. 468 



457 the Commu- 
nion of 

Saints, 



(40) 



Peccatorum sic maculas, 

Et spiritual es pustulas, 
Assero purificari ; 

Aliter lias vt stipulas, 

Ad infernales foculas, 7 473 

Om?ies dico destinari, 
Perhenniter has versari, 
In lehenna 8 et cremari, 

Et spinaruwi sarcinulas, 477 
Ex ipsis quoque parari, 
Hosti qui nunrpuim predai'i, 

Sicut sorbiciunculas. 480 



469 the Forgive- 
ness of Sins, 



1 dispendio, Pr. 
5 Oinnes adoniiis, Pr. 



2 atqne, Pr. 3 e t, Pr. languoribiis, Pr. 

6 prestent, Pr. " faculas, Pr. 8 ielienua Pr. 



190 



A Latin Poem on the Articles of the Creed. 



(41) 

the Rcsnrreo- Carnis resurrectionew, 481 
tion of the At<\uc recomriccione?>i 
body, and the T 1 
life everlast- luncturaruwi et ossini/i 

ing. Post vite reunionem, 

Ad reddendam racione?;i 485 
Fateor ad iudiciu?., 
Ad consequendum premium, 
Per actu??i meritorium, 

Atipw retribricione7)i 489 

Habenduw, vel supplicium 
Per co?7imissu?/i contrariuvi 

Atqtte coTtdempnacionem. 492 



(42) 

Vitam eternam monitor 493 
Credo, et ha?ic finaliter 

Dico metajrt 1 incolatus, 
Felix qui vadit taliter, 
Qui non pcrdit suu?>i - iter, 497 

Sanctws quoqztc, et beatus 

Ibi om?iis collocatns, [107, col. 3] 

Vere est glorificatus, 
Et lam viuit feliciter, 501 

Cunctus ibi sit paratus, 

Glorie locus, et datus 
Sine fine pcrhenniter. 504 



(43) 

Linen. Amen, corde dicews ergo, 505 

Volo ego aui mergo, 

Dissimilis no?i fiery ; 3 
Nam si nimis me immergo, 
Vel profunde nimis pergo, 509 

Vadens ad portas inferi. 

Si errans vmbra 4 vesperi 

Laberintho, ut pueri, 
Ad leuam me nimis vergo 513 

Tuto volo itineri, 

Redire cursu celeri, 
Respicere-q?4c a tergo. 5 516 

1 metham, Pr. 2 Qiti suum non perdit, Pr. 3 fieri, Pr. 4 vmbras, Pr. 
5 8G French lines (to Lydgate's 152) tullow on Foillet xxiiij before the 2nd Latin poem begins. 



The Pilgrim. 



I ask Grace 
Dieu about 
the girdle. 



Grace Dieu. 



[Cap. civ, 
prose.] 



She says I 
ought first to 
have askt for 
a Staff, 



[The Pilgrim.] 

Wyth thys skryppe whan I was boimde, 7037 

Glad I was, & ful Jocouwde ; 
And than I gan a-noon enquere, 

Prayede she wolde vn-to me lere. 7040 

(Lyst that ther wer any lak) 
Off the gyrdel that she off spak, 
Tliat I myghte vnderstonde aryht 
The thyng that she hadde me behyht. 7044 

Grace dieu : 

Quod Grace dieu, ' touchyng al thys, 
Off thy gyrdel & my promys, 
Tliow sholdest (off good entencioura) 

ffyrst yaxyd 6 A BordoiW, [ 6 have askt, y axede St.] 7048 

The to sustene nyht & day, 

And supporte the on thy way 

Wherso that thow go 7 or walke. pgoost.] 

And afEter, I caste me to talke 7052 

"YVYt/i the, and pleynly ek expresse 

Off the gyrdel off ryhtwysnesse. 



Grace Dicu describes the Staff cald "Good Hope," 191 

4 But IFyrst tak hed off the Bordoim, [leaf ios] 

TT i i r-r\~t* Grace Dieu. 

How yt ys good in ecli sesou??, < Uoo 

fibr he nat falleth 1 comou?dy C 1 ffayiietu St.] 

That leneth ther on stedefastly. 

ffor wych thow shalt (as yt ys ryht,) m/fSg. 

Wiih al thy fforce & al thy myght, 7060 

Ther-on reste, what so be-falle. 

And trewly thow shalt nat falle, 

What perillous passage that thow go, 

As longe as thow takest hed ther-to, [stowe, leaf i2sj 7064 

And, tavoyde 2 away dyspeyr, [ 2 to avoyde St.] 

Wherso thow gost in foul or ffayr, 

Or what fortune the be-falle. 

"Good hope" alway thow shalt yt calle : 7008 The name of 

*^ * the si aff is 

Thys the name off thy Bordouw, : G ? od H ,i )e >' 

in French 

Off trust & trewe affeCClOU?/, 'Esperance.' 

"Wych ys callyd Esperau??ce, 

Affter the speche vsyd in frauwce, 7072 

And the mane?- off that language. 3 p langage St.] 

' And looke alway, in thy passage, 
That thow holde the wel ther-by, 

And ther-on restij feythfully 7076 i must always 

In peryllous pathys wher thow wende. 
And by the pomellys at the Ende, 
Holde the strongly, I the rede, 

ffor they shal, in al thy nede 7080 

Sustene the, thow 4 falle nouht, [*thatthou] 

1 The hilier pomel (yiff yt be souht) [Cap. cv, 

Ys i//esu cryst : haue hym in mynde ; Tiie higher 

And in scrypture (as thow shalt fynde.) 7084 the^n! or the 

TT .1 K i o i i , staff is Jesus 

He ys the morour 5 cler & Dry lit, [ 5 Merour St.] Christ. 

\VW<-oute spot, (bothe day & nyht,) 

In the wyche, a man, by grace, S! S^X^c. 

May beholde hys owne fface, 7088 

In wych merour (as I tolde) [leafios, bk.j 

Al the world ouhte be-holde. 

In wych also men may fynde 

Alle thynges wrouht be kynde. 7092 

lieste vp-on hym with herte a?l thouht, 

And go surly, & dred the nouht ; 



192 The two Pommels of the Pilgrims Staff: Christ & Mary. 

grace pieu. And to hys helpc alway calle, 7095 

And truste' wel thovv shalt nat falle. [stowe, leaf 128, back] 
[Cap. cvi, 'The tother pomel lowers 1 dovm. c 1 lower st.] 

prose.] 

The lower Wych (wit/4-oute comparisons, 
the 'Maid* Yiff I shal the trouthe telle) 

who excels 

all other in Ys the Mayde that doth excelle 7100 

beauty and 

bounty, Al other off bewte & bou?*te ; 

ffor she, in hyr vyrgynyte, 

Bar a chyld in thys world here, 

Mayde & moder bothe yfere, 7104 

the carbuncle The Charbovwcle most cler off lyht, 

that illu- * 

whole world. Chasynge away dyrknesse off nyht, 

And al thys world doth enlwmyne ; 

The ffresshe bemys so clerly shyne. 7108 

Al that go niys in ther passage, 

Or erryn in ther pylgrymage ; 

Or ffolk that gon out off her way, 

(As wel be nyhte as be day, 7112 

I dar afferme yt in certeyn) 

She maketh hem to resorte ageyn 

Vn-to the ryhte weye a-noon : 
she is the ff or to pylgrymes euerychon 7116 

true guide of 

pilgrims. She ys the trewe Gyderesse ; 

And ther socour in al dyrknesse ; 

And yiff they slydre, or falle douw, 

Thys Emperesse off most renouw, 7120 

Only off mercy, doth hem releue, 

That no thyng ne may hem greue 

In ther passage nyh nor ferre, 

For she ys the loode sterre, 7124 

Wit/a her bryhte bemys clere, 

To al 2 pylgrymes in thys lyff here, [* Tui c., Taiie St.] 

That ban to hyre affectyouw. 7127 

Peaf loo] 'And for that skyle, in thys bordoun, [stowe, leaf 120] 
she is set low In thys pomel (yiff thow kanst knowe) 

down in the 01 ,11 

pommel, OllO ys yset her doUW alOWe* [ 3 ysette . . alowe St., yset lowe C.] 

By an Arche ymad off uewe : 

No charboimcle so bryht off he we, 7132 

Nor noon other precyous ston, 

Kekne the .xij. 4 eue?ychon. [ 4 twelve] 



Virgin Mary is the lower Pommel on the Pilgrim's Staff. 193 

'And in thys bordoiw, looke wel Grace Dieu. 

How she ys set for a pomel, 7136 

Pylgrymes to saue, they 1 be nat lorn, [ l that they] in order to 

* save pil- 

Wher-as ther was but On to-forn. grims, 

' But thys pomel most bryht & shene, 
Pylgrymes only to sustene, 7140 

Ys set in f ul goodely wyse ; 
ffor ellys myghte 2 nat suffyse p myghte yt St.] 

The tother, but she wer ther also, 
Hem to supporte, wher-so they go. 7144 

ffor she ys mene, (& that ful offte,) 
To the pomel hih" a 3 -loffte : p off St.] 

Thys to seyne, thys heuenely quene, 
To hyr sone ys euere a mene ; 7148 

Coumfort most praicypal & cheff to whom she 

is chief com- 

Tal 4 pylgrymes in ther myscheff, p TO ail. Tyist.] fort, 

Hem to supporte, who taketh hede. 7151 

' And therfore whan thou hauest 5 nede, p haste st] 
Trust on hyre, & neuere varye, 
ffor she ys most necessarye 

To holde 6 hem vp in ther passage, p TO hoidc St., Toiae c.] 
Wher they ben old or yong off age. 7156 whether they 

Leue on hyre, what so befalle, young. 

& in thy way thow shalt nat falle, 
Yiff that thow in eche sesowt 

Haue in hyre affecciowz, 7160 

Thow mayst nat stomble nouther slydre [stowe, leaf 129, bk.] 
Whan thys pomellys ben to-gydre ; 
She ys the pomel set mor lowe, 

By whose helpe, (as thow shalt knowe, 7164 [leaf 109, bk.] 

And as I shal the trewly teche,) ^mme^fet 

To the hiher thow shalt wel reche ; if/whose' 

Bothe wrouht off Stonys clere : JMi 

And yiff thow loue on bothe yfere, 7168 ^ e higher 

Thow mayst trust, thorgh ther myght, 
Thow shalt nat falle, but gon vp ryht. 

' Wher for, for thy sauacyou?z, 

Hold the wel by thys Bordoun 7172 

Wych ys mad ful stronge, to laste ; 
And therfor, therby hold the faste ; 

PILGRIMAGE. O 



194 Each Pommel lias an Inscription. I. on God ; II. the Virgin. 



Grace pien 



For both 
pommels 
there is a 
writing. 



1. for tlie top 
pommel, 



2. for the 
lower one. 



Trust on yt & nat nc feyne ; 
ffor thys pomellys ho the tweyne 
Ben so noble and ffayr off syht, 
So glad, so couwtfortable & bryht, 
And lyk thy 1 skryppe (I the ensure,) 
Thow shalt ffor ech haue a scrypture 
Yiff thow kanst hem vnderstond : 
Lo, haue hew here now in ihyn hond ; 
And consydre & loke hem wel : 
The ffyrst toucheth the pomel, 
Yset a-loffte most cheffly ; 
And the tother, wryt ther-by, 
(Shortly, for thow shalt nat tarye) 
Longeth to the Secomzdarye. 



7176 



[i the St.] 



7180 



7184 



7188 



[St.] Pater Creator Omnium [& cetera, whiche should folowe. 

[John Stowe, leaf 109, back] 

I. A LATIN POEM ON GOD IN TRINITY. 

[Not in St.] 
(37 stanzas, of 12 lines each, ryming aab aabbb abba.) 





(1) 




(2) 




Father, Crea- 


p ater, creator omnium, 1 


1 


3 Noster voluisti esse, 


13 


tor of all 
things, 


Origo et principium 




Ne uobis esset neccesse, 






A quo causantur ormtia, 




Extra te quicquawi querere 






Ad te, tuarwm ouium, 
Tuorw/i grex fidelium, 


6 


Non poteras plus prodesse, 
Neqwe de maiori messe 


17 




Alta mittit suspiria, 




Nobis vnq?tam tiibnere ; 






In fletu et miseria, 




Solus debes sufficere, 






Captiuati per deuia, 




Quia solus reficere 




our only re- 


Non habemus remedium, 


9 


Potes mentes plebis fesse, 


21 


medy, 


Nisi tua clemencia, 




Aliud qwam te temere ; 






Tua paterna gracia 
Nobis ferat auxilinm. [if. no] 


if 


Auernws nam deficere 
Restat, si velis abesse. 


24 



2 Another short hymn has the same title : 

18. DE S A NOT A TRINITATE. 



Father, Son, 
and Holy 
GhoBt, 3" in 1 
and 1 in S, 
cleanse us 
from crime ! 

Thus rle;in*l 
aiiil us to the 
faithful! 
Praise ever- 
lasting be to 
Father, Son, 
and Holy 
Spirit I 



(1) 

Pater, creator omnium, 
donans cuncta per filium, 
accepta nostros genitus 
per dona sancti spiritus 

(2) 

unitatis trinitas 
et trinitatis unitas ! 
pro tuo sancto nomine, 
emunda nos a crimine ! 



S 



12 



(3) 

Mundatos a criminibus, 
dona virtutum floribus, 
et in polorum sedibus 
fac jungi cum fidelibus. 

(4) 

Sit laus patri per ssecula, 
agnoque sine macula, 
atque sancto spiiitui, 
quo mereamur perfrui. Amen ! 



Mone, Lateinischc Hymnen des MMclalters, i. 25 (1853). 

* A Gap for the first word of every stanza was left blank for the Rubricator to fill 
in ; but he hant ftld it. 1 therefore insert the words from the old printed book, 
ab. 1500. 



The first Latin Poem, on God in Trinity. 



195 



(3) 

Qvies Fuisti, et eris ; 25 

Pater, succurre miseris, 
Qui non manenms in idem, 

Idem ipse tu diceris, 

Qui nunquam permutaberis, 29 
Hanens semper in ibidem, 1 
Sicut hoc credinws quideni, 
Fac, pater, per istavn, fidem, 

Vt noxas nostii sceleris, 33 

Dimittas nobis totidem, 
Quotiens promisit pridem, 

Redemptor nostri generis. 36 



In celis sursuw habitas, 37 

Qui in terris nos visitas, 
Domimts exercituum, 

Si non feris aut excit.is, 

Nos remissos non suscitas 41 
Ad ulluin opus strenuum, 
Ad volanduwt in arduum, 
Et altam messem fructuum, 

Alas habens irritas, 45 

Laboramws in vacuu??i, 
Nee habemus irriguujn, 

Nisi tua det bonitas. 48 

(5) 

Sanctificetur, dicimus, 49 

Nonien tuuwt, quod colimua 
Et quod est ammirabile, 2 
Sine quo recognoscimus, 
Et audacter proferimus 53 

Nil sanctum, nil valibile, 3 
Sed cum non sit hoc facile 
Laudare, nc possibile 
Eo-qwe non sufficimus. 57 

Tamen, prout optabile 4 
Cordibus est, & habile, 5 
Ad laudaudw/i. assurgiuiits. 60 



(6) 



61 



Nomen tibi 6 alpha & 0, 

Significans, in secreto, 
Finera atqwe principium, 

Tali decet alphabeto, 

Nos studere corde leto, 65 

Leccio est credenciu?, 
Theologos hoc studium 
Nos facit et al soliuwi 

De mmtdi arundineto 69 

Transfert, muta?is in gaudiu?;t, 
Miserrimu?H nanfragium 

Quod patimwr in hoc ffreto. 72 



(7) 

Tuum pater est proprhra, 73 help us in 
Non aimexum per alium, SSWwSo 

M isereri et parcere without Thy 

De te, suim tentoriu?- sraee ! 

Et suum diuersorium, 77 

Debent filij facere 

Morte?>i non vis, sed viuere, 

Vis ormies qui eonuertere 
Se volunt per suspiriim. 81 

Nuwqucim uis tuos perdere, 

Nee pullos milus tradere, 
Quorujfl, tu es refugium. 84 



85 "ay Thy 



(8) 

Adueniat ergo deus, 
Aliquando iubileus, Sifted 

Nobis datis exilio, Alpha and 

Si quisqtwww nostrum est reus. Omega, 
Nee est ibi Machabeus, 89 

Qui fortis sit in prelio, 7 

Non propter hoc intencio 

Tua sit ut nos gladio, 
Vastet, Golyath, Getheus, 8 93 

Semper eniwi in vinio 9 

Nobis nocet & 10 inuio, 
Factus seon amorreus. 96 



(9) 



97 Thou wishest 
us to live, not 
die; come to 
our rescue ! 



Regnum tuum, vt dieitur, 
Rex eterne, vim patitur, 

Violenti 11 hoc rapiunt, 
VirtntibM* concutitr, 
Penitencia pellitur, 101 

Preces illud effodiunt. 

