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Full text of "Pilot lore; from sail to steam"

X. 



Jfrt/tct /Je^ Ya^rr ^^^/ /J&\^ Ja.^*y 

PILOT LORE 

From Sail to Steam 



AND 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE 
VARIOUS INTERESTS IDENTI- 
FIED WITH THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF THE WORLD'S 
gREATEST PORT 



jO\ 



XJ 



1 922 






A/7 



Copyright 1922 

By the United New York and New Jersey 
Sandy Hook Pilots Benevolent Associations 



i 



Published by 

The United J\.ew York and New Jersey 
Sandy Hook. Pilots Benevolent Associations 

Under the supervision and direction of 

EDWARD L. ALLEN 



(oc/ition z^e Jziii 

1922 



Compiled and Printed by 

THE NATIONAL SERVICE BUREAU 

110 WEST 40th STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 




FOREWORD 

N THE development of New York into the 
world's greatest port, probably no other group 
of men has been so continual a part of it, and so 
near the heart of it, as that always numerically small one, 
known as the "Sandy Hook Pilots." 

Being so intimate a part of it. probably accounts for the 
fact that members of the craft have, in some way or other, 
shared in most of the many interesting and tragic events that 
have marked its growth; events which left indelible imprints 
on the minds and lives of all who shared their thrills and 
dangers. 



'tv 



It is upon such events, upon the acts of heroism they 
prompted, of deep-rooted courage, of noble sacrifice, and of 
duty's high obligation, that the dearest and most cherished 
traditions of our craft are founded. 

As time passes and memory dims, we feel it a duty as 
well as a very great pleasure, to honor the men whose lives 
and acts have honored our craft by perpetuating in printed 
word a record of their deeds. 

And that is the purpose of this little book. 

United New York and New Jersey 
Sandy Hook Pilots Benevolent Assns. 



"PILOT TALES 



y \ 



\/ 



^ 



IN MEMORIAM XIV 

ACTIVE AND RETIRED SANDY HOOK PILOTS .... XX11 

THE FIRST PILOT 1 

FIRST PILOT'S LICENSE 5 

CRUISING FAR OUT TO SEA 9 

TRAGEDIES IN THE SERVICE 13 

AN ECHO OF THE CIVIL WAR 16 

THE DAYS OF SENTIMENT 19 

TALES OF DISASTER 21 

LOSS OF THE COLUMBIA 25 

SACRIFICES TO DUTY 27 

DARING RESCUES 31 

TOLL IN THE SIXTIES 38 

THRILLING INCIDENTS 41 

THE ROMEE'S LONG VOYAGE 43 

AMERICA SAILED BY A PILOT 47 

FOUNDERING OF THE EDWARD COOPER 51 

VOICES FROM THE PAST 55 

WAR SERVICE 58 

SOME ITEMS FROM THE LOG 61 

RACING FOR A SHIP 65 

PILOTS CARRIED ACROSS 69 

PILOTS AS COAST POLICE 72 

BOARDING THE LEVIATHANS 76 

GRATUITOUS SALVAGE WORK 79 

UNITING THE PILOT SERVICES 83 

FROM SAIL TO STEAM 87 

SECOND STEAM PILOT BOAT 91 

PULLING TOGETHER 95 

THE PILOTS^ CLUB 99 

COMMISSION CONTROL 102 

PILOTS, BOATS, HARBORS AND HIGH LIGHTS . . . 107 

REMINISCENCE AND COMMENT 110 

STORY OF THE PILOT AND THE BOY 115 

VII 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

OF THE VARIED INTERESTS WHO 

HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING 

FACTORS IN "DEVELOPING 

THE SUPREMACY OF THE 

"PORT OF NEW YORK 



f\. 



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THE WORLD'S GREATEST PORT 116 

PORT FACILITIES 127 

PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY 129 

UNITED STATES SHIP OPERATORS' ASSN 133 

ALEXANDER & BALDWIN 200 

ALL AMERICA CABLES 186 

AMERICAN BLACK SEA LINE 297 

AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING 130 

AMERICAN DOCK CO. 243 

AMERICAN EXPRESS CO 321 

ARKELL & DOUGLAS 250 

ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE CO. 181 

ATLANTIC PORT RAILWAY 174 

BAKER, CARVER & MORRELL 148 

BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R. CO 266 

BANK OF THE MANHATTAN CO 258 

BARBER STEAMSHIP LINES 199 

BENSEL, JOHN ANDERSON 225 

BLACK DIAMOND S. S. CORP 286 

BOWMAN, JOHN MCE 226 

BOWRING & COMPANY 264 

BRIGGS BITUMINOUS COMPOSITION CO 250 

BRIONES & COMPANY 288 

BURROWS, GEO. R., INC 217 

BUSH TERMINAL 160 

CAMPBELL, PALMER 291 

CARIBBEAN STEAMSHIP CO 287 

IX 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

{Continued) 



G 



£X 



XJ 



CHASE, CAPTAIN DANIEL C 180 

CLARK, JAMES H 266 

COLUMBIA BRONZE CORPORATION 228 

COLUMBIA TRUST COMPANY 256 

COLUMBUS MARINE CORPORATION 304 

COMPAGNIE GENERALE TRANSATLANTIQUE (FRENCH LINE ) 170 

COMPANIA TRASATLANTICA 320 

CORY MANN GEORGE CORP 272 

COSTON SIGNAL CO 269 

CRANE'S SONS CO., THEODORE A 289 

CUNARD STEAMSHIP COMPANY 139 

DELAWARE LACKAWANNA & WESTERN R. R. CO. . . . 233 

DE RONDE, PHILIP 281 

DOLLAR, CAPTAIN ROBERT 303 

DONNELLY, WILLIAM T 313 

DURKEE, CHAS. D. k CO 284 

EAST ASIATIC COMPANY 319 

ELLERMAN'S WILSON LINE 236 

ELWELL, JAMES W. & CO., INC 267 

EMERY, JOHN M 233 

EXPORT S. S. CORPORATION 317 

FEDERAL COMPOSITION & PAINT CO 248 

FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING COMPANY 201 

FERRIS, THEODORE E 295 

FLETCHER, W. & A. COMPANY 230 

FRENCH LINE ( COMPAGNIE GENERALE TRANSATLANTIQUE) 170 

FUNCH, EDYE & CO 190 

FURNESS, WITHY & CO 300 

GARCIA & DIAZ 268 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 218 

GRACE, W. R. & CO 224 

GREAT LAKES DREDGE & DOCK CO 251 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

{Continued) 



A 



XJ 



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HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 299 

HARRIS, MAGILL & CO 263 

HOBOKEN LAND & IMPROVEMENT CO 290 

HOFFMAN, JOHN E 314 

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 242 

HOULDER, WEIR & BOYD 292 

INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORP 319 

INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE MARINE CO 150 

ISHERWOOD, SIR JOSEPH 198 

KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY 169 

KLEPPE & CO 206 

KOKUSAI RISEN KAISHA ... 296 

LAMPORT & HOLT . 210 

LAVERIE, ROBERT H 209 

LEARY, DANIEL F 305 

LEE & SIMMONS 277 

LLOYD SABAUDO 221 

LORD DRY DOCK CORPORATION 255 

MALLORY, C. D. & CO 285 

MERRITT & CHAPMAN DERRICK & WRECKING CO. . . . 306 

MEXICAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION 207 

MITSUI & COMPANY 310 

MOORE, BENJAMIN & CO 185 

MOORE & MCCORMACK CO 280 

MORGAN LINE, (SOUTHERN PACIFIC COMPANY) . . . 212 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 234 

NATIONAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO 313 

N. Y. CANAL & GREAT LAKES CORP 294 

NEW YORK CENTRAL R. R. MARINE DEPT 238 

NEW YORK & CUBA MAIL S. S. CO 208 

NEW YORK & PORTO RICO S. S. CO 252 

NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA 282 

XI 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

[Continued) 










XIXOX, LEAVIS 177 

XORTH GERM AX LLOYD 271 

XORTOX, LILLY & CO 185 

XORWEGIAX-AMERICAX LIXE 260 

ORE STEAMSHIP CORPORATIOX 316 

ORIEXTAL XAVIGATIOX CO 279 

OSAKA SHOSEX KAISHA 309 

PACIFIC STEAM XAVIGATIOX CO 262 

PAXAMA R. R. STEAMSHIP LIXE 293 

PAX AMERICAN PETROLEUM & TRAXSPORT CO. . . . 207 

PEABODY, HEXRY W. & CO 210 

PERSHIXG SQUARE HOTELS 226 

PIERCE BROTHERS, IXC 222 

PITOU, SPIRE & CO 197 

POLLOCK, WALTER B 238 

PORT OF NEWARK 174 

POTTER, CHARLES H 192 

POUCH TERMIXAL 243 

RADIO CORPORATIOX OF AMERICA 235 

RICHARD, C. B. & CO 236 

ROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP CO 322 

ROYAL IXSURAXCE CO 314 

ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO 254 

SCANDIN A VI AX- AMERICAN LIXE 193 

SINCLAIR XAVIGATIOX CO 196 

SMITH, R. A. C 127" 

SMITH & SOXS, SIR WM. REARDOX 278 

SXARE CORPORATIOX, THE FREDERICK 275 

SOUTHERX PACIFIC CO.'s MORGAX LIXE 212 

SPAXISH ROYAL MAIL LIXE 320 

STAXDARD OIL COMPAXY, XEW JERSEY 157 

STAXDARD OIL COMPAXY, XEW YORK 155 

XII 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

{Continued) 



/^\ 



\I 



STATEN ISLAND SHIPBUILDING CO 166 

STEERS, HENRY, INC 302 

STEPHANIDIS, STEPHEN D 297 

STERLING, GEORGE W 241 

STRAY STEAMSHIP CORPORATION 311 

SUBMARINE BOAT CORPORATION 174 

SUSQUEHANNA STEAMSHIP CO 191 

SUZUKI & COMPANY 296 

SWEDISH AMERICAN LINE 249 

TALBOT, BIRD & CO 274 

THREE STAR LINE 318 

TIDE WATER OIL COMPANY 229 

TIEBOUT, W. & J 283 

TOD, ROBT. J 247 

TODD SHIPYARDS CORPORATION 135 

TOYO RISEN KAISHA 305 

TRACY, MARCUS H 292 

TRANSMARINE CORPORATION 174 

UNION SULPHUR CO 315 

UNION TRANSPORT COMPANY 259 

UNITED AMERICAN LINES 298 

UNITED FRUIT CO 182 

U. S. & AUSTRALIA LINES 298 

UNITED STATES LLOYDS 220 

VACUUM OIL COMPANY 246 

VULCAN IRON WORKS 206 

WESSEL, DUVAL & CO 312 

WEST INDIA S. S. CO 276 

WHITLOCK CORDAGE COMPANY 308 

WHITNEY, J. F. & CO 252 

WILLIAMS, WILLIAM E 244 

YBARRA LINE 288 

XIII 



Requiescat in pace 

& 

Co t^oge of our craft t&Ijoge libcg 

tyafoe been lo0t fn t^e pursuit 

of our calling it te but 

ourg to ^onor in our 

fumble *way and to 

beseech t^e <£>reat 

}Mlot t^e? nta^ 

at la 1 finti 

Safe refuge in 

t^e $ort of 

eternal 

^eace. 



T7 



XIV 





Hn iftemortam 








(New York Pilots) 


Henry Budd 


Lost from pilot boat Yankee No. 7. 


Dec. 


3, 


1852 


Robert Curtis 


Lost from pilot boat Yankee No. 7. 


Dec. 


3, 


1852 


Robert B. Mitchell 


Froze to death when pilot boat E. K. Col- 
lins No. 11 went ashore. 


Jan. 


10, 


1856 


Thomas Freeborne 


Froze to death when bark John Minturn 
was wrecked on Jersey beach. 


Feb. 


14, 


1856 


Thomas Orr 


Lost when pilot boat Washington No. 2 
went down. 


Jan. 


18, 


1857 


John - O'Keefe 


Lost from pilot boat Westervelt No. 19. 


Apl. 


20, 


1858 


John Fredell 


Lost when brig Christiania was sunk by 
steamer North American. 


Dec. 


27, 


1866 


James M. Clark 


Drowned from bark J. Sargent. 


Oct. 


29, 


1874 


Howard van Pelt 


Killed when hawser parted, boarding bark 
Urkaine. 


Apl. 


22, 


1878 


Fred Baudier 


Drowned from pilot boat Isaac Webb No. 8. 


May 


17, 


1879 


Alfred Baudier 


Died from heart disease on board steamer 
Nevada. 


Jun. 


18, 


1879 


John Campbell 


Lost when pilot boat Ariel Patterson was 
sunk. 


Mar. 


5, 


1883 


Thomas Metcalfe 


Lost when steamer Alaska sunk pilot boat 
Columbia 


Dec. 


3, 


1883 


Ralph Noble 


Lost when steamer Alaska sunk pilot boat 
Columbia 


Dec. 


3, 


1883 


Christopher Wolfe 


Lost when steamer Alaska sunk pilot boat 
Columbia 


Dec. 


3, 


1883 


Charles Arnold 


Lost when steamer Alaska sunk pilot boat 
Columbia 


Dec. 


3, 


1883 


Walter A. Reddin 


Lost from pilot boat Francis A. Perkins 
No. 13. 


Jan. 


24, 


1887 


John Martino 


Lost at sea when pilot boat Enchantress 
No. 18 went down with all hands in the 
blizzard 


Mar. 


13, 


1888 


John E. Johnsox 


Lost at sea when pilot boat Enchantress 
No. 18 went down with all hands in the 
blizzard 


Mar. 


13, 


1888 



XV 



3n Jftemortam 



Daniel V. Jones 



(New York Pilots) Continued 

Lost at sea when pilot boat Enchantress 
No. 18 went down with all hands in the 
blizzard 



Henry W. Seguine Lost at sea when pilot boat Enchantress 

No. 18 went down with all hands in the 
blizzard 

Albert C. Mai.comb Lost from pilot boat Charlotte Webb No. 5 

John Handran Lost from pilot boat Bateman No. 11. 



John L. Canvin 
Edward Collins 

James Smith 

Henry A. Devere 

William Murphy ~) 
Thomas Penna 
Patrick Walsh 
Francis Kelly 
George Sampson 
Walter Berry J 



Lost from bark Edward Cushing, being 
washed overboard. 

Lost from pilot boat Washington No. 22, 
when crushed between tugboat and bark 
he was boarding. 

Drowned while boarding steamer Van Dyk 
from pilot boat Edward Cooper No. 20. 

Lost while boarding steamer Banan from 
pilot boat Fannie No. 17. 



Lost at sea when pilot boat Warren No. 5 
disappeared and was never heard from 
a i>a in on 



Mar. 13, 1888 

Mar. 13, 1888 
Mar. 18, 1889 
Apl. 15, 1889 

Jan. 22, 1890 

Mar. 5, 1890 
Feb. 27, 1892 
Apl. 13, 1894 



Gideon Maf^s 
Jolin J. Canvin 



Died from heart failure on board steamer 
Curio. 

Died from heart failure on board steamer 
Idaho 



Thomas F. Murphy Died from heart failure on board steamer 

Allianca 



Thomas Shields 



James Van Pelt 



Drowned while being taken out to steamer 
Talisman in a yawl, when yawl was 
swamped. 

Lost while boarding Standard Oil tank No. 
95, having fallen from ladder. 



Feb. 5, 1895 

May 19, 1895 

Sep. 29, 1897 

Sep. 30, 1901 

Dec. 14, 1907 

Sep. 19, 1915 



XVI 





Jn JtfUmortam 

(New Jersey Pilots) 






McKxight Smith 


Drowned at sea when pilot boat Sylph 
foundered with all hands during a ter- 
rific blizzard. 


Winter 


of 1851 


Theopholis Beebe 


Died of heart disease on pilot boat Mys- 
tery. 


Winter 


of 1866 


Joseph Hizzey 


Drowned when bark he was piloting Mas 
driven ashore at Egg Harbor during 
a heavy Northeast gale. 


Winter 


of 1873 


William Lucy 


Drowned while boarding vessel in heavy 








gale when yawl was thrown against 
vessel's side and capsized. 


Winter 


of 1875 


Thomas Leach 


Washed overboard from pilot boat dur- 
ing severe gale. 


Winter 


of 1880 


Richard Browx 


The man who piloted the America to suc- 
cess in the first International yacht 
race. Died ashore from the effects of 
exposure aboard ship in line of duty. 


Winter 


of 1884 


William Warxeb 


Washed overboard from pilot boat James 
Gordon Bennett. 


Oct. 


16, 1884 


Gustave Texxesox 


Died of heart failure on board pilot 
boat David T. Leahy. 


Nov. 


15, 1897 


Joiix Godbey 
Joiix M. Lexxax 
Harry Mix 


\ Drowned when pilot boat James Gordon 
I Bennett was run into and sunk by the 
) steamship Alene. 


August 


1901 


Frank Neilsojt 


Died from injuries received when steam- 
ship Monterey ran into and sunk pilot 
boat Hermit. 


Nov., 


1903 


William C. Hall 


Died from heart failure on board steam- 
ship Muncaster Castle. 


January 


-, 1908 



XVII 




THEOPHOLIS BEEBE 

One of the first New Jersey pilots. Died of heart disease 
on pilot boat Mystery in the winter of I860 




HOWARD VAN PELT 

Killed when hawser parted boarding bark Ukraine April 22, 1878 




GIDEON MAPES 
Died from heart failure on board S. S. Cufic May 19, 1895 




JAMES H. VAX PELT 
Drowned while boarding Standard Oil tanker September 19, 1915 



<NEW YORK "PILOTS 

JANUARY, 1922 



ACTIVE 



Anderson, Andrew 
Akerman, C. B. 
Arnold, H. 
Anderson, H. C. 
Beebe, Geo. W. 
Beebe, Franklin B. 
Baeszler, A. 
Breuer, W. F. C, 
Bellmonth, John 
Bigley, Jos. A. 
Brinkmann, Wm. B. 
Berry, J. F. 
Bayer, Chas. 
Butler, F. A. 
Beinert, D. L. 
Braun, E., Jr. 
Cramer, Geo. 
Cannavale, A. 
Cramer, Frank 
Canvin, Jas. A. 
esquirol, c. m. 
Ferrie, Wm. 
Fendt, F. W. 
Feldhusen, M. 
Grant, Wm. 

GlRDLEY, A. 



Halliday, W. E. 
Huus, C. M. 
Hauffman, John A. 
Ireland, Wm. S. 
Johnson, H. C. 
Kiernan, J. J. 
Keely, Wm. F. 
Mitchell, Elvin E. 
Murphy, A. H. 
Madigan, C. J. 
Marks, Thos. H. 
Miller, H. A. 
McLaughlin, Wm. S. 
McCauley, T. J. 
Murphy, J. A. 
Miller, H. F. 
McIntyre, H. A. 
Miller, F. W. 
Mahlmann, H. 
McKernan, A. F. 
Nelson, L. C. 
Onasch, C. F. 
Pratt, J. E. 
Peterson, Gustaf 
Port, T. J. 
Yates, Fras. J. 



Peterson, Frank 
Peterson, A. H. 
Peterson, Robert 
Roche, Nicholas 
Reiersen, M. 
Ronayne, John 
Riker, Vincent J. 
Roche, A. S. 
Stoffreiden, Oscar 
Sullivan, Michael 
Sullivan, M. Edgar 
Shooks, J. H. 
Swainson, J. B. 
Seeth, Geo. H. 
Sullivan, J. W. 
Schwarz, L. E. 
Swainson, G. F. 
Turnure, E. W. 
Torgeson, Thos. 
Van Pelt, Frank P. 
Winters, Ed C. 
Waugh, R. J. 
Waldie, G. J. 
Wood, W. K. 
Wood, H. W. 
Winters, Ed. C, Jr. 



Qualey, W. M. 
Akerman, John B. 
Braun, Edward 
Cochran, J. B. 
Dougherty, Thos. 



RETIRED 

Heath, A. B. 
Russell, J. J. 
Johnson, A. S. 
McDonald, M. 
Nicolay, D. S. 
Winters, Phil. H. 



Parker, Wm. 
Scheubner, Chas. 
Seeth, Geo. 
Stoffreiden, O. 
Van Albert, Ivan 



xxii 



'NEW JERSEY PILOTS 

JANUARY, 1922 



Akehman, John W. 
Ashcraft, John A. 
Beebe, Allen 
Beebe, Alonzo 
Beebe, Chas. 
Beebe, Howard 
Beebe, Jas. D. 
Beggs, Samuel C. 
Bigley, Richard 
Carr, Marcus A. 
Clarke, Henry M. 
Crocker, Wm. J. 
Devereaux, Chas. D. 



ACTIVE 

Devereaux, Wm. S. 
Earle, Walter 
Egan, Frank T. 
Hall, John R. 
Hall, John L. 
Hall, Warren A. 
Hopkins, John F. 
Hurrell, Wm. J. 
Kissenberth, Geo. 
Lowe, Wm. A. 
Lowe, Wm. H. 
Lennan, Fred B. 
Lyons, John A. 
Wood, Jos. T. 



Melville, Jas. A. 
Madigan, Geo. J. 
McCarthy, John F. 
McCarthy, J. E. 
Mitchell, Wm. A. 
Oldmixon, Geo. 
Oldmixon, Leon E. 
Petersen, John 
Sloat, Ernest H. 
Wall, Frank D. 
Warner, Chas. E. 
Wells, Jos. S. 
Winters, Phil E. 



Behrens, Richard 

BuRRETT, THOS. F. 

Crocker, Wm. 



'RETIRED 

Lewis, Wm. 
Nichols, Edward P. 
Shields, Wilmer 



Wall, Nicolai A. 
Wood, Nathan 
Cooper, Stephen H. 



\J 







XXIII 




He 



9 *■ 

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§1 






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THE FIRST PILOT 

IT IS a long cry .since the day that Usoous, a Phoenician, strad- 
dled a log and found that he could safely float over the waters 

and the present time, when many millions of humans cross the 
oceans and the seas annually in .safety and comfort. The Phoenician 
legend has it that, long before the foundation of the maritime city 
of 'Pyre, prior to 1200 li. ('., Usoous cut down a tree, cleared it of 
its branches, seated himself upon it and "rocked safely upon the 
waves." Usoous unquestionably was his own pilot and probably 
cared little whither he went, as long as he was on his way. 

Shortly after the venture of Usoous, so runs the legend, one 
Chrysor combined a number of logs into a raft and was the first 
man to navigate the waters for trade and fishing. This was, un- 
doubtedly, the birth of maritime commerce but there are no rec- 
ords of any systematic effort to bring the rough craft of those 
ancient days safely in and out of the primitive harbors and even 
legendary lore fails to make note of any ancient mariner making it 
a profession to guard the safety of his fellowmen in and about the 
treacherous coasts of the pre-historic Phoenician country. 

When Semiramis, imperious Queen of Assyria conquered the fleet 
of Staurabates, -1000 "ships" strong, with her own fleet of 3000 
"vessels," along about 1965 B. C, we are at first inclined to believe 
that Assyria's militant sovereign must surely have had a host of 
expert pilots to guide her great flotilla against the fleet of Staura- 
bates- — until we learn that Semiramis caused her own fleet to be 
transplanted on the backs of camels from the shores of Syria to the 
banks of the Indus ; and the thought naturally conies up that the 
entire fleet of the Assyrian monarch could be comfortably stowed 
away in the capacious holds of one of our modern leviathan cargo 
carriers. 

The very earliest record of a professional pilot comes, aptly 
enough, from the Netherlands, that little country which, by tradition 
and history, probably stands second to none in maritime activity 
and valorous deeds at sea. It is from the Dutch words "pijl" and 
* i loocV that we get the modern word "pilot." The first Dutch word 
means pole and, with the Dutch, stands for everything vertically 
straight. The second word, it may be easily surmised, means "lead." 
And so we get the early definition, set by the Hollanders, of a lead 
that is sent down in an absolutely straight line to ascertain the 
depth of the waters at any given point. 

For ages the navigators of the Old World had been familiar with 
the plumb and sounding line — even though we cannot state, even 
approximately, the date when the plumb and sounding line's efficacy 

— 1 — 



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was first discovered by a navigator — but it was not until Frans 
Naerebout, born in Gees, Province of Zeeland, in 1749, announced 
himself as being a professional "pijl loads" ready to take the 
sailing ships of his day in and out of the harbors of Holland, the 
depths of which he had studied until he knew the location of every 
danger spot, that pilotage, as such, became a science and an art. 

From that day to this the work of the pilot has been surrounded 
by a fascinating mysticism so that, even in this blase modern age, 
the coming aboard or the "dropping" of the pilot remains a feature 
of a voyage that even the seasoned members of a freight vessel's 
crew never fail to take the keenest interest in. On a passenger ship 
the coming or going of the pilot is something of an event with every 
passenger, even the most experienced ocean traveler. 

The Dutch Society for the Promotion of the General Welfare 
has reared an appreciative memorial over the grave of Frans Naere- 
bout, the original professional pilot, who had been offered a huge 
salary by the British government to serve under the British flag but 
who had refused the tempting bait and remained loyal to his own 
beloved tri-color until his peaceful end in 1818. 

Our own piloting history dates back from the time of Hendrik 
Hudson, who undoubtedly used his "pijl lood" earnestly and contin- 
uously from the time that he sighted the then virginal slopes of 
Atlantic Highlands until he had passed through the lower bay, the 
Narrows, the upper bay and finally cast his anchor somewhere in the 
Hudson River. There was no welcoming greeting from a pilot boat 
off Sandy Hook for Hendrik and so the first scientific casting of the 
lead in the waters about what later became New York Harbor was 
done by the intrepid Dutch navigator from a little lead-heaving 
platform off the rail of the famous Halve Maan. 

The earliest known American pilots were the Seawards, John and 
James, although the exact period of the Seawards' activities is a bit 
too far back even for the fairly complete records of the local pilot 
association or the records in the great libraries. The first Seawards 
came over in the Mayflower, which probably led to their becoming 
imbued with the idea that a pilot on the New World shore would be 
a good thing to have around for the boats from England that were 
expected to follow the Mayflower. 

One of the earliest recorded instances where American pilots 
followed their profession was during the time of President George 
Washington where it is stated that the first President "arrived at 
Elizabethtown, where he was met by the Congress deputation and 
other dignitaries upon the occasion of his second inauguration. 



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These all, with Genera] Washington, embarked in the barge manned 
by thirteen pilots in white uniforms, commanded by Commodore 
Nicholson and with .John Randall, as coxswain, and proceeded in 
stately fashion across the bay to the Battery where the citizenry 
welcomed them with loud acclaim." 

There is no authentic record of any pilot keeping a lookout for 
ships off Sandy Hook in the early days of the Colonies, although 
it is believed that the British, quick to see the advantage of an 
experienced harbor pilot such as Frans Naerabout had proved him- 
self to be, undoubtedly established a piloting system in the port of 
New York after they had changed its name from that of Nieuw 
Amsterdam, even though these pilots may not have been organized 
as a body of men under government or local control. In fact, it is 
doubtful if pilotage in New York Harbor became a really organized 
profession until 1837. Until that year the best available records 
seem to indicate that every pilot worked for himself — a case of every 
man for himself and the devil take the hindmost. The records do 
show that, in 1811, there were ten Sandy Hook pilots on the job 
as against but six in 1822, plain evidence that there was no increase 
in piloting activity since the war of 1812. 

There was not then, as there is today, any form of compulsory 
pilotage and there was not, therefore, any inducement for efficiency 
except the free competition between the rival pilots for jobs of 
piloting which remained for decision solely with the masters of in- 
coming ships. Before regular pilots began their work the masters of 
incoming ships, when they wanted a pilot, used to hail a fisherman 
and take him on board to act as pilot into the harbor. 



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FIRST PILOT'S LICENSE 

THE year 1837 saw the first regularly appointed pilots, under 
the control of a State Commission, by virtue of an act passed 
by the New Jersey Legislature, but long before that the State 
of New York licensed experienced mariners to do piloting in New 
York Harbor although not under the control of any commission — 
as witness the picturesquely-worded license given one Zachary Hurler, 
who has the distinction of being the first duly licensed pilot in New 
York waters. Says this first license: "The people of the State of 
New York, by the Grace of God free and independent, to Zachary 
Hurler, mariner, greeting: Know ye that, we being well assured of the 
ability, skill and care and circumspection of said Zachary Hurler, we 
have nominated, constituted and appointed and by these presents 
nominate, constitute and appoint you, the said Zachary Rufler, to be 
one of the branch pilots of the Port of New Y r ork to and from Sandy 
Hook from and to the said port. You, the said Zachary Hurler, 
truly behaving yourself in all things, as becometh in the service and 
station of a pilot and observing, doing, fulfilling, keeping and per- 
forming all and singular those things which, on your part and be- 
half as a pilot aforesaid are and ought to be observed, done, ful- 
filled and kept, and that in and by all things according to the direc- 
tions, true intent and meaning of an Act of the Legislature of our 
said State of New Y'ork, passed the 14th day of April, 1784, entitled 
an Act for the regulation of pilots and pilotage for the Port of 
New York and for other purposes therein mentioned; to have and to 
hold the said office of branch pilot for the Port of New York to- 
gether with the fees, salaries, perquisites and advantages thereunto 
In testimony whereof we have caused these, our letters 
to be made patent and the Great Seal of our State to be hereunto 
affixed. Witness our greatly and well-beloved George Clinton, 
Esquire, Governor of our said State, Governor and Commander-in- 
chief of all the militia and Admiral of the Navy of the same by and 
with the advice and consent of our Consul of appointment of our 
City of New York the 22nd day of April, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four and of our independ- 
ence the eighth." 

From 1805 to 1836 'there was little system in the pilotage in 
New York Harbor. The winter of 1835-1836 had been a particu- 
larly disastrous one for shipping along the coast. One winter's 
afternoon during that period two immigrant ships — sailers, of course 
—had worked in close to the Sandy Hook lightship. The wind 
was east-southeast, blowing very heavy and approaching a gale. 
The two packets hove to off the lightship with signals flying for a 
pilot, firing guns to further attract the port scouts, whose boats 





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were anchored well inside Sandy Hook bay. As has been stated, 
it was an off year for pilot efficiency in New York Harbor and the 
two immigrant packets were unable to get a pilot to bring them into 
the Narrows. The captains of the two immigrant ships had hove to 
with heads offshore and, not being able to beat to windward, were 
finally forced upon the Long Island shore. One of the ships went 
aground to the eastward of Rockaway and the other to the eastward 
of what is now known as Jones's Inlet. Each ship had from 150 to 
300 passengers and by the break of the next day nearly every soul 
on board had perished. This catastrophe, brought about by the 
absence of direct control and organized management of the pilots 
then plying their trade, caused the appointment of the Commission 
of Pilotage for the State of New Jersey, with power to examine and 
appoint men qualified to act as either full branch or deputy pilots 
for the Ports of Newark, Perth Amboy and the Harbor of New 
York by way of Sandy Hook. The first group of pilots to be 
appointed under this act consisted of Theophilus Beebe, a fisherman 
who was running a smack out of Fulton Market, New York ; Lyman 
Beebe, Clinton Beebe and James Chapman, all of whom were ap- 
pointed as full branch pilots and Nicholas Van Gelder, Robert 
Pease McKnight Smith and two others, who were made deputy 
pilots. These men used a small fishing smack, temporarily, until the 
State of New Jersey built them a more suitable craft and that boat, 
when completed, was the largest pilot boat ever placed in commis- 
sion ; too big, in fact, to be handled easily for the work she was 
expected to do. 

So in 1837, we find twenty-three pilots working at the Sandy 
Hook station, in four pilot boats. Three of the boats cruised about 
while the fourth remained as a "station boat" in close proximity to 
the lightship. It was necessary then, as it is now, to maintain such 
a "station boat" at the lightship in order to insure the bringing 
back ashore of pilots who have taken ships out of the harbor and 
who are "dropped" after the lightship is safely passed. Otherwise 
there would be no assurance that a pilot could be taken off the 
outgoing ship. Besides these twenty-three sturdy New Yorkers, 
nine faithful men of the sea went out in the boat built for them by 
the State of New Jersey, making a total representation at Sandy 
Hook of thirty-two pilots, with competition running strong since 
the advent of the Jerseyites. 



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CRUISING FS£<R OUT TO SEA 

FOR .some reason or other the merchants of New York City were 
not satisfied with the manner in which the pilots chose to con- 
duct their activities, although the records of the day showed a 
large number of daring feats of seamanship and disregard of per- 
sonal risk on the part of the pilots then on duty. 

It thus came about that, in 1845, these merchants demanded 
that all pilots cruise well outside of Sandy Hook and supplemented 
their ukase by appointing seventeen pilots quite independent of the 
regularly-appointed State pilots, thus inaugurating a three-cornered 
competition which kept matters going at a lively pace until the 
appointment of the first New York State Pilot Commissioners in 
June, 1845, just about nine years after the creation of a similar 
commission by the State of New Jersey. 

New York State went New Jersey one better by legalizing an 
extra pilotage fee — of one-quarter of the total pilotage on a vessel 
—where the services of the pilot were accepted fifteen miles or more 
outside of Sandy Hook. It was not long before the pilots began 
cruising far beyond this fifteen-mile radius, often as far as a point 
below Sable Island, and the logs of the old pilots of the late forties 
show innumerable entries of such extra pilotage allowed on "pick- 
ups" far out in the Atlantic. 

The } T ear 1860 saw seventeen New York pilot boats in service 
(the so-called merchant pilots having since been merged with the 
regular New York organization), manned by forty-two pilots; and 
four New Jersey pilot boats, accommodating thirty New Jersey 
pilots. 

That even in the old days of the merchant marine the work of 
the pilot was considered as being shrouded in a delightful mystery 
of the deep is evidenced by the articles of apprenticeship issued to 
one John Kelso, which read : "Witnesseth, that John Kelso, now 
aged sixteen years, hath put himself and by these presents by and 
with the consent of Henry Kelso, his father, by his sealing and 
delivering, hath put himself and by these presents doth voluntarily 
and of his own free will and accord put himself apprentice to John 
Funck of the City of New York, to learn the art trade and mystery 
of a pilot, for the piloting of vessels to and from the City of New 
York by Sandy Hook and after the manner of an apprentice to 
serve from the day of the date hereof, for and during the and until 
the full end and term of five years, next ensuing, during which time 
the said apprentice his master faithfully shall serve, his secrets 
keep, his lawful commands everywhere readily obey ; he shall do no 
damage to his master, nor see it done by others without letting or 

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giving notice thereof to his said master * * * he shall not commit 
matrimony within the said term and at cards, dice or any unlawful 
game he shall not play, whereby his master shall have damage, with 
his own goods, nor the goods of others, without license from his said 
master. He shall neither buy nor sell ; he shall not absent himself 
day or night from his master's service without leave, nor haunt ale 
houses, taverns or playhouses ; but in all things shall behave himself 
as a faithful apprentice ought to do, within the said term. And 
said master shall use the utmost of his endeavor to teach or cause 
to be taught or instructed the said apprentice in the trade and mys- 
tery of a pilot for the piloting of vessels to and from the City of 
New York, by Sandy Hooke, and during the said term of five years 
shall pay to said apprentice the sum of seven dollars per month 
until the said apprentice shall be appointed boatkeeper, after which 
he shall pay him the wages usually allowed to boatkeepers. And 
for the true performance of all and singular the covenants and 
agreements aforesaid, said parties bind themselves each unto the 
other firmly by these presents. In witness whereof the said parties 
have, interchangeably, set their hands and seals hereunto this eighth 
day of August in the twenty-fifth year of the independence of the 
United States of America and in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and one." 

Thus was assured the efficiency of the earliest Sandy Hook pilots 
and only through a comparatively brief period was this efficiency 
relaxed and then only because of the peculiar disorganization 
brought about by the War of 1812. 







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TRAGEDIES FN. THE SERVICE 

THAT thorough training for the position of Sandy Hook pilot 
was essential, is shown by the extremely hazardous nature of 
the work the pilots were continually facing. Between 1838 and 
1860 fifteen pilot boats met with disaster at sea. The Franklin was 
lost by being driven ashore in a heavy gale and all hands on board 
perished. The following year, on July 28th, witnessed the loss, in a 
hurricane of the pilot boat Gratitude, with the loss of four lives — 
two pilots and two seamen. Three years elapsed and then the trim 
San Jacinto went down with all hands. The next tragedy of the 
Sandy Hook men came with the driving ashore of the Mary Ellen, in 
the winter of 1844-1845, with the loss of her entire complement. The 
Jacob Bell went down in a gale far out of the Hook in 1854, with 
all hands and on January 10, 1856, the Edward K. Collins was 
driven ashore on Fire Island in a blinding snow storm. Pilot Robert 
Mitchell froze to death on that tragic tour of duty while the boat- 
keeper, only just promoted after a long apprenticeship, the cabin 
boy and the cook were drowned. The pilot boat Washington was 
lost at sea with, the death of one pilot and six sailors in 1857, and 
the Jacob Westervelt was struck by the British steamer Saxonia, 
270 miles East of Sandy Hook, causing the death of one of her 
pilot company. 

This carries us only to 1860. The next four years saw as many 
disasters to the little schooner yachts that poked their saucy way 
out of the Horse Shoe and dared the elements in quest of ships to 
be piloted safely into port. 

Then came the Civil War and all its tragedies. It was not long 
after the firing upon Fort Sumpter that the Sandy Hook pilots felt 
the full weight of war's merciless hand. The official log of the 
Sandy Hook pilots records no more stirring occurrence than that of 
August 12, 1864, when the pilot boat William Bell cruising about 
on a peaceful mission, came upon a steamer which her pilot-in-charge 
believed would want to be taken into port. The expected "pick up" 
proved to be the Confederate privateer Tallahassee. The William 
Bell came upon the enemy ship 70 miles east southeast of Sandy 
Hook and was captured and destroyed by the Confederate after 
being used for a short time as a tender to the converted Confederate 
merchantman. On the same day the James Funck, another Sandy 
Hook boat and, like the William Bell, on the lookout for incoming 
ships, was captured by the same privateer. In both cases the pilots 
had believed the Tallahassee to be fair commercial prize for pilotage 
and the competing pilots had engaged in a merry race to be first at 
the Tallahassee's side. The William Bell had won the race and it 

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was while her pilot was doing involuntary and unwilling pilot duty 
for the Confederate ship that the James Funck came up, quite 
unconscious of the fact that the William Bell had already been con- 
fiscated. 

This day's eventful happenings makes quite a story in itself and 
we quote the very best authority possible under the circumstances, 
Colonel John Taylor Wood, who commanded the Tallahassee on her 
commerce-destroying cruise and who later wrote about the captures 
off Sandy Hook in a brilliant article in the Century Magazine, 
nearly twenty-five years later. 










— 14 




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PILOT BOAT WILLIAM BELL 

Being chased by the Confederate privateer Tallahassee, August 12, 186 '4- 



AN ECHO OF THE CIVIL WAR 

AFTER recording his trip up the coast after the Tallahassee had 
been placed in commission on July 20, 1864, during which his 
commerce-destroying cruiser put out of the running a number 
of sailing ships, Colonel Wood tells of the events that occurred on 
August 12th. "Standing over towards Fire Island Light," writes 
the Colonel, "we found seven sail in sight. One ran down towards 
us, which we recognized at once as a New York pilot boat. She 
luffed to under our quarter, launched a small boat and a few minutes 
later a large, well-dressed man in black, with a high hat, heavy gold 
watch-guard, a small valise, and a bundle of papers under his arm, 
stepped over the side. As he did so his eyes glanced up at our flag 
at the peak, which was lazily unfolding in a light breeze. 'My God! 
what is that? What ship is this?' said he, turning to me. 'The 
Confederate cruiser Tallahassee,' I replied. A more astonished man 
never stood on deck of a vessel. He turned deadly pale and drops 
of perspiration broke from every poi'e ; but rapidly bracing himself, 
he took in the situation, and prepared to make the best of it. He 
was told that his vessel was a prize and that I would make a tender 
of her. He was ordered to go on board and to return with his crew 
and their personal effects. It was the pilot boat James Funck, 
No. 22, one of the class of fine weatherly schooners found off New 
York, from one to two hundred miles out, at all seasons, manned 
bv as thorough seamen as ever trod ship's deck. Years before, 
while I was attached to the sloop of war Germantown, I had seen 
one of them work this vessel under sail down the East River, against 
a head wind but fair tide, 'backing and filling' in a manner that 
called forth the admiration of all. I put on board two officers and 
twenty men, with orders to keep within signal distance. She (the 
James Funck) was very efficient when several sail were in sight, over- 
hauling and bringing alongside vessels, that I might decide upon 
their fate. The captures of the bark Bay State and the brigs 
Carrie Estelle and A. Richards followed in quick succession. We 
had now over forty prisoners, and their baggage on board, lumber- 
ing up our decks and it was necessary to make some disposition of 
them. Towards night No. 22 brought alongside the schooner 
Carroll. She was bonded by her captain, acting for the owners, for 
ten thousand dollars ; and after he had given a written engagement 
to land the prisoners at New York, they went on board with their 
effects. Before leaving they were all paroled. All the prisoners we 
made, with hardly an exception, were most eager for their paroles. 
One said: 'This is worth three hundred and fifty dollars to me.' 
Another said : 'I would not take a thousand dollars for mine.' One 

— 16 — 



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skipper said that if it would protect him from the draft he was 
partly reconciled to the loss of his vessel. Another, whose vessel had 
been bonded, brought all his crew on board to secure their papers. 
The next victim was another pilot-boat, the William Bell, No. 24. 
My object in capturing these vessels was, if possible, to secure a 
pilot who could either be paid or coerced to take the ship through 
I loll Gate into Long Island Sound. It was now near the full moon. 
It was my intention to run up the harbor just after dark, as I knew 
the way in by Sandy Hook, then go on up the East River, setting 
fire to the shipping on both sides and, when abreast of the Navy 
Yard, to open fire, hoping some of our shells might set fire to the 
buildings and any vessels that might be at the docks, and finally to 
steam through Hell Gate into the Long Island Sound. I knew from 
the daily papers, which we received only a day or two old, what 
vessels were in port and that there was nothing then ready that 
could oppose us. But no pilot could be found who knew the road 
or who was willing to undertake it and I was forced to abandon the 
scheme. * * * As the tender (the pilot boat) proved a draw-back 
to our rapid movements I determined to destroy her. It was a mis- 
take for I was authorized by the government (Confederate) to fit 
out any prize as a cruiser and this one ought to have been sent along 
the eastern coast." 



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— 17 




ELECTUS COMFORT— BEAU BRUMMEL OF THE SEA 

Captain of the pilot boat J. F. Loubat No. 16 — Captain Comfort zcas in 

active service 4-2 years 



THE DA YS OF SENTIMENT 

IN THE days before and just after the Civil War there was a deal 
more sentiment and ceremony attached to the coming and going 

of pilots than there is in these ultra-commercialized days. The 
Sandy Hook pilot came on board a ship like a visiting admiral, 
greeted at the rail by the captain of the ship with the major por- 
tion of the crew standing about, if not at attention, at least in 
respectful attitude while the newcomer was given his welcome aboard. 

And in those days there were no peaked caps, rough clothes or 
sou-westers worn by the sturdy sea scouts who lay in wait for 
arriving ships. Plug hats and frock coats constituted the au fait 
apparel for the Sandy Hook pilot. On shore the pilot invariably 
was the Beau Brummel of his home port. Those were the good old 
days when a man divided his calling between sentiment and strict 
commercialism and the combination made for good fellowship, re- 
spect and pride of occupation. 

It was just about this time that a prominent New York mer- 
chant began his semi-annual trips to Europe. He was E. H. Van 
Ingen, a cloth merchant, who died in New York during the early part 
of 1921, after having crossed the Atlantic some 110 times, making 
55 round trips, two each year. Even the world war could not keep Mr. 
Van Ingen at home and during 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917 and 1918 he 
made his semi-annual trips just the same as ever. The reason for 
bringing Mr. Van Ingen into this history of the pilots of New York 
Harbor is because this veteran transatlantic traveler expressed the 
opinion of every human being who has ever crossed the oceans, that 
the taking on or dropping off of the pilot always has been, is now 
and always will be the most stirring incident of a long sea voyage. 
After more than fifty consecutive years of sea travel Mr. Van Ingen 
told the writer that he never missed, if he could help it, seeing the 
pilot dropped on the outgoing voyage or taken on upon the arrival 
of his ship in port. The venerable ocean-goer said that the 110th 
time that he saw the performance was just as interesting as the first 
time he saw it in the early oixties. 

Unlike the pilotage system of today, which makes the taking on 
of the guiding hand for the harbor navigation a matter of little 
ceremony and of almost precise adjustment (even though the haz- 
ards are still very great in bad weather) the pilot's work in the 
old days was invariably one of quick action, hot races and absolutely 
expert seamanship if he would secure the incoming ship as his own 
particular "prize." As against the single pilot boat that is, today, 
rowed out to the incoming steamer from the "station pilot boat" 



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there were in the earlier days and until 1895 more than thirty 
pilot boats (sail boats) in service, each of which strove to get to 
the incoming vessel first. In 1865 there were 32 of these trim little 
schooner yachts, 24 of them carrying New York pilots and 8 of 
them New Jersey pilots. That was the year that Nathan Wood, 
a veteran in the pilot service today, became a pilot, at the age of 
thirty years. Mr. Wood, now 86 years old and still as active as at 
fifty, remained in the service for forty-seven years, retiring in 1912. 

It was always a race in those days and often a close one. Some- 
times the little boats, each with its number prominently 'displayed 
on its sail, came in a bunch towards the incoming ship, always striv- 
ing for the lee side, 'so as to get the full benefit of the calmer seas 
and often the race between a dozen or more pilot boats ended right 
under the rail of the arriving vessel. That was, of course, when the 
incoming craft had not secured a pilot far out at sea, for some- 
times a pilot would be taken on in Longtitude 60, some 400 to 600 
miles away, off Sable Island. 

The pilots then often remained on board their little 68-ton 
boats for a week before getting a ship and a chance to stretch their 
legs on shore. The little sailers were built expressly for the work 
they were intended to do — quick maneuvring and quick sailing — 
down deep in the water to prevent their capsizing, drawing twelve 
to fourteen feet and more and with a rocker keel amidships. That 
they were staunch boats is evidenced by the fact that those of the 
pilot boats that were not lost in accidents or in heavy weather later 
were turned into pleasure v yachts by those who bought them. 
Nathan Wood witnessed many tragedies and helped to save many 
lives during his long term as a pilot. At one time the pilot boat 
Favorita No. 5 was struck by the steamer City of Port au Prince. 
It was on a bleak February morning in 1884, with a nor'wester 
raging and much vapor over the sea. Mr. Wood had to crawl 
through a ragged hole in his boat. Badly hurt, he stuck to his job 
as pilot and brought his vessel in safely — then spent many long 
weeks in a hospital ashore. 



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— 20 



TALES OF DISStfSTEIl 

THE fleet of pilot boats had disasters almost every year. Pre- 
vious to 1858, eighteen vessels were lost. The most common 
disaster has been loss or damage by collision, seventeen pilot 
boats having been run down since 1858. The Ariel Paterson was run 
down by the steamer Commonwealth ; the Moses H. Grinnell was 
struck by the steamship Union on the Outer Middle Ground, the 
Mary Taylor was run down by the U. S. Transport Fairhaven, 
in 186*3; the Josiah Johnson was run down by the schooner Wanata 
and the A. T. Stewart was sunk by the steamship Scotia, in 1869. 
The John D. Jones was run down by the steamship City of Wash- 
ington, on a stormy night of March, 1871. The Caprice was run 
down in the Narrows, by the steamship New Orleans, in 1876. The 
Abraham Leggett met her fate when run down by the steamship 
Naples, 1879. She was becalmed in the lee of the Naples when the 
steamship rolled over and crushed the little pilot boat. The Columbia 
was run down by the steamship Alaska, in 1883, and the Washington 
met a similar fate when run down by the steamship Roma, off Sandy 
Hook, in 1884. 

The Columbia, run down by the Alaska, had before had a peculiar 
experience with a sister ship of the one that caused her later loss. 
This was when the Columbia had put a pilot on board the inbound 
steamer Arizona, well below the Massachusetts coast. A gale was 
blowing and the yawl that had placed the pilot on board the Arizona 
was capsized, throwing her two apprentices into the sea. A second 
yawl was put over from the pilot boat with two men to rescue those 
of the first yawl, but that second yawl also capsized, both yawls 
being carried away in the heavy sea that was running. The Colum- 
bia, with her remaining navigator, managed to make Newport, R. I., 
with her flag flying at half-mast for the supposedly drowned crew. 
Much to the surprise and happiness of the sole "survivor" he 
learned, upon arriving at the wharf in Newport that the Arizona 
had picked up the occupants of both yawls, beyond the sight of the 
"survivor" on the Columbia, and had brought them safely to New 
York. 

The Columbia figured in several accidents before her final de- 
struction and Pilot Frank P. Van Pelt played a leading, if involun- 
tary part in many of them except the final tragedy, when he hap- 
pened not to be on board of her. The series of accidents of the 
Columbia culminated, in 1881, with her being run into by the steam- 
ship Rotterdam (a comparatively little steamer as viewed from the 
standpoint of to-day and the grandmother of the present leviathan 
Holland-American Liner Rotterdam). That particular Rotterdam 

— 21 — 



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was run down by the Wilson Liner Lepanto, with the loss of two 
of the Rotterdam's crew, the following year. The Lepanto's bows 
were stove in by the collision and she took the pilot boat Columbia, 
the crew of which had seen the disaster to the steamer that had run 
them down the previous year, in tow for the purpose of having a 
rescue craft at hand in case the Lepanto's captain should be unable 
to make the harbor owing to his ship's damaged bows. And the 
next year, 1883, the Columbia received her coup de grace from the 
Alaska, being sent down with all hands. 

A weird story told by Pilot Frank Cramer covers the career, or 
part of the career, of the pilot boat Hope No. 1 — the "Patsy" Hope, 
as her owners affectionately called her — which was, before her com- 
ing into the pilot service, a dispatch (sail) boat during the Civil 
War. She was long and narrow, was "Patsy," and, according to 
Captain Cramer, looked like a long coffin. She had no freeboard 
and was, altogether, a most peculiar-looking craft. But she could 
tear off thirteen miles an hour in a fair wind. She had had a series 
of mishaps. At one time sixteen souls, all of them apprentices, were 
lost. On another occasion four men were swept off her bowsprit by 
a great sea and on another occasion three men were carried over- 
board from her quarter-deck while setting the main try-sail. 

On March 12, 1890, the "Patsy" Hope was lying on the Sandy 
Hook Bar, holding station. During the evening one of the appren- 
tices reported to Captain Lyons, who was in charge at the time, 
that two men had gone forward "and have not returned." Nothing 
could be seen of anyone forward on the deck so Captain Cramer told 
the apprentice to call the roll in the cabin below. The boy came 
back saying that all on board had been accounted for. The pilot 
thought no more about the apprentice's belief that some of the crew 
had "gone forward and have not returned" until long afterwards 
and then he had reason to remember the premonition, or whatever 
it may be called, with a vengeance. It was close to midnight and 
raining hard when Captain Cramer called out to get the Hope under 
way so as to get a safe anchorage. A gale from the eastward was 
coming up and a thick fog was spreading over the water around the 
Hook. Captain Lyons, another pilot, was at the wheel and started 
to run into the Lower Bay for safe harbor. The gale piled the 
"Patsy" Hope on Sandy Hook Beach before those on board were 
aware of it and the Sandy Hook life-saving crew rescued all hands 
over the bows, all going forward not to return. In twenty-four 
hours nothing was left of the coffin-like pilot boat except a mass of 
splintered wood on the beach. 



— 22 — 



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Still another catastrophe was that of the Pilot Boat Mary E. 
Fish, built to replace the Mary Taylor which was lost, was run 
down in her turn by a three-masted schooner near Barnegat and 
the Mary & Catherine was run down by the steamship Haverton, 
off" Absecom Light, in 1885. The Commodore Bateman was run 
down by the steamship Suevia, while making fast time in a dense 
fog, on George's Bank, and the Charlotte Webb was rammed by the 
steamship La Normandie, a French Liner, in a dense fog near Sandy 
Hook lightvessel, in 1889. 



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LOSS OF THE COLUMBIA 

NONE hut those who have taken a trip in one of the old style 
sail pilot boats can feel the horror of a dense fog and sud- 
denly seeing the bows of a steamer, looming up as if mountain 
high, bearing straight down upon the little cockleshell riding hesi- 
tatingly in the sea, her brave complement hoping against hope that 
no reckless navigator will cut through the Atlantic waters unmindful 
of smaller craft in the way of his big ship. 

Next on the list was the Eben 13. Jordan, which was struck by 
the steamship Saginaw, off Barnegat, in 1892. The James Funck 
was sunk in the Narrows by the steamship Union, in 1862 (being the 
second pilot boat to fall victim to the same steamship) but was sub- 
sequently raised and two years later was seized by the rebel privateer 
Tallahassee and used as a tender and decoy, as before described in 
detail. 

The report of the loss of the Columbia, in 1883, indicates the ex- 
treme danger that pilots encountered while trying to board a steam- 
ship in rough weather. When the steamer Alaska was sighted, the 
pilot boat was head-reaching to the northward on the port tack 
under close reefed mainsail and storm staysails. The wind was 
blowing a gale from the northwest and an ugly sea was running; 
but the weather was clear, although cold. The pilot boat plunged 
deeply into the heavy sea and heeled to the force of the wind until 
her lee rail was awash. The wind whipped off the tops of the waves 
and filled the air with spray. When the steamship sighted the 
pilot boat, off Fire Island, her course was changed to make a lee 
for the pilot boat's yawl and she seemed to stop when the yawl was 
launched and two men and a pilot went over the side of the pilot 
boat and dropped into the yawl. Before the yawl had proceeded 
more than a boat's length, the Alaska unexpectedly forged ahead. 
The yawl was capsized by the surge from the port bow of the steam- 
ship when she pitched into a big wave and the three men were thrown 
into the sea. Before anything could be done to save them, the bow 
of the Alaska rose and fell again and hit the pilot boat, cutting it in 
two and crushing the decks and beams to bits. Broken timbers 
were swept under the bows and along the sides as the Alaska moved 
ahead again and passed over the spot. Four pilots, four sailors and 
the cook, the entire complement of the Columbia, perished in this 
disaster. One of the pilots was Ralph Nobles who, in 1879, tried to 
introduce a steam pilot boat into the service. With two owners of 
the Pilot Boat Widgeon that had been condemned as unseaw T orthy, 
he bought the tug Hercules and converted her into a pilot boat. 

— 25 — 



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The rest of the pilots objected to the scheme, and the Pilot Commis- 
sioners upheld them. Nobles went into court with the controversy 
but finally withdrew and sold the tug. Less than twenty years later 
the scheme of Nobles came into practical effect although he, himself, 
had nothing to do with the conversion of the pilot system to steam 
from sail. 










26 — 



SACRIFICES TO DUTY 

THE Thomas I). Harrison and the Ezra Nye went ashore at Bay 
Ridge, and tlic Edmund Driggs was crushed by ice on the same 
shore, while the Hope went ashore off Eort Wadsworth, Staten 
Island. All these were subsequently pulled into deep water, raised 
and repaired and kept on duty until sold out of the pilot service. 
The Jesse Carll stranded on the bar at Zach's Inlet opposite Amity- 
ville, in the big gale of October, 1889, and the Pet was wrecked at 
Newport. Nine boats were at sea when a cyclone struck this coast in 
September, 1889, and all weathered the great storm successfully. 
The pilots were carried out to sea because a boat to take them off 
could not keep her station at the entrance to the harbor. 

The stranding of the Jesse Carll, in 1889, indicates the expe- 
riences and danger of a struggle against wind and sea of the old 
type sail pilot boats. The pilot boat had put off one of the five 
pilots aboard it and was standing off shore, near Fire Island, when 
she began to feel the force of an advancing Southern cyclone. Early 
in the evening she was in nasty weather, as the pilots have it. The 
wind was offshore most of the time ; but it varied and shifted. At 
midnight a violent thunderstorm burst overhead and the increasing 
wind raised a furious sea. Gideon Mapes, one of the best pilots 
then in the service, had charge of the Jesse Carll and had her under 
double reefed sails and standing up against the wind and sea in fine 
shape. Fire Island light was in sight until an hour after midnight. 
Then came a deluge of rain and the wind increased to hurricane 
force. Soon a thick mist covered the water and shut out every- 
thing in sight. The pilot boat reached off and on, expecting to keep 
out of shoal water, but on one tack, she went too close and struck 
on the bar at Zach's Inlet. The sails were unfurled and raised with 
the hope of forcing her off but all efforts failed. Her signals "of 
distress were seen by the life-saving crew on the beach and before 
daybreak the ten men on board were taken ashore in boats. After 
daybreak the crews tried to pull the pilot boat off but when she 
shifted to deeper water she filled, a hole having been made in her 
bottom. Then the pilots abandoned her but she was raised and re- 
paired some time later. 

The Pilot Boat Avery came out of a storm in a remarkable way 
more than forty years ago. She was under three hooks of the main- 
sail in a westerly gale offshore when she was knocked down. In a 
few minutes she would have foundered but the jib which was furled, 
was washed off the bowsprit and the wind caught the head of it and 
ran it up the stay, paying her head off so that she righted and 
saved herself. 

— 27 — 



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John L. Canvin, one of the pilots who owned the C. H. Marshall, 
lost his life in a singular mishap in 1890. He had been put aboard 
the barkentine Edward Cushing, off Highland Light and, as the 
vessel could not enter the harbor that night, he advised the captain 
to lay to until daylight. Soon afterwards the storm that had been 
coming up increased in violence and under the shortened sail the 
vessel fell off into the trough of the sea and rolled badly. The deck 
was slippery with ice and, as Canvin was a tallish man, he had hold 
of the spanker boom. The crew had clewed up the foresail and were 
swinging the yard when the vessel lurched to leeward, then rolled 
far over to windward. The man at the wheel heard Canvin's cry 
when the roll broke his grip on the boom and sent him, head first, 
over the low rail into the sea. The vessel's boat had been washed 
overboard and nothing could be done to save the pilot. The bark- 
entine was driven one hundred miles off the coast afterwards. 

Pilot Henry Devere, who had been compelled, by an attack of 
asthma caused by exposure, to retire from the service, had a queer 
experience when he sailed in the James Funck before the Civil War. 
A brig under shortened sail was sighted one day and, when the pilot 
boat drew alongside the pilot hailed a boy at the wheel. The boy 
seemed to be stupefied and the pilot was obliged to hail him several 
times before he started up, leaned forward into the companionway 
and called, feebly, to someone below. Then a gaunt man came upon 
deck and said that the crew had been stricken by fevor. The pilot 
went on board and with the help of the mate headed the vessel 
towards Sandy Hook. The captain was ill in his stateroom. The 
body of one of the crew that was found on deck was tied in mos- 
quito netting and dropped overboard. The boy died in the Lower 
Bay and the captain died off the Battery, leaving the mate as the 
sole survivor of the crew. The pilot and the mate furled the sails, 
made the line fast, when the vessel took a tow and came up the river. 

Among the old-timers that have made the fleet famous are the 
Edmund Blunt, built in 1858; the Ezra Nye, built in 1859; the 
Charles H. Marshall, built in 1860, and the Edward F. Williams, 
built in 1863. All of these were repaired and rebuilt and are still in 
good condition in various trades but not as pilot boats, of course. 
The Nye was transformed into a yacht and went to the Mediter- 
ranean, far away from the original scenes of her triumphs, as the 
floating home of Marion Crawford, the novelist. The Actaea and 
the Jesse Carll and the Eben D. Jordan also were converted into 
yachts but the majority of the other discarded pilot boats blistered 
their noses for a long time in Erie Basin, once famous — or is it 
infamous? — as the graveyard of ships. 

— 28 — 



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One of the exceptions in the discard rule was the Thomas I). 
Harrison. For twenty years this trim little schooner had known 
service as a pilot hoat and when the day of the steam pilot boat 
came she was disposed of to an importer and exporter who put her 
in the trade to Africa. She was a craft of only a trifle over 66 tons, 
with a length of 80 feet and a beam of 22 feet, drawing but little 
water. Nevertheless, she proved staunch enough for the hazardous 
business to which she was assigned. 



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DARING RESCUES 

PILOTS and sailors on board the pilot boat Walter Adams added 
laurels to the record of tbe Sandy Hook men when they took off 
the passengers and crew, as well as all their effects, from the 
British steamship Alvena, bound from New York for Haytien ports, 
when that vessel was run down and cut through by a big British 
freighter at the entrance of Gedney's Channel off Sandy Hook, on 
the afternoon of January 19, 1897. The Alvena had to be beached 
and her decks were submerged at high water, so that the need of 
getting her passengers and crew off was an urgent one. It was the 
same pilot boat that happened along at the opportune time to rescue 
the 150 fishermen excursionists from the stranded steamboat John 
E. Moore, on Romer Shoal, on Thanksgiving Day of the same year. 
The Moore had gone aground in a dense fog and quickly filled with 
water. It was, indeed, a true Thanksgiving Day for the fishermen 
who were saved from drowning by the Sandy Hook pilots on that 
occasion. 

There was wild confusion when the John E. Moore struck on 
south of Romer Shoal on Thanksgiving Day morning. The John 
E. Moore had been in the service of transferring immigrants from 
incoming steamers to Ellis Island, under contract with the various 
steamship lines and was, in every way, a staunch and seaworthy 
craft. In fact, after having been raised, following the accident of 
1896, she continued in this immigration service and is still engaged 
in it to this day. 

The steamboat had left the Battery early in the morning, some- 
what delayed by the dense fog reported off Sandy Hook and which 
had also thrown a heavy mist over the inner harbor. All on board 
were veteran fishermen, amply equipped with fishing material and 
also with that which, in those pre-Volstead days, made a fishing 
excursion complete in its attractive allurements. The Moore, under 
Captain Morrell, a careful and experienced navigator, made her 
way slowly down the upper bay towards the Narrows, then picked 
her way gingerly through the Narrows into the lower bay, Captain 
Morrell having intended to run down inside the "Oil Spot" and make 
a short cut to the Fishing Banks. The tide was running in and 
the fact that he had little headway and nothing could be seen beyond 
a few feet from the pilot house caused the skipper to lose his reck- 
oning. Nobody on board anticipated disaster and there was a lot 
of merrymaking on the Moore amid the sombre blowing of her fog 
whistle and the ringing of bells on vessels that were hove to in the 
dense fog in the lower bay. 

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A sudden shock came as the bottom of the steamboat scraped a 
hard surface, the lead was thrown over the side following a quick 
order from Captain Morrell, with the engine-room gong sounding the 
signal for full speed astern. Then came a hard, grinding noise and 
a sudden stop of the boat as every man on her was tumbled off his 
chair or bench or out of the bunks in which many of the fishermen 
had hidden for a little nap before getting at the work of fishing 
when the boat should reach the Banks. 

As the fishermen rushed out on deck they found the weather so 
thick that they could not see their hands before their faces. It was 
plain that the Moore was beginning to settle with the sea pouring 
over the sides of the excursion boat and into the open door of the 
fireroom. There were hoarse cries from below and a great cloud 
of steam rose from below, enveloping those running about or 
struggling with one another on the deck. The cry of "Fire" did not 
tend to make matters any better and a panic was soon in full swing. 
Where the majority of the passengers on the Moore might have 
remained safely on deck until rescued in the face of the slow settling 
of the steamer on the rocks, the cry of fire caused the majority to 
lose their heads entirely and several of the fishermen jumped over- 
board into the bay. There was a wild scramble for the life- 
preservers as the mate of the Moore reported, after a dash into 
the hold, that the steamboat was taking water rapidly. The life- 
preservers were torn from their chests and fastenings, causing many 
of them to be destroyed in the fights that ensued for their posses- 
sion by the maddened and panic-stricken excursionists. Some of the 
passengers rushed to the life-rafts and others got into the life-boats 
before they were unfastened and made ready for lowering. Captain 
Morrell did everything to stem the tide of panic, calling on the ex- 
cursionists to be men, but his words were wasted, although he assured 
all oh the deck that the Moore could sink only a few inches more 
and that there was no chance of her going beneath the surface. 
Some of the passengers were restored to reason by the coolness of 
Captain Morrell but those who had leaped overboard were in a bad 
way. Then those still on board moved to the stern in a body, caus- 
ing the Moore to settle further by the stern and a new panic seized 
those who had intended following Captain Morrell's advice and re- 
main quietly on deck. In a few moments the rail on the after deck 
was awash and only the Moore's bow remained out of water. Finally 
a life-boat was lowered and manned by the Moore's crew was sent 
for help and a dory also was put over safely with two officers who 
had orders to row to Sandy Hook and telegraph to New York for 
help. 



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While the telegraph instrument was ticking its call for assist- 
ance help came to the sorely-pressed complement on the Moore in 
the shape of the pilot boat No. 6, the Walter Adams. She was 
bound up the bay when the accident to the excursion boat occurred, 
having just been relieved from "station duty" and was bringing 
home the pilots who had been left aboard after a week's absence 
from home. 

Besides Captain Hennessey and his crew there were on board 
the Walter Adams : Pilots Clarence Nichols, Henry Seguine, Thomas 
Burritt, Edward Earl, N. A. Wall, George Cramer, James Sayles, 
William Ferry, Andrew Anderson and Frank van Pelt. The pilot 
boat was coming in slowly through the channel. When she was off 
the south end of Romer Shoals the fog suddenly lifted a bit and 
Captain Moore saw the Moore on the shoal. At the same time those 
on the Moore saw the pilot boat, with her identifying number, and 
gave a mighty cheer. Captain Hennessey headed his boat directly 
for the Moore and the pilots prepared for the work of rescue, clear- 
ing their life-boats as the Adams ran as close in to the wreck as 
possible. The life-boats on the Adams were lowered and manned 
by the pilots just as the two remaining life-boats on the Moore 
were lowered, with a mad rush on the part of the excursionists to 
get into them. Fights started as men fought for preference in 
getting into the life-boats and finally the life-boats were capsized 
when dozens of the fishermen jumped into the boats at once. When 
the first of the pilot boat's yawls arrived alongside the Moore sev- 
eral of those who had been struggling about in the water were fished 
out. Then, when the yawl came under the Moore's rail several of 
the excursionists prepared to jump into the pilot rescue craft. Pilot 
Wall kept his yawl back, saying that the pilots would save all hands 
provided the passengers kept their heads. As many as could com- 
fortably and safely be taken into the yawl were transferred to the 
Adams and then the yawl came back for another load, the two life- 
boats from the Adams alternating in the work of rescue. Seven to 
nine men were carried on each trip, so that the work of transferring 
the 150 excursionists and the crew of the Moore took several hours 
to accomplish. But it was done without accident, the last man to 
leave the ship with Captain Morrell and his mate, who had, in the 
meantime, returned from Sandy Hook in the Moore's yawl, being an 
accordeon player who had been engaged to furnish the music for 
the fishermen on their excursion and who kept playing "She may 
have seen better days," as the last of the rescued were taken off the 
Moore. As the player himself was being transferred into the rescue 
yawl he sang "Say au revoir but not good-bye." 



— 33 — 







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On both occasions the pilots had come on the spot at the psy- 
chological moment, as they had, eleven years before, come upon the 
Oregon, wrecked within sight of land and when the pilots rescued 
seven hundred passengers and crew of that ill-fated steamship and 
brought them safely into the harbor on the valiant little Phantom 
which pilot boat, two years later, met her own doom in the great 
blizzard of 1888, with the loss of six of her brave company. William 
O. Inglis, a reporter on the New York World, vividly described, at 
the time, the terrors of that blizzard as experienced on a pilot boat, 
tense hours when the brave hearts who had saved the lives of so 
many of their fellows found themselves without rescuers and were 
either cast ashore or sent down into the dark waters during those 
fearsome days at sea. 

The Oregon disaster was peculiar in that a new, staunch and, 
at that time, modern steamship was run down and scuttled by a 
disreputable coal schooner. The Oregon, of the Cunard Line, was 
but two years old and had, during her brief career, broken several 
of the records for fast transatlantic traveling when she went to her 
doom off Fire Island in March, 1886. The catastrophe occurred 
before daybreak. Mortally hurt, the Oregon tried to make shoal 
water but began to sink before she could be beached. The pas- 
sengers put off in boats, in a turbulent sea, and would have fared 
badly but for the timely arrival of the Phantom, with its company 
of hardy pilots. Every inch of deck room on the little pilot boat 
was jammed full with disheartened passengers and crew of the ill- 
fated Oregon, who had reason to be thankful, however, for the alert- 
ness of the Sandy Hook pilots and the promptness with which the 
intrepid little Phantom could be maneuvred and brought to them 
as a rescue boat. That none were lost in this lamentable accident 
was due solely to the pilots, a fact that w r as fully attested at the 
time and which received the fullest recognition from shipping men 
and the government. 

Two other rescues stand out in the long list of sea disasters in 
which the Sandy Hook pilots were able to give succor to those who 
fell victims to the hazards of the sea. Old mariners still vividly 
recollect the work done by the pilot boat Edward Cooper when she 
came upon the Thingvalia liner Island, helpless with a lost rudder 
off the Grand Banks. The Island had a large passenger complement 
and a heavy sea was running. The pilots on the Edward Cooper 
went into quick consultation and it was decided that the only way in 
which they could assist the crippled liner was to have the Edward 
Cooper act as rudder for the Island. Steel cables were passed astern 



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to the pilot boat, fastened to her bits, and then the journey to 
Sandy Hook was taken up, the Island proceeding under her own 
steam with the pilot boat tugging behind, acting as a sort of drag 
on her stern and thus making it possible for the Thingvalia liner to 
steer a definite and safe course. 