Si ista no?t sufficimit, 

Machinas multi faciunt ; 
Quibws super ascenditur, 105 

Na?n, quidam se subiciunt, 12 

Votis quibus obediunt, 
Ars ista imn^uam fallitur. 108 

(10) 

Fiat ergo per graham, 109 Thy kingdom 

Quia tolem violenciam j 1 "^" , v j t ; jg 

Permittis illuc intremiw, enter 'it by 

Et muroru??i custodiam, Prayer and 

Non des ad resistencia?>i 113 

Quia nichil tune possemws, 

Artem nee vires haftemus, 

Vt perhoram solawi 13 stemus, 
Nisi tu des constancia??i, 117 

Retrocedere solemws, 

Qua?ido adire debemus 
Illud regnum et paMam. 120 



Penitence! 



1 id idem. 2 admirabile, Pr. leaf 110, col. 2. 3 laudaWle, Pr. 

pro vt tst habile, Pr. s Cordibus et optabile, Pr. 6 tuum, Pr. 

7 leaf 110, col, 3. 8 Etheus, Pr. viuio, Pr. 10 in, 1'r. >i Et violent!, Pr. 

sufficiuut, Pr. 13 Et . . . solum, Pr. 



196 



The first Latin Poem, on God in Trinity. 



help us ; we 
seek Thee 
alone. 



(11) 

Thy will is to Voltmtas tua saluare 121 

save men : s ^ hommes, 1 et iuuare 

In tribulacionibus ; 
A raari usque ad mare, 
Vnire et congregare 125 

Curactos de nacionibns, 
Debiles cum pauperibus, 
Preparatis iam omnibun 
Ad cenara tuam vocare, 2 129 
Pusillis cum maioribus, 
In oportunitatibus 
Auxiliuwi ministrare. 132 



Thee, who 
lulcst in 
Heaven, we 
wornhip, 
weeping. 



(12) 

Sicut, pater, hoc credimits, 133 

Sicut de hoc confidinws, 
Sic nobis auxiliaris, 

Aliunde now. querimus 

Auxilium, nee petimus, 137 
Quia solus tu mederis, 
Si noji aliquando feris 
Pro nosiris culpis et teris. 

Non propter hoc diffidinms, 141 
Scimits enim qtti'a geris 
Curam nostri, et nos 3 queris 

Quando a te 4 recedimus. 144 



We pray 

Thee, l>e 
miiult'ul of UH 

siiini-rs oil 
earth. 



(13) 

In celo, supra spericam 145 
Rotantis mundi fabricaw, 

Immobilis dominaris, 
Sedem tenens teatricam, 8 
Aciem tua?>t bellicam, 149 

De excelso comtemplaris ; 

Nos eccitas, nos hortaris, 

Vt sit toga militaris, 
Prius tincta per riibricam, 153 

Quam hostis familiaria 

Nobis tollat tuis caris 
Innocencie tunicam. 156 



(14) 

We earn our Et quia, sine viribus 157 

ixxiy's bread ^ armis spiritalibus, 

by sweat; . * j j n 

o!ir soul Accessimus ad duellum, 

desires tlie Quia, nullis verberibus 
BmulofThy D oma tum, uel calcaribus, 161 
Sentimws carnis asellum. 
Ideo, sanctum scabellum, 
Quo stas, ad videnduw bellum, 
Adoramw,? cum fletibus, 6 
Et ipsmmet domicellum 
Per ydoneum flagellmn., 167 



(15) 

In terra, nos te colonum, 169 
Et in celo te patronum [? MS.] 

Animarum cognoscirnus, 
Et te 7 deum ulcionum 
Esse, et punicionura 173 

In inferno metuirrms. 

Et ideo requirimus, 

Et devote assistimus 176 
Ante tuum sanctum, thronum ; 

Vt nobis, qui peccauinws, 

Sis, vt de te presuminms, 
Memor miseracionwrt. 180 

(16) 

Panem nostrum In sudore 181 
Vescendum, et in labore, 

Dedisti a principio, 
Vsqe modo tali more 
Ipso mixto cum nierore, 8 185 

Nosira fuit refectio ; 

Sed, ne esset fastidio, 

Prouidisti de alio, 
Longe satis meliore ; 189 

Hoc est, de tuo filio, 

In quern panis co?mersio 
Fit, ipso institutore. 192 

(17) 

Quotidianum petimus 193 

Hunc panertt, et requirinms, 

Cotidie indigentes, 
Primum exactor proximws 
Secun&um petit animus ; 197 
Sine ipso morientes, 
Primo uiuuwt omnes gentes, 
Sed secuwdo penitentes 
Quia panis est azimus, 201 

Ideo, accipientes 
Omni f'ermewto carewtes, 
Debent ease," vt credinws. 204 

(18) 

Da panem istum, domino, 205 
Vtnmqwe qui pro homine, 

Vtroqwe fuit pensatus, [111/2] 
Sustentet moderamine, 
Vmts vnum, sed minime 209 

Fiet alter saciatus, 

Si in nobis sit reatus, [? MS.] 

Per quew nobis sis iratus. 
Non propter hoc in turbine, 213 

Vindicte sis recordatus ; 

Sed memor sis, quod nos natns 



Subicias supplicibus. [leaf ill] | Tuus redemit sanguine. 216 

1 liominis, Pr. * leaf 110, col. 4. 3 nostri nosque, Pr. 

* A te quando, Pr. 5 tliearicnni, 1'r. 6 flaribtis, C. 7 te, 1'r., om. C. 

8 tali more, Pr. 9 Esse debent, Pr. 



TJie first Latin Poem, on God in Trinity. 



197 



(19) 

Nobis tuis paupmbus 217 

J n lacujn. descendentibns, 

Succurrere non renuit. 
Nam mactatus verberibus, 
Et perfossus 1 vulneribus, 221 

Pro nobis mori voluit, 

Et 2 proprijs se exuit, 

Et soluit quod non rapuit, 
Obses pro peccotoribus, 225 

Mors sua nostram diluit, 

Set 3 penitere debuit 
Pro ta?. caris operibus. 228 

(20) 

Hodie et cotidie, 229 

Simili vena Venie, 

Egeremtts huuc minui, 
Nisi sue tarn nirnie 
Riui misericordie 233 

ff astro cederent vsui 

Per ipsos enim ablui, 

Credinms qui assidui , 
Sumtts culpis nequicie, 237 

Supposito-qite fletui, 

Debito que gemitui, 
Nos demus volmitarie. 240 

(21) 

Et quia digne lugere 241 

Non possumits, neq?(e flere, 

Si exigimt demerits, 
Nee haJemus qtto supplere 
Nisi soluw miserere, 245 

Quia now valent mmta, 
"Rostra, quoqtw sunt irrita [ill's] 
Anima nostra perdita ; 
Ideo clamamus vere, [?MS.] 249 
Respice nos, et visita, 
Et erige & suscita, [? MS.] 
Non nos sinens plus iacere. 252 

(22) 

Dimitte nobis, & quita 253 
Feccatsi, pater, oblita ; 

Et dele de libro tuo 
Ilia saitem que sunt scita. 
Lamentari nos fac 4 ita 257 

Ne scribantur perpetuo. 

Non sunt vnuw, non sunt duo, 

Nee numeranda biduo ; 5 
Sed sunt auasi iufinita, 261 

Non habita ex mutuo, 

Neqwe facta in triduo, 
Sed in tota nostra. vita. 6 264 



(23) 

Debita ipsa nouiimw, 265 He deigiid to 

Nam pro peccatis tradimits 7 

Animas in obsidiuw. 
Penes nos non habuim?ts, 
Nee in domo inuenimus 269 

Vllmw carius vadiu?i. 

Dews, nostru?w refugium, 

Tu, nosti vsurariuwi, 
Cui nos obligauimus, 273 

Nisi feras auxilium, 

Vel cum cogas nimiuin, 
Totum nostrum, amisimus. 276 



(24) 

Nostra esse hec debita 
Propter que sic est subdita 

Anima vsurario, 
Non nrganras, ne irrita, 
Et tibi ingratuita 281 

Esset ilia negacio. 

Talis tamen confessio 

Nu?iqtrai dicit sufficio, 
Neqw<! tibi sit placita 285 

Nisi feruens deuocio 

Et amara contricio [lf.m,col.4] 
Dicat fleo deperdita. 288 



277 kook on us, 
and raise us ; 
blot out our 
innumerable 
sins ! 



(25) 



Sicut ergo debitores 
Et miseri peccafores, 

Egemus indulgencia ; 
Sic quoqwe condonatores 
Eancoris, et quittatores, 293 

Volunms vti venia ; 

In tua n&mque curia, 

Rancor et iracimdia 
Non su?^t boni petitores. 297 

Nam vindicte pro gracia 

Et pro misericordia 
Noscuntur reportatores. 300 



289 God, our re- 
fuge, help us 
to pay our 
debts for our 
sins! 



(26) 

Et Ideo indulgemus 

Iniurias, vt vellemus 
Eas nobis indulgeri. 

Nil rancoris retinemws 

In cordibus, nee habemus 305 
Quod iio?& sit amoris veri. 
Si fuinms nimis feri, 
Et ad indulgendum sen, 

Et vltores si possemus, 309 

NosM velis misereri, 
Et cordibus sic mederi, 

Vt in charitate stemus. 312 



301 As debtors, 
we pray Thy 
favour. We 
have love in 
our hearts. 



confossus, Pr. Et ex, Pr. 3 Sed, Pr. * fac nos, Pr. 
5 triduo, Pr. 6 vita nostril, Pr. 1 dedimus, Pr. 



198 



The first Latin Poem, on God in Trinity. 



Thui 



Thee, 
Holy 

teach 



(27) 

nl y Nos scimws quod non aliter 1 
rs reach Nosfre preces vtiliter 
if the Ascenduwt ad te, dowme. 
Spirit Credirmts quoque firmiter 

Q,uod ascendwit velociter 317 
Si sint sine rubigine, 
Si lacrimaram flumine, 
Corda cum penitudiue 
Lauentur efficaciter, 321 

Et immda mens a crimine, 
Vt vis valet in homme, 
Te requirat humiliter. 324 



(28) 

iron Dimittimus, si corditus 
Cunctis dicarmts penitus, 
Hoc totum ualet supplere, 2 



325 



For 
heat 

need 1. re- 
membrance 
of sin, 2. suf- gi ST> i r tt na paraclitus, 

' e- Dextere tue digitus, [? MS.] 329 
Ad hoc velit nos docere. 
Sine ipso, nunqiiam vere 
Iniurias indulgere 
Potest aiTogans spiritws ; 333 
Nam nimis credens valere, 
Admodum cornute fere, 
Monstrat quod sit indomitus. 



We pray 
Christ for 
grace to fit 
us to enter 
into Glory. 



Rod, fight 
Thou for us ! 
Nought can 
we do of our- 
selves. 



(29) 

Debitoribus ideo, 337 

Quandoque nimis ferreo 
Corde, dat indulgenciam, 

Dicens, satis indnlgeo, 

Et satis supersedeo, 341 

Vsqwe in horam aliam ; 
Sed tu haws 3 fraudulentiam 
Deus nunquam ad veniam 

Conuertis vel das pro eo. 345 
Immo, ad iracimdiarn, 
Te, per equipollenciam, 

Prouocatuw, reddis reo. 348 

(30) 

Nostris igitur mentibus, 349 
Induratis et rudibus, 

Tria sunt necessaria, 
De coTOrnissis reatibus, 
Atque iniquitatibus 353 

Crebra reminiscencia ; 

Frequenter pati tristia, 

Cum pena et angaria 4 
Et cum infirmitatibus, 357 

Sancti spij^us gracia, 

De cella vnguentaria 
Fundens amorem cordibus. 360 



(31) 

Et ideo, te et ilium 361 

Qui rubricatmn vexillum 

Gerit, et arma rubea, 
Qui mare facit tranquillum, 
Et nostrum portat sigillum 5 365 

Exaratujrt a lancea, [? MS.] 

Qui veste rectus lutea 

Strauit in sua area 
Infernalem cocodrillum 369 

Petimus, vt sic ferrea 

Corda franguntur per ea 
Que sunt pretacta paxillum, 6 

(32) 

Ne nos inducas eciam 373 

In festinam sentenciam 
Quia cito perirenius, 

Expecta nos Tpcr graciam, 

Et per tuam clemenciam 377 
Et differ, 7 vt emendemws ; 
In mu?ido nihil ha&emus 
Nisi vt nosmet aptemus 

Ad iutrandum in glcwiam ; 381 
Sed caro, in qua manermts, 
Nos ducit vt deuiemus 

Per uiam nimis inuiam. 384 

(33) 

In temptacionem ruit, 385 

Et labitur atqwe fluit, 
Licet longe sit temptator. 

"Nnnquam facit qttod conginiit, 

Sed bonum omne destruit 389 
Quod construit haftitator. 
Deus, omnium creator, 
Tu, pro nobis, sis pugnator, 

Sicut -aostra. spes 9 arguit ; 393 
Et carnis sis sic domator, 
Vt eius sit trimraphator 

Spiritus qui succubuit. 396 

(34) 

Sed vnum adhuc petere 397 
Volumtts, et requirere, 

Vt ille, hoste domato, 
Spiritus se 9 extollere 
Nequet vel erigere 401 

Quasi a se 10 subiugato. 

Nam ha&emus pro probato 11 

tyuod, quisquid dixerit plito, 
Nil a se potest facere. [? MS.] 

Immo, abs te increato, 

Et a flamine et nato, 
Totum haJet procedere. 408 



1 taliter, Pr. 2 leaf 112. 3 hane tu, Pr. * anguetia, Pr. 

5 leaf 112, col. 2. pnuxillnm, Pr. "> Differa, Pr. spes nostra, Pr. 

Se spiritus, Pr. w A se quasi, Pr. " leaf 112. col, 3. 



The second Latin Poem, on the Virgin Mary. 



(35) 

Libera nos, ergo, deus, 
Tu ac tuus Nazareus, [? MS.] 

Cum proprio spiramme. 
Vnus 1 estis, sed iudeus 
Non credit <yuod galileus 
Conceptus sine semi?e 
Sit, seu natus de virgine, 
Sine passus pro homine : 
Et in hoc sit ipse reus. 
Plus credit in velamine, 
Littei-eqiic in lumine [?] 
Factus ciuis tartareus. 



(36) 

409 A malo hoc et 2 aHjs 421 

Tuis deus subsidijs, 

Conserua nos, & deffende, 
Extrahe 3 nos de vicijs, 
413 Releuans 4 de miserijs ; 425 

Et benignu?tt te ostende, 
Cuiqwe 5 nostrum die 'ascende ; 
Veni mecum pro haJende 



417 



420 



(37) 

Amen, pater, 7 concludimus, 433 
Quia finem de nouiimts [?] 

De via reuertencium. 
Locuw ad quewi nos tendinms, 
Et in quo nos quiescinms 437 
Post laboris stipendium, 8 
Tu nobis sis solatium, 
Et corona et premium, 
Quia in te sperauimus, 441 

Confirmans vaticinium [112,4] 
Dauid -per priuilegiu?>i, 
In domuTO suam ibimus. 8 444 



Free us, God 
and Christ ; 
draw us from 
our sins ; let 
us win eternal 
life. 



Vite eterne gaudy's. ' 429 

Tales tue sunt prebende, 
Nullatenus concedende 

Nisi tuis famulijs. 6 432 



Father, be 
our comfort 
and reward, 



for we have 
hoped in 
Thee, and 
will live in 
Thy house. 



II. A LATIN HYMN TO THE VIRGIN MARY. 



(14 stanzas of 12 lines each, ryraing aab aabbb abba.) 



(1) 

Ave reclinatoriu??i [MS. torn] 1 
Et propiciatorium, 

Et captiui spes populi, 
Data in diuersoriiim 
Reis, et in refugium, 5 

Et in Iocu77z latibuli, 

Que po/ris ade vetuli, 

Et damnatricis seculi 
Eue, ue damnatorium, 9 

Pro quodam morsu pomuli 

Aspecti visu reguli, 
Commutasti in gaudimre. 12 

(2) 

Maria, apto nomine, 13 

Presagio, non orrrine, 
Diceris ab infancia ; 

Que in noctis caligine, 

Pro viarwm discrimine, 17 

Polo muwdi sis media, 
Vt gens, per mare deuia, 
Ad te, sua vestigia 

Dirigat viso lumine, 21 

Et a circumferencia, 
Pro impetranda graa'a, 

Circumderis in cardine. 24 



(3) 

Gratia tu emceris 
Directiuum itineris 

Norma 10 vite rectissima. 
In orbibus stelligeris 
Noue legis et veteris, 

Stellarwm splendidissima, 

In prosperis humilima, 

In aduersis 1J fortissima, 
Semper astans pro miseris, 

Electaram dignissiina, 

Tarn corpore qwm anima, 
In inferis & superis. [leaf us] 

(4). 

Plena est tua ydria, 
Hausta, celesti gracia, 

Puteo sancti spiritus. 
Si pulseris instancia 
Precum, res est notoria, 

Quod effundes 12 et strepitus 

Deprecantis, sollicitus full art thou 

Obtinebit ut penitus. " f " "o'y 

Deorsum stillicidia 45 Spiritt 

Mittas ; nee sit prohibitus 

Camelorwm exercitus 
Portans peccata grauia. 48 



25 Hail, hope of 
the captives, 
star in the 
darkness ! 

29 



33 



37 Ritjlitest rule 
of life, 



41 



i ? MS. vnunt. 2 atque, Pr. 3 Et extrahe, Pr. * Nos releuans, Pr. 
5 (Jui, Pr. optiuiis fnmulis, Pr. 7 amen, Pr. 8 dispendiuni, Pr. 
9 Pr. adds 'Amen.' "> Forma, Pr. u asperis, Pr. 1S effundens, Pr. 



200 



The, second Latin Poem, on the Virgin Mary. 



(5) 
God filld thee Dominus, ad hoc prouida, 49 



with mercy, ^e repleuit vt placida 

It was with - - 

thee in child- 
hood, and 



T, j- f -j 

Reiundeiidi sis teruida, 

Quia sicut in yride. 1 
wTatew Signum nubis est roride. 53 
heaven. Sic tu, plena et grauida, 

Signum hfces que rorida. 
Co??ipassiue et nuida. 
Sis, tue genti languide 57 

Qwowsqwe anima morbida, 
Et tua siti arida, 
Per te respiret valide. 60 

(6) 

Thou shalt Tecum a puericia, 61 

called Bless- Virgo dulcis, clemencia, 
ed, tliou Creuit, et miseracio ; 

liope of fallen gi c creuit-qwe celestia 

Transcendens aula regia, 65 
Dei sedes 2 in solio. 
Nulla vnqwam plantacio 
Fuit, uel educacio 
Reis sic necessaria ; 69 

Nam licet sit collectio 
Eiws semper dispendio 
Caret, et decrescencia. 72 

(7) 

Thou alone Benedicta propterea 73 

our'l'ostVierit- Omwi ^ oco et P lat fa [leaf 113, col. 2] 
age; thou Dicaris ab hominibus, 

Quia per hoc est flamiuea 
Clierubin dira rumphea 77 

Amota suis passibus, 
Introittis exulibus 
Patet, et viatoribus. 
Via celi est lactea, 81 

Que solebat volentibus 
Intrare regnum omnibus 
Esse sanguine rubea. 84 



guidest all 
who wander 
and full. 



(8) 



Blessed be 
thy child 
Christ, who 
died lor us, 
and gave 
Himself for 
our food. 



85 



Tu es lapsi spes hominis, 
Que non dees nee desinis 

Misereri in seculum. 
Tu, diuine imaginis, 
Et eterni es luminis 89 

Beatum receptaculum ; 

Tu, languidis vehiculum 

Et miseris latibulum, 
Sub cuis vmbra tegmiTiis, 93 

Pauper querit vmbraculum, 

Et reus diuerticulum 
Ab incursu formidinis. 96 



(9) 

In mulieribus tu es 97 

Vnica, que restitues 
Hereditate?, perditam, 

Que de -peccato argues 

Mnwdu?rt, aed nulli venues 101 
Graham tuam solitam ; 
Immo cunctis gratuitam 
Ipsam dabis, et placitam. 

Quia semper hac afflues, 105 
Et licet quis per orbitam 
Tortam vadet, et vetidam, 3 

Eum cito non obrues. 108 

(10) 

Et si dicatur verius 109 

Pro reis, et salubrius 
Ipsos errantes dirigis, 

Ipsos lapsos 4 inferius, 112 

Et iaceutes diutius [leaf us, col. 3] 
Qttam oporteret erigis, 
Et qitandoqsse hos corrigis, 
Ne manus immdi remigis 

AHquid agat durius, 117 

Signurw est quod hos diligis, 
Et non dormis nee negligis, 

Ne cedant in detenus. 120 

(11) 

Benedictus in secuhm 121 
Sit ille, per que? titulum 

Talem habes in seculo, 
Christns, qui tui clausulum 
Vteri sui 5 baiulum 125 

Fecit firmato pessulo. 

Qui, morieus pro poptilo. 

Se dedit in patibulo 
Opprobij spectaculum ; 129 

Et, superato Zabulo, 

Fracto-qwe suo baculo, 
Se suis dat in pabulum. 132 

(12) 

Fructus est comestibilis, 133 
Comedentibus vtilis, 

Dulcis awiwie gnstui, 
Nature ammirabilis, 6 
Arti indoctrinabilis, 137 

Stupendus intelleciui, 

Inusitatus vsui, 

Vetito quondam fructui ; 
In omnibiis dissimilis 141 

Solummodo auditui, 

Et non alteri sensui 
Fide comprehensibilis. 144 



> ydria, Pr. * oedet 3 vetitam, Pr. * Lapsos ipsos, Pr 
5 eiuim, Pr. admirabilis, Pr, 



Hymn to the Virgin. I get the Pilgrim's Scrip and Staff. 201 



(13) 

Ventris tui in ortulo, 145 

Ornato flore primulo, 
Iste fructus colligitr ; 

S'ld, ut vultus in speculo 

Representatur oculo, 149 

Et speculum non leditur, 
Sic dura 1 a te recipitur, [m/4] 
Dum manet ; dum egreditur, 

Hoc sit illeso claustrulo : 153 
Nulla via relinquitur, 
Nil suspectum admittitur ; 

Fructum nabes cum flosculo. 



from tliee - 



He is blest 



is, Pr. 



1 nientem, Pr. 



(14) 

Amen dicit et assent", [Fo. xxviij] Christ sprang 
Qui tuas laudes aperit, 

Et te recte magnificat, 
Qui devote se iugerit 
Ad laudandum- vt sciuerit, 

Et ad uitem 2 te applicat. 

Qui aliter se implicat, 

Et tuas laudes abdicat, 
Hie viam bonam 3 deserit ; 

Jlle tibi preiudicat, 

Ille in fide claudicat ; 
Saluus esse non poterit. 168 



He who does 
, ._ not, cannot 
165 be saved. 



3 bonam viam, Pr. 



[The Pilgrim.] 

4 Affter, (shortly to expresse) 7189 

Grace dieu, off hir goodnesse, 
Off the skryppe and the bordoiw [stowe, leafiso] 
Putte me in pocessioun ; 7192 

And I thouhte a-noon ryht tho 
That I was redy for to go 
Vp-on my way, but trew(e)ly 

I ne was no thyng redy, 7196 

Lyk as I wende ; ffor vn-to me 
Ther as I stood, ryht thus sayde she. 

Grace dieU Sayd [In Jn. Stowe's hand. The Stowe MS. has it.] 

' The tyme ys good and couenable 

(As I ha sayd), and acceptable, 7200 

That I my promys and my graunt, 

Holde vn-to th, & my coueuaunt, 

As I be-hihte : tak hed her-to. 

And thow requeryst yt also, 7204 

To be gyrt (for sykernesse) 

With a gyrdel off ryhtwysnesse, 



[Cap. cvii, ' 
prose.] 

Grace Dieu 
gives me the 
Scrip and 
Staff. 



She says that 



[leaf 114] 



I ask her for 
a Girdle of 
Righteous- 
ness. 



4 The 44 French lines following are given for Comparison with 
Lydgate's 82 English lines 71897270 : 

APres, entre les mains me mist (7189) Le pelerin 

Le bourdon, dont grant ioye me fist, 



Car tresbien prest estre cuidoye 
De me mestre tout a la voye ; 
Mais non estoie ; car lors me dist : 

OR est'le point, comme tay dit, 
Que te tiengne mou conuenant 
De ce que tay promis deuant 
Et aussi de ce mas requis, 
Pour la parolle que te dis, 
Cest, destre de iustice ceincts, 



(7192-3) 



(7199) grace dieu 



(7204-5) 



202 Before, having a Girdle I must put on a Doublet. 

Grace Dieu. ' Thy reynys strongly for to streyne, 

fflesshly lusty s to refreyne. 1 [> Restreyne St.] 7208 

' No man hath power (truste me) 

ffor to gon at liberte, 

But he be gyrt ryht mj'ghtyly. 

Therfor, (ofE purpos feytlifully), 7212 

The tassure in wele and wo, 
he win gird I wyl the gyrde, or that thow go, 

me with one J 

ir i agree to g that thow (in thyn entente) 

OfE fre wyl lyst to assente, 7216 

To be thus gyrt; and ellys nouht, 
Now sey, as lyth ryht in thy thoulit.' 

The Pilgrim. The pllgrimC '. [In Jn. Stowe's hand. The St. MS. has it, If. 130, bk.] 

i agree to "Ma datne," quod I in lowly wyse, 

everything. ' J ' 

" Al that euere ye deuyse, 7220 

I wyl ther-off no thyng refuse, 

Nor ther-vp-on no lenger muse ; 

But off thys thyng, with al my myght 

I yow requere off verray ryht." 7221 

Grace Dieu. QraC6 dlBU '. [In Jn. Stowe's hand.] 

she says that ' ff yrst, to make thy syluen strong, 

I must have J J J 

To be myghty a-geyn al wrong, 
Yt be-houeth, in thy diffence, 

ffor to make resistence, 7228 

That thow haue strong armure. 
And ffyrst, (thy syluen to assure,) 
Next thy body shal be set 

a piirpmntor A^purpoynt or a doublet, 7232 

On wych thow shalt fful myghtyly 
Be gyrt and streyned ryht strongly 

Pour bien estraindre fort les reins. (7207) 

De bien aler nul na pouoir, (7209-10) 

Sil nest bien ceinct et bien estroit. 

Pour ce, te dis que te ceindroie (7212-14) 

Tout premierement que la voye 

Tu te misses ; mais que ton gre 

Bien y fust, et ta volente. (721(3) 

Or en dy ce que tu voulras. (7218) 

Le pelerin f A refuser (dis ie) nest pas (7219-21) 

Tel chose, ie la vous requier. (7224) 

grace dieu 1[ Or fault, dist elle, tout premier, (7225) 

Que tu soies arme de tons poincts ; 

Et quau dessoulz soit Ie proupoins ; (7230-2) 

Et puis fermement seres ceinct 



/ don't like, Armour; but Grace Dieu shoivs me a lot. 203 
' With a gyrdel off Ryhtwysnesse, [leaf lu, bk.] 

mi * j >70O to go under 

Ther-on thyn armure ior to uresse. 7 Job my armour. 

The pylgrym. The **>*> 

"Certys," quod I, "yiff ye lyst se, 
Yt wer contrarye vn-to me 
To gon armyd in my vyage ; 

Yt wolde lette my pylgrymage, [stowe, leaf isi] 7240 i fear the 

J fJ o J 6 > armour will 

And don to me ful gret grevauwce ; No " , h "* r ?, ' V8UW inconveni- 

Annorum. ence me) 

fFor I hadde neuere yet vsau?zce 

Nor in custom, truste ine, 

Al my lyue, armyd to be : 7244 

I knewe 1 ther-off nothyng the guyse. [' knowe St.] as r know 

nothing about 

To me yt doth ynouh surtyse, arms. 

To be gyrt (in sothfastnesse) 

With a gyrdel off ryhtwysnesse." 7248 

But than thys lady off gret uertu, [Cap. cix, 

Wych ys callyd Grace Dieu, 
In-ta chauwbre ful secre 
Entrede ; and than she callyd me. 7252 

Grace Dieu : 2 P st -> Kom ner i rf Blie c -] Grace pieu. 

"Kom ner," quod she, "and ha no drede ; Grace Dieu 

calls me into 

Look vp an 3 hih", & tak good heede. ponst.] a chamber, 

Vpon thys perche, the harneys se, 

Wher-wit/z, that thow wylt 4 armyd be, [*myghtest.] 7256 

Pertynent to thy vyage 

And nedful to thy pylg?image." 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] The pu l7rim . 

Ther saw I helmys and haberiouws ) [Cap. ex, 

prose.] 

Plate and may lie, for champyouws 7260 

Sur les armes, et bien estrainct. (7234) 

II Arme, dis ie ; que dictes vous ? (7237) Le peleriii 

An cueur me donnez grant courroux. (7241) 

Armey cheminer ne pourroie ; 

Armes porter ie ne sauroye ; 

Armes ie ne pourroie trouuer ; 

Ceincture seoiffist a porter. (7246-8) 

IT Adonc en sa courtine entra, (7249) 

Et pour y entrer mappela. (7252-3) 

H Or regavde, dist elle hault, (7254) grace dieu 

A ceste perche ne te fault (7255) 

Pour chercher armes loing aler ; (7256-7) 

Assez en voys pour bien tarmer ; 

La sont heaulmes et gambesons, (7259-60) 

Gorgerettes et haubergeons, 



204 / must wear Armour against the attacks of Foes. 

The pilgrim. tGorgetys ageyn al vyolence, 
[t leaf 115] And lakkys stuffyd, off diffence; 
aii'kinds'of Targetys and sheldys, large & longe, 1 [> stronge St.] 

And pavys also that wer stronge, 2 [ s longe St.] 7264 

ffor folk to make resistence, [stowe, leaf isi, back] 

Talle 3 that wolde hem don offence. ptoaii] 

The pylgrym 
i nk, who Than quod I, " as in bataylle, 

will attack J 

me? What enmy shal me assaylle 7268 

Or a-geyn me make affray, 
To distourble me in my way 1 " 

Grace Pita. GcTQ.Ce dlCU 

' Wenystow thy sylff tassure, 

ffor to 4 gon with-onte armure [* to St., om. c.] 7272 

To lerusaleem, & nat fynde 
she says i Brygauwtys to-forn And ek be-hynde, 

shall meet J & J J 

enemies of ail Dauwgevvs grete, & encouwbrawices, 

kinds by the ' 

wa y Empechementys & meshauwcys 1 7276 

Thevys and mardrerys ay lyggynge 

Vp-on the weye, eue7*e espyynge, 

Thow shalt ffynde, so gret plente, 

That thow off hem shalt wery be, 7280 

Ther assautys to endure, 
wherefore i Wherfore 5 the nedeth strong armure, [ s Therfore St.] 

need strong 

armour. Myghtyly hem to wit/i-stonde. 

And for thy profyt, y wyl ffowide, 7284 

WM harneys to array en the, **%StSS2*S!^^ 

That thow shalt nat afferyd be.' Epes,, vj ouJtmo. 

The Pilgrim. The pylffiym 

" Ma dame," qttod I, " syth ye wyl so, 
Armyd algatys that I go, 7288 

i ak what Shew me what armure I shal were, 

armour I 

shall wear. And what wepenys I shal bere ; 
And how I shal me armen wel, 
And the maner euerydel." 7292 



Targes, et quanque faillir pent (7263) 

A cil quil desfendre se veult. 

Le pelerin IT Qui est, dis ie, qui massauldra, (7267-8) 

De qui desfendre. me faulra ? 



Grace Dicu yives me a Gambeson to protect me. 205 

tThanne, off merveyllous fasouw, The Pilgrim. 

She took to me a Gambisowi. 1 [tcap. cxi, 

Cainb. prose.] 

A maner harneys that I knewe nouht : [leaf 115, bk.j 

And behynde, ther-on was wrouht 7296 aGambUoim 

API, . -i o ft- * i i a with a steel 

A ful strong styh 2 oft fyne stel, 3 anvUonits 

ffor to receyue strookys wel [ 3 styghe . . ffyne St., fyn c.] 

Off the hamer, whan euere yt sniyte, 

That yt shal hurte but a lyte. 7300 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

Than quod Grace Dieu to me : Grace rueu. 

' Thys Gambesouw wych thow dost se, an<l Ba y 8 

there is no 

Ys so wrouht, (who taketh hede.) better be- 

' > *' tween Car- 

ffor ta-woyde 4 a man fro drede; p to avoyde St.] 7304 ^'Jf 8 and 

That, from cartage in-to Inde, 

Men myghte nat a bettre fynde ; 

ffor (as thow shalt wel vnderstonde,) 

Thogh a man hadde foot nor houd, 7308 

And were _vn-tp a stake bounde, 

Hys foome?z aboute rounde, 

Yiff he haddo on thys garnement, Armed with 

And clad ther-in (off good entent), 7312 overcome an 

x my foes. 