Likewise did the Jesse Carrl, cruising about well outside the Hook, 
come upon the German bark Erna when that sailing craft was on 
the point of foundering. Heavy seas were piling over her decks, 
which were made untenable by the shifting of her cargo, and the 
bark was in sore straits indeed. The pilots on the Carrl launched 
a yawl, got a line from the wallowing bark, and started to tow the 
unwieldy cripple towards Sandy Hook, a distance of some fifty 
miles. As the little pilot boat and her helpless charge were nearing 
the Hook a great sea suddenly struck the Erna and turned her 
over. It was then that quick work had to be done by the pilots, 
who put over two yawls and rescued the crew of the German ship, 
which became a total loss. 

The rescues effected by the pilots outside of their work as pilots 
were without number, and hundreds of fishermen, professional and 
amateur, owed their lives to the promptness and bravery of the men 
who, presumably, were stationed at Sandy Hook and beyond only 
for the very commercial purpose of piloting incoming ships into the 
harbor and piloting outwardbound ships safely past the treacherous 
shoal waters off Sandy Hook and inside the lower bay. 



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THE TOLL IN THE SIXTIES 

MANY of the pilot fleet went ashore on the beaches of New 
Jersey and Long Island and as several were pulled off and re- 
placed in the service, it is difficult to enumerate the total of 
the vessels thus wrecked and abandoned since 1858. The Virginia 
went ashore near Rockaway shoals, in the dense fog in 1860. The 
Edwin Forrest was lost on Fire Island beach, in 1862, and the W. J. 
Romer struck a sunken wreck in 1863. The William Bell, as before 
related, was captured and burnt by the Confederate privateer Talla- 
hassee in 1864, and another pilot boat by the same name went ashore 
off Amagansett during a gale and snow storm, in 1867. The Fav- 
orite and the George Steers were wrecked in 1865. 

The period immediately following the close of the Civil War was 
quite as disastrous for the brave men of Sandy Hook as the earlier 
days, as far as the destruction of their craft and the loss of brave lives 
was concerned. Pilot boat upon pilot boat had to be built to replace 
those sent to the bottom either through the great gales that over- 
took the Sandy Hook men in the pursuit of their strenuous vocation 
or through accidents of navigation. 

In 1866, two days after Christmas, Pilot John Fredell boarded 
the brigantine Chris tiania to bring her into port when the sailing 
vessel Avas rammed and sunk by the outgoing steamer North Amer- 
ica, six miles east off Sandy Hook. All hands on the brigantine 
were lost and it was not until seven months after the fatality oc- 
curred that the fate of Pilot Fredell became known. The North 
America, returning from her cruise overseas on a visit to New York 
harbor, reported the accident. Those were the days without wire- 
less and, as there had been no other vessel in the vicinity when the 
crash between the North America and Christiania occurred, there 
was no way of communicating the news of the catastrophe to these 
shores. 

Twenty years before, in February, 1846, Thomas Freeborne. 
having boarded the ship John Minturn, went ashore with that vessel 
in a gale that came up when fourteen of the crew were frozen to 
death, as well as the New York pilot. Freeborne on that occasion 
is recorded as having given his coat to the wife of the captain of 
the Minturn, thus bringing about his own end in a most unselfish 
manner. On the highest hill in Greenwood Cemetery, in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., there stands a monument to Thomas Freeborne, erected by 
the citizens of Brooklyn of those days, as a testimonial to the self- 
sacrifice of this Sandy Hook pilot. 

The G. W. Blunt was lost on the Long Island shore about thirty 
miles from Sandy Hook lightvessel, in 1875. The Caprice, that had 
been raised after having been run down in the Narrows, foundered 

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off Barnegat, in 1878. The \V. II. Aspinwall was lost in 1880, and 
tlii' Francis Perkins struck a wreck on Barneffat shoals in a gale 
and snow storm, in 1887. In the blizzard of March, 1888, the 
Phantom and the Enchantress were lost at sea and the W. II. Star- 
buck ran into the steamship Japanese — one of the few pilot boats 
to take the offensive in an accident — and was all but wrecked. The 
Edmund Blunt and the Edward F. Williams, as well as the W. W. 
Storey dragged their anchors and drifted ashore at Sandy Hook 
together with the Edward Cooper and the Centennial were aban- 
doned in the Horseshoe, after ice jams had sent them ashore during 
the blizzard of March, 1888. It was during the great blizzard that 
the pilot boats Enchantress and Phantom, both of which had done 
splendid work time and again in the saving of lives were lost and 
were never heard from again. The Enchantress had a narrow 
escape in 1884. That was talked about in the cabins for many a 
year. She was weathering a gale off the Highlands and was under 
a double-reefed mainsail and the head of the jib. While tacking 
near the shore she missed stays, became unmanageable and ran into 
the schooner Sarah & Lucy, that was anchored in the lee of the land. 
Believing that the pilot boat would sink, the two pilots and five 
men that were on board leaped to the deck of the schooner. At that 
minute the wind struck the pilot boat's mainsail, the sheet of which 
was fast, and she forged away from the schooner, headed out to 
sea and disappeared in the darkness without a soul on board. The 
next day the schooner brought the men to the city. The same day 
the skipper of the fishing schooner Daboll saw a strange vessel beat- 
ing about wildly approximately fifteen miles south of Squam. He 
ran down to her, recognized her and thought something serious had 
happened on board. He kept close to her until she ran into the 
wind, when he boarded her and brought her to the city. The dam- 
age to the Enchantress was slight and the pilots who had abandoned 
her were greatly surprised when they sighted her coming up the 
bav. 



— 39 






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THRILLINg INCIDENTS 

NOT only did the Sandy Hook pilots win fame through their 
bringing into or taking out of the harbor of New York the 
gicat sailing and steam ships plying between America's great- 
est seaport and the ports of the world, but there are innumerable 
instances where the Sandy Hook men played the parts of good Sa- 
maritans and life-savers. That there was much sentiment in the pro- 
fession of piloting may be understood when the case of Pilot "Al" 
Dexter is cited. Dexter was one of the two pilots saved from the 
pilot boat James Gordon Bennett, when that craft was cut in two 
and sunk by the Hamburg-American Line's Atlas steamer Alene, on 
August 17, 1901, and three pilots and a steward lost their lives. It 
was not> long after his dead mates had been buried before Dexter, 
unable to drive the harrowing sight of his drowning comrades from 
his memory, requested the Pilot Commissioners to accept his 
resignation. 

The disaster to the James Gordon Bennett is one of the most har- 
rowing in the annals of the New York pilot service. J. F. Hopkins, 
President of the New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots Association, is still 
here to tell the story of this graphic occurrence. He swam around 
for several hours after the Hamburg boat had cut down the pilot 
boat, saw some of the luckless members of the pilot boat's crew 
drown under his very eyes, and was himself saved only because lie 
kept floating until finally picked up by a rescue boat that happened 
to go back to the actual spot of the disaster, although believing 
that the place of the collision and sinking was half a mile farther 
along because the Alene had carried the wreckage of the rammed 
James Gordon Bennett fully half a mile by the force of the blow and 
her own speed. 

Incidentally it might be recorded right here that Frank P. Van 
Pelt, President of the New York Sandy Hook Pilots Association, 
and chairman of the executive committee of the two combind asso- 
ciations, also went through a number of accidents and disasters, and 
had several perilous adventures during his pilot service. On the 
pilot boat Isaac Webb No. 8 he was shipwrecked on the Rhode Island 
coast, where the boat became a total loss. He was washed over- 
board from Columbia No. 8, being unconscious for four hours, and 
he was on the Enchantress when that pilot boat collided with a 
schooner off Sandy Hook. When the steamer Santiago struck and 
sank the pilot boat J. F. Loubat No. 16 Captain Van Pelt was one 
of those rescued with difficulty. The two presidents, therefore, hold 
their positions by reason of severe and strenuous duties, well per- 
formed, and both have the unqualified esteem of every New York and 
New Jersey pilot in the service today. 

— 41 — 



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On tlie evening of September 29, 1901, Thomas F. Murphy, who 
had been a pilot since the late '50s, took his turn at the rail when 
the steamship Allianca came up near the lightvessel and stopped for 
a pilot. Murphy had complained that he was not feeling well, and 
some of his fellow pilots had urged him to get into a bunk and skip 
his turn on duty. But the veteran was obdurate and insisted that he 
would stick to the rules. He brought the Allianca to a safe anchor- 
age off Quarantine that same night, and then went to a stateroom 
for rest. He never left the ship alive, and the next morning his body 
was taken ashore and to his home in Brooklyn. 

Thomas Shields, for twenty-seven years a pilot, left the steam- 
ship Talisman outside of Sandy Hook and got safely into the yawl 
that was to take him on board the pilot boat New York on the 
afternoon of December 14, 1907. A stiff gale was blowing at the 
time, and the veteran navigator had been chilled to the bone on the 
bridge of the freight steamer which he had seen safely past the 
Hook. A sea filled the yawl, and a second sea capsized her as she 
was nearing the New York, which was lying to windward of the 
outgoing steamer. The three men in the yawl including Pilot Shields, 
with the two apprentices handling the oars, were thrown into the sea. 
All caught lines thrown to them from the New York except Shields, 
who was too much hampered by heavy clothing and the thorough 
chilling he had been subjected to on the Talisman's bridge, and who 
could not move to save himself. He was lost notwithstanding the 
superhuman efforts that were made to save him. 

Another who sacrificed his life in the course of his duty was 
James H. Van Pelt whose father, also a Sandy Hook pilot, had 
also been drowned on duty. James H. was a cousin of Frank P. 
Van Pelt, now President of the New York Sandy Hook Pilots Asso- 
ciation. The younger Van Pelt was struck on the head by the gun- 
wale of the yawl that was placing him on board a tank steamer on 
Sept 19, 1915, and was dead when his limp body was tenderly lifted 
back into the yawl. The fatality in his case happened just before 
dawn, and was due to the darkness that prevailed when the veteran 
attempted to board the incoming oil-carrier. 






T7 



— 42 



THE VOMER'S LONG VOYAGE 

IN THE annals of the piloting activities in New York Harbor 
there is probably no better illustration of the seaworthiness of the 

pilot boats used by the brave guides around Sandy Hook than the 
story of the trans-Atlantic voyage of the William J. Homer in Feb- 
ruary, 1846. There was a lot of excitement in New York just before 
February 6, of that year, when it became known that the Romer, 
a seventy-foot sail craft, was to set sail for Cork. The pilot boat, 
commanded by Captain James McGuire, as navigator; John R. 
Wilkes, mate; James Connor, second mate; both of them Sandy 
Hook pilots; Marshall Green, cook and steward; George Colton, 
James McLeslie and Edward Fryes, seamen; and James E. Johnson, 
boatkeeper and apprentice pilot, a cousin of Josiah Johnson, for 
many years a Sandy Hook pilot. There were two passengers on 
board the Romer, one of them an attache of the British Legation 
at Washington and the other a special agent of the State Depart- 
ment. Extracts from the log of this eventful voyage of the Romer 
form a prized souvenir among the records of the Sandy Hook pilots. 
Says the log : 

"February 6, 1846. As we passed out Sandy Hook the big 
packet ship Patrick Henry was just astern of us and we hoped we 
might beat her on the run across. The wind was strong N.N.W. 

"12th. Experienced our first setback in a strong easterly gale. 
Hove-to under a reefed main storm try-sail. Shipped a sea which 
carried the binnacle overboard. Blowing a hurricane and our 
chances on keeping afloat slim. Gale abated, wind shifted to west, 
made sail the third day. 

"18th. Shipped a heavy sea which tore away part of cockpit. 
Running before it with great danger of being 'pooped' or broach- 
ing to. Here is where the Patrick Henry is getting the better of 
us. 

"20th. Lay-to with a drag out, blowing a hurricane and a tre- 
mendous sea running. 

"22nd. Just before noon lashed the captain to the mainmast, 
where he succeeded in getting the sun for the first time in several 
days. Lat. 43.28 passed a bark under close reefs heading west. 

* "24th. While laying-to about 7 :30 P. M. a squall from the N.W. 
struck us and buried the little craft to the hatches. For a few 
minutes she hesitated to right or remain over. When she did right 
one big green sea enveloped her but she shook it off. A little later 
it moderated, and in wearing ship a heavy sea "pooped" her, nearly 
washing the man at the wheel overboard. Then she broached to 
and we thought that was the end of the Romer, but it wasn't to be. 

— 43 — 



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During this gale we lost our drag with sixty fathoms of hawser, 
the square-sail boom and yards and two pigs of iron attached. 

"27th. On the afternoon of this day the gale of three days 
subsided and with a fair wind cracking on we soon forgot past 
dangers, while the little craft skimmed the dark waters like a stormy 
petrel on our course to the eastward. 

"March 1. We passed and spoke the packet ship St. Patrick 
from Liverpool for New York, the second vessel seen on the passage. 

"4th. For the first time during the voyage a dry spot was visible 
on the deck. 

"6th. At 4:30 P. M. made the Skelly Rocks bearing N.N.E. 
dist. 18 miles and at 11 P. M. made Cape Clear light 16 miles 
distant. 

"7th. At 9 P. M. pilot boarded us. and took the Romer into the 
harbor of Cork, three days after the Patrick Henry arrived at 
Queenstown, after a voyage across the Atlantic that could not have 
been more tempestuous, but the Romer survived it." 

It is interesting to note that the valiant little pilot boat turned' 
about exactly six days after arriving at Cork and left that port on 
March 13, regardless of the ominous date, for New York. On the 
return she took the southern course, reducing her time of passage 
two days, making the distance from Cork to New York in exactly 
twenty-eight uneventful days. It was the Romer that blazed the 
way, 1846, for the larger and more famous America, in 1851. Both 
boats were built on pilot-boat models and the America, challenger 
for the cup that has remained with us ever since, was navigated by 
Captain "Dick" Brown, also an experienced Sandy Hooker. The 
Romer, after making her famous round trip, resumed her work as 
a pilot boat and continued in that capacity for many years. 



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$£MERIC$£ S&tILE<D BY &£ PILOT 

A FAIRLY good illustration of the Sandy Hook pilot's expert- 
ness in navigation is the record of Captain ""Dick" Brown, 
one of the old school pilots, whose fame spread all over the 
world when he- took the yacht America overseas to bring back the 
cup that has remained as the America Cup throughout the years 
since August 22, 18.51. There are no longer those alive who knew 
Captain Dick. Quoting from the New York Tribune some years 
back, just before the Valkyrie and Vigilant competed for the America 
Cup, with the usual result, we read that "a pilot's career affords 
valuable practice for developing sailing talent.'" The constant and 
varied handling of miscellaneous craft is productive of skill not to be 
otherwise obtained. The pilot thus becomes a ready sailing master 
of either fore-and-aft or square-rigged vessels. But few remain of 
the old-school pilots who, in former times, had to guide nearly every 
vessel between the "Hook" and clear to the wharf, aided only by 
wind and sails. Latter day pilots are necessarily prime sailors but 
their comparative duties are considerably modified by the better sys- 
tem of lights and other warning devices and the help of powerful 
sea-going steam tugs. 

"Brief intercourse with old-time pilots soon discloses the senti- 
ment which prevails among them for the man who obtained great 
fame while a member of their fraternity. The elder pilots affection- 
ately recall his constant good nature, untiring generosity and also 
the modest estimation he placed upon his vast skill. The writer (Cap- 
tain Summers, the famous yachting expert), who knew him long 
as a citizen and neighbor, never heard him allude to his great achieve- 
ment over the English yachts with the least emphasis. He would 
converse quietly on the subject, but his remarks were chiefly brief 
responses to questions, and his descriptions were usually summed 
up in : 'But, you see, we had a good boat.' He was, of course, per- 
sonally gratified with his victory but in his sturdy, off-hand way, 
he seemed specially pleased because he had taken part in a success 
which so delighted his countrymen. 

"According to those who were professionally associated with 
Captain Brown, he had a marked peculiarity of close supervision 
of details on shipboard on all occasions. The least appurtenance of 
a vessel in his charge had to be promptly put and kept in working 
condition, while soundness of standing rigging, freedom of running 
gear, intact sails, trustworthy spars and appropriate distribution of 
ballast were always considered on a strict principle of 'better be 
sure than sorry.' Many incidents of his steadiness of nerve and 
ingenious resources in overcoming adverse contingencies in a con- 

— 47 — 





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test are yet spoken of by the diminished group who were his early 
companions and had the opportunity to witness his exploits during 
his life. It was his custom to personally select every man for his 
racing crews and the best sailors were always ready to accompany 
the kindly, unostentatious chief who, if it became necessary, would 
throw off his coat and lend a hand to practically explain his 
maneuvre." Such was the estimate of Captain Summers of one of 
the best-known Sandy Hook pilots of his day and there is no 
question but many others of the valiant Sandy Hook complement 
are equally expert navigators. 

Captain Dick Brown, by the way, followed his profession as 
Sandy Hook pilot for many years following his return with the 
America. He died as the result of exposure on a trip off Sandy 
Hook when his feet became badly frost-bitten, causing an infection 
which proved fatal to the famous old navigator. 

An interesting account of the perils of the pilots' work is that 
in the old New York Sun, back in June, 1896, some six months after 
the old sail pilot boats were retired and the new system of steam 
pilotage was inaugurated at this port. Twenty-four pilot boats 
were discarded during the winter of 1895-1896, some of them being 
converted into fishing boats, others into yachts. Half a dozen of 
the old-time sailing boats were retained for cruising off the New 
Jersey Coast as far as Barnegat and along the Long Island coast as 
far as Fire Island but these, also, were withdrawn within a year or 
so after the fast steam pilot boats were put in commission. The 
days of tussles with cross seas and gales passed with the passing of 
the old sail boats for the Sandy Hook men and the exposure to cold, 
sleet and snow was greatly minimized when the steam pilot boat was 
assigned to a station close to the Scotland lightvessel. At the ap- 
proach of a storm it was the practice of the old sail boats cruising 
close inshore to run in behind Sandy Hook and find a safe harbor 
except when the conditions are similar to those of the blizzard in 
March, 1888, when three pilot boats drifted ashore on Sandy Hook 
beach and two were abandoned in the ice in the Horseshoe. Each 
pilot takes his turn at the service now and is on board a pilot boat, 
cruising on the stations, not much longer than three days. The off- 
shore service years ago sometimes compelled a boat to be at sea two 
weeks, the service requiring staunch, seagoing vessels, that became 
interesting features in the annals of this port. 



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48 — 




JAMES D. M. BEEBE 

Son of Theopholis Beebe, one of the first New Jersey pilots. Captain 
Beebe served 55 years as a Sandy Hook pilot 




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FOU ( NDE c RI ( NG OF THE EDWARD 

COOPER 

1[KE many another pilot boat the Edward Cooper No. 20, after 
j figuring in the work of salvage and rescue for some years, fell 
victim to the sea's fury. Her doom came, strangely enough, 
on a Christmas morning, a morning that was far from being one 
of "peace on earth" for the intrepid souls who were outside Sandy 
Hook in the course of their sworn duty on December 25, 1892. 
The Edward Cooper had been out a week, cruising far out to sea, 
waiting for incoming ships. A southwest gale had been raging all 
night when, at five o'clock in the morning, Pilots Thomas Marks 
and John Hammer decided that they had been lying to in the gale, 
on the starboard tack, long enough. They waited for the sea to 
moderate sufficiently so that they might wear around to the port 
tack. 

It was while they were trying to get into a more favorable posi- 
tion with the gale that the wind suddenly shifted to the northwest 
and when those on the Edward Cooper made frantic efforts to steady 
her and hold her to the gale a big sea came over the starboard quar- 
ter, with the trim pilot boat a practical submarine as the waters 
rushed over her deck. The main boom was carried away by the tre- 
mendous smash of the sea, breaking the mainmast off at the deck. 
The fallen stick was held to the boat by the steel cables that con- 
nected it with the forestay and in the great sea that was running, 
with the pilot boat out of all control, the task of lashing the broken 
mast and preventing it from doing further damage to the boat as 
well as endangering those on board, was no easy matter. 

All hands — there Mere nine men on the Edward Cooper, includ- 
ing the two pilots — worked like Trojans to hold the fallen mast 
in place, and then to wear around on the port tack, which would 
have eased the dismantled pilot boat and given those on board some 
measure of control. But the fallen mainmast broke away from its 
make-shift lashings and, swinging suddenly around, cut the foremast 
off ten feet from the deck. 

By dint of superhuman effort, their clothes encrusted in ice, as 
was the deck and every particle of wreckage of the broken masts and 
stays, those on the Edward Cooper finally succeeded in bringing the 
pilot boat around to the port tack and in clearing away some of the 
wreckage that was threatening every moment to swamp the Sandy 
Hook boat. First the thick layer of ice had to be chopped away, 
the ice forming almost as quickly as it was removed, and then the 
heavy timbers and rigging stays had to be cut through. This, with 
the deck so slippery that every moment the workers were at their 
task threatened death, was hard and desperate work. 

— 51 — 



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Not one of the nine could make a move towards attracting at- 
tention of a passing vessel if, indeed, they could have attracted one, 
for snow was falling so heavily that all about the struggling pilot 
boat crew seemed to be an impenetrable fog. So the two pilots and 
the seven men of the Edward Cooper's crew labored at the wreckage, 
out of which they finally fashioned a drag, or a sort of sea anchor, 
which tended to hold the derelict little schooner more steadily in the 
heavy sea. 

Another danger that threatened the pilot boat's complement was 
the foundering of the little vessel by reason of the great hole that 
had been made in her deck, clean down to the keel, as the foremast 
came tumbling down. Everything was filled with salt water and 
quickly encrusted with ice. There was not a drop of water to drink 
on board that had not been contaminated by the sea and the same 
held good with the provisions. 

For two hours — the longest two hours in the life of Captain 
Marks, who is still on active pilot duty — those on the Edward 
Cooper strove to keep their craft afloat, hoping that some vessel 
might, after the storm subsided, come their way and effect a rescue. 
At the end of those two hours every man on board was at the point 
of collapse from exhaustion. None could move about except with 
the greatest difficulty, owing both to the chilling grip of their water- 
soaked clothes and the weight of the encrusting ice over their outer 
garments. 

Then, at seven o'clock, crime a sudden rift in the snowstorm. 
As the nine men looked up from their work of self-preservation on 
the Edward Cooper's deck, they saw not half a mile away, the 
steamship Marengo, a freighter, bound for England. Those on the 
Wilson Line vessel saw the Edward Cooper as quickly as those on 
the Edward Cooper sighted the Marengo. The Marengo's captain 
"spoke," the derelict pilot boat at once, setting his signals to show 
that he was preparing to come to the pilot boat's rescue without 
delay. Signalling as best they could, the pilots told the Marengo's 
commander, that the Edward Cooper's two life-boats were out of 
commission. One had been smashed completely while the other, the 
transfer yawl, had been cracked in several places by the seas that 
broke on deck and by the swinging about of the derelict masts. 

The Marengo lowered a life-boat with a volunteer crew which 
managed to get away and, after several hours' work, transferred 
seven of the Edward Cooper's company to the Wilson liner. Cap- 
tain Marks and a sailor were left on the Edward Cooper after the 
second and last trip of the Marengo's life-boat, when the snowstorm 
set in again as dense as ever and all sight of the Marengo from the 



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pilot's boats deck and of the Edward Cooper from the bridge of 
the Marengo was lost. 

Pilot Marks feared that, before the Marengo's boat could make 
another trip and take him and his sailor companion off the Cooper, 
the pilot boat would founder, as she was settling lower and lower in 
the water. So he and the sailor plugged up the cracks in the dam- 
aged yawl as best they could with what offered at hand in the way 
of rags with which to do the plugging, and managed to get the 
damaged yawl away from the plunging wreck. First, however, they 
poured kerosene over a portion of the dismantled Cooper and set 
fire to her — a brave thing in itself for they were not then sure that 
the yawl would not be smashed against the wreck and make it nec- 
sary for them to cling longer to the derelict schooner. 

But the yawl got away safely and Marks and the sailor rowed as 
they had never rowed before and probably never will row again. 
Another rift in the storm and they were able to make their way to 
the Marengo, but it took nearly an hour of maneuvering before the 
yawl could be brought alongside the steamship without bringing 
her up with a smash that would send Pilot Marks and his companion 
to their doom. The two last survivors of the Edward Cooper had 
hardly gripped the rope ladder that hung over the Marengo's side 
when the cracked and crushed yawl they had used sank from sight, 
almost under their feet. 

It is characteristic of the pilot's viewpoint that the one out- 
standing feature, in the minds of the Edward Cooper's survivors, of 
this particular Christmas Day's frightful experience, was not the 
foundering of the Edward Cooper and the narrow escape from death 
of all of her company, but the fact that it was Christmas Day and 
that they did not miss their Christmas dinner! They enjoyed that 
meal on the Marengo, where they were honored guests, of course. 
To still further carry out their viewpoint of the whole affair, they 
told afterwards how they had been transferred one week later, on 
New Year's Day morning, to the tank steamer La Campagne, bound 
for New York, on which vessel they had their New Year's Day din- 
ner so that, notwithstanding the slight incident of Christmas morn- 
ing, they had not missed their holiday meals. It is this viewpoint 
that, perhaps, best illustrates the character of the Sandy Hook pilot. 
Dangers are nothing to him, narrow escapes may be discounted as 
much as you like, but the missing of a Thanksgiving, Christmas or 
New Year's dinner in the safety of his home or the safety of some 
vessel, be that a pilot boat or steamship, is something really worth 
being entered in life's log! 



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VOICES FROM THE PAST 

TIME and again a voice speaks as if from the grave in the history 
of the Sandy Hook pilots and their splendid fleet of little 
sailers before the days of steam pilotage. In 1873 Abraham 
Jones, Josiah Johnson, Frank Penay and Louis Samson built the 
Edmund Blunt No. 2, which did her full share of the work of piloting 
during the intervening years between her launching and the great 
blizzard in 1888. Then she went ashore in the blinding snowstorm of 
March, that year, on the Long Island coast. Abraham Jones had 
been a pilot at Sandy Hook since 1851 and was in the ill-fated 
Columbia when that pilot craft was cut in two by a schooner in the 
late sixties. With Johnson, Penay and Samson, he built the Edmund 
Blunt and remained in her until his death in 1881. The Blunt, upon 
the advent of steam in the pilot service, was sold along with most 
of the other sail pilot boats. A few months ago Chauncev H. 
Jones, son of the former veteran Sandy Hook pilot, in making a 
pleasure trip to the West Indies, came upon the little craft upon 
which his father had cruised the waters outside of Sandv Hook. The 
former Edmund Blunt is now doing ferry duty between several of the 
smaller islands of the West Indies group, a motor having been 
placed in her since she was purchased out of the New York pilot 
service. She appeared as staunch as when the elder Jones sailed in 
her during the old piloting days and undoubtedly will, barring acci- 
dent, do long service in her foreign surroundings. 

Captain "Dick" Brown who, as is told elsewhere in this history, 
was picked from the roster of the Sandy Hook pilots to sail the 
yacht American to victory in the first cup challenge race at Cowes, 
received a fine pair of marine glasses from Queen Victoria about a 
week after the historic event in 1851, upon the occasion of a five- 
hour sail on the America enjoyed by the Queen, the late King 
Edward (then Prince of Wales) and a favorite lady-in-waiting to 
the Queen. This relic of the first America Cup race is the prop- 
erty of a New Yorker, R. A. L. Brackett, Captain Brown's son-in- 
law. The famous pilot who won the America cup for us used the 
glasses for a long time after his triumphant return from England, 
in his work as Sandy Hook pilot. 

After their retirement from pilot work the Sandy Hook pilots 
have seldom undertaken other activities, especially not activities on 
land. Old Nathan Wood, still alive and active today at eighty-six, 
made the cryptic remark to the writer that "a sailor can never 
make a good farmer." Old Mr. Wood tried it, so he knows. He 
Avent through all kinds of weather and all manner of accidents but 
was unable to stick to his job as pilot until he had done his full 

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duty, i.e., to bring the vessel under his care safely into port or 
safely out of it. But when, upon his retirement, he essayed the 
role of rustic on a quiet farm near Rutherford, New Jersey, he 
found he could not do his work at all after making the acquaintance 
of some poisoned ivy on his hand. Disgustedly he turned from his 
bucolic labors with the remark : "Give me seaweed instead of this 
land stuff. Seaweed never poisoned anybody." 

Occasionally, the pilots would play, but not often. Their play 
would take the form of racing their swift and graceful vessels in 
regattas of their own or as entries in such events along the Atlantic 
Coast. So it was that the pilot boat T. S. Negus No. 1 won a notable 
victory over her competitors at the famous Cape May Regatta in 
1873, one of the greatest local yacht racing events along our coast 
for schooners of the smaller class. 






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— 56 — 




NATHAN WOOD 

One of the oldest pilots in years and in point of service when he retired 

in 1917 at the age of 82 



WA<R SERVICE 

WHEN the United States declared war upon Spain, in 1898, 
President McKinley had at his disposal one hundred and 
fifty of the most experienced pilots on the Atlantic Coast as 
a patrol and piloting force for the American Navy. Of this total a 
large percentage represented the complete personnel of the New 
York and New Jersey Sandy Hook pilots. The steam pilot boat 
New York, then in service but a year or so, was promptly offered to 
the government by the Sandy Hook guides as a scout ship, with 
pilots hereabouts all of them eager to serve as government pilots or 
as scouts on the ships of the navy sent to Northern waters to watch 
the harbors and the unguarded coast stretches. Spain's efficiency 
as a naval power was not then so well known in the United States as 
it was after the battle of Manilla and there was much speculation 
as to how our extensive coast line and our numerous important At- 
lantic harbors were to be protected. The fact that Germany, for 
one, seemed anxious to assist the Spaniards by selling them some of 
her fastest merchantmen as commerce destroyers added to the gen- 
eral disquietude and the offer from the Atlantic Coast pilots in gen- 
eral and from the Sandy Hook pilots in particular came as a welcome 
message to the public as well as to the government. The declara- 
tion that was signed by the pilots and sent to President McKinley 
said: 

'"We, the undersigned New York pilots (the New Jersey pilots 
concurring), realizing the usefulness to the Navy of the United 
States our steam pilot boat New York would be in case of war with 
Spain, do hereby authorize our Executive Committee to request the 
New York Pilot Commissioners to offer to the United States such aid 
and assistance as our knowledge of the coast from Nantucket to 
the Capes of Virginia makes possible." 

Equally to the point were the resolutions adopted at the time by 
the Manhattan Harbor of the American Association of Masters and 
Pilots, which quoted from General Grant's statement that, without 
the assistance of the pilots, the Civil War "would have been con- 
tinued indefinitely" and that there was "no class of men who ren- 
dered better service or risked more than the licensed officers of steam 
vessels." In these resolutions General Grant was also quoted as 
having stated that "without the volunteer pilots it would have been 
impossible to have taken Belmont, Donelson, Memphis and Vicks- 
burg." 

Few realize the very great work that was done during the more 
recent world war by the men of the Sandy Hook pilot boats, those 
skilled seamen and navigators, who, despite the menace of German 
submarines along our shores, kept the sea clear far off Ambrose 

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Channel and safety brought our ships into port, says ;i writer 
in the New York Evening World, of March 9,% 1919. It was their 
duty to guide all troop-laden transports and dynamite-laden mer- 
chantmen through the channels and out to sea, sometimes handling 
convoys of as many as sixty ships a day. Their work required an 
expert knowledge of the harbor and its constantly changing shoals. 
Throughout the war, when the customary lights could not be shown 
and the dozens of dynamite-laden ships, leaving port at night, 
crowding the channel like sheep, it was only the skill of the pilots 
that brought them through. A collison, any slight mishap, might 
have meant a repetition of the Halifax catastrophe. But the pilots 
knew their trade and there were no collisions. Far at sea the pilot 
boats keep their constant patrol. Their station is around the Am- 
brose Channel lightvcssel, four miles southeast of the Ambrose Chan- 
nel buoy No. 2, the offshore entrance to the channel. A pilot must 
be a cosmopolitan and must know a bit of every language, from low 
German to Chilian jargon. Every day he has a different ship and a 
different tongue. One day he will sip schnapps and eat smoerges- 
brod with the captain of a Norwegian tramp steamer while tomor- 
row his mess may be fried peppers, Bacardi rum, black Rio coffee 
and a long twist of Habana on a Spanish mail liner. For, where- 
ever he gor the pilot is always an honored guest. 

When the submarines were operating off the American coast and 
the great convoys were setting to sea weekly, the pilot boats kept 
on station, their lights extinguished (except running lights) and 
port holes closed and waited in the darkness offshore when only 
armed naval vessels, looking for raiders, dared to keep the seas. 

A curious — although nearly fatal — occurrence may be cited as 
showing the risks the pilots took during those war days. A yawl 
from the station pilot boat had put out in order to place a pilot on 
the incoming converted merchantman Ryndam, then used by the 
United States as an army transport, when those on the Ryndam, 
mistaking the yawl for a submarine, opened fire on the little open 
boat. By great good luck the shots went over the yawl and the 
pilot finally was able to make the Ryndam in safety. 







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SOME ITEMS FROM THE LOg 

FROM the logs of the steam pilot boats New York and New Jer- 
sey (the latter since lost) are taken a few random records of 
assistance rendered from time to time by the pilots and their 
boats to vessels and crews while in distress within the Sandy Hook 
cruising grounds since the reorganization of the pilotage system on 
December 1, 1895. Many of these records deal with pilot boats other 
than the New York and the New Jersey, but the logs were trans- 
ferred to the newer boats when these were placed in commission. 

The pilot boat Joseph Pulitzer, for instance, rescued part of the 
crew and some of the passengers of the schooner Georgiana Young, 
who had abandoned their ship after it had stranded in an easterly 
gale, on Roamer Shoal, and who were adrift in an open dory in 
the lower bay. That was in July, 1897, and in the same month the 
pilot boat Alexander M. Lawrence rescued those on the Virginia 
sloop Fawn, of which rescue note is made in another part of this 
history. 

A bit of Spanish War history is included in the phlegmatic 
paragraph in the pilot boat New York's log relating to the visit of 
the Spanish cruiser Yiscaya to New York Harbor on February 20, 
1898, which visit 'was intended by the Spaniards to duly impress 
Americans with the futility of going to war with Spain's mighty 
navy. "The Spanish cruiser Yiscaya," says the New York's log, 
"after being delayed outside the bar on account of thick weather, 
unable to proceed, was convoyed by pilot steamer New York in that 
the said New York proceeded ahead of the Yiscaya and successfully 
led her up to the Narrows, from where she proceeded unassisted to 
her anchorage." 

On September 21, of the same year, the New York "fell in with 
the brig Ora well to leeward off the Highlands, wind northeast, in- 
creasing. Put pilot aboard of her and towed said brig from her 
perilous position to windward, from where she could fetch to a safe 
anchorage." 

"February 26, 1899. Off Sandy Hook lightship, supplied Brit- 
ish steamship Fernfield, outward bound, with marine glasses" is an- 
other modest entry in the log of the New York and the next month 
the same pilot boat recorded that she had "assisted during the 
night the U. S. S. Clearwater through the Gedney Channel with the 
aid of our searchlight, the Gednev's lighted buoys being out." 

In April of the same year the New York's log records that it 
supplied the outgoing steamship Thomas Melville ' (British) with a 
sextant and on June 13, 1899, the New York records having taken 
on board from the pilot boat Hermann Oelrichs, the crew of the 

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German steamship Macedonia, which was sunk off Seabright, X. J., 
in collision with the steamship Hamilton and which crew had been 
rescued by the Oelrichs. 

The United States transport Meade got in trouble outside Sandy 
Hook on November 6, 1899, and one hundred passengers and crew- 
were taken off the transport and landed at Quarantine station by 
the New York. 

On the evening of February 1, 1901, an accident occurred on the 
British steamship Circassian Prince, outside Sandy Hook bar, 
whereby her chief engineer suffered the loss of an eye. The New 
York took off the Circassian Prince's captain as well as the injured 
engineer, conveyed them to Quarantine, where the engineer's injuries 
were dressed by the doctors, and then conveyed the two men back 
to the steamship outside the Hook, from where the Circassian Prince 
proceeded on her voyage. 

"At 1:35 P. M. (July 18, 1901) saw smoke issuing from the 
ship Commodore T. H. Allen," says the log of the New York. "We 
steamed alongside and found ship abandoned by her crew ; we put 
five pilots and one apprentice on board and took hawser to the ship 
which, in the meantime, had drifted ashore. When hawser parted 
we went alongside, at 2:45 P. M. and later pulled her off and an- 
chored her in Sandy Hook Bay, still burning. Pilot boat New York 
and several tugs kept pumping until 10:30 A. M. next day, when 
the fire was extinguished." 

The pilot boats Ambrose Snow and Washington effected two 
rescues on September 8 and September 16, 1903, respectively, when 
the crews of the naphtha launch Chief (eight men) and an unnamed 
sloop (two men and a woman) were taken on board in safety. The 
Chief had become disabled in the lower bay and the little sloop had 
dragged her anchor in Gravesend Bay, fouled the pilot boat when 
the Washington was trying to effect a rescue, and had been pounded 
to pieces against the Washington's side. 

Of much interest to those whose business or pleasure takes them 
to and fro past Sandy Hook is the significance attached to the odd 
and striking names by which many of the lightships, buoys, etc., are 
known. Among the several that are thus designated is the Scotland 
lightship, which was so named after the British steamship Scotland 
was wrecked after having been in collision with an American sailing 
ship, only part of whose crew was saved. After proceeding a little 
way into port, the Scotland sank in what is known as the Outer 
Middle. A lightship was placed over the wreck by the company that 
attempted and later did raise the sunken Britisher and when this was 



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accomplished the lightship was removed. Shipping interests peti- 
tioned the government to re-establish the lightship ;it this point and 
so came into being the Scotland lightship, named after the steamer 
that was sunk at that point many long years ago. Likewise came 
about the naming of Quickstep Buoy, near the West Bank, in the 
Lower Bay of New York Harbor. Many of the thousands of com 
muters and excursionists who pass the buoy during each year prob- 
ably think that the danger signal was named after a popular form 
of dance, particularly in vogue years ago. As a matter of fact, the 
buoy commemorates the sinking of the American bark Quickstep, 
after being run down by a British steamer outward bound. After the 
wreck of the bark was removed, a bell-buoy was placed on the spot 
to mark a shoal that had formed there and it has ever since then 
been called the Quickstep Buoy. 



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<R A CI<Ng FOR &£ SHIP 

IN the old days of sail, when each pilot boat operated independ- 
ently, there existed the keenest rivalry between the various pilot 
teams, or companies, as they were sometimes called. Each pilot 
boat was owned by a distinct group of pilots, some of the boats 
attached to the New York Sandy Hook pilot service and some to the 
New Jersey Sandy Hook pilot service. It was always a question 
who would get to the incoming vessel first, and then it remained with 
the captain of the ship to select his pilot boat — although the captain 
generally picked out the boat that had come under his lee ahead of 
the others. As a result of this condition of affairs many a hotly 
contested and thrilling race has been sailed off Sandy Hook with 
victory meaning but the chance to earn their daily bread for the 
victors. 

Typical of this feature in the daily life of the pilot of those days 
is the story of such a race in which the pilot boats Mary A. Wil- 
liams, William H. Bateman and Edmund Blunt competed for honors 
on a beautiful morning in May, 1890, as related by an eye witness. 

On this particular May morning the pilots out on cruising duty 
knew that several big ocean liners were nearing port and so the 
scouting was rather intense as a big ocean liner was a prize, from a 
material standpoint, well worth striving for. So, on board the Bate- 
man, Williams and the Blunt, the three boats that happened to be 
in the same general location, some 200 miles outside of Sandy Hook, 
everyone was on the qui rite for the sight of a sail or a puff of 
smoke on the horizon. No racing yachts ever were more ready for 
the dash over the line than were these three pilot boats. Not a 
stray coil of rope or equipment of any sort remained on deck and 
every sail was ready to be adjusted at an instant's notice from the 
pilot commanding each boat. 

At the rail stood the pilots on each of the three boats, binocu- 
lars in hand, sweeping the thin, wavy line that separated the sea 
from the sky on the horizon while the sun shone brightly on the 
ocean, with the sea still restless under the influence of the previous 
day's storm. A stiff breeze was blowing, which called for expert 
jockeying by the navigators on the three pilot boats so as to keep 
in a favorable position in the event of a sudden signal to start 
ahead. Taken all in all, no conditions could, from a weather stand- 
point, have been more perfect for a trial of speed and seamanship 
and, as later developments showed, it proved to be all of that. 

Towards nine o'clock the lookout on the Bateman shouted that 
he saw smoke, many miles away. There was a hurrying of sailors 
on the Bateman's deck and in a jiffy her sails spread to the breeze 
and the graceful schooner was under way. She had not moved for- 

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ward a yard, however, before the same activity was evidenced on the 
Williams and on the Blunt. Although the Bateman, known as a 
tremendously swift sailer, had a slight advantage in the matter of 
start, the three pilot boats practically got off on equal terms, their 
common goal the fitful puffs of smoke that blew with tantalizing 
uncertainty over the horizon, towards the southeast. 

From the moment that the three pilot craft got under full speed, 
their great masts bending under the weight of canvas caught by the 
breeze, it became a neck-and-neck race. Swiftly the trio of 
schooners cut gracefully through the sea, now rising with their bows 
far above the surface, then dipping into the trough only to rise 
again apparently more grimly determined than ever. As the contest 
was later described by the pilots competing in the race, it seemed 
as if the boats had become imbued with the importance of the 
struggle and each was striving to secure the lead, and hold it, quite 
as much as those on board who were guiding her. 

It was an hour after the smoke had been first seen from the 
Bateman that the pilots on the three pilot boats made out the iden- 
tity of the approaching vessel. She was the Rhein, a North German 
Lloyd ship, bound from Bremen to New York. As pilots cruised as 
far as 600 miles out of Sandy Hook in those days, there still 
remained the possibility that the race between the Blunt, Bateman 
and Williams might prove to have been in vain — for the Rhein 
might have picked up a pilot long before her smoke was made out 
from the Bateman and her two competitors. This contingency, 
however, did not prevent the navigators of the three pilot boats from 
making a try for the steamship and so they came, head-on towards 
the broad starboard of the Rhein, the wind from the northwest tip- 
ping the three schooners over on their starboard beams, with the 
brilliant sun high up in the eastern sky, forming a scene which, from 
the decks of the German steamship, must have been one of unusual 
beauty. In fact, one of the officers of the Rhein sketched the scene 
so effectively that he was able to give it with accurate detail to an 
artist ashore, later on, who in turn produced a picture that appears 
almost as flawless as a modem photograph. 

Inch by inch the Bateman forged ahead in the splendid contest 
that held those on the steamship spellbound. On each of the three 
pilot boats a pair of glasses held the Rhein's navigating bridge — for 
the sight of a possible confrere of those on the Bateman, Blunt and 
Williams which would mean the uselessness of striving for the German 
ship's patronage. On the liner even the captain stood enraptured by 
the wonderful spectacle of these swift schooner yachts striving for 
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Equal as the contest appeared to be from the deck of the Rhein, 
on the Williams and the Blunt they could more accurately visual- 
ize the situation and there was no doubt in the minds of the helms- 
men of those two boats that the Bateman either was the faster craft 
or was being handled just a trifle more daringly than either of the 
others. 

Finally the Rhein slowed down, which was the sure signal for 
those on the racing pilot boats that, as yet, the German had not 
taken on a pilot and that the prize would fall to one of the three 
little vessels that were racing to her side. 

On came the three racers, gliding like silvery things over the 
waves at times and at others dipping gracefully, yet fearfully, in the 
Avatery abysses between the mighty seas. 

Still in the lead, although by less than a dozen yards, the Bate- 
man's navigator at last raised his hand in the direction of the Rhein's 
bridge. Up came the left arm of the German's captain, with a mo- 
tion of the hand indicating that the Bateman pilot would be "taken 
on," and the race was over. Real sportsmen, however, were the de- 
feated crews of the Blunt and Williams. As the two boats wore 
off in a graceful semi-circle their crews gave three rousing cheers a? 
a tribute to the skill and daring that had won a hard fought and 
fairly-sailed victory. Such was the spirit of the craft. 



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PILOTS CARRIED ACROSS 

ORE so ill the old days than now, pilots were often carried 
across the ocean because very severe weather made it impos- 
sible either to locate the "station boats" from outgoing ships 
or to attempt a transfer. This held good for foreign pilots who were 
brought here, having been unable to leave ship when out of a foreign 
port and so made an involuntary pilgrimage to the United States. 
Many of the Sandy Hook men "went abroad" without notice or 
intent this way, the news of their involuntary journey being brought 
home by one of their fellows. And, in the old days, that meant a 
long absence from home. Ships took longer to make the round trip 
and a Sandy Hook pilot's absence from his home station, after being 
carried across the Atlantic, often was a matter of six weeks or more. 

The greater interest on this side of the Atlantic always lay, of 
course, in the foreign pilot who was carried across on the westward 
voyage out of a European port. Whenever such a thing came about 
the newcomer was heralded in the public prints for, as a general rule, 
it was the foreign pilot's first peep into America. The pilot would 
come as a guest of the ship's captain and go back with him the same 
way, remaining as the ship's guest during its stay in New York har- 
bor. Just how this would work in the case of a pilot unable to leave 
his ship when on a vessel destined for a distant port, not a regular 
transatlantic liner but a "tramp" freighter is not in the records. 
Sandy Hook pilots have, in many instances, been carried across on 
transatlantic liners but one has never, as far as the records show, 
been carried beyond the Sandy Hook lightship on a freighter bound 
for the other end of the earth. 

But being carried across the Atlantic ;>nd being thus forced to 
enjoy a vacation at the expense of the steamship company owning 
the vessel on which he was an involuntary passenger was, even with 
its loss of time, not one of the most severe hardships the Sandy Hook 
pilot could experience. On the way over and back again, as well as 
the time spent in the foreign port between the arrival and departure, 
the Sandy Hook pilot was the honored guest on board. Both in the 
old days, when the pilots worked in independent groups and today, 
when they pool their earnings of the combined New York and New 
Jersey Pilots Associations, such an involuntary absence would bring 
no personal money loss to the absentee, except that, in the old days, 
the particular independent group to which the absentee belonged 
would have one man less to work for that particular group and 
would, therefore, stand to lose some pilotage business. 

Speaking of being carried across, reminds the writer of an in- 
teresting incident that befell Captain George Oldmixon wherein he 
narrowly missed a trip to Southampton as the involuntary guest of 

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Captain Mills, commanding the S. S. Philadelphia of the American 
Line. 

On December 14, 1907, the same day that Theo. Shields lost his 
life as related elsewhere in this volume, Captain Oldmixon was tak- 
ing out the Philadelphia. A terrific southeast gale was blowing and 
the air was so filled with the driven snow that one could hardly see 
a boat's length ahead! except during those odd moments in a storm 
when everything seems to ease up for a spell to give the storm king 
a chance to get a fresh hold for a still fiercer blast. Going down 
Ambrose Channel the gale caught the ship so hard that great green 
seas repeatedly broke over her bows. It was one of the worst storms 
ever experienced off Sandy Hook. After getting his ship safely 
past the lightship out into the fairway of the sea, Captain Oldmixon 
began straining his eyes and sounding the ship's whistle for the New 
York — the pilot boat then on station duty — but in the thick 
weather he could not pick her up so after a time he resigned himself 
to an involuntary trip to Europe, and Captain Mills laid his course 
for England. A few miles further out, however, during one of the 
brief lulls in the storm, Captain Oldmixon sighted the New Jersey, 
a faint blur in the storm about half a mile to windward, which, un- 
known to him, was aiding the New York on station duty on account 
of the severity of the storm. Although the storm was still raging 
with unabated fury he ordered the Philadelphia hove to and signalled 
the New Jersey to take him off, much against the wishes and advice 
of Captain Mills, who told him it was suicidal to try it in such a 
storm. It proved to be quite a difficult matter for the New Jersey to 
maneuver into the proper position to effect the transfer but after 
a time the yawl put off from the pilot boat and safely reached the 
steamer's side. Donning a life preserver and fastening a quarter- 
mile heaving line about his waist at the earnest request of Captain 
Mills, Captain Oldmixon climbed over the ship's side into the bob- 
bing yawl and started for the New Jersey. After a half hour's 
nerve-straining battle with the waves the yawl's crew brought her, 
ice-covered and half-filled with water, safely under the New Jersey's 
lee. With a parting blast from the whistles of the two vessels, and a 
hearty hand-clasp from his shipmates aboard the New Jersey, an- 
other one of the many thrilling incidents in the life of a pilot was 
closed. 



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PILOTS AS COAST POLICE 

THE Sandy Hook Pilots became popularly known as the "coast 
police" through their efficient work in rescuing the crews of 
small craft and scows that had drifted out to sea. Just how 
many lives were saved in this way by the sturdy harbor mariners 
must be guessed at, for no complete record has ever been kept of 
the rescues. The items gathered and at hand are so numerous, 
however, that it would require many pages to chronicle them all in 
this brief history of the New York Harbor pilots. 

A notable instance of this sort was the rescue of the crew of 
the little Virginia sloop Fawn, which foundered off Sandy Hook 
lightvessel on July 15, 1897, during a heavy storm. The crew of 
the sloop had been in sore straits until rescued by the men of the 
pilot boat Alexander M. Lawrence, on board of which was Pilot 
Connor, who brought word of the rescue to New York. The Law- 
rence had been on station duty off the lightvessel when those on 
board sighted the Fawn, shortly after darkness had fallen. The 
weather was what sailormen call "dirty," with heavy squalls of wind 
and rain and a great sea running. Seeing that the sloop was in a 
bad way, the Lawrence ran up within hailing distance and found 
that the Fawn was leaking badly and that the crew stood in need of 
instant assistance. The pilot boat put out a yawl and ran a line to 
the sloop and then, falling away when the line had been made fast, 
started into the harbor with the Fawn in tow. The Lawrence had 
not gone far, however, before a cry came from the sloop that those 
on board believed their little craft to be sinking. The pilot boat 
was brought into the wind, and, at the same time, the line parted. 
The fact that the pilot boat's yawl had been kept ready for instant 
lowering made it possible for two of the brave men from the Lawrence 
to get into it and pull away to the rescue of those on the Fawn with- 
out loss of time. Quick as were those from the Lawrence, the Fawn 
sunk before the yawl could reach her. It was hard going for the tiny 
rescue boat, for the tremendous seas all but swamped the frail 
cockleshell. There were three in the Fawn's crew, including the 
captain. The trio were taken out of the water just in time and then, 
when the yawl's lantern was knocked over as one of the rescued was 
being pulled into the boat, those on the Lawrence thought that the 
yawl had swamped and promptly a second yawl was sent out from 
the pilot boat, after the first. For nearly an hour the second rescue 
boat cruised about in the dark and the gale until those in her heard 
a faint call from the first yawl and finally all hands were safely 
transferred to the deck of the Lawrence. 

— 72 — 



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As illustrative of the unselfishness of the pilot service the inci- 
dent of February 5, 1903, when a tank steamer got into trouble out- 
side the Hook, through a derangement of her machinery, may be 
included in this narrative. A tugboat was dickering with a barken- 
tine for a tow from the lightship to an anchorage within the harbor 
when the steam pilot boat New Jersey megaphoned to the tugboat 
captain that a tanker was outside waiting for a tow and showing 
signals that she was not under control. To tow such a steamer in 
port might mean, especially to the towing concern in question, heav} r 
salvage as well as big towing charges. The tug's captain promptly 
abandoned the barkentine for the more remunerative "prize" but 
was dismayed, upon reaching the disabled tanker outside Sandy 
Hook, to find that the steam pilot boat New York had passed a line 
to the oil-carrier and was towing her into the Hook. In answer to 
the tug captain's rather forcibly expressed objection to the pilot 
boat taking the tow, the pilots shouted back that the steamer had 
been found in distress and perish the thought that a Sandy Hook 
pilot should ignore that signal. "And we're not asking any pay 
for it, either!" came the semi-apologetic shout from the New York. 

Similarly was the case, although somewhat sadder from the fact 
that a man had met with grievous injury on board the ship in dis- 
tress, of the four-master Margaret, bound from Norfolk to Boston 
with a cargo of coal, handled by Pilot R. J. Waugh, from the steam 
pilot boat Sandy Hook. Mr. Waugh noticed a schooner at anchor 
outside Sandy Hook and, thinking she desired a pilot, went out to 
her in a yawl from the Sandy Hook. Instead, he found that the 
master of the schooner was hesitating at paying a very heavy tow- 
ing charge into New York or a proportionately good price for 
having one of his men transfered to a hospital at Staten Island on 
a tug boat, the man having had his arm torn off in an accident with 
the donkey engine on board the schooner. With the pilots there 
could be no question as to what should be done so Pilot Waugh 
took the injured man in the yawl, transferred him as quickly as 
possible to the Sandy Hook, left an emergency yawl at the lightship 
until he could steam with all haste to the Narrows with the Sandy 
Hook and have the injured sailor put ashore and sent to a Staten 
Island hospital. And it is needless to say there was no question of 
transfer charge or anything else of the sort figuring in the trans- 
action. 

On still another occasion a woman who had been misdirected by 
a New York taxicab driver and taken to the wrong pier where she 
boarded the steamer Stockholm, bound for Sweden, instead of the 



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United States, which was bound for Denmark, was taken off the 
Stockholm when the pilot left that ship off Sandy Hook, transferred 
to the steam pilot boat where she was kept until the outgoing United 
States should come up, where she was to be placed on board with 
her sister and little baby, who were going abroad with her. When 
the United States came out of the .Lower Bay she was halted by the 
pilot boat and preparations were made to place the woman on ^cfkf d ; y* 
of her when it was found that the- si4ter and baby had not, finally ,%j-i 
taken that steamer because of the absence of the member of.the*-^t 
party who had gone to the wrong ship. So the woman was again* 1'." 
placed on the pilot boat and brought to Staten Island that right^ 
She had no money and was a stranger in New York, so one o££tKe .^ 
pilots took her to his home where she was cared for until she could' : 
communicate with her sister. In the meantime the pilots had Triader \. 
up a small purse for the luckless lady and she was finally seft ,on„v. 
her way rejoicing. ..g 



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< BOAR<DI ( NG THE LEVIATHANS 

WITH the mammoth Leviathan, Berengaria, Olympic, Aqui- 
tania, Mauretania, Rotterdam, Paris, Adriatic and the com- 
ing Majestic matters of small and unusual interest these 
days of gigantic undertakings, it is amusing to turn back the 
pages of modern marine history and to peruse what was written, 
a scarce twenty years ago, about the immense size of what 
are now considered but comparatively large steamships. "Hard 
to Board Ships" and "Pilots Find It 'More and More Dangerous 
to Reach Liners" are two headings over an article in the 
St. Louis Republic, in October, 1901, which says that "the im- 
mense size of the new ocean giant, the Celtic, has raised a serious 
question among pilots and steamship men generally." The article 
goes on to relate how the new Celtic is nine stories in height, 
five of which are above the water line and asks : "What interests the 
pilots is, How can they get up the side of this giant, without the 
expenditure of enough energy to run a small sawmill for several 
minutes?" The climb is a hard one, says the St. Louis Republic's 
correspondent. Imagine scaling the bare side of a five-story build- 
ing on a napping, wriggling ladder of rope. It requires skill and 
strength, just how much of the latter is shown by the fact that, 
within a comparatively short time, two pilots have fallen dead of 
heart disease on the deck after making the climb. These deaths did 
not, of course, occur on the Celtic, the correspondent hastens to 
explain, saying there are other ships up whose "towering sides" it 
is an awful job to climb. Among these he named the Oceanic, 
Deutschland, Campania, Lucania and Wilhelm der Grosse. None 
of them, he points out, is as large as the Celtic, yet each was con- 
sidered a giantess of the sea. "It is not easy to climb a short dis- 
tance on one of these rope ladders" he continues. "The ships do not 
stand still like a horse. They pitch and roll. Pitch and roll number 
one sends the pilot swinging far off the side of the ship like a pendu- 
lum. Pitch and roll number two brings him back quickly and, slap ! 
he goes against the iron plates of the ship. As most pilots are 
elderly men and inclined to fleshiness, the ascent of a big ship is not 
viewed with unmixed delight by them." In New York Harbor Alfred 
Buadier and John Canvin, pilots, paid with their lives for boarding 
big ships. In each case they had dropped dead almost on the in- 
stant that they reached the deck . Baudier had his hand outstretched 
to grasp that of the ship's captain, when he fell. Both had been 
suffering from heart disease and the violent exercise of climbing 
killed them. The time since then has seen great changes in the prob- 
lems confronting pilots. Ships go out now with drafts that far ex- 
ceed anything that had ever been thought possible. In 1899, when 

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there was pronounced agitation looking to the widening of the main 
ship channel at New York to 2000 and its deepening to 35 feet, well- 
informed shipping men said that there was no doubt that, in time, 
ships would draw from 28 to 29 feet regularly and that some few 
might even draw thirty feet. This was considered a daring pro 
phecy but, in the year just ended, a maximum draft of 42 feet 
6 inches was recorded in the Port of New York. 

One wonders, when reading the foregoing effusion of twenty years 
ago, what the feelings of the Sandy Hook pilots must have been 
with the coming of the really big ships, with their sides half again 
as high as the puny sides of the. Deutschland, Campania, Lucania, 
etc., and with ships drawing, not a measly thirty-two and a half feet 
bnt from 35 to 42 feet of water? 



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PILOT BOARDING A STEAMSHIP 

Commanders of some of tJie larger modern steamships have provided safety belts for 

the pilots' use in rough weather 



gRATUITOUS SALVAGE WORK 

INSTANCES where owners were saved thousands of dollars in 
damage by the quick and efficient work of the Sandy Hook pilots 

and, perhaps, the total loss of their ships, are recorded in the 
New York's log. The first on February 2, 1903, when the Dutch 
tank steamer New York, inward bound anchored outside the bar at 
Sandy Hook and communicated with the pilot steamer New York, 
requesting to be assisted by the pilot boat to a safe anchorage, stat- 
ing that the tanker's steering gear was disabled and that the steam- 
ship could not, therefore, be properly and safely steered. The New 
York thereupon took the tanker in tow and brought her into the 
Narrows. The owners sent the Pilots Benevolent Fund a check 
for one hundred dollars in recognition of the service the pilots had 
rendered their vessel. A similar action on the part of the owners of 
the ship in distress, but where the services rendered were far more 
vital and strenuous because the vessel calling for assistance had 
gone ashore in a dense fog was that of the owners of the American 
ship Susquehanna. This ship, in tow of a tugboat, had grounded on 
the Sandy Hook Bar in a dense fog. The New York put a pilot on 
board and then proceeded to float the Susquehanna. 

On Sunday afternoon, November 13, 1904, at the height of a 
severe gale of wind from the north northeast, the pilot boat Hermit 
No. 8 fell in with the disabled motor boat Mildred, drifting to sea 
with five men on board. The Hermit sent her yawl over the side, 
rescued the Mildred's complement and then towed the motor boat to 
Princess Bay. That the rescue was a difficult one is attested by the 
laconic entry in the Hermit's log that the pilot boat, in making the 
rescue lost her jib and split her foresail. 

The vivid story of a collision in which one vessel w r as ultimately 
sunk and her captain and mate's brave attempt to stand by their 
doomed ship is covered by just a dozen written lines in the log of the 
New York under the date of December 18, 1908. "On December 18, 
at about 4 P. M. after boarding the S. S. Esperanza, about a 
quarter mile south by east of Gedney's Channel buoys," says the 
entry, "we sighted the S. S. Catalone, sounding alarm signals. Spoke 
the steamer and sent our yawl and took aboard tw T enty-eight of the 
crew of the steamship Dageston, with which the Catalone had been 
in collision. At 7 P. M. we put the captain and mate and five men 
aboard the Dageston but at 7 :50 sent our yawl for the five men 
again, the Captain and mate remaining aboard. We sent yawl over 
to Dageston at 8:20 and 8:50 suggesting we tow the steamer but 
the yawl returned each time with the captain's refusal. We stood 
by until 10:05 P. M. when the captain signalled us his ship was 

— 79 — 



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sinking. We took him and the mate off, the last men to leave the 
sinking ship." 

That the experienced Sandy Hook pilots do not always give of 
their expert knowledge solely to large sailing and steam vessels 
is shown by the entry in the New York's log of April 21, 1911. 
The New York that morning sighted a sloop off the whistling buoy, 
flying distress signals. Frank Cramer, a pilot, went aboard the 
sloop at 9:15 A. M., much in the same manner as he might have 
gone over to the Cunarder Mauretania, to assist the sloop in mak- 
ing a safe harbor, her power having gone awry. The wind was 
blowing a whole gale from the north-east with an attendant strong 
south-west current. The New York left the sloop in order to take 
a pilot off an outward-bound steamer and, while the New York was 
on that duty, the sloop, notwithstanding Pilot Cramer's expertness 
as a sailor, carried away her mainsail and was fast being driven 
by the gale to the Sandy Hook beach, both her anchors having gone 
by the board. The New York hurried over to the sloop as soon 
as she could and succeeded in taking off Cramer and the two men 
who had been on the sloop when she got into difficulties. The sloop 
had to be abandoned. 

Saving the lives of the professional life-safers was still another 
task, seemingly, that fell to the lot of the Sandy Hook pilots. The 
same day that the New York rescued the two men from the sloop 
which Pilot Cramer tried to bring into the harbor, the big pilot 
boat sighted a Sandy Hook Life-savers' dory outside the Hook, 
three miles from the Scotland Lightship. The dory had saved a man 
off a scow which had gone adrift from her towing convoy and had, 
in turn, suffered a breakdown of her motor auxiliary. She was drift- 
ing and requested the New York to tow her into the harbor. 

Innumerable instances of similar rescues are recorded on behalf 
of the Sandy Hook pilots, besides many other instances where the 
presence of the valiant sea guides at the entrance of the harbor has 
resulted beneficently for either men or ships. Helpful always, re- 
gardless of "what there may be in it" in the way of salvage, which 
is ever an important consideration on the part of many navigators 
when giving a helping hand in the way of a towing line to a ship 
needing assistance, the Sandy Hook pilots have, time and again, 
been the guardian angels of New York Harbor. Their mobility, 
especially, has been of value to those in need of succor, for the pilot 
boats have moved quickly to where they were needed and they were 
always within call of those whose mishaps occurred close to the 
harbor entrance. 



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It might be remarked here that so great had been the loss of 
life among the pilots during the years prior to 1897, especially dur- 
ing the blizzard, that the New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook 
Pilots Benevolent Association, of which Allan Beebe was and still is 
the secretary, found itself unable to meet the demands upon its 
treasury for burial benefits. It was this emergency that impelled the 
late James Gordon Bennett to arrange for a benefit performance at 
the old Herald Square Theatre so as to replenish the exhausted 
treasury of the Association. 



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— 81 — 




FRANK P. VAN PELT 



President of the New York Sandy Hook Pilots' Association and chairman of the 
joint executive committee of the New York and New Jersey Associations 



UNITING THE PILOT SERVICES 

WHERE, years EtgOj as has been explained, it was a practically 
free-for-all race between more than two dozen pilot boats for 
incoming ships, the systematizing of pilotage brought about 
a great and welcome change. Without a "station boat" close to the 
lightship at the entrance to the harbor it was often impossible to 
take off the pilot of an outgoing ship and it was, therefore, occasion 
for delay on the part of the ship while the transfer yawl could be 
located or occasion for a transatlantic trip for the luckless pilot. 
With the reorganization of the New York and New Jersey pilots, 
with sail pilot boats still in active service, a system of station boats 
was inaugurated whereby each individual boat was to do a certain 
amount of duty as "station boat." A heavy penalty was prescribed 
for an infraction of the rules regarding this and there was a penalty 
inflicted upon the pilots who did not report to the Association sec- 
retary all ships piloted by them during the previous forty-eight 
hours of duty. The regulations called for a day signal on the 
"station boat" of the jack at the foremast head and a night signal 
of a light on the jib-boom. The boat on station duty was com- 
pelled to carry, in a conspicuous place, from sunset to sunrise, a 
bright red under a white signal light and to remain on station duty 
until relieved. In this way pilots on vessels outbound were readily 
taken off the ships and transferred to the station boat, except in 
isolated instances where the weather was so rough that no transfer 
boat could have lived in the gale and the pilot was carried overseas 
as the guest of the ship which he had intended seeing safely on her 
way merely as far as the lightship. The last of the old-time pilot 
boats under sail to do station duty was the Alexander M. Lawrence 
Number 4, which was on duty when the new steam pilot boat New 
York went into commission. When the curtain was rung down on 
the old sail pilot boats there were eight New Jersey boats and 
twenty-two New York boats still in service. On November 30, 1895, 
there were 166 pilots on duty on twenty-nine sail pilot boats, cov- 
ering the seas from New T York Harbor as far as Cape Sable to the 
eastward and as far south as the Virginia Capes to board incom- 
ing ships. By June 21, 1896, twenty-four sail boats had been with- 
drawn, five of the old boats being retained to serve as emergency 
pilot boats or as auxiliaries to cruise around the lower Jersey shore. 
That was during the days that the chartered steamers Walter Adams 
and Alaska were in service, for the New York did not take up her 
station alongside the Ambrose Channel lightship until July 1, 1897. 
The five boats that were retained temporarily were the H. Oelrichs, 
A. Snow, C. H. Colt, E. F. Williams and Alexander M. Lawrence, 

— 83 — 



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the Colt and Snow being sunk a few years later while still doing 
auxiliary duty as pilot craft. 

Up to 1895, when the business of the New York and New Jersey 
pilots was united into one organization, the records available show 
a total loss of thirty-four pilot boats and the violent deaths of 
fifty-one pilots, besides a large number of apprentices and members 
of pilot boat crews, the injuries to a large number of pilots and 
others in the pilot service and the temporary disablement, through 
accidents at sea, of a very large number of the pilot craft besides 
those that were entirely lost. 

There is a charm in the pilot's life and the pay in the service is 
good, but young men looking for a safe and soft future had better 
steer clear of the Pilots' Association. There are now about seventy 
on the waiting list. They are fine, sturdy young Americans, who 
know the test of a pilot and are not afraid to go through the rigor- 
ous training period. Today they are working in shops, offices and 
on vessels at sea, waiting to be called. When the pilots' committee 
has decided that a young man possesses the moral, physical and 
personal qualifications that will make him a good member of the 
Association and a good man to stick by, he is put in the boats. 
He starts as apprentice pilot, working twenty-four hours a day, 
getting one day off on shore every two or three weeks and being 
paid twenty-five dollars a month. The apprentices form the crews of 
the pilot boats. Every time a ship comes along they row the pilot 
over to her side. The yawl is put into the water some hundred times 
a day. Mostly it is a row of only fifty yards — sometimes 'they are 
forced to chase a ship a mile — whether it is 9, A. M., or blowing a 
howling gale, or in a hurricane sea jammed with ice flows. They 
never undress. Just turn in with all their clothes on, sleep a few 
winks till the next call, always with the yawl handy right alongside. 
And the call comes on an average once every hour during the night. 
In addition to this, the apprentices do all the work of steering, 
painting and cleaning ship. The apprenticeship lasts nine years, 
after which they can become pilots; but it is a training' that makes 
men. The weaklings drop out and only men who love the hard, bit- 
ter life of the sea can face the prospect of nine years' duty at eight 
dollars a week. Picking up the pilot is always a feature of the 
transatlantic voyage. Long before land is sighted the first officer 
of the liner will hoist the S flag at the foremast as a signal that a 
pilot is wanted. At night he will shoot a "Very" star skyrocket to 
call the pilot boat. Then, far down the western horizon, where the 
glow of Ambrose Channel lightvessel flashes and fades in the sky, 

— 81- — 



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one sees the answering flare from the pilot boat. Soon the gray 
yacht will glide alongside, dropping a yawl, and the pilot will climb 
the "monkey ladder" over the ship's side, step into the circle of 
passengers gathered on deck, carving the city papers in his great- 
coat pockets and there is always a scramble for the bundle of real 
shore news. 



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FROM SAIL TO STEAM 

THE pilot service in New York Harbor was revolutionized when 
the old sailing boats were discarded and the modern steam pilot 
boat New York was placed in commission. First, however, the 
pilots used the Walter Adams and the Alaska, both of them fishing 
boats with steam power, which were chartered pending the construc- 
tion of the modern pilot boat New York and her expected consort, 
the New Jersey. The Walter Adams had a tonnage of 175 net and a 
length of 133 feet and the Alaska had a net tonnage of 121 with a 
length of 141 feet. The pilots also used the fishing steamer Trenton 
as an auxiliary cruiser. For a time several of the old-time sailing 
boats were kept in the service for emergency and cruising duty out- 
side Sandy Hook. With the placing of the New York in commission 
in 1897 the Adams and Alaska were returned to their owners and 
went back into the fishing trade. The New York was designed and 
modelled by A. Cary Smith for the New York Sandy Hook Pilots' 
Association and her launching was a great event in maritime history 
on the Atlantic coast. The new steamer was sponsored by Marie 
Morse, daughter of the president of the Harlan & Hollingsworth 
Company, that built the boat at Wilmington, Delaware. Among 
the large number of those present at the launching ceremonies, on 
March 18, 1897, was a large delegation of the New York and New 
Jersey pilots and members of their families. The New York carries 
sixteen pilots, besides a regular crew comprising a captain, three 
mates, three engineers, a steward, a cook, two waiters, four firemen 
and six sailors ; the captain, mates and sailors being pilot-appren- 
tices. It might be stated here that the last three years of the 
apprentice's services are devoted to the duties of watch officer (cap- 
tains or mates), with the pay slightly raised from the original 
twenty-five dollars monthly, during these last three years of the men's 
apprenticeship. The vessel is 154 feet in length over all, has a 28- 
foot beam, outside measurements, and a depth of 20 feet, with a 
mean draft of 13 feet when in seagoing trim. She is constructed 
wholly of steel and fitted with engines of 1000 indicated horsepower. 
The New York is a powerful vessel, a cutter under water and a life- 
boat above water, as well as being a magnificent steam yacht inside. 
She has two working boats, or yawls, which lie on deck, one on each 
side of the engine-room skylight, just abaft the extended iron deck- 
house, which contains the hoisting engines to lift them clear over 
the side and place them in the water, ready manned, in all sort of 
weather. 