He myghte nat ouerkomen be, 

But fynally, in surete, 

With gret worshepe & gret glorie, 

Off hys Enmyes han vyctorye. 7316 

'And yet thys garnement, (I dar swere, [St., if. 1:52, bk-.] Tinsgambe- 

son is a jov 

Who that euere doth yt were,) to sufferers. 

Hath most loye & plesauwce 

In thyng that ys to folk penaurcce, 7320 

ffor hys proffyt & avauwtage, 

Som folk holde yt gret damage ; 

ffor pacience (in conclusi'ou?*) [leaf no] 

Hauetll 5 thys COndiciOUJZ, pHathSt.] 7324 For the (jain 

. of Patience ' 

(nor to descryve and spek in pleyn 

Off pacience the trewe greyn,) 

I mene, to hys avau?tagc is, that 

ffmctefyeth with fforage : 7328 

1 Gambeson, Gabison. A fashion of long and quilted horse- 
mans cassocke or coat, used iu old time. Cotgravc. 

2 Cp. 'the Styth set at thy bak,' 209/7478, below. 



206 



The Gambeson I am, to wear is cald Patience. 



Grace Dien. 

storm fills its 
garners, ami 
pestilence its 
cellars. 



Its dainties 
are poverty ; 



its recreation, 
fasting. 



The more 
pain it It-els, 
the firmer it 
is m.iilf by 
the steel of 
suffering. 



And as Pa- 
tience is 
prickt with 
woe 



like a par- 
point is with 
stitches, 

BO this Gam- 
beson 



Tempest fulfylletli hys garnerys, 
And pestylence hys celerys ; 
Hys sofftest bedde, 1 (in sothnesse,) 
Ys ymakyd off hardnesse. 
In peyne and wo, ys hys delyt, 
And in suffraiwce, ys hys respyt; 
Hys deyntes stonde in poverte, 
Hys solace in aduersyte ; 
And fastyng (in conclusions) 
Ys 2 hys recreaciouw. 
He wexeth fat by 3 abstynence, 
And gruchcheth for no vyolence ; 
Peyne and tribulacyoun 
Ben to hym consolaciouw ; 
And the mor he feleth peyne 
The mor he ys (in certeyne) 
Hardyd in herte by coustaunce, 
With the Stel off iust suff raurece. 
' And for that paei'ence, vrith wo 
Ys ypryked and punysshed, so 
By verray trewe examynyng, 
As a purpoynt wtt7i sawyng 4 
By long exarnynaci'oiw, 
Tlierfore thys arinure Gambisouw, 



[' bedde St., bed C.] 

7332 



7336 



P Ys alle St.] 
l with St] 



7340 



7344 



7348 

[Stowe, leaf 1SS] 
[* gowynge St.] 

7351 

.i. paoience St., om. C. 



is cald a Pur 
point, 



(Who consydreth fro poynt to poynt) 
Ys ycallyd a purpoynt 
Wtt/i-oute prykyng (in substau?*ce,) 
And punysshyng, with gret suffrau?ce, 7356 

In mescheff and 5 aduersyte [ 5 and in St.] 

He taketh al hys dygnyte j 
[leaf lie, bk.] And theroff (in conclusiou?<) 

He receyueth hys Eenoure, 7360 

Thys armure most merveyllous, 
In al diff ence most gracious. 

' And therfor (shortly in sentence) 
The name ther-off ys pacience, 7364 

The wych, in euery aventure, 
Ys ymakyd for tendure, 
Peyne and tribulaci'ouw, 
Voyde off al rebellious : 7368 



ami its name 
is Patience. 



Christ wore it ; and I am to -put it next my skin. 207 



' Ryht as a sty th l f orgyd off Stel p styti.ee St.] 

ffeleth the strokys 2 neueradel t 2 strokys St., stokys c.] 

Off thys ffethris Smothe & soffte, 

Thogh men ther-on smyten offte, 7372 

So pacyence (iu hyr werkyng) 

Maketh neuere no gruchchyng 

Off no thyng she doth endure. 

'And tlierfore, (I yow ensure,) 7376 

With thys Gambisouw, Cryst ihesus, 
That paciente lord, most vertuous, 
Was yclad (yiff ye lyst se) 

Whan he heng vp-on a tre, 7380 

And wt't/i hys blood, mankynde hath bouht, 
SufFrede deth, and gruchchede nouht, [stowe, leaf isa, back] 
Nor spak no word in hys penauwce ; 
But, thorgh hys myghty gret suffrau?*ce, 7384 

He was bete and hamryd wyth, 
As a plate vp-on a 3 styth, [ 3 a St., om. c.] 

The forgyd Monye for Rauwsown 
To uiakeu our redempciouw : 
The 4 cruel Smythes, off Rancour [Thesst.] 

Sparede nat for no labour 
Til they hadde hym forgyd wel, 
Tryed hym out as any stel : 
In wych metal ther was no lak ; 
And ay they forgede on hys bak ; 
And paciently he dede endure ; 
He armyd was in swych armure 
Wyth the Arrays off paci'ence. 

'And therfore, in thy dyffence, 
That thow suffre no dyffame, 

Tak a purpoynt off the same, 7400 

Wherso thow go, in* see or lond : [ 5 on St.] 

Haue yt here redy to thyn hond ; 
Next thy body, ]at yt be set, 

In stede off a strong 6 doublet ; [ 6 stronge St.] 7404 

ffor next thy cors yiff thow yt were, 
AH thyn Armure thow shalt bere 
Mor esely ; & ha no wonder, 
Yiff paci'euce be trcwly vnder. 7408 



Grace Dieu. 

Ami as an 
anvil feels no 
blows, 



so Patience 
never com- 
plains. 



[Cap. cxii, 

prose.] 
Christ was 
clad with it 
on the cross. 



and com- 
plaind not, 



tlio he wag 
hiiimnerd 
like plate on 
an anvil. 



7392 

Supra dorsum meum 
fabricaueruwt peccutores 



7396 



[leaf 117] 



Take then 
this pin-point 
of Patience, 



and wear It 
next your 
skin. 



208 / put on the Gambeson, but am too fat for it. 



The Pilgrim. 

[Cup. cxiii, 

prose.] 
I put on the 
Gambeson ; 



but it pains 
me, 



and I tell 
Orace Dieu 



I cannot bear 
it. 



Job vi. 11, 12. 



Orace Difti. 
[leaf 117, bk.J 



She tell a me 
my body is 
too big and 
fat; 



the fault is 
not. in the 
Gumbeson, 



but in my 
rontrarioua- 

IH'SS. 



The pylgrym. 

A-noon affter (by hyr assent) ' 
I dyde vp-on thys garnement. 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
The wych was hevy for to beere, [8towe,ieafis4] 
And ryht komerous ek to were; 7412 

Grevous also, and streith 1 to lace, [ streyte st.j 
And ryht peynful to enbrace ; 
And, for the peyne, I gan abreyde, 
And to grace dieu I seyde : 7416 

" Ma dame," quod I, " thys purpoynt 
Was nat shape fro poynt to poynt 
To my plesauttce, I yow ensure ; 

ffor I may nat wel endure 7420 

To bern yt pleynly at myra ese : 
The shap ther-off ne doth nat plese 3 
To me, pleynly ; nor the ffasouw 
Accordeth to myn oppynyoim." 7424 

Grace dieu 

Quod Grace dieu, ' thys garnement 
Ys wel shape to myn entent, 
Thogh yt be nat to thy plesauwce ; 
ffor thy body, in substauwce 7428 

Ys so ffaat, so gret 3 and large, [ 3 ffatte / grete St.] 
And ouerlade with grete 4 charge, [* grete st., gret c.] 
That yt may nat be enbrachyd 5 [ s ben bracyd St.] 
Aboute the, nor wel ylacyd, 7432 

And yet the faute, to myn entent, 
Ys nat in the garnement, 
But only founde in thy gretuesse, 
And in thy boystous frowardnesse, 7436 

That thow mayst vp-on thy bak 
Sustene yt, but thow fynde a lak ; 
And al the faute ys fouwde in the, 
Off wylful contrariouste. [stowe, leaf is*, back] 7440 

' But, thyn errour to reforme, 
Thow must thy-sylff mekly confourme. 

3 Sidenote in MS. : Quo est [enini] foditmlo mea vt sustinerem ? 
a?tt quis finis meus, vt pacienter again '( (12) nee fortitude mea 
lapidum, ncc caro mea enea e.^. lob (vi. 11). 



/ must grow lean and jit myself to the Purpoint, Patience. 209 



' To thys garnement, truste me, ?i 8 ^i r r^^v^iuiitot q cm a tuam 

And nat the garuement vn-to the ; ad v lu " t ' * Au s u9t - 

And put away the gret outrage, 7445 

The ffaatnesse and the surplusage 

That ys in the, and the gretnesse ; 

And the (xwfourme by meknesse 1 p mekenesse st,] 7448 

To thys purpoynt, that yt may be 

Accordynde 2 & egal vn-to the, [ Accordyng St.] 

In euery party wel syttynge. 

'And thogh that yt, as in semynge, 7452 

Be nat, at the pryme fface, 
Euenly shape the tenbrace 
Yet affter-ward, vn-to thyn ese 

Yt shal be syttynge, & wel pleee ; 7456 

ffor thyng that greueth the to-day 
Shal be to-morwe 3 vn-to thy pay ; p tomorwe / be St.] 
Yt may so faH, off auenture ; 7459 

' And therfore al-way 4 the assure [ ail way St., . . way c.] 
In thys garnement for diffence, 
Wych ys callyd pacyence, 
With whos power, (now vnderstonde,) 
AH assautys thow shalt wttA-stonde. 

' ffor wrong despyt & al desdeyn 
That any man kan to the seyn, 
Outher off pryde or surquedye, 
Eepreff or any vyllenye, 
Veuge the nat / nor do no wrak, 
But looke a-noon thow tourne bak ; 
Lawhe and be glad, & sey ryht nouht, 
And be nat troublyd in thy thouht. 

' And off me thys wysdam lere, 
Berkyng off houwclys for to here, 
Yt may to the, by good suffraurace, 
Nouther damage nor do greuauwce. 
Ageyn assautys off al swych wrak, 
Lat the Styth set 5 at thy bak, p sytt st.] 

And thy purpoynt off pacience, 

Myghtyly stonde at dyffence : 7480 

And -wfth thys tweyne, truste me, 
Al maner off aduersite 

PILGRIMAGE. P 



Grace Dien. 

I must fit 
myself to the 
garment, not 
the garment 
to me. 
I must get 
rid of my fat, 

and shape 
myself by 
meekness to 
fit the Pur- 
poynt. 



Pain to-day 
shall be joy 
to-morrow. 



[leaf 118] 
[Cap. cxiv, 
prose.] 

The Pur- 
poynt is cald 
' Patience,' 



7464 



7468 



(Stowe, leaf 135] 

7472 

Nota St., om. C. 

Magnorum virorum est, 
necligsre ledentem. C. 
Seneca. St., om. C. 

7476 



and will 
enable me to 
suffer wrongs 
cheerfully. 



210 I agree to put on the Purpoint of Patience or Suffering. 

Grace Dieu. ' Thow slialt veiiquisshe & ber doiw ; 
n.v suffering And, lyk a myghty chain pyoiw. 7484 

and adversity ' J J o J 

i shall be Thow slialt vfith laurer crownvd be, 

crownd, 

By suffrauttce off aduersyte. 

as were the As 1 by record? ful longe a-gOU [>AndSt.] 

murlyrs, 

Wer thys 2 martrys euerychon, [* Were tues St.] 7488 

Wych that weFln euery poynt 

Strongly armyd in the purpoynt 
who, by pa- Off patience", to sustene 
fering won The sttok, when they wer leyd atwene 7492 

the laurel of 0,1 

victory. The hamer and the Styth also, 

And a-twyxe bothe two, 
[leaf iis, bk.] The grcne laurer off victorie, 

And the crowne ek off her glory e, 7496 

Yforgyd wer, (who taketh hede) 

ffor guerdoiw off ther eternal inede. 
Grace Dieu 'And therfore I consaylle the. 

advises me to 

put on tins "With thys purpoynt that thow be. 7500 

piirpoint of ' 1 r J 

Patience. Wych ys callyd pacyence, 

Armyd ffyrst for thy diffence. 

Thys my cowsayl ; & thus I rede, [stowe, leaf 135, back] 

Be cause only thow shalt ha nede, 7504 

As for thy cheff protecci'ou?i 

Ageyn al trybulacyou/i 

Off false brygau?ztys that shal lye 

Vp-on the waye, the tespye.' 7508 

The pylgrym. 
[Cap.cxv, " Certys," quod I, u yt stondeth so, 

That I wot nat what I may do 

Touchynge your consayl, by no waye ; 
i m?ree to put But at the lest, I shal assay e 7512 

on 'Patience.' . 

Me taraye, in my dyttence, 

Wit/i your purpoynt off patience." 
[cap. <-xvi, Grace dieu. 

Quod Grace dieu, " thow must also, 

Or thow in armys haue a-do, 7516 

Vp-on thy purpoynt ' pacyence ' 
nm above it Haue a-boue, in thy diffence, 
on tin- The haberioujz wych hangeth yonder. 

Imbermnn 

of Fortitude, So inly ffayr, that yt ys wonder ; 7520 



But above it I must wear the Habergeon of Fortit'ude. 211 



' fforgyd off old (yt ys no faylle) 

ffor to entren in bataylle, 

Wyth Deth to ffyhte, & his meynee ; 

Thys to seyne, (yiff thow kanst se,) 7524 

Ageyn al peynys and tourmentys 

And hys dredful 1 tournementys, c 1 dredefuiie St., dredful c.] 

Replevysshed 2 with mortal Rage. [ 2 Repienysshed St.] 

Deth ys a best 3 most sauage; p beast st,] 7528 

He chauwgeth purpoos and devyses ; [stowe, leaf isoj 

And al thys 4 vnkouth sondry guyses, [*thesst.] 

Wyt off man and al Resouw : 

ff or he let 5 fallen hys bordoun, p For u>tt st,] 7532 

Hys Maas, <fe ek hys dredful spere, 

He hurteth nyh", & ek affere, 

And spare th noon off no degre 

How hih they syttyn in her Se, 7536 

ffor rychesse nor for pui'ssaimce. 

1 But who wyl haven assuraunce 
Ageyn deth, as a champyouw, 

Lat hym haue on thys haberiouw ; '.x* 1 7540 

And off deth, in al hys nede, 
He shal ha 6 no maner drede ; [ 6 iiave St.] 

Off hys assautys nor hys wrak, 

Nor for hym onys 7 tourne abak, Fenyst.] 7544 

Whil he hath on thys garnement 
The wych was forgyd (off entent) 
Off the 8 most myghty armvrer, * the st,, om. c.] 
Wych syt aboue the sterrys cler, 7548 

That forgede So?zne & mone also, 

And made hem in her cours 9 togo> pcoursgc., there cours St.] 
And no man may be armyd \rel 

In plate, mayl, nor in sfcel. 7552 

Nor sur 10 for hys savaci'ouw, [jo snre st.] 

But he haue on thys haberiouw, 
Wych callyd ys off verray ryht, 

* ffortitudo ' most off myght. 7556 

ffor, ' ff orce ' ys callyd thys vertu, 
Wyth wych seruauwtys off cryst ihesu 
Wer Armyd, the myghty champiouns 
That made hem hardy as Iyou?w3 7560 



to fight 
against 



the savage 
beast Death, 
[leaf 1J9] 



who spares 
no one. 



Against him 
this Haber- 
geon will 
protect me. 



It was made 
by the Great or 
of Sun and 
Moon, 



[Cap. cxvii, 

prose.] 
and its name 
is Fortitude, 
or Force. 



212 The Virtue of tlie Habergeon ' Fortitudo ' or 'Force' 

grace Dieu. In batayH & in tourncmentys, 

The cham- And constaunt euere in ther ententys [stowe, leaf me, back] 

pioiis of 

thin eard Vn ' to fclie deth, & no thyng dradde, 



nothing 

Vp-on ther body whan they hadde 7564 

[leaf ii9, bk.] Thys haberioutt ycallyd ' force,' 

with tins Wher-wyth tliey dyde he?-sylff afforce, 

Force. To putte hem forth, & nat wit/i-drawe, 

In dyffence off crystys lawe, 7568 

Thorgh ther prowesse & hyh renouw. 
' And sothfastly thys haberiowz, 

(Who that euere doth yt were,) 
Dagger nor Off daggers, dart, Swerd nor spere, 7572 

sword, spear 

pierce a it a]tM Shoot of Arwe nor off quarel, 

(Thogh they be grounde 1 sharpe off stel,) ^gZmic 8 ]*" 

They shal nat perce thorgh the maylle, 

ffor the Rynggs (thys no ffaylle) 7576 

It is strongly Wer ItVliettyd 2 SO myghtyly [* Revettyd St.] 

riveted, and J J , . 

anneaid \vitu Clenchyd and nayled so strongly: 

martyrs' 

blood. The yren werke 3 was ek so good, [ werke St., weer c.] 

Annelyd & tenipryd \vt't/t the blood 7580 

That ran out off her wondys kene, 

Thys made hem manly to sustene 

Thassaut off brygauntys nyht & day, ( ^ -c 

That lay for pylgrymes on the way, 7584 

By vertu off thys haberiouw. Fortitudo .i. Force st. 

' And therfore (off eutencyouw,) 
By my couyzsayl, sey nat nay 

This Haber- To putte yt On, & yt taSSay, 4 [* hit assay St.] 7588 



be d wo must -A-^ ouo thy purpoynt ' pacyence ' ; 

puT* fnf ^ or> y ^ fforce (by my sentence) 

Patienoe/ Vp-on the tother be wel set, 

Thow shalt ffyhte wel the bet 7592 

(I dar wel seyn) wherso 5 thow go : [ s wherst.] 

Now lat se what thow seyst her-to." [stowe, ieafi$7] 

The Pilgrim. The 



[Cap. cxviii, "Ma dame," (to speke in wordys ffewe,) 

i ask to see " I P ra y yow that ye wyl me shewe, 7596 



:il I the armour A i i i A i 

lam to wear. And to do yOUre b bysy CUre [ 8 youre St., my C.] 

That I may se al the armure 7 [ 7 tharmure St., c.] 

\Vych I shal were in thys vyage, 



My other arms: Helmet, Gorger, Target, Gloves, & Sword. 213 
And yiff I ffynde avauntage 7600 [leaf 120] 

T ii The Pilnrim. 

lii tharneys ye prayse so, [C. &st.] 

I wyl accorde wel ther-to." 1 

Thanne she a-noon hath forth brouht a SlSl?^v ! Grace Dieu 

istowe s hand), brings forth 

The haberiouw, fful wel ywrouht, 7604 

Off wych to-forn I ha yow told ; 

And, to make me strong & bold, 

Out off hyr tresour ek she ffette 

An Elm, A Gorger, A Tarerette, 7608 a Helmet, 

r<l 4* 1 4. A J i Corslet. Qor- 

Orlovys oft plate, A swerd also, ser, Target, 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.'] sword,' 

And thanne she spak & seyde, loo, 

Grace dieu. grace Dieu. 

' Off thys hameys, take good heede, 7611 

And truste wel thow mustest 2 nede c 2 trust . . must st. (badly)]. 
Haue hem vp-on, (As by my lore,) with "inch i, 

' v J J tlie pilgrim, 

Or thow shalt repente sore : mUHt ** 

armed. 

ffor they only to the suffyse, 

Yiff thow the gouerne lyk the wyser 7616 

And to my doctryne lyst attende, 

Lyk a man, the to dyffende 

Ageyn hem that wyl do the" wrong, [stowe, leaf 137, back] 

4 And yiff I hadde the ffouwde strong, 7620 

I hadde the yove bet armure ; 
But I ha don my bysy cure 
Yt to conserue, ffor the 3 prowh p thy St.] 

Off folk that be mor strong than thow. 7624 

' An helm tavoyde the" fro dred, The Helmet 

Thow shalt ha ffyrst vp-on thyn hed, iiead, 

The to preserue, erly and late ; 

And a gorger mad off plate ; 7628 [leaf 120, bk.] 

And affter thys [i]forgyd ffayre, ftSES-t, 

Glovys off plate, a myghty payre, and the 

J r ' J J * J Gloves for my 

Set vp-on thyn hondys tweyne. i>ds. 

ffor ellys (yiff I shal nat ffeyne) 7632 
Wyth-outen hem (as thynketh me,) 

Thow myghtest nat wel armyd be. is called me 

' And, to declaren in substaunce, ance e>mp( 

Thyn helm ys callyd ' Attemprauwce,' f 7636 proseT' 
1 The Stowe MS. puts the heading ' Grace Dieu ' above the next line. 



214 The Virtues of the Helmet: it protects Eyes and Ears. 

grace pieu. By wych aforn tliow shalt wel se, 
This Helmet, Herkne and smel. at lyberte, 

Attemper- 

ance, will Tliynges to-forn or that they falle, 

enable me to Jo 

events'- ^- n( ^ cas ^ a -f m > meschevys alle, 7040 

That no thyng vnwarly greue. 

ffor Attempraunce (who lyst preue) 

Ilaueth thys condyc'ioiw, 

Only off high" 1 dyscrecyoiw t 1 ingiie St.. om. c.] 7644 

Kepeth thoye 2 cloos and secre p the eye] 

That yt haue no lyberte 

To opne, (who-so lyst to lere,) 

But whan tyme yt doth recjuere, 7648 

That fooly nor no vanyte 

Be nat to large nor to fre, 

'ffor yiff thys helm be mad a-ryht, [stowe, leafiss] 
it protects the Yt shal nat haue to large a syht, 7652 

Lyst som Arwe, sharpe y-grounde, 

Entre myghte, & gyue a wouwde. 
and by cio- And at the Erys ek also 

ing the ears, 

Thow mustest 3 taken lied therto, pmustcst.] 7656 

That yt be nat to large off space, 
Lyst that by the same place 
Entrede (by collusyoiw) 

Som noyse off fals detracciouw, 7660 

Or som fooltyssh dalyaiwce, 
Gruchchyng, or noyous perturbaiwce. 
[leafm] 'ffor thys helm, surer than Stel, 

Stoppeth the Erys ay so wel [c. &st.] 7664 

By prudent cyrcuwspeccyoiw 

keeps detrac- That DartVS 4 off DetraCCVOUW [* Darts St.] 

tion from the " 

heart. (Grounde and fyled for to smerte) 

Haue noon entre to the herte, 7668 

Wych be gretly for to drede 

Whan they, off fals neyhebourhede, 

Ben yforgyd off malys, 

And ysquaryd by fals devys. 7672 

ffor ther ys noon mor dredful shour [c. & St.] 

Than off a shrewede neyhebour ; 

ffor, \fith ther dartys, swyche 5 ko?me > swyche St., swych c.] 

Hurte wers than bowe or gonne : 7676 



Of the Helmet of Salvation, and the Goi^ger of Sobriety. 215 

' Ageyn whos mortal meshauMce, Orace Dieu - 

Thys helm callyd ' attemprawice ' 8 tem e . lraet 

Ys nedful, in thy dyffence, KS'E^T' 

for to make resistence 7680 %,** 

At Nase, at Ere, & at the Syht, 

That yt hem kepe & close a-ryht. 

ffor thys helm, for assuraimce, [stowe, leaf iss, back] 

Wych ys callyd ' attemprauwce ' 7684 

As worthy & noble off fame, 

SevTZ poul gaff ther-ton 1 a name, [ ther-to St.] st. Paul bade 

men wear it 

And callyd yt (for gret delyht) 7687 

' The helm off helthe & off profyt,' ^^M^SH St" 1 ? 
And commauwdede men take hed salvation "- 

ffor to sette yt on ther hed for their chief 

salvation. 

As for ther cheff Savac'ioiw. 

' And a Gorger, lower dou??, 7692 [cp. cxx, 

prose.] 

He bad (as for mor sykernesse) The Gorger 

They sholde make off sobyrnesse ; 

ffor sobyrnesse, wtt^ attemprauwce, 

Haueth alway allyaunce ; 7696 

ffor bothe they ben off on all ye, 

Ay to refreyne glotonye. restrains 

J J J Gluttony. 

And trusteth wel, (with-oute faylle,) [leaf 121, bk.] 

Thys Armure hath a double maylle ; 7700 Tins armour 

J J is double 

And ellys (pleynly I ensure,) man, 

Yt wer to feble to endure. 

'And yiff thow lyst the cause espye, 
Ys thys, only, for glotonye 7704 because Gint- 

J ' Jt J tony is doubly 

Hath in hym sylff, off 2 fro wardnesse, past.] mad, in taste 

J J and excess. 

A dowble maner off woodnesse ; 

Woodnesse off Tast & fals delyt, 

Havynge to mesour no respyt ; 7708 

And outrage ek off dalyaunce, 

ffor lakkyng off Attemperawace. 

' And fyrst, he doth hym sylff most wo, it, works ruin 

J with the 

And sleth hys neyhebours also, 7712 tongue. 

Whan the claper ys out Ronge, 

With the venym off hys Tonge, 

Whan he hym teryth & to-rent. [stowe, leaf 139] 

ffor ther ys addere, nor serpent 7716 



216 Of the Gorgcr of Sobriety, and the Gloves of Continence. 
grace pieu. ' So dredful, nor malycyous, 

Neither adder As VS A Tonge VeUyniOUS : 
nor serpent is ' 

so dreadful as jf o tryacle may the venym saue. 7719 

a venomous 

tongue. Ther-fore yt ys ful good to have 1 t l to have st., tave c.j 

Ageyn hys mortal cursydnesse, 

A Gorger off Sobyrnesse, 

The wych Armure ys profytable 

To alle 2 folkys worshepable. p TO iie st., Taiie c.] 7724 
1 Lat no man -with hys tonge byte, 

Nor wit/i hys wordys falsly smyte, 

Malycyously to make wrak 

Off hys neyhebour, at the 8 bak ; [higst.] 7728 

ffor who so doth, he ys nat wys. 
st. wniiam ' And Seyn WylKam off Chalys, 

otCualys J ' 

A man off gret abstynence, 

Wych neuere dyde offence, 7732 

fas hie Lire (As hys lyff platly doth teche,) 

shown) v J -i r J 

In hys Tonge nor in hys speche, 

ffor ay he dyde hys bysy peyne, 
[leaf 122] Wykkede tongys to refreyne. 7736 

And mys-spekerys, thorgh outrage, 

That vfiih her Tonge fyl in rage, 
the 1 beTt m * az ' -^ e ^ r y^l e( ^ e hem, & dyde hem wreste, 

Wh at-euej-e they herde, to sey the beste. 7740 

Off whom ys good exaumple take, 

And off hys lyff a Merour make, 

That eue?'e hadde in condyciouw 

To here no detracci'ovw 7744 

In hys presence, nyh" nor fere, 

Neuere to lestene bakbytere. 

And therfor, (as I shal devyse,) [stowe, leaf 139, back] 

Arine the in the same wyse 7748 

Turn away Tavoyden (shortly in sentence) 
biters. Al bakbyterys fro thy presence, 

And al maner detracci'oure. 

Wher thow hast domynaci'ouw. 7752 

[Cap. cxxi, ' The nexte armure, the to saue, 

prwe.] 

Next, have Vp-on thyn hondys thow shalt haue : 

Gloves for the . i /. i i 

hands, A peyre on glouys lorgyd wel, 



Surere than yren outher stel, 7756 



The Gloves of Continence, to stop lewd touchings, &c. 217 

' Alle vyces to restreyne ; grace m. 

Tharmure off thyn handys tweyne. t restrain ail 

J j j viceS) and 

A-geyn the lust off fals touchyng. prevent im- 

proper touch- 

Tast, or any dyshonest thyng 7760 in s s - 

To ffele or touche, as by wrong. 

' ffor to make the sylue strong, 
Thow shalt thy couwsayl take off me, 
Vp-on thyn handys, armyd to be 77G4 

"With a peyre off glouys sure. 
And the name off that armure, The name of 

m , ,, , ... . . this Srcl part 

The thrydde part on attempraunce, of Attemper- 

Wych ys callyd in substauwce 7768 [leaf 122, bk.] 

(The taforce in thy dyffence) 

The noble uertu ' contynence.' is conti- 

Wych vertu, seyd in syngulerte, 

Ys egal to pluralyte. 7772 

ffor thys vertu (yiff yt be souht) 

By hym-sylff allone ys nouht 

ffor honest wyl, conioynt wit/t dede \ 

In clennesse, ys worthy niede, 7776 

A-geyn al fflesshly ffreelte 

To arme l A man in chastyte. P To ftrm , e s*: ^arme c 

Stowe puts tins line (leaf 1 40) 

' Nouther off hem (who kan se) *** the " e above il ta C -J This virtue is 
May withouten other be, 7780 ' b ' e ' 

No mor than (yiff I shal nat ffeyne) 
We't/i-oute noumbre off glouys tweyne, 
No man ys suryd for 2 diffence, p for St., for to c.] 
ffor to make resistence. 7784 

But whan that wyl & tast also in win and 

Ben accordyd, bothe two, 
Off honeste, nat to trespace, 

Thogh they hadde fredam & space, 7788 

And also opportunyte 
To don A-mys at lyberte, 
Than semeth yt (yiff thow take hede) 
He wer worthy ful gret mede ; 7792 

As was Seyn Bernard, that holy man, st. Bernard, 

mi. v / T i .. i \ that holy 

Ine wych (as 1 reherse kan) man, 

Was wel armyd on owther hond, 

Whan he off a- venture ffond 3 p honde . . ffonde st.] 7796 



218 Of St. Bernard's Continence. The Sword of Righteousness. 



when he 
found a wo- 
man in hia 
bed, 



[leaf 123] 



took no heed 
of her, 



so that she 
thought him 
no man : 



but he won 
tin- palm of 
chastity. 



Therefore 
the Gloves 
are needful. 



Likewise the 
Sword. 



The name 
thereof is 
Righteous- 
ness. 



' (He ther-off no thyng wytyngc,) 

A wommaw in liys bedtle l lyggynge p bedde St., byd c.] 

Nakyd, ful off lusty hede, 

2 And plesynge off hyr port in dede, 7800 

Wych gaff hym gret OCCasioUW, L 2 - 3 St. leaves out these 4 lines.] 

Wyth toknys off temptaci'ouw, 

Thorgh hyr port off whommawhede. 2 

But he thdr-off took noon hede ; 7804 

ffor she ne myghte hym nat excite, 

In hyr bewte to delyt ; 

He took off hyre no reward, 

fFor to tourne to hyr ward ; 7808 

ffor, surere than any stel, 

Hys handy s wern yarmyd wel, 

That, whan he sholde haue A-do, 

ffro Touch & Tast he kepte hym so 7812 

That she myghte hyw nat dyllude. [stowe, leaf uo, back] 

Wher-vp-on), she gan conclude, 

And affermede off hy??i a-noon, 

That outher off yren or off ston 7816 

He was ymad, & lyk no man : 

And thus he the palnie wan 

Off chastyte ; and she A-noon, 

Shamyd & coufus, ys a-goon ; 7820 

And he with victoire 3 a-bood sty lie. [ 3 vyctorye St.] 

' And therfor (as by my wylle) 

Thow shalt the Armen (& nat feyne) 7823 

Wyth swych a payre 4 Glouys tweyne. [* payre / off st.] 

' ffor the also I shal prouyde 
Tave A swerd ek by thy syde ; 
(A bettre was ther neuere found e, 
Off stel forgyd, whet nor Grou/?de,) 7828 

"VVyche 5 shal ynowfi suffyse [ 5 winche st., w yc h c.] 
The to dyffende many 6 wyse, tinenyst.] 

Yiff any Enmy tlie assaylle 

(Outher in skarnmssh" outher 7 bataylle,) ['orinst.] 7832 
I the ensure, in al thy nede, 
"VVhyl thow hast yt, thow shalt nat drede 
Off noon Enmy, nor no dystresse, 
The name off wych ys ' liyhtwysnesse.' 7836 



The Sword of Righteousness makes the Body obey the Spirit. 219 



' A bettre swerd was neuere wroulit, [leaf 12:1, 

f\a> i i i A Grace Dieu. 

Oft prmce nor oft kyng ybouht : 

J & J It is better 

ffor the swerd off goode Oger, than the 

Off Rowland nor off Olyuer, 7840 Rowland or 

Oliver, or ot 

Was nat (for to reknen al) gier the 

\ Dane. 

Off valu, to thys swerd egal, 

So trusty nor so vertuous, 

To ffolk in vertu coragous. 7844 

ff or thys swerd haueth so gret inyht, [stowe, leaf ui] 

To ryche and povre for to do ryht, it makes 

every one do 

And thorgh hys vertuous werkyng Right. 

Yiveth every man hys owne tliyng : 7848 

A swerd mad for an Emperour, 

And for euary gouernour, 

And al that hauen regencie 

A-boue other, or 1 maystrye, ['off St.] 7852 

Therby to gouerne tlier meyne 

And ther sogetys in equyte, 

That noon do to other wrong 

(Thogh he be myghty outher strong,) 7856 

By fforce nor by vyolence, 

Hys neyhbour to don offence. 