As additional proof of the great efficiency of the pilot service 
today it must not be forgotten that the steam pilot boats New York 
and Sand} r Hook can put their yawls over the side and into the 

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water, ready manned, in exactly five seconds, truly a wonderful ac- 
complishment in latter-day life-boat launching. 

These derrick booms, quite distinct, on the starboard and port 
sides, are attached to the mainmast. There are two other life-boats, 
hung on davits, one on each side of the funnel. Five sails are fitted 
— four boomless staysails and one jib — not for use as sails in the 
usual acceptance of the word but to steady the New York in the 
many different and ever-changing circumstances that such a vessel 
will encounter during her active service. Immediately forward of 
the New York's funnel, in the iron deckhouse, is the "galley" or 
kitchen. Then comes the officers'' mess and, ahead of this, directly 
beneath the pilot house, the captain's and mate's rooms. These 
quarters, by 'the way, are not surpassed in comfort and complete 
appointment by any officers' rooms on any ship of whatever kind 
or size. On top of the pilot house is a search-light, manipulated 
from within the pilot house and capable of being placed in any 
position. The after deckhouse, also of iron, contains a stairway 
leading down to the two saloons and four double berths for pilots. 
There is, besides, an excellent smoking room shelter. There is a 
three-foot passage on the starboard side of the New York, extend- 
ing the entire length of the boat, making means of communication 
from the galley to the saloons, forward and aft, and to the pilots' 
rooms easy in the roughest weather. These rooms, forward and aft, 
have two berths in each. The engineers' rooms are forward of the 
forward saloon, with quarters for the firemen adjoining. The rest 
of the crew are berthed in the forecastle. Luxurious baths are pro- 
vided on board the New York and the men have roomy lockers all 
through the vessel. 



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THE SECOND STEAM PILOT 'BOAT 

WITH the New .Jersey (since sunk) the Sandy Hook pilots got 
their second modern steam pilot boat. She went in com- 
mission on November 12, 1902. The New York and the 
New .Jersey Pilots' Associations now having united, the New Jersey 
and her sister pilot boat, the New York, jointly took up the task 
of doing full pilot duty at the lightship at the entrance to the 
harbor, using several of the old sailing pilot boats only for 
emergency. The New Jersey was a staunch craft — a credit to her 
Tottenville builders, A. C. Brown & Sons. Her machinery was in- 
stalled by Alexander Miller and Brother, Jersey City. The New 
Jersey was as complete in her appointments as the New York 
and, in addition, was so constructed that she could be used as 
an ice-breaking ram during severe winter weather. She had a 
length of 157 feet over all, a beam of 28 feet and a depth of 18 feet 
6 inches and drew 14 feet of water. She was, therefore, just a frac- 
tion larger than the New York, except in the matter of depth. 

It was on July 10, 1914, in a dense fog, that the steamship 
Manchoneal, a rakish little fruit carrier, rammed the New Jersey 
off Fairway whistling buoy, at the intersection of the old (Gedney) 
and the new (Ambrose) channels. All hands on board the New 
Jersey were saved but the splendid pilot boat was doomed to end 
her brief career at the bottom of the waters of the lower bay. She 
sank almost immediately after being cut down and those who had 
been on board — her full complement besides a dozen pilots — had little 
opportunity to save anything except their own lives. 

By a strange working of Fate, a man who has done a great deal, 
not only for the merchant marine of the United States, but who also 
figures in history as the father of our first modern battleships, was 
brought into the lives of the Sandy Hook pilots through the pur- 
chase, by the latter, of the steamer Sandy Hook, to replace the 
lost New Jersey. The Sandy Hook was built in 1902 at the Cres- 
cent Shipyards, Elizabeth, New Jersey, by Lewis Nixon, famed as 
the designer and constructor of the battleship Oregon and other 
fighting vessels of the American Navy. The Sandy Hook was built 
as the Antice, a magnificent steam yacht, of 361 gross tons, a length 
of 168 feet 6 inches, a beam of 24 feet 4 inches and a depth of 12 
feet 6 inches. She has 1,000 indicated horsepower and is in every 
Avay a splendid vessel. The Antice later was renamed the Privateer 
and came under the ownership of R. A. C. Smith, one time Dock 
Commissioner of the City of New York, a man who has always had 
the interests of the Port of New York at heart, and by him was 
used as a private yacht. Mr. Smith, ever an enthusiastic friend of 

— 91 — 





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the Sandy Hook pilots, placed a merely nominal price on the Priva- 
teer — one that hardly covered the cost of hull and boilers of the 
beautiful craft. The Nixon boat came into the possession of the 
New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots' Association soon 
after the catastrophe to the New Jersey and was renamed Sandy 
Hook. Her appointments, as may be guessed by the former char- 
acter of the newest acquisition of the pilots' association, were 
quite as luxurious as her consort, the New York, for it is conceded 
that the great risks and continued hardships that the Sandy Hook 
pilots face entitle them to every possible comfort during the hours 
that they can consider themselves at leisure. It is fitting that Lewis 
Nixon, who gave to his country some of the finest fighting ships and 
some of the finest merchant ships through his expertness as naval 
architect and naval constructor, should have built the staunch boat 
which is now doing its share towards maintaining the safety of the 
harbor for the peaceful shipping of the world, even though he did 
not, when he built the yacht Anstice, dream that his product would 
ultimately come into the very serious and vital service in which the 
Sandy Hook is engaged to-day. 

There is a rattling good story told in connection with the build- 
ing of the Anstice. Her keel was laid down in the Nixon shipyards 
for the purpose of supplying quick transfer in the most modern of 
refrigerating steamers for the big hauls of red snapper in the Gulf 
of Mexico. The Anstice was, in every way, a superior vessel in the 
matter of speed and staunchness and, it was believed, would be able 
to transfer the red snapper hauls, from the sailing fishing schooners 
and bring them to American harbors without interference with the 
operations of the fishing fleet. Everything went well, in theory, 
until the Antsice appeared in the Gulf of Mexico. With signal flags 
flying in honor of her maiden voyage, the Nixon boat proudly 
approached the fishing fleet and came alongside the nearest fishing 
schooner, whose holds were full of freshly-caught red snapper. 
Upon the Anstice's captain telling the schooner's captain that he 
had come to take over the hold-full of fish so as to allow the schooner 
to continue her fishing operations without going to a harbor to dis- 
charge, the Anstice's skipper was told he might just as well go back 
to where he came from — or to a warmer zone if he preferred. "The 
crews of the fishing schooners," he was told, "have decided that they 
like to get ashore just as well as the crew of the Anstice and they 
propose to get ashore just as soon and as often as they get their 
holds filled with fish." So the theory of transferring fish from the 
fishing fleet to the shore in a refrigerating steamer did not work out 
in practice because of the eternal human desire for an occasional 
sight, at least, of home, sweet, home. 

— 92 — 




AUXILLIARY MOTOR PILOT BOAT TRENTON 
Formerly ihe fishing schooner Kernrcood. Purchased for pilot service in 1907 




J. F. HOPKINS 

President of the New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots' Association 



PULLING TOGETHER 

Bv J. Culbeet Palmes. 

Counsel for both the New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook 
Pilots' Associations since organization in 1895. 

MUCH of the romance and more of the picturesque associated 
with the pilot service disappeared upon its reorganization 
and the substitution of steam for sailing vessels. Dangers 
and hazards aplenty remain ; intelligence, courage and resourceful- 
ness are essential as of yore; but many unnecessary risks, much 
useless hardship and constant delay and trouble, vexatious and 
burdensome to commerce, have been eliminated. In 1895 combina- 
tion and efficiency displaced competition and wasted energy. Prior 
to that time all the tight little schooners, of which there were thirty, 
were antagonists, and, as the pilot first speaking an incoming ship 
was entitled to the fees, rivalries among the various vessels w r ere 
intense and the spirit of emulation as well as the desire for gain 
frequently took the pilot boats half way across the Atlantic in their 
eagerness to be the first to tender service. While the schooners 
were staunch and seaworthy vessels, manned by stalwart and ex- 
perienced crews, the hazards and hardships of the business were 
great and were specially onerous to the pilots of advanced years 
and superior experience. Moreover, a great economic waste was in- 
volved in the method of carrying on the business then in vogue as 
the number of pilots and the cost of operating the competing vessels 
was out of all proportion to their total earnings. In addition, the 
inconvenience to the merchant marine was serious and entailed un- 
necessary expense upon the commerce of the port. 

Improvements to the existing system had long been discussed 
by the body of the pilots, but, owing to the complex source of their 
authority, some being subject to the jurisdiction of New York and 
others to that of New Jersey, and because of the conflict of vested 
interests arising from the undivided and fractional ownership of the 
many vessels, and also because of the different points of view of older 
and younger pilots, the division of interests between pilots owning 
all or part of a boat and the so-called journeymen having no pro- 
prietory interests, the occasional feelings of embittered rivalry be- 
tween the different boats' companies and the suspicion and ill-will 
at that time existing between the New Yorkers and the Jerseymen, 
dissensions had gradually developed that proved almost insuper- 
able obstacles to any reorganization. At length a joint committee, 
representing pilots of both states, was appointed with instructions 
to form a working plan and, after much discussion and the recon- 
ciliation or compromising of many conflicting interests, the existing 

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system was finally adopted. The scheme involved the creation of 
two organizations, one composed entirely of New York and the 
other entirely of New Jersey pilots ; a working agreement between 
such organizations ; the purchase and retirement of the sailing ves- 
sels, and the construction and equipment of suitable steam vessels 
to take their place. A large amount of capital was essential to the 
success of the enterprise and this was furnished by the pilots them- 
selves without recourse to outside interests. This radical change 
was brought about with very little alteration in the existing laws, 
either State or Federal, and without interference with the disci- 
plinary control of the Pilot Commissioners of the two Common- 
wealths. So harmoniously and equitably were the conflicting inter- 
ests adjusted and so efficiently has the business of the Associations 
been conducted that, for twenty-five years, there has been no dis- 
agreement between the organizations or their members which their 
governing committees have not been competent to adjust. Financial 
embarrassments have been avoided, discipline has been maintained, 
litigation has been eliminated, justice has prevailed, service has been 
vastly improved, and the successful operation of more than a quarter 
of a century has proved the firm foundation upon which the organ- 
ization was erected. The welfare of the pilots themselves has been 
increased, their Commissioners have welcomed the Associations as 
aids, and all the maritime interests of the port are united in ap- 
proval of the service, which is now generally recognized as the best 
and most efficient in the world. The beneficial results of compul- 
sory pilotage, under government regulation, but allowing the free 
play of private initiative, operation and control, has been demon- 
strated and the entire absence of complaint or criticism from any 
source is the highest evidence of the superior character of the pres- 
ent pilot service. 

The conditions arising from the war provided a severe test of 
the strength, solidarity and efficiency of the organization. The Fed- 
eral Government took over its control and it became obligatory to 
conform to many necessary but embarrassing and confusing regula- 
tions. The expense of operation increased enormously with the gen- 
eral inflation of prices, while the earnings were still conditioned on 
the statutory fees. Much confidential and unrequited but patriotic- 
work was done which can never be recognized formally and, through 
all, the machinery of the organization and the splendid spirit of its 
personnel remained unimpaired and the return from conditions of 
war to those of peace was accomplished without friction. How- 
ever, the end is not yet. While much has been accomplished, much 
remains to be done. One or more additional steamers must be con- 



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structed when times become auspicious and various betterments and 
improvements must continually be provided in order that the serv- 
ice may retain in the future its present pre-eminence among the 
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THE PILOTS' CLUB 

SHORTLY after the free-for-all system of piloting, which made 
each individual pilot hoat the headquarters of a small group of 
pilots who were partners in that particular boat, was changed 
and the pilots organized into an association under a pooling agree- 
ment, the 152 pilots — 104 New Yorkers and 48 New Jersey men — in 
the service at the beginning of 1896, inaugurated the first Pilots' 
Club with an active membership of ninety-four. The Club had rooms 
on the fourth floor of 24 State Street. The first president was Eben 
Turnure and the vice-president was William V. Germond; the sec- 
retary Thomas Connors ; the treasurer T. F. Murphy and the serg- 
eant-at-arms Jacob M. Heath. The first trustees were John Hobbs, 
M. Sullivan, M. Carr, T. Lennan, James O'Sullivan, R. Bigley, G. 
Waldie and M. Lyons. A few years later the club moved to the 
building adjoining it to the south, 21 State Street, and more recently 
the entire pilot organization, Pilot Commissioners, New York Pilots 
Association, New Jersey Pilots Association, the combined New York 
and New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots Association, the benefit associa- 
tion of the other organization and the Pilots Club moved to the com- 
modious top floor of the Municipal Ferry Building, known as the 
Whitehall Terminal of the Staten Island ferries. In their new 
quarters the pilots have an unbroken view of the Upper Bay and the 
approaches to the North and East Rivers, a large and comfortable 
club room, billiard room, executive committee room and general 
assembly room. It is there that the historic library and collection 
of relics of the pilot service is kept and it is from this eyrie that the 
pilots set forth on their tours of duty, taking the ferry to St. 
George, there to board either the New York or the Sandy Hook for 
incoming duty, or going overland to the various piers to board ships 
outward-bound and which they are to see safely past the lightship at 
the harbor entrance, from which point they are brought home- 
again, via the New York or the Sandy Hook, as the case may be,, 
to the St. George landing after an absence from the city of any- 
where from one to five days. 

The present officers of the Pilots' Club are Joseph A. Murphy, 
president; Leo Oldmixon, vice-president; Edward Braun, Jr., sec- 
retary, and Henry W. Wood, treasurer. The club is entirely apart 
from the other organizations of the pilots and is purely a social 
affair. They maintain a lunch-room of their own in the club-rooms 
in the Municipal Ferry Building, on the same floor that houses the 
other departments and organizations of the pilots. A regular stew- 
ard serves refreshments to the men who are waiting a call to a ship 
or who are waiting for their turn to board the steam pilot boat and 
take up station duty at the lightship. 

— 99 — 



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Among the books in the club's library are some real old-timers in 
the list of magazines and contemporaneous journals, from which 
much of the romantic as well as the commercial history of the Port 
of New York may be secured. The older pilots love to settle down 
in a corner of the club room and spend hours in reading about the 
days that were, that bring memories back of events in which many of 
them figured prominently. Paintings and old prints adorn the walls, 
these pictures showing various old ships and old pilot boats and, in 
a number of instances — as will be seen by glancing at certain of the 
illustrations in this volume — depicting the painter's conception of 
the valorous deeds that were done at sea in the pilot service. 










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PILOT CLIMBING ABOARD THE SANDY HOOK AFTER BEING TAKEN 

OFF AN OUT-GOING VESSEL 



COMMISSION CONTROL 

AS has been said before in this history, the New Jersey Pilot 
/-\ Commissioners were the result of an act passed by the New 
Jersey Legislature April 17, 1816, and the New York Pilot 
Commissioners came into being through an act of the New York 
Legislature passed seven years later. In both instances the Pilot 
Commissioners form a supervising body over the New York and 
New Jersey pilots, regulating the licensing of pilots, the work of 
the pilot boats and the fees for pilotage. 

Both the New York and New Jersey Pilot Associations work in 
harmony with these commissioners. The New Jersey commissioners, 
of whom there are six, are appointed by the Governor, each for a 
term of three years. The New York commissioners, of whom there 
are five, are appointed in a different manner, although their powers 
and authority are on a par with those of New Jersey. Their terms 
are for two years each and three are appointed by the Chamber of 
Commerce of the City of New York and the other two by the Board 
of Marine Insurance Underwriters. The commissioners of both 
states are men of the highest standing in their respective communi- 
ties, who have the welfare of the Port of New York, both from the 
New York and the New Jersey standpoint, thoroughly at heart. 

The present New York commissioners are Marcus H. Tracy, 
president ; Arthur M. Smith and Joseph Morrell, appointed by the 
Chamber of Commerce, and George L. Norton and Melville M. 
Crockett, appointed by the Board of Underwriters. The present 
New Jersey commissioners are Benjamin Van Note, president; 
William Cox, Alfred Devlin, Thomas Goldingay, S. D. Haley and 
John Predmore. 

The New York and New Jersey pilots each have their own or- 
ganization, with their own officers. The New Jersey organization 
has for its President, J. F. Hopkins; Secretary, W. S. Devereux. 
The New York organization has Frank P. Van Pelt as President and 
H. Arnold as Secretary. These four men, together with New Jersey 
pilots, G. Oldmixon and J. E. McCarthy, and New York pilots, R. 
J. Waugh and A. Anderson, form an Executive Committee of eight 
representing both the New York and the New Jersey pilot associa- 
tions, with Captain Van Pelt as the chairman at present of this 
Executive Committee. 

Much comment has been raised at times over the question of 
compulsory pilotage and the question has had opposition brought 
to bear against it in an effort to make pilotage a matter of choice 
with sea captains. To the uninitiated it would seem, perhaps, that 
the master of a vessel capable of running his ship across the At- 
lantic Ocean between New York and a European port, for instance, 

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would not need the assistance of a harbor pilot to bring his ship 
safely past Sandy Hook and into the Narrows. Many a navigator 
gets his license "for the Atlantic and all Atlantic ports" and would 
— again to the uninitiated — seem to he covered for the Port of 
New York as well as for deep water out in the Atlantic. 

Conditions in a harbor continually change, however, and a 
month's, even a three weeks' absence, makes a great difference in the 
channels at various times. That is one reason for there being a 
compulsory pilotage system but still another and a vastly more im- 
portant one is that, should there be no compulsory pilotage there 
would be no inducement for pilots to spend their days off Sandy 
Hook if their services should be taken in the case of storms, or 
other emergency, when the need of an expert harbor pilot becomes 
a necessity to the navigator of a vessel, just as a consultation with 
another expert physician becomes necessary to the attending phy- 
sician in a grave emergency. 

Coastwise shipping is not subject to compulsory pilotage, for 
trans-ocean shipping in the harbor of New York is heavy enough 
to provide sufficient revenue for the upkeep of an efficient pilotage 
force in the biggest American port. In some Southern ports there 
is compulsory pilotage for all shipping, coastwise and other ship- 
ping, for the reason that, unless all shipping were included, there 
would not be enough compulsory pilots to provide the funds neces- 
sary to keep the pilots on the job for every emergency. A port 
without compulsory pilotage would be subject to the whim of the 
navigator of the ship who might be incapable of bringing his ship 
safely through the harbor channels yet might believe that he was 
capable, thereby causing accident and interruption to navigation 
through his stubborn refusal to take on a pilot absolutely familiar 
with every danger point in the harbor. It need only be said that 
any New York or Sandy Hook pilot could bring a ship through 
Sandy Hook and the Narrows into the Port of New York even 
though every buoy and danger mark were removed from its an- 
chorage, something that no other navigator could do, no matter 
how expert in handling his vessel on long voyages. 

It was Michael Murphy, Sandy Hook pilot, who was sent to 
England to bring back the then seventh wonder of the world, the 
famous Great Eastern — not to pilot her across the ocean but to 
study the greatest ship of her day during the transatlantic voyage 
and be prepared to guide her safely past Sandy Hook and through 
the Narrows upon her arrival here on her maiden trip from England. 

It was an American Admiral who praised, without stint, the 
admirable handling of the great convoys of troop and merchant* 

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ships — but especially the ships on which our boys went overseas 
to help put a quietus on the World War — by the Sandy Hook pilots. 
It was during this war-time activity that the Sandy Hook pilots, 
in a period of nineteen months, handled 22,000 vessels without a 
single accident or an error of judgment and during one single Sun- 
day, in three and one-half hours, sixty-nine ships were safely handled 
by the pilots without anything happening to mar their safe transit 
through the unmarked channels of the Port of New York. 

Before the World War the movement of shipping in New York 
harbor was largely foreign, American ships being, for the most part, 
restricted to coastwise vessels. During the World War the work 
of piloting ships, while reduced from a merchant marine standpoint 
because of the tremendous losses in ships on the high seas and 
abroad through the acts of the enemy, was vastly increased by the 
great numbers of transports that were continually being sent over- 
seas to accommodate the legions of American fighters bound for 
France. When the war ended the amount of shipping of all kinds, 
including the returning transports at the beginning of the home- 
ward movement of troops, taxed the efforts of the Sandy Hook men 
to the utmost and since then the merchant marine fleets, now aug- 
mented by the thousands upon thousands of tons of American mer- 
chant shipping from every section of the universe, has kept the 
pilots busy as they seldom were before in the history of their pro- 
fession. 

Had there been no compulsory pilotage in New York harbor 
there could not possibly have been the same absence of disaster in 
the port during the past two decades that has marked local naviga- 
tion in that time. It is much more true to-day than it ever was 
before and those who know the difficulties of navigation and who 
do not look at the question without having weighed the facts are 
agreed that Congress did a wise thing when, under the guiding hand 
of the late Amos J. Cummings, it refused to pass an act repealing 
the present compulsory pilotage laws. 

There is a good story told of a British tank steamer that was 
ready to leave Baltimore one dark and dirty night when the harbor 
pilot refused to take her out before daylight, considering it a 
needless risk. The tramp steamer's captain refused to lose some 
ten hours and so started out without a pilot. The steamer got 
out and across the Atlantic without mishap and the Baltimore pilot 
was suspended because of his refusal to take the ship out of the 
harbor. But after her cargo had been discharged in London and 
part of a new cargo taken on board — enough to stiffen her — the 
tramp steamer's engineer proceeded to pump out her ballast tanks 



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to see that they were perfectly dry. He pumped and pumped and 
kept it up for three hours, after which he found the tanks to be still 
full. He continued to pump all day and all night and still the tanks 
remained full, notwithstanding the continual flow of water through 
the pumps. Then the steamer was put in dry dock to solve the 
mystery and the discovery was made that she had several holes in 
her bottom and had simply been floating on her tank tops. The 
captain of the tramp then had a faint recollection that his ship had 
"scratched gravel" in Hampton Roads on the night that he essayed 
to take her out without the aid of an experienced harbor pilot, 
but he had said nothing of it in his log. The underwriters allowed 
that, instead of gravel, he must have run his ship over about three 
acres of rock, missing disaster by probably the fraction of an inch 
and that it was mere dumb luck that the tank tops held out through 
the transatlantic passage. It is not recorded whether the luckless 
Baltimore pilot was finally exonerated from blame for his refusal to 
take the steamer out under the circumstances. 



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PILOTS, "BOATS, HARBORS ANT> 
HIGH LIGHTS 

By R. A. C. Smith 

PILOTS, pilot boats and the Port of New York have been inter- 
esting facets on the general facade in my life and as long 
as I am conscious and able to get around I shall be interested 
in not only the Port of New York, but one of the very vital parts 
of it which exists in pilots as an institution and as men. 

My parents had sent me to school in London, England, where I 
was supposed to learn all the things one could know about account- 
ing and the business of over-seas development. The price of enter- 
tainment in London in those days was not excessively high but 
whatever the elevation it was beyond my particular purse and I had 
to provide my own entertainment. The fates led me to the acquain- 
tance of an artist and a studio where panoramas were painted. 
The artist needing a boy about my size allowed me to come around 
after school hours and boil the glue, mix the color, wash the brushes 
and turn the roll on which the panorama was being rolled up after 
a section of it had been painted. And the picture ! Nothing will 
ever eradicate from my memory that picture. It was considered by 
the artist his masterpiece. He had named it "The El Dorado." It 
was the story of a family of the Old World leaving for America. 
The part of it that lives most vividly in my memory was the 
steamer on which the family had successfully crossed the Atlantic 
at the point when it was being hailed by a pilot boat. Then the 
Lower Bay, and as a grand finale "Castle Garden" shown first 
by night and then by day, and the transfer of the fortune seekers 
from the steamer to "Castle Garden" and from there out to the 
conveyances that were to take them to transportation for the 
West and South. The final picture showed them in the new country 
prosperous, happy and all that sort of thing, but the picture of the 
pilot boat and "Castle Garden" were the particularly impressive 
things to me. By the time the artist had reached "Castle Garden" 
in the creation of the picture, I had become so enthusiastic over the 
developing masterpiece and had boiled the glue so well and kept the 
brushes so clean that he allowed me "to get into the picture" so to 
speak. In making the night effect around "Castle Garden" it 
was necessary to have sparkles on the waves in the water, made by 
moonlight reflection in nature and in the panorama made by lights 
behind slits in the canvas. I was the author of the slits. With 
a sharp knife I was allowed to cut out the spaces in the high lights 
in the waves of the water by which the effect was to be produced. 
I am not sure whether the impression of this picture was the inspira- 
tion, but I am sure it made my determination to go to New York. 

— 107 — 



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When I came to New York I came on the last of the side-wheel 
steamers from Havana and it was called the "Morro Castle," then 
owned by the Atlantic Mail Steamship Company, which was then 
passing out as a power in coast trade service. 

For a long time before we reached the water adjacent to New 
York I spent all my time at the forward rail looking for the pilot 
boat with the memory of my days on the paint bridge and the picture 
in the artist's studio where the panorama had been painted. After 
a while it seemed to me as though the pilot boat had missed us or 
that we had missed New York and we were going to sail on for- 
ever, but one pleasant morning there came rapidly up out of the 
horizon on a snappy north-east blow pilot boat No. 7. From the 
time that No. 7 came alongside until the pilot was aboard no action 
escaped my interested scrutiny. When the pilot came aboard I 
made it my business to become acquainted with him and we were 
friends for many years. It was a good augury, because I have been 
friends for many years with a great many pilots and in the days 
when my business took me to Cuba on frequent trips, I saw more 
and more of what an important part the pilot plays in the life of 
those that go to sea. 

Those were the days when pools were made as to whether the 
number of the pilot boat that reached us first would be odd or even, 
and I have seen some considerable sums change hands. 

It is perhaps not too much to state that when Mayor Gaynor 
appointed me to the Dock Department as Commissioner, I could not 
refrain from smiling at the curious things that fate does to us and 
of the peculiar coincidences that affect our lives and over which we 
seemingly do not have the slightest thing to say. The first day I 
went to the Dock Department on Pier A I looked out over the 
water across to the Aquarium, which still has all of the architec- 
tural appearance it had when it was known as "Castle Garden," 
and let the pressing business of the moment wait for just a few 
minutes while I ruminated on what seemed a specially curious se- 
quence of periods having to do with the Port of New York and 
pilots from the day when I put the high lights on the water of 
the Harbor on the panorama canvas to the then present time when 
as Dock Commissioner I was to put 50 or 60 million dollars worth 
of structures around the Harbor to bring it up to some of the 
efficiency required. 



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(REMINISCENCE $£ND COMMENT 

By Thomas E. Rush 

IT SEEMS fortuitous that my participation in the activities of 
the recent great war should have been in the office of the Sur- 
veyor of Customs of the Port of New York, a branch of the 
Treasury Department of our government, where I served from Sep- 
tember, 1914, to May, 1921 ; and while my incumbency of that office 
afforded me numerous opportunities for observing the interesting 
and dramatic features of the war from a side line, it also gave me 
the inspiration to write The Port of New York, a book quoted today 
in our High Schools and Colleges, and recognized, also, as an au- 
thority on the Port by the leading civic organizations of this city. 
My parents were both born in the City of Galway, on Galway 
Bay, described as one of the most attractive harbors on the west 
coast of Ireland, and known to all lovers of Celtic literature as the 
"Land of the Fairies," and so it isn't surprising that in this beau- 
tiful section we find the Celtic literateurs, Lady Gregory, Edward 
Synge and George Moore, seeking inspiration for their work, with 
James Stephens of The Crock of Gold fame a short distance fur- 
ther down the coast. Some years ago I made a visit to the "De- 
serted City of West Ireland," and had an opportunity of exploring 
"The Aran Isles" through the courtesy of the editor of the Galway 
Times, whose brother, Mr. William Garrow Fisher, was for many 
years a reporter on the New York World. 

My own lines haven fallen in pleasant places. The divinity that 
presides over the Port of New York arranged my entree into this 
world in an old-fashioned house about two blocks from what was 
then known as Catherine Ferry, located on the East River, a short 
distance from Fulton Street. So that my acquaintance with New 
York harbor began at a very early age. I remember as a very young 
child going down to the old Market Street dock to watch the settle- 
ment of quarrels by the manly art of self-defense; and only a block 
further away, where the floating church was located at the foot of 
Pike Street, did I first learn to swim, a lesson I shall never forget, 
because I fell overboard, "clothes and all," and had to sink or swim. 
Later on I had sufficient self-reliance with the other boys in the 
neighborhood to swim across to the opposite shore, and during the 
days of a subsequent particularly severe winter I enjoyed a walk 
across the East River on the ice to the Brooklyn side. 

When the first bridge was in the course of construction, then 
known as the East River Bridge, another youngster, Billy Black- 
ford, son of an old-time stevedore, and I got within the gates on 
the Park Row side and escaping the detection of the watchman 
charged with the responsibility of keeping out intruders, we walked 

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across the open ties on the bridge work to the Brooklyn side. A 
single mis-step would have precipitated either of us to the river 
below. We were promptly ordered out of the Brooklyn side of the 
bridge and came home, across Catherine Ferry, with a vivid recollec- 
tion of the great adventure through which we had passed; an ad- 
venture which lost none of its glory by the telling, in fact the vanity 
of description resulted in the finest spanking my father ever gave 
me. I recall the night of the official opening of the same bridge, the 
fireworks, the music, tooting of the whistles, etc., as I sat straddling 
the bowsprit of a California trader at the foot of Dover Street. 

In those days our vacations were invariably on the Roosevelt 
Street ferry to Hunter's Point or in the Battery Park. Our family 
outing on Sunday afternoon was along South Street from Catherine 
Ferry to the Battery and it was a great joy to hear my father tell 
us his experiences with the various shipping lines and vessels in the 
harbor. 

Before I was ten years of age I was taught how to box the 
compass, the names of the different sails and other parts of the 
various vessels, the difference between the brig and the brigentine, 
the bark and the barkentine, the ship and the schooner. I have fre- 
quently gone with my father at midnight or later, when he would 
receive from the Maritime Exchange a telegram that a particular 
vessel had passed Sandy Hook and was on her way to Quarantine, 
in an open Whitehall boat from Quigley's Basin, alongside of the 
present Barge Office ; seated in the stern, while he rowed over eleven 
miles down the bay to meet the incoming vessel, an event which 
happened more frequently in the winter than in the summer, and on 
those occasions it was not at all a difficult matter for me to climb 
up the side of the vessel or along the rope ladder which led to 
the deck. Some of the sailing vessels of that period with which I 
was quite familiar as a boy were the ships, The City of Philadelphia, 
The Granite State, The Golden State, the bark Benefactor, the bark- 
entine Carrie L. Tyler, and the brig L. W. and P. Armstrong. The 
Golden State and the Benefactor belong to the old firm of A. A. 
Low & Company, of which former Mayor Seth Low's father was the 
leading member. These ships carried cans of oil to Java, China, and 
Japan, and in return brought tea, spices and other commodities for 
the American market. I have seen many interesting things on those 
vessels. Occasionally my father would bring home a parrot or cock- 
atoo or parakeet or Java sparrows, and frequently a monkey. The 
front room on the parlor floor of our house was used by him as an 
office; in this room was an old-fashioned marble mantel, and around 
one of the mantel columns the monkey was tied, making it quite safe 



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for us to tease the monkey, but one day the constant tugging of 
the animal brought down the marble column, smashing one of my 
toes. My mother had a pronounced aversion to the species and saw 
to it after a short time that the monkey was given away. On one 
occasion my father brought home a monkey from the bark Liberia, 
trading from the West Coast of Africa to New York, a very queer, 
light-colored animal, which gave his face an uncanny appearance. 
This monkey was tied to the fence in the yard erected around a stone 
areaway leading into our kitchen. One day, Mary Martin, our good 
old Irish cook, gave the monkey some whiskey, as a result of which 
he became intoxicated; he couldn't stand on his feet although he 
made determined efforts to do so, and apparently was enjoying a 
glorious time ; but in the cold gray dawn of the morning after, the 
monkey hammered his head against the post and seemed to be in 
great agony. For the next few weeks that he was with us Mary 
could not get within twenty feet of that monkey ; when he saw her 
he made desperate efforts to break his leash and punish her for the 
pain and trouble she caused to him. 

Not the least interesting of my reminiscences of those days was 
the arrival of a ship sailing up the harbor to the pier, the sailors 
singing the old-time chanties while they held the ropes or revolved 
the capstain. I remember one night standing at the end of the pier 
fascinated by the great black hull and the immense white sails slowly 
rising into the starlit night, and out of the silence came the melodies 
of the old chanties. Some of the lines of these ocean folksongs are 
quoted today in the book called "The Harbor," by Ernest Poole : 
"As I went a-walking down Paradise Street, 
A pretty young maiden I chanced for to meet." 

A heave on the ropes and a deafening roar, 
"Blow the man down, bullies, 
Blow him right down, 
Hey, hey, blow the man down." 

Until the day he passed away my father never failed to indulge 
his fancy about the Port, deploring the coming of the steam vessel 
to take the place of the sailing ships, the romance of his younger 
days. 

But all of this aside from the question as to what the Sandy 
Hook Pilots' Association of the Port of New York meant to the 
general public. Everybody in those days, at least everybody con- 
nected with shipping or along the river front, knew that the pilot 
boat put out to sea and somewhere beyond the Prohibition limit of 
today boarded the incoming vessels and guided them safely through 
the Channels into the port, occasionally staying aboard the ship 

— 112 — 



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until it readied its berth. The pilots, of course, all lived near the 
water-front, either in lower New York or in Brooklyn or on the 
Jersey side. 

The life of the pilot of today isn't as romantic as it was centuries 
.•1-40 when shipping first began as a necessity for the development of 
commerce in the Eastern section of the Mediterranean Sea. The 
earliest vessel I heard about in my school days, the bark Argonaut, 
sailed through the little harbors in and about the ancient Grecian 
Archipelago; the pilots on that trip were distracted by the flirta- 
tious mermaids, particularly between the rocky shores of Scylla and 
Carybdis. Orpheus, the mythological god of song and the lyre, was 
not only captain of the vessel, but also a good judge of human 
nature. He realized the danger on the part of the pilots on a voy- 
age through these perilous waters unless they were attentive to the 
job for which they were employed. He knew, too, that the pilots 
had a passion for music ; so he promptly took his stand in the bow 
of the vessel and played beautiful melodies on his golden harp, so 
entrancing that they drew the pilots away from the sirens of the 
deep. 

This story long antedated the Christian era, and yet today, as 
at that time, the pilot is recognized as an advance agent for the 
promotion of the progress of the world, to point out the right course 
to the captains of industry, guiding them over the dangerous reefs 
and shoals, that man may not only be clothed and fed but also un- 
hindered in the pursuit of happiness. There is a quotation from the 
Old Testament, Psalm CVII 23, "They that go down in ships, that 
do business in great waters, these see the works of the Lord and 
His wonders in the deep." This inscription over the entrance to 
the Mersey Docks in Liverpool greets every sailor and visitor from 
across the seas and suggests the mystic connection between a life 
of adventure on the ocean blue and unknown greatness of the world 
beyond. This message from the ancient prophets has been a signi- 
ficant incentive for men to choose such a hazardous vocation as the 
pilot's and in a practicable but inconspicuous manner to help in 
the task of colonizing the unknown parts of the world by guiding 
ships of all kinds through perilous places, transporting men, into 
the ports and havens of all points of the compass, in order that 
countries might prosper, that commerce might be developed and 
nations established and progressed. In our population of six mil- 
lion people on the New York side of the Port of New York* many 
speaking strange tongues from every section of the globe, scarcely 
any attention is given to the silent guide whose intimate knowledge 
of the reefs and shoals within and outside of the harbor helps him 



— 113 



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to safely lead the great ocean liners to their berths of safety within 
our harbor. 

The evolution of our port has been one of the extraordinary 
events of the age. An idea of the extent to which the shore front, 
almost eight hundred miles, is utilized in trade alone is disclosed by 
the fact that over two hundred ocean steamship companies and 
agencies operate to foreign ports from New York ; thirty-four 
steamship lines operate to the West Indies and Central America, 
forty-seven lines to South America, ninety-seven lines to Northern 
and Western Europe, sixty-eight to Mediterranean seaports, eight 
to the East and West Coasts and eleven to the South Coast of 
Africa, twenty-nine lines to the Asiatic, Australian and New Zealand 
ports ; something like sixty regular lines are operated in coastwise 
and river trade, six coastwise lines to South Atlantic and Gulf ports, 
fourteen to New England ports, two barge lines carrying freight to 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, and eight boat lines to points up the 
Hudson River ; besides which there are two canal lines operated via 
the New York State Barge Canal to Buffalo and the lake ports. 
London has less than two hundred miles of similar water-front and 
Liverpool, Hamburg, Antwerp and Rotterdam have considerably 
less. At Ambrose Channel, which is as familiar to the Sandy Hook 
pilot as Broadway is to the average theatrical manager, the United 
States Government has spent over half a million dollars for new 
light-houses, buoys and range lanterns, illuminating the entire length 
of the Channel with white lights on buoys on one side and an equal 
number of red lights on the other. Nearly fifty per cent of the 
exports and nearly sixty per cent, of the imports of the United 
States are handled in and through the Port of New York, and on 
the New York side there are approximately six hundred and ninety- 
five piers, of which the United States Government owns twenty, New 
York State owns nine, private interests own four hundred and ten, 
and New York City owns the balance. 

And yet, in spite of this enormous development, the Port of New 
York, the great waterway of this country could not be the immense 
financial and industrial success that it is without the Sandy Hook 
pilot whose clear eye and steady hand locates the points of danger 
which must be carefully avoided by all vessels coming into our 
harbor. 



# ^ 



114 — 



THE STORY OF THE "PILOT 
AND THE 'BOY 

By Palmer Campbell 

THE writer has always been intensely interested in those who 
"go down to the sea in ships"; and so his first recollection of 
the man who pilots the ships up from the seas was a distinct 
thrill and a lasting memory. 

It was in November, 1869, that as a boy of 12 years he voyaged 
from Liverpool on the old S. S. "Calabria" of the Cunard Line. At 
that time the New York and New Jersey Pilots were in intense riv- 
alry for business, and their boats went far out, even to points off 
the Grand Banks, to secure customers. 

The early morning of a smooth misty day revealed two pilot 
boats racing under all canvass to be first to reach the steamer. 

Just which pilot won is not remembered, but the one that did 
will never be forgotten by the boy who watched the race and saw 
the victor win. 

It was a couple of days' run, in those good old days, before the 
pilot's duties and responsibilities commenced, so he had lots of 
time to hang around and swap yarns with the passengers, telling 
them the last he knew of happenings in the new world — some of 
which, because he had himself been away a long time, was stale 
news to the better posted passengers. 

One afternoon the writer sat on the deck amidst a group who 
were talking to the pilot, asking him questions about the country 
they were going to. It may have been that because the small lad 
showed an intense interest, the pilot caught the telepathy of his 
thought; anyhow he turned to the boy and said, "Well, kid, where 
are you going to?" The surprised lad stammered, "I'm going to 
Hoboken, sir." 

The writer remembers the utter confusion with which he was 
covered by reason of the effect of this reply. 

Every one burst into laughter, and the pilot said, "Well, son, 
you are going to the land of 'Beer and Pretzels.' : 

The pilot no doubt, in the course of nature, has taken his last 
trip over the bar. The boy stuck to the land of "Beer and Pret- 
zels," and in the course of events became active in making it a most 
important part of the greatest port in the world and, through the 
experience thus gained, he has realized that the man who safely 
pilots the navigation in and out of the port is after all a most 
valuable and important influence in its development. 

^xi Lex 
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— 115 — 



THE WORLDS GREATEST "PORT 

THERE can be no question but that New York is the greatest 
port in all the world. From the viewpoint of natural harbor 
facilities, New York offers advantages that few other harbors 
of the world have to offer. Even before the extensive dredging at 
the harbor entrance and of the channels was accomplished, New 
York presented a natural haven for shipping and facilities for the 
greatest inflow of world commerce equalled nowhere else on earth. 
There are other world harbors where whole fleets could find safe 
refuge but no other harbors where this particular feature forms but 
one of a dozen features that combine to make New York harbor the 
most important of all. 

From the standpoint of commercial movement the Port of New 
York has also maintained a pre-eminence among the great seaports 
of the world. If America's own merchant fleet did not always con- 
tribute largely to the importance of the Port of New York, the 
merchant fleets of all the other maritime countries of the world did 
contribute towards making New York an all-important seaport. 
Since the growth of the Republic the Port of New York has grown 
apace until, to-day, it stands without a peer among the great sea- 
ports of the habitable globe. 

Many are the things that have contributed to make New York a 
great port and many are the men who have aided in the building 
up of the port's importance. First, naturally, come the shipping 
interests without whom no port could become great; but, second 
come the far-sighted business men who saw New York's possibilities 
and who made the Port of New York so attractive to shippers that 
New York drew the bulk of the trade and traffic coming to the At- 
lantic coast of the United States and gradually grew in commercial 
importance until the name of the city, as a commercial center, be- 
came a by-word throughout the world. 

Even in the earliest days of the Colonies, New York pressed for- 
ward in shipping importance of her harbor. It was a prominent 
British shipmaster who said that the Colonists had done more, be- 
tween 1630 and 16-10, to develop sea shipping than all the rest of 
the world had done in the previous two hundred years. It was 
during the latter year that New York had grown to such propor- 
tions, commercially, that she had absorbed most of New England's 
fur trade, putting New England to the necessity of devoting its time 
and attention to fishing instead of trying to wrest pre-eminence from 
New York as a commercial center and sea-port. Twenty years 
later a Captain Cromwell took other means of bringing the port of 
New York to the attention of the world although, possibly, not in a 
way that would bring him much commendation in these honest, 

— 116 — 











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modern times. This skipper maintained a fleet of sailing ships 
so fast that no pirate (there were plenty of them in those early 
days) or revenue cutter could overtake them and Skipper Cromwell 
automatically exempted himself, therefore, from paying any port 
dues, taxes and the like although he operated his ships out of the 
Port of New York to the West Indies and, overseas, as far as Mada- 
gascar. His shipmasters traded cargoes at sea at their pleasure 
with other shipmasters or, under a mutual display of cannon and 
cutlasses, with pirates. They would also, occasionally, capture 
pirates and their pirate craft — presumably when the pirates refused 
an equitable barter — and return to some lonely point on Long 
Island, or the Highlands and land their honest — and dishonest — 
cargoes, duty-free. The Colony shipmaster — which soon began to 
mean the New York shipmaster — soon got the name of being the 
most intrepid skipper of the sea and a more dreaded factor in the 
life of the pirate than any government revenue or naval officer. 

In these days of prohibition in the United States and the fan- 
tastic fortunes said to have been made by those engaged in boot- 
legging, it is interesting to record the 17th century voyage of a 
Captain Mulcoy, in the American brig Nassau, out of New York for 
Madagascar. Captain Mulcoy bought rum in New York at forty- 
five cents a gallon and sold it oh the island off the African, east coast 
at $15 per gallon. It is not related how many gallons the New 
York skipper took on board when he sailed out of Sandy Hook, but 
the profit per gallon on his cargo was, to say the least, illuminating. 

From New York went the first ship to go from the United States 
to China. She was the Empress of China, a fast clipper — tea clip- 
pers they came to be called — commanded by Captain John Green, 
with her destination as Canton. It is said that the Empress of 
China cleared a profit of $50,000 on the voyage to Canton and back 
and it was not long before a fleet of "tea clippers" was in opera- 
tion in the New York and Canton trade. In those days and up to 
the early part of the nineteenth century, these clipper ships made 
mighty fortunes for their owners and added greatly to the world- 
renown of New York as a commercial port. Among the celebrated 
voyages recorded as having begun in New York are those of the 
clipper ship Columbia, late in eighteenth century, under the com- 
mand of Captain John Kendrick, and the sloop Washington, Cap- 
tain William Gray. The two sailing ships set a course for the 
north-west corner of the United States, via Cape Horn. Captain 
Gray was the first American shipmaster to sail around the world in 
a vessel flying the American flag. From the north Pacific Coast 
Captain Gray returned to New York via Japan, China, Singapore 

— 117 — 



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and the Cape of Good Hope, having thus encircled the waters of the 
globe. Captain Kendrick remained in the North Pacific and went 
on a voyage of discovering, locating and naming the Straits of 
Juan de Fuca and the Columbia River. After dickering with the 
Indians along the Columbia River, purchasing land and building 
forts he opened trade between the Columbia River and Canton and 
made a fortune in gold and the fur trade. Incidentally, this New 
York captain mapped out the present boundary between the United 
States and Western Canada. 

Following the War of 1812 shipping routes were opened between 
New York and the Columbia River, via Cape Horn, the ships out of 
New York went around the Horn to China or the north Pacific Coast 
of the United States almost every day in the year. 

Today every European country with a sea outlet has its own 
merchant fleet represented in the Port of New York. In the old 
days it was not unusual for European services to have their in- 
ception in New York and so came about the establishment of the 
famous Black Ball fleet of fast packets and the opening of the New 
York-Liverpool service by them under the direction of Isaac Wright 
and his associates. These swift sailers were not what would, today, 
be termed leviathans. They were of but 400 tons burden but they 
were palatial ships of their time and they made speed under their 
tremendous — and picturesque — spread of sail. This was in 1816 
and the Black Ball fleet, together with the then existing "tea clip- 
per" fleet, formed the nucleus of a large American merchant marine. 
The names of the Black Ball ships were household words in those 
days, just as the name of the Aquitania, of the Leviathan, the Olym- 
pic and others of their kind are to-day. The clipper fleet included 
the James Monroe, Canada, Britannia, Harvest Queen, Daniel Web- 
ster, Montazuma, Yorkshire, Great Western and the Columbus. 

When, along about 1823, there appeared to be a great need 
for a regular service between New York and Havre, it was a group 
of New York shipping men — not a group of Parisian financiers — 
who started the movement for a service to France and brought it 
into being. Out of courtesy to the French the majority of the 
ships placed in the New York-Havre packet service were given 
French names, such as the Henri IV, Louise Philippe, Silvia de 
Grase, etc. There were also the Mad Helen, Don Quixote, Queen 
Mab, Duchesse d'Orleans, Baltimore, Erie, Utica, William Tell, 
Oneida, France, Mercury, Galia and Poughkeepsie. It was a very 
considerable fleet and greatly enlarged the fame of the Port of New 
York, the hailing port of all these vessels. 



— 118 



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The two decades immediately preceding the Civil War were pro- 
lific in the output of important services having their inspiration and 
inauguration in the Port of New York which, at that time, had 
secured a firm hold in international estimation as the most important 
sea-port of the world. Some of the most famous of latter-day 
clipper ships went out of New York to all parts of the world and 
some of the fastest voyages were recorded, all starting from the an- 
chorages in the Narrows. So it was that the clipper Flying Cloud 
made the voyage from New York to San Francisco, via Cape Horn, 
in eighty-nine days and it was the Flying Cloud's great record that 
caused the building of her sister ship, the Great Republic. 

Decadence of the American merchant marine came hand in hand 
with the war between the North and the South. The vast fleets of 
American ships, mostly of the clipper and packet type, gradually 
disappeared from the harbor of New York. It is interesting, indeed, 
to turn to that veteran pioneer shipping journal, the Maritime 
Register and note in its files of the early sixties the number of sail- 
ing ships — American sailing ships — reported as being in the harbor 
of New York as against the number of foreign vessels listed. Slowly 
but altogether too surely the number of these staunch American 
ships decreased until the American merchant marine became a mere 
skeleton of its former glory. Except, possibly, sentimentally, it 
made little difference to the Port of New York, for the Yankee ships 
gave way to foreign ships and New York harbor remained as crowded 
as ever with shipping from all over the world. Until the world war, 
the same Maritime Register, in its capacity as the unerring, inexor- 
able weekly barometer of the world's shipping, continued to show 
foreign supremacy in the number of ships, not only in service on all 
the seas but in the matter of the New York anchorages. During and 
since the war New York harbor has come into its own again and 
American ships again took the lead in numbers seeking its shelter 
and advantages. 

No world sea-port was called upon to harbor so great a num- 
ber of ships of all nations as was New York during the world war. 
Thanks to men of vision who saw the wonderful future opportuni- 
ties for the Port of New York, vast improvements in harbor and 
pier facilities were undertaken. R. A. C. Smith, as Dock Commis- 
sioner, did much as a latter-day patron of the port and his en- 
thusiasm for everything that would increase the importance of New 
York harbor was unbounded. Murray Hulbert, his successor, saw 
the importance of providing deepened channels and wider fairways 
for New York even before he became Dock Commissioner and worked 
hard for harbor improvements for this port in his capacity as Rep- 



— 119 — 



resentative in Congress. Men not in public life but equally alive to 
the port's future did their full share by building up the warehouse 
facilities, the terminal railroad facilities, harbor transfer facilities 
and freight handling facilities ashore. So the Port of New York 
was built up to its modern, up-to-the-hour standard by public-spir- 
ited men of many varied business activities, running the gamut from 
shipping, marine insurance, warehousing, railroading, harbor trans- 
portation, freight handling, brokerage, quick ship-repairing, truck- 
ing and ship chandlery to the more remotely connected industries. 

There are no finer wharfing facilities in any port of the world 
today than in New York Harbor. We have yet to reach the state 
of perfection where trains with merchandise may roll right up to the 
outgoing freight steamers or where empty trains may roll right up 
to outgoing vessels on the piers but even in that direction the Port 
of New York has made a very good start. Vessels of any draught 
may safely come to an anchorage in the calm waters of the upper 
or lower bay, however, and there are few piers along the broad 
Hudson where deep-draught deep-sea craft cannot find immediate 
berthing facilities at either high or low tide. 

On any bright morning — for New York's shipping seems to 
come out of every nook and corner of the harbor like bees swarming 
from the hive, coaxed out by a brilliant morning sun — one could 
take a photograph from the Battery, with Staten Island as the dis- 
tant background, and have a picture that would be practically legal 
proof that half a hundred craft were doing their maritime best to 
run into, sideswipe or back up against one another. On such a 
morning one may see ocean steamships, with perhaps an Olympic, 
a Mauretania or Rotterdam in the general scheme, sailing vessels, 
coal barges, steam lighters and queer little local lighters depending 
upon one awkward and disreputable sail for motive power, puffing 
and wheezing little tugboats, coastwise steamers and veranda-decked 
Sound steamers and excursion craft, little yawls with noisy "kick- 
ers," mud scows at the ends of huge tow lines and the inevitable row- 1 
boats of the junk dealers, all happily pursuing their independent 
courses amidst a perfect din of shrieking whistles from the smaller 
steam and motor vessels and the low, sonorous blasts from the deep- 
throated whistles of the craft of more imposing tonnage. 

The war changed much in New York Harbor, as it changed much 
in other parts of the world — not forgetting Potsdam and Vienna. 
So it is that the famous old "tea wharves" and the Far East stores 
are now not so distinctly segregated as they were before the days 
of 1914. Over in South Brooklyn, for instance, there used to be an 
unmistakable smell of spices, teas and things Oriental, with a visible 



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mixture of turbanned Lascars and Javanese, where the docks of the 
freight lines running ships to and from the Far East. Army bases, 
born of war's necessities, have supplanted some of these interesting 
places along the New York water-front, although a return to normal 
conditions is doing away with the last vestiges of militarism and 
navalism, in and about the harbor of America's greatest city. Still, 
distinct sections for distinct foreign products are no longer the 
rule and the Lascar crew now walks ashore from under the shadow 
of the Woolworth Building, at a Hudson River pier, quite as often 
as from a pier in the old Red Hook flats section. 

Although at this very instant rejoicing in the return to nor- 
malcy and the gradual disappearance of army bases in the Port of 
New York, a sketch of the port's history would hardly be complete 
without calling attention to the wonderful engineering feat accom- 
plished when some brilliant mind in the Army Engineer's Office 
thought out a scheme to enlarge famous Governor's Island. The 
work was begun several years before the world war began and New 
Yorkers generally opined that it was a needless expenditure of gov- 
ernment (and the tax-payers') funds and of no use except to pro- 
vide the garrison's officers and their families more promenade room 
and better tennis court facilities. It is not on record who first sug- 
gested the extensive job that finally converted Governor's Island 
into a body of land, surrounded entirely by water, of a size suffi- 
cient to provide space for a respectable small city ; but it is a matter 
of record that, since the memorable day in April, 1916, when the 
United States decided that we would enter the world war, the gov- 
ernment was able to expedite effective shipments overseas directly 
from its New York military reservation and to train thousands of 
men there, a feat that would have been entirely out of question 
before Governor's Island was made more than twice as large by the 
mere reclamation of a shallow-water portion of the upper bay. The 
man who first suggested the improvement built better than he knew 
— unless he had inside information at least five years in advance of 
any other American as to Germany's plans for August, 1914. 
Thirty-five large, fire-proof warehouses, each with a standard gauge 
railroad track, on either side, on which freight cars are brought and 
loaded directly at the doors of the warehouses, today form an elo- 
quent tribute to the fortunate idea that the originator of the Gov- 
ernor's Island improvement developed and carried to a successful 
finish. Airplanes, now so common that the average New Yorker 
hardly lifts his eyes from his morning or afternoon newspaper to 
glance at them in the skies, rise up from one of the most complete 
aviation fields in the country — in the heart of the Governor's Island 



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extension — all day long of every day in the week, and huge car floats 
bring to or take away from the military reservation long strings of 
filled or empty freight ears, with huge locomotives puffing over the 
twenty miles of tracks on the island, where formerly a ten-minute 
gallop on horse-back sufficed to cover the entire circuit of the re- 
servation for the army officers stationed there. 

There is a good story in connection with the Governor's Island 
improvement that ought to go down in history. Before a single 
foundation stone was laid for the new sea wall of the larger island, 
bids were asked for establishing and maintaining a light at the south- 
ern-most end of the proposed extension, "with a vessel anchored at 
the point." The successful bidder received, it has been said on 
good authority, ten dollars per day for providing "a vessel at an- 
chor" — besides pay for the services of a watchman at all hours on 
board the vessel. It has been told and never denied that the suc- 
cessful bider paid one hundred dollars for a little schooner and had 
her towed out to the point where the light was to be maintained. 
At high water the little schooner was maneuvered directly over the 
shoal, with some difficulty, settling down gracefully on the rocks at 
low water, and from that day until her presence was no longer nec- 
essary, about five years in all, she drew ten dollars a day for her 
lucky owner. When time came to remove the "vessel at anchor" 
they picked the loose boards and beams and loaded them on a float, 
for the schooner would have crumbled into pieces had a tow-line 
been fastened to her. Some eighteen hundred days at ten dollars 
per diem seems a fair return for an initial and total investment of 
something less than two hundred dollars. 

Thus we have shown that, besides offering the greatest natural 
shelter of any port in the world, the most extensive dock facilities, 
anchorage facilities and harbor transfer facilities, the Port of New 
York also may boast one of the greatest harbor-island military 
bases, one of the show spots, surely, of the port, and one of the 
most important harbor improvements ever undertaken. 

There are still greater improvements contemplated for New York 
Harbor, chief among which is the belt line elevated structure which, 
it is planned, will provide a continuous freight route touching at 
every pier along the Hudson and East Rivers, obviating the present 
necessity of rehandling freight to and from shipping, which is grow- 
ing in volume every year. Such a plan would do away with much of 
the harbor congestion in that the cumbersome freight-car floats 
would no longer be needed to transport freight cars from one section 
of the port to another between railroad terminals and the steamship 
piers. 



122 — 





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No outline of the Port of New York is complete without a men- 
tion of the fishing fleet, ;i most formidable adjunct to the port's com- 
mercial importance. Of course fishing is not done on the same pic- 
turesque lines — from out of New York harbor — as it was done in 
former years; but there is still considerable activity in the famous 
Fulton Fish Market, which has held its place at the same location 
through all the years and through the various periods of moderniz- 
ing. This applies equally well to the fisher folk as to the vessels they 
use in their trade and the manner in which they dispose of their 
wares. The advent of cold storage has taken much of the quaintness 
out of Fulton Market but every now and then there is a report of an 
old-time race between rival fishermen and the arrival of the swift, 
clean-cut although smelly fishing boats is always a matter of excite- 
ment and speculation along the East River water front. 

There has been rapid and splendid improvement in steamship 
piers during the last ten years. The advent of the Mauretania and 
Lusitania made the change of pier facilities imperative and the 
arrival of the Lusitania, the pioneer giantess of the seas, at the 
newly constructed Chelsea piers, then still uncovered, was an event 
that drew hundreds of thousands of persons to the section of Man- 
hattan just above Gansevoort Market. Before those days the 
ships of the Cunard Line, like those of the White Star Line, berthed 
just below Gansevoort Market, the piers now occupied by the 
Southern Pacific Company. The French Line used an old pier 
structure at the foot of Morton Street, while the American Line 
had its New York Terminal at the old piers at the foot of Cortland 
Street. The structure and roof of the old French Line pier was 
the original roof of Mechanics Hall of the Centennial Exposition 
and was brought over from Philadelphia in 1876 and placed over 
the open Morton Street pier. The historic pier structure was 
removed when the French Line moved to the new Chelsea pier and 
floated down the Hudson River to a junk yard. The sight of the 
historic pier being towed to a South Brooklyn "graveyard," where 
old ships and marine junk are gathered prior to being made over 
into salable parts, was one of the events in the harbor the day the 
old Mechanics Hall roof came drifting around the Battery on her 
way to the Brooklyn shore. 

In a resume of the statistical history of the Port of New York, 
former Collector of the Port, Byron R. Newton, brought some in- 
teresting figures showing the growth of commerce in New York 
viewed from a shipping standpoint. Including the coastwise trade, 
said Mr. Newton some time ago, the commerce of the Port of 
New York amounts annually to the enormous figure of more than 



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five billions of dollars and the more interesting thing is that, so 
far as human vision can reach, the Port of New York has just be- 
gun to grow. Ordinary statistics are uninteresting but the statistics 
of the port of New York tell a story of magical growth. In the 
year 1850, Mr. Newton points out, the foreign commerce of the 
port of New York, imports and exports, amounted to $163,336,313. 
In the year 1917 — sixty-seven years later — the foreign commerce of 
the port amounted to $-1,391,318,859, an increase of nearly four 
and a half billions, or a growth of 2,700 per cent in sixty-seven 
years. In 1850 the port of New York transacted 19 per cent of 
the import and export trade of the United States ; in 1917 it trans- 
acted 50.2 per cent, showing through the interim of sixty-seven 
years a marvelous development and growth, during which time many 
other ports of foreign trade were established in this country. The 
port of New York has not only maintained its proportionate stand- 
ard of commerce in 1850, but has made an advance. It will thus be 
seen that through this one gateway of the hemisphere on the At- 
lantic seaboard there passes each year more than one-half the for- 
eign commerce of the country. While the commerce of most of the 
other ports of the world has materially diminished during the period 
of the world war the commerce of the port of New York has steadily 
grown, as will be seen by the following table of imports and exports 
of merchandise at the customs district of New York during the 
fiscal years from 1912 to 1920, inclusive: 



Year 


Imports 


1912 


$ 975,744,320 


1913 


1,048,329,629 


1914 


1,040,380,526 


1915 


931,011,058 


1916 


1,191,865,982 


1917 


1,338,199,355 


1918 


1,251,386,373 


1919 


1,443,504,899 


1920 


2,892,621,089 


The 


above table not < 



Exports 

$ 817,945,803 
917,935,988 
864,546,338 
1,193,581,088 
2,332,286,213 
3,053,119,504 
2,613,048,763 
3,204,992,419 



Total 
$1,793,690,123 
1,966,265,617 
1,904,926,864 
2,124,592,146 
3,524,152,195 
4,391,318,859 
3,864,435,136 
4,638,497,318 
6,176,494,431 



3,283,873,342 

not only shows the remarkable growth of the 
commerce of the Port of New York at the end of the fiscal year of 
1920 but taking in consideration that the total imports of the 
entire country during 1920 were $5,278,481,490 and the total 
exports of the country were $8,080,480,821 during the same fiscal 
year, shows that the Port of New York's imports during that year 
were 54.8% of the total imports of the entire United States and 
the exports 39.91^ of the country's total. If anything were needed 



— 124 — 



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to show the pre-eminence of New York as a commercial port these 
figures furnish the indisputable proof. 

Nature's architect and development of the world's commerce 
have made the port of New York what it is, and these same factors 
will perpetuate and enlarge its importance as the commercial centre 
of the world. It is the natural, convenient and practical gateway 
to the great storehouse of the world today. 

Figures covering the entrance and departure of vessels from 
the various world ports for the year 1920 are not available, with a 
few exceptions, at this time, but it may be pointed out that the 
comparison between New York and Antwerp, one of the important 
ports of Europe, show which way the "wind blows" in the matter 
of shipping supremacy. During 1920 -15,637 vessels, aggregating 
64,104,035 tons, entered and cleared United States ports, of which 
total 5,283 vessels entered and cleared from the Port of New York. 
If it is taken into consideration that there are twenty-six customs 
districts in the United States, of which the Port of New York forms 
one district, New York assumed the responsibility of nearly 10% 
of the total ship movements of the entire United States out of 
twenty-six customs districts. Of the total of 61,101,035 tons that 
moved in and out of the United States customs districts, the Port 
of New York moved a total of 17,101,188 tons, or between one- 
third and one-fourth of the total tonnage of shipping for the entire 
United States. As against the 61,101,035 tons of shipping that 
moved in and out of the Port of New York during 1920, but 20,- 
703.000 tons of shipping moved in and out of the port of Antwerp 
during the same year and but 10,896,694 tons moved in and out of 
the port of Marseilles, another very active world port, during the 
same period. 

New York, therefore, safely holds its place as the greatest com- 
mercial port of the world and it is to the business men of New York, 
the shipping men of New York, the marine insurance men of New 
York and to all those who have contributed in any way to advanc- 
ing the port's interests as the greatest world harbor that credit 
should be given for this great commercial supremacy. It is in that 
spirit and the belief that any work purporting to portray the de- 
velopment of our Port would be sadly incomplete without fitting 
reference to the individual business interests which have been such 
vital factors in its growth, that the Sandy Hook Pilots have deemed 
it a pleasure to include in their book brief articles of interest re- 
garding such concerns which, in many cases, will be found of very 
great historical value. 



— 125 — 




R. A. C. SMITH 

Dock Commissioner of the City of New York during the administration of 

Mayor Gay nor 



PORT FACILITIES 

NO PORT in the world perhaps lias developed to so great 
proportions in such a short period as has the Port of New 
York. Commenting on its phenomenal growth and its great 
facilities, Former Dock Commissioner K. A. C. Smith has to say: 
"I shall always consider it a very great privilege to have repre- 
sented the City of New York in its port administration before and 
during part of the Great War. I came to the dock commissioner- 
ship after a lifetime spent in close touch with maritime affairs, and 
a full realization of the magnitude of the task of operating the 
greatest port in the world. It was not, however, until the actual 
outbreak of the war that the port was called upon to carry a bur- 
den which it was never designed to bear. How splendidly its facili- 
ties met the nation's need is now a matter of history. Federal, State 
and City authorities all worked in the utmost harmony. 

"The orderly building up of the port for commercial needs did 
not stop during the war. In the four and one-half years of my 
commissionership, over seven and one-half miles of new commercial 
wharfage space was provided, including immense freight piers in 
South Brooklyn, and the finest passenger pier in the world on the 
North River at 44th street, Manhattan, the first of a series of piers 
which the City must eventually construct. These structures were 
planned under my administration before the World War, and were 
built during those critical days because the officials were big enough 
to see that the Port of New York was bound to go forward and 
that it must be kept the premier port of the world. 

"The piers which were built served splendidly the purposes, help- 
ing out the army and navy by supplementing the Hoboken piers of 
the former German liners, which were used as the port of em- 
barkation. 

"Much has been said of the lack of organization of the port of 
New Y r ork — its congestion and the difficulty and expense w T ith which 
business is done in this harbor. There is undoubtedly some truth 
in these criticisms and complaints ; but that New York is the worst 
organized port in the world, as is so frequently stated, is very far 
from the truth. Many of the criticisms leveled at the Port are 
dictated from ignorance as to actual conditions and the underlying 
reasons for certain shipping practices which perhaps appear crude 
to the superficial onlooker. The Port undoubtedly suffers from 
lack of continuity of administration. The practically automatic 
changing of commissioners every four years does not make for 
efficiency ; and it is difficult to secure competent men willing to make 
the great personal sacrifice involved in accepting the office of dock 
commissioner. 

— 127 — 



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"Whether the plan recently adopted of an interstate commis- 
sion will work out successfully remains to be seen. Much depends 
upon whether the development and management of the port is 
approached with a practical appreciation of its necessities. All of 
those sincerely interested in the future of the port will await with 
intense interest the production of practical plans by the interstate 
port authorities. 

"There is one point which particularly interests pilots and those 
engaged in the navigation of vessels, and that is the constant tend- 
ency to encroach upon the fairway of the Hudson River. Both 
during my commissionership and prior to that time as chairman of 
the New York State Commission on Port Conditions and Pier Ex- 
tensions, the matter was thrashed out very carefully with the Secre- 
tary of War, Hon. Elihu Root, and his successors, after numerous 
hearings before the N. Y. Harbor Line Board under the direction of 
its able staff of engineers headed by William M. Black, later Chief of 
Engineers ; and the city formally pledged itself not to seek further 
extensions ; to consider the Chelsea Pier extensions as temporary 
and to proceed in the carrying out of a program for taking care 
of the Leviathan type of passenger ships by constructing a great 
marine terminal in the neighborhood of West 44th street, already 
alluded to. The first step was the building of the 44th street pier, 
1,000 ft. in length, 360 ft. slips with 44 ft. depth. The city should 
keep to its pledge and no further encroachments should be tolerated. 

"Our entry into the World War prevented the construction of 
the Staten Island piers, and other improvements on lower Man- 
hattan, which have since been carried out by the city." 



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THE PORT OF °MEW YORK 
AUTHORITY 

THE difficulties under a divided jurisdiction of two States and 
more than a hundred municipalities have heretofore precluded 
a rational and co-ordinated development of the Port of New- 
York's great natural advantages. 

Realizing what it meant to both States, New York and New Jer- 
sey in 1917 created a Commission made up of representatives of 
the two States and provided funds for the study of this problem. 

The creation of the Port District and the New York Port Au- 
thority, is the outcome of this study. 

Under laws passed by the States of New York and New Jersey, 
the Port Treaty or compact, was signed on April 30, 1921, by the 
designated representatives of each State. By this Treaty, both 
States agree to, and pledge to each with the other faithful co-op- 
eration in the future planning and development of the Port of New 
York, holding in high trust for the benefit of the nation the spe- 
cial blessings and natural advantages thereof. 

Thereby was created the Port of New York District, extending 
roughly from the City Hall, in Manhattan, 25 miles to the north, 
16 miles to the east, 23 miles to the south, and 20 miles to the west; 
including the principal communities within what has been been called 
the Metropolitan District in New York and in New Jersey. 

By the Port Treaty there was created and placed in jurisdic- 
tion over this district the Port of New York Authority, a public 
corporation made up of three men appointed by each State. 

The Congress of the United States, realizing the value of co- 
operation between the communities in the development of the Port, 
approved this compact, and its approval was signed by President 
Harding on August 23, 1921. 

The members of the Port Authority are Eugenius H. Outer- 
bridge, of New York, Chairman; J. Spencer Smith, of New Jersey, 
Vice-chairman; Commissioners Alfred E. Smith, of New York, Lewis 
H. Pounds, of New York, De Witt Van Buskirk, of New Jersey 
and Frank R. Ford, of New Jersey. Offices are maintained at 11 
Broadway, New York City. 

The Port Authority is directed by law to make studies, con- 
duct investigations, hold hearings and conferences, and to submit a 
comprehensive plan for the development of the Port District based 
upon the results of such studies, investigations, hearings and con- 
ferences, together with recommendations for such legislation as they 
may deem appropriate for the effectuation and consummation of 
such plan. 

— 129 — 



THE AMERICAN "BUREAU OF 

SHIPPING 

ONE of the feats already accomplished in our nation-wide 
efforts for the rehabilitation of our merchant marine, was the 
building up and establishment on a firm foundation of Amer- 
ica's classification society, the American Bureau of Shipping. 

This desideratum was early recognized as one of the principal 
obstacles to overcome in the renaissance of our ocean shipping, for 
without it we would still be dependent upon the classification 
facilities of our leading rivals in shipping, in order to aid in 
accomplishing that vital concomitant of a merchant marine, a 
successful marine insurance system controlled within our own 
borders by American companies. A group of the leading American 
ship-owners, marine underwriters and shipbuilders early in 1916, 
after debating various ways and means of accomplishing this 
object, decided that the best method of procedure would be to 
but breathe the breath of life in the then somewhat somnolent 
American institution known as the American Bureau of Shipping. 
This organization chartered by the State of New York, had then 
been in existence for nearly half a century, but on account of 
comparatively small needs incident to an inconsequential merchant 
marine, had very limited facilities for undertaking what was then 
seen by these men of vision, the classification of the immense fleet 
necessary to put the United States on the map as a contender in 
the ocean carrying trade. Donations of sufficient amount were 
immediately forthcoming from the patriotic supporters of the 
necessary reorganization, and Mr. Stevenson Taylor, a man well 
known and respected in the shipping industry and who possessed 
the necessary qualifications for this great undertaking, was unani- 
mously agreed upon to head the organization. How well he, with 
the patriotic backing of many leading Americans has succeeded in 
the task, is well shown in the success of the bureau today. 