'ffor thys swerd, in euery place, 

Alle wrongys doth mAnace, 7860 

And techeth A manhys 2 body wel, p mannys st] it constrains 

J J the body to 

Not to be stordy nor rebel ; 

A-geyn the Spyryt, no thyng to seye, 

But to be soget, and obeye ; 7864 

And techeth A mawhys- herte off ryht, 

To loue god "with al hys myght, 

A-boue al other Erthly thyng, 

As hym that ys most myghty kyng ; 7868 

Eschewe ffraude, deceyt & guyle ; 

And that, by couert off no whyle, 

He, in hys affecciou?i, 

Off wyl nor off entenciou?? 7872 

Ne do no maner tyranye, [leaf 124] 

Oppressyou?i nor robberye ; oppress or 

A J u ai ii j rob ally ulle> 

And cheilly, that eue?y maner wyht 

Gouerne and rule hym sylff aryht, 7876 



220 Of the Sword of Righteousness that subdues the Flesh. 



It helps to 
subdue the 
flesh, 



as St. Benet, 
girt with 
this sword, 
withstood 
temptation. 



and overcame 
the flesh. 



[Cap. rxxiii, 

prose.] 
This Sword 
of Righteous- 
ness you 
must wear on 
your pilgrim- 
age, 



[leaf 121, bk.] 
against your 
secret self- 
causd foes. 



' Vyces putte in 1 subieccioun, ^ T '^ ^^l^k.] 

That vertu ha 2 domynaci'ouw p ha MS St.] 

The fflesshe felly to chastyse, 

Yiff yt rebelle in any wyse 7880 

To be to sturdy or to bold, 

As seyn Benyth 3 dyde off old, puenettst.] 

Gyrt wt't/i the swerd off Ryghtwysnesse, 

Whan he dyde hys flessh oppresse 7884 

As a myghty champyouw : 

Wtt/i-stondyng hys temptac'iouw. 

As regent and gouemour, 

He made the spyryt Emperour, 7888 

Smot the flessh, by gret duresse, 

"With the swerd off Eyhtwysnesse ; 

Punysshede hym so cruelly, 

Wtt/t-oute respyt or mercy, 7892 

Almost euene to the deth, 

In poynt to yeldyn vp the breth ; 

Tyl he, lyk a manly man, 

With thys swerd the laurer waan. 7896 

Hys fflesshe rebel, he gan to daunte, 

And his myght vp-on him haunte, 4 [ 4 c. leaves out tins line.] 

Ther yt was inobedyent. 

To ben at hys comauwdement, 7900 

So lowly to hym, & so mek. 

'The wyche 5 swerd thow shalt bern ek 
On pylgrymage, wher thow shalt gon, 
Ageyn thyw Enmyes euerychon, 



Thy prevy enmyes (thus I mene,) 
Hard and greuous to sustene ; 
fFor ther be noon so peryllous, 
So dredful nor so dangerous, 
As ben thylke Enmyes in secre, 
Wych off thy sylff ycausyd be, 
And gnicche ageyn the nyh 6 & ferre, 
Wzt// the Spyryt to holde a werre. 

' But or that thow thys baret ffyne, 
And or that froward wyl enclyne, 
Thyn herte make to assente, 
Loke thow chau/^ge thyn entente, 



7904 



7908 



t' ny&> St., nyght c.] 
7912 



7916 



The Sword of righteousness & the Scabbard of Humility. 221 

' Synsualyte to oppresse oroge DJCU. 

With thys svverd off Ryghtwysnessc : 

Dau/ite alway hys rebellious, 

And brynge hym to subiecci'oim ; 7920 

Lat nat thy flesshe ha the maystrye, The flesh 

J J J ' must bow to 

But mak hym lowly bowe & plye ever 8p tidn iu 

To the spyryt in euerythyng ; 

And lat thy resown, as lord and kyng, 7924 

(By tytle off domynac'iouw,) 

The flessh haue in subiecci'oim. 

Than nedeth yt no mor to muse ; 

Thys swerd off ryht thow dost wel vse, 7928 

Thy sylff to gouemen & to saue. 

1 And thys swerd also shal haue CCP. cxxv, 

prose.] 

(To kepe yt clene in hys degre) Tins sword 

A skawberk off humylyte, 7932 ness'isle^" 8 

n*T . t - m M t ' \ "' l ' le s - - ab- 

Wher-mne, 1 (for most avauwtage) [ inne St., in c.] bard of 

' Humility. 

Thy swerd shal haue hys herbergage ; 

Only to teche & sygnefye, 

That eche good werk (who kan espye,) 7936 

May lyte 2 vaylle, but yiff yt be piyteist.] 

Closvd Vnder humvlvte ^ Ero> Humilitus sola est obscruatrix 

iuiyi,yw3. et cust(OB)qu virtutuiu. St., om. G. 

1 Thys skauberk (in especyal) 

Ys makyd off A skyn mortal : fstowe, ieafi42, back] 7940 
Thys to seyne, (who so kan se,) 
Al Erthly folkys that her 3 be [ 3 iiere st.] AH folk shall 

die. 

(Off ech estate both yong & old,) 

Shal deyen, as I ha the told. 7944 [leaf 125] 

Ha thys ay in thy mynde & thouht, Remember 

And lat thy skawberk ther-off be wrouht j immbie. 

And ther-vp-on conclude, and se 

To namen yt ' Humylyte.' 7948 

' ffor ther ys noon so proud alyue, 
A-geyns deth that may wel stryue ; 
And who that hath ay deth in mynde, 
Som whyle I trowe, he shal fynde 7952 

To knowe hys oune ffreelte, 
A skawberk off humylyte. 

' And, to purpos, I telle kan 
How that onys a pubplycan 7 956 



222 The Pharisee and Publican. The Scabbard of Humility. 

grace PI fn. And a pharise also, 
The Pharisee Kam to the temple bothe two. 

nnd the 

Publican. The ton hym sylff gan iustefye, 

And off pryde to magnefye, 79GO 

That he was lyk non other whiht ; 

And bostede in hys oune syht, 

He was hooly in hih degre : 
The proud Thus sayde the proude pharysee ; 7964 

Pharisee * r f 

despised the And off pryde he f yrst be-gan l [> Stowc leaves out this line.] 

Publican. 

To despyse the pubplykan ; 

Sayde, ' he was to hym nat hable 

Off meryt, nor comparable 7968 

' Off whos pryde, afferme I dar, 
That he thys swerd to proudly bar, 
He hadn't Havynge nat (who lyst to se) 

the Scabbard ' ' * 

of Humility. The skawberk off humylyte, 7972 

He lyst nat Se, no thyng at al f 
That ha 2 was a man mortal ; [*he St.] 

' s 

But off hih presumptuousnesse [stowe, leaf i*s] 

He shewede out hys Ryghtwysnesse, 3 7976 



Gan to boste, & crye lowde. [ 

Qeaf 125, bk.] 'And so dorz al thys folkys proude, 

To gete hem fame by veyn glory e, 

And putte her namys in memdrye. 7980 

But thow ne shalt no thyng do so, 

But let 4 thy Swerd (tak hed her-to) 5 [Uhe^'sS = leave)] 

(The Swerd, I mene, of Ryghtwysnesso, 

ffor any maner holynesse,) 7984 

Cloos wttft-Inne (wher so thow be,) 

The skawberk off humylyte. 
virtue is of ' ff or what deme off dyscreci'ouw 
witiiout A-vaylleth any perfeccioura 7988 

Humility. 

AbstynauTzce, outlier penau?zce, 
Or any vertu, in substaunce 
But yiff they ygrouwdyd be 

On 6 lownesse and humylyte, poffst.] 7992 

Ground and rote off echo good werk. 
And put thy Swerd in the skawberk 
Off meknesse & lavlyhede. 7 , F Lowiyhede St.] 

prose.] ' 'And affter that, tak good heede 7996 



Girdle of Perseverance &, Constancy. Target of Prudence. 223 

' (As a man no thyng afferd) Grace p>eu. 

The to gyrde -with thys swerd, 

Thys noble swyrd off ryghtwysnesse 

In the skawberk off meknesse. 8000 

'And thy gyrdel ek shal be The Girdle 

ot Persever- 

With wych thow shalt ygyrden the ance ' 

The gyrdel off ' perseuerauwce ' ; 

The Bokle callvd ek ' constauwce ' ; 8004 with its 

Jim-Kit- called 

That whan the tong ys onys Inne, 'Constancy.' 

They shal neuere parte A-twynne, 

But perpetuelly endure 1 p to endure st.] 8007 

To kepe the clous in thyra Armure, [stowc, leaf us, back] 

That they departe nat assonder. 

And yiff they dyde, yt wer gret wonder ; 

ffor perseuerauwce (I dar seye) 

Ys the verray parfyt keye 8012 

And lok also (I dar assure) Oaf 120] 

Off perfeccioun off annure. 

' And therfore alway do thy peyne Always fasten 

ffor to fastne wel thys 2 tweyne, [thes-st.] 8016 withcon- 

TI i i C stancy. 

1 lie gyrdel on perseueraimce 

\Vit/t the Bookie off constaunce ; 

And than thy Swerd, longe tabyde, 

Ys wel gyrt vn-to thy syde : 8020 

Ha thys wel in mynde, I charge. 



wyl I spekyn off thy Targe. [Cap. cxxviu, 

. 1/11 T prose; cap. 

Ihe wych in soth (who kan entende.) cxxviiisnot 

J in the verse 

Schal thyn Armure wel 3 A-mende, paiiest.] 8024 English.] 

. , , , /i i i . \ The Target. 

And kepe yt, (lyk as yt ys wrouht,) 

In vertu that yt A-peyre noxiht. 

The wych vp-on thy brest to-fore, 

Off custom euere shal be bore, 8028 

As cheff thyng for thy dyffence : 

The name off wycli shal be ' prudence ' : its name is 

Prudence, 

A Targe most worthy off Renoure. 

ffor, whilom, Kyng Salamouw 8032 which Kins 

, . . , Solomon bore 

Bar ay thys targe in hys entent, in ins miud. 

ffor to do ryhtful lugement, 

Rychere to hym (Erly & late) 8035 

Thau off gold to .ij. 4 hondryd plate, [ 4 Gold* / twoo st j 



224 Of the Target of Prudence., and King Solomon. 



while soio- 

mon was 

governed by 

Prudence lug 

!a8ted ifice " ee 
[leaf 120, bk.] 



Therefore 

wear this 

Target, 



to repel 
MMMItSi 



but wisely 



< And mor off valu (as yt ys told) 

Than al the sheldys mad off gold, 

Wych in hys temple (out off doute) 

He made hange round a-boute. 8040 

'ffor, by thys targe off prudence, [stowe, leaf ui] 
He hadde so gret excellence 
Of worshepe, & so gret honour, 

As he that was off wysdom flour. 8044 

Whil he was goueniyd by prudence, 
Endurede hys magnyfycence ; 

o J J 

-^ n ^ wnan that prudence was a-go, 

Hys worshype wente a-way also. 8048 

Hys sheldys off gold, ek euerychon, 

A dyeu x whan prudence was a-gon. [ A oieu St.] 

ffor prudence, the shyld I calle, 

Off fyue hundryd the best off alle, 8052 

ffor to rekne hym, 2 on by on ; ( hem St.] 

And, to kepe a man ffrom hys fon, 

Ys noon so myghty off vertu, 

Nor equyualent 3 off valu. t 8 Equypoient St.] 8056 

Wherfor, 4 whil thow art at large, [* \iwayst.] 
Looke thow haue vp-on, thys targe, 5 P, 8 * 8 *;? put8 u | i8 lin .? n 

J o > before the one above it.] 

Wherso thow entre in batayH, 

Whan thyn Emnyes the aasaylle, 8060 

To force 6 thy quarel & a-mende, [ Tfforce st] 

Ber Vp, & Wei thy-.sylff 7 dyflende t'C. inserts thy/St.'the. 1 ] 

At alle assautys fer & ner, 

In maner off a bokeler. 80o4 

ffor 8 gonnys, dartys, & quarel, p against] 

Shrowde the ther-vnder wel ; 

Be no coward, But wyely bolde. 

' And now I haue the pleynly tolde 8068 

Off thyn armure, (yiff thow tak hede,) 
Wher-off thow ehalt haue ay most nede, 
Wtt/t-outen many wordys mo : 
Now be avysed! what thow wylt do.' 8072 

The pylgrym. 
9 "Certys," <^uod I, "ther ys no more; [stowe, leaf HI, back] 

9 Lines 8073 8100 have no counterpart in the Cambr. prose, 
or in its original, the first version of the French prose. 



/ ask why Am\our is not given for my Legs and Feet. 225 

" But I am astonyd sore The Pilgrim. 

Off o thyng wych cometh to mynde, 

Wych that ye ha lefft be-hynde : 8076 

Thys to seyne, off al armure i want 

armour for 

Ye nan me makyd 1 strong & sure, [imadest.] my legs and 

I66t. 

Saue my leggys & ff eet also : 

Ye haue no thyng yseyn 2 ther-to, pseyest.] 8080 

Nor ryht nouht for hem ordeyned ; [leaf 127] 

The wych ouhte be co?wpleyned ; 

ffor folk off hili dyscreci'ons * 

Speke fyrst off Savaci'ons, 8084 

Off greevys, & kusshewys 3 ek also, p kysshewys st.] 

Whan that men shal haue a 4 -doo ; [*to St.] 

But ye (by short conclusion) 

Make ther-off no mencyoura. 8088 

" But, for to telle yow my thouht, 
ffor my party, I rechche nouht ; 
ffor, in spede off my vyage, 

Yt were to me noon avau?itage, 8092 

Yiff I sholde gon at large, 
ffor to bere so gret a charge." 

Grace dieu azete 5 p axete, om. st.] Grace men. 

' Sawh thow eue?*e 6 (SO god the HeSSe !) [ncnereSt.] Grace Dieu 

_ asks if I have 

In forest or in wyldernesse 8096 ever seen 

hunting. 

(Tel on, yiff yt cometh to mynde) 
Huntyng for hert outher for ynde, 7 [< Hynde st.] 
Chasyng for Rayndeer or 8 for Roo, [* other st.] 
Huntyng for buk outher for do ? ' 8100 

The pylgrym answereth n e pugrim. 

"Trewly," <ytiod I, "to speke in pleyn, [stowe, leaf i] i answer 
Somtyme, huntyng haue I seyn." 

Grace dieu Grate Dieu. 

1 Thanne,' quod she, ' I the comawnde, 
Answere vn-to thys demawnde : 8104 

Bestys that ben in wyldernesse, she asks 

Whan huntys don ther besynesse best defence 

. , 11111 of animals in 

lo cuacen hem, and kachche her pray, the chase. 

What ys that thyng that best may 8108 

Helpen bestys in ther defence, 
ffor teschewe the vyolence 

PILGRIMAGE. O 



226 Grace Dicu says Venus & Cupid lie in wait for Pilgrims; 



[leafm, bk.] 



The Pilgrim. 



I answer 
' flight.' 



The Pilgrim. 

Armour 
would there- 
fore hinder 
their flight. 



Grace Dieu 
says that 



a deadly 
linn tress lies 
in wait for 
me: 



her name is 
Venus. 
Her son is 
Cupid. 



[leaf 128] 



1 Off houndys in swycli sodeyn iape, 1 [' Rape St.] 
ffrely fro the deth to skape ? ' 2 [ 2 teskape St.] 8112 

The pylgrym 
" Trew[e]ly, vn-to my Syht, 
To hem, best help 3 ys thejflyjit." P help, o,.st.] 

Grace dieu 

' Thanne, yiff they hadde vp-on Armure, 
On ther leggy s, (hem sylff tassure) 8116 

Outher off plate, maylle, or stel, 
ffro byt off howndys to kepe hem wel, 
Answere ageyn, shortly to me, 
Sholde they be swyfft, away to flel' 8120 

The pylgrym [Stowe, leaf US, back] 

" Certys," quod I, " I wot ryht wel, 

Yt sholde hem furthre neueradel 

So to ben armyd, (as I gesse,) 

But rather hyndren ther Swyfftnesse." 8124 

Grace dieu 

' Now her-vp-on tak hed to me, 
Conceyue what I shal telle the : 
In thy passage, ther* thow shalt pace, pwherstj 
Yt ys holde a perylous place; 8128 

And I the putte in ful surnesse, 
Ther lyth A mortal hunteresse, 
In a-wayt to hyndre the, 

Wyth gret nouwbre off hyr meyne, 8132 

Gretly to drede, & dauragerous ; 
The name off whom ys damelYenus., 5 [ 5 Venus St., <m. c.] 
And hyr sone callyd Cupide, 

The blynde lord, waytywge asyde 8136 

With hys Arwes fyled kene, 
To the ful dredful to sustene. 

' And thys lady doth euere espye, 
Wtt/i huntys in hyr companye, 8140 

Most perillous to hurte & wouwde, 
Al pylgrymes to confouwde. 
ffor ther ys hunte 6 nor foster [ 6 Hunt St.] 