Overcoming almost insurmountable obstacles the organization 
was built up to such a point of efficiency that the United States 
Government, by Act of Congress approved June 5th, 1920, gave 
it recognition, and declared it to be the official classification 
society for all branches of the federal government. It also, by 
the same act, placed two representatives, one from the Shipping 
Board and one from the Department of Commerce, on its executive 
committee. 

As a result of all these efforts, this society is today capable of 
furnishing recognized and reliable classification in this country for 
all American owned vessels, without recourse to the long established 
classification agencies of our foreign competitors. Its surveyors 

— 130 — 



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may be found at all the larger American seaports, and at all places 
where ships are built or ship material is manufactured in this 
country. 

Now that the great rush of shipbuilding in this country has 
subsided, and we are about to enter upon normal conditions in all 
branches of industry, the managers of the society are engaged in 
perfecting various details which a national classification society 
should undertake, in order to make it of the greatest value in 
building up our merchant marine in all its branches. 

As our ships emerged from the building yards and became 
engaged in transporting our goods to the various ports of the 
world, it became incumbent upon the Bureau to expand its facil- 
ities for survey work at such leading parts of the globe, where 
they could be of the greatest service to our shipping. Hence, its 
Board of Managers appropriated a sufficient sum of money to 
establish exclusive agencies, after thorough investigation as to our 
needs, at ports most frequented by our merchantmen. Already 
competent surveyors, American citizens carefully selected, have 
been located at such ports as Shanghai, Hamburg, Antwerp, 
Havre, Bordeaux, Buenos Aires, Rio Janeiro, San Juan, Porto 
Rico, Havana, etc. Non-exclusive surveyors of the Bureau are to 
be found at nearly all ports where American ships may call, and 
as rapidly as our trade expands and the conditions warrant, 
exclusive surveyors will be detailed from the trained force at home, 
to the principal ports not now so covered. 

An alliance has been entered into with the British Corporation, 
the Registro Navale Italiano and the Imperial Maritime Corpo- 
ration of Japan, whereby all classification work in this country for 
those societies and all American Bureau inspections in ports of 
those countries will be looked after by the recognized exclusive 
surveyors of each nation. At certain other ports throughout the 
world exclusive surveyors for the members of the alliance will be 
maintained, where otherwise the conditions might warrant the 
emplo3 T ment of non-exclusive surveyors only for the individual 
classification societies. 

Recognizing the growing importance of internal combustion 
ngines, and the inadequacy of all existing classification rules for 
engines of this type, the American Bureau has recently thoroughly 
revised its rules for this type of motive power. They are to be 
promulgated at the beginning of the year, and all who have seen 
them unite in the opinion that they are the most comprehensive 
rules yet prepared. In addition to the services of its own tech- 
nical committee on engineering, the Bureau has had the coopera- 

— 131 — 



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tion and advice of a committee of engine manufacturers repre- 
sentative of the industry in this country. 

The Bureau's policy will be conservatively to modernize or 
amend its rules from time to time to keep pace with scientific 
advancement in the art of ship and engine building, or to recognize 
and give the advantages of classification to those branches of 
marine construction which hitherto has, in a manner, been sub- 
ordinated or ignored by the recognized classification societies. An 
important field of this kind is believed to be the standardization of 
rules governing the construction and equipment of the various 
t} r pes of harbor and river craft, such as barges, tugboats, railroad 
floats, river steamboats, both passenger and freight, etc., and the 
Bureau will shortly undertake to prepare some special rules to 
encourage this type of classification. Marine insurance under- 
writers of great experience believe that such procedure would be 
of benefit in eventually reducing insurance rates on this class of 
risks. 










132 — 



THE UNITE® STATES 
SHIP OPERATORS ASSOCIATION 

By Chas. H. Potter. 

THE SHIPPING BOARD, hampered by lack of tradition and 
of shipping policies developed during long years of experi- 
ence, was confronted with the question of disposal or opera- 
tion of an unprecedented amount of tonnage. In seeking the solu- 
tion of this problem — the establishment of a sound national ship- 
ping policy — the Board was greatly embarrassed and hindered in 
its work by the various and often conflicting recommendations and 
criticisms with which it was overwhelmed by commercial and politi- 
cal interests scattered throughout the country. 

During this period the American Steamship Owners' Associa- 
tion was playing its full part in endeavoring to shape the future of 
our Merchant Marine. But its efforts were seriously handicapped 
by the fact that it represented and controlled only the owners of 
tonnage while numerous non-owning shipping companies which had 
been in business for many years, together with others operating 
Shipping Board tonnage which had come into existence since 1915 
and which were entitled and destined to play their part in the future 
of the Merchant Marine of this country, were subject to no guiding 
influence and were without any group protection. 

The necessity of co-ordinating these new interests and bringing 
them under the guidance of a common organization which would 
not only protect their rights and concentrate their influence and 
activities behind a sound, conservative national shipping policy, 
brought into being the United States Ship Operators' Association 
which was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York 
in October, 1919, to promote and advance the economical man- 
agement and operation of American vessels, government-owned or 
otherwise ; to cooperate with the United States Government officials 
and to facilitate the administration of its bureaus, having jurisdic- 
tion over maritime matters ; to work for the improvement of laws, 
regulations and rulings and to secure uniformity in customs and 
usages, in relation thereto ; to diffuse accurate marine information 
and to strengthen and enlarge friendly intercourse between men en- 
gaged in and about ships and shipping to the end that the Merchant 
Marine of the United States may attain its greatest efficiency. 

The United States Ship Operators' Association, Inc., has grown 
until it numbers among its members seventy steamship companies 
who are geographically located along the entire seaboard of this 
country. The officers for 1921 are: Charles H. Potter, of New 
York, President ; 0. D. Mallory, of New York, Vice-President ; F. 

— 133 — 



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H. Hasler, of New York City, Secretary ; Marcus H. Tracy, of New- 
York, Treasurer; Robert Strange, Counsel. Owing to the number 
and location of the members from Maine to California, it has not 
been practical to hold frequent meetings of all the members and 
the active work of the Association has developed upon the Gov- 
erning Committee. 

The members of the Governing Committee are : F. E. Hasler, 
Charles T. Megee, C. H. Potter, Marcus H. Tracy, J. T. Lykes, 
Warren A. Blake, Clifford D. Mallory, Winchester Noyes, James 
Xunoz, Matthew Hale, C. H. Callaghan, Willis D. Benson, H. K. 
Nutting, Charles Yates and Albert R. Lafonta. 

Due to the constantly changing relations between the Shipping 
Board and the Operators of Government tonnage, the work of the 
representatives of this Association on the Standing Committee on 
Managing Agents' Agreement with the United States Shipping 
Board, has been of the utmost importance. 

This committee grew out of a joint endeavor on the part of the 
American Steamship Owners' Association and this Association to 
establish a medium of contact between the operators and the United 
States Shipping Board. Through this committee the members of 
the Association are given a direct approach to the Shipping Board 
for all interpretations, recommendations and complaints. Likewise 
it is a source from which the members will be kept promptly and 
accurately advised of matters pending before the Board. The high- 
est commendation of the work of this Committee is the recogni- 
tion it has received from the Shipping Board. 

The establishment of a sound and stable American Merchant 
Marine in which its members will be co-builders and co-partners 
freed from unnecessary and unwise supervision, is the objective of 
the United States Ship Operators' Association. 



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— 134 — 



TODD SHI<PYS£R<DS CORPORATION 

FROM the moment ;i ship leaves the construction way it is sub- 
jected to incessant and gigantic strains. Exerted against it is 
every force of nature. No fabric of man is required to meet 
more severe tests. A modern maritime nation therefore cannot rest 
bv merely building ships ; it must provide adequate facilities for the 
maintenance of its argosies. 

Repair and re-fitting today demand ability to perform prodi- 
gious work with prodigious speed. The loss on an inactive ship is 
tremendous and every hour spent in a repair yard counts. A mod- 
ern ship-repair plant must be able to accommodate every ship in- 
stantly and to begin work on it instantly with every resource of 
power — brain power, tool power, shop power, and the power to 
command material and supplies. 

America is exceptionally fortunate in its ambition for maritime 
supremacy in having within its harbors the greatest ship-repair 
organization in the world ; the Todd Shipyards Corporation. The 
Todd organization has attained this enviable international distinc- 
tion by its ever-ready ability to handle any class of repair job 
offered, big or little, with thoroughness and despatch. 

During the great World War when the never-ending cry was 
"Ships, ships, give us ships," and every American yard was taxed 
to its very utmost capacity, the great Todd organization functioned 
smoothly and efficiently and when a job came into any one of its 
yards under seemingly impossible completion conditions it was done, 
and done on time. Like President Grant, "Bill" Todd, as he is 
known throughout the shipping world, believes the way to do a 
thing is to do it. When Grant ordered resumption of specie pay- 
ments all the great financiers of his day raised their voices in holy 
horror and said it would bankrupt the nation ; that it was an im- 
possible thing to do. They asked him how specie payments could 
be resumed with practically no specie to resume with. He said, 
"Gentlemen, the way to resume is to resume. We have resumed." 
So it is with William H. Todd, the guiding genius of the Todd Cor- 
poration. When a thing needs to be done it is done. 

The organization which has been brought to such a high state 
of efficiency by Mr. Todd is a federation of expert men and great 
plants for united application of the best modern industrial practice 
to every kind of shipwork from construction to interior decoration. 
It is equipped to build any vessel from ocean liner or warship to river 
barge. It possesses unsurpassed facilities for repair, remodelling, 
lengthening and refitting of ships of any character and for any 
service. Tt has made world records in the handling of the biggest 
repair jobs thfit have ever been sent to American yards. 

— 135 — 




WILLIAM H. TODD 



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The main offices of flic Corporation are at 25 Broadway, New 
York City, from where the activities of its nine plant units are 
directed; six on the Atlantic, two on the Pacific coast, and one in 
England. The Robins Dry Dock and Repair Co., the Tietjen & 
Lang Dry Dock Co., the Tebo Yacht Basin Co., the Clinton Dry 
Docks, Inc., The Erie Basin Towing & Hoisting Co., and the White 
Fuel Oil Engineering Corporation are the Atlantic coast plants 
located on the waters of New York harbor. The Todd Dry Dock 
& Construction Corporation of Tacoma, Wash., and the Todd Dry 
Docks, Inc., of Seattle, Wash., are the Pacific coast plants and 
Todd Oil Burners of London, England, is the new subsidiary across 
the sea. 

The united resources of the yards and plants of the corpora- 
tion comprise more than 200 acres of land and service area. There 
are two graving docks, twenty-one floating dry docks, twelve ship- 
building ways, twenty-five piers, one hundred and ten shops, eight 
power plants, ten service vessel and seventeen thousand employees. 

Co-operation binds all the organizations, yards and plants of 
the Corporation into one powerful whole which is at any moment 
capable of concentrated effort. In all other respects, however, each 
organization is an independent unit for itself, with its individual 
prestige to maintain. This makes for exceedingly sharp competi- 
tion between them all for achievement, efficiency, speed and econ- 
omy ; but there is free interchange of knowledge and experience, 
mutual enjoyment of inventions and improvements and, when nec- 
essary, exchange of resources. 

Each plant is not only a unit in itself, but the unit principle is 
so applied that every vessel obtains unit treatment precisely as if it 
were the only vessel in a yard devoted entirely to it. This concen- 
trated individual attention is made possible by ample berthing spaces 
and dockage capacities, an abundance of experienced workers, and 
every modern facility for applying power in all its forms directly to 
every ship. The combined capacity and resources of the Corpora- 
tion permit the handling of more than one hundred and fifty ships 
at once under this concentrated unit plan of operation. 

There is also still another feature of the Todd system that has 
contributed in no small measure to the exceptional efficiency of the 
organization and that is the ample provision made for the care and 
comfort of Todd employees. In each yard a "safety" engineer sys- 
tematically and continuously conducts an educational campaign to 
interest the men in "Safety First" measures. Bulletins, graphically 
descriptive of the right and the wrong way of using tools, are posted 
in prominent places throughout each plant. Monthly tables show- 



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ing the percentage of accidents reported from each department dur- 
ing the month with short articles showing how many of them could 
have been averted are published in the house magazine, The Keel. 
The results of this work are highly satisfactory. The reports of the 
safety engineers each month show a steady decrease in the number 
of avoidable accidents and carelessness has been eliminated to a 
remarkable degree. 

Each of the plant units also possesses a fully equipped emer- 
gency hospital, attended by a competent surgeon and a staff of 
graduate nurses. So long as men are at work in the yards or shops, 
whether during regular hours or overtime, the hospitals are kept 
open in all departments. The efficient functioning of these hos- 
pital units has saved many lives. Each of the hospitals are 
equipped with the most modern surgical and medical appliances. 
The equipment includes the latest X-ray and fluroscopic apparatus, 
electrical apparatus for administering d'Arsonval, thermofardic and 
sinusoidal electricity, magnets for the removal of steel from the eye, 
pulmotors, as well as the necessary instruments for all minor opera- 
tions and for emergency major operations. 

Recognizing the fact that "all work and no play makes Jack a 
dull boy," the executives of the Corporation encouraged and aided 
in every way possible the formation and activities of the Todd 
Shipyards Athletic Association. As members of the Association, 
Todd employees have won high places in track and field events of 
every nature ; baseball, bowling, basket-ball and soccer football. 
Both the teams of the Robins Dry Dock and Repair Co. and the 
Tebo Yacht Basin Company have won the championships of many 
of the leagues and their fame is known to every amateur fan in the 
country. 

In the foregoing paragraphs the writer has endeavored to briefly 
portray the physical properties of a great commercial organization 
from the viewpoint and observations of one who has piloted many 
of its products in and out of New York harbor. From the same 
viewpoint the writer is prompted to say in closing that in a gen- 
eral survey of the accomplishments of the Todd Corporation ; of 
the extraordinary tasks the burdens of commerce and the fortunes 
of war have from time to time assigned to it ; of the masterly man- 
ner in which such tasks were executed ; of the technical and mechani- 
cal ability the stress of need brought out in its organization ; and of 
the brilliant feats accomplished in the face of overwhelming odds, 
the observer is given abundant reason for believing that the Todd 
Shipyards Corporation will ever be one of, if not the greatest, 
factor in restoring and maintaining the Stars and Stripes supreme 



on iho great highways of the sea. 



138 — 



ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE 
CUNARD LINE 

A NAME well known and honored wherever .steamships float is 
that of Samuel Cunard, founder of the Cunard Line and pio- 
neer of the Atlantic ferry. He was born in Canada in 1787 
and Avas the son of an American citizen of Philadelphia, who had 
settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

In the course of years, Mr. Cunard became a leading merchant 
and shipowner in Halifax. He had been engaged in carrying on the 
mail service between Boston, Newfoundland and Bermuda and was 
among the earliest to recognize the advantages possessed by steamers 
•over sailing vessels for regularity of schedule. 

For some time he had pondered over developing a regular serv- 
ice of steamers between England and America. The mails for the 
United States were being sent over in sailing vessels and during the 
year 1838 the British Government had sent circulars broadcast in- 
viting bids for a faster and more reliable means of transit for postal 
matter by steam vessels. One of these circulars found its way into 
the hands of Samuel Cunard and he immediately concluded that here 
was a golden opportunity to carry out his project under the aus- 
pices of the British Government. 

Unable to raise the necessary capital in Halifax, where the mer- 
chants did not look with favor on his scheme, Mr. Cunard sailed for 
England, resolved to raise sufficient capital to put his ideas into 
practice. He was now fifty years old. He received but little sym- 
pathy in London, but he had a letter of introduction to Mr. Robert 
Napier, a shipbuilder on the Clyde, so he went to Glasgow. Mr. 
Napier welcomed Mr. Cunard, and introduced him to the two ablest 
shipping men in Great Britain — Mr. George Burns of Glasgow and 
Mr. David Maclver of Liverpool, both of whom were engaged in the 
-coasting trade between England, Ireland and Scotland. Between 
these three men the necessary capital — £270,000 — was subscribed 
for and Mr. Cunard was in a position to submit to the Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty (who at that time were invested with the 
disposal of postal contracts) a tender for the conveyance of mails 
■once every two weeks between Liverpool, Halifax and Boston for an 
annual subsidy of £60,000 per annum. 

This tender was lower than that made by the owners of the 
steamship "Great Western," Mr. Cunard's principal rival, and was 
accepted by the Admiralty and a contract for seven years was con- 
cluded between the British Government and the North American 
Steam Packet Company, which was the original name of the Cunard 
Line. Mr. Cunard opened an office in London, Mr. Burns presided 
at the headquarters of the company in Glasgow and Mr. Maclver 
remained in Liverpool to prepare for the inauguration of the service. 

— 139 — 




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To carry on this trade four steamers, the "Britannia" (launched 
February 5th, 1840), "Acadia," "Columbia" and Caledonia," were 
built of wood by Robert Duncan & Co., and other shipbuilders at 
Port Glasgow, each being 207 feet long, 34.4 feet broad, 22.4 feet 
deep, and of 1,154 gross tons. Each had an indicated horse power 
of 740, a cargo capacity of 225 tons, and accommodations for 115 
cabin passengers. The average speed was 8.5 knots on a coal con- 
sumption of 38 tons per day. All, of course, were paddlewheelers 
and they were the first passenger steamers to make regular sailings 
across the Atlantic. 

The first voyage of the "Britannia," the pioneer vessel of the 
Cunard fleet in 1840, deserves to rank not only as one of the great 
events of the last century, but as one of the epoch-marking incidents 
in the history of civilization. It signalized the dawn of that organ- 
ized ocean travel of which there have since been such mighty develop- 
ments. Rather more than a score of years previously the "Savan- 
nah," built in New York City, a steamship of 350 tons, was the first 
steam vessel to cross the Atlantic, sailing from Savannah May 25, 
1819, for Liverpool, and arriving there June 29th, after a passage 
of 35 days. She did not rely solely upon her paddlewheels ; in fact, 
she trusted more to her sails, being under steam for less than 100 
hours. In 1831 the "First Royal William" made the entire voyage 
under steam. 

No further steam venture was made until the 4th of April, 1838, 
when the "Sirius" left London for New York with 94 passengers 
aboard, and she was followed from Bristol four days later by the 
more historic "Great Western" — the first steam vessel specially built 
for the Atlantic passage. The "Great Western" made the trip in 
15 days, two da}'s less than the "Sirius," and with 200 tons of coal 
still left in her bunkers. This result was regarded as wonderful. 
The scientific men of the time had "proved" to the satisfaction of 
most of the world that no steamer could carry coal enough to feed 
her fires for a single trip across the Atlantic. 

The "Britannia," with 64 passengers aboard, started on her 
maiden voyage from Liverpool to Boston on the 4th of July, 1840, 
the celebration day of American Independence, in the presence of an 
immense assembly, and on her arrival in America 14 days and 8 
hours later, including a stop at Halifax — then considered a rapid 
passage — she was the object of an unprecedented ovation from the 
inhabitants of Boston, culminating in a magnificent public banquet 
at which their enthusiasm found vent in speeches of a most compli- 
mentary nature. Mr. Cunard, who accompanied the "Britannia" 



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on her maiden trip, was made the hero of the day, receiving as many 
as 1,800 invitations to dinner within twenty-four hours after land- 
ing. 

Later — in the very severe winter of 1844 — the merchants of 
Boston gave practical proof of their good will when the "Britannia" 
was icebound in the harbor and the mails imprisoned. At their own- 
expense they liberated the ship by cutting a canal in the ice seven 
miles long and 100 feet wide. The "Britannia," released from her 
bonds, reached Liverpool in 15 days. When the British Post Office 
Department offered to defray the expense of the cutting of the ice 
channel, the citizens of Boston declined to be reimbursed. 

The mail service was carried on with conspicuous regularity for 
three years when it was found that additional tonnage was neces- 
sary. The "Hibernia" was added to the fleet in 1843 and the "Cam- 
bria" in 1845. In 1847, when the Company's first mail contract had 
expired, the commercial relations between Great Britain and Amer- 
ica had increased to such an extent that the British Government de- 
cided to double the Atlantic mail service. A new contract was 
entered into with the Cunard Line providing for weekly sailings from 
Liverpool to New York and Boston alternately, the Boston steamer 
touching at Halifax, and the subsidy was raised to £173,340 per 
annum. This contract covered twenty years — until 1867. 

For the adequate accomplishment of this important agreement 
four new ships were built — the "America," "Niagara," "Canada" 
and "Europa" — and took their places in the service early in 1848, 
being followed in 1850 by the "Asia" and "Africa" and in 1852 by 
the "Arabia." Each was built of wood, of improved designs, as 
experience pointed out, but with no radical departures from the 
"Britannia" until the year 1856, when the "Persia," the first iron 
steamer owned by the line, was put into service to maintain the 
supremacy of the sea, which was now being contested by other lines,, 
notably the Collins Line, organized in 1848 by merchants of New 
York, Boston and other American ports, and heavily subsidized by 
the United States government. 

The Collins Line vessels entered the Atlantic ferry in 1849 and 
were first class in every way, having been constructed in New York 
City with a view to eclipse those of the Cunard Line, and keen riv- 
alry existed between the two companies. The struggle was a fierce 
one while it lasted. The Cunard Line would sacrifice nothing that 
was calculated to prejudice the safety of their ships or the lives 
of their passengers. New and better ships were added. Freight and 
passenger rates were enormously reduced and the competition for 
public favor became intensely exciting. This contest lasted for four 



— 142 — 



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j ears when the "Arctic" of the Collins Line was run into by a small 
French steamer off Cape Race in a dense fog and sunk with a loss of 
322 lives, among whom were the wife, son and daughter of Mr. E. K. 
Collins, the managing director and promotor of the line. 

Two years later another great disaster befell the company in the 
loss of the "Pacific," which sailed from Liverpool on June 29th, 
1856, and was never heard of again. The United States Govern- 
ment refused to continue the subsidy and the Collins Line with- 
drew from the Atlantic in 1858. 

The "Scotia," the last of the paddlewheel type and the finest 
specimen of the mercantile marine of the period, and a sister ship to 
the "Persia," came out in 1862. For } T ears these two ships were 
the most popular on the seas, conducting the first express service 
across the Atlantic, and getting a higher rate of fare than other 
ships. The "Scotia" held the world's record for the time — from 
Liverpool to New York in 8 days and 22 hours. 

So far the Cunard Company, the progress of which is virtually 
a history of modern shipping, had in deference to the preferences of 
most travelers at that time, adhered to paddlewheel propulsion, but 
the officials of the company were nevertheless convinced of the 
superiority of the screw propeller, which marine engineers had long 
been actively advocating. The line had been using screw steamers 
in the Mediterranean service and the Inman Line had already intro- 
duced the screw system in their Atlantic service. In 1862 the 
Cunard Line decided for the future to adopt the screw and the 
"China" was ordered, her length being 326 feet ; breadth, 40M> feet ; 
tonnage, 2,539; indicated horse power, 2,250; average speed, 13.9 
knots. 

Having adequately fulfilled the expectations of her owners and 
builder, the "China" was followed in 1865 by the "Java," and two 
years later by the "Russia," the latter steamer generally regarded 
as the most beautiful ocean-going vessel then in existence. Her 
graceful proportions were regarded by practical men as the acme 
of nautical symmetry, and the beauty of her decorations and com- 
pleteness of her equipment were the delight of passengers. She 
proved to be one of the flyers of her day, crossing from New York 
to Queenstown in 8 days and 28 minutes. She was 358 feet long 
and of 2,960 gross tons. She consumed 90 tons of coal per day, 
compared with the 159 tons consumed by the "Scotia" to attain the 
same speed. She had accommodation for 235 cabin passengers and 
a cargo capacity of 1,260 tons. Her commander, Captain Cook, 
navigated her no less than 630,000 miles without a single mishap or 
casualty of any kind, carrying the while 26,075 cabin passengers^ 



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The company's postal contract with the Admiralty expired on 
Dec. 31, 1867, and a new contract for one year was entered into 
with the Postmaster General (to whose department the arrangement 
of carrying mails on ocean steamers had been transferred) whereby 
the Cunard Company undertook to sail a vessel from Liverpool to 
New York every Saturday, calling at Queenstown; returning from 
New York every Wednesday and also calling at Queenstown. 

Owing to the competition which then existed for the carrying 
of the mails, the Post Office was able to dictate terms for the service, 
and accordingly the subsidy allowed was only £80,000. That sum 
was further reduced to £70,000 the following year when a contract 
was concluded to cover seven years, binding the company to main- 
tain a dual weekly service from Liverpool — sailing to Boston every 
Tuesday and to New York every Saturday, calling at Queenstown. 

It was found that the amount paid for the service was mani- 
festly inadequate, and when the mail contract was again renewed 
in January, 1877, the work was paid for in accordance with the 
weight of the mail matter carried. 

In 1870 the company adopted the compound principle for their 
engines, in preference to the old side lever system. The "Parthia" 
was the first vessel of the line fitted with compound engines, which, 
utilizing steam at high pressure, gave better speed results than 
engines of the old type. She was followed by the "Bothnia" and 
"Scythia" (1879) also fitted with compound engines. The newer 
existing vessels were similarly refitted. The "Gallia," launched in 
1879, and the last iron Cunarder to be built, was fitted with three- 
crank compound engines. 

Thus in the gradual development of this line may be traced the 
progress of the shipping industry in general, and in the substitution 
of new ships of superior types the advance of science in relation to 
the steamship and marine steam engine may be closely followed. 
The same spirit of progress prevails in the company today. Thus 
all new steamers burn oil fuel, and big ones like the "Aquitania," 
"Berengaria" and "Mauretania" originally built to burn coal, have 
been converted into oil burners. 

The company's first steel liner, the "Servia," built in 1881, was 
practically the pioneer of what may be called the Express Trans- 
atlantic Service, as owing to the immense space required for the 
powerful machinery necessary for the high speed beginning to pre- 
vail, but little room was left for cargo. She was the first Cunarder 
to receive an electric installation. Her gross register was 7,392 
tons and with her speed of 16.7 knots she reduced the Atlantic pass- 



— 144 — 




THE CUNARD BUILDING 
25 Broadway, New York City 






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age to 7 days 1 hour and 38 minutes. She was superbly fitted for 
those days and provided accommodation for 4-80 cabin and 750 
third class passengers. 

In 1884 the "Oregon," built for another Atlantic line, was pur- 
chased by the Cunard Company. She attained a speed of 18 knots 
and was famed as the "Greyhound of the Atlantic." This sensa- 
tional result led the directors of the company to order from the 
same builders two new vessels of greater power and speed — the 
"Umbria" and "Etruria." These two were, in their day, the fastest 
ships afloat, attaining a speed of 20 knots. The "Etruria" held 
the Atlantic speed record for some time — accomplishing the west- 
tern passage in 5 days 20 hours and 55 minutes, and the eastern 
passage in 6 days 37 minutes. She was 500 feet long, with a gross 
tonnage of 8,110. 

The "Campania" and "Lucania" (1893) were also blue ribbon 
winners. These beautiful ships were each 625 feet long, 65.3 feet 
broad, 43 feet deep and with a gross tonnage of 12,950. Their aver- 
age speed was 22 knots an hour. The "Campania's" fastest pass- 
age between Queenstown and New York was 5 days 9 hours 6 min- 
utes. The "Lucania" had) a slight advantage over her sister vessel 
for speed, her fastest voyages being : Westward, 5 days 7 hours and 
23 minutes ; eastward, 5 days 8 hours and 38 minutes. It was on 
the "Lucania" that Mr. William Marconi personally experimented 
with and introduced wireless telegraphy. Now his system supplies 
news for use in the "Cunard Daily Bulletin," published at sea on all 
Cunarders. 

The "Caronia" and "Carmania" — two ships beloved by the regu- 
lar traveler — marked a distinct development in the liners fitted with 
luxurious accommodations for large numbers of passengers and also 
large cargo carrying capacity. These great steamers are 675 feet 
long and of 20,000 gross tons. They are sisters in every way but 
one — the "Caronia" is propelled by engines of the reciprocating 
type driving twin screws, while the propulsive power of the "Car- 
mania" is derived from turbine engines whose force is distributed 
through three shafts, each of which drives one propeller. The 
"Carmania" was the first of the company's turbine liners. 

The Cunard Line has always had to cope with strong opposition 
in its efforts to hold the blue ribbon of the sea. This was lost to 
the "Deutschland" of the Hamburg-American Line in 1900. This 
ship had a speed of 23 V^ knots. Two years later this steamer lost 
to the "Kaiser Wilhelm II" of the North German Lloyd, whose rec- 
ord was a fraction faster than that of the "Deutschland." The 
Cunard Line then decided to regain the speed supremacy which it 



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had held for so many years and j)reparcd the plans for the "Lusi- 
tania" and "Mauretania." These vessels, were each 790 feet long 
and with a tonnage over 31,000, the greatest ships the world had 
yet seen. Attaining a speed of 26 knots per hour, the blue ribbon 
of the seas passed back to the Cunard Line and is still there. The 
"Lusitania's" best time westbound was 4 days and 15 hours. The 
fastest westward run of the "Mauretania" was 4 days 10 hours and 
41 minutes. This express steamer represents all that is superlative 
in naval architecture, marine engineering and luxurious hotel accom- 
modations. 

The "wonder ship," as Lord Northcliffe calls the "Aquitania," 
entered the Cunard Service in 1914. She combined in her design 
and construction the result of the experience and valuable informa- 
tion deduced from the construction and performance of tile "Maure- 
tania" and the many other famous ships that preceded her under 
the Cunard flag. The "Aquitania" had only made three trips to 
New York when the World War broke out. She went in war serv- 
ice, at first as a transport, then as a hospital ship, and finally as a 
transport again, carrying many thousands of American troops. 
In 1920 she was reconditioned as an oil-burner and re-entered the 
trans-Atlantic service as its foremost passenger carrier. The 
"Aquitania" is 901 feet long, 97 feet broad and 92.6 feet deep. 
Her gross tonnage is 45,647 and her speed 23 knots. Her best 
time between New York and Cherbourg is 5 days, 11 hours and 28 
minutes. On the last leg of a voyage to Cherbourg she made the 
record of 27.40 knots per hour for three hours. This is equal to 31 
land miles. She has accommodations for 2,716 passengers and a 
crew of 900. The first and most obvious thing impressed upon the 
visitor is the extraordinary spaciousness and luxuriousness of her 
public rooms, comparing favorably with the highest grade metro- 
politan hotels. 

In 1921 the "Berengaria," of 52,022 tons, was purchased by the 
Cunard Company and converted from coal to oil fuel. Today she is 
the largest passenger ship in commission. This year also marked 
the entry of the "Scythia" into the company's service. This ship 
is 600 feet long and registers 20,000 tons. Big as she is, she carries 
but one funnel, being the first big British ship to be originally de- 
signed and built as an oil-burner. Four more of her type soon to 
appear in the sailing list are the "Samaria," "Franconia," "La- 
conia" and "Servia." There is a sixth ship which closely resembles 
this type, the "Tyrrhenia," of 16,700 tons. All are oil burners. 

The Cunard Line's Canadian Service, wiped out by enemy vessels 
during the war, reopens in the spring of 1922 with a fleet of new oil 



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burners averaging 14,000 tons each. They are the "Antonia," 
"Andania," "Alannia," "Ascania," "Aurania" and "Ausonia." 

The well-known care and strict surveillance exercised in the con- 
struction of the vessels of the Cunard fleet and the rigid discipline 
maintained in every department of its service, have engendered in 
the public mind well-merited confidence and gained for the company 
a prestige unique in the annals of shipping. 

The Cunard Line has now over a million tons of shipping. 



"BAKER, CARVER & MORRELL 

THIS firm is a co-partnership, composed of Joseph B. Morrell 
and Amos D. Carver, and is a continuation of the business of 
Baker, Carver & Co., who succeeded to a business established at 
29 South Street in 1827, and of J. B. Morrell & Co., who succeeded 
to the business of Watts, Parker & Co., established early in the cen- 
tury at 27 Old Slip, Franklin Market and 75 Front Street. Mr. 
Morrell joined the latter firm in 1875 and in 1888 acquired the 
business. 

Baker, Carver & Morrell was formed January 1, 1894, by the 
consolidation of Baker, Carver & Co. and J. B. Morrell & Co. The 
firm was then composed of Howard M. Baker, Capt. George A. 
Carver, Joseph B. Morrell and Amos D. Carver. Mr. Baker retired 
January 1, 1900, and Capt. Carver retired January 1, 1901. Their 
interests were bought out and taken over by the present firm. 

Mr. Morrell has spent 43 years in the business and has made it 
a very careful study, and is today, perhaps, the best informed ship 
supply merchant in the United States. 

Mr. Carver is the third generation of his family actively engaged 
in this line, and has been in it for 38 years, and brings to bear a 
fitness, not only ripened by long experience, but by an expert tech- 
nical knowledge of vessels operations generally. 

Compared with 1894 the business of the firm has multiplied 
twenty times. Ninety-five per cent of a vessel's outfit is actually 
carried in stock in New York City in their own warehouses. It is the 
aim of the firm to always carry a complete stock. 

The present home of the company was finished in 1912 and 
occupied April 9 of that year. It is of solid steel and concrete and 
is fireproof. It was built specially for the business and is occupied 
exclusively by the company. 

Mr. Joseph B. Morrell of this firm is a member of the board of 
New York pilot commissioners, appointed by the Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

— 148 — 




FAMOUS ROTUNDA OF THE CUNARD BUILDING 

Noted for the surpassing beauty of its mural decorations 



THE INTERNATIONAL 
MERCANTILE MARINE COMPANY 

or the I. JVL. Jyl., as it is fiofcularly known, is the 
largest American Shifcfiing Company. 



NOT less than 117 fine ocean-going steamships, numbering 
the largest afloat, the Majestic, 56,000 tons, are included in 
its fleets. The aggregate tonnage of sea-going ships en- 
gaged in the company's operations is as great as was the ton- 
nage of the entire American merchant marine registered for for- 
eign commerce before the World War, or nearly 1,285,000 tons. 

Today the sun never sets on I. M. M. ships, and in the changing 
seasons some of them are always sailing summer seas. Their keels 
fret every sea, and their flags are thrown to the breeze in the ports 
of nearly every maritime country of the globe. 

While the great liners of the I. M. M. fleets are maintaining 
express passenger services with clocklike regularity on the Atlantic 
ocean ferry, other I. M. M. ships are plying to far distant ports in 
different parts of the world with passengers or freight, or both. 

The I. M. M. is a national institution, giving service to the 
producers, shippers and consumers of goods in every section of the 
United States. Although its headquarters are in New York, its 
ships sail from all the principal American ports on the Atlantic 
and Gulf. Its constituent companies number some of the strong- 
est and oldest under the American flag. 

The American Line, one of the cornerstones of the company, is 
the oldest passenger line under the American flag engaged in 
trans- Atlantic trade. Established in 1871, the American Line for 
five decades has sustained the honor of maintaining the American 
flag in the North Atlantic passenger trade, most of the time 
alone. The names of the American Line ships have become house- 
hold words to Americans who travel by sea. 

A new and significant activity of the American Line was inaug- 
urated in December, 1919, when this line established the first Ameri- 
can passenger service between the ports of New York and Hamburg. 
The ships employed in it are American built and American manned. 
They Ay the American flag, and are managed by Americans, from 
I. M. M. headquarters at New York. 

The passenger ships employed in opening the Hamburg service 
of the American Line were the Mongolia of 13,600 gross tons regis- 
ter, and the Manchuria, a sister ship ; and several large and modern 
freighters. 

— 150 — 



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One of the strongest commercial ties between the United States 
and Belgium, long before these two countries were drawn closely 
together by their common sympathies in the great war, was the 
direct service between New York and Antwerp of the Red Star Line, 
one of the operating units of the I. M. M. 

To think of communication between the United States and the 
great little country that was the theater of the most tragic scenes 
in the world's greatest war, is to think of the Red Star Line and 
its ships. 

Two of the finest of these ships, flying the American flag are the 
Finland and the Kroonland. These vessels, built at the Cramp 
yards in Philadelphia, embrace in their design all the good points 
tested by years of service in the ships of the American Line. The 
same may be said of the other ships of this line, Lapland and Zee- 
land, some of which fly the Belgian flag, and others the British. 
The management of the fleet is entirely in the hands of an Ameri- 
can operating staff. 

One of the greatest units in the I. M. M. is the famous White 
Star Line, whose ships include some of the giants of the deep. 
Heading the list is the huge Majestic and the Olympic, the world's 
largest oil-burning vessels, two of the noblest of the leviathans that 
ply between Great Britain and the United States. These big 
ships, 56,000 and 46,359 gross tons, are 956 and 882.5 feet long 
respectively, many feet longer than the Woolworth Tower in New 
York is high. 

In beauty and strength, as well as in size, these two ships rank 
among the greatest modern steamships. 

Several other great vessels of the White Star Line are also of 
huge proportions and magnificent equipment. These include the 
Homeric, 35,000 tons; Baltic, 23,876 tons, and. the Adriatic, 24,541 
tons, the Cedric and Celtic, each of 21,000 tons and the Megantic 
of 14,878 tons. 

The White Star service, maintained by tliese vessels, has been 
famous in the Atlantic passenger trade for generations. 

Another important service operated by the I. M. M; is that of 
the Atlantic Transport Line between New York and London. 

The war swept away some of the finest passenger ships of this 
line, but the Minnesota, 20,602 gross tons, the largest vessel built 
in an American shipyard, was spared. Pending the addition of 
new tonnage to replace lost ships, the sailings of the American 
Transport Lines are confined to freight vessels, which maintain a 
sailing every week between London and New York. 



152 




NUMBER ONE BROADWAY 

Adjoining this site was the first Dutch fort on Manhattan Island, known as Fort 
New Amsterdam. The first house was erected here before 1661f. In 1771 Captain 
Archibald Kennedy built here his residence which was used in 1776 by General 
Washington as his headquarters and later by General Hoxoe during the British occu- 
pation. It was later used as a hotel. Torn down in 1882, it was replaced by the 
Washington building which was transformed in 1920-1921 into this building for 
occupancy by its otvners, The International Mercantile Marine Company. 



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Other important service by I. M. M. lines include the New York- 
Azores-Mediterranean passenger line sustained by vessels of the 
class of the Cretic, 13,500 tons ; the Boston-Liverpool passenger 
and freight service of the Leyland Line, and a long list of exclu- 
sively freight services from other American ports. In the develop- 
ment of these freight services, of which the public hears relatively 
little, the I. M. M. has made great strides in recent years with its 
American ships. Its freight sailings are frequent from the chief 
ports of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts — Montreal, Portland, Boston, 
New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Mobile, Galveston, New Orleans — 
with occasional sailings from smaller ports such as Charleston and 
Savannah. The company maintains offices not only in the chief 
ports mentioned, for handling of its freight and passenger busi- 
ness, but also in San Francisco, Chicago, Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and St. Louis. 

The vessels of the I. M. M. fleets carried more than one-quarter 
of the total American Expeditionary Forces across the seas, or a 
grand total of 521,913 men, between April, 1917, and November, 
1918. Vessels of the I. M. M. fleets also transported 2,549 car- 
goes of munitions and war supplies, a grand total of 14,988,294 
tons. 

In the spring of 1920 the company purchased the Washington 
Building, known as Number One Broadway, an imposing structure 
facing Battery Park, and proceeded to remodel it for its own use. 



T7 



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— 154 



A PIONEER IN ITS FIELD 

THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW YORK was one 
of the first concerns on the Atlantic seaboard to engage in the 
transportation of petroleum by water on a commercial scale. 

The first lighterage organization was formed back in 1884, on 
October third, to be exact, with an initial equipment that consisted 
of five towboats and forty-six barges. These vessels were operated 
in and around New York harbor. To handle the constantly in- 
creasing volume of business that the intervening years have brought, 
this original fleet has grown into one that includes, today, twenty- 
nine towboats and two hundred and twenty-eight barges in addi- 
tion to a large number of tank and general cargo vessels, all of 
which give employment to approximately twenty-eight hundred men. 

When petroleum first began to be transported by water it was 
shipped, like other fluids, in barrels and cases, the average capacity 
of the vessels used being about eight thousand barrels and requiring 
about eight days to load. The large modern tanker of today was 
unknown and transportation in bulk by tankers had been very little 
developed at that, time. In 1885, however, an important step for- 
ward was made in the water transportation of petroleum. The ship- 
ment of it in barrels obviously had many disadvantages. Accord- 
ingly this company took an old schooner, the "Amelia G. Ireland," 
and remodeled it by building several tanks in the hold, having an 
aggregate capacity of about two thousand barrels. This was the 
first oil barge to leave New York harbor and for several years plied 
between New York and Boston. 

During the next decade or two the transportation of oil in these 
early types of tankers was carried oh extensively but confined almost 
entirely to coastwise and Mexican voyages. However, in the latter 
part of 1904 a significant undertaking was planned which was 
destined to rank as a real achievement of its day. On December 16, 
the S. S. Atlas with barge No. 93 in tow, left New York harbor 
bound for San Francisco. The two vessels arrived at their destina- 
tion February 27, 1905, completing what, up to that time, was the 
longest tow ever made of an oil barge. Considering the fact that 
this was the first venture of its kind and involved a passage through 
the Strait of Magellan, the time made was indeed creditable. A sim- 
ilar voyage was made the following year, the S. S. Maverick leaving 
New York on October 12, 1906, with barge No. 91 in tow and 
arriving at San Francisco January 2, 1907. 

In the meantime another long towing voyage had been made 
which was of no little importance. In order to demonstrate the 
practicability of deep-sea towing, this company fitted out the S. S. 
Colonel E. L. Drake for a more or less experimental trip to Lon- 

— 155 — 



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don. This vessel left New York, towing barge No. 95, on July 3, 
1905, and reached London seventeen days later. After a stop of 
five days, it left London on July 25th destined for Port Arthur, 
Texas, where it arrived August 18th. Subsequently, similar tows 
have been made around the world. While the towing of oil barges 
has been engaged in successfully for the past thirty years, the mod- 
ern self-propelled tanker is gradually and generally superseding this 
method of transportation. A recent development in the maritime 
activities of this company has been the transportation of petroleum 
products in bulk on the newly opened New York State Barge Canal 
by means of motor driven barges. After some improvements were 
made on the canal, the Standard Oil Company of New York was 
the first to take advantage of the opportunity it offered compara- 
tively large-sized barges. The operations of this company on the 
canal have greatly facilitated the distribution of petroleum products 
in bulk throughout the middle, western and Lake Champlain districts 
of New York State. At the present time, a large part of this com- 
pany's marine shipments are handled by the Standard Transporta- 
tion Company, a subsidiary organization, which operates a large 
fleet of tank steamers. The vessels of this fleet ply between various 
points on the Atlantic and Pacific seaboard and the Levant, India, 
and the Far East. Large volumes of the multifarious petroleum 
products sold by the Standard Oil Company of New York are trans- 
ported in bulk and in packages by the up-to-date vessels of the 
Standard Transportation Company. 

The Standard Oil Company of New York feels that it may be 
pardoned for having a just pride in the share it has had in the 
growth of the Port of New York. It offers herewith its assurance 
of continuous interest in the greater development that the future 
unquestionably holds for it. 



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— 156 



WORLDS BIGGEST OIL FLEET 

TIIK transportation of oil products by water is perhaps as old 
as the history of water transportation. While sailing vessels 
were first converted and later built for this purpose, the first 
tank steamer was built in 1872. The development of this method 
of transportation of oil in bulk from that time to the modern 
20,000-ton steel tank steamers is a remarkable achievement. 

The earlier construction by installation of tanks was subse- 
quently abandoned because it was found that evaporation of leak- 
age and escaping oil filled the spaces between the tanks and sides 
of the ships with explosive gases, which made this transportation 
even more dangerous than carriage by means of barrels and cases. 
No repairs could be made in these spaces, no naked lights used, 
and the insertion of hot rivets incident to repairs was out of the 
question until with great difficulty the gases had been eliminated. 
This resulted in the use of the vessel itself divided thwartships and 
longitudinally into a series of tanks to contain oil, with coffer- 
dams at the forward and after ends of the oil spaces. 

Some of the earlier tankers were simply cargo vessels con- 
verted by erection of bulkheads and partitions, which permitted 
the carrying of oil in the holds. On these vessels the propelling 
machinery and boilers were amidships, but later more satisfactory 
results were obtained, with minimized risk from fire, by devoting 
the entire after end of the ship to boilers, propelling machinery 
and quarters for the engine force. Consequently this type of 
tanker construction was adopted and is still in general use. 

The majority of converted cargo vessels and the earlier con- 
structed tankers were found unsatisfactory. As oil will find a 
leak more quickly than water, closer spacing of rivets and more 
careful workmanship is necessary to insure oil-tightness than 
water-tightness. This has developed to such an extent that 
tankers are now so tightly and strongly built that different 
grades of oil are carried in adjacent tanks in the same vessel 
without danger of contamination through leakage. 

The modern tendency generally is toward the larger sized 
ships because it is found more economical both to construct and 
operate one large vessel than two small ones, and this applies 
with equal force to tankers. 

Of course, most of the modern tankers burn oil and the 
auxiliary equipment, for instance, pumps for loading and un- 
loading, are steam driven. The piping is larger and each year 
brings the addition of many other features of improvement in 
tanker construction, although the general principles date back to 
the first tankers. 

— 157 — 







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The internal combustion engine has been successfully used 
for the propulsion of tankers and the recent successful perform- 
ance of the electrically driven merchant cargo vessels no doubt 
portends the use of this mode of propelling power on tankers, 
provided, of course, proper and permanent insulation and protec- 
tion of wiring can be secured to overcome any added fire risk 
in the proximity of the oil compartments. 

During the recent war the size of the fleet of the Standard 
Oil Company (N. J.) was materially increased both by the pur- 
chase of foreign vessels and a very extensive construction program 
in American yards. This has had the results of making the 
Standard Oil Company (N. J.) possessor of the largest privately 
owned fleet of tank steamers in the world and operator of the 
largest privately owned fleet of vessels under American registry. 

At the present time this Company owns 57 tankers of approx- 
imately 620,000 deadweight tons. The entire fleet operated by 
the Marine Department of the Company, including owned cargo 
vessels, barges, etc., and chartered tonnage, total 76 vessels, of 
over 745,000 deadweight tons. This fleet is engaged in the trans- 
portation of petroleum and its product between points of pro- 
duction and manufacture on the one hand and manufacture and 
consumption on the other. The majority of these vessels are above 
10,000 deadweight tons, several of them being as large as 20,000 
deadweight tons. 

In the operation of this fleet the Marine Department directly 
employs 340 in shore positions, in addition to agencies at various 
ports throughout the world, and the seafaring personnel totals 
approximately 2,200 employees. 

The house flag of the Standard Oil Company (N. J.) suggests 
to all steamship men of the highest standard of operating efficiency 
by perfect state of maintenance of hull and equipment, prompt 
dispatch and turn around, and successful operation. The explana- 
tion for this condition is undoubtedly to be found in the fact 
that the broad and liberal treatment accorded by the Standard 
Oil Company (N. J.) to its employees generally is extended to its 
seafaring personnel. Not alone do the seafaring personnel includ- 
ing masters, mates, engineers, firemen, cooks, stewards and sea- 
men receive the advantages of other employes in insurance, bene- 
fits in instances of illness or disability, and an opportunity to 
receive, in the purchase of stock of the Company, the value of 
$1.50 for every dollar invested, but they enjoy the benefits of a 
bonus system which was inaugurated with the beginning of the 
year 1921. 



— 158 — 





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This bonus system provides for payments to the particular 
personnel aboard ships directly responsible for the successful 
fulfillment of the principal elements entering into efficient opera- 
tion. Records are maintained of the performance of all of the 
vessels according to these principal subdivisions of vessel operation, 
and the full bonus is paid only when 95% or more of the 100% 
standard set for each respective vessel has been attained. When 
the rating is between 95% and 100% of the fixed standard, only 
50% of the indicated bonus is paid. The bonus in each instance 
is a fixed percentage of the annual salary received by each 
individual. If any one vessel attains 100% or more in all sub- 
divisions upon which bonus is paid, the Captain and Chief Engineer 
receive an additional 10%. 

This liberal policy of the Standard Oil Company (N. J.) pro- 
motes among its employees, both ashore and at sea, the highest 
degree of co-operation and contentment and permits the latter to 
enjoy additional benefits commensurate with increased diligence 
and efficiency. 

The successful operation under the American flag of a fleet of 
the magnitude of that of the Standard Oil Company (N. J.) is 
perhaps one of the most encouraging and tangible justifications 
for belief in the practicability of establishing an American Mer- 
chant Marine the equal or superior to that of any other country. 



T7 



R51 



159 - 



BUSH TERMINAL-THE REALIZA- 
TION OF A GREAT WEAL IN 
PORT "DEVELOPMENT 

ON INDICATION of points of resemblance between a great 
terminal for the accommodation of railroad and ocean traffic 
and between terminal stations such as are being constantly 
developed and improved in every great city in the land may serve 
to illustrate more clearly the fundamental necessity of the terminal 
plan. As a rule the familiar terminal stations in the city form 
points of interchange for passengers between through and local 
arteries of travel and converging points for one or more lengthy 
railway systems. They not only expedite the journeys of the trav- 
eller or commuter, but without them it would be impossible for the 
great cities to handle the millions of persons that yearly pour over 
their converging transit systems. Local traffic would be jammed, 
and the cross currents of humanity, lacking means of ready trans- 
fer at focal points, would meet in inextricable confusion. 

The same principle underlies the rapid and economic interchange 
of sea and rail freight. If the streams of incoming and outgoing 
freight do no move easily and directly between steamer, freight car, 
or warehouse, the same confusing tangle will result as in the handling 
of passenger traffic. Recognition of the advantages of the terminal 
system is now general throughout the civilized world. It has evolved 
an economic principle of no mean importance to industry. Today 
an adequate terminal system is urged by foremost shipping men 
as a necessity to every modern port. In many instances the sav- 
ings it has effected have been the factor which has stood between 
success and failure of business interests which have enjoyed its 
facilities. 

The most comprehensive terminal system in this country was 
planned by a young man who saw the necessity of bringing the 
factory, the warehouse, the railroad, and the steamship into juxta- 
position. That man was Mr. Irving T. Bush. As a result of his 
enterprise there has been developed at Bush Terminal, South Brook- 
lyn, New York, the largest single coordination of industrial and 
shipping facilities in the world. It is not too much to say that a 
knowledge of Bush Terminal is essential to a full understanding of 
modern port development. It forms a striking and definitely worked 
out illustration of the inter-relation of industry and distribution. 
It has the only co-operative grouping in the world of manufacturers 
who are brought into direct relation to world lines of rail and ocean 
traffic. 

It is scarcely more than a quarter of a century ago that the site 
of Bush Terminal was a vacant waste. Its development since that 

— 160 — 



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period is an epic in American industry and shipping. First ground 
was broken on Bush Terminal in 1895. Mr. Irving T. Bush, then 
a young man scarcely beyond his majority and joint inheritor of a 
considerable fortune, cherished an ideal of what a modern terminal 
should be. He had a vision of a complete terminal plant upon those 
vacant acres. He clearly foresaw the ever-increasing congestion 
that was bound to develop at the piers of lower Manhattan. He 
was confident that increased facilities to care for the traffic of the 
port would be demanded with the growth of the nation and of the 
vast community centering in New York. But there were many who 
regarded Mr. Bush's plans as visionary. The proposed site seemed 
too far away. It was suggested that he might as well have planned 
a terminal at Coney Island. 

Though confronted by disheartening and seemingly impassable 
obstacles, the young man set about courageously to break through 
the wall of indifference and ignorance that stood before his goal. 
He was years ahead of his time for, although planned a quarter of 
a century ago, the fundamental arrangement of Bush Terminal, the 
geographical relation of piers, warehouses, terminal railway, and 
industrial buildings is a standard the world over. Moreover, Bush 
Terminal has been an instrument to aid in elevating the reputation 
of port development work. During the inception of Bush Terminal 
some of the greatest ports in the world suffered under a stigma of 
physical dclapidation and moral degradation that lowered the stand- 
ard of sea-faring men in the estimation of the public. Shiftless 
ports with their open vices might make good copy for romantic 
writers, but they slandered the dignity of those who followed the 
sea and made for the slow and costly handling of cargoes. 

Two incidents will serve to illustrate the nature of the obstacles 
overcome by Mr. Bush in his pioneer work for the Terminal. Then 
we will consider in detail some outstanding features of the great 
plants which covers about two hundred acres. 

Mr. Bush's first great disillusionment came when he had com- 
pleted his first pier. Shipping facilities in lower Manhattan were 
badly crippled even at that time, and it had seemed that facilities 
for loading, unloading, and storage in a cheap location would in- 
evitably attract patronage. But shipping men thought the pier 
too far away. When Mr. Bush found the pier was likely to remain 
empty, he chartered a ship, which he christened "The Independent," 
loaded her with bananas from Jamaica, and brought her back to his 
pier. But there was no way of distributing the bananas in Brook- 
lyn ; fruit dealers were unwilling to handle them at that point, and 
so Mr. Bush auctioned the ship load at a New York pier. After a 

— 162 — 



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second and third trip to the West Indies, a line which had a monop- 
oly on the Jamaica trade, perhaps fearing competition in fruit 
transport from Mr. Hush, >aicl that they would be glad to help 
him make a demonstration of the value of his pier by landing non- 
perishable materials there. The only proviso was that Mr. Bush 
should make no charge for docking and handling the goods, which 
they agreed to land. Mr. Bush accepted the challenge and soon 
the pier was drawing business. 

A second disappointment came in the failure of many of the 
railroads to recognize Bush Terminal. Few of them, apparently, 
knew that it was on the map. In long wearying rounds, Mr. Bush 
visited the offices of all the freight agents. "When I was turned 
down, I considered that an invitation to begin negotiations had been 
extended," the writer once heard him say. 

Some of the Western railroads had never even listed Bush Ter- 
minal. It was not in their rate books. Mr. Bush sent wise young 
men to Michigan with instructions to buy several carloads of hay 
and consign them to Bush Terminal. The freight agent in Michi- 
gan scratched his head and said he did not know where Bush Ter- 
minal was, but he agreed to ship the hay, and when cars bearing in 
six foot letters "Bush Terminal, Brooklyn," made their way through 
Eastern yards, railway men sat up and took notice. Bush Ter- 
minal was on the map. 

The incredulity which Mr. Bush encountered among both sea 
and rail shippers, he also encountered among capitalists. They 
said he was a dreamer. That may be true; most men of vast accom- 
plishments are dreamers, but Mr. Bush's vision has been realized. 
An illustration of the capacity of the plant he inspired may be had 
from the fact that during the war the port of New York was allotted 
eighty per cent of the outgoing U. S. Army freight and Bush Ter- 
minal was allotted sixty per cent of that eighty. There was no time 
at which freight, munitions, or troops were delayed by failure in 
handling at Bush Terminal. 

The Bush Terminal Company was incorporated in 1902. The 
last of its eight piers to have been completed was pier No. 6, com- 
pleted July 1st, 1913. Six of the piers are 150 feet wide and 1,300 
feet long; one is slightly less and one somewhat larger. The largest 
pier, double-decked, has an area of fifteen acres on both floors. The 
piers accommodate twenty-seven steamship lines. There are 122 
Avarehouses immediately opposite and facing the piers, and with 
29>2 million cubic feet of storage space. There are sixteen model 
loft buildings for the accommodation of manufacturing and indus- 
trial tenants, and with more than five and one million square feet of 



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space. Two of these buildings, numbers 22 and 24, have been com- 
pleted within the last three years. There is a cold storage plant 
with one and one-half million feet of space. A million dollar fire 
protection system assures lowest insurance rates. Bush Terminal 
railroad, with more than twenty-three miles of track and modern 
equipment is a terminal for the ten main trunk lines reaching the 
port of New York. 

The loft buildings are occupied by the plants of almost three 
hundred industrial concerns. The company furnishes the manu- 
facturers light, power, storage, drayage, porterage and numerous 
other facilities at an extremely low co-operative rate. The manu- 
facturer may purchase as much or as little of these services as he 
desires. 

The warehouses include both one-story warehouses with a clear- 
ance overhead of twenty feet, and the multiple story warehouses 
which are four, five and six stories high. The one story warehouses 
are adapted for the storage of cotton hemp, jute, sisal, etc. The 
multiple story warehouses are adapted to the storing of coffee, 
cocoa, rubber, wood, burlap, etc. There are six six-story coffee 
warehouses. 

Bush Terminal is an agency for the accommodation and develop- 
ment of both traffic and industry. Its traffic activities consist of 
those of forwarding agent. It receives goods for export from the 
interior shipper, separates and classifies them, puts them in a ware- 
house free of storage for one month, marks them, packs them, and 
ships them to their destination, promptly. Goods are packed, in- 
voiced and shipped at an extremely low rate, a few cents a hundred 
pounds. 

One of the features of the plant is the provision that has been 
made for the accommodation and welfare of employees. There is 
an attractive two-story building designated as the Longshoremen's 
Club. This is equipped with a restaurant and lounging rooms for 
stevedores and dock laborers. This makes it possible for the men 
to obtain without inconvenience properly cooked wholesome food at 
a reasonable price. It also provides a place for them to go during 
spare time when the weather is inclement. An emergency hospital 
is maintained by the Company for its employees and those of its 
tenants. 

Two other institutions also care for the employees, branches of 
the Y. W. C. A. and the Y. M. C. A. The Y. M." C. A. provides 
social, athletic and recreational features. The building has bowl- 
ing alleys, billiard tables, a large gymnasium with full equipment, 
reading rooms and lounging rooms 



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THE STATEN ISLAND 
SHIPBUILDING COMPANY 

BACK in 1895 a small group of men who had spent the greater 
part of their lives following the sea, decided that the Port of 
New York needed a steel shipyard. Their experience had 
taught them that a steel shipyard located in the port, could not help 
but be successful because of the great demand of harbor craft to 
supplement the call for larger tonnage, which call became, as every- 
one knows, a paramount demand during the hectic } T ears from 1915- 
1920. That their venture was successful, the present plants of the 
Staten Island Shipbuilding Company stand ready to testify. The 
man who pioneered this enterprise was W. J. Davidson, who is still 
a most active president of this company. Associated with him at 
the start were a few of the leading men of the old Starin yard of 
whom Messrs. Clute, Carney and Hinton were the leaders. Of these 
associates the latter two — Carney and Hinton — have recently died, 
while James Clute is at present one of the owners of the Company. 

The first plant was located in a part of the present Port Rich- 
mond Yard and consisted principally of a small machine shop and 
boiler shop. Mr. Davidson had been for many years master me- 
chanic of the Starin Yard, and with the assistance of Mr. Carney 
looked after the mechanical end of the business. Mr. Clute had been 
chief boilermaker at the Starin Yard and occupied that position 
with his new Company. 

The small office served as a drawing-room and large layouts were 
made on the office floor. Such was the start of this remarkable Com- 
pany. "Service" and "Quality" were the two words most prominent 
in the minds of these pioneers and in time it became a by-word that 
if one wanted a good job done in the right way he could do no 
better than by letting Mr. Davidson do it. 

At Port Richmond adjoining the Davidson plant was the old 
Burke Dry Dock. It was more or less a rival firm and had its cus- 
tomers who had long known Mr. Burlee. Mr. Davidson early saw 
the benefits of an amalgamation of resources and the result was 
that in 1898 the two plants consolidated and formed the Burlee Dry 
Dock Company. 

In 1898 George H. Bates, just graduated from Stevens Insti- 
tute, walked into the Port Richmond office and, finding Mr. David- 
son in his shirt sleeves studying a layout on the office floor, per- 
suaded him that he needed a draftsman. He was made chief drafts- 
man, and in a short time began designing engines, the manufacture 
of which has become one of the principal features of the work of 
this Company. 

— 166 — 



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At about the same time, with the advent of orders for steel hulls, 
it became necessary to secure the best hull man obtainable to sup- 
ervise this all-important work. The old guard heretofore mentioned 
were all engineers and the building of steel hulls necessitated a dif- 
ferent kind of experience than any of them had had. Mr. J. E. 
Bowers was brought up from the Delaware to fill this post, and so 
the organization was rounded out. 

The baby Company soon began turning out work in quantity 
and in quality to the complete satisfaction of all. The early hulls 
built included such a diversified line as carfloats, scows, barges — 
both coal and oil — yachts, schooners, ferry-boats, steam and der- 
rick lighters, seagoing and harbor tugs, dredges, drill boats, and in 
the more recent years the product has included mine sweepers, cargo 
ships, and huge oil and molasses tankers. It is doubtful whether 
any yard in the Country can show a list of ships that includes more 
types than have been built by this Company. The fact that the 
3 r ard is located in New York Harbor has been largely responsible 
for this because nowhere else in the world can one find such a variety 
of craft as have business in this port. The upkeep and replace- 
ment of these craft insures the permanency of this yard which surely 
speaks well for the vision of its founders. 

Shortly after this Mr. Burlee withdrew from the firm and its 
name was changed to the Staten Island Shipbuilding Co. 

As the Company began turning out these craft and the work 
became heavier, it was apparent that it must enlarge its plant. 
J. H. Davidson, son of the president, who heretofore had been gain- 
ing valuable experience at sea, entered the Company and proceeded 
to take an active part in its administration. The old Port Rich- 
mond Plant was enlarged to its present size, additional dry-docks 
were built and shortly after, the site of the Mariners Harbor yard 
was acquired. It became the duty of the younger Davidson to de- 
A'elop the upper or Mariners' Harbor Yard, and, in a few years this 
plant was beginning to turn out its share of the work. Thus the 
Company maintained a healthy growth until the year 1915 when 
shipyards first began to feel the demands for work occasioned by 
the trouble in Europe. 

The war record of the Staten Island Shipbuilding Company is 
indeed an impressive one. We cannot take the space to detail all 
of this work but let us touch the high spots. Its production from 
1915 to 1919 included six 3,500-D. W. T. cargo ships built orig- 
inally for the Cunard Line and commandeered by the government; 
eight mine sweepers for the U. S. Navy, which have performed won- 
derful service since their delivery and are now being converted into 

— 167 — 

















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wrecking and salvage tugs ; six seagoing tugs for the U. S. Navy ; 
twenty-four reciprocating engines and condensers for the French 
Government ; conversion of a large number of yachts, merchant 
vessels and ex-German ships to craft suitable for war purposes and 
the remarkable part of this is, while it was all transpiring, the ship- 
yard had to be built. The Mariners Harbor Plant at the outbreak 
of the war had only two small ways and no buildings or shops to 
amount to anything. Thus, the entire plant had to be built and its 
present size and the permanency of its buildings and ways will 
attest to the amount of work thus entailed. Practically all of the 
ground had to be filled in and great quantities of piling driven and 
much dredging in the channel and approaches to the Plant. 

Since the War the Company maintained its growth with an ever- 
increasing volume of work until the Spring of this year, 1921, when 
it, in common with other industrial plants, felt the slump of busi- 
ness. A large number of oil barges have been built, an 1800-D. 
W. T., a 4000-D. W. T., and a 6300-D. AY. T. tanker have been 
built and a dredge for the U. S. Army. At present the plant is 
building a large seagoing tvig and the new municipal ferryboat 
which bears the name of ''President Roosevelt," and if quality of 
workmanship can do it, it will be a vesesl worthy to bear such a 
name. 

A recent addition to the Mariners' Harbor Plant is the new 
10,000-ton floating drydock which was put in commission early in 
July, 1921, and has scarcely been idle a day since. This new dock 
rounds out the facilities of the plant for handling work of the big- 
gest character. Its reputation for small work has long been estab- 
lished, but the demands occasioned by the war made it imperative to 
do big work, and once it got fairly started in the game, the Company 
did not intend to forsake it. Therefore, with its boiler, machine, plate 
and angle, and joiner shops, its mold loft, foundry, new concrete 
shipwnys and six dry docks, ranging from 150 ft. to 475 ft., in 
length, nnd its excellent berthing facilities it stands at present com- 
peting with its rivals in all grades of work. 

Such is the history of the pioneer steel yard of the Port of New 
York. Among the many examples of its workmanship which may 
be seen today are the old ferryboat "Richmond" built in 1904 and 
still considered the pride of the line; the yacht "Undaunted," for- 
merly the "Karina" — the largest schooner yacht in the world; the 
tug "Gypsum King" — one of the largest seagoing tugs on the coast 
built in 1902: while one of the last products, the "Franklin" of the 
Galena Signal Oil Company, has proven the ideal tanker to transport 
various grades of lubricating oil in bulk without mixing the grades. 

— 168 — 






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The old "Clairmont" of the Hudson-Fulton Exposition fame was 
built by this Company. The yachts "Resolute" and "Shamrock 
V" received their final overhauling at the Port Richmond Yard be- 
fore their races in July. 1920. While at present a most unique job 
is nearing completion, in the lengthening of the old tanker ••North- 
western''' by building 56 additional feet in her middle body, giving 
her 1,000 additional tons "carrying'' capacity and at the same time 
thoroughly repairing and reconditioning this vessel, which was 
given up for lost two years ago. This work is being performed right 
under the personal supervision of Mr. Davidson — the lengthening 
taking place on the large single section floating dock at the Port 
Richmond plant. 

Thus after twenty- seven years of continuous existence, the 
Staten Island Shipbuilding Company stands today ready and cap- 
able to tackle any character of marine work. For the convenience 
of its customers it opened an office at No. 1 Broadway, New York, 
in 1920, the younger Mr. Davidson assuming charge of it. Through 
this office the Company is able to keep in close touch with the various 
ship companies. 

THE KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

THE KERR STEAMSHIP COMPANY is a succession of the 
firm of Kerr & Atkinson which sprung into being during the 
early days of the world war. When expansion made it neces- 
sary to incorporate the business the present organization was formed. 
Those chiefly responsible for financing and building up the vast 
amount of war business that the company enjoyed were: Edward F. 
Geer, who raised the funds ; Henry S. Quick, who procured immense 
quantities of freight ; and A. E. Clegg, who directed the office affairs 
of the company, H. F. Kerr, a British subject, acting in conjunction 
with Mr. Clegg. 

The earnings of this company were large during the period of 
the war. The company erected a twelve-story building on Beaver 
Street, where, for a considerable time after the war, it handled a 
fair share of the freight business from the Port of New York. Plans 
have been developing for over a year to institute passenger services 
to Europe. 



— 169 



COMPAGNIE QE-NERALE 
T<RANSA TLANTIQ UE 

{The French Line) 

FOUNDED in 1855, as the Compagnie Generale Maritime, the 
French Line began business with sailing craft to the Newfound- 
land fisheries and in the guano trade to the Pacific and with 
steamers from France to Algiers and other ports to the southward. 
Six years later the company assumed its present name of Compagnie 
Generale Transatlantique and made a contract with the French Gov- 
ernment to put in operation a line of mail steamers between France 
and the West Indies, Mexico and the United States. 

The Havre-New York service was begun with iron sidewheelers 
of 3200 tons and was inaugurated with the sailing of the Washing- 
ton on June 15, 1861. She was commanded by Captain Duchesne 
and arrived in New York on the night of June 28th. 

The Lafayette followed her on the line later in the year, leaving 
Havre on August 24th and reaching New York on September 5th. 

These two pioneers were followed by the iron sidewheelers Im- 
peratrice Eugenie, Europe and Napoleon III. 

The Pereire, Ville de Paris and St. Laurent were single screw 
vessels and were fast craft for their day. Their success led the com- 
pany to abandon sidewheelers and build screw steamers so a fleet of 
fine single screw ships came into being. They were named France, 
Amerique, Labrador and Canada. La Normandie was added to 
the line in 1883 and marked a distinct advance in size, speed and 
comfort. 

In those days, the greater part of the world's mercantile tonnage 
was built in the shipyards of Great Britain, French yards being 
mainly devoted to the construction of men-of-war. The Compagnie 
Generale Transatlantique, however, with characteristic progressive- 
ness, decided to establish its own shipyard and build its own liners, 
and thereafter only two, La Gascogne and La Bourgogne, were 
built in the United Kingdom, the others of their new fleet, La Cham- 
pagne and La Bretagne, being constructed at the company's own 
works at St. Nazaire. These ships were large craft for their day, 
being 495 feet long, 52 feet beam, 33 feet 6 inches deep and 6,900 
tons. Their engines were three-crank, six-cylinder compound, each 
high pressure cylinder being over its low pressure cylinder, so that 
there were really three tandem compound engines on the same three 
throw crank shaft. 

For many years these five ships were favorites with the traveling 
public. But naval architecture progresses constantly, and last 
year's cracks drop astern as new ships come out. In a few years 

— 170 — 



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these favorite vessels were being outbuilt. The Company thereupon 
brought out their first twin screw ship, La Touraine. She was built 
at St. Nazaire in 1891 and is still in service. 

In 1899, the Normannia, built for the Hamburg-American Line,. 
was bought from the Spanish Government which had purchased her 
just before the war for use as a transport and auxiliary cruiser. 
She was renamed L'Auitaine and put on the New York run. She 
was followed by two new ships, La Lorraine and La Savoie. 

Increasing traffic required newer and larger vessels, and the 
French Line, keeping pace with the demands of travelers, in 1906 
added another fine ship, La Provence. She was a twin screw ship 
of 18,000 tons and her engines developed 22,000 horse power. She 
went into service in the spring of 1906, leaving Havre the morning 
of April 21st. She arrived in New York on the morning of 
April 27th. 

Continuing its building programme, the company constructed 
the Rochambeau in 1911. She is £69 feet long, 61 feet beam, 13 
feet deep, 13,391 tons register and 17,117 tons displacement on 26 
feet 10 inches draught. Her engines indicate 13,000 horse power 
and are a combination of reciprocating engines and low pressure 
turbines. She is a one-class cabin steamer and is one of the best of 
that type afloat. 

Other one-class cabin steamers are the Chicago, built in 1908, 
the Niagara, built in the same year and originally used for long 
cruises, and the older La Touraine. 

The next year, 1912, the company placed in service the large 
cmadruple screw steamer France. Though eclipseel by the Paris, the 
latest addition to the fleet, she was then the finest steamship ever 
built in a French shipyard. On her maiden voyage she left Havre 
April 20, 1912, at 2 p. m. and arrived in New York at 8 a. m. on 
April 26, making the voyage in 5 days 20 hours anel 2 minutes. 

But the finest ship of the fleet is the latest addition, the Paris. 
She is 768 feet long, 86 feet beam and 60 feet dee]). On 31 feet 
draught she displaces 36,700 metric tons. Construction was begun 
before the war, but suspended in 1916 and not resumed until after 
the armistice. 

Great attention has been paid to the safety of the ship, and she 
is divided into 15 watertight compartments. Forward and aft the 
bulkheads extend up to I) deck and amidships to E deck. Her 15 
oil burning boilers are in five compartments with longitudinal bulk- 
heads outboard and these bulkheads extend aft through the engine 
room. Powerful pumps are provided to take care of any incoming 



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water and, should the vessel take a list from damage to a side com- 
partment, water ballast can quickly be pumped to the high side to 
put her again on an even keel. 

The Paris has accommodations for 3,240 passengers divided 
as follows: In the staterooms and suites de luxe, 104; in the first 
cabin, 418; in the so-called "mixed" class, 50; in the second cabin, 
46'4 ; in the third class, 2,200, of whom 1,092 are in staterooms and 
the rest in bunks. The ship's complement is (j(j4, so that there is a 
total of 3,904 persons aboard when she is full. Forty-nine 30-foot 
boats of two different types are installed, as well as a powerful 30- 
foot motor launch equipped with radio. In addition, there are 8 
rafts of special type and a whaleboat and a dinghy. 

A powerful radio system keeps the Paris in constant communica- 
tion with the shore and with other ships, while her submarine signal 
apparatus makes navigation in fog an easy matter. 

Altogether, the Paris is a notable ship and a credit to her de- 
signers, owners and builders. 

The company maintains services between France and New York, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, Cuba, Mexico, New Orleans, Panama, 
Guiana, Haiti, Porto Rico and other West Indian ports ; Hamburg, 
Antwerp, Cardiff, London and Liverpool ; Casa Blanca, Algiers, 
Tunis, Oran, Bone, Phillippeville, Bizerte, Mazagan, Saffi; Mogra- 
dor, Tangier, Sfax, Cette, Bougie, Montaganem ; Christobal, Guaya- 
quil, Callao, Mollendo, Arica, Iquique Antofagasta, Valparaiso and 
Talcahuano. 

The New York offices of the company are at 19 State street. 



M 



THE NEW PORT OF NEWARK 

THE natural and developed facilities of the new Port of Newark 
were so apparent to the officials of the Submarine Boat 
Corporation that it was without hesitation that this site was 
selected for the building of its big plant for the production of stand- 
ardized ships. During the emergency period at Newark Bay ship- 
yard, these advantages were further emphasized and led to the 
incorporation of two component companies — the Transmarine Cor- 
poration and the Atlantic Port Railway. 

What makes Port Newark so important in its relationship to the 
Port of New York is its direct connections with the principal trans- 
continental railroads which have their termini on the west bank of 
the Hudson. This is the keystone of Port Newark's argument for 
recognition as an auxiliary port. By the coordination of rail and 
ship, lighterage is eliminated and one of the principal causes for 
the congestion in New York Harbor is greatly alleviated. 

A shallow channel interfered with the loading of vessels to more 
than a twenty foot draft, but the energetic city of Newark at its 
own expense, has just completed dredging the channel to a minimum 
depth of 31 feet with a uniform width at the bottom of 200 feet. At 
an early date it is expected that this channel under governmental 
auspices will be widened to 700 feet from the Kill von Kill to the 
entrance of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers, and possibly up 
these streams to the industrial developments farther inland. Geo- 
graphicall}', Newark Bay is the western reserve of New York Har- 
bor, and regardless of state lines, it is an integral part of the great 
eastern Gateway through which more than 50% of the nation's 
export commerce flows. Unlike the lower stratum about the island 
of Manhattan, Newark Bay and its contiguous shore lines present no 
engineering enigmas. The bay bottom and the shore lines are of a 
soft, silty nature, and the use of suction dredges is, indeed, a sim- 
pler method of getting deeper water than dynamite. 

Port Newark Terminal offers to shippers a service which may 
be summarized as follows : 

First : It offers through the Transmarine Corporation an ocean 
steamship service, which has a fleet of thirty-two new steel steamers 
available. 

Second: Through the Canal division of the Transmarine Cor- 
poration, it offers a responsible and regular service over the New 
York State Barge Canal to Buffalo and the Lake Ports, including 
Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Duluth and Superior. Store door de- 
liveries are made at Buffalo and a private terminal with Barge con- 
nections are offered to shippers desiring storage service at this 
point. 

— 174 — 



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Third: Tort Newark Terminal lias been connected directly with 
the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley and the Jersey Central Rail- 
roads through the Atlantic Port Railway. Through rates also apply 
on all other trunk lines for Atlantic Port Railway delivery when 
routed over the tracks of the first three mentioned. 

Fourth : The tracks of the Atlantic Port Railway serve two large, 
fire-proof, modern warehouses, which are located close to the load- 
ing dock of the Transmarine Line. The tracks also serve the storage 
yard and dock. The storage yard consists of over 100 acres. 

Fifth: The loading dock is over -1,000 feet long, double track 
below, with a trestle above, which is equipped with thirty steam and 
electric cranes. Parcels weighing up to seventy tons can be lifted 
and effectively handled. 

Sixth: Besides its fleet of thirty-two steamers and twenty barges, 
the Transmarine Corporation has a corps of forty large motor 
trucks to utilize in the delivery and collection of package freight in 
the Metropolitan district. 

It is the completeness of the Transmarine service at Port New- 
ark Terminal that qualifies this location as an ideal storage base 
and distribution center. With its equipment, it presents a unique 
appeal to manufacturers of staples in food and supplies, to canners, 
to piano and automobile makers, large publishing houses for the 
storage of paper, and to manufacturers of all classes of machinery 
and steel implements. It is an ideal operating base in all its appoint- 
ments to the western factory owner, equipped for storage and deliv- 
eries to a far greater degree, than if the manufacturer owned an 
individual eastern agency and warehouse. 

Port Newark is quite accessible to New Yorkers, particularly 
those travelling by automobile. Upon arrival at Jersey City via ferry, 
the following route is the most direct: Montgomery Street, Hudson 
County Boulevard, Lincoln Highway (also known as Plank Road), 
Doremus Avenue and Port Street to Port Newark Terminal. 

New Yorkers can also come to Port Newark via the Hudson and 
Manhattan Tubes to Park Place, Newark. Upon arrival take jitney 
marked "Port Newark" during rush hours or any southbound trolley 
on Broad Street to Market Street, then transfer to South Orange 
car marked "Wilson Avenue" to Avenue L, then Bergen car to Port 
Newark. 

A well-paved highway connects Port Newark with Newark 
proper, affording a comfortable, rapid service by automobile or jit- 
ney. This road, known as Port Street, connects with South Street. 
There is regular all-day trolley service via the Bergen Line, which 
co-ordinates with the South Orange Line at Wilson Avenue and 
Magazine Street. 

— 175 — 




LEWIS NIXON 

Designer of many famous battleships and builder of the steam pilot 

boat, Sandy Hook 



LEWIS <NIXON 

IN KNOWLEDGE of the harbor of New York and its approaches 
even the pilots must admit a peer in Lewis Nixon. In 1897 

Mr. Nixon built and commissioned the Loudoun, upon which he 
lived with his family tor five months of the year from 1897 to 1916. 
Anchored in the upper or lower bay, in the Hudson or the Sound, 
he steamed every morning to his shipyard on the Kills; in bad 
weather seeking shelter in Northeast Harbor, Kay Ridge or Graves- 
end Bay. 

The Loudoun was nearly always being used to entertain distin- 
guished guests from home and abroad. Political leaders like Croker, 
yachtsmen like Lipton, diplomats like Lord Pauncefote, traders like 
Gates, generals like Barry, admirals like Sampson, Senators, Gov- 
ernors, Congressmen and men of leading rank in commerce, finance 
and politics enjoyed the hospitality of the Loudoun; and Mr. Nixon 
learned of the harbor, its charm and its possibilities, as no one could 
other than a pilot. He studied its future and, as early as 1895, 
was urging legislation for its development both as regards channels 
and docks. 

Mr. Nixon put forth plans, as early as 1896, for building docks 
from St. George to the Narrows along the Staten Island waterfront 
and also for the development of a great, new port by means of a 
breakwater half a mile off the Staten Island shore below the Nar- 
i'oavs, utilizing the great natural level train parks extending back 
from South and Midland beaches, the tracks to pass below the high 
grounds of the island's center and across the Arthur Kills by bridge 
to the continent, so saving congestion of the Metropolitan District 
and useless and expensive handling of goods intended for the rest of 
the country. 

Lewis Nixon, then actively engaged in his profession as naval 
architect, aided in the designs and superintended the construction of 
the passenger steamships "St. Louis" and "St. Paul," vessels which 
have been in continued service for over a quarter of a century and 
which, during their time, were the fastest transatlantic liners afloat 
and which have sent to the scrap heap their foreign rivals of same or 
even later time of birth. 

Probably the greatest public achievement of Lewis Nixon was 
his designing the famous battleship "Oregon" and other battleships 
of the Oregon class. The "Oregon's" performance, when she circled 
the Western Continent and in record time arrived in Cuban waters 
in time to take part in the bombardment of Cervera's fleet — although 
the "Oregon" was, even then, an "old" vessel — is too well known to 
need repetition here. It is timely, however, to draw attention to 
the efforts, that proved almost futile, to sink the battleship 

— 177 — 



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"Indiana," recently, by means of aerial bombs and shots from mod- 
ern battleships, the "Indiana" having finally been declared obsolete. 
That the ships of the Indiana class resisted all efforts to sink them 
promptly, under accurate fire of heavy guns, is a testimonial in 
itself to the genius of Lewis Nixon, who was their designer. 

The Russian warship that sank an enemy's ship in the Russo- 
Japanese War, was designed and built by Lewis Nixon. He built the 
first seven submarines of the American Navy, the first motor boat 
to cross the ocean and the first gas-engine propelled submarine de- 
stroyers and he originated the first depth-bomb, in 1895. 

Mr. Nixon has built sailing boats, side-wheel boats and screw- 
propeller boats — from one screw to six — vessels of war and of peace 
of every type, from the most graceful of pleasure yachts to great 
battleships. 

He founded the International Smokeless Powder Company and the 
Standard Motor Company, both on the waters of New York Bay. 

Lewis Nixon has spoken from New York to California and from 
Portland to Buenos Aires in favor of the upbuilding of our mer- 
chant marine on sound lines, insuring gainful occupation and always 
advocating the best food, quarters and treatment for United States 
seamen. 

Of Lewis Nixon's metal, a story that has appeal, trenches on 
government service back to the time when official Washington was 
worrying over burdens taken on in administration of San Domingo 
customs supervision. Foreign creditors were making it plain that 
they cared more for interest payments than excuses, reciting how 
smuggling genius was dodging tax-collecting custom houses. It 
was determined forthwith to police the coast. 

"We must have four revenue cutters right away," it was decided 
by uniformed commanders, sitting at the department desks. But 
naval constructors with prompt unanimity parried the calls. Not 
one could be found who would agree to meet specified demands — the 
conspicuous specification item being that there should be delivery 
of all the boats simultaneously, and within ninety days. Lewis 
Nixon (constructor of the famous White Fleet) — the man of whom 
William 0. Whitney has said : "There is only one reason why he 
ought not to be the Navy's head — within a year he would work the 
whole outfit to death, admirals, seamen and all" — this same Lewis 
Nixon was mentioned by somebody as a likely helper out of the 
dilemma. 

"Telephone his office," commanded the official order-giver. 

"That means that we've got to find his hat," was cynicalism's 
answer. 



- 178 



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lint Washington found Nixon. 

"Yon want four boats built — and want them all in three months. 
All right, you can have them." As to cost, there was no limit laid. 
"But let us be definite," insisted Mr. Nixon. "Let everything be 
agreed upon before we start." He summoned members of his old 
staff of the Crescent Shipyards. Figuring took days. "The price 
will be so much," Mr. Nixon communicated to Washington, and then 
he went over to Perth Amboy and hired a plant he knew about to go 
ahead — discovering as he started that basic sections of machinery 
had just been removed. Incidents like that only expedited. And a 
corner that developed in shipbuilding materials was no more a dis- 
courager. 

Four new revenue cutters were in the water and on the way to 
smuggler curing before the ninety days were over, although Mr. 
Nixon cheerfully stood a loss of $50,000 on the contract. But he 
had given his word and Mr. Nixon's word means everything the 
four letters imply. 

The foregoing anecdote was written for a New York newspaper 
last 3 r ear by a commentator who kneAv Lewis Nixon well and he 
ended his tribute to the great American naval architect by saying: 

"In the recent years he (Nixon) has had intimacy with the con- 
struction side of government work, has performed a lot of unex- 
ploited service, has been called often to make business sacrifice to 
help out pretentious officialdom; has been drafted into self-abnega- 
tion a whole lot, which nobody is ever likely to hear him murmur 
over. Murmuring is not the Nixon way. His habit is to take for- 
tune as fortune comes along, a medal to be accepted or a fight to 
be fought sans any sort of shamming." 

One of the last acts of Lewis Nixon as an official in the Cramp 
yard, where he superintended the construction of the battleships 
he himself had designed as a United States Naval Constructor, was 
his trip on the trial of the battleship "Indiana," off the Delaware 
Capes, in March, 1894, as chief constructor of the Cramps. Two 
3'ears later he was present during the trials of the "Massachusetts," 
also a child of his brain, both of which great battleships were given 
over as targets for United States naval gunners and bombers. 

The New York Herald, on May 6, 1920, referred to Mr. Nixon 
in these appreciative words : 

"On the day of the announcement that. Governor Smith had se- 
lected Lewis Nixon to be Public Service Commissioner, the Navy 
Department announced that the famous old battleship "Oregon" had 
become antiquated and would be placed out of commission. 



— 179 — 









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"The ship which Mr. Nixon designed has finished her course and, 
however secure is her place in history, she is, in fact, little more 
than a memory. 

"It is interesting to take note, however, that the man, still in 
middle life, at the same time embarks on new and highly important 
duties ! 

"There is something in the synchronism of these two events — 
the passing of the old ship and the entrance of her designer, while 
at the height of his strength, upon new duties — which might cause 
bewilderment to some of the old philosophers who were wont to be- 
moan the brevity of human life, as compared with the endurance of 
inanimate things." 

Educated as a sailor, Lewis Nixon has given his life and energy 
to such measures as would carry our flag afloat on men-of-war and 
merchant vessels to all the seven seas under conditions insuring re- 
spect, both as concerns the might and majesty of our government 
and as to service for the world's welfare. 

DANIEL COY CHASE 

A MAN of long and valuable experience in shipping and har- 
bor activities, and who has filled many important positions 
in railway service in business life, and in the public affairs of 
his state and city, is Captain Daniel Coy Chase, of South Amboy, 
New Jersey. 

Captain Chase was appointed by Governor Robert S. Green, in 
1889, a member of the Board of Commissioners of Pilotage of 
New Jersey, and in 189-t he was elected president of that board, 
which position he continued to fill until his retirement in April, 
1906. Throughout the period of seventeen years Captain Chase 
manifested a very active interest in the welfare of the Board of 
Pilot Commissioners as well as that of the Pilots' Association. 










180 



ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE 

COMPANY 

THIS Company, whose business is that of Marine and Inland 
Transportation Insurance, is the oldest organization for this 
class of insurance chartered by the State of New York. It was 
chartered in the year 184-2 to succeed a stock company by the 
name of the Atlantic Insurance Company engaged in the same 
line of business. 

Formerly located at the corner of Wall Street and Hanover 
Place in the old Merchants Exchange Building, the Company pur- 
chased in the year 1851 the property at the corner of Wall and 
William Streets, on which w r as constructed a building for its occu- 
pancy. Subsequent additional purchases to adjoining property were 
made. In the year 1900 the former building was removed and the 
present structure, bounded by Wall Street, William Street and 
Exchange Place, with entrances on each of the streets indicated, 
was erected for the use of the Company. It will thus be seen that 
the Company has since its organization been in the immediate 
neighborhood, and for the past seventy years on its present site, 
51 Wall Street. 

Actuated by motives of justice and liberality in construing its 
policy obligations, the Company's business has been extensive, and 
its aid to the commerce of the country of a most important char- 
acter. Since its organization it has granted insurances in excess 
of $34,000,000, producing premiums of $335,000,000, and has 
paid losses of $165,000,000. 

Being a Mutual Company, the profits of the business are 
divided annually amongst the policy holders in the form of Scrip 
Dividends. Until redeemed the Scrip bears interest, and from the 
earliest date the rate of interest has been 6% per annum. The 
Scrip at present unredeemed is that issued in the years 1920 and 
1921. 

The Company has as its object the promotion of commercial 
interests rather than gain in trade, and the business community 
is fortunate in having included in its insurance facilities a Com- 
pany of the high standing and financial strength of the "old 
Atlantic," as it is affectionately designated. 










— 181 



THE UNITED FRUIT COMPANY'S 
GREAT WHITE FLEET 

IT IS a far cry from 1866 to 1921 and the years between have 
seen the work! advance in every line of human endeavor, not 

the least of which is shipping. According to available records 
ships first brought bananas from the West Indies into the port of 
New York commercially in the year 1866. But the vessels engaged in 
the trade in those days were far different from the fine refrigerator 
passenger and freight steamers which comprise the United Fruit 
Company's modern "Great White Fleet" and which today are such 
important factors in our marine and commercial activities. 

Incorporated in 1899 and having its inception in the Boston 
Fruit Company founded in 1885 by Andrew W. Preston, the 
marine history of the United Fruit Company illustrates typically 
the world's progress in steamship construction and operation. 
In 1899 the company's owned tonnage was 5,000. Today the 
United Fruit Company's fleet is composed of thirty-three owned 
ships with an aggregate tonnage of 140,000 which, combined with 
the fleet of its English subsidiary, Elders & Fyffes, Ltd., con- 
sisting of sixteen owned ships with a total tonnage of 8-1,700, 
makes a grand total of forty-nine owned ships with an aggregate 
tonnage of approximately 225,000. 

In addition to its owned fleet the Company ordinarily operates 
about twenty chartered vessels. 

The distinctive name "Great White Fleet" has become a 
household word with the traveling public of America and the 
sign manual of dispatch and service among shippers. Of the 
thirty-three steamships owned by the company, nineteen are refrig- 
erator banana cargo ships with passenger accommodations, eight 
are refrigerator banana cargo ships, one is a non-refrigerator 
banana cargo ship, one is an oil tanker and four are sugar cargo 
vessels. One new refrigerator banana cargo ship with electric 
drive is in service and four new refrigerator banana cargo and pas- 
senger ships are being built for its English fleet, bringing the latter 
fleet up to a total of nineteen steamships, of which six are refrigera- 
tor banana cargo ships with passenger accommodations and the 
balance refrigerator banana cargo ships. Usually the Company 
operates about ninety steamships in connection with its business 
(including its chartered steamers and English fleet). 

Most of the ships of the "Great White Fleet" today fly the 
American flag and during the past ten years it has had the dis- 
tinction of carrying 560,000 passengers and moving 13,960,000 



tons of freight. 



— 182 



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The ships of the ''Great White Fleet" are built particularly 
for services in tropical waters, the comfort and safety of pas- 
sengers being especially provided for. The passenger accommoda- 
tions are unexcelled ; the staterooms are large and spacious and 
many have private baths ; the cuisine is equal to that of the best 
hotels. These steamships furnish regular passenger, mail and 
freight service between the Atlantic ports of the United States 
and Cuba, Jamaica and the Atlantic ports of Central America and 
Colombia and through the connecting lines at the Panama Canal 
with the west coast ports of South America. In other words the 
''Great White Fleet'" directly serves nine countries of the Western 
Hemisphere and is a prime factor in the commerce of twenty-three 
nations of that hemisphere. 

Each week sees at least four ships flying the United Fruit 
Company's house flag arrive at or depart from the Port of New 
York, and frequently the number is greater. In addition to its 
service from New York the company maintains passenger and 
freight services from Boston and New Orleans and freight service 
from Philadelphia, Baltimore and Mobile. Thus in twenty years 
the Carribean region has been brought so closely in touch with 
the United States, and local communication has been so vastly 
improved, that today it offers few perplexities to the traveler or 
shipper. 

All ships of the "Great White Fleet" are equipped with the most 
modern and up-to-date means of radio communication and the Com- 
pany has established a chain of high-powered radio stations in 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Swan 
Island, with a United States terminal located at New Orleans and 
smaller stations at Boston, Massachusetts, and Burrwood, Louisiana. 
As a consequence its ships are constantly in touch with each other 
and with the shore, a most important factor in any marine 
organization. 

Forty-two United Fruit Company ships (including the larger 
part of its English fleet) were engaged in the service of the United 
States and the Allies carrying troops and supplies during the Great 
War. Of this number thirteen were lost and have since been re- 
placed by newer and larger ships. 



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— 184- 



NORTON, LILLY & COMPANY 

THE earliest records in the possession of tin's firm show trans- 
actions made in the vear 1841 by John Norton, the founder 
of the business. 

After carrying on a ship brokerage business for many years, 
about 1857 a line of sailing packets to River Plate ports was estab- 
lished, known as The Norton Line to South America. 

Later, about 1870, the firm established a line of sailers to South 
African ports, known as The Norton Line to South Africa. 

In 1893 steamers took the place of sailing vessels in both of 
these trades, and the lines carried on under the names of: The Nor- 
ton Line of Steamers, and The American & African S. S. Line. 

Within the next few years, the firm established themselves in 
trades all over the world, founding, in addition to the lines already 
established, the American & Indian Line, American & Australian 
Line, American & Manchurian Line and American Levant Line. 

The members of the present firm are: Skeffington S. Norton, 
Joseph T. Lilly, John B. O'Reilly, John J. Farrell, Edward J. Bran- 
dreth, and William J. Edwards. The firm acts as general agents 
for the following steamship Lines : 

Norton Line American & Manchurian Line 

Panama-Far East Line Atlantic-Gulf Far East Line 

American & Indian Line Ellerman & Bucknall S. S. Co. Ltd. 

American & African Line American-Mediterranean-Levant Line 

Isthmian Steamship Lines Societe Generale de Transports, 

American & Australian Line Maritimes a Vapeur 

Their main office is at 26 Beaver Street, New York City, with 
branch offices in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, Newport News, 
New Orleans, Chicago, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, 
Portland and Seattle. 



BENJAMIN MOORE & CO. 

THE present business of Benjamin Moore & Co. was originally 
started by Moore & Morrissey, ship chandlers, in 1774, at the 
location where Pine and Pearl Streets are now, but which in 
those days was on the immediate water front. The concern con- 
tinued as above without change until the year 1812, when Mr. Mor- 
rissey died, and the firm reorganized as Benjamin Moore & Co. 

The firm's business is now under the direction of Charles H. Um- 
land, as president ; John Seikel, secretary, and Charles H. Umland, 
Jr., treasurer, and numbers among its customers many of the old- 
time concerns, for whom they have made sails, etc., for over fifty 
years. 

— 185 — 



EXPANSION OF AMERICAN CABLES 

CO-INCIDENT with the growth of the purely maritime interests 
of the port of New York have been other interests which have 
developed quite as rapidly and without which the port could 
never have reached the commanding position it now occupies. Of 
these, the cable companies whose lines reach out to all corners of the 
earth and act as what might well be termed the nerve system of 
Foreign Commerce, are important factors. 

Patiently and persistently the different companies are ever 
working to extend cable service to every trade port in the four 
corners of the globe. Each year records the opening of many new 
offices. 

Another link was recently added to the chain with the announce- 
ment by All American Cables, Inc., of the opening of their new ex- 
tension to Porto Rico. This latest achievement — the completion of 
the first American cable to Porto Rico — represents but a step in the 
policy of the company to offer adequate cable facilities to every 
important city in Latin America and, there, to knit more closely 
together the peoples of the three Americas. Other extensions that 
have also been made recently are those between Guayaquil, Ecuador, 
and Lima, Peru; Colon and Cartagena, Colombia; Buenos Aires and 
Rio de Janeiro ; Buenos Aires and Santos ; and between New York 
and Santiago de Cuba. 

In discussing the present conditions of the company, President 
John L. Merrill spoke particularly of its remarkable growth during 
the last few years. 

"The All American cables system of today embraces the Mexican 
Telegraph Company and the Central and South American Telegraph 
Company. The former was established in 1879 and the latter in 
1881. The name All America (often misspelled All American) 
was chosen as the most fitting phrase to designate a service dedi- 
cated primarily to the needs of the three Americas — South, Central 
and North. All America Cables now has more than 23,000 statute 
miles of submarine telegraph lines and more than 3,000 miles of 
landlines. 

"In the fifteen countries served by the two component parts of 
All America Cables, Inc., there are maintained forty-four offices, 
manned by trained commercial and technical staffs. Skilled workers 
watch over the efficiency of office apparatus and landlines ; a fleet of 
cable ships is constantly cruising the high sea lanes, ready for any 
emergency. 

"All America Cables is proud of its physical and mechanical 
equipments ; it is more than proud of its personnel, because it is to 
the members of our staff that we must look for that spirit which is 
+he essence of Service. 

— 186 — 



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'"To this Spirit of Service we attribute the record of Achievement 
of the last forty years — a record which reveals constantly broaden- 
ing range of activity, constantly increasing speed and accuracy in 
the transmission of messages entrusted to us, and a steadily dimin- 
ishing cost. 

"Cablegrams are now being sent from the New York office to 
Buenos Aires without retransmission by hand. That means that 
despatches travel 7,452 miles purely by automatic methods, Avithout 
the intervention of a single operator. 

"This is done in a very few minutes — a record of speed. 

"Our struggle to reduce the cost of cabling has resulted in ac- 
complishments similarly astonishing. When the system opened its 
offices in Buenos Aires the rate per word was $7.50. Now the rate 
from New York to the capital of the Argentine is but fifty cents a 
word for messages sent on regular schedule, and only twenty-five 
cents a word for those sent on a deferred time schedule. The fifty- 
cent basis for messages to Buenos Aires was achieved in December, 
1917, and the announcement of the change, at a time when the 
prices for all other services were mounting, was enthusiastically re- 
ceived by the governments and peoples of the three Americas. 

"The All America Cables of today is the evolution of an idea. 
Its directors and executive officers have a purpose founded upon a 
sincere belief that the commercial, political, and strategic interests 
of the Americas can best be served by an American-owned and 
operated system of communication. Trade development is depend- 
ent upon ships and cables. Political progress hinges upon the 
proper understanding of one nation by another, and this can be 
attained more readily through interchange of cables of daily news. 

"In faithfully pursuing our purpose, in steadfastly holding our- 
selves ready to serve the best interests of the Americas, and of the 
world, we believe we are serving a high ideal." 

The home office of the All America Cables, Inc., is located in 
its own building at 89 Broad treet, New York City. 






— 188 — 



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FUNCH, EDYE & COMPANY, Inc. 

ON MAY 1st, 1847, the firm of Fuhch & Meincke was organ- 
ized by C. F. Funeh, a Dane, and Captain C. Meincke, also a 
Dane, with offices at the southeasterly corner of Wall and 
Water streets, for the purpose of carrying on a ship brokerage 
business. In 1859, Mr. A. Wendt, who had extensive German con- 
nections, was admitted to membership of the firm and its name 
changed to Funch, Meincke & Wendt, and offices removed to the 
corner of Beaver and William Streets. The new member influenced 
the consignment of a large number of sailing vessels under the Ger- 
man flag and registering from the various ports in the Baltic. 
These latter became quite numerous and active in the Trans-Atlantic 
trade at the conclusion of the Crimean War. In 1867, Mr. Wendt 
who had suffered a severe breakdown in health retired from the 
firm, and in consequence the firm name was changed to Funch. 
Meincke & Co., and offices were removed to 14 South William Street. 
The business expanded very rapidly, and consisted principally of 
handling vessels under the German and Scandinavian flags. Shortly 
after the death of Mr. Meincke in March, 1869, Mr. Funch asso- 
ciated himself with Mr. H. W. 0. Edye (the latter having con- 
ducted a similar business in New York under the firm name of Robt. 
M. Sloman & Edye, and later as Edye & Brock) under the style 
of Funch, Edye & Co., and offices were taken at 27 South William 
Street, where they remained located for 25 years later. The busi- 
ness increased very rapidly, and at times during 1879-81 as many 
as 150 vessels under Scandinavian, Russian, German, Italian and 
Austrian and British flags were in port at one time to the firm's 
consignment. In 1871 steamers were added to the consignment and 
in consequence of a large number of sailing vessels having been 
loaded on the berth to various Belgian, Scandinavian, Holland and 
German ports, these activities were gradually transferred to 
steamers. In 1872 the Red Cross Line was inaugurated with 
steamers under the Belgian flag and carried on a regular service 
between Antwerp and New York. Later the Eagle Line which 
operated with general cargo between New York and Stettin and 
was subsequently merged with the Hamburg American Line, for 
which the firm also became freight agents. In further development 
of liner business the firm acted as agents of the Netherlands Ameri- 
can S. S. Company, now known as Holland American Line; Thing- 
valla Line, later absorbed by Det Forende Dampskibs Selskab and 
styled the Scandinavian American Line; the Nouvelle Cie Bordelaise 
de Navigation a Vapeur; United Tyser Line; U. S. & Java Line; 
LT. S. & China Japan Line: I T . S. & Brazil: Hansa Line to South 

— 190 — 



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Africa; Hansa Line to India; Royal West India Mail. In 1915 all 
connections with German Lines were severed and such services were 
replaced by steamers under British and Holland flags. In 1917, on 
January 1st, the firm was incorporated and is continued as Fundi, 
Edye & Company, Inc. 

SUSQUEHANNA STEAMSHIP CO., Inc. 

THE SUSQUEHANNA STEAMSHIP CO., INC., Mas incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the State of New York in 1917. 
Their first steamer was the S. S. "Susquehanna." After ex- 
tensive repairs and reconditioning- was done this steamer was started 
in the Transatlantic General Cargo Trade, and was the nucleus of 
a very extensive and flourishing steamship business. 

Shortly after the acquisition of this steamer she was requisi- 
tioned by the United States Government and was used for war pur- 
poses until December, 1918. After her return she was again put 
into the Transatlantic Trade. 

In 1919 the Steamers "Lydia" "Redondo" and "Sacramento" 
were acquired and were also put into the General Transatlantic 
Cargo Trade, under the operation of the Susquehanna Steamship 
Co. 

In the early part of 1921 the Company acquired the Baltic 
Service berth and were allocated steamers by the United States 
Shipping Board for operation in this trade and they have success- 
fully covered this route and improved and increased its efficiency. 

The officers of this company are Mr. Frank Auditore, President,, 
who is one of the successful business men in the steamship business ; 
his brother, Joseph Auditore, was associated with him until his death 
in May, 1920. In 1920 Mr. Joseph D. Phillips, who is a well known 
steamship man of many years, joined the organization as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, and in March, 1921, Mr. John B. Austin, 
Jr., joined the organization in charge of the Baltic Service. Mr. 
Joseph G. Stockham, Secretary, has been associated with the Presi- 
dent and his brother for the past sixteen years, and is one of the 
well known shipping men down-town having been in the steamship 
business for the past thirty-three years. 

This Company will be one of the largest factors in the steamship 
business as time rolls on and we wish them every success. 





Itt 



— 191 



CHARLES H. "POTTER 

CHARLES H. POTTER has been actively associated with the 
shipping industry for the past thirty-three years. In the year 
1886 he entered the employ of Parsons & Barnes, ship brokers, 
36 South Street, New York ; in 1889 Captain Cyrus W. Chadwick, 
a well-known ship master, and Mr. Potter organized the firm of 
Chadwick & Potter to transact a general ship brokerage business, 
which partnership continued up to 1899, in which year Mr. Potter 
sold out his interest and joined the Luckenbach Steamship Com- 
pany ; after seventeen years' continuous service with the Lucken- 
bach interests, Mr. Potter resigned and organized the Potter Steam- 
ship Company, Inc., and the Potter Transportation Company, Inc., 
of which companies he is the President, located at 11 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Mr. Potter was elected President of the United States Ship 
Operators" Association in October, 1919, and re-elected for second 
term in 1920. This Association was formed in 1919 to "promote 
and advance the economical management and operation of American 
vessels, government owned and otherwise ; to co-operate with the 
United States government officials and to facilitate the administra- 
tion of its bureaus having jurisdiction over maritime matters; to 
work for the improvement of laws, regulations and rulings and to 
secure uniformity in customs and usages in relation thereto : to dif- 
fuse accurate marine information and to strengthen and enlarge 
friendly intercourse between men engaged in and about ships and 
shipping ; to the end that the Merchant Marine of the United States 
may attain its greatest efficiency." 

Mr. Potter, in April. 1920, was elected to serve two years as a 
Director of the Maritime Association of the Port of New York, 
resigning in 1921 to assume the duties of Vice-President, to which 
office he was elected. Owing to the death of President F. F. Boul- 
fon in August, 1921, Mr. Potter was called on to assume the duties 
of President of the Association. 

Mr. Potter is an ardent worker for an American Merchant 
Marine, serving on various committees working in conjunction with 
the U. S. Shipping Board. 

He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of 
New York, the New York Board of Trade and Merchants' Asso- 
ciation. 



T7 T7 



— 192 — 



THE SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN 

LINE 

SERVICE has been the constant keynote of the United Steam- 
ship Company of Copenhagen ever since its inception. And 
the growth and steadily perfected development of this ideal 
of service is strikingly shown in its present important position. 

Favored today, alike by those who cross the Atlantic for pleas- 
ure and for business, the Scandinavian-American Line — the descrip- 
tive name under which the company operates its passenger service 
between the United States and the Scandinavian countries — typifies 
everything that makes ocean travel a delight. 

Any sketch of the Scandinavian-American Line and its fleet of 
commodious comfortable ships would be incomplete without a brief 
mention of the various stages of the company's history. We believe 
you will find this condensed history of interest. 

Amalgamating several smaller shipping firms, the United Steam- 
ship Company of Copenhagen was formed in 1866 and began busi- 
ness the following year. With a fleet of 22 steamships, having a 
total register tonnage of 4,919 tons net, regular routes were main- 
tained between the various ports in Denmark, and in addition, to 
Kiel, Stettin, Koenigsberg, Antwerp, London, Hull, several Norwe- 
gian ports, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. 

Noting the dates that follow, marking the most decisive advances 
in a very rapid growth, enables you to get a clear idea of the ever- 
increasing importance of this company. 

1875 saw the completion of the harbor of Esbjerg, on the west 
coast of Jutland, and with it the regular operation of a line of 
steamships between that port and England. 

1880 was the date of still further expansion, when the important 
export routes for agricultural products, between Copenhagen and 
Newcastle, England, were taken over. This was followed closely by 
the acquisition of still other routes between Danish provincial ports 
and Newcastle. And it is noteworthy, that since 1884 the handling 
of Danish agricultural exports to England (with the exception of 
the route between Copenhagen and Leith) has been taken care of 
solely by this company. 

1882, shortly after the opening of the St. Petersburg Ship Canal, 
the company again broadened its activities, and a line of steamships 
was put in operation between Antwerp and St. Petersburg. 

1883 was likewise an important development year. It saw the 
extension of the company's service to Havre as a port of regular 
call ; and a still further extension of its service to Mediterranean 
ports. 

1886 was another progressive year, when a route to Hamburg 
was established ; and one between Antwerp and Riga. 

— 193 — 



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1887 opened up still other new routes — one to Hangd (Finland) 
and one to Oporto-Lisbon, with the extension of this route to Ma- 
deira in 1893. 

1895 marked an epoch in the company's history. Busy as they 
had been up to this time, in developing their many European routes, 
attention was now turned to the development of the company's first 
route between Copenhagen and United States ports. Six big steam- 
ships were built and named "Kentucky," "Arkansas," "Louisiana," 
"Florida," "Alabama" and "Texas." These steamships plied be- 
tween Copenhagen and New Orleans, and in addition to great cargo 
capacities provided accommodations for a limited number of cabin 
passengers. 

1898 witnessed still more important developments, for in this 
year the company took over the "Thingvalla Line," a long-estab- 
lished passenger service line between Copenhagen and New York. 
With the accession of this line, immediate steps were taken to put 
its trans-oceanic service on the highest plane of efficiency. New 
twin-screw steamers of the most modern type were built expressly for 
this service between Scandinavian ports and New York. 

1899 the company established a regular service between Boston 
and Copenhagen. 

1903-1904 initiated the opening of regular sailings between 
Scandinavian ports and Philadelphia, Newport News and Baltimore. 

1907 saw still another addition to the company's service, with 
the establishment of the line to Buenos Aires, South America. 

And as a result of this steady progress, of this intelligent ex- 
pansion of its service, by the end of 1913 the company's fleet in- 
cluded 130 steamships and 14 seagoing lighters, with a total gross 
tonnage of 177,290 tons. 

1914 the service of the Company's Lines was still further aug- 
mented with the commissioning of several new ships. The most not- 
able of these were the "California," the largest vessel afloat driven 
bv Diesel motor engines ; and the magnificent passenger steamer 
"Frederik VIII." 

The main office of the company is at Copenhagen but all matters 
relating to American business are disposed of by the New York office 
which is located in the Scandinavian-American Line Building at 27 
Whitehall street. Agencies are maintained in Chicago, Minneapolis, 
Boston, San Francisco and Seattle. 



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SINCLAIR NAVIGATION COMPANY 

SINCLAIR CONSOLIDATED OIL CORPORATION, founded 
by H. F. Sinclair, has become in recent years an important 
factor in the development of New York Harbor. This cor- 
poration which is engaged in all branches of the petroleum indus- 
try, has built up an organization covering a large part of the 
United States, and extending into many foreign countries. 

The executive headquarters are in New York City, — housed in 
one of the finest "sky scrapers" on the Island of Manhattan, the 
building having been bought for this purpose in 1919. 

The Sinclair company was fortunate enough to obtain one of 
the few remaining water front sites in New York Harbor. This 
property, which is known as Tremley Point, lies south of the 
Bayway plant of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, with 
a frontage of about one thousand feet on the Arthur Kill, and 
Hvith ready access to the trunk railway systems running out from 
New York on the Jersey mainland. It is not publicly known just 
2iow extensive will be the improvements on this valuable property, 
but there has already been established a fuel oil installation which 
in its design suggests that it will eventually be a part of a large 
petroleum refinery. In the meantime Sinclair ships and barges 
are plying New York waters, and the steady increase in these 
activities indicates that New York Harbor will be one of the most 
important centers of Sinclair operations along the Atlantic 
Seaboard. 

The Sinclair company is strongly entrenched in and about 
Philadelphia, as well as in and about Providence, Rhode Island. 
One of its subsidiary companies, the Union Petroleum Company of 
Philadelphia, has a large plant at Marcus Hook, and this terminal 
lias been considered its chief exporting point. The Union Petro- 
leum has for years been one of the largest American exporters of 
petroleum products in bulk. 

The volume of business moving out of the Marcus Hook ter- 
minal has been growing, but shipping men have directed attention 
to the fact that the Gulf ports are also attracting a liberal per- 
centage of Sinclair shipments, due to the strategic locations of its 
refineries and terminals at New Orleans and on the Houston Ship 
Channel. On the other hand, it should not be overlooked that 
much of the Sinclair production of crude oil in Mexico may logi- 
cally be expected to find its way to the Atlantic Seaboard, and 
that in the next few years the Atlantic ports may be further helped 
by the bringing in of oil on the Sinclair holdings in Costa Rica 
and Panama, and also on the west coast of Africa. The poten- 
tiality of these holdings, coupled with the rapid extension of Sin- 

— 196 — 



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(lair activities in Europe, give assurance that the Atlantic coast 
ports will figure largely in Sinclair shipments. 

The Sinclair subsidiary which owns and operates the Sinclair 
fleet, is the Sinclair Navigation Company. Most of its tankers 
are of the latest and most improved design. The total tonnage 
according to latest reports is 177 ,348 tons deadweight, plus 1,009 
gross tons of ocean going tugs. This fleet which has no funded 
indebtedness of any kind against it can handle from 16,000,000 to 
20,000,000 barrels of oil annually, according to ports served. 

Most of these tank ships were designed and built under the 
supervision of J. G. Johnson, vice-president and director of the 
Sinclair Navigation Co. 

The Sinclair company also owns and operates a number of bulk 
oil tank barges of about 32,000 tons deadweight. These barges 
are used at various points of distribution in the United States, 
Cuba and Mexico. 

In addition to this fleet the Sinclair Consolidated Oil Cor- 
poration and one of its affiliated French companies, the Mazout- 
Transports, have nearing completion two 9,000-ton tankers named 
"C. I. P." and "MOTRIX." These boats will be used exclusively 
in the French-American trade. 



SPIRE PITOU & CO. 

THE present firm of Spire Pitou & Company, whose senior 
partner is a son of the Spire Pitou who for nearly fifty 
years was in the shipping business at 17 State Street, when 
the Pilots Association had their offices there and whose Pilots 
took to sea the barrel oil sailing vessels bound for France. This 
was at a time when Mr. Pitou's father shipped crude petroleum to 
France in barrels on schooners. Now the son is chartering tank 
steamers to carry gasoline in bulk. Some change in business dur- 
ing forty years, but the firm has only moved once in that time 
from 17 State Street to 141 Broadway, where it now is located. 
Mr. Spire Pitou's partner is Mr. Frederick G. Kinscherf who has 
also been in the shipping business a great many years. This firm 
is doing a general chartering business and also acting as agents 
for foreign vessel owners. They have close relations with a great 
many of the biggest merchants and exporters in and out of the 
city and are rated as a very old and high-class firm. 



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SIR JOSEPH W. ISHERWOOD, 'BART 

WHILE, strictly speaking, there is no place in the list of 
those who have made the Port of New York the greatest mari- 
time haven in the world, for Sir Joseph Isherwood, Bart., at 
the same time it is felt that no history of New York harbor would 
be complete without fitting reference to the founder of the Isherwood 
System of ship construction. 

Quite outside of the commercial advantages of vessels built on 
the Isherwood longitudinal system, such as economy in building 
and operation and increase of cargo capacity without increase in 
draft, Sir Joseph has done something for mankind — and especially 
for the men whose lives are spent on the seven seas, that must 
not go unheralded to or unnoticed by those on shore who scan 
these pages. 

Tank steamers — the type of vessel that came into being in 
comparative recent years when the transportation of oil in bulk 
grew into large proportions — were considered a great hazard, not 
only in the matter of safety for the cargo but safety for the 
lives of their crews as well. In certain heavy seas these "tankers" 
were wont to have their "backs broken" through strain, and many 
a ship of this type broke in two and disappeared without a word 
ever being heard from those who had been aboard. It was Sir 
Joseph — then plain Mr. Joseph Isherwood, expert surveyor of 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping and a naval architect of exceptional 
sagacity- — who hit upon the longitudinal construction of ships 
and found that "tankers" built upon his plan would survive any 
ordinary bad weather and would, even when struck in a collision, 
provide the maximum safety for the men on board. 

The great test of the new system came when the world war 
broke out ; when all maritime governments availed themselevs of 
the Isherwood system and saved precious days by reason of the 
faster construction of oil carriers that were built on the Isher- 
wood plans. In this way Sir Joseph unquestionably did much to 
help win the war for the Allies and also, be it remembered, saved 
many hundreds of lives because the "Isherwood ships" were safer 
vessels than were ever built before. 

It Avas in recognition of his expertness as a naval architect 
and the consequent aid he gave the Allies, apart from the humani- 
tarian side of his research work, that King George V knighted 
the famous inventor and created him a Baronet of the United 
Kingdom ; an honor which, in Sir Joseph Isherwood's case, was 
highly merited and one that has met with approbation throughout 
the entire maritime world. 

— 198 — 



BA'RBER & CO, INC., A*ND ITS 
SUBSIDIARIES 

WHEN the question of the substantia] and tested eminence of 
Now York as ;i shipping center comes to mind, it brings up 
the thought of the great enterprises, long active, which have 
for years stood as exemplars of the city's importance in maritime 
affairs. Of these none is more representative or better known than 
the firm of Barber & Company, Inc., and its subsidiaries. 

Many years ago — in the early 1880's to be exact — the "Mon- 
arch Line" was inaugurated. It was a steamship line, operating 
between New York and London. The company owned five steamers, 
each of about five thousand tons, deadweight, and having a speed of 
from ten to ten and a half knots. This line was fostered and man- 
aged by Messrs. John Patton, Jr., & Company, of London, their 
New York agency being styled Patton, Vickers & Company. The 
"Company" of this firm was Mr. Herbert Barber, who had come 
from England to establish himself in New York for the purpose of 
representing the Monarch Line here. He brought with him an ex- 
cellent equipment for that service, having had, even at that time, 
many years of practical and informing experience in the steamship 
business. 

The Monarch Line was finally bought out by other companies 
in the latter part of 1886, and Herbert Barber, together with his 
brother James, who had previously handled the chartering end of 
the business here, established the firm of Barber & Company, in 
January, 1887. 

Several years after the inception of Barber & Company, it was 
incorporated, since which time it has been known as Barber & Co., 
Inc. Since that time the growth of the company has been phenom- 
enal, the business extending in all directions until the operations of 
the Barber enterprise have become practically world-wide, with 
operations so extended that it became necessary, as the business 
grew, to form other companies as adjuncts to their business. This 
necessity also led to the formation of Barber Steamship Lines, Inc., 
which company took over the handling of the entire steamship end 
of the business, Barber & Co., Inc., continuing as the parent and 
holding company of all of the other companies. 

The family of Barber corporations, as it now stands, is a very 
formidable and comprehensive one, the corporations being enumer- 
ated, with their special objectives, as follows: 

Barber & Co., Inc., the parent company, having supervision over 
all of the others. 

Barber Steamship Lines, Inc., handling the general steamship 

business and representing many well established lines of overseas 

transportation. 

1 —199 — 







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Barber Sailing Ship Lines, Inc., handling the sailing ship busi- 
ness of the Barber enterprise. 

Macona Steamship Corporation, steamship owners. 

New York & Oriental Steamship Co., Inc., steamship owners. 

La Plata Steamship Co., Inc., steamship owners. 

Atlantic Piers Co., Inc., handling the terminals, and also the 
receiving and delivery of cargo. 

Atlantic Towing Co., Inc., handling the shifting of barges. 

Pier Machine Works, Inc., handling the repairs of steamers. 

Atlantic Stevedoring Co., Inc., handling the loading and dis- 
charging activities of the Barber lines. 

Virginia Coaling Corporation, which attends to the supplying of 
bunkers. 

Through these various corporations the activities of Barber 
& Co., Inc., constitute a very large and most efficiently self-con- 
tained organization, covering all of the various departments and 
port activities connected with overseas transportation by steam and 
sail. 



&?LEXS£<NDE<R & BALDWIN, Ltd. 

ALEXANDER & BALDWIN, LTD., was incorporated on 
June 30th, 1900, under the laws of the Hawaiian Islands, 
as sugar factors and commission merchants. The main 
office is in Honolulu, and branches are maintained at San Fran- 
cisco, Seattle, Kobe, Yokohama, and New York. The present 
officers are : 

W. M. Alexander, President and Director ; H. A. Baldwin, Vice- 
President and Director; J. Waterhouse, Vice-President and Director; 
W. O. Smith, Vice-President and Director; John Guild, Secretary 
and Director; C. R. Hemenway, Treasurer and Director; F. F. 
Baldwin, Director; A. L. Castle, Director; J. R. Gait, Director; 
D. B. Murdoch, Auditor. 

W. M. Alexander, San Francisco ; John Waterhouse, Hono- 
lulu ; E. R. Adams, Seattle ; J. D. Oakley, Japan Offices ; C. A. 
Dann, New York. 

The capital stock of the organization is $7,500,000.00, com- 
prised of 75,000 shares with a par value of $100. 







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200 — 






A/~£W YORK HARBORS LARGEST 
SHIP ( BUIL c DlKLg YARD 

OCCUPYING 170 acres, with a water frontage of 2,400 feet 
on the Hackensack River, the Federal Shipbuilding Company 
is the largest shipbuilding yard in this vicinity. The exten- 
sive facilities of the plant with its eight launching ways, perma- 
nent shops of steel and concrete construction, floating drydock 
and very modern equipment, offer unusual advantages for the con- 
struction and the repair of all types of merchant vessels. 

The plant, which is a subsidiary of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, was commenced in August, 1917. The first vessel was 
launched in June, 1918, and delivered in October, 1918. Since be- 
ginning of operations and up to December 31, 1921, fifty vessels 
of five different types have been built, consisting of thirty single 
screw cargo vessels of about 9,600 tons deadweight capacity deliv- 
ered to the Emergency Fleet Corporation, thirteen single screw 
cargo ships of two different types around 9,600 tons deadweight de- 
livered to the Isthmian Steamship Company, five twin screw tankers 
of 15,100 tons deadweight delivered to the Standard Oil Company 
of New Jersey, and two smaller vessels for other companies, as well 
as several more barges and car floats. The normal capacity of the 
yard is about 24 vessels constructed per year, with a working force 
of some 6,000 employes. 

The general plan of the yard shows the completeness of its shop 
buildings, storage and transportation. There are seventeen locomo- 
tive cranes, four locomotives and seventy railroad cars to assist the 
handling of materials needed for the various manufacturing shops. 

At the shipways, material is handled by portable tower cranes 
operated by electricity on 40-foot gauge tracks between the ways. 
The length of travel in each case is about 450 feet. There is one 
tower crane between each pair of ways. Each of the portable towers 
carries two booms ; all of the derrick booms have a capacity of 15 
tons at a maximum reach of 65 feet. The lower ends of the der- 
ricks are 65 feet above the rails and the towers are built with open 
frame work, giving a clear height of 20 feet under the towers, so 
that freight cars and locomotive cranes can pass down the ways 
underneath the towers. Tavo standard gauge railroad tracks extend 
down the length of the ways between the tower rails, so that material 
can be brought on cars to the exact location on the ways where it is 
to be erected. Space is also available between the ways for the tem- 
porary storing of a limited amount of fabricated material. The 
portable tower shipway cranes were designed and built by the Fed- 
eral Shipbuilding Company in conjunction with the American Bridge 
Company. 

— 201 — 







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At the head of the shipways and about 275 feet distant from 
them is the main plate shop, 800 feet long by 175 feet wide, which 
extends parallel with the waterfront. The wide space between the 
plate shop and shipways is used for the assembling of such parts of 
the vessels as bulkheads, transoms, deckhouses, tanks, skylights, etc. 
Ground assembly is further facilitated by an overhead crane runway 
with a span of 71 feet 3V2 inches, carrying three electric traveling 
cranes, one of 35 tons capacity and the other two of 20 tons capa- 
city each, immediately outside of the plate shop. Over the plate yard, 
immediately behind the plate shop, are two crane runways, on each 
of which are installed two overhead electric traveling cranes of 10 
tons capacity each and two of 5 tons capacity each. 

The plate shop itself is divided into three bays extending the full 
length of the building, each of which is served by three 10-ton over- 
head traveling cranes. The plate and angle furnaces are at the north 
end of the shop, and in an extension of 120 feet long at this end 
of the building is the angle-smith shop. The plate shop is thor- 
oughly equipped with the latest types of fabricating machinery. 
Material at the punches is handled on Lyscholm punch tables, and 
all of the larger machines are equipped with individual electric or 
chain hoists operated on jib cranes. The arrangement of the ma- 
chinery in the plate shop is such that the material passes in pro- 
gressive steps from the plate yard in the rear of the shop to the 
assembly yard on the way side. Over the plate shop at the south- 
ern end are the joiner and carpenter shops, while at the northern 
end is the mold loft. 

Down the river, immediately below the shipways, is a wet basin 
used as a fitting-out berth, which has a capacity for fitting out eight 
vessels at one time. Near the fitting-out berth are a paint shop, 
ship riggers' shop, pipe shop and storehouses. A space at the end 
of the wet basin is reserved for the storage of pipe and fittings. 
Material is handled at the fitting-out berth by locomotive cranes, 
and for heavy weights such as boilers and engines a stationary three- 
leg jib crane of 100 tons capacity has been erected. This crane was 
designed and built by the Federal Shipbuilding Company in conjunc- 
tion with the American Bridge Company. 

Located at the wet basin is a floating drydoek constructed with 
wooden pontoons and continuous steel wing walls. This dock will 
handle vessels up to 500 feet in length and is controlled electrically 
from an operating house at the head of the wet basin. The pon- 
toons were built and launched from yard's ways, while the steel wing 
walls were fabricated in the shops and the complete dock was erected 
by the Company's forces during the early part of 1921. 

— 202 — 



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In addition to the plate shop, the yard is equipped with a ma- 
chine shop, forge shop, boiler shop, foundry and carpenter shop. 
Each department is housed in a separate building, and all of the 
buildings are of steel, glass and tile construction. 

Power is furnished from the Public Service station in the form 
of electricity at 13,000 volts, which is stepped down to 2,200 volts 
for operating the air compressors, 400 volts alternating current 
and 250 volts direct for general machine use, and 110 volts single 
phase for lighting purposes. In the power house are five air com- 
pressors supplying a total of 22,000 cubic feet of free air per 
minute. Two of the compressors are Ingersoll-Rand machines, one 
with a capacity of 5,400 cubic feet and the other of 2,700 cubic feet 
of free air per minute. The other three compressors are of the 
Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon cross compound type, each with a capacity 
of about 4,400 cubic feet of free air per minute. In the power house 
there is also a hydraulic plant with a capacity of 450 gallons per 
minute at 1,500 pounds per square inch pressure, consisting of three 
Dean hydraulic pumps and two accumulators supplied by the Cam- 
den Iron Works. 

The machine shop is 500 feet long and 123 feet 8V2 inches wide, 
with two side balconies each about 30 feet wide. In the central bay 
are two 50-ton Cleveland overhead electric traveling cranes, each of 
which has a 10-ton auxiliary hoist. The heavy planers and boring 
machines for machining stern frames, propellers and shafting are 
in the center bay, while the lathes and lighter machinery are in 
the north and south bays. The manufacture of propelling machin- 
ery such as turbines, reciprocating engines, condensers, etc., is well 
established. 

A special feature of this yard is the splendidly equipped shop 
for building Scotch boilers. The shop itself is 500 feet long and 
161 feet 6 inches wide, to which an extension 85 feet long has been 
added. The shop has a capacity for turning out annually 175 
Hiree-furnace, single-end Scotch boilers each 15 feet 6 inches diame- 
ter by 11 feet long with a heating surface of from 3,500 to 3,600 
square feet. 

The shop is divided into three bays. The center bay is served by 
three overhead electric traveling cranes of 50 tons capacity each : 
the eastern end of the bay is utilized as an erecting floor, and the 
western end for the bending, drilling and riveting of the heavy shell 
plates. The equipment here includes a set of Southwark vertical 
bending rolls; one 200-ton bull riveter; one 150-ton bull riveter; two 
75-ton bull riveters and two 90-ton portable riveters; one three-head 
Bethlehem shell drill, and one three head shell drill built at the yard. 



— 204 



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In the south bay arc the machines for punching, shearing, planing 
and drilling the plates. The equipment includes sixteen radial drills, 
several long-arm radial drilling and countersinking machines, three 
plate planers, bending rolls, etc. Jib cranes with chain hoists arc 
provided for handling material at the larger machines, and this bay 
is also equipped with two 20-ton overhead electric traveling cranes 
with 5-ton auxiliary hoists. At the west end of the bay are the 
furnaces and bending slabs and sectional flanging machines. The 
northern bay, served by two overhead traveling cranes, is used prin- 
cipally for the lighter sheet metal work, such as casings, uptakes, 
tanks, etc. 

The forge shop is 300 feet long by 151 feet wide. Part of this 
building is used as a drop forge shop, and is equipped with six Erie 
steam hammers ranging from 400 pounds to 2,000 pounds, two Ajax 
riveting machines and a die sinking department. The rest of the 
building is taken up with solid smith work, for which six Erie single- 
frame steam hammers, ranging from 800 to 1,500 pounds, are pro- 
vided. There is also a United Engineering 350-ton hydraulic press. 
The center bay of this shop is served by a 15-ton overhead electric 
traveling crane supplied by the Erie Steel Construction Company. 

In addition to the above, there is a foundry 300 feet long by 
103 feet wide equipped with two iron cupolas, each with a capacity 
of 12 tons. The foundry is also provided with equipment for fur- 
nishing brass castings up to one ton. The center bay of the foun- 
dry is equipped with two 20-ton Milwaukee overhead traveling 
cranes. 

The main offices of the company are located in a two-story gen- 
eral office building 420 feet long by 55 feet wide, near the main en- 
trance. The administration offices are on the first floor of the build- 
ing and the engineering department on the second floor. At the 
main entrance are the time clocks and employment offices, and 
nearby is a well equipped emergency hospital. 



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THE VULCAN IRON WORKS 

THE VULCAN IRON WORKS, INC., was established in 1848. 
In 1915 they acquired the property of Alex. Miller & Bro. In 
1919 they purchased the plant of Theo. Smith and Sons Com- 
pany and in 1920 they acquired the properties of the Burt and 
Mitchell Dry Dock Company, Brown Dry Dock Company and 
Grymes Engineering Company. 

The work consists of general repairs to steel and iron vessels, 
the building of boilers, engines (reciprocating and turbine), general 
machine and blacksmith work and the manufacture of buckets and 
other dredging machinery. 

In 1902 they built the pilot boat "New Jersey" for the New Jer- 
sey State Commission. Later the following fire boats were con- 
structed for New York City — "Thomas Willett," "James Duane," 
"Cornelius Lawrence," "New Yorker" and the Western Union Cable 
steamer "Robert Cleary." 

In 1920 they installed the first entire electric propelling equip- 
ment in the steamer "Eclipse" for the United States Shipping Board, 
and also the propelling equipment with Diesel engines in a number 
of merchant steamers. 

They have a complete floating repair and electric welding plant 
— equipped with air compressors, steam-driven electric generators 
and a complete machine shop. 

In addition to the modern machine, boiler, blacksmith and wood- 
working shops, they operate five dry docks. 

The plant is located at the mouth of Morris Canal Basin 
at Jersey City opposite the Battery, New York City. 

The officers of the Company are A. J. Grymes, president ; L. S. 
Parker, vice-president, and G. F. Fischer, secretary. 

P. KLEPPE & CO., Inc. 

THE firm of P. Kleppe & Co., Inc., was incorporated in New 
York in 1917 for the purpose of conducting a general ship- 
ping and ship brokerage business. In 1919 this Company 
formed The North & South Line, Inc., and operated a regular 
freight service from New York to Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Buenos 
Aires. The name of this service was later changed to Kleppe Lines 
under which designation it now maintains monthly sailings from 
New York and Philadelphia to South America. A ship brokerage 
department is also maintained as part of the organization and con- 
siderable business is done with its connections in the United King- 
dom and Scandinavia. The officers of P. Kleppe & Co., Inc., are: 
President, K. A. Kleppe; vice-president, Sigurd Kleppe; secretary, 
F. Riker Clark ; treasurer, G. Grundesen. 

— 206 — 



"PAN AMERICAN "PETROLEUM 
AND TRANSPORT COMPANY 
MEXICAN PETROLEUM CO., Ltd., 

of jDe/aware 

MEXICAN PETROLEUM 
CORPORATION 

THE recognition of the supreme importance of fuel-oil for 
shipping, and the conversion of ships from coal to oil burners, 
amongst which are some of the largest vessels afloat, is the 
most striking development in the shipping world during the post- 
war period. There are today 2,536 vessels fitted for burning oil, or 
20% of the world total, which is more than nine times larger than 
the number of oil-burning ships in 1914. There is nothing at the 
moment of greater significance for the efficiency of shipping than 
an assured supply of fuel-oil. 

The Mexican Petroleum Company, Limited, of Delaware, through 
a subsidiary (the Huasteca Petroleum Company) is the largest 
exporter of fuel-oil from Mexico. During the year 1920 the ship- 
ments amounted to over 25,000,000 barrels. The Company's prop- 
erties in Mexico cover vast tracts of proven land, with incalculably 
rich deposits of petroleum. The Company has more than 400 
miles of pipe line, and the Topping Plant at Tampico can handle 
120,000 barrels daily. The oil storage station near the wharf, 
the Topping Plant, work shops, offices, etc., cover an area of 652 
acres, and the wharf has adequate accommodation for the loading 
simultaneously of three large tankers. 

For the effective and economic handling of the oil a large 
fleet of tankers has been built; these tankers are owned by the 
Pan American Petroleum & Transport Company, which controls the 
Mexican Petroleum Company, Limited, of Delaware. These ships 
are engaged in shipping oil between Tampico and ports in North 
and South America and Great Britain. The fleet of tankers con- 
sists of 31 ships which average about 9,000 tons each. The rapid 
growth of the Company is shown by the fact that eight years 
ago the total tonnage of ships owned was 38,425 ; today the 
total dead-weight tonnage of the Company's tankers is 272,493. 

The Mexican Petroleum Corporation and other subsidiary com- 
panies of the Mexican Petroleum Company, Limited, of Dela- 
are, own distributing stations in North and South America and 
Great Britain and a refinery at Destrehan, La., which can treat 
30,000 barrels of oil daily. The distributing stations are well- 
equipped with piers, storage tanks, loading racks, tugs, barges, 

— 207 — 



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motor trucks, etc. The storage tanks at the stations and refinery 
have a total capacity of 5,118,745 barrels. Each station is pro- 
vided with the most modern appliances for handling oil expeditiously. 
Where it is necessary to deliver oil from barges, rather than direct 
from the tanks, every efficient facility is utilized so that the largest 
passenger steamers are bunkered in the minimum of time. 

Stations are erected, or being erected, at all important ports 
from Portland, Maine, to Buenos Aires, in Argentina, and in Great 
Britain. The stations already completed are: 

Portland, Me. ; Chelsea, Mass. ; Fall River, Mass. ; Providence, 
R. I. ; Carteret, N. J. ; Passaic, N. J. ; Norfolk, Va. ; Jacksonville, 
Fla. ; Tampa, Fla. ; New Orleans, La. ; Destrehan, La. ; Galveston, 
Texas; Cristobal, C. Z. ; Para, Brazil; Pernambuco, Brazil; Bahia, 
Brazil; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Santos, Brazil; Montevideo, Uru- 
guay; Buenos Aires, Argentina, and in Great Britain at Avonmouth, 
Glasgow, Liverpool, Southampton, South Shields and Thames Haven. 

The main offices of these companies are: 120 Broadway, New 
York City and Los Angeles, Cal. 

NEW YORK AND CUBA MAIL 
S. S. CO. 'THE WA<R<D LINE" 

THE NEW YORK & CUBA MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY, 
operating the "Ward Line" of passenger and freight steamers, 
has its general offices at the foot of Wall Street, East River. 
Its numerous and well-equipped fleet covers the principal ports of 
Europe as well as the Bahamas, Cuba, and the Mexican Gulf Ports, 
and it maintains agencies in all the principal cities of the United 
States, Europe, Mexico and Cuba. 

The officers of the company are as follows : Alfred Gilbert 
Smith, President ; William D. Macy, Vice-President ; Joseph Hodg- 
son, Vice-President ; H. E. Cabaud, Vice-President and Secretary ; 
Wm. Harry Smith, Vice-President, Havana; R. C. MaeBain, 
Treasurer; M. O. Fano, Assistant Treasurer; H. E. De Bedts, 
Assistant Treasurer; W. F. Paton, Assistant General Traffic Man- 
ager and General Passenger Agent; W. S. Hulick, Assistant Gen- 
eral Passenger Agent; Theodore Bowker, General Freight Agent; 
H. R. Warner, Assistant General Freight Agent; W. D. Carter, 
Auditor; Wm. Inilay, General Claim Agent; Frank E. Pearce, 
Freight Forwarding Agent; C. C. Oakes, Marine Superintendent; 
James Cotter, Port Steward and Purchasing Agent ; R. J. Grif- 
fith, Terminal Superintendent. 

— 208 — 



(ROBERT K LAVERIE 

ROBERT II. LAVERIE, who is one of the besl known experts 
on either side of the Atlantic in ship construction, superin- 
tended the production of more than 100 ships for the French 
government in its efforts to replace the tonnage lost in the great war. 
In connection with this work and the building of other vessels already 
delivered, Mr. Laverie superintended the construction of yards in 
Portland, Ore., and Taconia, Wash., and probably has handled as 
large a volume of administrative problems as any man identified with 
world reconstruction problems. 

Mr. Laverie has been identified with ships and ship construction 
throughout an active life. He is a native of Glasgow, was educated 
there, and later entered the shipyards of D. & W. Henderson, on the 
Clyde. There he received the groundwork of training for a career 
which was to prove one of exceptional interest. In the course of time 
Mr. Laverie went to the shipbuilding plant of G. T. Davie & Sons, 
Quebec, where he remained five years. Then, progressing steadily in 
the scale of responsibility, he worked for a half dozen of the princi- 
pal organizations engaged in ship construction. These included the 
American Steel Barge Company, West Superior, Wis. ; the Cramps' 
Yard, Philadelphia ; Newport News Shipbuilding Company ; Herre- 
shoff Company, Bristol, R. I. ; Fore River Shipbuilding Company, 
Quincy, Mass. ; Crescent Shipyard Company, Elizabeth, N. J. ; Town- 
send & Downey Company, Mariner Harbor, N. Y., etc. 

In 1910 Mr. Laverie was made chief surveyor in America of the 
Bureau Veritas International Register of Shipping, one of the best 
known institutions in the shipping trade of the world. Mr. Laverie's 
unusual experience especially fitted him for this post, in which he met 
with success of the first order. Then the coming of war brought a 
demand for shipping brains such as the world never had known. It 
was in the nature of things that a man such as Mr. Laverie should 
be called upon to take an important part in maintaining the fleets of 
the Allies. His help has been instrumental in the creating of a large 
new tonnage which now flies the French flag. Not only has Mr. 
Laverie directed the construction of new ships for the French, but 
also has handled the repair and alteration of many craft acquired in 
various stages of usefulness. And his work has not been wholly for 
France in recent years, because he also has assisted American ship 
owners with their problems. Just now he is engaged in work which 
will occupy his attention for some time to come. 

Mr. Laverie is a member of the Society of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers, the Maritime Association of the Port of New 
York, Canadian Society of New York, Arts and Science and White- 
hall Clubs. He is President of the firm of Robert H. Laverie, Inc. ; 
also President of the Mariner Harbor Building Loan Association, etc. 

— 209 — 



LAMPORT & HOLT, Ltd. 

THE name of Lamport & Holt and the blue, white and black 
funnel of their steamers are familiar on all trade routes lead- 
ing to South America. 

The firm was established in 1845 and at that time trade was 
maintained by sailing vessels. Later steamships were adopted and 
today the fleet is a modern one of fifty steamers, including several 
of the most up-to-date types. 

Services are maintained between New York and Brazil and River 
Plate. The Lamport & Holt Line is the pioneer passenger carrying 
service to South America and the Company's policy of progress has 
resulted in the building of a fleet of palatial passenger liners, the 
most recent addition being the turbine steamer "Vandyck," which 
will take her place on the New York berth early in 1922. 

In addition to the New York South America services the Lam- 
port & Holt Line maintains freight communications between Liver- 
pool, Glasgow, London and Brazil and River Plate and also simi- 
lar services from Continental ports. 

In 1911 Lamport & Holt became incorporated as a limited lia- 
bility Company with Sir Owen Philipps as Chairman and Lord 
Pirrie, Mr. Arthur Cook and Mr. George H. Melly as Directors. 
The two last named gentlemen were partners in the original firm of 
Lamport & Holt. In February, 1920, the Marquess of Carisbrooke 
was appointed as a Director. 

During the war the vessels of the Line took a prominent part in 
the conveyance of troops and war material to the Armies in France 
and the East. 



HENRY W. PEABODY & CO. 

THE firm of Henry W. Peabody and Company was established 
January 1st, 1867. The founder was Henry Wayland Pea- 
body, born in Salem, Massachusetts, a descendant of Lieuten- 
ant Francis Peabody, who settled in Salem in 1635. 

The New York office is at 17 State Street, with branches at 
San Francisco, Manila, Melbourne, Sydney, London, Capetown, 
Johannesburg and Buenos Aires. The business of the firm is 
exportation of American products and manufactures and impor- 
tation of foreign products and manufactures for the United States 
market. With the development of international trade the business 
of the firm has steadily increased, until they are now among the 
largest exporting and importing houses of New York. 