That chaceth ay the wylde deer, 8144 

Nor other bestys that byth Savage, 
That may be lykned to the rage 



and Flight is their only defence : so my Legs are unarnid. 227 

1 Off dame Venus : wherf or tak hede [stowe, leaf 146] Grace pieu. 
How gretly she ys to drede. 8148 she is greatly 

to dread. 

' And yiff thow kanst the trouthe espye, 
Venus ys sayd off venerye ; Ve "sS ur a venandl ' m ' ' 
ffor she ys the hunteresse 

"VVych euere doth hyr bysynesse 8152 

To take pylgrimes by som treyne, 
And tenbracen in hyr cheyne, 
And with hyr ffyry brond also 

ffor to don hem peyne & wo, 8156 

And ther passage for tassaylle. 

' And fynally, in thys bataylle From her 

Ther geyneth power noon, nor myht, 8159 

Nor other rescus but the fflyht, Fu a * Remediu* St., flif?ht tlie 

J om - u only defence. 

ffor flyht ys only best diffence ; 

And 1 ffor to make resistence C 1 And St., om. c.] 

A-geyn hyr dredful mortal werre, 

The ffyht 2 vfith hyre ys best a-ferre. pfflyghtst.] 8164 

' ffor yiff A man be rekkeles 
ffor to putte hym sylff in pres, 
ffarwel dyffence off al Armure ! 

Ther folwe shal dyscoumfyture 8168 

On the party that doth a-byde ; 
ffor Venus & hyr sone cupyde, 
In ther conquest han vyctorye, 

And in ther werrys, ffals veyn glorye, 8172 

Whan folkys at dyffence' stonde 
To fyhte wit/t hem hand 3 off honde ; phondcst.] 

'And for thys skyle, thow sholdest 4 be lyht [*shustst.] 
ffor to take the to the flyht ; [c.&st.] 8176 [ieafi28,bk. 

Whan thow hast nede, (take 5 yt in myncle,) [ 5 have St.] Therefore i 

_ . , , , , can best seek 

Legharneys ys leift be-hynde, [c. & St.] liberty by 

That thow mayst, at lyberte, [stowe, leaf 146, back] 
Hyr dartys and hyr brondys fle. 8180 

' Whan thow hyr seyst, 6 mak no dyffence, [ 6 seest St.] 
Nor noon other resistence, 
But eschewe place & syht, 

And alway tak the to the flyht. 8184 

Tourne thy bak, & she wyl go ; 'JSSKKBT* 
And yiff thow flest, she fleth also. S ^!/^^** 



228 / put on all my Armour, and my Sword and Target. 



Grace Dieu. 



Flight is 

1 in' lii-.-t 
remedy. 



The Pilijrim. 

[Camb. prose, 
cap. cxxix.] 



I dislike the 
purpoint; 



but lest Grace 
Dieu should 
be wroth, 
I put it on, 
and the ha- 
bergeon ; 



then the 
gorger 

and helmet ; 
[leaf 129] 

then the 
gloves and 
sword ; 



and lastly, 
the target. 



[CamT>. prose, 
cap. cxxx.] 



But it is 

grievously 

heavy. 



' A-geyn whos malys and envye, 

fflyht ys the beste 1 remedy e ['best St.] 8188 

Off al other (yiff yt be souht) ; 

Other harneys the nedeth nouht 

Vp-on thy leggys (truste me,) 

ffor no mane?- necessyte, 8192 

"YVi't/t Venus to holde chaumpowtye.' 

And whan I sawh, & 2 gan espye, [ 2 1 St.] 

And vnderstood hyr wonder wel 

Touch ynge tharmure eue/ydel 8196 

Wych she hadde for me brouht, 
I 3 gan assaye, and taryede nouht [ s And i stj 

Me tarrne fro poynt to poynt ; 

But me lykede nat my purpoynt : 8200 

I fond ther-in 4 so gret a lak, [ 4 ffounde ther St.] 

Yt heng so heuy on my bak, 
I wolde fayn haue lett yt be ; 

But lyst 5 that she were wroth wiih me, piestst.] 8204 
I suffrede ; &, in conclusion?*, 
Ther-on dyde the haberiourc 

Wych she me tok, ful 6 bryht & clere. [ 6 toke / fat <m. St.] 
And affter that, the double Gorger, 8208 

To hyr byddynge I took swych hede ; 
And thane the helm vp-on my?i hed, 
Mad ful strong, aud forgyd wel ; 

Next, my glovys, tfynere than stel, 8212 

And gyrte me w*t/t my swerd ryht tho. [ston-e, leaf 1*7] 
And alderlast, I took also 
My targe, that callyd was ' prudence,' 
And hengyd yt on in my dyffence 8216 

Round a-boute my nekke a-noon. 

And platly, whan I hadde al don 
Lyk as she bade, with myn harneys, 
I felte ther-off so gret a peys, 8220 

That I myghte nat endure 
The greuous wheyhta off my?i armure, 
That for dystresse I a brayde, 

And to grace dieu I sayde : 8224 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 

The pylgrym 



But it bothers me so, that I complain of it to Grace Dieu. 229 

"Ma dame," quod I, "ne greff 1 yow nouht [^revest.] The pilgrim. 

Thogli I dyscure to yow my thoulit ; 

And lat yt yow no thyng dysplese, 

Thogh I declare myn gret vnhese, 2 [ vnese st.] 8228 

And disclose yow my mescheff ; 

Tliys armure doth me so gret greff, i complain 

of the annoy- 
So gret annoy & dysplesaiwce, ailc caused 

J by my arin- 

That I ne may me nat 3 a-vauwce [* nought st.] 8232 ur - 

Vp-on my way nor rny lourne, 
Swych hevynesse encou??tbreth me. 

"Myn helm hath rafft me my syvncr The Helmet 

J stops my see- 

And take a-way ek myn heryng ; 8236 i"Bad ear- 

And most off al dyspleseth nie, [leaf 129, bk.] 

I se nat that I wolde se. 

And also, (yiff ye lyst to lere,) 

Thyng that I Avolde, I may nat here ; 8240 

And smelle also I may no thyng 

That sholde he to my lykyng. 

" Thys gOrger (ek as ye may SO,) [Stowe, leaf UT, back] TheGorger 

Gret encowtthraimce doth to me, 8244 strangles me. 

And strangleth me almost vp ryht, 

That I may nat speke a-ryht, 

I fele so gret a passi'ou? : 

And (for short conclusions) 8248 

Thys armure may me nat profyte, 

In wych I do me nat delyte. 

"Thys glouys bynde me so sore, [Camb. prose, 

J * cap. oxxxi.] 

That I may 4 weryn hem no more, [* may om. st.] 8252 Tiieoiove* 

pincli me ; 

Vvt't/i her pynchyng to he boumle, 

Myn handys ben so tendre and Eou?ide ; 

And al the remnauret (I ensure) 

That ye gaff me, off armure, 8256 

Me streyneth so on euery syde, the other 

Armour I 

That I may nat ther-wtt^ a-byde. V'' t P ut U P 

" I ha to yow told al the caas ; 
I am nat strengere 5 thaw dauyd was, [ 6 stronger c.] 8260 i am not 

stronger than 

Wych hadde so myche suftysauwce ; David, 

But, for cause off dysusauwce 

In hys youthe whan he was tendre, 

And off makyng smal & sklendre, 8264 



230 / declare tliat I won't wear Armour when Ifiyht Venus. 



when he 
fought with 
Goliath. 



[leaf 130] 



I say I will 
leave the 
armour when 
I meet Venus. 



The Pilgrim. " (In the byble ye may se,) 

Hy? lyst nat Armyd for 1 to be [ for om. st.] 

Whan that he (thus stood the caas,) 
Sholde fyhte -with Golyas, 8268 

Swych Armure he hath forsake ; 
Off whom I wyle exau?ple take, 
ffor my party, to go lyht, 

To ben ay redy to the flyht, 8272 

Whan that Venus (by bataylle,) 
On the weye me wyl 2 assaylle, [ 2 wyiie me st.] 

Al thys arniure I wyl leue, 

Be-cause that they do 3 me greue, ['wyiiest.] 8276 

Off purpos (lyk as ye shal se) 
That I may the bettre fle, [stowe, leaf u] 

Lyst I stode in lupartye 

Whan Venus me dycle* espye, p dydde me st.] 8280 
Wych ys the peryllous hunteresse, 
Pylgrymes to putten in dystresse." 
Grace dieu 

' Yt nedeth her-on no mor to muse, 
By cause thow dost thy sylff excuse, 8284 

How armure doth to the" grevaurcce ; 
fFor he that hath 5 no suffysauwce p hath st., om. c.] 
Wyth-Inne hy?w-sylff tendure peyne, 
Off lytel thyng he wyl co??zpleyne, 8288 

And a lytel charge refuse. 

' But shortly, yiff thow koudest vse 
Thys Armure, yt sholde seme lyht, 
And nat lette the in thy flyht ; 8292 

ffor thys armure ys nat heuy 
To hertys stronge, that be myghty 
To endure, and byde longe 
Vp-on heuy chargys stronge. 8296 

' But thow hast excusyd the, 
That thow wylt nat Armyd be, 
But go lyht, bothe 6 fer & ner, [ 6 bothe om. st.] 

And therfore thow shalt ban A 7 Somer 8 / Bahu/st., om.c. 
To karyen-in 9 thyw hanieys al, 8 paom.st. 9 innest.] 8301 
Wych in soth shal be but smal, 

8 These lines are in Cambridge prose, p. 138. 



Grace Dieu 

[Camb. prose, 
cap. cxxxii.] 

tells me 



the armour 
is light, 
if I could but 
use it. 



I shall have 
a packliorse 
to carry my 
armour. 



r II have only Sling & Stones. So I cast off my Armour. 231 

' To trusse yt in, whan thow hast nede, Grace PI 

And with the thow shalt yt lede, 8304 says that, 

Lyst sodeynly, in bataylle, 

Any man the wolde assay De, [leafiso.bk.] 

Lyte and lyte to vse the, [stowe, leaf us, back] 

Euere a-mong, armyd to be. 8308 

'And for thow hast made inenciouw, [Camb. prose, 

cap. cxxxvi.] 

Off dauyd the noble charnpyouw, 

That he wold noon Armys bere, 8311 as touching 

David, who 

"Wych slowh the Lyon & the Beere ; IeoncBI f vrsum c -> 8l T .V 16 , lion 

* om. st. and the bear ; 

But tOUchyng the Same fourme 1 [' form fourme C., fourme St.] 

Thow mayst the neuere to hym cowfourme, 

But yiff thy body thow 2 applye p thow St., now c.] 

ffor to fyhte a-geyn Golye 8316 

Wt't/i thy staff & with thy slynge ; i must, like 

And with the also that thow brynge siing and 

stones. 

In thy skryppe stonya fyue, 

With the geauwt for to stryue, 8320 

As dauyd dyde, thorgh hys renotw, 

Whan he hyw slowh & beet a-dou?z.' 

The plrym 3 C 3 Pylgryme St^ pylgnn C.) The Pilgrim. 



" Ma dame, certys," tho miod I, [Camb. prose, 

cap. cxxxvii.- 

" That ye me graimt so gracyously 8324 viii.] 

To be armyd as dauyd was 

Whan he fauht with Golyas, 

I thanke yow with al my?i myght r 

And yow be-seche / a-noon ryht 8328 igiadiy agree 

to this, 

That I may be armyd so, 

Whan-euere that I shal haue a-clo. 

Other Armure ne wyl I noon, 

On pylgrimage whan I shal gon ; 8332 

But that ye 4 lyst to do your peyne [*yowst.] 

A Somer, fyrst[e] to ordeyne, f Bahn / st., om. c. 

And ther-wyth (as ye haue be-hyht) 

Stonys & slynge a-noon ryht. 8336 

But f yrst I shal dys Arme me and throw off 

all my 

Off thys Armure, as ye shal Se." [stowe, leaf 149] armour. 

And so I dyde : & caste 5 dou?i pkastst.] [Camb. prose, 

cap. cxxxix.] 

Purpoynt, helm and haberiouw, 8340 [leaf isi] 

Glouys & swerd, I yow ensure, 



232 Grace D'ieu leaves me, and I grieve over her going. 



Grace Dieu 
is displeased, 



and leaves 
me. 



8344 



pinnest.] 8348 



P stylle n. ther St.] 

[* And St., om. C.] 

[ 3 in to manere of a St.] 



[mySt.] 



I ask mrs*lf 
what I sliuJl 
do 



unless Grace 
Dieu returns 
and anus 
me. 



I wasn't 
worthy that 
she should. 



8352 



8356 



8360 



The piiffrim. And fynally, al myn armure ; 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
"Wheroff me thouhte I was wel esyd. 

But Grace dieu was nat wel plesyd 
(Shortly) off my gouernaunce, 
But took yt parcel in greuau??.ce, 
And fro me she gan declyne, 1 
And entrede in, 2 in hyr courtyno. 

And disarmyd I a-bood, 
And fulle nakyd so 3 I stood, 
And 4 ffel in-to A maner 5 Rage 
Off dysconfort, in my corage. 
The lak vpon me 6 sylff I leyde; 
And thus vn-to my sylff I seyde : 
" Alias ! " quod I, " what shal I do, 
Now grace dieu ys go me fro 1 
I stonde in gret dysioynt, certeyn, 
But vn-to me she kome a-geyn, 
Wych armede me f ul ryally, 
And apparayllede Richely, 
Lyk taknyht 7 that sholde assaylle 
Hys Enmyes in 8 bataylle. 

But I was nat worthy ther-to, 
That she sholde ha 9 do So, 
Off neclygence and ffreelte 
Xow I haue dyspoylled me, 
Destytut on euery syde. 

" And trewly now I most a-byde, [stowe, leaf 1*9, back] 
[leaf isi, bk.] As a sheppcrde (who taketh kep,) 
With dauyd for to kepe shep, 
With staff & slynge, as dyde he, 
I trowe yt wyl noon other be. 
Grace dieu so me be-hyhte 
Whan that I stood 10 in hyr syhte, 
Dysarmyd my body, euerydel, 
Wher-off she lykede 11 no thyng wel 
But pleynly, off my gouernaunce, 
Me sempte she hadde dysplesauNce." 

[Camb.proiie, . . ' . , 

cap. cxi.-i.] And whil I stood in swych dysioynt, 

12 Omitting the coming of the wench Memory with her eyes in the back 
of her neck, p. 73 Roxb. 



['to a knyht* St.] 
pin the] 



phovestj 8364 



8367 



I must go 
and keep 
sheep like 
David. 



8372 



[ stoode St.] 



[" lykyng St.] 8376 



She comes back, and says I must be put to bed and rubd. 233 



And was brouht vn-to the poynt 8380 The 

Off heuynesse in my corage, 

Tryst & mornyng off visage, 

Grace dieu cam a-geyn 

And thus she gan vn-to me 1 seyn : [' vnto c., to me St.] 8384 

Grace dieu 

' Thow shalt no thyng do,' quod she, 
' But at 2 thyn owne lyberte : p aiie St.] 

Thyn arffmre thow hast cast a- way, 
And stondyst now in gret affray, 8388 

Vonquisshed (in conclusions), 
Wtt/i-oute strook yput adowz, 
And fallen in gret febylnesse ; 

Wher-for behoueth besynesse, 8392 

And also ful gret dyllygence. 

'Thy gret 3 harmys to Recompense, pgretest.] 
Thow must be wasshe & bathyd offte, 
And couchyd in a bed ful soffte, 8396 

Ther-in thy syluerc to dysporte, 
And han a leche, the to coumf orte, [stowe, leaf iso] 
Thy synwes harde to mollefye 

With oynementys, to make hem plye. 3 400 

Tel on A-noon ; let for no slouthe ; 
Her-off, yiff I sey the" the 4 trouth.' [* the the St., the c.] 

The pylgrym 

" Ma dame," quod I, " yt ys no les ; 5 p lees St.] 
Off my peyne's to haue relee, 8404 

I wolde fayn (trusteth me) 

Off my disesses 6 holpen be. [ 8 dysaese st.] 

The maner (yiff ye koude espye) 

ffor to shape a remedye ; 8408 

ffor, be my trouthe, I yow ensure, 
That I may no lenger dure 

To sutfre mor, (taketh 7 good hed,) u more / take St.] 
But that I muste pleynly be ded : 8412 

Wit/i-Inne my-sylff, many wyse, 
Off labour I fele so gret feywtyse." 

Grace dieu 

Quod Grace dieu a-noon to me : 
' I haue espyed wel, and Se : 8416 



While I was 
sad, 



Grace Dieu 
came buck 
to me, 



[Camb. prose, 
cap. cxli.] 



and told me 

I must \v;isl' 

and batlie 
often, 



and have a 
doctor to rub 
my sinews 
with oint- 
ments. 



The Pilgrim. 

[leaf 132] 

[Camb. prose, 

cap. cxlii.] 



I require 
a remedy for 
my weak- 
ness. 