— 210 — 



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HISTORY OF THE 'MORGAN LINE" 

THE original line of steamers commonly known as the "Morgan 
Line," was inaugurated by Mr. Charles Morgan sometime in 
the late forties, and was operated in the early fifties between 
New Orleans, Texas and Mexican Coast points with a few small 
steamers, the names of which are not now available. Sometime (lur- 
ing 1858 or 1859, Mr. Morgan purchased from Mr. Cornelius Van- 
derbilt and added to the fleet, two other small steamers then operated 
between Brashear (now Morgan City) and Texas points. 

In the meantime in Louisiana, public spirited men had also con- 
ceived the idea and the ambition to open up the undeveloped section 
of Southern and Western Louisiana and bring the port of New 
Orleans, then an important city, in direct connection with the re- 
sources of Texas and Louisiana, it being their ambition to make 
New Orleans the great export port for the whole Southwestern 
country. 

The New Orleans, Opelousas & Great Western Railroad was 
organized for this purpose, and the far-flung plans of the promoters 
called for a line extending through Lafayette and Alexandria and 
across the Sabine River at a point near Thompson's Bluff, west 
through Texas to El Paso, thence to Mazatlan in Mexico on the 
Pacific Ocean. 

In 1857, the first division of this Railroad, more commonly 
known as the "Opelousas Railroad" was completed and operated to 
Brashear City, a distance of eighty (80) miles, connection being 
made at that point with steamers of the Morgan Line and the Van- 
derbilt Line for Texas and Mexican points. 

These steamers were necessarily of a very light draft, as the 
depth of water in what was then known as "Ann Channel," and later 
on as the "Morgan Ditch," would not admit vessels drawing more 
than seven and one-half feet. However, after passing though this 
channel, ten miles in length, and entering Berwick Bay, there was 
sufficient depth to permit easy docking of vessels at wharves then 
located at what is now Morgan City, and connections were also 
made at this port with steamboats plying along the inland water- 
ways. 

At this time (1857) the Opelousas Railroad had erected large 
cattle pens at Morgan City to take care of large shipments of cattle 
received by steamer from Texas points for transportation by rail 
at New Orleans. 

What is now the Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & Steam- 
ship Company was taken over by the military authorities of the 
L T nited States on May 1, 1862, and was operated and occupied by 

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them until February 1, 1866. The president of the Morgan Road 
during this difficult time was A. B. Seger, who conducted the affairs 
of the company with great devotion to the interest of the owners. 

When taken over by the United States the Opelousas Railroad 
had not been completed beyond Morgan City, but was cleared, graded 
and ready for ties and rail for a distance of sixty miles beyond 
that point, when the outbreak of the Civil War caused the suspen- 
sion of all work. 

After the Opelousas Railroad regained possession of its prop- 
erties in 1866, the rail and steamship lines resumed operations, the 
steamship lines being controlled by Mr. Charles Morgan, traffic 
arrangements with the railroad providing for the movement of freight 
to and from Texas and Mexican Coast points in connection with the 
steamship lines. The steamers operated in this trade by the Morgan 
Line were the "Matagorda," "Alabama," "I. C. Harris" and "Har- 
lan." In addition, the Morgan Line owned and operated the follow- 
ing steamers :-"Wm. G. Howe," "Clinton" and "St. Mary," all of 
about one thousand (1,000) gross tons each, and of about the same 
design with fairly good passenger accommodations. 

On April 5, 1869, Charles Morgan purchased at marshal's sale 
the New Orleans, Opelousas & Great Western Railroad, extending 
at that time to Morgan City. Morgan City became for ten years 
the terminus of the Morgan road and from its Morgan's steamships 
and river boats supplied Texas and Louisiana. 

In 1870, the Morgan Line added to the fleet the steamship 
"Hutchinson," a side-wheeler of fourteen hundred (1400) tons gross, 
and afterwards changed to a propeller. This steamer was followed 
by the S. S. "Whitney," thirteen hundred (1300) gross tons, the 
S. S. "Josephine," thirteen hundred (1300) gross tons, the S. S. 
"Josephine," thirteen hundred (1300) gross tons in 1871, and the 
S. S. "Gussie," one thousand (1000) gross tons in 1872. The S. S. 
"Whitney" and S. S. "Josephine" were later placed in the Cuban 
and Mexican trade. 

In 1876, the Morgan Line began operating the New York-New 
Orleans Line with the following screw steamers : "Lone Star," 
"Algiers," "Morgan City" and "New York," all of about twenty- 
three hundred (2300) gross tons each, or a total of ninety-two 
hundred (9200) gross tons, steamers being used for freight exclu- 
sively. 

The Morgan road, which had been projected to Lafayette, but 
on which track had not been laid, was finally pushed through in 1878 
and the Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & Steamship Com- 



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pany was then organized, this being only a few weeks before Mr. 
Morgan's death. 

In 18T9, the S. S. "Chalmette" of thirty-two hundred (3200) 
gross tons was built and placed in the New York-New Orleans trade. 
It should be noted that the Morgan Line continued to operate 
steamers between Morgan City and Texas and Mexican Coast 
points, the former being known as the Texas Line, and the latter 
as the Vera Cruz Line, both of which were abandoned in later years. 
About this time the Havana Line was in operation, steamers touch- 
ing on their way south at Cedar Keys and Key West, Florida, and 
in later years at Port Tampa, Florida, returning northbound via 
Key West, Florida. 

In 1882, the S. S. "Excelsior" of thirty-five hundred (3500) 
gross tons was built and placed in the New York-New Orleans 
trade. The business had so increased that vessels had to be chartered 
while larger and faster ones were building. 

In 1880 the Southern Pacific Railroad reached El Paso from the 
Pacific Coast and in 1883 the gap was closed at Devil's River in 
Texas between construction working from the west and that from 
the east which completed the Southern Pacific's southern trans-con- 
tinental line. The first train from New Orleans reached San An- 
tonio on February 6, 1883, and the first train from San Francisco 
reached San Antonio on February 7, 1883. Operation of through 
train service from New Orleans to San Francisco then began and 
continuous service was established from that date. 

In 1884, the "Eureka," "El Dorado," and "El Paso" were built; 
in 1886, the "El Monte," and in 1889, the "El Mar." These were 
14 knot ships of thirty-five hundred (3500) tons. They were fol- 
lowed in 1890 by the "El Sol," of forty-five hundred (4500) tons, 
with speed of 15 knots. At this time contracts for three more ships 
of the "El Sol" class were let, the "El Norte," "El Sud," and "El 
Rio." These ships were built and placed in commission as rapidly 
as possible. The last four ships were taken by the Government dur- 
ing the Spanish-American War and converted into cruisers. They 
proved so adaptable for the service that when the war was over the 
Government would not release them. This, of course, crippled the 
Line and more vessels had to be built to replace them. In the mean- 
time, the steamships "New Orleans," "Knickerbocker," and "Hud- 
son" were operated under charter. In 1899 and 1901, contracts 
were let and the "El Norte," "El Sud," "El Sid" and "El Rio," 
were built as rapidly as possible, followed right along by the "El 
Valle," "El Dia," "El Siglo" and "El Alba," all of the same design. 



— 211 



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The organizing effect of the Southern Pacific began to be felt 
in 1874, when C. P. Huntington and T. W. Pierce acquired an in- 
terest in the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio Railroad. From 
that time until 1885, when the Morgan road and the other Louisi- 
anna lines were acquired and when the famous Sunset Route was 
firmly established, and until 1888 when the Houston & Texas Cen- 
tral was acquired, and finally in 1895 when the Houston East & 
West Texas became part of the system, the growth of the present 
Southern Pacific System was gradual. But the constructive genius 
of its heads, including the great Harriman, steadily made its impres- 
sion in the continuously increasing effectiveness of the system, until 
at the present time, while all of the operating companies of the 
Southern Pacific Lines are separate organizations, they are in prac- 
tical effect one system and as such were and are the greatest in- 
dustrial factor in the development and prosperity of the common- 
wealths through which they operate. 

In 1900, the Company began building the finest piers in the 
country at Galveston, the far West and Transcontinental trade hav- 
ing assumed such proportions that both ports, New Orleans and 
Galveston, had to be used, and in August, 1902, the New York 
and Galveston Line was placed in operation with three steamers per 
week, in order to take care of trans-continental trade. 

In the same month and year the Company took over the Crom- 
well Steamship Line, which added to the fleet the S. S. "Comus" 
and S. S. "Proteus," two combination freight and passenger steam- 
ers, each of forty-eight hundred (4800) gross tons, these steamers 
being operated from New Orleans proper to New York. 

The Company also acquired at this time from the Cromwell Line 
the S. S. "Louisiana," of twenty-nine hundred (2900) gross tons. 
This steamer was operated from February, 1903, in the Havana 
Line, until she sunk at New Orleans Docks, April, 1905. 

The Company continued to operate steamers from Algiers to 
New York, and also to Havana, up to February, 1903, when all 
business was transferred to New Orleans side of the river, and the 
docks and wharves at Algiers abandoned. 

In order to meet the increased passenger business, three combina- 
tion freight and passenger steamers were built in 1905 and 1906. 
They were the "Momus" and "Antilles," of 6,878 gross tons each, 
and the "Creole," of 6,754 gross tons. 

The "Momus" was placed in commission in December, 1906; the 
"Antilles," in May, 1907, and the "Creole" was commissioned in 
June, 1907. 



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In 1909, the further increase in freight offerings necessitated an 
increase in the deadweight carrying capacity of the steamship lines, 
and to meet this demand, four fast freight steamers were built with 
a deadweight cargo capacity of 6,400 tons each, and speed of 15V2 
knots. These steamers were named and placed in service in the 
following order. 

El Sol August 27, 1910 

El Mundo October 1,1910 

El Oriente October 29, 1910 

El Occidente . December 7, 1910 

Subsequently, in order to reduce the cost of operations, the 
following ships were converted into oil burners, making eight oil- 
burning ships in all, viz. : 

"El Sud," "El Alba," "El Mundo," "El Oriente," "El Valle," 
"El Norte," "El Sol," and "El Occidente." 

In 1912, it became necessary to build a tank steamer in order 
to transport oil from the Mexican fields to tanks at Galveston and 
Algiers, both for the steamship as well as the rail lines, and the 
tank ship Topila, with a capacity of 50,000 barrels of crude oil, 
was placed in commission in June, 1913. She was followed in 1917 
by another tank steamer, the "Torres," of the same carrying ca- 
pacity. 

In 1916, before the U. S. Government entered into the World 
War, it was found necessary to further increase the cargo capacity 
of the fleet, and to meet these requirements the steamships "El Al- 
mirante and "El Capitan," were constructed with a cargo capacity 
of 6,500 tons each. They were especially designed for the handling 
of slow moving freight, and for this purpose their speed was lim- 
ited to twelve knots. 

Anticipating the retirement of the steamships "El Paso," built 
in 1886, the "El Monte," and "El Mar," built in 1889, because of 
their age, small carrying capacity, and obsolete type, making them 
expensive to operate, contract was let in December, 1919, for the 
construction of three freight steamers with a deadweight capacity 
of 4,000 tons each, which were named and placed in commission in 
the following order : 

El Estero November 24, 1920 

El Isle January 18, 1921 

El Lago March ' 8, 1921 

The use of fuel oil by the rail and steamship lines, which will be 
still further increased by the contemplated conversion of other ships 
into oil-burners, made it necessary to provide additional facilities 

— 216 — 



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for the transportation of oil from the Mexican fields, and to meet 
this demand, contract was placed in March, 1920, for another tank 
ship with a deadweight capacity of 16, 340 tons, capable of trans- 
porting 100,000 barrels of crude oil. This vessel, the "Tamiahua," 
was completed and placed in commission September 29, 1921. 

QEO. R. ■BURROWS, Inc. 

IT IS with a great deal of pleasure that we have noted the rise 
to prominence enjoyed by the firm of Geo. R. Burrows, Inc. 

Although only a young firm in the sail-making business, it has 
been built up by men who were born and raised in the old school. 
There is an old saying that all things worth while build slowly, and 
when we consider new ideas applied by men imbued with old time 
principles, there is assurance of success, and the prestige gained is 
lasting. 

Time was when the jib-booms of the famous clipper ships 
crossed the street almost to the windows of buildings on the other 
side. Time was when there were more than two suits to a clipper 
ship with their thirty-two sails. Time was when machines were un- 
heard of and the square rigger would tug and pull on her hawsers 
for days patiently waiting while a score of men were hurrying to 
finish the new suit, that the ship might sail to the shores beyond. 

Reminiscence has its place, but we have all realized at one time 
or another, the value of experience, and when today a problem is 
approached, that priceless experience, gained through the years, 
shows us how the new ideas are based on fundamental principles 
born of the time before us. 

It is surprising, when we consider that today there is more 
canvas on a battleship than on the old square rigger. Over one 
thousand hammocks must be supplied the men ; the decks fore and 
aft must be covered with awnings ; the dynamos, boats and guns 
must be covered and screened. 

What the future brings, none can tell ; we are sincere when w T e 
wish Geo. R. Burrows, Inc., the full measure of prosperity due them, 
and as* time rolls on, let us not forget that old saying which will 
always ring out for time everlasting. 

"Where there's wind and w r ater, there'll be sail." 



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— 217 — 



gENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY'S 
ACTIVITIES IN THE MARINE FIELD 

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY was incorporated in 
1892, acquiring at its formation all the capital stock of the 
Edison General Electric Company, of the Thomson-Huston 
Electric Company, and of the Thomson-Houston International Elec- 
tric Company. The previous twelve years in the history of electri- 
cal industries was an era of invention and preparation ; incandes- 
cent and arc lighting and electric traction were growing arts, but 
were so clouded and delayed up to 1892 by the clash of divergent 
methods, that only a few realized their vast future utility. 

The General Electric Company started its activities in the ma- 
rine field about twenty-five years ago with the manufacture of 
Steam Engine-Driven Generating Sets which were used for lighting 
purposes. These sets have been installed in the ships of the United 
States Navy, in the Russian, Japanese, Brazilian, Cuban and other 
foreign navies. The ships built for the Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion by the American International Shipbuilding Corporation at 
Hog Island are fitted exclusively with G-E Steam Engine-Driven 
Generating Sets, as are numerous other merchant ships. 

In the last few years rapid strides have been made by the Com- 
pany in the development of main propulsion as well as auxiliary 
apparatus for ships. 

A large number of G-E Marine Geared Turbines have been built 
for, and are installed in various types of vessels of the U. S. Navy, 
such as scout cruisers, destroyers, torpedo boats, etc. 

The Company was the first in the world to build electric ship 
propulsion machinery for a naval vessel with the 5,800 h.p. set in- 
stalled in the IT. S. Collier "Jupiter," now the airplane carrier 
"Langley." 

This type of drive was then adopted by the Navy for all the 
capital ships so that the Company has now installed or under con- 
struction turbine-electric propulsion machinery for the U. S. Navy 
aggregating 957,800 h.p. 

Following the example of the U. S. Navy, the Japanese Navy is 
installing in the latest U,000 ton fuel ship G-E 8,000 h.p. turbine- 
electro propulsion machinery. 

The first American Marine Geared Turbine, i.e., a high-speed 
turbine driving the propeller through a double reduction gear was 
manufactured by the Company and installed in 1915 in the S. S. 
"Pacific." Thirteen additional units were built shortly afterwards 
and installed in merchant ships. 

When the United States entered the Great War, it was recog- 
nized that the effectiveness of our armies would depend on how rap- 

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idly merchant ships could be built and equipped. At this time 
the only double reduction Marine Geared Turbines in actual ser- 
vice were the fourteen units built by the General Electric Company. 
An order for a large number of Marine Geared propulsion units was 
placed with the Company. To fulfill the requirements for early 
delivery, the General Electric Company's facilities for manufactur- 
ing Marine Geared Turbines were increased, and special tools and 
equipment was procured. Delivery was made by the Company at 
the rate of one complete Marine Geared Turbine unit per day. Over 
three hundred units were thus installed in merchant ships. The 
great speed at which these units were manufactured by the Com- 
pany and the actual service rendered to the Government during the 
hostilities is clearly demonstrated by the fact that G-E equipped 
ships rendered more than four-fifths of the total service given by 
vessels propelled by double reduction geared turbines. 

When the demands of the United States Shipping Board for 
additional propulsion machinery became more insistent, the Com- 
pany, prompted by the success attending turbine-electric drive on 
the collier "Jupiter" and the Battleship "New Mexico," offered to 
build turbine-electric propulsion machinery for merchant ships. 
Up to date five Shipping Board ships have thus been equipped: 

S. S. Eclipse, S. S. Invincible, S. S. Archer, S. S. Independence, 
and S. S. Victorious . 

Seven more equipments are practically completed and will be 
installed in similar ships. 

Similar equipments have been installed on the express passenger 
and freight ships, S. S. Cuba, and the four latest U. S. Coast Guard 
Cutters, the U. S. S. Tampa, Haida, Mojave, and Modoc. 

An equipment of this kind consists of a high-speed turbine 
direct-connected to an alternating-current generator which delivers 
current to an alternating-current propulsion motor. This motor is 
directly coupled to the propeller shaft. All maneuvering is done 
from one central station, the control panel, on which are mounted 
all instruments and maneuvering levers. 

These equipments are the first of its kind to be installed in 
American merchant ships. 

The Company was the first to successfully apply the Diesel en- 
gine-electric system of propulsion to merchant ships. In February, 
1920, the 500 ton fishing trawler "Mariner" of Gloucester, Mass., 
propelled by 400 h.p. Diesel engine-electric machinery, went into 
service. The reliability and efficiency of this kind of drive has 
proved itself and will be further demonstrated by the world's first 
Diesel engine-electric cargo ship the 2,000 M. S. Fordonian, 



219 — 



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equipped with 850 h.p. Diesel engine-electric propulsion machinery. 
The General Electric Company furnished the electrical equipment 
for both installations. 

The efforts of the Company have not been confined to the devel- 
opment and perfection of propulsion machinery only. Realizing 
the advantages to be gained from electrification of the ship's auxil- 
aries, a complete line of electric appliances have been built especially 
for merchant marine service. This comprises generators and switch- 
boards for auxiliary power, motors and control for deck and engine 
room auxiliaries, for fans, refrigerating machines, etc., are welding 
sets, air compressors, radio apparatus, searchlights, lamps and 
lighting fixtures, galley appliances, etc. ; in short, every auxiliary 
apparatus found on board ship. 

To fulfill the demands for properly trained and competent engi- 
neers to take charge of the ship's machinery, the General Electric 
Company established a School of Marine Engineering at Schenec- 
tady. Two courses were conducted, one on Marine Geared Tur- 
bines and the other on Electric Propulsion Machinery. Up to date 
approximately 1,200 marine engineers have been trained, comprising 
naval officers, port engineers, U. S. Shipping Board engineers, engi- 
neers of private steamship companies, construction foremen from 
shipyards and repair yards, engineer graduates of state nautical 
school ships, etc. 



UNITED STATES LLOYDS, Inc. 

THE UNITED STATES "LLOYDS" was the first organization 
to conduct, in the United States, the business of marine in- 
surance on the plan of individual underwriting as at Lloyds, 
London. 

Organized in 1872 with a list of one hundred subscribers or un- 
derwriters composed of many of the foremost bankers and merchants 
of that time it has taken a prominent position in the insurance world 
for nearly fifty years past, and included in its managers during 
that period are the names of James F. Cox, A. Foster Higgins, 
John D. Barrett, Herbert Appleton and Douglas F. Cox. 

In 1918 the organization was incorporated as a stock company 
to do marine and fire insurance, and is now known as United States 
Lloyds, Inc., under the management of Appleton & Cox, Inc. 

Always enjoying the confidence and patronage of the insuring 
public, it has paid losses of over $30,000,000 to its policy holders. 



220 — 



L LO YD SA BA UDO ■ 

SOCIETA ANONIMA 'PER AZWNI 

Fast Italian J\Lail Line 

THE LLOYD SABAUDO STEAMSHIP COMPANY— whose 
Home Offices arc in Genoa — was organized in Turin, Italy, on 
June 21, 1906, with a fully paid up capital of Lit. 15,000,000 
which has from time to time been increased to Lit. 60,000,000. 

On April 4, 1907, the newly formed Company celebrated the in- 
auguration of its services with a reception on board the S. S. "Re 
d'ltalia," at which there were present government, municipal and 
maritime authorities and church dignitaries, and on the 7th of the 
same month this steamer left Genoa on its maiden trip to New York. 

There followed other steamers, such as the "Regina d'ltalia," 
"Principe di Piemonte," "Principe di L T dine" and "Tommaso di 
Savoia," the latter two having been assigned to South American 
trade. 

In 1914 the Company sold the "Principe di Piemonte" and pur- 
chased thirteen freight units, which performed very important work 
during the World Conflict, in connection with the provisioning for 
the account of the Italian Government. 

In the performance of their duty, two among the Company's best 
steamers — the "Valdieri" and the "Capodimonte" were sunk, but 
these were soon replaced by two others, bearing names similar to 
those lost. 

Another great step towards the complete development of the 
Lloyd Sabaudo's program is represented by the construction of the 
de luxe turbine quadruple screw steamer "Conte Rosso," the largest, 
fastest and most beautiful Italian steamer afloat. This steamer, 
which will make its maiden trip to New York early in 1922 has a 
displacement of 21.000 tons, a speed of 20 knots per hour and will 
be able to make trips between Italian ports and New York in less 
than nine days, thus establishing a record among the steamers at 
present plying in this trade. 

Moreover, the Lloyd Sabaudo has at present at a well advanced 
stage of construction a sister ship of the "Conte Rosso," the "Conte 
Verde," which possesses the same characteristics, that will make 
these two steamers the most popular in the Italian-North American 
trade. 

Resides the above, the Lloyd Sabaudo participated in the forma- 
tion of the Italian "Cantieri Navali F. Tosi" in whose shipyards 
at Taranto the freight steamers "Castelporziano" and "Valdieri" 
were constructed, and wherein two other freight units of 12,000 
tons each are now being; built. 

— 221 — 



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The Italian freight line "La Polare" is also under the full control 
of this Company since 1918, and the total displacement of the pas- 
senger and freight steamers of the Lloyd Sabaudo now reach about 
200,000 tons. 

The activities of the Lloyd Sabaudo, however, were not only 
confined to the commercial field, for in the occurrence of the earth- 
quake at Messina, in December, 1908, its steamers were sent to the 
stricken zone for the purpose of lending any aid that may have been 
required of them, while during the entire period of the Italian- 
Turkish War in Tripoli, both the S. S. "Re d'ltalia" and "Regina 
d'ltalia" were assigned to hospital duty, which they performed unin- 
terruptedly for two years. 

These two steamers were also utilized to a very good advantage 
during the World War, serving in multiple purposes, to wit: hos- 
pital ships ; transporting allied troops to and from the war zone 
and the American troops, cattle, provisions and ammunitions from 
the United States to France and returning of the American troops ; 
the Saloniki campaign and many other valuable services. 

As new steamers were added to those owned by the Lloyd Sa- 
baudo, new services were established in addition to the original 
North and South American lines, and the ships of the Lloyd Sabaudo 
now touch also ports on the Black Sea, North Europe and Australia. 

A note worthy of interest is the fact that the president of the 
Lloyd Sabaudo is one of the greatest scientists of all times, Gug- 
lielmo Marconi. 

PEIRCE "BROTHERS, Inc. 



THE PEIRCE LINE is one of the very oldest Italian Steamship 
Companies in service from Mediterranean to U. S. Ports. The 
"Sicula Americana" "Societa di Navigazione ed Imprese Mari- 
time, with head office in Naples, is a Steamship Line which has had 
a regular passenger and freight service between Italy and the United 
States since 1907. 

Grande Ufficiale Giorgio W. Peirce is the owner of these two 
Lines. Peirce Brothers, Inc., of No. 17 Battery Place, New York 
City, with long experience as steamship people, are the General 
Agents for these two lines, besides handling other tonnage. 

Peirce Brothers, Inc., also engage in purchasing very large quan- 
tities of American coal for export to the various organizations of 
Peirce Brothers throughout Italy. 

The managing director of the New York office is Cavalier Louis 
Costa. 

— 222 — 



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W. <R. GRACE & CO. 

WR. GRACE & CO., whose activity extends over seventy 
years of remarkable history, covering nearly every phase 
of trading, transportation, banking, and merchandising, 
began its development in the adventurous determination of Wil- 
liam Russell Grace, who was born in Queenstown, County Cork, 
Ireland, May 10, 1832. He came to New York at the age of 
fourteen and then, returning to Ireland, found his way to Peru, 
where in Callao he became a clerk in the employ of John Bryce. 
The latter ran a ship chandler's business and general store. It 
was during these times that guano was shipped from the islands 
off the Peruvian sea coast to all parts of the world, and W. R. 
Grace was sent by his employer to the Chincha Islands to super- 
vise the loading of ships there. It was at Mr. Grace's sugges- 
tion that the "Down East" ship builders increased the size of their 
ships, as it took very little longer to load a ship of 4,000 tons 
than one of 2,500. 

After twenty years in Peru, during which time Grace branch 
houses were established in Lima, Callao, Valparaiso, San Fran- 
cisco, Santiago and Concepcion, W. R. Grace came to New York, 
and the New York house was established in 1868. He was elected 
mayor of New York in 1880 and again in 1884. Throughout his 
life W. R. Grace was prominent in banking, shipping and trade 
enterprises, touching all his ventures with the wand of success. 

During the financial troubles of Peru, when, between 1865 and 
1871, Peru had contracted a debt amounting with interest to 
$200,000,000, the Grace firm played an important role. In 1889 
this firm of only a generation's growth took upon its shoulders the 
national debt of Peru of $250,000,000 in payment of which it 
contracted to develop the railroads, mineral, chemical, guano and 
other resources of the country. 

In the early days when sailing ships were supreme, it was the 
practice of the house to charter ships and send them on the 
long voyage around the southern end of South America and up 
the West Coast to Chile and Peru where they would load cargoes 
of guano and nitrate of soda and other products of the West 
Coast and bring them back to New York. To make the trip to 
San Francisco via Punta Arenas required as much as 110 days. 
These ships carried to Peru and Chile mostly kerosene and naval 
stores, together with agricultural implements. 

It was in the nineties that the first steam vessel was put in 
service by the firm, and this marks the beginning of the Grace 
Line. The first steamers were built in England; later on the fleet 

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was made larger by ships built in American shipyards. From the 
nineties until February, 1918, the line operated only freight ves- 
sels, but on February 2, 1918, the Santa Ana sailed on her 
maiden voyage to the West Coast being the first American pas- 
senger liner in that service. Later the Santa Luisa, Santa Teresa 
and Santa Flisa were put on the run in the order named, and 
today they are the only American passenger ships running to the 
West Coast of South America from New York. 

Today the Grace House has its branches in all parts of the 
world. There are branch houses all over the United States, Can- 
ada. Central America, the West Indies, South America, Europe, 
Asia and Africa. 



JOHN S^NDEtRSON BENSEL 

MR. BENSEL was born in New York, 1863, and was graduated 
from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1884. He was a 
rodman employed on the New York Aqueduct and later As- 
sistant Engineer and Assistant Supervisor in charge of improvement 
of Dock and Freight Terminals for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Was 
Assistant Engineer of the Department of Docks, New York City, in 
charge of construction work on the North River waterfront from 
1889 to 1895, Engineer for waterfront improvements for the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, the Girard Estate of Philadelphia and the 
city of Philadelphia in improvements of a mile of waterfront on the 
Delaware River. Was Engineer-in-Chief, Department of Docks, 
City of New York, 1898 to 1906; Commissioner of Docks, 1906 to 
1908; president of the Board of Water Supply constructing the 
new Catskill System, 1908 to 1911, and State Engineer of the State 
of New York, 1911 to 1915, employed on the construction of the 
Barge Canal, traversing the State. At present time is consulting 
engineer for various municipalities in the State of New York and 
consulting engineer on the tunnel now under way connecting the 
States of New York and New Jersey under the Hudson River. 
Was President of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1910, 
and is now a member of this society and of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, the Institute of Mining Engineers, 
and the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain. He was 
Major of Engineers, Army of the FJnited States, in the recent 
war, commanding the 125th Engineers Batallion. 

Mr. Bensel maintains a suite of offices at 18 East 41st Street. 

— 225 — 



THE VEtRSHIiHG SQUA'RE HOTELS 

HAS anyone ever stopped to consider the value of the hotel to 
the Port of New York? 

The character of the big caravansary of the metropolis is 
one of the best indices of the city's life, and plays a part in its 
existence to which, apparently, little attention is given by the gen- 
eral public. 

But this is not so with the observing. While there is no doubt 
that the hotels expand with the growth of a city, it is the hotel which 
takes the initiative. The modern caravansary is built to meet the 
needs of the city ten or twenty years ahead of its construction, and 
improvements follow in the building line with which the city never 
does catch up. 

The hotel advertises itself and the city all over the country- 
all over the world, and more than anything aids in putting it on 
the map. Its reputation inspires travel from the interior and from 
abroad. It brings distinguished people to the country's metropolis, 
persons of all branches of learning and professions and trades, 
great architects and builders, men of science and skill of all kinds, 
scholars and artisans, merchants, shipping men, captains of indus- 
try, nobles, kings and queens and capital. 

All of this means the building of bigger and better ships, and 
the reputation of the metropolis and the country behind it spreads 
to the masses, and they crowd like flies around the sugar bowl and 
pour out of Europe to reach the Mecca of Opportunity. More 
ships have to be built for their accommodation, more docks must be 
provided to accommodate the ships, more men employed to take 
care of the piers and handle the ships with their crowds of human- 
ity and tons of freight. 

Tugs and barges follow in the wake of the ships and ferryboats 
must be built to care for the increasing travellers and shipments 
from the interior. 

The hotel is the way station for the traveller going abroad, and 
the better the accommodations of the hotel, the better must be the 
accommodations on shipboard, and the comparison has had much to 
do with the construction of the floating palaces now plying the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Persons coming to New York and not going abroad demand 
entertainment, and usually want the sort which the hometown fails 
to provide. Here again the hotel helps the Port of New York, for 
the hotel guests want to sail up the river, or a spin about the bay, 
or a short turn out in the ocean. The demand has resulted in the 
building and operation of fleets of pleasure craft which in the sum- 
mer season help swell the receipts of the port. 

— 226 — 



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The Pershing Square group of hotels, of which John McE. Bow- 
man is the president, are the finest and most modern in the world. 
Thousands, yes, hundreds of thousands of men, women and children 
are registered in these hotels during the year. They include the 
Biltmore, Commodore, Belmont and Murray Hill, also the Ansonia, 
on the upper west side of Manhattan Island. 

The Pershing Square group of hotels are of vital importance 
to the City of New York. They are just, as necessary as gas, water 
and electricity. Prom the day these hotels first opened, it has been 
possible for the traveller to live like a prince and dine like an epi- 
cure. The system of hotel organization devised by Mr. Bowman, 
is the most marvelous development of its kind in the industry. It 
is a unit in type, management and organization. It is more than a 
unit — it is even complex in its manifold application and geograph- 
ical extension of its activities. It is today the greatest hotel sys- 
tem in the world. 

The hotel industry occupies a field of its own, and the slightest 
flaw in its workings is sufficient to bring one of its structures down 
with a crash. In the conduct of a big hotel efficiency is a finely 
spun thread of experience, knowledge and perfect organization. The 
hotel has more ramifications than any other branch of industry; 
there are more corners to cover, more leaks to watch, more trades 
to come in contact with, and more varieties of human nature to 
deal with. 

One has to think in hundreds of thousands when it comes to 
numbering the visitors registering at the six hotels in the course of 
one year. The count, actually equals the combined populations of 
Everett, Wash. ; Lewiston, Me. ; Beaumont, Tex. ; Lima, Ohio ; Cedar 
Rapids, la.; Charlotte, N. C. ; Joliet, 111.; Muncie, Ind. ; Lexington, 
Ky. ; Shreveport, La. ; Fargo, N. D. ; Colorado Springs, Colo. ; Pine 
Bluff, Ark. ; Selma, Ala. ; Madison, Wis. ; Emporia, Kas. ; Battle 
Creek, Mich.; Talahassee, Fla. ; Alexandria, Va. ; Columbia, S. C. ; 
and Columbia, Mo. More than 613,800 guests register annually 
in these hotels, and other visitors each year number over 3,384,000. 
The total number of visitors is more than the population of the 
first 84 American cities announced by the census reports for 1920. 

To manufacture the stock of china in constant use in these hotels 
would require the year's output of a good-sized factory, for 555,- 
129 pieces are carried on the pantry shelves. Some idea of the 
enormous breakage may be obtained from the fact that in twelve 
months, 169,229 pieces have to be replaced. Of silverware 244,893 
pieces are in use. Were the year's wash spread out to dry on roofs. 



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the sheets and pillow eases alone would cover every roof on Manhat- 
tan Island, while the table-cloths would need most of those between 
the East River and Flatbush. The laundries turn out annually over 
36,000,000 pieces of bed linen and 17,305,000 of table linen. 

In the 6,000,000 pieces of mail that are received and distributed 
annually arrive everything from letters to live animals. Early veg- 
etables from Florida and California, and tropical fruits are not 
uncommon. Even alligators have been received, and one parcel 
contained fourteen live rabbits. 

It would take a good-sized book to tell the many interesting 
things that happen in the Pershing Square group of hotels. They 
are a vital necessity to the Port of New York, in fact, just as neces- 
sary as the port is to the City of New York. Outside of New York 
the group includes the Griswold, at New London, Conn. ; the Belle- 
view, at Belleair Heights, Fla. ; the Sevilla, at Havana ; and the 
Westchester Biltmore now building, at Rye, N. Y. ; also the Provi- 
dence Biltmore, a new and very wonderful hotel, at Providence, R. I. 

COLUMBIA BRONZE CORPORATION 

THIS organization manufactures bronze propellers for steam- 
ships and smaller boats. The plant is located at Freeport, 
Long Island, New York, within twenty-five (25) miles of New 
York City, and is the nearest bronze foundry equipped for the 
manufacture of propellers and other heavy manganese bronze 
castings to the port of New York. 

The business was originally organized in 1871 as the Colum- 
bian Brass Foundry, near the water front in Brooklyn, and was 
moved to Freeport and started the manufacture of bronze pro- 
pellers in 1905. Since 1908 the growth of the business has been 
steady and substantial, and in the year 1920 it is believed that a 
larger number of bi'onze blades for built-up steamship propellers 
were cast in this plant than any other plant in the world, some 
600 blades and about 60 complete built-up propellers having been 
manufactured there. 

The active officers are: Louis J. Hall, President; Wilbur H. 
Young, Vice-President ; Robert A. Patrick, Secretary. The New 
York office is located at 522 Fifth Avenue. 










— 228 



THE TIDE W&FTER OIL COMPANY 

FORTY-THREE years ago all the crude petroleum that was 
refined at the seaboard was transported from the Western 
Pennsylvania oil fields in small wooden barrels or in two or 
three small upright wooden tanks loaded on a flat ear. 

In 1878 three men with the courage of their convictions formed 
the Tide Water Pipe Company, Limited, for the purpose of trans- 
porting petroleum to the refineries on the seaboard, and started the 
construction of a pipe line from the Bradford oil field to Williams- 
port, Pennsylvania. 

By June, 1879, the line was completed to Williamsport, and 
oil transshipped by rail to New York and Philadelphia. But all 
the problems were not solved. The competitive freight rate from 
the oil regions that had been $1.60 per barrel was reduced to 20c, 
and as though this were not enough, a rival company bought up all 
but one of the refinery customers for crude oil. This sole refinery 
was located at Sixty-sixth Street, New York City, and had been 
condemned by the New York Central Railroad Company and forced 
to move. This commercial blow w T ould have staggered most men 
and driven the company into bankruptcy; but the projectors had 
faith in the enterprise and the financiers believed in the men. Soon 
two great refineries were under way at Chester, Pennsylvania, and 
Bayonne, New Jersey, and later the pipe line was extended to 
Bayonne. 

In 1888 the Tide Water Oil Company was organized, taking over 
all the Tide Water interests in the East, and consolidating its 
refineries into one large plant at Bayonne. 

From the beginning the management took great pride in the 
quality and uniformity of its products, and bent every energy to- 
ward making its output the best that could be produced. To-day 
its trade-marked brands of Veedol lubricants and Tydol gasoline 
are as much a standard of quality to the users of automobiles as 
are its brands of kerosene to the inhabitants of the Far East. 

Where originally there was one Tide Water corporation engaged 
in one phase of the petroleum business, to-day there are fifteen 
companies, all busily specializing in some feature of producing, 
transporting, refining and marketing petroleum. 

A large factor in the success of the Tide Water Oil Company 
has been the faithful and untiring work of its old and experienced 
men — personal ownership of the business could not have done more. 
A record of one hundred and ninety-seven men who have served con- 
tinuously for twenty-five years or more is a record of which to be 
proud, and the Company regards them as one of its greatest assets. 

— 229 — 



W. & A. FLETCHER COMPANY 

ON THE Jersey side of the Hudson River almost directly op- 
posite the spot where, a little more than a century ago, Robert 
Fulton started the "Clermont" on its first voyage there is sit- 
uated one of the most complete and best equipped ship building and 
repair yards on the Atlantic coast. In this plant notable records 
have been made, unusual feats of construction have been accom- 
plished, experiments and developments have been carried out which 
have attracted the attention of the shipping fraternity, intensified 
the atmosphere of romance around the shipbuilding industry in this 
country, and sustained the historic interest attaching to that part 
of the Hudson since the launching of the woi'ld's first steamboat. 
A crowd of people, some confident and some skeptical, lined the 
shores of the river on that momentous occasion to watch an event 
which was the beginning of a revolution in the method of propulsion 
of ships. On the identical spot where many of these spectators 
stood, there now exists a plant supplied with machinery and appli- 
ances never dreamed of by Fulton, manned by a highly efficient or- 
ganization which has upheld the tradition of that notable achieve- 
ment and performed work which has been comparatively of as great 
a significance as the launching of the Clermont. 

The plant is that of the W. & A. Fletcher Company, whose 
nameplate is written largely upon the very foundations of our in- 
dustry of marine construction and engineering. Sixty-eight years 
ago the company was formed and a small shop opened in West 
Street, New York. The space at the disposal of the venturers into 
the new business was very limited, but despite this handicap the 
plant was well supplied with the necessary equipment, and work pro- 
ceeded apace. Contracts began to come in, and in an incredibly 
short time the Fletcher name was famous. 

The quarters on West Street, however, were soon taxed up to their 
full capacity, and it was found that if the company was to cope 
with the demands that were being made upon it a much larger plant 
would have to be built. Accordingly, in 1890, a site was acquired in 
Hoboken, where the present yard now occupies over two blocks of 
waterfront property on Hudson Street. There is nothing prosaic 
about the plant or its organization, for a survey of its achievements 
may be interpreted as one of the most graphic chapters in the his- 
tory of the growth of shipbuilding in America. If the fleet of ves- 
sels of all descriptions — river, sound and lake steamers, ferryboats, 
tugs and lighters — which have been equipped wholly or in part by 
the Fletcher Company could be gathered together, they would fur- 
nish the most perfect illustration of progress of the art of shipbuild- 

— 230 — 







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ing during the last half century, and would show clearly the various 
stages through which ships have passed in their development from 
the crude vessel of Fulton to the modern floating palaces. 

From its very inception the Fletcher Company has been closely 
identified with this development. Its officials have devoted special 
attention, however, to the perfecting of the marine engine, and have 
contributed in no small measure to the present efficiency of steam 
propulsion for vessels. The company's fame for the construction 
of the beam engine is world wide, and it is interesting to note that 
even at the present time, when this type of prime mover is so rarely 
used, they still use as their cable address "Beamengine." 

Success followed success in their engineering experiments, and 
with a prophetic eye to the future possibilities of the use of the 
steam turbine in ships, the heads of the firm carried out elaborate 
plans for its perfection. Their dream materialized in 1906 when they 
built and equipped the "Governor Cobb," which was the first turbine 
driven ship to be turned out in an American yard. Not content with 
this triumph they carried their efforts still further and in the fol- 
lowing year completed the "Yale" and "Harvard," which hold the rec- 
ord for speed among the passenger and freight ships engaged in 
commercial work in this country. 

The present plant has been carefully and conservatively devel- 
oped. Concrete roads connect the various shops with the piers and 
dry docks, and a standard guage track is laid along the roads and 
extended down the three piers. This track permits of the use of 
locomotive cranes and enables freight from the Ffoboken Shore Rail- 
road with which the track is directly connected to be quickly trans- 
ported. 

About a year ago a new floating dry dock was put in commis- 
sion ; this is of the 8,500-ton design with wooden pontoons and steel 
wings, measures 440 feet on the keel blocks, and has a draught at 
low water of 25 feet. 

Until the last eight years the Fletcher Company confined its 
activities towards the building of new vessels, and during that pe- 
riod was identified with the production of more than three hundred 
vessels of every type from the sturdy harbor tug to the swift, splen- 
did passenger vessels that ply our seas and rivers. 

The organization of skilled workmen with which the company has 
surrounded itself constitutes a unique phase in the history of the 
company. The advantages of the apprenticeship system were early 
realized, and the present staff has been built up from the boys who 
joined the company to learn their respective trades. The effective- 
ness of this svstem is reflected in the rapidity and thoroughness with 
which contracts are completed. 

— 232 — 



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The Fletcher Company's activities are now carried on by the 
sons and grandsons of the original firm, Andrew Fletcher being presi- 
dent and treasurer, H. M. Fletcher, vice-president, and Andrew 
Fletcher, Jr., secretary. 



THE DELAWARE, LACK&£WANNS$ 
& WESTERN RAILROAD CO. 

EVERY railroad with terminals in New York Harbor is of ne- 
cessity required to identify itself more or less with the marine 
activities of the Port. Many of them operate great fleets of 
tugboats, lighters and barges to facilitate the movement of their 
tonnage. Of these the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. 
Company has perhaps as complete a marine organization as any, 
which is operated under the competent management of John M. 
Emery with headquarters in Hoboken. 

In 1903 the Lackawanna purchased the Hoboken Ferry prop- 
erty, the equipment consisting of 13 boats, with 3 ferries operating 
between New York and Hoboken. Five of these boats have since 
been sold and one lost by fire but 7 double deck steel boats have 
been added to the fleet at a cost of about $1,500,000. 

The Company now owns 15 ferry boats with a registered ton- 
nage of 17,791 tons, equipped with the most modern devices for 
safety and comfort, operating 4 ferry lines from Hoboken. 

The Company took over the lighterage business in October, 1904, 
purchasing the equipment from a company who had done the work 
for them under contract. The equipment at that time consisted of 
7 tugboats, 4 steam lighters, 10 open lighters, 13 covered barges 
and 12 car floats — a total of 46 boats. 

The present lighterage division fleet consists of 197 boats, an 
increase of 151, as follows: 

18 tugboats, tonnage 3,544; 5 steam lighters, tonnage, 1,937; 
64 covered barges, tonnage 25,035 ; 45 derrick lighters, tonnage 
21.450; 30 car floats with a carrying capacity of 365 cars; 35 
grain boats, with a carrying capacity of 1,000,000 bushels; and 
30 harbor coal boats with a capacity of 10,800 tons. 

For a number of years prior to 1916 the Company operated a 
fleet of sea-going barges with a carrying capacity of 24,750 tons,, 
handled by two sea-going tugs with a gross tonnage of 640 tons. 
This entire fleet, however, was sold in 1916. 



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233 



THE MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

THE Munson Steamship Line was originally started in 1872 
by Walter D. Munson by the operation of sailing vessels be- 
tween the United States north Atlantic ports and Havana, 
Cuba. Later, as the business of the Company extended, charter- 
ing of steam vessels for the carrying of bulk cargoes of coal, oil, 
sugar and molasses was engaged in. The carrying of general 
cargo from New York to Cuban ports was begun in 1876, sailing 
vessels being operated in this service. 

During the years of 1914, 1915, and 1916, due to the fore- 
sight of Mr- Frank C. Munson, the Munson Steamship Line had 
built for its use 12 American steamers of the most modern and 
up-to-date design, making a total of 18 steamers which it now 
owns. 

The business of the Company was incorporated under the name 
of the Munson Steamship Line early in 1899. The Company has 
always been 100% American owned, all of its capital being held 
by American citizens. 

Mr. Frank C. Munson, son of the founder of the business and 
President of the Munson Steamship Line, is a typically ener- 
getic American business man who devotes himself unceasingly to 
making a success of anything he undertakes. It is to his untiring 
efforts and indefatigable zeal that the great steamship line owes 
the wonderful development and popularity which it has now at- 
tained, and to which the new steamers and the new office building 
are a fitting monument. 

The presidents of the Munson Steamship Line have been : Wal- 
ter D. Munson, its founder ; Carlos W. Munson and Frank C. 
Munson, sons of Walter D. Munson. The other officers of the 
Company who have ably assisted in the advancement of the inter- 
ests of the Line are: Alfred H. Bromwell, Vice-President ; Charles 
M. Dimm, Treasurer; John W. Reynolds, Secretary. And heads 
of departments who have long been with the Company and have 
worked up from the bottom, are: Captain Asmus Leonhard, Gen- 
eral Superintendent for Cuba ; Chester B. Kellogg, Freight Traffic 
Manager; Frank M. Kellogg, Manager Sugar Department; Leon- 
ard Brooks, Auditor; Frank C. Osborn, Manager Ownership 
Operations Department; Sinclair Graham, Manager Purchasing 
Department; George G. Mcintosh, Passenger Traffic Manager; 
R. A. Breese, Jr., New York Port Manager; Kenneth E. Knowles. 
Manager South American Department. 

— 23 1 — 



"RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA 

THE RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA was organized 
on October 17, 1919, at which time the radio interests of 
the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America and 
the General Electric Company were merged into one Corporation. 

"Via RCA" is an abbreviation of the words — "Via Radio Cor- 
poration of America." The meaning goes further, however, for 
this Corporation is the result of over twenty years of pioneer 
work in the direct application of radio to the service of mankind. 
It is a strictly American organization, owned and controlled by 
Americans, and its world-wide activities in the art of trans-oceanic 
and marine communication are planned for the best interests of 
American Commerce. 

Back of the Radio Corporation of America stand the splendid 
research facilities of its associates in the field of electricity ; the 
General Electric Company, the American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company and the Western Electric Company. These fam- 
ous companies are partners in the World Wide Wireless program 
of the Radio Corporation of America. To this end is lent every 
electrical development which can be advantageously applied to 
modern radio practice. 

It is for this reason, therefore, that the "radio way" has so 
prominently attained the three essentials of international com- 
munication : accuracy, speed and economy. 

Today, the RCA system maintains direct wireless service with 
Great Britain, France, Germany, Scandinavia, Japan and Hawaii. 
In addition, plans are in progress for an extensive service be- 
tween the United States and South America and between South 
America and Europe. 

Radio communication is now a highly effective and practical 
business aid. Radiograms are being exchanged daily between the 
United States and foreign countries and between ships of all 
nations in ever increasing numbers, and American, European and 
Far Eastern business interests have come to appreciate the ex- 
cellent service which this modern method of international and 
marine communication offers. 

The Radio Corporation is not only the pioneer in continent to 
continent radio service but in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore radio 
communication as well. To this end there has been established by 
the Radio Corporation of America at various points of both the 
Atlantic and Pacific Coasts radio stations which incorporate the 
last word in marine wireless service. Thousands of vessels are 
therefore in a position to secure instantaneous communication to 
and from the United States when at sea. 

— 235 — 



ELLERMAN'S WILSON LINE, Ltd. 

HEAD office of the Company is in Hull, England, and the 
Company's Fleet, prior to the War, consisted of eighty- 
eight (88) 100-A British vessels, forty (40) of which were 
sunk by submarines and mines, including many first class passenger 
carriers; and twenty (20) new steamers with all modern improve- 
ments for carrying freight and passengers have been added to the 
fleet since the end of the war; and eleven (11) more are building at 
the present time. 

The New York-Hull service was started over forty years ago 
and now has developed to the present high state of efficiency, with 
regular sailings from New York. 

The Wilson Line steamers "Francisco," "Marengo," "Galileo," 
"Toronto," and "Idaho" compare equally with the finest freight 
vessels now crossing the Atlantic. 

The Wilson Line was founded by Charles Henry and Arthur 
Wilson. Charles Henry Wilson afterward became Lord Nunburn- 
holme. The Line was bought in 1915 by Sir John R. Ellerman, 
Bart, who now controls the Company. 

Up to last April, representation of Ellerman's Wilson Line Lim- 
ited, at New York, was in the hands of Sanderson & Son, but on 
April 1, 1921, Sir John R. Ellerman opened his own office in New 
York under the name of Ellerman's Wilson Line New York Incor- 
porated, who are situated at 18 Broadway, and are now carrying 
on the operation of the Hull steamers. 

The New York Office also operates the well-known Phoenix Line, 
between New York and Antwerp, Belgium; and likewise are joint 
Agents with Messrs. Norton, Lilly & Co., in operating the American 
Mediterranean Levant Line steamers to Levant and Black Sea ports. 

C. B. RICH$£R<D & CO. 

THE firm of C. B. Richard & Co., of No. 29 Broadway, New 
York, was established on May 1, 1817, and is probably the 
oldest shipping concern in the United States. Oscar L. 
Richard, together with Leonard W. Simmons, Albert F. Egelhoff 
and George N. Richard, son of the senior member, now constitute 
the firm. 

For more than 40 years — until 1891 — they acted as agents of 
the Hamburg American Line ; since then they have represented the 
Uranium Line to Rotterdam, Prince Line to the Mediterranean, 
Russian Volunteer Fleet to Libau, Lloyd Italiano to Italy, Otto- 
man-America Line to the Orient and the Polish Line to Danzig. 

They also operated their own steamers and sailing vessels, and 
steamers of the U. S. Shipping Board as well. 

— 236 — 



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MARINE DEPARTMENT OF THE 
NEW YORK CENTRAL 'RAILROAD 

THE history of the development of the Marine Department of 
the New York Central Railroad shows that the managements of 
the company, from its earliest operations, recognized the need 
of an adequate local harbor service in connection with the handling 
of the traffic of New York City. 

Prior to May 1, 1881, the railroad's lighterage work was done 
under contract, the late John H. Starin having been the last to 
render service under this arrangement. 

While the marine equipment needed in New York harbor during 
the New York Central's early operations was limited and would 
make a poor showing alongside the splendid equipment now in use, 
it was nevertheless adequate to handle the business efficiently at all 
times. 

The New York Central began doing its own lighterage work in 
New York harbor on May 1, 1881, when the New York Central 
Lighterage Company, with Charles A. Pool & Co., managers, was 
organized to handle the business. This arrangement continued 
until January 1, 1890, when Gibson L. Douglas succeeded Charles 
A. Pool & Co. Mr. Douglas resigned in the spring of 1897 to be- 
come vice-president of the West Transit Company, the New York 
Central's line of steamers plying the Great Lakes. 

Alfred K. Skitt succeeded Mr. Douglas and on November 23, 
1898, he was succeeded by Walter B. Pollock, who is still in charge 
of the department. 

Shortly after Mr. Pollock's appointment the name of New York 
Central Lighterage Company was abolished and ever since then this 
branch of the railroad's service has been known as the Marine De- 
partment of the New York Central Railroad. 

The greatest growth in the railroad's Marine Department has 
been during the last twenty years. Among the first important 
changes made after Mr. Pollock became manager was the transfer 
of the operation of the West Shore ferries to the Marine Depart- 
ment on April 1, 1899. Prior to this time the ferryboats had been 
operated under the direction of the River Division Superintendent of 
the West Shore Railroad. 

The tremendous growth in the ferry business necessitated larger 
and more up-to-date facilities and as fast as new equipment was 
available the obsolete boats were sold. The old side-wheelers in use 
between New York and Weehawken, N. J., when the operation of 
the ferries was turned over to the Marine Department, have all been 
replaced by double-deck, screw ferry-boats, except the Buffalo, 

— 238 — 



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built in 1896, which is still capable of service and is held in reserve. 
It is expected that it will be replaced by a modern ferryboat at an 

early date. 

The old side-wheel boats, replaced by modern ferryboats, were 
the Chester W. Chapin, Midland, Albany, OsAvcgo, Newburgh, and 
Kingston. Instead of these old-fashioned side-wheelers the com- 
pany now operates boats with a capacity two and a half times as 
great. These boats are the West Point, Syracuse, Rochester, Utica, 
Niagara, Catskill, Weehawken and Stony Point. 

The equipment of the Marine Department of the New York 
Central consists of 306 units, classed as follows: 

Nine ferryboats, 62 car floats, 34 grain boats, 21 tugs, 7 steam 
lighters, 8 steam hoisting barges, 2 gasoline hoisting barges, 26 hand 
hoisting barges, 11 scow barges, 109 covered barges and 17 cov- 
ered refrigerator barges. 

The tugboats are all of steel construction and 19 of them have 
been built in the last twenty years. The steel tugs replaced old 
wooden ones which could no longer handle the increased business. 

Six of the seven steam lighters are of steel construction and one 
of wood. All of them have been built since 1900. These boats are 
used to carry express and light freight which requires prompt 
handling. 

The eight steam hoisting barges each have a lifting capacity of 
from twenty to forty tons and are used for handling heavy freight. 
The two gasoline lifting barges each have a capacity of five tons, 
while the twenty-six hand hoisting barges each have a capacity of 
from two to five tons. All of the hoisting barges, except two, have 
been built since Mr. Pollock became manager of the Marine De- 
partment. 

Eight of the eleven scow barges are of comparatively recent 
construction. Their chief use is to handle ashes from the steam 
tugboats and for lightering freight. 

The large fleet of 109 covered barges, used for transporting 
freight between steamers and wharves, has been developed almost 
entirely in the last twenty years. The covered refrigerator barges, 
of which the company now has 17, have all been built since 1899. 
They are especially designed for the transportation of perishable 
freight during warm weather and have proved so successful that the 
company contemplates building ten more in the immediate future. 

The 62 car floats are used to transport cars between rail ter- 
minals and pier stations in New York harbor, for the interchange of 
cars between railroads and frequently for the movement of cars to 



— 239 — 



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different parts of the harbor when shippers or consignees have a 
minimum of six cars. The large number of floats required to trans- 
port cars furnishes some idea of the great part played by the 
Marine Department of the New York Central in handling the 
harbor traffic. 

Thirty of the car floats are of steel construction and 32 of 
wood. All of them have been built since 1900. The number of 
floats and their respective capacity follows: Four, 8 cars; four, 10 
cars, thirty-two, 12 cars; fourteen, 16 cars; eight, 17 cars. 

The fleet of car floats, operating 24 hours a day, is capable 
of moving back and forth between various harbor points hundreds 
of freight cars daily, thus playing a big part in transporting the 
large quantities of supplies required to keep New York going. 

The railroad's fleet of grain boats, 34 in number, transfers grain 
to the holds of ocean-going vessels through the means of floating 
grain elevators. The company's grain boats have all been built 
since 1899, prior to which time all grain moving over the New 
York Central and the West Shore Railroads had been transferred 
to ocean-going vessels by boats chartered from individual owners. 

The New York Central has always been a sea-going railroad. 
Its Marine Department has kept apace with the growth of the 
business of New York harbor and its extensive equipment makes it a 
vital factor in handling the traffic of the metropolitan area and the 
vast inland territory served, as well as enormous export business. 

The railroad's excellent lighterage facilities enable it to handle 
United States mails in New York harbor with remarkable efficiency. 
The New York Central, on August 1, 1921, under contract with the 
Post Office Department, began to meet all incoming vessels at Quar- 
antine for the purpose of taking off mails so that they could be 
delivered more expeditiously. This means of expediting mails com- 
ing into New York harbor was a part of Postmaster General Will 
H. Hays' program to speed up the delivery of foreign and coastwise 
mails and under this system mail now is frequently delivered in New 
York City or started on its way to interior destinations hours be- 
fore the steamships dock at their respective piers. Under the old 
arrangement the mail was not unloaded from the boats until after 
they had docked, frequently causing a delay of 24 hours or more. 

The New York Central harbor boats are also used to transport 
mail between harbor points. 

In the management of the Marine Department of the New York 
Central Railroad, Manager Walter B. Pollock is assisted by Cap- 
tain Reginald Fay, superintendent ; B. F. Ward, supervising engi- 



— 240 — 



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neer; F. L. Pollock, superintendent of West Shore ferries, and J. 
N. Crocker, supervisor of mail traffic. 

During the twenty-six months of Federal control of the Ameri- 
can railroads for the prosecution of the War, Mr. Walter B. Pol- 
lock was Marine Director in charge of all marine operations in 
New York harbor, a period in which this was the centre of trans- 
portation operations of vital importance to the United States and 
its European allies. He has been president of the New York Pro- 
duce Exchange since June, 1920, whose members deal in grain, 
flour, cotton seed oil and other commodities, being the first railroad 
official ever elected to this very important and influential commer- 
cial organization. 

gEORGE W. STERLING 

GEORGE WARING STERLING was born in Poughkeepsie, 
New York, November 22, 1874. He entered the employ of 
Metropolitan S. S. Co. on January 1, 1890, and on January 
1, 1912, upon the consolidation of the Metropolitan S. S. Co., The 
Main S. S. Co., and the Eastern S. S. Co. under the name of the 
Eastern S. S. Corporation, he was appointed freight traffic manager. 

On February 1, 1918, Mr. Sterling joined the Shipping Board, 
under Mr. Carey, director of operations, as manager of traffic de- 
partment in charge of making all Shipping Board rates. On Sep- 
tember 30, 1918, he resigned from the Shipping Board and re- 
turned to the Eastern S. S. Lines, and was elected vice-president. 

On November 1, 1919, he was again called to serve the United 
States Shipping Board and was made assistant director of opera- 
tions, in charge of all Shipping Board matters in New York City, 
which position he held till October 6, 1920, when he was appointed 
receiver of Victor S. Fox & Company, Inc., Consolidated Maritime 
Lines, and took over the management of six steamers and six sail- 
ing vessels. 

On November 17, 1920, he was also appointed receiver of the 
Atlantic-Adriatic S. S. Corp., taking over the management of seven 
steamers, and on December 20 of the same year he was appointed 
receiver of the American Star Line, taking over the management 
of two steamers. 



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241 



HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE 

ONE of the most popular of the trans-Atlantic lines engaged 
in passenger service between New York and the European 
continent is the Holland-America Line, widely famed for 
its staunch vessels and its excellent service ; but this is only one 
feature of the activities of that line, which is really the most 
important steamship organization of the Netherlands. The date 
of the organization of the line was on April 18, 1872, when, at 
the instigation of Sir Otto Reuchlin and A. Plate, Esq., a num- 
ber of bankers and manufacturers met and organized to establish 
a service between the Netherlands and the United States which 
should be an efficient medium for personal travel and carrying 
of freights, 

The line began with a service of two steamers, the "Rotter- 
dam" and the "Maas," small pioneer ships, from which has 
grown the present large and important fleet of passenger and 
freight steamers, tenders, lighters, etc., which with other vessels 
now building will amount to 415,159 tons. 

The present organization is under the patronage of the Prince 
Consort of the Netherlands, the officers being J. Rypperda 
Wierdsma, President; Adrian Gips and W. F. Pick, Managing 
Directors; and the board of directors is composed of W. Wester- 
man, President; E. P. de Monchy Rzn, Vice-President; S. P. Van 
Eeghen, Mr. Th. A. Fruin, I. J. Havelaar, H. Van Kempen, 
A. G. Kroller, W. F. Leemans, Jan Lels, Mr. W. A. Mees, Mr. 
F. S. Van Nierop, Jhr. M. Reuchlin, L. A. E. Suermondt, C. W. 
F. P. Baron Sweerts de Landas Wyborgh, J. H. Veder. 

The New York service of the Company is a passenger service 
from New York via Plymouth and Boulogne sur Mer to Rotter- 
dam. There are also passenger services between Rotterdam and 
Canada, known as the Canada Line, and between Rotterdam, Ant- 
werp and Spain to Cuba, Mexico, New Orleans, and back to Rot- 
terdam via Spain. There is a regular freight service between 
Boston, Philadelphia, Norfolk, Newport News, New Orleans, 
Savannah to Rotterdam; from Galveston to Rotterdam and from 
New York to the Dutch East Indies (Java) and back to New 
York via Suez, Panama or the Cape of Good Hope; also services 
from Holland to British India and to South America, while in 
the course of 1920 a regular service has been started from Rot- 
terdam and other European ports, to San Francisco and other 
ports on the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, with 
very large steamers provided with refrigerator space for the car- 
rying of perishable cargo. 

— 242 — 



5TATEN ISLANDS GRES£T CHAIN 
OF THOUSS£NT> FOOT PIERS 

POUCH TERMINAL, &¥MERIC$£N 
DOCK, AND MUNICIPAL PIERS 

THAT portion of Staten Island, known as the easterly shore, 
has been familiarly known for many years, especially in ship- 
ping circles, as the "Gateway to New York," on account of the 
location of a Quarantine Station where all incoming vessels are com- 
pelled to stop before entering the Harbor, for inspection by health 
officers. 

As early as 1799, the State of New York established a Quarantine 
Station at Tompkinsville, probably on account of the sheltered an- 
chorage and depth of water at this locality, and the old Quarantine 
Station remained here until about 1869, when the development of 
Staten Island required that it be transferred to a new location further 
down the Bay and near the Narrows, where vessels with contagious 
diseases aboard could be detained further away from the City. 

The first ferry from New York, to Staten Island, owned and 
originally operated by Captain Vanderbilt, personally, landed its 
passengers adjacent to the old Quarantine Station and this point 
was used as a ferry landing for nearly 80 years or until the present 
City of New York established its magnificent municipal ferry service 
at St. George, a short distance north of the old landing. 

Shortly after the removal of Quarantine, the greater portion of 
the old grounds were sold to the American Dock Company, and a 
storage plant established there. 

Since 1872 this historic ground has been used continuously as 
one of the largest independent warehouse properties in the Port of 
New York, and although it was originally intended for the exclusive 
storage of cotton, new fire-proof buildings have been added in recent 
years, and the entire plant re-constructed with large piers to accom- 
modate ocean-going cargo steamers. 

One of the attractive features to receivers of cargoes at this 
Terminal is the railroad connections whereby merchandise can be 
trans-shipped direct from side of vessel into cars without extra 
handling or cartage, and it is the only Terminal in the City of New 
York having direct rail connections, with trunk lines of New Jersey, 
independent of float system. 

This Terminal now covers about 30 acres and has 33 warehouses 
containing 7.000,000 cubic feet of protected storage area, also four 
large covered piers, all 1,000 feet in length and from 70 to 185 
feet in width. 

— 243 — 



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The American Dock piers adjoining on the north the 12 new 
Municipal Terminal piers which extend from Tompkinsville to Clifton 
are included in America's great chain of 1,000-foot piers, the finest 
and most modern development of port facilities in this country. 

The extent of this new development can be realized by the fact 
that the combined wharfage for ocean going steamers is greater than 
that provided on Manhattan Island and 48 cargo vessels can be 
accommodated at one time. The distance around these piers is six 
and one-half miles and provides an area of 1,800,000 square feet. 

The south end of this great chain of thousand foot piers is made 
up of the three modern type piers of the Pouch Terminal, Inc. 
Although the water frontage of this terminal is only 1,000 ft., it 
covers an area of 33 acres and has three covered piers, all completely 
protected by sprinklers inside and outside, each 130 ft. in width by 
900 to 1,150 ft. in length with concrete deck, constructed on most 
modern type, adaptable for ocean-going vessels, railroad tracks ex- 
tending the full length of piers and having slip room between piers 
of over 300 ft. 

Linked together by direct rail connection, the American Dock, 
Municipal and Pouch Terminals, form a great terminal with 21 cov- 
ered piers 1,000 ft. in length covering a water frontage of two miles 
and forming the greatest chain of port facilities to be found in 
America. 



WILLIAM E. WILLIAMS 

THE HOUSE OF WILLIAM E. WILLIAMS, 62 Front St., 
New York, is a unique institution in the development of the 
Port of New York. About 12,000 square feet of space is 
occupied and well filled with large stock of all kinds of ship sup- 
plies and equipment. 

This house is the only one of its kind that is equipped with a 
pattern shop, foundry and machine shop where special items can 
1 e made on short notice. In addition to making various items 
for ship's use, a full line of high pressure regrinding valves are 
manufactured in various types to suit different requirements. This 
is the only valve factory in Greater New York. Everything from 
a needle to an anchor can be supplied by this establishment. No 
expense has been spared in making 62 Front St. headquarters for 
the economical operation of supplying ships. Most ship owners 
have recognized this fact and a thriving business is the result. 



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OUT OF <NEW YORK— TO ALL 
"PORTS OF THE WORLD 

THE ease with which we travel today from one continent to 
another, has caused us to fail to realize what serious obstacles 
were presented before the days of steamships and their many 
luxurious appointments for comfort. 

Way back in the beginning — when the first man straddled a 
log and paddled across streams, he started humanity adventuring 

by sea. 

The first great sailors of record — the Phoenicians — as early as 
604 B. C. cleared from a Red Sea port and by hugging the coast 
and keeping always to the right, rounded the southern promontory 
of Africa. After three years they returned to Egypt via the Straits 
of Gibraltar. 

Until the end of the fourteenth century, however, the old world 
sailors — though fearless and hardy — dared not go out of sight of 
land — not knowing what was "on the other side." 

Ibn Khaldun, the Arab, at that time, described the Atlantic as 
"a vast and boundless ocean, into which ships did not dare venture 
out of sight of land, for even if the sailors knew the direction of 
the winds, there was no inhabited country beyond it and they would 
run great risks in being lost in the mist and darkness." 

But this was centuries ago ! 

From the breaking of pathways for marine commerce through 
the unexplored expanse by Prince Henry of Portugal — known as- 
"the Navigator" to the later advent of the steamship — maritime 
intercourse between distant lands developed remarkably. 

And as the fleets grew and types of propulsion developed for- 
eign trade expanded so that it became necessary for owners to make 
dependable arrangements for their ships' supplies — in the various 
ports of trade. 

It was man's power to "look ahead," coupled with strength of 
purpose, that gave to the fleets of all countries a world-wide Gar- 
goyle lubrication service that they now enjoy. 

The Vacuum Oil Company has pioneered in the business of sup- 
plying the world's lubrication requirements. 

Now ships clear from their home waters — many for strange 
ports. Their correctly lubricated engines throb steadily driving the 
ship relentlessly through storms and against winds and tides. The 
engineer knows that he can depend on the Gargoyle Marine Oil 
in the system. 

But he does not carry a supply sufficient for the whole voyage. 
And does not have to worry about his oil supplies. 

— 246 — 



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His owners have arranged by means of their Gargoyle Marine 
Oils Contract to keep him supplied with correct lubrication at any 
port where the ship might anchor. 

He knows that while the waters may be strange — just over the 
horizon is a land of plenty — for the ships' engines — for a complete 
stock of Gargoyle Marine Oils is carried at all ports of the world. 

But how do these stocks get there? 

Every barrel of Gargoyle Marine Oil is manufactured at the 
Vacuum Oil Co.'s own refineries — Rochester, N. Y. ; Paulsboro, N. J., 
and Bayonne, N. J. — so ships carrying heavy cargoes of our pro- 
ducts are continuously clearing New York harbor for foreign ports. 

And in this — the Pilots of the Port of New York — play an 
important part. 

Since trade had its birth, transportation has been the medium 
through which it has grown in volume. Transportation has found 
its way along dependent upon certain well defined trade lines and 
routes upon both land and water. 

In any given age of history, said a well-known authority on 
transportation, the nation that has been long dominant has been 
the one that has furnished or protected the most affected high- 
ways for the movement of the commerce of the times. 

The trade lines and routes of New York harbor — our great 
highway to the Atlantic — lead to every port of the globe. 

It is natural, then, that the greatest protection must be afforded 
shipping in North America's busiest harbor. 

And it is done — by the Sandy Hook Pilots. 



(ROftT. J. TOT> 

ROBT. J. TOD, born in Cardiff, Wales, in 1886, has had 20 years 
shipping experience, commenced business at an early age with 
one of Cardiff's largest steamship owners. Then, looking for 
more experience, went to London where he 'was connected with ship 
owners and brokers for five years. Being a member of the Baltic 
Exchange, this gave him thorough knowledge of the business, and 
in 1911 came to New York and has now had 10 years' good Ameri- 
can experience. Is an American citizen, a member of the Produce 
Exchange and the Maritime Exchange and head of the well known 
firm of ship brokers, Robt. J. Tod Co., with offices at 25 Beaver 
Street, New York. Mr. Tod, through the large number of foreign 
and American steamers handled by him, always giving preference 
whenever possible to New York, is one of the men in recent years 
who has helped to make the port what it is today. 

— 247 — 



THE FE<DE<RAL COMPOSITION AND 

PAINT CO., Inc. 

THE FEDERAL COMPOSITION AND PAINT COMPANY, 
INC., whose offices are located at 17 Battery Place, New York 
City, is one of the long established and best known firms in its 
line. The Company's business dates from 1901 and its endeavors 
embrace not only the manufacture of paints and compositions, but 
also the application of its product on a contract basis. This latter 
service calls for the maintenance of an organization ready to under- 
take the cleaning and repainting of vessels of all kinds upon short 
notice. 

The name Federal and the Federal trade mark are familiar to 
shipping men the world over, and admittedly represent to them a 
quality and kind of paint in which they can place full confidence. 
The Company manufactures marine paints and compositions only, 
and has builded its present extensive business because its intimate 
association with and understanding of the needs of the ship opera- 
tor has enabled it to produce a superior product. 

Federal Paints and Compositions are manufactured at a modern 
factory, greatly enlarged in 1920, and equipped throughout with 
the most modern special paint machinery. The Company maintains 
its own chemical and research laboratory, and expert chemist and 
experienced managers, who supervise each step in the manufactur- 
ing processes and prove the standard quality of the finished product. 

The Company numbers among its customers the most promin- 
ent steamship lines, operators and ship builders who enter the ports 
of the United States. The Company's operations center in the 
Port of New York, but it also maintains a branch in Philadelphia 
and is represented by agents in all the principal ports on the At- 
lantic, Gulf and Pacific Coasts. In British ports the Federal prod^ 
uct is sold by the British Anti-Fouling Paint and Composition Co., 
Ltd. 

Even with its far flung activities, the Company is no more widely 
known than is its President, Mr. Andrew Baxter, who is an ex- 
shipmaster and who, before retiring from the sea, had commanded 
many fine and famous sailing vessels. Mr. Baxter's numerous voy- 
ages carried him into practically every sea and gave him an unusual 
insight into the paint needs of vessels trading in any waters. Mr. 
Baxter takes an active and personal interest in every detail of the 
Company's business and the problems of painting which are sub- 
mitted to it. Mr. Baxter has surrounded himself with men who, 
like himself, have followed the sea and know, from actual experience, 
of the requirements of protecting every part of a vessel. 

— 248 — 



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Mr. Baxter is the representative for the Eastern Coast and in 
full charge of the vessels of Andrew Weir & Company, London, one 
of the largest British Companies with world-wide interests. Numer- 
ous vessels of this Company enter Atlantic ports, particularly the 
port of New York, during the course of the year, all of which re- 
ceive the care, attention and benefit of Mr. Baxter's great shipping 
experience. 



SWEDISH-AMERICAN LINE 



THE Swedish American Line, maintaining a direct passenger 
and freight service between New York and Gothenburg, 
Sweden, was organized in the fall of 1915. Its first sailing 
from New York took place early in 1916, when S. S. "Stockholm" 
sailed for Gothenburg. S. S. "Drottningholm" has been in service 
since May, 1920. 

From the start the line won favor with the traveling public 
because of its fast, comfortable, luxuriously appointed steamers, 
excellent accommodations and superb service, and this well- 
merited popularity has increased with the years through the com- 
pany's consistent policy that no effort be spared to please and 
satisfy its patrons. The increasing volume of travel via these 
steamers is the best proof of the soundness of this policy. 

In connection with this passenger service there is a freight 
line operated under the same management and under the style 
"The Swedish America-Mexico Line," which maintains a regular 
cargo service between Swedish and Baltic Sea ports and New 
York. This line operates the following cargo carriers : S. S. 
"Braheholm" (oil burner), 8,800 tons; motor ship "Stureholm," 
7,800 tons; S. S. "Carlsholm," 6,100 tons, and S. S. "Gustavs- 
holm," 4,800 tons. 

The head office of the joint companies is in Gothenburg. Mr. 
Dan Brostrom, former Swedish Minister of Marine, is the manag- 
ing director. Mr. G. Hilmer Lundbeck is the American repre- 
sentative, with offices at 21-24 State Street, New York, where 
also the general passenger offices are located. 

Furness, Withy & Co., Ltd., 34 Whitehall Street, New York, 
are the general freight agents. Branch offices for the booking 
of passengers and cargoes are located in Chicago, Minneapolis, 
Seattle and San Francisco. 



249 — 



BRIGGS BITUMINOUS COMPOSITION 

COMPANY, Inc. 

THIS Company, of which Mr. Andrew Baxter is President, and 
whose main offices are at 17 Battery Place, is engaged in the 
sale of bituminous protective coatings for the underwater 
inner hull and compartments of steel vessels, and their applications. 
This Company has pioneered in this line and enjoys high repute for 
the quality of its products and for the accompanying service. Many 
will recognize its trade-named products Tenax Composition and 
Ferroid Enamel and will have used Tenax Marine Glue. 

The Company operates its factory at 1327 Thirty-eighth Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and maintains a service organization equipped to 
undertake commission in practically any Eastern port. Its agents 
are likewise ready to handle its business in other ports. 



ARKELL & "DOUGLAS, Inc. 

THE FIRM OF ARKELL & DOUGLAS, Inc., was founded 
some 75 years ago in Canada by Mr. James Arkell. About 

1816 the firm was established in New York under the name of 
Arkell & Elliott and immediately engaged extensively in the lucrative 
West Coast mining trade. In the next few years they shipped many 
cargoes of mining supplies to the gold fields of Australia and Cali- 
fornia. The trade established in those early years was the founda- 
tion upon which the firm has steadily built one of the largest and 
most successful shipping and commission houses in New York. 

In 1879 the name of the firm was changed to Arkell & Co., 
under which the business was conducted till 1883, when Mr. Wm. H. 
Douglas entered the firm and the name was changed to Arkell & 
Douglas. The business was incorporated in 1909 with Wm. H. 
Douglas as president. Mr. Douglas has been the active head of the 
company since 1886. 



% % 



— 250 



gREAT LAKES DREDGE & DOCK CO. 

THE GREAT LAKES DREDGE AND DOCK COMPANY, 
which specializes in dredging and marine construction is an 
outgrowth of the old concern of Lydon & Drew, of Chicago, 
Illinois, and was incorporated in 1905, under the laws of the State 
of New Jersey and have acquired since that time the plants and 
organizations of various dredging concerns on the Great Lakes. 

In 1911, this concern was attracted to the Atlantic Coast by 
the large amount of submarine rock excavation being; carried on bv 
the United States Government, and, securing a large contract for 
this class of work, started an office in Boston, Mass. In 1913, 
contract for dredging and rock excavation was secured from the 
United States Government at Albany, N. Y., and an office opened 
at that point. In 1916, contract for the removal of Coenties Reef, 
East River, New York, was secured and an office opened in New 
York City, and the company's main activities in this territory date 
from that time. 

The Company has, in the last twelve years, taken on contracts 
running into millions of dollars for the United States Government at 
New York, Philadelphia and Albany, the main contracts of which 
were the dredging for the Quartermaster Terminal at South Brook- 
lyn ; removal of Mameluke Ledge, Delaware River, at Philadelphia ; 
dredging and filling at Quartermaster Terminal, Greenwich Point, 
Philadelphia, and dredging and filling for the Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration at Bristol, Pa. 

This Company also numbers among its clients some of the larg- 
est ship-building and dry-dock concerns in New York Harbor, as 
well as having taken care of the wants of some of the smaller ship- 
yards in and around New York. 

This company's plant is so extensive that it is able to handle 
contracts, both large and small, with the greatest despatch. Be- 
sides two hydraulic dredges, two dipper dredges, two submarine 
rock drills, ocean-going tugs and scows in New York Harbor, this 
company owns and operates at its various points 23 dipper dredges, 
6 hydraulic dredges, 8 drill boats, 32 tugs, 13 floating pile drivers, 
23 shore pile drivers, 30 floating derricks, 6 shore derricks, 81 dump 
scows, 100 deck scows, together with the various smaller pieces of 
plant required in conjunction with marine work of every descrip- 
tion. 

The Company's offices are located at New York, Albany, Buffalo, 
Cleveland, Chicago, Milwaukee, Duluth, and Sault Ste. Marie. 

The New York representatives of this concern are Thomas H. 
Mackie, vice-president; J. R. Williams, manager; and P. W. Dick- 
inson, superintendent. 

— 251 — 



THE NEW YORK AND PO<RTO <RICO 
STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

THE NEW YORK & PORTO RICO STEAMSHIP COM- 
PANY, known as the Porto Rico Line, was incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New York in October, 1890, and has 
been operating uninterruptedly between the United States and 
Porto Rico ever since. It commenced operations with several small 
chartered steamers but shortly acquired several vessels of its own, 
and its fleet has gradually been increased until it is now operating 
fifteen American steamers, of which the "San Lorenzo," "Porto 
Rico," "Coamo," "San Juan" and "Ponce" are well known to the 
traveling and commercial public. The running time between New 
York and San Juan has been reduced from nine to four and a half 
days, and the Company has been instrumental in giving the Island 
of Porto Rico a frequent and regular steamship service equal to that 
enjoyed by any of the West Indies. 

A weekly freight service between New Orleans and Porto Rico 
lias been maintained by the Company since 1899. 

The head office of the Company is located at 25 Broadway, New 
York City. 



/. F. WHITNEY & CO. 

WHITNEY'S is perhaps one of, if not the oldest, firm of ship 
brokers in New York. The firm was founded prior to 1800 by 
Nathaniel Ruggles Whitney and his three sons, Jonathan S., 
James F., and Edward Whitney. 

Nathaniel was the active head of the business till about 1826, 
when he was succeeded by James F., who was active in the firm for 
sixty years. The other brothers, Jonathan and Edward, departed 
this life in the sixties. The Whitneys were born in Watertown, 
Mass., and a full record of the family is in evidence in the old South 
Meeting House in Boston. 

One of the peculiar conditions regarding Whitney's is that all 
the present members of the firm have been juniors in the office, each 
having served from twenty-five to fifty years, and that since 1891 
no person named Whitney has been partner. The senior member. 
Mr. George T. Hay, joined the office force in 1872, and should he 
live till July 22, 1922, will have rounded out a half century of service 
with Whitney's. The other members of the firm are Theodore 
Dougherty, Philip Standerman and John G. Edgett. The office of 
the firm is at 10 Bridge Street, New York City. 

— 252 — ■ 



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THE "ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET 

COMPANY 

THE ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY, which 
entered the trans-Atlantic service this year, has the distinction 
of being the oldest British steamship organization, as well as 
one of the largest. Since its foundation by royal charter from 
Queen Victoria, in 1839, the company has witnessed every stage of 
steamship development, from paddle-wheels and screws, down to the 
present oil-burning turbine liners. 

The company started with a small fleet of iron paddle-wheel 
steamers carrying sails, and ranging from 650 to 2,000 tons, sev- 
eral of which were armed with rows of guns like old-fashioned fri- 
gates. They were, in fact, the pioneers of the present British naval 
reserve, and as they carried the mails it was considered desirable for 
them to be in condition to defend themselves in event of war. At 
first the R. M. S. P. service was confined to the West Indies, but 
later it was extended to Vera Cruz and Central American ports. In 
18-19 the company organized a mule and canoe service across the 
Isthmus of Panama, opening a route, via Colon, to San Francisco 
and ports in South America. Large numbers of California gold 
seekers traveled by this route, which is often mentioned in stories of 
the period. 

From the first years of its establishment the R. M. S. P. made 
constant progress, extending its services and keeping pace with 
every development in steamship construction. It also increased its 
connections. Today with its associated companies, it controls over 
1,900,000 tons of shipping. Its affiliated organizations include the 
Pacific Line, Lamport & Holt, Union Castle, Elder-Dempster and 
Shire Lines, with services touching ports in the United States, West 
Indies, Central and South America, South Africa, China and Japan. 

The entrance of the R. M. S. P. into the trans-Atlantic passen- 
ger service in May, 1921, marked a new epoch in the company's 
policy and formed another important link in its chain of operations. 
The new service was inaugurated with three 15,000 ton steamers, 
the Orbita, Orduna and Oropesa, on which the company's high 
standard of luxury is maintained in the matter of cuisine and the 
appointments of public and state rooms. These vessels will run 
fortnightly between New York, Cherbourg and Hamburg until the 
beginning of 1922, when it is probable that other vessels will be 
added and a Aveekly service established. 

The head office of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company is in 
Moorgate Street, London. The court of directors includes the fol- 
lowing: Sir Owen Phillips, G. C. M. G., M. P., chairman; Sir Joseph 
Savory, Bart., deputy chairman ; the Duke of Abercorn, James Cam- 

— 254 — 



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eron Head, A. Nevile Lubbock, Edward Norton and H. E. Wright. 
The Genera] Manager is J. W. Clark. 

Royal Mail interests in New York are in charge of the firm of 
Sanderson & Son, 2(5 Broadway, one of the oldest shipping concerns 
in the city, having been established in 1878 by the late Richardson 
Sanderson, assisted by his three sons. Of these Lloyd B. Sanderson 
remains at the head of the New York office and is the Royal Mail's 
local director, LTarold Sanderson is chairman of the White Star 
Line and Oswald Sanderson is managing director of the Ellerman- 
Wilson Line of Hull. 



LO<RT> <D<RY "DOCK CO ( RPO ( R§^TION 



THE LORD DRY DOCK CORPORATION, situated at West 
New York, New Jersey, opposite 80th Street and Riverside 
Drive, New York City, opened early this year its new plant, 
which is now in full operation. 

This Corporation was founded some years ago and, in addition 
to the above plant, operates a large plant at Providence, R. I., with 
complete shops for ship repair work and a 3,500-ton Marine Rail- 
way. 

The West New York Plant is complete in every manner for the 
expeditious and economical repairing of all kinds of vessels. The 
.property consists of 41 acres of land with a water frontage of 2,000 
feet and 800 feet of bulkhead ; two piers of 800 ft. and 540 ft., the 
former with 26 ft. and the latter with 22 ft. depth of water at 
mean low tide. On the 800 ft. pier there is a stiff leg derrick of 
100 tons lifting capacity at 100 ft. radius, flat loom. 

In addition to its piers there are six dry docks of from 1,000 
tons to 10,000 tons capacity. All the piers, shops and dry docks 
are connected by rail to a direct siding of the West Shore Railroad. 
This railroad runs through the yard. 

There are also fully equipped machine, carpenters', pipe, plate 
and blacksmith shops, also floating machine and welding shops and 
traveling cranes of 15 and 30 ton capacity. 

The Company's launch runs from Duffy's Landing, foot of 
80th Street, North River, New York City, to the West New York 
Plant at regular intervals. 

— 255 — 



COLUM<BIS£ T<RUST COMPANY 

THE early history of the port and city which was to become the 
commercial and financial center of the western hemisphere and, 
for a time at least, of the whole world, provides an interesting 
background for the study of its remarkable economic rise and present 
predominance. Three hundred and ninety-seven years ago — some 
time in April, 1524 — New York was discovered by Giovanni da 
Yerrazzano, a Florentine, who with a crew of fifty men in a hundred- 
ton caraval called "Dauphine," was then engaged on an expedi- 
tion to find a passage to India. In his subsequent account to 
Francis I., King of France, at whose behest the voyage was made, 
there appears the first known description of New York harbor : 

"At the end of a hundred leagues we found a very agreeable 
situation located within two prominent hills (the Narrows) in the 
midst of which flowed to the sea a very great river which was deep 
within the mouth ; and from the sea to the hills of that place with 
the rising of the tides, which we found eight feet, any laden ship 
might have passed. On account of being anchored off the coast in 
.good shelter, we did not wish to adventure in without knowledge of 
the entrances. We were with the small boat, entering the said 
river to the land, which we found much populated. The people, 
almost like the others, clothed with the feathers of birds of various 
colors, came toward us joyfully, uttering great exclamations of 
admiration, showing us where we could land with the boat more 
safely. We entered said river, within the land, about half a league 
where we saw it made a very beautiful lake (Upper Bay) with a 
circuit of about three leagues, through which they (the Indians) 
went going from one and another part to the number of XXX 
of their little barges, with innumerable people, who passed from 
-one shore to the other to see us. In an instant, as is wont to happen 
in navigation a gale of unfavorable wind blowing in from the sea, 
we were forced to return to the ship leaving the said land with 
much regret because of its commodiousness and beauty, thinking it 
was not without some properties of value, all of its hills showing 
indications of minerals." 

But, despite the commercial possibilities indicated, France did 
not take advantage of Verrazzano's discovery, nor, in turn, did 
Portugal avail herself of Estavan Gomez's expedition which brought 
him to the same place in 1525; thus New York history does not 
properly begin until 1607 when Hendrik Hudson, using one of 
'Gomez's maps, rediscovered this section of the country for the 
Dutch. 

— 256 — 



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Commercial activity developed almost immediately. The Dutch 
sent several expeditions of colonists who engaged in fur trading, 
buying from the Indians and sending their purchases to Holland. 
These first attempts in foreign exports proved very profitable, so 
that expansion was rapid. By 161-4 a regular system of exchange 
had been created; ?J60 beads were declared equal to 1 fathom, and 6 
wampum equal to 1 penny of English currency. Here were laid 
the foundations for our great commodity markets and our organ- 
ized domestic and foreign banking system of today. 

Thus since its origin, New York has always been primarily 
interested in commerce and finance, and its history ever since has 
been one of continuous and exceptional growth. Its remarkable 
development is pre-eminently attributable to foreign trade, and 
without question this foreign trade has been attracted in the first 
instance by New York's incomparable harbor. 

The increasing volume of our foreign business has depended 
largely upon a corresponding widening of our banking facilities so 
that as time went on, the role played by finance in the development 
of our metropolis has become more and more important. The 
bankers of our city have gradually extended their functions and 
strengthened their influence until today New York is the dominating 
financial center of the world. 

The Columbia Trust Company has participated in this devel- 
opment ; the history of its foreign department has been one of 
consistent and truly remarkable progress. Having begun opera- 
tions with a nucleus of a manager and one assistant, it now occupies 
the entire third floor of the bank's building at 60 Broadway. The 
Columbia Trust Company has thus become a prominent member of 
the group of financial institutions interested in foreign trade, and 
commensurate with its growth, it has assumed the greater responsi- 
bilities which the present age is imposing upon the banking com- 
munity. 

As to the future, due to the increasing complexity of industrial 
organization and the greater magnitude of enterprise, bankers will 
be called upon to contribute even more largely to the development 
of our metropolis. New York has grown to tremendous proportions^ 
yet its progress has by no means ceased. An intensive exploitation 
of its railroad facilities and its 780 miles of waterfront promise a 
rich reward. It is indeed impossible to predict the limit of New 
York's expansive possibilities. 

T7 



— 257 



EARLY SHIPPING DAYS OF THE 
BANK OF THE 9vlS£NHS£TTS£N CO. 

THE history of the Bank of the Manhattan Company has been 
closely identified with the maritime traditions of New York 

City. Founded in 1799, the group of men gathered for the 
enterprise included to a rare degree the outstanding leaders in the 
political and commercial life of the time. It is not surprising, when 
one considers the important place which shipping and trading had 
always held in the business activities of the little community, that 
much of the Bank's strength was drawn from its close relationship 
with the shipping industry and the men who were actually engaged 
in it. 

At the time that the Bank was founded New York had to its 
credit 135 years as a trading city. Many of the founders and first 
directors were men whose fathers and grandfathers before them, even 
back to the time of the Dutch, had made ships their business in life. 

The famous Marine Society, established in 1769, included 
among its most enthusiastic founders and first officers men who later 
were to help establish the Bank. 

The names of Leonard Lispenard, the first President, Robert 
and Philip Livingston, George Codwisc, James Creighton, Paschal 
Smith, Henry Tredwell and innumerable others appear in the roster 
of the Society, and also figured in the early history of the Bank. 

One cannot, perhaps, overestimate the influence of the Marine 
Society on the development of New York's shipping. Founded in 
the period of depression in commercial circles, following the non- 
importation agreement in 1765, it set out originally to relieve dis- 
tressed shipmasters or their widows and children who were facing 
hardship, and also constructively to promote maritime knowledge 
and the community's shipping interests. The Society was long 
active, and its members played no small part in the later develop- 
ment of the shipping industry. 

Many other famous shipowners and traders were active in the 
establishment of the Bank, and not a few appear in the Directorate. 

Captain Richard Randall, whose legacy, which made possible 
the famous Sailors' Snug Harbor, included fifty shares of the Bank 
stock; Gilbert and John Aspinwall, who traded to St. Petersburg; 
Henry A. and John G. Coster, trading with Holland and the Indies 
(John G. Coster was elected President of the Bank in 1826- ; Pre- 
served Fish, founder of the first packet line to Liverpool ; Archibald 
Gracie, John W. Low, and G. G. Howland — are all names famous 
alike in shipping history and the history of the Bank. 

— 258 — 



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Among the founders of the pioneer Black Ball Line, established 
in 1816, were Francis Thompson and Isaac Wright, original stock- 
holders in the Merchants Hank (now merged with the Hank of the 
Manhattan Company). 

Aside from the individuals connected with the Bank who figured 
in the development of American shipping and commerce, the institu- 
tion itself used generously and wisely its financial resources to foster 
the growth of the industry. Its close contacts with shipping inter- 
ests, its rare background of knowledge and experience, gave it a 
commanding position for financial service and advice among ship 
owners and traders — a position which it has maintained to this day. 



THE UNION TRANSPORT CO., Inc. 



THE UNION TRANSPORT COMPANY, Inc., now an im- 
portant factor in the handling of ships in the Port of New 
York came into prominence during the War period. The 
war-time congestion of the harbor of New York made the work of 
handling ships a task of many problems. 

This company, in spite of these perplexities, made a record at 
that time for the efficient manner in which it dispatched ships and 
the quick turn-around of vessels which it proved able to accom- 
plish in spite of the unprecedented congestion of the port. 

This congestion with which the company was successfully 
battling attracted the attention of its President, Mr. Hugo 
Behrend, to the study of the port, its drawbacks and its needs 
and the relief measures necessary to enable the Port of New York 
to meet the enlarged demands for increased facilities for the 
efficient and prompt handling of vessels and freights. His interest 
in the welfare of this Port and his comprehensive knowledge of 
its problems is well known. 

The Union Transport Company, Inc., has added to its facili- 
ties two of the largest double deck docks in the new terminal now 
nearing completion at Stapleton, S. I. These docks, with every 
approved modern improvement for quick and efficient handling of 
in and out cargoes, excelling any heretofore available in this port, 
will soon be ready for service of the local steamship export and 
import trade, and bring relief, to all concerned from the delays, 
and high costs of present methods. 

— 259 — 



THE NORWEGIAN-AME'RICA 

LINE 

THE idea of a National Norwegian America Line was con- 
ceived in the early years of the present century by Mr. E. A. 
Svanoe, chief engineer, Mr. Stephen Stephenson, captain of 
the port of Kristiana, and Mr. Johs Bull, engineer, of Glasgow. 

It was intended to place the plan before the general public in 
1905, but the critical development of relations between Norway and 
Sweden rendered that impossible and it was not until the Union 
had been dissolved and Norway had become an independent country 
that the actual work of organization was undertaken. By the spring 
of 1911 the organization had been perfected and Mr. Gustav Hen- 
riksen was appointed the first managing director of the company. 
The first two ships were named the Kristianiafjord and Bergens- 
fjord. They were each of 11,000 tons and both cost eight million 
kroner and were placed in commission in the fall of 1913. 

From the very first the venture proved remarkably successful 
and in 1914 another ship, the Stavangerfjord of 12,500 tons, was 
ordered built to meet the demands of commerce. She was launched 
in the spring of 1917. Only one misfortune has marred the success- 
ful career of the company ; that was the stranding of the Kristiana- 
fjord off Cape Race in a thick fog on July 15, 1917. All attempts 
to set her afloat failed and she became a complete loss. 

The fleet of the line today consists of two passenger ships of 
respectively 16,000 and 18,000 tons; six tramp ships with a gross 
tonnage of 32000; 150 tons of tugboats; 9 wooden barges; and 4 
steel barges. The line has under construction six tramp ships with 
a gross tonnage of 47,000 ; two oil burning ships of 6,500 tons each ; 
and twenty steel barges. 

The remarkable development of the Line under the most diffi- 
cult circumstances is a good proof that from the very beginning it 
has been a greatly needed connecting link between Norway and the 
United States. Further enlarging its field of operations the com- 
pany recently started a new route to Canada in cooperation with the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. The Canadian terminals are Montreal 
in the summer and St. Johns in the winter. 

Under its wise management the Line will undoubtedly maintain 
its prestige as the best connecting link between Norway and 
America. The chief office of the company is in Kristiana, Norway, 
with American headquarters located at 8 Bridge street, New York 
City, under the management of Mr. A. F. Jones. 










— 260 — 




S. S. STAVANGERFJORD 
Of the Norwegian-American Line 



-PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION CO. 

FEW steamship lines have had a more remarkable beginning 
than the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, the pioneer line 
in the South American west coast trade. Established in 1839, 
and starting with a small fleet of paddle-wheel and sail steamers this 
company has witnessed every stage of subsequent steamship devel- 
opment, and today, with its affiliated company, the Royal Mail, it 
has services and connections extending to every part of the South 
American coast, to New York, Southampton and Liverpool. 

Strangely enough, this typically English shipping organization 
owed its origin to the forcefulness and vision of an American, Cap- 
tain William Wheelwright, its promoter, having been a native of 
Newburvport, Mass. After being employed for some years as master 
of a sailing ship in the South American trade, Captain Wheelwright 
settled in Argentina in 1820, and afterwards lived in Chile and Peru, 
where he established a line of sailing vessels between Valparaiso, 
Callao and Panama. Subsequently he was appointed United States 
consul at Guyaquil. 

In 1836 Captain Wheelwright obtained concessions for steamship 
navigation, with port privileges, from Chile, Peru and other west 
coast republics and went to Washington with the idea of enlisting 
the support of the United States government. His scheme, how- 
ever, was regarded as visionary and received no encouragement from 
department officials or members of Congress. Having been rejected 
in his own country, he went to London, Avhere he gained the assist- 
ance of the Hon. Peter Scarlett, whom he had known in South 
America. Mr. Scarlett succeeded in interesting his brother, Lord 
Abinger, and other influential men, and plans were made for organ- 
izing a company. In addition to establishing a service along the 
Pacific coast of South America, ultimately designed to extend from 
Valparaiso to Panama, a system of communication across the isth- 
mus was considered. 

In 1839 the Pacific Steam Navigation Company was incorpor- 
ated under a royal charter with a capital of £250,000. The first 
steamer, the Peru, made the initial voyage from Liverpool to Val- 
paraiso in September, 1840. Captain Wheelwright returned to 
South America on this vessel, having been appointed superintendent 
for the company at Pacific ports. Several steamers were added to 
the fleet in following years and in 1845 the company extended its 
services from Valparaiso to Panama. Four years later the Royal 
Mail Steam Packet Co. established a canoe and mule service across 
the isthmus, with which the trans-Atlantic vessels of that company 
co-operated, while the P. S. N. Co. formed the link on the western 
coast. In later years this was replaced by the isthmian railroad. 
Today the company's steamers operate through the Panama Canal. 

— 262 — 



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Captain Wheelwright, it may be added, retired from the com- 
pany in 1851 after seeing the enterprise firmly established as a 
brilliant commercial success. He engaged in railroad construction 
in Argentina for over fifteen years, but his health having failed, he 
subsequently went to England, where he died in 1873. 

From the early years of the last century to the present day the 
Pacific Steam Navigation Co. has kept pace with the remarkable 
developments that have occurred in all parts of South America. It 
has, moreover, kept in line with every stage of steamship improve- 
ment and has been able to maintain its lead in the South American 
trade, not only in the passenger service but also in cargo carrying. 

At the present time the company has a regular service of "0" 
steamers from Liverpool, via Spanish and Portuguese ports, to 
Brazil and the River Plate, the Falkland Islands, Punta Arenas and 
the principal ports in Chile and Peru, returning to Liverpool 
through the Panama Canal. There is also a service from Liverpool 
to Spanish ports and Havana, and via the Panama Canal to ports 
in Peru and Chile, returning by the same route. The company has 
two services out of New York to the west coast of South America via 
the Panama Canal. The "E" steamers run to Havana and the 
principal ports in Peru and Chile, the "Q" boats to ports in Col- 
umbia and Ecuador. 

Since its establishment, the head offices of the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company have been in London. It has been repre- 
sented in New York for about twenty years by Sanderson & Son, 
2f> Broadway. 



HARRIS, MAQILL & CO., Inc. 

HARRIS, MAGILL & CO., INC., was incorporated in the 
State of New York in 1916. Since its incorporation the com- 
pany has been actively engaged in the steamship business, 
with main offices at 35 South William Street, New York City. 

The concern maintains offices at New York, Norfolk, Philadel- 
phia and Savannah. From Norfolk and Philadelphia, in addition to 
acting as agents for some of the world's largest private owners of 
tonnage, the company operates a service to Avonmouth, Bristol and 
Manchester for the IT. S. Shipping Board. 



263 



BOW<RINg & C09VfPA<NY 

THE name of Bowring's has been associated with important 
maritime interests for more than a century and now through 
the firm of Bowring & Company, is prominent in New York, 
being largely engaged as shipbrokers, steamship agents and gen- 
eral exporters and importers. 

The original Bowring enterprise was that of Bowring Brothers 
which was started in St. John's, Newfoundland, by Benjamin Bow- 
ring; in 1811. The New York house was established in 1866 as 
Bowring & Archibald by William B. Bowring (afterwards Sir Wil- 
liam B. Bowring, Bart.) and Brenton Archibald, son of Sir Edward 
Archibald who was, at that time, British Consul General at New 
York. 

The firm was established to do business with the Newfoundland 
house and for a considerable time confined its attention exclusively 
to the exporting and importing of Newfoundland products. Later, 
however, the firm went into the petroleum business, in w T hich Bowring 
& Archibald were pioneers and they were one of the first shippers 
of a full cargo of barreled oil to England and among the earliest 
developers of tank steamers especially built for petroleum shipments. 

The English firm of C. T. Bowring & Co., Ltd., was founded in 
Liverpool in 1830 and were originally very large owners of sailing 
vessels, afterward developing into steam tonnage, and because of 
their connection with the petroleum trade, were among the first 
owners of tank tonnage. 

Its London house was established in 1870 and that at Cardiff, 
Wales, in 1892. 

William B. Bowring, of the New York house, went to Liverpool 
in 1871 and Thomas B. Bowring (afterwards Sir Thomas B. Bow- 
ring) came to New York as the head of the house here. After the 
death of Mr. Brenton Archibald, Mr. Frederick C. Bowring, now 
Chairman of the British company, came here. Mr. Thomas B. 
Bowring went to London in 1892 and Mr. Lawrence Bowring Stod- 
dart came to New York and in 1919 returned to England. In 1897 
Mr. Charles W. Bowring came here. 

C. T. Bowring & Company, the parent house, became a private 
limited company in 1899 and the New York house of Bowring Si 
Company was incorporated under the laws of the State of New 
York in 1902; the Newfoundland house becoming a limited corpora- 
tion under the name of Bowring Brothers, Ltd. 

The New York house is owned and controlled by the parent 
company. Mr. Charles W. Bowring, a great grandson of Benjamin 
Bowring who founded the business more than a century ago, is the 
senior director and is also a director of the British house of C. T. 

— 264 — 



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Bowring & Company, Ltd., and of Bowring Brothers, Ltd., New- 
foundland. The other resident directors are Mr. Cyril Bowring, 
brother of Mr. Charles W. Bowring, and Mr. L. L. Richards, who 
was the director of the Bureau of Transportation of the War Trade 
Board in Washington during the war. 

In 1886 the Red Cross Line was started by the Bowring in- 
terest and has since been engaged in regular freight and passenger 
traffic between New York, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and St. John's, 
Newfoundland, the New York house being the general agents for the 
Red Cross Line and also agents for the Bibby-Henderson Lines to 
Marseilles, Egypt, Ceylon, South India and Burma. They are also 
I T . S. agents for prominent Scandinavian steamship owners and for 
the London house of C. T. Bowring & Company, Ltd., owners of 
tank and cargo steamers. 

Bowring & Company do a very large business as shipbrokers. 
specializing in both British and Scandinavian tonnage and contract- 
ing for the building of new steamers specially constructed for par- 
ticular trades, largely for Canadian coal, iron and steel interests and 
the nitrate trade of Chile. They are still largely identified with oil 
shipments and during the war period were very large shippers of 
fuel oil to the British Admiralty and continue to carry on an ex- 
tensive business in the importation of Newfoundland products, in- 
cluding seal products, seal skins, seal and cod oil, etc. 

The steamship "Stephano" of the Red Cross Line, was tor- 
pedoed by the Submarine "U-53" off Nantucket. This was a ship 
especially built and strengthened for scaling. The Newfoundland 
house of Bowring Brothers, Ltd., are one of the largest owners of 
sealing steamers in the world. The steamship "Florizel," which was 
also specially built for ice work, has the distinction of having 
brought in the largest cargo of seal skins ever carried, aggregating 
49,600. 

The firm of Bowring & Company is backed by a century's record 
of sound business principles and the various departments of their 
business are ably organized under competent heads. 










— 265 — 



"BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD CO. 

ONE of the most important railroad lines running out of New 
York and connecting with the Western gateways is the Balti- 
more and Ohio. This company maintains an extensive float- 
ing equipment in New York Harbor, Philadelphia and Baltimore. 
In active charge of this equipment, for the past twenty-six years, 
has been a man well versed in all matters pertaining to transporta- 
tion — James H. Clark. 

Captain Clark was born in Smithtown, Long Island, June 22, 
1864, the son of John and Mary (Phalon) Clark. He received his 
education in the public schools, Coopers Institute of New York City 
and by serving an apprenticeship with the New York Iron Works 
and Engine Builders, after which he found himself qualified as a 
mechanical engineer, with a slight leaning toward marine construc- 
tion. 

Mr. Clark became connected with the West Shore Railroad as 
Chief Engineer of Ferries from 188-1 to 1888, and in October of 
1888 he entered the ranks of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and 
Staten Island Rapid Transit R. R., serving in the capacity of En- 
gineer of Ferries, Master Mechanic, Superintendent, of the S. I. 
R. T. Ry., and as Asst. Supt. B. & 0. R. R. New York Terminals, 
and General Superintendent of the S. I. R. T. Ry. In 1913 Mr. 
Clark was placed in sole control of all floating equipment pertain- 
ing to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. 

Mr. Clark entered the service of the B. & 0. R. R. as an official 
and for 32 years has continued, always as an official of the com- 
pany, during which time his knowledge of harbor transportation as 
well as railroad management has given him a place in the front ranks 
of men foremost in commercial transportation. During his career 
with the B. & 0. R. R. he served his superiors with a marked degree 
of both efficiency and loyalty, and ruled his subordinates without 
seeming to, so that his present hosts of friends number those from 
both sides of the fence, not one of whom but would be guided by his 
least suggestion. 

Mr. Clark is a member of all traffic organizations and Railroad 
Clubs and several yacht clubs, as well as the Staten Island Club, 
Lotus Club, Engineers Club, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, K. of C. 
Catholic Club of N. Y. ; Baltimore Country Club, Baltimore Ath- 
letic Club and Merchant's Club. He holds an unlimited tonnage 
license of Master for lake, bays and sounds, as well as a Chief En- 
gineer's licenses covering the same, and in his present position, when 
anything arises when a decision is needed imperatively, it is always 
the "Chief" that shoulders the burden. 

— 266 — 



JAMES W. ELWELL & CO., Inc. 

THIS firm was founded in Bath, Maine, by Mr. John Elwell in 
18521. During the first ten years of trading, small schooners 
were used in the West Indies trade and Air. Elwell, being a 
merchant, dealt largely in broadcloths and other dry goods, crock- 
ery, hardware and provisions. Imports consisted of Jamaica rum, 
sliooks of superior quality and other West Indian products. Dur- 
ing these first ten years, Mr. Elwell extended his business, and in 
1881 the business was established in New York, an office being 
opened at 57 South street. 

In 1838 Air. Elwell took in his son, the late James W. Elwell, 
as junior partner, and in 1847, owing to the death of his father, 
James W. became the head of the firm. A few years later a 
younger brother of James and the bookkeeper of the old firm were 
admitted to partnership. 

After remaining nearly half a century at No. 57 South street, 
the business of James W. Elwell & Co. was removed to No. 47 
South street. The wonderful energy, ability and integrity of 
Air. James W. Elwell resulted in the growth of the business, and 
in 1886 the firm became agents of the Fabre Line of freight and 
passenger steamers between Alediterranean ports and New York. 

This business has grown extensively, and is now the most im- 
portant Line out of Ncav York to the Alediterranean. 

In May of last year, in order to perpetuate the name, the 
business was incorporated under the laws of this State, with a 
capitalization of $1,000,000, the only change being in the addition 
of the word "Incorporated"" to the title at which time Air. Howard 
E. Jones was elected President, Air. Harvey G. Perine Vice-Presi- 
dent, -Rodrique Joly, Treasurer, and Robert W. Swanson, Secre- 
tary. 

Of these gentlemen it may be said that Air. Perine has been 
with the concern over thirty-three years, Air. Jolly for nineteen 
years, and Air. Swanson about two years. 



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— 267 — 



gARCIA & T>IAZ 

ONE of the most successful Spanish shipping concerns in the 
United States in relation to the comparatively short time they 
have been in business is the firm of Garcia & Diaz, with offices 
at 59-61 Pearl Street. 

The firm was originally established by Manuel Diaz, one of the 
widest awake, most progressive and far-seeing of the present genera- 
tion of younger Spanish business men, who, at a time when cargo 
space was eagerly sought all over the world, succeeded in interesting 
several of the largest Spanish ship owners to send their steamers to 
the States, and in a short time Mr. Diaz' office became the clearing 
house for the chartering of Spanish steamers in the port of New 
York. 

At the beginning of the year 1919 the volume of business had 
increased to such an extent that Mr. Diaz, in order to render the 
service that would meet the standard that he had set up to that 
time, found it necessary to look for an associate, and in June of 
that year he became associated with Marcelino Garcia under the 
present firm name of Garcia & Diaz. 

Mr. Diaz considered himself very fortunate in interesting Mr. 
Garcia as a co-partner, for, to his conviction, no other man could 
bave filled the gap to better advantage, as has been proven by the 
continued success of the firm, due in great part to his intelligent and 
active co-operation. 

Shortly after the inception of the co-partnership they estab- 
lished a regular line of cargo steamers with monthly sailings from 
New York to all ports in Spain, and, following the policy to which 
the success of the business is attributed, that is, the furnishing of 
the best service possible, their line now ranks second to none in the 
Spanish trade. 

Today the firm of Garcia & Diaz maintains a bi-monthly service 
to all ports in Spain and may be considered one of the best equipped 
to render the service that spells continued success. 










— 2G8 - 



CO ST ON SIGNAL COMPANY 

THE dangers of the sea have been much diminished by modern 
science and invention in the line of preventive devices, and espe- 
cially life-saving appliances, the manufacture of which has been 
developed to a high degree of perfection. The Coston Signal Com- 
pany of 57-59 Front street, New York, has been a leading factor 
in this development. 

The business now conducted under that name was established in 
1840 by Benjamin Franklin Coston, inventor and manufacturer of 
night signals and ship rockets. The founder conducted the busi- 
ness until his son, William F. Coston, became of age some time in 
the sixties, and took active charge of the business. The business 
was developed under his management, and several life-saving appli- 
ances were added to the specialties of the firm. He continued at 
the head of the business until his death in 1901, in which year the 
business was incorporated, his widow, Mrs. Anna L. Coston, being 
the president of the corporation and having the active executive 
direction of the business until 1907, when she retired from active 
participation in the business, and is at present vice-president and 
a director of the company in an advisory capacity, and Mr. Jay 
W. Becherer became president of the company in which office he 
remains. Under his management the business has been expanded 
so as to include, in addition to the company's own life-saving spe- 
cialties and signals, a general business as dealers in a complete line 
of life-saving appliances for steamers, together with general steam- 
ship supplies and ship chandlery business, under the trade name of 
Coston Supply Company. 

Of their specialties, Coston Night Signals have for over seventy 
years established a standard of excellence and reliability never ap- 
proached by any competitor. They have been officially adopted by 
the United States Government in all branches of its service, and 
generally by the merchant marine of most countries. Coston Dis- 
tress Outfits consist of twelve red signals, each burning two minutes, 
properly packed in a metallic watertight case, and are among the 
articles required by the United States Steamboat Inspection Service 
in the equipment of life-boats. The Coston Ship Rockets, rising to a 
height of over 400 feet and throwing a shower of red balls that burn 
with great intensity are in wide use by ocean liners and other steam- 
ship lines and are standard everywhere; the Coston Life Buoy 
Water Light, approved by the United States Board of Supervising 
Inspectors, Department of Commerce, and by the British Board of 
Trade, and the Coston Deck Flare; Coston Life Boat Equipment 

— 269 — 



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(including oars, bread breakers, and water breakers, sails, sea drags 
and oil spreader, cork rings, day distress signals and life pre- 
servers), Compass, Lanterns, Boat Hooks, etc. 

The Coston Davit Turning Out Gear can be attached to any 
round bar Davit, and in many ways simplifies and makes safe the 
operation of the davit in every emergency. It has been approved 
by engineers, classification societies and the United States Steam- 
boat Inspection Service, and has been installed on a large number 
of ocean and coastwise vessels, including those of many of the 
largest lines. The Coston Positive Boat Releasing Gear, with its 
absolute safety of operation, elimination of danger of boat being 
detached by accidental movement during launching, quick instan- 
taneous release at any desired point of launching of boat under com- 
plete control of one man in charge of the boat, and many other fea- 
tures of safe and positive action, is in highest degree simple, safe, 
and absolutely foolproof. 

The Coston Line Throwing Gun, mounted on steel carriage for 
farger vessels, and in shoulder gun type for vessels under 300 tons, 
Coston Collapsible Lifeboats, besides Metallic Life Boats and Metal- 
lic Cylinder Life Rafts and lifeboat equipment of every kind to 
comply with the Seaman's Act are included in their line. The com- 
pany also handles deck, engine and cabin stores and Steamship 
supplies in general. 

In its specialties the company does a large domestic and export 
business, and constantly fills large orders for the United States Navy 
and also for the United States Army Transport Service. High 
merit in their life-saving specialties have made them standard equip- 
ment for vessels of the best class. 



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270 — 



NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD, BREMEN 

ESTABLISHED 1857 with a capital equalling $3,000,000. 
As the first steamer, the "Bremen" of TOO Hp. and 2,000 
Register Tons, departed from Bremerhaven Juno 19, 1858, 
reaching New York July 4th. Three additional steamers of simi- 
lar type were placed in service in the course of the year. In 
spite of severe setbacks caused by financial crises in the first 
few years of its existence, the Lloyd succeeded in creating a fleet 
of eight steamers, the "New York," "Hansa," "Amerika," "Her- 
mann," "Deutschland," "Union" and "Weser" so that in 1867 a 
regular weekly passenger, mail and freight service with what for 
these times were considered large and fast steamers, could be main- 
tained between Bremen and New York. In the same year the 
Bremen-Baltimore service was inaugurated with two 2,200-tons 
steamers, which was followed in 1869 by the Bremen-Havana-New 
Orleans and the Galveston service. In 1881 the company entered 
a new era in starting a fast express service with the steamer 
"Elbe," to be followed by the "Werra," "Fulda," "Eider," 
"Ems," "Aller," "Trae," "Saale," and "Lahn" of about 9,000 Hp. 
and 5,350 Register Tons the "Spree" and "Havel" of 12,500 Hp. 
and 7,000 Tons, so that in 1892 the company's steamers made 
92 round trips between Bremen and New York, and 41 round 
trips between Bremen and Baltimore. In 1891 the steamers 
"Werra" and "Fulda" were placed in the Mediterranean service, 
laying the foundation to a line which eventually proved a valu- 
able asset to the company. 

On February 20, 1882, 25 years after so modest beginnings, 
the North German Lloyd fleet consisted of 29 transatlantic 
steamers, 7 steamers plying between European ports, 14 river 
steamers and 48 lighters of a total of 104,500 register tons. The 
passenger, mail and freight service to East Asia and Australia 
was opened in 1886, with branch lines to Japan and Korea, as 
well as to Samoa and Tonge Isle, which necessitated a considerable 
increase of the tonnage. Available space will not permit going 
too much into details, but we must not fail to mention the advent 
of the so-called "Barbarossa" class of steamers, a revelation to the 
travelling public, with their superstructure, permitting the placing 
of cabins and social rooms in the upper decks, giving them free 
access to the sea-breezes and thus securing fresh air and ventila- 
tion to an extent heretofore unknown, and eliminating the sicken- 
ing "ship smell" so feared by the average voyager. 

With the arrival of the express steamers "Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Grosse," "Kronprinz Wilhelm," "Kaiser Wilhelm II," and "Kron- 
prinzessin Cecelie," and the steamer "George Washington," all 

— 271 — 



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still well known and remembered by the travelling public, the com- 
pany possessed a fleet of steamers unsurpassed by any line, and 
for years stood at the head of all of them in the carrying of 
passengers in all classes between United States ports and Europe, 
landing in New York alone in the year 1913, in 147 trips, 18,348 
first class, 35,130 second class, and 164,536 third class passen- 
gers. The outbreak of the World War in 1914, with its conse- 
quences, has proved a severe blow to this proud company. Under 
the peace treaty all steamers above 1,600 tons had to be deliv- 
ered to the Allies, destroying with one stroke the fruit of 57 years 
of hard but successful labor and leaving the North German Lloyd 
in a totally crippled condition. Hanseatic pluck and spirit does 
not know defeat and, although the beginning must naturally be 
small and modest, as in 1857, the time is probably not far off 
when we will see the Lloyd flag, Key and Anchor and wreath of 
Oak Leaves, appear again in our port. 

CORY MANN GEORGE 
CORPORA TION 

THIS company, incorporated under the laws of the State of 
New York in May, 1919, are large suppliers of bunker coals 
in the port of New York; in fact their ability to supply un- 
limited quantities of the best grades of coal at the principle ports 
of the Eastern hemisphere has placed this company among the 
recognized leaders in exporting coal and American bunkering. 

This company is the American representative for the British 
firms of Wm. Cory & Son, Ltd., and Mann, George & Co., Ltd. 
These companies, while separate organizations, together operate, 
each, in their special line as coal exporters, foreign coaling con- 
tractors, coal depot proprietors, fuel oil contractors, and steam- 
ship brokers. They are contractors to the British Admiralty and 
other Navies and the principle steamship lines. 

With these connections, Cory Mann George Corporation be- 
comes allied to what is probably the world's largest coal exporting 
vnd bunkering organization. 

Mr. E. D. Enney is the President and principle executive, 
assisted by Wm. Shirden, Secretary, H. W. Frey, Treasurer, and 
J. W. Darville, General Sales Manager, with general offices at 
26 Beaver Street, New York City. Branch offices are located in 
the Royster Bldg., Norfolk, Va., Hogshire Bldg., Newport News, 
Ya., 1202 Garrett Bldg., Baltimore, Md., and 121 Walnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

— 272 — 



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TALBOT, BIRD & COMPANY, Inc. 

TALBOT, BIRD & COMPANY, INC., was incorporated June 
1st, 1916, and succeeded the firm of Talbot, Bird & Company 
which was organized about 1912 by James A. Alexander, John 
M. Talbot and Samuel Bird ; and represented the Marine Depart- 
ment of the ./Etna Insurance Company. 

Talbot, Bird & Co., Inc., are now marine underwriters and gen- 
eral managers for the _Etna Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn., 
Franklin Fire Insurance Co. of Philadelphia, Springfield Fire & 
Marine Insurance Co. of Springfield, Mass., and the Universal Insur- 
ance Co. of Newark, N. J. 

The scope of the corporation's underwriting on hulls and cargoes 
extends to risks throughout the world, agents representing them for 
the settlement and payment of claims at all the principal ports. 

Talbot, Bird & Co., Inc., have always been recognized and known 
in marine insurance circles for their sense of justice in the matter 
of disputed claims and the leniency in which these have been dis- 
posed of without recourse to law. They take a just pride in their 
reputation for prompt settlement of claims, which is the all impor- 
tant feature in its relation to merchants engaged in the export and 
import business, and foreign trade in general. 

The present officers of Talbot, Bird & Co., Inc., are: 

Samuel Bird, President; R. A. Fulton, Vice President; Harry 
Bird, Secretary. 

The Board of Directors is as follows : 

Samuel Bird, R. A. Fulton, Harry Bird, F. S. Bowen, J. S. 
Gilbertson, J. T. Byrne, G. W. Mclndoe. 

Mr. Samuel Bird is in charge of the underwriting and general 
finances. Mr. Harry Bird and Mr. Gilbertson are in charge of the 
claims department of hulls and cargoes. Mr. Gilbertson is chairman 
of the Average Adjusters Association of the United States, and a 
recognized authority on marine claims and adjustments. Mr. 
Harry Bird is also Vice President of the Board of Underwriters of 
New York. 

All the officers and Directors are engaged actively in the under- 
writing, loss and financial departments of the corporation, which 
gives them a strong organization for the maintenance of an impor- 
tant branch of America's foreign trade. 



^ -6- 



271 



THE FREDERICK SNARE 
CORPORATION 

WHATEVER the craft that bears him, the wayfarer on the 
waters of New York Harbor will find it impossible to avoid 
contact with one or other of the many harbor works which 
in the course of the past twenty-one years have arisen under the 
hand of Frederick Snare Corporation, formerly known as The 
Snare and Triest Company. 

If he enters the harbor as passenger on an ocean liner his 
gaze will rest on the spacious wharves and the outstanding ferry 
terminal at Staten Island, on the more distant wharves along the 
Brooklyn shore, on the teeming city piers along the Hudson, and 
when his ship is safely berthed and he passes over the gangplank 
he will find himself on the spacious deck of a modern structure 
where meet the tides of travel from all parts of the globe. The 
ferry terminal and some of those wharves he viewed at Staten 
Island, many of those he saw in the Brooklyn distance and along 
the Hudson, and in all likelihood the very wharf at which he 
lands — all these were reared by the constructive skill of Frederick 
Snare Corporation. 

Should our wayfarer approach the City from Long Island 
Sound his interest will center largely in the succession of stately 
views of the bridges spanning the East River. He will pass under 
five of these wonderful highways. To all of these except the Man- 
hattan Bridge, the Frederick Snare Corporation has contributed 
important construction work, and in the case of one, the Wil- 
liamsburgh Bridge, it successfully rebuilt and reinforced import- 
ant parts of the structure, increasing its strength and capacity, 
with no interruption to traffic. 

Some of the wharves and sea walls he will pass along the 
East River are also evidences of the activities of Frederick Snare 
Corporation, for many of these have been built or remodeled by it. 

By whatever channel the wayfarer reaches his destination, the 
Narrows, the Hudson, the East River, the Harlem he will view 
the works of Frederick Snare Corporation. Piers and ware- 
houses bordering the Narrows, the Staten Island Ferry Terminals 
at St. George and the Battery, the Lackawanna Ferry Terminal, 
the Chelsea Steamship Piers, the bridges and wharves of the East 
River and the Harlem — all evidences of intelligent constructive 
enterprise, which has developed into an important industry and 
has very materially aided in the development of those port facil- 
ities so necessary for the harbor of New York. 

— 275 — 



WEST INDIA STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

THE WEST INDIA STEAMSHIP COMPANY is the out- 
growth of the shipping business founded by Daniel Bacon in 
New York City in 1885. Daniel Bacon is the son of the late 
D. G. Bacon, owner of a number of famous American clipper ships 
that carried the American flag on the high seas about the middle of 
the last century. Amongst these were the "Phantom,"' "Queen of 
the East" and the "Game Cock," which latter ship still holds a num- 
ber of Pacific ocean records. 

Mr. Bacon started his shipping career as a freight broker, but 
later he owned and operated during the years 1890 to 1900 the ship 
"Hoogley" and the barks "Pilgrim" and "Fred P. Litchfield." He 
also operated a line to Red Sea ports and Bomba}', loading char- 
tered vessels on the berth with case oil and general cargo for these 
ports. 

By 1900 these previous ventures had been succeeded by the own- 
ership and operation of the Steamships "Fortuna," "Caribbee" 
and "Banes" and the operation of a fleet of foreign steamships 
under time charters, and while these chartered vessels were occa- 
sionally despatched to European ports, their chief trade was between 
the United States and West Indian, Central and South American 
ports. Commencing with an occasional "round trip" and building 
up business gradually into a regular service with many yearly con- 
tracts for the carriage of hundreds of thousands of tons of coal, 
sugar, sisal, lumber and similar bulk cargoes, the business was in- 
corporated in 1904 as the West India Steamship Company, under 
which trade name it continued to expand, until from 1910 until the 
time of the armistice, the Company was operating continuously 35 
to 40 steamships in the West India trade. In the meantime, Mr. 
Bacon had established an office in Havana, Cuba, which besides act- 
ing as agent for the West India Steamship Company, has also had 
for many years the agency of Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co., Liv- 
erpool, Nippon Yusen Kaisha and several other steamship com- 
panies. 

In 1888 Mr. Bacon became the New York agent for Elder, 
Dempster & Co., and has continued to act as such ever since, repre- 
senting this firm in the operation of their Line from New York to 
West Coast of Africa. 



M 



276 — 



LIGHTERAGE-ITS FUNCTION 

THE important part that lighterage plays in the maintenance of 
New York's supremacy as a port to say nothing of its por- 
tion as a manufacturing' and mercantile center is little realized 
by the average person. 

It was not until the Harbor Strike in the spring of 1919 that 
this was forcibly impressed upon the citizens of New York when 
the food supply of the city was seriously imperilled and the sub- 
ways, elevated roads, surface railroads and lighting plants were only 
saved from a complete shut-down for lack of fuel by the manning 
of some tied-up tugs by volunteer crews of owners. 

When every day spent in port by a ship meant the prolonging 
of the War, it was lighters that made it possible to reduce the time 
of ships in port to a minimum by their use as auxiliaries for over- 
crowded wharves and enabling ships to work the maximum number 
of gangs offshore and inshore at the same time. 

The functions of lighters are many in the port of New York. 
They are as shuttles ceaselessly darting to and fro in the loom of 
commerce. Ships arriving in New York from all parts of the world 
bring merchandise for trans-shipment by ships departing for various 
parts of the world — and this movement from ship to ship employs 
an ever-increasing fleet of lighters. The many manufacturing en- 
terprises situated on and near the waterfront are so located to make 
it possible to receive raw material and ship manufactures by lighter 
direct from ship to factory and vice versa, and the extensive ware- 
house system of the Port is to a great extent dependent upon light- 
erage service for its maintenance. 

The physical characteristics of the Port, making it largely de- 
pendent upon water transportation for its supplies of food and fuel 
has been responsible for the development of the most highly organ- 
ized system of inland water transportation in the World. In this 
development Captain Frederick William Jarvis was a pioneer, hav- 
ing established the business of the Jarvis Lighterage Compan}^, as a 
public lighterman, just after the close of the Civil War in 1866. 
A list of the customers of Captain Jarvis, who are still being served 
by this company, includes the names of many of the largest and 
most successful merchants and manufacturers in the Metropolitan 
District. 

The Jarvis Lighterage Compan}^ was purchased in 1911 bv 
H. M. Lee and William Simmons, the former having established the 
business of Lee's Lighters in 1899, and the latter, the business of 
the Simmons Transportation Company 1902. In January, 1921, 
the operation of these three companies was consolidated under the 
management of Lee & Simmons, Inc., thus bringing into being the 

— 277 — 



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largest plant and organization of its kind devoted exclusively to the 
service of the shipping public of the Port and tributary inland 
waters. 

Henry H. Lee, the father of H. M. Lee, has been engaged in the 
Steam Hoisting and Towing business in the Port of New York 
since the late seventies, under the corporate title of H. H. Lee Corn- 
pan}' and Lee's Towing Line, Inc. 



SIR WILLIAM REARDON SMITH 

& SONS, Ltd. 

IN a work of this nature, which undertakes to portray the inter- 
esting sidelights of business romance in a series of historical 

sketches of firms and individuals who have grown and developed 
co-incident with our port, it may not be amiss to give mention to 
the new blood, energy, and brains that is ever being drawn from 
the four corners of the earth to partake of the wonderful opportuni- 
ties here presented and to further enhance the fast growing reputa- 
tion of New York as the nerve center of world commerce. Such 
action on the part of men who have been the leaders of maritime in- 
terests in other ports is their acknowledgment that this is the coming 
maritime capital of the woi'ld, as it is fast growing to be the financial 
capital. 

Of such men, there is none perhaps, whose coming has such a sig- 
nificance in this direction as Sir William Reardon Smith, Bart., of 
Cardiff, Wales. Sir William has achieved notable success in the 
maritime affairs of his native land and comes to the great port of the 
New World amply qualified by experience and ability to take the 
same commanding position in his new sphere of activity. He is the 
head of the following English concerns with offices in both Cardiff 
and London, viz., the St. Just S. S. Co., Ltd. ; the Devon Mutual In- 
surance Co., Ltd. ; the Leeds Shipping Co., Ltd. ; and the Cornbor- 
ough Shipping Line, Ltd. The total tonnage of the fleets under his 
direction is in excess of 300,000. Associated with him in the man- 
agement of his large interests are his two sons, William and Doug- 
las, and his two sons-in-law, Mr. A. J. Popham and Mr. W. G. 
Liley. 

Sir William's American interests are conducted under the firm 
name of Sir William Reardon Smith & Sons, Ltd., and offices arc 
maintained at 44 Beaver street, New York City, with Mr. W. G. 
Liley in charge. 

— 278 — 



THE ORIENTAL "NAVIGATION CO. 

A LOVE for Franco and the cause of the Allies during the Avar 
is responsible, perhaps, more nearly than any other factor 
for the origin of the Oriental Navigation Company. The 
stress of the Allies at the time was particularly acute at sea. It 
was beginning to look as though England would be isolated and 
starved, and without England and her fleet, victory would be cer- 
tain for the German government. 

When the conflagration of war overtook Europe, Mr. Philip I)e 
Ronde, now president of the Oriental Navigation Company, was ex- 
tremely pro- Ally. So was his friend, Mr. Alberto Dodero, of Buenos 
Aires, with whom he had been associated during several years of ex- 
port and import business in South America. One day in the autumn 
of 1915 Mr. Dodero appeared in Mr. DeRonde's New York office and 
bluntly proposed a steamship service to French ports, a proposition 
which was immediately accepted. 

The commercial history is not greatly different in character from 
that of other companies which developed during the war, but the 
war history of some of its ships are interesting and involved the com- 
pany in some of the most spectacular events of the war. 

The first ship was the Brazilian S. S. Tropiero which made its 
first voyage to Havre. She sailed from New York late in 1915, 
arriving in Havre in January, 1916, after an adventurous voyage. 
About this time the world was. shocked by the execution of the Eng- 
lishwoman, Edith Cavell, by the Germans, and upon the return of the 
Tropiero to New York, the vessel was re-named the Edith Cavell. 
The Tropiero was subsequently sunk by a German submarine. 

The S. S. Orleans gained fame as the first American steamer to 
sail from New York for France after the German edict of February 
1, 1917, declaring unrestricted submarine warfare on all allied and 
neutral tonnage alike encountered in the war zone. She braved the 
submarine perils and arrived safely at Bordeaux on February 26, 
1917, where she received enthusiastic welcome from the whole popu- 
lace of Bordeaux — the day being observed as a holiday. The steamer 
was greeted on her arrival by all civil and military dignitaries of 
the town, a special medal commemorating the event was struck and 
presented to the captain in the presence of the American Naval 
attache at Paris, who, with a party of distinguished Americans, 
journeyed to Bordeaux to welcome the first American blockade 
runner. The Orleans was torpedoed and sunk on July 3, 1917. 

The first armed merchantman flying the American flag was the 
S. S. Aztec. She was also the first armed merchantman to be sunk, 
being torpedoed on April 1, 1917, with a loss of twenty-nine men. 
The S. S. Gorizia was also sunk on April 30 of the same year. 

— 279 — 



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The S. S. Guazu, the subject of the famous German "spurlos 
versenky" incident of the war was sold by the Oriental office of Paris 
after the vessel had successfully eluded the submarines and arrived in 
Europe. Her owners were the Messrs. Dodero Brothers of Buenos 
Aires, one of whom has been mentioned above. 

Since the war and up to the beginning of the severe depression in 
shipping, 1920-21, the company expanded rapidly and operated ser- 
vices to Brazil and River Plate, Black Sea and the Levant, East 
Africa and French Atlantic ports, requiring a fleet of thirty-five 
ships. During 1921 new services were inaugurated between Gulf and 
Hamburg-Bremen and between New York and Colombia. 

The company has confined its operations entirely to freight ser- 
vices. Among the ships owned by the company are two fruiters 
which are chartered to the United Fruit Company for West Indies 



service. 



MOORE & McCORMACK CO., Inc. 



M 



"OORE & McCORMACK COMPANY, INC., a corporation or- 
ganized under the laws of the State of New York prior to the 
World War is one of the newer American firms to become 
permanently established among the leading big ail-American com- 
panies of our Merchant Marine. The founders of the company, 
Mr. Albert V. Moore and Mr. Emmet J. McCormack have been en- 
gaged all of their lives in the shipping business with headquarters in 
New York, and the success of the firm is due to the long experience 
and close application of these two men. 

This company now operates a regular berth service with 
American flag ships between New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Boston and U. S. Gulf ports, to Ireland, to Scandinavia and the 
Baltic, to the West Indies, Mexico and the Caribbean, to the East 
Coast of South America, to the Mediterranean and the Levant, to 
India, and to West Coast of the United States. 

The management of the Commercial Steamship Lines is entirely 
in the hands of the Moore & McCormack Company, Inc. In addi- 
tion to several other general agencies, both American and foreign. 
Besides its home office in New York the company also has branch 
offices at Philadelphia, at Havana, Cuba, at Cork, Ireland, and at 
Gothenburg, Sweden with well established agencies at all other ports, 
of call. 

When the United States Shipping Board started the United 
States Lines as a great trans-Atlantic passenger service Moore & 
McCormack Co., Inc., was selected as one of the three representative- 
New York companies to whom its management was entrusted. 

— 280 — 




PHILIP DE RONDE 
President of the Oriental Navigation Company 



THE NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA 

(Jafian TVlai) Steamship Co. J 

THIS great Japanese company was established in 1885 and today 
is considered Japan's foremost marine transportation company. 
It was the result of an amalgamation of two separate concerns, 
namely, the Kyodo Unyo Kaisha (Union Transport Co.) and the 
Mitsu-bishi Kaisha (The Three Diamonds Company.) The com- 
pany was then capitalized at Yen 11,000,000 and the fleet com- 
prised 58 steamers, approximately 69,000 tons. Today the fleet 
numbers 103 vessels with an aggregate of 500,000 gross tons and 
its steamers encircle the globe. 

At first the company confined its activities to the coastal trade, 
later extending its operations to Korea, North China and Vladivo- 
stock, and in 1893 inaugurated its first regular ocean service to 
and from Bombay, thus materially aiding the growth of the cotton 
industry in Japan. 

In 1896 it extended its activities to foreign waters, increased its 
capital to Yen 22,000,000, started the construction of twelve new 
steamers and established three main lines of passenger and freight 
service; i. e., the European, American and Australian lines, all of 
the steamers of these lines running under mail contract with the 
Japanese Government. 

In the year 1914, with the advent of the great world cataclysm, 
the company's extra freight steamers of the European Line began 
to operate from Europe to New York by way of the Atlantic, re- 
turning to Japan by way of the Pacific, through the Panama Canal, 
comjileting a round the world voyage. During this period the part 
played by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha for the cause of the Allies 
during the great European war was by no means insignificant. 
Foremost among its contributions was the maintaining of the regu- 
lar fortnightly Japan-Europe Mail Service and the dispatch of fre- 
quent auxiliary steamers throughout the continuance of the war. 
This undertaking entailed heavy risks to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 
resulting in the sinking of four mail steamers, including the Yasaka 
Maru, one of the finest ships, besides a new cargo carrier. In addi- 
tion to this eight of the company's steamers were allocated to the 
United States for service in carrying food-stuffs and war materials 
to the Allies. 

In 1915 the capital of the company was increased to 
Yen 41,000,000, and in 1916 a regular four weekly freight service 
was opened between the Far East and New York via the Panama 
Canal. 

— 282 — 



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In 1918 the Calcutta-New York freight line was established and 
the company's capital increased to Yen 100, 000, 000. 

While the Nippon Yusen Kaisha now has a magnificent fleet of 
500,000 tons gross as previously mentioned, most of the vessels 
being of recent construction, the management has in the course of 
construction a further 500,000 tons gross which will include several 
steamers of fast speed and superior passenger accommodations. 
When the erection of this additional tonnage is completed the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha will have altogether a gigantic fleet of 
1,000,000 gross tons. 

Baron Kondo, the late president of the company, held that office 
for over 25 years, and at his death, which occurred quite recently, 
was succeeded by Vice-President Ito. 

The New York offices of the Company are located at 10 Bridge 
street. 



THE HOUSE OF TIEBOUT 

THERE is no finer example of the steady and consistent growth 
of a business firm built upon the right foundation than the 
house of W. & J. Tiebout. 
Established in 1853, this firm has ever since conducted its busi- 
ness in the immediate neighborhood of its present address, 118 
Chambers Street, led by four generations of Tiebouts in succession. 
The present heads of the firm are John Tiebout, Sr., and John Tie- 
bout, Jr. 

Intelligent study of the requirements of the marine field, com- 
bined with a policy of offering only the best quality products at 
the lowest prices consistent thereto, have commanded such univer- 
sal recognition that the house of Tiebout is now the port of call of 
seafaring men. 

The complete range of all kinds of marine hardware, fittings, 
joiner equipment, etc., combined with immediate delivery on short 
notice, has stood the test of so many emergency calls that it has be- 
come a common saying among men using marine equipment, "Go to 
Tiebout first." 

A distinctive feature of the Tiebout line is the complete assort- 
ment of ship-finish hardware particularly suitable to work boats. 

For those desiring assistance in the selection of marine hard- 
ware, fittings and supplies, a complete illustrated catalog has been 
prepared. It will be sent upon request to those interested. 



— 283 — 



CHAS. <D. "DURKEE & CO. 

CHARLES D. DURKEE & COMPANY succeeded the firm of 
Rankin & Durkee in 1893 — Rankin & Durkee having been the 
successors to a firm established about one hundred years ago 
in the ship supply business. 

When Charles D. Durkee & Company took the tiller, the firm 
was located at 26 South Street, near Coenties Slip. The business 
grew each year under the direct management of Charles D. Durkee 
and William H. Durkee, his brother, until the quarters at No. 9,6 
became too cramped for the expanding business and a contract was 
made in 1899 for the building of the present home of the Company 
at 2 and 3 South Street. The building was completed and fixtures 
installed by November, 1899, and on Thanksgiving Eve, 1899, the 
Company gave a reception and opening to several hundred friends 
and customers and the Trade in general. An entertainment was fur- 
nished, a dinner served to over five hundred diners, and dancing was 
enjoyed until the early hours of Thanksgiving morning. 

Active business started in the splendid store and building on 
Januar}' first, 1900, and the business kept up its growth and in- 
creasing list of customers right up to the late war. 

When the war started the firm was immediately called upon to 
rush equipments for submarine chasers, the Emergency Fleet and 
Navy orders. They received which to that time was the largest 
single order ever placed in the Marine hardware line, an order for 
twenty thousand portlights for the equipment of the 550 85-foot 
submarine chasers, built for the English Government by the Elco 
Company of Bayonne, N. J. This company under their President, 
Mr. H. R. Sutphen did what was thought by many to be an im- 
possible task. The building of these 550 chasers in 500 days. One 
of the historical events of the War, and which Charles D. Durkee & 
Company felt proud to have had a hand in accomplishing. The 
plant was kept rushed to the limit during the War with government 
emergency work which it was well equipped to handle. 

In November 1919, Charles D. and William H. Durkee retired 
from the firm and the business is now under the active management 
of Mr. Fred H. Fricke, who was many years with the old firm. Mr. 
Fricke is assisted by Mr. Henry Blossy and many employees that 
served their time with the old firm, and all are working together to 
meet the adjustments made necessary by past war conditions. 



^ ^ 



— 284 



C. T>. MALLORY & CO., Inc. 

ONE of the younger companies, comprised of "Old Heads," at 
the business in the port of New York, is ('. I). Mallory & 
Co., Inc. The president of this organization, Mr. Clifford D. 
Mallory, comes of a family long associated with ship operations 
and shipbuilding of the country, and spent, what might be termed 
an apprenticeship, with the Clyde-Mallory interest. 

Associated with this organization as vice-president, is Mr. W. 
S. Houston, who had his training in Scotland and Brazil, and for 
quite a period in the United States prior to combination of his 
interests with those of Mr. Mallory in the formation of their com- 
pany. 

Operators for quite a period of Shipping Board Tonnage, being 
tramped, world wide, their business has developed along the lines 
of many of the larger shipping organizations of the United King- 
dom ; that is, they are essentially managers of vessels. This phase 
of their business principally covers the activities of a fleet of six 
tankers, all of the largest size and latest type, with which they are, 
engaged in transporting oil in various directions. Further, they 
are managers of the fleet of six owned and chartered tankers, en- 
gaged in the transportation of molasses and oil to all sections of 
the world. The centering of the management of this tonnage with 
this relative newcomer in New York shipping circles means certain 
development of allied activities ; for instance, a chartering depart- 
ment with prominent connections abroad is in full swing. 

The company's activity has called for establishment of several 
branch houses at American and foreign ports, amongst which are 
included Baltimore, Norfolk, New Orleans, Galveston, Tampico, and 
at Glasgow for the United Kingdom, and Genoa, Italy, for the 
Mediterranean. 

This Company representing, as New York agents, many out- 
port shipping operators, are experiencing great success with the 
homeward business of the Baltimore-Oceanic Steamship Co., which 
maintains a general cargo service between North Atlantic Ports and 
Mediterranean destinations. The careful attention displayed in 
connection with this inward business points to its relatively certain 
continuation, and the visits of the Baltimore-Oceanic vessels to New 
York means better service to fruit, onion and general cargo re- 
ceivers. Incidentally, considerable disbursements with New York 
houses allied with the shipping industry accrue. 

The Company, since its organization, has followed a policy of 
conservatism, marked in a time of lavish outlays for office space, 
accessories and the like, and has devoted its entire attention to busi- 

— 285 — 



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ness in hand, rather than to "putting up a front," and based on 
such a sound principle even through "hard times" can report satis- 
factory progress. Its slogan since its inauguration has been, and 
will continue to be, "First, last and all the time, Service.'''' 