Grace Dim. 



Grace Dieu 
saya she 



234- Grace Dieu has kept David's 5 Stones, and gives me them. 

Grace Keu. ' But I dyde my bysynesse 

To taken bed to thy syknesse, 

The to helpyn & releue 

Off thyng that doth thyn herte greue. 8420 

I wot ryht wel (yt ys no nay) 

Thow sholdest gon a peryllous way. 
' But fyrst tak bed, & be wel war, 

The stonys wych that dauyd bar, 8424 

Wyth the wych he slewe 1 Golye, [' siougn st.. leaf 150, back] 

And hadde off hym the mystrye, 
has long kept The same stonys. I ha 2 longe [*havest.] 

JMVIU'B * 

stones to piay Kept hem bouwde wonder stronge 8428 

Wt't/i-Inne a purs (shortly to seye), 

Off entent, with hem to pleye 
with her With maydenys wych on me a-bvde, 

maidens at J J J J 

the French Euerc a-waytynge on my syde, 8432 

game of J J o J J 

Toss-bail. At the martews, 3 the gentyl play 

Vsyd in fraurcce many day : 
These, i shall The wych stonys, the to saue, 

I purpose that thow shalt haue, 8436 

[leaf 132, bk.] As dauyd hadde, in hys dyffence, 

ffor to make re"sistence 

A-geyn the geaunt Golyat, 

Vn-to hy?n, to seyn ' chek maat,' 8440 

Whan that e\ie re in bataylle 

He cast hym proudly the tassaylle.' 
The pilgrim. And a-noon she dyde hyr peyne 

To take with hyr handys tweyne 8444 

She takes Out off a pOUTS, 4 stonys fyUC : [* Purs St.] 

them from / J 

her purse That neuere yet, in al my lyue, 

I ne sawh nat to my syht 
f No maner ston so cler nor bryht. 8448 

[Blank in MS. for an Illumination.] 
And in al hast, thys lady fre, 
and gives Wyth hyr bond she took 5 hem me : [ 5 gaffe St.] 

them to me. , , , . . . 

Wych I receyuede ful lowly, 

3 Martel s. ra. Nom d'un jeu : 

Et . v. pierres i met pctitcs, 
Don puceles aux martewes geuent 
Quant beles et rondes les treuvent. 

(Rose. Richel. 1573, fo. 176<i.) Godcfioi. 



I am to fight the Giant Goliath, who tempts Pilgrims. 235 



[linom.St. 8452 The PUtirim. 



And in 1 my skryppe sykerly, 
I putte he?tt up, on by on. 
But she to-forn, off euerychon, 

Sche made 2 a declaraClOUJ* [* made to me. Stowe, leaf 151] 

And ful 3 cler exposici'oure ; pafuiist.] 8456 

In whos speche ther was no lak ; 
And euene thus to me she spak : 

Grace Dieu 4 [* st., om. c.] 

' Thow shalt,' quod she, ' yt ys no fayl, 
Offten entren in 5 bataylle, ['in to St.] 8460 

With thy foonien for to stryue, 
And han 6 a werre al thy lyue [hauest.] 

With the Geau?^t Golyas, 

Wych hath be-set ech maner pas 8464 

Wher thow shalt passe in thy vyage, 
As thow gost on pylgrymage. 
Whos loye ys (who kan corcceyue,) 
AH pylgrymes to deceyue ; 8468 

Vp-on the wey lyth, hem tespye, 
As doth the hyrayne for the fflye. 

' And as she hyr net kan spynne, 
Tyl that she the flye wynne, 8472 

And by hyr sleythe 7 kan hem take, p sieyghte st., sieytn c.] 
Eyht so hys trappys he doth make, .1. Goiias st., om. c. 
Alle pylgrymes to enbrace, 

Wher they walke in any place, 8476 

ffalsly to take on hem vengauwce, 
With hys deceytys off plesauwce, 
And flesshly lustys off delyt 
fful plesau?it to the appetyt. 8480 

'With worldly rychesses, 8 & veyn glorye [" Richessust.] 
Off goodys that ben transitory e, 
Off hem he maketh a sotyl net ; 9 [ 9 nette . . knctte st.] 
And whan he hath yt vp ful knet, 9 8484 

Ther-wit/i he doth hys besy peyne, [stowe, leansi, back] 
Pylgrymes to bryngen in A treyne. 
Hem cachchynge (or they kan espye) 
As the hereyne doth the fflye, 8488 

By apparence ful agreable, 
Thys ffalse geauwt deceyuable, 



\ put them in 
my Scrip, 
and Grace 
Dieu tells me 
about them. 



I shall have 
battle all my 
lite with 
Goliath, 



[leaf 133] 



who lies in 
wait for 

pilgrims, 



as the spider 
fur the Hy. 



236 The 1st Stone is Memory of Christ's Death, a 



[loaf 133, bk.] 



I am to take 
no heed of 
the world, 



hut be full of 
courage like 
David. 



The first 
stone is the 
memory of 
Christ's 
death for 
mankind. 



The precious 
Kuby, 



' Lyk the 1 bacyn that ys brewnynge, p de st.j 

And she we tli ffayr as in shynynge ; 

Yet nat for-thy, thogh yt be bryht, 

The Beere yt reueth off hys syht, 

And maketh hym blynd, he may nat se. 

' Eyght so, worldly prosperyte, 
fflesshly lust & fals plesauwce, 
Causen folk, by deceyvauwce, 
ffor to be blynd, & lese her syht. 

' Wher-for wttft-stond vtith al thy myht 
The power of thys proud Golye. 
Al fflesshly lustys ek defye ; 
And off the world ek, tak noon hede, 
Wych deceytieth a man at nede. 

' And yiff thow wylt don aff ter me, 
I shal a-noon her 2 techyn the, p 

Lych a myghty chainpyoun 
To venquysshe al temptacioun 3 
Off the world, Golye, & the fflessh. 

' Looke ffyrst that thow be fressh, 
Lyk to dauyd off corage, 
Manly off herte, wys & sage 
A-geyn thyw Enmyes for to stryue ; 
And euere have redy, 4 stonys ffyue, [* have redy St., imardy c.] 
To caste hem (off entenciouw) 8515 

A-geyn[e]8 al 5 TemptaciOUn, [ s Ageyns alle mane-e off St., leaf 152] 

Loke thow be redy, euere in on. 

'The name off thy ffyrstc ston y 
Ys the mynde most off? vertu, l 
Off the deth off crystihesu ; 
How that he sprad on the rood, 
ffor mankynde, hys, owne blood ; 
The peple ther-wttA to beyw 8 a-geyn, [byenst.] 
Wych that Golyas hadde slayn. 
Thys, the precyous ruby Eyche, 
In al thys world ther ys noon lyche ; 
Wych receyuede hys rednesse 

3 Stowe here awkwardly inserts a parenthesis of two lines : 
Looke thow Le redy / euere in oon, 
To fighte with hem as thy foon. leaf 151, back. 



8492 



8496 



8500 



8504 



8508 



8412 



. stowe. 



(7 off moste St.] 8520 



8524 



The 2nd is Remembrance of Mary ; 3rd, Heaven's Miss. 237 



'Off crystys blood, & liys rychessc. 8528 

' Dye thyn herte (as yt ys good,) 
In the sylue 1 same blood ; Hsyiffst.] 

Ha ther-in feyth & stedefastnesse ; 
Than artow strong (in sothnesse) 8533 

Ageyn golye & al hys myght, 
ffor to venquysshe hym by ffiht : 
Thy mynde ha ther-on, euere in oon. 

' And the nexte 2 Ryche Ston, p next St.] 8536 

In noumbre callyd the secouude, ^fSSS^SS^KS*" 
Wych wyth al grace doth habouwde, S^ri^^c. 

> 

Off vertu hath most suftysaiwce, 

And ys callyd Remembraunce 8540 

Off that mayde & moder fre, 

Y-chosen off the deyte 

fful many hundryd yer to-forn, 

Or she was off hyr modern born). 8544 

Thys, the precyouse margaryte, 

Off hevenly dewh & dropys whyte, 

Sprang in a Cokyl bryht & shene, 

ffor tavoyden al our tene, 8548 

Whos grace, thorgh the world doth shyne : [St., if. 152, bk.] 

Lat hyre thy/z herte enlwmyne, 

And a-dewhen 3 with hyr grace ; [ 3 adewen St.] 

And neuere dred the (in no place) 8552 

But thow shalt han the maystrye 

Off the devel and off golye. 

'Thethrydde ston ys Memorye 
Off the perdurable glorye,' 

-_,-... ., 

And oil the hme blysse in heuene 

A-boue the planetys alle seuene : 

Thys, the blyssyd saphyr 4 trewe/ [ 4 saphirc St.] 

Al-to-gidre off hevenly hewe, 8560 

"Wych recouwforteth most the syht 

WT/M hys counfortable lyht : 

Kep hyt for thyn owne stoor, 

ffor yt saueth eue?-y soor ; 8564 

Yt sleth 5 bochches & ffelomzs, [ 5 ieethe St.] 

Destroyeth venym & poyssou??s : 

J 

And off colour yt ys ynde : 



ciirut. 



Remem- 

brauce of 

Christ's 

mother Mary, 



. SL,*,.C. 

nfefr 

8557 



The third 
%% 

the everlast- 

ingbiissof 

Heaven, 

the sapphire. 



It destroys 

venom ami 

poisons, and 

IS dark blue - 



238 The 4>th Stone, named Albeston, is Memory of Hell-fire. 
Grace pieii, ' Lat yt UGMQr out off thy mynde. 8568 



i am to azure ' Azure thyn herte ther-wwt/i-al ; 

my heart 

with it. And loue yt yn especyal, 

As for thy cheff pocessiovm ; 

And thanke (off bin" affecciouw) 8572 

[leaf 134, bk.] To god Only, Wych 1 off grace C 1 god / which oonly St.] 

Hath ordeyned swych a place 
( ffor his chose chyldre 2 dere, [ z Children St.] 

The wyche, 3 as champiouns here, [ 3 which* st., wych c.] 8576 
ffyhten \vyih golye day be day, 
And overkome hy? in ther way ; 
Pylgrymes that passen many Rewm* [*Recmst.] 
Toward hevenly Jerusaleem. 8580 

The fourth ' The ff ourthe ston ys callyd ' Mynde ' : th j^* nc 

"Ro WOT tint vt Vp nat Vr> Vivnrlp Quartus lapis est timor & 

.6-Wai ttiat yt D( -nynae. memoria pciie Infernalis 

Haue y t 5 in thy memoryal [5 St^, 



Memory of Mynde off the peynys infernal, 8584 

tlie Pains of .in 11 

Heii, W ych ys gretly for to drede, 

and its flamy Wyth hys flawmy fyrys rede. 
ment sinners. Eedy (ther ys noon other wente,) 8587 

Thys Synnerys to tormente 6 [ 6 Thes Synners / to Tornemente St.] 

Eternally, for ther penaunce, 

That deye 7 w#t/i-out repentauwce ; U dyen St.] 

' But, off that lord grettest off myght, 
I Whos mercy euer passeth ryht, 8592 

Off synnsrys desyreth nat the 8 doth ; [butst.] 
ffor he doth mercy or that he 9 sleth ; p or he St.] 
Loth, swych folkys to tormente, 
That off herte hem wyl repente. 8596 

' But yet haue alway in thy thouht, 
(And look that thou for-gete yt nouht,) 
To haue thy mynde, euere a-mong, 
Up-on thys mortal peynys strong. 8600 

' And the name of thys dredful stone 
it is called Ys ycallyd Albeston, 
Albeston. Wyc } 1) w j lfln yt rcceyueth ffyr, 

To hete yt hath so gret desyr, 8604 

That 10 whan wyth 11 ffyr yt ys ymeynt, [ 10 That St., Than c.] 
Affter, neuere 12 yt wyl be queynt. [ wimn the St.] 
' Haue on thys ston ay money oun, [ |2 Never nuier St.] 



TJie 5th is Holy Writ, art, Emerald, cleansing impurities. 239 

' And in eche temptacyouw, 8608 ctracf men. 

Latt love off God, and drede off peyne, [stowe, leaf 153] [leaf 135] 
Fro dedly Synne the Eestreyne. [stowe MS.] 

And yiff thow hast her-Inne memorye, 8G11 
Off Golye thow hast the vyctorye. 

' The ffyffthe ston (I the ensure) th W'f 8t< ? ne : Jn- stowe ' The fift1 ' 

\ / 1 Quintan lapis, sacra Rt . OIle js Ho)v 

That thow shalt han, ysjscrypture' *"# n st -> om - c - writ, 

Hooly wryt, & thus I mene, 

The Emerawd that ys so grene, [stowe, leaf 153, back] 86 1C tucEmeraiu, 

A ryche ston, off gret couwfort, 

That to the eye doth most dysporfy 

And, thorgh hys myght & hys puissauwce, 

Voydeth a- way al grevauwce 8620 

ffrom an eye 1 fer & ner, [> Eyee st.] 

And maketh A mawhys 2 syhte cler, [^manys st.] 

Clenseth a-way al ordure, winch 

_, - cleanses from 

Hie gownde, & eue/y thyng vnpure. 8624 all ordure. 

' Now haue I told the, by & by, 

Off thys Stonys COiyOUsly, 3 P Ceryously St.] These 5 

Wych that ben in noumbre fyue : 

Put hem in thy skryppe blyue, 8628 

Caste hem ay whan thow hast nede ; 

And specyally (as I the rede) 

Caste hem euere in ech sesou?^ i am to 

cast against 

A-geyns al temptacyowz, 8632 temptations, 

Ech affter other, in thy dyffence ; 

And mak alway strong resystence, 

Spendynge thys 4 stonys, on by on ; [* thcs st] 

And I ensure 5 the a-noon, [ 5 assure st.] 8636 

Thow shalt nat faylle (yiff thow be wys,) 

Off vyctorye to gete a prys.' 

The pylgrym 7v?iw<-. 

Than quod I to hyre a-geyn, 

"Thys fyue stonys (in certeyn) 8640 

Ben ryht good & gracious, 
& at assay ryht vertuous ; 
But I merueylle, syth ye be wys, 

Why that ye, in your a-vys, [st. & c.] 8644 [if MS, bk. j 

Lykne my Mouth un-to a slynge ; 

ffor I kan nat aboute brynge, 



240 Grace Dieu bids me make a Sling to cast the Stones with. 

The Pilgrim. " Xor deuyse, how that I Schal [St. & C.] [Stowe, leaf 15i] 

ti^wavlo ^ east6 ston y s ther-wyt/Kil, 8648 

ineetroy fo helpe 1 my sylff ageyn my ffon; pstowe. Teipec.] 
ffor custoom hadde I neuere noon, 
God knoweth wel, nyh nor ferre, [c. & St.] 

Me to gouerne in swych a werre." 8652 

Grace Dteu. QraCG dlBU. 

QwofZ she, ' Kanstow nat espye ? 
Who kan wysdom, he kan folye ; 
And who that knoweth ek goodnesse, 8655 

Parcel he knoweth off shrewdnesse ; 2 p Bhrewdenesse St.] 
ffor ryhtwysnesse, & also wrong, 
Entermedlen euere a-mong ; 
There are And in an herte (yiff yt be souht) 

divers w J 

the'iTJart '" ^er tourneth many a dyuers thouht, 8660 

Lyk a corde (yt ys no doute), 

Wyt/i-Inne yt 3 tourneth ofte aboute; pwiiichest.] 

And off two cordys, they a-corde 

Offte for to make a corde. 8664 

' ffor Cordys be sayd (who kan aduerte,) 

Off offte tournynges 4 in an herte; p turmcntynges St.] 

And vryth twynnyng, (in certeyne,) 
as one cord is A 5 cord ys vmad off twevne. poost.] 8668 

made of two. 

' And thus thow shalt aboute brynge, 
Off thy thouht to make a slynge, 
Ther-in to putts stonys ffyue, 

Ageyn thyw enmyes for to stryue, 8672 

To cast hem in thys mortal werre, 
Wer-so thow 6 lyketh, nyh or ferre. p the St.] 

' ffor, slynge ys noon, (thys no doute,) 
That may tourne so offte aboute 8676 

As may thy thouht (be wel certeyn) ; 
ffor bothe on hylle, on vale & pleyn, [Stowe, leaf 15*. back] 
Yt tourneth her, yt tourneth yonder, 8679 

So offte" sythe, that yt ys wonder, (7 So oflte St., Sofite c.] 
[leaf is6] flfer or ner, ryht at thy lust, 

On whos abood, yt ys no trust. [c. A St.] 

Take heed Bllt, yit 8 I rede, tak good kep PyitteSt.] 

sti.nes well. (Lyk thys Erdys 9 that kepe shep) p thes herdys St.] 8684 
Thy slynge and stonys to. kepe wel,