BLACK "DIAMOND STEAMSHIP 
CORPORA TION 

THE BLACK DIAMOND STEAMSHIP CORPORATION is 
an American company that has sprung into being with the ad- 
vent of the new merchant marine. It is a company that has 
every appearance of being wisely and efficiently managed, and 
this explains the success with which it is weathering the slump in 
freight rates which has so seriously affected a considerable num- 
ber of new American steamship lines and has proven a hardship to 
a number of the old ones. 

The Black Diamond Steamship Corporation holds its charter 
under the laws of the State of New Jersey and has established a 
cargo liner service between New York and Antwerp and Rotter- 
dam, which has more latterly been extended to the ports of Hamp- 
ton Roads, Philadelphia and Boston. 

While comparatiely young this company has been built on a 
firm foundation, as is shown by the rapidity of its advance to a 
leading position in the trade routes it now covers, operating at 
the present time a fleet of steel steamships. The Black Diamond 
Steamship Corporation conducts a berth business between Ameri- 
can ports and Antwerp and Rotterdam, besides which it charters 
ships for tramp business to all parts of the world. The officers 
of the company, to whom its success should be properly attributed, 
are: 

J. E. Dockendorff , President ; Lewis Iselin, Vice-President ; F. 
E. Huck, Vice-President and Traffic Manager ; V. J. Sudman, 
Treasurer; B. A. Harnett, Operating Manager; S. H. Magrill, 
General Freight Agent. 

The general executive offices of the company are located at 67 
Exchange Place, this city. In addition it has offices at Chicago, 
111., at No. 35 North Dearborn St., and in Baltimore, Md., at 30 
South Calvert St., Philadelphia and Norfolk. 



286 



CARIBBEAN STEAMSHIP CO.. Ltd. 

OF THE many American steamship companies that came into 
existence during the War, the Caribbean Steamship Com- 
pany, Ltd., holds a unique position. It is one of the few 
younger companies which lias established itself as a permanent and 
important factor in America's merchant marine. 

The Company was founded in 1915 by Mr. M. G. Casseres, its 
directing head. It commenced operations with a chartered steamer 
of 1,100 tons total deadweight. As the Company met with success 
it gradually extended its activities and added to its fleet. Today 
it operates ten modern vessels, maintaining regular line services 
throughout the West Indies, the north and w r est coast of South 
America with connections for Central America. 

Much of the Company's success has been due to its policy, from 
its inception, of confining its activities exclusively to the West 
Indies, Central and South America thereby firmly intrenching itself 
for the future at a time when other Lines were either forced to sus- 
pend their services on account of the War, or w T ere attracted else- 
where by larger profits. 

The Caribbean Line, as it is generally known, now maintains a 
regular ten day service from New York to Jamaica, B. W. L, east 
coast Colombian ports, thence passing through the Panama Canal 
to the west coast Colombian ports and Ecuador, connecting at 
Cristobal for w r est coast ports of Central America and Mexico. 
It also maintains a regular fortnightly service from New York to 
Trinidad, B. W. I. ; Venezuelan ports ; Curacao, D. W. I. ; and 
Santo Domingo. In addition, it does a considerable business in 
the transportation of full cargoes of coal and sugar to and from 
the West Indies. 

The objects of its founder in organizing the Caribbean Line was 
to operate services from the United States to every principal port 
in the Caribbean, and it may now be well said that this object has 
been fully realized, as the Company now serves regularly every port 
of any importance in the Caribbean region, even extending to the 
Pacific. 

Much credit is due to Mr. Casseres, whose energy and persever- 
ance has culminated in the building up of an American shipping en- 
terprise which has won for itself recognition as one of the princi- 
pal carrying factors in the Caribbean trade, maintaining a high 
standard of service. All of the steamers owned by the Company 
fly the American flag. 



T7 T7 



— 287 — 



THE Y<BS£RRS£ LINE 

THE firm of Ybarra & Company was founded by Don Jose Maria 
Ybarra, sixty years ago, having at that time two steamers of 

300 tons each, which carried passengers and freight between 
Northern and Southern Spanish ports, thereby earning the name of 
"Vasco and Andalusian Line" of steamers. Later other and larger 
vessels were added and the service was extended so that weekly sail- 
ings were maintained between Bordeaux and Marseilles, calls being 
made at all coast ports en route. 

The volume of business grew so large that it became necessary 
to build more vessels of a type especially constructed, embodying 
all the latest devices for the proper handling of cargo and prompt 
loading and discharging. These vessels were so well received and 
the service rendered so satisfactory that today the vessels of Ybarra 
& Company practically control the coastwise trade of Spain. 

At the beginning of the World War Y T barra & Company realized 
the need of steamers to carry to the United States, olives, olive oil 
and other Spanish products, placing some of their coasters in the 
service. These vessels became well known to American exporters, 
who gave the line such good support that four boats of a type 
adapted to this trade, two of 6,500 tons and two of 6,000 tons were 
built, and now maintain semi-monthly service. At the inaugura- 
tion of this service the line became known to shippers as the "Ybarra 
Line" and has since been so called. 

Realizing the fact that very few piers in the port of New York 
were capable of handling the class of cargo carried, space was 
secured in Erie Basin and a shed erected to care for this kind of 
cargo. Here all facilities are given to importers for the proper ex- 
amining, reconditioning and rebrining and any other accommodation 
that might be needed, and it is on this account that the olive and 
olive oil shippers from Spain prefer the Ybarra Line. 

The Company is still providing added service for shippers to 
.'nd from Spain, by the fact that they are building three new vessels, 
the first of which is to be the Steamship. Cabo Roche, of about 
5.000 tons, due here about January, 1922, and to be followed by 
two other boats of similar class. The entire fleet of Ybarra & Com- 
pany consists of thirty-three steamers. 

Ybarra & Company are represented in the United States by 
Briones & Company, Inc., with offices at 25 Beaver Street, New 
York City. 



^ 



288 — 



THEODORE $$. CRANES 
SONS COMPANY 

THE firm of Theodore A. Crane's Sons Company, established in 
1867, has rapidly grown and at the present time it is the 
fourth largest ship repair plant in the Port of New York. The 
plant consists of four floating drydocks with a capacity of from 
one to twelve thousand gross registered tons, covering approximately 
twenty-four acres in the heart of the Erie Basin section, South 
Brooklyn, New York. Its complement of machine, boiler, blacksmith 
and carpenter shops tend to make the plant one of the best equipped 
repair yards on the Atlantic seaboard. The newest addition to their 
machine shop is the installation of a new fifteen-foot Vertical Boring 
Mill. 

The facilities for executing turbine, reciprocating engines, boiler 
and hull repairs to steel and wooden vessels are such as to insure the 
operators and owners prompt dispatch. The capacity of the yard is 
such that it will accommodate twenty or more vessels undergoing 
repairs at the same time. 

The new drydock, consisting of four sections, will accommodate 
vessels up to 480 feet in length. There is 26 feet of water over a 5 
foot block at any tide. This drydock was built under the direct 
supervision of the Crane brothers at the plant in Erie Basin. Con- 
structed of specially selected long leaf Yellow Pine and Oak, white 
pine wedged, electrically operated, it is capable of lifting its maxi- 
mum haul at the rate of a foot a minute. It is the third largest dry- 
dock in the Port of New York. 

Since their establishment, Theodore A. Crane's Sons Company 
have made a specialty of building harbor craft such as lighters, 
barges, scows and tugboats. This is in addition to their repair 
work. The Yard is known as one of the best in the Port for repairs 
to wooden hulls of all kinds. They built the first knockdown barges 
ever shipped from this port for service on the West Coast of South 
America, building them so that they could be knocked down and 
re-assembled at their destination. 

The executive and supervisory force consists of men well schooled 
in the shipbuilding and repair industry. During the world war some 
of the largest contracts let by the government were executed in this 
yard. 

The officers of the company are Mr. Alfred M. Crane, President 
and General Manager; Mr. Jonathan Moore, Vice President; Mr. 
George W. McKenzie, Secretary ; Mr. Walter D. Crane, Treasurer. 
Their New York office is located in the Cunard Building at 25 Broad- 
way. Their agents for the United Kingdom are Messrs. Crichton, 
Thompson & Co., Ltd., of Liverpool, England. 

— 289 — 



THE HOBOKEN LAND 
AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

A NUMBER of years ago a gentleman — by name John Stevens 
— looked across the Hudson River from Manhattan Island and 
the first thing that struck him was the high rocky cliffs of 
Hoboken and he thought these would be natural barriers that would 
make Hoboken an ideal spot fit for country residences of the rich 
New Yorkers and a quiet, restful, recreation ground where the tired 
multitude of crowded Manhattan Island would find health and 
comfort. 

He purchased practically all of Hoboken and settled his family 
on what is known as Castle Point. That was in 1784. 

In 1833 John C. Stevens, Robert L. Stevens, James A. Stevens, 
Edwin A. Stevens (sons of the above named John Stevens) and 
others formed a corporation called the Hoboken Land and Improve- 
ment Company to manage the estate of the Stevens families in order 
to make improvements and restrict building, this conception is shown 
in the old town layout ; in the advertisement for sale of town lots ; 
and in the restrictions placed in the agreements for sale and deeds 
of lots. This Company immediately started erecting dwellings of 
every description and the waterfront lay unsullied in all its virgin 
beauty until John C. Stevens started his Perigau (sailboat) ferry 
from the foot of the old Philadelphia Turnpike (now Newark Street) 
and later by his horse power and finally steam ferry boats of the 
Hoboken Ferry. As this communication with Manhattan became 
more efficient the pleasant village of Hoboken grew under its benign 
influence. 

The first real improvement came when Stevens built the Morris 
and Essex Railroad, bringing it into Hoboken through the old Erie 
tunnel on trackage rights from the Erie. 

Next came the building of a pier for the North German Lloyd 
Line and shortly after a pier for the Hamburg-America Line. 

Stevens also contributed a famous improvement in the shape of a 
shipyard where he built and rebuilt the ingenious steam floating 
battery for the U. S. Government and also built all of the steam 
ferry boats for his ferry to Barclay and Christopher Streets, New 
York. 

So the Stevens family made Hoboken and today are still making 
and doing for Hoboken through the Hoboken Land and Improve- 
ment Company, which owns and controls most of the waterfront 
property, factories, private dwellings, semi-private dwellings, flats 
and apartment houses. 

The following is a list of the large improvements which have 
been made by the Hoboken Land & Improvement Company on the 
waterfront : 

— 290 — 




PALMER CAMPBELL 

President and General Manager Hoboken Land and 
Improvement Company 



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Two large double decked piers for the Holland America Line. 

One 1,000 foot pier for the Scandinavian America Line. 

Two piers built by the Lamport & Holt Line on land owned by 
this Company. 

One large double decked pier and bulkhead built by the Eller- 
man's Wilson Line Ltd. on property owned by this Company. 

The Hoboken Land & Improvement Company built four 12-story 
concrete buildings for manufacturing purposes, and built to con- 
nect the Hoboken waterfront, industries and piers with direct tracks 
to all trunk lines — a railroad commonly known as the Hoboken 
Shore Road. 

M&PRCUS H. TRACY 

CAPTAIN TRACY began his deep sea experience at the age of 
ten years with his father, who was a shipmaster. Born in the 
State of Maine with a long line of seafaring people as an in- 
heritance, his whole life, with few interruptions, has been in connec- 
tion with the sea. As President of Tracy Steamship Company dur- 
ing the activities of the United States Shipping Board, this Company 
became Managers, Operators and Agents for over 100 of their ships. 
He was elected a member of the Board of Pilot Commissioners by the 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York in 1913 for a term 
of two years. Has been re-elected to succeed himself, the last time 
in October, 1921. Early this year he succeeded Captain George L. 
Norton as chairman of the Board. His interests in maritime mat- 
ters is shown in various activities, among them being chairman of the 
Board of Governors of the New York State Nautical School. 

HOUL<DER, WEIR & "BOYD, Inc. 

FROM very small beginnings in 1901, the firm of Houlder, Weir 
& Boyd, Inc., has gradually developed until it is now one of the 
best known shipping enterprises in New York City. 
The Company was incorporated as a New York corporation in 
1907, and besides an extensive chartering connection in Great 
Britain, Scandinavia and Japan, represents many influential regular 
Line Services in the Far East, River Plate and Indian Trades. 

They have recently become interested in the American Inter- 
coastal Trade, representing the well-known American shipowners, 
Messrs. Crowell & Thurlow of Boston. 



292 



"PANAMA (RAILROAD STEAMSHIP 

LINE 

THE PANAMA RAILROAD STEAMSHIP LINE is the 
designation of the steamship service inaugurated by the 
Panama Railroad Company in the early part of 1893. Its 
fleet consists of eight freight and passenger steamships of American 
registry, with a deadweight capacity of 65,000 tons, operated from 
New York ; and two steamships and two barges, of a deadweight 
capacity of 44,000 tons, operated in the coal service between Hamp- 
ton Roads and the Canal Zone. 

The service from New York consists of weekly departures, stop- 
ping at Haiti on the outward and homeward trips, and a monthly 
service to the West coast ports of Colombia and Ecuador as far 
South as Guayaquil. 

The Panama Railroad Company is a corporation organized under 
the laws of the State of New York, and inaugurated this steamship 
service in 1893 as a feeder for the Panama Railroad, which, operat- 
ing across the Isthmus of Panama, was engaged in the transporta- 
tion of cargo and passengers originating in Europe, and on the 
Atlantic coast of the United States, destined to ports on the West 
coast of South America, Central America, Mexico and the United 
States, and vice versa; it being at that time the only trade route 
between the United States and Central and South America other 
than the Cape Horn and Straits of Magellan routes. 

The stock control of the Panama Railroad Company was secured 
by the French Panama Canal Company in the early eighties, and, 
when the Government of the United States purchased the assets of 
the French Panama Canal in 1903 in anticipation of the construc- 
tion of the present Panama Canal, among those assets was the stock 
control of the Panama Railroad Company, and its steamship line. 
This naturally placed the Government of the United States in the 
position of operating its first railroad and its first steamship line. 
The Government now owns all the capital stock of the Panama 
Railroad Company, which includes the ownership of the Panama 
Railroad Steamship Line, and operates the corporation under its 
charter from the State of New York, through a Board of Directors 
selected by the Secretary of War. 

The operation of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line on a 
regular and dependable schedule has been of inestimable benefit to 
the development of American commerce with ports in the Caribbean 
Sea, and the West coast of Central and South America and Mexico, 
and contributed in no small measure to the successful completion and 
satisfactory operation and maintenance of the Panama Canal. It 
is a record of steamship operation that is a credit to the American 
Merchant Marine. 

— 293 — 



NEW YORK CANAL AND QREAT 
LAKES CORPORATION 

THE "GREEN FLEET" is the adopted trade name for the 
New York Canal and Great Lakes Corp., fleet of boats pur- 
chased from the War Department in June, 1921, consisting 
of 84 vessels, comprising fifteen 500 H. P., twin screw, oil fuel steam- 
ers, capable of handling 450 tons of cargo; thirty-six barges with- 
out power, capable of handling about 750 tons of cargo; two oil 
tank barges for fuel purposes, all of the foregoing steel construction, 
150 feet long, 20 feet beam, 12 feet depth of hold, and three new, 
wooden barges of the same size, dimensions, and cargo capacity as 
the steel barges. The balance of the fleet consists of various sundry 
boats, for which special service has not as yet been assigned. 

This fleet cost the Government, all complete, $3,694,000.00, and 
has largely been overhauled by the new owners and given 100% 
employment from the 2nd of July to the closing of navigation. It is 
the only fleet of boats on the canal independent of tug boats, and 
can, in addition to their own fleet, provide power for towing canal 
boats operated in competition with them and for classes of barges 
engaged in canal and river transportation. 

When one considers what the old Erie Canal did for the New 
York State in the upbuilding of thrifty towns and communities, it is 
difficult to predict the vast possibilities of the present barge canal 
when existing facilities are utilized, not to mention the vast volume 
of business that could be profitably handled if suitable equipment 
was operated for the business available along the canal banks ; not 
to mention the traffic originating in foreign countries along our 
own coast and destined to lake ports and Canadian ports of con- 
sumption. 

The "Green Fleet" has actually made in the first four months of 
its operation a phenomenal record, not alone a saving to the shipper 
and consignee, but actual demonstrating quick and dependable 
service between New York and Buffalo favorably comparable with 
the railroad. 

The old Erie mule path which accomplished such wonderful re- 
sults is now referred to as the narrow gauge route compared with 
the modern New York barge canal complete at a cost to the tax- 
payers of New York State of about $165,000,000.00, with modern 
electric locking machinery and equipment, now referred to as the 
broad gauge route, traversed by the "Green Fleet" flyers, making a 
round trip from New York to Buffalo and back in record time. 

The beautiful scenery up the Hudson and along the entire length 
of the canal is attracting yachtsmen, houseboats, and vacationists 
more and more every year and is an exceptional and economical vaca- 
tion trip for the entire family. 

— 294 — 



THEODORE E. FERRIS 

WHEN the United States Government wanted and needed a 
naval architect of unquestioned ability to prepare and super- 
vise the plans for the great fleet of merchant ships which 
it undertook to build during the Great War, it was Theodore E. 
Ferris who was called to Washington. 

Mr. Ferris comes of American stock and was born in Stamford, 
Conn., in 1872. He studied in and was graduated from the public 
and the high schools there and later went to the Greenwich Acad- 
emy, where he received a technical and general education and train- 
ing. The remaining years of his life have been spent in the ship- 
building industry, which he learned first practically and then theo- 
retically. He went first to work in a shipyard on Long Island and 
there became acquainted with the actual labor of the construction 
of ships. From this plant he went to that directed by John Roach 
at Chester, Pa., where lie was introduced to the study of drafting 
and designing vessels for the coasting and deep water trade. He 
gained additional knowledge and skill in several of the largest plants 
in Baltimore and Philadelphia, and then went to Chicago, 111., and 
Detroit, Mich., where he widened his experience with a knowledge of 
the typesi of vessels which ply the Great Lakes. 

When he was eighteen years old Mr. Ferris entered the employ 
of A. Cary Smith, who in his lifetime was recognized as one of the 
greatest of American architects. There he remained six years, de- 
veloping his knowledge of nautical designing and participating in 
the drafting of steamboats for Long Island Sound and river traffic 
as well as in the planning of craft for pleasure. In 1898 he was 
made chief constructor for the Townsend and Downey Shipbuilding 
Company at Shooters Island, New York, now the Standard Ship- 
building Company. That position he retained several years. In 
1903 he again became associated with Mr. Smith, but this time as a 
partner, a relationship which continued until Mr. Smith's death. Mr. 
Smith designed the New York, the first steam pilot boat, for the 
Sandy Hook pilots. 

Between 1910 and 1918, Mr. Ferris designed and supervised the 
construction of more than three hundred merchant craft and pleas- 
ure boats and when he was called by the government he had thirty 
vessels in process of building for freight or freight and passenger 
service for clients in addition to several for private use. The value 
of these vessels was approximately $20,000,000. 

Mr. Ferris' reputation is as high among foreign shipbuilders 
and ship operators as it is in the United States, for his work is well 
known in ports abroad. None but a man of his exceptional executive 
ability could have undertaken and successfully accomplished the task 
of properly supervising the construction of a thousand ships, as he 
did for the Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

— 295 — 



SUZUKI & COMPANY 

WHILE Suzuki & Company have for many years engaged in 
the steamship, export, and import fields, their interest in the 
Port of New York became much more material and immedi- 
ate in the early part of the year 1918. At this time many of the 
largest and most reputable Japanese steamship owners amalga- 
mated their fleets into what is now known as "Kokusai Kisen Kabu- 
shiki Kaisha." The entire fleet was entrusted to the management 
and operation of Suzuki & Company. Messrs. Kawasaki Kisen 
Kaisha, and its affiliation, Kawasaki Dockyard Company, both of 
whom are internationally known as owners of a tremendous fleet and 
as being among the foremost shipbuilders of the world, also fol- 
lowed the policy of Kokusai Kisen Kaisha and entrusted their vessels 
to the hands of Suzuki & Company. From 1918 until the middle 
of 1919, these steamers were occupied mainly in tramping in the 
Atlantic, New York being used, up to the middle of 1919, princi- 
pally as a port of discharge. At that time, with the depression in 
tramp freights, Messrs. Suzuki & Co. sought other outlets for their 
fleet of over one hundred large modern vessels. Inasmuch as their 
primary interest naturally lay in the Orient, a Far East service was 
decided upon — with New York as the basic point. The result, in 
service, is now well known to the shipping world. Since the middle 
of 1919, Messrs. Suzuki & Company have sailed approximately 
three boats each month from New York to Far Eastern ports. 

Besides the continual sight of vessels controlled by Suzuki & 
Company passing in and out of the harbor, the New York Shipping 
world can testify to the activity of these steamers in the New 
York tramp market. These vessels are among the few which are 
worked directly in New York without control from London. The 
effect of this consideration is service to shippers — mainly, of course, 
to shippers of complete bulk cargoes. Upon this foundation of 
Service, the names of Suzuki & Company, Kokusai Kisen Kabushiki 
Kaisha, Kawasaki Dockyard and Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha have at- 
tained the respect equal to that of older and better known concerns. 
Inasmuch as the entire organization believes that Service is the first 
consideration to the entire "carrying" world, it is their intention to 
maintain, as in the past, this principle. 







W 



— 296 — 



STEPHEN <D. STEPHANIDIS 

STEPHEN I). STEPHANIDIS, senior men. her of the firm of 
Stephanidis, Bcnas & Company, of 21-24 State Street, New 
York City, has become a strong factor in maritime affairs since 
1916, in which year he entered business for himself. Both he and 
his partner, John M. Benas, were born in Greece, but are both natur- 
alized citizens of the United States. 

Educated at Robert College, an American institution in Constan- 
tinople, Mr. Stephanidis arrived in America in 1907. Determined to 
succeed, he studied at the City College by day and worked as a 
Y. M. C. A. librarian by night. His first thought was to practice 
law, and with this as his aim he commenced a course at the New 
York University ; but upon reflection he decided upon a commercial 
career, whereupon he left the university and became a clerk in the 
office of the Trunk Line Association, where he advanced to a posi- 
tion of large responsibility. 

During this time he also was acting as representative of the 
Greek Line at Ellis Island. The two positions afforded him an op- 
portunity to gain a complete knowledge of the immigration branch 
of the shipping business, and he availed himself of it. With this 
experience as part of his assets, he formed his present partnership 
with Mr. Benas, who, like himself, had already been engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits in America. 

The firm is managing agents for the Vigo Steamship Company,, 
operating between New York and Italian ports, and the American 
Black Sea Line, operating between New York and Greece. 

It was Mr. Stephanidis and his associates who owned the steam- 
ship Algonquin, which was destroyed in Germany's submarine war- 
fare as directed against neutral shipping, and this act by Ger- 
many was the signal for the momentous declaration at Washington 
which resulted in the sending of our vast army overseas. Following 
the loss of the Algonquin the steamship Vigo was acquired by Mr. 
Stephanidis, and the line which he controlled was named after this 
ship. 

The American Black Sea Line inaugurated its service to Greece 
in April, 1921, with the sailing of the U. S. liner, Acropolis, for- 
merly the Kilpatrick of the U. S. Transport service. She has been 
renovated into a fast liner, carrying 1,200 passengers plus freight. 
A fine vessel when acquired, Mr. Stephanidis has made her over into 
a modern floating palace and prides himself that the third class steer- 
age accommodations provided are a veritable revelation in ocean 
travel. Daily concerts and motion pictures have been arranged for 
during the fifteen-day trip to the port of Piraeus ; Constantinople will 
be made in seventeen days, and Constanza two days later. Several 
other palatial steamers are soon to be added to this service. 

— 297 — 



THE UNITED AMERICAN LINES 

THE UNITED AMERICAN LINES, so far as name is con- 
cerned, is a new organization, having been incorporated in 

August, 1920. It represents, however, interests which have been 
known to the American shipping community for many years, and 
which have done much to build up the shipping prestige of the Port 
of New York. 

The United American Lines is an operating company owned 
jointly by the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company and the 
American Ship and Commerce Navigation Corporation. The fleets 
of these two companies aggregate approximately 400,000 tons 
deadweight, which is the largest single operating unit of privately 
owned cargo and passenger tonnage under the American flag. 

The American-Hawaiian Steamship Company was one of the 
pioneers in the development of the modern American merchant 
marine. For more than twenty years it has maintained services to 
the Pacific Coast and to Hawaii. During the war, and since, its 
vessels have been engaged in European trade also. The fleet now 
numbers twenty-eight cargo vessels. 

The American Ship and Commerce Navigation Corporation, 
together with its subsidiary, The Shawmut Steamship Company, 
was a development of the war. The fleet embraces thirteen cargo 
vessels and three combination third-class passenger and cargo 
vessels. The latter are of a special type, and because they give 
third-class passengers conveniences hitherto unknown to that class 
of travel, they have been called "ships of democracy." One is a 
converted ex-German liner; the other two were designed and con- 
structed by the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation, of Chester, 
Pa., and are the first of their type built in America or operated 
under the American flag. They are operated between New York 
and Hamburg. 

U. S. & A. LINES, Inc.— 
S$N S£LL AMERICAN COMPANY 

THIS Company was organized on August 22, 1898, and has 
been in constant operation since that time, maintaining a service 
to Australian and New Zealand ports. Prior to the opening of 
the Panama Canal all steamers proceeded to Australia and New 
Zealand via the Cape of Good Hope; since the opening of the 
Panama Canal all traffic is directed through this waterway to New 
Zealand and Australia, steamers calling at frequent intervals at 
Suva, New Caledonia and Northern Queensland ports. 

A service has also been maintained from New York to South 
and East African ports. 

— 298 — 



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FURNESS, WITHY & CO., Ltd. 

ALTHOUGH a British steamship company, Furness, Withy & 
Company, Ltd., is very closely identified with the development 
of the Port of New York as the greatest commercial harbor in 
the world. From the early eighties, when the ships of Christopher 
Furness & Company came to New York from West Hartlepool, 
England, their home port, until the present day when the organiza- 
tion, one of the greatest in the list of steamship organizations, sends 
its ships under the name of Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., to all 
parts of the world, the Furness flag has been a familiar sight in all 
navigable tide waters of the globe. 

The history of Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., synchronizes 
very largely with the life of the late Lord Furness, known for a long 
period as Sir Christopher Furness. He was prominent in the affairs 
of the United Kingdom and sat for two terms, aggregating fourteen 
years, in the House of Commons. At an early age he began his 
career as a shipowner, under the style of Christopher Furness & Com- 
pany, at West Hartlepool. He travelled extensively in Sweden and 
was an important factor in developing the shipping of that coun- 
try. Owing to his ability and energy, his firm steadily expanded 
until, in 1891, it amalgamated with the shipbuilding firm of Ed- 
ward Withy & Company, of West Hartlepool, under the present 
name of Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd. 

At the time of the death of the late Lord Furness, which oc- 
curred in 1912, the firm had become one of the leading shipping 
companies of Great Britain and its services to the British govern- 
ment during the war received generous recognition. Today the fleet 
of Furness, Withy & Company comprises the enormous figure of 
750,000 gross tons, covering 174 steamers either owned or controlled 
by the firm. Eighty vessels flying the Furness, Withy & Company 
house flag were torpedoed during the war. 

From 1912 to 1914 the late Sir Stephen Furness was chairman 
of the company, succeeding Lord Furness. Upon Sir Stephen's 
death, in 1914, the present Lord Furness, son of the founder of the 
compai^, became its chairman but retired in 1919, when he was 
succeeded by the Vice Chairman, Sir Frederick W. Lewis, Bart. 

Millions of tons of freight are annually taken in and out of the 
Port of New York by steamers of the Furness-Withy fleet. The 
acquisition by the company, in August, 1916, of the Prince Line, 
Ihe Furness-Withy fleet of owned and controlled tonnage was 
brought up to 1,400,000 deadweight tons, the Prince Line adding 
181,211 gross tons to the fleet total, while the acquisition of the 
remaining interest in the Johnstone Line brought about 100,000 
gross tons more. Other absorptions by the company since the 

— 300 — 



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war were 23,500 gross tons from Evan, Thomas, Radcliff & Com- 
pany, in May, 1917, and the Glen Line (James Gardiner & Com- 
pany), with 63,355 gross tons, in September of the same year. 
Later, in 1919, Furness, Withy & Company took over the New 
York-Bermuda service of the Quebec Steamship Company. 

In addition to these lines Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., 
owns, controls or has a considerable interest in Houlder Brothers 
& Company, Ltd. ; the Houlder Line, Ltd. ; Furness-Houlder Argen- 
tine Lines, Ltd. ; The Empire Transport Company, Ltd. ; the Brit- 
ish Empire Steam Navigation Company, Ltd. ; the British & Argen- 
tine Steam Navigation Company, Ltd. ; the Gulf Line, Ltd. ; the Lon- 
don-Welsh Shipping Company, Ltd. ; the Manchester Liners, Ltd. ; 
the Norfolk and North American Steamship Company, Ltd. ; the 
Neptune Steam Navigation Company, Ltd. ; the White Diamond 
Steamship Company, Ltd. (George Warren & Company, Ltd.) ; the 
Economic Marine Insurance Company, the Tilbury Coaling Com- 
pany, the Compagnie Furness (France) and the Anglo-Eastem 
Shipping Company, Ltd. Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., also 
has departments of its own which deal with chartering, insurance, 
ships' stores, sales and purchases, bunkering, etc. 

A huge fleet is kept in service between practically all the At- 
lantic ports of the United States and Canada and all the principal 
ports of Great Britain. There are also services to Havre, France, 
the Levant, South Africa, South America, the Far East, etc. 

In the United States and Canada, Furness, Withy & Company, 
Ltd., are the general agents of the Manchester Liners, Ltd., and 
the Lloyd Sabaudo Line, of Italy, for both its passenger and freight 
services ; freight agents in New York of the Swedish-American Line, 
the Swedish-America-Mexico Line and the Transatlantic Steam- 
ship Company, all of Gothenburg, Sweden. They are also the gen- 
eral passenger and freight agents in New York of the Quebec Steam- 
ship Company. 

The head office of Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., was trans- 
ferred, in 1917, to "Furness House," Billiter Street, London, E. C. 3. 
The company's offices in Great Britain, aside from its head office in 
London, are at Liverpool, Cardiff, Middlesbrough, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Leith and Glasgow. In the United States the main offices are 
in New York, in a building specially erected for the company and 
which, like the home office in London, is called Furness House. It 
is one of the handsomest structures of lower New York, architec- 
turally, and its entrance and foyer are shown to visitors to New 
York from all over the United States, because of its beauty and rare 
artistry. Other offices of the company in the United States are 



301 — 



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located in Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Newport News and Nor- 
folk. 

The American offices are under the management of Mr. H. C. 
Blackiston, Director in the United States of Furness, Withy & Com- 
pany, Ltd., with headquarters at Fumes s House, 34 to 38 Whitehall 
Street, New York. Offices of the company are also maintained in 
Montreal, Quebec, St. John, New Brunswick; Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
and St. Johns, Newfoundland. Furness, Withy & Company, Ltd., 
also have affiliated offices in Paris, France, and Alexandria, Egypt. 

HENRY STEERS, Inc. 

THE name of Steers has been solidly built into the historical 
structure of the Port of New York by many feats of accom- 
plishment on the part of those who bear and have borne the 
name. 

It was the grandfather and granduncle respectively of Henry 
Steers and J. Rich Steers of the present well-known firm of Henry 
Steers, Inc., No. 17 Battery Place, who built the famous yacht 
America, which, under the command of Captain Dick Brown, aided 
by Captain Comstock as mate (both Sandy Hook Pilots), won the 
International cup, now known as the America's cup, in 1851, off 
the Isle of Wight. 

The old Steer's shipyard was located at the foot of 9th Street 
and the East River. Henry Steers, father of the present Henry 
Steers, received his early education as shipbuilder in this old yard. 
After acquiring a thorough knowledge of the business under the 
able guidance of his father, he established a shipbuilding plant of his 
own in 1860 at Greenpoint, Brooklyn, opposite 23rd Street, Man- 
hattan, where he built a great many steamers and yachts, among 
them being ships for the Pacific Mail Fleet ; the original Rhode Island 
and Massachusetts of the Fall River Line; and many other locally 
well known vessels. The sail pilot boat George Steers was one of 
the products of his yard, and a stauncher nor better sailer never 
cruised the waters off Sandy Hook. 

The present firm of Henry Steers, Inc., was established in 189-4 
as contracting engineers. The business of the concern has grown 
steadily until it is now one of the foremost in the building of water- 
front improvements in this country. 

The old Greenpoint shipyard is still owned by the heirs of Henry 
Steers, although it has undergone vast improvements since the old 
shipbuilding days. It now has four large piers and warehouses and 
is known as the Steers Terminal Company. 



— 302 



CAPTAIN ROBERT ^DOLLAR 

THE house flag of the Dollar Steamship Company is known in 
every one of the large ports touched by the waters of the 
Pacific and its founder, Captain Robert Dollar, is known to 
every big shipping man in the world as one of the outstanding fig- 
ures in the development of America's foreign trade. To all he is 
known and dearly respected as the dean of Pacific Coast shipping 
men. 

Although the Pacific is the main field of operations for the Dol- 
lar Steamship Company, Captain Dollar maintains offices in New 
York and is largely interested in many enterprises identified with 
the development of our port. 

Born in a Scottish lumberyard, of very poor parents, Captain 
Dollar was brought by his father to Canada at an early age, as a 
motherless lad. Before receiving any schooling to speak of, he was 
hired out as chore boy in a distant, uncouth, uncivilized lumber camp 
in the frozen North. The life was hard, but it made a man of him. 
Before emerging from his 'teens he realized that he must acquire some 
education before he could hope to get on in the world. And he 
meant to get on. An unexpected visit by the manager found him 
practising writing and figuring on birch bark, the only "paper" 
available. This led to his being given all the bookkeeping of the 
camp — to be done after regular working hours, however, without 
extra pay. 

After experience as a lumberjack and as a foreman, during which 
he had to boss an army of men, most of whom were as uncouth as 
their environment, young Dollar (having saved all his wages except 
the few dollars needed to keep him in rough clothing and to cover 
his precious few "incidentals") decided to start lumbering on his 
own account. He had mastered every phase of the business and was 
getting along well when — crash ! The terrific panic caused by 
"Black Friday" on the New York Gold Exchange, in 1873, swept 
down half the business concerns on the continent — young Dollar's 
among them. 

"Happy and lucky is the young man who fails when young," he 
was told by a veteran. Dollar did not grasp his wisdom then. 

He again became a foreman, worked and saved until he paid off 
every dollar of his debt, and then began accumulating a fresh stock 
of capital, determined to fare better the next time he launched out. 
He delayed action until he felt sure he had garnered enough capital, 
and this time no panic occurred to bowl him off his feet. He early 
saw the possibilities of exporting lumber to Britain and opened up 
a large and profitable trade. As his ambitions — and his capital — 
expanded, he looked for fresh fields of enterprise, and concluded that 

— 303 — 



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the greatest undeveloped market for timber in the whole world was 
China. To China he went, not once but twice, to analyze the whole 
situation. Then he moved to the Pacific forests. 

He soon discovered, however, that it was one thing to prepare 
lumber for the market and another thing to find ships to transport 
it across the Pacific. Not only were vessels scarce, but the freight 
rates were ruinous. Why not, he figured, buy ships and do his own 
transporting? 

His first tiny vessel paid for itself in the first year. He bought 
another and then another. 

Today his steamships thread their way through every ocean, 
carrying not only lumber but all varieties of cargo, many of which 
are not only carried but bought and sold by him. 



COLUMBUS MARINE 
CORPORATION 

THE COLUMBUS MARINE CORPORATION is an American 
Company which has developed within the last few years. 
The Company has every appearance of being very efficiently 
managed, has very strong backing, and has been successfully weath- 
ering through the depression of business which has so seriously 
affected many concerns. 

The Columbus Marine Corporation is chartered under the laws 
of the State of Delaware and has established cargo shipments from 
Atlantic and Gulf Ports to Mediterranean and Adriatic Ports. 

While the Company is apparently young, it has built up an 
extensive trade and represents no less than 18 steamship lines be- 
tween Mediterranean and Adriatic Ports and North Atlantic and 
Gulf Ports. 

Besides loading steamers on berth, they also charter steamers 
for tramp business to all ports of the world. 

The active officers of the Company having a life-time experience 
in the steamship business and understanding this business thor- 
oughly, explains the good results produced by this Company. 

They are reputed to be worthy of the confidence their friends 
have in them, which is becoming stronger as time goes on. 



301 — 



DANIEL F. LEARY 



DANIEL F. LEAHY, of the D. F. Leary Co., steamship agents 
and brokers, located at 45 Pearl Street, while one of the 
younger men of the shipping world is also one of the most 
progressive. During the fourteen years of his activity in the ship- 
ping field he has handled many ships, as agent or broker, to and from 
all the leading ports of the world. 

Starting with the general United States agency for the Norway 
Mexico Gulf Line, Ltd., he eventually undertook the agency for the 
Seeberg Steamship Line, Inc. Mr. Leary took a very active part in 
the successful handling of the vessels of these lines. 

Subsequently, he and his associates became the United States and 
Canadian agents for Messrs. Brys & Gylsen and their affiliated com- 
panies, who operated tramp cargo steamers from United States ports 
to all ports of the world. Mr. Leary handled all the details of secur- 
ing freights and cargoes for these steamers from different Atlantic 
Coast ports. 



TOYO KISEN KAISHA 

ONE of the noted events in the marine history of Japan was the 
organization of the Toyo Kisen Kaisha in July, 1896, by Mr. 
Soichiro Asano in conjunction with Mr. Y. Shibuzawa and 
other well known business men of Japan. 

The initial capital of the company was yen 6,500,000, which has 
been increased as the business of the company expanded, until at the 
present time it is yen 32,500,000, of which yen 22,750,000 is 
paid up. 

The company owns a fleet of nineteen modern passenger and 
freight vessels, aggregating a gross tonnage of 155,682 and operates 
fast lines of service between the Orient and all the principal ports 
on the west coast of North and South America, as well as a regular 
service between the Orient and New York, via the Panama Canal. 

The main office of the company is in Yokohoma, Japan, with 
agencies and branch offices in all the large ports of the world. The 
New York Office is located at 165 Broadway. 



305 — 



THE MERRITT & CHAPMAN 
DERRICK & WRECKING CO., Inc. 

THE history of this Company dates back to 1860, when Captain 
I. J. Merritt was engaged in the salvage business as represen- 
tative of the Underwriters, and was practical head of the 
Coast Wrecking Company. 

The Merritt Wrecking Organization was formed in 1880, and 
merged with the Chapman Derrick Company in 1897, forming the 
Merritt & Chapman Derrick & Wrecking Co., Inc., the largest con- 
cern of its kind in the world. 

A fleet of sea-going salvage vessels, especially equipped with a 
complete assortment of modern salvage appliances and special tools, 
is maintained by the Company at various bases ready, at a moment's 
notice, to respond any hour of the day or night to calls from vessels 
stranded along the coasts, or otherwise in distress at sea. Prompt 
despatch being of vital importance, their office is open day and 
night. Each vessel carries in addition to its regular crew, a com- 
plement of skilled men known as the "Salvage Crew," consisting of 
Salvage Expert, Foremen, Engineers, Divers, Wreckers, Black- 
smiths and Carpenters ; all experts in applying their individual 
trades to the salvage business through years of experience — many 
of them having been in the Company's employ for upwards of thirty 
years. 

The Merritt & Chapman service for the protection of shipping 
covers the U. S. Atlantic Coast from Newfoundland to Florida, as 
well as the waters of the West Indies, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of 
Mexico ; and millions of dollars are saved yearly for shipowners and 
underwriters by this Company's operations. 

Not only is this service important and valuable to shipowners 
and underwriters, but it is a benefit to the port of New York, as 
most of the vessels saved by this Company are brought to New 
York for delivery to the owners, and many of them are repaired 
and reconditioned in the shipyards here. 

This Company also maintains a fleet of about thirty (30) large 
floating derricks, five (5) derrick propellers, also harbor tugs, most 
of which are located in the Port of New York. These derricks are 
capable of lifting from 75 to 250 tons, and the derricks Monarch 
and Colossus are the largest and most powerful of their kind in ex- 
existence. 

The main office of the Company is located in New York City at 
17 Battery Place with branches at Norfolk, Va. ; Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Baltimore, Md. ; Key West, Fla., and Kingston, Jamaica, B. W. I. 



— 306 



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WHITLOCK CORDAGE COMPANY 

IN THE year 1825, at Elizabethport, N. J., Sidney B. Whitlock 
founded the business which has since developed into the Whit- 
lock Cordage Company, manufacturers of Manila and Sisal rope 
and twine. Thus it will be seen that for nearly a hundred years the 
Whitlock family has been making rope for sailors. 

When the Elizabethport plant was destroyed by fire in the early 
nineties, a new company was formed by Mr. W. P. Whitlock. It 
was not until 1905, however, after the present modern plant had 
been completed at Jersey City, that his associates finally persuaded 
Mr. Whitlock that they had at last perfected the rope which he 
was willing to have marketed under his own name. He realized that, 
to succeed, such a brand must not only be as good as the very best 
of those with which it must compete, but also a little better. 

The result is Whitlock Manila, a rope well known to sailormen, 
wherever American ships plow the seven seas. 

The present up-to-date, thoroughly equipped factory in Jersey 
City has direct rail connection for receiving raw materials and 
shipping finished rope. The New York ferries are within easy 
reach, and local deliveries are speedily made by a fleet of motor 
trucks. 

The impression a visitor receives of the Whitlock mill is one 
of cleanliness. He approaches the main group of buildings along 
walks bordered by lawns and flowers. With plenty of open space 
on all sides — a city park bounds the front of the property — there 
is a sense of fresh air and healthfulness about the place. 

For the manufacture of Whitlock Manila rope, very high grade 
Manila Hemp is imported from the Philippines in bales averaging 
275 pounds. The hemp is carefully selected, then passed through 
a series of machines which comb and straighten out the fibres. Next 
it goes through a similar process on a smaller scale which finally 
reduces it to a smooth stream of hemp called a "sliver," and is 
ready for spinning. 

After the yarn is spun it is formed into the strands which make 
up all sizes of rope. Usually this rope is three-strand, but it may 
be four- or six-strand, according to the work to which it will be 
put aboard ship. Since larger rope must be easily handled for 
splicing, etc., the lay often needed is soft, but for regular marine 
use, medium or regular lay, three-strand, is considered best. 

The Whitlock Company guarantees that Whitlock Manila Rope 
is superior in every respect to the U. S. Bureau of Standards Spe- 
cifications, not only in strength, length per pound, and tare, but also 
in quality of fibre. And the necessity for a rope-user knowing 

— 308 — 



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exactly what quality Manila fibre has been used in making the rope 
he buys cannot be overestimated, for good rope cannot be manu- 
factured from poor Manila hemp — and there are over twenty 
grades of fibre which the rope manufacturer may choose. 

When a sailorman trusts his life to a rope, he can afford to 
take no chances, and never willingly does so — which is partly the 
reason for the continued and ever-growing success of this able maker 
of Marine Cordage. Any reader of this book is cordially invited to 
visit the Whitloek Mill and there see for himself with what skill 
and care Whitloek Manila rope is built. 



THE OSAK&? SHOSEK KAVUSHIKI 

KAISHA 

{Osaka ^Mercantile Steamship Co., Ltd.) 

THIS Company, equipped with a capital of Yen 100,000,000\. 
and a fleet of over 468,000 tons gross, is now conducting 
about 50 regular services making important commercial high- 
ways of the world, the total length of which reaching more thaw 
240,000 nautical miles. When the comparatively short period of 
the Company's existence is remembered and also its modest begin- 
ning, the progress it has made is marvellous. It was established in 
1884 with a capital of only yen 1,200,000 and with a fleet of steam- 
ers having an aggregate tonnage of 17,000, the total miles covered 
by the lines of services was not more than 8,500, practically con- 
fined to the western half of the Empire. During the thirty-seven 
years that followed its establishment it has encountered many diffi- 
culties, but has, by pursuing a steady and progressive policy, over- 
come every obstacle, which is in itself an eloquent testimony to the 
remarkable development of the water-transport business in Japan. 

During the thirty-seven years of its existence the company has 
steadily expanded its field of operations until at the present time 
it operates a fleet of one hundred and ninety-seven vessels with a 
total gross tonnage of 468,703. Fifty lines of service are operated 1 
to the ports of North and South Europe, the United States, India^ 
Australia, South America, the South Seas and China. 

The head office of the Company is in Osaka, Japan, with branches, 
in all the principal parts of the world. The New York office is 
located in the Woolworth Building. 



— 309 — 



MITSUI & CO., Ltd. 

MITSUI & CO., LTD. (Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd.) with an 
authorized capital of ¥100,000,000, or approximately 
$50,000,000 was organized by Mitsui families in 1909, as the 
successor to the firm bearing the same name which was one of the 
pioneer concerns in Japan engaged in the export and import busi- 
ness and today it constitutes one of the three direct undertakings of 
the same family, the remaining two being the Mitsui Bank, Ltd., 
capitalized at ¥100,000,000, or $50,000,000 and the Mitsui Min- 
ing Co., Ltd., with a capital of ¥100,000,000 or $50,000,000. 

The history of the Mitsui families dates back nearly three cen- 
turies when they established an exchange house, developing gradu- 
ally into a private bank of considerable importance, and with the 
opening of Japan's doors to the world in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, they organized one of the first modern banks in Japan. Simul- 
taneously the firm of Mitsui & Co. was organized to engage in gen- 
eral export and import business. 

Today Mitsui & Co., Ltd., or Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd., as it 
is known in the Orient, is one of the most important business factors 
in the Far East, while its position is no less important in the United 
States and Europe. Its extensive business, in almost every kind of 
commodity, literally from a pin to a locomotive, is carried on through- 
out the world with more than 70 branch offices located at all large 
business centers of the globe. 

It also conducts a shipping business, owning twenty-seven ocean- 
going and coastwise vessels, whose deadweight tonnage aggregates 
nearly 140,000 tons, besides numerous tugs, lighters, extensive 
wharves and warehouse accommodations at the principal ports in the 
Far East. 

This company also established a shipbuilding yard in 1918 at 
Tama on the inland sea of Japan, between Kobe and Moji. The 
works cover an area of 293 acres, and are equipped with 4 building 
berths. There are also two dry docks, the larger one of which is 
480 ft. long and 74 ft. wide, and is able to accommodate steamers of 
15,000 deadweight tons. This yard is equipped with the most mod- 
ern machinery for shipbuilding, and also for repairs of every descrip- 
tion and engages in constructional, electrical and mechanical engi- 
neering. It also maintains one salvage boat at the shipbuilding yard, 
which is available in Far Eastern waters on shortest notice. 

During the last war, two American Government steamers, S. S. 
Eastern Importer and Eastern Exporter, of 9,000 deadweight tons 
each, were constructed in this yard. 

— 310 — 



S. O. STRA Y & COMPANY 

THE firm of S. 0. Stray & Company, Inc., was established in the 
year 1866 in the City of Christianssand S, Norway. 

The business was started with the purchase of the Bark 
Veritas of about 390 tons net register, since when the company con- 
tinued to add sailing ships to their fleet from year to year, until the 
company was known as one of the largest and strongest sailing ship 
owners in Norway. Their ships traded all over the world, and espe- 
cially in the United States. They purchased their first steamer, the 
"Snorre" in 1904. In 1906 Mr. Emil Stray, grandson of Mr. Sven 
(). Stray, was taken into the business as a partner. Finally Mr. 
Emil Stray succeeded to the control of the company in 1912. By 
this time the company owned several steamers and a large fleet of 
sailing ships. 

In 1917 the company foresaw the necessity of opening their own 
office in New York, and accordingly Mr. Karl Krogstad was sent 
here to start the company of S. O. Stray & Company, Inc., with Mr. 
Karl Krogstad as president and Mr. C. V. Thavenot as secretary 
and treasurer. The company was primarily started with the pur- 
pose of attending to the chartering of the company's large fleet of 
sailing ships and steamers in this market and also to act as general 
chartering agents for various Norwegian ship owners. The com- 
pany was a success from the start and during the years following, 
up to the signing of the armistice, were the largest brokers in the 
chartering of foreign sailing ships. 

In 1918 Mr. Emil Stray came from Norway as one of the mem- 
bers of the Norwegian Shipping Commission and was instrumental in 
making an agreement with the Shipping Board, known as the "Nor- 
wegian Agreement," for the chartering of the entire Norwegian sail- 
ing ship fleet to the United States Shipping Board. This agreement 
covered the South American, Australian and African trades, and this 
sailing ship fleet practically replaced the regular steam tonnage 
hitherto employed in these trades and which, on account of the war, 
had been withdrawn for war purposes. It can, therefore, be said that 
the Norwegian sailing ship fleet performed an invaluable service in 
canning on the trade of this country during the dearth of steam 
tonnage from that time until the cessation of hostilities. 

In 1919 the company started to require more steam tonnage to 
replace the sailing ship fleet which, by then, had been sadly depleted 
by German submarines, mines and other war fatalities. The S. 0. 
Stray Steamship Corporation was organized in New York at the 
end of 1919 for the purpose of establishing a regular line service 
from New York to Norwegian ports, maintaining a regular semi- 
monthly service. This was eventually amplified, by combining with 

— 311 — 



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other important Norwegian ship owners, by a service to other Scan- 
dinavian and Baltic ports and were one of the first, since the end 
of the war, to start a regular service to Petrograd. This line was 
successful from the start, and shortly after the company established 
another line from the Northern States to Brazil and the Argentine, 
and maintains a monthly service with several first class Diesel motor 
ships. In order to insure prompt and efficient service for their 
shippers, the company acquired a lease on Pier No. 4, Brooklyn, 
where they have their own organization for loading and discharg- 
ing, receiving and delivering, etc. The present officers of the New 
York corporation are Mr. C. V. Thavenot, President; Mr. W. A. J. 
Kopp, Vice-President ; Captain Christophersen, Secretary and 
Treasurer and Marine Superintendent. 

The head office of S. 0. Stray & Company A/S is still located in 
Christianssand S, Norway, with Mr. Emil Stray, Mr. T. Isaksen 
and Mr. Karl Krogstad as managing directors. The company also 
maintains offices in Christiana ; Cardiff, Wales ; Rio de Janeiro ; 
Santos and Buenos Aires, also agents at all other ports of call. 



WESSEL, "DUVAL & CO. 

THE business of Wessel, Duval & Co. dates back to 1828, when 
it was established by Augustus Hemenway, of Boston. The 
firm during that period has been exclusively engaged in Ameri- 
can commerce — i. e., shipping the products of this country to 
Bolivia, Chile and Peru (including Ecuador up to a few years 
ago) and bringing back the products of those countries, of which 
nitrate of soda from Chile is the preponderant commodity. 

At the outset of its activities the firm conducted its business 
by its own fleet of sailing vessels, which it continued until sail was 
replaced by steam, and then, by reason of the prohibitive cost of 
operating steamers under the American flag in competition with 
foreign tonnage it had to choose between a foreign ship-owning 
department, affecting its distinctively American character, on the 
one hand, and relying on long-term time charters on the other, 
and chose the latter. 

The West Coast Line, which it operates, is the oldest in the 
West Coast service, and modern vessels of about 8,000 tons are 
employed. The route is via the Panama Canal, and the itinerary 
includes all the important ports in Peru and Chile. 



— 312 — 



WILLIAM T. DONNELLY 

WT. DONNELLY, consulting engineer and naval architect, 
17 Battery Place, New York City, says that he came from 
the land and not from the sea, and that as a boy knew more 
about planting potatoes and hoeing corn than how to maneuver a boat 
in or out of water, but "a man drinketh that for which he thirsteth," 
and sooner or later, a man's calling follows his heart's desire. 

Mr. Donnelly's technical education, if such it can be called, com- 
menced in Cooper Union, and he makes the statement that it still 
continues in the broadest of all educational institutions, the work 
of the world. 

Mr. Donnelly's first marine work of importance was the design 
for a 10,000 ton floating dry dock for Frederick C. Lang in 1898. 
This has been followed by many others, not only in and around New 
York but up and down the Pacific Coast to the far islands of the 
Pacific and in the Gulf of Mexico. Mr. Donnelly speaks with pride 
of the fact that he purchased and read with great interest the first 
copy of Marine Engineering, was a continuous subscriber to that 
publication and was invited by its owner and editor, W. L. Aldrich, 
to write the "Twenty Years Review." 

During the late war, Mr. Donnelly served as a member of the 
Ship Protection Committee, a joint organization composed of mem- 
bers of the Shipping Board and the Naval Consulting Board. His 
most recent contribution to nautical affairs has been his electric 
propelled boats, the Dawn and New Era, which to date have sailed 
more than 6,000 miles up and down the Atlantic Coast. 

NATIONAL STEAM NAVIGATION 

COMPANY, Ltd. 

KNOWN as the National Greek Line is a corporation having 
been incorporated in 1907, starting with the steamship Patris, 
this concern later acquired the Macedonia, which was lost as 
an auxiliary cruiser during the Balkan War of 1912. After the 
loss of the Macedonia, the Themistocles and the Megali Hellas were 
acquired. To further increase the tonnage of this line the S. S. 
King Alexander, formerly the Cleveland of the Hamburg American 
Line and also the Constantinople, formerly the Bremen of the North 
German Lloyd, was chartered. This company also owns 12 steamers 
used in coastwise traffic in the Mediterranean together with several 
cargo boats. The United States offices of the company are located 
at No. 20 Pearl Street, New York City, the main office being at 
Athens, Greece. The company maintains a regular service from 
New York to Piraeus, Constantinople, Varna. (Bulgaria) and Con- 
stantza (Rumania). Also New York to Piraeus, Beyrouth and 
Alexandria. 

— 313 — 



ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Ltd. 

IN reviewing the birth of the Royal Insurance Company, Limited, 
in 1845, it is difficult to discover any definite information regard- 
ing the reasons which induced its founders to embark upon the 
enterprise, but the flourishing and prosperous condition of commerce 
at that time and the improvement in inter-communication by means 
of early railway construction and the foundation of the American 
lines which had been inaugurated by the departure of the pioneer 
steamship Britannia probably strongly influenced them. 

The Company was provisionally registered March 11, 1845, with 
a capital of £2,000,000 in 100,000 shares of £20 each. The orig- 
inal application for shares greatly exceeded the capital require- 
ments. Registration was completed June 13th, 1845, and on the 
10th of the same month the Directors announced their readiness to 
receive insurance proposals. 

Although the field of the Company's operations was extended 
cautiously and slowly, yet by 1851 many foreign agencies in all parts 
of the Avorld had been established and early in that year the direc- 
tors decided to extend to the United States, commencing with New 
York. The following year offices were opened in Philadelphia and 
Cincinnati and since that time further branch offices and agencies 
have been opened, until at the present time the Company is prepared 
to render service in practically any part of the United States. 

Following common experience the Company was not free from 
vicissitudes and hardships, contributed to largely by the vast con- 
flagrations which history has recorded. All losses, however, result- 
ing from these disasters were promptly paid and through prudent 
management and building up of reserves there has never been a 
report issued to shareholders recommending the passing of a divi- 
dend. 

In 1907 the Company's present New York quarters, the "Royal" 
building, 84 William Street, was opened. This change brought the 
Company on the very fringe of the insurance district at that time, 
but at this date William Street and Maiden Lane may be considered 
the heart of the district. 

On January 1, 1911, a marine department was established under 
the management of Mr. John E. Hoffman, and under his direction the 
Company has amply shared in the nation's maritime prosperity. 
Directly associated with the "Royal" in the marine department are 
the Queen Insurance Company of America, the Newark Fire Insur- 
ance Company, the Star Insurance Company of America and the 
Maritime Insurance Company, Limited, of Liverpool. 

In conclusion, the appropriateness of the Royal's motto, "Tutum 
te sistam" (literally, "I will place thee in safety") is demonstrated 
by the present position and resources of the Company. 

— 314 — 




STEAMSHIPS HERMAN FRASCH, J. R. GORDON, AND 

HENRY D. WHITON 

Of the Union Sulphur Company's Fleet 



ORE STEAMSHIP CORPORATION 

ORE STEAMSHIP CORPORATION is a subsidiary com- 
pany of Bethlehem Steel Company and was formed for the 
purpose of owning and operating steamers principally in the 
service of Bethlehem Steel Company and its asosciated and affiliated 
companies. 

The first of its fleet was the Steamship Cubore, delivered in 1917, 
and followed by three other sister steamers of the same size, namely,, 
about 11,600 tons total deadweight. These vessels are of special 
design for the ore and bulk cargo trade and so constructed as to 
require the minimum time in loading and discharging. A smaller 
steamer of about 6,100 tons deadweight, of the same construction, 
is also in service. 

To meet the requirements for the carriage of iron ore from Chile 
to the Bethlehem plants, Ore Steamship Corporation now has under 
construction five of the largest vessels that will fly the American flag. 
Each of the five steamers is of more than 20,000 tons deadweight 
capacity and in addition to being able to transport iron ore the- 
arrangements are such that they will also be able to carry their full 
deadweight capacity of bulk oil and other bulk cargoes. In 1922,. 
the total deadweight capacity of the fleet will be over 160,000 tons. 

In order to obtain the most modern facilities, Ore Steamship Cor- 
poration now has under erection at the Claremont Terminal of the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, in New York harbor, one of the most mod- 
ern bulk discharging plants on the Atlantic coast. This plant will 
have mechanical unloaders capable of discharging ore and other bulk 
cargoes at the rate of 1,500 tons per hour. It will be a valuable 
asset to the port of New York as by the economies it will effect it 
will divert a great deal of tonnage to New York that would other- 
wise go to other ports. 

It is contemplated to build a number of additional steamers of 
20,000 tons capacity for this Company. In the near future its fleet 
will be an important one to the American Merchant Marine and the 
business of the port of New York. 










316 — 



EXPORT STEAMSHIP 
CORPORATION 

THE EXPORT STEAMSHIP CORPORATION was organized 
and incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in 
January, 1919. 

The Corporation was organized for the purpose of acquiring and 
operating vessels under the United States flag for the development of 
the American Merchant Marine. The first vessels allocated by the 
U. S. Shipping Board to the Corporation were operated to United 
Kingdom, Scandinavian, Greek, Turkish and Black Sea ports. 
Later additional Levant ports were added to the service, and during 
the past year the officers of the Corporation have devoted themselves 
almost exclusively to the trade with the Near East. 

The efficient operation of the Corporation has been recognized by 
the Shipping Board, being recently designated as the exclusive 
operator of Shipping Board vessels to Greek and Levant ports and 
having its scope of operation extended to include ports on the 
Egyptian, Syrian and Palestine coasts. 

No effort has been spared to convince exporters that their mer- 
chandise can be shipped as expeditiously in vessels operated by the 
Corporation as by foreign companies which were favored with the 
greater part of this business prior to the signing of the Armistice. 
The result of the earnest endeavors of the Corporation in this direc- 
tion has been very gratifying. Exporters have recognized the efforts 
of the Corporation to such an extent that its vessels have been carry- 
ing full cargoes of general merchandise for some time to Greek, Le- 
vant and Turkish ports, and among the exporters who have favored 
it with their business are the most prominent and old established in 
the trade. 

Regular sailings, efficient operation, constituting service to its 
clients, has been the constant aim of the Corporation, and there is 
every reason to believe that a continuance of the present policy will 
■eventually secure for it even larger patronage than it enjoys at 
present. 

The carriage of American goods in American bottoms, operated 
by Americans, is the objective of the Corporation, and with the co- 
operation of American exporters the attainment of the objective is 
assured. 



T7 T7 



— 317 — 



THREE STAR LIKE 

THE SOCIETE LES AFFRETEURS REUNIS, known in the 
United States under the name, "Three Star Line," was organ- 
ized in 1895, with two steamers, and engaged in the coastwise 
trade between Algeria and the northern ports of France. 

At the beginning many obstacles were encountered, but, due to 
the activity and the energy displayed by its young Director, Mr. 
Jean Stern, the numerous difficulties were overcome little by little, 
and the three-star green flag soon took a place more and more im- 
portant in European maritime traffic. 

Mr. Stern's object was to improve the commercial relations 
between France, its colonies of North Africa and foreign countries — 
create new markets, etc. 

When the war broke out the fleet of the Affreteurs Reunis 
amounted to 48,000 d. w. tons, but, due to the submarine war, suf- 
fered greatly and at the time of the Armistice it was reduced to 
15,000 tons. But the man at the head of the Affreteurs Reunis 
feared no obstacles and in 1921 the fleet aggregated 45 ships, of a 
total d. w. tonnage of 150,000 tons, ranking fourth in importance 
among the great French steamship companies. 

Gradually Mr. Stern extended the scope of his operations, and, 
convinced of the development of commercial trade with the United 
States, during the spring of 1919 he inaugurated a freight service 
between New York and the Western Mediterranean. 

This new service rapidly became very popular among the big 
importers of North Africa, and at their request the sailing, which, 
at the beginning, took place every six weeks were consistently aug- 
mented. The new service, maintained with six steamers of the most 
modern type, now includes all the important ports of the Western 
Mediterranean, and sailings take place regularly every 15 days from 
New York and Philadelphia. 

It is interesting to note that, at a time when all the nations are 
trying to protect their merchant flag by direct or indirect subsidies, 
Mr. Stern is decidedly adverse to any aid from the government, even 
for passenger boats, and has proved it lately by organizing, without 
help or subsidy, a regular service of passenger steamers between 
France, North Africa and Senegal, which is very popular. 



■6- ^ 



— 3 1 8 — 



THE EAST ASIATIC COMPANY, Inc. 

THIS company is the United States representative of The East 
Asiatic Company, Limited, of Copenhagen, Denmark, the pio- 
neers in the field of oceangoing motorships. The first time the 
New Yorkers had an opportunity to view one of these motorships was 
in 1914, when the port of New York was visited by the M. S. "Siam," 
but since then motorships have not been an usual sight in the North 
and East Rivers; in fact were quite common at one time. In spite 
of this, however, they are usually able to rouse the interest of onlook- 
ers on account of their appearance, which deviates from that of 
steamships generally by the missing smokestack. There are those 
who are predicting that the motorship is going to be the dominating 
type on the seas in years to come, and judging from the increase in 
tonnage of this class of ships during the past few years, they may 
perhaps not be altogether wrong. 

Besides their large fleet of motorships which is employed in vari- 
ous trades, taking them all over the globe, The East Asiatic Com- 
pany, Limited, also operates a regular line of passenger steamers ; 
the Baltic American Line from New York to the Baltic, Danzig and 
Libau being their ports of call. 

Of other regular lines of The East Asiatic Company, Ltd., one is 
between Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and other Pacific Coast 
ports and European ports terminating at Copenhagen and one 
between European ports and Cuba, Mexico, Galveston and New 
Orleans and vice versa. 



/. F. C. LINES 

THE INTERNATIONAL FREIGHTING CORPORATION 
organized under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1916 with 
H. J. Lesser, President ; J. H. Graves, Vice-President ; Irving 
L. Ernst, Treasurer, and T. J. McManus, Secretary, has met with 
the success conspicuous among the managers and operators of 
American tonnage. This company started its business with the 
operation of a line of steamers from Philadelphia to the East 
Coast of South America and subsequently extended its services to 
cover a line from Philadelphia to the French Atlantic ports and 
from the River Plate to United Kingdom ports. Recently it has 
further extended its services to the East Coast of South America,, 
operating out of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Sa- 
vannah, Charleston and Jacksonville. The company's main office is. 
at 44 Whitehall Street, New York City. 

— 319 — 



COMPANIA TRASATLANTICA 

(Spanish < Roya/ T^lail Line) 

THE enterprise "A. Lopez & Co." was founded in Alicante, 
Spain, in the year 1856, establishing a regular service between 

Alicante and Marseilles (France) with the steamers "Alicante," 
■"Madrid" and "Marsella." It also established a service across the 
ocean with the steamers "Ciudad Condal" and "Paris." 

On the 10th of September, 1867, the mail contract was obtained 
between Spain and Santo Domingo, Porto Rico and Cuba, which 
service was established with the steamers "Ciudad Condal" and 
"Paris," acquiring in that same year, six more vessels named 
"Canarias," "Cantabria," "Espaha," "Isla de Cuba," "Puerto Rico" 
and "Canto Domingo," said service being inaugurated with the 
mentioned steamers the early part of 1868. 

In the year 1877 this service was extended to Central America, 
with the addition of four more steamers. 

In 1881, this enterprise was transformed into a corporation 
under the name of "Compaiiia Trasatlantica" de Barcelona. 

In 1884 a new line was established plying between Spain and 
the Philippine Islands and in that year there were purchased eleven 
more steamers, to wit, "A. Lopez," "Cataluna," "Ciudad de San- 
tander," "San Francisco," "San Augustin," "San Ignacio de 
Loyola," "Vizcaya," "Panama," "Mendez Nunez," "Mexico" and 
"Habana." 

In 1886, a mail service was organized, comprising regular lines 
to the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentine, Fernando 
Poo and Morocco and on the 28th of June, 1887, contract was 
closed with the acquirement of the steamers "Isla de Panay," "Isla 
de Luzon," "Isla de Cebu," and "Isla de Mindanao." 

In 1913 there were built the steamers "Reina Victoria Eugenia" 
and "Infanta Isabel de Borbon" of 15,400 tons displacement each. 
The Company has now under construction and almost completed the 
new steamers "Alfonso XIII," "Cristobal Colon" and "Manuel 
Arnus." The first two are 16,000 tons each and the last one of 
12,000 tons. 

The Company owns and operates twenty-one vessels, all of which 
are both passenger and freight carriers, sailing from the ports of 
Spain to the U. S., Uraguay, Argentine, Cuba, Mexico, Porto Rico, 
Panama, Colombia and the Philippine Islands. 

The New York office of the company is at Pier 8, East River, 
-which was built bv them in 1907. 







\J 



320 



THE S£MERICS$N EXPRESS 
COMPANY 

WHEN we make use of some modern convenience we are apt 
to lose sight of the romance of the development of that 
convenience. For there is romance in business and the 
stories of the development and growth in the United States of the 
railroads, the telephone, the telegraph and other great media of 
progress are as thrilling and as interesting as any other phase of 
our national life. 

So it is with the express business. The efficiency of this busi- 
ness, with its 135,000 persons employed in its various branches and 
its handling of approximately 1,000,000 shipments a day, is pretty 
much taken for granted. But this huge business developed out of 
an idea formulated way back in 1839. It was developed step by 
step through the various periods of American industrial progress, 
passing through without any serious difficulty many periods of de- 
pression and panic, and finally developing into one great Company 
that reaches every hamlet and city in the United States. 

It is curious and noteworthy in looking backward to learn how 
this service of transporting packages from one point to another 
lead gradually into demands by the public for the extension of that 
service along financial lines, so that finally one Company, at least 
— the American Express Company — became a great financial insti- 
tution and was able to continue its existence as a profitable and 
growing institution, even after turning over its main business of 
transportation to the American Railway Express Company — the 
single Express transportation agency in the United States at the 
present time. 

Transportation of packages, while at first only handled between 
points within the United States, soon developed into an international 
business and this in turn resulted in the American Express Company 
becoming an international financial institution. As the Express 
business necessitated the establishment of offices or agencies in the 
more important foreign centers, travelers looked to the American 
Express Company for some means of taking care of their funds so 
that they might be delivered to them safely at one point or another 
in their journeys. From these requests and demands grew the de- 
velopment of the Travelers Cheques, which have since become known 
in every portion of the world, and which are accepted and cashed at 
sight, even where other forms of currency may be questioned. The 
demand for Travelers' Cheques grew so rapidly that it necessitated 
the establishment by the American Express Company of thousands 
■of banking connections in all parts of the world, and these connec- 

— 321 — 



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tions today are one of the important assets of the Company because 
they provide a service to the Company's customers that is unparal- 
leled. 

The services of the Company to the traveler, in a financial sense, 
became so important that there grew up a demand for the Company 
to take charge of travelers' entire problems and this necessitated 
the establishment of the Travel Department, in order to supply 
steamship, railroad and hotel and other accommodations. 

The Foreign Trade Department of the Company was also es- 
tablished because of the requests of customers of the Company for 
information regarding exports and imports and the opportunities 
for the extension of foreign trade by importers and exporters not 
only in the United States, but in other countries. 

Thus the development of this great Company has been brought 
about as a result of the original idea of one man who offered to carry 
valuable packages, at express speed, from one city to another a 
little over eighty years ago. Except for the transportation of pack- 
ages from one country to another, this part of the business has 
been turned over to one Company — the American Railway Express 
Company — whose sole business is that of transportation. But the 
various financial functions that have developed out of this original 
idea are being carried on by the American Express Company, which 
is now solely a financial institution and one of the most important 
in the international business world. 



THE ROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP CO. 



THE ROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP COMPANY was incorpor- 
ated during the year 1921 under the laws of the State of Dela- 
ware for the purpose of engaging in commerce and navigation. 
The titular head of this company is Captain Kermit Roosevelt, 
second son of the illustrious Theodore Roosevelt and Mrs. Edith 
Kermit Carew Roosevelt. In the days of the American clippers the 
Carews were strongly intrenched in trade and commerce and were 
pioneers in the upbuilding of American trade with foreign lands. 
Mr. Roosevelt's plans for developing an American organization to 
push forward American interests throughout the world are well 
known and his host of friends wish him every success in the ultimate 
accomplishment of them. The company is now operating from a 
modest office at 44 Beaver Street. 



— 322 



GOTHAM PRESS. Inc. 
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